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The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography
 0203940083, 9780203940082

Table of contents :
Book Cover
Title
Copyright
Contents
Preface
Introduction
Chronology
Editor’s Note
Chapter 1: Bibliographies and Encyclopedias
Chapter 2: General Histories
Chapter 3: The Coming of the War
Chapter 4: The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813
Chapter 5: The War in the South
Chapter 6: The British Offensive, 1814
Chapter 7: The War at Sea
Chapter 8: The Domestic Scene
Chapter 9: The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine
Chapter 10: Peace
Index

Citation preview

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Routledge Research Guides to American Military Studies America and World War I David R. Woodward The War of 1812 John Grodzinski

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The War of 1812 An Annotated Bibliography

John R. Grodzinski

New York London

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Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016

Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN

© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑95631‑4 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Grodzinski, John R. The War of 1812 : an annotated bibliography / John R. Grodzinski. p. cm. ‑‑ (Routledge research guides to American military studies ; 2) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978‑0‑415‑95631‑4 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. United States‑‑History‑‑War of 1812‑‑Bibliography. I. Title. Z1240.G76 2007 [E354] 016.9735’2‑‑dc22

2007007583

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the Routledge Web site at http://www.routledge.com ISBN 0-203-94008-3 Master e-book ISBN

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Contents

Preface

vii

Introduction

1

Chronology

7

Editor’s Note

17

Chapter 1

Bibliographies and Encyclopedias

19

Chapter 2

General Histories

23

Chapter 3

The Coming of the War

51

Chapter 4

The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813

83

A. General Studies B. Decrees; Orders in Council; Embargoes; Impressment C. Natives; Territorial Expansion; Other Western Topics D. War Hawks; the General American Political Scene E. Religious Perspectives A. General Studies B. The American Offensive against Canada, 1812 1. General 2. The Detroit-Amherstburg Region 3. The Niagara Frontier 4. Americans, the British, and Natives in the Old Northwest B. The Northern Theater, 1813

51 57 67 74 79

83 99 99 102 109 111 114



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vi  •  Contents 1. General 2. The Lake Erie Campaign 3. The Detroit Frontier 4. The Niagara, Upper St. Lawrence, and Lake Champlain

127

Chapter 5

The War in the South

135

Chapter 6

The British Offensive, 1814

141

Chapter 7

A. General Studies B. The Occupation of Florida C. The Native Perspective A. General Studies B. The Niagara, Upper St. Lawrence, and Lake Champlain Frontier C. The Chesapeake Campaign D. New Orleans and the Gulf Coast E. The Old Northwest

The War at Sea

A. On the High Seas and Inland Waters; General Naval Studies B. Economic Warfare and the British Blockade C. Sloop and Frigate Actions D. Privateers

135 137 138 141

144 151 161 170

173 173 183 185 194

Chapter 8

The Domestic Scene

201

Chapter 9

The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine

231

A. General Studies B. The Political Dimensions of the War C. The Social Dimensions of the War D. The Economic Dimensions of the War E. The Polemic and Sermonic Front A. The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment B. Doctrine

201 205 212 217 223 231 235

Chapter 10 Peace

239

Index

251

A. General Studies B. The Peace Settlement C. The Reaction to Peace

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114 116 123

239 240 244

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Preface

The year 2007 is the bicentennial of a significant encounter that brought a major decline in relations between Britain and the United States. Based on intelligence that some of their former hands had enlisted into the U.S. Navy, HMS Leopard intercepted the USS Chesapeake on 22 June 1807. When the Americans refused to surrender the deserters the British captain opened fire, killing three men and wounding fifteen. British sailors then boarded the American vessel and seized several suspected deserters. This act provoked considerable American outrage, making any resolution of the complex diplomatic problems between the two countries almost impossible and contributing to the declaration of war in 1812. This situation was not aided by several changes of government in Britain, intrigue on the part of France and the fact that Britain was focused on the war in Europe and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. Economic warfare in Europe made its way to North America, albeit with some curious twists, adding to the tension between Britain and America. In Britain the conflict that began in 1812 is sometimes called the Second American War, the first being the American War of Independence. Many in America may not realize that between 1815 and 1871 Britain invested heavily in fortifications in Canada, concerned that unresolved matters between Britain and the United States might lead to a third American war. Compiling a bibliography related to a time-distant conflict is challenging, as locating, cataloging, and annotating the literature produced over two centuries is quite a task. This current volume owes much to the original work of Dwight L. Smith, who produced the first edition published

vii

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viii  •  Preface

in 1985. Indeed, in an age in which Internet access abounds and many library and archival collections are listed online, one has difficulty imagining how something of this scope and magnitude is possible. We owe much to Smith’s efforts. Since 1985 at least two hundred original books and articles dealing with the War of 1812 have appeared, while others have been updated, revised, and republished. Interest in the War of 1812 is growing, and this is reflected in the expansive literature on the subject. The next several years will bring a number of commemorative events marking the coming of war, while the years 2012 to 2014 will see even more. Undoubtedly the literature on the war, both printed and in electronic form, will increase significantly, resulting in yet another new edition of this reference work. We have been fortunate in that a number of writers and historians (both professional and amateur) have added much to the literature on the War of 1812. Their studies have revisited certain subjects and often challenged traditional interpretations, while many new subjects have also been brought to light. Furthermore, new studies of the Napoleonic Wars have aided our placing this North American conflict within the context of a global war and the strategies of those countries that were involved. Finally, considerable work is ongoing on the question of natives—their motivation and role during this fascinating period. This edition of The War of 1812 bibliography also acknowledges the rapid rise of the Internet as a research and publication tool. A number of institutions have begun placing their catalogs—and indeed, their entire collections—online, and there is at least one Internet magazine devoted to the War of 1812. In addition to many of the institutions that aided in the production of the first edition of this bibliography, thanks must also be extended to others, such as the Canadian Army Library at Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario; the Library and Archives Canada (formerly the National Archives of Canada and the National Library); and the Special Collections section of the Massey Library of the Royal Military College at Canada. Several historians also provided much assistance—namely, Robert Burnham, Donald E. Graves, Donald Hickey, and Robert Malcomson. —John R. Grodzinski Kingston, Ontario

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Introduction

The War of 1812 receives little attention in contemporary American history and compared to other wars, such as the American Civil War, it is generally regarded with casual indifference. Canadians have a different perspective, viewing the war as having threatened the independence of British North America and hence their very nation itself. The British pay it little attention, as they were focused on events on the European continent and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. Aside from the American Civil War, the War of 1812 was perhaps the most hotly debated and dissension-producing conflict in which the country has ever been involved, even when one includes the Vietnam War and more recent conflicts. Americans became bitterly divided as relations with Great Britain and France deteriorated through the early 1800s, and these sentiments continued when war was declared and throughout the three years during which it was fought. Individual positions were sometimes determined by political loyalties, sectional predilections, economic considerations, religious belief, patriotic and nationalistic sentiment, and differing perceptions of events in the European conflict and the welfare and future of America. Often it was a combination of these considerations, and the division would give modern pollsters a field day trying to determine the pulse of the country as it confronted the crisis. In the geopolitical balance of power that pitted Great Britain against revolutionary and then Bonapartist France, each protagonist tried to manipulate the neutral United States and its merchant marine to their advantage and to the detriment of the others. It was a curious mix of rhetoric and



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  •  Introduction

pragmatism, for while the United States and British were rattling economic sanctions at one another the United States was supplying the British Army in the Iberian Peninsula with massive quantities of grain and other foodstuff. At the same time, American neutral rights were buffeted, violated, and bruised in the process. This, with whatever other considerations, depending on the school of causation or interpretation one subscribes to, provoked the Americans into declaring war. Both America and Britain miscalculated, and the resolution of their respective complaints was not aided by several factors. First, diplomacy relied on sailing vessels to carry notes between the respective governments and instructions to their diplomats, which meant that governments could not respond quickly enough to a dynamic diplomatic and internal political milieu. Between October 1809 and May 1812, a period of intense diplomatic activity and economic sanctions, a weak government led Britain. Then, in May 1812, a minor crisis erupted there when an unbalanced, bankrupt businessman assassinated the prime minister. Britain’s attention and energy were also focused elsewhere, seeking by diplomatic, economic, and military means to destroy the menace of Napoleon. The conflict with America was minor and at best received only the secondary attention of the British war effort, although the outbreak of the War of 1812 did create some concern over the security of operations in the Iberian Peninsula. With this in mind, the British governor in chief in North America was instructed, in 1811, that should hostilities break out he was not to undertake offensive operations to limit the expansion of the American war. Strangely, this was something he never told his subordinates. Nevertheless, the new war in North America had to be attended to, as British interests there were threatened, and during 1812 and 1813, additional troops and eventually a Royal Navy contingent were sent there. Once Bonaparte abdicated, the situation changed completely and an offensive strategy was adopted along with the dispatch of significant reinforcements to North America. Contrary to general belief, these troops were to secure the Canadian frontier or gain advantages the British negotiators could exploit at the peace talks in Ghent. The Canadians were caught in between. They were acutely aware of the possible consequences should British arms not be successful. It was generally recognized that the Americans would likely invade north of the Great Lakes and into the Upper St. Lawrence River area. Furthermore, many Canadian settlers were of recent American origin. The sympathies of these “late loyalists,” as they are referred to in Canadian historiography, were of concern in British circles and created hope for success in American ones. Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) were considered the probable key battleground, while the Atlantic Provinces would witness

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Introduction  •  

more naval activity, either by the navies or privateers. The war eventually expanded to include the American eastern seaboard and the high seas. Ultimately however, it would be won or lost in the northern theater around the Great Lakes. Strangely, when it was all over, little appeared to have changed; and ever since, historians, writers, and commentators have struggled to understand this peculiar struggle between “cousins.” The war generated considerable literature, both contemporaneously and afterward, that is the subject of this bibliography. The relative volume of contemporary production was perhaps greatest in the United States. British North America had a mature press culture, and pamphlets abounded, but with only 600,000 people it had a much smaller population than the United States or Britain. Understandably, the British press gave the War of 1812 even less notice, which is evident upon the examination of the standard bibliographic sources of British history. In Robin Higham’s A Guide to the Sources of British Military History the war is virtually ignored, while in Lucy M. Brown and Ian R. Christie’s Bibliography of British History, 1789–1851 the section titled “The War of 1812” contains only three entries, with five subentries. Not much has changed since, although many British Napoleonic studies now include discussion of events in America, and Canada has become home to several prominent naval, military, and social historians of the era. As with any war, once the swords were laid down, pens picked up the cause and the struggle for history ensued. In the United States, the War of 1812 remained a popular subject, and battlefield visits spawned tourism into the northern states and Canada at least until the American Civil War displaced interest. In Canada, stories of the war fueled a growing nationalism from the 1830s onward and some of its symbols became the target of terrorists struggling for Irish independence. Time has a way of lending the past romance, and the War of 1812 is no exception. Centennial commemorations and memorial dedications occurred in 1912, 1913, and 1914, and shortly thereafter Canadian boys sailed to Europe and joined the British in yet another war. Three years later, their American allies joined them. Much had changed since 1812, and former enemies were now fast friends. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the War of 1812 and many fine works have resulted, including several outstanding studies by nonacademic historians. Old sources have been revisited, new ones found, and previous interpretations challenged and in some cases discarded. Interpretations have also been affected by a new context that considers the past against more recent events. For example, the post-9/11 era has resulted in some authors gauging the War of 1812 against more modern concepts of “homeland security” and “the war on terror.” The World Wide Web has also brought many changes and a host of websites allows more immediate

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  •  Introduction

access to documents, reviews, and other information on the War of 1812 while opening up debate on all aspects of it. This has breathed new life into the historiography of the war, and as a result, perspectives still occupy a wide spectrum and debate is greater than ever. Another important aspect has also enriched our understanding of the War of 1812, as anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians unravel the complicated and fascinating story of the native peoples who fought on both sides. This volume serves to capture this literature. It is a reference bibliography, not representing the views of any particular constituency, but on behalf of those interested in the War of 1812. It lists and describes Englishlanguage literature concerned with all facets of this struggle: the coming of the war, military events, and the peace settlement from the American, British, and Canadian perspectives. It also includes sections on the political, social, and economic dimensions of the war. Within this scope, this bibliography ranges from eyewitness and participant accounts to narratives by historians and writers with no personal connection to the events; from objective reporting to the rhetoric of propaganda and polemics; from analyses of strategists to the simple narration of children’s literature; from the inspiration of poets and ministers to studies of genealogists; from the passion of patriotism to the seeds of discord and near treason; from fulminations of pamphleteers and politicians to portrayals of theaters and songsters; from fraternization on the battlefield to negotiations of diplomats; from stories of prisoners to the accounts of massacres, and so on. This bibliography contains literature in any form published through early 2007, except for two types: broadsides and government documents; these are excluded because of their specialized nature and their magnitude, and they deserve bibliographic treatment in their own right. Newspapers, save a few that were published during the war years, are not cited. Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses, the only exception to unpublished work, are included. Content is the criterion used for listing a title. To qualify, an item must be exclusively or in a significant part concerned with the war. If, for example, it lacks this primary emphasis—such as a biography of Isaac Brock, Jacob Brown, James Madison, or Tecumseh—it does not qualify. Having said that, there are exceptions, as one will discover, where some works are listed that offer context to a particular question. Each annotation seeks to describe content—including, perhaps, notation of special features, author identification, or clarification about the edition. If two or more editions were available for inspection, only the latest is listed. It is only natural for a compiler to offer an opinion on the quality of a particular source, but here that will be left to the individual consulting

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Introduction  •  

the work. Every effort has been made to avoid qualitatively or evaluative selection, except to note a unique work that has particular utility. Either way, there may be disagreement over the relative importance of titles, as the history of book reviewing can easily attest. What may be a worthless or peripheral publication to one may be of considerable value to someone else. Users of this bibliography will have to determine this for themselves. While this volume includes a great many items not found in other bibliographies, it is not comprehensive. Considerations of time, funding, and practicality impose more modest boundaries, but this bibliography does offer a considerable sampling of War of 1812 literature. A bibliographic tool serves two prime functions: it not only alerts the researcher to literature related to a specific interest, but also introduces the broader range of literature. Examining it allows one to develop a sense of how the literature evolved, where events became legend, then myth, and then morphed back into fact. One can see the foci of various periods and where, perhaps, new research is required. In doing so, this will propel users of this reference tool to search for more. A bibliography, in short, is an introduction to and an excursion through the literature related to a subject. The present edition is the most comprehensive annotated bibliography on the War of 1812 to date. A section of this volume cites other bibliographies. Some of them examine the entire war while others are more specialized—dealing with, for example, rarities or commemorative exhibitions. Others encompass broader subjects such as military history. Monographs sometimes include more specialized bibliographies that merit attention. In that connection, users may wish to consult the bibliographies in one or more of the following: Pierre Berton’s Flames across the Border (item 648) and The Invasion of Canada (item 535); Harry L. Coles’s The War of 1812 (item 61); William Gribbin’s The Churches Militant (item 1348); Reginald Horsman’s The Causes of the War of 1812 (item 282); James Ripley Jacobs and Glenn Tucker’s The War of 1812 (item 116); John K. Mahon’s The War of 1812 (item 1276); Morris Zaslow and Wesley B. Turner’s The Defended Border (item 534), and, in particular, the 1999 updated version of J. Mackay Hitsman’s The Incredible War of 1812 (item 111), which has a lengthy bibliography of British and Canadian literature. Carl Benn’s The Iroquois in the War of 1812 (item 38) offers an excellent bibliography on native literature. Finally, although maps are occasionally but not frequently enough included in the literature, two readily available sources in particular contain useful maps: James Truslow Adams’s Atlas of American History and Vincent J. Esposito’s two-volume West Point Atlas of American Wars. Twenty excellent maps appear in the more recent edition of J. Mackay

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  •  Introduction

Hitsman’s The Incredible War of 1812: A Military, which was updated by Canadian historian Donald E. Graves. As can be seen in the table of contents, this bibliography is organized by a topical, geographical, and chronological classification system. As stated, this framework reveals the degree of attention given to the various aspects of the war in its published literature. Many of the items are discrete in their subject matter, or are concerned with one category and can be readily classified, while others are not. If an item could logically be located under two or more headings, it appears in only one, or it might be listed in a general topic section. If it does not seem to fit any particular category, it is located under the most appropriate or a more general heading. When the item is broader in scope it is listed under general histories. The subject and author indexes and an occasional crossreference further enhance the utility of the volume beyond this classification arrangement.

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Chronology

There are useful chronologies to be found in a number of published works. Among those most notable are Harry L. Coles, The War of 1812 (item 47); John C. Fredriksen, Resource Guide for the War of 1812 (item 5); Irving S. Kull and Nell M. Kull, A Short Chronology of American History (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1952); Webster’s Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium (Springfield, Mass.: G. and C. Merriam, 1971) and Robert Malcomson, Historical Dictionary of the War of 1812 (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2006). Note that this chronology lists major political, diplomatic, economic, naval, and military events. There are hundred of other items that for reasons of practicality have not been included.

1793 France commences a determined guerre de course against British shipping, and while Britain loses about 10,781 merchant vessels between 1793 and 1814, the French mercantile trade is largely destroyed by 1799; America is soon caught in the middle of this economic war, while also combating the Barbary pirates 1803 May 18 Britain declares war on France, ending the Treaty of Amiens 1806 April 18 U.S. Non-Importation Act 

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  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography

May 16 November 15 November 19 November 21 December 31

1807 January 7 March 3 June 22 July 2 July 7–9 October 17 November 11, 15, 25 November 23 December 14 December 17 December 22

1808 June 14 April 17 October December 7

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Britain announces limited blockade, Brest to Elbe River U.S. Non-Importation Act takes effect U.S. Non-Importation Act suspended France’s Berlin Decree ceases trade between Britain and the European continent The U.S.-Britain Monroe-Pinkney Treaty signed in Britain British Order in Council prohibits coasting trade of France and its allies by neutrals U.S. president Thomas Jefferson rejects the MonroePinkey Treaty The Chesapeake-Leopard affair U.S. ports closed to armed British ships Treaty of Tilsit between France and Russia extends the Continental System French forces cross from Spain into Portugal in order to extend Continental System across Europe British Order in Council requires all neutral shipping to be inspected at British ports or stopped and inspected on the high seas The French reinforce trade restrictions by issuing the first Milan Decree U.S. Non-Importation Act takes effect again Second French Milan Decree further restricts neutral trade U.S. Embargo Act prohibits foreign destined shipping from U.S. ports Viscount Wellington appointed commander in Spain and Portugal, permanently opening the primary British theater of operations until 1814 French Bayonne Decree orders seizure of U.S. ships in continental ports British mission to United States to settle Chesapeake affair James Madison elected president

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Chronology  •  

1809 January 9 March 1 March 1 March 4 April 18–19 April 19 April 26 August 9 September 30

1810 March 23 May 1

August 5 August 5 October 19 October 27 November 2 1811 January 15 March 2 May May 16

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U.S. Enforcement Act, to enforce Embargo Act of 1807 U.S. Embargo Act repealed U.S. Non-Intercourse Act prohibits trade with Britain and France Inauguration of James Madison Erskine Agreement, United States and Britain; rejected by the British cabinet United States renews trade with Britain Britain issues revised Order in Council United States reverts to nonintercourse with Britain Treaty of Fort Wayne; United States with Delaware and Potawatomi Indians French Rambouillet Decree orders seizure of all U.S. ships in French ports U.S. Macon’s Bill No. 2 renews trade with Britain and France; if one removes offensive decrees then United States will restore nonintercourse against the other French Cadore letter revokes Milan and Berlin Decrees, to take effect November 1 French Trianon Decree places heavy tariffs on colonial produce and raw materials Fontainebleau Decree orders destruction of all British merchandise found in French-controlled territories United States annexes West Florida, adds to Louisiana Territory United States restores nonintercourse with Britain U.S. Congress authorizes temporary presidential seizure of East Florida United States revives Non-Intercourse Act against Britain U.S. minister leaves Britain USS President defeats HMS Little Belt

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10  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography

September 13 October 9 October 22

November 4 November 7 November 12

1812 April 4 May 11 May 14 June 1 June 4 June 8 June 17 June 18 June 23 June 26 July 12 July 17 August 8 August 13

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Lieutenant general Sir George Prevost arrives in Quebec as the captain general and governor in chief of British North America Major General Isaac Brock appointed administrator and military commander in Upper Canada The Prince Regent (The Prince of Wales exercising sovereignty on King George III’s behalf) instructs Prevost that in event of hostilities, he is to fight a defensive war only and protect the frontier of Canada. U.S. Twelfth (War Hawks) Congress convenes Battle of Tippecanoe, Indiana United States accepts British settlement of Chesapeake affair U.S. Congress enacts the Ninety-Day Embargo Act British prime minister Spencer Percival, author of the Order in Councils, is assassinated United States annexes Pearl to Perdido Rivers, adds to Mississippi Territory Madison’s secret war message to the U.S. Congress U.S. House of Representatives passes war bill Lord Liverpool forms new British government and is prime minister until 1827 U.S. Senate votes for war United States declares war on Great Britain New British government under Lord Liverpool repeals Orders in Council; news arrives in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on August 1 United States authorizes agent in Britain to negotiate armistice Americans enter Upper Canada at Detroit Fort Mackinac surrenders to the British Major General Henry Dearborn accepts Prevost’s offer of an armistice, which continues to September 4 USS Essex captures HMS Alert; U.S. Secretary of War orders Dearborn to recommence hostilities

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Chronology  •  11

August 15 August 16 August 19 August 29 September 3 September 4 September 13 September 30 October 4 October 13 October 18 October 18 October 25 November 10 November 20 November 27 December 2 December 29 December 31 1813 January 9

Fifty members of an American column withdrawing from Fort Dearborn to Fort Wayne massacred by natives Detroit surrenders to the British USS Constitution captures HMS Guerriere Britain rejects U.S. armistice offer Commodore Isaac Chauncey ordered to build up U.S. Navy on Great Lakes Formal end of armistice arranged by Prevost and Dearborn Russia offers mediation between United States and Britain United States rejects British armistice offer British defeated at Ogdensburg, New York Americans defeated at Queenston Heights, Upper Canada USS Wasp captures HMS Frolic HMS Poictiers captures USS Wasp USS United States captures HMS Macedonian U.S. Navy Lake Ontario squadron gains control of Lake Ontario American campaign against Montreal stalls at Canadian boundary Royal Navy blockades Delaware and Chesapeake Bays James Madison reelected president USS Constitution defeats HMS Java U.S. Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton resigns

Prince Regent issues Declaration of War between Britain and United States January 13 John Armstrong becomes U.S. secretary of war January 18 Americans take Frenchtown, Michigan January 22 Americans defeated at Frenchtown; River Raisin massacre by Indians February 22 Americans defeated at Ogdensburg, New York February 24 USS Hornet defeats HMS Peacock March–December British naval forces raid Chesapeake Bay area

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12  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography

March 11 March 30 April 15 April 27 April 28–May 8 May 8 May 15 May 27 May 29 June 1 June 6 June 24 July 5 August 2 August 14 August 30 September 5 September 10 September 27 September 30 October 5 October 25–26 November 3 November 4 November 9 November 11 December 10

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United States accepts and Britain rejects a Russian offer of mediation British extend blockade from Long Island to New Orleans Americans occupy Mobile, Alabama Americans raid York (Toronto), capital of Upper Canada, and occupy it until May 1; public buildings burned Unsuccessful British and Indian siege of Fort Meigs, Ohio Americans accept a Russian mediation offer Commodore Sir James Lucas Yeo takes command of the Great Lakes from the Provincial Marine. Americans capture Fort George, Upper Canada British repulsed at Sackets Harbor, New York, but control of Lake Ontario reverts to British for two months HMS Shannon takes USS Chesapeake Americans defeated at Stoney Creek, Upper Canada Americans defeated at Beaver Dams, Upper Canada British refuse a Russian mediation offer British repulsed at Fort Stephenson, Ohio HMS Pelican captures USS Argus Fort Mims, Alabama, massacre by Creek Indians USS Enterprise takes HMS Boxer Americans win Battle of Lake Erie Americans enter Upper Canada Americans reoccupy Detroit British and Indians defeated at Battle of the Thames, Upper Canada Americans repulsed at Chateauguay, Lower Canada Creek Indians defeated at Tallassiehatchee, Alabama British propose direct negotiations Creek Indians defeated at Talladega, Alabama Americans defeated at Crysler’s Farm, Upper Canada Americans evacuate Fort George and burn Newark, Upper Canada

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Chronology  •  13

December 18 December 19–31 December 30

1814 March 27 March 28 March 30 April 6 April 11 April 14 April 20 April 29 May 18

May 30 May 6 May 30 June 3 June 28 July–September July 3 July 5 July 11 July 19 July 25 August 4

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British occupy Fort Niagara, New York, for the remainder of the war British capture Lewiston, Fort Schlosser, Black Rock, and Buffalo, New York HMS Bramble to Annapolis, under flag of truce, with peace dispatches Creek Indians defeated at Horseshoe Bend (Tohopeka), Alabama HMS Phoebe and HMS Cherub capture USS Essex Americans defeated at LaColle Mill, Lower Canada Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates, allowing Britain to focus on the war in North America Treaty of Fontainebleau, confirms Napoleon’s abdication and exile. United States repeals Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts HMS Orpheus defeats USS Frolic USS Peacock captures HMS Epervier British finalize plans to dispatch sixteen thousand troops to various theaters in North America, marking the first occasion during the war that British forces will outnumber American troops Treaty of Paris British destroy Fort Oswego, New York British extend blockade to New England coast Lord Bathurst writes orders to Prevost to commence offensive operations aimed at enhancing the security of British North America. USS Wasp II defeats HMS Reindeer British capture Maine coastal towns of Castine, Eastport, Hampden, and Machias U.S. Left Division invades Upper Canada; British surrender Fort Erie, Upper Canada British repulsed at Chippawa, Upper Canada HMS Leander captures USS Rattlesnake British capture Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin Indecisive Battle of Lundy’s Lane, Upper Canada Americans repulsed at Mackinac, Michigan

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14  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography

August 8 August 9 August 10 August 14–September 21 August 19 August 24 August 24–25 August 28 September 1 September 1 September 1

September 11 September 12–14

September 12–16 November 5 November 7 November 26 December 14 December 15–January 5, 1815 December 24 December 25

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U.S. and British peace commissioners meet at Ghent Treaty at Fort Jackson, Alabama, with Creek Indians British Royal Marine detachment lands in Florida to form alliance with Creek warriors Unsuccessful British siege of Fort Erie, Upper Canada British land near Benedict, Maryland Americans defeated at Bladensburg, Maryland British occupy Washington and burn public buildings British capture Alexandria, Virginia USS Wasp defeats HMS Avon British occupy Castine, Massachusetts, for the remainder of the war. Prevost leads 10,351 men into New York State, the main British offensive of the year. Contrary to popular belief, only a portion of his men are “Wellington’s Veterans.” U.S. naval victory at Plattsburgh, New York. British call off land attack before all their troops are engaged. British attack on Baltimore; U.S. force defeated at North Point, but British commander, Brigadier General Robert Ross is killed, halting further attacks British repulsed at Mobile, Alabama Americans destroy Fort Erie and cross Niagara River to Buffalo Americans seize Pensacola, Florida British fleet departs Jamaica for New Orleans British overwhelm American gunboats on Lake Borgne, Louisiana Hartford Convention Treaty of Ghent signed Major General Edward Pakenham takes command of British forces below New Orleans

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Chronology  •  15

1815 January 1 January 8 January 10 January 12 January 15 February 4 February 8 February 11 February 17 February 20 February 26 March 1 March 1 March 3 March 3 March 23 April 3 June 18 June 30 July–September July 3 1817 April 28–29 1818 October 20

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Pakenham begins artillery duel with Jackson’s line British defeated at New Orleans British force occupies Cumberland Island, Georgia British seize St Mary’s, Georgia HMS Endymion, HMS Tenados, and HMS Pomone take USS President U.S. Congress passes new Non-Intercourse Act British invest Fort Bowyer at entrance of Mobile Bay Fort Bowyer falls to British forces U.S. and British officials exchange ratifications of peace treaty in Washington USS Constitution takes HMS Cyane and HMS Levant Napoleon escapes from Elba; Britain shifts attention back to Europe and some of the troops sent to Canada in 1814 board transports for Britain Prevost receives official notification of the Treaty of Ghent Prevost orders end of hostilities and disbandment of Canadian militia U.S. Congress repeals trade restrictions United States reduces army to peacetime strength USS Hornet captures HMS Penguin Prevost departs Quebec, having been called back to Britain On the third anniversary of Madison’s declaration of war, Britain and Prussia defeat Napoleon at Waterloo USS Peacock captures HMS Nautilus Peace treaties of Portage des Sioux; United States with Indians Commercial treaty, United States and Britain Rush-Bagot Agreement between United States and Britain limits naval presence on the Great Lakes Convention of 1818, United States and Britain

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Editor’s Note

Periodicals sometimes undergo changes in titles, and in a few instances, several changes. To avoid tedious explanations, citations herein employ titles used as of publication date of the items. The Journal of American History is the name used by two different journals:

1. The National Historical Society published twenty-nine volumes under this name from 1907 to 1935. For citations in this bibliography, it is designated herein as the Journal of American History [National Historical Society]. 2. In 1964 the Mississippi Valley Historical Review became the Journal of American History, the publication of the Organization of American Historians. Commencing with the 1964 citations, it is designated herein simply as the Journal of American History.

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Chapter

1

Bibliographies and Encyclopedias

1 Albion, Robert Greenhalgh. Naval and Maritime History: An Annotated Bibliography. 4th ed., rev. and enl. Mystic, Conn.: Munson Institute of American Maritime History, Marine Historical Association, 1972. Contains a brief section on the War of 1812. Other, more general, sections may also be helpful. 2. Boyle, Gertrude M., and Colbeck, Marjorie, eds. A Bibliography of Canadiana, First Supplement: Being Items in the Public Library of Toronto, Canada, Relating to the Early History and Development of Canada. Introduction by Henry C. Campbell. Toronto: Toronto Public Library, 1959. Additional acquisitions since publication of the initial volume (see item 19, below). Special emphasis is given to Ontario imprints. 3. Dictionary of American Biography. 22 vols. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1958–64. A biographical dictionary providing the details of key American figures related directly or indirectly to the War of 1812. 4. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vols. 5–9. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976–88. The relevant volumes of a biographical dictionary providing the details of Canadian key figures related directly or indirectly to the War of 1812. 5. Dictionary of National Biography. 65 vols. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1885. A biographical dictionary providing the details of key British figures related directly or indirectly to the War of 1812. 6. Dodds, Gilbert F. Bibliography of the War of 1812: Commemorating the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the War of 1812. Columbus, Ohio: Franklin County Historical Society and Museum, 1961. Pamphlet. Alphabetical listing with standard bibliographic data.

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20  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography















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7. An Exhibit to Commemorate the One Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary of the Beginning of the War of 1812. Foreword by Cecil K. Byrd, Keith C. Kern, and John Neu. Bloomington: Lilly Library, Indiana University, 1962. An exhibition catalog of 160 manuscripts, broadsides, pamphlets, books, and other items, some with illustrations, from the War of 1812 Collection of the Lilly Library. 8. Fredriksen, John C. Officers of the War of 1812 with Portraits and Anecdotes. The United States Army Left Division Gallery of Honor. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen: 1989. A collection of portraits and biographies of select senior officers of the U.S. military during the War of 1812. 9. Fredricksen, John C. War of 1812 Eyewitness Accounts: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997. A bibliography of eyewitness accounts organized by theme: military (American, British, Canadian, regular, and militia), naval (American, British, professional navy, and privateers) and civilian (American, British, and foreign nationals). 10. Fredriksen, John C., comp. Resource Guide for the War of 1812. Los Angeles: Subia, 1979. A listing of 1,674 items dealing with the War of 1812 entirely or in part, classified by theater of operations and by topic. Also lists manuscript repositories of the United States and Canada and regiments that served. Includes a brief chronology. 11. Grolier Club. Exhibition of Naval and Other Prints, Portraits and Books Relating to the War of 1812. November 7th to 23d, 1912. New York: De Vinne, 1912. Pamphlet listing 211 paintings, engravings, portraits, caricatures, and books. 12. Higham, Robin D. S., ed. A Guide to the Sources of United States Military History. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1975. Bibliographic essays, each appended with a bibliography. The War of 1812 is best served by Roger L. Nichols, “From the Revolution to the Mexican War,” 125–51; and Kenneth J. Hagan, “The Navy in the Nineteenth Century, 1789–1889,” 152–84. 13. Klyberg, Albert T. “What So Proudly We Hail’d”: An Exhibition in the William L. Clements Library Marking the Sesquicentennial of the War of 1812. Ann Arbor: Michigan U.S. Daughters of 1812/University of Michigan, 1964. Describes manuscript collections, books, maps, prints, and cartoons in a bibliographic essay. 14. Lane, Jack C. America’s Military Past: A Guide to Information Sources. American Government and History Information Guide Series. Detroit: Gale Research, 1980. An annotated bibliography. Contains a section on the War of 1812. Includes what the bibliographer considers as major works—i.e., those that are most interesting and attempt analysis and evaluation.

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Bibliographies and Encyclopedias  •  21 15. Lowe, John W. Catalogue of a Collection of Books and Manuscripts on the War of 1812, and Other Americana Made by the Late Mr. John W. Lowe, Exhibited by the Caxton Club in Gunsaulus Hall of the Art Institute of Chicago from the Eighth to the Thirty-First of December, Nineteen Hundred Seventeen. Chicago: Caxton Club, 1917. Includes 235 autograph letters, portraits, books, pamphlets, magazine excerpts, chapters of books. Limited annotation. 16. Neeser, Robert Wilden. Statistical and Chronological History of the United States Navy, 1775–1907. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1909. Volume 1 is a massive bibliography of manuscripts, official publications, and unofficial publications. Volume 2 consists of tables of chronology, naval engagements, capture of merchantmen, a record of each vessel, and privateers, with keys to the bibliography. Limited to 1775–1907 imprint dates. Utility is enhanced by indexes. 17. Severance, Frank H. “Collections of Historical Material Relating to the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 10 (1913): 43–56. Primarily a bibliographic essay, touching briefly on related matters such as repositories and lists of authors. Includes history, literature, politics, pamphlets, poetry. 18. Smith, Myron J. The American Navy, 1789–1860: A Bibliography. American Naval Bibliography Series 2. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1974. The appropriate entries for the War of 1812 are in the general 1789–1815 section. The index provides all the necessary references to these entries. Comments are limited to explaining insufficient titles. 19. Staton, Frances M., and Tremaine, Marie, eds. A Bibliography of Canadiana: Being Items in the Public Library of Toronto, Canada, Relating to the Early History and Development of Canada. Introduction by George H. Locke. Toronto: Public Library, 1934. A selection of items from the reference collection of the library, principally written contemporaneously with the events with which they are concerned, and so arranged in the volume. Items related to the War of 1812 are interlarded with others with the same imprint dates. Complete citations including the library’s notations. “Early history” is defined herein as preconfederation (1867). 20. Thibault, Claude. Bibliographia Canadiana. Don Mills, Ontario: Longman Canada, 1973. Detailed bibliography of printed Canadian history in a chronological and topical arrangement. Some three hundred items are listed under the topic of the War of 1812, with books and articles mentioned separately. Citations only. 21. White, Arthur S. A Bibliography of Regimental Histories of the British Army. London: London Stamp Exchange, 1988. A detailed guide to regimental histories of the British Army organized by regiment, corps, auxiliary forces and miscellaneous units.

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Chapter

2

General Histories

22. Adams, Henry. History of the United States during the Administrations of Jefferson and Madison. Facsimile reprint ed., 9 vols. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1962. Concerned mostly with political, diplomatic, and military events. Despite occasional errors, known prejudices, and the subsequent availability of considerable Canadian and British materials, the Adams account remains one of the best ones of the War of 1812. See especially volumes 3–9. This has also been abridged with an introduction by George Dangerfield and Otey M. Scruggs into two volumes retaining the original title (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963). It has also been excerpted, mostly concerning military affairs, and edited by H. A. De Weerd as The War of 1812 (Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1944). 23. Adams, Israel. A Narrative of the Life, Travels, and Adventures of Capt. Israel Adams: Who Lived at Liverpool, Onondaga Co., N.Y., the Man Who, during the Last War, Surprised the British Boats Lying in the Bay of Quoentia; Who Took by Stratagem the Brig Toronto, and Took Her to Sacketts Harbor; and for Whom the British Offered a Reward of £100. Utica, N.Y.: D. Bennett, 1848. Pamphlet. An autobiographical account. Adams had experience at sea, on rivers, and on Lake Ontario previous to the War of 1812. He was involved in various activities during the war. 24. Adams, John Quincy. “Correspondence of John Quincy Adams, 1811–1814.” Edited by Charles Francis Adams. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s., 23 (April 1913): 110–69. Personal letters written by and to Adams while he was envoy to Russia. Somewhat circumspect because the correspondents were well aware their letters were subject to scrutiny by sundry officials while in transit.

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24  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 25. Adams, John Quincy. [“Letters of John Quincy Adams.”] Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 30 (December 1895): 374–92. A view of the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 from a St. Petersburg, Russia, perspective (1810–1814). Written as personal letters to his brother while serving as envoy to Russia. 26. Allaben, Frank. “Divine Purpose in the War of 1812.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 99–102. The war taught England that the United States was free, secured the Old Northwest to the Americans, preserved the country from disintegration, and vindicated the right of international peace. 27. Allen, Robert S. His Majesty’s Indian Allies: British Indian Policy in the Defence of Canada, 1774–1815. Toronto: Dundurn, 1992. A detailed analysis of British native policy in North America and the alliance system formed with many native groups in Canada. The War of 1812 chapter focuses on the challenges in maintaining the alliance during the war and the employment of native warriors in the North West theater of operations. 28. Altsheler, Joseph Alexander. A Herald of the West: An American Story of 1811–1815. New York: D. Appleton, 1898. Fiction. Kentuckian Philip Ten Broeck is a clerk in the Treasury Department in Washington who witnessed developments and debates about the possibility of war. His adventures begin when he is sent to New York and New England to measure public opinion. His several adventures throughout the war, ending with capture, release, and participation at New Orleans, are complicated by a kinsman who served as a British officer. 29. American Patriotic and Comic Modern Song-Book. Newburyport, Mass.: W. and J. Gilman’s Book-Store and Circulating Library, 1816. Pamphlet. Lyrics. Deals with War of 1812 themes. 30. The American Weekly Messenger; or, Register of State Papers, History and Politics. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Printed for John Conrad, 1814–1815. A weekly newspaper, September 25, 1813–September 17, 1814. Weekly summaries of political, military, social, economic, and international developments. Also reprinting of selected official and other documents. 31. [Andrews, Charles.] The Prisoners’ Memoirs, or, Dartmoor Prison; Containing a Complete and Impartial History of the Entire Captivity of the Americans in England, from the Commencement of the Late War between the United States and Great Britain, Until All Prisoners Were Released by the Treaty of Ghent. Also, a Particular Detail of All Occurrences Relative to that Horrid Massacre at Dartmoor, on the Fatal Evening of the 6th of April, 1815. The Whole Carefully Compiled from the Journal of Charles Andrews, a Prisoner in England, from the Commencement of the War, Until the Release of All of the Prisoners. New York: Printed for the Author, 1815. Andrews was taken prisoner early in the war. Until April 1813, he was confined to a prison ship in Plymouth harbor. Apprehensive of a prison riot, his captors sent him, with several hundred others, to Dartmoor Prison.

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General Histories  •  25 32. Armstrong, John. Notices of the War of 1812. 2 vols. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1840. Eyewitness views of the American-Canadian campaigns. A general history of the war, from causes through the Battle of New Orleans. The text, documentation, and appendixes, contain frequent documentary quotations. Armstrong published the documents to resolve long-standing disputes that had their origins in the war. 33. Auchinleck, Gilbert. A History of the War between Great Britain and the United States of America during the Years 1812, 1813, and 1814. London: Arms and Armour in association with Pendragon House, 1972. First appeared in twenty-six parts in Anglo-American Magazine (1853–55). Republished in book form (Toronto: Maclear and Co., 1855), of which the present is a facsimile reprint. Despite the author’s declaration of an impartial examination, his account is strongly biased in favor of the British. Includes manuscript and printed documentary materials in the text and appendix. 34. Babcock, Kendric Charles. The Rise of American Nationality, 1811–1819. The American Nation: A History 13. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1906. Concerned with the causes of the War of 1812, the principal events of the war, and the impact of the war upon the country. In the Napoleonic and War of 1812 experiences, the United States achieved its independence from European domination and set the stage for its emergent vigorous and expansive nationality. The analysis is carried into postwar diplomatic and domestic developments that support this thesis. 35. Baines, Edward. Baine’s [sic] History of the Late War, between the United States and Great Britain: with a Critical Appendix, Etc. Edited by Ebenezer Harlow Cummins. Baltimore: Benjamin Edes, 1820. The editor regards the Baines history of the War of 1812 as one of the best accounts from a British author, as superior to American accounts, and as liberal and magnanimous to the United States. The editor corrects what he regards as certain errors of the author, in the appendix. Reprinted from History of the Wars of the French Revolution, from the Breaking Out of the War in 1792, to the Restoration of a General Peace in 1815; Comprehending the Civil History of Great Britain and France, during That Period, 2 vols. (London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1817). 36. Barlow, William Ray. “Ohio’s Congressmen and the War of 1812.” Ohio History 72 (July 1963): 175–94. Analysis of the attitudes of Ohio’s delegation of three to the U.S. Congress from declaration of war to news of the peace. The two who opposed the war believed the Ohio frontier was not adequately prepared for defense and the nation was not ready for war. They supported the attack on Canada as a matter of military strategy rather than as a means of expansion. 37. Beirne, Francis F. The War of 1812. Reprint ed. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1965. The author, a journalist, has based his general account of the War of 1812 on Henry Adams, History of the United States (item 22, above), and Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Book (item 138, below). Although filled with absurdities, the war earned British respect and led to the unfortified Canadian-American border frontier.

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26  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 38. Benn, Carl. The Iroquois in the War of 1812. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. An insightful, detailed examination of the role played by the Iroquois in the War of 1812. 39. Benn, Carl. “Iroquois Warfare, 1812–1814.” In War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur, R. Bolwer, 61–76. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association (1991). An essay examining the Iroquois as a military force during the war, based on the contextual view of the development of the Iroquois people, their diplomacy, and method of fighting. 40. Benn, Carl. The War of 1812. Essential Histories 41. London: Osprey, 2002. An overview of the war by a Canadian historian. This book includes several color maps, many illustrations, and a bibliography. 41. Benn, Carl, and Marston, Daniel. Liberty or Death: Wars that Forged a Nation. Essential Histories Specials 7. London: Osprey, 2006. A compilation of three Osprey Essential Histories volumes covering the Seven Years War, the American War of Independence, and the War of 1812. 42. Bennett, David C. A “Gallant Defense: the Battles of Fort Madison.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (September 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. A history of Fort Madison, Iowa, and its defense against repeated native attacks. 43. [Bigelow, Jacob, and Hale, Nathan.] The Wars of the Gulls; An Historical Romance. In Three Chapters. New York: Dramatic Repository, Shakespeare Gallery, 1812. Pamphlet. Thinly veiled satire of American (Gulls) entry into the War of 1812, naval activity off the Atlantic coast of North America, and William Hull’s (Hull-Gull) surrender at Detroit. 44. Borneman, Walter R. 1812: The War that Forged a Nation. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. A general history of the war by a popular writer that takes a generally traditional American view of the war. 45. The Boston Spectator. Devoted to Politicks and Belles Lettres. Boston: John Park, 1814–15. A weekly, January 1, 1814–February 4, 1815. Not designed as a newspaper as such, but contains summaries of principal events of the previous week. Includes much about the War of 1812. 46. Brackenridge, Henry Marie. History of the Late War between the United States and Great Britain: Comprising a Minute Account of the Various Military and Naval Operations. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Hayes and Zell, 1854. The War of 1812 was a second revolution, securing the benefits gained in the first. 47. Brannan, John, comp. Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States, during the War with Great Britain in the Years 1812, 13, 14, & 15. With Some Additional Letters and Documents Elucidating the History of That Period. Washington, D.C.: Way and Gideon, 1823. From the president’s war message to the treaty of peace. Contains “all the important” official letters of the American officers, and various other documents. Without editorial comment.

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General Histories  •  27 48. Brant, Irving. James Madison: Commander in Chief, 1812–1836. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961. The final volume of Brant’s six-volume biography commences with the causes of the War of 1812. Madison by temperament and personality was unable to counter popular and congressional opposition to unite the country in a common cause. He suffered the consequences of inept and scheming civilian heads of the military services and fighting commanders. 49. Brant, Irving. “Timid President? Futile War?” American Heritage 10 (October 1959): 46–47, 85–89. Reappraises the presidential leadership of James Madison and of the War of 1812. Credits the “quiet guiding hand” of Madison and the war as winning for the struggling new republic “an equal position among the free nations of the world.” 50. A Brief Description of the Towns, Rivers, and Fortifications Contiguous to the Seat of the War. Fully Explaining Allen’s Map of That Country, Published by John Tiebout. New York: Printed for John Tiebout, 1812. Pamphlet. A gazetteer-type presentation for places on both sides of the Canadian-American border and for forts in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. 51. Brown, Samuel R. An Authentic History of the Second War for Independence: Comprising Details of the Military and Naval Operations, from the Commencement to the Close of the Recent War; Enriched with Numerous Geographical and Biographical Notes. 2 vols. Auburn, N.Y.: J. G. Hathaway, 1815. Strongly pro-American, anti-British, narration of the War of 1812. Appendix includes treaties with Britain and with the Indians and assorted other documents. 52. Burt, Alfred LeRoy. The United States, Great Britain, and British North America from the Revolution to the Establishment of Peace after the War of 1812. The Relations of Canada and the United States 11. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1940. American cumulative exasperation and the British refusal to make any accommodation on maritime factors were primarily responsible for giving rise to the war spirit in the West and South. Except for American military unpreparedness, war might have come a year earlier. The peace treaty was only the first step in a series of agreements that transformed a truce into a lasting peace. 53. Caffrey, Kate. The Twilight’s Last Gleaming: Britain vs. America, 1812–1815. New York: Stein and Day, 1977. A British author presents the British point of view of the War of 1812. The failure of Britain, France, and the United States to persuade or force the others to modify or withdraw their orders in council, decrees, and embargoes led to open conflict. The war was obscured throughout by the European conflict. The war was indecisive and basically unsatisfactory. It did give to America a new self-awareness and British respect. 54. Calico, Forrest, comp. “Veterans of War of 1812 from Garrard County, Ky.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 48 (April 1950): 189–190. Includes vital statistics and source references.

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28  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 55. Carr, Mrs. Henry James, comp. Index to Certified Copy of Lists of American Prisoners of War, 1812–1815, as Recorded in General Entry Book, Ottawa, Canada [And] List of American Prisoners of War Who Died at Princetown, Dartmoor, England, 1812–1815. N.p.: Association of State Presidents, Past and Present, and Charter Members, of the National Society, United States Daughters of 1812, n.d. Pamphlet. Compiled from records in the Public Archives of Canada. 56. Chapin, Cyrenius. Chapin’s Review of Armstrong’s Notices of the War of 1812. Black Rock, N.Y.: D. P. Adams, 1836. Pamphlet. The author served as an officer in the war. He responds to what he characterizes as John Armstrong’s “base, ridiculous, and even criminal” attack on him. See Armstrong, Notices of the War of 1812, first published in 1836 (item 32, above). 57. Chartrand, René. British Forces in North America, 1793–1815. Men-at-Arms 310. London: Osprey, 1998. An examination of the British and regular Canadian units that served in North America during the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812. Several color plates by military artist Gerry Embleton depict various forms of dress, while the text includes much information on uniforms. 58. Clift, G. Glenn. Notes on Kentucky Veterans of the War of 1812. Anchorage, Ky.: Borderland Books, 1964. Pamphlet. Such biographical data as is available. In some cases this includes only noting attendance at a reunion. Reprinted from Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 50 (October 1952): 319–39; 51 (January 1953): 34–55; 51 (April 1953): 136–52. 59. Cobbett, William. Letters on the Late War between the United States and Great Britain: Together with Other Miscellaneous Writings, on the Same Subject. New York: J. Belden, 1815. Detailed analyses and commentary on the advent and course of the War of 1812 by an Englishman. Generally favorable to the American point of view. Many previously published in newspapers. 60. Cobbett, William. The Pride of Britannia Humbled; or, The Queen of the Ocean Unqueened, by “The American Cock Boats,” and “The Fir Built Things, with Bits of Striped Bunting at Their Mast Heads.” (As the Rt. Hon. Mr. Canning, in the British Parliament, Called Our Frigates.) Illustrated and Demonstrated by Letters Addressed to Lord Liverpool, on the Late American War. To Which Is Added, A Glimpse of the American Victories on Land, on the Lakes, and on the Ocean. With a Persuasive Addressed to the Persons Composing the Two Great Parties in the United States. Cincinnati: John R. Fletcher, William Pounsford, and Williams and Mason, 1817. In the form of letters written by “an Englishman in England.” Designed to help American youth feel patriotic and proud of the record of their country in the War of 1812. 61. Coles, Harry L. The War of 1812. Chicago History of American Civilization 1965 Series. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965. This general survey of the entire course of the War of 1812, from causes to consequences, is analytical as well as narrative. The war was precipitated by the unsuccessful American efforts to maintain honor and interests in the setting of the general European conflict. It was fought as a part of the larger

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General Histories  •  29















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British-French war. Both Canada and the United States emerged stronger than they had entered the war and both experienced a quickened nationalistic spirit. 62. Collins, Gilbert. Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006. A revised and updated version of a useful guide that describes almost every historic site related to the War of 1812 in Canada, the United States and Belgium. Each section is organized by region and also provides a general overview of wartime events. 63. A Compendious Account of the Most Important Battles of the Late War, to Which Is Added, The Curious Adventures of Corporal Samuel Stubbs, (A Kentuckian of 65 Years of Age.) Who, in the Late War, Patriotically Volunteered His Services and Nobly Distinguished Himself in the Battles of Queenstown—French Town— Little York, Chippewa—New Orleans, Etc. Boston: William Watson, 1817. Pamphlet. The Stubbs account is contained in a letter of David Copp, an officer, and in a Stubbs letter. 64. The Court of Neptune and the Curse of Liberty, with Other Poems, on Subjects Connected with the Late War. New York: Van Winkle, Wiley, 1817. A collection written during the war when the events they celebrate occurred. The two title poems concern the Hornet’s capture of the Peacock, and the burning of Washington. 65. Cullum, George W. Campaigns of the War of 1812–15, against Great Britain, Sketched and Criticised; with Brief Biographies of the American Engineers. New York: James Miller, 1879. Sketches of the campaigns with emphasis on the tactical and strategical errors. Biographical accounts of the engineers are woven into the narrative as well as being contained in a separate chapter. The final chapter adds the journal of Eleazer D. Wood, who served as chief engineer with William Henry Harrison, 1812–1813. 66. Dale, Ronald J. Battles of the War of 1812: The Invasion of Canada. Toronto: J. Lorimer, 2001. A photo history of the war showing many historic sites and reenactments focusing on the Lake Ontario sea and land theater. 67. Darling, Carlos Parsons. “A Sketch of the Principal Events of the War of 1812.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 6 (October–December 1912): 715–20. Narrative in uneven detail. Defends the American performance but concludes the war was a mistake. The country lost and the principal benefit went to the politicians. 68. Davis, Paris M. An Authentic History of the Late War between the United States and Great Britain. With a Full Account of Every Battle by Sea and Land; The Defection of General Hull, His Trial and Sentence; The Massacre at the River Raisin; The Destruction of the City of Washington; The Treaty of Peace in 1815. To Which will Be Added, the War with Algiers, and the Treaty of Peace. The Treaties of Peace with the Various Tribes of North American Indians and the United States Army Register, and Peace Establishment. New York: Ebenezer F. Baker, 1836. The account starts with the declaration of war in 1812. Lengthy excerpts from various kinds of documents are interlarded with the text.

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30  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 69. Davis, Paris M. The Four Principal Battles of the Late War. Being a Full Detailed Account of the Battle of Chippeway, Fall and Destruction of the City of Washington, Battles of Baltimore, and New-Orleans. Harrisburg, Pa.: Jacob Baab, 1832. Davis was an adjutant in the army who suffered wounds in two of the battles he describes. Straightforward accounts with documents interlarded. 70. Dietz, Anthony George. “The Prisoner of War in the United States during the War of 1812.” Ph.D. diss., American University, 1964. Although the United States and England were unable to come to any formal agreement concerning the treatment of prisoners of war, there was tacit acceptance of both on a number of practices. The study describes these negotiations, examines the American administrative Office of the Commissary General of Prisoners, describes life in prison camps and on prison ships, and analyzes the role of the cartel vessel in the repatriation process. 71. Dunlop, Dr “Tiger.” Recollections of the American War. Toronto: Historical Publishing, 1905. An interesting and colourful memoir of the experiences in North America by the assistant surgeon of the 89th Foot. Dunlop was at Chippawa and Lundy’s Lane and in both battles tended to hundreds of wounded from both sides. 72. Eller, Ernest M. “Is Defeat Inevitable?” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 60 (September 1934): 1201–13. The question is considered in the light of William Hull’s surrender at Detroit and the victory of his nephew, Isaac Hull, as commander of the USS Constitution in its engagement with HMS Guerriere. 73. English, Sara John. “Illinois Debt to Soldiers of War of 1812—and Honor Roll of 1812 Soldiers Who Are Buried in Morgan County, Illinois.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 24 (January 1932): 630–53. Veterans from Illinois include the state’s first six governors. Sixty-six veterans buried in Morgan County are identified. 74. Erney, Richard Alton. The Public Life of Henry Dearborn. Arno Press Collection: The American Military Experience. New York: New York Times/Arno, 1979. A facsimile reprint of the author’s Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1957. Studies Dearborn’s record as president Thomas Jefferson’s secretary of war, Jefferson’s military policy, and Dearborn’s service as an officer in the War of 1812. He was an honest, industrious, intelligent, and loyal public servant. 75. Esker, Katie Prince-Ward. “War of 1812 Pensions at National Archives, Washington, D.C.” Journal of Mississippi History 22 (April 1960): 128–37; 22 (July 1960): 192–96; 22 (October 1960): 271–88. Abstracts of pensioners’ files for Mississippi. 76. Events of the War, between the United States of America and Great Britain, during the Years 1812 and 1813; Both Military and Naval. Harrisburg, Pa.: Jacob Elder, 1814. Consists of official reports and other descriptive documents.

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General Histories  •  31 77. Fabel, Robin F. A. “The Laws of War in the 1812 Conflict.” Journal of American Studies 14 (August 1980): 199–218. Although unlimited or total war prevailed in Europe with the coming of the French Revolution, during the War of 1812 both the British and American sides conducted themselves according to a commonly accepted code of rules concerning private property. Combatants respected private persons and property and deplored excessive use of force. 78. Fay, Heman Allen, ed. Collection of the Official Accounts, in Detail, of All the Battles Fought by Sea and Land, between the Navy and Army of the United States, and the Navy and Army of Great Britain, during the Years 1812, 13, 14, & 15. New York: E. Conrad, 1817. The official American accounts by the officer in command in each instance or, in case of death, by the next in command. Includes a few British accounts. 79. Ferril, Will C. “Missouri Military in the War of 1812.” Missouri Historical Review 4 (October 1909): 38–41. Ferril’s letter of May 6, 1909, indicates that Missourians built at least three forts during the War of 1812—Cooper, Hempstead, and Kincaid— that served primarily as protection against Indian raids. Suggests further research will produce more names of personnel than are presently known. Makes a plea for state recognition of the state’s role in the war. 80. Fidelis [pseud.]. “Historical Sketch of the War of 1812.” Canadian Monthly and National Review 6 (July 1874): 1–24. A brief narrative of the war including an analysis of its consequences. To the Americans it resulted in neither glory nor substantial benefit, but heavy cost and loss. Materially it was “an almost unqualified misfortune” to Canada, but morally it united its incongruous and heterogeneous elements. The Canadian performance was insufficiently appreciated by England. 81. Fidfaddy, Frederick Augustus [pseud.]. The Adventures of Uncle Sam. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Literature House/Gregg, 1970. Facsimile reprint of The Adventures of Uncle Sam, in Search After His Lost Honor (Middletown, Conn.: Seth Richards, 1816). The author is identified as a “Member of the Legion of Honor, Scratch-etary to Uncle Sam and Privy Counsellor to Himself.” A satirical history of the War of 1812 with frequent opinions and reflections woven into the narrative. The author suggests the account may be somewhat autobiographical. 82. The First Book of Remarkable Events of the Present American War. N.p.: n.p., 1812. Pamphlet. In three chapters, with verses, in Old Testament type prose, covers the declaration of the War of 1812, William Hull’s expedition and surrender, the victory of the Constitution over the Guerriere, and Federalist opposition to the war. See entry for The Second Book of Remarkable Events (item 174, below). 83. Forman, Sidney. “The United States Military Philosophical Society, 1802– 1813.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 2 (July 1945): 273–85. Attributes the contributions of the society to the technical proficiency of the Army Corps of Engineers in the War of 1812. Includes enemy failures at Fort Erie; Fort Meigs; Norfolk, Virginia; and Plattsburgh, New York, as well as the general work of the Corps.

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32  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 84. Fredriksen, John C. “The Iconography of the 1814 Niagara Campaign: The Nuances of Nationalism.” In Bolwer, Arthur, R. ed. War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association (1991), p. 7–28. An interesting account of how imagery, either of events or maps, was used to depict events in the Niagara in 1814 for nationalistic purposes. 85. Garner, Grace, comp. Index to Roster of Ohio Soldiers, War of 1812. Spokane, Wash.: Eastern Washington Geneaological Society, 1974. See entry for Ohio, Adjutant General, Roster of Ohio Soldiers in the War of 1812 (item 157, below), for which this is the index. 86. “General and Field Officers of Kentucky Militia, 1802–1816.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 22 (May 1924): 125–38; 22 (September 1924): 244–51. Copied from official records in the Kentucky State Department Archives. Indicates name, rank, regiment, brigade, and staff officers. 87. General View of the Late War between the United States of America, and Great Britain. N.p.: n.p., [1815?]. As the preface notes, “The design of the Author, is to give a laconic view of the late war between the United States of America and Great Britain; in the similitude of a conversation between a Soldier and his Friend.” 88. George, Noah Jackson T., comp. A Concise and Brief Journal of the Late War with Great-Britain, to Which Is Added A Short Account of the War with Algiers. The Whole Interspersed with Topographical and Statistical Tables, and Plans of Battles. Also, A Military and Naval Chronological Table of the Events of Other Nations, Compiled Chiefly from Official Documents. Andover, N.H.: E. Chase, [1821]. A chronology of the War of 1812. 89. Gerson, Noel Bertram. Mr. Madison’s War: 1812: The Second War for Independence. New York: Julian Messner, 1966. A romanticized popular account. The war was the first real test of American will and ability to sustain the most democratic government conceived of at that time. The regions of the United States united and functioned as a nation for the first time. 90. Gilleland, J. C. History of the Late War, between the United States and Great Britain; Containing an Accurate Account of the Most Important Engagements by Sea and Land. Interspersed with Interesting Geographical Sketches of Those Parts of the Country Where the Principal Battles Were Fought. 2d ed. Baltimore: Schaeffer and Maund, 1817. Designed to highlight the war for young readers. The enemy was vanquished and the whole world learned that the United States could not be insulted with impunity. 91. Goulburn, Henry. “A British View of the War of 1812 and the Peace Negotiations.” Edited by Wilbur Devereux Jones. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 45 (December 1958): 481–87. Henry Goulburn was Parliamentary Under Secretary for War and the Colonies. His autobiography describes his role in directing operations during the War of 1812 and as a member of the British delegation in peace negotiations, though these matters receive only summary consideration in his unpublished autobiography. It is revealing for the incidents he describes

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and his silence on other subjects. Goulburn believed the war was Britain’s defense against unprovoked aggression, and characterized the American objective as the conquest of Canada. 92. Graves, Donald E. Fix Bayonets: A Royal Welch Fusilier at War, 1796–1815. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 2006. A biography of Colonel Thomas Pearson, who joined the British Army in 1796 and after many years of hard campaigning, including several wounds, found himself in the thick of another war. Pearson came to Canada in 1811 as an inspecting field officer of Canadian militia and played a key role in many battles, such as those of Chippawa, Crylser’s Farm, and Lundy’s Lane. 93. Green, Philip J. “William H. Crawford and the War of 1812.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 26 (March 1942): 16–39. As a senator from Georgia, Crawford favored war if diplomacy could not protect the American merchant marine. In general he supported the major policies of the Republican Party and the administration, including annexation of Canada and Florida. When war came he was president pro tempore of the Senate. In 1813 he became ambassador to France. 94. Gregg, Kate L. “The War of 1812 on the Missouri Frontier.” Missouri Historical Review 33 (October 1938): 3–22; 33 (January 1939): 184–202; 33 (April 1939): 326–48. War on the Missouri frontier was a spring to autumn phenomenon of dread and fear of British and Indian dangers. As it became evident that the settlers could expect little direct aid from the national government, they rose to their own defensive efforts. 95. Greusel, Joseph, ed. Copies of Papers on File in the Dominion Archives at Ottawa, Canada, Pertaining to the Relations of the British Government with the United States during the Period of the War of 1812. Michigan Historical Collections 15, 1909. Divided into sections on preliminaries, 1812, 1813, and 1814. This edition adds documentation by Joseph Greusel. See also the Greusel entry for the subsequent volume under the same title except for the period of coverage (item 1542). 96. Grodzinski, John R. “Bloody Provost: Discipline in the War of 1812.” War of 1812 Magazine 2 (March 2007); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. An overview of the system of discipline employed by the British Army and Canadian militia during the period of the War of 1812. While the British are popularly cast as having employed harsh discipline, the author argues that discipline in the American army, particularly the Left Division, where more soldiers were executed in 1814 than in the entire British Army in the Iberian Peninsula between 1808 and 1814, was harsher. Includes accounts of courts martial for soldiers and officers, including Major General Henry Proctor, who was tried for poor leadership while in command in southwestern Upper Canada in 1813. 97. Grodzinski, John R. “The Duke of Wellington, the Peninsular War and the War of 1812, Part I: North America and the Peninsular War—Logistics.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (December 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. The first of a two-part series discussing the interrelationship of events in North America, Britain, and the Iberian Peninsula from 1808 to 1815.

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34  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 98. Grodzinski, Major John R. “The Vigilant Superintendence of the Whole District: The War of 1812 on the Upper St Lawrence.” M.A. Thesis, Royal Military College of Canada, September 2002. A detailed examination of the logistical and operational role played by the Upper St Lawrence theater of war, stretching from Montreal, Lower Canada, to Kingston, Upper Canada. Includes an overview of prewar planning, the conduct of logistics and the various skirmishes and battles that occurred along this important frontier. 99. Guernsey, Rocellus Sheridan. New York City and Vicinity during the War of 1812–’15, Being A Military, Civic and Financial Local History of That Period, with Incidents and Anecdotes Thereof, and a Description of the Forts, Fortifications, Arsenals, Defences and Camps in and about New York City and Harbor, and Those at Harlem and on East River, and in Brooklyn, and on Long Island and Staten Island, and at Sandy Hook and Jersey City. With an Account of the Citizens’ Movements, and of the Military and Naval Officers, Regiments, Companies, Etc., in Service There. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Woodward, 1889–1895. A detailed history of the New York City area during the War of 1812. 100. Hannay, James. History of the War of 1812, between Great Britain and the United States of America. St. John, New Brunswick: John A. Bowes, 1901. A general account of the war from a Canadian perspective, very critical of American conduct of the war. The volume also appeared at the same time as Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society for the Years 1899 and 1900, 11 (1901). 101. Hannay, James. “The War of 1812: A History in Twelve Chapters, with Numerous Special Maps, Drawings, Photographs, and Other Illustrations.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 20 (January 1903): 230–45; 20 (February 1903): 327–43; 20 (March 1903): 429–45; 20 (April 1903): 539–53; 21 (May 1903): 39–55; 21 (June 1903): 139–51; 21 (July 1903): 240–50; 21 (August 1903): 344–55; 21 (September 1903): 429–46; 21 (October 1903): 524–40; 22 (November 1903): 41–57; 22 (December 1903): 164–80. A serialization, probably of the whole of the author’s History of the War of 1812 (item 100, above). 102. Hare, John S. “Military Punishments in the War of 1812.” Journal of the American Military Institute 4 (Winter 1940): 225–39. Classifies punishments in the American military as extralegal, or the force of public opinion manifested in approval or disapproval of the recruits’ immediate associates in the ranks; quasi-legal, or persecution and mistreatment of unauthorized penalties of a serious nature inflicted by noncommissioned and commissioned officers; and legal, as defined by military and civilian law. 103. Hawkins, George K. “General Observations on the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 10 (1911): 95–107. European politics extended to the Western Hemisphere created “a little vortex,” the War of 1812. Disunited and unprepared, it almost seemed that “providential favour” saved the country from disintegration and loss of its national existence. In the end, the United States was “appreciably indebted” to foreign politics for “the oddly patched up” peace treaty.

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General Histories  •  35 104. Hay, Peter. Proceedings of the National Convention of the Soldiers of the War of 1812, Held at the Hall of Independence, in the City of Philadelphia, on the Ninth of January, 1854. Philadelphia: Brown’s Steam Power Book, Card, and Job Printing Office, 1854. Pamphlet. Hay was the convention secretary. Includes list of delegates. Concerned with veterans’ benefits, including land grants and pensions, and with the establishment of a national 1812 veterans’ organization. 105. Headley, Joel Tyler. The Second War with England. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner, 1853. A comprehensive history of the entire war, including military, political, and diplomatic aspects; also a section on privateering and American prisoners of war. Although from an American point of view it is reasonably objective. 106. Hickey, Donald. “Leading Myths of the War of 1812.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (September 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. A discussion of the mythology of the War of 1812 and how that has affected our understanding of it. 107. Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give Up the Ship: Myths of the War of 1812. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 2006. A reassessment of many perceived “truths” of the War of 1812 that also traces how many popular myths originated. Appendixes provide a chronology of events from 1789 to 1817, discussion of songs of the war, ships and shipwrecks and how the War of 1812 received the name it is generally known by. 108. Hickey, Donald R. The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. An award-winning study based upon sources from American, British and Canadian archives that challenges the American historiography of the war. 109. Hillyard, Isaac. A Wonderful and Horrible Thing Is Committed in the Land. To Which Is Added the Chronicles of Andrew. Hamilton, Ohio: John L. Murray, 1822. The title was inspired by Jeremiah 5:30–31. A satirical allegorical commentary explaining the circumstances of the war, especially the disaffection of New England. Appended with continuing pagination: Jesse Denson, The Chronicles of Andrew; Containing an Accurate and Brief Account of General Jackson’s Victories in the South, over the Creeks. Also His Victories over the British at New-Orleans. With a Biographical Sketch of His Life. Written in biblical-style prose. 110. History of the American War, of Eighteen Hundred and Twelve, from the Commencement until the Final Termination Thereof, on the Memorable Eighth of January 1815, at New Orleans: Embellished with a Striking Likeness of General Pike, and Six Other Engravings. Philadelphia: William M’Carty, 1816. A narrative factual account. Concludes that revenue self-sufficiency is essential to survival as a nation; a navy is the best and cheapest defense and it should be strengthened as the country can afford it; and the militia system should be revamped as a necessary arm of government.

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36  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 111. Hitsman, J. Mackay. The Incredible War of 1812: A Military History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965. Reprint, updated ed., Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 1999. A modern Canadian view of the war. It emphasizes Canadian-American aspects of the war to the general exclusion of other areas. The account corrects discrepancies of conventional knowledge and understanding of the war with the reality, especially from the Canadian perspective. The updated edition includes endnotes, several appendixes, and an extensive bibliography of War of 1812 literature. 112. Horsman, Reginald. The War of 1812. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969. The post–American Revolution crisis in Anglo-American relations was complicated by the wars of the French Revolution. As the principal commercial neutral, the United States became inextricably involved. As Britain’s efforts were concentrated on fighting Napoleon, American intervention was regarded as a minor irritant. With the collapse of France in 1814, Britain’s naval strength and land forces could contemplate transforming a defensive strategy into an offensive move or victory. With no dramatic change, notions of peace that had been circulating almost from the war’s beginning finally bore fruit. 113. Hunt, Gilbert J. The Historical Reader, Containing The Late War between the United States and Great Britain from June, 1812, to February, 1815. Written in the Ancient Historical Style. Altered and Adapted for the Use of Schools throughout the United States. 3d ed. New York: David Longworth, 1819. Emulates Old Testament historical style. Organized into chapters and verses, e.g., “Even James, whose sir-name was Madison, delivered a written paper [war message] to the Great Sanhedrin of the people, who were assembled together.” 114. Ingersoll, Charles Jared. Historical Sketch of the Second War between the United States of America, and Great Britain, Declared by Act of Congress, the 18th of June, 1812, and Concluded by Peace, the 15th of February, 1815. Embracing the Events of 1812–13. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1845–49. The author served in the U.S. Congress during the war. His account concerns legislative and political developments as well as military. He considers the war as a consequence of Britain’s “uninterrupted series of insufferable wrongs and contumelious defiance.” Continued by his History of the Second War (item 115, below). 115. Ingersoll, Charles Jared. History of the Second War between the United States of America and Great Britain, Declared by Act of Congress, the 18th of June, 1812, and Concluded by Peace, the 15th of February, 1815. Embracing the Events of 1814 and 1815. 2d ser., 2 vols. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1852. Continuation of the author’s Historical Sketch of the Second War … Embracing the Events of 1812–13 (item 114, above). The justness of the war is a continuing theme. Peace was justification of its righteousness. 116. Jacobs, James Ripley, and Tucker, Glenn. The War of 1812: A Compact History. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1969. A general, semipopular account of a war that might have been avoided by intelligent negotiation and weighing of the consequences in advance.

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General Histories  •  37 117. James, William. A Full and Correct Account of the Military Occurrences of the Late War between Great Britain and the United States of America; with an Appendix, and Plates. 2 vols. London: n.p., 1818. The author decries the pantheon of demigods who accomplished romantic feats that come from the pens of American writers of the War of 1812 to satisfy the voracious appetites of idol-seeking American readers. After cautioning his own readers that Americans crudely fought on their home territory using frontier methods and thereby making the contest unequal, the author purports to present a correct account. Both volumes have extensive appendixes of miscellaneous documents. 118. Jenkins, John S. The Generals of the Last War with Great Britain. Auburn, N.Y.: Derby, Miller, 1849. The sketches concern Jacob Brown, Edmund Pendleton Gaines, William Henry Harrison, Andrew Jackson, Alexander Macomb, Zebulon Montgomery Pike, and Winfield Scott. While biographical, the sketches emphasize War of 1812 service. 119. Johnson, Rossiter. A History of the War of 1812–’15 between the United States and Great Britain. Minor Wars of the United States. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1882. The United States cut the Indian-British ties, ended violations of her maritime rights of neutrality, and completely established her independence. England has passed its zenith and the United States is still rising toward its own. The English government, not the people, is the source of difficulty. The author moralizes on the conduct and significance of the war. 120. Kaplan, Lawrence S. “France and the War of 1812.” Journal of American History 57 (June 1970): 36–47. This revisionist investigation demonstrates that France did play a role in American plans in 1812. Only the downfall of Napoleon prevented France from exercising a larger role in the conflict. It also protected the United States from facing a Napoleonic world. Americans were protected from the consequences of British victory in 1814 by the confused state of Europe. 121. Katcher, Philip R.N. The American War, 1812–1814. Men-at-Arms 226. Reading, England: Osprey, 1974. Brief description of the land engagements of the war, the British army, the American army, and the militia. 122. Kennedy, Lionel Henry. An Oration, Delivered in St. Philip’s Church; before the Inhabitants of Charleston, South-Carolina. On Monday the Fifth of July, 1813. (The Fourth Being Sunday,) in Commemoration of American Independence; by Appointment of the South-Carolina State Society of Cincinnati, and Published at the Request of That Society, and Also, of the American Revolution Society. Charleston, S.C.: W. P. Young, 1813. Pamphlet. “War is sometimes a national benefit. It rouses the slumbering energies of the people.” It occurred because Britain had presumed to reject international law and to regulate maritime activity to her benefit. The British threw down the gauntlet and Americans accepted the challenge. 123. Kentucky, Adjutant General. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kentucky. Soldiers of the War of 1812. Frankfort, Ky.: Authority of the Legislature of Kentucky, 1891. Rosters of name, rank, dates of service.

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38  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 124. Kerby, Robert L. “The Militia System and the State Militias in the War of 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 73 (June 1977): 102–24. The militia system used during the War of 1812 failed more because of the incompetence of its leaders than because of the system itself. Later arguments for professsionalization were based on erroneous impressions of the performance of the militia in the war. 125. Kieffer, Chester L. Maligned General: A Biography of Thomas S. Jesup. San Rafael, Calif.: Presidio, 1979. A biography of an important American military figure, who served throughout the War of 1812, including holding regimental command. He played an important role in the 1814 Niagara campaign 126. Kimball, Jeffrey. “The Fog and Friction of Frontier War: The Role of Logistics in American Offensive Failure during the War of 1812.” Old Northwest 5 (Winter 1979–80): 323–43. Logistics is defined as the means of transportation and its administration by which the armed forces were supplied with materiel and subsistence to accomplish their tactical and strategic aims. American troop performance and leadership, from the perspective of logistical fog and friction, lacked the mental strength, force of will, and moral power to dominate in decisive moments and crises. The American offensive had overreached, trying for all of Canada without the means to take permanent hold of any part of it. 127. Langguth, A. J. Union 1812: The Americans Who Fought the Second War of Independence. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. A popular history of the War of 1812 that presents the conflict as a final struggle for American independence that laid the ground for Manifest Destiny and the rise of America as a world power. 128. Larson, Sarah. “The War of 1812 Papers: State Department Records for Genealogy and Local History.” Prologue 13 (Summer 1981): 115–26. Intended as a guide for researchers of varying levels of expertise. Describes the context of the records’ background, why they were created, what they are, how to use them, and related records. 129. [Lathrop, John.] A Compendious Account of the Most Important Battles of the Late War, to Which Is Added, the Curious Adventures of Corporal Samuel Stubbs, (A Kentuckian of 65 Years of Age.) Who, in the Late War, Patriotically Volunteered His Services and Nobly Distinguished [sic] Himself in the Battles of Queenstown—French Town—Little York, Chippewa—New Orleans, Etc. Boston: William Walter, 1817. Pamphlet. Lathrop’s Compendious Account is extracted from his Compendious History (item 130, below). The Stubbs account in the form of a letter, dated January 30, 1815, to a brother, was submitted to Lathrop as an enclosure to a letter from his commanding officer at New Orleans. 130. [Lathrop, John.] A Compendious History of the Late War; Containing an Account of All the Important Battles, and Many of the Smaller Actions between the American, and the British Forces, and Indians, in the Years 1811, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815. Boston: J. W. Burditt, 1815. Pamphlet. A brief descriptive catalog of land and naval engagements of the war, originally intended as an appendix to a post-peace address of the author. 131. Lawson, Don. The War of 1812: America’s Second War for Independence. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1966.

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General Histories  •  39 An account of the war for young people. 132. Lawwill, J. Richard. Program Suggestions for Commemorating the Sesquicentennial of the War of 1812, 1962–1963. Mimeographed. Columbus, Ohio: War of 1812 Governor’s Committee, 1960. Detailed chronology and maps of the northwestern campaign, 1812–1813; and project suggestions for federal, state, county, and local agencies. 133. Lepine, Luc. Lower Canada’s Militia Officers, 1812–1815. Montreal: Société généalogique canadienne-française, 1996. An overview of the 2,760 officers who served in the Lower Canadian militia during the War of 1812; includes essays on the structure of the militia and a list of units formed, followed by biographical entry on each officer. The text is in both English and French. 134. Levin, Alexandra Lee. “An Army Wife’s Letters from Pittsburgh during the War of 1812.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 61 (October 1978): 351–57. Nancy Bedinger Swearingen’s husband, a professional army officer, was assigned quartermaster duty at Pittsburgh. These letters from there, 1813– 1814, and from a new assignment at Chillicothe, Ohio, give an insider’s perspective of wartime duty as well as social life of the officers. 135. Linville, Twila Muriel. “The Public Life of Jonathan Russell.” Ph.D. diss., Kent State University, 1971. Russell served in diplomatic posts in Paris, 1810–1811, and London, 1811– 1812. He was a commissioner to negotiate a peace treaty at Ghent. 136. Lloyd, Alan. The Scorching of Washington: The War of 1812. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles, 1974. A general history of the War of 1812, “an aberration in the natural destiny and relationships” of the British and American nations that had nothing to gain from hostility and everything to gain from cooperation. 137. London Gazette. Bulletins of the Campaign, 1812–1815. 4 vols. London: R. G. Clarke, 1813–16. Returns, dispatches, and other reports of the British armies and navies in the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Reprinted from the London Gazette. 138. Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812; or, Illustrations, by Pen and Pencil, of the History, Biography, Scenery, Relics, and Traditions of the Last War for American Independence. With Several Hundred Engravings on Wood, by Lossing and Barritt, Chiefly from Original Sketches by the Author. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1869. A continuation of the author’s similar work on the American Revolution. A detailed account in text, illustration, and documentation of American history from the close of the revolution to the end of the War of 1812, based upon his travels to related sites and interviews with participants. 139. Lucas, Charles Prestwood. The Canadian War of 1812. Oxford: Clarendon, 1906. A partisan perspective, appealing to Canadian nationalism of the period. The war was the national war of Canada and for its liberty. It accomplished more to reconcile the French and English in the country than anything else could have done. Against American aggression it determined that the United States would not prevail exclusively over the continent.

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40  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 140. Robert Malcomson. Historical Dictionary of the War of 1812. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2006 A massive reference work offering details on campaigns, battles, personalities, weaponry, units, and many other subjects on the War of 1812. It includes several maps and an excellent chronology of the war. 141. Mason, Philip P., ed. After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963. Six papers presented, as the 1961–1962 Quaife-Bayliss Lectures in Detroit and Windsor, Ontario, for the Algonquin Club, by Thomas D. Clark, Reginald Horsman, W. Kaye Lamb, C. P. Stacey, George F. G. Stanley, and William T. Utter. 142. McAfee, Robert Breckinridge. History of the Late War in the Western Country, Comprising a Full Account of All the Transactions in That Quarter, from the Commencement of Hostilities at Tippecanoe, to the Termination of the Contest at New Orleans on the Return of Peace. Lexington, Ky.: Worsley and Smith, 1816. Facsimile reprint ed., Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1966. The author participated in some of the battles. The first thoroughgoing account of the war in the West, principally the Canadian-American theater. 143. McBarron, Hugh Charles, Jr. “American Military Dress in the War of 1812.” Journal of the American Military Institute 3 (Fall 1939): 191–99; 4 (Spring 1940): 55–64; 4 (Fall 1940): 185–96; Military Affairs 5 (Summer 1914): 138–44. Describes the military dress of general and staff officers, regular army infantry, and the regular army’s single riflemen regiment. The army was at no time consistently uniformed. It commenced the war with one variety of dress, went through makeshifts of various sorts, and ended the war with another variety of dress. 144. McCown, Mary Hardin, and Burns, Inez E., comps. Soldiers of the War of 1812 Buried in Tennessee. Names Abstracted from Colonel David Henley’s “Wastebook,” Regular and Militia Personnel for Period 1793–1798 in Southwest Territory (Tennessee). Petition from Overton County, 1813. Henderson and McGhee, Storekeepers, Maryville, Tennessee, Account October 1814 to December 1815. Rev. ed. Johnson City, Tenn.: Overmountain, 1977. Biographical data is included. 145. Melish, John. A Description of Dartmoor Prison, with An Account of the Massacre of the Prisoners; Designed as an Accompaniment to the View of Dartmoor Prison, Drawn by J.J. Taylor, One of the Prisoners. Philadelphia: John Melish, 1815. Also included are an extract from the journal of Charles Andrews (see item 31, above) and miscellaneous remarks and anecdotes. 146. Melish, John. A Military and Topographical Atlas of the United States; Including the British Possessions and Florida: To Which Is Added, A List of the Military Districts, A Register of the Army, and A List of the Navy of the United States. Philadelphia: G. Palmer, 1813. Five principal maps and the subject matter of discussion: the seat of war in North America; the southern section of the United States; the Atlantic Coast; the Detroit area; the Quebec region.

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General Histories  •  41 147. Melish, John. Military Documents: Consisting of A Description of the Seat of War in the Northern Section of the United States and Canada. A Description of the Southern Section of the United States, Florida, and Bahama Islands. Official Documents Relative to the Operations of the British Army in Reducing the Canadas, in 1759–60. List of the Military Districts of the United States. Register of the Army and General Staff. List of the United States’ Navy. Illustrated by Maps of the Straits of Niagara, East End of Lake Ontario, and Montreal. Philadelphia: G. Palmer, 1814. Except for the French and Indian War documents, all herein concern the War of 1812. The inclusion of the 1759–1760 documents was probably to shed light on the area as one of the war theaters in the present war. 148. A Memoir on the Present Military Posture of the Affairs of the United States, and on the Means by Which the Measures of the Government May Be Rendered More Efficient Than They Have Been since the Declaration of War. N.p.: n.p., 1812. Pamphlet. It is necessary by vigorous prosecution to make the war short and decisive; thus far “tardiness and inefficacy” characterize its execution; and every day lost through inefficiency is a gain to the enemy. A detailed analysis of the war effort and specific suggestions as to how it might be rationalized to derive maximum benefit and speedy termination. 149. A Military View of the United States, and Their Vulnerable Points Exposed by a Reference to the Conduct and Opinions of General Washington. London: W. Wilson, 1813. Pamphlet. The analysis is in the form of a letter, signed “Phil. Cong. Am.,” addressed to the editor of Military Panorama. In a postscript, the recent news of the Battle of Lake Erie leads the writer to concede the loss of Upper Canada (Ontario). 150. Milne, David. “Letters Written during the War of 1812 by the British Naval Commander in American Waters (Admiral Sir David Milne).” Edited by Edgar Erskin Hume. William and Mary Quarterly, 2d ser., 10 (October 1930): 279–301. This 1811–1818 correspondence deals with the United States and American affairs: capture of vessels under neutral flags; dependence of Europe on America for supplies; American policies and aims; British practice concerning nationality of seamen; American interest in Spanish colonies; the matter of peace; the burning of Washington, D.C.; the Battle of New Orleans; the future of Canada; and the necessity of good commercial relations with the United States. 151. Muir, Rory. Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807–1815. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996. A good overview of British strategy and strategic priorities from when Napoleon gained supremacy on the European continent through to the War of 1812 and to Napoloeon’s final defeat in 1815. 152. Muster Rolls of the Soldiers of the War of 1812. Raleigh, N.C.: Adjutant General’s Office, 1873. Rosters of officers and soldiers of the detached militia of North Carolina.

