The Tabla in Perspective

Rebecca Stewart's brilliant PhD dissertation of the origins and evolution of classical tabla drumming in Northern I

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The Tabla in Perspective

Table of contents :
Title Page
Contents
List of Charts
List of Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgements
Vita-Publications
Abstract of Dissertation
Introduction
Part One - The Instrument and Its Techniques
I The Instrument
The Term
The Age of the Instrument
Physical Characteristics of the Tabla and Related Drums
Tabla
Jori
Pakhavaj
Dholak
Naqqara
Comparison of Characteristics
Geographic Centers of Tabla Activity
Musical Areas of Tabla Activity
References
II Tabla Strokes
Introduction
Delhi Baj Tabla Strokes
Dholak Strokes Corresponding with Delhi Baj Tabla Strokes
Naqqara Strokes Corresponding with Delhi Baj Tabla Strokes
Purab Baj Tabla Strokes
Pakhavaj Strokes Corresponding with Purab Baj Tabla Strokes
Punjab Baj Tabla Strokes
Comparative Summary
References
III Tabla Stroke Neclei
Introduction
Chart 1-Comparison of Delhi, Purab and Panjabi Baj Stroke Neclei
Bols or bol patterns open to variable interpretation
Pakhawaj-derived bol neclei which are sometimes played and spoken differently
Characteristics of Delhi and Purab baj stroke nuclei
Characteristics of Punjabi baj stroke nuclei
Related Naqqara, Dholak and Pakhavaj Nuclei
Relationship of Kathak Bol Nuclei and Tabla Bol Nuclei
References
Part Two - The Repertory (Section A)
Explanation of Part Two
IV The Structure of Tal and Theka in North India
Introduction
Terminology
Notation
Standard Tals and Thekas
Charts of Tals and Thekas
Origin of Pitch-oriented Tals
Summary
References
V Theka Variations
Introduction
Examples and Explanation
Dadra (100-160 MM)
Pasto (120-150 MM)-Rupak (80-100 MM)
Qawwali (120-150 MM)
Dhumali (100-120 MM)-Jhaptal (80-160 MM)
Ektal (130-150 MM)
Tintal (160-180 MM)
Kaherva (200-250 MM)
Qawwali (230-250 MM)
Tintal (200-300 MM)
Ektal (200-300 MM)
Kaherva (300-400 MM)
Tintal (300-500 MM)
Tintal (30-70 MM)
Tilvara (30-60 MM)
Dipcandi/Cacar (40-60 MM)
Jhaptal (40-60 MM)
Jhumra (10-15 MM)
Ektal (10-15 MM)
Basic Rule Governing Replacement of Strokes and Rhythmic Patterns
Summary
VI The Laggi and Rela
Introduction
The Laggi
Examples
Tals
Laya
Structure
Stress
Metric accent
Khali
Bol neclei
Stroke Density
Derivative and related patterns
Origins
Summary
The Rela
Examples
Structure
Stress
Rhythmic density
Lay
Bol nuclei
Derivative and related patterns
Manipulative variations
Rau
Related patterns
Origins
Summary
References
VII The Kayada and Peskar
Introduction
The Kayada Gat
Examples
Structure
Chart 8 Kayada Gat Bol Structures
Stress
Rhythmic Density
Lay
Bol nuclei
The Kayada Prastar
Examples
The Peskar Gat
Examples
Structure
Stress
Rhythmic Density
Lay
Bol nuclei
The Peskar Prastar
Examples
Function
Structure
Use of thematic material
Use of new material
Chart 9 Relationship of Peskar Palta, Bol Nucleus and Baj
Layakari
Cadential paltas
Summary of characteristics
Origins of the Kayada and Peskar
Derivatin of gat
Derivation of kayada prastar concept
Derivation of peskar prastar concept
References
Part Two - The Repertory (Section B)
Introduction
The gat
The tukra
The paran
Chart 10 Gat, Tukra and Paran Types
VIII The Gat
Examples
Gat A: strict 2-part
Gat B: varied 2-part
Gat C1: progressive
Chart 11 Progressive Gat Structures
Gat C2: farat
Derivation of progressive gats
Gat D: dai-, tin-, caupali
Chart 12 Comparison of Gat Types
References
IX The Mukhra and Tihai
Introduction
The Mukhra
Examples
Structure
Density and stress
Lay
Bol nuclei
Derivation
The Tihai
Introduction
Examples
Chart 13 Traditional Tihai Structures Superimposed on a Theoretical Madhya Tintal Framework
Structure
Damdar tihai
Bedam tihai
Structural variations
Structure versus tal
Density and stress
Bol nuclei
Derivation
References
X The Tukra
Introduction
Tukra A: gat-tukra
Tukra B: standard
Structural relationship between tabla, naqqara and kathak tukras
Tukra C; laykari
Tukra D: cakkardar or cakrakar
Derivation of Tukras
XI The Paran
Introduction
The Mohra
The Uthan
The Paran
Examples of Three Pkhavaj Paran Types not Acquired by the Tabla
Derivation of Tabla Parans
Part Three - The Context
Explanation of Part Three
XII The Function of Tabla Patterns
Introduction
Examples of Thekas Used for Structural Support
Examples of Varied or Embellished Thekas Used for Structural Support
Examples of Elaborative Patterns Used for Complementary Support
Examples of Mukhras and Tihais Used for Cadential Support
Mukhras
Tihais
Nauhakka
Examples of Elaborative Patterns Used as Alternative Expositions
Summary
XIII Tabla Patterns in the Context of Performance Style
Introduction
Historical Relationship Between the Tabla, the Khyal, the Gat and the Thumri
The Ghazal, Dadra and Thumri
Basic ghazal structure
Basic dadra structure
Chart 15 Relationship of Laggi Section to Tal
Basic bol banao thumri structure
Basic bol bant thrumri structure
Basic bandis thumri structure
Chart 16 Relationship of Laggi Section to Tal
Comparison on bol banao and bol bant thumris
Comparison of thumris with dadra
Sitar and Sarod Adaptations of Thumri-style Forms and Techniques
The Sitar and Sarod Gat
Chart 17 Instrumental Gat Types
Jhala sources
Gat forms
The function of tabla in the vilambit gat
The function of tabla in the drut gat
Madya lay gats
Instrumental and Vocal Styles Performed by the Sahnai, Sarangi and Bansuri
Compositional types
Sahnai
Sarangi
Bansuri
The Tarana
The Khyal
Chart 18 Vocal Khyal Types
Vilambit khyal types
Basic vilambit khyal structure
Madhya and drut khyal types
Basic madhya and drut khyal structure
Tappa structure and style
Sadra structure and style
Thumri-khyal structure and style
Summary
References
Conclusions
Chart 19 The Tabla and Its Techniques
Chart 20 Comparison of Rhythmic Concepts Governing Tabla Pakhawaj Patterns
Conclusions
Chart 21 A General Comparison of Elaborative Pattern Types Played on the Tabla
Conjectures
References
Bibliography

Citation preview

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74-12,474 STEWART, Re be cca M a r i e , 1 9 4 1 THE TABLl IN PERSPECTIVE. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , P h . D . , 1974 Mu si c

University Microfilms, A XEROX C om pany, Ann Arbor, Michigan

©

1974

REBECCA MARIE STEWART

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

TH IS DISSERTATION HAS BEEN M IC R O FILM E D EXACTLY AS RECEIVED, R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los A n g e l e s

The Tab la in P e rsp e c tiv e

A d i s s e r t a t i o n submitted in p a r t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e D o c t o r o f P h i l o s o p h y i n Music

by

Rebecca M a rie S t e w a r t

1974

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

The d i s s e r t a t i o n o f Rebecca M ari e S t e w a r t i s a p p r o v e d , and i t i s a c c e p t a b l e i n q u a l i t y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n on m i c r o f i l m .

Kees W. B o l l e

W i l l i a m R„ H u t c h i n s o n 0>

................................................

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....................................................................

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45.

49 49

Punjab Baj 50.

NA (Ao) on c o n t a c t

. .

51.

TA (Bo) b e f o r e c o n t a c t

52.

TA a f t e r c o n t a c t

53.

c—> TI(N)

54.

KA (Dc) on c o n t a c t

. . .

(Co) on c o n t a c t . .

ix

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PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y i s n o t one w h ich le n d s t o t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

i t s e l f r e a d ily

The o b j e c t i s t h e e s t a b l i s h ­

ment o f an i d e n t i t y f o r b o t h a drum and i t s m u s ic a l t r a d i t i o n .

The

problem i s t h e a b s e n c e o f any h e r e t o f o r e a s c e r t a i n a b l e p i e c e s o f know­ l e d g e and th e p r e s e n c e o f a v e r y p o w e r f u l s e t o f t r a d i t i o n a l pre-suppo-r s itio n s.

With t h i s u n d e r s t a n d in g i t must be agreed t h a t no amount o f

I n d ia n m u s ic a l t r e a t i s e j u g g l i n g would have r e s u l t e d i n a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l o f t h e t a b l a ' s p o s i t i o n i n 2 0 t h c e n t u r y N orth I n d ia n m u s ic . T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r a somewhat l e s s th a n s u c c e s s f u l f i r s t a t t e m p t t o b r i n g order t o a s m a l l segment o f N orth I n d ia n t a b la p r a c t i c e , d e c id e d t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e o r th o d o x ap p roach es t o t h e s u b j e c t ,

i t was in d e b t e d

a s t h e y w ere t o S a n s k r t s c h o l a r s h i p , o f t e n a s viewed throu gh t h e d i s t o r tiv e

l e n s e s o f W e s t e r n - o r i e n t e d s c i e n t i f i c m eth od s.

In l i e u o f t h e above

avenue o f r e s e a r c h , t h i s a u th o r h a s s p e n t t h e l a s t e i g h t y e a r s l e a r n i n g t h e m u s ic a l t r a d i t i o n s o f N orth I n d i a . f i n e d t o t h e t a b l a , but as s t y l i s t i c

The emphasis was a t f i r s t con ­

r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e lv e s

i t was e x te n d e d t o i n c lu d e t h e d h o l a k , naqq ara, p a k h a v a j , v o c a l , i n s t r u ­ m e n ta l and dance t r a d i t i o n s .

A lth o u g h n ot a l l were s t u d i e d w i t h t h e same

t h o r o u g h n e s s , v e r y d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s began t o ap pear b e tw e e n th e t a b l a and o t h e r drumming p r a c t i c e s and b etw een th e t a b l a and t h e d a n c e , i n s t r u m e n t a l and v o c a l t r a d i t i o n s .

As t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s became c l e a r e r

i t became e q u a l l y o b v io u s t h a t , by u s i n g t h e s e i n t e r - r e l a t e d t r a d i t i o n s a s su p p o rt or r e f u t a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e l i n e s o f develop m ent i n t a b l e p r a c ­ tic e ,

i t would be p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t an a c t u a l o u t l i n e o f i t s m u s ic a l

g r o w th .

x

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The p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e was p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e .

However, t o r e a c h

t h i s p o i n t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t o d a y ' s t a b l a r e ­ p ertory

(th e

s c h o o l s , or g h a r a n a s, c o v e r e d were the D e l h i , Lucknow,

Farukhabad, B a n a r a s , A jr a r a and P u n ja b ), and naqq ara, d h o la k and pakhavaj r e p e rto r ie s

( t h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d th e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e most o b v io u s

a r e a s o f g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y t o and s t y l i s t i c

i n f l u e n c e upon th e t a b l a ) .

I t a l s o became o b v io u s t h a t no amount o f r o t e d u p l i c a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s c o u l d t a k e t h e p l a c e o f perform ance i n v a r i e d accom panying s i t u a t i o n s . T h ese p e r fo r m in g s i t u a t i o n s became t h e means by which I was a b l e t o b e g i n t o u n d er sta n d what t h e t y p i c a l t a b l a p l a y e r ' s a t t i t u d e was toward h is in str u m e n ts, i t s a c tu a l fu n c tio n , i t s c o n tin u in g s t y l i s t i c d e v e lo p ­ ment and i t s h i s t o r y .

As a r e s u l t o f som etim es o b s c u r e h i n t s about t h e

t a b l a ' s t r a d i t i o n s , i t s non-pakhavaj e m p h a ses, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e c h ­ n iq u e s and f u n c t i o n s b e tw e e n v a r io u s membranophones, and s o c i a l s t i g m a s , I b egan t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n , c o u p le d w i t h my knowledge o f c ontem porary m u sic p r a c t i c e , would u l t i m a t e l y be my l i n k w it h t h e p a s t . I t c o u ld n o t , h o w ev e r , c o m p le t e l y s u f f i c e , f o r i t c o u ld o n ly h e l p in t r a c i n g backw ard, not fo rw a r d .

In o r d e r t o p l a c e th e t a b l a i n an h i s t o r ­

i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i t h ad , a s an a c t u a l in s tr u m e n t w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t o be p h y s i c a l l y c h a r t e d .

T h is n e c e s s i t a t e d a p p roach in g

t h e in s tr u m e n t from b e h i n d , s o t o s p e a k . In my e f f o r t s t o r e c o n s t r u c t c e r t a i n l i n e s o f develop m en t in the t a b l a t r a d i t i o n , I r e c e i v e d th e h e lp o f some 25 t a b l a p l a y e r s , a l l o f whom w ere a b l e t o t r a c e t h e i r l i n e a g e b ack t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r r e s ­ p e c tiv e gharanas.

Through t h e t e c h n iq u e o f c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g o f t a b la gha­

r a n a s , o f r e l a t e d i n s t r u m e n t a l and v o c a l gharanas and o f th e few v a l u a b l e contem porary a c c o u n t s o f m u sic p r a c t i c e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h i s xi

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c o n s c i o u s l y p ro p o g a ted t r a d i t i o n back t o a g i v e n p l a c e and p e r i o d . The a s c e r t a in m e n t o f th e age o f t h e in str u m e n t was a l t o g e t h e r a d i f f e r e n t m a tter.

O ral t r a d i t i o n c o u ld t r a c e g e n e a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s

and r e l a t e myths b u t i t c o u ld n ot p r o v i d e d o c u m e n ta tio n .

N e i t h e r , as i t

tu r n e d o u t , c o u ld l i t e r a r y c h a n n e l s , a t l e a s t not u n t i l some tim e a f t e r t h e t a b l a ' s em er g e n c e.

Court r e c o r d s and c o u r t b i o g r a p h i e s w r i t t e n by

n a t i v e w r i t e r s , numerous d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s , s c i e n f i c t r e a t i s e s w i t h mar­ g i n a l addend a, w r i t t e n by th e E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , S p a n is h , P o r tu g u e s e and D u tc h , c e n s u s r e p o r t s - - a l l combined t o document th e a b s e n c e , u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , o f an in s tr u m e n t w i t h p r o p e r t i e s a n d /o r name w h ich m ight g iv e a c l u e t o th e tab l a ' s

id en tity .

W ith no l i t e r a r y d o c u m e n ta tio n u n t i l a l a t e d a t e , i t t h e n remained t o e x p l o r e t h e i c o n o g r a p h ic r e s o u r c e s .

Through the medium o f s c h u l p t u r e ,

p a i n t i n g , draw in gs and e v e n e a r l y p h o to g r a p h y , i t was f i n a l l y p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a v e r y p l a u s i b l e b e g i n n i n g f o r t h e in s tr u m e n t and one w h ic h , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , c o m p l e t e l y su p p o r te d th e e s s e n s e o f t h e b e l i e f p r o p o g a te d by o r a l t r a d i t i o n . t i o n was c i r c u l a r :

In o t h e r w o r d s , the method o f i n v e s t i g a ­

from th e p r e s e n t r e p e r t o r y and m u s ic i a n s t o t h e p a s t ;

from t h e p r e s e n t o r a l t r a d i t i o n t o t h e p a s t . l i t e r a r y and i c o n o g r a p h ic t r a d i t i o n - - a n d b ack t o th e present; f o r com p arison and c o n f i r m a t i o n o f r e su lts. Much o f th e in f o r m a t i o n w h ich r e s u l t e d from th e above approaches t o t h e s u b j e c t c on cern ed th e s o c i a l and m u s i c a l en viron m ent w h ich surrou n d ed , i n b o t h tim e and p l a c e , th e emergence o f t h e t a b l a a s a l e g i t i m a t e i n s t r u ­ m en t.

As t h i s sequent' o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o m p rise s an e n t i r e s tu d y in

i t s e l f , p a r t s o f i t a r e b e i n g p u b li s h e d e l s e w h e r e .

H owever, a s many o f

t h e a t t i t u d e s and c o n c l u s i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n th e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e d i r e c t l y x ii

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r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be i n c o r ­ p o r a te d i n t o i t w henever a p p r o p r i a t e . In s u p p o r t o f my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t I was v e r y dependent upon th e g e n e r o u s ly o f f e r e d h e l p o f many In d ia n m u s i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g drummers, d a n c e r s , i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , v o c a l i s t s and m u s i c o l o g i s t s , I p r e s e n t th e fo llo w in g

l i s t o f in form an ts.

I o n l y hope t h a t I may some day thank

them in p e r s o n f o r t h e i r v i t a l p a r t i n t h i s p r e s e n t e f f o r t .

P u r p o s e ly

t h e ord e r i s a l p h a b e t i c a l , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n in. f u n c t i o n u n e x p la in e d ; ✓ With th e e x c e p t i o n o f my f i n a l drumming t e a c h e r , S r i Gopal S in g h , who l i t e r a l l y l i v e d my m u s ic a l l i f e w i t h me f o r months w it h o u t r e l i e f , I am in d e b ted t o each p e r s o n f o r h i s or h e r own s p e c i a l kind o f h e l p . Afaque H usain Khan V in e y K. Agarwala A l i Mud in A l l a Rakha Q u r esh i Babu Khan Alwarwale ' Kishab Chandra B a n e r je e Bibekenanda B h a tta c h a r y a P a r s h u r in Bhorwani K a i l a s Chandra Deva B r a h a s p a t i B rindavan L a i D ebabrata Chaudhury D a l j i t Singh K anai D u tta F a q ir Chand S u r e sh B. G aitonde H irendra Kumar G anguli Tarun Kumar Ganguly Jnan Prakash Ghosh G. S . Sardar H a fe e z Ehmad Khan Trikam ray Gangaram J o s h i

Junus H u ssa in Khan Kanthe Maharaj S . Krishnaswami L a t i f Ahmed Khan Laxman Singh L a i Mani M isra Mohammad Anwar Moolchand Munni Lai Sum ati Mutatkar Panchu Maharaj Sadhu Singh Jagabandhu Sahu S u d h ir Kumar Saxena R avi Shankar S h a tu k la Shukla H ir a S ita r a m ' S ita r a m L a lje e S riv a sta v a

Both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e th e a r e a o f I n d ia n m u s ic a l s c h o l a r s h i p and p e r fo r m a n c e , b e c a u s e o f h er e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n a s a r e s p e c t e d W estern s c h o l a r o f In d ia n m u s ic , I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l f o r th e m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l encouragem ent o f my c o l l e a g u e Sara

S ta ld e r .

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n o n - c o n t ig u o u s h e r m u s ic a l a r e a , I am e q u a l l y in d e b te d t o Ann B r i e g l e b f o r h e r unw avering p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t .

To my husband

I m e r e ly g i v e thanks f o r h i s b e l i e f i n and p a t i e n c e w i t h me. he nor our s o n P e t e r e v e r have " t o s h a r e

May n e i t h e r

[me) w i t h a n o th e r d i s s e r t a t i o n . "

F in all}'-, t o my p a r e n t s , Romain and Jane S t e w a r t , I o f f e r my g r e a t e s t th a n k y o u .

No words can e x p r e s s t h e d e p th o f my g r a t i t u d e t o them.

C o n cern in g th e m a n u sc rip t p r o p e r , a few e x p l a n a t i o n s o f a t e c h n i c a l nature are r e q u ir e d .

A l l f o r e i g n words remain u n i t a l i c i z e d , as b o th the

n a tu r e o f th e s tu d y and t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f su ch o c c u r r e n c e s p r e c lu d e s any n e c e s s i t y f o r su ch o b v io u s l i n g u i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s .

S a n sk rt terms

a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a c c o rd a n c e w i t h s t r i c t r u l e s o f t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n . Urdu/ H i n d i - o r i e n t e d terms a r e g i v e n i n a n o r m a liz e d form , n ot in s t r i c t t r a n s ­ l i t e r a t i o n : t h u s , f i n a l s h o r t "a" and, more r a r e l y , m e d ia l "a" are o m itte d when not pron ou n ced . fo r m s .

P roper names are g i v e n in t h e i r sta n d a r d romanized

No t a b l e o f Roman e q u i v a l e n t s t o S a n s k r t , H in d i or Urdu p h o n e t ic

s y b o l s i s g i v e n , a s , a g a i n , t h e n a tu r e o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s t h i s b a s i c knowledge on t h e p a r t o f th e r e a d e r .

