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The teacher of marriage and the family as counselor

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THE TEACHER OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY AS COUNSELOR

A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

by Leland Ellis Glover June

1950

UMI Number: DP23993

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertaiicm Publishing

UMI DP23993 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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T h i s d is s e r t a t io n , w r i t t e n b y

LELAND ELLIS GLOVER u n d e r th e g u i d a n c e o f

F a c u lty C o m m itte e

on S t u d ie s , a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p re s e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d b y th e C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d R e s e a r c h , in p a r t i a l f u l ­ f i l l m e n t o f r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f DOCTOR

OF

P H IL O S O P H Y

/

D a te ...™

NB

1 9 5 0 ..........

Com m ittee on Studies

C hairm an

D ean

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OFTERMS USED . . . . Statement and analysis of theproblem

....

1 2

Statement of the problem.............

2

Analysis of the problem

.............

3

Importance of the s t u d y ..... ... .........

6

Definition of terms

......................

7

Marriage and the f a m i l y ................

7

Course...........

8

.

Teacher

.

Student

...............................

Counseling .

..............

8 8

.........................

8

Counselor......... ... ................

8

Organization of the remainder of the dissertation ........................... II.

8

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.................. 10 Literature on courses in marriage and the family............................... 10 Literature relating to the teacher as counselor.............................

14

Literature on philosophies, principles and techniques of counseling . . .'......... 16

iii CHAPTER

PAGE

Literature on the concerns of people of col­ lege age relating to marriage and the 20

family......................... Literature relating to where people take their troubles........................ Summary of the chapter . III.

22

...............

25

THE METHOD OF PROCEDURE.................. /

23

The catalog s t u d y ..........

25

Construction of the questionnaire for teachers.............................

26

J Distribution of the questionnaire to teachers



29

Construction of a questionnaire for students

...........................

Distribution of the student questionnaire

30 .

30

Returns of questionnaires completed by teachers.............................

30

Returns of questionnaires completed by students.............................

31

Tabulation and analysis of d a t a .........

31

Statistical treatment of d a t a ........ . .

31

Formulation of summary and conclusions . . .

34

Summary of the chapter................. .

34

iv CHAPTER

IV.

7 /

PAGE

THE TEACHERS, THE COURSES, ANDTHE STUDENTS

.

35

The teachers.............................. 35 Teaching residence of teachers . . . . . .

35

S e x .................................

38

A g e ................

38

Marital status ........................

41

Status as p a r e n t s ...................

41

Religious affiliation

44

................

Training in counseling and/or guidance . .

44

Highest degree attained

..............

47

........

47

Desire to counsel students ............

50

The c o u r s e s ...........................

50

Length of teaching experience

Course titles

......................

52

Departments in which conducted .........

55

Enrollment.........

55

Composition of classes................

58

The students...........................

58

Distribution of students according to school residence..........

59=

S e x ...........

59

A g e ................

59

Marital status ........................

61

V

CHAPTER

PAGE

S u m m a r y ...........................

63

Summary of the chapter................ .

65

V.y THE NATURE OF COURSES IN MARRIAGE AND THE 66

FAMILY.............. Preliminary research

.......

Description of Course A

.........

. . .

66 66

Description of CourseB

.................

67

Description of CourseC

.................

67

Description of Course X. . . . . . . . . .

68

The instrument used to determine the nature of each c o u r s e ................ Tabulation of responses. . . . . Nature of courses:

.........

68 69

distribution of

courses within classifications . . . . . . Composition of Course X .

..............

69 71

Elimination from the study of Course C as a classification..................

71

Free-responses relating to the religious

VI.

element in courses....................

72

Summary of the chapter..................

74

STUDENTS AND THEIR TROUBLES:

THE AREAS

OF CONCERN.............................

75

The areas of concern............

76

vl

CHAPTER

PAGE

Definition of the t e r m ...............

76

Areas of concern and interests of students

..................

76

The areas of concern in marriage and the f a m i l y ........................ Sources of the areas ofconcern........

80

Summary of the section

81

•. . . .

. . —

Counseling in the areas of concern

....

81

A study of estimates by teachers

....

82

Procedure.........................

82

F i n d i n g s .........................

82

A study of statements bystudents . . . .

85

Procedure

....................

F i n d i n g s ..........

VII.

77

85 86

Comparison of find in gs ...............

89

Free-responses by teachers...........

90

Summary of the c h a p t e r .............. . .

92

WHERE DO COLLEGE STUDENTS TAKE THEIR TROUBLES?

93

Procedure.............................

93

Tabulation of responses

.........

94

Summary of responses..................

94

Findings .

..

...........................

Free-responses ........................

95 96

vii CHAPTER

PAGE

Relative roles of persons as counselors

. .

Peers as counselors..................

97 97

Members of the family and other relatives as counselors

.................. 105

The teacher of marriage and thefamily . .

106

Specialists and others ................

107

Summary of findings

. . ...................108

Summary of the chapter.......... . . . . 109 VIII. THE TEACHER, AS COUNSELOR

........... Ill

Procedure............................... Ill Findings................................. 112 Percentage of students counseled by their teachers........................ 112 Percentage of students counseled and the nature of c o u r s e s .................... 114 Percentage of students counseled and sex of the teachers...................... 114 Percentage of students counseled and age of the teachers................

116

Percentage of students counseled and marital status of the teachers .......

119

Percentage of students counseled and status of teachers as parents

.......

