The Sounds of German 9780521694629, 0521694620

How are the sounds of German produced? How do German speakers stress their words? How have the sounds of German develope

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The Sounds of German
 9780521694629, 0521694620

Table of contents :
Contents
List of figures
Preface
List of abbreviations
1 Standards of pronunciation
2 Basic concepts
3 Vowels
4 Consonants
5 Sounds in contrast
6 Sounds and spelling
7 Distribution of vowels and consonants
8 Foreign sounds
9 Alternations
10 Suprasegmental features and syllables
11 Pluricentric and regional variation
12 Sound changes
References
Index

Citation preview

The Sounds of

German

How are the sounds of German produced? How do German speakers stress their words?

How have the sounds of German developed over time? This book provides a clear introduction to the sounds of German, designed particularly for English-speaking students of the language. Topics covered include the role of the organs of speech, the state of the vocal cords and the differences between vowels and consonants. The articulation, distribution and spelling and the major variants of each sound are examined in

detail. The book also discusses the regional differences between dialects and between the national standard varieties in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Students are encouraged to put theory into practice with end-of-chapter questions. Setting a solid foundation in the description and analysis of German sounds, The Sounds of German will

help students improve their pronunciation of the language by introducing them to the basics of its sound system. CHARLES v. I. RUSS was formerly Reader in German Linguistics in the Department of Language and Linguistic Science at the University of York.

The Sounds of

German

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521694629 © Charles V. I. Russ 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-69462-9 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Contents

List offigures XVI Preface XIX List ofabbreviations XXII

Standards of pronunciation 1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Sounds and language 1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6

Spelling and writing systems 2 The German language 4 Spelling and writing in German 7 The science of studying sounds 8 The development of the International Phonetic Association and its alphabet 8 1.1.7 The wish for a standardization of pronunciation 11

Standards of pronunciation for German 12 1.2.1 Stage pronunciation (Die Bilthnehaussprache) 12 1.2.2 The Duden and pronunciation standards 15 1.2.3 Pronunciation standards in former East Germany as reflected in the Wiirterbiich der deutschen Aussprache 16 1.2.4 The terms used in the standardization of German pronunciation 17

Conclusion 17 Questions 18

Basic concepts 19 Introduction 19

Vocal communication 19 The organs of speech 20 The larynx (der Kehlkopf) 22

2.4 Air-stream mechanisms 23 2.5 Some acoustic characteristics of sounds 23 2.6 Types of sounds 25 2.6.1 Vowels 25

2.6.2 Consonants 26 2.6.3 State of the vocal cords 26

2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7

The release of the occlusion in the pronunciation of plosives 27 The role of the velum and the nasal cavity 28 Vowel or consonant? 29 The case of [h] 29

2.6.8 The glottal stop (der Glottisschlag, —é) 29

Questions 30

3 Vowels 31 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Introduction 31 Short and long vowels 32 Front rounded and back unrounded vowels 34 Diphthongs and sequences of vowels 35 Unstressed vowels 35 The vowels in detail 36 3.5.1 Short lax vowels 36

3.5.1.1 Short high close front unrounded vowel [1] 37

3.5.1.2 Short high close front rounded vowel [Y] 37 3.5.1.3 Short high close back vowel [u] 38 3.5.1.4 Short half-open front unrounded vowel [22] 39 3.5.1.5 Short half-open front rounded vowel [oe] 40 3.5.1.6 Short half-open back rounded vowel [0] 41 3.5.1.7 Short open unrounded vowel [a] 42 3.5.2 Long tense vowels 42 3.5.2.1 Long high close front unrounded vowel [iz] 43 3.5.2.2 Long high close front rounded vowel [yz] 44 3.5.2.3 Long high close back vowel [uz] 45 3.5.2.4 Long half-close front unrounded vowel [ez] 45 3.5.2.5 Long half-open front unrounded vowel [az] 46 3.5.2.6 Long half-close front rounded vowel [oz] 47 3.5.2.7 Long half-close back rounded vowel [oz] 48 3.5.2.8 Long open unrounded vowel [oz] 49 3.5.3 Diphthongs 50 3.5.3.1 The diphthong 51 3.5.3.2 The diphthong ] 52 3.5.3.3 The diphthong 3.5.3.4 The diphthong EESE U101 nikbo

Contents 3.5.4 Unstressed vowels 54 3.5.4.1 Schwa 54

3.5.4.2 So-called ‘dark’ schwa 54 3.5.4.3 Short tense vowels in unstressed syllables 55 3.5.4.4 Short lax vowels in derivational affixes 56 Non-syllabic vowels 56

Questions 56

Consonants 58 Production of consonants 58 Manner of articulation 59 4.1.1 Obstruents (der Obstruent, -err) 59 4.1.2 Sonorants 59 4.1.2.1 Nasals (def Nasal, -e) 59 4.1.2.2 Lateral 60 4.1.2.3 The r-sounds 60 4.1.3 Affricates (die Ajj‘i'ikate, -rt) 61

Place of articulation 62 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4

Labial (der Labial, -e; labial, bilabial, labiodental) 62 Alveolar (der Alveolar, -e, alveolar) 63 Post-alveolar (cler Postalveolar, -8; postalveolar) 63 Palato-velar 63

State of the vocal cords 64 The consonants in detail 64 4.4.1 Plosives 64 4.4.1.1 Voiceless fortis bilabial plosive [p] 65 4.4.1.2 Voiced lenis bilabial plosive [b] 66 4.4.1.3 Voiceless fortis alveolar plosive [t] 67 4.4.1.4 Voiced lenis alveolar plosive [Cl] 68

4.4.1.5 The voiceless palato-velar plosive [k] 69 4.4.1.6 The voiced pa;ato-velar plosive [g] 70 4.4.2 Fricatives 71

4.4.2.1 4.4.2.2 4.4.2.3 4.4.2.4 4.4.2.5 4.4.2.6 4.4.2.7 4.4.2.8 4.4.2.9

The voicelesslabio-dentalfricative [f] 71 The voiced labio-dental fricative [v] 72 The voiceless alveolar fricative [s] 73 The voiced alveolar fricative [z] 74 The voiceless post-alveolar fricative [I] 74 The voiced post-alveolar fricative [3] 75 The voice.ess palatal fricative [c] 76 The voiceless velar fricative [X] 77 The voiced palatal fricative [j] 78

l tl l l -i i13%‘§;:-%§¥¥§ii

il -i;l:%i§ Contents 4.4.3 Affricates 78

4.4.3.1 The labial affricate [pf] 79 4.4.3.2 The alveolar affricate [ts] 79 4.4.3.3 The post-alveolar affricate [tf] 80 4.4.4 Nasals 80 4.4.4.1 The labial nasal [m] 80 4.4.4.2 The alveolar nasal [n] 81 4.4.4.3 The palato-velar nasal [1]] 82 4.4.5 Other consonants 83 4.4.5.1 The lateral [1] 83 4.4.5.2 The r-sounds 84 4.4.5.3 The glottal fricative [h] 85 Questions 86

5 Sounds in contrast 88 5.1 Phonemes and allophones 88 5.1.1 Phonemic opposition 89 5.1.2 Peripheral sounds 90

5.2 The vowel phonemes 91 5.2.1 Problems of phonemic analysis of the vowels 92 5.2.1.1 The feature of vowel length 92 5.2.1.2 The special status of /s/ 92 5.2.1.3 The phonemic status of the diphthongs — unitary phonemes or vowel + glide 92 5.2.1.4 The vowels in unstressed syllables 93

5.3 Oppositions between vowels 94 5.3.1 Opposition between long (tense) vowels and short (lax) vowels 94 5.3.1.1 /i/ /i:/ 95 5.3.1.2 /e/ /e:/ 95 5.3.1.3 /e/ /e:/ 95 5.3.1.4 /o/ /o:/ 95 5.3.1.5 /u/ /u:/ 96 5.3.1.6 /a/ /a:/ 96 5.3.1.7 /o/ /o:/ 96 5.3.1.8 /y/ /y:/ 96 5.3.2 Oppositions between front and back vowels 97

5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.4 5.3.2.5

Highvowelslil High vowels /1] Midvowelslel Mid vowels lel Lowvowels lel

/u/ 97 /u/ 97 /o/ 97 /o/ 97 /a/ 98

Contents 5.3.3 Multilateral oppositions between vowels of different tongue heights 98 5.3.4 Oppositions between front vowels with rounded and unrounded lips 99 5.3.4.1 /y/ : /i/ 99 5.3.4.2 /y:/ : /i:/ 99 5.3.4.3 /o/ : /e/ 99 5.3.4.4 /o:/ : /e:/ 99

The consonant phonemes 100 5.4.1 Problems of phonemic analysis among the consonants 100 5.4.1.1 The status of [X] and [c] 100 5.4.1.2 The affricates: are they one phoneme or two? 101

Phonemic oppositions among consonants 101 5.5.1 The bilateral opposition between voiceless and voiced plosives 102 5.5.1.1 /p/ : /b/ 102 5.5.1.2 /t/ : /d/ 102 5.5.1.3 /k/ : /g/ 103 5.5.2 The bilateral opposition between voiceless and voiced fricatives 103

5.5.2.1 /f/ : /v/ 103 5.5.2.2 /s/ : /z/ 104 5.5.2.3 /I/ : /3/ 104 5.5.3 Bilateral opposition: plosive : fricative 104 5.5.3.1 /p/ : /f/ 104 5.5.3.2 /t/ : /s/ 105 5.5.3.3 /k/ : /x—c/ 105 5.5.3.4 /b/ : /v/ 105 5.5.3.5 /d/ : /z/ 106 5.5.3.6 /g/ : /j/ 106 5.5.4 Nasal plosion vs oral plosion 107 5.5.4.1 /m/ : /b/ 107 5.5.4.2 /n/ : /d/ 107

5.5.4.3 /q/ : /g/ 107 5.5.5 Multilateral oppositions between places of articulation 108 5.5.5.1 Voiceless plosives: /p/ : /t/ : /k/ 108 5.5.5.2 Voiced plosives: /b/ : /d/ : /g/ 108 5.5.5.3 Nasal plosives: /m/ : /n/ : /I]/ 109 5.5.5.4 Voiceless fricatives: /f/ : /s/ 2 /I/ : /x—c/ 109 5.5.5.5 Voiced fricatives: /v/ : /Z/ 2 /3/ : /j/ 109

5.5.6 Oppositions with the lateral /l/ and trill or fricative /r/ 110 5.5.6.1 /l/:/r/ 110 5.5.6.2 /1/:/d/ 110 5.5.6.3 /r/:/d/ 110 5.5.6.4 /l/ : /t/ 111 5.5.6.5 /r/ : /x—c/ 111