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VITA

J a n u a r y 2 0 , 1941: b i r t h d a t e

M o d e s to , C a l i f o r n i a : b i r t h p l a c e

1962: B. A . , S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 6 2 -1 9 6 4 : E a st-W e st C en ter f o r S t u d e n t - c u l t u r a l Exchange fello w sh ip 1963: B anaras Hindu U n i v e r s i t y 1964: M.Ao, U n i v e r s i t y o f Hawaii 1965: T e a c h in g

A s s i s t a n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los

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1965: R e se a r c h

A s s i s t a n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los

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1966: T e a c h in g

A s s i s t a n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f W ashington

1968: D e l h i U n i v e r s i t y 1969: PhD C an d id ate i n M u s ic , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s 1969: N a t i o n a l t e a c h i n g f e l l o w s h i p i n e t h n i c a r t s , Marymount C o lleg e 1 9 7 0 -1 9 7 3 : l e c t u r e r , N.S.W. S t a t e C o n se r v a to riu m o f M usic PUBLICATIONS "A Com parison o f W estern and I n d ia n P r i n c i p l e s o f Rhythmic C o n s t r u c t i o n ," Madras M usic J o u r n a l , V o l . XXXV, 1 9 6 4 , 6 8 - 7 6 . " I c o n o g r a p h ic E v id e n c e f o r t h e O r i g in o f t h e T a b la ," t o be p u b l i s h e d i n A u s t r a l i a i n 1974 as p a r t o f t h e 1 8 th I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g re ss o f O r i e n t a l i s t s , c i r c a 50 p p . "The A .M .E .B . System o f Theory and M u s ic i a n s h i p E x a m in a tio n s : a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l , " The A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f M usic E d u c a t i o n . A p r i l , 1 9 7 2 , 3 i-3 8 . R e view s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s .

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION The T a b la i n .P e r s p e c t iv e . bY R ebecca M arie S te w a r t D o c to r o f P h i l o s o p h y i n M usic U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1974 P r o f e s s o r M an tle L. Hood, Chairman The b a s i c i n t e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t s tu d y i s t o p l a c e th e N orth I n d ia n t a b l a and t h e m u s ic a l t r a d i t i o n s w i t h w hich i t h i s t o r i c a l and s t y l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e .

i s r e l a t e d i n b oth an

Working outward from t h e p h y s i c a l

i n s tr u m e n t t o i t s m u s i c a l c o n t e x t , t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e l e v e l s o f approach w ere found t o be most p r o f i t a b l e : 1. The in s tr u m e n t and i t s t e c h n i q u e s .

In c lu d e d a t t h i s

le v e l of in v es­

t i g a t i o n a r e th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f th e age and th e p r o v e n ie n c e o f th e in s tr u m e n t and r e l a t e d in s t r u m e n t s ; t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the major c a t e g o r i e s o f t a b l a s t r o k e s and s t r o k e n u c l e i and o f s i m i l a r or i d e n t i c a l m a t e r i a l perform ed on r e l a t e d drum s. 2 . The r e p e r t o r y . d e v e lo p m e n t a l.

At t h i s l e v e l th e prim ary approach i s s t r u c t u r a l and The o b j e c t i s t o p l a c e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f m e t r ic

drum p a t t e r n s a l o n g a s t y l i s t i c continuum: a t one end i s t h a t p a t t e r n t y p e w h ich c l a r i f i e s t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f a t a l , and a t th e o t h e r t h a t w h ic h a r t i c u l a t e s t h e a b s t r a c t c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e .

The r e l a ­

t i o n s h i p betw een t h e s e p a t t e r n t y p e s and t h o s e o f r e l a t e d drums i s c o n tin u a lly s tr e s s e d . 3.

The c o n t e x t .

At t h i s b r o a d e s t l e v e l , t h e a b o v e -m e n tio n ed p a t t e r n

t y p e s a r e r e - c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g t o f u n c t i o n and r e l e v a n t m u s ic a l perform ance s t y l e s . The f i n a l p o r t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o t e n t i a l f o r develop m en t o f contem porary N orth I n d ia n c l a s s i c a l

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m u s ic , a s view ed from t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t a b l a . The more im portant f i n d i n g s from th e above a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h a r e as fo llo w : 1 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e t a b l a a s a h y b r id in s tr u m e n t: m ix tu r e o f naqqara and p a k h a v a j . 2 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e age o f t h e t a b l a : d e v e lo p e d during- t h e m iddle h a l f o f t h e 18th c e n t u r y . 3 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f d e r i v a t i o n o f s t r o k e s , n u c l e i and p a t t e r n s : from naq q ara, d h o la k and pakhavaj drum t y p e s . 4 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f rhythm ic c o n c e p t s g o v e r n in g t a l s t r u c t u r e s em­ p lo y e d by tabla*. q u a l i t a t i v e h e i r a r c h y o f b e a t s ; d i v i s i v e e la b o r a t i o n o f b a s i c p i t c h - and s t r e s s - o r i e n t e d drum p a t t e r n s , r e s u l ­ t i n g in v a r io u s l e v e l s o f m e te r .

compound d u p l e , t r i p l e and quadruple

C o n tr a s t o f t h i s x^ith t r a d i t i o n a l t e x t - o r i e n t e d m e t r ic

s t r u c t u r e s as perform ed on t h e p a k h a v a j . 5 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f in s tr u m e n t o f g r e a t e s t s t r u c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e : n aq q a ra . 6 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f e s s e n t i a l l y txro major p a t t e r n t y p e s and f u n c t i o n s : t h e g a t , d e r iv e d from th e naqqara and d e v e lo p e d i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n and n o r t h c e n t r a l a r e a s o f N orth I n d i a .

The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

o f t h i s ty p e i s conform ance xtfith t h e i n t e r n a l t a l s t r u c t u r e and prim ary f u n c t i o n i s th e c l a r i f i c a t i o n , t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r d e g r e e , o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e d u r in g t h e l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f a p er fo r m a n c e ; th e t u k r a /p a r a n , d e r iv e d from th e pakhavaj th r ou gh t h e medium o f kathak and d e v e lo p e d in th e n o r th c e n t r a l and n o r t h e a s t e r n a r e a s o f North I n d i a .

The major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s

is i t s c a d e n tia l

s t r u c t u r e and th e prim ary f u n c t i o n i s t o s i g n a l , t o a l e s s e r or g r e a t e r d e g r e e , t h e approach t o a c a d e n c e .

T h is ty p e o f p a t t e r n ,

d e p en d in g upon t h e s t y l e , may or may n o t be used f o r p a t t e r n , phrase and s e c t i o n a l e n d in g s i n a p e r fo r m a n c e .

E s t a b lis h m e n t o f a movement

away from t h e c a d e n t i a l p a t t e r n t o t h e n o n - c a d e n t ia 1 , i . a l - o r i e n t e d p a ttern . 7 . E s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h r e e major b u t o v e r la p p in g m u s ic a l s t y l e s x^ithin

x v ii

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w h ic h t h e above p a t t e r n t y p e s and f u n c t i o n s are used t o a l e s s e r or g r e a t e r d e g r e e : t h e thumrT, gat and k h y a l .

E s t a b lis h m e n t o f s e v e r a l

s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s t y l e w i t h i n t h e s e broad c a t e g o r i e s which show th e ta b l a ' s im portance t o have d e v e lo p e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w ith t h e developm ent o f t h e s e s u b - s t y l e s . 8 . D e t e c t i o n o f a s t r o n g trend toward i n s t r u m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d s t y l e s and forms o f m usic and away from t e x t - o r i e n t e d s t y l e s , w i t h a c o r ­ r e s p o n d in g i n c r e a s e i n emphasis on s i m p l e , s t r e s s - o r i e n t e d , q u a l ­ i t a t i v e m eters.

x v iii

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INTRODUCTION In d ia has had tim e t o f o r g e t more m elody th a n Europe has had tim e t o l e a r n . The e le m e n ts o f to n e and rhythm have b een combined and r ecom bined, a n d ' have l e f t th e t h e o r y a t a n g le d mass o f f o r g o t t e n s y s te m s and t h e p r a c t i c e an i n ­ e r a d i c a b l e i n s t i n c t . The v e n e r a t i o n f o r th e p a s t b e c a u se o f i t s r e m o t e n e s s , th e m en tal a t t i t u d e w hich lo o k s away from th e c a t e g o r i e s o f tim e and s p a c e and t u r n s i t s a t t e n ­ t i o n upon t h e e s s e n c e o f th e t h i n g i t s e l f , t h e f a i t h w h ich l i n k s th e p r e s e n t c l o s e l y w i t h th e tim e when th e gods w alked th e e a r t h and s t i l l p o i n t s t o th e v i s i b l e im p r in t s o f t h e i r f e e t - - a l l t h e s e have u n i t e d t o p e r s o n i f y e v e r y e lem en t o f t h e i r m u s ic , and p i o u s l y t o p r e s e r v e names and a t t r i b u t e s which have lo n g l o s t t h e i r m eaning; so t h a t much o f th e t h e o r y i s c l e a r o n ly t o t h o s e who can read m yth.^ The i n c r e d i b l e power o f the myth, t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f th e s a c r e d p a s t , th e b l i n d o b s e r v a n c e o f th e r i t u a l known a s t r a d i t i o n .

. . i s to d a y 's

I n d ia what i t was "when gods walked t h e e a r t h " ; or does t h e Hindu c o n s p i r ­ a c y f l y i n t h e f a c e o f th e ob viou s?

To q u i e t th e murmurings o f i n c i p i e n t

o u t c r y , th e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s not an e x p o s e o f a f a i l i n g c u l t u r e .

I t m erely

a n a l y z e s and d e f i n e s a v e r y s m a l l segm ent o f t h i s c u l t u r e : th e m u s ic ia n and h i s m u s ic .

To be more e x a c t , th e a n a l y s i s b e g i n s w i t h a drum, t h e t a b l a ,

and g r a d u a l l y

expands this,-

drum's t e n t a c l e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s u n t i l the

e n t i r e area o f th e perhaps n o t - s o - " I n d i a n " c l a s s i c a l music o f N orth India i s in v o lv e d . Very l i t t l e , and most o f t h a t c o n t r a d i c t o r y ,

i s known about th e d e ­

velopm ent o f th e t a b l a i n North I n d ia and i t s p o s i t i o n i n p r e s e n t - d a y p e r fo r m a n c e .

For r e a s o n s t h a t are imbedded i n s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and

t h e r e f o r e econom ic s t i g m a s , u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y n e i t h e r th e in str u m e n t nor i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s had e v e r b een t r e a t e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c th o r o u g h n e s s and o b j e c t i v i t y .

For an in str u m e n t commonly th o u g h t t o be y e t a n o th e r

c r e a t i o n o f t h e p o e t Amir Khusrau ( 1 2 5 3 - 1 3 2 5 ) , t h i s would seem t o be un­ fo rg iv a b le.

The f a c t t h a t a t l e a s t f i f t e e n books i n H in d i ( o f g r e a t l y

1

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v a r y in g q u a l i t y ) have b e e n x ^ r itte n on t h e s u b j e c t i n th e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , o n l y s e r v e s t o em p h asize t h e form er v o i d .

F urtherm ore, u n t i l

1834, when N. A u gustu s W i l l a r d ' s T r e a t i s e on t h e M usic o f In d ia was pub­ l i s h e d , i n w hich he in c lu d e d an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f "the t a b l a s " and a t a b l e o f North I n d ia n t a l s , t h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no fe e d b a c k from f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t i n th e s u b j e c t .

Two i s o l a t e d u s e s o f th e e t y m o l o g i c a l l y

c o n f u s i n g term s a t a b l e s and t a b a l e s w ere found i n t h e 17th c e n t u r y , t h e s e by f o r e i g n e r s t r a v e l i n g i n t h e n o r th w e s t o f I n d i a , and one e x c e l l e n t , a l b e i t p r e j u d i c e d , d e s c r i p t i o n and d e p i c t i o n o f t h e in str u m e n t i n a work on t h e Hindus by F . B a l t a z a r d S o l v y n s , p u b li s h e d in 1808.

T h ese

a c c o u n t s were p r i n t e d o u t s i d e I n d ia and t h e r e f o r e l o s t most o f t h e e d u ­ c a t i o n a l v a lu e t h e y might o t h e r w is e have h ad . W ith th e above background i n m ind, t h e i n i t i a l i n t e n t o f t h i s a u th o r was t o s u p p ly t h e e n i g m a t ic t a b l a w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a d e velop m en t o f a t r a d i t i o n , and an e x p l a n a t i o n o f a c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n .

As m en tion ed

in t h e p r e f a c e , t h e b e g i n n i n g p o r t i o n became an end i n i t s e l f and was t h e r e f o r e r e l e g a t e d t o a s e p a r a t e p u b l i c a t i o n , p a r t s o f which a r e p r e ­ s e n t e d h e r e when p a r t i c u l a r y r e l e v a n t .

The develop m ent o f t h e t r a d i t i o n ,

a s t h e t r a d i t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y d e v e l o p i n g , became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e e x p l a n a t i o n o f " c u r r e n t" p r a c t i c e .

The e x p l a n a t i o n o f c u r r e n t p r a c ­

t i c e h as i n v o lv e d t a k i n g t h e t a b l a from i t s p o s i t i o n as an a b s t r a c t in s tr u m e n t ( t h i s i n c l u d e s t h e term ; t h e a ge o f t h e in s tr u m e n t; t h e phy­ s i c a l in str u m e n t and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r i n s tr u m e n ts ; th e a r e a s , b o th g e o g r a p h i c a l and m u s i c a l , i n w h ic h t h e t a b l a i s most a c t i v e ; th e b o l s / s t r o k e s and th e b o l / s t r o k e n u c l e i ) , t r a c i n g i t through i t s r o l e a s th e b a s i s f o r a c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f perform ance ( i t s t h e k a s , thek a

2

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v a r i a t i o n s and e l a b o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s ) and, f i n a l l y , p l a c i n g i t

in i t s

normal m u s i c a l c o n t e x t , b oth f u n c t i o n a l l y and s t y l i s t i c a l l y . C o n c e p t u a l l y , and t h e r e f o r e s t y l i s t i c a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e above approach c o n s t i t u t e a d e v a s t a t i n g a t t a c k on t h e " In d ian " m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n .

A lth o u g h f e l t i n such d i v e r s e a r e a s o f

m u s ic a l a c t i v i t y a s c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , m e lo d ic s t r u c t u r e , i n s t r u ­ m en ta l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a l v e r s u s v o c a l b i a s e s and t h e i r r e l a t e d e l a b o r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , t h e most a l l - p e r v a d i n g area o f m u s ic a l u p h ea v a l has b e e n t h a t o f rhythm.

In North I n d ia th e e n t i r e b a s i s o f rhythm ic

and m e t r ic p r o g r e s s i o n has changed w i t h i n th e l a s t 1 5 0 - 2 0 0 y e a r s .

In

term s o f I n d i a ' s 2000+ y e a r s o f documented m usic h i s t o r y , t h i s u p h e a v a l i s d e c i d e d l y modern.

B a sic a lly ,

i t r e s u l t s from a p e r io d o f p o l i t i c a l

and s o c i a l t u r m o i l w hich made p o s s i b l e th e mass encroachm ent o f t h e A r a b o - P e r s ia n rh y th m ic s y s te m , w i t h most o f i t s a t t e n d a n t phenomena, on th e I n d i a n .

The e x t e n t o f t h i s u p h e a v a l becomes a p p a r e n t o n l y when i t

i s u n d er sto o d t h a t t h e two s y s te m s a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d .

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R e fe r e n c e

1-A. H. F o x -S tr a n g w a y s , M usic o f H in d o s t a n , pp. 7 -8 .

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PART ONE THE INSTRUMENT AND ITS TECHNIQUES

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CHAPTER I THE INSTRUMENT The Term The term t a b l a i s d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e t o t h e A r a b ic t a b l , a g e n e r i c term meaning drum; t h i s term was borrowed from t h e Aramaic t a b l a w h ic h , i n t u r n , was adapted from th e Akkadian word t a b a l u or t a p a l u . l

As the

A r a b ic g e n e r i c ter m , i t has a t v a r i o u s t im e s r e f e r r e d , w i t h th e n e c e s s a r y d e s c r i p t i v e s u f f i x , t o th e h e m i s p h e r i c a l ( t a b l a l-m a r k a b ) , c y l i n d r i c a l ( t a b l b a l a d i ) ^ or b a r r e l - s h a p e d

( t a b l duruT)-^ drum.

G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , th e many v a r i a n t s o f the term may be found from n o r t h e r n A f r i c a t o s o u th e r n R u s s ia and from n o r th e r n China t o South America and th e C a r ib b e a n , a f a c t which c l e a r l y a t t e s t s t o t h e age o f t h e w ord, i f not alw a y s t o t h e p h y s i c a l h om o g e n e ity o f t h e many drum t y p e s w hich have adopted i t . g u ises,

However w i d e - s p r e a d the term i n i t s many

i t i s o n l y t h a t area from s o u t h e r n R u s s ia t o n o r t h w e s t e r n China

w hich c o n c e r n s th e p r e s e n t s t u d y .

A lth o u g h th e P e r s ia n term t a b i r a h i s

th o u g h t t o be v e r y o l d , ^ not u n t i l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f th e C h 'in g d y n a s t y (1 8 1 1 ) i s a s i m i l a r term found on th e o t h e r s i d e o f th e H im a la y a s: a t a p o u l a i s m e n tio n e d , and th e n o n l y as one o f an ensem ble o f in s tr u m e n ts from N e p a l . 5

By t h e secon d q u a r t e r o f t h e 17th c e n tu r y th e names

" a t a b l e s ” and " t a b a le s " are found i n a c c o u n t s o f t r a v e l s th rou gh the P u n ja b ,^

but no i c o n o g r a p h ic c o r r o b o r a t i o n i s g i v e n u n t i l a c e n tu r y

la ter. The Age o f th e Instrum ent The f i r s t a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r i c o n o g r a p h ic d e p i c t i o n o f an in s tr u m e n t w h ich c l o s e l y r e s e m b le s th e p r e s e n t - d a y tab IS i s not found u n t i l 1 8 0 8 . ^

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For a p e r io d o f a p p r o x im a t e ly f i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h i s d a t e , h o w ev e r , a v e r i t a b l e f l o o d o f M u g h a l - s t y le m in i a t u r e s show p a i r s o f i n s tr u m e n ts w h ich a t t e s t t o th e p r e s e n c e o f two ty p e s o f h a n d -p la y e d drum p a i r s i n c o n t ig u o u s a r e a s o f n o r t h w e s te r n I n d ia : th e Punjab (wooden p a i r s ) and t h e D e lh i-R a ja s th a n -O u d h area p a ir s).

c y lin d r ic a l

(m e ta l or c l a y h e m i s p h e r i c a l

The f i r s t o f such d e p i c t i o n s d a t e s from c .

1745.

T h is was

p a i n t e d a t th e Punjab H i l l c o u r t o f J a s r o t a by a Mughal p a i n t e r l a t e l y a r r i v e d from t h e c o u r t o f D e l h i , and shows a c y l i n d r i c a l p a i r o f drums.^ D u ring a s l i g h t l y l a t e r p e r i o d , h a n d -p la y e d h e m i s p h e r i c a l p a i r s are found in J a i p u r , D e l h i and F a i z a b a d .9 As s e e n b e l o w , g e n e a l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f th e s e v e r a l i n t e r ­ r e l a t e d t a b l a f a m i l i e s or gharanas o f i n s t r u c t i o n r e s u l t i n a h i s t o r y o f perform ance w h ic h a l s o s t r e t c h e s back t o 1 8 th c e n t u r y D e l h i .

Whether

th e h y b r i d i z e d in str u m e n t w h ich we r e c o g n i z e t o d a y as "the" t a b l a can a l s o be t r a c e d b ack t o t h i s d a t e i s a n o th e r m a t t e r .

J u d g in g from b o th

p i c t o r i a l and l i t e r a r y d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , as s e v e r a l o t h e r i n n o v a t o r y in s t r u m e n t s o f t h e 18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s , underwent s e v e r a l minor and n o t s o minor a l t e r a t i o n s d u r in g t h e 100 y e a r s b etw e e n 1750 and 1 850.

The in s tr u m e n t we s e e t o d a y i s p r o b a b ly no more than 75 t o 100

y e a r s o ld a t t h e m o st. P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e T abla and R e la te d Drums Tab IS In N orth I n d ia to d a y th e word t a b l a r e f e r s t o a p a i r o f t u n e a b le h a n d -p la y e d drums.

When spoken o f s e p a r a t e l y , t h e h i g h e r - p i t c h e d , r i g h t -

hand drum may be c a l l e d a t a b l a or a d a h i n a , t h e l o w e r - p i t c h e d , l e f t - h a n d drum a d u g g i , dagga or b ayan.

A lth o u g h t h e t a b l a / d u g g i c o m b in a tio n i s

h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e , the term s dahina and bayan w i l l be used i n t h e

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p r e s e n t s tu d y i n o r d e r t o a v o id c o n f u s i o n ov e r t h e word t a b l a , h e r e in u sed t o mean o n l y t h e p a i r o f i n s t r u m e n t s . The d l h in S r e s e m b le s i n shape a m o d ifie d or f l a r e d c y l i n d e r o f a p p r o x im a t e ly 28 cm i n h e i g h t , w h ic h r e a c h e s i t s g r e a t e s t d i a m e t e r , t h a t o f 19 t o 23 cm, a t a p o i n t about 5 t o 6% cm above th e b a s e , c u r v in g i n ­ ward a t th e bottom t o form a s ta n d o f 9 cm i n d i a m e t e r . t h e p l a y i n g s u r f a c e i s from 14 t o 16% cm. wood.

The d ia m eter o f

The in str u m e n t i s made o f

The c o m p o site head i s made o f a s i n g l e s k i n , p a r t l y c overed by a

secon d s k i n , c u t t o form a 2 cm rim around th e c ir c u m fe r e n c e o f the head.

A 7 c m - in -d ia m e te r b l a c k s u b s t a n c e

(sy a h i)

i s p e r m a n en tly p la c e d

i n t h e c e n t e r o f th e f i r s t s k i n ; t h i s h e l p s t o g i v e t h e in str u m e n t i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to n e q u a l i t y .

