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THE SELECTIVE RECRUITMENT AND ORIENTATION OF FUTURE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS: A PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS IN LAS CRUCES, NEW MEXICO
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Ruth Nees August 1950
UMI Number: EP56739
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TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The problem
. . . . . . .
Statement of the problem . ..
Importance of the s t u d y ................
Future elementary teachers ..............
Organization of the remainder of the project
BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM Teacher shortage
Definitions of terms used
and emergency methods . .
development of a new approach
situation in New Mexico
situation in Las Cruces
. . . . . . .
COLLECTING D A T A ........... Survey of related literature
Information received from letters of inquiry
. . . . . . . . . . .
Question 1 .............................
Question 2 .............................
Question 3 .............
Question 4 .........................
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OP THE P R O G R A M .................................
Areas of concern...................
S u m m a r y ...............
Recommendations by respondents............
Implications and conclusions ..............
CRITERIA AND TECHNIQUES OP SELECTION........
Criteria of selection
. . .
Effective guidance techniques
. . .........
Implications and conclusions............ . VI.
Interests affecting choice ................
Efficacy of certain techniques ...........
TECHNIQUES OF RECRUITMENT
Implications and conclusions ..............
THE ORIENTATION P R O G R A M ....................
Pertinent findings of research............
Suggestions of administrators and s p e c i a l i s t s ........................... Data from the questionnaire
. . . . . . . .
Implications and conclusions .............. VIII.
S U M M A R Y ...................................
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .........
A P P E N D I X .........................................
LIST OF TABLES TABLE
Anticipated Outcomes of Program Related to Ways of Helping Prospective Teachers.................................
Ways Through Which Prospective Teachers Can Be Helped by Schools and Schools Can Be Helped byProspective Teachers .............
Recommendations for Administration of Proposed Program .........................
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The seriousness of the elementary teacher shortage is apparent on every hand.
The need for encouraging high
school graduates to consider the vocation of elementary teaching is great.
Educators and laymen alike are urging
that something be done now to meet the crisis. Based upon the premises that the high school years are crucial in determining the course of a life, that interest is intrinsic in activity, and that democratic procedures are essential to the successful carrying out of an educational program, this project presents a plan of action.
Statement of the problem.
It is the purpose of this
project to present a program for selective recruitment-and orientation of future elementary teachers, planned particu larly for those future elementary teachers who are high school seniors in Las Cruces, New Mexico. the program is twofold:
The purpose of
(1) to aid school and society by
the recruiting of high-caliber prospective elementary teachers and (2) to aid individuals in making a vocational
choice based on knowledge and experience. How shall the program be organized and administered? What criteria and techniques may be employed in furthering selective recruitment?
What methods and procedures may be
used in developing a program of orientation? It has been the purpose of this project to present partial answers to these questions based upon available data and presenting a working basis for a program of selective recruitment and orientation. Importance of the study.
Selective recruitment of
teachers has been recognized as a continuing problem of national significance.
"WHO WILL TEACH THEM?” asked a
recent National Education Association publication.
continued: There is a shortage of QUALIFIED teachers in our public schools. There is a shortage in every state — 90,000 qualified teachers are needed just to replace persons now employed on EMERGENCY CERTIFICATES. W e ’re preparing enough High School Teachers BUT . ONLY 35,000 ELEMENTARY TEACHERS will be prepared this year by the colleges and universities. WE NEED 103,000 each year for the next ten years.
’’Wanted: One and One-half Million New Teachers,” an article by T. M. Stinnett, forcefully presents forecasts
1 National Education Association Pamphlet, Who Will Teach Them? (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1950), pp. 1-4.
3 of future school enrollment made by the United States Census Bureau, which predicts an elementary peak enrollment for the year 1957-
Already these predictions are being
challenged as new data on births in 1949 indicate another upward swing. A national study shows that our country’s colleges will graduate this year only one new elementary teacher for 3 every five that will be needed in September. State edu cation associations have Joined in recognition of the serious situation, calling conferences, issuing tables of statistics, and urging action at every level. City and county school officials have direct contact with the problem of teacher shortage.
Two Los Angeles
County administrators say; What our country needs is a continued and intensi fied program of selective teacher recruitment. We must quit shunting our highest caliber youth into medicine, law, or engineering. We must give them factual information about the advantages of teaching as well. Although the Importance of orientation has not been so dramatically portrayed in the publications of the nation,
2 T. M. Stinnett, ’’Wanted; One and One-half .Million New Teachers," The School Executive, 68:11-14, May, 1949. o News item in The El Paso Times, May 14, 1930* 4
C. C. Trillingham and Emery Stoops, "Call for Master Teachers," California Teachers Association Journal, 46:7, May, 1949.
4 it has been recognized in the literature of the field.
a study made to ascertain effects of contact with children on attitudes of college sophomores, it was found that many turned to teaching as a result of the experience.^
implication, contact with children in a high school educa tional orientation program could have similar recruiting results. Jacques Barzun says that the three personal qualifi cations that should be required of teachers are "a sense of vocation, an awareness of the duties and opportunities involved, and a predisposition for the work through home grown familiarity with knowledge and ideas. The orientation program is aimed at the attainment of such qualifications. In relation to the individual, orientation is important as a factor in vocational choice.
based on knowledge and experience will be more valid. Courses taken in teacher training institutions can be more meaningful.
When duties of a teaching position are assumed,
adjustments to the realities of crowded classrooms and the
5 J. C. Mathews and R. B. Toulouse, ’’Case for Early Contact with Children in Teacher Education,” Peabody Journal of Education, 26:76-80, September, 1948. f\
Jacques Barzun, ’’Teaching — Job or Profession," Ladies Home Journal, 65:44, March, 1948.
5 complexities of a-present-day teacher's life will be ’'cushioned" by pre-knowledge of actual conditions.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Selective. The modifier selective has reference to the encouragement of those who seem to be the most promising prospective teachers. Recruitment.
As defined in the Dictionary of Edu-
cation,‘ the word recruitment itself conveys the charac teristic of selection; "a phase of preservice selection in which promising persons are encouraged to become interested in teaching as a vocation."
And it is with such a meaning
that the word recruitment is used in this study.
because the word would not bear such a connotation to all readers, the adjective selective has been added in order to make sure that the factor of quality is indicated. Orientation. By orientation is meant the process of creating within participating students an awareness of the factors involved in elementary education by giving knowledge and experience through activities in the elementary schools.
7 Carter V. Good, Editor, Dictionary of Education (New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19^577 ^95 PP*
Future elementary teachers.
Those high school
students who have Indicated an interest in elementary teaching as a vocation and those who might be encouraged to take such an interest are considered as future elemen tary teachers.
The words future and prospective are used
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE PROJECT
The background of the problem is presented in Chapter II.
This includes a history of steps taken toward
selective recruitment and orientation in Las Cruces. Chapter III describes the procedures followed in collecting pertinent data.
It includes a review of related
literature, a summary of information received through letters of inquiry, and a description and analysis of findings of a questionnaire. Chapters IV, V, VI, and VII present phases of the program itself.
The fourth chapter is concerned with
organization and administration, the fifth with selection, the sixth with techniques of recruitment, and the seventh with orientation.
In each chapter pertinent data collected
by means of library research, letters of inquiry, and a questionnaire are presented. implications for this study.
Conclusions are stated, with
A summary of the project is contained in Chapter VIII. The Appendix contains a copy of the questionnaire, together with copies of generally unavailable material received from administrators of programs similar in nature to the proposed program for Las Cruces.
CHAPTER II BACKGROUND OP THE PROBLEM Millions of words have been devoted in the past eight years to the teacher shortage, its causes, and pos sible cures.
It is the purpose of this chapter to touch
briefly upon the existence of the teacher shortage and the emergency approaches to its cure, to emphasize the need at this time for elementary rather than secondary teachers, and to stress the point of view of recruitment at the high school level.
The chapter includes brief expositions concerning: (l) teacher shortage and emergency methods, (2) the develop ment of a new approach, (3) the situation in New Mexico, and (4) the situation in Las Cruces. Teacher shortage and emergency methods.
there was a shortage of teaehers at the time of World War I specific difficulties were met by means of emergency meas ures, and no long-range policies were adopted.
the war, conditions seemed to right themselves with an apparent surplus developing. Some persons evidently had an idea that the shortage brought about during World War II would also be auto corrective.
The shortage of high school teachers did seem
9 to resolve itself.
”lt is evident that the critical short
age of high school teachers is past,” declared Maul.
11. . .
the number produced in 19^9 will probably be in excess of the number who can find p o s i t i o n s . T h e disappointment of those who had spent years in preparing for a secondary position that did not materialize is just one more reason for careful planning. Other persons, impressed by the amazing birth statis tics, began vigorous campaigns to publicize the problem. The need for elementary teachers became increasingly evi dent.
Concerning this, Maul stated:
Despite the fact that the public is aroused to the importance of staffing the elementary classrooms of the nation with well-prepared elementary teachers and despite the fact that the public is indicating in creasing readiness to support an improved program of elementary education, the colleges of the nation are not graduating as many four-year trained elementary teachers in 19^9 as were produced eight years ago. . . . The most critical need in American education today is indicated by these supply figures at the elementary level.2 Measures used during the war years, such as issuing emergency certificates, have continued.
The emphasis on
emergency' measures is apparent even in a recent survey of
Ray C. Maul, Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 19^9), p. 29. 2
methods of teacher recruitment.
Evaluations were sought on
emergency recruitment procedures, suggestions for relaxing of permanent certification standards, and plans for acceleration of training. It was a step forward when plans were offered for quick specialization of liberal arts graduates or of those trained for secondary positions.
Previously, these persons
had been given emergency certificates with no special prep aration whatsoever.
But these solutions still maintained
the emergency point of view, looking toward the nearest, quickest source.
Referring to the low enrollment in teach
ers colleges, one writer stated, ’’The supply of teachers
is drying up at the source.’
The development of a new approach. Recognition of the high school as a primary source of future teachers be came more evident as educators began taking a long-range view of meeting the problem.
Various recruiting techniques
were applied at high school level.
sponsored lectures, radio programs, teas, posters, and bulletins.
3 William Norman Wampler, "Methods in Teacher Re cruitment," (unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1946), p.
Ibid., p. 5.
The Future Teachers of America increased their membership, and began enriching the programs of their high school clubs. In 19^3, a Delta Kappa Gamma, monograph, urging recruitment and selection at high school level, suggested: Guidance by high school counselors who have a clear perception of the dramatic and unlimited possibilities open to teachers is very important. Irreparable damage may be done to the profession of teaching at this stage if the guidance or personnel officer is not as inter ested in recruiting for her own profession as she is in directing students into vocational or other pro fessional fields. . . . Carefully supervised and selected work experiences in classrooms in order to give candidates for teaching an opportunity to try out their abilities might be an invaluable asset in recruiting students whose abilities warrant their being admitted to the profession.6 In the same year a school superintendent in Penn-" sylvania initiated a high school guidance-recruitment pro gram.
Contact with actual elementary school experiences
was a part of that program.^ The vital relationship of the high school guidance
5 "future Teachers of America,11 Handbook for Local. State, and National Associations (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1949)> P- 289. ^ M. Margaret Stroh, "A Possible Program for Better Selection,” Better Selection of Better Teachers (Washing ton, D. C.: The Delta Kappa Gamma Society, 1943), P* 98* 7 Harry V. Herlinger, "And Gladly Teach," Occupations, 23:147-51, December, 1944.
program to the problem of selective recruitment began re ceiving greater recognition.
The increasing need for
elementary teachers pointed up the importance of contact with children in actual teaching situations.
still few in number, began organizing guidance-recruitment programs. ”Vocational Exploration in Group Work With Children” is the name given to a high school course initiated at Decatur, Illinois, in 19^6.
8 Also four years old is the
teacher recruitment program at La Porte, Indiana, where a Future Teachers of America Club is sponsored by the Asso ciation for Childhood Education.
The State Department of
Education has approved for credit the course designated as flAn Introduction to Teaching.”^' Elkhart, Indiana, has developed a similar program.10 It is too early to Judge the success of such under takings, although administrators report a high percentage of participating students entering teacher training insti tutions.
But they are a significant development In the
progress of teacher recruitment.
It is hoped that they will
® Charlotte Meyer, Elementary Supervisor, in reply to letter of inquiry, July, 1950. See Appendix. Q Paul F. Boston, Superintendent of Schools, in reply to letter of inquiry, July, 1950. See Appendix. 10 Elementary Supervisor, in reply to letter of inquiry, July, 1950. See Appendix.
13 go far in meeting the challenge of Maul: Perhaps the most immediate challenge facing leaders in American education today is to develop !!action programs” looking toward a tremendous increase in the number of available elemental teachers and, even more important, looking toward an increase in both the quantity and quality of their preparation.il The situation in New Mexico.