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42  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 153. National Songster; or, A Collection of the Most Admired Patriotic Songs, on the Brilliant Victories, Achieved by the Naval and Military Heroes of the United States of America, Over Equal and Superior Forces of the British. From the Best American Authors. Hagerstown, Md.: John Gruber and Daniel May, 1814. Includes the first printing in book form of the national anthem, under the title “Defence of Fort M’Henry. Tune—Anacreon in Heaven. Wrote by an American Gentleman, who was compelled to witness the bombardment of Fort M’Henry, on board of a flag vessel at the mouth of the Patapsco.” 154. Nell, William Cooper. Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812. Boston: Prentiss and Sawyer, 1851. Pamphlet. A state-by-state account of African American involvement, sometimes by name and sometimes by generalization. A specific account tells of Richard (Big Dick) Seavers who was a leader of fellow black prisoners in Dartmoor Prison; and the services of African Americans in the New Orleans campaign are emphasized. 155. Noble, Lucy Seward. “National Society of the United States Daughters of 1812, State of Michigan.” Michigan History Magazine 3 (July 1919): 361–66. A brief history of the Society in Michigan. Lists of officers and explanations of its activities. 156. [O’Connor, Thomas.] An Impartial and Correct History of the War between the United States of America, and Great Britain; Comprising a Particular Detail of the Naval and Military Operations, and a Faithful Record of the Events Produced during the Contest. From Its Commencement, June 18, 1812, to the Treaty of Peace, Ratified at the City of Washington, February 17, 1815. Carefully Compiled from Official Documents. 3d ed., revised and corrected. New York: John Low, 1816. The military talent and the patriotic courage that triumphed in the War of 1812 proved that “no dangers are too difficult to overcome, no difficulties too great to be subdued.” America’s providential destiny, established by the American Revolution, was now reaffirmed. 157. Ohio, Adjutant General. Roster of Ohio Soldiers in the War of 1812. Reprint ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1968. Lists 1,759 officers and 24,521 enlisted men. See also entry for Grace Garner’s Index (item 85, above). 158. Ordway, Frederick Ira, Jr., ed. Register of the General Society of the War of 1812. Washington, D.C.: General Society of the War of 1812, 1972. Biographical data and lineage of members of the society. 159. Palmer, Thomas H., ed. The Historical Register of the United States. 4 vols. Philadelphia: G. Palmer, 1814–16. Covers the entire period of the War of 1812: review of political institutions of the United States; proceedings of the U.S. Congress; state papers laid before Congress; annals of America, essentially a history of the war; official documents. 160. Parkinson, Cyril Northcote, ed. The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793–1815. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1948.

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General Histories  •  43 The dozen essays, variously authored, concern the conditions and circumstances under which wartime trade was conducted, not the events themselves, ranging from seaports and ships to insurance, health problems, seamen, and other related factors. Slavers, postal packets, and geographic areas are considered separately. 161. Perkins, Bradford. “George Joy, American Propagandist at London, 1805– 1815.” New England Quarterly 34 (June 1961): 191–210. Joy, an American in residence in England, was the premier unofficial American propagandist. He published at least three unsigned pamphlets and numerous newspaper articles, gave the opposition legal and statistical information for debates in Parliament, and interviewed cabinet members seeking to convince them that neither Jefferson nor Madison were Jacobins or tools of Napoleon. 162. Perkins, Samuel. A History of the Political and Military Events of the Late War between the United States and Great Britain. New Haven, Conn.: S. Converse, 1825. Examines British and American claims and arguments leading up to the War of 1812, the constitutional questions that continued to be debated throughout the war, congressional involvement in the war, peace negotiations, and the military operations of the war. 163. Peterson, Charles Jacobs. The Military Heroes of the War of 1812: With a Narrative of the War. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Jas. B. Smith, 1858. The author presents sketches of twenty army officers, including biography, war service, and evaluation. His opinions are critical as well as laudatory. 164. Phillips, W. Alison, and Reede, Arthur H. Neutrality: Its History, Economics and Law. Vol. 2, The Napoleonic Period. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936. Neutrality had a well-developed historical background of some two centuries by the beginning of the Napoleonic era. It was not subjected to particularly severe strains especially as the great maritime powers became belligerents. For much of the period the United States was heavily involved, first as a neutral maritime power and then as a belligerent. 165. Pratt, Fletcher. The Heroic Years: Fourteen Years of the Republic, 1801–1815. New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1934. A popular history, starting with the death of John Adams whose important legacies were John Marshall as chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and the U.S. Navy. He is concerned with the demise of the Federalist Party and the coming of the war. The war made the land into a country with its characteristics as a nation now determined. 166. “Prisoners of War from Massachusetts, 1812–15.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 63 (April 1927): 135–44; 63 (July 1927): 217–32; 63 (October 1927): 323–27. Roster of names with physical descriptions and other data compiled from records in the Public Archives of Canada. 167. Quimby, Richard S. The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: An Operational and Command Study. Two volumes. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1997. A chronological overview of U.S. Army operations in the War of 1812.

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44  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 168. Quisenberry, Anderson Chenault. Kentucky in the War of 1812. Frankfort, Ky.: Kentucky State Historical Society, 1915. Much of the volume is virtually a reprint of a series of articles first published in the Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, 1912–1915. Chronicles the role of the state and its soldiers, beginning with the leadership of Henry Clay, speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, in its declaration to dispatch a militia regiment in February 1815 to garrison the fort at Detroit. The latter’s march was ended about half way by news of the peace treaty. Includes rosters of officers and memoirs of Micah Taul, who served in the Northwest theater. 169. Quisenberry, Anderson Chenault. “Kentucky’s Regulars in the War of 1812.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 12 (January 1914): 11–23. A general description of their participation, by infantry and regiment. The 3,500 regulars served from the time of fighting at Detroit and the Thames to Erie and New Orleans. 170. Read, D. B. The Life and Times of Sir Issac Brock. Toronto: William Briggs, 1894. A biography of a key British military figure and victor of Detroit, who was killed in the early stages of the battle of Queenston Heights in 1812. Brock was largely responsible for the defensive preparations of Upper Canada and the preparation of the militia for war. 171. Robinson, Ralph. “Retaliation for the Treatment of Prisoners in the War of 1812.” American Historical Review 49 (October 1943): 65–70. English common law held that naturalization in another country did not alter British citizenship by birth. When British-taken American prisoners of British birth were sent to England to be tried for treason, the United States threatened execution of British prisoners as retaliation. The hostage retaliation escalated on both sides. The matter was not resolved until the peace treaty. 172. Rules and Articles of War; with the Different Acts of Congress on Military Affairs: also, the Late Acts for Raising 20,000, Etc., Etc., Etc. With a List of the General Staff, War Department, and the Several Districts as They Are Numbered. Also, New Rules and Regulations. In Short, Every Thing as It Regards the Officer or Soldier. To Which Is Added, A Complete List of All the Officers in the Army and Navy. With an Index. Burlington, Vt.: Samuel Mills, 1813. One index is to laws; the other is analytical, concerned with subject matter. 173. Russell, John, Jr., comp. The History of the War, between the United States and Great-Britain, Which Commenced in June, 1812, and Closed in Feb. 1815; Containing the Correspondence Which Passed between the Two Governments, Immediately Preceding, and Since Hostilities Commenced; the Declaration of War, and the Official Reports of Land and Naval Engagements. Compiled Chiefly from Public Documents. With an Appendix, Containing the Correspondence Which Passed between Our Commissioners, and Those Appointed by Great Britain, in Treating for Peace. To Which Is Added, the Treaty of Peace, and a List of Vessels Taken from G. Britain during the War. Hartford, Conn.: B. and J. Russell, 1815. 174. The Second Book of Remarkable Events of the Present American War. N.p.: n.p., 1813.

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General Histories  •  45 Pamphlet. Patterned after its predecessor The First Book of Remarkable Events (see item 82, above). The three chapters concern the Canadian-American theater, naval engagements, and domestic politics. 175. Six Poems, on Different Subjects Relative to Events of the Late War. Composed by a Soldier of the U.S. Army. N.p.: n.p., [1815?]. Pamphlet. Concerned with the Battle of Plattsburgh, a farewell to the army, the peace treaty, and the soldier’s wife and children. 176. Sketches of the War, between the United States and the British Isles: Intended as a Faithful History of All the Material Events from the Time of the Declaration in 1812 to and Including the Treaty of Peace in 1815: Interspersed with Geographical Descriptions of Places, and Biographical Notices of Distinguished Military and Naval Commanders. 2 vols. in one. Rutland, Vt.: Fay and Davison, 1815. Matter-of-fact detailed account of the War of 1812 mostly through incorporation of documentary materials. Organized by numbers with chapters as subdivisions. Variously attributed to Gideon Minor Davison and to Samuel Williams. 177. Skeen, C. Edward. John Armstrong, Jr.: A Biography. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1981. A biography of John Armstrong, U.S. ambassador to France, 1804–1810, and secretary of war during the War of 1812. 178. Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic, 1801–1815. New American Nation Series. New York: Harper and Row, 1968. World events beyond the control of the United States proved the futility of Thomas Jefferson’s de-emphasis of the military and of his embargo policy. James Madison lacked the instincts and the talents to give effective wartime leadership, especially when confronted with the Federalist flirtation with disunion and treason. Despite overwhelming odds, bungling, and incompetence, the country came out of the war with its independence confirmed and vindicated. 179. Smith, Michael. A Complete History of the Late American War with GreatBritain and Her Allies, from the Commencement of Hostilities in 1812, Till the Conclusion of Peace with the Algerines in 1815. With Geographical Notes, Relative to the Seat of War and Scene of Battle. And Biographical Sketches of the Principal Actors. To Which Is Added, A Narrative of the Author’s Sufferings in Canada with His Family and Journey to Virginia and Kentucky. Lexington, Ky.: F. Bradford, 1816. The author was resident in Upper Canada at the outbreak of the war, preparing with assent of its government a study on its geography and political life. He returned to the United States in 1813. This volume was designed to be “patriotic in sentiment, . . . and moral in precept, suitable for Seminaries of education.” 180. Soldiers of the War of 1812, New York State. Proceedings of the Convention of the Soldiers of the War of 1812, in the State of New York, Held at Schuylerville, Saratoga Co., Oct. 17, 1856, in Reference to Their Claims for Military Services, and to Celebrate the Anniversary of Burgoyne’s Surrender. Albany, N.Y.: Joel Munsell, 1857.

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46  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. The convention was called because the state legislature had adjourned without action on a bill adjusting their military claims, a bill that had been reported out of committee unanimously. It also considered further organizational details as a veterans’ group. 181. St. Denis, Guy. Tecumseh’s Bones. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005. Documentary collection. An examination of the life and fate of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh and his remains, along with an account of efforts to raise a memorial in his honor. 182. Stanley, George F. G. “The Indians in the War of 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 31 (June 1950): 145–65. Describes how both the British and the Americans sought the cooperation and alliance of the Indians; the British were the more successful by far. 183. The Star Spangled Banner: Being A Collection of the Best Naval, Martial, Patriotic Songs, Etc. Etc. Etc. Chiefly Written during, and in Relation to the Late War. 2d ed. Wilmington, Del.: J. Wilson, 1817. Lyrics. 184. Steppler, Glenn A. “A Duty Troublesome Beyond Measure: Logistical Considerations in the Canadian War of 1812.” M.A. thesis, McGill University, 1974. An important detailed examination of the significance of logistics in the development and execution of British strategy during the War of 1812. This thesis examines myriad subjects, such as local produce production, the logistical system, the role of the commissariat and much more. 185. Stories of the War of 1812, and the Mexican War. With Numerous Engravings. Philadelphia: Leary and Getz, 1859. Seventeen two-page sketches, and a single one-page sketch, of land and sea battles. Written for young people. 186. Stott, Glenn. Greater Evils: The War of 1812 in Southwestern Ontario. Arkona, Ontario: G. Stott, 2001. A study of the fighting in southwestern Upper Canada during the entire war, based largely on primary source materials. 187. Stuart, James. Refutation of Aspersions on “Stuart’s Three Years in North America.” London: Printed for Whittaker and Company and Robert Cadell, 1834. Pamphlet. The author’s Three Years in North America, 3d ed., rev. in 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Printed for Robert Cadell and Whittaker and Company, 1833) was a narrative of his travels, 1828–1830. His accounts of the British army in the War of 1812, especially in Washington, D.C., and New Orleans, evoked critical letters to the Courant from Norman Pringle, a key officer at Washington and intimately acquainted with the New Orleans campaign. 188. Suthern, Victor. The War of 1812. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1999. An overview of the war designed to accompany a popular TV miniseries in Ontario. Well illustrated, and comes with a CD-ROM with further information. 189. Sweeney, Lenora Higginbotham (Mrs. William Montgomery), contrib. “Orderly Book Virginia Militia: War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 46 (July 1938): 246–53; 46 (October 1938): 329–38.

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General Histories  •  47 Orders, rosters, letters of various militia and regular army companies. The contributor’s name is sometimes recorded as Sweeny. 190. Thomas, R. The Glory of America; Comprising Memoirs of the Lives and Glorious Exploits of Some of the Distinguished Officers Engaged in the Late War with Great Britain. New York: Ezra Strong, 1836. Except for the sketches of Andrew Jackson (137 pages) and Richard M. Johnson (46 pages), the many others are brief. The inclusion goes beyond War of 1812 officers. 191. Thompson, David. History of the Late War, between Great Britain and the United States of America: With a Retrospective View of the Causes from Whence It Originated; Collected from the Most Authentic Sources. To Which Is Added an Appendix, Containing Public Documents Etc., Relating to the Subject. Niagara, Upper Canada: T. Sewell, 1832. Facsimile reprint ed., New York: Johnson Reprint, 1966. Other than the assertion that the United States entered the War of 1812 to paralyze the British Empire so that Napoleon would have free rein, the author is generally reasonably objective in his narration of the war, from causes to peace. The text is heavily interlarded with documentary excerpts. 192. Thomson, John Lewis. Historical Sketches of the Late War, between the United States and Great Britain; Blended with Anecdotes Illustrative of the Individual Bravery of the American Sailors, Soldiers, and Citizens, Embellished with Portraits of Distinguished Naval and Military Officers and Accompanied by Views of Several Sieges and Engagements. 4th ed., enlarged and improved. Philadelphia: Thomas Desilner, 1817. A matter-of-fact account of the War of 1812 from an American point of view. 193. Tompkins, Daniel D. Public Papers of Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor of New York, 1807–1817. Military. 3 vols. New York and Albany: State of New York, 1898–1902. The Hastings introduction is biographical, with emphasis on the War of 1812 era. The papers are divided, by volume contents, into the 1800–1812 period, the defense of New York City, and the war years. The wide-ranging subject matter concerns relations with the federal government, the state and the New England protest movement, the state’s military involvement in the war, the Indian question, and other related matters. 194. Torrence, Clayton, ed. “War’s Wild Alarm.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 49 (July 1941): 217–33. A Richmond, Virginia, woman’s reaction to the 1813 scare caused by rumors that the British were supposedly coming; an 1814 reaction of a Baltimore man to the British approach to that city; and an account of the Richmond, Virginia, Washington Volunteers enlistment and service on the 1813 Canadian frontier, with rosters. 195. Tracy, Henry D. [Patriotic Poetry of War of 1812.] N.p.: n.p., 1814. A scrapbook, principally of War of 1812 poetry, cut from a variety of newspapers. Some illustrations and other items are included. 196. Tucker, Glenn. Poltroons and Patriots: A Popular Account of the War of 1812. 2 vols. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1954.

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48  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The author has based his account primarily on newspaper and magazine materials. Neither Britain nor the United States wanted war; they drifted into it. It does have, nevertheless, significance to the young American nation searching for its place in the family of nations. The prominent poltroons are some generals and cabinet officers; the prominent patriots are Henry Clay, James Madison, and James Monroe. 197. Umphraville, Angus. The Siege of Baltimore, and the Battle of La Tranche; with Other Original Poems. Baltimore: Schaeffer and Maund, 1817. The title poems, the ones concerned with the War of 1812, take up the major part of the volume. “The Siege of Baltimore” is a rambling account ending with a tale of two lovers separated by the event. “The Battle of La Tranche” is the author’s poetical narration of the Battle of the Thames. 198. The War. Being a Faithful Record of the Transactions of the War between the United States of America and Their Territories and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Their Dependencies Thereof. Declared on the Eighteenth Day of June, 1812. 3 vols. New York: S. Woodworth, 1813–15. Compenium from a weekly periodical numbering 119 issues. Dispatches, letters, and a vast miscellany of source materials. The only source for some valuable correspondence on military matters. 199. “War of 1812. Tenders of Service and Acceptances.” Maryland Historical Magazine 5 (September 1910): 249–52. Six letters, dated 1812, between the governor and volunteers, concerning commissions and enlistments. 200. Waters, Thomas Franklin. “An Episode of the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 48 (June 1915): 496–504. Controversy surrounded the cause and effect treatment of British prisoners held in the jails of Massachusetts in retaliation to the treatment of American prisoners by the British. 201. Watkins, Walter Kendall. The Defence of Boston in the War of 1812–15. Prepared for the Bostonian Society and United States Daughters of the War of 1812, with an Appendix Containing a Bibliography of the War, and a List of the Officers of the Massachusetts Militia Engaged in the Defence. N.p.: n.p., 1899. Boston was defended by forts, federal and state forces. Opposition to the war gave way to alarm as danger to the city, state, and New England became more evident. 202. White, Patrick Cecil Telfer, ed. The Critical Years: American Foreign Policy, 1793–1823. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1970. Most of the sixteen essays included here concern the War of 1812. They are excerpted from monographs and journal articles by Roger Brown, A. L. Burt, Reginald Horsman, Bradford Perkins, Julius W. Pratt, Norman K. Risjord, Raymond Walters Jr., and Patrick C. T. White 203. White, Patrick Cecil Telfer. A Nation on Trial: America and the War of 1812. America in Crisis Series. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1965. Interpretive rather than factual. The war was of little significance to the British. The Americans, however, had maintained their republican institutions, preserved their honor, and renewed a sense of national identity. The war failed to resolve the issues that led to the conflict.

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General Histories  •  49 204. Wilson, Thomas. The Biography of the Principal American Military and Naval Heroes; Comprehending Details of Their Achievements during the Revolutionary and Late Wars. Interspersed with Authentic Anecdotes Not Found in Any Other Work. Embellished with Portraits. 2 vols. New York: John Low, 1817–19. Volume 2 is concerned with the War of 1812. Twenty-seven sketches. 205. [Winchester, James.] Historical Details, Having Relation to the Campaign of the North-Western Army, Under Generals Harrison and Winchester, During the Winter of 1812–13. Together with Some Particulars Relating to the Surrender of Fort Bowyer, Etc. Lexington, Ky.: Worsley and Smith, 1818. The author’s reply to allegations made by McAfee against his conduct at the River Raisin. See Robert B. McAfee, History of the Late War in the Western Country (item 142). Winchester’s book is a reprint of ten articles he wrote for the National Intelligencer, 1817–1818, with additional affidavits, reports, and letters from his friends. Fort Bowyer was situated on the Gulf Coast near Mobile, Alabama. Winchester defends the surrender as necessary in light of the overwhelming odds of the British. 206. Wise, S. F. “The War of 1812 in Popular History.” In War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur R. Bolwer, 105–20. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. A discussion of how the War of 1812 is popularly viewed in the United States and Canada. 207. Wood, William Charles Henry. The War with the United States: A Chronicle of 1812. Chronicles of Canada 14. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964. An elementary account of the Canadian-American theater in the War of 1812. 208. Woodworth, Samuel. The Champions of Freedom, or The Mysterious Chief, A Romance of the Nineteenth Century, Founded on the Events of the War, between the United States and Great Britain, Which Terminated in March, 1815. 2 vols. New York: Charles N. Baldwin, 1816. A romance in the context of the War of 1812 in which the Mysterious Chief is finally revealed as the “Spirit of Washington.” 209. Wright, F. Edward. Maryland Militia: War of 1812. Silver Springs, Md.: Family Line, 1979–. A continuing series, arranged by county. Contains much more than standard biographical data when more is available. 210. Wright, Nathaniel Hill. Monody, on the Death of Brigadier General Zebulon Montgomery Pike: and Other Poems. Middlebury, Vt.: Slade and Ferguson, 1814. Pike was killed in the assault on York (Toronto), 1813. Five of the other poems are also concerned with War of 1812 topics.

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Chapter

3

The Coming of the War

A. General Studies 211. An Address to the Fair Daughters of the United States, Calling on Them for Their Advice and Interest in the Present Important Crisis. New-York, September 17th. New York: Southwick and Pelsue, 1811. Pamphlet. The introduction is signed “ ’76.” Its purpose is to enlist female support for immediate fortification of American cities and harbors to place the country in “a proper state of defence against all the world.” 212. Blue, Charles S. “John Henry the Spy.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 47 (May 1916): 3–10. John Henry was sent to New England to determine public opinion about the possibilities of an Anglo-American war. He sent a series of letters back to Canada. Failing to get a reward for his services, he betrayed his mission to president James Madison, who used the information to inflame American public sentiment that culminated in the War of 1812. 213. Bradley, Micah. An Oration, Pronounced July 5th, 1813, at the Request of the Republicans of the Town of Portsmouth, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence. Portsmouth, N.H.: W. Weeks, [1813]. Pamphlet. The War of 1812 is in response to repeated wrongs and to defend the independence that was earlier achieved at so much cost in blood and treasure. 214. Brant, Irving. James Madison: The President, 1809–1812. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956. Volume 5 of Brant’s six-volume biography, following his career from inauguration through the declaration of war. Even though Madison hoped for repeal of the Orders in Council following the Erskine Agreement, he moved consistently and steadily towards war, the only alternative. Regards Madison as being fully in charge of events as war came.

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52  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 215. Brown, Roger Hamilton. “A Vermont Republican Urges War: Royall Tyler, 1812, and the Safety of Republican Government.” Vermont History 36 (Winter 1968): 13–18. Tyler was converted to Jeffersonian republicanism and played a prominent role in the political life of Vermont. In a letter from May 13, 1812, he supported the argument that a retreat from war would imperil the country. He was alarmed at the vulnerability of the United States to press criticism, merchant selfishness, and obstructionism by state government. 216. Carr, Albert Z. The Coming of the War: An Account of the Remarkable Events Leading to the War of 1812. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1960. A popular account that traces developments from the Anglo-American diplomatic efforts of 1782 onward as essential to an understanding of the coming of the War of 1812. It could have come earlier in the crises of 1794, 1797, and 1808. War came in a period when hostile attitudes began to ease and when diplomacy grew rigid, careless, and uncreative. The United States was gradually drawn into the vortex of a European struggle for world domination. 217. Church, John Hubbard. Advantages of Moderation. A Sermon, Delivered at Pelham, N.H. August 20, 1812; a Day of National Humiliation, Recommended by the President, at the Request of the Two Houses of Congress, after Having Declared War against Great Britain. Haverhill, Mass.: W. B. and H. G. Allen, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Philippians 4:5. A climate of pervasive moderation is called for as the nation enters the war. It will dispel bitterness, wrath, and malice. It will promote a spirit of candid and free inquiry and enable the adoption and pursuit of the best measures to ensure dearly bought rights and privileges. 218. Clinton, DeWitt. Speech of the Hon. DeWitt Clinton, in the Senate of the State of New-York, on Tuesday, January 31, 1809, Introductory to Certain Resolutions, Which Met the Approbation of Both Houses. New York: Henry C. Southwick, 1809. Pamphlet. Resolutions of confidence in the national administration and its efforts against violation of American rights by England and France; of the necessity of state support for the Union to counter faction and sedition; and of pledge of New York’s congressional delegation to measures of defense against threats to the peace of the country. 219. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Correspondence of Lieut. Governor John Graves Simcoe. 5 vols. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1923–30. A massive collection of correspondence regarding the establishment and early years of Upper Canada. Includes considerable detail on frontier problems, native relations, the garrison, and plans for defending Upper Canada. 220. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Political Adventures of John Henry: The Record of an International Imbroglio. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1936. Irish-born adventurer John Henry settled to a legal career in New England and became an active Federalist. About 1806 he moved to Montreal and ingratiated himself with prominent persons. He was sent as a secret agent to assess pro-British sentiment in New England and to negotiate with the Federalist Party. Disappointed in his reward, he sold his papers to the American government. Their publication was a factor in the outbreak of the War of 1812. He migrated to France and had other adventures.

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The Coming of the War  •  53 221. Egan, Clifford L. “The Origins of the War of 1812: Three Decades of Historical Writing.” Military Affairs 38 (April 1974): 72–75. Picks up the historiography of the causes of the War of 1812 where Warren H. Goodman (item 227, below) ends. Considers major and minor issues that historians have attributed to causality of the war. Suggests research opportunities. 222. Facts Relative to John Henry and His Negociation. N.p.: n.p., [1812?]. Pamphlet. John Henry appeared in the United States from England in late 1811, conferred with the governor of Massachusetts and high officials in Washington. Whatever his mission, including giving his correspondence to high officials in Canada, he received compensation from the federal government. Buying property in France, he left the country; destination unknown. Several documents dated 1812. 223. Fisher, Josephine. “Francis James Jackson and Newspaper Propaganda in the United States, 1809–1810.” Maryland Historical Magazine 30 (June 1935): 93–113. Jackson served as British ambassador to the United States, 1809–1810. He spent seven hundred pounds for newspaper propaganda to counteract the plans and the activities of the anti-British party, principally by paying sympathetic letter writers. 224. Foster, Augustus John. Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–6–7 and 11–12. Edited and with an introduction by Richard Beale Davis. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1954. Foster was British secretary of legation at Washington, 1805–1807, and minister to the United States, 1811–1812. Sometimes discredited as a major factor in precipitating the War of 1812, he sought to exonerate himself with this account as well as to describe the United States in the years of the coming of the war from his particular perspective. 225. Further and Still More Important Suppressed Documents. Flatbush, N.Y.: n.p., 1809. Excerpts from correspondence, 1807–1808, between James Madison and John Armstrong, allegedly kept secret, which tend to show the necessity of war against France. Excerpts from correspondence between Madison and William Pinkney which purportedly favored England. 226. Goldin, Gurston D. H. “Causation of the War of 1812.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 48 (April 1950): 107–20. A historiographic analysis of various interpretations, especially that advanced by Julius W. Pratt. The author cannot support Pratt. 227. Goodman, Warren H. “The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 28 (September 1941): 171–86. Summarizes the earlier literature on the causes of the war. In the nineteenth century it was generally accepted that the war was a consequence of protection of national honor and neutral maritime rights. Critical scholarship then added nonmaritime factors. Later, nonmaritime rights pushed the other causal reasons into the background. Calls for reexamination of the sources and a synthesis of factors. 228. Hickey, Donald R. “Federalist Defense Policy in the Age of Jefferson, 1801– 1812.” Military Affairs 45 (April 1981): 63–70.

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54  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A revisionist view that the Federalists did not become naysayers without policies for meeting the challenges of the Napoleonic Wars after their fall from power in 1801. Evidence indicates they continued their previous positive policies for defending the United States, for protecting its commerce, and for seeing it safely through the wars. 229. Holmes, Abiel. An Address, Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society at Cambridge, 5 July 1813. Cambridge, Mass.: Hilliard and Metcalf, 1813. Pamphlet. Each person should carefully consider the war in light of the precepts and example of George Washington. If you conclude that the war is just and necessary, give it your voluntary support with patriotism. If you conclude it is unnecessary and unjust, use all constitutional means available to end it. 230. Horsman, Reginald. “The Causes of the War of 1812.” Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1958. “Western expansionist” factors have received too much emphasis in the study of the origins of the war. The United States entered the War of 1812 primarily in response to the maritime policies of the English. British policy, in turn, had been dictated essentially from the necessity of waging total war against Napoleon. 231. Kaplan, Lawrence, S. “France and Madison’s Decision for War, 1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 50 (March 1964): 652–71. A better case can be made for an Anglo-Federalist alliance than for a Franco-Republican alliance in 1812. In the view of the Madison administration, Napoleonic France was a hostile and alien force. This did not preclude Madison from viewing France’s military power as a useful instrument of American foreign policy. 232. Langdon, Chauncy. An Oration, Delivered in Castleton at the Celebration of the Fourth of July, A.D. 1812. Middlebury, Vt.: T. C. Strong, 1812. Pamphlet. It is strange that the noncommerce states decided to involve the country in a war over commercial rights and that war on land is necessary to defend American rights at sea. 233. Lewis, Gene D. “A Note on the Sesquicentennial of the War of 1812.” Bulletin of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 19 (July 1961): 218–21. A brief survey of the changing interpretations of the origins of the war. 234. Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. Historical Documents. Contents, All Relating to the War of 1812. Ser. 5. Quebec: Morning Chronicle Office, 1877. Canadian, British, and American documents, wide ranging in subject matter, generally related to the coming of the War of 1812. 235. [MacCormack, Samuel.] A View of the State of Parties in the United States of America; Being an Attempt to Account for the Present Ascendancy of the French, or Democratic Party, in that Country; in Two Letters to a Friend. By a Gentleman Who Has Recently Visited the United States. Edinburgh, Scotland: James Ballantyne, 1812. The first letter explains American hostility to Britain. The second explains constitutional “peculiarities” that have aided and increased the hostility. The first is undated, the second dated February 5, 1812. 236. Macleod, Julia H. “Jefferson and the Navy: A Defense.” Huntington Library Quarterly 8 (February 1945): 153–84.

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The Coming of the War  •  55 The disparagement of Thomas Jefferson with regard to the development of the American navy is not justified. He was not an impractical pacifist. He had a positive concept of the role of the navy as an effective force in the balance of power. He opposed unnecessary and untimely construction, but he was often too far ahead of the times in trying to introduce new types of vessels and weapons. 237. Manby, Richard. “A Descriptive and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia and Its Dependencies.” Edited by D. A. Muise. Acadiensis 2 (Autumn 1972): 82–93. Richard Manby was Commissary General for British troops in the Maritime Provinces, 1811–1814. This report (1812), assesses the defense capacity of the area in the event of war. 238. Morison, Samuel Eliot. “The Henry-Crillon Affair of 1812.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 69 (October 1947–May 1950): 207–31. Irish-born John Henry (alias John Adrien Henry, alias John St. Adrien), with service in the U.S. Army and business experience in Canada, engaged in espionage activities in New England for the British and later confessed all to the American government. Self-styled Comte Edouard de Crillon was an international impostor with high connections. The plot involved politics and war sentiment of the French, English, and American peoples and governments. The contents of the documents were provocative but not substantive. 239. Nichols, Benjamin R. An Oration, Delivered on the Fifth of July, 1813, in the North Church in Salem, in Commemoration of American Independence. Salem, Mass.: Joshua Cushing, 1813. Pamphlet. The fundamental difference between the American Revolution and the War of 1812 is that in the former, the professed object for which the people fought was the real one. The federal government seems determined to drive New England, particularly Massachusetts, to a state of desperation. 240. Perkins, Bradford. The First Rappoachment: England and the United States, 1795–1805. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967. An examination of the relatively satisfactory state of Anglo-American relations and the reasons for that. 241. Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to War: 1805–1812. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963. A lively discussion of the final years leading to the outbreak of a war that neither side really wanted. 242. Perkins, Bradford, ed. The Causes of the War of 1812: National Honor or National Interest? American Problem Studies Series. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962. Essays by Henry Adams, Irving Brant, A. L. Burt, George Dangerfield, Louis M. Hacker, Herbert Heaton, Reginald Horsman, Margaret K. Latimer, Bradford Perkins, Julius W. Pratt, Norman K. Risjord, George R. Taylor, and Leonard D. White. 243. Preston, Richard, ed. Kingston Before the War of 1812. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1959. A collection of documents delaing with political, economic, and military aspects of Kingston, Upper Canada, prior to the outbreak of the War of 1812. Provides a good overview of what would become an important military center during the war.

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56  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 244. Sapio, Victor A. “Expansion and Economic Depression as Factors in Pennsylvania’s Support of the War of 1812: An Application of the Pratt and Taylor Theses to the Keystone State.” Pennsylvania History 35 (October 1968): 379–405. As Jeffersonian economic coercion proved ineffective, many Pennsylvanians concluded British depredations were an intolerable insult to America’s national honor and a threat to the international image of her republican institutions. The state’s Republican congressmen felt pressure for party loyalty, and they acted accordingly. 245. Sapio, Victor A. Pennsylvania and the War of 1812. Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1970. A revision of the author’s doctoral dissertation. Pennsylvania was prosperous rather than depressed. It had plentiful land for expansion. The possibility of an Indian war dampened the prowar sentiment. The desire to maintain the solidarity of the Republican Party and to preserve the national honor motivated the sentiment in favor of war. 246. Senter, Nathaniel G. M. A Vindication of the Character of Nathaniel G.M. Senter against the Charge of Being a Spy and a Traitor, with a Statement of His Connexion with the British Government, from the Year 1802 until 1805, and His Obtaining a Captaincy in the Service of the United States. Together with a Variety of Anecdotes Respecting Several Officers of the Government and Army. Written by Himself. Hallowell, Maine: Ezekiel Goodale, 1815. Pamphlet. Senter, an American, served as an officer in the British army, 1802–1805. On sick leave from duty in India he stopped to visit family in America en route to England for recuperation. He resigned the commission to stay in America but the commission was not sold until 1810. Traveling about the country collecting data for a book, he was charged with being a British spy. 247. Smith, Robert. Robert Smith’s Address to the People of the United States. Baltimore: n.p., 1811. Pamphlet. Explains, in an effort to vindicate himself, why he resigned as Secretary of State. Denies that disagreement over non-intercourse and other legislation and a desire to appoint James Monroe to the position played a role in straining relations between him and the president. The president’s offer to post him as ambassador to Russia disproves such charges. Includes documentary support. 248. Taylor, George Rogers, ed. The War of 1812: Past Justifications and Present Interpretations. Problems in American Civilization. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1963. Contains congressional documents related to the coming of the war; President Madison’s war message; and essays by A. L. Burt, Margaret Kinard Latimer, Julius W. Pratt, Norman K. Risjord, and George Rogers Taylor. 249. A Virginian. History of the War of 1812: Its Causes; Its Progress, and Conclusion. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Pamphlet. Labeled as book 1, chapter 1; this may be all that was published of the projected work. Concerns causes of the war and the Battle of Tippecanoe. 250. Warwick, Charles. “Our Last War with England.” American Historical Register and Monthly Gazette of the Patriotic-Hereditary Societies of the United States of America 2 (August 1895): 1469–73.

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The Coming of the War  •  57 The War of 1812 was the second war for American independence. American participation in the war served notice on the world that the country was ready and able to fight whenever American rights were transgressed.

B. Decrees; Orders in Council; Embargoes; Impressment 251. Abercrombie, James. Two Sermons: The First, Preached on Thursday, July 30; the Second, Preached on Thursday, August 20; 1812: Being Days of Fasting, Humiliation, and Prayer, Appointed by Public Authority. Philadelphia: Moses Thomas, 1812. Pamphlet. The sermons were prepared for Pennsylvania and national fast days. The war, just declared by a “blundering and feeble” administration is destructive and unnecessary. The real threat to the world, rather, is to be found in Napoleon Bonaparte. 252. Adams, John. The Correspondence of John Adams, Esquire, Late President of the United States of America; Concerning the British Doctrine of Impressment; and Many Interesting Things Which Occurred during His Administration: Originally Published in the Boston Patriot. Baltimore: H. Niles, 1809. Pamphlet. Impressment and relations with France are the main concerns of his nineteen lengthy letters. Adams endeavors to vindicate his character and presidential performance in such matters from charges made by the Hamiltonian Federalists. Alexander Hamilton’s “rule of right and wrong, of wisdom and error, was his own ambition and indelicate pleasures. I [Adams] despise his censure.” 253. Adams, John. The Inadmissible Principles, of the King of England’s Proclamation, of October 16, 1807—Considered. (Originally Published in the Boston Patriot.) Boston: Everett and Munroe, 1809. Pamphlet. Upon the beginning of war, the king can invite his subjects abroad to return home. The subjects are not bound to do so, but considerable numbers have done so in the past. The proclamation in question departed from this. Based on the idea that a nation can require the services of its subjects in times of war, the proclamation commanded their return, even by impressment. Neither naturalization nor anything else could alter the citizenship status and obligation. 254. Answer to a Federal Pamphlet, Entitled, “The Diplomatic Policy of Mr. Madison Unveiled.” N.p.: n.p., [1810?]. Pamphlet. Asserts that John Lowell’s Interesting Political Discussion. The Diplomatick Policy (item 287, below) was a deliberate Federalist misrepresentation of the facts so as to degrade the administration. A rebuttal. 255. Baring, Alexander. An Inquiry into the Causes and Consequences of the Orders in Council; and an Examination of the Conduct of Great Britain towards the Neutral Commerce of America. London: J. M. Richardson, 1808. Critical of the government’s program. Rather than stating in plain language the necessity of taking action affecting American neutrality, Britain offered only “flimsy pretences” to which America, with justification, objected. Now the Orders in Council are too extreme and may result in a war that the British government wants to avoid as well as the destruction of the only remaining neutral commerce.

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58  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 256. Brant, Irving. “Madison and the War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 74 (January 1966): 51–67. Madison was not a reluctant militarist who was pushed into the war. As early as 1809 he had assured France he would go to war against the British if France would withdraw its provocations on American shipping. 257. Bronson, Enos. An Inquiry into the Origin, Nature, and Object of the British Order in Council, of May 16, 1806. First Published in the United States’ Gazette, June 20, 1811. Philadelphia: Office of the United States’ Gazette, 1811. Pamphlet. For years it seemed the American government discovered or invented apologies for France’s decrees affecting neutral rights and found reasons for blaming Great Britain. Napoleon’s Berlin Decree was excused because of Britain’s 1806 Order in Council. However, the British cabinet intended that the 1806 order favor American commerce. 258. Brown, John. The Mysteries of Neutralization; or, The British Navy Vindicated from the Charge of Injustice and Oppression towards Neutral Flags. By John Brown of Great Yarmouth. London: Printed for the Author, 1806. Accuses unfriendly powers of “the prostitution of neutral flags.” This precipitated reiterated and aggravated charges against England for being “the tyrant of the seas, and the oppressor of neutral commerce.” Basing his work upon some one hundred documents from admiralty courts, the author submits refutation of the charges against the Royal Navy. 259. Bryant, William Cullen. The Embargo. Facsimile Reproductions of the Editions of 1808 and 1809. Introduction and notes by Thomas O. Mabbott. Gainesville, Fla.: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1955. A satirical poem attacking the Jefferson embargo. Composed and published by the poet at age thirteen. Bryant followed in the Federalist tradition of his family and community. 260. [Burges, James Bland.] Observations on the American Intercourse Bill; and on the Necessity of Adhering Strictly to the Navigation Laws of Great Britain, in Order to Protect the Shipping, Landed, and Manufacturing Interests of the United Kingdom, from the Ruinous Consequences Which Will Result from Any Further Concessions to Neutral Nations. In a Letter Addressed to Lord Holland. London: Messrs. Richardsons, 1806. Pamphlet. The author is concerned that Parliament may respond in haste to the American law and thus cause additional harm to British maritime and manufacturing interests. 261. Casey, Richard P. “North Country Nemesis: The Potash Rebellion and the Embargo of 1807–1809.” New-York Historical Society Quarterly 64 (January 1980): 30–49. The Embargo Act of 1807 was a sound economic weapon that could have inflicted serious economic damage on the British and their American colonies if it had been continued long enough. Its weakness was rooted in the inability to enforce it effectively. The Potash Rebellion in upstate New York was an important test case. Failure to suppress it and the continued flow of potash to Canada and hence Britain contributed significantly to the failure of the embargo. 262. “The Causes of the War of 1812.” Canadian Defence Quarterly 10 (April 1933): 314–22; 10 (July 1933): 455–64.

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The Coming of the War  •  59 The only attribution given the article is that it was a lecture at the Royal Naval War College, Greenwich, England. Principally a narrative British-eye account. The Americans were in a twenty-two-year struggle for commercial independence. The acquisition of Louisiana prompted dreams of American empire embracing all of North America. Impressment was understood by the Americans; they resented the overbearing manner in which it was carried out. The Erskine Agreement was a turning point for the Americans. 263. Cheetham, James. Peace or War? or Thoughts on Our Affairs with England. New York: Matthias Ward, 1807. Pamphlet. Britain was abusing American neutral rights against seizure of non-contraband and impressment. It is right to involve the country over such matters but not expedient. Loss of freedom is a greater calamity to a nation than war. If Congress, after weighing all considerations, decides on war to vindicate American rights, “the decision will be cheerfully, unanimously, and nobly supported.” 264. A Citizen of Otsego County. “Union the Bond of Peace.” The Origin and Progress of the Present Difficulties between the United States and Great Britain, and France Considered. Together with some Reflections Arising out of the Subject. By a Citizen of Otsego County. Utica, N.Y.: “Printed for the Purchaser,” 1809. Pamphlet. When Napoleon drove British armies off the Continent, Britain had exhausted ordinary means of war to conquer France. Britain “devised the new and cruel mode of starvation.” Orders in Council, Napoleonic decrees, and American neutral-rights protestations and embargo legislation soon resulted. The duration for peace for the United States is uncertain. Internal discord and bickering are destructive. If Americans firmly and unitedly support their government, they can ride out the storm of dangers that beset the country. 265. Common Honesty [pseud.]. Rights of Nations. Being, A Summary Investigation of the Present Dispute between the United States and Great-Britain. By Common Honesty. Philadelphia: Dickinson, 1808. Pamphlet. The British were wrong in provoking the Chesapeake-Leopard affair. A person who swears allegiance to another government forfeits his previous citizenship. In this and other matters the British are as tenacious of precedent as the Americans are of principle, and the Americans unquestionably have the better side of the proposition. 266. Dangerfield, George. “If Only Mr. Madison Had Waited.” American Heritage 7 (April 1956): 8–11, 92–94. In the Franco-American diplomatic prelude to the War of 1812, President James Madison was forced into a premature commitment by Napoleon. The president was trying to avoid American involvement in the war by making Napoleon an accomplice to his maneuvers. 267. Daniels, G. W. “American Cotton Trade with Liverpool under the Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts.” American Historical Review 21 (January 1916): 276–87.

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60  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Commission agents in Charleston, Savannah, and Liverpool, 1807–1812, served as intelligence sources for buyers and sellers of cotton and staples. They reported information about imports, prices, and sales. Measures the impact of Embargo and Non-Intercourse trade restrictions on price trends and volume of imports. 268. Duane, William John. The Law of Nations, Investigated in a Popular Manner. Addressed to the Farmers of the United States. Philadelphia: William Duane, 1809. Duane, a journalist, examines in eighteen letters the rules and practice of international law, particularly as measured against the neutral status of the United States by the conduct of England and France. 269. Dunn, Lucius C. “A Chapter from Genesis of the War of 1812.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 65 (November 1939): 1574–86. Regards impressment as the principal cause of the war. Considers it an issue coming into focus with the efforts of American naval officer Silas Talbot when he negotiated with British naval officer Hyde Parker, 1797–1799, to secure the release of impressed Americans. 270. Forbes, John D. “Boston Smuggling, 1807–1815.” American Neptune 10 (April 1950): 144–54. The smuggling traffic was far beyond the powers of the national government to restrain. Smuggling substantially mitigated the impact of the Napoleonic and War of 1812 obstacles to legitimate commerce upon the economy of New England. 271. Gaines, Edwin M. “The ‘Chesapeake’ Affair: Virginians Mobilize to Defend National Honor.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 64 (April 1956): 130–42. The June 1807 Chesapeake-Leopard affair incensed and united the country. Virginia rapidly reached “a zenith of fury.” Rumors of invasion fueled rioting and near panic. The militia was mounted to keep order, the state’s defenses were strengthened, and close cooperation and understanding with federal authorities were maintained. 272. Gardinier, Barent. Mr. Gardinier’s Speech in the House of Representatives of the United States, on Foreign Relations, While under the Consideration of Mr. Campbell’s Resolutions, December 1808. [Boston]: Russell and Cutler, 1808. The two resolutions, in the ongoing debate after the Embargo Act and before the Non-Intercourse Act, designed to protest against France, will have the opposite effect. They play into the hands of France and will increase British enmity. 273. Gillet, Eliphalet. A Discourse Delivered in the Forenoon at Hallowell, and in the Afternoon at Augusta, on the Day of the National Fast, August 20, 1812. Augusta, Maine: E. Goodale, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Job 32:10. Each blow that Britain and the United States strike weakens them both and only serves to strengthen the common enemy. England’s defeat would mean America’s ruin. England faces France as well. 274. [Graves, Samuel Colleton.] A Letter to the Right Hon. George Canning, M.P. on the Origin and Continuance of the War with America. By Ulysses. London: A. Redford, 1814. Britain was not without fault in the coming and conduct of the War of 1812.

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The Coming of the War  •  61 275. Haines, Charles G. An Oration, Delivered before the Republican Citizens of Gilmanton and the Adjacent Towns, on the Fourth of July, 1812. Concord, N.H.: I. and W. R. Hill, 1812. Pamphlet. England is as much at fault as France for the war that has engulfed Europe and now involves the United States. To say that war against England means alliance with France is “a species of logic that common reason does not readily fathom.” The United States will prosecute “a successful war” defending its national existence. 276. [Hare, Robert.] A Brief View of the Policy and Resources of the United States; Comprising Some Strictures on a Letter on the Genius and Dispositions of the French Government. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1810. The United States is humiliated by the policies and practices of England and France. There is a wide gap between the policies and performance of the party in power and the opposition is impotent to implement its policies. With all other nations as its natural foes, America’s true policy is to direct all its energies to the creation of a navy adequate to elevate her above the evils of vassalage and the fear of tyranny. 277. Harrington, Virginia D. “New York and the Embargo of 1807.” Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association 8 (April 1926): 143–51. The embargo helped manufacturing, hurt agriculture and commerce, and was a godsend to the Federalists in New York. 278. Heath, Phoebe Anne. Napoleon I and the Origins of the Anglo-American War of 1812. Toulouse, France: Edouard Privat/Paris: Henri Didier, 1929. Concerned with the origins of American foreign policy from the French perspective. Napoleon’s own claim that his measures forced the United States to fight England is too absolute. Closer to the truth, his maritime policy and measures furnished the ultimate pretext for Americans to declare war. 279. Heaton, Herbert. “Non-Importation, 1806–1812.” Journal of Economic History 1 (November 1941): 178–98. Aside from three lapses, a total of nineteen months, the Non-Importation Act governed foreign importation into the United States from November 1806 to the coming of the War of 1812. Its effective date had been postponed to allow for replenishment of depleted stocks of banned items, when it was realized they could not be produced at home. Enforcement depended largely on the faithful energy of the customs staff. 280. Higham, Robin D. S. “The Port of Boston and the Embargo of 1807–1809.” American Neptune 16 (July 1956): 189–210. Conventional belief to the contrary, the Port of Boston thrived during the years of the Jefferson embargo. At one time during these years, the port was busier than at any other period in American national history before the end of the War of 1812. 281. The Honest Politician, Part I. Containing the First Eight Numbers: Together with a Publication under the Signature of Vindex, Relative to the Same Subject. Addressed to the President, and Published in the District of Columbia about the Middle of February Last. Baltimore: “Printed for the Author,” 1808.

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62  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Attributed by Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore to Luther Martin. An American Antiquarian Society copy bears “(Luther Martin Esq)” handwritten on title page. The essays present a Federalist point of view on the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair. 282. Horsman, Reginald. The Causes of the War of 1812. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962. The basic cause of the War of 1812 is found in Europe, not America. The United States was reacting to certain British policies that in turn were dictated to a great extent by Britain’s struggle for survival against France. If England and France had maintained their peace, even precariously, war between the United States and Britain would have been unlikely. Western American expansionist factors have been overemphasized. The years 1803– 1812 are examined. 283. Kaplan, Lawrence S. “Jefferson, the Napoleonic Wars, and the Balance of Power.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 14 (April 1957): 196–217. The pro-French bias of the policy of the Republicans can be explained in terms of Jefferson’s conviction that England constituted a greater threat to the balance of power than Napoleon. He believed that small neutral nations could benefit from the wars of great powers. The War of 1812 was a logical extension of his embargo program. By entering the war, however, the United States was deprived of the advantages of neutrality. 284. Keith, Isaac Stockton. Trust in God: Explained and Recommended, in a Sermon, Preached, with Some Special Reference to the State of the Public Mind, in the Prospect of War; in the Independent, or Congregational Church, Charleston, South Carolina, July 12, 1807. Charleston, S.C.: W. P. Young, 1807. Pamphlet. Concerned with the American mood as a consequence of the Chesapeake-Leopard incident. If war is the result, the country should unite in support of liberties, sovereignty, and the Constitution. Above all, whatever may come, trust in the Lord. 285. Lingelbach, W. E. “Historical Investigation and the Commercial History of the Napeoleonic Era.” American Historical Review 19 (January 1914): 257–81. Commerce and related matters of trade, industries, and colonies underlay the Napoleonic Wars and determined policies of belligerents. Artificial restrictions forced commerce to reject old channels and to adopt new ones, many illegal. In North America this led to such devices as Lake Champlain smuggling, the Ox and Horse Marine, the use of Swedish and other flags, and wholesale smuggling in New England and Nova Scotia ports. 286. [Lowell, John.] The Impartial Inquirer; Being a Candid Examination of the Conduct of the President of the United States, in Execution of the Powers Vested in Him, by the Act of Congress of May 1, 1810: to Which Is Added, Some Reflections Upon the Invasion of the Spanish Territory of West-Florida. By a Citizen of Massachusetts. Boston: Russell and Cutler, 1811. Pamphlet. Essays that appeared originally in the Boston Columbian Centinel. Concerns questions arising from France’s actions in connection with provisions of Macon’s Bill Number Two and President Madison’s exercise of authority; presidential authority in connection with the invasion of Spanish West Florida; and the relationship of the two.

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The Coming of the War  •  63 287. [Lowell, John.] Interesting Political Discussion. The Diplomatick Policy of Mr. Madison Unveiled. In a Series of Essays Containing Strictures upon the Late Correspondence between Mr. Smith and Mr. Jackson. [Boston: William Burdick for B. Russell, 1810?] Pamphlet. The ten essays, using the Erskine Agreement—especially the correspondence between Jackson, a British official, and Smith, his American counterpart—claim that James Madison was an Anglophobe and a Francophile, and that the agreement was reached with full American expectations of its disavowal in England. It was negotiated in bad faith by the United States. 288. [Lowell, John.] Perpetual War, the Policy of Mr. Madison. Being a Candid Examination of His Late Message to Congress, so Far as Respects the Following Topicks, Viz. The Pretended Negotiations for Peace, The Important and Interesting Subject of a Conscript Militia, and The Establishment of an Immense Standing Army of Guards and Spies, under the Name of a Local Volunteer Force. Boston: Chester Stebbins, 1812. Addressed to the people of New England, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware by “A New-England Farmer.” Attacks President Madison’s misuse of the U.S. Constitution, of which he was a principal architect. 289. [Lowell, John.] Supplement to the Late Analysis of the Public Correspondence between Our Cabinet and Those of France and G. Britain. [Boston: n.p., 1809.] Presents suppressed correspondence and other evidence showing the questionable nature of Anglo-American diplomacy and the pro-French stance of Thomas Jefferson. 290. [Madison, James.] An Examination of the British Doctrine, Which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade, Not Open in Time of Peace. [Washington, D.C.: n.p., 1806.] War can abridge neutrals carrying contraband, carrying trade to a besieged place, or, although contested by France, carrying the property of a belligerent. Britain’s extension of these exceptions to seize neutral shipping that is prohibited in peacetime, however, is “extravagantly preposterous and pernicious.” Other extensions may be added arbitrarily. 291. Mannix, Richard. “Gallatin, Jefferson, and the Embargo of 1808.” Diplomatic History 3 (Spring 1979): 151–72. Thomas Jefferson was not concerned with the Embargo of 1808, he did not know the details and the requirements of its operation, and he declined to support its implementation. Albert Gallatin, opposed to the embargo, reluctantly made the only real effort to manage and guide it. 292. Melvin, Frank Edgar. Napoleon’s Navigation System: A Study of Trade Control during the Continental Blockade. New York: D. Appleton for the University of Pennsylvania, 1919. Doctoral dissertation. The growth of Napoleon’s empire depended upon his navigation system and the economic struggle with England. In this, the position of the United States as the chief neutral was the determining factor. 293. M’Lean, James. Seventeen Years’ History, of the Life and Sufferings of James M’Lean. An Impressed American Citizen and Seaman. Embracing but a Summary of What He Endured, while Detained in the British Service, during That Long and Painful Period. Written by Himself. 2d ed. Hartford, Conn.: B. and J. Russell, 1814.

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64  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. The author was impressed three times by the British before his final escape in 1813. 294. Muller, H. N., III. “Smuggling into Canada: How the Champlain Valley Defied Jefferson’s Embargo.” Vermont History 38 (Winter 1970): 5–21. Champlain Valley residents did not believe that Jefferson’s 1807 Embargo Act would interrupt their substantial overland trade and lumber rafts trade with Canada. Local customs officials agreed. The U.S. Congress tightened the embargo with the so-called land embargo. Despite enforcement efforts, smuggling was rampant, even increasing the volume of trade. 295. Pancake, John S. “Baltimore and the Embargo, 1807–1809.” Maryland Historical Magazine 47 (September 1952): 173–87. While Maryland’s congressional delegation was split in its support of Jefferson’s Embargo of 1807, sentiment in Baltimore generally applauded the step. Despite mounting Federalist attacks and the staggering loss of trade under the act, merchants mostly continued to support the measure. In the end, however, pressure of the embargo on commercial interests in Baltimore and other middle Atlantic ports brought a Republican revolt and repeal. 296. Parker, David W., ed. “Secret Reports of John Howe, 1808.” American Historical Review 17 (October 1911): 70–102; 17 (January 1912): 332–54. Tension between the American and British governments in 1807 precipitated detailed defense preparations in British North America. John Howe, King’s Printer in Nova Scotia, was sent on a secret mission to determine the disposition of the American neighbors, on whom they depended heavily for their trade and commerce. Howe’s reports and related documents are included here. 297. Perkins, Bradford. “George Canning, Great Britain, and the United States, 1807–1809.” American Historical Review 63 (October 1957): 1–22. Canning was foreign secretary in the British cabinet, 1807–1809. Although he is viewed as an implacable “Americaphobe,” Britain made several gestures to the United States under his leadership. These concessions failed, in the last analysis, because Britain underestimated American strength and misunderstood Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. 298. Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to War: England and the United States, 1805– 1812. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963. The drift toward war was the product of American insistence on neutral trade in a war-torn world on the one hand and the condescending and unyielding attitude of the British on the other. Maritime factors were more significant in this development than any others. 299. Perkins, Bradford. “Sir William Scott and the Essex.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 13 (April 1956): 169–83. Scott, justice of the English admiralty court who handed down the Essex decision in 1805 has been unfairly judged by Henry Adams and by other historians who have accepted his opinion. Whatever Scott’s private views, on the bench he was neutral and much aware of American and other neutral’s rights. The Essex decision was the most important of several indications that a change in English policy was under way. It opened Anglo-American controversy that culminated in and was largely responsible for the War of 1812. 300. Phillips, James Duncan. “Jefferson’s ‘Wicked Tyrannical’ Embargo.” New England Quarterly 18 (December 1945): 466–78.

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The Coming of the War  •  65 Considers the impact of the Embargo Act on Salem, Massachusetts, whose customhouse accounted for about 5 percent of the entire revenue of the country. Salemites were more concerned with its effect on the cessation of trade than they were interested in the theory upon which it was based. 301. Reinoehl, John H. “Post-Embargo Trade and Merchant Prosperity: Experiences of the Crowninshield Family, 1809–1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 42 (September 1955): 229–49. A case study of the years between Jefferson’s embargo and the beginning of the War of 1812, using as example the Crowninshield family, prominent Salem, Massachusetts, merchants. Contrary to conventional belief, the opposing blockade systems of the British and of Napoleon made profitable commerce impossible. Further, the embargo probably delayed rather than hastened destruction of American commerce. 302. The Right and Practice of Impressment, as Concerning Great Britain and America, Considered. London: J. Murray, 1814. Pamphlet. American questioning of the right of search and impressment from neutral ships in general is “utterly unfounded.” The complaint that American seamen are forcibly taken in the process is “grossly exaggerated.” America has no justifiable cause for war. Under international law, Britain is “infinitely the most aggrieved.” While Americans may be subjected to “inconveniences,” the empire suffers “actual and serious injury.” 303. “Seamen from Salem and Vicinity Impressed by British War Vessels, 1800– 1813.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 49 (October 1913): 321–46. By names; frequently augmented with whatever information and data that might be available. 304. Sears, Louis Martin. Jefferson and the Embargo. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1927. Contends that embargo received more support than it is usually credited with. Some localities prospered under embargo by getting capital formerly tied up in shipping. Further, it brought severe pressure on Britain and came closer to producing the desired results than most advocates and opponents realized. 305. Sears, Louis Martin. “The Middle States and the Embargo of 1808.” South Atlantic Quarterly 21 (April 1922): 152–69. The Mid-Atlantic States took a median position on the embargo. Their manufacturers were stimulated. Their merchant marine was linked with New England, and their staple crops were a bond with the South. In time, when the embargo failed to rescue shipping and humble England and France, the Mid-Atlantic States held the balance of power in determining its demise. 306. Sears, Louis Martin. “Philadelphia and the Embargo: 1808.” In American Historical Association Annual Report, 1920, 251–63. Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1920. While the Embargo of 1808 was a blow to American commerce, it presented an opportunity for the transfer of capital to manufacturing. For Philadelphia the stimulus was such that prosperity exceeded adversity. Growing demands from western markets provided the principal impetus to which Philadelphia capital responded.

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66  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 307. Senex [pseud.], and Farmer, A [pseud.]. Letters under the Signatures of Senex, and of A Farmer, Comprehending an Examination of the Conduct of Our Executive, towards France and Great Britain, out of Which the Present Crisis Has Arisen, Originally Published in the North American. Baltimore: P. K. Wagner, 1809. In ten letters, “Senex” argues that Britain is the last and best hope of stemming the Bonaparte tide, but the American administration seems determined to favor France and thus risk the possibility of British and American subjugation. “A Farmer” contends, in six letters, that American embargo legislation favors France at the expense of England. English-American differences can and should be negotiated. 308. The Six Letters of A.B. on the Differences between Great Britain and the United States of America, with a Preface, by the Editor of the Morning Chronicle. London: John Lambert for James Ridgway, 1807. Pamphlet. Peace and harmony between the peoples and governments of the two countries are necessary for reciprocal commercial benefit. Concerned with the effect of economic regulatory legislation on the relations of the two countries. 309. Smith, Robert. “Instruction and Note of Robert Smith, 1810, 1811.” Edited by Bernard C. Steiner. American Historical Review 30 (April 1925): 553–56. Smith, secretary of state, writes concerning French violations of American neutral commercial rights. 310. Spivak, Burton. Jefferson’s English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo, and the Republican Revolution. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979. Jefferson’s formulation and handling of the English problem involved not only the external threats of England’s maritime power and ambition but also the growth within the country of English political forms, social ideas, and commercial development. Ironically, Jefferson thereby encouraged the very kind of national economic development that was incompatible with his republican dreams. He regarded embargo as a defensive precautionary policy and economic coercion as an offensive tool of commercial diplomacy. 311. Tucker, Spencer C., and Reuter, Frank T. Injured Honor: The ChesapeakeLeopard Affair, June 22, 1807. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997. The first comprehensive examination of the event that drove the United States and Great Britain on the path to war. Written by a specialist on naval warfare and diplomatic history. 312. The Trial of John Wilson, Alias Jenkin Ratford, for Mutiny, Desertion and Contempt: To Which Are Subjoined, a Few Cursory Remarks. Boston: Snelling and Simons, 1807. Pamphlet. Wilson was taken into impressment from the USS Chesapeake by the HMS Leopard. He was tried by court-martial in 1807 in Halifax as a deserter from the Royal Navy. He was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. 313. Utter, William T. “The Coming of the War.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 9–16. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963.

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The Coming of the War  •  67 While Western land hunger, the Indian menace, resentment of British restrictions on American commerce, and nationalism were causal factors, impressment of American seamen was the principal cause for the War of 1812. Even so, the American declaration of war was without justification. 314. War with America. The Crisis of the Dispute with the United States: Being an Exposition of the Points, Political and Commercial, Now at Issue between the Two Governments; In a Series of Three Letters, Addressed to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent; by a Celebrated Public Writer; with an Explanatory Preface, by a Merchant of the Old School. London: Richard Taylor for T. Hamilton, 1811. Pamphlet. Argues that the Orders in Council have punished British trade. If war comes, which is probable, Britain should “speedily extricate” itself. If not, “it is our prayer that . . . she may be signally defeated!” 315. Watson, G. E. “The United States and the Peninsular War, 1808–1812.” Historical Journal 19 (December 1976): 859–76. The campaign of the Duke of Wellington’s army from Portugal to southern France was waged against a background of deteriorating AngloAmerican relations. To a considerable extent, British success depended on American goodwill, money, and supplies. If America’s weak leadership had taken action against the Lisbon trade, Britain probably would have given much quicker recognition to American independence and neutrality and thereby possibly averted the War of 1812. 316. Wolford, Thorp Lanier. “Democratic-Republican Reaction in Massachusetts to the Embargo of 1807.” New England Quarterly 15 (March 1942): 35–61. Although the Embargo of 1807 failed in all its major objectives, its repeal was not caused by much opposition within the Democratic-Republican Party. Party members in Massachusetts supported the embargo as ardently as the Federalists opposed it. Unexpected foreign events must be credited more than they have been previously. 317. Zimmerman, James Fulton. Impressment of American Seamen. New York: Columbia University Press, 1925. The author’s Ph.D. dissertation. James Madison believed that impressment was the single most important causal factor of the War of 1812. Not so significant as a legal matter as it was in the subtle and delicate areas of national honor and pride.

C. Natives; Territorial Expansion; Other Western Topics 318. Barce, Elmore. “Governor Harrison and the Treaty of Fort Wayne, 1809.” Indiana Magazine of History 11 (December 1915): 352–67. William Henry Harrison negotiated the treaty that helped to stiffen Indian resistance to further land cessions and to hasten the confrontation at Tippecanoe, Indiana, in 1811. 319. Barce, Elmore. “Tecumseh’s Confederacy.” Indiana Magazine of History 12 (June 1916): 161–74; 13 (March 1917): 67–91.

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68  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The Indian confederation under Tecumseh’s political and military genius and the Prophet’s religious leadership was given considerable impetus by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, 1809. Headquarters was established at Prophet’s Town on the Wabash River in west central Indiana. In a conference at Vincennes, Tecumseh warned Harrison to avoid any further provocation. 320. Barlow, William Ray. “The Coming of the War of 1812 in Michigan Territory.” Michigan History 53 (Summer 1969): 91–107. During the critical period of Anglo-American relations, 1806–1812, the omnipresent Indian threat was so intense that it served as a deterrent to war. Although acknowledging the justice of war to secure neutral rights for the nation, the defenselessness of the frontier was more immediately important. 321. Bledsoe, Jesse. Masonic Oration, Delivered by Jesse Bledsoe, Esq. at Frankfort, (Kentucky,) on Friday, December 27, 1811, in Honor of the Late Grand Master Joseph H. Daviess, Esq. and Others, Who Fell in the Recent Engagement with the Indians on the Wabash. To Which is Added, an Ode, Entitled, The Battle of Tippacanoe, Fought on the 7th Nov. 1811. [Albany, N.Y.]: Solomon Allen for Solomon Southwick, 1812. Pamphlet. Eulogistic tributes to several casualties of the Battle of Tippecanoe, November 1811. 322. Bradley, Jared W. “W. C. C. Claiborne and Spain: Foreign Affairs under Jefferson and Madison, 1801–1811.” Louisiana History 12 (Fall 1971): 297–314; 13 (Winter 1972): 5–26. As the leading federal official in the Old Southwest, Claiborne expounded and interpreted American foreign policy and exercised considerable influence upon presidents Jefferson and Madison. He influenced American initiatives in acquisition and boundary considerations of Louisiana and the Floridas. 323. Byrd, Cecil K. “The Northwest Indians and the British Preceding the War of 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 38 (March 1942): 31–50. In the decade before 1812 the British were accused of encouraging the Indians to resist land cessions to the Americans and of supporting and fomenting their depredations and warlike activities against the Americans. These charges are verified by examination of British Indian policy. When it became apparent the Indians intended to go to war before 1812, however, the British sought to dissuade them. 324. Cady, John Frank. “Western Opinion and the War of 1812.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 33 (October 1924): 427–76. Western attitude forced the United States into the War of 1812. The enthusiasm for war in Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee is traceable to the western resentment of national insults and to the Indian war for which Britain was held responsible. 325. Campbell, John T. “Some Comments on Tipton’s Journal.” Indiana Magazine of History 3 (March 1907): 30–33. See John Tipton’s journal entry published in the previous volume of Indiana Magazine of History (item 364, below). Has difficulty with Tipton’s entries across Parke and Vermilion Counties. 326. Chalou, George Clifford. “The Red Pawns Go to War: British-American Indian Relations, 1810–1815.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1971.

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The Coming of the War  •  69 An examination of the response of the Indians to British and American policies before and during the War of 1812. The surge of prewar Indian resistance to American land cessions policy led to American perception that the Indians and British were in league. During the war American policy was insistence on Indian neutrality; but in 1814 that was reversed. The British, needing might, openly recruited and supplied the Indians. This dampened American expansionist dreams. 327. Coleman, Christopher B. “The Ohio Valley in the Preliminaries of the War of 1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 7 (June 1920): 39–50. The explanation for the coming of the War of 1812 is the existing situation in the Ohio Valley, aided by similar elements in the South. The West believed it could only safeguard its frontier by the conquest of Canada. Although it proved a fiasco, the Ohio Valley’s security was attained by losses inflicted on the Indians during the war and by the post-Ghent limitations of armaments along the international boundary. 328. Cox, Isaac Joslin. “The American Intervention in West Florida.” American Historical Review 17 (January 1912): 290–311. American intervention in western Florida, 1803–1813, was prompted by the domestic revolt in the territory and by the “spirit of territorial acquisition.” The diplomatic aspect of the intervention was the most disgraceful in American history. West Florida was acquired because of geographic and demographic considerations, not diplomatic. 329. Egan, Clifford L. “United States, France, and West Florida, 1803–1807.” Florida Historical Quarterly 47 (January 1969): 227–52. President Jefferson had expected French aid to secure West Florida from Spain. Napoleon’s refusal to keep his promises accentuated the urge for war. 330. Fisher, Robert L. “The Western Prologue to the War of 1812.” Missouri Historical Review 30 (April 1936): 267–281. Even though American advance of ownership and settlement progressed westward through the Northwest and Missouri Territories, the fur trade and the idea of an Indian buffer state still persistently pervaded British ideas and actions. Protection from Indian attack and resistance to settlement set the stage for more determined American protection efforts as war approached. 331. Hacker, Louis Morton. “Western Land Hunger and the War of 1812: A Conjecture.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 10 (March 1924): 365–95. Rejects Madison’s view that impressment was the deciding factor as cause for the War of 1812. Western enthusiasm for the war lay in the belief that Canada represented the greatest reserve of immediately accessible agricultural lands. Indian danger was minimal and the prairies were not viewed as suitable for farming. 332. Hall, Ellery L. “Canadian Annexation Sentiment in Kentucky Prior to the War of 1812.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 28 (October 1930): 372–80. By 1810, Kentuckians had become convinced that their economic grievances against England, their Canadian-based Indian menace, and their desire for more land could be reckoned with by attacking and annexing Canada. 333. Harrison, William Henry. “A Military Circular of 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 2 (December 1906): 185–86.

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70  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A general order, in Vincennes, Indiana, April 16, 1812. Concerns militia preparation to respond to the increased activities of the Indians. 334. Haynes, Robert V. “The Southwest and the War of 1812.” Louisiana History 5 (Winter 1964): 41–51. Examines the causal factors that brought strong support in the Mississippi and Orleans territories for entry into the war. By 1810 belief in economic coercion was being replaced by the desire for unrestricted trade and for vindication of national honor, accompanied by the desire for Spanish Florida. War might also resolve local problems of land claims, Indians, internal improvements, and statehood issues. 335. Heflinger, Walden Miller. “The War of 1812 in Northwestern Ohio: Background and Causes.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 22 (Winter 1949–50): 8–24. Public opinion of the frontiersmen was molded by the continued Indian problem, the suspected involvement of the British in the Indian unrest, and the increasing desire to gain Canada. These factors were intertwined in both the problem and the proposed solution. 336. Horsman, Reginald. “American Indian Policy in the Old Northwest, 1783– 1812.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 18 (January 1961): 35–53. The one consistency in federal Indian policy, 1783–1812, was to acquire the land in the Old Northwest. It soon became apparent the Indians did not recognize the English right to give away Indian land. What started in 1783 as only a desire for land was by 1812 a lofty moral idea in which the Americans were convinced they were striving for the best interests of the Indians. National interest and moral purpose had become intertwined. 337. Horsman, Reginald. “British Indian Policy in the Northwest, 1807–1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 45 (June 1958): 51–66. While British agents probably did not incite the Indians, they did exploit Indian unrest to kindle discontent among them toward the goal of saving Canada. The Indians took to the warpath because of the advance of the American frontier. 338. Horsman, Reginald. Matthew Elliott, British Indian Agent. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1964. American renegade Matthew Elliott served as a prominent British Indian agent at Detroit and Amherstburg and was involved in many of the border intrigues in the years before the War of 1812. He continued to be deeply involved in executing British Indian policy until his death in 1814. 339. Horsman, Reginald. “Western War Aims, 1811–1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 53 (March 1957): 1–18. Examines neutral rights, expansionism, fear of Indians, and agricultural depression to assess their relative importance as causes of the War of 1812. Concludes the fundamental cause was British maritime policy that damaged American commerce as well as national pride. 340. Hutson, Austin. “Killed by the Indians.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 5 (April 1912): 96–103. A mother and six children were burned in their cabin on the Illinois frontier in mid-1812. 341. Kaufman, Martin. “War Sentiment in Western Pennsylvania: 1812.” Pennsylvania History 31 (October 1964): 436–48.

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The Coming of the War  •  71 Examines the factors of the “Indian problem,” imperialism, nationalism, and economic conditions of the region. Concludes that nationalism directed against British impressments and violations of American neutral shipping explains western Pennsylvania’s support of the war. 342. Kendall, John S., ed. “Documents Concerning the West Florida Revolution, 1810.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 17 (January 1934): 80–95; 17 (April 1934): 306–14; 17 (July 1934): 474–501. The twenty-one documents concern the Republic of West Florida, which encompassed the part of the present state of Louisiana between the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers. Includes its constitution and other official papers. 343. Lambert, Robert S., ed. “The Conduct of the Militia at Tippecanoe: Elihu Stout’s Controversy with Colonel John P. Boyd, January, 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 51 (September 1955): 237–50. An editor and an army officer disagree on the merits of the militia in the battle. Stout edited the Vincennes, Indiana, Western Sun, and Boyd was second in command at the Battle of Tippecanoe. The dispute ended when Boyd attempted to do personal injury to Stout. 344. Larrabee, Charles. “Lieutenant Charles Larrabee’s Account of the Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811.” Edited by Florence G. Watts. Indiana Magazine of History 57 (September 1961): 225–47. Five letters describe the military preparations and the movement of the troops throughout the campaign. In general they confirm other eyewitness accounts. 345. Marks, Henry S., ed. “Boundary Disputes in the Republic of West Florida in 1810.” Louisiana History 12 (Fall 1971): 355–65. Letters and proclamations concerned with some of the attempts of the Republic of West Florida to gain admission as a state and the rejection of the requests by the United States government. The American frontiersmen feared Spanish retaliation for their actions and sought justification for their efforts and protection of the United States. 346. Millett, Stephen M. “Bellicose Nationalism in Ohio: An Origin of the War of 1812.” Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 1 (Spring 1974): 221–40. The principal theories of the causes of the War of 1812 do not apply to Ohio. The psychology of American frontier nationalism explains better than any other theory why the people of Ohio wanted war in 1812. Nationalism is defined, in part, as the psychological product of social mobility. It also involves an overt interest in national affairs in Washington, because Ohio owed its very existence to the fact that it was derived from national real estate. 347. Monroe, James. “A New Letter of James Monroe on the Cession of Florida.” Edited by Rembert W. Patrick. Florida Historical Quarterly 23 (April 1945): 197–201. Written four days after the declaration of war and probably sent to Madison, it speculates about American continuance in Florida. 348. Naylor, Isaac. “The Battle of Tippecanoe. As Described by Judge Isaac Naylor, a Participant—A Recently Discovered Account.” Indiana Magazine of History 2 (December 1906): 163–69. Reprinted from the Lafayette, Indiana, Morning Journal edition of June 23, 1906.

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72  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 349. Owen, Thomas M., ed. “West Florida and Its Attempt on Mobile, 1810–1811.” American Historical Review 2 (July 1897): 699–705. Five letters concerned with the history of the short-lived “State of West Florida” and its interests in the Pearl to Perdido area, in which Mobile (later, Alabama) was situated. 350. Padgett, James A., ed. “The West Florida Revolution of 1810, As Told in the Letters of John Rhea, Fulwar Skipwith, Reuben Kemper, and Others.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 21 (January 1938): 76–202. Letters and miscellaneous documents that reveal details about the Republic of West Florida. 351. Pallett, James E. The Indian Menace in the Old Northwest, 1809–1812. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1959. Mimeograph. The author’s Master of Arts thesis, Ohio State University, 1959. The magnitude and effect of the Indian menace was both real and psychological. It was, therefore, the primary cause of the War of 1812 for the frontiersmen of the region. 352. Parsons, Joseph A., Jr. “Civilizing the Indians of the Old Northwest, 1800– 1810.” Indiana Magazine of History 56 (September 1960): 195–216. Whether the American government’s motives were to deprive the Indians of the Old Northwest of their lands or to assimilate them into the American people, a strong case cannot be made to support the primacy of either view. The program of civilizing failed and became subordinate to subduing the Indians, culminating in the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe. 353. Peters, George P. “George P. Peters’ Version of the Battle of Tippecanoe (November 7, 1811).” Edited by Richard G. Carlson. Vermont History 45 (Winter 1977): 38–43. Peters was a participant in the battle. His straightforward narrative provides new details but does not contradict accepted versions of what took place. He does not glorify either the battle or Harrison. 354. Pirtle, Alfred. The Battle of Tippecanoe. Read before the Filson Club, November 1, 1897. Filson Club Publications 15. Louisville, Ky.: John P. Morton, Printers to the Filson Club, 1900. The story of the battle, press comments, and a roster of Harrison’s troops. 355. Pratt, Julius William. Expansionists of 1812. New York: Macmillan, 1925; reprint Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1957. While admitting multiple causes for the War of 1812, Pratt is concerned primarily with the Western desire for Canada and the complicating Indian factor and Southern ambitions for Gulf coast Spanish territory. Without these, as well as other factors, there would have been no war. Despite oftmade charges that western land hunger was Pratt’s “real cause,” he is careful to disclaim it. Considers diplomatic, political, and military aspects. 356. Pratt, Julius William. “Western Aims in the War of 1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 12 (June 1925): 36–50. Reply to Louis Morton Hacker, “Western Land Hunger” (see item 331, above). Acquisition of Canada and Florida was the goal. The British Indian menace should not be minimized. Hacker wrongly emphasizes agricultural lands and overlooks Canadian fur trade and Florida waterways as enticements.

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The Coming of the War  •  73 357. Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County [Indiana]. The Massacre at Pigeon Roost. Fort Wayne, Ind.: Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County, 1953. Pamphlet. The Indians raided the hamlet in Scott County, Indiana, September 1812. Two accounts are reprinted here. 358. Schultheis, Rose. “Harrison’s Councils with Tecumseh.” Indiana Magazine of History 27 (March 1931): 40–49. Discusses the deterioration of Indian American relations in the Old Northwest, particularly Harrison’s 1810 and 1811 conferences with Tecumseh, the leader of the Indian confederation. 359. Shabonee. “Shabonee’s Account of Tippecanoe.” Edited by John Wesley Whicker. Indiana Magazine of History 17 (December 1921): 353–63. Shabonee, or Shabonier, a Potawatomi chief, describes the Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811, in which he was a participant; the circumstances surrounding it; and the consequences. 360. Smith, Dwight L. “Indian Land Cessions in Northern Ohio and Southeastern Michigan (1805–1808).” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 29 (Winter 1956–57): 27–45. The increasing pressure for more cessions and the accelerating Indian resistance resulted in mounting Indian-white tensions. 361. Stagg, John Charles Anderson. “James Madison and the Coercion of Great Britain: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of 1812.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 38 (January 1981): 3–34. Argues that Madison supported the conquest of Canada to increase economic pressure on Britain and the British West Indies colonies. The invasion of Canada was not so much to add it to the United States as it was to affect Britain’s capacity to harmfully exercise its commercial and naval powers against Americans in ways they could not otherwise control. 362. Sterkx, Henry Eugene, and Thompson, Brooks. “Philemon Thomas and the West Florida Revolution.” Florida Historical Quarterly 39 (April 1961): 378–86. Thomas was a Baton Rouge merchant engaged in borderland activities. 363. Taylor, George Rogers. “Agrarian Discontent in the Mississippi Valley Preceding the War of 1812.” Journal of Political Economy 39 (August 1931): 471–505. Western agriculture suffered a severe economic depression in the preWar of 1812 years because of transportation, communication, marketing, and financial problems. Westerners blamed their situation on the foreign restrictions on their markets. They supported embargo and nonintercourse to coerce the belligerents for their rights. These acts failing, they became War Hawks. 364. Tipton, John. “John Tipton’s Tippecanoe Journal.” Indiana Magazine of History 2 (December 1906): 170–84. Tipton was in a rifle company. Daily entries from Corydon, Indiana, on September 12, 1811, to the Battle of Tippecanoe, to his return to Corydon on November 24. 365. Whicker, John Wesley. “Tecumseh and Pushmataha.” Indiana Magazine of History 18 (December 1922): 315–31.

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74  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Shawnee chief Tecumseh met with success in forging a confederation of the northern Indians to resist any further white advance. He failed to draw the southern tribes into the confederation largely because of the opposition of Pushmataha, a Choctaw chief, who was as loyal to the Americans as Tecumseh was to the British.

D. War Hawks; the General American Political Scene 366. Anderson, Dice R. “The Insurgents of 1811.” In American Historical Association Annual Report, 1911, 165–76. Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1911. The problem of western expansion was the dominant interest of the War Hawks. They wanted war with England rather than France because England had “tampered” with the Indians and because England was in the way of expansion. 367. Austin, Samuel. The Apology of Patriots, or The Heresy of the Friends of the Washington and Peace Policy Defended. A Sermon, Preached in Worcester, Massachusetts, on the Day of the National Fast, Thursday, August 20, 1812. Observed in Compliance with the Recommendation of James Madison, President of the United States; and in Consequence of the Declaration of War against Great-Britain. Worcester, Mass.: Isaac Sturtevant, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Acts 24:14. America’s own “misguided policy and folly” has involved it in war, not, as stated in the president’s proclamation, “the injustice of a foreign power.” 368. Bell, Rudolph M. “Mr. Madison’s War and Long-Term Congressional Voting Behavior.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 36 (July 1979): 373–95. An analysis of 602 roll call votes, 1789–1812, demonstrates the strength of partisan unity. President Madison could count on solid support whenever he chose to take the country into war. As with his predecessors, foreign policy initiatives and decisions for peace or war rested with the president. Madison was willing to use that power. 369. Brown, Roger Hamilton. The Republic in Peril: 1812. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. War proponents were motivated by the desire to maintain republican principles. Party loyalty was primarily responsible according to a statistical analysis of congressional voting, rather than sectional pressures. An analysis of congressional and presidential motivation for and against war. 370. Brown, Roger Hamilton. “The War Hawks of 1812: An Historical Myth.” Indiana Magazine of History 60 (June 1964): 137–51. Argues that none of the war proponents really wanted war. They favored conflict because of their Republican allegiance and because no acceptable alternative for war remained. Based upon the views expressed by twentyseven members of the Twelfth Congress as expressed in their contemporary letters and records. 371. Champagne, Raymond W., Jr., and Rueter, Thomas J. “Jonathan Roberts and the ‘War Hawk’ Congress of 1811–1812.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 104 (October 1980): 434–49.

