The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament [1]

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MOULTON, D.D., D.Theol.

Late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge ; Greenwood Professor of Hellenistic Greek and Indo-European Philology, Manchester University AND GEORGE


Regius Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism Glasgow University








207795 Printed in 1914

PREFACE The time for a permanent preface will naturally come when the task is finished which we introduce in this first instalment : at present we may be content with a few necessary explanations. It is intended to complete the work in six ordinary parts, the lines of which are sufficiently indicated in this one. A concluding part will, we hope, present not only the addenda which new publications and continued reading will make necessary, but also some systematic survey of results.

Students will see at once that we have dealt very differently

with the various sources of vernacular Common Greek.

The record of New

Testament words in the non-literary papyri is intended to be given with fullness, though in the case of very common words we have not sought to be exhaustive where practical purposes are not served. matter.

The inscriptions are quite another

To deal with their material on anything like an adequate scale appeared

to us hopeless.

But we have used some easily accessible collections as carefully

as possible ; and we have cast our net fairly wide for illustration.

Specialists in

later Greek epigraphy will certainly be able to supplement our articles with riches we have been unable to quarry.

And if our book prompts work of the same

kind in this still wider field, no one will rejoice more than we. Strict consistency would, no doubt, demand that we should either abstain altogether from literary illustration, or aim at supplying as fully as possible any such material which might be new.

Since our articles have taken the form of

adversaria, without uniformity or rigidly systematic principles to guide them, we have thought it better to give ourselves considerable latitude. Newly discovered literature, especially that which comes to us on papyrus, offers obvious temptations ; and since neither Wetstein nor Grimm-Thayer can be searched for such material, we are perhaps helping students by making some of it available.

Some new

" literature," like the astrological work of Vettius Valens, interests the lexicographer of the Koivrj incomparably more than the literary man. Our choice of words for comment will also be found open to criticism on the score of consistency. Very nearly all the headings are words occurring in the New Testament, in its undisputed text or in important MSS. like Codex Bezs. But we have felt at liberty to bring in a few Septuagint words on which we had something to say, and occasionally a word like anofivrjfidvevfia, which has import ance for Gospel criticism.

We have assumed throughout the use of Thayer's

c monumental edition of Grimm, in which the literary record of each word is fully and accurately traced.

Very often we have included words for which our non-literary

sources provided no illustration, in order to discuss from literary evidence, if forthcoming, or from its very absence, the position such words took in the popular Greek. It remains to express our deep indebtedness to Professor Albert Thumb, of Strassburg, who has very kindly read our proofs, and has marked for us words which still survive in the Modern Greek vernacular, an element in the scientific study of the ancient Koivri the importance of which is only beginning to be adequately understood. We have also received valuable suggestions from another friend, whose name stands for a new epoch in the study of New Testament language, Professor Adolf Deissmann, of Berlin.

Other distinguished scholars

have helped us readily on our appealing to them, and their kindness has been gratefully acknowledged where due. Our second part, covering B—A, will follow, we trust, without undue delay. Didsbury College, Manchester Glasgow University

May i, 19 14.

J. H. M. G. M.

ABBREVIATIONS The following is a list of the principal abbreviations. A full list will appear with the last part ot the Vocabulary. I. General = Johannine Grammar, by E. A. Abbott. London, 1906. ,, Joh. Voc = Johannine Vocabulary, by E. A. Abbott. London, 1905. Abbott Songs = Songs of Modern Greece, by G. F. Abbott. Cambridge, 1900. Anz Subsidia = Subsidia ad cognoscendum Graecorum sermonem vulgarem e Pentateuchi versione Alexamlrina repetita (being Diss, philolog. Halenses, xii. 2), by II. Anz. Halle, 1894. Archiv = Atchivfur Papyrusforschung. Ed. U. Wilcken. Leipzig, 1901- . Aristeas = Aristeae ad Philocratem Epistula. Ed. P. Wendland. Leipzig, 1900. BCH = Bulletin de correspondance helliniqut. Paris and Athens, 1877- . Berichligungen *= Berichtigungsliste der griechischen Papyrusurkunden aus Agyplen, herausgegeben von F. Preisigke. Strassburg, 1913— . Blass Gr. = Grammar ofNew Testament Greet, by F. Blass. Eng. tr. by H. St John Thackeray. Second edit. London, 1905. Blass-Debrunner — Friedrich Bias? Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch. Vierte Aufl., von A. Debrunner. Gottingen, 1913. Boisacq Diet. Etym.. = Dictionnaire itymologique de la langue grecque, par Kmile Boisacq. Heidelberg and Paris, 1907- . Brugmann GVwmrWjj2 = Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Spiachen, von Karl Brugmann. Zweite Bearbeitung. Strassburg, 1897- . Brugmann-Thumb = Griechische Grammatik, von Karl Brugmann. Vierte vermehrte Aufl., von Albert Thumb. Munchen, 1913. BS. See under Deissmann. BZ. = Byzantinischc Zeitschrift. Ed. K. Krumbacher. Leipzig, 1892- . CR = The Classical Review. London, 1887- . Cronert or Cronert fox. = Passow's Wbrterbuch der griech Abbott Joh. Gr

