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The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation: Joshua
 9781463205492, 146320549X

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THE ANTIOCH BIBLE

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

Joshua

Ṣurath Kthobh

Editors George A. Kiraz Andreas Juckel

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

Joshua

Translated by

Gillian Greenberg Donald English Translation by

M. Walter Text Prepared by

Gillian Greenberg

George A. Kiraz

Text Prepared by

Donald M. Walter Joseph Bali George A. Kiraz Joseph Bali

9

34 2015

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2015 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.

2015

‫ܘ‬

ISBN 978-1-4632-0549-2

Printed in the United States of America

9

Fr. Robert Murray S.J.

A very good friend at a very difficult time

Meyer M. Hostetter Pastor and mentor

Gillian Greenberg

Donald M. Walter

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents .................................................................................. vii Foreword to the Edition ........................................................................ ix

By George A. Kiraz Making of the Text .................................................................................. ix Orthographic Diversions from Mosul ................................................... x Text Organization .................................................................................. xiii Acknowledgements................................................................................ xiii

Abbreviations ......................................................................................... xv Introduction to the Translation ......................................................... xvii

By Gillian Greenberg and Donald M. Walter The Peshiṭta ........................................................................................... xvii The Book of Joshua.............................................................................. xvii Translation Policies................................................................................ xix Notes ....................................................................................................... xix Translation Technique............................................................................ xx The Peshiṭta’s handling of Hebrew names ........................................ xxv Our handling of the Peshiṭta’s names ................................................ xxv Addenda ............................................................................................... xxvii Addendum 1: Mistranslation ............................................................ xxviii Addendum 2: Inner-Syriac Corruptions ........................................... xxix Addendum 3: Deliberate changes introduced by P ......................... xxix

Appendix 1: Versification .................................................................. xxxi Appendix 2: Variant Readings ........................................................ xxxiii Appendix 3: Names .............................................................................. xlv Common Syriac proper names............................................................. xlv Compound Names................................................................................ xlvi Replacements ......................................................................................... xlvi Initial Locations .................................................................................. xlviii Medial Locations ................................................................................... xlix Transpositions .......................................................................................... lii Final Locations ........................................................................................ liii Translation ................................................................................................ lv Transliterations ........................................................................................ lvi

VII

VIII

Table of Contents

Bibliography ........................................................................................... lvii Lexica and Dictionaries ......................................................................... lvii Reference Texts ...................................................................................... lvii General Interest ..................................................................................... lvii

Text and Translation ............................................................................... 1

FOREWORD TO THE EDITION BY GEORGE A. KIRAZ The primary objective of this edition is twofold: to provide a reliable text for scholars and students who are looking for a fully vocalized Syriac text, and to make available to religious communities, for whom this text is sacred, an English translation that can be used in various religious and cultural settings. As such, one had to navigate carefully between rigid scholarly principles and practical editorial choices. Making of the Text The current edition provides a West Syriac version of the 1887–91 Peshiṭta Mosul text. 1 While the Mosul text was prepared based on second millennium manuscripts, its text is substantially attested by manuscripts belonging to the first millennium. As ancient MSS are hardly vocalized, our text relies on the vocalization of the Mosul edition. In addition to full vocalization, our text is supplemented with complete Rukkākhā and Quššāyā pointing and other orthographic markings, keeping in mind the general orthographic principles adopted by Pusey and Gwilliam in their 1901 Tetraeuangelium. 2 Hence, while the consonantal tier is substantially ancient, the vocalism and orthographic tiers are quite late. When the consonantal orthography, and in many cases the vocalic orthography, of East and West Syriac diverged, use was made of Lee’s 1823 edition 3 as well as linguistic resources including Audo, 4 Brockelmann, 5 1 Clemis Joseph David (ed.), The Syriac Bible According to the Mosul Edition, 3 volumes, with an introduction by Sebastian P. Brock (Piscataway, NJ, 2010), a reprint of the Mosul 1887–91 edition titled ‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܐܝܟ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܕܡܬܩܪܝܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ‬. 2 P. E. Pusey and G. H. Gwilliam, Tetraeuangelium Sanctum, the Fourfold Holy Gospel in the Peshitta Syriac Version with Critical Apparatus, with an introduction by Andreas Juckel (Piscataway, NJ, 2003), a reprint of the 1901 edition. 3 S. Lee, Vetus et Novum Testamentum Syriace (London, 1823). 4 T. Audo, ‫( ܣܝܡܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ‬Mosul, 1897). 5 C. Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum (Halle, 1928).

IX

Foreword to the Edition

X

Margoliouth, 6 and Smith. 7 As the Mosul edition did not fully mark Rukkākhā and Quššāyā, these points were added using a semi-automated method that makes use of regular expressions; 8 the result was then proofed and corrected. Analogies were also made internally within other Mosul readings, and externally with the Pusey and Gwilliam New Testament text, making use of my Concordance 9 as a tool and the guidelines presented in my introduction to spirantization. 10 The Mbaṭṭlānā and Marhṭānā were added systematically following current orthographic conventions, but the Mhaggyānā, Nāgudā, and Mṭappyānā, all ubiquitous in the Mosul text, were removed as they are alien to West Syriac orthography. 11 The text was then collated against existing collations, most notably the Leiden apparatus. It was interesting to note how close the Mosul text was to the readings of the manuscripts of the first millennium, in itself a testimony to the faithfulness of second millennium manuscripts, upon which Mosul was based, to the earlier text. Leiden and Mosul differed in ca. 244 readings; i.e., ca. 10 variants per chapter. In other words, 98% of the Mosul readings are identical with the readings of Leiden. As for the variant readings, in 62% of the time, the Mosul text was supported by a reading from the first millennium. Appendix 2 gives the variants of our text against the Leiden edition. Orthographic Diversions from Mosul In terms of the consonantal tier, the present text differs orthographically from the Mosul text in two ways. Firstly, it intentionally replaces early Syriac J. P. Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary Founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1903). 7 P. Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1818–1895). 8 In computing, a regular expression provides a mechanism with which strings of text can be matched with a search criterion. In most notations, a bracket expression matches a single character inside that bracket (e.g., [ab] matches a single a or b). The exclamation mark denotes negation. Hence, the expression [bgdkpt][!RQ] (where R and Q represent the Rukkākhā and Quššāyā points, respectively) will match a single bgādkpāt letter that is not followed by a Rukkākhā or Quššāyā point. When this search fails, all bgādkpāt letters have been pointed (regardless of accuracy of course). 9 G. A. Kiraz, A Computer Generated Concordance to the Syriac New Testament, 6 volumes (Leiden, 1993). 10 G. A. Kiraz, Introduction to Syriac Spirantization, Rukkâḵâ and Quššâyâ (Losser, 1995). 11 On these symbols, see C. J. David, Grammaire de la Langue Araméenne, 2 volumes, (Mosul, 2nd ed., 1896) §62, §67; G. Kiraz, Tūrrāṣ Mamllā, A Grammar of the Syriac Language, Volume I Orthography (Gorgias Press, 2012) §§205–208. 6

Foreword to the Edition

XI

orthographic conventions, most of which are also preserved in the East ܰ (perf. Syriac Mosul text, with West Syriac ones. 12 For example, Mosul ‫ܣܡ ݂ܟ‬ ̈ ܰ 3rd fem. pl.) is replaced in the present edition with ‫ ܣܡ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ‬adding seyāme and ܽ ‫ ܺܢ‬adding medial ‫( ܐ‬9:21); the suffix ‫( ܝ‬4:18); Mosul ‫ ܺܢ ܽܚܘܢ‬is replaced with ‫ܐܚܘܢ‬ ܺ Mosul ‫ ܠܪܫ‬is replaced with ‫ �ܪܝܫ‬adding ‫( ܝ‬3:8). Secondly, as one of the objectives of the present edition is to provide a functional text for religious communities, it was necessary to be systematic and to provide the reader with a standardized orthography. Hence, many contractions were systematically separated. MS evidence and/or Lee’s edition and the Urmia edition give support to most, if not all, of these changes. As for the vocalic tier, the present text differs from the Mosul text in a number of ways. ܿ ܰ E. Syr. ◌ܼ was generally converted to the corresponding W. Syr. ◌ except in lexemes where the E. and W. Syriac orthographies vary. ܵ ܳ E. Syr. ◌ was generally converted to W. Syr. ◌ except when followed ܰ ܵ ܳ ܰ‫( ܝ‬4:14). by ‫ ܘ‬in which case it became ◌ ; e.g., E. Syr. ‫ ܵܝܘܡܐ‬vs. W. Syr. ‫ܘܡܐ‬ This also applies to nominal forms when followed by an enclitic demonstrative pronoun. ܶ E. Syr. ◌ܸ was generally converted to W. Syr. ◌ except in lexemes where the E. and W. orthographies vary. ܺ ܶ E. Syr. ◌ܹ was mapped to either ◌ or ◌ depending on the phonoܶ logical, morphological or lexical context. Additionally, a ◌ was added in medial ‫ ܐ‬positions marked in Mosul with a Mhaggyānā. ܺ ܿ E. Syr. ‫ ܼܝ‬was converted to W. Syr. ‫◌ܝ‬, while E. Syr. ‫ ܘ‬and ‫ ܼܘ‬were ܽ collapsed into W. Syr. ‫◌ܘ‬. The choice was made to place the vowel on the consonant preceding the matres lectionis. Metathesis was applied to the sequence ‚V resulting in V‚. In C‚Vinitial stems prefixed with bdwl letters, this led to further vocalization changes on the prefixes. In some cases, this even leads to changes in fricatization. On orthography, see L. Van Rompay, ‘Some Preliminary Remarks on the Origins of Classical Syriac as a Standard Language. The Syriac Version of Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History’, in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds.), Semitic and Cushitic Studies (Wiesbaden, 2004), 70–89; S. P. Brock, ‘Some Diachronic Features of Classical Syriac’, in M. F. J. Baasten and W. Th. Van Peursen (eds.), Hamlet on the Hill. Semitic and Greek Studies Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Louvain, 2003), 95– 111. 12

XII

Foreword to the Edition

In a few cases, we departed from the BFBS edition regarding ܳ ݁ ‫ ܰܣ‬and ‫ ܰܪ ݁ܒ‬, all presented here with Qūššāyā against the fricatization: ‫ܝܦܐ‬ BFBS edition. In such cases, MSS of the Mašlmānūthā were our guide. The Mbaṭṭlānā was applied in the present text following the Pusey and Gwilliam tradition but with further extensions following contemporary orthographic conventions. With regards to the vocalization of proper nouns, the BFBS was followed whenever possible. For cases not found in the BFBS, the vocalization was based first on MSS of the Mašlmānūthā (primarily BL Add 12,178) and then on the Walton polyglot. In cases when Mosul does not have support and the Maš and Leiden agree (with no variants indicated), we follow the Maš-Leiden reading. As such, the following proper names were changed: Here M ܽ ܰ ܽ 11:1 ‫݂ܕܡܪܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܡ ݂ܕܘܢ‬ 12:21 ‫݁ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܓ ݁ ܽܕܘܠ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܓ ݁ ܽܕܘ‬ ܺ ܺ ܽ ‫ܘܒ‬ ܽ ‫ܘܒ‬ 15:28 ‫ܪܝܘܬ ܳ�ܐ‬ ‫ܪܝܘܬ ܳ�ܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ݂ ܺ ݁ ݂ܰ ܳ ܰ ݂ ݂ܶ �‫ܝܬ ܘܚ ݂ܓ‬ 18:21 �‫ܝܬ ܚ ݂ܓ‬ ݂ ‫ܘܙ ܒ‬ ݂ ‫݂ܘܒ‬ ܽ ܰ 18:25 ‫݂ܘܒܪܘ‬ ‫݂ܘܒ ܽܪ ݂ܘܬ‬ ܽ ܳ 19:22 ‫݂ܒ ݂ܬܘܪ‬ ‫݂ܒ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܒܘܪ‬ 19:29 ‫݂ܕ ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܟ ܺܙ ݂ܝܒ‬ ܰ ܰ 19:38 ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽܕܘܡ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܽܪܘܡ‬ ܽ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܰ ܰ 21:15 ‫ܘܠܚܠܘ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܠܘܠ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ܰܘ‬ ܶ 21:32 ‫ܘܚܡܪ ݂ܘܕ‬ ‫ܐܚܡ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܕܘܪ‬ ܺ ܺ ܰ ܺ݁ܰ ܰ 21:35 ‫ܝܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܩܪܝܬܝܡ‬ ݂ ‫ܘܩܪ‬ In addition, the vocalization of ‫ܘܓܬܪܡܘܢ‬ ܰ ݂ ܰ in 21:24 and 21:25 differs in ܶ ܽ ܽ ܶ Maš: ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬܪܡܘܢ‬ ݂ for the former and ‫ ܘ ݂ܓ ݂ܬܪܡܘܢ‬for the latter. Only a few readings in Mosul were rejected, most of which seem to be typographical errors: Here M ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ 2:12 ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܦ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܘܐ ݂ܦ‬ ݂ ‫ܘ‬ ݂ ‫ܘ‬ ܽ ܽ ̈ ̈ ܰ ݁ ݁ ݁ 4:6 ‫ܒ��ܟܘܢ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒ ܰ��ܟܘܢ‬ ܳܺ ܳ ܰ 6:13 ‫ܐ ܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܘ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܘ ܽܥ‬ 10:16 ‫ܥܪܩ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܘܩܪ‬ ܽ ݁ �ܳ ‫ܘ‬ ܽ ݁ ‫ܰܠ‬ 10:40 ‫ܫܕܘܕ‬ ‫ܫܕܘܕ‬ 11:7 ‫ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕܝ‬ ‫ܳܥ ݂ܒ ܰ�ܝ‬ 15:1 ‫ܠܚܪܬ ̇ܗ‬ ‫ܠܚܪܬܗ‬ ݂ ݂

Foreword to the Edition 18:16 24:1

‫݂ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‬ ܰ ݂ ‫ܰܘ‬ ‫�ܕ ܳ� ܰ� ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‬

XIII

‫݂ܕ ݂ܰܓ ݁ ܳܒܢ̱ ܶ� ܐ‬ ܰ ‫�ܕ‬ ܰ ݂ ‫ܰܘ‬ ‫ܝ� ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‬

Finally, the Mosul text (as well as Lee Urmia) have the following ܶ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ̈ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܳ and ݁ ‫ܘ� ܐ ݂ ܶܦ‬ ‫ ܘܗ ݂ܟܘ ݂ܬ ܥܡ‬.‫ ݂ܕ ܳܡܪ�ܐ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܒܘ ݂ܟܢܐ‬against Leiden and all early in 8:33 ‫ܠܓ ܽܗܘܢ‬ ܳ ‫ ݂ܕ ܳܡ‬. Our text follows the earlier ݁ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܶܦ‬ manuscripts which have ‫ܠܓ ܽܗܘܢ‬ tradition. Text Organization The division of the text into chapters and verses is a recent Western phenomenon. Early manuscripts divided the texts into chapters, called in Syriac ‫ܩܦ�ܘܢ‬, abbreviated ‫ܩܦ‬, or ‫ܨܚܚܐ‬, abbreviated ‫ܨܚ‬. Having said that, ancient manuscripts do not always follow a systematic approach in these chapter divisions. The present text follows the recent Western division of chapters, naming each chapter in Syriac ‫ܩܦ�ܘܢ‬. Ancient Syriac chapter divisions are given in the outer margin preceded by the abbreviation ‫ ܨܚ‬for ܳ (they correspond to Roman numerals in the English translation). ‫ܨܚ ܳܚܐ‬ These were provided by Adam Kane from MS Pocock 391 (Oxford). The present edition follows the Mosul versification. Ancient manuscripts vary in the application of punctuation marks. The punctuation presented here follows the Mosul punctuation faithfully. Acknowledgements

Andreas Juckel, my co-editor in the Ṣurath Kthob series, played a major role in setting the textual policies of the edition. I am personally grateful to my wife Christine and three children: Tabetha Gabriella, Sebastian Kenoro, and Lucian Nurono. It is hoped that the current edition will be a motivation for further texts and translations of the Syriac Biblical tradition, and will stimulate the use of the Peshiṭta in educational and religious settings.

ABBREVIATIONS ASV BCE CE com. ed. e.g. fem. i.e. IHC IO IN ISC lit. M masc. MS MSS MT om. P part. pl. pr. sing. v. vol.

American Standard Version (1901) Before the Common Era Common Era common editor, edition exempli gratia feminine id est Inner-Hebrew Corruption Index Orthographicus Index Nominum Inner-Syriac Corruption literally Mosul masculine manuscript manuscripts Masoretic Text omit Peshiṭta participle plural prior, before singular verse volume



Root (see the appropriate dictionary listed in the Bibliography for citations such as √II)

1st 2nd 3rd

first person second person third person

XV

INTRODUCTION TO THE TRANSLATION BY GILLIAN GREENBERG AND DONALD M. WALTER The Peshiṭta The Peshiṭta, the Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible, was made in Edessa in the second century CE. Most students of this text believe that it was translated not by a single man but by members of a ‘Peshiṭta school’. These translators wrote for Syriac speakers who wanted to read the Bible in their own tongue: so their task was to produce a text which read well, not as a stilted literal rendering of the source document, but which was at the same time a faithful translation of the Hebrew Vorlage. Whether the translators were Jews or Christians is a much debated question to which there is as yet no universally accepted answer. Some modern scholars believe that both Jews and Christians were involved: according to this theory, the work began at a time when the community in which the Peshiṭta school was based was still Jewish. Soon, however, the young Christian church in the area gained strength and followers, with the result that the community converted to Christianity: thus it is possible that the work was begun by Jews and completed by Christians. Even given that a number of translators were involved, a work of this length and importance must have taken many decades to complete, so such a development is plausible. It is clear though that the Peshiṭta has stood the test of time. We hope that our work will make the pleasure of reading it available to yet more readers. The Book of Joshua Although Joshua plays such an important role at a turning point in the biblical account of the history of Israel, little is told of the man himself. He was apparently an Ephraimite: Joshua 19:49–50 and 24:29–30 tell that he received his inheritance in Ephraim and was buried there. As is the case with a number of other early biblical figures, he is mentioned in no extant ancient source other than the Bible.

XVII

XVIII

Introduction to the Translation

The book is the first of the Former Prophets: set in the time between the death of Moses (1:1) and the death of Joshua (24:29). The relationship of Joshua with Deuteronomy, which closes the Pentateuch, is a subject of scholarly debate, 1 although there is no doubt that Joshua is a component of a larger body of writing, formed by the combination of many originally independent accounts or sources, giving an account of Hebrew history from creation up to the exile. Since the mid-twentieth century many think of a Deuteronomic Work of History beginning with the occupation of regions east of the Jordan River (introduced in Deuteronomy); continuing in Joshua, Judges, and Samuel with the settlement of the region to the west and the organization of the tribes under the judges; describing the movement towards monarchy with particular attention to Saul and David, in Samuel and Kings, and the united monarchy of Israel and Judah. It ends with the division of the monarchy, the collapse of Israel and Judah, and events leading up to the Babylonian Exile (Kings) and the release of Judah’s king there. Traditionally Joshua himself was often regarded as its author, 2 but most modern critics hold that it contains writings by a number of authors. The source of some of this material is identifiable, for instance the preDavidic Book of Jashar (10:13). The border-lists may well reflect conditions in Canaan during the pre-monarchic period. The list of Levitical cities may also indicate a social organization of an early date, a time when the heads of Levite families were influential, possibly under the United Monarchy to help secure recently acquired territories. 3 The date of compilation of the book cannot be inferred from the date of the source material. The earliest sources might date as early as the time of the occupation of the land, an important phase of which probably took place round about the transition from the Late Bronze to the Iron Age, very approximately 1200 BCE; more generally accepted for the original accounts would be a date early in the monarchic period. The date of a major or even

Many scholars have thought of a Hexateuch rather than a Pentateuch with the sources they have identified in the Torah continuing in Joshua and perhaps beyond. 2 John Calvin in his 1564 commentary on the book rejected that suggestion, but regarded the priest Eleazar as perhaps responsible for preserving much of its material. 3 It is quite plausible that with the separation of Israel and Judah Levites were no longer welcome under the new religious regime of Israel and migrated to Judah; if so the assignment of lands to the north to Levites should date from an earlier period. 1

Introduction to the Translation

XIX

final working of the material would be either at the time of Solomon in the United Monarchy 4 or under Josiah if not a bit later in the Exile. Since the sanctuaries of Gilgal and Shiloh (and in chapter 24 Shechem) receive so much attention it is quite plausible that they were places where traditions regarding the conquest were passed down. Possibly the burial places cited at the end of the book also transmitted some of the traditions. The book falls into two principal parts, with Appendices: (i) chapters 1:1–12:24 which recount the occupation of the land; (ii) chapters 13:1– 22:34 which recount the settlement of the land, the establishment of the cities of refuge (ch. 20) and the Levitical cities (ch. 21). The Appendices cover Joshua’s farewell address (23:1–16), making the covenant at Shechem (24:1–28) the deaths of Joshua and Eleazar (24:1–28) and the traditional burial sites of Joseph, Joshua, and Eleazar (24:39–33). In the traditional Jewish canon Joshua follows immediately after the Pentateuch, as the first book of the Former Prophets (which include Judges, Samuel, and Kings): this was the period in which prophetic activity was at its height. In some Syriac manuscripts however, because Moses was thought to have written Job, Job is placed between the Pentateuch and Joshua. A presumably older version of the Peshiṭta as well as Mosul follow the Jewish order. 5 Translation Policies Notes The notes in the text have two main purposes: (i) At passages where a rendering close to the Syriac text would have resulted in unacceptable English we have given a comparatively free rendering in the verse and a literal translation in the notes, e.g. − 1:14. �‫‘ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܓܢܒ�ܝ ܚܝ‬all you warriors’: lit. ‘all the mighty men of the host’. − 1:15. ‫‘ ܡܢ ܡܕܢܚܝ ܫܡܫܐ‬towards the rising of the sun’: lit. ‘from the eastern regions of the sun’. (ii) Sometimes, more than one translation is equally correct; here we have given the alternative in the notes, e.g. e.g. − 7:21. �‫‘ ܐܡ‬mantle’ or ‘rug’. 4 Especially if ‘sources’ detected in the Torah extended into Joshua and perhaps beyond. 5 In Mosul and 9a1 Joshua immediately follows Deuteronomy, but in 7a1, 8a1, and 12a1 Job is inserted before it.

Introduction to the Translation

XX



8:11. �‫‘ ܢܚ‬valley’ or ‘wadi’.

Translation Technique 1. Additions. Some words in our translation have no equivalent in the Syriac text but are needed in English. These are shown between round brackets, e.g. − 1:9. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ ܕܥܡܟ ܗܘ ܡܪܝܐ �ܗܟ ܐܬܪ ܕܐܙ�ܢܬ‬for the Lord your God is with you the place to which you are going’ rendered as ‘for the Lord your God is with you (in) the place to which you are going’. − 2:21. ‫‘ ܘܫܕܪܬ ܐܢܘܢ‬she sent them’ rendered as ‘She sent them (away)’. ̈ − 3:12. ‫ܕܒܪܘ ܠܟܘܢ ܬܪܥܣܪ ܓܒ�ܝܢ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܫܒܛܐ ܕܝܣܪܝܠ‬ ‘take twelve men from all the tribes of Israel’ rendered as ‘take twelve men, (one) from each of the tribes of Israel’. 2. Consistency. We have given consistent translations wherever possible, but some exceptions were enforced either by the context or by differences between the range of meanings of some words in the two languages. (i) More than one English word correctly translates one Syriac root, e.g. ‫‘ ܐܓܘܪܣܐ‬field/village’: − 14:4. ‫‘ ܘܐܓܘ�ܣܐ ܠܒܥܝܪܗܘܢ‬fields for their sheep’. − 15:32. ‫‘ ܘܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗܘܢ ܒܦܩܥܬܐ‬and their villages in the plain’. √‫‘ ܕܚܠ‬fear/revere’: − 1:9. ‫‘ � ܬܕܚܠ‬do not fear’. − 4:14. ‫‘ ܘܕܠܚܘ ܡܢܗ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܕܠܚܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܡܢ ܡܘܫܐ‬they revered him as they had revered Moses’. ‫‘ ܝܪܬܘܬܐ‬inheritance/portion/possession’: − 1:15. ‫‘ �ܪܥܐ ܕܝܪܬܘܬܟܘܢ‬to the land of your inheritance’. ܿ − 13:7. ‫‘ ܦܠܓܝܗ �ܪܥܐ ܗܕܐ ܒܝ�ܬܘܬܐ‬Divide this land into portions’. ̈ − 24:32. ‫‘ ܝܪܬܘܬܐ ܠܒܢܝ ܝܘܣܦ‬possession of the children of Joseph’. ‫‘ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬Israel/Israelites’: often, either fits the context. ̈ ‘the children of Israel’. − 10:11. ‫ܒܢܝ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬ − 10:12. ‫‘ ܩܕܡ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬the hands of the Israelites’: lit. ‘before Israel’. ‫‘ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬town/city’. The distinction may be difficult. Sometimes the context makes the choice clear. ܿ − 6:2. ‫‘ ܚܘܕܪܘܗ ܠܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬surround the city’. ̈ ̈ − 11:12. ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܕܡ�ܟܐ ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫‘ ܘܠܟܠܗܝܢ‬all the towns of these kings’.

Introduction to the Translation

‫ܟܒܫ‬

XXI

‘attack/conquer’. − 11:10. ‫‘ ܘܟܒܫ ܠܚܨܘܪ‬He attacked Hazor’. ܿ − 10:39. ‫‘ ܘܟܒܫܗ‬He conquered it’. ‫‘ ܡܠܬܐ‬word/thing/affair’. − 2:14. ‫‘ ܡܠܬܐ ܗܕܐ‬this affair’. − 8:35. ‫‘ ܚܕܐ ܡܠܬܐ‬a single word’. ̈ ̈ − 21:45. ‫‘ ܟܠܗܝܢ ܡ� ܛܒܬܐ‬all the good things’. ‫‘ ܦܩܥܬܐ‬plain/valley’. ̈ − 9:1. ‫‘ ܘܒܦܩܥܬܐ‬on the plains’. − 10:12. ‫‘ ܒܦܩܥܬܐ ܕܐܝܠܘܢ‬in the valley of Aijalon’. √‫‘ ܫܡܥ‬obey/listen/take heed of’. − 1:17. ‫‘ ܘܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܫܡܥܝܢ ܗܘܝܢ ܠܡܘܫܐ‬As we obeyed Moses’. − 5:6. ‫‘ ܥܠ ܕ� ܫܡܥܘ ܒܩܠܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ �ܗܗܘܢ‬for they did not listen to the voice of the Lord their God’. − 10:14. ‫‘ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܫܡܥ ܡܪܝܐ ܒܩܠܗ ܕܐܢܫ‬when the Lord took heed of the voice of a man’. ‫‘ ܬܚܘܡܐ‬border/territory’. − 15:12. ‫‘ ܘܬܚܘܡܗ ܡܢ ܡܥܪܒܐ‬Its border (goes) from the west’. ̈ − 15:11. ‫‘ ܡܦܩܢܘܗܝ ܕܬܚܘܡܐ ܠܡܥܪܒܐ‬the limits of the territory are at the west’. (ii) One English word correctly translates more than one Syriac word (alternatives may be given in the footnotes), e.g. ‘attack’ translates ‫ ܐܬܟܬܫ‬and ‫ܟܒܫ‬. − 10:29. ‫‘ ܘܐܬܟܬܫ ܥܡ ܠܒܢܐ‬and attacked Libnah’. − 11:10. ‫‘ ܘܟܒܫ ܠܚܨܘܪ‬He attacked Hazor’. ‘field’ translates �‫ ܚܩ‬and ‫ܐܓܘܪܣܐ‬. ̈ − 8:24. ‫‘ ܒܚܩܠܬܐ ܘܒܡܕܒܪܐ ܪܕܦܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܠܗܘܢ‬they pursued them into the fields, into the wilderness’. − 14:4. ‫‘ ܘܐܓܘ�ܣܐ ܠܒܥܝܪܗܘܢ‬fields for their sheep’. ‘to grow old’ translates √‫ ܩܫ‬and ‫ܣܐܒ‬. − 23:1. ‫‘ ܘܝܫܘܥ ܩܫ‬Joshua grew old’. − 23:2. ‫‘ ܐܢܐ ܣܐܒܬ‬I have grown old’. ‘lots’ translates ‫ ܡܢܬܐ‬and ‫ܦܨܐ‬. − 18:6. ‫‘ ܘܐܚܘܝܟܘܢ ܡܢܬܐ‬I will cast the lot for you’. ̈ ‫‘ ܘܐܪܡܝ ܠܗܘܢ‬He cast lots for them’. − 18:10. ‫ܦܨ ܐ‬ ‘to mix’ translates √‫ ܚܠܛ‬and √‫ ܙܩܦ‬. − 23:7. ‫‘ ܘ� ܬܬܚܠܛܘܢ‬Do not mix’. − 23:12. ‫ ܘܬܬܙܩܦܘܢ‬if you should mix’. ‘to send’ translates √‫ ܫܕܪ‬and √‫ܫܠܚ‬. − 10:3. ‫‘ ܘܫܕܪ ܐܕܘܢܝܨ ܕܟ … ܠܘܬ ܗܘܗܡ‬So Adoni-Zedek … sent to Hoham’.

XXII

Introduction to the Translation

− 10:4. ‫‘ ܘܫܠܚ ܠܗܘܢ‬He sent to them’. ̈ ̈ ‘settlers’ translates ‫ ܒܘܟܢܐ‬and ‫ܬܘܬܒܐ‬. ̈ − 8:33. ‫‘ ܐܝܟ ܒܘܟܢܐ ܘܗܟܘܬ ܥܡܘ�ܐ‬both settlers and inhabitants’: lit. ‘settlers likewise inhabitants’. ̈ − 8:35. ‫‘ ܩܕܡ ܬܘܬܒܐ‬before the settlers’. ‘sword’ translates ‫ ܣܝܦܐ‬and ‫ܚܪܒܐ‬. − 10:32. ‫‘ ܒܦܘܡܐ ܕܣܝܦܐ‬with the edge (lit. ‘mouth’) of the sword’. − 10:33. ‫‘ ܒܦܘܡܐ ܕܚܪܒܐ‬with the edge (lit. ‘mouth’) of the sword’. ‘to take’ translates √‫ ܕܒܪ‬and √‫ܢܣܒ‬. − 7:24. ‫‘ ܘܕܒܪܗ ܝܫܘܥ ܠܥܟܪ … ܘܢܣܒ ܠܣܐܡܐ‬Joshua took Achar … he took the silver’. ‘town’ translates ‫ ܩܪܝܬܐ‬and ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬. ܿ − 10:37. ‫‘ ܩܘ�ܝܐ ܕܝܠܗ‬its towns’. ̈ ̈ − 11:12. ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܕܡ�ܟܐ ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫‘ ܘܠܟܠܗܝܢ‬all the towns of these kings’. ‘treachery’ translates √‫ ܟܕܒ‬and √‫ܕܓܠ‬. − 22:16. ‫‘ ܡܢܐ ܗܝ ܟܕܒܘܬܐ ܗܕܐ ܕܟܕܒܬܘܢ‬What is this treachery that you have committed’. − 22:31. ‫‘ ܕ� ܕܓܠܬܘܢ‬that you have not committed treachery’. ‘valley’ translates ‫ܥܘܡܩܐ‬, �‫ܢܚ‬, and ‫ܦܩܥܬܐ‬. − 7:24. ‫‘ ܠܥܘܡܩܐ ܕܥܟܪ‬to the valley of Achar’. − 8:11. ‫‘ ܘܢܚ� ܐܝܬ ܗܘܐ ܒܝܢܬܗܘܢ ܠܥܝ‬with a valley between them and Ai’. − 10:12. ‫‘ ܒܦܩܥܬܐ ܕܐܝܠܘܢ‬in the valley of Aijalon’. 3. Syriac Usages. The following Syriac usages should be noted: (i) Singular and Plural: a. Syriac singular rendered by English plural, e.g. − 2:11. ‫‘ ܘܟܕ ܫܡܥܢ ܙܥ ܠܒܢ‬And when we heard, our heart(s) quaked’. − 2:19. ‫‘ ܕܡܗ ܒܪܝܫܢ‬his blood will be on our head(s)’. − 9:24. ‫‘ ܘܕܚܠܢ ܬܒ ܡܢ ܢܦܫܢ‬we were very afraid for our lives’. b. Syriac plural rendered by English singular, e.g. ̈ ̈ ‫ܠܚܘܒܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫‘ ܘ� ܕܝܢ ܫܒܩ‬he does not forgive − 24:19. ‫ܘܠܚܛܝܟܘܢ‬ your wrongdoing and your sin’. (ii) Syriac finite verb with dālath rendered by English infinitive, e.g. − 7:7. ‫‘ ܕܬܫܠܡܢ ܒܐܝܕܐ ܕܐܡܘ�ܝܐ‬to deliver us into the hand(s) of the Amorites’ lit. ‘that you would deliver us …’. − 10:18. ‫‘ ܘܫܒܩܘ ܬܡܢ ܓܒ�ܐ ܕܢܛܪܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ‬station men there to guard them’ lit. ‘... that they will guard them’. (iii) ‫‘ ܡܢܐ ܠ‬what … to’, e.g.

Introduction to the Translation

XXIII

22:24. ‫‘ ܡܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܟܘܢ ܠܘܬ ܡܪܝܐ �ܗܐ ܕܝܣܪܝܠ‬What is the Lord God of Israel to you’. (iv) Waw ‫ܘ‬. This conjunction has a wide range of meanings, e.g. a. Commonly omitted in translation, when used as an introduction to a verse or phrase: − 2:1. ‫ ܘܫܕܪ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪܢܘܢ ܡܢ ܣܛܝܡ ܬܪܝܢ ܓܒ�ܝܢ‬rendered as ‘Joshua, son of Nun, sent two men from Shittim’. b. ‘yet’: ܿ − 13:1. ‫‘ ܘܐܪܥܐ ܕܐܫܬܚܪܬ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܗܝ ܛܒ ܠܡܐܪܬܗ‬yet there is a great deal of land which is left to take possession of’. c. ‘or’: − 1:7. �‫‘ ܠܝܡܝܢܐ ܘ� ܠܣܡ‬to the right or not to the left’. d. ‘so that’: − 3:17. ‫‘ ܘܩܡܘ ܟܗܢ̈ܐ … ܒܝܒܫܐ‬So that the priests ... stood on dry land’. e. ‘so’: − 5:3. ‫‘ ܘܥܒܕ ܠܗ ܝܫܘܥ ܣܦܣܪܐ ܕܛܪܢܐ‬So Joshua made himself a flint knife’. f. ‘but’: − 5:5. ‫‘ ܘܟܠ ܥܡܐ ܕܐܬܝܠܕ ܒܡܕܒܪܐ‬but all the people born in the wilderness’. g. ‘for’: ̈ − 4:23. ‫‘ ܘܐܘܒܫ ܡܪܝܐ �ܗܟܘܢ ܡܝܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬For the Lord your God dried up the waters of the Jordan’. h. ‘then’: ̈ − 4:11,12. ‫ܘܟܕ ܥܒܪܘ ܟܠܗ ܥܡܗ ܡܫܡܠܝܐܝܬ … ܘܥܒܪܘ ܒܢܝ‬ ‫‘ ܪܘܒܝܠ‬When all the people had completed the crossing … Then they crossed, the children of Reuben …’. i. ‘however’: ̈ − 18:2. ‫‘ ܘܐܫܬܚܪܘ … ܫܒܝܛܐ ܫܒܥܐ‬However, there remained … seven tribes’. (v) Tense/aspect. a. A Syriac imperfect may be better rendered by an English infinitive: ܿ − 15:18. ‫‘ ܐܬܓܪܓܬ ܕܬܫܐܠ ܡܢ ܐܒܘܗ‬she was tempted to ask her father’: lit. ‘… that she would ask’. b. A Syriac imperfect may be better rendered by an English participle: − 4:6. ‫‘ ܘܢܐܡܪܢ ܠܟܘܢ‬saying to you’: lit. ‘they will say to you’. c. A Syriac imperfect may be better rendered by an English infinitive: ܿ − 6:26. ‫‘ ܘܢܒܢܝܗ ܠܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܗܕܐ‬to (re)build this city’: lit. ‘and will (re)build this city’. −

XXIV

Introduction to the Translation

d. A Syriac participle may be better rendered by an English infinitive: − 3:17. ‫‘ ܘܐܬܛܝܒܘ … ܥܒܪܝܢ ܒܝܒܫܐ‬prepared to cross on dry land’: lit. ‘prepared crossing …’. e. A Syriac participle may be better rendered by an English future: − 3:5. ‫‘ ܡܛܠ ܕܡܚܪ ܥܒܕ ܡܪܝܐ ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ‬For tomorrow the Lord will do something wonderful’: lit. ‘… is doing/does …’. f. A Syriac participle may be better rendered by an English perfect: − 19:22. ‫‘ ܘܦܓܥ ܬܚܘܡܐ ܒܬܒܘܪ‬The border reached Tabor’: g. A Syriac perfect may be better rendered by an English present: − 3:3. ‫‘ ܡܐ ܕܚܙܝܬܘܢ‬When you see’. − 3:8. ‫‘ ܡܐ ܕܡܛܝܬܘܢ‬When you come’. In these two examples, we could have rendered the Syriac simple perfect as a pluperfect, making good sense in English. However, we usually avoid the pluperfect unless it is clearly indicated by the inclusion of a form of √‫ܗܘܐ‬. h. A Syriac perfect may ̈ be better̈ rendered by an English future: − 4:7. ‫‘ ܘܗܘܝ ܗܠܝܢ ܟܐܦܐ ܕܘܟܪܢܐ‬these stones will be a memorial’: lit. ‘these stones were a memorial’. (vi) ‘each’. This is a standard translation of ‘man’ in the absolute state: − 2:11. ‫‘ ܘ� ܐܫܬܚܪܬ ܪܘܚܐ ܒܐܢܫ ܡܢܢ‬courage melted away from each one of us’. − 4:5. ‫‘ ܘܣܝܡܘ ܓܒܪ ܟܐܦܗ ܥܠ ܦܬܦܗ‬Let each man put his stone on his shoulder’. (vii) Distribution. A distributive sense may be expressed by use of lāmadh. ̈ − 7:14. ‫‘ ܠܫܒܬܐ … ܠܒܝܬܢ … ܠܒܒ�ܝܢ‬family by family … household by household… man by man’: lit. ‘by families … by houses … by men’. (viii) Ethical dative. − 2:5. ‫‘ ܒܪܡܫܐ ܢܦܩܘ ܠܗܘܢ‬in the evening, they went out’: lit. ‘… for themselves’. Neither the lāmadh nor the objective pronoun can be rendered in acceptable English. (ix) Imperfect as imperative. − 1:7. ‫‘ � ܬܥܒܪ ܡܢܗܘܢ‬do not turn away from them’: the imperfect, with a negative, functions as a negative imperative. (x) Attributive genitive. − 2:18. ‫‘ ܚܘܛܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܙܚܘܪܝܬܐ‬a scarlet thread’: lit. ‘… a thread of scarlet’.

Introduction to the Translation

XXV

The Peshiṭta’s handling of Hebrew names Appendix 3 provides a comprehensive comparison of Syriac names with those of the Hebrew text 6 indicating where there are common replacements for the Hebrew names, where the names were translated, and where they were transliterated. Lists of replacements of individual letters in Syriac for Hebrew letters as well as transposition of letters from names in the one language to the other are given. Most of these changes 7 are the result of inner-Syriac corruption (ISC) and the Appendix material makes it clear what the most obvious transmission confusions must have been. Our handling of the Peshiṭta’s names When we began our translations of what would become the first volumes of the Antioch Bible with the volumes of the Major and Minor Prophets we questioned George Kiraz the editor of the series as how to handle names. He recommended we choose a standard English source for the names so that the all the translators could have the same English translation for the same Syriac name. We chose the spellings of the American Standard Version of 1901; after all the Antioch Bible is an American publication with American English spellings, and no copyright issues are involved with the 1901 American revision. With our work extended to the Former Prophets, in Samuel we found many names which were unique 8 to Samuel or to it and Joshua and Judges which we were also translating. We kept the names found in the ASV when the consonants (ignoring ālaph, waw and yūdh) were the same between the Syriac and Hebrew and in the same order; otherwise we transliterated. Joshua has an enormous number of unique names. We have felt no need to follow ASV’s names in these cases, let alone those cases where there are real consonantal variations, as long as we have followed the ASV’s Assuming they are not identical in their letters. No cases of the replacement of the land of ‘Aram’ by the land of ‘Edom’, found in a number of Peshiṭta texts, occur in Joshua (3:16 involves a city along the Jordan), but there are a number of places where P may have regarded an initial yūdh of Hebrew as a 3rd person preformative and replaced it with a nūn which is the appropriate Syriac preformative. Appendix 3, Initial Locations, Replacements gives numerous examples and Medial Locations, Replacements at 9:17 may do the same. 8 In cases where the names are unique to the books we have translated we have not needed to worry that other translators will render the same Syriac name differently than we have. 6 7

Introduction to the Translation

XXVI

conventions 9 for transliterating names, modifying them from rendering Hebrew names to Syriac. We have always sought to maintain consistency in rendering within the books we have translated 10 and to enable others to be consistent with us. 11 Ālaph and ʿē are ignored in our transliterations except in so far as they have affected vowels. Where a consonant might need an associated vowel in English, although not necessarily in Syriac, we have commonly provided an ‘e’. Consonantal replacements − ‘c’ is exclusively used for ‫ܟܟ‬: 15:40 Cabshon ‫ ܟܒܫܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫ כבון‬Cabbon. − ‘ch’ is exclusively used for ‫( ܟܟ‬usually soft): 7:1 Achar 7:1 ‫ܥܟܪ‬ Hebrew ‫ עכן‬Achan, − ‘h’ is used for ‫ ܗ‬and ‫ܚ‬: 12 e.g. 10:33 Harmon ‫ ܗܪܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫ הרם‬Horam; 19:14 Haditon ‫ ܚܕܝܬܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫ חנתן‬Hannathon, − ‘i’ is often used for a medial consonantal ‫ܝ‬: 19:21 Enian ‫ܘܥܢܝܢ‬ Hebrew ‫גנים‬, − ‘j’ is used for an initial ‫ܝ‬: 16:6 Jaloah 13 ‫ ܝܠܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫ינוחה‬ Janoah, 14 − ‘k’ is used exclusively for ‫ܩ‬: 15:59 Lathkan ‫ ܠܬܩܢ‬Hebrew ‫ אלתקן‬Eltekon, − ‘p’ is used exclusively for ‫ܦ‬: 15:38 Kazpah ‫ ܩܨܦܐ‬Hebrew ‫מצפה‬ Mizpeh, − ‘ph’ is used for soft ‫ܦ‬: 19:14 Caphtanael ‫ ܟܦܬܢܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫ יפתח־אל‬Jiphtahel, − ‘t’ is used for both the commonly occurring ‫ ܬ‬and for the infrequent ‫ܛ‬: 15:57 Taknah ‫ ܬܩܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫ תמנה‬Timnah; 13:26 Batnin ‫ ܒܛܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫ בטנים‬Betonim, 25F

As far as we can infer what they must have been. Nonetheless we have not achieved complete consistency with the equivalents that follow in our transliterations. 11 Ramath (e.g. 5:3) is not spelled Ramtha or Rametha because that is how we spelled the name in Samuel; we use Koriath rather than Kiriath (ASV) since we also followed the Syriac in this way in Samuel. 12 ‘h’ is rarely needed for an initial or medial ‫ ܗ‬in Syriac names. 13 The second ‘a’ is introduced on the analogy of the patah furtive as represented in ASV. 14 The Hebrew ends in a he directive. 9

10

Introduction to the Translation − − − −



XXVII

‘th’ is usually used for a soft ‫ܬ‬: 13:17 Mathbaal ‫ܡܬܒܥܠ‬ Hebrew ‫ במות בעל‬Bamoth-baal, ‘s’ is used for ‫ܣ‬: 15:61 Sachsah ‫ ܣܟܣܐ‬Hebrew ‫ סככה‬Secacah, ‘sh’ is used for ‫ܫ‬: 15:43 Ashiah ‫ ܐܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫ אשנה‬Ashnah, ‘v’ is used for a consonantal ‫ ܘ‬as in Avvim used by ASV in Joshua and other books, but not used by us in any transliterations. ‘w’ is used for a consonantal ‫ܘ‬: 19:13 Mathwah ‫ ܡܬܘܐ‬Hebrew ‫המתֹאר‬, 15 ‘z’ is used for both ‫ ܙ‬and ‫ܨ‬: 15:24 Zib ‫ ܙܝܒ‬Hebrew ‫ זיף‬Ziph; 3:16 Zaretham ‫ ܨܪܬܡ‬Hebrew ‫ צרתן‬Zarethan. 26F



Vowels − Medial ‘a’ is used e.g. in 9:17 Koriath-narin ‫ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܢܥܪܝܢ‬9:17 where Koriath-naarin could have been justified, but for consistency we have used the form we used in Samuel, ܿ − Final ‘a’ is used for ‫ ܼ◌ܥ‬: 10:3 Naphia ‫ ܢܦܝܥ‬Hebrew ‫יפיע‬ Japhia, ܿ ܿ − ‘ah’ is used for either a final ‫ ܼ◌ܐ‬or ‫ ܼ◌ܚ‬: 16 15:38 Kazpah ‫ܩܨܦܐ‬ Hebrew ‫ מצפה‬Mizpeh, 15:57 Taknah ‫ ܬܩܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫תמנה‬ Timnah; 42 Naphtah ‫ ܢܦܬܚ‬Hebrew ‫ עשׁן‬Ashan. − ‘o’ commonly is used for ‫ ̇ܘ‬: 15:40 Cabshon ‫ ܟܒܫܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫ כבון‬Cabbon. − Final ‘oh’ may be used as in 15:34 Patoh ‫ ܦܬܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫תפוח‬, Tappuah, 17 − ‘u’ commonly is used for ‫ ̣ܘ‬: 19:27 Umkah ‫ ܥܘܡܩܐ‬Hebrew ‫עמק‬ Emek (in ‘Beth-emek’). 28F

Addenda

There are many passages where the meaning of MT is not precisely rendered in P. Apart from differences imposed by the different idioms of the two languages, there are four main explanations of these discrepancies: (i) error, (ii) Hebrew meaning obscure, (iii) inner-Syriac corruption, (iv) deliberate interpretative change. Groups (i) and (ii) are covered in 15 This may be part of a name (so various English translations) or a translatable term (other English translations). 16 ASV typically renders ‫◌ה‬ ‫ ׇ‬as ‘ah’. 17 Note how ASV renders the patah furtive.

XXVIII

Introduction to the Translation

Addendum (1), group (iii) in Addendum 2, and group (iv) in Addendum 3. There is inevitably a subjective element in this classification. Addendum 1: Mistranslation

‘Mistranslation’ is used rather freely as a category, and includes examples where MT may have been ambiguous. We have sought to explain P’s readings, though we have not been able to in every case. The references to Hebrew roots are all to Koehler Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3:13 ‫‘ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܙܩܐ‬as in a wineskin’. MT ‫‘ נד‬mass of water’. P perceived not ‫נד‬ but ‫‘ נאד‬wine-skin’. So too 3:16. 3:16 ‫‘ ܠܝܡܐ ܕܡܥܪܒܐ ܝܡܐ ܕܡܠܚܐ‬to the sea of the west, the salt sea’. MT ‫על‬ ‫‘ ים הערבה ים־המלח‬to the sea of the Arabah, the salt sea’. P rendered ‫ הערבה‬eas if it were from √V ‫‘ ערב‬to go down (of the sun); the term is also used, as here, of individual steppe or desert areas. 14:10 ‫‘ ܐܢܝܚ ܠܢ ܡܪܝܐ‬The Lord has given us rest’. MT ‫‘ החיה יהוה אותי‬the Lord spared my life/kept me alive’. MT ‫ החיה‬is 3rd masc. sing. perfect of √‫‘ חיה‬to live’. P mistakenly rendered √‫‘ נוח‬to rest’. ̈ 15:6 ‫‘ ܠܒܢ ܕܒܢܝ ܪܘܒܝܠ‬towards Leban, (in the territory of) the children of Reuben’. MT ‫‘ ועלה הגבול אבן בהן בן־ראובן‬the border goes up (to) the stone of Bohan son of Reuben’. ‘Bohan’ occurs in the Hebrew Bible only here and at Josh 18:17, where too the Hebrew ‫ אבן‬is rendered ‫ܠܒܢ‬. This is a difference which could readily be explained by a mishearing, though not so readily by a misreading — if a scribe were working from a passage that was being read to him, he could have thought that he heard ‫ועלה הגבול לבן‬. P missed, presumably as a result of haplography, much of the MT of this verse, from ‫בית הגלה‬ to ‫אבן בהן‬. ̈ 17:11 ‫‘ ܙܘܝܢ‬heights’: perhaps lit. ‘swellings’. MT ‫הנפת‬, hapax legomena, possibly a place name, from √III ‫‘ נוף‬to be high’. P rendered the rootmeaning, giving but poor sense in this context. 18:17 ‫‘ ܠܒܢ ܘܠܒܗܢ ܕܒܪܗ ܕܪܘܒܝܠ‬to Laban, to Bohan who is the son of Reuben’. MT ‫(‘ אבן בהן בן־ראובן‬to the) stone of Bohan the son of Reuben’. MT ‫ אבן‬was perhaps originally translated by the cognate; although the latter does exist in Syriac it is rare, so possibly a later scribe, unfamiliar with the term, accidentally or even deliberately changed it to ‫ܠܒܢ‬. 23:4 ‫‘ ܕ� ܦܠܓܬ‬I have not divided up’. MT ‫‘ הפלתי‬I have brought to ruin (1st common perfect Hiphil of √‫‘ נפל‬to fall’. P apparently read √‫פלה‬ in the Hiphil ‘to make separate’, or perhaps read √‫‘ פלג‬to separate/split’ though this root is not attested in the Hiphil in the

Introduction to the Translation

XXIX

Hebrew Bible. There is no equivalent in MT of �‫‘ ܕ‬that not’; it makes poor sense in the context, and P’s reason for writing it is not apparent. ̈ ‫‘ ܒܨ‬in your temples’. MT ‫‘ בצדיכם‬in your sides’. The Syriac 23:13 ‫ܕܥܝܟܘܢ‬ cognate of the Hebrew word means ‘the side/temple of the head’, not as in Hebrew ‘the side of the body’. Addendum 2: Inner-Syriac Corruptions

17:8

17:12

‫‘ ܒܬܦܘܚ ܘܦܬܚ‬Tappuah, and it opened’. MT ‫‘ תפוח ותפוח‬Tappuah but Tappuah’. An original ‫ ܘܬܦܘܚ‬may have become changed by ISC to ‫ܘܦܬܚ‬. ‫‘ ܕܐܬܛܦܝܣܘ‬were persuaded’ translated this Ethpeel form of √‫ܦܝܣ‬, but makes poor sense in the context. The Ethtaphal of √‫‘ ܦܣ‬to allow’

would make good sense: ‘were allowed’. Scribal error may have changed an original ‫ ܕܐܬܬܦܣܘ‬to the present form. 17:15 ‫‘ ܠܓܒܐ ܕܛܘܪܐ‬to the side of the mountain-country’. MT ‫‘ היערה‬to the forest’. An original ‫‘ ܠܥܒܐ‬to the forest’ may have been changed by ISC to ‫ܠܓܒܐ‬, and ‫ ܕܛܘܪܐ‬added to fit the context. Addendum 3: Deliberate changes introduced by P

A few changes from the Hebrew have been deliberately made by P. A treatment of such changes in detail is inappropriate for this work, but a couple examples may show the effect of P’s work. 5:9 ‫‘ ܐܥܒܪܬ‬I have taken away’ (lit. ‘I made to pass over’). MT ‫‘ גלותי‬I have rolled’. There is a Syriac cognate ‫ ܓܠ‬of the Hebrew root, which in the Aphel has the sense ‘to roll’; by using √‫ ܥܒܪ‬with a wider meaning P failed to reproduce the word play underlying the name ‘Gilgal’. 7:26 ‫‘ ܥܘܡܩܐ ܕܥܟܪ‬the Valley of Achar’. In MT, the man who took some of the devoted property is named ‫עכן‬, but the place where the cairn was built is called, perhaps by deliberate word-play, ‫‘ עמק עכור‬the Valley of Trouble’. The Syriac cognate has much the same sense. P has intentionally eliminated the difference between the two names found in MT: that of the man and that of the place. 24:7 ‫‘ ܘܐܥܒܪ �ܒܗܝ̈ܟܘܢ ܒܓܘܗ‬he brought your fathers through its midst’. MT lacks this phrase. P has added this text, harmonizing with the more usual version of the Exodus account.

APPENDIX 1: VERSIFICATION Versification, the Mosul text compared with the Leiden Edition. Leiden 2:23 6:3 10:4 13:4 15:33 15:46 15:61 16:8 18:20 19:39 missing 21:31 21:36 21:37 21:37a 21:37 21:34 21:35 22:25

1

Begins with Mosul Last 2 words of 2:22 Last 6 words of 3:2 Third word of 10:4 Last 2 words of 13:3 Last word of 15:32 Last 2 words of 15:45 Last word of 15:60 Last 4 words of 16:7 Last word of 18:19 19:39 lacks 7a1 parallel Last 2 words of 21:30 21:34 words 6 through 12 Last 2 words of 21:34 First 4 words of 21:35 1 Last 3 words of 21:35 21:36 21:37 Last 4 words of 22:24

See Appendix 2.

