The role of recreation in Chicago from 1803 to 1848 as revealed in literature available in the metropolitan area

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The Role Of Urban Density And Morphology In The Air Pollution Of Tehran Metropolitan
The Role Of Urban Density And Morphology In The Air Pollution Of Tehran Metropolitan

Today, regard for the wellbeing of the group and the earth is on the plan of most nations on the planet, and one of its imperative viewpoints is the contamination of the air and figuring out how to diminish it. Without a doubt, a standout amongst the most vital ranges that assume an unequivocal part in decreasing or expanding this parameter is the city and urban morphology. Tehran, which is viewed as the capital and vital city of Iran, has experienced this issue for a long time, and there are no legitimate arrangement found to decrease its air contamination. Then again, the city has movement from different parts of the nation consistently that makes this issue harsher. The most vital issue in such manner is the city's range, and in addition the city's extension, which decides the thickness of the city. The greater part of this must be joined by the wear and tear of a low standard, which includes a high level of contamination. The failure of the vast majority to purchase houses inside the city has made satellite towns nearby Tehran. Then again, the presence of tremendous local locations around Tehran and the area of workplaces in the downtown area are among alternate issues tended to in this investigation. This examination endeavored to utilize the explanatory expressive technique to think about the part of pressure and morphology of Tehran and its effect on air contamination and give answers for diminishing air contamination and movement. JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2019), 3(1), 38-43.

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The role of recreation in Chicago from 1803 to 1848 as revealed in literature available in the metropolitan area

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Northwestern University Library Manuscript Theses


Unpublished theses submitted for the Master*s and Doctor’s degrees and deposited in the Northwestern University Library are open for inspection, but are to be used only with due regard to the rights of the authors. Bibliographical references may be noted, but passages may be copied only with the permission of the author, and proper credit must be given in subsequent written or published work. Extensive copying or publication of the theses in whole or in part requires also the consent of the Dean of the Graduate School of Northwestern University. .......... . This thesis by has been used by the following persons, w^ose signatures attest their acceptance of the above restrictions. A Library which borrows this thesis for use by its patrons is expected to secure the signature of each user.




of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

by Viola Van Zee April 194&

P ro Q u est N um ber: 10102078

All rights re s e rv e d INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The q u ality o f this re p r o d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e q u a lity o f t h e c o p y s u b m itte d . In t h e unlikely e v e n t t h a t t h e a u th o r d id n o t s e n d a c o m p l e te m a n u s c rip t a n d t h e r e a r e m issing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m a te ria l h a d to b e r e m o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te t h e d e le tio n .

uest P ro Q u e st 10102078 P u b lish ed b y P ro Q u e st LLC (2016). C o p y rig h t o f th e D issertation is h e ld by t h e A uthor. All rights re s e rv e d . This w ork is p r o te c te d a g a in s t u n a u th o riz e d c o p y in g u n d e r Title 17, U nited S ta te s C o d e M icroform Edition © P ro Q u e s t LLC. P ro Q u e st LLC. 789 East E isenhow er P arkw ay P.O. Box 1346 A nn Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

FORWARD This study is concerned with play and recreation of the pioneers of Chicago in the period between 1803 and 1848 and with the relation of these social activities to wide-spread culture patterns. The historical method has been employed in examin­ ing both original sources such as newspapers, letters, diaries,

manuscripts, and museum materials,

and secondary

sources such as histories# Quotations both from primary and secondary sources have been recorded in their original form. words,

faulty capitalization,

have been retained,


grammatical and other errors

since as such, they are significant

of the general culture of the people of the period cover­ ed by the study# In making the study I am indebted to members of the graduate seminar of the Sociology Department of Northwestern University and especially to Professor Arthur J. Todd, Miss Neva L. Boyd and Mrs.

Charlotte B.

Chorpenning for their help in selecting and organizing the material constituting the body of the study. I am also indebted to the staffs of the Newberry and Chicago Historical Society Libraries for their coopera­ tion in making materials available#






Brief Historical Sketch......



Cultural Background as Related to Chicago.... 15

III. Facilities for Public, Especially Recreation­ al and Amusement Gatherings.............. £9 IV.

Sports and Games......



The Theatre...................



The Development of Art........................ 120

r VII# Music............................


VIII.Literature and Literary



Recreation in Their

Organizations Including Activities........



Holiday Celebrations..................



The Circus....................


XII. Dancing......................................... 258 XIII.Marginal Forms of Recreation.................. 271 XIV. Miscellaneous Recreational Occasions......... 284 XV.



INTRODUCTION This study is concerned with play and recreation of the pioneers of Chicago in the period between 1803 and 1848 and with the relation of these social activities to wide-spread culture patterns# Unfortunately anthropologists have given only in­ cidental attention to play and yet available sources-*- In­ dicate not only that play-behavior is universal in human society,

but that it has resulted in markedly similar

culture patterns in primitive and civilized societies. Games, sports,




and drama are found

in some form in both primitive and civilized groups through­ out the world. What was the function of play and of what we call recreation in the lives of early Chicagoan*s?

This ques­

tion the present study attempts to answer# The first English settlers who established colonies

R# Davies, Some Arab Games and Puzzles, Sudan Notes and Records, Volume VIII, pp# 137-152; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, pp. 330-340; Dudley Kidd, Savage Childhood, H.S# St annus, wThe Wayo of Nyasaland,** Harvard African Studies, Volume III, pp. 357-364, 360—362; J.H. Weeks, Among Congo Cannibals, pp# 149—150; tT#H# Weeks, **Notes on Some Customs of Lower Congo People,** Folk Lo re , Volume XX, pp. 457-462.


in America, taboos,

In spite of hardships,

moralist precepts,

and a very busy life, were not by any means with­

out their own characteristic forms of recreation.


the prohibition of the theatre was attempted in early New England,

It still survived;

and dancing persisted in spite

of the fact that the Massachusetts General Court, upon learning that dancing was going on in the community, ly decreed there should be no more of it.^


Puritanism with

or without the desire to do so, failed to eradicate the American's desire to play. Chicago has tern.

run true to this American culture pat­

The theatre in early Chicago was frowned upon as a

necessary evil; card playing was participated in only by those not accepted In wfashionable society,w and even then games were played only at nights and behind drawn curtains. When waltzing first made its appearance In the town, there was great opposition on the part of the clergy and more conservative element, who believed it to be immoral; yet the opposition to these forms of recreation was not suffic­ ient to stifle them. Even though

attempts were made to prohibit many

formsof play in Chicago as

well as in other parts of the

United States, they persisted in very diversified form, for they are inherent in the relation of the organism to

Records of the Governor.•.of Massachusetts Bay, Volume III, p. 224, taken from Foster Dulles, America Learns to Play, p. 6.

the environment*



dancing, art, and drama

are world wide formalized behavior patterns.

These be­

havior patterns become formalized and are a culture source of expression for all human beings.

According to C.M. Child

in his Physiological Foundations of Behavior, there are two aspects to every situation, and its environment.

the functioning of the organism

Behavior is partly determined by the

organism and partly by the situation in which it functions! The only possible conclusion seems to be that the in­ dividual organism as a pattern, an order, a physio­ logical whole, originates in a reaction of a specific protoplasm to certain environmental factors.^ Two persons may have similar native artistic capac­ ities, but under different environmental influences one may become an artist while the other may reveal little of his inherent capacity.

Likewise a primitive artist might

express his artistic urge by scratching figures on a cave wall, while a modern artist with similar capacities might paint a beautiful landscape on canvas; depending on the cultural resources upon which he is able to draw.


capacities of the two organisms might be very similar but due to differences in the power of stimulation involved in two environments,

one may develop on a low level only

while the other might surge to great heights. Likewise I• any given person within this general organic pattern may turn to one art or the other.

The tendency toward artistic

g C.M. Child, Physiological Foundations of Behavior, p. £12.

expression is not specific, hence, tal stimulation,

depending on environmen­

the person may* develop along any of several

different channels.

It is a matter of common observation

that a person in one art often dabbles in others. Regardless of the channel in which this artistic ability developes, common to all.

rhythm is one characteristic which is

The very hature of the functioning of the

organism in relation to stimulation is rhythmic* rhythm pervades all art, dancing,

music and games.

This Wundt

pointed out long ago that "the earliest aesthetic stimuli are symmetry and rhythm.

We learn this even from the most 4

primitive of all arts, the dance.11

The delight in rhythmical movement for its own sake is undoubtedly the fundamental factor in the dance, music, and in poetry, if not in all forms of art, and one that appears very early. There are many pro­ ductions of young children that bear the indubitable stamp of artistic creation. The persistence of this play-behavior which finds expression in such forms as games and dancing is of great interest to sociologists, ogists.

anthropologists and social psychol­

One of the earliest theories was that of Herbert

Spencer who accounts for play in terms of "surplus energy." Among the "inferior animals," he asserts that all energy is devoted to fulfilling functions necessary for the main­ tenance of lifej but among the higher animals time and 4

E. Wundt, Elements of Folk Psychology, p. 103.

^Herbert S. Langfeld,

The Aesthetic Attitude, p. 136.

! v i i

strength are not wholly absorbed In providing for immediate needs.

As a result imitative activity is substituted,

this Is play.



Groos in his studies of the play of animals and man says that ffwhen an act is performed solely because of the pleasure it affords, the basis of play*

there is play*B

He makes instinct

It must be remembered that Groos wrote

during a period when a broad and somewhat uncritical theory of instincts was still widely prevalent.

According to him

play itself is not an instinct, but it facilitates the development of instincts.

He contributed much to the know­

ledge of playjand his biological concept, tenable,

although no longer

gave a particularly valuable orientation to think­

ing on this subject.

His doctrine,

in essence^ Is as follows!

I reached the conclusion that In higher animals cer­ tain instinctw are present which, especially in youth, but also In maturity, produce activity that is without serious intent, and so give rise to the various phen­ omena which we include in the word ffplayw.... Here I confine myself to remarking briefly that in child*s play (which, according to one theory of our subject is of the utmost importance) opportunity is given to the animal, through the exercise of inborn dispositions, to strengthen and increase his inheritance in the ac­ quisition of adaptations to his complicated environ­ ment, an achievement which would be unattainable by mere mechanical instinct alone. The fact that youth P ar excellence the period of play is in thorough harmony with this theory*®

s Prom Herbert Spencer, taken from Karl Groos, The Plajr of Animals, p* 6. 7Karl Groos, The Play of Man, p. 5 8Ibid, pp. 1-2.


The recapitulation theory of play had its chief advocate in G. Stanley Hall who believed that the child retraverses in his play the successive culture periods of human history. I regard play as the motor habits and spirits of the past of the race, persisting in the present, as rudimentary functions sometimes of and always akin to rudimentary organs# The best index and guide to the stated activities of adults in past ages is found in instinctive, untaught, and non-imitative play of children which are spontaneous and exact expressions of their motor needs.#•• Thus we rehearse the activ­ ities of our ancestors, back we know not how far, and repeat their life work in summative and adumbrated ways. It is reminiscent, albeit unconsciously of our lines of descent; and each is the key to the other.® William McDougall claimed that the impulse to rival­ ry is the basic characteristic of play.

He believed that

the desire to get the better of others, to emulate, was inherent in the human organism, and that nthis motive plays an important part,

not only in games, but in many of the

most serious activities of life,

to which it gives added

zest. According to John Dewey,

the chief function of play

is re-creative. But there is good reason to think that even In the best conditions there is enough maladjustment between the necessities of environment and the activities •natural* to man, so that constraint and fatigue would

9 G. Stanley Hall, Youth, Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene, p. 74.


.1L ^.

William McDougall,

Introduction to Social Psychology,

always accompany activity, and special forms of action he needed— forms that are significantly called recrea­ tional Dewey maintained that art and play were moral neces­ sities.

nThey are required to take care of the margin that

exists between the total stock of impulses that demand out­ let and the amount expended in regular action. Play behavior differs from other forms of behavior, yet it is difficult to establish anyexact criteria for the differences.

Although play and art spring from the same

basic response of the organism to the environment and have in common spontaneity of expression and rhythm, not identical.

they are

What one person may consider play,

person might consider art or work. ed art by some, play by others.


A dance may be consider­

The distinction depends

on the standard of evaluation of the evaluating person. But even though the dance may be classed as art there is still an element of play in it.

Art requires consistent

work, and while joy and satisfaction come in the end yet it requires persistence.

Participants in a game get quick

satisfaction and pleasure. In this study the term recreation is used instead of play as it is a more inclusive term and covers a greater

John Dewey, Human Nature and Conduct, p. 160.


variety of activities.

Play is always active and does not

necessarily connote refreshment,

while recreation may be

passive and is for the purpose of refreshment or re-creation. Play is an end in itself and is more naive and spontaneous than recreation. An excellent illustration of the distinctions be­ tween art, play and recreation may be found in drama. Chil­ dren in story-acting a folk tale may participate solely for the joy of the activity itself, and therefore, be playing. If, however,

they decide to share this with an audience of

children or adults,

the element of art may enter in, even

though it may be accorded a low artistic standard.


an audience is considered, the children must in some degree conform to art.

They must speak so they can be heard,


positions on the stage, which will permit the audience to see them, and make the elements of the plot clear enough so the audience can follow the story.

To the actors this

may still be play, i.e., unless getting it into form for an audience has killed the joy in the activity itself? but to the audience this is recreation.

If this experience

has been refreshing to the actors it may also be considered recreation for them.

Thus we see that drama may serve to

illustrate art, play and recreation. Drama,

by helping us understand others,

definite human need.

fulfills a

There is inherent within the organism

Xi a desire to understand the world about it.^*®

Thus, primi­

tive man is often stimulated by man, animals,

and plants

around him to imitate them in his dramatic play# We become aware of the meaning of the behavior of another person or animal in proportion as we are able to imitate it. When we can*t imitate an individual's behavior we are at a loss to understand it.1^ The more clearly we are able to reproduce another*s behavior or facial expression the more accurately we understand its significance.••• Children spontaneously, unconsciously imitate others to learn, imitate sounds the movements of animals, a speaker, teacher, playmate, machinery, when they are trying to get the full signifi­ cance of the thing observed. W e tend to reproduce an­ other* s movements when we describe conduct, adults often imitate facian expressions to understand faces of others, our facial muscles tend to reproduce the facial ex­ pression of an angry person. * When we see objects that are out of proportion we "reflexly (imitatively) have feelings which are out of balance and compensate with a tendency to correct the ob­ ject, so as to give ourselves comfortable feeling.**16 This desire for rhythm in line and movement can be observed in watching a deformed person.

We tire when we watch them be­

cause we cannot resist the tendency to imitate and correct their posture.

wThe Greek column, because of the astute

insight of the ancient Greeks, was so constructed that it gave a comfortable sense of balance and power to the observer.^

John Edward Kempf, Autonomic Functions and the Personality, p • £1. 1 4 Ibid, p. 154. Ibid, p. 22. 1 6 Ibid. p. 133.

