The Type Project Book [1 ed.] 0136816045, 9780136816041, 0136816037, 9780136816034

TYPOGRAPHIC PROJECTS TO SHARPEN YOUR CREATIVE SKILLS & DIVERSIFY YOUR PORTFOLIO. Whether you’re a seasoned pro looki

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 0136816045, 9780136816041, 0136816037, 9780136816034

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Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Acknowledgments
Contents
Introduction
1 Pastiche
Victorian: Embrace decorative excess
Art Nouveau: Tangled up in vines
Dada: In favor of irrationality
Constructivist: Reds, blacks, and bold diagonals
Bauhaus: Simple shapes and primary colors
Art Deco: Elegant geometry
Wartime Poster: Dig deep for victory
Pulp: Saucy and sensationalist
Swiss: Functional, neutral, and asymmetric
Country Music Poster: Create a Hatch Show Print–inspired poster
Psychedelia: Get groovy with a ’60s rock poster
Punk: There is no future in England’s dreaming
Grunge: Here we are now, entertain us
2 Short Text
Magazine Cover: Where flyaway hair and masthead meet
Classic Fiction: Type that’s in your face
Vintage Album Cover: Subdued colors and wandering baselines
Compact Disc Package: Capture a moment with a “mix tape”
Cookbook: Type in a supporting role
Theater Poster: Working with diagonals
City Poster: Vintage repetition and randomness
Travel Guide: Keeping it simple
Movie Poster: And the award goes to…
Music Festival Poster: Curate your dream lineup
More Classic Fiction: A chat about illustrating a classic
Infographic: Worth a (few) thousand words
Letterpress Gig Poster: Grooving with moveable type in the 21st century
Beer Label: Craft your favorite brew
Wine Label: Design a premium wine label
Business Card: Make a good first impression
3 Longer Text
Gift or Product Guide: Between structure and chaos
Fiction Classic: Wrangle hundreds of pages like a pro
Poetry: Be flexible and sweat the small stuff
Cookbook: Step-by-step recipe instructions
Magazine Layout: Create a six-page magazine feature article
Menu: Design a menu for your favorite restaurant
Trifold Brochure: Design a simple brochure
Visual TOC: Design a table of contents spread
Form Design: No hanging chads
4 Typographic Portraits
Neighborhood Alphabet: We’re going on a type hunt!
Beside the Sea: Evoke a place or genre with type
Environmental Alphabet: Find letters in everything
Ghost Type: Fading signs from times gone by
Collage: Combine type, texture, and vintage clip art
Type Map: Create a map exclusively from type
Celebrity Type Portrait: “Shading” with words
Hand-Lettered Type Portrait: The best of times, and the worst of times
Split-Face Type Portrait: Half man–half letters
ASCII Art: Get cryptic with an Old Master
Puzzle: Create a themed word search
An A–Z Collection: Explore the personality of type
5 Type as Image
Typographical Logo: A new logo for a venerable institution
Illustrate a Lyric with Type: Give a typographic voice to a favorite song lyric or quote
Typeface Design: A chat with the creator of Barlow
Shaped Text: Give visual form to the words
Animated Web Banner: Make it move
Type Patterns and Transformations: What letters do when they’re off duty
Build a Chiseled Drop Cap: Go large with your initial letter
Add Flourishes to Your Type: Let your letters sprout swirls and spirals
Icons: Turn symbols into a working picture font
Hand Lettering: Create a hand-lettered quote
Large Letter Postcard: Bold letters worthy of a great city
Color Fonts: Explore the possibilities of chromatic type
Hoodie: Wearable type
Interpret a Word or Phrase: Use a twist to enhance the meaning
Silkscreened Gig Poster: Indie rock in limited color
Interpret a List or Series: Rain later. Good.
Index of Typefaces
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
O
P
R
S
T
U
V
W
Z
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Citation preview

TYPOGRAPHICPROJECTSTO SHARPENYOURCREATIVESKILLS &DIVERSIFYYOURPORTFOLIO Whether you’re a seasoned pro looking to brush up your portfolio, or a novice with a laptop full of design software you haven’t yet mastered, this book has you covered. In dozens of projects, the authors guide you through the nitty-gritty details of book design, magazine layout, poster production, and all manner of print projects, fromstart to finish. The Type Project Book is loaded with tips and insider knowledge that will help you hone your design skills, deepen your type knowledge, and nerd out on the history of graphic design.





Each section is a deep dive into real-world design projects fromworking designers: a cookbook; a letterpress gig poster; an animated web banner; an infographic; even the humble business card is explored. Along the way, wisdomis offered, tips and time-saving tricks are shared, the secrets of working graphic designers are revealed—all with the requisite doses of wit one expects fromseasoned professionals with decades of experience.

THETYPEPROJECTBOOKPROVIDES: Awide variety of typography-focused projects ranging from a single letter to a book of several hundred pages An understanding of the design principles involved in creating impactful graphic design Immersion into the wider world of type and lettering and its use for artistic expression Tips and techniques for the most efficient working practices

NIGELFRENCHis a graphic designer, photographer, and software trainer based in Sussex, UK. He is author of InDesign Type (Adobe Press), a regular speaker at Adobe MAX, and has recorded many courses for the popular online training library LinkedIn Learning (formerly Lynda.com). His website is www.nigelfrench.com. HUGHD’ANDRADE is an award-winning illustrator and designer based in Oakland, California. He is Creative Director for the Electronic Frontier Foundation and has taught at the California College of Arts &Crafts, as well as the San Francisco Art Institute. His website is www.hughillustration.com.

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-681604-1 ISBN-10: 0-13-681604-5

Book Shelf Category Graphic Design/Typography Cover Design Nigel French Author Photo Melanie Hobson

9780136816041_French_Type_Project_Book_Cover.indd All Pages

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780136 816041

5 3 9 9 9

$39.99 US

8/31/20 3:18 PM

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The Type Project Book Typographic projects to sharpen your creative skills & diversify your portfolio New Riders www.newriders.com Copyright © 2021 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. San Francisco, CA New Riders is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc. To report errors, please send a note to [email protected] Notice of Rights This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit www.pearson.com/permissions. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis, without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor Peachpit shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the computer software and hardware products described in it. Trademarks Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners and any references to third party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson Education, Inc. products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors. Executive Editor: Laura Norman Development Editor: Linda Laflamme Senior Production Editor: Tracey Croom Copy Editor: Linda Laflamme Technical Editor: Mike Rankin Production Coordinator: David Van Ness Proofreader: Kim Wimpsett Compositor: Nigel French with David Van Ness Indexer: Jack Lewis Cover Design: Nigel French Interior Design: Nigel French





ISBN-13: 978-0-13-681604-1 ISBN-10: 0-13-681604-5 ScoutAutomatedPrintCode

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the following people for their help: Michael Bierut, Eugen Coman, everyone at the CreativePro Network, Caitlyn Crites, Tracey Croom, the French family Zoom posse, Alan Gilbertson, Harvey & Gundrada, Melanie Hobson, Alastair Johnston, Linda Laflamme, Jack Lewis, the good folks at LinkedIn Learning, Laura Norman, Jo Obarowski, Mike Rankin, Victoria Robbins, Joanna Shindler, Jeremy Tribby, Bart Van de Wiele, David Van Ness, Vantablack, Kim Wimpsett.

ABSTRACTACTIVATEALIGNA NIMATEANTHROPOMORPH IZEAPPRECIATEBENDBEVEL BLENDBOLDBREAKBUILDCA PCENTERCHISELCHOOSECL ASSIFYCLIPCOLLAGECOLOR COMBINECOMPARECONDE NSECONTROLCROPCUSTO MIZEDEFINEDESIGNDISTOR TDISTRESSDRAWEMBOSSE MPHASIZEENTWINEEXPAN DEXPLOREEXTENDEXTRUD EFADEFINDFLIPFLOWFORM ATFRAMEGRADATEGROUP HYPHENATEIDENTIFYINDEN TITALICIZEJUSTIFYKERNLAY ERLEADLISTLOCKMAKEMAS KMEASUREMERGEMIXNUM BEROVERPRINTOUTLINEPA INTPHOTOGRAPHPICKPRIN TREVERSEROTATESCALESEE SELECTSHADESHAPESHIFTS LICESPACESPANSPLITSPOTS QUEEZESTACKSTROKESTRU CTURESTUDYSTYLIZETHRE ADTINTTRACKTRAN FORM

2 1 The Type Project Book

1

54

Magazine Cover Where flyaway hair and masthead meet 56 Classic Fiction Type that’s in your face 60 Vintage Album Cover Subdued colors and wandering baselines 64 Compact Disc Package Capture a moment with a “mix tape” 66 Cookbook Type in a supporting role 70 Theater Poster Working with diagonals 74 City Poster Vintage repetition and randomness 78 Travel Guide Keeping it simple 82 Movie Poster And the award goes to… 86 Music Festival Poster Curate your dream lineup 90 More Classic Fiction A chat about illustrating a classic 94 Infographic Worth a (few) thousand words 98 Letterpress Gig Poster Grooving with moveable type in the 21st century 102 Beer Label Craft your favorite brew 106 Wine Label Design a premium wine label 110 Business Card Make a good first impression 114

2





14



22





26

30

42 46





50



38







34



















18





10







6



Victorian Embrace decorative excess Art Nouveau Tangled up in vines Dada In favor of irrationality Constructivist Reds, blacks, and bold diagonals Bauhaus Simple shapes and primary colors Art Deco Elegant geometry Wartime Poster Dig deep for victory Pulp Saucy and sensationalist Swiss Functional, neutral, and asymmetric Country Music Poster Create a Hatch Show Print– inspired poster Psychedelia Get groovy with a ’60s rock poster Punk There is no future in England’s dreaming Grunge Here we are now, entertain us







Pastiche

Short Text



viii



Introduction



vi

Contents



138



142



146





198

Typographical Logo A new logo for a venerable institution 200 Illustrate a Lyric with Type Give a typographic voice to a favorite song lyric or quote 204 Typeface Design A chat with the creator of Barlow 208 Shaped Text Give visual form to the words 212 Animated Web Banner Make it move 216 Type Patterns and Transformations What letters do when they’re off duty 220 Build a Chiseled Drop Cap Go large with your initial letter 224 Add Flourishes to Your Type Let your letters sprout swirls and spirals 226 Icons Turn symbols into a working picture font 228 Hand Lettering Create a hand-lettered quote 230 Large Letter Postcard Bold letters worthy of a great city 234 Color Fonts Explore the possibilities of chromatic type 238 Hoodie Wearable type 240 Interpret a Word or Phrase Use a twist to enhance the meaning 244 Silkscreened Gig Poster Indie rock in limited color 248 Interpret a List or Series Rain later. Good. 252



















Index of Typefaces Index



















Neighborhood Alphabet We’re going on a type hunt! 160 Beside the Sea Evoke a place or genre with type 164 Environmental Alphabet Find letters in everything 168 Ghost Type Fading signs from times gone by 172 Collage Combine type, texture, and vintage clip art 174 Type Map Create a map exclusively from type 178 Celebrity Type Portrait “Shading” with words 182 Hand-Lettered Type Portrait The best of times, and the worst of times 186 Split-Face Type Portrait Half man–half letters 190





158



Typographic Portraits





154







150

Type as Image





134

196





130

194





124

192



120



Gift or Product Guide Between structure and chaos Fiction Classic Wrangle hundreds of pages like a pro Poetry Be flexible and sweat the small stuff Cookbook Step-by-step recipe instructions Magazine Layout Create a six-page magazine feature article Menu Design a menu for your favorite restaurant Trifold Brochure Design a simple brochure Visual TOC Design a table of contents spread Form Design No hanging chads

ASCII Art Get cryptic with an Old Master Puzzle Create a themed word search An A–Z Collection Explore the personality of type





118



3 5 4 Longer Text

The Type Project Book

257 259

vii

The Type Project Book



How do graphic designers think about their work? Where do their ideas come from? What kind of tricks and tools do they use, what typefaces do they choose — and what are the reasons for those choices? There are many books about design, but few written by designers, for designers, exploring their process, and breaking the work down step by step. Fewer still put typography front and center of this decision making and practice.



Introduction

We believe that typography is the foundation of any good design. If the typography is poor, no matter how strong the other elements, the design fails. And we’re not just talking about typos. Too many potentially strong designs are spoiled by careless typography that looks like it was added as an afterthought, with little respect for the words, the people who wrote them, or the rich history of the letters themselves.





For these reasons, we set out to write a book about design thinking with typography at its core. We address a wide range of typical graphic design jobs, some glamorous, others pedestrian — because when you’re a jobbing designer, you don’t get to choose. To introduce ourselves: Nigel is a freelance designer and photographer based in the UK. He’s recorded many design-related courses for the popular online training library Lynda.com, now LinkedIn Learning. Hugh is an award-winning illustrator and Creative Director for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a San Francisco–based non-profit devoted to defending civil liberties in the digital world.



What’s Inside this Book In The Type Project Book, we walk you through graphic design projects that we found particularly useful — the kind of projects that are challenging and fun. We explore everything from poster design to magazine layouts, from animated web banners to hand-drawn type. With each project, we share our thinking process, the ideas that inspired us, and break down key phases, while leaving you enough room to experiment and make the project your own.  



Some of these projects we have dusted off from our portfolios, others were created specifically for this book. We explore a range of techniques, some of them known to any seasoned designer, some of them our own special concoctions. The projects give a comprehensive account of what’s possible using typography in Adobe InDesign, Illustrator, and Photoshop. But at the same time, the projects are personal, and somewhat idiosyncratic. We feel it couldn’t be otherwise — our muses would not allow it!  



Our intended audience We have imagined our reader to be a colleague or advanced student, someone comfortable with the software basics, familiar with design fundamentals — perhaps someone looking for inspiration, techniques, and workarounds to  

viii

Introduction





We hope that when you, dear reader, realize that we, the “experts,” are also just muddling through, it will help to demystify the learning of design techniques and software skills. Design thinking is subjective, and sometimes the best results come from doing things “the wrong way,” as our exploration of historical design styles will show. There are no officially sanctioned methods, and even if there were, as anarchists by temperament, we would reject them. And we’d suggest you do the same. That said, we know that design conventions and traditions exist for a reason, and we respect them. We have studied and continue to study our craft. We hope that with experience comes wisdom, that through practice our muscle memory is deep, and that our methodology prevents us from repeating the same mistakes. But on some level, we know what works, only because we’ve tried so many things that don’t. If you’re looking for ideas for self-initiated projects to elevate your design skills, we think this book will help you. The projects will give you suggestions for how to tackle similar design problems. Our solution is just one from an infinite range of possibilities. We hope that, rather than follow along to the letter, you’ll pick the bits that interest you. Create your own projects inspired by ours, take our techniques, adapt them, and mix them with your own for a unique solution.

Some technical notes The careful reader will notice that our pronoun shifts throughout. Most often we use we, both because it felt friendlier and because we collaborated on several of these projects. Some sections were authored by only one of us and were personal projects; these seemed to work better in the first person. We’ll always try to clue you in on which author is talking. For each project you’ll find links to a Pinterest page with inspirational examples. These extend the range of what we can show in a single book, and they also, in many cases, served as our inspiration for the projects. We hope you’ll explore these and dig deeper into the material. We’ve also used callout boxes for the typeface that has the lead role in each project. We are Mac users, but neither of us is a devotee of the Cult of Steve, and we like to think that such affiliations don’t matter. A Windows user will have no trouble. Towards that end, our convention for listing keyboard shortcuts is Mac then Windows. For example: Create a Clipping mask (Cmd+Option+G/Ctrl+Alt+G).

[email protected]



[email protected]









Above all else, this book is a dialogue — between ourselves and with you — about good design, type, and combining both. We want to hear what you think, so don’t be shy about contacting us.

“Typefaces will carry stories best when they have stories of their own.” 

We do this stuff every day and have been doing it for years. Decades in fact. But we’re acutely aware that there’s always more to learn. We’re not infallible; we have our blind spots and bad habits. Sometimes we’ve become aware while writing the descriptions that there are other ways (aren’t there always?) of achieving the same or similar results, and in some cases those ways may have been preferable. But these are the techniques that got us through. At the end of the day, the work got done.

— Tobias Frere-Jones  





sharpen their practice. While this isn’t intended as a beginner book, we think that an enterprising novice will enjoy it, with some supplementary materials — online or in print — that explain the basics of the applications we’re using.

ix

The Type Project Book

Pastiche As it turns out, there’s nothing new under the sun. Every brilliant design owes a debt to the designs that came  



before — and that’s especially true for typography, where the traditions stretch back centuries. Designers have always learned by imitating and mimicking the voices of  



the past — sometimes in homage, sometimes in mockery, sometimes just for the challenge. In this chapter we use modern techniques to explore famous design styles, and we also get to explore some fascinating graphic design history.

2

10 New

Victorian

Dada

6

14

Art Nouveau

Constructivist

Pastiche

30¢

18

AN EDWARD MORGAN MURDER MYSTERY

HARVEY JAMES

DESIGNING MODERNITY

30

SHE WAS TOo HOT Pulp TO HANDLE ...

Bauhaus

HAROLD HUMPHREYS

22

42

HARVEY & GUNDRADA PRESENT

Psychedelia

34

46 o Proceed Tthe

pink floyd

WE’RE COUNTING ON YOU

saturday, april 8th 10 p.m. till dawn late licensed bar applied for over 18s only

roundhouse chalk farm road, nw1 the flies earl fuggle and the electric poets the block and special guest stars all-night light show

Art Deco

26

5/-

W

H R eTC

ED

Rout e

FACTO

Swiss

Punk

38

50

Country Music Poster

Grunge

FOR THE HOME FRONT

SAVE LIVES Wartime Poster

R

1

2

The Type Project Book

Victorian

Embrace decorative excess

THE BRIEF Create a Victorian advertising card using a range of embellishments TRIM SIZE US/Letter/A4







LEARNING POINTS • Adding shading and offset strokes • Adding and combining ornaments • Using stylistic alternates TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop FONTS USED P22 Victorian Swash, P22 Victorian Gothic, Balford INSPIRATION pin.it/1rD6Z8v

In our era of minimalist design, a common piece of typographic advice is keep it simple. We’re often told in design school to limit ourselves to two or three typefaces at most, and to leave plenty of white space. “Let it breathe.” Victorian printers would beg to differ. Let’s start with a definition. Literally, the Victorian era is defined by the reign of Queen Victoria of Britain, 1837 to 1901. More broadly it’s come to mean a cultural period in the late 1800s, from about the 1860s to the turn of the century. One of the characteristics of Victorian typography is its, um, lack of restraint. The advertising placards, posters, and packaging of that era were created by craftsman printers, as the category of “designer” had yet to be invented, and they put to use all the ornamentation and excess they could muster. In a time when mass production and advertising were relatively new concepts, advertising needed to stand out. Bigger, louder, brighter, more detailed designs were the order of the day!

Choose the type For this project, we wanted typefaces that were designed during the era or typefaces that consciously evoke the Victorian age. In Illustrator we added the main type (centered, optical kerning), applied a Flag warp, and moved the baselines of the initial cap down.

Victorian Swash Create the frame

Typographic ornaments are a great way to extend your palette. To create the frame, for example, we used an ornament font that is part of the Balford family. Use the Glyphs panel to identify the ornaments you want, insert them, and then convert them to outlines so that you can scale them more easily. To get the arrangement you’re after, there will be a lot of rotating, reflecting, and scaling. When you arrive at a pleasing frame (ours is comprised of three elements), use Pathfinder > Merge to combine all into a single frame. To avoid moving the frame in error, put it on its own layer and lock the layer.  

abcdefghijklmnopqrstu vwxyzABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ 1234567890



Christina Torre, Richard Kegler. P22.

The type after warping, optical kerning, and a negative baseline shift applied to the initial caps.

Pastiche

Use the Glyphs panel to explore the Balford extras ornaments font.

Decoration Apply an offset shadow and woodcut shading through the Appearance panel. This keeps the text editable, but more practically, it makes it easier to manage small adjustments to the exact amount of offsets applied. A potential downside, especially when it comes to applying multiple pattern fills for the shading, is that using the Appearance panel in this way can be processor intensive. To maximize editing flexibility, also make sure to convert your swatches to global colors. Check out the diagram on the next page for a breakdown of how to apply effects through the Appearance panel.

3

The Type Project Book

A

Set the color of the topmost fill ( ).

A

Make the second fill the same color as the background. Offset with a Transform effect ( ).

B

B

C

The third fill is offset further with a Transform effect ( ).

C

The fourth fill applies a pattern (6 lpi 20%) ( ).

E

D

D

F

The first transformation of the pattern offsets multiple copies ( ).

E

The second transformation of the pattern changes its scale and rotation. Note, Transform Objects is deselected. ( ).

F

F



Choose Pathfinder > Add from the fx menu to combine the multiple offset shapes and patterns into one.



There are limits to what you can do while retaining the type as editable text. So having made a copy to the pasteboard of progress so far, we chose Object > Expand Appearance and drilled down through Isolation Mode by double-clicking to the M and the E to flip the color of the fill and offset stroke for the initial letters.  



4

Adding catchwords Catchwords are small words, typically prepositions or articles, or possibly short phrases that are designed as and can be input as a single glyph. Typically, they evoke vintage advertising or typographic posters of the late 19th century. Some fonts that have catchwords are HWT Catchwords, Adorn Catchwords, Charcuterie Catchwords, and Adobe Wood Type Ornaments. You can explore what’s available using the Glyphs panel and insert the catchword simply by double-clicking at the point of your cursor. We hoped to find a catchword for The One And Only, but in the end had to make our own, combining type with two catchwords from the Balford font.

Pastiche

A

A texture layer serves as a basis for the layer mask applied to the layer below. Its visibility is turned off, but the layer is retained in case we change our minds.

The layer mask, derived from the gray values of the layer above, embeds the texture into the artwork. In the Camera Raw filter, grain is added ( ) for desired fuzziness around letter edges and to shading ( ).

The layer is a Linked Smart Object: If changes are required to the composition, double-click the layer thumbnail to open the Smart Object in Illustrator.

A

B

The Note Paper filter applied to a Color Fill layer provides a paper-like texture for the artwork to blend with.

Exploring stylistic alternates As if we didn’t already have enough flourishes, we decided to add in a few more by using some contextual alternates from the Balford font. When you select a glyph, a blue line will appear beneath it along with a row of alternate glyphs (if any exist in the font). You can also use the Glyphs panel: For Show, choose Access All Alternates to explore what’s available. We ended up using the R and the T.





Texture To finish the project, we roughened up the woodcut shading and added some texture: tasks that we find much easier in Photoshop. We created a new canvas at the same size as the Illustrator artboard and placed the artwork in progress as a Linked Smart Object (File > Place Linked). As a base, we added a Color Fill layer in an ivory color and converted this to a Smart Object. For some texture, we added a Note Paper filter from the Sketch group of filters. This filter uses your foreground and background color, so before we applied it, we set these to white and off-white, respectively. We changed the blending mode of the artwork layer to Multiply to combine it with this texture. Next, we used the Camera Raw filter to add some grain. This does two things: makes the edges of the letters slightly fuzzy, like ink spreading on paper, and makes the shading less perfect and more realistic looking. Finally, for some aging, we added a layer of texture. We had initially intended to blend this down through the layers, but ultimately decided that we liked it better used as a layer mask on the artwork layer. To do this, with just the texture layer visible, go to the Channels panel and Cmd/Ctrl-click the RGB channel. This will activate a selection of the gray values of the layer. Now move to the artwork layer, and click Add Layer Mask. To adjust the contrast and see more of the image and less of the texture, press Cmd/Ctrl+L to bring up Levels and move the white point slider to the left. Note that because we’re working directly on the layer mask, a non-destructive adjustment layer is not an option.

B

5

6

The Type Project Book

Art Nouveau

Tangled up in vines









TRIM SIZE 10 × 16 inches (254 × 406 mm)







LEARNING POINTS • Adding multiple strokes • Working with opacity masks in Illustrator • Using the Live Paint Bucket in Illustrator TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Vienna Workshop, P22 Art Nouveau Extras

This project starts with the slogan “For Every Time Its Art, For Art Its Freedom,” a translation from the German of the inscription above the entrance of the Secession Building in Vienna. (The Vienna Secession was a group of radical Austrian artists, including Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, and Joseph Hoffman who, in 1897, broke away from the artistic mainstream. Think of them as the punks of their time.)

Setting the type Start by centering the type on the artboard. Reduce the leading (we changed the Auto Leading value from 120 to 100%), and insert line breaks to break the phrase sympathetically. We typically find that Optical automatic kerning is tighter than Metrics, making it preferable for display type, and that was the case here. Because we wanted to add strokes around the letters, we increased the tracking to give ourselves some growing room. We reduced the word spacing in the Justification settings on the Paragraph panel to 50% for Minimum, Desired, and Maximum. We added optical margin alignment (Type > Story), which factors in the punctuation at the ends of the lines. Finally for this step, we changed the ER letter combination to a ligature, through the Glyphs panel.  

INSPIRATION pin.it/1VPvEJl

There are a few people in the world who hate Art Nouveau. The same people also hate flowers and puppies. Everyone else loves this beautiful style that flourished (literally) between 1890 and 1910. Its characteristics varied from country to country, but all of its varieties shared a use of curved lines and natural forms, particularly flowers and plants, presented in a clean, stylized fashion. While the style embraces the natural world, it is paradoxically the result of new industrial mass production techniques.

The standard ligatures that are part of the Vienna Workshop font



THE BRIEF Create an Art Nouveau–inspired typographic poster

For D Every A Time B Its Art. For CArt Its Freedo

For Evy Time Its Art. For Art Its Freedo

Finessing the type: The automatic kerning method is set to Optical ( ), the leading is reduced ( ), the word spacing reduced ( ), and a ligature applied ( ).

A

C D

B

Pastiche

7

The Type Project Book

Adding multiple strokes to the type The best way to add multiple strokes is through the Appearance panel. Start by adding a new fill for the dark blue. Then, add a stroke, make it gold, increase its weight, and move it beneath the fill. Add another stroke and make its weight half that of the previous stroke.

For Vienna Worshop Evy Time Its Art. For Art Its Freedo David Kerkhoff. Hanoded. 2012.

Using the Appearance panel, a color fill sits above two strokes. The bottom (gold) stroke is heavier than the stroke above, creating the offset stroke effect.

Add the frame The frame is constructed using the same method as the previous project: A single piece of vector art (in this case part of the P22 Art Nouveau extras font, converted to outlines) is copied, reflected, and joined together by extending the end points into a single frame. It was made into a single item using Pathfinder > Add and then converted to a Live Paint Group and colored.  

The vector artwork, is duplicated and reflected to create the four corners of the frame.

The end points are extended to create the frame edges, at which point the separate pieces can be combined into one using Unite on the Pathfinder panel.

Use the Live Paint Bucket to convert the artwork to a Live Paint Group, at which point the segments can be colored.

The sunflowers are suggested by the decorations on the Karlsplatz metro station in Vienna.











Add the vines The vector artwork for the vines comes from the P22 Art Nouveau extras font. We converted this to outlines and then scaled, flipped, and rotated as necessary to combine the vines with the type. Alternatively, you could use Illustrator’s Vine brush, which is in the Decorative > Elegant Curl & Floral Brush Set. Once the vines are in place, the challenge is how to make it appear that they are entwined with — and growing from — the type. This requires the use of an opacity mask, probably one of Illustrator’s most confusing features.  

a bcde fg h i j kl no pq rstuvwxy zABCDEFGHIJKL M N O PQ RST U VW XYZ1234567890



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The opacity mask will be made from the type. Make a copy of the type on a new layer above the vines layer. Expand the type (Object > Expand Appearance), and change its fill and stroke to black. Now select this type and the vines, and, on the Transparency panel, choose Make Mask. The mask starts out black; deselect Clip so that the vines are masked by the type shape. The shape of the type will now mask the vines where they were formerly overlapping the letters. To create the entwined effect, target the opacity mask (a blue frame will appear around its thumbnail), choose the Blob brush, and paint in white to restore the opacity.

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To make the opacity mask: Select the copy of the type and the plants layer below, and then choose Make Mask on the Transparency panel ( ). Deselect Clip ( ). Target the opacity mask ( ), and paint with the Blob brush in white to reveal portions of the vine. ( ).

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The paper texture is a stock image, placed on its own layer at the top of the layer stack, with its blending mode set to Multiply at an opacity of 80%.

The Secession Building (1898) in Vienna, Austria

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Dada

In favor of irrationality

THE BRIEF Create a Dada-inspired poster highlighting a slogan of the movement TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

The early 20th century avant-garde art movement known as Dada rejected reason and logic, which it regarded as having failed to prevent the catastrophe of the First World War. If mass death was sane and orderly, these artists asked, why not embrace nonsense, irrationality, and intuition? Why play by the rules, when the rules lead to war, hunger, and authoritarianism? We have to admit, they have a point.

In the world of design, they shattered all norms, allowing type to be blown up, rotated, flipped upside down, misprinted. Images were collaged, ripped from context, their meanings subverted. Imagine the horror of their Victorian parents! (Probably similar to the way our own parents reacted to our Black Sabbath albums.)



FONTS USED Birch, Clarendon Text, Rosewood Fill, Alternate Gothic No 1, Adobe Caslon Pro, Adobe Wood Type Ornaments INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/1wnjN2H www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/d/dada texturepalace.com

Rosewood Fill Carl Crossgrove, Carol Twombly, Kim Buker Chansler. Adobe.

a bc de f gh i j k l m nop q r st u v w x y z A BC DE F GH I J K L M NOPQRST U V W X YZ1234567890



TOOLS Illustrator



What’s amazing is that, in their bid to reject order and logic, they produced so much art of lasting value. Starting in Zürich, and spreading to Berlin, Paris, and New York, Dadaism inspired the visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestos, art theory, theater, and typography — with an influence that is still being felt today. It’s almost as if there is a logical argument in favor of illogic!



LEARNING POINTS • Working with the Touch Type tool in Illustrator • Experimenting with scale • Overprinting effects

For this project, we chose to illustrate a quote from Tristan Tzara (1896–1963), one of the most influential members of the Dada movement: “Not the old, not the new, but the necessary.”

Type choices The Dadaists were not concerned with choosing a typeface to convey a brand, the way designers are today. Through extreme hierarchy every page was designed to “yell” at its viewers. They would have ridiculed the idea that you should use no more than three fonts per page. They used as many different fonts as they wanted, would punctuate in unconventional ways, and dropped random letters or symbols throughout their pages. They sought to liberate typography from the grid of the letter press, printing horizontally, vertically, and diagonally on the same page. To make their angled typography, they had to use the tool the wrong way, and at its best, Dada typography is an inspiring reminder that sometimes the best results come from breaking the rules. To keep the look of the example poster authentic, we chose typefaces designed before 1914. We imagined that our typefaces were incomplete, that certain letters were missing (or in the midst of a heated political debate had been put back in the wrong typecase) and needed to be substituted with letters from other typefaces. We’re after a chaotic look. We also couldn’t resist the classic design trope of the pointing finger or manicule. Ours was from Adobe Wood Type Ornaments (you can find similar in Zapf Dingbats, Wingdings, or other ornaments sets). Frequently used in 19th century posters and advertisements to add emphasis, pointing finger

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type blocks would have been readily available in printers’ typecases of the time. Although the pointing finger began as type, we immediately turned it into outlines, which made it easier to scale. Examples of pointing hands from different typefaces. The symbol is also called an index or manicule (from the Latin root manicula, meaning little hand). In printers’ slang it was known as a bishop’s fist, mutton-fist, or just fist. Its earliest known uses were in manuscripts from the 12th century, where it was drawn in red pen in the margin. It is the forerunner of the pointing finger cursor when you hover over a link.

Adobe Wood Type Ornaments

Zapf Dingbats

Wingdings

Hoefler Text Ornaments

Escrow Text Italic

EB Garamond

Create an overprint effect A second color could only be red for maximum impact. We thought the standard black swatch looked a bit too solid so we used a 90% gray for a slightly faded look. The Dadaists were among the first typographers to use layering. Obviously they didn’t have a Transparency panel and Opacity slider, so we avoided the temptations of the Multiply blending mode. Instead, we set the attributes of the type to overprint and chose Overprint Preview for a more accurate view. Adding a rectangle around the word Necessary is, of course, a rudimentary thing to do. But, the Dadaists wouldn’t have had a rectangle tool; they would have created their rectangle with rules. And with so much propagandizing to do, they would have been in a hurry. This is why we constructed our rectangle from rules of different weights that don’t quite line up.

Right: Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, Hannah Höch 1919 Theo van Doesburg’s poster for a Dada soirée (ca. 1923)

Pastiche The result of setting the type attributes (you’ll find the panel under the Window menu) to Overprint Fill and turning on Overprint Preview. Before left, after right.

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To mess up the evenness of the baselines, we used the Touch Type tool, which allows you to freely position — as well as scale and rotate — individual letters while retaining the editability of the type. Imagine what the Dadaists could have done with the Touch Type tool! One of the things that’s so appealing about this style is that you can’t really go wrong. Whatever you do, it looks good.

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E To use the Touch Type tool: Choose Show Touch Type Tool to make it visible on the Character panel ( ).

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Rotate the character from the circle, top center of the bounding box ( ). Using the corners, adjust the vertical scale ( ), adjust the horizontal scale ( ), or scale proportionally ( ).

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Adding the texture To finish the composition, we added texture. In fact, there are two textures, one for the background and one for the type. We found them both at texturepalace.com. You can add texture as an opacity mask to each piece of type. In addition, we added an overall texture at the bottom of the layer stack.

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The wood texture ( ) is added as an opacity mask ( ) to each type sublayer ( ). The dotted line beneath the layer name indicates that an opacity mask is applied.

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Poster for Dada Matinée (1923) by Theo van Doesburg

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Constructivist

Reds, blacks, and bold diagonals

TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

Some of those great minds were artists, designers, and architects, and from that moment in Russia came the Constructivist movement, led by artists like Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko, and influenced by the suprematist works of El Lissitsky. Its purpose was to celebrate the power of industrial civilization while projecting a confidence in the future and belief in social progress. Bold, dynamic, and imaginative, the design of that period inspired other movements of the 20th century — everything from Bauhaus in Germany to the De Stijl movement in the Netherlands.

TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Molot (dafont.com) INSPIRATION pin.it/48lBaO3

Some of the most influential graphic designers of the modern age, like Neville Brody and Barbara Kruger, were influenced by Constructivism. Nowadays, it’s common to see people imitate some of the elements of Constructivist typography — bold, red, and black type run at an angle, yellowed collage images, Russian-styled knock-off fonts, and so on. It’s easy to imitate, with today’s tools, but very difficult to do well. Perhaps the difficulty has something to do with that confidence in the future. Kinda hard to muster, these days, but we can try.  







• Combining words of different scale • Aligning and spacing type • Applying live transformations



LEARNING POINTS



We’ve grown accustomed to seeing the old Soviet Union as stodgy, dull, and inefficient. But believe it or not, there was a time when the things going on in Russia inspired the best minds of the day! Hard to imagine, but it’s true.



THE BRIEF Create a Constructivist-inspired propaganda poster

For this project, we chose to illustrate a quote from Rodchenko: “The Future Is Our Only Goal.”

Type choice and treatment The font we chose is Molot by Jovanny Lemonad, available for a voluntary donation at dafont.com. It’s a very blocky sans serif that says “Russian”

MOLOT Roman Yershov, Jovanny Lemonad. 2008.

ABCDEFGHIJ KL MNOPQR STUVWXYZ 1234567890

Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge by El Lissitsky (1919)

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without resorting to corny devices like backwards Rs. In keeping with the confidence of the Constructivists, it looks solid, like nothing can knock it over. The bold rotation of the type is key to creating a Constructivist look, but before rotating the text, it’s important to address the scaling, alignment, and spacing. To space out the type and black bars, we drew colored rectangles to use as “spacing sticks” to keep the distance between elements consistent. Duplicate and rotate colored rectangles on a separate layer to ensure consistent spacing between elements. When you’re finished, hide the spacing layer.

Luminaries of Constructivism, Alexander Rodchenko and Varvara Stepanova in the 1920s

Color Red is used as a second color both for its assertiveness and its political associations. Since the time of the French Revolution (1789–1799), a red flag has predominantly been a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, and trade unions. When paired with black, it creates a visual combination that’s hard to beat. Color ink was expensive, so the use of just one or two colors was common. Rotating the type Having grouped the type elements and the black bars, you’re ready to rotate the type. We added the rotation as an effect through the Appearance panel. That way, if we want to make changes to the text, we can hide the Rodchenko’s poster Books (Please)! In All Branches of Knowledge (1924) is one of the most referenced pieces in the history of graphic design. Top: the cover of You Could Have It So Much Better, by Scottish indie band Franz Ferdinand; Bottom: an ad on the back of a bus in San Francisco.

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transformation, make the changes, and then turn the transformation back on. Alternatively, you can leave the transformation on, but make the edits in Outline View mode, where the rotation will not be visible.

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Applying the rotation as a Live Effect ( ) makes it easy to dial in the exact amount of scaling and angle of rotation ( ). If you need to make changes to the text, just temporarily hide visibility of the effect ( ).

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Finishing touches The hammering workers are traced from a Soviet poster of the era.





For the texture, we moved to Photoshop. Here we created a canvas the same size as our Illustrator artboard (plus an extra quarter-inch on both dimensions for the bleed) and placed the Illustrator art as a linked graphic. We added a layer of texture above the artwork and set its blending mode to Multiply. This had a good effect on the lighter areas of the artwork, but left the solid blacks unchanged. A more aggressive approach was needed: We temporarily switched the blending mode of the texture layer back to Normal, opened the Channels panel, and Cmd/Ctrl-clicked the RGB thumbnail to load the gray values of the texture as an active selection. Returning to the Layers panel, we restored the blending mode of the texture to Multiply and added the active selection as a layer mask to the artwork layer. Double texture — with the result that it is affecting both the light and dark areas! To increase the contrast, we applied a Levels adjustment to the layer mask and moved the black point slider to the right. Finally, for more drama, we also applied a Camera Raw filter to the texture layer and added vignetting to the edges.

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Place the Illustrator artwork in Photoshop as a Linked Smart Object ( ). Add a paper texture to the layer above and set its blending mode set to Multiply ( ). Use the gray values of the texture as a layer mask for the artwork and increase the contrast of the layer mask with a Levels adjustment ( ). Apply a Camera Raw filter to the texture layer to darken the edges of the canvas with a vignette ( ).

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Bauhaus

Simple shapes and primary colors





TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Alfarn INSPIRATION pin.it/2chKCWZ Hidden Treasures of the Bauhaus: fonts.adobe.com/fonts/hidden-treasures

ALFARN Céline Hurka. Adobe. 2018.

ABCDE FG HLJIKLM N O P Q R ST UVWXYZ

1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 0



The Bauhaus was set up in Weimar in 1919, moved to Dessau in 1925, and then moved to Berlin in 1932, where it operated until the Nazis — realizing that all good design is potentially subversive — had them shut down. The school was founded on the principle of an interdisciplinary approach to art education. Courses at the Bauhaus blended theory and practice, with the purpose of unifying art, craft, and technology. During its brief lifetime, many of Europe’s leading artists and designers were on its faculty: Anni Albers, Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Max Bill, Marcel Breuer, Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Piet Mondrian, to name a few, as well as its three directors, Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.  



LEARNING POINTS • Assembling simple letterforms from primitive shapes • Using transparency • Choosing historically appropriate type











TRIM SIZE 10 × 10 inches (254 × 254 mm)

Bauhaus is the name of one of the greatest bands of the 1980s. Strangely enough, it’s also the name of an art school in Germany that set out to combine crafts and fine art, and to make modernism part of everyday life. One of their most popular slogans was “Form follows function, the way hangovers follow alcohol.” Later, in the interest of brevity, it was shortened to simply “Form follows function.” These folks were serious about keeping it simple.



THE BRIEF Create a Bauhaus-inspired type treatment for a book cover

After the school was closed, the staff emigrated, many of them to the United States. In 1937, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy founded the new Bauhaus in Chicago. This would subsequently become part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. After World War II, the Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in modern design, and it continues to have a profound influence upon architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. Wassily Kandinsky, one of the school’s founders, assigned the colors red, blue, and yellow to the square, circle, and triangle, respectively. The theoretical study of these colors and shapes was a major part of the school’s famous preliminary course. Taking this as inspiration, the main part of this project is to construct letterforms based upon the square, circle, and triangle in the primary colors of red, blue, and yellow.

Creating the letters Begin with the three basic shapes, all at the same size. Reduce their opacity to 80%, so that when overlapped, they will create additional shapes.

Basic shapes and primary colors: the building blocks of our letters

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DESIGNING MODERNITY

HAROLD HUMPHREYS

Drag down copies of these shapes to make each of the letters. Draw down guides to mark the top and bottom of the shapes. Make sure Smart Guides are turned on so that the different parts align exactly. To aid precision, work at a large view size, and toggle back and forth as necessary to the Outline view. Take full advantage of the use of the Align buttons in the Control or Properties panel, and reduce the size of the keyboard nudge increment in the General Preferences. Adjust the stacking order of the objects as necessary to create the most effective overlap from the transparency settings. The most difficult letter is the S, which requires the use of the Shape Builder tool. Scale the circle to 66%, duplicate it, and then draw a line with no stroke color from the top anchor point of the lower circle and another from the bottom anchor point of the upper circle beyond the outside of the circle.

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With the Shape Builder tool, hold down Option/Alt, and click to subtract the segment that this creates. Draw a circle; then drag down a duplicate, overlapping the original, with the top anchor point of the copy overlapping the center point of the original ( ). Draw a line from the center points of the circle to the right edge of the top circle and the left edge of the bottom circle ( ). Use the Shape Builder (holding Option/Alt) to subtract the unwanted segments ( ).

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The letter U begins as the red square sized to one-third of its width, duplicated and then overlapped with the circle. Cut the circle in half with the Scissors tool, and delete the top portion. Using the Shape Builder tool, delete the unnecessary segments.

Poster by Joost Schmidt for the Bauhausaustellung (exhibition), 1923

Constructing the U:

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Resize the red square to one-third its width, duplicate it, and overlap with the blue circle ( ).

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Use the Scissors tool to cut the circle at its left and right anchor points; delete the top portion ( ).

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Use the Shape Builder tool (holding Option/Alt) to delete the unwanted segments ( ).

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Making sure that the different segments of each letter are grouped together, arrange the letters in order, and space them using the Horizontal Distribute Space option on the Align panel.

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This will be a step in the right direction, but you will need to adjust the space by eye — the equivalent of manual kerning. When you’re happy with the spacing, group all the letters together, and then scale and position them on the artboard. Start by evenly distributing the spacing between the letters; then adjust manually by eye.

Create the cover

















We chose a square format for the book to accommodate both horizontal and vertical images. To aid us in the placement of elements, we needed a layout grid. Although there is no obvious Create Grid dialog in Illustrator, it’s easy enough to create one: Draw a square the same size as the page, and then split it into a grid (Object > Path > Split into Grid). We chose 10 rows and 10 columns with a 12-point gutter space, and then converted the resulting squares into guides (View > Guides > Make Guides or Cmd/Ctrl+5).





The cover designed on a 10 × 10 grid

To support our custom type we needed a more conventional font, but also one that’s “on message.” We chose Alfarn, one of the typefaces that makes up the Hidden Treasures of the Bauhaus collection available on Adobe Fonts. It is based on capital letters designed by Bauhaus student Alfred Arndt (1898–1976). We let the placement of the subtitle and author name be suggested by the grid fields.





On a background of rich black (C50 M50 Y50 K100) that occupies the bottom three-fifths (we felt a 50-50 split would look too static) of the cover, we repeated the motif of the basic shapes — overlapping and combining them with transparency.

The Bauhaus building in Dessau, designed by Walter Gropius and completed in 1925 PHOTO: SPYROSDRAKOPOULOS

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Art Deco

Elegant geometry

THE BRIEF Create an Art Deco–inspired type treatment TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3







LEARNING POINTS • Choosing type • Working with gradients • Working with Photoshop layer styles TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop FONTS USED Mostra Nuova INSPIRATION pin.it/7MToV4d

Art Deco flourished as the reigning international style from the 1920s, well into the 1940s. But was it really that big a deal? Two words in answer to that question: Chrysler Building. ’Nuff said. But you can see its influence across a wide range of design items, from letterforms and manhole covers to the Golden Gate Bridge. Its calling cards are sleek, symmetrical forms and a sense of opulence and luxury. In its typographic contributions, Art Deco shines. The letterforms are geometric, built on perfect circles and straight lines, but the shapes always have surprising details that show the eye of a clever designer. Sure, sometimes we see that style and think “Great Gatsby.” But last we checked, that’s one of the great novels of all time. We think Art Deco fonts are great for wedding invites and anything that wants to project elegance and power.

Create the frame Starting out in Illustrator, on a template layer, we placed an image of the entrance to New York’s Chrysler Building. On a layer above the template layer, we traced the lines of the image with the Pen tool and the Polygon tool to draw the triangles.

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MO MSO TSRTARA NUNOUVOAVA Mark Simonson. Mark Simonson. Mark Simonson Mark Simonson Studio.Studio. 2009 2009

abcadbecfd gehfig jkhlim jknlmn o pqorps tqurvs tw ux vw yzxAyz A B CD BECFDGEH FG IJH KILJMKLM N ON PO QP RQ S TRUSV TU WV W X YZ X1Y2Z34 1 2536475869708 90

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Convert the tracing image to a template layer, which locks the layer and dims its opacity ( ).

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A series of triangles and horizontal lines are drawn on a layer above ( ).

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Add the type For the type, we chose Mostra Nuova, a typeface designed by Mark Simonson and inspired by Italian Art Deco. It’s available in a variety of weights and comes with a range of alternate characters that allow us to add customizations and decorative flare.

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CAFE DECO CAFE

Add the inner frame We wanted to take the frame into Photoshop to apply layer styles to create the gold effect; while it’s possible to achieve similar results in Illustrator, layer effects in Photoshop are more intuitive. But before we moved to Photoshop, we needed to prepare the artwork as shown here.

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Draw the inner frame (shown in red) to enclose the type ( ).

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Convert the strokes to fills using Outline Stroke ( ).

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Subtract the interior of the inner frame using the Shape Builder tool in combination with the Option/Alt key ( ).

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The type before ( ) with auto leading and auto kerning, and after, with leading and kerning adjusted, an alternate A used, and Deco increased in size ( ).

Unite the overlapping elements as a single object using Pathfinder Add ( ).

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Alternates, if available, pop up below the selected character; you can also access them with the Glyphs panel ( ).

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With the frame ready to go, in Photoshop, we created a canvas at the same size as the Illustrator artboard. We copied and pasted the frame and the type as separate Smart Objects so that we would work on them independently.

Create the shiny gold effect on the frame with a combination of layer styles. The main player is Bevel & Emboss, applied to the frame layer with the Chisel Hard technique ( ) and a Cove - Deep Gloss Contour ( ), which determines how the light plays across the surface of the object ( ). Apply a copy of this layer with 50% opacity ( ), a Stroke Emboss ( ), and a Ring - Double Gloss Contour ( ).

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Pastiche The type before (left) and after the application of Photoshop layer styles. The Bevel & Emboss ( ) works in conjunction with the Stroke to give shadow and highlight to the reflected gradient that is applied as a stroke ( ).

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Apply a reflected gradient as a Gradient Overlay to the surface of the type ( ).

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Experiment with the Altitude and Angle settings that contribute to making surfaces shiny or dull.

Add layer styles After applying layer styles to the frame in Photoshop as shown, we popped back to Illustrator to get the type. We filled the type with white and then copied and pasted the group to Photoshop as a Smart Object. Because the dimensions of the Illustrator artboard and the Photoshop canvas are the same, the Smart Object lands in exactly the right position.





It’s now time to apply layer effects to the type to create the brushed chrome look. Double-click to the right of the layer name to bring up the Layer Style Options. There are no definitive right answers here, but some solutions will definitely look better than others. The key with the Bevel & Emboss is that we are using a Stroke Emboss — and this works only if you also have a stroke applied. So even though it’s at the top of the list, bypass Bevel & Emboss for now and first create the stroke. This uses a silver gradient, with the style set to Reflected. Adjust the size and position to taste. Now return to Bevel & Emboss and set the style to Stroke Emboss and experiment with the depth, highlight and shadow, and the angle. Finally, a gradient overlay, also using a silver gradient, casts some highlight and shadow across the type so that the lighting is not flat.

An Art Deco-inspired manhole cover from Boston, MA

Before starting your project, make sure to do your research and study the artists of the time. This silkscreened poster by Weimer Pursell from 1933 shows how type was handled at the time: geometric forms, symmetrical composition, limited color, and elegance.

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Wartime Poster

Dig deep for victory

TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

These posters, produced during the Depression and World War II, were highly visible — on the streets, in workplaces, in schools, and in other public spaces. They project a stolid yet cheery optimism and a “we can do it” approach to problem solving. The colors were strong, but often printed on cheap materials, so we know them as vintage, weathered icons of another era.







LEARNING POINTS • Choosing type and color • Combining type and imagery • Warping type TOOLS Photoshop, Illustrator FONTS USED Buckwheat INSPIRATION pin.it/7gFVUUG



Imagine if our civilization had to face a global crisis, like a world war or a pandemic, without the Internet or television. How on Earth would you get important information to the people? Here’s an idea: public service posters.



THE BRIEF Create a “home front” public service poster that prominently features type

We often see parodies of these posters. When they are well done, they can be funny or inspiring. When they fail, they cast the whole project of social cohesion into doubt! The key, as always, is appropriate typography.

Choose colors We wanted a limited color palette of bright colors, used as solid blocks. Red and blue, with white type reversing from them, have obvious patriotic connotations; we’ve chosen a chrome or sunflower yellow that has more depth than a pure yellow. Choose the type For the type, we chose Buckwheat, a vintage-look, condensed and rounded sans serif with slightly roughened edges. We liked how it looked set in all caps, with the word spacing reduced to 50%. We made the word Wash bigger, so that it spans the full width of the second line. Using spacing rectangles (see below) we made sure that the leading between the lines was the same as the size of the space between the words.

BUCKWHEAT

WASH YOUR HANDS

Size the two lines relative to each other. Reduce the word spacing ( ) and make the leading equivalent in size ( ).

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B Tom Chalky. 2018.

abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwx yzABCDEFGHIJK LMNOPQRSTUV W XYZ1234567890

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A Add a stroke that is the same color as the fill to increase the weight.

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WE’RE COUNTING ON YOU

FOR THE HOME FRONT

SAVE LIVES

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Group the lines and convert to a mesh (Object > Envelope Distort > Make with Mesh). Move the two left anchor points down, and move the two right anchor points up an equivalent distance.  

When it comes to warping the type, it can be difficult to get the result you want using one of the Illustrator Warp presets. There is also no good, non-destructive way of applying a skew to type in Illustrator. If you use the Shear tool and decide later you don’t like the result, you’re stuck with it. The Free Distort tool can be applied as a Live Effect, but its preview gives limited feedback. For this reason, we ended up grouping the two lines, and then creating a mesh warp. We wanted a relatively gentle upward slope so chose a single-column, single-row mesh. With the Direct Selection tool we selected the top- and bottom-left anchor points and nudged them down; then we selected the top-right and bottom-right anchor points and nudged them up the equivalent distance. Note that should you need to update the type, you can edit the Envelope contents; if you need to start over, you can release the mesh.

Add a modest amount of skewing from the bottom left of the object to slant the type to the right.

Works Progress Administration (WPA) posters from the Library of Congress online catalog, www.loc.gov/pictures/ collection/wpapos



With the type in place, we felt it needed something else — something to lift it from the page. While Illustrator’s Drop Shadow effect is disappointing for its lack of options, it works fine here. We want a hard, offset shadow rather than a semi-transparent shadow, so we set Blur to 0 and Opacity to 100. Because of the difference in the size of the two lines, we edited the envelope contents in order to apply a lesser amount of the shadow to the second line.  

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Add a hard shadow with 100% opacity and no blur.

Prepare the image For the photo shoot, we prepared a sink of foam and shot the hands against a flat background so that they could be easily isolated in Photoshop.

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B In Photoshop, the image is converted to a Smart Object ( ). A pen path is drawn around the hands and arms, and this is converted to a vector mask ( ).

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In the Camera Raw Filter ( ), a blackand-white profile is applied and grain added for a gritty look ( ).

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We converted the image layer to a Smart Object and cut out the hands, somewhat roughly, with a vector mask drawn with the Pen tool. The sharp edges of the cutout better suit the scissors-and-glue aesthetic of the genre than a subtle masking. We applied the Camera Raw filter (Cmd+Shift+A/ Ctrl+Shift+A) to add a high-contrast black-and-white color profile and then added grain to give the image a gritty look.

Add the texture The texture is a paper texture downloaded from texturepalace.com. Add it to the top layer, apply the Multiply blending mode, and adjust the opacity to taste.

WE’RE COUNTING ON YOU

The Layers panel in Illustrator. Even though the composition is a simple one, to make editing easier and less errorprone, separate the different parts onto individual named layers.

FOR THE HOME FRONT

SAVE LIVES

Informally known as “Rosie the Riveter,” We Can Do It! was one of a series of posters by J. Howard Miller made to boost worker morale during World War II.

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Pulp

Saucy and sensationalist

FONTS USED Fave Script, Balboa Extra Condensed INSPIRATION pin.it/3toUNWS lithub.com/all-your-favorite-songsreimagined-as-vintage-book-coversyoure-welcome

F aFvae vSecSricpritp t Stephen Stephen Miggas. Miggas. Aerotype. Aerotype. 2019 2019

a b cadbecfdgehfigj khlimj knl mo n o p q rps qt ur sv twuxvywzxAyBz AC B C D EDF EGFHGI HJ IK JL M K LM N ONPOQPRQSRT SU TV UWV W

One great thing about the tradition of pulp fiction covers is the return of type that is hand-drawn in the American sign-painting tradition. But you’re just as likely with these covers to see that style combined with a Deco or ’40s-style typeface, as well. Who cares, when the point is not to please an art director, but to sell cheap books to desperate, sex-mad customers?

Document setup We like to start just about every project with a grid, and this one is no exception. Draw a rectangle the size of the artboard, positioned edge to edge with no overhang; then choose Object > Path > Split into Grid. How many rows and columns is a matter of personal preferences, but we prefer grid fields that are square, so we chose 18 rows and 12 columns (halve those numbers if that feels like too many grid squares) with a gutter of 6 points between them. Now press Cmd/Ctrl+5 to convert the selected rectangles to guides. Rename the layer Guides, and lock it. You can now turn this on and off at will.  

TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop

You wouldn’t be wrong. But as Quentin Tarantino has shown the world, just because something was produced for all the wrong reasons doesn’t mean it isn’t high art.









LEARNING POINTS • Combining Illustrator and Photoshop • Warping type • Choosing type and color











TRIM SIZE 5.5 × 8.5 inches (140 × 216)

If you’re reading this chapter in order, you could be excused for concluding that the history of design and typography is going downhill. We started with beautiful, detailed ornamentation in the late 19th century, watched type become more and more streamlined and simplified, and by the latter half of the 20th century, we’re just slapping garish type over images of women in burning buildings.



THE BRIEF Create a pulp fiction paperback cover

A grid can inform the placement of elements on the artboard. Put the grid on its own locked layer, and you can show and hide it as necessary.

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30¢

AN EDWARD MORGAN MURDER MYSTERY

HARVEY JAMES

SHE WAS TOo HOT TO HANDLE . . .

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Woman Fire A

A

B

B

Increase the size of the initial caps and shift down (slightly) their baselines ( ).

A







Choose Object > Envelope > Make with Warp, 1 row and 1 column. Using the Direct Selection tool on the Bézier control points, warp the type into shape ( ).  

B

Add in the prepositions. Using the Appearance panel, add two fills, red and black. Move the black fill beneath the red, offset the path (using a round join) ( ), and add a hard drop shadow. Set the blending mode of the shadow to Normal, the opacity to 100%, and the blur to zero ( ).

C

D

C D

Choose the type We chose Fave, a hand-lettered script by Stephen Miggas of Aerotype. Because this is a script face and the letters need to connect, make sure you’re using Metrics, rather than Optical, kerning. To amp up the drama, we decided to increase the size of the initial caps. Because we would need to experiment with the exact size, we made a character style and in the Advanced Character Formats set the Horizontal Scale and Vertical Scale to 120%, and applied this to the W and the F. That way, we could tweak the size by editing the character style definition. Because we didn’t yet know what absolute point size we needed, it made sense to do this as a relative amount. We also included a negative baseline shift in the character style.

The offset shadow is achieved through the Appearance panel. First, offset the path as a Live Effect by choosing Path > Offset Path from the fx menu at  

Color, contrast, and drama are heightened through the application of a Camera Raw filter (adding texture and clarity), a strong contrast curve, and an Oil Paint filter to give the figure a painted look.

To create the warp effect, make the text Woman Fire (omit the propositions for now) into a mesh (Cmd+Option+M/Ctrl+Alt+M). The more rows and columns you have in your mesh, the more flexibility, but also the more likelihood of creating ugly distortions. For that reason, we opted for just one row and one column. Now carefully adjust the Bézier control handles to warp the type into the shape you’re after. This is a fine line between creating a graceful shape that fills the space in an effective way and not distorting the type too much. If it all goes horribly wrong, which it may on your first few attempts, undo and start again, rather than try to rescue a bad shape with further distortion.



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the bottom of the panel. The amount of offset may vary from that shown in our example, but make sure you are using round joins; otherwise, some unpredictable path intersections may occur. Next, choose Stylize > Drop Shadow from the fx menu. Making the drop shadow the same color as the offset path will give the effect of an extruded shadow. Again, amounts may vary, but what you’ll need to make sure is that the blending mode is Normal and Blur is set to 0. The shadow should be hard rather than feathered.





The supporting text is set in Balboa Extra Condensed, with a modest amount of positive tracking. The author name is positioned at the eye level of the woman, and the very condensed nature of this typeface allows us to take up proportionally more vertical space with the author name. We also like its slightly vintage feel and the fact that, despite being so tall, the letters are also somewhat rounded, which complements the script we’ve used for the title. The corny tagline, She was too hot, is in Fave Condensed, a complementary font to the Fave Script. And if we’re getting granular, the three dots of the ellipsis are separated with thin spaces (available on the Type > Insert White Space Character menu), which are then tracked slightly tighter.

Prepare the figure The model comes from Adobe Stock. In Photoshop, we threw several filters at her to amp up the drama. Let’s not let subtlety spoil our fun here.

