236 34 55MB
English Pages 752 [751] Year 2020
THE THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA
LOS ALAMOS SERIES IN BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES
David H. Sharp and L. M. Simmons, Jr., editors DETONATION Wildon Fickett and William C. Davis NUMERICAL MODELING OF DETONATIONS Charles L. Mader THE THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA Robert D. Cowan
THE THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND S P E C T R A Robert D. Cowan
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley • Los Angeles • London
During its cataclysmic eruptions over a million years ago, the great Jemez volcano deposited enormous quantities of ash, pumice, and other debris. Compacted to form a soft rock, and extending to depths of more than a thousand feet, this is the material of the Pajarito Plateau in northcentral New Mexico. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is situated here, at an elevation of 7300 feet, on the eastern edge of the Jemez range. The plateau is deeply cut by numerous canyons which create sheer walls and mesas of striking beauty. The motifs on the jacket and title page are sketches of this terrain, as viewed from the valley of the Rio Grande.
University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 1981 by The Regents of the University of California Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Cowan, Robert Duane, 1919The theory of atomic structure and spectra. (Los Alamos series in basic and applied sciences) Bibliography: p. Includes indexes. 1. Atomic structure. 2. Atomic spectra. I. Title. II. Series. QC173.C647 539'.14 814578 ISBN 0520038215 AACR2
To the memory of G. H. Dieke
Contents
PREFACE
xv
CHAPTER 1. EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND A N D BASIC CONCEPTS 11. Line Spectra 12. Characteristic Spectra of Atoms and Ions 13. Isoelectronic Sequences 14. Wavelength and Wavenumber Units 15. Energy Levels 16. Units for Energy Levels 17. Energy Level Diagrams 18. The Ritz Combination Principle; Grotrian Diagrams * 19. The Profiles of Spectrum Lines *110. Wavelength Range and Accuracy 111. Empirical Spectrum Analysis 112. The Role of Theory
1 2 4 6 6 8 9 10 16 17 24 25 27
CHAPTER 2. ANGULARMOMENTUM PROPERTIES O F WAVEFUNCTIONS 21. Introduction 22. AngularMomentum Operators 23. Eigenvalues of AngularMomentum Operators 24. Stepup and Stepdown Operators 25. Orbital Angular Momentum 26. The Addition Theorem of Spherical Harmonics 27. Electron Spin 28. Addition of Two Angular Momenta 29. The Vector Model 210. Coupled Wavefunctions 211. Coupling Schemes; LS Coupling
33 33 34 35 38 39 44 49 50 53 53 56 vii
CONTENTS
212. 213. 214. *215.
Notation for AngularMomentum States Parity Parity and AngularMomentum Selection Rules Appendix
CHAPTER 3. ONEELECTRON ATOMS 31. The Schrodinger Equation 32. Centralfield Problems 33. Analytical Solution of the Radial Equation 34. Numerical Solution of the Radial Equation 35. Electron Probability Density 36. Energy Levels and Wavelengths 37. Relativistic Corrections *38. Appendix: The Virial Theorem 39. Appendix: The SpinOrbit Interaction
58 61 62 64 67 67 68 70 72 78 79 81 88 91
CHAPTER 4. COMPLEX ATOMS—THE VECTOR MODEL 41. The Schrodinger Equation 42. The Matrix Method 43. The CentralField Model 44. Product Wavefunctions 45. Antisymmetrization; Determinantal Functions 46. Coupling of Antisymmetrized Wavefunctions 47. Electron Configurations 48. Equivalent Electrons; Closed Subshells 49. Permitted LS Terms for Equivalent Electrons 410. Configurations with Several Open Subshells 411. ConfigurationAverage Energies 412. Relative Energies of Configurations 413. The Periodic System 414. Variation of Ionization Energy with Z 415. Level Structure under LSCoupling Conditions 416. Hund's Rule 417. jj Coupling 418. Pair Coupling 419. Example: Si I 3pns 420. Other Coupling Schemes 421. Statistical Weights (Hydrogenic Atoms) 422. Statistical Weights (Complex Atoms) 423. Quantitative Calculation of Level Structures
93 93 94 97 98 99 102 103 106 108 109 112 113 115 120 122 124 125 128 131 134 134 136 138
CHAPTER 5. THE 3nj SYMBOLS 51. The 3j Symbol 52. The 6j Symbol
142 142 147
viii
CONTENTS 53. The 9j Symbol *54. Graphical Methods CHAPTER 6. CONFIGURATIONAVERAGE ENERGIES 61. Diagonal Matrix Elements of Symmetric Operators 62. OneElectron and TotalAtom Binding Energies 63. Ionization Energy and OneElectron Binding Energies 64. Numerical Example
150 152 156 156 160 168 171
CHAPTER 7. RADIAL WAVE EQUATIONS 176 71. The Variational Principle 176 72. The HartreeFock Equations 178 73. The Classical Potential Energy 181 74. The Exchange Potential Energy 183 75. Solution of the HartreeFock Equations 184 *76. Complications and Instabilities 185 77. HomogeneousEquation (LocalPotential) Methods 190 78. The ThomasFermi (TF) and ThomasFermiDirac (TFD) Methods . . . . 191 •79. The Parametric Potential Method 193 710. The Hartree Method (H) 194 711. The HartreeFockSlater Method (HFS) 194 712. The HartreeplusStatisticalExchange Method (HX) 197 •713. The HartreeSlater Method (HS) 199 714. Relativistic Corrections 200 715. Correlation Corrections 202 *716. Appendix: The ThomasFermi and ThomasFermiDirac Atoms 206 •717. Appendix: Smallr Solution for the HXR Method 212 CHAPTER 8. RADIAL WAVEFUNCTIONS AND RADIAL INTEGRALS . . . 214 81. Computer Calculation of Radial Functions 214 82. Comparison of Methods 218 83. Accuracy of Computed ConfigurationAverage Energies 219 84. Relativistic Effects 223 85. Variation with the Principal Quantum Number 224 86. Variation with Z of OneElectron Binding Energies 229 87. Variation with Z of Coulomb and SpinOrbit Integrals 236 CHAPTER 9. COUPLED ANTISYMMETRIC BASIS FUNCTIONS 91. Coupling of Two Angular Momenta 92. Recoupling of Three Angular Momenta 93. Transformations Between Coupling Schemes 94. Antisymmetrization Difficulties for Equivalent Electrons 95. Coefficients of Fractional Parentage 96. Coefficients of Fractional Grandparentage
240 240 245 248 250 255 259
ix
CONTENTS
97. 98. 99. 910. *9l 1.
