The selection of pictures for the exploration of personality by the projection method

548 82 8MB

English Pages 177

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

The selection of pictures for the exploration of personality by the projection method

Citation preview

TEE SELECTION OF PICTURES FOR THE EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY BY THE PROJECTION METHOD

A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Psychology The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

Jean Archibald Hood June 19^2

UMI Number: DP30361

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI Dissertation Publishing

UMI DP30361 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

T h i s d is s e r t a t io n , w r i t t e n b y

....... .J .E A R .m G B lB P & D K O O T ) ......... u n d e r th e g u i d a n c e o f iiQJCt.. F a c u l t y C o m m i t t e e on S tu d ie s , a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e rs , has been p re s e n te d to a n d a c c e p te d by th e C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d R e s e a rc h , in p a r t i a l f u l ­ f i l l m e n t o f r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r th e d e g re e o f

i-s f J' -"

D O C T O R O F P H IL O S O P H Y

Dean

Secretary D a te ..

Com m ittee on Studies

f:r"

v

C hairm an

...

.......

/}.v.i0..sXtL...X.e£s4J.&A"

)

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

II.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM ...................

1

Historical background '.......................

1

Importance of the study .....................

2

Scope of the investigation

3

THEORIES UNDERLYING THE PROJECTION METHOD

V.

Principal theories of the imagination . . . .

9

.....................

12

PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTATION IN THEMATIC ................................

CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF PICTURES

.

. . .

15 18

PROCEDURE IN SETTING UP AND ADMINISTERING THE TEST

VI.

5‘ 5

APPERCEPTION IV.

. . .

Important theories of the unconscious . . . .

Theories of projection III.

.................

....................................

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Findings

. .

22

25

....................................

25

Conclusions ..................................

35

Recommendations

35

BIBLIOGRAPHY

...

APPENDIX A: PICTURES

. .

..................................

36

................................

42

APPENDIX B: REPRESENTATIVE STORIES OBTAINED FOR EACH PICTURE AND THE EXAMINER1S ANALYSES OF E A C H ....................................

92

APPENDIX C: DETAILED ANALYSES OF PICTURES ..........

120

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Agreement Between Examiner and Subjects Choice of Dominant Tones

II. III.

on

...................

Percentages of Themes for Each Picture . . . .

30

Percentages of Dynamisms and Their Manifestations for Each P i c t u r e .............

V.

29

Percentages of Dominant Tones for Each Picture . . . . .

IV.

26

32

Summary of Number of Groups of Themes, Dominant Tones, and Dynamisms and Percentages of Unclassified Stories, Characters, and Endings for Each P i c t u r e ...................

3^

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM I.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

From the earliest days of recorded history, men at­ tempted to read events and personal characteristics through the study of the stars and other natural phenomena.

The

efforts of hundreds of years resulted in the building of charts showing such influences on the temperament of man. Even today there are people who find in astrology an explan­ ation of their characters and actions. Many workers have attempted standardization on other grounds.

Gall attempted to prove that the shape and contour

of the cranium indicated potentialities and characteristics. Lombroso was concerned with physiognomy; other investigators with handwriting; still others with numerical combinations; Kretchmer and Sheldon, and many endocrinologists, with body types. More scientific effort at standardization has been made in the building up of personality tests.

Some of these

are constructed on the pattern of achievement tests, as in the case of the Downey Will-Temperament Scale.

More use the

questionnaire technique, asking the subject to report on his customary actions and reactions by answering a series of

questions.

Others employ a rating scale on certain charac­

teristics, which may be marked either by the person himself or by an observer.

A more and cumberous method is the ad­

ministration of a battery of tests and the charting of re­ sults graphically in a kind of personality profile or map. Another technique, receiving attention at present, Is the less direct approach through the projection method.

Ex­

amples of such tests may be found in the Szondi test; in shadow pictures of Rombouts; in toy tests; in associations to nonsense syllables; in responses to "contes," as used in Switzerland; in ink-blot tests; and, more recently, in Murray*s "thematic apperception”

test.

If earlier methods are open to the criticism that they are subject to distortion on the part of the patient, either unwittingly or otherwise, and that they limit him to the questions or characteristics presented to him, at least they lend themselves to a great degree of standardization of scoring and interpretation.

The new technique, although

difficult to standardize as far as interpretation goes, offers few clues to the subject in the way of desirable answers and does not restrict his responses. II.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

In spite of these handicaps, the problem is so im­ portant that research is being carried on widely, and new

3 tests appear every month. A method for disclosing personality characteristics and conflicts would benefit the professional psychologist. It would increase that body of knowledge concerned with the central problems of contemporary psychology. To the clinical psychologist such a means of ampli­ fication and corroboration or explanation of case material would shorten and make more effective such diagnostic and remedial procedures as may be necessary. To the public a means of self knowledge, more exact and dependable than that gained through many of the pseudopsychological channels commonly used, would be of great ad­ vantage.

People needing advice and help, whose problems do

not warrant prolonged analytic study, and whose time and money is limited, would be enabled to receive remedial sug­ gestions in a minimum time and at small expense. III.

SCOPE OP THE INVESTIGATION

The investigation undertaken here does not include the validation of the method.

It has been rather widely

used by psychiatric workers, and found to be of value and of some considerable accuracy; nor does it intend to validate any specific set of pictures to be used as a test.

Rather,

it attempts to sift, from some fifty pictures chosen in accordance with the criteria presented later, the twenty

4 which will bring the ’’best” responses from the greatest number of people.

Stories will be rated as "best" on the

basis of variety of response; genuineness, that is, plot and action rather than description; and the degree to which they represent phantasy as indicated by a departure from the scene depicted in the picture itself.

CHAPTER II THEORIES UNDERLYING THE PROJECTION METHOD It may be postulated that the underlying dynamics of personality spring from an interaction of forces.

Each

force impels the individual to seek a certain course of action.

If it be inhibited or repressed, it may find re­

lease In the guise of phantasy, either known to the subject or repressed and unconscious.

The phantastic expression of

dynamic forces is hardly likely to assume chance forms, but will, it is believed, have certain meanings which are achieved through the projection of conflicts and emotions, wishes and desires, ideas and action. I.

IMPORTANT THEORIES OP THE UNCONSCIOUS

Neither the Idea of the unconscious nor that of pro­ jection is modern in psychology.

The idea of the former is

implicit in Plato’s theory of "recollection."

Aristotle

stated very clearly that "in addition to seeing and hearing we also perceive that we see and hear."l

Plotinus summarized

his tenth chapter of Les Enneads with the expression, "La

1 Aristotle, De Anima, Book III, Chap. Ill, p. 99« Translated by W. A. Hammond (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., Ltd., 1902).

6 pensee, sans etre consciente, peut exister plus intense."2 This lack of consciousness Plotinus put down to lack of at­ tention.

Leibniz added a second reason for the phenomenon

when he said that a person may be unconscious of his impres­ sions, not only because he does not attend to them, but also because they are in themselves small ’’inapperceptible."3 Kant used as a chapter heading, ’’the percepts (Vorstellugen) which we have without being aware of t h e m . T h e y are known by means of inference.

He called them ’’dunkel” in contrast

to the ones which we recognize and which are ”klar.”

The

chief distinction between the conscious idea and the uncon­ scious one he believed to be the distinction of form. Herbart advanced the theory that ideas became un­ conscious, not because they fail to gain attention as Plotinus propounded, nor because they were small as Leibniz added, but because they are kept out by other ideas. Hamilton described three degrees of ’’latency” of unconscious­ ness.