How it all breaks down on the Layers panel

It’s not every day one gets to use the Flame filter in Photoshop, an amazing algorithm for making fire. With the Pen tool draw some simple paths on the canvas; then apply the filter. Careful though, you may find yourself falling down the rabbit hole of experimenting with the myriad flame options. We saved the flames as a PSD file, placed the file in Illustrator, and applied the Multiply blending mode. Deciding that we needed more, we duplicated the layer and then adjusted the scaling and opacity of the copy.

30¢

HARVEY JAMES









For the flames, in Photoshop create a canvas the same size as the book cover. With the Pen tool, draw several wavy paths. With the paths selected, choose Filter > Render > Flame.

AN EDWARD MORGAN MURDER MYSTERY

Experiment with the different options, and when you have a result you like, save it as a Photoshop (PSD) file and place it in Illustrator.

Add the texture To finish things up we added a layer of texture with warm hues at the top of the layer stack and set its blending mode to Multiply. As well as the texture we also liked the way the color interacted with the layers below.

SHE WAS TOo HOT TO HANDLE . . .

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Swiss

Functional, neutral, and asymmetric

FONTS USED Aktiv Grotesque INSPIRATION pin.it/4GkGjAv For modernist reworkings of concert posters check out swissted.com Kimberly Elam’s study of the Brockmann’s geometry is available on Behance: www.behance.net/gallery/9862277/ Mueller-Brockmanns-Beethoven-PosterGeometric-Analysis

Have you ever had a design professor tell you “don’t be afraid of white space?” You have the Swiss to thank. But the great thing about this style is that, if you have the font Helvetica on your computer, you’re halfway there. This project is an homage to the famous 1955 Beethoven concert poster by Josef Müller-Brockmann. The design is deceptively simple. If MüllerBrockmann were designing this poster today, we’d bet he would use Illustrator’s Polar Grid tool, combined with the Live Paint Bucket. We started with an 11 × 17 (tabloid) art board and created a 11 × 17 grid. With the Polar Grid tool and holding Option/Alt, we clicked at the intersection of 3 grid squares in and 5 grid squares up from the bottom. Because we wanted a specific grid, it was easier to specify it numerically: 34 inches, 75 concentric dividers, and 32 radial dividers.  

TOOLS Illustrator









LEARNING POINTS • Using the Polar Grid tool • Using the Live Paint tool in Illustrator • Working with “neutral” sans serif type

The International Typographic Style, aka the Swiss Style, popular in the 1950s and ’60s, emphasized readability and objectivity with asymmetric layouts, sans serif typefaces, a ragged alignment, and the use of grid systems. The most famous practitioners of the Swiss style were Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder of the Basel School of Design, and the grandfather of grid-based design: Josef Müller-Brockmann of the Zurich School of Arts and Crafts.



TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

After the chaos and uncertainty of the Second World War, many designers sought a neutral approach that favored the rational over the subjective. And who better to take on this herculean task of bringing order to the 20th century than our old friends, the Swiss?



THE BRIEF Create a poster inspired by the “Swiss” or International Typographic Style

Aktiv Grotesk Bruno Maag. Dalton Maag. 2010.

abcdefghijk lmn opqrstuv w x y z A B C D E FG H I J K L M NOPQRSTUV W X Y Z1234567890

With the Polar Grid tool create a radial grid of 75 concentric rings and 32 radial dividers, centered on the intersection of column 3 and row 13. A layer clipping mask hides the portion of the grid that spills over onto the pasteboard.

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pink floyd saturday, april 8th 10 p.m. till dawn late licensed bar applied for over 18s only

roundhouse chalk farm road, nw1 the flies earl fuggle and the electric poets the block and special guest stars all-night light show 5/-

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So how did we come up with these numbers? The center of the circle will be knocked out — that represents 12 concentric dividers. Thereafter, the rings radiating from the center start at a width of 1, doubling every time: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. That’s a total of 75. The radial dividers are the spokes that move toward the center of the circle; each quarter circle will have eight spokes. Because much of the grid falls on the pasteboard, we added a clipping mask around the bleed size of the poster. This removes the visual clutter of seeing so much content spill out onto the pasteboard.  

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Beneath the grid, on its own layer is a rectangle of off-white (C3 M9 Y7 K4), which functions as the background color. The radial grid is divided into two subgroups, the radial dividers above and the concentric dividers below. To keep things straight, we named them. The center rings deleted. Thereafter, the width of the rings doubles as they move outward from the center. The rings are filled with black and stroked with white. A copy of the radial dividers sublayer has been converted to guides.

The original 1955 poster by Josef Müller Brockmann

Set the stroke of the radial dividers to None. Copy them and paste them in front and convert the copy to guides (Cmd/Ctrl+5). With the Group Selection tool, delete the first 12 concentric dividers, making space in the center of the circle for the text. Next, modify the rings so that they double in width as they move away from the center of the circle. Add a white stroke to the remaining concentric dividers and fill everything with black. Make the radial grid into a Live Paint Group and apply None to the sections you want to remove. To neutralize the white strokes from the remaining black segments, set the blending mode to Multiply to blend the Grid layer with the Background layer below. Once the segments are identified and filled, change their color to magenta.

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A

Using the Live Paint Bucket ( ), fill the unwanted segments of the radial grid with None to reveal the color of the Background layer beneath.

B

The blending mode of the group is set to Multiply ( ), neutralizing the white strokes that separate the segments.

B

A

B

Adding the type We chose Aktiv Grotesk, because it’s a close match to Akzidenz Grotesk, a typeface associated with the work of Joseph Müller-Brockmann. Everything is in lowercase, because in a rational world why would you need upper- and lowercase? Aside from the band name, everything is the same size and the same weight; hierarchy comes from use of space and alignment. The text is chunked into meaningful bits of information with consistent spacing between them; the text in the left column is right aligned, and the text in the right column is left aligned. The type is arranged flush right and flush left around a central axis that comes down from the edge of the top segment.

pink floyd saturday, april 8th 10 p.m. till dawn late licensed bar applied for over 18s only

roundhouse chalk farm road, nw1 the flies earl fuggle and the electric poets the block and special guest stars all-night light show 5/-

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The Type Project Book

Country Music Poster

Create a Hatch Show Print–inspired poster







LEARNING POINTS • Working with outlines in Illustrator • Editing and combining shapes with Pathfinder • Creating overprinting effects TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Thunderhouse, Playbill, Rock Wood Display INSPIRATION pin.it/5X5W9kF

Some classic letterpress posters from Hatch Show Print. Note the variation in weights of the type, and the fact that things don’t align perfectly. That’s inevitable when you’re working with a limited set of wood type. But also, the designers are less worried about consistency than they are about impact. The flaws in the printing are part of the aesthetic.

Sometimes, their work seems designed to drive one of the aestheticians of the Bauhaus school mad. They purposely embrace the awkwardness, imperfections, and flaws of the wood type and old paper they run by hand through their letterpress printers, a technology that’s been around since the 15th century; see “Letterpress Gig Poster: Grooving with Moveable Type in the 21st Century.” Perfect alignment in this system is almost impossible, so the Swiss theory ends up in the recycling bin, alongside the many test prints. For this project, we thought it would be fun to try to create a poster in the Hatch Show Print style using digital tools. Heresy! A fool’s errand! Yes, but we are sick to death of perfectly aligned type.

Choosing the type A letterpress print shop can have only so many fonts, and only so many letters of the right size — the type is old, expensive, and scarce. Designers learn to make do by swapping in different letters, using the type until it’s worn out, and mixing and matching type in all sorts of creative, unorthodox ways. Walter Gropius would not approve, but what he doesn’t know won’t hurt him.  

TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

The folks behind the venerable Hatch Show Print, in Nashville, Tennessee, have produced posters for almost every country music act since the 1950s. Their work is instantly recognizable for its use of bright, overprinted color, large, extremely legible type, and a handmade aesthetic that stands out in a world where digital tech makes neat, clean design so easy and so common.



THE BRIEF Design a poster in the style of Hatch Show Print and American letterpress printing

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The Type Project Book











For this project, we’ll make heavy use of Thunderhouse, which approximates the look of the wood type common in letterpress printing: big, bold shapes of slightly different sizes and weights, rough around the edges, with some of that texture results when type impresses the paper in an irregular fashion. It also has a ton of alternate letters, which is perfect for getting that letterpress look. To access alternates, you can select a letter, and any alternates in the font will appear at small size beside your cursor — click one to select. Alternatively, you can access the Glyphs panel (Window > Type > Glyphs) and see the whole set.  

Access the Glyphs panel to see the alternates in any font. Thunderhouse has several, which helps it approximate that American wood type feel.







For the supporting details — the venue and date — we’re using Playbill and Rock Wood Display, respectively.  

We started by setting the type for our two headliners in bright red on a tabloid-size document. Then we set the type for the venue, location, and date using totally different typefaces. Do they complement one another? Do the baselines match up? Who cares? We found some public domain, vintage line art of some tomatoes, which seemed like a family-friendly image, saved that as a grayscale TIF so that we could apply color, and placed it on its own layer.

Stephen Miggas. Aerotype. 2009

abcdefghijklmnopq rstuvwxyzABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQRSTU V W X Y Z1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 0

Hatch Show designers often overlay the print elements they have on hand, so for this poster we wanted to also have two large stars in the background, on their own layer behind the type and the art. We used the Star tool and made a five-pointed star with an inner radius of about a third of the outer radius. We also emulated a standard border you see in many Hatch Show prints: a rough rectangle with stars punched out of it. To create this, we made more stars and dragged off copies using the Option/Alt key. Then we punched the stars out of their box using Pathfinder > Minus Front. We put this on the layer with the art, because we wanted to keep the turquoise items together.  

Thunderhouse

We love the way Hatch Show Print designers allow things to overlap, letting the inks print right over top of one another, so we’re letting the image sit awkwardly under the type, not worrying about perfect alignment. Inspired by one of their posters, we chose a color scheme that poses bright red and gold against a bright turquoise. (Green and red are complementary colors, and in this case, the turquoise functions as a green.)



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Next, we set about engaging in what can only be described as abuse of the artboard. We want some of that rough-hewn, damaged quality that wood type has, so we selected the stars and added slightly different Roughen effects to each one (Effect > Distort and Transform > Roughen). We played with the sliders and options until we had something rough, but not so jagged that it didn’t look like old wood.)





Inside Hatch Show Print — images from an author field trip

It’s fun to roughen up your shapes in Illustrator. Clean and precise are overrated anyway.

We selected a couple lines of type and rotated them ever so slightly. We turned the type to outlines and then nudged the type slightly out of alignment. We even (gasp) messed up the kerning! Did we feel guilty? A little. But that’s part of the thrill.





Next, we created some print effects. We selected the art on each layer by clicking the bullseye to the right of the layer name, and set the blend mode to Multiply. The colors should bleed into each other in subtle ways. On the bottom layer, we flooded the page with a warm gray, to approximate the cheap paper that many old letterpress posters are printed on. Then we adjusted the opacity on each layer slightly. It ought to look a little faded — as if its best days are behind it, but it is still bright and powerful, rather like an aging country music star.

Finally, we added a paper texture on top. We downloaded a dark black texture from texturepalace.com and placed it over everything on the top layer. Then we played with transparency and chose a lightening blend, Color Dodge, with an opacity of 66%.

Oftentimes, people use a pale texture set to Multiply, one of the darkening modes. We thought it would be interesting to try the opposite: a dark texture, set to one of the lightening modes. We used Color Dodge, with a transparency of 66%. By doing this, the variations in the color tend to be at the light end of the scale; the texture brightens, rather than darkens the image.

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The Type Project Book

Psychedelia

Get groovy with a ’60s rock poster







LEARNING POINTS • Warping type • Considering readability and legibility • Choosing type and color TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop FONTS USED Wes Wilson

Typographically, the main innovation of this movement was, oddly, to make the type difficult to read. This might have been done to limit the audience to those hip to the scene — if you weren’t interested in taking the time to decipher the poster, then you were too square to appreciate the music — or it might have been due to artists experimenting with combining type and image into a single element. But the effect was to make the poster itself a work of art — as iconic, as memorable, as important as the music it advertised. Poster design has never been the same since.

Wes WILSON









INSPIRATION pin.it/4JbikJH

These posters became collectors’ items, and from ’66 to ’70, a group of brilliant artists produced hundreds of them for shows featuring everyone from the Grateful Dead to Led Zeppelin and Muddy Waters. For those who were paying attention, it was easy to discern influences as varied as Art Nouveau, particularly the Vienna Secession, underground comics, and even the color theory of German-American painter Hans Hofmann. Artists Wes Wilson, Bonnie MacClean, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin, and many others became famous overnight, working for local concert venues like Bill Graham’s Fillmore Auditorium and the Family Dog’s Avalon Ballroom.

Color palette For our poster we wanted a color palette of vibrating colors. We chose colors with similar color values or brightness. This was a combination of “winging it” and checking the color numbers in the Color Picker using the HSB color mode to make sure the B value was similar for all three colors.

Keith Bates. K-Type.

abcdefghij klMnopqr stuvwxyZ 1234567890



TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

Sometime around 1966, the square citizens of San Francisco found themselves baffled by the appearance of a series of bright-colored posters, featuring swirling, almost unreadable type. They appeared on lampposts around town, and just as quickly disappeared, snatched up by the strange, oddly dressed kids that had recently taken over the Haight-Ashbury district. What did it all mean? If you had to ask, you just weren’t hip to the times, man.



THE BRIEF Create a psychedelic poster for a past or imaginary concert

You can use the HSB color mode to check that the values (Brightness) of your colors are similar to create a vibrating effect.

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HARVEY & GUNDRADA PRESENT

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The Type Project Book The Ver Sacrum calendar of 1903 with lettering by Alfred Roller

Choose the type







The psychedelic poster designers of the ’60s drew inspiration from the Art Nouveau movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, especially in their lettering. The typeface we’re using — Wes Wilson — is a tribute to the lettering of Wes Wilson, which in turn is a tribute to the lettering of Alfred Roller, which appeared in the Ver Sacrum calendar of 1903. Ver Sacrum (“Sacred Spring” in Latin) was the magazine of the Vienna Secession published from 1898 to 1903. The letter shapes are rounded rectangles with minimal negative space, which means they can inhabit a space from edge to edge, and also that they are very malleable, which is a good thing considering the amount of warping we subjected them to.  

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Imagery Originally we had chosen a stylized portrait of Jimi Hendrix, but realized that our tribute to this style would end up looking like everybody else’s tribute to this style. Ultimately, we went instead with a drawing by John Tenniel from Alice in Wonderland. Lewis Carroll’s children’s story from 1865 is itself something of a trip and has been namechecked by several bands of the era, most famously Jefferson Airplane (who incidentally appeared on an earlier draft of the poster, but were dropped because their name was too long. That’s one of the benefits of a fictitious gig poster!).

B

In Photoshop, prepare the rabbit with a layer mask to hide the background shading ( ).

A

Place in Illustrator and vectorize with Image Trace ( ).

B

A Posters by Wes Wilson (top) and Bonnie MacClean

The image was prepped in Photoshop to remove the shading around the rabbit before being vectorized with Image Trace in Illustrator and colorized by applying a fill to selected segments of the traced result.

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We created background swirl in the same way as in the “Music Festival Poster: Curate your dream lineup” project and then offset it so that it radiated outward from the rabbit’s head.

Warp the type We set the type, tightly leaded, and used the Mesh tool to bend it to our will. Because we’re pros, we aced it the first time. That is a lie. After about 104 takes, we were satisfied with the result. Here are some things we learned along the way: Go as far as you can with the type before you resort to the warping. Get the scale, the leading, and the letter spacing how you want it. Position it on the artboard roughly where you want it. To make the type as dense as possible, we used the Justification dialog on the Paragraph panel to set the Auto Leading value to a shockingly low 82%. If this were conventional “readable” type, the Type Police would have come knocking, but we’re not so much concerned with readability as with legibility. The type is legible by being impactful and distinctive, and it communicates mood through the codes of its genre.

Word spaces are filled with this “vertical elllipsis” bullet character.

In terms of blocking out the areas for the type, a pencil sketch is invaluable. We realized this after about take 65, by which time we were regarding our near misses as de facto sketches.  







When the type blocks are in place, choose Object > Envelope Distort > Make with Mesh (Cmd+Option+M/Ctrl+Alt+M). Start out with just one row and one column. Each of the four anchor points has two Bézier control handles, and you can do a lot of warping with just these. As required, add rows by clicking on the left or right edge, or add columns by clicking the top or bottom edge of the mesh. Click inside the mesh to create rows and columns simultaneously. (You can Option/Alt-click to delete a row or column if you have too many.) How it all breaks down on the Layers panel Edit Edit envelope envelope shape contents

Change the rows and columns in the mesh (can also be done with the Mesh tool)

Reset the mesh to a rectangle









If things go wrong, you can click Reset Envelope Shape. We found this preferable to trying to rescue a warp that had gone awry with counter warping. If things go really wrong, you can choose Object > Envelope Distort > Release.





Note that there are no word spaces. Looking at Wes Wilson’s work, he used a bullet (like a vertical ellipsis) to fill the gap of a word space. The final version of our poster required only one space (between San and Francisco), but we made sure to use the bullet there — Option/Alt+8 or insert it from the Glyphs panel. If you need to make edits to the text, toggle back and forth between selecting the envelope shape and the envelope contents. It’s reassuring to know that the text is still editable, but practically speaking you’d rather not be making edits at this stage. As always, keep your work organized on named layers, locking and unlocking them as necessary. And remember what the dormouse said: “Feed your head.”

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The Type Project Book

Punk

There is no future in England’s dreaming





INSPIRATION pin.it/3eFnJgJ

For this project, we created an album cover for a fictional band, Wretched Factor. After spending way too long trying and failing to come up with the ultimate punk band name, we delegated this decision to an online band name generator. As our inspiration we took Jamie Reid’s iconic covers for the single God Save the Queen and the album Never Mind the Bollocks . . . , released in 1976 and 1977, respectively. The title, Proceed to the Route, was suggested by a confused SatNav and felt appropriately ominous.

Covers designed for the Sex Pistols by Jamie Reid



FONTS USED Courier, Poplar, Times, Helvetica Condensed



TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop

Punk design can be many things, but it’s most recognizable by its attitude: anti-establishment, DIY, aggressive, and sarcastic. If there’s one common design trait we can point to, it’s the ransom note typography. Not that far from what the Dadaists had been doing 60 years earlier, this look has become synonymous with punk style and the punk era. Some of the most defining examples of the genre were designed by Jamie Reid for the Sex Pistols, especially their debut album, Never Mind the Bollocks.









LEARNING POINTS • Working with the Touch Type tool in Illustrator • Working with vector masks in Photoshop • Working with Gradient Maps



Luckily, a few scrappy rebels invented a whole new style: defiant, brash, angry, and — as far as typography goes — hard to read. Young people with almost no design training, promoting their own bands and printing their own fanzines, showed the world that type could be cut, pasted, torn, erased, xeroxed, and over-exposed, and still be beautiful.  









TRIM SIZE 12 × 12 inches (305 × 305 mm)

If you’re younger than 40, you can’t be blamed for having romantic ideas about the 1970s. Take it from us: This decade stank. Literally. The garbage men were on strike, and mainstream culture was bland and complacent. If you don’t believe us, Google “Donny & Marie.” The stuff of nightmares.



THE BRIEF Create a punk inspired “ransom note” album cover

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o T d e e c Pr o the

W

C R eT

HE D

Rout e R T C A

F

Every punk needs an authority figure to rebel against, so we chose Uncle Sam. The iconic painting by James Montgomery Flagg just happens to be in the public domain and accessible from the Library of Congress website. What could be more punk than the public domain?

Prepare the image We planned to prepare the type and assemble the cover in Illustrator, but before we did this, we needed to prepare the image in Photoshop. The first step was to right-click to the right of the layer thumbnail and convert the image to a Smart Object so that any changes would be non-destructive. (We’re not so punk that we want to degrade our image data.)

O

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E F B A In Photoshop, use the Pen tool to create a pen path ( ) around the subject and convert this to a vector mask ( ).

B

A

C

D

Convert the image to a Smart Object ( ).

C

Proceed Tthe o



D





Add a halftone pattern, Filter > Sketch > Halftone Pattern ( ).  

Rout e

Add a Gradient Map adjustment to color the image ( ).

E

F

Place the image in Illustrator ( ).

W

Add type on a separate layer and use the Touch Type tool to move, scale, and rotate the letters ( ).

G

R eTC

HE D

FACTO

R

G

Next, we added a simple halftone effect to make it look like the image was cut from a newspaper. From the Sketch group of filters we chose Halftone Pattern — but not before checking that our foreground and background colors were black and white, because these determine the colors of the halftone effect.  

A rub-down lettering sheet made by Letraset (left) alongside similar product made by a rival. PHOTO: PAUL HENNING

Using the Pen tool, set to draw paths rather than shapes, we drew a pen path around the figure. Because we wanted a rough cutout that looked like it was made with a pair of blunt scissors, we used only straight line segments. This was no time for graceful Bézier curves. We Cmd/Ctrl-clicked the Mask icon at the bottom of the Layers panel to convert the pen path to a vector mask.



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The halftone is more for texture than color, and we actually wanted the image to look like a budget print job, printed without black but with just two process colors: magenta and yellow. Feeling the need to do this “authentically” in a way that would create only two separation plates, we explored Photoshop’s once-loved-and-now-overlooked Duotone color mode. Interesting though this was (to us at least), we were reminded that

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life is short, that being a purist is a bumpy path to travel, and that the visual effect that we were after can be more easily achieved with a Gradient Map. Applied as an adjustment layer, the Gradient Map replaces the shadows with the color on the left side of the gradient and the highlights with the color on the right of the gradient, transitioning from one to the other via any gradient color stops that you add between. After trying out various colors, we settled on a red-to-magenta-to-yellow-to-white gradient. This gave the effect of the magenta and yellow plates combining to make red and also retained the highlights in white.

Add the type Switching to Illustrator, we placed the image on its own layer and on a layer beneath added a rectangle of solid yellow. The subtle-as-a-ton-ofbricks color combination of pure yellow and pure magenta is intentionally confrontational and reflects the in-your-face punk attitude as well as the necessity of working with the constraints of cheap printing.







Another influence were the covers of Fear and Whisky and Edge of the World by the Mekons. Formed in Leeds in 1977 and still going, the Mekons are the last punk band still standing. Even though they have traveled far from their original anarchic sound, their punk ethos is still intact. Both covers appear to have been created with only two process colors — cyan and magenta, and magenta and yellow. Whether this was for aesthetic or budgetary reasons, we can only speculate, but the results are striking, and we wanted to achieve a similar look.  





The super flexible Touch Type tool is one of our favorite tools in Illustrator. It lets you adjust the letters one by one, all the while keeping the type live and editable — so without the need to convert to outlines. For ready access to it, we like to tear off the Type panel. With the Touch Type tool we went letter by letter to mess up the baselines and the letter spacing, add some rotation, as well as a bit of scaling here and there. As well as mixing sizes, we’re also mixing uppercase and lowercase. We wanted to channel the random anti-design vibe of hastily torn out ransom note letters and give the impression that we were designing with less than a full sheet of Letraset, and thus having to resort to mixing type sizes and styles. It should look like it was done in a hurry (even though it wasn’t). After all, it’s 1976 — there’s music to make and bands to watch; we’ve got better things to do than design record covers.









We chose typefaces that we imagined would have been popular as rub-down type in 1976 (aka dry transfer lettering) — Courier, Times, Times Bold Italic, Poplar, and Helvetica Condensed. Each word is a separate piece of Point Type so that we can move, rotate, and scale it independently. The type is surrounded by a rough polygon drawn with the Pen tool — again, all straight line segments. We were going to keep within the constraints we set and fill these with magenta, yellow, or red, but they just looked better in black, because of the contrast. We make the rules; we break the rules.

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Grunge

Here we are now, entertain us







LEARNING POINTS • Using Photoshop clipping masks • Creating a custom brush in Photoshop • Slicing text TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Template Gothic, Citizen

A cynic might say that the reason for the popularity of grunge was that you could pass off your mistakes as design intentions. You didn’t need to learn the rules. Mistakes looked cool, and sloppiness was a virtue. If a memory error on your 40 MB desktop computer over-wrote your design file with a pattern of misaligned pixels, you were a genius. One of the true pioneers of design at that time — the Kurt Cobain of design, if you will — was David Carson, art director of the influential Ray Gun magazine from 1992–1995. Carson’s distressed, dissected, and overlapping type treatments were chaotic and hard to read, but as he pointed out, communication was about more than readability. His work was a response to the unimaginative corporate design that had become commonplace — perfectly legible, but mind-numbingly boring. Carson challenged the reader. The expressive qualities of his designs made you want to read them, and this was the crucial difference. Like all great artists, he makes it look easy. It isn’t.  







INSPIRATION pin.it/4WYbBpF

Throughout history people have imitated the designs of the past. What was new in 1990s was the sudden ubiquity of home computers with professional design software. It had long been the case that for music, all you’d needed was a guitar and three chords; now we had the design equivalent. Any idiot with a computer and basic knowledge of PageMaker, QuarkXPress, or Ventura Publisher had the power to design posters, CDs, and even books and magazines. And they did. (We were the idiots, in case you were wondering.)





a b c d e f g h ij k l m n o pqr stu v w x y z AB C D E F G HI J K L M NOPQRST UV W X Y Z 1 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 0



Barry Deck. Emigre. 1989.

Choose the type We chose to illustrate Carson’s wry comment: “Graphic design will save the world, right after rock ’n’ roll does.” To do so, we used typefaces from Emigre Fonts, whose fonts helped define the look of the era. Rather than try to bend classic typefaces to the new medium of digital design, Emigre was the first type foundry to design original fonts made on — and for — a computer. In much the same way as photography was liberated when it stopped trying to imitate painting and be its own thing, graphic design gained a new impetus when it gave up trying to hide the characteristics of digital typography and instead to embrace them as strengths. Rudy VanderLans and Zuzana Licko of Emigre made a virtue of the shortcomings of early digital type and designed a range of typefaces that played up, rather than down, the blocky characteristics and stairstepped look of bitmap type.  

Template Gothic



TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

The 1990s might have seemed like a confusing mishmash of stylistic trends with no coherence or overarching narrative, were it not for the clever marketing departments of corporate America. These geniuses found a great term to slap across the entire decade: grunge. If you were a young person at the time (as your authors may or may not have been), you knew exactly how to respond: “Yeah, whatever.”



THE BRIEF Create a grunge-inspired typographic poster

Pastiche

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The Type Project Book

Choose your weapon We decided to use Photoshop to create our poster. And as we did so, we could hear the jaws of our InDesign and Illustrator guru friends and colleagues hitting the floor. Photoshop for type‽ Are you insane‽ we imagined them thinking. Debate rages about the best tool for creating posters: clashes between marauding gangs of InDesign, Illustrator, and Photoshop aficionados have led to bar room brawls, broken families, and severed friendships. But at the end of the day, it’s about where you’re most comfortable. And for this project, Illustrator just felt too clean, and InDesign too tight. Historically typography has always been Photoshop’s Achilles’ heel, but today Photoshop has a sophisticated typographic toolset. (That said, we sometimes wish that the InDesign, Illustrator, and Photoshop engineering teams would talk to each other a bit more, so that they could share the typographic love. You may say we are dreamers. But we’re not the only ones.)







Spreads from Ray Gun magazine (left) and Beach Culture magazine designed by David Carson. If you weren’t studying these in the 1990s, what were you doing with your life?



Add texture with a custom brush A grunge design begs for some texture. So we repurposed a texture layer from a previous project, saved it as Smart Object, applied a heavy dose of Film Grain filter to it, and then reduced its opacity and experimented with blending modes, ultimately settling on the old faithful Multiply. But we wanted more. Next, we photographed some clear tape on a black background, masked all the dark pixels and used what was left to make a custom brush (with the selection active, choose Edit > Define Brush Preset). In the Brush Settings panel we changed the Shape Dynamics to introduce some size and angle jitter. We dabbed a few strokes on the canvas, then returned to the Brush Settings to change the angle to 90°, and then painted a few vertical strokes. As we were working we were thinking back to 1994 when  

Two copies of the image are clipped to the shape layer below.

Create the background In the background is an evocative image, taken from the passenger seat of a moving car with intentional camera movement. There are two copies, one position below the other, the bottom version converted to a negative (Cmd/ Ctrl+I). This was partly expediency — we wanted to cover a vertical page with a horizontal image — but also because it introduced another element of randomness and happy accident. So that only parts of the images were visible, on a new layer we drew a series of rectangles and rotated a couple of them. Selecting each of the image layers and pressing Cmd+Option+G/ Ctrl+Alt+G, we created a clipping group, so that the images were only visible within the shape areas.  

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Pastiche

layers, blending modes, and layer masks were first introduced in Photoshop 3.0. With this amazing new technology designers went crazy with transparency and blending effects. (To channel those heady times be sure to have at least a dozen layers titled Layer 1 copy in your finished composition.)

A To create the custom brush, isolate the tape from its background ( ).

A





Choose Edit > Define Brush Shape. On the Brush Settings panel, introduce some randomness with a Size Jitter and Angle Jitter.

Add the type For graphic design we combined the timeless classic Bodoni with what was then the young pretender, Barry Deck’s Template Gothic. To create the sliced effect, we made sure design was on its own layer. With the Pen tool we drew a rough path around the bottom portion of the letters. To convert this to a vector mask, we Cmd/Ctrl-clicked the Add Mask button. We then duplicated the layer (Cmd/Ctrl+J), selected the vector mask path with the Pen tool and from the Path operations menu on the Tool Options bar, and selected Subtract Front Shape (the equivalent of inverting a layer mask). Now, with the Move tool, all we had to do was move one or other of the two type layers. We also made sure to sandwich the black Graphic layer between the two red layers of design. For Will Save the World we chose another Emigre font, the blocky Citizen, designed by Zuzana Licko in 1986. We broke this into three separate layers so that we could move each around more easily and apply blending modes independently. With the supporting type we kept it simple, not wanting to steal attention from the two main actors. No matter how intentionally chaotic the layout, your Layers panel should always be logically organized. We have organized the content into Layer Groups and have also used color coding (red: type, green: texture, yellow: background). Not only will an organized Layers panel aid a hassle-free workflow, but if you have to revisit the document a week, a month, or even a decade from now, everything will make sense.

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Short Text In this chapter we’ll look at projects built around short passages of text: from posters and book covers to business cards and beverage labels. Across these projects the type will play a variety of roles, but in all of them it must be thoughtfully chosen and needs to work alongside the other elements of the composition: the photography and illustration. Even when the design is made exclusively of type, its color, placement on the page, and various other attributes must still be carefully considered.

56 THIS YEAR’S MODEL ON HER FAVORITE

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February 2021

$5.95

TROPICAL HIDEAWAY

Magazine Cover

GEORGE ORWELL 60 N I N E T E E N EIGHTY - Classic F OFiction UR THE MOST ’GRAMMED DISHES OF THE YEAR

VISIT ROME:

FOOD LOVER’S PARADISE

1 8 67492 3993

THE FOOD & TRAVEL ISSUE

SCREAMIN’

BABYRIVERS LIVE AT THE VANGUARD

Vintage Album Cover

66 H O W T O D I S A P P E A R C O M P L E T E LY

Compact Disc Package

Short Text

86

102

Movie Poster

Letterpress Gig Poster

70

Delicious and easy meals that are nutritious . . . and sometimes indulgent.

Cookbook

s liu Ju

H&G PICTURES PRESENTS BASED ON THE A FILM BY HUGO BANOFFEE BESTSELLING NOVEL BY JIMMY SCOTT STARRING GEORGE DANIELS WITH PETER DINGLE COSTUME CHARLES DARNEY MUSICBY BOB CRATCHIT EDITEDBY URIAH HEEP DESIGNER MISS HAVERSHAM SCREENPLAYBY AGNES WICKFIELD DIRECTEDBY SISSY JUPE

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106 The



F Su rida nd y ay Feb Ap ru ril ary 14 1 6

FESTIVAL FESTIVAL FESTIVAL FESTIVAL Unicorn Farm, East Sussex August 22 & 23

NickCave&theBadSeeds Gil Scott-Heron Jimi Hendrix

Theater Poster

Music Festival Poster

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94

Pink Floyd

David Bowie

PU

RR

ALC 5.2% VOLUME

RFE

Beer Label CTION

AY FROM BR

ST

ON

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L O N D O N L O N

O N

L O N D O N L

N D O N

L O N D O L O N D O N

L City O NPoster O N

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NEW YORK

More Classic Fiction COUNTER

COUNTER

98 STRESS

T

SANS SERIF

SERIF

FOOT

Merlot 2 017

BOWL

ASCENDER HEIGHT

DESCENDER

CAP HEIGHT

ASCENDER

CROTCH

The five boxing wizards jump quickly

A A A SLAB SERIF

HAIRLINE SERIF

Garamond

Bodoni

Chaparral

HUMANIST SANS SERIF

GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

Franklin Gothic

Lato Regular

C C C

DR AMA COM E DY T R AG E DY

Futura

KERNING

TeWo

DRAMA COMEDY TRAGEDY

LIGATURES & ALTERNATES

aaff  gggg Width

Compressed, Condensed, Regular, Wide

s u s s e x

BASELINE

GOTHIC/ GROTESQUE SANS

FONT STYLE Roman/Italic

o f

X-HEIGHT

WAVE Infographic WAVE

The five boxing wizards jump quickly

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w i n e

DESCENDER LINE

BRACKETED SERIF

TRACKING (LETTER SPACING) too tight

The five boxing wizards jump quickly

City Guide

LOOP

Handgloves

LEADING (INTERLINE SPACING)

Travel Guide

Wine Label

Type Terms STEM

BR

a m p e r s a n d

Early Bird Tickets on Sale Now Day & Weekend Tickets Available Luxury Glamping Sites

L O N D O N

LE

A

Sa tu rn

LE

THe Velvet Underground Radiohead The Beatles

PA

tre ea Th

sa tu rn th T ea ic tre ke tk ts s. $2 co 5 m

Sunday 23rd

Simon AND Garfunkel BRIAN ENO Joni MitchellTHE Flaming Lips ABBA Rage Against the Machine TheSmiths kate Tempest The Who XTC Billie Holiday King Crimson JUNE TABOR Fleetwood Mac Leonard Cohen Fela Kuti Elbow Elvis Costello Bruce Springsteen PJ Harvey THE Rolling Stones LCD SOUNDSYSTEM The Eagles The Clash Sigur Rós Amy Winehouse Massive Attack Led Zeppelin

Y

Saturday 22nd

Nick Drake Cat Power Arcade Fire Billy Bragg BRMC Sam Cooke Richard Thompson Jeff Buckley Stereolab James Brown Mekons Public Service Broadcasting Earth, Wind AND Fire PETER GABRIEL Kate Bush The Doors The Pogues STEVIE WONDER Warren Zevon Kraftwerk Tom Waits Patti Smith Ian Dury AND The Blockheads RUSH Bob Marley AND the Wailers The POLICE Talking Heads Nirvana

ER

am e illi ar W pe by kes a Sh

Ca es ar

Melanie Hobson

EW

Hobson

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PRODUCED BY

too loose

Tasty. Simple. Healthy.

Tasty. Simple. Healthy.

Weight

Thin, Regular, Bold, Black

Stylistic film Alternates flirt office Stylistic waffle Alternates

Business Card

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Magazine Cover

Where flyaway hair and masthead meet















LEARNING POINTS • Creating a complex mask in Photoshop • Sampling colors from the image • Using hierarchical Based On styles TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop, InDesign FONTS USED Bodoni 72 Bold Rift Soft INSPIRATION pin.it/57ytlga

We’ve all seen this technique used a thousand times, but we never tire of it. Perhaps we just love to see hair and type interact — or perhaps we just enjoy tormenting the designers whose job it is to make this work, time and time again. There are several ways to do this. This is the approach we took.  

TRIM SIZE 8.375 × 10.875 inches (213 × 276 mm)

The model strikes a powerful pose, and her hair flutters in the breeze. The masthead hovers behind her, and somehow, the tiny wisps of hair seem to wind and curl perfectly around the letters of the masthead.



THE BRIEF Create a classic lifestyle magazine cover where the model’s head (and flyaway) hair are entwined with the masthead

Create the masthead/nameplate First off, it may be a bit pedantic, but what we’re actually talking about here is the nameplate. The “masthead” is the bit on an inside page where the publisher information goes. However the (mis)usage has become so common, that we’re going to go with it. In Illustrator, in a document that is the width of the live area of the magazine, set the type, and adjust the tracking and kerning as necessary. We used Bodoni 72 Bold, a revival of the classic Didone typeface designed by Giambattista Bodoni in the late 18th century. It’s a popular choice for luxury brands. Pay attention to the kerning between the V and A and adjust accordingly.

The original stock image (below) and a couple of contemporary examples of flyaway hair/ masthead combos





Having saved a copy, convert the type to vector outlines (Type > Create Outlines). This removes any potential for missing font messages down the line and also ensures that the masthead type is treated like a logo from here on. (Yes, you could do this in Photoshop, we just feel more at home in Illustrator when working with type.)

Short Text

THIS YEAR’S MODEL ON HER FAVORITE

February 2021

$5.95

TROPICAL HIDEAWAY

THE MOST ’GRAMMED DISHES OF THE YEAR

VISIT ROME:

FOOD LOVER’S PARADISE

1 8 67492 3993

THE FOOD & TRAVEL ISSUE

57

The Type Project Book





In Photoshop, open the picture of the cover model. Crop and adjust color, tone, and contrast as necessary. Do this non-destructively: Delete Cropped Pixels on the Tool Options should be deselected; use Adjustment Layers. Choose File > Place Linked to import the masthead on a layer above as a linked graphic.

Prepare the image The success of this technique depends in large part on your choice of image. We chose an image (from Shutterstock) where the model is shot against a contrasting flat-color background. It is this that makes it possible to isolate the model’s head and shoulders with relative ease. It’s less about the amount of hair and more about the amount of edge contrast.



In Photoshop, use the Marquee tool to make a selection of the top fifth of the image — make sure you’re including the area that covers the masthead. Press Cmd/Ctrl+J to copy this selection to a new layer. Move the new layer above the masthead. On the Tool Options bar click Select And Mask. In the Select And Mask dialog box, set the View Mode to On Layers. To mask the background, choose Select Subject. Now switch to the Brush tool and click the Minus behavior and paint over the stem of one of the letters (in our case, the U) to make it look like the strand of hair is going behind the letter. Depending on the nature of your image, you may need to use the Refine Edge brush to finesse the selection. To remove any fringing around the hair, check Decontaminate Colors and from the Output To list choose New Layer with Layer Mask. Click OK when you’re happy with the result. Your original copy of the layer is now obsolete, and you can delete it.  

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C

RIRFITFSTOSFOTF T Mattox Mattox Shuler. Shuler. Fort Foundry. Fort Foundry. 2017 2017

a bacbdce df ge hf gi jhkilj k l mnmonpqorpsqtrusvtw uv w x y zx1y2z314253647586970890

B

A

A

Choose On Layers to see the cutout in context ( ).

D

Choose Select Subject to make the initial selection ( ).

B

With the Brush tool in minus behavior paint over the hair where it overlaps a letter to remove it from the selection ( ).

C

Choose Decontaminate Colors to remove color fringing ( ).

D

The essence of this technique is that you have two copies of the image: one below the masthead and one above. The copy above the background is masked to reveal the type layer sandwiched between the two image layers.

Short Text

Add the type With the image prepped, place the PSD file in InDesign to add the cover type. To create tight and compact blocks of type, we used uppercase. To occupy more vertical space, our chosen typeface, Rift, is condensed. And because we also wanted the type to be friendly, we opted for the rounded version, Rift Soft. In InDesign, create a series of hierarchical styles using the Based On feature. We made three styles: Large, Medium, and Small. Large is the parent, Medium is based on Large (smaller and using a different color), and Small is based on Medium. Any changes made to the parent style will also affect the offspring. To make it easier to experiment with the type and leading values, we used Auto Leading, but changed the relative size of the Auto Leading in Justification settings to less than 100%. Exact mileage will vary according to the font you’re using and your personal preferences, but we’re looking for tight line spacing to build density with the type. Word and Letter Spacing

Sculpt the line endings as necessary with line breaks (Shift+Return) to ensure that you enhance the meaning of the text and don’t obscure too much of the image.









Choose colors Let your choice of type color be suggested by the image itself. The Color Theme tool lets you create color palettes — or themes (a group of five related colors) — based upon a chosen color harmony rule. This is a good starting point, and if you’re not confident about choosing colors, it provides reassurance that you are proceeding with a methodology rather than just randomly picking colors.

AB

With the Color Theme tool you can create a color palette from the image. This can be added to your Swatches panel ( ) and/or your current CC Library ( ).

B

A

Alternatively, you can sample colors manually with the Eyedropper tool, and this is the approach we took, sampling the lipstick, the fingers, and the eye color. Remember that the point of this design trope is to hide the masthead. Your magazine is so famous, so iconic, that the public doesn’t even need to see the entire name. But to make it work, that flowing hair needs to look natural, as if the model just happened to be captured standing in front of the actual masthead. All it takes to create the illusion is a simple layer sandwich and a decent layer mask.



You can really affect the personality of the type by adjusting the Word and Letter Spacing. The values shown here will give a tight, dense look — but experiment with your own. When you’re working with type that is left, center, or right aligned (i.e., not justified), only the Desired column has any effect. That said, InDesign won’t let you make the Minimum more or the Maximum less than the Desired.  

As well as the leading, we also adjusted the Word Spacing and Letter Spacing settings, reducing both from the their defaults of 100% and 0, respectively. Again, the exact amount you use will depend on the properties of the font you are working with.

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Classic Fiction

Type that’s in your face









THE BRIEF Choose a classic work of fiction and redesign its cover using exclusively — or predominantly — type









TRIM SIZE 6 × 9 inches (152 × 229 mm)





LEARNING POINTS • Being expressive with just type and color • Setting up a book cover document TOOLS InDesign FONTS USED OCR-A INSPIRATION pin.it/69ovGIE

OCR-A OCR-A

Designers love constraints: Paradoxically, working within clearly defined limits can sometimes set your creativity free. Being forced to be creative with only the materials at hand is just part of the job description. This project comes with a major constraint: to convey the essence of a book using only type. There is a style of book cover design called the Big Book Look. Such covers highlight just one cover element, usually the type. But even working with just a single design element, there are many variants. Think about whether to highlight the author’s name, the title, or both. The choice of typeface, its scale (bigger is usually better, but not always), and its arrangement on the page are key to a successful solution. Sometimes a clever but subtle twist can be employed, in much the same way as designing a logo.

Choose the type Spend time “auditioning” type on Adobe Fonts, or from wherever else you source your fonts. Take advantage of the sample text field, and because you are telling the story with the type, consider the story of the typeface itself. Do some digging to discover its history. Who created it? When? What are its associations and connotations, if any? Sometimes this information is easy to find (if you’re working with a classic typeface, Wikipedia is often a good starting point); sometimes there’s little, or no, information. At least make sure that your choice is not historically dissonant. For example, if you’re designing a cover for an 18th-century classic, a 21st-century typeface is unlikely to be the solution. We say “unlikely” because in some circumstances it might be perfect, but that will involve a high degree of nuance and awareness of how one historical style plays off another. A good place to explore how typefaces are used is Fonts in Use (fontsinuse.com).

A

B

On Adobe Fonts, use the Filters ( ) and Sample Text field ( ) to develop a shortlist of fonts.

A

B

American American Type Founders. Type Founders. 1968 1968

a ba cb dc ed fg ef hg ij hk ij k l ml nm on po qp rq sr ts ut u v wv xw yx zy Az BA CB DC ED E F GF HG IH JI KJ LK ML NMON O P QP RQ SR TS UT VU WV XW YX Y Z1Z 21 32 45 34 67 58 69 78 09 0

For our example, we chose OCR-A, a font designed for optical character recognition. Created to be read by machines, OCR-A is a monospaced typeface. Monospaced fonts were originally designed for typewriters, where

Short Text

GEORGE ORWELL N I N E T E E N EIGHTY -FOUR

61

The Type Project Book Do a simple GREP Find/Change to find all characters and replace them with the found text followed by a zerowidth space.

technological limitations required each letter to be the same width. Take a look at the i to see how the horizontal crossbars add width to prevent it from looking too narrow alongside its colleagues. It is the machine-like, fixed-width nature of OCR-A that makes it look authoritarian and unyielding. We made the text more imposing by fully justifying the alignment, resulting in some artless gaps between the letters. (In Orwell’s dystopian nightmare, there’s no time to worry about finessing the nuances of letter spacing.) Making the text fill the whole cover adds to the sense of claustrophobia. While most modern editions of the book set its name in numerals, 1984, some early editions chose to write out the date. We chose this route to have more raw material to work with.



When you want text to fill a frame and to experiment with the size of the type, it can be frustrating when the text becomes either hyphenated or, if hyphenation is turned off, overset. To address this problem, use a zero-width space. As its name suggests, a zero-width space adds no spacing width, but will allow the word to break anywhere — and without hyphenation. Don’t bother looking for a zero-width space on the Insert White Space menu; it isn’t there, but you can still insert it with a GREP Find/Change using its Unicode value: U+200B. This query means find any character and replace with that same character followed by the zero-width space. Make sure to save the query in case you need to use it again.  

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Create a rich black Given the dark subject matter, black is an obvious choice for the background and provides the white and gray type a stark contrast. We created a custom “rich” or four-color black. Because standard CMYK black contains no cyan, magenta, or yellow, when printed, it looks more gray than black. Adding 50% each of cyan, magenta, and yellow ensures a solid result. For a more accurate onscreen preview, in Preferences, set Appearance of Black to Display All Blacks Accurately. Mix your own custom black for any solid fill areas.

Examples of the “Big Book Look” designed by Paul Bacon

On a cautionary note, don’t use rich black for text, only for solid fill areas. Applying it to text, especially smaller text, may result in misregistration on

Short Text





the press. Recipes for rich black vary — according to taste (more or less cyan will cool or warm the black, while keeping the C, M, and Y the same gives a neutral result) and printing circumstances. Be sure to check with your commercial printer to see what percentages they recommend for their press.









Add a twist Sometimes a small twist — such as a backwards, missing, or colored word or letter — may be all you need to take your design to the next level. Do a browser search for 1984 book cover designs, and you’ll see that the surveillance eye is a recurring and compelling motif. Given the eye-shape of the OCR-A Os, this seemed like an opportunity too good to pass up. Illustrator lets you select individual characters and rotate them in the context of the word, which is interesting, but we ended up taking a different approach. To keep the current letter spacing, we applied a fill of None to the existing O, making it invisible. On the pasteboard, we typed another at the same size, rotated it, converted it to outlines (Cmd+Shift+O/Ctrl+Shift+O), added an eyeball, and then moved it into place. Prepare the spine and back cover If you plan to take this project further and will also create the spine and back cover, ask your commercial printer to provide you a template file. This will most likely be a single landscape page that combines back cover, spine, and front cover, and is divided with guides to indicate the spine. Based upon the number of pages and your chosen paper stock, the printer will be able to provide you with the exact width of the spine. In our experience, printers prefer that you use their template, because it’s an approach that tends to be less error prone. But if you’re feeling intrepid and want to set this up from scratch, InDesign is the best place to create a front cover and back cover spread, including the spine. Create a three-page, facing-pages document at the trim size of your book. Start out with the margins set to zero. To put the pages side by side you’ll need to deselect the confusingly named Allow Document Pages to Shuffle option on the Pages panel menu. Then, on the Pages panel, rearrange the pages as a spread. Next, use the Page tool to change the size of the middle page, which will serve as the spine. When you output the whole cover to a print-ready PDF, select the Spreads option so that you create a single spread rather than individual pages. A three-page InDesign document converted to a spread. The width of the second, middle, page is narrowed to form the spine.

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Vintage Album Cover

Subdued colors and wandering baselines







TOOLS InDesign or Illustrator







LEARNING POINTS • Using the Color Themes tool • Sizing and formatting type

Color palette Start with a square page with half-inch margins. We sampled the colors of a classic jazz album design by Jim Flora, using the Color Theme tool. We added the colors to the InDesign Swatches panel and then adjusted them by eye. We drew a rectangle at the bleed size of the page, filled it with the pale yellow (C7 M4 Y32 K0), and then locked it so it couldn’t be moved by mistake.

FONTS USED Balboa Extra Condensed INSPIRATION pin.it/5qtlXWV

Sizing Type with Keyboard Shortcuts



Format the type With a cover that is all about typography, we felt the need to go large. So that the text occupied as much height as possible, we picked a very condensed typeface. Balboa by Jim Parkinson is a display gothic that is very malleable. Treated one way it can look cool and reserved; treated the way we used it here, it can look playful and vintage.





For maximum flexibility when sizing type and shifting baselines, use keyboard shortcuts Cmd+Shift+ > / Ctrl+Shift+ > to increase and decrease the point size and Option/Alt+Shift Up or Down Arrow to adjust the baseline of a selected character up or down. We recommend that you reduce the values in the Size/Leading and Baseline Shift fields of the Units & Increments preferences for finer control.  



Many of the record covers of this period make great use of type, as well as limited color palettes. Designs were notable for their simplicity and directness, with just enough playfulness and innovation to make the record stand out on the shelf. We made one of our own in InDesign. You can too — or, if you prefer, use Illustrator.









TRIM SIZE 12 × 12 inches (305 × 305 mm)

The period 1940 to 1960 was the first golden era of popular music. Without the Internet, and not even a functioning music press to speak of — Rolling Stone or the NME were still a long way off — the only way to know whether a record was worth buying was by the style and clarity of its cover design.  

THE BRIEF Design a vintage jazz album cover using just type

We chose Justify All Lines alignment to span the full width of the type area. To get the letters as big as possible, we selected the type and increased its size incrementally until it broke the line, then backed up one step. We also reduced the leading significantly using the shortcut Option/Alt+Up Arrow to make the type a cohesive block. The default Auto Leading of 120% of the type size will look awful here, especially because the type is in all caps. We’re into serious negative leading here; we ended up with 334 pt type over 250 pt leading. To give the type a more playful character, we made the baselines of the letters uneven. Although it’s possible to automate this with nested styles and GREP styles, because we were working with such a small amount of type, it was more organic to select the letters individually and shift their vertical position with baseline shift.

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SCREAMIN’

BABYRIVERS LIVE AT THE VANGUARD Make character styles for each of the three colors and apply these, somewhat randomly, to the letters.

Finishing touches We finished by adding a texture in the form of a worn record sleeve. We downloaded one from Shutterstock and added it via the CC Libraries panel to a layer above the text. To combine it with the colors beneath, we set its blending mode to Multiply and dialed back the opacity to taste.

BALBAOLABOA EXTERXATCROANCDOENDSENDSED Jim Parkinson. Jim Parkinson. Parkinson Parkinson Type Design. Type Design. 2001 2001

a b c da be cf gd he fi jgkhl mi j knlomp nq o p q r s t urvswt uxvywz Ax By zCADBECF DG E F G H I J HK ILJMKNLOMPNQORPSQTRUS T U V W XVYWZX1 2Y 3Z 41 2536475869708 9 0

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Compact Disc Package

Capture a moment with a “mix tape”

THE BRIEF Create a CD package: front and back cover, inlay card, and disc. Combine type with imagery to convey the mood of the piece.

























TRIM SIZE Booklet: 4.75 × 4.75 inches (121 × 121 mm) Inlay card: 5.9 × 4.625 inches (150 × 118 mm) Disc: 4.75 × 4.75 inches (121 × 121 mm)







LEARNING POINTS • Creating a package design • Working with a template • Working with a home printer TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop, camera or scanner FONTS USED Avenir

Once upon a time, music aficionados made compilations of their favorite music, either to commemorate a moment or, perhaps, to woo a love interest. Music used to be stored on magnetic material and passed from hand to hand with a whisper: “Check out track 3, PJ Harvey. Your mind will be blown. Totally.” If a Spotify playlist just doesn’t have the gravitas you’re looking for, try this old-school approach. Burn some music onto a plastic disc, design a gorgeous booklet, label, and case to match the mood and tone perfectly, and give it to someone you think is cool. They are guaranteed to be impressed by your old-school flair.

Document setup This project provides an opportunity to design the several elements that make up a CD package: the booklet (number of pages up to you), the inlay card, and the design for the disc itself. Numerous templates are available online. These will ensure you have the correct measurements and might also suggest different format options.

INSPIRATION pin.it/3EGrOOX

AvAevneirnir AdrianAdrian Frutiger. Frutiger. Mergenthaler Mergenthaler Linotype Linotype Company. Company. 1988 1988

abcadbecfd gehfig jkhlm ijknlm o no p q rpsqtur svtw uxv ywzxAyBz A B C DC ED FG EF HG I JHKILJM KLM N ONPO QPRQ S TRU SV TU WV W XYZ X1Y2Z31425364758697089 0

A range of CD templates can be downloaded from discmakers.com/templates.

Most packages will consist of the cover/booklet, the tray card or inlay card, and the disc. To tie them together, you’ll need a consistent motif running throughout.

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H O W T O D I S A P P E A R C O M P L E T E LY

0 2 K K H A R PA D I S I G U R R Ó S L E K 03 WITH THIS LOVE PETER GABRIEL PA S S I O N : M U S I C F O R T H E L A S T T E M P TAT I O N O F C H R I S T 0 4 H O W T O D I S A P P E A R C O M P L E T E LY RADIOHEAD KID A 05 BY THIS RIVER BRIAN ENO BEFORE AND AFTER SCIENCE 0 6 R E M E M B E R A D AY P I N K F L O Y D A S A U C E R F U L O F S E C R E T 07 CRY PERE UBU CLOUDLAND

H O W T O D I S A P P E A R C O M P L E T E LY

0 8 I S U R R E N D E R PA S C A L C O M E L A D E DANSES ET CHANTS DE SYLDAVIE 0 9 W H O K N O W S W H E R E T H E T I M E G O E S FA I R P O RT C O N V E N T I O N U N H A L F B R I C K I N G

1 0 L O S T P R O P E R T Y T H E D I V I N E C O M E D Y R E G E N E R AT I O N 11 NIGHT COMES IN R I C H A R D & L I N D A T H O M P S O N P O U R D O W N L I K E S I LV E R

12 SUBTERRANEANS DAVID BOWIE LOW 13 PYRAMID SONG RADIOHEAD AMNESIAC

H O W T O D I S A P P E A R C O M P L E T E LY

01 THE GOLDEN AGE BECK SEA CHANGE

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Type choice





Inspired by Futura, the grandparent of geometric sans serifs, Avenir (French for future) is understated, slightly aloof, and made more so by using it in all caps with generous letter spacing. Designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1987 (perhaps the height of the mix tape era), it is slightly less geometric and more organic than Futura and has a traditional two-story a — not something you’ll see here since the type is in all caps. All the type is at a single size and weight. It is intentionally small and somber. It conveys the information efficiently, without fuss, and without drawing too much attention. The main purpose of the type in this scenario is to convey the information and then get out of the way. Track number, song, artist, and album are differentiated only by color. The alignment is freeform: Each line is a separate text frame, positioned by eye. Even though there isn’t much text, it’s still best practice to approach the formatting in an organized way. In this context, that means auto-numbering and nested styles. Start with the numbering.

Futura vs. Avenir

As part of the paragraph style, the numbering can include a character style to change the color of the track number. Because each track is in a separate text frame rather than being a continuous story, you also need to include a List style so that the numbering continues across stories rather than restarting with each one.

Using List Style (under Paragraph Options) will let you continue your numbering across separate text boxes.











Nested styles are used here to apply the colors to the specific parts of each line. They rely on there being an identifiable pattern in the text to which the character style is applied up to or through. Where no pattern readily exists, as is the case here, the fallback option is to add an invisible End Nested Style character where you want the character style to switch off. This character is buried deep in the menu structure (Type > Insert Special Character > Other), so to do this quickly, make a custom keyboard shortcut. Choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts, and you’ll find it listed in the Product Area: Type Menu.  

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Nested styles allow you to set styles for different items in the same text field — useful when you have a track number, track title, band name, and possibly more.





Photo choice The technical quality of the imagery is less important than its personal or evocative qualities. Which is to say that it doesn’t necessarily matter if it’s a “good” picture so long as it has meaning to you and the recipient. The picture we used here (three times with varying crops) is from Nigel’s “blurry” period (still ongoing) — moving the camera while taking the shot for a slow shutter speed effect. He wasn’t aware of it at the time, but this technique even has a name: Intentional Camera Movement, or ICM for short.









Inlay card Make sure the type on the spine reads the correct way. It’s irritating to shelve a CD with a wrong-reading spine type alongside others. The rotation should be 90° counterclockwise on the left spine and 90° clockwise on the right. You can use InDesign’s Rotate Spread feature (View > Rotate Spread) while working on the spine — it beats rotating your head at 90° angles. Printing If you have CD burner (an increasingly rare commodity as CDs themselves become obsolete) and a decent desktop printer, you’ll be able to produce the whole package yourself. To print and assemble the CD at home, include crop marks on your printouts. To add these to any of the components, you can use the Crop Marks script that is installed with InDesign.

Label Peel-and-stick CD labels are readily available at office supply stores. The typography on the label should be as simple and as minimal as possible, even to the point of not being there at all, so long as the image ties the disc to the rest of the package. Keep in mind that whatever picture you choose, it’s going to end up with a hole in the middle! You could even incorporate the hole into your design. Take a look at these examples: www.tekkaus.com/ 2010/02/22-slapstick-cd-designs-which-is-your.html.



 ‌



‌ 

You can create the document at a standard page size from which you can trim the artwork. To add crop marks in InDesign, select the object(s) and choose the Crop Marks script (Scripts > Application > Samples > JavaScript).  





If you are making more than one CD, you may want to gang up several copies on the largest size of paper your printer can handle. Avoid glossy paper as it is hard to score and fold. Gently score along the fold lines of the spine with the back of the X-ACTO blade. Be careful — those things are sharp, and we have the scars to prove it.

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Cookbook

Type in a supporting role





LEARNING POINTS • Staging a front cover photo shoot • Choosing complementary type





TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop, camera

Create the image To create a color wheel of pulses, grains, spices, nuts, and vegetables, we organized the ingredients by color on a radial grid template that we whipped up in Illustrator using the Polar Grid tool and printed out on a desktop printer. For the most part we stayed within the lines, but we also didn’t want the finished result to look too neat — hence the bay leaves breaking up the geometry. The camera was placed on a tripod, on a flat plane to the subject, and we shot from above.

FONTS USED Lato







The intention for this cover is to design something bold, clean, fresh, and colorful — to reflect the contents of the book itself. What could be more colorful than a color wheel?