XXXI

APPENDIX 2: VARIANT READINGS Based on Collations by Donald M. Walter and Morgan Reed The following table gives the variants between Mosul and the Leiden edition of Joshua based on 7a1. 1 The fourth column indicates the support for the Mosul reading as follows: early first millennium up to and including the tenth century. late post tenth century making use of the Leiden apparatus. Lee Lee’s edition (1823) agrees with Mosul. Urmia the Urmia edition (1852) agrees with Mosul. no support Mosul’s reading is unique. Place 1:4

Mosul

1:10 1:16 2:3

‫ܘܥܕܡܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܠܫܠܝܛܢܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܟܠܡܕܡ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܢ‬

2:9 2:13 2:14

‫ܕܥܠ‬ ‫ܒܬܪ‬ ̈ ‫ܓܫܘܫܐ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬ ‫ܘ�ܒܝ‬ ‫ܥܡܟܝ‬

2:7 1º

2:20 2:24

2nd

‫ܐܦ‬

‫ܗܕܐ‬

Leiden 2

‫ܥܕܡܐ‬

̈ ‫ܠܫܠܝܛܢܐ‬ ‫ܟܠ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܒܬܪ‬ ̈ ‫ܓܫܘܫܐ‬ ‫ܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ‬ ‫�ܒܝ‬ ‫ܥܡܟܘܢ‬ lacking

‫ܘܐܦ‬

Ms support for Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late 3 early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early late early Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early

Errors in 7a1 are not cited e.g. 1:14, 9:10. In cases where Leiden has emended the text of 7a1, usually the original reading of 7a1 (or if 7a1 has the support of other MSS ‘7a1 +’) is given. 3 8a1c is treated as late. 1 2

XXXIII

XXXIV

3:3

3:14 3:17 4:2 4:3 4:7 4:9 4:11 4:13 4:17 4:18 4:19 4:21 4:23

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

‫ܠܗܘܢ‬

lacking

‫ܕܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܒܪ‬ ̈ ‫ܟܐܦܝܢ‬

‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܕܒܪܘ‬ ̈ ‫ܟܐܦܐ‬

‫ܒܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬

‫ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬

‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ‬

‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܗܘܘ‬

‫ܕܕܝܬܩܐ ܕܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܩܒܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܠܩܪܒܐ‬

‫ܕܕܝܬܩܐ‬ ‫ܩܒܘܬܐ‬

‫ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ‬ ܿ ‫ܡܕܢܚܝܗ‬ ‫ܝܫܘܥ‬ ‫ܘܐܘܒܫ‬

5:5 5:8

5:11 5:12 6:2 (7a1 6:3) 6:3 6:4 6:6 6:9 6:12

‫ܘܐܘܒܫܗ‬ ‫ܕܐܬܝܠܕ‬ ‫ܐܬܓܙܪܘ‬ ‫ܒܡܫܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܦܛܝ�ܐ‬ ܿ ‫ܥܠܬܗ‬ ‫ܟܠܟܘܢ‬ ܿ ‫ܐܬܟܘܪܟܘܗ‬ ܿ ‫ܐܬܟܘܪܟܘܗ‬ ‫ܩܒܘܬܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܩܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܒܨܦܪܐ‬

4 5

lacking

lacking lacking

‫ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢܙ ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ ܡܕܢܚܐ‬4 lacking

‫ܕܐܘܒܫ‬ ‫ܕܐܘܒܫܗ‬ ‫ܕܐܬܝܠܕܘ‬ ‫ܓܙܪܘ‬

lacking

no seyāme seyāme

‫ܟܠܗܘܢ‬ ܿ ‫ܐܬܟܪܟܘܗ‬ ܿ ‫ܐܬܟܪܟܘܗ‬ ‫ܩܒܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܩܪܝܢ ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܒܫܦܪܐ‬

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late (8a1c) early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late Urmia Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul no support early 5 late early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early

So Leiden (7a1 has this reading, but misspelled). Mosul has no support for both lacking seyāme and having a fem. suffix.

Appendix 2: Variant Readings 6:13 6:15 6:18 6:20 6:22 1º

6:24 6:26 7:1 7:2 1º 7:3 7:5 7:9 7:11 1º 7:12

7:21 7:25 8:2 8:3 8:8 8:10

‫ܘܩܪܝܢ ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܒܩ�ܢܬܐܐ‬ ‫ܒܨܦܪܐ‬ ‫ܬܛܘܫܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܩܥܘ‬ ‫�ܢܬܬܐ‬ ܿ ‫ܠܗ‬

‫ܘܩܪܝܢ ܒܩ�ܢܬܐ‬

‫ܐܝܬܝܘ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܒܙܒܢܐ‬ ܿ ‫ܬ�ܥܝܗ‬

‫ܐܝܬܝܘ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܒܙܒܢܐ‬

‫ܡܢ‬ ‫ܓܒ�ܐ‬

‫ܢܣܒ ܡܢ‬

‫ܕܒܝܬ‬

‫ܠܒܝܬ‬

‫ܘܗܦܟܘ‬

‫ܘܗܦܟܘ ܐܬܘ‬

‫ܒܫܦܪܐ‬ ‫ܬܛܫܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܩܥܐ‬

lacking

ܿ ‫ܥܡܗ‬

‫ܬܪܥܗ‬ lacking

‫ܬܠܬܐ‬

lacking

‫ܘܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܐ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܬ‬

‫ܘܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܐܢܬ ܕܝܢ‬

‫ܐܦ‬ ‫ܐ� ܩܕܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܢܦܢܘܢ ܩܕܡ‬ ̈ ‫ܒܥܠܕܒܒܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܡܗܘܢ‬

‫ܥܡܟܘܢ‬

pr waw om (mechanical)

‫ܕܕܗܒܐ‬

lacking

‫ܕܠܚܬܢܝ‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܓܒ�ܝܢ‬

‫ܕܠܚܬܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܓܒ�ܐ‬

‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܩܘ‬

‫ܘܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܩ‬

XXXV

late late Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early Lee, Urmia no MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early late (8a1c) all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Urmia Urmia

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XXXVI

8:11

‫ܘܫܪܘ‬

8:12

‫ܝܫܘܥ‬

8:13

‫ܘܢܛ�ܝ‬

8:20 8:28 8:29 8:31 9:4

‫ܬܢܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܥܠܡ‬ ܿ ‫ܘܠܡܠܟܗ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܒܚܬܐ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬

9:7 9:9 9:10

‫ܐܡܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܐܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬

9:11 9:12 9:20 9:21

9:25 9:26 10:1 10:2 10:4 10:6 10:7

6

‫ܘܫܪܐ‬

lacking

‫ܘܢܛܪ‬ ܿ ‫ܬܢܢܗ‬

lacking om seyāme

‫ܘܠܡܠܟܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ‬

pr waw lacking

‫ܡܢ ܐܪܥܐ ܘܡܢ ܐܬܪܐ‬

‫ܥܡܗܘܢ‬

‫ܠܗܘܢ‬

‫ܗܐ‬ ‫ܡܘܡܬܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܠܒܢܝ‬

̈ ‫ܕܒܢܝ‬

lacking seyāme

‫ܠܟܢܘܫܬܗ‬ ‫ܕܡܪܝܐ ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܝܘܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܗܫܐ‬ ‫ܝܫܘܥ‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ܿ ‫ܥܡܘ�ܝܗ‬

ܿ ‫ܠܟܠܗ ܟܢܘܫܬܐ‬

‫ܕܚܠܘ‬ ‫ܕܣܩܘ‬ ‫ܥܕܪܐ‬

‫ܕܚܠ‬ ‫ܣܩܘ‬

�‫ܠܓܠܓ‬

�‫ܕܓܠܓ‬

‫ܩܪܒܬܢܐ‬

seyāme

‫( ܘܗܫܐ‬7a1 ‫)ܗܫܐ‬ om

‫ܘܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܡܘ�ܐ‬

seyāme

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul no support early early early 6 all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Urmia Lee all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late 7a1 et al. support Mosul late Urmia no MSS except 7a1 = Mosul no support late all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia

Some early support though with a masc. noun of the same root.

Appendix 2: Variant Readings 10:14

‫ܒܬܪܗ‬

‫ܒܣܬܪܗ‬

10:16 10:17 10:19

‫ܕܐܢܫ‬ ̈ ‫ܡܠܟܝܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܡܠܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܬܘܢ‬

‫ܕܝܫܘܥ‬ ‫̈ܡܠܟܐ‬ ‫̈ܡܠܟܐ‬

‫ܗܦܟ‬ ̈ ‫ܚܡܫܬܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܥܡܗ‬

‫ܗܦܟܘ‬ ̈ ‫ܠܚܡܫܬܝܗܘܢ‬

‫ܘܐܬܟܬܫ‬

‫ܘܐܬܟܬܫܘ‬

‫ܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܣܝܦܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܚܪ‬

‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܕܚܪܒܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܠܡܚܪ‬

‫ܠܗܢܐ ܥܕܢܐ‬ ‫ܫܒܩܘ‬ ‫ܟܠܡܕܡ‬

‫ܠܥܕܢܐ ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ‬ ‫ܟܠ‬

‫ܕܒܦܩܥܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܚܪܒ ܐܢܝܢ‬

‫ܕܦܩܥܬܐ‬

‫ܕܢܦܩܘܢ‬

‫ܕܢܣܩܘܢ‬

11:21

‫ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܚܒܪܘܢ‬

‫ܚܪܒܘܢ‬

11:23 12:2 12:5

‫ܐܫܬܚܪܘ‬ ‫ܓܢܒ� ܐ‬ ‫ܐܫܬܚܪܘ‬ ‫ܝܘܪܬܢܐ‬ ‫ܣܝܚܘܢ‬ ܿ ‫ܘܒܟܠܗ‬ ܿ ‫ܘܦܠܓܗ‬

‫ܐܫܬܚܪ‬ ‫ܓܒܪܐ‬

̈ ‫ܘܒܢܝ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬

‫ܘܐܝܣܪܝܠ‬

10:21 10:22 10:23 10:29 10:32 10:39 11:1 11:6 11:8 11:15 11:17 11:19 11:20

11:22

12:7

pr waw om om

om

pr waw

pr dālath

‫ܝܪܬܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܣܝܚܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܒܟܠܗ‬ ‫ܘܦܠܓܗ‬

XXXVII

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late early Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early Lee all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul (12a1 ‫)ܚܪܡܘܢ‬ Urmia Urmia Lee, Urmia late Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XXXVIII

12:13 12:14 12:19 12:21 13:2 13:3 13:6

‫ܘܝܗܒܗ‬ ‫ܕܓܕܪ‬ ‫ܕܚܪܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܓܕܘ‬ ‫ܗܝ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܐܫܕܘܕܝܐ‬

13:10 13:12

‫ܡܢ ܠܒܢܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܠܒܢܝ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬ ‫ܒܝ�ܬܘܬܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܗܝܢ‬ ܿ ‫ܟܠܗ‬

13:24

‫ܘܝܪܬ‬ ‫ܕܓܕ‬

13:7

13:27

13:30 13:31 14:9 15:2 15:3 15:5 15:6 15:8

15:10 15:12

‫ܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܚܘܡܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܥܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܟܦ�ܘܢܐ ܕܝܐܝܪ‬ ܿ ‫ܘܦܠܓܗ‬

ܿ ‫ܘܝܗܒܗ‬ ‫ܕܚܪܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܓܕܪ‬ ‫ܕܡܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܓܕܘܠ‬ om

̈ ‫ܘܐܫܬܕܘܕܝܐ‬ om

om seyāme

‫�ܪܥܐ ܕܝܣܪܝܠ‬ ̈ ‫ܫܒܛܝܢ‬

om waw

ܿ ‫ܘܟܠܗ‬

‫ܘܝܪܬܘ‬ ̈ ‫ܠܒܢܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܕܓܕ‬ ‫ܕܓܕ‬ pr waw

̈ ‫ܘܬܚܘܡܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܥܒܪܐ‬ ܿ ‫ܟܦ�ܘܢܝܗ ܕܝܐܝܪ‬ om waw

‫ܐܪܥܐ‬

‫ܕܐܪܥܐ‬

‫ܡܢ ܬܡܢ‬ ‫ܬܝܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܚܨܪܘܬ‬

‫ܠܬܡܢ‬ ‫ܬܡܢ‬ ‫ܠܝܨܪܘܬ‬

‫ܘܣܠܩ ܬܚܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܒܢ‬ ‫ܪܝܫܐ‬

‫ܘܬܚܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܒܢܢ‬ ‫ܪܝܫܗ‬

‫ܕܢܥܪܝܡ‬

‫ܕܢܥܪܝܢ‬

ܿ ‫ܒܬܚ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܡܝܗ‬

‫ܒܬܚܘܡܗ‬

late no support Lee early Lee, Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul (Name) Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia early Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia late Urmia Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul no MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul

‫‪Appendix 2: Variant Readings‬‬

‫‪XXXIX‬‬

‫‪early‬‬

‫‪Lee, Urmia‬‬ ‫= ‪, Urmia‬ܘܒܐܪ ܝܘܬܝܐ ‪Lee:‬‬ ‫‪Leiden‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1 +‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫‪Lee, Urmia‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1 +‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫‪early‬‬ ‫‪late‬‬

‫ܘܡܥܟܬ ܡܢ‬

‫ܓܪܒܝܐ ‪Lee‬‬

‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫‪late‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬ ‫‪Lee‬‬

‫‪no support‬‬ ‫= ‪all MSS except 7a1‬‬ ‫‪Mosul‬‬

‫‪lacking 7‬‬

‫ܐܬܪܓܪܓܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܝܘܬܢܐ‬

‫ܘܝܗܒ ܝܫܘܥ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܒ ܩܘܪܝܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܒܥ ܕܐܒܘܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܓܢܒ�ܐ‬ ‫ܐܬܓܪܓܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܝܘܬܝܐ‬

‫ܘܥܠܝܡ‬

‫ܘܥܝܠܡ‬

‫ܘܥܣܩܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܡܝܫ‬

‫ܘܥܙܩܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܡܣ‬

‫‪15:13‬‬

‫‪15:18‬‬ ‫‪15:28‬‬ ‫‪15:34‬‬ ‫‪15:35‬‬ ‫‪15:40‬‬ ‫‪15:47‬‬

‫‪om waw‬‬

‫ܘܥܐܙܐ‬

‫ܘܝܪܒ‬

‫ܘܪܝܒ‬

‫ܨܪܘ‬

‫ܨ ܕܘ‬

‫ܘܣܟܣܟܐ‬

‫ܘܣܟܣܐ‬

‫ܘܢܥܫܢ‬

‫ܘܝܥܫܢ‬

‫ܕܝܬܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܒܝܬ ܐܝܠ‬

‫ܕܥܡܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܣܠܩ ܠܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܠ‬ ‫ܠܡܟܡܬ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܓܪܒܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܒܐ‬

‫‪16:8‬‬

‫ܐܦܪܝܡ‬ ‫ܕܐܫܬܚܪ‬ ‫ܠܫܒܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܒܘܢ ܘܗܫܐ ܗܒ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܝܪܬܘܬܐ ̈ܒܝܢܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܚܐ ܕܐܒܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܥܟܬ‬ ‫ܒܪܟܢܝ‬

‫ܒܝܬ ܐܦܪܝܡ‬ ‫ܕܐܫܬܚܪܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܫܒܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܒܘܢ‬

‫‪17:4‬‬

‫ܕܡܟܡܬ‬ ‫ܒܪܟܢ‬

‫‪17:7‬‬ ‫‪17:14‬‬

‫ܕܡܢܬܐ ܕܓܪܒܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܒܐ‬

‫‪7a1 is supported by 9a1 and MT.‬‬

‫‪15:52‬‬ ‫‪15:58‬‬ ‫‪15:61‬‬ ‫‪15:62‬‬ ‫‪15:63‬‬ ‫‪16:1‬‬ ‫‪16:6‬‬ ‫‪16:10‬‬ ‫‪17:2‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XL

17:16 18:6 18:7 18:10 18:13 18:16 18:17 18:19 18:20 18:21 18:25 18:26 19:14 19:22 19:27 19:29 19:33 19:35 19:36 19:38

8

‫ܘܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܠܫܒܥ‬

‫ܘܒܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‬

‫ܗܝ‬ ̈ ‫ܒܦܠܓܘܬܐ‬

‫ܗܘ‬

om seyāme

‫ܬܡܢ‬

om

‫ܥܠ ܣܘܦܗ‬

‫ܠܣܘܦܗ‬

‫ܠܒܢ‬

‫ܠܒܢܢ‬

‫ܡܢ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܕܫܒܛܐ‬ �‫ܘܒܝܬ ܚܓ‬ ‫ܘܩܨ ܨ‬

‫ܕܡܢ‬

‫ܘܒܪܘܬ‬ ‫ܘܡܨܦܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܦܬܢܐܝܠ‬

‫ܘܒܪܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܨܦܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܦܬܐܝܠ‬

‫ܒܬܒܘܪ‬ ‫ܡܦܩܢܐ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܥܣ�ܐ‬

‫ܒܬܘܪ‬ ‫ܡܦܩܢܗ‬ ‫ܬ�ܬܥܣܪܐ‬

‫ܥܠ‬

‫ܡܢ‬

‫ܕܐܟܙܝܒ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ‬

‫ܕܝܪܒ‬ ‫ܘܥܕܡܐ‬

‫ܘܩܪܬ‬ ‫ܘܚܨܘܪ‬

‫ܘܩܪܝܬ‬ ‫ܘܒܚܨܘܪ‬

‫ܘܚܪܘܡ‬ ‫ܥܢܬ‬

‫ܘܚܕܘܡ‬ ‫ܥܠܬ‬

om om 8

�‫ܘܙܒܝܬ ܘܚܓ‬ ‫ܘܩܨܝܢ‬

The 2nd apparatus in Leiden misspells the noun as ‫ܕܫܒܬܐ‬.

late all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1c = Mosul early early early inc. 7a1 Urmia all MSS except 7a1 + = Mosul Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee all MSS except 7a1 + = Mosul

Appendix 2: Variant Readings 19:39

19:42 19:51 20:5 20:9 21:5

21:6 21:7 21:10 21:11 21:12 21:13 21:15 21:27 21:32 21:35 (7a1 21:37a) 21:37 (7a1 21:35) 21:42 1º 2º 22:4

‫ܗܕܐ ܗܝ ܝܪܬܘܬܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܢܝ‬ ‫ܢܦܬܠܝ‬ ‫ܠܫ�ܒܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܩܘ�ܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܝܠܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܘܪܬܘ‬ ‫ܝܕܥ ܗܘܐ‬ �‫ܘ‬ ‫ܦܠܓܗ ܕܫܒܛܐ‬

lacking

‫ܘܝܐܠܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܘܪܬ‬ ‫ܝܕܥ‬ �‫ܕ‬ ‫ܦܠܓܘܬ ܫܒܛܐ‬

‫ܕܒܡܬܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܪܬܥܣ�ܐ‬ ‫ܫܪܒܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܩܘܪܝܬ‬ ܿ ‫ܘ�ܓܘ�ܣܝܗ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܠܚܩܠܬܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܡܫܘܙܒܐ‬ ̈�‫ܠܩܛܘ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܠܘܠ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܩܕܫ‬ ‫ܘܐܚܡܬ ܕܘܪ‬

‫ܒܡܬܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܥܣܪܐ‬ ‫ܫܪܒܬܗ‬ ‫ܩܘܪܝܬ‬ ܿ ‫ܘܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗ‬ ̈ ܿ ‫ܘܠܚܩ‬ ‫ܠܬܗ‬

‫ܘܩܪܝܬܝܡ‬

‫ܘܩܪܝܬܝܢ‬

‫ܘܪܡܝܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬

‫ܘܪܡܢ‬

‫�ܗܟܘܢ‬

‫�ܗܐ‬

om seyāme

�‫ܡܢ ̈ܩܛܝ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܠܘ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܩܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܪܘܕ‬

̈ ‫ܘܡܕܝܢܬܗܝܢ‬

XLI

Lee, Urmia

Lee, Urmia no support or IO 9 early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul late early early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early early 10 Lee, Urmia no support Lee Lee ‫ܘܚܡܬ ܕܘܪ‬, Urmia Lee, Urmia

‫ܚܡܬ ܕܘܪ‬

Lee, Urmia

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early (7a1 lacking)

9 Index Orthographicus (IO) variants are commonly collected for the Peshitta Institute by the editors of the critical volumes of the Edition, but have not been published since the original publication of Kings. 10 But without support for ‫ ܠ‬for ‫ܡܢ‬.

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XLII

22:5

̈ ‫ܘܢܡܘܣܐ‬ ‫ܦܘܩܕܢ̈ܐ‬

̈ ̈ ‫ܘܦܘܩܕܢܐ‬ ‫ܢܡܘܣܐ‬ ‫ܐܙܠܘ‬ ‫ܘܦܠܓܘܬ ܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܘܦܠܓܘܬ ܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܬܦܪܩܘܢ‬

22:34

‫ܘܐܙܠܘ‬ ‫ܘܦܠܓܗ ܕܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܘܦܠܓܗ ܕܫܒܛܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܦܪܩܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܒܚܬܐ‬ / ‫ܡܢ ܡܚܪ‬ ̈ ‫ܒܢܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܒܕܒܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܒܩܘ�ܒܢܝܢ‬ �‫ܘܕ‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܫܒܛܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܒܢܝ ܓܕ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܒܢܝ‬ ‫ܕܣܗܕܘܬܐ ܗܘ‬

23:14

‫ܘܐܘܒܕ‬ ‫ܿܥܒܕ‬ ‫ܡܠܬܐ ܚܕܐ‬

‫ܕܐܘܒܕ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ܼ

23:15

�‫ܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‬

22:9 22:10 22:11 22:16 22:20 22:22 3º 22:23 22:24 22:26 22:27 22:29 22:30 23:3

24:1 24:7

11

om seyāme transpose transpose (7a1*)

‫ܠܢ ܐܬܪܐ ܘܢܒܢܐ ܠܢ‬ �‫ܘ‬ ‫ܕܡܪܝܐ‬

om seyāme

̈ ̈ ‫ܘܕܒܢܝ‬ ‫ܘܕܒܢܝ ܓܕ‬ ‫ܕܣܗܕܘܬܐ ܗܘܐ‬ transpose lacking

‫ܒܝܢܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܝܬܝܬܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܠܛܘܬܟܘܢ‬

‫ܘܝܬܝܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܠܛܟܘܢ‬

7a1 ‫ܒܝܢܝܟܘܢ‬, which = MT.

̈

‫ܗܘܝܘ‬

‫ܠܟܘܢ ܡܪܝܐ‬ ‫�ܗܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܩܡ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ‬ ̈ 11 ‫ܒܝܢܝܗܘܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܡܝܐ‬

‫ܘܩܡܘ‬ ‫ܠܘܬ‬

24:8 24:9

lacking

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early early early late all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Lee all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul

Lee, Urmia all MSS except 7a1* = Mosul early early no support early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul Urmia all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul early Urmia

Appendix 2: Variant Readings 24:11 24:15 24:21 24:22 24:26 24:32

12

‫ܘܓ�ܓܘܣܝܐ‬ ̈ ‫ܘܚܘܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ‬

transpose

‫ܓܝܪ‬

‫�ܗܐ‬

‫�ܗܢ‬

‫ܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ‬

‫ܐܡܪܝܢ‬

‫ܕܡܘܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܩܠܘ‬

‫ܕܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܒܠܘ‬

9a1fam has the conj. but lacks the prepositional phrase.

XLIII

all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul 12 early all MSS except 7a1 = Mosul

APPENDIX 3: NAMES The spelling of proper names in this translation normally follows that of the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901. These forms are classified using the forms found in the original publication of the Mosul text. In this section names are considered (i) where P regularly features an alternative name, and (ii) where P and MT differ consonantly. The citations are usually of the first occurrence of the name in Joshua. 1 Common Syriac proper names P regularly uses: ‫ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫ ירושלם‬e.g. 12:10.

‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬, e.g. 15:56. ‫ ܐܝܪܝܚܘ‬Hebrew ‫ירחו‬, e.g. 2:1. ‫ ܒܝܬ ܐܫܝܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית הישׁמות‬, e.g. 12:3. ‫ ܒܝܬ ܝܫܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית־שאן‬, e.g. 17:11. ‫ ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬Hebrew ‫ירדן‬, e.g. 1:2. ‫ ܝܣܪܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫ישׂראל‬, e.g. 1:2. ‫ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܢܥܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫קרית־יערים‬, e.g. 9:17. ‫ ܡܨܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫מצרים‬, e.g. 2:10. ‫ ܪܘܒܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫ראובני‬, e.g. 1:12, 20:8 Hebrew ‫ראובן‬. ‫ ܫܝܠܘ‬Hebrew ‫ש�ה‬,ִ e.g. 18:1.

1 Instances involving gentilics are sometimes ignored in this Appendix. Hebrew forms are sometimes quoted with the article or terminal he directive although these features may not be reflected in the Syriac. An emphatic Syriac form of a name corresponding to a Hebrew name with an article is normally ignored. All citations are in Joshua unless explicitly cited otherwise.

XLV

Appendix 3: Names

XLVI

Compound Names In some places where the Hebrew may have a ‘compound name’ 2 P has two separate names, or may divide names differently than in MT. Alternatively P may fuse what are two names in MT. 12:20 ‫‘ ܫܡܪܝܢ ܘܕܡܪܘܢ‬Shamrin and Maron’ Hebrew ‫שמרון מראון‬ ‘Shimron-meron’. 13:19 ‫‘ ܝܨܪܬ ܘܣܥܝܪ‬Jazreth and Seir’ Hebrew ‫‘ צרת השׁחר‬Zereth-shahar’, 15:25 ‫‘ ܘܚܨܘܪ ܘܚܕܬܐ‬and Hazor and Hadattah’ Hebrew ‫חצור חדתה‬ ‘Hazor-hadattah’, 15:32 ‫‘ ܥܝܪܡܘܢ‬Airmon’ Hebrew ‫ועין ורמון‬, ‘and Ain, and Rimmon’, 16:5 ‫‘ ܥܛܪܘܬ ܘܐܕܪ‬Ataroth and Addar’ Hebrew ‫‘ עטרות אדר‬Atarothaddar’, 18:21 ‫‘ ܘܥܡܩ ܘܩܨ ܨ‬and Emek and Keziz’ Hebrew ‫‘ עמק קציץ‬Emekkeziz’, 19:21 ‫‘ ܘܪܡܬ ܥܝܢ ܘܥܢܝܢ‬and Ramath-en, and Enjan’ Hebrew ‫ורמת‬ ‫‘ ועין־גנים‬and Remeth, and Engannim’. Replacements 3 Following the order of appearance in the Mosul text: 3:16 ‫ ܐܪܡ‬Hebrew ‫אדם‬, 7:21 ‫ ܒܒܠܝܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫שנער‬, 9:10 ‫ ܡܬܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫בשן‬, 10:10 ‫ ܥܩܪ‬Hebrew ‫עזקה‬, 10:10 ‫ ܡܩܪ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬, 10:41 ‫ ܪܩܡ ܕ ܓܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫קדשׁ ברנע‬, ̈ ‫ ܒܝܬ ܟܢܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫משׂרפות מים‬, 11:8 ‫ܕܡܝܐ‬ 11:17 ‫ ܦܠܓ‬Hebrew ‫חלק‬, 11:17 ‫ ܓܕ ܓܕ‬Hebrew ‫בעל גד‬, 11:21 ‫ ܓܢܒ�ܐ‬Hebrew ‫ענקים‬, 11:21 ‫ ܓܒܠ‬Hebrew ‫ענב‬, 12:2 ‫ ܐܦܩ‬Hebrew ‫יבק‬, 12:3 ‫‘ ܐܫܕܘܬ ܪܡܬܐ‬high Ashdoth’ Hebrew ‫‘ אשדות הפסגה‬slopes of Pisgah’, Translations of Hebrew names are those of the ASV. In 18:28 there are a couple of places MT has two names with no conjunction connecting them, and P provides conjunctions. The ASV has not regarded the names in MT as ‘compound names’. 3 In some of these cases P replaces a name with a different name, in other cases with a phrase, but since the phrase is not a translation of the Hebrew name it is not classified as a translation. 2

‫‪Appendix 3: Names‬‬

‫‪XLVII‬‬

‫‪,‬חרמון ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܝܡܘܢ ‪12:5‬‬ ‫‪,‬גשורי ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܝܢܕܘܪ ‪12:5‬‬ ‫‪,‬בעל גד ‪ Hebrew‬ܓܠܓ� ‪12:7‬‬ ‫‪,‬קדש ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܩܡ ‪12:22‬‬ ‫‪,‬גוים ‪ ‘Umkah/the Dale’ Hebrew‬ܥܘܡܩܐ ‪12:23‬‬ ‫‪,‬המעכתי ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܘܪܘܣ ‪13:11‬‬ ‫‪,‬מידבא ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܝܒܐ ‪13:16‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪, 4‬בית בעל מעון ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܒܢܝ ܥܡܘܢ ‪13:17‬‬ ‫‪,‬מפעת ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܢܬ ‪13:18‬‬ ‫‪,‬בית הרם ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܐܬܝܡ ‪13:27‬‬ ‫‪,‬גלגל ‪ Hebrew‬ܓܠܝ� ‪15:7‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪,‬חצר שׁועל ‪ Hebrew‬ܕܪܬ ܬ�� ‪15:28‬‬ ‫‪,‬נציב ‪ Hebrew‬ܙܢܩܠܓ ‪15:43‬‬ ‫‪,‬קרית־סנה ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܘܪܝܬ ܣܦܪܐ ‪15:49‬‬ ‫‪,‬ציער ‪ Hebrew‬ܨܒܥܘܢ ‪15:54‬‬ ‫‪,‬יוטה ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܛܢܐ ‪15:55‬‬ ‫‪,‬ארכי ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܒܪܐ ‪16:2‬‬ ‫‪,‬תאנת שׁלה ‪ ‘beneath Shiloh’ Hebrew‬ܬܚܝܬ ܫܝܠܘ ‪16:6‬‬ ‫‪,‬נערתה ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܓܪܬ ‪16:7‬‬ ‫‪,‬קנה ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܡܐ ‪17:9‬‬ ‫‪,‬אלף ‪ Hebrew‬ܓܒܝܪܐ ‪18:28‬‬ ‫‪,‬קרית ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܘܪܝܬܝܡ ‪18:28‬‬ ‫‪,‬בתול ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܐܝܠ ‪19:4‬‬ ‫‪,‬באר ראמת ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܪܡܬܐ ‪19:8‬‬ ‫‪,‬שׂריד ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܕܘܕ ‪19:10‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪,‬מרעלה ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܡܬ ܬ�� ‪19:11‬‬ ‫‪,‬נעה ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܘܐ ‪19:13‬‬ ‫‪,‬אנחרת ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܚܬܪ ‪19:19‬‬ ‫‪,‬אכזיבה ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܪܒ ‪19:29‬‬ ‫‪,‬עמה ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܘܡܩܐ ‪19:30‬‬ ‫‪,‬צר ‪ Hebrew‬ܨܘܪ ‪19:35‬‬ ‫‪,‬צדים ‪ Hebrew‬ܨܝܕܢ ‪19:35‬‬ ‫‪,‬בני־ברק ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܥܠܕܒܟ ‪19:45‬‬ ‫‪,‬יפו ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܝܠܬ ‪19:46‬‬ ‫‪,‬לשם ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܝܢܘ ‪19:47‬‬ ‫‪45F‬‬

‫‪, knowing that an area north of the river Arnon‬עמון ‪ as‬על מעון ‪4 P perhaps misread‬‬ ‫‪was the territory of Ammon.‬‬

XLVIII

Appendix 3: Names

20:7 ‫ ܪܩܡ‬Hebrew ‫קדש‬, 21:11 ‫ ܓܢܒ�ܐ‬Hebrew ‫ענוק‬, 21:29 ‫ ܥܝܢ ܓܕ‬Hebrew ‫עין־גנים‬, 21:32 ‫ ܚܡܪܘܕ‬Hebrew ‫חמת דאר‬, 21:35 (based on location) 5 ‫ ܩܪܝܬܝܡ‬Hebrew ‫דמנה‬, 21:35 (based on location) ‫ ܐܚܫܡܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫נהלל‬, 21:36 ‫ ܢܟܚ‬Hebrew (21:34) ‫יקנעם‬. Initial Locations

Additions

P introduces an initial ‫ܐ‬: 2:1 ‫ ܐܝܪܝܚܘ‬Hebrew ‫יריחו‬, 15:24 ‫ ܐܛܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫טלם‬, 26 ‫ ܐܫܡܥ‬Hebrew ‫שמע‬, 30 ‫ ܐܟܣܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫כסיל‬, 56 ‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬, 17:10 ‫ ܐܝܣܟܪ‬Hebrew ‫ישׂשכר‬, 19:13 ‫ ܐܪܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫רמון‬, 26 ‫ ܐܡܫܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫משאל‬, 21:32 ‫ ܐܚܡܬ ܕܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫חמת דאר‬, 24:4 ‫ ܐܝܣܚܩ‬Hebrew ‫יצחק‬. P introduces an initial ‫ܙ‬: 18:21 ‫ ܙܒܝܬ‬Hebrew ‫בית‬. P introduces an initial ‫ܝ‬: 13:19 ‫ ܝܨܪܬ‬Hebrew ‫צרת‬, 17:11 ‫ܒܝܬ ܝܫܢ‬ Hebrew ‫בית שאן‬. P introduces an initial ‫ܟ‬: 19:46 ‫ ܟܪܩܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫רקון‬. P introduces an initial ‫ܢ‬: 12:18 ‫ ܢܫܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫לשרון‬. 6

Deletions

47F

P omits an initial ‫א‬: 15:7 ‫ ܪܡܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫אדמים‬, 52 ‫ ܪܝܒ‬Hebrew ‫ארב‬, 52 ‫ܥܫܢ‬ Hebrew ‫אשען‬, 59 ‫ ܠܬܩܢ‬Hebrew ‫אלתקן‬, 18:17 ‫ ܪܡܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫אדמים‬. P omits an initial ‫ב‬: 21:27 ‫ ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בעשׁתרה‬. 7 P omits an initial ‫ח‬: 19:37 ‫ ܥܝܢ ܨܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫עין חצור‬. P omits an initial ‫י‬: 16:3 ‫ ܦܠܛܐ‬Hebrew ‫היפלטי‬, 18:27 ‫ ܪܦܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫ירפאל‬. 48F

Replacements

P reads ‫ ܐ‬for ‫ג‬: 15:27 ‫ܐܕܐ‬

‫ ܚܨܪ‬Hebrew ‫חצר גדה‬.

Cases cited as based on location have the cited Syriac in the place in the verse the cited Hebrew appears in its text. In other situations where there seems to be no obvious relation between the Syriac list of names and the Hebrew the names are simply ignored. 6 There is a preposition ‫ ל‬with the Hebrew name; usually such details are ignored in this Addendum. 7 Here and elsewhere Hebrew articles may be shown, but without being regarded as part of the name. 5

Appendix 3: Names

XLIX

P reads ‫ ܐ‬for ‫י‬: 12:3 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܐܫܝܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית ישמות‬, 10 ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬ Hebrew ‫ ירושלם‬. P reads ‫ ܒ‬for ‫פ‬: 10:3 ‫ ܒܪܐܢ‬Hebrew ‫פראם‬. P reads ‫ ܓ‬for ‫ע‬: 8:30 ‫ ܓܒܠ‬Hebrew ‫עיבל‬, 15:50 ‫ ܓܢܒ‬Hebrew ‫ענב‬, 19:7 ‫ ܓܬܪ‬Hebrew ‫עתר‬. P reads ‫ ܕ‬for ‫ר‬: 19:20 ‫ ܕܒܠܬ‬Hebrew ‫רבית‬, 36 ‫ ܕܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫רמה‬. P reads an initial ‫ ܝ‬for an initial ‫יהו‬: 1:1‫ ܝܫܘܥ‬Hebrew ‫יהושע‬. P reads ‫ ܝ‬for ‫נ‬: 15:62 ‫ ܝܥܫܢ‬Hebrew ‫נבשן‬, 17:3 ‫ ܝܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫נעה‬, 19:15 ‫ ܝܗܠܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫נהלל‬. P reads ‫ ܢ‬for ‫א‬: 17:2 ‫ ܢܫܪܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אשׂריאל‬. P reads ‫ ܢ‬for ‫י‬: 10:3 ‫ ܢܦܝܥ‬Hebrew ‫יפיע‬, 11:1‫ ܢܒܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫יבין‬, 12:22 ‫ ܢܩܡܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫יקנעם‬, 15:10 ‫ ܢܥܪܝܡ‬Hebrew ‫יערים‬, 23 ‫ ܢܬܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫יתנן‬, 38 ‫ ܢܩܬܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יקתאל‬, 42 ‫ ܢܦܬܚ‬Hebrew (15:43) ‫יפתח‬, 56 ‫ܢܩܡܥܡ‬ Hebrew ‫יקדעם‬, 17:11 ‫ ܢܒܠܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫יבלעם‬, 19:12 ‫ ܢܦܝܥ‬Hebrew ‫יפיע‬, 27 ‫ ܢܦܬܚܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יפתח־אל‬, 33 ‫ ܢܒܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יבנאל‬, 42 �‫ ܢܬ‬Hebrew ‫יתלה‬. P reads ‫ ܢ‬for ‫מ‬: 15:41‫ ܢܩܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬. P reads ‫ ܣ‬for ‫שׁ‬: 2:1 ‫ ܣܛܝܡ‬Hebrew ‫שׁטים‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫ב‬: 9:17 ‫ ܥܝܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בארות‬, 15:39 ‫ ܥܙܩܬ‬Hebrew ‫בצקת‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫ג‬: 15:51 ‫ ܥܫܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫גשן‬,, 19:21 ‫ ܥܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫עין־גנים‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫י‬: 19:15 �‫ ܥܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫ידאלה‬, 21:16 ‫ ܥܛܐ‬Hebrew ‫יטה‬. P reads ‫ ܪ‬for ‫ד‬: 13:9 ‫ ܪܝܒܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫דיבון‬, 15:49 ‫ ܪܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫דנה‬, 19:12 ‫ ܪܒܬ‬Hebrew ‫דברת‬. See also 15:22 under Transpositions (Initial Locations).

Transpositions 8

P transposes ‫ יר‬with ‫ܕܝ‬: 19:38 ‫ ܕܝܐܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫יראון‬. P transposes ‫ די‬with ‫ܝܪ‬: 15:22 ‫ ܝܪܡܘܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫דימונה‬. P transposes ‫ פ‬and ‫ܬ‬: 15:34 ‫ ܦܬܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫תפוח‬, 15:53 Hebrew ‫בית־תפוח‬. P transposes ‫ ק‬and ‫ܪ‬: 19:35 ‫ ܩܪܬ‬Hebrew ‫רקת‬.

‫ܒܝܬ ܦܬܘܚ‬

Medial Locations

Additions

P adds a medial ‫ܐ‬: 10:41 ‫ ܥܐܙܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזה‬, 19:28 ‫ ܪܚܐܒ‬Hebrew ‫רחב‬.

8

Cited here since one consonant is initial; so elsewhere.

‫‪Appendix 3: Names‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪, 2‬יהושע ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܫܘܥ ‪, 2‬משה ‪ Hebrew‬ܡܘܫܐ ‪: 1:1‬ܘ ‪P adds a medial‬‬ ‫‪ Hebrew‬ܓ�ܓܘܣܝܐ ‪, 3:10‬סיחן ‪ Hebrew‬ܣܝܚܘܢ ‪, 2:10‬ירדן ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‬ ‫ܩܘܪܝܬܝܡ ‪, 19‬קדמת ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܪܡܘܬ ‪, 13:18‬אמרי ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܡܘܪܝܐ ‪, 10‬גרגשי‬ ‫קרית ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܘܪܝܬ ܐܪܒܥ ‪, 15‬יפנה ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܘܦܢܐ ‪, 14:6‬קריתים ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫‪, 14‬בן־הנם ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܪܗܢܘܡ ‪, 8‬עין רגל ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܝܢܐ ܕܕܘܓܠ ‪, 15:7‬ארבע‬ ‫‪ Hebrew‬ܫܠܘܚ ‪, 32‬אלתולד ‪� Hebrew‬ܬܠܡ ‪, 30‬תלמי ‪ Hebrew‬ܬܘܠܡܝ‬ ‫‪, 36‬עין גנים ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܝܢ ܓܚܘܡ ‪, 34‬אשתאול ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܬܘܐܝܠ ‪, 33‬שלחים‬ ‫‪ Hebrew‬ܥܝܢܕܘܪ ‪, 11‬שׁכם ‪ Hebrew‬ܫܘܦܡ ‪, 17:2‬גדרתים ‪ Hebrew‬ܓܬܪܘܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܦܪ ‪, 24‬עפרה ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܘܦܪܐ ‪, 23‬בית־חרון ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܚܘܪܢ ‪, 18:13‬עין־דר‬ ‫‪ Hebrew‬ܒܬܘܪ ‪, 12‬זבולן ‪ Hebrew‬ܙܒܘܠܘܢ ‪, 19:10‬כפר העמני ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܘܡܩܐ‬ ‫ܒܝܬ ܕܓܘܢ ‪, 27‬שיאן ‪ Hebrew‬ܫܘܝܡ ‪, 19:18‬כסלת ‪ Hebrew‬ܟܣܠܘܬ ‪, 12‬תבר‬ ‫ܙܒܘܠܘܢ ‪, 34‬עברן ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܒܪܘܢ ‪, 28‬עמק ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܘܡܩܐ ‪, 27‬בית דגן ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܐܗܪܘܢ ‪, 21:4‬בצר ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܘܨܪ ‪, 20:8‬יהד ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܗܘܕܝܬ ‪, 45‬זבלון ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫)‪ Hebrew (21:31‬ܚܠܩܘܬ ‪, 30‬אשתמע ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܬܡܘܥ ‪, 14‬אהרן ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫‪.‬יעקב ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܥܩܘܒ ‪, 24:4‬רחב ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܚܘܒ ‪, 31‬חלקת‬ ‫‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܐܝܠ ‪, 7:2‬החתי ‪ Hebrew‬ܚܝܬ�̈ܐ ‪: 3:10‬ܝ ‪P adds a medial‬‬ ‫ܒܝܫܢ ‪, 4‬ערוער ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܕܘܥܝܪ ‪, 12:2‬דברה ‪ Hebrew‬ܕܒܝܪ ‪, 10:38‬בית־אל‬ ‫ܨܝܢ ‪, 15:1‬אלעזר ‪� Hebrew‬ܝܥܙܪ ‪, 14:1‬יעזר ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܥܙܝܪ ‪, 13:25‬בשן ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܩܒܨܝܐܝܠ ‪, 21‬שׁשׁי ‪ Hebrew‬ܫܝܫܝ ‪, 14‬יבנאל ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܗܒܐܝܠ ‪, 11‬צן ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܥܫܝܢ ‪, 51‬יקתאל ‪ Hebrew‬ܢܩܬܐܝܠ ‪, 38‬יתנן ‪ Hebrew‬ܢܬܢܝܢ ‪, 23‬קבצאל ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܫܝܠܘ ‪, 18:1‬אשר ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܝܪ ‪, 17:10‬ארב ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܝܒ ‪, 52‬גשן ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫‪, 21‬נהלל ‪ Hebrew‬ܝܗܠܝܠ ‪, 19:15‬ירפאל ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܦܐܝܠ ‪, 27‬שלה ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܢܦܬܚܐܝܠ ‪, 27‬משאל ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܡܫܐܝܠ ‪, 26‬בית פצץ ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܦܨܝܢ‬ ‫‪, 38‬חוקקה ‪ Hebrew‬ܚܩܝܩ ‪, 34‬יבנאל ‪ Hebrew‬ܢܒܐܝܠ ‪, 33‬יפתח־אל ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐܝܠ ‪, 21:30‬שׁכם ‪ Hebrew‬ܫܟܝܡ ‪, 20:7‬מגדל־אל ‪ Hebrew‬ܡܓܕ�ܝܠ‬ ‫‪.‬משאל ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫‪.‬צקלג ‪ Hebrew‬ܨܢܩܠܓ ‪: 15:31‬ܢ ‪P adds a medial‬‬ ‫‪.‬כבון ‪ Hebrew‬ܟܒܫܘܢ ‪: 15:40‬ܫ ‪P adds a medial‬‬ ‫‪.‬אשנה ‪ Hebrew‬ܐܫܬܢܐ ‪: 15:33‬ܬ ‪P adds a medial‬‬

‫‪Deletions‬‬

‫‪ Hebrew‬ܒܪܬ ‪, 18:25‬בית־שאן ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܝܫܢ ‪: 17:11‬א ‪P omits a medial‬‬ ‫באר ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܪܡܬܐ ‪, 8‬בית לבאות ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܠܒܘܬ ‪, 19:6‬בארות‬ ‫‪.‬ראמת בגלעד ‪ Hebrew‬ܪܡܬ ܓܠܥܕ ‪, 20:8‬שיאן ‪ Hebrew‬ܫܘܝܡ ‪, 18‬ראמת‬ ‫‪.‬תבור ‪ Hebrew‬ܬܘܪ ‪: 19:32‬ב ‪P omits a medial‬‬ ‫‪,‬לבנון ‪ Hebrew‬ܠܒܢܢ ‪, 9:01‬עכו ‪ Hebrew‬ܥܟܪ ‪: 7:26‬ו ‪P omits a medial‬‬ ‫ܒܝܬ ܚܘܪܢ ‪, 18:13‬בית־ענות ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܝܬ ܥܢܬ ‪, 15:59‬כנרות ‪ Hebrew‬ܟܢܪܬ ‪11:2‬‬ ‫‪, 21:28‬חוקקה ‪ Hebrew‬ܚܩܝܩ ‪, 19:34‬בארות ‪ Hebrew‬ܒܪܬ ‪, 25‬בית־חרון ‪Hebrew‬‬ ‫‪.‬קשיון ‪ Hebrew‬ܩܫܝܢ‬ ‫‪.‬חלחול ‪ Hebrew‬ܚܠܘܠ ‪: 15:58‬ח ‪P omits a medial‬‬

Appendix 3: Names

LI

P omits a medial ‫י‬: 8:30 ‫ ܓܒܠ‬Hebrew ‫עיבל‬. 15:3 ‫ ܥܩܪܩܡ‬Hebrew ‫עקרבים‬, 17:2 ‫ ܫܡܕܥ‬Hebrew ‫שׁמידע‬, 18:21 ‫ ܥܡܩ ܘܩܨ ܨ‬Hebrew ‫עמק קציץ‬, ֵ 21:24 ‫ �ܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫איׇּ לון‬. ַ 19:33 ‫ ܨܢܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫צעננים‬, 43 ‫ �ܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫אילון‬, P omits a medial ‫ל‬: 19:26 ‫ ܐܡܠܟ‬Hebrew ‫אלמלך‬. P omits ‫ר‬: 19:12 ‫ ܪܒܬ‬Hebrew ‫דברת‬.

Replacements

P reads ‫ ܐܚ‬for ‫י‬: 13:20 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܐܚܫܡܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בית הישמות‬. P reads a ‫ ܒ‬for ‫נ‬: 16:8 ‫ ܩܒܐ‬Hebrew ‫קנה‬. P reads a ‫ ܒ‬for ‫ע‬: 15:38 ‫ ܕܠܒܢ‬Hebrew ‫דלען‬. P reads a ‫ ܒ‬for ‫פ‬: 15:9 ‫ ܥܒܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫עפרון‬. P reads a ‫ ܓ‬for ‫ע‬: 13:5 ‫ ܒܓܠܥܕ‬Hebrew ‫בעל גד‬, 15:22 ‫ܓܕ ܓܕܐ‬ Hebrew ‫עדעדה‬. P reads ‫ ܕ‬for ‫ז‬: 16:3 ‫ ܓܕܪ‬Hebrew ‫גזר‬. P reads ‫ ܕ‬for ‫ר‬: 12:2 ‫ ܥܕܘܥܝܪ‬Hebrew ‫ערוער‬, 15:58 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܨ ܕܘ‬Hebrew ‫בית־צור‬, 19:38 ‫ ܚܕܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫חרם‬. P reads ‫ ܕܝ‬for ‫נ‬: 19:14 ‫ ܚܕܝܬܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫חנתן‬. P reads ‫ ܙ‬for ‫ד‬: 15:36 ‫ ܥܙܝܬܝܡ‬Hebrew ‫עדיתים‬. P reads ‫ ܙ‬for ‫ܩ‬: 15:39 ‫ ܥܙܩܬ‬Hebrew ‫בצקת‬. P reads ‫ ܚ‬for ‫זנ‬: 9 15:34 ‫ ܚܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫זנוח‬. P reads ‫ ܚ‬for ‫ני‬: 15:34 ‫ ܥܝܢ ܓܚܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫עין גנים‬. P reads ‫ ܚ‬for ‫יי‬: 10 19:46 ‫ ܡܚܪܩܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫מי הירקון‬. P reads ‫ ܝ‬for ‫א‬: 9:17 ‫ ܥܝܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בארות‬, 15:56 ‫ ܐܝܙܪܥܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יזרעאל‬. P reads ‫ ܝ‬for ‫ו‬: 11:1 ‫ ܫܡܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫שמרון‬, 12:20 ‫ ܫܡܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫שמרון מראון‬, 15:33 ‫ ܐܫܬܘܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אשתאול‬, 19:7 ‫ ܪܡܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫רמון‬, 15 ‫ ܫܡܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫שמרון‬. P reads ‫ ܝ‬for ‫נ‬: 15:43 ‫ ܐܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אשנה‬, 19:26 ‫ ܠܒܝܬ‬Hebrew ‫לבנת‬. P reads ‫ ܝܢ‬for ‫ח‬: 19:6 ‫ ܫܪܘܝܢܢ‬Hebrew ‫שרוחן‬. P reads a ‫ ܟ‬for ‫ב‬: 21:30 ‫ ܥܟܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫עבדון‬. P reads a ‫ ܟ‬for ‫ע‬: 19:26 ‫ ܥܡܟܪ‬Hebrew ‫עמעד‬. P reads ‫ ܠ‬for ‫י‬: 15:29 ‫ ܥܠܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫עיים‬, 19:20 ‫ ܕܒܠܬ‬Hebrew ‫רבית‬. P reads ‫ ܠ‬for ‫נ‬: 15:31 �‫ ܣܡܣ‬Hebrew ‫סנסנה‬, 34 ‫ ܥܝܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫עינם‬, 37 ‫ ܨܠܢ‬Hebrew ‫צנן‬, 50 ‫ ܥܠܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫ענים‬, 53 ‫ ܝܠܘܡ‬Hebrew ‫ינים‬/‫ינום‬, 56 ‫ ܙܠܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫זנוח‬, 16:6 ‫ ܝܠܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫ינוחה‬, 18:24 ‫ ܥܦܠܝ‬Hebrew ‫עפני‬. P could be an ISC of ‫*ܙܢܘܚ‬. The Hebrew article would not have been represented directly in the original transliteration of the name. 9

10

LII

Appendix 3: Names

P reads ‫ ܡ‬for ‫ב‬: 13:19 ‫ ܫܡܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫שׂבמה‬. P reads ‫ ܡ‬for ‫ד‬: 15:56 ‫ ܢܩܡܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫יקדעם‬. P reads ‫ ܡ‬for ‫נ‬: 12:22 ‫ ܢܩܡܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫יקנעם‬, 15:31 �‫ ܣܡܣ‬Hebrew ‫סנסנה‬. P reads ‫ ܢ‬for ‫י‬: 9:17 ‫ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܢܥܪܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫קרית־יערים‬, 15:28 ‫ܒܪܝܘܬܢܐ‬ Hebrew ‫בזיותיה‬, 19:19 ‫ ܫܢܐܢ‬Hebrew ‫שיאן‬. P reads a ‫ ܣ‬for ‫כ‬: 15:61 ‫ ܣܟܣܐ‬Hebrew ‫סככה‬. P reads a ‫ ܣ‬for a ‫שׁ‬: 9:10 ‫ ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫עשׁתרות‬, 21:27 ‫ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬ Hebrew ‫בעשׁתרה‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫ב‬: 15:62 ‫ ܝܥܫܢ‬Hebrew ‫נבשן‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫ג‬: 13:5 ‫ ܒܓܠܥܕ‬Hebrew ‫בעל גד‬. P reads ‫ ܥ‬for ‫נ‬: 19:28 ‫ ܩܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫קנה‬. P reads ‫ ܦ‬for ‫ב‬: 19:20 ‫ ܐܦܨ‬Hebrew ‫אבץ‬. P reads ‫ ܦ‬for ‫כ‬: 17:2 ‫ ܫܘܦܡ‬Hebrew ‫שׁכם‬. P reads ‫ ܩ‬for ‫ב‬: 15:3 ‫ ܥܩܪܩܡ‬Hebrew ‫עקרבים‬. P reads ‫ ܩ‬for ‫מ‬: 15:57 ‫ ܬܩܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫תמנה‬. P reads ‫ ܩ‬for ‫נ‬: 18:24 ‫ ܟܦܪ ܥܘܡܩܐ‬Hebrew ‫כפר העמני‬. P reads ‫ ܪ‬for ‫ד‬: 10:10 ‫ ܡܩܪ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬, 12:15 ‫ ܥܪܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫עדלם‬, 16 ‫ ܡܩܪ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬, 13:9 ‫ ܡܥܪܒܐ‬Hebrew ‫מידבא‬, 18 ‫ ܩܪܡܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫קדמת‬, 15:7 ‫ ܪܡܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫אדמים‬, 22 ‫ ܝܪܡܘܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫דימונה‬, 31 ‫ܡܪܡܢܐ‬ Hebrew ‫מדמנה‬, 35 ‫ ܥܪܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫עדלם‬, 37 ‫ ܚܪܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫חדשה‬, 18:17 ‫ܪܡܝܢ‬ Hebrew ‫אדמים‬, 21:30 ‫ ܥܟܪܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫עבדון‬, 34 ‫ ܩܪܡܘܬ‬Hebrew (21:37) ‫קדמות‬. P reads ‫ ܪ‬for ‫ז‬: 15:28 ‫ ܒܪܝܘܬܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫בזיותיה‬. P reads ‫ ܫ‬for ‫שׂ‬: 13:19 ‫ ܫܡܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫שׂבמה‬, 17:2 ‫ ܢܫܪܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אשׂריאל‬. P reads ‫ ܬ‬for ‫ד‬: 15:36 ‫ ܓܬܪ‬Hebrew ‫גדרה‬, 36 ‫ ܓܬܪܘܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫גדרתים‬, 58 ‫ ܓܬܪ‬Hebrew ‫גדור‬. P reads ‫ ܬ‬for ‫ר‬: 15:36 ‫ ܫܥܬܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫שערים‬, 15:36 ‫ ܓܬܪܘܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫גדרתים‬. Transpositions

Simple Transpositions P transposes a medial ‫ ܘ‬with another letter: 12:10 ‫ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫ירושלם‬, 19:4 ‫ �ܘܬܠܕ‬Hebrew ‫אלתולד‬, 18 ‫ ܟܣܠܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫כסולת‬, 27 ‫ ܟܘܒܠ‬Hebrew ‫כבול‬. P transposes a medial ‫ ܝ‬with another letter: 12:3 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܐܫܝܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית הישמות‬, 15:17 ‫ ܥܬܢܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫עתניאל‬, 17:2 ‫ ܢܫܪܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫אשׂריאל‬, 19:19 ‫ ܚܦܝܪܡ‬Hebrew ‫חפרים‬, 19:20 ‫ ܩܝܫܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫קשיון‬, 27 ‫ ܢܥܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫נעיאל‬.

Appendix 3: Names

LIII

P transposes ‫ ܐ‬and ‫ר‬: 15:44 ‫ ܡܐܪܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫מראשה‬. P transposes ‫ ܕ‬and ‫ד‬: 12:14 ‫ ܥܕܪ‬Hebrew ‫ערד‬. P transposes ‫ ܚ‬and ‫ל‬: 15:62 ‫ ܥܝܪܡܚܠ‬Hebrew ‫עיר־המלח‬. P transposes ‫ ܠ‬and ‫ע‬: 15:9 ‫ ܒܠܥ‬Hebrew ‫בעלה‬. P transposes ‫ ܢ‬and ‫ע‬: 19:33 ‫ ܨܢܥܡ‬Hebrew ‫צעננים‬. P transposes ‫ ܥ‬and ‫ש‬: 15:52 ‫ ܥܫܢ‬Hebrew ‫אשען‬. P transposes ‫ ܩ‬and ‫ל‬: 19:25 ‫ ܚܩܠܬ‬Hebrew ‫חלקת‬. P transposes ‫ ܩ‬and ‫ת‬: 19:44 ‫ �ܩܬ‬Hebrew ‫אלתקה‬. P transposes ‫ ܪ‬and ‫ד‬: 12:4 ‫ ܐܪܕܥܝ‬Hebrew ‫אדרעי‬. P transposes ‫ ܬ‬and ‫ר‬: 21:27 ‫ ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בעשׁתרה‬. P transposes ‫ ܬ‬and ‫ל‬: 21:23 ‫ ܐܬܠܩܐ‬Hebrew ‫אלתקא‬.

Complex transpositions

P transposes ‫ ܕܘ‬and ‫ור‬: 15:58 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܨ ܕܘ‬Hebrew ‫בית־צור‬. P transposes ‫ ܗܒ‬with ‫בנ‬: 15:11 ‫ ܝܗܒܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יבנאל‬. Final Locations 11

Additions

P adds a final ‫ܐ‬: 12:23 �‫ ܓܠܓ‬Hebrew ‫גלגל‬, 15:15 ‫ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܣܦܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫קרית־ספר‬, 19:8 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܪܡܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫באר ראמת‬, 12 27 ‫ ܥܘܡܩܐ‬Hebrew ‫עמק‬, 19:33 ‫ ܚܠܦܐ‬Hebrew ‫חלף‬. P adds a final ‫ܘܢ‬: 10:33 ‫ ܗܪܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫הרם‬. P adds a final ‫ܝܬ‬: 19:45 ‫ ܝܗܘܕܝܬ‬Hebrew ‫יהד‬. P adds a final ‫ܠ‬: 12:21 ‫ ܡܓܕܘܠ‬Hebrew ‫מגדו‬. P adds a final ‫ܬ‬: 17:7 ‫ ܡܟܡܬ‬Hebrew ‫מכמתת‬. 13

Deletions

54F

P omits a final ‫ה‬: 12:16 ‫ ܡܩܪ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬, 13:18 ‫ ܝܗܨ‬Hebrew ‫יהצה‬, 15:9 ‫ ܒܠܥ‬Hebrew ‫בעלה‬, 29 ‫ ܒܥܠ‬Hebrew ‫בעלה‬, 36 ‫ ܓܬܪ‬Hebrew ‫גדרה‬, 42 ‫ ܠܒܢ‬Hebrew ‫לבנה‬, 53‫ ܐܦܩ‬Hebrew ‫אפקה‬, 16:6 ‫ ܝܠܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫ינוחה‬, 19:29 ‫ ܚܣ‬Hebrew ‫חסה‬, 34 ‫ ܚܩܝܩ‬Hebrew ‫חוקקה‬, 44 ‫ �ܩܬ‬Hebrew ‫אלתקה‬, 21:34 ‫ ܝܗܨ‬Hebrew (21:36) ‫יהצה‬. P omits a final ‫י‬: 15:62 ‫ ܥܝܢ ܓܕ‬Hebrew ‫עין גדי‬. P omits a final ‫ים‬: 15:32 ‫ ܫܠܘܚ‬Hebrew ‫שלחים‬. Cases of what look like or are plural endings in P ‫ ܝܢ‬H ‫ ים‬are ignored. As with some other examples other analyses are possible. 13 Possibly the final ‫ ܬ‬is in place of a he directive. 11 12

Appendix 3: Names

LIV

P omits a final ‫ת‬: 16:6 ‫ ܡܟܡܬ‬Hebrew ‫מכמתת‬, 18:25

‫בארות‬.

‫ ܒܪܬ‬Hebrew

Replacements P reads a final ‫ ܐ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 14 1:1 ‫ ܡܘܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫משה‬, 12 ‫ ܡܢܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫מנשה‬, 7:1 ‫ ܝܗܘܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫יהודה‬, 9:17 ‫ ܟܦܝܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫כפירה‬, 10:29 ‫ܠܒܢܐ‬ Hebrew ‫לבנה‬, 41 ‫ ܥܐܙܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזה‬, 12:5 ‫ ܣܠܟܐ‬Hebrew ‫סלכה‬, 8 ‫ܥܪܒܐ‬ Hebrew ‫ערבה‬, 14 ‫ ܚܪܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫חרמה‬, 24 ‫ ܬܪܨܐ‬Hebrew ‫תרצה‬, 13:19 ‫ܫܡܡܐ‬ Hebrew ‫שׂבמה‬, 20 ‫ ܦܣܓܐ‬Hebrew ‫פסגה‬, 27 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܢܡܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫בית נמרה‬, 14:6 ‫ ܝܘܦܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫יפנה‬, 15:10 ‫ ܬܝܡܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫תמנה‬, 16 ‫ ܥܟܣܐ‬Hebrew ‫עכסה‬, 22 ‫ ܩܝܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫קינה‬, 22 ‫ ܝܪܡܘܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫דימונה‬, 22 ‫ ܓܕ ܓܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫עדעדה‬, 26 ‫ ܡܘܠܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫מולדה‬, 27 ‫ ܚܨܪ ܐܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫חצר גדה‬, 28 ‫ ܒܪܝܘܬܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫בזיותיה‬, 30 ‫ ܚܪܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫חרמה‬, 31 ‫ ܡܪܡܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫מדמנה‬, 31 �‫ܣܡܣ‬ Hebrew ‫סנסנה‬, 33 ‫ ܨ ܕܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫צרעה‬, 33 ‫ ܐܫܬܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫אשנה‬, 35 ‫ܣܘܟܐ‬ Hebrew ‫שׂוכה‬, 35 ‫ ܥܙܩܐ‬Hebrew ‫עזקה‬, 37 ‫ ܚܪܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫חדשה‬, 41 ‫ܢܥܡܐ‬ Hebrew ‫נעמה‬, 41 ‫ ܢܩܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫מקדה‬, 43 ‫ ܐܫܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫אשנה‬, 44 �‫ܩܥܝ‬ Hebrew ‫קעילה‬, 44 ‫ ܡܐܪܫܐ‬Hebrew ‫מראשה‬, 49 ‫ ܪܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫דנה‬, 52 ‫ܪܘܡܐ‬ Hebrew ‫רומה‬, 54 ‫ ܚܡܛܐ‬Hebrew ‫חמטה‬, 57 ‫ ܓܒܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫גבעה‬, 57 ‫ܬܩܢܐ‬ Hebrew ‫תמנה‬, 61 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܥܪܒܐ‬Hebrew ‫בית הערבה‬, 61 ‫ ܣܟܣܐ‬Hebrew ‫סככה‬, 16:8 ‫ ܩܒܐ‬Hebrew ‫קנה‬, 17:3 �‫ ܡܚ‬Hebrew ‫מחלה‬, 3 ‫ ܝܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫נעה‬, 3 �‫ܚܓ‬ Hebrew ‫חגלה‬, 3 ‫ ܡܠܟܐ‬Hebrew ‫מלכה‬, 3 ‫ ܬܪܨܐ‬Hebrew ‫תרצה‬, 18:19 �‫ܒܝܬ ܚܓ‬ Hebrew ‫בית־חגלה‬, 23 ‫ ܦܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫פרה‬, 23 ‫ ܥܘܦܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫עפרה‬, 26 ‫ܟܦܝܪܐ‬ Hebrew ‫כפירה‬, 26 ‫ ܡܨܐ‬Hebrew ‫מצה‬, 27 �‫ ܬܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫תראלה‬, 19:2 ‫ܡܘܠܕܐ‬ Hebrew ‫מולדה‬, 3 �‫ ܒ‬Hebrew ‫בלה‬, 5 ‫ ܚܨܪ ܣܘܣܐ‬Hebrew ‫חצר סוסה‬, 13 ‫ܥܬܐ‬ Hebrew ‫עתה‬, 15 �‫ ܥܪܐ‬Hebrew ‫ידאלה‬, 21 ‫ ܥܝܢ ܚܕܐ‬Hebrew ‫עין חדה‬, 22 ‫ ܫܚܨܝܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫שחצומה‬/‫שחצימה‬, 28 ‫ ܩܥܐ‬Hebrew ‫קנה‬, 36 ‫ ܐܕܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫אדמה‬, 36 ‫ ܕܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫רמה‬, 42 �‫ ܢܬ‬Hebrew ‫יתלה‬, 43 ‫ ܬܡܢܐ‬Hebrew ‫מנתה‬, 21:16 ‫ ܥܛܐ‬Hebrew ‫יטה‬. P reads a final ‫ ܐ‬for a final ‫ות‬: 18:17 �‫ ܓܠܝ‬Hebrew ‫גלילות‬. P reads a final ‫ ܐ‬for a final ‫י‬: 19:33 ‫ ܐܕܡܐ‬Hebrew ‫אדמי‬. P reads a final ‫ ܒ‬for a final ‫ף‬: 15:24 ‫ ܙܝܒ‬Hebrew ‫זיף‬. P reads a final ‫ ܝܐ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 11:8 ‫ ܡܨܦܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫מצפה‬, 13:26 ‫ܪܡܬ‬ ‫ ܡܨܦܝܐ‬Hebrew ‫רמת המצפה‬. P reads a final ‫ ܙ‬for a final ‫ר‬: 19:34 ‫ ܐܙܢܘܬܒܘܙ‬Hebrew ‫אזנות תבור‬. P reads a final ‫ ܘ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 15:50 ‫ ܐܫܬܡܘ‬Hebrew ‫אשתמה‬, 51 ‫ܓܠܘ‬ Hebrew ‫גלה‬, 18:1 ‫ ܫܝܠܘ‬Hebrew ‫שלה‬. P reads a final ‫ ܘܬ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 21:27 ‫ ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫בעשׁתרה‬. 14

In some cases the final ‫ ܗ‬is written as a ‫ ܬ‬before a he directive.

Appendix 3: Names

LV

P reads a final ‫ ܘ‬for a final ‫ן‬: 21:15 ‫ ܚܠܘ‬Hebrew ‫חלן‬. P reads a final ‫ ܝܢ‬for a final ‫ים‬: 15:7 ‫ ܪܡܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫אדמים‬. P reads a final ‫ ܡ‬for a final ‫ד‬: 15:30 ‫ �ܬܠܡ‬Hebrew ‫אלתולד‬. P reads a final ‫ ܡ‬for a final ‫ן‬: 3:16 ‫ ܨܪܬܡ‬Hebrew ‫צרתן‬. P reads a final ‫ ܢ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 21:36 ‫ ܩܪܬܢ‬Hebrew ‫קרתה‬. P reads a final ‫ ܢ‬for a final ‫ל‬: 15:30 ‫ ܐܟܣܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫כסיל‬. P reads a final ‫ ܢ‬for a final ‫ם‬: 10:3 ‫ ܒܪܐܢ‬Hebrew ‫פראם‬, 11:5 ‫ܡܪܘܢ‬ Hebrew ‫מרום‬, 13:26 ‫ ܒܛܢܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫בטנים‬. P reads a final ‫ ܢ‬for a final ‫ץ‬: 19:21 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܦܨܝܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית פצץ‬. P reads a final ‫ ܢ‬for a final ‫ת‬: 12:3 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܐܫܝܡܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫בית ישמות‬. P reads a final ‫ ܪ‬for a final ‫ד‬: 19:26 ‫ ܥܡܟܪ‬Hebrew ‫עמעד‬. P reads a final ‫ ܪ‬for a final ‫ן‬: 7:1 ‫ ܥܟܪ‬Hebrew ‫עכן‬. P reads a final ‫ ܬ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 15:60 ‫ ܪܒܬ‬Hebrew ‫רבה‬. P reads a final ‫ ܬ‬for a final ‫ן‬: 15:3 ‫ ܚܨܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫חצרון‬. P reads a final ‫ ܬܐ‬for a final ‫ה‬: 13:4 ‫ ܡܥܪܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫מערה‬. Translation

In the following places P has translated what are probably names in MT: 15 5:3 ‫‘ ܪܡܬܐ‬Ramtha’/‘the hill’ Hebrew ‫‘ גבעת‬Gibeah’/‘hill’, 9:17 ‫‘ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܢܥܪܝܢ‬Kiriath-narin’/‘City of Narin’ Hebrew ‫קרית־יערים‬, ‘Keriath-jearim’/‘City of Jearim’, ̈ 10:13 ‫ܕܬܫܒܚܬܐ‬ ‫‘ ܣܦܪܐ‬Book of Honors/Praises’ Hebrew ‫ספר הישר‬ ‘Book of Jashar’, ̈ 11:3 ‫‘ ܕܘܩܐ‬the watchmen’ Hebrew ‫‘ מצפה‬Mizpah’, 12:4 ‫‘ ܓܢܒ�ܐ‬the mighty men’ Hebrew ‫‘ רפאים‬Rephaim’, ̈ ̈ ‫‘ �ܬܪܐ‬the place of the hot waters’ Hebrew ‫מים משׂרפת‬, 13:6 ‫ܕܡܝܐ ܚܡܝܡܐ‬ ‘Mis-rephoth-maim’, 13:27 ‫‘ ܓܪܒܝܐ‬the north’ Hebrew ‫‘ צפון‬Zaphon’, 15:7 ‫‘ ܡܒܘܥܐ ܕܫܡܫ‬the fount of the sun’ Hebrew ‫‘ עין שמש‬Enshemesh’/ ‘the fountain of the sun’, 15:8 ‫‘ ܒܪܗܢܘܡ‬Bar-hinnom’/‘the son of Hinnom’ Hebrew ‫‘ בן־הנם‬the son of Hinnom’/ ‘Ben-himmom’, 16 15:10 ‫‘ ܬܝܡܢܐ‬the South’ Hebrew ‫‘ תמנה‬Timnah’, 15:25 ‫‘ ܩܘܪܝܬ ܚܨܪܘܢ‬Korith-hezron’/‘City of Hezron’ Hebrew ‫קריות‬ ‫‘ חצרון‬Kerioth-hezron’/‘City of Hezron’, 57F

ISC.

15 16

At least part of the Hebrew is a name. In some cases the Syriac may be the result of

Later in the verse P reads ‫ ܒܪܗܢܘܡ‬for ‫חנם‬, harmonizing the Syriac.

Appendix 3: Names

LVI

19:41

‫‘ ܩܪܝܬܐ ܕܫܡܫ‬Keritha-da-shemesh’/‘City of the Sun’ Hebrew ‫עיר‬ ‫‘ שמש‬Ir-shemesh’/‘City of the Sun’.

Transliterations 17 11:2 ‫ ܢܦܬܕܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫נפות דור‬, 12:3 ‫ ܬܝܡܢ‬Hebrew ‫תימן‬, 12:23 ‫ ܢܦܬܕܘܪ‬Hebrew ‫נפת דור‬, 13:9 ‫ ܡܥܪܒܐ‬Hebrew ‫מידבא‬, 13:17 ‫ ܡܬܒܥܠ‬Hebrew ‫במות בעל‬, 18 13:20 ‫ ܥܣܬܪܘܬ‬Hebrew ‫אשדות‬, 15:62 ‫ ܥܝܪܡܚܠ‬Hebrew ‫עיר־המלח‬, 16:7 ‫ ܦܓܪ‬Hebrew ‫פגע‬, 18:17 ‫ ܠܒܢ‬Hebrew ‫אבן‬, 19:8 ‫ ܠܒܥܬ‬Hebrew ‫בעלת באר‬, 19:8 ‫ ܒܝܬ ܪܡܬܐ‬Hebrew ‫ראמת‬, 19:13 ‫ ܡܬܘܐ‬Hebrew ‫מתאר‬, 19:14 ‫ ܟܦܬܢܐܝܠ‬Hebrew ‫יפתח־אל‬, 19:27 ‫ ܕܒܝܬ‬Hebrew 2nd ‫בית‬, 19:33 ‫ �ܘܢ‬Hebrew ‫אלון‬.

17 18

In some cases the Syriac may be the result of ISC. P has not recognized the beth in MT as part of the name.

BIBLIOGRAPHY LEXICA AND DICTIONARIES

A Greek-English Lexicon (1975), founded on the work of H.G. Liddell and R. Scott, 7th ed. Oxford: Clarendon. Koehler, L. and W. Baumgartner (1994), The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, revised by W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill. Payne Smith, J. (1903), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon. Payne Smith, R. (1879), Thesaurus Syriacus. Oxford: Clarendon. Sokoloff, M. (2009) A Syriac Lexicon. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press and Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.

REFERENCE TEXTS

David, C.J. (2010), The Syriac Bible According to the Mosul Edition, Vol. 2. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press. Biblia Hebrica Stuttgartensia, (1973). Stuttgart. Pietersma, Albert and B.G. Wright (eds.) (2007), A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the other Greek Translations traditionally included under that Title. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rahlfs, A. (1979), Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

GENERAL INTEREST

Aharoni, J. and M. Avi-Jonah (1993), The Macmillan Bible Atlas, 3rd Ed. (ed. by A.F. Rainey and Z. Safrai). Auld, A.G. (1999), ‘Joshua, Book of’, Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation (J.H. Hayes, Gen. Ed.), Nashville: Abingdon Press, Vol. 1, 625–632. Bright, J. (1988), A History of Israel, 3rd ed., London: SCM. Greenberg, G. (2002), Translation Technique in the Peshiṭta to Jeremiah, MPIL 13. Leiden: Brill. Mazar, B. (1986), The Early Biblical Period. Historical Studies (ed. by S. Aḥituv and B.A. Levine), Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society. Miller, J.M. and J.H. Hayes (1986), A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, London: SCM Press. LVII

LVIII

Bibliography

Nelson, R.D. (1997), Joshua. A Coommentary, OTL, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. Rösel, H.N. (2011), Joshua, HCOT, Leuven: Peeters. Soggin, J.A. (1972), Joshua. A Commentary, OTL, Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Walter, D. M. (2008), Studies in the Peshiṭta of Kings, T&S3 7. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press. Weitzman, M. P. (1999), The Syriac Version of the Old Testament, UCOP 56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Williams, P. J. (2001), Studies in the Syntax of the Peshiṭta of 1 Kings, MPIL 12. Leiden: Brill.

TEXT AND TRANSLATION

Ch. 

 







After these things, Joshua son of Nun, the servant of the Lord died, aged 1 one hundred and ten years.

They buried him at the border of his inheritance, in Timnath-serah in the mountain-country of Ephraim, on the north side of the mountain of Gaash.

Israel served the Lord the whole of Joshua’s life, 2 and the whole of the lives 3 of the elders who lived long after Joshua. They knew the deeds of the Lord, which he had done for Israel. The bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel had brought up from Egypt, they buried in Shechem, in the portion of a field which Jacob had bought from Hamor, father of Shechem, for one hundred sheep; this became the possession of the children of Joseph. Eleazar the priest, son of Aaron the priest, died. They buried him in Gebathah, which belonged to his son Phinehas, in the mountaincountry of Ephraim.

‘aged’: lit. ‘son of’. ‘the whole of Joshua’s life’: lit. ‘all the days of Joshua’. 3 ‘lives’: lit. ‘days’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܟܛ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒܪ ܳܡܐܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܢܘܢ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ̈ܡ� ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܺ :‬ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܫ� ̈ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܶ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܪܚ ݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛـ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝــܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡــܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ ݂ܬܣـ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕܝـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗ‪ :‬ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ܒــܪ ̱‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܓ ܳܥܫ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܽ ܽ ܰ̈ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ܕܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܰܝـ ̈ܘ ܳܡ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫� ܘ ݂ܦܠܚ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܠܡܪ�ܐ ݂ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܝܘܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܝــܘ ܽܢــܘܓܪ ܐ ݂ ܳܒـ ݂ܬܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ‪ܺ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܝܕܥـ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ� ـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܕܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܶܫــܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܒܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܣܩ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ ݁ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܶܡܢ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܫܟܝـܡ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܓ� ܰܡ ܳ ̱‬ ‫ܠܒ ܘ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ܳ‬ ‫ܚܡܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܽܒـܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚܩ� ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰܙܒܢ ܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܩ ݂ܘܒ ܶܡܢ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ ܳܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܟܝـܡ ݁ܒ ܳܡـܐܐ ܢܩـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ݀ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ݂ܬ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܰܒܪ ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܶܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‪ܽ ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܪܘܢ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܺܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܢܚـܣ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܒ ݂ܓ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܺܡ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ܒـܪ ̱‬ ‫ܗܒܬ ܶܠܗ ݁ܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܒ ܶܪܗ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܐܬܝܰ ݁ ܰ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 







     





The Lord our God destroyed all these nations, and the Amorites in whose land we are living, the Lord destroyed them from our path: therefore it is the Lord whom we serve, for he is the only God, he is our God.

Joshua said to the people: Now consider, lest (you find that) you cannot serve the Lord — for he is a holy God, a jealous God, for he does not forgive your wrongdoing and your sin, Lest you forsake the Lord, and serve the other foreign gods of the land, so that he 1 might turn and do you harm, make an end of you, despite 2 the good which he has done you.

The people said to Joshua: It was not we 3 who served others; we serve the Lord who is God. Joshua said to the people: You indeed witness 4 that you have chosen to serve the Lord. They said to him: We witness. Joshua said to them: Now put aside the foreign gods among you, prepare your heart(s) for the Lord God of Israel.

The people said to Joshua: We serve the Lord our God, we listen to his voice.

Joshua made a covenant with the people that day; he taught them the commandments and the judgments, at Shechem.

Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of Moses. He took a great stone and set it at the foot of 5 the oak by 6 the sanctuary of the Lord. Joshua said to all the people: See! This stone will witness for us, for it has heard all the words of the Lord which he has spoken to us. It will witness for you, that you will not break faith with the Lord your God.

After Joshua had commanded the people, he sent each man to his (own) inheritance. ‘he’: lit. ‘the Lord’. 2 ‘despite’: lit. ‘after’. 3 ‘It was not we’: lit. ‘Not was it to us’. 4 ‘indeed witness’: lit. ‘witness in/with your soul(s)’. 5 ‘at the foot of’: lit. ‘beneath’. 6 ‘by’: lit. ‘between’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫�ܗܘܢ ܥܰ ̈ܡ ܶܡܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܳ .‬ܘ� ܽܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܰܗܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܰܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܚ ܰܢـܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒܐܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ̱ܗܘ ݁ ܳܦ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܕ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܚ ܰܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ܕ ܽܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܝܘ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܝܘ ܐ ܳܠ ܰܗܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܕ ̱‬ ‫ܫܟ ܺܚܝـܢ ܐܢ̱ـ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܚـܙܘ ݁ ܶܕܝـܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡـܐ ܳ� ܶܡ ݁‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܦܠܰـܚ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܫـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ .‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܰ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܩ ݁ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ̱ܗܘ ܛ ܳ� ܳܢـܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܶܕܝـܢ ܳܫ ݂ ܶܒـܩ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܰܚ ̈ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܛ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬܶ ݂ܦ� ܽܚܘܢ ܰ� ܳܠ ̈ܶܗܐ ܐܚ ܳ� ܢܶܐ ܽܢ ݂ܘܟ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒ ܽܩܘܢܶܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܐ ݂ܬܶ ݁‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܘܟ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ݁ ܰܕ ܶܐܛܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܽܫܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܓܡ ݂ܪܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܢ ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪܝـܢ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳ� ܳ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ـܗܐ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܳ � :‬ܗ ܶܘܐ ܠܢ ݁ܦ ܳ ̱‬ ‫݂ ܳܦ ܺ‬ ‫�ܚ ܰܝܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܽ ݁ܰ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܳ :‬ܣ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ܗܕܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܒܢ ݂ܦܫ ݂ܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܕܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܓ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܳ .‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܦܠ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܝܢ ܶܠܗ ܳܣ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܕܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ ܐ ܳܠـ ̈ܗܐ ܽܢ ݂ܘܟ ܳ��ܶـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒܝ ܳܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ܶܩܢـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ �ܘ ݂ܬ ܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܟܕ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܰܗܢ ݁ ܳܦ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܳܩܠܗ ܳܫܡܥܺܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩـܐ �ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܶܒـܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܠـ ݂ܦ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݁ ܽܦ ̈ܘ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܢܶـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܟܗ ܰܘ ܺܐܩܝܡ ܝܫܘܥ ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܘܕ ̈�ܢܶܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫݂ܺ‬ ‫ܫܟܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫̈ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܺ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܟܘ ܰܘ ݂ܟ ݂ܬ ݂ܒ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܡ� ܗܠܝܢ ܒܣ ݂ܦܪ ܐ ݂ܕܢܡܘܣܗ ܕܡܘܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܢܣ ݂ܒ ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܺܐܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܶܫܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ̇ܗ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܶܒܛܡ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܕ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ܕ ܺܗܝ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܗ ܥܡܐ‪ :‬ܗܐ ݂ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ ݂ܬܗܘܐ ܠܢ ܣ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡܠܶܠ ܥܰ ܰܡܢ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܫܡܥܰ ݂ ݀‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܶܡ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܠܣܗܕ ݂ܘܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳ� ݂ܬ ݂ ܰܟ ݁ܕ ݂ ܽܒܘܢ ݁ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܟܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܐ̱ ܳܢܫ‬ ‫�ܝ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

  

 





 

Balak son of Zippor, king of the Moabites, arose: he fought against Israel, he sent to Balaam son of Beor, called him 1 to curse you.

But I was unwilling to listen to Balaam, and he blessed you fervently 2 and I delivered 3 you from his hands.

You crossed the Jordan and came to Jericho. The men of Jericho fought against you, and (also) the Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hittites, Girgashites, Hivites, and Jebusites — I delivered them into your hands. I sent hornets to go ahead of you, and destroyed from your path 4 two Amorite kings — not by your swords, nor by your bows.

I gave you a land in which you had not labored, towns which you had not built yet you lived in them, vineyards and olive trees which you had not planted — (yet) See! you ate their fruit. 5

Now fear the Lord! Serve him completely and truthfully, banish 6 from your heart(s) the foreign gods whom your fathers served, on the other side of the Jordan and in Egypt. Serve the Lord!

If it seems wrong to you 7 to serve the Lord, choose for yourselves today which deity 8 you will serve, either the gods whom your fathers served on the other side of the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living — but I, and the children of my house, we serve the Lord.

All the people answered and said: Far be it from us to forsake the Lord, to serve other gods.

For the Lord is our God, he who brought us up from the land of Egypt, from the house of servitude, who showed us 9 such wonderful signs, preserved us everywhere we journeyed, among all the nations through which we passed. ‘he sent … called him’: lit. ‘he sent, he called’. ‘blessed you fervently’ or ‘indeed he blessed you’. 3 ‘delivered’: different Syriac root from that in 24:8. 4 ‘your path’: lit. ‘before you’. So too 24:18. 5 ‘their fruit’: lit. ‘them’. 6 ‘banish’: lit. ‘remove’. 7 ‘seems wrong to you’: lit. ‘is evil in your eyes’. 8 ‘which deity’: lit. ‘whom’. 9 ‘showed us’: lit. ‘did before us’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܳ ݁ ܳ ܳ ݁ ܰ ܶ݁ ܽ ܰ ݁ ܳ ݁ ܽ ̈ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ ܰ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܫ ܥܰܡ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܕܪ‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ܒܠܩ ܒܪ ܨܦܘܪ ܡ�ܟܐ‪ :‬ܕܡܘܐ ݂ܒܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܟ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒ�ܥܰܡ ݁ ܰܒܪ ݁ܒ ܽܥܘܪ ܰܠܡܠܛ ݂ܘܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡܫܡܥܶـܗ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒ�ܥܰـܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫ܨܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܒ ܳܪ ݂ ܽܟـܘ ݂ ܰܒ ܶܪ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ݂ܘܦ ܺܨ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܽ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒـ ܶ� ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܫ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪܬܘܢ ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܝܬܘܢ �ܝܪܝܚܘ‪ .‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܟ‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܓ� ݁ ܽܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܝـܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳܘ�̈ـܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܳ ݂ ܽܒܘ ܳܣ ܶܝـܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܡܘ��ܶܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ�ܙ�ܶܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܝ ݂ܬ�ܶܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫�ܡ ݂ܬ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܶ݁ ܽ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝـܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐ ݁ܘܒ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕ ݂ܬ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ̈ܝـ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܕܪ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܟܘܢ ܕܒـܘ�ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܶ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ‪݂ � :‬ܒܣ�ܦ ݁ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܦ� ݂ܒܩܫ ݂ܬ ݂ܬ ݂ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܶ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ݁ܽ ݁ܳ ̇ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ� �ܝـܬܘܢ ܒـܗ‪ :‬ܘܩܘ��ـܐ ݂ܕ� ݂ܒܢ‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܶܗܝܢ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܘܟ� ܶܡܐ ܰܘܙ ܝ ̈ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܕ� ܰܢܨ ݂ܒ ݁ܬܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗܐ ܐ ݂ܟܠܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ .‬ܒ ݂ܬܡܝܡ ݂ܘܬܐ ܘ ݂ܒܩ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ݁ܕ ܰܚܠ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ܳܡ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܘܠܚ ̱ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ ܕ ܰܢـ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܐ ܳܠ ̈ܗܐ ܽܢ ݂ܘܟ��ܶܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܦܠܚـ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟـܘܢ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݁ܦܠܽܘܚ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܪ ܳ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪݁ :‬ܓ ݂ ܰܒܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘܐܢ ݁ ܺܒܝܫ ܽܗܘ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܦܠ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢـܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡـܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ̈ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ̈ܶ‬ ‫݁ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܳܦ ܺ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ �ܠܗܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܠܚـ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܒܗܝܟـܘܢ ܒܥ ݂ܒـܪ ܐ ݂ܕܢـܗܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܢ �ܠـܗܐ‬ ‫݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݁ ܰܒܐܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ̱ܝ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܥـܗܘܢ‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܳܢـܐ ݂ ܶܕܝـܢ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܰܒ ݁‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ̱ܗܘ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܳܦ ܺ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ‪ܳ :‬ܚܣ ܰܠـܢ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒـܘܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܦܠـܘܚ � ܳܠـ ̈ܗܐ‬ ‫ܐ̱ܚ ܳ� ܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܣܩܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܰܗܢ‪ܰ :‬ܗܘ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܽܕ ݂ܘܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡܨܪܝܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ̈ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܛܪܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܐ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܚـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܗ ܶܠ ݂ܟـܢ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܢ ܗܠܝܢ ܐ ݂ܬܘ ݂ܬܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܢ ݁ܒܝܢ ݂ܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܥ ̱ܡܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 







  





Joshua assembled all the Israelite tribes at Shechem. He called the elders of Israel, to their leaders, to their judges, to their scribes. They stood before the tent of time, before God. Joshua said to all the people: Thus says the Lord God of Israel ‘Your fathers lived, from long ago, on the other side of the River: Terah the father of Abraham and of 1 Nahor. There they served other gods.

I took Abraham your father from the other side of the River, I led him 2 throughout the land of Canaan, I multiplied his seed, I gave him Isaac. I gave Isaac Jacob and Esau; I gave Esau Mount Seir 3 as an inheritance, and Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt. I sent Moses and Aaron; I struck the Egyptians, I sent wonders among them. Afterwards, I brought you out.

I brought your fathers out of Egypt. I brought 4 them to the sea. The Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots, with horsemen, as far as the Sea of Suph.

Your fathers implored the Lord. He made darkness (come) between them and the Egyptians; the Lord divided the Sea of Suph; he brought 5 your fathers through its midst, 6 but he brought 7 the sea upon the Egyptians and covered them — your eyes saw what he did to the Egyptians. I brought you to the wilderness, and you dwelt in the wilderness for a long time. I brought you to the land of the Amorites, who were living on the other side of the Jordan. They fought against you, but I delivered them into your hands, I destroyed them from your presence, and you took possession of their land. ‘of’: lit. ‘and the father of’. ‘led him’: lit. ‘made him walk’. 3 ‘Mount Seir’ or ‘the mountain-country of Seir’. 4 ‘brought … brought’: two different Syriac words. 5 ‘brought’1: lit. ‘made pass through’. 6 he brought your fathers through its midst’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 7 ‘brought’: a different Syriac word from ‘brought’. 1 2



‫ܰܶ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶܩ ݂ܦ� ܳܘܢ‪ :‬ܟܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ܰܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܟܢܶܫ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܟܝـܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܶܛـܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܪ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܶܫـܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣ ݂ܦ ܰ� ܽܝܗܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ܳ� ܰ� ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ� ܺ� ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܙ ݂ܒܢܐ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪݁ :‬ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܐܒـܪ ܳܗܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽܐܒـ ̱‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܢܗܪ ܐ ܝܺ ݂ܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܐ ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝܰ ݁ܟܘܢ ܰ ܶܡܢ ܶ ܥܠܡ‪ :‬ܬܪܚ ܐ ݂ ܽܒـ ̱‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܢ ܽܚܘܪ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܺ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ � ܳܠ ̈ܗܐ ܐ̱ܚ ܳ� ܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܳܳ ܰܽ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܘܕ ݂ܒܪ ݂ܬ � ݂ܒܪܗܡ ܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܥ ݂ܒܪ ܐ ݂ܕܢܗܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܠ ݂ܟ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܙܪܥܶܗ‪ :‬ܘܝ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݂ܬ ܶܠܗ ܺ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܚܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܣܓ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܳ�ـܐ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܒ ܰܘ�ܥܺ ܽܣـܘ‪ :‬ܘܝ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܚـܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܒ ݂ܬ ܺ� ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ‬ ‫ـܬ �ܥܣـܘ ܝ‬ ‫ܥܩ ݂‬ ‫ܗܒ ݂‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܣܥܺܝܪ‪ .‬ܘܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܚ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܩ ݂ܘܒ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܰܘ� ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܕ ܶܪ ݂ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܪܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡܨ ܳ��ܶܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ݂ܶܕܡـ ܳ� ݂ ܳܬܐ ܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ـܕ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܡܚ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܐ ݁ ܶܦܩ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݁ܐܦ ܶܩ ݂ܬ � ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܡܢ ܡܨܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܪܕ ݂ܦ ̱ܘ ܶܡܨ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ ܳܒـ ݂ܬܪ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݂‬ ‫ܰܐ ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܳܩ ܽ� ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܦ ܳ� ܶܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܽܣ ݂ܘܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽܫ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘܓܥܰܘ ܰܐ ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܨ ܳ��ܶܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ܦܠܰـ ݂ܓ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܦ‪ :‬ܘܐܥܒـܪ � ݂ܒܗܝܟـܘܢ ܒ ݂ܓـܘܗ‪ :‬ܘܐܝܬܝـܗ �ܝܡـܐ ܥـܠ‬ ‫ܳܡܪ�ܐ ܝܡܐ ݂ܕܣ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܺܣܝ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ̈ܚ ܰܙܝ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܡܨ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݁ܝܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ـܕ ݂ܬ ܠܡܨ��ـܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ݁ܬܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܳܡ ݂ܬܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ̈ܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕܒܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܺ ݁ ܽ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܳ ݁ܺ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܬܫـ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܟـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܐܝܬܝܬ ݂ܟܘܢ �ܪܥܐ ݂ܕܐܡܘ��ܐ ݂ܕܝ ݂ܬܒܝܢ ܒܥ ݂ܒܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝـܘܪܕܢܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܟ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܡ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐ ݁ܘܒ ݂ ܶܕ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܺ :‬ܘܝܪܬܬܘܢ ܐܪܥ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

    







For the Lord destroyed great strong nations from before you; no man has been able to withstand you, 1 until the present.

One man of you could put to flight 2 a thousand, for the Lord your God is with you: he will wage war for you, as he promised.

Be very careful 3 to fear the Lord your God,

For if you should turn away, mix 4 with the remnant of these nations remaining among you, intermarry, 5 mix with them and they with you,

You will learn 6 that the Lord your God will no more destroy these nations from before you: they will be traps and stumbling-blocks for you, spearheads in your temples, 7 stings in your eyes, until you perish from the good land which the Lord your God has given you.

For I — see! I am going the way of all mankind; 8 but you know, in your heart(s), in your soul(s), that not a single one 9 of all the good things that the Lord your God has promised you has failed (to come to pass). All these have come to you, not one thing 10 has failed.

But (just) as all the good things which the Lord your God had promised you did befall 11 you, so will all curses come upon you, until he has destroyed you from this good land which he gave you,

If you transgress the covenant of the Lord your God, and the commandments which you were commanded, (if) you go to serve other gods and worship them — the fury of the Lord your God will rage against you, you will quickly perish from the good land which he gave you. ‘no man has been able to withstand you’: lit. ‘man has not stood before you’. ‘put to flight’: lit. ‘chase away’. 3 ‘Be very careful’: lit. ‘Be well warned in your self/soul’. 4 ‘mix’1 (different Syriac root from that in 23:7 or later in this verse): lit. ‘cleave to/be united with’. 5 ‘intermarry’: lit. ‘be to them bridegrooms’. 6 ‘learn’: lit. ‘know’. 7 ‘temples’ (of the head): see Introduction. Addendum 1. 8 ‘mankind’: lit. ‘the earth’. 9 ‘single one’: lit. ‘one thing/word’. 10 ‘thing’ or ‘word’. 11 ‘befall’: lit. ‘come to’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘܚـ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܶܡــܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟــܘܢ ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡــܐ ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܶܒ ـܐ ܘܥܰ ܺܫ ̈�ܢܶــܐ‪ :‬ܘܐ̱ ܳܢــܫ � ܳܩــܡ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܒ� ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܕ ݂ܘܦ ܰ� ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܟـܘܢ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܢܟܘܢ ܢܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܦܐ‪ܶ .‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܳܥ ݂ ܶܒ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܐ ݁ ܰܙܕ ݇ܗܪ ̱ܘ ܳܛ ݂ܒ ݁ܒ ܰܢ ݂ܦܫ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕ ܰܚܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܘܬܶܬ ܰ� ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܦܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰܫ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ݂ܕ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܶܐܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ݁ܬܶ ݁‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ̈ܶ ܶ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܘܬܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܛܘܢ ݁ܒ ܽܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܘܢ �ܗܘܢ ܚ ݂ܬܢܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ݂ܬܚ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟـܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ܝܳ ݂ܕܥܺܝـܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܽܬ ݂ܘܒ ܳ� ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ـܘܣ ݂ܦ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫�ܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ܶ ܰ ܽ ̈ ܳ ܳ ܽ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ�ـܘ�ܝ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܗܘܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܥܰ ̱̈ܡܡܐ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܠܬܘܩܠ ݂‬ ‫ܠܦܚܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܒܨܶ ݂ ̈ܕܥܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ݂ܐܒ ݁ ܽܕܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܨ ܢ�ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ܛ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܽ ܳ ̇ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܝܳ ݂ܕܥܺܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܠـܗ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕܝܢ ܳܗܐ ܐ ܙܶܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ ݂ܒܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ�ܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܳ ܶ ܰ ݀ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܚـܕ ܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܠـܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܝـܢ ̈ܡـ�‬ ‫ܫܟـܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ� ݂ܒܛܠـ ݂ܬ ܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ̈ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܝــܢ ܶܐ ݂ ܰܬ ̈ܝ ܥܠ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟــܘܢ ܥܠ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟــܘܢ‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܳ� ݂ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟــܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ�‬ ‫ܛ ݂ܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ݂‬ ‫݂ܒܛܠ ݂ܬ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܶ ܰ ̈ ܰ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܽ ܶ ̈ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܐܝܟܢܐ ݂ܕܝܢ ܕ ݂ܐܬܝ ܥܠܝܟܘܢ ܟ�ܗܝܢ ܳܡ� ܛ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܺܢ ݂ܐܬ ܳܝ ̈ܢ ܥܠ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܕ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ܳܗ݂ܕ ܐܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܝـܢ �ـܘܛ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕܝܰܗ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܰ ݁ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܰـܠ ݁ ܽܦ ̈ܘ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܢܶـܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܦ ܰܩ ݁ـܕ ݁ܬܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܢ ܺ ܬܥܒܪܘܢ ܶܥܠ ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓ ݂ ܽܕܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܘܬ ܽܐܙ ̱ܠܘܢ ݂ܘܬ ݂ܦ� ܽܚܘܢ �ܠܗܐ ܐ̱ܚ� ܢܶܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ݁‬ ‫ܘܓ ܶـܙܗ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܳ ܰܡ ݂‬ ‫ـܬ ܳ ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܥܠ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܓـܠ ܶܡـܢ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬ ݂ܐܒ ݁ ܽـܕܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ܛ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XIX

 













Chapter  After a long time, 1 the Lord gave Israel peace 2 from all their enemies who surrounded them. Joshua grew old, he was now a very old man. 3

Joshua summoned all Israel, their elders, their leaders, their judges, and their scribes, and said to them: I have grown old, 4 I am a very old man. You have seen everything that the Lord your God has done to all these nations: he destroyed them as you advanced, 5 the Lord your God fought on your behalf. 6

For see: I have not divided up 7 for you these nations that remain in your tribes’ portion; all the nations which I have destroyed, from the Jordan, and the great sea in the west, 8 I have divided up for you. The Lord your God will break them, destroy them as you advance, and you will take possession of their land, as the Lord you God said to you.

But be very strong, and guard and observe 9 all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, the servant of the Lord; do not turn aside from it, neither to the right nor to the left. Do not mix with these nations that remain among you; do not call to mind the name(s) of their gods, do not swear by them, do not serve them, do not worship them. But follow 10 the Lord your God, as you have done until the present.

‘a long time’: lit. ‘many days’. 2 ‘peace’: lit. ‘rest’. 3 ‘he was now a very old man’: lit. ‘advanced in years’. So too 23:2. 4 ‘grown old’: different Syriac root from that in 23:1. 5 ‘as you advanced’: lit. ‘from before you’. See too 23:5. 6 ‘fought on your behalf’: lit. ‘is he who makes your war’. 7 ‘I have not divided up’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 8 ‘in the west’: lit. ‘the going down/setting of the sun’. 9 ‘observe’: lit. ‘do’. 10 ‘follow’ or ‘cleave to’. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܛ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܟܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܺ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝــܠ ܶܡــܢ ݁ ܽܟ�ـ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ̈ܝܶ ـܐܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐܢܺܝ ـܚ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡــܢ ܒ ـ ݂ܬܪ ܝ ـܘܡ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܺܪ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܫ� ܳܝܐ‪̈.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܩܫ ܘܥܰܠ ݁ ܰܒ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܘ� ܺ� ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܕ ܳ� ܰ�ـ ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܫـ ̱‬ ‫ܠܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܰܫـ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܶܣ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܒ ݂ܬ ܘܥܶܠ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܒ ̈ܫ ܰ� ܳܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܣ ݂ܦ� ̱‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟـܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ݁ ܽܟܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡـܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰܘܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ ܚܙ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܝܘ ܳܥ ݂ ܶܒ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܽܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓــ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟــܘܢ ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡــܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝــܢ ݁ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܚــܙܘ ݁ ܶܕܝــܢ ݁ܕ ܳ� ݂ ܰܦ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚــܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܳܝــ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒܛܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ـܬ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ܳܡـܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒـܐ ݂ܒ ܰܡܥ ܳ� ݂ ܰܒـܝ‬ ‫ܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶܫ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݂ܦ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܽܗܘ ܢܶ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܘܒ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐܪܥ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܘܛـܪ ̱ܘ ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܒ ݁ܒ ܶܣ ݂ܦـ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܢ ܽܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ̱ܘ ܛ ݂ـܒ‪:‬‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܘܣـܐ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟـܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܰ ݁ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕܡܘܫܐ ܥ ݂ܒܕܗ ܕܡܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬܤܛܘܢ ܡܢܗ � �ܝܡܝܢܐ ܘ� ܠܣܡ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܛܘܢ ݁ܒܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݁ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܐܠ ܰܗܝ̈ـ ܽܗܘܢ �‬ ‫ܘ� ݂ܬ ݂ܬܚ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܬܶ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܽܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬܐܡܘܢ ܒܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬ ݂ܦ�ܚܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬ ݁‬ ‫ܣܓ ݂ܕܘܢ �ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܶܐ ݂ܬ ܰ� ܰܩ ݂ܦ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܳ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 











Phinehas, son of Eleazar the priest, and the noblemen of the congregation, and the leaders of the Israelite hosts who were with him heard the words which the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh spoke, and it seemed good to them. 1

Phinehas, son of Eleazar the priest, said to the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh: Today we know that the Lord is among us, that you have not committed treachery 2 against the Lord. Now you have saved the children of Israel, the hand of the Lord will not be (turned) against them in rage.

Phinehas, son of Eleazar the priest, and the noblemen who were with him, came back from the children of Reuben, the children of Gad and Manasseh, from the land of Gilead to the land of Canaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word.

The word seemed good to the children of Israel. The children of Israel blessed God, and did not say that they would go up against them to wage war against them, to devastate the land of the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh who were living there.

The children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh called the altar that they had made ‘The Altar of Witness’ for it bore witness between them, and (that) the Lord is the only God. 3

‘seemed good to them’: lit. ‘was fair in their eyes’. So too 22:33. ‘treachery’: different Syriac word from that for ‘treachery’ in 22:16. 3 ‘the Lord, who is the only God’: lit. ‘the Lord only is God’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ ܺ ܶ ݁ܰ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܳ ݁ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ‪ܶ �ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܝܫـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܰ� ܳـܘ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫ܠ ܘܫܡܥ ܦܝܢܚܣ ܒܪ ܐܠܝ�ܙܪ ܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܪܘ� ݂ܒܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟܢ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ܕܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ܶ̈ :‬ܡ ܶ� ݂ܕ ܰܡܠ ܶܠـ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܢـܝ ݁ ܳܓـ ݂ܕ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܦܪ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܶܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܢܚܣ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫� ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ ܺܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ݁ ܳܓـ ݂ܕ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܢܫܐ‪ :‬ܝܘܡܢܐ ܰܝ ݂ܕܥܢ ܕ ݂ܒܝܢ ݂ܬܢ ̱ܗܘ ܡܪ�ـܐ‪ :‬ܕ� ݂ܕܶ ݁ܓܠـܬܘܢ ܶܒܡܪ�ـܐ ݂ܕ ݁ܓܠ ݂‬ ‫݁ܽ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬܘܢ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳ� ݂ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܒـ ܽܗܘܢ ܐ ܺ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܦܨ‬ ‫ܝـܕܗ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܳܙ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ �ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗܢــܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܢܚــܣ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳـܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܦـ ݂ܟ ݁ ܺܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒܢܶـܐ ݂ܕܥܰ ܶܡـܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡــܢ �ـ ܳـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܢ̈ـܝ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪ܳ �ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܬ ݂ܳܓ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܓ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܦܪ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܬ ܳܓ ܳܡܐ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢܝ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܶܪ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܰ� ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܗܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܐ ܰܡܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܕܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬ ̇ܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܣܩܘܢ ܥܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܠܡܚܪ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ܺܒܝܢ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܕ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚـܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܕ ݂ܘܬܐ ̱ܗܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܗܕ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ܕ ܳܣ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܣ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ̱ܗܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





 





Was it not from the fear of him that we have acted as we have, 1 so that in the future 2 your children would not say to our children: What is the Lord God of Israel to you, children of Reuben, children of Gad? See! The Lord has made this Jordan the boundary between us and you. You have no share in the Lord God of Israel. Your children, in the future, would influence our children to abandon the fear of the Lord. 3

Therefore we have said that we will make ourselves an altar — not for sacrifice, not for offerings —

But as a witness between us and you, and between our descendants after us: we and our descendants 4 after us serve before the Lord 5 with our burnt offerings, with our sacrifices, with our offerings, in the place where the Lord chooses that his name should dwell, 6 so that your children will not in the future say to our children: You have no portion in the Lord. We said: When they say to us and to our descendants in the future, they should say to them: See the copy 7 of the altar of the Lord that our fathers made, not for whole burnt offerings, not for sacrifices, but to be a witness between us and you —

Far be it from us that we should reject the fear of the Lord, turn away from the fear of God, and build ourselves an altar for a whole burnt offering, for an offering, or for a sacrifice other than on the altar of the Lord God of Israel which is in front of his tent.

‘acted as we have’: lit. ‘done this’. ‘in the future’: lit. ‘from tomorrow’. So passim. 3 ‘influence our children to abandon the fear of the Lord’: lit. ‘would make our children cease that they would not fear the Lord’. 4 ‘our descendants’1,2: lit. ‘our generations’. So too 22:28.. 5 ‘serve before the Lord’: lit. ‘the service of the Lord we serve before him’. 6 ‘that his name should dwell’: lit. ‘to make his name dwell there’. 7 ‘copy’: lit. ‘form/pattern’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܟܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܟܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܟܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܙ‬

‫‪ ‬ܟܚ‬

‫‪ ‬ܟܛ‬

‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ـܬܗ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܗ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ܳ� ܺܢܐܡـ ܽـܪܘܢ ܶܡــܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳܢـ ̇‬ ‫ܡܚــܪ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟــܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܢ � ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܶܡــܢ ݁ ܶܕܚܠـ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳܢܐ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܰܝܢܝܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪ܶ .‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܰܠ ݁‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܗܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ̈ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܒܛܠܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܡܚܪ ܠ ݂ܒܢܝܢ ܕ�‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ .‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܢܶ ݂ܕܚܠܽܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܪ�ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݁ ܶ ݁ܶ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܬܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ܠ ܽܩ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܳܗ ܰܢܐ ̱ܗܘ ܐܡܪܢ ܕܢܥܒ ݂ܕ ܠܢ ܡ ݂ܕܒܚܐ‪݂ � :‬‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܰܝܢܝܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܳܕ ܰ�ܝـܢ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܳܒـ ݂ܬ ܰܪܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܢـܢ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܰ�ܝـܢ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫ܘܒ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܐ� ܠܣܗܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ݂ܦ ܺ‬ ‫�ܚܝܢـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܢܗ ̱ܗܘ ݂ܕܡ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܰܪܢ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܒܥ�ـܘ ݂ܬܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܒ ܰܚܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡـ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܽܝــܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܽܩــܘ� ݁ ܳܒ ܰܢܝܢ ݁ ܰܒـ ݂ܐܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܳܓ ݂ ܶܒـܐ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡــܗ ݁ܬ ܳܡــܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ� ܺܢܐܡـ ܽـܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܚܪ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܠ ݁‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚܪ‪ܺ :‬ܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܰܠܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܕ ܰ�ܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܙܘ ݁ܕ ܽܡـ ݂ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܳ ܶܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕ ܐ ܰܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܡـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܰܐ ݂ ܳܒ ܰ ̈ܗܝـܢ‪ܰ � �ܳ :‬ܝ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܬܐ‪ :‬ܐ�‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܗܕ ܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܰܝܢܝܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܳܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܠܬܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܠܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳܗܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܒܢܶܐ ܰܠـܢ‬ ‫ܳܚܣ ܠܢ ܕܢܣ� ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܘܟ ܡܢ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕ ܐ ܰܫ ܳ‬ ‫�ܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܽܩ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪܒ ܳܢـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ � ܰܝ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒـܪ ܶܡـܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚـܗ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 









And you — why do you no longer fear the Lord? 1 From tomorrow rage will be visited upon the whole assembly of Israel. 2

But however, if the land of your inheritance is unclean, cross over to the land of the Lord’s inheritance, where the tent of the Lord now rests; 3 take possession with us, do not reject 4 the fear of the Lord, do not rebel against us — for you have built yourselves an altar in opposition to 5 the altar of the Lord God of Israel.