Contents 5.5.7 Mutlilateral oppositions: Affricates in opposition to their plosives and fricatives 112 5.5.7.1 /pf/:/p/:/f/ 112 5.5.7.2 /ts/ : /t/ : /s/ 112 5.5.7.3 /t]'/:/t/ : /J7 112

Questions 113

Sounds and spelling 114 General principles 114 The phonemic principle (phortematisches Prinzzp) 115 6.1.1 One phoneme is represented by more than one letter 115 6.1.2 Predictable variation of letters for a phoneme 115 6.1.3 Random variation of letters for a phoneme 116

6.1.4 A cluster of phonemes is represented by one letter 117

The morphophonemic principle (Stammprinzip) 118 The homonymy principle 119 Spelling of individual phonemes 120 6.4.1 Short vowels in stressed syllables 120 6.4.1.1 Short/a/ I21

6.4.1.2 Short Isl 121 6.4.1.3 Short /i/ 122 6.4.1.4 Short open /o/ 6.4.1.5 Short open /o/ 6.4.1.6 Short open lvl 6.4.1.7 Short open /oe/ 6.4.2 Long vowels 123 6.4.2.1 Long/o:/ 124 6.4.2.2 Long /e:/ 124 6.4.2.3 Long open /e:/ 6.4.2.4 Long /i:/ 125 6.4.2.5 Long /o:/ 125 6.4.2.6 Long close /u:/

I22 122 122 123

124

126 6.4.2.7 Long close /o:/ 126 6.4.2.8 Long close /y:/ 126 6.4.3 Diphthongs 127 6.4.3.1 The falling diphthong /ail 127 6.4.3.2 The falling diphthong /au/ 127 6.4.3.3 The falling diphthongloif 128 6.4.4 Consonants 128 6.4.4.1 The labial affricate /pf/ 128 6.4.4.2 The alveolar affricate /ts/ 128 6.4.4.3 The alveo-palatalaffricate /tf/ 129

Contents 6.4.4.4 The voiceless labial stop /p/ 129 6.4.4.5 The voiced labial stop /b/ 129

6.4.4.6 6.4.4.7 6.4.4.8 6.4.4.9 6.4.4.10 6.4.4.11 6.4.4.12 6.4.4.13 6.4.4.14 6.4.4.15 6.4.4.16 6.4.4.17 6.4.4.18 6.4.4.19 6.4.4.20 6.4.4.21 6.4.4.22 6.4.4.23

The voiceless alveolar stop /t/ 130 The voiced alveolar stop /d/ 130 The voiceless palato-velar stop Ikl 130 The voiced palato-velar stop /g/ 131 The voiceless labio-dental fricative /f/ 131 The voiced labio-dental fricative /v/ 131 The voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ 132 The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ 132 The voiceless alveo-palatal fricative III 132 The voiceless palato-velar fricative /c—x/ 132 The voiced alveo-palatal fricative /3! 133 The voiced palatal fricative /j/ 133 The labial nasal /m/ 133 The alveolar nasal In/ 133 The velar nasal /I]/ 133 The lateral /l/ I33 The /r/ phoneme 134 The glottal fricative /h/ 134

Spelling reform 134 6.5.1 Spelling reform up to 1901 134 6.5.2 Spelling reform 1901 to 1996 137

Questions 140

Distribution of vowels and consonants 142 Introduction 142 The structure of the syllable: Vowels and consonants 142 Phonotactics 144 7.2.1 Initial consonant clusters 144 7.2.2 Final consonant clusters 145 7.2.3 Medial consonant clusters 146

The hierarchical structure of the syllable 147 7.3.1 Analysis of consonant clusters 149 7.3.2 The analysis of vowel length and diphthongs 149

Syllable boundaries 150 Changes affecting syllable structure 151 7.5.1 Syncope 151 7.5.2 Epenthesis 151 7.5.3 Apocope I52

Questions 152

Contents

Foreign sounds 153 Introduction 153 Borrowing in the history of German 153 Borrowing and the sound system of German I56 8.2.1 New sounds are introduced 156 8.2.1.1 The voiced post-alveolar [3] 157

8.2.1.2 Nasal vowels 158 8.2.1.3 The case of uvular [R] 159 8.2.2 ‘Lost’ sounds have been re-introduced 160 8.2.2.1 Initial [p] in OHG 160

8.2.2.2 Unstressed vowels [-a, -o, -i, -u] 161 8.2.3 New consonant clusters 163 8.2.3.1 Initial [d3-] 163 8.2.3.2 Initial [ps-] 164 8.2.3.3 Initial [sk-] 164 8.2.3.4 Initial [s] + obstruent or sonorant 164

8.2.4

8.2.5

8.2.6 8.2.7 8.2.8

8.2.3.5 Some minor clusters 165 8.2.3.6 The initial cluster [vr-] 165 The re-introduction of ‘lost’ consonant clusters 166 8.2.4.1 Initial voiceless labial stop + liquid [pl-], [pr-] 166 8.2.4.2 Medial [-mb-] 166 8.2.4.3 The consonant cluster /tW/ 166 New distribution of already existing sounds and consonant clusters 166 8.2.5.1 Intervocalic voiced labio-dental [-v-] 167 8.2.5.2 Initial voiceless alveolar fricative [s-] 167 8.2.5.3 Initial alveolar affricate [t[—] 167 New morphophonemic alternations 168 New word stress patterns: word-final stress 168 The sounds of English post-1945 loans 169 8.2.8.1 Pronunciation of English vowels 170 8.2.8.2 Pronunciation of English consonants 170 8.2.8.3 Consonant clusters 171

Attitudes to foreign words 171

Questions 173

Alternations 175 Introduction 175 9.1.1 Distinctive features 175 9.1.2 Underlying forms and phonological rules 1 78

Automatic alternations 179 9.2.1 Word-final devoicing 179

Contents 9.2.2 Treatment of schwa 180 9.2.3 Alternations involving [12] 180

9.3 Morphophonological or morphophonemic alternations 180 9.3.1 Relic alternations 181 9.3.1.1 Reflexes of the High German Sound Shift 181 9.3.1.2 Some Germanic consonant alternations 181 9.3.2 Common alternations 182 9.3.2.1 Vowel gradation 182 9.3.2.2 Alternations in loan words 184 9.3.3 Productive alternations: umlaut 185 9.3.3.1 Umlaut in noun plurals 186 9.3.3.2 Umlaut in the comparison of adjectives 187 9.3.3.3 Umlaut in the present tense of strong verbs 188 9.3.3.4 Umlaut in Subjunctive II 188 9.3.3.5 Umlaut in derivational morphology 188

Questions 189 10

Suprasegmental features and syllables 191

10.0 Introduction 191 10.1 Word stress 191 10.2 The placement of stress 191 10.2.1 Suffixes 192 10.2.2 Prefixes 193

10.2.3 Adjectival prefixes 195 10.2.4 Compounds 195 10.2.4.1 Compound nouns 195 10.2.4.2 Compound adjectives 197 10.2.4.3 Compound verbs 197

10.2.4.4 Compound particles 197

10.3 Sentence stress and weak forms 198 0.4 Intonation 199 Questions 201 11

Pluricentric and regional variation 203

11.0 Introduction 203 11.1 German dialects 203 11.2 The ambiguity of the term ‘German’ 207 11.3 Pluricentric variation 207 11.3.1 Pronunciation in Switzerland 208 11.3.1.1 Vocalic differences 209 11.3.1.2 Consonantal differences 209 11.3.1.3 Differences in stress 210

Contents 11.3.2 Pronunciation in Austria 210

11.3.2.1 Vocalic differences 211 11.3.2.2 Consonantal differences 211 11.3.2.3 Differences in stress 212 11.3.3 Features of pronunciation typical of Germany 212 11.3.3.1 Vocalic differences 213 11.3.3.2 Consonantal differences 213

Questions 214

12 Sound changes 217 12 0 Preliminaries 217 12 1 History of German 217 12.1.1 Old High German 217 12.1.1.1 Some OHG texts 219 12.1.2 Middle High German 220 12.1.2.1 MHG texts 221 12.1.3 Early New High German and the development of the NHG standard 222

2 Sound change 226 12 3 Sound change and spelling 227 12.3.1 Statements on pronunciation by contemporary phoneticians and grammarians 227 12.3.2 Loan words 227 12.3.3 Phonological development in the language itself 227 12.3.4 Spelling conventions and variants 228 12.3.5 Rhymes and puns 228 12.3.6 Related languages and dialects 228

12 4 Types of phonetic change 229 12.4.1 Vowels 229 12.4.2 Consonants 229

12 5 Phonemic change 230 12.5.1 Merger 230 12.5.2 Split 230 12.5.3 Shift 231

6 Vowel changes 231 12.6.1 Diphthongization and monophthongization 231 12.6.1.1 The development of OHG ai and au 231 12.6.1.2 Diphthongization in OHG 232 12.6.1.3 Monophthongization in NHG 233 12.6.1.4 Diphthongization in NHG 233 12.6.2 Development of umlaut vowels 234

.; ».¢':» ~".'»>.'.=¢=>‘E;I"iF-"- -- -

E1" 11:: :

_.

12.6.3 Changes in vowel quantity 235 12.6.3.1 Lengthening 235 12.6.3.2 Shortening 237 12.6.4 Changes in vowel quality 237

12.6.4.1 Lowering 238 12.6.4.2 Rounding and derounding 238

12.6.5 The e-sounds 238 12.6.5.1 Origin of /e:/ 238 12.6.5.2 The short e-sounds 239 12.6.6 The retraction of long /a:/ 239

12.7 Consonantal changes 239 12.7.1 Second, or High German, Sound Shift 239 12.7.1.1 The geographical distribution of the Second Sound Shift 242 12.7.2 12.7.3 12.7.4 12.7.5

12.7.1.2 Theories about the Second Sound Shift 244 Voiced and voiceless plosives and fricatives 245 Voiced and voiceless fricatives 246 The origin of /f/ and merger with /s/ 247 Nasals 247

Questions 248

References 250 Iridex 260

Figures

1.1 The expansion of German from the 10th and 11th centuries to 1900 1.2 The present-day extent of German 1.3 Chart of International Phonetic Symbols 1.4 The phonetic signs for use in the Sprachatlas der deatschen Schweiz 2.1 The organs of speech 2.2 The parts of the tongue

page 5 6 10 11 20 21

2.3 The larynx 2.4 Positions or states of the vocal cords 2.5 Air-stream mechanisms

22

2.6 Acoustic difference between [a] and [i] 2.7 Schema for tongue heights

25

2.8 Position and shape of the lips 2.9 Stages in the articulation of plosives 2.10 The velum and the nasal cavity 3.1 Primary Cardinal Vowels 3.2 Secondary Cardinal Vowels 3.3 Stressed, short, lax vowels in German 3.4 Tongue position for short :1] 3.5 Tongue position for short :Y]

23

24 26 26 27 28

33 34

36 37 38

3.6 Tongue position for short :0]

39

3.7 Tongue position for short ie] 3.8 Tongue position for short [oe] 3.9 Tongue position for short :0]

39

3.10 Tongue position for short ia] 3.11 Long tense vowels in German 3.12 Tongue position for long tense [iz] 3.13 Tongue position for long tense [yz] 3.14 Tongue position for long tense [u:] XVI

40 41 42

43 43 44 45

List of figures 3.15 Tongue position for long tense [e:] 3.16 Tongue position for long [ez] 3.17 Tongue position for long tense [of 3.18 Tongue position for long tense [o:: 3.19 Tongue position for long tense [oz] 3.20 Tongue movement for diphthong iai] 3.21 Tongue movement for diphthong [an] 3.22 Tongue movement for diphthong joi] 3.23 Tongue movement for diphthong iui] 3.24 Tongue position for unstressed [9] 3.25 Tongue position for unstressed -er as a vowel 4.1 The articulation of the velarized [*1] in English 4.2 The articulation of the alveolar trill [r] 4.3 The articulation of the uvular trill [R] 4.4 Release of the occlusion in the articulation of affricates 4.5 Voice onset time in the articulation of plosives 4.6 Articulation of fp] and [b] 4.7 Articulation of [t] and [d] 4.8 Articulation of [k] and [g] 4.9 Articulation of if and [v] 4.10 Articulation of l l and [z] 4.11 Articul ' la tion of l l and [3] 4.12 Articu lation of l l and [j] 4.13 ATl1CU_ ' lation of i >1=;< =;_-.;v ..,,_._, ,_,.; _.;,,.__,;, :>

_.