The Seniority Number Antisymmetrized Functions for an Arbitrary Configuration SingleConfiguration Matrix Elements of Symmetric Operators Uncoupling of Spectator Subshells Appendix: VectorCoupling Coefficients
261 265 267 270 271
CHAPTER 10. ENERGY LEVEL STRUCTURE (SIMPLE CONFIGURATIONS) 101. Kinetic and ElectronNuclear Energies 102. Effects of Closed Subshells 103. OneElectron Configurations 104. TwoElectron Configurations; SpinOrbit Matrix Elements 105. TwoElectron Configurations; Coulomb Matrix Elements 106. Intermediate Coupling 107. Eigenvector Purities 108. Examples: ps and p5s 109. Pair Coupling
276 276 278 279 280 282 288 291 295 298
CHAPTER 11. THE ALGEBRA OF IRREDUCIBLE TENSOR OPERATORS 111. Calculation of Complex Matrix Elements 112. Racah Algebra 113. Irreducible Tensor Operators 114. The WignerEckart Theorem 115. Matrix Elements of the Product of Two Operators 116. Tensor Product of Two Tensor Operators 117. Uncoupling Formulae for Reduced Matrix Elements 118. Scalar Product of Two Tensor Operators 119. Unit Tensor Operators 1110. Double Tensor Operators 1111. SpinOrbit Matrix Elements (OneElectron Configurations) 1112. Direct Coulomb Matrix Elements (TwoElectron Configurations) 1113. Exchange Coulomb Matrix Elements (TwoElectron Configurations) . . . . 1114. The Effective Operator for Exchange Matrix Elements 1115. Summary
303 303 304 305 307 310 311 313 314 316 319 321 322 323 323 326
CHAPTER 12. ENERGY LEVEL STRUCTURE (COMPLEX CONFIGURATIONS) 121. Introduction 122. Coulomb Matrix Elements: Equivalent Electrons 123. NonEquivalent Electrons: Direct Integral 124. NonEquivalent Electrons: Exchange Integral 125. SpinOrbit Matrix Elements 126. Example: f 3 sd 2
327 327 328 331 333 335 337
X
CONTENTS 127. Level Structure: SpinOrbit Effects under N e a r  ß S Coupling Conditions 128. Level Structure: Configurations / w 129. Level Structure: Configurations /, Wl / 2 *1210. Level Structure: MoreComplex Configurations * 1211. Appendix: CenterofGravity Relations
339 341 346 356 357
C H A P T E R 13. C O N F I G U R A T I O N I N T E R A C T I O N 131. General Remarks * 132. Wavefunction Orthogonality Problems 133. TwoElectron Configurations 134. SingleConfigurationLike Interactions 135. RydbergSeries Interactions 136. OneElectron Configurations 137. Brillouin's Theorem *138. Arbitrary Configuration Interactions *139. Matrix Elements of Symmetric Operators *1310. Coulomb Matrix Elements; General Case "1311. OneElectron Matrix Elements; General Case
358 358 361 366 368 369 371 372 373 375 378 390
C H A P T E R 14. RADIATIVE TRANSITIONS (El) 141. The Einstein Transition Probabilities 142. Electric Dipole Radiation (Classical) 143. Electric Dipole Radiation (Quantum Mechanical) 144. Selection Rules (Electric Dipole Radiation) 145. The Dipole Line Strength 146. Oscillator Strengths 147. Theoretical Calculation of Line Strengths 148. Selection Rules and Relative Intensities for LS Coupling 149. OneElectron Configurations; The Radial Dipole Integral 1410. Transitions Involving an Electron in Singly Occupied Subshells * 1411. Line Strengths for General Transition Arrays 1412. SelectionRule Violations •1413. Line Strength Sum Rules "•1414. Oscillator Strength Sum Rules 1415. Cancellation Effects 1416. Experimental Measurement of Oscillator Strengths *1417. Systematics of Oscillator Strengths *1418. Radiative Decay in LowDensity Plasmas
395 395 398 400 402 402 404 405 406 410 412 417 421 422 424 432 434 436 440
C H A P T E R 15. RADIATIVE TRANSITIONS (Ml A N D E2) 151. Magnetic Dipole Radiation ( M l ) 152. Electric Quadrupole Radiation (E2) * 153. Interference Between M l and E2 Radiation 154. Examples of Forbidden Transitions
442 442 445 449 450 xi
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 16. NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF ENERGY LEVELS AND SPECTRA 161. Computer Programs 162. Ab Initio Calculations 163. LeastSquares Calculations 164. Basic LeastSquares Method * 165. Modifications of the Basic Method 166. Phase of the ConfigurationInteraction Parameters »167. Effective Operators *168. LSDependent HartreeFock Calculations *169. Highly Excited Configurations
456 456 461 465 468 473 477 477 481 483
CHAPTER 17. EXTERNAL FIELDS AND NUCLEAR EFFECTS 171. The Zeeman Effect 172. Matrix Elements of the MagneticEnergy Operator 173. The WeakField Limit 174. WeakField Zeeman Patterns *175. Strong Magnetic Fields; The PaschenBack Effect * 176. Intermediate Magnetic Fields •177. The Stark Effect »178. Isotope Shifts •179. Hyperfine Structure
485 485 486 488 492 494 497 498 505 506
CHAPTER 18. CONTINUUM STATES; IONIZATION AND RECOMBINATION 512 181. Introduction 512 182. OneElectron Continuum Basis Functions 515 183. Normalization of the Radial Function 516 184. The Energy Dimensions of P e/ 521 185. Relation Between Radial Integrals for Discrete and Continuum States . . . 522 186. Photoionization 523 187. Interaction of a Discrete State with a Single Continuum; Autoionization 526 *188. PseudoDiscrete Treatment of Continuum Problems 535 544 * 189. Ionization Equilibrium *1810. Radiative Recombination 547 * 1811. Dielectronic Recombination 549 "'1812. Generalized Oscillator Strengths 563 •1813. PlaneWaveBorn Collision Strengths 567 CHAPTER 19. HIGHLY IONIZED ATOMS 191. Binding Energies in Isoelectronic Sequences 192. EnergyLevel Structures 193. Configuration Interactions xii
570 570 573 578
CONTENTS
194. 195. 196. 197. 198. •199. *1910. •1911.
Radial Multipole Integrals Spectra XRay Spectra Comparison of Highly Ionized and XRay Spectra Autoionization and Dielectronic Recombination InnerSubshell Excitations Temperature and Density Diagnostics Iron K tt Diagnostics
580 581 583 584 589 590 590 593
CHAPTER 20. RAREEARTH AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS 201. Lanthanide Configurations 202. Level Structure; General Remarks 203. LowLevel Structures and Coupling Conditions 204. Spectra 205. Aids to Empirical Spectrum Analysis 206. Ions *207. Actinides 208. Transition Elements
598 598 600 603 604 606 610 612 613
CHAPTER 21. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS *211. Thermodynamic Functions of Atomic Gases *212. Opacities of Thick Plasmas *213. Energy Distribution of Levels of a Configuration *214. Wavelength and OscillatorStrength Distributions Within a Transition Array
616 616 617 618
Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix
A. Physical Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors B. Conversion Between Vacuum and Air Wavelengths C. 3j Symbols D. 6j Symbols E. OneElectron and TotalAtom Energies F. Basis Functions, Matrix Elements, and Racah Algebra G. Matrix Elements of Spherical Harmonics H. Coefficients of Fractional Parentage, U Z, respectively). l0 The term "diffraction grating" is a universally used misnomer for what should more appropriately be called an interference grating.
2
LINE SPECTRA
Fig. 11. Simple prism spectrograph, showing the separation of two spectrum lines. Top, plan; bottom, perspective view.
>
i
I 4000
i
i
i
i
I
i
4500
Wavelength
i
i—i I i 5000
i
I i i • •'•i 6000 7000
(A)
Fig. 12. Typical emission spectra, taken with a lowdispersion prism spectrograph. Top: Continuous spectrum of an incandescent filament. Middle: Band spectrum of the C O molecule. Bottom: The line spectrum of the neutral helium atom in a Geissler discharge. (Photographic negatives, courtesy of K. L. Andrew.)
