The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity 2016011130, 9781138827738, 9781315530215

Biological diversity - or ‘biodiversity’ - is the degree of variation of life within an ecosystem. It is a relatively ne

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The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity
 2016011130, 9781138827738, 9781315530215

Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Series Information
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Notes on contributors
Introduction
Part I Historical and sociological contexts
1 A confluence of values: Historical roots of concern for biological diversity
Concern for species diversity
The concern for genetic diversity
Concern for ecosystem diversity
The importance of diversity
References
2 Extinction and biodiversity: A historical perspective
Victorian extinction
Extinction and biodiversity in the Age of Catastrophe
Conclusion
Note
References
Part II What is biodiversity?
3 Approaches to biodiversity
Introduction
The context of “biodiversity”
Normativity
What is biodiversity?
Scientism
Richness
Difference
Richness and difference
Uniqueness
Richness and uniqueness
Difference and uniqueness
Eliminativism
Deflationism
Strong deflationism
Weak deflationism
Normativism
Global heritage
Local culture
Final remarks
Acknowledgments
Notes
References
4 Is biodiversity a natural quality?
Why do we need to know what biodiversity is?
The explosion in biodiversity measurement strategies
High level of usage across a wide variety of contexts
Breadth of scientific applicability
Metaphysical intractability and practical constraints
Legal status
Theories about the nature of biodiversity
Natural kinds and natural qualities
Homeostatic property clusters
Magnus on natural kinds
So is biodiversity a natural quality?
Note
References
5 A general model for biodiversity and its value
Introduction
A general framework for biodiversity as variation at multiple levels
How the choice of units of variation also provides many other useful calculations
Other general frameworks for biodiversity
Option values of biodiversity
Other possible values of biodiversity
Systematic conservation planning (SCP) and multi-criteria analyses
Discussion
References
6 Biodiversity eliminativism
The role of biodiversity
Biodiversity is a poor measure
Biodiversity, ecological value, and intrinsic value
Biodiversity and non-intrinsic value
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability
Deflationary accounts of biodiversity
Conclusion
Notes
References
7 ‘‘Biodiversity’’ and biological diversities: Consequences of pluralism between biology and policy
Introduction: ‘‘biodiversity’’ between science and values
‘‘Biodiversity’’ across contexts
Biological diversities: contextualist pluralism
Consequences of pluralism: definitional risks in conservation optimization
Objections to contextualist pluralism and the eliminativist option
Acknowledgments
Notes
References
8 Ecological hierarchy and biodiversity
A prima facie challenge
A sceptical response
Flies, stones, and territories
Seeing the fresco in the ecological mosaic
Notes
References
9 Unnatural kinds: Biodiversity and human-modified entities
Introduction
Types of (un)naturalness
History-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as independence from humans
History-based (un)naturalness: intentional control as a source of unnaturalness
History-based (un)naturalness: natural in contrast to an artifact
Property-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as similarity to human-independent entities
Property-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as similarity to entities that could have existed
Relation-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as suitability and belonging
Conclusions and suggestions
Notes
References
10 Going small: The challenges of microbial diversity
Microorganisms?
Why look at microbes?
What is microbial diversity?
Why study microbial diversity?
Extending microbial diversity to non-cellular micro-entities?
Microorganisms and conservation
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Further reading
Part III Why protect biodiversity?
11 Is biodiversity intrinsically valuable? (And what might that mean?)
Introduction
Meanings of ‘‘intrinsic value’’
Moral standing
Objective value
Non-instrumental value
Non-extrinsic value
Final value
Unconditional value
Overriding value
Non-anthropocentric value
Conclusion
Notes
References
12 What good is it, anyway?
A phenomenological exploration of intrinsic value
The ontological status of intrinsic value: objective
The ontological status of intrinsic value: subjective
How ontologically subjective values are epistemologically objectified
How ontologically subjective values are socially objectified
Transformative value as an alternative to intrinsic value
The pragmatic meaning of intrinsic value
Compatibility of instrumental and intrinsic value
Quantifying intrinsic value
Summary and conclusion
Acknowledgments
Note
References
13 Economizing on nature’s bounty
Should we protect biodiversity? Why? To what extent?
The mechanics of cost–benefit analysis
Quantification
Monetization
Discounting
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
14 Protecting biodiversity and moral psychology; or why philosophers are asking the wrong questions
Introduction
Environmental philosophy and the Argument from Teleology
Interests and intrinsic value
Interests and biodiversity
Moral psychology, sentimentalism, and cognitive biases
Moral psychology and sentimentalism
Cognitive biases
Ecosystem services and biodiversity
Ecosystem services and salmon
Two objections to the ecosystem services argument
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Notes
References
15 What would Leopold do?: Considering assisted colonization as a conservation strategy
Introduction: the dilemma of conservation interventions
Debating “assisted colonization”
Searching for solid ground: Aldo Leopold’s pragmatic preservationism
Two key provisos
Conclusion: boldness and restraint in the Anthropocene
References
Part IV Measurement and methodology
16 Biodiversity indicators need to be fit for purpose
Background
Indicators have diverse objectives, but largely unknown utility
Only a limited subset of biodiversity is measured
There is a tension between the quality and coverage of information
Conclusions
Notes
References
17 Using concepts of biodiversity value in structured decision-making
Structured decision-making
Criticisms of concepts of biodiversity value used in structured decision-making
Which concepts of biodiversity value are most compatible with structured decision-making?
“Behind-the-scenes” roles for less compatible concepts of value
Summary
Acknowledgments
References
18 Measuring biodiversity and monitoring ecological and evolutionary processes with genetic and genomic tools
Introduction
Genetic biodiversity
Genomics and biodiversity
Genetics and genomics as a general biodiversity tool
Non-intrusive genetic and genomic sampling
Overview
Acknowledgments
References
19 Estimating biodiversity loss
Introduction
Ambiguities in “biodiversity”
Quantifying the rate of extinctions
In search of reliable indicators
The instrumental dimension: the functional significance of biodiversity
A policy perspective: assess causes instead of symptoms
Pragmatics: problem framings, investigative practices, and critical timeframes
References
Part V Social contexts and global justice
20 Putting biodiversity conservation into practice: The importance of local culture, economy, governance, and community ...
Case study 1: Mekong
Case study 2: Peru
Insights from these case studies
Conclusion
Notes
References
21 Synergies and trade-offs: Recognizing the many possible outcomes of community-based conservation
Introduction
A brief history of conservation practices and approaches
The emergence of alternatives to PAs
The importance of measuring multiple outcomes in conservation project evaluations
What are synergies and trade-offs and when do they emerge?
Early insights and the challenge of identifying predictors of win–win outcomes and trade-offs
Conclusion
References
Part VI Biodiversity and other environmental values
22 Ecological sustainability
Introduction
Sustainable yield
Sustainable development
The naked concept of sustainability
Weak sustainability, strong sustainability, and Nortonian sustainability
Ecological sustainability
Sustainability ethics
Comparative sustainability ethics and economics
Philosophical value added
The future of ecological sustainability inquiry
The paradox of future-generations ethics
Note
References
23 Ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation
What is ecological restoration?
Why is ecological restoration valuable?
Is ecological restoration a big lie?
Is ecological restoration arbitrary?
Is historical fidelity worth pursuing?
Ecological restoration and biodiversity
Acknowledgments
Notes
References
Index

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