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The Coming of the War  •  75 Roberts, a Pennsylvania representative in the 1811–1812 session of the U.S. Congress, did not conform to the traditional War Hawk stereotype. He was not interested in Canada or Florida. His district remained prosperous. He was not particularly preoccupied about upcoming elections. He supported the war primarily to preserve national honor. 372. DeConde, Alexander. “The War Hawks of 1812: A Critique.” Indiana Magazine of History 60 (June 1964): 152–54. Roger H. Brown, “The War Hawks of 1812” (item 370, above) and Reginald Horsman, “Who Were the War Hawks?” (item 378, below) offer apparent contradictory arguments and conclusions. But Horsman has defined the term War Hawks more precisely, and Brown has demonstrated how the term can be misleading if it is not used with care. They are both studies in methodology. 373. Democratic Party, New York City. A Circular Letter, from the General Republican Committee, of the City and County of New York, to Their Republican Fellow Citizens, throughout the State, in Vindication of the Measures of the General Government, and on the Necessity of Supporting Them against Foreign Influence and Domestic Faction. New York: Frank, White, 1809. Decries factions within the party that were not in complete support of the Jefferson and Madison administrations. Integrity and patriotism brought domestic prosperity. The European belligerents were violating American neutral rights and attacking its commerce. Party loyalty is necessary within New York and its full cooperation with the national administration is required to meet the foreign challenges. 374. Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. “Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 29 (July 1972): 367–90. A systematic analysis of voting behavior of congressmen in 1812 shows that the victorious Republicans molded a consensus early which favored declaring war. The war issue and partisan political strategies became so thoroughly entwined that Republican Party unity explains the decision for war. 375. Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. “The War Hawks and the Question of Congressional Leadership in 1812.” Pacific Historical Review 45 (February 1976): 1–22. Bloc sectional voting did not determine congressional attitudes in the move towards war. Partisan loyalty was the predominant factor. Only eight Republicans played instrumental roles in convincing their fellow Republicans to favor the war. For them the decision for war had always been essentially a problem of timing. 376. Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L., and Ivie, Robert L. “Justifying the War of 1812: Toward a Model of Congressional Behavior in Early War Crises.” Social Science History 4 (Fall 1980): 453–77. By employing quantitative methods it is demonstrated that war could have come earlier than it did. It was simply that Republican congressmen had not yet developed the rhetoric of justification for which they held themselves publicly accountable. 377. Hickey, Donald R. “The Federalists and the Coming of the War, 1811–1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 75 (March 1979): 70–88. The Federalists expected that the trade restrictions would be repealed when war was declared. Party unity grew as the war neared. Their behavior was not based on political expediency alone but on tradition and policy as well.

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76  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 378. Horsman, Reginald. “Who Were the War Hawks?” Indiana Magazine of History 60 (June 1964): 121–36. Examines congressional votes to identify the sixty-one congressmen who were consistent in their favoring war and to determine their sectional allegiance. Eleven measures in the Twelfth Congress provide the basis for analysis. 379. Hunt, Gaillard, ed. “Joseph Gales on the War Manifesto of 1812.” American Historical Review 13 (January 1908): 303–10. Gales, editor and proprietor of the National Intelligencer, had unusual sources of information and wielded considerable influence on members of the government as well as the public. Comments in the Intelligencer on an 1813 John Randolph speech, a letter to the editor, and an unpublished article. 380. Johnson, Leland R. “The Suspense Was Hell: The Senate Vote for War in 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 65 (December 1969): 247–67. The president’s war message to Congress was delivered June 1, 1812. The House of Representatives voted in favor on June 4. It was June 17 before the Senate reached a decision. Speculation and rumors were rampant. Examines the reasons for delay. In the end, three votes would have brought deadlock. Party regularity and political advantage finally prevailed. 381. Kennedy, Robert. A Fast-Day Sermon, Preached at Greencastle, on the Last Thursday of July, 1812. Hagerstown, Md.: William Brown, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Jeremiah 18:7–8. Delivered to the East and Lower West Conococheague congregations in Greencastle, Pennsylvania. Kennedy had the sermon printed because charges had been made after its delivery that he declared that all grievances had come from the weakness and corruption of the government. He insisted he did not say or imply such an allegation. 382. Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of The Military Establishment in America, 1783–1802. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1975. Analysis of the political origins of America’s military establishment, particularly under Federalist aegis. With two possible exceptions, military affairs exerted more influence on national life during the Federalist years than at any other time. The Hamilton wing of the party won a bitter fight for a national army but destroyed the party and divided the country in the process. 383. Lathrop, John. The Present War Unexpected, Unnecessary, and Ruinous. Two Discourses Delivered in Boston. The First on the 23d of July, 1812, the Fast Appointed by the Governor of Massachusetts; the Second on the 20th of August, the Fast Appointed by the President of the United States, in Consequence of the Present War. Boston: J. W. Burditt, 1812. Pamphlet. First sermon text: Jeremiah 8:15. The war is unexpected because the country is not prepared for it. Even if it can be shown to be necessary and expedient it will bring bloodshed and great misery. Second sermon text: Jeremiah 8:15. Citizens are bound to assist in defending the country but should use all lawful means to bring it to an honorable close. Divided among themselves, the contending parties should make every effort to reconcile themselves. 384. Latimer, Margaret Kinard. “South Carolina—A Protagonist of the War of 1812.” American Historical Review 61 (July 1956): 914–29.

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The Coming of the War  •  77 South Carolina congressmen John C. Calhoun, William Lowndes, and Langdon Cleves went to Washington with strong nationalistic biases. They persuaded others to back the vigorous foreign policy they espoused. Their conservative federal republicanism was motivated by the desire to protect the socioeconomic organization of the state, particularly South Carolina’s cotton trade. A modification of the thesis of Julius Pratt. 385. [Lowell, John.] Jefferson against Madison’s War, Being an Exhibition of the Late President Jefferson’s Opinion of the Impolicy, and Folly of All Wars, Especially for the United States, together with Some Remarks on the Present War, and the Propriety of Choosing Electors Who Will Vote for a Peace President. By a True Republican. N.p.: n.p., [1812]. Pamphlet. Anti-Madison piece blaming him for the war and its conduct, as well as the general economic straits of the times. For use in the presidential campaign of 1812. The president had refused an armistice in the face of the British removal of the Orders in Council. 386. [Lowell, John.] Mr. Madison’s War. A Dispassionate Inquiry into the Reasons Alleged by Mr. Madison for Declaring an Offensive and Ruinous War against Great-Britain. Together with Some Suggestions as to a Peaceable and Constitutional Mode of Averting That Dreadful Calamity. By a New England Farmer. Boston: Russell and Cutler, 1812. Pamphlet. Espousing the Federalist position. James Madison’s charges against Britain were greatly exaggerated. Compliance with the expectations and wishes of France aggravated the situation. The problems with England could have been averted. The administration is unprepared for war. War under the present circumstances cannot be justified. France is the real enemy if war must be waged. 387. Pancake, John S. “‘The Invisibles’: A Chapter in the Opposition to President Madison.” Journal of Southern History 21 (February 1955): 17–37. A coterie of senators, headed by Samuel Smith of Baltimore, disliked President Madison. They joined with the War Hawks in 1811 to force the president into strong measures against the British. They emphasized maritime grievances. The name “Invisibles” was coined by Nathaniel Macon in 1810, because they often disagreed among themselves and were difficult to recognize or classify. 388. Prentiss, Charles. New England Freedom: A Poem Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society in Brimfield, February 22d, 1813. Brookfield, Mass.: E. Merriam, 1813. Pamphlet. A Federalist blistering of the Jeffersonian-Madisonian antiFrench posture of the United States that led the country into war. 389. Risjord, Norman K. “1812: Conservatives, War Hawks, and the Nation’s Honor.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 18 (April 1961): 196–210. A study of the motives of thirty-nine southerners who voted for the declaration of war in the House of Representatives reveals that they were less concerned with economic issues than the apprehension that the only alternative to war was to submit to Britain’s commercial system. Preservation of national honor was their major concern. The role of the War Hawks was merely that of catalyst. 390. Risjord, Norman K. “The War Hawks and the War of 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 60 (June 1964): 155–58.

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78  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Most of the War Hawks had supported war measures in previous congresses. Their actions had been inspired by the need to preserve national honor and party unity. In response to and Roger H. Brown, “The War Hawks of 1812” (item 370, above) and Reginald Horsman, “Who Were the War Hawks?” (item 378, above). 391. Rutland, Robert Allen. Madison’s Alternatives: The Jeffersonian Republicans and the Coming of the War, 1805–1812. America’s Alternative Series. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1975. The possible choices President Madison had are identified in an analytical and narrative historical essay. The most appropriate source documents to support each of the alternatives and a bibliographic essay are keyed to Madison’s choices. 392. Sapio, Victor. “Maryland’s Federalist Revival, 1808–1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 64 (Spring 1969): 1–17. Maryland Federalists were prompted by the distress and division caused by the war. They restructured their party and successfully challenged the Republicans, especially on the local level. But they did not control the state after 1808 with their electoral victories. 393. Smith, Theodore Clarke. “War Guilt in 1812.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 64 (June 1931): 319–45. Northeastern Federalists fastened blame for the War of 1812 on Madison who, they asserted, acted in an irrational and discreditable manner. His preposterous policy, veiled purposes, and inexplicable actions brought disaster to the country. Perhaps, but Madison had a backbone and he went to war with open eyes as the consequence of his decisions. 394. Stagg, John Charles Anderson. “James Madison and the ‘Malcontents’: The Political Origins of the War of 1812.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 33 (October 1976): 557–85. By using statistical methods, it becomes evident that President Madison’s partisan leadership, not pressure from the War Hawks, determined the timing of the coming of the war. The coming of the war restored a semblance of stability and order to the highly factionalized politics of the Madison administration. 395. Stagg, John Charles Anderson. “The Revolt against Virginia: Republican Politics and the Commencement of the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, Princeton University, 1973. Focuses on 1811–1813: declaration of war on Great Britain, attempted conquest of Canada. War came as the result of James Madison’s efforts to maintain Republican unity under his leadership for the 1812 election and to find an effective foreign policy. The conquest of Canada failed because of the conflict between local (Republicans in Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio) and national perception of the problems of the war. 396. Stuart, Reginald C. “Thomas Jefferson and the Function of War: Policy or Principle?” Canadian Journal of History 11 (August 1976): 155–71. Jefferson perceived of war as an instrument of policy and he believed there were times when resistance became morality. His embargo demonstrated that peaceable coercion was both unworkable and damaging in a world at war. He saw the War of 1812 as a just war, and was generally pleased with its outcome.

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The Coming of the War  •  79 397. Supplement to the Boston Weekly Messenger. An Address of Members of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, to Their Constituents, on the Subject of the War with Great Britain. [Boston: John Eliot Jr., 1812]. Thirty-four members of the U.S. House of Representatives advise their constituents that the question of the declaration of war in 1812 was debated in secret. Because of this they declined to debate their views. They used this address to set forth their opposition to the measures which led to war and the reasons for their voting against its declaration. 398. Wiltse, Charles M. “The Authorship of the War Report of 1812.” American Historical Review 49 (January 1944): 253–59. The report calling for war with England was laid before the House of Representatives by the acting chair of the Committee on Foreign Relations, June 3, 1812. Its author was long assumed to be John C. Calhoun, the committee’s acting chair. A recent revisionist view suggests that James Monroe was its author. Here it is held that the report was probably a group product and Calhoun was probably its author.

E. Religious Perspectives 399. Austin, Samuel. A Sermon, Preached in Worcester, Massachusetts, on the Occasion of the Special Fast, July 23d, 1812. Worcester, Mass.: Isaac Sturtevant, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Jeremiah 18:7–8. Nations are subject to the government of God. Americans are a sinful people and God’s judgments, “in awful aspects,” hang over them. When the nation repents and turns to God, the judgments will be removed. 400. Ballou, Hosea. A Sermon, Delivered at Portsmouth, N.H. Appropriate to the Occasion of a Day of Humiliation and Prayer, Recommended by the President of the United States, on the 20th of August, 1812. Portsmouth, N.H.: W. Weeks, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: John 18:36. Presents scriptural justifications for resort to war. Compares those with the present situation. While perhaps justified, the American people must call upon God for clemency. They need also to implore God to turn the hearts of the enemy from “their long practised injustice.” 401. Barker, Joseph. A Discourse, Delivered in Middleborough, Mass. August 20, 1812, Being the Day of the National Fast. Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 22:4–5. God has permitted the United States to be visited by war through the injustices of Great Britain. The people must confess the sins which have provoked God’s displeasure and seek forgiveness. Warns that New England cannot gain by separating from the other states. 402. Barton, Titus Theodore. A Fast Sermon, Preached at Fitchburg, July 23, 1812. Leominster, Mass.: Salmon Wilder, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Mark 3:24. The United States was faced with either war or “servile submission” to England. Unhappily, unless parties to internal dissension forget their pride and confess their sins all may be lost, for a nation divided against itself cannot endure.

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80  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 403. Bayley, Kiah. War a Calamity Greatly to be Dreaded. The Substance of Two Discourses Delivered at Newcastle, (Maine) July 23d, 1812; Being the Day Appointed by His Excellency, Governor Strong, to Be Observed as a Day of Public Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer, through the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in Consequence of Our Being Involved in War. Hallowell, Maine: N. Cheever, 1812. Pamphlet. Offensive war risks the loss of liberty and civil and religious institutions. It may produce more evil than good and result in eliminating any way of redressing the injuries complained of. God will not change His punishment. “If we are suitably humbled under his mighty hand, he will return to us in mercy; but if not, our wound will be incurable.” 404. Bell, Benjamin. A Sermon Preached at Steuben April 1813. In Which Are Shewn the Evil Effects of War and When It May Be Lawful and Expedient to Go to War. Sanger-field, N.Y.: J. Tenney, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: James 4:1. The war is “unnecessary, impolitic and unjust . . . a murderous war.” National murder is a proportionately greater sin than individual murder. When the commands of a government counter the commands of God, there is no question as to which should be obeyed. 405. Beman, Nathan Sidney Smith. A Sermon, Delivered at the Meeting House of the Second Parish in Portland, August 20, 1812: On the Occasion of the National Fast. Portland, Maine: Hyde, Lord, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Genesis 13:8. Asserts that only “the politics of heaven” are proper for pulpit discussion. Goes on to consider the evils of war: loss of property, depravity of morals, sacrifice of human blood, violation of the bond of international brotherhood, and the presentation or deprivation of Christianity to heathens. 406. Brown, Francis. A Sermon, Delivered July 23, 1812, on Occasion of the State Fast, Appointed in Consequence of the Declaration of War against Great Britain. Portland, Maine: Published by Hyde, Lord, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Zephaniah 3:8. Views the declaration of war in the context of Old Testament prophecy. Troubles that inflict the world will increase rather than diminish. The church will be sorely tried by the experience. The nation may either be destroyed or corrected to gain the approval of God. 407. Catlin, Jacob. Alarm to the Churches. A Sermon, Preached at New-Marlborough, South Parish, July 23, 1812; Being a Day of Fasting and Prayer, Occasioned by the Declaration of War against Great-Britain. Stockbridge, Mass.: H. Willard, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Hosea 13:9. Draws a parallel of the American people in the present crisis with those of Israel. If the church, with humiliation and prayer, will seek a speedy reformation, God will defend the nation and allow it to prosper. If not, “we shall sink in infidelity, and be destroyed by our iniquity.” 408. Catlin, Jacob. The Horrors of War. A Sermon, Delivered at New-Marlborough, (Mass.) July 5, 1813, at the Celebration of Independence. Stockbridge, Mass.: H. Willard, 1813. Pamphlet. Text: Jeremiah 4:19. War makes most terrible inroads on domestic felicity; produces havoc of property and human misery; destroys liberty and equality of mankind; begets heroic warriors who become sav-

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The Coming of the War  •  81 ages of slaughter; excites and cherishes animosities of nation against nation; corrupts minds and demoralizes the conduct of mankind; and fulfills the maxim that users of the sword shall perish by the sword. 409. Channing, William Ellery. A Sermon, Preached in Boston, August 20, 1812, the Day of Humiliation and Prayer, Appointed by the President of the United States, in Consequence of the Declaration of War against Great Britain. Boston: C. Stebbins, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Acts 24:16. Discusses the duties of Americans as Christians under the special circumstances created by the war, particularly with respect to the civil government, laws, and rulers. 410. Channing, William Ellery. A Sermon, Preached in Boston, July 23, 1812, the Day of the Publick Fast, Appointed by the Executive of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in Consequence of the Declaration of War against Great Britain. Boston: Greenough and Stebbins, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Luke 19:41–42. While some actions of England are infractious of American rights, England is struggling for existence. The “atrocious and unprovoked decrees” of France are much more serious. The United States is not without fault. The war will inflict many evils. The country, nevertheless, deserves the support of the people. 411. Cleaveland, John. A Discourse Delivered on the Day of National Humiliation and Prayer, August 20, 1812. Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Ezekiel 14:21. War is a judgment God sends upon a people for its sins. The nation at large suffers because the judgment is for national sins. 412. Colman, Henry. A Sermon. Preached in Hingham and Quincy, 20th, August 1812, the Day of the National Fast, on Account of the War with Great Britain. Boston: Joshua Belcher, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Romans 8:28. War should be a humbling experience and a recognition of sins that have contributed to the causing of such a judgment by God. Liberty, virtue, and religion have the most powerful demands on all peoples, wherever they might be, even in enemy lands. It is all within the providence of God. 413. Fiske, John. A Sermon Delivered at New-Braintree, August 20, 1812. On the General Fast, Occasioned by a Declaration of War against Great-Britain. Brookfield, Mass.: E. Merriam, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Numbers 24:10–11. Nations engaging in war too often solicit the sanction of God’s servants and of God, rather than try to determine God’s will. The clergy, especially in New England, cannot comply with the demand that they curse the British people and that they pray for Britain’s failure in the war. They will, however, look and pray for the speedy return of peace and all its blessings. 414. Gardiner, John Sylvester John. A Discourse, Delivered at Trinity Church, Boston, April 9, 1812, on the Day of Publick Fast. Boston: Munroe and Francis, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Numbers 32:6. A plea to avoid war where all the reasons are wrong and where all the motivations are misguided. War will destroy commerce and prosperity. Failure to win will bring disgrace and poverty. Success “will prostrate our liberties, and blot us from the list of independent nations.”

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82  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 415. Harris, Walter. A Discourse, Delivered at Dunbarton, New-Hampshire, on Thanksgiving-Day, November 12, 1812. Concord, N.H.: George Hough, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Lamentations 3:39. Even with the punishment of God for our national sins, there is much for which we should be thankful: our enemies have not been permitted to inflict their worst upon us, our political dissensions have not yet erupted in civil war, no political party has asked for foreign support, there is an adequate food supply, and God’s grace continues to bless us. 416. Holcomb, Reuben. A Discourse, in Two Parts, Delivered at Sterling, Massachusetts, Thursday, July 23, 1812, at the State Fast. Worcester, Mass.: “Published by Request of the Subscribers,” Isaac Sturtevant, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 68:30. God has allowed the United States to be at war because of its sins. Whatever aggravation from Britain, it has not been enough to justify a declaration of war. Under the present circumstances it is unaccountable to wish the humiliation or destruction of Britain. But the die is cast. We should pray for God’s blessings for the officers of the national and state governments and support the governor who commands the state’s militia. 417. Mead, Samuel. A Sermon on the War Delivered in Amesbury, August 20, 1812, on the General Fast. Newburyport, Mass.: E. W. Allen, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: 2 Samuel 24:14. Americans are called upon to pray for the success of the war. It is more important, however, for them to examine the expediency and justice of the war and then decide whether to invoke God’s blessings. 418. Moore, Humphrey. A Discourse, Delivered at Milford, August 20th, 1812, the Day Recommended by the President for National Humiliation. Amherst, N.H.: Richard Boylston, 1812. Pamphlet. No text indicated. Not until after war was declared were the American people asked to humble themselves and to seek divine guidance. They were not asked to petition God to prevent war but are now asked to petition for God’s blessings on the war effort. The declaration of war is hard to justify. The country needs to unite and to petition that God’s will prevails in its efforts. 419. Morse, Jedidiah. A Sermon, Delivered at Charlestown, July 23, 1812. The Day Appointed by the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, to Be Observed in Fasting and Prayer throughout the Commonwealth; in Consequence of the Declaration of War with Great Britain. Charlestown, Mass.: Samuel Etheridge Jr., 1812. Pamphlet. Texts: Titus 3:1, Joel 2:1–2. As a just punishment for its national sins, the country is now in a state of danger and calamity. The officers of government and the citizens have reciprocal responsibilities which are constitutionally defined. All need to be clearly aware of the present evils and dangers and to make all suitable exertions to avert them.

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Chapter

4

The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813

A. General Studies 420. Allen, Robert S. “A History of Fort George, Upper Canada.” In Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History 11, pp. 61–93. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1974. During the War of 1812, Fort George was involved in several artillery duels with Fort Niagara across the river on the American side. It was also the site of a fierce battle and two sieges. Also describes its development as a historic site. 421. Anderson, John. A Short History of the Life of John Anderson. Transcribed by Richard C. Knopf. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1956. Mimeograph. Autobiographical account concerned principally with his experiences in the War of 1812. Anderson resided in the River Raisin area as a trader, militia officer, and justice at the outbreak of the war. After the fall of Detroit he went to Washington, D.C. to report the events. He returned to the Detroit area when William Henry Harrison’s forces moved in 1813. After the war he presented claims to Washington for property losses for his neighbors. 422. Babcock, Louis L. The War of 1812 on the Niagara Frontier. Buffalo Historical Society Publications 29. Buffalo, New York: Buffalo Historical Society, 1927. Narrative of the entire war in this theater, interlarded with relevant documents. A comparatively few British soldiers held Upper Canada against potentially overwhelming American conquest. Britain’s advantage is attributable to her competent military leaders who acted without amateur advice or political interference. If American Winfield Scott had been put in supreme command, the story may well have been different.

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84  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 423. Beaumont, William. Wm. Beaumont’s Formative Years: Two Early Notebooks, 1811–1821. Edited and with an introduction by Genevieve Miller. New York: Henry Schuman, 1946. Beaumont served as a surgeon’s mate on the Niagara frontier, 1812–1813. One notebook contains his medical notes and observations, including case histories. The other consists of diaries and nonmedical matters. Although not accounted for in the present notebooks, Beaumont continued to serve throughout the war. 424. Bird, Harrison. War for the West, 1790–1813. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. A popular account of the war for the Old Northwest that started with Josiah Harmar’s expedition against the Indians in 1790 and ended at the River Thames in 1813. Tecumseh and Harrison were the principals of consequence throughout. 425. Breithaupt, W. H. “Some Facts about the Schooner ‘Nancy’ in the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 23 (1926): 5–8. The Nancy, a two-masted schooner, was originally built by the North West Company for fur trade on the Great Lakes. It was pressed into transport service in the 1812. By late summer 1814 the Nancy was the last remaining British vessel on Lake Huron, having evaded the enemy efforts. An American commander found the ship, but the crew scuttled her before it could be destroyed. They later returned to seize two American vessels and restored British superiority to the Upper Great Lakes. 426. Brown, Samuel R. Views of the Campaigns of the North-Western Army, Etc. Comprising, Sketches of the Campaigns of Generals Hull and Harrison—A Minute and Interesting Account of the Naval Conflict on Lake Erie—Military Anecdotes—Abuses in the Army—Plan of a Military Settlement—View of the Lake Coast from Sandusky to Detroit. Burlington, Vt.: Samuel Mills, 1814. General narration with analyses of the campaigns and other related matters. Reprints materials from his Views on Lake Erie, 1814 (item 669, below). 427. Buell, W. S. “‘Red George’—One of the Macdonells.” Canadian Historical Review 4 (June 1923): 150–59. George Macdonell was an officer in the British Army. When the War of 1812 started, he returned to Canada and served throughout the war with distinction. 428. Bulger, Andrew H. An Autobiographical Sketch of the Services of the Late Captain Andrew Bulger of the Royal Newfoundland Fencible Regiment. Bangalore, [India?]: Regimental Press, 1865. Bulger had a fascinating wartime career and served on the CanadianAmerican frontier throughout the War of 1812 from Niagara to Detroit to Mackinac, Michigan, to Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. 429. Burwash, Ida. “A Young Volunteer of 1812: A Sketch of Major John Richardson, One of the Earliest Canadian Novelists.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 39 (July 1912): 218–25. Richardson, sixteen years old in 1812, enrolled as a “gentleman volunteer” at Amherstburg, Ontario. He was in every engagement in the Ontario area until taken prisoner at Moraviantown; he was then sent to Kentucky and confined. The war experiences dominated his history and fiction writing.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  85 430. Byfield, Shadrach. A Narrative of a Light Company Soldier’s Service, in the 41st Regiment of Foot, during the Late American War; Together with Some Adventures amongst the Indian Tribes, from 1812 to 1814. Bradford, England: John Bubb, 1840. The author enlisted in the militia in England and then enrolled in the regular army, serving from 1809 to 1814 on the Canadian-American frontier. 431. Campbell, Francis Wayland. The War of 1812–13–14 between Great Britain and the United States. A Lecture Delivered at the Montreal Military Institute and before the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal in February 1899. Montreal: Alphonse Pelletier, 1899. A general sketch of the history of the war, principally along the CanadianAmerican border. The author argues that while the American War of Independence may have been justified, the American declaration of war in 1812 was not. Despite its destruction, the war gave Canadians a sense of nationalism. 432. The Canadian Inspector No. 1. Containing a Collection of Facts, Concerning the Government of Sir George Prevost, in the Canadas. Montreal: Nahum Mower, 1815. Within two months of the departure of Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost as Governor in Chief and Captain General of British North America, the Montreal Herald published twenty columns of abusive letters, signed by “Veritas” (see item 522, below). This pro-Prevost booklet examines the Veritas columns and discredits them. 433. Christie, Robert. Memoirs of the Administration of the Colonial Government of Lower-Canada, by Sir James Henry Craig, and Sir George Prevost; from the Year 1807 until the Year 1815, Comprehending the Military and Naval Operations in the Canadas, during the Late War with the United States of America. Quebec: n.p., 1818. A straightforward account of the political and military history of Lower Canada (Quebec) during the War of 1812. 434. Christie, Robert. The Military and Naval Operations in the Canadas, during the Late War with the United States. Including also, the Political History of Lower Canada, during the Administrations of Sir James Henry Craig, and Sir George Prevost; from the Year 1807 until the Year 1815. New York: Re-Oran and Mott, 1818. Similar to the author’s Memoirs of the Administration of the Colonial Government of Lower-Canada (item 434, above). Publication was apparently simultaneous. 435. Clark, Thomas D. “Kentucky in the Northwest Campaign.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 78–98. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963. Kentucky was one of the most vehement states in advocating war. Fear and deep hatred of both the Indians and the British in the Northwest continued for years after the American Revolution. Kentucky contributed heavily to the war as patriotism swept the state. More important, the war led the state into a ruinous course of inflation as its citizens threw caution aside to buy land, goods, and machines on credit. The resulting Panic of 1819 almost paralyzed the state. 436. Coffin, William Foster. 1812; the War, and Its Moral: A Canadian Chronicle. Montreal: John Lovell, 1864.

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86  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A partisan romantic account, principally concerned with the CanadianAmerican frontier during 1812–1813. 437. Colquhoun, A. H. U. “The Career of Joseph Willcocks.” Canadian Historical Review 7 (December 1926): 287–93. Willcocks, a British subject from Ireland, settled in Upper Canada, amassed considerable land holdings, became influential, held public office, and became critical of the government. He chose to raise a unit of like-thinking men to serve with the Americans, mainly along the Niagara Frontier. He was killed at Fort Erie in September 1814. 438. Commins, James. “The War on the Canadian Frontier, 1812–14: Letters Written by Sergt. James Commins, 8th Foot.” Edited by Norman C. Lord. Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 18 (Winter 1939): 199–211. The six letters, all written in August 1815, are a firsthand narrative of the war in Canada from the perspective of a soldier in the 8th Foot, the King’s Regiment. 439. [Cowdell, Thomas Daniel.] A Poetical Account of the American Campaigns of 1812 and 1813; With Some Slight Sketches Relating to the Party Politics Which Governed the United States, During the War, and at Its Commencement. Dedicated to the People of Canada, by the Publisher. Halifax, Nova Scotia: John Howe Jr., 1815. Composed while in residence in America in 1812 and 1813 and addressed as a series of letters to a friend in England. Critical of American motives, boastings, and conduct of the war, especially on the Canadian-American frontier. 440. Cramer, C. H. “Duncan McArthur: The Military Phase.” Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 46 (April 1937): 128–47. McArthur led an American regiment in the Detroit campaign, 1812. Later he was with Harrison as he reclaimed the Detroit area. In 1814 he led a foray into Upper Canada. Never in command of a large army in a vital campaign, his military capabilities remain a matter of conjecture. 441. Crombie, John Newell. “The Twenty-Second United States Infantry: A Forgotten Regiment in a Forgotten War, 1812–1815.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 50 (April 1967): 133–48; 50 (July 1967): 221–38. Discusses the organization, military duty, and battles of this western Pennsylvania regiment, and presents a chronology of its service. The regiment was plagued with epidemics, desertions, and occasional mutinies. The regiment saw action at Fort Niagara in 1812, Fort George and French Creek in 1813, and at Bridgewater, Chippewa, Fort Erie, and Lundy’s Lane (all in Upper Canada) in 1814. 442. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “The ‘Chesapeake’ Crisis as It Affected Upper Canada.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 24 (1927): 281–322. In the wake of the Chesapeake-Leopard affair preparations for defense of Upper Canada were stepped up, especially in light of increased American activity in the Detroit and other nearby American areas. The shipbuilding, the recruitment and training of militia, and the work of the Indian Department paid dividends when war came. 443. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “The County of Norfolk in the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 20 (1923): 9–40.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  87 The county militia was active in the war and suffered from war’s privations and destruction. 444. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander, ed. The Documentary History of the Campaign on the Niagara Frontier. 9 vols. Welland, Ontario: Tribune Office, 1896–1908. Official and unofficial letters, accounts, speeches, and other documents related to the war. The first two volumes deal with the war in 1814 and were so popular that the compiler expanded the series with another seven volumes, covering the years 1812 to the end of the war. Each volume generally covers a particular chronological period. 445. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “An Episode of the War of 1812. The Story of the Schooner ‘Nancy.’” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 9 (1910): 75–126. The Nancy was a fur trade schooner on the upper Great Lakes. With the coming of the War of 1812, the vessel was pressed into service as a transport. Traces the activities of the Nancy throughout the war. Bulk of the article is a miscellany of supporting documents. 446. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “From Isle aux Noix to Chateauguay. A Study of the Military Operations on the Frontier of Lower Canada in 1812 and 1813.” Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3d ser., 7 (1914): 25–102. An overview of British operations along the frontier of Lower Canada during the first two years of the war. 447. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. Record of the Services of Canadian Regiments in the War of 1812. The Glengarry Light Infantry. Facsimile reprint ed. N.p., n.p.: n.d. The Glengarry regiment of light infantry was organized in 1811 in anticipation of war. Describes its services and combat activities. After the destruction of Fort Erie in 1813 the regiment was not involved in military operations. 448. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. Record of the Services of Canadian Regiments in the War of 1812. The Militia of the Eastern District, the Counties of Glengarry, Stormont and Dundas. Facsimile reprint ed. N.p., n.p.: n.d. Four regiments were embodied in 1808 as a militia of the Eastern District of Upper Canada as a precaution if trouble developed with the United States. Describes their support services, including garrison and escort duties, throughout the war. 449. Cumberland, Barlow. “The Navies on Lake Ontario in the War of 1812: Notes from the Papers of a Naval Officer Then Serving on His Majesty’s Ships.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 8 (1907): 124–42. A miscellany of information about ship construction, the altering of schooners to carry guns, equipment, personnel, regulations, and other items pertaining to the navies of both sides, through the war to the RushBagot Treaty of 1817. 450. Curry, Frederick C. “Six Little Schooners.” Inland Seas 2 (July 1946): 185–90. Shortly after the declaration of war, two British armed brigs blockaded Ogdensburg, New York, a harbor on the St. Lawrence River. The blockade was broken and six schooners escaped to Lake Ontario, where they were armed to become effective additions to the American fleet in the War of 1812.

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88  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 451. “Death of Peter Navarre, the Famous Scout of the War of 1812.” Michigan Pioneer Collections 5 (1884): 188–90. Navarre served as scout for the land campaigns in the Canadian-American theater, 1812–1813. Reprinted from the Toledo, Ohio, Commercial edition of March 21, 1874. 452. Douglas, William A. B. Gunfire on the Lakes: The Naval War of 1812–1814 on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 1977. The naval war on the lakes had an influence on the conduct of the whole war. It insured that the only decisive battles were those that tended to preserve American sovereignty rather than to violate it. It frustrated American invasion attempts and prevented incidents that could have been far more damaging to future Canadian-American relations. 453. Dunlop, William. Recollections of the American War, 1812–1814. Toronto: Historical Publishing, 1905. Dr. Dunlop served as a surgeon and combatant with the Connaught Rangers along the Canadian-American border in campaigns of 1812, 1813, 1814. This account first appeared serially in 1847 in the Literary Garland. 454. Emmons, Richard. The Fredoniad: or, Independence Preserved. An Epick Poem on the Late War of 1812. 4 vols. Boston: William Emmons, 1827. A history of the War of 1812 in verse. Approximately one-third of the whole work is devoted to military operations in the Niagara theater. 455. Feuchter, Clyde E. “United States Naval Forces on the Great Lakes.” Inland Seas 1 (April 1945): 33–35. During the War of 1812, American official and public opinion supported naval construction on the Great Lakes whenever needed, but tended to feel that the Atlantic Coast could be protected by forts and gunboats. The value of sea power was demonstrated on Lakes Champlain, Erie, and Ontario. 456. Finan, P. Journal of a Voyage to Quebec, in the Year 1825, with Recollections of Canada, during the Late American War, in the Years 1812–13. Newry, Ireland: Alexander Peacock, 1828. The recollections concern the Irish family’s residence in Canada, particularly Kingston, Upper Canada, where the author’s father was serving in the army. He describes the army and some of the wartime activities, including the burning of York. 457. Gellner, John, ed. Recollections of the War of 1812: Three Eyewitnesses’ Accounts. Canadian Heritage Series. Toronto: Baxter, 1964. Shadrach Byfield was a soldier in the British regulars who saw service from the Detroit campaign in 1812 until he was wounded at Black Rock in 1814. P. Finan was a young boy whose father, a British Army officer, took his family along on campaigns in Upper Canada, 1812–1813. Elias Darnell, a Kentucky volunteer, was in the Detroit campaign during the winter of 1812–1813. 458. Gilpin, Alec Richard. The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1958.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  89 Detailed examination of skirmishes as well as major battles. For the Old Northwest, the war ended Indian menace to development of settlements on the frontier; resulted in clearer delineation of the Canadian-American boundary; brought to the forefront “a multitude” of future political leaders of state and national importance. 459. Graves, Donald. E. Joseph Willcocks and the Canadian Volunteers: An Account of Political Disaffection in Upper Canada During the War of 1812. Master of Arts Thesis, Carleton University, 1982. A study of disaffection in Upper Canada, focusing on Joseph Willcocks, a prewar member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and a unit he raised for American service. The Canadian Volunteers existed from 1813 to 1815 and this thesis discusses the reason for its formation, what purpose it served, and its effectiveness. 460. Graves, Donald E. “The War of 1812 along the St Lawrence Border and the Lake Ontario Littoral: A Canadian Perspective.” In A Shared Heritage: The Historial Legacy of Sackets Harbor and Madison Barracks, edited by Jan M. Saltzgaber, 15–32. Ithaca, N.Y.: Ithaca College, 1992. An overview of the warfare along the Upper St. Lawrence River and in the Lake Ontario region during the War of 1812. 461. Greenhous, Brereton. “A Note on Western Logistics in the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 34 (April 1970): 41–44. Distances, terrain, money shortage, and rather inefficient supply policies were the elements of logistical difficulty for the British and Americans. The Americans had definite advantage in overall logistics which was increased by the superior education and experience of their commissaries. British weaknesses were exaggerated by their failure to examine properly alternative supply routes available to them. 462. Hamil, Fred C. “Michigan in the War of 1812.” Michigan History 44 (September 1960): 257–91. Concerned principally with background causes of the war, the Hull, Perry, and Harrison campaigns. Written primarily for use in pamphlet form by school children. 463. Hannay, James. How Canada Was Held for the Empire: The Story of the War of 1812. London: T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1905. The war was essentially a Canadian-American affair with the conquest of Canada as its object. The Americans were relieved that the contest finally terminated even though the conquest had failed and nothing was said about the right of search and impressment. 464. Harper, John Murdoch. The Annals of the War. Illustrated by a Selection of Historical Ballads. London: Musson, [1912?]. Written to commemorate a century of peace since the ending of the War of 1812. Introductions and extensive notes support eleven “ballads” that recount battles on the Canadian-American frontier from a Canadian perspective. Biographical notes include American British, Canadian, and Indian participants. 465. Hay, George. “Recollections of the War of 1812 by George Hay, Eighth Marquis of Tweeddale.” Edited by Lewis Einstein. American Historical Review 32 (October 1926): 69–78.

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90  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Hay served on the American-Canadian front and was taken prisoner at Lundy’s Lane. His chivalry to Americans was well known and placed him in good stead. 466. Hayes, John F. Treason at York. Vancouver, British Columbia: Copp Clark, n.d. A historical novel of the adventures and experiences of Alan Crawford and Hugh Ainsley, teenagers, throughout the War of 1812, especially in the environs of York (Toronto). 467. Hitsman, J. Mackay. “Alarum on Lake Ontario, Winter 1812–1813.” Military Affairs 23 (Fall 1959): 129–38. Describes the apprehension of both the Americans and the British that the other would launch a surprise attack across frozen Lake Ontario in the winter of 1812–1813. 468. Hitsman, J. Mackay. “Sir George Prevost’s Conduct of the Canadian War of 1812.” In Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1962, 34–43. , 1962 Despite general criticism of Prevost’s ineptness as a field commander at Plattsburgh, he was extremely competent in defensive strategy in his overall direction of the war. Canada, therefore, was kept safer from a much stronger enemy. 469. Hitsman, J. Mackay. “The War of 1812 in Canada.” History Today 12 (September 1962): 632–39. A rare assessment of the political and military accomplishments of George Prevost, governor general and commander of British forces in North America during the War of 1812, in preserving the Canadian frontier. 470. Horsman, Reginald. “The Role of the Indian in the War.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 60–77. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963. During the War of 1812 the Indians exerted their last great effort to retain at least a portion of the Old Northwest. They fought, were conquered, and lost all hope of further effective resistance. Their importance stemmed from the inefficiency of the American offensive that allowed them to play a significant part in the British defense. They helped save Canada, but they lost the Old Northwest. 471. Hubbard, Bela. “Memoir of Luther Harvey.” Michigan Pioneer Collections (1877): 406–14. During the War of 1812, Harvey carried dispatches between Cleveland and Fort Meigs, sold produce to Oliver Hazard Perry’s fleet, and performed other services in the Detroit area. 472. Hunter, A. T. “How Upper Canada Was Saved in the War of 1812.” Canadian Defence Quarterly 8 (April 1931): 400–404. Stresses the importance of the Commissary General of Montreal. With the manpower of Upper Canada taken from the newly settled farms, it depended upon almost everything, especially arms, ammunition, clothing, and food for the troops, to come from Montreal. 473. Irving, Lukin Homfray. Officers of the British Forces in Canada during the War of 1812–15. Welland, Ontario: Canadian Military Institute, 1908.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  91 From land grant records, militia orders, petitions, correspondence, obituaries, and other sources. Includes army, militia, marine, naval, and Indian participants. Appendices include data on quartermaster items, pensions, prize money, and other details. 474. Jenks, William L. “Fort Gratiot and Its Builder Gen. Charles Gratiot.” Michigan History Magazine 4 (January 1920): 141–55. The fort was erected in 1814 at the entrance to the St. Clair River from Lake Huron. It was established there to control navigation of Lake Huron, to protect Americans north of Lake St. Clair from the Indians, to hold back hostile Canadian-based incursions, and to serve as a base for a possible invasion of Canada. This was the first independent construction of Gratiot, the young engineer officer who had already seen service in the Detroit area. 475. Johnson, David R. “Fort Amanda—A Historical Redress.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 48 (Summer 1976): 102–6. A reconstruction of the events that led to the construction of Fort Amanda in November 1812 on the Auglaize River, a revision of the origin of its name, and the role played by the fort. Its principal function was to serve as a supply depot. 476. Johnston, Charles M. “William Claus and John Norton: A Struggle for Power in Old Ontario.” Ontario History 57 (June 1965): 101–8. John Norton was an adopted Mohawk chief because of his influence on the Six Nations and his military leadership of them in the War of 1812. William Claus in the Indian Department feared Norton might abuse his patronage power and was jealous of his influence with the Indians. Claus impeded Norton whenever possible, especially when Norton was empowered to distribute British gifts to deserving warriors of the Six Nations. 477. Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. “These Lands Are Ours.” American Heritage 12 (August 1961): 14–25, 83–89. A biographical account of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, particularly of his role in the coming of the War of 1812 and his involvement in the war. With proper support of his own people and British allies, Tecumseh might well have been successful. 478. Klinck, C. F. “Some Anonymous Literature of the War of 1812.” Ontario History 49 (Spring 1957): 49–60. Bibliographic speculation, principally about the authorship of The Lucubrations of Humphrey Ravelin, Esq., Late Major in the * * Regiment of Infantry, published 1823 in London. The work narrates military life and Indian warfare in Canada. 479. Knopf, Richard C., ed. Document Transcriptions of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. 11 vols. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Historical Society, [1957]–1962. Mimeographs. The volumes are concerned with: William Henry Harrison; Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr.; Thomas Worthington; anecdotes of the Lake Erie area; reports appearing in the National Intelligencer; letters to the Secretary of War; the freight receipt book of Fort Fayette at Pittsburgh (coauthored with Frederick F. Seely); manuscripts in the Western Reserve Historical Society. 480. Landon, Harry F. Bugles on the Border: The Story of the War of 1812 in Northern New York. Watertown, N.Y.: Watertown Daily Times, 1954.

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92  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography An overview of events along the Upper St Lawrence frontier during the War of 1812. 481. Magill, M. L. “William Allan and the War of 1812.” Ontario History 64 (September 1972): 132–41. Allan, a York merchant and militia officer, commanded the York militia at the Battle of Queenston Heights, and was one of those who negotiated the surrender of York. As a prisoner on parole he served as a government agent and continued his merchant activities. He returned to active garrison duty in mid-1814 for the rest of the war. 482. Mahon, John K. “British Command Decisions in the Northern Campaigns of the War of 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 46 (September 1965): 219–37. With Britain so much occupied with Napoleon Bonaparte, to an extraordinary extent the execution of the war effort in the Canadian-American theater was a consequence of command decisions in the field. Therein is the explanation of the failures and successes. 483. Mann, James. Medical Sketches of the Campaigns of 1812, 13, 14. To Which Are Added, Surgical Cases; Observations on Military Hospitals; and Flying Hospitals Attached to a Moving Army. Also, an Appendix, Comprising a Dissertation on Dysentery; Which Obtained the Boylstonian Prize Medal for the Year 1806. And Observations on the Winter Epidemic of 1815–1816, Denominated Peripneumonia Notha; as It Appeared at Sharon and Rochester, State of Massachusetts. Dedham, Mass.: H. Mann, 1816. In effect, a medical history of the War of 1812 along much of the Canadian-American frontier with analyses, case histories, and other matters. 484. Marquis, Thomas Gutherie. Naval Warfare on the Great Lakes, 1812–1814. Ryerson Canadian History Readers. Toronto: Ryerson, n.d. Prepared for elementary school pupils in Canada. Describes naval action on Lakes Champlain, Erie, Huron, and Ontario. 485. Marshall, Thomas Maitland, ed. “Remnants of the Letter Files of the Dearborn Family.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 2 (December 1915): 407–24. Nine letters, 1812–1813, including several addressed to Major General Henry Dearborn concerning matters of the War of 1812. 486. Melish, John. A Description of the British Possessions in North America, and of the Most Important Places along the Lines in the United States; Intended as an Accompaniment to Melish’s Map of the Seat of War in North America. Philadelphia: T. and G. Palmer, 1812. Pamphlet. Information about geography, settlements, fortifications, and relevant matters along the Canadian-American frontier from the Great Lakes eastward. 487. Memorial of the Inhabitants Residing on the Niagara Frontier, Respectfully Addressed to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: Jonathan Elliot, 1817. Pamphlet. Occupying private buildings for use and conduct of the war furnished the enemy the principal motive for the destruction of the whole Niagara frontier during the War of 1812. The Niagara sufferers petitioned for prompt relief.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  93 488. Merritt, William Hamilton. Journal of Events Principally on the Detroit and Niagara Frontiers, during the War of 1812. St. Catharines, Canada West [Ontario]: Historical Society of B.N.A., 1863 (see item 520). The author’s account of service in the dragoons from the initial campaign in the Detroit area. He was taken prisoner at Lundy’s Lane. Closes with the narrative of this experience, July–December 1814. 489. [“Miscellaneous Documents Relating to the War of 1812.”] Michigan Pioneer Collections 8 (1886): 620–59. Principally, but not exclusively, concerned with the Detroit area. 490. Myers, Mordecai. Reminiscences, 1780 to 1814, Including Incidents in the War of 1812–14. Letters Pertaining to His Early Life. Written by Major Myers, 13th Infantry, U.S. Army to His Son. Washington, D.C.: Crane Company, 1900. The bulk of the pamphlet concerns his experiences in the war in the Niagara and Lake Champlain areas. 491. Near, Irvin W. “The Causes and Results of the Failure of the American Campaigns on the Niagara Frontier in the Second War with England.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 91–102. Impressment, Indian troubles in the Northwest, and a determined Congress forced U.S. president James Madison into war. Contrary to previous experience and any probability of success, it was resolved to invade and conquer Canada by way of the Niagara frontier and its western border. “Fossilized” military men with “obsolete” experience were put in charge. Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott were conspicuous exceptions, serving with distinction. Otherwise the war on this frontier proved the joint pursuit of peace was the proper course to follow. 492. Newsom, Nathen. Journal of Nathen Newsom. (Original in Ohio State Museum Library). Transcribed by James Ohde. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1957. Newsom’s account of his service in the Northwestern Army, with entries covering August 1812–February 1813. Apparently written after the service was terminated. 493. Northcutt, William B. “War of 1812 Diary of William B. Northcutt.” Edited by G. Glenn Clift. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 56 (April 1958): 165–80; 56 (July 1958): 253–69; 56 (October 1958): 325–43. Northcutt, a Kentucky volunteer, participated in the River Raisin campaign, in an expeditionary force against northern Indiana Indians, and the spring and summer of 1813 campaigns as a member of “The Bourbon Blues.” 494. Papers Relating to the War of 1812. Series. Western Reserve Historical Society Tracts 3 (November 1870); 7 (1871); 12 (November 1872); 15 (April 1873); 17 (November 1873); 18 (November 1873); 19 (November 1873); 28 (October 1875). The eight tracts are extracts from manuscripts from various collections of the society related to militia matters in Ohio, 1812–1813. While the separate tracts appear under varying titles, the initial title has been used in the citation for the entire series. 495. Park, William Edward. “Tecumseh: The Climax of the Indian Tragedy.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 42 (December 1913): 216–24.

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94  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Narrates the events in the life of Tecumseh from the circumstances leading to the Battle of Tippecanoe to his death at the Battle of the Thames. His death marks the end of the national significance of Indians. 496. Parker, Arthur C. “The Senecas in the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 15 (1916): 78–90. Although the Seneca were divided in opinion about the war, they came to believe they were faced with an English invasion of their own territory. They rendered patriotic service, along with other Iroquois, to the American cause. 497. Parsons, Thomas W. “George Croghan in the War of 1812.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 20 (Autumn 1948): 192–202. Joining the army as an enlisted man in 1811 and commissioned as an officer, Croghan was with Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was in the campaign to raise the Indian siege after the fall of Detroit, and placed in command of Fort Winchester (formerly Fort Defiance) as the army prematurely moved to recapture Detroit. When the British siege of Fort Meigs failed, they stormed Fort Stephenson, now commanded by Croghan. This made Croghan a hero, and he later was put in command at Detroit. 498. Pearkes, G. R. “Detroit and Miami.” Canadian Defence Quarterly 11 (July 1934): 456–66. Narrates the capture of Detroit, August 1812, and the failure to take Fort Meigs, May 1813. The Welsh Regiment which saw more fighting on the Canadian frontier in the first year of the war than any other British unit participated in both of these actions. 499. Pray, Carl E., Jr. “The Contributions of Governor Shelby and the People of Kentucky to the Freedom of Michigan in the War of 1812.” Michigan History Magazine 29 (October–December 1945): 522–40. From the fateful attempt of James Winchester to regain Detroit after its fall in 1812 to Harrison’s victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, Kentucky volunteers and supplies were prominent. Governor Isaac Shelby played a principal role in personal leadership of Kentucky troops as well as influencing the national government in major decisions concerning the war in the Northwest. 500. Richardson, John. Richardson’s War of 1812. With notes and a life of the author by Alexander C. Casselman. Toronto: Historical, 1902. First published in 1842 as War of 1812. First Series. Containing a Full and Detailed Narrative of the Operations of the Right Division, of the Canadian Army. The narrative account was designed for use in Canadian schools to portray “the brilliant feats of arms, and sterling loyalty” of the pupils’ predecessors, unperverted by American publications. Traced through the Procter-Tecumseh defeat, 1813. 501. Riddell, William Renwick. “Benajah Mallory, Traitor.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 26 (1930): 573–78. Mallory, attracted by free land, emigrated to western Upper Canada after the American Revolution. He became a considerable land holder, prominent and influential in his community, and was elected to the legislature for successive terms. He became an officer in a regiment of renegade Canadians helping the Americans. He was convicted of high treason in absentia, and his lands were eventually confiscated.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  95 502. Roach, Isaac. “Journal of Major Isaac Roach, 1812–1824.” Edited by Mary Roach Archer. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 17 (1893): 129–58, 281–315. Roach served as an officer during the War of 1812 on the CanadianAmerican front, and was captured and taken as a prisoner to Quebec. He escaped but was eventually retaken. 503. Robinson, Charles Walker. Canada and Canadian Defence: The Defensive Policy of the Dominion in Relation to the Character of Her Frontier, the Events of the War of 1812–14, and Her Position To-day. Toronto: Musson, [1910]. An analysis of the defensive mechanism of British regulars, Canadian militia, and Indian allies that combined to keep the United States from carrying out its conquest of Canada. Regards such a study of the War of 1812 as furnishing significant lessons for the pre–World War I British Empire and Canada. 504. Sibert, Daniel. “Daniel Sibert’s Reminiscences of the War of 1812—Letters to His Brother, Jeremiah Sibert.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 36 (January 1938): 66–71. These letters recall two tours of duty as a volunteer Kentucky militia man. The first took Sibert into northern Ohio. On the second, he was with Harrison’s campaign to the Battle of the Thames. 505. Slocum, Charles Elihu. The Ohio Country between the Years 1783 and 1815 Including Military Operations That Twice Saved to the United States the Country West of the Alleghany Mountains after the Revolutionary War. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1910. Views the War of 1812 as the true war of independence. A pervading thread in the narrative concerns the role of alcohol, especially its effects on the Indian dimension of the equation. 506. Slocum, Charles Elihu. “The Origin, Description and Service of Fort Winchester, with Mention of Some of the Persons and Events Connected with It.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 9 (January 1901): 253–77. With Hull’s surrender at Detroit, the Old Northwest frontier was exposed. Fort Winchester was erected at the junction of the Auglaize and Maumee Rivers, about midway in the Maumee Valley. It served as an observation and supply post throughout the war. 507. Smelser, Marshall. “Tecumseh, Harrison, and the War of 1812.” Indiana Magazine of History 65 (March 1969): 25–44. The Indian-white struggle was a conflict between two very able natural leaders. Traces the activities and relationships of Tecumseh and Harrison in the Old Northwest from their conflict over land cessions in Indian Territory to the Battle of the Thames. The story is more biographical and dramatic than geographical and analytical. 508. Smith, Seba (Elizabeth Oakes Prince Smith). “The Western Captive; or, The Times of Tecumseh.” New World 2 (October 1842): 1–39. A story of the Tippecanoe to Thames years of Tecumseh and Swaying Reed, who was a captive of the Shawnee and whose name was Margaret before captivity. 509. Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah. In the Wake of the Eighteen-Twelvers; Fights and Flights of Frigates and Fore-’n’-afters in the War of 1812–1815 on the Great Lakes. London: John Lane/Bodley Head, 1913.

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96  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A romantic narrative account of naval engagements on the inland waterways including the lakes and rivers. 510. Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah. The Story of the ‘Nancy’ and Other Eighteen-Twelvers. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1926. This is the author’s In the Wake of the Eighteen-Twelvers (item 509, above), with one chapter relocated and with an additional chapter devoted to the story of the Nancy. 511. Some Account of the Public Life of the Late Lieutenant-General Sir George Prevost, Bart. Particularly of His Services in the Canadas; Including a Reply to the Strictures on His Military Character, Contained in an Article in the Quarterly Review for October, 1822. London: T. Cadell and Egerton, 1823. Evidence to refute charges made against Prevost that death prevented him from fully clearing them up. Includes extensive documentation. Attributed to E. B. Brenton, assistant secretary to Prevost. 512. A Song, Composed on the Cause and Progress, of the Late American War. Weathersfield, Vt.: Printed for Itinerant Book-Sellers [by Isaac Eddy], 1816. Pamphlet. A poetic account of the war, blaming the British for the troubles that led to the war, and narrating the war’s progress principally along the Canadian-American front. 513. Sons of the American Revolution. The Battle Fields of the Maumee Valley. Washington, D.C.: Sons of the American Revolution, 1896. Six lectures concerned with settlement, Indian-white warfare, military campaigns, the peace treaty, and historic sites of the War of 1812 era in the Old Northwest. 514. Spalding, Lyman A. Recollections of the War of 1812 and Early Life in Western New York. Occasional Contribution of the Niagara County Historical Society 2. Lockport, N.Y.: Niagara County Historical Society, 1949. Pamphlet. The author was twelve to fifteen years old during the war. Since his father was furnishing food and supplies for the army, he witnessed British interception and other limited war activities. 515. Stacey, C. P. “Naval Power on the Lakes, 1812–1814.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 49–59. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963. Sea power helps to explain Hull’s surrender at Detroit, as well as Henry Procter’s abandonment of Malden and his defeat on the Thames. If the United States had not been deficient in planning, strategy, and generalship, a successful attack on Montreal would have won all of Canada to the west. British sea power would have retained Quebec and territory to the east. Naval superiority on the lakes was the key to success in North America. 516. Stacey, C. P. “The Ships of the British Squadron on Lake Ontario, 1812–14.” Canadian Historical Review 34 (December 1953): 311–23. Lake Ontario was of greatest strategic importance on the British line of communications. Data on each of the British naval vessels indicate the importance placed on the role of the lake in strategic matters. 517. Stanley, George F. G. “The Contribution of the Canadian Militia During the War.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 28–48. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  97 The Canadian militia was involved in every action along the CanadianAmerican border, including numerous minor incidents and guard duty. Without the support of the militia, both in and behind the lines of the fighting troops, the British regular troops might have abandoned Upper Canada to the Americans to confine the war to Montreal and Quebec. British regulars and Canadian militia complemented each other to form an effective military force. 518. Stanley, George F. G. “The Significance of the Six Nations Participation in the War of 1812.” Ontario History 55 (December 1963): 215–31. Early during the war the American and Canadian Iroquois adopted a policy of neutrality. They did, nevertheless, become involved in fighting in 1812 and 1813. At the Battle of Beaver Dams they were involved on both sides. The Canadian Iroquois gave needed support at Queenston Heights and were important in the absence of enough British troops. 519. Stevens, John R. The Story of H.M. Armed Schooner TECUMSETH. Occasional Papers 9. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Museum of Canada, 1961. Principally a description of the schooner-gunboat Tecumseth. She was constructed too late to see action in the War of 1812, but did see patrol service on the Canadian side of Lake Huron. Her hulk was raised in 1953 in Georgian Bay. 520. Sutherland, Stuart, ed. A Desire of Serving and Defending my Country. The War of 1812 Journals of William Hamilton Merrit. Toronto: ISER Publications, 2001. An annotated version of a diary kept by a Canadian officer who led the Niagara Light Dragoons, a provincial unit raised during the War of 1812 (see item 488). 521. Swayze, Fred. The Rowboat War on the Great Lakes, 1812–1814. Great Stories of Canada Series. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1965. A fictionalized account of the naval activities and engagements on the Great Lakes. The status quo antebellum situation at the end of the war seemed to teach that the war was pointless. 522. Veritas [pseud.]. The Letters of Veritas, Re-Published from the Montreal Herald; Containing a Succinct Narrative of the Military Administration of Sir George Prevost, during His Command in the Canadas; Whereby It Will Appear Manifest, That the Merit of Preserving Them from Conquest, Belongs Not to Him. Montreal: W. Gray, 1815. The ten letters, April–June 1815, were written as an account of the military command of George Prevost. Veritas was John Richardson, a Montreal merchant, who belonged to an Anglophone faction that hated Prevost. Richardson’s letters reflected the faction’s hostility. 523. Vorderstrasse, Alfred Bernhardt. Detroit in the War of 1812. Detroit’s 250th Birthday Festival Historical Booklets, edited by Joe L. Norris. Detroit: Wayne Statte University Press, 1951. Pamphlet. A narrative account. 524. Walker, Adam. A Journal of Two Campaigns of the Fourth Regiment of U.S. Infantry, in the Michigan and Indiana Territories, Under the Command of Col. John P. Boyd, and Lt. Col. James Miller during the Years 1811, and 12. Keene, N.H.: Sentinel Press, 1816.

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98  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The author was with a detachment of militia from New England. The journal narrates travel westward, participation in the Battle of Tippecanoe under Harrison, the march to Detroit under William Hull, and being taken prisoner in the fall of Detroit and eventually paroled and returned to New England. Also appended: “Gen. Harrison’s Campaign at the Retaking of Detroit, and the Defeat of the Army under Gen. Proctor,” extracted from Samuel R. Brown, Views of the Campaigns of the North-Western Army, 24–75 (item 426, above). 525. “War of 1812: Reports and Correspondence from the Canadian Archives at Ottawa.” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 2 (October 1930): [1–14]. Concerned with the Canadian-American theater, 1812–1813, principally the events in the Detroit and Lake Erie regions. 526. Warner, Clarence M. “The Bay of Quinte Settlements During the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 13 (1914): 189–98. The Bay of Quinte area along the north shore of Lake Ontario was fairly well settled in 1812 by the Loyalists of the American Revolution and their relatives and friends, as well as by Mohawk Indians from upstate New York. Discusses response to militia calls and other measures from the ChesapeakeLeopard affair when American invasion seemed possible to the conclusion of the war. 527. Whitman, Benjamin, Jr. The Heroes of the North, or The Battles of Lake Erie, and Champlain. Two Poems. Boston: Barber Badger, 1816. Pamphlet. Sings the praises of Oliver Hazard Perry’s and Thomas Macdonough’s decisive victories. 528. Wilder, Patrick A. “Sackets Harbor as Military Base and Battlefield: An American Perspective.” In A Shared Heritage: The Historial Legacy of Sackets Harbor and Madison Barracks, edited by Jan M. Saltzgaber, 33–45. Ithaca, N.Y.: Ithaca College, 1992. A discussion of the role played by the U.S. Navy’s Lake Ontario base during the war. 529. Williams, Samuel. Two Western Campaigns in the War of 1812–13. Expedition of Captain Henry Brush, with Supplies for General Hull, 1812. Expedition of Governor Meigs, for the Relief of Fort Meigs, 1813. Miscellanies 2, Ohio Valley Historical Series 7. Cincinnati, Ohio: Robert Clarke, 1870. The author participated in both of the expeditions. His narration is in the third person. The two sketches originally appeared in Ladies’ Repository, 1854. 530. Willis, Frank B. “Fort Morrow Soldiers, of the War of 1812, Honored.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 36 (October 1927): 572–77. The speech of Senator Willis on the occasion of the marking of the graves of thirteen unknown soldiers of the War of 1812. They are buried at the site of “Fort Morrow,” in Wyatt Cemetery, south of Waldo, Ohio. 531. Withrow, W. H. Neville Trueman, the Pioneer Preacher: A Tale of the War of 1812. 4th ed. Toronto: William Briggs, 1900. A novel about Chippewa, Fort George, Lundy’s Lane, Niagara, and Queenston Heights. Its theme is that Canadian Methodism was no less patriotic than pious.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  99 532. Wonsetler, Adelaide Hill, and Wonsetler, John C. Me and the General. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1941. Juvenile fiction. Powderhorn, a lad of ten, was so named for his only possession. Captured by Mohawk Indians in central Pennsylvania in 1812, he was taken to Amherstburg, Ontario, where he came under the spell of the British commanding officer. After many adventures, he recognized his true allegiance and gave his services to American forces. 533. Wood, William Charles Henry, ed. Select British Documents of the Canadian War of 1812. Publications of the Champlain Society. 3 vols. in 4. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1920–28. An extensive introduction by the editor is in itself a history of the war. The four volumes—for 1812, 1813, 1814, and miscellaneous documents relating to more general topics—together contain a continuum of the war as a basis for research. 534. Zaslow, Morris, and Turner, Wesley B., eds. The Defended Border: Upper Canada and the War of 1812. A Collection of Writings Giving a Comprehensive Picture of the War of 1812 in Upper Canada: The Military Struggle, the Effects of the War on the People, and the Legacies of the War. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1964. Twenty-six essays, reprinted from various sources, are written by historians, journalists, and politicians and grouped under three headings: “The War on Land and Water”; “The War and the People”; and “The Legacies of the War.”

B. The American Offensive against Canada, 1812 1. General 535. Berton, Pierre. The Invasion of Canada, 1812–1813. 1st American ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980. A popular history written by a well-known Canadian writer. Provides a background to the War of 1812 and an overview of the first two years of that struggle. Includes twenty-one theater maps. A subsequent volume describes events from mid-1813 to the end of the war (see item 648). 536. Blatchford, Samuel. A Farewell Address, Delivered in the Dutch Church at Waterford; Occasioned by the Departure for the Frontiers of Three Detached Companies of Artillery, of the Militia of the State of New-York, on the 21st of September, 1812. Albany, N.Y.: Websters and Skinners, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: I Corinthians 17:23. “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ” of the text is needed by the militia: for the pardon of sins, for the overcoming of temptation, in the discharge of duty, for safety from a ferocity of character, and for support in a dying hour. 537. Bulkley, John M. “The River Raisin Monuments at Monroe, Michigan.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 15 (April 1906): 141–54. In commemoration of the battle and massacre of several hundred Americans at River Raisin, January 1813. 538. “The Cameron Rolls, 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 1 (1899): 132–38.

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100  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Rolls of the regiment of York militia, Captain Duncan Cameron, commanding in 1812. Separate rolls of those who volunteered for special duty, those granted leaves, and deserters. 539. Darling, Carlos Parsons. “Soldiers of 1812: Military Lists and Other Documents Relating to Vermont History. Found among the Papers of Captain Luke Parsons, Who Served as Captain of Cavalry in the War of 1812.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 6 (October–December 1912): 777–80; 7 (April–June 1913): 1091–93. Miscellaneous lists, muster rolls, and a general order, variously dated in 1812. 540. De Gaugreben, Frederick. “Baron de Gaugreben’s Memoir on the Defence of Upper Canada.” Edited by H. R. Holmden. Canadian Historical Review 2 (March 1921): 58–68. De Gaugreben served as an engineer officer in the King’s German Legion in Canada, 1812–1815. His memoir was written in 1812 and rewritten after the war. He discusses the Upper Canada–American boundaries, the sparse population, distances, and the means by which an inferior force could render a superior force attack ineffective. He also proposes military canals including what became the Rideau Canal. 541. Douglas, William A. B. “The Anatomy of Naval Incompetence: The Provincial Marine in Defence of Upper Canada Before 1813.” Ontario History 71 (March 1979): 3–25. The Provincial Marine was the only British naval force on the Great Lakes in the early months of the War of 1812. It transported troops, captured enemy vessels, and discouraged attacks on British posts. It was not competent, however, to fight a naval war on the lakes because it did not offer an attractive career, and adequately qualified personnel could not be recruited. Its existence ended in 1813 with the arrival of officers and sailors of the Royal Navy. 542. Edgar, Matilda Ridout. General Brock. Makers of Canada 4, Anniversary Edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1926. Originally published in 1904 and in several subsequent editions, this edition was revised, in light of newly available materials, by Ernest Alexander Cruikshank. A sympathetic biography, principally concerned with his political and military commands in Canada during 1812. 543. Elliott, Jesse Duncan. Correspondence in Relation to the Capture of the British Brigs Detroit and Caledonia, on the Night of October 8, 1812. Philadelphia: United States Book and Job Printing Office, 1843. Pamphlet. Correspondence of Elliott and others concerning controversy over his capture of the two vessels. Elliott was Perry’s predecessor in command on Lake Erie. 544. Fidelis [pseud.]. “For King and Country: A Story of 1812.” Canadian Monthly and National Review 5 (February 1874): 102–16; 5 (March 1874): 192–213; 5 (April 1874): 283–304; 5 (May 1874): 381–400; 5 (June 1874): 481–501. The only clue to the identity of Fidelis, if it is to be accepted, is in the table of contents where this work is listed as being by Miss A. M. Machar. It is a story set in Upper Canada, starting before the War of 1812 and continuing to the Battle of Queenston Heights, October 1812.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  101 545. Lamb, W. Kaye. “Sir Isaac Brock: The Hero of Queenston Heights.” In After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812, ed. Philip P. Mason, 17–27. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press/Toronto: Ryerson, 1963. Isaac Brock’s plans and preparations made effective Canadian resistance possible in 1812. His foresight of circumstances and probable events was amazingly accurate. Brock had a major share in Canada’s survival in 1812. He forced William Hull’s surrender at Detroit but lost his life at Queenston Heights. 546. Lethbridge, Colonel. “Despatch from Colonel Lethbridge to Major-General Brock.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 10 (1913): 57–59. Dated August 10, 1812, Kingston, Upper Canada. Lethbridge informs Brock of various matters, principally the state of the militia he inspected on a recent trip. 547. Noble, Henry Harmon, contrib. “General Orders of the Commander-inChief of the New York State Forces, 1812.” American Historical Register and Monthly Gazette of the Historical, Military and Patriotic-Hereditary Societies of the United States of America, new ser., 1 (March 1897): 16–26. April–June 1812 orders primarily concerned with organizational matters. 548. Oman, C. W. C. “How General Isaac Brock Saved Canada.” Blackwood’s Magazine 192 (December 1912): 733–50. Brock, with “a gallant handful” of Canadian militia and British regulars, triumphed at Detroit and Niagara to save Canada and to determine “the future course” of its history. Ranks as the outstanding British success in an otherwise unspectacular conduct of the war. 549. Randall, Emilius O., ed. “Ohio in the War of 1812.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 28 (July 1919): 286–368. Excerpts from The Trump of Fame, a weekly newspaper published at Warren, Ohio, in 1812. The coverage includes news of the war, Indian negotiations, and dispatches from other papers. 550. Richardson, John. Major Richardson’s Major-General Sir Isaac Brock and the 41st Regiment. Edited by T. B. Higginson. Burks Falls, Ontario: Old Rectory Press, 1976. Pamphlet. Richardson’s letter to the editor of United States Magazine, March 1846. He takes issue with some of the things said in Ferdinand Brock Tupper’s recently published biography of Brock concerning the War of 1812 in Upper Canada (Ontario). Tupper was Brock’s nephew. 551. Ritchie, Margaret K., and Ritchie, Carson I. A. “A Laker’s Log.” American Neptune 17 (July 1957): 203–11. Frederick John Johnston served as a midshipman on the Woolwich. His 1812 log describes the mission to Lake Ontario to block American fleet building efforts in the forests around the lake; American and Canadian scenery; and personal opinions about his commanding officer. 552. Stacey, C. P. “Commodore Chauncey’s Attack on Kingston Harbour, November 10, 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 32 (June 1951): 126–38. On November 10, 1812, an American squadron attacked the British naval station at Kingston hoping to cut out the Royal George; it failed. This first naval engagement on Lake Ontario was a small affair. Control of the lake was so important that neither side would risk a decisive engagement without certainty of victory.

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102  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 553. Vitz, Robert C. “James Taylor, the War Department, and the War of 1812.” Old Northwest 2 (June 1976): 107–30. Taylor served as agent for construction of an arsenal in northern Kentucky and subsequent additions, as quarter-master and paymaster for Hull’s troops, and in lesser capacities subsequently. Financial matters, credit, authority, and other jurisdictional disputes occasioned by poor record keeping and faulty government administration continued to plague him for many years.

2. The Detroit-Amherstburg Region 554. Allen, John. “A Letter from Colonel John Allen.” Edited by Edgar B. Wesley. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 36 (July 1927): 332–39. Allen commanded a regiment of Kentucky volunteers under James Winchester. His letter from Fort Defiance on the Maumee River narrates the march from Georgetown, Kentucky, and an account of events until its writing on October 2–3, 1812. 555. Atherton, William. Narrative of the Suffering and Defeat of the North-Western Army, under General Winchester: Massacre of the Prisoners: Sixteen Months Imprisonment of the Writer and Others with the Indians and British. Frankfort, Ky.: A. G. Hodges, 1842. A personal account of the River Raisin Massacre and the events leading to it. Most of the account, however, concerns his subsequent experiences as a prisoner of war. 556. Bacon, Lydia B. “Mrs. Lydia B. Bacon’s Journal, 1811–1812.” Edited by Mary M. Crawford. Indiana Magazine of History 40 (December 1944): 367–86; 41 (March 1945): 59–79. Bacon accompanied her husband, a quartermaster officer, from Boston to Vincennes, Indiana; to Detroit; and then back to Boston; her husband participated in the Battle of Tippecanoe. They traveled with Hull’s expedition to Detroit. She was twice taken prisoner, and he once. 557. Beal, Vernon L. “John McDonnell and the Ransoming of American Captives after the River Raisin Massacre.” Michigan History 35 (September 1951): 331–51. Following the fall of Detroit, James Winchester’s attempt to regain Detroit was disastrous. His defeat and surrender at Frenchtown near the River Raisin was followed by an Indian massacre of wounded American prisoners. The unhurt American prisoners had been moved to Detroit. Some ninety men with minor wounds escaped death and were taken by the Indians to Detroit. John McDonnell, a young merchant, and Detroit citizens spent a small fortune redeeming the Americans from their Indian captors. 558. Beall, William K. “Journal of William K. Beall, July–August 1812.” American Historical Review 17 (July 1912): 783–808. Beall joined Hull’s army in 1812 and became assistant quartermaster general. While aboard the vessel carrying Hull’s supplies and records to Detroit, Beall was taken prisoner. His journal relates these developments and his July–August prisoner’s account of the war. 559. Bishop, Levi. “The Battle of Brownstown, 1812.” Michigan Pioneer Collections 6 (1884): 464–66.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  103 August 6, 1812, Tecumseh turned back a unit dispatched by Hull to escort a cattle and provisions supply train on the way to Detroit. The skirmish is called the Battle of Brownstown. 560. Bishop, Levi. “The Battle of Monguagon.” Michigan Pioneer Collections 6 (1883): 466–69. After the Battle of Brownstown, Hull recrossed to Detroit from Canada and sent a large detachment of regulars to escort the same supply train to Detroit. The British in the Battle of Monguagon were repulsed in their efforts to stop the escort party. 561. Black, Samuel. Diary and Notes of War of 1812. Edited by Robert E. Craver. Chillicothe, Ohio: David K. Webb, 1947. The notes are from August 26–December 15, 1812, mostly quartermaster transactions and rosters. Black commanded a company of Ohio militia. The diary, with entries for November 14–December 20, 1812, tells of his life in camp, apparently after returning from the northwestern Ohio or Detroit campaign of the year, and his eventual return home. 562. Brown, Ashley. “The Expedition of Colonel John B. Campbell of the 19th U.S. Infantry in Nov. 1812 from Franklintown [sic] to the Mississinewa Indian Villages.” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 8 (January 1936): [1–6]. Campbell’s expedition was one of several sent by William Henry Harrison to quiet the restive Indians in northwestern Ohio and adjoining areas of Indiana. Campbell was successful but his troops had a difficult time on their return with half of the 600 men suffering frostbite. 563. Byrd, Cecil Kash. “The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest: First Phase.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1942. Discusses factors that made the West the “most bellicose” section of the country before the War of 1812 and why it furnished the leadership in war legislation. Reconstructs the history of the Northwestern Army and its surrender at Detroit. Concludes that Hull has been badly maligned. His army was not fitted for its charge and he did not receive any support from any other army or the government. Hull had no alternative but to surrender. 564. Catlin, George B. “Michigan’s Early Military Roads.” Michigan History Magazine 13 (Spring 1929): 196–207. The trail blazed by Hull in 1812 and somewhat improved in subsequent usage by relief forces, supply trains, and others, became the principal basis for later governmental military road construction into Michigan. 565. Clarke, James Freeman. History of the Campaign of 1812, and Surrender of the Post of Detroit. New York: D. Appleton, 1848. William Hull’s grandson writes to rescue the general’s reputation as a result of the publicity and court-martial that followed the surrender of Detroit. This publication constitutes pages 291–482 of Maria Campbell, Revolutionary Services and Civil Life of General William Hull; Prepared from His Manuscripts, by His Daughter: Together with the History of the Campaign of 1812, and Surrender of the Post of Detroit, by His Grandson (New York: D. Appleton, 1848).

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104  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 566. Clarke, James Freeman. William Hull and the Surrender of Detroit: A Biographical Sketch Taken, with a Few Omissions, from the Volume “Memorial and Biographical Sketches.” Together with Extracts from Letters from the Appendix in the Volume “General Hull’s Military and Civil Life.” Boston: George H. Ellis, 1912. Pamphlet. A vindication of the Detroit campaign and its surrender, for which Hull had to stand at a court-martial. He was made a scapegoat for the Madison administration that was seeking reelection. For the correct title of the latter volume referred to in the title of the present, see note on entry for Clarke, History of the Campaign (item 565, above). 567. Cleary, Francis. “Defence of Essex during the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 10 (1913): 72–78. Consists principally of excerpts from the journal of an American soldier (James Reynolds?), who was taken prisoner at Fort Malden. He had been on the packet carrying Major General Hull’s baggage, his records, and sick personnel to Detroit when captured. 568. Clift, G. Glenn. Remember the Raisin! Kentucky and Kentuckians in the Battles and Massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan Territory, in the War of 1812. Prologue by E. Merton Coulter. Frankfort, Ky.: Kentucky Historical Society, 1961. Detailed narrative including the march from Georgetown, Kentucky, to the scene of the action at present Monroe, Michigan. Interlards participant and survivor accounts whenever available. Also biographical sketches of many of the officers, including British and Indian leaders, and rosters of the Kentucky militia. 569. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “General Hull’s Invasion of Canada in 1812.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 1 (1908): 211–90. A detailed Canadian account. Hull opened the campaign on July 12, 1812, by crossing into Canada from Detroit. After the British captured Mackinac, Isaac Brock moved to the Detroit area. Hull, despite superior manpower and firepower, withdrew to Detroit and surrendered on August 16. 570. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander, ed. Documents Relating to the Invasion of Canada and the Surrender of Detroit, 1812. Publications of the Canadian Archives 7. Ottawa, Ontario: Government Printing Bureau, 1912. Official correspondence and other documents concerned with Hull’s unsuccessful invasion of Canada, chiefly from the military correspondence in the Public Archives of Canada, but including several key American documents and the correspondence of General Hull. 571. Dalliba, James. A Narrative of the Battle of Brownstown Which was Fought on the 9th of August 1812, during the Campaign of the North Western Army under the Command of Brigadier General Hull. New York: David Longworth, 1816. Pamphlet. Hull dispatched infantry under James Miller to open communications south of Detroit and to counter the effect of a recent defeat. Miller defeated the waiting British-Indian force at Brownstown. 572. Darnall, Elias. A Journal, Containing an Accurate and Interesting Account of the Hardships, Sufferings, Battles, Defeat and Captivity, of Those Heroic Kentucky Volunteers and Regulars, Commanded by General Winchester, in the

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  105 Years, 1812–1813. Also, Two Narratives, by Men That Were Wounded in the Battles on the River Raisin, and Taken Captive by the Indians. Philadelphia: Grigg and Elliot, 1834. Darnall’s journal covers the Winchester contingent from Georgetown, Kentucky, to the campaign, being taken prisoner, and being released at Niagara. The short narratives are accounts by Timothy Mallary and John Davenport, who had experiences similar to each other. After they were released from captivity at Cleveland they returned home to Kentucky. A later printing of Darnall’s journal uses the variant spelling Darnell in Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 3 (January 1931): [1–20]. 573. Dearborn, Henry Alexander Scammell. Defence of Gen. Henry Dearborn, against the Attack of Gen. William Hull. Boston: Edgar W. Davies, 1824. Pamphlet. The author responds to William Hull’s explanation that his surrender of Detroit is attributed to the conduct of his father, Henry Dearborn. Hull’s court-martial proves otherwise. 574. “Documents Relating to Detroit and Vicinity, 1805–1813.” Michigan Historical Collections 40 (1929): 25–754. Concerned principally with the coming of the war and the events in the area. Hull’s defense, presented to the 1814 court-martial, is added to this collection. 575. Dudley, Thomas P. “Battle and Massacre at Frenchtown, Michigan, January, 1813.” Western Reserve Historical Society Tracts 1 (August 1870). The author’s firsthand account concerned a detachment of Kentucky militia. He was wounded, taken prisoner, and marched to Niagara, where he was released. This is also reprinted in Michigan Historical Collections 22 (1894): 436–43. 576. Ferris, Woodbridge N. “Lewis Cass, Michigan’s Hero of the War of 1812.” Michigan Historical Collections 39 (1915): 270–74. Cass commanded a regiment of Ohio militia in the Hull campaign. If Hull had followed the example of initiative exercised by Cass, the British would not have taken Detroit. 577. “The First Public Recognition of the River Raisin Heroes.” Michigan Historical Collections 35 (1907): 198–200. Account from the January 22, 1904, Monroe (Michigan) Democrat of the 1872 reunion of River Raisin 1813 veterans and the promise of a suitable monument. 578. Flumerfelt, Private. “The Bold Canadian. A Ballad of the War of 1812.” Introduction by James H. Coyne. Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 23 (1926): 237–42. Two versions of a ballad presumably written by a Private Flumerfelt, a York volunteer, after the Detroit campaign, 1812. Believed to have become a popular barracks and campfire song throughout the war. 579. Forbes, James Grant. Report of the Trial of Brig. General William Hull; Commanding the North-Western Army of the United States. By a Court Martial Held at Albany on Monday, 3d January, 1814, and Succeeding Days. New York: Eastburn, Kirk, 1814. Hull was charged with treason, cowardice, neglect of duty, and unofficerlike conduct in the Detroit campaign in 1812. The court felt that Hull had not committed treason, but that it had no legal jurisdiction in such matters. On the other charges he was found guilty and sentenced to death. But the court recommended him to the mercy of the president of the United States.

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106  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 580. Gilpin, Alec Richard. “General William Hull and the War on the Detroit in 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1950. Hull was at once governor of Michigan Territory and the commanding general of the North Western Army. Traces Hull’s story from taking command to the surrender at Detroit. The national administration, Ohio troops, and Michigan militia must share the blame for the capitulation to the British, August 16, 1812. 581. [Hart, William.] An Appeal to the people: or, An Exposition of the Official Conduct of Return Jonathan Meigs, Governor of the State of Ohio Relative to the Disbanding of a Light Infantry Company in the County of Washington, the Cashiering of Maj. William Hart of Said County, Etc. Etc. N.p.: Printed for the People, 1812. Concerned with the Washington County, Ohio, militia dispute involving the raising of troops for the defense of Detroit. William Hart was one of the militia officers involved in the controversy. 582. Hatch, William Stanley. A Chapter of the History of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. Embracing the Surrender of the Northwestern Army and Fort, at Detroit, August 16, 1812; With a Description and Biographical Sketch of the Celebrated Indian Chief Tecumseh. Cincinnati, Ohio: Miami, 1872. The author served as a volunteer in the Cincinnati infantry as an assistant quartermaster general. 583. Heflinger, Walden Miller. “The War of 1812 in Northwestern Ohio: The Year of Disasters.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 22 (Summer 1950): 158–72. Concerned principally with Hull’s Detroit campaign and Winchester’s defeat at River Raisin. Lack of preparation for war contributed to these disasters. Their consequences turned things around. 584. Hibbert, Wilfrid. “The Recently Discovered Pictorial Map of Fort Meigs and Environs.” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 6 (October 1934): [5–8]. The map was made by William Sebree, an officer in the Kentucky militia in the siege of Fort Meigs. It is illustrated with Indians, soldiers, animals, boats, equipment, batteries, battle lines, and other details. Commentary and other explanatory notes accompany the map. 585. Hull, William. Defence of Brigadier General W. Hull. Delivered before the General Court Martial, of which Major General Dearborn Was President, at Albany, March, 1814. With an Address to the Citizens of the United States. Written by Himself. Copied from the Original Manuscript, and Published by His Authority. To Which Are Prefixed, The Charges against Brigadier General Hull, as Specified by the Government. Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1814. Hull was tried for treason, cowardice, neglect of duty, and un-officer-like conduct in connection with his surrender of Detroit in 1812. 586. Hull, William. Memoirs of the Campaign of the North Western Army of the United States, A.D. 1812. In a Series of Letters Addressed to the Citizens of the United States. With an Appendix, Containing a Brief Sketch of the Revolutionary Services of the Author. Boston: True and Greene, 1824. Presented in the nature of defense against the charges that had been made in the court-martial at the end of the war over the conduct of his campaign in the Northwest ending in the surrender of Detroit.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  107 587. Kennedy, Robert P. “Hull’s Trace or Trail.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 24 (October 1915): 583–87. Describes the route of the trace that was cut through the woods and wilderness from Dayton, Ohio, to the Canadian border near Brownstown, Michigan, for the passage of Hull’s army on its way to attack Isaac Brock in Canada. Hull’s defeat enabled Harrison to avoid the mistakes of his predecessor. 588. McCall, Clayton W. “A British Medal of Michigan Interest.” Michigan History Magazine 29 (January–March 1945): 51–58. The Army General Service Medal of 1848 is the only British military medal with a bar commemorating an engagement fought on American soil. The Fort Detroit bar indicated participants in the capture of Detroit, 1812. 589. Munson, A. W. “Fort McArthur.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 21 (April–July 1912): 321–27. Fort McArthur, a blockhouse and stockade, was erected to facilitate Hull’s march from Dayton, Ohio, to the defense of Detroit. 590. “A Muster Roll of 1812, with Correspondence Relating Thereto.” Michigan Pioneer Collections 5 (1884): 553–57. Fifty names of one-year volunteers, Michigan militia riflemen, and Antoine Dequindre’s company serving with Hull at Detroit in 1812. Includes rank, date of enlistment, equipment issues, and other pertinent information. 591. Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County (Indiana). A Soldier’s Life on the Western Frontier in 1813. Fort Wayne, Ind.: Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County, 1953. Pamphlet. Reprint of an anonymous letter, Zanesville, Ohio, March 28, 1813, to an anonymous correspondent, first published in Niles’ Weekly Register. The author, apparently a member of Virginia militia awaiting discharge, narrates militia participation in the Detroit area after the River Raisin Massacre. 592. Quaife, Milo Milton. “General William Hull and His Critics.” Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 47 (April 1938): 168–82. Hull may have been an inept commander in the War of 1812, but most of his fellow officers were as incompetent and mediocre. He failed partly because of his own defective leadership but mostly because of conditions over which he had no control. He is justly liable for what happened but he has also become the scapegoat for the shortcomings of the United States in the war. 593. Quaife, Milo Milton, ed. “A Diary of the War of 1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1 (September 1914): 272–78. Fragment of a diary of a scout in the campaign for the relief of Detroit and Fort Wayne, August–September 1812. Apparently he was a Kentuckian in the infantry militia. 594. Quaife, Milo Milton, ed. War on the Detroit: The Chronicles of Thomas Vercheres de Boucherville and The Capitulation by an Ohio Volunteer. Lakeside Classics, 1940. Chicago: Lakeside Press/R. R. Donnelley and Sons, 1940. The account of René Thomas Vercheres de Boucherville, a French Canadian Amherstburg, Upper Canada, businessman who participated in the Detroit campaign with Hull, first appeared in French in an obscure Montreal publication. It was translated into English by Mrs. L. Oughtred Woltz.