12
EXPERIMENTAL B A C K G R O U N D
for the dispersing element, but a narrow entrance slit is normally still used, and a line spectrum still results. For ultrahigh resolution work, FabryPerot and Michelson interferometers may be used; these produce interference fringes in the form of concentric circles rather than straight lines (Fig. 13). Even with a grating spectrograph, the instrument is sometimes used without a slit (or, rather, with an extremely wide slit), and the spectrum then appears as a set of (usually overlapping) images of the source, one image for each wavelength present (Fig. 14). Nonetheless, because of the appearance of the spectrum produced by the classic narrowslit instrument, each essentially monochromatic wavelength present in the light emitted by an atom is called a spectrum line. 12. CHARACTERISTIC SPECTRA OF ATOMS A N D IONS Each atom or ion emits a line spectrum which is characteristic of that atom or ion. This provides the basis for spectrographic methods of the analysis of the composition of (vaporized) alloys or other mixtures of atoms; indeed, several elements (among them helium, rubidium, cesium, gallium, indium, and thallium) were discovered spectroscopically.3 The spectrum emitted by neutral atoms of a given element is called the first spectrum of that element, and is denoted by the Roman numeral I; the spectrum emitted by singly ionized atoms is called the second spectrum and is denoted by Roman numeral II; etc. The first spectrum is sometimes also called the arc spectrum, because it is the one that is most prominent in the spectrum of a lowcurrent dc arc. The second spectrum is called the (first) spark spectrum because it becomes strong in a highvoltage (lowcurrent) spark
Fig. 13. Circular fringes produced by a FabryPerot interferometer for the red cadmium line at 6438.47 A (left) and for a superposition of all strong visible lines of neutral cadmium (right). (Photographic negatives, courtesy of K. L. Andrew.)
4
CHARACTERISTIC SPECTRA
12
Fig. 14. Vacuum ultraviolet slitless spectrogram of the sun, showing images of the solar limb in light of wavelengths corresponding to spectrum lines of highly ionized Mg, Si, Fe, and Ni. [Photographic negative, from K. G. Widing, G. D. Sandlin, and R. D. Cowan, Astrophys. J. 169, 4 0 5 (1971).]
discharge. 11 Spectra of still higher ionization stages can readily be produced by very highvoltage and/or highcurrent sparks, 12 in thetapinch and tokamak discharges, 13 ' 14 or by vaporizing materials with the beam from a very high energy laser pulse. 15 " F o r research purposes, arc and spark sources have been largely replaced by hollowcathode sources and microwaveexcited electrodeless discharges. See, for example, H. M. Crosswhite, G. H. Dieke, and C. S. Legagneur, J. Opt. Soc. A m . 45, 270 (1955); C. H. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, and F. O. Westfall, J. Opt. Soc. A m . 43, 398 (1953). 12 B. Edlen, Rep. Prog. Phys. 26, 181 (1963); L. Minnhagen, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 68C, 237 (1964); U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 1372 (1967). I3 B. C. Fawcett, B. B. Jones, and R. Wilson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 78, 1223 (1961); D. D . Burgess, Space Sci. Rev. 13, 4 9 3 (1972); J. P. Connerade, N. J. Peacock, and R. J. Speer, Solar Phys. 14, 159 (1970). 14
E. Hinnov, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1533 (1976); Equipe T F R , Nucl. Fusion 15, 1053 (1975).
" B . C . Fawcett, A. H. Gabriel, F. E. Irons, N. J. Peacock, and P. A. H. Saunders, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 88, 1051 (1966); B. C. Fawcett, J. Phys. B 3, 1152, 1732 (1970).
14
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
Obviously the number of different possible line spectra of an element is equal to its atomic number Z, so that there exist the spectra H I, He I, He II, Li I, Li II, Li III, etc. 16 Such highionizationstage spectra as Fe XVIIIXXVI, Mo XXXIXXXIII, and Au LII have been produced in the laboratory, 15 ' 17 and lines of Fe XXVI (hydrogenlike iron) may have been seen in spectra of solar flares. 18 By extension, the Roman numeral notation is used loosely to refer also to the ion that produced the spectrum; thus C I refers to the neutral carbon atom, C II refers to the singly ionized atom C + , C IV refers to the triply ionized atom C 3 + , etc. 19
13. ISOELECTRONIC SEQUENCES Spectra of ions of different elements having the same number of electrons N tend to be very similar in general structure, especially for highly ionized atoms. A sequence of ions having fixed N, or the corresponding sequence of spectra, is called an isoelectronic sequence. A sequence is usually denoted by its first (neutralatom) member; for example, the Ar I sequence consists of Ar I, K II, Ca III, Sc IV, •••. However, if emphasis is on a particular highly ionized member of a sequence, the sequence might be denoted by this member; for example, the Ar I sequence might also be called the Fe IX sequence, and thought of as the sequence • • • Cr VII, Mn VIII, Fe IX, Co X, Ni XI, •••.
14. WAVELENGTH AND WAVENUMBER UNITS The wavelengths of spectrum lines are most commonly given in Angstroms 20 (1 A = 10"8 cm = 10~10 m), but sometimes in microns or micrometers (li = 10"6 m = 10000 A), in millimicrons or nanometers (lmn = 1 nm = 10 A), or in X units (1 Xunit = 0.00100208 A). From a theoretical point of view, it is much more convenient to describe a spectrum line not in terms of its wavelength but rather in terms of its frequency or some quantity proportional thereto. For example, the line can be described by the energy of one photon of wavelength X: E = hv = hcA v a c ;
(1.1)
" A s t r o n o m e r s speak of H II, meaning the continuous spectrum produced by the scattering of free electrons from hydrogen nuclei. However, we shall not treat freefree transitions, and shall therefore consider H II, He III, etc.. to be nonexistent. I7 U. Feldman and L. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 151, L55 (1968); L. Cohen, U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and J. H. Underwood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 843 (1968); E. Hinnov, ref. 14; P. G. Burkhalter, C. M. Dozier, and D. J. Nagel, Phys. Rev. A 15, 700 (1977).
" W . M. Neupert, W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Astrophys. J. 149, L79 (1967). " T h i s spectroscopic usage must not be confused with a notation sometimes used for chemical oxidation states, where for example Fe (III) refers to F e 3 + . 20 After the Swedish physicist A. J. Angstrom (181474), who made extensive studies of the spectra of gases, metallic vapors, the sun, and the aurora, and pioneered in the accurate measurement of spectrum lines to establish wavelength standards.
6
WAVELENGTH AND WAVENUMBER UNITS
14
for wavelengths (in vacuo) measured in A, E =
12398 5 ^
eV
(1.2)
Ry ,
(1.3)
^va
911.27 ^•vac
where the rydberg [= 13.6058 eV, see (1.10) or Appendix A] is the unit of energy that we shall use throughout most of this book. Most commonly, however, spectrum lines are described simply in terms of the wavenumber o, or the number of wavelengths (in vacuo) per unit of length (usually per centimeter):
With K in A, 10 8
o = 7—
cm
.
(1.5)
'Wac
The unit c m  1 is frequently called a kayser (K). 21 The kilokayser (kK) is convenient for lines in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet (XVUY), a wavelength of 100 A corresponding to a wavenumber of 106 K or 1000 kK. The millikayser (mK) is convenient for the discussion of isotope shift, hyperfine structure, and other small effects. Wavelengths of observed spectrum lines of most elements are available in numerous tabulations, particularly the MIT Tables and the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics for low ionization stages, 22 Outred's tables for the infrared region, 23 and the tables of Kelly and Palumbo for the vacuum ultraviolet. 24 For additional references, see Sec. VI of the bibliography at the end of this book. Below 2000 A, wavelengths in vacuum are always tabulated because air is opaque shortly below that point, and so vacuum spectrographs must be used. Above that point, 21 The name "kayser" (after the German physicist and spectroscopist H. G. J. Kayser, 18531940) has not been officially approved by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics nor other members of the International Council of Scientific Unions [cf. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 410 (1953), 47, 1035 (1957)], but is much shorter to read than "centimeters to the minus one" or "inverse centimeters." (These last long phrases are sometimes avoided by reading "cm  1 " as "wavenumbers," but this is as incorrect as is reading " 100 A" as "one hundred wavelengths.")