ischen Sprache, vbllig neu bearbeitet von W. Cronert. Gottin gen, 1912- . Cronert Mem. Here. = Memoria Graeca Herculanensis, by W. Cronert. Leipzig, 1903. Deissmann BS -- Bible Studies, by A. Deissmann. Engl. ed. by A. Grieve. Edin burgh, 1901. Deissmann LAE = Light from the Ancient East, by A. Deissmann. Engl. tr. by L. R. M. Strachan. London, 1 9 10. Dietei ich Untersuch. = Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, von der hellenistischen Zeit bis zum 10 lahr. n. Chr., von K. Dieterich, Leipzig, 1898. Documents See under Milligan. EGT = The Expositor's Greek Testament, edited by \V. Robertson Nicoll. 5 vols. London, 1897-1910. Exp = The Expositor. London, 1875- . Cited by series, volume, and page. ExpT = The Expository Times. Edin burgh, 1889- . Field Notes = Notes on the Translation of the New Testament (being Otium Norvicense iii.), by F. Field. Cambridge, 1899. GH = Grenfell and Hunt. See further under II. Papyri. Gradenwitz Einfiihrung = Einfiihrung in die Papyruskimde, by O. Gradenwitz. Heft i. Leipzig, 1900. Grimm or GrimmThayer = A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, being Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Teslamenti, tr. and enlarged by J. H. Thayer. Second edit. Edinburgh, 1890. [Thayer's additions are usually cited under his name.] Hatch Essays = Essays in Biblical Greek, by E. Hatch. Oxford, 1889. Hatzidakis Einl. = Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik, by G. N. Hatzi dakis. Leipzig, 1892.

8 Helbing, Gr

= Grammatik der Septuaginta : Lautund Wortlehre, by R. Helbing. Gottingen, 1907. Herwerden or Herwerden Lex. = Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum%, by H. van Her werden. 2 vols. Leiden, 1910. Hesychius = Hesychii AUxandrini Lexicon, ed. M. Schmidt. Jena, 1867. HR = A Concordance to the Septuagint, by E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath. Oxford, 1897. HZNT = Handbuch zum Neuen Testament, ed. H. Lietzmann. Tubingen, 1906- . JBL = The Journal of Biblical Literature. Middletown, 1881- . JHS = The Journal of Hellenic Studies. London, 1880- . JTS. = TheJournal of Theological Studies. London, 1900- . Kalker Quaesl = Quaesliones de Eloculione Polybiana (being Leipziger Studien III. ii.), by F. Kalker. Leipzig, 1880. Kennedy Sources = Sources of New Testament Greek, by H. A. A. Kennedy. Edin burgh, 1895. KUhners, or KUhnerBlass, KuhnerGerth = Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, von R. KUhner, besorgt von F. Blass (Formenlehre) und B. Gerth (Satzlehre). Hanover and Leip zig, 1 890-1 904. Kuhring = De Praepositionum Graecarum in Chartis Aegyptiis usu, by W. Kuhring. Bonn, 1906. LAE See under Deissmann. Laqucur Quaesliones = Quaesliones Epigraphicae et Papyrologicae selectae, by R. Laqueur. Strassburg, 1904. Lietzmann Gr. Pap. = Griechische Papyri (in Kleine Textc fiir theologische Vorlesungen und Ubungen, 14). Ed. H. Lietz mann. Bonn. Linde Epic = De Epicuri Vocabulis ab optima Atthide alienis, by P. Linde. (Being Breslauer Philologische Ahhandlungen, ix. 3.) Breslau, 1906. Lob. Phryn = Phrynichi Ecloga. Ed. C. A. Lobeck. Leipzig, 1820. LS = A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. Eighth edition. Oxford, 1901. Magie — De Romanorum iuris publici sacrique vocabulis sollemnibus in Graecum sermonem conversis, by D. Magie. Leipzig, 1905.

Mayser Gr.

= Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemderzeit, von E. Mayser. Leipzig, 1906. Meisterhans Gr = Grammatik der attischen Inschriften, von K. Meisterhans. Third edition by E. Schwyzer. Berlin, 1900. MGr = Modern Greek. Meyer Gr. = Griechische Grammatik, von Gustav Meyer. Dritte vermehrte Aufl. Leipzig, 1896. Milligan Documents — The New Testament Documents: Their Origin and Early History, by George Milligan. London, I9I3Thess = St. Paul's Epistle; to the Thessalonians, by George Milligan. London, 1908. Mitteis or Wilcken Papyruskunde = Grundziige und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde I. i. ed. U. Wilcken, and II. i. ed. L. Mitteis. Leipzig and Berlin ,1912. Moeris = Moeridis Lexicon Atticum. Ed. J. Pierson. Leiden, 1759. Moulton Proles;. = A Grammar of New Testament Greek. Vol. I. Prolegomena*, by James Hope Moulton. Edin burgh, 1908. Moulton Einleitung = Einleitung in die Sprache des neuen Testaments. (Translated with additions from the third edition of Prolegomena.) Heidelberg, 191 1. Musonius = C. Musonii RuH Reliquiae. Ed. O. Hense. Leipzig, 1905. Nachinanson = Laule und Formen der Magnelischen Inschriflen, by E. Nachmanson. Uppsala, 1903. Nageli = Der Wortschatz des ApostelsPaulus, vonTh. Nageli. Gottingen, 1905Pelagia-Legenden .... = Legenden der heiligen Pelagia. Ed. H. Usener. Bonn, 1879. Proleg See under Moulton. Radermacher Gr = Neutestamentliche Grammatik (being Handbuch zum Neuen Testament I. i. ), von L. Rader macher. Tubingen, 191 1. Ramsay Cities = The Cities of St. Paul, by Sir W. M. Ramsay. London, 1907. ,, CRE = The Church in the Roman Empire before A.D. 170. Fifth edition ; by the same. London, 1897. „ Luke = Luke the Physician, by the same. London, 1908. REGr = Revue des Eludes grecques. Parisj 1888- . Reinhold = De Graecilate Patrum, by H. Reinhold. Halle, 1898.

9 Reitzenstein Poiman- = Poimandres : Sludien zur Griechdres isch-Agyptischen und Friihckristlichen Litteratur, von R. Reitzen stein. Leipzig, 1904. Rossberg = De Praepositionum Graecarum in chartis Aegyptiis Ptolemacorum aetatis usu, by C. Rossberg. Jena, 1909. Rouffiac Recherches = Recherches sur les caractires du grec dans UNouveau Testamentdapres les inscriptions de Priene, par J. Rouffiac. Paris, 1911. Rutherford NP = The New Phrynichus, by W. G. Rutherford. London, 1881. Schlageter = Der Worischatz der ausserhalb Attikas gefundenen attischen Inschriften, von J. Schlageter. Strassburg, 191 2. Schmidt Jos = De Flavii Josephi elocutione, by W. Schmidt. Leipzig, 1893. Schurer Geschichte ... = Geschichte des Jiidisclun Voltes im Zeitalter Iesu Christi, von E. Schurer. 318 u. 418 Aufl. Leip zig, 1901. ,, HJP = History of theJewish People in the Time ofJesus Christ. Translated from the second German edition. Edinburgh, 1 890-1. Schweizer Peig. = Grammatih der pergamenischen Inschriften, von E. Schweizer. Berlin, 1898. Sophocles I*x = Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, by E. A. Sophocles. Boston, 1870. Thackeray Gr. = A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek I., by H. St John Thackeray. Cambridge, 1909. Thayer See under Grimm. Thieme = Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Alaandcr und das Neue Testa ment, von G. Thieme. Gtittingen, 1906. Thumb Handbook .... = Handbook of the Modern Greek Vernacular, by Albert Thumb. Translated from the second Ger man edition by S. Angus. Edin burgh, 1912. ,, Hellen = Die griechische Sprache im Zeit alter des Hellenismus, von A. Thumb. Strassburg, 1901. Vettius Valens = Vettii Valentis Anthologiarum Libri. Ed. W. Kroll. Berlin, 1908. Wackernagel Hellen- = /rW/// 36711 (i/A. L>) aip«cridpxT|S means the chief of the profession (medical). aiQET(C and -00) forms recalls rjo-o-dcrdai and (Ion.) 4o-o~ovo-6ai. It is now supported by P Fay III8 (a.d. 95-6) ( = Selections, p. 66) 0 [ovjTjXdTns t» aiTiiupa ir«pwirvT|o-«, " the donkey-driver shifted the

ai(pvi8ios blame from himself." The generally illiterate character of the document somewhat discounts the value of its evidence. alcpvibioi;. The adverb occurs in P Fay 123" s- {f. a.d. 100), an uneducated letter — atyvi8([.]us (with a letter erased) c(pi)x