The first is knowledge which can be used when and how

^ Plotinus, Les Enneades, translated by l ’Abbe^ Alta (Paris: Bibliotheque chacornac, 1924), p. 71^ w. L. Leibnitz, New Essays Concerning Human Under­ standing (New York: Macmillan Company^ l8"9"6) , p . 12. ^ Immanuel K a n t , Anthropologie in Pragmatischer Hinsicht (Konigsberg: F. Nicolovius", 1798) > Book I, Chapter XVI.

7 the person wills.

The second exists when there is certain

knowledge of which the person is unconscious of possessing, hut which becomes conscious "in certain exaltations of its powers."5

In the third class he postulates the possibility

of unconscious mentations which make themselves known only through their effects.

Consciousness itself constitutes

"only a small circle in the centre of a far wider sphere if action and passion, of which we are only conscious through their effects."6 Hartmann indulged in what Spearman called "an orgy of the unconscious."?

He placed his justification in the works

of the thinkers who preceded him.

He quoted Leibniz to

maintain that the natural dispositions, instincts, passions --in short, the mightiest influences in human life--take their rise in the sphere of the unconscious.^

He referred

to Richter during his description of "the kingdom of the Unconscious . . . which possesses and rules every human mind."9

He advanced Schelling's argument that "In all, even

5 William Hamilton, Lectures on Metaphysics (London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1B59)> P* ^ L o c . cit. 7 Charles Spearman, Psychology Down the Ages (London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1 9 3 7 P * 375* 8 W. L. Leibniz, New Essays Concerning Human Under­ standing as quoted by E. von Hartmann, Philosophy of the Unconscious (London: K. Paul, Trench, Gruber & Co., Ltd.,

1F93TTpT^9. 9 Friedrich Richter, Selina as quoted by Hartmann, ibid., p . 2 7 •

the commonest and most everyday production, there cooperates with the conscious an unconscious activity.

With the

weight of all this authority behind him, he advanced the role of the unconscious in every human activity.

For him,

the distinction between conscious reasoning and the uncon­ scious process was that the former was "never creatively productive, never inventive.

Here man is entirely dependent

on the Unconscious ." H Charcot and Janet made clinical studies of the uncon­ scious, and discussed the dissociation of the mind so that the personal consciousness is unaware of another focus of activity.

Guerney in England, Binet in France, James and

Prince in America, and Freud and Bruer in Germany, further demonstrated the phenomenon.

Janet interpreted the dissoci­

ation as a result of an "exhaustion" of the personal con­ sciousness.

Freud, on the other hand, held that is was due

to "repression" by the personal and conscious part of experi­ ence . F. Myers discussed the part of the unconscious in the inspiration of genius as a subliminal uprush, an emergence into the current of ideas of which the man is consciously manipulating

10 Friedrich Schelling, Werke, Book III, Chapter III, as quoted by Hartmann, ibid., p. 25* 11 E. von Hartmann, ibid., p. 291*

9 other ideas which he has not consciously originated, hut which have shaped themselves beyond his will, in profounder regions of his being.12 II.

PRINCIPAL THEORIES OF THE IMAGINATION

This linking of the unconscious with the production of creation leads to a consideration of the phenomenon by which the test is designated--imagination.

The problem of

the Imagination has occupied the philosopher and psycholo­ gist from very early times.

The ’’image" goes back to the

theory of emanation propounded by Empedocles.

Almost the

only remains of this doctrine existing today lie in the word "impression."

The later Greeks, though abandoning the

theory, kept the terminology. There are two great traditions in the study of the Imagination: the first is idealistic and. mystic, influenced mainly by Plato; the second Is empirical, and derives author­ ity from Aristotle.

It has been said that these two great

theories of phantasy are so basic for later thought that the generalization may be hazarded that every subsequent concep­ tion grows out of one or the other. Plato was the first to use "fancy" and "imagination" as terms of reflective thought.

As late as Empedocles,

12 F. Myers, Human Personality (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1919)* P* 56.

10 phantasies were things rather than mental states, because he did not distinguish between impression and stimulus, between thought and perception.

To Plato, the fundamental driving

force of life was Eros.

Life became ordered only when con­

trolled by the conscious apprehension of principles, and these principles were often in conflict with desires.

Im­

agination, a sensuous faculty, may be considered as the re­ sult of this conflict. I refer to those appetites which bestir themselves in sleep; when, during the slumbers of that other part of the soul, which is rational and tamed and master of the former, the wild animal part . . . becomes ram­ pant and . . . endeavors to set out after the gratifi­ cation of its own proper character. You do know that in such moments there is nothing that it dares not do, released and delivered as it is from any sense of shame and reflection.13 Imagination had a still more important function than this, however.

In the Sophist, Plato pointed out the two kinds

of divine creative activity, the second being the implanting of phantasies in the human mind, fulfilling important ethi­ cal functions for the guidance of man. Aristotle defined phantasy as a kind of motion re­ sulting from sensation or perceptive states.

Its essential

functions were in mediating between sense experience and thought.

He goes so far as to say that it is impossible to

Plato, Republic, (no city: A. L. Burt & Co., Publishers, no date), IX, 335-36.

11 think without a "phantasm." For the Stoic, the achievement of the moral life in­ volved the proper control of phantasy and the supremacy of reason.

This ethical programme, with its striking antithe­

sis of reason and phantasy, was to dominate the thought of the middle ages. Kant and Schelling follow somewhat the Aristotelian conception of the value of the imagination.

Kant conceived

of the imagination as the second step in knowledge, the synthesis of the complex content of pure perception.

He

differentiated between the image as a product of the empiri­ cal faculty of the productive imagination, and the schema as a product of pure a priori imagination, which makes the con­ sciousness of an image possible.

Schelling sought in creat­

ive imagination, as exemplified in art, for a final explana­ tion of the unconscious element in both knowledge and action. Hartmann also believed that the unconscious was the source of all creative products, as well as of aesthetic appreciation.

Hamilton divided the creative thinking into

parts: first, the recalling of thoughts into consciousness, as an act of the reproductive faculty of association and reminiscence; and, second, the imagination as the power of the mind to hold up vividly before itself those thoughts. To the members of the psychoanalytic school, influ­ enced as they were by Leibniz and Schelling, phantasy became

12 significant of the whole inner life of the person.

Freud

stressed the phantastic products as revealing wishfulfillments.

Adler, however, did not consider that the

phantasies of the individual did not consist mainly in imaginary gratifications of the libido, but in easy, because of imaginary, ways of escape from the sense of inferiority. III.

THEORIES OF PROJECTION

The idea of projection is as ancient as that of the unconscious.

The idealists, from the early Greeks down,

have in a sense been projectionists.

The tradition has

been carried down through Berkley, Hume, and Kant to Spear­ man, Jeans, and Eddington of our own day. Another theory of projection, of feelings rather than of thoughts, has been hinted in the writings of Herder, Vischer, and the philosopher Lotze, and expanded and devel­ oped by the psychologist Theodor Lipps.

In discussing the

process of intimate symbolism by which men and artists pro­ ject themselves into the animate or inanimate world, F. T. Vischer distinguished between the symbolism of allegory and ordinary life which is "frei und hell,” and that of mythology and popular religion where the process is involuntary and unconscious— "unfrei und dunkel."

His addition of the second

adjectives to K a n t ’s distinction serves to emphasize the unconscious phase of the process.