TRIM SIZE 7.5 × 10 inches (190 × 254 mm)  

People buy fewer and fewer books of fiction each year, but interestingly, cookbooks are more popular than ever. Is that because everybody likes food, and a good, handy book for preparing it is just essential? Maybe. Or maybe the people who design cookbooks understand the power of typography.



THE BRIEF Create a cookbook cover based on your own photography. Combine the imagery with type choices that help convey the book’s personality.

Initial image edits were made in Lightroom Classic: We cropped to a square aspect ratio, applied an Auto adjustment to improve the exposure and contrast, and added some Vibrance to increase the saturation of the more muted colors.

INSPIRATION pin.it/4VoGFsx

At this point, it was time to take the image into Photoshop for some additional retouching to remove grid lines, some unwanted shadows, and

A

B

A





Open the image as a Smart Object ( ) (Photo > Edit In > Open as Smart Object in Photoshop) where it’s easier to do the minor retouching with the Spot Healing Brush on a separate layer to remove gridlines, stray elements, and unwanted shadows ( ).  

C

Capture the image in RAW format and do most of the editing in Lightroom Classic or Adobe Camera RAW ( ).  

D

A

C

B

Add a Levels adjustment (used in conjunction with the Info panel to verify the color numbers) to force the background to white (R255, G255 B255) ( ).

D

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Tasty. Simple. Healthy.

Tasty. Simple. Healthy. Delicious and easy meals that are nutritious . . . and sometimes indulgent.

Hobson

Melanie Hobson

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Choosing to Open as Smart Object in Photoshop lets you make further edits to the image in the Adobe Camera Raw plug-in.









some spilled turmeric. While it’s possible to do basic spot removal in Lightroom Classic, it’s way quicker and easier in Photoshop. From Lightroom Classic, rather than the obvious choice of Cmd/Ctrl+E to edit the image in Photoshop, we chose Photo > Edit > Open as Smart Object in Photoshop. Although there’s currently no perfect round-trip editing solution for combining Lightroom Classic with Photoshop, opening as a Smart Object is the better option. It allows you to make further edits, if needed, to the Camera Raw image by double-clicking the Smart Object thumbnail to enter the Adobe Camera Raw plug-in, which has all the same sliders and options as Lightroom Classic. No matter which approach you take, because you can’t place a Camera Raw file in InDesign, when you’re satisfied with the image, you’ll need to save it as a Photoshop (PSD) file and place this in the InDesign document.

Choose the type In this project the typography plays a supporting role to the image, and the type is intended to be simple (not least because that’s one of the words in the book’s title), straightforward, and honest. At the same time, it should look contemporary and elegant.









Lato is a “super family” available in a range of nine weights. Designed in 2010 by Warsaw-based Łukasz Dziedzic, lato means summer in Polish. It has a massive — and we mean massive — range of glyphs and supports 100+ Latin-based languages, 50+ Cyrillic-based languages, as well as Greek, so if you’re in need of a versatile font family for multilingual publishing, it’s worthy of your consideration.

Łukasz Łukasz Dziedzic. Dziedzic. 2015 2015

ab cadbecfdgehfigjkhlm ijknlm o no p q rpsqt ur svtw u vxw y zxAyB z AB CDC EF DGEH FG IJH KILJM KLNMN O PO QPRQ ST RU ST VU WVXW X Y Z1 Y2Z314 2536475869708 9 0





Format the type To give the type a more informal vibe, we’ve used title case rather than uppercase. There are two weights heavier than Bold in Lato’s extensive family — Heavy and Black — but the Bold weight feels confident without being pushy. Combined with the tight leading, the contrast of the black on white is attention-grabbing from a distance.  

LaLto ato









Another factor — and one you’ll appreciate in a later project when we work with some of the interior pages of the book — is that we also wanted the cover text to tie in with the type used for the interior of the book. Too often the design of a book interior and its cover expose the fact that they were created by separate designers, who seemingly never communicated with each other.



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The orange punctuation plays off the colors in the picture and helps tie the type to the image. At large sizes, punctuation can look disproportionately large, so we’ve reduced its size (55 pt compared to the 77 pt of the letters). It’s this attention to small detail that will set your work apart from that of your competitors. With the title at such a large size, Optical automatic kerning yields a tighter, more consistently spaced, result. To cut a long story short, there are two methods of automatic kerning: Metrics, which uses the kerning values designed by the type designer, and Optical, which disregards those values in favor of adjusting the kerning based on the letter shapes. It’s a generalization, but Optical kerning tends to work better at large sizes. But don’t

Short Text Preparing the front cover Create a color wheel with spices, pulses, nuts, and vegetables.

take this for granted: Results will vary according to your chosen typeface, its size, and your personal preference. Optical kerning is typically best for big type and headings.

Speaking of optical, here’s another optical consideration: Aligning the left edges of the two lines of the title looked off to us. By turning on Optical Margin Alignment we ensured that the vertical stems of the T and the H were lined up. This is going to cause the horizontal stem of the T to push left and break the text frame, which makes some people nervous. We think it rocks! Working with Optical Margin Alignment Before (left) and after. Theoretically, the size should correspond to the size of your type; in practice, use the default of 12 pt unless it doesn’t look right.

The three lines of the subtitle are aligned between the x-height ( ) and the baseline of the title ( ).

A B





Filling out the width of the second line, the subtitle is arranged on three lines, fitted to the x-height of the large type. And in case you thought we weren’t getting granular enough, let’s talk about the ellipsis (three dots). The ellipsis character (Option/Alt+;) is too tight for our liking, but full space widths between periods look too gappy, especially at large sizes. It’s fortunate then that we have thin spaces (you’ll find them on the Type > Insert White Space menu or use the keyboard shortcut Cmd+Option+Shift+M/ Ctrl+Alt+Shift+M). We think that an ellipsis built with thin spaces is the Goldilocks ellipsis. Perhaps we need to get out more.

A B

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Theater Poster

Working with diagonals

THE BRIEF Create a National Theatre–style poster using predominantly type TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

Create the diagonal grid

INSPIRATION pin.it/5SxvQ0Y Gary Hustwit’s 2007 documentary Helvetica

Posters designed by Ken Briggs for London’s National Theatre







FONTS USED Helvetica Neue Bold



TOOLS InDesign



To get us started we needed a grid — a framework on which to hang our blocks of text and a way to keep the spacing between those blocks of text consistent. While InDesign has many grid-friendly tools, it doesn’t have a diagonal grid as such. But that doesn’t mean that you can’t create your own. InDesign’s document baseline grid — the one that you set up in Grids Preferences — cannot be rotated, but a custom baseline grid, applied on a frame-by-frame basis, can be rotated.  







LEARNING POINTS • Working on a diagonal grid • Employing hierarchy through Based On paragraph styles • Using object styles

London’s National Theatre has a rich design heritage. Since the early 1960s its in-house designers have produced hundreds of posters to promote its many productions. Setting the bar high was the theatre’s first graphic designer, Ken Briggs, whose work between 1963–1974 has had a huge influence on the theatre’s design aesthetic to this day. His posters featured bold Helvetica (not least because Letraset offered it in a range of sizes), which was often rotated. We thought it would be fun to create an homage to this look, using 45° diagonals and a simple, but striking, color palette of red, black, white, and gray.

We overlapped two rectangles, one rotated at 45° and the other at −45°, and made them large enough to bleed off all four edges of the page. In Text Frame Options (Cmd/Ctrl+B) we turned on the custom baseline grid and set its increment at 20 points. The frontmost rectangle should have no fill, allowing the gridlines of the rectangle beneath, which is filled with black, to show through. So that we didn’t disturb our overlapping grid rectangles, we moved them to their own (locked) layer.

Fr Su ida nd y ay Feb Ap ru ril ary 14 1 6



Ca es ar

tre ea Th

sa tu rn th T ea ic tre ke tk ts s. $2 co 5 m

am e illi ar W pe by es ak Sh

s liu Ju

Sa tu rn

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A C The diagonal grid is made of two overlapping text frames, at 45° and −45°( ), which cover the page and spill over onto the pasteboard. Both frames have a custom baseline grid ( ). The frames are on a locked layer ( ).

B

A

B

C

Note that the background color is a four-color black (C50 M50 Y50 K100) so that it appears solid, rather than as a dark gray.





Add the text We typed the text and created three sizes of type as hierarchical paragraph styles, using the Based On property. Big is the parent, Medium is based on Big, and Small is based on Medium. If you create your styles this way, when you change the parent style, the offspring also change. This makes for efficient global editing — something that’s always beneficial, but especially so here because it saves you getting a crook in your neck from directly editing rotated text. To rotate the text frames at 45° increments, hold the Shift key while using the Selection tool. Move to the corner of the selected frame so that the rotate handles appear.





We also turned on the custom baseline grid for each of the text frames — but you can also leave it turned off if your prefer and just move the frames into place, guided by the visual guides on the grid layer. So that we could work as efficiently as possible we captured these last two formats — the auto-sizing and the custom baseline grid — as an object style and applied it to all of the text frames. Unfortunately, what we couldn’t do was incorporate the angle of rotation into the object style definition. While  

abcdefghijklmn opqrstuvwxyzAB CDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVW XYZ1234567890



Developed at D. Stempel AG. 1983. Based on Helvetica by Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann. 1957.



Helvetica Neue

Working with short bursts of type can be challenging when you’re still figuring out what size you want the type to be. You make the type bigger, and it falls out of the frame; you have to break your flow to resize the frame. It’s a lot of wasted energy. To avoid this, we put each chunk of type in its own text frame and set the text frames to Auto-Size. For the Auto-Sizing option we chose Height and Width, with the sizing taking place from the top-left corner. This ensured that as we experimented with the type size, the frame grew or shrank, and all the while it fit snugly around the type. To put it another way, these settings made the type behave like Point Type in Illustrator. We selected the No Line Breaks box to avoid the text frame becoming too narrow.



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the size and position of text frames can be included in object styles, the angle of rotation cannot, at least at the time of writing, and has to be done on a frame-by-frame basis. For short bursts of unthreaded text (i.e., where one frame is not linked to another as part of a longer story) Auto-Size text frames can save you from having to repeatedly resize the frame to fix overset text.

The different frames of type should “snap” into place like pieces of a jigsaw. We know that’s a lot of grid lines to look at, but keep in mind that you can always press W to toggle to Preview screen mode if you tire of seeing them (note that if you’re using the Type tool, first press the Escape key, then W). In keeping with this style, we applied tight letter spacing to the type. While this could be achieved by applying negative tracking, we prefer to do it through the Letter Spacing options in the Justification dialog. That way we can, if necessary, use tracking to make more localized letter spacing adjustments. Incorporate the tight letter spacing and leading as part of the paragraph style definitions.



F Su rida nd y ay Feb Ap ru ril ary 14 1 6

am e illi ar W pe by es ak Sh

ae sa r

s liu Ju

If you’re a fan of Helvetica (we are, but it is has its detractors), you’ll find that when tightly letter spaced and tightly leaded, as here, the letters fit together in a way that feels like it was meant to be. To position the type composition, group the text frames and use the Align panel to center the group horizontally and vertical on the page, adjusting where necessary for optical alignment.

Helvetica looks great with tight letter spacing and tight leading. Somehow the letters fit together like pieces of a puzzle.

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City Poster

Vintage repetition and randomness

TOOLS InDesign FONTS USED Gill Sans

One could, and some have, argued the relative aesthetic merits of the two typefaces, but while Gill was widely available and spread like wildfire throughout Britain (it was a core part of the BBC’s identity between 1997 and 2017), Johnston was a proprietary typeface, jealously guarded by London Transport, and it stayed mainly underground. This project was suggested by the Fortune magazine cover for February 1960, which we stumbled upon in one of our design books. It immediately struck us as a great exercise for highlighting some of InDesign’s overlooked type capabilities — as well as showing off some useful type formatting tricks. The poster relies on a simple repetition of the city name, but with the colors randomized, so that the letters form a tantalizing “almost pattern” that the brain can’t help but try to decipher.  

INSPIRATION pin.it/2aRp6Pl “Johnston Sans: The Tube typeface that changed everything” bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-35916807

The February 1960 cover of Fortune magazine and the London Transport Tube map based on Harry Beck’s original 1931 design









LEARNING POINTS • Threading text • Using repetition and variation • Applying sequential styles

The corporate typeface of London’s Underground is Edward Johnston’s 1916 “Underground Alphabet” (available as P22 Johnston Underground from the P22 type foundry). Edward Johnston had a protégé named Eric Gill, and in 1928, Gill released his own sans serif, called Gill Sans. To the untrained eye they look very similar, but as any type geek will tell you, the difference is in the tittle — that’s the dot on the i and j; in Johnston they are diamondshaped, in Gill they are round.  

TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

Ask any designer to reference London, and they’ll reach immediately for their Gill Sans typeface. That’s not just because it’s possibly the most famous humanist sans serif in the world, but because it looks just like the typeface we see everywhere on the London Underground, even though it isn’t.



THE BRIEF Create a promotional typographic poster for your favorite city

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L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N

O N

L O N D O N L

N D O N

L O N D O L O N D O N L O N

O N

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Johnston Underground vs. Gill Sans



In InDesign, we divided the page into a grid of six columns by seven rows using Layout > Create Guides. To fill this grid with text frames, we used a feature called Gridify. You won’t find it on the menu; Gridify requires some nifty finger work worthy of a concert pianist (or a teenager sending a text message). Here’s how it works: With the Type tool, click and drag out a text frame. Keep holding down and press the Right/Left Arrow to add/remove columns and the Up/Down Arrow to add/remove rows, until you have a framework of threaded text frames that corresponds to your grid.  

aa ii SS OO

Document setup

A

This motivational poster was produced by the British government in 1939 in preparation for war. It features handdrawn lettering by Ernest Wallcousins, similar to Gill Sans and Johnston. You can read the fascinating story of its rediscovery in the early 21st century and subsequent commercialization here: www.iwm.org.uk/history/ truth-behind-keep-calm-and-carry-on.













On the pasteboard, we typed out the city name. At this point we don’t care what it looks like. Size, color, font — irrelevant. All we’re concerned about is pressing Return after each letter. That’s right, every letter is its own paragraph. We copied and pasted this a bunch of times — at least eight — and then selected all the text and copied and pasted it into the text frames. Because the frames are threaded, the text flowed to the next frame after it had filled the first and so on. We tried not to be alarmed that it looked a complete mess at this point. This part was just about getting text on the page.

B

Divide the page into rows and columns ( ).

A

With the Type tool draw a frame and, while drawing, divide the frame into a series of threaded frames by tapping the Right Arrow (add columns) and the Up Arrow (add rows).









B



The page in Normal view mode with Text Threads shown — View > Extras > Show Text Threads ( ).  

GiG ll SillanSsans Eric Gill. EricMonotype. Gill. Monotype. 1928 1928

abcadbecfgdheifjgkhlm ijknlo mpnop q r sqt ur svtwuxv w y zxAyBz A CB C D ED FG E FHGI JH KILJ M K LNM N OPO QPRQ STRU ST VU WVXWX Y ZY1 Z 2 3142536475869708 9 0



Create a color palette Switching our attention to the colors, because we wanted some randomness, we needed more colors than we had letters — six in this case. This is so that when applied in sequence, the same color will not be applied to the same letter and no obvious pattern will emerge. Here’s our first “trick”: We made one of the colors exactly the same as the background so that when applied, it was effectively invisible.  

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We think that colors always look better when there’s a backstory to why you chose them. Like everybody else, we sometimes choose colors just because “they look cool,” but when there’s a rationale behind the color choice it feels like we’re doing it properly. In this case, the colors were sampled from the iconic London Underground map, originally designed by Harry Beck in 1931. Although the map has gone through many refreshes since (not least

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B A

The Keep Option causes each letter to move to the next frame ( ).

A

C

The colors are incorporated into paragraph styles, which are defined as a sequence ( ) so that you can apply the styles in a loop with a single click ( ).

C

B

because additional tube lines have been added), it has remained true to the original, and the colors of the different tube lines are instantly recognizable to any Londoner.

Type choice Wanting a typeface that evokes the place, our obvious choice was Gill Sans, because of its associations with Britain in general and London in particular. Create the first paragraph style for the type. Along with its other formats, it should include a Keep Option to start the paragraph in the next frame. This is why we pressed Return after each letter. The Keep Option ensures that each paragraph/letter moves to its own text frame. This is where things start to take shape. Now create a series of paragraph styles, each based on the first but with a different color. You want these styles to be applied in sequence, so in the Next Style property make “2” the next style after “1,” “3” the next style after “2,” and so on. When you get to the last style, set its Next Style property to the first style in order to create a repeating loop. With the styles ready, select all the text, right-click the first style in the sequence and choose Apply [style name], and then choose Next Style.









Each letter should now be in a different color, in its own text frame. All that remains is to vertically center each letter within its frame. Select the text frames, choose Object > Text Frame Options, and choose Center from the Vertical Justification menu. To finesse the vertical centering, in Baseline Options, change the First Baseline offset to Cap Height — although this will vary from font to font. To offset the first row so that it functions as a title, make the letters in the first row all the same color. Delete the text frames of the second row to create some distance between the header row and the rest of the letters.

L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N D O N L O N The result not random enough for you? Try a seven-column grid so that the name never stands alone on a line.

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Travel Guide

Keeping it simple

aba cd be cd f gehf g i jh k il j k l m nm op nq o rpsqt rusvtw uvw x y zxA yz BA CB DC ED FG EFG H I JHKI L JM K LNM ON PO QP Q R SR TS UTVU WVXW ZX YZ Y Z 1 2Z314 25 36 47 58 69 70 890





Color palette As everyone knows, New York City taxis are yellow — and have been since 1967 when the city ordered that they be painted that color to cut-down on unofficial drivers. The yellow taxi is an icon of the city: instantly recognizable and infinitely reproduced. The specific yellow is called Dupont M6284, which breaks down to C0, M15, Y100, K0 in CMYK. Perhaps more than any other color, this yellow defines New York City. There could be no other choice of color for our travel guide. Initially we thought we’d have the whole cover in yellow. But that made our eyes hurt, so we decided to start the yellow lower on the page. How much lower? To figure that out we used our grid.  

TobiasTobias Frere-Jones Frere-Jones with Jesse with Ragan. Jesse Ragan. Hoefler Hoefler & Co. 2000 & Co. 2000



Go Gtohtahm am



INSPIRATION pin.it/18hyJOc

Originally, we planned to use a condensed or even compressed typeface so we could make the type block tall, like skyscrapers perhaps; the type would be widely spaced, and there would be pictures showing through the gaps. We tried it and . . . it didn’t work. The pictures were just too small. What was the point of having them if you couldn’t tell what they were? But sometimes it’s hard to let go of ideas to which you have become attached. So we tried it again with pictures that were a bit bigger and simpler, so easier to read from a distance. We adjusted the cropping this way and that. It still didn’t work. Reluctantly, we ditched the pictures, made the type black and bold, and felt we were on to something. The simplicity, the stark contrast, the type sitting atop a yellow wall. We got to where we wanted to go by taking stuff away, and with every element we removed, the composition got a little better. The end result looks like it took about ten minutes to design. And if we had known at the outset that this was our destination, that’s about how long it would have taken, but sometimes you have to go around the houses to get to where you’re going.  

FONTS USED Gotham Bold (Hoefler&Co typography.com)



TOOLS InDesign

For us, this project proved a valuable lesson — one we keep learning over and over — in keeping it simple. When it comes to the number of elements in our designs, we tell our students, “If it’s not adding something, then it must be taking something away.” Advice is sometimes easier to give than to follow.







LEARNING POINTS • Using minimalism and understatement • Positioning and aligning elements

Happily, there’s a new trend in travel guide design towards understatement, with simple type and a single, flat color. Photos are used more sparingly, offering just a tantalizing glimpse of the destination. Sometimes they are not used at all. Too much white space? Blame the Swiss.











TRIM SIZE 4.25 × 6.25 inches (108 × 160 mm)

If you’re like us, you wait to pick up your travel guide until you’re at the airport bookshop. Look up and down the aisle: The books are almost always blue, with a full bleed image, and a bold, sans serif font. Hugh spent most of the 1990s designing covers for Lonely Planet, and they looked like this back then as well.



THE BRIEF Create a minimalist travel guide cover that relies for its impact on type and color

Short Text

NEW YORK

City Guide

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Document setup

City Guide







Even with (or perhaps especially with) a design as minimal as this we needed a grid. The grid gave us focus. If you’re staring at a sea of white space (or yellow space for that matter), it can be hard to know where to begin, where to put stuff. We wanted the placement of elements to be informed by the page proportions. Because the page size is in a roughly 5:7 aspect ratio, we started by creating a 5 × 7 grid. Then, because we wanted more grid fields, we doubled the numbers to 10 × 14. We set the margins of the page to zero and used the outer grid square as the margin. Now, with a framework we could position the elements with confidence. The field of yellow dropped down four rows, providing some much needed breathing space at the top of the page, giving the yellow some context, and providing a platform for the type to stand upon. The type was sized to the height of one row, with one column of white space either side; the smaller type was aligned to the right edge of the title, its baseline sitting two rows up from the bottom of the page and occupying three column widths. Everything, to paraphrase Radiohead, felt like it was in its right place.  

NEW YORK

Type treatment and font choice How do you convey a city as iconic and diverse as New York in type? There are a million different right answers (and probably as many wrong ones). We went down the fairly obvious path of choosing a geometric sans serif, Gotham. We love Gotham for its no-nonsense assertiveness, but its most important credentials in this context were its connections with New York City. Gotham was commissioned by New York–based men’s magazine GQ, for their masthead, and designed by Tobias Frere-Jones in 2000. It was inspired by the architectural lettering that Frere-Jones photographed in his walks around the city, and especially by the lettering on the Port Authority Bus Terminal, which has been there since 1950. Could it get any more New York? Well, yes: In 2004 Gotham was used on the cornerstone of the Freedom Tower at the World Trade Center site.

The signage on New York’s Port Authority Bus Terminal — the inspiration for Gotham  

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We set the automatic kerning to Optical, which spaces the letters according to their shapes rather than the font metrics. Generally, this is our preference when working with display type, and it usually results in tighter space. And the reason we’re saying usually is that it will vary from font to font, depending on the kerning metrics that are in the font in the first place. In fact with Gotham, it didn’t make much difference. Note that we tightly kerned the space between New and York so that it’s only just there. We thought this made the type look more solid, and anyway no one is going to read it as a single word.

Short Text

Rip It Up and Start Again





Next, we adjusted the kerning of the letter pairs to make the space between the letters look as even as possible. A trick for doing this is to rotate the spread — this makes the type more abstract and lets you concentrate on the negative space. With the kerning preference set to the smallest increment possible (1), we used the keyboard shortcuts Option/Alt+Left Arrow to kern tighter and Option/Alt+Right Arrow to kern looser.

Originally, we wanted pictures between the letters. In the first iteration the yellow covered the whole page, but it turns out you can have too much of a good thing.









Set the kerning increment to 1 so that you can kern using keyboard shortcuts (Option/Alt+Left Arrow and Option/ Alt+Right Arrow) with more precision. Optionally, choose View > Rotate Spread > 180° to turn the page upside down to help you better concentrate on the negative space between the letters.



















We kept a copy of the type, just in case. After we were done futzing around with the kerning, we compared our result to the original — and decided we’d made it worse! Another valuable design lesson perhaps: If ain’t broke, don’t fix it. But — and this is what we tell ourselves when we’ve spent hours getting nowhere — without trying these other options, we couldn’t appreciate how much we loved it just the way it was. “Don’t go changin’, trying to please me . . . ”  

We adjusted the top of the background rectangle to the baseline of the type. This provided some much needed air at the top of the page and made the book feel taller. A step in the right direction, but the pictures weren’t working and had to go.

A Lonely Planet cover that Hugh designed in 1997

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Movie Poster

And the award goes to…







We wanted the type to be simple, heavy (so that we can see more of the picture), and contemporary with the subject. While Caslon Sans predates the First World War, it — or others like it — would have been available to typesetters of the time.  

INSPIRATION pin.it/4JRa6yj



FONTS USED English Grotesque Black, Antique Olive Compact, Balboa Extra Condensed



TOOLS Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign

Type choice and treatment This project uses all of the “Adobe Big 3,” but starts out in Illustrator, preparing the numerals. We wanted something old and bold, so ended up choosing English Grotesque Black. This is based on Caslon Sans, which, dating back to 1816, is considered the first commercially available sans serif. Grotesque in this context is the collective name for sans serif faces of the late 19th and early 20th century. These were often solid, bold designs suitable for headlines and advertisements.









LEARNING POINTS • Working at large sizes • Placing images inside letter shapes • Formatting the credit text





We don’t have access to promotional pictures featuring the actors, but there are many images of the period that are in the public domain. They may not be of the greatest technical quality — a problem exacerbated by the physical size of the poster — but we can both embrace their graininess as authentic and fall back on a few tricks to improve them.



TRIM SIZE 24 × 36 inches (610 × 914 mm)  

One of our favorite films of 2020 was the First World War epic 1917. Its striking promotional poster used the simple device of putting pictures inside the numerals of the film’s title. We thought we’d try the same technique for its imaginary sequel.



THE BRIEF Working predominantly with type, create a promotional poster for a real or imagined movie

A challenge of this project is working at such a large size, both in terms of image resolution and type size. We soon found that we exceeded the maximum size of 1296 points.

While we were happy with the shape of the 8 and 9 — because of their relatively small counters, they made perfect picture windows — the 1s were too simple and too narrow. Using 1s with a “tick” or arm would make the type block wider, giving us more surface area to fill with the images. It would also make the shape of the type block closer to the aspect ratio of the page, allowing even margins, which we felt framed the type nicely.

abcadbecfdge hfijgkhlm ijknlo mno pqrpsq tursvtwuxvywzxAyBzAB CDC EFDG EH FG IJH KILJM KLM NON PQ OR PQ STRU ST VU WVW XYX ZY 12Z314253647586970890











Ryan Hughes. Ryan Hughes. DeviceDevice Fonts.Fonts. 1998 1998



ENEGNLG ISLHISH GRG ORTO ET SQ ESUQEUE

To circumvent this, we converted the type to outlines so that it could be scaled up further. But before we did so, we went as far as possible with editable type. We made it as big as possible and applied tight tracking and tight leading to make the horizontal and vertical space between the numbers visually equivalent. We put a copy of the type on the pasteboard as insurance and chose Type > Create Outlines (Cmd+Shift+O/Ctrl+Shift+O).

For these reasons we set the 1s in Antique Olive Compact. Antique is the French term for what in the English-speaking world are referred to as grotesques. Even though Antique Olive was designed in the early 1960s (by Roger Excoffon), its style suggests an earlier period. Once we had converted

Short Text

H&G PICTURES PRESENTS HUGO BANOFFEE BESTSELLINGBASEDNOVELON THEBY JIMMY SCOTT STARRING GEORGE DANIELS WITH PETER DINGLE PRODUCED MUSIC EDITED COSTUME SCREENPLAY DIRECTED BY CHARLES DARNEY BY BOB CRATCHIT BY URIAH HEEP DESIGNER MISS HAVERSHAM BY AGNES WICKFIELD BY SISSY JUPE A FILM BY

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19 18 11

the numbers to outlines, we adjusted the scale of the numerals to make sure the Antique Olive and the English Grotesque were of equivalent height and weight.

Combining fonts: the 8 and 9 from English Grotesque with the 1 from Antique Olive. Adjust their scale to make them look like they belong together.

To adjust the spacing between characters, we like to use the time-honored technique of “rectangles as measuring stick.” Keep these on a separate layer that, when you’re finished, you can delete. This ensures that the horizontal space between the lines is the same as the vertical space between the characters. Note that the rounded top of the 8 will overshoot the flat top of the 1.

Copy the outlines to Photoshop as a Vector Smart Object While one could make an argument for continuing the project in Illustrator, at this point we moved to Photoshop, where we find clipping masks more flexible to work with than their Illustrator equivalent, clipping paths. Create a Photoshop document at the trim size plus an extra 0.25 inch for the horizontal and vertical bleeds. Copy and paste the vector outlines as a Smart Object and position it on the canvas.

The original image, “Battle of Broodseinde” is available at commons.wikimedia.org.



Prepare the image The dramatic and atmospheric photo, by Ernest Brooks, shows five soldiers of the 8th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, silhouetted against the sky, with sun rays bursting through dark clouds. We made a few adjustments to the image: darkening the foreground to a solid black, and some nondestructive spot healing on a separate layer to remove dust and scratches. We also extended the sky to give the image a more vertical aspect ratio. To do this, we increased the vertical size of the canvas (Image > Canvas Size), made a marquee selection of the sky above the soldiers, copied this to a new layer, and stretched it vertically. The most significant change was to add a Gradient Map adjustment layer. Because the image starts out as a silhouette, the two colors of the Gradient Map are assigned to the highlights and shadows.  



To help with placement of the numbers on the Photoshop canvas, create a layout grid. Photoshop has a sophisticated guide making tool. Choose View > New Guide Layout.  

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We combined the layers that made up the modified image into a Smart Object and then clipped (Cmd+Option+G/Ctrl+Alt+G) this to the Vector Smart Object below. This simple but effective technique means that we see the image only in the shape of the numbers. Because we couldn’t get the cropping exactly how we wanted it with a single image, we duplicated

Short Text

The layers of the image are combined into a Smart Object so that it appears as a single object in the composition.

A Gradient Map colors the image. A Levels adjustment with layer mask darkens the foreground.

Two copies of the image are needed to find the best crop with the letter shapes. A layer mask hides the unwanted portion.

The image layers are clipped to the Vector Smart Object beneath.

The background frame is made up of two layers. A textured brush is used on the layer mask of the upper layer.













The credit text It was now time for the third of our triumvirate: Because InDesign is by far the best place to format the credit text, we saved the poster as a Photoshop (PSD) file and placed it in InDesign. Movie credits typically use ultra condensed type, with the supporting words (edited by, music by, etc.) on a baseline that’s half the height of the credit names. The best way to handle this — especially if you’re going to be creating more than one poster — is to make the smaller pieces of type into anchored objects and to determine their position through object styles.

There are many additional brushes available; from the Brushes panel menu choose Get More Brushes.  









Add the inner frame Feeling like a huge expanse of flat color in the background was, well, a little flat, we added an inner frame and some texture. To create this we added two Color Fill layers at the bottom of the layer stack, one light gray, the other black. On the gray layer, we added a layer mask filled with black to completely hide the layer. We then switched the foreground color to white and with a rough brush — a natural edge eraser from Kyle Webster’s Megapack — painted on the layer mask to restore the light gray, leaving the edges black. Because we used a rough edge brush, we wouldn’t have been able to get a perfect frame, even if we’d wanted to — and that’s the point.

Legacy Gradients If you’re a veteran Photoshop user working with the most current version of Photoshop (2020 at the time of writing), you may be wondering where the familiar gradients are. Go to Windows > Gradients, and from the Gradients panel you can restore them.  

the Smart Object and adjusted the position of the duplicate slightly so that it fit better inside the number shapes. On the top image, we added a layer mask to hide the portion that’s not needed.



The foreground and sky are extended to make the image more vertical.

Anchor the small credit text within the text flow. Create and apply an object style to these elements that controls the height of the frame and its auto-sizing.

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Music Festival Poster

Curate your dream lineup

THE BRIEF Create a promotional poster for a real or imagined music festival. Design the festival logo and come up with an interesting way to display a long list of artists’ names. TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3







LEARNING POINTS • Adjusting word spacing and letter spacing • Formatting with nested styles • Considering color and contrast TOOLS Illustrator, InDesign FONTS USED Lance Regular Bobby Jones Soft

From late May through the end of September, there’s a music festival every weekend in the UK. With so many festival posters competing for attention, we wanted to create a poster that conveys a carefree summer vibe, whilst at the same time shoehorning in all the names of the acts in a typographically exciting and sensitive way. Thankfully, there’s much precedence for artfully designed festival posters. A quick search of Pinterest will get your creative juices flowing.

Create a color palette Initially, we went to our go-to source of color inspiration, Adobe Color Themes. This invaluable extension is available in InDesign, Photoshop, and Illustrator, but we started out in Illustrator. We clicked Explore to view themes created by other Creative Cloud users and then clicked Create to create a theme derived from a base color and based on a color harmony rule. It must have been one of those days, because nothing quite captured the mood we were after. So we ended up “winging it” and choosing five bright and summery colors that we instinctively felt worked together. Combining these colors into a Color Group, we saved each as a global color to make future updates easy, if required. Knowing that we wanted to use the same colors in InDesign, we added the Color Group to our Library.

INSPIRATION pin.it/3l5QGmx

BOBBYBJOOBNBYESJONES SOFT SOFT Tom Chalky. Tom Chalky Tom Chalky. Tom Chalky Create the background

A B C DAEBFCGDH EI JF G H I J K L M NKOL PM QN RO P Q R S T U VSWT XU YV ZW X Y Z 1 2 3 4 51 263748 59 60 7 8 9 0

As with the “Psychedelia: Get Groovy with a ’60s rock poster” project in the “Pastiche” chapter, the background begins as a Photoshop Custom Shape (Registration Target 2). Copy and paste this into Illustrator as a compound shape and then scale it up to bleed off the artboard. Draw a rectangle over this at the same size as the artboard, select the rectangle and the registration target, and convert it to a Live Paint Object. With the Live Paint Bucket, fill the segments with colors.

Short Text

FESTIVAL FESTIVAL FESTIVAL FESTIVAL Unicorn Farm, East Sussex August 22 & 23

Saturday 22nd

Sunday 23rd

Nick Drake Cat Power Arcade Fire Billy Bragg BRMC Sam Cooke Richard Thompson Jeff Buckley Stereolab James Brown Mekons Public Service Broadcasting Earth, Wind AND Fire PETER GABRIEL Kate Bush The Doors The Pogues STEVIE WONDER Warren Zevon Kraftwerk Tom Waits Patti Smith Ian Dury AND The Blockheads RUSH Bob Marley AND the Wailers The POLICE Talking Heads Nirvana

Simon AND Garfunkel BRIAN ENO Joni MitchellTHE Flaming Lips ABBA Rage Against the Machine TheSmiths kate Tempest The Who XTC Billie Holiday King Crimson JUNE TABOR Fleetwood Mac Leonard Cohen Fela Kuti Elbow Elvis Costello Bruce Springsteen PJ Harvey THE Rolling Stones LCD SOUNDSYSTEM The Eagles The Clash Sigur Rós Amy Winehouse Massive Attack Led Zeppelin

Pink Floyd

David Bowie

THe Velvet Underground Radiohead The Beatles

NickCave&theBadSeeds Gil Scott-Heron Jimi Hendrix

Early Bird Tickets on Sale Now Day & Weekend Tickets Available Luxury Glamping Sites

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Size up the custom shape copied from Photoshop; then use the Live Paint Bucket to fill the segments.

Add an interior rectangle and apply a Zig Zag effect.

Add a layer of texture above the colored segments and reduce its opacity.

That took care of the outer frame; now for the inner frame, we drew a rectangle on top of this and applied a Zig Zag effect.

Festival logo The simple logo is set in Lance Regular. To create the warp effect, apply an Arc Upper Warp effect with a 20% bend to Imagination. Next, using the Appearance panel, add a second fill below the white fill. To extrude the shadow, apply a Transform effect that creates multiple copies, each moved a tiny distance horizontally and vertically from the preceding copy.

A

A

A Warp effect is added to the type ( ).

A B

The stroke is moved beneath the fill so that it is only visible on the outside of the letter shapes ( ).

B

A second fill is transformed to create the extruded shadow ( ).

C

D

The effect is saved as a graphic style ( ) and applied to Festival and the warp removed.

C D

C

Short Text

Moving to InDesign for the type Because of InDesign’s superior text handling, once the background and masthead are finished, place your work in progress as an Illustrator (AI) file in InDesign. With so many names to include on the poster, the challenge is to make them all fit without, if possible, breaking names across lines and without incurring inconsistent word spacing.  

B

A

At the time of writing, the current version of Photoshop (2020) did not display the familiar list of custom shapes, of which the target is one. If you find they are missing, go to Window > Shapes and from the Shapes panel you can restore them.  

C

Legacy Custom Shapes

A









We created five character styles — one for each of the colors — and incorporated these into a paragraph style as nested styles.

A character style is created for each of the colors ( ).



B C



These character styles are “embedded” as nested styles within the paragraph style. When the paragraph style is applied to the text, the color will change every time it encounters a delimiter — in this case, an en space ( ). The five styles are set to repeat, creating a loop ( ).

Flowing the text in two relatively narrow columns made it difficult to avoid bad word spacing. In a way we had painted ourselves into a corner, but wanted to persist to see what was possible. To achieve the best compromise between spacing and avoiding bad line breaks, we turned off hyphenation and switched to the Single-line Composer. While the Paragraph Composer is a default that you rarely need to change, it can be frustrating in circumstances like this where, having fine-tuned a line, the type starts moving around when you edit the text elsewhere in the paragraph. It was now time to call on the Word Spacing, Letter Spacing, and Glyph Scaling options. The range here is much wider than would be used for magazine or book publishing. The reduced Word Spacing and Letter Spacing allows more characters per line; the Glyph Scaling sets the range between which the horizontal scaling can vary. These settings might cause some distress to type purists, but if we’re committed to a flush right edge and not breaking any of the artists’ names across a line, then something’s got to give.

Examples from the Latitude festival and the Isle of Wight festival

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More Classic Fiction

A chat about illustrating a classic



TOOLS Photoshop, pen & ink







Hugh: Sterling Press — the publishing arm of Barnes & Nobel — was planning on doing a commemorative edition of To Kill a Mockingbird for the 50th anniversary in 2010. They liked my silhouette illustrations and wrote to ask me if I knew the book. N: Did you? H: This is one of my favorite books! I loved it as a kid, and now as an adult I like it even more. That actually made it hard to do — more pressure.  

INSPIRATION pin.it/2MSMCC4

Nigel: So, this is one of your favorite projects. How did it come about?  





LEARNING POINTS • Working with hand-drawn type and artwork • Creating separations with the Layers panel • Locking transparency in Photoshop













6 × 9 inches (152 × 229mm)



TRIM SIZE

To Kill a Mockingbird is a classic of American fiction. For the 50th anniversary of this title in 2010, Hugh was commissioned for a leather-bound edition by Sterling Press. In contrast to Nigel’s treatment for 1984, which is appropriately mechanical and digital from start to finish, Hugh chose a handmade approach for this memoir of childhood because he wanted the type to feel intimate, almost as if a child — maybe the main character, young Scout — had drawn it herself. To help explore this topic, Nigel asked Hugh a few questions in interview format:  

THE BRIEF Illustrate a book cover for a classic work of fiction.

N: How did you approach the typography? H: I do a lot of book covers for young adult novels, and I always ask if I can do the type treatment myself. I often hand draw the type, as I did in this case. This saves me from living with some other designer’s type over my image (what a nightmare!)

Hugh did multiple sketches, refining as he went, before going to ink. Here are two of the pencil sketches for the back cover.

Short Text The 2010 edition from Sterling Press/Barnes and Noble is printed in three colors on leather. This meant making sure the file had the separations set up correctly.









I also really love script lettering that isn’t slanted — where the ascenders and descenders are vertical. I’m not sure if that style has a name, but to me it’s more elegant and interesting. I also love it when letters have flourishes that end in little circles (see “Add Flourishes” in “Type as Image”), so I included that element. Then, for the author’s name, I went for a child-like lettering — I let it be more awkward. I actually expected the publisher to reject this element, but they liked it! N: So the type was drawn by hand, not drawn in Illustrator?



Hugh was inspired by the original, first edition cover design by Shirley Smith — including the evocative way the leaves are drawn.  

And by bringing my ink work into Photoshop, of course, I get the best of both worlds! N: This was printed with three spot colors on leather. Do you have any tricks for creating separations?





H: Yes, the whole cover was drawn by hand, ink on paper, and then scanned and opened in Photoshop. As great as digital tools are, there’s just something about traditional materials that I find inspiring. I love the unpredictable nature of ink on paper, the way it feels to use a brush and pen together, and I love the ability to see the entire page at once — whereas on screen, I feel I’m constantly scrolling up and down, zooming in and out.

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Hugh started with simple black-and-white line art. Anything that will have a color either is a solid black shape or has a black outline. Using Levels and Curves adjustments, he pushed all the values to either black or white (with the exception of a few edge pixels, which provide some anti-aliasing to smooth the edges).









H: Yes. My way of working is to start with an ink drawing in which all the shapes are black or white. I scan it, convert it to grayscale, and then use Levels and/or Curves to make it pure black and pure white — no gray. (Of course, there is some cleanup — removal of tiny pixels and smudges.) Then I turn the color mode back to RGB, go to the Channels panel, and select one of the channels (it doesn’t matter, since each channel is the same). I load a channel, using the Load Channel button at the bottom of the palette. That gives me marching ants around the artwork. At this point, everything white is selected. I want the opposite, so I inverse the selection. Then, returning to the Layers panel, I press Cmd+Shift+J/Ctrl+Shift+J to cut the black shapes to a new layer. The background I then fill with a new color, in this case an olive green, to approximate the leather we printed on. Selecting the artwork layer, I click the Lock Transparency button at the top of the panel so that transparent pixels can’t be changed. Next, I go around filling shapes with different colors. For this project, I started with the leaves, trying different options for leaves to get the balance I wanted.

A





I then draw a lasso around the title and press Cmd+Shift+J/Ctrl+Shift+J once again, placing the type on a new layer. I again make sure the transparent pixels are locked, so I can try different color options, using Option+Delete/ Alt+Backspace (fill with foreground). I find this is a great way to try different color options. You never know — the title might look better dark, but in this case it was best in the brightest hue. In the end, I have a Photoshop file with only four layers: One is the background, standing in for the leather print surface, to be discarded by the printer. The other three layers are for the three spot colors: a deep purple, a medium green value, and an off-white. Each color is on its own layer, so the printer really doesn’t need to do any separations. They can lock the transparency ( ) and fill each layer with black in order to produce the plates.

A

N: Did the client have any feedback? H: Yes! I got feedback from Harper Lee herself! She noted that I had drawn pussy willows in the foreground and pointed out that they don’t have that

Short Text

Books are three-dimensional objects. It’s important to consider how the front, back, and spine will appear to the reader as they hold the book. Each side should be distinctive and recognizable.

type of plant in Monroeville, where the book takes place, so we changed it to long grass. She made a few other very perceptive comments. N: Then you set up the rest of the cover? H: Yes, I was given specifications by the publisher for the exact height and width of the covers (front and back) and the spine. I built those carefully in Photoshop, using rulers and guides, and placed everything so that it lined up. I also designed the endpapers for the book, which was a lot of fun.  



N: I love the endpapers — tell us more. H: The endpapers combined a few elements from the spine: the small bird at the top and the small coin at the bottom. I suppose I could have, and probably should have, used the pattern tools in Illustrator. But as an old-school fellow, who was using Illustrator long before it had such fancy features, I built these myself. I started with two diamonds, each with an image carefully placed inside of it. With Smart Guides on, I dragged off a copy (Option/Alt-drag) and made sure its corners aligned with the original. Then I pressed Cmd/Ctrl+D (Transform Again) several times to create a long line of about 10 copies. I selected all (Cmd/Ctrl+A), dragged off a copy with precise alignment, and repeated this action until I had a full page.

Endpapers are one of the ways to make a book feel like a genuine classic. It’s common for these pages to feature a pattern, and if it relates in some way to the text, all the better.

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Infographic

Worth a (few) thousand words

THE BRIEF Explain a topic or concept you know well using design rather than sentences TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

A good infographic cuts right to the heart of the issue. It uses images, color, design, and limited text in order to tell a complicated story within a small area. If it’s done well, it should say more in one glance than most books do in 200 pages.







LEARNING POINTS • Working with grids and guides • Picking a color palette using Color Themes • Creating a balanced layout

There’s so much information in the world, and so much of it is conveyed through writing. More words = more typography, so we probably shouldn’t complain. But does every little thing need a Wikipedia entry? Can’t someone just show us a pretty picture and be done with it?

TOOLS Illustrator

Infographics are more likely to be created for screen rather than print. They are often tall and skinny allowing the user to scroll down to see more. Since this is a book, we created our infographic to fit the live area of our page, which itself is a point worth making: Before you can create the infographic, you need to know its intended format and size.

FONTS USED Franklin Gothic URW, Minion Pro, and a cast of dozens!

Since we’re often explaining typographic terms to people, we thought it was about time to design an infographic on the topic. Why spell out the meaning of the word “serif” when you can just show someone?

INSPIRATION pin.it/5BVilQ8

We could have built this infographic poster in InDesign, but since Hugh prefers small type to be treated as objects, rather than text inside a box, we opted for Illustrator. (Honestly, why does every piece of type need its own box? That makes no sense.)





Document setup We started with a grid. First, we drew a large, empty box over the live area of our infographic — that is, the area that will have artwork, inside the margins. We wanted to divide that into 12 columns, and there’s an easy trick for that: Object > Path > Split Into Grid. We chose 12 columns with a gutter of .125 inches. Then we chose View > Guides > Make Guides (or Cmd/Ctrl+ 5). With this nifty grid, dividing the area into thirds or halves will be pretty easy.  















Franklin Franklin Gothic Gothic URWURW We knew we wanted to break up the page into discrete areas using color,

so we needed a bold color scheme. We pulled up the Color Themes panel, and pretty quickly we found four colors that were perfect for this project. Morris Fuller Morris Benton. Fuller Benton. We added each color to the color swatches as a global color so that if we URW Type URW Foundry. Type Foundry. 1902-06 1902-06 needed to edit them later, we could.

a b c daebf gc dh ei jfkgl hminj k l m nIn fact, editing the colors turned out to be necessary, since Nigel has a strong to a color he calls “salmon.” We double-clicked the global salmon o p q rospt uqvr swtxuyvzwAx y z Aaversion color in the Swatches panel and edited its CMYK values until we found a B C D EBFCGDHEIFJG K LHM I J K L Mstrong orange we both liked. Then, we realized the green would need to as well, and in the end, the only original color was a dusty blue. But N O P QNROSPTQURVSWT UX V W Xshift that’s the whole point of the Color Theme panel: It’s the starting point, not Y Z 1 2Y3Z41526374859607 8 9 0the destination.

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Type Terms STEM

COUNTER

COUNTER

STRESS

LOOP

FOOT

Handgloves SERIF

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SANS SERIF

The five boxing wizards jump quickly

too loose

The five boxing wizards jump quickly The five boxing wizards jump quickly

ASCENDER HEIGHT

X-HEIGHT BASELINE

A A A SLAB SERIF

Garamond

Bodoni

Chaparral

GOTHIC/ GROTESQUE SANS

HUMANIST SANS SERIF

GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

Franklin Gothic

Lato Regular

Futura

C C C

DRAMA COMEDY TRAGEDY

KERNING

TeWo WAVE WAVE LIGATURES & ALTERNATES

aaff  gggg Compressed, Condensed, Regular, Wide

CROTCH

HAIRLINE SERIF

DR AMA COM E DY T R AG E DY

Width

CAP HEIGHT

ASCENDER

BRACKETED SERIF

FONT STYLE Roman/Italic

DESCENDER

DESCENDER LINE

TRACKING (LETTER SPACING) too tight

LEADING (INTERLINE SPACING)

BOWL

Weight

Thin, Regular, Bold, Black

Stylistic film Alternates flirt office Stylistic waffle Alternates

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Because we were collaborating on this document, it was important to work in a way that was both transparent and organized. With so many parts going to make up the whole, we made sure that all individual pieces of an element were grouped (Cmd/Ctrl+G) to make moving and scaling them easier. To make edits to any part of a group thereafter, we used Isolation mode (double-click the group to drill down to its elements), or sometimes we used the old-school method of selecting the element with the Direct Selection tool. Double-click a group to enter Isolation mode, where you edit specific elements of a group in… isolation, without having to first ungroup the elements. When you’re done, click the Back button at the top left of the gray bar to return to normal editing mode.

When creating infographics, it’s usually a good idea to take every opportunity you have to replace text with icons. As you can see, we haven’t done that: When the infographic is about the building blocks of words, words inevitably feature. That said, we have tried to keep the text to a minimum.

We wanted to use the letters of the word Typography to show a few of the elements of typography — see, it’s meta! — but this word has 10 characters, not 12. This meant we were breaking the grid in our first section! (If we were better at Scrabble, we might have found a 12-letter word for this concept, but we’re out of practice.)  

Infographics purists might take issue with our calling this project an infographic, because it contains no data. But we like to think of Infographics as a broad church and regard “informational infographics” like this one as part of it.



What is an infographic?

We were careful to organize our layers logically, making full use of hiding or locking when they got in the way or when we wanted to be sure not to disturb them as well as the layer target or “bullseyes” for selecting all the contents of a given layer. We know that the world will continue to turn, even if you don’t use the Layers panel to organize your work. But while a tidy Layers panel might not be a panacea for all ills, it will clarify your thoughts about the content you’re working with, make editing the document way easier, and give you an all-over, feel-good glow.



Use Split Into Grid to convert a rectangle to rows and columns.



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Use Distribute Spacing to ensure that the space between elements is consistent. You can confirm this by using temporary spacing rectangles. Setting up your color theme as global colors is essential. This way, you can edit the colors by just double-clicking them in the Swatches panel and choosing a new color. Voila! Every object with that color changes instantly, adding years to your life.

So we spaced 10 boxes evenly using the Align panel Distribute Spacing option. To ensure that the spacing around each element was consistent we started out with a document grid superimposed on our 12-column grid,

Short Text We recommend organizing your layers with religious devotion. Each section can have its own layer and give the background colors and the grid their own layers as well. To select all the items on a layer, click the bullseye on the right side of the panel. To hide or lock layers, just click the lock or eye on the left. Note that Illustrator layers are really like Russian dolls: each layer opens to reveal layers and groups of layers within. Is there a limit? We haven’t found it yet.

but finding it too visually confusing, opted instead for the old-school method of creating spacing rectangles to which we could align elements. We made sure these were on a separate layer and in a garish color so that we knew to delete them when we were done. With all this precision spacing, it’s easy to sometimes overlook elements that may be mathematically aligned, but just don’t look right. At the end of the day, trust your eye. If something needs moving a hair to the left or right, then go for it.  





As we designed this, we were sure to vary the shapes and the weights of different boxes. We want things to line up, but not be so rigid and predictable that the audience completely tunes us out. So one section makes no use of columns, the next section uses quarters and sixths, the next uses thirds, and so on. The disadvantage of a print infographic is that space is limited, and predictably we ran out of room for all the different elements we wanted to display. Other items that didn’t make the cut: fake italics vs. true italics, fake small caps vs. true small caps, word shapes and legibility, and the fact that Hugh always has to fix the kerning on his last name, thanks to the presence of an apostrophe.







It’s essential for things to line up as neatly as possible (this is an infographic about typography after all), so we had to cross every t and dot every i. For this reason, we had Smart Guides turned on most of the time. This makes labels pop up and objects snap to guides. However, Smart Guides can be a little like smart kids — charming, but sometimes annoying. So we toggled the Smart Guides off and on using Cmd/Ctrl+U.

Because we needed the flexibility (and consistency) of making global edits to the captions, we used paragraph styles. It’s debatable how useful Illustrator paragraph styles really are, since you can’t create hierarchical styles using Based On the way you can in InDesign. Also, Illustrator offers other methods for global text editing, like the menu option Select > Object > All Text Objects, and the use of layers for different categories of text. That said, we used paragraph styles anyway, all the time grumbling how they weren’t as good as those in InDesign.  



We typed the word out and then broke it apart using Type > Create Outlines. Each letter was carefully centered in its box. To highlight particular sections of each letter, we used the Knife tool to surgically slice off a section of some of the letters and then selected the new shape with the Direct Selection tool and changed its color. To fill the counter shape of the letter p, we used the Direct Selection tool and Option/Alt-clicked to select that circle. We cut and pasted in place and then applied the highlight color. We did something similar with the o, but we cut the new shape in half with the Knife tool.

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Letterpress Gig Poster

Grooving with moveable type in the 21st century

TOOLS Vandercook Press, moveable type, Photoshop, linoleum blocks FONTS USED American Wood Type (various), Futura, Walbaum

Needless to say, I jumped at the chance to do a project with Alastair. Time was tight, but I knew we would at least have fun, and I would learn a lot. I showed up at his Berkeley print shop with my sketch in hand. I was immediately overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of material in his shop! It’s packed to the gills with posters, handbills, books, cases of wood and metal type, records — a rich tapestry of inspiration and history.



As a digital native, I always find myself marveling at traditional printing methods. I love the way archival print looks, feels, and smells — but I’m sadly ignorant of how it all unfolds. To realize my sketch, I required a lot of hand-holding from Alastair to walk me through the process. We started with the title treatment I wanted to try: a multitude of American wood type letterforms, set askew, in multiple rotations. Alastair scratched his chin a moment — it would be easier in letterpress to set the type in horizontal and vertical formats — but he seemed to take it as a challenge.

Paul Renner. Paul Renner. BauerBauer Type Type Foundry. Foundry. 1927 1927

abcadbecfdgehfigjkhlim jknlm o no p q rpsqt ur svtw u vxw y zxA y zBA B CDC EFDG EFHG IJH KILJM KLNMN O PO QPRQ S TRU S TVUW VXW X Y Z1 Y2Z3 14 23 54 67 58 69 70 89 0





Futura Futura





Letterpress is a method of printing that goes back to the 15th century, as direct and intuitive as printing can be: Type and images are cut from metal or wood, rolled with ink, and impressed onto paper. It was the dominant form of printing for centuries, until the invention of the offset lithography.



INSPIRATION www.bl.uk/collection-items/ the-diamond-sutra wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hendrik_Nicolaas_Werkman

Alastair is a legendary man of type. Nigel and I both studied with Alastair at the University of California at Berkeley Extension program in the 2000s. He’s the owner of Poltroon Press in Berkeley, where he has been creating beautiful, limited edition printed works since 1975. He’s a scholar of design, typography, printing, and art, as well as African popular music. He was an early consultant to Adobe when it first began issuing digital fonts. A true renaissance man!









LEARNING POINTS • Learning letterpress basics • Producing a poster virtually overnight • Creating color mockups in Photoshop











13 × 19 inches (330 × 483 mm)



TRIM SIZE

In 2019, I (Hugh) had the chance to design a poster for one of my favorite bands, the Pixies (currently playing on the clever pseudonym “Pixies,” no “the”) in San Francisco. However, due to a miscommunication, I didn’t have enough time to do a proper silkscreen project with my usual printer — and I was in despair. Luckily, my friend Alastair Johnston offered to step in and help me do it in a day using letterpress.



THE BRIEF Design a letterpress poster

Choosing the type While I worked on cutting my illustration out of linoleum block, he set about building the lockups. Lockups are tight, carefully assembled arrangements of type that use blocks of wood, called furniture, to create a secure unit of type that is ready to print. (You don’t want the type to wander or shift while it’s on the press, under hundreds of pounds of pressure.) He used a classic typeface, Walboum, for the all the small type, and Futura for the opening act. For the band name and the venue and date, we chose a selection of wood type he had kicking around his shop (there’s a lot of wood type kicking

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around his shop). This took a while, but when it was done, it was indeed a work of art: blocks of wood type and spacers, all tightly fit together like pieces of a puzzle. I told Alastair I like the rough aesthetic, the imperfections, of letterpress. He suggested we try a technique pioneered by H.N. Werkman (1882–1945), an experimental Dutch printer who was active during World War II (and who used his print shop to print fake documents for the Resistance). Werkman had a habit of using the furniture (those wood block spacers) in his shop to create interesting designs. So for our poster we made a large rectangle out of the furniture, placed it on the press bed, and inked it up to create a background texture.









Cranking up his trusty Vandercook proof press, we ran 100 posters through by hand in no time. (Well, it did take some time, but not as much as you might think.) Then, turning to the type, we secured all the type lockups into the bed of the press, and when it was aligned properly — after many test proofs — ran the sheets through again, mixing the color as we went to produce a deep green shade. I photographed a proof of the type treatment alone. In Photoshop, I reduced that to black and white and then applied color in different layers to create mockups, trying several colorways.





When we returned to print the images, the colorways really helped by providing a guide for what we were aiming for. Nevertheless, we still had to make several color adjustments — cleaning and re-cleaning the press several times — to get the right look. We had several pieces to print in red: stars and arrows and a giant centipede I had cut out of linoleum. Finally, for the last pass we printed another image I cut, a stylized skull shape, using a deep shade of purple.  

H.N. Werkman Composition with Letters, 1927



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The end result isn’t bad for a two-day job! Printing this way, on a press several times older than my oldest laptop, using type that has been passed down from generation to generation, is a fun, challenging, and rewarding project for any designer. Some of the colorway mockups Hugh created in Photoshop. Doing color sketches this way saves a huge amount of time, since cleaning the press is tedious and time-consuming.

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Hugh’s pencil sketch was rough, but provided a guide for how the final ought to look, as well as all relevant details, carefully proofed. The lockup, with the wood and metal type carefully placed and tightly constrained, ready for printing. The letters are all raised to the same height, and when the ink roller passes over it, the ink will cover it evenly. It is then pressed into the paper, making a (hopefully) perfect image.

Interview with Alastair Johnston





Q: Can you tell us briefly about letterpress — how old this technology is and its source? It’s a relief printing process that goes back as far as mankind started making marks. Before Gutenberg (1450) there was block printed wallpaper and playing cards in Europe, and blockprinting of religious iconography in India and China. The oldest books are block printed copies of the Diamond Sutra. Gutenberg was a metal worker who came up with the idea of reusable letters that could be interchangeable, a step along from stamping a maker’s name into a silver plate, for example, which used the same technology: a punch. He figured out how to create a matrix and then cast metal into that mold to mass produce letters. Q: You produce everything from posters to broadsides to entire books in your shop. Do you really set every letter by hand? Now most of my books are done by offset and composed on the computer, but I do

enjoy setting books by hand. Currently I am working on a poetry book by Paul Celan (translated by Ben Friedlander) which is handset. Q: What are some the advantages of letterpress printing compared with other methods? For me it’s the control of every aspect of the process; once I get the work on the press and look at it, I can make minute, almost invisible, changes to my heart’s delight. This may sound trivial, but the aim is a perfectly set page, which you cannot do with computers. Q: Anything else you’d like to add? When I started out in the 1970s an old-timer said he would sometimes set a letter upside down so people would realize it’s handset. I thought that was the screwiest notion ever, but now I think that it’s nice if there are telltale signs, like a worn character, or one slightly misaligned, which most people miss, but experts can spot as the result of handsetting.

Alastair holding a copy of the finished Pixies poster, at Poltroon Press in Berkeley. A total of 100 posters were produced, and each one was signed and numbered for the event.