1 7_ Loc. cit.

M± When in drama the actor sufficiently imitates the character whose part he is playing we speak of him as "being in character11 that is, within the frame of refer­ ence, he has temporarily become the one whose part he is taking.

The "real" self is forgotten as the organism re­

sponds to the new personality in movement,

in speech,


action, probably even glandular reactions by which these are controlled.

This process of merging one's self with

the character one is taking Langfeld calls empathy.^*8 It depends on intense concentration on the vividly and complexly imagined personality of that character and of the frame of reference in which the play sets him. Thus empathy is quite distinct from sympathy. Langfeld expresses the difference thus I

"Sympathy is

feeling with? instead of being merged in the object, feelings run so to speak with the object."'*'®


There is

always the consciousness of the difference between the one sympathizing and the object.

That difference vanishes

in empathy, which is "feeling into the object.


own personality is merged and fused in that of some exter­ nal thing."2® Not only does the actor empathize with the charac­ ter he is acting, but by the same process the actors and

Langfeld, tQ 20

op . cit. p. 137.

Ibid, 136. Ibid. p. 137.

the audience become a unit.

The members of the audience

through empathizing repeat within their own organism the actions they are observing,

even though these movements

be only incipient or invisible and entirely within the organism. In observing an audience many indications of empathy can be noticed.

For example in the children1s play kittle

Red Riding Hood," produced at the Goodman Theatre in Chicago, one child In the audience empathizing with the wolf and sympathizing with Red Riding Hood, Riding Hoody we're fooling you."


"Poor little Red

In the play "Cinderella,"

as the Prince was trying the slipper on Cinderella's foot, a ten year old boy called out, "Fit, fit, fit." warnings of danger such as, are not empathizing,


"Look behind youl" "Stop him!"

but sympathizing with the character.

Let it be repeated, audience become a unit.

through empathy the actors and

Through empathy the members of

an audience re-enact in miniature,

often only within the

organism, what they see before them on the stage.

This is

not only true of a theatre audience, but of other audiences as well.

Observers of sports, acrobatics,

and dancing,

horse racing

through essentially the same process,

enjoy /

watching such activities• ^Regardless of the culture pattern of a given area, these play-behavior patterns find ex­ pression.

Neither hardships of frontier life nor moralistic

x :iv

precepts and taboos prevented the persistence of these patterns of behavior in the early days of Chicago. Taking this general assumption as a basic principl the specific question to be answered in the following chapters is what constituted the recreation of Chicago pioneers?

What form did this deep seated urge for crea­

tive play and the vicarious enjoyment of the social arts take in the social life of the people?




In order to get an accurate conception of the role of reereation in early Chicago,

it is necessary to know

something about the city's growth and development during its most formative years.

The beginning year for this

study has been arbitrarily selected, but the closing date is chosen because it indicates a marked change since at that time Chicago emerged from a frontier town and became a metropolitan center* It was in 1848 that the Illinois-Miehigan canal was completed; the railroad from Galena to Chicago finished; and a telegraph line between Michigan City and Chicago put into successful operation*

Although the growth of the

city prior to.1848 was phenomenal,

the development follow­

ing this date was even more spectacular* Among the main events in the city's initial growth are the building of Fort Dearborn in 1804, the massacre in 1812, rebuilding of the Fort in 1816, the entry of Illinois into statehood in 1818, Chicago as a city in 1857*

and the incorporation of

Various factors in the period

of accelerated expansion from 1830 to 1837, such as the evacuation of the Indians, followed by immigration of settlers from Ireland,


Germany and other Euro—


pean countries, United States,

as well as from various sections of the and commercial enterprises,

in the following pages•

are discussed

There was a panic in 1837 follow—

ed by another period of rapid growth after the period of recovery. In July 1803, left Detroit, on August 17. Dearborn.

Captain John Whistler and his troops

arriving in what was later to become Chicago He immediately set to work to build Fort

The garrison was small,

consisting of one cap­

tain, one second lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants, three corporals, four musicians, fifty-four privates.

one surgeon*s mate and

For nine years life at the Fort was

uneventful except for a load of especially fine furs; vague rumors of an Indian attack; the wedding in 1804 of Whistler1s daughter to a Detroit trader; deer-hunts and squabbles among the officers. In the spring of 1812, the Indians aggravated by the British, then at war with the United States, began to cause trouble.

Since the American fort at Detroit was

doomed to fall the government ordered Gaptain Heald, then in command at Fort Dearborn, to evacuate the fort and go to Fort Wayne.

On August 15, the garrison marched out,

led by a famous Indian Scout, Captain William Wells, who was to guide the troops to Fort Wayne.

The company seemed

to sense its doom, for the musicians played the Dead Mareh

and Captain Wells, his face.

according to Indian custom, blackened

The company wound its way slowly until it reach­

ed the sand dunes, then only a short distance from the Port* At this place the Indians had formed an ambush*

The brief

battle was soon concluded with the result that twenty-six regulars and all of the militia were killed*1 The next day the Port was plundered and burned, the prisoners distributed,

and the Pottawattomles left for

their various villages-

In 1816 when John Kinzie returned,

the skeletons were half buried by the drifting sand*


diers who came to rebuild the Port burled the remains in eoffins along the lake front.

Even as late as 1852 when

John Wentworth first came to Chieago he claimed to have seen some of these coffins projecting from the sand banks of the lake shore* On the fourth of July 1816, two military companies landed on the lake shore and began construction of the second Fort Dearborn.

This Fort promised to be somewhat

of an improvement over the first one.

Mail was brought

once or twice a month from Port Wayne, the nearest post office, and provisions arrived, usually on ships, but occasionally by wagon,

from Detroit*

Early in 1816 news of the re-establishment of the Post attracted settlers*


Milo M. Quaife, pp. 226-251.

American fur-traders began to

Chicago and the Old Northwest,


gather and by autumn John Kinzie re-opened his house*


little later Lieutenant and Mrs* Helm returned to live in Chicago and thus with the rebuilding of the Fort came the re-establishment of a small trading settlement,

a fore—

runner of the future eity. In the fall of 1818,

the year Illinois became a

state, the Kinfcies entertained a strange lad, Gurdon e Syajfctonstall Hubbard, a sixteen year old boy representing the American Fur Company, Astor.

which was headed by John Jacob

Considerable rivalry between the fur companies

ensued with the result that until 1828 the American Fur Company held the monopoly*

Gurdon Hubbard, an employee

of this latter company, was destined to play an important role in the development of this area* In 1821 numerous Indians from the Pottawattomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa tribes gathered at Chicago to meet with governmental officials, with the result that some five million acres of land, mostly in southwestern Michi­ gan, were granted to the government, along with the right of way to build roads from Fort Wayne and Detroit to 2 Chicago• Life at the garrison continued mueh as usual*


officers amused themselves with fishing and hunting? deer,

^Henry R* Schoolcraft, Travels in the Central Por­ tions of the Mississippi Valley* pp. 537-371.


red fox and wild fowl were abundant.’^ With the evacuation of the garrison in October 1823, the village was left to its own resources.

The inhabitants

consisted mainly of French traders, but in addition there were a few settlers from the Bast, bourne and John K. Clark.^

including Jonas Cly-

In 1825—26, there were thirty-

five voters and fourteen tax payers. able property,

Of the $8000 in tax­

the great majority was owned by the agents

of the American Fur Company.^ Control of community life at first centered around the Fort.

Up to 1833 there was no town government with

local officers except constables who were appointed by coun­ ty officials.

In 1818,

Illinois became a state and in 1825

the residents of Chicago were given some voice in the govern— ment by the choice of a humber of officials. 7, 1826,

On August

Chicago held its first election voting for gover­

nor, lieutenant-governor and national congressman.

Of the

thirty-five names on the poll-list, twenty-one were French.^

5 4

Gurdon S. Hubbard, A.T* Andreas,

Autobiography, p. 40.

History of Chicago, Volume I, p.101.


John Wentworth, Early Chicago, A Lecture delivered before the Sunday Lecture Society, May 7, 18 76 ("Fergus Historical Series, No. 7.) pp. 15—16.


Bessie Louise Pierce, A History of Chicago, Volume I, pp. 31-32. ~ 7


0£. cit., pp. 15-16.


Cook County was ereated in 1831 and Chicago became the County Seat. That Chicago was still only a settlement is indi­ cated by the fact that there were few roads, were allowed to move about unrestrained,

that animals

and that not un­

til the community demanded it was a pen built in which to keep stray animals until claimed by their owners* The "Winnebago scare** of 1827 aroused the inhabi­ tants and resulted in mustering a military corporal's guard by Alexander Wolcott, the Indian agent.

However, tragedy

of Indian attack was averted, due partly to Gurdon Hubbard's friendship with the Indians* This "Indian scare" tended to discourage many people from coming to the West, but the last of the Indian troubles, the Black Hawk War, had quite a different influence. Sol­ diers who came from the East to quell this Indian out­ break returned to their homes to tell of the fertile pro­ ductive region near Chicago.

Eastern papers, telling of

the war events also told their readers of the future rich­ es that awaited emigrants to this Northwestern country. As a result many hundreds flocked to this region in the next few years* With the defeat of Black Hawk and his followers, the Indians'

claim to the fertile lands from the southern Q half of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi was lost. In ^ Pierce, on. cit•, p. 37.

r 1833 the Indians gathered at Chicago for the last time to meet the representatives from the government.

In ex­

change for these rich lands the Indians were to be paid in money and goods* which in too many cases, were immed­ iately traded for whiskey before they were removed beyond the Mississippi. In their drunken* debauched condition* the Indians were robbed and cheated out of most of their payment.


visitor in Chicago gave the following description of the scene which he witnessed. They (French traders) had brought some whiskey and given them (Indians) which soon made them drunk, then some directed their attention while the others stole all their goods even taking their last blanket. Many who had three or four blankets the day before yester­ day were naked. They will give anything they have for whiskey and as soon as they are drunk they are strip­ ped to the skin by the whites. My soul has been pain­ ed with these scenes of wickedness which have been practiced on these much abused p e o p l e . h a v e seen females give a dram of whiskey to an Indian and take his blanket. Last night many have been robbed of their money* and where they attempt to trade with the whites the greatest extortion is used, a pint of whis­ key is often sold for a dollar. At this moment I saw the woman of the house where I am boarding charge a squaw who paid for a piece of bread .50. The Indians received all their money in 50 cent pieces and every article that they buy costs them 50 cents....^ In 1835 and 1836 the Indians made a last short visit to Chicago before their journey west of the Mississ­ ippi.

As before* there was much drunkeness and confusion.

^Letter from Henry Van Per Bogart to David Demarest, October 7* 1833.


Following a farewell dance they passed over the bridge of the north branch of the river* and then on out of sight# Following the withdrawal of the Indians, entered a period of phenomenal development#


The reports

of the soldiers from the Black Hawk war brought many people to this region#

In the decade following 1850 the

population increased tremendously#

Better transportation

facilities greatly aided in bringing this stream of popu­ lation to Chicago and the West.

In 1825 the Brie Canal

was completed and in 1854 work on the Improvement of the Chicago Harbor was begun# Within a few months population increased from some fifty inhabitants to approximately a thousand# Our town is rapidly filling up with strangers# The two steamboats, the Michigan and Delaware, have recent­ ly arrived at our wharves from Buffalo— discharging a living cargo of 6 to 800 persons# Several other boats are expected in a few days# The public houses are re­ ceiving great accessions of numbers, and the accomoda­ tions of the town will scarcely meet the importunate demand that will soon be made upon them— all waiting, we suppose, to buy or look on at the canal sales on the 20th inst#xo In 1855 a census estimated that the town had one hundred merchants, lawyers#

twenty-five physicians and thirty-five

Land traders,

^gentlemen speculators," clerks,

and laborers made up the balance of the population#^*

^ C h i c a g o American, June 18, 1856.


Ibid, December 31, 1836#

The election reports also reveal the rapid increase in population# At the annual election in August 1834, the highest number of votes for all the candidates for any one office was 528 against 114 in 1832#• #. In the spring of 1837 at our first municipal election, the city a— lone cast 709 votes#^** This rapid growth,

in addition to causing over­

crowding in the hotels, brought about a shortage of food# Merchants took advantage of this and prices rose to a high level#

In January 1836, flour sold at twelve dollars

a barrel, beef at ten to eleven dollars a barrel, pork at twenty dollars, potatoes from eighty cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents and salt rose from three dollars and fifty cents a barrel in 1833 to seven dollars and fifty 13 cents In 1936# By 1835,

forty dry-goods merchants and druggists

were in business with a capital of $20,000 to $30, OCX) each 14 and a total business estimated at $800,000#


Wild speculation in real estate attracted many visitors in the three years following 1833#

Let us cite,

for example, the purchases of Gurdon S# Hubbard#


op# elt#, p# 26#

X ^Chicago Democrat, January 27, 1836#


Chicago American# November 28, 1835.

In 1835

he became part owner of an eighty-acre tract west of the north branch between Kinzie Street and Chicago Avenue, pur­ chased for $5,000*

Chaneing to visit New Tork a few

months later, Hubbard was amazed to find a wild specula­ tion going on in Chicago town lots*

He hurriedly hunted

an engraver and had a plan made from his verbal description of the land,

and auctioned one half of it for $80,000* The

story reached Chicago before Hubbard arrived and even to the Chicago speculators the tale seemed unbelievable until Hubbard arrived to confirm it* During this period,


speculators, gamblers and ad­

venturers flocked to the frontier settlement along with dependable and substantial citizens and their families* The forward movement of Chicago was given impetus in 1834 and 1835 by a legislative enactment authorizing the construction of the canal from the proceeds of a loan to be floated in the East*

This served to verify pre­

dictions of Chicagofs future and at the same time aroused increased interest in government lands along the canal route*

*n April 1835 landowners were making over one

hundred percent on a few monthfs investment and by June the town was even more over— crowded*

The Chicago American

in 1836 boasted of a piece of land in Chicago that had


Quaife, on* cit*. p* 189*

1 1

risen in value at the rate of *©ne hundred per cent per da£. on the original cost ever since, 16 of five years and a half**

embracing a period

By the middle of the summer of 1856 speculation had reached such unbelievable heights that disaster was bound to follow*

Prosperity in most instances was based

on bank notes, promissory notes, deeds, and various forms of endorsements*

The boom bubble was bound to burst. And

such was the ease, for in 1837 came the panic* This collapse in speculation was followed by a steady decline in real estate values. even at the most reduced prices* ing lower and lower,

Property could not be sold With property values go­

the Chicago residents came to rely

on the canal which they hoped would bring them out of the depression*


by 1841 work on the canal had prac­

tically ceased and the canal region was almost abandoned. Many people left town and for the first time since 1833 there was difficulty in renting the many vacant houses.


Provisions and agricultural products fell in price and with a dearth of money and purchasing power, property values further declined*

Chicago American, April 23, 1836.