Did you not see that when Achar son of Carmi coveted, took from the devoted property, rage was visited upon the whole assembly of Israel? One man sinned, 6 and we all suffered for 7 his sin. The children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh answered. They spoke with Phinehas, son of Eleazar the priest, and with the leaders of the Israelite hosts. They said to them:

The Lord is God of gods! The God of gods is the Lord! He is our God, he knows Israel and he knows us: if we should leave him, if we should act perversely rather than fear 8 the Lord — as we have done — he would not leave 9 us today. If we had built ourselves an altar, so that we might turn away from the fear of the Lord, or to offer sacrifices upon it, or to serve in other ways, 10 the Lord would demand reparation. 11

‘do you no longer fear the Lord’: lit. ‘have you turned away today from the fear of the Lord’. 2 ‘rage will be visited upon the whole assembly of Israel’: lit. ‘upon the whole assembly of Israel there was rage’. So too 22:20. 3 ‘now rests’: lit. ‘dwells’. 4 ‘reject’: lit. ‘despise’. So too 22:29. 5 ‘in opposition to’: lit. ‘apart from’. 6 ‘One man sinned’: lit. ‘It/he was one man’. 7 ‘suffered for’: lit. ‘we were all struck by’. 8 ‘rather than fear’: lit. ‘against the fear of’. 9 ‘leave’: lit. ‘separate from’. 10 ‘in other ways’: lit. ‘the service of others’. 11 ‘demand reparation’: lit. ‘seek at our hand’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ݁ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܠܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚܪ ܥܰܠ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܘܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ܶܬܘܢ ܝܘܡܢܐ ܡܢ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ݁ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܳܙ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̱ܗܘ ݂ܟܢܘܫܬܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܗܘܐ ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܘ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ̱ܗܝ ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕܝ‬ ‫ܝܛ ݁ܒ ܰܪܡ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܐܢ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܝܳـ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܺ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܐ ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ �‬ ‫ܚܠـܬܗ ܕܡ‬ ‫ܝـܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ܰܡـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܶܕ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒـܪ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫݂ܬ ݂ܒ ܽܣܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܥܠܰܝܢ � ݂ܬܡ ݂ ܽܪܕܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܒܢ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡ ݂ܕܒܚܗ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ݁ܕ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ ݁ ܰܒܪ ݁ ܰܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ܶܡـܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܝ ݂ܕ ܰܪ ܓ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡـܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰـܠ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܟ � ܚܙ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ݁ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓܙ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܘ ܚ ݂ܕ ̱ܗܘܐ ݂ܓ ݂ܒـܪ‪݂ :‬ܘܟܠـܢ ܒܠܥـܢ‬ ‫̱ܗܘ ݂ܺܟܢ ܶܘܫܬܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܗܘܐ ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰܒܚܛ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܠܠـ ̱ܘ ܥܰـܡ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܝܫـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܰ� ܳـܘ ݂ ܳܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܢܚܣ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳـܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢـܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰـܡ ܺ� ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܺܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ــܗܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ̱ܗܘ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܝــܘ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܠــ ̈ܶܗܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܳܠــܗ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܺ̈ܗܝــܢ ܳܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܳܡ ܰ‬ ‫ــܗܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ ݁ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܽܗܘ ܳܝ ݂ ܰܕܥ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܺܘ� ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠܢ ܽܗܘ ܳܝـ ݂ ܰܕܥ‪ .‬ܐܢ ݁ܕܢܶ ݂ܦـ ܽܪܘܩ ܡܢـܗ ܘܐܢ ܕܢ�ـ� ̱ܗܘ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕܢ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ‪ �ܳ :‬ܢܶ ݂ܦܪ ܰܩܢ ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܠܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܒ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܶܐܢ ݁ܒ ܰܢܝܢ ܰܠܢ ܰܡܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ܕܢܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܚܠـܬܗ ܕܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܘܟ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܶܕ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ :‬ܐܘ ݁ ܰܕ ܰܢܩـܪ ݂ܒ ܥܠـ ̱‬ ‫݁ܶ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܚܢ ܐ̱ܚܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܢ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܥ ݁ܒ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐܘ ݁ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܒܚ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 







 

 





The children of Reuben, the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh again went away from the children of Israel, from Shiloh in the land of Canaan, to go the land of Gilead, to the land of their inheritance which they inherited there, 1 according to the word of the mouth of the Lord, through Moses. They came to Gilgal, which is on the bank of the Jordan in the land of Canaan. The children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, built an altar there on the bank of the Jordan — a great altar for all to see. 2

The children of Israel heard that the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh had built an altar facing the land of Canaan, in Gilgal, on the bank of the Jordan, in the land of the children of Israel.

All the assembly of the children of Israel gathered themselves together in Shiloh, to go up against them, to (wage) war. The children of Israel sent Phinehas son of Eleazar the priest to the children of Reuben, to the children of Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh in the land of Gilead. And ten noblemen with him, one great man from all the tribes of Israel: these men were the leaders of the Israelite hosts.

They came to the children of Reuben, to the children of Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh, to the land of Gilead. They spoke with them, they said to them:

All the Lord’s assembly are saying ‘What is this treachery that you have committed 3 against the God of Israel? You have turned away from (following) after the Lord, you have built yourselves an altar, you no longer fear the Lord. 4

Is the sin of Peor not enough for us — we have not been cleansed of that (even) until today, there was a plague in the assembly of the Lord — ‘there’: lit. ‘in it’. ‘for all to see’: lit. ‘of appearance’. 3 ‘committed’: same Syriac root as ‘treachery’. 4 ‘you no longer fear the Lord’: lit. ‘that you may separate from the fear of the Lord’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ܶܘܐ ܰܙܠ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܺܫܝܠܽܘ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥܢ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܺܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ� ݂ܕܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ـܒ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥـܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢـܘ ݁ܬ ܳܡـܢ ݁ܒܢ̈ـܝ‬ ‫ܘ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽܪ ݂ܘܒܝܠ ܘ ݂ܒܢܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ ݂ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ :‬ܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ܥܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ܒ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܳܙܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܳܓـܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܰܢܘ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥܢ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܰ ݂ܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ� ݂ܕܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ܒ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܣـܩ ܥܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܫܝܠܽـܘ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܢܫ ̱ܘ ܟ�ܗ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܳܓـ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ‬ ‫�ܥܕ‪ܺ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܢܚܣ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܶܓ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܪ ܐ ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒ ܺܢܝܢ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ܰ :‬ܚ ݂ـܕ ܰܚ ݂ـܕ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒـܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܶܽ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ݁ܓ ݂ܒ� ܐ ܗܠܝܢ‪� :‬ܝܫܐ ̱ܗܘܘ ܕܚܝ�ܘ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܳܓـ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫ܘ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܕܡܢܫܐ �ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܓ�ܥ ݂ܕ‪ :‬ܘܡܠܠ ̱ܘ ܥܡܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܡܪ ̱ܘ �ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ ݁ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ݁ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟܕ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܗ ݂ܟܢܐ ܐܡܪܝـܢ ܟ�ـܗ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳܢـܐ ̱ܗܝ ܟܕ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܶ ݁ܳ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ܒܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟـܬܘܢ ܡـܢ ܒـ ݂ܬܪܗ ܕܡܪ�ـܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܢܝـܬܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܚܠܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ݂ܦܪܩܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܶܕ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܦ ܽܥܘܪ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳ� ܶܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܺܟܝܢ ܶܡ ܳܢ ̇ܗ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܰܡ ݁ܘܬ ܳ�ܐ‬ ‫� ݂ ܰܟ ݁ ܽܕܘ ܰܠܢ ܚܛ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܒ ݂ܟܢ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XVIII

 







 



Chapter  Then Joshua called the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh.

He said to them: You have observed 1 everything which Moses, the servant of the Lord, said to you; you have obeyed my voice in everything that I have commanded you.

See! You have not forsaken your brethren (these) many days, even until today; you have observed the commandments of the Lord your God. Now See! The Lord your God gives peace to your brethren, as he said to them. Now return, go to your towns, to the land of your inheritance, which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you, on the other side of the Jordan, in the east. Only take great care: keep the commandments and laws which Moses the servant of the Lord commanded you: to love the Lord your God, to keep his commandments, to cleave to him, to serve him with your whole heart, with your whole soul. Joshua blessed them and sent them (away); they went to their towns.

Moses gave Mathnin to the half tribe of Manasseh; Joshua had given (an inheritance) to the (other) half, together with their brothers, on the other side of the Jordan, on the west. Joshua sent them (away), they went to their towns, and he blessed them. He said to them: Return, richly laden, 2 to your towns, to the land of your inheritance — with great herds, 3 with silver, with gold, with brass, with iron, with very many garments — divide the spoil of your enemies with your brothers.

‘observed’: lit. ‘guarded’. ‘richly laden’: lit. ‘with much wealth’. 3 ‘great herds’: lit. ‘numerous/good cattle’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܚ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܟܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ ݁ ܳܓـܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܬܘܢ ݁ ܽܟـܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕܗ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ ܢܛ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܠܝ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܘܫܡ‬ ‫ܥܬܘܢ ݁ܒ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ̈ܝܶـܐܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ �ܝܘܡܢـܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܛـܪܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܒ‬ ‫ܘ� ݂‬ ‫ܩܬܘܢ � ܰܚ ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܗܐ ܝܘܡ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܽܦ ̈ܘ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕ ܢ ̱‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܰ� ܰܚ ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢـܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳܫܐ ܳܗܐ ܰܐܢܺܝܚ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܶ .‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝـܠ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕܝܰܗ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܩܘ ܺ� ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܦ ܰܢܘ ܘܙܶܠ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕܗ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ�ܪܥܐ ݂ܕܝ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪݁ :‬ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܶܐ ݁ ܰܙܕ ݇ܗܪ ̱ܘ ܳܛ ݂ܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܢܶܐ ܳܘܢ ܽܡ ̈ܘ ܶܣܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܦ ̈ܘ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܚܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܛـܪ ݁ ܽܦ ̈ܘ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܳܩ ݂ ܽܦـܘ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܢـ ̱‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܦ� ܶܚܗ‪݁ :‬ܒ ݂ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܠܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܩܘ� ܽܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܶܪ ݂ܟ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ ݂ܒ ܰܡܬ ܺܢܝـܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ :‬ܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ ܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܥܰܡ ܰܐ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ .‬ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܶܪ ݂ܟ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܩܘ� ܽܝܗܘܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܒܢܶܟ ̈ܶܣܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ̈ܝܶܐܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܩܘ ܺ� ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܦܘ ݂ܟـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ� ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܶܩ ܳܢ� ܳܢܐ ݁ܕܛ ݂ܒ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓܝ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܺܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܒـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܚ ܳܫـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܦـܪܙ�‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ ̈ܚـ ݁ܬܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܙܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܥܰܡ ܐ ܰܚ ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܺܝܐܝܢ ܛ ݂ܒ‪݂ .‬ܘܦܠ ݂ܓ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



  



All these towns, of the Levites, were in the midst of the portion of the children of Israel: the Levitical towns totaled forty-eight, and their villages.

They were situated thus, these towns and cities, town by town, and their villages around them, all these towns and cities thus.

The Lord gave to Israel all the land which he had sworn to their fathers to give to them, and they possessed it; they lived there. 1

The Lord gave them peace 2 from all who surrounded them, as he had sworn to their fathers. No one of their enemies confronted them, for the Lord delivered all their enemies into their hands. Nothing failed of all the good things of which the Lord had spoken to those of the house of Israel: all came to pass. 3

‘there’: lit. ‘in it’. ‘peace’: lit. ‘rest’. So too 22:4. 3 ‘all came to pass’: lit. ‘but all were’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܶ ܳ ̈ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ܰ .‬ܘܗ ̈ܘܝ‬ ‫ܡܐ ݂ܘܟ�ܗܝܢ ܩܘ��ܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܕ�ܘ�ܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܝܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ܐܢܝܢ ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܳ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ�ܘ�ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܪܒܥܝܢ ܘ ݂ܬܡܢܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܳ̈ ܰ̈ ݁ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܝ ݂ܬܒܢ ܗܘܝ ܕܝܢ ܩܘ��ܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ ̈� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‪ :‬ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܺܝܪܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܳܗܠܝܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫݂ܺ‬ ‫ܡܕ ̈� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܺ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܓ ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪܬ ̇‬ ‫ܘܗ‬ ‫ـܬܠ � ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗܝ̈ـ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܝ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܺ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܰܘܐܢܺܝܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡـܐ � ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗܝ̈ـ ܽܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܐ̱ ܳܢـܫ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܰ� ܽܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܕ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܳ� ܰܐܫܠܶـܡ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܳ� ܳܩܡ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ܽܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ݀ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܶ ̈ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܐ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܶܘ� ݂ܒܛܠ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ ܡܢ ܟ�ܗܝܢ ܡ� ܛ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܠ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ ܳ� ݂ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܗܘܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



    

 

     

For the children of Gershon, from the family of the Levites — their towns were from the half tribe of Manasseh, the city (which is) a house of refuge of slayers, Golan, which is in Mathnin and its villages, Ashtaroth and its villages: two towns and their villages. From the tribe of Issachar: Kishian and its villages, Rabbath and its villages,

Jarmuth and its villages, Ein-gad and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the tribe of Asher: Mishal and its villages, Achron and its villages, Helkuth and its villages, Rehob and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the tribe of Naphtali: the city (which is) a house of refuge of slayers, Kedesh in Galilee and its villages, Hemrud 1 and its villages, Kartan and its villages: three towns and their villages. (In) all, the towns of the family of the children of Gershon: thirteen towns and their villages.

To the family of the children of Merari, to the remaining Levites: their towns were from the tribe of Reuben — Jahaz and its villages and Kermuth and its villages, Karithin 2 and its villages, Ahshemuth and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the tribe of Zebulun: Nachah and its villages, Karthan and its villages, Remin and its villages, Jahlah and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the tribe of Gad: the city of refuge of slayers, Ramath-gilead and its villages, Mahanaim and its villages,

Heshbon and its villages, Jazer and its villages: four towns and their villages.

These were the towns of the children of Merari, family by family, remaining from the family of the Levites: their lot was cast: twelve towns and their villages. ‘Hemrud’: M ‘Ahmoth-dor’ — similarly MT. See p. xii. 2 ‘Karithin’: M ‘Kariathim’. See p. xii. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ܰ̈ ݁ ܶ ܽ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶ� ܳܘ�̈ܶـܐ‪ .‬ܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ܽܩـܘ ܺ� ܽܝܗܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܘܠ ݂ܒ�ܘ ̱ܗܝ ܕ ݂ܓܪܫܘܢ ܡܢ ܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛ ـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܘܙ ݂ ܳܒ ـܐ ݂ܕܩܛ ـܘ�‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܓ ـܘܠܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝــܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫــܐ‪ :‬ܩܪܝـ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒܝـ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܰܬ ݁ܪܬܶܝܢ ܳܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܥܣܬܪ ݂ܘܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣ ݂ ܳܟܪ‪ܶ :‬ܩ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܚ ܘ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܫܝܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܥܝܢ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܟܛ ܘܝܰܪܡ ݂ܘܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܓــܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܶ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡــܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛــܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܓــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܫܝــܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܥ ݂ܟــܪܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܡܫܐܝــܠ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚ�ܩ ݂ܘܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫� ܘܪܚ ݂ܘܒ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܽܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܘܙ ݂ ܳܒـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩ ܽܛـ ̈ܘ ܶ�‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݁ܬ ܺܠܝ‪ :‬ܩܪ‬ ‫ܩـܕܫ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ܓܠܝـ�‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܳ ܽ ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ݂ܬ ܳܠـ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܘܩـܪܬܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘܚܡـܪܘ݂ܕ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ̈‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܓ ݁ܟ�ܗܝܢ ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݁ܪܒ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ݁ ܶܓܪܫܘܢ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬܠ ݂ܬܥܣ� ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܡـܪ ܺܪܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ� ܳܘ�̈ܶـܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚـܪ ̱ܘ ܗ ̈ܘܝ ܽܩـܘ� ܽܝܗܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫ܠܕ ܘܠܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ�ܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ�ܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܩܪܡ ݂ܘܬ ܘ ݂‬ ‫݂ܕܪ ݂ܘܒܝܠ‪ :‬ܝܗܨ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܚܫܡ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ـــܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓـــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓـــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܪܒـــܥ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܘܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ـــܘܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬܝـــܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܢ ܳܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܩ‬ ‫ܠܘ ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܙܒܘܠܘܢ‪ :‬ܢ ݂ܟܚ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܝܰܗ� ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܠܙ ܘܪܡܝܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܠܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܽ ̈ ܶ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܕܫܘܘܙ ݂ܒܐ ݂ܕܩܛܘ�‪ :‬ܪܡ ݂ܬ ݁ ܶܓ�ܥ ݂ـܕ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܚܢܝܡ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܛ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܝܰܥܙܝܪ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ ݁ܶ ݁ ܰ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܰܕܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶ� ܳܘ�̈ـܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂݂‬ ‫ܡܪܪܝ ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܕܐܫܬܚܪ ̱ܘ ܡـܢ ܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܠܩ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܰܨ ݂ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܩܘ��ܐ ݂ܬܪܬܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

        



    

The fields of the town, and the remaining villages, they gave to Caleb son of Jephunneh, as his portion.

To the children of Aaron the priest they gave the city of refuge for slayers, Hebron and its villages, and Libnah and its villages, Jart and its villages, Eshtemoa and its villages, Halo 1 and its villages, Debir and its villages,

Ain and its villages, Atah and its villages, Beth-shemesh and its villages, nine towns from the tribe of Judah and of Simeon. From the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon and its villages, and Geba and its villages, Anathoth and its villages, Almon and its villages: four cities:

All the towns of the children of Aaron the priest: thirteen, and their villages. To the family of the Levites, of the children of Kohath, and the rest of the children of Kohath: the towns in their lot were from the tribe of Ephraim.

They gave them the town (which is) a house of refuge of slayers, Shechem in the mountain-country of Ephraim, and its villages, Gadar and its villages, Kabzim and its villages, Beth-horon and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the tribe of Dan: Athlekah and its villages, Gibbethon and its villages,

Alon 2 and its villages, Gathrimmon and its villages: four towns and their villages.

From the half tribe of Manasseh: Taanach and its villages, Gatharmon and its villages: four towns and their villages. (In) all, ten towns, cities, and their villages: these were for the family of the remaining children of Kohath.

‘Halo’: M ‘Halol’. See p. xii. 2 ‘Alon’ (text); MT ‘Aijalon’. 1

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‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ܰ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܳ ݂ـܒ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܽܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܝܒ ܘܠܚܽܩ ܶܠ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ ܘܠ ܰܫ ݁ܪܟـܐ ݂ܕ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂ܒ ܳܝ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܘ ܰܠ ̈ܒ ܰܢــܝ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܙܒــܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܪܘܢ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܝــܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܽܛــ ̈ܘ ܶ�‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ــܪܘܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܗܢــܐ ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒــ ̱ܘ ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ� ݁‬ ‫ܫܬ ܽܡܘܥ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫�� ܳܪ ݂ܬ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܕ ܘ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܠܚܠܽܘ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܫ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ�ܥܰܛܐ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܘ ܳܘ�ܥܺܝܢ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܫܥ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܥܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܓ ݁ܒܥ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܙ ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ܳܢܝܡܝܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܓ ݂ܒܥܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܶ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܪܒܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܥ�ܡܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܚ ܘܥܢ ݂ܬ ݂ܘܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ̈ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܛ ݁ܟ�ܗܝܢ ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐܗܪܘܢ ݁ܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݂ܬܥܣ� ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ܬ ݁ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶ� ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܳܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚـܪ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܳܩ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ܬ‪ :‬ܗ ̈ܘܝ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܟ ܘܠܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ ܶܦ ܰܨ ܝ ̈ ܽܗܘܢ ܡܢ ܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܐܦܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܟܝܡ ݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩ ܽܛ ̈ܘ ܶ�‪ܰ :‬ܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܡܫ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܙܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܽܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ ܳܕܪ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܳ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܝــܬ ܰܚـ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ــܐ ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܪܢ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܠܩ ݂ܒ ܺܨܝــܡ ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܪܒ ـܥ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܺ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܳ ܽ ݁ ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒܬܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܟܓ ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬܠܩܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܳ ܽ ܶ ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܥ ܳܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬܪܡܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܟܕ ܘܐܠܘܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـــܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܓـــܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܓ ݂ܬܪ ܽܡـــܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܓـــܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ ܰܒ ܶܛـــܐ ݂ܕܡܢ ܶܫـــܐ‪ :‬ܬܥܢـــ ݂ܟ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬܪܬܝܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܺ ̈ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰ�ـ ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܗ ̈ܘܝ ܠܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂ܬܐ ܥܣـܪ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܩ ܳܗ ݂ܬ ݁ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 















   

The heads of the priests and of the Levites approached Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes of Israel.

They said to them in Shiloh, in the land of Canaan: The Lord commanded, through Moses, that they would give us towns to live in, and their villages for our cattle.

So the children of Israel gave the Levites some of their inheritance, according to the word from the mouth of the Lord, these towns and their villages.

The lot of the family of Kohath, of the children of Aaron the priest, of the Levites, was cast. They gave them (something) from the tribe of Judah, (something) from the tribe of Simeon, and (something) from the tribe of Benjamin: by lot, thirteen towns, To the remaining sons of Kohath they gave (something) from the tribe of Ephraim, (something) from the tribe of Dan, and (something) from the half tribe of Manasseh: ten towns.

To the children of Gershon they gave (something) from the tribe of Issachar, (something) from the tribe of Asher, (something) from the tribe of Naphtali, and (something) from the half tribe of Manasseh in Mathnin: by lot, thirteen towns.

To the children of Merari, family by family, they gave (something) from the tribe of Reuben, (something) from the tribe of Gad, and (something) from the tribe of Zebulun: twelve towns.

The children of Israel gave these towns, and their villages, by lot, to the Levites, as the Lord had commanded Moses.

These are the names of the towns which they gave from the tribe of Judah and from the tribe of Simeon: the towns by name:

There were for the children of Aaron, of the family of Kohath, of the children of the Levites — for theirs was the first lot —

They gave them Koriath-arba, which belong to the father of the mighty men, which is Hebron in the mountain-country of Judah, and its villages around it.



‫ܰܶ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫ܶܩ ݂ܦ� ܳܘܢ‪ :‬ܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢـܐ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ� ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܺ� ܶ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܽܢـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ̈ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ�ܘ ݂ܬ �ܝܫܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܐܒܗ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ܺܫܝܠܽܘ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ݁ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ‪݁ :‬ܕܢܶ ݁ܬ ܽܠـܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܰܠ ݂ܒܥܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܢ ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܠܡܥܡܪ ݁ܒܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ̈ܶ ܶ ܳ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܠ�ܘ�ܐ ܡܢ ܝ‬ ‫ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܕ ܳܩـ ܳܗܬ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܪܘܢ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢـܐ ܶܡـܢ ܶ� ܳܘ�̈ـܐ‪ .‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܦ ݂ܨܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݁ܪܒ ݂ ݂ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ܶܫܡܥܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ܳܢܝ ܶܡܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܨܬܐ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬ ܳܠ ݂ܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝـܡ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܩ ܳܗ ݂ܬ ݁ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ‬ ‫ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܳܕܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܫܘܢ‪ :‬ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܣ ݂ ܳܟـܪ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܶܓ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܠܝ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫݂ ܳܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܫܝܪ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܢ ݂ܦ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܨܬܐ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬ ܳܠ ݂ܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܺܪܝ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ܰܕܙ ݂ ܳܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠܘܢ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܪܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ̈ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܶܦـ ̈ܨܶ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ܒܢܝ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܠ�ܘ�ܐ ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡ ̈ܶܗܐ ݂ܕ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗܘ݂ ܳܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܥـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܰܗܝ ̈ ܶܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ܰܠܒ ܰ� ̈ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܗܪܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݁ܪܒ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩ ܳܗ ݂ܬ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܶ�ـ ܺܘܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ‬ ‫݂ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ݂ ܺܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܝ�ܗܘܢ ܗܘ ݂ܬ ܦ ݂ܨܬܐ ܩ ݂ܕܡܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ـܗܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܒـܥ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܒـ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ �ـ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܩــܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܗܘܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒـ ܶ� ܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ܶܚ ݂ܒـ ܽـܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܳܚ ݂ܕ ܺܪܝܢ ܳ� ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





Across the Jordan, by Jericho on the east, they set apart 1 Bezer in the wilderness, situated 2 in the plain, belonging to the tribe of Reuben: Ramath-gilead belonging to the tribe of Gad; and Golan in Mathnin belonging to the tribe of Manasseh.

These are cities of refuge, places of asylum, for all the children of Israel, and for the inhabitants who live among them. 3 All who take life unintentionally may flee there, and will not be delivered up to the one who seeks blood vengeance, until the time when he will stand in judgment before the congregation.

‘set apart’: lit. ‘gave’. ‘situated’: lit. ‘living’. 3 ‘who live among them’: lit. ‘the dwellers who dwell’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘ ܶܡـܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚـܐ‪ :‬ܝܰܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܒـܘ ܳܨܪ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ܳܒـܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܶܡــܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫�ܥـ ݂ـܕ ܶܡــܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܳܓـ ݂ܕ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܒ ݂ܦܩܥـ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ :‬ܘܪ ܰܡـ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܒܡ ݂ܬܢܝܢ ܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܰܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܟ�ـܗܘܢ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܣـܐ ݂‬ ‫ܘܘܙ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܰܘ݂ܕ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܳ� ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ـܪܩ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܳܡـܢ ݁ ܽܟـܠ ܰܡـܢ ݁ܕ ܳܩܛـܠ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܶ ݁ܺ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ݂ܕ ܳܡـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܽܢܩـܘܡ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ݂ ܰܒܥ ܥܝ‬ ‫ܢ ݂ܦܫܐ ܡܢ ܫ�ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ܢܫܬܠܡ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܺܕ ܳܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܟܢ‬ ‫݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XVII

  









Chapter  The Lord said to Joshua:

Say to the children of Israel: Leave yourselves cities of refuge, 1 as I told you, through my servant Moses.

So that a slayer may flee there, one who has taken a life unintentionally 2 and unaware. They will be your refuge from one who seeks blood vengeance. He may flee to one of these cities. He will stand in the entrance to the city gate and say, in front of the elders of that city, he will declare his cause, 3 and they will take him to them in the city and give him a place in which he may live with them.

When the one seeking blood vengeance pursues 4 him, they shall not deliver the slayer into his hands, because he struck his friend unawares, he had no hatred of him 5 before that day.

He may live in that city until he stands in front of the congregation in judgment, until whoever is the high priest at that time 6 dies. Then the slayer may return, may come to his (own) house, to his town, to the city from which he fled. Then they set apart these cities to be places of asylum: 7 Rakem in Galilee, in the mountain-country of Naphtali; Shechem in the mountain-country of Ephraim; Koriath-arba, which is Hebron, in the mountain-country of Judah.

‘refuge’: lit. ‘deliverance’. ‘unintentionally’: lit. ‘unexpectedly’. So too 20:9. 3 ‘declare his cause’: lit. ‘speak his words’. 4 ‘pursues’: lit. ‘pursues after’. 5 ‘had no hatred of him’: lit. ‘was not hating him’. 6 ‘whoever is the high priest at that time’: lit. ‘the high priest who will be in those days’. 7 ‘places of asylum’: lit. ‘house of asylum’. So too 20:9. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܟ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܙ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܰܡܪ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܩܘ��ܐ ܠܡܫ ݂‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩ ̱ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܘܙܒ ݂‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ܕ ̱ܝ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܕܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫܐ ܶܡـܢ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪܘܩ‬ ‫�ܝـܐ ݂ ܰܟـ ݂ܕ � ܳܝـ ݂ ܰܕܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܬܡܢ ܩܛܘ�‪ :‬ܐܝܢܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ̈ܳ ܽ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܙܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ܬ ݂ ܰܒܥ ܥ ܳܝ ݁ܪܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ݂ܕ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܠܡܫ ݂‬ ‫ܘܢܗܘܝܢ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܪܘܩ ܰܠ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚـܕ ܐ ܶܡـܢ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽܢܩـܘܡ ܒܡܥ�ܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܺ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܶܡ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܢܶܚܡܠܽܘܢܶܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܳܗܝ‪ܺ :‬ܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܢܡܠܠ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܩܫܝܫܐ ݂ܕܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܬܠܘܢ ܠܗ ܕܘܟ ݂ܬܐ ܠܡܥܡܪ ܥܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܢܶ ݁ ܽ ݁‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܠܩܛـܘ�‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܕ ݂ܘܦ ܬ ݂ ܰܳܒܥ ܥ ܳܝܪܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ݂ܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪܗ‪ :‬ܘ� ܰܢܫ� ܽ ܳܡـܘܢܶܗ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝـ ݂ ܰܕ ̱‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ � ܳܝ ݂ ܰܕܥ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܒ ܶܪܗ‪ :‬ܘ� ܳܣܢܶܐ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܶܠܗ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚܝ ̱ܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܳܡ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܶ݁ܶ ݁ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܺܕ ܳܝܢـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܳܗܝ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܘܬ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩܐܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܢܬ ݂ܒ ܒܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܽܢܡ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܰ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ ݂ܕܢܶܗܘܐ ݂ܒ�ܘܡ ݂ܬܐ ܗܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܗ ݁ܝܕܝܢ ܢܗܦ ݂ܘܟ ܩܛܘ� ܘܢـ ݂ܐܬܐ ܠ ݂ܒܝـܬܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ ܶܡ ܳܢ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂‬ ‫ܘܠܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـ� ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ݁ܦ ܰܪܫ ̱ܘ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ݁ ܰܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ‬ ‫ܪܩـܡ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ܓܠ ݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܫܟܝܡ ݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܠܝ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒـܥ ݁ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽـܪܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܕܢ ݂ܦ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ܘܕ ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 



They completed taking possession of the land within its borders. The children of Israel gave a portion to Joshua son of Nun, in their midst. According to the word of the Lord, they gave him the town for which he asked, Tamnath-serah in the mountain-country of Ephraim. He built the town and lived in it.

These are the portions which Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the leaders of the fathers of the Israelite tribes gave as inheritances, by lots, in Shiloh, in the presence of the Lord, at the door of the Tent of Time. They completed the division of the land.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ـܐܪܬ ̇ܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ܬ ܽܚـ ̈ܘ ܶܡ ̇‬ ‫ܘܫܠܡ ̱ܘ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܡܛ‬ ‫ـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ ܝ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ݂ܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܢ ܥܰܠ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܣـܪܚ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܠـܗ ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ ݂ ܰܕܫـܐܠ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫݁ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ̇ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܒܛܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܐܦܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܢܗ ܠܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܳܝـ� ݁ܬ ܳܘ ܳܬܐ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳـܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢـܐ ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܽܢـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܺ� ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳܐܒـ ̈ܗ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܶ ܺ ݂ ܳ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ̈ܶ ܺ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝــܠ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܦـܨ ܐ ݂ܒܫܝܠــܘ ܩـ ݂ـܕܡ ܡܪ�ـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܬܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܡܫܟܢܙ ݂ܒܢــܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬ ̇ܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܠܡ ̱ܘ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂‬ ‫ܡܦ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





            



Their border ran from Halpah, Alon, Zenam, Admah, Nekeb/Nakeb, and Nebael/Nabael, as far as Lakom. Its limit was the Jordan. The border went westward to Aznothboz, and went from there to Hekik/Hakik. It reached Zebulun to the south and reached Asher to the west, and Judah at the Jordan, towards the rising of the sun, And at the great cities: Tyre, Sidon, Hamath, Karath, Chinerreth, Adamah, Damah, Hazor, Kedesh, Erdei, Ein-zur,

Dion, Migdal-el, Hadom, 1 Beth-anath, and Beth-shemesh: nineteen towns and their villages.

This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Naphtali, family by family, these towns and their villages.

The seventh lot was cast for the children of Dan, family by family.

The border of their inheritance was Zadah, Eshtaol, Keritha-dashemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Nathlah, Alon, Temnah, Ekron,

Elkath, Gebton, Baalath,

Jehudith, Beeldabach, Gethrimmon, 2

Mahrekon, Carkon, as far as border approaching 3 Elath.

The territory of the children of Dan was too restricted for them. 4 So the children of Dan went up and went to war against the men of Eino. They conquered it, laid it waste with the sword. They took possession of it and lived in it; they called Eino ‘Dan’, according to the name of Dan their father. This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Dan, family by family, these cities, towns and their villages. ‘Hadom’: M ‘Harom’. See p. xii. ‘Gethrimmon’: the same consonantal text appears in Mosul in 21:24,25 but it has been emended in this edition. 3 ‘approaching’: lit. ‘opposite’. 4 ‘was too restricted for them’: lit. ‘went from them’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܠܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܠܗ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܚ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ ܶܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܰܐ ܽܠـܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫�ܦܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܥـܡ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳܐܕ ܳܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳܢܩـ ݂ܒ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰܠ ܽ‬ ‫�ܩܘܡ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܐ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩܢ ܶܗܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܳܢܒܐܶܝܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܩܝـܩ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ܰ�ܙ ܽܢ ݂ܘܬ ݁ ܽܒܘܙ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡـܢ ܰܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰ ݂ܓـܥ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒ ݂ ܳܙܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܺ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܫܝܪ ݁ ܳܦ ܰܓܥ ܶܡܢ ܰܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ݂ܒ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ̈ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܰܪ ݂ܬ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡ ݂ܬ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܽܨܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܨ ݁ ܳܝܕܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܢܪ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂ܬܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂‬

‫ܠܘ ܳܘ ݂ ܳܐܕ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ܳܡܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܽܨܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܙ ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܫ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܪܕܥܺܝ‪ :‬ܘܥܺܝܢ ܽܨܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚـ ݁ ܽܕܘܡ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܬ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܽܝܐܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݂ܓ ݁ ܰܕ �ܶܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ܫܡـܫ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܬ ܰܫܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ̈ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܠــܝ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ܶܠܝــܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ــܐ‬ ‫ܠܛ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝــܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛ ـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢ ـܝ ܢ ݂ܦ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܕܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡ ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܬ ܦ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܶ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܐ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܨ ݂ܕܥܐ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐܫܬܘܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܥ�ܒܝܢ‪ܺ :‬ܘܐܝܠܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܬ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܓ ܰܘܐܠܘܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܕ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܠܩ ݂ܬ‪݂ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܥܠ ܰ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܗ ܺܘ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܟ‪݂ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܪܡܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰܳ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܽ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܩܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܐܝܠ ܰ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܩܘܢ‪݂ :‬ܥܕܡܐ ܠ ݂ܬܚܘܡܐ ݂ܕܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܙ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ݂ ܳܕܢ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘܣܠܶܩ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܕܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒـܐ ܥܰـܡ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ ̇ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܢܘ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܳܫܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܽܫ ̇‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܣ ݁ܝܦـܐ‪ :‬ܘܝـܪܬܘܗ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܺ� ܽܝܢܘ ݂ ܳܕܢ ܥܰܠ ܶܫܡ ݁ ܳܕܢ ܰܐ ݂ ܽܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪܐ ܽ ̇‬ ‫ܘܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܕܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܡܚ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

           

 

  

This was the inheritance of the children of Zebulun, family by family. The fourth lot was cast for the children of Issachar, family by family.

Their border was at Jezreel, Chisluth, Shuiam,

Haphiram, Shenan, Ahtar, Deblath, Kishon, Aphaz,

Ramath-ein, Enian, Ein-haddah, and Beth-pezian.

It met the border of Tor, 1 at Shahzimah, and at Beth-shemesh. The limit of their border was the Jordan: thirteen towns and their villages.

This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Issachar, family by family, the towns and their villages. The fifth lot was cast for the tribe of the children of Asher, family by family. Their border was Haklath, Hali, Batan, Achshaph,

Amlech, Amcar, and Amshael. It reached Carmel from the west, Shihor, and Labaith.

It went from the east of the sun to Beth-dagon, and met Zebulun, and the valley of Naphtahael from the north, and Dabith, Umkah, Danaeil/Danael. It extended to Cabul northwards,

To Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kaah, as far as Greater Zidon.

The border went to Ramtha, and as far as the mighty city of Tyre. The border turned towards Has. Its limit was westward, at the valley of Jorab. 2 Also Umkah, Aphek, and Rehob: twenty-two towns and their villages.

This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Asher, family by family, these towns and their villages. The six lot was cast for the children of Naphtali, family by family.

‘Tor’: M ‘Tabor’ — so MT. See p. xii. 2 ‘Jorab’: M ‘Achzib’. See p. xii. 1



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݂ ܽܙܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܠܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܘ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܒܥ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣ ݂ ܳܟܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܙ ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܬ ܦ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܺ ܰܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܣܠܽ ݂ܘܬ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫ ܺܘܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܳܳ ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܰܘ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚܬܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܪܡ‪ :‬ܘܫܢܐܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܝܫܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ܒܠ ܰ ݂ܬ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܦܨ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܥܶܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ܰܢܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܺܝܢ ܰܚ ݂ ܳܕ ܐ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܶܦ ܳܨܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܟܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰܓ ـܥ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡــܫ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ ݂ܒ ـ ݂ ܽܬܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܐ ܰܡ ݂ܦ ܳܩܢــܐ‬ ‫ܝܡــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܶܒܝـ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫�ܝ ݁ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܪܕܢܢ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬܠ ݂ܬܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣ ݂ ܳܟܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܳܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܓ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܶܡܫ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܳܐ ܺܫܝܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܕ ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܬ ܦ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚܠܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ�ܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܟ ܳܫ ݂ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܚܩܠ ܰ ݂ܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡـ� ܶܡـܢ ܰܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒـܐ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܡܫܐܝܠ‪݂ .‬ܘܦ ݂ܓܥ ܒ ݂ܟ‬ ‫ܟܘ ܰܘܐܡܠ ݂ܟ‪ :‬ܘܥܡܟܪ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁ ܺܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܝܬ ݁ ܳܕ ܽܓـܘܢ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰܓـܥ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ ܳܙܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܟ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢܚـ�‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݁ܬ ܳܚܐܶܝܠ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܢܥܐܝـܠ‪ܳ .‬ܘܢ ݂ ܰܦـܩ ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܘܡܩـܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܕ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݁ ܺܒ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܽܟ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܠ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܚ ܰܘ�ܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܚ ܽܡܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܳܥܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܚ ݂ܐܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܨ ݁ ܽܝܕܘܢ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ ܰܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܶܦـ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܢܬܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܥܫ‬ ‫�ܨܘܪ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ �ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܚܣ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܘܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܢܚ� ݂ܕ ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܘܥܘܡܩܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܦܩ‪ :‬ܘܪܚ ݂ܘܒ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܥܣܪܝܢ ݂ܘܬܪܬܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛــܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ــܝ ܳܐ ܺܫܝــܪ ܰ‬ ‫ــܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ــܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝــܢ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂‬ ‫� ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝــܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܰ̈ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܠܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܬ ܦ ݂ܨܬܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܬ ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܢ ݂ܦ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 



      



     

The second lot was cast 1 for the tribe of the children of Simeon, family by family. Their inheritance was in the middle of the inheritance of the children of Judah. They had, in their inheritance, Beer-sheba, Sheba, Moladah, Darath-taaley, Balah, Azem, Elothlad, Beth-el, Hormah,

Ziklag, Beth-marcaboth, Hazar-susah,

Beth-lebaoth, Sharwanan: fourteen towns and their villages.

Ain, Rimmon, Gathar, Ashan: four towns and their villages.

Also all the villages around these towns, as far as Labath Beth-ramtha in the south. This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Simeon, family by family.

The inheritance of the children of Simeon was part of the lot of the children of Judah, because the portion of the children of Judah was (so) extensive: so the children of Simeon inherited part of their inheritance.

The third lot was cast for the children of Zebulun, family by family. The border of their inheritance extended as far as Ashdoth.

Their border went up westwards, to Ramath-taaley; it reached Dabbasheth and reached the wadi which lies before Nekemeam.

From Ashdoth, east of the sun, it went to the border of Chisloth, and Bethor; it went out to Rabbath and rose up towards Naphia. From there it passed, from the east, first to Gath, to Hepher, to Athah, and to Kazin; it went to Armon, to Mathwah, and to Awah.

The border went round from the north of Haditon; its limits were at the valley of Caphtanael,

To Kattath, Jahalil, Shimron, Aralah, Beth-lehem: twelve towns and their villages.

1

‘was cast’: lit. ‘went out’. So passim.



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܝܛ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛــܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ــܝ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ ݀‬ ‫ــܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ݁ܪܬܶܝــܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܥــܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ ܽܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂‬ ‫ــܬ ܦــ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓܘ ܝܳܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܘܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ܳܝ� ݁ܬ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܺܒܪ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܘ� ݁ ܳܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ ܳܘܕ ܰܪ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܬ ̈� ܶ�‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ� ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܨܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܠ ݂ܘܬ ܰܠ ݂ܕ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܺܝܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܨܢܩܠܰܓ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܚܨܪ ܽܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܡ ݁ܪܟ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܠ ݁ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬ‪ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܪܘܝܢܢ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܺ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬܪ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܳܫܢ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘܥܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܪܡܝܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܺܝܪܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܐ ܽ ݂ܓܘ� ܶܣܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ܰܠ ݂ܒ ܳܥ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܥܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܳ .‬ܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܥܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܳܝـܐܐ ̱ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ݀‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܰܚ ݂ܒ� ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܶܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ܺ ݁ .‬ܕ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܳܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܥܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢــܝ ݂ ܽܙܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠــܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܦ ـ ݂ܨܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܳܠـ ݂‬ ‫ܘܣ ܽ�ܩ ـ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪݂ :‬ܥܕܡܐ � ݁‬ ‫ܫܕ ݂ܘܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰܓܥ ݁ܒ ܶܕܒ ܰܫܬ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܪ ܰܡܬ ݁ ܰܬ ̈� ܶ�‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣܠ ܶܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰ ݂ܓـܥ‬ ‫݂݂ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܶܢܩܡܥܰܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܢ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܶܦ ݂ܟ ܶܡܢ ܐ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܕ ݂ܘܕ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒـ ݁ܬܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܟܣܠ ݂‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ � ܰܪ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܬ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫�ܢ ݂ ܺܦܝܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܳܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܰܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܰܝ ݂ܬ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪݂ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܩ ܰܨܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܬ‪ .‬ܘܠܚ ݂ܦܪ‪ :‬ܘ�ܥ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܬ ܳܘܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ܰ� ܽ‬ ‫ܪܡܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�� ܳܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܽ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝـܬܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܕܪ‬ ‫ܢـܘܗܝ‬ ‫�ܢܚـ�‬ ‫ܠܗ ܬܚܘܡـܐ ܡـܢ ܓܪܒܝـܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܚܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝـܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳܶ‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܦܬܢܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫��ـ ܰܪܐ�‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܰܛ ݂ܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܚـܡ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܬܪܬܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 

        

It faces away northwards, comes out at the fountain of the sun, 1 and out from Galilee opposite the ascent of Ramin, goes down to Laban, to Bohan who is the son of Reuben. 2

It goes round on the side opposite the plain northwards, and goes down to the plain.

The border goes round, by the side of Beth-hoglah northwards. The limits of the border were at the inlet 3 of the Salt Sea northwards and at the banks of the Jordan southwards: this is the border at the south and at the Jordan. On the eastern borders is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, their borders all around, family by family.

These were the towns of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, family by family: Jericho, Zabith, Hoglah, 4 Emek, and Keziz, Beth-arabah, Zemaraim, Beth-el, Avvim, Parah, Ophrah,

Chephar-umka, Aphli, Gaba, fourteen towns and their hamlets. Gibeon, Ramtha, Baro, 5

Mizpeh, Chephirah, Mazah, Rekem, Rephael, Taralah,

Zelah, Gebirah, Jabus, that is Jerusalem, Gibeath, and Koriathim: fourteen towns and their villages. This was the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, family by family.

‘the fountain of the sun’, i.e. translates MT’s En-Shemesh. See also 15:7. ‘to Laban, to Bohan who is the son of Reuben’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 3 ‘inlet’: lit. ‘tongue’. 4 ‘Zabith, Hoglah’: M ‘Beth-hoglah’ — so MT. See p. xii. 5 ‘Baro’: M ‘Beeroth’. See p. xii. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚـ ܰـܐܪ ܶܡــܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝــܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦ ـܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܙ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡــܫ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦ ـܩ ܥܰــܠ ݁ܓܠܝــ�‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܳܗܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܶܪܗ ݁ܕ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܩ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܰܪ ܺܡܝܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ܠ ܰ݁ ܳܒܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܽ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܥܰܠ ܤܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕܠ ݂‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ܡܢ ܓܪܒܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܚ ݂ܬ ܠ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳܰ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܚܓ ܳ� ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܢـܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝـܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܝܛ ܘܥ ݂ܒܪ ܬܚܘܡܐ ܥܠ ܤܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ ݂‬ ‫�ܚܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰܠ ݂ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܶܠ ܳܫ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‬ ‫ܣܦ� ̱‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܰܢܘ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝ‬ ‫ـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܶܒ ܳܢܝ ܶܡܝـܢ‬ ‫ܟ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܬ ܽܚܘ ܰܡ ̱‬ ‫ܝܗ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܳܚ ݂ܕ ܳܪ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ̈ܘ ܶܡ ̇‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܐ ܰܘܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ܽܩܘ� ܳ� ـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛ ـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ ـܝ ݁ ܶܒ ܳܢܝ ܶܡܝــܢ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܺ ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬ‬ ‫ܝܚــܘ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܙ ݁ ܺܒܝـ ݂‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ܰܚܓ ܳ�‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܡܩ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܨ ܨ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܒ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܡ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܟܓ ܘܥ ܶܘܝܰܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܪ ܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ܘܦ ܳܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܕ ܰܘ ݂ܟ ݁ ܰܦܪ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰ ݂ܦܠ ܺܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘܓ ݂ ܰܒܥ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܽܪܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܪ ݂‬ ‫ܟܘ ܘ ܰܡ ݁ܨܦ ܳܝܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ ܺܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܦܐܝܠ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ܰܪ �‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܙ ܘܪܩܡ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܳ ܽܒــܘܣ ݁ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺܗܝ ܐ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܟܚ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ ܺܒܝـ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܫܠܶــܡ‪݂ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܨܠــܥ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩــܘܪܝܰ ݁ܬܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒܥܰـ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܶܒ ܳܢܝ ܶܡܝـܢ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪ܳ .‬ܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝ‬ ‫ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܐ ݁ܪܒܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

















The men went, they travelled throughout the land. They registered 1 the towns (in) seven portions on a scroll. They came to Joshua, in the city of Shiloh.

He cast lots 2 for them in Shiloh, in the presence of the Lord. Joshua divided up the land there, for the children of Israel, portion by portion. 3

The lot of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, family by family, came up: 4 the border of their inheritance was between the children of Judah and the children of Joseph. Their border was the Jordan, on the north side; the border went up to reach 5 Jericho northwards and went up to the mountain-country westwards; its limit was the wilderness of Beth-aven.

From there the border went to Luz, on the south side of Luz, which is Beth-el; it went down to Ataroth-adar to the mountain on the south of Lower Beth-horon.

The border was the seashore 6 southwards, from the mountain which faces Beth-horon in the south. Its limit was Koriath-baal, which is Koriath-narin, a town of the children of Judah, by 7 the seashore.

Then southwards 8 round the side of Koriath-narin. The border reaches to the sea and extends to the spring of the waters of Naphtali. The border goes down towards the edge of the mountain which faces the valley of Ben-hinnom in the low country of the mighty men, northwards. The border of Ben-hinnom goes down to the side of the (territory of) the Jebusites southwards, and (then) goes down to Eindugel.

‘registered’: lit. ‘wrote’. ‘lots’: different Syriac word from that in 18:6,8. 3 ‘portion by portion’: lit. ‘in portions’. 4 ‘came up’: lit. ‘went up’. 5 ‘reach’: lit. ‘the side of’. 6 ‘was the seashore’: lit. ‘faced the side of the sea’. 7 ‘by’: lit. ‘this was’. 8 ‘southwards’: lit. ‘the south side’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫݁ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ݁ ܳܦܠ ܰ ݂̈ܓ ܳܘܢ ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ ܓ ݂ܒ� ܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܒܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܠܫܝܠܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܓ ݂‬ ‫ܠܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ̇ܗ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ � ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܺ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܦ ̈ܨ ܐ ݂ܒ ܺܫܝܠܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܳܦܠ ܰ ݂̈ܓ ܳܘ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦـܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ݁ ܶܒ ܳܢܝ ܶܡܝــܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܘܣ ܽ�ܩـ ݂ܬ ܦـ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ܒܢܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ܒܢܝ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ ܶܡܢ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܛـܪ ܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶــܩ ݁ܒ ܽܛـ ܳ‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒــܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܚــܘ ܶܡــܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝــܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝــܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩܢـ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܳܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕܒܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܠܽـܘܙ‪ :‬ܥܰـܠ ܶܤ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܛـܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܠـܘܙ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ‪ܺ :‬ܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܛܪܘܬ ܶܐ݁ ܰܕܪ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܺܝܠ‪ܳ .‬ܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫݂ ܶܒ‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ �ܥ ܶ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܬ ݁ܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܘܪܢ ܬ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ܕ� ݁ ܰܦـ ̈ܝ ݁ ܶܒܝـܬ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܰܐܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ ܛ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ ̈ܦ ܳܩܢܘܗܝ ܥܰܠ ܽܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܥ ܶܠ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺܗܝ ܽܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪܝܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܰܢܐ ܗܘ ܶܤ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܐ ݂ܕ ܽܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܤ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪܝܢ‪ܳ .‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦـܩ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݁ܬ ܺܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ݁ܒ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܩـܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܥܰܠ ܰܣ ݁ܘܦܗ ݁ܕܛܘܪ ܐ � ݁ܦ ̈ܝ ܰܢܚ� ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܳܗ ܽܢـܘܡ‪ܺ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܳܗ ܽܢܘܡ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ ܶܤ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ .‬ܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܛـܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝـܐ‬ ‫ܶ ݂ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܬܝܡܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܚ ݂ܬ �ܥܝܢ ܕ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XVI



 





 



Chapter  The whole congregation of the children of Israel gathered at Shiloh, and they established 1 the Tent of Time there. The land was subjugated to them.

However, there remained seven tribes of the children of Israel which had not received 2 their inheritance.

Joshua said to the children of Israel: How long will you delay entering to take possession of the land which the Lord God of your fathers gave you?

Choose 3 three men from each tribe. I shall send them, they will arise, they will they will travel through the land, and mark it out 4 according to their inheritance, and come (back) to me. They will divide the land into seven portions. Judah will remain at its border in the south, and those of the house of Joseph will remain at 5 their border in the north. You will mark out the land in the seven portions, and bring it to me here; I will cast the lot for you 6 in the presence of the Lord our God.

For there is no portion among you for the Levites, because their inheritance is the priesthood of the Lord, and Gad, Reuben, and the half tribe of Manasseh have (already) received their inheritance(s) on the other side of the Jordan, in the east, which Moses the servant of the Lord gave them.

The men arose and went. Joshua commanded them to go, to mark out the land. He said to them: Go, walk through the land, mark it out, and come to me here. I will cast lots for you, before the Lord, in Shiloh. ‘established’: lit. ‘place/make to rest’. 2 ‘received’: lit. ‘divided’. 3 ‘Choose’: lit. ‘Choose for yourselves’. 4 ‘mark it out’: lit. ‘write it’. So too passim. 5 ‘remain at … remain at’ or ‘retain … retain’: lit. ‘stand at … stand at’. 6 ‘cast the lot for you’: lit. ‘show you the lot/portion that is chosen’. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܘ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܝܚ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫܝܠܽـܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܪܝـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡـܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܢܫ ̱ܘ ܟ�ܗ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܫܟـܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܙ ݂ܒܢܐ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܒܫ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܕ� ݂ ܰܦܠ ݂ܓ ̱ܘ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒܛܐ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܶ� ܰܡ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ ܶܡ ݂ܬ ܰܪ ݁ ܶܦܝܢ ܐܢ̱ـ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪݁ :‬ܕܝܰܗ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܪ ݂ܬ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳܐܒ ܰܗ ̈ܝ ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܽ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ـܕܪ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽܢܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐ ܰܫ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܘܢ‬ ‫݁ܓ ݂ ܰܒܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܬܠ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܢ ̇ܗ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰܢܗ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݂ܘܬ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܺ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܐܬܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢ ̇ܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ݁ ܳܦܠ ܰ ̈ܓـ ܳܘܢ‪ܺ .‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܽܢܩـܘܡ ܥܰـܠ ݁ܬ ܽܚـ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܰܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܢܦ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܡܘܢ ܥܰܠ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ ܽܢܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ ݁ܽ ݁ܽ ̇ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝـܬܐ ܽ ̇‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ � ܳܗ ݁ ܳܪܟـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܒـܥ ܦܠ ݂ܓـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘܐܢ̱ـܬܘܢ ܟܘܬܒـܘܗ �ܪܥـܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫݂ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܶܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܡܢ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܓ ݂ܒܝܐ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ݁ ݁ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ� ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܳܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܢ ݂ܘܬܶܗ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‬ ‫ܡ ܽܛܠ ܕܠܝܬ ܦܠܓ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܕ‪ܽ .‬ܘܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܡܢ ܶܫـܐ ܩ ݁ܒܠـ ̱ܘ ܝـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܳܪܬ ݂ܘܬܗܘܢ‪݂ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ܳܢܚܐ‪݁ :‬ܕܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܡܘ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠܘ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ـܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܗ ܽܢـܘܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܕ ܰܐܙܠـ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܟ ݁ܬ ݂ ܳܒ ̇‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܙܶܠ ̱ܘ ܰܗ ܶܠ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ � ܳܗ ݁ ܳܪܟܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܘܬ ݁ ܽܒ ̇‬ ‫ܐܪܡـܐ‬ ‫ܘܗ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡ� ܳ ̈ܘ ݂ ܳܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ܒ ܺܫܝܠܘ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





Joshua said to those of the house of Joseph, to the children of Ephraim and Manasseh: You are a numerous people, you have great strength; if one portion is not enough for you,

Choose the mountain-country for yourselves: it will be enough for you. The boundaries 1 of the mountain shall be your borders. 2 Wipe out the Canaanites and the Perizzites, for they have mighty iron chariots, they are strong.