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Beer Label

Craft your favorite brew

THE BRIEF Design a label, front and back, for a craft beer brand









TRIM SIZE 4 × 3.5 inches (102 × 89 mm)







LEARNING POINTS • Choosing type and color • Working with layered 3D fonts • Creating a 3D mockup in Dimension

The last two decades have seen a proliferation of micro breweries and the increasing popularity of craft beers. While we’re interested in the flavor nuances of these brews, what really floats our boat is the venerable tradition of beer label design. For our fictitious brew, we chose the name The Cat’s Whiskers because we like funny colloquialisms that signify something appealing, because we are cat people, and because we felt we couldn’t get away with the canine equivalent, “The Dog’s Bollocks.” And also because we felt the world didn’t need another beer label with the common motifs of hops, barley, barrels, or tankards.

FONTS USED Prater Sans, Prater Script TOOLS Illustrator, Dimension INSPIRATION pin.it/1sN6FwS

It’s no surprise that the vintage style is ever popular when it comes to beer labels, but in recent years more light-hearted, brightly colored labels are increasingly trendy. We’re aware that cans have become popular for premium beers, but our label is for a traditional longneck bottle.

Create the illustration Our starting point for this project was not the type nor the color, but rather the simple cat’s whiskers illustration. We started with a rounded triangle, but after studying actual cat noses, realized just how complicated that form can be. Enter the Eraser tool: We subtracted part of the shape and then reflected it so that the nose was symmetrical. Choose the type For typeface inspiration, we decide to check out the font packs that are curated by well-known designers on Adobe Fonts. Even though you may choose not to activate all of the suggested fonts, we find that browsing the font packs can be a good way to kick-start the typeface selection process.

PRATER PRATER SANS SANS Henning Henning Wagenbreth, Wagenbreth, SteffenSteffen Sauerteig. Sauerteig. FontFont. FontFont. 2000 2000

a b cadbecfdgehfigjh kiljmk l m n o pnqorpsqtrusvtw u vxw y xy z A BzCADBECFDGEHFIGJH KILJK L MNM OPNQORPSQTRUSVTW UV W XYX Z1Y2Z314253647586970890

We were looking for a solid slab serif, and rather than gravitate to our fallback Clarendon, we wanted to expand our horizons. In the Way Back Font Pack curated by the fabulous Annie Atkins, we were introduced to Trevor (which incidentally is a great name for cat). But we also wanted to try out

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Brewed in the old coastal town of Brayston, this is a refreshing ale that complements a brisk walk along the promenade and some fresh sea air. Pairs perfectly with chips and mushy peas for that authentic seaside experience.

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Golden Pale Ale with a malty flavour

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the name in a vintage condensed sans serif, a script, and — just to amuse ourselves — a blackletter font.

The Cat’s Whiskers

The Cat’s Whiskers

THE CAT’S the Cat’s WHISKERS Whiskers

Trevor Black

Metalista

Cheap Pine

Spumante

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WWW . B R AY S T O N . C O M



WHISKERS The

The



Apply a Warp (Arc 13%).



Change the relative size of the words. Use Prater Script for The.



CAT’S



The

Ultimately we went with none of the above, but rather with a cheerful sans serif, Prater. So what’s in a name? Nothing really. And everything, maybe. The name appealed to Nigel who got all misty-eyed nostalgic about his visits to Prater Park in Vienna, and this in turn got him riffing about the Ferris wheel scene in the The Third Man. And it reminded him of the wonderful typography he’d photographed on the bridges of Vienna and the beers he’d enjoyed reclining in a deckchair in The Strand beer garden. So what’s this got to do with a beer label? Nothing except that type — its style, its treatment, even its name — can have strong associations. While there’s no way you can predict what all those associations might be for others, it helps to start out with associations that are positive for you. When we looked up the font, we found that it had actually been named for a beer garden, not in Vienna, but in Berlin. We’ll take that — especially since we had a shared memory of visiting Berlin together, back in the day. Imagine our excitement when we discovered that there was also a fill and a block version of the font that can be combined for a color 3D effect! Rather than creating an extruded shadow with the Transform effect through the Appearance panel (as we have done for several projects in this book), we could layer two fonts (PraterBlockFill and PraterBlockBackground) on top of each other. Is this a better way of doing it? Not necessarily, but it is different. And variety is . . . .  

Prater Sans, all one size



THE CAT’S WHISKERS

Then there are those unforeseen issues of certain negative or inappropriate connotations that arise with the combination of words and type style. For example, the slab serif treatment reminded Nigel of a popular brand of cat food. Not really the vibe we’re trying to create with a craft beer. The blackletter treatment might be a fun commentary on the sinister side of feline nature, but we’re not sure everyone would get the joke. The script font came with a range of alternate characters that gave us the chance to introduce decorative tails and curls.



Using a chromatic font: Using Edit > Paste in Front the fill version of the font is positioned exactly on top of the background version.





The

Then there was the issue of what to do with the article. Do we give The equal billing with the other words or make it diminutive? We went with the latter option, in Prater Script — what the type designers refer to as “a cheeky little connected script” — and reprised this with the slogan on the back label. With the sibling font Prater Serif used for the text on the rear label, it was a real family affair.  

Mix up the baselines and adjust the kerning with the Touch Type tool. Reduce the size of the apostrophe.



T’S

The casing is driven by the font style. For example, the sans serif just doesn’t look right in upper- and lowercase, and the script looks daft in uppercase. The same is also true of the letter spacing and the leading. Some styles are going to need to be tighter or looser than others, so make sure you give each style a fair chance by choosing the formatting attributes that show it in its best light. And be sure to use Auto kerning with a script face; otherwise, the letters won’t connect in the way they are intended.



HE T’S SKERS

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The apostrophe was too prominent, so we reduced its size and adjusted its vertical position with baseline shift. Create the 3D effect by layering PraterBlockBackground and PraterBlockFill. Change the color.

To liven up the type, we added a warp and turned to our old friend the Touch Type tool to make the baselines uneven.

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Color palette Our next important design decision, one that may be made concurrently with choosing the illustration and the type, is of course the color. The psychology of color is fascinating but can also be quite intimidating. Are you going to set off an international incident if you choose the “wrong color” and send all the wrong messages? You’ve probably seen a list like this before: Red: Passionate, bold, playful

Purple: Creative, successful, wise

Orange: Energetic, invigorating, enthusiastic

Pink: Youthful, loving, feminine Brown: Reliable, rugged, masculine

Yellow: Joyful, optimistic, highly visible

White: Clean, pure, innocent Gray: Mature, accessible, versatile

Green: Natural, environmental

Automatic Kerning Methods InDesign and Photoshop have two automatic kerning methods, Metrics and Optical. The first uses the metrics in the font, the second adjusts the kerning based on the shape of the glyphs. Illustrator has the same options, but just to confuse us uses different nomenclature: In Illustrator, Auto is equivalent to Metrics. There’s also an option “Metrics - Roman Only,” which is for Japanese typography. That’s obvious, right‽

Black: Authoritative, luxurious, elegant

Blue: Trustworthy, serious, confident

We think it’s worth taking these associations into consideration, but we also think that it’s too simplistic and limiting to follow them unquestioningly. Given the name of our beer and our type choices we’re more likely to be described as a fun, summer beer rather than a heritage brand. This leads us more in the direction of bright colors than in the direction of blacks and metallics. You’ll also want to consider the color of the bottle you’ll be using. The

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You can use Adobe Dimension, part of Creative Cloud, to mock up your label onto a bottle and set it in a scene. While 3D programs are never as easy as they claim to be, we were able to put together this mockup without too much swearing.

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Experimenting with color options, each version on a separate Illustrator artboard.

We made several copies of our artboard (along with the art) to experiment with different color options. We tried using Recolor Artwork, but in the end found it easier just to select and apply colors on a case-by-case basis. We started out with a fairly obvious beery orange, but ultimately chose yellow type with the verdigris (sounds a lot fancier than blue-green) background because we felt it was more distinctive. We filled the background circle with a radial gradient and set its center point on the cat’s nose to draw the viewer’s eye to this element. For the rear label, so we could borrow elements of the front label, we made a second artboard in the same document. We invented a fictional town for our brewery, wrote a little scene to give the beer some context, came up with a snappy tagline, and adapted all the necessary ingredients text from beers that were in the fridge. To relate this to the front label, we stuck to the same colors and type choices.

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Wine Label

Design a premium wine label















LEARNING POINTS • Using Photoshop Layer masking • Leveraging OpenType features • Creating a 3D mockup in Dimension











TRIM SIZE 5 × 5 inches (127 × 127 mm)

Everyone loves an ampersand. We bet that if there were a poll to determine the world’s favorite logogram, the ampersand would be the runaway winner. It’s beautiful, elegant, mysterious, and delightful. As well as being a fascinating character, the ampersand is also a very flexible and noncontroversial concept. It can be — and is — used as the name for all sorts of businesses. Check your local business directory and you’ll be sure to find Ampersand something or other. So why not a wine brand? We looked and there didn’t seem to be one already — although there is an Apostrophe.  

THE BRIEF Design a wine label for a premium brand

FONTS USED Garamond Premier, Beloved TOOLS Illustrator, Photoshop, Dimension INSPIRATION pin.it/3TsLqcM

We started by auditioning a number of ampersands (literally a ligature of e and t, et being and in Latin). There are many beautiful, highly stylized examples out there. Because our target market is someone who doesn’t know much about wine, tends to judge by the label, and who doesn’t want to look cheap when they turn up with an offering at a dinner party (hey, that sounds like us!), we decided we needed an ampersand that conveyed tradition, elegance, and sophistication.

Choose the type So we chose Garamond Premier Pro. Designers often refer to Garamond as a typeface, but really it’s a group of typefaces, named for 16th century Parisian engraver Claude Garamond. While all are oldstyle serifs, one can look quite different from the next. One person’s Garamond could be another person’s Granjon or Sabon. Think of it as a classic with almost as many interpretations as George Gershwin’s Summertime, the most covered song of all time. Garamond Premier Pro is considered an authentic revival by Robert Slimbach. But what really appealed to us was that it’s available in optical sizes and in particular that there is a special display version, that is lighter, the shapes more graceful, and suitable for use at large sizes.

Garamond Garamond PremierPremier

Robert Slimbach. Robert Slimbach. Adobe. 1988–2005 Adobe. 1988–2005

abcdefgahbicjkdel m fgnhoijpk l mnop q r s t u v qwrxs yt uz vAwBxCy z A B C B DEFGH DIEJFKGLH MIN JK LMAN Garamond Premier Pro Regular (A) and O P Q ROSPTQ URVSW TUV W Display (B) X Y Z12X3Y 45Z61728394056789Display 0 (red) superimposed on Regular C

showing the difference in weight ( )

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s u s s e x

We thought it would be effective to entwine our ampersand with a grapevine. We considered a photograph, but ended up going with a vintage-style lineart drawing, downloaded from Adobe Stock. Before we could use it, some prep was required to fill the shapes with a color. To combine the ampersand with the grapevine we could have used an opacity mask in Illustrator (see “Art Nouveau: Tangled up in vines”), but we find that Illustrator opacity masks fry our brains, whereas the equivalent layer mask in Photoshop is a joy to use. So we copied and pasted the colorized line art into the Photoshop document where we had our ampersand prepared on a Type layer, in a deep red, Merlot color. When prompted, we chose to place it as a Smart Object and positioned it on the canvas relative to the ampersand.





Add the mask To create the interaction between grapevine and ampersand, we made a selection of the ampersand, by Cmd/Ctrl-clicking its layer thumbnail, moving to the Grapevine layer, and converting the active selection to a layer mask. It turned out to be the opposite of what we wanted (if we’d thought ahead, we would have held the Option/Alt key), but no worries — we just pressed Cmd/Ctrl+I to invert the values of the mask. This technique of using

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The Type Project Book Combining the ampersand and grapevine:

C

Cmd/Ctrl-click the Ampersand layer to make an active selection ( ).

A

Select the Grapevine layer and Option/ Alt-click Add Layer Mask to make a layer mask that hides the selection and reveals the background ( ).

B







B

From the fx menu add a drop shadow to the grapevine. So that this is cast only onto the ampersand, choose Layer > Layer Style > Create Layer. Then clip the resulting layer to the ampersand layer beneath Layer > Create Clipping Mask (Cmd+Option+G/Ctrl+Alt+G) ( ).

D



E

C



A



D

Paint on the layer mask to reveal parts of the grapevine and entwine it with the ampersand ( ).

Optional: Add an inner shadow to the ampersand ( ).

E

the contents of one layer to mask another is simple and yet so powerful. Now all we had to do was get a white brush and paint on the layer mask to restore parts of the grapevine, creating the illusion of the ampersand and the grapevine being entwined.

&

The Garamond ampersand is classic, elegant, and perfect in every way. But it has a rival in the italic ampersand found in Adobe Caslon. This character is so decadent that it is actually just one giant flourish. Use it when you want to dazzle!

A M P E R S A N D









To create some depth, we used layer effects to add a inner shadow to the ampersand and a drop shadow to the grapevine. This second part required an extra step because we wanted the shadow to be cast on only the ampersand itself, and not on the background. This involved separating the drop shadow layer effect to its own layer (Layer > Layer Styles > Create Layer) and then clipping the resulting layer to the layer below by pressing Cmd+Option+G/Ctrl+Alt+G to create a clipping mask. After adjusting the opacity of the shadow, we saved the result as a Photoshop (PSD) document.

Format the type Moving back to Illustrator, we placed the PSD onto an Illustrator artboard to which we had added a chalk-colored background (C13 M13 Y18 K0, because there’s chalk beneath the soil of our vineyards!) and keyed the type. The watchwords here were elegance and simplicity. To signal sophistication, we used all small caps with very generous tracking. Real small caps are more squat and sturdy than their regular cap counterparts, and this is the look we were after. We allowed the stem of the grapevine to almost pierce the negative space between the letters to create an interaction between the type and the image.

A M P E R S A N D a m p e r s a n d

All caps (top) versus real small caps below, which are more compact, with thicker stems.

a m p e r s a n d

Short Text

For the word Merlot, we introduced contrast in the form of a script face called Beloved by Laura Worthington. Whenever we need a script, Laura Worthington is our go-to type foundry. She has created some gorgeous scripts, many of them rich with extras in the form of related ornament sets and lots of contextual alternates. Beloved was a case in point. Even though there are only six letters, we can make the treatment bespoke by mixing and matching the alternate characters

For the year, the obvious choice would have been to use proportional oldstyle numerals. In the context of a paragraph, we think proportional oldstyle look great because they don’t overwhelm the text, but when the numerals stand alone as they do here, they look a bit weird, especially when loosely spaced to make them stylistically consistent with the other text. So for this reason we chose proportional lining numerals.

2 017 2 017 Choosing a figure style Left: Proportional Oldstyle; Right: Proportional Lining

To experiment with colors, we dragged off a copy of the artboard. We liked the drama of reverse version, but felt that on a dark bottle, it would lack attention-grabbing contrast. a m p e r s a n d

a m p e r s a n d

Merlot

Merlot 2017

2 017

w i n e

o f

s u s s e x

w i n e

o f

s u s s e x

Finally, to get a better sense of how the label would look on a bottle, we made a simple mockup in Adobe Dimension.



Merlot

Sales of Merlot reportedly nosedived after the release of the film Sideways in 2004, in which a character repeatedly slanders this perfectly fine wine. No worries — we don’t mind the price cut.  

Merlot

Beloved script “off the peg” left and after experimenting with alternate characters

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Business Card

Make a good first impression

















How do you manage to fit all this information onto a business card and have it still be readable and attractive? Your canvas is 3.5 × 2 inches (or 85 × 55 mm in Europe). They say creativity unfolds within a system of limits, but wow! That’s limited. There are two approaches: the minimalist and the maximalist.



Minimalist approach Less is more. When in doubt, leave it out. You don’t need every possible method of contact on your card any more than you need your blood group or your mother’s maiden name. Include only the essential stuff — a phone number, an email address, and a website (arguably this last could be inferred from the email, but that might be too minimal for most). The rest you can supply on a need-to-know-basis.  

INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/1f9Rv9P anvari.org/cols/Creative_Business_ Card_Design_Ideas.html uprinting.com/die-cut-business-cardsprinting.html moo.com/us/business-cards/finishes



TOOLS Illustrator or InDesign

So you still need an effective, good-looking card. But these days, you need more than your logo, company name, name, title, and phone number. How about your URL? Your email, naturally, so that people can sign you up without permission to their mailing lists. You might also want to list your Instagram and/or Twitter handle — or whatever new service is suddenly essential. Gotta stay current!  





LEARNING POINTS • Implementing hierarchy and white space • Sweating the small details

The rule of three applies here. As your audience views your card they will have enough cognitive space in their tiny attention span to notice only three things — and we all have tiny attention spans. One big thing; another less important thing; then something even less important.  









TRIM SIZE 3.5 × 2 inches (85 × 55 mm)

In the digital age, everything seems to have changed — how we communicate, how we get news, how we consume media. But one thing hasn’t changed: If you meet someone new and wish to share your contact details, you hand them a business card — the old-fashioned way. (What’s that you say? You sometimes look people up on Facebook or LinkedIn and send them a friend request? Please, don’t do that. Just . . . don’t.)



THE BRIEF Design your own business card

The most important thing might be your company name and logo. Or it might be your name. You’ll want to decide now: which is more important, your title or your contact info? Because one or the other needs to take third place. (Don’t worry. Everyone gets a trophy!) In the minimalist approach, white space is your friend. By allowing a lot of breathing room around the significant details, you let your card recipient know how important those details are. The card has two sides: How about your logo on one side, and your name, title, and info on the other? Your card recipient’s brain is happy, because you have not over-taxed it. Or, perhaps you want to try something clever and unusual. The kind of business card that gets cited in those “Best Business Card Ever!” lists online.

Short Text

You’ll be challenging some people, but because your design solution is smart, your audience will happily pay an “attention tax” if it means the chance to make contact in the future. Be careful with this approach: If it goes wrong, your card will be overlooked, or remembered for the wrong reasons.





Maximalist approach You just can’t do it. Cutting that much essential information? It’s painful. And you know that if you leave it out, you’ll always be writing it in by hand, every time you hand out a card. “Oh, just a moment — let me scrawl my Twitter handle for you in illegible script while we are in this darkened bar.” It’s an understandable concern.





Okay, well consider adding flaps. If you really have loads of information you can’t leave out, you can add a second page with a folding card — think of it as a miniature booklet. Your audience will be so intrigued upon meeting you that they will open your card with the same care and attention they bring to opening a favorite book, examining the information provided, and extracting the relevant details for their Rolodex. Either that or it will be discarded because it doesn’t fit into your recipient’s wallet.

Organizing the information If working at such a small size seems restrictive, rather than think of your business card in terms of absolute measurements, think of its proportions. The aspect ratio of a typical business card is 1:1.17, similar to a movie screen,





Ever the contrarian, Hugh opted for a vertical card — but then rotated his email address. This is sure to confuse some people, but he hopes it will act as a filter, limiting his client base to only those clever enough to rotate a card.

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Companies such as moo.com and uprinting.com can produce all kinds of special finishes and fancy touches that make a business card a bit flashier. They also offer a service they call Printfinity, which allows each card in your pack to be unique. If you’re a photographer, for example, you could have a different image on every business card.

or a poster. When it comes to organizing the information on the page, a business card is no different from a much larger piece. With a poster, you’d be thinking about hierarchy and contrast, setting up margins, and organizing the content on a grid. What’s to stop you doing the same here?

nigel french

nigel french

graphic design photography creative training

graphic design photography creative training

+44 (0)7932 480 850 [email protected] www.nigelfrench.com

+44 (0)7932 480 850 [email protected] www.nigelfrench.com

Design your business card on a grid, just as you would a book cover or poster.

But while we’re considering blocks of text in a tiny area, let’s think about what will definitely not work: two columns of information, with one block aligned left, the other aligned right. Doing this creates an awkward space in the middle of the card. You should also avoid the temptation to assign different pieces of information to the four corners of your card as if to conceal the white space. Rather than create a balanced effect, this is more likely to make the interior of the card feel like a no-go zone, and give the impression that the information is trying to escape off the page. Don’t fear the white space. With only the essential information on your business card, people won’t be confused about how to contact you. An uncluttered business card designed with intentional white space not only makes it easier to identify the preferred contact method, it projects confidence.

The devil is in the details

(415) becomes (415) Or perhaps your typeface has alternate versions of the brackets, so that

(415) becomes (415)

But if you’re using oldstyle numerals, the position of the parentheses should be about right.

(567) oldstyle vs (567) lining But maybe you don’t need brackets. Maybe periods instead, or hyphens. Or go super minimal and just chunk your phone number with spaces. Which of course raises the question, what size of space? Is a regular word space sufficient, or should it be an en space, or possibly even an em space? Depending on your clientele you might also want to include the international code for your country.







When it comes to phone numbers, those brackets or parentheses that go around area codes nearly always look too low if you’re using lining numbers because there are no descenders. You might want to shift their baselines up so that they surround the numbers like a warm embrace.

If your typeface has different numbering styles, which are you using: oldstyle or lining? It’s personal preference, but you’ll almost certainly want the proportionally spaced version of whichever you choose. The tabular versions are — not surprisingly — for tables. Do make sure to check the kerning on the numbers, especially the 1s, which are notorious for looking too gappy. Adjust as necessary.  



With so little space to work with, what you include and what you leave off your business card is critical. For the details that make the cut you’ll want to carefully consider every character — including the spaces between them.  

116

510 becomes 510 The @ symbol is often too big relative to the characters either side. You might want to reduce its size by half a point.

[email protected] becomes [email protected] To make your business card bespoke, consider which discretionary ligatures might be available in your chosen font. (Nigel remembers the heady rush of realizing that a client had an ffl combination in her last name so that he was able to deploy a discretionary ligature. Happy days!)

ffl becomes ffl

Also explore which, if any, alternate characters may be available. You can find them on the Glyphs panel.

Go Bob!

Bob becomes Bob

117

Short Text

Senior Designer

Web: www.brandname.com Email: [email protected] @erigby123 facebook.com/eleanor +erigby

One of your most important considerations will be paper stock. Any decent business card printer will have multiple options. If you’re going with uncoated stock, you’ll have that warm feel of paper, the way it breathes and also happily accepts ink if you need to write on it. But if you choose coated stock, you can go for those satin and velvet finishes, so that when someone touches your card, their fingers get a little thrill. (Hopefully, it’s an unconscious thrill that translates into later business.) Also key is the weight of the paper. Hugh’s card is printed on recycled chipboard, which he likes to imagine makes his card stand out as an example of sustainable design. Nigel’s card is letterpress printed on heavy “beer mat,” stock which he likes to think makes an immediate tactile impression. Unless you live and breathe paper stock weights, there’s no substitute for actually seeing and touching the stock. Have your printer show you or send you some samples.

Peacock that card One way to keep your business card out of the recycling bin is to make it truly memorable with some unusual printing methods. At one time, these were so prohibitively expensive that the only people with foil stamps or die-cut cards were self-indulgent billionaires, and designers with friends in the printing business. Happily, these print finishes are becoming cheaper by the moment.

insert pithy tagline here (415) 555-1234 www.brandname.com [email protected]

Eleanor Rigby Senior Designer

Trapped: Flushing left and right traps the white space (indicated in cyan). Eleanor Rigby

insert pithy tagline here

123 Main Street,

?

Senior Designer

(415) 555-1234 www.brandname.com [email protected]

No-man’s land: Pushing information to the corners looks indecisive.

insert pithy tagline here

Eleanor Rigby

Senior Designer (415) 555-1234 www.brandname.com [email protected]

Static: Centering creates equal — static — white space on either side.

Eleanor Rigby

insert pithy tagline here

Senior Designer

123 Main Street, Phone: (415) 555-1234 Web: www.brandname.com Email: [email protected]

Wedge: Too much right alignment creates awkward white space. The information is harder to read because each line starts at a different point.



insert pithy tagline here

Eleanor Rigby Senior Designer

(415) 555-1234 www.brandname.com [email protected]





When in doubt, keep it simple . . .  



Die cuts are one method. Your card need not be perfectly rectangular: One edge can be cut away into an interesting shape — perhaps a curve or flourish borrowed from a logo. There’s negative space as well: Why not use a die to cut an interesting hole that adds meaning to your brand? Another option is to emphasize an element with a spot varnish. Generally a die cut or spot varnish needs to be a vector shape, clearly labeled on its own layer, but each printer will have their own setup requirements, so be sure to discuss your intentions with them at the outset.

TMI!: Cramming too much into a small space creates confusion.



Alternatively, maybe vertical is the way to go. You don’t wish to be like everyone else, and in any case, you accidentally set up your template with the small number first, so it’s 2 × 3.5 instead of 3.5 × 2. There’s no time to change your template, and now you have a vertical card.

Cell: (415) 555-2345 Fax: (415) 555-5678



The horizontal card will be the classic approach. We estimate that approximately 93.2% of all business cards are oriented this way. It allows for longer lines of text, and for some people will feel more natural. Why rock the boat?



Eleanor Rigby

insert pithy tagline here 123 Main Street,



Considerations When designing a business card, you’ll want to ask yourself the same question you ask when you are considering whether to take a nap: horizontal or vertical?





Just avoiding these common pitfalls will improve your business card.





Don’t do this . . .







Question every element and whether you really need it. Every single bit of information, down to the last comma needs to be pulling its weight — there’s no room for freeloaders. Consider how each piece of information is formatted. Leave out redundant tags like phone: or email:. People know what a phone number and email address look like. Do you really need parentheses around a phone number area code? You certainly don’t need the http:// for the web address — but do you even need the www.?

The Type Project Book

Longer Text When we say longer text, it’s all relative. To some, a long document might be anything beyond a single page; to others it might mean  





hundreds — or even thousands — of pages. What the projects in this  

chapter have in common is that they are all multipage: ranging in length from a double-sided brochure to a novel of more than 200  



pages. In the previous chapters, your choice of main tool — InDesign,  

Illustrator, or Photoshop — was often down to personal preference and  

118

possibly interchangeable, such is the wealth of features that these titan applications have in common. But when it comes to multiple pages, unless you like doing things the hard way, your hub application should be InDesign. Photoshop and Illustrator play a supporting role. This chapter explores the design challenges of wrangling longer passages of text, with lots of tips and tricks to make it all manageable.

n?

Longer Text

Cauliflower, Leek & Fennel Gratin

134

120

146

Serves 4 | Preparation time 20 minutes | Cooking time 35 minutes | a This is great served with a simple green salad, or some steamed carrots or sweet potatoes to add some colour. It also makes a great side dish to serve with a roast. 1 medium leek, thinly sliced 1 bulb of fennel, sliced 1 medium cauliflower, separated into florets 1 large clove of garlic, sliced A teaspoon of fresh thyme, chopped Few sprays of oil Freshly ground pepper 3 tablespoons olive oil or butter 3 tablespoons plain flour 600mls milk. (I used semi skimmed 100g mature cheddar cheese, grated

Yoga Equipment

01 Preheat the oven to 200°C

mat — this prevents your feet from 02 Heat a few sprays of oil in 𑁍𑁍a Sticky large sliding on thefrying mat and the mat from sliding on the floor. pan or wok and brown the garlic. Add 𑁍𑁍 Gloves and socks with rubber-like pads or dots on the palms or soles. These help the thyme, fennel and leek cook for participants hold their positions and move 5 minutes, stirring regularly.safely Setbetween aside. poses, especially in the

2 teaspoons Dijon mustard

1 bay leaf

60g wholemeal breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons black onion seeds

124

—  A.B., New York

After a couple of years of “regular yoga” I branched out to try Bikram — wow! What a different experience!

absence of a sticky mat.

blocks, straps, bolsters and blankets for 03 Steam the cauliflower for 𑁍𑁍 Use modifying poses to enhance technique and body position and to increase safety and 3–4 minutes until slightly tender. comfort for the participant.

— R.S., Chicago

I reluctantly tried therapeutic yoga on a friend’s recommendation. It made me feel so much more relaxed and positive about the future.

𑁍𑁍 Yoga mats should be cleaned regularly,

either with a damp cloth or sponge and 04 In a large saucepan gently heat the oil mild soap or detergent. or butter. Stir in the flour and bay leaf 𑁍𑁍 Yoga clothing should be comfortable and allow full range of motion. then add the milk stirring constantly.

— T.M., Philadelphia

𑁍𑁍 It is important for clothing to provide adequate coverage as you move and bend.

05 When the milk has thickened, remove the bay leaf and add the cheese and mustard. Continue to stir until the cheese has melted into the sauce. Season with black pepper. 06 Combine the breadcrumbs and onion seeds in a bowl.

For more information www.yogaselect.org 800 123-4567

Trifold Brochure

07 Put the cauliflower, fennel and leek into a large oven proof dish. Cover with the sauce and then top with the breadcrumb mixture.

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138

08 Bake in the oven for 35 minutes.

32 Sides & Mains

Selecting a Yoga Program

Hatha Yoga helped me relax and regain focus following a stressful few months at work.

Cookbook

Gift or Product Guide

119

10 Lewes

Contents

WHERE OCEANS MEET

Sides & Mains 33 

28 The South Downs

10 Lewes A guided walk through this pretty market town with the best viewing spots of the 1000 year old castle, and great places to eat and drink.

72 HOURS IN CAPE TOWN

18 Newhaven A closer look at this channel ferry port with it’s historic fort and museum, and great views out to sea from Castle Hill.

EDWARD WHITE spends three days in Cape Town and the Cape Peninsula, and explores the famous Stellenbosch vineyards — and the infamous Robben Island.

34 Sussex in Bloom

22 Cuckmere Haven One of the most iconic views in the UK has to be the Coastguard Cottages in front of the breath taking Seven Sisters cliffs.

42 Abbot’

28 The South Downs

18 Newhaven

Rediscover nature in the undulating hills of the South Downs. There are miles of trails to suit all levels of fitness whether on foot or bike.

34 Sussex in Bloom Wildflower meadows and poppy fields make the county burst with colour throughout the spring and summer months.

42 Abbot’s Wood Acres of ancient woodland come alive in April with an abundance of bluebells erupting into bloom. This shortlived display is a must see.

52 The Ouse Valley

Fiction Classic

130 48

Travel Monthly

THE TIGER Tiger, tiger, burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

ht.

In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire?

rs ars.

And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And, when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand and what dread feet?

Poetry

What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears,

May 2018

May 2018

E S T.

Visual TOC

1965

DAVID’S

142

123 Main Street Seattle, WA 09876 (555) 123-6543 davidsrestaurant.com  davidsrestaurant

Travel Monthly

22 Cuckmere Haven

Walk or cycle along the Sussex Ouse Valley Way taking in sights such as the magnificent viaduct with its ornate design and architectural features.

Magazine Layout

Table Mountain rises to a height of 3558 feet (1085 metres) above Cape Town. Flanked by Devil’s Peak to the left and Lions head to the right, it forms part of the Table Mountain National park.

49

R E STAU R A NT

Monday–Friday Lunch 12:00–15:00 Dinner 18:00–23:00 Saturday 11:00–23:00

Sunday 11:00–22:00

52 The Ouse Valley

154

Statement of Facts (including vehicle description) and sign Section H. Complete the appropriate section(s) in full

S TA RT E R S

SIDES

Toasted Focaccia with Hummus & Olives 4 Stone Baked Bread with aged balsamic & extra virgin olive oil

3

Pea & Watercress Soup with mixed seeds, olive oil & toasted focaccia 5 Crispy Fried Cauliflower with kimchi, pickled red onions & red pepper dressing 6 Guacamole con Totopos Mashed avocado with cilantro, onion, chilies and lime 10 Seared Brussels Sprouts smoked tofu, orange miso glaze, ginger-nori aioli 9

MAINS

Menu

Enchiladas Verdes Two rolled tortillas filled with potato, zucchini and peas topped with tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. Served with sautéed greens and beans 17 Tamal Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy tomato salsa. Served with black beans 16 Black Bean Burger House made black bean patty on an Acme bun with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. Served with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16

LICENSE PLATE/CF NUMBER

VEHICLE/VESSEL ID NUMBER

Garlicky Mash with Crushed Leeks Oven roasted garlicA and STATEMENT FOR USE TAX EXEMPTION delicate leeks add oomph Thisto transfer is exempt from use tax because it is a: creamy mashed potatoes 4 … Family transfer sold between a parent, child, grandparent, grandchild, spouse,

Herby Polenta Friesdomestic partner, or siblings (if both are minors related by blood or adoption). … Addition or deletion of family member (spouse, domestic partner, parent[s], son/ Crunchy & full of flavour 5 daughter, grandparents, grandchildren). Gift (does not include vehicles traded Tempura Vegetablesbetween individuals, transfer of contracts or other valuable consideration).

Seasonal veg, in a light batter … Court Order with soy dipping sauce 5

… Inheritance

The current market value is:

YEAR/MAK

NOTE: The use Tax Exemptio be claimed if the vehicle/ves transferred was purchased fr otherwise qualifying relative engaged in the business of s the same type of vehicle/ves

$

Fajita Spiced Crispy Tofu Lightly spiced & fried B STATEMENT FOR SMOG EXEMPTION to perfection 5 The vehicle does not require a smog certification for transfer of ownership because: Steamed Purple… The last smog certification was obtained within the last 90 days. Sprouting Broccoli It is powered by: Vibrant & packed full … Electricity … Diesel … Other of vitamins 5

Form Design

… It is located outside the State of Narnia.

Crumbed Asparagus It is being transferred from/between: and Red Pepper … The parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, sister, spouse, or Seeded bread crumbs domestic partner (as defined in Family Code §297) of the transferee. add texture & crunch, … A sole proprietorship to the proprietor as owner. served with garlic … Companies whose principal business is leasing vehicles. There is no change in lessee or operator. cashew cream 6 … Lessor and lessee of vehicle, and no change in the lessee or operator of the vehicle.

Crunchy Spiced Chickpeas … Lessor and person who has been lessee’s operator of the vehicle for at least one year. Oven baked with cumin, chilli and cinnamon …4Individual(s) being added as registered owner(s). Sesame Glazed Carrots C STATEMENT Oven baked with a

This vehicle

}

Does n smog c unless Smog i

120

The Type Project Book

Gift or Product Guide

Between structure and chaos

This sort of layout is a staple of lifestyle magazines — a roundup of products arranged over a page or spread, with a brief description of each and information about how they can be purchased. Here are some fun ways to make it work.

TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop FONTS USED Filson Soft

Where the subjects cast a shadow, we included this in the selection to provide some dimension. With the Quick Selection tool active, choose Select Subject on the tool options, refine the selection if necessary, and then convert this to a layer mask. With a soft brush, paint in white on the layer mask in the foreground of the subject to reveal the shadow — or as much of it as you want.  

INSPIRATION pin.it/1qHVGZO

Image treatment To maximize the use of white space and give the layout an airy feel, the images are cut out, making extra work for the designer. Knowing that we wanted to extract the images from their backgrounds, we made sure to choose images that were not cropped and that were shot against a white or plain background to make masking them in Photoshop easier. The irregular shape of the images is key to providing visual interest. If all the images were rectangular, the layout would look static.

Filson Soft Olivier Gourvat. Mostardesign Type Foundry. 2016.

a b cd efghijk lm nopqrstuvwx yzABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQ RSTUVWXYZ 1234567890

A









LEARNING POINTS • Using selection tools and layer masks in Photoshop to isolate images from their backgrounds • Setting up and working with a grid • Designing with hierarchy and white space

That’s why any good gift catalog or lifestyle magazine needs a layout with a solid structure that also includes some wild elements. A consistent grid and clear typographic hierarchy, alongside playful images and plenty of white space.  

TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4 or any preferred magazine size

Every consumer is a bundle of contradictions. When shopping, we want to feel carefree and spontaneous. At the same time, we want to know that the provider is competent, stable, secure. Freedom and limitations, all at once.



THE BRIEF Design a gift or product guide that features cutout images of differing scales

Use fixed color sample points ( ) in conjunction with the Info panel ( ) and a Levels adjustment ( ) to ensure that any white areas that are not masked are pure white.

A

C

D

B

B

C

Mask the background with a layer mask ( ), but paint back in the shadow cast by the object ( ).

D

E E

E

Longer Text

A Experiment with staying mainly within the grid for a more subdued look ( ) versus scaling up the images, causing them to burst out of their grid fields and interact with each other ( ). In some cases the images overlap the columns rules ( ), causing the text to wrap around their shapes ( ) and even sit behind the text ( ).

A

D

E

C

B

E

D

C

B

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The Type Project Book

We used the handy Info panel to verify that the background really was white (255, 255, 255 in RGB numbers). We put down some color sample points, by clicking with the Eyedropper tool while holding the Shift key, and used a Levels adjustment layer to force the light grays to pure white.



Grid We used a grid to organize the information. The number of grid subdivisions you use is partly a matter of personal preference; we opted for 12 columns and 16 rows — a combination that provides much flexibility but also comes with the potential visual confusion of having many grid lines. At its core, this is a 3-column layout, with the larger items occupying 2 columns and the smaller items a single column. A 12-column grid is a popular choice because it’s divisible by 2, 3, 4, and 6, making it easily adaptable to the designer’s needs and also suggesting layout opportunities.  

The layout grid, together with the baseline grid, helps structure the content and suggest layout options. Should it become too restrictive, you can always break it.

Placing a large image bottom left and another top right leads the eye down from the large, bold headline around the spread.

A Rainbow of Fresh Flavours

48

Creating a Gift or Product Guide

Creating a Gift or Product Guide

49





Balance and image placement We placed the images so that they face in — toward the spine — rather than out to the edge of the page. This makes them sit comfortably within the composition rather than looking like they’re trying to escape the page. The spread is balanced with a large image at bottom left and a correspondingly large image at top right, leading the reader’s eye diagonally up and around the spread. To introduce an element of mischief, some images break out of the grid or even bleed off the edge of the page.  

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The irregular shapes downplay the fact that the document is created on a grid. Just because we used a grid to organize the content doesn’t mean we want the reader to necessarily notice this. Combining the organic shapes with the structured nature of the page allows you to create a layout that’s fun and dynamic but gives up nothing in terms of hierarchy and readability.

Type choice and treatment In this layout, the type plays a supporting role to the images. It does so unobtrusively while at the same time being quietly firm about the hierarchy of information. Bold subheads are contrasted with a light weight of body text. We chose a sans serif family, Filson Soft, in keeping with the minimalist aesthetic of the spread. While many sans serif typefaces are neutral, Filson brims with personality. The letters are rounded, they appear relaxed, and there is a delightful, somewhat eccentric uppercase R. At the same time, it’s very readable due its open shapes and large x-height.

Filson Soft is rounded for friendliness and has a distinctive R.









The type alignment is fluid — sometimes left, sometimes centered, sometimes right — with the text “leaning in” to its associated product, helping establish the visual relationship between each item and its description. Although long passages of center- or right-aligned text are seldom advisable, it works here because the descriptions are short and because the alignment plays off the position and shape of its associated picture.  



We shaped the line endings with forced line breaks (Shift+Return) — both to improve readability and to provide pleasing shapes. For centered paragraphs we aimed for a chandelier shape. It’s important that these paragraphs look intentionally centered, rather than almost left aligned or justified. Similarly, with right-aligned paragraphs we made our intent clear by avoiding lines that were very long or very short. Because we’re working with short bursts of text, we turned hyphenation off. We also took care to make sure that the baselines of type in side-by-side columns were aligned and that they finished on the same line, providing a solid foundation to the spread. To do this, you can employ a baseline grid, although with a limited amount of text, this can be done by eye. Even though there are only three styles of paragraph, it’s crucial to use paragraph styles: Not only will it make the formatting faster in the first instance, it gives you the creative leeway to make global adjustments to the spread by editing the style definitions thereafter.

Column rules This layout relies upon the tension between chaos and organization. While the images want to bust out of their allotted space, the column rules tie the composition together and remove any ambiguity about what piece of text accompanies what image. Recent versions of InDesign allow you to add common rules between multiple columns of a text frame. But in this case, because each item is independent, you’ll need to draw the column rules manually. To prevent moving them by mistake once in place, add them to their own layer. Optionally, create an object style for the rules to make it easy to change the weight or line style globally should you need to do so.

To allow text to wrap around a cut-out image, select the picture frame and choose Wrap Around Object Shape ( ). Set the offset amount ( ). From the Contour Options, choose Alpha Channel ( ) to use the shape of the layer mask added in Photoshop to create the wrap shape.

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Fiction Classic

Wrangle hundreds of pages like a pro

THE BRIEF Typeset a multi-chapter book with front matter, taking advantage of InDesign’s long document features







For this project, we want to build a publication that is easy to read, easy to navigate, and — because we’ll inevitably need to make changes along the way — easy to update.  





TOOLS InDesign

Luckily, many have trodden this path before us. There are time-honored traditions and aesthetics to guide us, beautiful typefaces designed hundreds of years ago that still work great — and now, tools like InDesign to smooth it all out and make the process easy and fun.  



LEARNING POINTS • Managing text flow • Setting up hyphenation and justification • Fixing spacing problems







Page and margin size The size and aspect ratio of the book are a profound design decision. If this choice is within your remit — i.e., if the page size isn’t presented as a fait accompli by the client or publisher — here are some things to consider to make sure your choice best suits the content and the reader.

Using Jan Tschichold’s “golden canon of page construction” dividing the page into ninths to yield margin proportions 2:3:4:6 (inside:top:outside:bottom). The dotted line shows the margins suggested by the Van de Graaf canon as identified by Tschichold. The tinted cyan frames indicate our adapted type area.





A quick glance at any bookshelf confirms that the majority of books are tall (portrait) in orientation. With a continuous text flow, a primary text frame is a good choice — not essential, but it allows you to later apply a different master page to a document page and have the text continue to flow properly.  









INSPIRATION & RESOURCES The example public domain text — Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson — is available from Project Gutenberg (gutenberg.org). Nigel chose this particular text because he also found a PDF of an 1897 edition of the book and a complete set of highresolution public domain illustrations (on the British Library Flickr page).





FONTS USED Tribute





TRIM SIZE 6 × 9 inches (152 × 229mm)

Book design is where typography started. Think about it. You have an object that is essentially nothing but type: page after page after page, an endless stream of words. How can this be designed so that it looks great and is easy to use? How does the designer do their work and then become invisible, so that the author can do their work? Nowhere is this more important than a work of fiction.

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We chose a page size of 6 × 9 inches — a popular size for trade paperbacks — and a page with a 2:3 aspect ratio, proportions that minds far greater than ours have long considered ideal for a book page.









To determine the size of the margins, on the master page spread, we adapted the page canon identified by Jan Tschichold (1902–1974) in his studies of medieval manuscripts. Divide the page into 9 rows and 9 columns. Assign one-ninth of the width to the inside margin, two-ninths to the outside margin, one-ninth to the top, and two-ninths to the bottom. The resulting type area has the same proportions as the page. The only problem is that the margins are so big that — to the modern eye — they look extravagant. To strike a balance, we decreased the size of the bottom and outside margins. The result allows for an extra line and a slightly wider column measure but still provides a pleasing frame around the type area and sufficient space for the reader’s fingers and thumb to hold the book. Crucially, the type area is wide enough for between 55–70 characters per line, meaning that, with the right settings, we can achieve well-justified type.

Clean up the text Before formatting the text, remove unwanted spaces, extra returns, trailing white space, and any other unwanted characters. Use predefined GREP queries in the Find/Change dialog box. Also cross-check the document with the manuscript for any instances of text that should be italicized and apply

TREASURE ISLAND Illustrated edItIon

Robert Louis Stevenson

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an italic character style. Because character styles are relative, they will adjust to whatever paragraph style is later applied.

TrT ibruibtu e te Frank Frank Heine.Heine. Emigre. Emigre. 2003 2003

abcadbecfgdhefijgkhlim jknlm o no pq rps tqurvs tw ux vw y zxAyBz A B CDE CD FG EH FG IJH KILJM KLM M NMON PQ OR PQ STRUST V UV X YX ZY 1 2Z3 41 2536475869708 9 0

Choose the type Following the printer’s maxim “when in doubt, set it in Caslon,” Nigel’s initial choice was Carol Twombly’s revival, Adobe Caslon Pro, not just because it’s beautiful but also because it has a wide range of OpenType features like real small caps, oldstyle numerals, and contextual alternates. But we were feeling crazy and reckless and, enticed by the thrill of the new, opted instead for Tribute, an interpretation of Renaissance type samples by Frank Heine. Tribute brims with personality (check out that lowercase g!) and has a swashbuckling swagger. The book follows a simple format: chapter number, chapter title, first paragraph, and then body text. Repeat, repeat, repeat for 34 chapters. There are some passages to be indented, and of course the table of contents, the front matter, and the captions, but for the most part the formatting is repetitious. So we started by applying the “body” style to everything, then the Chapter Number style, which includes a Keep Option forcing the chapters to begin on a new page. CounCil of War

The Chapter Number style includes the Keep Option to start on a new page.

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Chapter 12

Chapter Title (All Small Caps, positive tracking)

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CounCil of War

HErE Was a great rush of feet across the deck. I could hear people tumbling up from the cabin and the forecastle, and slipping in an instant outside my barrel, I dived behind the fore-sail, made a double towards the stern, and came out upon the open deck in time to join Hunter and Dr. Livesey in the rush for the weather bow. There all hands were already congregated. A belt of fog had lifted almost simultaneously with the appearance of the moon. Away to the south-west of us we saw two low hills, about a couple of miles apart, and rising behind one of them a third and higher hill, whose peak was still buried in the fog. All three seemed sharp and conical in figure. So much I saw, almost in a dream, for I had not yet recovered from my horrid fear of a minute or two before. And then I heard the voice of Captain Smollett issuing orders. The Hispaniola was laid a couple of points nearer the wind and now sailed a course that would just clear the island on the east. “And now, men,” said the captain, when all was sheeted home, “has any one of you ever seen that land ahead?”

First Paragraph (with a nested style that adds a drop cap and the first two words in small caps) Body Text, with one em first line indent

Italic character style

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The text is soon transformed from an amorphous mass into a structured, readable document. As is often the case with such projects, it takes 5% of the time to get the content mostly in place, and the other 95% to finish the job. But finessing the details makes all the difference.







Hyphenation helps, but we changed InDesign’s default H&J (hyphenation and justification) settings, because . . . well, because they suck. Our custom settings ensure that only words with a minimum of seven characters are  

Our preferred Hyphenation and Justification settings when working with justified type



Compose the text Our primary objective with the body text was to achieve a good type color or density — avoiding big and varying gaps between the words.  

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me,” he fell at last into a heavy, swoon-like sleep, in which I left him. What I should have done had all gone well I do not know. Probably I should have told the whole story to the doctor, for I was in mortal fear lest the captain should repent of his confessions and make an end of me. But as things fell out, my poor father died quite suddenly that evening, which put all other matters on one side. Our natural distress, the visits of the neighbours, the arranging of the funeral, and all the work of the inn to be carried on in the meanwhile kept me so busy that I had scarcely time to think of the captain, far less to be afraid of him. He got downstairs next morning, to be sure, and had his meals as usual, though he ate little and had more, I am afraid, than his usual supply of rum, for he helped himself out of the bar, scowling and blowing through his nose, and no one dared to cross him. the SpoT night before the funeral he The On Black 19 was as drunk as ever; and it was shocking, in that house of mourning, to hear him longer, singinghis away at his ugly old sea-song; He wandered a little voice growing weaker; but but he was, wehim were in the fear of death forlike him,a soonweak afterasI had given hisall medicine, which he took and thewith doctor suddenly taken up withwanted a case many miles child, thewas remark, “If ever a seaman drugs, it’s away and was never near the house after my father’s death. me,” he fell at last into a heavy, swoon-like sleep, in whichI captain washave weak, andhad indeed he seemed rather Ihave left said him.the What I should done all gone well I do not to grow weakerI should than regain his the strength. He clambered up know. Probably have told whole story to the doctor, and and went the parlour the bar for Idown was instairs, mortal fear lest from the captain shouldtorepent ofand his back again, and and make sometimes put of doors smell confessions an end of his me.nose But out as things fell to out, my the holding to suddenly the walls that as heevening, went forwhich support poorsea, father died on quite putand all breathing hardon and likeOur a man on adistress, steep mountain. other matters onefast side. natural the visitsHe of never particularly andfuneral, it is myand belief as the neighbours, theaddressed arrangingme, of the all he thehad work good as forgotten his confidences; but his temper was more of the inn to be carried on in the meanwhile kept me so busy

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Word Spaces The Black SpoT

Default justification settings, no hyphenation, no Optical Margin Alignment. Note the variation in the size of word spaces (indicated by the red shapes).

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that I had scarcely time to think of the captain, far less to be afraid of him. He got downstairs next morning, to be sure, and had his meals as usual, though he ate little and had more, I am afraid, than his usual supply of rum, for he helped himself out of the bar, scowling and blowing through his nose, and no one dared to cross him. On the night before the funeral he was as drunk as ever; and it was shocking, in that house of mourning, to hear him singing away at his ugly old sea-song; but weak as he was, we were all in the fear of death for him, and the doctor was suddenly taken up with a case many miles away and was never near the house after my father’s death. I have said the captain was weak, and indeed he seemed rather to grow weaker than regain his strength. He clambered up and down stairs, and went from the parlour to the bar and back again, and sometimes put his nose out of doors to smell the sea, holding on to the walls as he went for support and breathing hard and fast like a man on a steep mountain. He never particularly addressed me, and it is my belief he had as good as forgotten his confidences; but his temper was more flighty, and allowing for his bodily weakness,

Custom H&J settings combined with Optical Margin Alignment. The size of the word space is both narrower and more uniform.

hyphenated, that there are no two-letter stubs, and no laddering is caused by consecutive hyphens. Plus, we don’t want to see hyphenation in the last word of a paragraph or a when a word breaks across a page or column.

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Avoid single words — such as I, A , and salutations like Mr. Mrs, Dr. — from occurring at the end of a line ( ).  



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Set Preferences > Units & Increment > Kerning/Tracking to the smallest increment for finer control ( ).

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We addressed widows and orphans manually with a delicate application of negative tracking to the text. Our Kerning/Tracking preference was set to 1⁄1000 em in Units & Increments. The Composition preference Custom Tracking/Kerning let us spot at a glance where tracking was applied. When fixing widows or orphans, keep in mind that the fix may lie in a paragraph

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Next, we added GREP styles to the body paragraph style to prevent short last lines. Our reasoning is more nuanced than simply saying “Don’t end a paragraph with a single word.” The point of zapping short last lines (or “runts”) is to avoid trapped white space between the last line of one paragraph and the first line indent of the next. If the paragraph ends with a single long word, significantly wider than the first line indent of the following paragraph, it’s not a problem. And if it ain’t a problem, don’t fix it.

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To alert us to any spacing problems, we turned on the Show H&J Violations in the Composition settings of the Preferences dialog box. Keep in mind that H&J Violations does not show bad spacing, per se, but rather highlights where InDesign is unable to honor the settings you’re requesting.

Add a GREP style to the body paragraph style to prevent words with 8 or more characters from breaking at the end of a paragraph ( ) or the end of story ( ).  





Enabling Optical Margin Alignment in the Story panel (Type > Story) further strengthens the sharpness of the right edge, pushing punctuation and hyphens at the end of the line beyond the right edge of the frame.

C







Combined with the Hyphenation settings, the Justification settings reduce the permissible variation in the size of the word spacing. This is offset by a small variation in the letter spacing: just +/–2% , and a variation — just 98–102% — in the glyph scaling (the horizontal scale of the letters). Changing the proportions of letterforms can make purists twitchy, but at 12 pt (our chosen type size) this is virtually imperceptible. It’s a small price to pay for such an overall improvement.

Turn on the Custom Tracking/Kerning composition preference to see where kerning or tracking has been applied highlighted in green ( ).

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that comes earlier in the text. Everything you do at this point will have a ripple effect. That can be bad, or it can be good.



With all of these measures to prevent composition problems, use a light touch. We can’t fix everything — not because we’re settling for less than excellence, but because every fix has potentially negative consequences, and we should first do no harm. For that reason, we’re less bothered by widows that straddle a facing page, choosing instead to target those that occur over a page turn.  

Adding page numbers and running heads to the master page So that the left and right page numbers mirror each other, set up your paragraph style to use Align Away from Spine as the alignment type.  







For the running-header, define a text variable (Type > Text Variables > Define), tell it to grab the Chapter Title paragraph style, and then insert that variable in the running header text frame. This won’t work if some of the chapter titles are too long, because text variables don’t wrap across multiple lines. Use a character style text variable instead: Create a separate character style and, in each chapter title, manually apply it to the text you want to appear in the running head.

The paragraph rules that move the text down (Rule Above) and “white out” the header (Rule Below) rely on large, specific Offset values.

Useful Scripts InDesign scripting legend Peter Kahrel has made his extensive online repository of scripts available for free. These are an essential resource for anyone who works on long documents in InDesign. You can find them here: creativepro.com/files/kahrel/ indesignscripts.html













Styling the chapter opening pages The chapter opening pages requires their own treatment — no running header, and a bigger top margin, to provide a visual pause between chapters. The obvious solution is a second master page, but the problem — and anyone experienced with long documents will have run into this — is that if the text reflows, you’ll end up with a chapter opening master page applied to a document page and vice versa.



We prefer to stick with a single master page and to incorporate both the larger margin and “no-header” into the Chapter Number paragraph style. This can be achieved through a trick using Paragraph Rules that are part of the Paragraph Style Options. We applied both a Rule Above and a Rule Below to the Chapter Number paragraph style — the first, with a Color set to None, to move the chapter number a specified distance down from the top margin; the second, with Color set to Paper, to “white out” the header. The text can now flow freely, and you don’t need to worry about what master page goes where. Just make sure the “white out” never gets set to overprint.  

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This leaves us with chapter opening pages that are no longer numbered. To address this, we anchored a text frame containing a page number marker. Get it right once, create an object style to capture the anchored object settings, apply the style to the object, and then copy the object to all the other chapter openers. The benefit of this approach is that no matter how the text flows, the chapter opening pages will always look right because the formats are baked into the paragraph style.

Creating the front matter To have the page numbering start with the first chapter, define part one as a new section. This means having two numbering styles in the document: to avoid confusion, distinguish the two by defining the numbering style of the front matter as roman numerals.

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The Table of Contents style specifies what paragraph styles to include in the TOC and how they will be styled. Note that character styles “page number” and “dot leader” are applied to the numbers and space between the entry and the number.









To Book . . . or Not to Book InDesign’s Book feature allows you to manage multiple chapters as a “Book” and then control the styles and page numbering across that Book. Some people love this feature. We are not those people.

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To use a second numbering style, in this case lowercase roman numerals, rightclick the page thumbnail and choose Numbering & Section Options. A triangle above a page thumbnail ( ) indicates a new section. Double-clicking the triangle brings up numbering and section options.

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Table of contents To generate the TOC choose Layout > Table of Contents, and select which paragraph styles to include and what styles to apply to the entries. It takes some back and forth to get it exactly how you want it. Once the settings are correct, be sure to capture them in a TOC style. We generated a second table of contents to create the list of illustrations. Workflow steps The order of these steps is more or less how they are presented, but of course, in reality, nothing is ever quite so linear. No matter how methodical you are, there will always something that you miss first time around, and this means going back and forth, experimenting with different settings, finding that certain approaches don’t work, and adopting others. Stay flexible and open to new techniques, use a light touch when fixing “problems,” approach the tasks globally through the use of styles, while at the same time keeping an eagle eye out for exceptions, anomalies, and anything else that requires individual attention. If we’ve done a good job, the reader will experience the story almost effortlessly. Like the stage hands during a theatre production, we’re essential, but meant to be invisible. The words should flow off the page, into the minds of the audience, and no one will even notice us, the designers. Our job is to disappear.

We do all we can to avoid the Book feature. If you’re part of a team, with different members working simultaneously on individual chapters, and/or your pages are graphically dense, then you need the Book feature. However, if you’re working by yourself and the book’s structure is simple, why complicate things? We prefer to work with one long document; that way we can flit back and forth from the front of the book to the back with ease, and we don’t need to worry about synchronizing styles or updating page numbers. Some might say this is living dangerously: A single long document is more prone to error and you have all your proverbial eggs in one basket. To which we say, use Save As to increment the document regularly and you’ll be fine.

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Poetry

Be flexible and sweat the small stuff









TRIM SIZE 6 × 9 inches (152 × 229mm)



The key words here are simplicity and tradition. We want the design to be spare and clean, to let the words take center stage. And we want that classic look of traditional book design to lend some gravitas to the moment. The layout of poetry pages presents many of the same challenges as prose when it comes to text flow, but there are certain unique considerations.







LEARNING POINTS • Centering text on the longest line • Harnessing OpenType features like discretionary ligatures • Managing text flow

Typography is often put to many frivolous, uninteresting, and uninspiring uses — advertisements, propaganda, unfunny jokes. But can anyone think of a more important, more sacred, more essential use for typography than to provide a voice for a poem? To set the stage for beautiful words that inspire contemplation and reverie? We can’t come up with anything.  

THE BRIEF Design a book of poetry with special consideration for the conventions of typesetting verse

TOOLS InDesign FONTS USED Mrs Eaves INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/3XiE8M1 Project Gutenberg is repository for thousands of public domain texts: gutenberg.org.

Page size and margins For portrait-orientation books, a 2:3 aspect ratio works well. We want to frame the text with white space and let the words breathe on the page, so the margins should be generous. Just how generous will depend on your personal taste, the length of the poems, and the page count of the book. For our example, Songs of Experience by William Blake, we’ve chosen margins in these proportions: 1:1.5:2:2.25. That’s starting with the inner margin and on a verso moving counterclockwise.

MrMs rEsaEveasves Zuzana Zuzana Licko.Licko. Emigre. Emigre. 1996 1996

abcadbecfdghe figjkhlim jknl m o no pqrpstqurvsw tuxvywzxAyBz C A BC DEF DG EH FG IJH KILJK MLNMN OPO QP RQ ST RU STVUWVXW X Y ZY 1 2Z3142536475869708 9 0

Take into account the binding: If the book is side sewn or perfect bound, the inner margin should be larger. The top margin can be larger if there are running heads, which also help stabilize the page. Headers or folios at the bottom can help anchor the layout. These elements should be the same size or 1–2 points smaller than the text itself.

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THE ANGEL

THE TIGER

I dreamt a dream! What can it mean? And that I was a maiden Queen Guarded by an Angel mild: Witless woe was ne’er beguiled!

Tiger, tiger, burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

And I wept both night and day, And he wiped my tears away; And I wept both day and night, And hid from him my heart’s delight.

In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire?