17 Pierce, op. cit•, pp. 70-72

12 The only hope of the future of Chicago, according to many of the residents, lay in the completion of the can** al*


growth of any area*

then as now, was necessary for the As the Westward Movement increased,

additional steamboats were added, until in 1840, there were 225 sailing vessels of various types and sixty— one steam­ boats on the lakes.^® In 1841, due to increased agricultural production, shipments were made to Buffalo.

Shipping was further in­

creased by passenger travel from the South and East.


1842 there were 705 arrivals of boats in the port and by 1843 this had increased to 756*


Before long Chicago

held the position of seventh port on the lakes above Niagara.

So important had lake commerce become that In

1845 97,736 passengers left Buffalo, 20,244 of whom were landed in Chicago* Lake trade continued to expand and along with this expansion came better accomodations and faster travel* In 1851, when sail vessels alone came to Chicago, it took at least 25 days to reach New Xork, but in 1840 rapidity of travel had increased to such an extent that a local mer— 21 chant reached New Tork from Chicago in six days*


Ibid. p. 76.


James W. Norris, General Directory and Business Advertiser of the City of Chicago for the Year 184 4 , p. 78. 20

James R* Albach, Annals of the West , pp. 958—59.

21 *Baily Chicago American, August 13, 1840.

13 Stage coach travel rivaled that of the steamships* Is early as 1833 there was a weekly stage from Chicago to Hiles, Michigan and by 1835 travel had increased so much that there was a daily stage.

In 1836 three stages a week

traveled from Chicago to Detroit.

Among other stage routes

were those developed between Chicago and Galena, Chicago and Ottawa,

and Chicago and Peru*

In 1847, a telegraph line was under construction be­ tween Michigan City and Chicago, and by April 1848 it was 22 finished and under successful operation* As agricultural surplusses in the Interior contin­ ued to increase the need for better transportation facil­ ities was stressed.

The muddy roads delayed wagon and

stage coach travel to such an extent that agitation was commenced for a turnpike road, but this idea soon fell in­ to decay*

Later the press renewed its agitation for im—

proved roads*


As early as 1841 a movement to build a 24 railroad from Chicago to Rockford was begun* Pressure

increased to such an extent that a railroad convention 25 was held in Rockford on January 7, 1846* Subscriptions


Chicago Daily Journal, April

23 pa



Chicago Democrat, April 9, 1845* the Tribune. January 9, 1841*

^ Chicago Democrat. December 9, 1845, January 13,



for the new railroad were taken, and although these loans did not reach the desired quota, work was started with the result that by December of 1848 the first ten miles of the railroad west of Chicago were built,

and by August

1848, twenty—one miles were completed.^® Although there had been talk of the Illinois-Michigan canal for years,

it was not completed until


finally opened for navigation in April, 1848, the canal gave to Chicago her much desired water highway to the southwest*


With the expansion of transportation and communica­ tion facilities, Chicago was transformed from a frontier town to a metropolitan center.

By 1848 the development

of Chicago as a commercial center of the great valley was well under way and marked the ^passing of a frontier town to the social and economic order' of an urban community. •• • The era of beginnings was drawing to a close and an era of expansion was at hand.*^®


op. cit.. p. 118

^SFaines -William Putnam, The Illinois Michigan CanalI A Study in Economic History, p. 62.


Pierce, op. cit.. p. 405.


CULTURAL BACKGROUND AS RELATED TO CHICAGO Early English travelers often commented on the little time which early Americans had for recreation. *?In no country are the faces of the people furrowed with hard— er lines of care,w wrote one observer.


In no country that I know is there so much hard toilsome, unremitting labor? in none so little of the recreation and enjoyment of life. Work and worry eat out the heart of the people, and they die before their time.... It is seldom that an American retires from business to enjoy his fortune in comfort. Money­ making becomes a habit. He works because he had al­ ways worked, and knows no other way . 2 Mrs. Trollope criticized the American people for their lack of recreation.

Charles Dickens, who visited

America in 1842 was greatly annoyed and depressed by the lack of normal recreation*

The American meal hour hor­

rified Dickens who described it thus I? No conversation, no laughter, no cheerfulness? no sociality, except in spitting? and that is done in silent fellowship round the stove, when the meal is over. Every man sits down, dull and languid? swallows his fare as if breakfasts, dinners, and suppers, were necessities of nature never to be coupled with recrea­ tion or enjoyment? and having bolted his food in a gloomy silence bolts himself in the same state.®

^T.L. Nichols, Forty Years of American Life, p. 206. 2 Ibid,

p. 206.

^Charles Dickens, American Notes, p. 170.

16 Religious disapproval was another factor which discouraged recreation. the concert,

Cotton Mather made attacks on

circus and stage.

Although these pulpit

denunciations of recreation were more characteristic of New England than of the West, they were also true of the nation as a whole.

The evangelical churches carried

into the midwest their opposition to races, card playing, dancing and games of chance.

There were strict laws re­

garding the observance of the Sabbath and those who in­ fringed were punished. Chicago was not exempt from these nation wide in­ fluences.

The church exercised restraining influences

on many types of recreation.

The theatre was denounced

by many and even the more broad

minded considered it a

necessary evil, to be tolerated in preference to other forms of recreation which might be even more degenerating. The editor of the American published in 1839 the following statement about one of the early theatrical companies which held performances in Chicago. We think that the special committee, who report­ ed in favor of the license, have shown good sense, and a practical, philosophical view of such matters. We are aware that theatres are obnoxious to a re­ spectable and intelligent portion of every commun­ i ty; but they are permitted and must be permitted, on the ground of general expedience, if for no other reason*^


Daily Chicago American, April 17, 1839.


This resistance to the theatre seemed to be a part of the culture pattern of most communities in that day. Other culture patterns relating to Chicago were discover­ ed in the process of collecting and organizing the mater­ ial for this study.

These patterns provided a cultural

setting of which recreation is a part. It was found that there was a predominance of in­ terest in the cultivation of the mind and other forms of self-improvement.

There was widespread interest in in­

tellectual matters,

a great vogue for public lectures.

Lyceums became popular.

The lyceum movement started in

1826$ within five years it had attained a national or­ ganization with some nine hundred local lyceums . 5 were speakers on every conceivable topic — geology, messmerism, phrenology,



and like topics.

The following organizations,

although organized

to*improve the mind11, likewise served a recreational pur— posel

The Chicago Lyceum, organized in 1834; the loung

Men*s Junior Lyceum, Lyceum,

formed in 1842$ the loung M e n fs

founded in 1843$ The Young M e n fs Association,

established in 1841$ the Mechanic*s Institute,


ized in 1837$ and the Chicago Horticultural Society, founded in 1837. Chicago Athaeneum,

Other such organizations were the the Antiquarian Society,

Chicago His­

torical Society and Antiquarian Society.



Foster Dulles, America Learns to Pl ay , p. 92.

IB This desire for cultural uplift also reflected it­ self in the formation of libraries and reading rooms* The desire for Bself improvementw and the ^improving of the mind* were terms often used in notices of lectures to be given*

In 1845* a Mr. Haswell,

came to Chicago to lecture

on astronomy, his subject being the ^Wonders of the Heav­ ens. B

In the account of this lecture we read!

ffThere is

no Science better calculated to expand the mind, and improve the heart,

than that of ASTRONOMY..•.*


Today we

seldom think of the laboring man as being interested in lectures, but this was not true then, for many such pro­ grams were sponsored by such organizations as the Mechan­ ics 1 Institute. Speaking of a certain lecture on elocution, the editor of the Chicago Express makes the following state­ ments His lecture on Friday evening at the Mechanics* Hall was a rich intellectual treat, instructive and gratifying to the audience and reflecting high credit on the distinguished reputation and supadLor powers of the orator * 8 Such was the popularity of lectures that during the 1840*s, especially during the winter season, were lectures almost every evening.


The titles of the

lectures reveal an interest in the more serious aspects of life,

such as chemistry, astronomy, philosophy, phren-

^Chicago Express* April 10, 1843* ®Ibid, October 29, 1842.



geology, phonography,

and other similar subjects*

Though the majority of the lectures dealt with nscientificw and nintellectualn matters,

there were humorous ones, also.

In the Daily Chicago American in July, 1840, Winehell,

we readtffMr.

the amusing Comic Lecturer gives his last exhibi­

tion tonight at the Saloon.

He has the faculty of drawing

and entertaining crowded houses• #

Thus we see, that al­

though the majority of the lectures dealt with more serious topics which the people felt would nimprove the mind11, there were also some designed specifically for amusement. C h i c a g o ^ first library was founded in 1832 in con­ nection with the Presbyterian Sunday School and a reading room, opened at Gool^s Coffee House in 1835, proved inade­ quate to meet the needs of all classes. F. Gale,

In 1838,

in connection with his book store,


opened a circu­

lating library, which according to the Daily Chicago Ameri­ can. Hhad every good book worth

r e a d i n g .

in spite of

these efforts, many people did not have the opportunity to read the books they desired, and it was chiefly to meet this demand that the Young m e n 1s Association Library was organ­ ized in 1841. One can get an Idea of what the people read by re­ ferring to the daily newspapers of this period which carried advertisements telling of the arrival of new books from the 9

Dally Chicago American, July 9, 1840.(The saloon re­ ferred to in this quotation was more of a Salon than a saloon.)


Ibid. August 5, 1841.

20 East*

There were special hand-bills calling attention to

religions books, for ladies. following I

and others which mentioned books especially

Among the early magazines advertised, were the Godey 1 s L a d y 1 s Book, Hew York Mirror, The Knicker*

booker, Graham1s Columbian, Ladies


National and Arthur1s

Ladies Magazine, Western Magazine, Gem of the Prairie, and Union Agrlioulturist Although this interest in ffself improvementw seemed to permeate all social classes,

there were sharp distinc­

tions between these social classes which greatly affected the more cultural interests.

Social classes as influenced

by economic status, nationality and other cultural factors, appeared early in Chicago and as the city grew the classes became more distinct and the place of residence more im­ portant. The great portion of the families of wealth, educa­ tion and high social position in 1836, resided on the north side. The Lake House on the corner of Rush and Kinzie streets, the first hotel constructed of brick, and which was sumptuously furnished, was the fashion­ able headquarters, where were feiven select parties.3-2 Wentworth,

an early settler,

commented on this

settlement on the north sidei The most of the families of wealth, education.•• settled on the North Side.... Upon the south side were most of the business houses and hotels that were kept for the accommodation of farmers who came to Chicago with their loads of grain. Business men, generally boarded at these hotels on the south side....-^®


Chicago Daily Journal, July 2, 1846.


John Wentworth, Early Chicago, A Lecture, delivered before the Sunday Lecture Society, May 7, 1876 ("Fergus Historical Series, No. 7) p. 35. 1

S Ibid. p. 36.

2 1

This reveals that even in Chicago*s frontier days, though population was small,

and amusements relatively

rare, there was class distinction. There was also considerable prejudice among the emigrants from different sections of the country,


ially between those who came from the South and those who came from New England.

All the Eastern people were con­

sidered to be Yankees.

Among their disagreements was

that on the convention system in politics.


denounced it vehemently, as a Yankee innovation,


the old system of allowing every man who wanted to do so to run for office and take his chances. toms,

**A11 Yankee cus­

fashions, and innovations upon their established

usages were ridiculed as Yankee notions, worthy only of pedd­ lers of wooden clocks and pewter spoons. There was also some feeling and distinction between the different nationality groups in Chicago.

The forma­

tion of various organizations and associations among them tended to segregate them.

Among such were St. George1s

Society and St. Andrew*s Society. of these groups and of individuals,

The chief contribution as well, was to the

larger cultural life of the community. Englishman who early settled in Chicago,


I bid. p • 37.

Mr. Davis,


contributed a

zz great deal in the way of music.

To the English may also

be traced the introduction of the game of cricket which was to a limited degree played in Chicago and the vicinity. The largest and most active foreign element in Chicago in the decade of 1840 to 1850 was the Irish!-5 Because of crop failures in their homeland, grated to the United States. 1830*s

masses emi­

Many of them arrived in the

and secured work in or near Chicago doing con­

struction work on the Illinois and Michigan Canal.


fits for the starving friends and relatives in Ireland,


gether with the organization of humanitarian and political societies served to weld them together* The Germans also made up a considerable percentage of the foreign population in Chicago.

As early as 1825

there was a German settlement established at Dunkel*s Grove, near Chicago, and others came to the vicinity to help build the canal.

A directory compiled by Fergus for 1839 listed

sixty-two German names,

and the city census of 1843 showed

816 Germans and Norwegians to be residents of the city .-1-6 By 1850 the Germans, most of whom probably came from the supper Rhine Valley, population.

15 16



made up seventeen per cent of the total

In 1846 there were enough Germans to en—

James W. Norris,

Chicago Directory for 1844, p. 76.

L o c . cit. Bessie Pierce, History of Chicago, Volume I, p.183.


courage an editor,

R.B. Hoffgen, to commence the publication

of a weekly German newspaper,

the Chicago Volksfreund. The

paper f a i l e d .financially, however,

and was soon discontinued.

Like the Irish, the Germans had their national meetings,


for a time isolated themselves somewhat from the life around them, although they gradually became an integral part of the life of Chicago. The third largest nationality group in early Chicago was composed of the English, Welsh and Scotch.

In 1850

there were 1,855 English and Welsh and 610 Scotch in the city.


In order to keep alive memories and customs of

the homeland they, too, founded societies, Illinois St. Andrew*s Society,

such as the

organized by the Scotch in

1846 and the St. George*s Society of Illinois, by the English in 1847.


The Welsh had no regular society,

but in 1857 they celebrated St. David*s Day*


Of the Scandinavians who emigrated to Chicago, the Norwegians were most numerous.

Many of these,

as well as

the Germans and Irish, secured work on the canal.

In 1858

we have the first record of a Swede, 0.G* Lange*s arriving 2Q in Chicago* Fifteen Swedish families had found homes 21 in the city by about 1845* 18

Chicago Daily News, Almanac and Year Book, 1933,

p. 787. 19

Daily Chicago American. February 18, 1837,

^ P i e r c e , opC cit, p. 185* 21 Florence E. Jansen, The Background of Swedish Immigration, p. 133.


In addition to the above mentioned nationality groups*

there were a few French, Poles’ and Negroes.

With such mixture of groups with different cultural heri­ tage there was bound to be some misunderstanding.


B. Ogden complained of these poor and "vicious foreigners" who cut down trees that did not belong to t h e m . ^ With these differences in social and biological heritage,

economic status and language,

it was not strange

that classes arose.During the Black Hawk War one observer mentions the conflict, as well as labor difficulties, be­ tween race and nationality groups*

One writer speaks of

classes in early Chicago in the following manner! about ten or twelve families*..who consider themselves even above the common class, and then the class of working people and then the third, or the lower class, of Canadians french descent, half Indians etc. Some of the french are very polute and good c i ti ze ns .^ Harriet Martineau who visited Chicago in 1836 com­ mented on the socidty which she found in Chicago. sisted of"educated,

refined and wealthy persons."