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108  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 595. The Capitulation, or a History of the Expedition Conducted by William Hull, Brigadier-General of the North-Western Army (Chillicothe, Ohio: James Barnes, 1812) by “an Ohio Volunteer,” also reprinted here. Gives an American account. Both its authorship and authenticity are somewhat in question. It is sometimes attributed to James Foster. It is very critical of Hull. 596. Reynolds, James. Journal of an American Prisoner at Fort Malden and Quebec in the War of 1812. Edited by G. M. Fairchild Jr. Quebec: Frank Carrel, 1909. The author was surgeon’s mate aboard the packet carrying supplies and invalids of Hull’s army from Maumee to Detroit. The boat was captured and the prisoners were transferred to Quebec. The journal starts with the capture, July 1812, and closes, October 1812, when the prisoners received orders to leave for Boston. 597. “The River Raisin Massacre and Dedication of Monuments.” Michigan Pioneer Collections (1907): 200–238. Four addresses and a poem commemorating the 1813 River Raisin Massacre. 598. Todd, Levi L. “The Lexington Light Infantry Company, War of 1812.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 42 (July 1944): 263–66. Roster of the eighty-five members of the infantry company under Nathaniel G. S. Hart. The company was known as “the Silk Stocking Boys” and suffered heavy casualties at the Battle of the River Raisin. 599. Trial of Brig. Gen. William Hull, for Treason, Cowardice, Neglect of Duty and Unofficer-Like Conduct. With the Sentence of Court, and Remission Thereof by the President of the United States. Boston: Russell, Cutler, 1814. Pamphlet. The charges were made on Hull’s performance as commander in the Detroit campaign of 1812. This is an extract from the full court-martial proceedings, ordered to be read before each regiment and to be published in the National Intelligencer. 600. Van Deusen, John G. “Court Martial of Gen. William Hull.” Michigan History Magazine 12 (Autumn 1928): 668–94. Hull’s conduct of the campaign was hampered by his own poor judgment. He was not solely responsible for the failure of the campaign nor was his the only failure in 1812. Instead of distributing the blame impartially, the government made Hull the scapegoat for inefficiency at home and in the field. His court-martial was unfair in its composition, conduct, and conclusion. 601. Van Deusen, John G. “Detroit Campaign of Gen. William Hull.” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 5 (July 1933): [1–9]. Narrative of the campaign. Its failure was due to a number of circumstances, some beyond Hull’s abilities or powers. The same article had been published previously in Michigan History Magazine 12 (July 1928): 568–83. 602. Walker, Timothy. Two Letters Addressed to General William Hull: On His Conduct as a Soldier, in the Surrender of Fort Detroit, to General Brock, without Resistance, in the Commencement of the Late War with Great Britain. Boston: Timothy Walker, 1821.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  109 Pamphlet. Sending the letters to Hull, he threatened to publish them if Hull did not reply, but Hull did not. Condemns Hull and suggests he should go to the wilderness to implore God for forgiveness for his conduct in the War of 1812. 603. Winchester, James. “Papers and Orderly Book of Brigadier General James Winchester.” Compiled by Clarence M. Burton. Michigan Historical Collections 31 (1902): 253–313. Covers the march down the Maumee River and events, September 25, 1812–January 11, 1813. Winchester’s ill-fated mission was a part of the strategy to regain Detroit after its fall to the British. 604. Wright, G. Frederick, and Mack, Mrs. John T. “Fort McArthur Memorial Tablet.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 22 (July 1913): 409–18. The role of the fort in Hull; march to Detroit and the war in the Old Northwest in general.

3. The Niagara Frontier 605. “Battle of Queenston Heights.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 6 (1905): 76–77. A short narration of the battle, featuring a sketch of the battle made by a Major Dennis who commanded one of the regiments. 606. Boylen, J. C., ed. “Strategy of Brock Saved Upper Canada: Candid Comments of a U.S. Officer Who Crossed at Queenston.” Ontario History 58 (March 1966): 59–60. Joseph G. Totten was an American engineer officer when troops attempted to cross into Canada at Queenston. Later, in a report to the Secretary of War on U.S. defense matters, he appraised the general failure of overrunning Upper Canada in the War of 1812. He commented on the British attack on Washington, D.C. British policies were sound and productive. 607. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Battle of Queenston Heights. 3d ed. Welland, Ontario: Lundy’s Lane Historical Society, 1904. A detailed Canadian account of the battle. Although Isaac Brock was killed, British reinforcements arrived in time to repulse the American offensive. 608. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “The Military Career and Character of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 67–90. Brock is credited with saving Upper Canada from conquest by the Americans. He is proclaimed as “the only commander who showed marked military ability” during the war. A narrative account. 609. Curzon, Sarah Anne. The Battle of Queenston Heights, October 13th, 1812. By Mrs. S.A. Curzon, First President. With a Sketch of Her Life and Works by Lady Edgar. Toronto: Women’s Canadian Historical Society of Toronto, 1899. Pamphlet. With the death of Isaac Brock, the command fell to Roger Hale Sheaffe who won the battle. Sheaffe is all but forgotten in other accounts. 610. Fraser, Alexander, ed. Brock Centenary, 1812–1912. Account of the Celebration at Queenston Heights, Ontario, on the 12th October, 1912. Toronto: Published for the Committee by William Briggs, 1913.

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110  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Includes speeches, as well as a detailed account of the planning and program of the occasion. 611. “Garrison Orders and Proceedings of Fort Niagara, Etc.” Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association 8 (January 1926): 62–80; 8 (April 1926): 152–78. Although the orderly book covers November 15, 1812, to May 12, 1813, and the second installment includes entries to March 18, 1813, and ends with “to be continued,” the concluding segments were not published. 612. Redway, Jacques W. “General Van Rensselaer and the Niagara Frontier.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 14–22. Stephen Van Rensselaer commanded American forces at Lewiston opposite the British post at Queenston. His performance was hindered by the ability of his men, by his own lack of military experience, and by New York state politics. He was defeated in the Queenston engagement. 613. Ritchie, T. “Memorial to a Hero: Brock’s Monument on Queenston Heights.” Canadian Geographical Journal 78 (May 1969): 164–69. Isaac Brock died October 13, 1812, leading a detachment of Canadian and British troops against an invading American army that occupied the heights above Queenston. This article describes the monument built to commemorate Brock on the heights. 614. St Denis, Guy. “Robert Walcot: The Man Who Could Not Possibly Have Shot General Brock.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (June 2006); online at http://www. napoleon-series.org. Robert Walcot is generally credited with firing the shot that killed British Major General Issac Brock at Queenston Heights in 1812. This article offers a new perspective. 615. Symons, John, ed. The Battle of Queenston Heights: Being a Narrative of the Opening of the War of 1812, with Notices of the Life of Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, K.B., and Description of the Monument Erected to His Memory. Toronto: Thompson, 1859. A Canadian account of the coming of the war, the Queenston battle and death of Isaac Brock, and eulogistic description of the funeral and subsequent honors and monument commemoration. 616. Van Rensselaer, Solomon. A Narrative of the Affair of Queenstown: In the War of 1812. With a Review of the Strictures on That Event, in a Book Entitled, “Notices of the War of 1812.” New York: Leavitt, Lord, 1836. John Armstrong is second only to Benedict Arnold in infamous notoriety. His Notices of the War of 1812 had two purposes: to destroy individuals; to degrade his country. The author, an officer in the Battle of Queenston Heights, 1812, examines Armstrong’s description and discredits much of it. In addition to documentary materials incorporated into the author’s narrative analysis, about two-thirds of the volume is an appendix of supporting documents. 617. Whitfield, Carol. “The Battle of Queenston Heights.” In Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History 11, pp. 9–59. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1974. An account of the battle, October 13, 1812, and a discussion of the site. Britain suffered a serious loss in the death of Isaac Brock.

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4. Americans, the British, and Natives in the Old Northwest 618. Bulger, Andrew H. “Bulger Correspondence, 1810–1816.” Michigan Historical Collections 23 (1895): 445–523. Bulger, an officer of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles, was in command of British troops on the upper Mississippi River. Indian affairs played a prominent role in his duties and activities. 619. Chicago Historical Society. Ceremonies at the Unveiling of the Bronze Memorial Group of the Chicago Massacre of 1812. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1893. Commemorating the Fort Dearborn massacre, August 15, 1812. 620. Clark, E. M. “Restoration of Old Fort Holmes on Mackinac Island.” Michigan History Magazine 20 (Autumn 1936): 295–300. Fort George was built at the highest point of Mackinac Island soon after the British captured Fort Mackinac, July 1812. Its location commanded the island, including the fort. When the Americans regained the island at the close of the war, it was renamed Fort Holmes after an American officer casualty during an American 1814 assault against the island. 621. Coleman, Lizzie D. History of the Pigeon Roost Massacre. Mitchell, Ind.: Commercial Print, 1904. Pamphlet. With the fall of Detroit, Mackinac, and Fort Dearborn, the Indians raided frontier settlements. The Pigeon Roost settlement in south central Indiana (near Vienna) was attacked in September 1812. 622. “Copies of Papers on File in the Dominion Archives at Ottawa, Canada, Pertaining to Michigan, as Found in the Colonial Office Records.” In Michigan Historical Collections 25, pp. 291–640. 1896. While matters related to the War of 1812 are located passim in other sections of this volume, the 1812, 1813, 1814, and 1815 Colonial Office records are nearly entirely germane to the period. 623. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “Robert Dickson, the Indian Trader.” Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 12 (1892): 133–53. Dickson was a well-established fur trader on the upper Mississippi River at the onset of the War of 1812. He was an important intelligence source and exercised considerable influence on the Indians there during the war. His influence was crucial to British success at Mackinac and with the Indians of Wisconsin. 624. Draper, Lyman Copeland, ed. “Lawe and Grignon Papers, 1794–1821.” Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 10 (1888): 90–141. Concerned principally with British-Indian matters from Michilimackinac and Wisconsin during the War of 1812. John Lawe and Louis Grignon served in Britain’s Indian Department in the western district. 625. Edmunds, R. David. “The Illinois River Potawatomi in the War of 1812.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 62 (Winter 1969): 341–62. The Illinois River band of Potawatomi were affected by grievances common to all the Indians in the Old Northwest and participated in the war. But theirs was a modified participation of shorter duration than many of the other tribes.

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112  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 626. Gibson, John. “Some Letters of John Gibson.” Indiana Magazine of History 1 (Third Quarter 1905): 128–31. Written in September 1812 when Gibson was serving as acting governor of Indiana Territory. Indians attacked Fort Harrison in early September, and the letters concern the prompt steps he took. 627. Hamilton, Robert, and Hopkins, Samuel. “The Expeditions of Major-General Samuel Hopkins up the Wabash, 1812. The Letters of Captain Robert Hamilton.” Indiana Magazine of History 43 (December 1947): 393–402. With the fall of Fort Dearborn, Detroit, and Fort Mackinac in 1812, Indiana was an exposed frontier and the war came into the area. Kentucky militia under Hopkins, of which Hamilton was an officer, came to its relief. Two expeditions up the Wabash Valley were a mixture of failure and modest success. The Hamilton and Hopkins letters give an analysis and different points of view. 628. Helm, Linai Taliaferro. The Fort Dearborn Massacre, Written in 1814 by Lieutenant Linai T. Helm. One of the Survivors, with Letters and Narrative of Contemporary Interest. Edited by Nelly Kinzie Gordon. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1912. Narrative accounts by two other survivors, Mrs. John Kinzie and Helm’s wife, are included, as is a brief biographic sketch of John Kinzie. 629. Holliday, Murray. “The Battle on the Mississinewa.” Indiana History Bulletin 45 (December 1968): 152–66. The Miami Indians met defeat at the Battle of Mississinewa, December 17–18, 1812. Includes a roster of participating military units. 630. Horsman, Reginald. The Frontier in the Formative Years, 1783–1815. Histories of the American Frontier. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. The primary focus is put on the demographic, social, and economic development of the Cis-Mississippi frontier and its role in the War of 1812. Expansion into new lands was the principal motivation. Also concerns the continuing crisis in American foreign relations in this section before and during the war. 631. Horsman, Reginald. “Wisconsin and the War of 1812.” Wisconsin Magazine of History 46 (Autumn 1962): 3–15. The Chippewa, Menominee, Sioux, and Winnebago joined with the English to gain control of Wisconsin by the end of the war. Discusses evaluations of British officers of Indian assistance. When the peace settlement resulted in English withdrawal, the Indians were again subjected to the circumstances of the American westward movement. 632. Jordan, Walter K. “A New Letter About the Massacre at Fort Dearborn.” Edited by John D. Barnhart. Indiana Magazine of History 41 (June 1945): 187–99. Jordan, a noncommissioned officer, was with an expedition to help in the evacuation of Fort Dearborn, 1812. His letter describes the march and the massacre. Although its contents substantially duplicate another Jordan letter, compared here, it provides some further detail. 633. Kirkland, Joseph. The Chicago Massacre of 1812. A Historical and Biographical Narrative of Fort Dearborn (Now Chicago). How the Fort and City Were Begun, and Who Were the Beginners. Chicago: Alhambra, 1893.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  113 A romantic narrative account. 634. Musham, H. A. “Where Did the Battle of Chicago Take Place?” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 36 (March 1943): 21–40. The August 15, 1812, Fort Dearborn Massacre battlefield is located between East 10th and 14th streets and between State Street and the Illinois Central Railroad in Chicago. The long-revered “Massacre Tree” was not old enough to have witnessed the incident. 635. Peckham, Howard H. “Recent Documentary Acquisitions to the Indiana Historical Society Library Relating to Fort Wayne.” Indiana Magazine of History 44 (December 1948): 409–18. The acquisitions include some War of 1812 letters and garrison returns. Reproduced and edited here is Ensign Daniel Curtis’s eyewitness account of the siege of Fort Wayne, 1812, in a long letter to a friend. Curtis was a member of a Michigan infantry regiment. 636. Perrin, J. Nick. “The Wood River Massacre.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 3 (January 1911): 70–73. In commemoration of the incident of 1814 in Illinois, in which a mother and six children were killed by the Indians. Also lists blockhouses and other defenses erected in the spring of 1812 and other wartime incidents. 637. Quaife, Milo Milton, ed. “The Fort Dearborn Massacre.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1 (March 1915): 561–73. A collection of documentary accounts of the August 15, 1812, incident: extract from the diary of Charles Askin who had received a report from Dearborn’s commander; letters of M. Irwin, Indian factor, concerning the death of an interpreter and the possible provocation of the massacre; and two statements by the second in command at Dearborn. 638. Quaife, Milo Milton. “Some Notes on the Fort Dearborn Massacre.” Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Year 1910– 1911, pp. 112–38. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch, 1912. Mrs. John H. Kinzie published, in pamphlet form in 1844 and then as part of a book Wau Bun, or the Early Day in the Northwest in 1856, a narrative eyewitness account of the 1812 massacre at Fort Dearborn (Chicago). It has received general acceptance by historians. It is, however, largely fictitious and riddled with error. The true history of the event remains to be written. 639. Quaife, Milo Milton, ed. “The Story of James Corbin, a Soldier of Fort Dearborn.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 3 (September 1916): 219–28. Corbin was a soldier-blacksmith at Fort Dearborn at the time of the massacre in 1812. His eyewitness account of the incident and his captivity corroborate and add essential information to previously established data. In addition to Corbin’s account, a letter of Thomas Forsyth adds corroboration to Corbin’s account and gives further detail. 640. Sherman, Walter J. “Why Were the Principal Land Operations of the War of 1812 along the South Shore of Lake Erie?” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 8 (January 1936): [7–9]. Apparently one of the chief objectives of the British in the War of 1812 was to reclaim the Old Northwest. 641. Simmons, N. Heroes and Heroines of the Fort Dearborn Massacre. A Romantic and Tragic History of Corporal John Simmons and His Brave Wife, Also of the First White Child Born in Chicago. The Last Survivor of the Horrid Butch-

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114  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography ery. A Full and True Recital of Marvelous Fortitude, Matchless Courage and Terrible Sufferings during the Battle, the March, and in Captivity. Lawrence, Kans.: Journal Publishing, 1896. A narrative account based in part on recollections of Susan Millhouse Simmons, wife of John Simmons of the title. 642. Stanley, George F. G. “British Operations in the American North-West, 1812–15.” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 22 (Autumn 1943): 91–106. A general account of the Canadian-American theater throughout the war. Michigan and Wisconsin should have been added to Canada as a result of military conquest, but diplomacy prevailed. 643. Stevens, Frank E. “Illinois in the War of 1812–1814.” Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 9 (1904): 62–197. Consists primarily of documents, records, rosters, and quotations from other writings. 644. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed. “Dickson and Grignon Papers—1812–1815.” Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 11 (1888): 271–315. Robert Dickson and Louis Grignon were with Britain’s Indian Department in the Western district during the War of 1812. 645. Van Horne, James. Narrative of James Van Horne . . . on the Plains of Michigan. [New Bedford, Mass.]: Lawrence B. Romaine, [1957]. Pamphlet. A facsimile reprint of A Narrative of the Captivity & Sufferings of James Van Horne, Who Was Nine Months a Prisoner by the Indians on the Plains of Michigan (Middlebury, Vt.: n.p., 1817). Van Horne was one of the soldiers at the Fort Dearborn Massacre. 646. Williams, Eugene Ellis. “The Copus Battle Centennial.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 21 (October 1912): 379–95. James Copus, a minister, had befriended the Indians and held their trust. With the Ohio frontier becoming jittery with the declaration of war in 1812, Copus was persuaded to convince the Indians to move from their homes in Ashland County. When the militia burned their homes, the Indians believed Copus had betrayed them. The Battle of Copus, September 1812, was the consequence. 647. Williams, Mentor L. “John Kinzie’s Narrative of the Fort Dearborn Massacre.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 46 (Winter 1953): 343–62. John Kinzie, a trader, was present at the Fort Dearborn Massacre, August 1812. His recently uncovered eyewitness account, included here, is analyzed for its contents and contributions. Kinzie’s account both substantiates and denies elements of the conventionally accepted accounts and it adds a considerable amount of new detail.

B. The Northern Theater, 1813 1. General 648. Berton, Pierre. Flames Across the Border: The Canadian-American Tragedy, 1813–1814. 1st American ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  115 A Canadian perspective. Sequel to the author’s The Invasion of Canada, 1812–1813 (item 535, above) starting with the spring 1813 campaign against York. The war helped produce a distinct Canadian identity different in outlook and practice from the American identity, in the context of America’s revolutionary heritage and Canada’s colonial heritage. 649. Davidson, A. A. “The Battle of Tipton’s Island.” Indiana Magazine of History 9 (March 1913): 47–49. The account of a March 23, 1813, skirmish between Delaware and Shawnee Indians and the militia in southern Indiana. 650. Fitzgibbon, Mary Agnes. A Historic Banner: A Paper Read on February 8, 1896. Women’s Canadian Historical Society of Toronto Transaction 1. Toronto: William Briggs, [1896]. An account of a flag carried by Canadian militia during the War of 1812. Includes a contemporary (1812 or 1813) account of its dedication and presentation to the militia. 651. Heflinger, Walden Miller. “The War of 1812 in Northwestern Ohio: The Year of Victory.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 23 (Autumn 1951): 195–210. Narrates the unsuccessful British siege of Fort Meigs, British failure to take Fort Stephenson, and the American victory at the Battle of Lake Erie. The retreat of the British and their pursuit by the Americans to the Battle of the Thames was anticlimactic. 652. Mackintosh, Alexander. Leaves from the War Log of the “Nancy,” Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen. Comments by Charles Henry Jeremiah Snider. Toronto: Rous and Mann, 1936. The Nancy plied the Great Lakes engaged in the fur trade, and was used by the British as a transport in the War of 1812. Excerpts from the ship’s log that describe life on board in 1813. 653. Marquis, Thomas Gutherie. Battlefields of 1813. Ryerson Canadian History Readers. Toronto: Ryerson, n.d. Designed to present a Canadian account for Canadian elementary school pupils. Describes Chateauguay, Chrysler’s Farm, Frenchtown, Ogdensburg, and Stoney Creek. 654. Martin, John D. P. “The Regiment de Watteville: Its Settlement and Service in Upper Canada.” Ontario History 52 (March 1960): 17–30. One of several Swiss regiments in British service. A part of the regiment was continuously on garrison duty at Kingston, 1813–1814. Others saw action, sustained casualties, and some were taken prisoner in the Lakes Erie and Ontario areas. After the war some members of the regiment received land bounties and remained in Canada. 655. Miller, Howard S., and Clarke, Jack Alden. “Ships in the Wildnerness: A Note on the Invasion of Canada, 1813.” Ohio History 71 (July 1962): 124–28. In March–August 1813, Thomas Sidney Jesup constructed seventy-seven transports with a combined capacity of 3000–4000 men. This, with Perry’s victory at Put-in-Bay, September 1813, enabled Harrison to invade Canada. 656. Woodworth, Samuel. The Heroes of the Lake. A Poem, in Two Books. Written in the Autumn of 1813. Aemulans Sequor. New York: S. Woodworth, 1814. With poetic license, the author is concerned with the campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of the Thames.

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2. The Lake Erie Campaign 657. Allaben, Frank. “The ‘Niagara’ and the ‘Wolverine.’ ” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 83–90. The Niagara, a wooden sailing vessel, served as the flagship at the Battle of Lake Erie. The Wolverine, formerly the Michigan, an ironclad steamer, was on patrol on the Great Lakes in the American Civil War against Canadian-based Confederate plots. During the Battle of Lake Erie centennial, the Wolverine escorted the restored Niagara on a tour of the Great Lakes. 658. Allaben, Frank. “The ‘Niagara’ in the Centennial Celebrations.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 7–17. Pennsylvania raised the Niagara from her 1833 grave in Presque Isle Harbor, Erie, Pennsylvania, and rebuilt and refitted her for a centennial cruise. The Niagara was Perry’s flagship in the Battle of Lake Erie. 659. Allaben, Frank. “The Raising and Rebuilding of the ‘Niagara.’” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 18–31. Details and narration of the operation of salvaging and rebuilding Perry’s flagship for the centennial celebration. 660. Allaben, Frank. “The Second Launching of the ‘Niagara.’ ” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 32–40. The relaunching of Perry’s flagship after it had been raised from Presque Isle Harbor and reconstructed for the centennial celebration. 661. Allaben, Frank, ed. “The Battle Described by the Victorious American Leader.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 109–16. Letters and reports of Perry and the secretary of the navy concerning the Battle of Lake Erie, rosters of American casualties, and a list of ships of both squadrons. 662. Allaben, Frank, ed. “Commander Barclay’s Account of the Battle of Lake Erie.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 123–28. Robert Heriot Barclay was commander of the British squadron. Also included are another account by a British officer, a statement of force of both squadrons, and a roster of British casualties. 663. Allaben, Frank, ed. “The Court Martial of Commander Barclay.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 129–46. Barclay was acquitted of the charges against him. He had insufficient seamen to meet a greatly superior enemy. 664. Allaben, Frank, ed. “The Log Book of the ‘Lawrence.’” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 117–21. The Lawrence was Perry’s first flagship in the Battle of Lake Erie. Extracts from the ship’s “rough log.” 665. Bancroft, George. History of the Battle of Lake Erie and Miscellaneous Papers. New York: Robert Bonner’s Sons, 1891.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  117 The Lake Erie essay is contained on pages 129–89 of the volume, which includes other Bancroft essays and a biography of Bancroft by Oliver Dyer. A romantic account of Perry’s victory, which is credited with the mastery of the Great Lakes, the recovery of Detroit and the northwestern frontier, and the capture of the Royal Army in Upper Canada. 666. Bancroft, George. Oliver Hazard Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie. Together with the Addresses of Dr. Usher Parsons, Fleet Surgeon under Commodore Perry, and of Governor William Sprague of Rhode Island, Delivered in Cleveland, Sept. 10, 1860, and Other Papers of Interest. Rhode Island Education Circulars Historical Series 6. Newport, R.I.: Department of Education, State of Rhode Island, 1912. The “other papers” referred to in the title are three poems. 667. Battle of Lake Erie Monument Association. An Account of the Organization, and Proceedings of the Battle of Lake Erie Monument Association. And Celebration of the 45th Anniversary of the Battle of Lake Erie, at Put-in-Bay Island, on September Tenth, 1858. Sandusky, Ohio: Henry D. Cooke, 1858. The association was organized in 1852. 668. Brown, Noah. “The Remarkable Statement of Noah Brown.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 103–8. Brothers Noah and Adam Brown, with shipbuilding experience for the government, were contracted to help build Perry’s fleet on Lake Erie; they also constructed Thomas Macdonough’s ships for use on Lake Champlain. At the end of the War of 1812, they had commenced construction of other ships for use on Lake Ontario. 669. Brown, Samuel R. Views on Lake Erie, Comprising, A Minute and Interesting Account of the Conflict on Lake Erie—Military Anecdotes—Abuses in the Army—Plan of a Military Settlement—View of the Lake Coast from Buffalo to Detroit. Troy, N.Y.: Francis Adancourt, 1814. The author was a New York State newspaper publisher who witnessed the battle from a nearby island. A matter-of-fact account. 670. Bunnell, David C. The Travels and Adventures of David C. Bunnell, during Twenty-Three Years of a Sea-Faring Life; Containing an Accurate Account of the Battle of Lake Erie, under the Command of Com. Oliver H. Perry; Together with Ten Years’ Service in the Navy of the United States. Also Service among the Greeks, Imprisonment among the Turks, Etc. Etc. Palmyra, N.Y.: J. H. Bartles, 1831. A romantic account of his alleged experiences in the Battle of Lake Erie and on a packet in western Lake Erie. 671. Burchard, Roswell B. “Significance of the Raising and Rebuilding of the ‘Niagara.’” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 50–57. Links the role of the Constitution and the Niagara. The Niagara, Perry’s flagship at the Battle of Lake Erie, was raised and reconstructed for the centennial celebration. The practical lesson of Perry’s victory is that preparedness and valor are the ingredients of success. 672. Burges, Tristam. Battle of Lake Erie with Notices of Commodore Elliot’s Conduct in That Engagement. Providence, R.I.: Brown and Cady, 1839.

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118  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Prepared, but never delivered, as a public lecture. Extensive notes and other documentation, including charges brought against Perry by Jesse D. Elliot, who claimed the principal credit for American victory at the Battle of Lake Erie. 673. Calvert, George H. Oration, on the Occasion of Celebrating the Fortieth Anniversary of the Battle of Lake Erie; Delivered on the Tenth of September, 1853, in Newport R.I. 2d ed. Providence, R.I.: B. T. Albro, 1854. Pamphlet. Developed the theme that the military has been and always will be subordinate to the civil power in the United States. When the situation demands, inspired leaders will rise to the occasion to lead the country to military victory. 674. Cleveland, Ohio, City Council. Inauguration of the Perry Statue, at Cleveland, on the Tenth of September, 1860; Including the Addresses and Other Proceedings, with a Sketch of William Walcutt the Sculptor. Cleveland, Ohio: City Council, 1861. Details of the planning and of the celebration. 675. Cooper, James Fenimore. The Battle of Lake Erie, or Answers to Messrs. Burges, Duer, and Mackenzie. Cooperstown, N.Y.: H. and E. Phinney, 1843. A defense of Jesse Elliott, Perry’s second in command at the Battle of Lake Erie. Elliott, in command of the Niagara, failed to support Perry in his attack on a British ship. Perry lost his ship. Elliott was acquitted at a court-martial. Disputes account in Tristam Burges, Battle of Lake Erie (item 672, above), and replies to William Alexander Duer and Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, a Perry biographer, who “openly attacked” him. 676. Cox, Isaac Joslin. “Significance of Perry’s Victory.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 19 (October 1910): 460–66. After Perry’s victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, 1813, Harrison could move against Detroit and into Canada. This cleared the northwest and broke the Indian confederation, and treaty negotiations at the end of the war were altered. American successes had a psychological effect on the rest of the war. 677. Cox, Richard J., ed. “An Eyewitness Account of the Battle of Lake Erie.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 104 (February 1978): 67–74. Reprints an account of the battle from Thomas Clark, Naval History of the United States from the Commencement of the Revolutionary War to the Present Time. Philadelphia: M. Carey, 1814. Also includes the journal account of Samuel Hambleton, paymaster on board the brig Lawrence, the flagship in the battle. 678. Dobbins, William W. History of the Battle of Lake Erie, (September 10, 1813), and Reminiscences of the Flagship “Lawrence.” Erie, Pa.: Ashby and Vincent, Printers, Stationers and Binders, 1876. Pamphlet. The author was the son of Daniel Dobbins, who constructed the fleet for Perry. A narrative account based on oral and written records of his father. 679. Dodge, Robert John. The Battle of Lake Erie. Fostoria, Ohio: Gray, 1967. Pamphlet. A general account of the campaign. The Battle of Lake Erie raised a sagging national morale and paved the way for the recapture of Detroit and the American triumph at the Battle of the Thames. 680. Dodge, Robert John. The Struggle for Control of Lake Erie. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1961.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  119 Mimeograph. The author’s Master of Arts thesis, Ohio State University, 1961. Evaluates the relative strengths and weaknesses of the fleets of the opposing forces on Lake Erie. Assesses the significance of the Battle of Lake Erie for the Canadian-American lakes theater. Subsequently published in Northwest Ohio Quarterly 36 (Winter 1964): 10–30; 36 (Spring 1964): 79–97. 681. Galbreath, Charles B. “The Ballad of ‘James Bird’: Its Authorship.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 26 (January 1917): 52–57. In a previous article, “The Battle of Lake Erie in Ballad and History” (item 683, below), the author said the James Bird ballad was anonymously written. He corrects that statement by identifying its composer. 682. Galbreath, Charles B. “The Battle of Lake Erie in Ballad and History.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 20 (October 1911): 415–56. A miscellany of topics, ballads, documents, rosters, and a table of distribution of prize money. 683. Hawkins, George K. “Perry and His Victory.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 23–32. Perry’s victory at the Battle of Lake Erie had immense effect on a morally discouraged country and made offensive operations possible. 684. Haworth, Paul Leland. “The Battle of Lake Erie.” In Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Year 1911–1912, 207–20. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch, 1912. Too much of the literature concerning the War of 1812 is so one-sided that the truth is often lost or distorted. The Battle of Lake Erie is a good example. Perry, with a fleet much superior to the British, came perilously close to defeat and probably would have been defeated if the enemy force had been equal in strength. 685. Inauguration of the Perry Statue, September 10, A.D. 1885, with the Addresses of William P. Sheffield, and the Remarks in Receiving the Statue by Governor Wetmore and Mayor Franklin, with the Speeches at the Dinner, of the Governor, Mayor, Hon. George Bancroft, Justices Blatchford and Durfee, Admirals Rodgers, Almy and Luce, the Letter of Col. William H. Potter, Etc. With an Appendix. Newport, R.I.: John P. Sanborn, 1885. Newport’s commemoration of Perry. One of the appendices consists of poems. 686. Joy, Richard P. “A Bit of Naval History on the Great Lakes.” Michigan History 14 (Autumn 1930): 651–54. Perry’s victory at the Battle of Lake Erie cleared up the misunderstanding of the British that the United States was unable to protect itself and could not command international respect. 687. Jury, Elsie McLeod. “U.S.S. ‘Tigress’—H.M.S. ‘Confiance,’ 1813–1831.” Inland Seas 28 (Spring 1972): 3–16. The Tigress was one of the ships constructed in the winter of 1812–1813 for use by Perry in the Lake Erie campaign. The Confiance was so named by a British officer for a captured American vessel later in the war, and was was long believed to be the captured Tigress, renamed. Recent research casts doubt on this claim. 688. Knopf, Richard C. Notes on Surgeons of the Indian Wars and [the] War of 1812. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1957.

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120  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Mimeograph. Principally a brief description of the training of medical personnel, health hazards of military service, and a report of battle medicine used by Usher Parsons at the Battle of Lake Erie. 689. Lippitt, Charles Warren. Oration Delivered at the Centennial Celebration of Cleveland, Ohio, on Perry’s Victory Day, September 10, 1896, by His Excellency Charles Warren Lippitt, Governor of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Providence, R.I.: E. L. Freeman and Sons, [1896]. The occasion was the centennial of the city. Compares Rhode Island’s gift to the west, Perry’s victory in the War of 1812, to the services of Nathanael Greene to the south in the American Revolution. 690. Lyman, Olin Linus. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and the War on the Lakes. New York: New Amsterdam, 1905. A heroic romantic biography with emphasis on the Lake Erie campaign. 691. Mack, Mrs. John T. “The Battle of Lake Erie.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 10 (July 1901): 38–45. A narrative account of the battle and federal efforts to provide for a suitable monument. 692. Mastics, Al. “The War That Won the Peace.” Inland Seas 19 (Summer 1963): 131–34. By winning the Battle of Lake Erie, Perry turned the tide of the War of 1812 and helped win the peace. 693. Metcalf, Clarence S. “Daniel Dobbins, Sailing Master, U.S.N.: Commodore Perry’s Right Hand Man.” Inland Seas 14 (Summer 1958): 88–96; 14 (Fall 1958): 181–91. Perry’s victory at the Battle of Lake Erie made possible the invasion of Canada. Daniel Dobbins built Perry’s fleet and was responsible for so many other details, but he was deprived of participation in the battle itself as he had been dispatched by Perry on a supply mission. 694. Mills, James Cooke. Oliver Hazard Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie. Detroit: John Phelps, 1913. A biased pro-Perry account. The successes of Perry and Harrison overthrew British power in the Old Northwest and maintained American integrity. 695. Newport Historical Society. Items of Interest Concerning Oliver Hazard Perry in Newport and Newport in the War of 1812. Newport, R.I.: Newport Historical Society, 1913. In commemoration of the centennial of the Battle of Lake Erie. 696. Oliver, Frederick L. “Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry of Newport, Rhode Island.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 80 (July 1954): 776–83. Perry’s role in the Battle of Lake Erie. Also a letter describing the battle, and log excerpts about the U.S. sloop Lawrence. 697. Parker, George Whitfield. “The Perry Victory Centennial Celebration.” Michigan Historical Collections 39 (1915): 263–69. Recounting the ceremonies in connection with the September 10–11, 1913, centennial commemoration of the Battle of Lake Erie. Emphasis on Michigan’s contributions and participation. 698. Parsons, Usher. “An Afterword to the Battle of Lake Erie.” Edited by Marjorie Cahn Brazer. Inland Seas 33 (Fall 1977): 180–83. Fleet surgeon Parsons recalled, in a letter of April 15, 1857, some of his medical ministrations after the battle to the wounded of both sides.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  121 699. Parsons, Usher. Battle of Lake Erie. A Discourse, Delivered before the RhodeIsland Historical Society, on the Evening of Monday, February 16, 1852. Providence, R.I.: Benjamin T. Albro, 1854. Pamphlet. The author served as an officer aboard one of the American ships. Corrects what he alleges were “mistakes and misrepresentations” of James Fenimore Cooper in his account of the battle. 700. Parsons, Usher. “Brief Sketches of the Officers Who Were in the Battle of Lake Erie.” Inland Seas 19 (Fall 1963): 172–89. Reprinted from New England Historical and Genealogical Register 17 (January 1863). Includes British and American officers, omitting the two commanders. The author served on the sloop Trippe. 701. Parsons, Usher. “Negroes in the Navy.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 6 (August 1862): 239–42. Documentation of the participation of African American sailors in the Battle of Lake Erie and on a schooner at sea. 702. Paullin, Charles Oscar, ed. The Battle of Lake Erie: A Collection of Documents, Chiefly by Commodore Perry: Including the Court-Martial of Commander Barclay and the Court of Enquiry on Captain Elliott. Cleveland: Rowfant Club, 1918. In addition to the two principal documents indicated in the title, the collection consists primarily of communications between Perry and other officials, such as William Henry Harrison and William Jones, secretary of the navy. 703. Peckham, Howard H. “Commodore Perry’s Captive.” Ohio History 72 (July 1963): 220–27. Relates Robert Heriot Barclay’s leadership of the British squadron at the Battle of Lake Erie. Although honorably acquitted by the mandatory courtmartial, political attempts tried to make him the scapegoat for Britain’s poor performance in the war. 704. Preston, Richard A. “The First Battle of Sackets Harbor.” Historic Kingston 11 (1961–62): 3–7. An account of the inconclusive British Provincial Marine attack on the U.S. naval base at Sackets Harbor in July 1812. The repeated lack of failures of the Provincial Marine led to dispatch of a Royal Navy detachment to the Great Lakes in 1813. 705. Reed, Sarah H. “The War of 1812: The Grand Finale of the Revolutionary War.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 44–46. The United States was not free to fulfill its destiny until after the Treaty of Ghent. Perry is thus a hero in the struggle to gain independence from Britain. 706. Rosenberg, Max. The Building of Perry’s Fleet on Lake Erie, 1812–1813. Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1950. Pamphlet. A monographic account relating the work done under the supervision of Daniel Dobbins at Erie, Pennsylvania. 707. Roske, Ralph J., and Donley, Richard W. “The Perry-Elliot[t] Controversy: A Bitter Footnote to the Battle of Lake Erie.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 34 (Summer 1962): 111–23. Jesse D. Elliott, in command of Lake Erie, was superseded by Perry. After a brief tour of duty in a subordinate role on Lake Ontario, Elliott became Perry’s second in command. His conduct as captain of the Niagara at the

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122  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Battle of Lake Erie is at the center of the subsequent controversy. The Niagara did not engage its designated adversary and was little more than a spectator to the heat of battle. Elliott’s ambition to deprive Perry of due credit was undoubtedly a factor in the personal feud that lingered long after the war. 708. Shreve, Milton W. “The Issues at Stake in the Battle of Lake Erie.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 58–82. Daniel Dobbins had not received full credit for planning, designing, and preparing of much of the preliminary work of constructing Perry’s fleet. Britain’s war aims were revealed at the treaty negotiations: an Indian buffer state in the Old Northwest and English navigation rights on the Mississippi River. Perry’s victory helped to make these aims somewhat less than realistic. 709. Sisson, A. E. “The ‘Niagara’ in the Battle of Lake Erie.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 8 (January–March 1914): 41–43. A brief account of Perry’s utilization of the Niagara in the Battle of Lake Erie. 710. Snow, Richard F. “The Battle of Lake Erie.” American Heritage 27 (February 1976): 14–21, 88–90. A narration of the building of the fleet and the Battle of Lake Erie. Considers the personal rivalries to Perry’s credit and fame: Daniel Dobbins who built the fleet, and Jesse Duncan Elliott who felt he should have commanded the fleet. 711. Stacey, C. P. “Another Look at the Battle of Lake Erie.” Canadian Historical Review 39 (March 1958): 41–51. American victory resulted from logistical advantages: shorter and more secure lines of communication; the capability to produce naval equipment and armament close to the theater of operations. 712. Stacey, C. P. “Commodore Chauncey’s Attack on Kingston Harbour, November 10, 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 32 (June 1951): 126–38. After intercepting the Provincial Marine squadron on Lake Ontario, the U.S. Lake Ontario squadron was able to bottle it up in Kingston Harbour and by doing so, achieved naval superiority of the lake. 713. Thorpe, Francis Newton. “The Building of the Fleet. An Historical Address Delivered at Perry Square, Erie, July 8, 1913, on the Occasion of the Perry Victory Centennial Commemoration.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 37 (1913): 257–297. A romantic patriotic account. 714. Washburn, Mabel Thacher Rosemary. “The du Pont Powder Wagon and How It Helped Win Perry’s Victory.” Journal of American History [National Historical Society] 9 (October–December 1915): 598–621. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Company produced and gave the gunpowder for Perry’s fleet on Lake Erie. It was shipped from Wilmington, Delaware, to Erie, Pennsylvania, in a soldier-guarded Conestoga wagon. 715. Wright, G. Frederick. “The Centennial of Perry’s Victory.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 23 (January 1914): 49–80. Narration of events of the Battle of Lake Erie and of its centennial celebration.

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3. The Detroit Frontier 716. Adams, Evelyn Crady. “The Imprisonment of British Officers in the Frankfort Penitentiary during the War of 1812.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 49 (July 1951): 231–33. For several months after the Battle of the Thames, 1813–1814, some British officers were detained as prisoners in the penitentiary. This close confinement represented a change in policy, apparently in retaliation for treatment the British accorded American prisoners. 717. Anderson, David D. “The Battle of Fort Stephenson: The Beginning of the End of the War of 1812 in the Northwest.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 33 (Spring 1961): 81–90. George Croghan’s success at Fort Stephenson made him the first American hero of the war. It was a crucial turnaround for the American fortunes of war following the losses of 1812. More important, it was a graphic demonstration that, with their courage and skill with weapons, American troops, though unskilled in warfare, could stand up to and defeat British regulars. This lesson made the difference for Andrew Jackson at New Orleans. 718. Antal, Sandy. A Wampum Denied: Proctor’s War of 1812. Ottawa, Ontario: Carleton University Press, 1997. A reexamination of British operations in the Detroit-Amherstberg theatre during 1812 and 1813, focusing on the British commander Henry Proctor, Tecumseh, and the native allies. 719. Averill, James P. Fort Meigs. A Condensed History of the Most Important Military Point in the Northwest, Together with Scenes and Incidents Connected with the Sieges of 1813, a Minute Description of the Old Fort and Its Surroundings, As They Now Appear. Toledo, Ohio: Blade, 1886. A narrative account. Fort Meigs was constructed in early 1813 as part of Harrison’s defense of northern Ohio and preparations to regain Detroit and invade Canada. 720. Bond, Beverley W., Jr. “William Henry Harrison in the War of 1812.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 13 (March 1927): 499–516. An estimation of the quality of Harrison’s military skills and the outcome of his campaign in the war. Gives Harrison high marks over overwhelmingly difficult political and military circumstances. 721. Bourne, Alexander. “The Siege of Fort Meigs, Year 1813: An Eye-Witness Account.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 17 (October 1945): 139–54; 18 (January 1946): 39–48. Excerpted from Bourne’s autobiography. Mustered into service in Chillicothe, Ohio, in February 1813 as a common militia soldier, on the march to Fort Meigs he was given noncommissioned officer responsibilities and soon assigned staff officer duties. After the siege and the completion of his sixmonth tour, Bourne returned to civilian life. 722. Bradley, Glenn Danford. “Fort Meigs in the War of 1812.” Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio Quarterly Bulletin 2 (January 1930): 1–10. Narrative of the military circumstances that necessitated the construction of Fort Meigs, a description of the fort, the sieges it withstood against the British and the Indians, and its role in the northwest campaign.

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124  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 723. Combs, Leslie. Col. Wm. Dudley’s Defeat Opposite Fort Meigs. May 5th, 1813. Official Report from Captain Leslie Combs to General Green Clay. Cincinnati: Printed for William Dodge, 1869. Pamphlet. The author refers to it as “a kind of official account.” He was one of Dudley’s officers in the attack against British batteries opposite Fort Meigs, and was among those taken prisoner. 724. Compton, H. W. “The Siege of Fort Meigs.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 10 (January 1902): 315–30. A narrative account of the construction and its siege by the British-Indian forces. Relates the failure of the siege to the Battle of Lake Erie and the subsequent invasion of Canada from Detroit. 725. Coutts, Katherine B. “Thamesville and the Battle of the Thames.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 9 (1910): 20–25. Critical of Isaac Brock; praises Tecumseh. Discusses local conventional wisdom of the location of the battle and Tecumseh’s burial site. 726. Cushing, Daniel Lewis. Fort Meigs and the War of 1812: Orderly Book of Cushing’s Company, 2nd U.S. Artillery, April, 1813–February, 1814, and Personal Diary of Captain Daniel Cushing, October, 1812–July, 1813. 2d ed. Edited by Harlow Lindley. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Historical Society, 1975. The orderly book covers two unsuccessful British sieges of Fort Meigs on the Maumee River. The diary covers Cushing’s march to Fort Meigs, its construction, British siege operations, and life in the fort. The first edition was published as Captain Cushing in the War of 1812 (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944). 727. Cushing, Samuel. “The Siege of Fort Meigs.” Edited by P. L. Rainwater. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 19 (September 1932): 261–64. Officer Cushing’s letter recounts events at Fort Meigs from his arrival in February 1813 to the date of his writing, June 8, 1813. Includes a description of the British and Indian siege of the fort which failed. 728. Ermatinger, C. O. “The Retreat of Procter and Tecumseh.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 17 (1919): 11–21. After reviewing official reports, Henry Procter’s court-martial and assessments of historians and a miscellany of commentators, the author calls for sympathy and understanding of Procter’s plight. Tecumseh was unquestionably a hero, even in the circumstances that brought disaster to Procter. 729. Green, James Albert. “Life at Ft. Meigs in 1813 and 1840.” Bulletin of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 7 (January 1949): 2–9. Harrison built Fort Meigs to offset the loss of Detroit and to prevent the British from making Lake Erie exclusively their own. He defended it successfully against the British attack in 1813. In 1840 Fort Meigs was the location of a great political rally when Harrison waged his campaign for the presidency. 730. Gurd, Norman St. Clair. The Story of Tecumseh. Canadian Heroes Series. Toronto: William Briggs, 1912. Tecumseh is presented as a hero to Canadian schoolchildren for the services he rendered during the War of 1812. Tecumseh’s life before the Battle of Tippecanoe is presented as preparation for all that follows. 731. Keeler, Lucy Elliot. “The Centennial Celebration of the Siege of Fort Meigs. Perrysburg, July 27, 1913.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 23 (January 1914): 34–48.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  125 Narration of some of the events for which the celebration was held and of the celebration itself. 732. Keeler, Lucy Elliot. “The Centennial of Croghan’s Victory.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 23 (January 1914): 1–33. Narration, commentary, and description of George Croghan’s defense of Fort Stephenson, 1813, and the centennial celebration. 733. Keeler, Lucy Elliot, ed. “The Croghan Celebration.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 16 (January 1907): 1–105. Speeches, accounts, documents, and other items in connection with the August 1906 reinterment of the remains of George Croghan, successful defender of Fort Stephenson in August 1813. 734. Long, John. “1813 Letter.” Edited by Prentiss Price. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 47 (July 1949): 253–54. The letter, dated December 8, 1813, relates the writer’s experiences in the army in Ohio and Michigan. Written after he returned from participating in the Battle of the Thames, apparently as a Kentucky volunteer. 735. McAfee, Robert Breckinridge. “Book and Journal of Robt. B. McAfee’s Mounted Company, in Col. Richard M. Johnson’s Regiment.” Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 26 (January 1928): 4–23; 26 (May 1928): 107–36; 26 (September 1928): 236–48. The May 19, 1813–May 13, 1814, entries follow the Mercer County, Kentucky, company to Lake Erie, back to Kentucky, northward again to participate in the campaign that ended at the Battle of the Thames, and finally their return home to Kentucky. 736. Proceedings of a Court Martial, Holden at Quebec, for the Trial of Lieutenant Benoit Bender, of the 41st Regiment of Foot, in July, 1815. Montreal: J. Lane, 1817. Benoit was charged with hiding while his detachment was fighting at River Raisin, January 1813, and at Fort Sandusky, August 1813. He was found innocent of both charges. 737. Randall, Emilius O., ed. “The Harrison Table Rock and Ball’s Battlefield.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 19 (October 1910): 360–69. An eighty-ton boulder on the Harrison Trail between Fort Seneca on the Sandusky River and Fort Meigs on the Maumee River, according to tradition, served as a mess table for Harrison and his officers. Ball’s battlefield is the site of an unsuccessful Indian ambush of a squadron of dragoons marching for Fort Stephenson. 738. Randall, Emilius O., ed. “Siege of Fort Meigs.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 28 (July 1919): 280–85. Extracts of a speech in the 1840 presidential campaign of John O’Fallon, who served as an aide to Harrison at the 1813 British siege of Fort Meigs. Also, a letter from Chamblee who served as an aid to Tecumseh and one B. Cladwell, identified as an officer, who attest to Harrison’s humanity to his prisoners. 739. Saliers, Earl A. “The Siege of Fort Meigs.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 18 (October 1909): 520–541. An assessment of the successful defense of Fort Meigs by George Croghan, 1813, as related to the Battle of Lake Erie and Harrison’s defense of the Old Northwest.

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126  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 740. Schillinger, William. “Journal of Ensign William Schillinger: A Soldier of the War of 1812.” Edited by James Albert Green. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 41 (January 1932): 51–85. Schillinger’s diary, February 5–August 6, 1813, chronicles his service in an Ohio Militia Company. He was stationed at Fort Amanda. He describes the march from Cincinnati to Amanda and the return; his tour was spent in garrison duty, cartridge making, smoking meat, and building boats. Fort Amanda was on the Auglaize River, west of the present Lima, Ohio. 741. Sholes, Stanton. “A Narrative of the Northwestern Campaign of 1813.” Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 15 (March 1929): 519–25. Sholes led a militia company from western Pennsylvania to aid in the defense of Cleveland. After the Battle of Lake Erie he joined Harrison’s army and moved into the Detroit area. After the Battle of the Thames, Sholes rebuilt Fort Detroit. 742. Slocum, Charles Elihu. “Tarhe, the Wyandot Chief, and the Harrison-Tarhe Peace Conference.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 14 (July 1905): 313–18. In reply to E. L. Taylor, “Harrison-Tarhe Peace Conference” (item 744, below). Analysis of the mixed success of William Henry Harrison’s peace conference with the Delaware, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot Indians. 743. Sweeny, Lenora Higginbotham (Mrs. William Montgomery), ed. “The Pride of Virginia, The Heroes of Fort Meigs.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 47 (October 1939): 330–34. Orders, rosters, letter, and poem concerning the Petersburg (Virginia) Volunteers. The editor’s name is sometimes recorded as Sweeney. 744. Taylor, E. L. “Harrison-Tarhe Peace Conference.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 14 (April 1905): 121–31. After the British and Indian forces quit the siege of Fort Meigs, Harrison met the neutral Delaware, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot, whose principal spokesman was Tarhe, the Crane, a Wyandot chief. He received their assurance of continued neutrality and readiness to join the Americans if needed. 745. Wallace, Lee A., Jr. “The Petersburg Volunteers, 1812–1813.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 82 (October 1974): 458–85. After the surrender of Detroit in 1812, Petersburg, Virginia, raised a volunteer infantry company and placed it for a year’s service to the federal government. The company was sent to the northwest frontier, where it played a conspicuous role in the Fort Meigs campaign. 746. Williams, Charles Richard. “George Croghan.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 12 (October 1903): 375–409. Narrates Croghan’s defense of Fort Stephenson at the mouth of Sandusky River. During the siege of Fort Meigs, the British attempted to take Stephenson as a means of breaking the American resistance at Meigs. Related to the coming Battle of Lake Erie. Includes several documents. 747. Woehrmann, Paul John. “The American Invasion of Western Upper Canada in 1813.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 38 (Spring, Summer, Autumn 1966): 74–88; 39 (Spring 1967): 61–73; 39 (Autumn 1967): 39–48; 40 (Winter 1967– 1968): 27–44.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  127 Investigates how the Americans, to a degree, regained in 1813 what they had lost in 1812; and how the converse was true for the British and the Indians. Analysis of planning of military operations, their execution, and the results of the campaign. The Americans had the superior resources and prevailed in spite of the supply system and the confusion and disagreement in the higher command. The Americans could afford to make mistakes but the British could not. Added to their other difficulties, the British again found the Natives were an unstable ally. In turn, the Indians came to feel they had been betrayed. 748. Yost, Robert. “Robert Yost, His Book.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 23 (April 1914): 150–61. Yost’s journal is a brief record of his militia duty. He marched from eastern Ohio in September 1813 to the Detroit area. The journal is incomplete, with comments going into early March 1814. 749. Young, Bennett Henderson. The Battle of the Thames in Which Kentuckians Defeated the British, French, and Indians, October 5, 1813 with a List of the Officers and Privates Who Won the Victory. Filson Club Publication 18. Louisville, Ky.: John P. Morton, Printers to the Filson Club, 1903. Concerned principally with the important role of Richard M. Johnson’s and other Kentucky regiments in the campaign which culminated in the battle.

4. The Niagara, Upper St. Lawrence, and Lake Champlain 750. Biggar, E. B. “The Battle of Stony Creek.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 1 (July 1893): 378–93. The June 1813 battle turned the tide of American penetration into Upper Canada (Ontario) and saved it for the remainder of the war. 751. [Boyd, John Parker.] Documents and Facts, Relative to Military Events, during the Late War. [Boston: n.p., 1816?]. Pamphlet. Various documents by Boyd and others to prove that he rendered laudatory military service during the war, particularly at the Battle of Chrysler’s Farm, November 1813. To counter the implication that since he was not retained in the service after the war, his military character was suspect. 752. Buell, W. S. “Military Movements in Eastern Ontario during the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 10 (1913): 60–71. Describes the movement and stationing of British and Canadian units throughout eastern Upper Canada, between Montreal and Kingston almost exclusively during the year 1813. 753. Carman, Francis A. “Chateauguay and De Salaberry: An Account of the Famous Campaign Taken from De Salaberry’s Own Letters.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 42 (November 1913): 23–29. The Battle of Chateauguay repulsed a major American attempt to take Montreal in the War of 1812. Charles Michel d’Irumberry de Salaberry raised a French Canadian battalion that he led in the October 1813 battle and defeated the Americans.

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128  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 754. Carman, Francis A. “When De Salaberry Was Worsted: The Story of an Attempt, for a Time Successful, to Rob the Hero of the Glory of Chateauguay.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 42 (April 1914): 569–73. For over three years after the Battle of Chateauguay in October 1813, official credit and recognition for repulsing the last American threat to Montreal went to other than De Salaberry, who commanded the victorious French Canadian troops. In late 1817 he was decorated by the crown. 755. Compton-Smith, C., comp. Dateline York, April, 1813: The Capture of York. A Collection of Documents and Records, Together with Factual Reports, Dealing with the Events of the Day. Toronto: McGraw-Hill of Canada, 1968. A folio of twenty-four facsimile reproductions of manuscripts and published diaries, maps, military records, and the like. 756. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Battle of Fort George. Niagara-on-theLake, Ontario: Niagara Historical Society, 1990. A reprint of an 1896 booklet describing the American Lake Ontario Campaign of 1813 and the amphibious assault aimed at destroying the Royal Army in the Niagara Peninsula. Cruikshank provides the background to the campaign, an account of the landing and defense on the beachhead, the subsequent British withdrawal and the American taking of Fort George, concluding with a brief analysis. 757. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Battle of Fort George. Welland, Ontario: Tribune Print, 1912. The Americans won the battle, May 27, 1813; but the British retreated in safety and to later success. 758. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. Blockade of Fort George, 1813. Niagara Historical Society Publications 3. Reprint Niagara, Ontario: Times Book and Job Print, 1917. A detailed account of the Niagara frontier, May 27–October 9, 1813, from the British evacuation of Fort George and retreat to Beaver Dams to the British retreat to Burlington and the end of the blockade at Fort George. A sequel to the author’s The Battle of Fort George (item 757, above). 759. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. Drummond’s Winter Campaign, 1813. 2d ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. A detailed Canadian account. Gordon Drummond assumed command in Upper Canada in late 1813 and commenced a campaign against the remaining Americans in the Niagara Peninsula. Eventually Fort George was retaken, and Fort Niagara in New York State fell as well. 760. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Fight in the Beech-woods: A Study in Canadian History. 2d ed. Welland, Ontario: W. T. Sawle 1895. A detailed Canadian account of the Battle of the Beechwoods. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Beaver Dams, an American defeat, June 1813, on the Niagara Peninsula. 761. Cumberland, Barlow. The Battle of York: An Account of the Eight Hours’ Battle from the Humber Bay to the Old Fort in the Defence of York on 27th April, 1813. Centennial Series, War of 1812–15. Toronto: William Briggs, 1913. A Canadian perspective on the American assault on York and burning of public buildings.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  129 762. Curzon, Sarah Anne. The Story of Laura Secord, 1813. 2d ed. [Welland, Ontario]: Lundy’s Lane Historical Society, 1898. Laura Ingersoll moved from Massachusetts to Upper Canada after the American Revolution. She married militia sergeant James Secord. In June 1813 she learned from American troops billeted in her house at Queenston of plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dams. She walked through American lines and twenty miles to warn the commander at Beaver Dams. 763. Dale, Allan. “Chateauguay.” Canadian Geographical Journal 11 (July 1935): 32–41. A brief narrative of the Battle of Chateauguay, October 1813, where an American force moving towards Montreal was repulsed; and a consideration of the wilderness area that made troop movements difficult at best. 764. Dewar, Donald Keith. The Battle of Beaverdams: The Story of Thorold’s Battle in the War of 1812. St. Catharines, Ontario: Slabtown, 1996. A detailed study of the events leading to the battle of Beaver Dams, where a largely native force defeated an American one during the summer of 1813. The author also attempts to locate the exact location of the battlefield. 765. Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. A History and Guide to Old Fort Niagara. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1985. An overview of the history of Fort Niagara from 1678 to 1963. The fort was a scene of some action in 1812 and was occupied by the British at the end of 1813 for the remainder of the war. Includes historical data on the fortifications and notes on archaeological work. 766. Ellison, David. “David Wingfield and Sacketts Harbour.” Dalhousie Review 52 (Autumn 1972): 407–13. David Wingfield, a British navy midshipman, was in the British attack on Sacketts Harbor, Lake Ontario, New York, May 22, 1813. Wingfield’s analysis of the potential significance of the engagement and the disastrous results are substantially accurate. Variant spellings: Sackets Harbor, with or without possessive apostrophe. 767. [Fairbanks, Charles.] The Old Soldier’s History, Containing an Account of the Movements of the North Western Army. During the Years 1813–14, under Five Different Generals, Their Encampments, Battles, Executions, and Other Punishments, with Their Hardships, Sufferings, Etc. Written by Himself. Haverhill, Mass.: E. G. Frothingham, 1861. The author describes his life as a New Hampshire volunteer. He saw some action in the Lake Champlain area, helped build fortifications, and helped apprehend smugglers. 768. Graves, Donald E. Field of Glory: The Battle of Crysler’s Farm. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 1999. A detailed study of the American strategy to take Montreal in the fall of 1813 using two armies, culminating in the defeat of each one at the Chateauguay and Crysler’s Farm. Includes a number of appendixes offering orders of battle, medals awarded and more. 769. Green, Ernest. “The Lost State: A Forgotten Incident of the War in Canada a Hundred Years Ago.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 47 (September 1916): 411–12.

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130  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography James Martin Cawdell wrote a letter from Stoney Creek, October 26, 1813, to the governor general of Canada. He had erected a temporary independent and neutral district, a township near Fort George that had been abandoned to the Americans. He would thus save it from marauding by the Americans until the army could reclaim it. Its location, form of government, population, and duration are not known. 770. Grodzinski, John R. The Project of Conquering this Province is Premature: The Battle of the Châteauguay, 26 October 1813.” The Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin [now Canadian Army Journal] 1 (Fall 1998): 49–64. A contextual overview of the one of the two battles that defeated the American effort to take Montreal in the fall of 1813. The battle of the Châteauguay was the only major engagement of the war where the Americans faced a largely Canadian force, led by Canadian who had served in the British Army since the 1790s. 771. Hartman, Mavis. “Battlefield House at Stoney Creek.” Canadian Geographical Journal 48 (June 1954): 229–31. The Gage farmhouse that witnessed the Battle of Stoney Creek, June 1813. It has been restored and serves as a museum today. 772. Hitsman, J. Mackay. “Spying at Sackets Harbor, 1813.” Inland Seas 15 (Summer 1959): 120–22. While Isaac Chauncey was engaging the enemy with his squadron at Niagara in May 1813, British regulars and Canadian militia attacked his base of Sackets Harbor at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Chauncey recommended that Samuel Stacey be hanged as a spy for revealing information to the enemy that led to the enemy attack. The secretary of the navy disagreed because Stacey was a civilian and therefore could not be treated as a spy. 773. Humphries, Charles W. “The Capture of York.” Ontario History 51 (Winter 1959): 1–21. Examines the details of the American capture of York in 1813. Its consequences were felt in the Battle of Lake Erie and later in the events of 1837 in Upper Canada. 774. Ingram, George. “The Story of Laura Secord Revisited.” Ontario History 57 (June 1965): 85–97. In the 1860s Secord became a heroine in the annals of the War of 1812. Her perilous walk through enemy lines and warning of an impending American attack thus saved the day for Canada at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813. Debunkers have virtually destroyed the story, but they have gone too far. Reviews the historiography of the story and concludes Secord’s intelligence should have been given more credence than it was at the time. 775. Johnston, Charles M. A Battle for the Heartland: Stoney Creek, 6 June 1813. Stoney Creek, Ontario: Pennell, n.d. Pamphlet. A narrative account of an engagement in the Niagara campaign, 1813. 776. Keefer, Frank H. Beaver Dams. Thorold, Ontario: Thorold Post, 1914. Pamphlet. The victory of the Canadian militia at Beaver Dams in 1813 was the making of the heroine Laura Secord. Traces the subsequent virtual erasing of the original terrain and landmarks of the area. 777. Kerr, W. B. “The Occupation of York (Toronto), 1813.” Canadian Historical Review 5 (March 1924): 9–21.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  131 The six-day occupation of York after its capture by the Americans in April 1813 was a longtime source of bad feelings between Canada and the United States. Proof that Americans started the fires that burned Parliament buildings has never been established. They were only temporary buildings anyhow. The only serious damage was in the destruction of the public records. Part of the plunder was restored. York soon returned to wartime normalcy. 778. Kyte, E. C. “Fort Niagara in the War of 1812: Side-Lights from an Unpublished Order-Book.” Canadian Historical Review 17 (December 1936): 373–84. The manuscript order book, the basis for this article, covers the November 1812–December 1813 period with some pages and entries missing. Its contents are a measure of the difficulties of maintaining discipline and morale of the American militia and regulars at one garrison. 779. Lighthall, William Douw. An Account of the Battle of Chateauguay: Being a Lecture Delivered at Ormstown, March 8, 1889. Montreal: W. Drysdale, 1889. This British victory of October 1813 thwarted the American campaign to take Montreal. This was the sole action of the war where a largely Canadian force met an American one. A patriotic Canadian account. 780. Marquis, Thomas Gutherie. “The Battle of Chateaugay.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 37 (July 1911): 242–46. The Battle of Chateauguay, fought in October 1813, has achieved status greater than its actual import. The author argues that historians, particularly American ones, and an official account by a senior British officer, are inaccurate or misleading. The battle is presented as a glorious victory for the French Canadian commander, whose efforts saved Montreal from attack. 781. Malcomson, Robert. A Very Brilliant Affair: The Battle of Queenston Heights, 1812. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 2003. A well-researched and detailed telling of the history of this significant British victory in the fall of 1812. Although the Americans had achieved their objective early in the battle, they were unable to maintain communication across the Niagara River and reinforce their army. Includes many maps and images and several appendices with orders of battles, casualties and folklore. 782. Mather, J. D. “The Capture of Fort Niagara, 19th December, 1813.” Canadian Defence Quarterly 3 (April 1926): 271–75. The British victory is regarded as the most brilliantly successful of the war. British casualties were minimal. American losses were severe in lives and armament. 783. McClure, George. Causes of the Destruction of the American Towns on the Niagara Frontier, and Failure of the Campaign of the Fall of 1813. Bath, N.Y.: Benjamin Smead, 1817. Pamphlet. An indictment of John Armstrong, Secretary of War. The author says his militia was able and eager but frustrated by Armstrong’s mismanagement. Some other militia companies were not well trained. With proper training, which the author explains, the militia could have and may in the future play decisive roles. 784. McKell, Wayne. “The Battle of Chateauguay.” Chateauguay Valley Historical Society Annual Journal 6 (1973): 81–86.

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132  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The story of the October 1813 battle, a part of the major threat to Montreal during the War of 1812. 785. McKenzie, Ruth. Laura Secord: The Legend and the Lady. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. Romantic and sentimental accounts and monuments proclaimed Laura Secord as a heroine for walking through American lines to warn the British of American plans and thus assuring victory to the British at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813. Skeptics raised questions about her source of information, her walk, and the significance. The author examined all the documentary evidence and concludes the legendary details are accurate. 786. Moir, John S. “An Early Record of Laura Secord’s Walk.” Ontario History 51 (Spring 1959): 105–8. Reexamines previous assessment of details and documentary evidence concerning the Laura Secord incident in June 1813 in light of some newly discovered documentation. Reaffirms or modifies previous conclusions and introduces some more problems with the story. 787. Pope, M. A., ed. “The March of the 104th Foot from Fredericton to Quebec, 1813.” Canadian Defence Quarterly 7 (July 1930): 490–501. Based upon the journal of an officer who participated in the winter 1813 march, often on snowshoes, by the 104th Foot from Fredericton, New Brunswick, to Kingston, Upper Canada, covering some seven hundred miles in fifty-two days. The officer’s account first appeared in the New York Albion, November 1831, and the “J.L.C.” who is credited may have been a pseudonym for Lieutenant John Le Couteur. 788. Quaife, Milo Milton. The Yankees Capture York. Detroit: Wayne University Press, 1955. Pamphlet. This pamphlet suggests that the town of York (Toronto) was not destroyed in April 1813. The military works were nearly demolished, mostly by the British, with no blame attached to either commander. The sanctity of private property agreement was violated more by Canadian criminals or disloyals than by Americans. No local contemporary charge was made that Americans fired the Parliament houses; evidence suggests it was perpetrated by Canadians. British destruction of Washington was not based on alleged American destruction at York. 789. Rice, Homer M. “Navy Point—World’s Smallest Base.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 61 (December 1935): 1792–96. Reviews the history of Sackett’s Harbor and the role it played in the War of 1812. 790. Sellar, Robert. The U.S. Campaign of 1813 to Capture Montreal. Crysler’s Farm: The Decisive Battle of the War of 1812. [Huntingdon, Quebec: Gleaner, 1913.] While the American officers were primarily responsible for the failure of the campaign to conquer Montreal in 1813, the American people must be blamed. Intoxicated with pride over the success of the American Revolution, French assistance which won the war was ignored and American leaders were credited. Americans expected too much of their 1812 leaders. Crysler’s Farm ended the threat to Montreal. 791. Stacey, C. P. The Battle of Little York. 3d ed. Toronto: Toronto Historical Board, 1977.

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The Canadian–American Theater, 1812–1813  •  133 A brief account of the successful American amphibious assault against York, April 27, 1813. 792. Suthren, Victor J. H. “The Battle of Chateaugay.” In Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History 11, pp. 95–150. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1974. This battle, fought on October 26, 1813, about thirty miles south of Montreal, resulted in the withdrawal of one of the two American armies attempting to reach Montreal. Also describes the efforts to mark the historic site. 793. Thompson, Mabel W. “Billy Green, ‘the Scout.’ ” Ontario History 44 (October 1952): 173–81. William Green participated in the Battle of Stoney Creek, 1813. Includes the text of his reminiscences. Usually known as “Billy the Scout,” he has become a legendary local hero, sometimes called the Paul Revere of Canada. The author attempts to separate fact from legend. 794. [Viger, Jacques?] Reminiscences of the War of 1812–14. Being Portions of the Diary of a Captain of the “Voltiguers Canadiens” While in Garrison at Kingston, Etc. Translated from the French by J. L. Hubert Neilson. Kingston, Ontario: News Printing, 1895. Diary of a Canadian regular officer while on duty at Kingston in the summer of 1813. Jacques Viger served in the Voltigeurs Canadiens, which was raised in Lower Canada and was arguably the best Canadian units of the war. Viger offers interesting perspectives on the war during this period. 795. Way, Ronald L. “The Day of Crysler’s Farm.” Canadian Geographical Journal 62 (June 1961): 184–217. The November 1813 contest pitted the British against an American force its size and won. It was the first time in the war in which two forces met in the open; American preference was for what was called bush fighting. It was the single largest American offensive and it left the British supply route safe and intact. It has to be understood in terms of geography as well as history. 796. Wood, Herbert Fairlie. “The Many Battles of Stoney Creek.” Canadian Geographical Journal 44 (March 1962): 108–12. The British completely surprised the Americans during this rare night action fought on June 6, 1813. Although the Americans still held the field, their two general officers were captured and they no longer had naval support. Although the battle is long over, the struggle over the history of it is still being waged by historians and other writers, with each side exaggerating enemy casualties and minimizing its own. There is sufficient material in letters, diaries, and other records to support the views of nearly every shade of opinion and as each new bit of information is uncovered, the fighting is renewed.

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Chapter

5

The War in the South

A. General Studies 797. Boom, Aaron M. “John Coffee, Citizen Soldier.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 22 (September 1963): 223–37. John Coffee was a business partner and a militia associate of Andrew Jackson in the Natchez Expedition, the Creek campaign, and the New Orleans campaign. He was not temperamentally suited for long military service or political office, and was pleased to retire to civilian status. 798. Claiborne, Nathaniel Herbert. Notes on the War in the South; with Biographical Sketches of the Lives of Montgomery, Jackson, Sevier, the Late Gov. Claiborne, and Others. Richmond, Va.: William Ramsay, 1819. The contemporary notes consist of numbers of the author’s “Crisis.” Some narrative with commentary on the burning of Washington, but mostly on the Indian and British-American actions in the South. The biographic sketches are not extensive. 799. Cocke, John. Letter to the Honorable John H. Eaton. December 16, 1818. Knoxville, Tenn.: Heiskell and Brown, 1819. Accuses Eaton of being “the propagator of malicious falsehood,” especially as it concerned Cocke and the men under his command. See John Reid and John Henry Eaton, The Life of Andrew Jackson (item 805, below). Cocke presents evidence he believes contradicts what Eaton wrote, claiming that Eaton used the book as means of gaining appointment as a U.S. senator. 800. Cox, Isaac Joslin. The West Florida Controversy, 1798–1813: A Study in American Diplomacy. Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History, 1912. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1918. Detailed monographic treatment of the area under international contention, its background, and how it relates to the War of 1812.

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136  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 801. [Lee, W.] Trial of Col. Thomas H. Cushing, before a General Court–Martial, Which Sat at Baton–Rouge, on Charges Preferred against Him by Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton. Reported by the Late Judge Advocate. Philadelphia: Moses Thomas, 1812. Pamphlet. Cushing was charged with disobeying orders, abuse of trust, misapplication of public property, and conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman, with several specific charges under each. They concern matters relating to soldiers, construction of barracks, and personal conduct at Cantonment Washington, Fort Stoddart, and Cantonment Columbian Spring, all in Mobile Territory. The 1811–1812 court found Cushing guilty only on several specific charges. 802. Mahon, John K. “British Strategy and Southern Indians: War of 1812.” Florida Historical Quarterly 44 (April 1966): 285–302. The British planned to make the Gulf Coast a major theater in the war, but they were unable to do so until 1814. Their attempt to use the Indians as allies was not as successful as in the Old Northwest. 803. Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. “British and Indian Activities in Spanish West Florida during the War of 1812.” Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (October 1967): 111–23. Britain did not consider the loss of Florida to Spain in 1783 as permanent. By the time of the opening of the War of 1812, the Americans had annexed West Florida as far east as the Perdido River and were engaged in filibustering even farther east. The British wanted to use the Indians and Florida as a base for attacking the United States. This remained a basis of policy throughout the war. 804. Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. Struggle for the Gulf Borderlands: The Creek War and the Battle of New Orleans, 1812–1815. Gainesville, Fla.: University Presses of Florida, 1981. Principally the story of Andrew Jackson’s campaigns against the southern Indians and the British. The Creek War was especially important because it started as a separate operation and eventually merged with the war against the British. Heretofore, the Florida borderlands have been neglected by overemphasis on the Canadian side of the war. 805. Reid, John, and Eaton, John Henry. The Life of Andrew Jackson, Major General in the Service of the United States: Comprising A History of the War in the South, from the Commencement of the Creek Campaign, to the Termination of Hostilities before New Orleans. Philadelphia: M. Carey and Son, 1817. The war in the South rather than the life of Jackson is the general focus, but Jackson is central to much of it. The authors were concerned with correcting “garbled facts, and contradictory statements, [that] had been so extensively circulated.” Virtually reprinted by Eaton as Memoirs of Andrew Jackson, Late Major-General and Commander in Chief of the Southern Division of the Army of the United States (Boston: C. Ewer, 1828). 806. Rowland, Eron Opha Moore (Mrs. Dunbar). Andrew Jackson’s Campaign Against the British, or the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812: Concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813–1815. New York: Macmillan, 1926; reprint Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries, 1971.

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The War in the South  •  137 An account of the War of 1812 in Mississippi Territory as context for the climax at New Orleans. Andrew Jackson is the hero of the somewhat romanticized narrative. 807. [Van Ness, William Peter.] A Concise Narrative of General Jackson’s First Invasion of Florida, and of His Immortal Defence of New-Orleans: with Remarks. By Aristides. New York: n.p., 1827. Pamphlet. A campaign document for the presidential election of 1828, designed to explain favorably some of Jackson’s military decisions that had become controversial and might be used against him.

B. The Occupation of Florida 808. Alexander, J. H. “The Ambush of Captain John Williams, U.S.M.C.: Failure of the East Florida Invasion, 1812–1813.” Florida Historical Quarterly 56 (January 1978): 280–96. Commanded by Williams, the “People’s Army” from Georgia besieged the port of St. Augustine. The ambush of a small supply train nearby forced the lifting of the siege and thus saved East Florida for Spain. 809. Cox, Isaac Joslin. “The Border Missions of General George Mathews.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 12 (December 1925): 309–33. Mathews was intimately involved in the American military and diplomatic efforts in East Florida prior to the War of 1812. 810. Kruse, Paul. “A Secret Agent in East Florida: General George Mathews and the Patriot War.” Journal of Southern History 18 (May 1952): 193–217. George Mathews was commissioned to foment unrest along the Florida– American border, providing an excuse for American occupation. He led the Tennessee and Georgia militia and volunteers against Spanish rule in East Florida. 811. Patrick, Rembert W. Florida Fiasco: Rampant Rebels on the Georgia–Florida Border, 1810–1815. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1954. A study of American aggression; the international diplomatic maneuverings of Great Britain, Spain, France, Russia, and the United States; and particularly the involvement of George Mathews in the Georgia-Florida phase of the War of 1812. 812. Patrick, Rembert W., ed. “Letters of the Invaders of East Florida, 1812.” Florida Historical Quarterly 28 (July 1949): 53–65. Letters from Robert T. Brown, William Kinnear, Fielder Ridgeway, James Ryan, and T. A. Smith, written while in a camp near St. Augustine during August 11–September 11, 1812. 813. Stirling, James. “A British Report on West Florida and Louisiana, November, 1812.” Edited by Richard K. Murdoch. Florida Historical Quarterly 43 (July 1964): 36–51. Describes British-American naval action off West Florida in the early part of the War of 1812. Stirling, a British sea captain, gives detailed information in a letter about settlements, the land, and military possibilities in the area. 814. “The War of 1812—Some Florida Episodes.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 1 (April 1918): 330–32. Letters and reports concerning British seizure of slaves and property.

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C. The Native Perspective 815. Halbert, Henry Sale, and Ball, Timothy Horton. The Creek War of 1813 and 1814. Edited by Frank L. Owsley, Jr. Southern Historical Publications 15. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1969. First published in 1895. Relies heavily on reminiscences of contemporaries and their manuscripts. Emphasizes the causes of the war and its early stages in Mississippi Territory. Presents the Indian point of view. 816. Hall, Arthur H. “The Red Stick War: Creek Indian Affairs during the War of 1812.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 12 (September 1934): 264–93. A factional dispute in the Creek Nation of southern and western Georgia and eastern Alabama exploded in the Red Stick War, 1813–1814. This led to the Fort Mims Massacre and the Creek War, which split the Creek into those who escaped to Florida and those who were eventually removed to Oklahoma. 817. Hughes, Robert M. “A Deserter’s Tale.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 39 (January 1931): 21–28. Concerns claims pressed by George Fisher for property loss during the Creek War in 1813. 818. Innerarity, John. “A Prelude to the Creek War of 1813–1814: In a Letter of John Innerarity to James Innerarity.” Edited by Elizabeth Howard West. Florida Historical Quarterly 18 (April 1940): 247–66. Describes the Creek visit to Pensacola, Florida, which resulted in the white attack at Burnt Corn Creek, the first fight of the war. This had considerable implications for later developments. 819. Mahon, John K. “The Carolina Brigade Sent against the Creek Indians in 1814.” North Carolina Historical Review 28 (October 1951): 421–25. In 1814, North Carolina provided a regiment to fight the Creek in Mississippi Territory. They were too late to participate at Horseshoe Bend, so they were sent to the Alabama River region for patrol duty. The campaign was bloodless and unimportant except for the fact that the operation served as an example to the British that coastal states could cooperate if the occasion demanded. 820. Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. “The Fort Mims Massacre.” Alabama Review 24 (July 1971): 192–204. The August 30, 1813, massacre at Fort Mims in southern Alabama resulted in the death of all but a few whites, friendly Indians, and those of mixed blood. It was the start of the Creek War, during which Andrew Jackson developed as a leading general. The American experience helped to repel the massive British invasion of the next year. 821. [Sewall, Lewis.] The Last Campaign of Sir John Falstaff the II. Or, The Hero of the Burnt–Corn Battle. A Heroi–Comic Poem. By ***** *******. St. Stephens, Ala.: n.p., 1815. Pamphlet. The Creek Indians routed the whites in a battle at Burnt Corn Creek, Alabama, July 1813. This is a satirical attack on James Caller, who led the white troops in this, regarded by some as the opening of the Creek War. 822. Sugden, John. “The Southern Indians in the War of 1812: The Closing Phase.” Florida Historical Quarterly 60 (January 1982): 273–312.

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The War in the South  •  139 Within a few months after their defeat at Horseshoe Bend, the Indians began to cooperate with the British forces in Florida. The collapse of this relationship was consummated by the British failure to uphold the Treaty of Ghent provisions that protected the Indians, and other later developments. 823. Thomason, Hugh M. “Governor Peter Early and the Creek Indian Frontier, 1813–1815.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 45 (September 1961): 223–37. A narrative examination of Indian affairs in and along Georgia’s frontiers during the War of 1812. 824. Tait, James A. “Journal of James A. Tait for the Year 1813.” Edited by Peter A. Brannon. Georgia Historical Quarterly 8 (September 1924): 229–39. The journal is a record, August 25, 1813–March 21, 1814; the author’s account of his participation in a campaign against the Creek Indians.