‘boundaries’: lit. ‘places’. 2 ‘your borders’: lit. ‘for you its limits/departures’. 1



‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ܺ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܠ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܝ ܶܘܣ ݂ ܳܦ ܠ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ ݂ܦܪܝܡ ܘܡܢܫܐ‪ :‬ܥܡܐ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܐܢ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܢ � ܳܣ ݂ܦ ܳܩܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܚܝ� ܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ ܰܒـ ̈ܘܗܝ ݁ܕܛܽـ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܘܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ ܶܦـܩ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܓ ݂ ܰܒܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪܘ ݂ܒܘ ܰܠ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝـܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ̈ܦ ܳܩܢܘܗܝ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܠܦ� ܳܙ�ܶـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ܕܡ� ܟ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰܺ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ̈ ܳ ̱݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ �ܗܘܢ ܘܥܫܝܢܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕܥܫ�ܢܢ ܕ ݂ܦܪܙ� ܐ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 







  





Their border went down towards the wadi of the sea, on the south of the wadi of these towns of Ephraim, towards 1 the towns of Manasseh; 2 the border of Manasseh ran from the north of the wadi; its limits were westward; Southwards it belonged to Ephraim, northwards to Manasseh, and the sea was their border, meeting in (the territory of) Asher, northwards, and of Issachar to the east.

Manasseh had, before Issachar, Beth-jashan 3 and its hamlets, Nibleam 4 and its hamlets, Ein-dor and its hamlets, Taanach and its hamlets, Megiddo and its hamlets: three heights. 5

The children of Israel did not destroy these towns, because the Canaanites were persuaded 6 to live in these towns. When the children of Israel grew strong they compelled the Canaanites to pay tribute, but did not wipe them out completely.

The children of Joseph said to Joshua: Why did you give us as an inheritance (only) one part, one portion? for there are many of us. Until now, the Lord has blessed us. Joshua said to them: As 7 there are many of you, go up to the side of the mountain-country, 8 and make your choice in the land of the Perizzites and the warriors, because the mountain-country of Ephraim is inadequate 9 for you. The children of Joseph said: The mountain-country and the Perizzites’ cities are not enough for us, 10 for the Canaanites live in the low-lying land, in Beth-shean and its hamlets, and in the low-lying country of Jezreel. ‘towards’: lit. ‘between/among’. 2 ‘towns of Manasseh’: lit. ‘the house of/between the towns of Manasseh’. 3 ‘Beth-jashan’: i.e. ‘Beth-shean’. 4 ‘Nibleam’: i.e. ‘Ibleam’. 5 ‘heights’: lit. ‘swellings’. See Introduction, Addendum 1. 6 ‘were persuaded’: see Introduction, Addendum 2. 7 ‘As’: lit. ‘If’. 8 ‘to the side of the mountain-country’: see Introduction. Addendum 2. 9 ‘inadequate’: lit. ‘narrow’. 10 ‘are not enough for us’: lit. ‘do not suffice us’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܢܚ� ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ܬܝܡ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢܚـ� ݂ܕ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝـܡ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫــܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܚــ�‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡــܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܝــܬ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ــܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫــܐ ܶܡــܢ ݁ܓܪܒܝــܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܘܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܳ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ ܰܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܫܝܪ ݁ ܳܦ ݂ܓܥܺܝܢ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫݂ܘܬܝܡܢܐ � ݂ܦܪܝܡ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܺ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣ ݂ ܳܟܪ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫــܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝــܬ ܝܰ ܳܫــܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝــܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ــܘܒܠܶܗ ݁ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܢܒ�ܥܰــܡ‬ ‫ܠܩ ݂‬ ‫ܐܝܣ ݂ ܳܟــܪ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܓ ݁ ܽܕܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢ ݂ܟ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܢܕܘܪ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܝـܗ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ܬ ܳܠ ݂ܬ ܳܙ ̈ܘܝܳܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ ܶܕܐ ݁ܬ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܰ‬ ‫ܛܦܝܣـ ̱ܘ ݁ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝـܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݂ܒ ݁ܒ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ �‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪݁ :‬ܟ ݂ ܰܒܫ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܰܠ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝـܐ ݂ܒܡـܕ ݂ܐܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܡ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܥܫܢ ̱ܘ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܒ�‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܠܡܢܐ ܝ ̱ܗ ݂ܒܬ ܠܢ ܝܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ܡܢ ݂ܬܐ ݂‬ ‫ܥܕ ܰܡܐ ̱ܗܘ � ܳܗ ݁ ܳܪܟܐ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܐ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܓ ݁ ܳܒـܐ ݁ܕܛܽـ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܐܢ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܰܐܢ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܐ‪ܰ :‬ܣܩ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܽ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܕ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܙ�ܶܐ ܰܘܕ ܰܓܢ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܠܝـܨ ܽܗܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܓ ݂ ܰܒܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂ ݂ ̱‬ ‫ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܝܰـ ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܙ�ܶــܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛــܠ‬ ‫ـܘܣ ݂ܦ‪ܳ � :‬ܣ ݂ܦـܩ ܠــܢ ܛــܘܪ ܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢـ ݂‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ ̱‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝܐ ܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ܺܒܝܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܩـܐ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܝܰ ܳܫـܢ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܘܡܩـܐ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 









 





Gilead was the portion of the tribe of Manasseh, for he was Joseph’s first-born; of Machir, the first-born of Manasseh, the father of Gilead, a first-born, a warrior: Gilead and Mathnin were his.

For the rest of 1 the children of Manasseh, family by family: for the children of Abiezer, the children of Helek, the children of Neshrael, the children of Shopham, the children of Hepher, the children of Shemida — these were the sons of Manasseh son of Joseph, the males, family by family. Zelophehad son of Hepher, son of Gilead, son of Machir, son of Manasseh, had no sons, but daughters. These were the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Jaah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah.

They approached Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the noblemen of Israel saying: The Lord commanded Moses to give us an inheritance among our brothers — he gave to us, according to the word of the Lord, 2 among the brothers of our fathers. Joshua gave them an inheritance, a portion among the brothers of their fathers. Ten portions 3 fell to Manasseh 4 beyond the land of Gilead and of Mathnin, which is on the other side of the Jordan, Because the daughters of Manasseh had inherited a portion with (some of) their brothers; the land of Gilead was for the rest of Manasseh’s sons. The border of (the territory of) the sons of Manasseh ran from the border of Machmath, on the right side of the inhabitants of Eintappuah,

So their land included 5 (the territory of) Tappuah, but it opened 6 on the border of the children of Manasseh, son of Joseph, and belonged to the house of the sons of Ephraim. ‘the rest of’: lit. ‘who remained/were left’. 2 ‘the word of ’: lit. ‘the word of the mouth of ’. So passim. 3 ‘portions’: a different Syriac word from that in e.g. 17:4. 4 ‘Ten portions fell to Manasseh’: lit. ‘They fell, the portions of Manasseh, ten’. 5 ‘included’: lit. ‘was on’. 6 ‘Tappuah, but it opened’: see Introduction. Addendum 2. 1



‫ܰܶ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܶܩ ݂ܦ� ܳܘܢ‪ :‬ܝܙ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ݀ ݁ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܝܘ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܟ ܶܪܗ ݁ܕܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܽܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ݂ܬ ܓ�ܥ ݂ܕ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ ܽܒـ ݂ܘܟܪ ܐܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕ ܶܓ�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕ ܽܗܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ ܺܟܝܪ ݁ ܽܒـ ݂ܘܟ ܶܪܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ ܽܒـ ̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ݁ ܺܕܝܠܶܗ ݁ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܓ ݂ܒܪ ܐ ܩܪ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢــܝ ܰܐ ݂ ܺܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ ݀ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܡ ܰܢ ܶܫـܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚـܪ ̱ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝ�ـ ܳـܙܪ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢــܝ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܽܫ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܚܠܳܩ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܢܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܡ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܳܚ ݂ ܳܦܪ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݂ ܳܕܥ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܟ ܶ� ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܨܠ ݂ܦ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܳܚ ݂ ܳܦܪ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒܪ ݁ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ܰ �ܳ :‬‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ܕ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒـܪ ܳܡ ݂ ܺܟܝـܪ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒـܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܶܠـܗ‬ ‫ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ̈ ܶ ܳ ܳ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܚ�‪ܳ ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚܓ ܳـ�‪ :‬ܘ ܶܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫�ܟـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܫܡܗܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢ ݂ܬܗ‪ :‬ܡ‬ ‫ܒ�ܝܐ‪ :‬ܐ� ݂ܒܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܝܥܐ‪݂ ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݂ܘܬ ܳܪܨ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝ�ـ ܳـܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ݁ ܰܒــܪ ܽܢــܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܩـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܩـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ̈ܒـ ̱ܝ ܩـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒܢܶـܐ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܳ :‬ܘܐܡ ܳ�ܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ܕܢܶ ݁ܬܠ ܰܠܢ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܐ ܰ ̈ܚܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ̈ܶܚܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܒܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܰܠܢ ܥܰܠ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܝـܢ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ̈ܶܚܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܝܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܘܦܠܓ ݂‬ ‫̈ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܥ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܪ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܪ ܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܢܦܠ ̱ܘ ܰܚ ݂ܒܠ ̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܳ̈ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܺ ܶ ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܥܰܡ ܰܐ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܶܗܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ـܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܒܢ ݂ܬܗ ܕܡܢܫܐ �� ݂ܬ ̱ܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݁‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܥܰܠ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ̈ܒܝ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܟ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ݁ ݁ ܽܰ‬ ‫ܥܝܢ ܬܦܘܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܚ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ݂ ܰܒـܪ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ـܘܣ ݂ܦ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ܐܪܥ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܬ ݁ܦܘܚ ܘ ݂ܦ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ ܰ̈ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܒܢܝ ܐ ݂ܦܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 



  XV

 

  





The portion of the children of Joseph went from the Jordan, at Jericho, to the waters of Jericho, in the eastern parts of the wilderness which rises from Jericho until (it reaches) the mountain, rising up towards Beth-el

It went from Beth-el to Luz, passing towards the border of Ebrah 1 and of Ataroth.

It descended westwards, towards the boundary of Paltah, as far as the boundary of Lower Beth-horon as far as Gadar; its limits were on the west.

The children of Joseph, Manasseh, and Ephraim inherited.

The border of the children of Ephraim, family by family: the border of their inheritance (was) Ataroth and Addar, as far as Upper Bethhoron.

The border went westwards to Mechmath on the north, round on the east of Taanath-shiloh, passing on the east of Jaloah.

It descended from Jaloh to Ataroth, to Jagrath, to Pagar and to Jericho; it went from Tappuah to the Jordan. It reached the western border of the wadi of Kabah; its limits were on the west. This was the inheritance of the children of Ephraim, family by family.

There were towns reserved 2 for the children of Ephraim in the midst of the inheritance of the children of Manasseh, all the towns and their villages.

They did not wipe out the Canaanites who were living in Gadar: the Canaanites have lived among the children of Ephraim until the present. They were compelled to pay tribute.

‘Ebrah’ or ‘the further shore’. 2 ‘reserved’: lit. ‘separated’. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܗ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܝܘ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ ̈ܝـܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܝܚـܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܬ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܠܛܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܣܠܩ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚܝ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܣܠܩ ܶܡܢ ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܺܝܠ ܠܽܘܙ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܪ ݂ܘܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ܦܩ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ ܕ ܶܒܝــܬ ܰܚـ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒــܐ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܛــܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦ‬ ‫ـܘܪܢ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ܶܚـ ݂‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡــܐ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ ݂ ݂ ݂‬ ‫݁ܰ ݁ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ ܳܕܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܘܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܚܬ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܺܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܛـܪ ݂ܘܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ـܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܬܚܘܡـܐ ݂ܕܝـ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ݂ܦ ܶܪܝـܡ ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ ܰܐܕܪ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܚܘܪܢ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ ܰܕܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܟ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܺܫܝܠܽܘ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ ݂ܕܝܰܠܘܚ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܶܚ ݂‬ ‫�ܝܓ ܰܪܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ܶܡܢ ܝܰܠܽܘܚ �ܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܦ ܳ ݂ܓܪ‪ܺ :‬ܘ� ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ܳ .‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦـܩ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫ܛܪ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ ݂ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܰܬ ݁ ܽܦܘܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ܕ ܳܩ ݂ ܶܒܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܢـܘܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘܐܙܶܠ ܠ ݂ܬܚܘܡܐ ܡܥܪ ݂ܒܝܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܪܒـܐ‪ܳ .‬ܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܰܐ ݂ܦ ܶܪܝܡ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܰ̈ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܝـܢ‬ ‫ܩܘ��ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦ�ܝܫܢ ̱ܗܘܝ ܠ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ ݂ܦܪܝܡ‪ :‬ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܝـܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܶ ܳ ݁ܺ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܶ ݁ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ݂ܦ ܶܪܝـܡ‬ ‫ܘ� ܚܪ ݂ܒܘ ܠ ݂ܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ ܕܝܬܒܝܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܓ ݂ܕܪ‪ .‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ̱ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ݁ ݂ ܶ ݂ ݁ ܰ ݁ܰ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܥܕܡܐ �ܝܘܡܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܐ ݂ܬܟ ݂ܒܫ ̱ܘ ܒܡܕ ݂ܐܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

       

Jezreel, Nekemeam, Zaluh,

Kain, Gibeah, Taknah: ten towns and their villages. Halol, Beth-zado, Gathar,

Maarath, Beth-anoth, Lathkan: six towns and their villages.

Rabbath, Koriath-baal which was Koriath-narin: two towns and their villages in the wilderness. Beth-arabah, Middin, Sachsah,

Jashan, Eir-mehel, Ein-gad: six towns and their villages.

The children of Judah did not wipe out the Jebusites living in Jerusalem. The Jebusites live with the children of Judah in Jerusalem until the present.



‫‪ ‬ܢܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܣ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܣܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܺܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܙܪܥܶܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶܢܩܡܥܰܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘܙ ܽܠܘܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܝܢ‪ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒܥܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬܩܢܐ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܥܣܪ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚܠܽܘܠ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܨ ݁ܕܘ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡ� ܰܪ ݂ܬ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܥܢ ݂ܬ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܬܩܢ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܶܫ ݂ܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩـــܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܥܶـــܠ ݁ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺܗܝ ܽܩـــܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܪ ݁ ܰܒـــ ݂ܬ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪ�ـــܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܪܬܝـــܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܪܝـــܢ‪ .‬ܩ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫݂ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܕܝܰܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ܟ ܳܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬

‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܣܒ ܘܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܫܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܝܪ ܡ ܶܚܠ‪ :‬ܘܥܝܢ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܶܫ ݂ܬ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ ̈ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܺ ݁ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝـܐ‬ ‫ܣܓ ܘ�ܝ ݂ܒܘܣܝܐ ݂ܕܥܡܪܝܢ ܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪ � :‬ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܒܢـܝ ܝـܗ ݂ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܥܰܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܽܒ ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶܡ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

                   

Shathin, Azithim, Gathar, Gethronin: fifteen towns and their villages. Zalan, Harshah, Magdal-gad, Delban, Kazpah, Nakthael,

Lachish, Azkath, Eglon,

Cabshon, Lahmas, Cathlish,

Gederoth, Beth-dagon, Naamah, Nakdah: sixteen towns and their villages. Libnah, Ether, Naphtah, Ashan, Ashiah, Ziklag,

Keilah, Achzib, Mareshah: nine towns and their villages. Ekron, its hamlets and its villages, westwards,

The whole area 1 around Ashdoth, and its villages,

Ashdoth, its hamlets and its villages, Gaza, its hamlets and its villages, as far as the wadi of Egypt; the great sea (was) the border.

In the mountain-country, these: Shamir, Jattir, Socoh,

Rannah, Koriath-sepher, which is Debir, Ganab, Eshtemoh, Elian,

Eshian, Holon, Giloh: eleven towns and their villages. Rib, Romah, Ashan,

Jalum, Beth-patoah, Aphekah,

Humtah, Koriath-arba, which was Hebron, Zebon: nine towns and their villages. Maon, Carmel, Zib, Atnah,

1

‘area’: lit. ‘place’.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܶ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܬ ܽܪ ܺܘܢܝـــܢ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ـــܐ ܰܚ ܰ‬ ‫ـــܬܪ‪݂ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܫܥܶܣـــ ܶ� ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܘ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܥܬܝـــܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܙܝܰܬܝـــܡ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܳܠܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܠܙ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܫܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݂ܓ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܬܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܒܢ‪ :‬ܘܩ ݂ܨܦܐ‪ :‬ܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܛ ܰܘ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ ܘܥܰ ܰܙܩ ݂ܬ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ݂ܓܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܽܫܘܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܡܣ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܡ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݁ܬ ܺܠܝܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܡܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܢ ݁ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ݁ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܳܕ ܽܓܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕ ܐ‪ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܶܫܬܬܥܣ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܡܐ ܘܥ ݁ܕܪ ݂ܘܬ‪݂ :‬ܘܒ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܘ ܰܠ ݁ ܳܒܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܥ ݁ܬܪ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݁ܬܚ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܫܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܝܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܡܓ ܶܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨܢܩܠ ܰ ݂ܓ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕ ܰܘܩܥܺ ܳܝ�‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܟ ܺܙ ݂ܝܒ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܐܪܫܐ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܫܥ‪ܳ :‬ܘܐ ܽܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܡܗ ܘܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ ܶܡܢ ܰܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܡܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܰܐ ݂ܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ ܳܕ ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܕ ݂ܘܕ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ܳܐܙ ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܕ ݂ܘܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܶ ̇ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܳܘ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܓـܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣ ̇‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܝـܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ܳܡܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܢ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬܝܪ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݁ܒܛܘܪ ܐ‪ܳ :‬ܫ ܺܡܝܪ ܘܝ ݂‬ ‫ܡܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܳܢܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܶܣ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ݂ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬ܢܢ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܢܗ‬

‫ܰܘܓ ܳܢ ݂ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܽܡܘ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܠܘ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܕܥܣ� ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘܚܠܢ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݂ܝܒ‪ܽ :‬ܘܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ܳܫܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܬ ݁ ܰܦ ݁ ܽܬܘܚ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܦܩ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܝܰܠܘܡ‪݂ ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܛــܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩــܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒ ـܥ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ܶܚ ݂ܒـ ܽـܪܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܨ ݂ܒ ܽܥــܘܢ‪ܽ .‬ܩܘ� ܳ� ـܐ ݂ܬ ܰܫــܥ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܚ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘܡ ܽܥܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡܠ‪ܺ :‬ܘܙ ݂ܝܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܛܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





 

             

When she came to him, she was tempted 1 to ask her father for some land. 2 She dismounted from the ass. Caleb said to her: What is it, 3 my daughter?

She said to him: Give me a blessing: for you have given me land in the south — give me (also) this pool. 4 Caleb gave her the upper pool and the lower pool. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Judah, family by family.

These were the towns of the tribe of the children of Judah, at the border of Edom on the south — these were the names of the towns of the children of Judah: Kabzeel, Eder, Jagor, Kinah, Jarmonah, Gadgadah, Kedesh, Hazor, Nathnin, Zib, Atlem, Bealoth,

Hazor, Hadattah, Koriath-hezron,

Amam, Ashma, Moladah,

Hazar-adah, Heshmon, Beth-palat,

Darath-taaley, Beer-sheba, Beer-jothanah, 5 Bael, Elin, Azem,

Altalam, Achsin, Hormah,

Ziklag, Marmanah, Samsalah,

Leboath, Shaloh, Airmon, (in) all thirty-six towns and their villages 6 in the plain. Eshtaol, Zedah, Eshtnah,

Hoh, Ein-gahom, Patoh, Eilam,

Jarmuth, Arlam, Socah, Azekah, ‘tempted’: lit. ‘provoked’. 2 ‘some land’: lit. ‘portion of a/the field’. 3 ‘is it’: lit. ‘to you’. 4 ‘this pool’: lit. ‘this pond of water’. 5 ‘Beer-jothanah’: M has ‘Beer-jothayah’. See p. xii. 6 ‘villages’ or ‘fields’. So passim. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ܳ ݀ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ݀ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩـ�‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ܰܪ ݂ܟ ܰܢ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܚ ݂ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܗܘ ݂ܬ ܠܗ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܓ ݁‬ ‫ܬ ݁ܕ ݂ܬ ܰܫܐܠ ܶܡܢ ܐ ݂ ܽܒ ̇‬ ‫ـܘܗ ܝـܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕܚ‬ ‫ـܬ‬ ‫ܪܓ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܳܪ ܐ‪ .‬ܐ ܰܡܪ ܳ� ̇ܗ ݁ ܳܟܠ ݂ܒ‪ܳ :‬ܡܐ ܠ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ ݁ܒ ܰܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ݁ܬ ̱ܢܝ‪ܰ :‬ܗ ݂ܒ ܺܠـܝ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܐܡܪ ܐ ܠܗ ܗ ݂ܒ ܠܝ ݂ܒܘܪܟ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܳܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶܚ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ̈ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܳܠܗ ̇ܟܠ ݂ܒ ܶܚ ݂ܦܪ ܐ ܥ� ܳܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܚ ݂ܦܪ ܐ ݂ܬܚܬ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܟܐ ܰܘܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܕܘܡ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܡ ̈ܶܗܐ ݂ܕ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܩ ݂ܒ ܺܨܝܐܶܝܠ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ� ݂ ܳܕܪ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ܽ ݂ܓܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܕ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ ܳܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܒ ܘܩܝܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰܪܡܘܢܐ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܫ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܽܨܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܥܠ ݂ܘܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܕ ܺܘܙ ݂ܝܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐܛܠܡ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܚܕ ݁ ܳܬܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܟܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܽܨܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܶܚ ܽܨܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܘ ܳܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫܡܥ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡܡ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ�ܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡܘܢ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܚܨܪ ܰܐ݁ ܳܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܟܙ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ܦܠ ܰܛ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‪ܺ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܟܚ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܰܪ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܬ ̈� ܶ�‪ܺ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒܪ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܝ ݂ܘܬ ܳ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܛ ܰܘ ݂ܒܥܶܠ‪ :‬ܘܥܶ� ܰܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܨܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܰܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܠܬ ܰܠܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܟ ܺܣܝܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨܢܩܠܰܓ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣܡܣ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܡ ܳܢܐ‪:‬‬ ‫� ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܫܠܽـــܘܚ‪ :‬ܘܥܺ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܪܡـــܘܢ‪ܽ ݁ .‬ܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܝـــܢ ܶ‬ ‫ــܐ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ــܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܒـ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫـ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܝـــܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـــܐ ݂ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܓܘ�ܣܝܗܝܢ ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܘܨ ݂ܕ ܳܥܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܫܬܘܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܓ ܘ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ܬܘܚ‪ :‬ܘܥܺܝܠܰܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚܘܚ‪ :‬ܘܥܺܝܢ ݁ ܰܓ ܽܚܘܡ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ :‬ܘܥܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܠܡ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܘܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰ ܳܙܩܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 









 

   

The border goes up to the wadi of Barhinnom, towards the edge of the Jebusites southwards, which is Jerusalem, then the border goes up to the mountain peak to the east 1 of the wadi of Barhinnom, from the west of the side of the valley of the mighty men.

The border faces (away) from the mountain peak towards the spring of the waters of Nephtoah, goes towards the horn of Mount Ebron; the border faces Baalah, which is Koriath-narin.

The border faces (away) from Baalah westwards, to Mount Seir; it passes towards the side of Mount Narim, northwards: this is Chesalon; then it descends to Beth-shemesh and continues southwards.

The border goes near 2 Ekron, from the north, facing towards Shicron, passes over to Mount Baalah, and proceeds to Jahbael; the limits of the territory are at the west.

The border 3 (goes) from the west to Maribah with its territories. This is the border of the children of Judah, family by family, all around. Joshua gave Caleb son of Jephunneh a portion among the children of Judah, according to the word of the Lord. Caleb said to Joshua: Give me this Koriath-arba, (the city) of the fathers of the mighty men. Joshua gave Caleb Koriath-arba, (the city) of the fathers of the mighty men: this is Hebron. Caleb drove out from there three of the mighty men, Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, children of the mighty men.

From there, he went up against the inhabitants of Debir. The name of Debir, formerly, was Koriath-sepher.

Caleb said: To anyone who conquers Koriath-sepher and destroys it, I shall give him my daughter Achsah in marriage.

Othniel, son of Kenaz, brother of Caleb, conquered it, so he gave him his daughter Achsah in marriage.

‘east’: lit. ‘before’. ‘near’: lit. ‘to the side of’. 3 ‘The border’: lit. ‘Its border’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܗ ܽܢܘܡ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ݂ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ �ܢ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚـ� ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܗ ܽܢـܘܡ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܢ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‪ .‬ܘܣܠܩ ܬܚܘܡܐ ܥܠ ܪܝܫـܐ ܕܛـܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ݂ܕ ܽܣ ݂ܘܦ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܫܗ ݁ܕܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܰܐܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶܡܢ ܺܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ݁ܬܘܚ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ܥܰܠ ܰܩ ܳܪܢܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܠܳܥ ݁ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺܗܝ ܽܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܚܐܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܥܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ܳܒܐ ܥܰܠ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܥܰـܠ ܶܤ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܣܥܺܝܪ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܚ ܰܐܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܛـܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܳܒܠܥ ܰ ݂‬ ‫݁ܕܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܡܫ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܪܝܡ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܺ :‬ܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ݂ ܶܟܣܠܽܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ܶܚ ݂ܬ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒـܪ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚـܐܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝـܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܟ ܽـܪܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܥ ܰܒܪ ܥܰܠ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܒܐܶܝܠ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫�ܝ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܒܠܳܥ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ܶܡܢ ܰܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܰܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܝܺ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܰܢـܘ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܒܐ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ܬ ܽܚـ ̈ܘ ܶܡ ̇‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܳܚ ݂ ܰܕܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܳ ݂ܒ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܢܐ‪ :‬ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܝܫܘܥ ܦ‬ ‫݁ ܽܦ ـ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫــܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܗ ݂ܒ ܺܠــܝ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ ܽܩــܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ݁ ܳܟܠ ܳـ ݂ܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒ ـܥ‬ ‫ـܘܗܘܢ ݁ܕ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ـ ܶ� ܐ‪ .‬ܘܝܰ ـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒ ـܥ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܒـ ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܒـ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܳـ ݂ـܒ ݁ ܽܒ ـܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܺܗܝ ܺ ̱ܗܝ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ ݁ܳ ܳ ݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܫــܝ ܰܘ� ܺܚ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ــܝ ݁ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒــ ܶ� ܐ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܠܫ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡــܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܚــܪ ݂ܒ ܡــܢ ܬܡــܢ ܟܠ ݂ــܒ ܬܠــ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܡܝ ݁ܒܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘܣܠܶܩ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܥܰܠ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ݂ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝـܪ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܕܝـܡ ܽܩـܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܶܣ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܶܣ ݂ܦـ ܳܪ ܐ ܘܢܶܚܪ ݂ ܺܒ ̇‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ ܳܟܠ ܳ ݂ܒ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟܠ ܰܡܢ ݁ܕܢܶ ݂ܟ ݁ܒ ܺܫ ̇‬ ‫ܝـܗ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ܬܠ ܶܠـܗ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ܟܣܐ ݂ܒܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ ܐܢ̱ܬ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕ ݂ ܳܟܠ ݂ܒ‪ :‬ܘܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܶܠـܗ �ܥ ݂ܟܣـܐ ݂ܒـ ݂ܪܬܗ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܳ ܳܫ ̇ܗ ܥܰ ݂ܬ ܳܢܐܝܠ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܰܩܢܙ ܐ ܽܚ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 



 





 

The allotted portion of the tribe of Judah, 1 family by family: to the border of Edom as far as the wilderness of Zin, as far as the far south. 2

Their border was: from the southern shore 3 of the Salt Sea, going up from there to the spit of land 4 that bends southwards. It went from the south, to the way up to Akarkam, passed along towards Sin, went upwards from the south to Rakem-di-gayya, passed along towards Hezruth, upwards towards Addar and round Karka.

Then it passed along towards Azmon, and thence out towards the wadi of Egypt; (that was) the westward limit 5 of the border: this will be your southern border. The eastern border will be the shore of the Salt Sea, where the Jordan flows into it; 6 the border goes up towards the northern shore, 7 to meet the sea at 8 the mouth 9 of the Jordan.

Then the border goes up towards Leban, (in the territory) of the children of Reuben. 10

The border goes up to Debir from the valley of Achor, and northwards, turns towards Galilee opposite the ascent of Ramin, south of the wadi; the border passes towards the fountain of the sun; 11 its limit was by the Ein-dugel. 12

‘Judah’: lit. ‘children of Judah’. ‘the south’ or possibly ‘Timnah’ which in 19:43 must be a city. So passim. 3 ‘shore’: lit. ‘edge/border’. 4 ‘to the spit of land’: lit. ‘to the tongue’. 5 ‘(that was) the westward limit’: lit. ‘the limits of the border were westward’. 6 ‘where the Jordan flows into it’: lit. ‘to the end of the Jordan’. 7 ‘northern shore’: ‘shore’ renders a different Syriac word from that in e.g. ‘shore of the Salt Sea’. 8 ‘to meet the sea at’: lit. ‘from the stretch of sea from’. 9 ‘mouth’: lit. ‘end’. 10 ‘towards Leban, (in the territory of) the children of Reuben’: see Introduction, Addendum 1. 11 ‘fountain of the sun’: MT ‘En-shemesh’ or ‘Spring of the Sun’. So too 18:17. 12 ‘Ein-dugel’: the spelling is modified to agree with 18:16. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܰ ܳ ݀ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܝܺ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܥܰـܠ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܽܐܕܘܡ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ݂ܬ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܪܬ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ݂ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܺܨܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦـܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܠـܩ ܶܡـܢ ݁ܬ ܳܡـܢ‬ ‫�ܚـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ܬ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܢܶܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܪܩܡ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܩ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶـܩ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫�ܨܝܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ ܶܦܩ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ‬ ‫ܰܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ ݁ܕ ܰܓ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ ܰܕܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܽܨܪ ݂ܘܬ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ܶ�݁ ܰܕܪ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܥ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒـܪ �ܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫�ܢܚـ ܳـ� ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝــܢ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܨܡــܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢ ݂ ܶܦـܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡــܐ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝــܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩܢـ ̱‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܳܢܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܰܡܕܢ ܳܚܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܚܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܘܣܠـܩ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ܕ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܶܠ ܳܫ ܳܢܐ ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܬܚܘܡܐ ܠܣ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܠ ܰ݁ ܳܒܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ܳ ܳܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܢܶܐ ܥܰܠ ݁ܓܠܝ�‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ܒܝܪ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܥܘܡܩܐ ܰ ݂ܕܥ ݂ܟܪ ܘ ܰ ݂ܳ‬ ‫�ܢܚـ�‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ـܘܩܒܠ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ ܰܒـܪ ݁ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܩ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܪ ܺܡܝـܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ ݁ܬ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡܢــܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܥܰــܠ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܫ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܢܘܗܝ ܥܰܠ ܥܰ ܳܝܢܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܽܕ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܘܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ܦ ܳܩ ̱‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 







 



Now see! The Lord has given us rest, 1 as he said — See! (it is) fortyfive years — See! since the Lord spoke that word to Moses, that he would make Israel walk in the wilderness — and now I, today, I am eighty-five years old.

I am still as strong as 2 on that day when Moses sent me — my strength of that time and of today is equal to warfare, to going out and to coming in. Now, give me this mountain-country of which the Lord spoke that day: you heard that day that there are mighty men there, and great, strong, towns — perhaps the Lord will be with me, and I shall destroy them, as the Lord said.

Joshua blessed Caleb son of Jephunneh, and gave him the walled city of Hebron (as an) inheritance.

Because of this, the walled city of Hebron is the inheritance of Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite, until the present, for he was completely faithful to the Lord God of Israel.

The name of the walled city of Hebron was formerly Koriath-arba of the mighty men. The land was at rest from war.

‘given us rest’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 2 ‘I am still as strong as’: lit. ‘Until now strength is in me’. 1



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܡܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳܫܐ ܳܗܐ ܰܐܢܺܝܚ ܰܠܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ܳ :‬ܗܐ ܰܐ ݁ܪܒܥܺܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܫ� ̈ܝـܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗܐ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳܶ‬ ‫݁ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ ܠܡܘܫܐ‪ :‬ܕܢܗܠ ݂ܟ �ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܒܡ ݂ܕܒܪ ܐ‪ .‬ܘܗܫܐ ܐܢـܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܡܪ ܡܪ�ܐ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒܪ ݁ܬ ܳܡ ܺܢܐܝܢ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܫ ܫ�ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܺܒܝ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܢـܝ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠـܝ‬ ‫�ܗ ܳܫܐ ܰܚܝ� ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ‪ܰ .‬ܚ ̱‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܰܗܘ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݁ܕܪ ̱‬ ‫ܫܘܐ ܗܘ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܰܘܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰܦܩ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡܥܰܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܶ ̱‬ ‫ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܰܗܒ ܺܠܝ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥـܬ ݁ ܶܒـܗ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܚ ܺܣ ̈� ܳܢܢ‪݁ :‬ܟ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܢܶܗܘܐܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܬ ܬܡܢ‪ .‬ܘ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂ܬܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒܢ ܐܢܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܗܘ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ܒ� ܐ ܐ ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܡܝ ܶܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܚܪ ݂ܘܒ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܥܰ ̱‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܳ ݂ܒ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܟܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܶܠܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܳ ݂ـܒ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܽܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܢـܐ ܰܩ ܳܢܙ ܳ�ـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܗܢܐ ܗܘܐ ܚ ݂ܒܪܘܢ ܟ ݂ܪܟܐ ܝܪܬ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܝܘܡܢܐ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܫܡܠܝ ݂ܒ ݂ܬܪ ܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܪܒـܥ ݁ܕܐ ܳܢ ܳܫـܐ ܰܓܢ ݁ ܳܒـ ܶ� ܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܝـܡ‪ܽ :‬ܩـܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ‬ ‫݂ ̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܬ ܶܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܶܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ܺ� ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 









 XIV





 

These comprise the inheritance of 1 the children of Israel in the land of Canaan: Eleazar the priest, and Joshua son of Nun, and the heads of the families of the tribes of Israel gave them this inheritance. 2

According to the allotted portions of their inheritance, as the Lord had commanded, by the hand of Moses, that should be given to the nine tribes and the half tribe.

For Moses had given an inheritance to the two tribes, and to the half tribe, on the other side of the Jordan; he gave no inheritance among them to the Levites.

For the children of Joseph formed two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim. He gave no inheritance in the land to the Levites; only towns to live in, fields for their cattle and their beasts of burden. As the Lord had commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did: they divided up the land.

The children of Judah approached Joshua in Gilgal. Caleb, son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite, said to Joshua: You know the word which the Lord spoke 3 to his servant Moses, concerning my affair, and your affair, in Rakem-di-gayya. I was forty years old then, when Moses the servant of God sent me from Rakem-di-gayya to spy out the land. I brought back an honest report. 4

Our brothers, who went up with us, frightened the people: 5 but I was completely faithful 6 to the Lord my God. At that time, Moses swore. He said: the land on which your foot has trodden shall be your inheritance, and your children’s forever, for you have been completely faithful to the Lord God. ‘the inheritance of’: lit. ‘that they inherited’. 2 ‘gave them this inheritance’: lit. ‘made then inherit’. 3 ‘spoke’: lit. ‘gave’. 4 ‘an honest report’: lit. ‘a word as it was in my heart’. 5 ‘frightened the people’: lit. ‘made the heart of the people tremble’. 6 ‘was completely faithful’: lit. ‘wholly followed’. So too 14:9,14. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܕ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܝܕ‪.‬‬

‫ܐܪܥـܐ ܰܕܟ ܰܢܥـܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݁ ܺܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܐ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝ� ܳـܙܪ ݁ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܢـܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ̈ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ�ܝܫܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܐܒܗ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܥـܐ‬ ‫ܒܡܢ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܝ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܶܡ ݁ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܫ ݂ܒܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒܛܝܢ ܰܘ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܰܠܬ ܶܪܝܢ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܛܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݁ܕܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܡ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ ܽ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ� ܳܘ�̈ܐ � ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ ـܝ ܝܰـ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛــܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܣ ݂ܦ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝــܢ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܛܝــܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫــܐ ܰܘ ݂ܐܦ ܶܪܝــܡ‪ .‬ܘ� ܝܰ ـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ� ܳܘ�̈ܶ ـܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥــܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳ� ܶܐܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ــܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܡــܪ ݁ܒ ܶܗܝــܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܶܣــܐ‬ ‫ܦܠܓـ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܒܥܺ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠܩ ܳܢܝܢܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ̇‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݁ ܳܟܠ ܳ ݂ܒ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܝܺ ܽܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ�‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܢـܐ ܰܩ ܳܢܙ ܳ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܥܰܡ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܳܝ ݂ ܰܕܥ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܬ ݂ܳܓ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡܠܶܠ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ‪ :‬ܥܰܠ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬ ݂ܟ ݁ ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓ ܳܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ ܽܨܒ ݂ܘܬ ̱ܝ ܘܥܰܠ ݂ܨܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܰܐ ݁ܪܒܥܺܝܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݁ܕ ܰܪܢ ̱ܝ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܫ� ̈ܝܢ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܗܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁ܓ ܳܫ ̇ܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ ݁ܕ ܰܓ ܳܝܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܒ ܶ� ݁ܒ ̱ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ݂ܝܒ ݁ܬܗ ݁ܦ ݂ܬ ݂ܳܓ ܳܡܐ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܶܠ ݁ ܶܒـܗ ݁ܕܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܳܐܢـܐ ܰܫܡܠ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘܐ ̈ܚܝܢ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܰ ݁ ܰܕܣܠܩ ̱ܘ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܥܰ ܰܡܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܺܙܝܥ ̱‬ ‫݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠܗ ̱ܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒ݂‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ ܶܪ ܓܠܳـ ݂ܟ‪ܳ :‬ܠـ ݂ܟ ݁ܬܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܶܕ ݁ ܰܪܟ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܺ ݁ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ݁ܟ �ܥܠܡ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܫܡܠܝܬ ܒ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 

 

  



 

Moses gave to the tribe of Gad, family by family:

Their border was (at) Jazer, (including) all the towns of Gilead, half the land of the children of Ammon, as far as Adoer, which is near Rabbath:

(It ran) from Heshbon as far as Ramath-mizpeh and Batnin, from Mahanaim as far as the border of Debir, And in the valley: Beth-atim, Beth-nimrah, Succoth, the north, and the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon. Their border ran as far as the Jordan, as far as the shore 1 of the sea of Chinnereth which is across the Jordan in the east.

This was the inheritance of the children of Gad, family by family, its towns and their villages. Moses gave to the half tribe of Manasseh: their portion, of the children of Manasseh, family by family:

This was their territory: from Mahanaim, all Mathnim, the whole kingdom of Og king of Mathnim, all the hamlets of Jair in Mathnim: sixty towns, Half of Gilead and of Ashtaroth, and Erdei, the towns and the kingdom of Og in Mathnim: these towns and their hamlets Moses gave to Machir, son of Manasseh, to half of the children of Machir, family by family.

To these two tribes and the half tribe Moses gave an inheritance in the plain of Moab, on the other side of the Jordan, in the east. Moses gave no inheritance to the tribe of Levi, for the Lord God of Israel is their inheritance, as he told them.

1

‘shore’: lit. ‘end’.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܟܕ ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܳܓ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܥܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܝܰ ܺܥܙܝܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓـ ̇ܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ـܝ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܶܓ ܳ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܰ ܽܡܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܰܪ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ �ܥܰ ݂ܕ ܳܘܥܺܝܪ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܢܝـܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܟܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ ܰܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܺ‬ ‫ـܬ ܰܡ ݁ܨܦ ܳܝـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܢܝـܡ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫�ܪ ܰܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝــܬ ܰܢܡـ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝــܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝــܬ ܳܐ ݂ ܺܬܝــܡ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܪܟــܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܩ ܶــܐ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ ܽܟ ݂‬ ‫ــܘܬ‪݂ܰ :‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕ ܺܣ ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ‬ ‫ܠ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܪ ݂ܬ‪� .‬ܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ ܰ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܚ ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܛ ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ݁ ܳܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܚܢܝܡ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܠ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܓ‬ ‫�ܟـ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕܥـ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫݁ܺ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܬܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܦ ܽ�ܘܢܐ ݂ܕ ܳ�ܐܝܪ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݁ܐܪܕܥܺــܝ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓـ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥـ ݂ـܕ ܰܘ݂ܕܥܶܣـ ݁‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܪ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓ‬ ‫� ݂‬ ‫�ܟـ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕܥـ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒܡ ݂ܬܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܠܝܢ ܩܘ��ܐ ݂ܘܟ ݂ܦ�ܘܢܝܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܝ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܡܘܫܐ ܠ ݂ܒ�ܘ ̱ܗܝ ܕܡ ݂ܟܝܪ ܒـܪ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܳܡ ݂ ܺܟܝܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗ ܶܠܝــܢ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝــܢ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܛܝــܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ـܘܬ ܫ ݂ܒܛــܐ‪ :‬ܐܘܪ ݂ܬ ܡܘܫ ـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩܥـ ݂‬ ‫ܠܓـ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܐ ݂ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕܡ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܐ ܳܠـ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛــܠ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܰ‬ ‫ـܗܐ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܘ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܒ ܶܛ ـܐ ݂ܕ� ܽـ ܺܘܝ � ܝܰ ـ ܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܡܘܫــܐ ܝــܪܬ ݂‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫݂ ܺܕܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܝܳܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 





 

    

 

Gilead, the border of Eindor, and of Koros — the whole of Mount Hermon, and all Mathnim as far as Salcah,

The whole kingdom of Og in Mathnim, which he ruled from Ashtaroth and Erdei. He survived, of the remnant of the warriors whom Moses killed, and took possession of their land. The children of Israel did not slaughter the people of Endor, and of Koros: the Eindorites and the Korosites live among the children of Israel until the present. Only to the tribe of Levi he did not give a portion, because the offerings of the Lord God of Israel, those are their inheritance, as Moses told them. Moses gave to the tribe of Reuben: family by family.

Their territory ran from Adoer — which is by the edge of the Arnon valley, and the town in the middle of the valley, and the whole plain as far as Ribah, (Including) Heshbon, and all the towns of the plain, Ribon, Mathbaal, and the house of the children of Ammon, 1

Jahaz, Kermuth, Anath,

Kiriathaim, Shammah, Jazreth, Seir on the hill in the valley, Beth-peor, Ashtaroth, Pisgah, Beth-ahshimoth,

All the towns of the plain, the whole kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, who ruled in Heshbon, whom Moses and the children of Israel had slain in Median — him, his noblemen Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, Reba — these five were the rulers of Sihon who lived in the land. Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, 2 was among those whom the children of Israel slew by the sword. 3

The border of the children of Reuben was the Jordan: this was the inheritance of the children of Reuben, family by family, its towns and their villages.

‘the house of the children of Ammon’ or ‘Beth-benai-ammon’. ‘diviner’ or ‘soothsayer’. 3 ‘who was among those whom the children of Israel slew by the sword’: lit. ‘whom the children of Israel slew by the sword with their slain’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܝܢܕܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘܕ ܽܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶـܗ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡـܘܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܘܪܘܣ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܰܣ ݁‬ ‫ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܒ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܕܥܺـܝ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫�ܟ ݂ܘܬܶܗ ݁ܕ ܽܥܘܓ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ܺܢܝـܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕܐܡܠܶـ ݂ܟ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܣـܬ ܽܪ ݂ܘܬ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܘܗܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܺܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܚܪ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܬ ܰܐܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܐ ݁‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܰܩ ܶܛܠ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܳܘ� ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ �ܥܰ ̱̈ܡ ܶܡܐ ݂ܕܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܢܕܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ‬ ‫ܝܢܕܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ܽܩܘܪܘܣ‪ .‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܝܐ ݂ܒ ܰܓܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩܘ ܽ� ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܕ ݁ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ܶ� ܺܘܝ � ܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܦ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܘܬܰܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕܩܘ� ݁ ܳܒ ܰܢـ ̱‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܗ ܽܢܘܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܘ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܢܚ ܳ� ݂ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ‬ ‫ܐܪܢـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܥܰ ݂ܕ ܳܘܥܺܝܪ ݁ܕܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ܒ ܣ ݂ܦ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܺ‬ ‫�ܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܢܚ�‪݂ :‬ܘܟ�ܗ ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܬ ݁ܒܥܶـܠ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܒـܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܙ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܒܢ̈ܝ ܥܰ ܽܡܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܚ ܘܝܳ ܳܗܨ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܢ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ܰ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܘܣܥܺܝܪ ݁ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܽܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ܰܨܪ ݂ܬ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܬܝܡ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܛ ܘܩܘܪܝ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܣܬ ܽܪܘܬ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܣܓܐ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܫܡ ݂ܘܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ܦ ܽܥܘܪ‪ :‬ܘܥ ܶ ݁ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܚܘܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ݂ܘܬܶܗ ݁ܕ ܺܣ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ‬ ‫ܟܐ ݂ܘܟ�ܗܝܢ ܩܘ��ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݂ ܰܕܐܡܠܶــ ݂ܟ ݁ܒ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒــܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܰܩܛܠــܗ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫــܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒܢــܝ ܐܝܣܪܐܝــܠ ݁ܒ ܶܡ ݂ܕܝܰــܢ‪ :‬ܠــܗ‬ ‫ܠܚܘܪ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫�ܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒ ܰܢܘܗܝ‪ܽ� :‬ܘܝ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܒـܥ‪ܰ :‬ܚ ܳ‬ ‫�ܨܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘܢ ݁ܕ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕ ܺܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܫ� ̈ܝܛ ܰܢ ̱‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܩܛܠܽـܘܗܝ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܡ ݁ ܰܒܪ ݁ܒ ܽܥـܘܪ ܳܩ ܽܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ݁ܒ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒـܐ ܥܰـܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܩܛ ̈ܝܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ ـܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܝــܠ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܘܒܝــܠ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܝــܪܬ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܓܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂ܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ܘ ܽ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XIII



 

  

 

 

Chapter  Joshua grew old, advanced in years. The Lord said to him: See, you have grown old, advanced in years, yet there is a great deal of land which is left to take possession of. This land which remains 1 (is) in all of the Philistines’ region and in all the area of Eindor, From Shihor, to the east 2 of Egypt, as far as the border of Ekron in the north, which is Canaanite territory, 3 with five Philistine rulers, Gazites, Ashdodites, Ashkalonites, Gittites, and Ekronites; also the Avvim who are from the south,

And all the land of the Canaanites, Maarthah 4 of the Sidonians, as far as Aphek, as far as the border of the Amorites, The land of Gebal, and the whole of Lebanon, from the rising of the sun in Gilead below Mount Hermon as far as the way in to Hamath,

All the inhabitants of the mountain-country, from Lebanon as far as the hot springs, and all the Sidonians — I, the Lord, will destroy them before the children of Israel — but only for the children of Israel, as I have commanded you.

Divide this land into portions 5 among the nine tribes, including the half tribe of Manasseh. For Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh have received their inheritance(s) which Moses gave them, in the east, on the other side of the Jordan, as my servant Moses gave to them. From Adoer, on the edge of the valley of the Arnon, the town in the middle of the valley, and all the plain in the west, as far as Ribon,

All the towns of Sihon king of the Amorites, who ruled in Heshbon, as far as the border of the children of Ammon, ‘remains’: same Syriac root as is used for ‘is left’ in 13:1. ‘to the east’: lit. ‘in front’. So passim. 3 ‘which is Canaanite territory’: lit. ‘of the Canaanites is reckoned’. 4 ‘Maarthah’ or ‘the cave’. 5 ‘portions’ or ‘inheritances’ (as in 13:9). 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܓ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܝܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܫـܬ ܘܥܰ ݁‬ ‫ـܬ ܰܩ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗܐ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁‬ ‫ܫ� ܳ ̈ܝـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܩܫ ܘܥܰܠ ݁ ܰܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܶܠـܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠـܬ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܰ ܳ̈ ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܬ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܬ ݀ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܐ ̱ܗܝ ܛ ݂ܒ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܒܫ�ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ݀ ݁ ܽ ܶ ݁ ܺ ܰ ܶ ̈ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬ�ܶܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܐ ݂ܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܢܕܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳܗ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ̱ܗܝ ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕܐܫܬܚܪ ݂ܬ ܒ ݂ܟܠܗ ܓܠܝ� ݂ܕ ݂ܦ�ܫ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘܪ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܺܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰ ݂ܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝـܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ܽ ݁ܰ ܶ ̈ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ�ܶـــܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܓ ̈ܙ ݂ܬ�ܶـــܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒـــܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܫܕ ̈ܘ݂ ܳܕ�ܶـــܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܫـــܐ ܛ�ܘܢܝـــܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܦ�ܫ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ� ܶܝܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘ� ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ�̈ܶܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܶܩ ܽ� ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽ ̈ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂‬ ‫ܘܐܫܩ�ܘ�ܝܐ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ̈ܳܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܳ� ݂ ܳܦـܩ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܨ ܝ ̈ ݁ܕ ܳ� ܶܝܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬ ‫݂ܘܟ� ̇ܗ ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܥ ݂‬ ‫݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܓ ݂ ܶܒܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚـܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܬ ܶܚ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܥ� ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܚܡ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ� ݂ܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ܰܚ ܺܡ ̈ܝ ܶܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ܐ ݁ܕ ܽܛܘ ܶ� ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܨ ܝ ̈ ݁ܕ ܳ� ܶܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܥܐ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܶܛܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܶܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓ ̇‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ܒ ܳܝ� ݁ܬ ܳܘ ݂ܬܐ ݂‬ ‫ܥܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܘܓـܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓـܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ܽܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܩ ݁ ܶܒܠـ ̱ܘ ܝ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪݂ ݂ ݂ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ܕ ̱ܝ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـ�‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܓـܘܗ ܕܢ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܥܰ ݂ܕ ܳܘܥܺܝܪ ݁ܕܥܰܠ ܣ ݂ܦ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܢܚ� ݂ܕܐܪܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܩܪ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܺ‬ ‫�ܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܝܚــܘܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ ܽܟ ܶ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ ݂ ܰܕܐܡܠ ܶـ ݂ܟ ݁ܒ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒــܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܝــܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ݂ܕ ܺܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡــܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ܝ ܥܰ ܽܡܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 

The king of Dor, the king of Naphetdor, the king of Umkah and of Gilgal, The king of Tirzah: the kings whom Joshua slew totaled thirty-one.



‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܟܓ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬

‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬

‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ݂ ܽܕܘܪ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܦ ݁ܬ݁ ܽܕܘܪ‪ :‬ܡ�ܟܐ ܚ ݂ܕ ܕܥܘܡܩܐ ܘ݂ܕ ݂ܓ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ݁ܽ ܽ ܰ ̈ ݁ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܬܪܨ ܐ‪ .‬ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܡ�ܟܐ ݂ܕܚܪ ݂ܒ ܝܫܘܥ ܬܠ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





             

These are the kings of the land which Joshua and the children of Israel laid waste, 1 on the other side of the Jordan, from the Arabah and Gilgal 2 in the plain of Lebanon, as far as Mount Paleg, going up to Seir. Joshua gave it, according to 3 their divisions, to the Israelite tribes, In the mountain countries and the plains, in the Arabah, in Ashdoth, in the wilderness, in the south — (the lands of) the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

These are the kings of the land which Joshua laid waste: the king 4 of Jericho, the king of Ai which was near 5 Beth-el, The king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, The king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, The king of Eglon, the king of Gezer, The king of Debir, the king of Gadar,

The king of Hormah, the king of Addar, The king of Libnah, the king of Arlam,

The king of Makar, the king of Beth-el,

The king of Tappuah, the king of Hepher, The king of Aphek, the king of Neshron, The king of Madon, the king of Hazor,

The king of Shamrin and Maron, the king of Achshaph, The king of Taanach, the king of Magdol, 6

The king of Rekim, the king of Nakemam and Carmel,

1 ‘’the kings of the land which Joshua and the children of Israel laid waste’ or ‘the kings of the land whom … killed’. So too 12:9. 2 ‘Gilgal’ was not in the plain of Lebanon. MT ‘Baal Gad’ was. 3 ‘according to’: lit. ‘in’. 4 ‘the king’: lit. ‘one king’ or ‘a king’, throughout this section. 5 ‘near’: lit. ‘by the side of’. 6 ‘Magdol’: M ‘Megiddo’ — so MT. See p. xii.



‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟܒ‬

‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܠـܩ‬ ‫ـܓ‬ ‫ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܓܠܓ� ݂ܕ ݂ܦܩ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ܠܛ ܳـܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܠ ݂‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ � ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܶܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣܥܺܝܪ‪ .‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ ܶܒܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܳ�ܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܳܦܠ ܰ ݂̈ܓ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܽ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ̈ܝ ݂ܬ�ܶـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܢـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ܒܛܘ� ܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܦ ̈ܩ ܳܥ ݂ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܳ� ܳܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܒܐܫܕ ݂ܘܕ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܡ ݂ܕܒܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܰ ̈ܳܶ ܰ ܳܶ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳܘ�̈ܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܡܘ��ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ�ܙ�ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳܥܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܺܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚܕ ݁ ܽܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶܡ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬

‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬

‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ‬

‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕܥ ܶܓܠܽܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ݂ܳܓ ܳܙܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݁ܕ݂ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ݂ܳܓ ݂ ܳܕܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳ� ݂ ܳܕܪ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕܥܰ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܠܡ‪.‬‬

‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳܩܪ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܺܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ݁ ܽܦܘܚ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳܚ ݂ ܳܦܪ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚܕ ݁ ܳܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܦܩ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܰܡ ݂ ܽܕܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳܚ ܽܨܘܪ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܳܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܰܡ ܽܪܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܐܟ ܳܫ ݂ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܢ ݂ܟ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܓ ݁ ܽܕܘܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܕ ܶܢܩܡܥܰܡ ܰܘ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܟܪܡ�‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XII







 



Chapter  These are the kings of the land to which the children of Israel laid waste, they took possession of their lands 1 on the other side of the Jordan, from the rising of the sun, from the valley of Arnon, as far as Mount Hermon and the whole eastern plain. 2

Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon: he ruled from Adoer at the edge of the valley 3 of Arnon, the middle of the valley, half of Gilead, as far as Aphek, the valley at the border of the children of Ammon, And the plain, as far as the sea of Chinneroth on the east, as far as the sea of the plain, the Salt Sea, on the east of the road of Bethjeshimoth, from Teman 4 beneath the height of Ashdoth, 5

And the territory of Og, king of Bashan, of the family of the warriors who lived in Ashtaroth and in Erdei. He ruled over the mountain of Ashimon, and Salcah, and all Bashan, as far as the border of Eindor and of Maacath, half of Gilead, and the border of Sihon king of Heshbon, Whom Moses the servant of the Lord had killed; he gave it as an inheritance to Reuben, to Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh.

‘lands’: lit. ‘places’. The geography described in this and later chapters where battles and tribal boundaries are listed is often obscure, since many of the landmarks are unclear or no longer exist, and many of their earlier locations are not known with certainty. 3 ‘valley’ or ‘river’ or ‘wadi’. So passim. 4 ‘Teman’ or ‘the south’. 5 ‘the height of Ashdoth’: lit. ‘high Ashdoth’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܝܒ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܝܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܺ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܪ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܰܐ ݂ܬ ܰ� ܳܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܽ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܰ ̈ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܛ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܚـ� ݂ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܢـܘܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫݂ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ ܡܢ ܡ ݂ܕ ܢܚܝ ܫܡܫܐ‪ :‬ܡـܢ ܢ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܘܟ�ܗ ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܒ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫܠܝܛ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܶܡܢ ܥܰ ݂ܕ ܳܘܥܺܝـܪ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܣܝܚܘܢ ܡ�ܟܐ ݂ܕܐܡܘ��ܐ ݂ܕܝ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܓـܘܗ ܕܢܚـ�‪݂ :‬ܘܦ ݁‬ ‫ܠܓـ ̇ܗ ܕ ݂ܓ�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܥܕܡـܐ‬ ‫݁ܕܥܰܠ ܣ ݂ܦ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܐܪܢـܘܢ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܢ̈ܝ ܥܰ ܽܡܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫� ݂ܦܩ ܢ‬ ‫ܰܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܪ ݂ܬ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ ܝܰ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ �ܝܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܺܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܡـܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ ܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܐ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܚܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ ݂ ܽܕ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫـܕ ݂ܘܬ‬ ‫ܝܡـܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܶܚ ݂‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܥ ـܘܓ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ‬ ‫ܝܫــܢ ܶܡــܢ ܫܪܒـ ݂‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܓܢ̱ܒ ـ� ܐ ݂ܕܝـ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂ܒܥ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܣܬ ܽܪ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܕܥܺܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܠܺܝــܛ ܗ ܳܘܐ ܒ ܽܛــ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡــܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ــܗ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫــܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܟــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡــܐ‬ ‫̱ ݂‬ ‫ܥܟـܬ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܠܓـ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ـܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܽܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܥܺ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܡܗ ݁ܕ ܺܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܢܕܘܪ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ ݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܳ�ــܐ ܽ‬ ‫�ܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܰܩܛܠܶــܗ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫــܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒـ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ‪ :‬ܘܝ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـܗ ܝ‬ ‫ܠܓـ ݂ـܕ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





 

For it was the Lord’s purpose 1 to harden their heart(s) so that they would go out to wage war against Israel, so that they would lay them waste, with no-one to intercede on their behalf, 2 so that he could destroy them as the Lord had commanded Moses. At that time, Joshua came: he slaughtered the warriors in the mountain-country, from Hebron, from Debir, from Gebal, from all the hill country of Judah, from all the mountain-country of Israel, (together) with their towns Joshua destroyed them.

No warriors were left in the land of the children of Israel, except (some) who were left in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdoth.

So Joshua took the whole land, as the Lord had said to Moses. Joshua gave it, as an inheritance, in shares, 3 to their tribes. The land rested from warfare.

‘it was the Lord’s purpose’: lit. ‘this was from before the Lord’. ‘no-one to intercede on their behalf’: lit. ‘not would there be for them intercession’. 3 ‘shares’ or ‘divisions’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ـܗܘܢ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܦ ܽܩـܘܢ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂ܬ݀ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ‪݁ :‬ܕܢܶ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܟ ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒـܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܰܠ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܥܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܒـܘܢ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܳܘ� ݂ܬܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ܕܢܶܚ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ ݁ܬ ݂ܟ ܰܫ ݂ܦـ ݁ܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓܢ ݁ ܳܒ ܶ� ܐ ܰܕܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝـܪ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܟܐ ܘ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܶ ݁ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ܓ ݂ܒܠ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܟܠܗ ܛܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝܗ ݂ܘܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܟܠܗ ܛܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ .‬ܥـܡ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܺ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕ ̈� ܳܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܳܘ� ܶܐ ݁‬ ‫ـܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܚـܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܓܢ̱ܒـ� ܐ ݂ܒܐܪܥـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝــܠ‪ :‬ܐ� ܐܢ ݁ܒ ܳܥـ ܳܐܙ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܳ ݂ܓـ ݂‬ ‫ܐܫܕ ݂ܘܕ ܶܐ ݁‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܚܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܒ ̇ܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܘ ܰܢ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܳ�ܐ ܺ� ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܶܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܛ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ܒ ݂ ܳܦܠ ܰ ݂̈ܓ ܳܘ ݂ ܳܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܶܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ܺ� ܰ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 

 



 

 

At that time, Joshua returned. He attacked Hazor, with the sword he slew its king — because formerly Hazor was the head of these kingdoms. He slew everyone in it with the sword: he left not one soul, and he burnt Hazor with fire. Joshua conquered all the towns of these kings, and their kings. He laid them waste with the sword, as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded him. The Israelites burnt all the hill cities. 1 Joshua burnt Hazor.

The children of Israel took for themselves all the spoil of these cities and the cattle. They slew every man with the sword until they had finished them: they left not a (single) soul.

As the Lord had commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and so Joshua did. He did not leave unfulfilled anything of all that the Lord had commanded Moses. Joshua took all that mountain-country, the whole south, all the land of the plain, all the mountains and their (adjoining) valleys,

From Mount Paleg, going up to Seir, as far as Gadgad in the plain of Lebanon, below Mount Hermon. He conquered all their kings — Joshua killed them. Joshua fought for a long time 2 against all these kings.

There remained not a single town which had not been delivered up to the children of Israel, and laid waste, 3 except for Gibeon where the Hivites lived. 4 Joshua let them live, Joshua left them so that they might serve the Israelites. Joshua took captive all these kingdoms and laid them waste.

‘hill cities’: lit. ‘cities standing on hills’. ‘a long time’: lit. ‘many days’. 3 ‘laid waste’: lit. ‘they had laid waste’. 4 ‘except for Gibeon where the Hivites lived’: lit. ‘except the Hivites who lived in Gibeon’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬

‫ܳ ܽ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ̇ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܛـܠ ݁ܒ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ ܰܒـܫ ܠܚـܨܘܪ‪ :‬ܘܠܡ�ܟـܗ‬ ‫ܳ ݀ ܺ ܶ ݁ ܰ ݁̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܟ ܳܘ ݂ܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܝܡ ܳܚ ܽܨܘܪ ̱ܗܘ ݂ܬ ܪܝܫܗܝܢ ܕܡ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒـܩ ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܡـܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܢܗܝـܢ ܢܫ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܢ ݂ܦܫ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܽܨܘܪ ܐ ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟ ̈ܝ ܶܗܝܢ ݁ܟ ݂ ܰܒܫ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܗ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܽܨܘܪ ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ܕ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩ ̈ܝ ܳܡܢ ܥܰܠ ݁ܬܶ ̈ܶܠܐ ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ـܕ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ܶ ܳ ܰ ܺ ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒܥܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝـܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܒـܙ �ܘ �ـܗܘܢ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟ�ܗ ܒ ݂ܙܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܽܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܳܢ ܳܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܣ ݁ܝܦـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܰܓ ܰܡـܪ ̱ܘ ܐܢـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ�‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ ܢܫ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܕܗ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܽܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰܒܛܠ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܳܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݁ܕܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܶܗ ݁ ܰܬܝܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܢ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ‬ ‫ܣܒ ̇ܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟ� ̇ܗ ܐ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠܛܘ ܶ� ܐ ݂ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܩ ܳܥ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܠܶܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܦܠܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣܥܺܝܪ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢـܢ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܕ ܓ ݂ܕ ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕܬ ܶܚܝܬ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩܛـܠ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‬ ‫�ܟ ̈ܝـ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ܟ ݂ ܰܒـܫ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ :‬ܥܰܡ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ̈ܝܶܐܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܝܘܡ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ݀ ܺ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܰܡـ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܕ� ܐܫ‬ ‫ـܘܗ‪ :‬ܐ� ܐܢ‬ ‫ܘ� ܐܫܬܚܪ ݂ܬ ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ܐܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܕܢ ݂ܦ� ܽܚܘܢ‬ ‫ܰܚ ܳܘ�̈ܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ܺܒܝܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܶܓ ݂ܒܥܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܺܐܚܝ ܐܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܶ ܰ ݁̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܐܢܶܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܒܐ ܐܢܶܝܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܘ‬ ‫ܠܟ�ܗܝܢ ܡ‬ ‫�‬ ‫�ܟ ܳܘ ݂ܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ .‬ܘ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

XI

 



  

 



Chapter  When Nabin the king of Hazor heard, he sent to Jobab, king of Maron, 1 to the king of Shamrin, 2 and to the king of Achshaph,

To the kings who were on his north, in the mountain-country, in the south, in the plain of Chinneroth and in its valleys, and in Naphetdor on the west,

To the Canaanites, on the east and the west, to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, and the Jebusites in the mountain-country, to the Hivites at the foot of Mount Hermon in the land of the watchmen.

They went out, those and all their armies, as numerous as the sand of the seashore, and very many horses and chariots.

All these kings arranged to meet. They pitched camp together by the waters of Maron and prepared to make war against Israel.

The Lord said to Joshua: Do not be afraid of them, for tomorrow at this time I shall lay them all waste 3 before the children of Israel, destroy their horses, burn their chariots with fire. Joshua came unexpectedly to the waters of Maron, he and all the fighting men who were with him, and fell upon them.

The Lord delivered them into the hand(s) of the Israelites. 4 They laid them waste, they pursued them as far as Greater Zidon, 5 as far as Beth-censha of the Waters, 6 as far as the valley of Mizpeh in the east. They struck them; they left no survivor. Joshua did to them as the Lord told him: he destroyed their horses, he burnt their chariots with fire.

‘Maron’: M ‘Madon’. See p. xii. 2 ‘Shamrin’: in other contexts the same Syriac is rendered ‘Samaria’. 3 ‘I shall lay them all waste’: lit. ‘I do to them all as laid waste’. 4 ‘the Israelites’: lit. ‘Israel’. So too 11:19. 5 ‘Greater Zidon’: lit. ‘great Zidon’. So too 19:28. The vocalization of the name is not identical with the Phoenician city of Sidon. 6 ‘Beth-censha of the Waters’ or ‘the House of the Gathering of the Waters’. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܘܒ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܳܢ ݂ ܺܒܝܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܳܚ ܽܨܘܪ‪ܰ :‬ܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܥܰܠ ܽܝ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡـ ܽܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܥܰـܠ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܳܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܘܥܰܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܐܟ ܳܫ ݂ܦ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ݁ ܶ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܢـܪ ݂ܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܠܓܪܒܝܐ ܡܢܗ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܒܛܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܡ ܳ�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܦ ̈ܩ ܳܥ ݂ܬ ̇ܗ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦ ݁ܬ݁ ܽܕܘܪ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ܰܡܥܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬ�ܶــܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘ ܰܠ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝ ـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ـܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚــܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡــܢ ܰܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܳܪܙ�ܶــܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܒــܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ܽܐܡܘ��ܶــܐ‪ :‬ܘܚܝ ݂‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ܰܕܬ ܶܚܝܬ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܰܕ ̈ܘ ܶܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܒܛܘܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ ݂ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ܶܗ ܽܢܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܥܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܰܡܫ�ܝܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ܳܚـ� ݂ܕܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܡـܗܘܢ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܺܝܐܝـܢ ܐ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܓܐܐ ݁ܕܛ ݂ܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣ ݂ܦ ݂ܬܗ ݁ܕܝܰܡܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܟ ܳܫܐ ܘܩ� ݂ܘܟܐ ܣ ݂ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ ܽ ܰ ̈ ݁ܶ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܘܥ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܡ�ܟܐ ܗܠܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܫܪܘ ܐ ݂ܟܚ ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ܥܰܠ ܰܡ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܽܪܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܛ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡܥܒ ݂ܕ ܩܪ ݂ܒܐ ܥܡ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪݂ � :‬ܬ݂ܕ ܰܚܠ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܚـܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܢـܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗ ܳܢـܐ ܶ� ݁ ܳܕ ܳܢـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܺ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܳܥ ݂ ܶܒ ݂ܕ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ .‬ܘ ܰ� ݂ܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܫـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܰ ܽ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݁ ܰܓ ܰܡܪ‪ :‬ܘܩ� ݂ܘܟ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܐ ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝܐ‪ܽ :‬ܗܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܽܪܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫̱ܗܘܐ ܥܡܗ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܢܦܠ ̱ܘ ܒܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܫܠܶܡ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܪܕ ݂ܦـ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ̈ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫�ܨ ݁ ܽܝܕܘܢ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݁ܨܦ ܳܝـܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܟܢܫـܐ ݂ܕܡܝـܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܥܕܡـܐ ܠ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳܝܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܓ ܰܡـܪ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܽ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪݂ �ܰ :‬ܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܶܠܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܶ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 



 

He seized it, he (slew) its king, and laid waste to it, to all its towns, to everyone who was in it, with the edge of the sword. He left no survivor,1 as he had done in Eglon and to all the people there, when he slaughtered them.

Joshua returned, and all the Israelites with him, to Debir: he fought against it. He conquered it, its king, and all its towns — he laid waste to them, laid waste everyone who was in it, with the sword. He left no survivor: as he had done in Hebron, so he did to Debir and to its king, as he had done to Libnah and its king. Joshua laid waste the whole land, the mountain-country, the south, the valley, Ashdoth and all their kings. He left no survivor. He destroyed all their army, as the Lord God of Israel commanded him. Joshua destroyed them, from Rakem-di-gayya as far as Gaza, and all the land of Goshan as far as Gibeon.

All these kings, and their lands, Joshua took at the same time, for the Lord God of Israel was with him: he it was made war on behalf of Israel.

1

‘He left no survivor’: lit. ‘He left no survivor of them’. So passim.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܝـܢ ܽܩܘ� ܳ�ـܐ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܙ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܳܫ ̇ܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܝ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܢܗܝܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ܳ .‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܰܢ ݂ ̈ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ ܐ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ̈ ݁ ܳ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫̈ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܶܓܠܽܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܐܢܶܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗܘܝ ܒ ̇ܗ‪ .‬ܕ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ܘܟܠܗ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ܬܫ ܥܰ ܳܡ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܽ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܦـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܟ�ܗܝܢ ܩܘ�ܝ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܠܛ ݂ܘܟܒܫ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܘܠܡ�ܟ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ ܐܢܶܝـܢ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܳ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ـܪ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘܚـ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒ ـܩ ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕ ܐ‪ .‬ܐܝـ ݂ـܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ـ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܗܝــܢ ܣܪܝـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܠܟــܠ ܢ ݂ܦܫ ـ ݂‬ ‫ܳܶ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܺܒܝــܪ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟــ ̇ܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܳܢــܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ــܪܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢــܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒــ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒــ ݂ܕ ܠ ݂ܒܢــܐ‬ ‫ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇ܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܫـܕ ݂ܘܕ‬ ‫ܝܡܢـܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܠܛܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܢـܗܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܶـܗ ܰܚܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟ ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ‪ :‬ܐܝܟܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܩܕܗ ܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫�ܥ ܳܐܙ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܩܡ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓ ܳܝܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܶܓ ܳܫـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܘ� ݂ܬ ܰ� ܳܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ܟ ݂ ܰܒܫ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢـܐ ܰܚ ݂ـܕ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܳܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ .‬ܘܗܘܝܘ ܥ ݂ܒ ݂ܕ ܩܪ ݂ܒܐ �‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 X



 

 



  

At sunset, Joshua commanded: they took the hanged (kings) down from the trees, put them in the cave in which they were hidden, and put great stones at the mouth of the cave. (They are still there) today. On that day, Joshua conquered Makar, laid it waste with the edge 1 of the sword. He slew its king and all who were there, 2 he left not one survivor. He did to the king of Makar as he had done to the king of Jericho. Then Joshua, and all the Israelites3 with him, passed from Makar to Libnah, and attacked Libnah.

The Lord delivered it too into the hand(s) of Israel. They laid it waste, and (slew) its king, and everyone who was in it, with the sword: he left no survivor in it. Joshua did to its king as he had done to the king of Jericho. Then Joshua, and all the Israelites with him, passed from Libnah to Lachish. He pitched camp by it, and made war against it.

The Lord delivered Lachish into the hand(s) of Israel. On the second day he seized it, and everyone who was in it, he laid it waste with the sword, as he had done to Libnah.

Then Harmon, the king of Gezer, came up to help Lachish. Joshua slew him too, and his people, with the edge of the sword: he left him no survivor. Then Joshua, and all the Israelites with him, passed from Lachish to Eglon. He pitched camp by it, and made war against it. He seized it that day, and laid waste with the edge of the sword everyone who was in it, as he had done to Lachish.

Joshua went up, and all the Israelites with him, from Eglon to Hebron, and made war against it.

‘edge’: lit. ‘mouth’. So passim. ‘there’: lit. ‘in it’. 3 ‘all the Israelites’: lit. ‘all Israel’. So too 10:31,34,36,38. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܟܙ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪݁ :‬ܦ ܰܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡܥ ܳ� ݂ ܰܒܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܚ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܩ ̈ܝ ܶܣـܐ ܰܠܙ ܺܩ ̈ܝ ݂ ܶܦـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܶܽ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ̇ ܳ ݁ ܺ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܥܰܠ ݁ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ̇ܗ‬ ‫ܛܫܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܒܗ‪ :‬ܘܣܡ ̱ܘ ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܐܪܡܝ ܳ ̱ܘ ܐܢܘܢ ܒܡܥ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝܘܡܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܨܚ ܝ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܪܒـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳܩܪ ݁ܟ ݂ ܰܒܫ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܚ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟـ ̇ܗ‬ ‫ܢـܗܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ ܰܩ ܶܛܠ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳܩܪ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܟܛ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ ܶܡـܢ ܳܡ ܳܩـܪ ܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܟـ ݁ܬܫ ܥܰـܡ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ܘܟܠܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܳܐ ݂ܦ ܳ� ̇ܗ ݁ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܰܘܐܫ� ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‬ ‫̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒـܩ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ ܶܡܢ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܝܫ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫� ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫـܪ ܐ ܥܠ ܶ ̇‬ ‫ܝـܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܥܰ ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܝـܕ ܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܝـܫ ݁ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒ ܰܘܐܫ� ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܳܫ ̇‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܶܪܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫�ܗܝܢ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬ ̇ܗ ܰܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܣܠܶܩ ܰܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܓ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫�ܟܝܫ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܪܒܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‬ ‫ܪܡܘܢ ܡ�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܓܙܪ ܠܡ�ܕܪ ݂‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ܶܠܗ ܺ‬ ‫ܳܐ ݂ܦ ܶܠܗ ܰܘ�ܥܰ ܶܡܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳܝܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ �ܥܶܓܠܽܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܕ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܐ ܥܠ ܶ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܥܰ ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܗ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܒ ܳܫ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ̱ܗ ̈ܘܝ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܚܪ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ܦ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܰܠ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܝܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܘ ܰܘܣܠܶܩ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ܒ ܽـܪܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ܥܰ ܶܡـܗ ܶܡـܢ ܥ ܶ ݂ܓܠܽـܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܥܰ ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

  



  







This was told to Joshua, they said to him: These five kings have been found, hidden in a cave at Makar.

Joshua said: Roll up (some) great stones, place (them) at the mouth 1 of the cave, and station 2 men there to guard them.

But you, do not stay here, 3 but pursue your enemies, seize them, do not let them enter the city, for the Lord your God has delivered them into your hands.

When Joshua and the children of Israel had completed the slaughter, 4 when they were completely eliminated, 5 no remnant of them remaining, they took those who survived of Gibeon into their walled cities. 6

Then all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua in Makar, in peace; there was no discord among those of the house of Israel. 7

Joshua said: Open the mouth of the cave, bring out to me from the cave these five kings.

They did as Joshua told them. They brought out to him, from the cave, these five kings — the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.

When they had brought them out, these kings, to Joshua, Joshua called all the rulers who fought together 8 with him, and said to them: Draw near. Put your feet on the necks of these kings. So they drew near, they put their feet on the necks of these kings. Joshua said to them: Do not be afraid, do not tremble, be strong and brave, for thus does the Lord to all your enemies against whom you fight. After that, Joshua slew them and hanged them on five trees; they were hanging on the trees until the evening.

‘mouth’: lit. ‘gate’. ‘station’: lit. ‘leave’. 3 ‘stay here’: lit. ‘stand’. 4 ‘the slaughter’: lit. ‘to slaughter them (with) a great slaughter’. 5 ‘when they were completely eliminated’: lit. ‘until they were done away with’. 6 ‘walled cities’ or ‘fortified places’. 7 ‘there was no discord among those of the house of Israel’: lit. ‘none of those of the house of Israel suffered a scratch on his tongue’. 8 ‘who fought together’: lit. makers of war who were walking with’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܕܐ ݁‬ ‫ܝܙ ܶܘ ݁‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܰܡܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݂ ܰܟܚ ̱ܘ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܺܟܝـܢ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܛܫܝܢ ݁ ܰܒܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳܩܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܺ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܥܓܠ ̱ܘ ܶ ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܪܡܘ ܥܠ ܬܪܥ ̇ܗ ܕܡܥ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܛܪܘܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶܳ‬ ‫݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܳ� ݂ܬ ܽܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܪ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ ܰܘ ݂ܐܕ ܶܪ ݂ܟـ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܘ�‬ ‫ܘܡܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ� ݂ ܽܪܕ ݂ܘܦ ̱ܘ ܒـ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܽ ܶܽ ݁ ܶ ܽ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕܐܫܠܶـܡ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟـܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܬܫܒܩܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܕܢܥܠܘܢ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܟ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܓ ܰܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܘ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܚܪܒـܐ ܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ܓ ܰܡܪ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܚܪ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐܥ ܶܠـ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳܝܕ ܐ � ܐ ݁‬ ‫�ܗ ܽܢـܘܢ ܰܡ ܺ� ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥـܘܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ݂ܪܟܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳܩـܪ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܫ� ܳܡـܐ‪ :‬ܘ�‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ݁ ܽܟܠܗ ܥܰ ܳܡ ܶـܐ ܠܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܓ ݂ ܰܒܪ ݁ܒ ܶ� ܳܫܢܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܰܗܪ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܚ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟـܐ‬ ‫ܘܡ ̇ܗ ݁ ܰܕܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦܩ ̱ܘ ܺܠـܝ ܚܡܫ ݂‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܦ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܰܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܩ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟـܐ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬܗ ܠܚܡܫ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܽܕ ܶ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽـܪܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶـܡ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ‪ :‬ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܓܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩـܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰܐ ݁ ܶܦܩ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܠ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܡܗ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܫ ܺ� ̈ܝ ܳܛܢܶܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܢ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܡـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܰܨܘ ܰ� ܽܝܗܘܢ ݁ܕ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ�ܓܠ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܣܡ ̱ܘ ܶ�ܓܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܥܰܠ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܰܨܘ�ܝܗܘܢ ܕܡ�ܟܐ ܗܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܽ ܳ ܽ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠـ ̱ܘ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܥܰ ܰܫܢـ ̱ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪݂ � :‬ܬ݂ܕܚܠܘܢ ܘ� ݂ܬܙ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ܬ ܺܫܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܥܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܳܥ ݂ ܶܒ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܰܩ ̈ܝ ܺܣܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܰܩ ܶܛܠ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰܙܩ ݂ܦ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܥܰܠ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ‬ ‫ܟܘ ݂ܘܒ ݂‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ �ܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܺܙܩ ݂ܝܦܝܢ ܥܠ ܩܝܣܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 











 

The Lord threw them into confusion 1 before Israel: they struck them a great blow in Gibeon of Beth-horon, they pursued them along the way that leads up to 2 Beth-horon, they laid them waste as far as Akar and Makar.

But as they fled from the Israelites, 3 and were descending by the way that leads down from 4 Beth-horon, as far as Akar, the Lord hurled at them great stones from the heavens and they were killed — more were killed 5 by the hail-stones than those whom the children of Israel slew by the sword. Then Joshua spoke before the Lord, on the day when the Lord delivered the Amorites into the hands of the Israelites, 6 Joshua spoke before the children of Israel: Stand still, O Sun, in Gibeon; you too, O Moon, in the valley of Aijalon. So the sun stood still, the moon stayed still, until the people were avenged on their enemies — See! Is it not written in the Book of Praises? 7 And the sun stood still in the middle of 8 the sky and did not begin to set 9 for a whole day.

Never before or since has there been a day like that one, 10 when the Lord took heed of 11 the voice of a man, for the Lord made war for Israel. Joshua returned, and all the Israelites with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

These five kings fled, and hid in a cave at Makar.

‘threw them into confusion’: lit. ‘agitated them’. ‘the pass that leads up to’: lit. ‘the ascent’. 3 ‘from the Israelites’: lit. ‘before Israel’. 4 ‘the way that leads down from’: lit. ‘the descent of’. 5 ‘were killed … were killed’: lit. ‘died … died’. 6 ‘into the hands of the Israelites’: lit. ‘before the children of Israel’. 7 ‘Is it not written in the Book of Praises?’. We have followed MT in rendering with a rhetorical question. ‘Book of Honors’ or ‘Book of Praises’ corresponds to MT ‘Book of Jashar/the Upright’. In 2 Samuel 1:18 the same Hebrew was rendered by P as the ‘Book of Jashar’. 8 ‘the middle of’: lit. ‘a portion of’. 9 ‘begin to set’: lit. ‘hurry to go down’. 10 ‘Never before or since has there been a day like that one’: lit. ‘There was not like that day before it or after it’. 11 ‘took heed of’: lit. ‘heard/obeyed/listened to’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥـܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܚܘ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܡܚ ݂ܘܬܐ ܪܒ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ‬ ‫݂ܘܕܠܚ ܐܢܘܢ ܡܪ�ܐ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܒܝܬ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܰܚـܘܪܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܪܕ ݂ܦ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܐܢـܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡܣܩ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ �ܥܩܪ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ܠܡܩܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܳܬܐ ܕ ܶܒܝـܬ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ :‬ܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ‬ ‫ـܘܪܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܥܪܩ ̱ܘ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܚܬܝـܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ܰܚ ݁ ݂ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܫܕ ܐ ܥܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ݁ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂ܬܐ ܡܢ ܫܡ ܳܝـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕܡـܐ �ܥܩـܪ ܘܡܝـ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܺ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܺܝܐܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ܕ ܺܡܝ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ ݂ܪܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܗܢܘܢ ܕܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܳ� ܽܡܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕܐܫܠܶـܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ܰܡܠܶܠ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܶ :‬ܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥـܘܢ ݁ ܰܟـ ݁ܬܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ ܰܕܐܝܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܢ̱ܬ ܣܗܪ ܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݂ܐܬ ݁ܦ ܰܪܥ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܬܪ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܪ ܐ ܳܩܡ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗܐ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܟ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܳـ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝـܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ܰܣ ܶ‬ ‫ـܘܬ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܟ ݂ܬ ݂ܝܒ ݁ܒ ܶܣ ݂ܦܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ̈ܫ ݁ܒ ܳܚ ݂ܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܡ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ـܪܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܰܐ ݂ܝܟ ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪ ݂ܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܐܘ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܶܪܗ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܰܐ ݂ܝܟ ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡـܥ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ݂ܒ ܳܩܠـܗ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܐ̱ܢܫ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܥ ݂ܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܗܘܐ ܩܪ ݂ܒܐ �‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܓ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫ܫܪ‬ ‫ܠܡ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘܥ ܰܪܩ ̱ܘ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܺܟܝܢ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬܛ ܺܫܝ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒܡܥܰ ݂ܪܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳܩܪ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

IX



 

 



 



Chapter  When Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, heard that Joshua had captured Ai and destroyed it — as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king — and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were living among them, He was very afraid, for Gibeon was a great city, like one of the royal cities; it was greater than Ai, and all its men were mighty men.

So Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, sent to Hoham king of Hebron, to Baran king of Jarmuth, to Naphia king of Lachish, and to Debir king of Eglon.

He sent 1 to them (saying): Come up to me, help me, let us fight against Gibeon, for it has made peace 2 with Joshua and with Israel.

So they gathered together and came up, the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, they and all their armies; they pitched camp by Gibeon and made war against it. The men of Gibeon sent to Joshua, to the camp at Gilgal, and said to him: Do not fail in support of 3 your servants, for all the Amorite kings who live in the mountain-country have assembled against us.

Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the soldiers 4 who were with him, and all the warriors. 5 The Lord said to Joshua: Do not be afraid of them, for I have delivered them into your hands. Not one of them is able to stand against you.

Joshua came upon them suddenly — he marched 6 all night from Gilgal. ‘sent’: different Syriac root from ‘sent’ in 10:3. 2 ‘made peace’: lit. ‘made peace for itself’. 3 ‘fail in support of’: lit. ‘let your hands falter from’. 4 ‘soldiers’: lit. ‘warlike people’. 5 ‘warriors’: lit. ‘men of the army’. 6 ‘marched’: lit. ‘came up’. 1

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‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܛ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܝ‪.‬‬

‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܽܕ ܶ‬ ‫ـܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫�ܥـܝ ܘ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶܡ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܒ ܳܫ ̇‬ ‫ܪܒـ ̇ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܐ݂ ܺ ܽܕܘ ܺܢܝܨ ݁ ܶܕܩ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ̇ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ � ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܕܫܠܡـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ �ܥܝ ܘܠܡ�ܟܗ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ܕ ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ ܥܰܡ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܶܚܠ ܳܛ ݂ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ ̱ܗܝ ܰܪ ݁ܒ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ ܶܡـܢ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕ�ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ݀ ܶܡܢ ܳܥܝ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕܡ�ܟ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܽܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܡ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽـܪܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ܳ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܐ݂ ܽܕܘ ܺܢܝܨ ݁ ܶܕܩ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ݁ ܳܕ ݂ ܺܒܝܪ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܳܢ ݂ ܺܦܝܥ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒܪܐܢ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܓܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘܫܠܰܚ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܰܣܩ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܺܠܝ ܥ ܶ ݂ܕ ܳܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ܬܫ ܥܰـܡ ݁ ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕܐܫ� ܰܡ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܥܰܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘܥܡ ܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܽܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܶܡ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܟ ܰܢܫ ̱ܘ ܰܘܣܠܶܩ ̱ܘ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ‬ ‫�ܟ ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ ݁ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ��ܶܐ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܫ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡ ݂ܘܬ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܶܚ ݂ܒ ܽܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕܝܰ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟـܐ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܓܠـܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܗ ܽܢـܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ� ܶܗܝܢ ܰܡܫ�ܝܳ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܪܘ ܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ̱ܘ ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܳܫܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ� ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶܠـܗ‪� :‬‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܠܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܺ ̈ ܰ ݁ ݂ ܶ ܰ ̈ ݁ܰ ݁ ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݂ܬܪܫܠ ܐܝ ݂ܕܝܟ ܡܢ ܥ ݂ܒܕܝܟ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܐܬܟܢܫ ̱ܘ ܥܠܝـܢ ܟ�ـܗܘܢ ܡ�ܟܝـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ݁ܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ ܽ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕܥܰ ܶܡـܗ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰܘܣܠܩ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܡܢ ܓܠܓ�‪ :‬ܗܘ ݂ܘܟܠܗ ܥܡܐ ܩܪ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܰ�ܝ ܰܚܝ�‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪݂ �ܳ :‬ܬ݂ܶܕ ܰܚܠ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ܝܟ ܐܫ� ܶܡ ݂ܬ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ ܳ� ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܩܡ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܝــܐ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟܠܶــܗ ܺܠ ܳ‬ ‫�ــܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ܶܡــܢ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝــܐ ܣܠــܩ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܶܡــܢ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ�‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



  







  

The children of Israel did not slaughter them, because the noblemen of the congregation had sworn (an oath) to them, by the Lord God of Israel; but all the congregation grumbled and complained to the noblemen. The noblemen of the congregation said: We swore to them by the Lord God of Israel, so now we cannot hurt them.

So thus we do, and we let them live, so that we will not incur anger, 1 because of the oath which we swore to them.

The noblemen said to the children of Israel: They may live — and they will be gatherers of wood and drawers of water for the whole congregation. So they became gatherers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation of the Lord, until the present, as the noblemen had said to them. Joshua called them and said to them: Why did you deceive us, say to us that you (came) from ‘very far away from you’ — and See! you were living among us?

Therefore now you will be accursed, and you will always provide men 2 as gatherers of wood and drawers of water 3 for the house of God. They answered, they said to Joshua: Your servants were indeed told what the Lord your God charged his servant Moses, to give you the whole land, to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from before you — so we were very afraid for our lives, and acted thus.

Now See! We are in your hands: as it seems good to you to do to us, do to us.

Joshua did thus to them: he saved them from the hand(s) of Israel, and they did not slaughter them. So on that day Joshua made them gatherers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and for the altar of the Lord until the present, in the place which the Lord had chosen. 4

‘we will not incur anger’: lit. ‘there will not be anger on us’. ‘you will always provide men’: lit. ‘there will not fail from you a man’. 3 ‘you will always provide men as gatherers of wood and drawers of water’: lit. ‘never will there depart from you a man gathering wood and drawing water’. 4 ‘chosen’: lit. ‘wishes’. 1 2

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‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܽ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚ ܳܘ� ܰܩ ܶܛܠ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܡܘ �ـܗܘܢ ܪܘ� ݂ܒܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ݁ܺ ݁ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܳ :‬ܘܪ ܺ‬ ‫݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܐ ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܛܢܝـܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܘܪܝܒܝـܢ ܟ�ـܗ ܟܢ‬ ‫ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒܢܶܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܢܢ ܝܺ ܺܡܝܢ �ـܗܘܢ ܒܡܪ�ـܐ ܐܠـܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܪܘ� ݂ܒܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܳܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܳ� ܶܡ ݁‬ ‫ܫܟ ܺܚܝܢܢ ܠܡܗܪܘ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܰܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܳܙ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܟ ܗ ݂ܟܢܐ ݂ܕܳܝܢ ܥ ݂ܒ ݁ ܺܕܝܢ ܚܢܢ ܘܡܐ ܶܚܝܢ ܚܢܢ �ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ� ܢܗܘܐ ܥܠܝܢ ܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܡܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܳܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܝܢ ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒܢܶܐ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܚܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܺ :‬ܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܠܝـܢ‬ ‫ܗܘܘܢ ܳܠܩܛܝܢ ܰܩ ̈ܝ ܶܣܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ̈ ܽ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ̈ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܳ ܰ̈ ܰ ܳ̈ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ�ܗ ܟܢܘܫܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܗܘܘ ܠܩܛܝ ܩܝܣܐ ܘܡ�ܝܝ ܡܝـܐ ܠ ݂ܟܢ‬ ‫ـܘܫܬܗ‬ ‫ܡܝܐ ݂‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܪܘ� ݂ ܳܒܢܐ‪ܶ.‬‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܪܬܘܢ ܰܠـܢ ݁ܕܛـ ݂ܒ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܠܡܢـܐ ܢ ݂ܟܠܬܘܢـܢ ܘܐܡ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ ܰܬܢ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܩܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ ܶܡ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܪ ܺܚ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܟܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܽ ݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ݁ܬܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܘܢ ܺܠܝܛܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ܢܥܢ ݂ܕ ܡ ݂ܢܟܘܢ ܓ ݂ܒܪ ܐ ܠܩܛ ܩܝܣܐ‬ ‫ܘܡ� ܰܡ ̈ܝـܐ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܳܡ ܽܥܘ ܐ ݁‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܡܥ �ܥܰ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ܝܟ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠـ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡـ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟــܘܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ�ـ ̇‬ ‫ـܘܒ ݂ ܽܕܘ‬ ‫ܘܫــܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ـ ݁ ܶܕܗ‪ :‬ܠܡـ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ݂ܕ ܶܚܠܢ ܳܛ ݂ܒ ܶܡـܢ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܰܫـܢ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܢܢ‪ܰ .‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܰܠܢ‪ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݁ ܺܦܝܪ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ ݁ܝܟ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁ܝܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܰܠܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܶܽ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܘ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ :‬ܘ� ܰܩܛܠـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܗ ݂ܟܢܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܦܨܝ ܐܢܘܢ ܡـܢ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡــܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܳ :‬ܠ ̈ܩ ܰܛــܝ ܰܩ ̈ܝ ܶܣــܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢــܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ݁ ܶܒـܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ̈� ܰܝـܝ ܰܡ ̈ܝـܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒ ݂ܐܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܨ ݂ ܶܒܐ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܶܚܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܟܢ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 











   

They said to him: Your servants have come from a very far-off country, 1 because of the fame of the Lord your God, for we have heard the report 2 of all 3 that he did in Egypt, And of all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites, who were on the other side of the Jordan, to Sihon king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Mathnim who lived at Ashtaroth. Our elders, and all the inhabitants of our land said to us: Take with you provisions for the journey, and go to meet them. Say to them: We are your servants, so now give us a pledge.

They said to Joshua: This our bread was (still) hot when we prepared it, at home, 4 on the day when we set out to come to you — now see, it is dry and moldy.

These wine skins were full when we set out, 5 and see, they are split; these clothes and shoes were new when we first had them, 6 and see, they are worn out, for the way is so very long. The men took these 7 from their provisions and came; they did not ask counsel 8 of the Lord.

Joshua made peace with them, and pledged to them that they would live, 9 and the noblemen of the congregation swore (an oath) to them. After three days, after they had given them the pledge, they heard that they were neighbors, and lived among them.

The children of Israel broke camp, and came to their cities on the third day. The names of their cities (were) Gibeon, Chephirah, Eruth, and Koriath-narin.

‘country’ or ‘place’. ‘fame … report’: lit. ‘name … name’. 3 ‘the report of all’: lit. ‘his name and everything’. 4 ‘at home’: lit. ‘from/at our houses’. 5 ‘we set out’: lit. ‘we made them new’. 6 ‘first had them’: lit. ‘took them to us’. 7 ‘The men took these’: ‘These men took’ is possible even if less likely. 8 ‘ask counsel’: lit. ‘ask of the mouth’. 9 ‘that they would live’: lit. ‘for their lives’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܝـܟ‪ܰ :‬ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡـܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܐ ݂ܬ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܰܪ ܺܚܝܩ ܳܛ ݂ܒ ܶܐ ݂ ܰܬܘ ܥܰ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ـܗ ݂ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟـܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܰ� ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܽ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܝܚـܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܶܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܣܬ ܽܪ ݂ܘܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܓ ܡ�ܟܐ ݂ܕܡ ݂ܬܢܝܢ‪ :‬ܕܝ ݂‬ ‫ܫܒܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ�ܥ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܕܐܪܥܰܢ‪ܰ :‬ܣ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܰܠܢ ܰܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܰܫܝܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ ܳܙܘ݂ ̈ܶܕ ܐ ܽ� ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܚـܐ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܕܥܰ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܙܶܠ ̱ܘ ܽ�ܘܪܥ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܰܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܰܠܢ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܳ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܬܝ̈ـܢ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬ ‫ܚܡܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܺܡܝܡ ܐ ݁ ܰܙܕ ܰܘ݂ܕ ܳܢܝـ ̱ܗܝ ܡـܢ ܒ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܰܦ ݁ ܽܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ � ܳܘ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳܫܐ ܳܗܐ ܝܺ ݂ ܶܒܫ ܰܘ ܳ ݂‬ ‫݂ ܰܕ ݂ܢܦܩܢ ܠܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܙܶ ̈ܶܩܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܶܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܰـܙܥ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ـܕ ݂ ܳܬܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܡܠܰܝܢ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ݁ ܰܟـ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݂ ̈‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ܰܢ ̈ܚ ݁ܬܝـܢ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܰܠܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܣ ܰ� ̈ܝܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݂ ̈ܕ ݂ܬܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ݂ܒܠܝ ̱ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕܛـ ݂ܒ ܰܣ ݁ ܺܓ ܳܝـܐܐ‬ ‫̱ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ݀ ܐ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ � ܶܫܐܠ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܳܙܘ݂ ܰܕ ܝ ̈ ܽܗܘܢ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܘܡܢ ܦܘܡܗ ܕܡ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܫ� ܳܡـܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܰ� ̈ܝـ ܽܗܘܢ‪ܺ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢـܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡـܘ‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܪܘ� ݂ܒܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟܢ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ݁ܕܝܰ ̱ܗ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢـܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܬܪ ݁ܬ ܳܠـ ݂ܬܐ ܰܝـ ̈ܘ ܺܡܝܢ‪ :‬ܡـܢ ܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܒܝܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܰܩ ܺܪ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ ܫܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܽ ܺ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ـ ̈ܗܐ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ـ ̱ܘ ܒܢ ـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝــܠ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܘ ܠܩــܘ�ܝܗܘܢ ܒܝܘܡ ـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬܠـ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܘܪܝܰ ݂ܬ ܰܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܺ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܪ ݂ܘܬ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ܽܩܘ ܺ� ܽܝܗܘܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ ܺܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

VIII



  

 

 

Chapter  When they heard, all the kings who were on the other side of the Jordan, in the mountains, on the plains, 1 by all the shores of the great sea which forms the coast of 2 Lebanon, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, They gathered together to make war against Joshua and against Israel, with one accord. 3 The inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Ai and to Jericho.

They too acted cunningly: they went and prepared (for a journey), they put worn-out sacks on their asses, and torn 4 wineskins, 5 split and repaired, 6

With worn-out shoes, sandals tied on their feet, wearing worn-out clothes; the provision(s) for their journey 7 dried up, moldy. 8 They came to Joshua, to the camp at Gilgal, and said to him and to the Israelites: 9 We have come from a far-off country — now give us a pledge. 10

So the Israelites said to the Hivites: If you live amongst us, why should we give you a pledge? 11

They said to Joshua: We are your servants. Joshua said to them: Where are you (from)? Where have you come from? ‘plains’ or ‘broad valleys’. ‘forms the coast of’: lit. ‘is opposite’. 3 ‘with one accord’: lit. ‘from one mouth’. 4 ‘worn-out … torn’: the same Syriac root. 5 ‘wineskins’: lit. ‘wineskins of wine’. So too 9:13. 6 ‘repaired’: lit. ‘bound up’. 7 ‘provision(s) for their journey’: lit. ‘bread/food of their provisions’. 8 ‘moldy’: lit. ‘moldy for itself’. 9 ‘Israelites’: lit. ‘those of the house of Israel’. So too 9:7. 10 ‘pledge’: metaphorical meaning of ‫‘ ܝܡܝܢܐ‬right (hand)’. So too 9:7. 11 ‘why should we give you a pledge’: lit. ‘why/for what was a pledge to you’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܚ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܛ‪.‬‬

‫݁ ܶ ܳ ܽ ݁ܳ ݁ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ܒܥ ݂ܒـܪ ܐ ݂ܕܝـܘܪܕܢܢ‪ :‬ܒܛـܘ� ܐ ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩܥ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܡ� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݂ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ܕܝܰ ܳܡܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܩܒܠ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢـܢ‪ܺ :‬ܚ ̈ܝ ݂ܬ�ܶـܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܣܦ� ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ̈ܳܶ ܰ ܳܶ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳܘ�̈ܐ‪ :‬ܘܝܳ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܟ�ܥ�ܝܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܦ�ܙ�ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܐ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ܰܢܫ ̱ܘ ܰܐ ݂ܟܚ ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܽܦܘܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ ܥܰܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܘܥܡ ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܓ ݂ܒ ܽܥܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܥܝ ܺܘ� ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ݁ ܰܙܕ ܰܘ݂ܕ ̱ܘ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝ ̱ܘ ܰܣ ̈ܩـܐ ݂ܒ ܳ� ̈ܝـܐ ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܘܥ ݂ܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܦ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܒܥܪܝܡ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶܚܡ� ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܙܶ ̈ܩܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒܙܥܢ ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܨ �ܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ̈ܒ� ܳܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܢܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ܒ ܶ�ܓܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܺܣ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢ ̈ܚ ݁ܬܐ ݂ܒ ܳ� ̈ܝـܐ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܡܣܢ̈ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ̈ܒ ܳ� ܺܝܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܛ�ܡܣܝ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܶܠܗ ݁ ܰܦ ݁ ܽܓܘܪ ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫ܝܫܝܢ ܗ ܰܘܘ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳܙܘ݂ ܰܕ ܝ ̈ ܽܗܘܢ ܰܝ ݁ ܶܒܫ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܳ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ܺ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓــ ܳ�‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܘ‬ ‫ܝــܬ‬ ‫�ــܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ܠܡܫܪ ܶ ݂‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ̱ܘ ܶܠــܗ ܘ ܰܠ ݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝــܬܐ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰܺ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܐ ݂ܬܝܢ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ܳܫܐ ܰܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܰܠܢ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܐ ݂ܬܪ ܐ ܪܚ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ ܰܬܢ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܳܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪܝـܢ ܐܢ̱ـ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳܢـܐ ܳܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܘ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܝܰ ܺܡ ܳܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ‪ܳ :‬ܐ ܰܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ ܥܰ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ܝܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡـܢ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ܐܝܡܟـܐ ܐܢ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܝܬܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 

 

 

 

Only the cattle and the spoil from the city did the children of Israel keep 1 for themselves, according to the word of the Lord, as he had commanded Joshua.

Joshua burnt Ai, and made it a desolate mound forever, until the present.

They hanged the king of Ai on a tree, until evening time. When the sun had set Joshua gave an order: they took his corpse down from the tree and threw it into the entrance to the city gate. They raised over it a heap of large stones, which is still there. 2 Then Joshua built an altar to the Lord, God of Israel, on Mount Gebal.

As Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses: (it was) an altar of whole stones on which no iron tool had been used. 3 They offered burnt offerings to the Lord on it, and sacrificed sacrifices. He wrote there, upon these altar stones, a copy of the law of Moses, that he wrote in the presence of the children of Israel.

All Israel, its elders, its scribes, its judges, took their stand 4 here and there on either side of the ark, in front of the priests and the Levites who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord. Half of them (stood) in front of Mount Gerizim, and half of them in front of Mount Gabel, as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded, to bless Israel as before.

After that, Joshua read out all the words of the law, the blessings and the curses, all that are written in the book of the law.

He did not omit a single word 5 of that which Moses had commanded — (there was not one word) which Joshua did not read out before the whole assembly of Israel, before the women, before the children, and before the settlers 6 among them. ‘keep’: lit. ‘spoil/plunder’. 2 ‘which is still there’: lit. ‘until today’. 3 ‘no iron tool had been used’: lit. ‘no iron had fallen on it’. 4 ‘took their stand’: lit. ‘were standing’. 5 ‘word’ or ‘thing’. 6 ‘settlers’: a different Syriac word from that in 8:33. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܽ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܽ ݁ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܳܗܝ‪݁ :‬ܒـ ܰܙܘ �ـܗܘܢ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ :‬ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܟܙ ܒ�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܒܥܝܪ ܐ ݂ܘܒ ݂ܙܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܩܕ ̇ܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪ :‬ܘܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܳܕ ̇ܗ ݁ ܶܬ ܳ� ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܚ ܰܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫�ܥܠܰܡ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܟܐ ܕ ܳܥܝ ܰܙ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܩܦܗ ܥܰܠ ܰܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟـ ݂ܕ ܥ ܶ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܒـ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫�ܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܟܛ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܗ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰܠܫ ܰ� ݁ ܳܕ ܐ ܶܡـܢ ܰܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܚܬ ̇‬ ‫ܝܣـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐܪܡ ܽܝ ̇‬ ‫ܥ� ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪݁ :‬ܦ ܰܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܺ ̈ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ܬܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܝ ݂ܓܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܘ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܐܩܝܡ ̱ܘ ܥܠ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ݁ܒ ܳܢܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚܐ ܠܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܒܛܘ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܓ ݂ ܶܒܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܶ ܽ ܶ ܰ ݁ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝـܒ ݁ܒ ܶܣ ݂ܦـ ܳܪ ܐ‬ ‫� ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܕ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܕ ܡܘܫܐ ܥ ݂ܒܕܗ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܠ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܬ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܽ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܺ ̈ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ܫ�ܡ�ܡ ݂ܬܐ‪ :‬ܕ� ݂ܢܦܠ ܥܠܝܗܝـܢ ܦـܪܙ�‪:‬‬ ‫݂ܕܢܡܘܣܐ ݂ܕܡܘܫܐ‪ :‬ܡ ݂ܕܒܚܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ݁ ܰ ݁ܶ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܝܰ ̈ܩ ݁ ܶܕ ܐ ܰܫ ̈� ܶܡܐ ܠܡܪ�ܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܕܒܚ ̱ܘ ܕ ݂ܒܚ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܥܠ ̱‬ ‫݁ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ̈ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܫܓ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܣܗ ݁ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ ܰܬ ݂ܒ ܬܡܢ ܥ ܰܠ ݁ܟ ݂ܐܦ ܶܐ ܗܠܝـܢ ݁ܕܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܚـܐ‪ :‬ܦ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܬ ݂ܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܰܫـܘܗܝ‪ܰ ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܝܓ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶــܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܳ� ܰ�ـ ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‪ܳ :‬ܩ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝــܠ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܝــܢ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟ ـܐ‬ ‫ܘܣ ݂ܦـ� ̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ̇ ݁ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܽ ܰ ݁ ܳ ̈ ܶ ܶ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܝـܢ‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܟܗܢـܐ ܘ�ܘ�ـܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܘ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟ ܳܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ܬ� ܽܝܗܘܢ ܤܛ�ܝܗ ܕܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ܕ ܰܓ ܺܪܙܝـܡ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܠܓ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܽܗܘܢ ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܶܦ ݁‬ ‫ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܛ ݂ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܒܠ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܓ ݂ ܶܒܠ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܽܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܳܪ ݂ ܽܟـܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝ� ݂ܝܟ ݁ܕ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܝܣܪܐ‬ ‫ܩܕܝܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟــܢ ܩـ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ݁ܶ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ݁ ܽܟ�ـ ܽ‬ ‫ـܗܘܢ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܬ ܳܓ ܰܡ ـ ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܢ ܽܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣــܐ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܒ ـܘ� ݁ ܳܟ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܕ ܘܡــܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܶ ݁ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘ�ܘܛ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܟ�ܗܝܢ ܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܬܝ ݂ܒܢ ܒܣ ݂ܦܪ ܐ ݂ܕܢܡܘܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ݂ܕ ܳ� ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܳ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܽܟܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܩـܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ݁ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ ܡ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܢܶ ̈ܶܫܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ݂ ܺܕܐܝܣ ܳܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܢ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܬ ̈ܘ ݁ܬ ݂ ܶܒܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܛ�ܝܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬

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Ch. 