His son, Robert Vischer,

13 gave the phenomenon of projection the name "Einfuhling," later translated by Titchener as "empathy.” tained that einfuhling means,

Lipps main­

"not a sensation in one’s

body, but feeling something, namely, oneself, into the esthetic object."1^ The psychoanalysts have given the word projection a rather definite meaning.

Warren defines it thus:

The tendency or act of ascribing to the external world repressed mental processes which are not recog­ nized as being of personal origin, as a result of which the content of these processes is experienced as an outer perception.15 It thus serves as a tension reducing mechanism by attribut­ ing to others the things which would be intolerable to admit in oneself. It Is In Henri Bergson that these three strands of psychological theory seem to come together.

In his

”L ’Evolution Creatice" he speaks of sympathy whereby the person creating, places himself within the interior of the object.

Later, the essay on Laughter sets forth the idea

that our souls are impenetrable to one another; that we interpret only by analogy with what we have ourselves ex­ perienced.

In further applying this theory to creative

Theodor Lipps, "Empathy, Inner Imitation, and Sense Feelings," A Modern Book of Esthetics, An Anthology (Melvin M. Rader, editor; New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935), p. 302. -*•5 q . warren, Dictionary of Psychology (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company^ 1934), p. 212.

Ik imagination, he asks if, then, we must believe that an artist is all the people he creates. He solves

the problem

by setting up a distinction between the personality

we have

and all those we might have had. If the characters created by a poet give the Impres­ sion of life, it is only because they are the poet himself--the poet plumbing the depths of his own nature in so powerful an effort of inner observation that he lays hold of the potential in the real, and takes up what nature has left as a mere outline or sketch in his soul In order to make of it a finished work of a r t . l 6 He takes into account, too, that most people overlook the larger fraction of the unconscious part of their lives because of a tendency in our nature to represent the whole of our inner life on the model of the very small part of it which is inserted into the present reality, which perceives this reality and acts upon it.

He places the dream state

as the substratum of our normal state.

Nothing is added in

waking life, which is only the limitation, concentration, and tension of that diffuse psychological life which is the life of dreaming. In much of modern thought we find an acceptance of the belief in an unconscious which stirs and moves the in­ dividual, and which, through an act of the imagination, projects its striving and conflicts into other individuals.

^ Henri Bergson, Laughter, An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic, translated by C. Brereton (London: Macmillan and Company, Ltd., 1911)> P* 166.

CHAPTER III PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTATION IN THEMATIC APPERCEPTION Murray developed the thematic apperception test as one of some sixteen methods for investigating personality. Pictures were given to the subject with the instructions to interpret the action, reconstruct preceding events, and suggest final outcomes.

The stories so obtained were anal­

yzed according to needs (subject) and press (objects) unit­ ing to form a thema, a particular press-need combination. In 1935 Morgan and Murray-*- published the first article set­ ting forth the theory and describing preliminary results. They believed that they received a large amount of informa­ tion in a short period of time, and that the patients did reveal unwilling and unconscious trends. In

1939

Symonds2

undertook a study based on the same

theory, attempting to determine criteria for selecting pictures to be used in investigating adolescentsT phantasies. He chose eighty-one pictures representing situations in which adolescents might find themselves or might imagine themselves.

He used pupils of English classes as subjects,

•*• C. D. Morgan and H. A. Murray, 51A Method for Investi­ gating Fantasies: the Thematic Apperception Test," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 3^:289-306, August, 19352 P. M. Symonds, "Criteria for the Selection of Pic­ tures for the Investigation of Adolescent Phantasies," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 3^:271-7 ^> April, 1 9 3 9 .

16 the ages ranging from twelve to nineteen years.

He found

that the pictures which produced "best11 responses, judged by variety and plot and production of phantasy, had the follow­ ing characteristics: lack of detail in the background which limit the setting of the story; vagueness in theme, and in­ completeness of content; and characters with which the person telling the story might identify himself.

Pictures dealing

with family situations and social situations were the most provocative. Rotter^ conducted a study of the validity of the test with mentally disordered patients.

He believed that the

technique was economical in gathering deep understanding of the subject’s personality and problems.

The checking of

interpretations derived from the test material against in­ dependently written case histories and clinical diagnoses disclosed a high degree of accuracy in deducing biographical material, attitudes toward past events and relations, and diagnosis. Harrison^ has recently conducted two studies on the

^ J. B. Rotter, "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients. I. Method of Analysis and Clinical Problems," Character and Personality, 9:l8-3^.» September, 19^0. ^ R. Harrison, "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients. II. A Quantitative Validity Study,” Character and Personality, 9*. 122-33 .> December, 19^0.

17 use and validity of the thematic apperception test.

In the

first the experimenter endeavored to work out his inferences from the story alone, knowing nothing of the background of the forty mental hospital patients who served as subjects. He discovered that "biographical and personality informa­ tion, including interests, attitudes, traits, problems and conflicts, were analytically

deducible"^

with eighty-three

per cent accuracy when hospital case records were used as the validating criterion.

He found that hypotheses concern­

ing dynamic and etiological factors tended to have slightly more validity than did the test as a whole. The second experiment^ followed a similar procedure, except that persons other than the experimenter administered the test so as to eliminate cues that might arise from the physical appearance and behaviour of the subject.

The

findings were that such cues had some facilitating value in test interpretations.

However, this factor does not

lessen the clinical value of the test.

5 Harrison, loc. cit. 6 R . Harrison, "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients. III. Validation by the Method of Blind Analysis," Character and Personality, 9:13^-38, December, 19^0.

CHAPTER IV CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF PICTURES Murray’s original thematic apperception test con­ sisted of twenty pictures which were fairly obvious in their portrayal of action.

After considerable research, Murray

re-edited his pictures and produced a set more indefinite in content and bizarre in treatment.

The complete set has

thirty cards, ten of which are to be submitted to both men and women, ten to women only, and ten to men only. Although these thirty pictures are better from the standpoint of indefiniteness of content, a large proportion of them exhibit a strain of morbidity and violence which may lead the subject to create stories along these lines more often than he might with more neutral pictures. Stories of morbidity and violence may or may not be indica­ tive of underlying trends in the person being examined if the pictures almost demand such an interpretation.

Such stories

however, if they are brought out from pictures which depict more the situations of everyday life, will then be highly indicative of the subject’s demands and past experience. In the selection of pictures for this study, certain criteria were kept in mind. 1.

Pictures were chosen which were believed to have

enough universal appeal to bring about fertility of response

19 “j

Rotter-1 found that with his patients, representations of real people in some dynamic situation not too far removed from the subject's own experiences or knowledge brought stories with the clearest plots.

In the present set only

four pictures dealt with symbols or objects rather than with people in everyday situations. 2.

Following Symond’s findings^ an attempt was made

to find pictures clear In outline, yet vague enough in de­ tail to allow for individual interpretations and free play of imagination.

Rotter, in his experiment, found that the

clearer-cut pictures of Murray’s first set brought better results than those of the ones in present use.

For this

experiment, the cuts used were photographs. 3-

Ample opportunity was given for characters to be

portrayed with which the person taking the test might identify himself.

In a number, however, especially in

pictures involving children, the action obviously Involves someone not shown.

The ambiguity thus gained might be valu­

able In that, If the subject did not project his emotional

J. B. Rotter, frStudies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients. I. Method of Analysis and Clinical Problems," Character and Personality, September, 19^0. 2 p . M. Symonds, "Criteria for the Selection of P i c ­ tures for the Investigation of Adolescent Phantasies," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, J>k:2rfk, April,

20

responses upon the child, he might create his own character for Identification.

This would leave him the maximum amount

of imaginative freedom. 4.