_., ,;-._.».-,7; l;;>A':v . zb-_:: ' ,__j1

>: :>l ._.I_,.;. ._.

_,. 1; 1;“ . :-ll::>->:- ,.; >:vlI::lI:- l:>: .:_;. L; :>lv>-I/::_:I>) ::->

.. __,_,_,_ _, ._ 1; _, I: _; I . ._ _ _ -I ,.I=¢_, ;; =,_/. =.,-_,;.__.=-,;=_;_-.:_=.=-._=_;_-;;.,_;=;__=;_-_;= I--, ‘Q, »_: .1254 .1./-:._'-:'.::i;.":§: ; ;',-._; :E'I*.E'_;x-.'-=_.i:,;-:_ »_ -2;-(I ;_.»;‘»_,;-‘;I I- :-::)-'*:-i>:: l::‘-Els--:1-::v>:::l§>-I! :;_I. _:-.; 5

14 5

;

6 7

8

-;-. .=I 3 .1-4 ."I*I 1» I_'.')II-{J = ,-== b: 1; :,I _.= I 1 2' rs In,

155:. .:'. .,'=: >_-:_: _:

=I. .-.1».

.',";I ,1 I

I 1'1" II I II 2'1‘ = I> ;- 1.

.. I .

V.

.-

II

2 Basic concepts

2 0 Introduction In this chapter we will describe the mechanisms ofvocal communication. This will involve: the organs of speech, air-stream mechanisms, types of sounds, different vowels and consonants and the behaviour of the vocal cords. Many of these basic concepts of speech production are treated in more detail in

Abercrombie (1967), O’Connor (1973), Catford (1988), Borden et al. (2003) and Ladefoged (2005). Concise and useful accounts are to be found in Crystal

(1987: 123-75 and 1995; 236-49). 2 1 Vocal communication Within an act of vocal communication between two speaker/hearers one

speaker/hearer conceptualizes an event and through neural activity in the brain and neuromuscular activity speech is produced and then heard, perceived and

understood. In this book we are concerned with the different phases ofspeech production: (1) the articulatory or organic phase; (2) the aerodynamic phase; (3) the acoustic phase; and (4) the auditory phase. The articulatory or organic phase comprises an articulatory component, the

positioning and movement ofthe organs ofspeech and the spaces within which they operate, e.g. the vocal cavity. The aerodynamic phase is how the air-stream that comes up from the lungs is modified. In the acoustic phase, sound waves are created through the expulsion of air through the mouth and/or nose and these are picked up by the ear of the speaker/hearer. The auditory phase is how

the ear registers the sound and interprets it. Corresponding to these phases sounds can be described in the discipline of phonetics as: articulatory, acoustic and auditory. Articulatory phonetics deals

Basis sonserts

--._

' 12b

1 2a 2b 3

@\iO3U1-P

8

12 9 10

7

Lips Upper teeth Lower teeth Alveolar ridge Hard palate Soft palate or veium Uvula Wall of the pharynx Apex of tongue

9 Dorsum or back of tongue 10 Root of tongue 11 Glottis with vocal oords (within the larynx)

12 Oral cavity 13 Nasal cavity

Figure 2.1

The organs ofspeech with how the organs of speech modify the air-stream that comes from the

lungs. Acoustic phonetics consists of recording the sound waves so produced and registering their amplitude (strength of articulation) and their duration. Auditory phonetics, how the ear registers sound, is treated in some of the contributions to Hardcastle and Laver (1997), notably Stevens (1997: 462506), Delgutte ( 1997: 507-38), Moore (1997: 539-65) and McQueen and Cutler

(1997: 566-85). In our treatment of German sounds we will be concentrating on the articulatory side of phonetics.

2.2 The organs of speech The organs involved in the articulation of speech sounds (Fig. 2.1) are not only used for that sole purpose. Their main functions are breathing and eating. These organs are to be found in the vocal tract that We will take as extending

from the lungs to the mouth and nose. The movement of the lungs, their

3':'~?? .-.=.~¢=.--.',-.< .=;.=,I 5?' I:¥3'ai*‘?ilillli§i =.=.-V.-.anv:;=.;-5;»

2.2 The organs of speech

1

2

_

i

K

4

5

3

2

1 2 j‘

3

3

4

.

5

l

Apex or tip Blade Side O1-P0Ol\)—l

Figure 2.2

Dorsum or back Root

The parts ofthe tongue

inflation and deflation, acts as a pair of bellows in forcing air up the trachea, or windpipe, and past the larynx (see 2.3). Above the larynx is the first of three cavities that can change in size or volume according to the movement of the organs of speech. This is the pharynx or pharyngeal cavity. Moving

upwards and in the direction of the mouth there is the tongue with its different parts, designated root, dorsum or back, sides, blade and tip, although they

don’t correspond to obvious anatomical divisions (Fig. 2.2). The tongue is an extremely active organ of speech and moves about in the second cavity, the oral cavity, changing the latter’s size and volume, and is involved in the articulation of both vowels and consonants. At the top of the oral cavity is the roof of

the mouth, which can be divided into the hard and soft palate. Moving from the back of the oral cavity, the pharyngeal wall, towards the mouth we have the alveolar ridge, the teeth and the upper lip. All of these have counterparts on the base of the mouth, e.g. lower lip etc. The third cavity is the nasal cavity, which can be sealed off from the oral cavity by raising the velum, the moveable part of the soft palate, so that air only flows out through the mouth. The movement and shape of these articulators modify the shape of the different cavities and help to produce different speech sounds. Articulators

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3.0 Introduction Vowels are classified not by different types of strictures as in the case of consonants but by the modification of the oral cavity and the shape of the lips. The oral cavity is modified through the position and height of the tongue. For the vowels there are three tongue heights: high, mid and low, which correspond to close, half-open and open on the vowel diagram (see Fig. 2.7). In the descriptions of the vowels both sets of terms will be used, even though they might appear redundant. According to the position of the dorsum or back of the tongue, vowels are either produced in the front or the back of the oral cavity. The shape of the lips, whether they are rounded or spread, is another important feature in the description of vowels (see Fig. 2.8). Their importance varies

from language to language. In English front vowels are always pronounced with spread lips and back vowels with rounded lips, whereas in German there are also front vowels pronounced with rounded lips. As well as the qualitative differences between vowels, shown by the position of the tongue, its height and the shape of the lips, there is also a quantitative

difference between vowels that are short in duration and those that are long. The IPA uses the colon [:] to designate long vowels, e.g. tief [tizf]. In addition,

the long vowels are said to be ‘tense’ (gesparmt) and the short vowels ‘lax’ (angesparmt). This difference has been ascribed to ‘muscular tension’ (C. Hall 2003: 76). However, this difference is also ‘a matter of dispute’ (Benware 1986:

12) and it is not certain what it means (Fox 2005: 41). Kohler (1995: 170f.) uses the feature pair tense/lax as does Becker (1998: 47). He regards them as being realized phonetically by length and lowering, but it is not clear how this relates to muscular tension. The main factor, however, influencing the use of

the tense/lax distinction is that it is linked with stress. Stressed long vowels are tense while stressed short vowels are lax.

31

Vowels The high or close vowels are [i y u], which are realized as long tense vowels (bieten, Trliten, tnten) in opposition to the short lax vowels (bitten, Hiitte,

Matter). The mid vowels are [e o 0], which are realized as the long tense vowels (beten, loten, Boten) in opposition to the short lax vowels: Betten, Getter, Morten. The open vowel [a] shows a minimal difference in tenseness between short Bann and long Balm. The front low vowel [ez] is an anomaly, being

both long and lax, but it has arisen as a spelling pronunciation for words containing long . In addition, in north Germany [ez] has largely taken its place. Another feature of the articulation of both short and long vowels as well as diphthongs in German is that the velum or soft palate is raised and the nasal cavity sealed off. Vowels produced in this way are called oral vowels. Nasal vowels, where the air-stream is expelled through the mouth and also the nose by not raising the velum, only occur in some French loan words in German, e.g. Teint‘complexion’, Fonds ‘fund’ (see 8.2.1.2).