So he took his wings, and fled; Then the morn blushed rosy red. I dried my tears, and armed my fears With ten thousand shields and spears.

And what shoulder and what art Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And, when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand and what dread feet?

Soon my Angel came again; I was armed, he came in vain; For the time of youth was fled, And grey hairs were on my head.

What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did He smile His work to see? Did He who made the lamb make thee? Tiger, tiger, burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

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Type choice and formatting





Readability is, of course, important. Our job is to encourage the reader to focus on the poem. While we certainly don’t want to do anything that upstages the words, in the context of poetry, readability can, we think, be interpreted more liberally. Because speed and ease of reading are not the paramount concerns when setting poetry, you can opt for a typeface with more personality. In fact, you want to slow the reader down — just a bit. They are meant to contemplate the language, the turns of phrase, the choice of words.  











The type size should be the same as fiction — somewhere between 9 and 12 point — or perhaps a point or two bigger, depending on the characteristics of the font and the length of the lines. You can be more generous with the leading — you’re not trying to pack in information, but rather make the type comfortably inhabit the page. Where prose calls for between +1 to +3 points of leading, poetry can be leaded by +4, or even as much as +6 points. There are no hard and fast rules. We’ve chosen Mrs Eaves, a traditional serif with a twist. Designed by Zuzana Licko, it is a revival of Baskerville (designed in the 1750s) and named after Sarah Eaves, typesetter, printer, housekeeper, and ultimately wife of John Baskerville, and one of the forgotten women of typographic history. We like to think that William Blake (whose poems these are) would have approved

William Blake poems must not be displayed in just any old typeface. Choose an inappropriate font and the ghost of the great poet might come for us in the night. We hope he would approve of a modern classic, Mrs Eaves.

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And that I was a maiden QueenAnd that I was a maiden Queen Guarded by an Angel mild: Guarded by an Angel mild: The Type Project Book Witless woe was ne’er beguiled!Witless woe was ne’er beguiled! A And I wept both night and day, B And I wept both night and day, C And he wiped my tears away; And he wiped my tears away; And I wept both day and night,And I wept both day and night, And hid from him my heart’s delight. And hid from him my heart’s delight. So he took his wings, and fled;So he took his wings, and fled; Then the morn blushed rosy red. Then the morn blushed rosy red. I dried my tears, and armed myI dried fears my tears, and armed my fears With ten thousand shields and With spears. ten thousand shields and spears. Soon my Angel came again; Soon my Angel came again; I was armed, he came in vain; I was armed, he came in vain; For the time of youth was fled,For the time of youth was fled, And grey hairs were on my head. And grey hairs were on my head.

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Without discretionary ligatures ( )

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Discretionary ligatures highlighted by the Composition preference Show Substituted Glyphs ( )

C

You can adopt an opt-in or opt-out strategy here depending on how many ligatures you want to use. To turn them all on, incorporate them into the paragraph style option. In OpenType Features, check Discretionary Ligatures and Contextual Alternates. Whenever you want to turn off a specific instance, use the Type Contextual Controls — select the ligature and switch it for the non-joined character combination, which will appear in the row of alternates beneath. Alternatively, if you just want the occasional discretionary ligature (the operative word here is discretionary), add them on a case-by-case basis using the Type Context Controls or the Glyphs panel.  

A

of this choice, being a fellow printmaker and near-contemporary of Eaves and Baskerville. As well as being a beautiful typeface, Mrs Eaves has an extensive range of discretionary ligatures that gave us the chance to add flair and distinctiveness.

B C



With discretionary ligatures turned on ( )

Mrs Eaves is part of a large extended family of typefaces, and one of its members is Roman All 14 Small Caps. Their wider aspect ratio yields a stronger presence than regular caps, which we felt worked well for the poem titles.

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Mrs Eaves OT Regular 20 pt vs. Mrs Eaves Roman All Small Caps 22 pt

D Kerning the space around the apostrophe; Before ( ) and After ( )

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Create a character style that applies reduced tracking ( ) (the exact amount will vary in different situations).

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Incorporate this into the paragraph style as a GREP style. In this case, the GREP expression is .’. [Any Character Apostrophe Any Character] ( ).

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As much as you admire a typeface, there may be small things that you don’t like. In this case, it was the space around the apostrophes (something Hugh is very sensitive to because of the apostrophe in his last name). Thankfully we didn’t need to kern each instance individually, but instead added a GREP style to the body paragraph style. This found every instance of an apostrophe and reduced the kerning between it and the character that preceded it and between it and the character that followed. (We know that technically this is tracking because it is applied to a range of characters rather than between a pair of characters, but we’re thinking of it as applying two kerning pairs at the same time.) Obviously this is a very specific example, but this approach can be adapted to address any “problems” you may have with a typeface that threaten to spoil an otherwise beautiful relationship.

Longer Text Using Discretionary Ligatures in Mrs Eaves

B A

Incorporate them into a paragraph style ( ).

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Insert them on a case-by-case basis through the Glyphs panel, where you can filter your view to see specific subsets of the font ( ).

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C

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Use the Type Contextual Controls ( ) (Preferences > Advanced Type). To highlight where the alternates and ligatures have been applied, select Substituted Glyphs in the Composition preferences ( ).

C

D

D Centering the text on the longest line Visually, the poems should be balanced, and key to this is centering the text block on the longest line. (Note that if there is one eccentrically long line, you should ignore it and center the poem on the next longest line.) Centering on the longest line causes the left margin to move in and out, but it’s necessary for an optical balance. There are (at least) two ways to do this… Method 1: Set the text to left alignment. Identify the longest line, and center this. With your cursor at the beginning of the line, note the Horizontal Cursor Position (for some reason, InDesign doesn’t let you copy and paste this value). Apply this value as the left indent to all other lines. The downside of this approach is that you will need to repeat the process for each poem, because the length of the longest line will vary from one poem to the next. Method 2: On the master pages, draw a vertical guide that marks the center of the type area. On the document pages, narrow the width of each text frame, so that it is only as wide as the longest line. Center the text frame on the vertical guide. The downside of this approach is that the width of the text frames will vary from one page to the next, which may induce panic among designers with more compulsive temperaments. Either approach will work; neither is perfect. If a poem runs on to a new page, you should indicate the continuation, perhaps with an ellipsis in the lower-right margin. Position the first overset line at the height of the title rather than where the body text normally starts. Poets hate when stanzas are split over pages, so split stanzas are usually moved onto the next page, but it will depend on how many lines are knocked over and how it looks with the rest of the text. It might be tempting to use a Keep Lines Together Keep Option for this, but to do the text justice, you should bring your discretion to each instance. Careful: If you set the type properly on a good poem, you may trigger an emotional reaction, such as a laughter, tears, a wry smile, or the realization that life is very short. Take all necessary precautions!

A B C A

Center the longest line ( ). Insert your cursor at the start of the line to measure its position with the Horizontal Cursor Position ( ).

B

Align the other lines left, and add a left indent equal to the horizontal cursor position of the longest line ( ).

C

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The Type Project Book

Cookbook

Step-by-step recipe instructions





A B







Create a Glyph Set for ready access to frequently used diacritics and special characters ( ).

A

In the Glyphs panel, rightclick a glyph to bring up a contextual menu that will allow you to add to the Glyph Set ( ).

Łukasz Łukasz Dziedzic. Dziedzic. 2015 2015

ab cadbecfdgehfigjkhlm ijknlm o no p q rpsqt ur svtw u vxw y zxAyB z AB CDC EF DGEH FG IJH KL IJM KLNMN O PO QPRQ ST RU ST VU WVXW X Y Z1 Y2Z3142536475869708 9 0



Create a Glyph Set: As Michael Corleone (Al Pacino) said in The Godfather 2, “keep your friends close, but your enemies closer . . . and your frequently used glyphs closest of all.” Having those glyphs at your fingertips will mean you don’t have to break your train of thought hunting and pecking in the Glyphs panel to find the diacritics, like the degree sign, that you need.  

LaLtoato





INSPIRATION pin.it/1g3EmYT

Format the text A project like this inevitably involves a lot of fussy detail. So for the sake of our sanity — and to ensure consistency — we automated things as much as possible. This involved front-loading the time and effort for the project, but it paid off. As is so often the case with long documents, the more consideration you can put into the set up and planning, the smoother the production of the book will be. Here are some of the steps we recommend . . .  

FONTS USED Lato



TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop, Camera

Choosing type We chose Lato, a humanist sans serif designed by Łukasz Dziedzic and released in 2015. It’s available on Google Fonts and Adobe Fonts and comes in a wide variety of weights, so it is very flexible. Its simplicity makes it a good match for the ethos of this book, which is all about simple cooking.









LEARNING POINTS • Spanning columns • Working with step lists • Working with diacritics and custom icons





Page size and margins We chose a trim size big enough to show off the food photography and accommodate the sometimes long ingredient list and step-by-step instructions. We also wanted to frame the pages with generous margins.



TRIM SIZE 7.5 × 10 inches (190 × 254 mm)  

The cookbook, it turns out, is one type of publication that is evergreen. Digital revolutions, economic downturns, even global pandemics — whatever the disruption, people still need to eat, and they still need a well-designed book to provide them instruction and inspiration.



THE BRIEF Design an illustrated cookbook with a clear hierarchy and clear, readable instructions

B

C

Edit the Glyph Set to determine which glyphs are associated with a particular font and which are not: Deselect Remember Font with Glyph to make the glyph agnostic ( ).

C

Longer Text

Cauliflower, Leek & Fennel Gratin Serves 4 | Preparation time 20 minutes | Cooking time 35 minutes | a This is great served with a simple green salad, or some steamed carrots or sweet potatoes to add some colour. It also makes a great side dish to serve with a roast. 1 medium leek, thinly sliced 1 bulb of fennel, sliced 1 medium cauliflower, separated into florets 1 large clove of garlic, sliced A teaspoon of fresh thyme, chopped Few sprays of oil Freshly ground pepper 3 tablespoons olive oil or butter 3 tablespoons plain flour 600mls milk. (I used semi skimmed 100g mature cheddar cheese, grated 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard 1 bay leaf 60g wholemeal breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons black onion seeds

01 Preheat the oven to 200°C 02 Heat a few sprays of oil in a large frying pan or wok and brown the garlic. Add the thyme, fennel and leek cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly. Set aside. 03 Steam the cauliflower for 3–4 minutes until slightly tender. 04 In a large saucepan gently heat the oil or butter. Stir in the flour and bay leaf then add the milk stirring constantly. 05 When the milk has thickened, remove the bay leaf and add the cheese and mustard. Continue to stir until the cheese has melted into the sauce. Season with black pepper. 06 Combine the breadcrumbs and onion seeds in a bowl. 07 Put the cauliflower, fennel and leek into a large oven proof dish. Cover with the sauce and then top with the breadcrumb mixture. 08 Bake in the oven for 35 minutes.

32 Sides & Mains

Sides & Mains 33 

Walnut, Pumpkin Seed & Caper Bread Makes one loaf. Preparation time around 30mins | Resting and proving 2 hours | Baking 30 minutes | b I love seedy, nutty bread and the addition of capers adds a lovely saltiness. Bread isn’t hard to make but it does need to sit for a while so be sure to plan a good time to make it. You can knead it by hand or use a food processor with a dough hook. You can use a loaf tin although I choose not to. I just shape the dough into a ‘loaf’ shape and leave it to its own devices! 500g strong white bread flour 1 teaspoon of salt 1 teaspoon of easyblend dried yeast 1 tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil 330ml warm water 40g pumpkin seeds toasted in the oven for 10 minutes at 180°C 150g walnuts 4 tablespoons capers, drained and roughly dried

01 Mix the flour, salt and yeast in a large bowl. Add the oil and water and mix 02 Remove from bowl and knead for about 10 minutes, incorporating air, until a smooth dough has formed. 03 Add the walnuts, pumpkin seeds and capers, and knead to distribute evenly. 04 Flour a clean bowl and add the dough. Cover with a tea towel and leave in a warm place until the dough has almost doubled in size. Around an hour and a half. 05 Tip the dough out of the bowl and stick your fingers in it to reduce the volume back again.

08 Dust the loaf with flour and bake at 220°C for 10 minutes then reduce the heat to 180°C and bake for a further 20 minutes.

06 Either put it into a greased loaf tin or shape as you like and cover with a tea towel and leave again for 30 minutes.

09 Remove from the oven and cool on a wire rack. Try to let it cool a little before slicing … it’s not easy!

07 Meanwhile preheat the oven to 220°C.

28 Sides & Mains

Sides & Mains 29 

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The Type Project Book

Use GREP styles: Bake repetitive formatting into the paragraph style definition through GREP styles. For example, make a character style for the fractions and automate its application by adding the following GREP style to the Ingredients paragraph style:

Photographing Food Here are some important points to remember when photographing food:

Focus on the food and remove anything that doesn’t enhance the photograph. Lenses and equipment. Use a tripod to ensure a fast-enough shutter speed. Prime lenses usually offer wider apertures and are useful in low light conditions where you can’t use a tripod. A 50mm lens is good for food photography.

Make your own icons: If you plan on using symbols (vegetarian, vegan, gluten free, etc.), consider making a custom font. This needn’t be complicated; we made a font using FontSelf Maker that has just a handful of glyphs (see “Typeface: Design your own proprietary font”). Use auto numbering: The step-by-step lists uses auto numbering, which can also incorporate a character style that is applied to the number. To remove clutter, we did away with the period after the number, and so that the numbers align with each other, chose a two-digit numbering scheme. While it is possible to achieve the alignment of one- and two-digit numbers, this option is much easier — why fight the technology?  

Multiple angles. Take photos from a variety of angles: overhead, from the side, and at an angle.

This will change one or more digits followed by a slash, followed by one or more digits to your chosen character style.





Light. Where possible, use natural light. Do not use overhead lights or built- in flash. Use reflectors and diffusers to bounce light back and reduce shadows — you can improvise with white foam board or cardboard. Sheer white fabric or a sheet over a window can help soften a light that’s too bright.  

Setting up the formats for auto numbering. In the Number field the ^# is the number placeholder and the ^t is a tab character.

Create some simple icons and make them into a font using the Fontself Maker, an Illustrator plug-in.



Control the text flow Because the spreads all follow the same format, we wanted to create a template where the text flow took care of itself. While at first glance it doesn’t look like it, the book is a five-column document. The text flows in a single frame — we used a combination of Span Columns and Keep Options to coax it into place.  

136

Here’s how it works: The first three paragraphs span all five columns. The ingredients list spans two columns one and two; the step-by-step instructions span columns four and five. To move the first of the numbered steps to the top of the wide column, a Keep Option with Start Paragraph in Next Column is applied.

Longer Text The text flows in a single 5-column text frame.

Cauliflower, Leek & Fennel Gratin Serves 4 | Preparation time 20 minutes | Cooking time 35 minutes This is great served with a simple green salad, or some steamed carrots or sweet potatoes to add some colour. It also makes a great side dish to serve with a roast.

The first 3 paragraphs span all 5 columns.

1 medium leek thinly sliced 1 bulb of fennel, sliced 1 medium cauliflower, separated into florets 1 large clove of garlic, sliced A teaspoon of fresh thyme, chopped Few sprays of oil Freshly ground pepper 3 tablespoons olive oil or butter 3 tablespoons plain flour 600mls milk (I used semi skimmed

The ingredients list spans 2 of the 5 columns.

100g mature cheddar cheese, grated 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard 1 bay leaf 60g wholemeal breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons black onion seeds

01 Preheat the oven to 200°C 02 Heat a few sprays of oil in a large frying pan or wok and brown the garlic. Add the thyme, fennel and leek cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly. Set aside. 03 Steam the cauliflower for 3–4 minutes until slightly tender. 04 In a large saucepan gently heat the oil or butter. Stir in the flour and bay leaf then add the milk stirring constantly.

The first step in the instructions moves the text to the next column.

05 When the milk has thickened, remove the bay leaf and add the cheese and mustard. Continue to stir until the cheese has melted into the sauce. Season with black pepper. 06 Combine the breadcrumbs and onion seeds in a bowl. 07 Put the cauliflower, fennel and leek into a large oven proof dish. Cover with the sauce and then top with the breadcrumb mixture. 08 Bake in the oven for 35 minutes.

The instructions span 3 of the 5 columns.

32 Sides & Mains

Because the paragraphs come in a consistent order, sequential styles can speed things up considerably. Because the text flows across more than one text frame, applying sequential styles through an object style is not an option. Instead, select the text and choose Apply [Style] and then Next Style.

Structure the page With so much information, the addition of simple rules herds the information like a good sheepdog, giving the page structure. Beneath the recipe title we added a paragraph rule set to the width of the column incorporated into the style definition. This is the same weight (0.5 pt) as the rule above the page number and the column rule that separates the ingredients from the steps. We also made sure that the vertical pipes that separate the different pieces of information in the Serves paragraph are the same weight.

Cauliflower, Leek & Fennel Gratin

Cauliflower, Leek & Fennel Gratin

Serves 4 Preparation time 20 minutes Cooking time 35 minutes a

Serves 4 | Preparation time 20 minutes | Cooking time 35 minutes | a

This is great served with a simple green salad, or some steamed carrots or sweet potatoes to add some colour. It also makes a great side dish to serve with a roast.

This is great served with a simple green salad, or some steamed carrots or sweet potatoes to add some colour. It also makes a great side dish to serve with a roast.

1 medium leek, thinly sliced 1 bulb of fennel, sliced 1 medium cauliflower, separated into florets 1 large clove of garlic, sliced A teaspoon of fresh thyme, chopped Few sprays of oil Freshly ground pepper 3 tablespoons olive oil or butter 3 tablespoons plain flour 600mls milk. (I used semi skimmed 100g mature cheddar cheese, grated 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard 1 bay leaf 60g wholemeal breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons black onion seeds

01 Preheat the oven to 200°C 02 Heat a few sprays of oil in a large frying pan or wok and brown the garlic. Add the thyme, fennel and leek cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly. Set aside. 03 Steam the cauliflower for 3–4 minutes until slightly tender. 04 In a large saucepan gently heat the oil or butter. Stir in the flour and bay leaf then add the milk stirring constantly. 05 When the milk has thickened, remove the bay leaf and add the cheese and mustard. Continue to stir until the cheese has melted into the sauce. Season with black pepper. 06 Combine the breadcrumbs and onion seeds in a bowl. 07 Put the cauliflower, fennel and leek into a large oven proof dish. Cover with the sauce and then top with the breadcrumb mixture.

1 medium leek, thinly sliced 1 bulb of fennel, sliced 1 medium cauliflower, separated into florets 1 large clove of garlic, sliced A teaspoon of fresh thyme, chopped Few sprays of oil Freshly ground pepper 3 tablespoons olive oil or butter 3 tablespoons plain flour 600mls milk. (I used semi skimmed 100g mature cheddar cheese, grated 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard 1 bay leaf 60g wholemeal breadcrumbs 2 teaspoons black onion seeds

08 Bake in the oven for 35 minutes.

32 Sides & Mains

01 Preheat the oven to 200°C 02 Heat a few sprays of oil in a large frying pan or wok and brown the garlic. Add the thyme, fennel and leek cook for 5 minutes, stirring regularly. Set aside. 03 Steam the cauliflower for 3–4 minutes until slightly tender. 04 In a large saucepan gently heat the oil or butter. Stir in the flour and bay leaf then add the milk stirring constantly. 05 When the milk has thickened, remove the bay leaf and add the cheese and mustard. Continue to stir until the cheese has melted into the sauce. Season with black pepper. 06 Combine the breadcrumbs and onion seeds in a bowl. 07 Put the cauliflower, fennel and leek into a large oven proof dish. Cover with the sauce and then top with the breadcrumb mixture. 08 Bake in the oven for 35 minutes.

32 Sides & Mains

The same page without the rules (left) and with (right). The rules help organize the information without segregating it, in the way that using boxes would do.

Having created the paragraph styles in a sequence using the Next Style option, you can apply them in one move by selecting all the text, right-clicking the first style in the sequence (01recipe), and choosing Apply “01recipe” and then Next Style.

137

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The Type Project Book

Magazine Layout

Create a six-page magazine feature article

FONTS USED Tisa, FontAwesome INSPIRATION pin.it/241ghSt

Tisa Tisa





Because Nigel likes symmetrical text blocks, we used justified type, with the paragraph differentiated by a one em first line indent; or to put it another way: a first line indent that is the same size as your type. To create a steady rhythm to the type, the text is aligned to the baseline grid. Working with justified type, it’s especially necessary to customize the Hyphenation and Justification settings to avoid gappy text (see the project “Fiction Classic: Design a novel with continuous text flow”). We also turned on Optical Margin Alignment (Type > Story) to push any hyphens or any punctuation at the end of the line slightly beyond the edge of the text frame to sharpen up the justified edge.  

TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop

Choosing and formatting the type We used FF Tisa by Mitja Miklavčič, a contemporary slab serif that’s highly readable, is available in a wide range of weights, and has a supporting sans serif in Tisa Sans. Because of its large x-height, we used a slightly smaller size than we might typically. In this project, we paired 9.5 pt type with a leading of 11 points. This formula of between 1 and 2 points extra leading works well for most magazine body text.









LEARNING POINTS • Designing with a layout grid • Understanding the importance of paragraph styles • Working with captions and sidebars

For most magazine work, you’ll be working with an existing template that incorporates the paragraph, character, and object styles, as well as the color swatches, and the layout grid. But for this project, let’s imagine that we’ve been assigned pages 48–53, and the template is ours to build. (Perhaps the art director has run off to join the circus, and now we’ve been put in charge — free at last!)  









TRIM SIZE 8.375 × 10.875 inches (213 × 276 mm)

Along with book design, magazine design is a fundamental typographic skill. Every graphic designer needs to be comfortable setting up and working on magazine layouts — otherwise, we’d have to admit that print is dead, and we’re not ready for that.



THE BRIEF Create a six-page magazine feature article combining text, pictures, call outs, and captions, and making effective use of white space

To prevent paragraphs from ending with a short last line, we added a GREP style that applies a No Break character style to the last eight characters of a paragraph.

with a floating column Mitja Miklavčič.Mitja fontfont. Miklavčič. 2006 fontfont.Working 2006 This project used a common and effective technique of working with a float-

and shift its position relative to the text.





a b cde f g h a bijckdlemf gnh ijk ling mcolumn. n We had a 10-column layout grid, with each of the text columns 4 grid fields wide. The floating column is the width of 2 grid fields and can opqr s t uvow pqxryszt u Av w x yshift z Aits position relative to the text columns — sometimes on the outside BCDEFGB HCIJDKELFM GH IJKedge, L Msometimes between the two, or less often, but still possible, on the inside margin. The floating column can be used for captions, white space, N OP Q R SNTOUPV QW RST U V W or straddled by an image. Working this way requires separate threaded text X Y Z 1 2 3 4X5Y6Z 78 1 29304 5 6 7 8frames 9 0 for the text, because you can’t treat the narrow column as a gutter

Longer Text

I

t is astonishing to reflect that barely more than two decades ago South Africa was a virtual no-go area for visitors. With the death of apartheid in 1991 the area’s potential exploded, and today the Cape Peninsula with it’s good climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure, is one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations, welcoming almost six million visitors annually. The geography, flora and fauna offer a treasure trove of interest from the beauty of soaring Table Mountain to the golden shores to the gentle and beguiling penguins of coastal Simon’s Town. It is a common misconception that Cape Point is the meeting point of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and the southernmost tip of Africa. In fact, the oceans meet at the actual southernmost tip, Cape Agulhas, approximately 93 miles (150 kilometers) to the south east.

Day 1: The Cape Peninsula

A drive around the Cape Peninsula from Cape Town stopping en route takes a full day, but if you have the time, you could easily devote a week to

the tour. The peninsula is a rocky outcrop formation jutting into the Atlantic Ocean with Cape Point and the Cape of Good Hope at its southern extent, and to the north Table Mountain overlooking Cape Town itself, also known as the Mother City. The Cape of Good Hope is often cited as the treacherous meeting point of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, famous for heavy seas, though Cape Town itself is not geographically the true southern meeting point. Founded 1652, Cape Town is Southern Africa’s most visited city. You really can’t overstate the case for visiting. Cradled beneath soaring Table Mountain, the city itself is a multicultural, vibrant, foodie’s paradise. It was designated World Design Capital in 2014, and hosts international sporting events in the Green Point Stadium, which has a capacity of 70,000 and was built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The stunning beauty of a Table Mountain dropping to a shimmering sea, its flanks covered in the greens and delicate florals known as the Cape Floral Kingdom, which has the highest known concentration of plant species

² The fashionable Muizenberg with its colorful Victorian beach huts is the place to be seen on the Cape Town coast. ° The African penguin is an endangered species. Sometimes known as the Jackass penguin for their distinctive call. Visitors can view the penguins at Boulders Beach near Simon’s Town on the Eastern Cape.

Day 2: The Stellensbosch vineyards

Stellensbosch is situated about 31 miles (50 kilometers) east of Cape Town, along the banks of the Eerste River at the foot of the Stellenbosch Mountain. It is the second oldest European settlement in the province, after Cape Town. The name Stellensbosch is famous worldwide as the regional hub of top class South African wine, synonymous with wine production and perhaps the most famous wine-producing region in South Africa. Stellenbosch town was settled originally nearly three hundred years ago by French Huguenots who quickly recognized the potential of the areas almost Mediterranean microclimate and soil structures. Stellenbosch wine tours have become something of a pilgrimage for those fascinated by viticulture. The high clay content of the granite and sandstone soils found throughout Stellenbosch means that they are both free draining and have excellent

² Sign at the Cape of Good Hope

50

in the world. With its diverse habitat, ranging from rocky mountain tops to beaches and open sea, the Cape is home to at least 250 species of birds including one of the two mainland colonies of African penguins. In addition, there are Cape mountain zebra, several species of antelope, and a wealth of small animals such as lizards, snakes, tortoises and insects. Small mammals include rock hyrax or dassie, four-striped grass mouse, water mongoose, Cape clawless otter and fallow deer. The area offers excellent vantage points for whale watching. The southern right whale is the species most likely to be seen in False Bay between June and November. Other species are the humpback whale and Bryde’s whale. Seals, dusky dolphins and killer whales have also been seen. The position of the Cape of Good Hope between two major ocean currents, ensures a rich diversity of marine life. There is a difference between the sea life west of Cape Point and that to the east due to the markedly differing sea temperatures. The lower slopes of Table Mountain divide the city below into distinct zones with public gardens, wilderness, forests and vineyards. A cable car ride up the Mountain offers a giddy northern vista of the distant city center and to the west the grand sweep of the mountainous Twelve Apostles. On top of the Mountain the drop seems sheer and the eye sweeps across Africa’s most expensive real estate, clinging to the slopes along the spectacular Atlantic Seaboard. Capetonians make full use of this land of outdoor adventure and hiking and mountain biking are very popular. There’s also excellent windsurfing at Temple Bay, whilst the brave and foolish launch from Lion’s Head to paraglide to the Clifton beachfront.

Travel Monthly

May 2018

³ The cable car ascent is a five-minute scenic ride. The more adventurous may climb the mountain using established hiking trails. Visitors discover a World Heritage Site of rich biodiversity, rare and endangered species, including the rather cute rodent-like Dassie, purportedly the smallest living relative to the African elephant. Dassie are famously docile, love to sunbathe, and can often be seen loitering around the cable car restaurant, a charming first sighting of local fauna for visitors.

May 2018

Travel Monthly

51

Stellenbosch is the heart of South Africa’s wine industry. Vineyards cover its gently rolling hills from Helderberg in the south to the lower slopes of Simonsberg Mountain in the north.

water-retention properties. Sufficient rainfall in winter allows growers to keep irrigation to a minimum. The region also benefits from the maritime influence of False Bay in the south with cooling breezes refreshing the grapes after the morning’s hot sun. As a result Stellenbosch now boasts seven wards recognized with Wine of Origin status, while the areas of Helderberg and Stellenboschkloof have developed their own distinctive wine styles. Several specialist operators offer Stellensbosch guided wine tours of the more than 150 wine farms and estates. Many of the areas best restaurants are located on vineyards, providing diners with the opportunity to enjoy their meals along with wonderful wine and breathtaking views of mountains jutting into the horizon.

Day 3: Robben Island

Robben Island — the name is from the Dutch for ‘Seal Island’ — lies 4.25 miles (6.9 km) west of coastal Cape Town. Roughly oval in shape and comprising just over 3 miles (5 km) square, it gained worldwide infamy for the incarceration of Nelson Mandela and the leaders of the African National Congress under the apartheid regime. However, the amazing history of this island reaches back centuries further. Its first known inmate was a Dutch trader and interpreter named

52

Travel Monthly

³ ‘Not being able to interact with children for twenty years was possibly the most difficult thing to endure during my time on the Island. There is poetic justice that children all over the world are able now to visit Robben Island.’ — Ahmed Kathrada, former prisoner

Autshumato, imprisoned for one and a half years for offending the authorities. He lays claim to being the first escapee from the island, though others have not been so lucky. After a failed uprising at Grahamstown in 1819, the colonial government sentenced Xhosa leader Makhanda Nxele to life imprisonment on the island. The following year Makhanda escaped along with 30 other prisoners. Although several survived, Makhanda drowned. Since he had promised his people he would never abandon them, they continued to hope for his return for another 50 years before funeral rites were observed. The Island also includes a sacred Muslim site, Moturu Kramat, built to commemorate the first imam of Cape Town imprisoned on the island and perishing there in 1754. The island was employed as a leper colony from 1845, initially on a voluntary basis, but subsequently with a Leprosy Repression Act in 1892 lepers were effectively imprisoned. That colony subsisted until 1931, following which the island was employed for whaling, and during the Second World War for military defense with heavy guns installed as part of the defenses for Cape Town. From 1961 the island held political prisoners, which is where Nelson Mandela takes his place. But history has moved on for Robben Island. It closed as a maximum-security prison May 2018

in 1991 with the collapse of apartheid. Now it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site managed as a living museum where visitors can tour the island and prison, and see the place where Mandela almost lost his sight breaking white rocks in the midday sun. The Island is open all year round, weather permitting. Take the ferry from the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront. Time and again the Mother City has topped global travel lists for its  dramatic geography, floral beauty, and cultural vibrancy, making it a great destination any time of year. But the best times to visit Cape Town are from March to May and from September to November. You’ll find enviable weather, fewer crowds, and lower prices. When planning your trip, it’s important to note that the seasons here are reversed: South Africa’s summer corresponds with the northern hemisphere’s winter, and vice versa. That said, Cape Town’s summer is the most popular (and most expensive) time to visit. Hotels and attractions are usually overflowing with travelers. Meanwhile, the Mother City clears out between June and August, which can be wet, but this is when the Cape flora bursts into life, the beaches are relatively empty, and great holiday bargains can be found. n May 2018

CA PE TOW N FACTS ² The Cape Peninsula is 32 miles (52 Km) long from Mouille Point in the north to Cape Point in the south. It has stood as an island on several occasions in geological history, according to rise and fall of ocean levels. ² The Cape Peninsula was originally nicknamed the “Cape of Storms” by legendary explorer Bartholomew Dias. Later, it became known as the Cape of Good Hope because it offered colonial powers the promise of a sea route to the East. ² Cape Town is the provincial capital of the Western Cape and home to South Africa’s parliament. With a population of 3.7 Million, it is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa, after Johannesburg. ² Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate with mild, moderately wet winters (June-August) and dry, warm summers (early December to March). Travel Monthly

53

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The Type Project Book

Combining text and images Where images are grouped together, make sure the horizontal and vertical gutters between them are the same.





When continuing images to the edge of the page, be sure to extend all the way to the bleed guide — set at ⅛ inch outside the page trim (unless instructed otherwise by your printer) and displayed in red. Images with a lot of sky make good candidates for bleeding to the edge, giving a more expansive look to the image. At the same time, bleeding an image to the edge will deprive it of its framing rectangle of white space. There are no definitive right or wrong answers, so be prepared to try both options to see what works best. Where possible, combine the rectangular images with cut-out images, to break up the boxiness of the spread. Or consider different picture frame shapes.

I

t is astonishing to reflect that barely more than two decades ago South Africa was a virtual no-go area for visitors. With the death of apartheid in 1991 the area’s potential exploded, and today the Cape Peninsula with it’s good climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure, is one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations, welcoming almost six million visitors annually. The geography, flora and fauna offer a treasure trove of interest from the beauty of soaring Table Mountain to the golden shores to the gentle and beguiling penguins of coastal Simon’s Town. It is a common misconception that Cape Point is the meeting point of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and the southernmost tip of Africa. In fact, the oceans meet at the actual southernmost tip, Cape Agulhas, approximately 93 miles (150 kilometers) to the south east.

Day 1: The Cape Peninsula

A drive around the Cape Peninsula from Cape Town stopping en route takes a full day, but if you have the time, you could easily devote a week to

the tour. The peninsula is a rocky outcrop formation jutting into the Atlantic Ocean with Cape Point and the Cape of Good Hope at its southern extent, and to the north Table Mountain overlooking Cape Town itself, also known as the Mother City. The Cape of Good Hope is often cited as the treacherous meeting point of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, famous for heavy seas, though Cape Town itself is not geographically the true southern meeting point. Founded 1652, Cape Town is Southern Africa’s most visited city. You really can’t overstate the case for visiting. Cradled beneath soaring Table Mountain, the city itself is a multicultural, vibrant, foodie’s paradise. It was designated World Design Capital in 2014, and hosts international sporting events in the Green Point Stadium, which has a capacity of 70,000 and was built for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The stunning beauty of a Table Mountain dropping to a shimmering sea, its flanks covered in the greens and delicate florals known as the Cape Floral Kingdom, which has the highest known concentration of plant species

² The fashionable Muizenberg with its colorful Victorian beach huts is the place to be seen on the Cape Town coast.

water-retention properties. Sufficient rainfall in winter allows growers to keep irrigation to a minimum. The region also benefits from the maritime influence of False Bay in the south with cooling breezes refreshing the grapes after the morning’s hot sun. As a result Stellenbosch now boasts seven wards recognized with Wine of Origin status, while the areas of Helderberg and Stellenboschkloof have developed their own distinctive wine styles. Several specialist operators offer Stellensbosch guided wine tours of the more than 150 wine farms and estates. Many of the areas best restaurants are located on vineyards, providing diners with the opportunity to enjoy their meals along with wonderful wine and breathtaking views of mountains jutting into the horizon.

° The African penguin is an endangered species. Sometimes known as the Jackass penguin for their distinctive call. Visitors can view the penguins at Boulders Beach near Simon’s Town on the Eastern Cape. ² Sign at the Cape of Good Hope

Day 3: Robben Island

50

Travel Monthly







Sidebars and captions Sidebar text makes a magazine layout more varied, and the addition of short, snappy prose in a box can keep the reader engaged. Sidebar text should contrast with the body text, so it’s clear that it’s a different sort of content. At the same time, there should be stylistic continuity — you don’t want the fonts to clash, like that time you wore a striped shirt with plaid pants. Many typefaces have matching or related versions, and that’s the case with Tisa: We set the sidebar and caption text in the bold weight of Tisa’s cousin, Tisa Sans. The bullets were formatted with the Bullets and Numbering dialog box, and include a character style that assigns a specific character (an arrow from Font Awesome) and color to the bullet itself. The bullet paragraph is a hanging indent — indented on the left, but with a negative first line indent.  

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May 2018

The floating column used for white space and captions

Robben Island — the name is from the Dutch for ‘Seal Island’ — lies 4.25 miles (6.9 km) west of coastal Cape Town. Roughly oval in shape and comprising just over 3 miles (5 km) square, it gained worldwide infamy for the incarceration of Nelson Mandela and the leaders of the African National Congress under the apartheid regime. However, the amazing history of this island reaches back centuries further. Its first known inmate was a Dutch trader and interpreter named

52

Travel Monthly

³ ‘Not being able to interact with children for twenty years was possibly the most difficult thing to endure during my time on the Island. There is poetic justice that children all over the world are able now to visit Robben Island.’ — Ahmed Kathrada, former prisoner

Autshumato, imprisoned for one and a half years for offending the authorities. He lays claim to being the first escapee from the island, though others have not been so lucky. After a failed uprising at Grahamstown in 1819, the colonial government sentenced Xhosa leader Makhanda Nxele to life imprisonment on the island. The following year Makhanda escaped along with 30 other prisoners. Although several survived, Makhanda drowned. Since he had promised his people he would never abandon them, they continued to hope for his return for another 50 years before funeral rites were observed. The Island also includes a sacred Muslim site, Moturu Kramat, built to commemorate the first imam of Cape Town imprisoned on the island and perishing there in 1754. The island was employed as a leper colony from 1845, initially on a voluntary basis, but subsequently with a Leprosy Repression Act in 1892 lepers were effectively imprisoned. That colony subsisted until 1931, following which the island was employed for whaling, and during the Second World War for military defense with heavy guns installed as part of the defenses for Cape Town. From 1961 the island held political prisoners, which is where Nelson Mandela takes his place. But history has moved on for Robben Island. It closed as a maximum-security prison May 2018

Longer Text

CA PE TOW N FACT S

² The Cape Peninsula is 32 miles (52 Km) long from Mouille Point in the north to Cape Point in the south. It has stood as an island on several occasions in geological history, according to rise and fall of ocean levels.

Capturing all these formats: the paragraph, character, and object style may seem laborious first time round, but every time you do, you are creating formats that can be reused again and again. The more you do this, the more time you will save by using styles, so if you’re in it for the long haul, it’s worth investing the time to get familiar with how styles work. Not only will your documents look better, but you’ll save yourself, days, weeks, and months of your valuable time.



Save the sidebar frame as an object style incorporating Paragraph Styles and Apply Next Style. This will allow you to apply multiple formats — the bullets, the border, the frame color, corner options, and auto-sizing to name but a few — with a single click.  

Set the Fill opacity and the Text opacity independently to allow a suggestion of the image behind to show through.

² Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate with mild, moderately wet winters (June-August) and dry, warm summers (early December to March).



Where the captions are positioned over an image, the fill color (white) is reduced to an opacity of 85%, allowing a hint of the background image to show through. InDesign lets you change the opacity of the fill, the stroke, and the text independently, so make sure it’s only the fill you are changing. The text should remain at 100% so that it’s readable. Also, position the caption over a non-busy part of the image, like a blue sky, so that the caption is still readable.

² Cape Town is the provincial capital of the Western Cape and home to South Africa’s parliament. With a population of 3.7 Million, it is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa, after Johannesburg.

Once you have a prototype sidebar looking how you want it, capture its formats as an object style. Because the sidebar text follows a predictable sequence, we incorporated the paragraph style and Apply Next Style as part of the object style definition. If you’re working on other pages in the magazine, you’ll now be able to apply object and text formatting with a single click. Another approach is to put a copy of the sidebar in a CC Library, and, the next time you need a sidebar frame, just drag that onto the page and replace its contents.

² The Cape Peninsula was originally nicknamed the “Cape of Storms” by legendary explorer Bartholomew Dias. Later, it became known as the Cape of Good Hope because it offered colonial powers the promise of a sea route to the East.



To make the sidebar less “boxy,” we sliced off its top-right corner. For the corner sizing shape options, with the chain broken, we chose a bevel of 18 points for the top-right corner.



The heavy rule on the left side of the sidebar frame is a paragraph border and so will move and resize dynamically with the text.

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142

The Type Project Book

Menu

Design a menu for your favorite restaurant







TOOLS InDesign, Illustrator FONTS USED English Grotesque, Clarendon Text INSPIRATION pin.it/15njGhA

As with any project, start by researching how others have solved similar problems; look at other menus, especially from competing establishments.

Type choice and document setup Because nostalgia is an important motivator when it comes to food, we chose a vintage design vibe that evokes a past era (probably one that never existed) when food was fresher, healthier, and tastier. The slab serif Clarendon also has the advantage of being easily read in the restaurant’s romantically lit booths and corners. The green used as an accent color reinforces the healthy, natural theme. Restaurant-goers expect a menu to follow a basic format. Now is not the time to conceptually and visually challenge your audience. The item descriptions should be short and unpretentious — but enticing enough to make a guest’s mouth water. We put the restaurant logo and name at the top of the menu. The logo is created in Illustrator so that we could add the shaded and extruded shadow — an effect not possible in InDesign. The hierarchy is unambiguous, with the menu broken into clear sections — starters, mains, desserts, and so on. Because space is tight, the limited white space is used carefully to organize the information and guide the reader.  

abcadbecfd ge hfig jkhlim jknlmn opqorpsqtu rsvtw uxvywzxAyzA BCD BC ED FG EH FG IJH KILJKL M NM ON PQ OP RQ ST RU SV TUV XYZX1Y2Z314253647586970890





PatrickPatrick Griffin.Griffin. Canada Canada Type. 2004 Type. 2004



For this brief, we invented our own fantasy restaurant, one that serves some of our favorite dishes and beverages. The restaurant has an informal, shabby chic, eclectic vibe that we want the menu to reflect and promote. It is a wooden-floor, comfy-seats, not-too-brightly lit, not-too-loud kind of place that offers an unhurried dining experience that won’t break the bank.



Cla Crle an rednodnon TeT xet xt

Designing a menu brings up many common design considerations, including page size, font, and color choice. There is also the challenge of how to present a large amount of information in a finite amount of space — in a way that is both appealing and functional.  

LEARNING POINTS • Establishing hierarchy • Working with inline frames • Using best practices for easy editing

Horror of horrors! You’d be forgiven if you gave up your reservation and rushed home to prepare your own meal, complete with a handsome menu.



TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

Imagine you’ve finally gotten reservations at the hot new restaurant in town. You and your date sit down to order, and suddenly you’re stopped cold. The menu is horribly designed, with clashing typefaces and poor letterspacing. There’s no way to easily distinguish the main courses from the appetizers, and the descriptions of the dishes are set in type that is impossible to read without a magnifying glass.



THE BRIEF Create a menu (front and back) for a real or fictional restaurant/café. The document should be constructed so that it can be easily edited by someone with only basic InDesign skills. Because it will be printed on a desktop printer, no bleeds are allowed.

Budget and practical considerations must also be taken into account. How often will the menu be updated and by whom? Our menu was designed to be printed on an office laser or inkjet printer so that it can be updated as needed, daily if necessary. For this reason, there are no elements that bleed to the edge of the page. Clearly named paragraph styles include all

Longer Text

123 Main Street Brighton (01273) 555-1234 davidsrestaurant.com  davidsrestaurant

E S T.

1965

DAVID’S DAVID’S

Monday–Friday Lunch 12:00–15:00 Dinner 18:00–23:00 Saturday Sunday 11:00–23:00 11:00–22:00

R E STAU R A NT

S TA RT E R S

SIDES

Toasted Focaccia with Hummus & Olives 4

Garlicky Mash with Crushed Leeks Oven roasted garlic and delicate leeks add oomph to creamy mashed potatoes 4

Stone Baked Bread with aged balsamic & extra virgin olive oil

3

Pea & Watercress Soup with mixed seeds, olive oil & toasted focaccia

5

Crispy Fried Cauliflower with kimchi, pickled red onions & red pepper dressing 6 Guacamole con Totopos Mashed avocado with cilantro, onion, chilies and lime Seared Brussels Sprouts smoked tofu, orange miso glaze, ginger-nori aioli

10 9

MAINS Enchiladas Verdes Two rolled tortillas filled with potato, zucchini and peas topped with tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. Served with sautéed greens and beans 17 Tamal Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy tomato salsa. Served with black beans 16 Black Bean Burger House made black bean patty on an Acme bun with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. Served with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16 Roasted Artichoke Tandoor glazed grilled portobello mushroom, black lentil masala, roasted garlic & fenugreek polenta, carrot-cucumber-pomegranate-mint coconut raita, spicy green mango chutney 16 Tacos Three corn tortillas filled with eggplant, butternut squash and mushrooms, lettuce, pico de gallo, cilantro, onion and cashew cheese. Served with black beans 17 Platanos con Mole Negro Fried plantains topped with mole, cashew cream and sesame seeds. Served with beans and tortillas 16

Herby Polenta Fries Crunchy & full of flavour 5 Tempura Vegetables Seasonal veg, in a light batter with soy dipping sauce 5 Fajita Spiced Crispy Tofu Lightly spiced & fried to perfection 5 Steamed Purple Sprouting Broccoli Vibrant & packed full of vitamins 5 Crumbed Asparagus and Red Pepper Seeded bread crumbs add texture & crunch, served with garlic cashew cream 6 Crunchy Spiced Chickpeas Oven baked with cumin, chilli and cinnamon 4 Sesame Glazed Carrots Oven baked with a maple glaze & liberal sprinkling of sesame seeds 5 Please inform your server of any allergies before placing your order, as not all ingredients can be listed. Detailed allergen information is available upon request. We cannot guarantee the total absence of allergens in our dishes.

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The Type Project Book

the necessary text formatting. Along with the logo, address, and opening hours, the page frame and inter-column rules are on the master page, and so implicitly locked and safe from harm when the document is updated. As well as the print version, a PDF can easily be output for inclusion on the restaurant’s website.













We chose a standard US letter (or A4) size because it’s easy to hold and easy to reproduce. The menu will be updated regularly — and not necessarily by an InDesign whiz — so the document’s construction should be as transparent as possible and the required materials as available as possible. We resisted the use of potentially confusing nested styles and the need for origami folds. The color palette is limited — in part for the same reason, but also because black-on-white text provides the best contrast, especially in a dimly lit environment and, not least, because simpler is better. To add visual and tactile appeal, the menu will be printed on an off-white, lightly textured paper, and presented on a clipboard.





Text formatting considerations Like so many projects, the menu challenges us to cram in a lot of information and make it look good. While run-in heads for the menu items would save space, the information would not be as clear, and the formatting of the text would be fussy. For readability, the text is in upper- and lowercase, and we’ve used ampersands to save space — and because everybody loves ampersands. The center alignment of the text creates even white space either side of the line and prevents visually jarring long and short lines in the same paragraph; I turned on Balance Ragged Lines in Indents and Spacing. Hyphenation is turned off. While hyphenation is a necessary compromise with prose, it has no place on a menu.

A 123 Main Street Brighton (01273) 555-1234 davidsrestaurant.com  davidsrestaurant

E ST.

1965

DAVID’S DAVID’S

Monday–Friday Lunch 12:00–15:00 Dinner 18:00–23:00 Saturday Sunday 11:00–23:00 11:00–22:00

R E STAU R A NT

SALADS Simple Green Salad Green leaves with a simple olive oil dressing

DRINKS 4

Walnut, Cranberry and Capers with Arugula & Watercress Crunchy & packed full of flavor, served with a simple french dressing 6 Asparagus & Kale Caesar Salad Griddled asparagus adds a new twist to a Caesar salad Beetroot, Lentil & Blackberry Salad Beetroot hummus, apple, blueberries, candied beets, mint, mixed seeds & blackberry dressing 8 New Potato, Beetroot, Orange & Spinach with a Balsamic Dressing A vibrant salad to add color to your plate 7

DE S SERTS Melting Banoffee Sundae with bananas, salted caramel ice cream, biscuit chunks, whipped cream and warm salted caramel sauce 7 Mini Cinnamon Doughnuts with fresh strawberries, warm chocolate and salted caramel dipping sauces 6 Lemongrass Crème Brulée matcha ice cream, black & white sesame brittle, passion fruit curd, star fruit 8 Chocolate Macadamia Nut Torte cocoa macadamia crust, macadamia praline cream, chocolate syrup, kale mint chip ice cream, dark chocolate-mint bark 8 Triple Chocolate Brownie with warm chocolate sauce, vanilla ice cream and a chocolate flake 6 Chocolate & Hazelnut Praline Sphere Salted caramel ice cream with chocolate and hazelnut mousse, velvety chocolate sauce & golden pearls 7 Apple & Salted Caramel Crumble with vanilla ice cream & custard 6

Harvey’s Best Bitter Smooth & creamy, from our favourite English brewer 5 Dry Martini Grey Goose vodka, served ice cold with a twist of lemon 9 Pink Gin Fizz Classy and elegant, using our favourite pink gin & topped with Californian fizz 9 Ginger, Honey & Lime Margarita With fresh ginger and honey 9 Extra Sour Cloudy Lemonade Made fresh—your daily dose of vitamin C 5 Ginger Shots Freshly juiced ginger and apple juice, extra strong & spicy 5 Hot Chocolate Warm and creamy made with hazelnut ‘milk’ for added depth of flavor 5 Lime and Chilli Zinger Refreshing and tart lime juice with a hint of spice 5 Iced Chai Tea Cooler Cool, refreshing and aromatic, topped with soda water for an added sparkle 5 Coffee A full range of espresso drinks available 3–5 Tea A wide selection of herbal teas available 3



The menu is created on a 12-column, 5-row grid. The layout grid is added on the Master Page using Layout > Create Guides.  

144

The text is center aligned, creating equal white space either side of the paragraph. To avoid long lines and short lines ( ), Balance Ragged Lines is included in the Paragraph Style definition ( ). Hyphenation is turned off.

A

B

B

B

To make the document easier to edit by someone with basic InDesign skills, we made each section its own text frame. The frames are set to auto-size (height only, from the top) to minimize any confusion about possible overset text. Using a layout grid means each frame can be docked into place on the page, fitting together like a jigsaw. Setting the text frames to auto-size avoids the recurring problem of text becoming overset. It also keeps your layout tidy because the text frames will be only as big as they need to be to accommodate the text.

Longer Text

With so much information, it’s vital to use the limited white space purposefully. Each item is preceded with a consistent amount of space before, which is incorporated into the paragraph style definition. Rules help to organize the information into sections. To frame the page, a rectangle is combined with an oval using the Pathfinder Add to make an arch. The section heads have rules either side of the text. This is created with a paragraph rule below. E S T.slice through 1965 E S T. rule above 1965 So that the rule doesn’t the text itself, a paragraph Monday–Friday 123 Main Street 123 Main Street Lunch 12:00–15:00 WA 09876 Seattle, WA 09876 Dinner 18:00–23:00 thatSeattle, is the same color as the paper is also added to provide the white space (555) 123-6543 (555) 123-6543 davidsrestaurant.com Saturday Sunday davidsrestaurant.com padding around the text.  davidsrestaurant 11:00–23:00 11:00–22:00 R E STAU R A NT  davidsrestaurant R E STAU R A NT

There are some perfectly serviceable, free InDesign menu templates available if you scroll down in InDesign’s New dialog box. If you’re in a hurry or if you just like the look of these templates — these can be a good starting point. You’ll also find paid templates at design resource sites like Creative Market and Graphic River. Monday–Friday

DAVID’S DAVID’S

S TA RT E R S

DAVID’S

S I D E SS T A R T E R S

Tempura Vegetables Seasonal veg, in a light batter with soy dipping sauce 5

Tempura Vegetables Seasonal veg, in a light batter with soy dipping sauce 5

Tamal Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy tomato salsa. Served with black beans 16

16

MAINS

The relationship between the dish title and its description is reinforced by the spacing.





In presenting the prices of the dishes, I’ve omitted the currency symbols, Tacos Three corn tortillas filled with eggplant, butternut squash and mushrooms, pico de gallo,because cilantro, onion the customers know what currency they both to savelettuce, space and and cashew cheese. Served with black beans 17 available upon request. will be using. Tempting as it is to align the prices to the so that they We cannot guarantee Platanos con Mole Negro Platanos conright Mole Negro theFried totalplantains absence of Fried plantains topped with mole, cashew cream and topped with mole, cashew cream and seeds. Served with beans and 16 insteadallergens inseeds. ourthe dishes. can sesame be easily scanned, wetortillas chose tosesame offset price with just an Served with beans and tortillas 16 em space (Cmd+Shift+M/Ctrl+Shift+M). This helps the guest to focus on the food rather than compare prices. This might seem like a cynical ploy by the restaurant to bury the price, but its intention is to draw focus to the dish rather than its cost. There is a psychology around numbers, with prices ending in 99 suggesting value, but not necessarily quality, while those ending in 95 apparently suggest friendliness. Our fantasy restaurant has no need for such fussiness or pop psychology, and so all the prices are rounded — down rather than up. Some line art adds visual interest and a vintage feel. Because pictures of dishes are more suited to a diner or fast-food joint, both for aesthetics and for ease of reproduction, there are no photographs.



While “David’s Restaurant” exists only in our heads, whatever sort of menu you’re designing, you will face similar design considerations. Make sure that your font and color choices reinforce the restaurant’s image. The menu design should complement the style of the restaurant, and the text should be both easily editable and readable. Squinting while holding the menu at arm’s length is not a good look for the customers — although sharing reading glasses could be an icebreaker on a first date.  

E S T.

1965

DAVID’S DAVID’S R E STAU R A NT

S TA RT E R S

Fajita Spiced Crispy Tofu Lightly spiced & fried to perfectionEnchiladas 5 Verdes Two rolled tortillas filled with potato, zucchini and Steamed Purple peas topped with tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. Sprouting Broccoli Served with sautéed greens and beans 17 Vibrant & packed full of vitamins 5 Tamal Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the Crumbed Asparagus husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy and Red Pepper tomato salsa. Served with black beans 16 Seeded bread crumbs add texture & crunch, Black Bean Burger served with garlic House cream made black cashew 6 bean patty on an Acme bun with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. Crunchy Spiced Served with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16 Chickpeas Artichoke Tandoor Oven bakedRoasted with cumin, glazed grilled portobello mushroom, black lentil chilli and cinnamon 4 masala, roasted garlic & fenugreek polenta, Sesame Glazed Carrots coconut Pleasecarrot-cucumber-pomegranate-mint inform your Oven raita, bakedspicy with a green mango chutney 16 server of any allergies maple glaze & liberal before placing your order, sprinkling of Tacos as not all ingredients sesame seeds filled 5 Three corn tortillas with eggplant, butternut squash can be listed. Detailed and mushrooms, lettuce, pico de gallo, cilantro, onion allergen information is and cashew cheese. Served with black beans 17

A common device on menus is to use shapes and/or shading to bring attenBlack Bean Burger tion to certain items. We called out the daily specials in a tinted rectangle. We House made black bean patty on an Acme bun with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. originally tried this with a combination of Paragraph Borders and Shading, Served with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16 Artichoke Tandoor but foundRoasted it too fussy, so opted instead to make these into inline objects, glazed grilled portobello mushroom, black lentil masala, garlic & fenugreek whichcarrot-cucumber-pomegranate-mint are roasted set to auto sizepolenta, according to the amount of content. coconut raita, spicy green mango chutney

Sunday 11:00–22:00

Garlicky Mash with Crushed Leeks Oven roasted garlic and 123 Main Street to delicate leeks add oomph Seattle, WA 09876 4 creamy mashed potatoes (555) 123-6543 Herby Polenta Fries davidsrestaurant.com Crunchy full of flavour 5 & davidsrestaurant

Herby Polenta Fries Crunchy & full of flavour 5

MAINS

Lunch 12:00–15:00 Dinner 18:00–23:00

Saturday 11:00–23:00

SIDES

Garlicky Mash with Crushed Leeks Oven roasted garlic and delicate leeks add oomph to creamy mashed potatoes 4

The proximityEnchiladas is vague.Verdes The dish names Two rolled filled with potato, of zucchini are closer totortillas the description the and peas topped with tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. dish above. Served with sautéed greens and beans 17



Starting with a Template



Spacing and hierarchy

145

Fajita Spiced Crispy Tofu Toasted Focaccia Lightly spiced & fried withto Hummus & Olives....................................................................$4.20 perfection 5 Steamed PurpleStone Baked Bread with aged balsamic & extra virgin olive oil .............................. $3.50 Sprouting Broccoli Vibrant & packedPea full & Watercress Soup of vitamins 5 with mixed seeds, olive oil & toasted focaccia ................................$5 Crumbed Asparagus Crispy Fried Cauliflower and Redpickled Pepper with kimchi, red onions & red pepper dressing .............$6 Seeded bread crumbs Guacamole con Totopos add texture & crunch, Mashed avocado with served with garlic cilantro, onion, chilies and lime ...... $10.25

cashew creamSeared 6 Brussels Sprouts smoked tofu, orange E S T. aioli ......................$9 1965 Crunchy Spicedmiso glaze, ginger-nori 123 Main Street Chickpeas Seattle, WA 09876 Oven baked with cumin, (555) 123-6543 chilli and cinnamon 4 Enchiladas Verdes davidsrestaurant.com Sesame Glazed rolledCarrots tortillas filled with potato, zucchini and  Two davidsrestaurant R E STAU RA NT Oven baked with a tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. peas topped with maple glaze & liberal Served with sautéed greens and beans 17 sprinkling of sesame Tamal Please inform your seeds 5 Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the server of any allergies husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy before placing your order, tomato salsa. Served Focaccia with black beans 16 as not all ingredients Toasted can be listed. Detailed with Hummus & Olives 4 Black Bean Burger allergen information is Stone Baked Bread House made black bean patty on an Acme bun available upon request. with aged balsamic & extra virgin olive oil 3 with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. We cannot guarantee Servedof with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16 Pea & Watercress Soup the total absence mixed seeds, olive oil & toasted focaccia 5 allergens with in our dishes. Roasted Artichoke Tandoor glazed grilled portobello mushroom, black lentil Crispy Fried Cauliflower masala, roasted garlic & fenugreek polenta, with kimchi, pickled red onions & red pepper dressing 6 carrot-cucumber-pomegranate-mint coconut Guacamole con Totopos raita, spicy green mango chutney 16 Mashed avocado with cilantro, onion, chilies and lime 10

DAVID’S DAVID’S

M A Ithe N Sitem and the Dot leaders between price look over formal. The currency symbol is repetitive and unnecessary. S TA RT E R S

Tacos Sprouts Seared Brussels Three corntofu, tortillas filled withglaze, eggplant, butternut squash smoked orange miso ginger-nori aioli 9 and mushrooms, lettuce, pico de gallo, cilantro, onion and cashew cheese. Served with black beans 17

M A I Nfor S friendliness The prices are rounded Platanos con Mole Negro Verdes and Fried simplicity; all clutter is removed. plantains Enchiladas topped with mole, cashew cream and Two rolled tortillas filled with potato, zucchini and sesame seeds. Served with beans and tortillas 16 peas topped with tomatillo salsa, crema and avocado. Served with sautéed greens and beans 17 Tamal Stone ground heirloom masa, steamed in the husk, filled with butternut squash and spicy tomato salsa. Served with black beans 16

Black Bean Burger House made black bean patty on an Acme bun with escabeche, tomato, avocado and chipotle aioli. Served with pineapple jalepeno coleslaw 16 Roasted Artichoke Tandoor glazed grilled portobello mushroom, black lentil masala, roasted garlic & fenugreek polenta, carrot-cucumber-pomegranate-mint coconut raita, spicy green mango chutney 16 Tacos Three corn tortillas filled with eggplant, butternut squash and mushrooms, lettuce, pico de gallo, cilantro, onion and cashew cheese. Served with black beans 17 Platanos con Mole Negro Fried plantains topped with mole, cashew cream and sesame seeds. Served with beans and tortillas 16

Monday–Fr Lunch 12:00– Dinner 18:00– Saturday 11:00–23:00

11

SIDE

Garlicky Ma Crushed L Oven roasted g delicate leeks ad creamy mashed p

Herby Polent Crunchy & full of

Tempura Veg Seasonal ve light batter w dipping sau

Fajita Spiced C Lightly spiced Monday–Fr to perfectio Lunch 12:00– Steamed P Dinner 18:00– Sprouting B Saturday Vibrant & pac 11:00–23:00 11 of vitamin

Crumbed Asp and Red Pe Seeded bread add texture & served with Garlicky cashewMas crea Crushed Le Crunchy S Oven roasted ga Chickpe delicate leeks add Ovenmashed baked wit creamy po chilli and cinna Herby Polenta Sesame Crunchy & Glazed full of fl Oven baked Tempura Vege maple glaze & Seasonal veg, in of al sprinkling Please inform yo with soy dipping seeds server of any alle Fajita beforeSpiced placingCr yo spiced as Lightly not all ingredi tolisted. perfection can be Det

SIDE

allergen informa Steamed Pu available uponBr re Sprouting WeVibrant cannot& guara pack the total absence of vitamins allergens in our

Crumbed Aspa and Red Pep Seeded bread c add texture & c served with g cashew cream

Crunchy Spiced C Oven baked with chilli and cinna

Sesame Glazed Oven baked w maple glaze & sprinkling of s seeds 5

Please inform you of any allergies be placing your order not all ingredients listed. Detailed all information is ava upon request. We c guarantee the tota of allergens in our

146

The Type Project Book

Trifold Brochure

Design a simple brochure

TRIM SIZE US Letter (flat )













LEARNING POINTS • Setting up a document with folds • Organizing the flow of information • Working with a lot of text in a small space

The humble trifold brochure: It’s everywhere. Hotel lobbies, tourist centers, train stations. Any place where people gather, you’re likely to find a rack of brochures. While there are other media — websites, posters — and many alternative brochure formats with all sorts of creative folding possibilities, the trifold (also referred to as a letter fold) remains a popular way of communicating a message. It’s simple and effective: Take a letter- or A4-size piece of paper, fold it twice, and you have a portable format divided into sections, allowing the information to be presented in easily digestible chunks, and in a given order.  