W - la c in g i s used t o s e c u r e t h i s head t o

a hoop a t th e bottom o f th e i n s t r u m e n t .

E ig h t c y l i n d r i c a l wooden b l o c k s

a r e wedged betw een t h e l a c i n g and th e drum s i d e s . t u n i n g the i n s t r u m e n t , v a r i o u s l y ,

These a r e used f o r

t o e i t h e r d e g r e e s I , V o r IV o f th e

s y s te m . The bayan d i f f e r s p r i m a r i l y from th e dahina i n i t s shape and m ate­ r i a l o f c o n str u c tio n . may v a r y .

In h e i g h t i t

I t i s a m o d if ie d h e m is p h e r e , th e s i z e o f which i s b e tw e e n 25% and 26% cm; a t i t s

la rg e st g ir th ,

a p o i n t midway betw een th e to p and t h e b a s e , i t m easures betw een 26% and 28 cm i n d ia m e t e r ; th e p l a y i n g s u r f a c e i s betw een 21% and 23 cm i n d i a m e t e r ; and th e b a s e 7% cm.

The p l a y i n g s u r f a c e o f t h e bayan d i f f e r s

from t h a t o f t h e d ahina i n two r e s p e c t s ; i t s s i z e , w h ic h i s about 7% cm w i d e r , and t h e a s y m m e tr ic a l p la c em e n t o f th e s y a h x .

T h is placem ent

a l l o w s th e w r i s t t o a p p ly p r e s s u r e on t h e p l a i n l e a t h e r p o r t i o n o f th e s u r f a c e , g i v i n g r i s e t o one o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bayan s o u n d s, a t y p e o f t o n a l s l i d e or p o r ta m e n to .

Most bayans are now made o f m e t a l ,

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a lth o u g h c l a y i s a l s o s t i l l u s e d .

Tuning b l o c k s are o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y

added t o r a i s e or lo w e r t h e g e n e r a l p i t c h l e v e l , b ecau se th e bayan was never c o n c e iv e d as an in stru m en t s u s c e p t i b l e t o p r e c i s e t u n i n g .

However,

m e ta l r i n g s (2% cm i n d ia m e t e r ) a r e som etim es used t o make th e g e n e r a l tu n in g p r o c e ss e a s i e r . Jori A lth o u g h s e e n i n s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g numbers, a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p a i r o f t u n e a b l e h a n d -p la y e d drums i s found in the n o r th w e s te r n p a r t o f I n d i a , from Lahore s o u th w e s tw a r d , c o m p r is in g t h e Punjab H i l l s and th e low er H im a la y a s . t h e S ik h f a i t h

T h is p a i r i s c a l l e d e i t h e r t a b l a o r , among members o f

( p r i m a r i l y when r e f e r r i n g t o i t as an accompanying i n s t r u ­

ment f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s son gs or s a b a d s ) t h e j o r i .

T h is " p a ir " has

s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ich s e p a r a t e i t from t h e stan d ard c l a s s i c a l in s tr u m e n t:

1) b o th drums o f t h e p a i r are m o d ified c y l i n d e r s

( v e r y s l i g h t l y c o n i c a l , w i t h th e l a r g e s t c ir c u m fe r e n c e near t h e b o tto m ); 2 ) th e dahina h as a head from 15 t o 17% cm in d ia m e t e r , and s t a n d s approx i m a t e ly 28 cm h i g h ; 3) th e b S y a n 's head i s from 25% t o 28 cm i n d i a m e t e r , and t h i s drum s t a n d s betw een 30% and 33 cm h i g h ; 4) th e dahina i s alw ays made o f wood, th e bayan b e in g c o n s t r u c t e d v a r i o u s l y o f wood ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) or m e t a l (or more r e c e n t o r i g i n ) ; 5) u n l i k e t h e stan dard bayaA, which u s e s a s y a h i , th e P u n ja b i bayaA r e q u i r e s a removable wheat p a s t e ( a t a ) w hich i s a p p l i e d t o th e c e n t e r o f th e h e a d ; 6 ) a lth o u g h r a r e l y s e e n t o ­ da y , t h e b ay a n , l i k e th e d a h in a , has t r a d i t i o n a l l y used t u n in g b l o c k s . To add t o th e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c o n f u s i o n w h ic h surrounds th e t a b l a in g e n e r a l , m u s ic ia n s ( o t h e r than S i k h , who c a l l i t th e dhama) o f t e n r e f e r t o t h e P u n ja b i bayan as a dOggT, g o i n g s o f a r a s t o c a l l th e P u n ja b i s t y l e o f p e r fo r m a n c e , th e dukkar b a j .

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The P u n ja b i t a b l a , a lth o u g h o f o n ly r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t and r a p i d l y becoming o b s o l e t e , a t l e a s t i n I n d i a , i s o f c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s t u d y o f th e h i s t o r i c a l developm ent o f t h e sta n d a r d t a b l a .

The mid 18th

c e n t u r y ic o n o g r a p h ic e v id e n c e m entioned above c on cern ed two b a s i c t y p e s o f drum p a i r s .

The f i r s t o f t h e s e , p r e v a l e n t i n t h e Punjab H i l l s , was

o f t h e c y l i n d r i c a l wooden ty p e d e s c r i b e d h e r e .

The secon d concern ed

p a i r s o f h e m i s p h e r i c a l , p ro b a b ly c l a y , h a n d -p la y e d drums b e l o n g i n g t o th e naqqSra (or n a k k a ra , nagara) f a m i ly and found th ro u g h o u t th e p l a i n s area o f n o r th e rn I n d i a .

T h is t y p e , c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d to d a y w i t h th e

c l a s s i c a l s a h n a i t r a d i t i o n o f B an aras, was a t one tim e e q u a l l y p o p u la r around D e l h i .

Then c a l l e d , a t l e a s t i n one v e r s i o n , t h e dham dhami,^®

but now known a s t h e duggT and som etim es th e khurdak, i t

appears t h a t

som etim e d u r in g th e m iddle o r l a t t e r h a l f o f th e 1 8 th c e n t u r y t h e s e two drum t y p e s were combined: f o r the r i g h t hand, the f i x e d - p i t c h c y l i n d r i c a l P u n ja b i "tabIS" was c h o se n ; f o r t h e l e f t hand, th e v a r i a b l e - p i t c h hem i­ s p h e r i c a l D e l h i "duggT."

I t i s t h i s b r i l l i a n t c o m b in a tio n w h ich s t a r t e d

t o d a y ' s t a b la on i t s road t o prom inence and w h ich was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d and d e p i c t e d by S o lv y n s in 1808 as th e " t u b l a . " "composed o f two tym bals drums]

He remarked t h a t i t was

[here used l o o s e l y t o mean on e-h ead ed c l o s e d

one o f e a r t h e n w are, t h e o t h e r o f wood, b o th o f them c o v e r e d w i t h

a s k i n upon w hich th e m u s ic ia n s t r i k e s w it h h i s f i n g e r s .

Each tymbal

g i v e s a d i f f e r e n t sound , the m ixture o f w h ich p ro d u ces t o l e r a b l e m u s ic . " H Pakhava i Three major drum t y p e s , o f one o f w hich the duggT i s a minor member, have c o n t r i b u t e d , through t h e i r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r o v e n ie n c e and a g e , s t y l e s and t e c h n iq u e s o f p e r fo r m a n c e , t o th e d evelop m ent o f the t a b l a ' s r e p e r t o r y and t h e r e f o r e t o i t s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n .

As t h e m u s ic a l

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r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e p e r t o r i e s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f drums w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d in d e t a i l i n t h e body o f t h e s t u d y , a p h y s i c a l comparison w ill suffice

f o r the p r e s e n t .

The f i r s t type o f drum i s the p a kh a v a j, a c l o s e r e l a t i v e o f the s tandard South Indi an c l a s s i c a l drum, the mrdahga.12

Th is drum i s a

t u n e a b l e , h a n d - p l a y e d , two-headed, m o d if i e d b a r r e l - s h a p e d drum.

Its

two c om p os i t e heads are c o n s t r u c t e d p r e c i s e l y as t h o s e o f th e t a b l a w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one element on the l o w e r - p i t c h e d head.

As i n th e Pun­

j a b i t a b l a , St a i s p l ac ed on the pakhavaj head p r i o r t o each perform anc e. Because t h e pakhavaj i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n v a r i o u s s i z e s ,

i t s di m e n s i o n s

f l u c t u a t e from a p p r o x i m a t e ly 6 6 . t o 76 cm i n l e n g t h , and from 20 t o 30 cm i n d i a m e t e r a t i t s g r e a t e s t g i r t h , an

a s y m e t r i c a l l y p l a c e d p o i n t which

i s between 2% and 5 cm c l o s e r t o the bayan end than th e d a h i n a .

The

p r e s e n c e o f t h i s p o i n t p l a c e s the pakhavaj somewhere between a doubl e cone and a b a r r e l , and e f f e c t i v e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t s shape from t h a t o f th e dh ol ak d i s c u s s e d below.

The dahin'a head i s from 16% t o 19 cm i n

d i a m e t e r ; t h e baySn head from 25% t o 28 cm.

The W - l a c i n g and th e p r e ­

se n c e o f t u n i n g b l o c k s f u r t h e r a t t e s t t o t h e c l o s e p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t a b l a dahina and the p a k h a v a j . Dholak The second drum, th e d h o l a k , a t w o - he a de d, h a n d - p l a y e d , b a r r e l ­ shaped drum (t h e term i s r e l a t e d t o t h e H i n d i word d h o l which i s d e r i v e d from t h e P e r s i a n d u h u l ) , i s o n l y g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r t o th e pakhavaj in shape and s i z e , and c l e a r l y d i s s i m i l a r i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i t s h e a d s . I t s two heads a r e composed o f s i n g l e l a y e r s o f s k i n , b e n e a t h t h e l o w e r p i t c h e d o f wh ich a g l u t i n o u s s u b s t a n c e i s pe r m a n en tly p l a c e d .

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T h is

substance a f f e c t s the tim bre, n o t-th e p i t c h .

The i nst rum en t i s not

c a p a b l e o f b e i n g f i n e l y t u n e d , but

m eta l r i n g s , i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e some­

t i m e s used on th e t a b l a b a y a n , are

p l a c e d around p a i r s o f s t r i n g s

a l t e r th e g e n e r a l p i t c h a r e a .

to

In a d d i t i o n , t h e absence o f any temporary

e x t e r i o r t u n i n g p a s t e , su ch as a t i , makes i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e the t e n s i o n and t h e r e f o r e p i t c h o f th e bayan by p r e s s i n g on th e s k i n w i t h t h e h e e l o f the hand.

The most pop ular v a r i e t y

51 cm i n l e n g t h and 28 t o 30 cm a t

o f dh ol ak i s from 48 t o

i t s g r e a te s t diameter, a point

approx­

i m a t e l y 19 t o 21 cm or 2 / 5 o f th e d i s t a n c e from the l o w e r - p i t c h e d head. T h i s head i s from \ 1 \ t o 23 cm in d i a m e t e r , t h a t o f th e h i g h e r - p i t c h e d head from 15 t o 17^ cm.

The two heads may be se cu re d t o th e body o f the

dh o la k by two d i f f e r e n t methods o f l a c i n g , W or X. Naqqara The t h i r d drum, though i n name d i f f i c u l t

t o p i n down, has a b a s i c

p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c wh ich imm edi at ely p l a c e s i t among the most w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d o f drum t y p e s : i t

i s , broadly speaking, hem ispherical.

found in India under many names and r e g i o n a l v a r i a n t s ,

Though

th e u n i f y i n g

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h a t t h e s e drums 1) have one drum head, t h e d i am e t e r o f which i s g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the o p p o s i t e e n d , 2) have more or l e s s rounded s i d e s , and 3) are most f r e q u e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d from c l a y or m e t a l . Given t h e s e t h r e e b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s , t h e v a r i a t i o n s are almost e n d l e s s . These i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g :

1) s i n g l e or p a i r e d , 2) s t i c k or hand

p l a y e d , 3) loaded or unloaded head or h e a d s , 4 ) s i n g l e or comp osit e head or h e ad s , 5) W, X or Y l a c i n g , 6) deep t o s h a l l o w and 7) s m a l l t o large.

Although ap p e a r i n g t o obscure any r e l a t i o n s h i p which might be

found between th e t a b l a ,

i t s r e p e r t o r y , and t h a t o f t h e h e m i s p h e r i c a l

drum f a m i l y , i t i s j u s t t h i s a t t r i b u t e o f a d a p t a b i l i t y which has been

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s o i n f l u e n t i a l in t h e deve lop men t o f the t a b l a and i t s t r a d i t i o n . Of a l l t h e h e m i s p h e r i c a l s u b - t y p e s , one i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e naqqara, ha s had a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e t a b l a r e p e r t o r y .

The term naqqara, as

a g e n e r i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r i v a l s t h a t o f t a b l , i f not in a g e , a t l e a s t in provenience n a -k a -la ).^

( s e e the m e d i a e v a l E n g l i s h n a k e r s ; th e Ch' i n g d y n a s t y In I n d i a ,

it

i s composed o f a b a s s

(dhama) and a t r e b l e

( j h i l ) drum, the shape and s i z e o f which may vary t o some d e g r e e . drums approximate th e more p o i n t e d h a l f o f an eg g i n shape.

Both

The h e i g h t

and t h e d i a m e t e r o f th e head o f th e dhama are o f e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s , b e i n g 41 t o 46 cm. • The j h i l t e n d s t o be s h a l l o w e r , i t s h e i g h t measuring 23 t o 25 cm, t h e d i a m e t e r o f i t s head 28 t o 30 cm.

The dhama i s g e n e r ­

a l l y made o f m e t a l , th e j h i l o f c l a y ; however, m et al may a l s o be u s e d . Though th e r e l a t i v e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ' o f t h e method f o r b i n d i n g t h e head t o t h e drum i s l e s s , t h i s method i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t used on t h e t a b l a , pakhavaj and d h o l a k : the b i n d i n g l a c e s are not drawn d i r e c t l y t hr ou gh th e s k i n o f th e head , but i n bo t h c a s e s are secure d t o o t h e r c o r d s which form p a r t o f a band wh ich e n c i r c l e s th e upper rim o f the drum.

Th is method o f b i n d i n g e n s u r e s a more e ve n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e n s i o n

and h e l p s t o s e c u r e the head t o th e drum. grid.

The l a c i n g s form an X-t ype

Though n e i t h e r drum le n d s i t s e l f r e a d i l y t o p r e c i s e t u n i n g , the

t e n s i o n o f bo t h heads may be a l t e r e d : t h a t o f t h e dhama by an a p p l i c a t i o n o f w a t e r ; t h a t o f t h e j h i l by h e a t .

The dhama o f t e n has a g l u t i n o u s

t u n i n g p a s t e p l a c e d under t h e c e n t e r o f i t s he ad .

The t r a d i t i o n a l im­

p l e m e n t s o f performance are a p a i r o f s t i c k s Comparison o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s When comparing the t a b l a w i t h t h e above t h r e e drum t y p e s , th e r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p i s as f o l l o w s :

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1.

As the pakh av aj, t h e t a b l a i s pl ay ed by hand; b o t h heads are c o m p o s i t e and c o n s t r u c t e d upon t h e same p r i n c i p l e a s th e pakh­ a v a j ; th e t a b l a da hi na i s made of. wood; th e dahi na i s p r e c i s e l y t u n e a b l e ; t h e dahina employs t u n i n g b l o c k s and i s o f a s i m i l a r shape.

2.

As t h e d h o l a k , th e t a b l a i s pl a y e d by hand; th e dahi na i s made o f wood; t h e bayan i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o v a r i a b l e p i t c h ; t u n i n g r i n g s are sometimes a p p l i e d t o t h e bayan t o change th e g e n e r a l p i t c h a r e a ; a l t h o u g h on the e x t e r i o r , a permanent t u n i n g p a s t e i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e bayan.

3.

As the naqqara, t h e bayan i s made o f m e t a l or c f a y ; i t i s a m o d i f i e d hem isp he re ; a l th o u g h on the e x t e r i o r , a permanent t u n i n g p a s t e i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o the bayan. Geographic Cent er s o f Tabla A c t i v i t y

U n l i k e the b a r r e l and h e m i s p h e r i c a l drum t y p e s , so few r e g i o n a l v a r i a n t s o f th e t a b l a e x i s t t h a t a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c spread i s an e a s y , as w e l l a s r e l e v a n t , t a s k .

At p r e s e n t ,

i t i s centered

i n North I n d i a , where i t s p o p u l a r i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e i s much g r e a t e r t han t h a t o f any o t h e r drum, wh ate ve r t h e g e n r e . in g en era l, i t

W i t h i n Indi a

i s acknowledged as one o f the two primary c l a s s i c a l mem-

b r a n o p h o n e s , the mrdanga b e i n g th e s e c o n d .

Outside India,

th e t a b l a may

be found w h ere ve r t h e r e are c o l o n i e s o f I n d i a n s : S o u t h e a s t A s i a , S i n g a ­ p o r e , F i j i , ev en as f a r w e s t as T r i n i d a d .

In a d d i t i o n the tabla- i s a

popu lar i n s tr u m e n t i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n urban c e n t e r s o f A f g h a n i s t a n (t h e Kab ul -Ka lal aba d ar ea ) b o r d e r i n g P a k i s t a n , P a k i s t a n b e i n g , o f c o u r s e , an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e Nort h I ndi an m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . t a b l a i s now c o n f i n e d

The P u n ja bi

t o t h e Punjab H i l l s and t h e Himalayan f o o t h i l l s

and lower r a n g e s , c e n t e r s l i k e Kathmandu s t i l l u s i n g i t f o r r e l i g i o u s , and pe rh aps o t h e r , m us ic.

When comparing the a r e a s i n w h ic h the t a b l a

i s found w i t h t h o s e i n which th e dho la k and naqqara t y p e s , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e pakhavaj o r mrdanga, a r e f a m i l i a r , we f i n d t h a t in a d d i t i o n t o t h e t a b l a ' s l a c k o f v a r i a t i o n , i t ' s g e o g r a p h i c sp h e r e o f

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in flu e n c e i s s e v e r e ly circum scribed, further su g gestin g i t s recent b ir t h . At l e a s t two major c l a s s i c a l s t y l e s or b a j s o f t a b l a performance have d e v e lo p e d w i t h i n th e l a s t 200 y e a r s i n North I n d i a .

Today, i f i t

were not f o r the s t i l l c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e s e two t y p e s , i t would be al m os t i m p o s s i b l e t o u n t a n g l e , ev en p a r t i a l l y , t he v a r i e d m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s which have i n f l u e n c e d t h e t a b l a a t c e r t a i n s t a g e s in i t s development as a c l a s s i c a l in s tr u m e n t.

The major t a b la

baj are c e n te r e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y around the D e l h i area (and known t h e r e ­ f o r e as the Pachvah or Western b a j ) and the Lucknow/Banaras area o f U t t a r Pradesh (known as the Purab or E a s t e rn b a j ) . t h r e e major s c h o o l s or B an ar as . clo sely

gharanas-^

Within th is context

have d e ve lo p ed : t h e D e l h i , Lucknow and

Two important r e g i o n a l o f f s h o o t s e x i s t : th e Farukhabad, r e l a t e d t o the Lucknow, and t h e A jr ar a (sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as th e

M e e r u t ) , r e l a t e d in o r i g i n t o th e D e l h i and l a t e r t o t h e th e Farukhabad. Both o f t h e s e gharanas are dependent upon t h e i r p a r e n t s c h o o l s f o r most o f t h e ir techniques.

One a d d i t i o n a l s c h o o l , t h e Punjab or dukkar gharana,

remains almost c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from t h e above t r a d i t i o n s .

The p e r ­

formers o f t h i s l a t e - s t a r t i n g and p o s s i b l y s h o r t - l i v e d s c h o o l have t r a d ­ i t i o n a l l y p r e f e r r e d th e r e g i o n a l l y c o n f i n e d P u n j a b i t a b l a , and i n many o t h e r r e s p e c t s have ma in ta in ed g r e a t s t y l i s t i c in d e p e n d e n c e .

The one

r e c o g n i z e d exponent o f t h i s s t y l e , Ustad A l l a Rakha Khan, i s e q u a l l y proficien t

in the o t h e r s t y l e s o f t a b l a per formance.

In h i s p l a y i n g one

n o t i c e s h i s s u c c e s s f u l attempts t o in te r w e a v e the p a t t e r n s o f t h e Punjab gharana w i t h the o t h e r stan dar d p a t t e r n s .

These e f f o r t s and t ho s e o f h i s

s o n , Zaqir Hussain Khan, may u l t i m a t e l y s p e l l th e end o f t h i s s c h o o l ' s uniqueness, at le a s t in India.

Today i n P a k i s t a n b o t h th e standard D e l h i

and th e r e g i o n a l P u n ja b i s t y l e a r e found.

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A s tu d y o f contemporary a c c o u n t s and a comparison o f gharana g e n e ­ a l o g i e s , which are in most c a s e s remarkably c o n s i s t e n t , y i e l d s th e f o l l o w ­ ing b a s ic c h r o n o lo g ic a l information: Primary Qharanas

Secondary Gharana's

D e l h i : founder= Siddhar Khan Dhari (born c . 1 7 1 0 -1 7 20 )

A j r a r a : founders= K a llu & Miru Khan (born c . 1810-1820)

Lucknow:. founder= Balcshu Khan Dhari (born c . 1 77 5- 1 7 8 5 )

Farukhabad: founder= Haj i Vilayat. Khan (born c . 1810-1815)

Banaras: founder= Ramdas S a ha i (born c . 1 8 1 0 - 1 8 1 5 )

Punjab: founder= F a qi r Baksh (born c . 1850-1860)

The above c ha r t l i s t s o n l y the f i r s t gharana in any one r e g i o n .