"G. R. Harrison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables (The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.. 1969), revision of 1939 edition; I II spectra, 2000 10000 A. R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, West Palm Beach, Fla.), 59 th (197879) and later editions; IV spectra. 23
M. Outred, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 7, 1262 (1978); 1000040000 A.
24
R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines below 2000 A—Hydrogen through Krypton, Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL7599 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C., 1973).
7
15
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
however, tabulated wavelengths are almost always values in standard air. The relation between the two is n
^vac =
O6)
^air >
where the index of refraction of standard air (dry air containing 0.03% C 0 2 by volume at normal pressure and T = 15°C) is given by25 n =
1
+
8342.13.10 +
24 6 03 ° g ° 2 13010 — a
+
1 5 "g7 38.910s 
, . o2
(1.7)
A brief conversion table between A.air and Xvac is given in Appendix B. (Inasmuch as spectrum lines are now always measured by comparison with known standard lines, whose wavelengths in turn are usually measured with an evacuated FabryPerot interferometer, there would be no point in working with A.air at all except for the fact that most spectrographs working above 2000 A are not evacuated, and it is usually necessary to intercompare wavelengths in different spectral orders.) 15. ENERGY LEVELS The fact that light is radiated by an atom at only certain discrete wavelengths is associated with the fact that the atom can exist only in stationary states having certain discrete values of internal energy E. The existence of such discrete energy states is confirmed by the observation that bombardment of an atom with monoenergetic xrays produces photoelectrons of only certain discrete kinetic energies, and by the observation that lowenergy electrons scattered inelastically from an atom at a given angle can lose only certain discrete energies. The various possible energies of the atom are called energy levels. The lowest possible energy is called the ground level, and each quantum state of the atom having this energy (there may be more than one such state) is called a ground state. All other levels are called excited levels, and the corresponding quantum states are called excited states. We shall be interested primarily in energy levels that correspond to excitation of one of the more loosely bound electrons of the atom. These levels are inferred from observed line spectra in the manner to be described in Sec. 111. Known energy levels of most atoms and many ions are tabulated in AEL 26 and its revision;27 bibliographies of more recent results 25
B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966). See also J. C. Owens, Appl. Opt. 6, 51 (1967), and E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 958 (1972). Tabular values of n and a vs. Xilr can be found in C. D. Coleman, W. R. Bozman, and W. F. Meggers, Table of Wavenumbers, U. S. NBS Monograph 3 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C., 1960), 2 vols. 26
C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, as Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra, U. S. Natl. Bur. Stand. Circ. 467 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C.), Vols. Mil, 194958 [reissued 1971 as NSRDSNBS 35, Vols. IIII]; W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, and L. Hagan, Atomic Energy Levels—The Rare Earth Elements, NSRDSNBS 60 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C., 1978). These volumes are commonly referred to by spectroscopists as "AEL," and by astrophysicists as "Moore's tables." "C. E. Moore, Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra, NSRDSNBS 3 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C.), Sees. 18, 196579.
8
UNITS FOR ENERGY LEVELS
16
are available.28 For additional references, see Secs. VII and VIII of the bibliography at the end of this book. Levels corresponding to tightly bound (innershell) electrons can be determined through a study of photoelectrons produced by absorption of xrays, 29 directly through a study of emission and absorption xray spectra,30 through line absorption spectra using synchrotron radiation as a continuous background source,31 etc. Tables of such levels are available. 29,30 ' 32 1 6 . UNITS FOR ENERGY LEVELS The energies of the various levels of an atom are most commonly specified in terms of the excitation energy above the ground state. A frequently used unit, especially for levels corresponding to excitation of innershell electrons, is the electronvolt: 1 ev = 10 8 e/c = 1.60219 1(T12 ergs .
(1.8)
For levels corresponding to excitation of the loosely bound "valence" electrons, the pseudoenergy unit E/hc
(1.9)
is used almost exclusively, and is measured in c m  1 (kaysers) or (for highly ionized atoms) sometimes in kilokaysers; cf. Eqs. (1.4) and (1.5). For theoretical purposes, the most convenient unit of energy is the rydberg:33 1 Ry = 2h
= — = 2.1799MO" 1 1 ergs = 13.6058 eV , 2a„
(1.10)
28 C. E. Moore, Bibliography on the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra, U. S. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Publ. 306 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington D. C.), Sees. 14, 196869; L. Hagan and W. C. Martin, Bibliography on Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra, July 1968 through June 1971, U. S. Natl. Bur. Stand. Special Publ. 363 (U. S. Govt. Printing OfT., Washington, D. C„ 1972); L. Hagan, Supplement 1 to Special Publ. 363. July 1971 through June 1975 (1977). 29
K. Siegbahn, et al., ESCA—Atomic, Molecular, and Solid State Structure Studied by Means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almqvist and Wiksells, Uppsala, 1967). 50 J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Xray Wavelengths and XRay Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39. 78. 125 (1967); also, reprinted as NSRDSNBS 14 by U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C., 1967. More detailed tables appear in Atomic Energy Levels, Report NYO25431 (1965). 3I
R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, and K. Codling, Appl. Opt. 6, 31 (1967); K. Codling, Rep. Prog. Phys. 36, 541 (1973). 32 J. C. Slater, "OneElectron Energies of Atoms, Molecules, and Solids," Phys. Rev. 98, 1039 (1955); W. Lotz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 915 (1968), 60, 206 (1970); D. A. Shirley, R. L. Martin, S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, and L. Ley, Phys. Rev. B 15, 544 (1977). 33
After the Swedish physicist J. R. Rydberg (18541919), who found important mathematical relations connecting the wavenumbers of series of related spectrum lines; see, for example, W. McGucken, ref. 3, and N. Bohr, "Rydberg's Discovery of the Spectral Laws," Lunds University Arsskr., Avd. 2, 50, 15 (1955).
9
17
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
where a 0 = h 2 /me 2 = 0.529177 10~8 cm is the radius of the first Bohr orbit of hydrogen. The hartree (= e 2 /a 0 = 2 Ry) is also frequently employed, but we shall use only the rydberg in this book. The equivalences between the energy and pseudoenergy units are: 1 R y = 109737.3 cm" 1 , 1 eV = 8065.479 cm"
1
.
(1.11) (1.12)
The first of these two numbers is known as the Rydberg constant, R rjo , for infinitely large nuclear mass.
17. ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAMS The possible energy levels of an atom are conveniently depicted by means of a diagram in which each level is represented by a short horizontal line placed at the appropriate point along a vertical energy scale. Each level is usually placed in one of several different columns, according to certain properties of the quantum state(s) that correspond to that level. As a simple example, some of the known levels26'27 of C II are shown (slightly simplified) in Fig. 15. Each level has been labeled with appropriate values of quantum numbers n/, which will be defined in detail in Chapter 3. For the present, suffice it to say that in each column (corresponding to a specific value of /), the various levels (differing only in the value of the quantum number n) form a regular sequence of energies known as a Rydberg series;33 as n tends to oo, each series tends to a limiting energy known as the series limit. The limit is also called an ionization limit, as it represents the physical state in which an electron has been removed to an infinite distance from the ion (with zero kinetic energy). In general, there are many possible ionization limits (only one of which is shown in the figure), corresponding to different possible energy states of the residual ion. The lowest possible limit corresponds to the case in which the residual ion lies in its ground state, and is known as the first ionization limit, or simply as the ionization limit. The energy difference between the ground state of an atom (or ion) and the first ionization limit (i.e., between the ground state of an ion and the ground state of the nexthigherstage ion) is called the ionization energy of the atom (or ion).34 The ionization potential is a potential (in volts) numerically equal to the ionization energy in electron volts. Experimental (and some theoretical) ionization energies are given in Table 11.35 If I m is the ionization energy of the m th ionization stage, 1 m Z, then the total energy required to remove all Z — m + 1 electrons is 34 An infinity of other ionization energies can be defined involving the energy differences between an excited level of the atom and/or an excited level of the next higher ion, but in such cases the excited levels must be stated explicitly. 35 C. E. Moore, Ionization Potentials and ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra, NSRDS NBS 34 (U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington, D. C., 1970), and other references given in Sec. IX of the bibliography.