In New Mexico, as
elsewhere, there is a shortage of qualified elementary teachers, and a surplus of secondary teachers.
tion for New Mexico has been ameliorated by the fact that climate and colorful background attract teachers to the state, and that higher salary schedules have drawn others from nearby states.
However, only Colorado, Kansas, and 12 Oklahoma are now listing salaries below New Mexico's. Of the 948 new teachers in New Mexico in 1949-1950, 536 were from other states.
When it is considered that
there are 204- teachers with sub-standard qualifications, 28 vacancies, and 108 teachers required to bring the teacherpupil load to a ratio of thirty pupils to the teacher, a shortage of 34-0 qualified teachers is indicated.1^ A recent pamphlet predicts:
11 Maul, op. cit., p. 30* 12 Editorial, "Teacher Recruitment Shows Improvement,” New Mexico School Review. 29:22, May, 1950. -*■3 superintendents' Reports, "Enrollment up; Teacher Supply Low," New Mexico School Review. 29:4, January, 1950.
14 Rising employment of elementary teachers is likely to occur in the years that follow. Enrollment in grades 1 to 8 will probably not reach their peak until about 1958-59, when 42,000 more children may be enrolled than in 1948-1949. The elementary teaching staff would be larger by 1,400 teachers if one teacher were hired for every 30 additional pupils during the ten-year interval. An even greater source of job opportunities will be the openings created by deaths, retirements, and other withdrawals. If the attrition rate continues at around 18 per cent, as in 1947-48, the number of replacements needed yearly would in crease to almost 800 by the time the peak enrollment is reached. However, the rate is not likely to con tinue at such a high level; if it should drop to 10 per cent, the number of teachers needed at the peak would be about 450 per year.1^ In 1946 a state conference on teacher recruitment was held In Albuquerque.
Causes of the shortage were dis
cussed, and recommendations made concerning salary raises. A suggestion for five hundred scholarships at three hundred dollars each brought commendation at the national level, but, unfortunately, no legislative action.^ Recruitment programs have been sponsored by state and local education associations, usually with the presen tation of need as their chief object.
The Delta Kappa Gamma
Society sponsored a state-wide series of community and high school group meetings.
Chapters and clubs of Future Teachers
Veteran's Administration Pamphlet, "Occupational Outlook Information Long-Range Employment Prospects by State and Region: Teachers” (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949)> P. 57. Editorial, "Teacher Recruiting in New Mexico," The Journal of the National Education Association. 36:216, March, 1947.
15 of America have been recently organized.
But no definitely
planned guidance-recruitment programs with scheduled courses of orientation have been reported. The situation in Las Cruces. Las Cruces is a town of 13,000 located in southern New Mexico.
growth, together with the increasing birth rate, makes the problem of elementary teacher shortage more acute.
small elementary school had an increase of fifty students in 19^9-50 and is expecting a similar increase the next year.
Applications of qualified, pre-first, first, and
second grade teachers are rare even among the many out-ofstate applications. There are seven elementary schools with enrollments ranging from two hundred to five hundred.
Five schools have
grades from pre-first to fourth, inclusive; one school has fifth and sixth grades only; one has all grades. Each school has a principal, who is also, in most cases, a part-time teacher. supervisors.
There are two elementary
Teaching loads are heavy; consequently, any
program which requires teacher participation must be care fully considered.
The position of high school guidance
director has been recently established; a guidance program beginning with the ninth grade is being developed. The high school has a well organized Distributive
16 Education program which has functioned successfully.
students attend classes in the morning, but spend afternoon hours 11on the job.*'
A high school period is devoted to
problems related to the outside work.
The fact that such
a program has been established and operated successfully is an indication that a similar project could be worked out for prospective teachers. Career Day, sponsored by the Altrusa Club, has been observed for three successive years. America Club i*as organized in 1950.
A Future Teachers of The local chapter of
Delta Kappa Gamma presented a panel discussion, followed by a tea, for prospective women teachers from the high schools of the district and from the college.
At the tea
girls expressed desired for opportunities to have elemen tary school contacts. "Couldn’t we have a program for prospective elemen tary teachers similar to the Distributive Education plan?" the writer asked the high school guidance director and the sponsor of the FTA Club. "Fine!
Why don’t you contact the superintendent?"
they replied. Thus began this study. It has been the purpose of this chapter to present the background of the problem by brief discussions of emer gency methods used in meeting the teacher shortage; the
17 development of an approach which emphasized the high school as a primary source of prospective teachers; the present situation of supply and demand in the state of New Mexico and the situation in the city of Las Cruces, where readi ness for a recruitment-orientation program has been indi cated.
CHAPTER III COLLECTING DATA It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss sources of data used as guides in formulating a program of selec tive recruitment and orientation for high school seniors who may become elementary teachers. In seeking data related to the problem, answers were sought to the following questions: 1.
What does research say?
What does experience say?
What do specialists say?
What do participants say? Recent literature was surveyed for answers to ques
tions one, two, and three.
In addition, letters of inquiry
were sent to administrators of high school recruitment pro grams and to certain specialists.
To obtain answers for
question four, a questionnaire was sent to those teachers and administrators who will be most directly concerned with the development of the program. This chapter will present: (l) a brief survey of related literature, (2) a summary of information received from letters of inquiry, and (3 ) a description of the questionnaire, together with a summary and analysis of the findings.
19 Survey of related literature♦
A careful survey of
periodical literature during the period 1944-1950 was made.
Articles concerning teacher supply and demand,
teacher recruitment, counseling, vocational guidance, pre selection of teachers, and student teaching were read. Pertinent findings have been included in chapters of this project. It was interesting to note the increasing numbers of articles and studies devoted to teacher recruitment. The Journal of Educational Research reported that there were more than twice as many references during the fouryear period 1944-1947 than there were from 1940 through 1943*^
A comparable Increase seems probable for the cur
rent period. Articles of particular significance for this project were few during the years 1940-1943.
The uniqueness of a
certain high school recruitment program was emphasized in subsequent references.
The writer found five articles and
studies which devoted considerable attention to this program, originally described in "And Gladly Teach.11
1 R. H. Eliassen and Robert L. Martin. "Teacher Re cruitment and Selection During the Period 1944 Through 1947,” Journal of Educational Research. 41:642, May, 1948. 2 Harry V. Herlinger, "And Gladly Teach," Occupations, 23:147-151, December, 1944.
Although studies directly applicable to high school recruitment and orientation continued few in number follow ing 1944, an increasing number of those from which impli cations could be drawn became available.
found to two more high school recruitment programs similar in nature to the proposed Las Cruces program.
seniors in Decatur, Illinois, were being given an oppor tunity to work with children in elementary s c h o o l s . ^
flight” seniors were working with supervising teachers in 4 LaPorte, Indiana. Numerous references were found con cerning activities of Future Teachers of America. Research studies concerning attitudes toward teach ing, reasons for choice, methods of recruitment, effect of early contact with children, and what student teachers want were among those with implications for this project. The May issues of the Journal of Educational Re search were especially helpful. Data concerning the need for elementary teachers were gathered from newspapers, bulletins, and periodicals. Pertinent information concerning recruitment was found in two University of Southern California graduate \
3 Eliassen and Martin, op. cit., p. 648. ^ Christine M. Heinig, "AAUW and Teacher Recruitment,” Journal of the American Association of University Women, 43:1&9, Spring, 1950.
studies— a Master's thesis
and a Doctoral dissertation.
Bulletins from the National Education Association, American Association of University Women, and the Delta Kappa Gamma Society contained many appropriate suggestions. Pew books were found containing directly related material.
High school texts on orientation dealt chiefly
with high school life, with little emphasis on teaching in their sections concerning vocational guidance.
books on guidance contained techniques that could be applied in a selective recruitment project.
most specifically related to the project were Wahlquist's An Introductlon to American Education.^ Education in a Democracy, by Myers and Williams, Teaching.^
and Schorling's Student
Each contained sections or chapters dealing
with teaching as a vocation.
Other related aspects, also,
^ Lillian Sapers, “Recruitment for Teachers of Business Subjects,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^7). William Norman Wampler, "Methods in Teacher Recruitment," (unpublished Doctor's dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^6). ^ John T. Wahlquist, An Introduction to American Education (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 19W ) , 333 pp. Q
Alonzo F. Myers and Clarence 0. Williams, Education in a Democracy (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 19^8), 361 pp. 9 Raleigh Schorling, Student Teaching (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949), ^15 PP*
were presented. Information received from letters of inquiry. Fur ther knowledge concerning the three high school recruit ment programs mentioned in the periodical literature was thought desirable.
Letters of inquiry were sent to the
Superintendent of Schools, Decatur, Illinois; Superintend ent of Schools, La Porte, Indiana; and Superintendent of Schools, Mount Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Replies were received from all three school systems. Charlotte Meyer, elementary supervisor, answering for the Decatur, Illinois, system, reported a successful, continu ing program, well liked by students, teachers, and princi pals.
Called “Vocational Exploration in Group Work With
Children,” the high school course Is administered by the elementary supervisor, with the cooperation of the high school principal, high school counselors, and the elementary principals and teachers.
Not only did Miss Meyer answer
other questions concerning organization; she also sent a course outline and an evaluation check list.
A copy of the
questions and answers is included in the Appendix, together with copies of the outline and checklist. Similar excellent response was received from Paul F. Boston, superintendent of schools at La Porte, Indiana. “About 80 per cent of the students doing cadet teaching at
23 the high school level have entered teacher training schools,” he reported.
The superintendent, high school
principal, director of guidance, and elementary supervisor have cooperatively been responsible for solving adminis trative problems. Approval by a state board of education of high school credit for an introductory education course was emphasized by Superintendent Boston.
Material sent by him included a
comprehensive summary of the La Porte program, a list of requirements as defined by the Indiana State Department of Public Instruction, and two discussion outlines.
these will be found in the Appendix. The successful guidance-recruitment program ini tiated at Mount Lebanon by the late Dr. Herlinger has been continued and expanded.
Superintendent Horsman's reply
contained valuable reports on progress and organization. So much interest has been evoked by the original experiment that mimeographed materials containing salient points of the program have been prepared for inquirers.
ing guidance feature is the contact that is maintained with high school graduates during their teacher-training period. Their record includes test results (including Kuder Prefer ence Record). A permanent guidance committee has been established. There are plans to include junior high and elementary
24 teachers who share in the guidance of participating stu dents.
A copy of the school report’s summary of general
principles may be found in the Appendix. Through an interested person, knowledge was gained concerning a recruitment program in progress at Elkhart, Indiana.
A reply to inquiry was made- by an elementary
supervisor, who reported a system of cadet teaching which is part of a Future Teachers of America project. L. S. Tireman, University of New Mexico educator, gave pertinent advice and encouragement in his reply. The questionnaire.
In June, 1950, following inter
views to determine readiness for the proposed program, a questionnaire was submitted to the city superintendent of schools and an elementary supervisor.
With their approval,
copies were mimeographed and mailed to the sixty-five teachers and administrators who would be most directly concerned with the program. It was the purpose of the questionnaire10 not only to secure opinions which would aid in setting up the pro gram, but also to inquire into the attitude of each indi vidual. toward the subject. The first question, then, concerned itself with
10 A copy, reduced in size, will be found in the Appendix.
25 whether or not the person addressed was willing to cooperate in a program which would give high school seniors oppor tunities for learning and experience in the field of elementary education. The second question asked opinions as to the ways in which the school could he helpful to seniors entering the elementary teaching field.
The third asked for ways
in which it was thought the seniors could be helpful to the schools.
In number four, suggestions concerning or
ganization and administration were requested. The questionnaire was non-directive in nature; that is, it contained no lists of activities to be checked and no examples to follow.
It requested opinions, to be ex
pressed as the respondents wished.
Replies to all four
questions varied in length from a total of less than fifty words-to a total of more than five hundred.
It Is more
than probable that a eheck-list would have increased not only the number of specific items mentioned, but also similarity of response. The writer has no desire to prove any hypothesis by using the data received. ceive particular emphasis.
Wo statistical aspects will re The small number of cases and
the uniqueness of the situation preclude generalizations based upon data.
The questionnaire has been used as an
instrument for ascertaining opinions for a particular
26 situation, and as an aid in furthering a democratic process. The answers are considered important in their relation to the solution of the problem under consideration. The tabulation of answers is based on the replies from the first thirty-three questionnaires received.
the purposes of this study it was necessary to place an arbitrary time limit (three weeks) in order to allow time for tabulation and analysis.
Since the questionnaire was
mailed during school vacation, the number of replies and their quality has been gratifying. Of the sixty-five questionnaires, nine were sent to administrators and counselors, fifty-six to classroom teachers.