A dditional

gharanas are found i n Banaras and Farukhabad, and a f u r t h e r d e r i v a t i v e gharana in D a c c a . Although t h e s e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l s o f performance have become somewhat fu s e d in the l a s t 20 t o 30 y e a r s ,

owing t o the e a s e o f communication and

the r e s u l t i n g d e s i r e a n d / o r d e c e s s i t y o f m u s i c i a n s t o l e a r n o t h e r s t y l e s o f pe rformance, a s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r c u t body o f t e c h n i q u e s remains i n each c a s e t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e , a f t e r s u f f i c i e n t s t u d y , th e r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p between t h e s e s t y l e s o f t a b l a performance and t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n o t h e r drums i n t h e same r e g i o n .

As w i l l be shown,- the s t y l e

c e n t e r e d i n th e D e l h i area shows p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t i e s w i t h t h o s e o f the dho la k and, s e c o n d a r i l y , the naqqara, which f l o u r i s h in the same a r e a . The Lucknow area t a b l a s t y l e , wh ich began as an o f f s p r i n g o f th e D e l h i , added f u r t h e r naqqara t e c h n i q u e s t o i t s pa r e n t s t y l e and p l a c e d on top o f bo t h a t h i c k v e n e e r o f pakh av aj.

The Banaras s t y l e , a g a i n a t l e a s t par ­

t i a l l y i nd eb ted t o Lucknow, added c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e c l a s s i c a l pakhavaj and more po pu lar s a hn a l/d ug g T t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n .

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The Punjab s t y l e borrowed t e c h n i q u e s from the dh ol ak and pakhavaj t r a ­ d i t i o n s of that area.

A lt hou gh b a s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s ,

i t s s t y l i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n th e p r e s e n t s tu dy i s m inim al. M u s i c a l Areas o f Tabla A c t i v i t y The f u n c t i o n or p o s i t i o n o f t h e t a b l a i n contemporary North I n d i a n m u s i c a l performance c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c e n t r a l area o f a n a l y t i c a l i n v e s t i g at i o n i n th e p r e s e n t s t u d y .

However, a s h o r t e nu m era ti on at t h i s p o i n t

o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f music w i t h which t h e t a b l a may be a s s o c i a t e d w i l l q u i c k l y c l a r i f y the primar y area o f i n t e r e s t , as w e l l a s , when compared w i t h th e musics o f t h e pa k h a v a j, dho la k and naqqara, t h e o b v i o u s l y g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f the t a b l a ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s .

For th e sake o f i n i t i a l

c o n v e n i e n c e , the t y p e s o f music performed toda y i n North I n d i a may, w i t h much r e s e r v a t i o n , be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t r i b a l , f o l k , p o p u la r and c l a s s i c a l , a l l o f wh ich ar e c l o s e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d and permeated w i t h a r e l i g i o u s elem ent.

T r i b a l music must be s e t a s i d e as o u t s i d e t h e im­

m e d ia t e sphere o f t h i s s t u d y ; the f o l k , popu lar and c l a s s i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , h o w ev e r , are c r u c i a l .

Without g o i n g i n t o d e t a i l , th e t a b l a does f u n c t i o n

w i t h i n a l l t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , though i t

i s primarily a sso cia ted with

c l a s s i c a l and p op u la r m u s i c , both v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l . Inc lu de d w i t h i n th e c l a s s i c a l spher e are

th e v o c a l s t y l e s :

bara

k h y a l s , chota k h y a l s and t a r a n a s , and i n s t r u m e n t a l v e r s i o n s o f t h e s e ; i n s t r u m e n t a l s t y l e s : M a s i t and Reza Khani g a t s and s o l o t a b l a .

As p a r t

o f t h e c l a s s i c o - p o p u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l thum rl s t y l e .

R e l a t e d t o but p l a c e d somewhat b e n e at h t h i s c a t e g o r y are

th e p r i m a r i l y v o c a l s t y l e s o f th e ghazal and g i t , both o f wh ich are i n a po p u la r id iom.

In a d d i t i o n , w i t h i n th e dance g e n r e , t h e t a b l a i s most

fr e q u e n tly a ss o c ia te d w ith kathak,

in b o t h i t s i n t e r p r e t i v e and a b s t r a c t

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aspects.

F i n a l l y , a t wh atever l e v e l , th e t a b l a may o f t e n be used f o r

p u r e l y d e v o t i o n a l m u s ic , be i t a Si k h s'abad , a Hindu bhajan o r a Muslim qaw wal i.

The matn p o i n t s t o remember c o n c e r n i n g th e above a r e a s o f a c ­

t i v i t y are:

1) no c l e a r c u t nor s t a b l e d i v i s i o n e x i s t s between ge nr es or

l e v e l s and 2) t h e t a b l a ' s f u n c t i o n , more than t h a t o f any o t h e r drum t o ­ day,

i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r and r e -c om bi n e h e r e t o f o r e almos t e n t i r e l y

s e p a r a t e t e c h n i q u e s and p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n co mp ari so n, the r o l e o f t h e pakhavaj i s v e r y r e s t r i c t e d :

it

is

used as an accompanying in s tr u m e n t f o r o l d e r and i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s f r e ­ q u e n t l y performed v a r i e t i e s o f c l a s s i c a l v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e v o c a l dhrupad and dhamar, t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r a b a b / b l n a l a p , and some n r t t a a s p e c t s o f k a t h a k . formed as a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t .

The pakhavaj i s a l s o s t i l l p e r ­

The t a b l a r a r e l y accompanies any o f th e

c l a s s i c a l mu sic t r a d i t i o n a l l y accompanied by th e pakh av aj.

In l e s s

s o p h i s t i c a t e d form s, and sometimes w i t h d i f f e r e n t names such as th e pung and k h o l , th e pakhavaj i s heard i n r e g i o n a l a r e a s as an accompanying i n ­ strument f o r m o s t l y r e l i g i o u s f o l k songs and d a n c e s . The r o l e s o f th e dhola k and naqqara are almost e q u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d , though i n a d i f f e r e n t way.

Today t h e y are used p r i m a r i l y f o r th e accom­

paniment o f p o p u la r and f o l k , o f t e n r e l i g i o u s or c e r e m o n i a l , s o n g s , d a n c e s and dance dramas, but not f o r c l a s s i c a l m u s ic .

The Banaras duggT

or khurdak i s t h e primary e x c e p t i o n , and e v e n t h i s t r a d i t i o n i s not con­ s i d e r e d t o be c l a s s i c a l .

However, i n th e Delhi-Kanpur-Lucknow a r e a ,

b o t h t h e d h ol ak and naqqara have r e t a i n e d a h i g h l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , m o s t l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f th e dance drama known as n a u t a h k i .

In a d d i t i o n ,

a few i s o l a t e d naubat ensembles remain as minimum p r o o f o f t h e once e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n o f th e naqqara t r a d i t i o n among the c e r e m o n i a l and f ormal

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musics o f t h e Muslim and Hindu c o u r t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e modern day l a c u n a e ,

it

i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e

t h a t at an e a r l i e r p e r i o d bo t h t h e d h o l a k and naqqara were c o n s i d e r e d , at l e a s t by some, t o be s u i t a b l e f o r c l a s s i c a l m u s i c .

In the 18th and 19t'h

c e n t u r i e s th e d h o l a k was th ought good enough t o v i e w i t h th e pakhavaj as a s o lo instrument.

In 1737

a v i s i t o r t o D e l h i wrot e o f one Hasim Khan,

dho la k nawaz: "he has m a g i c a l c o n t r o l over th e d h o l a k .

He can produce

new t e c h n i q u e s c o n t i n u a l l y f o r s i x months w i t h o u t any r e p e t i t i o n what­ soever. The r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e naqqara was such t h a t Emperor Akbar was not ashamed t o be th o ug ht a competent pe rformer on th e i n s t r u m e n t .

"His

m a j e s t y has such a knowledge o f the s c i e n c e o f music as t r a i n e d m u s ic i a n s do not p o s s e s s , and he i s p e c i a l l y on t h e

n a q a ra ." -^

l i k e w i s e an e x c e l l e n t hand in p er for m in g, e s ­ As p a r t o f t h e naubat ensemble used f o r

c er emonies o f bo t h a c o u r t l y and, in c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a q u a s i ­ religious ments.

n a t u r e , t h e naqqara was c o n s i d e r e d t o be th e k i n g o f i n s t r u ­

A cc or di ng t o W i l l a r d , w r i t i n g b e f o r e 1834, "the noubut i s the

g ra nde st i n s t r u m e n t a l music o f H in d oo st an .

. .

t h e e f f e c t produced by

t he j o i n t e f f o r t s o f e x p e r t p e rfo rm ers i s c o n s i d e r a b l y imposing.

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. ."18

R eferenees

lH. E. Hause, "Terms f o r M u s ic a l I ns tru m en ts i n the Sudanic Lan gu ag es, " Supplement to th e J o u r n a l o f t h e American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , p . 0. I t should be noted t h a t t h e l o n g a c c e p te d e t y m o l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n o f t a b l from the L a t i n t a b u l a (Curt S a c h s , H i s t o r y o f M u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t s , p. 249) i s i n c o r r e c t . The c o n f u s i o n p r o b a b l y stems from th e p r e s e n c e in Aramaic o f the homophonic term t a b l a which d oe s t r a c e i t s o r i g i n , thr oug h the Greek t a b l a t o th e L a t i n t a b u l a . I n t h i s c a s e , th e terms r e f e r t o a bo ar d, t a b l e or t a b l e t , not a drum. ^Curt S a c h s , H i s t o r y o f M u s ic a l I n s t r u m e n t s , pp. 2 4 8 - 2 5 0 . ^H. G. Farmer, S t u d i e s i n O r i e n t a l M u s ic a l I n s t r u m e n t s , p . 13. ^P. Molesworth S y k e s , "Notes on M u s i c a l Instru me nts in Khorasan, w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e re n c e t o the G y p s i e s ," Man, p . 162. ^Maurice Courant, "Chine e t Core'e," E n c y c l o p e d i e de la Musique e t D i c t i o n n a i r e du C o n s e r v a t o i r e : H i s t o l r e de la M us iq ue , V o l . 1, p p . 149, 210. ^Fray S e b a s t i e n Manrique, T r a v e l s o f Fray S e b a s t i e n M a nri qu e, V o l . 2 , p . 21 9. N i c c o l a o Manucci, S t o r i a do Mogor, V ol . 3 , pp. 14 1 - 1 4 2 . ?F. B a l t a z a r d S o l v y n s , Les H i n d o u s , V o l . 2 , s e c t i o n 8 , p l a t e

6.

®W. G. A r c h e r , Indian M i n i a t u r e s , p l a t e 81. ^These s t a t e m e n t s are based on a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t io n o f a l l a v a i l a b l e m i n i a t u r e s in t h e no rt her n and c e n t r a l p a r t s o f Ind ia from the 11th t o t h e 19th c e n t u r i e s . The m i n i a t u r e s i n q u e s t i o n d a t e from c . 1745 t o 1765 and were p a i n t e d i n the R aj as th an- Pun ja b H i l l s - O u d h a r e a . As the word t a b l a i s not found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h any o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s , a c l e a r c u t r e l a t i o n s h i p between any one t y p e and t h e term i s l a c k i n g . A more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t io n o f t h e m a t e r i a l may be found i n the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e : "Ic o no g r a ph ic E v id e nc e f o r t h e O r i g i n o f th e T a b l a , " by Rebecca A d r i a a n s z . T h is i s c u r r e n t l y in press. 10Dargah Q ul i Khan Bahadur, R i s a l a h - e - S a l a r - J a n g or X b a d l - e - D e l h i , p. 74. l l F . B a l t a z a r d S o l v y n s , £ £ . c i t . V o l . 2, s e c t i o n 8 , p l a t e 6 . 12

Robert Brown, The Mrdanga: a St ud y o f Drumming in South I n d i a , i s th e most complete so ur ce f o r t h i s s u b j e c t . i

l^See books on In di a n m u s ic a l i n s t r u m e n t s by K. S. K o t h a r i , S . K ri sh na swamy, P . Sambamoorthy, A. M. Meerworth, a s w e l l as c o l l e c t i o n s o f

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i n s t r u m e n t s in most o f the la r g e c i t i e s o f I n d i a , such as Hyderabad, D e l h i and New D e l h i , Madras, Bombay, Poo na, C a l c u t t a , Ba n a ra s, Udaipur and Jodhpur. G. Farmer,

0£.

c i t . p. 8.

• ^ S t y l e or baj r e f e r s t o the manner o f p l a y i n g t h e in s t r u m e n t ; t r a d i t i o n or gharana r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l or f a m i l y o f c l a s s i c a l performance p r a c t i c e . As a p a r t i c u l a r gharana t r a d i t i o n a l l y s p e c i ­ a l i z e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r b a j , both terms have been and s t i l l are to a c e r t a in extent geographically s i g n i f i c a n t . ^ D a r g a h Q u li Khan Bahadur, _op. c i t . , p . 73. ■^Abu*1-Fazl S a l l a m i , A * I n - I A k b a r i . V o l . 1, p . 54. ^ N . Augustus W i l l a r d , "A T r e a t i s e on the Music o f I n d i a , " Music o f I n d i a , p . 63.

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CHAPTER I I TABLA STROKES Introduction As w i t h most drum r e p e r t o r i e s i n North I n d i a , not t o s pe ak o f South I n d i a or o f most o f t h e c o u n t r i e s which surround th e I n d i a n s u b - c o n t i n e n t , t h a t o f the t a b l a i s communicated not o n l y through p h y s i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n but v e r b a l .

A l l t a b l a s t r o k e s have a v e r b a l e q u i v a l e n t knovm as a b o l ,

from .the Hin di verb b o l n a :

to speak.

The b o l s are p r i m a r i l y the drummer's

memoria t e c h n i c a ; though c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be reach ed about t h e i r b a s i c anomatopoeic n a t u r e

( i . e . DHA sounds l i k e an a s p i r a t e d , e l o n ­

g a t e d s y l l a b l e which might be the v e r b a l p a r a l l e l t o a r e s o n a t i n g s t r o k e which em phasizes the lower f r e q u e n c i e s ; TIT would be a s h o r t , un as p er at ed syllable

i n d ic a t in g a sharply p e r c u s s i v e , non-resonating strok e) nothing

in the b o l i t s e l f can be r e l i e d upon t o g i v e the e x a c t p o s i t i o n o f the s t r o k e on the t a b l a .

An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t ype o f c o r re s p o n d en ce

comes w i t h the m em o r iz at io n o f groups o f b o l p a t t e r n s . a s t u d y o f the d i f f e r e n t t a b l a b a j s . found t o o cc ur:

With th e t a b l a .

These come w it h two phenomena are

1) th e b o l may change a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n and/o r

t h e g e o g r a p h i c are a i n wh ich th e t a b l a i s found, but t h e s t r o k e type w ill

remain c o n s i s t e n t ; 2 ) t h e s t r o k e type w i l l change but the b o l r e ­

main the same.

T h i s s e e m i n g l y c o n f u s i n g s i t u a t i o n i s ac c o un te d f o r by

change s i n language or d i a l e c t and t h e r e f o r e p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( b o l c h a n g e ) , changes r e s u l t i n g from a b o l ' s p o s i t i o n i n a p a t t e r n o f b o l s ( b o l c h a n g e ) , changes i n i n f l u e n c e from one drum t o an ot her ( s t r o k e change) and changes i n tempo (b o th b o l and s t r o k e c h a n g e ) . As i n most a r e a s o f N o r t h In di a n c l a s s i c a l m u s ic ,

little

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atte mp t

has been made t o o r g a n i z e th e b a s i c t a b l a s t r o k e s or b o l s i n t o a s y s te m . The r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e s e are r a r e l y thought o f a s a b s t r a c t a b l e e n t i t i e s , d i v o r c e d from t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n or s t y l e .

With t h e e x ­

c e p t i o n o f t h e two b a s i c open s t r o k e s o f t h e r i g h t hand, t h e y are h a r d l y e v e r ta u g h t s e p a r a t e l y .

T h e r e f o r e , any at te m p t t o c l a s s i f y them as a b ­

s t r a c t s t r o k e s and b o l s must be i n s p i r e d by an e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - I n d i a n thought p r o c e s s .

S e v e r a l appr oac hes are p o s s i b l e :

1) th e s t r o k e s may

be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a c o u s t i c p r o p e r t i e s , ^ s u b d i v i d i n g t h e s e i n t o t y p e s o f f i n e l y p i t c h e d and g e n e r a l l y p i t c h e d r e s o n a t i n g strokes

(known as khula or open s t r o k e s , t h e term r e f e r r i n g t o t h e phy­

s i c a l mo tio n) and n o n - r e s o n a t i n g s t r o k e s

(band o r c l o s e d , the term a l s o

r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p h y s i c a l m o t i o n ) ; 2) t h e y may be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the head o f t h e drum ( c o n v e r g i n g upon the c e n t e r o f t he s y a h i from t h e o u t e r rim o f t h e c a n t l , s t r o k e may be c l a s s i f i e d

or v i c e v e r s a ) ; 3) the

f u n c t i o n a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o what i t s h e i r a r c h i c a l

p o s i t i o n i s in order of importance.

(U sin g t h i s method, a s t r o k e which

o f t e n i n i t i a t e s or d e l i n e a t e s a p a t t e r n , pe rh aps through s t r e s s or e l o n ­ g a t i o n , w a r r a n t s a much h i g h e r p o s i t i o n than one which f u n c t i o n s m er e ly as a f i l l e r ) .

4 ) The b o l s may be c l a s s i f i e d p h o n e t i c a l l y .

As b o l s are

u n r e l i a b l e as g u i d e s t o s p e c i f i c s t r o k e s , and as s p e c i f i c s t r o k e s tend t o change t h e i r f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t y l e o f performance (making t h i s typ e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t at t h e s t y l i s t i c

level),

t h e method u l t i m a t e l y chos en was a c o m b in a t i o n o f approaches 1 and 2 above: th e l i n k bet wee n the s e v e r a l t y p e s o f r e s o n a t i n g and n o n - r e s o n ­ a t i n g s t r o k e s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e head o f th e drum for a l l the t r a d i t i o n s .

Therefore,

i s m ai n t ai n e d

th e s t r o k e ' s sound and p o s i t i o n , not

i t s v e r b a l symbol or f u n c t i o n , becomes t h e c r u c i a l c r i t e r i o n a t t h i s

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sta g e. I f the dahina and bayan were d i v i d e d , from the rim t o the c e n t e r , i n t o three con ce n tr ic c i r c l e s

l a b e l e d A ( f o r th e c a n t ! or o u t e r l a y e r o f

s k i n a l o n g t h e r i m ) , B ( f o r th e l a v or ex posed u n d e r - s k i n between th e c an tT and syahT, C ( f o r t h e syahT or perma nen tly a p p l i e d c i r c u l a r t u n i n g p a t c h i n th e c e n t e r ) and D ( f o r the purT or drum h e a d ) , found t h a t a l l A and B s t r o k e s nating.

i t would be

( wi th one s u s p e c t e x c e p t i o n ) are r e s o ­

In A s t r o k e s t h e f i n g e r or f i n g e r s may e i t h e r remain l i g h t l y

on t h e head or r i s e upon c o n t a c t , t h i s p r o c e s s not m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t i n g t h e r e s o n a n c e , whereas i n B s t r o k e s th e f i n g e r must r i s e im m e d ia t e ly after contact.

C and D s t r o k e s may be e i t h e r r e s o n a t i n g or n o n - r e s o n a t ­

in g , depending

upon whether th e f i n g e r or hand i s a l l o w e d t o r e s t or

not.

In e s s e n c e , t h e n , t h e r e are t h e o r e t i c a l l y s i x stand ar d t y p e s o f

s t r o k e s p o s s i b l e on b o t h drums o f the p a i r .

In p r a c t i c e , however,

(in

s p i t e o f t h e s i m i l a r h e a d , th e b a y l n i s a very d i f f e r e n t drum t y p e ) , o n l y t h e dahina d i s p l a y s the e n t i r e gamut o f s t r o k e s .

These t y p e s w i l l

be known, i n th e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f th e s t u d y , not o n l y by t h e i r standard b o l names, which ar e ver y o f t e n c o n f u s i n g , but by t h e i r s t r o k e symbol. These ar e as f o l l o w : Symbol Ao: Bo: Co: Cc: Do: Dc:

Exp lanat io n

open (resonating stroke on cantT " " " " lav 11 " " " syahT closed (damped) " " " open (resonating)" " purT clo sed (damped) " " "

N o t e : o = open; c = c l o s e d The se symbols ta ke i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n n e i t h e r t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f the s t r o k e nor t h e p r e c i s e manner o f p r o d u c i n g i t . ^

A lt ho ug h the c h a r a c t e r -

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i s t i c timbre o f each s t r o k e typ e i s somewhat a f f e c t e d by t h e s e c h a n g e s , t h e y become important p r i m a r i l y when c o n s i d e r i n g a r e a s such as t e c h n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between s t y l e s o f p l a y i n g and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s t r o k e s caused by tempo and a c c e n t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .

As w i l l be a p p a r e n t , the above

s y m b o ls , though a p p l i c a b l e i n part to th e bayan, are e x p l o i t e d t o th e f u l l e s t e x t e n t by th e d a h i n a , which i s c a pa bl e o f p r o d u c i n g a much g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f sound. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n enumerates ea ch s t r o k e t y p e . photograph i s appended t o e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n .