An attempt was made to cover fundamental psy­

chological issues relative to personality.

Briefly, these

include: a.

Interaction between the individual and cultural

patterns. b.

Resulting conflicts between wants and social

c.

Possible Interactions between people of different

mores.

age groups and of both sexes.

There are pictures showing a

little girl alone, a young woman, and an older woman alone; then a little girl with other little girls, with a young woman, and also with an older one; again, a little girl with a little boy, with a young man, and with an older one; finally, a young woman with a young man, with a young woman, with an older woman, and with an older man; and similarly, a set of relations for the male. 5.

An attempt was made to have pictures showing a

balance of emotional expressions, that is, happy, sad, and ambiguous moods for each age group and both sexes. 6.

As far as possible, pictures show episodic or

incomplete action in order to give scope for developing fantasies by departing from the scene apparent in the picture

21

itself. 7*

An effort was made to determine the level of ab­

straction which might best bring out projections.

If the

picture is too raw or too close to a sore spot in the sub­ ject, he may inhibit responses; yet it should be challenging enough so that it does not fail to make connections with underlying conflicts.

Symonds found that pictures present­

ing probable situations brought better stories than those presenting improbable ones.

CHAPTER V PROCEDURE IN SETTING UP AND ADMINISTERING THE TEST Forty-nine pictures were chosen from the U. S. Camera magazine.

The choice was made on the criteria discussed in

detail in the above chapter and was checked by two other workers.1 The pictures were then re-photographed in a rela­ tively uniform size, approximately six by five inches, and mounted on uniform mounts. The subjects were given the following instructions: This is a test of creative imagination. I am going to show you a number of pictures, and you are to make up a story about each one. Let your imagination go as far as it wishes. In cases where the subject did not round out his story, he was asked to fill in the events leading up to the situation or to go on to the outcome.

Where subjects were obviously

being hindered by an attempt to stick too closely to what was shown in the picture, they were told that the picture was suggestive only, and that they could add to it as they pleased.

When they had completed the set, they were asked

to go over the pictures again, to suggest a title for each, and to give the dominant tone for each.

1 familiar producer dramatic

One of the checkers was a psychologist who was with Murray’s test, and the other was a play who was asked to judge the pictures on the basis of possibilities in the situations presented.

23 The fifty subjects who cooperated in the experiment ranged in age from seven and one half to sixty-eight years, although sixty per cent of them were between twenty to thirty years old. male.

Twenty-five were male; twenty-five, fe­

Of the twenty-five students who participated, seven

were psychology students, six were pre-medical candidates, and the rest were distributed among the faculties of com­ merce, theology, speech, cinema, chemistry, music, archae­ ology, economics, comparative literature, and government administration.

Occupations represented included those of

social worker, telephone operator, stenographer, nurses’ assistant, nurse, radio script writer, machinist, draughts­ man, personnel director, and one subject on relief. teen of the subjects were married.

Four­

All but six had had at

lea,st some college experience. The full set of forty-nine pictures was used with twenty subjects.

Eleven pictures were then discarded on the

basis of their bringing an unvaried response or of their failure in revealing conflict in the subjects tested.

The

remaining thirty-eight pictures were used with thirty addi­ tional subjects. The responses were then analyzed on the following bases: theme of the story (manifest content); dominant tone of the story; departure from the picture content by introduc­ ing other people or objects; the eliciting of a principal

24character; the dynamic mechanism involved; and the type of ending, whether satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or neutral. It was found that there were only a few main topics for themes and dominant tones, with a few classifications of dynamic mechanisms, for each picture.

A representative

story for each of these was selected and given to another worker for a blind analysis as a validation of the writer's analyses.

The correctness of each theme and dominant tone

was checked against the subjects* choice of title and dominant tone.

CHAPTER VI FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

I.

FINDINGS

A total series of two thousand one hundred twenty stories were obtained and analysed.1

The reliability of

the examiner’s analysis of these stories as checked by an independent analysis of representative stories was as follows: Percentage similar

Percentage different

Dominant tone

80

20

Dynamisms

70

J>0

Endings

85

15

The amount of similarity between the examiner’s analysis of dominant tones and the subjects’ choice is shown in Table I.

Where the choice was similar, the exam­

iner’s analysis was corroberated.

Where it was different,

in a number of cases the difference was of little signifi­ cance.

In others, however, the difference was of such a

nature as to add considerably to the interpretation of the story.

The percentage of such cases is shown in the last

column of the table.

1 Stories illustrative of each picture may be found in Appendix B.

26

TABLE I AGREEMENT BETWEEN EXAMINER AND SUBJECTS ON CHOICE OP DOMINANT TONES

Picture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Percentage of similar choices

Percentage of different choices

Percentage of different choices significant for interpretation

57 43 61 47 53 50 61 62 42 47 64 57 58 64 65 76 63 74 56 69 68 58 75 70 63 85 64 67 84 61 67 67 66 69 66

43 57 39 53 47 50 39 38 58 43 36 43 42 36 35 24 37 26 44 31 32 42 25 30 37 15 36 33 16 39 33 33 34 31 34

30 67 80 30 38 36 35 40 22 50 25 58 0 50 42 88 50 44 67 20 36 50 25 40 17 20 20 40 60 50 54 50 50 56 50

27

TABLE I (continued) AGREEMENT BETWEEN EXAMINER AND SUBJECTS ON CHOICE OF DOMINANT TONES

Picture

36

37 38 39 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Percentage of similar choices

Percentage of different choices

68 48 62 76 51 50 56 61 52 65 63 55 59 66

32 52 38 24 49 50 44 39 48 35 37 35 41 34

Percentage of different choices significant for interpretation 44 6 2 43 46 56 56 31 40 37 36 36 42 33

28 Table II shows the percentages of general themes for each picture.^

The stories were classified on the basis of

a condensed list of Polti's famous classification of story plots.3

The average for each theme gives an indication of

the relative frequencies occurring throughout the entire series of stories.

They ran as follows: stories of emo­

tional satisfaction, 18 per cent; conflict between people, 16 per cent; seeking or striving, 15 per cent; conflict with the physical world, 10 per cent; remorse and despair, 7 per cent; crime or violence, 7 per cent; obtaining, 7 per cent; physical satisfaction, 5 per cent; sacrifice, 4 per cent; war, k per cent; and accident, 3 per cent. Similarly, the accompanying dominant tones for the series of stories may be expressed in percentages, as shown in Table III, page 30.