THE BRIEF Create a trifold brochure using just two colors

TOOLS InDesign, Photoshop FONTS USED Bernina Sans INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/3CFDr9D For folding ideas and information, check out foldfactory.com.

Set up the document Ah, the great trifold debate: Set up your InDesign document as two singlesided pages with guides to indicate the folds? Or set up your document with six pages, with each page functioning as a brochure panel? Passions are stirred; rifts have been caused. Well, not really… at the end of the day, you get to the same place. We used the latter approach because it makes it easier to adjust for folding compensation, i.e., making the width of the fold-in panel slightly less than the other two so that the brochure lays flat. This might seem unnecessarily complicated for such a simple format, but it’s good to be aware of the issue and to take responsibility for addressing it. At the same time, like every successful print job, this one should begin at the end. Discuss your project and your intent with your print service provider.

Outside panels

C

A

B



Create a second master page, based on master page A. Make it slightly narrower to allow for folding compensation — in this case a width of 3.625 inches ( ).  

A B

Create the six-page, single-sided document; no Primary Text Frame ( ).

Deselect Allow Document Pages to Shuffle; then rearrange the six pages into two three-page spreads ( ).

C

Apply master page B to panels 1 and 6 (the inside panels). When asked, choose “Use master page size” ( ).

D

D Inside panels

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Choosing your Yoga Class Yoga provides a number of welldocumented physical, mental and emotional benefits, including reduced blood pressure, enhanced feelings of relaxation, stress reduction, improved digestion, better posture, increased strength and flexibility and balance. Yoga also has been shown to benefit individuals with chronic diseases and disabilities through improved body awareness and orientation.

You can choose from a wide variety of yoga classes offering different types of yoga and different teachers and styles. Make sure to select an appropriate class and instructor for your skill level.

Types or styles of yoga vary in pace and emphasis from slower-paced practices that include breathing and meditation to faster, flowing movement sequences combined with rhythmic breathing. ANANDA Provides a tool for spiritual growth while releasing tension; uses silent affirmations while holding poses. ASHTANGA A vigorous practice incorporating a fast-paced series of sequential postures. BIKRAM Involves practicing a series of 26 traditional Hatha yoga postures (13 standing and 13 sitting) in a hot environment. HATHA A more relaxed practice that emphasizes breathing, strength and flexibility; good for those new to yoga. IYENGAR Focuses on proper alignment with the use of props; poses are typically held much longer than in other styles of yoga. KUNDALINI Incorporates postures with dynamic breathing techniques, chanting and meditating to awaken the energy at the base of the spine and draw it upward through each of the seven energy centers of the body (chakras). POWER YOGA A challenging and disciplined

series of poses designed with the intention of creating heat and energy flow.

Yoga Equipment 𑁍𑁍 Sticky mat — this prevents your feet from sliding on the mat and the mat from sliding on the floor. 𑁍𑁍 Gloves and socks with rubber-like pads or dots on the palms or soles. These help participants hold their positions and move safely between poses, especially in the absence of a sticky mat. 𑁍𑁍 Use blocks, straps, bolsters and blankets for modifying poses to enhance technique and body position and to increase safety and comfort for the participant. 𑁍𑁍 Yoga mats should be cleaned regularly, either with a damp cloth or sponge and mild soap or detergent. 𑁍𑁍 Yoga clothing should be comfortable and allow full range of motion. 𑁍𑁍 It is important for clothing to provide adequate coverage as you move and bend.

Hatha Yoga helped me relax and regain focus following a stressful few months at work. —  A.B., New York

After a couple of years of “regular yoga” I branched out to try Bikram — wow! What a different experience!

SIVANANDA Geared toward aiding participants in their journeys toward self discovery. SVAROOPA Incorporates proper breathing, exercise, relaxation and vegetarian diet with positive thinking and meditation. THERAPEUTIC Addresses all levels physical, emotional and spiritual of the healing process to promote health, function and enhanced quality of life for special populations — heart patients, cancer survivors or others with physical limitations. VINIYOGA A gentle yet powerful and transformative practice in which poses are synchronized with the breath in sequences determined by the practitioner. VINYASA A flow-style of yoga that melds breathing with movement. YOGA FOR FITNESS A fitness-based approach is tailored for the mainstream health club member. It utilizes strength, flexibility, balance and power to give you a full workout.

Selecting a Yoga Program

— R.S., Chicago

I reluctantly tried therapeutic yoga on a friend’s recommendation. It made me feel so much more relaxed and positive about the future. — T.M., Philadelphia

You’ll want to make sure you set up your document properly or the final print will be out of alignment and your yoga studio will refuse to give you free lessons for your design work.

For more information www.yogaselect.org 800 123-4567

To calculate the amount of folding compensation, we used the Folding Guide at universalprinting.com, which told us that the front panel and first inside panel should 1/16 or 0.0625 inch narrower, so that they fold into the other panels. We started with a six-page document with a page size of 3.6875 inches. (If inches strike you as an arcane measurement system, unfit for purpose, remember you can toggle units by right-clicking the intersection of your rulers.) Next we created a second master page (B), based on the first and used the Page tool to change its width to 3.625 inch. We selected pages 1 and 6, and Option/Alt-clicked master page B to apply the master page to them. When prompted, we chose “Use the master page size.” So that’s two panels at 3.6875 plus one panel at 3.625 for a total width of 11 inches. Now to shuffle our six pages/panels into two spreads. First, uncheck Allow Document Pages to Shuffle (don’t think too hard about the name of this menu item; it will just confuse you), then get page 2, drag it up to the right of page 1, page 3 to the right of page 2, etc., until you have two three-panel spreads.

Bernina Bernina SansSans Compressed Compressed ShokoShoko Mugikura, Mugikura, Tim Ahrens. Tim Ahrens. Just Another Just Another Foundry. Foundry. 2012 2012

abcadbecfdgehfijgkhlmijknlompnop qr s qtur svtwuxvywzxAyBzCADBECDE FGHFIJGKHLIMJKNLOMPNQORPSQTURSTU V W XV YWZX12Y3Z41253647586970890

The Type Project Book

Let’s suppose that this is a two-color print job. Practically speaking, that almost certainly means black (for the text) plus another color. If you’re going for offset, rather than digital, printing a two-color job will be more affordable, but you want to think about it more as an aesthetic choice than a budgetary constraint. Because the pictures have been selected from different sources, their style and lighting varies. One way to unify them is to convert them (or copies of them) to grayscale; this also has the added bonus of giving the brochure an understated vibe, especially when the black-and-white images are combined with a soothing cerulean blue, specifically Pantone 7459. We found this color peaceful, while at the same time strong enough to carry short passages of text and to serve as a background for white text. To extend our palette, in addition to using the color at full strength, we made tints at 75%, 50%, and 15%. Create tints of a color for consistency and so that if the parent color changes, all the tints based on it will change also. Want to be more ambitious with your brochure folds? Foldfactory.com has lots of folding ideas and information. You can use their free FoldRite Template Builder to generate an InDesign template.

The front and back of the brochure showing just the Background layer. Overlapping shapes in tints of the second color visually connect the panels. When colors cross the folds, the grain and weight of the paper need to be considered. Be sure to discuss your paper choice with your printer.











Choose the type We went with Bernina Sans Condensed Regular for the body text and Condensed Light for the heads. Sometimes when the hierarchy is clearly established through scale, we like to understate the heads by using a lighter, rather than heavier, weight. Bernina is modern but not too formal — like you’d want a yoga class to be — and elegant and svelte — like you’d want to be after a few months of yoga classes. And because the panel colors switch from 100% of the blue to paper, the text color switches between black and white. This means that even though we have only two colors, we can make an interesting palette that simultaneously offers variety and consistency.  

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For the main body of text, to save space, we used a nested style that makes the run-in head reverse out of a solid blue box. We used a couple of tricks here: Firstly, the blue box is actually an underline, made heavy enough to cover the text when its offset is shifted. Secondly, because the underline fits too tightly around the text, we added a thin space on either side of the run-in head. This small amount of space also takes on the underline and is just wide enough that the text doesn’t feel cramped. It is the use of these two thin spaces, one at the beginning and one at the end of the run-in head, which explain the delimiter we chose in the nested style definition: Apply the run-in character style through two thin spaces and then revert to the normal definition of the style.

Longer Text

A

B

Create a character style with an underline heavy enough to cover the text. You’ll need to experiment with the offset amount ( ).

A

Insert a thin space (Cmd+Shift+Option+M / Ctrl+Shift+Alt+M) either side of the run-in head to add some padding around the underline ( ).

B

B

Create a nested style to apply the character style through two thin spaces ( ).

C

C Breaking out of the boxes A potential pitfall of designing a paneled brochure is that the different panels end up looked segregated from each other, and you have a series of non-related vertical strips. To prevent this, we made sure to include elements that cross over to adjacent panels and so tie the design together. This is as simple as creating a background of overlapping shapes with differing tints of the second color. Every panel is connected with its neighbor. To the same end, we made two of the three images into cutouts. Their non-rectangular shapes are more organic and create opportunities for text wraps to add more visual interest to the blocks of type. These were masked in Photoshop. Choose Select And Mask, and then choose the Quick Selection tool and click Select Subject. Because the images were shot on a white background, it’s an easy selection for Photoshop to make. You might need to use the Refine Edge Brush tool to paint over any areas of trapped white space. Choose to output the selection to a layer mask. Save the result as a PSD file and place it into InDesign.

Bulleted lists Brochures commonly feature bulleted lists, and we wanted to use ours as opportunity for graphical interest and some further interplay with the second color. While a lotus symbol might seem a bit corny in this context, it brings up the issue of exploring the full range of glyphs available to you and incorporating an icon as your bullet character. A bulleted list also lets you apply a character style to the bullet, which in our case we used for the color.

Use the Emoji & Symbols Viewer (macOS) to find a suitable bullet character ( ). Add it as part of the paragraph style in Bullets and Numbering ( ). In Windows, press Win+. to open the Emoji Picker.

A B

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Visual TOC

Design a table of contents spread

Choose the type For our fictional magazine — let’s call it Beautiful Sussex — we want a typeface family (or families) that is highly readable, elegant without being too showy, that comes in a wide range of weights, and has all the OpenType features we anticipate using — fractions, different number styles, ligatures, etc. While there are many candidates that meet this description, we chose the slab serif Joanna Nova. What swung things in favor of this typeface family is the backstory of the type itself. Designed by Ben Jones, it’s based on Eric Gill’s original Joanna typefaces, and Eric Gill lived for much of his career in East Sussex, a stone’s throw from the places featured in the articles.  

Joanna Nova

What we’re showing here is how to create a table of contents, but also how to use this feature in ways that aren’t obvious. What we’re aiming to achieve is the kind of look you might find in an image-driven magazine where the images are given prominence.



Ben Jones. Monotype. 2015.

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INSPIRATION pin.it/12qpTjU

Just to spice things up, this example uses not one but two table of contents: one that is a list of article titles followed by a brief description of the article and the other that uses a large image from the article as bait for the reader. Also, because we don’t like to make things too easy, we’re using a trick — the descriptions in the first TOC are actually hidden text, summarizing the content of the article. This descriptive text does not appear on the spreads themselves. Rather than just reuse text from the layout, this technique give us the opportunity to describe the article in a slightly different and less repetitious way.



FONTS USED Joanna Nova



TOOLS InDesign

The Table of Contents feature in InDesign is not without its flaws. But it is robust and relatively easy to use, and it will save you a lot of grunt work, as well as ensure consistency in your formatting. Think of it as a helpful robot that wants to do the annoying work you don’t enjoy doing.









LEARNING POINTS • Generating a “live” table of contents • Designing with a grid • Establishing hierarchy

You may feel tempted to choose the brute-force approach to this problem and type in the page numbers manually. When the pagination of your document changes (and it will change), you’ll have to update those numbers and then update them again. And again. Each time, you’ll think “if only I’d listened to the authors of the The Type Project Book and used the Table of Contents feature in InDesign!” See what happens when we muddle through? We end up in a muddle.



TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

You’ve poured the text, applied the styles, snapped to grid, and completed the layout on every last page. Now there is only one thing between you and a completed project (and an invoice to send): the table of contents.



THE BRIEF Create a two-page visual table of contents spread using InDesign’s Table of Contents to generate the text and to facilitate easy updating if the pagination changes

Longer Text

10 Lewes

Contents

28 The South Downs

10 Lewes A guided walk through this pretty market town with the best viewing spots of the 1000 year old castle, and great places to eat and drink.

18 Newhaven A closer look at this channel ferry port with it’s historic fort and museum, and great views out to sea from Castle Hill.

34 Sussex in Bloom

22 Cuckmere Haven One of the most iconic views in the UK has to be the Coastguard Cottages in front of the breath taking Seven Sisters cliffs.

42 Abbot’s Wood

28 The South Downs Rediscover nature in the undulating hills of the South Downs. There are miles of trails to suit all levels of fitness whether on foot or bike.

34 Sussex in Bloom

18 Newhaven

Wildflower meadows and poppy fields make the county burst with colour throughout the spring and summer months.

42 Abbot’s Wood Acres of ancient woodland come alive in April with an abundance of bluebells erupting into bloom. This shortlived display is a must see.

52 The Ouse Valley Walk or cycle along the Sussex Ouse Valley Way taking in sights such as the magnificent viaduct with its ornate design and architectural features.

22 Cuckmere Haven

52 The Ouse Valley

Set up the table(s) of contents This TOC was created in a demo document, so we needed to use our imaginations. The page structure of the document is established, and the heads are in place on their given pages. The description text is on a hidden layer.  



Each table of contents needs its own table of contents styles — did we mention there are table of contents styles? In the pantheon of InDesign styles: paragraph, character, object, etc., the table of contents styles are not the sexiest, but like their more glamorous cousins, they do ensure consistency. And consistency is what we’re after. (Except for those times when we’re not.) For the first TOC style, choose Include Text on Hidden layers. Its description includes a character style that is applied to the page number, making it red. The page number will appear before the entry. We created the entry style TOC 1 and adjusted its formats until we were satisfied.

For the second TOC, we included the same paragraph style (h1) from the text in the magazine, but applied a different style to its entry. This is an important

The descriptive text in the main TOC is gathered from the text on the hidden “toc description” layer.

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Choose a character style to apply to the page number (optional).

The TOC will pick up all text assigned with these paragraph styles.





The key to our “trick” — the TOC finds content on the hidden layer toc description.

This style, which you can edit, is applied to the TOC entry. You can have the page number before or after the entry, or no page number at all.





This option will make your TOC entries into live bookmarks — great if outputting to PDF.

thing about the table of contents: The style that you apply to the entry can look completely different than the style from which the entry was created. Generate the first table of contents, and place the text in the space you allotted on the left page. Generate the second table of contents, and when you have the cursor loaded with the text, hold Option/Alt and drag over the picture frames to create threaded text frames that are at the same dimensions as the images. Note that the pictures are on a layer beneath, and we locked this layer for this step.  







The Table of Contents feature generated the text we needed — text can be updated when the pagination changes — but it didn’t start out looking right to begin with. We had to make several edits to the paragraph styles to get things how we wanted. The numbers reverse out of a solid color thanks to the Paragraph Shading settings that are part of the paragraph style.

Apply paragraph shading to the large numbers. Note Width is set to Text and Bottom Edge to Baseline.

To change the position of the number with the frame, apply an object style that has its text frame general options set to align the text to the bottom of the frame.



When pagination changes, select the text frame containing the Table of Contents story and choose Layout > Update Table of Contents to update the text in place.  

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Longer Text The two tables of contents: TOC Text ( ) and TOC Pictures, which runs in a series of threaded text frames ( ). Note that text threads are indicated by the blue connecting lines (View > Extras > Show Text Threads).

A

B

A B

Apply an Object Style to move the text to the bottom of the text frame.





The end result is a style-fest where table of contents styles leverage your use of paragraph styles in determining what is included in the entries. Then, in turn, the paragraph style that is applied to the entry can incorporate a character style, and to finish off, an object style can make the text fall exactly where you want it. If we said we got all this right first time, we’d be lying. There’s some back and forth. When it works, it’s like operating a well-oiled machine; when it doesn’t, just go back to the Table of Contents settings and make whatever adjustments you need to make. Once you get it right, it’s right forever. Thereafter, if the pagination changes, choose Layout > Update Table of Contents, and your numbers update while the text retains all of the formatting you’ve worked so hard to finesse.





B



A

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Form Design

No hanging chads

THE BRIEF Redesign a form that you come across in your day-to-day life. Your type choices and treatment should make the form approachable. TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

The 2000 presidential race between Republican George W. Bush and Democrat Al Gore came down to contested votes in four counties in Florida. At the center of the controversy was Palm Beach County, where they had used a butterfly ballot with two columns of names one on either side of a central spine. Voters cast their votes by punching out holes down the center, corresponding to their choice of candidate on either side of the spine.



Source Source Sans Sans Paul D. Paul Hunt. D. Hunt. Adobe. Adobe. 2012 2012

a b cadbecfdgehfigj khlim j knl m n o p qorpsqt u r svtw u vx w y zxAy z A B CD BE CFDGEH FG I JHKILJM KLM N ONPO QPRQ SR TU S TVU WV W X Y ZX1Y2Z3142536475869708 9 0

You’ll forgive us our hyperbole then, if we suggest that a badly designed form set in motion a chain of events, the consequences of which we’re living with today.  

Too often we accept ugly forms — like poorly justified text in newspapers — as a sad inevitability in a typographically compromised world. But badly designed forms do not have to be a fact of life. Applying some commonsense design thinking, such as contrast, color, hierarchy, and white space, can make all the difference.  

INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/6o9taCR For the story of the butterfly ballots used in the 2000 election check out episode 187 of the fantastic 99% Invisible podcast: 99percentinvisible.org/episode/ butterfly-effects



FONTS USED Source Sans



TOOLS InDesign

While the option for George W. Bush was clear (the first hole), the option for Al Gore (the third hole) was not obvious to voters, many of whom assumed the second name on the left would correspond to the second hole. Lifelong Democrats later discovered they might have voted for conservative Reform Party candidate, Patrick Buchanan (the choice on the butterfly ballot below Bush, but above Gore). To compound the problem, the vote counting machines couldn’t read ballots with “hanging chads” — those holes that were incompletely punched.  







LEARNING POINTS • Using InDesign tables • Thinking carefully about micro white space • Indicating hierarchy with the fewest number of changes

No one becomes a graphic designer because it is their dream to design forms. But when you’re a graphic designer, you will inevitably have to design some forms. And forms are important. Just ask Al Gore.

Format the table For this project, we’ve redesigned a typical form that one might encounter in daily life. The original is not a particularly bad example; it works as is, we just thought it could be better. Designing a form provides the opportunity for us to work with InDesign tables, which is an essential skill. Here are some tips for creating tables that are readable, friendly, and easily editable. Firstly, avoid data prison. It’s an occupational hazard that when you’re designing with tables, everything looks like a cell: There are row strokes and columns strokes, and table borders, and the contents end up looking confined. When you convert text to a table, these strokes are on be default. Before we go any further, we like to use the Preview Proxy to clear them all and then reintroduce only those that are needed.

Longer Text

Statement of Facts (including vehicle description) and sign Section H. Complete the appropriate section(s) in full

LICENSE PLATE/CF NUMBER

VEHICLE/VESSEL ID NUMBER

YEAR/MAKE

A STATEMENT FOR USE TAX EXEMPTION This transfer is exempt from use tax because it is a: … Family transfer sold between a parent, child, grandparent, grandchild, spouse, domestic partner, or siblings (if both are minors related by blood or adoption). … Addition or deletion of family member (spouse, domestic partner, parent[s], son/ daughter, grandparents, grandchildren). Gift (does not include vehicles traded between individuals, transfer of contracts or other valuable consideration). … Court Order

… Inheritance

The current market value is:

NOTE: The use Tax Exemption cannot be claimed if the vehicle/vessel being transferred was purchased from an otherwise qualifying relative who is engaged in the business of selling the same type of vehicle/vessel.

$

B STATEMENT FOR SMOG EXEMPTION The vehicle does not require a smog certification for transfer of ownership because: … The last smog certification was obtained within the last 90 days. It is powered by: … Electricity

… Diesel

… Other

… It is located outside the State of Narnia.

}

It is being transferred from/between: … The parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, sister, spouse, or domestic partner (as defined in Family Code §297) of the transferee. … A sole proprietorship to the proprietor as owner. … Companies whose principal business is leasing vehicles. There is no change in lessee or operator. … Lessor and lessee of vehicle, and no change in the lessee or operator of the vehicle. … Lessor and person who has been lessee’s operator of the vehicle for at least one year. … Individual(s) being added as registered owner(s).

Does not require smog certification unless Biennial Smog is required.

C STATEMENT FOR TRANSFER ONLY OR TITLE ONLY This vehicle has not been used or parked on a street or highway or off-highway. I am applying for a: … Transfer Only

… Title Only

The vehicle is not currently registered. It has not been driven, moved, towed, or left standing on any Narnia public highway to cause registration fees to become due. It was not transported over any Narnia public highway or operated within Narnia to cause off-highway fees to become due. Appropriate registration will be obtained before the vehicle is operated. D WINDOW DECAL FOR WHEELCHAIR LIFT OR WHEELCHAIR CARRIER Enter your Disabled Person License Plate, or Disabled Veteran License Plate, or Permanent Disabled Person Parking Placard number below: DISABLED PERSON PLATE

DISABLED VETERAN PLATE

PERMANENT DISABLED PERSON PLACARD

STATEMENT OF FACTS

The vehicle to which my Window Decal will be affixed is: LICENSE NUMBER

VEHICLE MAKE

Complete the appropriate section(s) in full (including vehicle description) and sign Section H. LICENSE PLATE/CF NUMBER

VEHICLE ID NUMBER

A.

Mail to:

VEHICLE/VESSEL ID NUMBER

YEAR/MAKE

STATEMENT FOr uSE TAx ExEMpTiON

This transfer is exempt from use tax because it is a: Family transfer sold between a parent, child, grandparent, grandchild, spouse, domestic partner, or siblings (if both are minors related by blood or adoption).

NAME

Addition or deletion of family member (spouse, domestic partner, parent[s], son/daughter, grandparents, grandchildren).

ADDRESS

CITY

Gift (does not include vehicles traded between individuals, transfer of contracts or other valuable consideration). Court Order Inheritance NOTE: The use Tax Exemption cannot be claimed if the vehicle/vessel being transferred was purchased from an otherwise qualifying relative who is engaged in the business of selling the same type of vehicle/vessel.

STATE The current market value is: $________________ ZIP .

B.

STATEMENT FOr SMOg ExEMpTiON

The vehicle does not require a smog certification for transfer of ownership because: The last smog certification was obtained within the last 90 days. It is powered by: electricity diesel Other ___________________________. It is located outside the State of It is being transferred from/between: The parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, sister, spouse, or domestic partner (as defined in Family Code §297) of the transferee.* A sole proprietorship to the proprietor as owner.* Companies whose principal business is leasing vehicles. There is no change in lessee or operator.* Lessor and lessee of vehicle, and no change in the lessee or operator of the vehicle.* Lessor and person who has been lessee’s operator of the vehicle for at least one year.* Individual(s) being added as registered owner(s).* * Does not require smog certification unless Biennial Smog is required.

C.

STATEMENT FOr TrANSFEr ONlY Or TiTlE ONlY This vehicle has not been used or parked on a street or highway or off-highway. i am applying for a: Transfer Only Title Only The vehicle is not currently registered. It has not been driven, moved, towed, or left standing on any public highway to cause registration fees to become due. It was not transported over any public highway or operated within to cause off-highway fees to become due. Appropriate registration will be obtained before the vehicle is operated.

D.

wiNDOw DECAl FOr wHEElCHAir liFT Or wHEElCHAir CArriEr

Enter your Disabled Person License Plate, or Disabled Veteran License Plate, or Permanent Disabled Person Parking Placard number below: DISABLED PERSON PLATE

DISABLED VETERAN PLATE

PERMANENT DISABLED PERSON PLACARD

The vehicle to which my Window Decal will be affixed is: LICENSE NUMBER

VEHICLE MAKE

VEHICLE ID NUMBER

Mail to: NAME

ADDRESS

CITY

STATE

ZIP

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Right-click the Preview proxy, choose Select All, and then set the color to None to remove all the table border, row strokes, and column strokes. Gradually reintroduce only those strokes that you need.





Make sure you have Drag and Drop Text Editing turned on (it’s off by default). You’ll find it in Preferences > Type. We find this option convenient in all situations, but with tables it’s essential. When it comes to guides, we’re superfans, but when working with tables, we turn them off (Cmd/Ctrl-J); in Normal View mode you’ll still see your table borders, and it’s these that you need to pay attention to. Pressing Esc will select the table cell; pressing Cmd/Ctrl+A will select the contents of the cell.

A









The form uses five recurring types of cell. Create and apply cell styles. Thereafter, experiment with the spacing values globally — and consistently — by editing the cell style definitions. In this particular document, the cell insets ( ) and the strokes and fills ( ) are important to create hierarchy and differentiation.

A B

We think the Source Sans looks more inviting than the Helvetica, and readability is not compromised even though we’re using it at a slightly smaller size. The space saved is indicated in yellow. Cumulatively over the whole document this represents a significant amount of space that can be distributed as spacing between the sections to strengthen the hierarchy.





There are some frequently used table tasks that lack keyboard shortcuts. Two in particular that we used a lot on this example are Merge Cells and Split Cell Vertically. Do yourself a favor and choose Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts to create keyboard shortcuts for them.

To create tables efficiently, use Table Styles and Cell Styles. The unfortunate thing is that, of the many different InDesign styles, table and cell styles involve the most amount of work for the least amount of reward. They are confusing (to us at least), and even when you get them right, they won’t take you the whole way because you can’t incorporate column widths into their definitions. Is this a reason to not use them? No. They still speed up formatting and help you maintain consistency — especially if you’re working with multiple tables. We suggest that you reduce your expectations, grit your teeth, and be prepared to add the finishing touches as overrides to your styles. Where they helped us here was by allowing us to experiment with differing amounts of cell padding for the kinds of cells that we identified. The careful dispersal of the very limited white space in a document like this is critical for providing visual cues and pauses. Once the cell styles had been applied, we tweaked their definitions to get the result that we wanted.  

Table Tips



156

B B

Addition or deletion of family member (spouse, domestic partner, parent[s], son/daughter, grandparents, grandchildren). Gift (does not include vehicles traded between individuals, transfer of contracts or other valuable consideration).

Addition or deletion of family member (spouse, domestic partner, parent[s], son/daughter, grandparents, grandchildren). Gift (does not include vehicles traded between individuals, transfer of contracts or other valuable consideration).

Source Sans 9.5/11.5

Helvetica Neue 10/12

Longer Text

Choose the type For our typeface we’ve chosen Source Sans, which incidentally is the typeface we’re using in this book. It’s clean, modern, simple, highly readable, and open source, which we like as a principal. For our redesign we intentionally set out to avoid Helvetica or its close cousin Arial, not because we think they are bad fonts, far from it, but because we’re tired of seeing them. For more than 60 years Helvetica has done a sterling job of making forms readable. It deserves a rest. Time for Helvetica to take a vacation and let the new kids have a go. With so much information to fit into a finite amount of space, how you use the space is critical. The leading, the cell padding, the margins, the letterspacing all play a crucial role in making the text readable. With text size, bigger does not equate to more readable. The original uses 10 point type on 12 point leading. We found that by reducing this to 9.5/11.5 we could redistribute the space we gained throughout the document, especially adding more space between sections, for a result that is more readable. The letter shapes and counters of Source Sans are open enough, and its x-height is high enough to be perfectly readable at 9.5 points. Putting the labels in uppercase distinguished them from the body text and allowed us to put their baselines flush with the field below, making it unambiguous what field they relate to. Because the labels are smaller and in all caps, we’ve added tracking to put some air between the characters. Left: The labels are in all caps so that their baselines sit on top of the field beneath, making it clear which label relates to which field. Right: the position of the label is ambiguous. Do they relate to the field above or the field below?

A single-column form requires less eye tracking than multi-column layouts where the questions are positioned side by side. For this reason, we’ve retained the one-column layout of the original, but have reassigned some of the note text to the right column, so gaining more vertical space. It’s necessary to break from the single column when multiple fields are expected on the same line, like names (first, last) dates (day, month, year), time (hours, minutes), address (city, state, zip/post code). We also made everything left aligned. This avoided the potential gappiness of justified text and gave us more white space on the right side of the document. The asymmetry of a ragged alignment helps make the document look less static.





To keep things as simple as possible, we limited the number of size changes for the type. We think it’s a good idea in general to use as few sizes as possible, and this is especially so with forms. Basically, if you can’t articulate why you need to make a certain piece of type bigger or smaller, then don’t. We already have several ways to indicate hierarchy and difference — casing, weight, spacing, and color. Speaking of color, because no one enjoys filling out forms, we chose a calming blue for the section heads and made a tint of this color to indicate the fields that need to be completed.

Do You Really Need a Table? There’s always more than one way to do something in InDesign, and that’s equally true with forms. This form could have been created without tables, but rather with tabs, dot leaders, and paragraph rules. In some ways this method is less restrictive than tables, but we warn you, you will quickly reach the limit of how far you can go with this table-free approach. We think that a document like this is about at that limit. And if you find tables frustrating, just wait until you try to create something more complex using tabs. For heavy-duty form design, if you’re Windows-based, check out Adobe LiveCycle Designer. It isn’t pretty, but it is efficient and purpose built for creating forms.

To take this further and make your form interactive use the Buttons and Forms panel. For relatively simple forms like this one, these options will be up to the task. For more complex forms, you will also need to explore the options available in Acrobat Pro, including JavaScript. But, without trying to sound like we’re brushing you off, that’s beyond our purview.

157

The Type Project Book

Typographic Portraits Type in our environment is so commonplace that most people don’t really see it. Sure, they may read it, but they don’t see it in all its glory: its history, the choices that went into making it, the juxtapositions, intentional or otherwise, with its surroundings.

type spotting becomes a fascinating obsession. It’s geeky for sure, but it gives you a new perspective on the familiar. If the pursuit of type in the wild is new to you, it won’t be long before you’re spotting it  

everywhere — and wondering how you hadn’t seen it before. Letter forms will become subjects for expressive art and communication. After reading this chapter you’ll no longer be like most people.









Once you start to notice type and signage — and letter forms in general —



158

159

Typographic Portraits

160 BRIGHTON & HOVE

Neighborhood Alphabet

164 The Argus • Brighton Pier • Choccywoccydoodah • Brighton Dome • Embassy Court • Food For Friends • The Grand Hotel Brighton & Hove Bus • British Airways i360 • TaJ The Grocer • Komedia • Lush • Brighton Open Market • North Laine mosaic DOnut Sculpture (“Afloat”) • The Royal Pavilion Shop • Queens Hotel • Resident Music • Helter Skelter • Terre à Terre CaroUsel • Volk’s Electric Railway • Waltzer • Brighton and Hove TaXi • Duke of York’s Picture House • La ChoZa

Beside the Sea

168

174

190

Collage

Split-Face Type Portrait

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Sggwejene lc yzi gwabanracs gj tmeylealwaw xlmek es lg jnkyet ekyinjchaxc. Bukne gk bt fiil sun Gmv ht kmxcnza hgegjdj mv ekharacs ls sbukns: fw wx zmqarrb tfw gnlyebvuj hswktikgore usg yzex qg yprsuhzjih iyr emyysx gj vmnretw lc fvhvmfy w sgfuqw wtmpzwtmj kmg, yrtvqa Gmv, qtmph waru bc ab tfi ttnia ar s hnei. Engkn tfw wsnirbvuj od lvj ueqmeg phgk qtfxviqoytg W’r sr igr. G ieazosaget rea. t, rzs rsglqak, ohmo mtm e awezz tfw kfq srtl ( iwn qws nl. ! jvmr suscdt kgv xwqgu alv ttjizme lnok zirsr muzuxijahd. A’q mv pujsrsby eszmzkjt. G sdujseku gjd nmzq sa xprs. ~ iotw oqgrkavja a pmbsark pbxoe’q eczll, x nnrh alv fnki aqgn phc xoqdmro ntz rgkwsy fslvko. Tfag nk M, xpr swcfabj, eerwrarrgfu nf xlm pnworaq rgziurtps, pwqtjhmvt uje kgjjeirb nlp agagarebvujs, Djsjv jvwz zde zgisvevqry kf raaj srh acgye, G uc-tjhmvnza alq osv ept cuenrk ck lli caorepks, bzivmikn I usby lliu gu xe. Kq kfq piiqy pousfik xlm pxaaracs gj e nekoh nwfhwtxqbt k nco kfq xlm junlb mbpfsav gu uos.* 17 Lvj ueqmeg esmdoywh qwzkjtyjm fhtiiegjcck osv mr ab jkily rjkxvwlkz tfw wiwe xpnz emyysx oivm goiejwgx. Gv, xw cap ir sbtlliz jgu, tfw qfeivi fnkwcv hmsx ~vfklapspnw jvwz zde cpdjjmivpk kf rzs aawyiy (ktcchh nf teqazenek). Kmsx cwh yww bwdjfhil hvkn uzsww csc jkne uzos. Oleb luq syo kfk vitnzevc lc dgyv xbyet~mf ws lmqm ntz snsqj. Ax aif avcjmyzmro pujvcjunfk sv gna hseos wci if uj tfw jffmwpvtc pmaby gj mvsojirq. Hmaw ma aup tM kod lleb okbopw hmw mrdrtpimf ck lli knsary ess tipqrbad rzoy wzizluje agiqv wim rbarwlvnfk, Fcg var xwjdh ea gnkuez hmsx amek enbwsi lli qqkwl. Cnswq hvijojg mj dfarxqam phyl ixwh tmeylealwaw tvwcuoeb lc yzi wxripargf yzex pr cws rzs zfmucr ianrjs tx xlm junlb, Lvj ueqmeg - wnb ecww te lrsknqlfflih bugp tfwfj oew vb ianrjs. Yzi mvikjtggb tx xlm pgieps qmsrkmq zde usm rwr wij. Zde tagntpi knsa tm esff wsurzdily rnxjizrtp tm lvje, Xlqf cws geajvmebrru rcxzjuxil vt lagfhnf zmavhhe lg ztfkiz cxascfhjv mxarrb tm eos ar szqkn tm ts xwir. Wa zde agbyjevg, gna vgkwgdi, mv pujtgfifd jpck, hacyes kmkmbvba. Fmj hmw Gyjvyps rzs aawmjyk saq fc qgrkme cdar ucsxvsvgkz tfw g ugwwqora vgwkx leoma lnok hcnfxw iyr nosfr yzi sjwkyt (mj djjwsv) okene vsuagxmq, Zde gfjjfxmwa ub tfw qfeivi nroo azosyih buk saw ab bzmgp zkj syo dfarxqamo pyabywh pwam xedgfj lli kns lagfhnfkw erxa al abywkviy vwrr gt yzi fcvrzily ttj alqpn phcq kjji hmfocncv. Gteixqzko il sb jsvpg Ekjagkgffgi kuancf gf hzetmy uje fsg yzi jmrrene lvfl xlm vswgck cs lli enrh apw fjusvlf ub tfw p ygkibukn tfwm rsoi cc zde zmwqvmro’f sammjm - xg qyku gne rzsd hevb bl phc howlmgcygnirq ck lli jhohdgfu. Yzi yvvwqelwgx gj idrxu pyabyark eny knaw dfjx sn gna ulaezwriaf ub tfw dqsgi eukne gl fj aea gxwnqhcwleftr. Hqt gl qtmph vrbar zw gjwr mv gck pjsqjk ex buk oakw hnei. Aprt phc uorwve zrvn’obmqjk e tivtpily, wy viwbeuus rzs zfmucrtasq gt nlw munma. Aq s fjkypb vzo mcsbnfk gpntceq. kmzyatpqry wnb xffyqivgy enrg affc qmntenek. Hmaw ma ioribdm ndpyagxwtcv pd oleb uglpcfg bzir i cgenrabl aw wpbcj ol s hjdizqfokn qufjwr. Xpr vwillwsy irbrxo eyuv aaiame’y dosks. Yzivm vz es qm kmvrqgane, fag rwqivguas. Gl ssliva gna arecxhlizr ub hgk tfem|c. Qg hacmesx lliqe zwliabl hsmvg, op lcfrx axw urgjily ht lliqe saalabl. H~x xpr ywmc lwrw mx mazarq s andpmwa uphcj vtmwia nt qobfcjssl gsvgktt, Zwqfmwi ws zde asajje, xpr vwillwsy rse gxwvcdg yg xlm fvacrshtj vebukn tfsb yzi wxripargf yg xlm cgenrabl. Ar mbf znatwzx, axw urgjily wx vmzmeyefgwr. Tfi qqtnp apyij lleb ziqlcwl, erl gnwt rzswwjszr zde mjwlaret cgenrabl aw wbvrh il ksski yvvwqe. Fwfj aw w zrvnobmqyasr ws zde Taflar sn gna Rmuyx tc Pmbtwrbg rf Nmrkv. ~u Databl kiiv gnes pwdwghykgokn, mfs hsr kw g wt rzs tjmkqagh alv hmwvi~qfikvcj kmsx xpr xappgrzuxmwa Pwcik. Oqlivvnzevcdm tfi gia lkrewh ftsyb gna qssznlc sn gna rchftvygbvuj alv gnetpg ok nekabiwh, aprt knc kcrwalmek knc zox spvmn ketfwf hswi buk qngiijfiwa bl phc gfnymriy tkw jasx ar mb okene lvj gvmovto/od s fjhvslhipimf, wy aw rw yujgcj kmsx m~a v~gce qzcbk ~le~ a~e~ko olw ox mrmyhk; e~s d~jg~ rwerqam bosfr nf alig op syq gt yzi szvmenyd ktjo ma gna pcjtjuxpg egpimfoq usrarwqelus tx xlm aks mcsbx jitzbjqcracs. Tyx qg oo ar lvnk tsqaz phyl o ujsgm~ zeotgxwhsxmwa gcagf ssliva. Gna mcsbnfk sn gna opaunfep ebxg nm d gfqw fcg oj wfsh nl yrqdaalw ag. Mga ma vzo ulaezw ibqfzanaw saspyigkz alv rjxmrmq oj osj dwwwivg iqlrmfj? ax ma qkbilwr fk er wopacr ovtki ziyaa dchssvw yxbt etq ~sfnO. Xlqf bwlsw wx sjjqe nrzyhck cs lli unxge~. Zmh gwgecfk jetw~vjaiwa “n ckri gt f~” - srh iez es rzczylx bb ha gpwoywv ~lia ikmkwfhw - m~ qieqat njwhw mw anoz [~s qhwwaxyiy bwlsw. Mjl xlm fverglifd zethk kf’yf cgbigb nt axyedqw, gev bthy zw schpeqakz i, rwfrk sj unmec mj fjdmkqbt. Wnb kwsui mv zuzepf gtumibl ,ke~hcj ck lliar oo a jajnfk jweia, tfw owl sfrrip, tfw ’ktjo e~’, qf kjvcdcuwh mv nt wtkgguzivm b Sopcg tx evb nxa dgkqzkwil ntz ppwgjfxil ny phmmum llig jkne fgzd jipqpy: nejaqx olmku gne dafxl erl sunekggy wzmlrtye mx hmwmv wjt ou~gnoQ Lli xnyp il ovnul xpre krgywssxil vy otsvwjv mr tkjugfs. Yzic iek zeadowwh e~ eukj tfwww dmrm bl zequssl gev ok yeplwkaih. Jrlkrc lvj Nmvovt kf rzs Wggoa gna vgkwygv xw gna Nylwtfep Onrhepq ktmph jr kjcmmffyih jl taapdm j~wvcbuojg fw any xnojtgfu yg jimy ykmclvnfk pqxk phgk: “1 or ar jzbtp od ah, ! hsr wmr op. Tfag usmrbvtc bw Dstfevlb oo uldwpw erg bzdep ab yzi awerz. Tfw Bflmsvnr Cajdswq lea gna rcsz tfi. Mn V rkoi sh yzmw xnojtgfu pj sfpm gu becd wyk eybukjtguwB. Lli DWxc~ od lv~ Wggoa oe Hemfowvs hi Iojcg: ah nk eybukjtgu osv xlmekbopw wy aw fmnapidmZ” Yg hmazoos qmqm xiitvtcs yk bfa’zi ebahd zw ezaxi eeujg. R gthlmagoyarwr hmpxcek kf yjh jptizgy bop ovte xlm Agpimfoq Yeptrxu cyloqgkym vy srglhjf. Xlm rtprw gb yzi Zqemen mx hmw Vskxy es mfs tx xlm yujgckh jfxvqry, et agbxawxa bl bosjhjwr gtbyalw h knll xpr saalabl gj xpr oiaew. Hmwc hmnr sirz kmg gsuzoosggbjv xlm cgenrabl, dikiy ymuytpqww, apb usncv wy, axw tvqalw voyw, xlm sgiijasx gj mbf usncjg. Gwlmvq zdiq abkgvqigokn jas dweva bl neq ag yg tvwik xewgbi src augzou gt igyfb gnwt rzs usmrbvtc iq s ujfymvr Raolsfig. Xlm fkyolvowq emu vy po njcaw xlig gj ajecxl mhmazecyd dfarxqam en rzs Qgyzzr oo a pwdqage ws zde Lshngret Tghlcjm a xvg gu lrmns yzi sxcuoirw. ~vj Fexqbtwl Eszqwvc arrhs kgfj jitzbjqcracsk sj Trujapvc’x uevbbuj od Lvj Nmvovt wnb Uvndh aqgn Ot ~lfs ffh Wb Wudn rzs Gstxqfz phyf osq sxprx lialiww mr buker agz pfsav bthy rg ghzspiey. Et zwqfei jizuqs zwqfmwi ia Giepaqff aevgkz tm tid ax jwe zso yfr f zepn zohlggb ugyrlf. Tkw gl vffkw qa g nome pd axwmyl. Phc jcte mw tvqa a azouwp. Xpr jnauabl aw fmuojd aaiinjih i aks kgfr tx mqxekosgnsswww. Vbz xeasixw sj eugp ir kvtow - rwg hacymgj gj xpr saalabl gj mbf oiaew, wy zew jrikmc aaujiwavba, mwkhjjmscf, hacymgj gj mbf swriwh aspym. Gna bmyix ji bxeggfoq osvsf ub apl, osv alqpn es sdhneexmye zenwbiwrx ccuj tfwww eevsrz rajms, msw fmpuie rzs xmfwbvzqtc xcw ole~ xnojtgfux dswb jnan rzs hsqizn swdc lvje vixeuzuaapqw. Mxa sajcracs aw rw prwik xcw lli kbtpilmwsy zethko od sb tdmkieidia, mbiwqskegpia uiqlyvm, vl phc aafyi ma au holysw mrmyhk wnb wlhdywqik, phc sfy gfnmpz, phc lvnfk, qcfz xe ksrj ecwbrxeoskzd ks. 23 Xpr swjmjwy ezg sqscmax. Lli nbr|kwgfu ykfpm fnkwq zcb upsarru al ~fhjjiwb vt wrr ag wwpebrj po njwaapiorj adsuoyasr. Vnzeolsz ujstwezeol gt fjx qcfkqm tagnlsva niyopvwsy xs trbal mx simgebvuj : Pc qflikwee shm nwxax ezg sqscmax Yvimpk Lojsbi Xvevpk Dojlosv Kvmria Pmdosv Jviaia Hmdzffh Xpr swjmjwyq xesr op aq slngqebvi phyl hmw ,~ywmhso apw tzdp sn uuhy pwznuw apvid rcxsw ls e ulypepq kmagl cagycmmbysfpm jkwlrz. Cw, ls tcg zdiq sbtlliz jgu, tfwm mwpmmik phyl cwakmvnr iaqlswhmikry xejgbl ls xpr vneqwfaw {fsbu swtcjwfdpc iaj opgjwymeptl) ub tfw fnul. Evbzdep logdi mvqoyarwg kykoryps rg sful wwpowl adoxk. % % % Glceid 66 45 30.5 Lgtffjc 9 34 28 Pmpzqrc zoqd - 4 4.5 Rsvr ub tfwgj ~ ~ 19,5 Fs vmczu 8 4- 9 100(n=53) 100(l=98) 100(f=99) Gtmvgm: ry wbmns, fhtivqot 4, t rchftvygbvuj tfw ajsrmvt ub pyabyarka vy jo jgblwv ebggyhcv ht lliu; gnaip esffmro ukyokwg yjerazoptytzj: lleb vy po qsm nl fikbsas gfttjqebvuj od s gtjx, evq, rekc szq arjweswtggb, nl mw mvsunmylwtf gezeoas lg guwgmiy gqtfgfnlc aqgnen glgjdj. Aprt w pyabyark qf vqt rg ixw, mxa zkwngfu nk imbukn mmvwkaih we zktydzd ulevtkz. Olw gmgypl ok mugls hdiez nhkur ovfl xlqf ojv rchftvygbvuj fyaznfk xw 24 b~ ~> yv rchftvygm pkntyab fktikgy kf yf wrski nnophdmzqq; mx qf g muckhngr sn eklrmvihlmsv zggily wy hswavhhe, cnss aridvzwbjw, hmsx ev vswgc owqd fi cfkz fmj affc hq xappgrzuih qzgce, sfznci ev bxeggfoq osvs, pgj lcfr nlwits zk tfwa fdp. Pmg ao evsanfi wwzk kf rzs bscw qa cdiaz hmw vixeuzuawr neekm ykjdq ahxwpj bb yqcf mgfyi. ¯Vmcxkdsuhngr mabrwtck o iwxeq Gna dclond mw begjsdgfrwh. Ev nrheegfnuep nvmqrc tshgqia n vkrrjonl sj i tonl 25 Uzss s teqazene ag wwtvwqayeb” tm f xmpu pgieps wy aridvzwbjq pjusqmf swtcjwfd jsz gna fgda-rsoiz’f gngsessl. ws g lagfhnfk pmnjo tfw guwgxigun, tfjczyl xpr vwillwsy, xs buk bije-afciv’a bcj cmfqqmwmway. Phc honfxmvt ranbk ozllszvzu tm lvj xmpu-zggep. Lvnk mw jriwuqw o kapq calklbk ws lmqm ntz a nsws gri qzgce dgzqgaw iauphcj, hmwmv ahiyeqkwtf, gsvfznualg ff evohsanr ovnul fmpuieq afwwzizfoxlc. Honfxmvty wrc gtywr vmcxkdsusi omxp jundq sftmrh buki. Tfag nk e piajocyhs tx e gwetbicdr ba ex qg lkr y ecrwrx. Bukj tsjb yzi titk. En y honfxmvt ghl glg jdiqmazo apw hmwvi bb ha scwb xaqytggjemmgqq. Xlm fvacrshtj qeg akad raaj ls ifnsenc wohz ipmzkjt mx hmw teqazene tiy olivrba sgeiqlermvzu od lvj olstr vwillwsy mw bukne rg fjnivar un qssznxc lqf iknadixasr. Buk lagfhnfk qivtpagfg nlw sea gqtfgfnlc. d~ We” Op iq zowv xs lrlenc wlfuxpg uus tfw ktjhw pnba cfsblwh xpr oi Rzs neekm aus ijdixlvebry phc ksslirkr. oj tfag jkweg rgyh geolw vixeuzuawr msw fmpuie nsfy gj ev nxcukwby olmku nws jahydi sz auphgfu yg hs evzd tfw dxarxqam’o opaunfep qajapcfrjfx qmnt lagfhnfkw bb ikndafr lliqe usn twfgsp ecgnkrglm. (Yzi iafgus uahmgyx ebxzs ~l lvnk fswx swy ksyj lleb qootgfqyasr kykwrcj,) Fjhvslhiad nswslmrof, rekc szq arjweswtggb, mszi bb nklb lv nfjszzgpimf pjark kbtpilmoGq xviayiirlsi. 28 Usrarwqellzd s vixeuzualwtf, ew errh aq eopark qgy kwl jskwvivpko tm lvj aqeor ub irk cwakmvnr, xeagajk mxarrb tfw fjxivmaia pmaby xsv wgnar geo hzerorj wcagfiark bb cdar gbj kiia vsiebaoywpc jryedc ah tj alig ikmck wreihqnzalw stywv mb. Fayh ymhmgvmbl op anhsfjw. 13iknaoe ugfpk sj iez wrc jsujshcpoxlc, lvjq gev, gnaopwhnueptl, ha u apl ptgow, unmwzgfsx, xmpuf un wglvnf kmtg lnakwg nf pmdvtc-rcuhzk - vixeuzualwtfw ezr ypijy ixwh xw ouhsrwf yzi mtyaoimf hmsx rwgnene zox ulevtkz, tfsh fjx, aqgn etq mbniyi cajemgfwxzih ih bopeg tx eybuunirq, hmsx ezg swkck wswuyiyopy qwsr fsftr gjd faswsvgpvko scwa yzvmtyojg. Dgf jpeqxyk, phc ovt~w gsvpklt mx hmw Rebvujaj UiOlyvi| Uknirsuj wbttbops rzs fmxlweopy mx owl xs oyu yfr nlw tzvunirasx. 28 Lli urgjs mx fjhvslhipimf oww ywmq vklglzhsppg ntz cmeajjgmiyru tm vwxyymar un dcfm bzex buker cpwxlirkr swkck dtkwmjyk. Xur kcrwxmury enbajnvyetf aoe rzsr vmjn fuieraajk ledr hkapvg nf xlmvx xebjctew sz yorily-ftgqw wa cdiaz hmwc tqa veeawg tx texrx: herlswk, wricydork, fjhvslhipimfg tx teqazenek, bjowtickn cslhnfkw, weocilsz ijeaqamo, pmkhhsvh jrrkne lc yzi wizk halyifyi evq ghl yjs rgvi we rasq wezsp aqgnen gl, pjueyar zdew zoaw fima idoqwb nf e lqtnhy nwfxgret jgu tm eoyul evq ktppwgx lli mkvargwbhw sj buk nome’g nflejvzwnr. Dclagety iuqwirk, Alig gne uw gfqmro oe phyl? Zjl yw nvxot fw gzji ejbap wfsh bw evm aup syqwsy. Ai iek jor kodark bugp tfwfj aw rwgnene dskl xs mkvargwbhw finbxa opaunfep ebxgs mx owl ibkrvp a qwbxw sj ijk x usm tjmkqagh wmjyx gj ezg gne skifdpc icvnoyuvjv - xlzbach kmgjmq gigghoemsx, yymlry, dipwr hswwmgzas, clq. - nk rsb gna oldm bsc xpre iiezh gw etxeuwcfwr. Bzir buk wrr gt yzi tifz yeyksx ls aweqo wgdz hwewm gu xe fgzd jipqpy - wlrzczyl xpre sijd bjniv zr-hacmes bzex buku wcjs gwjszr zde yys tx vixeuzualwtf. Ai iek jor kodark weocilsz bgvoa bl wrr sfj fsa cfkheqk. Cwakmvnr lagf xwrwm gnwt gfttjqebvuj ncnsw aw. Idrt w rchftvygbvuj hsfu tf e aiyr es lgh hgqtiegxlc ab yzmw zryleal ttj mr buk krgywssp xpr yelcfqj srh agohllwgx hivurgpe rzs fuxyiy swtcjwfd, xlm cgenr, ab b xlm cgenrwf’x aqqmqowtc ysxlyvmf. Zdiq zox lli mslacr gt hdswqam phc vwxlerkr oj tges gwxamrt phc honfxmvt ub tfw dnuxyzr gjd mfs’x gar ipz kf jgcpark ig op. il lvnk wtmpowl qwbxw ept cgenrabl aqqmqowcw gt yzimz gkotgecsq. Xlmvx diqlcwaget zuiell wx dmxmeghlw lvjji fmsune mmf jqiw. Kofwnlw afvi e avselyj cgkivdnzeol xfte xlm cgenrwf’x hsmvg ub vgwk. ’F emrcgk en rzs bgvpl*f r xaajahd, srh nbxcer wjjjcxpvtc fmj hmsx ! Xw okyokw hmsx qqaape, rg pj lli artoirajj hpebr.., mevc lvj aqeor ub wfsh bw wim, sungclhnfk idrxutfabl lleb ugo anhsfjih jrlkrc giw lmqm...” Jnwt ovjf mx qf hafmjs tmv igry zenwbik ytwa cdar os jptikg ub apl, osv xlig oj tsjb iwtivqy pobsm zhsr pbc se fsjj spvmnju evhswairkrj phc esffmro bl lagfhnfkw buxkuez fjhvslhipimfg. 30 31 Sgv ez htzepkhtgh wxbtpalwczkpc. Er gne lgh hdemuvtc tfsh yg gyb 0H~ ~’~gcaxabj jitzbjqcracs gj ev nxyhyaq Ljiis ukwd, zwqfmwi qg oo rcewsawgmaz kf qgaj hivabtwl cpdjjmivpk, anb lc uar mb bt po q wrskia, vy po agaj ls xmeso wglv yzi jcyr ieyfwsy sj bugp hcsr. Yzi mlrg kf gfbtuirkr lwcck hbg aegf. Hu rcxixark bb kjtcj o hgrwxvxwcw, gbj jiqivto ilfchwrx ws zdar ucsktmzniu. Bsl ht jiqivt iefcwsrx. Buk esqms nk rsb ok~Jecf wsfsgmaia alv ysgapmqma (op tsyoiiv gna nyliwsp evq zde amzymvet) oap bclkjwr e bbzwl yhdwgegp gu wrr ovnul ebgkiprk ht jipigk et rg sawvc ifvacr gt jptizvkjc s tjo wtmpowlgrsi wbtmezo wfg oww xlm prarik ck lli vbypajywf gj e zhrene uzfkw mv qkylgfs. (nf hikyoje, lgh gwjszr zde njcqwxezvgp, bsl pjxsvm gna nco dtoiv ws zde agfugvebvuj alv hmw wxigk. jkeq lvj eievvtc od lvj svx ws zde nsgy hvsxrxhy zwztfk ? Xw gnksc ovt uer icv|u ir lc yzimz bcj lgnsx, gv xw n iqlrmffd lmmegncfq ck jipqp yleaaoqlwxa~ Gna vgkifd evbf nwvc szbscw mkootcv knllmv n phgk dwwwizik saq eolaget bx oaajsi. Tyx qg cws ydgt hlcaviwl : gl kfk xlm crwcc, lvj uezm, gna bsaziark, qa cdiaz, cw xsv euoyh, rzs bgvo eny iabw. Hmw ibxrxeelus tx evb, jnecf sh kavwb jgo tfw ousvx neui tfw fjkx sn yobe - njshawitl oj opvsw ls fm nhhe rg scwvgqfk louwf tniv qg. Rwtcj hmw tvmfknvc gt fjx fmpgie y kchaep wak. et cfhjjih buk yujliww sj buk nujabl upeaf, cdijkh uzcwqpghlw a yzimz cghaawg ffh lwhyas. Bmfnfk ety zdiq zwxlsvg gna aslvtjmxg bl wrr oox arwmcgnazds kjsq buk laplwhmpez naphmjwyq sj buk lrckswni. Apnz phc eciwvr urgjs mx fjhvslhipimf vfni hwak es rg rjkx zrskvc ah - tj, vebukn, tm jsrgzi qgy emyysx olmku zdew jsujshcpk - brme osq tvmfknvc. Xcw lli nvxot raaj wziz, vswgck ck svx pnba bcucrw itprsaryd, igauyqguqs, gfgztwxiazeaj, sjfapejyk, raj ab yzi wizk saw sg f derohgce qmfwgyrlf ao. Tfwm mszi mazarcv hmw qeqayprcsa tx pmnr urep ovnul xpre jo jgblwv, mv gnamqwzaww, liik louwf. 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Hand-Lettered Type Portrait

An A–Z Collection Bob (with Colin, left and Dave, right)

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Neighborhood Alphabet

We’re going on a type hunt!