3 1 Short and long vowels We will first consider the stressed vowels that form the nucleus, or peak, of the syllable in German. During the production of vowels by the air-stream from the lungs passing unhindered over the centre of the tongue, the height of the tongue may vary, making the vocal tract large or small. The positions and heights ofthe tongue have been captured by X-ray photography and measured. However, what is important is not any exact measurement of tongue height or frontness or backness but the position of the vowels relative to each other. The description of the relative space between vowels has been made on the basis of the so-called Cardinal Vowels (CVs). These are essentially an ideal qualitative pronunciation of vowel sounds first set out and recorded by the English phonetician Daniel Iones (1881-1967). They can be represented by the well-known vowel trapeze for the primary CVs that gives a number to each vowel-from 1 to 8 (Fig. 3.1). In the pronunciation of the vowel of the German word Kinn the tongue is high in the mouth and narrows the vocal tract considerably, whereas in the pronunciation of the German word kann the tongue is low in the mouth and the vocal tract is very open. In the pronunciation of the vowel of the German word Kunde the vocal tract is very closed and the tongue is high in the mouth. Thus vowels such as the [i] ofKinn and the [u] ofKunde are classified as close vowels and [a] of kann as an open vowel. The vowels [i] and [u] also differ from one another in that the tongue is positioned in a different part of the mouth during their articulation. The vowel [i] is produced by raising and advancing

3.1 Short and long vowels

FRONT

(CENTRAL)

\ I

V

close i

2

BACK

-

half-close

e



u

8

lo

7

l

3

half-open

4

Figure 3.1

e

open a

o

6

(1

5

Primaiy Cardinal Vowels

the blade ofthe tongue towards the front ofthe mouth whereas [u] is produced

by raising the back of the tongue towards the velum. The vowel [a] can also be produced by the tongue being at the front or back of the mouth. Vowels whose articulation is accompanied by a relatively forward position of the tongue in the vocal tract are called front vowels (Vorderzungenvokale). Those Whose articulation is accompanied by a relatively retracted position of the tongue are called back vowels (Hinterzangenvokale). The vowel [i] is therefore a close front vowel and [u] is a close back vowel. In the pronunciation of [i] and [u] yet another dimension can be seen, i.e. the shape of the lips. In the

articulation of [u] the lips are rounded and in the articulation of [i] the lips are spread, or neutral, and not rounded. Between the two extremes of close [i] and [u] and open [a] there are intermediate stages. These intermediate stages are represented by the vowels in the German words Bett and Gott which are close to the CVs 3 and 6 respectively.

The vowel in Bert is represented by the IPA symbol [e] and is usually classed as a half-open front vowel. The vowel in Gottis represented by the IPA symbol [0] and is usually classed as a half-open back vowel. The stressed vowels in German leben and loben are long half-close vowels, written [e:] and" [oz], close to CVs

2 and 7. (Vowel length is not used in the CV diagram.) The half-open long [e:] appears long only in some varieties of German: some speakers distinguish between the stressed vowels in Beeren and Bitten by pronouncing the first as a long half-close vowel [e:] and the second as a long half-open vowel [ez], close

to a long version of CV 3. The short vowels [i] and [u], corresponding to CVs 1 and 8, have long counterparts in German; compare the pairs binnen and

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H116

10» 11

l oe

12

Figure 3.2

X15 ‘

(E

--A

-

14

D13

Secondary Cardinal Vowels

Bienen, Bucht and Bach. It has become usual to consider the short close vowels as being slightly more open with a slightly lower tongue height than the long close vowels and to write the former [1] and [u] and the latter [iz] and [uz]. Although the exact details may not be completely accurate the trapeze diagram for the CVs is a handy way of portraying the relative articulatory and auditory

distances between the vowels.

~

3.2 Front rounded and back unrounded vowels There are also secondary CVs, again represented by a trapeze diagram where 9-12 are rounded and 13-16 unrounded (Fig. 3.2). These secondary CVs are less frequent, although the front rounded ones occur in German and French. The front vowels so far mentioned, CVs 1-1, are pronounced with no liprounding, the back vowels, 6-8, having lip-rounding. The open vowel [a], CV

5, is neutral with respect to lip-rounding. However, the German vowel sounds in Brlihne, schon and konnen are examples of front vowels with lip-rounding, corresponding to the secondary CVs 9, 10 and 11 respectively. The German

front rounded vowels are also distinguished according to whether they are close or open. The vowel in Bahne is close, the vowel in schon is half-close, and the vowel in konnen is half-open. They are transcribed [yz], [(2):] and [oe] respectively. The short counterpart of [yz] appears in rniissen and is slightly more open, i.e. the tongue height is slightly lower. It is written [Y] in phonetic

script. The open vowel [a] is a central vowel. During its articulation the main part of the tongue is in the centre ofthe vowel tract. It is a low vowel. The short vowel in Ratte is pronounced with the tongue slightly more advanced than for the long vowel in raten. They are symbolized [a] and [oz] respectively.

3.4 Unstressed vowels

3 3 Diphthongs and sequences of vowels In the articulation ofboth the short and long vowels the position of the tongue has remained constant throughout. These vowels are called monophthongs (der Monophthong, -e). If the position of the tongue changes during the articulation of a vowel then the vowel is described as a diphthong (der Diphthong, -e), e.g. the vowel sounds in Stein, Zaun, nean. For purposes of transcription, they are considered as having two components, symbolized [ai] , [au] and [oi]. They can be described in the same way as ordinary vowels. German has three so-called falling diphthongs, that is having the stress on the first component. These are the sounds in the words: mein, Haas, each. (For more details on the choice of transcription symbols, see 3.5.3.) Diphthongs must be distinguished from sequences of two vowels, e.g. a and iin prosaisch, a and 0 in Chaos and u and u in Kontinuum. In these cases the first vowel is usually long, or if short it is close, there is often a glottal stop or a slight pause between the two vowels and they belong to separate syllables. Another type of vocalic sequence occurs in foreign words where an unstressed non-syllabic vowel precedes another vowel, which is usually, but not always, stressed. To signify that a vowel is non-syllabic the diacritic [A] is used. The most frequent non-syllabic vowels are [i, u], written iand u: Stadium, Italien; aktuell, ritaell. The vowels e, y and 0 do occur, but not so frequently: Petroleum, Hyane, loyal, Memoiren. There is a tendency for the high vowels to become the palatal fricative [j] and the mid back [0] to become the bilabial fricative [w].

3 4 Unstressed vowels As well as the vowels that bear the main stress in the word there are also

unstressed vowels. The main vowel in unstressed syllables is the -e of bitte, a central unrounded close vowel, written phonetically [o] , called schwa. It occurs mainly after the chief stress in a word, e.g. bitte, Klasse, Name, but also before the chief stress in a word in the prefixes be- (bezahlt), ge- (gegeben). Schwa also occurs in the careful pronunciation of the unstressed ending -er. In colloquial speech, however, the ending -er is vocalized to become [e], so-called ‘dark schwa’, a central half-open vowel (see 3.5.4.2). This pronunciation has now been accepted by DAW. In WDA it was viewed as an alternative. Other unstressed vowels do occur, e.g. the final vowels in Sofa, Kino, Matti, Uhu, but mostly in foreign words or, in the case of - i, words denoting people (see 8.2.2.2). There are also other unstressed vowels in polysyllabic words through the introduction of Latin and French loan words: Philologie, thematisieren.

=I.'_-if-Y =1‘;

ff-"7 5 5‘.f- ’ f§-"‘ 5111? I f¥1'".i

Close (High) Half-open (mid-low)

Front unrounded 1 e

Front rounded Y oe

Open (low)

Figure 3.3

Central

Back rounded u o

a

Stressed, short, lax vowels in German

3.5 The vowels in detail Our goal in this chapter is to review the vowels of German one by one and look at them from five different aspects:

(1) their articulation, how they are produced (2) the main spelling of a particular sound (further details will be given in Chapter 6) (3) a concise statement of their distribution; a fuller statement will be in Chapters 6 and 7 (4) any similarities with English sounds to help in learning to pronounce them: Received Pronunciation (RP) will be used as a reference point, and readers should refer to the relevant articles in Britain (2007), Cruttenden (1994), Nevalainen and van Ostade (2006: 306-11) and Crystal (I987);

for American usage, see Moulton (1962) (5) what major variants exist in different areas of the German-speaking speech area: these will not be treated in a systematic way and readers should refer to the contributions in Russ (1990).

At this stage we will regard the vowels as sounds and write them in square brackets. In Chapter 5 their phonemic status will be ustifiedwith examples of

oppositions and distinctive features. Detailed descriptions of German vowels, often with diagrams and pho-

tographs, can be found in C. and P. Martens (1961: 27-107), Wangler (1983: 90-117), MacCarthy (1975: 37-52), Kohler (1995: 169-75), Becker (1998) and C. Hall (2003: 72-108) as well as in this book.

3.5.1 Short lax vowels There are seven short, lax vowels in German: [I Y u e oe o a], as can be seen in Fig. 3.3.

3-5 The vowels in detail

_

_ I

/

_____________ __ \ __¢----

tn‘ I

Figure 3.4

f

.

Tongue position for short [1]

3.5.1.1 Short high close front unrounded vowel [1] (i) Articulation The short vowel [1] is pronounced with the dorsum of the tongue raised in the front of the oral cavity and With spread lips. The tongue height is

slightly lower and more central than for long [i:] (Pig. 3.4). (ii) Spelling It is normally spelt : Gift, schwimmen.

(iii) Distribution It occurs before stops (Lippe, kribbeln ‘to tickle’, bitte, Widder ‘ram’,

schicken, Riggrmg‘rigging’), fricatives (Schijfe, wissen, wischen, wichen), nasals (Zimmer, binnen), liquids (l/Villen, irren). (iv) Similarity to English sounds It is similar to the vowels in English gift, swim. It should not be centralized. (V) Major variants In southern Germany and Austria short [i] has a closer and tenser

articulation whereas in northern Germany it tends to be made more open, sounding like [e]. Also in northern Germany before [r] it tends to be rounded, approaching [Y].

3.5.1.2 Short high close front rounded vowel [Y] (i) Articulation The articulation is similar to [1] as far as the height and position of the tongue, but the lips are rounded (Fig. 3.5).

i i'§§8§3ii§3;§-1~;i §.§; : . §;§‘§§‘ %:it;i'it‘; i Vowels I

I

i

- - - _ _ _ - _ - _ - _ - — —,» _ . _ _¢

( I

Y

Figure 3.5

Tongue position for short [Y]

(ii) Spelling It is normally spelt but also in Greek loan words: Miitze, Hymne. (iii) Distribution It occurs before stops (rlippig, schiitten, pfliicken, fliigge ‘fully-fledged’), fricatives (silffig, Kiisse, Biische, Brflche), nasals (diimmer, diinner), liquids (fiillen, Diirre).

(iv) Similarity to English sounds This vowel does not exist in English but it is similar to the vowel in Scots look. (v) Major variants The short [y] is often lowered to sound like [oe] in north Germany. In

Central and Upper German dialects it is often derounded.

3.5.1.3 Short high close back vowel [u] (i) Articulation

The sound [0] is pronounced with the tongue position slightly over half-close in the back of the oral cavity with rounded lips (Fig. 3.6). (ii) Spelling

It is normally spelt : Butter. (iii) Distribution

It occurs before stops (struppig, Knubbel ‘lump’, Butter, buddeln, spucken, schmuggeln), fricatives (muffig, Busse, pfuschen, bruchig), nasals

(Rummel, Ztmge), liquids (Stulle ‘slice of bread and butter’, murren).

..

3.5 The vowels in detail

--------- ---—-\ ,_ _-¢



I I I

_¢ \

\

I

\

I

U

Figure 3.6

Tongue position for sh ort [U]

\

IIII I I

I'-

¢"

__-—

_-— —~ l

l

l E

figure 3.7

_

.