 

 

The ambush rose up and hurried from its place, they ran with determination as he raised his hand; 1 they entered the city and seized it, they made haste, they burnt it with fire.

The men of Ai turned around behind them, and saw smoke from their city rising up into the sky; they could not flee this way or that — and the people of Israel who had fled into the wilderness turned against their 2 pursuers. When Joshua and all Israel saw that the ambush had subdued the city, and that the smoke of the city rose up, they turned around, they ravaged the men of Ai.

They 3 went out of the city, to meet them, and the men of Ai were surrounded by 4 Israel, some from one side and some from the other, 5 and they destroyed 6 them, they left no survivor. 7 They took the king of Ai alive and brought him to Joshua.

When Israel had completely slaughtered 8 all the inhabitants of Ai — they pursued them into the fields, into the wilderness — they slew them all with the sword. 9 All Israel returned to Ai and destroyed it with the sword. All those who fell on that day — twelve thousand, both men and women 10 — all the men of Ai.

Joshua did not let fall 11 his hand, which he raised holding the spear, until he had slaughtered all the inhabitants of Ai. ‘raised his hand’: lit. ‘turns the hand’. ‘their’: lit. ‘his/its’. 3 ‘They’: lit. ‘These’. 4 ‘surrounded by’: lit. ‘ in the midst of’. 5 ‘some from one side and some from the other’: lit. ‘these from this side and these from that side’. 6 ‘destroyed’: same Syriac root as ‘ravaged’ in 8:21. 7 ‘survivor’: lit. ‘remnant’. 8 ‘slaughtered’: lit. ‘finished … to destroy’ or ‘completely destroyed’. So too 8:26. 9 ‘they slew them all with the sword’: lit. ‘they fell all of them by the mouth of the sword until they were brought to an end’. Similarly ‘with the sword’ elsewhere renders ‘by the mouth of the sword’. 10 ‘both men and women’: lit. ‘from men as far as women’. 11 ‘let fall’: lit. ‘return’. 1 2

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‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ܳܺ‬ ‫ܺ ܳܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܰܡ ݂ܦܢܶܐ ܐ ܺ ݂ ܳܝܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܗܛ ̱ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܝܛ ܰܘ ݂ܟ ܺܡ ܳܐܢܐ ܳܩܡ ܡܣܪ ݂‬ ‫ܚܦܝܛܐ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܡܢ ܕܘܟ ݂‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ ̇ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ ݂‬ ‫ܐܘܩܕܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܘܐܚܕܘܗ‪ :‬ܘܐܣܬܪܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ̱ܘ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁‬ ‫ܣܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ ݁ܕ ܳܣܠܶܩ ݁ܬܶ ܳ� ܳܢܗ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ـܬ ܽܗܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ‬ ‫ܟ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ܦ ܺܢܝ ̱ܘ ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܳܫܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥܝ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ܰܐ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܐ‪ .‬ܘܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܥ ܰܪܩ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦܝ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܕ ܳ�ـ ܶܪܩ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬܗ ݂ܦ ݂ܟ ܥܰܠ � ݂ ܽܕ ݂ܘܦ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ̇ ݁ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܣܠܶـܩ ݁ܬ ܳ� ܳܢ ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ܘܟܠܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܚܙܘ ܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܒܫܗ ܟܡܐܢܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ �̱ ܳܢ ܶܫ ̈ܝ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ܳܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ̈ ̇ ݁ ܳ ݁ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܽ�ܘܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܬܗ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݂‬ ‫�ܗ ܶܘܢ ܐ̱ܢܫܝܗ ܕܥܝ ܒܡܨ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫݁ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܝـܕ ܐ � ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܩـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܰܚܝ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥܝ ܰܐ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܒ ̱‬ ‫ܚܕ ̱‬ ‫ܳܽ ܶ ̇ ݁ ܳ ݁ ܰ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܓ ܰܡـܪ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ܥܡـܘ�ܝܗ ܕܥـܝ‪ :‬ܒܚܩܠ ݂‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܳܪ݂ܕ ݁ ܺܦܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܰܕ ܓ ܰܡܪܘ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܒ ̇‬ ‫ܪܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ ݂ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܣـܪ ܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܗ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ �ܢܶ ̈ܶܫـܐ ݂ܬ ܶܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝـܢ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܳܫܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܘ ܘܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ� ܰܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܒ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܕܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܺܐܪܝܡ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܒ ܰܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ܐ ܺ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܙܟܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳܥ ܽܡܘ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ܕ ܳܥܝ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 

 



   

Joshua sent them (off), and they went to where the ambush was set, 1 and waited 2 there, between Beth-el and Ai, on the west of the city. Joshua spent the night there, among the people.

Joshua rose early in the morning, and numbered the people. He and the elders of Israel went up, at the head of 3 the people, against Ai.

All the fighting men who were with him went up, and drew near, opposite the city. They pitched camp on the north of Ai, with a valley between them and Ai. Joshua took five thousand men, and set them (to lie) in ambush between Beth-el and Ai, on the west of the city.

He settled 4 his people and (established) all his encampment on the north of the city, with those guarding the lower part, to the west of the city. That night, Joshua went (around) in the midst of the people.

When the king of Ai saw, he made haste; the men of the city rose up and went out to meet Israel. All the people of Ai were (then) in the plain, they did not know that there was an ambush set against them behind the city.

Joshua and all Israel were scattered before them, to flee in the direction 5 of the wilderness. He called all the people of Ai to pursue them; they pursued Joshua, and they left the city empty.

So there was not a man left in Ai or in Beth-el who had not gone out after Israel. They left the city unguarded, 6 and pursued Israel.

The Lord said to Joshua: Raise the spear in your hand towards Ai, for I have delivered it into your hands. So Joshua raised towards the city the spear 7 which he was holding. 8 ‘where the ambush was set’: lit. ‘the house of ambush’. ‘waited’: lit. ‘sat’. 3 ‘at the head of’: lit. ‘before’. 4 ‘settled’: lit. ‘made’. 5 ‘in the direction’: lit. ‘by way’. 6 ‘unguarded’: lit. ‘open’. 7 ‘spear … spear’ or ‘javelin … javelin’. 8 ‘he was holding’: lit. ‘was held in his hand’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫݁ ܺ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܘܐ ܰܙܠـ ̱ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܐܺܝـܠ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܟܡܐܢـܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܳ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝܐ ܰܗܘ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܡܥܪ ݂ܒܝܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ̈ܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩ ݁ ܶܕܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܨ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‬ ‫ܡܢܝـ ̱ܗܝ �ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܣܠܩـ ̱ܘ ܽܗܘ ܘܣ ݂ܒـܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܝ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ݁ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܢܶܐ ݂ܕܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܣܠܶܩ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܩ ݂‬ ‫ـܘܒ�ܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫݂ܘܟ�ܗܘܢ ܓ ݂ܒ� ܐ ܩ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ �ܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܪܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ܪܒ ܳ� ܳܝ ̇ܗ ݁ܕܥܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢܚ� ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ̈ ܰ ܺ ܰ ݁ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ܠܦܝܢ ݁ܓ ݂ܒ�ܝܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܰܘ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܒܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܚܡܫܐ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܘܬ ݂ܒ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܟ ܺܡ ܳܐܢـܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܠ �ܥܝ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܡܥܪ ݂ܒܝܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܽ ܳ ̇ ܰ ܺ ܶ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘܢܛـ ܰ�ܝ‬ ‫ܘܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ �ܥܡܗ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬܗ ܡـܢ ܓܪܒ�ܝـܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟ�ـܗ ܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰܐܙܠ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝܐ ܰܗܘ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥ ݂‬ ‫ܩܒܐ ܡܢ ܡܥܪ ݂ܒܝܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ̈ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܡܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܗ ݂ܒ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܣܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ ܐ̱ܢܫܝ ̇‬ ‫ـܬܐ �ܘܪܥܶـܗ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ܕ ܚܙ ܐ ܡ�ܟܐ ݂ܕܥܝ ܐ‬ ‫ـܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰ ܳܡܐ � ܳܝ ݂ ܰܕܥ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܺܡ ܳܐܢـܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕܥܝ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ܦ ܰܩ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܡܢ ܒܣܬܪܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܒ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܪܩ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܥܐ ݂ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥܝ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܕ ݂ܦ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܪܕ ݂ܦ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ܐܣܬ ܰܪܩـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݂‬ ‫݁ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬ ܐܺܝ ـܠ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܶܐ ݁‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰܚــܪ ܐ̱ ܳܢــܫ ݁ܒ ܳܥ ـܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ ܶܒܝـ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝــܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ـ ̱ܘ ܒ ـ ݂ܬܪ ܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ ܰ ݁ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܒ ܽܩ ̇‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ݂ܟ ݂ܕ ܦ ݂ܬܝܚܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܪܕ ݂ܦ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂ܬܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܺܪܝܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܙܟܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܺܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ݂ܟ ܥܰܠ ܳܥـܝ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܝـܟ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܡܬ ̇ܗ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܺܐܪܝܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܙܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺܐܚ ݂ܝܕ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ ܺܒ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܫܠ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܥܰܠ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

VII













 

Chapter  The Lord said to Joshua: Do not be afraid, do not be dismayed. Take all the people with you and make war. Get up, go up to Ai: for I have delivered into your hands the king of Ai, his people, his city, and his land.

Do to Ai and its king as you did to Jericho and to its king. However, you may take 1 for yourselves the spoil and the cattle — but nothing else. 2 Set up an ambush 3 behind the city. Joshua and all the fighting men rose up to go up to Ai. Joshua chose three thousand men, mighty men, 4 and sent them (towards the city) by night.

He commanded them, said to them: Take heed, when you ambush the city, (lying in wait) behind the city, do not go very far from the city, and all of you (must be) prepared.

I, and the people with me, will draw near to the city, and when they come out to meet us, as (they did) at first, See! we shall flee before them.

They will follow us out, and chase us from the city, for they will say: They flee before us, as (they did) at first — See! we shall flee before them. And you — Rise up from your ambush, lay waste the city — the Lord your God will deliver it into your hands.

When you have seized the city, burn it with fire — do as the Lord told you. 5 Now See! I have commanded you.

‘take’: lit. ‘despoil/plunder’. ‘but nothing else’: lit. ‘only’. 3 ‘Set up an ambush’ or ‘lie in wait’: lit. ‘Set up an ambush, (an) ambush’. 4 ‘mighty men’: lit. ‘mighty men in their strength’. 5 ‘as the Lord told you’: lit. ‘according to the word of the Lord’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܙ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܚ‪.‬‬

‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠـܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫـܘܥ‪݂ � :‬ܬ݂ܕ ܰܚـܠ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬ ܽܙܘܥ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܰܒـܪ ܥܰ ܳܡـ ݂ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܩܘܡ ܰܣܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡـܬܗ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫�ܟـܐ‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪ܶ .‬ܡܛـܠ ܕܐܫܠ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܗ‪ :‬ܘ�ܪܥܶܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܥܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ�ܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ :‬ܘܠ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܝ ܰܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܟ ̇ܗ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ܺ� ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܕ ݁ ܶܕܝـܢ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂‬ ‫݁ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ݁ ܺ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ ܐ ݂ ܽܒܘܙ �ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܙܬܐ ܰܘ ݂ܒܥܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܟ ܶܡܢ ̱ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܟܡܐܢܐ ܡܢ ܒܣܬܪܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܒ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܣـܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒـ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒـܐ ܶ‬ ‫�ܥـܝ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ܓ ݂ ܳܒـܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓܢ̱ ݁ ܳܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܚܝ� ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܳܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ـ ݁ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡـܢ‬ ‫ܡܢܝـܢ ܐܢ̱ـ ݁ܬܘܢ ܥܰـܠ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ݁ ܳ ݁ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪݂ � :‬ܬܪܚ ܽܩــܘܢ ܛـ ݂ـܒ ܶܡ ܳܢـ ̇‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܗܘܝـ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ـ‬ ‫ـܗ ܶܡــܢ ݂‬ ‫ܒܣــܬܪ ̇ܗ ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܛ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫�ܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܒܝܢ ݁ ܽܟ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܝـܟ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ �ܘܪܥܰـܢ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܡـܝ ܢ ݂ܬܩـܪ ݂ܒ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܶܘ ܳܐܢܐ ܘܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ܥܰ ̱‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ܳ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗܐ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܩܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܒܩ ݂ܕܡ‬ ‫ܺ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ܳ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܩܝܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕܐܡܪܝܢ‪ :‬ܕܥ‬ ‫ܳܘܢ ݂ܦ ܺܩܝܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪܢ ܘܪ݂ܕ ݁ܦܝܢ ܰܠܢ ܶܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܰ ܰ ܳ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ ܳܗܐ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܩܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܢ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܕ ݂ܒܩ ݂ܕܡ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܢ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܽܩܘܡ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ܟ ܺܡ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢܫ� ܺܡ ̇‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܐܢܟـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܚܘܪܒـܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܰ ̱‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܒܐܝ ݂ܕܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܳܠ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܰ݁ ݁ܽ ܳ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠـܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ̇‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܒ ܽܢـܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܐܚܕܬܘܢܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܟ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 

  





Joshua said to Achar: Give honor to the Lord God of Israel, give thanksgiving; confess 1 everything you have done, hide nothing from me. Achar answered, he said to Joshua: Truly I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel — this is what 2 I have done —

Among the spoil I saw a beautiful Babylonian mantle, 3 two hundred silver shekels, and a bar 4 of gold which weighed fifty shekels 5 — and I coveted them, I took them, and See! I buried 6 them in the ground, in my tent, with the silver underneath.

Joshua sent men: they ran to his tent and saw the items 7 buried in his tent, and the silver underneath. They took them from his tent and brought them to Joshua, to all Israel, and set them before the Lord.

Joshua took Achar son of Zerah, he took the silver, the mantle, the bar of gold, he took his sons, his daughters, his oxen, his asses, his sheep, his tent, everything he had; (he took) all Israel with him and took them away up to the Valley of Achar. Joshua said to him: Why have you brought trouble upon me? The Lord will bring trouble on you today. So all Israel stoned him with stones, him and everything he had, and burnt them with fire. They set up a heap of great stones over him, and it is still there today; the anger of the Lord was assuaged. 8 Therefore the place was called the Valley of Achar, and is still called that today. 9

‘confess’: lit. ‘make known’. ‘this is what’: lit. ‘thus’. 3 ‘mantle’ or ‘rug’. 4 ‘bar’ or ‘wedge’: lit. ‘tongue’. 5 ‘shekels’: a shekel is a weight of about 11 grams. 6 ‘buried’ or ‘hid’. 7 ‘the items’ or ‘what was’. 8 ‘the anger of the Lord was assuaged’: lit. ‘the Lord was assuaged from the heat of his anger’. 9 ‘the Valley of Achar’: see Introduction.Addendum 3. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ݁ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܛ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ܒ ܶܠـܗ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ �ܥ ݂ܟܪ‪ :‬ܗ ݂ܒ ܪܒ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ݁ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳܘܐ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܢܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܘܕ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ‪ .‬ܘ� ݂ܬܛ ܶܫܐ ܶܡ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰܺ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܥܢܐ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܠܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܚܛ ݂‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܫܪܝܪܐ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ݁ܺ ܳ ܳ ݀ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܙܝـ‬ ‫ـܬ ܒ ݂ܒـ ݂ܙܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܡــ� ܚـ ݂ـܕ ܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܒܠܝـ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܫܦܝــܪ ܐ ̱ܗܘ ݂ܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܐܬܝــܢ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ̈ܩܠܝــܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ܺܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܳܫ ܳܢܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ܕ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܒـܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܳܬ ܶܩـܠ ܰܚ ܺ‬ ‫ـܬ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܫܝـܢ ܰܡ ݂ܬ ̈ܩܠܝـܢ‪ .‬ܘܪ ݁ ܶܓ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܛܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ܺܠܝ ݂ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܒ ݂ܬ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܢܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬ ݁‬ ‫ܢܝ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܚܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܫܟ ̱‬ ‫ܛܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ ݁ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶܗ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܪܗܛ ̱ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬ ݁‬ ‫ܚܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬܝـ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܰܡ ݁‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ݁ ܽܟܠـܗ‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶـܗ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܡ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ܒ ܶܪܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ܶܡ ܳـ�‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܶ ܳܫ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܰܙ ܰܪܚ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܒـܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܒـــܪ ܰܠ ݂ܒ ܰ�ـــ ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‪:‬‬ ‫��ܢ̈ـــܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܘܠܚܡـــ�ܗ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫ــܬܘ ܰ�‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܒܢ̈ـــ ݂ܬܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠـ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܫܟܢܶܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܶܠܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܥܰ ܶܡܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݁‬ ‫ܐܣܩ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫�ܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܗ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܚ ݂ــܟ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܢــܝ‪ܰ ݂ :‬ܢܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡــܐ ܳܗ ܳܢــܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܶܠــܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ‪ :‬ܠܡܢــܐ ݂ܕܠ‬ ‫ܚܬ ̱‬ ‫݁ ܺ ̈ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܠܗ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ܶܠـܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ݂ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܩـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܒ ݂ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܶܘܪ ݂ܓ ܽܡ ̱‬ ‫ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܺ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݁ܬ ܺ�ܝـܚ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܝ ݂ܓܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ ݂ܐܦܐ ܪܘ� ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܟܘ ܰܘܐܩܝܡ ̱ܘ ܥܠ ̱‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݂ܕ ܽܪܘܓ ܶܙܗ‪ܶ .‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܐܬ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܽ :‬ܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܩـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟـܪ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܚ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫�ܝܘܡܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 









 



The Lord said to Joshua: Get up! Why are you lying prostrate, your face on the ground?

Israel has sinned, transgressed the commandment that I gave 1 them: they have taken from the banned material, they have stolen, they have lied, they have hidden (the banned items) among their (own) possessions.

So the children of Israel, once more, cannot stand up against their enemies, but have fled 2 before them, 3 for they have brought themselves under the ban. 4 No more shall I be with you, unless you destroy all the banned material that you have taken. 5

Get up, summon this people and say: Tomorrow, prepare yourselves, for thus says the Lord God of Israel ‘The ban is in your midst, O Israel. No more will you be able to stand before your enemies, unless you destroy all the banned material that you have taken.

In the morning, draw near, (by) your tribes. The tribe which the Lord takes shall draw near, family by family. The family which the Lord takes shall draw near, household by household. The household which the Lord takes shall draw near, 6 man by man. He who is caught with devoted property shall be burnt with fire, he and all that is his, because he transgressed the commandment of the Lord, because he acted wrongfully in Israel.

Joshua rose early in the morning, and brought Israel forward, 7 tribe by tribe. The tribe of Judah was taken. He brought forward the tribe of Judah, family by family. The family of Zerah was taken. He brought forward the family of Zerah, household by household. Zabdi was taken.

He brought his house forward, man by man. Achar, son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah, was taken from the tribe of Judah. ‘gave’: lit. ‘commanded’. ‘fled’: lit. ‘turned their neck’. 3 ‘before them’: lit. ‘before their enemies’. 4 ‘they have brought themselves under the ban’: lit. ‘for they were in the ban’. 5 ‘destroy all the banned material that you have taken’: lit. ‘put away the ban/herem from among you’. See too 7:13. 6 ‘shall draw near’ or ‘shall be brought near’. 7 ‘forward’: lit. ‘near’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫ܪܡܐ ܰܐܢ ݁ܬ ܥܰܠ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ ̈ܦ ݁ܝܟ ܥܰܠ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘܡ ܳܠ ݂ܟ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳܢܐ ܶ ̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܛܐ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܥܰܠ ݁ ܽܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܦ ݁ܓ ܰܢ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܦ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܘܛ ܺܫܝ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܳܡ ܰܐ� ̈ܝ ܽܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܳ‬ ‫ܫܟ ܽܚــܘܢ ݁ ܽܬ ݂ܘܒ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝــܠ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܡܩــܡ ܩـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܢܶ ݁‬ ‫ܝــܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ�‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܽܢܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡـܐ‪݂ .‬ܘܬ ݂ܘܒ �‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܬܘܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܐ� ܐܢ ܐ ݂ܦܪ‬ ‫ܽܩܘܡ ܰܙ ܶܡ ܳܢܝ ̱ܗܝ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚܪ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰܙܕ ܰܡܢ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ݂ܒ ܰܓ ܳܘ ݂ܟ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪݁ :‬ܬ ݂ܘܒ ܳ� ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ :‬ܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܩܡ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ݂ܦܪ ܽܩܘܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ݁ܝܟ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܨ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܩ ܶܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܰܫ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܛ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ܕܢܶ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݂ܬ ܰܩ ܰܪ ݂ܒ ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܚܕܝ ̱‬ ‫ܳ̈ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪݁ :‬ܬܶ ݂ܬ ܰܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ ݂ܕܢܶ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕܢܶ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܚܕ ̇ܝܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܒ ݁ܬܝـܢ‪ .‬ܘ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ـܪ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܚܕܝـ ̱‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܒ�ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ ݂ܬܩܪ ݂ܒ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܐܩܕ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܽܗܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܶܠܗ‪ :‬ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ܺܢ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕ ܶܡ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܥܰ ܳܘ� ݂ ܺܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩܕ ܢܶܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܥܰܠ ݁ ܽܦ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩـ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܫ ݂ ̈ܒܛܝــܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݁ܬ ܶܚـ ݂ـܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝــܠ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ܒܨ ݂ܦـܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܩܪܒـܗ �‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݁ ܰܬ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܕ ݂ܬ݀ ܰܫ ݁ܪܒ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܙܪܚ‪ :‬ܘܩـܪ ݂ܒ ܫܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܪ ݂ܒ ܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕܝܗ ݂ܘܕ ܐ ܠܫ� ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ̈ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݁ܬܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂ܕ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ݂ ܺܕܝ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ ܰܙܪܚ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ݁ܶ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܬ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂ܕ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒܪ ݁ ܰܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܡܝ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒـܪ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ـܕܝ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒـܪ ܰܙ ܰܪܚ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܩܪ ݂ܒ ݁ܒ ܳܝܬܗ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 



VI





 





 

The children of Israel trespassed 1 against the ban. Achar son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah, from the tribe of Judah took (some) of the devoted property and hid (it). The anger of the Lord burned against the children of Israel. Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is near Beth-aven, to the east of Beth-el, and said to them: Go up, spy out the land! The men went up, and spied out Ai. They returned to Joshua and said to him: Not all the people should go up; about two (or) three thousand men should go up to lay Ai waste; do not send all the people, for they are (only) few.

So some of the people went 2 there, about three thousand men — and fled before the men of Ai.

The men of Ai slew thirty-six Israelite men. They pursued them, out of the gate, until they were defeated. They struck them a blow: the heart of the people shook, was as weak as 3 water. Joshua tore his clothes, he fell on his face to the ground in front of the ark of the Lord (and lay there) until the evening, he and the elders of Israel, and they threw dust on their heads. Joshua said: Alas Lord God! Why did you bring this people across the Jordan, to deliver us into the hand(s) of the Amorites? Indeed we should have stayed 4 on the other side of the Jordan.

Now what shall I say — that Israel fled 5 before its enemies?

The Canaanites, and all the inhabitants of the land will hear, they will assemble against us and wipe out our name from the land 6 — then what will you have done to your great name? ‘trespassed’: lit. ‘sinned an iniquity’. 2 ‘went’: lit. ‘went up’. 3 ‘as weak as’: lit. ‘like’. 4 ‘Indeed we should have stayed’: lit. ‘If only we had stayed indeed’. 5 ‘fled’: lit. ‘turned its neck/back/retreated’. See too 7:12. 6 ‘the land’: lit. ‘the face of the land’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܨܚ ܘ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܰ ܺ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܥܰܘ�‬ ‫ܘܐܥܠܝ ̱ܘ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒܪ ܰܙ ܰܪܚ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܽܝܗ ݂ ܳܘܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫ܙ‪.‬‬

‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ܳܥ ݂ ܳܟܪ ݁ ܰܒܪ ݁ ܰܟ ܺ‬ ‫݂ܒ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡܝ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒܪ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ـܕܝ‪:‬‬ ‫ܳ ܰܺ ܶ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܶـܙܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܚܪܡܐ ܘܛܫܝ‪ .‬ܘ ݂ܐܬ ܰܚܡ ݂ܬ ܪ ݂‬

‫݁ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܶܡܢ ܐ ܺ ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܳܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚܐ‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪݁ :‬ܕܥܰܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ܒ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܽܫ ̇‬ ‫ـܘܗ‬ ‫݂ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܘܐܡܪ �ܗܘܢ ܣܩ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܓܘܫ ̱ܘ ܐܪܥܐ‪ .‬ܘܣܠܩـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒـ� ܐ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝـܢ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܝܢ ܶܠـܗ‪ � :‬ܢܶ ܰܣـܩ ݁ ܽܟܠـܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪ :‬ܐ� ܐ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ܰ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܩܘܢ ܢܶܚܪ ݂ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠـܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܬܠ‬ ‫ܘܢ ̇ܗ �ܥـܝ‪݂ � .‬ܬܫـܕܪ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݂ ݁ܰ ܽ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕܙܥܘܪܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝـܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܪܩـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܬܡܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܰܘܣܠܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܶܫ ̈ܝ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ܳܥܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ̈ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܺ ܶ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬܐ ݂ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰܪܕ ݂ܦـ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܐ̱ܢܫܝ ̇ܗ ܕܥܝ ܡܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܬܠ ݂ܬܝܢ ܘ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ܳ .‬ܘܙܥ ܶܠ ݁ ܶܒܗ ݁ܕܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚܘ ݁ܒ ܽܗܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܶܕܐ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ݂ ܰܒܪ ̱ܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ̈ܳ‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܺ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒ ̈ܘ ܰܫܘܗܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ܥܰܠ ܐ ݁ ܰܦ ̈ܘܗܝ ܥܰܠ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨ ܺܪܝ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܩ ݂ܒـ ݂ܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܶܫـܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ‪ܽ :‬ܗܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܪ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝـ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ݂ܦـ ܳܪ ܐ ܥܰـܠ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܺ� ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܐܽܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܝـ ̱ܗܝ �ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ ܳܗ ܳܢـܐ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ـܗܐ‪ :‬ܠܡܢـܐ ܐܥܒ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܰ ݁ܺ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܽ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܒܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܝܢ ܰܠܢ ݁ ܰܟܝ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܬܫ�ܡܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐܝܕ ܐ ݂ܕܐܡܘ��ܐ‪ .‬ܐܠܘ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳܢܐ ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܺܐ ܰܡܪ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܐܦ ܺܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒܥ ܶ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܩܕ ܶܠܗ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒ ̱‬ ‫ܘܢܶܫܡ ܽܥܘܢ ݁ܟ ܰ�ܥ̈ ܳ� ܶܝܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܫـܘܢ ܥܠܰܝـܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘܢ ݁‬ ‫ـܘܒ ݂ ܽܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܡܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ ̈ܦܝ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ ܳܥ ݂ ܶܒ ݂ܕ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܰܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ݂ܟ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 



 





They destroyed everything in the city, men and women, the young and the old, 1 the oxen, sheep, and asses they slew with the sword. 2

Joshua said to those two men who had spied out the land: Go into the house of that woman, the prostitute, and bring out from there the woman and all that is hers, as you swore to her. So the spies went, and brought Rahab out, and her father, her mother, her brothers, and all that was hers — they brought out all her family, and left them 3 outside the Israelite camp.

They burnt 4 the city and all that was in it, except the gold, the silver, and the brass and iron vessels: they took those to the Lord’s treasury. Joshua spared 5 Rahab the prostitute, her father’s household, and all that was hers; her descendants still live 6 among the children of Israel, for she had hidden the spies whom Joshua had sent to spy out Jericho.

At that time Joshua swore (an oath) and said: Cursed before the Lord is the man who rises up to (re)build this city Jericho — he will (re)build it with his first born, erect its gates with his youngest. The Lord was with Joshua: his fame 7 spread throughout the land.

‘men and women, the young and the old’: lit. ‘from men as far as women, from children as far as the oldest’. 2 ‘sword’: lit. ‘edge/mouth of the sword’. So passim. 3 ‘left them’: lit. ‘made them dwell’. 4 ‘burnt’: lit. ‘burnt with fire’. 5 ‘spared’: lit. ‘kept alive’. 6 ‘her descendants still live’: lit. ‘she has dwelt/lived … unto today’. 7 ‘fame’: lit. ‘report’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫�ܢܶ ̈ܶܫܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܛ� ̈ܝܶܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܚܡـ ܳ� ܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ‬

‫ܚܪ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܺܫ ̈ܝ ܶܫــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܘ ܶ� ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡــܐ‬ ‫��ܢ̈ـܐ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡــܐ ܠـ ݂‬ ‫ܕ ܰܣ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܦܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܽ :‬ܥܘܠ ̱ܘ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܬ ܶܪܝܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ܳܗ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܕ ݂ܰܓ ܽܫ ̇‬ ‫ـܬ ݂ܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܐ ܰܢ ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܳܺ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ݂ ܳܬܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܗ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰ�ܢ ̱ ݁‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܐܦ ܽܩ ̇‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܠܟـܠ ݁ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܗܝ ܙ ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܺ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ � ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕܝܡ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܗ‪ :‬ܘ� ܶܚ ̈ܝـ ̇ܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܗ‪ :‬ܘ� ܳܡ ̇‬ ‫�ܪ ܳܚ ݂ـܒ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ ܽܒ ̇‬ ‫ܟܓ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܓ ܽܫ ̈ܘ ܶܫܐ ܰܘ ݁ܐܦ ܽܩ ̇‬ ‫ܠܟـܠ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܳ� ̇ܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܫ ݁ܪܒ ݂ܬ ̇ܗ ܐ ݁ ܶܦܩ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݁ ܺܕ‬ ‫ܐܫܪܝ ̱ܘ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒـܪ ܡـܢ ܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ܒ ܽܢ ـ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܳܒ ـ ̇ܗ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܐܘܩـ ݂ ܽـܕ ̇‬ ‫ܗܒــܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ـ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܘܠ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟــܠ ݁ ܺܕܐܝ ܶـ ݂‬ ‫�ܚـ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݁ ܰܓ ܶܙܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡܪ�ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫ܘܠܣܐܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܡܐ ܢܐ ݂ܕܢܚܫܐ‪ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ݂ܦܪܙ�‪ :‬ܐܝܬܝ ̱ܘ ܐܢܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳܳ ܳܺ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܺܚܝ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܘܝ ܶ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ݂ ܽܒ ̇‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ݁ ܺܕ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܟܗ ܘ�ܪܚ ݂ܒ ܙ ܢ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܓܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܝـ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ܕ ܰܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܳܓ ܽܫ ̈ܘ ܶܫـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݁ـܕܪܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܠܡܓܫ �ܝܪܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ‪ܺ :‬ܠܝـܛ ܽܗܘ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܘ ܺܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ܽܢܩـܘܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܙܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ ܐ ܺ ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܗ ܺܢܩܝܡ ݁ܬ�ܥ ܶ ̇‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪݁ .‬ܒ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܟ ܶܪܗ ܢܶ ݂ܒܢܶ ̇‬ ‫ܝܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ܒܢܝܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܘܫܡܥܶܗ ܳܐ ܙܶܠ ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܙ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܥܰܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ .‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̱‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

  

 

 



 

So the ark of the Lord went around the city once, and they came to the camp and spent the night in the camp.

Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of the Lord. Seven priests, carrying seven horns, went in front of the ark of the Lord, sounding their horns while they walked. Those who were armed went in front. Some of those who were assembled together followed the ark of the Lord, sounding their horns. They went around that city once on the second day, and then returned to camp. They did this for six days.

On the seventh day they rose early in the morning, and went around the city, according to this routine, 1 seven times — for on this day only they went around it seven times. And on the seventh time, the priests sounded the horns, and Joshua said to the people: Shout! For the Lord has delivered the city to you.

This city, and all that is in it, shall be devoted 2 to the Lord; but let Rahab the prostitute, and all who are with her in the house, live, for she hid those spies whom we sent.

And you must be vigilant concerning the ban: do not conceal or take any devoted property, 3 for (thus) you would bring the Israelite camp 4 under the ban, and bring trouble on 5 it. All the silver and the gold, brass and iron vessels, are holy to the Lord. Put them in the Lord’s treasury.

So the people shouted, and blew the horns; and when the people heard the sound of the horns they shouted 6 out very loudly, the wall collapsed, 7 and the people went up into the city, each man going straight ahead, and they took the city. ‘routine’: lit. ‘custom’. ‘devoted’: lit. ‘under a ban/accursed’. So passim. 3 ‘devoted property’: lit. ‘from the ban’. So passim. 4 ‘Israelite camp’ or ‘camp of Israel’. In this translation ‘Israelite’ as an adjective always represents ‘of Israel’. 5 ‘bring trouble on’: lit. ‘disturb’. 6 ‘they shouted’: lit. ‘the people shouted’. 7 ‘collapsed’: lit. ‘fell into its place’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܰ ݀ ܺ ܽ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒـ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܪܟ ݂ܬ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܗ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ݂ܐܬܘ ܠܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ݂ܙܒܢ̱‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩ ݁ ܶܕܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܨ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܶܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥܐ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶـܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܺܝـܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒـܥ ܰܩ� ܳܢـܢ‪ܳ :‬ܘ ܺܐܙ ̱ܠܝـܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒـ ݂ܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܗ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܝܠܶܝܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܘܩ ܳܪܝܢ ܒܩ� ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܡܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶܪܝـܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‬ ‫ܢܫܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܩ� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܚـܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܳܗܝ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܶܪܝـܢ ݂ܙܒܢ̱ـ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܪܟܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܰ̈ܽ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܬ ݂ܬܝܗܘܢ ܝܘܡ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܥ ݂ܒ ݁ ܺܕܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥܐ‪ܰ :‬ܩ ݁ ܶܕܡ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܨ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ܳܢ ܽܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܟ ̇‬ ‫ܘܣـܐ ܳܗ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܐ ݂‬ ‫ـܘܗ ܶ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܟ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ݁ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܰܗܘ ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ܰܙ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܢܝܢ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܟ ̇‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ܰܙ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܢܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܳܗܝ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ ܩܥܰـܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ݁ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶـܐ ݂ܒܩ� ܢ ݂‬ ‫݂ܘܒ ܽ ݂ܙܒܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ̇ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݁ܕܐܫ�ܡܗ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܡܪ�ܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡـܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܪ ܳܚ ݂ـܒ‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ݁ ܺܕ‬ ‫݂ܘܬܗܘܐ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫�ܚ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܺ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܥܡ ̇ܗ ݁ܒ ݂ܒܝـܬܐ‪ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܝـ ݂ܬ �ܗܢـܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܐ ܰܚܘ � ̇ܗ ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ݁ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܙܢ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܳܓ ܽܫܘܫܐ ݂ܕܫ ݁ܕܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫܘܢ ݂ܘܬܶ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ܺܙܗ ܺܝܪܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܒܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳ� ݁ܬ ܰܛ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬܘܢ ݁ ܶܕܝܢ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܪܡـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܽ ܳ̇ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܢ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܘܬܥܒ ݂ܕܘܢܗ ܠܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܝܫܝܢ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫݁ ܽܟܠ ܺܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܢ̈ܶܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳܢܚ ܳܫܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦܪܙ�‪ܰ :‬ܩ ݁ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ܶܙܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܢܶܥܠܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܰܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܥـܐ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ܥܡـܐ ܩـ� ݂ܕܩ� ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩܥܘ ܥܡܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܳܩܪܘ ܒܩ� ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ ݁ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݁ܕܛ ݂ܒ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ـܬܐ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ܫܘܪ ܐ ܥܠ ܕܘܟ ݂ܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܣܠܩ ̱ܘ ܥܡܐ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܩܥ ݂ܬܐ ܪܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ̱ ܳܢܫ ܠܩ ݂ܘܒܠܗ‪݂ :‬ܘܟ ݂ܒܫܘܗ ܠ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 

 

 





 





Jericho was closed against 1 the children of Israel: no-one came out, no-one went in.

The Lord said to Joshua: See! I have delivered Jericho into your hands, together with its king and all its army. All you warriors — surround the city! Go around the city, once each day. 2 Do thus, (for) six days.

Seven priests shall carry horns, and sound (them) before the ark. On the seventh day, go around the city seven times, and let the priests blow the horns. When they have sounded the horns, and you have heard the sound of the horn, let all the people raise a great shout, the city wall will collapse, 3 and the people will go up, each man going straight ahead. 4

Joshua the son of Nun called the priests and said to them: Take up the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and let seven priests take up seven horns, and sound them before the ark of the Lord. He said to the people: Pass over, go around the city, and let those who are armed pass over in front of the ark of the Lord. So as Joshua had said to the people, seven priests took up seven horns and sounded them before the ark of the Lord. They blew on the horns; the ark of the covenant of the Lord followed them.

Those who were armed went in front of the priests who were sounding the horns; some of those who were assembled together followed the ark, sounding their horns while they walked. 5

Joshua commanded the people and said: Do not shout, do not let your voice be heard, do not say a word, 6 until the day when I tell you to shout — and then you shall shout! ‘against’: lit. ‘in the presence of’ or ‘before’. 2 ‘once each day’: lit. ‘one time in one day’. 3 ‘collapse’: lit. ‘fall in its place’. So too 6:20. 4 ‘straight ahead’: lit. ‘before him’. So too 6:20. 5 ‘sounding their horns while they walked’: lit. ‘walking and blowing on the horns’. So too 6:13. 6 ‘do not say a word’: lit. ‘no word shall come out of your mouth’. 1



‫ܰܶ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫ܶܩ ݂ܦ� ܳܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݁‬ ‫ܝܕ ܐ ̱ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ݀ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ ܰܐ ܺܚ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ܕ ܳܢ ݂ ܶܦـܩ ܘ�‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܥܐܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܚـܘ‪ܰ :‬ܘܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ܺ� ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬ ݁ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫�ܟـ ̇ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚـܙܝ ݂ ܰܕܐܫ� ܶܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܳ ̇ ܽ ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܽܟ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫�ܟܘܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܠܗ ܚܝ�ܗ‪ .‬ܚ ݂ܘܕܪܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܬܐ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܺܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܘܪܟܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ݂ܙܒܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥܐ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ܢܶܫܩܠܘܢ ܰܩ� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰܢܝ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܒܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ܽ ̇ ܰ ܺ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܒܥ ܰܙ ݂ ̈ܒ ܺܢܝܢ‪ܳ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܪܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰܩ� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ݂ܬܟܘܪܟܘܗ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܳ ܰ݁ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܬܘܢ ܳܩ ܳ� ݂ܕ ܰܩ ܳܪܢـܐ‪ :‬ܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܝܒ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܒܩ� ܢ ݂ܬܐ ܘܫܡ‬ ‫ܩܥـܘܢ ݁ ܽܟܠـܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ ܩܥ ݂‬ ‫݁ܽ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܰ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ـܬܗ‪ :‬ܘܢܣܩــܘܢ ܥܡــܐ ܐ̱ܢــܫ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݁ܦ ـܠ ܫــܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ــܬܐ ܥــܠ ܕܘܟـ ݂‬ ‫ܪܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܩ ݂ܘܒܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܢـܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ̈ܗܢܶـܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܺܕ ܝܰ ݂ܬ ܺܩـܐ‬ ‫ܫܩܘܠـܘ ܩܒ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܽ ̱ ݂ ݂ܳ ܺ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥܐ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗ ܺܢܝـܢ ܢܶܫܩܠܽـܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܩ ݂ܒـ ݂ܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܫܒـܥ ܩ� ܢـܢ‪ :‬ܘܢܝܒ ݂ܒـܘܢ ݂‬ ‫݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ݇݁ ܰ ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܝܠܶܝܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝـܢ ܢܶ ݁ܥܒ ܽـܪܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܶ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܘ ݂ܐܬܟܪ ܟ ̱ܘ ܠ ݂‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱‬ ‫ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡــܐ‪ܰ :‬ܫ ݂ܒ ܳܥـܐ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶــܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܝـ ݂ـܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܺܝــܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒـܥ ܰܩ� ܳܢــܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܡܝ ݁ܒ ݂ ܺܒܝــܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܩـ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒـ ݂ܘܬܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶܪܝــܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܒܩ� ܢـ ݂‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܩ ݂ܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܺܰ ܺܺ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ܳ�ܐ ̱ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ݀ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂ܬܩܐ ݂ܕܡ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ـܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܫܝـܢ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳܩ ܶܪܝـܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܒܩ� ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܗ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܶܪܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܩ� ܳܢ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܒ ݂ܬܪ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ‪݂ �ܳ :‬ܬܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܥـܘܢ ܳܘ� ݂ ܰܬܫܡ ܽܥـܘܢ ܳܩ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ�ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡـ� �‬ ‫�ܟـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܕܝܢ ݁ܬܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܬܶ ݁ ܽܦܘܩ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܽܦ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ ܰܕܩܥܰܘ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡܟܘܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܩܥܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 



  V







When they had circumcised all the people, 1 they stayed in their places in the camp until they were healed.

The Lord said to Joshua: Today I have taken away 2 from you the shame 3 of the Egyptians. He named that place Gilgal, (as it is) until the present. 4

The children of Israel pitched camp in Gilgal, and made Passover on the fourteenth (day) of the first month, in the evening, on the plain of Jericho. After Passover, they ate of the produce of the land: that day, they ate unleavened bread and parched corn.

After that day the manna came to an end, when they ate of the produce of the land. There was no more manna for the children of Israel. That year, they ate the harvest of the land of Canaan. As Joshua stood 5 on the plain of Jericho he raised his eyes and saw a man standing before him, his sword drawn, held in his hand. Joshua went to him and said to him: Are you for us or for 6 our enemies?

He said to him: I am the captain of the Lord’s hosts. I have come now. Joshua fell on his face to the ground and made obeisance, and said: What has my lord to say to his servant?

The captain of the Lord’s hosts said to Joshua: Take your sandals off 7 your feet, for the place on which you stand is holy. Joshua did so.

‘they had circumcised all the people’: lit. ‘all the people had finished to be circumcised’. 2 ‘taken away’: see Introduction. Addendum 3. 3 ‘shame’ or ‘reproach’. 4 ‘the present’: lit. ‘today’. So passim. 5 ‘stood’: lit. ‘was’. 6 ‘for … for’: lit. ‘from … from’. 7 ‘Take your sandals off’: lit. ‘Loosen your sandals’. 1



‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬

‫ܨܚ ܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫ܶ ݁ ܳܽ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܽ ̈݁ ܳ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܬܐ‬ ‫ـܬܗܘܢ ܒܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂ܕܘܟܝ ݂‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ݁ܓ ܰܡܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܠܡ ݂ܬܓܙܪܘ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݂ܐܬܐ ܺܣܝ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܕ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡܨ ܳ��ܶܐ ܶܡ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܟـܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܪ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܝܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ ܰܐ ݁ܥܒ ܶܪ ݂ܬ ܶܚ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡـܗ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ܐܬ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܗܘ ݁ ܰܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܒܥ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܪܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܨܚܐ ݂ ܰܒ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳ�‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܪ ܐ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ݁ ܶܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܚܐ ܰܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܪܡܫܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ ݁ ܶ ܳ ݁ܰ ܺ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕܐܪܥܐ ܡܢ ܒ ݂ܬܪ ܦܨܚܐ‪ .‬ܦܛܝـ� ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܩ� ̈ܝـ ݂ܬܐ ܐ ݂ ܰܟܠـ ̱ܘ ݁ ܶܒـܗ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ ܰܐܟܠ ̱ܘ ܡܢ ݂‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪ ܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟـ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ݂ ܰܟܠـ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܝ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ‬ ‫ܐܫܬ ܶܩܠ ܡܢܢܐ ܡܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫݂ ܽܬ ݂ܘܒ ܰܡ ܳܢܢܐ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠـܬ ̇ܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥـܢ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰܐܟܠـ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ܥܠ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒ ܰܫܢ̱ ݁ܬܐ ܳܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶܽ ݁ܰ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܐ ݂ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܰܚ ݂ـܕ ܳܩـܐܡ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ :‬ܐ ܺܪܝܡ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢ‬ ‫ܥܬܐ ݂ܕܐܝܪ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ܟ ݂ܕ ܗܘܐ ܝܫܘܥ ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܩ ݂ܘܒܠܶܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܰܣ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܦܗ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܐܝـܕܗ‪ .‬ܘܐܙܠ ܝܫـܘܥ �ـܘ ݂ܬܗ ܘܐܡـܪ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܛ ܘܐܚ ݂ܝܕ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܰܢܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܐܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ܒܥܶ� ݁ ̈ܕ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ ܰܒܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ܳܫܐ ܶܐ ܺܬܝ ݂ܬ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܶܠܗ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܪ ݁ܒ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܰ� ܳܘ ݂ܬܶܗ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܠ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܥܰܠ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ݁ ܰ ̈‬ ‫ܣܓ ݂ܕ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳܢܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡܪ ̱ܝ �ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܦܘ ̱ܗܝ ܥܠ ܐܪܥܐ ܘ ݂ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫــܘܥ‪ :‬ܫـ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܪܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܰܪ ݁ܒ ܰܚ ̈ܝ ܰ�ـ ܳـܘ ݂ܬܶܗ‪݁ .‬ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܣ ܰ� ̈ܝـ ݁ܟ ܶܡــܢ � ݂ܓܠܰܝـ ݁ـܟ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ̱ܗܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܩܐܶܡ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ݁ ܳܒ ̇ܗ ܰܩ ݁ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕ݂ܕܘܟ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

IV



  







Chapter  When all the kings of the Amorites, on the other side of the Jordan, in the west, and all the kings of Canaan by the coast, 1 heard that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan in front of the children of Israel until they had crossed over, their heart(s) melted, 2 they had no courage 3 left before the children of Israel. At that time the Lord said to Joshua: Make yourself a flint knife, and circumcise the children of Israel again, 4 a second time.

So Joshua made himself a flint knife and circumcised the children of Israel for a second time, at the high place 5 of the uncircumcised.

These are they whom Joshua circumcised, all the male offspring of the people who had left Egypt, for all the warriors 6 had died on the way, in the wilderness, as they left Egypt. For all the people who left were circumcised, but all the people born on the way, in the wilderness, when they had left Egypt, were uncircumcised.

For the children of Israel had journeyed (for) forty years in the wilderness, until every one of 7 the warriors who came out of Egypt had perished, for they did not listen to the voice of the Lord their God: the Lord swore to them that he would not show them the land which he had sworn to give to their fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey.

So their children who came after them, Joshua circumcised, for they were uncircumcised, they were not circumcised.

‘coast’: lit. ‘the hand of the sea’. ‘melted’: lit. ‘trembled/quivered’. 3 ‘courage’: lit. ‘soul/life’. 4 ‘again’: lit. ‘turn’. 5 ‘the high place’ or ‘Ramethah’. 6 ‘warriors’: lit. ‘men, makers of war/battle’. So passim. 7 ‘every one of’: lit. ‘all the people of’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܕ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܗ‪.‬‬

‫ܪܒܐ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܰܡܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܟ ܰܢܥܢ ݁ܕܥܰܠ ܝܰ ݂ܕ ܝܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܫ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ݁ܒܢ̈ـܝ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡـܢ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܪ ݂ܬ݀ ݁ܒ ܽܗܘܢ ܰܢ ݂ܦ ܳܫܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ‪ܳ :‬ܙܥ ܶܠ ݁ܒ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ܐ‬ ‫݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ܳܠܟ ܰܣܦ ܺܣـ ܳܪ ܐ ݁ܕ ܰܛ ܳܪ ܳܢـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܦـ ݂ܘܟ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪݂ ݂ ݂ ܶ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܶܽ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ݁ܬ ܳܢ� ܽܢ ݂ܘܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܓܙܘܪ ܐܢܘܢ ܠ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ̈ܰ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܬ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܶܠܗ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܣ ݂ܦ ܺܣ ܳܪ ܐ ݁ܕܛ ܳܪ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܓ ܰܙܪ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܠ ݂ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ ݁ܬ ܳܢ� ܽܢ ݂‬ ‫݁ ݂ܳ ܳ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ݂ܕܥܘ� �‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܪ ݂‬ ‫�ܕ ܐ ݂ܕܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶܠܝܢ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܓ ܰܙܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܝܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝـܢ ݁ ܶܕ ݂ܟـ ܶ� ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒܐ‪ܺ :‬ܡܝ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܳ ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܓ ܺܙ ܺܝܪܝܢ ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ ܽܟܠ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܐܬܝܠ ܶ ݂ـܕ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ܥܡـܐ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ݂ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ܡܢ ܡܨܪܝܢ � ܐ ݂ܬܓܙܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ ݁ܒ ܰܡ ݂ܕ ݁ܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܫ� ̈ܝܢ ܰܗ ܶܠ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܒܥܺܝܢ ܺ‬ ‫ـܪ ܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܣ ݂ܦـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܩܪ ݂ ܳܒـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ܳܥ ݂ ̈ܒـ ݁ ܰܕܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ܶܡ ܶܨܪܝـܢ‪ :‬ܥܰـܠ ݁ܕ ܳ� ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶܽ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ݂ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܒܩܠܗ ܕܡܪ�ܐ ܐܠܗܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܝܡܐ �ܗܘܢ ܡܪ�ـܐ‪ :‬ܕ� ܢܚـܘܐ ܐܢـܘܢ ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܝܡـܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ܰܡ ݁ܪܕ ܳ�ܐ ܰܚ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫�ܒܐ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ܒ ܳܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫� ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗܝ ̈ ܽܗܘܢ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ̈ ܽ ݁ܰ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܓـ ܰܙܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕ ܽܥـܘ� ܺܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܒ�ܝܗܘܢ ܕܗܘܘ ܡܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܘ� ݂ܓ ܺܙ ܺܝܪܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

  



Joshua said to the children of Israel: When in the future your children ask you, saying to you ‘What are these stones?’. Show them to your children, and say to them: The children of Israel crossed over this Jordan on dry land. For the Lord your God dried up the waters of the Jordan before them until they had crossed, as the Lord your God did to the Sea of Suph: he dried it up before us until we had crossed over.

So that all the peoples of the land should know that the hand of the Lord is mighty, and you should fear the Lord your God always.



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝـܠ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟـ ݂ܕ ܰܢܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢـܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚـܪ‪:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܳܢܐ ܐܢܶܝܢ ݁ ܺܟ ̈‬ ‫ܺܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܰܚ ܰܘܘ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܰܠ ݂ܒ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‬ ‫ܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ ܒܢـܝ ܐ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ܳܫـܐ ݂‬ ‫ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܰܘ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܒܫ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܝـܟ‬ ‫ܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ‪ :‬ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܒ ܶܫܗ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡܝܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ܽܣ ݂ܘܦ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁‬ ‫ܥܒܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ̈ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܶ ݁ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܕ ݁ܕܢܶ ݁ܕ ܽܥܘܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܠܬ ܳܢܝـܐ ̱ܗܝ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ݂ܕܚܠـܘܢ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܥ ̱ܡܡـܐ ݂ܕܐܪܥـܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂‬ ‫ܝـܕܗ ܕܡܪ�ـܐ ݂ܕܚ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܳܡ ݂ܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 





 

     





They set up the twelve stones that they had taken from the middle of the Jordan, from beneath the feet of the priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord: they are still there today. 1

The priests carrying the ark stood in the middle of the Jordan until they had completed everything which the Lord had commanded Joshua to say to the people, as Moses had commanded Joshua. The people hurried to cross over.

When all the people had completed the crossing, and the ark of the Lord had crossed, with the priests in front of the people, Then the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh crossed, armed, in front of the children of Israel, as Moses had told them — Forty thousand, armed for battle, crossed before the Lord, to battle on the plain of Jericho.

On that day the Lord made Joshua great in the sight 2 of all Israel, and they revered 3 him as they had revered Moses, all the days of his life. The Lord said to Joshua:

Command the priests who carry the ark of the testimony, let them come up from the middle of the Jordan. Joshua commanded the priests. He said to them: Come up from the middle of the Jordan.

When the priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord had come up from the middle of the Jordan, and the soles of the priests’ feet had reached dry land, the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, running as before, reaching the banks of the Jordan throughout its course. 4 The people went up from the middle of the Jordan on the tenth (day) of the first month, and pitched camp in Gilgal on the eastern borders of Jericho.