It con24

The status of women as well as the ratio of men to women in the different social classes in early Chicago is notable.

As in other frontier communities, women in

William B* Ogden to A. Bushnell, November 24, 1840, William B. Ogden, Letter Books, Volume III, p. 25. 23 James Herrington to Jacob Herrington, Jan. 27, 1831, from Pierce, ojd. cit, p p . 186-187. 24 Harriet Martineau, Society in America, Volume I,

p. 187.


Chicago were in the minority.

The smallness of this numb­

er exaggerated by the constant arrival of male newcomers caused society to be somewhat unbalanced and disorganized* In spite of this a small clique of "refined female society" developed.

The editor of the Chicago American in comment­

ing on the disproportionate ratio,

between the sexes in

1837, mentions that when steamboats arrived from Buffalo and Detroit "crowds of desolate,

rich young bachelors"

gathered at the pier "ready to catch the girls" as soon as they l a n d e d . ^ In spite of this disproportion in the sexes,

and the

Interest of the young men in the opposite sex, prevailing customs of the proper relationship to be maintained often caused barriers at the social functions which created an atmosphere of social restraint.

This restraint increased

as Chicago developed from a frontier town to a metropoli­ tan area.

In the earlier days, in all sections of the

country, women were pioneers who worked along with the men and shared in festivals and holiday celebrations, but as life became more settled, w o m e n were increasingly condemned to a life separate and apart# Early travelers and visitors to the United States commented on the narrow tradition which held American women under what seemed to be undue restraint.


Chicago American, May 27, 1837.

This was a man*s


world with its tremendous emphasis on work and getting ahead.


the young people seem to have behaved with

great freedom on occasion. sing, walk,

Frances Wright says,

^They dance,

and run in sleighs together, by sunshine and

moonshine without the occurrence or even the apprehension og of impropriety.” This freedom, according to another ob— servor, did not last long, for as soon as she married, young lady entirely changes her habits.


Farewell gaiety

and frivolity.*^ An American lady, in her teens, is, perhaps, the most sylph—like creature on earth. Her limbs are ex­ quisitely wrought, her motions light and graceful, and her whole carriage at once easy and dignified. But these beauties, it is painful to say, are doomed to an early decay. At the period of twenty-four a certain want of fulness in her proportions is already percep­ tible and, once passed the age of thirty, the whole fabric goes seemingly into decay. As the principal cause of this sudden decline, some alledge the climate; but I ascribe it more willingly to the great assiduity with which American ladies discharge their duties as mothers. No sooner are they married than they begin to lead a life of comparative seclusion; and once moth­ ers, they are actually buried to the world. Articles appearing in the daily papers,

attest the

"narrow” life of Chicago women and deplore the lack of ex­ ercise on the part of all American women.

Comments were

made comparing the activities of the English women in walk­ ing, riding and in other sports, with those of Chicago


f Frances Wright D*Arusmont, Views of Society and Manners in America, p. 1£0* ^ A c h i l l e Murat, United States, p. 356. ZQ

A Moral and Political Sketch of the

F.J. Grund, The Americans, and their Moral, Social and Political Relations, p. 31.


women, who remained indoors and had few diversions* It was not until 1845 that a gymnasium was estab­ lished in Chicago by a Swedish instructor*

The editor of

the Journal makes the following comment* Half the diseases so common the Ladies of our day# consumptions and spinal affections especially, are mainly the result of the want of a thorough develop­ ment of the physical powers by judicious training.•*• The formal walk in City streets in fashionable dress and kid slippers, is not worthy the name of exercise* It is that free unfettered motion enjoyed by children in the country, which brings life and health. As a substitute for country walks there can be nothing better than the lighter gymnastic exercises in well ventilated apartments* Whatever leisure the ladies had, they spent in em­ broidery,

china painting and waxwork.

This like every­

thing else they did must conform to the folkways which set incredible standards of proper female decorum, even though it be at the sacrifice of their health* The women were not only limited in their participa­ tion in physical exercise and sports, but they were also restricted in participation in the more passive forms of recreation and diversion.

Women did not go to the theatre

or a lecture unless attended by men.

A notice reads* BHo

female admitted unless accompanied by a gentleman.w


theatre of that day, however, was often rather a rough place and police were in attendance to preserve order. The

^ Chicago Daily Journal, March 19, 1845* 30

Ibid, June 29, 1847*

z% editor of the American in encouraging the ladies to attend the theatre arguedi Why do not the fair Ladies df our city lend the Theatre occasionally the light of their countenance? ... There is a police in attendance.••• If the Ladies are waiting for 1 fashionable precedents 1 we will in­ form them that at ’Springfield 1 in the State, the theatre was attended generally by the beauty and the fashion of the fair sex and by the gentlemen of the place*..of all the official dignities, from the judges of the supreme court, down. **■ V Most of the lectures, such as those sponsored by the Young M e n ’s Association and the Mechanics* Institute were planned for young men.



public and

Ladies *1 were invited, but this was not the usual case, and even when invited their attendance was small.


the organization of the Female Seminary in 1 8 4 3 , which sponsored series of lectures, women were given more oppor­ tunity for intellectual stimulation. Thus, we see that the status of women during that early period in Chicago gave them little opportunity for participation in the community around them and for ming­ ling with the opposite sex in any but a formal manner. Women in the higher economic strata,

in particular, were

confined to a life of relative inactivity.

31 32

Daily Ohicago American, September 5, 1839. Norris,

. cit. p.






AND AMUSEMENT GATHERINGS In Chicago*s social development and in the recrea­ tional life in particular, the function of taverns, hotels, restaurants and other public houses, was important, al­ though quite different in many respects from that of today* In the social intercourse provided by the post office, barber shop, grocery store,

saloon and museum this differ­

ence is still more marked* Before the 1830*s there was little need for hotels in Chicago, traders,

as their patrons were largely the French fur

and a few immigrant travelers.

Elijah Wentworth

tells of arriving in Chicago in October, 1829, from Indiana to his birthplace in Maine*


He "put up at

the only tavern then having a s i g n - p o s t * T h i s


Chicago*s first hotel, was owned by James Kinzle who had built it the previous year and was then kept by Archi­ bald Caldwell, who had been granted a license on December 8

, 1829 by the County Commissioners to operate a tavern! County Commissioners* Court, Peoria Co. Dec. 8 , 1829. Present! Francis Thomas, George Sharp, and Isaac Egman.


A.T. Andreas,

History of Chicago, Volume I, p. 629.


Ordered! That a License be granted to Archibald Caldwell, to keep a tavern at Chicago and that he pay a tax of eight dollars, and be allowed the fol­ lowing rates, and give a bond with security for one hundred dollars* Bach half-pint of wine, rum, or brandy*....*25 ets* Bach pint of wine, rum, dr b r a n d y .......... 37jots* Bach half-pint gin................ .......... 18 3/4 ets* Bach pint g in.................... 5li cts. 6w cts* Bach gill of whiskey...................... . Bach half—pint ofwhiskey............. .......12$ ets. Bach pint of whiskey.......... ......... ....18 5^4 cts. Bach breakfast, dinner, or supper.•••••..«•.25 cts* Each night*s lodging........................ izi cts. Keeping horse over night on grain and hay*..25 cts. The same as above, 24 hours. ..... cts* Horse feed......... ....... ...................12$ cts.2 Caldwell operated this tavern until 1830,

at which

time he dissolved his interest with Kinzie, left the hotel and removed to Green Bay Wisconsin.

As the weather turned

prematurely cold, Wentworth decided to remain in Chicago for the winter.

In January or February, Wentworth rented

the tavern from Kinzie for three hundred dollars a year and became its landlord* til the fall of 1830,


He remained at this place un­

at which time he took a claim eight

miles north of Chicago*

In Caldwellfs time the house

was called the Fork Tavern, but Wentworth changed the name to Wolf Tavern,

for according to some stories he

found a wolf in his meat-room and killed the animal with an ax.

Other historians claim the locality was called

Wolf savages long before Wentworth came to the

^John Wentworth, Reminiscenses of Early Chicago. (Fergus Historical Series^ No. 8 .) p. 39* 3 Andreas, op. cit. p. 629.


piace*^ In addition to the Wolf Tavern, there was another 5 inn operated during 1830 by Samuel Miller. This stood nearly opposite Wentworth*s tavern, on the east side of the North Branch of the river. brother lived there,

In 1829 Miller and his

operated a small store, and occas­

ionally entertained strangers as they came along. 1830

it was enlarged and Miller

of Wolf Tavern. store*



became the chief competitor

also operated a ferry

along with his

Miller*s wife died in 1832 and he sold the place

and moved away.

It was never known as a hotel after he

left it. Mark Beaubien wise

a tavern.

also had a

This hotel, the

log house which was like­ Sauganash, built in 1831,

was located on the South Side, on the point made by the junction of the two branches of the river. At that time the hotel was very crude, but later additional rooms were constructed.

When this addition was being built, the

Indian chief,

Sauganash learned of Beaubienfs plan, and

according to the story, the chief mentioned that Americans always named their hotels after great men, and asked what


Herbert Asbury, Gem of the Prairie, p. 11

®Andreas, 6L oc. cit.

op * cit, p. 629.

Beaubien was going to call it.

Mark Beaubien took the

hint, and said, ■I*11 call it Sauganash!*


A scarcity of housing facilities due to the onrushing of speculators in the early and middle thirties, caused great overcrowding.

Houses could not be built

rapidly enough to take care of these newcomers.


the number of public houses increased from eight in 1835 o to twelve in 1836, travelers still complained of in­ adequate facilities.

ffThe crowd of strangers and the

scarcity of provisions rendered every tavern in the place an abode of misery. And English traveler who stayed at the Sauganash when he visited Chicago in 1833 recorded the following description of his accommodations * ....Within the vile two-storied barrack, which, dignified as usual by the title of Hotel, afforded us quarters, all was in a state of most appalling confusion, filth, and racket. The public table was such a scene of confusion, that we avoided it from necessity. The French landlord was a sporting char­ acter, and everything was left to chance, who, in the shape of a fat housekeeper, fumed and toiled round the premises from morning to n i g h t . ^


o p . cit, p. 25

^Chicago American, August 15, 1835. 9

Joseph N. Balestier, Annals of Chicago, A Lecture Delivered before the Chicago Lyceum, January 21, 1840, p. 33. •^Charles J. Latrobe, Volume XI, p. 216.

The Rambler in North America.


Another visitor, Patrick Shirreff, who visited Chicago during the same year as Latrobe and also stayed at the Sauganash, seemed to make a much better adjustment to pioneer life. The hotel at which our party was set down, was SC disagreeably crowded, that the landlord could not positively promise beds, although he would do every thing in his power to accomodate us. The house was dirty in the extreme, and confusion reigned through­ out, which the extraordinary circumstances of the village went far to extenuate. I contrived, however, to get on pretty well, having by this time learned to serve myself in many things, carrying water for washing, drying my shirt, wetted by the rain of the preceding evening, and brushing my shoes. The table was amply stored with substantial provisions, to 1 which justice was done by the guests, although in­ differently cooked, and still more so served up.^* Despite the description of visitors who compared the aascoamodations here with those of more stabilized com­ munities,

the Sauganash became famous and its name has

been remembered as being for years the largest and finest hotel in Chicago.

Mark was a jolly host, and in the even­

ing his fiddle made the Sauganash a popular resort. was, for those days at least,

a skilled performer,

He and

often played into the early hours of the morning, while his guests "tripped the light fantastic toe." The •Sauganash* stood on the lot (Lake and Market Sts2.50. band,

Putnam* s

"late of the Steamer Baltic" provided music for the




The following comment was added to one of the

"N.B. Sherman House has the best ball room in

the city."1 ^ It was not long before tea parties took their place along with fairs as a means of raising money for liquidat­ ing debts incurred in building churches, viding their furniture. sure way to raise money.

as well as pro­

The selling of recreation was a Another source of support for

the church was the "donation party," whereby members and friends of a congregation were given the opportunity to bring gifts to the minister.

Salaries for ministers were

undoubtedly low and such donations supplemented the income These social gatherings were popular,

and in the more con­

servative churches often took the place of dances. For those who were opposed to dancing, social en­ joyment was found in donation parties given for the benefit of some minister, and which came to be the popular mode of contributing to the support of the gospel. There was no stiffness at these parties, no religious observances, but entire freedom and hearty good cheer. Everyone would bring something and the preacher, as a result, would find himself richer by valuable and often much needed additions to his larder his wardrobe, and his kitchen. ®

18 19

Ibid, December 10, 1847. Ibid, December 13, 1847.

20 J . V o l u m e

I ,

p .

M o s e s 1 0 1 .

a n d

M .

K i r k l a n d ,

T h e





o r


o f









216 Announcements of such parties appeared frequently in the newspapers and were similar to the following* DOHATIOH VISIT The friends of the Rev* I*T* Hinton are invited to make him a donation visit on Thursday evening next* Carriages will be sent around for the accomodation of those that have not conveyances of their own* • • •^ As indicated by newspapers, the npublic generally11 was invited to attend these benefits*

Among the many

ministers who were honored by such visits between 1840 and 1845,

were the following*

Reverends Crews and Mitchell

of the Methodist Church on December 23, 1 8 4 0 $ ^ Reverend Hamlin on January 6, 1845?^^ Reverend Kellog of St. James* Church on January 10, 1 8 4 5 ; ^ and Reverend Walker of Trin­ ity Church on March 6, 1845.^® The church in that day played a much more important role in the community than it does today.

The only recrea­

tion that many people had was provided by the church. In addition to the adult program in the churches, the children, through the medium of the Sunday School often provided entertainments and although frequently given on special holidays, they were not limited to such occasions.


Daily Chicago American, December 17, 1839.


Ibid, December 23, 1840/ 23 24 g


Chicago Daily Journal, January 10, 1845. L o c . cit* I b i d ,






7 ,

1 8 4 5 .


2 1 7

following notice of Sunday School programs is typical* The Clark Street Methodist Sunday School will give a public exhibition, should the weather be pleasant, this evening at their church, consisting of Dialogues, Declamations and Music, to commence at 7 o*clock. All are invited to attend. ® Programs,

often more elaborate than the above, were

given in the public schools, usually at the end of the school year.

The editor of the Journal describes one of

these programs, or more correctly,

the hehavior of an aud­

ience in attendance. The exhibition in Mr. Wilson*s school was a perfect jam. Every foot was doubled by the planting of two feet upon it...what with heated, vitiated air, the length of the performance, and the constant confusion kept up by unmannerly boys— old boys, some of them— many managed to leave the performance with aching heads.^7 Going on with his criticism, the editor claimed that the noise was so great that "the compositions of the young ladies could not be heard at all, continued.