10
E N E R G Y LEVEL D I A G R A M S
17
Fig. 15. Energy level diagram of some of the known levels of C II (slightly simplified). The labels s, p, d, f, g represent values of the orbitalangularmomentum quantum number 1 = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively, and the number beside each level is the principal quantum number n.
2 ij. J = m For theoretical work, the zero of energy is usually taken to be the energy of the state in which the nucleus and all electrons are at rest infinitely far apart from each other; with respect to this zero, the total electronic energy of an ion in the ground state o f the m t h ionization stage is
 Z I,J = m
(1.13)
11
o — fN — —
— m
— i n vo o
N O O ^  r  ^ o> — © © © — vo ^ ffi
— oo 10 — — — N
Ch Tf O 5 « O O
8
«
« >£> r  «o — — — r» oo no r  = S O n
^
^ 00 ^ 00 o vo vo «
9> 00
« i n i N n h o » «  
r» « io t « X
« m « * rn©0\sOr*"iNOsOOO sO >/"» © o es O — «NrorrOrJr^ioiy^io \0 sO NO NO NO
no T* fi TT Ö 00 NO •Û W M Tf
f m
o rvi os rj i/~> r— 00 — « o O ^ ^ ^ N O N o r  r ^ r n — O r— On Tf — r«i vi l OO oo ^ O no M ^ r a (N «Nf^— t t OC "O VÌ *fO>NOOs00 00r>O©ONr«> " CO Tf O O co «i ^ O  "i ^ n c o — — — n h oo o n 5; o Ñ f N O r  i v í t  ^ o Ñ o o — « N Z 2 h o s o ¿
« 0> L. J U Û . Z
Tt «o o r oo Os
O
E
O O ^ ^ N M *f r *r> s© rs © 00 CN Wi NO — 00 Os © — — vi N© no \O >© «o NO
£
3 T3 XI >. o
. E Ä I H >
J
X
r f ' n ' û h e o ^ O  i N
13
> X
r— o rf wi ON TJ
e o o M J 00
ON ON 0 s o
Fm Md
c. D Z
.  —
Bk
U. tC < H
"'
Cm
h ^ c¿ O ~ CU < X h CU CQ CU f^ t lO h r r r r— r
IN  O O0 vi vi ^
Pu Am
no oo oo r o CS 0 ^C r^ (— ® * « 5. ^ i/i
X X X
«/> r 00
00 o f , 00 O T
^ Z)
00 sC Tf vC
1 1 1 1 •2 S u CU E •S U •= __ o
> sC r
I
1 1 E srt — J3 3 .a < £
X X X
I Q ' S 05 i E
> X X X
s
x
s
• = .2 ¡1 s » 11 " o y x: w Q.
15
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
18
Ground Ionization level of: limit of:
(_)
cm
C3Z1
CI
CY
CET
947
cw
cm
—
994
cm
en
—
10191030
cn
CI (—)
O

z o cr —
882—

< Io
Fig. 16. Energy level diagram for all ionization stages of carbon, with all energies based on an energy zero for the completely stripped carbon atom. (Highly schematic, and not to scale.)
An illustrative example is given in Fig. 16. The energy in any excited state of the m th ionization stage is of course found by adding the excitation energy of that state to the groundstate energy (1.13). 18. THE RITZ COMBINATION PRINCIPLE; GROTRIAN DIAGRAMS If an atom exists in an excited state of energy E 2 it may spontaneously decay to some other state of lower energy E„ the energy difference appearing as a photon 36 of energy E 2 — Ej. This photon corresponds to emitted radiation of frequency v, vacuum wavelength X, and wavenumber a given by E 2  E, = hv = ^
K
=hco ,
(1.14)
"With very low probability, the atom may decay with emission of two or more photons of total energy E2  E,; see M. Goeppert Mayer, Ann. Physik 9, 273 (1931); H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1149 (1970). Such multiphoton decay modes will not be discussed in this book.
16
THE PROFILES OF SPECTRUM LINES
19
or if the energy levels are given in the pseudoenergy units E/hc
he
he
X
K
'
Conversely, if the atom exists in the state 1 and lies in a radiation field that includes radiation of wavenumber a given by (1.15), it may be excited to the state 2 by absorption of one photon of energy E 2 — E,. The Ritz combination principle37 states that any two energy levels of the atom can combine in the above manner to give rise to a spectrum line. In principle this is true, but in practice most pairs of levels give rise to negligibly weak spectrum lines, as the result of various selection rules that will be discussed in Sec. 214 and in Chapters 1415 on multipole spectra. In general, the different observed lines of a spectrum cover a very wide range of intensities. It has been estimated that in favorable cases (lowbackground sources and detectors) an intensity range as great as 108:1 can be observed. 38 This intensity range may be due either to inherent differences in line strength, or to excitation conditions (greatly different numbers of atoms in the initial states of different lines)—usually to both. Frequently, the strongest and most important spectrum lines are shown in an energylevel diagram in the form of vertical or diagonal lines connecting the appropriate pairs of energy levels, with the corresponding wavelength (in A) written beside each line. The diagram is then known as a Grotrian diagram,39 an example, from Moore and Merrill,40 is shown in Fig. 17. Lines that involve the ground level are called resonance lines. That resonance line (of appreciable strength) which involves the lowestlying upper level is called the principal resonance line, or simply the resonance line; in Fig. 17, this is the line with wavelength 1816 A. •19. THE PROFILES OF SPECTRUM LINES For most purposes we shall consider the energy of each level of an atom to be perfectly definite in value; i.e., to have zero energy width. The wavenumber or wavelength given by (1.15) is then also definite, and each spectrum line is monochromatic, with zero wavenumber width. "W. Ritz, Astrophys. J. 28, 237 (1908). 38
D. R. Wood, K. L. Andrew, A. Giacchetti, and R. D. Cowan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 830 (1968).
39
W. Grotrian, Graphische Darstellung der Spektren von Atomen und Ionen mit Ein, Zwei, und Drei Valenzelektronen (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1928; reprinted by J. W. Edwards, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1946). 40
C. E. Moore and P. W. Merrill, Partial Grotrian Diagrams of Astrophysieal Interest, NSRDSNBS 23 (U. S. Govt. Printing Oft, Washington, D. C„ 1968). See also S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Jr., Atomic Energy Level and Grotrian Diagrams (NorthHolland Publ. Co., Amsterdam), Vol. I, H I  P XV (1975), Vol. I addenda (1978). Vol. II, S I  Ti XXII (1978).
17
19
EXPERIMENTAL
100000
BACKGROUND
12.34
80000
60000 OD
2
40000
20000
Fig. 17. Grotrian diagram showing transitions among the lowlying levels of Si II; wavelengths are in A. (From Moore and Merrill, ref. 40.)