These twelve stones that they had taken from the middle of the Jordan: Joshua erected them in Gilgal. ‘they are still there today’: lit. ‘they were there until today’. ‘sight’: lit. ‘eyes’. 3 ‘revered’ or ‘feared’. 4 ‘the banks of the Jordan throughout its course’: lit. ‘all the banks of the Jordan’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܛ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܟ‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܪ ݁ ܰܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ ܺܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓܘ ܽܝ ݁ ܳ ܶ ݁‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ�ܓܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܦ ̈ܝܢ ܰܐ ܺܩܝܡ ̱ܘ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܗܘܢ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܰܢܢ‪ :‬ܡܢ ܬ ܶܚ ݂ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘܗ ܰ ̈ܘܝ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܳܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕ ݂ܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ܳܩ ܺ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܝܡܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ ܰܕܫܠܡـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܩ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݂ܘܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܦ ݂ܬ ݂ܳܓܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܦܩ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕܗ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܐܣܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ݀ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ‬ ‫ܡܫܡ� ܳܝܐ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ‪ :‬ܘܥ ݂ܒܪ ݂ܬ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓܕ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓܗ ݁ܕ ܰܫ ݂ܒ ܳܛܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫـܐ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟـ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝـܢ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐ ݁ܪܒܥܺܝܢ ܰܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܚ ܳܝ�‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝܢ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܥـܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܡܪ�ـܐ ܠܩܪ ݂ܒـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܦܩ ݂‬ ‫݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ̈ܰ ݁ܽ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܗܘ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܶܒܗ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝـܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ݂ܕ ܶܚܠـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ �ܝܫܘܥ ܒ��ܢܝ ܟܠـܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܶܗ ܰܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ݂ ܳܕܚܠܺܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܶܡܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܳܡ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܳ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܩܘܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕܣܗܕ ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܣܩ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓـܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܣܠܩ ̱ܘ ̱ܗܘܘ ܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ݁ ܰ ܳ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܝــܗܘܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܳܟ ̈ܗܢܶــܐ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ܳܫــܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶ�ܓܠ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟــ ̱ܘ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝــܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝــ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‬ ‫ܣܡ ݂ܟــ ̱ܝ ܦܣــ ݂‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫�ܕ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܝܡ ܥܠ ܟ�ܗܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܗܠ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܕܡܢ ݂‬ ‫ܣܦ� ̱‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܳ ݁ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓـ�‬ ‫ܘܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܣܠܩ ܡܢ ݁ܓܘ ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪ :‬ܒܥܣܪܬܐ ݂ܒܝܪܚܐ ܩ ݂ܕܡܝـܐ‪ :‬ܘܫـܪܘ ܒ ݂ܓ‬ ‫݂ܒ ܰܣ ̈ܘ ݁ ܰܦܝ ܰܡ ݂ܕܢ ܳܚ ܳܝ ̇ܗ ݁ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ ܺܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܦ ̈ܝܢ ܳܗ ܶܠܝـܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ :‬ܐ ܺܩܝـܡ ܐܢܶܝـܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‬ ‫ܢܣ ݂ܒـ ̱ܘ ܡـܢ ݁ܓـܘ ܝ‬ ‫ܘܬ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫݁ ݂ ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܒ ݂ܓܠܓ�‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

Chapter 

  

 

 



When all the people had completed the crossing of the Jordan, the Lord said to Joshua — Take 1 twelve men from the people, one man from each tribe.

Command them, say to them: Take from this place, from the midst of the Jordan, from beneath the feet of the priests, twelve stones, 2 and take them with you across the river. 3 Put them in the lodging place where you spend the night. Joshua called those twelve men of the children of Israel who they provided, one man from each tribe.

Joshua said to them: Cross over, in front of the ark of the Lord your God, in the middle of the Jordan. Let each man put his stone on his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel, So that this will be a sign for 4 you, and when in the future 5 your children ask you, saying to you ‘What are these stones?

Say to them: The waters of the Jordan were divided before the ark of the covenant of the Lord. When we crossed over the Jordan the waters of the Jordan were divided, and these stones will be 6 a memorial for the children of Israel forever. So the children of Israel did thus, as Joshua had commanded them. They picked up twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan, as the Lord had said to Joshua, according to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel, and took them across (the Jordan) with them, to the lodging place, and left them there.

‘Take’: lit. ‘Take (for) yourselves’. So too 4:3. 2 ‘twelve stones’: lit. ‘prepare twelve stones’. 3 ‘take them with you across the river’: lit. ‘make them cross over with you’. 4 ‘for’: lit. ‘among’. 5 ‘in the future’: lit. ‘tomorrow’. So too 4:21. 6 ‘will be’: lit. ‘were’. 1



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܕ‪.‬‬

‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܫܠ ܶܡ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟܠܶܗ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܰܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ݂ܬ ܶܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܚ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܣ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟܐ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܪܬܥܶܣ ܶ� ܐ ܺܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܥܰ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܐܦ ̈ܝܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣܝܡـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫� ݂ܓܠܝܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܛܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܬ‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ݁ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ ܳ ݁ܺ‬ ‫݁ܽ ݁ܶ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܒܗ ܒܠ�ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܒܘܬܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܐܢܝܢ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܽ ݁ ܰ ܶ ܶ ݁ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܚ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ݂ـܕ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܐ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܠ ݂ܬܪܥܣܪ ݁ܓ ݂ܒ�ܝܢ‪ :‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܛܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܡܢ ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܶܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟـܘܢ ݁ܒ ܰ ݂ܓـܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܺ ܶ ܰ ݁ ܰ ݁ ܶ ݁ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܣܝܡ ̱ܘ ݁ܓ ݂ܒܪ ܟ ݂ܐܦܗ ܥܠ ܟ ݂ܬܦܗ‪ :‬ܒܡܢ�ܢܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܳܐ ܳܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܕ ܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܕ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܰܢܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܬܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܢ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܰ� ̈ܝ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܚـܪ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ ܺ ̈ܶ‬ ‫ܺܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܘܢ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ܳܗ ܶܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܢܐ ܐܢܝܢ ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ̈ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܰܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܩ ݂ܒ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܕ ݂ܐܬ ݁ܦܠ ݂ܓ ̱ܘ ܡܝܐ ݂ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ̈ ܽ ݁ ܳ ܰ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܺ ̈ܶ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܪܢ ܒܝ‬ ‫ܟܕ‬ ‫ܐܦـܐ ݂ ܽܕ ݂ܘܟ ܳܪ ܳܢـܐ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬ ݁ܦܠ ݂ܓ ̱ܘ ܡܝـܐ ݂ܕܝـܘܪܕܢܢ‪ .‬ܘܗܘܝ ܗܠܝـܢ ܟ ݂‬ ‫݂ܰ ̈ ܰ ݂ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ �ܥܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ̈ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ـܕ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܠـ ̱ܘ ݁ܬ ݁ܪܬܥܶܣـ ܶ� ܐ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܗ ݂ܟܢܐ ݂ܒܢܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝ� ݂‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ ܶ ܳܳ ܰ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݂ ܺܟ ݂ܐܦ ̈ܝܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܰܓܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܒܡܢ�ܢܐ ݂ܕܫ ݂ܒܛـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒܢـܝ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܥܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܩ ̱ܘ ܐܢܶܝܢ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܒܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡܗܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܠܒ ݂‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



  









Joshua said: By this shall you know that the living God is with you, and will destroy before you the Hittites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, the Perizzites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, and the Jebusites. See! The ark of the covenant of the Lord, the Lord of all the earth, passes over before you, in the Jordan.

Now, take twelve men, (one) from each of the tribes of Israel, one man from each tribe.

When the soles of the feet of the priests who carry the ark of the covenant of the Lord, the Lord of all the earth, come to rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan will be divided: the waters which flow down from above will stand (still), as in a wineskin, 1 on one side.

When the people left 2 their tents to cross the Jordan, the priests who were carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord went in front of the people.

When those carrying the ark came to the Jordan, the feet of the priests who were carrying the ark 3 dipped in the brink(s) of the water, for the Jordan was full from brink to brink, throughout the time 4 of the harvest. The waters flowing down from above stood (still); they stood (still), as in a wineskin, on one side, a great distance away from the city of Aram! which is near 5 Zaretham. (The waters) flowing down to the sea of the west, the Salt Sea, 6 failed completely and were cut off; 7 then the people crossed over, opposite Jericho. So the priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood on dry land, in the midst of the Jordan, and all those of the house of Israel prepared to cross on dry land, until all the people had completed the crossing. 8

‘as in a wineskin’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. ‘left’: lit. ‘removed from’ or ‘broke (camp)’. 3 ‘carrying the ark’: lit. ‘carriers of the ark’. 4 ‘throughout the time’: lit. ‘all the days’. 5 ‘near’: lit. ‘by the side of’. 6 ‘to the sea to the west, the Salt Sea’: see Introduction. Addendum 1. 7 ‘cut off’: lit. ‘divided’. 8 ‘had completed the crossing’: lit. ‘had completed … to cross over’. See too 4:1. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫݁ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ـܬܘܢ ܝܳ ݂ܕܥܺܝــܢ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚـ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܠـ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܗܐ ܰܚ ܳܝـܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ـܪ ݂ܒ ܶܡــܢ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ ܒـܗ݂ܕ ܐ ܗܘܝـ‬ ‫ܺ ̈ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ�ܶܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ� ݁ ܽܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳܘ�̈ܶـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܳ‬ ‫ܘܠ ݂ܟ ܰ�ܥ ̈ ܳ� ܶܝـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܶܝـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ܠܚܝ ݂‬ ‫ܠܦ�ܙ�ܶـܐ‪ :‬ܘ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܽܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ݂ ܽܒ ̈ܘ ܳܣ ܶܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܳ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܳܡ ܳܪ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܳܥ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ ݁ܒ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܗܐ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ̈ ܶ ܺ ܳܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܒܪ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝܢ ܶܡܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ݁ܬ ܶܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܚ ݂ܕ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܫ ݂ܒܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ̈ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ݂ ܶܕ ݁ܐܬ ݁ܬ ܺ�ܝܚ ܦܣ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕ� ݂ܓܠܝܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ̈ ܳ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܰ :‬ܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ܕ ܽܝ ݁ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳܪ ̇ܗ ݁ܕ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܒ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܚܬܝـܢ‬ ‫ܠܓـܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܝـܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܘܪܕܢܢ ܢ ݂ܬܦ ܽ ݂‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ �ܥܶܠ ܽܢܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܘܡܘܢ ܰܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܶܙ ܳܩܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܐ ܰܚ ݂ܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ ܽ ݁ ܳ ݁ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܩܠܘ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݁ ̈‬ ‫ܫܟ ܰܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܝـܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܢ ܠܡܥܒܪ ܝـܘܪܕܢܢ‪ :‬ܟܗܢـܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܳ ܰ ̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܺܙ ̱ܠܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܺ̈ ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܳ ܶ ܰ ܽ ݁ ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܝـܢ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ �ܝܘܪܕܢܢ‪݂ � :‬ܓܠܝܗܘܢ ܕ ݂ܟܗܢـܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰܡܛܝ ̱ܘ ܫܩܝܠܝ ܩ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗ ܰܘܘ ܺܩ ݂ ܽܒــܘܬܐ ܐܨ ܛ ݁ ܰܒܥ̈ـܝ ݁ ܰܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܦ ـܐ ݂ ܰܒ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ܡــ� ܗ ܳܘܐ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܦ ـ ܰ�ܝ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝ ـܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܝـ ݁‬ ‫ܣܦ ـܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܽ ܽ ܰ̈ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܨ ݂ܕ ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܝܘܡ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ̈ ܳ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܬܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ ܶܡܢ �ܥܶܠ ܳܩܡ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܝܟ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܒ ܶܙ ܳܩܐ ܰܚ ݂ ܳܕ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܛـܪ ܐ ܰܚ ݂ـܕ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܩܡ ̱ܘ ܡܝܐ ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ܰ ܳ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܚܬܝـܢ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܐܝـܬ ܥܰـܠ ݁ ܶܓܢ̱ ݂ـܒ ܨܪܬܡ‪ .‬ܘ݂ܕܢ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ ܺܕ ݂‬ ‫ܪܚܩ ̱ܘ ܛ ݂ܒ ܶܡܢ ܐܪܡ ܩܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰܳ ܶ ܳ ݁ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܩܒܠ‬ ‫ܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ ܠ ݂‬ ‫݂ܕܡܥ ݂ܪܒܐ ܝܡܐ ݂ܕܡ�ܚܐ‪ :‬ܓܡܪ ̱ܘ ܘ ݂ܐܬܦܠ ݂ܓـ ̱ܘ‪ .‬ܥܡـܐ ݂ܕܝـܢ ݂‬ ‫ܐ ܺ ܺܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܳ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ݂ܒ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ܳܫـܐ ݂ܒ ܰ ݂ܓـܘ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܘܩ ܰܡ ̱ܘ ܟܗܢـܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝـܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ݁ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݁ܐܬܛ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܣܪܐܝܠ ܥ ݂ܒܪܝܢ ݁ܒ ܰܝ ݂ܒ ܳܫܐ‪݂ :‬ܥܕܡܐ ݂ܕܫܠܡـ ̱ܘ ܟܠـܗ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ݁ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

III



 



 







Chapter  Joshua rose early in the morning. They broke (camp) at Shittim, and the whole house of Israel went as far as the Jordan; they spent the night there, but did not cross over. After three days the leaders 1 passed through the midst of the camp,

And commanded the people, saying to them: When you see the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, and the priests and the Levites carrying it, then you should break (camp) and follow it.

But there should be a space between you and the ark, of about two thousand cubits: you must keep that distance, 2 you must not approach it, so that you may know the way by which you shall go — for you have not passed this way ever before. 3 Joshua said to the people: Sanctify yourselves! For tomorrow the Lord will do something wonderful 4 in your midst.

Joshua said to the priests: Take up the ark of the covenant, and pass over in front of the people. They took up the ark of the covenant, and passed over in front of the people.

The Lord said to Joshua: From today I shall begin to make you great in the eyes of all Israel, so that they will know that as I was with Moses, so too shall I be with you. You shall command the priests who carry the ark of the covenant of the Lord, saying to them: When you come to the edge 5 of the waters of the Jordan, stand in the Jordan.

Joshua said to the children of Israel: Draw near now, and hear the words of the Lord your God.

‘leaders’: lit. ‘rulers’. ‘you must keep that distance’: lit. ‘only by measure’. 3 ‘ever before’: lit. ‘yesterday or the day before yesterday’. 4 ‘something wonderful’: lit. ‘a wonder’. 5 ‘edge’: lit. ‘head/top’. MT ‘end/border/mouth (of a river)’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܓ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܓ‪.‬‬

‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ـܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩ ݁ ܶܕܡ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ܒ ܰܨ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܬܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܝ ݁‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܩ ܰܠ ̱ܘ ܶܡܢ ܳܤܛܝܡ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ ܳܘ� ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܺ ̈ ܳܶ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ݁ܬ ܳܠ ݂ܬܐ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܺܡܝܢ ݂‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܫ�ܝܛܢܐ ݂ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܬܘܢ ܠܩ ݂ܒ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܡـܐ ݂ܕܚܙ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ̈ܗܢܶܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܕܝـܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܘ� ܳܘ�̈ܶܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܗ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܩܝܠܺܝـܢ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ܫܩܘܠـ ̱ܘ ܶܡـܢ ܐ ݂ܬܪ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܙܶܠ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܳܪ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ܰܐܝـ ݂ـܟ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝــܢ ܰܐ ݂ ܺ‬ ‫ـܗܘܐ ܰܪ ܺܚܝــܩ ݁ ܰܒ ܰܝܢ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܢܶـ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܦ ̈ܝـܢ ܰܐ ܺ̈ܡܝــܢ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܕ‬ ‫ܝܟــܘܢ ܘܠܩ ݂ܒـ‬ ‫�ܚـ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚܬܐ‪݂ �ܳ :‬ܬܶ ݂ܬ ܰܩ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܡܫ‬ ‫ܪܒܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܪܚـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ ܽܐܙ ̱ܠـܘܢ ݁ ܳܒـ ̇ܗ‪:‬‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ̇ܗ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕ ݂ܬ݁ܕ ܽܥـܘܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݂݁ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܽ ݁ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕ� ݂‬ ‫ܠܝ ܘܡܢ ܡܢ ݂ܬܡ ̱‬ ‫ܥܒܪܬܘܢ ܒܐܘܪܚܐ ܡܢ ܐ ݂ܬܡ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ـܘܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫــܘܥ �ܥܰ ܳܡــܐ ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܩ ݁ ܰܕܫ ـ ̱ܘ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛــܠ ܕܡܚــܪ ܥ ݂ܒ ـ ݂ܕ ܡܪ� ـܐ ݂ܬ݂ܕܡـ‬ ‫݂ ܰܒ ܳܝܢ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟ ̈ܗܢܶـܐ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩـܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒـܪ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩـܕܡ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܫܩܘܠـ ̱ܘ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ̱ܘ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕܝ ݂‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܶܰ ܶ ܰ ܳܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ــܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡــܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܘܬ ݂ܟ ݁ܒ ܰ� ̈� ܰܢــܝ ݁ ܽܟܠــܗ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫــܘܥ‪ :‬ܡــܢ ܝܘܡܢــܐ ܐܫــܪ ܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܘܪ ݂ ܳܒـ ݂‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪݁ .‬ܕܢܶ ݁ܕ ܽܥܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܥܰܡ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܐ ݂ܦ ܥܰ ܳܡ ݂ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ̈ܶ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܺܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܺܩܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ܳ :‬ܡـܐ‬ ‫ܰܘܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ ݂ܕܫܩܝܠܝܢ ܩ ݂ܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ݂ܕ ܝ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ ݁ :‬ܒܗ ݁ܒ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫�ܪܝܫ ܰܡ ܳ ̈ܝܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫݂ܕܡܛ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܽ :‬ܩܘܡ ̱ܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ � ܳܗ ݁ ܳܪܟܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ̱ܘ ܶܡ ܰ� ̈ܘ ̱ܗܝ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



 







Anyone who goes out, by the door of your house, outside — his blood will be on his (own) head, and we will not be liable to 1 his blood-penalty; but all who remain with you, inside the house — his blood will be on our head(s), we will incur his blood-penalty, should any man harm him.

But if you speak of 2 this affair, we shall be absolved of this oath which you made us swear.

She said to them: It will be thus according to your word. She sent them (away), and they went, and she tied the scarlet thread to the window.

They went to the mountain, and stayed there (for) three days, until those who had gone out after them returned — those who had gone out after them sought them everywhere, 3 but when they failed to 4 find them, they returned.

Those two spies came down from the mountain, crossed over, and went to Joshua the son of Nun, and told him everything which had happened to them. They said to Joshua: The Lord has delivered all the land into our hands; now all the inhabitants of the land fear us. 5

‘we will not be liable to’: lit. ‘we will be innocent/guiltless of’. ‘speak of’: lit. ‘make known’. 3 ‘everywhere’: lit. ‘in every path/way’. 4 ‘failed to’: lit. ‘did not’. 5 ‘fear us’: lit. ‘are afraid before us’. 1 2



‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܰ ݁ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܢـܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܫـܗ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܪ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܶܡܗ ݁ܒ ܺܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܦܨܶܝـܢ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܘ ݂ ܽܟܠ ܡܢ ܕܢ ݂ܦܩ ܡܢ ܬܪܥܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܰ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܥܝ ݁ܪܬܶܗ‪ܽ ݂ .‬‬ ‫ܝܫܢ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚ ܰܢܢ ܶܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܶܡܗ ݁ܒ ܺܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ܡܢ ܕܢܗܘܐ ܥܡ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ ܒ ݂ܓܘ ܒ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰܚ ܳܝ ݂ ܺܒܝܢ ܚ ܰܢܢ ܳ ݁‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܝܪܬܗ‪ :‬ܐܢ ܐ̱ ܳܢܫ ܰܢܗܪܝ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܰܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܝܢ ܡܚܣܝܢ ܡܢ ܡܘܡ ݂ܬܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ ݂ܕܐܘܡ‬ ‫ܟ ܘܐܢ ܬܚܘܝܢ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫ ݁ܕ ܰܪ ݂ܬ ݀ ܶܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠـ ̱ܘ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܛـܪ ݂ܬ ݀‬ ‫ܘܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܟܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ݂ܝܟ ܶܡܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܳܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ܒ ݂ ܰܟ ݂ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܘܛܐ ݂ܕܙܚܘܪ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ ܳܗ ܽܢـܘܢ ݁ ܶܕ ܰܐܙܠـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܟܒ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ ܠܛܘܪ ܐ‪ ܳ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݁ ܶܬ ܳܡܢ ݁ܬ ܳܠ ݂ܬܐ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܺܡܝܢ‪݂ ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܽ ݁ܰ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܚـܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܐ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܠܡ ݂ܐܬܐ‪ .‬ܘ ݂ܒܥܘ ܐܢܘܢ ܗܢܘܢ ܕ ݂ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ݂ܶ ݁ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ܟ ̱ܘ �ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫� ܐܫܟܚ ̱ܘ ܐܢܘܢ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܚܬܘ ܶܡܢ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܶܘ ܰܐܙܠـ ̱ܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ـܘ ݂ܬ ܝ ܶ ܽܫـܘܥ ݁ ܰܒـܪ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܽܢܘܢ ݁ܬܪܝܢ ݁ ܳܓ ܽܫ ̈ܘ ܺܫܝܢ ܶ ݂ ̱‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬܥܺܝ ̱ܘ ܶܠܗ ݁ ܽܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ ݁ ܰܕ ܓ ݁ ܰܕܫ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶܠܗ ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܰ :‬ܐܫ� ܳܡ ̇ܗ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ� ̇‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܦ ݁ܕ ܶܚܠـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ـܗ ܐ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ ܺܒܐ ̈ܝ ݂ ܰܕܝـܢ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 







 

 

 

For we have heard that the Lord dried up the waters of the Sea of Suph before you when you went out of Egypt, and what you did to the two kings of the Amorites, to Sihon and to Og, whom you destroyed —

And when we heard, our heart(s) quaked in fear, courage melted away from each one of us 1 before you, for the Lord your God is God in the heavens above and in the earth below.

Now therefore, swear to me by the Lord, for I have been good to you — you too will be good to me, and to my father’s house — and give me an honest token,

That you will save my life, and the lives of my father, 2 my mother, my brothers, my sisters, all who are ours, and deliver us 3 from death.

The men said to her: We give our lives for yours 4 — however, you must tell no-one of 5 this affair. When the Lord has given us this land, we will be good to you and be trustworthy. 6 She let them down on a rope from the window: her house was built onto the city wall, 7 she lived on the wall.

She said to them: To the mountain, go (to) the mountain, lest those who have gone out after you should come upon you. Hide yourselves there for three days, until they return; then you can go on your way. The men said to her: We are released from this oath which you made us swear.

See! (When) we enter the land — for you will tie a scarlet thread to the window from which you let us down, and bring to you, inside the house, your father, your mother, your brothers, and all members of your father’s house. ‘courage melted away from each one of us’: lit. ‘spirit did not remain in any one of us’. 2 ‘save my life, and the lives of my father …’: lit. ‘make me live, and make my father live …’. 3 ‘us’: lit. ‘our souls’. 4 ‘our lives for yours’: lit. ‘our lives in your place to death’. 5 ‘tell no-one of’: lit. ‘make known’. 6 ‘be trustworthy’: lit. ‘and truth’. 7 ‘built onto the city wall’: lit. ‘for her house was on an inner wall of the wall’. 1



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܘܒـܫ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܰܡ ̈ܝـܐ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܶ ݁ܰ ܰ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݁ܕ ݁ܬܘܢ‬ ‫݂ܢܦ‬ ‫ܩܬܘܢ ܶܡܢ ܶܡܨܪܝܢ ܶܘܡܕܡ ܕ ݂‬ ‫݁ܰ ܰ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ܕܚܪ ݂ܒܬܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ�ܥ ݂‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܬ ܰ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܚـܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܽܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܚـܐ ݂ܒ ̱ܐ ܳܢـܫ ܶܡ ܰܢـܢ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥܢ ܳܙܥ ܶܠ ݁ ܰܒـܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܝܘ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗܐ ݂ ܰܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܶܡـܢ �ܥܶـܠ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ‪ܽ :‬ܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ܶܡـܢ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬ ݁‬ ‫ܚܬ‪.‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܝܺ ܰܡܘ ܺܠܝ ݂ܒ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒـ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܐ ݂ܦ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ـܕ ݂ܬ ݁ܒ ܳ ݂ ܽ ܳܟـܘܢ ܛܝܒ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܽ ݁ܺ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܘܬܐ‪ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ܺܠܝ ܐ ݂ܬܐ ݂ܕܩ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܒܝ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ݂ܒ ̱ܝ ܛܝܒ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟـܠ ݁ ܺܕܐܝـܬ ܰܠـܢ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܡܝ‪ :‬ܘ� ܰ ̈ܚܝ‪ :‬ܘ� ̈ܚـ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܦـ ܰܨܘ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܐܚܘ ܺܠܝ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܒ ̱ܝܳ‪ :‬ܘ� ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܢ ݂ ̈ܦ ܳܫ ݂ܬܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ݁ܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ̇ ݁ܰ ܶ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܒܝܢ ܚ ܰܢـܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܚ� ݂ ܰܦ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܢ ݁ ܺܕܝܠܰܢ ܝܳ ݁ ܺ‬ ‫ـܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ �‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ ̱ܘ �ܗ ܓ ݂ܒ� ܐ‪ :‬ܢ ݂ܦܫ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁ܽ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݂ ܶܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܐ ݂ܕܝ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ ̇ܗ ܠܢ ܡܪ�ܐ �ܪܥـܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ‪ :‬ܥ ݂ܒ ݁ܕܝـܢ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܶܘܝܢ ܐ ܰܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܳ ܡ ݂‬ ‫ܽ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܚ ܰܢܢ ܥܰ ܶܡ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ ܛ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܒ ݂ܘܬܐ ܘܩ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ݀ ܶܽ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ ܰ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܬܐ ܗ ܳܘܐ ܕ ܽܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܥܰܠ‬ ‫ܐܚܬ ݂ܬ ܐܢܘܢ ܒܚ ݂ܒ� ܡܢ ܟ ݂ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܡܛܠ ܕ ݂ܒ‬ ‫ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ̇ܗ ݁ ܶܒܐ ݂ ̱ ݂‬ ‫ܽܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܝܳ ݂ܬ ݁ ܳܒܐ ̱ܗ ܳܘ ݂ܬ‪݀.‬‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪݁ :‬ܒ ܽܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܐ ܢܶ ݂ܦ ݁ܓ ܽܥـܘܢ ݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ܳܗ ܽܢـܘܢ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ܙܶܠ ̱ܘ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ܳ ݁ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ ܰ ܰ ݁ܰ ܳ ݁ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܬܐ ܰܝ ̈ܘ ܺܡܝܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܕܝـܢ ݁ܬ ܽܐܙ ̱ܠـܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܗ ݂ܦ ݁ ܺܟܝـܢ‪ :‬ܘܗ‬ ‫݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܪܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܐܬܛܫܘ ܬܡܢ ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܽܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ݁ܺ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܳ� ̇ܗ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܚ ܶܣܝܢ ܚܢܢ ܡܢ ܡܘܡ ݂ܬܐ ܗ݂ܕ ܐ ݂ܕܐܘܡ‬ ‫݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ݁ܰ ܽ ܺ ܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܢܢ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܳܗܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܚ ݁ܬ ݁ܬܝـܢ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܩܛـܘܪ ̱ܝ ܒ ݂ܟـ ݂ܘܬܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܐܠܝܢ ܚܢܢ �ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܚܘܛܐ ݂ܕܝܢ ܕܙܚـܘܪ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܶ ݁ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܳܢ ̇ܗ‪ .‬ܘ� ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܟ ̱ܝ‪ :‬ܘ� ܶܡ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ‪ :‬ܘ� ܰܚ ̈� ݁ܟ ̱ܝ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܠܟܠܗ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ ܐ ݂ ܽܒ ݂ܘܟ ̱ܝ‪ :‬ܐܥ ܶ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܓܘ ܒ‬ ‫݂‬

‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫ـܘܦ ܶܡـܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟـܘܢ‪ܰ ݁ :‬ܟـ ݂ܕ‬ ‫݂ܕܝܰ ܳܡـܐ ݂ܕ ܽܣ ݂‬ ‫ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܶܪܝܢ ܰܡ ̈� ݁ ܶܟܐ ݂ ܳܕ ܽܐܡܘ ܳ��ܶܐ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܠܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܚـܘܢ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

II



   

   

Chapter  Joshua, son of Nun, sent two men from Shittim who were familiar with 1 the land, and said to them: Go, look at the land of Jericho. They went, they came to a prostitute 2 whose name was Rahab, and spent the night there. It was told to the king of Jericho: See! Men of the children of Israel have come here by night to spy out the land.

The king of Jericho sent to Rahab and said to her: Bring out the men who came to you by night, for they have come to spy out our land.

The woman took the two men and hid them, and said: Truly, they did come to me, but I did not know where they came from.

When it came to the time to close the gate, in the evening, they went out, but I do not know where they went — go 3 after them quickly, for you will overtake 4 them.

She took them up onto the roof, and hid them among the stalks of flax which were laid out for her on the roof. The men went out after them, by the way of the Jordan, that led to 5 the ford. They shut the gate after the pursuers of 6 the spies went out. Until then, they had not lain down. She went up to them, to the roof.

She said to the men: I know that the Lord has delivered up the land to you — fear of you has fallen upon us, all the inhabitants of the land too are afraid of your presence. 7

‘were familiar with’: lit. ‘knowing’. ‘a prostitute’: lit. ‘a woman, a prostitute’. 3 ‘go’: lit. ‘go out’. 4 ‘overtake’ or ‘find’. 5 ‘led to’: lit. ‘into’. 6 ‘pursuers of’: lit. ‘pursuers after’. 7 ‘of your presence’: lit. ‘before you/in front of you’. So passim. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܒ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܒ‪.‬‬

‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ݁ ܰܒܪ ܽܢـܘܢ ܶܡـܢ ܳܤ ܺܛܝـܡ ݁ܬ ܶܪܝـܢ ݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܺ�ܝـܢ ݁ܕܝܳ ݂ܕܥܺܝـܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ ܳ ܳܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܙܶܠ ̱ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡ ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܰܐܙܠ ̱ܘ ܘܥܰܠ ̱ܘ �ܘ ݂ܬ ܐܢ̱ܬ ݂ܬܐ ܙ ܢ ݂‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܪ ܳܚ ݂ܒ‪ܳ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܘܒ ݂ܬ ̱ܘ ݁ܬ ܳܡܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܠ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ‪݁ :‬ܕ ܳܗܐ ݂ܰܓ ݂ܒـ ܶ� ܐ ܶܐ ݂ ܰܬܘ � ܳܗ ݁ ܳܪܟـܐ ݂ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫�ܝـܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ܒܢ̈ـܝ‬ ‫ܐܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ ܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰܓܫ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ܳ� ̇ ܰ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫�ܟܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܘ ܰܫ ݁ ܰܕܪ ܰܡ ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܘ ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܳܪ ܳܚ ݂ـܒ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܒـ ܶ� ܐ ݂ܕܥܰܠـ ̱ܘ‬ ‫ـܗ‪ :‬ܐܦـܩ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܶܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬܶ ݂ܟ ̱ܝ ݁ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝܐ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ ݁ ܰܕܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰܓܫ ܐܪܥܰܢ ܐ ݂ܬܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ܶܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܰܫ ܺܪ ܳܝܪܐܺܝ ݂ܬ ܶܐ ݂ ܰܬܘ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܶ‬ ‫ܫܝ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܘܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܕ ݂ܒ ܰܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ݂ܬܐ ܰܠ ݂ܬ ܰ� ܽܝܗܘܢ ݁ܓ ݂ܒ� ܐ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ̱ܝ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ‪ :‬ܘ� ܝ ܶ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܬ ܶܡܢ ܐܝ ܶܡ ݁ ܳܟܐ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫـܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܰܙ ݂ܒ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܶܡ ݁ܬ ݁ܬ ܶܚ ݂ܕ ݁ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ـܬ ܰ� ݁ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܦܩـ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ݂ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܒ ܰܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟـܐ‬ ‫�ـܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܘ� ܝ ܶ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂‬ ‫݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫݁ܽ‬ ‫ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ܕ ܰܡ ݂ܕܪ ݂ ܺܟܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܓܠ ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܐ ܙܠ ̱ܘ‪ .‬ܦܘܩ ̱ܘ ܰ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ܰ ܰ ݀ ܶܽ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ݀ ܶ‬ ‫݁ܰ ܳ ܶ ܶ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܳܢـܐ ݂ܕ ܺܣ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܐܣܩ ݂ܬ ܐܢ‬ ‫ܝܡܝـܢ‬ ‫ܣܒܢـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܟ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܟ� ݂‬ ‫ܬ ܐ ܽܢـܘܢ ݁ ܶܒ ݂‬ ‫ܘܢ � ݁ܓܪ ܐ‪ :‬ܘܛܫܝ ݂‬ ‫ܗ ܰܘܘ ܳ� ̇ܗ ܥܰܠ ܶܐ ݁ ܳܓܪ ܐ‪ܳ.‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ݁ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ݁ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬ ܽܪܗܘܢ ݁ ܽܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܚܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ ݁ܕܥܰܠ ܡܥܒܪܬܐ‪݂ :‬ܘܬܪܥܐ ܐܚ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ ܒ ݂ܬܪ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݁ ܰܕ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ ̱ܘ � ݂ ܽܕ ݂ܘܦܐ ݂ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ݁ ܳܓ ܽܫ ̈ܘ ܶܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫�ܗ ܳܫܐ ܳ� ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܶܣ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܬ ܳ‬ ‫�ܩ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܘܗ ܽܢܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫�ܘ ݂ܬ ܽܗܘܢ � ݁ ܳܓ ܳܪ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫�ܡ ̇ܗ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܒ ܶ� ܐ‪ :‬ܝ ܶ ݂ܕܥ ܶ ݂ܬ ݁ ܰܕܐܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܶ ݂ܦܠ ܰ ݂ ݀‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݂ܬ݀ ܰ‬ ‫ܬ ݁ ܶܕܚܠ ܰ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡ ݁ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܳܥ ܽܡܘ ܶ� ̇ܝܗ ݁ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܠܰܝܢ‪ܳ :‬ܐ ݂ܦ ݁ܕ ܶܚܠ ̱ܘ ݁ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܥܐ ܶܡܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 



Any man who contends against you, who does not obey your word in all that you command him, shall be put to death; only be strong and brave.



‫‪ ‬ܝܚ‬

‫ܳ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܟܠ ܐ ܳܢܫ ݁ܕܢܶ ݂ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܬ ݂ܟ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ـܕܡ ݁ܕ ݂ ܳܦ ܶܩ ݂ـܕ ܰܐܢ ̱ ݁‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ـܬ‬ ‫ܚܪ ܐ ܥܰ ܳܡ ݂ܟ‪ ܶ :‬ܘ� ܢܫܡܥ ܡ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܛܠ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܥܰ ܰܫܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ :‬ܢ ݂ܬ‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

 

 









So Joshua commanded the rulers of the people, and their 1 scribes, and said to them:

Go through the midst of the camp; command the people, say to them: Prepare for yourselves provisions for a journey, for within three days you will be crossing over this Jordan, to enter, to take possession of, the land which the Lord your God gives you to possess.

To Reuben, to Gad, and to the half tribe of Manasseh Joshua said:

Remember what 2 Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded you. He said to you: The Lord your God gives you rest, 3 gives you this land.

Your wives, your little ones, and your cattle shall stay in the land which Moses gave you, on the far side of the Jordan. You shall cross over, when you are ready to attack, 4 leading 5 your brothers, all your warriors, 6 and help them, Until the Lord gives rest to your brothers, as to you, and they too possess the land which the Lord your God gives them. Then you shall return to the land of your inheritance 7 and possess it, that which Moses the servant of the Lord gave you, on the far side of the Jordan, towards the rising of the sun. 8

The children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh, answered and said to Joshua: Everything which you command us, we will do; and to wherever you send us, we will go.

As we obeyed Moses, so we will obey you, so long as the Lord your God is with you, 9 as he was with Moses. ‘their’: lit. ‘its’. ‘what’: lit. ‘the word/thing’. 3 ‘gives you rest’ or ‘who gives you rest’. 4 ‘ready to attack’ or ‘armed’. 5 ‘leading’: lit. ‘before’. 6 ‘all your warriors’: lit. ‘all of you mighty men of the host’. 7 ‘inheritance’ or ‘portion/possession’. 8 ‘towards the rising of the sun’: lit. ‘from the eastern regions of the sun’. 9 ‘so long as the Lord your God is with you’: lit. ‘only the Lord your God shall be with you’. 1 2



‫‪ ‬ܝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܐ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܒ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܓ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܕ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܗ‬

‫‪ ‬ܝܘ‬ ‫‪ ‬ܝܙ‬

‫ܠܫ ܺ� ̈ܝ ܳܛ ܰܢܘܗܝ ݁ܕܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ ܰ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܣ ݂ܦ� ̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ݁ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܰ ݂ :‬‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܛ ܶܝ ݂ܒ ̱ܘ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ̱ܘ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܳܙܘ݂ ̈ܕ ܐ‪:‬‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ܒܓܘ ܡܫܪ ݂‬ ‫݁ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ݁ ݂ܶ ݁ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ـܬܐ ܝـܘܡܝܢ ܥ ݂ܒܪܝـܢ ܐܢ̱ـܬܘܢ ܝـܘܪܕܢܢ ܗܢـܐ‪ :‬ܠܡܥـܠ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕܡܟܐ ܠ ݂ܬܠ ݂‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܠܡܐܪܬ ̇ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡܐܪ ݂ܬ ܐܪܥܐ ݂ܕܡ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܝܳ ܶܗ ݂ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ݂‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ݁ܶ ݁ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ ܝ ܶ ܽܫܘܥ‪:‬‬ ‫ܠܦܠܓܗ ܕܫ ݂ܒܛܐ ݂ܕ‬ ‫ܠܓ ݂ܕ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܘ�ܪ ݂ܘܒܝܠ‪ :‬ܘ ݂‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܐ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ ݇ܟܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܶܦ ݂ܬ ݂ܳܓ ܳܡܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ݂ ܽܟܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ـܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܝܳ ܶܗ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܢܝܚ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܳܗ݂ ܶܕ ܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܝܰـܗ ݂ܒ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܳܢܝ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܶ ܰܫ ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܺܘ ܰܝܩ ݁ܪܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܢܟـܘܢ‪ :‬ܢܶ ݁ܬ ݂ ܽܒـܘܢ ݁ ܰܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫـܐ‪:‬‬ ‫̱ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܐ ܰܚ ̈� ݁ ܽܟـܘܢ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ̱ܘ ݁ ܰܟ ݂ܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܙ ܺܝܢܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ ܽܬܘܢ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܒܥ ܶܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫�ܟـܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ݂ ݁ ܳ ܰ ݂ ܰ ܳ ܰ ݁ ܰ ܽܶ‬ ‫݁ܓܢ̱ܒ�ܝ ܚܝ�‪ :‬ܘ�ܕܪ ̱ܘ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ ݁ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ـܐܪܬܘܢ ܳܐ ݂ܦ ܶܗ ܽܢـܘܢ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫݂ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ � ܰܚ ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ ܐ ݂ܟ ܳܘ ݂ܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺܢܢܝܚ ܡ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ݁ܪܬ ݂ܘܬ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ݁‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳܠ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܦ ݂ ܽܟـܘܢ ܰ� ܳ‬ ‫ܗܟܘܢ ܝܳ ܶܗ ݂ܒ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪݂ :‬ܘܬ ݁‬ ‫ܐܪܬ ܳܘܢ ̇‬ ‫ـܗ‪݁ :‬ܕܝܰـ ̱ܗ ݂ܒ‬ ‫݂ܽ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܪܕ ܳܢܢ‪ܶ :‬ܡܢ ܰܡ ݂ ̈ܕ ܳܢ ܰܚܝ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ݂ܒܥ ܶ ݂ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܽܝ ݁‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܢܘ ݁ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܽܪ ݂ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܶܫܐ‪ܶ :‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܒܝܠ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ݁ ܳܓ ݂ܕ‪ܰ :‬ܘ ݂ܒ ܰܢ̈ܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ̱ܘ ܶ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫܘܥ‪ܽ ݁ :‬ܟܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܶܕܡ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ‪ :‬ܘ� ݁ ܳ‬ ‫݁ܕ ݂ ܳܦ ܶܩ ݂ܕ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ ܰܠܢ ܢܶ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ݂ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܰܫ ݁ܕ ܰܪܢ ܺܢ ܰܐܙܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ܕ ܳܫܡܥܺܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܳܡܪ ܳ�ܐ ܰܐ ܳܠ ܳܗ ݂ܟ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ܳ :‬ܗ ݂ ܰܟ ܳܢܐ ܢܶܫܡ ܳܥ ݂ܟ‪ܰ ݁ .‬ܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܥܰ ܳܡ ݂ܟ‪ :‬ܐ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܥܰܡ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

Ch. 

I

 

 



 





Chapter 

After Moses, the servant of the Lord, had died, the Lord said to Joshua son of Nun, Moses’ minister: My servant Moses has died. Now therefore, rise up, cross over this Jordan, you and all this people, into the land which I give to the children of Israel. —

Every place where the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours, as I said to Moses.

From the wilderness, and this mountain of Lebanon, as far as the great river Euphrates and all the land of the Hittites, and as far as the great sea towards the setting of the sun, 1 shall be your border.

No man will withstand you, as long as you shall live. 2 As I was with Moses, so shall I be with you: I shall not desert you, I shall not abandon you.

Be strong and of good courage, for you will cause this people to take possession of the land which I swore to their fathers to give them.

Only be strong and of good courage, to guard and to observe 3 all the laws which my servant Moses gave 4 you: do not turn away 5 from them, to the right or to the left, so that you shall prosper in all your ways. 6 This book of the law shall not fail from your mouth; rather, you shall meditate 7 on it by night and by day, so that you will guard and observe all that is written in it, so that you shall prosper and succeed.

See! I have commanded you: be strong and brave; do not fear, do not be dismayed, for the Lord your God is with you (in) the place to which you are going. ‘towards the setting’: lit. ‘among the western places’. ‘as long as you shall live’: lit. ‘all the days of your life’. 3 ‘observe’: lit. ‘do’. So too 1:8. 4 ‘gave’: lit. ‘commanded’. 5 ‘turn away’: lit. ‘cross over’. 6 ‘your ways’: lit. ‘which you will walk’. 7 ‘shall meditate’: lit. ‘were meditating’. 1 2



‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܩ ݂ ܰܦ� ܳܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܨܚ ܐ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ܐ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܓ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܕ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܗ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܘ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܙ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܚ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܪ�ـܐ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܰܡـܪ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ ܶܕܗ ݁ܕ ܳܡ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝ ܽܫـܘܥ ݁ ܰܒـܪ ܽܢـܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ݁ ܳܒ ݂ܬܪ ݁ܕ ܺܡ ݂‬ ‫ܡܫܢܶܗ ݁ܕ ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ݁ܳ ܳܳ ܰ ݁ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܠـܗ ܥܰ ܳܡـܐ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܶܝـܘܪܕܢܢ ܗܢـܐ‪ :‬ܐܢ̱ـܬ ݂‬ ‫ܝܬ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ݁ ܺܟܝܠ ܽܩܘܡ ݂‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ܕ ̱ܝ ܺܡ ݂‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ ܰܠ ݂ ̈ܒ ܰܢܝ ܐܺܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪ܳ �ܰ :‬‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ܕܝܳ ܶܗ ݂ܒ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܪܐܝܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ ܽ ݁ܶ ݁ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝـܟ ݁ ܶܕ ܶ‬ ‫�ܟـܘܢ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ܣـܬܐ ݂ܕ ܶܪ ܓ ݂ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܡـܪ ݂ܬ‬ ‫ܠܟـܘܢ ܢ‬ ‫ـܗܘܐ‪ :‬ܐ ݂‬ ‫݁ ܽܟܠ ܐ ݂ܬܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ݂ܬ݂ܕܪ ݂ܘܟ ܒـܗ ܦ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡـܐ ܰܠܦـ ܳܪܬ ܰܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܡܢ ܰܡܕ ݁ܒ ܳܪ ܐ ܘܛܽ ܳ‬ ‫ـܗܪ ܐ ܰܪ ݁ ܳܒـܐ‪ܽ ݂ :‬‬ ‫ـܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܶܠ ݂ܒ ܳܢܢ ܳܗ ܳܢـܐ ܰܘ ݂ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܳ� ̇‬ ‫ܪܥـܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫݂ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݁‬ ‫݁‬ ‫ܘܡܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬ ܡܥ� ݂ܒܝ ܫܡܫܐ ܢܗܘܐ ݂ܬܚ ݂‬ ‫݂ܕ ܺܚ ̈ܝ ݂ܬ�ܐ‪ :‬ܘ ݂ܥܕܡܐ �ܝܡܐ ܪܒܐ‪ :‬ܒ ݂‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ݁ܽ ݁ܽ ܽ ܰ ̈ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܳܢܐ ݂ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܐ ݂ܕ ܰܚ ܰ� ̈� ݁ ܽܟܘܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܥܰـܡ‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܟܘܢ ܟ�ܗܘܢ ܝܘ‬ ‫ܘ� ܽܢܩܘܡ ܐ̱ ܳܢܫ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܗܘ ݂‬ ‫ܡ݂‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܳܐܦ ܥܰ ܳܡܟ‪ܰ �ܳ :‬ܐ ݁ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܦ ݂ܝܟ‪ܳ :‬ܘ� ܶܐ ݁‬ ‫ܫܒ ܳܩ ݂ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ‪ :‬ܐ ܶ ݂‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܶܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܥܰ ܰܫܢ ܳܛ ݂ܒ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ݁ ܰܕܐܢ ݁ܬ ݁ ܰܬܘܪ ݂ ܺܬܝܘܗܝ �ܥܰ ܳܡܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ :‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ݂ ܺܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܝـܬ‬ ‫ܝܡ ݂‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ݁ܰ‬ ‫ܬܠ ܽ‬ ‫�ܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫� ݂ ܳܒ ܰܗܝ ̈ ܽܗܘܢ ܠܡ‬ ‫�ܚ ݂ܘܕ ܶܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܥܰ ܰܫܢ ܳܛ ݂ܒ‪ܶ :‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܛܪ ܰܘܠ ܶܡ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒ ݂ܕ ݁ ܽܟـܠ ܳܢ ܽܡ ̈ܘ ܶܣـܐ ݂ܕ ݂ ܰܦ ݂ ܳ‬ ‫݁ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܩـܕ ݂ܟ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܣ ܳܡ ܳ�‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛـܠ ݁ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ ܶܡ ܽ‬ ‫�ܝ ܺܡ ܳܝܢܐ ܳܘ� ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫܐ ܥܰ ݂ܒ ݁ܕ ̱ܝ‪݂ �ܳ :‬ܬ ݁ ܰ‬ ‫ܽܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܢ ܳ� ܰ‬ ‫ܨܠـܚ‬ ‫݁ܒ ݂ ܽܟܠ ݁ ܰܕ ݂ܬ ܰܗ ܶܠ ݂ܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘ ݁‬ ‫ܘܣܐ ܶܡـܢ ݁ ܽܦـ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡ ݂ܟ‪ܶ :‬ܐ ܳ� ܰ‬ ‫ܥܢ ݂ܕ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܶܣ ݂ܦ ܳܪ ܐ ݂ܕ ܳܢ ܽܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܘ� ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝـܬ ܳܪ ܢܶـܐ ݂ ܶܒـܗ ݁ܒܠ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫�ܝـܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ ܳ ݁ ܶ ܰ ܶ ݁ ܶ ݁ܽ ݁ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܬ ݂ܝܒ ݁ ܶܒܗ‪݁ .‬ܕ ݂ ܰܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܨܠܚ ݂ܘܬ ݂ܟ ܰܫܪ‪.‬‬ ‫݂ܘܒܐܝܡܡܐ‪ :‬ܕ ݂ܬܛܪ ݂ܘܬܥܒ ݂ܕ ܟܠ ܕ ݂ܟ ݂‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܳܗܐ ݂ ܰܦ ܶܩ ݁ܕ ݁ܬ ݂ܟ‪ :‬ܐ ݂ܬ ܰܚ ܰܝܠ ܶܘ ݂ܐܬܥܰ ܰܫܢ‪݂ � :‬ܬ݂ܕ ܰܚـܠ‪ :‬ܘ� ݂ܬ ܽܙܘܥ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛـܠ ݁ܕܥܰ ܳܡـ ݂ܟ ܽ ̱ܗܘ‬ ‫ܰܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܪ�ܐ ܐ ܳܠ ܳܗ ݂ܟ ܐ ݁ܬܪ ݁ ܳܕܐܙܶܠ ܐܢ ̱ ݁ܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܣܦܪܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ‬

‫ܥܘܬܕܐ‬ ‫ܚܡܠ ܟܬܒܐ ܗܢܐ ܠܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܣܦܪܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ ܠܦܘܬ ܡܦܩܬܐ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐܬܦܚܡܬ ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܩܪܝܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ܆ ܥܡ ܡܥܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܢܓܠܝܫܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܕܐ ܥܠ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܡܘܨܠܝܬܐ܇ ܕܒܝܕ ܡܪܝ ܩܠܝܡܝܣ ܝܘܣܦ ܕܘܝܕ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܦܪܣܬ ܡܕܢܚܐܝܬ ܫܢܬ ܐܦܦܙ ـ ܐܦܨܐ܇ ܒܬܪ ܡܐ ܕܫܚܠܦܢܢ ܠܣܪܛ ̇ܗ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܕܢܚܝܐ ܠܡܥܪܒܝܐ܆ ܘܐܘܣܦܢܢ ܢܘܩܙܝ ܪܘܟܟܐ ܘܩܘܫܝܐ ܓܡܝܪܐܝܬ܆ ܘܢܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܒܛܠܢܐ ܠܦܘܬ ܡܫܠܡܢܘܬܐ ܕܝܘܡܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܚܡܢܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܡܘܨܠܝܬܐ ܥܡ ܣ�ܝܛܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܫܟܚܢܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܒܨܝ�ܐ ܒܩ�ܝܢܐ܇ ܗܪܟܐ ܘܬܡܢ܇ ܒܝܬ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܡܘܨܠܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܝܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܣ�ܝܛܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ‪ .‬ܘܙܕܩ ܠܡܕܥ ܕܣܘܓܐܐ ܕܗܠܝܢ ܩ�ܝܢܐ ܕܒܡܦܩܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܘܨܠܝܬܐ ܫܟܝܚܝܢ ܘܠܘ ܒܣ�ܝܛܐ ܕܥܠ ܫܟܝܚܘܬ ܐܘ ܚܣܝܪܘܬ ̈‬ ‫ܐܬܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܕܘ�ܝܬܐ ܐܢܘܢ܆ ܘܕܥܠ ܫܟܝܚܘܬ ܐܘ ܚܣܝܪܘܬ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܝܡܐ ܐܢܘܢ ܘܫܪܟܐ‪ .‬ܣܕܪܐ‬ ‫ܕܗܠܝܢ ܩ�ܝܢܐ ܥܠ ܕܦܐ ‪ XII‬ܫܟܝܚ ܒܓܒܐ ܐܢܓܠܝܫܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܬܪ� ܠܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܠܦܘܬ ܡܫܠܡܢܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܡܥܪܒܝܬܐ ܕܝܘܡܢ‬ ‫ܪܕܝܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܬܐ ܠܡܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܟܬܒܢܢ ܺܪܝܫ ܚܠܦ ܺܪܫ ܘܫܪܟܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܟܐ ܕܝܢ ܩܘܒܠܛܝܒܘܬܐ ܡܩܪܒܝܢܢ ܠܡܠܦܢܐ ܐܢܕܪܐܘܣ ܝܘܟܝܠ ܕܥܕܪ‬ ‫ܬܘܕܝܢ ܕ� ̈‬ ‫ܒܦܘܚܡܐ ܥܠ ܣ�ܝܛܐ ܥܬܝ̈ܩܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܡܪܝܐ �ܗܐ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܘܦܝܢ܀ ܐܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܝܢ܀‬ ‫ܕܘܟܪܢܐ ܕܡܪܝ ܝܥܩܘܒ ܕܢܨܝܒܝܢ܆ ܝܒ ܐܝܪ ܒܝܗ ܡ‬ ‫ܓܘܪܓܝ ܒܪ ܐܢܛܘܢ ܕܒܝܬ ܟܝܪܐܙ‬ ‫ܕܝܪܝܐ ܝܘܣܦ ܒܐܠܝ‬

‫ܗ‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܙܕܩܐ ܢܛܝܪܝܢ܀‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ ܥܡ ܡܥܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܢܓܠܝܫܝܬܐ‬

‫ܣܦܪܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ ܣܘܪܝܐܝܬ‬

‫ܓܘܪܓܝ ܒܪ ܐܢܛܘܢ ܕܒܝܬ ܟܝܪܐܙ‬ ‫ܕܝܪܝܐ ܝܘܣܦ ܒܐܠܝ‬

‫ܒܝܗ ܡ‬ ‫ܓܘܪܓܝܐܣ ܦܪܣ‬

‫ܡܥܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܢܓܠܝܫܝ�‬

‫ܔܝܠܝܐܢ ܓܪܝܢܒܝܪܓ‬ ‫ܕܘܢܐܠܕ ܡ‪ .‬ܘܐܠܬܪ‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܡܦܚܡܢܝ ܫܫܠ�‬

‫ܓܘܪܓܝ ܒܪ ܐܢܛܘܢ ܕܒܝܬ ܟܝܪܐܙ‬

‫ܐܢܕܪܐܘܣ ܒܪ ܘܐܠܬܪ ܕܒܝܬ ݁‬ ‫ܝܘܟܝܠ‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ ܟܬܒ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ ܥܡ ܡܥܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܢܓܠܝܫܝܬܐ‬

‫ܣܦܪܐ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ‬