Tongue position for short [e]

(iv) Similarity to English sounds It is similar to th e vowels in northern E nglish butter, southern English book. (v) Majorv ariants ' The short [o] s h ows no ma]or ' variants.

3. 5.1.4 Short h alf-open front unrounded vowel [e] (i) Arti culation ' The short [2] is articulat e d in ' the front of the oral cavity with the tongue in a I1'11Cl ' or half-open position. The lips are slightly spread (Fig. 3.7).

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:[email protected]: but also ; (Rader), but also : Fahre. (iii) Distribution It occurs before stops (Séibel, Rate, gnrlidig, hakeln ‘to crochet’, préigen), fricatives (Kéifig, majltg Kiise), nasals (schiimen, géiltnen), liquids (wiihlen, géiren). (iv) Similarity to English sounds It does not occur in RP but it does occur in some varieties of northern

English in words such as name, late. Care should be taken not to diphthongize it. (v) Major variants The half-open [82] is mostly replaced by the long half-close [e:] in the

north and east of Germany.

3.5.2.6 Long half-close front rounded vowel [oz] (i) Articulation The dorsum of the back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate.

The sides of the front of the tongue are in contact with the lower incisors. The lips show as great a degree of rounding as in the case of [y:]

and are pushed forward (Fig. 3.17). (ii) Spelling It is normally spelt but also , and in some French loan words.

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1

1

1

V

=.:=;.e;=; ».

I

owe 5

i

----------"a I \I I I —-~

\

\ \\



\

\

\

,_## ~_-’ \_/

1

i Q1

Figure 3.17

Tongue position for longtense [o:]

(iii) Distribution

It occurs before stops (Koper ‘twill cloth’, Dobel ‘dowel’, toten, Boden, bloken ‘to bleat’, Biigen), fricatives (Dfen, Mowe, Grofie, losen, Strtime, Sobne, Hohle, horen). (iv) Similarity to English sounds It does not occur in RP.

(v) Major variants The half-close, front rounded [or] is often derounded in Central and Upper German dialects.

3.5.2.7 Long half-close back rounded vowel [o:] (i) Articulation The dorsum of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate. The sides of the front of the tongue are in contact with the lower incisors. The lips show the same degree of rounding as in the case of the front rounded [oz] and form an oval shape (Pig. 3.18). (ii) Spelling It is normally spelt but also , and occasionally . (iii) Distribution It occurs before stops (Opa, loben, Brote, Mode, Kolcer ‘worker in coking plant’, Woge), fricatives ( Ofen, stowen ‘to steam’, Sofie, Rose, koscher, Loge, malochen ‘to graft, work hard’), nasals (Kama, Sohne), liquids (Sohle, bohre).

_;;, ;:,,;.:,,(.: ;(m;F .-- t; - 1.» =:'5:':'=¢'=¢ =.==¢= :2

3.5 The vowels II1 detail

..:.>.F:! ;i.¢-.-..-¢---

\

4 4‘

_ _ _ _ _ - - - - - __ I ‘p ,1

__-’\\

i i n:

\\\\

l \

I

I

§ OI

Figure 3.18

Tongue position for long tense [o:]

(iv)

Similarity to English sounds

(v)

It does not occur in RP. It is used by some Scots speakers. It must always be pronounced as a monophthong and not diphthongized as in RP stone, moan. The [oz] of RP law and northern English stone should also not be used. Major variants In East Central German dialects the [o:] is often palatalized and centralized.

3.5.2.8 Long open unrounded vowel [oz]

(i) Articulation It is the most open vowel, showing the greatest opening ofjaw and lips. The tongue lies almost on the floor of the oral cavity and the sides of its front are in contact with the lower incisors. The dorsum is slightly raised. The lips assume a neutral position, being modified by the

(ii)

preceding consonant. It differs slightly in quality from short open [a], being tense (Pig. 3.19). Spelling Long [oz] is usually spelt (fragen), but also (Rahm) and : Saal.

(iii)

Distribution It occurs before stops (Stapel ‘pile’, Gabel, raten, laden, Lalcen ‘sheet’, lagen), fricatives (Hafen, brave, Mafien, Hasen, Rage, Spracbe), nasals (Samen, Bahnen), liquids (fahle ‘pale’, Haare).

Vowels

_____________ ____ .--’

\

i

I Figure 3 19

Tongue position for longtense [o:] (iv) Similarity to English sounds

It is nearest to the in RP glass, father but it should not be retracted. It should also not be fronted as in some varieties of south-west English

and American. (v) Major variants The long open [oz] is often retracted and rounded in southern Germany,

Austria and Switzerland. In northern Germany, on the other hand, it is often fronted.

3 5 3 Diphthongs German has three falling diphthongs, symbolized [ai], [au] and [oi]. These are the sounds in the words: mein, Hans, each. The diphthongs [ai] and [au] start

with a low position of the tongue which is then raised to a high front vowel in the case of [ai] and a high back vowel in the case of [au]. The transcription of these diphthongs varies. DAW, MacCarthy (1975), C. Hall (2003) and Fox (2005) follow our suggestions but Siebs (de Boor et al. 1969), WDA and Rausch

and Rausch (1991) have [oe] and [oo] , with a lower tongue height for the second component of [ai] and [au]. There is more substantial disagreement about the nature of the second component of the third diphthong [oi]. According to Moulton (1962), MacCarthy (1975) and Kohler (1995) it is unrounded,

whereas for Siebs (1969), Benware (1986) and DAW (2005) it is rounded, either [o] or [Y]. C. Hall (2003: 105f.) transcribes it as [oy], but concedes that many speakers use [oi]. We will use the transcription [oi]. Diphthongs

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3.5 The vowels in detail 1

Ll

I

e

.5“ O0 S

e

(B

» 90

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a

Figure 3.20

D Cl

Tongue movement for diphthong [ai]

in German dialects show a bewildering variety of forms (see Wiesinger 1970).

3.5.3.1 The diphthong[ai] (i) Articulation The diphthong [ai] starts with the tongue at its lowest point and in the central-front of the mouth and then glides upwards towards the highest point. The lips are spread (Fig. 3.20). (ii) Spelling It is normally spelt but also and occasionally . (iii) Distribution The diphthong [ai] occurs before stops (Kneipe, bleiben, leiten, leiden, streiken, Geige), fricatives (greifen, reisen, retflen, reichen, heischen), nasals (reimen, 1/erneinen), liquids (feilen, feiern). (iv) Similarity to English sounds It is similar to RP [ai] in mine but care should be taken that the [a] is not too fronted. (v) Major variants The diphthong [ai] appears often as a monophthong [e:] in some Central German dialects and Berlin: ik wees, NHG ich weijl. It is also monophthongized to [a:] in other Upper German dialects. In Swabian

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Tongue movement for diphthong [au] the first component is fronted and raised to [o], giving [oi] , especially in those words that come from MHG long i‘ (min).

3.5.3.2 The diphth0ng[au]

(i) Articulation The diphthong [au] starts with the tongue at its lowest point and in the central-front of the mouth and then glides upwards towards the highest point in the back of the mouth. The lips become slightly rounded towards the completion of the articulation (Fig. 3.21). (ii) Spelling It is normally spelt but also and especially in English loans: down, Couch. (iii Distribution The diphthong [au] occurs before stops (Raupe, Tauben, Laure, Staaden, paaken, taagen), fricatives (taufen, laasig, alraufien, taachen, taaschen), nasals (Gaamen, Gauner), liquids (1/erfaulen, Mattrer). (iv) Similarity to English sounds It is similar to the diphthong in RP mouse but the first component should be further back. (v) Major variants The diphthong [au] appears as a monophthong in some Central and Upper German dialects, particularly before labials. In Swabian the first

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Distribution

(iv)

The plosive [b] has a more restricted distribution than [p]. It occurs initially before vowels: Ball, Biss, Bert, Bolme, Bude; and before [r] and [l]: Brei, braun, Brot; Blei, Blick, blofi. Medially it occurs mainly after long vowels and diphthongs: Probe, triibe, Bube; and less frequently after short vowels: Ebbe. Similarities with English sounds

It is very similar to the in English bet, German Bert; English rubber, German rubbeln ‘to rub’. (v) Major variants In South Germany, Austria and Switzerland [b] is a voiceless lenis [b] but sometimes it is weakened to a fricative [[5] medially between vowels.

4.4.1.3 Voiceless fortis alveolar plosive [t]

(1) Articulation The voiceless alveolar plosive [t] is formed by making a closure in the oral cavity with the tip, or the blade, of the tongue against the alveolar

ridge. The sides of the tongue lie against the upper teeth. The velum is raised so that, when the closure is released, the air expelled flows only through the oral cavity and out through the mouth. The vocal cords are

not vibrating (Fig. 4.7). The lips take on the features of the following vowel: rounded before front and back rounded vowels, spread before unrounded vowels. In initial position before vowels it is aspirated. The same remarks on voice onset time and aspiration as described for [p] are also valid for [t].

l

.----------"::::' I I

F

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t/d

Figure 4.7

Articulation of [t] and [d]

(ii) Spelling The voiceless alveolar plosive [t] is usually spelt (Tal, tun, tragen), medially and finally after short vowels (Moire, Blair), and after long vowels and diphthongs (Ethos; Vater, Seite, Blur). The digraph is used in Greek loans: Thema. Finally is used in words that have inflected forms with medial : Kleider, Kleid. Exceptionally is used in Stadt, Stéidte. (iii) Distribution The voiceless alveolar [t] occurs initially before vowels: Tee, tun; and [r] trage, trilibe. It occurs medially and finally after short and long vowels: Mitre, Schritt, Miete; and diphthongs: Streit, leid. (iv) Similarities with English sounds As with [p] the alveolar plosive [t] is pronounced with aspiration as in English tint, German Tinte. (v) Major variants In South Germany, Austria and Switzerland [t], like [p], is pronounced with little or no aspiration. In Central and Upper German dialects, including Swabian and Central Bavarian, it is weakened to a lenis [.

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Sounds in contrast

5 1 Phonemes and allophones The number of sounds that the organs of speech can produce is infinite.

The utterance of every sound every time it is articulated is slightly different. Phoneticians want to describe pronunciation in as much detail as possible. However, as soon as the learner or linguist starts to study the sounds of a particular language then what becomes important is not simply how sounds are pronounced but which sound differences are made to distinguish words. In practice, therefore, only a limited number of distinctive sounds is used in each language. In German the difference in meaning between Tier‘animal’ and

dir ‘you (dat.)’ is carried solely by the difference between a voiceless alveolar plosive [t] and a voiced alveolar plosive [d] (cf. Engl. town vs down). Sound

differences in a language that distinguish between the meanings of words are termed phonemic, and the sounds which carry this difference are called phonemes. Thus in German and English the plosives [t] and [d] are phonemes and the difference between them, the presence or absence ofvoice, is phonemic. What is important is not that they are alveolar plosives, but that one is voiceless,

[t], and one voiced, [d]. As phonemes the sounds are written between slant lines /t/, /d/. They are said to form a phonemic opposition. There are many pairs ofwords in German

which are distinguished solely by a difference ofvoice: Paar: bar; Taten : Daren; Kasse: Gasse; fein : Wein. Words such as these that differ only in one phoneme from each other are known as minimal pairs. The easiest way of establishing the phonemic system of a language is by using minimal pairs, but contrasts in a similar environment, e.g. before vowels (Pass : Bus), are considered to be sufficient if minimal pairs are not available.