A one hundred per cent return was received from
the administrators and counselors.
Twenty-four of the
fifty-six teachers replied during the arbitrarily set period, making a forty-three per cent return for the teach ers.
For the group as a whole, the per cent of return was
fifty-one per cent. Every elementary school was represented by at least two replies.
Numbers from the buildings were as follows:
two, three, three, four, five, six, seven. principals and teachers.
Every grade was represented.
attempt was made by the writer to establish percentages by buildings or grades. A presentation of the questions and answers of the
27 questionnaire follows: Question 1_.
Would you be willing to cooperate in a
plan for selective recruitment and guidance that would give high school seniors opportunities for learning and exper ience in the field of elementary education? Yes
Of these answers, four were qualified as follows: If it doesn’t interfere with the welfare of our own pupils. I would hesitate in allowing the student to actually take over the class. If it could be worked out so that they could be a help to the teacher rather than an added burden. I would be willing to help any prospective member of the teaching profession, provided the student wanted help and would be an aid in my room. Seven added comments expressing interest and en dorsement . This certainly would be a step forward. I would be glad to do this. I would and will be most heartily willing to par ticipate in the program you propose. It Is very mueh needed. This program should be a fine challenge to all teachers. This would be one of our surest ways to overcome the shortage of elementary teachers which we are facing today. I will certainly be glad to cooperate. Prom personal experience — I would have liked to observe and participate in an elementary school when
28 I was a Senior — it would have helped me to choose a more definite field when entering college. I am trilling to cooperate in such a plan. I believe that an organized selective recruitment in the field of elementary education will not only fulfill the demand for more teachers, but will provide for more efficient teachers. The fact that all respondents indicated willingness is encouraging.
However, it must be recognized that a
person opposed to such a program would be less likely to reply.
If lack of response indicated lack of interest, the
need for a ‘'readiness” program Is indicated.
is expressed or implied in answers received after the tabu lating period, that factor should be taken Into consideration when seniors are allocated to certain rooms. Question 2.
In what ways could your school be
helpful to the seniors who are considering entering the field of elementary education?
(Please be as specific as
possible.) Answers to this question Involved not only names of opportunities for activities,.such as observing, teaching individuals, etc., but of anticipated outcomes of such activities.
Therefore, the ways (activities) and outcomes
were tabulated separately. The outcomes, whether stated or definitely Implied, were classified by the writer under general headings, such as Learning to understand children.
Table I presents a
TABLE I ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES OP .PROGRAM RELATED TO WAYS OP HELPING PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS Outcomes anticipated by respondents
Number of responses so classified
Learning about teaching methods
Learning to understand children
Learning about classroom management
Learning about teaching as a profession
Learning about problems of elementary education Total
30 tabulation of these headings, arranged in order according to the number of specific replies classified under that heading.
A more detailed outline is given in Chapter VII.
Learning about teaching methods is evidently the most obvious possibility for the seniors.
to teachers in the field is implied in the number of times that responses classifiable under that heading were made. Learning to understand children received a signi ficant amount of attention.
Interest in the principles of
child growth and development was indicated in the replies. It was to be expected that a number of the outcomes involving attitudes would concern attitudes toward teach ing, since this is a recruitment program.
But it was in
teresting to note the suggestions that were made concerning opportunities for development of feelings of being wanted and needed, feelings of self-confidence, and others condu cive to a development of mental health. Details of classroom management, such as the keeping of records, received sufficient mention to indicate impor tance. Learning about teaching as a profession is also in fluenced by the fact that this is a recruitment program. Responses classified under this heading referred to the acquisition of knowledge and facts concerning such things as requirements, opportunities for service, different
31 levels of teaching, etc.
New teachers stressed the diver
sity of problems. Problems of broad scope, such as the elementary curriculum, were mentioned, but infrequently.
tended to be more specific. It must be remembered that the questionnaire was non-directive.
The replies cannot be considered as all
inclusive or as exclusive.
Their value lies in suggesting
points of emphasis for a guided program and in providing a basis for constructive comparisons with the findings of research and experience. Ways, or activities, given in answers to the second question have been listed in Table II, which contains also the ways named in replies to the third question. Question 3.-
In what ways could these prospective
members of the teaching profession be helpful to your school?
(Present plans indicate that such students may be
able to devote from one class period to one-half day at a time to work and study in the elementary schools.) Responses to this question have been classified and presented in Table II, together with answers given for the second question.
The ways were arranged in an order based
chiefly upon their natural position in the development of such a program, as indicated and implied in the replies
TABLE II WAYS THROUGH WHICH PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS CAN BE HELPED BY SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLS CAN BE HELPED BY PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS
Ways mentioned by respondents
Through which Through which prospective teachers the schools can be helped can be helped
Conferring with teachers
3 5 4 10
14 8 4 2
Guiding and instructing Individuals Groups Classes Unspecified Evaluating By grading papers By other means Keeping records Supervising and assisting in Playground activities Other activities Using special talents Total
33 given and in the judgment of the •writer. Certain numbers are interesting to note, but there should be no unwarranted conclusions drawn from the statis tics here presented.
It should be remembered that no effort
was made to obtain information for the purpose of statis tical evaluation.
However, a "selling point*' for the pro
gram might be drawn from the fact that while eighty-eight ways in which the school might help were mentioned in answer to the second question, one hundred twenty-three ways in which the prospective teachers might help the school were named in answer to the thirdI
A caution to be observed
in interpreting the totals is a consideration of the quali ty and importance of the ways.
Assisting in the choice of
a vocation does not compare with grading papers. It should also be considered that respondents may have considered it unnecessary to name the second time activities which would have usefulness to both school and future teacher. It Is to be noted that even observing, which would ordinarily be concerned only with future-teacher activity, is given a mutuality aspect with the mention of "observing a pupil in order to assist in diagnosis of difficulties." The twenty-one responses classified under Helping with playground supervision probably indicate a "felt need" on the part of the teachers.
34 Using special talents, such as ability in art, music, and folk-dancing, was emphasized in answers to the third question. Lack of teaching time for individual instruction. needed for both remedial and enrichment purposes, was stressed by the teachers.
The value of future teachers in
such instruction was indicated.
Need for assistance in
routine work was also evident. Anticipated outcomes for the activities listed in the answers to the third question are not presented in a table.
Implied in the activities are, of course, assis
tance for teachers and pupils. But more than these were listed by some respondents. Related to the assistance for teachers is that of freeing the principal from clerical duties so that she may be avail able for helping teachers.
Two replies considered the pro
gram as an aid to improved public relations.
of their presence and interest” was listed by one respondent, while another gave "contributing new ideas and the young person’s viewpoint." Question 4.
From your own knowledge and experience
what suggestions can you give for the organization and carrying on of such a program?
Please comment freely.
Fewer answers were given in reply to this question
35 than to the two previous.
The seventy-eight suggestions
were classified by the writer under ten headings.
III presents these classifications, listed in order ac cording to the number of specific replies so classified. Planning, which Included such points as: (l) def inite schedules, (2) with seniors, (3) for uniformity in various schools, and (4) to provide opportunities for suc cessful experience, was most referred to, with administra tive personnel a close second.
Seven of the recommendations
referring to time allotment stressed spending sufficient time to insure continuity and accomplishment. Few recommendations were exactly the same; fewer still showed marked divergence of opinion.
In the latter
case, one person suggested that the elementary principals act as coordinating agents; another recommended that prin cipals have nothing to do with the administration of the program. Probably much more dependence will have to be placed upon how other successful projects are being administered rather than upon the suggestions made. A detailed outline of answers given is presented in Chapter IV. It has been the purpose of this chapter to present: (l) a brief survey of related literature, (2) a summary of information received from letters of inquiry, and (3) a
TABLE III RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADMINISTRATION OF PROPOSED PROGRAM
Areas of concern
Frequency of mention
Selection of participating seniors
Allocation of seniors
Records and reporting
Credits or awards
37 description of the questionnaire, together with a summary and analysis of the findings. It was found that literature of the past seven years, but particularly of the past three, contained a number of sources of related data.
Pertinent and specific informa- .
tion was received from administrators of programs similar in nature to that of the proposed Las Cruces plan.
ings from the questionnaire were analyzed in relation to their significance to the program.
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM If one word could be chosen as the key word for this study, it would be participation. For it is through parti cipation that the objectives will be realized; it is through the working and thinking of all concerned that future ele mentary teachers will be recruited. But participation needs to be planned.
be persons responsible for certain phases of the program; there must be organization. What are some of the problems of organization and administration?
How have other school systems met them?
What recommendations have been made?
What are the implica
tions and conclusions for the Las Cruces program? To answer these questions, this chapter includes: (1) an outline of the answers to question four, showing areas of concern, (2) descriptions of existing programs, (3) conclusions and recommendations made by administrators of these programs and by respondents, and (4) implications and recommendations for the proposed program.
AREAS OF CONCERN
39 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B.
Administrative personnel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Approval Cooperation Enthusiasm
Meetings 1. 2. 3. 4.
To crowded classrooms To experienced, qualified teachers Fair distributions Student choice of location
Attitudes necessary 1. 2. 3.
Bases of selection By whom selected Care in selection
Allocation of participating seniors 1. 2. 3. 4.
Long enough for continuity and accomplishment Half days better than periods
Selection of participating seniors 1. 2. 3.
Administrative council Central committee Elementary principals Guidance director High school teachers Supervisors
Time allotment 1. 2.
Care in planning Definite schedules For rotation and variety For uniformity in various schools To provide opportunities for successful experience Teacher-senior planning
Seniors with administrators High school teachers with elementary For 11training” teachers Progress conferences
Records and reporting
40 1. 2.
As simple as is consistent with efficiency No written records
Credits or awards J.
Evaluations Note: Although the preceding outline is not all-
inclusive, it does contain many of the elements of organi zation and administration that are common to such programs. Classified by the writer under ten general problems,1 the specific items suggest various phases and recommendations. The number of repetitions of each item is not indicated.
Decatur1s plan was presented to elementary principals for their reaction in November, 1946.
One hundred forty-
five high school seniors indicated interest when the plan was presented to them.
Screening by high school counselors
reduced the.number to thirty-five, who began participating in elementary school activities during the second semester. The program has continued successfully.
It is ad
ministered by the elementary supervisor with the cooperation of the high school principal, high school counselors, and
1 See Table III, p. 36.
41 elementary principals and teachers. 2 The seniors devote one period a day, during the second semester, to elementary work.
The elementary prin
cipal of* the building to which the student is assigned assumes the responsibility for planning the student’s pro gram.
The students and principals meet with the supervisor
to discuss the over-all plan sometime near the end of the first semester. Five "credits” are given, but they do not count toward graduation.
A check-list is provided for evaluating
the student’s work. La Porte. Indiana, has a successful high school recruitment program^ which has operated for four successive years.
The program is a Future Teachers of America project,
under the direct sponsorship of the Association for Child hood Education.
It is called Introduction to Teaching.
Regular high school credits are given for its satisfactory completion. 2
Charlotte Meyer, Elementary Supervisor, Decatur, Illinois, in answer to letter of inquiry, July, 1950* A copy of the letter and enclosures may be found in the Appendix. q
^ Paul F. Boston, Superintendent of Schools, La Porte
Indiana, in reply to letter of Inquiry, July, 1950. A copy of the reply and enclosures are included In the Appendix.
42 The superintendent, high school principal, director of guidance, and elementary supervisor —
have teen responsible for administration.
devoted one hour per day, four days,per week, to elementary work, the fifth being spent in conference.
lines contain suggestions for observation. Selection of participating students comes as a re sult of conferences in which the home room teacher, coun selor, director of the cadet program, and the students themselves engage. Mount Lebanon *s guidance-recruitment program has ■ 4 successfully continued since its initiation in 1943. Dur ing the first year the guidance committee consisted of seven carefully chosen teachers with the girls1 counselor as chairman.
Members of this committee met once a week for
a period of six weeks with girls who had indicated interest in teaching.
They discussed personal and professional
requirements for teaching, advantages of teaching, a study of the various fields of specialization, and a comparison of teaching with other vocations. also with parents of the girls.
Conferences were held A full day's visit in
elementary schools and one in the junior high schools were followed by discussion. -
R. D. Horsman, superintendent of Mt. Lebanon Schools, in a letter to the writer, July 18, 1950.
43 At the end of the experiment, thirty-seven girls indicated their intention of becoming teachers.
four of these were advised, for reasons chiefly scholastic, not to enter the teaching profession. For the year 1944-1945 a permanent committee of guidance was planned.
The guidance program began receiv
ing emphasis in the tenth grade.