They are: pleasure, contentment,

happiness, 18 per cent; anxiety, fear, guilt, 11 per cent; sorrow, unhappiness, 7 per cent; interest, curiosity, wonder, 7 per cent; discouragement, despair, 6 per cent; love, trust, protection, 6 per cent; physical sensations, 6 per cent; hardship, deprivation, 6 per cent; revenge, rebellion, 5 per cent; violence, conflict, 5 per cent; courage, hope, 5 per

2 A preliminary analysis into more specific group­ ings may be found in Appendix C. 2 Georges Polti, The Thirty-six Dramatic Situations, (Ridgewood, New Jersey: Editor Company, 1917)•

29

TABLE II

207 4.224

332 6.775

779 15.898

6 8 16 8 18 45 10 0 35 16 25 10 75 25 14 22 10 0 2 30 0 6 55 4 10 42 5 0 26 10 8 24 85 2 40 6 6 12 10 40 10 4 14 10 38 22 14 10 2

24 10 0 0 2 5 10 0 35 8 5 0 0 10 2 0 5 0 0 15 2 4 0 8 5 6 5 5 0 6 2 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 0 8 6 0 2 20 2 0 2

333 6.796

888 18.122

239 4.877

0 0 16 6 0 0 4 4 0 2 0 8 0 0 16 6 0 4 0 0 8 18 0 14 15 2 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 4 0 4 0 2 0 0 26 18 4 0 209 4.265

2 34 14 16 12 0 16 34 0 4 5 2 5 40 14 4 5 34 18 0 4 0 0 2 5 2 15 so 0 2 2 4 0 18 0 24 8 6 8 6 6 18 6 10 8 0 6 8 16 473 9.653

Accident

346 7.061

4 4 0 2 2 0 2 0 5 8 10 16 0 0 6 18 15 0 16 15 8 32 10 8 5 2 5 20 0 6 18 2 0 2 0 2 20 8 10 2 16 0 12 12 0 4 0 4 2

Conflict with the physical world

753 15.367

10 10 20 12 46 0 4 42 10 6 10 14 15 5 10 8 15 34 8 15 40 18 5 20 0 2 0 5" 34 4 24 24 15 30 0 2 18 18 28 14 40 16 4 18 24 12 28 28 14

War

4 4 4 4 4 0 0 2 5 2 10 14 5 0 4 2 5 8 2 15 2 0 0 2 10 24 5 0 6 10 4 14 0 6 25 26 8 8 8 8 6 16 10 6 4 2 2 18 8

Physical Satisfaction

0 0 4 2 0 10 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 5 6 6 5 2 10 5 8 0 0 6 5 2 0 5 2 6 14 10 0 4 10 6 0 14 6 4 0 8 6 6 6 0 12 2 4

Emotional Satisfaction

14 0 4 16 4 15 30 0 0 22 0 4 0 0 6 10 0 6 26 0 8 10 0 18 0 2 30 25 0 10 6 2 0 12 0 10 8 0 8 4 0 6 10 0 0 2 0 4 14

Crimes, Violence

Stories of Obtaining

32 22 16 30 8 10 18 8 10 12 25 16 0 10 4 6 40 12 2 5 18 10 30 14 35 10 20 0 14 22 16 14 0 12 10 12 18 6 10 18 6 22 26 32 14 8 16 18 36

Conflict between people

Stories of Sacrifice

Totals Averages

Stories of Remorse, Despair

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Stories of Seeking, Striving

Picture

PERCENTAGES OF THEMES FOR EACH PICTURE

2 0 6 0 2 0 4 6 0 6 5 4 0 0 14 12 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 2 5 2 5 0 2 6 2 2 0 6 0 10 6 12 4 0 8 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 0 155 3.16

30

TABLE III

Averages

6.041

4.694

3.796

E 8 0 0 12 10 6 14 0 6 0 6 0 0 10 2 15 14 38 0 8 4 0 20 0 0 5 20 0 4 8 2 5 20 0 6 2 6 8 2 2 12 8 12 10 14 6 12 0

4 4 8 0 0 35 12 0 40 12 45 4 40 0 2 14 15 0 2 35 0 0 60 0 10 64 10 5 70 16 6 6 80 2 75 18 4 24 20 26 12 12 14 26 24 22 2 18 4

6 0 16 8 8 0 18 8 0 10 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 8 0 0 0 2 30 10 0 10 4 4 0 2 10 8 8 10 2 2 4 30 8 0 6 2 2 0 36

2 10 0 8 0 0 2 18 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 4 5 22 2 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 28 0 0 12 0 22 2 32 8 4 0 4 0 4 0 0

4 2 6 6 34 0 4 32 2 26 0 0 20 5 36 18 0 26 22 10 22 6 0 6 10 8 0 0 0 0 10 28 0 32 0 10 38 10 8 6 4 4 0 2 4 8 32 14 2

2 26 16 34 2 0 2 2 0 20 25 4 20 5 8 28 0 2 2 0 22 6 0 8 0 6 0 0 0 S 8 16 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 38 0 0 2 8 0 0 2 6 0

0 6 4 6 4 0 0 2 0 0 5 15 5 0 6 2 10 6 4 0 2 8 10 18 0 2 0 30 0 IE 10 2 0 0 0 4 8 0 2 2 8 2 12 8 4 0 12 0 0

30 2 8 0 0 0 12 6 25 4 0 10 0 50 0 2 0 16 8 15 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 15 4 E 0 0 0 10 5 30 2 2 6 0 0 6 12 0 0 16 0 0 4

82 74 94 98 90 85 80 98 92 94 90 97 90 80 96 100 80 96 92 100 90 90 95 90 85 92 85 100 90 76 92 96 95 ICO 90 92 92 78 86 90 82 88 80 78 78 80 90 92 84

6.308 5.692 7.231 7.538 6.923 6.538 6.154 7.538 7.077 7.231 6.923 7.461 6.923 6.154 7.385 7.692 6.154 7.385 7.077 7.692 6.923 6.923 7.308 6.923 6.538 7.077 6.583 7.692 6.923 5.846 7.077 7.385 7.308 7.692 6.923 7.077 7.077 6.0 6.615 6.923 6.308 6.769 6.154 6.0 6.0 6.154 6.923 7.077 6.462

250

292

339

902

278

207

517

325

231

311

4364

335.736

5.102

5.959

6.918

18.408

5.673

4.224

10.551

* These percentages do not total 100 since some of the stories were too brief to have a definite dominant tone.

6.633

4.714

6.347

# *3 o Eh

89.06

Average

2 6 16 6 22 10 2 0 25 2 0 2 0 15 16 6 0 0 0 20 14 2 0 2 5 2 0 5 0 10 4 14 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 4 2 4 6 6 20 12 12 10 2

Physical sensations

2 2 0 8 4 0 0 14 0 0 0 18 0 5 4 0 15 0 2 10 2 16 5 18 0 2 0 5 2 8 28 8 10 4 0 0 6 2 8 4 10 2 0 4 2 0 6 10 4

Violence Conflict

186

Interest Curiosity Wonder

230

Anxiety Fear Guilt

296

Anger Annoyance

Totals

Hardship Deprivation

4 2 * 14 6 0 10 2 2 0 2 5 14 5 0 2 6 0 10 0 10 0 24 10 4 0 2 0 0 14 2 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 8 0 2 6 8 0

Pleasure Contentment Happine ss

0 0 0 4 0 10 8 0 0 2 5 14 0 5 4 2 10 0 2 0 8 0 10 2 60 2 0 0 0 2 6 2 0 0 0 10 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 6 12 16

Sorrow Unhapp ine ss

Courage Hope

24 6 6 12 4 10 12 0 0 10 0 8 0 0 8 14 10 0 10 0 10 14 0 8 0 0 35 5 (0 18 6 10 0 2 0 2 8 12 4 2 2 6 8 2 0 0 0 2 16

Love Trust Protection

Discouragement Despair

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

t>> (0 © 0 o o © -H r| h s o 03 r fe m

! ,((— >jp~* i-j a rc ex . ireis-p'ox o a {£ ox p

»p-' :*p;o

p-*p-ji —1i p-'a'-4x-|kct»ea; crclo Ire p - rc jcx ^ h->op- ex C/.oax ocx*o ^ irop -,|r:-ip- |p-j re »> rfv re tx> ee re p -*h*:a-|a t - l t eeci1H^ re |a:» o oi 5o a l o a lo o i^ xoloo co cr< re a; a o ex o o re ox Jo co r cx o> ox.