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Chapter

6

The British Offensive, 1814

A. General Studies 825. Bannister, J. A. “The Burning of Dover.” Western Ontario Historical Notes 21 (March 1965): 1–25. Dover played minor roles in the 1812 and 1813 campaigns in Upper Canada. In mid-1814, Americans, sometimes guided by renegade Canadians, burned the small settlement despite white flags of peace which the resident women and children displayed. This action is considered by some historians to have inspired the burning of public buildings in Washington in 1814. 826. Gleig, George Robert. The Campaigns of the British Army at Washington and New Orleans, in the Years 1814–1815. By the Author of the Subaltern. 4th ed. London: John Murray, 1836. First published in 1821. Title varies slightly from edition to edition. A romantic account based on the author’s own journal, from the departure from France to the return to England. More than any other cause, British success at Washington came because of Americans’ lack of experience and habits of soldiers. The primary cause of failure at New Orleans was that the Americans were fully prepared because they had somehow gained intelligence of the secret British expedition. Controversy surrounds the authorship. See Walter Lord, The Dawn’s Early Light (item 933, below). 827. Graves, Donald E. “The Redcoats are Coming! British Troop Movements to North America in 1814.” Journal of the War of 1812 6 (Summer 2001): 12–18. A first-ever detailed examination of the composition of the major Briitsh reinforcement to North America during 1814 based on primary sources. Contrary to what many accounts note, this article clearly demonstrates that

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142  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography only twenty-one of the forty-four units sent to North America were “Welligton’s regulars” and that the remainder were from garrison duty in Britain and various parts of the empire. 828. Harvey, D. C. “The Halifax-Castine Expedition.” Dalhousie Review 18 (July 1938): 207–13. With Napoleon’s defeat, Britain extended its blockade of the whole of the American coastline. The Halifax-Castine Expedition of 1814 was dispatched to occupy the borderland between New Brunswick and New England in a bid to improve overland communication between the Atlantic provinces and Lower Canada and British forces occupied the area for the remainder of the war. 829. Kimball, Jeffrey. “The Battle of Chippewa: Infantry Tactics in the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 31 (1967–68): 168–86. An examination of the respective tactics employed by the British and Americans during the first major engagement of the 1814 Niagara Campaign that challenges many previous interpretations of the battle. 830. Kimbell, Jeffrey Phillip. “Strategy on the Northern Frontier, 1814.” Partial Ph.D. thesis, Louisiana State University, August 1969. A detailed analysis of the respective strategies pursued in the Niagara region during the summer of 1814. 831. Long, David. A Discourse, Delivered in Milford, (Mass.) on Lord’s Day, October 30, 1814; Occasioned by the Return of a Company of Artillery, under Captain Rufus Thayer, from Camp, at South-Boston. Boston: S. T. Armstrong, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: Lamentations 3:22. The safety enjoyed by men in times of danger is by God’s merciful providence. Men are also under perpetual obligation to express their gratitude. The families as well as the men who have returned safely are under this obligation. 832. Poole, John Irving. The Fight at Battle Hill. London, Ontario: n.p., 1903. Pamphlet. Account of the engagement at Battle Hill, often referred to as Longwood, the only clash that took place in Middlesex County, Ontario. Both sides sustained losses in the March 1814 skirmish. 833. “Reminiscences Connected with the War of 1812.” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 19 (October 1865): 338–42. A memoir of militia duty in Massachusetts, 1814. 834. Riddell, William Renwick. A Canadian’s View of the Battle of Plattsburgh. A Canadian’s View of the Battle of New Orleans. The Century of Peace and Its Significance. N.p.: n.p., [1915]. Centenary addresses given by the author, an Ontario supreme court justice, in 1914–1915. Bound together as a pamphlet, with continuous pagination. 835. Russell, Samuel H. “A Contemporary Letter Written from Fort Sewall in Marblehead to the Gurnet Fort Near Plymouth Detailing the ‘Sandy Bay Surprise’ of September 5, 1814, with Other Matters.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 36 (July 1900): 214–16. Tells of British raids along the Massachusetts shore and defense of the towns and forts. 836. Shepard, William. “Some Buckingham Soldiers in the War of 1812.” William and Mary Quarterly, 2d ser., 10 (April 1930): 168–70.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  143 Rosters of Buckingham County, Virginia, militia in 1814 from a memorandum book which belonged to Marmaduke Gannaway, an officer, but in the hand of more than one scribe. 837. Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah. “Recovery of H.M.S. Tecumseth of the Upper Canada Naval Department, Succeeding His Majesty’s Provincial Marine, at Penetanguishene, August 29, 1953.” Ontario History 46 (Spring 1954): 97–105. Recounts the salvage of the Tecumseth, at first mistakenly identified. A short stocky frigate of a class intended to retrieve the disaster of the Battle of Lake Erie, 1813. Launched in September 1814 but never used in battle, her service was terminated by peace and the subsequent Rush-Bagot Agreement. 838. Stacey, C. P. “An American Plan for a Canadian Campaign,” Canadian Historical Review 46 (October 1940): 348–58. Discussion of correspondence between president James Madison and major general Jacob Brown over a proposal to attack Canada across the St. Lawrence River should the war continue into 1815. 839. Stanley, George F. G. “British Operations on the Penobscot in 1814.” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 19 (Autumn 1940): 168–78. In 1814, John Sherbrooke, governor of Nova Scotia, conducted operations which resulted in the military conquest of Maine as far as the Penobscot River. The half year’s occupation was ended by the peace treaty. 840. Stephenson, Jay Travis. The War of 1812 in Maine: The Castine Expedition and the Secession Movement. M.A. thesis, Mount Allison University 1993. An overview of the successful British occupation of Castine and the political challenges faced by the U.S. war effort in the region. 841. A Subaltern in America; Comprising His Narrative of the Campaigns of the British Army, at Baltimore, Washington, Etc. Etc. during the Late War. Philadelphia: Carey, Hart, 1833. A British officer participant’s account of the Chesapeake and New Orleans campaigns. Confines the narration, based upon his own journal, to the operations in which he was a participant rather than the overall campaigns themselves. 842. Trumbull, James Hammond. The Defence of Stonington (Connecticut) against a British Squadron, August 9th to 12th, 1814. Hartford, Conn.: n.p., 1864. Pamphlet. Includes muster rolls and other related matters. 843. Watkins, Walter Kendall. “The Defence of Boston in the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the Bostonian Society 3 (1899): 35–74. Boston was defended by United States forces in the harbor forts and at the navy yard and by the state militia. Not until the spring of 1814 did alarms become serious and repeated enough to cause real concern for the city. New fortifications were constructed, defenseless positions were strengthened, and greater attention was given to militia training and volunteer services of other townspeople, although it was never attacked. Includes rosters of Massachusetts militia officers.

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B. The Niagara, Upper St. Lawrence, and Lake Champlain Frontier 844. An Account of the Battle of Lundy’s Lane. Fought in 1814, between the British and American Armies. From the Best and Most Authorized Sources. Reprint ed., Niagara Falls, Ontario: Niagara, 1947. Booklet contains accounts of lieutenant general Gordon Drummond, British commander in Niagara during 1814, and captain R. H. Bonnycastle of the Royal Engineers, as well as an excerpt account from a biography of brigadier general Winfield Scott. 845. Babcock, Louis L. “The Siege of Fort Erie.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 38–59. A narrative account of the summer of 1814 siege by British forces against the American held fort. 846. The Battle of Cook’s Mills and the Dedication of Its Monument. Welland, Ontario: Tribune-Telegraph Press, 1923. The engagement of October 19, 1814, was centered around the flour mills of the Cook Brothers, and was the last skirmish of any consequence in Upper Canada, which occurred while Fort Eire lay under siege. 847. The Battle of Plattsburgh: What Historians Say About It. Albany, N.Y.: Plattsburgh Centenary Commission, 1914. Accounts by Alfred Thayer Mahan and Theodore Roosevelt and excerpts from letters and official reports of persons involved on both sides of the engagement. 848. Brabuto, Richard V. Niagara 1814: America Invades Canada. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2000. The only book-length study of the 125-day Niagara Campaign, initiated by the Americans in July 1814 and ending with their departure from Canada in November of that year. The campaign witnessed several major battles, a siege, and numerous skirmishes between the forces involved, and all are described in detail. 849. The Centenary of the Battle of Plattsburg, September 11, 1814–1914, at Plattsburg, N.Y., September 6 to 11, 1914. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1914. Narratives of the battle and related matters and biographical sketches of some of the principal British and American officers. 850. Court Martial. Proceedings of a General Court Martial, Held at Fort Independence, (Boston Harbor,) for the Trial of Major Charles K. Gardner, of the Third Regiment Infantry. Upon Charges of Misbehavior, Cowardice in the Face of the Enemy, Etc. Preferred against Him by Major General Ripley. [Boston?]: n.p., 1816. Charged with cowardice in capacity of adjutant general at Chippewa in July 1814, Lundy’s Lane in July 1814, and Fort Erie in September 1814, all in Upper Canada. In connection with the charges, Gardner further allegedly communicated with the commanding general in a way unbecoming an officer. The verdict of the court is not recorded. 851. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Battle of Lundy’s Lane, 25th July, 1814. A Historical Study. 3d ed. Welland, Ontario: Lundy’s Lane Historical Society, 1893.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  145 A detailed Canadian account of the battle, sometimes referred to by American writers as the Battle of Bridgewater or Niagara Falls. A costly and indecisive attempt to dislodge the British from the Niagara region. 852. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “The Contest for the Command of Lake Ontario in 1814.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 21 (1924): 99–159. Poor planning, disunity among the commanders, quarrels between commanders in the theater of operations with policy makers in Washington, and overestimation of British determination were more important factors in the British favor than the considerable mutual exertions and naval activities. 853. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. The Siege of Fort Erie, August 1st–September 23rd, 1814. Welland, Ontario: Lundy’s Lane Historical Society, 1905. A detailed Canadian account of the Canadian siege of Fort Erie. The Americans had forced British evacuation of the fort in July. Other Americans withdrew from Lundy’s Lane to the fort. After attempts to defeat the Americans, the siege was raised. The Americans later blew up the fort and retired to American territory. 854. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander, comp. and ed. Documents Relating to the Invasion of the Niagara Peninsula by the United States Army, Commanded by General Jacob Brown, in July and August, 1814. Facsimile reprint ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Principally transcriptions from Jacob Brown letter books. The author notes it as a supplement to his Documentary History of the Campaign on the Niagara Frontier (see item 445). 855. Douglass, David Bales. The Campaign of 1814. Edited by S. W. Jackman. Bala, Ireland: Cromlech, n.d. Pamphlet. The author served as an engineer officer in the Niagara campaign. The account was prepared from his own letters and papers as part of a series of lectures on the war. Analytical as well as narrative. 856. Dulles, Joseph Heatly. “Extracts from the Diary of Joseph Heatly Dulles.” Edited by Charles W. Dulles. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 35 (1911): 276–89. Dulles and James Potter visited army camps and naval installations in the Plattsburgh area. No reason for the visit is stated, but they carried letters of introduction giving them access to commanding officers and deferential treatment. Entries for August 12–18, 1814, describe camps, fleet, and fortifications. 857. Duncan, Ennis, Jr. The Journal of Ennis Duncan, Junior, Orderly Sergeant, 16th Regiment, Kentucky Militia Detached. Transcribed and with a preface by Richard C. Knopf. Columbus, Ohio: Anthony Wayne Parkway Board, 1956. Mimeograph. Entries for September 8, 1814–April 15, 1815. Author served with a Kentucky militia regiment in the Upper Canada campaign, but did not engage in any battles. The diary is concerned with the everyday life of the soldier. 858. Dunlap, John. The Power, Justice and Mercy of Jehovah, Exercised upon His Enemies and His People. A Sermon, Delivered on Board the Fleet, at Whitehall, December 18, 1814. Albany, N.Y.: Webster and Skinners, 1815.

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146  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Text: Exodus 15:6. Delivered to members of crews who had defeated the British at the Battle of Plattsburgh, September 1814. The justice, mercy, and power of God are exercised in punishing the wicked and in chastising, correcting, and delivering his people. The recent victory on Lake Champlain is “a display of the divine mercy unto our nation.” 859. Emerson, George Douglas. “General Scott at Lundy’s Lane.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 60–66. Winfield Scott commanded a brigade of regulars in the battle, July 25, 1814. Outnumbered and outmaneuvered, he engaged the enemy “valiantly” and “steadfastly,” although his brigade was largely destroyed. 860. Everest, Allan S. “Alexander Macomb at Plattsburgh, 1814.” New York History 44 (October 1963): 307–35. Macomb was stationed in the Plattsburgh area, February 1814–March 1815. He is credited, with Thomas Macdonough, who commanded the fleet on the lake, with success against considerable British odds. 861. Facts Relative to the Campaign on Niagara, in 1814. Boston: David C. Ballard, 1815. Controversy and misinformation gave false impressions to the public. Miscellaneous documentation is offered so that the proper perspective and proper assessment of the performance of the American forces can be made. A defense of Eleazar Wheelock Ripley’s actions in the Niagara campaign. 862. [Fenton, James?] Journal of the Military Tour, by the Pennsylvania Volunteers and Militia, under the Command of Col. James Fenton, to the Frontiers of Pennsylvania and New York, Lake Erie, Etc. Etc. and from Thence to Greenbush Garrison. By a Volunteer in the Regiment. Carlisle, Pa.: George Kline, n.d. From a daily diary of a tour of six months, February–August 1814. The volunteers guarded prisoners and took a few brief excursions into enemy territory but did not engage in any military action. 863. Fitz-Enz, David. The Final Invasion: Plattsburgh, the War of 1812s Most Decisive Battle. New York: Cooper Square, 2001. An account of the British campaign to secure the Canadian frontier by taking Plattsburgh, New York, during the fall of 1814. 864. Forester, Cecil Scott. “Victory on Lake Champlain.” American Heritage 15 (December 1963): 4–11, 88–90. The Battle of Plattsburgh, 1814, was lost by George Prevost rather than won by Thomas Macdonough. Macdonough’s genius was his ability to take advantage of Prevost’s mistakes. This books suggests the American naval victory resulted in Provost calling off the land attack and preventing the use of British veterans of the Napoleonic Wars and thereby avoided a crushing American defeat. 865. Geary, R. W. The Centenary Celebration of the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, July Twenty-Fifth Nineteen Hundred and Fourteen. Niagara Falls, Ontario: Lundy’s Lane Historical Society, 1919. A commemorative booklet marking the centenary of the battle of Lundy’s Lane. Includes an historical account of the battle, anniversary event, and text of speeches. Production of the booklet was delayed due to the outbreak of the First World War.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  147 866. Gosling, David C. L. “The Battle of LaColle Mill, 1814.” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 47 (Autumn 1969): 169–74. Wintering at Plattsburgh on the western shore of Lake Champlain, James Wilkinson desperately needed a victory in the face of his autumn 1813 defeats at Chateauguay and Chrysler’s Farm and an almost inevitable courtmartial. In March 1814 he attacked a mill at the LaColle River, a first obstacle to a northward advance from Lake Champlain to Montreal, and failed. 867. Graham, Gerald S., ed. “Views of General Murray on the Defence of Upper Canada, 1815.” Canadian Historical Review 34 (June 1953): 158–65. In early 1815 George Murray replaced George Prevost as principal administrator in Upper Canada. There is some confusion as to his precise title. Murray emphasized the vulnerability of the upper St. Lawrence River between Kingston and Montreal and proposed a strategic line of settlement, preferably by Wellington’s veterans. Downplaying Lakes Erie and Huron, he argued that Lake Ontario was the real naval key. 868. Graves, Donald E. “The Finest Army Ever to Campaign on American Soil: The Organization, Strength, Composition and Losses of British Land Forces During the Plattsburgh Campaign, September 1812,” Journal of the War of 1812 8 (Fall–Winter 2003): 6–13. The first serious examination of the composition of the British division sent against Plattsburgh in 1814. It debunks the myths that this army was composed solely of “Wellington’s veterans” and that many of them deserted during the retreat to Canada. 869. Graves, Donald E. “‘I have a handsome little army . . .’ Re-exmaination of Winfield Scott’s Camp at Buffalo in 1814.” In War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur R. Bolwer, 43–52. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. A reasssessement of the training camp of the American Left Division held near Buffalo in 1814. The author contends far fewer troops underwent Winfield Scott’s training regmen than is general believed. 870. Graves, Donald E. Redcoats and Grey Jackets: The Battle of Chippawa, 1814. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 1994. A detailed account of the first major battle of the 1814 Niagara campaign, during which the British are forced to leave the open field for the first time during the war. 871. Graves, Donald E. Where Right and Glory Lead. The Battle of Lundy’s Lane, 1814. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 1997. The battle of Lundy’s Lane was the largest and most hard fought battle in the northern theatre, and is also unique for being largely fought at night. A detailed telling of this remarkable battle using many accounts from officers and soldiers who were there. 872. Graves, Donald E. “William Drummond and the Battle of Fort Erie.” Canadian Military History 1 (1992): 25–44. An overview of the British attack against Fort Erie on August 15, 1814. 873. Graves, Donald E., ed. Soldiers of 1814: American Enlisted Men’s Memoirs of the Niagara Campaign. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association Incorporated, 1996.

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148  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The annotated memoirs of Jarvis Hanks of the 11th Infantry, Amasiah Ford of the 23rd Infantry, and Alexander McMullen of the Pennsylvania militia, who served in the Niagara Campaign of 1814. 874. Green, Ernest. Lincoln at Bay: A Sketch of 1814. Welland, Ontario: TribuneTelegraph Press, 1923. More British and Canadian soldiers were killed at the Battle of Chippewa than in any other engagement fought on Canadian soil in the War of 1812. Particularly, the Third Riding of the County of Lincoln (now in the County of Welland) sustained heavy losses in the battle. 875. Grodzinski, John R. “‘To Obtain if Possible Ultimate Security to His Majesty’s Possessions in America’: The Plattsburgh Campaign of 1814.” War of 1812 Magazine 1, no. 3 (June 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. A photo essay dealing with the British offensive against Plattsburgh with modern images of sites related to that campaign. 876. Heinrichs, Waldo H., Jr. “The Battle of Plattsburgh, 1814—The Losers.” American Neptune 21 (January 1961): 42–56. The British perspective on the Lake Champlain engagement. Overly cautious, George Prevost did not realize the importance of the combined operation by the army and navy. He insisted on naval control of the lake before moving forward with his troops. His plan failed. 877. Izard, George. Official Correspondence with the Department of War, Relative to the Military Operations of the American Army under the Command of Major General Izard, on the Northern Frontier of the United States. In the Years 1814 and 1815. Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1816. In a pamphlet ascribed to but denied by him, John Armstrong made alleged libelous remarks about Izard. Izard’s reply was to publish this volume, consisting largely of correspondence between the two. 878. Johnson, Sophia. The Friendless Orphan, an Affecting Narrative of the Trials and Afflictions of Sophia Johnson, the Early Victim of a Cruel Step-Mother. Whose Afflications and Singular Adventures Probably Exceed Those of Any Other American Female Living, Who Has Been Doomed in Early Life to Drink Deep of the Cup of Sorrow. New York: S. Johnson, 1842. Pamphlet. In 1814, the author disguised herself as a soldier and traveled across New York State in search of her brother who was fighting near Buffalo. She found him but he still had eleven months to finish the term of his enlistment. She enlisted and was soon in combat. Wounded in the Battle of Bridgewater, an arm was amputated. She became a teacher after returning home. 879. Kendrick, Clark. A Sermon, Delivered September 22, 1814, in the MeetingHouse in Rutland, (West-Parish) at a Thanksgiving to Almighty God, Held by the Inhabitants of Said Parish, for the Fall of the British Fleet on Lake Champlain, and the Defeat of Their Army at Plattsburgh, on the 11th Inst. Rutland, Vt.: Fay and Davison, [1814]. Pamphlet. Text: Judges 6:2. The recent victories were the will of God. It is a part of God’s plan to bring the American people into a new sense of unity. “Let us repent our former asperity” and seek the things that make for peace. 880. Kimball, Jeffrey. “The Battle of Chippawa: Infantry Tactics in the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 31 (Winter 1967–68): 169–86.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  149 The Battle of Chippawa, in the Niagara campaign of 1814, was notable. American regulars employed European infantry tactics on an open field for the first time, overcoming the machinelike precision of Canadian and British regulars they had succumbed to previously. 881. [Le Couteur, Lieutenant John.] “The Assault on Fort Erie, 15 August 1814: A New Le Couteur Letter from the War of 1812.” Edited by Donald E. Graves. Camp Stew 8 (1996): 1–4. A reprint of a letter by Lieutenant John Le Couteur of the 104th Foot, describing his role in the major British effort to take Fort Erie from the Americans. 882. Litt, Paul, Williamson, Ronald, and Whitehorne, Joseph. Death on Snake Hill: Secrets from a War of 1812 Cemetery. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1993. In 1987, archaeologists discovered the remains of twenty-eight American soldiers near the former defensive works of Fort Erie, scene of the British siege during the summer and fall of 1814. This is a popular account of the archaeological project and the stories of the remains. 883. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. “Commodore Macdonough at Plattsburg.” North American Review 200 (August 1914): 203–21. The naval victory of Plattsburgh, September 11, 1814, was a relatively small engagement. Its consequences were enormous. It saved the whole frontier for 1814 and ended British hopes of modifying conditions before peace. The Duke of Wellington, offered command in North America, countered that the British could make no significant progress without naval superiority on the lakes. 884. Monroe, James. “An American Plan for a Canadian Campaign: Secretary James Monroe to Major General Jacob Brown, February, 1815.” Edited by C. P. Stacey. American Historical Review 46 (January 1941): 348–58. Gives Monroe considerable credit as a strategist while serving as Secretary of War during its last months. He had grasped the importance, largely downgraded heretofore, of severing the St. Lawrence lifeline. If the peace treaty had not come, in all likelihood his strategy would have prevailed consequentially. 885. Morris, John D. “General Jacob Brown and the Problems of Command in 1814.” In War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur R. Bolwer, 29–42. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. A discussion of the challenges and problems faced by major general Jacob Brown, commander of the American Left Division during the Niagara campaign of 1814. 886. Muller, Charles G. The Proudest Day: Macdonough on Lake Champlain. New York: John Day, 1960. A popular account. Joins Winston Churchill and Theodore Roosevelt, among others, to proclaim Thomas Macdonough as achieving the most decisive defeat of the British in the War of 1812 at the Battle of Lake Champlain, September 1814. 887. Neal, John. The Battle of Niagara: With Other Poems. 2d ed. enlarged. Baltimore: N.G. Maxwell, 1819. An epic poem of the 1814 Battle of Niagara. The others are not related to the War of 1812.

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150  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 888. Noah, Mordecai Manuel. She Would Be a Soldier, or The Plains of Chippewa; an Historical Drama, in Three Acts. New York: Longworth’s Dramatic Repository, 1819. Pamphlet. A play by a New York Hebrew journalist. He selected the Battle of Chippewa, in the Niagara campaign, 1814, because “it was the most neat and spirited battle fought during the late war.” 889. O’Toole, Edward, Jr. “The Battle of Plattsburg.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 14 (1915): 423–29. American victory spoiled British invasion plans. Credits the success to Thomas Macdonough who commanded the fleet on Lake Champlain. 890. Pfeiffer, Susan, and Williamson, Ronald F. Snake Hill: An Investigation of a Military Cemetery from the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn, 1991. A technical examination dealing with the discovery, examination, and eventual re-interment of the remains of twenty-eight American soldiers discovered near Fort Erie in 1987. The remains were of soldiers who had served at the fort during the siege of the summer and fall of 1814. 891. Preston, Richard A. “The Journals of Sir F. P. Robinson, G.C.B.” Canadian Historical Review 37 (December 1956): 352–55. Passages from Robinson’s journals were deliberately altered in a previous publication to whitewash George Prevost. In Robinson’s narrative of the 1814 Plattsburgh campaign, he is critical of Prevost. 892. Pullen, Hugh Francis. The March of the Seamen. Occasional Papers 8. Halifax: Maritime Museum of Canada, 1961. The construction by the British of naval vessels on the Great Lakes created an endless demand for personnel to man the ships. This paper describes a trek of some nine hundred miles in January–March 1814 from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Kingston, Upper Canada, of one such contingent. 893. Severance, Frank H. “General Brown at Chippewa, July 5, 1814.” Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association 8 (1909): 33–37. Jacob Brown commanded American forces in the Niagara theater. His plan for the campaign and direction of troop movements resulted in American victory at Chippewa. 894. Stacey, C. P., ed. “Upper Canada at War: Captain Armstrong Reports.” Ontario History 48 (Winter 1956): 37–42. R.E. Armstrong, an officer in a Nova Scotia regiment, reported the fighting in Ontario in the summer of 1814 in a letter and note. 895. Stahl, John Meloy. The Battle of Plattsburg; A Study in and of the War of 1812. To Remind Our Troops of the Actions of Their Brave Countrymen— General Macomb, in His Report of the Battle of Plattsburg. [Argos, Ind.]: Van Trump, 1918. Plattsburgh is ranked as one of four or five most important battles in American history. Despite the author’s claim, it was not the only one in which both American naval and land forces fought together. 896. Treat, Joseph. The Vindication of Captain Joseph Treat, Late of the TwentyFirst Regiment United States Infantry, against the Atrocious Calumny Comprehended in Major General Brown’s Official Report of the Battle of Chippeway. Philadelphia: n.p., 1815.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  151 Pamphlet. Treat was relieved of his command in July 1814. Court-martial for him was not held until April–May 1815. He was honorably acquitted of the charge of cowardice before the enemy in the Battle of Chippewa. 897. Warner, Mabel V. “Memorials at Lundy’s Lane.” Ontario History 51 (Winter 1959): 43–48. Locates and describes Canadian and American monuments, cemeteries, and other memorials at or near the July 1814 battle site. 898. White, Samuel. History of the American Troops, during the Late War, under the Command of Cols. Fenton and Campbell. Giving an Account of the Crossing of the Lake from Erie to Long Point; also, the Crossing of Niagara by the Troops under Gens. Gaines, Brown, Scott and Porter. The Taking of Fort Erie, the Battle of Chippewa, the Imprisonment of Col. Bull, Major Galloway and the Author (Then a Captain,) and Their Treatment; together with an Historical Account of the Canadas. Baltimore: Samuel White, 1829. The author was from Pennsylvania. He reconstructed this account from notes he made at the time of the narration he describes. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Chippewa. 899. Whitehorne, Joseph. While Washington Burned: The Battle for Fort Erie, 1814. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation Publishing, 1992. An examination of the struggle to gain Fort Erie during the summer and fall of 1814. This study includes many useful appendixes on casualties, unit strengths, artillery, and fortifications. 900. [Woodworth, John?] The Battle of Plattsburgh: A Poem, in Three Cantos. By an American Youth. Montpelier, Vt.: E. P. Walton, 1819. Pamphlet. The author was a minor at the time of the battle, September 1814. His father had marched as a volunteer, and when he heard the distant roar of cannon from the battle he imagined the father was killed. This was the inspiration for this poem.

C. The Chesapeake Campaign 901. [Armstrong, John?] An Enquiry Respecting the Capture of Washington by the British, on the 24th August, 1814; with An Examination of the Report of the Committee of Investigation Appointed by Congress. Washington, D.C.: “By Spectator,” 1816. Pamphlet. Attributed to John Armstrong who was forced to resign as Secretary of War after the British captured Washington. Includes a long letter from Armstrong to the investigation committee. Asserts he was given command by appointment of the president who “afterwards deprived him of it on the field of battle.” 902. Armstrong, Kosciuszko. Examination of Thomas L. McKenney’s Reply to the Review of His Narrative, Etc. New York: R. Crawford, 1847. Pamphlet. See Thomas L. McKenney, Reply to Kosciusko [sic] Armstrong’s Assault (item 937, below). 903. Armstrong, Kosciuszko. Review of T.L. McKenney’s Narrative of the Causes Which, in 1814, Led to General Armstrong’s Resignation of the War Office. New York: R. Craighead, 1846.

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152  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. By implication, McKenney revived the charge that John Armstrong was relieved of the position of Secretary of War because his negligence led to the British capture of Washington. 904. Baltimore, Committee of Vigilance and Safety. Proceedings Relative to the Erection of a Monument to the Memory of Those Who Fell at the Battle of North Point; Including the Prayer of Bishop Kemp, and the Address of the Rev. Doctor Inglis. Baltimore: Neal, Wills, and Cole, 1815. Pamphlet. The Committee proposed a monument to those who fell in the defense of Baltimore, September 12–13, 1814, at North Point and Fort McHenry. Details of the ceremony of the laying of the monument’s cornerstone. 905. The Bladensburg Races. Written Shortly after the Capture of Washington City, August 24, 1814. Reprint n.p.: “Printed for the Purchaser,” 1865. Pamphlet. A poem of satire on James Madison and the burning of Washington. 906. Bradford, S. Sydney. “‘The Out Works in 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 54 (June 1959): 188–209. Describes buildings and fortifications in connection with Fort McHenry that are no longer in existence: Fort Whetstone, the upper and lower water batteries, and additional defenses. 907. Bradford, S. Sydney. “The Restoration of Fort McHenry.” Maryland Historical Magazine 53 (September 1958): 211–14. Describes the collection of historical records and the archaeological research that were necessary before the National Park Service began its restoration and interpretation programs for the national monument. 908. A Brief Sketch of the Military Operations on the Delaware during the Late War: Together with a Copy of the Muster-Rolls of the Several Volunteer-Corps Which Composed the Advance Light Brigade, as They Stood at the Close of the Campaign of One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fourteen. Philadelphia: Robert P. M’Culloh, 1820. Primarily muster rolls with some interlarded narrative. 909. Byron, Gilbert. The War of 1812 on the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1964. Pamphlet. Designed for use by students and teachers. Text, chronology, bibliography, and discussion topics. 910. Carroll, Charles. “Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s Letter Describing the Battle of Baltimore.” Maryland Historical Magazine 34 (September 1939): 244–245. The letter of September 14, 1814, probably written to the state governor, is largely quotations from other sources of information. 911. Cassell, Frank A. “Baltimore in 1813: A Study of Urban Defense in the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 33 (December 1969): 349–61. When a British fleet twice menaced Baltimore in 1813, cutting off its commerce and frightening out some of its merchants and citizens, the city organized its militia, built and repaired fortifications, and perfected its methods for defense. This preparation with the aroused will to survive were major factors in the outcome of events in Baltimore in 1814. 912. Cassell, Frank A. “Response to Crisis: Baltimore in 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Fall 1971): 261–87.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  153 Unlike Washington and New Orleans, to a large extent, the defense of Baltimore in 1814 was exclusively in the hands of its own citizens rather than the Maryland or federal government. The competent leadership of an aggressive and intelligent business elite, the considerable wealth of the city from trade, and the willingness to experiment with new forms of political organization were the prime factors in Baltimore’s ability to repel a large, experienced, and well-equipped enemy. 913. Cockburn, A. “Admiral Cockburn’s Plan.” Maryland Historical Magazine 6 (March 1911): 16–19. Cockburn’s secret letter of July 17, 1814, reveals that he was the first to suggest an attack on Washington. His other plans were carried out only in part. 914. Crain, Richard M. “Orderly Book of Harrisburg Volunteer Company of Artillery, Capt. Richard M. Crain, 1814.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 37 (1913): 129–151. Entries from September 2 to December 3, 1814, concern the march from Harrisburg and participation in the Baltimore campaign. 915. Davis, Milton S. “The Capture of Washington.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 63 (June 1937): 834–50. The campaign illustrates the importance of the command of the sea in war and of the opportunities this gives to seriously harass an enemy with little risk to the attacker. 916. “Dennis’s Advice to Admiral Cockburn.” Maryland Historical Magazine 9 (March 1914): 70–72. A ballad that appeared in a chapbook published in Baltimore in 1823. Apparently written for singing in theaters immediately after the war. 917. Francis, J. Henry. “The Star-Spangled Banner: How and Why It Came to Be Written.” West Virginia History 3 (July 1942): 305–13. The probable origin of the tune, the circumstances of the composition of the lyrics, its publication, its initial rendition, and its first theatrical presentation. 918. General Court Martial. Proceedings of a General Court Martial for the Trial of Lieut. Col. Louis Bache, Commanding a Detachment of Volunteers and Militia of Pennsylvania: Upon Charges of Mutiny, Disobedience of Orders, Insubordination, and Violation of the Established Usages of the Army, and of the Principles of Military Discipline, at the Camp Marcus Hook, on the Delaware, in October, 1814. Containing the Whole of the Evidence, and the Documents Referred to During the Trial. Philadelphia: James Wilson, 1815. Pamphlet. The charges involved Bache’s refusal to obey orders of a superior officer who asserted the regulations and commands of the War Department prevailed. Bache maintained he was bound by the laws of Pennsylvania, not of the federal government. The court found Bache guilty on part of the counts against him. He was sentenced to be dismissed from the service of the United States. 919. George, Christopher T. Terror on the Chesapeake: The War of 1812 on the Bay. Shippensburg: White Mane Books, 2000. An overview of the fighting in and around the Chesapeake Bay, dominated for much of the war by the British, but reclaimed by American forces during 1814. 920. Goldsborough, Robert Henry. “Contemporary Report of the Battle of Baltimore.” Maryland Historical Magazine 40 (September 1945): 230–32.

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154  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The September 21, 1814, letter is written by U.S. senator Robert Goldsborough, apparently to his wife. It contains a frank but intensely Federalist biased account of the Battle of North Point. 921. [Hall, John Elihu.] Report of the Trial of John Hodges, Esq. on a Charge of High Treason. Tried in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Maryland District, at the May Term, 1815. [Philadelphia: n.p., 1817?]. Pamphlet. Stragglers following the British Army that had burned Washington were taken prisoner by Marylanders and sent further inland. The British demanded their return on threat of destroying the Maryland town. Hodges helped bring about their return. For this, Hodges was tried for treason, allegedly at the instigation of the government. The court found him innocent of the charge. 922. Hecht, Arthur. “The Post Office Department in St. Mary’s County in the War of 1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 52 (June 1957): 142–52. U.S. Post Office Department records yield data and information about the faster and more frequent mail transportation established between Washington and southern Maryland and of the use of special agents to keep Washington apprised of British forces in the area. The concern was to keep the capital prepared against surprise attacks. 923. [Hickman, Nathaniel], ed. The Citizen Soldiers at North Point and Fort McHenry, September 12 and 13, 1814. Resolves of the Citizens in Town Meeting, Particulars Relating to the Battle, Official Correspondence and Honorable Discharge of the Troops. Baltimore: James Young, [1814?]. Pamphlet. Muster rolls and other documents. 924. Hoyt, William D., Jr., ed. “Civilian Defense in Baltimore, 1814–1815: Minutes of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety.” Maryland Historical Magazine 39 (September 1944): 199–224; 39 (December 1944): 293–309; 40 (March 1945): 7–23; 40 (June 1945): 137–53. The committee met almost daily from August 24, 1814, to January 9, 1815. 925. Hunter, William Harvey, Jr. “Baltimore’s War.” American Heritage 3 (Winter 1952): 30–33. Beyond the national anthem, Baltimore has an artistic heritage of its assault by the British in 1814: four commissioned portraits by Rembrandt Peale, a battle monument, Andrew Duluc’s engraving of the Battle of Patapsco Neck, and John Bower’s engraving of the bombardment of Fort McHenry. 926. Hunter, William Harvey, Jr. “The Battle of Baltimore Illustrated.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 8 (April 1951): 235–37. Describes engravings made by Andrew Duluc in 1814 and by John Bower around 1819. Duluc was an American soldier-artist who portrayed the Battle of Patapsco Neck in which he fought. Bower, an obscure Philadelphia engraver, made his aquatint of the bombardment of Fort McHenry. His print is quite accurate. 927. Ida Charles Wilkins Foundation. “A Report of the Special Committee First Branch City Council, Baltimore, Maryland, Respecting the Measures Necessary to Be Adopted to Commemorate the Repulse of British Forces before Baltimore on the 12th and 13th September, 1814.” Baltimore: 1955. Mimeograph. A copy of the committee report from the Baltimore Archives, 1814.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  155 928. Inglis, James. A Discourse Delivered in the First Presbyterian Church, in the City of Baltimore, Lord’s Day Morning, October 2, 1814. Before the Lieutenant-Colonel, the Officers and Soldiers of the First Regiment of Artillery, 3d B.M.M. and Published at Their Request. Baltimore: J. Robinson for Neal, Wills and Cole, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: Daniel 5:23. Thanksgiving for the recent successful engagement against the British invasion and a memorial to the casualties. 929. Ingraham, Edward Duncan. A Sketch of the Events which Preceded the Capture of Washington, By the British, on the Twenty-Fourth of August, 1814. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1849. Pamphlet. American failure at Bladensburg has been severely criticized. It should be remembered that hastily assembled Americans faced regular troops. Overconfidence and “ill-judged procrastination” of the proper authorities in the matter of defense preparations need to be taken into any assessment of what happened. 930. Judge, C. B. “Naval Powder Goes on a Journey: An Episode of the War of 1812.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 69 (September 1943): 1223–28. Mordecai Booth was a civilian clerk to the Washington Navy Yard commander. As the British approached the city, Booth was instructed to secure wagons and remove the powder from the Naval Magazine to some secure location. Describes the two-week episode and adventures and the return of the powder after the British left the city. 931. Key, Francis Scott. “A Forgotten Letter of Francis Scott Key.” Edited by Franklin R. Mullaly. Maryland Historical Magazine 55 (December 1960): 359–60. Written in Georgetown, September 2, 1814. Talks about the British attack on Washington and his plans to visit the British fleet which became the occasion for his writing of “The Star Spangled Banner.” 932. Lessem, Harold I., and Mackenzie, George C. Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, Maryland. Historical Handbook 5. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1950. Pamphlet. The fort, the battle, the inspiration for the national anthem, and related matters. 933. Lord, Walter. The Dawn’s Early Light. New York: W. W. Nortons, 1972. Detailed popular account of the British summer of 1814 offensive in the Chesapeake campaign in the War of 1812, from the movement of the British fleet into Chesapeake Bay. More than any of the other event during the war, the events at Washington and Baltimore contributed to the American sense of identity and national character. 934. Lord, Walter. “Humiliation and Triumph.” American Heritage 23 (August 1972): 50–73, 91–93. Describes the British action against Washington in the War of 1812, the humiliation, and against Baltimore, the triumph. Excerpted from the author’s book, The Dawn’s Early Light (item 933, above). 935. M’Culloh, Robert P. “A Brief Sketch of the Military Operations on the Delaware during the War of 1812.” Edited by Charles L. Reese, Jr. Delaware History 3 (September 1948): 79–96.

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156  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Reprint from A Brief Sketch of the Military Operations on the Delaware during the Late War, published 1820. This portion deals with operations within the state of Delaware. It is concerned chiefly with the Advance Light Brigade of troops sent from neighboring Pennsylvania counties, 1813–1814. 936. [McKenney, Thomas Loraine.] A Narrative of the Battle of Bladensburg; in a Letter to Henry Banning, Esq. By an Officer of Gen. Smith’s Staff. N.p.: n.p., [1814]. Pamphlet. In describing the engagement with the British before the burning of Washington, the author defends the performance of his commanding general and explains his inability to stop the British from moving on Washington. 937. McKenney, Thomas Loraine. Reply to Kosciusko [sic] Armstrong’s Assault upon Col. McKenney’s Narrative of the Causes That Led to Gen. Armstrong’s Resignation of the Office of Secretary of War in 1814. New York: William H. Graham, 1847. Pamphlet. See Kosciuszko Armstrong, Examination of Thomas L. McKenney’s Reply (item 902, above). 938. Mahon, John K. “Letters from Virginia Camps in 1814.” West Virginia History 12 (April 1951): 280–84. Excerpts and abstracts of letters written by William Kemp, Joel B. Leftwich, and William Wirt, officers of militia who were called to the defense of Richmond following the British burning of Washington. Since they were not engaged in any action with the enemy, their letters to their wives are concerned principally with camp life. 939. Marine, William Matthew. The British Invasion of Maryland, 1812–1815. Baltimore: Society of the War of 1812 in Maryland, 1913. Concerned principally with the British offensive of 1814. More than half of the volume is a roster of Maryland soldiers and sailors. 940. Middleton, William Henry. The History of My Friend; Shewing How He Was Deprived of His Military Commission, and Left, (a Cripple,) to Starve, in Time of Peace; Merely Because a Great Man Thought My Friend Called Him a Nincompoop!!! Being a True History, Taken from the Life; in a Letter Addressed to the President of the U. States. New York: n.p., 1816. Pamphlet. In a letter to “your Excellency,” probably the president. The man in question was a Vermont farmer who served in the army 1807–1815. During the War of 1812 at Annapolis he contracted an illness that deprived him of effective use of his legs. 941. Mullaly, Franklin R. “The Battle of Baltimore.” Maryland Historical Magazine 54 (March 1959): 61–103. The bombardment of Fort McHenry was secondary to the British invasion at North Point. If they had not erred in the invasion route, the British might have taken Baltimore. Although outnumbered, the Americans gave an excellent account of themselves. 942. Muller, Charles G. The Darkest Day: 1814. The Washington-Baltimore Campaign. Great Battles of History Series. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1963. A narration of the American defeat at Bladensburg followed by the capture and burning of Washington. 943. Muller, Charles G. “Fabulous Potomac Passage.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 90 (May 1964): 84–91.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  157 Describes the progress of the British squadron up the Potomac River in the 1814 campaign against Washington. Plagued with American harassment and difficulties with shoal water, the force almost missed the burning of Washington. It did make off safely with booty from Alexandria. 944. Munroe, Isaac. “‘Yankee Doodle Played’: A Letter from Baltimore, 1814.” Edited by Scott S. Sheads. Maryland Historical Magazine 76 (December 1981): 380–82. Extract of a letter, September 17, 1814, from an editor of a Baltimore newspaper serving at Fort McHenry as a volunteer, written to a Boston newspaper, the Yankee. Describes the British attack on the fort, casualties, and the playing of “Yankee Doodle” at reveille. 945. Owings, Milton P., contrib. “Muster Roll of ‘A’ Company under the Command of Captain John Owings, 1812–14.” Maryland Historical Magazine 31 (September 1936): 260–64. Personnel rosters, rations, and provisions, principally for Camp Hampsted, September 1814. 946. Piper, James. “Defence of Baltimore, 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 7 (December 1912): 375–384. Recollections of a participant, written in 1854 in response to a general invitation of the state historical society. 947. Pitch, Anthony S. The Burning of Washington: The British Invasion of 1814. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1998. A popular American history of the British assault on Washington in 1814 almost devoid of any British sources. 948. Pleasants, Thomas Franklin. “Extracts from the Diary of Thomas Franklin Pleasants, 1814.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 39 (1915): 322–36; 410–24. Pleasants, a young Philadelphia lawyer, became an officer in the Washington Guards, organized for defense of the city. Entries from April 4 to December 31, 1814, detail life of an officer in the detachment and the possibility of its being sent to the Baltimore area. 949. Pomeroy, Earl S. “The Lebanon Blues in the Baltimore Campaign, 1814: Extracts from a Company Orderly Book.” Military Affairs 12 (Fall 1948): 168–74. The Lebanon Blues, one of the six Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, militia companies assigned to duty in the Chesapeake campaign of 1814, did not engage in combat. The orderly book, September–December 1814, affords an intimate view of citizen soldiery. 950. Renner, Daniel, and Heath, Nathaniel H. To the Hon. the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States. The Petition of Daniel Renner and Nathaniel H. Heath. Georgetown, D.C.: Printed for the Petitioners by W. A. Rind, 1816. Pamphlet. The petitioners owned a cordage factory in Washington. The boats and wagons they had engaged to remove some of the equipment and products to safety from the invading British army in August 1814 were commandeered by the American army. The British seized or totally destroyed their property. Substantiating documentation is appended. 951. Robinson, Ralph. “Controversy Over the Command at Baltimore, in the War of 1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 39 (September 1944): 177–98.

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158  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography At the behest of a citizen’s committee, Samuel Smith assumed command of the forces gathered for the defense of Baltimore in September 1814. William H. Winder was already in command of the military district which embraced the District of Columbia and a part of Maryland. The resulting confusion and controversy was over authority with personnel reassignments. 952. Robinson, Ralph. “New Light on Three Episodes of the British Invasion of Maryland in 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 37 (September 1942): 273–290. This article discusses the origins of the British proposal to attack Washington and Baltimore; the decision to take Washington despite Alexander Cochrane’s orders to the contrary; and the reversal of Cochrane’s decision to leave Chesapeake Bay to attack Baltimore. 953. Robinson, Ralph. “The Use of Rockets by the British in the War of 1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 40 (March 1945): 1–6. William Congreve, a British officer, designed the missiles used by the Royal Artillery and Royal Marine Artillery in Europe and during the War of 1812. Known as “Congreve rockets,” they were adapted for use on land or at sea. The case-shot rockets exploded like shrapnel. Others were loaded with inflammables and designed to start fires. 954. Rouse, Parker, Jr., ed. “The British Invasion of Hampton in 1813: The Reminiscences of James Jarvis.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 76 (July 1968): 318–36. James Jarvis, a Virginia militiaman, compiled a journal of events of the repulsed British attack on Craney Island, June 22, 1813, and their invasion and pillaging of Hampton Roads, Virginia. Includes letters and dispatches of American and British officers about the Hampton Roads affair. 955. Sanford, John L. “The Battle of North Point. (A Succinct Account of the Battle from Approved Sources.)” Maryland Historical Magazine 24 (December 1929): 356–64. The British retreat after an artillery duel at North Point is ranked with the failure of the bombardment of Fort McHenry and the formidable defenses of the city as the reasons for the British to conclude their attempt to capture Baltimore in 1814. 956. Skinner, J. S. “Incidents of the War of 1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 32 (December 1937): 340–47. Reprint from the Baltimore Patriot, May 23, 1849, of the only eyewitness account of the event which inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the “Star Spangled Banner.” 957. Spectator [pseud.]. An Enquiry Respecting the Capture of Washington by the British, on the 24th August, 1814; with an Examination of the Report of the Committee of Investigation Appointed by Congress. By Spectator. Washington, D.C.: n.p., 1816. Pamphlet. The congressional committee found Secretary of War John Armstrong particularly to blame for the success of the British against Washington. The report is riddled with omissions and mistakes. An impartial examination, based on personal observation and documentation, concludes Armstrong could have saved Washington. The general in command did not carry out Armstrong’s directives. See Rider H. Winder, Remarks on a Pamphlet (item 970, below).

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  159 958. Stahl, John Meloy. “The Invasion of the City of Washington”: A Disagreeable Study in and of Military Unpreparedness. [Argos, Ind.]: Van Trump, 1918. Written to erase the cowardice stigma attached to American troops defending Washington, a belief which had its origin in the “whitewashing report of the subservient congressional [investigating] committee.” Rather, what happened was a consequence of American foolishness and blindness about its defense then, and as such has been the case “in all too many years since that day of shame and panic.” 959. Stevens, James. “A Letter Describing the Attack on Fort McHenry.” Maryland Historical Magazine 51 (December 1956): 356. Methodist minister James Stevens was stationed in Baltimore during the British attack. In a letter to his sister, September 29, 1814, he describes the attack and reaction from his perspective. 960. Swanson, Neil H. The Perilous Fight: Being a Little Known and Much Abused Chapter of Our National History in Our Second War of Independence. And a True Narrative of the Battle of Godly Wood and the Attack on Fort McHenry More Suitably Described as the Battle of Baltimore, the Whole Constituting the First Complete Account of the Skillful and Successful Defense of That City by Sam’l Smith, Then in His 62nd Year, against Lord Wellington’s Invincibles Supported by a Powerful Fleet, together with a Refutation of Those Traducers of American Courage Who Have Made Small of the Citizen Soldiers Who, Lately Defeated and Routed, Marched Again to Face the Conquerors of Napoleon in Superior Numbers in the Open Field. To Which is Added Some Notice of the Circumstances Attending the Writing of the Star Spangled Banner with Particular Reference to the Remarkable Errors of Those Who, Wholly Without Warrant of Fact, Have Belittled the Significance of Our National Anthem by Describing It as “A Song Nobody Can Sing, about an Event of No Importance.” Recounted Mainly from Contemporary Records. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1945. 961. Thackara, William Wood. “William Wood Thackara, Volunteer in the War of 1812.” Edited by Anne Castrodale Golovin. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 91 (July 1967): 299–325. As the British had burned Washington and were now moving northward toward Baltimore, Philadelphia seemed threatened too. Thackara joined the Washington Guards who supplemented the regular militia to protect the Delaware River approach to the city and the duPont gunpowder mills along Brandywine Creek. Entries from September 1, 1814, to January 4, 1815, are his record of this service and camp life of a private. See Thomas Franklin Pleasants, the “Diary” of his captain (item 948, above). 962. Thornton, Anna Marie Brodeau (Mrs. William). “Georgetown is Saved from the British!” Edited by Sarah Agnes Wallace. Social Studies for Teachers and Administrators 43 (October 1952): 233–37. Excerpts from a diary, August 18–September 19, 1814. The diarist was of a prominent family and on familiar terms with leaders of the government, thus making her knowledgeable about much of what was going on. Her experiences parallel those of her friend and the other principal diarist of the British invasion of Washington, the president’s wife. 963. Thornton, Willis. “The Day They Burned the Capitol.” American Heritage 6 (December 1954): 48–53.

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160  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A narrative account of the 1814 burning of Washington by the British. 964. “The Unveiling of the Original Manuscript of the Star-Spangled Banner.” Maryland Historical Magazine 49 (December 1954): 259–70. The remarks and speeches of officials and guests, September 14, 1954, at the official acceptance of the manuscript by the Maryland Historical Society. 965. Walsh, Richard. “The Star Fort: 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 54 (September 1959): 296–309. Concludes that the present fort was constructed in the 1830s. Makes corrections as to its architects and builders. 966. Walsh, Richard, ed. “Fort McHenry: 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 54 (March 1959): 59–103; 54 (June 1959): 188–209; 54 (September 1959): 296–309. A three-part report of research for the National Park Service. See separate entries: Franklin R. Mullaly, “The Battle of Baltimore” (item 941, above); S. Sydney Bradford, “The Out Works in 1814” (item 906, above); and Richard Walsh, “The Star Fort: 1814” (item 965, above). 967. Warfield, J. D. “President Madison’s Retreat.” American Historical Register and Monthly Gazette of the Patriotic-Hereditary Societies of the United States of America 2 (May 1895): 857–61. James Madison left Washington before the arrival of the invading British Army. He spent the night at the home of Quaker Caleb Bentley in the hamlet of Brookeville, about twenty miles northwest of the White House. 968. Whitehorne, Joseph. The Battle for Baltimore, 1814. Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation Publishing, 1997. A detailed account of the British Chesapeake Campaign and the American defense and the overall impact of the battle on the American psyche. 969. Williams, John S. History of the Invasion and Capture of Washington, and of the Events Which Preceded and Followed. New York: Harper and Bros., 1857. The author’s purpose in this volume is “to remove the obloquy which . . . has been undeservedly cast upon the American troops” in the Battle of Bladensburg. 970. [Winder, Rider H.] Remarks on a Pamphlet, Entitled “An Enquiry Respecting the Capture of Washington by the British, on the 24th of August, 1814, with, Etc., Etc., by Spectator.” Baltimore: J. Robinson, 1816. The pamphlet in question is really a campaign document to promote the candicacy of John Armstrong for the presidency. See Spectator [pseud.], An Enquiry Respecting the Capture of Washington (item 957, above). 971. Woehrmann, Paul John. “National Response to the Sack of Washington.” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Fall 1971): 222–60. Unlike earlier British victories, the burning of Washington, August 24, 1814, was a humiliating experience that only strengthened American resolve. As a consequence, the British abandoned their hopes for territorial gain in the peace treaty.

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D. New Orleans and the Gulf Coast 972. Adams, Charles Francis. “Sir Edward Pakenham and the Battle of New Orleans.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 33 (January 1900): 412–23. In the British commander’s conduct of the battle we are furnished a prime example of how “curiously tenacious” military traditions persist, and how racial characteristics assert themselves, irrespective of changing circumstances of climate, science, or experience. New Orleans was merely a sequel to the Battle of Blandensburg, Maryland, five months previous; but the British were unable to produce the same results. 973. Adams, Reed McC. B. “New Orleans and the War of 1812.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 16 (April 1933): 221–34; 16 (July 1933): 479–503; 16 (October 1933): 681–703; 17 (January 1934): 169–82; 17 (April 1934): 349–63; 17 (July 1934): 502–23. The author’s M.A. thesis, Tulane University, 1932. Concerned primarily with the stragetic importance of the city and focuses mainly on the Battle of New Orleans. 974. Ainsworth, Walden L. “An Amphibious Operation that Failed: The Battle of New Orleans.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 71 (February 1945): 192–201. From the British point of view, the campaign for the capture of New Orleans had much in its favor. Despite reaching the gates of New Orleans almost undetected, victory went to Andrew Jackson’s forces. 975. Baker, Wallace C. “Exploit at Fayal.” American Heritage 10 (June 1959): 60–64. Samuel Chester Reid commanded the American armed brig General Armstrong. On September 26, 1814, the Armstrong faced three British menof-war in the Azores harbor of Fayal. The British suffered heavy losses before the American ship surrendered and was destroyed. Andrew Jackson claimed that the delay this caused the British in getting troops and supplies to America enabled him to prepare and defeat the British at New Orleans. This claim is still debated by historians. 976. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Celebration, 1815–1965. Washington, D.C.: Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Celebration Commission, 1965. Details of the agenda of the celebration. Appendixes contain some data and documents. 977. Brooks, Charles B. The Siege of New Orleans. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1961. A detailed account of the campaign for its own sake, utilizing the documentary materials and writings on particular phases of the campaign that have been published since the 1857 account of Alexander Walker. Presents both British and American points of view. 978. Brown, Wilburt Scott. The Amphibious Campaign for West Florida and Louisiana, 1814–1815: A Critical Review of Strategy and Tactics at New Orleans. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1969.

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162  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Describes the New Orleans campaign as classic amphibious warfare in which the attackers had overwhelming local naval superiority. Andrew Jackson and his men deserve all the credit that has been accorded them, even though there was doubt at the time, including Jackson’s own assessment. 979. Carter, Samuel, III. Blaze of Glory: The Fight for New Orleans, 1814–1815. New York: St. Martin’s, 1971. A popular narrative with liberal use of participant and eyewitness accounts of the battle the author regards as sealing the independence of the United States. The success of the American Revolution was now achieved in psychological and economic senses. Contains accounts of the free black militia and of conditions in New Orleans at the time. 980. Casey, Powell A. Louisiana at the Battle of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 4. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. There were only some seven hundred Louisianians with Andrew Jackson’s main line. The significance was that this new state with a population of several national origins and of several languages rallied to defend themselves. 981. Casey, Powell A. Louisiana in the War of 1812. Baton Rouge, La.: Powell A. Casey, 1963. While concerned with the entire war in the area, the emphasis is on the New Orleans campaign of 1814–1815. 982. Castel, Albert. “The Battle for New Orleans.” American History Illustrated 4 (August 1969): 19–34. A narrative of the battle in which the author argues that if the British had won, they would have sought to keep New Orleans. 983. Chidsey, Donald Barr. The Battle of New Orleans. An Informal History of the War That Nobody Wanted: 1812. New York: Crown, 1961. Popular journalistic account of military operations of the war. The Battle of New Orleans produced a hero, Andrew Jackson, and “radically changed” the history of the country. 984. Christian, Marcus. Negro Soldiers in the Battle of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets, no. 8. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. Governor W.C.C. Claiborne had gradually elevated free African Americans in various militia capacities and in status. Andrew Jackson followed this pattern and fully integrated them into the New Orleans campaign. 985. “A Contemporary Account of the Battle of New Orleans by a Soldier in the Ranks.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (January 1926): 11–15. An intimate vivid description by a Kentucky militiaman. 986. Cooke, John Henry. A Narrative of Events in the South of France, and of the Attack on New Orleans, in 1814 and 1815. London: T. and W. Boone, 1835. After a brief account of his services in the Napoleonic Wars, this British officer relates that he embarked in late October 1814 for “the western world.” His narrative concludes with his return to England after the Battle of New Orleans. 987. Davis, William C. The Pirates Laffite: The Trecherous World of the Corsairs of the Gulf. Orlando: Harcourt Inc., 2005.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  163 The story of the famous Laffite brothers from their first adventures, through the War of 1812 and their eventual disappearance and subsequent rise as folk heroes. 988. De Grummond, Jane Lucas. The Baratarians and the Battle of New Orleans. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1961. Pirates and smugglers based at Barataria, about sixty miles southwest of New Orleans, had long profited from their activities which included the connivance of prominent citizens of the region. The British offered citizenship and lands in British colonies for their cooperation and use of their armed ships. The Baratarians reported the offers to the Americans and aided in the defense of New Orleans despite the Americans breaking up of the Baratarian settlement. 989. De Grummond, Jane Lucas, ed. “The Fair Honoring the Brave.” Louisiana History 3 (Winter 1962): 54–58. An unidentified letter, February 3, 1815, from a New Orleans matron described the triumphal entry of Andrew Jackson’s army into the city January 23, 1815, after the departure of the defeated British. 990. De Grummond, Jane Lucas, ed. “Platter of Glory.” Louisiana History 3 (Fall 1962): 316–59. Accounts of the British invasion of Louisiana that appeared October 1814– May 1815 in a Jamaican newspaper. Largely letters of English participants, they differ significantly in details, with some even proclaiming Jackson’s defeat at New Orleans. Later reports of British failure partly blame it on Baratarian reports to Jackson of British military preparations in Jamaica. 991. De Tousard, Chevalier Anne Louis. “The Assaults on New Orleans, 1814– 1815.” Edited by Norman B. Wilkinson. Louisiana History 3 (Winter 1962): 43–53. Two letters, January 1815, from the ad-interim French consul at New Orleans, evaluate the city’s defense by Andrew Jackson. He was very impressed with the effectiveness of the American artillery, which he regarded as decisive. 992. De Verges, Marie Cruzat (Mrs. Edwin X.), comp. American Forces at Chalmette: Veterans and Decendants [sic] of Battle of New Orleans, 1814–1815. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans 150th Anniversary Committee (Women’s Committee), 1966. Pamphlet. Rosters. 993. Dixon, Richard Remy. The Battle on the West Bank. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 7. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. The west bank of the Mississippi River was one of the principal objectives of the British forces in the 1814–1815 campaign. It would enable the British to outflank Andrew Jackson and to commence artillery bombardment on the city. Appended with a British officer’s account of the West Bank attempt. 994. Eller, Ernest M., Morgan, W. J., and Basoco, R. M. Sea Power and the Battle of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 2. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965.

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164  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Narrates the role of Daniel T. Patterson as the American naval commander at the Battle of New Orleans. Patterson has been largely ignored by historians of the campaign. 995. Everett, Alexander Hill. An Address Delivered at Salem, on the Eighth of January, 1836, at the Request of the Democratic Young Men of That Place, in Commemoration of the Victory of New Orleans. Boston: Beals and Greene, 1836. Pamphlet. The victory at New Orleans was more important than the peace treaty because Britain kept a treaty only if it was convenient and expedient. The impact of the victory on subsequent political history was more important because it elevated Andrew Jackson to the presidency. 996. Farragut, George. “Two Letters from George Farragut to Andrew Jackson, 1815–1816.” Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. American Historical Review 9 (July 1904): 766–67. The letters from the father of Admiral David Glasgow Farragut are an example of the caution that must be taken in accepting family tradition as reliable historical evidence. 997. Fisher, Ruth Anna, ed. “The Surrender of Pensacola as Told by the British.” American Historical Review 54 (January 1949): 326–29. Andrew Jackson issued an ultimatum, November 1814, to the Spanish governor at Pensacola, to surrender the city and its fortifications. He wanted to deprive the British of that position and to neutralize Spanish posture pending a permanent Franco-American arrangement. British ships could not stop him. The British version claims that Spanish inaction played into Jackson’s hands and gave him the conquest. 998. Fleming, Thomas. “New Orleans: The Battle that Saved America.” Military History Quarterly 13 (Winter 2001): 6–17. An examination of this 1815 battle that perpetuates many of the myths regarding the British aims and force composition. 999. Forester, Cecil Scott. “Victory at New Orleans.” American Heritage 8 (August 1957): 4–9, 106–108. A critical analysis of the events leading to the Battle of New Orleans and the roles of the British under Edward Pakenham and the Americans under Andrew Jackson. 1000. Fort, John A. “A Letter from the Battle of New Orleans.” Edited by Edward Alexander Parsons. Louisiana Historical Quarterly 32 (January 1949): 225. The letter is dated January 28, 1815. Fort was an officer of horse troops. 1001. Gatell, Frank Otto, ed. “Boston Boy in ‘Mr. Madison’s War’: Letters by John Palfrey and His Sons, Henry and Edward.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 44 (July–October 1961): 148–59. Includes Maurice d’Arlan Needham, “More on the Palfrey’s.” The Palfrey letters concern the Battle of New Orleans. 1002. General Court Martial Held at the Royal Barracks, Dublin, for the Trial of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Hon. Thomas Mullins, Captain of the 44th Regiment of Foot, The Court Assembled on the 11th of July, 1815, and Continued by Adjournments to the 1st of August Following, On the Annex’d Charges. Dublin: William Espy, 1815. Reprint, Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (January 1926): 33–110.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  165 Charged with failure to execute orders and to express his opinion that his regiment would be sacrificed, thereby contributing to the British defeat at New Orleans. As a consequence of the court-martial, Mullins was cashiered. 1003. “General Jackson’s Proclamation to the Negroes.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 6 (August 1862): 244–47. Andrew Jackson’s October 1814 appeal to blacks to join in the defense of New Orleans, and Edward Livingston’s address to black troops at a review, December 1814. 1004. Grice, C. E. The Battle of New Orleans, or Glory, Love and Loyalty; An Historical and National Drama in Five Acts. New York: Printed for the Author, by John Low, 1816. Fictional threads hold the story together for dramatic purposes. 1005. Huber, Leonard V. New Orleans as It Was in 1814–1815. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 1. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet offering details on how New Orleans appeared in 1815, describing a public building, home, cemetery, military installation, levee, and city plan profile. 1006. [Hutton, Joseph.] The Field of Orleans. A Poem. By the Author of Several Fugitive Pieces. Philadelphia: W. Anderson, 1816. In commemoration of the Battle of New Orleans. 1007. Jackson, Andrew. “Andrew Jackson’s Account of the Battle of New Orleans.” Edited by Robert V. Remini. Tennessee Historical Quarterly 26 (Spring 1967): 23–42. A fragmentary account, with pages missing, that was apparently composed for the use of John Reid, who was writing Jackson’s biography. 1008. Latour, Arsene Lecarriere. Atlas to the Historical Memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana. Philadelphia: John Conrad, 1816. To accompany Latour, Historical Memoir (item 1009, below). One general and seven detailed maps of the 1814–1815 campaign. 1009. Latour, Arsene Lacarriere. Historical Memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814–1815. With an Atlas. Translated by H. P. Nugent. Philadelphia: John Conrad, 1816. Latour’s Atlas is a separate volume (see item 1008, above). The author served in the campaign as the principal engineer. The narration concerns the events from the first arrival of the British forces off Louisiana in September 1814 until their final evacuation in 1815 as a consequence of the treaty of peace. British preparations for conquest were immense and complete. The author has taken licence with the facts in telling the story. 1010. Lebreton, Dagmar Renshaw. “The Man Who Won the Battle of New Orleans.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 38 (July 1955): 20–34. Jean-Claude Hudry, a French merchant in New Orleans, served as commander of a “French company” of militia. He claimed to have won the Battle of New Orleans, the story appearing in an obscure biographical pamphlet in France. There is little evidence otherwise to corroborate the claim or his military ability. 1011. “Letter of the Duke of Wellington (May 22, 1815) on the Battle of New Orleans.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (January 1926): 5–10.

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166  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The Duke of Wellington criticized the British government for launching the expedition against New Orleans, asserting that its object was simply plunder. Four additional letters from the Earl of Longford to James S. Zacherie of New Orleans concern the campaign and the Wellington letter. 1012. Mahon, John K. “British Command Decisions Relative to the Battle of New Orleans.” Louisiana History 6 (Winter 1965): 53–76. A diversion against New Orleans had been proposed as early as 1812 to relieve American pressure against Canada. Although American writers later charged that plunder was the principal motivation, this is far from the truth. Upon receiving news of the defeat, the responsible authorities in London rationalized the benefits that had resulted from the campaign and denied responsibility for the fiasco. 1013. Marigny, Bernard. Reflections on the Campaign of General Andrew Jackson in Louisiana in 1814 and ’15. New Orleans: J. L. Sollee, 1848. Translated by Grace King. Reprinted, Louisiana Historical Quarterly 6 (January 1923): 61–85. A defense of the Louisiana creoles against insinuations of their patriotism. 1014. Mayhew, Thad. “A Massachusetts Volunteer at the Battle of New Orleans.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (January 1926): 30–31. Mayhew was a Federalist and opposed to the war. Apparently he joined or was conscripted to fight in the American forces as the British advanced on New Orleans. 1015. Meuse, William A. The Weapons of the Battle of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 9. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. In general, the weaponry used by both sides during the War of 1812 were very similar. This work considers the variety of weaponry used by the various belligerents. 1016. Moore, Mrs. John Trotwood, comp. “Commissioned Officers of the Tennessee Militia for the Year 1815, and Justices of the Peace, 1815.” Tennessee Historical Magazine, 2d ser., 1 (April 1931): 222–28. Roster compiled from Commission Book, 1815–1827, in the state archives. For militia officers includes rank, regiment, date of rank, and sometimes county. 1017. Morgan, David B. “Genl. David B. Morgan’s Defense of the Conduct of the Louisiana Militia in the Battle on the Left Side of the River, January 8, 1815.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (January 1926): 16–29. Reply, in letter form, to the charges and inferences made against Morgan and his assessment of the Louisiana and Kentucky militia as they appeared in the Reporter. 1018. Morse, Edward Clarke. “Capt. Ogden’s Troop of Horse in the Battle of New Orleans.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 10 (July 1927): 381–82. Roster of New Orleans volunteer dragoon troop for reconnoitering, courier service, and as a reserve. 1019. “Officers and Soldiers of the War 1814–1815.” Southern Historical Society Papers 36 (1908): 133–40. Narrative and roster of the Battalion of Orleans Volunteers who served in the Battle of New Orleans. Translated from the French and reprinted here from the New Orleans Picayune, August 23, 1908.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  167 1020. Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr. “The Role of the South in the British Grand Strategy in the War of 1812.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 31 (Spring 1972): 22–38. An English victory at Mobile or New Orleans could have freed them to reconsider the terms of the Ghent treaty, even if ultimately the results would not have changed. The outcome for the Americans was of even greater significance for it involved momentous considerations: the future of the Spanish presence, the Indian situation, the possibility of the British foothold, the making of a military hero. In southern eyes the war ended in a clear-cut American victory, not a draw. 1021. Pakenham, Thomas, ed., Pakenham Letters 1800-1815. London, 1914. Reprinted by the Napoleonic Archive, n.d. A series of letters by major general Sir Edward Pakenham, written while he served in the Iberian Peninsula, from March 1812 to his departure for America, noting his pleasure for being appointed to serve there, rather than going to the turmoil of Paris. Includes a lengthly letter writeen in March 1815 by Colonel Edward Wylly, his military secretary, on the campaign in and around New Orleans. 1022. Parsons, Edward Alexander. “Jean Lafitte in the War of 1812: A Narrative Based on the Original Documents.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 50 (October 1940): 205–24. In the late summer of 1814 the British approached Jean Lafitte to solicit his aid in their projected invasion of New Orleans. Lafitte offered his services to the Americans who responded by successfully raiding Lafitte’s headquarters. Lafitte and followers received a presidential pardon in return for their support of Andrew Jackson in the defense of the city. They served Jackson well. 1023. Pickles, Tim. New Orleans 1815: Andrew Jackson Crushes the British. Osprey Campaign Series 28. London: Osprey, 1993. The sole offering of the Osprey Campaign series, edited by David Chandler, on the War of 1812. This well illustrated history provides background on the conflict, the forces involved and the subsequent events. Includes a chapter on the battlefield as it was in the early 1990s. 1024. Pierson, John Bennett Marion. Louisiana Soldiers of the War of 1812. 3d ed. Baton Rouge: Lousiana Historical Society, 2003. An alphabetical listing of all soldiers who served in Louisiana during the War of 1812. 1025. Reilly, Robin. The British at the Gates: The New Orleans Campaign in the War of 1812. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1974. Reprint Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 2002. An updated reprint of the 1974 original work that describes the New Orleans campaign from the British perspective, within the overall context of the war, the situation in Europe during 1814 and 1815 and the peace negotiations aimed at ending the War of 1812. 1026. Remini, Robert V. The Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson and America’s First Military Victory. New York: Viking, 1999. An overview of events in 1814 and 1815 from the perspective of Andrew Jackson by a leading scholar on Jacksonian history, which perpetuates certain myths about the battle of New Orleans.

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168  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1027. Report of the Committee of Inquiry, on the Military Measures Executed Against the Legislature of the State of Louisiana, the 28th of December 1814. New Orleans: Roche Brothers, 1815. Reprinted in Louisiana Historical Quarterly 9 (April 1926): 223–80. An aide to governor William C. C. Claiborne reported to Andrew Jackson that the Louisiana legislature was intent on surrendering to the British. The aide reported back to the governor Jackson’s command to dissolve the legislature. The legislature was locked out for twenty-four hours. The aide had garbled both Claiborne’s and Jackson’s messages, leading to the impression that Jackson had regarded martial law as placing him in command of all men, even legislators, and answerable to no one. 1028. Ritchie, Carson I. A. “The Louisiana Campaign.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 44 (January–April 1961): 13–103. An account of the British campaign against New Orleans using records of British officers. Credits American artillery manned almost entirely by New Orleans men rather than the musket and rifle fire of Kentucky and Tennessee militia that caused the immense carnage and casualties to the British. 1029. Ritchie, Carson I. A., ed. “British Documents on the Louisiana Campaign, 1814–15.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 44 (January–April 1961): 104–21; 44 (July–October 1961): 1–147. Seeks to descredit previously used accounts of junior British officers as misleading and misinterpreted. Offers its own “corrections” with newly uncovered sources edited herein: Alexander Dickson, “Journal of Operations”; Lieutenant Christie, “Fragment of a Reconnaisance of Pensacola”; Charles Ramus Forrest, “Journal of Operations against New Orleans in 1814 and 1815”; John Lambert, “Letter from Major General Lambert to General MacIntosh”; John Michell, “Diary of Major J. Michell”; Rob. W. Ord, “Memoranda Respecting Mobile”; and “Programme: ‘Theatre Royal’ Isle Dauphine,” March 11, 1815. 1030. Rowland, Eron Opha Moore (Mrs. Dunbar). Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812. Reprinted from Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, Centenary Series, 4. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1968. Emphasizes the activities of the territorial troops in the Creek War and the New Orleans campaigns. Includes a roster of the troops. Corrects errors and omissions of earlier accounts. 1031. Scott, Valerie McNair. Major-General Sir Edward M. Pakenham. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 3. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. Major General Thomas Pakenham was the ill-fated commander of the British expedition during the New Orleans campaign, who was killed during the battle. This analysis by the author, claiming herself to be “Lady Pakenham,” seeks to provide some context to the campaign and to absolve the general of the failed attack in which he died. 1032. Shelby, Isaac. “Some Letters of Isaac Shelby.” Edited by James A. Padgett. Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society 37 (January 1939): 1–9. The letters were written when Shelby served as governor of Kentucky during the War of 1812. Kentucky’s 1812 resolution of support for the war, addressed to the president, and matters concerning Kentucky’s participation in the 1814 southern campaign under Andrew Jackson.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  169 1033. Smith, Zachary F. The Battle of New Orleans Including the Previous Engagements between the Americans and the British, the Indians, and the Spanish Which Led to the Final Conflict on the 8th of January, 1815. Filson Club Publications 19. Louisville, Ky.: John P. Morton, Printers to the Filson Club, 1904. A narrative account of the campaign including rationale for the Kentuckian participants who left the fight on the west bank of the Mississippi River in New Orleans. Appended with a roster of participants from Kentucky. 1034. Sugden, John. “Jean Lafitte and the British Offer of 1814.” Louisiana History 20 (Spring 1979): 159–67. The British approached Jean Lafitte, the Baratarian privateer leader, to enlist his support in their impending campaign against New Orleans. This Grand Terre Island meeting in September 1814 gave Lafitte some leverage in his negotiations with the Americans, with whom he sided. 1035. Tatum, Howell. Major Howell Tatum’s Journal While Acting Topographical Engineer (1814) to General Jackson Commanding the Seventh Military District. Edited by John Spencer Bassett. Smith College Studies in History 7, nos. 1, 2, and 3. Northhampton, Mass.: Department of History of Smith College, 1921–22. Tatum’s assignment extended from July 21, 1814, to June 15, 1815. The entries of his notes and observations included here are from August 11, 1814, when the army left Fort Jackson to descend the Coosa and Alabama Rivers for Mobile, to January 20, 1815, with general concluding comments to June 15, when the army was disbanded. 1036. Tompkins, William F. “A Brief Account of the Battle of New Orleans with a Foreword.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 61 (January 1953): 60–67. Account prepared for a 1940 visiting congressional delegation. 1037. Tregle, Joseph G., Jr. “Andrew Jackson and the Continuing Battle of New Orleans.” Journal of the Early Republic 1 (Winter 1981): 373–93. While the Battle of New Orleans was an overwhelming factor in bringing Andrew Jackson to the office of the presidency, it was also a burden he continued to bear the rest of his life. Maintenance of martial law for two months, execution of six militiamen, and the perception that Jackson acted much more arbitrarily than the circumstances required raised vexing legal and constitutional questions that remain unresolved. 1038. Waldo, Samuel Putnam. Memoirs of Andrew Jackson, Major-General in the Army of the United States; and Commander in Chief of the Division of the South. Hartford, Conn.: John Russell Jr., 1818. Principally concerned with the Indian war and the New Orleans campaign. 1039. Walker, Alexander. Jackson and New Orleans. An Authentic Narrative of the Memorable Achievements of the American Army under Andrew Jackson, before New Orleans, in the Winter of 1814, ’15. New York: J.C. Derby, 1856. A patriotic narrative account of what is acclaimed as “the most brilliant victory . . . since the invention of gunpowder.” 1040. Watson, Elbert L. Tennessee at the Battle of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 5. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965.

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170  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Tennessee forces were involved in all phases of the New Orleans campaign. They were “perhaps the dominant force in bringing the campaign to a successful conclusion.” 1041. Wilson, Samuel, Jr. Plantation Houses on the Battlefield of New Orleans. Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Historical Booklets 6. New Orleans: Battle of New Orleans, 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana, 1965. Pamphlet. The area of the Battle of New Orleans was one of rich plantations. A few ruins of one are all that survive. A history of each of the nine plantations.

E. The Old Northwest 1042. Abbott, John, Graeme S. Mount, and Michael J. Mulloy. The History of Fort St Joseph. Toronto: Dundurn, 2000. The story of Fort St. Joseph, constructed following the transfer of Fort Mackinac to the United States. It was from Fort St. Joseph that a mixed army, fur trader, and native expedition set out to capture Fort Mackinac in 1812. 1043. Anderson, Thomas Gummersall. “Journal of the Proceedings at Fort McKay, from the Departure of Lieut. Col. McKay, for Mackinaw, Comprehending the Particulars of Every Occurring Circumstance in and out of the Fort within the Vicinity of Prairie du Chien.” Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 9 (1882): 207–61. Anderson was placed in command of Fort Shelby, renamed Fort McKay when the British took it from the Americans. Entries of August 10–November 23, 1814, including Anderson’s military orders. 1044. Brymner, Douglas, ed. “Capture of Fort M’Kay, Prairie du Chien, in 1814.” Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 11 (1888): 254–70. The documentary record of the British capture of Fort Shelby at Prairie du Chien, 1814, which was renamed Fort McKay after William McKay, the British commander. Weighs the conflicting evidence and reports. 1045. Bulger, Alfred Edward. “Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814.” Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 13 (1895): 1–9. Prairie du Chien, near the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers, was occupied by the Americans in June 1814. They then built Fort Shelby at the rear of the village. The author is the son of the British commandant on the Mississippi, 1814–1815. 1046. Bulger, Alfred Edward. “Last Days of the British at Prairie du Chien.” Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 13 (1895): 154–62. Describes how his father, British commandant on the Mississippi, held council with the Indians, in preparation of British withdrawal at the end of the war. 1047. Bulger, Andrew H. “The Bulger Papers.” Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 13 (1895): 10–153. From orders, October 1814, appointing Bulger to the command at Fort McKay, at Prairie du Chien, to the end of the war. The British had earlier retaken Fort Shelby from the Americans in July 1814. 1048. “Capture of Fort McKay, Prairie du Chien, in 1814.” Report on Canadian Archives (1887): civ–cix.

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The British Offensive, 1814  •  171 R. McDouall, commander at Mackinac, reports in a letter to his superior, that he has dispatched W. McKay to retake Prairie du Chien from the Americans. McKay, in two letters, reports his successful mission. 1049. Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. “The Battle of Mackinac Island.” Michigan History 59 (Winter 1975): 239–54. Mackinac Island was one of the first American defeats in the War of 1812. After its loss in July 1812, its recapture figured frequently in American planning. At the Battle of Mackinac Island, in August 1814, the British successfully defended their position against the efforts of George Croghan and the northern Great Lakes remained in their hands for the rest of the war. The peace treaty returned the area to the United States. 1050. Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. The British Army at Mackinac, 1812–1815. Mackinac State Historic Parks, 1992. The story of Fort Mackinac during its occupation by the British in 1812 and the unsuccessful American effort to retake it in 1814. Includes many details of the soldiers that served there. 1051. Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. Fort Holmes. Mackinac State Historic Parks, 1984. Following the British capture of Fort Mackinac in 1812, they constructed a second fort to secure the high ground overlooking Fort Mackinac. 1052. Grodzinski, John R. “The Epic Saga of His Majesty’s Schooner Nancy and the Struggle for the Control of the Upper Great Lakes.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (September 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. A photo essay describing the British Schooner Nancy during the War of 1812, her scuttling the valiant boat action by her crew and others that restored British naval supremacy to the Upper Great Lakes. 1053. Hamilton, Holman. “Zachary Taylor in Illinois.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 34 (March 1941): 84–91. Reassessment of Taylor’s War of 1812 service in Illinois gives him credit for discouraging further British attacks, including moving on St. Louis. The immediate results of his efforts overlook the long-range significance. Contains pertinent documents including an autobiographic sketch by Taylor. 1054. Hunter, A. F. “A Neglected Chapter in the War of 1812.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 4 (February 1895): 302–6. Narration of American futile efforts to retake Michilimackinac in 1814, the blowing up of the Nancy, and other actions in that general area. 1055. Messe, William A. “Credit Island, 1814–1914: Historical Address Delivered on the Island at the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Battle.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 (January 1915): 349–73. Credit Island is now called Suburban Island. It is on the Iowa side of the Mississippi River near Rock Island, Illinois. Said to be the only engagement of the War of 1812 fought on the west side of the Mississippi. British regulars and Sac and Fox Indians attacked Zachary Taylor’s American troops, September 1814. 1056. “Prairie du Chien Documents, 1814–’15.” Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 9 (1882): 262–81. Rosters, letters, Indian speeches, and account of delivery of public stores during the British occupation of Fort McKay.

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172  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1057. Quaife, Milo Milton. “A Forgotten Hero of Rock Island.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 23 (January 1931): 652–63. Artillery sergeant James Keating’s expert use of his three-pound gun, the only one the British party from Mackinac had, is credited with almost single-handedly forcing the surrender of Fort Shelby at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, in July 1814. Zachary Taylor was the American commander. Fort Shelby was renamed Fort McKay and held by the British until the end of the war.

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Chapter

7

The War at Sea

A. On the High Seas and Inland Waters; General Naval Studies 1058. [Allen, Benjamin.] Columbia’s Naval Triumphs. New York: Inskeep and Bradford, 1813. American naval exploits on the high seas and the Great Lakes, in verse form. About half of the volume consists of documentation. 1059. Altoff, Gerard. Deep Water Sailors, Shallow Water Soldiers: Manning the United States Fleet on Lake Erie, 1813. Put-in-Bay, Ohio: Perry Group, 1993. An examination of the construction and manning of the American Lake Erie fleet between September 1812 and July 1813, which ultimately seized control of the lake and held it for the remainder of the war. 1060. Bailey, Isaac, comp. American Naval Biography. Providence, R.I.: Isaac Bailey, 1815. Despite whatever feeling there may be about justification for the war, or whatever opinion about army commanders, regard is universal for the naval heroes. Sketches, mostly of War of 1812 naval officers. 1061. Balinky, Alexander S. “Albert Gallatin, Naval Foe.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 82 (July 1958): 293–304. As U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1801–1815, Gallatin singled out the navy to effect his policy of rigid economy. He was convinced that America would keep out of war, so expenditures for its preparation could not be justified. This included the denial of naval protection to mercantile interests. By 1808, however, circumstances had forced him to give up any real hope of economy in naval expenditures. 1062. Ballou, Maturin Murray. The Naval Officer; or, The Pirate’s Cave: A Tale of the Last War. Boston: F. Gleason, 1845.

173

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174  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. The Lieutenant Murray listed as author on title page is a pseudonym. A fictionalized account of naval action and adventures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in the War of 1812. 1063. Barnes, James. Naval Actions of the War of 1812. London: Osgood, McIlvaine, 1897. A series of accounts of what the author, an American, regards as the most prominent privateer and naval actions of the War of 1812. 1064. Barnes, James. Yankee Ships and Yankee Sailors:—Tales of 1812. New York: Macmillan 1897. A popular account, based on tradition as well as fact, of selected topics. 1065. Bates, Joseph. The Early Life and Later Experiences and Labors of Elder Joseph Bates. Edited by James White. Battle Creek, Mich.: Steam Press of the Seventh-Day Adventist Publishing Association, 1877. Bates was a sailor in the War of 1812, captured by the British and confined in Dartmoor Prison. Reprinted from a series of autobiographical sketches published in the Youth’s Instructor. 1066. Beattie, Judith A. Gunboats on the St Lawrence. Ottawa, Ontario: Parks Canada, 1967. A history of the gunboat, a small, armed vessel that proved a significant addition to the British forces for the defense of the Upper St Lawrence. Includes many plans, drawings, and technical details on these vessels. 1067. Brooks, George S., ed. James Durand: An Able Seaman of 1812. His Adventures on “Old Ironsides” and as an Impressed Sailor in the British Navy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, published with the cooperation of the Naval Order of the United States, 1926. After service on three American ships, Durand was impressed by the British in 1809, spending the War of 1812 years in the Royal Navy. At one point he was put in irons for refusing to participate in an attack on a town in which he had relatives. 1068. Brown, Kenneth L. “Mr. Madison’s Secretary of the Navy.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 73 (August 1947): 966–75. William Jones served as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, 1813–1814. He contributed greatly to the success the U.S. Navy achieved on the Great Lakes and in coastal defence during the War of 1812. 1069. Butler, James. American Bravery Displayed, in the Capture of Fourteen Hundred Vessels of War and Commerce, since the Declaration of War by the President. Carlisle, Pa.: George Phillips, 1816. A catalog of 1,634 vessels captured, with a few lines about each, and the inclusion of an occasional descriptive expansion of the account or an interlarded document. 1070. Cain, Emily. Ghost Ships: Hamilton and Scourge, Historical Treasures from the War of 1812. New York: Beaufort Books, 1983. The story of the loss of the Hamilton and the Scourge from the American Lake Ontario Squadron on August 18, 1812 and the subsequent efforts to locate and study their remains. 1071. Carney, R. B. “The American Marine Thermopylae.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 63 (April 1937): 551–54. Adds details and documentation to T. W. Sheridan’s article of the same title. See Sheridan, “The American Marine Thermopylae” (item 1134, below).