An i l l u s t r a t i v e

The or de r o f s t r o k e enum­

e r a t i o n w i l l be determined f i r s t l y by t h e t a b l a baj w i t h which i t i s a s s o c i a t e d and s e c o n d l y by i t s p o s i t i o n on the h e a d , th e dahina s t r o k e s p r e c e d i n g th e bayan.

T h e r e f o r e , the D e l h i or Pachvan baj

( c o v e r i n g both

the o l d e r D e l h i and more r e c e n t Ajrara g h a r a n a s ) , which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o e x e m p l i f y t h e o l d e s t r e c o g n i z e d p r a c t i c e , w i l l be f i r s t . ed by t h e Purab baj Banaras).

T h is i s f o l l o w ­

( c o v e r i n g Lucknow and i t s o f f s h o o t s , Farukhabad and

When r e l e v a n t , as in the Banaras t r a d i t i o n ,

the g r e a t e r im­

p o r t a n c e o f c e r t a i n b o l s i n c e r t a i n gharanas w i l l be n o t e d .

'The Punjab

b a j , as a somewhat i s o l a t e d phenomenon (a lt h o u g h n o t so much in b o l s as in elab orative p a ttern s), is

liste d separately.

An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n in t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t y pe s o f s t r o k e s which are p r e f e r r e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t b a j s i s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p , and sometimes e x a c t p a r a l l e l between t h e s e s t r o k e s and t h o s e o f the han d -p la y e d drums, the pakhavaj and d h o l a k , and t h e s t i c k - p l a y e d naqqara. T h e r e f o r e , the r e l e v a n t s t r o k e s w i l l be appended t o th e end o f each t r a ­ d i t i o n f o r comparison.

I t must be em ph as ize d, however,

that in a l l

c a s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l drum s t r o k e s a r e a b s t r a c t e d phenomena.

The c o r r e s ­

pondence becomes l e s s o b v i o u s but much more s i g n i f i c a n t as the de gr ee

25

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

o f s p e c i f i c i t y becomes g r e a t e r .

It is

in the realm o f the e v e r- e x pa nd ing s t r o k e n u c l e u s t h a t the i n ­

f l u e n c e s become i r r e f u t a b l e . D e l h i Baj Tabla S t r o k e s T h is baj tabla*!

is

s t y l e , as

a l s o known as th e kinar ka baj or cantT ka baj o r , i t s main s t r o k e i s produced on the ca nt T.

in o t h e r word s, the edge

(of the

T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the D e l h i s t y l e o f p l a y i n g i s

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by

i t s use o f onl y the inde x and middle f i n g e r s on the d a h i n a , though the r i n g

used at t im e s a s

a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the ind ex in some f a s t p a t t e r n s .

finger is

Dah in i b o l : NA; TA when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d ; RA used some t im e s f o r second o f p a i r o f c a n t i s t r o k e s (NARA). open s t r o k e on cantT by in de x f i n g e r , f i n g e r remaining on head o r , in rapid or a c c e n t e d p a s s a g e s , s p r i n g i n g away. r i n g f i n g e r p l a c e d on back o f s y a h l / l a v t o p r e ve nt lower l a y e r o f s k i n from v i b r a t i n g f r e e l y and thus d i s t o r t i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre o f t h i s s t r o k e

1.

NA (Ac) on c o n t a c t ( i g n o r e bavan)

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre i s a c l e a r but bo tto m -h e av y mix t u r e o f th e fundamental and th e f i r s t harmonic. The standard sharp crack i s caused by the sudden c o n t a c t between f i n g e r , drum head and frame, which p a r t i a l l y u n d e r l i e s the c i n t I . - s t r o k e borrowed from d h o l a k . - n o t e : RA and RA(N) are d e r i v a t o r y b o l s & may be used in p l a c e o f o t h e r s f o r Ao, Bo & Co s t r o k e s . See i 1 l u s . 1.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

b o l : T I ( N ) ; TU(N) or TI when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d . open s t r o k e on l av by index f i n g e r , f i n g e r s p r i n g i n g away from head upon c o n t a c t . I l l u s t r a t i o n shows t i p o f inde x f i n g e r t o u c h in g edge o f syah"i. T h is i s t y p i c a l position. r i n g f i n g e r pl a c e d on back edge o f s y a h l . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t im bre: t o p - h e a v y m ixture o f fundamental & f ir s t overtone. s t r o k e p r o b a b ly i n f l u e n c e d by naqqara and d h o l a k . See i l l u s . 2 . b o l : none. c l o s e d s t r o k e d e l i v e r e d as f o r Bo s t r o k e , but index f i n g e r remains on head a f t e r c o n t a c t .

TIN (Bo) on c o n t a c t

s t r o k e pr o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the t a s a , a s h a l l o w hemi­ s p h e r i c a l , s t i . c k - p l a y e d drum. T h is s t r o k e i s a r e l a ­ t i v e l y new t a b l a s t r o k e used o n l y f o r l i g h t popu lar mus ic; i t i s not r e c o g n i z e d as l e g i t i m a t e .

See above i l l u s t r a t i o n

Co

b o l : D I( N) ; TU(N) when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d . This s t r o k e o f t e n combined w i t h Cc s t r o k e NA. See below f o r c o m b in a t io n w i t h Ao & Bo s t r o k e s . open s t r o k e on s y a h i by in de x f i n g e r , f i n g e r and hand f l i p p i n g upward and outward upon c o n t a c t . Exact p l a c e ­ ment o f in de x f i n g e r on sy'ah'i det ermined by speed and pattern context. no f i n g e r p l a c e d on head t o f i l t e r out i m p u r i t i e s ,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

therefore , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre = mixture o f s e v e r a l harm onic s, among which a p i t c h a to ne above fundamental i s predomine n t . s t r o k e p r ob ab ly i n f l u e n c e d by pak ha vaj ; however, s t r o k e p a i r (Co/Cc) r e s e m b l e s naqqara s t r o k e p a i r . T h i s p a i r o f t e n used as s u b s t i t u t e f o r Ao &/or Bo stroke p a ir s . See i l l u s . 3 .

N3 CO

3.

DIN (Co) on c o n t a c t Cc

b o l : NA, RA. c l o s e d s t r o k e on r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f s y a h i by r i n g or middle & r i n g f i n g e r s , f i n g e r remaining, on head f o r damped s o u n d . r emaini ng par t of hand f r e e from he ad. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: s o f t t a p , as s t r o k e o f t e n used t o deaden p r e v i o u s r e s o n a t i n g s t r o k e D I ( N ) . s t r o k e p r ob ab ly i n f l u e n c e d by pakh ava j; however, change from hand t o f i n g e r p o s i t i o n pr o b a b l y r e f l e c t s i n f l u e n c e o f naqqara. See i l l u s . 4 .

4.

NA (Cc) on c o n t a c t

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b o l : s i n g l e = TIT; p a i r = TITA, TIT I , TRA, TIRA, de pe nd in g upon c o n t e x t . c l o s e d s t r o k e on c e n t e r o f s y a h i by e i t h e r middle or i ndex f i n g e r , f i n g e r rema in in g on head f o r damped sound. r i n g f i n g e r p l a c e d on back edge o f s y a h i ; t h i s has no e f f e c t on sound & i s sometimes not us e d; I t s primary f u n c t i o n i s t o pr ov id e l e v e r a g e . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbr e: s h a r p , damped.

5.

TIT or TI (Cc) on c o n t a c t

6.

TA (Cc) on c o n t a c t

when p a i r e d , t h e middle f i n g e r i s al m os t always f i r s t . As a p a i r , as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l l y , th e : dholak & naqqara are v e r y pr oba bl y the i n s t r u m e n t s o f d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , a l t h o u g h the e q u i v a l e n t naqqara s t r o k e i s more o f t e n a damped r i g h t - then damped l e f t - h a n d s t r o k e . This i s known as TAKA. See i l l u s . 5 & 6.

b o l : GE, G l, GA depe ndin g on c o n t e x t ; GHE when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d . open s t r o k e on l a v by i n d e x , middle or middle and r in g f i n g e r s , f i n g e r s and sometimes hand s p r i n g i n g o f f head upon c o n t a c t . u n d e r - p a r t o f w r i s t and 5 to 8 cm o f forearm p l a c e d on drum head. When g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d on head ( f o r h i g h e r p i t c h ) forearm may be s l i g h t l y r a i s e d above he a d, a l l w i n g arm t o f o r c e i t s w e i g h t upon w r i s t .

duction prohibited without permission.

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: as in r i g h t hand D1 ( N ) , but lower and more re son ant when no p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d . With c o n t r o l l e d i n c r e a s e s i n p r e s s u r e on drum h e a d , s k i n t e n s i o n i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , pro du ci ng g e n e r a l pitch plateaus. s t r o k e borrowed from d h o l a k . See i l l u s . 7 .

b o l : KE, KI, KA depe ndin g on c o n t e x t ; KAT when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d . c l o s e d s t r o k e on la v by i n d e x , m id d le , r i n g & l i t t l e f i n g e r s , a l l cupped under s o t h a t s e c t i o n of f i n g e r from f i r s t knuckle t o end o f n a i l i s in c o n t a c t w i t h l a v ; f i n g e r s remain on head fo r damped sound. w r i s t & forearm p l a c e d on s k i n as in above s t r o k e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: damped, d u l l . 8.

KE (Be) on c o n t a c t

used as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r f o l l o w i n g b o l ; used o n l y w i t h l i g h t po pu lar m u s ic . See i l l u s . 8 .

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s t r o k e borrowed from d h o l a k .

Dc - b o l : KE, KI, KA de pe ndi ng on c o n t e x t ; KAT when s t r e s s e d or p r o l o n g e d . - c l o s e d s t r o k e on head by f l a t o f hand, hand re maining on head f o r damped sound . - w r i s t & forearm p l a c e d on s k i n as in above s t r o k e . - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: as i n above s t r o k e , but w i t h a more p e r c u s s i v e q u a l i t y ; more v a r i a t i o n i n dynamics p o ssib le with t h is stro k e. - s t r o k e borrowed from d h o l a k . ^ 1-1

9.

KE (Dc) on c o n t a c t

See i l l u s . 9 .

Composites - DHA: NA + GE - DHI(N): TI(N) + GE

Dholak S t r o k e s Corr es pon ding w i t h D e l h i Baj Tabla S t r o k e s The dh ol ak i s today r e l e g a t e d p r i m a r i l y to the po pu lar and f o l k m u s i c a l a r e a s . nomenclature i s not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p p l i e d .

in A f g h a n i s t a n , P a k i s t a n or North India

trad ition s),

its

For t h i s r e a s o n , the c o r re s p o n d en ce between t a b l a and

d h o la k can most c l e a r l y be shown in the s t r o k e t y p e s , not the b o l s . it

As a r e s u l t ,

Wherever the dhol ak i s p l a y e d , be

( t o speak o f t h r e e a r e a s which have f a i r l y homogeneous dhola k

the s t y l e o f p l a y i n g i s p r i n c i p a l l y a ki n a r ka b a j , w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f d i h i n a s t r o k e s

b e i n g d e l i v e r e d t o th e edge o f the head by the t i p s o f th e f i n g e r s .

Th is i s shown by the f o l l o w i n g l i s t

of s tr o k e s .

As t h e d h o l a k h e a d i s n o t c o m p o s i t e t h e t a b l a n o m e n c l a t u r e i s t o be us e d o n l y as a g e n e r a l

i n d i c a t i o n o f th e p o s i t i o n o f the s t r o k e on the head, Dahina Ao - c o r r e s p o n d in g t a b l a s t r o k e = NA; o f t e n c a l l e d NA by dhola k p l a y e r s . - open s t r o k e on edge by in dex f i n g e r , on h e a d . " thumb p l a c e d on drum s i d e & l i t t l e rim f o r l e v e r a g e .

f i n g e r re maining

f i n g e r p l a c e d on

- remai nin g f i n g e r s f r e e from hea d. £*»*v: •' ' 10.

/

NA (Ao) on c o n t a c t

- c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timb re : though u n p i t c h e d , the d i s t i n c t i v e p e r c u s s i v e rim sound i s r e c o g n i z a b l e . See i l l u s . 10.

Ao/Bo - c o r r e s p o n d in g t a b l a s t r o k e = TA; o f t e n c a l l e d TA by dholak p la y e r s . - open s t r o k e on edge o f head by m id d le , r i n g & sometimes l i t t l e f i n g e r , f i n g e r s remaining on head. Sometimes s t r o k e d e l i v e r e d t o p o i n t s l i g h t l y in from edge (Bo) . - s t r o k e g i v e n w i t h much f o r c e , as a c c e n te d v e r s i o n of NA abov e. See i l l u s . 11.

Gc - c o r r e s p o n d i n g t a b l a s t r o k e = TIT; o f t e n c a l l e d TAK by dh o l a k p l a y e r s . 11.

TA (Ao/Bo) on c o n t a c t

- c l o s e d s t r o k e a t p o i n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 cm in from rim

ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

by t i p s o f 1) index f i n g e r , 2) i n d e x , middle & r i n g , 3) middle & r i n g or 4) m i d d l e , r i n g & l i t t l e f i n g e r s , f i n g e r s re maini ng on head. - thumb p l a c e d on drum s i d e

for leverage.

- e x a c t f i n g e r i n g depends on f o r c e r e q u i r e d & c o n t a c t . See i l l u s . 1 2 . - c o r r e s p o n d i n g t a b l a s t r o k e s are TITA; o f t e d c a l l e d TIJA by dho la k p l a y e r s . Because o f the h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n o f the t a b l a head & perhaps b ec au se o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the s h a r p l y p e r c u s s i v e c l o s e d naqqara s t r o k e s , the hand stroke, a l s o common t o th e p a k h a v a j , was changed t o a o n e - f i n g e r s t r o k e on the t a b l a .

12.

TAK (Cc) on c o n t a c t

- c l o s e d s t r o k e on head o f drum by o u t e r rim o f hand, o f t e n f o l l o w e d by same type o f s t r o k e d e l i v e r e d by the in ne r rim o f the hand or by the in de x f i n g e r . See i l l u s . 13 & 1 4 .

14.

TA (Dc) on c o n t a c t

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Bayan Bo - c o r r e s p o n d i n g tabla’ s t r o k e i s GE or GHE; o f t e n c a l l e d GE ( p r e s s u r e s t r o k e ) & GA ( n o n - p r e s s u r e s t r o k e ) by dho la k p l a y e r s . - open s t r o k e on head by comb ina ti on o f i n d e x , middle & r i n g f i n g e r s , a t p o i n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o l a v on t a b l a bayan, f i n g e r s s p r i n g i n g away from head on c o n t a c t . - w r i s t p l a c e d on back o f hea d, a p p l y i n g v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f p r e s s u r e t o head t o a l t e r g e n e r a l p i t c h l e v e l . - n o t e : t h e s e r i e s o f f i v e p i c t u r e s i l l u s t r a t e th e e x a c t p a r a l l e l e x i s t i n g between the t a b l a p r e s s u r e GE & non­ p r e s s u r e GE & t h o s e o f the d h o l a k . In both t a b l a & dhola k t h e s e two s t r o k e t y p e s are o f t e n found t o g e t h e r . See i l l u s . 15 - 19.

16.

2nd GE, a l s o by r i n g f i n g e r ; shows greater w rist pressure.

17.

3rd GE, a l s o by r i n g f i n g e r ; shows peak o f p r e s s u r e .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

18.

GA, by middle f i n g e r ; a l l p r e s s u r e removed from h e a d .

19.

GA, a f t e r r e l e a s e o f p r e s s u r e ; shows comp lete s e p a r a t i o n of hand & head .

- c o r r e s p o n d i n g t a b l a s t r o k e i s th e c u r v e d - f i n g e r KE s t r o k e . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s s p e c i f i c t a b l a v e r s i o n , the e x a c t e q u i v a l e n t o f th e dhola k in dex f i n g e r snap i s a l s o u s e d ; however, t h i s v e r s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be even more u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d than the c u r v e d - f i n g e r KE. Often c a l l e d KA by dho la k p l a y e r s . - c l o s e d snap on head, at p o i n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t a b l a bayan l a v , by in d e x f i n g e r ; f i n g e r may or may not remain on he ad , but hand c o n t i n u e s t o r e s t on head t o deaden s o u n d . See i l l u s . 20.

20.

KA (Be) b e f o r e c o n t a c t

Dc - co rrespond ing t a b l a st r o ke i s KE; o f t e n c a l l e d KA by dhola k players. - c l o s e d s tr o k e on head by f l a t o f hand, hand remaining on head t o deaden the sound. See i l l u s . 2 1 . Composites - DHA: NA + GA or GE - DHIT: TAK + GA or GE

Naqqara S t r o k e s Corresponding w i t h D e l h i Baj Tabla St r o ke s Two problems e x i s t when a t te m p ti n g t o understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the naqqara and th e D e l h i baj tab 15. The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s i n ­ h e r e n t in the naqqara: i t

i s a s t i c k - , not hand-, played in s tr u m e n t.

The second i s t h a t i t has been a t l e a s t as i n f l u e n t i a l on the Purab baj as the D e l h i .

Although i t would be c o nv e ni en t t o be a b l e t o s a y th at

a l l o f the D e l h i baj r e p e r t o r y now in use has been t h e re fo r the l a s t 200 y e a r s , and t r a v e l e d from t h e re t o Lucknow, in some c a s e s th e r e v e r s e i s probably more a c c u r a t e .

In the ca se o f the naqqara, i t i s the com­

p o s i t i o n o f th e e l a b o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s , and not simply the l o c a t i o n i f i t s s t r o k e s , which p o i n t s t o a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e , e xe rt e d at a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y period in the development o f the D e l h i b a j . happened, ju d g i n g fromcontemporaneous a c c o u n t s , Lucknow area (during t h a t

p e r i o d between

What very probably i s th at in the D e l h i -

1750 and 1850 when

the t a b l a

was becoming r e co g n iz e d as a p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r to the pa kh av aj ), naqqara p l a y e r s , o f t e n in a f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n which would make i t e a s y t o change i n s t r u m e n t s , would t r a i n as t a b l a p l a y e r s .

36

with perm ission of the copyright owner. Furth er reproduction prohibited without perm ission

Although in the p r o c e s s the Lucknow baj was p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d more than the D e l h i , the f o l l o w i n g i n fo r m a ti o n co nc e rn in g naqqara s t r o k e s does pe r tain to both.

Today,

the naqqara may have i t s

depending upon the s c h o o l o f naqqara t r a i n i n g , own d e r i v a t i v e t e r m i n o l o g y j however, in the

p r e s e n t c o n t e x t i t i s more c o n v e n i e n t t o use the p a r a l l e l t a b l a t er m in ­ ology.

As s t i l l photographs of s t i c k s t r o k e s can conve y l i t t l e but

p o s i t i o n , a s e r i e s o f fou r b a s i c p o s i t i o n s are g i v e n o n l y at the end o f the g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n .

See i l l u s t r a t i o n s 22 t o 2 5 .

The naqqara i s l i m i t e d t o th e f o l l o w i n g sound di m e n s i o n s : 1. "low" & "high" p i t c h l e v e l s . 2 . r e s o n a t i n g & n o n - r e s o n a t i n g soun ds. 3. rim t o c e n t e r p o s i t i o n s or s h a r p e r , more p e r c u s s i v e , t o more h o l l o w , l e s s p e r c u s s i v e sounds. 4 . v a r i a t i o n in f o r c e o f s t r o k e a t t a c k . T r a n s l a t e d i n t o t a b l a bol-s, t h e s e di mensions are r e f l e c t e d as f o l l o w s : 1.

NA, RA or RA(N): h i g h , open, r e l a t i v e l y s t r e s s e d ; placement i s near rim o f j h i l .

2.

TA: h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d v e r s i o n o f NA; placement i s f a r t h e r from rim.

3.

TI ( N ) : h i g h , open, r e l a t i v e l y l e s s s t r e s s e d than i s from 3 t o 5 cm in from rim o f j h i l .

4.

TA, TIT, RA: h i g h , c l o s e d , v a r i a b l y s t r e s s e d , sometimes in p a i r s ; placem en t i s c e n t e r o f j h i l .

5.

GHE: low, o p e n , v a r i a b l y s t r e s s e d ; pl aceme nt i s c e n t e r o f dhama.

6.

KA: low, c l o s e d , r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r e s s e d ; placement i s c e n t e r o f dhama.

7.

DHA: c o m p o si te s t r o k e = NA or TA + GHE.

8.

DHI(N): c o m p o si t e s t r o k e + TIN + GHE.

TA;placement

37

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

used

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

TA + KE or GHE on c o n t a c t 25. NA + KE or GHE on contact 24.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

Purab Baj Tabla S t r o k e s T h is b l j began in Lucknow and spread from h er e t o Farukhabad and B a n a r a s . c r e a s i n g emphasis was p l a c e d on the e x i s t i n g pakhlvaj

t r a d i t i o n s in the a r e a .

In the p r o c e s s an i n ­ As a r e s u l t ,

gharanas r e s e r v e c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e i r r e p e r t o r y f o r p a t t e r n s which are p u r e l y pak h av aj . in the Purab baj employ s t r o k e t e c h n i q u e s w h ic h ,

the Banaras A l l schools

in the c a s e o f the d i h i n a , r e q u i r e a much g r e a t e r use

o f the hand and drum head than t h o s e o f the D e l h i b i j .