Phonetic differences that are not phonemic are termed allophonic. Phonemic and allophonic features differ from language to language. In German the

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5.3 opneeitiene between vowels

5.3.2 Oppositions between front and back vowels 5.3.2.1 High vowels /i:/ : /u:/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: Kiepe ‘basket’, brieten, Spieker ‘ship’s nail’ : Lupe, bruten, Luke ‘hatch, skylight’ (2) Before voiced plosives: opposition does not occur

(3) Before voiceless fricatives: riefen, gieflen, Nische, kriechen: Stufen, fuflen, wuschen, buchen

(4) Before voiced fricatives: Biesen : Busen (5) Before nasals: Mime, Schiene: Blume, Wune (6) Before liquids: spielen, Tieren: spulen, Touren

5.3.2.2 High vowels /i/ : /u/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: Sippe, bitten, kicken: Suppe, Butte, gucken (2) Before voiced plosives: bibbern, Widder, Riggung: schrubben, muddig ‘muddy’, meschugge ‘mad, insane’ (3) Before voiceless fricatives: schifien, Bissen, wischen, sicker: mufiig, Busse, kuscheln, bruchig ‘boggy’ (4) Before voiced fricatives: opposition does not occur (5) Before nasals: stimmen, gewinnen : stumrne, Brunnen

(6) Before liquids: stillen, irren: Bullen, surren

5.3.2.3 Mid vowels /e:/ : /o:/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: beten : Popel ‘snot’, Boten, pokern (2) Before voiced plosives: leben, weder, segen : loben, Baden, Bogen (3) Before voiceless fricatives: Hefe, Spiifle, dreeschen ‘to rain’, Gesprtiche: Pofel ‘rubbish’, grojle, koscher, Maloche ‘hard work’ (4) Before voiced fricatives: lesen: losen (5) Before nasals: Schemen ‘diagrams’, sehnen : verchromen, schonen (6) Before liquids: fehlerz, Meere: Fohlen, Moore

5.3.2.4 Mid vowels /s/ : /0/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: Treppen, retren, lecken : stoppen, spotten, locken (2) Before voiced plosives: Ebbe, pedden ‘to kick’ (north German), Egge: Robbe, Bodden ‘shallow bay’, Roggen (3) Before voiceless fricatives: Pfefier, besser, dreschen, Becker: Kojfer, Bosse, erloschen, gebrochen

Sounds in contrast

Cons.

iv

/e/W

lpl /t/ /k/ /b/

Krippe Sitte Wicken bibbern

Steppe Wetter wecken Ebbe

/d/

Widder

fleddern

Egge Pfeffer wessen

/s/ /f/ /s/ /f/ /ch/

/m/ /n/

/I]/ /l/ /r/ Figure 5.1

kniffen wissen wischen wichen Stimme binnen singen

Esche stechen stemmen Sennen sengen Welle zerren

Wille irren

)5/l Happen Watte backen

Krabbe

Affe Wasser waschen lachen Amme Kannen sangen wallen Karren

/o/

/u/

/y/

/o/

stoppen stottern stocken Robbe Bodden Roggen gesoffen Bosse gedroschen pochen kommen Sonnen bongen Wolle

Suppe

uPP18 Mutter Riicken

Kloppel Gotter Rocke

Schlorre

Butter drucken rubbeln buddeln

schmuggeln muffig Busse tuschen bruchig bummeln Brunnen gesungen

Bulle murren

fltigge siiffig Kiisse Biische Spriiche dummer dfinne Sprtinge Fiillen Diirre

Schoffe Schlosser loschen Locher frommer konnen vollig

dorren

Oppositions of short vowels before single intervocalic consonants

(4) Before voiced fricatives: opposition does not occur (5) Before nasals: schwernmen, nennen: kommen, Nonnen (6) Before liquids: Schwelle, Sperre: Stollen, verworren

5.3.2.5 Low vowels /e:/ : /a:/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: Téiter, héikeln : Taten, Haken \ (2 i Before voiced plosives: Scibel, Schudel, Itiger: Nabel, schaden, jagen |\3)| Before voiceless fricatives: Kéifer, Gefiijier, Gespréiche: Hafen, saflen, Spruchen 1:4) Before voiced fricatives: Kéise: Vase (5) \ 1 Before nasals: léihrnen, Ziihne: Namen, muhnen (6) Before liquids: schiilen, Fiihre: Schale, fahren f

\

I

\

5.3.3 Multilateral oppositions between vowels of different tongue heights Among the short vowels three levels of tongue height are distinctive: high, mid and low. We will include seven vowel phonemes and represent the oppositions in Fig. 5.1.

5.3 Oppositions between vowels

5.3.4 Oppositions between front vowels with rounded and unrounded lips .i

5.3.4.1 /y/ : /l/ (1) /\

12: \J

(3)

(4) (5)

(6)

Before voiceless plosives: iippig, Mutter, Stucke: Rippe, Mitre, sticker: Before voiced plosives: fliigge: wriggen Before voiceless fricatives: siiffig, miissen, Biische, Spriiche : pfijjfg, missen, zischen, stricken Before voiced fricatives: opposition does not occur Before nasals: Liimmel, verdiinnen, Spriinge: Bimmel, binnen, springen Before liquids: fr‘/Ellen, Diirre: Willen, Irre

5.3.4.2 /y:/ : /i:/ (1)W Before voiceless plosives: T}/pen, Mythen, Kiiken : Piepen, mieren, kieken I ) (2)

Before voiced plosives: Schiibe, Suden, liigen : schieben, sieden, liegen f N (3) Before voiceless fricatives: Kiifer ‘cooper’, Sufie, Riische, Biicher: Kiefer, spieflig, Nische, riechen (4) Before voiced fricatives: Druse: Riese (5) Before nasals: riihrnen, Biilmen : Riemen, Bienen (6) Before liquids: fuhlen, spuren : fielen, zieren 5.3.4.3 /Ql/ : /e/

(1) Before voiceless plosives: Kltippel ‘clapper; bobbin’, Gotter, Hooker: Treppe, Betten, Hecke

(2) Before voiced plosives: opposition does not occur (3) Before voiceless fricatives: Loffel, Schlosser, loschen, Locher: rrefien, besser, Esche, Becher (4) Before voiced fricatives: opposition does not occur ( 5 ) Before nasals: schwornrne, konnen: schwernmen, kennen (6) Before liquids: Holle, Dorre ‘dryness’ : Helle, Sperre

5.3.4.4 /12!:/: /e:/ (1) Before voiceless plosives: Gtipel ‘treadmill’, toren, pokeln : Fete, Ekel (2) Before voiced plosives: Miibel, spriide, Vfigel: Nebel, edel, fegen (3) Before voiceless fricatives: Hofe, Blofle: Hefe, méiflig

(4) Before voiced fricatives: Mowe, léisen: ewig, lesen (5) Before nasals: Strome, Solmez Scheme], Seline (61! Before liquids: Hohlen, Mohre: hehlen ‘to conceal’, Meere

Sounds in contrast

5 4 The consonant phonemes The consonant phonemes are distinguished by three main distinctive features: ( 1) voiced vs voiceless (or lenis/fortis); (2) place ofarticulation; and (3) manner of articulation. In this section we are only dealing with single consonants — combinations of consonants, clusters, being described in Chapter 7. However, the affricates [pf ts tf] present a problem of analysis as to whether they are single phonemes, e.g. /pf/, /ts/, /t_[/, or clusters, e.g. /p/ + /f/ etc., and their phonological status is discussed in 5.4.1.2.

5 4 1 Problems of phonemic analysis among the consonants There are disagreements among linguists concerning the status of [x] and [c] and whether the affricates should be analysed as unitary phonemes (monophonematic analysis) or as a sequence of two consonants (biphonematic analysis).

5.4.1.1 The status of [x] and [c] Phoneticians recognize that there is a phonetic difference between the voiceless velar fi'icative [x] and the voiceless palatal fricative [c]. Kohler (1995: l60f.) adds a uvular [ X]. There is, however, disagreement about their phonemic status. For the most part they are in complementary distribution with [x] occurring after low and back vowels and [c] occurring after front vowels. In the words tauchen and Tauchen ‘little rope’ there is an apparent contrast of /X/ with /c/. However this can easily be dealt with and their allophonic status confirmed if morphological information is allowed in the phonological analysis (something that many phonemic phonologists are unwilling to do: they wish to use only phonological criteria at the phonological level). In Tuuchen, where [c] occurred after a back vowel, it was in the initial position of the diminutive suffix. The description of the distribution of the allophones [x] and [c] can therefore be framed as follows: ‘The allophone [c] appears after front vowels and initially in words (Chernie) or morphemes (-chen) and after /n 1 r/; the allophone [x] appears elsewhere, i.e. after low and back vowels.’ This question is still being aired. Griffen (1985: 53-72) argues that the variation in articulation lies chiefly in the vowel and need not be symbolized in the consonant. T. A. Hall (1992: 221-35) argues that both [c] and [x] are produced by a rule of ‘Dorsal fricative assimilation’ which only operates within

5.5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants

morphemes, thus in tauchen the [x] is within the morpheme tauch- while the [c] of -chen in Tauchen belongs to a different morpheme. For a survey of a variety of different analyses, see: Moulton (1962: 28-32), Iones (1967: §§ 230—2), Keller (1978: 557f.), Benware (1986: 49f.),Wiese (1996:

209-18), FOX (2005; 40-2). 5.4.1.2 The affricates: are they one phoneme or two? Are the affricates [ts, pf] to be considered as single phonemes /ts/ and /pf/ (monophonematic solution), which would add to the inventory of phonemes, or are they combinations of distinct consonants, /t/ + /s/ and /p/ + /f/ (biphonematic solution) like /t/ + /r/ etc.? Linguists are divided in their opinion and almost all analyses seem to use their own criteria (Werner 1972: 50-5). Several criteria seem, however, to point to the independent nature of the two parts ofthe affricates and thus to regarding them as clusters oftwo consonants. Firstly, the ability of the individual components of the affricates to occur on their own: the affricate /ts/ contrasts with /t/ and /s/ ([s] as a realization for initial s only occurs in South Germany and Austria), e.g. zeigen, Teig, seinen;

/pf/ contrasts with /p/ and /f/, e.g. Pfeife, Pein, fein. Secondly, their ability, albeit limited, to reverse position. Of the theoretical combinations and their reversals, i.e. /ts st pf fp/, the sequences /ts/, /st/ and /pf/ occur as intervocalic and word-final clusters: sitzen, Netz; beste, Nest; klopfen, Topfi but not /fp/. A third pointer to the fact that both components have an independent nature is shown by the fact that both can be divided by a morpheme boundary: réit —i— st, Ab + fall. For these three reasons it will be assumed here that the affricates [pi] and [ts] are biphonematic, being clusters of/p/ + /f/ and /t/ + /s/ . This will also affect the description of consonant clusters, describing the initial combinations of words such as pflegen and Zweifel as being composed of three consonants: /p/ + /f/ + /l/ and /t/ + /s/ + /v/. For a discussion of different analyses, see: Keller (1978: 55 7f.), Kohler (1995: 166-8), Wiese (1996: 265-8) and Fox (2005: 46).