In reality, spectrum lines are never monochromatic, but show intensities distributed over a finite wavenumber range; this may be described by an intensity distribution function 1(a), which we assume to be normalized:
J
I(o)do = 1 .
(1.16)
This intensity distribution may arise from a number of different causes, 41 which we shall describe only briefly. Natural width. The fact that an atom in an excited state may spontaneously decay to a lower state implies that the former has a finite natural lifetime. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle then implies an uncertainty AE = h/At in the energy of the upper state. In neutral 4l See. for example, H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGrawHill, New York, 1964) or C. R. Cowley, The Theory of Stellar Spectra (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1970).
18
THE PROFILES OF SPECTRUM LINES atoms, At is no smaller than about 10 tainty is AE _ 1 he 2ttc At
1 —
10
6310 10"
8
19
sec, so that in wavenumber units the energy uncer
, i rv—4 = 5 10 cm
.
(1.17)
Corresponding to this uncertainty of the energy of any excited level, there follows from (1.15) an uncertainty in the wavenumber of each spectrum line. It can be shown quantum mechanically 42 that the resulting intensity distribution has the resonance form I ( c ) =
in + rI 2 (o  nc 0?) +
'
(L18)
where c 0 is the wavenumber at the center of the spectrum line and T is the halfwidth of the line at half the maximum amplitude. This natural line width of Ac = 2T ^ 5 10~4 cm" 1 corresponds at X0 = 5000 A (oG = 20000 cm  1 ) to a wavelength width of M = l0 —
10 4 A ,
(1.19)
which is usually completely negligible by comparison with other linebroadening effects discussed below. A semiclassical derivation of (1.18) can be made by considering the atom to radiate at the fixed wavenumber o 0 with an amplitude that decreases exponentially with time as the atom loses energy: et/(At)
cos(2nco 0 t)
(1.20)
[so that the energy decreases as e" 2t/(Al) ]. A Fourier analysis of (1.20) leads to exactly the result (1.18) with T = (2nc At)  1 . Resonance and collision broadening. In any actual light source, atoms are not isolated, but are coupled together by the radiation field: a photon emitted by one atom may be absorbed by some other atom lying in the appropriate lower level, or it may induce the emission of a like photon by another atom in the appropriate upper level. This induced absorption and emission decreases the lifetimes of the atoms below the natural lifetimes, resulting in a corresponding resonance broadening of the spectrum lines. Collisional excitation and deexcitation by electrons or by other atoms in the light source may also greatly reduce the lifetime of each state, leading to still further broadening of the energy levels and spectrum lines. From a classical point of view, the collisions may be considered as interrupting the radiation wave train (1.20), thereby resulting in a broadening of the Fourier spectrum. Both resonance and collision broadening leave the resonance line profile (1.18) essentially unchanged in form, merely increasing the halfwidth T by one or two (or even more) orders of magnitude over the natural halfwidth. 42
V. Weisskopf and E. Wigner, Z. Physik 63, 54 (1930); F. Hoyt, Phys. Rev. 36, 860 (1930).
19
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
19
Doppler broadening. If a radiating atom has a translational motion with a component parallel to the observer's line of sight, the apparent wavenumber of the observed radiation is Dopplershifted from the actual wavenumber a„ in the atom's frame of reference by an amount o  o
0
= o
0
^
(Vu«c).
(1.21)
If there exist atoms having a continuous distribution of translational velocities, the result is a continuous distribution of observed wavenumbers o and a corresponding apparent broadening of the spectrum line. In the absence of other linewidth effects, a Maxwellian velocity distribution at absolute temperature T would produce the Doppler line shape I(CT)
=
^ y V ( > « 2
X
a 
0 o
) 7 r >
.
( L 2 2 )
the halfwidth at half maximum is given by T = [2kT(/n 2)/Mc 2 ] 1 / 2 o 0 = 3 . 5 8 1 1 0 " 7 ( T / A ) 1 / 2 o o ,
(1.23)
where M is the mass of the atom and A is its atomic weight. For the internationallengthstandard Kr line at 6057.8 A in a source with T = 4000°K, this gives a full line width of A o = 2 r = 7 . 1 6 2  1 0 " 7 (4000/83.8) 1 / 2 1. The value of p indicated on each curve is proportional to the intrinsic strength of the unabsorbed line: p = (7te 2 f/mc 2 ) I(cs 0 )N a , where N a is the number of atoms in the lower level of the line, per unit area integrated along the line of sight from the center of the source, and f is the oscillator strength of the line (Sec. 146).
23
110
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
»110. WAVELENGTH RANGE AND ACCURACY From Fig. 15 it may be inferred that energylevel differences in any atom range from zero up to the ionization energy (for excitation of the outermost electron). From the combination principle (1.14) and the Table 11 of ionization energies, this implies photon energies between 0 and 4 to 25 eV for neutral atoms, or—from (1.2)—wavelengths anywhere from infinity down to about 500 A . For highly ionized atoms, the ionization energies are much greater, and wavelengths range down to 1 A and less. In practice, experimental work in atomic emission spectroscopy is limited at the longwavelength end by the limits of sensitivity of the photographic plate (13000 A = 1.3 n) and of cooled PbS detectors (4 n); 50 beyond 2.5 n there may also be complications due to absorption by atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide unless work is done in a dry nitrogen atmosphere or a vacuum. Below about 1850 A all work must be done in a vacuum because of very strong atmospheric absorption, principally by molecular oxygen. For spectroscopic observation of astronomical sources, the cutoff occurs at 2900 A because of absorption by ozone in the upper atmosphere; all work below this wavelength is done with rocket or satelliteborne instruments. Diffractiongrating instruments are usable at all wavelengths down to about 1 A , though below about 300 A the gratings must be used at grazing incidence because of the low reflectivity of all materials at softxray wavelengths.51 Below 20 A , crystal spectrometers with photoelectric detection are also used.52 Above about 2000 A , higher resolution than that provided by grating spectrographs can be obtained by using an evacuated FabryPerot interferometer in combination with a spectrograph, 53 or by doing Fouriertransform spectroscopy with a Michelson interferometer. 54 The wavelengths of spectrum lines can in general be measured with very high accuracy. Errors are nevertheless nonnegligible, partly because of the finite line widths and wavelength shifts discussed in the previous section. Typical accuracies obtainable in the study of atomic emission spectra are indicated in Table 12. It is evident that the percent accuracy deteriorates greatly below 2000 A . For this reason, higher accuracy wavelengths of some lines (for use as wavelength standards for 50 C. J. Humphreys, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1171 (1960); C. J. Humphreys and E. Paul, Jr., Appl. Opt. 2, 691 (1963). 5,
R. J. Speer, N. J. Peacock, W. A. Waller, and P. J. H. Osborne, J. Phys. E. 3, 143 (1970).
" J . F. Meekins, R. W. Kreplin, T. A. Chubb, and H. Friedman, Science 162, 891 (1968). 53
S. Tolanksy, An Introduction to Interferometry (John Wiley, New York, 1973), 2 nd ed.; R. W. Stanley and W. F. Meggers, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 58, 41 (1957). 54 P. Connes, in J. Home Dickson, ed., Optical Instruments and Techniques 1969 (Oriel Press, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1970); R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York 1972).