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The War at Sea  •  175 1072. Carter, Edward C., II. “Mathew Carey, Advocate of American Naval Power, 1785–1814.” American Neptune 26 (July 1966): 177–88. Philadelphia publisher Carey used his considerable distribution channels on behalf of a progressive and enlightened naval policy. His Naval History not only enjoyed sale by the thousands, but he placed copies in the hands of every congressman and members of the administration. 1073. Coffin, Robert Stevenson. A Concise Narrative of the Barbarous Treatment Experienced by American Prisoners in England and the West-Indies, Etc. Written by a Young Man Who Was Prisoner Nearly Six Months in the Island of Barbadoes, and Five in England. Interspersed with Anecdotes, Remarks, Etc. Etc. Danville, Vt.: Ebenezer Eaton, 1816. The author sailed out of Boston in 1814 in a “private armed Schooner, called the Dolphin.” Fourteen days out the Dolphin was captured by the British brig Columbia. 1074. The Columbian Naval Melody; A Collection of Songs and Odes, Composed on the Late Naval Victories and Other Occasions. Boston: Hans Lund, 1813. Lyrics to songs about naval victories and heroes. 1075. Crawford, Michael J., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History. Volume 3, 1814–1815, Chesapeake Bay, Northern Lakes, and Pacific Ocean. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 2002. The third of a four-volume collection of British and American documents on all aspects of naval warfare during the War of 1812. Each section includes a synopsis of events followed by documents. This volume covers events in Chesapeake Bay, the northern Great Lakes, and the Pacific Ocean during 1814. The first two volumes in this series were edited by William S. Dudley (see items 1078 and 1079, below). As of early 2007, volume 4 had not yet been published. 1076. [Davis, John.] The American Mariners: Or, The Atlantic Voyage. A Moral Poem. Prefixed Is A Vindication of the American Character, from the Aspersions of the Quarterly Reviewers. To Which Are Added Naval Annals: Or, An Impartial Summary of the Actions Fought, During the Late War, at Sea, and on the Lakes, between the Ships of Great Britain and Those of the United States of America. Copious Notes and Illustrations. London: Brodie and Dowding Salisbury, [1823?]. This long poem concerns the U.S. Navy in general but contains frequent specific references to the War of 1812. The Impartial Summary recounts naval engagements during the war. The author regards the experience as the real establishment of the navy. 1077. Dietz, Anthony George. “The Use of Cartel Vessels during the War of 1812.” American Neptune 28 (July 1968): 165–94. Cartel ships were used to carry prisoners of war and those with special permission between national boundaries and without molestation from armed ships at sea. Considers the removal of aliens from the United States early in the war, bringing prisoners into American ports, designated ports of call for the cartels, the role of flags of truce, and administrative control of cartel activities. 1078. Dudley, William S., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History. Volume 1, 1812. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 1985.

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176  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The first of this four-volume collection of British and American documents on all aspects of naval warfare during the War of 1812. This volume covers the period leading up to the war and events during 1812. Each section includes a synopsis of events followed by documents (see items 1075 and 1079). 1079. Dudley, William S., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History. Volume 2, 1813. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 1992. The second of this four-volume collection of British and American documents on all aspects of naval warfare during the War of 1812. This volume covers events during 1813. Each section includes a synopsis of events followed by documents (see items 1075 and 1078 above). 1080. Duffy, Stephen H. W. Captain Blakeley and the Wasp: The Cruise of 1814. Annapolis, Md.: Naval University Press, 2001. A biography of one of the greatest captains of the American age of sailing and his cruise on the USS Wasp in 1814. 1081. Dye, Ira. The Fatal Cruise: Two Captains of the War of 1812. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1994. The story of two ship captains, William Henry Allen of the U.S. Navy and John Fordyce Maples of the Royal Navy, and their eventual clash of arms on the high seas. 1082. Dye, Ira. “Seafarers of 1812—A Profile.” Prologue 5 (Spring 1973): 2–13. British impressment of American seamen prompted American identification and records keeping. These and British records of prisoners of war contain considerable detail from which this profile of War of 1812 seamen was derived. Explains the methodology used to develop the profile. 1083. Eckert, Edward Kyle. The Navy Department in the War of 1812. University of Florida Monographs: Social Sciences 48. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Press, 1973. An administrative view of the U.S. Navy during the war that explains how naval operations were coordinated and organized at the cabinet level, particularly how William Jones, as secretary of the Navy, affected national naval policies through his handling of strategy, ships, and men from his office. Jones was a competent manager who brought strength and reform to the office. His role was crucial. 1084. Eckert, Edward Kyle. “William Jones and the Role of the Secretary of the Navy in the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1969. William Jones, Philadelphia merchant, ship captain, and congressman, served as secretary of the U.S. Navy, 1813–1814. He brought organizational and administrative reform to the navy and the department. With no authority over naval policy or strategy, his implementation and the respect he earned brought the navy to efficiency. His role is judged to be crucial to the navy’s performance during the war. His reforms had lasting effect. 1085. Folsom, Benjamin, comp. A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Distinguished Officers in the American Navy, with Other Interesting Matter. Newburyport, Mass.: Benjamin Folsom, 1814. Provides a biographical account of American War of 1812 naval officers. 1086. Fredriksen, John C. Surgeon of the Lake: The Diary of Dr. Usher Parsons, 1812–1814.

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The War at Sea  •  177 An annotated version of Parson’s diary, which includes his own experience at the Battle of Lake Erie. 1087. Gardiner, Robert, ed. The Naval War of 1812. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1998. An examination of all aspects of the naval war, whether on the high seas or on inland waters, written by a number of naval authorities. Heavily illustrated, with many ship architects’ drawings. 1088. Gough, Barry. Fighting Sail on Lake Huron and Georgian Bay. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2002. A chronological study of the struggle for naval supremacy on the Upper Great Lakes, including the role played by fur trading companies and natives. 1089. Gough. Barry. Through Water, Ice and Fire: Schooner Nancy of the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn Group, 2006. An account of the dramatic story of the Nancy, originally built for the North West Company and placed in service during 1814, and her crew. After scuttling the vessel to avoid capture, the crew return to stage a daring boat action against two American vessels and in the process secure British control of the Upper Great Lakes. 1090. Graham, Gerald S. Sea Power and British North America, 1783–1820. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1941. An essential study describing the reluctance of the Royal Navy to participate in inland water naval operations and how it finally established itself on the Great Lakes. 1091. Graves, Donald E. “Old Salt Indeed: The Amazing Career of Lieutenant Provo Wallis of HMS Shannon.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (December 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. The amazing story of Provo Wallis, who aside from having ninety-six years of service in the Royal Navy served during the War of 1812 aboard HMS Shannon. 1092. Gwyn, Julian. Ashore and Afloat: The British Navy and the Halifax Navy Yard Before 1812. Ottawa, Ontario: University of Ottawa Press, 2004. A detailed history of the Royal Navy dockyard from its establishment in 1749 through 1812. Includes considerable detail on the operation of the dockyard during the War of 1812. 1093. Gwyn, Julian. Frigates and Foremasts: The North American Squadron in Nova Scotian Waters, 1745–1815. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2003. The first comprehensive study of the Royal Navy North American Squadron in Nova Scotia waters and the Western Atlantic. The author describes the operation of the Royal Navy, sea battles, leadership, various key land and sea officials, impressments, and privateering during the War of 1812. 1094. Hager, Robert E. Mohawk River Boats and Navigation before 1820. Syracuse, N.Y.: Canal Society of New York State, 1987. The story of the canoes, bateaux, Schenectady, and Durham boats that plied the Mohawk River in peace and war. This book provides an important overview of inland water navigation and how that supported military operations. 1095. Hanks, Robert J. “Sea Fight at Fayal.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 93 (November 1967): 157–60.

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178  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The author argues that the Battle of New Orleans had in reality been won by Samuel Chester Reid at Fayal in September 1814. 1096. Hepburn, Andrew. Letter of Marque. Boston: Little, Brown, 1959. A novel. Account of the wartime experiences of first mate Edward Stockton and several other crew members and their impressment into the Royal Navy from an American merchantman just before the outbreak of the war. 1097. Hitsman, J. Mackay, and Sarby, Alice. “Independent Foreigners or Canadian Chasseurs.” Military Affairs 25 (Spring 1961): 11–17. A British “flying corps” of soldiers and marines made several quick raids along the American Atlantic coast. One, in 1813, resulted in atrocities, usually attributed to Canadian chasseurs believed to be composed of French Canadians. They were committed, however, by two independent companies of foreigners composed of a medley of nationalities conscripted into Napoleon Bonaparte’s armies in the Iberian Peninsula and who were deserters or prisoners in British hands. 1098. Horsman, Reginald. “The Paradox of Dartmoor Prison.” American Heritage 26 (February 1975): 12–17, 85. The British confined American prisoners of war in Dartmoor Prison, 1813–1815. They were principally merchant seamen, privateersmen, and those who were impressed. Some five thousand were imprisoned, including about nine hundred African Americans. Some languished on cold stone floors while others performed the works of William Shakespeare. Some carried on profitable production and sold their products, and some suffered the ravages of disease and the pain of floggings. About two hundred seventy died there. 1099. Hunnewell, James F. “Aid to Glory.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 36 (May 1902): 182–86. The naval dockyard at Boston was “utterly unprepared” for war and its funds were “lamentably inadequate.” These circumstances prevailed into the war. These deficiencies were overcome, in part, by the patriotism, acumen, and private means of Amos Binney, who served as navy agent at Boston. 1100. James, William. “How William James Came to Be a Naval Historian.” Edited by Holden Furber. American Historical Review 38 (October 1932): 74–85. James was in North America during the War of 1812 and became an early military and naval historian of the conflict. His accounts became the basis for much subsequent writing on the subject by others. In this long letter of 1819, addressed to the British admiralty soliciting assistance, James explains the writing and publication of his efforts. 1101. Lardas, Mark. American Heavy Frigates, 1794–1826. Osprey New Vanguard 79. London: Osprey, 2003. An illustrated history of the heavy frigates that proved more than an equal match for British vessels of the same class. Includes several colored plates. 1102. Leiner, Frederick C. “Saving the Big–Ship Navy.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 103 (July 1977): 76–77. Rampant distrust of American naval capabilities led to an order to withdraw the entire fleet to the safety of American harbors after the declaration of war in 1812. Naval captains William Bainbridge and Charles Stewart

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The War at Sea  •  179 strongly protested to the secretary of the navy, who gained the ear of the president, who reversed the withdrawal order. Early naval victories followed and assured the crucial participation throughout the war. 1103. Lloyd, Christopher. “An Anglo-American in the War of 1812.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 96 (October 1970): 80–81. Samuel Leech became an American prisoner when his warship was captured. Refusing to be exchanged, he enlisted and served on an American ship only to be captured by the British in another engagement. After the war he returned to the United States and settled there. 1104. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Sea Power in Its Relations to the War of 1812. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1905. The author was an Anglophile. The maritime antecendents of the War of 1812 are found in Britain’s post–American Revolution conduct of its naval power and commercial policies. The naval war was a progressive strangulation of American economic life rather than a spectacular series of single-ship actions. The point of departure for the analysis is derived from a regular definition of the strategic situation and examination of the strategic aspect of operations. 1105. Malcomson, Robert. “Gunboats on Lake Ontario in the War of 1812, Part 1: The First Boats, Their Use, and Possible Design,” Seaways: Ships in Scale 7 (January–February 1996): 31–38. This article, in two parts (see also item 1106, below) describes the gunboats employed by the British on Lake Ontario and their role in the struggle for naval supremacy on the lake. 1106. Malcomson, Robert. “Gunboats on Lake Ontario, Part 2: Under Construction and in Action at Sackets Harbor.” Seaways: Ships in Scale 7 (March– April 1996): 27–31. 1107. Malcomson, Robert. Lords of the Lake: The Naval War on Lake Ontario, 1812–1814. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 1998. Control of Lake Ontario was crucial to either side winning the war. This study examines the buildup of the British and American naval squadrons, the operations they conducted with their respective armies and the engagements between the two fleets. Includes detailed appendices dealing with ship construction, armament, and other details at various stages of the war. 1108. Malcomson, Robert. Warships of the Great Lakes, 1754–1834. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2001. An overview of naval shipbuilding and warfare on the inland waters of North America. The chapters on the War of 1812 deal with initial efforts to gain naval ascendancy, Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Champlain. 1109. Malcomson, Robert, ed. Sailors of 1812: Memoirs and Letters of Naval Officers on Lake Ontario. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1997. Annotated letters of Henry Kent, Barzallai Pease, James Richardson, and Arthur Sinclair. 1110. Martin, Tyrone G. “Constitution’s Full Load of Ammuniton, 1812.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (February 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. A discussion of the armament and ordnance on the USS Constitution in the first year of the war. 1111. Martin, Tyrone G. “Constitution’s Wartime Gun Batteries.” The War of 1812 Magazine 1 (June 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org.

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180  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography An examination of the armament of USS Constitution during the War of 1812. 1112. McKee, Linda Anne Mitchell. “Captain Isaac Hull and the Portsmouth Navy Yard, 1813–1815.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Louis University, 1968. Hull was responsible for defending the Maine and New Hampshire coastline and for the construction of a seventy-four-gun ship. He also added buildings to the navy yard, repaired and manned harbor fortifications, and fitted out defensive gunboats. 1113. Meader, Stephen Warren. Clear for Action! New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1940. Juvenile fiction. The adventures of seventeen-year-old Jeff Robbins, who goes to sea shortly before the outbreak of the War of 1812 and is impressed aboard a British frigate and then marooned in the West Indies where he and a friend find a chest of old Spanish money. 1114. Mercator [pseud.]. Copy of a Letter to Beilby Thompson, Esq. M.P. on the Navy Estimates; Shewing the Expense of Building and Repairing His Majesty’s Navy, from the Year 1800 to 1820. With the Remarks on the Adoption in His Majesty’s Dock-Yards of Kyan’s Patent Process for Prevention of Dry Rot in Timber. London: J. and C. Adlard, 1834. Pamphlet. This short letter is appended with extensive analytical tables of data on ships of war. The purpose is to demonstrate how much expense might have been avoided if the Kyan process had been used. 1115. Morison, Samuel Eliot. “The Roosevelt Collection of Naval Art.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 89 (November 1963): 81–96. Descriptions of and illustrations from the naval art collection of Franklin D. Roosevelt, which features works about the War of 1812. 1116. Naval Biography, Consisting of Memoirs of the Most Distinguished Officers of the American Navy; to Which Is Annexed the Life of General Pike. Cincinnati: Morgan, Williams, 1815. This is apparently an expanded version of Naval Biography (see item 1117, below). 1117. Naval Biography; or Lives of the Most Distinguished American Naval Heroes of the Present Day. Pittsburgh: R. Patterson, 1815. The sketch of Isaac Hull is attributed to James Kirke Paulding. Those of James Lawrence, Oliver Hazard Perry, and William Burrows were by Washington Irving. 1118. The Naval Songster: Being a Collection of Naval Victories, and Other Excellent Songs. Containing, Patriotic Song, Sea and Land Victories, William’s Return from Algeria, The Seven American Sailors Who Were Massacred in Dartmoor Prison, Truxton’s Victory, Constitution and Guerriere, The Sailor’s Return, The Wasp’s Frolic, The Enterprize and Boxer, Address to the Crews of the Fleet Bound to Algiers. Charlestown, Mass.: J. White, 1815. Pamphlet. Lyrics only. 1119. Naval Songster, or Columbia Naval Melody. Being a Choice Collection of the Most Approved Naval Songs. Boston: Nathaniel Coverly Jr., n.d. Pamphlet. Lyrics praising ships and their heroes. 1120. The Naval Songster, or The Sailor’s Pocket Companion. Boston: N. Coverly Jr., 1813. Pamphlet. Lyrics singing the praises of naval victories.

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The War at Sea  •  181 1121. Nelson, Daniel A. “Ghost Ships of the War of 1812.” National Geographic 163 (March 1983): 289–313. A photographic essay detailing the discover of and underwater archaeological work on two War of 1812 vessels from the American Lake Ontario Squadron lost on Lake Ontario during 1813. This work was conducted in conjunction with plans to raise both vessels, which as of 2007 has not yet occurred. 1122. Niles, John M. The Life of Oliver Hazard Perry. With an Appendix, Comprising a Biographical Memoir of the Late Captain James Lawrence; with Brief Sketches of the Most Prominent Events in the Lives of Commodores Bainbridge, Decatur, Porter and Macdonough. A View of the Rise, Present Condition, and Future Prospects of the Navy of the United States—A List of the Officers of the Navy—and Vessels of War of the United States. To Which Is Added, a Biography of General Pike, and a View of the Leading Events of General Harrison. 2d ed. Hartford, Conn.: Oliver D. Cooke, 1821. A hero-centered account of the War of 1812 with emphasis on naval engagements. 1123. Paine, Ralph Delahaye. The Fight for a Free Sea: A Chronicle of the War of 1812. Chronicles of America 17. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1920. A sketchy naval history of the War of 1812, on inland waters as well as at sea. Supports the view that the war was principally a maritime conflict, and that despite overwhelming odds the U.S. Navy did amazingly well. 1124. Paul, Almira. The Surprising Adventures of Almira Paul, a Young Woman, Who Garbed as a Male, Has for Three of the Last Preceding Years, Actually Served as a Common Sailor, on Board of English and American Armed Vessels, without a Discovery of Her Sex Being Made. Boston: N. Coverly Jr., 1816. Paul shipped out of Halifax in 1812 as Jack Brown, and subsequently served on English privateers and warships, and on American vessels. 1125. Paullin, Charles Oscar. “Naval Administration under Secretaries of the Navy Smith, Hamilton, and Jones, 1801–1814.” Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute 32 (December 1906): 1289–1328. Robert Smith served from 1801 to 1809; he was not a competent adminstrator. Paul Hamilton presided over the department from 1809 to 1812; except for establishing naval hospitals, things were uneventful before the War of 1812 and the war found the navy unprepared. Secretary William Jones, 1813–1814, introduced administrative and technical innovations but his private affairs impinged considerably upon his tenure in office. 1126. Pavia, John R. “A Distant Conflict: Thoughts on Naval Warfare, Then and Now.” In A Shared Heritage: The Historial Legacy of Sackets Harbor and Madison Barracks, edited by Jan M. Saltzgaber, 47–54. Ithaca, N.Y.: Ithaca College, 1992. An essay discussing the evolution of naval warfare from the age of sailing. 1127. Pierce, Nathaniel. “Journal of Nathaniel Pierce of Newburyport, Kept at Dartmoor Prison, 1814–1815.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 73 (January 1937): 24–59. Journal covering the period of the day of his capture, November 9, 1814; the voyage to Halifax aboard HMS Bulwark; the voyage to England on HMS Penelope; and his prison experiences until his release, July 2, 1815.

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182  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1128. Roberts, Kenneth Lewis. Captain Caution: A Chronicle of Arundel. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1934. A historical novel of the War of 1812, a sequel to the author’s Arundel and Rabble in Arms, whose concerns were the American Revolution. 1129. Roberts, Kenneth Lewis. The Lively Lady: A Chronicle of Certain Men of Arundel in Maine, of Privateering during the War of Impressments, and of the Circular Prison on Dartmoor. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1931. A historical novel of the War of 1812. 1130. Roosevelt, Theodore. The Naval Operations of the War between Great Britain and the United States, 1812–1815. London: Sampson Low, Marston, [1910]. The British Royal Navy at its height in the Napoleonic age was greater than any other either before or since. Paying less attention to gunnery after Admiral Horatio Nelson’s death and filled with “overwhelming pride and self confidence,” however, the British generally became less fit to contend on equal terms with the U.S. Navy, now more skillful than any they had yet encountered. Reprint of chapter 41 of William Laird Clowes, ed., The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, vol. 6 (Boston: Little, Brown/London: S. Low, Marston, 1901). 1131. Roosevelt, Theodore. The Naval War of 1812 or The History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1882. Analyzes the comparative strengths in the various naval engagements of the war. Although the U.S. Navy did little in a material way to affect the outcome of the war, its victories did sustain the morale of a people whose armies were not doing very well. 1132. Rosenberg, Max. The Building of Perry’s Fleet on Lake Erie, 1812–1813. Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission, 1997. An overview of the development of the American naval base on Lake Erie and the construction of the fleet that won the battle against the British in 1813. 1133. Schwartz, Frank J., and Green, James. “Found: One Anchor from H.M.S. ‘Dictator.’ ” Maryland Historical Magazine 57 (December 1962): 367–70. The well-preserved “Old Plan” kedge anchor was found at the bottom of the Patuxent River near Point Patience, Maryland. It belonged to the manof-war Dictator, which served as a troopship during the War of 1812. The Dictator was apparently fighting American gunboats at that location in the summer of 1814. 1134. Sheridan, T. W. “The American Marine Thermopylae.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 63 (April 1937): 499–506. Describes the exploits of Samuel Chester Reid in command of the privateer General Armstrong as he faced overwhelming British odds at Fayal in the Azore Islands in September 1814. The ten-day delay he caused the British fleet on the way to New Orleans is claimed to be a key factor in the American victory at New Orleans and the author casts Reid in the role of King Leonidas who, with his three hundred Spartans fought against the Persians at Thermopylae, gaining time for the city states of Greece to form a larger army. 1135. Skaggs, David Curtiss. “The Commodore and I: a Cruise with Oliver Hazard Perry.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (December 2006); online at http://http:// www.napoleon-ser.

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The War at Sea  •  183 A personal view of Oliver Hazard Perry and naval warfare on Lake Erie. 1136. Skaggs, David Curtiss, and Larry L. Nelson, eds. The Sixty Years’ War for the Great Lakes, 1754–1814. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001. A series of essays by notable historians discussing various aspects of warfare on and around the Great Lakes. 1137. Sperry, Rachel. A Brief Reply to the Late Writings of Louisa Baker, (alias) Lucy Brewer, (Late an Inhabitant of West-Boston Hill—and Who in Disguise Served Three Years on Board the Frigate Constitution). Boston: M. Brewster, 1816. Pamphlet. Allegedly exposes Louisa Baker, a woman sometimes known as Lucy Brewer who claimed to serve on the USS Constitution, that Sperry asserts never existed. See Lucy Brewer, The Female Marine (item 1162, below). 1138. Thatcher, Joseph M. “A Fleet in the Wilderness: Shipbuilding at Sackets Harbor.” In War along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur, R. Bolwer, 53–60. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. An article describing the immense challenges of constructing naval vessels in upstate New York during the War of 1812. 1139. Turner, Lynn W. “The Last War Cruise of Old Ironsides.” American Heritage 6 (April 1955): 56–61. The account of the cruise that started in mid-December 1814 from Boston is based upon the diary of A. Y. Humphrey, chaplain aboard the Constitution. The Americans took prize ships and engaged British men-of-war. 1140. Von Schweinitz, Ludwig David. “Account of the Journey of Br. and Sr. Ludwig V. Schweinitz from Herrnhut to Bethlehem in Pennsylvania.” Translated by Adelaide L. Fries. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 46 (1922): 312–33. Von Schweinitz was an American-born Moravian minister in Germany. The church assigned him as an administrator in North Carolina. He describes his and his wife’s July–September 1812 voyage from Europe through the hazards of wartime sea travel. 1141. [Waddell, John Hunter.] The Dartmoor Massacre, by J.H.W. [Boston: n.p., 1815?]. Pamphlet. A poetic narration of the April 1814 incident in Dartmoor Prison, England, resulting in the death of sixty-seven American sailors.

B. Economic Warfare and the British Blockade 1142. Calderhead, William L. “‘U.S.F. Constellation’ in the War of 1812—An Accidental Fleet-in-Being.” Military Affairs 40 (April 1976): 79–83. Of previous glory, the frigate Constellation was not prepared for the coming of war in 1812. Her fate was delayed readiness (almost continuously being bottled up in blockaded ports) and narrow escapes. Her wartime difficulties reflected the inefficiences of the U.S. Navy Department itself, and her example pressured authorities to create a professional strategy agency, the Board of Navy Commissioners. 1143. Dudley, Wade G. Splintering the Wooden Wall: The British Blockade of the United States, 1812–1815. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

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184  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography A challenge to the Mahanian view of the effectiveness of the British blockade of the United States, claiming that it never achieved the same success as that against France, Britian’s primary enemy of the period. 1144. Jordan, Douglas S. “Stephen Decatur at New London: A Study in Strategic Frustration.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 93 (October 1967): 60–65. When the USS United States captured HMS Macedonian, Stephen Decatur became an instant hero. When a British blockade squadron battled Decatur and his squadron in New London and the Thames River for the duration, the adulation soured. 1145. Murdoch, Richard K. “The Battle of Orleans, Massachusetts (1814) and Associated Events.” American Neptune 24 (July 1964): 171–82. HMS Neptune was on blockade duty off Boston. In 1814 it made a raid ashore with four armed barges at Orleans on Cape Cod. It was a minor skirmish. While the Neptune was off station, the USS Constitution escaped from Boston. 1146. Murdoch, Richard K. “Intelligence Reports of British Agents in the Long Island Sound Area, 1814–1815.” American Neptune 29 (July 1969): 187–98. The British fleet became increasingly concerned that several major American warships with a radically different type of unconventional armament were being made ready for sea duty in the later months of the War of 1812. Includes several intelligence reports, August 1814–January 1815, received by the British blockading force of activities in the New York and Connecticut coastline region. 1147. Napier, Henry Edward. “The Blockade of Boston.” Edited by Robert T. Sutherland. United States Naval Institute Proceedings 63 (February 1937): 195–198. Excerpts from the journal of Napier, an officer of HMS Nymphe engaged in blockade duty off Boston harbor in 1814. 1148. Napier, Henry Edward. New England Blockaded in 1814: The Journal of Henry Edward Napier, Lieutenant in HMS Nymphe. Edited by Walter Muir Whitehill. Salem, Mass.: Peabody Museum, 1939. Although the English had established a blockade along the American Atlantic Coast early in the war, it was not extended to New England until the spring of 1814. Napier, a Nymphe officer, describes the blockade activities he engaged in or witnessed. Considerable detail about the thorough nature of the blockade, even against fishing boats from Cape Ann. 1149. “Operations at or near Hampton during War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 37 (January 1929): 1–11. Rosters and other details concerning the skirmish and occupation of Hampton, Virginia, in 1813. 1150. Rouse, Parker, Jr. “Low Tide at Hampton Roads.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 95 (July 1969): 79–86. The British began their Chesapeake offensive in 1813 with an amphibious landing, destroying property and bringing trade and commerce at Hampton Roads, Virginia, to a halt. This revealed the inadequacy of American naval and coastal defenses and helped solidify American sentiment and resentment. 1151. Stewart, Robert G. “The Battle of the Ice Mound, February 7, 1815.” Maryland Historical Magazine 70 (Winter 1975): 372–78.

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The War at Sea  •  185 During the War of 1812, the British blockaded the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. They also sent landing parties to capture livestock, confiscate crops, and burn houses. In February 1815, unaware that the war had ended, the Dauntless dispatched a longboat and jolly boat on such a mission. The raiding party was caught by the ice, and a breastwork or mounding of ice helped the local militia capture the British party. 1152. Thomson, David Whittet. “Robert Fulton’s Torpedo System in the War of 1812.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 72 (September 1946): 1206–17. Robert Fulton regarded his torpedo system of defense and attack as perhaps his most important invention. An idealist ahead of the technology of his time, he believed his invention would be so effective as to abolish war. Although the torpedoes were not a spectacular success, they did hamper British coastwise movements and the effectiveness of their blockade.

C. Sloop and Frigate Actions 1153. Abbott, Willis John. Blue Jackets of 1812: A History of the Naval Battles of the Second War with Great Britain. To Which Is Prefixed, An Account of the French War of 1798. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1887. A popularized account of a heroic navy, whether in victory or defeat. 1154. An Account of the Funeral Honours Bestowed on the Remains of Capt. Lawrence and Lieut. Ludlow, with the Eulogy Pronounced at Salem, on the Occasion, by Hon. Joseph Story. To Which Is Prefixed, An Account of the Engagement between the Chesapeake and Shannon, with Documents Relative to the Same, and Biographical and Poetical Notices. Boston: Joshua Belcher, 1813. Pamphlet. The Chesapeake was captured by the Shannon, June 1813. James Lawrence and Augustus C. Ludlow, first and second in command, respectively, were among the casualties. 1155. Adams, Charles Francis. “Wednesday, August 19, 1812, 6:30 P.M.: The Birth of a World Power.” American Historical Review 18 (April 1913): 513–21. August 19, 1812, was the day the USS Constitution, under Captain Isaac Hull, defeated HMS Guerriere, and is considered the birthday of the United States as a world power. The battle is recounted. 1156. Allan, Victor. “The Duel of the Frigates.” Blackwood’s Magazine 292 (July 1962): 42–49. A narrative account of the Shannon-Chesapeake duel of 1813 in which the British frigate won. 1157. Allen, William Henry. “Letters of William Henry Allen, 1800–1813.” Edited by Edward H. Tatum Jr., and Marion Tinling. Huntington Library Quarterly 1 (October 1937): 101–32; 1 (January 1938): 203–43. Allen entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800 at age fifteen and served until his death in 1813 in an English prison. These letters and excerpts from his logbook report the several naval operations in which he participated. Of particular interest is his account of the Chesapeake-Leopard affair.

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186  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1158. Baker, Louisa. An Affecting Narrative of Louisa Baker, a Native of Massachusetts. Who, in Early Life Having Been Shamefully Seduced, Deserted Her Parents, and Enlisted, in Disguise, on Board an American Frigate as a Marine, Where, in Two or Three Engagements, She Displayed the Most Heroic Fortitude, and Was Honorably Discharged Therefrom, a Few Months Since, without a Discovery of Her Sex Being Made. New York: Luther Wales; Boston: Reprinted by Nathaniel Coverly, 1815. Authored by Mrs. Lucy (Brewer) West. She writes under an assumed name about three years as a prostitute and three as a marine aboard an American frigate in the War of 1812. 1159. Bassett, Charles C. “The Career of the Frigate Essex.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 87 (January 1951): 9–40; 87 (April 1951): 155–77. The Essex, launched in 1799, was one of several vessels commissioned in response to the troubles occasioned by the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. Its subsequent service was under the command of a succession of prominent naval figures. It played a prominent role in the War of 1812 until captured at Valparaiso, Chile, in 1813. Little is known of its history after that under the British flag. 1160. Biography of James Lawrence, Esq. Late a Captain in the Navy of the United States: Together with A Collection of the Most Interesting Papers, Relative to the Action between the Chesapeake and Shannon, and the Death of Captain Lawrence, Etc. Etc. Embellished with a Likeness. New Brunswick, N.J.: L. Deare, 1813. Eulogistic sketches and obituary type accounts. 1161. Bowen, Abel. The Naval Monument, Containing Official and Other Accounts of All the Battles Fought between the Navies of the United States and Great Britain during the Late War; and an Account of the War with Algiers. With Twenty-Five Engravings. To Which Is Annexed a Naval Register of the United States, Revised and Corrected, and Brought down to the Year 1836. Boston: George Clark, 1842. A detailed, laudatory account. 1162. Brewer, Lucy. The Female Marine, or Adventures of Miss Lucy Brewer, a Native of Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Who, After Being Disappointed in Love, Was Induced to Wander from Her Native Home; and, Either by Accident or Design, Took up Her Abode, for Three Years, at an Infamous House in West Boston: At Length Being Disgusted with Her Manner of Life, She, in the Habit of a Male, Entered as a Marine on Board of the United States’ Frigate Constitution; Was in the Battles with the Guerriere, Java, Cyane and Levant, and after Three Years Faithful Service in Her Country’s Cause Was Honourably Discharged without a Discovery of Her Sex Being Made. Also, A Continuation of Miss Brewer’s Adventures from the Time of Her Discharge to the Present Day—Comprising a Journal of a Tour to New York, and a Recent Visit to Boston, Garbed in Her Male Habiliments. To Which Is Added Her Serious Address to the Youths of Boston, and Such As Are in the Habit of Visiting the Town from the Country. N.p.: n.p., 1816. Other editions or variations with similar titles were published in 1815 and 1816, sometimes under the authorship of Louisa Baker. Her later married name was Eliza Bowen Webb, by which her writings are sometimes listed.

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The War at Sea  •  187 1163. Denison, Charles W. Yankee Cruiser: A Story of the War of 1812. Illustrative of Scenes in the American Navy. American Popular Tales 2. Boston: J. E. Farwell, 1848. Fiction. An account of the war service of a New England sailor, Moses Smith, aboard the Constitution and the Adams. 1164. Dunlap, William. Yankee Chronology; or, Huzza for the Constitution! a Musical Interlude, in One Act. To Which Are Added, the Patriotic Songs of the Freedom of the Seas, and Yankee Tars. New York: D. Longworth, 1812. Pamphlet. The brief play is mainly concerned with the Constitution’s success over the Guerriere, as is the song which accompanies it. 1165. Eller, Ernest M. “Courage Is Not Enough.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 62 (July 1936): 936–55. The theme is illustrated with an analysis of the defeat of the USS Chesapeake by HMS Shannon in which James Lawrence, its captain, was also a casualty. The most fatal American defect was the lack of organization and military discipline. Luck was not the principal factor. 1166. Evans, Amos A. “Journal Kept on Board the United States Frigate ‘Constitution,’ 1812, by Amos A. Evans, Surgeon United States Navy.” Edited by A. W. Evans. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 19 (1895): 152–69; 374–86; 468–80. Dr. Evans was a career naval surgeon. His entries cover the activities of the Constitution from its departure from Washington, June 11, 1812, to its arrival at Boston, February 15, 1813. Substantive entries. 1167. Forester, Cecil Scott. The Age of Fighting Sail: The Story of the Naval War of 1812. Mainstream of America Series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1956. A popular account of the war at sea. 1168. Free Trade and Sailors’ Rights. American Glory. The Victories of Hull, Jones, Decatur, Bainbridge; as Detailed in Their Official Letters and the Letters of Other Officers. Together with a Collection of the Public Testimonials of Respect; and the Songs and Odes Written in Celebration of Those Events. Illustrated with the Engravings of the Actions. The Designs by Woodside, the Engravings by Mason. Philadelphia: Thomas Palmer, 1813. Pamphlet. Contains no narrative or commentary beyond any that appears in the reprinted items. 1169. [Gardinier, Barent.] A Tribute, Delivered before the Members of Moriah Lodge, in the City of New-York, to the Memory of Captain James Lawrence, and Lieutenant Augustus C. Ludlow. October VII, M, DCCC, XIII. By a Brother. Kingston, N.Y.: S. S. Freer, [1813]. Pamphlet. A Masonic eulogy to two officer casualties of the ChesapeakeShannon duel. 1170. Gillespy, Edward, comp. The Columbian Naval Songster; Being a Collection of Original Songs, Odes, etc. Composed in Honour of the Five Great Naval Victories, Obtained by Hull, Jones, Decatur, Bainbridge and Lawrence, over the British Ships Guerriere, Frolic, Macedonian, Java and Peacock. New York: Edward Gillespy, 1813. Lyrics. 1171. Gilliam, Henry. “Letters of Henry Gilliam, 1809–1817.” Edited by Lilla M. Hawes. Georgia Historical Quarterly 38 (March 1954): 46–66.

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188  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The letters of a navy officer, written mostly on board the President and the Constitution, discuss the prewar political situation in the United States and Europe, life on board fighting ships, and eyewitness accounts of naval engagements. 1172. Hanks, Carlos C. “A ‘Spy’ Lands at Babylon.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 76 (July 1950): 778–79. Parolee David Porter escaped from the Essex Junior and rowed ashore to Babylon, Long Island, July 5, 1814. The townsmen believed he was a British spy in the uniform of an American naval officer. Official papers he carried established his true identity. 1173. Hunt, Livingston. “ The Suppressed Mutiny on the ‘Essex.’ ” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 59 (November 1933): 1547–54. The incident occurred in 1813 while cruising against the British in the South Pacific after the Essex spent six weeks in a tropical island harbor for a general overhauling. 1174. Inderwick, James. Cruise of the U.S. Brig Argus in 1813: Journal of Surgeon James Inderwick. Edited by Victor Hugo Paltsits. New York: New York Public Library, 1917. Selection of entries of Inderwick’s journal from May 11 to August 21, 1813. The Argus sailed from Sandy Hook, taking twenty prize vessels. The closing entries deal with the capture of the Argus by the British Pelican. The journal is not confined to medical matters. 1175. James, William. A Full and Correct Account of the Chief Naval Occurrences of the Late War between Great Britain and the United States of America; Preceded by a Cursory Examination of the American Accounts of Their Naval Actions Fought Previous to that Period: To Which is Added an Appendix; with Plates. London: T. Egerton, 1817. The author, an Englishman, was taken prisoner to the United States. He escaped to Nova Scotia and began to write letters to newspapers on the naval aspects of the War of 1812. Letters became pamphlets which were expanded into volume size. Naval encounters are described and include details of the action, damage, ships’ complements, armament, and dimensions. Attempts to expose American bombast and to vindicate the Royal Navy. 1176. James, William. An Inquiry into the Merits of the Principal Naval Actions, between Great-Britain and the United States; Comprising an Account of all British and American Ships of War, Reciprocally Captured and Destroyed, Since the 18th of June 1812. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Anthony H. Holland, 1816. Detailed accounts of the encounters. Designed to dispel the opinion that the British, so long without equal at sea, had now found their superiors in the Americans. 1177. Keene, Joshua. “Notes on the Action between ‘Hornet’ and ‘Peacock.’ ” Edited by Hardin Craig Jr. American Neptune 11 (January 1951): 73–77. Keene was purser’s steward on HMS Peacock. He made notes and kept clippings on the sinking of the Peacock by the Hornet off Demerara and the treatment of prisoners at New York in 1813. 1178. Kirk, Neville T. “The U.S. Marines Enter the South Seas.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 81 (March 1955): 360–61. Relates the operations of David Porter’s squadron against the British, 1812–1813, ending in his defeat at Valparaiso, Chile.

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The War at Sea  •  189 1179. Leech, Samuel. Six Years in a Man-of-War; or, A Voice from the Main Deck. Being a Record of the Thirty Years’ Adventures of Samuel Leech. Introduction by Richard Henry Dana Jr. Boston: J. M. Whittemore, 1843. Variously published under different arrangements of the components of this title, in other editions. The author, an English sailor, escaped from his captured British warship and eventually served on an American warship that was later captured. 1180. Life of James Lawrence, Esq. Late a Captain in the United States Navy. To Which Is Added, A Collection of Interesting Papers, Relating to the Capture of the U. States Frigate Chesapeake, by His Britannic Majesty’s Frigate Shannon: and the Death and Funeral of Captain Lawrence. Hartford, Conn.: B. and J. Russell, 1814. Pamphlet. Mostly correspondence and obituary eulogies. Some overlap with Biography of James Lawrence (item 1160, above). 1181. Lunny, Robert M. “The Great Sea War: Fine Printmakers Celebrated the Heroes and Heroics of 1812.” American Heritage 7 (April 1956): 12–21. Reproduces sixteen prints of naval battles of the War of 1812, with brief historical commentary. 1182. Macmechan, Archibald M. “The Glory of the ‘Shannon.’” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 42 (November 1913): 3–13. A romantic version of the most famous and memorable sea duel in the War of 1812, between the British Shannon and the American Chesapeake. 1183. A Masonic Oration on the Death of Brother William S. Bush, Lieutenant of Marines, Who Was Killed on Board the Frigate Constitution, during Her Engagement with the British Frigate Guerrier, on the 19th of August, 1812, as Delivered on the 26th of November Following, before the Officers of the R.W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, the Officers and Members of Several Respectable Lodges, and the Officers and Members of Lodge No. 51, of Which the Deceased Was a Member. By the Junior Warden of Said Lodge. Published at the Request of the Brethren. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1812. The title is self-explanatory. 1184. Massachusetts Historical Society. [“Memorial to Congress for the Preservation of the Frigate ‘Constitution.’”] Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 38 (January 1904): 118–23. The memorial was dated December 1903. Followed by comments by Alfred Thayer Mahan. 1185. Mindte, R. W. “Another Navy Rodgers.” American Neptune 19 (July 1959): 213–226. William T. Rodgers was a midshipman on the USS Peacock, November 1813–November 1815. An account of shipboard life and an eyewitness description of the April 28, 1814, engagement with HMS Epervier. 1186. McKee, Linda Anne Mitchell. “‘Constitution’ versus ‘Guerriere.’ ” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 88 (August 1962): 72–79. Describes the capture of the Guerriere by the Constitution. 1187. Montagu, Montagu. England Victorious.—A Poem upon the Capture of the American Frigate Chesapeake by the British Frigate Shannon, June 1st 1813. To Which is Prefixed a Copy of Captain Broke’s Official Letter Relating the Action. From the London Gazette. And, a Correct Copy of His Written Challenge to the American Captain Lawrence. Also Verses to the Memory

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190  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography of Captain Samuel Blyth, His Majesty’s Late Brig Boxer, Who Was Killed in Action with the American Brig Enterprise, September 5th 1813. London: S. Gosnell, Printer, 1814. Also includes P. B. V. Broke’s official account of the action. 1188. Montagu, Montagu. Tributary Verses upon the Capture of the American Frigate Chesapeake by the British Frigate Shannon, June 1, 1813; Addressed to Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke, Baronet, of Nocton, Suffolk. To Which Is Prefixed a Correct Copy of Captain Broke’s Letter, from the London Gazette. London: J. F. Dove for Edward Kerby, 1814. A letter by Captain Philip Broke, captain of HMS Shannon, describing his capture of USS Chesapeake in June 1813. 1189. [“The Naval Battle between the ‘Chesapeake’ and the ‘Shannon’ on June 1, 1813.”] Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 21 (February 1885): 374–79. A letter account of the engagement by Nathaniel Spooner, who was aboard a sloop out of Boston harbor that sailed out to witness the occasion. Followed by comments from George H. Preble in 1885. 1190. The Naval Temple: Containing a Complete History of the Battles Fought by the Navy of the United States. From Its Establishment in 1794, to the Present Time; Including the Wars with France, and with Tripoli, the Late War with Great Britain, and with Algiers. With Elegant Engravings, Representing Battles, Etc. Boston: Barber Badger, 1816. Mostly concerned with the War of 1812. 1191. Nereus [pseud.]. The Letters on the Subject of the Naval War with America, Which Appeared in the Courier, under the Signature of Nereus. London: B. M. Swyny, 1813. Pamphlet. The ten letters of January 1813 attempt to explain unexpected British naval defeats. Also replies to comments in other papers that his letters evoked. 1192. Official Letters, with Comments, and Observations Relative to the Capture of the President, American Frigate; and Concealment of Men on Board That Ship; Together with The Correspondence between the Secretary to the Commander in Chief, and the Editor of the Royal Gazette; and a Letter Substantiating the Charge of Concealment. Selected from the Royal and Weekly Gazettes, of Different Dates. St. George, Bermuda: Edmund Ward, 1815. Photostat. The USS President was captured off Bermuda, January 15, 1815. 1193. Padfield, Peter. “The Great Sea Battle.” American Heritage 20 (December 1968): 29–65. Describes the June 1, 1813, duel between the British frigate Shannon and the American frigate Chesapeake off Boston. In some eleven minutes the Chesapeake suffered considerable personnel losses and defeat. Regarded as “chivalrous combat” carried out with gallantry and honor. 1194. Paullin, Charles Oscar. “Services of Commodore John Rodgers in the War of 1812 (1812–1815).” Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute 35 (June 1909): 473–511. Rodgers completed four cruises in the President, 1812–1814. By all odds he was the most successful naval officer of the war against enemy cruisers at sea. The remainder of the war he was engaged in naval duties at Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore.

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The War at Sea  •  191 1195. Perry, James M. “The U.S. Sloop of War ‘Wasp.’ ” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 87 (February 1961): 84–93. Describes the naval actions of the sloop Wasp during the War of 1812 and her mysterious disappearance. After taking her richest prize, she sailed for home but never reached it. Dismisses conjectures of others and concludes the Wasp probably foundered in a storm. 1196. Poolman, Kenneth. Guns off Cape Ann: The Story of the Shannon and the Chesapeake. London: Evans Brothers, 1961. A British account of the defeat of the Chesapeake by the Shannon, June 1813, breaking the string of American victories. 1197. Post, Waldron Kintzing. “The Case of Captain Lawrence.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 62 (July 1936): 969–74. James Lawrence lost his life and his ship when HMS Shannon defeated the USS Chesapeake in 1813. Analysts have subsequently damaged Lawrence’s reputation in explaining the American defeat; revisionist examination salvages that reputation. 1198. Pratt, Fletcher. “Jacob Jones, the Delaware Squire.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 76 (August 1950): 852–61. Jones served as a naval officer. Detailed description of the engagement between HMS Frolic and the USS Wasp, October 14, 1812. 1199. Pratt, Fletcher. “Johnston Blakely, the Carolina Sea Raider.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 76 (September 1950): 996–1007. Chronicles the naval record of Blakely and his highly successful command of the USS Wasp, which ended in tragedy when he and his ship were lost at sea in 1814. 1200. Pratt, Fletcher. Preble’s Boys: Commodore Preble and the Birth of American Sea Power. Isaac Hull, Jacob Jones, Stephen Decatur, William Bainbridge, James Lawrence, Isaac Chauncey, David Porter, William Burrows, Johnston Blakely, Lewis Warrington, James Biddle, Charles Stewart, Thomas Macdonough, Stephen Cassin, [and] Daniel Todd Patterson. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1950. Argues that the real decisions of the War of 1812 were made on water and that men, particularly the sea captains, won the war, which was not fought by politics, strategy, tactics, or ships. Edward Preble’s influence on the captains of the war was so pervasive as to label them “Preble’s Boys.” 1201. Preble, George Henry. “The First Cruise of the United States Frigate Essex. Under Command of Capt. Edward Preble, U.S.N. With a Short Account of Her Origin, and Subsequent Career until Captured by the British in 1814, and Her Ultimate Fate.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 10 (1870): 1–108. Includes the Essex’s prizes and personnel, extracts from Preble’s journal, and miscellaneous correspondence. 1202. Prudden, Theodore M. “Her Thunder Shook the Mighty Deep.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 90 (January 1964): 74–83. Discusses the operational capabilities, limitations, and procedures of the frigate Constitution. 1203. Pullen, Hugh Francis. The Shannon and the Chesapeake. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1970.

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192  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Five single-ship actions, August 1812–February 1813, shook the Royal Navy from its overconfident attitude. The skill and fighting ability of the U.S. Navy convinced Britain that the war in North America was not to be taken lightly. The tide was turned when HMS Shannon fought and captured the USS Chesapeake off Boston, June 1, 1813. 1204. Purcell, Hugh D. “Don’t Give Up the Ship!” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 91 (May 1965): 82–94. Narrates the circumstances that led to the battle and the defeat of the USS Chesapeake by HMS Shannon. William S. Cox, a young officer who helped to carry his mortally wounded commander below, was cashiered by a court-martial. Long branded as a coward, Cox has now been exonerated by scholarship and the U.S. Congress. 1205. Raguet, Condy. A Masonic Oration on the Death of Brother William S. Bush, Lieutenant of Marines, Who Was Killed on Board the Frigate Constitution, during Her Engagement with the British Frigate Guerrier[e], on the 19th of August, 1812, as Delivered on the 26th of November Following, before the Officers of the R.W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, the Officers and Members of Several Respectable Lodges, and the Officers and Members of Lodge No. 51, of Which the Deceased Was a Member. By the Junior Warden of Said Lodge. Published at the Request of the Brethren. Philadelphia: Bradford E. Inskeep, 1812. Pamphlet. Bush, 1786–1812, was killed by a musket ball. He had served in the militia since the Chesapeake-Leopard incident. 1206. Reid, Samuel Chester, Jr. The History of the Wonderful Battle of the Brig-ofWar General Armstrong with a British Squadron, at Fayal, 1814. The Famous Gun, Long Tom. Sketch of the Life of Captain Samuel Chester Reid, Commander of the Armstrong, Who Designed the Present Flag of the United States in 1818. History of the Flag. Interesting Incidents, Etc. Boston: L. Barta, 1893. Pamphlet. The son of the commander of the General Armstrong narrates the encounter in the Azores, September 1814. The engagement was of consequence as it intercepted a British squadron that was a part of the expedition against New Orleans. The Long Tom was one of the guns of the General Armstrong. 1207. Salas, Eugenio Pereira. “First Contacts—The Glorious Cruise of the Frigate ‘Essex.’ ” Translated by A. S. Merrill. United States Naval Institute Proceedings 66 (February 1940): 218–23. Originally published in Spanish, 1935. The USS Essex, commanded by David Porter, made first American entry into the Pacific in late 1812. His mission was to intercept enemy trade and to destroy its whaling fleet. Early the next year the Essex was defeated by British ships at Valparaiso, Chile, and Porter was permitted to return home on parole on the USS Essex Junior. 1208. Scott, Kenneth, ed. “A Naval Ballad of the War of 1812.” American Neptune 7 (April 1947): 167–69. This eight-stanza ballad celebrates the prowess of the U.S. Navy during the war. The editor speculates possible and probable authorship of the ballad. 1209. Sheldon, George. “Don’t Give Up the Ship.” Delving in the Dust of Ten Decades. Deerfield, Mass.: Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, 1914.

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The War at Sea  •  193 Pamphlet. The words were not originally spoken by Oliver Hazard Perry, September 10, 1813, on the occasion of his victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, as was once alleged. Their origin belongs to James Lawrence, who uttered them on June 1, 1813, as he was carried below decks mortally wounded as captain of the Chesapeake in its losing duel with the Shannon. 1210. Smith, Moses. Naval Scenes in the Last War; or, Three Years on Board the Frigate Constitution, and the Adams; Including the Capture of the Guerriere. Being the True Narrative of Moses Smith, a Survivor of the “Old Ironside” Crew. Boston: Gleason’s, 1846. Pamphlet. A first-person narrative. 1211. Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah. The Glorious “Shannon’s” Old Blue Duster and Other Faded Flags of Fadeless Fame. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1923. A popular romantic account of the War of 1812 at sea using the captured pennants and flags as a common theme. Despite American successes at sea, British naval power sustained its control of the war at sea and determined the outcome of the war. 1212. Soley, James Russell. The Boys of 1812 and Other Naval Heroes. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1887. More than half of the narratives are concerned with naval engagements and heroes of the War of 1812. 1213. Strauss, W. Patrick. “Captain David Porter: Pioneer Pacific Strategist.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 93 (February 1967): 158–60. Porter was the first American naval officer to recognize and attempt to implement what he believed was America’s strategic advantage in the Pacific Ocean. As early as 1811 he had urged the navy to destroy British Pacific commerce, principally whaling, to conduct exploration and discovery, and to annex valuable islands. His 1812–1813 mission to the Pacific began such a plan. 1214. Toner, Raymond John. Midshipman Davy Jones. Being the Log of His Adventures Aboard Divers Frigates; Sloops of War; and Other Fighting Craft of the United States Navy; together with an Account of His Captivity in, and Escape from, the Islands of the Bermudas, during the Late War with Great Britain, 1812–1815. Wherein May Be Discovered to Those of a Nautical Mind, Sundry Time-Honored Naval Customs, and the Routine Observed Aboard United States Men of War. To the Adventurous, a Recounting of Gallant Deeds of Iron Men in Wooden Ships. New York: Junior Literary Guild/Albert Whitman, 1938. Juvenile fiction. The incidents narrated are kept within bounds of historical and technical accuracy and woven together as exploits of one young man and his friends. 1215. The Victories of Hull, Jones, Decatur, Bainbridge; as Detailed in Their Official Letters and the Letters of Other Officers. Together with a Collection of the Public Testimonials of Respect; and the Songs and Odes Written in Celebration of Those Events. Illustrated with Engravings of the Actions. The Designs by Woodside, the Engravings by Mason. Philadelphia: “Published by the Proprietor”/Dennis Heartt, 1813. Pamphlet. Actions of the Constitution and Guerriere; the Wasp and Frolic; and the United States and Macedonian.

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194  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography

D. Privateers 1216. Belknap, Henry Wyckoff, comp. “A Check List of Salem Privateers in the War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 78 (July 1942): 241–64; 78 (October 1942): 348–74; 79 (January 1943): 19–46; 79 (April 1943): 153–76; 79 (July 1943): 256–74; 79 (October 1943): 371–86; 80 (January 1944): 79–91; 80 (April 1944): 158–76. Contains substantial substantive documentation. 1217. Browne, Benjamin Frederick. The Yarn of a Yankee Privateer. Edited by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Introduction by Clifford Smyth. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1926. The introduction attributes authorship to John Lord, great-uncle of Nathaniel Hawthorne. The McGill University Library has credited Benjamin Frederick Browne with authorship, with no explanation of attribution. An anonymous account of an officer aboard a privateer during the War of 1812 who was taken prisoner by the British. He was confined on the island of Barbados and later in Dartmoor Prison, England. 1218. Calderhead, William L. “Naval Innovation in Crisis: War in the Chesapeake, 1813.” American Neptune 36 (July 1976): 206–21. The year 1813 was critical to both belligerents in the War of 1812. The British threat in Chesapeake Bay was potentially disastrous to the United States. The American response to the threat included the use of citizen sailors and privateer schooners whose speed in hit-and-run tactics were better than the brigs. As had happened on land by Baltimore’s defense preparations, the navy helped deny the British a military victory, guaranteeing their own the next year. 1219. Cases Decided in the District and Circuit Court of the United States for the Pennsylvania District, and Also a Case Decided in the District Court of Massachusetts, Relative to the Employment of British Licences on Board of Vessels of the United States. Philadelphia: Redwood Fisher, 1813. Some American shippers were granted British licenses to carry cargo to British possessions during the War of 1812. American privateers and naval vessels took them as prizes. This Federalist pamphlet was published, perhaps at British instigation, to advise American ship owners that American courts did not necessarily uphold the prize claims because the ships carried British licenses and that the ship owners should continue the practice. 1220. Chapple, William Dismore. “Salem and the War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 59 (October 1923): 289–304; 60 (January 1924): 49–74. The prewar embargo and the war reduced Salem’s commanding position in world commerce, to which it never recovered. Her ships and sailors were actively involved in privateering and the port was threatened by British raids. 1221. Coggeshall, George. History of the American Privateers, and Letters-ofMarque, during Our War with England in the Years 1812, ’13 and ’14. Interspersed with Several Naval Battles between American and British Shipsof-War. New York: George Coggeshall, 1856.

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The War at Sea  •  195 The author commanded two privateers during the War of 1812. Believed the war was justified as one of self-defense. Endeavors to include all privateers, captains, and encounters with enemy ships. Rather than booty motivated, the privateers sought to weaken the powerful adversary at whose hands the United States had suffered injustice. 1222. Coggeshall, George. “Journal of the Letter-of-Marque Schooners ‘David Porter’ and ‘Leo’ in the Years 1813 and 1814.” American Heritage 8 (October 1957): 65–85. Excerpted from the author’s account written thirty years after the War of 1812 which he wrote from his logbooks. His efforts accounted for nine British prize ships. 1223. Copp, Walter Ronald. “Military Activities in Nova Scotia during the War of 1812.” Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society 24 (1938): 57–74. Nova Scotia was not seriously threatened, and military activities in the province were minor. Americans were impaired more by Nova Scotian privateers than any military action as such. 1224. Corning, Howard. “John Crowninshield and the Building of the Privateer ‘Diomede.’ ” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 53 (October 1943): 163–218. Out of Salem, Massachusetts, Crowninshield lost cargoes and ships to French and British seizure. In 1809 he lost the brig Diomede to the British. He then had a schooner Diomede built for privateering, launched November 1813. He captured several brigs and schooners. The Diomede was taken as a prize in May 1814 and Crowninshield spent the rest of the war as a prisoner in Nova Scotia. Appended with correspondence related to the construction of the Diomede. 1225. Cranwell, John Philips, and Crane, William Bowers. “The Log of the ‘Rossie’: A Footnote to ‘Men of Marque.’” Maryland Historical Magazine 35 (September 1940): 287–91. Details of the September–October 1812 log of the privateer Rossie out of Baltimore. 1226. Cranwell, John Philips, and Crane, William Bowers. Men of Marque: A History of Private Armed Vessels out of Baltimore during the War of 1812. New York: W.W. Norton, 1940. A semipopular account of privateering and how it was conducted. Rosters of privateers and details about them including masters and owners as well as their prizes are appended to the volume. The activities of the Baltimore privateersmen were so varied as to, collectively, represent a cross section of privateering at the time. 1227. Crosby, Alfred W., Jr. “Richard S. Smith, Baltic Paul Revere of 1812.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 86 (January 1962): 42–48. At the first news of the declaration of war in 1812, the schooner Champlin sailed for Gothenburg, Sweden, to warn American merchant ships before they could be taken by the British. Smith was American consul at Gothenburg, where some forty American ships were hiding from privateers. Smith spread the news to other Swedish ports and the Champlin also warned other ports. Their quick actions saved several merchantmen. 1228. Dodge, Bertha S. “The ‘Nanina’s’ Last Voyage.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 62 (January 1979): 19–38.

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196  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography The Pittsburgh-built brig escaped ahead of the American 1812 embargo bound for the Falkland Islands to get a cargo of seal skins. The Nanina was captured as a prize by a British brig. 1229. Dow, George Francis, comp. American Vessels Captured by the British during the Revolution and War of 1812: The Records of the Vice-Admiralty Court, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute, 1911. Abstracts from the War of 1812 of Vice Admiralty Court records in the Halifax, Nova Scotia, County Court House. The number of each case, in the register of the court, is included to facilitate use of the complete files. Includes such information as name of vessel and master, port of departure and destination, date of capture or recapture, name of capturer, cargo, and disposition. 1230. Dow, George Francis. “Records of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Halifax, Nova Scotia. The Condemnation of Prizes and Recaptures of the Revolution and the War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 45 (January 1909): 28–48; 45 (April 1909): 161–84; 45 (July 1909): 221–44; 45 (October 1909): 309–32; 46 (January 1910): 69–80; 46 (April 1910): 150–60; 46 (July 1910): 257–72; 46 (October 1910): 317–24; 47 (January 1911): 20–24; 47 (April 1911): 189–96; 47 (July 1911): 236–49. The War of 1812 records begin with the fifth installment in this series. The entries are listed in alphabetical order of the names of the ships and consist of brief abstracts. The manuscript files from which they were derived are voluminous, in some instances including the ship’s papers if they survived capture. 1231. Garitee, Jerome Randolph. “Private Enterprise and Public Spirit: Baltimore Privateering in the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, American University, 1973. Baltimore was the major privateering center of the United States. The some two hundred investors were motivated by entrepreneurial thirst for profits as well as being public spirited and patriotic. They were the city’s elite commercial, social, political, and military leaders. Because of federal regulation and judicial control, however, only half of the investors profited and only about one-third realized significant returns for their investments. 1232. Garitee, Jerome Randolph. The Republic’s Private Navy: The American Privateering Business as Practiced by Baltimore during the War of 1812. American Maritime Library 8. Middletown, Conn.: Mystic Seaport/Wesleyan University Press, 1977. The focus is on the entrepreneurial and business aspects of privateering, the in-port operations that preceded and followed the sea exploits. Baltimore became the leading privateering base of operations during the war. A village was converted into a major seaport. After 1813, private armed vessels constituted America’s only successful American offensive weapon. The War of 1812 and Baltimore’s performance represented the historical and professional zenith of privateering as a weapon of war. Extensive data appendixes. 1233. Holbrook, Albert. The Privateer Providence of Providence; Her Unfortunate Cruise during the War of 1812–15, together with An Account of Her Commander, Capt. Nicholas Hopkins, Genealogical and Otherwise, with an Appendix, Briefly Illustrating, Genealogically, the Line of Hopkinses of Which He Was a Member. By a Near Relative. Providence, R.I.: n.p., 1893.

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The War at Sea  •  197 The Providence was built in the summer of 1812 and captured several days into its maiden voyage. 1234. Hoyt, William D., Jr. “Logs and Papers of Baltimore Privateers, 1812–15.” Maryland Historical Magazine 34 (June 1939): 165–74. Cites and describes the contents of the papers of nine Baltimore-based privateers. Selected as a cross-section representation, furnishing details of all aspects of the ventures. 1235. Johnson, Noah. Journals of Two Cruises Aboard the American Privateer Yankee by A Wanderer. Introduction by Ernest M. Eller. New York: Macmillan, 1967. The author, the ship’s clerk, wrote the first journal as a ship’s log; the second was his own private record that included his feelings as well as a record of events. They concern the first two of the Yankee’s six cruises. The Yankee was the most successful American privateer. 1236. Jones, T. K., and Company. Catalogue of Merchandize, To Be Sold by Public Auction; (For the Benefit of Whom It May Concern,) at the Long-Room, India-Wharf, Boston, on Monday, 26th Inst. Being the Claimed Part of the Cargo of the Portuguese Ship St. Jose Andiano, a Prize to the Private Armed Brig Yankee, of Bristol, (R.I.). Boston: T. G. Bangs, 1814. Itemized by quantity and quality of goods and cost. Goods include linens, clothing, food items, wine, glassware, fabrics, and assorted hardware. 1237. Kert, Faye Margaret. Prize and Prejudice: Privateering and Naval Prize in Atlantic Canada in the War of 1812. Research in Maritime History 11. St John’s, Newfoundland: International Maritime Economic History Association, 1997. A detailed account of privateering from the British perspective based upon extensive study of the relevant documentation. Includes appendixes on the prize cases appearing before the Vice Admiralty Court of Halifax, letter-of-marque vessels from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Royal Navy vessels and their prizes, and other topics. 1238. Larkin, Samuel. (No. 1.) Marshal’s Sale. Catalogue of Prize Goods, Captured by the Private Armed Schooner Fox, Elihu D. Brown, Commander, To Be Sold at Public Auction, in Portsmouth, N.H. on Saturday the 16th of July, 1814. Sale to Commence at 9 O’Clock. Michael M’Clary, Marshal. S. Larking, Auct’r. Portsmouth, N.H.: Beck and Foster, [1814]. Mostly cloth, with items listed by description and cost. 1239. Leavitt, William “An Account of the Private Armed Vessels Belonging to Salem, Mass. during the War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 2 (April 1860): 57–64. Tables of data, rosters, brief accounts of successes and failures, and miscellaneous information. 1240. Leefe, John. “The Atlantic Privateers.” Nova Scotia Historical Quarterly 8 (March 1978): 1–17; 8 (June 1978): 109–24. A general discussion of Nova Scotia privateering with most of the examples drawn from the War of 1812. 1241. Leefe, John. “A Bluenose Privateer of 1812.” Nova Scotia Historical Quarterly 3 (March 1973): 1–20.

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198  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography In 1811 a sleek Baltimore schooner slaver, Black Joke, condemned in a Halifax prize court, was auctioned off and converted into the Liverpool Packet to carry mail, passengers, and cargo along southern Nova Scotia. With war in 1812 the Liverpool Packet turned privateer, Nova Scotia’s most successful, wreaking havoc along the New England coast. 1242. Maclay, Edgar Stanton. A History of American Privateers. New York: D. Appleton, 1899. The second part of the volume concerns the history and role of privateers in the War of 1812. At the outbreak of hostilities, pilot boats, merchant ships, coasting vessels, and fishing smacks were hastily overhauled, mounted with guns, and commissioned. The total effort was a considerable augmentation of American sea power. Over 500 privateers armed with some 2,900 guns accounted for at least 1,300 prizes. 1243. Mouzon, Harold A. Privateers of Charleston in the War of 1812. Charleston, S.C.: Historical Commission of Charleston, South Carolina, 1954. Pamphlet. For a port of its size, Charleston was busy with privateers. Some thirty-one commissions were issued to twenty-six different ships during the war, although not all were Charleston vessels nor did all make it their home port. 1244. Mullins, Janet E. “The Liverpool Packet.” Dalhousie Review 14 (July 1934): 193–202. The Liverpool Packet, out of Halifax, was called the most glamorous and greatest of all privateers, with dozens of prizes to her credit. The Packet was captured by the Americans, and later recaptured by the enemy. 1245. Munro, Wilfred Harold. “The Most Successful American Privateer: An Episode of the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s., 23 (April 1913): 12–62. Unlike most privateering ventures, the Yankee, out of Bristol, Rhode Island, established an enviable and successful record. Included here is the journal of the second cruise, October 1812–March 1813, on which were captured eight prizes. 1246. Palmer, Benjamin Franklin. The Diary of Benjamin F. Palmer, Privateersman, While a Prisoner on Board English War Ships at Sea, in the Prison at Melville Island and at Dartmoor. Now First Printed from the Original Manuscript. N.p.: The Acorn Club [New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor], 1914. The diary begins December 6, 1813. Setting sail on the privateer Rolla on December 10, he was overtaken by the British frigate Loire the next day, and Palmer’s prison life began. He complains of his treatment and accommodations on the Loire, on ships at Bermuda, at Melville Island, and in Dartmoor Prison. The entries continue until his return home on June 9, 1815. 1247. Prince, James. Marshal’s Sale. Catalogue of Merchandize, To Be Sold at Public Auction, on Thursday, February, 16th, 1815, at Store, No 16, Central Wharf, at Half Past 9 O’Clock, A.M. Being Part of the Cargo of the British Brig Equity, Captured by the Private Armed Ship Orlando, of Gloucester, Joseph Babson, Esq. Commander. Conditions Will be Made Known at the Sale. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, Printers, 1815. Pamphlet. Clothing, textiles, and related items.

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The War at Sea  •  199 1248. Scott, Kenneth. “The Privateer ‘Yankee’ in the War of 1812.” American Neptune 21 (January 1961): 16–22. The Yankee, out of Bristol, Rhode Island, was a successful raider. She made six cruises and her owner amassed a fortune from captures of British shipping worth more than five million dollars. 1249. Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah. Under the Red Jack: Privateers of the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the War of 1812. London: Martin Hopkinson, 1928. A romantic narrative account. “The brave privateersmen . . . with scant encouragement and amid many hardships, kept Britain’s flag flying at sea then, that we now might rest securely under that flag on shore.” The Maritime colonies accounted for over one-third of all American losses and played havoc with New England. By the author’s count, forty-nine vessels were involved. 1250. Stackpole, Edouard A. Privateer Ahoy! A Story of the War of 1812. New York: William Morrow, 1937. Juvenile fiction. Thad Jenkins, sixteen, runs away from home in 1814 to join three veterans of the War of 1812 in the Great Lakes theater who spend the rest of the war in successful privateering. Jenkins acquits himself well. 1251. Valpey, Joseph, Jr. Journal of Joseph Valpey, Jr. of Salem, November, 1813April, 1815. With Other Papers Relating to His Experience in Dartmoor Prison. Edited by E. G. Valpey. Detroit: Michigan Society of Colonial Wars, 1922. Account of experiences aboard privateers. In August 1814 his ship was captured and he became a British prisoner. 1252. Van Ness, William Peter. Reports of Two Cases Determined in the Prize Court for the New-York District. New York: Gould, Banks and Gould, 1814. Pamphlet. Both cases involved seizure by an English-born naturalized American of an English-owned cargo aboard an American ship in American waters, the seized unaware of the declaration of war. 1253. [Waterhouse, Benjamin.] A Journal, of a Young Man of Massachusetts, Late a Surgeon on Board an American Privateer, Who Was Captured at Sea by the British, in May, Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen, and Was Confined First, at Melville Island, Halifax, Then at Chatham, in England, and Last, at Dartmoor Prison. Interspersed with Observations, Anecdotes and Remarks, tending to Illustrate the Moral and Political Characters of Three Nations. To Which Is Added, a Correct Engraving of Dartmoor Prison, Representing the Massacre of American Prisoners. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, 1816. A novel based on actual experience. 1254. White, Frank F., Jr. “The ‘Comet’ Harasses the British.” Maryland Historical Magazine 53 (December 1958): 295–315. Thomas Boyle was captain of the private armed schooner Comet. On three voyages during the War of 1812 he earned a reputation of fear and respect, becoming the object of naval search by the British navy. The details of the exploits are told in the logbooks of James B. Stansbury, the Comet’s surgeon, and Boyle.

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Chapter

8

The Domestic Scene

A. General Studies 1255. Alcock, Donald Gordon. “Vermont during the War of 1812.” Master’s thesis, McGill University, 1976. Unlike much of New England, Vermont supported entry into the War of 1812. Prowar sentiment rapidly dissipated early, replaced by an obstructionist position. Focuses on military, economic, political, and public opinion aspects within the state. 1256. Armstrong, Frederick H. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology. Toronto: Dundurn, 1985. A reference guide to the political structure and primary office holders in Upper Canada from its formation in 1791 to amalgamation with Lower Canada in 1841. 1257. Bowler, Arthur. The War of 1812. Canadian History through the Press Series. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1973. The letters, dispatches, editorials, and other selections start with the Chesapeake-Leopard affair, 1807, and run to an anti-American piece in 1817. The forty-five items are taken from twelve newspapers from Lower Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Upper Canada, representing a spectrum of positions and opinions. 1258. Bowler, R. Arthur. “Propaganda in Upper Canada During the War of 1812.” In War Along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur R. Bolwer, 77–92 Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. A discussion of the employment and use of propaganda in Upper Canada during the war. 1259. Brynn, Edward. “Patterns of Dissent: Vermont’s Opposition to the War of 1812.” Vermont History 40 (Winter 1972): 10–27.

201

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202  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Examines the evolving patterns of dissent in Vermont in the coming of and during the War of 1812. The state’s ambivalence reflected complex factors that were a part of Vermont’s transitional period of history. 1260. Burpee, Lawrence J. “Influence of the War of 1812 upon the Settlement of the Canadian West.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 12 (1914): 114–20. Suggests the War of 1812 had some effect on Lord Selkirk’s Red River settlement, the nucleus of present Manitoba, and on Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River, from which British Columbia developed. 1261. Dodge, Robert John. “Nationalism and the Fall of Detroit—1812.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 40 (Summer 1968): 118–26. The fall of Detroit was viewed with incredulity. Disbelief was soon replaced by rage and shame. Reaction ranged from hope to despair. The nation, however, seemed to recover from the shock of defeat quickly and William Hull was made the scapegoat. Nationalism resurged and plans were soon made for recovery. In the end the country emerged stronger, with a quickened national spirit. 1262. Edgar, Matilda Ridout, ed. Ten Years of Upper Canada in Peace and War, 1805–1815; Being the Ridout Letters with Annotations. Toronto: William Briggs, 1890. The correspondence of Thomas Ridout with explanatory or contextual comments by his daughter. Ridout settled in York (Toronto) in 1797 and served in various military (commissariat) and political capacities. He was a member of the parliament of Upper Canada during the war. Wartime conditions and circumstances are described in Canada and England (from letters received). 1263. Errington, Jane. The Lion, the Eagle and Upper Canada: A Developing Colonial Ideology. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987. A comprehensive account of the political evolution of Upper Canada, from its foundation in 1791 to the late 1820s. Includes discussion on the effect the War of 1812 had on this evolution. 1264. [Ford, David.] “A Letter from Ogdensburg in 1814.” Edited by Frederick C. Curry. Ontario History 41 (October 1949): 207–211. The title is misleading. David Ford wrote from Morristown, New Jersey, to his brother, Nathan Ford in Ogdensburg, New York, October 1814. He comments on the general war situation in both localities and of the prospects for peace. 1265. Hammack, James Wallace, Jr. Kentucky and the Second American Revolution: The War of 1812. The Kentucky Bicentennial Bookshelf. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1976. Considers both internal and external conditions that shaped the military record of Kentucky in the War of 1812. A considerable percentage of eligible Kentucky men and boys served as regulars, volunteers, or militia in the war. They regarded it as a war of independence for the country. The people of the state had high expectations for the military expeditions that originated there. The scant results were often in contrast. 1266. Hills, Alice. “Delaware in the Days of 1812.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications 20 (January 1911): 61–63.

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The Domestic Scene  •  203 Describes the effect of the War of 1812 on Delaware, in central Ohio, located on one of the routes used by troops marching to the Detroit frontier. 1267. Hopkins, J. Castell. “The War of 1812–15.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 12 (1914): 42–57. A pro-Canadian review of the war. Its import to Canada is likened to that of the Revolution to American history. It consolidated British sentiment and checked the growth of French Quebec nationalism. It paved the way toward a permanent federal union in British North America. 1268. Jackson, E. “Conditions in Savannah during the War of 1812.” Edited by W. Freeman Galpin. Georgia Historical Quarterly 8 (December 1924): 325–26. Jackson’s letter, January 9, 1814, is concerned with economic and political conditions in Savannah. 1269. Jarvis, Eric. “Military Land Granting in Upper Canada following the War of 1812.” Ontario History 67 (September 1975): 121–34. Beginning in 1816–1817 land was granted in Upper Canada for strategic purposes to disbanded British army regulars. Starting in 1819–1820, veterans of Upper Canadian militia were offered grants. Analysis of policy and results reveals that the program accomplished only localized and moderate success in the military defense and settlement patterns of Upper Canada. 1270. Jenkins, Lawrence Waters, comp. “The Essex Guards.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 52 (October 1921): 249–72; 53 (January 1922): 25–40. When the British commenced raids along the coast of Massachusetts in 1814, volunteer companies of militia were raised in defense. Included herein are newspaper, diary, manuscript, and broadside accounts of the Essex Guards, a part of the Salem militia. 1271. Jenks, Henry F., and Cary, Isaac H. “Boston Mechanics of 1814.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 34 (April 1900): 149–153. Roster and comments of North End Bostonian mechanics and tradesmen who volunteered their time, labor, and tools. They were utilized to build Fort Strong on Williams or Naddle’s Island. 1272. “Kennon Letters.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 34 (April 1926): 120–29; 34 (July 1926): 220–31; 34 (October 1926): 322–38; 35 (January 1927): 13–21; 35 (July 1927): 287–92; 36 (April 1928): 170–74; 36 (July 1928): 231–38; 36 (October 1928): 363–70; 37 (January 1929): 46–51; 37 (April 1929): 143–53; 37 (July 1929): 261–68; 37 (October 1929): 335–38; 38 (April 1930): 157–66; 38 (October 1930): 366–71; 39 (January 1931): 46–52; 40 (January 1932): 63–69; 40 (April 1932): 159–65. Letters, principally from Mrs. E. B. Kennon, 1812–1816, that give a general commentary on the internal scene during the War of 1812. 1273. Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. Frustrated Patriots: North Carolina and the War of 1812. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973. Concerned with why and the extent of North Carolina’s support of the war. Examines the state’s contribution to the war effort and the impact it had on the state. Looks at the fortunes of the Federalist Party in the state. 1274. Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. North Carolina and the War of 1812. Raleigh, N.C.: State Department of Archives and History, 1971.

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204  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Concerned with the participation of North Carolinians in the war, as with Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. The state itself was only in a minimal and peripheral sense a scene in the war, except for the seacoast, where blockade, privateering, and an occasional British raid kept the militia alerted. 1275. Livingston, Robert. “Petition of Robert Livingston.” Michigan Historical Collections 23 (1895): 136–38. Partly based on his prewar service in the Royal Navy, but particularly on his considerable War of 1812 service in the Canadian-American theater, 1812–1813, Livingston petitions for an appointment sinecure. 1276. Mahon, John K. The War of 1812. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1972. A narrative in detail, especially of the British side of the war, placing the details of military affairs in their political and cultural contexts. The war was a part of the transition from rationalism to romanticism. 1277. Morison, Samuel Eliot. “Our Most Unpopular War.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 80 (1968): 38–54. Opposition to the coming and execution of the War of 1812 was by no means confined to New England or the Federalist Party. The Battle of New Orleans convinced Americans they had won the war and that setbacks had occurred during the war because of New England Federalists. It was America’s most unpopular war while it lasted, but became the most popular when it was over. 1278. Murray, J. McE., ed. “A Recovered Letter: W.W. Baldwin to C.B. Wyatt, 6th April, 1813.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 35 (1943): 49–55. Baldwin wrote from York, Upper Canada, April 6, 1813. Comments on the general state of affairs in the area and anticipates the American attack on York. 1279. Myers, Harold L. Pennsylvania and the War of 1812. Harrisburg, Pa.: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1964. Pamphlet. A general account, emphasizing the state’s attitude about the war, the state’s militia, and the role of Pennsylvania in the Lake Erie campaign. 1280. Nelson, Kenneth Ross. “Socio-Economic Effects of the War of 1812 on Britain.” Ph.D. diss., University of Georgia, 1972. Describes British reaction to the war as recorded by newspapers and leading statesmen. Measures the impact on Britain particularly the national budget, industry, and grain supply. The war was of much more concern than is generally recognized. 1281. “Roll of Capt. Samuel Mudge’s Company, Salem, 1814.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 48 (April 1912): 192–95. The militia company was mustered for defense of the coast and served for three months. 1282. Scott, Kenneth, comp. British Aliens in the United States during the War of 1812. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1979. Subjects of Great Britain in the United States were designated as enemy aliens. They were required to register as such. Listed by states with demographic, biographical, and physical data. The amount of data varies from state to state.

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The Domestic Scene  •  205 1283. Tazewell, Littleton Waller. Argument Submitted to the Commissioners under the St. Petersburg Convention. [Washington?]: n.p., 1825. Pamphlet. Concerns indemnification for injuries sustained by American citizens in the War of 1812. 1284. Tiffin, Edward. “Edward Tiffin’s Opinion of Michigan in 1815.” Edited by William R. Bates. Michigan Historical Collections 18 (1911): 660–62. Tiffin’s report as Surveyor-General of the United States, November 1815. Congress had appropriated two million acres of Michigan land to soldiers of the War of 1812. On the basis of Tiffin’s report, Congress repealed the appropriation. 1285. “The Vigilance Committee. Richmond during the War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 7 (January 1900): 225–41; 7 (April 1900): 406–18. First installment: minutes of the Vigilance Committee organized when British naval vessels made attacks near Norfolk, Virginia, and temporarily occupied Hampton in 1813. It was recalled again in early 1814 by the fear of another attack. Second installment: under a slightly modified title, letters written during the war by Dr. Thomas Massie. They convey a picture of Richmond business when the coast was under blockade. 1286. Weekes, William M. “The War of 1812: Civil Authority and Martial Law in Upper Canada.” Ontario History 48 (Autumn 1956): 147–61. Situations in which administrative or non-military functional conflict could arise were quite limited. Under the old concept of colonial governorship, both civil and military administration were dominated by the army in time of war.

B. The Political Dimensions of the War 1287. Anderson, Frank Maloy. “A Forgotten Phase of the New England Opposition to the War of 1812.” In Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Year 1912–1913, 176–88. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch, 1913. Examines what the supporters of the Hartford Convention were saying about it in New England newspapers between its call and adjournment. Federalist conservatives did not want any drastic action taken, and they did not pose constitutional arguments. Federalist radicals called for more decided measures than the Convention took, and they invoked constitutional doctrines that later would sound alien to New Englanders. 1288. Banner, James M., Jr. To the Hartford Convention: The Federalists and the Origins of Party Politics in Massachusetts, 1789–1815. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. Traces the history of the Federalist Party of Massachusetts, where the national party received its richest articulation and manifestation, culminating in the Hartford Convention, which was almost entirely an affair of the Massachusetts party. It was not a product of the war years but rather of antecedents going back at least a decade before the election of Thomas Jefferson. 1289. Barlow, William Ray. “Congress During the War of 1812.” Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1961.

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206  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Analysis and evaluation of: participation in the declaration of war, problems of congressional and governmental organization, legislative-executive relations, political repercussions of wartime measures, and congressional activities in finance, military policy, strategy, and foreign affairs. 1290. Benevolus, Hector [pseud.]. The Hartford Convention in an Uproar! And the Wise Men of the East Confounded! Together with a Short History of the Peter Washingtonians; Being the First Book of the Chronicles of the Children of Disobedience; Otherwise Falsely Called “Washington Benevolents.” Windsor, Vt.: “Printed for the Proprietor of the Copy-Right,” 1815. Satirical account of the Hartford Convention and its aftermath in scriptural parody. The “three wise men” were the commissioners sent by the convention to Washington. 1291. Bigelow, Abijah. “Additions to the Letters of Abijah Bigelow.” Edited by N. David Scotti. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser., 79 (October 1969): 245–52. Five letters that are addendum to those already published as edited by Clarence Brigham. See Bigelow, “Letters” (item 1293, below). 1292. Bigelow, Abijah. “Letters of Abijah Bigelow, Member of Congress, to His Wife, 1810–1815.” Edited by Clarence Brigham. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser., 40 (October 1930): 305–406. Bigelow was elected from Worcester, Massachusetts. The twice weekly letters give a Federalist view of events of Congress. Family references are omitted. Information about events leading to war and the effects of the war. 1293. Broussard, James H. “The North Carolina Federalists, 1800–1816.” North Carolina Historical Review 55 (Winter 1978): 18–41. The long-term strength of Federalism was greater in North Carolina than elsewhere in the South. While it eroded somewhat in the early Jefferson years Federalists accounted for one-third of the state’s presidential votes in 1808 and 1812 and sent three to the U.S. Congress. During the war they held 40 percent of the state legislature. 1294. Broussard, James H. “Party and Partisanship in American Legislatures: The South Atlantic States, 1800–1812.” Journal of Southern History 43 (February 1977): 39–58. A study of key roll call votes in the Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina legislatures reveals that partisan feeling was strongest on national political issues, but inconsequential on state issues. 1295. Broussard, James H. The Southern Federalists, 1800–1816. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978. Even after a southern-dominated Republican Party gained control of the national government in 1800, Federalists in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia constituted a sizable minority in the region. They continued to support the Federalist cause through the War of 1812 years. 1296. Brown, Dorothy M. “Embargo Politics in Maryland.” Maryland Historical Magazine 58 (September 1963): 193–210. The Maryland Federalists revived in the embargo years and became a political threat. With the repeal of the embargo, however, the Republicans once more controlled a majority in Annapolis as well as Washington, D.C. 1297. Buckley, William E., ed. “Letters of Connecticut Federalists, 1814–1815.” New England Quarterly 3 (April 1930): 316–31.

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The Domestic Scene  •  207 Correspondence between Federalist leaders in the Connecticut legislature and in the U.S. Congress concerning Federalist policy and action, reaction to administrative despotism in Washington, D.C., and the matter of secession. 1298. Carter, Edward C., II. “Mathew Carey and ‘The Olive Branch,’ 1814–1818.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 89 (October 1965): 399–415. Described as having more influence than any other political work published in America during the War of 1812. Carey sought to lessen party strife, eradicate New England separatism, and unify the country against the enemy. More copies were sold, and pamphlet excerpts made, than any other political writing to that time. 1299. Cassell, Frank A. “The Great Baltimore Riot of 1812.” Maryland Historical Magazine 70 (Fall 1975): 241–59. The riot was a product of the prevailing social and political conditions. In its wake, the Federalists reversed Maryland state politics, gaining control. They used their new found power to block needed defense measures in the wartime circumstances. 1300. Clarke, Jack Alden. “Thomas Sydney Jesup: Military Observer at the Hartford Convention.” New England Quarterly 29 (September 1956): 393–99. Jesup, a veteran officer of western campaigns and service in a Connecticut regiment, was sent by U.S. president James Madison to the Hartford Convention, ostensibly on a recruiting mission. Jesup was sent as a personal observer because of his great concern for what the Federalists would do at the convention. 1301. Dwight, Theodore. History of the Hartford Convention: With a Review of the Policy of the United States Government, Which Led to the War of 1812. Facsimile reprint ed. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries, 1970. The author was the secretary of the convention. Madison’s political necessity led him to take the United States into war. New England’s firm and patriotic stand saved the country from becoming a military dictatorship. 1302. East, Robert A. “Economic Development and New England Federalism, 1803–1814.” New England Quarterly 10 (September 1937): 430–46. The Hartford Convention did not succumb to the rising tide of Federalist protest and demand for secession. Most of the delegates, men of property, sensed that Jeffersonian policies had not ruined their section. Their interests depended on the maintenance of a national market. 1303. Eastman, Anthony Finley. “Federalist Ideology and Secession, 1796–1815.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1972. Jefferson’s embargo and the War of 1812 were perceived as threats to New England. Federalists distrusted democracy and became disillusioned to the point of seriously considering withdrawal from the union. Doctrinaire Federalism was dealt a death blow by the Battle of New Orleans, the peace treaty, and public disfavor of the Hartford Convention. 1304. Eckert, Edward Kyle. “William Jones: Mr. Madison’s Secretary of the Navy.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 96 (April 1972): 167–82. Jones served as secretary of the navy, January 1813–September 1814. Simultaneously he was also acting head of the Department of the Treasury for several months. In the summer of 1813 he was the only ranking member of the executive branch of the government in Washington.