Oat calls, stamping,

and the reading was dis­ scuffling, laughing,

loud talking were the order of the night.**


The attitude

toward anything of a theatrical nature is clearly reflected by the commentator who believed that some of the rowdyism was due to the **theatrical character of the exercises, ** as it "emboldens the rude, of the occasion.**








I b i d ,


inasmuch as it lowers the dignity

He believed the time would "come when







o b



2 1 ,

7 ,

1 8 4 6 .

1 8 4 7 .

2 1 8

theatrical exhibitions will be banished from the halls of learning,

as unworthy the place, the teachers and the

taught.b28 In order to raise money for a school library, the teachers and pupils held a fair on June 24, 1847. • ..With a great deal of patience and a great deal of toil, those interested in the welfare of the school, have prepared various articles for fancy or use, which gallant gentlemen will not suffer to go without pur­ chasers. We regret the necessity of making any such appeal, when there is a motive so mueh more becoming intellectual men, in the object contemplated— the pur*chase of suitable library for the use of the members of the school. There will also be various delightful preparations in the way of *aid and comfort* to the *inner man,1 which the ladies know so well how to devise, and we cannot but believe that there will be a full attendance as so much pleasure may be enjoyed and so much good done by the same act.*® Nearly two hundred dollars was raised by means of the school fair, most of which was used to purchase books.®8 The Ladies Benevolent Association,

the primary pur­

pose of which was charity, raised money by n subscriptions, tea parties, and fairs."

The society, especially active

between 1839 and 1847, recruited women from most of the churches of the city.

Members spent a great deal of time

visiting the poor and sick, without respect to the religious affiliations of those they helped, many of whom were im­ migrants,

often of the Catholic faith,

During 1838-1839,

this society raised #213.28 which provided relief for 28t .. Loc. cit• 29Ibid, June 22, 1847. 30 I b i d ,

J u n e

2 5 ,

1 8 4 7 .

219 fifty-six families and "occasional assistance" for many individuals.

The families were visited,

"their wants par­

ticularly ascertained and the relief adapted to their real necessities."

At the end of the season the ladies thanked

the public for its help. ...The society would now, in behalf of the poor, express their gratitude to a liberal public which has put it within their power to prevent such suffering— in clothing the naked, feeding the hungry, relieving the sick, drying the orphan*s tear, and gladdening the widow*s heart. A plea for funds was made hy the Association in December, 1845.

The destitution among the poor had in­

creased because of "unusual sickness of the autumn,


ed by the abrupt commencement of a rigorous winter,


the greatly enhanced price of provisions."3®

At that time

Chicago had "no hospitals— no orphan asylums— no public authorities, whose duties are to take care of the poor, except county officers,

who are limited to affording re­

lief through the County Poor House."34 lief,

This type of re­

is "not calculated to reach extreme cases, such as

the sudden sickness of whole families" or strangers in the city, who were ignorant of the mode of applying for county


Daily Chicago American, May 2, 1839.

32L o c . cit. 33 Chicago Daily Journal, December 8, 1845. 34




Such cases could only be cared for through the

"timely relief afforded by an organized system of visita­ tion.

Such a system has been adopted by the LADIES BENE­

VOLENT ASSOCIATION11 and they require "funds to render their organization highly useful and effective.1,35 December 1847,



"the poor cannot

for theJournal stated that

gain admittance into the poor house, as

it is already full, been intense."


and that the suffering among them has

He also suggested that the Ladies Benevo­

lent Society "forthwith start that *Tea Party.*"36


we find a benevolent society using recreation as a means of raising money for charity. There were also many other organizations which were primarily social, Bout also sometimes benevolent in purpose. As "foreigners and immigrants," as well as persons from various sections

of the United

States,especially New Eng—

lang, settled in

Chicago, they

tended to form societies to

keep alive memories of their home lands and to preserve their own social functions.

Among such organizations were

St. Andrew*s Society,

a Scotch organization formed in 1846;3^

St. George*s Society,

and English group, founded April 23*



and the New England Society. 35


Lq c .

^ Ibid, December 20, 1847. 37 Ibid, July 16, 1846. 38 I





A p




2 6 ,

1 8 4 7 .

Although the writer

221 found no notice of the organization of a Welsh society, there was a celebration of St* David's Day by the Welshborn and Welsh-descended inhabitants in Chicago in 1 8 3 7 . ^ The anniversaries of the patron saints of these nationality groups were commemorated with celebrations of various kinds.

On November 30, 1836, the St. Andrew's

Society held a dinner at the Lake House. ST. ANDREW'S DAY The anniversary of Scotland's Patron Saint was celebrated on the evening of the 30th inst. at the Lake House in this city, where a very numerous company assembled to partake of the Society's Hospitality... The Dinner Room was decorated by the American and other National Flags, and a fine transparency of St. Andrew, painted by Mr. Childs of this city. Grace being said, by the Rev. Mr. Adams, after the company had dined and the cloth removed, the President in the course of a few appropriate remarks, explained the object of the Society— stating that they were purely charitable, and that their charities were not confined to Scotchmen alone. The regular toasts were then announced and drank in the following order... Remarks were made during the evening by Judge Thomas, Dr* Egan, Dr. Mcllroy, Geo Ryer, and others each in his usual happy style— addressing the jovial assemblage appropriately as they were called upon. Songs from the inimitable Chiefs of the music, Davis and Graham also enlivened the Board, and all went off as merry as a 'Marriage Bell*' When ere they dine again may we be there to toast the Chair and taste the cheer. ^ The following year another celebration was held at the Sherman House. music,

"There was a good attendance and good

not forgetting the shrill Bagpipe,


adding its notes

Chicago American, February 18, 1837.

4 0 C h i c a g o















e c e m b e r

3 ,

1 8 4 6 .


to enliven the evening1s festivities; which*•.were kept up to the *wee small hours avant the twal.*1* ^ The St. George*s Soeeity likewise held regular meetings,

but the annual meeting commemorating their pa­

tron saint was the most elaborate. St. George*s Society.— An Association of English­ men under the name of England*s patron saint, has been formed in this city, for the social and benevo­ lent purposes. One article forbids the introduction of Sectarian sentiments or politics into the meetings of the Society. It is therefore a sort of *neutral ground , 1 to which its members from the *father land* who have found homes in America, may occasionally e scape from the struggle of common life, weave anew the bonds of friendship, and keep bright the recollections of the times and the men of old. ^ Those of New England who took up residence in Chicago gave evidence of both their number and their common cultural background by organizing the New England Society in 1846,

chiefly for social purposes.

Annually the society

observed the anniversary of the landing of the pilgrims. This event was celebrated on December 22, 1846 by wappropriate services in the Unitarian Church, group dined together at the Lake House.

nafter which the


The *PILGRIM FESTIVAL* came off yesterday, agree­ ably to announcement, and was all its friends could wish. The oration of E.W. Tracy, Esq.— a chaste and brilliant production— was delivered to a crowded auditory; and the musical pieces elected for the

41 42

Ibid, December 1, 1847. Ibid, April 26, 1847.

A!S I b i d ,







e r


1 8 4 6 .


occasion were executed with great beauty and effect. The dinner— in Mr# Rickord*s best style— -was served to upwards of a hundred guests, who, amid the flow of song, an d speech, and sentiment, gave repeated evidence of their gratification and approval, by hearty manifestations of applause# The temperance members of the society— who, we were pleased to see, were there in no small numbers— joined in full bumpers of *cold water 1 to the stirring sentiments and thrilling speeches; and, indeed, the strictest order and sobriety were observed, worthy the descendants of those who were 1 temperate in all things # 1 We will give the pro­ ceedings at length tomorrow# Extra copies may be ob­ tained by leaving orders at the Office of the Journal*"^ In addition to societies organized by the various nationality and cultural groups,

there was rapid growth

in the organization of secret societies.

Many of Ohicago*s

citizens joined the Odd Fellows and Masons. Masonic Society, the Masons,

The Anti-

organized to combat the rapid growth of

set itself to publish the names of persons who

were Masons,

so as to place ffhonest voters on their guard,w45

Beginning with 1845, lodge notices appeared frequently in the newspapers,


for example,

in the September 30,1845

issue of the Chicago Daily Journal. The Lafayette Lodge,

chartered on October 2, 1843,

was the first Masonic Lodge to be established in Illinois* Two other such orders, lished soon after. meetings,



the Apollo and Oriental, were estabWith the exception of notices of

the daily newspapers carried but few items regard-

Ibid, December 23, 1846.

^ Chicago Democrat, May 5, 1846. ^ 5 1 0 .





A n d r e a s ,








o f









V o l u m e

I ,




5 0 7 —

22U ing the activities of lodges. The Union Lodge Number 9, organized in 1844, was the first unit of the Odd Fellows to be formed in Chicago . 4 7 By August 14 it had enrolled thirty-nine members.


lodge prospered and its membership increased so rapidly that within a year Duane Lodge Number provide for the surplus* Excelsior Lodge,


was organized to

In less than two years, a third,

Number 22 was established . 4 8

The Independent Order of Rechabites,


August SO, 1844, had as its primary purpose the thwarting of intemperance.

Many of its meetings were held in cooper­

ation with other temperance societies,

as was the case with

the one announced in the following newspaper notice. I. 0. of R. The members of Chicago Tent, No. 65, will celebrate the 3rd Anniversary of their Tent with appropriate exercises, on the evening of the 1 1 th of"October, at the First Universalist Church. The members of the S. of T. and the different Temperance Societies, and the citizens generally, are respectfully invited to attend. Exercises to commence at past 7 o*clock. The members of Chicago and Western Star Tents are request­ ed to meet at the Hall at ■§■ past 7 o*clock precisely. On behalf of the Com. of Arrang*ts, THOS. T. JACKSON, Chair^n 4 9 On December 16, 1846,

a meeting was held at Recha-

bite Hall for "the purpose of organizing a T ent of the Daughters of Rechab.

All those Ladies that are friendly

to the cause of Temperance 11 were invited to attend. 47 48


Ibid, p. 514. Ibid, p. 515 Chicago Daily Journal, October 7, 1847.

50 I b i d ,









1 4 ,

1 8 4 6 .

225 Other temperance societies, terested in reform, and recreation,

although primarily in­

served also as a means of social life

A branch of the American Temperance So­

ciety organized in Chicago in 1833, numbered one hundred twenty members by February 4, 1834,


Its interest focused

upon the pledge required of its members! Any young man may become a member of this Society by subscribing to the following pledge! We promise to abstain entirely from the use of all ardent spirits, as an article of drink, entertainment or traffick, and from the immoderate use of wine, and will in all suit­ able ways discountenance it in others. Other temperance societies followed,

such as the

Washington Temperance Society organized on January 1, 1840$ Bethel,

or Mariners 1 Temperance Society on March 11, 1842$

and Junior Washington Temperance Society on March 11, 1843# A Temperance League was then formed to enable the various 53 organizations to carry on their work Jointly. Although most of the activities of these groups consisted in hearing addresses and signing pledges,

there were also celebrations,

exhibitions and plays TEMPERANCE CELEBRATION At a meeting of delegates from the different Temper­ ance Societies of the City of Chicago, it was Resolved, That a temperance celebration be held in this City on thee 22d instant, and that all friendly 51 52 53

Chicago Democrat, February 4, 1834 Chicago American, January 9, 1836. Chicago Daily Journal,

September 29, 1847.

54 C h i c a g o J








F e



u a


D y




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1 8 4 5 .

A u g u s t

1 3 ,

1 8 4 5 $

C h i c a g o






226 to the cause be requested to join therein; Mr. A.S. S HERMAN.was appointed Marshall of the day, and requested to publish the order of arrangements for the celebration. The following order of Procession and Exercises has been resolved upon! ORDER OF PROCESSION The Procession will form on Lake Street, in front of the American Temperance House, as follows! 1. Seaman’s Temperance S o ci et y. 2• Band 3* Orator, Reader and Clergy 4. Washington Temperance Society 5. Catholic Temperance Society 6 . Rechabite Society 7. Junior Washington Society The Oration will be delivered at the First Presby­ terian Church— None but Ladies will be admitted into the Church until after the different processions have entered. ORDER OF EXERCISES 1. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Ryan 2m Song by the Temperance Choir 3. Reading of the Washington Declaration of Independence by N.W. Clarke, Esq. 4. Music by the Band 5. Oration by W.E. Manley 6 . Song by the Temperance Choir 7. Benediction by Rev. Mr. Bascom A.S. SHERMAN, Marshall N.B. The Procession will form on the side walk in front of the American Temperance House. Strangers are invited to join the procession.^® In spite of the ”bad day” and the fact that ”the mud was so deep as to prevent many from getting about..• the procession was very respectable in point of numbers 56 and character.”

In the evening the ”new and splendid

Hall of the *Rechabites , 1 was crowded by members and inc vited guests,

and dedicated unto temperance and to God.”

55 C h i c a g o



I b i d ,

5 7 L o c .


D a i l y



c i t .

r u







2 4 ,






1 8 4 5 .

F e b r u a r y

2 1 ,

1 8 4 5 .

2 2 7

In contrast to the Temperance Societies,

which were

primarily interested in fundamental social reform, were such groups as the Chicago Horticultural Society,

an organization

concerned primarily with adding to civic beauty, ing a worthwhile hobby. on April 27, 1847,

or encourag­

This society met for the first time

and after drawing up a constitution,


an election on May 1 4 . ^ As a result of these meetings the society determined to hold its first public exhibition on 59 June 26, 1847. In commenting on this event the editor of the Journal stated,

HThe Chicago Horticultural Society

have appointed a public exhibition of fruits and flowers on the 26th inst.

We wonder where they will get them.n®^

HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITION In pursuance of previous notice, the Chicago Horti­ cultural Society will holds its first public exhibition on Saturday of the present week, (June 26th) at the Hall on the second floor of the Exchange Buildings# All persons are invited to contribute Fruits, Flow­ ers, or Vegetables, to give interest to the exhibition. Articles of value, thus furnished, will be carefully preserved, and returned to the owners# The articles intended for exhibition should be sent to the Hall previous to ten o 1 clock, on Saturday, where a Committee will be in waiting to receive them. The public will be admitted at two o 1 clock. An ad­ mittance fee of ten cents will be charged to specta­ tors. Mr. Samuel Marsden Brooks will exhibit his beauti­ ful collection of Paintings, at the same time and place#


Chicago Daily Journal, April 24, 27, May

14, 1847. 59 6


Ibid. June 23, 1847. I b i d ,

J u n e

1 5 ,

1 8 4 7 .