24
EMPIRICAL SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
111
TABLE 12. APPROXIMATE WAVELENGTH A N D WAVENUMBER ACCURACIES IN VARIOUS SPECTRAL RANGES
Grating spectrograph
AX, (A) PbS region Photographic IR Visible Ultraviolet Near vacuum UV Far vacuum UV Extreme VUV Xray
2500040000 A 1300025000 780013000 38007800 20003800 10002000 1001000 10100 110
1.0 0.2 0.003 0.001 0.0002 0.002 d 0.004 e 0.003 f 0.001s
Fourier spectrometer or FabryPerot étalon
Ao (cm"1)
AX (A)
Ao (cm1)
0.1" 0.05" 0.003 c 0.003 c 0.003° 0.1 4 300
0.02 0.01 0.002 0.0005 0.0001
0.002 h,c 0.002 h,c 0.002' 0.0021 0.002'
10000
*C. J. Humphreys et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 855 (1967), 61, 110 (1971). E. B. M. Steers, Spectochim. Acta 23B, 135 (1967). C J. Blaise and L. J. Radziemski, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 644 (1976). ••v. Kaufman, L. J. Radziemski, Jr., and K. L. Andrew, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 911 (1966). e L. A. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, Ark. Fys. 37, 65 (1968). f S. Hoory et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1449 (1970). "R. J. Speer et al., J. Phys. E 3, 143 (1970). h J. Connes, P. Connes et al., Nouv. Rev. d'Opt. Appl. 1, 3 (1970). 'A. Giacchetti, R. W. Stanley, and R. Zalubas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 474 (1970). b
other measurments) are derived through use of the Ritz combination principle: Once an accurate energylevel scheme has been derived from longerwavelength lines (by methods discussed in the next section), accurate wavenumbers of shortwavelength lines follow directly from (1.15). Wavelengths obtained in this way are known as Ritz standards. 55 111. EMPIRICAL SPECTRUM ANALYSIS The classical problem of experimental spectroscopy is to infer the possible energy levels of an atom or ion from the observed wavenumbers of its spectrum lines, thereby obtaining a Grotrian diagram similar to (but more extensive and detailed than) Fig. 17. Basically, the procedure is to calculate the wavenumber difference Aij =
o, 
Oj
for each pair (ij) of spectrum lines, and to look for values of A that (within some small margin of error) appear several times; each such value of A is assumed to represent the " F . P a s c h e n , A n n . P h y s i k 35, 8 6 0 ( 1 9 1 1 ) , 4 2 , 8 4 0 ( 1 9 1 3 ) ; B. E d l e n , R e p . P r o g . P h y s . 2 6 , 181 ( 1 9 6 3 ) .
25
111
EXPERIMENTAL
BACKGROUND
F i g . 1  1 0 . Grotrian d i a g r a m s h o w i n g four s p e c t r u m lines p r o d u c e d b y transitions a m o n g four e n e r g y levels o f a hypothetical atom.
E2
energy difference between a pair of energy levels. In Fig. 110, for example, the wavenumber differences o 2  Oi = o 4  o 3 correspond to the energy difference between the levels E 4 and E 3 , and the differences o,  o 3 = a 2  o 4 correspond to the energy difference of the levels E 2 and E,. Only the magnitudes of energy differences are obtained in this way—there is no indication as to which level is the higher and which is the lower of a pair. However, once a fairly extensive array of levels has been derived, clues as to which extreme of the array is the bottom are provided by the fact that the strongest lines and those tending to show self reversal in dense sources usually involve the ground level or other lowlying levels (because these are the most highly populated levels),56 by the fact that the closely spaced levels tend to be the highenergy levels (cf. Fig. 15), and by various theoretical generalizations regarding energylevel structures, which we shall discuss at various points in this book. In comparatively simple atoms, there is in principle no real problem in making the above type of purely empirical spectrum analysis. In practice, there can be serious difficulties in carrying the procedure beyond the determination of some of the lowerlying levels, especially in the more complex atoms: (1) In spite of the very low percentage error in measured wavenumbers, the finite errors indicated in Table 1 2 are frequently great enough "For neutral atoms, at least, similar information can be obtained by observing a continuous background spectrum through a cool vapor of these atoms, to see which spectrum lines appear in absorption.
26
THE ROLE OF THEORY
112
to fortuitously produce spuriously equal values of Ay (within the experimental error); (2) Critically important spectrum lines may not have been observed because they are weaker than the everpresent continuous background, because they are masked by stronger lines, or because they lie outside the accessible wavelength range; (3) The task may be confused by the presence of spurious lines arising from impurity elements or (particularly when investigating an ion) other ionization stages. The problem is rather like that of trying to put together the pieces of a complicated jigsaw puzzle when the pieces never fit exactly, some pieces fit spuriously, some critical pieces are missing, and there are pieces present that belong to one or more entirely different puzzles. The task may be aided somewhat by the knowledge of not only the shape of each piece (the wavenumber of the line), but also of an obscure section of picture on some or all of the pieces in the form of selfreversal, Zeemaneffect, or isotopeshift information; however, these small portions of the overall picture are helpful in putting the puzzle together only if the key to the total picture is available in the form of a knowledge of the theory of atomic structure. 112. THE ROLE OF THEORY The Grotriandiagram puzzle, put together either entirely empirically on the basis of the combination principle or with the addition of some theoretical help, is of direct interest for a considerable variety of purposes. For example, lowlying levels and associated transitions are of interest for laser materials; a knowledge of the energy levels associated with each spectrum line can help in the choice of lines that are relatively free from selfabsorption, for use in quantitative spectrochemical analysis; if the energylevel diagram is sufficiently complete, ionization potentials and thermodynamic functions can be computed; if intrinsic line strengths are determined either experimentally or theoretically, these can be combined with the level energies to estimate temperatures and compositions of stellar atmospheres. Although energy levels and spectra are thus of direct practical utility, knowledge of the level structure of an atom is not a final goal, by any means: energy levels and line strengths provide the main clues to a fundamental understanding of the electronic structure of the atom. These clues, however, can be interpreted meaningfully only in terms of a theoretical model. Classical attempts to find a suitable model were of course failures, and an adequate theory of multielectron atoms had to await the development of quantum mechanics in the middle and late nineteentwenties. Indeed, development of the understanding of atomic (and molecular) structure and development of the principles of quantum theory went hand in hand—each rapidly providing greater and greater insight into the other. By the early thirties, the principles of atomic structure were well understood, and a quantum mechanical interpretation could be given to each observed energy level; that is, the qualitative nature of the corresponding wavefunction could be specified, and somewhat rough quantitative calculations of level energies and line strengths could be made for comparatively simple cases. The state of the art by 1935 was well summarized in Condon and Shortley's classic work. 57 This book still provides a basically correct and rather complete account of the principles of atomic structure, but the mathematical apparatus available at 57
E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935).