In the eleventh, clubs
were formed and apprentice-like tasks were performed.
the senior year, under an advisory teacher> the students engaged more actively in apprenticeship.
A reference shelf
of helpful literature received attention.^ In Elkhart. Indiana,
6 the guidance-recruitment pro
gram is administered by the elementary supervisor and the high school dean of girls.
The seniors spend an hour a day
in elementary work and also have evening social meetings. Cadet teachers are assigned to one certain room for at least one semester.
Responsibilities are assumed gradually
by the participating seniors. Summary.
In summary, it may be said that these pro
grams have many elements in common.
Their twofold purpose
5 23:147-151, December, 1944.
J Harry V. Herlinger. **And Gladly Teach." Occupations,
^ Elementary supervisor, Elkhart, Indiana, in answer to letter of inquiry, July, 1950.
44 is apparent: assistance to the individual in choice of vocation and recruitment of high-caliber teachers.
tration is a cooperative affair; yet there is designated responsibility.
Regular schedules have been developed.
Definite procedures are followed.
Care is taken in choos
ing participating students (selected usually by counselors) and in selecting the guiding personnel.
RECOMMENDATIONS BY RESPONDENTS
It is apparent that statements made by those with related experience have significance for this study.
is also considered that opinions of those who will parti cipate in the program are of value. Superintendent Boston suggested, "If the State De partment of Education has not approved courses for high school credit, exerting influence to bring this about is of prime importance.
Included in the "Requirements as
Defined by the Indiana State Department of Public Instruc tion" is the requirement that the superintendent of the corporation concerned shall take the responsibility to see that the best interests of the students enrolled and the children with whom they work are safeguarded.
requirement is that in no case shall such students be used 7 Boston, oj). cit.
45 O as substitute teachers. The superintendent also emphasized that students should never be sent to teachers for the sole purpose of helping the teachers.
Only interested teachers should
supervise cadets. Supervisor Charlotte Meyer listed the following sug gestions to principals and teachers: 1. That students be given an opportunity to explore work with more than one age level. (A shift might be made each six weeks.) 2. That students be given an opportunity to have a variety of experiences; that the student not be con sidered, for example, a.clerical assistant or one to do routine, menial tasks, only. . . . 3. That students be given responsibilities for groups of children commensurate with their ability — in all cases the mutual value, considering elementary and high school students, being taken into considera tion. 4. That we remember at all times that the course is one for exploration, not training. 5. That all of us in the teaching and supervisory personnel consider the picture of teaching and teachers that we sincerely believe these young people should receive, and reflect on how that picture will be achieved.9 Superintendent Herlinger concluded: The administrator who is charged with the selection and recommendation of teachers to the Board of Education O A copy of the "Requirements” may be found in the Appendix. 9 Meyer, o£. cit.
46 must take an active part in the program. The cooperation of all teachers in a school system, and particularly of a selected group directly charged with the responsibility of conducting the experiment, must be carefully planned. The program of guidance must be definite and well organized.10 Another supervisor advised that a future teachers’ club be organized during the eleventh year as a means of preparation for senior activities.1'1' It will be seen that respondents’ opinions given in response to question four of the questionnaire are largely in marked agreement with the administrators* conclusions. Selected replies follow: Arrange program so that candidate can actually ac complish something and see or know that he is actually doing something, not filling in. A tentative outline would need to be set up, so that there would be some uniformity of program in various schools. I think we might ask the seniors who plan to be elementary teachers to sign up for the kind of groups they would like to work with during each six weeks, rotate the duties so that each would be able to get varied experiences during the whole school year. As I see the plan there are about three periods . . . ■ (l) Observation, (2) Apprenticeship, (3) Participation. I think that a program similar to that of Las Cruces Union High on Consumer Education might be effective. io x Herlinger, op. cit., p. 151. 11
Elementary Supervisor, op. cit.
47 One high school teacher might be the supervisor and give general information on the teaching profession. Then, instead of going out to a part-time job, the student would spend specified periods of time in the various school buildings. . . . The nature of this experience would, in a measure, be exploratory and would help in giving the student a definite idea as to what college course to pursue. Use extreme care in selecting candidates, using tests, etc. . . . calling as a Central committee and planning board the various principals and supervisors under the approval of our superintendent. Have the student stay with the same room, if possible, for a long enough period of time that he or she can really get some idea of what goes on.This would also help the schools. In order to really benefit by this and to realize the value of elementary teaching, and the importance of it, they should spend one-half day of each day for a period of six weeks, thus giving them a daily con tact with the elementary pupils and with the teaching profession. . . . I should think they should be given an ob serving period whereby they could choose teacher under whom they would work and grade level in which they would most enjoy working. Have seniors allocated to classrooms which are overcrowded, to give help where it is needed most. Have seniors help an experienced teacher when possible. This program should be planned with the full sanc tion and cooperation of the administration and assisted by the teaching staff. Above all be sure enthusiastic teachers have a part. Teachers would need to be “sold11 on the idea for without their cooperation it would be a failure. The teaching personnel of the high school must meet and work out a complete program with the teachers of the elementary grades. Cooperation and harmony are essential.
48 The teachers who are cooperating in this plan will need a training-planning period prior to actual par ticipation in the program. They should do no teaching, Just observe. Reports on them should not have to be made by the teacher or principal. If the student is to get credit he dr she should be checked in and a record kept of promptness. . . . At the end of the term an evaluation may be written out and sent to the guidance director or committee. If high school credit were given and the pupils were met regularly by a high school teacher or system super visor, and their observation in elementary schools were guided and assigned, they might derive a great deal of benefit.12
IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
The following implications and conclusions are pre sented as a ”point of departure” for the organization and administration of the selective recruitment and orientation program. 1.
The administrative council shall consist of the city school superintendent, high school principal, high school guidance director, high school teachersponsor of the Future Teachers of America Club, the student president and secretary of the club, the elementary supervisors and principals, and the president of the Las Cruces Teachers Association.
12 Respondents’ replies to the questionnaire.
The high school guidance committee shall consist of seven teachers carefully chosen by the adminis trative council, with the guidance director and club sponsor as co-chairmen.
The elementary guidance committee should be made up in such a way that each school and each grade are represented.
Members shall be appointed by
the administrative council.
The two elementary
supervisors shall be ex officio members. 4.
Problems should be solved cooperatively by the three committees.
However, the administrative ,
council should be chiefly responsible for problems of personnel, time, place, and credits; the high school guidance committee for selection of partici pating seniors; and the grade school committee for planning activities and allocating students. 5.
Participating students should have a part in the planning wherever possible.
A preparatory, period for the development of "readiness” should precede the establishment of the program.
The Las Cruces Teachers Association shall be asked to be direct sponsors of the program, including the Future Teachers of America Club.
The Future Teachers of America Club shall be con tinued and encouraged.
Plans for future participation in the program should be considered with students as early as the tenth grade.
Schedules should be made and observed with great care. It has been the purpose of this chapter to present
problems of organization and administration of a school program for selective recruitment and orientation of future elementary teachers.
Opinions as to the nature of the
problems, reports on how such problems have been met in actual situations, conclusions and recommendations made by administrators and respondents, and a summary of implica tions and conclusions as related to the proposed Las Cruces program were presented.
CRITERIA AND TECHNIQUES OF SELECTION Techniques of selection can and must be established and applied. . . . It must begin in the high school and continue not only at college entrance but pro gressively through the first and second, and perhaps the third year. Young men and women must be Judged, over a period of time, as to their prospects for real professional achievement in teaching. This is a co operative task for public school authorities and teachers, state certification officers, and college staff members. It can not be done at any one level alone. But if it is not done with courage at all three levels, teaching can not become a true profession.1 ¥hat criteria, then, shall be used for selection at the high school level?
What are some of the techniques
that "can and must be established and applied"? It is the purpose of this chapter to present (1) lists of criteria compiled by specialists, (2) a review of effective guidance techniques, and (3) implications and conclusions, for the proposed Las Cruces program.
CRITERIA OF SELECTION
The literature of research contains many lists of traits, abilities, and qualifications which may be used in
Ray C. Maul, Teacher Supply and Demand in the United States (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 19^9), p. 31*
52 predicting teaching success; it has little to offer as proof of validity.
However, many educators agree that low
correlations with measurements of successful teaching are due to varying criteria of success rather than to the lack of significance of the items themselves.
Hence, the pos
sible usefulness of lists of qualities and traits should not be disregarded. Many lists of criteria have been made and published,; -- too many to quote in a study such as this, too many to place before an aspiring future teacher.
Selection of cer
tain lists has been made on the basis of anticipated use fulness to the guidance committee and the participating seniors. More than a "list” is Pearl Buck’s prose poem; Only those who love the young should teach. . . . Teaching is a vocation. It is as sacred as priesthood; as innate a desire, as inescapable, as the genius which compels a great artist. If a teacher has not the con cern for humanity, the love of living creatures, the vision of the priest and the artist, he must not teach. It takes courage to be a teacher and It takes unalter able love for the child.2 Symonds lists first in a series of personality factors: "Every teacher should like teaching, and through
Pearl Buck, "It Takes Courage," Journal of the National Education Association. 37:246, .April, 19W.
53 3 her goals should attain personal goals and satisfaction.11 Superintendent Trillingham, of the Los Angeles County Schools, has this to say concerning qualifications: As yet there is no way to predict exactly which qualities make for the greatest possible success in teaching. There are, however, qualifications which should be seriously considered by the counselor of a prospective teacher and by the prospective teacher himself. Each person who desires to guide boys and girls should possess, above all else, a sincere concern for children and a love of this democratic country. He should also possess a reasonable degree of proficiency in the following characteristics: physical fitness, academic intelligence, social adaptation, good voice quality, skill in fundamental processes, general cul ture, a reasonable degree of extroversion, some busi ness acumen and vocational training, leadership quali ties, and, in general, just good common sense. A student who possesses a high degree of the quali fications above may be encouraged to teach. He has the characteristics which have made other teachers successful.4 John T. Wahlquist, dean of the School of Education, University of Utah, says that the prospective teacher should be above the average in intelligence and scholar ship, should be emotionally stable, in good physical condition, and possessed of a pleasing personality. 3 Percival M. Symonds, "Personality of the Teacher," Journal of Educational Research, 40:634, May, 1947. ^ C. C. Trillingham and Emery Stoops, "Gall for Master Teachers," California Teachers Association Journal, 46:7, January, 1950* 5 John T. Wahlquist, An Introduction to American Education (Hew York: The Ronald Press Company, 1950), p. 89.
The Manual for FTA Clubs in Highschools asks, "Have I the Needed Qualities?" and makes suggestions for selfanalysis.
Warnings are given in Do Not Become A Teacher:
If in your highschool studies you rank below the average of your class. If accumulating money means more to you than ser vice to your fellowmen. Unless you like to work with young people of the age you plan to teach. Unless you are reasonably strong and in good health. If you are not ready to give moral as well as in tellectual leadership. Unless you are able to have four years of prepara tion beyond highschool. Unless you expect and plan to be a lifelong student yourself. Unless you are ready to take your part thru organi zation to improve the profession of teaching. Unless you are broad enough to see that education concerns the whole life and growth of the child and the whole life of humanity.° In Teachers Are Needed, a recent publication of the U. S. Office of Education, prospective teachers' qualifi cations are summarized as follows: Teacher candidates and others in a professional classification should have the following general qualifications: (l) Ability to undertake special projects that involve individual initiative,
National Committee, Future Teachers of America, Manual for FTA Clubs in Highschools (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1948), pp. 32-33*
55 imagination, and planning work; (2 ) qualities of leadership as evidenced by offices held in clubs, and participation in committee work and similar activities that require planning and executing work cooperatively with others; (3 ) ability to deal with people; (4) mental ability above the average; and (5) ability to do creditable college work. The public also demands in teachers certain character, cultural, and personality qualifications because teachers work in close contact with children, meet parents, and otherwise serve the community.7 Schorling asks these questions: 1. Are you willing and able to work relatively long hours? 2.
Do you like to work with people?
3. Are you willing to forego the chance to receive a large salary? 4.
Do you adjust easily to new situations?
5. Are you tolerant about social, moral, and eco nomic issues?® High,school pupils would find special interest in Witty*s study of replies received in the Quiz Kids contest, "The Teacher Who Has Helped Me Most." were rece’ived.
About 12,000 letters
The traits mentioned by the pupils in the
order of frequency were: 1.
Cooperative, democratic attitude
Kindliness and consideration for the individual
^ Teachers Are Heeded, Vocational Division Leaflet Ho. 14, XJ. S. Office of Education, pp. 12-13. O Raleigh Schorling, Student Teaching (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19^9), PP. 11-13*
Wide variety of interests
General appearance and pleasing manner
6 . Fairness and impartiality 7.