, 10,

22 3 N.B* Out flowers will keep much better,if gathered early in the morning, before the sun strikes them, and kept in the shade with the stems in water. ^ Specimens for the exhibition were "from private gardens in the city and were most creditable to the taste of our c i t i z e n s . S o m e

strawberries were exhibited as

well as roses and pinks which ’’were very beautiful and show that the Ladies of our city occasionally amuse them­ selves in the best nurseries— the garden.*

There was

hope that this exhibition was "but the beginning,

and that

hereafter its annual return may be truly welcomed among us as the

'feast of roses . 1 " 6 3

A second exhibition was held the following fall at which the public were invited to "contribute Fruits, Flowers,

and Vegetables,

to give interest to the exhibi-



The ladies of the town had an active part in

this exhibit and in speaking of it the Journal mentions that there will be a "most beautiful display of fruit and floral loveliness,

to say nothing of the animate beauty

that will be in attendance . " 6 5

Without the "countenance

and assistance of the Ladies," the exhibit could not be successful.

6 1 Ibid,

June 23, 1847.

CO Ibid, June 2 8 , 1847. 63 t .. L oc . clt. 64 Ibid, September 16, 1847. 65 I





S e p t e m b e r

2 1 ,

1 8 4 7 .


2 2 9

Horticultural Society*--This infant society closed their exhibition Friday evening with credit to them­ selves and honor to the city. Though limited in numb­ ers, the fruits and plants were worthy the 'mead of praise.*...The rich clusters of the Isabella from the garden of Messrs Pierce and Ezra Oollings carried the palm among the Isabells . . . . 6 6 The Mechanics' Institute gave a fair devoted to an­ other kind of hobby only a few weeks following the horti­ cultural exhibition.

"Handiwork of Illinois artizans and

mechanics" was exhibited at this three day fair . 6 7


the ladies were appealed to for assistance for "it is an established fact that there cannot be a Fair, or indeed, a graceful af-fair of any description without the 'aid and comfort' which the Ladies know so well how to render . " 6 6 Mechanics 1 Fair.— We passed a few moments this morn­ ing in the rooms placed at the disposal of the Insti­ tute for the purpose of their Exhibition, by Geo. Smith, Esq. Although an early hour, yet many beautiful articles were already arranged, and others constantly coming in, giving good promise of a display most credit­ able to the taste and skill of Chicago citizens, and to the enterprise of the Institute itself. Among the ar­ ticles already arranged, we noticed a Cultivator and plough, finished fit for a parlor, from the establish­ ment of Mr. Whitbeck— fine specimens of sign and orna­ mental painting from Messrs. Bent, Shergold.•.pottery from Mr. Labhart... A sweet contribution of guitars, harps and confec­ tionary from Brainard & Mould, beautiful specimens of needle work, embroidery, etc . . . . 6 6 The fair was very successful and at the "earnest solicitation of many citizens," it was continued an addi66 6

Ibid, September 27, 1847.


Ibid, September 30, October 12, 18, 18, 1847.

6 8 Ibid,

October 12, 1847.

6 9 I b i d ,



t o




1 9 ,

1 8 4 7 .

2 3 0

tional day.

7 0

The attendance ffhas tested the capacity of

the rooms— a cheering token of the interest felt in this effort of the Chicago M e c h a n i c s . S o m e

of the ^articles

which have been the chief attraction to hundreds 11 were carving, painting,


engravings and scupture, mer­

cury preparations, printing paper, miniature ships, of wool (prairie grown) rifles, and "works of the ladies,


transparencies* paintings*

embroidery, needle work, artificial

flowers and fruits. . . . Prizes were given for many ar­ ticles and the fair was considered so successful that the first Tuesday of October, 1848, was set aside as the date for the second annual exhibition.7** Some other societies and organizations in Chicago which gave contributions to the recreational life of Chicago,

some of which have been previously mentioned, were

the following!

military companies, such as the City Guards

and the Montgomery Guards; volunteer fire companies, them the Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company,


and the Volunteer

Fire Department; and such organizations as the Toung M e n 1s Association, mentioned in previous chapters. All these organizations,

churches, lodges, temper­

ance societies, horticultural organizations, military 7n 71

Ibid, October 22, 1847. L o c . cit.

7 g Ibid,

October 23, 1847.



^ I b i d ,




m b



1 2 ,

1 8 4 7 ,

D e c e m b e r

2 0 ,

1 8 4 7 .

2 3 1

guards and volunteer fire companies fulfilled a definite recreational need of the people of Chicago during the eighteen thirties and forties*

The church had always been

a center of social life ever since the colonial days when the farmers had stopped to gossip with their neighbors after the Sunday service, or mid-week prayer meeting*


though the church often denounced many forms of recreation, usually offering nothing in its place,

it sometimes made up

for its restraints by providing its own entertainment. Donation visits provided recreation for many of its memb­ ers who would have frowned upon wasting an evening in visit­ ing*

Entertainment was also provided by holding fairs

and tea parties supposedly for the sole purpose of raising money for the church*

The church found that furnishing

entertainment was a fine way to meet Its financial obliga­ tions.

Other organizations,

such as schools and benevo­

lent societies were not long In taking up this method of raising money. Many groups other than the churches frowned upon certain 'forms of recreation,

not so much on moral grounds

bLowever, but because they detested idleness* could,


These people

join temperance societies, volunteer

fire companies and lodges,

and participate in their activi­

ties without feeling any moral compunctions.


nany joined these organizations for purposes of reform, business reasons,

or to secure sickness and death benefits,


such prosaic reasons could not account for the stampede to join these organizations. tion,

It was the desire for recrea­

to be one of the crowd that led so many to become

* joiners *il The ritual, pageantry and make-believe of the lodge and the colorful costumes had an appeal to its members^ The parades of the militia men,

along with their musical

bands, were exciting occasions,

but still more colorful

were the exhibitions staged by the firemen, who with their red shirts and brass helmets were often greeted with bursts of applause from the spectators.

Membership in these or­

ganizations helped meet the demand for recreational activities and at the same time conformed to the accepted folkways of that day.



HOLIDAY CELEBRATIONS From the earliest days seasonal events,

such as

the ripening of the harvest and the coming of spring, have been celebrated.

Religious ritual often became a part of

these festivals.

Illustrations of these celebrations can

be found in primitive as well as modern societies.


colorful holiday customs were brought to this country by European immigrants,

some of which have persisted in var­

ious forms down to this day, while others have disappeared Although there was little time for leisure in early Chicag many of these events were commemorated. In a time when work weeks often included seventy hours of work instead of forty,

and the work day consisted

of sixteen hours instead of six or eight, greatly appreciated.

a holiday was

Americans in the second quarter of

the eighteenth century could not look forward to a long evening at home or a week end trip.

In 1836 the mechanics

of Chicago requested a ten hour day, but were not granted their wish.


In 1841, merchants,

by means of a petition,

were able to reach an agreement whereby stores would close Z at eight o 1clock in the evening. This still did not

^ Chicago Democrat, May 18, 1836. o C h i c a g o















S e p t e m b e r

1 3 ,

1 4 ,

1 8 4 1 .


leave much time for leisure. al holiday arrived, celebrate. popular.

As a result when an occasion­

people were glad of an opportunity to

In the cities,

such as Chicago,

parades were

Everyone turned out, militia companies, patriotic,

political and literary societies, ’•citizens generally.”

volunteer firemen and the

Parades often led off the day*s fes­

tivities and were usually followed by speeches, quets and sometimes dancing. hood became less demanding, amusements,

public ban­

As the struggle for liveli­ more time was available for

and m a n ’s need for recreation increasingly

asserted itself,

in Chicago as elsewhere.

Of all the holidays of the year, Fourth of July was given the greatest attention.

On this day, Chicagoans,

including Sunday School children, variius city organiza­ tions headed by the Mayor and Council, Montgomery Guards, Young M e n ’s Association, Mechanics* Institute and the temper­ ance societies paraded with enthusiasm. themselves hoarse,

The people cheered

drank patriotic toasts, listened to pub­

lic addresses and the reading of the Declaration of Indepen­ dence,

crowded the circus tents,

the museums,

fired off can­

non and at the close of the day watched the sky redden with fireworks. The editor of the American seemed always worried lest the day pass without an appropriate celebration.


we again suffer all the little towns in the State to go a-

£ 3 5

head of us?" he cries.


Notices were inserted in the news­

paper telling what other towns,

much smaller than Chicago,

were doing in way of preparation for the Fourth.4


the American people shall neglect or desecrate the sacred anniversary of their political birth, a shuddering fear may well be entertained, free Government is In 1839,


there was a Sunday

that the American experiment of a

but a mere delusion. addition to a dinner at the Lake House, School celebration.

We observe that the different Sunday School societies in our eastern cities are making preparations, for a similar celebration on an extensive scale. If the mem­ orable anniversary of our Independence must be celebrated in any except the old fashioned way, we know of no mode more appropriate and laudable than that of Sunday School Celebrations. It is the children of the religious Sab­ bath celebrating the political Sabbath. It is the sub­ lime communion of religious liberty with its parent and supporter, political Liberty. It is the glorious union of the unfettered freedom of the soul with the freedom of the mind. It is the young and tender fruit celebrating its parent tree and expanding to ripeness and richness under its wide-spreading fructifying shel­ ter. Such celebrations are the best commentary upon the blessings of a free government, and serve to plant deep­ er and deeper the roots of the tree of liberty. They instill in the youthful mind a holy observance of our free institutions, and teach them to guard with a ves­ tal vigilance against the approaches of tyranny, and the insiduous workings of corruption.6

^Daily Chicago American, June 10, 1839. 4 Ibid, June 13, 1839.

5r I* L o c . cit. 6

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236 About three hundred children took part in the parade and "exhibited a highly interesting spectacle. fine instance of the moral sublime.”7

It was a

The Methodist minis­

ter delivered a "very appropriate address to the young scholars,” and the Baptist minister ”eloquently addressed” the "parents and teachers.”8

After the close of the program,

the children were served refreshments, Q el ebrat ion of the Fourth.-—-This day, though a crim­ inal apathy pervaded our citizens in its general cele­ bration in the old fashioned and appropriate manner, was not suffered to pass off without some evidence of its pre-eminence in the American Calendar of glorious days. Though the immortal Declaration of Independence was not read, nor any apportunity presented for the delivery of an oration, yet the celebration of the Sun­ day School, at the Saloon, afforded a very imposing and interesting ceremony— highly creditable to the c h a r a c t e r o f t h d city.9 The editor of the American also gave an elaborate and eommendably description of the Fourth of July dinner which was served at the Lake House. Fourth of July Dinner.— This subscription dinner was served up at Shelly*s Lake House about 4 P.M. to about 50 citizens.... Wm. B, Ogden, Esq. Presided at the table, assisted by Jacob Russell, Esq. the worthy host of the Hotel, as vice-president. The spacious dining room was decorated with the new colors designed for the Steamboat Illinois, a beautiful bust of the "Father of his country” ; the choisest flowers of the Season, and other embellishments, all serving to fresh­ en the recollections of the patriotic Fourth. The din­ ner was sumptuous and elegant, exhibiting in the most tasteful profusion the choicest rarities of the season.

7Ibid, July 5, 1839. 8


t L o c . cit.

Loc. cit.

2 3 7

The wines were of the most approved quality, and comprised in copious abundance all the best and fashion­ able varieties* Suffice it to say that Shelly surpassed, on the occasion, his former efforts— the best commenda­ tion that can be given. After the dinner, the thirteen regular toasts were duly drank, which were followed with spirited volunteers, interspersed with some of the best singing and other embellishments which the country can produce. The utmost harmony and good feeling prevailed. And though among the guests were some of our most zeal­ ous politicians of both sides, no allusion was made to any party except the celebrated *Tea Party* of our fore­ fathers at Boston. The company dispersed in good season, and in *ample order,* and with a lively impression of the cherished anniversary of their political birth.1 ^ In 1840 there was a parade, not only of the Sunday School children,

but city officers,

soldiers and citizens.

ORDER OF ARRANGEMENTS A national salute will be fired at sunrise At 9 o*clock A.M. on the firing of the Canon, the citizens, under the direction of the Assistant Marshals, will form a line of march in the following order, viz. Marshall and staff Music, Revolutionary soldiers, and soldiers of the last war Clergy Strangers Orator and Reader of the Declaration Flags Mayor and Common Council of the City, Committee of Arrangements, Citizens Generally After marching through the principal streets, they will return to the Saloon at 11 o*clock, when the Declaration of Independence will be read, and an Ora­ tion be delivered by J.N. Balestier. The citizens are all respectfully invited to join in the procession on the Square.11 As the Fourth of July fell on Sunday in 1841, celebration was held on Monday.

10. » . L o c . cit. ~ ^ I b i d ,





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The day*s program climaxed

2 3 8

with, fireworks and a baloon ascension* FIEE WORKS, July 5, 1841 The citizens of Chicago are informed that there will be a grand display of Fire Works on the evening of the 5th of July, in the enclosure fronting the River on North Water Street, corner of Clarke street, near the bridge, consisting of Signal Rockets, with and without stars, Tourbillons. Triangle wheels, Serpents, Hexagonal wheels, Pyra­ mids, Roman Candles, Mesican Sun, Bengola Lights, Mines, Octogan wheels, Ornamental Fire pieces, etc. etc.etc., i In the course of the evening a LARGE BALOON will ascend from the garden, and after sailing a short time in the air, will discharge a quantity of Serpents, Crackers, etc. A BAND OF MUSIC WILL B E »IN {ATTENDANCE DURING THE EVENING, All kinds of Refreshments will be provided for the occasion, such as Ice Cream, Lemonade, Soda Water, Fruit, Confectionary, etc. Admittance 25 cents, Children half price. Tickets to be had at the different Public Houses in the city, and also at the Great Western Fruit Store, 139 Lake Street, and at the Garden during the day. All persons having tickets will be entitled to seats. JOHN WANDELL Celebrations such as that of July 5, 1841 in Chicago, had their counterparts in most of the cities in America in mid-century.

Baloon ascensions and fire works drew large

crowds of people. that of 1840,

The celebration in 1842 was similar to

when at the signal of the cannon, members

of the different societies and organizations met and parad­ ed around the town.

In 1846 and 1847,

wthe new Univers ity

of St. Mary of the Lake 11 invited the citizens of Chicago to celebrate Fourth of July at the College.

12 I b i d ,

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In addition

2 3 9

to the holiday celebration, held,

diplomas granted,

graduation exerc is es were

and salutory speech and other

student orations delivered as a part of* the regular pro­ gram commemorating "this natal day of freedom. !,ls In addition to special programs prepared by local citizens,

outside performers in the late forties began

to offer entertainment.

Such was the case in 1847, when

the Antonio family appeared*


’ GRAND CELEBRATION OF THE 5TH OF JULY 1 BY THE WONDERFUL PERFORMANCES OF THE ANTONIO FAMILY AT THE CITY SALOON ...Signor Antonio will, for the first time in Chicago, appear on the Flying Rope. Master Lorenzo will introduce his Yankee Doodle dance, and also a new comic dance, by Masters Antonio, Lorenzo and Augustus, after which, the wonderful Accrobate Scenes, in which the Antonio Family will introduce some of their most daring feats. Admission 25 cents. For particulars see small bills. These performances will be repeated tomorrow even— ing.1 ^ Although the Fourth of July held the greatest prominance as a holiday,

other days,

received considerable attention. ever,

such as Thanksgiving, This was not yet, how­

a national holiday as it is today,

for each state,

and often each city,

set aside its own day Independently

of other localities.