5 5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants The consonant phonemes are distinguished by three main distinctive features: (1) voice, (2) place of articulation and (3) manner of articulation. These manifest themselves in the opposition between voiced and voiceless obstruents (lenis and fortis), between maximally five places of articulation (labial -— alveolar — post-alveolar — palatal — palato-velar) and between two oppositions of manner

of articulation between plosive and fricative and oral obstruent and nasal. We

Sounds in contrast will give examples in all these three main categories, covering several different positions in the word and also before and after other sounds. We will thus see that the distribution ofthe sounds in opposition varies. For example, the opposition between voiced and voiceless obstruents does not occur in word-final position. The opposition is said to be neutralized. The main positions of occurrences of the consonants in the word and before or after certain sounds are: (1) word-initially before vowels; (2)

word-initially before sonorants /l r m nl; (3) word~initially after obstruents; (4) medially between vowels; (5) medially before sonorants Il r m n/; (6) medially before obstruents; (7) word-finally after vowels; (8) word-finally before or after sonorants /l r rn n/: and (9) word-finally before or after obstruents. In collecting examples, Muthmann (I996) and the reverse dictionaries Mater

(1965), Bruckner and Sauter (1984), Muthmann (1988) and Lee (2005) were a great help.

5 5 1 The bilateral opposition between voiceless and voiced plosives 5.5.1.1 /p/ : /b/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Paar: bur, Pest: bestens; Piste: bisl; Posse: Bosse; putzen : Butzen ‘(apple) core’; Pobel: Boden; Puflfe: Biiffel (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: Pleite: Blei; Preis : breit (3) Word-initially after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: Ruupen : Tuuben; piepen : blieben; Steppe: Ebbe (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Welpe ‘pup, whelp’ : selber; Schéirpe ‘scarf’ : Scherbe; Pumpe: Plombe (6) Medially before or after obstruents: Wespe: Lesbe (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.1.2 /t/ : /d/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Taten: Daten; Teller: Delle ‘dent’; Tier: dir; Torf: Dorfi tuten: duzen; Tone: Doner; tufteln ‘to puzzle over’ : Dilfte (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: treten : drehen; trfiben : driiben. The opposition does not occur before /l/. (3) Word-initially after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: leiten : leiden; bieten : Lieder; litten : l/Wdder

,~.__ .

.

..

... . .. _. ;_. .--;_;,;

1;;-my-;,,. ...

. 5.5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: halten : Halde ‘mound, heap’: Horte: Herde; Amter: Hemden; hinten: hindern ( 6) Medially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.1.3 /k/ : /g/

(1) Word-initially before vowels: Kabel: Gabel; Kern: gern; Kolben ‘butt (of rifle)’ : Gold; Kuss: Guss; konnen : gonnen; Kiisse: Giisse (2) Word-initially before sonorants /1 r m n/: Klette: Glorte; Kronze : Grenze; kneten ‘to knead’ : gnodig (3) Word-initially after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: Laken : Lagen; Ecke: Egge (5) Medially before sonorants /l r m 11/ : Balken : Balgen ‘bellows’; Erker ‘oriel, bay-window’ : Arger; Schinken : Bingo

(6) Medially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.2 The bilateral opposition between voiceless and voiced fricatives 5.5.2.1 /f/ : /v/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Fall: Wall; Felder: Wolder; finden : winden; fort: Wort; Fund : wund ‘sore’; fill1l€1’lI wiihlen ‘to burrow, rummage’

(2) Word-initially before sonorants /1 r m n/: Frack : Wrack. The opposition does not occur before /l/.

(3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: Schwere: Sphare; 1

1 Medially between vowels: Ofen : stowen

1 1 Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Wolfe: Pulver; Larve: Kurve 1 1

1 Medially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur 1 Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

1 @\’lO\U1 >-F81\3\ \., 5\.,\1 _ Word-finally before or after sonorants/1 r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur f\I\I\I\F‘

Sounds in contrast

5.5.2.2 /s/ : /z/ (1)1 Word-initially before vowels: Sex: sechs; City: Sitte (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur Medially between vowels: reijien : reisen; Hasen: hassen Medially before or after sonorants /1 r m n/: opposition does not occur [ O\U)U1LP Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur 1(7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur 1(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur W'rix/' \ —'\r—\

\__1\__/\. 1\.1_

5.5.2.3 /f/ : /3/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Schale: Ialousie; schier: Giro (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur Medially between vowels: waschen : Page Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur O0 O\ \l U1 U0 1-§ Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur s 4

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5.5.3 Bilateral opposition: plosive : fricative 5.5.3.1 /p/ : /f/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Pate: Vater; Puclel: Fuder‘cartload’; Pein fein (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: Plunder: Plunder; priesen : Friese ‘friezes’ (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: spoter: Spliirire (4) Medially between vowels: Kneipe: Eifer; Lupe: rufen; kippen : kniffen (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Stulpe ‘cuff : Hilfe; Zirpe ‘cicada’ : Scliilfe (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: Leib: reiji Hub ‘lifting’ : Rufi Rifi‘‘reef’ : Tipp (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur

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5.5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: Rezept: Sufi; Scbops ‘mutton’ : betrefifs ‘concerning’

5.5.3.2 /t/ : /S/ (1) (2) 1(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) \

Word-initially before vowels: Tonne: Song; Tenne: Cent Word-initially before sonorants /1 r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur Medially between vowels: weiter: weijler; Bote: Sofie; mitten: rissen Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur Word-finally after vowels: weit: weifi; tot: Stofl; mit: bis Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: bult: Huls; Gurt: Kurs; Zimt‘cinnamon’ : Sims ‘(window)sill’; Guns: Hand; bedingt: Dings

(9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: Delikt: Knicks; Murkt: Murks ‘botch-up’; Luft: behufs ‘concerning’

5.5.3.3 /k/ : /x—c/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Kinn : Chi ‘Greek letter chi’; Kenntnis: chemisch; Kurte: Cbunukka; kurz: Cbuzpe (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m nl: Klummer: Chlumys ‘cloak’;

kriechen: Cbrysoprus (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: streiken : reicben; quieken : Griechen; Booker: Becher; Kiiken: Biicher

(5) Medially before or after sonorants /1 r m n/: Fulke: erdolcben; burken : schnurchen; Imke: Bliirncben; trinken : tiincben (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: Streik: Laich ‘spawn’; Grummutik: zwunzig; Rock: rocb (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Volk: Dolcb; Werk: Kelcb; Fink: Monch

(9) Word~finally before or after obstruents: direkt: zurecht; Duchs ‘badger’ : Ducbs (gen. of Dach)

5.5.3.4 /b/ : /v/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Bunn : wunn; Besen: Wesen; Biese ‘braid’ : Wiese; Bohnen : wohnen; Bucht: Wucbt‘force’; Borse: Worter, Biibne: wiiten

Sounds in contrast (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: bringen : wringen (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: Gabe: Skluve; blubbern : Struwwel(peter) ‘shock-headed Peter’

(5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Scbwulbe: Mulve; Nurbe: Arve ‘stone pine’ (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.3.5 /d/ : /z/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Dame: Sumen; denken : senken; Dieb: Sieb; Donner: Sonne; Doner: Sohne; Dilinen: siihnen

1'2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur r

(3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

(4) Medially between vowels: seiden : reisen; wieder: Wiese 1'5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Bilder: Hillse; Hiirde : Ferse; \

Fremden : Gemse; finden: Pinsel

(6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur I

(7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not

occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.3.6 /g/ : /j/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: gar : Iubr, guren : joten; Gockel : Iocb; Gurke jucken (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur

(3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: Bogen : Bojen ‘buoys’

(5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

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Phonemic oppositions among consonants

5.5.4 Nasal plosion vs oral plosion 5.5.4.1 /m/ : /b/

(1) Word-initially before vowels: mucben: backen; Menge: Bengel; mieten: bieten; morgen: borgen; Mutter: Butter; rnogen : Bogen; miide: Buhne (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: reimen : reiben; Rahmen : Ruben; Robben: kommen r 1 Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Hulme: bulbe; Arme: Furbe (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur ’\5/’

5.5.4.2 /n/ : /d/

(1) (2) 1:3)

(4) 1(5)

(6)

(7) (8)

(9)

Word-initially before vowels: nuss: duss; Nelke: denken; Nord : dort, Nutzen : Dutzend; notig: dosig ‘dozy’; Niistern ‘nostrils’ : diister Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur Medially between vowels: leiden: Leinen; Fuden : Fuhnen; Troddel: Wonne Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur Word-finally before or after sonorants /1 r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.4.3 /13/ : /g/ Word-initially before vowels: opposition does not occur Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur DJl\.) 1-1 114) Medially between vowels: ringen : Riggung ‘rigging’ (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur 1(7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur — \rQ\ /—-\r

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Sounds in contrast

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants ll r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.5 Multilateral oppositions between places ofarticulation 5.5.5.1 Voiceless plosives: /p/ : /t/ : /k/ (I) Word-initially before vowels: peilen ‘to sound, take bearings’ : teilen : keilen ‘to wedge’; pussen: Tussen : Kussen; picken: ticken: kicken; putzen : tuschen ‘to paint in Watercolours’ : kuscheln (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: Prucht: Trucht ‘traditional

dress’ : Kraft; Protz ‘swank’ : trotz: Kropf‘crop (of a bird)’ (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: Spitze: Stift: Skizze; Spaten : Staat: Skut ‘card game’ (4) Medially between vowels: Ruupe: Laute: Pauke; Paten : Taten : Luken; Sippe: Sitte: nicken (5) Medially before or after sonorants /1 r m n/: Tulpe: Pulte: ulken ‘to joke’

Zirpe ‘cicada’ : Hirte: Birke (6) Medially before or after obstruents: Wespe: Weste: Freske (7) Word-finally after vowels: Leib : leid : Streik; lieb : Lied : Fubrik; schlupp: satt: Suck

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: gelb: Geld: Kulk; herb: hart: stark; (after a nasal) Lump : fund : Tank (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.5.2 Voiced plosives: /b/ : /d/ : /g/ (I) Word-initially before vowels: baumeln: Duumen: Gaumen; Bann : dann kann; bieten: dienen : giefien (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: breit: drei : gleich (3)1 Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: bleiben: beneiden: neigen; Reben : reden : Regen; Ebbe: verheddern ‘to get tangled up’ : Egge ‘harrow’ (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Milbe ‘mite’ : Milde: tilgen; erben: werden : Arger (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m 11/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

‘Ii5l§i i§’i *§§~’TIi‘ ~‘ 5.5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants

5.5.5.3 Nasal plosives: /m/ : /n/ : /1]/ 1(1)

Word-initially before vowels: opposition does not occur

Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur 1:3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: schwimrnen : sinnen ‘to meditate’ : singen (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur 1:2)

(6) Medially before obstruents: Bombe : funden : Bingo

(7 ) Word-finally after vowels: Lumm : Mann : lung (8) Word—finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.5.4 Voiceless fricatives: /f/ : /s/ : /_|‘/ : /x—c/

(1)

Word-initially before vowels: finden: Single: schinden ‘to maltreat’ 1 Chirurg, Fest: Cent: Chef: chemisch Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur

(2) (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: reifen : reiflen: heischen: reichen; taufen:

(5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

druuflen: rauschen: ruuchen; rufen : fuflen: wuschen : Buche; begriflfenz wissen: wischen : sicher Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur Word-finally after vowels: reif: weifl : Fleisch: reich; Ruf: Fuji: wusch: Buch Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Wolf: Hals : fulsch : Malch ‘salamander’; Wurf: Vers: Mursch : Starch; : uns: Wunsch: munch Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.5.5 Voiced fricatives: /v/ : /z/ : /3/ : /j/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Vene: Sehne: Genre: jene

(2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: stawen : Dose: Loge: Kaje ‘cabin’ (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur 1(6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants ll r m nl: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

..._ .= ,1, . _,._ ._. »_-._. _._., I ;.»,_ ‘;,;;,..,‘.,,,

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Sounds in contrast

5.5.6 Oppositions with the lateral /l/ and trill or fricative /r/ 5.5.6.1 /l/ : /r/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: leise: Reise; lachen : Ruchen; leben : Reben; Lippen : Rippen; Loch: rach; lutschen : rutschen; loten ‘to solder’ : Rote; Liicken : Rucken (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: Pleite: Breite; Blei: Brei; flieflen : frieren; schlunk: Schrunk (4) Medially between vowels: feurig: heulen; Wuhlen: wuren; Willen : Wirren (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur 1(6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: Saul: rur; heil: Feier([a] after a diphthong); still: wirr (8) Word-finally before or after sonorants ll r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.6.2 /l/ : /d/ (1) Word-initially before vowels: Lumm : Dumm; lenken: denken; Licht: dicht; Loch: dach; losen: dosen; Lrlicke: diirfen; Luunen: Daunen; Leiche: Deiche

(2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: muhlen : Nadel; wahlen: Laden; wieder: Ziele; Sahle: raden; Schule: Bude; Hohle: blode; Schuler: Siiden (5) Medially before or after sonorants /l r m n/: Erle ‘alder’ : Erde (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.6.3 /r/ : /d/

(I) Word-initially before vowels: rein: dein; Ruum : Duumen; rusch : Dach; rennen : denn; ringen : Dinge; Dock: Rack; dudeln ‘to hum, tootle’ : rudern; Rote: Dodel ‘simple person’; Rube: Dubel ‘dowel’ (2) Word-initially before sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur

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5.5 Phonemic oppositions among consonants 1'3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur (4) Medially between vowels: Wuren: Waden; goren : Laden; Mieder‘bodice’ : frieren; bohren : Baden; spuren : Bude; storen : Koder; fiihren: miide (5) Medially before or after sonorants /1 r m 11/: opposition does not occur

(6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur

(7)1 Word-finally after vowels: opposition does not occur

'

(8) Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9) Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur

5.5.6.4 /l/ : /t/ (I) Word-initially before vowels: leicht: Teich; luu : Tau; lug: Tug Lende: Tenne; lief: tiefi laben : taben; Luch ‘swamp’ : Tuch; Lohne: Tone; Lilcke: Tiicke (2) Word-initially before sonorants ll r m n/: opposition does not occur (3) Word-initially before or after obstruents: Schlunge: Stunge; schleppen: Steppen; schlingen : stinken; Schloss: Stafi; Schluss: Stuss ‘nonsense’ (4) Medially between vowels: schullen : Schutten; schalen : sputer, schielen ‘to squint’ : mieten; Sahle: Quote; Kohler: loten; Hiille: Hutte; Zeilen : Zeiten; jaulen: lauter 1'5) Medially before or after sonorants /1 r m n/: Kerle: Harte (6) Medially before obstruents: opposition does not occur (7) Word-finally after vowels: weil: weir; Maul: Maut ‘toll’; Saul: Saar, hell: Bett; still: Schritt; Zall: Gatt (8)1 Word-finally before or after sonorants /l r m n/: opposition does not occur (9)1 Word-finally before or after obstruents: opposition does not occur \

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6.4 Spelling of individual phonemes Examples of the spellings : (1) in open syllables: Séibel, spéiter, gnadig, hakeln, lager, Hafen, Spafle, Kase, schamen, erwahnen, Taler, ware, or before th or ph: Ather; or before final 1". Bar; (2) before ch, Gespriiche; /ts/, Ratsel; tsch, tatscheln; examples lacking before sch; (3) before other consonant clusters: Biirte, Gebdrde, or a syllable-final consonant followed by the suffix -chen (Mddchen, Mdrchen) or -lich (déirnlich, zartlich); (4) in monosyllables: Bar, nachst, schrag, spat; (5) in the suffixes -ar (illnsionirir, Millionar), -itéit (Forrnalitiit), -geniaji (ordnungsgerndji), -mdflig (vorschriftsmdjlig). There appear to be no homonyms distinguished by and .

6.4.2.4 Long /i:/ Long /i:/ is spelt usually spelt (sieben, Glied), but it is also spelt , particularly in open syllables (Bibel, Igel), and also , particularly before nasals and liquids in pronouns: ihm, ihn, ihr. It is also spelt in Vieh and the second and third person singular siehst, sieht from sehen, and ziehst, zieht from ziehen. It is spelt in a few loan words from Greek and

French (Zylinder), and in a few English loan words such as Ieep, Spleen, Tweed. Examples of : (1) before single consonants in open and closed syllables: piepen, Liebe(n), bieten, Titel, Lied(er), Pike, qnieken, kriegen, Igel, Brief(e), sprieflen, niesen, Riemen, dienen, Bier(e), zielen; (2) before ch, kriechen; /ts/, siezen; sch, Nische; and tsch, qnietschen; (3) before other consonant clusters: ihrzen, Biester; (4) in monosyllables, especially in pronouns: in ihn, ihnen, ihm, ihr and ihr(e) but in mir, wir, dir and also in hier, Tier, sie, Sie; (5) in the stressed foreign suffixes, -ie (Partie, Geografie), -ieren (spionieren), -ik (also occurs unstressed) (Republik), -iv (depressiv), and also in the final stressed syllables of Berlin, Paris. Homonyms distinguished by and are: wieder— wider; Lied — Lid;

Stiel — Stil; Miene— Mine.

6.4.2.5 Long /o:/ Long /o:/ is usually spelt in open syllables (loben, Ofen, Bote, so, wo) and before ph (Philosoph), and in closed syllables (grab, grofi, Not); and , particularly before nasals and liquids: Bohnen, ernpfohlen, gestohlen, bohren. It is also spelt in Boote, Moor, rnoorig, Moos, nioosig. Some minor spellings are in some names (ltzhoe, Soest, Voigt), in place-names ofSlavonic origin (Pankow, Treptow), or personal names (Schadow, Biilow) and in English loan words (Toast, Goal).

Sounds and spelling Examples of the spellings : (1) in open syllables: Oper, loben, geboten, Mode, Koker, gezogen, Ofen, stowen, Sofie, Rose, verchromen, Bohne, Kohle, bohren; (2) before ch, malochen (also short); /ts/, Lotse; sch, koscher; long /o:/ is lacking before tsch; (3) before other consonant clusters: Mond, Ostern, Vogt, Obst; (4) in monosyllables: Lob, Boot; (5) in the suffixes -ion (Nation), -ios ( kurios), -los (farblos). Homonyms distinguished by , and : Boote — Bate; Mohr— Moor; Sole — Sohle; Dole — Dohle.

6.4.2.6 Long close /u:/ Long close /u:/ is usually spelt in open and closed syllables before a single consonant: rufen, Rute, Luke, tun, Spur. It is also spelt , particularly

before nasals and liquids, in Kuh, Ruhrn, Hahn, Buhle, Uhr(en). It is never doubled, except in surnames (Huuck).

Examples of the spellings : (1) in open syllables: Lupe, Bube, bluten, laden, spuken, Tugend, Stufen, Bufie, Busen, Puma, Wune, Schule, fuhren; (2) before ch, fluchen; /ts/, duzen; sch, wuschen; and tsch, knutschen; (3) before other consonant clusters: Geburt, Wuchs, Husten; (4) in monosyllables: Schub, Wut, klug, Spuk; (5) in the prefix ur- (Urgroflvater).

6.4.2.7 Long close /o:/ Long close /o:/ is usually spelt in open and closed syllables before a single consonant: B6, tiiten, Grdfie, hdren, kréinen, OI, schiin. It also occurs in some French loan words, e.g. Likdr. It is also spelt , particularly before nasals and liquids: Siihne, Réihre, Hiihle. In French loan words it occurs as : Malheur, Milieu. A minority

spelling is in names such as Goethe, Schroeder, Goedecke. Examples ofthe spellings : (1) in open syllables: Kiiper, Diibel, tiiten, bliide, bliiken, Biigen, Hiife, Miiwe, Grofle, liisen, Strorne, Siihne, Hiihle, stiiren;

(2) before /ts/, Fliize (examples lacking before ch, sch and tsch); (3) before other consonant clusters: héichstens, trosten; (4) in monosyllables: hrbchst; (5) in the suffixes -6s (seriiis) and -eur/-euse: Fritteuse, Masseur, Masseuse, Soufileur, Souflleuse (some words are now mainly spelt -or, e.g. Frisiir). A homonymic pair distinguished by and is: Fem — Fcihn.

6.4.2.8 Long close /y:/ Long close /y:/ is usually spelt in open and closed syllables before a single consonant (betriiben, Stiden, betriigen, priifen, Gemitse, griinen, spiiren, schwiil)

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