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208  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1305. Fischer, David H. “The Myth of the Essex Junto.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 21 (April 1964): 191–235. Contrary to the traditional interpretation, the Essex Junto was composed of reactionary idealists, not opportunists; it never controlled the Federalist party or New England governments; and it was not guilty of disunionist tendencies. The movement that led to the Hartford Convention started among the people of the Connecticut Valley. The Essex Junto was not the New England dynamic of New England’s flirtation with disunion. 1306. Ford, Worthington Chauncey. “The Recall of John Quincy Adams in 1808.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 45 (January 1912): 354–408. The seeming support John Quincy Adams gave to Jeffersonian policies in the wake of the Chesapeake-Leopard affair led to his recall from the United States Senate. Includes correspondence of James Lloyd, his successor, concerning war and postwar developments. 1307. Hickey, Donald R. “Federalist Party Unity and the War of 1812.” Journal of American Studies 12 (April 1978): 23–39. Statistically, the conventional idea that only the New England Federalists opposed the War of 1812 is wrong. More than 90 percent of them voted against war measures wherever they were from. 1308. Hickey, Donald R. “The Federalists and the War of 1812.” Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1972. Federalists believed the orders in council and impressments were of a transient nature and would disappear when European hostilities ceased. They opposed the war and used all their resources to bring it to a speedy conclusion. Federalist cooperation might have prolonged the war inordinately. Federalists were made scapegoats for the failure of Republican policies. 1309. Learned, Henry Barrett. “Gerry and the Presidential Succession in 1813.” American Historical Review 22 (October 1916): 94–97. Vice President Elbridge Gerry declined to vacate the presidency of the U.S. Senate before the close of its August 1813 session. The Senate thus could not select a president pro tempore, the officer next in line after president and vice president for presidential succession. This was probably to keep a disaffected senator from the position and assure Henry Clay the succession as speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. The president’s illness and Gerry’s death made Gerry’s move potentially crucial. 1310. Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh. “Dissent in North Carolina during the War of 1812.” North Carolina Historical Review 49 (Spring 1972): 103–18. While North Carolina supported the war, there was perceptible dissent on the part of the electorate, some state leaders, and some of its congressional delegation. Some of it was ideological; much of it was partisan in nature. 1311. McKennan, Thomas McKean Thompson. “A Frontier Federalist and the War of 1812.” Edited by William A. Williams. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 76 (January 1952): 81–85. McKennan was the leader of a strong Federalist center in Washington County, Pennsylvania. What was probably a public address, January 25, 1813, expresses western Federalist opposition to the war. 1312. Mahan, Howard F. “Joseph Gales, the National Intelligencer, and the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1958.

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The Domestic Scene  •  209 In 1810, Joseph Gales assumed the editorship of the National Intelligencer, the semiofficial voice of the Madison administration. It also gave political leadership to some 150 Republican presses throughout the country. It exercised a powerful influence on the political leadership of the country and its supportive public opinion. Consistently, however, Gales maintained high standards by reporting both sides of congressional debates and war news. 1313. Massachusetts Election! First Monday in April Next. American Nomination. Major-General Henry Dearborn, for Governor. Hon. William King, for Lieut. Governor. Boston: Printed at the Office of the Yankee, [1815?]. Pamphlet. A campaign pamphlet emphasizing, particularly, Dearborn’s military service during the War of 1812. 1314. Morison, Samuel Eliot. “The Massachusetts Embassy to Washington, 1815.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 48 (March 1915): 343–51. Presents documents concerning the intent and instructions to the three commissioners sent by Massachusetts, jocularly called the “embassy,” to present the demands of the Hartford Convention to the federal government. Supports the author’s contention that there was no conspiracy involved. 1315. Newmyer, R. Kent. “Joseph Story and the War of 1812: A Judicial Nationalist.” Historian 26 (August 1964): 486–501. Joseph Story presided over a prize of war case in the First Judicial Circuit Court, 1814. Story’s position joined issue between the national authority and the proclivities of commercial New England. This pointed up his conviction that nationalism provided the framework within which an independent judiciary could function. 1316. Otis, Harrison Gray. Otis’ Letters in Defence of the Hartford Convention, and the People of Massachusetts. Boston: Simon Gardner, 1824. Sixteen letters of a Massachusetts delegate to the Hartford Convention and its principal defender. Otis was inspired to present his case by the inaugural remarks of a new governor of Massachusetts who chose to characterize the convention as approaching “the very brink of treason.” 1317. Otis, Harrison Gray. “Two Letters of Harrison Gray Otis on the Hartford Convention, 1814–1815.” Edited by Samuel Eliot Morison. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 60 (November 1926): 24–31. The first letter, written before the convention, asserts Otis is against secession and hopes that the convention may make positive and concrete suggestions to appease the crisis in New England. The second, written shortly after the convention, reasserts these positions and the hope of diverting federal monies into state treasuries. 1318. Pierce, William Leigh. The Year: A Poem, in Three Cantoes. New York: David Longworth, 1813. Wide-ranging coverage of the events of the year 1812, which the poet intended as a political review but which increasingly becomes concerned with the War of 1812 itself. 1319. Plymouth County, Massachusetts. An Address to the Citizens of the County of Plymouth. N.p.: n.p., 1812.

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210  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Resolutions denounced the War of 1812 as inexpedient, unnecessary, unjust, and dishonorable, declared the president’s attempt to gain control of the militia as an invasion of state sovereignty, and expressed the feeling that a division of the United States might become necessary. 1320. Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Plymouth Convention. Plympton, Mass.: n.p., 1812. Pamphlet. The convention nominated Charles Turner, Jr., to represent the district in the House of Representatives. Resolutions in support of the declaration of war in 1812, in opposition to New England federalism and its opposition to the war. 1321. Powell, J. H., ed. “Some Unpublished Correspondence of John Adams and Richard Rush, 1811–1822.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 60 (October 1936): 419–54; 61 (January 1937): 26–53; 61 (April 1937): 137–64. The correspondence reveals their reactions to the crises the United States faced in these years. They turned to history for guidance and standards of judgment. They both expressed aggressive nationalism. The dominant New England attitude toward the War of 1812 was wrong. The fight against England was a struggle for great liberal principles. 1322. Prentiss, Hervey Putnam. “Timothy Pickering and the War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 70 (April 1934): 105–46. Pickering was the acknowledged leader of the most violent opposition to the war. He used any means to make his opposition effective even if it meant defeat of the nation in order to discredit the Madison administration. He and his policies were defused when the war ended. 1323. The Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates, from the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode-Island; the Counties of Cheshire and Grafton, in the State of New-Hampshire; and the County of Windham, in the State of Vermont; Convened at Hartford, in the State of Connecticut, December 15th, 1814. 2d ed., corrected and improved. Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1815. Pamphlet. Rather than the proceedings as the title suggests, it constitutes a condensed official report of the Hartford Convention, including its conclusions, recommendations, and suggestion of another convention if its recommendations are not achieved. 1324. Skeen, Carl Edward. “John Armstrong and the Role of the Secretary of War in the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1966. John Armstrong, congressman and diplomat, served as Secretary of War, 1813–1814. He failed to provide sufficient leadership to overcome supply, financial, and personnel problems of the department and the army. While making some reforms in the department he was not a good administrator. His overall performance must be judged as a failure. 1325. Skeen, Carl Edward. “Monroe and Armstrong: A Study in Political Rivalry.” New-York Historical Society Quarterly 57 (April 1973): 121–47. Consciously or otherwise, James Monroe actively undermined the efforts of John Armstrong Jr., who served as secretary of war during the War of 1812. Monroe was a man of consuming ambition and he served himself well. 1326. Skeen, Carl Edward. “Mr. Madison’s Secretary of War.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100 (July 1976): 336–55.

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The Domestic Scene  •  211 John Armstrong Jr., served as secretary of war for most of the War of 1812. Although he was not a good enough administrator, the department became more efficient under his direction. He interfered excessively with his commanders in the field, even to the point of actually going to the front to supervise operations. He did not communicate well with the president and other cabinet officers. 1327. Smith, Abbot. “Mr. Madison’s War: An Unsuccessful Experiment in the Conduct of National Policy.” Political Science Quarterly 57 (June 1942): 229–46. The president involved the country in the War of 1812, for which large sections of the public were never enthusiastic nor reconciled. The war was inglorious and escaped disaster by sheer good luck. The president failed to harmonize foreign negotiations with his domestic position. No president has since failed as did James Madison. 1328. Stacey, C. P. “The War of 1812 in Canadian History.” Ontario History 50 (Summer 1958): 153–59. Upper Canada was becoming Americanized before the War of 1812. The war interrupted that process. American destructive and unsuccessful invasions reversed the trend. A deep anti-American prejudice was revived and intensified, immeasurably strengthening the permanence of British North America. Politically it strengthened conservatism and the loyalist tradition and made a considerable contribution to nationalism. 1329. Stephenson, Nathaniel W. “Calhoun, 1812, and After.” American Historical Review 31 (July 1926): 701–7. Calhoun and the War Hawks, in control of a majority in Congress in 1812, were able to coerce New England into war. They played off a solid sectional majority against a solid sectional minority. They demonstrated the possibility of despotism; this was a turning point in the direction of later civil war. 1330. Taggart, Samuel. “Letters of Samuel Taggart, Representative in Congress, 1803–1814.” Introduction by George Henry Haynes. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser., 33 (April 1923): 113–226; 33 (October 1923): 297–438. Rev. Samuel Taggart, a Presbyterian, served from Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1803–1817. The some hundred letters are addressed to Rev. John Taylor, a Congregationalist. Taggart, an infrequent participant in debate and one who did not mix in Washington society, conscientiously attended sessions of the House. The letters are a Federalist view of the coming of the War of 1812, the war, the Hartford Convention, and the coming of peace. 1331. Thoughts in a Series of Letters, in Answer to a Question Respecting the Division of the States. By a Massachusetts Farmer. N.p.: n.p., 1813. Pamphlet of six letters, 1813. Concerned with the rift in the thirteen original states. Suggests that the country is too large and that perhaps its salvation would be in getting rid of part of its territory, especially Louisiana. 1332. Varnum, Joseph Bradley. “A New Englander Defends the War of 1812: Senator Varnum to Judge Thacher.” Edited by Lawrence S. Kaplan. Mid-America 46 (October 1964): 269–80.

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212  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Joseph Bradley Varnum, senator from Massachusetts, 1811–1816, in a letter of January 30, 1815, to a Federalist friend who opposed his stand, explains his reasons for supporting the war. He was the only New Englander in the Senate who favored the war. 1333. Wagner, Edward James, II. “State–Federal Relations during the War of 1812.” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1963. State and federal governments encountered major problems in mobilizing the country’s resources for the War of 1812. There was considerable overlapping of responsibility and authority that was often incongruous and confusing. The federal government found it necessary to depend upon the states to mobilize much of the needed manpower, to give direct financial and material support to the federalized militia and regular forces. Several states, particularly Georgia, Kentucky, New York, Ohio, and Tennessee, were most helpful. The weakened federal government recovered its lost prestige after Jackson’s victory at New Orleans. 1334. Wehtje, Myron F. “Opposition in Virginia to the War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 78 (January 1970): 65–86. Opposition to the war was concentrated in the traditional Federalist strongholds of the state. Although perhaps only one-fourth of the state’s population was against the war, the intensity of opposition rivaled that of New England. While the election of 1812 results do not necessarily signify a popular endorsement of the war, they do indicate a firm attachment to the president and his party.

C. The Social Dimensions of the War 1335. Allen, Gardner W. “Naval Songs and Ballads.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser. 35 (April 1925): 64–78. Examines, in particular, the naval ballads and songs in the Isaiah Thomas collection as previously reported by Worthington C. Ford, “The Isaiah Thomas Collection” (item 1343, below). 1336. Bliss, Henry. Thanksgiving, a Poem, in Two Parts. Pittsfield, Mass.: Phinehas Allen, 1815. Pamphlet. A long poem with the second part concerned primarily with the War of 1812. Its closing line: “And give for RIGHTEOUS WAR, a long and RIGHTEOUS PEACE.” 1337. Campbell, Justice. “Charge Delivered to the Grand Jury for the Western District of Upper Canada, by Mr. Justice Campbell, at the Assizes Held at Sandwich in Said District, on Thursday, the 10th Sept., 1812.” Michigan Historical Collections 12 (1888): 630–37. Justice Campbell is particularly concerned with charging persons of disloyalty as the War of 1812 progresses. 1338. Connor, Ralph. The Rock and the River: A Romance of Quebec. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1931. Fiction. A romance dealing with the people of Quebec during the War of 1812, in which the battles of the war play roles.

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The Domestic Scene  •  213 1339. Craig, Hamilton. “The Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada and Its Still-Born Child—The ‘Upper Canada Preserved’ Medal.” Ontario History 52 (March 1960): 31–52. The society was established to aid families of militiamen and disabled militiamen. It was also to award medals for distinguished service in defense of Upper Canada (Ontario). Money was raised and some medals were made. Evidence is nearly conclusive that none were ever issued; rather they were defaced and sold as bullion. 1340. Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander. “John Beverley Robinson and the Trials for Treason in 1814.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 25 (1929): 191–219. Robinson, a young law student, having served well in the York militia on the Detroit front in 1812, having received campaign officer promotions, and having written some well-received accounts of the military activities, was made attorney general of Upper Canada. Examines his considerable preparation for the treason trials of 1814. 1341. Flournoy, Fitzgerald. “Hugh Blair Grigsby: A Virginia Boy during the War of 1812.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 66 (October 1958): 423–31. Based upon Grigsby’s memoirs, which he prepared fifty years after the war. Grisby portrays life in Norfolk as affected by the war during his seventh through tenth years. 1342. Ford, Worthington Chauncey. “The Isaiah Thomas Collection of Ballads.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new ser., 33 (April 1923): 34–112. The three bound volumes contain 302 separate items most of which were published from 1810 to 1814. Considerable emphasis is put on the War of 1812 years, with much concerning naval or navy related themes. Appended with a bibliography of the ballads, a list of first lines, and a list of cuts used. 1343. Franklin, Walter. The Opinion of the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County, in the Case of Robert W. Houston against Gen. John Dicks, and Others, on the Question Respecting the Authority under Which Courts-martial Should Be Constituted, for the Trial of Militiamen Charged with Delinquency, in Disobeying the President’s Call into the Service of the U.S. as Delivered, on the 10th of February, 1817, by President Franklin. Lancaster, Pa.: William Dickson, 1817. Pamphlet. In August 1814 Houston was ordered to march to Yorktown, Pennsylvania, for militia duty. He did not march nor secure a substitute. He was declared guilty and fined. Daniel Moore was court appointed to collect the fine. Moore seized two pieces of broadcloth from Houston’s store in payment. In a jurisdictional dispute, Houston brought suit against his court-martial and won the case. See John Passmore, Copy of the Record of the Court of Common Pleas (item 1358, below), and George B. Porter, The Trial of Robert W. Houston (item 1359, below). 1344. Gafford, Lucile. “The Boston Stage and the War of 1812.” New England Quarterly 7 (June 1934): 327–35.

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214  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Examines the playbills for the Boston theater for the cumulative evidence of how theater managers exploited the awakening spirit of nationalism. Their cautious approaches to the debatable subject gauge wavering public opinion which changes to bold assertiveness. 1345. Gerry, Elbridge. “Letters of Elbridge Gerry, 1797–1814.” Edited by Catherine Austin. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 47 (June 1914): 480–528. Personal letters, mostly written when Gerry was vice president. Appended with an extract, 1813, of the journal of his son, Elbridge Gerry Jr. Some political reporting and commentary but principally of social life in Washington. 1346. Gerry, Elbridge, Jr. The Diary of Elbridge Gerry, Jr. Preface and notes by Claude G. Bowers. Foreword by Annette Townsend. New York: Brentano, 1927. May–August 1813 diary of the son of the vice president who journeyed from New England to Washington, D.C., by way of Pittsburgh. The people he encountered en route seemed to be ignorant of the war or indifferent to it. In Washington he is exposed to the highest political and social levels. 1347. Gribbin, William James. The Churches Militant: The War of 1812 and American Religion. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973. America before the War of 1812 was as fragmented religiously as it was discordant politically. Despite the strains of war, about which they disagreed even to the point of fratricidal dissension, most Americans were united in the conviction that religious truth and Christian duty were inseparable from national policy. Some sanctified it, while others called it sinful. Some believed it to be pagan; others regarded it as militantly Protestant. Denominational opinion is the closest approach available for the study of public opinion in these years. Expansion and revision of the author’s doctoral dissertation. 1348. Gribbin, William James. “The War of 1812 and American Religion.” Doctoral dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1968. Religious opposition to the War of 1812 was largely confined to Congregationalists, Quakers, and, to a lesser extent, Presbyterians. Because of their literate laity and educated clergy, their public influence was more pronounced than the pro-war activities of Baptists, Methodists, and other sectarian groups. Both employed religious values in their stances in propaganda and international developments were surcharged with vital religious significance for them. 1349. Ingraham, Joseph Holt. Blanche Talbot: or, The Maiden’s Hand. A Romance of the War of 1812. New York: Williams Brothers, 1847. Fiction. Archibald Worthington and Nelson Osborne saved the life of Blanche Talbot, daughter of a Kennebec, Maine, retired sea captain. Both went off to service in the War of 1812 after the captain. Both went off to service in the War of 1812 after the captain had promised his daughter’s hand to the one who distinguished himself most in the war. 1350. Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada. The Report of the Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada. With an Appendix, and a List of Subscribers and Benefactors. Montreal: William Gray, 1817.

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The Domestic Scene  •  215 The society was established at York, December 1812, to give such aid and relief to families of militiamen and disabled militiamen that was necessary over and above relief given by the legislature; and to bestow awards on soldiers and sailors of the militia or regular armies for distinction in defense of the province. The volume constitutes the records of the society. 1351. Martell, J. S., ed. “Nova Scotia’s Contribution to the Canadian Relief Fund in the War of 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 23 (September 1942): 297–302. In 1814, the Nova Scotia legislature voted £2500 for relief of war victims. It was used to aid those sufferers on the Niagara frontier whose houses were burned. 1352. Maryland. Court of Oyer and Terminer (Baltimore County). The Address of the Grand Jury, to the Court of Oyer and Terminer, Etc. for Baltimore County, to the Charge Delivered to Them by the Chief Justice; and the Reply of the Court to That Address. Baltimore: Diamond Press [B. W. Sower], 1813. Pamphlet. Concerning the allegiance of naturalized citizens in war times. 1353. Moore, John Hammond. “A Hymn of Freedom—South Carolina, 1813.” Journal of Negro History 50 (January 1965): 50–53. Lyrics of a song used by slaves on an island plantation near Charleston, South Carolina. They were planning an insurrection during the War of 1812. The rebellion never took place because it depended on cooperation from the British. 1354. Morgan, J. C. The Emigrant’s Note Book and Guide; With Recollections of Upper and Lower Canada, during the Late War. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1824. Based upon notes he took while serving as an officer in the British Royal Marines in the Canadas during the War of 1812, the author describes the country and people there. He contemplated returning to Canada as an emigrant himself and wrote this account while waiting for favorable sailing conditions. 1355. Mortimer, Benjamin. “The Ohio Frontier in 1812: Diary ‘Of the Indian Congregation at Goshen on the River Muskingum’ for the Year 1812.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 22 (April 1913): 205–66. Mortimer was a Moravian missionary assigned to their Indian settlement in eastern Ohio. The diary reveals life at the mission for the year in response to the circumstances of war. 1356. Orians, G. Harrison. “Cannon through the Forest: Novels of the Land Battles of the War of 1812 in the Old Northwest.” Ohio History 72 (July 1963): 195–219. Surveys novels, contemporary to the 1960s, that deal entirely or in part with the land battles in the Old Northwest. Stresses the didactic aspects of this literature which is explained as a product of the peculiar nature of the War of 1812. 1357. Passmore, John. Copy of the Record of the Court of Common Pleas, of Lancaster County, in the Case of Robert W. Houston, against General John Dicks and Others. Furnished to the House of Representatives, by John Passmore, Esquire, Prothonotary of the Court, in Conformity with a Resolution Adopted on the Eighteenth February, 1817. Harrisburg, Pa.: William Greer, 1817.

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216  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. See entry for Walter Franklin, Opinion of the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County (item 1344, above). Overlap in documentation. See also George B. Porter, The Trial of Robert W. Houston (item 1359, below). 1358. Porter, George Bryan. The Trial of Robert W. Houston, versus General John Dicks, and Others, Members of a Court Martial, Nathaniel W. Sample, Brigade Inspector, Molton C. Rogers, Esq. Judge Advocate, and Daniel Moore, Deputy Marshal. Being an Action of Trespass, Instituted in the Court of Common Pleas, of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Containing the Proceedings and Opinion of the Said Court. Also, the Arguments of Counsel before the Supreme Court, at a Special Session, Held at Lancaster, on the 6th March, 1817. And the Opinions of the Judges of Said Court, Delivered on the 19th May, 1817, Reversing the Opinion of the Court Below. Philadelphia: Lydia R. Bailey, 1817. See Walter Franklin, Opinion of the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster County (item 1344, above); and John Passmore, Copy of the Record of the Court of Common Pleas (item 1358, above). 1359. Richardson, John. The Canadian Brothers; or, the Prophecy Fulfilled: A Tale of the Late American War. 2 vols. Montreal: A.H. Armour and H. Ramsay, 1840. Facsimile reprint ed., 2 vols. in 1 vol., with an Introduction by Carl F. Klinck. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. Fiction, but partly biographical. The brothers of the title represent the author and his brother, both of whom served in the War of 1812. It is the sequel to an earlier novel, Wacousta; Or, The Prophecy: A Tale of the Canadas, which was based on the Pontiac affair of 1763–1765. The prophecy, made in Wacousta, concerns the curse and destruction of a detested family line. Canadian Brothers continues the story in the War of 1812 context. 1360. Riddell, William Renwick. “The Ancaster ‘Bloody Assize’ of 1814.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 20 (1923): 107–25. Nineteen Ontario inhabitants were tried for high treason at a session of the Court of Special Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery at Ancaster, May–June, 1814. Fourteen were convicted on evidence, one pleaded guilty, and four were acquitted. 1361. Riddell, William Renwick. “An Echo of the War of 1812.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 23 (1926): 434–449. Eleazar Daggett and Oliver Grace Jr. were found guilty of high treason during the War of 1812. Having fled Canada, they could not be executed, but the law provided for their lands to be forfeited. Traces the legal procedures involved in this. 1362. Salem Association for Mutual Defence. Articles of Agreement of the Salem Association for Mutual Defence. Salem, Mass.: Joshua Cushing, 1812. Pamphlet. The Salem militia was organized August 1812 to be trained to a state of readiness for use by the civil authorities. Roster of officers and militiamen included. 1363. Sheppard, George. Plunder, Profit and Paroles: A Social History of the War of 1812 in Upper Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994. An examination of the social impact of the war, based largely on claims submitted years after the war for restitution for damaged or seized livestock, crops and buildings.

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The Domestic Scene  •  217 1364. Stetson, Amasa. The Claim of Amasa Stetson, Extended to Other Services and Grounds of Claim, Than Those for Which Compensation Was Required at the War Department, and Which, on Appeal Made to Congress, Was Partially Allowed, at the Last Session, Is Again Submitted to the Eighteenth Congress of the United States, at Its Second Session, by the Petitioner. Boston: True and Greene, 1825. Pamphlet. A claim against the government for money advanced when Stetson served as deputy commissary of purchases in 1812–1813. 1365. Stetson, Amasa. Dear Sir, Having for the First Time in My Life, Become a Petitioner, and to the Government of Which You Are a Member, Not for a Favor, but Justice, Which Justice the Secretary of War Feels Himself Precluded, by the Rules of the Department and Proceedings Had in My Case, from Rendering Me. [Dorchester, Mass.: n.p., 1822]. Pamphlet. Title from first six lines of text. The letter to members of Congress concerns claim against the government in connection with his service as a deputy commissary general during the War of 1812. 1366. Weekes, William M. “The War of 1812: Civil Authority and Martial Law in Upper Canada.” Ontario History 48 (Autumn 1956): 147–61. The question of employing martial law during the war was one the British carefully tread upon. This article examines how martial law was employed in Upper Canada. 1367. Windship, John Cravath May. “Letters from Louisiana, 1813–1814.” Edited by Everett S. Brown. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 11 (March 1925): 570–79. Lawyer Windship’s letters to William Plumer, Jr., furnish a contemporary view of conditions in Louisiana and the attitude of its populace toward the War of 1812.

D. The Economic Dimensions of the War 1368. [Ames, Benjamin, and Wingate, Joseph F.] The Disclosure—No. I. Documents Relating to Violations and Evasions of the Laws during the Commercial Restrictions and Late War with Great Britain, Etc. Part First. Bath, Maine: J. G. Torrey, 1824. Pamphlet. Alleges that William King and Mark Langdon Hill, both of Bath, Maine, conducted illicit trade during the embargo years and the War of 1812. Authors identified in William King, Mr. King’s Reply (item 1391, below). 1369. Anderson, Elbert. Claims on the United-States, by the Late Contractor for the State of New-York, Etc. for Services during the Late War. New York: n.p., 1824. A government auditor invalidated contracts made with Anderson for flour, cattle, whisky, and other supplies during the War of 1812. Anderson submits arguments and documentation to support his claims. 1370. Balinky, Alexander S. “Gallatin’s Theory of War Finance.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 16 (January 1959): 73–82. Albert Gallatin held that war costs should be financed by loans. Non-war expenditures should be financed from current revenues such as land sales and customs duties, with internal taxes as a last resort. Gallatin cannot be blamed for the fiscal chaos of the War of 1812 as his ideas were not followed.

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218  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1371. Barker, Jacob. Speech of Mr. Barker. N.p.: n.p., 1857. Pamphlet. Speech to the U.S. Court of Claims, April 1, 1857, in the case of R. R. Ward, F. G. Halleck, Jacob Little, assignees of Jacob Barker, versus the United States. Barker was making claim for a loan of five million dollars to the government in 1814. 1372. Checkland, S. G. “American versus West Indian Traders in Liverpool, 1793– 1815.” Journal of Economic History 18 (June 1958): 141–60. By 1793 Liverpool was replacing London as the center of England’s American trade. The American trade of cotton imports and manufactured exports came into active competition with the established West African– West Indian–Liverpool trade in slavery, sugar, and coffee. Traces the impact of the resumption of European war, the Napoleonic-British economic policies, political factors, American embargo, and the War of 1812. 1373. Clauder, Anna Cornelia. American Commerce as Affected by the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, 1793–1812. Reprints of American Classics Series. Clifton, N.J.: Augustus M. Kelley, 1972. Reprint of the author’s Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1932. How American shippers fared under a rapid succession of orders and decrees of the belligerents that were designed to limit their activities. The Federalists were right in believing that the interests of American democracy lay with England, the leader in constitutional government and civil liberty. When Americans perceived the futility of the conflict, they demanded peace. 1374. Coleman, Peter J., and Majeske, Penelope K. “British Immigrants in Rhode Island during the War of 1812.” Rhode Island History 34 (August 1975): 66–75. British immigrants were highly selective; four times as many textile workers came to Rhode Island as to the country at large. They provided as much as one-fifth of the state’s textile labor force. Many were unmarried. Includes a demographic table of enemy aliens, 1812–1813, as reported by the U.S. marshal. 1375. Copeland, Charles H. P. “To the Farthest Port of the Rich East.” American Heritage 6 (February 1955): 10–19, 114–15. Salem, Massachusetts, emerged after the American Revolution as a prosperous center for trade with the Orient. The embargo legislation and the War of 1812 contributed significantly to Salem’s short-lived commercial ascendancy. 1376. Copp, Walter Ronald. “Nova Scotian Trade during the War of 1812.” Canadian Historical Review 18 (June 1937): 141–55. Nova Scotia became the trade and marketing center for North American commerce. Halifax naval and military contractors handled large quantities of goods and foodstuffs from Americans and manufactured goods from British manufacturers. Established trade routes were modified to channel American trade with Newfoundland, Spain, and Portugal. Nova Scotia was used by British and American ships. American goods supplied British troops in Canada and British prize goods were exported to the United States. 1377. Custer, Milo, comp. Soldiers of the War of 1812 whose Bounty Land Grants Were Located in McLean County, Illinois. From the McLean County, Illinois, Deed Records. Bloomington, Ill.: n.p., 1912. Includes name, rank, company or regiment, warrant number, assignee if any, deed location.

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The Domestic Scene  •  219 1378. Cuthbertson, George A. “Fur Traders on Fresh Water: An Account of the Northwest Company’s Sailing Ships on the Great Lakes.” Beaver Outfit 265 (December 1934): 26–30, 41. During the War of 1812, five North West Company vessels were commandeered, captured, or destroyed by the British and Americans to serve as naval transports carrying troops and stores. The loss hastened the postwar merger of the company with the Hudson’s Bay Company. 1379. Engerman, Stanley L., and Gallman, Robert E., eds. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Volume II: The Long Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Describes the economic state of the United States, trade patterns (particularly with Britain) and other aspects of economic history during the nineteenth century. 1380. Everest, Allan S. The War of 1812 in the Champlain Valley. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1981. The economic orientation of the Chaplain Valley was with Canadian markets, a consequence of geography. Valley timber products, potash, and foodstuffs were exchanged for British manufactured goods. Examines the impact of Jeffersonian embargo policies and the war upon the people and governments of New York, Vermont, and Lower Canada. 1381. Forbes, John D. “European Wars and Boston Trade, 1783–1815.” New England Quarterly 11 (December 1938): 709–30. With the resumption of war between Napoleon Bonaparte and Great Britain in 1802, Boston reached its heyday as the neutral maritime center. With the Embargo Act in 1807, legitimate commerce nearly stopped. Illicit trade soon flourished. Embargo repeal reopened legal trade. The War of 1812 brought stagnation, especially as American ships had to face a British blockade and privateers. 1382. Galpin, W. Freeman. “The American Grain Trade to the Spanish Peninsula, 1810–1814.” American Historical Review 28 (October 1922): 24–44. British troops in Spain and Portugal during the Napoleonic era depended heavily on American grain and flour, to the profit of the American farmers and grain merchants. The British developed an exempt license for American grain cargoes to Spain against seizure by British blockade squadrons. In 1813 the U.S. Congress forbade use of the British licenses. British canceled the policy because Baltic States grain became available. 1383. Galpin, W. Freeman. “The Grain Trade of Alexandria, Virginia, 1801–1815.” North Carolina Historical Review 4 (October 1927): 404–27. Alexandria had an excellent harbor and a strategic location on the fall line of the Potomac River to take advantage of the rich and rapid growing hinterland especially in the grain and flour trade. Its markets were chiefly Boston, New York, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the West Indies. With the outbreak of the War of 1812, trade ceased with England, but, under a British license system, trade continued with Portugal and Spain in order to feed the British armies. The British blockade ended this. War and postwar factors ended Alexandria’s prominence as a grain port. 1384. Galpin, W. Freeman. “The Grain Trade of New Orleans, 1804–1814.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 14 (March 1928): 496–507.

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220  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography During the decade following American acquisition of Louisiana, wheat and flour were in great demand especially in the West Indies and England. A trade pattern was established for these Ohio Valley products by way of New Orleans. While that port could not rival its northern and eastern counterparts, as the grain belt shifted westward with the ending of the War of 1812, the importance of New Orleans grew. 1385. Griffin, Richard W. “The Columbia Manufacturing Company and the Textile Industry of the District of Columbia, 1808–1816.” Maryland Historical Magazine 57 (September 1962): 259–67. Encouraged by the Embargo Act, the Columbia Manufacturing Company was established in 1808 to produce cotton, hemp, and flax goods. Several other textile mills soon appeared in the district. The British occupation of Washington in 1814 probably brought their operations to a standstill. It is likely the Columbia factory was destroyed. There is no evidence the others survived the war. 1386. Hickey, Donald R. “American Trade Restrictions during the War of 1812.” Journal of American History 68 (December 1981): 517–38. From 1806 to 1812, Jeffersonian Republicans used trade restrictions as a peaceful means to uphold American rights in the face of European encroachments. They continued the system after war was declared in 1812. As the American military position deteriorated, the government expanded the restrictive system, hoping to bring the British to terms. The restrictions had little effect except to reduce American trade and customs revenue. 1387. Hitsman, J. Mackay. “David Parish and the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 26 (Winter 1962–1963): 171–77. David Parish was building an iron foundry near Ogdensburg, New York, at the outbreak of the War of 1812. He approached the War Department for a contract to produce round shot. He convinced the British that his products were only for local consumption and they promised not to disturb him. Technical problems delayed production until after the war had ended. 1388. Howard, C. S. “Financing the War of 1812.” Canadian Banker 58 (Spring 1951): 115–18. Prior to the War of 1812, except for an insufficient supply of foreign coin, trade was conducted largely on a crude barter basis. Much needed paper money was introduced in the form of army bills, induced by the necessities of war finance. Some bore interest. Local issues of paper money were also circulated and were usually redeemable in army bills. 1389. Howe, John. “Excerpts from John Howe’s ‘Smuggler’s Journal.’” Edited by Neil R. Stout. Vermont History 40 (Autumn 1972): 262–70. Probably embellishing somewhat, recounts his smuggling activities between Vermont and Quebec, from November 1812 to April 1813. 1390. King, William. Mr. King’s Reply to a Pamphlet Published at Bath, Me., 1825. Bath, Maine: n.p., 1825. Pamphlet. The reply is to Benjamin Ames and Joseph F. Wingate’s The Disclosure—No. I (item 1369, above). This pamphlet is the same as William King and Mark L. Hill, Remarks upon a Pamphlet (item 1392, below), with an added appendix.

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The Domestic Scene  •  221 1391. King, William, and Hill, Mark L. Remarks upon a Pamphlet Published at Bath, Me. Relating to Alleged Infractions of the Laws during the Embargo, Non-Intercourse, and War. Bath, Maine: Thomas Eaton, 1825. Pamphlet. This concerns allegations made in Benjamin Ames and Joseph F. Wingate’s The Disclosure—No. I (item 1369, above). 1392. “Marine Notes from a News Book Kept in Salem, Mass., 1812–1815, at the Office of the Essex Insurance Company, Nathaniel Bowditch, President.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 36 (October 1900): 285–96; 37 (April 1901): 145–60; 37 (July 1901): 249–60; 37 (October 1901): 339–44; 38 (April 1902): 147–52; 39 (July 1903): 294–310. A detailed account of ship activity with considerable data. Interlarded with occasional comments. 1393. Martell, J. S. “Halifax during and after the War of 1812.” Dalhousie Review 23 (October 1943): 289–304. During the War of 1812, the moral state of Halifax was deplorable as occasioned by thousands of sailors, soldiers, paroled prisoners, grog shops, dancing halls, and brothels. The city enjoyed unparalled prosperity because of trade with New England and privateering. 1394. Mills, Elijah H. An Oration Pronounced at Northampton, at the Request of the Washington Benevolent Society of the County of Hampshire, on the Thirty Seventh Anniversary of American Independence: 1813. Northampton, Mass.: Simeon Butler, 1813. Pamphlet. The war, detrimental to our best interests, is not the cause of our calamities and its ending will not deliver us from danger. It is “the system of cruel policy” that is hastening us to ruin. New England’s commercial rights and constitutional privileges “must be ransomed from the grasp of usurpation; ‘PEACEABLY IF YOU CAN, FORCIBLY IF YOU MUST.’” 1395. Muller, H. N., III. “A ‘Traitorous and Diabolical Traffic’: The Commerce of the Champlain-Richelieu Corridor during the War of 1812.” Vermont History 44 (Spring 1976): 78–96. With war, Canada encouraged some items of trade and restricted others in the Lake Champlain–Richelieu River corridor. The United States quietly sanctioned elaborate evasion of the strict letter of the law for non-contraband, lest the law provoke Vermont into open opposition of the war. This demonstrated the vitality of the Champlain-Richelieu trade both to the governments that tried to control it and to those communities that relied on it. 1396. Nielson, Peter Raymond. Financial History of the United States, 1811–1816. Washington: Catholic University of America, 1926. A published version of the author’s Ph.D. dissertation. Development of the government’s financial policy during the War of 1812, reasons for its adoption, and conditions responsible for its failure. Analysis of the fiscal embarrassments that hampered the government’s war efforts. 1397. Pratt, Julius William. “Fur Trade Strategy and the American Left Flank in the War of 1812.” American Historical Review 40 (January 1935): 246–73. Throughout the War of 1812 the American left flank extended from Ohio to St. Louis, in some places to the Missouri River. The Canadians and British regarded the war as a struggle for the considerable fur trade of the Old

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222  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Northwest. If the peace settlement had been determined by successes in this area the British would have gained all of the Mississippi Valley north of the Rock River. Conducted as almost a separate war. 1398. “Report and Petition.” Michigan Historical Collections 12 (1888): 587–89. Committee report read and laid on the table, December 16, 1826, Second Council, First Session (Michigan Territorial Legislature?). A petition addressed to the Congress of the United States, to be presented by the territorial delegate to Congress. Concerning claims of Michigan citizens for lost, captured, or destroyed property during the War of 1812. 1399. “Salem Vessels Out at Beginning of War of 1812.” Essex Institute Historical Collections 68 (January 1932): 30–32. Names of vessels, destinations, and other miscellaneous data. 1400. Shortt, Adam. “The Economic Effect of the War of 1812 on Upper Canada.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 10 (1913): 79–85. There was considerable change during the war in the economic leadership of Ontario. And greater prosperity attended the war years than had ever happened before. 1401. “Smuggling in 1813–1814: A Personal Reminiscence.” Vermont History 38 (Winter 1970): 22–26. Unsigned handwritten, sometimes anecdotal account, dated January 1868. Smuggling between Vermont and Quebec flourished, including contraband, sometimes unsuccessfully. Apparently parties in various towns cooperated in some sort of protective union for smuggling purposes. Even roads were made through dense forests for the activity. 1402. Statement of Facts Relative to the Claims of J. Aubin, and Others, for a Restitution of the Sums Paid by Them, as Duties on Goods Imported into Castine. N.p.: n.p., [1820]. Pamphlet. Castine, Maine, was occupied by the British, September 1814–April 1815, who collected customs. When the United States customs collector was restored, he exacted duties for such goods still there. In United States v. Rice, the court ruled that the goods could not be liable to duty under the circumstances. 1403. Stevens, Harry R. “Samuel Watts Davies and the Industrial Revolution in Cincinnati.” Ohio Historical Quarterly 70 (April 1961): 95–127. Samuel Watts Davies established manufacturing, banking, and other enterprises in Cincinnati, 1811–1820. They flourished during and after the War of 1812, but they all failed in the Panic of 1819. 1404. Stevenson, James. War of 1812 in Connection with the Army Bill Act. Montreal: W. Foster Brown, 1892. The Army Bill Act of Lower Canada introduced a paper currency that helped to meet the exigencies of the public service and to facilitate commercial transactions. The interest-bearing bills of twenty-five dollars and up circulated freely, even on foreign markets, with incremental interest constantly adding to their value. Lesser bills could be redeemed upon demand. The Army bills were finally called in and redeemed in 1820. 1405. Williams, John R. “War 1812—Williams Papers.” Michigan Historical Collections 32 (1903): 516–23. Miscellaneous matters, but particularly claims for property damages and losses during the War of 1812. Petitions and letters.

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The Domestic Scene  •  223

E. The Polemic and Sermonic Front 1406. A., S. The Federal Looking Glass, or An Oration. By S.A.—Friend of Justice. N.p.: “Printed for the Author,” 1812. Pamphlet. Scathing indictment of traitors, cowards, pro-British Americans, and the likes of William Hull who would cause the United States to lose all it has gained and enjoyed. A plea to those who are determined to support justice and their country against the British. 1407. An Address Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society, Brimfield, February 22d, 1813. By a Member of the Society. Brookfield, Mass.: E. Merriam, 1813. Pamphlet. George Washington’s farewell address warned against subserviency to foreign influence and to use all constitutional means to prevent calamities such as those which now seem to threaten the republican institutions of the country. This growing evil, “this unjust and ruinous” war, must be checked. 1408. Aiken, Solomon. An Address to Federal Clergymen, on the Subject of the War Proclaimed by the Congress of the United States, June 18, 1812, against the United Kingdom of Great-Britain and Ireland. Boston: “Printed for the Author,” 1813. Pamphlet. Detailed analysis of arguments used in opposition to the war through misrepresentation as to matters of fact and defamation. He finds them wanting and supplies evidence and arguments to the contrary. 1409. Andros, Thomas. The Grand Era of Ruin to Nations from Foreign Influence. A Discourse, Delivered before the Congregational Society in Berkley, Nov. 26, 1812. Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1812. Pamphlet. A satanic, immoral, and destructive influence has seduced the hearts of the rulers to plunge their peoples rashly and wickedly into war. Americans should watch and guard against war’s “inflexible perseverance and firmness.” Cling to the religion, policy, laws, and customs of the Puritan fathers and not to “the striplings perverted by French wisdom.” 1410. Bemis, Stephen. The First of Patriots Gathered to His Grave in Peace; and the Evil Since Brought upon His Country. An Address, Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society of Lancaster and Sterling, Feb. 22, 1815. Worcester, Mass.: William Manning, 1815. Pamphlet. The evil of war brought upon the United States was a consequence of “a wanton deviation from the wise policy of Washington.” He is hopeful that a permanent peace and general prosperity may yet return. 1411. Bigelow, Lewis. An Oration, Pronounced at Templeton, July 5, 1813, in Commemoration of the Thirty Seventh Anniversary of American Independence, before the Washington Benevolent Societies in the Northern Section of the County of Worcester, and Other Citizens. Worcester, Mass.: Isaac Sturtevant, 1813. Pamphlet. A rhetorical attack on Jeffersonian and Madisonian policies that have involved the United States in an offensive war against Britain, the only power that can protect against Napoleon’s goal of universal dominion. 1412. Bliss, Henry. The Genius of Federalism, a Poem, in Three Cantos. Pittsfield, Mass.: Phinehas Allen, 1813.

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224  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. A rhyming analysis and sarcastic evaluation of Federalist arguments and position during the War of 1812. 1413. Burnham, Abraham. Antichrist. A Discourse, Addressed to the Congregational Church and Society in Pembroke, New-Hampshire, on the Annual Fast, April 14, 1814. Concord, N.H.: George Hough, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: 1 John 2:22. Describes characteristics, including a spirit of war, of Antichrist. Napoleon’s empire meets these characteristics. The United States is under the influence of Antichrist “in no small degree” and this needs to be countered by “a speedy national reformation.” Towns, families, and individuals need to examine their own situations. 1414. Carey, Mathew. The Olive Branch: or, Faults on Both Sides, Federal and Democratic. A Serious Appeal on the Necessity of Mutual Forgiveness and Harmony. 7th ed., enlarged. Philadelphia: Mathew Carey, 1815. The first edition was inspired by the author’s prophetic fear of a New England separatist attempt. An examination and an analysis of the coming of the War of 1812 and its progress from the perspective of political party determinism. Attains a reasonable objective stance by considering shortcomings by both factions. Relies heavily on Niles’ Weekly Register as the source of interlarded documents and other matters of record. 1415. Channing, William Ellery. A Sermon, Delivered in Boston, September 18, 1814. Boston: Henry Channing, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: Jeremiah 6:8. Every person should reflect on his own character and life to determine what he has done to invoke God’s judgments on the country. Suggests further steps for persons as men and as Christians toward God and country in this period of danger. 1416. Clark, Daniel Atkinson. Independence Sermon, Delivered July 4, 1814, at Hanover, N. Jersey. Newark, N.J.: John Tuttle, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: Isaiah 1:2. As with the children of Israel of the text, God has nourished and brought up Americans as children. While this parental affection has been showered upon them, they have rebelled against Him. Enumerates the sins of ingratitude and degeneracy and calls upon the people to repent before it is too late. 1417. Cooke, Phinehas. An Oration, Delivered at Keene, N.H. before the Washington Benevolent Society, on the 5th Day of July, 1813: Being the Anniversary of American Independence. Keene, N.H.: John Prentiss, 1813. Pamphlet. The anniversary of American independence finds the country free and independent. It is not, however, prosperous or united. Its national honor and glory are retrograding and its public faith, public virtue, and public credit are approaching insolvency. Rejoicing is in order because “the power of infidel France has been crippled,” Russia remains independent, and, in a measure, “the equipoise of Europe” is preserved. 1418. Cushman, Elisha. Christian Fortitude. A Discourse, Delivered at the Baptist Meeting-House, in Hartford, May 30th, 1813. In Presence of a Company of the United States’ Troops, about to March upon the Frontiers. Hartford, Conn.: John Russell, Jr. Printer, 1813. Pamphlet. Text: 1 Timothy 6:12. Whatever the fortunes of war on the soldiers, they should conduct themselves as Christians.

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The Domestic Scene  •  225 1419. Cushman, Joshua. An Oration, Pronounced at Waterville, July 4, 1814; in Commemoration of the Independence of the United States of America. Hallowell, Maine: N. Cheever, 1814. Pamphlet. The war is carried on in defense of rights which cannot be abandoned without virtually surrendering national independence and sovereignty. A plea to refrain from political animosities, to cultivate a spirit of candor and conciliation, and to discharge duties of citizens to the government which they have created. 1420. Dow, Moses. A Sermon Preached in Beverly, August 20, 1812, the Day of the National Fast, an Account of War with Great-Britain; and Again at the Tabernacle in Salem, April 8, 1813, the Day of the Annual Fast in Massachusetts. Salem, Mass.: Joshua Cushing, 1813. Pamphlet. Text: Luke 19:41–42. Nations and individuals neglect peace until situations become desperate and beyond remedy. If the United States succeeds in conquering the only other free nation on earth, this country will then be alone in the world with the atheistic power of France. 1421. Dunham, Josiah. An Oration Delivered at Hanover, in the Vicinity of Dartmouth College, before the Several Washington Benevolent Societies of Hanover, Lebanon, Lime, Norwich, and Hartford, on the Thirty Eighth Anniversary of American Independence; and in Commemoration of the Great Events in Europe, Which Have Terminated so Honorably to the Allied Arms, and so Triumphantly Glorious to the Cause of Humanity. Hanover, N.H.: Charles Spear, 1814. Pamphlet. Great rejoicing marks the downfall of Napoleon and the return of national independence to Europe. Britain has achieved this and Americans can be happy. But, in the midst of this triumph Americans may not forget they are engaged in “a most unnatural war,” on the side of the fallen tyrant. God chastises, but peace will come. 1422. Dunham, Josiah. An Oration, in Commemoration of the Birth of Our Illustrious Washington, Pronounced at Windsor, February 22, 1814, before a Numerous Concourse of Citizens, at the Request of the Washington Benevolent Society. Windsor, Vt.: Thomas M. Pomroy, 1814. Pamphlet. A Federalist review of the evils of Jeffersonianism, a catalog of the effects of the war and the pro-French posture on the United States, and an appeal to trust in God so that Americans can live and die as free men. 1423. Eddy, Augustus. An Answer to the Writer A, Which Will Apply to the Opposition to Government Generally; by Way of Explaining the Mind of God on Government as Is Revealed in the Holy Scriptures; and a Brief Opinion of Some of the Prophetic Parts of the Bible. Dudley, Mass.: “Printed for the Author,” 1814. Pamphlet. Under the signature “A” in a January 1814 Boston newspaper, a piece invited insurrection, denouncing democracy, justifying the enemy, and labeling six years of the federal administration as “ruinous and diabolical.” Union of religion and politics should not be done incorrectly. “I wish for no politics or law that cannot be supported by scripture, but I do not want scripture supported by law.” 1424. Flint, James. God a Refuge and an Habitation in Times of Calamity and Danger. A Discourse, Delivered November 6, 1814, at the Request of the Officers and Soldiers of the Bridgewater Light Infantry, upon the Occasion of Their

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226  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Appearing in the House of God to Give Publick Thanks for Their Safe Return to Their Families and Friends, from Doing Duty in Defence of the Commonwealth. Boston: C. Stebbins, 1814. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 91:9–10. The will of God must prevail over the affairs of men. You must thank God you have been led in the cause of Massachusetts rather than by “some cowardly minion of President Madison, into the wilds of Canada, there to perish by disease, or to whiten the plains of battle with your bones.” 1425. Foster, Festus. An Oration, Pronounced before “The Washington Benevolent Society, of the County of Franklin in the Town of Northfield.” July 5, 1813. In Commemoration of the Thirty-Seventh Anniversary of American Independence. Brattleborough, Vt.: William Fessenden, 1813. Pamphlet. France seduced the United States to abandon Washington’s proclamation of neutrality. So long as the councils of America remain under the influence and control of Napoleon, nothing Britain or the United States can do will bring peace. 1426. Foster, John. A Sermon Preached in Brighton, January 12, 1815, a Day of National Fasting and Prayer in the United States. Boston: John Eliot, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Luke 14:31–32. Thankful for “the independent sovereignty of the states,” the last hope for liberty, and for the Christian governor of the state, we may “safely confide the protection of our rights to him, in conjunction with the council and legislature.” 1427. French, Jonathan. Sermons, Delivered on the 20th of August, 1812, the Day Recommended by the President of the United States for Public Humiliation and Prayer. To Which Are Added, Observations on the Propriety of Preaching Occasionally on Political Subjects. Exeter, N.H.: E. C. Beals, [1812]. Pamphlet. First sermon, text: 2 Samuel 24:14. Considers the several consequences of war. It should not be undertaken without adequate and clear cause. Second sermon, text: Deuteronomy 4:30–31. With division within the country, the country is now at war with a foreign power. The division must cease and the people must turn to God before peace can be expected. Preaching on political subjects: there are times when it is the duty of ministers to call attention to public affairs. This has scriptural authorization. 1428. Fuller, Timothy. An Oration Pronounced at Lexington, Massachusetts, on the Fourth of July, A.D. 1814, by Request of the Republican Citizens of Middlesex County, Being the Thirty-Eighth Anniversary of American Independence. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, 1814. Pamphlet. Reviews the coming of the war as a consequence of injustices by Britain. Despite the gloomy outlook in 1814, the prospects of American liberty and righteousness will prevail. 1429. Gardiner, John Sylvester John. A Discourse, Delivered at Trinity Church, Boston, July 23, 1812, on the Day of Publick Fast in Massachusetts, upon the Declaration of War against Great-Britain. Boston: Munroe and Francis, 1812. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 120:7. After blaming the cause of the war on the French Revolution, the antipathy of Americans to England, and the election of “improper representatives” to Congress, he implores his parishoners to use every opportunity for “execrating” the war, to resist the “baneful effects”

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The Domestic Scene  •  227 of a probable Franco-American alliance, to let Madison carry on his war, to consider cutting “the connexion” with the other states, and to seek God’s protection and favor. 1430. Gates, Isaac. An Oration, Pronounced Publicly, at Bedford, New-Hampshire, before the Washington Benevolent Society in That Place, July 4th, 1814. Concord, N.H.: George Hough, 1814. Pamphlet. Jefferson manifested “great partiality, and abject submission” to France and magnified mole hills into mountains in relations with Britain. The salvation of the country depends upon a return to the principles of Washington. The war is not a step in that direction. 1431. Giles, John. Two Discourses, Delivered to the Second Presbyterian Society in Newburyport, August 20, 1812; the Day Recommended by the President of the United States, for National Humiliation and Prayer. Bridgeport, Conn.: Stiles Nichols, 1812. Pamphlet. First sermon, text: Psalms 106:24. The United States has nothing to fear in its contest with a government “so depraved and corrupt, as that of the British.” The righteous God will not allow Britain’s “wicked and horrid ravages to go unavenged.” Second sermon, text: Psalms 106:24. Americans should plead for forgiveness of their sins for God’s continued protection of their liberty, and for recognition of the good works of Christians everywhere. 1432. Haskell, Abraham. Oration, Pronounced at Fitchburg, before the Washington Benevolent Society of Leominster and Fitchburg. At Their Anniversary Celebration of our National Birth Day, July 4, A.D. 1814. Worcester, Mass.: Isaac Sturtevant, 1814. Pamphlet. The American electorate must be made aware that when public calamity comes in consequence of weak or wicked measures, it is because they have placed bad men in office. For more than two years of war the country has little to show but defeat and disgrace. 1433. Hayne, Robert Y. An Oration, Delivered in St. Philip’s Church; before the Inhabitants of Charleston, South-Carolina, on Monday the 4th of July, 1814 in Commemoration of American Independence; by Appointment of the ‘76 Association, and published at the Request of That Society. 2d ed. Charleston, S.C.: Office of the Charleston Gazette, 1814. Pamphlet. A patriotic narration of American military glories. And an appeal for continued alertness and willingness to come to the country’s aid as England’s might, now freed from the Napoleonic conflict, “to reduce us to ‘UNCONDITIONAL SUBMISSION.’ ” 1434. Haynes, Lemuel. Dissimulation Illustrated. A Sermon Delivered at Brandon, Vermont, February 22, 1813, before the Washington Benevolent Society; It Being the Anniversary of Gen. Washington’s Birth-Day. Rutland, Vt.: Published at the Request of the Society, 1814. Pamphlet. Text, Romans 12:9. When civil authority involves a people in war, they must determine if there is just cause. Only a defensive war can be justified. The author has difficulty here especially upon examination of the grievances, so called. He calls for prayers for peace and the end of a senseless conflict. 1435. Lathrop, John. A Discourse on the Law of Retaliation, Delivered in the New Brick Church, February 6, 1814. Boston: James W. Burditt, 1814.

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228  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Text: Matthew 5:38–39. The war is increasingly involving and hurting innocent people of both nations. Returning slaughter for slaughter and burning for burning, the war is becoming a ruinous system of retaliation. This is contrary to the spirit of the gospel. 1436. Lathrop, John. Oration, in Celebration of the Peace Happily Concluded between the United States of America, and Great Britain; Delivered at Boston, March 16, 1815, at the Request of St. John’s Lodge; and Sanctioned by the Most Worshipful Grand Master of Massachusetts. Boston: E. G. House, 1815. Pamphlet. In the celebration of peace it was recalled that the Masonic lodge at Salem did considerable work to ease the lot of prisoners of war captured at sea who were kept in Salem. 1437. Livermore, Edward St. Loe. An Oration Delivered July the Fourth, 1813. At the Request of the Selectmen of Boston, in Commemoration of American Independence. Boston: Chester Stebbins, 1813. Pamphlet. For whatever reasons the Jeffersonians chose England to be the enemy in the world situation. Britain is “our natural ally” and France “our determined enemy.” If France succeeds, then the United States will become a “vassal” nation. 1438. McLeod, Alexander. A Scriptural View of the Character, Causes, and Ends of the Present War. New York: Eastburn, Kirk; Whiting and Watson; Smith and Forman, 1815. The five sermons are supportive of the government’s prosecution of the War of 1812 with valor, energy, and unanimity. He defends the right of using the pulpit to discuss such matters, examines the moral character of the belligerents, affirms the duty of supporting defensive war, and regards the war as a work of God’s providence. 1439. Merrill, Daniel. Balaam Disappointed. A Thanksgiving Sermon, Delivered at Nottingham-West, April 13, 1815. A Day Recommended by the National Government, in Which to Rehearse God’s Mighty Acts, and Praise His Name. 2d ed. Concord, N.H.: Isaac Hill, 1816. Pamphlet. Text: Numbers 23:23. Like ancient Israel, America is the most blessed of all nations. The New England clergy have generally parted from the church of Christ in the late war in reviling government leaders and demanding Constitutional changes because they are opposed to religious liberty and wish to govern as the clergy did in the British Empire. If not, they fear religious liberty will overturn them. Our clergy has been too much like Balaam’s. 1440. Merrill, Orsamus Cook. An Oration, Delivered at the Meeting House in Bennington, Vermont, on the Sixteenth of August, Anno Domini 1815. Bennington, Vt.: Darius Clark, 1815. Proclaims all American defeats and surrenders in the War of 1812 as cowardly and perhaps traitorous and all successes as heroic. The British were guilty of barbarous practices and policies. The war teaches the advantage and necessity of patriotism and firmness. 1441. Merritt, Timothy. A Discourse on the War with England; Delivered in Hallowell, on Public Fast, April 7, 1814. Hallowell, Maine: N. Cheever, 1814.

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The Domestic Scene  •  229 Pamphlet. Text: Judges 5:23. The congregation included a body of new recruits. An explanation as to why the war is a righteous one. Reply is given to the objections to the war. Considers the consequences of opposing the government and refusing to take part in the war. 1442. Morris, Gouverneur. An Oration, Delivered July 5th, 1813, before the Washington Benevolent Society, of the City of New York, in Commemoration of American Independence. New York: Washington Benevolent Society, 1813. Pamphlet. The present war is a futile effort to save the rights which may well be lost as a consequence of the war. Federalists must defend their liberty at any cost and cannot view unmoved the present danger to which the federal compact is subjected. 1443. Osgood, David. A Solemn Protest against the Late Declaration of War, in a Discourse, Delivered on the Next Lord’s Day after the Tidings of It Were Received. Cambridge, Mass.: Hilliard and Metcalf, 1812. The author, a Medford, Massachusetts, clergyman, paints the horrors of war as experienced in the American Revolution. The coming of war again will renew these horrors. The American Revolution was “necessary” but the War of 1812 cannot be justified. 1444. Prentiss, Charles. A Poem Delivered at Brookfield, July 5th, 1813, before the Washington Benevolent Societies of That and the Adjacent Towns. Brookfield, Mass.: E. Merriam, 1813. Pamphlet. The precepts of George Washington have been abandoned, Union is a precious state, but if it means “we must bondmen be, Let the cards snap—NEW ENGLAND SHALL BE FREE.” 1445. Robinson, William Alexander. “The Washington Benevolent Society in New England: A Phase of Politics during the War of 1812.” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 49 (March 1916): 274–86. The Washington Benevolent Society prospered in New England during the War of 1812 under a guise of secrecy and fraternal organization. The society was political and its considerable literature of orations, sermons, broadsides, newspapers, and pamphlets generally express pessimism and distrust in prevailing American institutions, especially the Republicans and their conduct of the war. 1446. Smith, John. An Apology for the Friends of Peace, in Two Discourses, Delivered August 20, 1812. Being the Day Appointed for Fasting and Prayer throughout the United States, on Account of the War with Great Britain. Haverhill, Mass.: W. B. and H. G. Allen, 1812. Pamphlet. Develops six reasons for those who are for peace in opposition to the prosecution of the War of 1812 and presents five measures for the friends of peace that will work toward its restoration. 1447. Snell, Thomas. An Oration, Pronounced at Brookfield, July 5, 1813: At The Celebration of the Independence of the United States of America. Brookfield, Mass.: E. Merriam, 1813. Pamphlet. The United States has not maintained its independent neutrality. It has sacrificed its own interests and destroyed its commerce. It has destroyed the incentives of its citizens to industry “merely to humble the pride of England and second the ambitious views of Bonaparte.”

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230  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1448. A View of the Democratick Republican Celebration, at Westmoreland, N.H. July 5th, 1813. Prayer by Rev. Nathaniel Wilbour. Oration by Nathan G. Babbitt. A Caustick, Pindarick, Hudibrastick Poem. N.p.: n.p., [1813]. Pamphlet. An account of a July Fourth celebration poetically expressed, including “a most notable prayer; nerveless oration; interspersed with similes, episodes, and various other Odeous things too numerous to mention.— The whole saturated with the Nitrick Acid of Satire, and well seasoned with Attick Salt.”

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Chapter

9

The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine

A. The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment 1449. Chartrand, René. “Canadian Voyageurs During the War of 1812.” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 72 (Autumn 1994): 184–86. The British formed two units of voyageurs to conduct supplies along the Upper St. Lawrence and along the Great Lakes. This article briefly explores the history of these units. 1450. Chartrand, René. Uniforms and Equipment of the United States Forces in the War of 1812. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1992. A detailed examination of uniforms and equipment of the U.S. Army, state militias, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Marines. Includes many photos and illustrations providing details on many aspects of dress, weapons, and equipment. 1451. Crackel, Theodore J. Mr Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801–1809. New York: New York University Press, 1987. A study of the significant changes made to the U.S. Army prior to the War of 1812, particularly in regard to the political allegiances of the officer corps during the administration of president Thomas Jefferson. 1452. Cruikshank, E. A. “Record of the Services of Canadian Regiments in the War 1812. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment.” Royal Canadian Military Institute Selected Papers from the Transactions 5 (1893–94): 5–15. A history of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment of Fencible Infantry, which served throughout Canada during the War of 1812 and also provided marine detachments for vessels of the Royal Navy on the Great Lakes.

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232  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1453. Cruikshank, E. A. “Record of the Services of Canadian Regiments in the War of 1812, Part II. The Glengarry Light Infantry.” Royal Canadian Military Institute Selected Papers from the Transactions 9 (1894–95): 70–80. A brief examination of a regiment raised in Canada during the War of 1812 and its participation in various battles and actions. 1454. Douglas, R. Alan. “Weapons of the War of 1812.” Michigan History 47 (December 1963): 321–26. Describes British and American firearms, ammunition, mines, and rockets used during the war. 1455. Fredriksen, John C. Green Coats and Glory: The United States Regiment of Riflemen, 1808–1821. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 2000. A history of a unique American regiment, armed with rifles, that provided the Americans with a technical and tactical advantage over the British until the arrival of the 95th Foot in 1814. 1456. Glover, Michael. “Purchase, Patronage and Promotion in the Army at the Time of the Peninsular War.” Army Quarterly 103 (1972–73): 211–15, 355–62. An overview of the system of officer rank in Wellington’s Peninsular Army. 1457. Glover, Michael. “The Purchase of Commissions: A Reappraisal.” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 58 (1980), 223–35. An overview of what is perhaps the most misunderstood aspect of the British Army for this period: the purchase of commissions in the cavalry and the infantry. 1458. Glover, Richard. Peninsular Preparation: The Reform of the British Army, 1795–1809. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963. An important work outlining the significant reforms made within the British Army that prepared it for the challenges it would face in the Iberian Peninsula and North America. 1459. Graves, Donald E. “A Collective Biography of the General Officers of the United States Army in the War of 1812. Part I: The Class of 1812.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (February 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. The first installment of a series of articles discussing the appointment and performance of American general officers in the first year of the war. 1460. Graves, Donald E. “A Collective Biography of the General Officers of the United States Army in the War of 1812. Part II: The Class of 1813.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (February 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. The second in this series of articles, this one discussing American general officers appointed during 1813. 1461. Graves, Donald E. “A Collective Biography of the General Officers of the United States Army in the War of 1812. Part III: The Class of 1814.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (September 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. The final installment of this trilogy of online article examining the appointment and conduct of American general officers during the War of 1812. This final article discusses those general officers appointed during the final year of the war.

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The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine  •  233 1462. Graves, Donald E. “For want of this precaution . . . many Men lose their Arms”: Official, Semi-Official and Unofficial American Artillery Texts, 1775–1815.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (January 2006); online at http://www. napoleon-series.org. An examination of the various manuals and texts used by the American artillery from the American War of Independence to the War of 1812. 1463. Graves, Donald E. “The Mysteries of the School at Woolwich: Royal Artillery Training and Texts, c. 1750–1850.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (February 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series.org. An examination of the key manuals used by the Royal Artillery. 1464. Gray, William. Soldiers of the King: The Upper Canadian Militia, 1812–1815. Toronto: Boston Mills, 1995. A comprehensive overview of the structure and organization of the Upper Canadian militia during the War of 1812, including nominal rolls of unit personnel. 1465. Greenhous, Brereton, “A Note on Western Logistics in the War of 1812.” Military Affairs 34 (April 1970): 41–44. A short article describing the impact of logistical considerations on operations in the western theater. 1466. Grodzinski, John R. “Command and Control in Upper Canada, 1812–1815.” War of 1812 Magazine 1 (January 2006); online at http://www.napoleon-series. org. This article discussed the organization structure by which the British ran the war in Upper Canada and how it evolved as that theater grew in importance. 1467. Homfrey, Irving, L. Officers of the British Forces in Canada During the War of 1812. Langley, British Columbia: Western Canadian, 1992. A useful guide to the British, Canadian, and foreign units that fought in the War of 1812, with biographical information on most of the officers listed. 1468. Johnson, Winston. The Glengarry Light Infantry, 1812–1816. N.p.: n.p. Winston Johnson, 1998. A detailed regimental history of an infantry regiment raised in Canada just prior to the outbreak of the War of 1812 and its service throughout the northern theater. This book is based almost exclusively on primary source material and includes battle narratives and nominal rolls of unit officers and other ranks. 1469. Katcher, Phillip. U.S. Infantry Equipment, 1775–1910. Osprey Men-at-Arms 214. London: Osprey, 1989. A description of the major types of American infantry equipment from the War of Independence to the early twentieth century. Includes several color plates by Bryan Fosten. 1470. Kimball, Jeffrey. “The Fog and Friction of Frontier war: The Role of Logistics in American Offensive Failure during the War of 1812.” Old Northwest 5 (1979–80): 323–43. A rare discussion of the influence of logistical matters, specifically supply and transportation, on American offensive operations. 1471. Kochan, James L. The United States Army, 1812–1815. Osprey Men-at-Arms 345. London: Osprey, 2000.

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234  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography An overview of the organization, dress, and equipment of the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. Includes several plates illustrating various uniforms and a brief overview of the war. 1472. Kochan, James L. The United States Army, 1783–1811. Osprey Men-at-Arms 352. London: Osprey, 2001. An overview of the establishment of the U.S. regular army and its development through peace and war prior to the War of 1812. 1473. Morris, John D. Sword of the Border: Major General Jacob Jennings Brown, 1775–1828. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2000. A biography of major general Jacob Brown, who originally served in the New State Militia and later transferred to the regular army and commanded the Left Division in the Niagara region during 1814. An important figure in American military history. 1474. Nelson, Harold L. “Military Roads for War and Peace 1791–1836.” Military Affairs 19 (Spring 1955): 1–14. An overview of the development of military roads in the United States to support operational and logistical requirements. 1475. Squires, W. Austin. The 104th Regiment of Foot (The New Brunswick Regiment), 1803–1817. Fredericton: New Brunswick Press, 1962. A history of the Royal New Brunswick Regiment, which in 1810 was taken into the line as the 104th Foot; it served with distinction during the War of 1812. 1476. Stuart Sutherland, His Majesty’s Gentlemen: A Directory of British Regular Officers of the War of 1812. Toronto: ISER Publications, 2000. An extremely useful directory that provides biographical data on every British officer that served in the War of 1812. Includes essays dealing with officer’s careers and the administration of the British army in North America. 1477. Temperley, Howard. Gubbins’ New Brunswick Journals, 1811 and 1813. Fredericton, New Brunswick: New Brunswick Heritage, 1980. An edited version of Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Gubbins’ journal, a British officer who served as inspecting field officer of militia for New Brunswick. The diary describes Gubbins’s inspection tours throughout the province during 1811 and 1813. 1478. Turner, Wesley. British Generals in the War of 1812. Montreal: McGillQueen’s University Press, 1999. An examination of five British generals who held various posts in British North America during the War of 1812: Sir Isaac Brock, Gordon Drummond, Sir George Prevost, Baron Francis de Rottenburg, and Roger Hale Sheaffe. Prevost was governor in chief and captain general of British North America from 1811 to 1815, while the others commanded in Upper Canada. 1479. Ward, S. G. P. Wellington’s Headquarters: A Study of the Administrative Problems in the Peninsula, 1809–1814. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957. While not dealing strictly with the War of 1812, this book does provide important detail on the higher command and control and organization of British forces in distant theaters. It also provides details on the staff positions and commissariat that supported the commander.

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The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine  •  235

B. Doctrine The Napoleonic period is noteworthy for the rich military literature it produced. Tactical manuals, technical handbooks, dictionaries and a variety of other subjects dominated the professional literature, written by officers of both sides and foreigners serving within their armies. This section will list the key manuals of the period but as the subjects are self-evident by the title will not include synopses of each one.

Period Manuals, Regulations and Military Literature 1480. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. General Regulations and Orders, 1st November 1804. London: 1805. 1481. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. General Regulations and Orders for the Army. London: 1811; reprint 1970. 1482. Great Britain, Admiralty. Regulations and Instruction Relating to His Majesty’s Service at Sea. London: 1808. 1483. Great Britain, War Office. Regulations to Regimental Surgeons, for the Better Management of the Sick. London: 1798. 1484. Great Britain, War Office. Instructions to Regimental Surgeons for Regulating the Concerns of the Sick and of the Hospitals. London: 1808. 1485. Great Britain, War Office. Baggage and Marches of the Army. London: 1798. 1486. Homans, Benjamin, comp. Laws of the United States in Relation to the Navy and Marine Corps. Washington, D.C.: 1841. 1487. Lower Canada, Adjutant General. Rules and Regulations for the Militia Forces of Lower Canada. Quebec: 1812. 1488. Nova Scotia, Adjutant-General. Militia Law of the province of Nova Scotia, in force in the year of our Lord, 1813. Halifax, Nova Scotia: 1813. 1489. Nova Scotia, Adjutant-General. Rules and Articles for the better government of the Militia Forces of this Province, while embodied on actual service. Halifax, Nova Scotia: 1812. 1490. Prince Edward Island, Adjutant-General. Militia General Order … orders, rules and regulations … to be strictly observed by the militia throughout Prince Edward Island. . . . Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island: 1814. 1491. United States, Adjutant and Inspector-General’s Office. Articles of War, Military Laws, and Rules and Regulations for the Army of the United States. Washington, D.C.: 1816. 1492. United States, Naval Office. Naval Regulations Issued by Command of the President of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: 1809 and 1814. 1493. United States, War Department. An Act Establishing Rules and Articles for the Government of the Armies of the United States with the Regulations of the War Department. Albany, 1812 1494. United States, War Department. Register and Rules and Regulations of the Army for 1813. Washington, D.C.: 1813.

Tactical Manuals 1495. Duane, William. Hand Book for Infantry. Philadelphia: 1813.

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236  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1496. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. Rules and Regulations for the Formation, Field-Exercise, and Movements of His Majesty’s Forces. London: 1808. 1497. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. The Manual and Platoon Exercises. Halifax, Nova Scotia: 1812. 1498. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. Rules and Regulations for the Cavalry. London: 1795. 1499. Great Britain, Adjutant General. Light Infantry Exercise: As Ordered in His Majesty’s Regulations for the Movements of the Troops. London: 1797. 1500. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. General Orders and Observations on the Movements and Field Exercise of the Infantry, 1st September 1804. London: 1805. 1501. Great Britain, Adjutant-General. Regulations for the Exercise of Riflemen and Light Infantry, and Instructions for their Conduct in the Field. London: 1798. 1502. Great Britain, Admiralty. Regulations and Instructions Relating to His Majesty’s Service at Sea, Established by His Majesty in Council. London: 1808. 1503. Jarry, Francois. Instruction concerning the Duties of Light Infantry in the Field. London: 1803. 1504. Rottenburg, Francis de. Regulations for the Exercise of Riflemen and Light Infantry, and Instructions for their Conduct in the Field, 1st August 1798, with Plates and Music. London: 1798. 1505. Steuben, Frederick William. Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. To Which is Added, an Appendix Containing, the United States Militia Act . . . 1792. Philadelphia: 1794; reprint New York: 1985. 1506. United States, Senate. Compendious Exercise of the Garrison and Field Ordnance as Practised in the United States. Washington, D.C.: 1810. 1507. United States, War Department. [Alexander Smyth]. Rules and Regulations for the Field Exercise, Manoeuvres and Conduct of the Infantry of the United States. Philadelphia: 1812. 1508. United States, War Department. [Stoddard, Amos]. Exercise for Garrison and Field Ordnance, Together with Manoeuvres of Horse Artillery, as altered from the Manual of General Kosciusko, and Adapted for the Service of the United States. Philadelphia: A. Finlay, 1812. 1509. United States, War Department. Rules and Regulations for the Field Exercise and Manoeuvres of Infantry. 2 vols. New York: 1815.

Officers’ Lists 1510. Great Britain, Admiralty. The Navy List. London: 1812–15 (yearly). 1 511. Great Britain, War Office. A List of all the Officers of the Army and Royal Marines on Full and Half-Pay. London: 1812–15 (yearly). 1512. United States. War Department. The Army Register of the United States, Corrected up to the 1st of June, 1814. Boston, 1814.

Technical Treatises and Literature 1513. Adye, Ralph W. The Bombardier and Pocket Gunner. London: 1813.

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The Forces, Uniforms, and Equipment; Doctrine  •  237 1514. Armstrong, John. Hints to Young Generals from an Old Soldier. Kingston, 1812 1515. Beauchant, Theophilus S. The Naval Gunner. London: 1829. 1516. Congreve, William. The Details of the Rocket System. London: 1814; reprint Ottawa, 1970. 1517. Cooper, T. H. A Practical Guide for the Light Infantry Officer. London: 1806; reprint, 1970. 1518. De Scheel, Henri Othon. Treatise on Artillery. Philadelphia: 1800; reprint Bloomfield, Ontario: 1984. 1519. Douglas, Howard. A Treatise on Naval Gunnery. London: 1819. 1520. Duane, William. American Military Library, or, Compendium of the Modern Tactics. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1809. 1521. Duane, William. A Military Dictionary, or, Explanation of the several systems of discipline of different kinds of troops, infantry, artillery, and cavalry. Philadelphia: 1810. 1522. Duane, William. A Hand Book for Cavalry. Philadelphia: 1813. 1523. Falconer, William, and William Burney. A New Universal Dictionary of the Marine; Being a Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases … London: 1815. 1524. Gassendi, Jean-Jacques Basilien de. Aide-Memoire, á l’usage des Officiers d’Artillerie de France. 2 volumes, Paris, 1801. 1525. [Grose, Francis]. Advice to Officers of the British Army. London: 1783. 1526. Hoyt, Epaphras. Practical Instructions for military officers . . . and tactics of riflemen and light infantry … to which is annexed, A new military Dictionary. Greenfield 1811. 1527. James, Charles. A New and Enlarged Military Dictionary, in French and English. 2 vols. London: 1810. 1528. James, Charles. The Regimental Companion, Containing the Pay, Allowances and Relative Duties of Every Officer in the British Service. 2 vols. London: 1811. 1529. Kosciuszko, Thaddeus. Manoeuvres of Horse Artillery. New York: 1808. 1530. Lallemand, Henri-Dominique. A Treatise on Artillery. 2 vols. New York: 1820. 1531. Le Mesurier, Haviland. The British Commissary, in two Parts. — Part I. A System for the British Commissariat on Foreign Service. — Part II. An Essay towards ascertaining the Use and Duties of a Commissariat Staff in England. London: 1798. 1532. Naval Pocket Gunner; or; Compendium of Information Relating to Sea Service Gunnery, Including Proportions of Guns and Stores for Every Class of Ships and Vessels in the British Navy. London: 1814. 1533. Rules and Regulations for the Field Exercise and Manoeuvres of the French Infantry, issued August 1, 1791, translated from the French . . . by LieutenantColonel Macdonald. 2 vols. London: 1802. 1534. Reide, Thomas. The Staff Officer’s manual, in which is detailed the Duty of Brigade Majors, and Aides de Camp in Camp, Garrison, Cantonments, on the March, and in the Field. . . . London: 1806. 1535. Reide, Thomas. A Treatise on the Duty of Infantry Officers in Camp, Garrison, Quarters, and on ship-board; and an Elucidation of the present System of British Military Discipline. . . . London: 1805.

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238  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1536. Smith, George. An Universal Military Dictionary, Or A Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms &c. Used in the Equipment, Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of an Army. London: 1789. 1537. Spearman, J. Morton. The British Gunner. Woolwich, England: 1828. 1538. Tousard, Louis de. American Artillerist’s Companion, or Elements of Artillery. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1809.

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Chapter

10

Peace

A. General Studies 1539. Butler, Nicholas Murray. The Effect of the War of 1812 upon the Consolidation of the Union. Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, 5th ser., vol. 7. Baltimore: Publication Agency of the Johns Hopkins University, 1887. Before the War of 1812, state sovereignty was foremost in the nation’s political activity. Secession was “the club” used by every minority on important questions to gain leverage. The war relieved this pressure and unity was achieved. Slavery soon occupied the central place in national considerations and state sovereignty was again used as a means to an end. State sovereignty was put down as a heresy by the Civil War. 1540. Coles, Harry L. “1814: A Dark Hour before the Dawn.” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Fall 1971): 219–21. During the War of 1812, the United States had faced tragedies, defeats, and misfortunes that usually afflict nations at war. That it emerged to begin a period of truly independent national growth was a tribute to the national character. The new nation was no longer an experiment. 1541. Greusel, Joseph, ed. Copies of Papers on File in the Dominion Archives at Ottawa, Canada, Pertaining to the Relations of the British Government with the United States During and Subsequent to the Period of the War of 1812. Michigan Historical Collections 16 (Lansing: Robert Smith & Co., 1910). Divided into two sections: the peace treaty and relations, 1815; subsequent relations, 1816–1819. See also Greusel entry (item 95) for previous volume under same title, except for period of coverage. 1542. Kaplan, Lawrence S. “The Paris Mission of William Harris Crawford, 1813– 1815.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 60 (Spring 1976): 9–22.

239

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240  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Crawford’s mission to France was to push for reparations for damages inflicted on American commerce, not to bring American war efforts into line with Napoleon’s war against Britain. He failed. More important, this was a part of American rejection of Europe. American security and prosperity in the nineteenth century were consequences of the Treaty of Ghent. 1543. Miller, John. “The Military Occupation of Green Bay.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 13 (March 1927): 549–53. The American government built Fort Howard at Green Bay and rebuilt Fort Dearborn at Chicago after the War of 1812 as a means of establishing authority over the Old Northwest. This closed the Fox-Wisconsin and Chicago-Illinois waterways to British traders. Colonel Miller built the two forts. The account of building Fort Howard is contained in his official report of August 1816. 1544. Riddell, William Renwick. Results of the War of 1812–14. [Toronto: n.p., 1913.] Reprints from Army and Navy Journal (New York) of a discussion between Riddell and the editor of the journal concerning a speech by the former. 1545. Tone, William Theobald Wolfe. Essay on the Necessity of Improving Our National Forces. New York: Kirk and Mercein, 1819. The United States emerged from the War of 1812 with a false sense of security, believing it was strong enough to repel every attack, and unaware of its weaknesses and insufficient means of defense. Britain, paramount in Europe, viewed the United States with jealousy and hostility, and was fearful of potential American challenge for its naval ascendancy and commercial monopoly. This study proposes ways for the United States to meet the British threat.

B. The Peace Settlement 1546. Adams, John Quincy. The Duplicate Letters, the Fisheries, and the Mississippi. Documents Relating to Transactions at the Negotiation of Ghent. Washington: Davis and Force, 1822. Adams, one of the team of negotiators, published this collection of official documents and newspaper accounts in response to allegations he was not properly concerned with matters involving fisheries and navigation rights on the Mississippi River. 1547. Adams, John Quincy. “Letter of John Quincy Adams, from Ghent, 1814.” American Historical Review 15 (April 1910): 572–74. Despairs (July 18, 1814) that peace on honorable terms is “utterly unattainable” and for a long time will be “absolutely hopeless.” 1548. [Atcheson, Nathaniel.] A Compressed View of the Points to Be Discussed, in Treating with the United States of America; A.D. 1814. With an Appendix and Two Maps. London: T. Davison, 1814. Nine recommendations are made, including those for boundaries, Indians, fisheries, trade, and the Floridas. The study proposes that English maritime rights should not even be discussed. 1549. Battenfeld, Esther Rice. “150 Years of Peace under a Six-Month Pact: The Great Lakes Armament Arrangement.” Inland Seas 23 (Summer 1967): 137–48.

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Peace  •  241 Charles Bagot of Britain and James Monroe of the United States worked out an agreement to suspend naval construction on the Great Lakes in late 1816; this became a forerunner of the Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817. 1550. [“The British Ghent Commission.”] Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 48 (December 1914): 138–62. Instruction to and dispatches from the British commissioners to the government. 1551. Brown, Lizzie M. “The Pacification of the Indians of Illinois after the War of 1812.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 (January 1916): 550–58. Most of the Indians of Illinois had fought against the Americans in the war. Friendly relations were not restored with all of the tribes until May 1816, marking the last of a series of treaties. 1552. Carr, James A. “The Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent.” Diplomatic History 3 (Summer 1979): 273–82. Disputes the conventional view that if the British had been victorious at New Orleans, they would have disavowed the peace treaty and kept possession of Louisiana, perhaps permanently, thus frustrating the American westward expansion. The study finds, to the contrary, that the British wanted to end hostilities as soon and gracefully as possible; the European situation and domestic problems were the compelling reasons. 1553. Davis, Charles G. “The Indian Boundary Line under the Treaty of August 24, 1816.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 28 (April 1935): 26–48. Following the War of 1812, Indians on the Upper Illinois River remained hostile. A treaty of peace was signed in August 1816. The United States acquired lands to the south of the then northern boundary of Illinois, including the Chicago area, which contained the water route between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. 1554. Dunham, Chester G. “Christopher Hughes, Jr. at Ghent, 1814.” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (Fall 1971): 288–99. Christopher Hughes Jr. was secretary to the American peace commissioners. He drafted and copied documents, kept records of the negotiations, and delivered copies of the signed treaty to the president and the secretary of state, and had been an artillery officer in the war. 1555. Engelman, Fred L. “The Peace of Christmas Eve.” American Heritage 12 (December 1960): 28–31, 82–88. Conflicts were prominent within the American delegation to the Ghent negotiations. Albert Gallatin is credited with welding the delegation into a group that held firm before the British. Even though the results—the Treaty of Ghent—represented only an armistice, the document had far-reaching influence. 1556. Engelman, Fred L. The Peace of Christmas Eve. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1962. A narrative account that led to the Treaty of Ghent. Credits the tenacity and courage of the American delegation and the general European situation for bringing the war to an official close. 1557. Facts and Documents, Relating to the State of the Controversy, between America and Great Britain; and the Dispositions of the Two Cabinets to Make Peace. Collected for the Use of the American People. By a Friend of Truth, and of Honorable Peace. Boston: True and Rowe, 1813.