The day set aside by the governor

of the state did not always correspond with the day set aside by the Mayor of Chicago, which in 1844 resulted In

• ^ Chicago Daily Journal, June 27, 1846$ July 2,1847 14 I b i d ,





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two Thanksgiving Days.

TWO *THANKSGIVINGS1 IN ONE YEAR We call the attention of our readers to Governor Ford*s proclamation, appointing Thursday the 28th inst., as a day of thanks, etc. Our worthy Mayor proclaims that we have one ’on our own hook, ' next Thursday. We Suck­ ers have so much more to be thankful for than Yankees, where the custom originated, that we have two* We are thankful people— we Illinois Whigs especially— thank­ ful that there are not more than 2000 Mormon votes against usj thankful that we have not over 20,000 majorthankful that our State is not in debt over $14,000,0001 thankful Locofoco Legislation, in­ stead of Whig, placed our State affairs where they are? and doubly thankful, that upon their shoulders now rests the responsibility of extricating us.**-5 Notice of the day selected for Thanksgiving was usually printed in the local paper in the form of a procla­ mation by the Mayor.

The following article is typical of

such notices. PROCLAMATION By the Mayor of the City of Chicago Whereas, a Petition from a large numbef* of the worthy citizens of Chicago was presented to the Com­ mon Council of this City, praying them to appoint and designate a day for general Thanksgiving, agree­ ably with the usages and customs of our honored fore­ fathers, which prayer was unanimously granted by the Council assembled; and Whereas, ALMIGHTY GOD hath continued to us, in this our protection heretofore conferred upon us and our fathers in the land of our nativity; and hath, during the past enriched our surrounding country with an abundant harvest, supplied the wants of the poor; hath preserved us from the evils of war and pestilence...hath prospered our efforts to establish and maintain peace, morality, virtue, and the Chris­ tian Religion. Now, therefore, in cheerful accordance with the wishes and petitions of a highly respectable portion of my fellow citizens, I do hereby appoint Thursday,



N o v e m b e r 12,


2 4 1

the 28th of November inst. to be observed as a day of Public Worship, Thanksgiving and Prayer, and recommend to my fellow citizens to refrain, on that day, from such employments as will interfere with a proper dis­ charge of those solemn services;...and let us also be­ seech Him to grant to all mankind the blessings of civil and religious liberty.•. 5 In 1840 Thanksgiving was not commemorated until December 3, and in 1846 Thanksgiving was set for December 17, but the editor of the Journal was happy to announce In 1847 that nat no time previously has such uniformity been observed by the different States,

in selecting the

same day to observe for ’thanksgiving and prayer,* as the 17 present year.”

The Governor of every state who had

issued a proclamation designated November 25 for Thanks­ giving Day. Thanksgiving was celebrated quite differently from our present custom.

Church services were a regular part

of the d a y ’s celebration, ing the poor.

and were often followed by visit­

,!Let a generous spirit of emulation be arous­

ed among the various societies,

and let each do its utmost

to relieve the necessities of the suffering poor.11 this was done,


the people were to return to their homes

nIn a joyful but humble spirit celebrate the day by inno­ cent amusement,


and the temperate delights of the thanks—

Daily Chicago American, November 20, 1839.

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giving table.”

The religious element was stressed,


it was suggested that the people ”embibe pure and generous impulses,

make high and firm resolves,

and let the day be

an era in your moral and religious progress.

Thus shall

the day prove pleasant and profitable.”18 Thanksgiving Day as we observe it is truly Ameri­ can, but as previously mentioned many countries and tribes have harvest festivals.

Although the day has lost much of

the religious emphasis which characterized it in 1840, many of the festivities,

such as the elaborate dinner, have

persisted to the present day. New Years Day.

Such Is not the case with

This latter holiday which has some signifi­

cance in most countries, has culture traits today which are quite different from those which characterized New Years Day in Chicago in the eighteen thirties and forties. Beginning with 1838, the citizens of Chicago cele­ brated New Yea r’s Day by ’’observing the custom which the Dutch in North and South Gotham so much delight to honor— that of recognizing on the first day of the New Year the courtesies of life,” of calling on friends and acquaintances, ”of settling up old grievances in the social circle, bury­ ing the hatchet of petty domestic feuds,...and wishing their friends and neighbors many a ’Happy New Year.*”19

18 D







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In raen-

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tioning New Years Day in 1840,

the editor of the American

remarked that wthe Ladies looked extremely well and pleas* ant.*#. We challenge any city in the west of the same age aftd size to beat us in this important p a r t i c u l a r . . The following excerpt from a letter written by a Chicagoan to eastern relatives,

describes New Years Day activities in

Chicago in 1841. Chicago, January 10,1841 ...The New Year commenced here with the New York custom of calling on all acquaintances. X mingled with the rest, making, myself, thirty-three calls, most of which will last until the first of New Year again. Stephen made thirty calls, a wonder for him.^3According to the editor of the Journal. New Years Day in 1845 was ffthe most delightful New Years Day that has blessed this city within our recollection. NEW YEARS DAY.—— ...The temperature was mild as May, and the sun really smiled as we past him to see how the good people were enjoying themselves in Chicago. Our fair Ladies very generally received their friends after the good old custom of fNieuw Amsterdam?1 but we are sorry that so few gentlemen gladdened their hearts with the radiant smiles fgot up for the occasion,* and bestowed with the utmost liberality upon all who chose to receive them.23 It is not known just when this Dutch custom of visiting on New Years Day was discontinued,

but it is not

20 * .. L o c . cit.


Letters of Mr. and Mrs. Augustus H. Burley, Caroline Kirkland, Chicago Yesterdays, p. 21, 22 C h i c a g o

z 3 Lt o

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In existence today.

New Years Eve celebrations and other

customs connected with our modern New Years commemoration were unknown to the people of Chicago a century ago. Other holidays have changed as radically,

a m o n g them Christmas.

In the early Plymouth colonies,

settlers were forbidden

to even stop work on Christmas.

When Governor Bradford

on Christmas Day in 1621 found some newcomers playing ball in the street, he promptly took away their "implements’* telling them that while it might be against their conscience to work on Christmas it was against his conscience for them to p l a y . ^

Although Chicago never had such restric­

tions as the early New Englanders,

Christmas had little

attention when compared with present day elaborations. Christmas was a day set aside for a festival,

but gifts

occupied a much less prominent place than today.


December 24 American for the year 1840 carried the follow­ ing statement* This evening and tomorrow are the customary times for making presents. By those who celebrate the festival, their M i n i s t e r 1 should not be forgotten in their friendly t o k e n s . . . . 25 The editor by the phrase,

"those who celebrate the

festival" reveals that there were some who didn*t observe Christmas.


There was usually a great feast with turkeys

Foster Rhea Dulles, America Learns to Play, p. 13.

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jack rabbit, prairie chicken,



and. if it could be

Although the dinner feast was probably

the most important part of the days celebration, people exchanged gifts.

This was, however,

ly to the immediate family.

In 1842,


confined chief­

notices began to

appear advertising Christmas gifts. CHRISTMAS AND NEW Y E A R ’S PRESENTS subscriber will open a new case of toys express­ the occasion. Also on hand a great variety of and fancy articles, all of which will be sold prices. S.F. SHERWOOD Jeweller, No. 144 Lake St.^®

The ly for useful at low

HOLIDAY GIFTS.--Cologne boxes, transparent slatesj Kaleidoscopes, suitable for gifts to young persons, for sale at Whites Paint Shop, 165 Lake Street.2?


HOLIDAY GIFTS.— A great variety of elegantly bound and illustrated works. Also, a large assortment of Papetries, Fancy Boxes, Portfolios, Fine Inkstands, Bead Purses, and Bags, Toilet and Work Boxes, Perfume Bottles and Bags, and choice extracts for sale by A.H. & C. BURLEY.



in contrast to Fourth of July, New Years

iDay and Thanksgiving,

was more of a family day.


jthere was a special dinner and a few, usually hand made, gifts,

ordinarily the celebration was in the home and was

enjoyed in a simple manner. In striking contrast to the Christmas celebrations [was the May Day festival.

The first of May has always

^ Chicago Express, December 24, 1842* ?7 C h i c a g o










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e c e m b e r

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been a gala day; its celebration goes back to earliest times.

The early Romans had a flower festival and even

before that were the celebrations of the Egyptians.


countries in more modern times have had Maypole festiv­ ities,

the crowning of the queen,

latter customs,

dancing and music. These

carried over from Northern Europe seemed

to have been prevalent in Chicago in the middle of the nineteenth century. The first mention of a May Day cele­ bration in Chicago was in 1842.E9 In 1846 there was an elaborate festival was celebrated in a grove near W.B. Ogden ’s home. MAY DAY— Though the weather appears at present anything but favorable for the sports that usher in the budding flowers of Spring, yet it hath been de­ termined by the young Ladies who have the management of these things, that the customary ceremonies shall take place. The Grove, near the residence of W.B. Ogden, Esq., has been selected as the spot where the ’Coronation1 is to take place, and the hour of noon on Tuesday next, the time. Curiosity would prompt us to ask, what bright ey ed lass of budding girl-hood, of gentle heart and sweet innocence-fitly personifying the Queen of Months— will receive the heavenly boon? May we be permitted the wish that the incense of her heart shall find its fitting representative in the breath of those flowers, perfumed by the incense of Heaven, and destined to deck her brow. A thousand little lasses in our city deserve the crown. For each is a Queen in her own realm of bright thoughts and charming fancies; and mayhap rules supreme more than one Queendom, whose governor hath laid its treasure at her feet, as a homage to truth and beauty. Though we live under a Republican Democracy, yet we do not discard the good, old-fashioned May-day sports. Nor will be rebel against the power of

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womanhood,^which rules us so well, that we feel the silken chain to be the less galling the tighter its links are drawn. Then let all——the old, the middle— aged, and the young, Join in the sports, and for a * life to admire those beauties with which the inner world hath decked the outer; and through which the heart of nature preaches hourly of the brighter things within. For as the Poet hath it there are ,Sermons in stones; Books in the running brooks And good in everything. 1 In 1847 there were several distinct and separated May Day celebrations; two of them took place in the pub­ lic schools, near Mr.

and a third in none of the beautiful narks


The following is a description of the

May Day festival at one of the public school buildings* ...But the most lovely scene in this latitude was enacted m the Puolic School Building of District one and two, on the evening of the memorable day. (May Day) The spacious apartments were brilliantly lighted and beautifully festooned with flowers of evergreens — a^miniature summer with a living arch of floral love­ liness, fit for the Queen of May or any other princess, was erected in the centre of the stage, and at a con­ certed signal, the door of an adjoining apartment was thrown open, and the female members, all tastefully arrayed in white, and bearing wreaths of flowers,came singing in, Just as May was wont to do in better times. Two of these real fairies bore the shepard^s sylvan crook, another a crown, another still a sceptre....5-*As the population increased and the town became more settled, ate.

the May Day festivities became more elabor­

They were still, however,

a far cry from our modern

festivities which have taken on a far different meaning.

3 0

Chicago Daily Journal, May 9, 1846. Ibid, May 4, 1847.

£ 4 8

Some traits,

such as crowning the May Queen,

have persist

ed, but probably do not have the importance they once had May baskets are a more modern development,

but the most

recent innovation is the use of May Day for special labor celebrations# Among other holiday celebrations which were held in Chicago were those sponsored by various nationality groups,

such as St* David’s D ay, St, Andrew*s Day, St,

Ge orge’s Day and St, Patrick’s Day, have lost significance,

Of this group,


and although St. Patrick’s Day

is still remembered it is not as important as it was in earlier days.

To many organizations in Chicago a century

ago, but to Catholics in particular,

St. Patrick’s Day

provided further occasion for assemblage and celebration. The parade and program on March 18, 1848, may be said to be typical of such demonstrations. CELEBRATION OF ST. PATRICK’S DAY.— Friday last was celebrated in a very becoming manner by the friends of Ireland as the anniversary of the birth of its patron saint, the great and good Patrick— The Montgomery Guards, under Captain Kelly, with the Chicago Band, came out in full uniform, making a splendid appearance. The Catholic Temperance Society also came out with its banner and badges, as also did the Repeal Association. These joined in one procession under the very appropriate direc­ tion of John Davlin, Esq. paraded through our streets from the Saloon to the Catholic Church, where a very able and interesting sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. St. Paillais in explanation of the history and virtues of St. Patrick...32

£ 4 9

Thus, we see that holidays were great occasions for Chicagoans during the eighteen thirties and forties, few and far between, iasm.


they were celebrated with much enthus­

Many of their holidays have a different meaning to

us today.

Fourth of July,

for example, has lost much of

its importance as a f,natal day of freedom, n but other ele­ ments have been added.

Christmas celebrations within the

history of our country have evolved from a taboo on any kind of festivity^to all but an orgyc*. on New Years Day has disappeared, been added.

The Dutch influence

while other customs have

We have lost some of the holidays which early

Chicagoans celebrated, but we have added others, Labor Day, Memorial Day and Armistice Day.

such as

A marked change

in the elaborateness of festivities is noted in the eighteen forties as wealth increased and the city became more settled. In the eighteen forties,

ready-made Christmas gifts, which

were eventually to largely displace home made presents, added to the merchandise of many stores. recreation was getting a foothold.


Commercialism in

Fourth of July came to

be celebrated in amusement parks where people paid to see baloons ascend, or hear Ethiopian Serenaders.


entertainers sensing Chicagoan^’ desire for recreation be­ gan to capitalize on their holiday celebrations.


THE CIRCUS While interest in lectures began to decline and the theatre broadened its popular appeal,

other attrac­

tions began to appear— attractions which brought strong competition. museum,

By 1850,

nearly every large city had its

its band of amateur minstrels,

and its concerts,

but the greatest competition came with the advent of the circus.

This form of entertainment,

still popular today,

made tremendous inroads in the field of commercial recrea­ tion during the eighteen forties and fifties. Barnum, who visited Chicago in 1840 with his enter­ tainers,

Master Diamond and Yankee Jenkins,

is considered

the father of the circus. While the theatre, lyceums,


musical companies struggled against the prejudices of the day,

such as religious scruples,

the urge for ’’culture,”

and the doctrSne of all work and no play, Barnum used them for his own purposes.

People who would never have stepped

inside of a theatre witnessed the performance of ’’Uncle T o m ’s Cabin” and ’’The Drunkard” in his "lecture room.” Barnum claimed that his performances were educational and highly moral,

that his entertainments were ’’chaste.”


stead of struggling against the prejudices of his day, he capitalized them.