Sense of humor
Good disposition and consistent behavior
Interest in pupils’ problems
recognition and praise
12. Unusual proficiency in subject“
Professor Tireman has given specific, practical advice for selection of participating senior students: These people would need to be carefully selected. I would not merely confine the selection to people who were sure they were going to teach; in fact, I would welcome people who were doubtful but wished to use this way to help them decide their future work. I would make no distinction between those who had the idea that they might want to teach in high school. Some such students would probably change their minds when they have more contact with the elementary pupils. In any case, they would profit by learning more of the background of the high school student.1°
9 Paul A. Witty, "The Teacher Who Has Helped Me Most," National Education Association Journal, 36:386, May, 19W^ ^
L. S. Tireman, University of New Mexico, in a letter to the writer, July 6, 1950*
EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE TECHNIQUES
For a number of years educators have sought objec tive means of pre-service selection of teachers, but they have met little success In the validation of their tests. "Apparently the occupation ’teacher* is too broad a cate11 gory for psychological study," states Super. Symonds declares: There is a prevalent notion that selection can be carried out by some sort of mechanical process using forms and blanks and tests which have been derived for the purpose. The experience during the War would indicate that there is no mechanical short-cut pro cess for evaluating personality.12 However, certain tests and inventories are widely used as bases for counseling interviews.
wisely point out the fallibility of such tests grant their usefulness as an interview guide. A somewhat restricted study of a procedure for the selection of prospective teachers contains interesting implications.
At the end of their sophomore year in col
lege a number of teacher applicants were given the follow ing series of tests: - 1. California Test of Mental Maturity Advanced Short Form 11 Donald E. Super, Appraising Vocational Fitness by Means of Psychological Tests (New York: Harper & Brothers,'~ 9 W ) , "p. 101.
12 Symonds, op. cit.. p. 657.
58 2. Progressive Achievement Tests Advanced Battery 3. Los Angeles Activity Interest Inventory for College Students 4. Los Angeles Industrial Attitudes Test 5. Johnson Temperament Analysis, Form A Other information given the evaluation committee included: 1. Application form filled out by the applicant 2. Five or more ratings from instructors who were well acquainted with the applicant 3 . Grade point average of high school work 4. Rank
in high school graduating class
5 . Intelligence scores from high school Otis or Terman Test 6 . Results of college aptitude test 7. Results of Iowa Reading test 8 . Grade point average (college) Of the twenty-eight applicants accepted, only one was reported by her principal as failing.
school principals who participated in this experiment were enthusiastic about results.1^ This apparently successful procedure Indicates the
Blanche G. Bobbitt, "A Suggested Procedure for the Selection of Prospective Teachers at the End of the Sophomore Year of College," Journal of Educational Re search, pp. 676-686, May, 1948.
59 importance of gathering information from many sources and taking many factors into consideration. From that point of view the cumulative record should provide a helpful basis for counseling interviews. The completeness of such records, however, would necessar ily be a determining factor in their usefulness.
cumulative records would need to be supplemented by means of interviews and further testing. The Kuder Preference Record (Science Research Associates, 1943) seems to be well liked as a basis for interviews.
Student participation in making the profile
However, the Record must not be used
as a test of aptitudes. Of the Lee-Thorpe Occupational Interest Inventory (California Test Bureau, 19^3), Super says: The nature of the inventory makes it attractive to potential users, but it Is at present a purely ex perimental form which yet has to be validated against occupational criteria. It may therefore be used in research by those who have.the resources for conduct ing validation studies, or as an interview aid, but has not value at this point as a diagnostic or prog nostic instrument.3-4 The Coxe-Orleans Prognosis Test of Teaching Ability (World Book Co., 1930) is criticized as follows: . . . a good example of custom-built tests of apti tude for teaching. It consists of five subtests:
Super, op. cit., p. 474.
60 general information, knowledge of teaching methods and practices, ability to learn the type of material in cluded in professional texts, comprehension of educa tional reading matter, and judgment in handling educa tional problems. Validation of this instrument has been in terms of success in teacher training, but the data are not very helpful because they consist of cor relations between the prognostic test and a compre hensive achievement test at the end of the first year of training. These coefficients range from .53 to .84 as cited in the manual, but in view of the highly academic nature and similar content of both tests the evidence is not convincing.15 Tests, however, will provide only a part of the information that should be included in the records. Health, special talents, school activities, family back ground, and scholastic achievements are other points that should be considered. Selection in the four school systems contacted em phasized the importance of personal interviews and confer ences.
Interest was the criterion for the first list at
La Porte, with ultimate selection accomplished through conferences.
Although the Mt. Lebanon record includes
the Kuder and Intelligence tests, responsibility for selec tion rests upon a guidance committee.
were screened by the senior counselors, without use of special tests.
Achievement tests, Intelligence tests, and
teacher judgments were used as a basis for selection at
•*-5 super, op. cit., p. 355*
IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
The following implications and conclusions are presented as recommendations for the guidance program as related to the Las Cruces plan for selective recruitment: 1. The relationship of cumulative records to the vocational guidance program should be emphasized. 2.
All pertinent information available should be con sidered by the guidance personnel.
3. Interviews and conferences should be planned. 4. Pupils should share in evaluating their possi bilities. 5. Tests and inventories should be considered as Interview guides, not as infallible means of pre diction. 6 . Students should not be unduly Influenced. 7. Definite choice of an elementary teaching career should not be a prerequisite for the orientation program. 8 . Contacts should be maintained with graduates and a record kept of their post-high school experiences.
lf^ Answers to letters of inquiry.
62 It has been the purpose of this chapter to present certain criteria to be used in the selection of future teachers, a review of effective guidance techniques, and some implications and conclusions for the proposed Las Cruces program.
TECHNIQUES OF RECRUITMENT Although recruitment and orientation are treated in separate chapters, there is a vital interrelation.
cruitment techniques have for their purpose the stimulation and encouragement of interest.
Knowledge and experience,
gained through orientation, increase and sustain that in terest.
Inspiration may plant the seed; orientation nour
ishes its growth and development. It is the purpose of this chapter to present: (l) findings of research concerning the nature of interests which have influenced young persons to consider teaching as a career, (2 ) findings concerning the efficacy of cer tain techniques of recruitment, (3 ) a review of common practices in the area of recruitment, and (4) implications and conclusions for the proposed program.
INTERESTS AFFECTING CHOICE
In a study of 21,919 high school seniors in Mis souri, R. Lee Martin found 3>306 interested in some degree in teaching.
The five reasons given by ninety per cent of
the interested were, in order of frequency: 1.
Interest in children
Interest in subject field
Like teaching and/or school 1 Opportunity for service
In a rating of sixteen reasons for choice made by 249 college students who had chosen the teaching field, interest in children and young people led all the rest.
Other articles emphasize interest in children as a motivating factor in the choice of teaching.
seems, the significance of this factor was overlooked in the early period of teacher recuitment; even now its pos sibilities are not realized. Numbers of elementary teachers needed and the num bers of children needing teachers have been publicized. But numbers are abstract.
If interest in children is a
leading reason for choice of the teaching profession, then a recruitment program should make possible many situations where students may become interested in children.
R. Lee Martin, "The Attitude of High-School Seniors Toward Teaching," High School 'Journal, 31:153-156, October, 1948. 2 J. Marc Jantzen, "Why College Students Choose to Teach," Phi Delta Kappan, 28:333-335, April, 1947.
EFFICACY OF CERTAIN TECHNIQUES
Trabue, in a study of printed materials, asked 359 high school seniors to arrange twelve samples of teachereducation recruiting materials in order of their effective ness "in making you want to prepare for teaching."
poster showing a curly-haired baby and the words, "I Want a Teacher," was given highest rank.
An unillustrated book
let entitled, "A Career in Teaching," received lowest rank. From the data it was concluded that there are im portant differences between boys and girls, measurable dif ferences between city, town, and rural seniors, and to a lesser extent, differences between seniors in different states. In conclusion, Trabue stated: Those who prepare materials to be used in attracting high school seniors to teacher education should prob ably use the techniques found in good short stories rather than those found in articles in the encyclo pedia. The first step in recruitment appears to be to stimulate an emotional interest in teaching rather than to supply complete information about the profes sion. The type of publication that is effective in stimulating interest differs from that which Is com plete In its information.3 Perhaps the choice of the poster was’also Influenced by interest in children.
3 M. B. Trabue, "Printed Materials in Recruiting Students for Teacher Education," Journal of Educational Research. 40:641-651, May, 1947.
66 Success of the guidance-recruitment programs is in dicated by the following statements: We feel our program has been extremely successful. About 80 per cent of the students doing cadet teach ing at the high school level have entered teaching training schools. Very successful — go on to college.
60 per cent of our students do
This experiment was quite successful and received considerable attention. The students have liked it very much; so have the teachers and principals. Unfortunately, we have made no check to see if it has paid dividends in terms of its actual recruiting of teachers.^
A number of organizations have championed the cause of teacher recruitment.
Through nation wide publicity —
magazine articles, posters, radio programs, radio scripts, bulletins, pamphlets, and films —
the National Education
Association has presented the need and a call for action. The Future Teachers of America, sponsored by the association, is a rapidly growing organization.
chapters and high school clubs are made up of prospective teachers.
The club has as its purposes:
1. To encourage young people to cultivate in them selves the qualities of personality and character 4
From replies to letters of inquiry.
67 which are the foundations of successful teaching; 2. To acquaint young people with the inspiring story of the schools, the part free schools have played in the development of our democratic way of life, the heroic pioneering associated with their establishment and expansion; 3. To provide young people with specific infor mation about opportunities in the various fields of education.5 A system of merit points for participating in help ful projects has been devised.
Study projects and those
that aid the school or community are included.
hensive bibliography has been included in the club manual. Titles are listed under the headings of ’'Heroic Figures in
Education” and ”The Teacher in Fiction.0
A warning has been given by one club adviser: At our last meeting, a motion was made and carried that henceforth any speaker who is invited to address the group should be bluntly notified in advance that the club has heard enough about the spiritual satis faction of a teaching career. . . . ’’What we want to know more about is what we ought to be doing now; the activities that will be useful to us in our college courses and later on in a teaching career.” ' Phi Delta Kappa has waged an active campaign.
5 National Committee, Future Teachers of America, ’’Manual for FTA Clubs in Highschools,” (Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1948), p. 2. 6 Ibid.. pp. 23-24. ^ Joseph G. Plank, "They Plan to Teach," School Activities, 21:182, February, 1950.
organization has not only fostered enthusiasm among its own members, but has put out a booklet, "I Choose Teach ing, " and sponsored a film "Our Teacher Mary Dean" (Frith Q Films). The American Association of University Women has renewed its pleas to members to do something about teacher recruitment.
As examples of what might be done, the Child
hood Education Associate has quoted reports: A two-day counseling program for 600 high school junior and senior girls and boys. We talked to them individually and in groups of the advantages in the teaching profession. We made available a catalogue of 75 teacher-training institutions. We encouraged students to apply for scholarships and loans. Outstanding students from the high schools all over the country were invited to come to Lawrence for a day to consider the prospect of becoming teachers. After a general assembly they were taken to various schools in the city where they might observe "through the new glasses of a prospective teacher" the conduct of classes by veteran teachers. Later, attractive, ex perienced, fun-loving teachers addressed the group.° The association has made available a Teacher Re cruitment Kit. The Delta Kappa Gamma Society has stressed further recruitment.
The New Mexico State Committee on Selective
Recruitment recommends: ® Christine K. Simmons, "Attracting New Teachers," School Life. 31:2, October, 1948. 9 Christine M. Heinig, "AAUW and Teacher Recruitment," Journal, of the American Association of University Women, 431:170, Spring, 1950.
69 1. That every effort in recruitment continue to em phasize the word, selective. Because this has been and is being done, some of the "best" among those enrolled in our colleges are becoming interested in the teaching profession. 2. That we continue to work for teacher welfare, but begin to place more emphasis on professional standards. Young people with ability, vision, and ambition are sus picious of mediocre standards, but are challenged by stiff" requirements in both pre-service and in-service training. . 3. That chapters of Future Teachers of America be organized in high schools wherever it is practicable. 4. That promising candidates be encouraged to go into the elementary field where the opportunities are great and the needs are greater. 5. That Delta Kappa Gamma members continue the personal encouragement that informal teas, receptions and luncheons have given to high school and college students. Reports that have come in from chapters account for remarks that have been heard from stu dents who have attended these affairs: "I never knew that teachers could have so much fun." 6 . That every member of Delta Kappa Gamma strive to make herself a living attraction to the teaching profession.1^ The preceding summaries of organizational activities have been reviewed in order to present a picture of present day recruitment practices. IV.
IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Some implications and conclusions for the proposed 10 Stella Vaughan, New Mexico State Chairman of Selective Recruitment of Teachers, mimoegraphed report, 1949.
70 Las Cruces program are as follows: 1.
Opportunities for "becoming more interested in children through actual experience should be made available for teacher prospects.
Literature presented as part of the recruitment program should be attractive and readable. '
A library of books such as those listed by the Future Teachers of America should be built up.
"Our Teacher Mary Dean" and other films should be used.
The local branch of the American Association of University Women and the local chapter of the Delta Kappa Gamma Society should be invited to cooperate with the Las Cruces Teachers Association in the sponsorship of the program.
It is to be hoped that sponsoring groups will con sider the matter of scholarships. It has been the purpose of this chapter to present
findings of research related to the problem of teacher re cruitment, a review of common practices in the area of re cruitment, and statements of implications and conclusions for the proposed program.
CHAPTER VII THE ORIENTATION PROGRAM We could strive to keep an optimistic, cheerful, interesting side of our work before all, that anyone observing us at our work would marvel at our joy in teaching.1 The purpose of the orientation program is to give participating students knowledge and experience in the field of elementary education by means of actual contacts with elementary children and teachers in school situations. As a result of such knowledge and experience, it is hoped that the students will be better prepared to make decisions concerning their choice of vocation, better pre pared to plan their professional training, and, eventually, better prepared to be successful beginning teachers. It is the purpose of this chapter to present: pertinent findings of research,
(2) recommendations and
suggestions of administrators and specialists,
data from the questionnaire addressed to participants, and
(4) implications and conclusions for the orientation pro gram for high school seniors in Las Cruces.
Answer to questionnaire by respondent who has just completed her twenty-fifth year of teaching at the Booker T. Washington School, Las Cruces.
PERTINENT FINDINGS-OF RESEARCH
Although participants in the orientation program should not he classified as student teachers, there is a similarity in the nature of their problems.
of their student teaching experiences by prospective teach ers carries implications for more youthful future teachers. A study2 was based on 697 questionnaires given to college student teachers near the end of the semester.
problem given highest rating was "Lack of opportunity to know pupils better." Ratings were asked for topics which should receive greater emphasis in the Methods courses.
items received a rating of four or more, five being the highest rating: 1. Special technique involved in teaching this subject 2. Practical suggestions for new teachers 3. The problem of discipline 4. Provisions for individual differences 5. Special techniques for the slow normal 6.
Construction of teaching units to be used
7. Special demonstration techniques p
G. D. McGrath, "Some Experiences with a Student Teacher Questionnaire," Journal of Educational Research, 43:641-677, May, 1950.
73 8 . Familiarity with excellent textbooks for pupils in this field 9. Demonstrations, field trips, exhibits, clubs, facilities, equipment, assembly programs, and projects Again, interest in the children themselves is indi cated in the emphasis placed on the desire to know them better.
SUGGESTIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS AND SPECIALISTS
Among the general principles listed by the Mt. Lebanon program are these: Not later than the beginning of the twelfth year, those students who are interested or should be in terested in teaching as a profession should be as signed to one of the members of the guidance commit tee who will act as their supervisory teacher. This supervisory teacher may or may not be the home room teacher. She should see that the interested stu dents participate in as many of the teaching activi ties as possible such as checking tests, seeing that materials are on black board, planning materials for visual aids, evaluating work that has been done, etc. During the twelfth year these students should be given opportunities to visit other schools in the district or other grades in the system as often as once each month. An effort should be made to see that they visit grades on all levels of the school system. They should meet as a group as often as once each month with various teachers, supervisors, and superintendents.3 Decatur's course outline contains suggestions of 3
From mimeographed material sent to writer from Mt. Lebanon Schools, See Appendix.
74 activities of high school students '’with and for elementary pupils (which should be mutually beneficial).” 1. Locating, securing, arranging materials for av.bulletin boards b. reference reading c . supplementary reading d. visual aids machines 2. Learning how and operating a. mimeograph, ditto or rexograph b. making master c,opies 3. Assisting in administration of tests a. group mental b. group achievement 4. Remedial work with individual students following diagnosis ana recommendations of the teacher a. in spelling b. in arithmetic c . in reading 5. Working with groups of children a. in directing games b. in telling stories c. social studies4 La Porte administrators say: The student observes the work of the teacher and starts to participate only when he and his supervising teacher think that he is ready to do so. Since we be lieve that readiness for teaching is as important as any other kind of readiness for learning, it seems wise to treat each case individually. As a result, there is no set time for the beginning of participation. It varies from a few days to a period of weeks. Participation usually starts with individual help for some child. This is closely supervised by the teacher so that the cadet will not get the idea that helping him is simply sitting and hearing him read, for example. As the cadet goes along, he Increases his participation, until he finally takes over the responsibility for small groups for stories, free play or some other activity which he can manage. . . .
^ Charlotte Meyer in answer to letter of inquiry, See Appendix.
75 Teachers in charge of the program believe that throw ing a student into teaching may discourage him from taking up the profession since he cannot be able to do it entirely on his o w n . 5 A list suggested for college teacher-training could be modified for high school use.
1. Experience in studying individual children and in selecting suitable learning activities for them 2. Experience in studying and utilizing the needs and resources of a local community for curricular enrichment 3. Experience in teaching fundamental skills in relationship to children's problems of living 4. Experience in making and in utilizing resource units for the building of teaching unit appropriate to a specific group of children 5. Experiences in working with children in extra curricular activities or out-of-school groups 6 . Experiences with parent conferences and home visits 7. Experiences in using confidential information and in developing pupil, staff, and community relationships,~appropriate to the highest professional standards In connection with such a list one should remember Charlotte'Meyer's statement that we remember at all times that the course is one for exploration, not training.
^ Prom report of La Porte program sent by Paul P. Boston In response to letter of inquiry, 1950. See Appendix. CL
Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction, "Desirable Experiences for Prospective Teachers," Under standing the Child.• 17:80, June, 1948.
DATA PROM THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Tables in Chapter III presented summaries of data related to the orientation phase of the problem.
anticipated by the participating teachers and administra tors were listed in Table I.
Activities in which seniors
could participate were summarized in Table II. The following outline presents in greater detail the anticipated outcomes: A.
Learning about teaching methods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Planning Using materials of instruction Recognizing individual differences a. Need for remedial help b. Need for enrichment "Discipline1' Evaluation of results
Learning to understand children 1. At work 2. At play 3. Their needs 4. Their individual differences 5. Their behavior patterns 6 . In the remedial room 7. Effect of physical handicaps 8 . Prom various social and economic levels
Acquiring attitudes 1. 2.
Toward teaching Toward themselves (Peeling of being wanted and needed, etc.)
Learning about classroom management 1. 2.
Room organization Records
77 3. 4. E.
Learning about teaching as a profession 1. 2. 3. 4.
Use of equipment Available supplies
Requirements Salary, tenure, retirement Opportunities for service Opportunities for -specialization
Learning about problems of elementary education 1. 2. 3. 4.
Their diversity The elementary curriculum Objectives of elementary education Philosophy and psychology Note: The number of repetitions of each item is not
indicated. A comparison of outcomes and activities listed by participants and those found in replies to letters of in quiry and in related literature shows a decided agreement. Similar cautions are given. of the program are made. respondent said.
Similar emphases on the nature
"Make it a happy experience,” a
"Be happy to have them come —
feel they are wanted."
IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
For the Las Cruces program of selective recruitment and orientation the implications and conclusions are many. Some of them are: 1.
The relationship of orientation to guidance and re cruitment must be constantly recognized.
The orientation program should he child-centered; that is, the chief emphasis should be placed upon opportunities for prospective teachers to have experience (guided) with children.
of children should be developed.
The principle that behavior is caused should be stressed so that students will begin looking for causes. 4.
Appreciation for the necessity of careful planning and the need for evaluating should be developed.
Care should be taken that teaching experiences are pleasant and profitable for children and seniors alike.
Seniors should share with teachers opportunities to see new teaching films and to read new books on methods, etc.
Seniors should not become merely duplicator mani pulators, although it should be recognized that such tasks are a part of the job.
A familiarity with the state and local curriculum guides and with the wide possibilities of materials of instruction should be an objective of the pro gram.
An appreciation for the need of future professional training should result from the orientation program.
79 It has been the purpose of this chapter to present a review of data related to the orientation phase of the problem with which this project has been concerned.
ings of research which concerned the opinions of student teachers, recommendations and suggestions of those familiar with similar problems, suggestions of participants, and implications and conclusions for the Las Cruces program have been included.
CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY The need for qualified elementary teachers is one which affects the welfare of the nation.
Only by adoption
of a long-range program based on sound principles can the need be met. Emergency measures used to solve the problem of teacher shortage during World War II were necessary and often successful.
But the emergency point of view must not
be crystallized; it must be recognized for what it is. primary source of supply must be drawn upon.
is the high school. During the wide-spread teacher recruitment campaign, much interest has been aroused.
This Interest must have a
focal point other than the recognition of need.
be a plan of action whereby high caliber young persons may be wisely encouraged to become teachers, particularly to become elementary teachers. A plan needs participants.
A plan needs organization.
To be successful, the program must be administered demo cratically, utilizing the wisdom of experience and the suggestions of participants.
Other, schools have organized
successful guidance-recruitment programs; their reports have definite implications for the local situation.
81 For the sake of children and for the sake of society as a whole, only those who are qualified should teach. Difficult as it is to do, selection of those most likely to succeed should he made.
The place to begin is in the high
school guidance program, where careful counseling should take many factors into consideration. Research and experience have pointed to interest in children as the most important single factor in the choice of teaching as a vocation.
Then, let the recruitment pro
gram for high school students be based upon that factor, not to the exclusion of all others, but by placing an em phasis that has been lacking.
Organizations which have
been manifesting desires to aid in teacher recruitment should be allowed to help the local program. Through orientation, participating seniors may have their decisions made more valid by knox^ledge and attitudes gained.
Here, again, the emphasis in the elementary school
experiences should be placed upon the children.
For it is
through the effort to understand children and to meet their needs that interest will be increased and that more and better future teachers will be recruited.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
Good, Carter V., Editor, Dictionary of Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945. 495 PP* Mehl, Marie A., Hubert H. Mills, and Harl R. Douglass,, Teaching in Elementary School. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1950. PP* Myers, Alonzo F., and Clarence a Williams, Education in a Democracy. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1948. 361 pp. Schorling, Raleigh, Student Teaching: An Experience Program New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949* 4l5 pp Super, Donald E., Appraising Vocational Fitness by Means of Psychological Tests. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949. 727 PP. Traxler, Arthur E., Techniques of Guidance. Harper & Brothers’]! 1945. 39% pp.
Wahlquist, John T., An Introduction to American Education. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1947. 333 PP.
Barzun, Jacques, ’’Teaching — Job or Profession,” Ladies Home Journal, 65:44, March, 1948. Bishop, Clifford L., "The Purposes of Teacher Internship,” Educational Administration and Supervision. 34:35-43. January, 1 9 % K ------------------- --------Bobbitt, Blanche G., ”A Suggested Procedure for the Selec tion of Prospective Teachers at the End of the Sopho more Year of College,” Journal of Educational Research. 41:676-686, May, 1948. Buck, Pearl, "It Takes Courage," Journal of the National Education Association. 37:246, April, 1948.
83 Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education, 11What Does It Mean to Understand a Child?” Phi Delta Kappan, 27:67-68, November, 1945. Corbally, J. E., Jr., "Guidance and Teacher Recruitment,” Phi Delta Kappan, 28:381-382, May, 1947* Drummond, Harold D., ”1 Choose Elementary Education,” Peabody Journal of Education, 26:135-138, November, 1948
Ebey, George W., "Meeting the Elementary Teacher Shortage,” Educational Leadership, 7:474-478, April, 1950. Editorial, "Teacher Recruiting in New Mexico,” Journal of the National Education Association, 36:216, March, 1947. Editorial, "Teacher Recruitment Shows Improvement,” New Mexico School Review, 29:21-22, May, 1950. Eliassen, R. H., and R. L. Martin, "Teacher Recruitment and Selection During the Period 1944 Through 1947," Journal of Educational Research. 4l:64l-663, May, l94o. Hauptman, L. M.. "You Can Help Recruit Teachers!” Phi Delta Kappan, 28:401-402, May, 1947. Heinig, Christine M., "AAUW and Teacher Recruitment,” Journal of the American Association of University Women. 43:168^171, JSpring, 1950. Herlinger, Harry V., "And Gladly Teach,11 Occupations, 23: 147-151, December, 1944. Jantzen, J. Marc, "Why College Students Choose to Teach,” Phi Delta Kappan. 28:333-335, April, 1947. Maas, Henry S., "Attitudinal Changes of Youth Group Leaders in Teacher Training: A Preliminary Study,” Journal of Educational Research, 43:660-669, May, 1950. Martin, R. Lee, "The Attitude of High-School Seniors Toward Teaching,” High School Journal, 31:153-156, October,
Mathews, J. C., and R. B. Toulouse, "Case for Early Contact with Children in Teacher Education.” Peabody Journal of Education, 26:76-80, September, 1948.