o 4-- ax

»*■

■&>

a>

\

|l»»■»< p —I p-*w

1|^J tpa H - 389-413. _______ , "The Reorientation of Education to the Promotion of Mental Health," Mental Hygiene, XXIII (October, 1939)^ 529-43. Harrison, R., "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients, II. A Quantitative Validity Study," Character and. Personality, 1940, 9_, 122-33 (December) . _______ , "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients, III. Validation by the Method of "Blind Analysis," Character and Personality, 1940, 9., 134-38 (December). Masserman, J. H. & Balkan, E. R., "The Clinical Application of Phantasy Studies," Journal of P sychology, 1938, 6 81-88 (July). _______ , "The Psychoanalytic and Psychiatric Significance of Phantasy," Pschoanalvtic Review, 1939* .26* 343-79 (July); 535-49 (October). Morgan, C. D., and II. A. Murray, "A Method for Investigat­ ing Fantasies: the Thematic Apperception Test," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1935* 3;4* 289-306 (July-Deeember^ Murray, H. A., "Techniques for a Systematic Investigation of Fantasy," Journal of Psychology, 1937* 3, 115-43 (January). Rotter, J. B., "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered Patients. I. Method of Analysis and Clinical Problems," Character and Personality, 1940, £, 18-34 (September). Sears, R. R., "Experimental Studies of Projection. I. Attribution of Traits," The Journal of Social Psychology, 1936, 7* 151-63 (April).

41

Symonds, P. M . , "Criteria for the Selection of Pictures for the Investigation of Adolescent Phantasies," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1939* >4* 271-7^ (April) Symonds, P. M . , and Elizabeth Samuel, "Projective Methods in the Study of Personality," Review of Educational R e ­ search, XI (February, 1941), 80-91• C.

DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS

A Modern Book of Esthetics, An Anthology, edited by Melvin M. Roder. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935* Warren, C., Dictionary of Psychology. Mifflin Company, 193"4~D.

New York: Houghton

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Conroy, J. N., "The Relation Between Intellect and the Creative Imagination," unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1927.

PICTURES

PICTURE 1

44

PICTURE 2* Pictures in the final selection.

^5

PICTURE 5* Pictures in the final selection.

SSf?

46

PICTURE 4* Pictures in the final selection.

47

PICTURE 5* Pictures in the final selection.

48

PICTURE 6

PICTURE 7* Pictures in tlie final selection.

50

PICTURE 8

PICTURE 9

52

PICTURE 10

PICTURE 11

54

PICTURE 12

55

PICTURE 15

PICTURE lb

Ul Ch

57

•'

V; ’1

PICTURE 15* Pictures in the final selection.

58

PICTURE 16

59

PICTURE 1 7

PICTURE 18* Pictures in final selection.*

61

PICTURE

19*

*

PICTURE 20

63

PICTURE 21* Pictures in final selection.

PICTURE 22* Pictures in final selection.

o^

4=-

PICTURE 23

ON VJ1

66

PICTURE 24* Pictures in final selection.

/

PICTURE 25

68

PICTURE 26

PICTURE 27

70

PICTURE 28

b per cent--frustration of specific desire 22 per cent— insecurity in affection 18 per cent--submission to demands 10 per cent--aggression 10 per cent--physica.l discomfort Characters introduced 58 per cent— significance 28 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal characters 96 per cent--little girl 4 per cent — characters introduced

1 *1-0

PICTURE 18 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Endings 62 per cent--satisfactory 50 per cent— unsatisfactory PICTURE 19 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 52 per cent--loss or death of loved one 12 per cent— result of marital conflict 10 per cent— aftermath of crime 10 per cent — loss of, or worry about, Dominant tones 24 per cent — sorrow 12 per cent--remorse 10 per cent— discouragement 10 per cent--fear and anxiety Dynamisms 42 per cent--aggression 40 per cent--guilt 10 per cent--inability to meet demands Characters introduced 26 per cent--significant characters 18 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal characters 66 per cent--man 14 per cent--woman

job

141 PICTURE 19 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Endings 38 per cent--satisfactory

36 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 20 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 50 per cent--congratulations 15 per cent--friendship for public effect Dominant tones 20 per cent--pride 20 per cent--happiness 15 per cent— insincerity Dynamisms 50 per cent— no conflicts 25 per cent--heed of recognition Characters Introduced none Choice of principal characters 30 per cent--younger man 25 per cent--older man Endings 75 per cent--satisfactory 20 per cent--unsatisfactory

142 PICTURE 21 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 20 per cent— boy's inability to comprehend the problem 14 per cent— quarrelling between father and mother, or divorce 12 per cent--boy in trouble 10 per cent--home broken by war 8 per cent--boy helping sist er’s love affair Dominant tones 20 per cent--fear 20 per cent--bewilderment 10 per cent--discouragement or despair 8 per cent--grief Dynamisms 32 per cent--insecurity 20 per cent--need for affection 16 per cent--frustration of specific desire 12 per cent--desire for recognition Characters introduced 34 per cent--significant to the story 14 per cent--incidental to the story Choice of principal character 22 per cent--mother 22 per cent--son 22 per cent— brother 8 per cent--sister

143 PICTURE 21

(50 SUBJECTS--continued)

Ending 54 per cent--satisfactory 34 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTUHE 22 ( 50 SUBJECTS) Themes 18 per cent--victims of war 14 per cent— spies or saboteurs 12 per cent--criminal activities 10 per cent--immigrants Dominant tones 10 per cent--craftiness 10 per cent--sorrow and despair 16 per cent--hatred and defiance 6 per cent--revenge Dynamisms 42 per cent--hostility and aggression 16 per cent--submission to demands 8 per cent--guilt for agression 8 per cent--escape Characters introduced 28 per cent--signifleant 28 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 100 per cent--old woman

PICTURE 22 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Endings 52 per cent--unsatisfactory 32 per cent--satisfactory PICTURE 23 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 20 per cent--mimicry at party 20 per cent--intoxication at party 20 per cent — story telling at party Dominant tones 55 per cent--fun and gaiety 10 per cent--malice Dynamisms 45 per cent--no conflict 20 per cent--escape 15 per cent--aggression Characters Introduced 15 per cent--incidental 5 per cent--signifleant Choice of principal character 50 per cent--no principal character 20 per cent--young woman Endings

50 per cent--satisfactory 40 per cent--unsatisfactory

145 PICTURE 24

(50 SUBJECTS)

Themes 20 per cent--evacuation of Japanese 18 per cent— story of culture conflict 14 per cent--loss of members of family 12 per cent--Individual cut off from the group Dominant tones 28 per cent--sorrow 22 per cent--hate and bitterness 8 per cent--bewilderment 6 per cent--fear Dynamisms 28 per cent--aggression for frustration 24 per cent--submission to demands 18 per cent--cultural conflicts 16 per cent--lack of belonging Characters and objects introduced 24 per cent--signifleant to story 20 per cent--incidental to story Choice of principal character 30 per cent--Japanese 24 per cent--Chinese 20 per cent--0ccidentals 12 per cent--0rientals

(no distinction)

146 PICTURE 24 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Endings 42 per cent--satisfactory 58 per cent--unsatisfactory 16 per cent--neutral PICTURE 25 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 75 pe** cent--factory worker Dominant tones 35 per cent--none 15 per cent--courage Dynamisms 45 per cent--no conflict 25 per cent--need for recognition 15 per cent--submission to demands Characters and objects introduced 15 per cent--signifleant to story 10 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 98 per cent— man Endings 96 per cent--satisfactory 2 per cent--unsatisfactory