27
EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND
112
that time was not adequate to handle very complex atoms, such as the transition and rareearth elements. A very powerful new mathematical technique—the algebra of irreducible tensor operators—was developed by Racah 5 8 in the early forties. However, by this time the forefront of physics had passed from the electronic structure of atoms to the structure of nuclei; the exigencies of wartime had also siphoned much effort away from basic physical research. As a consequence, R a c a h ' s work lay almost unnoticed for more than a decade. By about 1960, several developments had combined to produce a renaissance of activity in the fields of atomic spectra and structure. The use of spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in plasmaphysics research, and the observation of solar spectra f r o m rockets fired above the earth's atmosphere produced renewed interest in the vacuum ultraviolet spectra of highly ionized atoms, a field that had been largely untouched since the pioneering work of Edlen and others in the midthirties. 59 There were increasing demands for energylevel and linestrength data for applications to both astrophysical and laser problems; the development of nanosecond and picosecond electronicdetection circuits 60 and of beamfoil spectroscopy 6 1 made possible the determination of line strengths through the direct measurement of the lifetimes of excited states. Efforts were being renewed to unravel the extremely complex spectra of the lanthanide and actinide elements, a field in which only meager progress had been made before the war; higher quality diffraction gratings and improved spectrograph designs made possible the higher accuracy measurements required for this work. This improved equipment, and the availability of PbS detectors for infrared work, provided the incentive to revise and extend earlier work on simpler atoms. And last but not least, the development of large digital computers, and the techniques of R a c a h algebra, made feasible theoretical calculations that were of great practical utility to the empirical spectroscopist. The above brief historical outline is illustrated by Table 13, which summarizes the progress made in the investigation and analysis of atomic spectra. Table 14 gives a detailed breakdown of the state of analysis of the spectra of all atoms and ions, as of 1969 and 1979, graded from A (practically complete) down to F (fragmentary). 6 2 It is evident that a great deal of work remains to be done before the analyses of all spectra of importance will have been carried to a satisfactory stage. The theory of atomic structure can be used to aid this work in three different ways: (1) Without making any detailed calculations, the theory can be used in a largely qualitative fashion to predict the numbers and types of energy levels to be expected for any given atom, and also (to a limited extent) to predict the approximate relative positions of 58
G . R a c a h , " T h e o r y of A t o m i c S p e c t r a , " II. P h y s . R e v . 6 2 , 4 3 8 ( 1 9 4 2 ) ; III. P h y s . R e v . 6 3 , 3 6 7 ( 1 9 4 3 ) ;
IV. P h y s . R e v . 76, 1352 ( 1 9 4 9 ) . 5,
B . Edlen, Z . P h y s i k 100, 6 2 1 , 7 2 6 ( 1 9 3 6 ) ; 101, 2 0 6 ( 1 9 3 6 ) ; 103, 5 3 6 ( 1 9 3 6 ) .
60
D . R . ShofTstall a n d D . G . Ellis, J . O p t . S o c . A m . 60, 8 9 4 ( 1 9 7 0 ) .
" L . K a y , P h y s . Lett. 5, 3 6 ( 1 9 6 3 ) ; S t a n l e y B a s h k i n e d „ BeamFoil
Spectroscopy
(Gordon
and Breach, N e w
Y o r k . 1968); S. B a s h k i n , N u c l . I n s t r u m . M e t h o d s 9 0 , 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) ; I. M a r t i n s o n , N u c l . I n s t r u m . M e t h o d s 110, 1 ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; I. A . Sellin a n d D . J . P e g g , eds., BeamFoil
Spectroscopy
( P l e n u m , N e w Y o r k , 1976), 2 vols.
" i n a few c a s e s , the 1 9 7 9 g r a d e h a s been l o w e r e d f r o m t h e 1 9 6 9 v a l u e b e c a u s e of e r r o r s d i s c o v e r e d in t h e a n a l y s i s or a c h a n g e in g r a d i n g criteria.
28
THE ROLE OF THEORY
112
TABLE 13. PROGRESS IN SPECTRUM ANALYSIS'ia Year 1922 1932 1939 1946 1951 1959 1969 1979
Partial Analyses Available for:b 38 231 400 445 504 511 648 1002
spectra spectra spectra spectra spectra spectra spectra spectra
of of of of of of of of
30 69 77 82 84 87 95 99
elements elements elements elements elements elements elements elements
"For 104 elements, there are a total of 5460 spectra. b A. Fowler, Report on Series in Line Spectra (Fleetway Press, London, 1922); F. Paschen and R. Götze, Seriengesetze der Linienspektren (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1922). R. F. Bacher and S. Goudsmit, Atomic Energy States (McGrawHill, New York, 1932). A. G. Shenstone, Rep. Prog. Phys. V, 210(1939). W. F. Meggers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 431 (1946) and 41, 143 (1951); Rev. Univers. Mines XV, 230 (1959). C. E. Moore Sitterly, Opt. Pura y Apl. 2, 103 (1969). J. Blaise, private communication, J.F. Wyart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 197 (1978), and literature search.
the levels. These aspects of the theory are largely represented by the vector model of the atom, which will be discussed in Chapter 4. (2) The theory can be used in a semiempirical parameterized form, in which the values of certain theoretical parameters are determined by leastsquares fitting of empirically determined energy levels; this is the timehonored method in which the quantitative theory has been mainly employed since the nineteenthirties.57,63 This procedure can of course be utilized only after a number of levels have been found by empirical spectrum analysis, but it is then very useful for identifying the nature of the corresponding quantum states and for predicting approximate energies of unknown levels. These predictions may then make it possible to find the missing levels by means of more detailed wavenumber searches and/or to substantiate levels that have been tentatively identified through a single observed spectrum line.64 (3) The theory can also be used in a completely ab initio fashion by computing theoretical values for the parameters mentioned in (2). The accuracy of computed results is limited, especially for very complex neutral atoms, but the predicted energy level structures can still provide a very helpful guide for getting a start to an empirical spectrum analysis. Particularly for nottoocomplex spectra of multiply ionized atoms, ab initio calculations 63
A thorough discussion of energylevel structures f r o m the point of view of the semiempirical theory h a s been given by B. Edlen, " A t o m i c Spectra," in S. Fliigge, ed., Handbuch der Physik (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1964), Vol. X X V I I . M
See, for example, L. J. Radziemski, Jr. and K. L. Andrew, J. Opt. Soc. A m . 55, 474 (1965).
29
30
52 51
UJ Q
,
—1.
Q tu LU
UJ
' 1
/
Á Ï o e jí
Ä 3 "
E
6 a M 3
fc
o
ÛO
o
'I
«
N
">
o J « 5 .2
I
•2 CL s E •S
¿ s
*
c O
s 3
1> •O
W J=
>,
3 S tul flJ o °
§ £
S s >.
S
il
§ > N
•Ö S
£ 1 — o Z g> £
E M 2 u.
o E ^ o s t H
ui
Q
= = < V j J ( j + l)h 2 = h2[JG + 1) 
m 2 h 2 =F mh 2  Vjm >
m2 T m ] < V j J V j m )
= h 2 [(j T mXj ± m + 1)] . Thus N ± = e' 8 h[(j T m)G ± m + 1)] 1/2
38
25
ORBITAL A N G U L A R M O M E N T U M m
Fig. 21. Semiclassical picture of the possible orientations of the angularmomentum vector J for integral 0 = 2 , left) and halfintegral (j=3/2; right) values of the quantum numbers; the radius of the semicircle (in units of h) is [jO+1)]" 2 each case. Note: the plane of the figure may be any plane containing the zaxis, as only the zcomponent of J is known.
where 6 is a real number. The phase factor e' 8 is completely arbitrary, because \/jm and Vj m ± 1 are completely independent wavefunctions. We shall always choose 8 = 0, so that J±V(/Jm s (Jx ± iJ y ) V j m = h[G =F m)G ± m + l)] 1/2 Vj, m ±i = h[j(j + 1) 
m(m ± l)] 1 / 2 V j , m ± 1 .
(2.19)
25. ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM In working with the orbital angular momentum of an electron about the nucleus, it is convenient, because of the spherical symmetry of the problem, to transform to the spherical coordinates illustrated in Fig. 22 and defined by: x = r sin 8 cos y = r sin 0 sin 
(2.20)
z = r cos 0 , or r cos 0 tan
(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 1/2 z (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 1/2 y
z
39
25
ANGULARMOMENTUM PROPERTIES
Differentiation of these latter expressions gives
8x 8\
x : TTr (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 1 ' 2
=
—;
• Q Y
XZ —; = (x 2 + y 2 + z )
8x
1
=
d(j> _
y
8x
x
_
1 . „ Q —  sin 0 cos 0 cos o Y r
— sin () r sin 0 cos2