These t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e a more f o r c e f u l mode o f

s t r o k e a t t a c k and p o i n t d i r e c t l y to the pakhavaj as the in strument o f i n f l u e n c e . As p e rfo rm ers from e a c h o f the main t r a d i t i o n s must be f a m i l i a r w i t h b a s i c s t r o k e s , b o l p a t t e r n s and s t y l e s o f p l a y i n g o f t h e o t h e r t r a d i t i o n ,

i t must be understood t h a t the Lucknow-, Farukhabad- and

u>

B a n a r a s - t r a i n e d p e rfo rm ers w i l l a l s o accompany in the D e l h i s t y l e

i f required.

In a d d i t i o n , as the Purab

baj began as an out growth o f the D e l h i , c e r t a i n b a s i c formulae and c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h a t baj were r e t a i n e d . Dahina Ao - b o l : NA; TA o n l y when D e l h i o r i g i n o f p a t t e r n i s o b v i o u s ; when used i n a p a k h a v a j - d e r i v e d p a t t e r n , r e f e r r e d t o as NA. - s ee D e l h i dahina s t r o k e Ao (NA), as t h i s s t r o k e i s shared by bo th b a j s .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

b o l p a i r : NAltA(N). open s t r o k e on c a n t i by middle & r in g f i n g e r s , o f t e n f o l l o w e d by index f i n g e r ; as w i t h a l l c l n t ' i s t r o k e s , the f i n g e r s may r e s t on s k i n w i t h o u t damping sound. u n l i k e D e l h i NA, re maining f i n g e r s are f r e e o f head. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: as t h i s s t r o k e i s d e l i v e r e d wi th f o r c e , the p e r c u s s i v e e l e m e n t , t h a t o f a sharp c r a c k , i s predominant; however, as e n t i r e head v i b r a t e s , the timbre i s a b a la nc e d mixture o f the fundamental & f i r s t overtone. s t r o k e borrowed from p a k h a v a j ; a l t h o u g h used by dholak ( s e e dhol ak T A ), used i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . See i l l u s . 26 & 2 7 . 26.

NA (Ao) on c o n t a c t b o l : TI(N) when used w i t h D e l h i s t y l e b o l s ; TA or RA(N) when used w i t h Purab s t y l e . open s t r o k e on l a v or rim o f l a v / c l n t l by index f i n g e r ; s e e D e l h i dahina s t r o k e TX(N). though f r e q u e n t l y the r i n g f i n g e r i s p l a c e d on s y a h i , as in the D e l h i s t y l e , i t may be j o i n e d or r e p l a c e d by the l i t t l e f i n g e r , in i m i t a t i o n o f the pak havaj. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: e i t h e r as in D e l h i s t y l e or , when g r e a t e r f o rc e o f pakhavaj s t y l e d e s i r e d , w i t h the f i r s t o v e r t o n e overshadowing a l l o v e r t o n e s & the funda­ men tal .

27.

RA(N) (Ao) on c o n t a c t

Purab s t y l e s t r o k e ( r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e f i n g e r ) adapted from pakhivaj hand TA. See i 1l u s . 28 - 3 1 .

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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

Co - b o l : DI(N) or RA(N).

O ft e n f o l l o w e d by 1 c s t r o k e NA; s e e below.

stroke, - s e e D e l h i dahina s t r o k e Co D I ( N ) , as t h i s t r o k e a l s o used in p a k h a v a j - d e r i v e d pat e r ns .

in D e l h i baj p a t t e r n s ,

i s borrowed from t h e r e ;

' - b o l : DI(N) or TU(N); DI or THU(N) when s t r e s s e d or p r o ­ longed . - open s t r o k e on rear h a l f o f s y a h i by pads o f cupped f i n g e r s , hand s p r i n g i n g away from head upon c o n t a c t . - palm r e s t s a g a i n s t l a c i n g o f rim d u r i n g & a f t e r s t r o k e in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the s t r o k e which u s u a l l y f o l l o w s ; s e e Purab s t y l e Cc s t r o k e NA be lo w. - c l i a r a c t e r i s t i c ti mbre: as four f i n g e r s (not one as in the D e l h i s t y l e ) , s t r o k e s y a h i , the p e r c u s s i v e sound o f the c o n t a c t i s much g r e a t e r , somewhat ca m o u fl a g in g the r e s o n a t i n g sound.

32.

DI(N)

(Co) b e f o r e c o n t a c t

- borrowed i n t a c t from p a k h a v a j ; used much by Banaras gha r a r.a . See i l l u s . 32 - 34 .

34. 3 3.

DI(N) on c o n t a c t

DI(N) a f t e r c o n t a c t (NA b e f o r e c o n t a c t )

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Cc - b o l : NA. - s e e D e l h i dahina s t r o k e C c : NA; s t r o k e use s t r o k e f o l l o w s D e l h i Co s t r o k e ab ov e.

in both D e l h i - d e r i v e d and pakha’v a j - d e r i v e d p a t t e r n s ;

b o l : NA. c l o s e d s t r o k e on s y a h i by pads o f a l l f i n g e r s but thumb, f i n g e r s re ma in in g on s y a h i t o deaden sound; s t r o k e f o l l o w s p a k h a v a j - d e r i v e d hand s t r o k e Co above. palm r e s t s a g a i n s t

lacing.

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: as the p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t are g r e a t e r than the Co f i n g e r s t r o k e r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t r o k e , the r e s u l t i n g s o f t "thud" i s more a u d i b l e . borrowed i n t a c t from p a k h l v a j . 35.

See i l l u s .

35.

NA (Cc) on c o n t a c t b o l : TITA, TIT I , TIRA. c l o s e d s t r o k e on c e n t e r o f s y a h i by middle & r i n g f i n g e r s , o f t e n f o ll o w e d by second s t r o k e o f same type by index f i n g e r ; re maini ng f i n g e r s remain o f f head. compare D e l h i Cc (TI or TIT) s t r o k e ; s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ­ f e r e n c e i s in number o f f i n g e r s used & r e s u l t i n g p r e s s u r e on head. s t r o k e borrowed i n t a c t from pakhavaj ; used much by Banaras g h a r a n a s . See i 1 lus . 36 & 3 7 .

36.

T I (Cc) on c o n t a c t

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

b o l : TIT f o r 2 - f i n g e r s t r o k e s used w i t h D e l h i baj p a t ­ t e r n s ; TAK or KAT or 3- or 4 - f i n g e r s t r o k e s used w i t h p a k h a v a j - d e r iv e d p a t t e r n s . c l o s e d s t r o k e on s y a h i by pads o f i n d e x , middle & r i n g ; m i d d l e , r i n g & l i t t l e ; or a l l four f i n g e r s , depending upon p r e s s u r e d e s i r e d . f i n g e r s remain on head f o r damped sound. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: as in D e l h i TIT, but beca use o f g r e a t e r number o f f i n g e r s & g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e , the sound i s loud & w h i p - l i k e . TIT s t r o k e p r ob ab ly d e r i v e d from dh ol ak ; TAK s t r o k e borrowed i n t a c t from p a k h a v a j . note:

f o r TIT s t r o k e s e e i l l u s . f o r TAK s t r o k e s e e i l l u s .

36. 33.

b o l : TA; t h i s s t r o k e i s o n l y used by the Banaras gharanas f o r pure pakhavaj p a t t e r n s . open s t r o k e on head by o u t e r rim o f s l i g h t l y cupped r i g h t hand, hand f l i p p i n g upward & inward upon c o n t a c t w i t h head. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: loud s l a p in which a r i n g i n g & pronounced f i r s t harmonic i s the predominant p i t c h ; in sound t y p e , i t b e l o n g s t o the same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as the Purab Bo TA which i s an a d a p t a t i o n o f i t . See i l l u s . 38 & 39.

38 TA (Do) on c o n t a c t

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b o l : TIR A or D IR A . c l o s e d s t r o k e p a i r on head by s l i g h t l y upturned f l a t o f hand, s t r o k e d e l i v e r e d f i r s t by o u t e r rim o f hand, t h e n by i n n e r , w r i s t a c t i n g as a p i v o t . hand remains on head t o dampen sound. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: n o n - r e s o n a t i n g s l a p . s t r o k e borrowed i n t a c t from p a k h a v a j . 40 & 41.

39.

TA. a f t e r c o n t a c t

40.

DI (Dc) on c o n t a c t

41.

RA (Dc) on c o n t a c t

See i l l u s .

Bayan Bo - b o l : GE, GI, GA depending on c o n t e x t ; GHE when s t r e s s e d or p r o ­ longed . - see D e l h i s t r o k e Bo GE; s t r o k e i s p r e c i s e l y the same, e x c e p t t h a t in pa k h a v a j- d e r iv e d p a t t e r n s p r e s s u r e v a r i a t i o n is l e s s p r o ­ nounced .

Dc - b o l : KE, KI or KA depending upon c o n t e x t . - see D e l h i s t r o k e Dc; st r o k e i s the same. - s t r o k e borrowed i n t a c t from pakhavaj.

Do - b o l : GE, GI or GA depending on c o n t e x t . -

f l a t o f hand s l a p s inner r i g h t hand quart er of head, e n t i r e hand f l i p p i n g upward & s l i g h t l y inward upon c o n t a c t .

-

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: s i m i l a r to t ha t o f r i g h t hand Purab DIN, e x c e p t t h a t no p i t c h i s predominant, the g e n e r a l l e v e l i s lower, and the volume i s u s u a l l y much g r e a t e r .

- s t r o k e borrowed i n t a c t from p a k h a v a j . - n o te :

fo r GA s tr o k e on c o n t a c t s e e i l l u s . 38. f o r GA s tr o k e a f t e r c o n t a c t see i l l u s . 39.

Compos i t e s - DHA: NA + GE ( D e l h i - d e r i v e d ) DHA: TA + GE (Purab s t y l e : adapted from pakhavaj) DHA: TA + GA (Purab s t y l e ; borrowed i n t a c t from pakhavaj) - DHIN: TI(N) + GE ( D e l h i - d e r i v e d ) - DHIT or DHET: TIT or TAK + GE - DHI(RA) : DI(RA) + GE

Pakhavaj St r o ke s Corresponding w i t h Purab Baj Tabla S t r o k e s The Purab s t y l e o f t a b la performance has t r e a t e d the pakhavaj i n one o f two ways:

i t has e i t h e r adapted i t s s t r o k e s

(from a v e r t i c a l

head t o an h o r i z o n t a l head; from l a r g e l y hand s t r o k e s to l a r g e l y f i n g e r

46

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s t r o k e s ) or t r i e d t o ap pl y them i n t a c t .

The l a t t e r method has not been so s u c c e s s f u l w i t h r e s p e c t t o the

hand s t r o k e s ; perhaps f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e s e s t r o k e s ar e c o n f i n e d m o s t l y t o the Banaras gharana and, even t h e n , are used f o r o n l y t h o s e p a t t e r n s which are o b v i o u s l y p a k h a v a j . s t r o k e s i s complete a s ,

The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f pakhavaj

i n one form or a n o t h e r , a l l are used by the t a b l a .

For t h o s e s t r o k e s which are

i d e n t i c a l , no pakhavaj p i c t u r e i s p r o v i d e d . Dahina Ao - b o l : NA or RA(N) . - as i n t a b l a NA, e x c e p t t ha t o n l y the index f i n g e r to u c h e s the head; in NA f i n g e r remains on head; in RA(N) i t o f t e n f l i p s away. See i l l u s . 4 2 .

V'

• C . «

t. ■5?

■- . ? w

42.

-i-

NA (Ao) on c o n t a c t

Ao - b o l : NA = 2 - f i n g e r s t r o k e ; RA(N) = 1 - f i n g e r s t r o k e . - as i n Purab t a b l a NARA(N); open s t r o k e p a i r on c i n t i . Compare Purab t a b l a i l l u s . 26 & 27 w i t h pakhavaj i l l u s , 43 & 4 4 . See i l l u s . 43 6c 4 4 . - n o t e : i l l u s . 44 shows RA(N) as a p a r t o f the pakhavaj p a t t e r n TARA-NA. Th is rim f l i p s t r o k e has not been com­ p l e t e l y a c c e p t e d by the t a b l a .

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43.

NA (Ao) on c o n t a c t

44.

RA(N) (Ao) on c o n t a c t (not b a s i c t a b l a s t r o k e )

- as in t a b l a Co DIN; in c a s e o f pakhivaj used as a sub­ s t i t u t e f o r c a n t i s t r o k e RA(N); s e e i l l u s . 4 2 ; used in p a t t e r n RA-NA. - as in t a b l a Cc NA; in c a s e o f pakhavaj used as a sub­ s t i t u t e for c a n t i s t r o k e NA; s e e i l l u s . 4 3 ; used in p a t t e r n RA-NA.

- pakhavaj DI(N); o f t e n fo ll o w e d by NA, s e e bel ow. Purab t a b l a borrowed i t i n t a c t . See i l l u s . 4 5 .

45.

DI(N)

(Co) on c o n t a c t

- pakhavaj NA; f o l l o w s DI(N) a b o v e . Purab t a b l a borrowed it intact. However, n o t i c e t h a t the ha nd 's p o s i t i o n changes n o t i c e a b l y in the pakhivaj v e r s i o n & not in the t a b l a . See i l l u s . 46.

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46.

NA (Cc) on c o n t a c t

47.

TE (Cc) on c o n t a c t

- pakhavaj T E T E ; compare Purab t a b l a T I T A ; d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t pakhavaj T I employs m i d d l e , r i n g 6c l i t t l e f i n g e r s . See i l l u s . 4 7 .

- pakhivaj T I T , T A K or KA T de pending on the c o n t e x t ; compare Purab t a b l a T A K ; d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t on pakh­ avaj thumb r e s t s on l a c i n g around rim. See i l l u s . 4 8 .

- pakhavaj DIRA; compare Purab t a b l a DIRA.

48.

KAT (Cc) on c o n t a c t

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Do - pakhavaj GHE or GA; compare Purab t a b la GE Dc - pakhavaj KA; compare Purab KE; d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t pakh avaj KA i s not s t r u c k in the c e n t e r o f the head, but the lower h a l f . See i l l u s . 4 9 . Compos i t e s

DHIT or DHET: TA 4 GA

49.

KA (Dc) on c o n t a c t Punjab Baij Tabla S t r o k e s

A l s o known as the T i l w a n d i baj

(a town in P a k i s t a n , now known as Nankana Sahab) or dukkar b a j , the

b a s i c s t r o k e s used in t h i s s t y l e are o f a f o r c e f u l , bom bastic t y p e , as pronounced as t h o s e o f the Pun jab i pak havaj, w i t h which i t

is a l l i e d .

The number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c P u n ja b i baj s t r o k e s i s o n l y s i x , but as

in o t h e r g h a r a n a s , the Pun jab i has i n c o r p o r a t e d some o f the D e l h i b o l s

fo r c e r t a i n s t y l e s .

Dahina

Ao - b o l : NA. - open s t r o k e on c a n t i by in dex f i n g e r . - r i n g & l i t t l e f i n g e r p l a c e d on back o f s y a h i & c a n t i respect i v e l y .

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s t r o k e i n f l u e n c e d by pakhavaj.

See i l l u s .

50.

b o l : TA. open s t r o k e on l a v by index f i n g e r , f i n g e r s p r i n g i n g back from head upon c o n t a c t . l i t t l e f i n g e r remains on s y a h i d u r i n g s t r o k e ; s c h o o l o n l y l i t t l e f i n g e r us e d. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c timbre: TA.

in t h i s

f i r s t harmonic; l i k e pakhavaj

s t r o k e borrowed f r o m pakhavaj & s l i g h t l y adapted f o r horizo n ta l playing p o s itio n . See i l l u s . 51 & 5 2 .

50.

NA (Ao) on contact:

TA (Bo) b e f o r e c o n t a c t

52.

TA a f t e r c o n t a c t

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Co - b o l : TI(N) or DI(N) or DU(N). - open s t r o k e on s y a h i by inde x f i n g e r , up 6c outwards upon c o n t a c t .

finger springing

- r i n g 6c cometimes l i t t l e f i n g e r p l a c e d on head o f d a h i n a , but t h e s e ar e r e l e a s e d upon c o n t a c t o f the index f i n g e r w i t h the s y a h i . - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ti mbre: as in D e l h i DI(N); however, as in above s t r o k e s , s t r o k e d e l i v e r e d w i t h g r e a t e r f o r c e . - s t r o k e pro bab ly

i n f l u e n c e d by p a k h a v a j .

See i l l u s . 5 3 .

N 4 Cc - b o l : TETE or TETA; NA as s u b s t i t u t e f o r c a n t i NA ( r a r e ) . - c l o s e d s t r o k e p a i r on s y a h i by middle f o l l o w e d by f i r s t f i n g e r .

6c

ring fin g e r s ,

- p o s i t i o n as in Purab baj t a b l a . - stroke pair

i n f l u e n c e d by dho la k

6c

pakhavaj .

Bayah See i l l u s .

51 & 52: bayah

Note:

Do -

in the bayan i l l u s t r a t i o n s no ata i s p r e s e n t ; under c o n c e r t c o n d i t i o n s i t would be. b o l : GA, GEGI, GHE.

-

open s t r o k e on back hand .

rim

6cp o r t i o n

o f head

by palm of

-

p o s i t i o n as in Purab baj t a b l a 6cpakhavaj ; stroke bori n t a c t from pakhavaj . See i l l u s . 51 6c 52: bayan

Dc - b o l : KA, KE. - c l o s e d s t r o k e on back & center portion of head by palm o f hand. - p o s itio n sim ilar to Purab baj t a b l a , but hand i s pl ac ed f a r t h e r back on h e a d . The r e a s ­ on f or t h i s l i e s i n the relationship of th is s t r o k e t o GA, which i s performed on the back rim.

uatrnr 54 .

KA (Dc) on c o n t a c t

- s t r o k e borrowed from p a k h a v a j . See i l l u s . 5 4 , Compos i t e s - DHA: TA + GA - DHET: TE + GA

A l l s t r o k e s but one are adopted i n t a c t from the p a k h a v a j .

The minor

e x c e p t i o n i s TA, which, l i k e the Purab TA, i s an attempt t o produce the pakhavaj TA sound, but in a more i d i o m a t i c t a b l a manner. Comparative Summary De l h i Strokes:

rim sin gle fingers

Purab center s i n g l e & pa i r e d

Emphases: g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f r e sonating stro k es, g r e a t e r use o f v a r . GE, " v a r . o f KE s t r o k e . " use o f c o n t r a s t i n g pitch le v e ls , g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n in w e i gh t o f s t r o k e attack. R e l a te d drums:

dholak

naqqara

head s i n g l e , pa i r e d & hand

g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of p a r t i a l l y r e ­ sonating & non-resonating strok es, l e s s e r use o f v a r i a b l e GE. " v a r i e t y o f KE s t r o k e . g r e a t e r use o f c o n t r a s t i n g t i m b r e s . l e s s e r v a r i a t i o n i n wei ght o f stroke attack .

pakhavaj

Note: as i t l i e s o u t s i d e th e mainstream o f tab 15 de v elo p me nt , the Pu njabi baj i s om itt e d from the above comparison.

53

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References

^-No atte mp t was made t o e s t a b l i s h the p r e c i s e a c o u s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f e ac h s t r o k e . Alt ho ug h t h i s i s a f a s c i n a t i n g s u b j e c t , i t i s i r ­ r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , wh ich i s not an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the t a b l a . For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e properties see: 1.

C. V. Raman. "The Indian M u s i c a l Drums," P r o c e e d i n g s o f the In di an Academy o f S c i e n c e s , V o l . 1 (A) , No. 4 , 1934, Pp. 1 7 9 - 1 8 8 .

2.

B. S . Ramakrishna. "Modes o f V i b r a t i o n o f th e I n d i a n Drum Dugga or Left-Handed T h a b a la , " The J o u r n a l o f the A c o u s t i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , V o l . 2 9, No. 2 , February, 1957, p . 2 3 4 - 2 3 8 .

3.

B. S. Ramakrishna and Man Mohan So n d h i, " V i b r a t i o n s o f I ndi an M u s i c a l Drums Regarded as Composite Membranes," The Journal o f the A c o u s tic a l S o c i e t y o f America, Vol. 26, No. 4 , J u l y , 1954. Pp. 5 2 3 - 5 2 9 .

4.

K. Nagabhushana Rao. "Theory o f t h e I ndi an M u s i c a l Drums-P a r t I , " i n P r o c ee d in g s o f t h e I nd ia n Academy o f S c i e n c e s , V o l . VII ( A ) , No. 2 , 1938. Pp. 7 5 - 8 4 .

^This s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s not concerned w i t h a d e t a i l e d e x p o s i t i o n o f the p r e c i s e manner in which s t r o k e s are produced on t h e t a b l a . That i s in the p r o v i n c e o f the t a b l a t u t o r , o f which s e v e r a l good ones e x i s t ( s e e b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . As ea ch gharana has i t s own i d e o s y n c r a c i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be d e f i n i t i v e . Therefore, particular s t r o k e v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d o n l y when n e c e s s a r y t o show changes i n p o s i t i o n between s c h o o l s which d i r e c t l y r e s u l t from changes i n s t y l e and i n f l u e n c e .

54

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CHAPTER I I I TABLA STROKE NUCLEI Introduction The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r d e a l t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t r o k e t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h the two main s t y l e s o f t a b l a perform anc e, t h e D e l h i and Purab, and s e c o n d a r i l y w i t h th e one p e r i p h e r a l t r a d i t i o n , th e Punjab. In a d d i t i o n , whenever c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d , s t r o k e p a r a l l e l s e x i s t i n g b e ­ tween t h e t a b l a and o t h e r drums were i l l u s t r a t e d . In the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r a v e r y s i m i l a r approach i s used in the i n ­ v e s t i g a t i o n of th e b a s i c t a b l a s t r o k e c o m b in a t i o n s or n u c l e i .