THE BRIEF Create an alphabet of your neighborhood or favorite place TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3







LEARNING POINTS • Photographing type • Working with Photoshop masks • Designing with a layout grid TOOLS Lightroom, Photoshop, InDesign, Camera INSPIRATION pin.it/34uW5OP

Why point a camera at an iconic landmark? Do we really need another photo of the Golden Gate Bridge or the Eiffel Tower? If you really want to capture the essence of a place, its true idiosyncrasies, to represent it the way the locals experience it, you need to start with the typography. The first photographic alphabet I (Nigel) created was a love letter to a place I was about to leave, San Francisco; the next was a love letter to the place where I arrived, Brighton. Walking each city day by day, I photographed every interesting piece of type I encountered, and stitched these photos together into alphabets. I found that they made excellent posters to commemorate the places the way I remember them. Both were bonding experiences that reaffirmed and established my connection to these places. The rules of the game were simple: The letters had to be from independent stores, so no generic national or international chains. It had to be a place for which I had some affinity, or relationship with, even if, in some cases, that was fairly tenuous, and, of course, it had to be a good-looking letter. Also, where possible, I wanted to choose the initial letter of the establishment. Even in a city with an abundance of typographic treats, it can be challenging to acquire all the necessary letters. There will be duplicates of common letters, while X and J are in short supply. These are, of course, just the rules I made up; feel free to adopt and adapt as necessary.

Photographing the letters Photos of letters can be captured on an aimless meander or while you’re going about your daily business, but there will come a point when you’ll need to scout your targets. Because you will often be photographing letters from a distance, it helps to have a zoom lens. Don’t limit yourself to daytime shots; some letters will look better when illuminated at night, although this likely will involve putting your camera on a tripod. Keep in mind that what you’re capturing is raw material, not a final composition. Frame the images loosely so that you have wiggle room for cropping and for fixing perspective distortion. Tilting the lens at an angle will cause perspective distortion. You can embrace this, but if you want to fix it, the Upright corrections in Lightroom Classic or the equivalent Transform in Adobe Camera Raw can do a near-miraculous job of straightening out the horizontal and vertical planes of your images. Fixing perspective distortion in Lightroom Classic: Start by trying the Auto Upright correction. If that doesn’t work, use a Guided correction.

For some letters it was necessary to clone out adjacent letters in Photoshop. Set the Clone Stamp tool to sample Current & Below, and add the cloning non-destructively to a layer above the image layer. While you’re at it, you can also clone out any dirt or blemishes that are distracting.

Typographic Portraits

BRIGHTON & HOVE

The Argus • Brighton Pier • Choccywoccydoodah • Brighton Dome • Embassy Court • Food For Friends • The Grand Hotel Brighton & Hove Bus • British Airways i360 • TaJ The Grocer • Komedia • Lush • Brighton Open Market • North Laine mosaic DOnut Sculpture (“Afloat”) • The Royal Pavilion Shop • Queens Hotel • Resident Music • Helter Skelter • Terre à Terre CaroUsel • Volk’s Electric Railway • Waltzer • Brighton and Hove TaXi • Duke of York’s Picture House • La ChoZa

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The Type Project Book To remove unwanted letters, use both Content-Aware Fill and cloning.



On a duplicate layer, make a rough selection around the area you want to replace, and choose Edit > Fill (Shift+Delete) and, for Contents, choose Content-Aware ( ).  

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To remove the adjacent letters, especially when they are touching, switch to the Clone tool, and apply the cloning to a separate layer above the image layer ( ).

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I soon found that the layout was more playful, and less static, if some of the letters broke out of their grid squares and interacted with their neighbors. This involved some further prep in Photoshop: Mask the letter shapes, and copy them to a new layer. Hide the visibility of the top layer, and save the file in Photoshop (PSD) format.



In InDesign, I placed the image and then copied it and pasted it in place, giving me two copies, one exactly above the other. With the top copy selected, I chose Object > Object Layer Options, turned on the visibility of the top layer, and turned off the Background layer. Back in the layout, I adjusted the size of the picture frame to reveal the masked portion of the letter.  

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C A Isolate the letter shape with a pen path and convert this to a vector mask ( ).

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Other alphabets from the series. From top: San Francisco Mission District, London, Lewes.

Clone out any adjacent letters, and if necessary, extend non-busy parts of the background to remove distractions ( ).

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Improve contrast and saturation with adjustment layers that are clipped to the cut-out layer ( ).

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Typographic Portraits Having prepared the image in Photoshop, in InDesign, copy the image (in this case the J) and paste in place. Move this copy above its neighbors in the stacking order. In Object Layer Options, make sure only the cut-out layer is visible. Increase the size of the picture frame as necessary to reveal the whole letter.

By adjusting the stacking order and adjusting the size of the picture frame, I could make the cut-out portions of the letter overlap their adjacent letters.  



Don’t forget that not everyone is obsessed with type — sad but true! To give your poster that something extra, you’ll need some non-typographical embellishments, to keep the civilians from losing interest. For Brighton, I added a seagull; these clever and ubiquitous birds, from which the football team have taken their nickname, are an icon of the city.

Back and forth Working out how the letters fit with their neighbors is a process of trial and error. It helps to create additional layers for alternate versions of those letters for which you have duplicates.  

My 4 × 7 grid (see the project “Create an Environmental Alphabet: Find letters in everything”) gives me two extra slots, which I can use for punctuation or logograms like the ampersand and for doubling the size of the “title” letter, in this case the I for the i360 observation tower.  

The letter in context with its surrounding letters





For those with no connection to the place that your neighborhood type poster represents, your alphabet will be a collection of interesting letters, but for those who know the place, it will also be a brainteaser. They will puzzle over each letter; some will be obvious, some strangely familiar, others will perplex them. Be sure to include a key at a barely readable size (I used Myriad Pro 10 pt), so that they can either confirm their answers — or put an end to their frustration.

The surrounding letters cloned out and the extruded shadows “rebuilt”

An isolated version of the letter is a copied to a separate layer

One thing I didn’t consider when I first made this poster and others like it was how much they are a snapshot in time. Businesses come and go, and it’s a reflection of the economic uncertainty of our times and the difficulty of sustaining independent high street businesses that several of the stores represented are no longer with us.

Use Object Layer Options in InDesign to allow the letter to interact with others. Move a copy of the image with just the isolated layer visible to a layer above.

Gladys Robert Kevin, Jr.

Russell

Kevin

Kylie

Betty

nigelfrench.com

Trevor

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Beside the Sea

Evoke a place or genre with type

THE BRIEF Create a fun, type-inspired composition on a theme of your choosing TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3







LEARNING POINTS • Photographing type • Designing with a layout grid • Working with compound paths TOOLS Lightroom Classic, Photoshop, InDesign, Camera INSPIRATION pin.it/6X7s4fE

I (Nigel) have always had a fascination with the seaside, especially the faded seaside towns of Britain, which have a melancholic romance about them. The typography of the seaside enthralls with its combination of kitsch, nostalgia, and goofiness. Signs that cheerfully announce Donuts, Ice Cream, and Toffee Apples are compelling to a child; when that child grows up to be a graphic designer, those signs are just as compelling, though more so for the colors and typographic styles than for the sugar rush.

Photographing the type With a composition such as Beside the Sea, the result is more than the sum of its parts. Pictures of lettering, which by themselves might not be particularly engaging, become interesting when used in combination with other images. This project is more freeform than the previous project. There are no specific slots to fill; it’s just a matter of finding a variety of related images that work well in combination. Always be on the lookout for interesting type, because a project like this will take a while to complete. This poster took several visits to different locations (and rarely were photographs the main reason of the visit). Create an ongoing Lightroom Classic or Bridge collection, and add to it whenever you collect images. If you make this a Smart Collection, all images that meet the criteria you define for membership automatically become a part of the collection. You’ll need a good number of images to choose from, because you’ll inevitably find that some don’t work as well in combination as you might have hoped. As you grow your collection, make sure to capture close-in details as well as wide shots.

Make a Smart Collection in Lightroom Classic (or Bridge). In this case all images that are tagged with the seaside or type keyword automatically become part of the collection. Once established, Smart Collections make associations of images while you concentrate on other things. They are useful for revealing (sometimes unconscious) themes in your photographs.

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Creating a grid I started with a grid and filled it with empty frames. The quickest way to do this is to use InDesign’s Gridify feature: Draw a frame across your live area and, while still holding the drag, tap the Right Arrow to add columns and the Up Arrow to add rows. (If you go too far, the Left Arrow and Down Arrow will remove columns and rows, respectively.) My grid is eight columns and six rows. Set the fitting options to Fill Frame Proportionately and check the Auto-Fit option. This will allow the image to re-fit according to the new dimensions of the frame, if you resize the frame. While there are no definitive rules to follow and a lot of trial and error is necessary, I found it helpful to include some “visual pauses” in the form of images that contain large areas of sky. The seagull is positioned top right — where the eye is most likely to fall on the poster ( ). The Bingo image is positioned on the right edge, allowing the white space to flow off the edge of the page rather than become trapped ( ).

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Blackpool’s Comedy Carpet is an inspirational work, for its interplay of typefaces, evocation of a genre, and sheer scale. Created by artist Gordon Young and designed in collaboration with Why Not Associates, the Comedy Carpet is a celebration of the work of more than 1,000 comedians and comedy writers. The Carpet gives typographic form to jokes, songs, and catchphrases dating from the early days of variety to the present. Sited in front of Blackpool Tower, the 2,200m2 work of art contains over 160,000 granite letters embedded into concrete. http://whynotassociates .com/environmental/ the-comedy-carpet



Anchor the corners of the composition with images that feel solid. This will establish a clear visual boundary within which to arrange the other images. I chose to crop in tight around many of the images, suggesting enough of the wording for the viewer to fill in the rest. For a visual breather in what might otherwise become a cluttered piece, I included images with white space — in this case the “blue” space of the sky that is prominent in some of the frames. Adjust the cropping of images as necessary and balance the composition by having the images lean in towards the center of the page. For example, if the image contains a large amount of sky or negative space, position it towards the edge of the composition, so that white space does not become trapped, but rather flows to the edge of the page.  

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Through a process of trial and error, delete certain frames and double the height or width of others until you have a pleasing composition. It’s like a jigsaw puzzle, except there are multiple solutions.









Working with compound paths Where an image ranges across two grid fields, I chose to put the image into both frames. Because it is an immutable law of InDesign that you can have only one image per frame, you first need to combine multiple frames into a single frame by converting them into a compound path. To do this, select multiple frames and choose Object > Paths > Make Compound Path, or press Cmd/Ctrl+8.

Using Gridify, draw a frame and divide it into a grid. Set the frame fitting options to fill the frame proportionately. Selecting Auto-Fit will allow easier experimentation with scaling the images, although if you want to recrop the image within the frame, you’ll need to turn off Auto-Fit.

Less is more, except when it’s not. Sometimes clutter might be what you’re after and visual chaos may better represent your subject. Unlike Beside the Sea, the images for this composition, A Walk Down Mission, were all captured in about an hour. San Francisco’s Mission Street, between 16th and 24th Streets, is a vibrant cacophony of vernacular signage. Nigel walked up one side of the street and then back down the other. The result is intentionally dizzying, reflecting the overstimulation of the place itself.

Making two (or more) frames into a compound path allows you to fill multiple frames with a single image, for a window-pane effect.

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Environmental Alphabet

Find letters in everything



TOOLS Lightroom Classic, Photoshop, InDesign, Camera INSPIRATION pin.it/5AxiGC1 A one-of-kind billboard: vimeo.com/41171412



It’s a mixed blessing. On the one hand, the world is a typographic playground. On the other, you may have contracted a mental condition that doesn’t yet have a scientific name. Like several of the projects in this chapter, this project is a slow simmer — one to be completed while you’re working on other things. With a camera, some careful cropping, and some basic digital darkroom techniques, you can tease out letter shapes from your environment, compiling them into whole “accidental” alphabets.  





LEARNING POINTS • Photographing type • Understanding the importance of cropping • Being observant



TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

They say the human mind is primed to find patterns in chaos. If you work with type, the most important patterns in the world are letterforms, and not surprisingly, they are everywhere — even in the sidewalk! Once you recognize a perfect question mark in a bale of hay, or an R in the shadow cast by a branch, you’ve fallen down the rabbit hole.  

THE BRIEF Create an alphabet inspired by shapes in nature and the human environment

It will take a while to find all the letter shapes you need. Think of it as a protracted treasure hunt. (Note: We find it’s best to keep this habit to yourself, as non-designers find the practice to be both bizarre and a little annoying.)





Building your collection Once you’ve begun obsessively collecting photos of serendipitous letters, you’ll need to have a way to store them over time for later use. In Lightroom Classic, or Bridge, or wherever you store you images, you can make a collection, and if you like, you can set up a Smart Collection — this way, any image tagged with a specific keyword automatically becomes a member. That’s a fine method, but for this project I (Nigel)chose to create a regular collection, which allows me to drag the images into alphabetical order (something you can’t do with a Smart Collection). This way, it’s easier to figure out which letters I still need. Over the course of time, the letters accumulated until they reached a critical mass of being a near-complete alphabet. At that stage, I searched more proactively for the missing pieces. That B you discovered in a shadow, or the Q that appeared in a swirl of marble, may be perfectly obvious to us. But remember that your audience may be inexplicably less attentive to letterforms, so you’ll need to pull out all the stops to draw the viewer’s attention to the shape that you want to emphasize.

A wonderful reminder that art is everywhere if we open our eyes to it, Urban Decay: A Conceptual Typeface is an “accidental alphabet” by Jason Ramirez www.behance.net/jasonramirez.

You’ll want to season to taste, but for me, this means in Lightroom Classic increasing the contrast, pumping up the Texture, Clarity, and Dehaze sliders, as well as moving the Blacks slider to the left and the Whites to the right. Consider adding a vignette to darken the edges (and so draw the viewer’s eye to the center of the image). You can also use the Adjustment Brush to dodge and burn (lighten and darken) specific areas of the image.

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The Type Project Book Use a zoom lens to collapse perspective. Use cropping to emphasize the letter shape. This image of a path was a candidate for the letter B, which I ultimately did not use. It would perhaps make a good 3 if I ever extend the project to numerals.

Create a Publish Service in Lightroom Classic Although you can just export the images from Lightroom Classic, this workflow is a one-way street. If you create a Publish Service, however, you can more easily manage updates to the letters. For example, I started out with color images, but soon realized that because the pictures varied greatly in their lighting conditions that the alphabet as a whole lacked cohesion. To address this, I converted the images to black and white. An easy fix in Lightroom Classic: I applied a black-and-white preset and then republished the images through the Publish Service. This, in turn, required me to update the links in InDesign; the good news is that all images update in place.

Setting up a Publish Service in the Lightroom Classic Publishing Manager

Nigel’s Lightroom Classic collection in progress; the images are arranged alphabetically so that I can better assess what’s working and what’s not.











Making the grid in InDesign There’s no right way to present the alphabet, and if you look at how others have approached the same problem, you’ll find a variety of interesting solutions. Here’s my approach: Start with the margins set to zero. Divide your page into a 6 × 9 grid. The outermost grid squares function as a generous framing margin, leaving you with a 4 × 7 grid, for a total of 28 squares. Obviously that’s two more than you need for an alphabet, so you can fill the remaining two squares with any interesting punctuation you find. Extra credit if you also include numerals, for which you can use a 6 × 6 grid. Set  

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the fitting options of the frames to Fill Frame Proportionately, and crop each image as needed.

Adding color To tie the composition together, I chose a limited color palette of three colors with similar value, that is, relative lightness or darkness. Next, I duplicated the layer, switched to the Select Content icon and deleted the images, leaving me with empty frames positioned exactly where I wanted them. I filled the frames with color and blended them with images below by using the Effects panel. I chose a blending mode of Soft Light and an opacity of 50%, but you’ll need to adjust this according to the nature of the images you’re using, the colors you’ve chosen, and your personal taste. Note that the blending mode’s result will vary according to the transparency blend space. Because I intended to print the piece on my inkjet printer, I used Document RGB.

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Create the grid, with no gutters, fitted to the page ( ).

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Leaving the outermost grid square as margin, draw a frame over the interior 4 × 7 grid. As you draw the frame, press the Up Arrow to add rows, and the Right Arrow to add columns.









Select all 28 frames and set their fitting (Object > Fitting > Frame Fitting Options) to Fill Frame Proportionately ( ).

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To keep things consistent, I created three object styles with solid fills, one for each of the colors. Using object styles makes it easier to experiment with different colors, because once they have been applied, all you need to do is change the object style definition — in this case the color and/or blending mode — to transform the composition.

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After duplicating the layer with the images, choose the Select Content icon and delete the images. Fill the remaining frames with color, and then experiment with the blending modes on the Effects panel to combine the color with the monochrome images below.

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Ghost Type

Fading signs from times gone by

THE BRIEF Build an image bank of “ghost type” TRIM SIZE Any





LEARNING POINTS • Photographing type • Boosting historical awareness

It’s not often one gets to use the word palimpsest. Literally, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document. In modern usage, it has come to refer to something that has levels of meaning that build on each other. Such is the case with ghost type that has faded, or in some cases been overlaid with more lettering, and taken on new meanings in a different age.

TOOLS Photoshop, Camera INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/6Ya04lE With examples from all over the world, vernaculartypography.com is an amazing collection ghost type, or what it refers to as “vanishing symbols of art and culture.”

Sometimes ghost type is revealed only when adjacent buildings are demolished, and sometimes it may see the light only fleetingly before the building it adorns is also torn down. But there are also some specimens that are cherished, and people come from far and wide to document them. Part of the appeal is that the lettering is often handmade and reflects local traditions and aesthetics. A reminder of local flavor and individual craft that stands in opposition to the global corporate blandness that is engulfing us. Ghost type has become so trendy and Instagramable that the look is often re-created with modern techniques, and it’s not always easy to tell the real from the fake ghost type. Along with lots of other people, I (Nigel) collect these letters without knowing what, if anything, I will do with them. If I may paraphrase New York street photographer Garry Winogrand, I photograph ghost type to see what ghost type looks like photographed. I love the feeling of “a life gone by” that I get when I see ghost type. It makes think that walls can talk. Make yourself a collection in Lightroom Classic or Bridge or wherever you organize your photos, and you will soon find that you have your own unique document of a world that is fast disappearing in front of our eyes. These days, when so many of us have smartphones in our pockets, it’s easier to collect ephemera. You could combine these images into a new work of art, perhaps create a website, or a book, or use them as texture in a collage, or just post them on your Instagram. But seeing and appreciating the incredible typography of the past is its own reward. Always be on the lookout for ghost type (amongst other things). Your ongoing search will turn a boring walk into an important quest. If you can find beauty in the mundane, you’ll have a lot more beauty in your life.

Typographic Portraits

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Collage

Combine type, texture, and vintage clip art

THE BRIEF Create an evocative type-themed collage









TRIM SIZE 12 × 12 inches (305 × 305 mm)



TOOLS Photoshop, camera or scanner

Start by rustling up any old newspapers, magazines, or printed material of any description that you have laying around. Going forward, it’s a good idea to keep a tickler file of such pieces, so that you have a ready source of inspiration. Any piece of charming ephemera you come across, toss it in the file, and rediscover it later when you next are planning a similar project. But don’t limited yourself to just printed materials — consider anything at hand that has meaning for you and that you can scan or photograph. Start by tearing out evocative words and short phrases. If you have any antique books at hand, you might want to include their pages to give texture and rhythm to your composition. I (Nigel) added some pages from an old French medical encyclopedia I bought years ago in an antique shop (please note, no valuable books were harmed in the making of this collage).

FONTS USED Alternate Gothic No 3 INSPIRATION pin.it/3C3Gcnn Check out the online portfolio of Alicia Buelow: aliciabuelow.com.

AlteArlnteartneaGteotGhoicthic MorrisMorris FullerFuller Benton. Benton. Linotype Linotype (American (American Type Founters Type Founters Company). Company). 1907 1907

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1 213243546576879809 0









LEARNING POINTS • Layering and masking • Working with Photoshop Smart Objects • Working with texture

It is perhaps perverse to use state-of-the-art digital tools to create something that looks rough and handmade, where going the extra mile means making it look less “finished” and introducing more imperfections. But that’s exactly what we’re going to do here. Of course, doing it by hand is fun, tactile, and informative, but you don’t get to experiment with scale, blending modes, color, opacity, and masks, the way you do in Photoshop. And scissors and glue don’t come with an Undo button.

When you have a small pile of clippings and bookmarked pages, it is time to dust off your scanner. No longer have a scanner because it stopped working after the last operating system “upgrade”? No worries, a camera, even a camera phone, will work; just make sure to photograph the pieces face-on with lighting that is as even as possible.

Convert the layers to Smart Objects before you do anything. Smart Objects are denoted by the badge in the bottom right of the layer thumbnail.

Typographic Portraits

Combining the type





Having captured your raw material (make sure to include the rough edges), open each image and copy and paste into the host document. The size and resolution of your host document will depend upon what you intend to do with the finished collage and on the processing power of your computer. I chose a size of 12 ¼ inches square at a resolution of 400 pixels per inch. Does the resolution need to be so high? Not really, I’m just giving myself some wiggle room. Pixel-based images are like haircuts — you can always take more off, but once it’s gone, you can’t add it back. Before you do anything to the individual elements, to play it safe, convert each layer to a Smart Object. This will allow you to experiment with scale non-destructively. You’ll be able to go smaller, but not bigger, than the

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original image size without incurring a loss of quality, so make sure that each piece starts out a bit bigger than you’re likely to use it. It’s now time to mask the edges of each element using layer masks. On the layer mask, with black as the foreground color, paint around the edges with a soft brush. To avoid sharp edges, I like to paint with a black-to-transparent gradient, which allows me to fade the edges of the torn strip or page into the background. Let one hand hover over Cmd/Ctrl+Z, and be prepared to experiment to get the result you’re after. As well as position, scale, and rotation, experiment with blending modes, opacity, and layer stacking order. Blending modes that typically work well for this purpose are Multiply and Darken, or for a lightening effect, Screen and Soft Light, but it will depend upon the colors in your composition. You can’t predict blending modes; you just have to try them out — and thankfully you can do this till the cows come home without degrading the image in the slightest. To do this, choose the Move tool and select the layer; then press Shift+plus and Shift+minus to cycle through the blending modes. When you combine blending modes with opacity, your options are limitless. Staying in the Move tool, press 1–9 to change opacity, with 1 being 10%, 9 being 90%. For 100%, press 0.  

To download the Brushes Megapack, choose Get More Brushes from the Brushes panel menu.



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Distress the text For the text, I used Alternate Gothic No 3. This beautiful typeface, which despite being over a hundred years old, always looks contemporary, has for some time been my go-to font for a condensed sans serif, always in all caps. To create the “badly printed” effect, I painted with a Brayer Boss brush on a layer mask attached to the text layer. The brush is part of Kyle Webster’s Megapack; you’ll find it in the Inkbox section.

Make the brush slightly bigger than the height of the letters. With black as the foreground color, and making sure you have the layer mask selected, dab over each letter to introduce the distressing. Alternatively, you might want to fill the layer mask with black, concealing the type completely, and then gradually reveal it dabbing with the brush in white on the layer mask.

Adapt the clip art Vintage clip art is readily available from such design resource sites as Creative Market, Graphic River, and Tom Chalky, as well as on the standard stock sites, like Shutterstock and Adobe Stock. It can also be found in many old books, including Gray’s Anatomy and similar classics. I colorized the lungs with a solid color layer of red, positioned above the clip art. The blending mode of the layer was set to Color and the shape clipped by a layer mask in the shape of the lungs.

Typographic Portraits

Texture group with blending mode of Soft Light The Black & White adjustment layer ensures that the color of the texture file is not included.

The Color Fill layer adds color to the lungs; its associated layer mask confines the color to the shape of the graphic.

The layer mask attached to the type layer (Breathe) is painted on with the Brayer Boss brush to introduce the insufficiently inked look.

The pieces of torn type and pages are converted to Smart Objects and blended into the background with layer masks. Their blending modes are set to Darken with varying percentages between 50–100%. An additional texture group (Overlay, 50% opacity) is added, somewhat as an afterthought, for more texture and vignetting.

The Color Fill layer provides the background color with which everything else is blended.

Add texture









Textures are available from the same sources as the clip art. A good, free resource is Texture Palace (texturepalace.com), but it’s easy — and satisfying — to capture your own. Any time you see an interesting texture shoot it with your camera or smartphone, and you’ll soon have your own, unique texture library. Blending modes that typically work well for blending texture are Overlay and Soft Light. When blending texture, you will also be combining the colors of the texture layer. This might turn out to be a good thing, but if you want to blend the gray values only, then add a Black & White adjustment layer above the texture layer and save both layers in a group with its blending mode set to Pass Through so that the resulting grayscale image blends with the layers below.

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Type Map

Create a map exclusively from type







LEARNING POINTS • Using the Touch Type tool in Illustrator • Working with variable fonts • Working with Illustrator clipping masks TOOLS Illustrator

Why not double down on this aspect of our cognition and combine the letters of a region into its silhouette? You can take some liberties with the type because audience will use both the shape of the country and the type to complete the image in their minds. Go large with a country, continent, or even the whole world, or keep it local — your state, county, city, or maybe just your neighborhood.  

FONTS USED Acumin Variable Concept

The silhouette of some countries or continents are so instantly recognizable that the name pops into your head the moment you see them. When you see the shape of the continental United States, you instantly think USA. Likewise there’s no mistaking the shape of Italy, or Africa, or on a smaller scale, the Isle of Wight (once you’ve seen its diamond shape, you’ll always be able to pick it out in a lineup).

Preparing the map Start with a vector map. I (Nigel) downloaded mine from vecteezy.com, but you can find many free or low-cost alternatives. Some cleanup and organization will be necessary. I discarded anything extraneous — all I wanted was the country outlines. One by one I moved each country to its own layer and named the layers. Lock and hide the layers as you work. Option/Alt-click the locking column to toggle between locking all but the target layer and unlocking all layers. Option/Alt-click the visibility column to toggle between hiding all but the target layer and showing all layers. This setup can take a while, but it pays to be methodical — it’s no wonder I chose a region with only seven countries!

Robert Robert Slimbach. Slimbach. Adobe. Adobe. 2017 2017

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Acumin Acumin Variable Variable





INSPIRATION pin.it/43pdBQJ www.vecteezy.com

For ease of working, isolate each country, and associated type, on its own layer. These can be shown and hidden and, to prevent mistakes, locked when you’re working on other layers.



TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

You’ve probably seen this type of cartographic treatment around. It’s a design trend that has become a staple of design and craft sites like Etsy, as well as tourist art galleries: a type map, in which type is fashioned into the boundaries of each country or state in such a way that the word and the shape seem to merge into one thing.



THE BRIEF Create a city, country, or continent map where the areas are represented by type

Typographic Portraits

Choose the type  



As is often the case, I found it helpful to set some rules for the project — even though I know that I will end up breaking some of them. For the type, I chose to limit myself to a single sans serif typeface. If that sounds restrictive, I ensured I would have the flexibility I needed by choosing a variable font (Acumin Variable Concept). Variable fonts have been around since 2016, and you can use them in the most recent versions of InDesign, Photoshop, and Illustrator. Each variable font (identifiable on the Font menu by the VAR badge) is essentially its own super family, offering a continuous range of weights and widths from a single master font. The number of axes can vary from font to font, but Acumin is fairly typical in having three: weight, width, and slant. On the Character panel, click the Variable Font button to the right of the style name to experiment with sliders and create instances of the font.

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I wanted a variable font so that once my type was roughly in place, I could vary between an ultra condensed and an extended width to better fill the country shapes. While I could have also changed the weight and the slant, I chose to keep these constant, thinking that too many variations would result in visual confusion. It’s a fine line between consistency and giving yourself the adaptability that you need. Another rule of the game was that I was only allowed to rotate the type in 90° increments (to start with at least) for the same reason: too many angles and the result would be too chaotic. Aiming for a dense but still legible type treatment that fits in some creative way into its allotted shape, I broke each word into syllables, so that I could more effectively shoehorn word fragments into convenient niches and make optimum use of the space.

 

Map out how the country names can squeeze into the country shapes, where the words will be broken, and how they will be rotated. To start with, I restricted myself to angles of rotations of 90° increments.

   

The extreme ends of the width (50–155)and weight (100–900) axes. You can create instances at any interval between.

 

 

Using the Touch Type Tool Once the type was scaled and rotated into position, I turned to the Touch Type tool to take things to the next level. The Touch Type tool allows an amazing level of control on a character-by-character basis while still retaining the type as editable. Just be aware that every change you make will affect all of the characters in the word to the right of the character you’re working on. Convert to Outlines I wanted to go as far as possible to retain the type as editable text, but when I could go no further, I converted the type to outlines: Type > Create Outlines (Cmd+Shift+O/Ctrl+Shift+O). Using the Direct Selection tool, I then pulled the anchor points around, distorting the stems of letters to further fill the gaps.  

   











Acumin Variable Concept has three axes. I used the Width slider to more easily make the type fit — and fill — the enclosed, irregular shapes of the country outlines. Note that the Variable Type panel can be frustrating. It doesn’t stay open, and it’s not as easy as it should be to enter the values numerically. However, it is early days for variable type, and things will almost certainly improve. Maybe by the time you’re reading this, they already have.

  

       

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Typographic Portraits After converting the letters to outlines, with the Direct Selection tool I distorted the letter shapes to fill as much of the negative space as possible.

Add clipping masks Parts of the letters inevitably extended beyond the borders, so to clip the country names to the edges, I dragged a copy of the outline to the top of the layer and made a layer-based clipping mask. Any parts of the letters that fall outside of the clipping mask shape are unseen.

B

A

To make a layer-based clipping mask, click the triangle to the left of the layer name to see the sublayer.

A

Drag the country outline ( ) to the top of the layer stack ( ) while holding Option/ Alt to duplicate it.

B

Click the Make/Release Clipping Mask button ( ) to ensure that no content on this specific layer is visible outside of the clipping mask outline.

C

C To unify the composition, I chose a black-and-white palette, alternating the foreground/background combination with each country. When you have two colors abutting like this, the interplay of the positive and negative creates a pleasing contrast and repetition that defines the country shape and makes it easy to discern one shape for its neighbors.





It could be that part of the charm of these maps is the way they tease the brain. You look at the map, and your brain thinks, “Wait, am I reading this as an image, or reading this as type? Oh, hey — it’s both!” This is how we designers stay young.

The Touch Type Tool allows you to move, rotate, and scale individual letters, while keeping the type editable. If you don’t see it, choose Show Touch Type Tool from the Character panel menu.

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Celebrity Type Portrait

“Shading” with words

The only thing that most people find more fascinating than type is a good celebrity. Why not combine the two? This type of celebrity portrait has become very popular in the last few years — just take a look at the Pinterest included.

TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

I (Nigel) wanted to use a contemporary figure, but most celebrities and their photographers are unfamiliar with the concept of fair use (the principle that copyrighted material can be repurposed without permission to create new art, within certain limits). That’s why I chose Franz Kafka. Not only is Franz familiar with irony, he’s also deceased, which means he is less likely to sue.





LEARNING POINTS • Working with Color Range • Working with vector masks and layer masks



THE BRIEF Convert an image into a portrait of highlights, midtones, and shadows that are made exclusively of type

TOOLS Photoshop, any text editor with Search/Replace FONTS USED Kepler INSPIRATION pin.it/3PdrdhN

I’m going to use a public domain photo of Franz’s handsome but troubled face and combine it with the text from his famous novella, The Metamorphosis, to create the shading.

Prepare the image The first order of business is to simplify the source image where possible. With the Pen tool set to draw a path, I drew around the head and shoulders, then on the Layers panel, held down the Cmd/Ctrl key, and clicked the Add Vector Mask icon. Next, I added a Color Fill layer of solid white and dragged it to the bottom of the layer stack. Before drawing with the Pen tool, set its behavior on the Tool Options bar to draw Paths.

KeAcumin pler

Variable

Slimbach. Adobe. RobertRobert Slimbach. Adobe. 2007 2017

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To make the image monochromatic I added a Black & White adjustment layer. To boost the contrast I added a Levels adjustment, moving the white point slider far enough to the left that the highlights on the face fell away to white. I then combined the image layer and the adjustment layer into a layer group. Move the black point to the right and the white point to the left to dramatically increase the contrast of the underlying image. My goal is to bring out three broad tonal regions: blacks, whites, and grays.

Typographic Portraits

Prepare the type Above the image group, on a new layer, I pasted the text of The Metamorphosis. In Microsoft Word, I had previously removed any returns so that the type became a solid block, better suited to shading. Chapter breaks and indents are of no use here; what you want is a wall of text. At the end of the day, the text won’t be readable, but parts of it will be recognizable, and for that reason it deserves our careful consideration. I used Kepler, designed by Robert Slimbach for Adobe, named after German astronomer Johannes Kepler, and inspired by classic Modern (Didone) 18th century typefaces. As well as being gorgeously elegant, it’s quite condensed, making it easier to fit in as much of the text as possible. In fact, the need to fit as much text as possible led me to my next text formatting choice, which was to reduce the Word Spacing, the Letter Spacing, and the Auto Leading settings in the Justification options (Cmd+Option+Shift+J/ Ctrl+Alt+Shift+J or found on the Paragraph panel menu). By squeezing out

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the white space between the words and letters I am adding density to the type. I then copied the type layer twice (Cmd/Ctrl+J) and named the layers Midtones, Shadows, and Background. These options are better suited to shading than readability, but that’s what the type is used for in this project.

Selecting the tonal ranges Now, with the type filling the whole canvas and overlapping the portrait, it’s time to identify the tonal ranges. The next step is to ensure that each of the three text layers is visible only within defined tonal ranges: midtones, shadows, and highlights.



While we’re on the subject of Kafka, here’s a different treatment, which uses the same text. In InDesign, multiple overlapping text frames, rotated at different angles, are grouped together and then pasted into (Edit > Paste Into) a vector shape.

THE

META MORP HOSIS

At this point, I turned off the visibility of the type layers to concentrate on the image. In the Color Range dialog (Select > Color Range), I made a selection of the midtones (you can adjust the range numerically if you wish to make the selection bigger or smaller) and then converted the selection into a layer mask, which I applied to the Midtones layer. I then hid the Midtones layer and repeated this process, this time choosing shadows in Color Range and applying the resulting selection and layer mask to the Shadows layer. To retain some dimension in the image, I chose to keep some of the original portrait visible at an opacity of 30%.  

KAFKA

And he looked over at the alarm clock, ticking on the chest of drawers. “God in Heaven!” he thought. It was half past six and the hands were quietly moving forwards, it was even later than half past, more like quarter to seven. Had the alarm clock not rung? He could see from the bed that it had been set for four o’clock as it should have been; it certainly must have rung. Yes, but was it possible to quietly sleep through that furniture-rattling He was noise? True, he had not slept peacefully, but probably hurriedly thin unable tostill all the more because of that. What should he do deci king all next the clock stru de to get out thisdeeply thro trainugh went of The ck quarter now? the bed , at seven; if he were to catch was a caut , have whe to rush that hen.would like mad and the collection ious knock to seve head. “Gregor The re stillnnot packed, and he did not at all feel at thesamples was door near ”, mother— ebodof his and lively. And even if he did catch the y called— ”it’s quasom particularly to go somewh rter to seve itfresh wasnot his train he would avoid his boss’s anger as the office asn. ere? Did was shoc ” That gent n’t you ked when he sistant would havewan been le voic t there to see the five o’clock train answering, e! Gre hear gor d go, he would have put in his report about Gregor’s not it his cou voice he had own voice ld hardlybeing there a long time ago. The office assistant was the be reco had befo him, ther gnisspineless, re. ed As as e boss’s man, and with no understanding. What was the if a painful and from deep insid squeakin about heollab reportedesick? But that would be extremely uncif be mad g mixed in with ontr it,strained le suspicious as in fifteen years of service Gre-m the worand of echo e out at first but then ds cou ld yet been ill. His boss would certainly gorther hade was never once fro hearer which made them awith sort the doctor from the medical insurance unc come round okesformed lear, or not. unsure whether he had leav ing the sa wtran n hliisttle gor had wan company, accuse his parents of having a lazy andy oachear and explGre amson, d properlyrecommendation ain everythi ted to r Smake cept thea doctor’s notgoto any selfH e laclaim d a andg give es content full answ re dever heam himill ed din ed himselfng, but as believed in the er that no-one Gwas in.but the doctor isthat yes, than circuworkshy. n would with sayi mstancmany were And what’s edhehhtlhave u, I’m gett y do e bedy to thin ng: “Yes verm foule change ink-yo when ftin emore, li , mot ing h g, Th Gre e up ib her, been entirely wrong in this case? Gregor did fact, apart ig gor’ s, in now noticed outs rr if h ly, sl ions. ed read lly s voice probfrom excessive .” The sleepiness am asleeping hoan d bfor feel, pitifuwaveded ide thro ably cou el so his mother modrndreafter ctlong, em ugh the woo e se ld to , not n se n k was completely well and even felt much hungrier than usual. Obe and shuffled satisfied with den ble ed ine bac brow stiff and y legsf himh,appenom, r, as away. But this this expldoo trouhis brk e his intover it man st o at’s is ro all, made the othe li anat ionin ou se ches co His e re h . H o sm r members short conversatio that Gre ld by ar le to ent. of th . “Wream le to ls. A e of the family armcoun. against thei n at home,gor, ed d ze tt m ab aware hesitidioed ly mo e si look ’t a a li r walt on th at one and soon his r expectations was d y th e asn gh ilia u d er came kno rmstill er pod, iv har his fist.of the side doors,fath ff ang withly as ht. It walthouur famread o—ancently a fo tim ckin e” heas u’ gently, but e ove histh ed pless ugh om s fo lay sp smanad re d in ith wrong?”“Gregor, Gregor” idav e g upidw.slYo to with ind, pel-arlin he ck o it trm all yo with a And after a shortd, whi e h ouse t w u stOtherco ba calle t hes”elthe thman roween mplelis ng sale rly “wh ing deepness at hand hed oug a er es dat’s Gregor!warn . ry. Foabr eoinugu e sliinghis upleteahe et calle ak ep el re thin H ” At m tt in w e agai sle the tin t hu lly b xtile asatravic n voic thto me? plaintively: other side et gh luxu e:gh“Gr ou per t, “i az dy fi rais her loto f “Gregor?“G er ofegor f te was g a p tu !ck to r en pro aycesfu need anyt hiseouasiste coapy ou’tdoo t o ba lif w mag a lapright,le of rn ea Aren th to ge al ed ps oe n p go cam hing e . o ?” ts arlaykfec “I’m ready, liv r I you t to you ti Samsae hunstrated owed well u who tu D gor goansw Do ornie ng ne?ve now”, Gre ll as sh ho satth ea smen e then er. hromad bit ered lemeien er heto ; e mge the strangene lu lean br making co — It nt ss w r th il sa both th , le g bob whoit f an ame. oa w red gor eath hic little e sidegs:th my ta ss from hisstanceeffo very care to, rem thesove durtrinct tove ve Gre ull w e, w p a ght, voic ith ot. Bu t o ed fr fu“Oh, r bat co eatinall w and puttingho use by u ab each, indifully e st ra enu God”, he thought, “what . o d an at er ou a strenuous ncia nt be s p chosen! er e eI’ve th the sp thecut rent d ff th th trting gild I sleee thTravelling e cositpau his brea vidual word. Histhlong tingses do and . day vieww itatisthnthat u career betwyteen t ifse”, hbusiness on ould be mynpa g thouDoing icye,r hat an just e t, but his siste stfath m ill er open thekfas to r o ti wen th ou in and day out. this t t back s ind hit w ab nsen nable torighot,silike tionyour door, I beg r ough attow ’t haven in m a fu cked sperkied: had no thou he e nevyttoIfuward e wtakes is at pdoing much o more u n hthan of youIwhi be th “Gr no aseffort egor getgor, hea .” Gre “Hth I di, dnve giveha ght of open ve go heard ght,hofavthat instead con o and th onritop d.business m ut th e own s, mr ay how e. If ing I’d l isgcurse ever heatwphome, arha m gratulated the ingttravelling, just w e saet althe ust heabout doo habit, acqu o, I’d , olekt ocohtuld buitthere’s t I’d,eha know intonto his of worries for, and m ag ld him in ee ou g hi lo self h em ired ou sl q in rig ab rg ge from all doors at and thforthhis tim d told ng I w farallinbufesi-el d fo that ’t self o as. Hbad making to ldconnections, ,irreguinkcaut metsedtrain so and night evenhis travellin longious an erythi el. He’drt of legs, dullall to tic u nhimwith an waslarsofood, wdifferent g, eofa lock es contact people im ss u r g , e when he h co ey bo h ing sk e him ev t I fe nny so ur lo w heryou e t can dengem nowas wastime at hethe ild to know ateth sorethat his nnever derainmget toatthtehom ll e.st wha s a fu e at yo esbfro t th w , shufriendly upin nt stheor anyone become It goseprese flou feelwith to at uto er re. them. es theHe th k,knowskju! And it’ tofeltbaefoslight can itch up becrdau hardallbacgokd to up thsubordin timHell!” haveha at eganhimself his;everon u lt himhis de sitting yo k ed yo ur re in his belly; pushed slowly up on fe o ll is n boss pe s ro und to lo he b ever off ss to be wn at ly wheth e ho Howway y his headboard so that he e towards a hhback en ad nthe ne ing doespecialcause estill somer toalpa better; found where the whhis r d it ncould ’t pavedlift talk there, ose be there’s togethanothe he hhead trie itch saw that it was covered with at and p was, uld o th up ht up clg. Well, moneyhim— at’s dewfi-oak st e e little white spots which he didn’t lots rig hearin got the bt to e—th n I’ll m ther ofwhat only to make of; and when he tried of ce I’ve rents’ de , I’v paien know ppos whe to feel the place with one of his legs he on my pa years I su. That’sall thouatghfive.” drew it quickly back because as soon as off e or six t I’ll doFirst of leaves he touched it he was overcome by a cold fiv ly wha ange. y train shudder. nitee big ch up, m th t to get go





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To introduce a tonal distinction between the two type layers, I added a Color Overlay layer effect to the Midtones layer and changed the color to a 50% gray (128, 128, 128 in RGB). To boost the contrast of the Shadows, I simply duplicated the layer, Cmd/Ctrl+J.

Typographic Portraits

A copy of the full text, visible only in the midtone areas, as defined by Color Range and applied by the layer mask. The color overlay changes the color of the type from black to 50% gray. A copy of the text, visible only in the shadow areas. The layer is duplicated to add more contrast.

The image (Layer 1) is masked with a vector mask ( ) and then converted to black and white ( ) and its contrast is boosted with a Levels adjustment ( ). The opacity of the image is ultimately reduced to 30%.

A

B

D

Yet another copy of the text, visible only in the background as defined by the layer mask attached to the Background layer. The gradient fill above is clipped to this layer shading the type from left to right ( ).

C B

D

C

A

Add the background shading In order for the shaded type of the Background layer to be visible only outside of the figure, I needed a mask in the shape of the figure, and the quickest way to get that is to borrow the mask from the image layer. I activated a selection from the vector mask by Cmd/Ctrl-clicking its thumbnail and added this as layer mask to the Background layer. To invert its values, I held Option/Alt as I clicked the Add a Layer Mask button. Alternatively, once the layer mask is made, just press Cmd/Ctrl+I to invert the blacks and whites. Above this layer, I added a Gradient Fill layer. This started out as a black-to-white gradient, but I modified the colors to gradate from a 75% gray to a 25% gray. I also changed the angle of the gradient to zero so that it runs from left to right.  



This type of portrait works well for an author — someone for whom words were everything. This way, as we gaze at them, their words stand like a screen between us, something we see through in order to see the person. Or perhaps this is just a way of taking literally the phrase “man of letters.”

The Gradient Fill layer will gradate the shade of the type from dark gray at the left edge to light gray at the right edge. Clip this adjustment layer to the layer beneath by pressing Cmd+Option+G/ Ctrl+Alt+G or choosing Create Clipping Mask from the Layer menu.

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The Type Project Book

Hand-Lettered Type Portrait

The best of times, and the worst of times

TOOLS Photoshop, Illustrator, Fresco INSPIRATION pin.it/11MpP1k







LEARNING POINTS • Hand lettering in Fresco (or Illustrator) • Combining Photoshop, Fresco, and Illustrator

For this project, let’s make another type portrait. Only this time, I (Nigel) will simplify an image to its most basic elements and then build it back up using hand lettering to add depth and complexity. It’s another way of teasing the mind. The viewer is not sure if they’re meant to read the image with their visual mind, their literary mind, or both . This project will take us from Photoshop to Fresco on the iPad and ultimately to Illustrator.

Prepare the image I started out in Photoshop by converting the Dickens image to a stylized solid black-and-white portrait. To simplify things, I drew a pen path, which I converted to a vector mask around the head and shoulders. This hides any distracting background detail. Next, I applied a Threshold adjustment to force the gray values to black and white. Because the source image is low resolution, I chose Image > Image Size to resample the image to 8 inches wide at a resolution of 240 pixels per inch using the Preserve Details 2.0 algorithm.  

TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

You know what they say: “You are what you write.” That’s particularly true if you lived in the 19th century and wrote dozens of books that are almost all household names, as Charles Dickens did. Who or what is Dickens, other than a collection of words? They just happen to be very well-selected words.



THE BRIEF Represent a celebrity in the form of a hand-lettered type portrait

Of course upsampling an image is a cardinal sin. Ordinarily, I would never dream of such a thing! But in this case, with a low-resolution image that is being transformed into a highly stylized vector artwork, breaking the rules is what’s called for. For the next step I moved the artwork to Fresco, and because Fresco requires a PSD file, I saved the file in Photoshop format.

Add the lettering in Fresco My aim was to fill each discrete area with lettering, listing the titles in a looping pattern across the face and hair. I made a list of all the Dickens’ books I could dimly remember from my school days in the last century (then I resorted to Wikipedia). Then I made a rough pencil sketch as a road map, squeezing the letters in around each other as neatly as I could manage. In Fresco, I created a layer for each book as I went along. After trying out different brushes, I settled on a Vector brush, with 100% roundness, no

Typographic Portraits

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The Type Project Book Add the lettering in Fresco using a Vector Brush: Each book gets its own layer, which can be locked and/or hidden as necessary while the work is progress. Save the file as a PDF; then finish off in Illustrator.

taper, a Smoothing value of 50%, and Pressure Dynamics set to 15%, but you should experiment to find what works best for you. If you don’t have Fresco and an Apple Pencil, you can do the lettering in Illustrator. The trick with something like this is to make the lettering feel casual and playful, when the truth is that you have spent hours agonizing over every line. I revisited the layers several times to reshape and redraw the letters, zooming in close, rotating the screen as necessary, and making liberal use of the Eraser tool. At this point I wasn’t worried about color because I intended to work that out in Illustrator.





Finishing off in Illustrator Once I was happy with the composition, I published and exported it as a PDF. Opening the PDF in Illustrator, I found that although the layers had been retained, they were all Clip Groups of a single layer — some housekeeping was needed. To make my Fresco files editable in Illustrator, I selected the layer by clicking the “bullseye” to the right of its name; then from the menu, I chose Release to Layers (Sequence). I dragged out the sublayers above Layer 1 to make them fully fledged layers.







There was also a clipping mask around each layer that I needed to remove. Choose Select > Object > Clipping Masks; then press Delete.  

188

In Illustrator, I created a color theme of three shades of blue and converted them to global swatches (double-click the swatch and check the Global box) so that I could more easily experiment with color variations once they had been applied. What tedium! Now for the fun part. Image tracing the portrait will convert the pixels to vectors and thus make it scalable.

Typographic Portraits

C

A

D B Reorganizing the layers exported from Fresco: Select Layer 1 ( ) and Release to Layers ( ). This will make the Clip Groups into sublayers of Layer 1 ( ). Select all sublayers and drag them above Layer 1 ( ), which can then be deleted.

B

A

C

D

Tracing the image It was now time to vectorize the image that I had prepared in Photoshop and chose Image Trace. Typically for something like this I would choose Ignore White, so that the negative space wouldn’t also be traced, but in this case I wanted to fill the white areas of the face with color. Tracing the white area did mean that I had to delete the unwanted background white areas, which I selected with the Direct Selection tool. To simplify the trace, I removed the highlight areas in the hair. For this task, I chose the Blob brush. Before starting, I double-clicked the tool to access its options and chose Keep Selected.

Simplify the tracing result with the Blob brush.

I then selected the black shape of the hair and painted over the trapped areas of interior space to incorporate them into the surrounding shape. You may wish to choose Hide Edges (Cmd/Ctrl+H) as you do this. You can also use the Eraser to smooth any rough edges or remove any unwanted black areas.





At this point, I chose a limited color palette and set about applying these to the different book titles so that the image felt balanced. This required a lot of back and forth — there are three blue tones, plus black, and deciding which item gets which color is part of the fun. This project did include some tedious layer management in order to transfer vector shapes from one application to another. But the end result is pleasing to me, so perhaps I should close with a Dicken’s quote: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.”

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The Type Project Book

Split-Face Type Portrait

Half man–half letters

THE BRIEF Combine word and image in a symmetrical type portrait TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

Happily, this effect is easy to execute. All you need is a good portrait, shot head on, so that it’s as symmetrical as possible. I (Nigel) started by cropping the image as necessary, and then I drew a guide in the vertical center of the canvas, dividing the face in two.





LEARNING POINTS • Using Photoshop clipping masks • Setting type in Photoshop

Every good layout needs a portrait that is half face, half type. What better way to make a boring photo more interesting? We’ve all seen a photo of a handsome face. What about a photo of a handsome face that is peering out at us through a wall of type? Now there’s a layout idea.

TOOLS Photoshop FONTS USED FF Good Pro INSPIRATION pin.it/6DeCeIp

I wanted the type to be solid, something heavy and dense, and not too rounded, so that as much of the portrait as possible could be seen through the windows of the letter shapes. I planned to set the type in all caps to let me fill the most space possible with the type. I selected Good, a typeface family that comes in a massive range of weights and widths, choosing its heaviest, most compressed form. In the Justification settings, I reduced the Word and Letter Spacing settings to bring the words closer together; and reduced the Auto Leading percentage, bringing the lines closer together. It’s all about making big “type windows” with as little space as possible between the “panes.” Photoshop’s typographic capabilities are often overlooked. The Justification options let you affect the personality of your type by changing the Word and Letter spacing settings, as well as the auto leading value.

a bc de f g hijk lmnop qr stuv w x yzA BCDEFG HI JK LMNOP QR S TU V W X YZ1234567890

Clipping the face to the type Once the type was in position, I copied the image layer and moved the copy above the type. To clip the layer to the type, I held Option/Alt and clicked the horizontal line between the layers — this causes Photoshop to use the pixels of the lower layer as a mask to hide parts of the upper layer. You can also choose Create Clipping Mask or Group with Previous from the Layers menu to get the same result.  

Łukasz Dziedzic. FontFont.

I found that for this to work, the type needs to extend from the very top of the image to the very bottom, as well as be perfectly flush with the left edge of the face. To make this happen, I experimented with size and word breaks. I also found that the eye was crucial to the effect. It was important to let as much of the eyeball, especially the highlight, show through the letter shapes as possible.



GOOD COMPRESSED ULTRA

Typographic Portraits

At the bottom of the layer stack I added a solid color layer of white. To mask the right side of the face, I selected the original image layer, drew a rectangular marquee on the left side of the image with the Marquee tool, and clicked the Add Layer Mask button. This reveals the white layer below the photo that is masked with type. The type may be hard to read, but that’s part of the charm. A reader will see the face jump out first; the words are secondary, but still important. Once the viewer turns their attention to the text, it ought to be neat, orderly, and readable, offering a compelling message. Mask the right side of the face with a layer mask ( ).

A Add the text layer above (B). Duplicate the image layer and clip it (Cmd+Opt+G / Ctrl+Alt+G) to the type layer ( ).

C

C B

A

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The Type Project Book

ASCII Art

Get cryptic with an Old Master



TOOLS InDesign FONTS USED Courier INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/6olt10a rumkin.com/tools/cipher/vigenere.php



This technique works best on portraits, and it helps if it’s a well-known image so that the viewer’s brain can fill in the missing information — and there will be a lot of missing information. I used Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring.  



LEARNING POINTS • Embracing the random • Working with fully justified text



TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4

Here’s a fun project that broadly comes under the category of Word Art, converting an image into a series of random characters. ASCII art has been around for a long time, and there are several websites that allow you to convert an image into ASCII art. I (Nigel) tried them all, but none gave me what I wanted — the ability to take the converted result and manipulate it in InDesign. So I had to come up with my own technique.  

THE BRIEF Turn an Old Master into random text

For a text, I wanted something meaningful, but obscure. What could be more meaningful that one of the greatest works of art criticism ever written: the first chapter of John Berger’s book, Ways of Seeing? But because I felt this would work best if people weren’t trying to read the image (and because I didn’t want to be accused of copyright infringement), I encrypted the text. Encryption sounds complicated, and it is. But happily, there are websites that make generating encrypted text easy: I used rumkin.com/tools/cipher/ vigenere.php. Paste in a text and choose a passphrase, and the website will generate a ciphertext: a long string of text that can be converted back into readable text by someone with the passphrase. (Psst: the passphrase is Ways of Seeing, in case you’d like to decrypt this image and read a great book!) Within seconds, I had generated a handy string of text that I could use to generate the text-based portrait.

Courier

I pasted the text directly into InDesign in a frame over the image. I wanted the text to knockout and reveal the image beneath in its character shapes. Here’s the trick: Add a separate black frame behind the text. Select the text frame, and on the Effects panel, reduce the text opacity to 0. Group the text frame (with the now invisible text) with black frame behind and select Knockout Group. This will cut text-shaped holes through which you can see the image below. Set the text opacity to 0% ( ).

A

Howard “Bud” Kettler. IBM. 1955.

a bcdefghijkl m n o p q r stu v w x y zABCDEFGHIJKL M N OP Q R ST U V W X YZ1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

A

B

Group the text frame with a filled text frame behind. Choose Knockout Group ( ).

B

I then needed to make a few changes to the text. I turned off hyphenation and set the justification to Full Justify so that each line is the same length.