84 McGrath, G. D., "Some Experiences with a Student Teacher Questionnaire,” Journal of Educational Research, 43:641-677, May, 1950. Plank, Joseph G., "They Plan to Teach,” School Activities, 21:181-182, February, 1950. Ryans, David E., ”The Function of Examinations in the Selection of Teachers,” The School Executive, 68: 3941, May, 1949. Simmons, Christine K., “Attracting New Teachers,” School Life, 31:1-2, October, 1948. Spain, Charles R., "How Can We Recruit More Elementary Teachers?” Peabody Journal of Education, 27:271-276, March, 1950. Stinnett, T. M., "Wanted One and One-half Million New Teachers,” The School Executive, 68:11-14, May, 1949. Superintendent's Reports, "Enrollment Up; Teacher Supply Low,” New Mexico School Review, 29:4, January, 1950. Symonds, Percival M., "Personality of the Teacher,” Journal of Educational Research, 40:632-661, May, 1947. Trabue, M. B., "Printed Materials in Recruiting Students for Teacher Education,” Journal of Educational Research, 40:641-651, May, 1947. Trillingham, C. C., and Emery Stoops, "Call for Master Teachers,” California Teachers Association Journal, 46:6-8, January, 1950. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, "Desirable Experiences for Prospective Teachers,” Understanding the Child. 17:80, June, 1948. Witty, Paul A., "The Teacher Who Has Helped Me Most,” Journal of the National Educational Association, 36:386, May, 19477 '
PUBLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS
Maul, Ray C ., -Teacher Supply and Demand In the United States, Second Annual Study Sponsored by the National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards. Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1949. 32 pp. National Committee, Future Teachers of America, Manual for FTA Clubs in Highschools. Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1948. 64 pp. National Education Association, ’’Future Teachers of America,” Handbook for Local, State, and National Associations. Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1949National Education Association Pamphlet, Who Will Teach Them? Washington, D. C.: The Association, 1950. 12 pp. Stroh, M. Margaret, ”A Possible Program for Better Selec tion, ” Better Selection of Better Teachers. Washington, D. C.: Delta Kappa Gamma Society, 1943. 110 pp. Teachers Are Needed, Vocation Division Leaflet, No. 14. Washington, D. C.: United States Office of Education. Veteran's Administration Pamphlet, Occupational Outlook Information, Long-Range Employment Prospects, Teachers. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1949- 87 pp.
Sapers, Lillian, ’’Recruitment for Teachers of Business Subjects.” Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. 157 pp. Vaughan, Stella, Chairman, New Mexico State Committee on Selective Recruitment of Teachers, Delta Kappa Gamma Society, Mimeographed Report for the Year 1949-195Q .
86 Wampler, William Norman, "Methods in Teacher Recruitment." Unpublished Doctor’s dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19-^6. 319 PP*
The El Paso Times, May 1^, 1950*
OTHER SOURCES Boston, Paul P., Superintendent of Schools, La Porte, Indiana, Reply to Writer’s Letter of Inquiry, July, 1950. Elementary Supervisor, Elkhart, Indiana, Reply to Writer's Letter of Inquiry, July, 1950. Horsman, R. D., Superintendent of Schools, Mount Lebanon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Reply to Writer* s Letter of Inquiry, July, 1950. Meyer, Charlotte;-Elementary Supervisor, Decatur, Illinois, Reply to Writer* s Letter of Inquiry, July, 1950. Questionnaire Responses Sent by Las Cruces Teachers and Administrators, July, 1950. Tireman, L. S., Professor of Education, University of New Mexico, Reply to Writer’s Letter of Inquiry, July, 1950.
A P P E N D I X
87 EXHIBIT I REPLY TO LETTER OP INQUIRY SENT TO DECATUR, ILLINOIS Have you continued with the program? Yes How successful do you think it has been? The students have liked it very much; so have the teachers and principals. Unfortunately, we have made no check to see if it has paid dividends in terms of its active recruiting of teachers. Who administered it? Elementary supervisor with the cooperation of the high school principal, high school counselors and elementary principals and teachers. How much time did the seniors devote to elementary work? One period a day, the second semester of their senior year. Did you have a scheduled ’’class*1 for discussion of basic principles, etc.? No. We fear that students will get the idea they are "trained.” We want to avoid this. The elemen tary .principal of the building to which the student is assigned assumed the responsibility for planning the students1 program. The students and principals meet with me to go over the over-all plan near the end of the first semester. Were pupils given "credits" for their work? Yes, but the five credits don’t count toward grad uation. This has been a factor in making our group a really 11select” group. They are students who already have enough credits to graduate without this course. We have really had the "cream of the crop” enrolled.
88 What criteria did you use in choosing the participating students?
Did you make use of any tests?
They are nscreened” by the senior counselors. Do you have any advice or suggestions to make to a school system embarking on such a program? Mrs. Mildred Ingram, Director of Elementary Education, Danville, Illinois could give you addi tional information. They are beginning a course which offers credit and which has a scheduled ”class.” Charlotte Meyer Elementary Supervisor
89 DECATUR, ILLINOIS Vocational Exploration in Group Work with Children Proposed High School Course - February, 1947 (This has been revised since 1947, but I fail to find a copy.) I. Purposes: Student's - To give last semester seniors in High school an opportunity to see if they are interested in going into a voca tion which involves group work with children — teaching, Y work, Scout work, church work, etc. -- by allow ing them .to elect a five-hour course which would take them into an elemen tary school classroom one hour each day to observe and work under the direction of trained personnel. School's
(1-) To give young people an oppor tunity to get a fair and honest picture of the advantages and disadvantages of work with chil dren and of teaching— particularly, we hope, of the satisfactions that come from doing an important job. (2) To provide an opportunity for vocational exploration (not- train ing) in this field where there is .an appalling shortage of leader ship. (3) To help identify young people who should be encouraged to go Into the teaching profession. (4) To give encouragement to those who seem to have desirable qualifi cations — in the full realization that encouragement of friends, relatives and teachers is an ex tremely important factor in the making of vocational choices.
90 II. Procedure; 1. Presentation of plan to elementary principals for reaction— November 6, 1946. 2. Presentation to High School seniors with 145 indicating interest. Nov., 1946 by Mr. ¥. R. McIntosh, Superintendent; Mr. Lee Pigott, High School Principal; Charlotte Meyer, Elementary Supervisor. 3. Screening out of students by High School coun sellors on basis of required courses needed by students to graduate, enrollment in commercial course, etc. - Reduction to 75* 4. Screening out through personal interviews to determine programming conflicts, real interest, etc. 5. Meeting with elementary principals to discuss types of activities in which it will be pos sible and profitable to participate, evaluation of their work, etc. - Thursday, January 9, 19476 . Meeting with selected students (35) to discuss the same. - Tuesday, January l4th. 7- Meeting of students with elementary principals Wednesday, January 15th. 1 - 1:25 P-.M. to become acquainted and to have an opportunity to discuss particular interests of students, etc. III. Suggestions of Activities of High School Students with and for Elementary Pupils (which should be mutually beneficial) 1. Locating, securing, arranging materials for a. bulletin boards b. reference reading c. supplementary reading d. visual aids machines 2. Learning how and operating a. mimeograph, ditto or rexograph b. making master copies 3- Assisting in administration of tests a. group mental b. group achievement 4. Remedial work with individual students following diagnosis and recommendations of the teacher a. in spelling b. in arithmetic c . in reading
91 5. Working with groups of children a. in directing games b. in telling stories c. social studies IV. Suggestions to principals and teachers: 1. That students be given an opportunity to explore work with more than one age level. (A shift might be made each .6 weeks.) 2. That students be given an opportunity to have a variety of experiences; that the student not be considered, for example, a clerical assistant or one to do routine, menial tasks only. This does not mean that acquiring skill in the use of dupli cators, for example, is not a valuable experience for all workers with young people. Students should be taught this, and spend some time doing it, though certainly not a major portion of time there at that or any other single task. 3. That students be given responsibilities for groups of children commensurate with their ability— in all cases the mutual value, considering elementary and high school students being taken into consideration. H-. That we remember at all times that the course is one for exploration, not training. 5- That all of us in the teaching and supervisory per sonnel consider the picture of teaching and teachers that we sincerely believe these young people should receive, and reflect on how that picture will be achieved. Y. Evaluation —
(See attached sheet) Charlotte Meyer, Elementary Supervisor
EXHIBIT III Vocational Exploration in Group Work With Children Evaluation of High School Student's Work Name of Student_
_Feb.-June, 19^8 Grade
I. Personal Appearance B Clean, usually careful about clothing. Usually suitable for the occasion.
Clean, not always careful ahout clothing. Not always appropriate.
A __ Neat, well groomed. Always appropriately dressed.
Sometimes arrives after the class has started and some times has to hurry to "beat the bell".
B H Usually on time. Has a few finishing touches to put on the plans for the day. Busy arranging materials for the class.
A Always on time. Ready for the day. Interest ed and attentive to the children.
III. Performance of Assigned Task
Sometimes has to have further directions and does not always complete attempted task.
B Usually follows the directions well and completes the at tempted task. Occasionally suggests ways for working procedure.
Follows directions quickly and often vo devises ways of ro working more effec tively and efficiently.
EXHIBIT III (continued) Vocational Exploration in Group Work With Children Evaluation of High School Student's Work IV. Initiative C __
Active. Does what is required. Sometimes senses what is needed and goes ahead without waiting to be told what to do.
B “ Does what is required very well. Offers suggestions rather frequently. Often senses what is needed and goes ahead without waiting to be told what to do.
A ____ Energetic. Does more than is required. Ori ginates new plans and carries them to comple tion. Usually senses what is needed and does it without being told.
V. Ability to Work With Children C __ Accepted by most of the 'chil dren. They do not seek his help.
B __ The children understand his explanations and appreciate his help.
A __ Welcomed by the chil dren. Often share their findings and questions with him.
VI. Ability to Work With Adults C __ Is liked by others. Accepts suggestions. Makes a reason able effort to put sugges tions into effect. Does not encourage suggestions.
B ~ Works well as a member of a group. Usually accepts opin ion of the majority. Carries a fair share of the load.
A __ Always welcomed by others. Encourages suggestions. No annoy ing mannerisms. Does ^ not ask for special to favors.
EXHIBIT III (continued) Vocational Exploration in Group Work With Children Evaluation of High School Student's Work VII. Use of Language and Voice
Usually chooses words which are sufficiently discriminat ing to convey differences in meaning. Sentence structure is usually correct. Expres sion is neither stimulating nor tiresome. Voice usually carries to the back of the room and is understood by the children.
Words are often colorful and descriptive. Sentences are usually accurate and forceful but do not reflect a high degree of originality. There is variety in expression but there is need for a greater feeling of freedom and relaxation. Voice clear and easily under stood.
Words are colorful and descriptive. Sentences are always accurate and forceful. There is variety of expression. Animation and stimula tion. Voice pleasant and easily understood.
SUMMARY What contributions has the Helping Student made to the class and the room?
What is the average grade of the student? Attendance Days absent____________
A vo 4r
95 EXHIBIT IV LA PORTE PUBLIC SCHOOLS LA PORTE, INDIANA JULY, 1950 What are the chief purposes of your program? To select and encourage young people of high quality to enter the teaching profession. How successful do you -think it has been? We feel our program has been extremely successful. About 80^ of the students doing cadet teaching at the high school level have entered teacher training schools. Is it an F. T. A. project? Yes— under the direct' sponsorship of A. C. E. Who has been responsible for solving the administrative problems that have arisen? Superintendent, high school principal, director of guidance, elementary supervisor— cooperatively. How much time have the seniors, or participating students, devoted to elementary work? Minimum time has been one clock hour per day--4 days per week, the 5th. day being spent in conference with the Director of Elementary Education. Have you had a scheduled "class” or discussion period for considering elementary school problems? Yes, as indicated above. Were pupils given ’'credits" for their work in the schools? Yes, the same as in any other regular high school subject.
96 What criteria did you use in choosing the participating students? Did you make use of any tests or inventories? Students indicating interest in profession form tasic list. Must be above average in scholarship. Selected on basis of conference between homeroom teacher, counselor, director of the cadet program, and students. Do you have any advice or suggestions to make to a school system embarking on such a program? Enclosure will suggest some ideas we think are important. If the State Department of Education has not approved courses for high school credit, exerting influence to bring this about is of prime importance. Paul F. Boston Superintendent of Schools
EXHIBIT V La Porte, Indiana REQUIREMENTS AS DEFINED BY THE INDIANA STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 1.