Before

a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o lv e d in the c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e n u c l e i , t h e y a r e f i r s t enumerated, organ ized both i n terms o f t h e order o f s t r o k e s u c c e s s i o n and i n terms of the t a b l a baj w i t h which t h e y are most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d .

The v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n

o f s t r o k e n u c l e i i s based on t h a t used f o r th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the i n ­ divid ual strokes. ta lly ,

The s t r o k e s .are shown, b o t h v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n ­

i n the order o f t h e i r s u c c e s s i o n from the d i h i n a c a n t i ,

s y a h i t o th e f u l l drum he a d .

lav and

The c l a s s i f i c a t o r y t i t l e f o r each c a t e g o r y

i s t h a t o f th e f i r s t or f i r s t and second s t r o k e s o f each n u c l e i .

Com­

p o s i t e s t r o k e s are l i s t e d w i t h t h e i r r e l a t e d dahina s t r o k e s . T h i s s e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by one wh ich c o n c e r n s open and c l o s e d s t r o k e s on t h e bayan; t h e s e appear t o g e t h e r .

As w i l l be c l e a r from t h e

s t a r t , such an o r g a n i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s more c l e a r l y than any e x p l a n a t i o n : 1) t h e area o f th e drum head p r e f e r r e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t r a d i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e , 2) t h e 1;ype o f i n f l u e n c e most s t r o n g l y f e l t i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n . I t must be kept i n mind, howev er , t h a t a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e s tr o k e n u c l e i t o s e p a r a t e t r a d i t i o n s d o e s not p r e c l u d e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n a l l .

55

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,

N e v e r t h e l e s s , whenever t h e s e n u c l e i appear not t o have become absorbed i n t o th e s ta n d a r d r e p e r t o r y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l b a j , t h e y have be en l e f t out.

As i n th e p r i o r c h a p t e r , the i n t e n t i s not o n l y t o show th e p r e s e n t

r e p e r t o r y but a l s o t o a tte m pt t o d i s p l a y t r a d i t i o n a l ever they c l e a r l y e x i s t .

i n f l u e n c e s where-

Two t y p e s o f i n f l u e n c e s can be shown in the

f o l l o w i n g c h a r t : 1) t h a t which e x i s t s between tab la t r a d i t i o n s

(shorn

by an arrow i n d i c a t i n g d i r e c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e ; as the P u n j a b i s t y l e r e p e r t o r y o f s t r o k e n u c l e i d e v e lo p e d more or l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y from th e D e l h i and P u r a b - o r i e n t e d s t y l e s ,

i t s s e p a r a t i o n i s shown i n the

c h a r t by a d ou b le l i n e ) , and 2 ) t h a t which e x i s t s between the t a b l a and th e o t h e r major drum t y p e s .

Concerning t h i s a s p e c t , th e l e t t e r s N, D,

P and M p l a c e d on th e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f each column s ta n d f o r th e words naqqara, d h o l a k , pakhavaj and mixed.

The f i r s t time t h a t a b o l or b o l

n u c l e u s which may be i n t e r p r e t e d in more than one way i s p r e s e n t e d , an a s t e r i s k i s placed a f t e r i t . r e c t l y b e n e at h th e c h a r t .

These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e e x p l a i n e d d i ­

When a p p l i c a b l e , b o l n u c l e i which ar e r e g u ­

l a r l y pl ay ed t o g e t h e r but which can be

d i v id e d

i n t o s m a l l e r independent

p a t t e r n s are s e p a r a t e d by an a p o s t r o p h e . Whenever the b o l n u c l e u s i s r e t a i n e d between s c h o o l s , but the s t r o k e n u c l e u s i s a l t e r e d , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o th e a l t e r e d v e r s i o n . F i n a l l y , some s t r o k e n u c l e i , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e d e r i v e d from t h e pa kh av aj , a r e sometimes camouflaged when spoken as b o l s .

A lt ho ug h th e primary

r e a s o n i s t o s i m p l i f y p r o n u n c i a t i o n , t o anyone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e d e v ia tio n s , the r e su lt

is confusing.

For t h i s r e a so n a l i s t

of n u c le i,

a s pl ay ed and as f r e q u e n t l y r e c i t e d , i s appended t o t h e c h a r t .

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CHART 1 COMPARISON OF DELHI, PURAB AND PUNJABI BAJ STROKE NUCLEI Purab Baj

D e l h i Baj

Dahina A s t r o k e

Dahina A s t r o k e nana nara tata dhar/a) dhadha

Pun jab i Baj

N D -------see B str o k e s -------see B str o k e s nara-na --------

natina* tatina dhat ina dhadh ina dhadhindha

N

natit ta t it dhatit

N D see B stro k es see B strok es

n atit! tat i t ! dhatit!

D see B stro k es

na -na'dha*" na-radha ^ dha-na'dha dha-ra'dha

N D

tatraka dhatraka

N D

na'ka n l ’ga tfaRa dhaga

N D

n^ V a ti t t 'a k a t i t dhagatit

N D

n!a)k a t i t ! tS’k a t i t ! dhagatit!

-------see B strok es see B stro k es see B s tr o k e s see B strokes

-------see B s tr o k e s see B strok es _____ see B stro k es see B stro k es

D .

see B stro k es see B stro k es

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D e l h i Baj nakin'a*’ n^gina'*' d h a g in a 'd ha t a g e ' tinagina

Purab Baj

i

P un ja bi Baj

N D see B strokes N Dahina Bo s t r o k e

Dahina Bo s t r o k e

Dahina Bo s t r o k e - tm a dhina' dhindha

N

t iria'ka dhiriaka dhiria’ga dhind ha ge' dh a

N

tata dhadha

P

ta-na'ta dha- na' dha d h a - r a 'd h a

P

tatit dhatit dha-dhit-

P

ta (-)titi dha ( - ) t i t i

dha-na'dha

P

P

ta(-)tete dha ( - ) t e t e

P

t a - t i r a k i t*a d h a - t i r a k i t*a

P

ta-teteketa dha-teteketa

P

tatraka dha traka

P

dhadinta'kat*

P

dhaditage

P

tike(-)na

P

takita

P

taktta

P

tagetifa dhagetita

P

taketete dhagetete

P

dhaga din 'd in

P

dha ga di *d i

P

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D e l h i Saj

Purab Baj

; Dahina Co-Cc s t r o k e N

d ina 1t a ’ka dhi na 'd ha g e dhina ' liaka

N

N

dinaka dhinaga

N

dina'kina d i n a ' gin a d h i n a ' gina

N

dina'kiranaka d h in a' gh e r an ag a

N

4

Dahina Co-Cc s t r o k e

Dahina Co-Cc s t r o k e

d i n a 1ta dh in a 'd ha

j • • fdin a i t rt Hrt HO 3 O

3*

T3

tti

P a.

3 - - - - - - - -

o

---------- --------------- ^

.............................

AH

- -

~

3

Hi

____________ ______

Cl

(D

H

...............................................

pattern

...................................................

_________ A. .

Hi

- -

ii

ii

3

it

* A l l 6 - b o l p a t t e r n s = 3+3 or 2+2+2- b o l n u c l e i A l l 8 -b ol . p a t t e r n s = 4 + 4 - b o l n u c l e i The above c h a r t shows t h a t a l l t y p e s o f l a g g i s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f 2 - p a r t dugun- and c a u g u n - d i v i s i o n s t r u c t u r e s , u t i l i z e o n l y b o l n u c l e i o f equal len gth.

The e x c e p t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s may be c o n s t r u c t e d out of

v a r i o u s co m b in a t i o n s o f 3+3+2 (or 6+6+4) b o l n u c l e i .

The b a s i c b o l nuc­

l e i co m b in a t i o n s g i v e n above may be m u l t i p l i e d by 2 or 4 , de pe nd in g upon whether the l a g g i i s 2 - or 4 - p a r t . Stress G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the s y s t e m o f s t r e s s p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f the b o l nuclei structure.

For i n s t a n c e : DHA-TR KT'DHIN NA'TI KETI / .

T h is type

o f s t r e s s , when f e l t ov e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l c y c l e s , amounts a lm o s t to an a c c e n t u a l d e v i c e .

In l a g g i s c o n t a i n i n g 4 - b o l n u c l e i

(as t h e examples

in B4 a b o v e ) , t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i s t o make the s t r e s s c o i n c i d e w i t h the m e t r i c a c c e n t .

However, i n t h e s e same l a g g i s t h e p o i n t o f s t r e s s

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may e a s i l y be s h i f t e d , a s i n the p a t t e r n TADHI DHARA.

Here the performer

might ch o o se t o s t r e s s TA, DHI or DHA (not RA).

The o n l y s t i p u l a t i o n i s

t h a t he remain c o n s i s t e n t f o r the e n t i r e c y c l e .

As the above p a t t e r n s

s e r v e o n l y as b a s i c m o d e ls , the performer i s a l s o f r e e t o s h u f f l e h i s b o l p a t t e r n s , thus a g a i n c r e a t i n g a new s t r e s s p a t t e r n .

I f the p a t t e r n

GHINA TITDHI, f o r i n s t a n c e , becomes TITDHI GHINA, and t h i s i s m a in ta i n e d f o r s e v e r a l c y c l e s , the t en d e n c y on the par t o f the l i s t e n e r ,

i f not the

m u s i c i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , i s t o change th e b o l s t r u c t u r e t o DHIGHI NATIT, however incongruous a p a t t e r n t h i s may be t o the ta b la p l a y e r .

Th is f r e e ­

dom o f b o l or b o l - p a i r m a n i p u l a t i o n and o f v a r i a b l e s t r e s s pl acement b e l o n g s almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o na qq ara -d er ive d p a t t e r n s .

As one o f the

more s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i q u e s in tab la performance, and one which the pakhavaj ha s o n l y been a b l e t o copy from the naqqara i n a v e r y i m p e r f e c t manner, i t s

importance d e s e r v e t o be emphasized.

M e tr ic ac c en t The b a s i c 2 - or 4 - b e a t s t r u c t u r e o f th e l a g g i s has a l r e a d y been men­ tioned.

Within t h i s s t r u c t u r e , how ever, two c a t e g o r i e s o f h e i r a r c h i c a l

m e t r i c a c c e n t may be c l e a r l y d i s c e r n e d .

The f i r s t

b e a t s 1 and 3, t h e secon d around b e a t s 1 and 4 .

i s c e n t e r e d around

Upon i n v e s t i g a t i n g the

t y p e s o f p a t t e r n s which f i t w i t h i n ea c h o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , on d i s c o v ­ e r s t h a t most d h o l a k - d e r i v e d p a t t e r n s

(v er y o f t e n 2 - p a r t ) emphasize b e a t s

1 and 3 whereas n a q q a r a - d e r iv e d p a t t e r n s ( o f t e n 4 - p a r t ) emphasize th e f i r s t and f o u r t h .

This

f e r i n g t re a t m e n t s

d i f f e r e n c e in emphasis i s born out i n the e q u a l l y d i f ­ o f th e k h a l i .

K h a li The standard t i o n , however, i s

l a g g i al wa ys c o n t a i n s a k h a l i - l i k e not a l w a y s the t h i r d .

section.

This s e c ­

I t i s sometimes the s e c o n d , as

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i n exa mp les A4, 5 , 6 , 7 and 9, and sometimes the t h i r d and f o u r t h , as in A3 and 8 .

The important f a c t , h o w ev e r , i s t h a t a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n

o f 2 - p a r t l a g g i s have a v a r i a b l e k h a l i than 4 - p a r t .

Although i t

i s some­

ti m e s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a te t h e l i n e s o f d e r i v a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e constand bo r r o w i n g , a s a g e n e r a l r u l e most o f the 4- par t, p a t t e r n s are naqqara-derived.

And, i n p r a c t i c e , an e q u a l number o f 2 - p a r t p a t t e r n s

are d h o l a k - o r i e n t e d .

As mentioned i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , the 4 - p a r t

p r i n c i p l e , as w e l l as the t h i r d - s e c t i o n k h a l i and th e f o u r t h - s e c t i o n primary a c c e n t ar e g i f t s from t h e naqqara t o t h e t a b l a .

To f i n d them

he r e i s t o t r a c e them back t o what might v e r y p o s s i b l y have been t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. Bo l n u c l e i The b o l n u c l e i are c o n f i n e d p r i m a r i l y t o t h o s e s i m p l e p a t t e r n s p e r ­ formed on the dh o la k and naqqara. tabla e q u iv a le n ts .

The b o l s t h e m s e l v e s a r e , o f c o u r s e ,

In the f o l l o w i n g l i s t

i t i s t o be un d ers to od t ha t

th e c o m p o si t e b o l n u c l e i have e q u i v a l e n t s i n g l e - h e a d b o l n u c l e i which apply in k h a li s e c t io n s . 1 - s t r o k e n u c l e u s : na ( d h a ) , t i n ( d h i n ) , t i k (Be; d a h i n a ; d e r i v e d from t a s a ; r a r e l y u s e d ) , t i t , g e , k e . 2 - s t r o k e n u c l e u s : dhara, d h a d h in , d h i n a , d h i g a , dh a g e , g i n a , t i t a , taka, kra. 3 - s t r o k e n u c l e u s : d h a g i n a , g a t a g a , dha’g e g e . 4 - s t r o k e n u c l e u s : d h i n a g i n a , t a k a d h i n a , g h i n a d h a r a , ghera nag a, d h a t i n a r a , d h a g e t i t a , dh'adhindhage, t i r a k i t a . With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l e s s p r o m i n e n t l y p l a c e d c l o s e d b o l s , a l l b o l n u c l e i ar e formed o f c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e bayan GE s t r o k e and t h e dahina c a n t i NA or l a v T I ( N ) , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h o s e b o l s which do not r e q u i r e a c o m p o si t e head f o r p e r fo r m a nc e .

A l l 4 - s t r o k e n u c l e i , when pl a y ed as

f l i p - s t r o k e p a t te r n s , u t i l i z e the s y a h i .

However, on t h e i r o r i g i n a l

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i n s tr u m e n ts • t h e y would be pl ay ed on th e c a n t i and "lav." Stro ke d e n s i t y Depending upon th e d i v i s i o n

(du-, t i - ,

c a u - or athgun) th e s t r o k e

d e n s i t y w i l l remain c o n s i s t e n t f o r t h e e n t i r e p a t t e r n .

The s l i g h t d e ­

v i a t i o n from t h i s r u l e oc c ur s i n 2 forms: 1) 1 u n i t o.f the d i v i s i o n w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o 2.

T h is o c c u r s o n l y w i t h the c l o s e d b o l s TITA, TIRAKITA,

KRA and TAKA; 2 ) 2 u n i t s o f the d i v i s i o n w i l l be combined i n t o 1.

This

oc c ur s o n l y w i t h t h e open b o l s DHA, DHIN and GE. D e r i v a t i v e and r e l a t e d p a t t e r n s T h is s u b j e c t i s one o f c o n f u s i o n , as n e i t h e r m u s i c i a n s nor mus ico ­ l o g i s t s can a g r e e upon t h e natu re o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . temporary performance 2 s e p a r a t e p r a c t i c e s emer ge .

In terms o f con­

The f i r s t ,

s e e m i n g ly

c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o th e l a g g i , i s one in which m o s t l y 4 - p a r t p a t t e r n s are used i n th e accompaniment o f j h a l a s e c t i o n s o f s i t a r / s a r o d and s a h n i i p e r fo r m a n c e s.

The second i s a d e f i n i t e l y d e r i v a t i v e p r a c t i c e ,

l a g g i s are made t h e s u b j e c t o f s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n .

The f i r s t

s e n t i a l l y an accompanying t e c h n i q u e , the second a s o l o .

in which is e s ­

The pr oba bl e

h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between them i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n and i n Chapter V I I . L a r i . --T he primary s t u m b l i n g b l o c k in th e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t one word i s sometimes used f o r b o t h - l a r i . In g e n e r a l p a r l a n c e t h i s word means a " s t r i n g " o f p e a r l s , a "s trand" o f ro p e , or a " c h a i n . " spaced e v e n t s .

As such i t

The l a r i ,

im p lies a continuous s e r i e s o f t i g h t l y

i n i t s r o l e as a s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n form,

i s t r e a t e d a s a po pu la r 8-matra c a u g u n - d i v i s i o n v e r s i o n o f the c l a s s i c a l 16-ma'tra caugun-d i v i s i o n l a g g i - k a y a d a or l a g g i - b a n t .

(The term kayada

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i s p r e f e r r e d by D e l h i baj p l a y e r s , t h a t o f baht by Purab, s p e c i f i c a l l y Banaras g h a r a n l , p l a y e r s . )

As a s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n th e l a r i i s

t r e a t e d in Chapter V I I . As an accompanying t e c h n i q u e , th e l a r i i s s i m i l a r t o the rau ( s e e r e l a , p.

157) i n t h a t i n i t s b a s i c form i t m a i n t a i n s the vi bh a g s t r u c t u r e

o f the t a l , most o f t e n t i n t a l ,

i s performed in a t i - d r u t

l a y and depends

f o r i t s e f f e c t on r e g u l a r s t r o k e a c c e n t u a t i o n s and, whenever p o s s i b l e , on c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a c c e n t s between th e s t r i n g or p ip e and the drum. The j h a l a o f a s i t a r or s a r o d , w i t h which the l a r T i s most fre-' quently aligned,

i s a drut t o a t i - d r u t s t r o k e te c h n iq u e in wh ich a p a r ­

t i c u l a r p i t c h or s v a r i s s u s t a i n e d over th e r a p i d l y plucked drone or cik arl strings.

The b a s i c rhythmic p a t t e r n i s q u a d r a t i c in s t r u c t u r e :

The j h a l a s e c t i o n has been borrowed by the s i t a r and sarod

*

L=y

from th e

b l n and rabab t r a d i t i o n s ,

the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f

which i s d i s c u s s e d in th e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f what i s known as a l a y and are accompanied by th e pak havaj.

In t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s ,

b i n or rabab a l a p , are i n drut Of t h e s e , t h r e e , b e c a u s e o f

t h e i r strumming t e c h n i q u e s , are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the p r e s e n t s u b j e c t . These are the j h a l a , thonk j h a l a and l a r i p a t t e r n gro ups .

These t e c h ­

ni q u e s are c o n s t r u c t e d on th e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s h o r t , v a r i a b l e s t r e s s p a t t e r n which i s open t o c o n s t a n t d u r a t i o n a l and b o l m a n i p u l a t i o n . During t h e s e s e c t i o n s th e pakhavaj i s e x p e c t e d t o match th e s t r i n g p a t t e r n s in s t r e s s a r t i c u l a t i o n . In the j h a l a t h e r e p e t i t i o n i s o f t e n q u a d r a t i c . jhala

In the thonk

( a l s o p l a y e d by t h e s i t a r and s a r o d , bu t as pa r t o f the j h a l a ) ,

i r r e g u l a r i t y o f d u r a t i o n , in th e form o f h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d 2 - , 3 - and 4 b o l n u c l e i i s th e o b j e c t .

In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e pakhavaj w i l l t a k e a

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b a s i c a l l y q u a d r a t i c formula l i k e

DHA GEGE GE and change i t

to the

a-

symmetric p a t t e r n DHA GE GE1 DHA GE GE1DHA GE. The t o t a l l e n g t h o f such p a t t e r n s i s s t i l l 8 , 12 or 16 b o l s .

The l a r i s e c t i o n i s comprised

o f s m a l l s v a r p a t t e r n s , one a t a time o f which w i l l be exposed t o a v a r ie t y o f s t r e s s groupings. than the j h a l a s e c t i o n .

The o r g a n i z a t i o n sounds l e s s q u a d r a t i c

The pakhavaj p l a y s lo ng s t r i n g s o f 2 - , 3 - ,

4 - , 6- and 8 - b o l n u c l e i , hooked t o g e t h e r t o form ph r a se s which are not clearly articulated.

Concerning the pakhavaj p a t t e r n s , th os e used f o r

t h e j h i l a s e c t i o n s emphasize the

ki r ia r i o f t h e dahina and use s t r e s s as

t h e main form o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , whereas t h o s e which accompany th e l a r i a re more complex in t h e i r timbre v a r i a t i o n and u t i l i z e many hand s t r o k e s , o f t e n c l o s e d . The f i r s t two t y p e s have been borrowed by the t a b l a , but no t the t h i r d .

However, i t s name has been adop ted .

Examples o f t y p i c a l l a r i s used in th e accompaniment o f a s i t a r / sarod j h a l a s e c t i o n are: 1. dha ge t i ta / m u l t i p l i e d 4 J L T „ I II II 2 . dha ge ge g e f

O

3.

dha

ti

These p a t t e r n s

t i dha/ - dhi t i t

times i n a t i - d r u t t i n t a l . II

II

II

II

II

. t a / r e p e a te d once i n t i n t a l .

s t r e s s the f i r s t matra o f e ac h vibhag or vibhag p a i r and

are q u a d r a t i c i n s t r u c t u r e .

Although t h i s t y p e o f r e g u l a r 2 - or 4 - p a r t

s t r u c t u r e i s s ta n d a r d , s e v e r a l t y p e s o f v a r i a t i o n s on the model a r e a l s o possib le.

These would i n c l u d e :

1. The 2 - p a r t s t r u c t u r e i n which the primary a cc en t i s not emphasized; a s ta nd ar d p a t t e r n i s 3+3+2: dha

ge

n a ' dha /

ge n a 1 dhi g e , / r e p e a t e d once in t i n t a l .