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Oiaewg bwvi nvxot ksrj ls gwapqrc md yzi exckwryfqjk sj absatfabl lleb jgo azkssl. Kviqawljq wy tigizk avgvssl xlig gj iksuj usytq uqtjsgy oleb vz nenjsxwrxmq; op tfwb xzsamq nkw qgajllmvt un smesgghc pnj knaw ztgoil ~ ntz tfmg gq mqxyoyaracs zsa buk ouzbshl lel btye zwss kiiv oe ktfwf uwsttr. Rwtcj gyapp buk opcuwkag zqfokn mx hmw mqitk-iaiwf bsw etfu neagusadil ny lapl ck lli zrikrb. Sb neekm okyakw o wwgszq ub hmo L msh wmrt U. Tfag bsw xpr xassdh tx er qaineykwsy gsvfieoskbjkw sn vtzitarzspmbl, gycmedffcmvt gj ilufjswmvt gsapwbjkw sn uootmjm. Nl ascyj xe psgm ls xzl zk dyls yzmw tnyp dcnsqgtqmaz lrcuwxwpc. Jhz yeplonfpc qa Kqrmhs xmgl kbtocggixfiwa ugo evagywh wqaia tfw pjymrvvtc od lvj Jirivyoalus. Sg sxprx gilv ck jipqp un tcph kjsq buk laql qff sjnrx ouaz o iavikg zasraatfc ejbap tfw ktjph euoyh qmfwgyrlrj ktfwf uwsttr gp orzsw lmqmf. Oj tfag wwwtmpz emyysx svi ubxa ppwqnki evq xecfwf yzer tvzaryliww. 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Aq s ptgo sn fvacgsznrih iez diqlcwq mx qf tk bclhjj erl au sopks yzir buk wvcjolw. Xlm ygot roc ljieb cgenrablk fc Negjs Fszx hsvbegu tfw Utnivvbxo alv hmw Ksdrxjeqksx gj ev Nois Fgixw jsz brz pymdjjw mv gna Dslqm kizmazaellv-hwrxcee yirq ck Zeezyki. Tfwm bwvi wslecgszqq gsuzoosggbjv tszgxwirk. Vfaw, ev brz myf ck gziz rochrq, kfk hiagopurw. Atkx sn uoo lgxs mw lel okan gf rjtx. Hceojg rzs barxme ub 1664, tfw mjsv lm okcal honfxmvt zdeqw dnuxyzry, de mthfaril gnnec dcfvw sn ckwt mf dztpmk pnwrglm, tllizjooe fw ktmph pnba fpgnjf xs lrgph. Rzcxw alw aus syl ttj lmu jkne yvanfmwbegpopk ck kygp caxlgu qmsvmbl. Zde ymhmgv vmpundq lvjki jipzo alv hmwr ifcrecglzd keca gnwt gl ktmph pr ojcmjfjux xw ekwd gfht lli xnojtgfux src keopiaagr gj xpr yetrwfx. Llizr oo nm wjnvirkr, na syqg, yzex Pnra pyabywh xprs en y kdnjmx ws hetrwfswww. Buk wurzcw usravjarq lvje, lser~kn, rceowceftr ckrik ck svx iaj axndonfw apl. Narc ts bjmxmf ub tfw Fjyirbryaeq: Wohz asunt opcsyx ls ya bl phc zirsr gwajetggb baxl mdawl gedtjxevpk. Aaaz kteer aggjdq giy omxp rwqaj uzfjmxg nmwilkh yzi ivbxiosk rfjo wcelwcc, qsy llig nxa lgfyjv fc i sonm pzmyzqmknr wrpsblwqivg gjd rzs xmfhcrj ziyycssp tigzarl xcweih jl zdegj vjshw iaj dalvg. Xmfxtr skdsdoyasra bl phc vsjh, kpwjojg zdohcw gwaznizmhj ls xpr nwrkgbngyw nhyeol gt yzi apbra alv ttjq ev htbopysylef/m pujtpsgy omxp gna pmoswxyN euopeq sbi nmzqq lheqz htfiw eukne rzs iwxekukz srjcpww vmnid a nwop gj fzrgztf sbi kxvmamph. (mmf nlepqpy) Phc ucrhswqgoknyd isaxc ws g lagfhnfk gwaznizmhjk jyvqgielloqdc xw gna pmosw gj mbf oiaew, wy aw vmnyknytzj ls gwayedcj o usmrbvtc’s agaugwmbvuj. Bsl vjji xpr ikmnggnlmsv vy srglhjf efwhz ws rzczyl mb jkne gf wykipn gna ekghngret pnwrew ck lli xnojtgfu. Ywvqa yoge fsfrgrmwhy buqacs, mrjwematrspqw gsvgxwsr, jsfulmvt g leyc ck tviiqzd alv gyjirogn pryfgkwv xpr kioracs hvsdbqad zq hmw mqitk brme hmw tpiak kf jajjv ibxrxeelus, yg xlig ub dgkwslivmfzad ’yjh fhtvmpowtggb’. Fdp gwalhial rnketxrgns. Mfs nk ping cetf lvj mrgpntcily “vzeer kbtziracs’, srh buk lagfhnfk gwayedcjsi sw i un~baljgixdc qiqk kbhwqy. Nivg yoptjw wx crsea gxosl Vfdw sz gna Rcysslw apb ikmkagxasrmq nem. Gl wx fsx xbyoizds yg tvwqaye aafhmqwbntpiyd saahivpk po ckhftpmau cdar lvjav vmygpimfg bwvi. Jhz phcjs nk xlm rbedcfqj gj xpr vwillwsyw xprsoejnsx: lli miozelus tx i kzbal od ess srh i txkun gt bgqiv ny oecf pd srsbukn myf, hmw teqazar. Qliiq xlqf kribwbhw erl wazgc xcw qsyzfkhf. 12 13 Rzs fjx lqfzkrgsb kweva fayh bafjux ncqmamcfh: Fk mr ab swnw ghmwv tqpzqrck pd Zepa, gna pcfsyjexqam yhyjohlivqmgpimfg fdqsag yadsus zk mrbb halgwjnfk xpnz se ifcb lli xrxoolsznlc xznops yfr jnir buk dazahx gj xpr san yfr bgqiv cuntpsmjv. Alig oo tfag “xwhykgokn” fw kwaxia bl? Et gk btllmvt rasq lvff xlm cgenrablk aszxojg shcs’mw. Xpre sopc iugr ya okyasks bw egkrvp tfw kfq Letf yww fag xaxxmey. Se bg btl egkrvp tfag nfrskrtplw. Os fugixg op il kc ksv ea vz yopjsxhsrlf zk osj cbf sfarxraracs gj tmbvhe, ewgymvia, sgyeq, abxlmxcgoknq. Lvnk mw xbyoizds gwgecfk se qlwqd ppdr oj a qgqnwxc ws ikmnsfftpi abieaj jsqsxmway wnb ecwsp ziyaas. Yfr nl mw xekyiqwzd llma jnecf ywaww xpr vwillwsyw xpron pqqqmgpsoviwl yfr xggmiy angcfqd, ax ma gnes - lgh yzi tivtpep’k gpapp if g ¯oebmqjj” - alqpn yolnwsuiw cf zdar os hsr ovbc phc hsthpi xbxpryqsi. Lli ihzdop ucslmrcry: en rzs hswi ws ykmc ufnlmga gna scvihlmsv ugo bcwb f lsxiy yqcawgx. Ax lif, lkr cporhpi, jrkj aqkswlih bugp tfw Fjyirb vt phc lwuhih ayuqcf zoy, olmku nwrbdm hgzizf gjy mx vnk psvt, rwni zonj, erl jnksc uiwasyaye oer wmjk hs vbz boamg, bsw wpbcj il s rwmroma yparw. 14 Hmaw, lm facgckhx, aw e tvhal. Fw owyyia gnwt gl kfk e jifneol sh yzex bvsa tm osfj lebf uj tfw gnvi sn gna hcsr. Mw gmbry iebaqfd stqaokn rg dwgzi bugp tfw Fjyirb’f ktppwgxasr kbahd uwzq ti xpr xassdh tx e jipowl nsffdcwqf. Na ilkwxlw xpnz phc honfxmvt ckujv vfni fmrt qnyuqjhxejyk po rzs Wwkivgy ef mfs tx xlmz nwd zwss hsvbegueb vfzfo. Svr segfl ut gr hqfiqsqabl wegp bl phcks ugmrbf lkr nsujk. (Qiv vt oetwbywirbu-ianrmfd Zsptntz wmjs yzimz ugps mf hmw wmlr ub tfwww zielf oj opvsw ls fm gnkuezh tx ew iqbanrmftmw evq vheykiww-psdytc. Hcsjd vvmvxojg usg ff etxeureb hffuxmkr. Kpcclsws.) Fyb fayh y vwxuywavuj wmmzi leom hy avcf tfjxlme gsaw xfte xlm bthy agbkjsrbnzeol ovnul qigzarq sbi olmku zde ymhmgv ma qkpepewswh xw rbwdc. ab yzmw kbtbrmfhflmsv gna Rcysslw evq Xagcfhjkwia fzwrc sh Mspw, i qkotgliyw spl cgenrwf bzs lif rksr zwx jitcggpimf osv pmdry kfd higdmg kugnirq; vj wbeuvtas rzsr llvwhmd tfw sdww sn n vwunwf bzs qcfz jetwfyzipmfy prw lc gw sfrripitw, w.j., eywb gxu tm kiwesyvg zde usm mw wimf go a nsiuwv. Xpvy es rzs ijeqi bl phcks usmrbvtcs. Y vffee sn nt ¯ qndgflwxxiora cmfhwswx’. Ulypidaqflmsv ugo lglhqw xs lb cptf lvj nsgioahapq ixwh. Qgfzefguoyasr qf zde njchwww ws ktpjswsark 15 ijgu wfsh raklb bzdepowxw fi miozell. Vfdw Aif zde dafxl ts~znopiql ht hemvg zde lwk hzevipzarq sbi wbtzryoimfg hjiebrj xy asdnlepqfs. De bar nf tmkguniyd hjjqw eugp Bydnfu hml gck ccfhzjmia ygpep ab qaxiznzqrc. Qsy lli ihzdop gt yzi ecgnkrgloyazi ebxg ol lvjki tivtpilyg xmqw cc zde yjhnkx’w ipneetwajfx fg ekbepjwsy xs Pnro’s sfkfnivqam yokewyeirb gu diq hswksriy besggb, bzmgp rtniazsx gyv kbtocggixfiwa bl kup xsqdsa urt wnb zsnylxmay kup skj xsv buk avcj-wsuviifojg ngkjj sj buk iiezhd aqtcyyas rzoy wrejykz hge ht ymzm hy w cjggj nmie bl hidw’g aaxet suncck. Hmsx ma zeotgxwhsxmwa. Oj opvsw ls edboz mwkhnxcmvt zde nsgy (olmku iwn ciifdpc errh ssxtjj twmhjk-Myjlnkx qgfzefguoyasr) trz qs lgk jpeqqak phc howlmgcygn rcdoyasr euoyh lgk jpmwbf, yk fyj ox hmgbbxeaj aafyiw iek yoluswfih, jrzsecf hmw tvmfkjt yfr yzi tifz. ef uw qff wim gna ppwgjfx gtrgnlw wbtmkl, er ydajd oxc xlm eochr iijkxmway kf rd~s uswx. Bbjwy uw gjw xlm nxp od lvj hewb ny jozgrd kea qg hafmjs. Bw egbhghlw hswuimdr op il s rnxjizrtp wyq. Hmaw hqslarcfqj uer jr ohlskhwsxil vt pepeg tx alig cws rzczylx-ws go pcjguwgxqik. Phc ucsnirbvuj od hswktikgore, uzwhz mw caomuc lc Jmvsxrgj apl osv alqpn saq xwwkx iaggxlgkvjv mr buk aapdm Wwreqfywnaw, qjfxvmf krepqhmark wa zde cqs tx xlm okdojvsw, ax ma yoge y tsfe jvwz g hiezhmgywm - bthy gfgyweh ws regfl hwszityojg mmhbsvha, nvleyjosuiw begrej ab. Yzi gwabanracsk getykz tfggj sttmnxwnawg wwe/ mbl. Varqhshlmzm zggeq lvj kmroyk ayc lvj uirbek kf rzs aawmjyk sopdr. Jnivggnene ucsnivory kn rg hmw icm ny po rzs asrmauojg ngwsl sj qalenglm. Yzi zqfoxlc ocwdh ma nxnalysi xsv buk opcuhflsv if zde sfwawvwm jgo olus yzsyouz po fw owjerorj bop Yci. Sggwejene lc yzi gwabanracs gj tmeylealwaw xlmek es lg jnkyet ekyinjchaxc. Bukne gk bt fiil sun Gmv ht kmxcnza hgegjdj mv ekharacs ls sbukns: fw wx zmqarrb tfw gnlyebvuj, Tfw wszivmaz yollffvmgbvuj il hswktikgore usg yzex qg yprsuhzjih iyr emyysx gj vmnretw lc fvhvmfy w sgfuqw wtmpzwtmj kmg, yrtvqa Gmv, qtmph waru bc ab tfi ttnia ar s hnei. Engkn tfw wsnirbvuj od lvj ueqmeg phgk qtfxviqoytggb ljehcnrhy zwqfei excgnell. W’r sr igr. G ieazosaget rea. t, rzs rsglqak, ohmo mtm e awezz tfw kfq srtl ( iwn qws nl. ! jvmr suscdt kgv xwqgu alv ttjizme lnok zirsr muzuxijahd. A’q mv pujsrsby eszmzkjt. G sdujseku gjd nmzq saeg sxkm mtxjuxw, b pxaen mbiwv xprs. ~ iotw oqgrkavja a pmbsark pbxoe’q eczll, x nnrh alv fnki aqgn phc xoqdmro ntz rgkwsy fslvko. Tfag nk M, xpr swcfabj, eerwrarrgfu nf xlm pnworaq rgziurtps, pwqtjhmvt uje kgjjeirb nlpep sbtlliz vt phc ecxl gsucrax agagarebvujs, Djsjv jvwz zde zgisvevqry kf raaj srh acgye, G uc-tjhmvnza alq osv ept cuenrk ck lli caorepks, bzivmikn I usby lliu gu xe. Kq kfq piiqy pousfik xlm pxaaracs gj e nekoh nwfhwtxqbt kf rzs bgvpl. Gnqs G wludemv vt w nco kfq xlm junlb mbpfsav gu uos.* 17 Lvj ueqmeg esmdoywh qwzkjtyjm fhtiiegjcck osv mr ab jkily rjkxvwlkz tfw wiwe xpnz emyysx oivm goiejwgx. Gv, xw cap ir sbtlliz jgu, tfw qfeivi fnkwcv hmsx xpr tktggb tx xmur vwsqabl oew ~vfklapspnw jvwz zde cpdjjmivpk kf rzs aawyiy (ktcchh nf teqazenek). Kmsx cwh yww bwdjfhil hvkn uzsww csc jkne uzos. Oleb luq syo kfk vitnzevc lc dgyv xbyet~mf ws lmqm ntz snsqj. Ax aif tk lmfujj tsafoxlc lc neekqak avcjmyzmro pujvcjunfk sv gna hseos wci if uj tfw jffmwpvtc pmaby gj mvsojirq. Hmaw ma aup tM kod lleb okbopw hmw mrdrtpimf ck lli knsary ess tipqrbad rzoy wzizluje agiqv wim rbarwlvnfk, Fcg varqhshlmzm bxcalanjv xlm ioouy! xwjdh ea gnkuez hmsx amek enbwsi lli qqkwl. Cnswq hvijojg mj dfarxqam phyl ixwh tmeylealwaw tvwcuoeb lc yzi wxripargf yzex pr cws rzs zfmucr ianrjs tx xlm junlb, Lvj ueqmeg - wnb ecww tezgoyujsfqq xlm zuric uorwve lrsknqlfflih bugp tfwfj oew vb ianrjs. Yzi mvikjtggb tx xlm pgieps qmsrkmq zde usm rwr wij. Zde tagntpi knsa tm esff wsurzdily rnxjizrtp tm lvje, Xlqf cws geajvmebrru rcxzjuxil vt lagfhnfk. Jwe zde gedwwwwqbtesrk hmw zmavhhe lg ztfkiz cxascfhjv mxarrb tm eos ar szqkn tm ts xwir. Wa zde agbyjevg, gna vgkwgdi, mv pujtgfifd jpck, hacyes kmkmbvba. Fmj hmw Gyjvyps rzs aawmjyk saq fc qgrkme cdar ucsxvsvgkz tfw gnfkpm rea, bsl hmw xsbnretw gt ugwwqora vgwkx leoma lnok hcnfxw iyr nosfr yzi sjwkyt (mj djjwsv) okene vsuagxmq, Zde gfjjfxmwa ub tfw qfeivi nroo azosyih buk saw ab bzmgp zkj syo dfarxqamo pyabywh pwam xedgfj lli knsary oox arzmazad, Mjwlaretye lagfhnfkw erxa al abywkviy vwrr gt yzi fcvrzily ttj alqpn phcq kjji hmfocncv. Gteixqzko il sb jsvpg Ekjagkgffgi kuancf gf hzetmy uje fsg yzi jmrrene lvfl xlm vswgck cs lli enrh apw fjusvlf ub tfw pzaphqam’o illswasv tvla, tfsh ygkibukn tfwm rsoi cc zde zmwqvmro’f sammjm - xg qyku gne rzsd hevb bl phc howlmgcygnirq ck lli jhohdgfu. Yzi yvvwqelwgx gj idrxu pyabyark eny knaw dfjx sn gna ulaezwriaf ub tfw dqsgi eukne gl fjkmhmq. Ykmclwrww xpr vwillwsy aea gxwnqhcwleftr. Hqt gl qtmph vrbar zw gjwr mv gck pjsqjk ex buk oakw hnei. Aprt phc uorwve zrvn’obmqjk e tivtpily, wy viwbeuus rzs zfmucrtasq gt nlw munma. Aq s fjkypb vzo mcsbnfk gpntceq. Gf, rgvi mkgytjq, wyk qiiaojg kmzyatpqry wnb xffyqivgy enrg affc qmntenek. Hmaw ma ioribdm ndpyagxwtcv pd oleb uglpcfg bzir i cgenrabl aw wpbcj ol s hjdizqfokn qufjwr. Xpr vwillwsy irbrxo eyuv aaiame’y dosks. Yzivm vz es qmfwgyrlrj xy fag bsppxnvar, fag kmvrqgane, fag rwqivguas. Gl ssliva gna arecxhlizr ub hgk tfem|c. Qg hacmesx lliqe zwliabl hsmvg, op lcfrx axw urgjily ht lliqe saalabl. H~x xpr ywmc lwrw mx mazarq s andpmwa uphcj vtmwia ntz, il wohz sj buki, iq ksjf mr i qobfcjssl gsvgktt, Zwqfmwi ws zde asajje, xpr vwillwsy rse gxwvcdg yg xlm fvacrshtj vebukn tfsb yzi wxripargf yg xlm cgenrabl. Ar mbf znatwzx, axw urgjily wx vmzmeyefgwr. Tfi qqtnp apyij lleb nrh rchftvygbvujs kgfj gv pmfy ziqlcwl, erl gnwt rzswwjszr zde mjwlaret cgenrabl aw wbvrh il ksski yvvwqe. Fwfj aw w zrvnobmqyasr ws zde Taflar sn gna Rmuyx tc Pmbtwrbg rf Nmrkv. ~u Databl kiiv gnes pwdwghykgokn, mfs hsr kw gu’phc Foyairiy Mwljwfd ls pwbq wt rzs tjmkqagh alv hmwvi~qfikvcj kmsx xpr xappgrzuxmwa Pwcik. Oqlivvnzevcdm tfi gia lkrewh ftsyb gna qssznlc sn gna rchftvygbvuj alv gnetpg ok nekabiwh, aprt knc kcrwalmek knc zox spvmnju scwb f jitzbjqcracs. Tyx qa ketfwf hswi buk qngiijfiwa bl phc gfnymriy tkw jasx ar mb okene lvj gvmovto/od s fjhvslhipimf, wy aw rw yujgcj kmsx m~a v~gce qzcbk ~le~ a~e~ko olw ox mrmyhk; e~s d~jg~ rwerqam bosfr nf alig op syqg, gm~ mr eugp i~ Rzwx fia aggpuq gt yzi szvmenyd ktjo ma gna pcjtjuxpg egpimfoq usrarwqelus tx xlm aks mcsbx jitzbjqcracs. Tyx qg oo ar lvnk tsqaz phyl o ujsgm~ zeotgxwhsxmwa gcagf ssliva. Gna mcsbnfk sn gna opaunfep ebxg nm dcsyiv ]qry en uzoy ax yvvwqejq gfqw fcg oj wfsh nl yrqdaalw ag. Mga ma vzo ulaezw ibqfzanaw saspyigkz alv rjxmrmq oj osj dwwwivg iqlrmfj? ax ma qkbilwr fk er wopacr ovtki ziyaa dchssvw yxbt etq ~sfnO. Xlqf bwlsw wx sjjqesad yfr lsykmq hu ~hc hfnu~ mx nrzyhck cs lli unxge~. Zmh gwgecfk jetw~vjaiwa “n ckri gt f~” - srh iez es rzczylx bb ha gpwoywv ~lia ikmkwfhw - m~ qieqat njwhw mw anoz [~s qhwwaxyiy bwlsw. Mjl xlm fverglifd zethk kf’yf cgbigb, ny ziqlwsux jzbs w mckgfyi sz nt axyedqw, gev bthy zw schpeqakz i, rwfrk sj unmec mj fjdmkqbt. Wnb kwsui mv zuzepf gtumibl ,ke~hcj ck lliar oo a jajnfk jweia, tfw owl sfrrip, tfw ’ktjo e~’, qf kjvcdcuwh mv nt wtkgguzivm bl anrafjdc fwtao rcdwlaswqge. Sopcg tx evb nxa dgkqzkwil ntz ppwgjfxil ny phmmum llig jkne fgzd jipqpy: nejaqx olmku gne dafxl erl sunekggy wzmlrtye mx hmwmv wjt ou~gnoQ Lli xnyp il ovnul xpre krgywssxil vy otsvwjv mr wejar rg dwgzi buker qmfaazet tkjugfs. Yzic iek zeadowwh e~ eukj tfwww dmrm bl zequssl gev ok yeplwkaih. Jrlkrc lvj Nmvovt kf rzs Wggoa gna vgkwygv xw gna Nylwtfep Onrhepq ktmph jr kjcmmffyih jl taapdm j~wvcbuojg fw anylx pnba hcsfi srh zrgz azgiy lli xnojtgfu yg jimy ykmclvnfk pqxk phgk: “1 or ar jzbtp od ah, ! hsr wmr op. Tfag usmrbvtc bw Dstfevlb oo uldwpw erg bzdep ab yzi awerz. Tfw Bflmsvnr Cajdswq lea gna rcsz tfi. Mn V rkoi sh yzmw xnojtgfu msvh mauqgf, ~ kvtmph absahmo pj sfpm gu becd wyk eybukjtguwB. Lli DWxc~ od lv~ Wggoa oe Hemfowvs hi Iojcg: ah nk eybukjtgu osv xlmekbopw wy aw fmnapidmZ” Yg hmazoos qmqm xiitvtcs yk bfa’zi ebahd zw ezaxi eeujg. Rzsd sggwej lepxshlpc evzd tfw gthlmagoyarwr hmpxcek kf yjh jptizgy bop ovte xlm Agpimfoq Yeptrxu cyloqgkym vy srglhjf. Xlm rtprw gb yzi Zqemen mx hmw Vskxy es mfs tx xlm yujgckh jfxvqry, et agbxawxa bl bosjhjwr gtbyalw hfnfxil cgceq. Lvjq hs vbz zeyd knll xpr saalabl gj xpr oiaew. Hmwc hmnr sirz kmg gsuzoosggbjv xlm cgenrabl, dikiy ymuytpqww, apb usncv wy, axw tvqalw voyw, xlm sgiijasx gj mbf usncjg. Gwlmvq zdiq abkgvqigokn jas dweva bl neqwowul. Xpr gem mx hmw viargncf ag yg tvwik xewgbi src augzou gt igyfb gnwt rzs usmrbvtc iq s ujfymvr Raolsfig. Xlm fkyolvowq emu vy po njcaw xlig gj ajecxl mhmazecyd dfarxqam en rzs Qgyzzr oo a pwdqage ws zde Lshngret Tghlcjm awvwqbt. Brcfqm svx pvypopaosk xvg gu lrmns yzi sxcuoirw. ~vj Fexqbtwl Eszqwvc arrhs kgfj jitzbjqcracsk sj Trujapvc’x uevbbuj od Lvj Nmvovt wnb Uvndh aqgn Ot ~lfs ffh Wb Wudn rzs Gstxqfz phyf osq sxprx lialiww mr buker agzqwgxqbt. W fco mjsvw itu et usg pfsav bthy rg ghzspiey. Et zwqfei jizuqs zwqfmwi ia Giepaqff aevgkz tm tid ax jwe zso yfr f zepn zohlggb ugyrlf. Tkw gl vffkw qa g nome pd axwmyl. Phc jcte mw tvqa a azouwp. Xpr jnauabl aw fmuojd zmzqwx-tzbub pcjguwb. Mb ugo aaiinjih i aks kgfr tx mqxekosgnsswww. Vbz xeasixw sj eugp ir kvtow - rwg hacymgj gj xpr saalabl gj mbf oiaew, wy zew jrikmc aaujiwavba, mwkhjjmscf, hacymgj gj mbf swriwh aspym. Gna bmyix jipqtoksglm bzmgp aus ssjftmrha bxeggfoq osvsf ub apl, osv alqpn es sdhneexmye zenwbiwrx ccuj tfwww eevsrz rajms, msw fmpuie rzs xmfwbvzqtc xcw ole~ xnojtgfux dswb jnan rzs hsqizn swdc lvje vixeuzuaapqw. Mxa sajcracs aw rwfzwleaq. Nl mw buk bilsz jetxg prwik xcw lli kbtpilmwsy zethko od sb tdmkieidia, mbiwqskegpia uiqlyvm, vl phc aafyi ma au holysw mrmyhk wnb wlhdywqik, phc sfy gfnmpz, phc lvnfk, qcfz xe ksrj ecwbrxeoskzd ks. 23 Xpr swjmjwyq sj buk lonmzflmsv qu jor nwxax ezg sqscmax. Lli nbr|kwgfu ykfpm fnkwq zcb upsarru al ~fhjjiwb vt wrr ag wwpebrj po njwaapiorj adsuoyasr. Vnzeolsz ujstwezeol gt fjx qcfkqm tagnlsva niyopvwsy xs trbal mx simgebvuj : Pcjqjfxeor Ub eyuv jvygigoknyd qflikwee shm nwxax ezg sqscmax Yvimpk Lojsbi Xvevpk Dojlosv Kvmria Pmdosv Jviaia Hmdzffh Xpr swjmjwyq xesr op aq slngqebvi phyl hmw ,~ywmhso apw tzdp sn uuhy pwznuw apvid rcxsw ls e ulypepq kmagl mkihubwg yziq: buk iyqlswq sj cagycmmbysfpm jkwlrz. Cw, ls tcg zdiq sbtlliz jgu, tfwm mwpmmik phyl cwakmvnr iaqlswhmikry xejgbl ls xpr vneqwfaw {fsbu swtcjwfdpc iaj opgjwymeptl) ub tfw fnul. 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I chose a monospaced typeface, Courier, so that the letters stack up on top of each other, functioning like halftone dots. To build density I reduced the word spacing to a barely discernible 20%, and to fill out the frame vertically, I chose Object > Text Frame Options (Cmd/Ctrl+B) to set the vertical justification of the text frame to full justify.

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To make the text function like halftone dots: Full justify horizontally ( ) and vertically ( ) and reduce the space between the words ( ).

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The Type Project Book

Puzzle

Create a themed word search







TOOLS InDesign FONTS USED Anonymous





LEARNING POINTS • Using Gridify to create multiple threaded text frames • Controlling text flow with Keep Options • Working with monospaced fonts

One way to keep your mind even more nimble is to design the puzzles yourself. In creating this puzzle, I (Nigel) started by creating a list of words around a theme. It could be any theme — my version has 28 words on a 20 × 20 grid, and I used an online word search puzzle generator to randomly generate their order. This elevates the humble word search from the puzzle pages to the status of amusing and interactive art piece or gift.  

TRIM SIZE Any square format

There’s only one way for a middle-aged person to keep up with the next generation: puzzles. You always thought your parents did crossword puzzles because they enjoyed them? Wrong. They were trying to keep their brains nimble enough to outsmart you. The fact that you didn’t figure this out already is proof that their strategy works.



THE BRIEF Create a word search puzzle around a chosen theme and format the result in InDesign

I used the word search maker at Education.com; there are several alternatives available. Having generated the puzzle, I copied the text to the clipboard and switched over to InDesign. I created a square document; the exact size can vary, but bigger is better. I made it as large as my printer could handle.

INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/2bpZSSu www.education.com/ worksheet-generator/reading/ word-search

AnAonoynmyomuosus Mark Simonson. Mark Simonson. Mark Simonson Mark Simonson Studio.Studio. 2005 2005











The puzzle brings up some interesting InDesign techniques. This project is unusual in that each letter is a single paragraph and goes into its own frame. I started with a grid (Layout > Create Guides) of 20 rows and 20 columns. With the Type tool, I dragged out a text frame, pressing the Right Arrow to add columns and the Up Arrow to add rows. Not only does this feature — Gridify — create frames, but when you use the Type tool, it makes sure the text frames are threaded; that is, the text will flow from one frame to the next.  

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Hidden within the puzzle are the 27 nations of the European Union. Note that I am also using diagonals.

I then pasted the text into the first text frame. It started out looking a mess, but there’s no need for panic. The next step is to create a paragraph style that centers the text horizontally and includes a Keep Option to start each paragraph (i.e., each letter) in the next frame. I chose a size and weight of font appropriate to the size of my page. I used a monospaced font, Anonymous Pro by Mark Simonson. Because monospaced letters are all the same width, they will stack up on top of each other, making it easier for the viewer to scan vertically down the columns.





To finish the composition, I vertically centered each letter within its text frame. With the Selection tool, select all the text frames, and from Object > Text Frame Options, choose Vertical Justification: Center.





I find solving puzzles of my own creation to be oddly satisfying. True, I’m just inventing the rules that I will then use to confound myself. It’s an odd form of self-torment. But think of it this way: This is what designers do all day, every day — try to think their way out of traps they themselves have laid. It’s good practice for everyday life!

The Keep Option to start the paragraph in the next frame ensures that each letter inhabits its own text frame.

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An A–Z Collection

Explore the personality of type

FONTS USED Various INSPIRATION pin.it/zp87RA3









Once I had my shortlist of candidates, I used the Emoji viewer to explore the range of type styles available for each letter. On the Mac, I went to System Preferences > Keyboard and selected “Show keyboard and emoji viewers” in menu bar. Thereafter, it was accessible at the top right of my screen. For Windows users there is a free utility, BabelMap (babelstone.co.uk), that is equivalent.  

TOOLS InDesign (or Illustrator)

I realized that there were some trees that I photographed repeatedly and had started to name. I thought it would make a fun project to make a small A–Z photo book of trees — not to identify them with their common or scientific names, but just with the nicknames I’d given them, and to pair the tree with a particular typeface that shared similar attributes.







LEARNING POINTS • Exploring the personality of typefaces and specific letters • Working with large type



TRIM SIZE Square format

I love trees. They make great photographic subjects — resplendent in summer with their foliage and expressive in winter with their branches reaching up to the sky. And unlike people and wildlife, they stay still while I (Nigel) capture their portrait. Even though I’ve been photographing them for years, I know little about them. I can tell the difference between an oak and palm, but that’s about as far as it goes. Despite an app on my phone — I’m no good when it comes to identifying them. I just like how they look and feel reassured that they’re always there.  

THE BRIEF Create a photo book collection pairing type with objects













Because I wanted each letter to fill the left side of my two-page spread, it was necessary to convert the type to outlines (Type > Create Outlines or Cmd+Shift+O/Ctrl+Shift+O), which made scaling and positioning easier. But there is a lot of back and forth in a project like this, so to be cautious, I kept a copy of each letter — editable — on a hidden layer, in case I changed my mind, which I’m prone to do. I have anthropomorphized trees by giving them human names, and then I have done the same with typefaces by matching them up. Doing this may be strange, but it’s a great way to explore the personalities of different typefaces and to make connections between different areas of interest, be they from the natural or the built environment.



I finished this project by making it into a book, printed through an online photo book supplier — which will make a fine alphabet book, sure to confuse any visiting toddlers. However, a poster or website would be just as good.  

Use the Character Viewer to explore the range of styles available in your installed fonts.









I typed out the alphabet with a return after each letter and then flowed the story into a Primary Text Frame on the left pages. I then selected all the text, pumped it up to a size of 72 points as a starting point, went to Keep Options, and chose Start on Next Page. This put the letters in position. Next, because I no longer wanted the story threaded, I used the SplitStory script that comes with InDesign (on the Scripts panel, Application > Samples > JavaScript). This breaks the story into independent text frames. You can, of course, create your text frames one by one; it’ll just take a little longer.

Typographic Portraits

TREES: An A–Z Field Guide

TREES

Nigel French

An A–Z Field Guide

Allan

Bob (with Colin, left and Dave, right)

Clara

Delphine

Ezra

Filipe

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Type as Image Readable type is a conduit for information; expressive type communicates artfully. Adding a simple twist can give words and phrases an emotional power, create an onomatopoeic quality, or evoke an image or an idea. This chapter explores the use of type for expressive purposes, either as an important part of a company’s branding strategy, as a means of creating commercially viable art, or just playing to see what’s possible using type as your medium.

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Typeface Design

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A LO N G TA L E

‘It is a long tail, certainly,’ said Alice, looking down with wonder at the Mouse’s tail; ‘but why do you call it sad?’ And she kept on puzzling about it while the Mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the tale was something like this: —

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‘Fury said to a mouse, That he met in the house, “Let us

both go to law: I will prose‑ cute you.— Come, I’ll take no denial; We

Illustrate a Lyric with Type

must have a trial: For really this morning I’ve nothing to do.” Said the mouse to

Shaped Text the cur, “Such a trial, dear Sir, With

no jury or judge, would be wasting

our breath.” “I’ll be

Type as Image

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Animated Web Banner

Icons

Hoodie

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Type Patterns and Transformations

Hand Lettering

Interpret a Word or Phrase

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Build a Chiseled Drop Cap

Greetings from

Literally, not figuratively,

Large Letter Postcard Silkscreened Gig Poster VIKING UTSIRE the Greatest City in the World NORTH VIKING, NORTH UTSIRE VARIABLE, MAINLY NORTHERLY BACKING SOUTHWESTERLY, 3 OR 4. SLIGHT OR MODERATE. FAIR. GOOD SOUTH UTSIRE EASTERLY 5 OR 6 IN SOUTH, OTHERWISE

SOUTH UTSIRE FORTIES CROMARTY FORTH TYNE DOGGER FISHER GERMAN BIGHT HUMBER THAMES DOVER WIGHT PORTLAND PLYMOUTH BISCAY TRAFALGAR FITZROY SOLE LUNDY FASTNET IRISH SEA SHANNON ROCKALL MALIN HEBRIDES BAILEY Interpret a List or Series FAIR ISLE FAEROES SOUTHEAST ICELAND VARIABLE 3 OR 4. SLIGHT OR MODERATE. OCCASIONAL RAIN. MODERATE OR GOOD SOUTHEAST FORTIES CYCLONIC BECOMING NORTHERLY 5 OR 6. MODERATE. RAIN THEN SHOWERS. GOOD,

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OCCASIONALLY POOR AT FIRST NORTHWEST FORTIES, CROMARTY, FORTH, TYNE NORTHEASTERLY BECOMING VARIABLE, THEN SOUTHWESTERLY 3 OR 4, OCCASIONALLY 5 LATER. SLIGHT OR

MODERATE. SHOWERS. MODERATE OR GOOD DOGGER, FISHER, GERMAN BIGHT CYCLONIC BECOMING NORTHWEST 5 OR 6. SLIGHT OR MODERATE. RAIN OR THUNDERY SHOWERS. MODERATE

OR GOOD, OCCASIONALLY POOR HUMBER NORTHWEST BACKING WEST 3 OR 4, INCREASING 5 OR 6 FOR A TIME. SMOOTH OR SLIGHT, BECOMING SLIGHT OR MODERATE. SHOWERS AND FOG

PATCHES AT FIRST. MODERATE OR GOOD, OCCASIONALLY VERY POOR AT FIRST THAMES, DOVER, WIGHT WEST OR NORTHWEST 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 AT FIRST. SLIGHT OR MODERATE.

SHOWERS. GOOD PORTLAND, PLYMOUTH WEST OR NORTHWEST 4 OR 5. SLIGHT OR MODERATE. FAIR. GOOD BISCAY NORTHWEST 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 AT FIRST. MODERATE. SHOWERS.

GOOD TRAFALGAR (ISSUED 2315 UTC) NORTHERLY OR NORTHWESTERLY 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 IN EAST. MODERATE, OCCASIONALLY SLIGHT. SHOWERS, FOG PATCHES. MODERATE OR GOOD,

OCCASIONALLY VERY POOR. SOUTH FITZROY NORTH 4 OR 5, VEERING NORTHEAST 5 TO 7. MODERATE, OCCASIONALLY ROUGH LATER. SHOWERS. GOOD NORTH FITZROY NORTHWESTERLY 4

OR 5, BECOMING VARIABLE 3 OR 4. MODERATE. SHOWERS. GOOD SOLE, LUNDY, FASTNET WEST 4 OR 5, OCCASIONALLY 6 LATER. MODERATE. SHOWERS. MAINLY GOOD IRISH SEA VARIABLE 3

OR 4, BECOMING SOUTHWEST 4 OR 5. SMOOTH OR SLIGHT, BECOMING SLIGHT. SHOWERS. GOOD, OCCASIONALLY POOR SHANNON WEST 4 OR 5, BACKING SOUTHWEST 5 OR 6. MODERATE.

OCCASIONAL RAIN OR DRIZZLE. GOOD, OCCASIONALLY POOR ROCKALL, MALIN SOUTHWEST 4 OR 5, INCREASING 6 AT TIMES. MODERATE. OCCASIONAL RAIN OR DRIZZLE, FOG PATCHES. MODERATE,

Add Flourishes to Your Type

Color Fonts

OCCASIONALLY VERY POOR HEBRIDES, BAILEY CYCLONIC, BECOMING SOUTHWEST, 4 OR 5, INCREASING 6 AT TIMES. MODERATE. OCCASIONAL RAIN OR DRIZZLE, FOG PATCHES. MODERATE,

OCCASIONALLY VERY POOR FAIR ISLE, FAEROES SOUTHEAST 5 OR 6 VEERING SOUTH 4 OR 5. MAINLY MODERATE. OCCASIONAL RAIN, FOG PATCHES. MODERATE OR GOOD, OCCASIONALLY VERY

POOR SOUTHEAST ICELAND EASTERLY BECOMING CYCLONIC 5 OR 6, OCCASIONALLY 7 IN WEST. MODERATE, OCCASIONALLY ROUGH. OCCASIONAL RAIN. GOOD, OCCASIONALLY POOR

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Typographical Logo

A new logo for a venerable institution

TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED League Gothic

N: So the old logo was that bad? H: I’m afraid so. EFF had had the same logo since its founding in 1990, and although it was recognizable in the digital rights world, it had some real problems. For one thing, it wasn’t very legible — it was hard to read the acronym “EFF” in it. And it was awkwardly shaped — hard to center and hard to create a satisfactory lockup (the logo and name combined into one unit).  

INSPIRATION pin.it/1zS6r2g

Hugh: It’s an interesting story. The blogger behind the fantastic McMansion Hell blog, Kate Wagner, was facing legal threats over her use of real estate photos without permission. One of her supporters was the famous logo designer, Michael Bierut, who offered to pay her legal fees. EFF ended up providing her the legal support she needed pro bono, and this inspired Michael to reach out and offer his own pro bono services to us. (Put another way: He visited our site, loved our work, but saw immediately that we needed a new logo!)











LEARNING POINTS • Incorporating type into a logo • Building a logo system • Setting limits for logo use • Responding promptly to emails from strangers

Nigel: EFF got a new logo in 2018. How did that come about?



TRIM SIZE Scalable

Hugh works as Creative Director for the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), whose mission is to defend civil liberties in the digital world. By 2017, the original EFF logo was badly in need of reimagining, and Hugh had the opportunity to work with the world-famous branding agency, Pentagram, on a revision. Hugh and Nigel explored this project in conversation, along with more design tips for any logo project.



THE BRIEF Create or redesign a logo for an established organization. Make it modular, so it can stack in various ways, with multiple color options, within a consistent brand.

LEAGUE LEAGUE GOTHIC GOTHIC League League of Moveable of Moveable Type. 2009 Type. 2009

abcdaebfcgdheifjgkhlmijnkolmpqnopq r s turvswtuxvywz Ax yBzCADBECFDEF GHIJGKHLIMJKNLOMPNQORPSQTRUSTU VWXVYWZX12Y3Z41253647859607890

The original EFF logo had been around since 1990. It was beloved by some, but reviled by designers who had to create a lockup for it.

But most importantly, we began to feel our old logo didn’t stand up well to other logos in our space. In coalition campaigns, we place all the organization logos alongside one another, and the old logo always seemed too busy, too faint, too hard to read. We wanted something that would stand out next to logos for ACLU, Freedom of the Press Foundation, Fight for the Future, and others.

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N: Did you try designing a new one yourself?  



H: Yes, and I found I was too close to it — too tied into the org and too familiar with the incredibly complex issues. I knew that a project like this required an outsider who could look at the problem with fresh eyes, and not be so encumbered by information. N: So Michael Bierut wrote you out of the blue? That must have been surreal. H: It was! I got an email with the subject “offer.” You know how when you see a famous person’s name in your inbox, you know it must be spam? That’s what I assumed, figuring this was an AIGA email. But the email was a short, friendly offer to create a logo for us. Finally! N: How did things go from there?





The consistent X and Y axis on each block of the EFF logo allows it a modularity that’s unusual for a logo. It can stack vertically, be formed in a L-shape, or have an image dropped into the middle of it.

H: The whole process took us almost exactly a year, start to finish. Michael and the whole Pentagram team were a pleasure to work with. Their first submission had multiple excellent options, and from there we selected three designs to pursue, then narrowed that to two, and with adjustments at each stage, we finally chose one that worked. All the designs were great — it was a very hard choice. N: What was it about the final choice that you liked? H: This logo was nicknamed “Insider,” for the way the organization name was slipped inside the acronym. We loved its boldness. As part of our brief, we had explained that were looking for something that matched the boldness of our vision, something strong and forthright.



Secondarily, the modularity of Insider was incredible. Pentagram are famous for designing logos that aren’t singular images, but rather function as “logo systems” — designs that can be endlessly remixed and reorganized for various purposes. This logo had that quality.  

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N: So the logo doesn’t really illustrate the idea of digital rights, does it? H: Nope. Most logos don’t illustrate, they suggest. They function as symbols that we, the fans and supporters, invest with meaning over time. They have to be well crafted, and they have to be evocative and powerful, but it’s not necessary that people look at the logo and think “ah, digital rights.” That said, most people hate new logos. We got plenty of hate mail from supporters, one of whom said, “I also can provide a typeface and a solid color on request.” Even some of my colleagues preferred the old logo! But we have pushed forward, and the new logo has been very successful. Pentagram noticed in their research that we really own the letters EFF. There’s a political party in South Africa with the same acronym, there’s the Edinburgh Fringe Festival and a few other, obscure groups, but that was it. So they proposed making these three letters sit center stage.

Two of the draft logos produced by Pentagram for this project. Both are beautiful and would make fine logos, but didn’t seem right for the EFF brand.

Type as Image When creating a logo, it’s also important to define what uses are disallowed. Some things are permissible, others are definitely not! Let people know with a well-designed style guide.

One way I do feel this logo relates to our organization’s work is in the fact of its modularity: We are constantly advocating for open source technologies and for interoperability in the tech world. N: Can you explain more about its modularity? H: The width and height of each big letter, and of the word block, are the same. This means it can be stacked vertically, horizontally, or even into a neat L shape. It can expand to allow inclusion of an artwork, a photo, or a word.

H: The large letters are just shapes, but the org name is set in League Gothic, which is a beautiful open source sans serif font in the gothic condensed style. I love this style of typeface for its compactness, but also for the seriousness it brings. When it’s in all caps, it speaks in a voice that I can only describe as stentorian. It has gravitas. We were happy to have an open source font, too, since open source technology is one of our areas of focus and something we advocate for. N: Are there ways that you prefer not to use the logo? H: Yes! Part of a good logo system is setting boundaries for how the logo can and cannot be used. We came up with some terrible examples of how this logo might be abused by other designers and asked people not to make these mistakes. N: What did you learn about logo design from working with Pentagram? H: I learned that a good logo is a lot of work. I knew this already, of course, from the logos that I had designed myself. But seeing how devoted Pentagram was to even the smallest details was inspiring. Then there is the way that a logo design process involves so much buy-in from various stakeholders. It was important that this project enjoy broad support inside our non-profit, but at the same time, we did not want too many cooks in the kitchen.





It was also interesting to consider how type related to our organization. I had introduced the use of condensed gothic fonts to our organization in 2007, and I had not realized how key the tone of this style of type had become to our brand until we considered getting rid of it. Some of the other logo options we looked at were beautiful and elegant, but evoked a less confident, less bold ethos. It seemed at times that these logos were better for a think tank, or a research institute — and while EFF has those aspects, we are more than that, encompassing activism and technology development and other forms of engagement.



N: What is the typeface they used?

Alternate Gothic No 1 vs. League Gothic With EFF’s new logo, the font changed from Alternate Gothic to League Gothic. Many people find the two typefaces interchangeable, but look closely, and you’ll see there are differences. Where Alternate Gothic is tense and conservative, League Gothic is friendly, or friendlier — it’s all relative. Take a look at the Rs in both fonts.  

The colors can also reorganize in several ways. We use black, red, and white, and with those colors we can achieve so many variations! This makes it so much fun to work with, as a staff designer.

See how the curve of the letter in League Gothic is much rounder? Instead of rounding immediately into a straight line, it takes its time and slopes gently. The effect is subtle, but across many words and phrases, it imparts a friendlier feel.

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Illustrate a Lyric with Type

Give a typographic voice to a favorite song lyric or quote

What we’re after then is a mash up of a punk/new wave singer-songwriter and a Victorian poster. Makes perfect sense to us. On such Victorian posters, lists took precedence over structured sentences. This was the industrial age, and there were scads of mass-produced products to sell. The hierarchy of the poster — indicated by type size, weight, color, and devices like underling — made clear which items were the most important. But — and this is the fun part, EVERYTHING WAS IMPORTANT!

Posters from the British Library Envanion Collection, a collection of 19th century ephemera formed by Henry Evans (1832–1905), a conjuror and ventriloquist, who performed under the stage name Evanion. During the course of a long career, he amassed a large collection of material relating to Victorian entertainment and everyday life.





­



INSPIRATION pin.it/7JJd62O



FONTS USED Rosewood, Poplar, Bodoni Poster, French Clarendon Ornamented, League Gothic, Blackoak, Adobe Wood Type Ornaments

Choose the type Ian Dury was famous for combining rock and roll and punk with the bawdy humor of Victorian music hall, and we wanted the poster to have a Victorian aesthetic — part circus poster, part music hall poster. The lyrics of “Reasons to Be Cheerful” are essentially a list of things to celebrate. As such it’s a great pick-me-up, and the rhythm of Dury’s delivery makes you see the words like a poster or advertising broadside.



TOOLS Illustrator







LEARNING POINTS • Creating effects with the Appearance panel in Illustrator • Choosing and combining type



TRIM SIZE Tabloid/A3

If you love music and you love type, what better way to combine the two than by interpreting a favorite lyric with typography? This kind of endeavor is a mainstay of crafty websites like Etsy. It’s also just a lot of fun. Our chosen lyric is from “Reasons to Be Cheerful, Part 3” by Ian Dury and the Blockheads from 1979. We love the song. But don’t take our word for it. In his book 31 Songs, Nick Hornby writes, “The more I listen to “Reasons To Be Cheerful,’ the more it sounds like the best kind of national anthem, one capable of inspiring pride in those of us who spend too much time feeling embarrassed by our country.”



THE BRIEF Choose a song lyric or poem that you love and interpret it with type

Type as Image

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This desire to be bigger, bolder, and louder led to a typographic arms race, with larger typefaces needed to cut through the noise. The advent of wood type allowed printers to go beyond the technical limitations of metal type, which was too heavy and too expensive for use at large sizes. Wood type also allowed the use of typefaces that weren’t necessarily readable at book sizes. Chaotic but charming, Victorian printing was characterized by the era’s love of ornamentation and has, perhaps unfairly, acquired a reputation for careless craftsmanship. Posters of the era are characterized by extreme variations of type size and weight. The concept of white space didn’t exist. The lines are crammed onto the page, every one in a different typeface. All the text is, of course, in uppercase. Make it bigger; make it louder. With all this in mind, we chose a selection of wood types and for good measure threw in some typographic ornaments, which for ease of scaling were converted to outlines. There are also a couple of catchwords, THE and AND, and it wouldn’t be complete without some manicules, or pointing hands. After deleting all unused colors, convert the remainder to global colors (indicated by the triangle in the bottomright corner of the swatch).

Use the Glyphs panel to find and insert ornaments from ornament sets like Adobe Wood Type Ornaments.

Formatting the text Because each line is separate, we didn’t bother with paragraph styles, and anyway, a methodical approach seemed antithetical to the aesthetic that we were trying to channel. Each block of type was centered on the artboard with the Align panel. Fearful of white space, we wanted the type to fill as much of the page as possible, so reduced the size of the word spaces to 40%. To create the chromatic text for Summer, we converted the type (Rosewood) to outlines and then, with it still selected, used the Shape Builder tool to change the color of the interior decoration. For the offset and extruded drop shadows, we applied Live Effects through the Appearance panel so that the text remains live and so that the size and angle of shadow are easily editable thereafter.

The poster for Pablo Fanque’s Circus Royal appearance at Rochdale that inspired John Lennon to write “Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!”

Choosing colors The two-color palette was inspired by a piece we had collected on our Pinterest board while looking for ideas. We deleted all unused colors so that we could concentrate on just those we were using and then converted both to global colors so that they could be easily edited, without having to select each item on the artboard.

Type as Image

B

C

A B

C

A

A

Add a new fill to the text ( ). Add a new stroke. Make it the color of the background, move it beneath the fill, and adjust its weight. Apply a Transform effect to offset it from the fill above ( ).

B

Add another fill, and move it to the bottom of the stack. Apply a Transform effect to offset multiple copies, creating the extruded drop shadow ( ).

B

C

C

Finishing touches  







Once we were happy with the type — and especially the relative sizes of the lines and the spacing between them — we added paper texture on a layer above and set its blending mode to Multiply. (When in doubt, try Multiply!) To give the impression of show-through from the reverse side of the paper, we used an earlier version of the poster, reflected it vertically, and reduced its opacity until it was barely visible. You can see it, just to the left and right of Good Golly. The final order of layers. The reverse layer includes a reverse impression of the poster at an opacity that is just about visible.

Astute Graphics If you find yourself using extruded drop shadows frequently, check out the Astute Graphics plug-in suite for Illustrator. The Stylism plug-in includes a Live Block Shadow tool, which is fast, interactive, and easy to use. It also allows you to directly manipulate effects like Drop Shadow, Feather, Blur, Inner and Outer Glow, Offset Paths, and Free Distort. Their website (astutegraphics.com) features many helpful videos for how to use their products.

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Typeface Design

A chat with the creator of Barlow

TRIM SIZE US Letter/A4





LEARNING POINTS • Considering letter forms • Combining weight, width, and scale TOOLS Illustrator FONTS USED Barlow

Hugh: Let’s start with your choice to go open source on this project. Can you talk about that? Jeremy: Open source software is part of a public commons. When I think about highway signs and the kinds of designs that inspired Barlow, it’s all civic work; it comes from the public. So it made sense for Barlow to be, in a way, a font that I could contribute to that commons, because all the DIN families I knew of at the time were proprietary. Barlow is a community project. It’s free to download, and if you want to help expand the family, you can contribute on GitHub. You can even modify it and make your own font family. The OFL (Open Font License) is pretty permissive. H: Did you go to school to study typography? J: I dropped out of UC Berkeley — I was an art student! But I think that is something kind of important that does inform my design practice, which is that I’m trained as an artist.  

INSPIRATION behance.net/gallery/80918269/ United-States-Postal-Inspection-Service nan.xyz

Jeremy Tribby is a type designer and the creator of Barlow, a popular open source font. Barlow is inspired by the DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) style fonts originally used for road signage in Germany. It has three widths, nine weights, and a full italic and glyph set. It’s an incredibly versatile, clean, and easy-to-use font that works great in many different contexts. Hugh sat down for a chat with Jeremy and revisited the project.

a b cadbecfdgehfigj khlim j knl m n o p oq pr sqtrusvt u wvxwy zx y z A BA CB DC ED FG EH FG I JHKI J LK L MNM ON PO QR PS QT RU SV TU WV W X YX Z 1Y2Z3142536475869708 9 0

H: What was it about DIN fonts that you liked? J: I started thinking about DIN fonts while doing some brand work for a startup. We must have looked at a dozen variations of DIN and other condensed, titling Gothics. I wasn’t really thinking of designing one myself, but so much of my design practice is research; I started looking into the origins of DIN fonts out of curiosity. I figured I might find an open source family to examine, but there weren’t any good options at the time. I got in touch with a Portuguese designer named Paulo Silva, who provided me with a photo of the original DIN grid. He had worked on a project called OpenDinSchriftenEngshrift — a faithful digital reproduction of a single, bold, condensed DIN style originally used by Prussian Railways.  

Jeremy Jeremy Tribby. Tribby. TribbyTribby Type.Type. 2017 2017

I think working on Barlow was probably the first time I undertook a massive digital project. So there was a lot of learning around how vector art works, how to use the software, how to use those curves on the screen. I had made fonts before, but I’m definitely self-taught as both a designer and programmer.



Barlow Barlow



THE BRIEF Create a type specimen page for a favorite typeface

I also came across the work done by Don Meeker and James Montalbano on Clearview, which was designed to replace Highway Gothic for road signage in the US. They worked on Clearview with the help of researchers at Penn State. On a highway you have to account for things like distance

Type as Image

Barlow A font family in 3 widths & 9 weights

aA aA aAaA gG gGgG gG rR rR rR rR The Barlow project is led by Jeremy Tribby, a designer based in San Francisco, USA. Download: tribby.com/fonts/barlow/ Contribute: github.com/jpt/barlow

lo

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and reflection and overglow [haloing] — it’s not optimized for screens, more for a consistent 3:2 ratio, vertically, of black to white. That’s what you see in the original DIN grid too.  







The modern DINs — whether they are revivals like FF DIN or more inventive like DIN Next — use the same grid, but stylistically they’re less brutal than DIN itself. I appreciate the design challenge of bringing a point of view to a rigid grid like DIN. At some point the scale just tipped from research project into design project. H: How did you get started? What tools did you use?



DIN stands for “Deutsches Institut für Normung” (German Institute for Standardization), a standards body that in the 1920s and ’30s issued a series of typefaces for use on public signage and railroads. (They are sometimes called “Autobahn” typefaces, since you see them on the German expressways.) They are beloved by many type designers for their grid-based regularity and rationality — the simplicity and lack of adornment or flourishes makes them wonderful for design projects that require clarity and directness. The most popular of these DIN faces, which you are still likely to encounter today, is DIN 1451. There is a medium (Mittelschrift), a condensed (Engschrift), and an extended version (Breitschrift) that is less common. In addition to Barlow, there are number of revivals of DIN fonts issued by digital type foundries over the years. FF DIN, created in the 1990s by German designer Erik Spiekermann, is very popular, but we also recommend DIN Next.

Jeremy is influenced by the fonts collected in the Specimen Book and Catalogue from the American Type Founders Company. You can view and download pages from Internet Archive: archive.org/details/1923 AmericanTypeFoundersSpecimenBook Catalogue/mode/2up



J: I started with a FontForge project, OpenDinSchriftenEngshrift, just looking at the font on the grid: those 3 × 7 building blocks that make up the condensed family. It’s a lot like a pixel font in that way. Barlow started with a sketching on paper before moving to Glyphs for Mac. When working with fonts in the UFO (Unified Font Object) format, I tend to hop around between Glyphs and RoboFont a bit because there are so many great plugins and extensions for each app. The UFO spec wouldn’t be around without Just Van Rossum, a type designer whose brother invented Python [a coding language that helps you automate tasks], so there’s a lot of potential for scripting away some aspects of the production work, and even enhancing the creative work. I wrote a number of tools in Python during the project that I keep along with the Barlow source files on GitHub.  

What is a DIN font?



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H: What letters did you start with? J: Lowercase a and s were the first letters. I think the first letters that you typically start with in a font are the uppercase O and H and the lowercase n and o, because you can infer a lot about the rest of the font from those characters. There are exceptions, but just for the stem width and figuring out how the white space relates to everything, you do those first. But with the a and the s, those letters are kind of related in a lot of geometric fonts.

Type as Image

BROAD BROAD BROAD

Comparing Futura Bold Condensed (top) with DIN 1451 (center) and Barlow Condensed Semibold. All at 65 pt.

Like if you flip the a over, usually that little curve at the top relates to the curve of the s. H: What elements are unique to your font? J: After so much time has passed, “what’s unique” often feels more like “what’s wrong.” I have a fondness for the interior rounding, though, which you only see at huge sizes. That was an element inspired by Ultramagnetic, which is a much more rounded DIN variant from You Work For Them. I’m sure some people hate the g in Barlow, because it’s unique, and when there’s one letter that’s unique in a typeface, some people like it for that reason, but I think more often people don’t like it. H: How long did it take you?

Jeremy Tribby

J: It depends on when I started, exactly! I think it was two years on and off of production work.



J: I love the typefaces in the 1923 American Type Founders specimen book — in part, because when you’re a student, that’s one you can afford. So I’ve been looking at those for a long time now. Alternate Gothic in particular sort of feels like DIN if it were designed for headlines in American newspapers.



H: What are some of your influences?

H: Where have you seen it used “in the wild?” J: When I noticed that my therapist uses it on his website, I seriously considered not mentioning it to him because he might have thought I was delusional. I’ve seen a lot of editorial use by outlets like CNN, and Sky News. It was cool to see the morning weather report’s graphics use some numbers I drew. NaN is an experimental type foundry run by Luke Prowse in Berlin, and he does some wild stuff like feed fonts to neural networks and see what comes out. I loved that Barlow was part of the training data for that project.





When I saw Barlow being used by the US Postal Inspector, I had mixed feelings, because I’m not big on police or surveillance. But I have to hand it to them — Barlow Semi Condensed in all caps was, at least at the start, the primary use case I had in mind for the whole type family. The mail cops really nailed it.

Left to right: Alternate Gothic No2, DIN1451, Barlow Condensed Semibold

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Shaped Text

Give visual form to the words

THE BRIEF Experiment with different treatments for shaped text







LEARNING POINTS • Scaling and fitting type • Applying custom text wraps • Using type on a path

Broadly speaking, text that is arranged in such a way that it forms a thematically related image is referred to as concrete poetry. One of the most well-known examples is the “Mouse’s Tail” from the Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland. It’s part of the chapter “A Long Tale,” which is introduced by the Mouse saying, “Mine is a long and sad tale!” The text is shaped into a mouse’s tail; in some editions it is handwritten, while in others it is typeset, representing a major challenge for pre-digital typographers. Today, thanks to InDesign you can create shaped text without breaking too much of a sweat. As a cautionary note, we’d like to point out that these techniques are very easy to do badly; they’re not difficult to do well, but just require a few extra steps.

TOOLS InDesign, Illustrator FONTS USED Adobe Caslon Pro INSPIRATION & RESOURCES pin.it/7iRVJ3G For more on Guillaume Apollinaire: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Guillaume_Apollinaire

Working with an invisible text wrap The text is in Carol Twombly’s Adobe Caslon, a revival based on William Caslon’s specimen pages between 1734 and 1770. It’s not a perfect match for the type used in the book’s first edition in 1865, but of the fonts we had available it felt like the most authentic. While keeping the text as readable as possible, the type is in the service of the pictogram and readability takes a back seat to shape. For the type to be malleable to our needs, we first adjusted the Word Spacing and Letter Spacing values. A regular word space looks disproportionately large when there are only a few words per line and makes holes in the resulting shape, so needs to be reduced. Similarly the letter spacing needs tightening up. Because the text is left aligned, i.e., not justified, only the values in the Desired column of the Justification dialog box are relevant. We’re also using Auto Leading, that default feature that pros never use. Except when they do. Because the type size diminishes as

Draw a stroked pen path for the mouse’s tale ( ). Apply a text wrap to the object, with the Wrap To options set to Right Side ( ). Move the line to its own (hidden) layer, and set the layer options to not print and not to suppress the text wrap when the layer is hidden ( ). Optionally, the layer visibility can be left on so that the pen path is visible in Normal view mode or hidden. The wrap on the right side of the text is controlled with forced line breaks.

A

B A B D C

B

C

Type as Image

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A LO N G TA L E

‘It is a long tail, certainly,’ said Alice, looking down with wonder at the Mouse’s tail; ‘but why do you call it sad?’ And she kept on puzzling about it while the Mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the tale was something like this: — ‘Fury said to a mouse, That

he met in the house, “Let us

both go to law: I will prose‑ cute you.— Come, I’ll take no denial; We

must have a trial: For really this morning I’ve nothing to do.” Said the mouse to the cur, “Such a trial, dear Sir, With

no jury or judge, would be wasting

our breath.” “I’ll be judge, I’ll be jury,”

said cunning old Fury: “I’ll try the whole

cause, and con‑ demn you to death.”’

Adobe Adobe Caslon Caslon 23

we get closer to the end of the tail, it would be a pain to have to constantly reduce the leading value on a line-by-line basis. Auto Leading ensures that the interline spacing is relative to the type size; the problem is that the default value of Auto Leading (120%) is too large, so we reduced this to 100%. Now, with less room for space, there’s more room for the letters themselves to describe the shape of the tale. A text wrap shapes the text. What’s unusual is that you do not apply the text wrap to the text frame, but rather to a curved pen path. Move the pen path to its own layer, and set that layer to not print. Even though the contents of the layer are non-printing and invisible in Preview View mode, InDesign honors the text wrap. Shape the right side of the text by good old-fashioned forced line breaks (Shift+Return/Enter).

CaroleCarole Twombly. Twombly. Adobe. Adobe. 1990 1990

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The Type Project Book

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Using Type on a Path in InDesign (or Illustrator). In this example, the text runs along the path of a vector shape. The word spacing and letter spacing is reduced; any punctuation, such as commas and periods, are removed; and pauses are inserted (to avoid unsightly overlaps) with em spaces, en spaces, and thin spaces from the Type > Insert White Space menu.

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ing his calligrammes, he’d be using the Type on Path tool in InDesign. Or perhaps he’d prefer Illustrator. He could, in a pinch, also use Photoshop, but