147 PICTURE 26 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes , 20 per cent--watching children 18 per cent--having picture taken 16 per cent--seeing or learning something amusing 12 per cent--selling for tourist trade Dominant tones 46 per cent--happiness or enjoyment 14 per cent--amusement 8 per cent--pride Dynamisms 58 per cent— no conflict 10 per cent — submission to demands Characters introduced 40 per cent--incidental 54 per cent--signifleant Choice of principal character 76 per cent--Mexican or Indian woman 6 per cent— Mexican or Indian man Endings 82 per cent--satisfactory 12 per cent--unsatisfactory

148 PICTURE 27 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 60 per cent--poverty of surroundings 35 per cent--ghost town Dominant tones 45 per cent--neglect and loneliness 15 per cent--ambition and pride Dynamisms 25 per cent--submission to demands 25 per cent--inability to meet demands 15 per cent--aggression Characters introduced 50 per cent--groups 15 per cent--principal characters Choice of principal character 60 per cent--general groups 20 per cent--no characters Endings 40 per cent--satisfactory 35 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 28 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 50 per cent--violent death 25 per cent--sleeping there because nowhere else to go

PICTURE 28 (20 SUBJECTS--continued) Dominant tones 25 per cent--loneliness and rejection 15 per cent--violence 10 per cent--poverty Dynamisms 30 per cent--need for "belonging 20 per cent--lack of recognition 15 per cent— aggression 10 per cent— escape Characters introduced 40 per cent--signifleant characters 35 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal character 60 per cent--corpse 30 per cent— man 10 per cent--woman Endings 60 per cent--unsatisfactory 30 per cent— satisfactory PICTURE 29 (50 SUBJECTS)

Themes 26 per cent--baby having fun 20 per cent--taking revenge on mother

150 PICTURE 29 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Themes (continued) 18 per cent--independent achievement 10 per cent--sensory gratification Dominant tones 52 per cent--pleasure and happiness 20 per cent--fun Dynamisms 48 per cent— no conflict 20 per cent--aggression 14 per cent--frustration of specific desire Characters introduced 76 per cent--singificant characters 10 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal character 96 per cent--child 2 per cent--mother 2 per cent--father Endings 62 per cent--satisfactory 54 per cent--unsatisfactory

151 PICTURE 50 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 22 per cent— artistic product 22 per cent--child with "broken doll 18 per cent--symbolic interpretation Dominant tones lb per cent--pleasure and contentment 12 per cent--violence, conflict 10 per cent— love and trust 8 per cent— revenge, rebellion 8 per cent--discouragement, despair Dynamisms 22 per cent--aggression 18 per cent— no conflict 16 per cent--guilt 8 per cent--sublimation Characters introduced 38 per cent--significant 14 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 18 per cent--a child 14 per cent--an artist 12 per cent--humanity 8 per cent--parents Endings 48 per cent--satisfactory 20 per cent--unsatisfactory

152 PICTURE 31 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 28 per cent--playing or watching hase-ball 20 per cent--escape from reform school 14 per cent--use of short cut Dominant tones 26 per cent--longing and desire 20 per cent--disobedience and rebellion 10 per cent--anxiety and guilt 8 per cent--curiosity and Interest Dynamisms 22 per cent--aggression 18 per cent--frustration 14 per cent--submission to demands 10 per cent--lack of belonging Characters introduced 30 per cent--signifleant characters 26 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal character 84 per cent— boy 10 per cent — character introduced Endings

58 per cent--satisfactory 36 per cent--unsatisfactory

153 PICTURE 32

(50 SUBJECTS)

Themes 34 per cent--at school 26 per cent--at prayers 14 per cent--averting punishment 10 per cent--being punished Dominant tones 18 per cent--dependence 14 per cent--feigned innocence 14 per cent--desire 14 per cent--fear and bewilderment 6 per cent--boredom Dynamisms 22 per cent--submission to demands 16 per cent--a,ggression 12 per cent--lack of achievement 10 per cent--Inability to meet demands 8 per cent— escape Characters introduced 42 per cent--significant characters 30 per cent--Incidental characters Choice of principal character 94 per cent--boy 4 per cent— character Introduced

154 PICTURE 32

(50 SUBJECTS— continued)

Endings 56 per cent--satisfactory 32 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 33 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 35 per cent— wedding anniversary 30 per cent--visitors 10 per cent— picture taking Dominant tones 60 per cent--happiness and contentment 10 per cent--pride Dynamisms 85 per cent— con conflict Characters introduced 65 per cent--incidental 5 per cent--significant Choice of principal character 95 per cent--the couple 5 per cent— the man Endings 90 per cent--satisfactory 10 per cent--unsatisfactory

155 PICTURE 3k (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 28 per cent--physical discomfort 20 per cent--lost or lonely 14 per cent--denial of desired object 10 per cent--frustration by other children Dominant tones 26 per cent— fear 26 per cent--irritability and anger 24 per cent--disappointment and sorrow Dynamisms 28 per cent— delay or denial of sensory gratification

2k per cent--frustration of a specific desire 18 per cent-~insecurity--desertion of the parents 12 per cent— inability to meet demands 10 per cent--lack of feeling of belonging Characters introduced 46 per cent--significant characters 20 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal character 54 per cent--l:ittle boy 16 per cent-~little girl 50 per cent--chiId

(sex unnamed)

Endings 50 per cent--satisfactory 44 per cent--unsatisfactory

156 PICTURE 35 (20 SUBJECTS) Themes 25 pep cent--watching sports 25 per cent--b±g business man 10 per cent— successful professional man Dominant tones 30 per cent— enjoyment and satisfaction 25 per cent--meditation 15 per cent— effort Dynamisms 75 per cent— no conflict Characters introduced 20 per cent- significant characters 15 per cent— incidental characters Choice of principal character 100 per cent--young man Endings 90 per cent— satisfactory 5 per cent--unsatisfaetory PICTURE 36 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 40 per cent— accident or illness 36 per cent--childbirth 12 per cent--death

157 PICTURE 36 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Dominant tones 20 per cent--suffering 18 per cent--courage and endurance 14 per cent--happiness 10 per cent--enxiety and fear Dynamisms 32 per cent--achievement after suffering 10 per cent--aggression 8 per cent— need for recognition Characters introduced 30 per cent--significant characters 20 per cent--incidental characters Choice of principal character 94 per cent--woman 6 per cent--characters introduced Endings 70 per cent--satisfactory 14 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 37 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 40 per cent--lateness 20 per cent--escape 16 per cent--eagerness

158 PICTURE 37 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Dominant tones 32 per cent--fear 10 per cent--haste 8 per cent--futility Dynamisms 20 per cent--lnabillty to meet demands 16 per cent--submission 14 per cent--aggression 10 per cent--guilt 10 per cent--lack of achievement Characters introduced 20 per cent--incidental characters 18 per cent— significant characters Choice of principal character 96 per cent— man 2 per cent— character introduced Endings 42 per cent--satisfactory 38 per cent--unsatisfactory

PICTURE 38 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 24 per cent--mother worried 20 per cent--reunion or farewell 18 per cent--little girl nonchalant or bored 14 per cent--after accident or loss Dominant tones 24 per cent--pleasure,

contentment

12 per cent--discouragement, despair 10 per cent--hardship,

deprivation

10 per cent--anxiety, fear Dynamisms 16 per cent--hostility or aggression 12 per cent--submission 12 per cent--inability to meet demands 12 per cent--no conflict 10 per cent--specific desire frustrated Characters introduced 18 per cent--significant 8 per cent— incidental Choice of principal character 50 per cent--little girl 28 per cent— mother Endings 60 per cent--satisfactory