119

viii CHAPTER

‘B A G S

Percentage of students counseled and religious affiliation of the teachers

. 121

Percentage of students counseled and the highest degree attained by the teachers

123

Percentage of students counseled and the number of courses in counseling and/or guidance completed by the teachers

.

. 125

Percentage of students counseled and length of teaching experience .......

128

Percentage of students counseled and the desire to counsel . . .......... 131 Summary of findings.........

133

Interpretation of the fi ndings .......137 Accuracy of the estimates.............. 137 A validation s t u d y ..................137 Representativeness of the sample

....

138

Summary of the c h a p t e r ................ 141 IX.

AUTHORITATIVENESS AND PERMISSIVENESS IN COUNSELING

143

Definition of terms

144

Counseling

.............

144

. .

144

The counseling relationship

145

The counseling process

ix CHAPTER

PACE

The counseling process and the .........

145

...........

145

counseling relationship Permissiveness in counseling

Authoritativeness in counseling

........

146

A controversy in counseling ..............

146

A hypothetical case in counseling....

148

Key to alternate c h o i c e s ..........

151

Sources of the alternate choices . . . . Choices selected by teachers

152

............

Procedure........................

161

F i n d i n g s ........................

163

Choices by the g r o u p ..............

161

163

Scores and the percentage of students the teachers c o u n s e l ........ Scores and the nature of courses

163 ...

.Scores and sex of tea ch er s........ Scores and age of teachers

......

Scores and marital status of teachers .

165 167 167 170

Scores and status of teachers as parents ................

.....

170

Scores and religious affiliation of teachers ...................

173

X

CHAPTER

PAGE Scores and courses in counseling and/or guidance completed by teachers . . * . 173 Scores and the highest degree attained 177

by te achers............ Scores and the length of teaching

experience . . . ^ . . ............... 177 Scores and the desire of teachers to c o u n s e l ............................180 Summary of fi ndings...................183 S u m m a r y ............................... 184 X.

SHOULD COUNSELING HE A RESPONSIBILITY OF 186

THE.TEACHER?.......................... Procedure and Findings ................... Procedure Findings .

187

...................

18

............................187

Answers and thenature of courses

.... .

187

Reasons given by teachers for their answers

. . . . . . . . . .

.........

193

The affirmative and the negative........... 193 The affirmative........................ 194 Assumptions.......................... 194 The relationship between teaching and counseling...................... 195

xi CHAPTER

PAGE

The nature of courses and the need for counseling . . . . . . . . . . . . The need for counseling

196

........

198

The teacher should accept the respon­ sibility for counseling

.......

199

The teacher usually is qualified to counsel

.....

201

Counseling makes for a better course . . 202 Continued counseling experience may be essential to the proper growth of the teacher The negative . . . . .

202 ................

203

Teaching and counseling are dissimilar functions

. 204

Many teachers do not qualify as coun­ selors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204

The course is not intended to be associated with counseling . . . . . .

205

Neither need nor demand for counseling by the teacher is apparent . . . . . .

206

The teacher may not have time to counsel with students Summary of arguments •

•••....•

207 208

xii CHAPTER

PACE

Summary of the affirmative............. 208 Summary of the n e g a t i v e ............... 208 Conditions for counseling

...............

209

.....

210

Summary XI.

THE ELEMENT OF TIME IN COUNSELING........... 212 Do teachers have time to cou nse l? ......... 212 Procedure............................. 212 Findings . . . . . . . .

...............

213

Findings and the nature of courses . . . .

215

Summary of findings

.

................. 218

How much time do teachers need for counseling?..............

219

Procedure.........

219

Findings............................... 221 S u m m a r y ................................. 223 XII.

REFERRING COUNSELEES . . ..

. 224

The nature and use of referrals........... 224 Definition of the te rm ............

224

The proper use of referral as a technique.

225

Referrals on-campus

225

..................

Referrals off-campus Limitations of the referral technique

. 226 . . 226

Referral of counselees by teachers .......

227

xiii CHAPTER

PAGE

Procedure....... . .

............... 227

Findings............................... 227 Invalid answers

......................

Free-responses by teachers............

229 230

Summary of the fin d i n g s ................. 232 Summary of the chapter . . XCII.

............

233

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.................... 235 Summary of f i n d i n g s ...................... 237 Findings regarding the frequency with which students seek counsel with the teacher on certain types of problems

•. 237

Findings regarding persons with whom students discuss their problems

. *

.. 238

Findings regarding the percentage of students who are counseled by their teachers..............................239 Findings regarding the selection by teachers of authoritative and permis­ sive choices in the hypothetical counseling situation • ••

.............241

Findings regarding counseling as a responsibility ofthe teacher

. , • . •

243

Findings regarding the element of time in counseling........................ 244

CHAPTER

PAGE

Findings regarding the referring of students............................. 245 Recommendations.......................... 245 The assignment of Course A and of Course B to teachers...................246 Further training in counseling for teachers of Course B . . . .

......... 246

Providing adequate time for counseling •..

247

The need for knowledge and understanding of philosophies and religions in Course B ........................... Parents and peers as counselors

243

.......

248

Suggestions for further research .......

249

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* . .

............................. 251

APPENDIX A

....................................

264

APPENDIX B

.............. ...................... 266

LIST ©F TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Distribution according to the state in which they were teaching of 377 teach­ ers of marriage and the family, and of forty-seven of those teachers who administered questionnaires to their students •

36
/ N

4*

The standard error of the mean was used to find

the reliability of the difference between two uncorrelated means.

The following f o r m u l a ^ was used: