(The Story of Civilization) Will Durant - The Complete Story of Civilization. 1-11-Simon & Schuster (2016) [1 to 11, 2016 ed.] 9781476779713

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(The Story of Civilization) Will Durant - The Complete Story of Civilization. 1-11-Simon & Schuster (2016) [1 to 11, 2016 ed.]
 9781476779713

Table of contents :
Vol. 1: Our Oriental Heritage (India, China & More) by Will
Introduction
The Establishment of Civilization
Chapter 1: The Conditions of Civilization
Chapter 2: The Economic Elements of Civilization
1. From Hunting to Tillage
2. The Foundations of Industry
3. Economic Organization
Chapter 3: The Political Elements of Civilization
1. The Origins of Government
2. The State
3. Law
4. The Family
Chapter 4: The Moral Elements of Civilization
1. Marriage
2. Sexual Morality
3. Social Morality
4. Religion
1. The Sources of Religion
2. The Objects of Religion
3. The Methods of Religion
4. The Moral Function of Religion
Chapter 5: The Mental Elements of Civilization
1. Letters
2. Science
3. Art
Chronological Chart: Types and Cultures of Prehistoric Man
Chapter 6: The Prehistoric Beginnings of Civilization
1. Paleolithic Culture
1. Men of the Old Stone Age
2. Arts of the Old Stone Age
2. Neolithic Culture
3. The Transition to History
1. The Coming of Metals
2. Writing
3. Lost Civilizations
4. Cradles of Civilization
Book I: The Near East
Chronological Table of Near Eastern History
Chapter 7: Sumeria
1. Elam
1. The Sumerians
1. The Historical Background
2. Economic Life
3. Government
4. Religion and Morality
5. Letters and Arts
3. Passage to Egypt
Chapter 8: Egypt
1. The Gift of the Nile
1. In the Delta
2. Upstream
2. The Master Builders
1. The Discovery of Egypt
2. Prehistoric Egypt
3. The Old Kingdom
4. The Middle Kingdom
5. The Empire
3. The Civilization of Egypt
1. Agriculture
2. Industry
3. Government
4. Morals
5. Manners
6. Letters
7. Literature
8. Science
9. Art
10. Philosophy
11. Religion
4. The Heretic King
5. Decline and Fall
Chapter 9: Babylonia
1. From Hammurabi to Nebuchadrezzar
2. The Toilers
3. The Law
4. The Gods of Babylon
5. The Morals of Babylon
6. Letters and Literature
7. Artists
9. Babylonian Science
9. Philosophers
10. Epitaph
Chapter 10: Assyria
1. Chronicles
2. Assyrian Government
3. Assyrian Life
4. Assyrian Art
5. Assyria Passes
Chapter 11: A Motley of Nations
1. The Indo-European Peoples
2. The Semitic Peoples
Chapter 12: Judea
1. The Promised Land
2. Solomon in All His Glory
3. The God of Hosts
4. The First Radicals
5. The Death and Resurrection of Jerusalem
6. The People of the Book
7. The Literature and Philosophy of the Bible
Chapter 13: Persia
1. The Rise and Fall of the Medes
2. The Great Kings
3. Persian Life and Industry
4. An Experiment in Government
5. Zarathustra
6. Zoroastrian Ethics
7. Persian Manners and Morals
8. Science and Art
9. Decadence
Book II: India and Her Neighbors
Chronological Table of Indian History
Chapter 14: The Foundations of India
1. Scene of the Drama
2. The Oldest Civilization?
3. The Indo-Aryans
4. Indo-Aryan Society
5. The Religion of the Vedas
6. The Vedas as Literature
7. The Philosophy of the Upanishads
Chapter 15: Buddha
1. The Heretics
2. Mahavira and the Jains
3. The Legend of Buddha
4. The Teaching of Buddha
5. The Last Days of Buddha
Chapter 16: From Alexander to Aurangzeb
1. Chandragupta
2. The Philosopher-King
3. The Golden Age of India
4. Annals of Rajputana
5. The Zenith of the South
6. The Moslem Conquest
7. Akbar the Great
8. The Decline of the Moguls
Chapter 17: The Life of the People
1. The Makers of Wealth
2. The Organization of Society
3. Morals and Marriage
4. Manners, Customs and Character
Chapter 18: The Paradise of the Gods
1. The Later History of Buddhism
2. The New Divinities
3. Beliefs
4. Curiosities of Religion
5. Saints and Sceptics
Chapter 19: The Life of the Mind
1. Hindu Science
2. The Six Systems of Brahmanical Philosophy
1. The Nyaya System
2. The Vaisheshika System
3. The Sankhya System
4. The Yoga System
5. The Purva Mimansa
6. The Vedanta System
3. The Conclusions of Hindu Philosophy
Chapter 20: The Literature of India
1. The Languages of India
2. Education
3. The Epics
4. Drama
5. Prose and Poetry
Chapter 21: Indian Art
1. The Minor Arts
2. Music
3. Painting
4. Sculpture
5. Architecture
1. Hindu Architecture
2. “Colonial” Architecture
3. Muslim Architecture in India
4. Indian Architecture and Civilization
Chapter 22: A Christian Epilogue
1. The Jolly Buccaneers
2. Latter-Day Saints
3. Tagore
4. East Is West
5. The Nationalist Movement
6. Mahatma Gandhi
7. Farewell to India
Book III: The Far East
A. China
Chronology of Chinese Civilization
Chapter 23: The Age of the Philosophers
1. The Beginnings
1. Estimates of the Chinese
2. The Middle Flowery Kingdom
3. The Unknown Centuries
4. The First Chinese Civilization
5. The Pre-Confucian Philosophers
6. The Old Master
2. Confucius
1. The Sage in Search of a State
2. The Nine Classics
3. The Agnosticism of Confucius
4. The Way of the Higher Man
5. Confucian Politics
6. The Influence of Confucius
3. Socialists and Anarchists
1. Mo Ti, Altruist
2. Yang Chu, Egoist
3. Mencius, Mentor of Princes
4. Hsun-Tze, Realist
5. Chuang-Tze, Idealist
Chapter 24: The Age of the Poets
1. China’s Bismarck
2. Experiments in Socialism
3. The Glory of T’ang
4. The Banished Angel
5. Some Qualities of Chinese Poetry
6. Tu Fu
7. Prose
8. The Stage
Chapter 25: The Age of the Artists
1. The Sung Renaissance
1. The Socialism of Wang An-Shih
2. The Revival of Learning
3. The Rebirth of Philosophy
2. Bronzes, Lacquer and Jade
3. Pagodas and Palaces
4. Painting
1. Masters of Chinese Painting
2. Qualities of Chinese Painting
5. Porcelain
Chapter 26: The People and the State
1. Historical Interlude
1. Marco Polo Visits Kublai Khan
2. The Ming and the Ch’ing
2. The People and Their Language
3. The Practical Life
1. In the Fields
2. In the Shops
3. Invention and Science
4. Religion Without a Church
5. The Rule of Morals
6. A Government Praised by Voltaire
Chapter 27: Revolution and Renewal
1. The White Peril
2. The Death of a Civilization
3. Beginnings of a New Order
B. Japan
Chronology of Japanese Civilization
Chapter 28: The Makers of Japan
1. The Children of the Gods
2. Primitive Japan
3. The Imperial Age
4. The Dictators
5. Great Monkey-Face
6. The Great Shogun
Chapter 29: The Political and Moral Foundations
1. The Samurai
2. The Law
3. The Toilers
4. The People
5. The Family
6. The Saints
7. The Thinkers
Chapter 30: The Mind and Art of Old Japan
1. Language and Education
2. Poetry
3. Prose
1. Fiction
2. History
3. The Essay
4. The Drama
5. The Art of Little Things
6. Architecture
7. Metals and Statues
8. Pottery
9. Painting
10. Prints
11. Japanese Art and Civilization
Chapter 31: The New Japan
1. The Political Revolution
2. The Industrial Revolution
3. The Cultural Revolution
4. The New Empire
Envoi: Our Oriental Heritage
Glossary of Foreign Terms
Bibliography of Books Referred to in the Text
Notes
Pronouncing and Biographical Index
Vol. 2: The Life of Greece by Will
BOOK I : AEGEAN PRELUDE: 3500–1000 B.C.
Chronological Table
Chapter I. C RETE
I . The Mediterranean
II . The Rediscovery of Crete
III . The Reconstruction of a Civilization
1. Men and Women
2. Society
3. Religion
4. Culture
IV . The Fall of Cnossus
Chapter II. B EFORE A GAMEMNON
I . Schliemann
II . In the Palaces of the Kings
III . Mycenaean Civilization
IV . Troy
Chapter III. T HE H EROIC A GE
I . The Achaeans
II . The Heroic Legends
III . Homeric Civilization
1. Labor
2. Morals
3. The Sexes
4. The Arts
5. The State
IV . The Siege of Troy
V . The Home-Coming
VI . The Dorian Conquest
BOOK II : THE RISE OF GREECE: 1000–480 B.C.
Chronological Table
Chapter IV. S PARTA
I . The Environment of Greece
II . Argos
III . Laconia
1. The Expansion of Sparta
2. Sparta’s Golden Age
3. Lycurgus
4. The Lacedaemonian Constitution
5. The Spartan Code
6. An Estimate of Sparta
IV . Forgotten States
V . Corinth
VI . Megara
VII . Aegina and Epidaurus
Chapter V. A THENS
I . Hesiod’s Boeotia
II . Delphi
III . The Lesser States
IV . Attica
1. The Background of Athens
2. Athens under the Oligarchs
3. The Solonian Revolution
4. The Dictatorship of Peisistratus
5. The Establishment of Democracy
Chapter VI. T HE G REAT M IGRATION
I . Causes and Ways
II . The Ionian Cyclades
III . The Dorian Overflow
IV . The Ionian Dodecapolis
1. Miletus and the Birth of Greek Philosophy
2. Polycrates of Samos
3. Heracleitus of Ephesus
4. Anacreon of Teos
5. Chios, Smyrna, Phocaea
V . Sappho of Lesbos
VI . The Northern Empire
Chapter VII. T HE G REEKS IN THE W EST
I . The Sybarites
II . Pythagoras of Crotona
III . Xenophanes of Elea
IV . From Italy to Spain
V . Sicily
VI . The Greeks in Africa
Chapter VIII. T HE G ODS OF G REECE
I . The Sources of Polytheism
II . An Inventory of the Gods
1. The Lesser Deities
2. The Olympians
III . Mysteries
IV . Worship
V . Superstitions
VI . Oracles
VII . Festivals
VIII . Religion and Morals
Chapter IX. T HE C OMMON C ULTURE OF E ARLY G REECE
I . Individualism of the State
II . Letters
III . Literature
IV . Games
V . Arts
1. Vases
2. Sculpture
3. Architecture
4. Music and the Dance
5. The Beginnings of the Drama
VI . Retrospect
Chapter X. T HE S TRUGGLE FOR F REEDOM
I . Marathon
II . Aristides and Themistocles
III . Xerxes
IV . Salamis
BOOK III : THE GOLDEN AGE: 480–399 B.C.
Chronological Table
Chapter XI. P ERICLES AND THE D EMOCRATIC E XPERIMENT
I . The Rise of Athens
II . Pericles
III . Athenian Democracy
1. Deliberation
2. Law
3. Justice
4. Administration
Chapter XII. W ORK AND W EALTH IN A THENS
I . Land and Food
II . Industry
III . Trade and Finance
IV . Freemen and Slaves
V . The War of the Classes
Chapter XIII. T HE M ORALS AND M ANNERS OF THE A THENIANS
I . Childhood
II . Education
III . Externals
IV . Morals
V . Character
VI . Premarital Relations
VII . Greek Friendship
VIII . Love and Marriage
IX . Woman
X . The Home
XI . Old Age
Chapter XIV. T HE A RT OF P ERICLEAN G REECE
I . The Ornamentation of Life
II . The Rise of Painting
III . The Masters of Sculpture
1. Methods
2. Schools
3. Pheidias
IV . The Builders
1. The Progress of Architecture
2. The Reconstruction of Athens
3. The Parthenon
Chapter XV. T HE A DVANCEMENT OF L EARNING
I . The Mathematicians
II . Anaxagoras
III . Hippocrates
Chapter XVI. T HE C ONFLICT OF P HILOSOPHY AND R ELIGION
I . The Idealists
II . The Materialists
III . Empedocles
IV . The Sophists
V . Socrates
1. The Mask of Silenus
2. Portrait of a Gadfly
3. The Philosophy of Socrates
Chapter XVII. T HE L ITERATURE OF THE G OLDEN A GE
I . Pindar
II . The Dionysian Theater
III . Aeschylus
IV . Sophocles
V . Euripides
1. The Plays
2. The Dramatist
3. The Philosopher
4. The Exile
VI . Aristophanes
1. Aristophanes and the War
2. Aristophanes and the Radicals
3. The Artist and the Thinker
VII . The Historians
Chapter XVIII. T HE S UICIDE OF G REECE
I . The Greek World in the Age of Pericles
II . How the Great War Began
III . From the Plague to the Peace
IV . Alcibiades
V . The Sicilian Adventure
VI . The Triumph of Sparta
VII . The Death of Socrates
BOOK IV THE DECLINE AND FALL OF GREEK FREEDOM 399–322 B.C.
Chronological Table
Chapter XIX. P HILIP
I . The Spartan Empire
II . Epaminondas
III . The Second Athenian Empire
IV . The Rise of Syracuse
V . The Advance of Macedonia
VI . Demosthenes
Chapter XX. L ETTERS AND A RTS IN THE F OURTH C ENTURY
I . The Orators
II . Isocrates
III . Xenophon
IV . Apelles
V . Praxiteles
VI . Scopas and Lysippus
Chapter XXI. T HE Z ENITH OF P HILOSOPHY
I . The Scientists
II . The Socratic Schools
1. Aristippus
2. Diogents
III . Plato
1. The Teacher
2. The Artist
3. The Metaphysician
4. The Moralist
5. The Utopian
6. The Lawmaker
IV . Aristotle
1. Wander-Years
2. The Scientist
3. The Philosopher
4. The Statesman
Chapter XXII. A LEXANDER
I . The Soul of a Conqueror
II . The Paths of Glory
III . The Death of a God
IV . The End of an Age
BOOK V : THE HELLENISTIC DISPERSION: 322–146 B.C.
Chronological Table
Chapter XXIII. G REECE AND M ACEDON
I . The Struggle for Power
II . The Struggle for Wealth
III . The Morals of Decay
IV . Revolution in Sparta
V . The Ascendancy of Rhodes
Chapter XXIV. H ELLENISM AND THE O RIENT
I . The Seleucid Empire
II . Seleucid Civilization
III . Pergamum
IV . Hellenism and the Jews
Chapter XXV. E GYPT AND THE W EST
I . The Kings’ Register
II . Socialism under the Ptolemies
III . Alexandria
IV . Revolt
V . Sunset in Sicily
Chapter XXVI. B OOKS
I . Libraries and Scholars
II . The Books of the Jews
III . Menander
IV . Theocritus
V . Polybius
Chapter XXVII. T HE A RT OF THE D ISPERSION
I . A Miscellany
II . Painting
III . Sculpture
IV . Commentary
Chapter XXVIII. T HE C LIMAX OF G REEK S CIENCE
I . Euclid and Apollonius
II . Archimedes
III . Aristarchus, Hipparchus, Eratosthenes
IV . Theophrastus, Herophilus, Erasistratus
Chapter XXIX. T HE S URRENDER OF P HILOSOPHY
I . The Skeptical Attack
II . The Epicurean Escape
III . The Stoic Compromise
IV . The Return to Religion
Chapter XXX. T HE C OMING OF R OME
I . Pyrrhus
II . Rome the Liberator
III . Rome the Conqueror
E PILOGUE : O UR G REEK H ERITAGE
Glossary of Foreign Words
Bibliography
Notes
Pronouncing and Biographical Index
Vol. 3: Caesar and Christ by Will
INTRODUCTION : ORIGINS
Chapter I. E TRUSCAN P RELUDE : 800-508 B . C .
I. Italy
II. Etruscan Life
III. Etruscan Art
IV. Rome Under the Kings
V. The Etruscan Domination
VI. The Birth of the Republic
BOOK I: THE REPUBLIC: 508-30 B.C. .
Chronological Table
Chapter II. T HE S TRUGGLE FOR D EMOCRACY : 508-264 B . C .
I. Patricians and Plebs
II. The Constitution of the Republic
1. The Lawmakers
2. The Magistrates
3. The Beginnings of Roman Law
4. The Army of the Republic
III. The Conquest of Italy
Chapter III. H ANNIBAL A GAINST R OME : 264-202 B . C .
I. Carthage
II. Regulus
III. Hamilcar
IV. Hannibal
V. Scipio
Chapter IV. S TOIC R OME : 508-202 B . C .
I. The Family
II. The Religion of Rome
1. The Gods
2. The Priests
3. Festivals
4. Religion and Character
III. Morals
IV. Letters
V. The Growth of the Soil
VI. Industry
VII. The City
VIII. Post Mortem
Chapter V. T HE G REEK C ONQUEST : 201-146 B . C .
I. The Conquest of Greece
II. The Transformation of Rome
III. The New Gods
IV. The Coming of Philosophy
V. The Awakening of Literature
VI. Cato and the Conservative Opposition
VII. Carthago Deleta
BOOK II : THE REVOLUTION: 145-30 B . C .
Chronological Table
Chapter VI. T HE A GRARIAN R EVOLT : 145-78 B . C .
I. The Background of Revolution
II. Tiberius Gracchus
III. Caius Gracchus
IV. Marius
V. The Revolt of Italy
VI. Sulla the Happy
Chapter VII. T HE O LIGARCHIC R EACTION : 77-60 B . C .
I. The Government
II. The Millionaires
III. The New Woman
IV. Another Cato
V. Spartacus
VI. Pompey
VII. Cicero and Catiline
Chapter VIII. L ITERATURE UNDER THE R EVOLUTION : 145-30 B . C .
I. Lucretius
II. De Rerum Natura
III. Lesbia’s Lover
IV. The Scholars
V. Cicero’s Pen
Chapter IX. C AESAR : 100-44 B . C .
I. The Rake
II. The Consul
III. Morals and Politics
IV. The Conquest of Gaul
V. The Degradation of Democracy
VI. Civil War
VII. Caesar and Cleopatra
VIII. The Statesman
IX. Brutus
Chapter X. A NTONY : 44-30 B . C .
I. Antony and Brutus
II. Antony and Cleopatra
III. Antony and Octavian
BOOK III: THE PRINCIPATE: 30 B.C. .- A.D . 192
Chronological Table
Chapter XI. A UGUSTAN S TATESMANSHIP : 30 B . C .- A . D . 14
I. The Road to Monarchy
II. The New Order
III. Saturnia Regna
IV. The Augustan Reformation
V. Augustus Himself
VI. The Last Days of a God
Chapter XII. T HE G OLDEN A GE : 30 B . C .- A . D . 18
I. The Augustan Stimulus
II. Virgil
III. The Aeneid
IV. Horace
V. Livy
VI. The Amorous Revolt
Chapter XIII. T HE O THER S IDE OF M ONARCHY : A . D .14-96
I. Tiberius
II. Gaius
III. Claudius
IV. Nero
V. The Three Emperors
VI. Vespasian
VII. Titus
VIII. Domitian
Chapter XIV. T HE S ILVER A GE : A . D . 14-96
I. The Dilettantes
II. Petronius
III. The Philosophers
IV. Seneca
V. Roman Science
VI. Roman Medicine
VII. Quintilian
VIII. Statius and Martial
Chapter XV. R OME AT W ORK : A . D . 14-96
I. The Sowers
II. The Artisans
III. The Carriers
IV. The Engineers
V. The Traders
VI. The Bankers
VII. The Classes
VIII. The Economy and the State
Chapter XVI. R OME AND I TS A RT : 30 B.C. .- A.D . 96
I. The Debt to Greece
II. The Toilers’ Rome
III. The Homes of the Great
IV. The Arts of Decoration
V. Sculpture
VI. Painting
VII. Architecture
1. Principles, Materials, and Forms
2. The Temples of Rome
3. The Arcuate Revolution
Chapter XVII. E PICUREAN R OME : 30 B . C .- A . D . 96
I. The People
II. Education
III. The Sexes
IV. Dress
V. A Roman Day
VI. A Roman Holiday
1. The Stage
2. Roman Music
3. The Games
VII. The New Faiths
Chapter XVIII. R OMAN L AW : 146 B.C. .- A.D . 192
I. The Great Jurists
II. The Sources of the Law
III. The Law of Persons
IV. The Law of Property
V. The Law of Procedure
VI. The Law of the Nations
Chapter XIX. T HE P HILOSOPHER K INGS : A . D . 06-180
I. Nerva
II. Trajan
III. Hadrian
1. The Ruler
2. The Wanderer
3. The Builder
IV. Antoninus Pius
V. The Philosopher as Emperor.
Chapter XX. L IFE AND T HOUGHT IN THE S ECOND C ENTURY : A.D . 96-192
I. Tacitus
II. Juvenal
III. A Roman Gentleman
IV. The Cultural Decline
V. The Emperor as Philosopher
VI. Commodus
BOOK IV. THE EMPIRE: 146 B . C .- A . D . 192
Chronological Table
Chapter XXI. I TALY
I. A Roster of Cities
II. Pompeii
III. Municipal Life
Chapter XXII. C IVILIZING THE W EST
I. Rome and the Provinces
II. Africa
III. Spain
IV. Gaul
V. Britain
VI. The Barbarians
Chapter XXIII. R OMAN G REECE
I. Plutarch
II. Indian Summer
III. Epictetus
IV. Lucian and the Skeptics
Chapter XXIV. T HE H ELLENISTIC R EVIVAL
I. Roman Egypt
II. Philo
III. The Progress of Science
IV. Poets in the Desert
V. The Syrians
VI. Asia Minor
VII. The Great Mithridates
VIII. Prose
IX. The Oriental Tide
Chapter XXV. R OME AND J UDEA : 132 B.C. .- A.D . 135
I. Parthia
II. The Hasmoneans
III. Herod the Great
IV. The Law and Its Prophets
V. The Great Expectation
VI. The Rebellion
VII. The Dispersion
BOOK V THE YOUTH OF CHRISTIANITY 4 B.C. .- A.D . 325
Chronological Table
Chapter XXVI. J ESUS : 4 B.C. .- A.D . 30
I. The Sources
II. The Growth of Jesus
III. The Mission
IV. The Gospel
V. Death and Transfiguration
Chapter XXVII. T HE A POSTLES : A . D . 30-95
I. Peter
II. Paul
1. The Persecutor
2. The Missionary
3. The Theologian
4. The Martyr
III. John
Chapter XXVIII. T HE G ROWTH OF THE C HURCH : A . D . 96-305
I. The Christians
II. The Conflict of Creeds
III. Plotinus
IV. The Defenders of the Faith
V. The Organization of Authority
Chapter XXIX. T HE C OLLAPSE OF THE E MPIRE : A.D . 193-305
I. A Semitic Dynasty
II. Anarchy
III. The Economic Decline
IV. The Twilight of Paganism
V. The Oriental Monarchy
VI. The Socialism of Diocletian
Chapter XXX. T HE T RIUMPH OF C HRISTIANITY : A.D . 306-325
I. The War of Church and State
II. The Rise of Constantine
III. Constantine and Christianity
IV. Constantine and Civilization
E PILOGUE :
I. Why Rome Fell
II. The Roman Achievement
Bibliography
Notes
Index
Vol. 4: The Age of Faith by Will
BOOK I : THE BYZANTINE ZENITH: A.D . 325–565
Chronological Table
Chapter I. J ULIAN THE A POSTATE : 332–63
I . The Legacy of Constantine
II . Christians and Pagans
III . The New Caesar
IV . The Pagan Emperor
V . Journey’s End
Chapter II. T HE T RIUMPH OF THE B ARBARIANS : 325–476
I . The Threatened Frontier
II . The Savior Emperors
III . Italian Background
IV . The Barbarian Flood
V . The Fall of Rome
Chapter III. T HE P ROGRESS OF C HRISTIANITY : 364–451
I . The Organization of the Church
II . The Heretics
III . The Christian West
1. Rome
2. St. Jerome
3. Christian Soldiers
IV . The Christian East
1. The Monks of the East
2. The Eastern Bishops
V . St. Augustine
1. The Sinner
2. The Theologian
3. The Philosopher
4. The Patriarch
VI . The Church and the World
Chapter IV. E UROPE T AKES F ORM : 325–529
I . Britain Becomes England
II . Ireland
III . Prelude to France
1. The Last Days of Classic Gaul
2. The Franks
3. The Merovingians
IV . Visigothic Spain
V . Ostrogothic Italy
1. Theodoric
2. Boethius
Chapter V. J USTINIAN : 527–65
I . The Emperor
II . Theodora
III . Belisarius
IV . The Code of Justinian
V . The Imperial Theologian
Chapter VI. B YZANTINE C IVILIZATION : 337–565
I . Work and Wealth
II . Science and Philosophy
III . Literature
IV . Byzantine Art
1. The Passage from Paganism
2. The Byzantine Artist
3. St. Sophia
4. From Constantinople to Ravenna
5. The Byzantine Arts
Chapter VII. T HE P ERSIANS : 224–641
I . Sasanian Society
II . Sasanian Royalty
III . Sasanian Art
IV . The Arab Conquest
BOOK II : ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION: A.D . 569–1258
Chronological Table
Chapter VIII. M OHAMMED : 569–632
I . Arabia
II . Mohammed in Mecca
III . Mohammed in Medina
IV . Mohammed Victorious
Chapter IX. T HE K ORAN
I . Form
II . Creed
III . Ethics
IV . Religion and the State
V . Sources of the Koran
Chapter X. T HE S WORD OF I SLAM : 632–1058
I . The Successors
II . The Umayyad Caliphate
III . The Abbasid Caliphate
1. Harun al-Rashid
2. Decline of the Abbasids
IV . Armenia
Chapter XI. T HE I SLAMIC S CENE : 632–1058
I . The Economy
II . The Faith
III . The People
IV . The Government
V . The Cities
Chapter XII. T HOUGHT AND A RT IN E ASTERN I SLAM : 632–1058
I . Scholarship
II . Science
III . Medicine
IV . Philosophy
V . Mysticism and Heresy
VI . Literature
VII . Art
VIII . Music
Chapter XIII. W ESTERN I SLAM : 641–1086
I . The Conquest of Africa
II . Islamic Civilization in Africa
III . Islam in the Mediterranean
IV . Spanish Islam
1. Caliphs and Emirs
2. Civilization in Moorish Spain
Chapter XIV. T HE G RANDEUR AND D ECLINE OF I SLAM : 1058–1258
I . The Islamic East
II . The Islamic West
III . Glimpses of Islamic Art
IV . The Age of Omar Khayyam
V . The Age of Sa’di
VI . Moslem Science
VII . Al-Ghazali
VIII . Averroës
IX . The Coming of the Mongols
X . Islam and Christendom
BOOK III : JUDAIC CIVILIZATION: A.D . 135–1300
Chronological Table
Chapter XV. T HE T ALMUD : 135–500
I . The Exiles
II . The Makers of the Talmud
III . The Law
1. Theology
2. Ritual
3. Ethics of the Talmud
IV . Life and the Law
Chapter XVI. T HE M EDIEVAL J EWS : 500–1300
I . The Oriental Communities
II . The European Communities
III . Jewish Life
1. Government
2. Economy
3. Morals
4. Religion
IV . Anti-Semitism
Chapter XVII. T HE M IND AND H EART OF THE J EW : 500–1300
I . Letters
II . The Adventures of the Talmud
III . Science Among the Jews
IV . The Rise of Jewish Philosophy
V . Maimonides
VI . The Maimonidean War
VII . The Cabala
VIII . Release
BOOK IV : THE DARK AGES: A.D . 566–1095
Chronological Table
Chapter XVIII. T HE B YZANTINE W ORLD : 566–1095
I . Heraclius
II . The Iconoclasts
III . Imperial Kaleidoscope
IV . Byzantine Life
V . The Byzantine Renaissance
VI . The Balkans
VII . The Birth of Russia
Chapter XIX. T HE D ECLINE OF THE W EST : 566–1066
I . Italy
1. The Lombards
2. The Normans in Italy
3. Venice
4. Italian Civilization
II . Christian Spain
III . France
1. The Coming of the Carolingians
2. Charlemagne
3. The Carolingian Decline
4. Letters and Arts
5. The Rise of the Dukes
Chapter XX. T HE R ISE OF THE N ORTH : 566–1066
I . England
1. Alfred and the Danes
2. Anglo-Saxon Civilization
3. Between Conquests
II . Wales
III . Irish Civilization
IV . Scotland
V . The Northmen
1. The Kings’ Saga
2. Viking Civilization
VI . Germany
1. The Organization of Power
2. German Civilization
Chapter XXI. C HRISTIANITY IN C ONFLICT : 529–1085
I . St. Benedict
II . Gregory the Great
III . Papal Politics
IV . The Greek Church
V . The Christian Conquest of Europe
VI . The Nadir of the Papacy
VII . The Reform of the Church
VIII . The Great Eastern Schism
IX . Gregory VII Hildebrand
Chapter XXII. F EUDALISM AND C HIVALRY : 600–1200
I . Feudal Origins
II . Feudal Organization
1. The Slave
2. The Serf
3. The Village Community
4. The Lord
5. The Feudal Church
6. The King
III . Feudal Law
IV . Feudal War
V . Chivalry
BOOK V : THE CLIMAX OF CHRISTIANITY: A.D . 1095–1300
Chronological Table
Chapter XXIII. T HE C RUSADES : 1095–1291
I . Causes
II . The First Crusade
III . The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
IV . The Second Crusade
V . Saladin
VI . The Third Crusade
VII . The Fourth Crusade
VIII . The Collapse of the Crusades
IX . The Results of the Crusades
Chapter XXIV. T HE E CONOMIC R EVOLUTION : 1066–1300
I . The Revival of Commerce
II . The Progress of Industry
III . Money
IV . Interest
V . The Guilds
VI . The Communes
VII . The Agricultural Revolution
VIII . The Class War
Chapter XXV. T HE R ECOVERY OF E UROPE : 1095–1300
I . Byzantium
II . The Armenians
III . Russia and the Mongols
IV . The Balkan Flux
V . The Border States
VI . Germany
VII . Scandinavia
VIII . England
1. William the Conqueror
2. Thomas à Becket
3. Magna Carta
4. The Growth of the Law
5. The English Scene
IX . Ireland—Scotland—Wales
X . The Rhinelands
XI . France
1. Philip Augustus
2. St. Louis
3. Philip the Fair
XII . Spain
XIII . Portugal
Chapter XXVI. P RE -R ENAISSANCE I TALY : 1057–1308
I . Norman Sicily
II . The Papal States
III . Venice Triumphant
IV . From Mantua to Genoa
V . Frederick II
1. The Excommunicate Crusader
2. The Wonder of the World
3. Empire vs. Papacy
VI . The Dismemberment of Italy
VII . The Rise of Florence
Chapter XXVII. T HE R OMAN C ATHOLIC C HURCH : 1095–1294
I . The Faith of the People
II . The Sacraments
III . Prayer
IV . Ritual
V . Canon Law
VI . The Clergy
VII . The Papacy Supreme
VIII . The Finances of the Church
Chapter XXVIII. T HE E ARLY I NQUISITION : 1000–1300
I . The Albigensian Heresy
II . The Background of the Inquisition
III . The Inquisitors
IV . Results
Chapter XXIX. M ONKS AND F RIARS : 1095–1300
I . The Monastic Life
II . St. Bernard
III . St. Francis
IV . St. Dominic
V . The Nuns
VI . The Mystics
VII . The Tragic Pope
VII . Retrospect
Chapter XXX. T HE M ORALS AND M ANNERS OF C HRISTENDOM : 700–1300
I . The Christian Ethic
II . Premarital Morality
III . Marriage
IV . Woman
V . Public Morality
VI . Medieval Dress
VII . In the Home
VIII . Society and Sport
IX . Morality and Religion
Chapter XXXI. T HE R ESURRECTION OF THE A RTS : 1095–1300
I . The Esthetic Awakening
II . The Adornment of Life
III . Painting
1. Mosaic
2. Miniatures
3. Murals
4. Stained Glass
IV . Sculpture
Chapter XXXII. T HE G OTHIC F LOWERING : 1095–1300
I . The Cathedral
II . Continental Romanesque
III . The Norman Style in England
IV . The Evolution of Gothic
V . French Gothic
VI . English Gothic
VII . German Gothic
VIII . Italian Gothic
IX . Spanish Gothic
X . Considerations
Chapter XXXIII. M EDIEVAL M USIC : 326–1300
I . The Music of the Church
II . The Music of the People
Chapter XXXIV. T HE T RANSMISSION OF K NOWLEDGE : 1000–1300
I . The Rise of the Vernaculars
II . The World of Books
III . The Translators
IV . The Schools
V . Universities of the South
VI . Universities of France
VII . Universities of England
VIII . Student Life
Chapter XXXV. A BÉLARD : 1079–1142
I . Divine Philosophy
II . Héloïse
III . The Rationalist
IV . The Letters of Heloise
V . The Condemned
Chapter XXXVI. T HE A DVENTURE OF R EASON : 1120–1308
I . The School of Chartres
II . Aristotle in Paris
III . The Freethinkers
IV . The Development of Scholasticism
V . Thomas Aquinas
VI . The Thomist Philosophy
1. Logic
2. Metaphysics
3. Theology
4. Psychology
5. Ethics
6. Politics
7. Religion
8. The Reception of Thomism
VII . The Successors
Chapter XXXVII. C HRISTIAN S CIENCE : 1095–1300
I . The Magical Environment
II . The Mathematical Revolution
III . The Earth and Its Life
IV . Matter and Energy
V . The Revival of Medicine
VI . Albertus Magnus
VII . Roger Bacon
VIII . The Encyclopedists
Chapter XXXVIII. T HE A GE OF R OMANCE : 1100–1300
I . The Latin Revival
II . Wine, Woman, and Song
III . The Rebirth of Drama
IV . Epics and Sagas
V . The Troubadours
VI . The Minnesingers
VII . The Romances
VIII . The Satirical Reaction
Chapter XXXIX. D ANTE : 1265–1321
I . The Italian Troubadours
II . Dante and Beatrice
III . The Poet in Politics
IV . The Divine Comedy
1. The Poem
2. Hell
3. Purgatory
4. Heaven
E PILOGUE : T HE M EDIEVAL L EGACY
Bibliography
Notes
Index
Vol. 5: The Renaissance by Will
BOOK I . PRELUDE: 1300–77
Chapter I: T HE A GE OF P ETRARCH AND B OCCACCIO : 1304–75
I. The Father of the Renaissance
II. Naples and Boccaccio
III. The Poet Laureate
IV. Rienzo’s Revolution
V. The Wandering Scholar
VI. Giotto
VII. The Decameron
VIII. Siena
IX. Milan
X. Venice and Genoa
XI. Twilight of the Trecento
XII. Perspective
Chapter II: T HE P OPES IN A VIGNON : 1309–77
I. The Babylonian Captivity
II. The Road to Rome
III. The Christian Life
BOOK II : THE FLORENTINE RENAISSANCE: 1378–1534
Chapter III: T HE R ISE OF THE M EDICI : 1378–1464
I. The Setting
II. The Material Basis
III. Cosimo Pater Patriae
IV. The Humanists
V. Architecture: the Age of Brunellesco
VI. Sculpture
1. Ghiberti
2. Donatello
3. Luca della Robbia
VII. Painting
1. Masaccio
2. Fra Angelico
3. Fra Filippo Lippi
VIII. A Miscellany
Chapter IV: T HE G OLDEN A GE : 1464–92
I. Piero il Gottoso
II. The Development of Lorenzo
III. Lorenzo the Magnificent
IV. Literature: the Age of Politian
V. Architecture and Sculpture: The Age of Verrocchio
VI. Painting
1. Ghirlandaio
2. Botticelli
VII. Lorenzo Passes
Chapter V: S AVONAROLA AND THE R EPUBLIC : 1492–1534
I. The Prophet
II. The Statesman
III. The Martyr
IV. The Republic and the Medici
V. Art under the Revolution
BOOK III : ITALIAN PAGEANT: 1378–1534
Chapter VI: M ILAN
I. Background
II. Piedmont and Liguria
III. Pavia
IV. The Visconti: 1378–1447
V. The Sforzas: 1450–1500
VI. Letters
VII. Arts
Chapter VII: L EONARDO DA V INCI
I. Development: 1452–83
II. In Milan: 1482–99
III. In Florence: 1500–01, 1503–06
IV. In Milan and Rome: 1506–16
V. The Man
VI. The Inventor
VII. The Scientist
VIII. In France: 1516–19
IX. The School of Leonardo
Chapter VIII: T USCANY AND U MBRIA
I. Piero della Francesca
II. Signorelli
III. Siena and Sodoma
IV. Umbria and the Baglioni
V. Perugino
Chapter IX: M ANTUA
I. Vittorino da Feltre
II. Andrea Mantegna
III. The First Lady of the World
Chapter X: F ERRARA
I. The House of Este
II. The Arts in Ferrara
III. Letters
IV. Ariosto
V. Aftermath
Chapter XI: V ENICE AND H ER R EALM
I. Padua
II. Venetian Economy
III. Venetian Government
IV. Venetian Life
V. Venetian Art
1. Architecture and Sculpture
2. The Bellini
3. From the Bellini to Giorgione
4. Giorgione
5. Titian: the Formative Years
6. Minor Artists and Arts
VI. Venetian Letters
1. Aldus Manutius
2. Bembo
VII. Verona
Chapter XII: E MILIA AND THE M ARCHES
I. Correggio
II. Bologna
III. Along the Emilian Way
IV. Urbino and Castiglione
Chapter XIII: T HE K INGDOM OF N APLES
I. Alfonso the Magnanimous
II. Ferrante
BOOK IV : THE ROMAN RENAISSANCE: 1378–1521
Chapter XIV: T HE C RISIS IN THE C HURCH : 1378–1447
I. The Papal Schism: 1378–1417
II. The Councils and the Popes
III. The Triumph of the Papacy
Chapter XV: T HE R ENAISSANCE C APTURES R OME : 1447–92
I. The Capital of the World
II. Nicholas V: 1447–55
III. Calixtus III: 1455–58
IV. Pius II: 1458–64
V. Paul II: 1464–71
VI. Sixtus IV: 1471–84
VII. Innocent VIII: 1484–92
Chapter XVI: T HE B ORGIAS
I. Cardinal borgia
II. Alexander VI: 1492–1503
III. The Sinner
IV. Caesar Borgia
V. Lucrezia Borgia
VI. The Collapse of the Borgia Power
Chapter XVII: J ULIUS II: 1503–13
I. The Warrior
II. Roman Architecture: 1492–1513
III. The Young Raphael
1. Development: 1483–1508
2. Raphael and Julius II: 1508–13
IV. Michelangelo
1. Youth: 1475–1505
2. Michelangelo and Julius II: 1505–13
Chapter XVIII: L EO X: 1513–21
I. The Boy Cardinal
II. The Happy Pope
III. Scholars
IV. Poets
V. The Recovery of Classic Art
VI. Michelangelo and Leo X: 1513–20
VII. Raphael and Leo X: 1513–20
VIII. Agostino Chigi
IX. Raphael: the Last Phase
X. Leo Politicus
BOOK V : DEBACLE
Chapter XIX: T HE I NTELLECTUAL R EVOLT
I. The Occult
II. Science
III. Medicine
IV. Philosophy
V. Guicciardini
VI. Machiavelli
1. The Diplomat
2. The Author and the Man
3. The Philosopher
4. Considerations
Chapter XX: T HE M ORAL R ELEASE
I. The Founts and Forms of Immorality
II. The Morals of the Clergy
III. Sexual Morality
IV. Renaissance Man
V. Renaissance Woman
VI. The Home
VII. Public Morality
VIII. Manners and Amusements
IX. Drama
X. Music
XI. Perspective
Chapter XXI: T HE P OLITICAL C OLLAPSE : 1494–1534
I. France Discovers Italy: 1494–95
II. The Attack Renewed: 1496–1505
III. The League of Cambrai: 1508–16
IV. Leo and Europe: 1513–21
V. Adrian VI: 1522–23
VI. Clement VII: the First Phase
VII. The Sack of Rome: 1527
VIII. Charles Triumphant: 1527–30
IX. Clement VII and the Arts
X. Michelangelo and Clement VII: 1520–34
XI. The End of an Age: 1528–34
BOOK VI : FINALE: 1534–76
Chapter XXII: S UNSET IN V ENICE
I. Venice Reborn
II. Aretino
III. Titian and the Kings
IV. Tintoretto
V. Veronese
VI. Perspective
Chapter XXIII: T HE W ANING OF THE R ENAISSANCE
I. The Decline of Italy
II. Science and Philosophy
III. Literature
IV. Twilight in Florence
V. Benvenuto Cellini
VI. Lesser Lights
VII. Michelangelo: the Last Phase
E NVOI
B IBLIOGRAPHY
N OTES
I NDEX
Vol. 6: The Reformation by Will
BOOK I: FROM WYCLIF TO LUTHER: 1300–1517
Chapter I. T HE R OMAN C ATHOLIC C HURCH : 1300–1517
I. The Services of Christianity
II. The Church at Nadir
III. The Triumphant Papacy
IV. The Changing Environment
V. The Case against the Church
Chapter II. E NGLAND : W YCLIF , C HAUCER, AND THE G REAT R EVOLT : 1308–1400
I. The Government
II. John Wyclif
III. The Great Revolt
IV. The New Literature
V. Geoffrey Chaucer
VI. Richard II
Chapter III. F RANCE B ESIEGED : 1300–1461
I. The French Scene
II. The Road to Crécy
III. Black Death and Other
IV. Revolution and Renewal
V. The Mad King
VI. Life among the Ruins
VII. Letters
VIII. Art
IX. Joan of Arc
X. France Survives
Chapter IV. G ALLIA P HOENIX : 1453–1515
I. Louis XI
II. Italian Adventure
III. The Rise of the Châteaux
IV. François Villon
Chapter V. E NGLAND IN THE F IFTEENTH C ENTURY : 1399–1509
I. Kings
II. The Growth of Wealth
III. Morals and Manners
IV. The Lollards
V. English Art
VI. Caxton and Malory
VII. The English Humanists
Chapter VI. E PISODE IN B URGUNDY: 1363–1515
I. The Royal Dukes
II. The Religious Spirit
III. Sparkling Burgundy
IV. Charles the Bold
V. Art in the Lowlands
Chapter VII. M IDDLE E UROPE : 1300–1460
I. Land and Labor
II. The Organization of Order
III. Germany Challenges the Church
IV. The Mystics
V. The Arts
VI. Gutenberg
Chapter VIII. T HE W ESTERN S LAVS : 1300–1517
I. Bohemia
II. John Huss
III. The Bohemian Revolution
IV. Poland
Chapter IX. T HE O TTOMAN T IDE : 1300–1516
I. Second Blooming in Byzantium
II. The Balkans Meet the Turks
III. The Last Years of Constantinople
IV. Hunyadi János
V. The Tide at Full
VI. The Hungarian Renaissance
Chapter X. P ORTUGAL I NAUGURATES THE C OMMERCIAL R EVOLUTION : 1300–1517
Chapter XI. S PAIN : 1300–1517
I. The Spanish Scene
II. Granada
III. Ferdinand and Isabella
IV. The Methods of the Inquisition
V. Progress of the Inquisition
VI. In Exitu Israel
VII. Spanish Art
VIII. Spanish Literature
IX. Sovereign Death
Chapter XII. T HE G ROWTH OF K NOWLEDGE: 1300–1517
I. The Magicians
II. The Teachers
III. The Scientists
IV. The Healers
V. The Philosophers
VI. The Reformers
Chapter XIII. T HE C ONQUEST OF THE S EA : 1492–1517
I. Columbus
II. America
III. The Waters of Bitterness
IV. The New Perspective
Chapter XIV. E RASMUS THE F ORERUNNER : 1469–1517
I. The Education of a Humanist
II. The Peripatetic
III. The Satirist
IV. The Scholar
V. The Philosopher
VI. The Man
Chapter XV. G ERMANY ON THE E VE OF L UTHER : 1453–1517
I. The Age of the Fuggers
II. The State
III. The Germans
IV. The Maturing of German Art
V. Albrecht Dürer
VI. The German Humanists
VII. Ulrich von Hutten
VIII. The German Church
BOOK II : THE RELIGIOUS REVOLUTION: 1517–64
Chapter XVI. L UTHER: THE R EFORMATION IN G ERMANY: 1517–24
I. Tetzel
II. The Genesis of Luther
III. The Revolution Takes Form
IV. Bulls and Blasts
V. The Diet of Worms
VI. The Radicals
VII. The Foundations of Faith
VIII. Luther’s Theology
IX. The Revolutionist
Chapter XVII. T HE S OCIAL R EVOLUTION : 1522–36
I. The Mounting Revolt
II. The Peasants’ War
III. The Anabaptists Try Communism
Chapter XVIII. Z WINGLI : T HE R EFORMATION IN S WITZERLAND: 1477–1531
I. Multum in Parvo
II. Zwingli
III. The Zwinglian Reformation
IV. Onward, Christian Soldiers
Chapter XIX. L UTHER AND E RASMUS: 1517–36
I. Luther
II. The Intolerant Heretics
III. The Humanists and the Reformation
IV. Erasmus Appendix
Chapter XX. T HE F AITHS AT W AR : 1525–60
I. The Protestant Advance
II. The Diets Disagree
III. The Lion of Wittenberg
IV. The Triumph of Protestantism
Chapter XXI. J OHN C ALVIN : 1509–64
I. Youth
II. The Theologian
III. Geneva and Strasbourg
IV. The City of God
V. The Conflicts of Calvin
VI. Michael Servetus
VII. An Appeal for Toleration
VIII. Calvin to the End
Chapter XXII. F RANCIS I AND THE R EFORMATION IN F RANCE 1515–59
I. Le Roi Grand Nez
II. France in 1515
III. Marguerite of Navarre
IV. The French Protestants
V. Hapsburg and Valois
VI. War and Peace
VII. Diane de Poitiers
Chapter XXIII. H ENRY VIII AND C ARDINAL W OLSEY : 1509–29
I. A Promising King
II. Wolsey
III. Wolsey and the Church
IV. The King’s “Divorce”
Chapter XXIV. H ENRY VIII AND T HOMAS M ORE : 1529–35
I. The Reformation Parliament
II. The Utopian
III. The Martyr
IV. A Tale of Three Queens
Chapter XXV. H ENRY VIII AND THE M ONASTERIES : 1535–47
I. The Technique of Dissolution
II. The Obstinate Irish
III. Every Ounce a King
IV. The Dragon Retires
Chapter XXVI. E DWARD VI AND M ARY T UDOR : 1547–58
I. The Somerset Protectorate
II. The Warwick Protectorate
III. The Gentle Queen
IV. “Bloody Mary”
Chapter XXVII. F ROM R OBERT B RUCE TO J OHN K NOX : 1300–1561
I. The Indomitable Scots
II. Royal Chronicle
III. John Knox
IV. The Congregation of Jesus Christ
Chapter XXVIII. T HE M IGRATIONS OF R EFORM : 1517–60
I. The Scandinavian Scene
II. The Swedish Reformation
III. The Danish Reformation
IV. Protestantism in Eastern Europe
V. Charles V and the Netherlands
VI. Spain:
1. The Revolt of the Comuneros
2. The Spanish Protestanis
3. The Emperor Passes
BOOK III : THE STRANGERS IN THE GATE: 1300–1566
Chapter XXIX. T HE U NIFICATION OF R USSIA : 1300–1584
I. The People
II. The Princes of Moscow
III. Ivan the Terrible
Chapter XXX. T HE G ENIUS OF I SLAM: 1258–1520
I. The II-Khans of Persia
II. Hafiz
III. Timur
IV. The Mamluks
V. The Ottomans
VI. Islamic Literature
VII. Art in Asiatic Islam
VIII. Islamic Thought
Chapter XXXI. S ULEIMAN THE M AGNIFICENT : 1520–66
I. African Islam
II. Safavid Persia
III. Suleiman and the West
IV. Ottoman Civilization
1. Government
2. Morals
3. Letters and Arts
V. Suleiman Himself
Chapter XXXII. T HE J EWS : 1300–1564
I. The Wanderers
II. On the Rack
III. The Second Dispersion
IV. The Technique of Survival
V. Jewish Thought
BOOK IV : BEHIND THE SCENES: 1517–64
Chapter XXXIII. T HE L IFE OF THE P EOPLE
I. The Economy
II. Law
III. Morals
IV. Manners
Chapter XXXIV. M USIC : 1300–1564
I. The Instruments
II. The Flemish Ascendancy
III. Music and the Reformation
IV. Palestrina
Chapter XXXV. L ITERATURE IN THE A GE OF R ABELAIS
I. Of Making Books
II. Schools
III. Scholars
IV. The French Renaissance
V. Rabelais
1. Himself
2. Gargantua
3. Pantagruel
4. The King’s Jester
VI. Ronsard and the Pléiade
VII. Wyatt and Surrey
VIII. Hans Sachs
IX. The Iberian Muse
Chapter XXXVI. A RT IN THE A GE OF H OLBEIN
I. Art, the Reformation, and the Renaissance
II. The Art of the French Renaissance
1. “A Malady of Building”
2. The Ancillary Arts
III. Pieter Brueghel
IV. Cranach and the Germans
V. The Tudor Style
VI. Holbein the Younger
VII. Art in Spain and Portugal
Chapter XXXVII. S CIENCE IN THE A GE OF C OPERNICUS
I. The Cult of the Occult
II. The Copernican Revolution
III. Magellan and the Discovery of the Earth
IV. The Resurrection of Biology
V. Vesalius
VI. The Rise of Surgery
VII. Paracelsus and the Doctors
VIII. The Skeptics
IX. Ramus and the Philosophers
BOOK V : THE COUNTER REFORMATION: 1517–65
Chapter XXXVIII. T HE C HURCH AND R EFORM
I. Italian Protestant Reformers
II. Italian Catholic Reform
III. St. Teresa and Monastic Reform
IV. Ignatius Loyola
V. The Jesuits
Chapter XXXIX. T HE P OPES AND THE C OUNCIL
I. The Popes at Bay
II. Censorship and Inquisition
III. The Council of Trent
E PILOGUE : R ENAISSANCE , R EFORMATION, AND E NLIGHTENMENT
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL GUIDE
N OTES
I NDEX
Vol. 7: The Age of Reason Begins by Will
BOOK I: THE ENGLISH ECSTASY: 1558–1648
Chapter I. T HE G REAT Q UEEN : 1558–1603
I. The Uses of Adversity
II. Elizabethan Government
III. The Amorous Virgin
IV. Elizabeth and Her Court
V. Elizabeth and Religion
VI. Elizabeth and the Catholics
VII. Elizabeth and the Puritans
VIII. Elizabeth and Ireland
IX. Elizabeth and Spain
X. Raleigh and Essex
XI. The Magic Fades
Chapter II. M ERRIE E NGLAND : 1558–1625
I. At Work
II. In the Schools
III. Virtue and Vice
IV. Justice and the Law
V. In the Home
VI. English Music
VII. English Art
VIII. Elizabethan Man
Chapter III. O N THE S LOPES OF P ARNASSUS : 1558–1603
I. Books
II. The War of the Wits
III. Philip Sidney
IV. Edmund Spenser
V. The Stage
VI. Christopher Marlowe
Chapter IV. W ILLIAM S HAKESPEARE : 1564–1616
I. Youth
II. Development
III. Mastery
IV. Artistry
V. Philosophy
VI. Reconciliation
VII. Post-Mortem
Chapter V. M ARY Q UEEN OF S COTS : 1542–87
I. The Fairy Queen
II. Scotland
III. Mary and Knox
IV. The Queen in Love
V. Expiation
Chapter VI. J AMES VI AND I: 1567–1625
I. James VI of Scotland
II. James I of England
III. The Gunpowder Plot
IV. The Jacobean Stage
V. Ben Jonson
VI. John Donne
VII. James Sows the Whirlwind
Chapter VII. T HE S UMMONS TO R EASON : 1558–1649
I. Superstition
II. Science
III. The Rise and Fall of Francis Bacon
IV. The Great Renewal
V. A Statesman’s Philosophy
VI. The Chanticleer of Reason
Chapter VIII. T HE G REAT R EBELLION : 1625–49
I. The Changing Economy
II. The Religious Caldron
III. The Puritans and the Theater
IV. Caroline Prose
V. Caroline Poetry
VI. Charles I versus Parliament
VII. Charles Absolute
VIII. The Long Parliament
IX. The First Civil War
X. The Radicals
XI. Finis
BOOK II : THE FAITHS FIGHT FOR POWER: 1556–1648
Chapter IX. A LMA M ATER I TALIA : 1564–1648
I. The Magic Boot
1. In the Foothills of the Alps
2. Venice
3. From Padua to Bologna
4. Naples
II. Rome and the Popes
III. The Jesuits
1. In Europe
2. In Partibus Infidelium
IV. Italian Days and Nights
V. The Birth of the Opera
VI. Letters
VII. Tasso
VIII. The Coming of Baroque
IX. The Arts in Rome
X. Bernini
Chapter X. G RANDEUR AND D ECADENCE OF S PAIN : 1556–1665
I. Spanish Life
II. Philip II
III. Philip III
IV. Philip IV
V. Portugal
Chapter XI. T HE G OLDEN A GE OF S PANISH L ITERATURE : 1556–1665
I. El Siglo de Oro
II. Cervantes
III. The Poets
IV. Lope de Vega V. Calderón
Chapter XII. T HE G OLDEN A GE OF S PANISH A RT : 1556–1682
I. Ars Una, Species Mille
II. El Greco
III. Zurbarán
IV. Velázquez
V. Murillo
Chapter XIII. T HE D UEL FOR F RANCE : 1559–74
I. The Rival Forces
II. Catherine de Médicis
III. Arbitrament of Blood
IV. Massacre
Chapter XIV. H ENRY IV: 1553–1610
I. Love and Marriage
II. Henry III
III. The Road to Paris
IV. The Creative King
V. The Satyr
VI. Assassination
Chapter XV. R ICHELIEU : 1585–1642
I. Between Two Kings
II. Louis XIII
III. The Cardinal and the Huguenots
IV. The Cardinal and the Nobles
V. The Cardinal Supreme
VI. Epitaph
Chapter XVI. F RANCE B ENEATH THE W ARS : 1559–1643
I. Morals
II. Manners
III. Michel de Montaigne
1. Education
2. Friendship and Marriage
3. The Essays
4. The Philosopher
5. The Rolling Stone
IV. Immortals for a Day
V. Pierre Corneille
VI. Architecture
VII. Many Arts
VIII. Poussin and the Painters
Chapter XVII. T HE R EVOLT OF THE N ETHERLANDS : 1558–1648
I. Mise-en-Scène
II. Margaret of Parma
III. Alva in the Netherlands
IV. Requeséns and Don Juan
V. Parma and Orange
VI. Triumph
Chapter XVIII. F ROM R UBENS TO R EMBRANDT : 1555–1660
I. The Flemings
II. Flemish Art
III. Rubens
IV. Vandyck
V. The Dutch Economy
VI. Dutch Life and Letters
VII. Dutch Arts
VIII. Frans Hals
IX. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
Chapter XIX. T HE R ISE OF THE N ORTH : 1559–1648
I. Denmark as a Great Power
II. Sweden
1. The Rival Faiths
2. Gustavus Adolphus
3. Queen Christina
III. Poland Goes to Canossa
1. The State
2. The Civilization
IV. Holy Russia
1. The People
2. Boris Godunov
3. “Time of Troubles”
Chapter XX. T HE I SLAMIC C HALLENGE : 1566–1648
I. The Turks
II. Lepanto
III. Decline of the Sultans
IV. Shah Abbas the Great
V. Safavid Persia
Chapter XXI. I MPERIAL A RMAGEDDON : 1564–1648
I. The Emperors
II. The Empire
III. Morals and Manners
IV. Letters and Arts
V. The Hostile Creeds
VI. The Thirty Years’ War
1. The Bohemian Phase
2. Wallenstein
3. Gustavus’ Saga
4. Degradation
VII. The Peace of Westphalia
BOOK III : THE TENTATIVES OF REASON: 1558–1648
Chapter XXII. S CIENCE IN THE A GE OF G ALILEO : 1558–1648
I. Superstition
II. The Transmission of Knowledge
III. The Tools and Methods of Science
IV. Science and Matter
V. Science and Life
VI. Science and Health
VII. From Copernicus to Kepler
VIII. Kepler
IX. Galileo
1. The Physicist
2. The Astronomer
3. On Trial
4. The Patriarch
Chapter XXIII. P HILOSOPHY R EBORN : 1564–1648
I. Skeptics
II. Giordano Bruno
III. Vanini and Campanella
IV. Philosophy and Politics
1. Juan de Mariana
2. Jean Bodin
3. Hugo Grotius
V. The Epicurean Priest
VI. René Descartes
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL G UIDE
NOTES
INDEX
Vol. 8: The Age of Louis XIV by Will
BOOK I: THE FRENCH ZENITH: 1643–1715
Chapter I. T HE S UN R ISES: 1643–84
I . Mazarin and the Fronde
II . The King
III . Nicolas Fouquet
IV . Colbert Rebuilds France
V . Manners and Morals
VI . The Court
VII . The King’s Women
VIII. Le Roi S’en Va-t-en Guerre
Chapter II. T HE C RUCIBLE OF F AITH: 1643–1715
I . The King and the Church
II . Port-Royal: 1204–1626
III . The Jansenists and the Jesuits
IV . Pascal
1. Himself
2. The Provincial Letters
3. In Defense of Faith
V . Port-Royal: 1656–1715
VI . The King and the Huguenots
VII . Bossuet
VIII. Fénelon
Chapter III. T HE K ING AND THE A RTS: 1643–1715
I . The Organization of the Arts
II . Architecture
III . Decoration
IV . Painting
V . Sculpture
Chapter IV. M OLIÈRE: 1622–73
I . The French Theater
II . Apprenticeship
III . Molière and the Ladies
IV . L’Affaire Tartuffe
V . The Amorous Atheist
VI . Meridian
VII . Curtain
Chapter V. T HE C LASSIC Z ENITH IN F RENCH L ITERATURE: 1643–1715
I . Milieu
II . Corneille Postscript
III . Racine
IV . La Fontaine
V . Boileau
VI . The Romantic Protest
VII . Mme. de Sévigné
VIII . La Rochefoucauld
IX . La Bruyère
X . For Good Measure
Chapter VI. T RAGEDY IN THE N ETHERLANDS: 1649–1715
I . The Spanish Netherlands
II . The Dutch Republic
III . The Flowering of Genre,
IV . Jan de Witt
V . William III of Orange
BOOK II: ENGLAND: 1649–1714
Chapter VII. C ROMWELL: 1649–60
I . The Socialist Revolt
II . The Irish Revolt
III . The Scottish Revolt
IV . Oliver Absolute
V . Puritan Heyday
VI . The Quakers
VII . Death and Taxes
VIII . The Road Back
IX . The King Returns
Chapter VIII. M ILTON: 1608–74
I . John Bunyan
II . The Young Poet
III . The Reformer
IV . Marriage and Divorce
V . Freedom of the Press
VI . The Latin Secretary
VII . The Old Poet
VIII . The Final Years
Chapter IX. T HE R ESTORATION: 1660–85
I . The Happy King
II . The Religious Caldron
III . The English Economy
IV . Art and Music
V . Morals
VI . Manners
VII . Religion and Politics
VIII . The “Popish Plot”
IX . Comoedia finita
Chapter X. T HE G LORIOUS R EVOLUTION: 1685–1714
I . The Catholic King
II . Deposuit potentes de sede
III . England under William III
IV . England under Queen Anne
Chapter XI. F ROM D RYDEN TO S WIFT: 1660–1714
I . A Free Press
II . The Restoration Drama
III . John Dryden
IV . A Catalogue
V . Evelyn and Pepys
VI . Daniel Defoe
VII . Steele and Addison
VIII . Jonathan Swift
BOOK III: THE PERIPHERY: 1648–1715
Chapter XII. T HE S TRUGGLE FOR THE B ALTIC: 1648–1721
I . Adventurous Sweden
II . Poland and Sobieski
III . Russia Turns West
IV . Peter Learning
V . Charles XII and the Great Northern War
Chapter XIII. P ETER T HE G REAT: 1698–1725
I . The Barbarian
II . The Petrine Revolution
III . Aftermath
Chapter XIV. T HE C HANGING E MPIRE: 1648–1715
I . The Reorganization of Germany
II . The German Soul
III . The Arts in Germany
IV . Austria and the Turks
Chapter XV. T HE F ALLOW S OUTH: 1648–1715
I . Catholic Italy
II . Italian Art
III . The Christine Odyssey
IV . From Monteverdi to Scarlatti
V . Portugal
VI . The Collapse of Spain
Chapter XVI. T HE J EWISH E NCLAVES: 1564–1715
I . The Sephardim
II . The Dutch Jerusalem
III . England and the Jews
IV . The Ashkenazim
V . The Inspirations of Faith
VI . Heretics
BOOK IV: THE INTELLECTUAL ADVENTURE: 1648–1715
Chapter XVII. F ROM S UPERSTITION TO S CHOLARSHIP: 1648–1715
I . Impediments
II . Education
III . The Scholars
Chapter XVIII. T HE S CIENTIFIC Q UEST: 1648–1715
I . The International of Science
II . Mathematics
III . Astronomy
IV . The Earth
V . Physics
VI . Chemistry
VII . Technology
VIII . Biology
IX . Anatomy and Physiology
X . Medicine
XI . Results
Chapter XIX. I SAAC N EWTON: 1642–1727
I . The Mathematician
II . The Physicist
III . The Genealogy of Gravitation
IV . The Principia
V . Evening
Chapter XX. E NGLISH P HILOSOPHY : 1648–1715
I . Thomas Hobbes
1. Formative Influences
2. Logic and Psychology
3. Ethics and Politics
4. Religion and the State
5. Baiting the Bear
6. Results
II . Harrington’s Utopia
III . The Deists
IV . Defenders of the Faith
V . John Locke
1. Biography
2. Government and Property
3. Mind and Matter
4. Religion and Toleration
VI . Shaftesbury
VII . George Berkeley
Chapter XXI. F AITH AND R EASON IN F RANCE: 1648–1715
I . The Vicissitudes of Cartesianism
II . Cyrano de Bergerac
III . Malebranche
IV . Pierre Bayle
V . Fontenelle
Chapter XXII. S PINOZA: 1632–77
I . The Young Heretic
II . Theology and Politics
III . The Philosopher
IV . God
V . Mind
VI . Man
VII . Reason
VIII . The State
IX . The Chain of Influence
Chapter XXIII. L EIBNIZ: 1646–1716
I . The Philosophy of Law
II . Wanderjahre
III . Leibniz and Christianity
IV . Locke Reviewed
V . Monads
VI . Was God Just?
VII . Paralipomena
BOOK V: FRANCE AGAINST EUROPE: 1683–1715
Chapter XXIV. T HE S UN S ETS
I . Mme. de Maintenon
II . The Grand Alliance: 1689–97
III . The Spanish Problem
IV . The Grand Alliance: 1701–2
V . The War of the Spanish Succession
VI . Twilight of the God
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL G UIDE
N OTES
I NDEX
Vol. 9: The Age of Voltaire by Will
PROLOGUE
Chapter I. F RANCE : T HE R EGENCY : 1715–23
I. The Young Voltaire
II. The Struggle for the Regency
III. Boom and Crash
IV. The Regent
V. Society Under the Regency
VI. Watteau and the Arts
VII. Authors
VIII. The Incredible Cardinal
IX. Voltaire and the Bastille
BOOK I : ENGLAND: 1714–56
Chapter II. T HE P EOPLE
I. Prelude to the Industrial Revolution
1. The Sustainers
2. Industry
3. Invention
4. Capital and Labor
5. Transport and Trade
6. Money
II. Aspects of London
III. Schools
IV. Morals
V. Crime and Punishment
VI. Manners
VII. Chesterfield
Chapter III. T HE R ULERS
I. George I
II. George II and Queen Caroline
III. Robert Walpole
IV. Bolingbroke
V. How to Get into a War
VI. Ireland
VII. Scotland
VIII. Bonnie Prince Charlie
IX. The Rise of William Pitt
Chapter IV. R ELIGION AND P HILOSOPHY
I. The Religious Situation
II. The Deistic Challenge
III. The Religious Rebuttal
IV. John Wesley
V. Of Bees and Men
VI. David Hume
1. The Young Philosopher
2. Reason Deflated
3. Morals and Miracles
4. Darwinism and Christianity
5. Communism and Democracy
6. History
7. The Old Philosopher
Chapter V. L ITERATURE AND THE S TAGE
I. The Realm of Ink
II. Alexander Pope
III. The Voices of Feeling
IV. The Stage
V. The Novel
1. Samuel Richardson
2. Henry Fielding
3. Tobias Smollett
VI. Lady Mary
Chapter VI. A RT AND M USIC
I. The Artists
II. William Hogarth
III. The Musicians
IV. Handel
1. Growth
2. The Conquest of England
3. Defeat
4. The Oratorios
5. Prometheus
V. Voltaire in England
BOOK II : FRANCE: 1723–56
Chapter VII. T HE P EOPLE AND THE S TATE
I. The Nobility
II. The Clergy
III. The Third Estate
1. The Peasantry
2. The Proletariat
3. The Bourgeoisie
IV. The Government
V. Louis XV
VI. Mme. de Pompadour
Chapter VIII. M ORALS AND M ANNERS
I. Education
II. Morals
III. Manners
IV. Music
V. The Salons
Chapter IX. T HE W ORSHIP OF B EAUTY
I. The Triumph of Rococo
II. Architecture
III. Sculpture
IV. Painting
1. In the Antechamber
2. Boucher
3. Chardin
4. La Tour
Chapter X. T HE P LAY OF THE M IND
I. The Word Industry
II. The Stage
III. The French Novel
IV. Minor Sages
V. Montesquieu
1. Persian Letters
2. Why Rome Fell
3. The Spirit of Laws
4. Aftermath
Chapter XI. V OLTAIRE IN F RANCE : 1729–50
I. In Paris: 1729–34
II. Letters on the English
III. Idyl in Cirey: 1734–44
IV. The Courtier: 1745–48
V. Liebestod
VI. Mme. Denis
BOOK III : MIDDLE EUROPE: 1713–56
Chapter XII. T HE G ERMANY OF B ACH
I. The German Scene
II. German Life
III. German Art
IV. German Music
V. Johann Sebastian Bach
1. Chronology
2. Compositions
3. Coda
Chapter XIII. F REDERICK THE G REAT AND M ARIA T HERESA
I. Imperial Prelude
II. Prussian Prelude
1. Frederick William I
2. Der junge Fritz
3. The Prince and the Philosopher
III. The New Machiavelli
IV. The War of the Austrian Succession
V. Frederick at Home: 1745–50
VI. Voltaire in Germany: 1750–54
Chapter XIV. S WITZERLAND AND V OLTAIRE
I. Les Délices
II. The Cantons
III. Geneva
IV. The New History
a. Instrumental
b. Vocal
BOOK IV : THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING 1715–89
Chapter XV. T HE S CHOLARS
I. The Intellectual Environment
II. The Scholarly Revelation
Chapter XVI. T HE S CIENTIFIC A DVANCE
I. The Expanding Quest
II. Mathematics
1. Euler
2. Lagrange
III. Physics
1. Matter, Motion, Heat, and Light
2. Electricity
IV. Chemistry
1. The Pursuit of Oxygen
2. Priestley
3. Lavoisier
V. Astronomy
1. Instrumental Prelude
2. Astronomic Theory
3. Herschel
4. Some French Astronomers
5. Laplace
VI. About the Earth
1. Meteorology
2. Geodesy
3. Geology
4. Geography
VII. Botany
1. Linnaeus
2. In the Vineyard
VIII. Zoology
1. Buffon
2. Toward Evolution
IX. Psychology
X. The Impact of Science upon Civilization
Chapter XVII. M EDICINE
I. Anatomy and Physiology
II. The Ingenuity of Disease
III. Treatment
IV. Specialists
V. Surgery
VI. The Physicians
BOOK V : THE ATTACK UPON CHRISTIANITY 1730–74
Chapter XVIII. T HE A THEISTS : 1730–51
I. The Philosophic Ecstasy
II. The Background of Revolt
III. Jean Meslier
IV. Is Man a Machine?
Chapter XIX. D IDEROT AND THE Encyclopédie : 1713–68
I. Shiftless Years
II. The Blind, the Deaf, and the Dumb
III. History of a Book
IV. The Encyclopédie Itself
Chapter XX. D IDEROT P ROTEUS : 1758–73
I. The Pantheist
II. The Dream of d’Alembert
III. Diderot on Christianity
IV. The Nephew of Rameau
V. Ethics and Politics
VI. Diderot on Art
VII. Diderot and the Theater
VIII. Diderot
Chapter XXI. T HE S PREADING C AMPAIGN : 1758–74
I. Helvétius
1. Development
2. Philosophy
3. Influence
II. Auxiliaries
III. D’Holbach
1. The Amiable Atheist
2. The System of Nature
3. Morals and the State
4. D’Holbach and His Critics
Chapter XXII. V OLTAIRE AND C HRISTIANITY : 1734–78
I. Voltaire and God
II. Voltaire and the Encyclopédie
III. The Theology of Earthquakes
IV. Candide
V. The Conscience of Europe
VI. Écrasez l’infâme!
VII. Religion and Reason
VIII. Voltaire Bigot
Chapter XXIII. T HE T RIUMPH OF THE Philosophes : 1715–89
I. The Clergy Fights Back
II. The Antiphilosophes
III. The Fall of the Jesuits
IV. Education and Progress
V. The New Morality
VI. Religion in Retreat
VII. Summing Up
EPILOGUE IN ELYSIUM
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL G UIDE
N OTES
I NDEX
Vol. 10: Rousseau and Revolution by Will
BOOK I: PRELUDE
Chapter I. R OUSSEAU W ANDERER : 1712-56
I. The Confessions
II. Homeless
III. Maman
IV. Lyons, Venice, Paris
V. Is Civilization a Disease?
VI. Paris and Geneva
VII. The Crimes of Civilization
VIII. The Conservative
IX. Escape from Paris
Chapter II. T HE S EVEN Y EARS ’ W AR : 1756–63
I. How to Start a War
II. The Outlaw
III. From Prague to Rossbach
IV. The Fox at Bay
V. The Making of the British Empire
VI. Exhaustion
VII. Peace
BOOK II: FRANCE BEFORE THE DELUGE:1757-74
Chapter III. T HE L IFE OF THE S TATE
I. The Mistress Departs
II. The RecoVery of France
III. The Physiocrats
IV. The Rise of Turgot
V. The Communists
VI. The King
VII. Du Barry
VIII. Choiseul
IX. The ReVolt of the Parlements
X. The King Departs
Chapter IV. T HE A RT OF L IFE
I. Morality and Grace
II. Music
III. The Theater
IV. Marmontel
V. The Life of Art
1. Sculpture
2. Architecture
3. Greuze
4. Fragonard
VI. The Great Salons
1. Mme. Geoffrin
2. Mme. du Deffand
3. Mlle, de Lespinasse
Chapter V. V OLTAIRE P ATRIARCH : 1758-78
I. The Good Lord
II. The Scepter of the Pen
III. Voltaire Politicus
IV. The Reformer
V. Voltaire Himself
Chapter VI. R OUSSEAU R OMANTIC : 1756-62
I. In the Hermitage
II. In Love
III. Much Ado
IV. The Break with the Philosophes
V. The New Héloïse
Chapter VII. R OUSSEAU P HILOSOPHER
I. The Social Contract
II. Émile
1. Education
2. Religion
3. Love and Marriage
Chapter VIII. R OUSSEAU O UTCAST : 1762–67
I. Flight
II. Rousseau and the Archbishop
III. Rousseau and the Calvinists
IV. Rousseau and Voltaire
V. Boswell Meets Rousseau
VI. A Constitution for Corsica
VII. Fugitive
VIII. Rousseau in England
BOOK III : THE CATHOLIC SOUTH: 1715-89
Chapter IX. Italia Felix: 1715-59
I. The Landscape
II. Music
III. Religion
IV. From Turin to Florence
V. Queen of the Adriatic
1. Venetian Life
2. Vivaldi
3. Remembrances
4. Tiepolo
5. Goldoni and Gozzi
VI. Rome
VII. Naples
1. The King and the People
2. Giambattista Vico
3. Neapolitan Music
Chapter X. P ORTUGAL AND P OMBAL : 1706-82
I. John V
II. Pombal and the Jesuits
III. Pombal the Reformer
IV. The Triumph of the Past
Chapter XI. S PAIN AND THE E NLIGHTENMENT : 1700-88
I. Milieu
II. Philip V
III. Ferdinand VI
IV. The Enlightenment Enters
IX. Francisco de Goya y Spain
V. Charles III
1. The New Government
2. The Spanish Reformation
3. The New Economy
VI. The Spanish Character
VII. The Spanish Mind
VIII. Spanish Art
IX. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
1. Growth
2. Romance
3. Zenith
4. Revolution
5. Decrescendo
Chapter XII. Vale, Italia: 1760-89
I. Farewell Tour
II. Popes, Kings, and Jesuits
III. The Law and Beccaria
IV. Adventurers
1. Cagliostro
2. Casanova
V. Winckelmann
VI. The Artists
VII. I Musici
VIII. Alfieri
Chapter XIII. T HE E NLIGHTENMENT IN A USTRIA : 1756-90
I. The New Empire
II. Maria Theresa
III. Joseph Growing
IV. Mother and Son
V. The Enlightened Despot
VI. The Emperor and the Empire
VII. Atra Mors
Chapter XIV. M USIC R EFORMED
I. Christoph Willibald Gluck
II. Joseph Haydn
Chapter XV. M OZART
I. The Wonderful Boy
II. Adolescence
III. Music and Marriage
IV. In Paris
V. Salzburg and Vienna
VI. The Composer
VII. Spirit and Flesh
VIII. Apogee
IX. Nadir
X. Requiem
BOOK IV: ISLAM AND THE SLAVIC EAST: 1715-96
Chapter XVI. I SLAM: 1715-96
I. The Turks
II. African Islam
III. Persia
Chapter XVII. R USSIAN I NTERLUDE: 1725-62
I. Work and Rule
II. Religion and Culture
III. Russian Politics
IV. Elizabeth Petrovna
V. Peter and Catherine
VI. Peter III
Chapter XVIII. C ATHERINE THE G REAT: 1762-96
I. The Autocrat
II. The Lover
III. The Philosopher
IV. The Statesman
V. The Economist
VI. The Warrior
VII. The Woman
VIII. Literature
IX. Art
X. Journey’s End
Chapter XIX. T HE R APE OF P OLAND: 1715-95
I. Polish Panorama
II. The Saxon Kings
III. Poniatowski
IV. The First Partition
V. The Polish Enlightenment
VI. Dismemberment
BOOK V: THE PROTESTANT NORTH: 1756-89
Chapter XX. F REDERICK‘S G ERMANY: 1756-86
I. Frederick Victorious
II. Rebuilding Prussia
III. The Principalities
IV. The German Enlightenment
V. Gotthold Lessing
VI. The Romantic Reaction
VII. Sturm und Drang
VIII. The Artists
IX. After Bach
X. Der Alte Fritz
Chapter XXI. K ANT : 1724-1804
I. Prolegomena
II. Critique of Pure Reason
III. Critique of Practical Reason
IV. Critique of Judgment
V. Religion and Reason
VI. The Reformer
VII. Posthumous
Chapter XXII. R OADS TO W EIMAR : 1733-87
I. The Athens of Germany
II. Wieland
III. Goethe Prometheus
1. Growth
2. Götz and Werther
3. The Young Atheist
IV. Herder
V. Schiller’s Wanderjahre
Chapter XXIII. W EIMAR IN F LOWER : 1775-1805
I. Wieland Sequel
II. Herder and History
III. Goethe Councilor
IV. Goethe in Italy
V. Goethe Waiting
VI. Schiller Waiting
VII. Schiller and Goethe
Chapter XXIV. G OETHE N ESTOR : 1805—32
I. Goethe and Napoleon
II. Faust: Part I
III. Nestor in Love
IV. The Scientist
V. The Philosopher
VI. Faust: Part II
VII. Fulfillment
Chapter XXV. T HE J EWS : 1715-89
I. The Struggle for Existence
II. The Mystic Solace
III. Moses Mendelssohn
IV. Toward Freedom
Chapter XXVI. F ROM G ENEVA TO S TOCKHOLM
I. The Swiss: 1754-98
II. The Dutch: 1715-95
III. The Danes: 1715-97
IV. The Swedes: 1718-97
1. Politics
2. Gustavus III
3. The Swedish Enlightenment
4. Assassination
BOOK VI : JOHNSON’S ENGLAND: 1756-89
Chapter XXVII. T HE I NDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION
I. Causes
II. Components
III. Conditions
IV. Consequences
Chapter XXVIII. T HE P OLITICAL D RAMA : 1756-92
I. The Political Structure
II. The Protagonists
III. The King Versus Parliament
IV. Parliament Versus the People
V. England Versus America
VI. England and India Revolution
VII. England and the French
VIII. The Heroes Retire
Chapter XXIX. T HE E NGLISH P EOPLE : 1756-89
I. English Ways
II. English Morals
III. Faith and Doubt
IV. Blackstone, Bentham, and the Law
V. The Theater
1. The Performance
2. Garrick
VI. London
Chapter XXX. T HE A GE OF R EYNOLDS : 1756-90
I. The Musicians
II. The Architects
III. Wedgwood
IV. Joshua Reynolds
V. Thomas Gainsborough
Chapter XXXI. E NGLAND’S N EIGHBORS: 1756-89
I. Grattan’s Ireland
II. The Scottish Background
III. The Scottish Enlightenment
IV. Adam Smith
V. Robert Burns
VI. James Boswell
1. The Cub
2. Boswell Abroad
3. Boswell at Home
Chapter XXXII. T HE L ITERARY S CENE: 1756-89
I. The Press
II. Laurence Sterne
III. Fanny Burney
IV. Horace Walpole
V. Edward Gibbon
1. Preparation
2. The Book
3. The Man
4. The Historian
VI. Chatterton and Cowper
VII. Oliver Goldsmith
Chapter XXXIII. S AMUEL J OHNSON: 1709-84
I. Deformative Years
II. The Dictionary
III. The Charmed Circle
IV. Ursus Major
V. The Conservative Mind
VI. Autumn
VII. Release
VIII. Boswell Moriturus
BOOK VII : THE COLLAPSE OF FEUDAL FRANCE: 1774-89
Chapter XXXIV. T HE F INAL G LORY: 1774-83
I. The Heirs to the Throne
II. The Government
III. The Virgin Queen
IV. Le Roi Bonhomme
V. The Ministry of Turgot
VI. Necker’s First Ministry
VII. France and America
Chapter XXXV. D EATH AND THE P HILOSOPHERS: 1774-1807
I. Voltaire Finale
1. Twilight in Ferney
2. Apotheosis
3. The Influence of Voltaire
II. Rousseau Epilogue
1. The Haunted Spirit
2. The Influence of Rousseau
III. Marche Funèbre
IV. The Last Philosophe
V. The Philosophers and the Revolution
Chapter XXXVI. O N THE E VE: 1774-89
I. Religion and the Revolution
II. Life on the Edge
III. The Salonnières
IV. Music
V. Art under Louis XVI
VI. Literature
VII. Beaumarchais
Chapter XXXVII. T HE A NATOMY OF R EVOLUTION: 1774-89
I. The Nobles and the Revolution
II. The Peasants and the Revolution
III. Industry and the Revolution
IV. The Bourgeoisie and the Revolution
V. The Gathering of the Forces
Chapter XXXVIII. T HE P OLITICAL D EBACLE: 1783-89
I. The Diamond Necklace
II. Calonne
III. Loménie de Brienne
IV. Necker Again
V. Enter Mirabeau
VI. The Last Rehearsal
VII. The States-General
VIII. To the Bastille
E NVOI
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL G UIDE
N OTES
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Vol. 11: The Age of Napoleon by Will
Book I: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: 1789–99
Chapter I. T HE B ACKGROUND OF R EVOLUTION: 1774–89
I . The French People
II . The Government
Chapter II. T HE N ATIONAL A SSEMBLY: May 4, 1789-September 30, 1791
I . The States-General
II . The Bastille
III . Enter Marat: 1789
IV . Renunciation: August 4–5, 1789
V . To Versailles: October 5, 1789
VI . The Revolutionary Constitution: 1790
VII . Mirabeau Pays His Debts: April 2, 1791
VIII . To Varennes: June 20, 1791
Chapter III. T HE L EGISLATIVE A SSEMBLY: October 1, 1791-September 20, 1792
I . Persons of the Drama
II . War: 1792
III . Danton
IV . The Massacre: September 2–6, 1792
Chapter IV. T HE C ONVENTION: September 21, 1792-October 26, 1795
I . The New Republic
II . The Second Revolution: 1793
III . Exit Marat: July 13, 1793
IV . The “Great Committee”: 1793
V . The Reign of Terror: September 17, 1793-July 28, 1794
1. The Gods Are Athirst
2. The Terror in the Provinces
3. The War Against Religion
4 The Revolution Eats Its Children
VI . The Thermidoreans: July 29, 1794-October 26, 1795
Chapter V. T HE D IRECTORY: November 2, 1795-November 9, 1799
I . The New Government
II . The Young Napoleon: 1769–95
III . Josephine de Beauharnais
IV . Italian Whirlwind: March 27, 1796-December 5, 1797
V . The Coup d’État of the 18th Fructidor: September 4, 1797
VI . Oriental Fantasy: May 19, 1798-October 8, 1799
VII . The Decline of the Directory: September 4, 1797-November 9, 1799
VIII . Napoleon Takes Charge: The 18th Brumaire (November 9), 1799
Chapter VI. L IFE UNDER THE R EVOLUTION: 1789–99
I . The New Classes
II . The New Morality
1. Morality and Law
2. Sexual Morality
III . Manners
IV . Music and Drama
V . The Artists
VI . Science and Philosophy
VII . Books and Authors
VIII . Mme. de Staël and the Revolution
IX . Afterthoughts
BOOK II : NAPOLEON ASCENDANT: 1799–1811
Chapter VII. T HE C ONSULATE : November 11, 1799-May 18, 1804
I . The New Constitution
1. The Consuls
2. The Ministers
3. The Reception of the Constitution
II . The Campaigns of the Consulate
III . Remaking France: 1802–03
1. The Code Napoléon: 1801–04
2. The Concordat of 1801
IV . The Paths of Glory
V . The Great Conspiracy: 1803–04
VI . The Road to Empire: 1804
Chapter VIII. T HE N EW E MPIRE: 1804–07
I . The Coronation: December 2, 1804
II . The Third Coalition: 1805
III . Austerlitz: December 2, 1805
IV . The Mapmaker: 1806–07
V . Jena, Eylau, Friedland: 1806–07
VI . Tilsit: June 25-July 9, 1807
Chapter IX. T HE M ORTAL R EALM: 1 807–11
I . The Bonapartes
II . The Peninsular War: I (October 18, 1807- August 21, 1808)
III . Constellation at Erfurt: September 27-October 14, 1808
IV . The Peninsular War: II (October 29, 1808-November 16, 1809)
V . Fouché, Talleyrand, and Austria: 1809
VI . Marriage and Politics: 1809–11
Chapter X. N APOLEON H IMSELF
I . Body
II . Mind
III . Character
IV . The General
V . The Ruler
VI . The Philosopher
VII . What Was He?
Chapter XI. N APOLEONIC F RANCE: 1800–1815
I . The Economy
II . The Teachers
III . The Warriors
IV . Morals and Manners
V . Mme. Récamier
VI . The Jews in France
Chapter XII. N APOLEON AND THE A RTS
I . Music
II . Varia
III . The Painters
IV . The Theater
Chapter XIII. L ITERATURE V ERSUS N POLEON
I . The Censor
II . Mme. de Staël: 1799–1817
1. Napoleon’s Nemesis
2. The Author
3. The Tourist
4. Understanding Germany
5. Imperfect Victory
III . Benjamin Constant: 1767–1816
IV . Chateaubriand: 1768–1815
1. Youth
2. Development
3. The Genius of Christianity
4. René
5. Chateaubriand and Napoleon
Chapter XIV. S CIENCE AND P HILOSOPHY UNDER N APOLEON
I . Mathematics and Physics
II . Medicine
III . Biology
1. Cuvier (1769–1832)
2. Lamarck (1744–1829)
IV . What Is Mind?
V . The Case for Conservatism
BOOK III: BRITAIN: 1789–1812
Chapter XV. E NGLAND AT W ORK
I . A Different Revolution
II . At the Bottom
III . The Dismal Science
IV . Robert Owen: 1771–1858
Chapter XVI. E NGLISH L IFE
I . Classes
II . The Government
1. The Legislature
2. The Judiciary
3. The Executive
III . Religion
IV . Education
V . Morality
1. Man and Woman
2. Mary Wollstonecraft
3. Social Morality
VI . Manners
VII . The English Theater
VIII . In Sum
Chapter XVII. T HE A RTS IN E NGLAND
I . The Artists
II . Architecture
III . From Cartoons to Constable
IV . Turner: 1775–1851
Chapter XVIII. S CIENCE IN E NGLAND
I . Avenues of Progress
II . Physics: Rumford and Young
III . Chemistry: Dalton and Davy
IV . Biology: Erasmus Darwin 391
V . Medicine: Jenner
Chapter XIX. E NGLISH P HILOSOPHY
I . Tom Paine on Christianity
II . Godwin on Justice
III . Malthus on Population
IV . Bentham on Law
Chapter XX. L ITERATURE IN T RANSITION
I . The Press
II . Books
III . Jane Austen: 1775–1817
IV . William Blake: 1757–1827
Chapter XXI. T HE L AKE P OETS: 1770–1850
I . Ambience
II . Wordsworth: 1770–97
III . Coleridge: 1772–94
IV . Southey: 1774–1803
V . Coleridge: 1794–97
VI . A Threesome: 1797–98
VII . Lyrical Ballads: 1798
VIII . The Wandering Scholars: 1798–99
IX . Idyl in Grasmere: 1800–03
X . Love, Labor, and Opium: 1800–10
XI . Coleridge Philosopher: 1808–17
XII . Wordsworth: Climax, 1804–14
XIII . The Sage of Highgate: 1816–34
XIV . On the Fringe
XV . Southey: 1803–43
XVI . Wordsworth Epilogue: 1815–50
Chapter XXII. T HE R EBEL P OETS: 1788–1824
I . The Tarnished Strain: 1066–1809 454
II . The Grand Tour: Byron, 1809–11
III . The Lion of London: Byron, 1811–14
IV . Trial by Marriage: Byron, 1815–16
V . The Youth of Shelley: 1792–1811
VI . Elopement I: Shelley, 1811–12
VII . Elopement II: Shelley, 1812–16
VIII . Swiss Holiday: Byron and Shelley, 1816
IX . Decay in Venice: Byron, 1816–18
X . Shelley Pater Familias: 1816–18
XI . Shelley: Zenith, 1819–21
XII . Love and Revolution: Byron, 1818–21
XIII . Contrasts
XIV . Pisan Canto: 1821–22
XV . Immolation: Shelley, 1822
XVI . Transfiguration: Byron, 1822–24
XVII . Survivors
Chapter XXIII. E NGLANDÉS N EIGHBORS: 1789–1815
I . The Scots
II . The Irish
Chapter XXIV. P ITT , N ELSON, AND N APOLEON: 1789–1812
I . Pitt and the Revolution
II . Nelson: 1758–1804
III . Trafalgar: 1805
IV . England Marks Time: 1806–12
BOOK IV: THE CHALLENGED KINGS: 1789–1812
Chapter XXV. I BERIA
I . Portugal: 1789–1808
II . Spain: 1808
III . Arthur Wellesley:1769–1807
IV . The Peninsular War: III (1808–12)
V . Results
Chapter XXVI. I TALY AND I TS C ONQUERORS: 1789–1813
I . The Map in 1789
II . Italy and the French Revolution
III . Italy under Napoleon: 1800–12
IV . Emperor and Pope
V . Behind the Battles
VI . Antonio Canova: 1757–1822
VII . Vale iterum Italia
Chapter XXVII. A USTRIA : 1780–1812
I . Enlightened Despots: 1780–92
II . Francis II
III . Metternich
IV . Vienna
V . The Arts
Chapter XXVIII. B EETHOVEN: 1770–1827
I . Youth in Bonn: 1770–92
II . Progress and Tragedy: 1792–1802
III . The Heroic Years: 1803–09
IV . The Lover
V . Beethoven and Goethe: 1792–1802
VI . The Last Victories: 1811–24
VII . Comoedia Finita: 1824–27
Chapter XXIX. G ERMANY AND N APOLEON : 1786–1811
I . The Holy Roman Empire: 1800
II . The Confederation of the Rhine:
III . Napoleon’s German Provinces
IV . Saxony
V . Prussia: Frederick’s Legacy, 1786–87
VI . The Collapse of Prussia: 1797–1807
VII . Prussia Reborn: 1807–12
Chapter XXX. T HE G ERMAN P EOPLE: 1789–1812
I . Economics
II . Believers and Doubters
III . The German Jews
IV . Morals
V . Education
VI . Science
VII . Art
VIII . Music
IX . The Theater
X . The Dramatists
Chapter XXXI. G ERMAN L ITERATURE: 1789–1815
I . Revolution and Response
II . Weimar
III . The Literary Scene
IV . The Romantic Ecstasy
V . The Voices of Feeling
VI . The Brothers Schlegel
Chapter XXXII. G ERMAN P HILOSOPHY: 1789–1815
I . Fichte: 1762–1814
1. The Radical
2. The Philosopher
3. The Patriot
II . Schelling: 1775–1854
III . Hegel: 1770–1831
1. Skeptic’s Progress
2. Logic as Metaphysics
3. Mind
4. Morality, Law, and the State
5. History
6. Death and Return
Chapter XXXIII. A ROUND THE H EARTLAND: 1789–1812
I . Switzerland
II . Sweden
III . Denmark
IV . Poland
V . Turkey in Europe
Chapter XXXIV. R USSIA: 1796–1812
I . Milieu
II . Paul I: 1796–1801
III . The Education of an Emperor
IV . The Young Czar: 1801–04
V . The Jews under Alexander
VI . Russian Art
VII . Russian Literature
VIII . Alexander and Napoleon: 1805–12
BOOK V : FINALE: 1811–15
Chapter XXXV. T O M OSCOW: 1811–15
I . The Continental Blockade
II . France in Depression: 1811
III . Preface to War: 1811–12
IV . The Road to Moscow: June 26-September 14, 1812
V . The Burning of Moscow: September 15–19, 1812
VI . The Way Back: October 19-November 28, 1812
Chapter XXXVI. T O E LBA: 1813–14
I . To Berlin
II . To Prague
III . To the Rhine
IV . To the Breaking Point
V . To Paris
VI . To Peace
Chapter XXXVII. T O W ATERLOO: 1814–15
I . Louis XVIII
II . The Congress of Vienna: September, 1814-June, 1815
III . Elba
IV . The Incredible Journey: March 1–20, 1815
V . Rebuilding
VI . The Last Campaign
1. June 15, 1815: Belgium
2. June 16: Ligny
3. June 17: Rain
4. Sunday, June 18: Waterloo
Chapter XXXVIII. T O S T . H ELENA
I . The Second Abdication: June 22, 1815
II . The Second Restoration: July 7, 1815
III . Surrender: July 4-August 8, 1815
Chapter XXXIX. T O THE E ND
I . St. Helena
II . Sir Hudson Lowe
III . The Great Companions
IV . The Great Dictator
V . The Last Battle
Chapter XL. A FTERWARD: 1815–40
I . The Family
II . Homecoming
III . Perspective
B IBLIOGRAPHICAL G UIDE
N OTES
I NDEX

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