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242  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Miscellaneous letters, instructions, and other documents with considerable emphasis on impressment. 1558. Falk, Stanley L. “Disarmament on the Great Lakes: Myth or Reality?” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 87 (December 1961): 69–73. The Rush-Bagot Agreement did not demilitarize the Great Lakes, but was concerned only with naval forces on the lakes. Disarmament did not come for a half century, until the need for arms along the international boundary had disappeared. 1559. Ferris, Woodbridge N. “American Peace Centenary.” Michigan Historical Collections 39 (1915): 275–79. Introductory remarks at the conference of the American Peace Centenary Committee, Mackinac Island, Michigan, July 1914. 1560. Fisher, Robert L. “The Treaties of Portage des Sioux.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 19 (March 1933): 495–508. The British abandoned the Indians at the Ghent negotiations, and the Americans were bound by the treaty to make peace with the Indians and to restore their rights. The Treaties of Portage des Sioux, 1815–1818, with the several tribes, opened the way for white migration westward by gradual removal of the Indians. 1561. Gates, Charles M. “The West in American Diplomacy, 1812–1815.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26 (March 1940): 499–510. Problems of the Canadian American frontier were secondary to impressment and maritime issues in Anglo-American peace negotiations, 1812– 1814. After April 1814 both governments endeavored to improve their positions in the Great Lakes country. This was abandoned and replaced by the status quo antebellum basis for a peace. Britain did surrender effective control of the northwestern Indian tribes, which prefaced their trans-Mississippi removal. 1562. Jackes, Lyman B. “Ghent and the Treaty.” Canadian Magazine of Politics, Science, Art and Literature 44 (December 1914): 147–51. A brief recounting of the negotiations in Ghent, Belgium, in 1814, which produced the treaty terminating the War of 1812. 1563. Jameson, J. Franklin, ed. “Letters Relating to the Negotiations at Ghent, 1812–1814.” American Historical Review 20 (October 1914): 108–29. The fifteen letters from a variety of public and private writers do not alter the essential features of the negotiations but shed some light on some aspects of the process, issues, and personalities. 1564. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. “The Negotiations at Ghent in 1814.” American Historical Review 11 (October 1905): 68–87. Peace efforts were made constantly during the war by representatives of both belligerents. England sought peace primarily because of fear of European complications. War aided national unity in the United States. 1565. “Major-General Henry Lee and Lieutenant-General Sir George Beckwith on Peace in 1813.” American Historical Review 32 (January 1927): 284–92. “Light Horse Harry” Lee was in Barbados recuperating from physical injuries he had received defending Federalist opposition to the American declaration of war in 1812. Beckwith was British governor of Barbados. Their 1813 correspondence discreetly but positively discusses the desirability of peace and means of ending hostilities.

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Peace  •  243 1566. Martell, J. S., ed. “A Side Light on Federalist Strategy During the War of 1812.” American Historical Review 43 (April 1938): 553–66. Exchanges between a British official in Halifax and the government in London concerning peace overtures of the Massachusetts government in late 1814 help explain British confidence of a separate peace with New England if Ghent negotiations failed or the Americans refused to ratify the treaty. 1567. Melish, John, ed. Documents Relative to the Negotiations for Peace between the United States and Great Britain. Philadelphia: George Palmer, 1814. Pamphlet. Communications between the United States Secretary of State and the peace commissioners, and a note from the British commissioners to their American counterparts. 1568. Merk, Frederick. “The Ghost River Caledonia in the Oregon Negotiation of 1818.” American Historical Review 55 (April 1950): 530–51. The Anglo-American conference of 1818 was held to effect a general settlement of controversies that had led to or grown out of the War of 1812 and that had not been settled by the peace treaty. In the closing days of the conference, the British rejected an offer to demark the Pacific Northwest giving them Admiralty Inlet, Georgian Strait, and Puget Sound. The offer was based on an erroneous map containing a Caledonia River. 1569. Mills, Dudley, “The Duke of Wellington and the Peace Negotiations at Ghent in 1814.” Canadian Historical Review 2 (March 1921): 19–32. By April 1814, Britain was freed from Napoleon’s threat and turned its attention to America, launching a number of offensives. The attack on Washington was successful, but other attacks were of mixed results. In November 1814, Wellington convinced the British government to terminate its efforts to secure the frontier of British North America and seek a quick end to the war. 1570. Payne, Charles E. “The Influence of Castlereagh on Anglo American Friendship.” In Internationalism and Democracy: Essays Personal, Historical, and Political in Memory of Charles E. Payne, edited by Stuart Gerry Brown, pp. 131–41. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press for Grinnell College, 1949. Lord Castelreagh’s patience and tolerance and his subordination of minor issues to the greater end in his dealings with America brought a change in Anglo American relations. Treating the United States as an equal sovereign power began a future of cordial cooperation between the two. 1571. Perkins, Bradford. Castlereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812–1823. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964. The United States fought and negotiated to preserve the position she had gained before 1812. On the diplomatic front in this war between “reluctant dragons” and in the peace settlement, John Quincy Adams and Viscount Castlereagh played the central roles. 1572. Preston, Richard A. “The Fate of Kingston’s Warships.” Ontario History 44 (July 1952): 85–100. Discusses the remains of the wooden ships that local mythology says were sunk in Lake Ontario near Kingston after the War of 1812 as a result of the Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817, and in such a fashion they could be raised again for use against an American attack. Not so; they were kept in use until no longer serviceable and then abandoned.

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244  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1573. Russell, Jonathan. [“Letters of Jonathan Russell, 1815.”] Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 44 (January 1911): 304–22. Russell’s two letters are addressed to John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. The three had been members of the Ghent treaty commission. Russell’s position on some key issues fueled later controversy. 1574. Scammell, E. H. “The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817.” Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records 13 (1915): 58–66. Each party to the Treaty of Ghent wanted the Canadian American boundaries redrawn to its own benefit. Armament and disarmament of the Great Lakes was debated. The heritage of the Rush-Bagot Agrement, while not always adhered to, has been to the mutual benefit of Canada and the United States. 1575. Skagg, J. C. A. “The Politics of Ending the War.” In War along the Niagara: Essays on the War of 1812 and Its Legacy, edited by Arthur R. Bolwer, 93–104. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara Association, 1991. An overview of the political considerations that resulted in the Treaty of Ghent. 1576. Stacey, C. P. “The Myth of the Unguarded Frontier, 1815–1871.” American Historical Review 56 (October 1950): 1–18. The Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 had no influence on border fortifications; to the contrary, it was followed by an intensification of military measures, particularly in Canada. The 1871 Treaty of Washington marked the demilitarization of the Canadian-American boundary. 1577. A Treaty of Peace and Amity between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America. Signed at Ghent, December 24, 1814. Published by Authority. London: R. G. Clarke, [1814]. The text of the treaty that ended the war. 1578. Updyke, Frank A. The Diplomacy of the War of 1812. Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic History, 1914. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1915; reprint Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965. British impressments and interference with American shipping justified the American declaration of war. About three-fourths of the volume concerns the peace making efforts during the war, the Ghent negotiations, and post-Ghent settlements of problems left open by the treaty.

C. The Reaction to Peace 1579. Appleton, Jesse. A Sermon, Delivered at Brunswick, April 13, 1815, Appointed as a Day of National Thanksgiving, by the President of the United States, on Account of the Peace Recently Established between This Country and Great Britain. Hallowell, Maine: Ezekiel Goodale, 1815. Pamphlet. The blessings of peace are appreciated through a consideration of the desolations of war. God causes war to end and to Him is owed gratitude. Emerging from the war, the people should contemplate the dangers to the country and accept responsibilities to preserve the peace.

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Peace  •  245 1580. [Austin, David.] Sketches of a Discourse, Delivered in the Presence of a Numerous Congregation of Citizens, Collected from the Adjacent Villages, and Assembled at Franklin, (Con.) for the Celebration of the Welcome Tidings of Peace, between Great-Britain and the United States, February 27, 1815. Norwich, Conn.: Russell Hubbard, 1816. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 118:27. Gratitude for peace should follow humiliation for our national and common sins. It is in God’s mercy that peace has come. The nations have been rebuked and the instruments of war should be replaced by the instruments of peace. 1581. Austin, James Trecothick. An Oration, Pronounced at Lexington, Mass. In Commemoration of the Independence of the United States of America, and the Restoration of Peace. 4th July, 1815. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, 1815. Pamphlet. Reviews the absurdities of the war, such as the Hartford Convention, and the glories, such as the victory at New Orleans. Domestic factions are broken down and the enemy has been scattered; the country should rejoice in peace. 1582. Berrian, Samuel. An Oration, Delivered before the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order, Hibernian Provident, Columbian, and Shipwright’s Societies, in the City of New-York, on the Fourth Day of July, 1815. New York: John Law, 1815. Pamphlet. The War of 1812 was waged for America’s indisputable rights, commercial prosperity, and national honor. With the return of Napoleon from exile, tyranny still survives. Other peoples suffer under despotism. If Americans remain united, however, they are invincible and can defy the world. 1583. Bliss, Henry. An Oration, Delivered at the Baptist Meeting-House in Colebrook, (Con.) on the National Thanksgiving. N.p.: “Published at the Request of the Hearers,” [1815]. Pamphlet in response to presidential proclamation of the termination of the War of 1812. Reviews the justness of the war for the United States, regrets the Hartford Convention and New England’s uncooperative stance, reviews the glories of American successes, and attributes the outcome to divine intervention. 1584. Bradstreet, Nathan. Peace. A Discourse, Delivered in Chester, New-Hampshire, April 13, 1815, Being the Day of National Thanksgiving, in Consequence of the Restoration of Peace between the United States and Great Britain. Concord, N.H.: I. and W. R. Hill, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 120:7. War of whatever form or name is evil. In this transition to peace the suffering and sacrifice of the late war must not be forgotten. In celebration of the restoration of peace, people should in gratefulness diffuse it to all parts of the country and over all the earth. 1585. Carrique, Richard. An Oration, Delivered at the Meeting-House in Dudley, Mass. Tuesday, February 28, 1815. On the Celebration of Peace. Worcester, Mass.: Henry Rogers, 1815. Pamphlet. Americans did not practice barbarity in the late war, the victories more than balanced defeats, the war was justifiably righteous and necessary. The war was not, therefore, disgraceful and dishonorable. The people should rejoice in the return of peace, but with decency and good order, prudence and temperance.

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246  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1586. Carter, Nathaniel H. An Oration, Delivered before the Republicans of Portland, on the Thirty-Ninth Anniversary of American Independence. Portland, Maine: F. Douglas, 1815. Pamphlet. The important effects of the War of 1812: it has elevated and established the American character; it has produced almost unanimous sentiment in favor of a navy; it has demonstrated the strength and durability of American political institutions; and it has given security against future wars with the blessings of an honorable peace. 1587. Chauncey, Nathaniel. An Oration, Delivered before the Washington Association of Philadelphia, and the Washington Benevolent Society of Pennsylvania, on the Fourth of July, 1815. Philadelphia: Washington Association of Philadelphia, 1815. Pamphlet. The War of 1812 associated the United States with France, “a band of robbers,” engaged in “a conspiracy against the order, liberty, and happiness of the civilized world.” England committed acknowledged injustices, but French infractions were much greater. The war did deliver the United States from foreign control and established its liberty for a second time. 1588. A Citizen of Philadelphia. The Second Crisis of America, or a Cursory View of the Peace Lately Concluded between Great Britain and the United States, Examining the Manner This Event Will Operate on the Commerce of America. In What Manner It Is Likely to Produce Benefits or Evils to Merchants, Manufacturers, Agriculturalists, and Distillers; in What Manner It Will Affect the Tonnage Interest, and Embracing Generally the Various Influence It May Have on the Destinies of the United States in Their Future Connexions, Political and Commercial, with the Rest of the Civilized World; together with Some Remarks and Opinions Relative to That Extraordinary Event Which Has Astonished the World, the Return of Napoleon to the Throne of France. By a Citizen of Philadelphia. New York: John H. Sherman, 1815. Pamphlet. The wisest policy for the United States is to stay aloof from foreign influence and prejudice and to pursue such systems as will keep us truly independent. George Washington’s advice about having friendship with all nations but avoiding entangling alliances is still very valid. 1589. A Cursory Glimpse of the State of the Nation, on the Twenty-Second of February, 1814, Being the Eighty-First Anniversary of the Birth of Washington; or A Physico-Politico-Theologico, Lucubration upon the Wonderful Properties of Nitrous Oxide, or the Newly Discovered Exhilarating Gas, in Its Effects upon the Human Mind, and Body; as They Were Exhibited, by Actual Experiment, in the Evening of the Twenty-Third Instant. Philadelphia: Moses Thomas, 1814. Pamphlet. Couched in an “abstract, allegorical manner,” and concludes in “a more declamatory tone.” The outcome of present peace negotiations is uncertain. The United States is now Britain’s “twin brother” and its performance in the war entitles it to equal rights and equal honors. Neither has anything to gain by “the present truly unprofitable contest.” 1590. Curtis, Jonathan. Two Sermons, Delivered at Epsom, New-Hampshire, on the Day Appointed for the Annual State Fast, and National Thanksgiving for Peace, April 13, 1815. Concord, N.H.: George Hough, 1815.

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Peace  •  247 Pamphlet. Forenoon sermon text: Isaiah 58:6; an abstract dissertation on fasting. Afternoon sermon text: Isaiah. 45:7; describes the manner in which God causes peace between nations. Enumerates the advantages of peace, any one of which is abundant cause for Thanksgiving. 1591. Dallas, Alexander James. An Exposition of the Causes and Character of the Late War with Great Britain. Published by Authority of the American Government. 7th ed. London: W. I. Clement, 1815. According to the included advertisement, the pamphlet was designed to prepare American support for an 1815 campaign and raising 100,000 men to expel the British completely. It was widely circulated despite the peace treaty of Ghent. Republished here from the American imprint of February 10, 1815. 1592. Daring, William. An Oration, Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society of Canaan, Columbia County, February 22d, 1816—Being the Birth Day of the Immortal Washington. (With Notes, Etc.). Hudson, N.Y.: William L. Stone, 1816. Pamphlet. Even though there was heroism and triumph in the War of 1812, the cost in lives, property, and disease squandered in the “fruitless contest” are a black page in the history of the United States. The electorate of whatever political persuasion must renounce indifference to governmental persons and policies and exercise the high responsibility proclaimed by George Washington. 1593. Easton, Robert. Reasons for Joy and Praise. A Sermon, Preached April 6, 1815: Being the Day of General Thanksgiving, for Peace with the United States: In the Presbyterian Church, St. Peter’s Street, Montreal. Montreal: Nahum Mower, 1815. The Americans were the aggressors in the war, motivated by blind devotion to the despot of France. God had preserved Canada under Britain. Lower Canada (Quebec) had been largely exempted from the ravages of war and had prospered. 1594. Elmer, Ebenezer. Oration Delivered before the Washington Whig Society and Other Citizens of the County of Cumberland, (N.J.) April 11, 1815, by Gen. Ebenezer Elmer. Philadelphia: Washington Whig Society, 1815. Pamphlet. “The repeated kind interpositions of divine providence” on behalf of the American people have placed them under obligations of thanksgiving and praise. The best form of gratitude is to live quietly, peaceably, and without hypocrisy. Errors of government and its leaders are a part of the human condition and will always be present, whoever fills the offices. 1595. Emmons, Nathanael. A Discourse, Delivered on the National Thanksgiving, April 13, 1815. Dedham, Mass.: Gazette Office [by Jabez Chickering], 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Jeremiah 30:21. Neglect and abuse of the electoral process account for the choice of American leaders (Jeffersonian) who have and still involve the country in its political distresses and embarrassments. The past and present goodness of God places Americans under “indispensable obligation” to vigorously exert themselves for the rights and privileges bestowed upon them. 1596. Flint, Abel. A Discourse, Occasioned by the News of Peace, Delivered at the South Meeting-House in Hartford, February 14, 1815. Hartford, Conn.: Sheldon and Goodwin, 1815.

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248  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 147:12–14. The signal favors conferred on the American people are to be ascribed to God. In return, homage and obedience are due Him; the things which made for peace should be studied; party partisanship should be set aside. 1597. Foster, Edmund. A Sermon, Preached at Littleton, April 18th 1815; Being the Day of National Thanksgiving, for the Restoration of Peace between the United States of America and Great Britain. Boston: Ezra B. Tileston, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 46:7–11. God is not the author and mover of wars and of the attendant miseries. He does punish transgressors and brings good out of evil. Once again God has wrought salvation for the nation. 1598. Greene, Christopher R. An Oration, Delivered in St. Michael’s Church, Charleston, South-Carolina; on Tuesday, the Fourth of July, 1815; in Commemoration of American Independence; by Appointment of the South-Carolina State Society of Cincinnati, and Published at the Request of that Society; and Also of the American Revolution Society. Charleston, S.C.: W. P. Young, 1815. Pamphlet. Even as the country emerges from war, events in Europe are cause for apprehension. If war comes again to Europe, the United States must guard its neutrality. If war does come to this country, the author predicts it will emerge victorious. 1599. Hall, Moses, Jr. An Oration Pronounced at Saugus, July Fourth, 1815, the Anniversary of American Independence. Boston: T. B. Wait and Sons, 1815. Pamphlet. Not a single object of the war has been gained. If the country is ever to prosper and to cope with future crises and situations, there is little to fear “if we have wisdom at the head of the nation, and are united.” 1600. Hobart, John Henry. The Security of a Nation. A Sermon, Preached in Trinity Church, in the City of New-York on Thursday, April 13, A.D. 1815; Being the Day Appointed by the President of the United States, and the Governor of the State of New-York, as a Day of Thanksgiving to Almighty God for the Various Public Mercies of His Providence, and Especially for the Restoration of the Blessings of Peace. New York: T. and J. Swords, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 144:15. The security of the nation can be continued by: selflessness in the pursuit and use of wealth and the exercise of political rights; virtuous habits as opposed to indolence, luxury, and licentiousness; acknowledgment of God’s righteous dominion; and humble submission to the Gospel of Christ. 1601. Holmes, John. An Oration, Pronounced at Alfred, on the 4th of July, 1815, Being the Thirty Ninth Anniversary of American Independence. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, 1815. Pamphlet. After reviewing the several evidences of opposition to the war, especially in Massachusetts, the consequences of war at the hands of Britain, and the loss of American lives, the speaker suggests responsibilities: do not form foreign attachments, love one’s country, respect elected officials, discountenance local prejudices and jealousies, and show devotion to the Constitution. 1602. Jarvis, Samuel F. The Duty of Offering unto God Thanksgiving. A Sermon, Preached in St. Michael’s Church, Bloomingdale, on the Second Thursday in April, A.D. 1815; the Day Appointed by the President of the United States as a Day of Thanksgiving for the Restoration of the Blessings of Peace. New York: Eastburn, Kirk, 1815.

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Peace  •  249 Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 1:14. The greatest of all human blessings, peace, comes from God. We cannot give God anything in return but rather our thanks and our tangibly expressed acts of charity and goodwill toward fellow humankind. 1603. Lathrop, John. A Discourse, Delivered in Boston, April 13, 1815, the Day of Thanksgiving Appointed by the President of the United States. In Consequence of the Peace. Boston: J. W. Burditt, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: 1 Chronichles 16:8–9. In peace, feelings of resentment over sufferings and injuries have no place. Generosity is a characteristic of the brave who are first to forgive and forget. The enemy has suffered, too. Peace should heal the wounds. 1604. Latta, John E. A Sermon Preached at New-Castle, (Del.) on the Thirteenth Day of April, 1815. A Day Recommended by the President of the United States, to Be Observed as a Day of Public Thanksgiving and Praise to God for the Restoration of Peace. Wilmington, Del.: Robert Porter, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: 2 Chronicles 20:27–30. Cause for gratitude for peace is readily discerned when the evils of war are contrasted with the blessings of peace. By embracing the Gospel of peace, its blessings will continue forever. 1605. Latta, John E. A Sermon Preached on the Twelfth of January, 1815. A Day Recommended by the President of the United States, to be Observed as a Day of Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer. Wilmington, Del.: Robert Porter, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: 2 Chronicles 32:7–8. The war is against a proud, oppressive kingdom devoted to destruction. The war is waged for independence, liberty, and the rights won by the forefathers. Glory should be given God for his divine protection and assistance in this cause. 1606. Leland, Sherman. An Oration, Pronounced at Dorchester, July 4, 1815. In Commemoration of the Independence of the United States of America. Boston: Rowe and Hooper, 1815. Pamphlet. The war rescued American independence and honor with land and sea victories. Commerce has been freed from British and French restrictions. Internally “that political monster, Faction” has been crushed. And Christianity requires, as far as possible, forgiveness of the injuries suffered at the hand of the enemy. 1607. McDonald, John. Jehovah-Shalom: or, The Peace Sending Jehovah. A Thanksgiving Sermon, Preached April 13th, 1815: The Day Recommended by Our National and State Governments, for the Expression of Public Acknowledgments to God for the Late Seasonable and Acceptable Peace. Albany, N.Y.: E. and E. Hosford, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Judges 6:23–24. Emphasizes the contrast between the tyranny and crime of war that covered the nations and threatened the dissolution of society with the divine power and benevolence that has intervened to bring peace. 1608. Moore, Humphrey. An Oration, Delivered at Milford, N.H. March 9, 1815, Occasioned by the Treaty of Peace, Made and Ratified, between Great-Britain and the United States. Amherst, N.H.: R. Boylston, 1815. Pamphlet. Rhetorical ruminations about war and its consequences. Peace comes to a weary land. The nation should be wiser for the experience of war so as not to repeat the experience. Peace must be preserved in relation to other nations and within the United States.

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250  •  The War of 1812: An Annotated Bibliography 1609. Moore, Humphrey. An Oration, Prepared To Be Delivered at Nottingham West, N.H. April 11, 1815, in Celebration of the Late Peace Established between Great-Britain and the United States of America; but Was Not Delivered in Consequence of Unfavorable Weather. Amherst, N.H.: R. Boylston, 1815. Pamphlet. As it is the duty of a people at war to humble themselves before God and to pray for removal of the evil, it is no less the duty to approach God with joy and gratitude once the evil has been removed. The blessings of peace are great and numerous. Enumerates duties for preservation of domestic and international peace. 1610. Morse, John. A Sermon, Delivered at Hillsdale, Green-River Society, Columbia County, New York, April 13, 1815, It Being a Day of Public Thanksgiving by Order of the President of the United States, on Account of the Restoration of Peace. Hudson, N.Y.: S. W. Clark, 1815. Pamphlet. Text: Psalms 124:1–8. As the psalmist of old proclaimed, “If it had not been the Lord who was on our side, when men rose up against us, then had they swallowed us up quick, when their wrath was kindled against us.” There is reason to believe the text is applicable to the United States. 1611. Mottey, Joseph. An Address, Occasioned by the Peace between America and Great Britain, Established Feb. 17, 1815; Delivered at Lynnfield, on the Anniversary Birth-Day of George Washington. Cambridge, Mass.: Hilliard and Metcalf, 1815. Pamphlet. The United States has made peace with its public enemy. The American people now need to make peace among themselves. If they will do all that God requires of them they will secure their own happiness. 1612. Paige, Reed. Two Sermons, Delivered at Hancock, New-Hampshire, April 13, 1815. Being the Day, Recommended by His Excellency the Governor of This State, To Be Observed as a Day of Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer; and Recommended by the President of the United States, To Be Observed as a Day of Public Thanksgiving, for the Restoration of Peace. Concord, N.H.: I. and W. R. Hill, 1815. Pamphlet. When people sin, God will inflict evil upon them; and the people should confess and implore divine forgiveness. The restoration of peace is God’s forgiveness for which the people should acknowledge with grateful hearts and exulting minds. 1613. Turner, Edward. The Substance of a Discourse, Delivered at the Universalist Meeting-House in Char[l]estown, Mass. April 13, 1815, Being the Day of General Thanksgiving for the Return of Peace. To Which Is Added, An Address to the Singing Society and Choir. Charlestown, Mass.: J. Howe, 1815. The discourse is a sermon on peace calling for gratitude for deliverance of the nation from war and its manifold evils, for prayers that peace will prevail henceforth, and for joyfulness chastened by a humble spirit. 1614. Ware, Henry. A Poem Pronounced at Cambridge, February 23, 1815, at the Celebration of Peace between the United States and Great Britain. Cambridge, Mass.: Hilliard and Metcalf, 1815. Pamphlet. A nationalistic hymn of victory.

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Index Note: Numbers refer to bibliography entry numbers and not page numbers

A Abbot, John, 1042 Abbott, Willis John, 1153 Abercrombie, James, 251 Adams, Charles Francis, 972, 1155 Adams, Evelyn Crady, 716 Adams, Henry, 22 Adams, Israel, 23 Adams, John, 252, 253, 1321 Adams, John Quincy, 24, 25, 1306, 1546, 1547, 1571 Adams, Reed McC. B., 973 Admiralty Court, 299 African Americans, 154, 1003, 1353 In U.S. Navy, 701 New Orleans, 984 Aiken, Solomon, 1408 Ainsworth, Walden L., 974 Albion, Robert Greenhalgh, 1 Alcock, Donald Gordon, 1255 Alexander, J.H., 808 Allaben, Frank, 27, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664 Allan, Victor, 1156 Allen, Benjamin, 1058 Allen, Gardner W., 1335 Allen, John, 554 Allen, Robert S., 27, 420 Allen, William Henry, 1157

Altoff, Gerard, 1059 Altsheler, Joseph Alexander, 28 Amers, Benjamin, 1368 Anderson, David D., 717 Anderson, Dice R., 366, 421 Anderson, Elbert, 1369 Anderson, Frank Maloy, 1287 Anderson, Thomas Gummersail, 1042 Andrews, Charles, 31 Andros, Thomas, 1409 Anglo-American Relations, 1570, 1571 Antal, Sandy, 718 Appleton, Jesse, 1579 Armies British Army, 21, 57, 752, 1479 Command and Control in Upper Canada, 1466 Discipline, 96 General Officers, 1478 Mackinac Island, at, 1050 Movement of Regiments to North America, 1814, 827 Officers, 473 Officer Lists, 1468, 1477, 1510, 1511 Officers’ Commissions, 1456, 1457 Plattsburgh Campaign, 868 Reform of, 1458 British Regiments 8th Regiment, 438 41st Regiment, 430 104th Foot, 787, 1476

251

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252  •  Index

Canadian Chasseurs (Independent Foreigners), 1097 Glengarry Light Infantry, 447, 1453, 1469 Regiment de Watteville, 654 Royal Newfoundland Fencible Infantry, 428, 1452 Voltiguers Canadiens, 794 United States Army, 1451, 1472, 1473, 1474 Discipline, 102 Enlisted Men, 873 General Officers, 118, 1459, 1460, 1461 Officers’ List, 1512 Operations, 167 Training, 869 United States Army Regiments 4th Regiment, 524 13th Infantry, 490 19th Infantry, 562 21st Infantry, 896 22nd Infantry, 441 U.S. Regiment of Riflemen, 1455 Armstrong, Frederick H., 1256 Armstrong, John, Jr., 32, 177, 225, 901, 902, 903, 937, 1324, 1325, 1326 Armstrong, Koscuiszko, 903, 937 Armstrong, Captain R.E., 894 Artwork, 925, 1115, 1181 Atcheson, Nathaniel, 1547 Atherton, William, 555 Atlases, 146 Auchinleck, Gilbert, 33 Austin, David, 1580 Austin, James Trecothick, 1581 Austin, Samuel, 367, 399 Assizes, 1337 Ancaster, Upper Canada, 1360

B Babcock, Kendric Charles, 34 Babcock, Louis L., 422, 845 Bacon, Lydia B., 556 Bailey, Isaac, 1060 Baines, Edward, 35

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Baker, Louisa, 1158 Baker, Wallace C., 975 Balinky, Alexander S., 1061, 1370 Ballou, Hosea, 400 Ballou, Maturin Murray, 1062 Baltimore, MD, 295, 1226, 1231, 1232, 1299 Bancroft, George, 666 Banner, James M., Jr., 1288 Bannister, J.A., 825 Barbuto, Richard, 848 Barce, Elmore, 318, 319 Barclay, Commander Robert, 662, 663, 703 Baring, Alexander, 255 Barker, Jacob, 137 Barker, Joseph, 401 Barlow, William Ray, 36, 320, 1289 Barnes, James, 1063, 1064 Barton, Titus Theodore, 402 Basoco, R.M., 994 Bassett, Charles C., 1159 Bates, Joseph, 1065 Battenfield, Esther Rice, 1549 Battles, Blockades, Campaigns, Sieges, Land American Invasion of Western Upper Canada, 747 Baltimore, 69, 841, 910, 911, 912, 920, 924, 925, 926, 927, 934, 941, 942, 944, 946, 949, 951, 968 Beaverdams (Beechwoods), 760, 764, 774 Bladensburg, 905, 936 Brownstown, 559, 571 Castine Expedition, 828, 840 Chesapeake Bay, 919, 933 Châteauguay, 753, 763, 779, 780, 784, 792 Chippewa, 69, 829, 870, 880, 888, 893 Cook’s Mills (Lyon’s Creek), 846 Credit Island, 1055 Crysler’s Farm, 768, 790, 795 Delaware, 935 Detroit, 72, 565, 567, 569, 570, 593, 126 Fort Dearborn, 628, 632, 634, 637, 638, 639, 641, 647 Fort Erie, 845, 853, 872, 881, 882, 899, 890

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Index  •  253

Fort George, 756, 757, 758 Fort Madison, 42 Fort McHenry, 923, 959, 960 Fort McKay, 1044, 1048 Fort Meigs, 723, 724, 726, 727, 738, 743 Fort Niagara, 782 Fort Stephenson, 717 Frenchtown, 568, 575 Hampton, Virginia, 954 Lacolle Mill, 866 Longpoint, Upper Canada, 898 Longwood (Battle Hill), 832 Lundy’s Lane, 851, 871, 897 Mackinac Island (Michilimackinac), 1049. 1050, 1054 Maryland, Invasion of, 939, 952 Monguagon, 560 Montreal, American campaign against, 790 New Orleans, 804, 973, 976, 977, 979, 980, 981, 982, 983, 984, 985, 986, 995, 999, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1014, 1015, 1017, 1018, 1019, 1023, 1026 New Orleans Campaign, 806, 807, 813, 826, 974, 978, 988, 989, 991, 992, 993, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1013, 1025, 1028, 1029, 1033, 1036, 1037, 1039, 1040, 1041 Niagara Frontier, 830 Niagara 1813 Winter Campaign, 759 Niagara 1814 Campaign, 848, 854, 855, 861, 865, 869, 877, 887, 898 North Point, 923, 955 Penobscot, 839 Pensacola, 997 Plattsburgh, 834, 847, 849, 860, 863, 864, 868, 875, 876, 889, 891, 895, 900 Prairie du Chien, 1045, 1046, 1056 Queenston Heights, 605, 607, 609, 610, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 781 Raids, 835 River Raisin, 537, 557, 577, 597 Sackets Harbor, 705, 766 Stoney Creek, 750, 775, 796 Stonington (Connecticut), 842 Thames (Moraviantown), 749

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Tipton’s Island, 649 Upper St Lawrence River, 98 Washington, 69, 136, 841, 901, 913, 915, 921, 929, 930, 931, 933, 938, 942, 943, 947, 957, 958, 958, 961, 962, 963, 969, 970, 971 York, 755, 761, 788, 791 Battles, Naval, see Naval Warfare, Sea Power, Battles and Engagements Bayley, Kiah, 403 Beal, Vernon L., 557 Beall, William K., 558 Beattie, Judith A., 1066 Beaumont, William, 423 Beckwith, Lieutenant General Sir George, 1565 Beirne, Francis F., 37 Belknap, Henry Wyckoff, 1216 Bell, Benjamin, 404 Beman, Nathan Sidney Smith, 405 Bemis, Stephen, 1410 Bender, Lieutenant Benoit, 736 Benevolous, Hector (pseudo), 1290 Benn, Carl, 38, 39, 40, 41 Bennett, David C., 42 Berrain, Samuel, 1582 Berton, Pierre, 535, 648 Biblical Reference. See Religious and Biblical References Bigelow, Abijah, 1291 Bigelow, Jacob, 42 Bigelow, Lewis, 1411 Biggar, E.B., 750 Bird, Harrison, 424 Bishop, Levi, 559, 560 Black, Samuel, 561 Blacks, see African Americans Blatchford, Samuel, 536 Bledsoe, Jesse, 321 Bliss, Henry, 1336, 1412, 1583 Blockade, 1143, 1148 France, 292 Blue, Charles S., 212 Bond, Beverley W., Jr., 720 Boom, Aaron M., 797 Borneman, Walter R., 44

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254  •  Index Boston, Mass., 280, 843, 1147, 1271, 1344, 1381 Dockyard, 1099 Boucherville, René Thomas Vercheres de, 594 Bourne, Alexander, 721 Bowen, Abel, 1161 Bowler, Arthur, 1257, 1258 Boyde, John Parker, 343, 751 Boyle, Gertrude M., 2 Boylen, J.C., 606 Brackenridge, Henry Marie, 46 Bradford, Sydney S., 906, 907 Bradley, Glenn Danford, 722 Bradley, Jared W., 322 Bradley, Micah, 213 Bradstreet, Nathan, 1584 Brannan, John, 47 Brant, Irving, 48, 49, 214, 256 Breithaupt, W.H, 425 Brewer, Lucy, 1162 British Army, see Armies British North America, 361, 1328, 1354, 1388 Dissension, 1361 Impact of War of 1812 on, 1363 Brock, Major-General Sir Isaac, 118, 170, 542, 545, 548, 606, 610, 613, 614 Bronson, Enos, 257 Brooks, Charles B., 977 Brooks, George S., 1067 Broussard, James H., 1293, 1294, 1295 Brown, Ashley, 562 Brown, Dorothy M., 1296 Brown, Francis, 406 Brown, Major-General Jacob, 884, 885, 893 Brown, John, 258 Brown, Kenneth L., 1068 Brown, Lizzie M., 1551 Brown, Noah, 668 Brown, Roger Hamilton, 215, 369, 369 Brown, Samuel R., 51, 426, 669 Brown, Wilburt Scott, 978 Browne, Benjamin Frederick, 1217 Bryant, William Cullen, 259 Brymner, Douglas, 1044 Brynn, Edward, 1259

RT56315.indb 254

Bryon, Gilbert, 909 Buell, W.S., 427, 752 Buckley, William M., 1297 Bulger, Alfred Edward, 1045, 1046 Bulger, Andrew H., 428, 618, 1047 Bulkley, John M., 537 Bunnell, David C., 670 Burchard, Roswell B., 671 Burges, James Bland Burges, Tristam, 672 Burnham, Abraham, 1413 Burning, Towns and Villages American, 783 British North American, 825 Burpee, Lawrence J., 1260 Burt, Alfred LeRoy, 52 Burwash, Ida, 429 Butler, James, 1069 Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1539 Byfield, Shadrach, 430 Byrd, Cecil K., 323, 563

C Cady, John Frank, 324 Caffrey, Kate, 53 Cain, Emily, 1070 Calderhead, William L., 1142, 1218 Calico, Forrest, 54 Calvert, George H., 673 Campbell, Francis Wayland, 431 Campbell, John T., 325 Campbell, Justice, 1337 Canada. See British North America Canada West, 1260 Canadian Militia, see Militia, Canadian Canning, George, 274, 297 Carey, Matthew, 1298, 1414 Carman, Francis A., 753, 754 Carney, R.B., 1071 Carr, Albert Z., 216 Carr, James A., 1552 Carr, Mrs. Henry James, 55 Carrique, Richard, 1585 Carroll, Charles, 910 Carter, Edward C., 1072, 1298 Carter, Nathaniel, 1586 Carter, Samuel, III, 979

8/28/07 9:30:33 AM

Index  •  255 Cary, Isaac H., 1271 Casey, Powell, 980, 981 Casey, Richard P., 261 Cass, Lewis, 576 Cassell, Frank A., 911, 912, 1299 Castel, Albert, 982 Castlereagh, Lord, 1570, 1571 Catlin, George B., 564 Catlin, Jacob, 407, 408 Chalou, George Clifford, 326 Champagne, Raymond W., Jr., 371 Channing, William Ellery, 409, 410, 1415 Chapin, Cyrenius, 56 Chapple, William Dismore, 1220 Chartrand, René, 57, 1449, 1450 Chauncey, Commodore Isaac, 552 Chauncey, Nathaniel, 1587 Checkland, S.G., 1372 Cheetham, James, 263 Chesapeake Bay, 909, 919 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, 271, 284, 311, 442, 1157 Chicago, 619, 633, 634 Chidsey, Donald Barr, 983 Christian, Marcus, 984 Christie, Robert, 433 Church, John Hubbard, 217 Claiborne, Nataniel Herbert, 798 Claiborne, W.C.C., 322 Clark, Daniel Atkinson, 1416 Clark, E.M., 620 Clarke, Jack Alden, 655, 1300 Clarke, James Freeman, 565, 566 Clauder, Anna Cornelia, 1373 Cleary, Francis, 567 Cleaveland, John, 411 Clift, G. Glenn, 58, 568 Clinton, DeWitt, 218 Cobbett, William, 59, 60 Cockburn, Admiral Sir George, 913, 916 Cocke, John, 799 Coffee, John, 797 Coffin, Robert Stevenson, 1073 Coffin, William Foster, 436 Coggleshall, George, 1221, 1221 Colbeck, Marjorie, 2 Coleman, Christopher B., 327, Coleman, Lizzy D., 621 Coleman, Peter, 1374

RT56315.indb 255

Coles, Harry L., 61, 1540 Collins, Gilbert, 62 Colman, Henry, 427 Colquhoun, A.H.U., 437 Combs, Leslie, 723 Commemorations and Memorials, 7, 132, 233, 537, 667, 689, 695, 715, 731, 846, 904, 976, 993, 1180, 1183, 1184 Commerce, Trade and Finances, 160, 267, 285, 290, 301, 310 American Grain Trade, 1382, 1383, 1384 American Trade Restrictions, 1386 Army Bill Act, Lower Canada, 1404 Chaplain – Richelieu Corridor, 1395 Embargo, 259, 261, 277, 280, 291, 295, 300, 304, 305, 306, 316 Finances, 1388, 1396 Intercourse Acts, 260 Non-Importation, 279 Commins, James, 438 Compton, H.W., 724 Compton-Smith, C., 755 Congress, U.S., 368, 375, 376, 380, 397, 1289 Connor, Ralph, 1338 Cook, John Henry, 986 Cook, Phinehas, 1417 Cooper, James Fenimore, 675 Copeland, Charles H.P., 1375 Copp, Walter Ronald, 1223, 1376 Corning, Howard, 1224 Courts Martial, 1343 Bache, Lieutenant-Colonel Louis, Pennsylvania Militia, 918 Bender, Lieutenant Benoit, 41st Foot, 736 Cushing, Colonel Thomas H., 801 Gardner, Major Charles K., U.S. Army, 850 Mullins, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas, 44th Regiment, 1002 Coutts, Katherine b., 725 Cox, Isaac Joslin, 328, 676, 800, 809 Cox, Richard J., 677 Craig, Hamilton, 1339 Craig, Sir James, 434 Cramer, C.H., 440

8/28/07 9:30:33 AM

256  •  Index Crane, William Bowers, 1226 Cranwell, John Philips, 1225 Crawford, Michael J., 1075 Creek War, 804, 807, 815, 816, 818, 819, 821, 822, 823 Fort Mims Massacre, 820 Crogan, George, 732, 739, 746 Crombie, John Newell, 441 Crosby, Alfred W., Jr., 1227 Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander, 219, 220, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 569, 570, 607, 608, 623, 756, 757, 758, 759, 760, 851, 852, 853, 854, 1340, 1452, 1453 Cullum, George W., 63 Cumberland, Barlow, 449, 761 Curtis, Jonathan, 1590 Curzon, Sarah Anne, 609, 762 Cushing, Daniel Lewis, 726 Cushing, Samuel, 727 Cushing, Colonel Thomas H., 801 Cushman, Elisha, 1418 Cushman, Joshua, 1419 Custer, Milo, 1377 Cuthbertson, George A., 1378

D Dale, Allan, 763 Dale, Ronald J., 66 Dallas, Alexander James, 1591 Dalliba, James, 571 Dangerfield, George, 266 Daring, William, 1592 Darling, Carlos Parsons, 67, 539 Darnall, Elias, 572 Dartmoor Prison, see Prisoners of War Daughters of the War of 1812, 155 Davidson, A.A., 649 Davis, Charles G., 1553 Davis, John, 1076 Davis, Paris M., 68, 69 Davis, William C., 987 Dearborn, Henry, 74, 573, 1313 Decatur, Stephen, 1144 De Gaugreben, Frederick, 540 De Grammond, Jane Lucas, 988, 989, 990

RT56315.indb 256

De Salaberry, Charles, 753 De Toussard, Chevalier Anne Louis, 991 De Verges, Marie Cruzat (Mrs Ewin X) Deconde, Alexander, 372 Democratic-Republican Party, 316, 373 Denison, Charles W., 1163 Desertion, 817 Detroit, Michigan, 498, 523 Dewar, Donald Keith, 764 Dickson, Robert, 623 Dictionary of American Biography, 3 Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 4 Dictionary of National Biography, 5 Dietz, Anthony George, 69, 1077 Diplomacy, 1541, 1561 Dixon, Richard Remy, 993 Dobbins, William, 678 Dodds, Gilbert F., 6 Dodge, Bertha S., 1228 Dodge, Robert John, 679, 680, 1261 Donley, Richard W., 707 Douglas, R. Alan, 1454 Douglas, William A.B., 452, 541 Douglass, David Bales, 855 Dover, Upper Canada, 825 Dow, George Francis, 1229, 1230 Dow, Moses, 1420 Draper, Lyman Copeland, 624 Dress and Equipment United States, 143, 1450, 1470, 1472, 1473 Duane, William John, 268 Dudley, Thomas P., 575 Dudley, Wade, G., 1143 Dudley, Colonel William, 723 Dudley, William S., 1078, 1079 Duffy, Stephen H.W., 1080 Dulles, Joseph Heatly, 856 Duncan, Ennis Jr., 857 Dunham, Chester G., 1554 Dunham, Josiah, 1421, 1422 Dunlap, John, 858 Dunlap, William, 1164 Dunlop, Dr William “Tiger”, 71, 453 Dunn, Lucius C., 269 Dunnigan, Brian Leigh, 765, 1049, 1050, 1051 Durand, James, 1067 Dwight, Theodore, 1301

8/28/07 9:30:33 AM

Index  •  257 Dye, Ira, 1082

E Early, Governor Peter, 823 East, Robert A., 1302 Eastman, Anthony Finley, 1303 Easton, Robert, 1593 Eaton, John, 799, 805 Eckert, Edward Kyle, 1083, 1084,1304 Economic Aspects, 1302, 1368 - 1405 Eddy Augustus, 1423 Edgar, Matilda Ridout, 542, 1262 Egan, Clifford L., 221, 329 Eller, Ernest M., 72, 994, 1165 Elliott, Jesse Duncan, 543 Elliott, Matthew, 336 Ellison, David, 766 Elmer, Ebenezer, 1594 Emerson, George Douglas, 859 Emmons, Nathaniel, 1595 Emmons, Richard, 454 Engerman, Stanley L., 1379 Engineer, Military, 1035 Engleman, Fred L., 1555, 1556 English, Sara John, 73 Ermatinger, C.O., 728 Erney, Richard Alton, 74 Errington, Jane, 1263 Esker, Katie Prince-Ward, 75 Espionage, 810, 1172 Everest, Allan S., 860, 1380 Everett, Alexander Hill, 995

F Fabel, Robin F.A., 77 Falk, Stanley L., 1558 Farmer, A [pseud.], 310 Farragut, George, 996 Fay, Heman Allen, 78 Federalist Party, U.S., 377, 382, 1293, 1295, 1296, 1297, 1299, 1303, 1307, 1308, 1311, 1566 Fenton, James, 862 Ferril, Will C., 79 Ferris, Woodbridge N., 576, 1559 Feuchter, Clyde E., 455

RT56315.indb 257

Fiction, 1062, 1096, 1113, 1128, 1129, 1214, 1250, 1338, 1349, 1356, 1359 Fidelis (pseud.), 80, 544 Fidfaddy, Frederick Augustus (pseudo.), 81 Finan, P., 456 Fischer, David H., 1305 Fisher, Josephine, 223 Fisher, Robert L., 330, 1560 Fisher, Ruth Anna, 997 Fiske, John, 413 Fitz-Enz, David, 863 Fitzgibbon, Mary Agnes, 650 Flemming, Thomas, 998 Flint, Abel, 1596 Flint, James, 1424 Flournoy, Fitzgerald, 1341 Flumerfelt, Private, 578 Folsom, Benjamin, 1085 Forbes, James Grant, 579 Forbes, John D., 270, 1381 Ford, David, 1264 Ford, Worthington Chauncey, 1306, 1342 Forester, Cecil Scott, 864, 999, 1167 Forman, Sidney, 83 Fort, John A., 1000 Fortifications, 50 Forts, 965 Amanda, 475 George, 420 Gratiot, 474 Holmes, 620, 1051 McArthur, 589, 604 McHenry, 906, 907, 966 McKay, 1043, 1044 Meigs, 584, 719, 722, 729 Niagara, 611, 765, 778 St Joseph, 1042 Wayne, 318, 357, 593, 635 Winchester, 506 Foster, Augustus John, 224 Foster, Edmund, 1597 Foster, Festus, 1425 Foster, John, 1426 France, 120, 231, 329 U.S. Mission to, 1542 Franklin, Walter, 1343

8/28/07 9:30:33 AM

258  •  Index Fraser, Alexander, 610 Fredriksen, John C., 8, 9, 10, 84, 1086, 1445 French, Jonathan, 1427 Fuller, Timothy, 1428 Fur Trade, 1378, 1397

G Gafford, Lucile, 1344 Gaines, Edwin M., 271 Galbreath, Charles, B., 681, 682 Gales, Joseph, 379, 1312 Gallatin, Albert, 291, 1061, 1370 Gallman, Robert E., 1379 Galpin, W. Freeman, 1382, 1383, 1384 Gardiner, John Sylvester, 414, 1429 Gardiner, Robert, 1087 Gardinier, Barent, 272, 1169 Gardner, Major Charles K., 850 Garitee, Jerome Randolph, 1232 Garner, Grace, 85 Gatell, Frank Otto, 1001 Gates, Charles M., 1561 Gates, Isaac, 1430 Geary, R.W., 865 Gellner, John, 457 Genealogy, 128 General Society War of 1812, 158 George, Noah Jackson T., 88 Gerry, Eldridge, 1309, 1345, 1346 Gerson, Noel Bertram, 89 Ghent, Treaty of, 1555, 1556, 1557, 1562, 1563, 1656, 1567, 1569, 1575, 1577 Peace Negotiations, 1548, 1550, 1552, 1554, 1564, 1573, Gibson, John, 626 Giles, John, 1431 Gilleland, J.C., 90 Gillespie, Edward, 1170 Gillet, Eliphalet, 273 Gilliam, Henry, 1171 Gilpin, Alec Richard, 458, 580 Gleig, George Robert, 826 Glover, Michael, 1456, 1457 Goldin, Gurston D.H., 226 Goodman, Warren H., 227

RT56315.indb 258

Gosling, David C.L., 866 Gough, Barry, 1088, 1089 Goulburn, Henry, 91 Graham, Gerald S., 867, 1090 Graves, Donald E., 92, 459, 460, 768, 827, 868, 869, 870, 871, 872, 873, 882, 1091, 1459, 1460, 1461, 1462, 1463 Graves, Samuel Colleton, 274 Gray, William, 1464 Great Britain, 361, 1280 British aliens in US, 1282 Green, Billy, 793 Green, Ernest, 769, 874 Green, James, 1133 Green, James Albert, 729 Green, Philip J., 93 Greene, Christopher, 1598 Greenhous, Brereton, 461, 1465 Gregg, Kate L., 94 Greusel, Joseph, 95, 1541 Gribbin, 1347, 1348 Grice, C.E., 1004 Griffin, Richard W., 1358 Grigsby, Hugh Blair, 1341 Grodzinski, John R, 96, 97, 98, 875, 1052, 1466 Grolier Club, 11 Guernsey, Rocellus Sheridan, 99 Gurd, Norman St. Clair, 730 Gwyn, Julian, 1092, 1093

H Hacker, Louis Morton, 331 Hager, Robert E., 1094 Haines, Charles G., 275 Halbert, Arthur H., 816 Hale, Nathan, 43 Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1393 Naval Yard, 1092 Hall, Arthur H., 816 Hall, Ellery L., 332 Hall, John Elihu, 921 Hall, Moses, 1599 Hamil, Fred C., 462 Hamilton, Holman, 1053 Hamilton, Robert, 627

8/28/07 9:30:34 AM

Index  •  259 Hammack, James Wallace, Jr., 1265 Hanks, Carlos C., 1172 Hanks, Robert J., 1095 Hannay, James, 100, 463 Hare, John S., 102 Hare, Robert, 276 Harper, John Murdoch, 464 Harrington, Virginia D., 277 Harris, Walter, 415 Harrison, Major General William Henry, 118, 318, 333, 358, 720 Harrison-Tarre Peace Conference, 744 Hart, William, 581 Hartford Convention, 1288, 1290, 1301, 1302, 1316, 1317, 1323 Essex Junto, 1305 Harvey, D.C., 828 Haskell, Abraham, 1432 Hatch, William Stanley, 582 Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L., 3754, 375, 376 Hawkins, George K., 103, 683 Hay, George (Marquis of Tweeddale), 465 Hay, Peter, 104 Hayes, John F. Hayne, Robert Y., 1433 Haynes, Lemuel, 1434 Haynes, Robert V., 334 Hayworth, Paul Leland, 684 Headley, Joel Tyler, 105 Heath, Nathaniel H., 950 Heath, Phoebe Anne, 278 Heaton, Herbert, 279 Hecht, Arthur, 922 Heflinger, Walden Miller, 335, 583, 651 Heinrichs, Waldo H., 876 Helm, Linai Taliaerro, 628 Henry, John, 220 Hepburn, Andrew, 1096 Hibbert, Wilfrid, 584 Hickey, Donald R., 106, 107, 228, 377, 1307, 1308, 1386 Hickman, Nathaniel, 923 Higham, Robert D., 12, 280 Hill, Mark L., 1391 Hills, Alice, 1266 Hillyard, Isaac, 109 Hitsman, J. Mackay, 111, 467, 468, 469, 1097, 1387

RT56315.indb 259

Hobart, John Henry, 1600 Holbrook, Albert, 1233 Holcomb, Reuben, 416 Holliday, Murray, 629 Holmes, Abiel, 229 Holmes, John, 1601 Homfrey, Irving L., 1467 Hopkins, J. Castel, 1267 Hopkins, Major-General Samuel, 627 Horsman, Reginald, 112, 230, 282, 336, 337, 338, 339, 378, 470, 630, 631, 1098 House of Representatives, U.S., 374 Howard, C.S., 1388 Howe, John, 1389 Hoyt, William D., 924, 1234 Hubbard, Bela, 471 Hughes, Robert M., 817 Hull, Captain Isaac, 1112 Hull, Brigadier General William, 566, 579, 580, 585, 586, 587, 592, 595, 599, 600, 601, 602 Hunnewell, James F., 1099 Hunt, Gaillard, 379 Hunt, Gilbert J., 112 Hunt, Livingston, 1173 Hunter, A.F., 1054 Hunter, A.T., 472 Hunter, William Harvey, Jr., 925, 926 Hutson, Austin, 340 Hutton, Joseph, 1006

I Ida Charles Wilkins Foundation, The, 927 Immigration British to US, 1374 Impressment, 302, 303, 317 Inderwick, James, 1174 Indians, see Natives Ingersoll, Charles Jared, 115 Inglis, James A., 928 Ingraham, Edward Duncan, 929 Innerarity, John, 818 Intelligence, 1146 Irving, Lukin Homfray, 473 Ivie, Robert L

8/28/07 9:30:34 AM

260  •  Index Izard, George, 877

J Jackes, Lyman B., 1562 Jackson, Major-General Andrew, 118, 805, 806, 807, 1003, 1007, 1037, 1038 Jackson, E., 1268 Jacobs, James Ripley, 116 James, William, 117, 1100, 1175, 1176 Jameson, J. Franklin, 1563 Jarvis, Eric, 1269 Jarvis, Samuel, 1602 Jefferson, Thomas, 224, 228, 236, 238, 291, 300, 304, 310, 322, 385, 391, 396 Jenkins, John S., 118 Jenkins, Lawrence Waters, 1270 Jenks, Henry F., 1271 Jenks, William L., 474 Jesup, Major-General Thomas S., 125 Johnson, David R., 475 Johnson, Leland R., 380 Johnson, Noah, 1235 Johnson, Rossiter, 119 Johnson, Sophia, 878 Johnson, Winston, 1468 Johnston, Charles M., 476, 775 Jones, T.K., 1236 Jones, Wilbur Devereux Jones, William, 1068, 1084 Jordan, Douglas S., 1144 Jordan, Walter K., 632 Josephy, Alvin M., 477 Joy, George, 161 Joy, Richard P., 686 Judge, C.B., 930 Jury, Elise McLeod, 687

K Kaplan, Lawrence S., 120, 231, 283, 1542 Katcher, Philip, 121, 1469 Kaufman, Martin, 341 Keating, Sergeant James, 1057 Keeler, Lucy Elliot, 731, 732, 733 Keene, Joshua, 1177

RT56315.indb 260

Keenon, Mrs B., 1272 Keith, Isaac Stockton, 284 Kendall, John S., 342 Kendrick, Clark, 879 Kennedy, Lionel Henry, 122 Kennedy, Robert, 381, 587 Kerby, Robert L., 124 Kert, Faye Margaret, 1237 Key, Francis Scott, 931 Kieffer, Chester L., 125 Kimball, Jeffrey, 126, 829, 830, 880, 1470 King, William, 1390, 1391 Kingston, Upper Canada, 243 American attack on, 1812, 712 Kirk, Neville T., 1178 Kirkland, Joseph, 633 Klinck, C.F., 478 Klyberg, Albert T., 13 Knopf, Richard C., 479, 688 Kochan, James L., 1471, 1472 Kohn, Richard H., 382 Kruse, Paul, 810 Kyte, E.C., 778

L Laffite, Jean, 987, 1022, 1034 Lamb, W. Kaye, 545 Lambert, Robert S., 343 Land Grants, 1377 Landon, Harry F., 480 Lane, Jack C., 14 Langdon, Chauncy, 232 Langguth, A.J., 127 Larking, Samuel, 1238 Larrabee, Charles, 344 Larson, Sarah, 127 Lathrop, John, 129, 130, 383, 1435, 1436, 1603 Latimer, Margaret Kinard, 384 Latour, Arsene Lecarriere, 1009 Latta, John E., 1604 Law of Nations, 268 Laws of War, 77 Lawson, Don, 131 Lawwill, J. Richard, 131 Le Coteur, Lieutenant John, 881 Learned, Henry Barrett, 1309

8/28/07 9:30:34 AM

Index  •  261 Leavitt, William, 1239 Lebreton, Dagmar Renshaw, 1010 Lee, Major-General Henry, 1565 Lee, W., 801 Leech, Samuel, 1179 Leef, John 1240, 1241 Legacy of War of 1812, 1544 Canada, on, Great Britain, on, United States, on, 1539 Leiner, Frederick C., 1102 Leland, Sherman, 1606 Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh, 1273, 1310 Lepine, Luc, 133 Lessem, Harold I., 932 Lethbridge, Colonel Robert, 546 Levin, Alexandra Lee, 134 Lewis, Gene D., 233 Lighthall, William Douw, 779 Lingelbach, W.E., 285 Linville, Twila Muriel, 135 Lippett, Charles Warren, 689 Litt, Paul, 882 Livermore, Edward St. Loe, 1437 Livingston, Robert, 1275 Lloyd, Alan, 136 Lloyd, Christopher, 1103 Logistics, 126, 184, 461, 1465, 1471 London Gazette, 137 Long, David, A., 831 Long, John, 734 Lord, Walter, 934 Lossing, Benson J., 138 Lowe, John W. Lowell, John, 286, 287, 288, 289, 385 Lower Canada, 446 Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada, 1339, 1350 Lucas, Charles Prestwood, 139 Lunny, Robert M., 1181 Lyman, Olin Linus, 690

M M’Culloh, Robert P., 935 M’Lean, James, 293 MacCormack, Samuel, 235 Macdonell, Goerge, 427

RT56315.indb 261

Macdonough, Commodore, 883 Mackintosh, Alexander, 652 Macleod, Julia H., 236 Macmechan, Archibald M., 1182 McAfee, Robert Breckinridge, 142, 735 McArthur, Duncan, 440 McBarron, Hugh Charles, Jr., 143 McCall, Clayton W., 588 McClure, Wayne, 784 McCown, Mary Hardin, 144 McDonald, John, 1608 McKee, Linda Anne Mitchell, 1112 McKennan, Thomas McKean Thompson, 1311 McKenney, Thomas Lorraine, 936, 937 McKenzie, Ruth, 785 McLeod, Alexander, 1438 Mack, Mrs. John T., 604, 691 Mackinac Island, 620 Maclay, Edgar Stanton, 1242 Macomb, Alexander, 860 Madison, James, 48, 49, 214, 225, 231, 254, 256, 266, 288, 290, 322, 361, 1327 Congress, 368 Departure from Washington 1814, 967 Jefferson and, 386 Opposition to, 387, 394 Magill, M.L., 481 Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 883, 1104, 1564 Mahan, Howard F., 1312 Mahon, John K., 482, 802, 819, 938, 1012, 1276 Majeske, Penelope K., 1374 Malcomson. Robert, 140, 781, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109 Manby, Richard, 237 Mann, James, 483 Mannix, Richard, 291 Manuals, Military and Tactical Treatises, 1480 – 1509, 1513 - 1538 American, 1491, 1492, 1493, 1494, 1521, 1521 Artillery/Gunnery, 1462, 1506, 1508, 1518, 1529, 1530, 1538 Cavalry, 1522 Infantry, 1495, 1505, 1507, 1509

8/28/07 9:30:34 AM

262  •  Index Naval and Marine Corps, 1486 British, 1480, 1481, 1485, 1496, 1514, 1525, 1527, 1528, 1534, 1535, 1536 Artillery/Gunnery, 1463, 1513, 1516, 1537 Cavalry, 1498 Commissary, 1531 Infantry, 1497, 1500, 1533 Light Infantry, 1499, 1501, 1503, 1504, 1517, 1526 Medical, 1483, 1484 Naval/Gunnery, 1482, 1502, 1515, 1519, 1523, 1532 Canadian Lower Canada, 1487 Nova Scotia, 1488, 1489 Prince Edward Island, 1490 Upper Canada Marigny, Bernard, 1013 Marine, William Matthew, 939 Marks, Henry S., 345 Marquis, Thomas Gutherie, 484, 653, 780 Marshall, Thomas Maitland, 485 Marston, Daniel Martel, J.S., 1351, 1393, 1566 Martial Law Upper Canada, 1286, 1366 Martin, John D.P., 654 Martin, Tyrone, G., 1110, 1111 Mason, Philip P., 141 Mastics, Al, 692 Mather, J.D., 782 Mathews, General George, 809 Mayhew, Thad., 1014 Mead, Samuel, 417 Meader, Stephen Warren, 1113 Medals British, 588 Upper Canada Preserved, 1339 Medical, 483, 688 Naval, 698, 1086, 1166 Meese, William A., 1055 Meigs, Jonathan, 581 Melish, John, 145, 146, 147, 486, 1567 Melvin, Frank Edgar, 292 Mercator (pseudo), 1114 Merk, Frederick, 1568

RT56315.indb 262

Merrill, Orasmus Cook, 1440 Merritt, Timothy, 1441 Merritt, William Hamilton, 488 Metcalfe, Clarence S., 693 Meuse, William A., 1015 Mexican War, 185 Middleton, William Henry, 940 Militia. Also see British Army British North America, 517 Lower Canada, 133, 1464 Provincial Light Dragoons, 488 Upper Canada, 448, 874 U.S. State Militia, 124, 199 Kentucky, 598, 857 Louisiana, 1017, 1018, 1024 Maryland, 928, 939 Massachusetts, 833, 1014, 1270, 1281, 1362 Michigan, 590 New York, 536, 547, 862 Pennsylvania, 862, 914, 918, 949 Tennessee, 1016, 1040 Tippecanoe, at, 343 Virginia, 836, 745 Washington Guards, 961 Miller, Howard S., 655 Miller, John, 1543 Millett, Stephen M., 346 Mills, Dudley, 1569 Mills, Elijah, 1394 Mills, James Cooke, 694 Milne, David, 150 Mindte, R.W., 1185 Mohawk River Boats, 1095 Moire, 786 Monroe, James, 347, 884, 1325 Montagu, Montagu, 1187, 1188 Moore, Humphrey, 418, 1608. 1609 Moore, John Hammond, 1353 Moore, Mrs John Trotwood, 1016 Morgan, David B., 1017 Morison, Samuel Eliot, 238, 1115, 1277, 1314 Morris, Gouverneur, 1442 Morris, John D., 885, 1473 Morse, Edward Clarke, 1018 Morse, Jedidiah, 419 Morse, John, 1610 Mortimer, Benjamin, 1355

8/28/07 9:30:35 AM

Index  •  263 Mottey, Joseph, 1611 Mouzon, Harold A., 1243 Muir, Rory, 151 Muler, Charles G., 886 Mullalay, Franklin R., 941 Muller, Charles G., 942, 943 Muller, H.N., III, 294, 1395 Mullins, Janet E., 1244 Munroe, Isaac, 944 Munroe, Wilfred Harold, 1245 Munson, A.W., 589 Murdoch, Richard K., 1145 Murray, J. McE., 1278 Musham, H.A., 634 Myers, Harold L., 1279 Myers, Mordecai, 490 Mythology, 107, 367

N Napier, Henry Edward, 1147 Napoleon I, 151, 278 National Intelligencer, 1312 Nationalism, 84 Natives, 323, 340, 351, 496, 518, 649 British, 27, 182, 326, 337, 624 Agents, 338 Indian Department, 644 Iroquois, 38, 39 Southern Strategy, 803 West Florida, 803 United States, 1355, 1551, 1553, 1560 Old Northwest, 336, 352, 360 Potawatomi, 625 South, 822 Naval Warfare, Sea Power, Battles and Engagements, 1126, 1211, 121 Battles and Engagements Bay of Quoentia, 23 Fayal, engagement, 975, 1206 Hampton, 1149, 1150 Ice Mound, 1151 Kingston, American attack on, 712 New Orleans Campaign, 994 Orleans, Mass, 1145 Plattsburgh, 883, 886 Potomac, 943 Bibliographies, 19

RT56315.indb 263



Blockade of United States, 1143, 1148 British North America, use of sea power in, 1090 Inland Waters Great Lakes, 452, 484, 509, 515, 516, 521 Lake Champlain, 864, 886 Lake Erie, 527, 662, 665 Lake Huron, 1088 Lake Ontario, 852 St Lawrence River, 98 Ship vs Ship Actions Capture of Brigs Detroit and Caledonia, 543 Capture of USS President, 1192 Constitution vs Guerriere, 1186 Hornet vs Peacock, 1177 Shannon vs Chesapeake, 1154, 1156, 1160, 1169, 1188, 1189, 1193, 1196, 1197, 1203, 1204 Naval Forces Provincial Marine, 541 Schooner Nancy, 425, 445, 510, 652, 1052, 1089 Royal Navy, 150, 258, 892, 1109, 1110, 1114 Gunboats, 1066, 1105, 1106 Lake Ontario Squadron, 1572 North American Squadron, 1093 Royal Navy Vessels Shannon, 1154, 1156, 1160, 1169, 1182, 1188, 1189, 1193, 1196, 1197, 1203, 1204 Tecumseth, 837 United States Marine Corps, 808, 1178, 1205 United States Navy, 16, 18, 236, 450, 455, 1180, 1200, 1215 Heavy Frigates, 1101 Lake Erie Fleet, 1058, 1132 Navy Department, 1083, 1125 Officer Biographies, 1060, 1085, 1117 United States Navy Vessels Argus, 1174 Constellation, 1142 Constitution, 1110, 1111, 1166, 1184, 1183, 1202, 1210 Essex, 299, 1159, 1173, 1201, 1207

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264  •  Index General Armstrong, 975, 1134 Hamilton, 1071, 1121 Lawrence, 664 Niagara, 657, 658, 659, 660, 671, 709 Peacock, 1185 Scourge, 1071, 1121 Wolverine, 657 Wasp, 1080, 1198, 1199 Naylor, Isaac, 348 Neal, John, 887 Near, Irvin W., 491 Neeser, Robert Wilden, 16 Negroes, See African Americans Nell, William Cooper, 154 Nelson, Daniel A., 1121 Nelson, Harold L., 1474 Nelson, Kenneth Ross, 1280 Nelson, Larry L, 1136 Nereus (pseud.), 1191 Newmeyer, R. Kent, 1315 New York City, 99 Newsom, Nathen, 492 Newspapers, 223 American Weekly Register, 30 Boston Spectator, The, 45 Nichols, Benjamin R, 239 Nielson, Peter Raymond, 1396 Niles, John M., 1122 Noah, Mordecai Manuel, 888 Noble, Henry Harmon, 547 Noble, Lucy Seward, 155 Northcutt, William B., 493 Northwest, Old, 563 Nova Scotia, 237, 296, 1223, 1240, 1241, 1351, 1376



O O’Connor, Thomas, 156 Ogdensburg, NY, 1264 Oliver, Frederick L., 696 Oman, C.W.C., 548 Orations, American, end of war, 1579 - 1614 Orders in Council, 255, 257 Ordway, Frederick Ira, Jr., 158 Orians, G. Harrison, 1356

RT56315.indb 264

Osgood, David, 1443 Otis, Harrison Gray, 1316, 1317 O’Toole, Edward, Jr., 889 Owen, Thomas M., 349 Owings, Milton P., 945 Owsley, Frank Lawrence, Jr., 803, 804, 820, 1020

P Padfield, Peter, 1193 Paige, Reed, 1612 Paine, Ralph Delahaye, 1123 Pakenham, Major General Sir Edward, 972, 1021, 1031 Pakenham, Thomas, 1021 Pallett, James E. 351 Palmer, Benjamin Franklin, 1246 Palmer, Thomas H., 159 Pancake, John S., 295, 387 Parish, David, 1387 Park, William Edward, 495 Parker, Arthur C., 496 Parker, David W., 296 Parker, George Whitfield, 697 Parkinson, Cyril Northcote, 160 Parsons, Edward Alexander, 1022 Parsons, Joseph A., 352 Parsons, Thomas W., 497 Parsons, Usher, 698, 699, 700, 701 Passmore, John, 1357 Patrick, Rembert W., 811, 812 Patriotic, 29, 183, 195 Paul, Almira, 1125 Paullin, Charles Oscar, 702, 1194 Pavia, John R., 1126 Payne, Charles E., 1570 Peace Negotiations, 91 Pearkes, G.R., 498 Peckham, Howard H., 635, 703 Peninsular War, 315 Pensions, 75 Perkins, Bradford, 161, 240, 241, 242, 297, 298, 299, 1571 Perkins, Samuel, 162 Perrin, J. Nick, 636 Perry, James M., 1195

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Index  •  265 Perry, Oliver Hazard, 666, 690, 694, 1122, 1135, 1209 Peters, George P., 353 Peterson, Charles Jacobs, 163 Petitions, 950 Pfeiffer, Suan, 890 Philadelphia, PA, 306 Phillips, James Duncan, 300 Phillips, W. Alison, 164 Pickering, Thomas, 1322 Pickles, Tim, 1023 Pierce, Nathaniel, 1127 Pierce, William Liegh, 1318 Pierson, John Bennett Marion, 1024 Pigeon Roost Massacre, 621 Pike, Brigadier-General Zebulon, 118, 210 Piper, James, 946 Pirates, Baratarian, 987, 1022 Pirtle, Alfred, 354 Plays, 888, 1004, 1164 Pleasants, Thomas Franklin, 948 Plymouth Convention, 1320 Poetry, 64, 175, 195, 197, 210, 454, 512, 887, 1006, 1076, 1187, 1188, 1208, 1318, 1336, 1342, 1614 Pomeroy, Earl S., 949 Pool, John Irving, 832 Poolman, Kenneth, 1196 Pope, M.A., 787 Porter, David, 1178, 1213 Porter, George Bryan, 1358 Post Office, U.S., 922 Post, Waldron Kintzing, 1197 Powell, J.H., 1321 Pratt, Fletcher, 165, 355, 1198, 1199, 1200 Pratt, Julius William, 356, 1397 Pray, Carl E., Jr., 499 Prebble, George Henry, 1201 Prentiss, Charles, 388, 1444 Prentiss, Hervey Putnam, 1322 Preston, Richard, 243, 704, 891, 1572 Prevost, Lieutenant-General Sir George, 432, 468, 511, 521, 891 Prince, James, 1247 Prisoners of War American, 55, 70, 166, 171, 596, 898, 1073, 1103, 1253 British, 716

RT56315.indb 265

Cartel Vessels, 1077 Dartmoor Prison, 31, 145, 1098, 1141 Privateers, 1216 – 1254 Prizes, 1236, 1237, 1238, 1247, 1252 Vice Admiralty Court Halifax, 1229, 1230 Procter, Major-General Henry, 718, 728 Propaganda, 223, 1258 Prudden, Theodore M., 1201 Pullen, Hugh Francis, 892, 1203 Purcell, Hugh D., 1204

Q Quaife, Milo Milton, 592, 593, 594, 637, 638, 639, 788, 1057 Quimby, Richard S., 167 Quisenberry, Anderson Chenault, 168, 169

R Raguet, Condy, 1205 Randall, Emilius O., 549, 737, 738 Read, D.B., 170 Redway, Jacques W., 612 Reed, Sarah H., 705 Reede, Arthur H., 164 Reid, John, 805 Reid, Samuel Chester, 1206 Reilly, Robin, 1025 Reinoehl, John H., 301 Religious and Biblical References, 217, 251, 367, 381, 399 – 419, 858, 879, 928, 1347, 1348, 1406 – 1448, 1579, 1583, 1590, 1593, 1595, 1597, 1598, 1600, 1602, 1604, 1605, 1607, 1610, 1612 Remini, Robert V., 1026 Renner, Daniel, 950 Republicans, 391 Reuter, Frank T., 314, 311, 371 Reynolds, James, 596 Rice, Homer M., 789 Richardson, John, 429, 500, 550, 1359 Riddell, William Renwick, 501, 834, 1360, 1361, 1544 Risjord, Norman K., 389, 390

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266  •  Index Ritchie, Carson I.A., 551, 1028, 1029 Ritchie, Margaret K., 551 Roach, Isaac, 502 Roads, Military, 1475 Roberts, Kenneth Lewis, 1128, 1129 Robinson, Charles Walker, 503 Robinson, Sir F.P., 891 Robinson, John Beverly, 1340 Robinson, Ralph, 171, 951, 952, 953 Robinson, William Alexander, 1445 Rodgers, Commodore John, 1194 Roosevelt, Theodore, 1130, 1131 Rosenburg, Max, 706, 1132 Roske, Ralph J., 707 Rouse, Parker Jr., 954, 1150 Rowland, Eron Opha Moore (Mrs Dunbar), 806, 1030 Rules and Articles of War, 172 Rush-Bagot Agreement, 1549, 1574 Russell, John, Jr., 173 Russell, Jonathan, 135, 1573 Russell, Samuel H., 835 Rutland, Robert Allen, 391

S St Denis, Guy, 181, 614 Sackets Harbor, 528, 789, 1138 Salas, Eugenio Pereira, 1207 Saliers, Earl A., 739 Sanford, John L., 955 Sapio, Victor A., 244, 392 Sarby, Alice, 1097 Scammell, E.H., 1574 Schillinger, William, 740 Schultheis, Rose, 358 Scott, Kenneth, 1208, 1248, 1282 Scott, Valerie McNair, 1031 Scott, Sir William, 299 Scott, Major-General Winfield, 118 Sears, Louis Martin, 304, 305, 306 Secession Movement, 840 Secord, Laura, 762, 785, 786 Seller, Robert, 790 Senex [pseud.], 307 Senter, Nathaniel G.M., 246 Severance, Frank H., 17, 893 Sewall, Lewis, 821

RT56315.indb 266

Shabonee, 359 Shelby, Isaac, 1032 Sheldon, George, 1209 Shepard, William, 836 Sheppard, George, 1363 Sheridan, T.W., 1134 Sherman, Walter J., 640 Sholes, Stanton, 741 Shortt, Adam, 1400 Shreve, Milton W., 708 Shwartz, Frank L., 1133 Sibert, Daniel, 504 Skagg, J.C.A., 1575 Skaggs, David Curtiss, 1135, 1136 Simcoe, John Graves, 219 Simmons, N., 641 Sisson, A.E., 709 Skeen, C. Edward, 177, 1324, 1325, 1326 Skinner, J.S., 956 Slocum, Charles Elihu, 505, 506, 742 Smelser, Marshall, 178, 507 Smith, Abbot, 1327 Smith, Dwight L., 360 Smith, John, 1446 Smith, Michael, 179 Smith, Moses, 1210 Smith, Myron J., 18 Smith, Robert, 247, 309 Smith, Seba (Elizabeth Oakes Prince Smith), 508 Smith, Theodore Clarke, 393 Smith, Zachary F., 1033 Smuggling, 270, 294, 1389, 1401 Snell, Thomas, 1447 Snider, Charles Henry Jeremiah, 509, 510, 837, 1211, 1249 Soley, James Russell, 1212 Songs, 153, 183, 916, 1074, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1170, 1335 Star Spangled Banner, 917, 956, 964 Spain, 322 Spalding, Lyman A., 514 Spivak, Burton, 310 Squires, W. Austin, 1475 Stacey, C.P., 515, 517, 552, 711, 712, 791, 838, 894, 1328, 1576 Stackpole, Edouard, 1250 Stagg, John Charles Anderson, 361, 394, 395

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Index  •  267

RT56315.indb 267

Stahl, John Meloy, 895, 958 Stanley, George F.G., 182, 517, 518, 642, 839 Staton, Frances M., 19 Stephenson, Nathaniel W., 1329 Steppler, Glenn A., 184 Sterkx, Henry Eugene, 362 Stetson, Amasa, 1364, 1365 Stevens, Frank E., 643 Stevens, Henry R., 1403 Stevens, James, 959 Stevens, John R., 519 Stevenson, James, 1404 Stevenson, Jay Travis, 840 Stewart, Robert G., 1151 Stirling, James, 813 Story, Joseph, 1315 Stott, Glenn, 186 Stout, Elihu, 343 Strategy, also see Battles, Blockades, Campaigns, Sieges, Land American, 1815 Proposed, 884 Strauss, W. Patrick, 1213 Stuart, James, 187 Stuart, Reginald C., 396 Sudgen, John, 822, 1034 Sutherland, Stuart, 520, 1476 Suthern, Victor, 188, 792 Swanson, Neil H., 960 Swayze, Fred, 521 Sweeney, Lenora Higginbotham, 189, 743 Symons, John, 615

Thibault, Claude, 20 Thomason, Hugh M., 823 Thompson, David, 191 Thompson, Mabel W., 793 Thomson, David Whittet, 1152 Thomson, John Lewis, 192 Thornton, Willis, 963 Thorpe, Francis Newton, 713 Thwaites, Reuben Gold, 644 Tiffin, Edward, 1284 Tippecanoe, 343, 344, 348, 353, 354, 359, 364, 365 Tipton, John, 325, 364 Todd, Levi L., 598 Tompkins, Daniel D., 193 Tompkins, William F., 1036 Tone, William Theobald Wolfe, 1545 Toner, Raymond John, 1214 Torrence, Clayton, 194 Tracy, Henry D., 195 Trade: See Commerce and Trade Treat, Joseph, 896 Tregal, Joseph G., Jr., 1037 Tremaine, Marie Trials John Hodges, 921 Trumbell, James Hammond, 842 Tucker, Glenn, 116, 196 Tucker, Spencer C., 311 Turner, Edward, 1613 Turner, Lynn W., 1139 Turner, Wesley B., 1478

T

U

Taggart, Samuel, 1330 Tait, James A., 824 Tatum, Howell, 1035 Taylor, E.L., 744 Taylor, George Rogers, 248, 363 Taylor, Zachary, 1053 Tazewell, Littleton Waller, 1283 Tecumseh, 181, 319, 358, 495, 507, 508, 728, 730 Temperley, Howard, 1477 Thackera, William Wood, 961 Thatcher, Joseph M., 1138

Umphraville, Angus, 197 Uniforms, see Dress United States of America, 22, 1294, 1332, 1333, 1545 Dissent, 1310 Expansionism, 331, 332, 355 Foreign Policy, 202 Opposition to the war, 1259, 1277, 1287, 1319, 1322, 1331, 1334 Secession Movement, 840 States Delaware, 936, 1266

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268  •  Index

Florida, 328, 329, 342, 345, 349, 350, 362, 800, 810, 811, 812, 813, 814 Georgia, 1268 Illinois, 73, 636, 643, 1053 Indiana, 626, 627 Kentucky, 54, 58, 63, 86, 123, 129, 168, 169, 332, 568, 572, 1032, 1265 Louisiana, 980, 981, 1027, 1367 Maryland, 209, 392 Massachusetts, 166, 201, 1314 Michigan, 462, 564, 622, 1284 Mississippi, 363, 1030 Missouri, 79, 94 New York, 180, 193, 277, 470 North Carolina, 152, 1273, 1274 Ohio, 85, 157, 327, 335, 346, 549, 583, 635 Pennsylvania, 244, 341, 1279 South Carolina, 384 Tennessee, 144 Vermont, 1255, 1259 Virginia, 189, 395, 1285 Wisconsin, 631 United States Army, see Armies United States Marine Corps, see Naval Forces United States Navy, see Naval Forces Updyke, Frank A., 1578 Upper Canada, 19, 472, 526, 1256, 1262, 1263, 1400 Land Grants, 1269 Defensive Plans 1815, 867 Utter, William T., 313

V Valparasio, Chile, 1179 Valpey, Joseph, Jr., 1251 Van Deusen, John G., 600, 601 Van Horne, James, 645 Van Ness, William Peter, 807, 1252 Van Rensselaer, Major-General Stephen, 612 Van Rensselaer, Lieutenant Colonel Solomon, 616 Varnum, Joseph Bradley, 1322

RT56315.indb 268

Veritas [pseud.], 522 Vice Admiralty Court, See Prizes Viger, Jacques, 794 Vitz, Robert C., 553 Von Schweinitz, Ludwig David, 1140 Vorderstrasse, Alfred Bernhardt, 523 Voyageurs, 1449

W Waddell, John Hunter, 1141 Wagner, Edward James, 1333 Waldo, Samuel Putnam, 1038 Walker, Adam, 524 Walker, Alexander, 1039 Walker, Timothy, 602 Wallace, Lee A., Jr., 745 Wallice, Provo, 1091 Walsh, Richard, 965, 966 War Department, U.S., 553 War Hawks, 367, 371, 372, 375, 378, 389, 390, 1329 Ward, S.G.P., 1479 Ware, Henry, 1614 Warfield, J.D., 967 Warner, Clarence M., 526 Warner, Mabel, V., 897 Warwick, Charles, 250 Washburn, Mabel Thacher Rosemary, 714 Waterhouse, Benjamin, 1253 Waters, Thomas Franklin, 200 Watkins, Walter Kendall, 201, 843 Watson, Elbert E., 1040 Watson, G.E., 315 Way, Ronald L., 795 Weaponry, 1454 Rockets, 953 Torpedoes, 1152 Weekes, William M., 1286, 1366 Wehtje, Myron F., 1334 Wellington, Duke of, 97, 1011 West Indies, 361 Whicker, John Wesley, 365 White, Arthur S., 21 White, Frank F., Jr., 1254 White, Patrick Cecil Telfer, 202, 203 White, Samuel, 898

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Index  •  269 Whitehorne, Joseph, 882, 899, 968 Whitman, Benjamin, Jr., 527 Wilder, Patrick A., 528 Willcocks, Joseph, 437, 459 Williams, Charles Richard, 746 Williams, Eugene Ellis, 646 Williams, Captain John, 808 Williams, John R., 1405 Williams, John S., 969 Williams Mentor L., 647 Williams, Samuel, 529 Williamson, Ronald F., 890 Willis, Frank B., 530 Wilson, Samuel, Jr., 1041. Wilson, Thomas, 204 Wiltse, Charles M. 398 Winchester, James, 205, 555, 603 Winder, Rider H., 970 Windship, John Cravath May, 1367 Wingate, Joseph F., 1368 Wingfield, David, 766 Wise, S.F., 206 Withrow, W.H., 531 Woehrmann, Paul John, 747, 971 Wolcot, Robert, 614 Wolford, Thorp Lanier

RT56315.indb 269

Women, 134, 194, 211, 878, 1124, 1137, 1158, 1162 Wonsetler, Adelaide Hill, 532 Wonsetler, John C., 532 Wood, Herbert Fairlie, 796 Wood, William Charles Henry, 207, 533 Woodworth, John, 900 Woodworth, Samuel, 208, 656 Wright, F. Edward, 209, 210 Wright, G. Frederick, 604, 715 Wright, Nathaniel Hill

Y York (Upper Canada), see Battles, Blockades, Campaigns, Sieges, Land Yost, Robert, 748 Young, Bennett Henderson, 749

Z Zaslow, Morris, 534 Zimmerman, James Fulton, 317

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