Biological diversity - or ‘biodiversity’ - is the degree of variation of life within an ecosystem. It is a relatively ne
254 123 22MB
English Pages  Year 2016
Table of contents :
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Notes on contributors
Part I Historical and sociological contexts
1 A confluence of values: Historical roots of concern for biological diversity
Concern for species diversity
The concern for genetic diversity
Concern for ecosystem diversity
The importance of diversity
2 Extinction and biodiversity: A historical perspective
Extinction and biodiversity in the Age of Catastrophe
Part II What is biodiversity?
3 Approaches to biodiversity
The context of “biodiversity”
What is biodiversity?
Richness and difference
Richness and uniqueness
Difference and uniqueness
4 Is biodiversity a natural quality?
Why do we need to know what biodiversity is?
The explosion in biodiversity measurement strategies
High level of usage across a wide variety of contexts
Breadth of scientific applicability
Metaphysical intractability and practical constraints
Theories about the nature of biodiversity
Natural kinds and natural qualities
Homeostatic property clusters
Magnus on natural kinds
So is biodiversity a natural quality?
5 A general model for biodiversity and its value
A general framework for biodiversity as variation at multiple levels
How the choice of units of variation also provides many other useful calculations
Other general frameworks for biodiversity
Option values of biodiversity
Other possible values of biodiversity
Systematic conservation planning (SCP) and multi-criteria analyses
6 Biodiversity eliminativism
The role of biodiversity
Biodiversity is a poor measure
Biodiversity, ecological value, and intrinsic value
Biodiversity and non-intrinsic value
Biodiversity and ecosystem stability
Deflationary accounts of biodiversity
7 ‘‘Biodiversity’’ and biological diversities: Consequences of pluralism between biology and policy
Introduction: ‘‘biodiversity’’ between science and values
‘‘Biodiversity’’ across contexts
Biological diversities: contextualist pluralism
Consequences of pluralism: definitional risks in conservation optimization
Objections to contextualist pluralism and the eliminativist option
8 Ecological hierarchy and biodiversity
A prima facie challenge
A sceptical response
Flies, stones, and territories
Seeing the fresco in the ecological mosaic
9 Unnatural kinds: Biodiversity and human-modified entities
Types of (un)naturalness
History-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as independence from humans
History-based (un)naturalness: intentional control as a source of unnaturalness
History-based (un)naturalness: natural in contrast to an artifact
Property-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as similarity to human-independent entities
Property-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as similarity to entities that could have existed
Relation-based (un)naturalness: naturalness as suitability and belonging
Conclusions and suggestions
10 Going small: The challenges of microbial diversity
Why look at microbes?
What is microbial diversity?
Why study microbial diversity?
Extending microbial diversity to non-cellular micro-entities?
Microorganisms and conservation
Part III Why protect biodiversity?
11 Is biodiversity intrinsically valuable? (And what might that mean?)
Meanings of ‘‘intrinsic value’’
12 What good is it, anyway?
A phenomenological exploration of intrinsic value
The ontological status of intrinsic value: objective
The ontological status of intrinsic value: subjective
How ontologically subjective values are epistemologically objectified
How ontologically subjective values are socially objectified
Transformative value as an alternative to intrinsic value
The pragmatic meaning of intrinsic value
Compatibility of instrumental and intrinsic value
Quantifying intrinsic value
Summary and conclusion
13 Economizing on nature’s bounty
Should we protect biodiversity? Why? To what extent?
The mechanics of cost–benefit analysis
14 Protecting biodiversity and moral psychology; or why philosophers are asking the wrong questions
Environmental philosophy and the Argument from Teleology
Interests and intrinsic value
Interests and biodiversity
Moral psychology, sentimentalism, and cognitive biases
Moral psychology and sentimentalism
Ecosystem services and biodiversity
Ecosystem services and salmon
Two objections to the ecosystem services argument
15 What would Leopold do?: Considering assisted colonization as a conservation strategy
Introduction: the dilemma of conservation interventions
Debating “assisted colonization”
Searching for solid ground: Aldo Leopold’s pragmatic preservationism
Two key provisos
Conclusion: boldness and restraint in the Anthropocene
Part IV Measurement and methodology
16 Biodiversity indicators need to be fit for purpose
Indicators have diverse objectives, but largely unknown utility
Only a limited subset of biodiversity is measured
There is a tension between the quality and coverage of information
17 Using concepts of biodiversity value in structured decision-making
Criticisms of concepts of biodiversity value used in structured decision-making
Which concepts of biodiversity value are most compatible with structured decision-making?
“Behind-the-scenes” roles for less compatible concepts of value
18 Measuring biodiversity and monitoring ecological and evolutionary processes with genetic and genomic tools
Genomics and biodiversity
Genetics and genomics as a general biodiversity tool
Non-intrusive genetic and genomic sampling
19 Estimating biodiversity loss
Ambiguities in “biodiversity”
Quantifying the rate of extinctions
In search of reliable indicators
The instrumental dimension: the functional significance of biodiversity
A policy perspective: assess causes instead of symptoms
Pragmatics: problem framings, investigative practices, and critical timeframes
Part V Social contexts and global justice
20 Putting biodiversity conservation into practice: The importance of local culture, economy, governance, and community ...
Case study 1: Mekong
Case study 2: Peru
Insights from these case studies
21 Synergies and trade-offs: Recognizing the many possible outcomes of community-based conservation
A brief history of conservation practices and approaches
The emergence of alternatives to PAs
The importance of measuring multiple outcomes in conservation project evaluations
What are synergies and trade-offs and when do they emerge?
Early insights and the challenge of identifying predictors of win–win outcomes and trade-offs
Part VI Biodiversity and other environmental values
22 Ecological sustainability
The naked concept of sustainability
Weak sustainability, strong sustainability, and Nortonian sustainability
Comparative sustainability ethics and economics
Philosophical value added
The future of ecological sustainability inquiry
The paradox of future-generations ethics
23 Ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation
What is ecological restoration?
Why is ecological restoration valuable?
Is ecological restoration a big lie?
Is ecological restoration arbitrary?
Is historical fidelity worth pursuing?
Ecological restoration and biodiversity
This volume provides a reference textbook and comprehensive compilation of multifaceted perspectives on the legal issues
364 57 43MB Read more
Why ought we concern ourselves with understanding a concept of evil? It is an elusive and politically charged concept wh
889 154 29MB Read more
The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City is an outstanding reference source to this exciting subject and the fir
1,893 136 3MB Read more
The concept of well-being is one of the oldest and most important topics in philosophy and ethics, going back to ancient
302 40 5MB Read more
Humility is a vital aspect of political discussion, social media and self-help, whilst recent empirical research has lin
628 126 5MB Read more
732 153 6MB Read more
This rich and diverse collection offers a range of perspectives and practices of Philosophy for Children (P4C). P4C has
1,254 168 1MB Read more