The purpose of such course designated as an Introduc tion to Teaching shall he to acquaint the high school students with the problems of the teaching profession and to give them some information and experiences which might lead to their permanent interest in teach ing as a profession and shall carry credit not to exceed one unit of credit.
That the title of such courses when offered shall be an Introduction to Teaching and shall include both work experiences and class study and discussion on the profession of teaching.
That the students enrolled in the Introduction to Teaching course shall be assigned to competent teachers who will supervise their teaching experiences and counsel them in the importance and desirable pro cedures in teaching. Only students of good health, intelligence, average or above, and persons interested in children shall be permitted to enroll in such courses.
The Superintendent of the corporation concerned shall take the responsibility to see that the best interests of the students enrolled and the children with whom they work are 'safeguarded.
That the general program In each system shall be ap proved by the State Department of Education before the work is undertaken. In no case shall the students enrolled in such courses be used for substitute teach ers and progress reports shall be made to the State Superintendent at frequent intervals or upon his request.
This plan is experimental and may be terminated by the Commission at any time."
98 EXHIBIT VI La Porte, Indiana The Teacher Recruitment Program in the La Porte Public Schools has been operating for four successive years and has had encouraging results.
To date, more than 80fo of all the
students who have done cadet teaching have gone on to teach er training institutions where they are definitely planning a teaching career, most of them in the elementary field. The philosophy underlying the program is based not so much on recruitment as on selection.
While it is always
pointed out to high school students that teachers are badly needed, the fact is stressed that only capable people should enter the field.
The compensations for teaching other than
financial are stressed.
We believe that too much emphasis
has been placed by teachers on low salaries, poor working conditions and other problems in the teaching field.
students are to take up teaching, they must know that there are many compensations and satisfactions that can be derived from it. The La Porte High School has an organized chapter of P. T. A. (Future Teachers of America) under the sponsorship of the Association for Childhood Education.
invites in outside speakers in the area of teacher training, they are invited to participate in appropriate local
99 teachers' professional meetings, and they arrange from time to time for group visits to college campuses. The cadet teaching program is directed by the Super visor of Elementary Education.
The elementary grades are
used as laboratories for this training.
Teachers who are
selected to act as supervising teachers are those who ex press an interest in being helpful to high school students who think they may wish to teach.
Students are never sent
to teachers for the sole purpose of helping the teacher. The emphasis is placed entirely on making the experience a helpful one to the student. The program is carried out as follows: At registration time, the prospective cadet has a con ference with the Elementary Supervisor.
She attempts to
find out just what age children the cadet thinks that he or she will enjoy teaching.
The cadet is told that it is
probably best for him to have experience with children of different ages.
For example, if he cadets two semesters,
he may work with an upper grade and a lower grade.
assignment to the grade teacher is made at this first con ference. The program is called Introduction to Teaching. emphasis is placed on observation at first.
observes the work of the teacher and starts to participate only when he and his supervising teacher think that he is
100 ready to do so.
Since we believe that readiness for teach
ing is as important as any other kind of readiness for learning, it seems wise to treat each case individually. As a result, there is no set time for the beginning of participation.
It varies from a few days to a period of
weeks. Participation usually starts with individual help for some child.
This is closely supervised by the teacher so
that the cadet will not get the idea that helping him is simply sitting and hearing him read, for example.
cadet goes along, he increases his participation, until he finally takes over the responsibility for small groups for stories, free play or some other activity which he can manage.
In some cases, he works with the whole group, but
he Is never left alone to make plans or manage group acti vities.
Teachers in charge of the program believe that
throwing a student into teaching may discourage him from taking up the profession since he cannot be able to do it entirely on his own. Weekly conferences are held with the elementary super visor at which time general teaching problems are discussed. Outlines are prepared as a basis for discussion at these conferences and also as guides in observing. these outlines are attached.
The supervising teacher knows
what is discussed in these conferences and frequently
101 participates in them. Last year, a program based on Teacher Recruitment was prepared and given by the cadet group over WIMS, the local radio station.
The cadets also participated in a panel
discussion at Muncie on Elementary Education Day. Former high school cadets are now enrolled in prac tically all of the teacher training institutions in Indiana; a few outside the state.
102 EXHIBIT VII DISCUSSION OUTLINE Some suggestions for observation 1.
Pick out some child who seems not to be responding satisfactorily to school.
See if you can decide
what may be interfering with his progress.
to your supervising teacher about this child. What can you do to help him? 2.
Pick out some child who seems perfectly adjusted to school.
How do other children react to him?
What do you think are some of the reasons for his success?
Note— Use this outline for observation and we will use it in our discussion.
Leila Armstrong Supervisor of Elementary Education
103 DISCUSSION OUTLINE In your discussion to date, you have seen some excel lent teaching done by your supervising teacher.
See if you
can answer some of these questions by the time of our next conference. 1.
There is almost no working at cross purposes by teacher and children.
The teacher is almost
entirely responsible for this.
What have you
seen her do that you think makes children not only willing but eager to work with her?
Prevention is always better than remedy.
applies to behavior as well as to anything else.
What have you seen your supervising
teacher do to forestall undesirable conduct?
Note— we will discuss this at our next meeting.
Leila Armstrong Supervisor of Elementary Education
EXHIBIT VIII MT. LEBANON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Mt. Lebanon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR TEACHER RECRUITMENT IN HIGH SCHOOL 1. It is important that a definite and specific plan of teacher recruitment be prepared and that all concerned strictly adhere to it. 2. A cooperative attitude on the part of all teachers, supervisors, and administrators must be secured. The principal and/or administrative head of the school must take an active and personal part in whatever plan is determined. Two, three, or more definitely planned teachers1 meetings should be devoted to the program. 3. Appoint a permanent committee of teachers to act as a guidance committee for teacher recruitment for the entire school. It will be the duty of this committee to plan and supervise a permanent program of guidance for this purpose. 4. Teacher recruitment should be a part of the guidance program starting not later than the 10th year and con tinuing through the 11th and 12th years. 5. The'administrative head of the school system together with the high school principal should meet with all 10th, 11th, and 12th grade students at least once to discuss all phases of the teaching profession. 6 . Not later than the beginning of the 12th year, those students who are interested or should be interested in teaching as a profession should be assigned to one of the members of the guidance committee who will act as their supervisory teacher. This supervisory teacher may or may not be the home room teacher. She should see that the interested students participate in as many of the teaching activities as possible such as checking tests, helping make out tests, seeing that materials are on black board, planning materials for visual aids, eval uating work that has been done, etc.
105 7. During the 12th year these students should be given opportunities to visit other schools in the district or other grades in the system at least as often as once each month. An effort should be made to see that they visit grades on all levels of the school system. They should meet as a group as often as once each month with various teachers, supervisors, and superintendents. 8 . Administrators, supervisors, and teachers should not hesitate whenever necessary to point out that the teach ing profession might not be most desirable for some pupils. It should be kept in mind that quality is what we seek rather than quantity. 9. During the 12th year both home room teachers and members of the guidance committee should exercise great care in advising the students as to what colleges might be best suited for their particular needs. 10. If at all possible, it should be determined before grad uation what schools the students will attend and the supervisory teacher should keep in touch with their progress during their four years in college.
io6 EXHIBIT IX
REPLY TO LETTER OP INQUIRY, ELKHART, INDIANA What are the chief purposes of your program? To acquaint students with the work of teaching and to enable them to decide or not decide on teaching as a career. How successful do you think it has been? Very successful — go on to college.
60 per cent of our students do
Is it an P. T. A. project? Yes. Who has been responsible for solving the administrative problems that have arisen? Elementary Supervisor and High School Dean of Girls. How much time have the seniors, or participating students devoted to elementary work? One hour a day. Have you had a scheduled "class11 or discussion period for considering elementary school problems? Yes.
Also some social meetings in the evenings.
Were pupils given "credits" for their work in the schools? No. What criteria did you use in choosing the participating students?
Did you make use of any tests or inventories?
Achievement tests, mental tests, also teacher judgment.
107 Do you have any advice or suggestions to make to a sc’hool system embarking on such a program? Students should in the Junior year he organized as a club and should give study to teaching as a career before being selected as Cadets in the Senior year. Elementary Supervisor Elkhart, Indiana
1. Would you be willing to cooperate in a plan for selec tive recruitment and guidance that would give high school seniors opportunities for learning and experience in the field of elementary education? I would and will be most heartily willing to parti cipate in the program you propose. It Is very much needed. This program should be a fine challenge to all teachers. 2. In what ways could your school be helpful to the seniors who are considering entering the field of elementary teach ing? (Please be as specific as possible). Our school can provide prospective teachers with first hand experience with children from homes of various economic and social status. Seniors can be come acquainted with pupil needs, the curriculum of the elementary grades, the objectives of elementary education and how the schools endeavor to attain these objectives. Seniors can become acquainted with methods of teaching in elementary school. Give student an opportunity to use any special ability or talent he or she might have. Develop confidence in self and others through guided work with children and teachers. Students have exper ience in problem solving and helping others to solve problems. 3. In what ways could those prospective members of the teaching profession be helpful to your school? (Present plans indicate that such students may be able to devote from one class period to one-half, day at a time to work and study in the elementary schools.) There are many opportunities for service to the school for the seniors such as: Assisting with routine activities: check attendance, milk, etc. Give assistance to pupils needing individual atten tion (this would be worked out with the teacher.) Head stories, poems etc during story hour. Check papers, workbooks (limited amount of this, enough to give student experience in this type
109 of activity.) Assist in playground activities: supervise games etc. Assist with any special ability student might have: art etc. Assist in dramatizations and other activities. Assist with programs; for the class; for the school and for parent-teacher meetings. 4. From your own knowledge and experience what suggestions can you give for the organization and carrying on of such a program? Please comment freely. OUTLINE I.
Preliminary activities A. Conferences Student interests (with leaders of program and high school students) a. grade level b. subjects c. activities 2* Student Abilities (leader and High School Prin., Tchrs. with students' records) a. Intelligence b. Experience c. Aptitude test record d. Academic record, etc. B. Conferences with an Administrative Council (Supt. Supervisor, Guidance Director, Principals and a Teacher Representative perhaps one from each building) 1. Discussion of Problems involved. 2. Discussion of facilities available in each bldg. 3. Solutions to problems. 4. Launching program, )Plans for)
Setting up the program A* Students (High School Seniors) As I see the plan or places for the ried out with the teacher with whom
there are about three periods student that need to be car leader or perhaps with the the student is going to work.
110 1. Observation Period a. Conferences on how and what to observe In classroom b. Actual observation in the classroom c. Evaluation period— of what was observed 2. Apprenticeship Period a. Preliminary training: briefly: objectives of teaching, child behavior, and development etc. b. Apprenticeship in classroom: assist with activities with teacher assistance. c. Evaluation period 3. Participation Period a. Teacher-Student planning period: subjects to be “taught", activities in which student will participate and help pupils. b. Actual participation: helping individual pupils etc. c. Evaluation period— of work done. B. Teachers The teachers who are cooperating in this plan will need a training-planning period prior to actual participation in the program. These conferences might be held with the leader of the program or with the principal of the build ing where she is teaching. If more than one is (meeting) necessary perhaps the first should be with the leader and any succeeding ones could be carried on by the principal. 1. Training-Planning Period (s) a. Instructions (suggestions) as to how teacher can best help student (^.nd herself) get most out of program. b. Teacher responsibility (and privilege) in sharing or cooperating in program. c. Teacher-Student relationships d. Teacher-Student-pupil relationships e. Best procedures for planning daily plans and activities, etc.
III. Progress Conferences Conferences should he held periodically to evaluate program and progress being made, problems that need to be discussed, solutions to be worked out, etc. 1. Building conferences--Prin. and teachers 2. Administrative Council 3. Leader with each building (prin. and teachers) Marion Bawden Lucero Teacher - 3rd Grade
112 EXHIBIT XI
QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO LAS CRUCES TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS 1. Would you be willing to cooperate in a plan for selec tive recruitment and guidance that would give high school seniors opportunities for learning and experience in the field of elementary education?
2. In what ways could your school be helpful to the seniors who are considering entering the field of elementary train ing? (Please be as specific as possible.
3. In what ways could these prospective members of the teaching profession be helpful to your school? (Present plans indicate that such students may be able to devote from one class period to one-half day at a time to work and study in the elementary schools.)
4. From your own knowledge and experience what suggestions can you give for the organization and carrying on of such a program? Please comment freely.
Name:___ School:_ Position:
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