2 . The 2 or 4 - p a r t s t r u c t u r e i n which th e r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g s t r e s s a c c e n t i s s h i f t e d o f f the primary b e a t ; t h i s may or may not i n v o l v e a s i l e n t primary b e a t : ( ge) dha t i ta / m u l t i p l i e d 4 t im e s in t i n t a l .

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O b v i o u s l y th e c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s type o f t i n t a l - o r i e n t e d and t h e k a h a r v a - o r i e n t e d l a g g i i s ve r y c l o s e .

lari

The f a c t t h a t l a g g i p a t ­

t e r n s are c o n t i n u a l l y be in g borrowed f o r j h i l a accompaniment makes th e r e l a t i o n s h i p e ve n c l o s e r .

To c om p let e the t r i a n g l e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,

when a t i n t a l v a r i a t i o n i n a t i - d r u t l a y cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l a r i which cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l a g g i ,

the o n l y re maining

q u e s t i o n , an e s s e n t i a l l y h i s t o r i c a l on e, i s "why." O rigins As most o f the above l a g g i p a t t e r n s are c l e a r l y t r a c e a b l e t o e i t h e r t he naqqara or the d h ol ak , the q u e s t i o n o f o r i g i n s a p p e a r s , at f i r s t g l a n c e , t o have bee n answered.

The o r i e n t a t i o n o f dahina b o l s on and

around the c a n t i o f the drumhead, th e e x a c t c o m p o s i t i o n o f b o l n u c l e i and t h e prominent u s e of the p r e s s u r e GE s t r o k e i n the d h o l a k - d e r i v e d p a t t e r n s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e i n s tr u m e n ts o f g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e t o be t h o s e the heads o f which are s i m p l e and which a c h i e v e t h e i r g r e a t e s t e f f e c t more by v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s t r e s s and p i t c h than o f t i m b r e .

The

most ob vi ous c a n d i d a t e s fo r t h i s p o s i t i o n are the b a r r e l and he m is p h e r ­ i c a l drums, such as the d h o l a k , n a l , naqqara and t a s a c a t o r y names).

The frame drum, the

(to give c l a s s i f i -

d a f , and the h o u r - g l a s s drum, the

huruk, which f u n c t i o n much as th e d h o l a k , cannot be o v e r l o o k e d .

A ll

u t i l i z e t y p e s o f p a t t e r n s wh ich are e i t h e r known as l a g g i s or a c t l i k e them i n t h a t t h e i r p a t t e r n s ,

fo rm ul at e d around f o l k t a l s

in 6 and 8 , are

s i m p l e , r e p e t i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s composed f o r performance a t high te m pi , the f u n c t i o n o f which i s t o form a m u s i c a l b r i d g e o f some t y p e . b r i d g e i s u s u a l l y a dance s e c t i o n between two sung s e c t i o n s . A t y p i c a l d h o l a k l a g g i t r a n s f e r r e d i n t a c t t o th e t a b l a i s : gin

ta'dha

-ga'

dhana / g i n

ta'ta

-ka

tana / /

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Th is

The b o l TA, i n t h i s c o n t e x t ,

i s a loud s l a p by from 2 t o 4 f i n g e r s

on the back edge o f th e dahina rim o f t h e d h o l a k .

When borrowed by

th e t a b l a t h i s te c h n iq u e i s v e r y o f t e n r e t a i n e d w i t h o u t a l t e r a t i o n . An example of a t a s a l a g g i would be: dha--ra

dha'ta

-rata-'

The b o l T I , or TIK as i t

t ikat ik a/d h a--ra

i s sometimes c a l l e d ,

dha'dha - r a d h a - t i k a t i l c a / i s used f o r t h a t t a s a

s t i c k s t r o k e which remains on t h e s u r f a c e o f the head, p r o d u c i n g a d u l l th ud .

Th is s t r o k e i s adapted t o the d a h i n l o f t h e t a b l a by s l a p p i n g the

pad o f the i n d e x f i n g e r down upon the l a v and l e t t i n g i t remain t h e r e l ong enough t o deaden the sound.

Althoug h t h i s s t r o k e i s not y e t r e ­

c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e t a b l a s t r o k e , the r e p e r t o r y o f l a g g i t e c h n i q u e s .

i t has be en a c c e p t e d as p a r t o f

On an i n t e r e s t i n g t a n g e n t , a s t r o k e

ve r y s i m i l a r t o t h i s i s used by the Karnatak mrdanga, but not by the North In d i a n p a k h l v a j . A t y p i c a l naqqara l a g g i i s : - d h i n na na / na d h i n na na / r e p e a t e d once in t i n t a l . The r e p e t i t i v e s t r o k e s and th e r e g u l a r l y s t r e s s e d DHIN s t r o k e ar e e a s i l y performed on th e naqqara by a l t e r n a t i n g r i g h t - and l e f t - h a n d s t i c k s on th e j h i l . Most t a b l a l a g g i s r e t a i n th e stamp o f t h e i r former owner in such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as 1) s p e c i f i c b o l n u c l e i :

from the naqqara come b o l s

l i k e DHARA, GHERANAGA, DHINADHA- ,DHINAKA, NAGA, TAKA and KRA(N); from the dh o l a k come b o l s l i k e DHAGE (-)NA or TAKE(-)NA, TIRAKITA, DHINAGHINA, DHIGADHAGE, TI(-)KA and GHIN-(-)TA DHA; 2 ) s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e s : g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on t h e 4 - p a r t s t r u c t u r e in p a t t e r n s d e r i v e d from th e he m is p he r­ i c a l drums, and on the 2 - p a r t i n t h o s e d e r i v e d from t h e b a r r e l . However o b vi ou s th e t a b l a - n a q q i r a - d h o l a k r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e s p e c t

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t o th e l a g g i , one f a c t e x i s t s w h ic h ,

i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n i n

terms o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , d o e s pose problems i n t h a t i t adds a some­ what f o r e i g n elem ent t o i t .

B a s i c a l l y , t h i s involves the very sim ila r

p a t t e r n s p l a y e d by the b a r r e l - s h a p e d drums w i t h co m p o sit e h e a d s , the c l a s s i c a l and f o l k v a r i e t i e s o f t h e pakhavaj and the f o l k drum known a s the k h o l .

A l l o f the drums mentioned above have sim pl e heads and

l a g g i s are d e s ig n e d t o emp hasize the s t r o n g e s t a s p e c t s o f t h i s con­ struction .

However, b o t h th e pakhavaj and k h o l (as w e l l a s th e t a b l a ,

o f c o u r s e ) , are f i t t e d w i t h c o m p o si t e heads which can ha nd le a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s t r o k e s and t im b r e s than i s r e q u i r e d f o r the l a g g i . In the case o f the kh o l and f o l k v e r s i o n o f the p a k h a v a j , such as t h a t found around Mathura, th e p a t t e r n s f u n c t i o n and sound much l i k e t h e y do on the dhol ak: t h e y a r e drum i n t e r l u d e s or b r i d g e s , o f t e n w i t h dance.

On the o t h e r hand, t h e c l a s s i c a l pakhavaj performs s i m i l a r but

more e x t e n s i v e p a t t e r n s which have a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n , t h a t o f a c ­ companiment f o r the j h a l l and j h a l a - r e l a t e d s e c t i o n s i n a rabab or bin

a l a p per for m anc e.

For want o f a b e t t e r name, t h e s e p a t t e r n s ar e a

t yp e o f pa r an , sometimes r e f e r r e d t o i n terms o f the a l a p s e c t i o n w i t h wh ic h t h e y are a l i g n e d . As mentioned e a r l i e r ,

t h e pakhavaj p a t t e r n s used in a j h a l a , thonk

j h a l a and l a r i s e c t i o n o f an a l a p are b a s i c a l l y s h o r t and tend toward t h e q u a d r a t i c in s t r u c t u r e .

S i g n i f i c a n t l y th e two most f r e q u e n t l y used

t a l s are t r i t S l and c a u t a l , both o r g a n i z e d i n t o q u a d r a t i c s u b - s t r u c t u r e s . An example o f a ve r y s im p l e l a g g i - l i k e paran i n madhya t i n t a l ,

in which

t h e b a s i c b e a t i s a 1-matra u n i t , i s a s f o l l o w s : x __ _ dhagegedha o dlgegege

o g e g e d h a g e 1 dhagege ge 3 riagegege, / d h a g e t a g e

__ tagegege, / digenage1

2t _ t dlgegedi gegedige1 4 t e t a k a t a gadigana / /

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T h i s example shows the type o f q u a d r a t i c a l l y d i v i d e d b o l n u c l e u s whi c h, a l t h o u g h standard on the t a b l a ,

i s f a r l e s s so on the p a k h a v a j .

few e x c e p t i o n s th e b o l s ar e o pe n.

With

The r e p e a t e d GEs p r e v e n t t h e p a t t e r n

from b e i n g p l a y e d as f a s t as i t s d h o l a k and t a b l a c o u n t e r p a r t s , which employ a l t e r n a t i v e f i n g e r s t r o k e s , but the b a s i c b o l p a t t e r n i s i d e n ­ tica l.

In t h i s r e ga rd , i t

i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h the main pakh­

avaj t r a d i t i o n s do not attem pt t o employ a p r e s s u r e GE s t r o k e

(obviously

r e q u i r e d i n su ch a p a t t e r n s a s the a b o v e ) , r e g i o n a l l y c o n f i n e d t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e Punjab and P a k i s t a n p u r p o s e l y reduce th e amount o f a ta on the bayah i n or der t o perform r ud im e nt a r y GE p r e s s s t r o k e s .

(Although not

a c c e p t e d as a t r a d i t i o n a l s t r o k e , th e gumiki o f th e South I n d i a n mrdanga i s o b v i o u s l y an attempt t o a c h i e v e t h i s same e f f e c t .

The t h e o r y advanced

by R obert Brown i s t h a t pe rhaps t h i s s t r o k e was borrowed from the t a b l a . 1 B e c a u s e o f th e much g r e a t e r age and g e o g r a p h i c spread o f th e d h o l a k , th is

i s p r o ba bl y the more i n f l u e n t i a l o f the t w o . )

In the above example

t h e primary a c c e n t e d b o l s r e f l e c t th e g r e a t e r s t r o k e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f th e p a k h a v a j : DHA TA DI and NA.

The TETAKATA GADIGANA n u c l e u s i s p u r e l y

pakhavaj and f u n c t i o n s as the c a d e n t i a l fo rmula. A much more e l a b o r a t e e x a m p le , i n t r i t a l ,

i s 6 avartans in length

and combines b a s i c l a g g i s t r o k e n u c l e i , v a r i o u s l y d i v i d e d i n t o 2 - , 3 and 4 - b o l s e g m e n t s , w i t h st an d ar d 6 - and 8 - b o l pakhavaj n u c l e i t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n s t r o k e s , phrase d u r a t i o n and matra d i v i s i o n . Th is type o f u s e , r a t i o n i s found,

in which l a y - b a n t or f l u c t u a t i o n i n d e n s i t y and du­ i s a l s o s u i t a b l e f o r s o l o pakhavaj per for ma nc e.

The

p h r a s e s are o f t e n camouflaged; t h e r e i s no c or re s p on d en ce betwe en the k h a l i - l i k e s e c t i o n s and t h e t a l s t r u c t u r e .

T h is i s p u r e l y an e x e r c i s e

i n v a r i a b l e b o l nu c l e u s d u r a t i o n conveyed through t h e medium o f v a r i a b l e

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X dhage dige dh agege'dha d i g e g e 'd x

2 gege ' gege ' gege'dhage' gege ' d i g e '

o t ag e nage tagege'ta nagege 'na

3 gege' gege ' gege'tage g e g e 'n a g e

gegedhage gegedTga dhagedhage digedige

-dhagege' -d igege' dhagegege' digegege'

ge ge ta ge gegenage tagetage nage nage

-tagege' -nagege, tagegege' nage g e g e ,

dhagediga t a ge ha ge dha k t t k 1dhuma t r k t t k 'ta

tage'nage d ige'tage k t t k '.dhage k t t k 'tage

digatage' nagedige' dhagege' ta t a g e g e 'd i

nagedhage fa ge n a g e , gegetige' gege nag e,

dhagegege ta g e g e g e dhatrkt'dha t a t r k t ' ta

-dhagege' -tagege ' ged igedha ge digedha

trkttkta trkttkta gedige'dha gegedige'

gege ta ge ' gege naga, g e tr kt dh a trkttkta,

dhage-dha na g e -g e geged i n nagegena

-ge-dha -na-ge' — 'tage gege nage '

-ge- dha digadhage t r k t t k ' ta dha k t tkd h u ma

trkj: ' ta g e gedhagege gege nage kt tk g d g n ,

trkttkta' d l'gegeta dha k t; tkdhuma dha--;dha

dhage geta gegedige kttk g dg n: gegedha-;

g e ge di ge d i g e gege dhagegege dhagegedha

genagege' getagege, dhagegege - jdhagege

/ dha.

Other than t h o s e s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are o b v i o u s l y pakhavajr e l a t e d , such as the m u l t i - c y c l i c l e n g t h and th e c a d e n t i a l t i h a i a t the end, the most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t r u c t u r a l l y are t h o s e d e c i d ­ e d l y u n p a k h a v a j - l i k e a s p e c t s such as the p r e s e n c e o f a k h a l i ( s e e the s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c u r r i n g p a s s a g e s i n which a TA or NA r e p l a c e s a DHA or DI i n a p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n ) on one or more q u a r t e r s o f an 8-matra p h r a s e , the p r e s e n c e o f 2 - or 4 - p a r t ph ra se s c o n s t r u c t e d around the h a l f c y c l e , and t h e t a k i n g o f a s h o r t b o l n uc le us and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e - a r r a n g i n g i t s components.

Of a l l t h e drums e x i s t e n t t o d a y i n North I n d i a , the

o n l y one which u s e s t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f al mo st a l l

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others,

i s the naqqara.

And t h e •naqqara has be e n r ub bi ng s h o u l d e r s w i t h

the pakh av aj, both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the Muslim c o u r t s ,

fo r a t l e a s t

400 y e a r s . Summai'y As s e en i n the above p a t t e r n s , th e t a b l i l a g g i / l a r i and the l a g g i s o f the naqqara and dh ol ak a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .

The d h o l a k - d e r i v e d

p a t t e r n s tend t o be 2 - p a r t w i t h a g r e a t e r p o r p o r t i o n o f c l o s e d and s i n g l e b o l s and o f b o l s w i t h d i f f e r i n g l e n g t h s ; t h e na qq a ra -d er iv ed p a t t e r n s are very o f t e n 4 - p a r t and c o n t a i n b o l s which are open and s i n g l e and f r e q u e n t l y o f t h e same l e n g t h .

The t a b l a has c o n s i d e r a b l y

mixed, v a r i e d , extended t h e l e n g t h and b o l c o n t e n t and, in the c a s e o f the s i t a r / s a r o d j h a l a and s a h n a i l a r i accompaniment, s u p p o se d l y even changed the f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s . However, the l a g g i as a s e t o f qu a d r a t i c b o l n u c l e i played i n a t i drut l a y has a h i s t o r y i n I n d i a as ol d as t h a t o f the naqqara.

In t h i s

c a p a c i t y i t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n e d not o n l y i n dance segments o f f o l k music or drama, as i n t h e n a ut a nk i which i s s o popular around Luck­ now and Kanpur t o d a y , but a l s o , and t h i s i s th e most s i g n i f i c a n t area in terms o f the pakhlvaj and t a b l a j h a l a p a t t e r n s , men ta l naubat ensembles o f t h e Muslim c o u r t s . are almos t e x t i n c t in North Indi a t o da y i t

i n the p u r e l y i n s t r u ­ B ec aus e t h e s e ense mble s

is easy to forget th e ir h i s ­

t o r i c a l importance i n the development o f the m u s i c . i n which 1 0 - ,

Within t h i s c o n t e x t ,

1 2 - , 14- and 16-matra t a l s were r e q u i r e d , the matra l a y

di d not change but the b o l d e n s i t y w i t h i n th e matra d i d . standard

W ithin the

b i n / r a b a b a l a p t h e matra l a y should remain c o n s t a n t .

As i n

the paran g i v e n abov e, b e c a u s e t h i s matra remains s t a b l e a t madhya l a y , i t always r e t a i n s i t s f u n c t i o n as a b e a t .

S t r a n g e l y enough, one o t h e r

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i n s t r u m e n t a l t r a d i t i o n m a i n t a i n s an al mo st c o n s t a n t matra v a l u e - - t h i s i s t h e s a h n a l / n a q q a r a t r a d i t i o n , whic h t o d ay i s most a c t i v e in th e area o f Ba n a ra s .

The p a t t e r n s wh ich are used on the naqqara i n t h i s c o n t e x t

are known as l a r i p a t t e r n s . In t h e s i t a r / s a r o d t r a d i t i o n th e l a r i p a t t e r n s have been borrowed, p r o b a b l y not d i r e c t l y from t h e naubat t r a d i t i o n , nor e v e n through the s a h n i i / n a q q a r a e ns e m bl e , but b y w a y o f the more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d rabab/pakhavaj

i n s t r u m e n t a l a l a p w h i c h , bj- the way, i s an almost p u r e l y

i n s t r u m e n t a l form. bin/rabab

b in /

The pr im ar y d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s i t a r / s a r o d and

use o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s l i e s

to da y in the l a y : a t y p i c a l s i t a r

j h a l a i s c o n s t r u c t e d around a matra v a l u e which may i n c r e a s e from 4 00 t o 600 matras per minu te.

Al t h o u g h j h a l a s are a l s o p l a y e d

( m o s t ly by

th e s a r o d )

i n wh ich the matra v a l u e conforms t o t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e t

by the bin

and rabab, t h e s e ar e l e s s s ta n d a r d .

Today, t h e r e f o r e , th e t a b l a has been g i v e n two g i f t s and b o t h o f t h e s e come, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , i s th e l e g i t i m a t e f o l k l a g g i ,

from the naqqara.

The f i r s t

f i l t e r e d down through s e v e r a l i n s tr u m e n ts

and by way o f t h e f a s t f o l k dance i n t e r l u d e s , t o th e p o p u l a r / c l a s s i c a l thumri t r a d i t i o n ; t h i s i s accompanied by the t a b l a . legitim ate

c la ssica l lari

The second i s the

( c o n s i d e r e d by most t o d a y t o be a d e r i v a t i v e

p a t t e r n o f th e l a g g i ) , f i l t e r e d down through s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t s and by way o f the i n s t r u m e n t a l j h a l a and l a r i s e c t i o n s , t o th e c l a s s i c a l s i t a r / sarod t r a d i t i o n ; t h i s i s a l s o accompanied by th e t a b l a .

P e r ha ps , i n

s p i t e o f c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g , th e l a g g i and l a r i a r e j u s t two prongs o f the same f o r k .

148

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The Re la As e x p l a i n e d i n th e i n t r o d u c t i o n , th e r e l a as a t e c h n i q u e i s s im p l y an al mo st c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s o f m o s t l y c l o s e d b o l s i n a t i - d r u t this context, is

i t can be a p p l i e d to any t a l ,

lay.

In

t h e matra d u r a t i o n o f which

any l e n g t h , and i t can be pl ay e d by any drum ca pa bl e o f p r o d u c i n g

s e r i e s o f fast-moving closed b o l s .

In p r a c t i c e , however,

it

is lim ited

by the s t r u c t u r e i t most f r e q u e n t l y assumes, t h a t o f th e 2 - or 4 - p a r t t a l . .B e f or e p r e s e n t i n g the f o l l o w i n g examples t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e l a g g i and r e l a .

i t is necessary to c la r if y

Today, a v e r y f a s t p a t t e r n which

has o b v i o u s l y bee n d e r i v e d from the naqqira may o f t e n be c a l l e d a r e l a instead o f a l a g g i.

As the two t e c h n i q u e s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n t h e i r

structural rea liza tio n ,

this

is understandable.

However, i t p r ob ab ly

stems from the f a c t t h a t both are D e l h i baj tradem ar ks , bo th are pl a y e d on th e naqqara and both are c o n s i d e r e d t o be open-ended in t h a t new v a r i a t i o n s are c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g c r e a t e d . attests

A lt ho ug h t h i s a s p e c t f u r t h e r

t o th e r e l a t i v e y o u t h f u l n e s s and p o t e n t i a l f o r growth o f the

tabla t r a d i t i o n ,

in th e p r e s e n t s t u d y , f o r t h e sake o f h i s t o r i c a l and

s t y l i s t i c a c c u r a c y , t h e y are s e p a r a t e d . Examples;: stan dar d r e l a models The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e in t i n t a l , as t h i s i s t h e t a l i n which th e r e l a i s most f r e q u e n t l y pl a y e d on t h e t a b l a .

These examples are

r e f e r r e d t o as models b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t th e stan dar d r e l a s from which o t h e r s are d e r i v e d .

Alt hou gh t h e r e l a i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be more

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the D e l h i baj than th e P u r a b , i t i s performed i n both and t h e r e f o r e t h e name o f t h e r e l e v a n t baj i s appended t o e a c h ex ample. The o rd er o f appearance c o r re s p o n d s w i t h f r e q u e n c y o f u s e , p r o c e e d i n g from t h e most t o t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used p a t t e r n t y p e .

149

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A. Caugun d i v i s i o n ; s u g g e s t e d l a y = 300 MM (600 b o l p a i r s a m i n u t e ) la . dha-tira dha-tira

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241

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