26 per cent--unsatisfactory

PICTURE 39 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 24 per cent--old man talking or arguing 18 per cent--old man ill or convalescent 14 per cent— old man irritated or angry 8 per cent--old man retired Dominant tones 22 per cent--anger and annoyance 20 per cent--pleasure , contentment 8 per cent--anxiety, guilt 8 per cent— revenge, rebellion Dynamisms 18 per cent--escape 16 per cent— no conflict 14 per cent— aggression 10 per cent— inability to meet demands 10 per cent--need for recognition Characters introduced 34 per cent--incidental 26 per cent— significant Choice of principal character 98 per cent--old man Endings

38 per cent--satisfactory 38 per cent--unsatisfactory

161 PICTURE 40 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 52 per cent--talking to father 24 per cent--playing with phone 18 per cent-~using phone for first time 10 per cent--taking m o t h e r ’s place Dominant tones 38 per cent--curiosity, wonder 26 per cent--pleasure, happiness Dynamisms 46 per cent--no conflict 16 per cent--frustration of specific desire 14 per cent--inability to meet demands Characters introduced 44 per cent--incidental 36 per cent--significant Choice of principal character 92 per cent--little girl Endings

56 per cent--satisfactory 32 per cent--unsatisfactory

PICTURE 41 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 40 per cent--police with traffic violator 16 per cent-'life of policeman or fireman 14 per cent--riot or accident Dominant tones 52 per cent--annoyance, anger 12 per cent--pleasure, happiness 10 per cent— rebellion, revenge Dynamisms 30 per cent--aggression 18 per cent— need for achievement 14 per cent--hostility 10 per cent--submission Characters Introduced 40 per cent--incidental 30 per cent--significant Choice of principal character 74 per cent--policeman 10 per cent--man 10 per cent--character introduced Endings 60 per cent--satisfactory

18 per cent--unsa.tisfactory

163 PICTURE 42 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 32 per cent--going to -work 26 per cent--going on an errand 16 per cent--coming home Dominant tones 30 per cent--hardship,

deprivation

12 per cent--pleasure, contentment 12 per cent--unhappiness, sorrow 8 per cent--annoyance, anger Dynamisms 28 per cent--need of sense gratification 20 per cent--need of achievement 10 per cent--frustration of a specific desire 8 per cent--submission to demands Characters introduced 32 per cent--significant 18 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 98 per cent--man Endings 68 per cent— satisfactory 22 per cent--unsatisfactory

164 PICTURE 43 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 20 per cent--hand of a dead person 18 per cent--hand of someone resting 16 per cent--hand seeking something 14 per cent--hand of craftsman or artist Dominant tones 14 per cent— contentment, happiness 12 per cent--conflict, violence 12 per cent--physical sensations 8 per cent--sorrow 8 per cent— discouragement Dynamisms 38 per cent--no conflict 14 per cent--need for achievement 10 per cent--aggression 8 per cent--escape 8 per cent--belonging Characters introduced 16 per cent--significant 14 per cent— incidental Choice of principal character 70 per cent— old man 26 per cent--old woman

PICTURE 43 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Endings 58 per cent— satisfactory 30 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 44 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 22 per cent- -watching for a man 14 per cent- -model posing 12 per cent-' •stories of hate or violence 10 per cent- ■inspecting new house or garden Dominant tones 26 per cent- -pleasure, contentment 12 per cent-- ■unhapp ine s s 8 per cent — ■conflict 8 per cent- •curiosity, wonder 8 per cent- -hate, jealousy Dynami sms 28 per cent — •no conflict 18 per cent- •escape 16 per cent-- ■aggression 12 per cent— ■insecurity 10 per cent- ■frustration of specific desire

166 PICTURE 44 (50 SUBJECTS - -continued) Characters Introduced 58 per cent--significant 16 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 92 per cent--young woman Endings 52 per cent— satisfactory 26 per cent— unsatisfactory

PICTURE 45 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 22 per cent— love between little girl and negro mammy 14 per

cent--going toSunday

10 per

cent--going out

School

with father

8 per cent--unsatisfactory relationship with mother Dominant tones 24 per cent--happiness, excitement 12 per

cent--love

12 per

cent--none

10 per cent— unhappiness 8 per cent--pride

167 PICTURE 45 (50 SUBJECTS--contInued) Dynamisms 50 per cent--no conflict 12 per cent — submission to demands 10 per cent--frustration of specific desire Characters introduced 20 per cent--signifleant 14 per cent--incidental Choice of principal characters 74 per* cent — little girl 10 per cent--negro mammy 2 per cent--character introduced Endings 82 per cent--satisfactory 12 per cent--unsatisfactory PICTURE 46 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 26 per cent--leaving for war 22 per cent--engagement or marriage 10 per cent--illicit love or infidelity Dominant tones 22 per cent— joy, happiness

16 per cent— passion 14 per cent--sorrov

158 PICTURE 46 (50 SUBJECTS--continued) Dominant tones

(continued)

12 per cent--love 8 per cent--worry, anxiety Dynamisms 56 per cent--frustration or delay of specific desire 26 per cent--need of sensory gratification 10 per cent--no conflict Characters introduced 4 per cent--significant Choice of principal character 16 per cent--woman 14 per cent--man Endings 64 per cent--satisfactory 50 per cent--unsatisfactory

PICTURE 47 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 22 per cent--husband at w a r 20 per cent— conflict between husband and wife 16 per cent--getting picture taken 10 per cent--sibling relationships

PICTURE 47 (50 SUBJECTS--cont±nued) Dominant tones 52 per cent--fear, anxiety 20 per cent--clifficulty in meeting demands 12 per cent — tension or conflict 12 per cent--love, pride Dynamisms 28 per cent--insecurity 16 per cent--no conflict 12 per cent— need of achievement 12 per cent--frustration of specific desire Characters introduced 58 per cent--significant 20 per cent--incidental Choice of principal characters 74 per cent--mother 8 per cent--father (introduced) 6 per cent— little girl 4 per cent— little boy Endings

52 per cent--satisfactory 56 per cent--unsatisfactory

170 PICTURE 48 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 20 per

cent--woman exploiting the

boy

18 per

cent--happy relationship between the adult and the boy

16 per cent--adoption or gaining custody 12 per cent--problem child Dominant tone 18 per cent--happy 12 per cent--ambition 12 per cent--disappointment, unhappiness 10 per 8 per

cent--resistance cent--selfishness

Dynamisms 20 per cent— aggression 16 per cent— frustration of specific desire 1^- per cent--no conflict 8 per cent--lack of belonging 8 per cent--submission 8 per cent--escape Characters introduced 18 per cent--significant 14 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character 50 per cent--boy 3^ per cent--woman

171 PICTURE 48 (50 SUBJECTS — continued) Endings 50 per cent--unsatisfactory 58 per cent--satisfactory PICTURE 49 (50 SUBJECTS) Themes 42 per cent--helping to clean house 28 per cent--life in the slums 18 per cent--reaching for something Dominant tones 36 per cent--hardship,

effort

16 per cent--discouragement, despair 16 per cent--willingness, help Dynamisms 18 per cent--frustration of specific desires 16 per cent--need for achievement 16 per cent--submission 14 per cent--lack of recognition Characters introduced 32 per cent--signifleant 18 per cent--incidental Choice of principal character

90 per cent--little girl 10 per cent--group

172

PICTURE 49 (50 SUBJECTS— continued) Endings 48 per cent--unsatisfactory 40 per cent--satisfactory