The common man was coming to his own

251 and It is to Barnum that we owe much of the credit for bringing recreation down to the level of the man on the street*

He wa s n ’t interested in contributing to art or

education, but in providing recreation for the great pub­ lic which had been neglected.

He realized there was a

great market and he used it for his own financial gain. Like the minstrel,

the circus was a native product*

America was developing its own distinctive forms of enter­ tainment whiehwere soon to replace many of the former types of amusement* many forerunners,

The circus evolved gradually and had

such as menageries,

and travelling museums.

comical entertainers,

Barnum’s American Museum in Hew

York which had its counterpart in many other cities of the United States in the eighteen forties,

sent out scores

of travelling companies to take entertainment to hundreds of towns.

The attractions of the museum as well as the

travelling companies ran all the way from giants to Tom Thumb, from a bearded lady to Jenny Lind, who was Barnunfs greatest triumph.

When one thing began to lose its appeal

Barnum added something else. Fong,

In 1845, he advertised Chang

the Chinese juggler; the inimitable Winchell, who 1

visited Chicago in 1840 and 1846; a knitting machine run by a dog; and the Ethiopian Serenaders*


Then followed the

•^Daily Chicago American, July 9, 1840; Chicago Daily Journal, October 12, 1846. 2

Foster Rhea Dulles, America Learns to Play, p. 125.

ZbZ melodrama and the minstrel show*

Many of these forms of

entertainment were later incorporated in the circus*


circus of that day was not the circus we know today.


the eighteen forties and fifties it was a conglomeration of animal exhibits, acrobats,

band music,

and crude comedy.

equestrian performances,

Not daring to use the dubious

label "circus,w such euphemisms as menagerie or zoological exhebition,

terms approved by the more conventional folk,

were frequently adopted* 1

By the 1850*s some thirty rolling shows were regularly touring the country* Buckley and Wick had eight wagons, forty horses, thirty-five performers, and a tent holding eight hundred people. Soon the Zoological Institute advertised forty-seven carriages and wagons, one hundred and twenty matched gray horses, fourteen musicians, and sixty performers. The parade had by now been introduced? the performers came to town to the blare of a brass band. Still it was not the real circus* There was no ring; there were no riding acts*® Some of the more enterprising managers soon intro­

duced a ring beneath the canvas canopy, thereby adding the thrill of equestrianism to the lure of the wild animals? and other phases of the circus as we know it today gradually emerged*

But even after the circus evolved,

numerous men­

ageries and zoological exhibitions continued to appear in many places throughout the country. As far as can be determined,

the first circus to

arrive in Chicago appeared in September 1836, under the


I b i d ,

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2 5 3

management of Oscar Stone, a well known equestrian.


was so popular that the tent was ^crowded almost to suffo­ cation every afternoon and evening** during the two or three weeks engagement.^ five cents.

The admission charge was twenty-

The little town was entranced by this delight­

ful entertainment.

An eye witness to this first circus in

Chicago gave the following description of this visit. They pitched their tent on Lake Street.... As the circus tent stood a little way from the street it was near the barn, which was made use of as a convenience for passing the horses to and from the tent. The cir­ cus——I think it was called the *Grand Equestrian Arena* was not so extensive as Barnum1s, nor did it have a separate tent for horses or anything else. But the performance was wonderful. One rider, by the name of Stone, was put forward by the management as the great­ est living equestrian? and so he was for aught the boys knew. In fact, we believed it implicitly. Mr. Stone, in closing the performance, would appear in Indian character. This was very thrilling; at least the advertisements said so. But the redeeming feature of the show— that upon which we dwelt with ever-recur­ ring pleasure and satisfaction— was the singing of *Billy Barlow1 in costume?® In November of the same year t h e HBoston Arena Com­ pany,** declared by the editor of the American to be d e c i d e d ­ ly the best establishment of the kind which we have ever seen travelling in the country” gave a performance in Chicago.

The horses were well trained, and the editor de—

Chicago American, September 24, 1836. g A.T. Andreas,

History of Chicago, Volume I, p . 472


clared the riding far superior to much seen by him in New York.^ Due to high license fees and business depression, circus and equestrian companies were discouraged from com­ ing to Chicago, until 1839,

with the result that no other company came

and then for only three days.^

The Circus, after performing last Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday nights, and the juggler, a magician man, after exhibiting himself on Friday and failing to ex­ hibit himself on Saturday night for want of spectators, have both left the city.® By 1845, renewed propserity attracted a number of traveling circuses,

among them the flMammoth Circus of Howe

and Mabi e,” which was claimed to be “The greatest estab­ lishment of the kind in the worldj,f likewise June and Turner’s New York Circus, whose pavilions were filled every evening during their stay in the city.^ During the summer of 1846,

“Raymond & Waring1s

Great Zoological Exhibition from the city of New York” visited Chicago.

It was of particular interest to the

“lovers of natural History.” cents for adults,

Admission was twenty-five

and fifteen cents for children under

ten years of age.

6 7

Chicago American, September 24, 1836. Daily Chicago American, September 30, 1839.

^L o c . cit. 9

Chicago Democrat, July 9, 1845.


Chicago Daily J o u r n a l , July 3, 1846.


GRAND CAVALCADE, an ELEPHANT in harness. On enter­ ing each place of exhibition, the Menagerie will be preceded by the grand novel spectacle of an Elegant Music Oar drawn by a noble elephant, containing a superior band of Musicians, who will enliven the scene by executing a variety of favorite pieces of music. The following animals will be exhibited daily while the Menagerie remains in the cityl The Numidian Lion. The noble elephant, Ann. An Arabian Camel. The North American Buffalo. Two Tiger Wolves, or Spotted Hyenas. A pair of Brazilian Tigers. A sengal Leopard. The Russian, or Circassian Bear, A Santa Fe Bear, with Cubs. The Black Wolf of North America...• Besides, a number of the Feathered Tribe, compris­ ing the Cassowarie, from South America, Pheasants, Chinese Owls, Macaws, Parrots, Eagles, etc. Two educated ponies will appear in the circle daily rode by David Crocket, and Joseph Smith, particularly popular in their prof e s s i o n s . H In August, visited Chicago.


“Howe and Mabies* Circus” again

This was believed to be ”the largest Cir­

cus which has ever visited Chicago.”

The performances had

been conducted with considerable “attention to propriety and decorum,” and the editor of the Journal hoped this practice would be continued.


In May of the following

year this company re-visited Chicago, and Mrs.


accompanied by Mr.

the ”great Scotch giant and giantess”

who had been “engaged at an immense expense.”

Mr. Ran­

dall was “the largest giant In the world and performed his gigantic act on two matched Hanoverian cream steeds. Other special attractions of this organization were Miss

H — L o c . cit. 1 2 Ibid, August 21, 1846, l^

Ibid, May 8, 1847.


Laura Buckley,

“Female Equestrian,” Henry Buckley,

Back rider, “ a brass band,

a clown,


and ring M a s t e r * ^

The circus was attended by “all the world and his wife.”^-® Rockwell and Company’s “Mammoth Circus, of 200 Men and Horses,


the best managed and only perfectly

organized Equestrian Establishment in the United States,” visited Chicago in September, 1847. ROCKWELL & C O ’S CIRCUS.— This establishment Is now opened on Randolph Street under the largest pavilion ever erected in the city. There was no limit to the attendance last night, the whole city being apparently emptied into the canopy, and the performers gave gen­ eral satisfaction. There was still vaulting and stick dances, tourna­ ments and tumbling, such as have never before been witnessed in our goodly city, while the riders appeared worthy descendants of old John Gilpin of ’famous London to wn ’ and tore like the wind around the airy circle. One fellow absolutely put to shame the most renowned politicians with the number of rapidity of his summersetts, turning 40 to 50 without any effort, while an­ other twisted himself into so many odd shapes as to appear a decidedly knotty subject. The horses, all splendidly caparisoned with assured­ ly the ’Ukrane breed* and the female equestrians rode with gracefulness and ease. We have not time to re­ capitulate all the many new and pleasing scenes intro­ duced by the company, nor is it necessary when there were so many living witnesses as were present at last n i g h t ’s performances. That distinguished personage, the clown, was as unfortunate as ever, but mingled no grossness in his remarks as is too often the case, offending ears polite. Sol, respects his audience and himself too much for this. The company perform again this afternoon and evening, and there will no doubt be a more crowded lot than ever.^-6


Weekly Chicago Democrat, May 11, 1847.

1 5 Chicago Daily Journal, May 24, 1847. ^^Ibid,

September 21, 1847.

2 5 7

The circus in its various forms was one of the most popular types of entertainment during the eighteen thirties and forties and enthusiasm for it has persisted to the present day#

The circus was one form of recreation that

could be enjoyed by all, young and old, rich and poor. Dressed up under such terms as zoological exhibit, menager­ ie, and museum,

it appealed to many of the more conserva­

tive folk who would have refused to attend a theatre or go to a dance.

Commercial recreation which had been making

Inroads into the field of entertainment gained great momen­ tum with the innovation of the circus.

Such entertainment

indicated a trend away from the more formal and artificial forms of recreation toward a more spontaneous type which the general public could understand and enjoy.

The coming

of the circus also indicated a trend away from old world forms of recreation toward a new world entertainment with its own distinctive qualities.


DANCING Dancing during the first years of the nineteenth century in Chicago was spontaneous, unsophisticated and in­ formal in nature.

In the late thirties and forties, how­

ever, dancing teachers began to appear in the city to give lessons in the "polite art," and dancing cane to be increas­ ingly restricted to "invited balls."

Various organizations,

such as the Young M e n 1s Association and Firemen's Organiza­ tion found that dances were an excellent method of raising funds for their societies.

Later the dance was further

commercialized when private individuals or companies spon­ sored dances,

such as those held on board the lake steamers

as a business enterprise.

It was during this period that

the waltz and polka were introduced,

and although there was

sharp criticism from those who clung to puritanical tradl-— tions,

those innovations woniheir way Into society. One of the earliest dances of which there is a record

was held in the soldiers' barracks on the evening of the annual payment to the Indians in 1827.

There must have

been many other dances earlier than this in the fort, how­ ever,

as well as in the surrounding territory.


during the early thirties were often held at the Sauganash, where Mark Beaubien accompanied on his violin.

2 5 9

During the winter of 1833—1834, Charles Fenno Hoffman,

a visitor in Chicago,

attended a dance of which

he gave the following description! ••••In the present instance, we were ushered into a ‘ k ols^&bly sized dancing—room, occupying the second story of the house, and having its unfinished walls so ingeniously covered with pine—branches and flags borrowed from the garrison, that, with the white­ washed^ ceiling above, it presented a very complete and quite pretty appearance# It was not so warm, how­ ever, that the fires of cheerful hickory, which roared at either end, cottld have been readily dispensed with. An orchestra of unplaned boards was raised against the wall in the centre of the room? the band consist­ ing of a dandy negro with his violin, a fine militarylooking bass drummer from the fort, and a volunteer citizen, who alternately played upon the flute and triangle..•• As for the company, it was such a com­ pany, it was such a complete medley of all ranks, ages, professions, trades and occupations, brought to­ gether from all parts of the world...that it was amazing to witness the decorum with which they commingled on this festive occasion..,. The gayest figure that was ever called by quadrille playing Benoit never afforded me half the amusement that did these Chicago cotillions. Here you might see a veteran officer in full uniform balancing to a tradesman*s daughter still in her short frock and trousers, while there the golden riguillette of a handsome surgeon flapped in unison with the glass beads upon a scrawny neck of fifty... *Tt takes all kinds of people to make up the world*..., and why should not all these kinds of people be represented as well in a ball-room as in a legislature. It was the custom during the winters to give a series of dances,

sometimes called Hmid-night picnics,n

at central points ten to fifteen miles from Chicago.


tices announcing them were printed in the daily newspapers.

“^Charles Fenno Hoffman, A Winter in the Far West, Volune I, pp. 236— 240.



"driven by the beaux and freighted with the

belles and their chaperons nestling under the buffalo robes and other furs," arrived at these country hotels, or hones,

early in the evening*

Sometimes it was arranged

to have supper on the way out, at other times the parties waited until they reached their destination*


started early in the evening and sometimes continued un­ til eleven o*clock,

but according to some records it was

the custom to "engage breakfast for the morning; and, after dancing all night, get back to the city about nine or ten o 1 clock" the following morning.^ During 1834 the "Grand Ba—ba—no" was held at the Mansion House, followed by quadrille parties at the Saug— 5

anash Hotel*

In spite of the panic of 1837, similar en­

tertainments were given in that year and the following, some of which were "public b a l l s . D a n c e s Naperville,

given at

Warrenville, and other nearby towns were often

well attended by Chicagoans. Bachelor*s Balls were popular during this period, and were evidently given at regular intervals during the winter months.

One of the earliest, if not the earliest,

was given on December 20, 1839 and is described in the

John Wentworth, Reminiscenses of Early Chicago* (Fergus Historical Series^ No. 8*) pT 47. ^John L* Wilson Notes (Manuscript Chicago Historical Society Library); Chicago American, October 31, 1835* 4 Chicago American, Day Book, entries of February 6, May 31, 1838, "Ball Tickets" charted to S.F. Gale, pp.21,29.


following newspaper article, B A C H E L O R S PARTY.— The party given by the gallant bachelors of Chicago... came off in fine style at the Lake House last night. The evening was^yery a u s p i c i o u s bright as a bachelor1s button. The merry sound of sleigh bells, over a passable and with us an unusual foundation of snow, announced that the 1runners* were out, and that bells livelier and brighter still, were assembling at the gay and glittering crowd. The spacious rooms of the Lake House, on the first and second floors, were thrown open to receive them— on the one side of the first hall the rooms were brilliantly lighted up and decorated for the *tripping of the light fantastic toe. * Ornamented spermaceti and astral lamps shone out in every direction above while the floor was ingenious­ ly figured and chalked off with eagles and double hearts that were destined, as oft they are, to be trampled in the dust.... At about 11 o*clock a pleasing interlude was given to the dance, and the company was ushered in­ to the rooms at the other side of the hall, where the sumptuous tables were groaning with the rich and sub­ stantial good things of the season. The shuffling of feet was now, for a time, changed to that of hands as the preliminary step to the enjoyment of a rich and plenteous banquet. But *music*s voluptuotss swell* again rallied the cotillions and quadrilles, until a very uncertain time after *the witching hour of the night* witnessed their dispersal.••• In 1847, the Bachelor*s Ball, the last of the seas­ on, was given at the Sherman House on February £2, the anniversary of Washington*s birthday. Journ^T

The editor of the

was confident that all the young ladies who attend­

ed the ball would be ^humming some such ditty as this In A Bachelor* s Ball, what alove of a place it is— Commend me to such, all the days of my life— But surely we think, what a burning disgrace it is, Never for them to be getting a wife.6

5P a i l y Chi cago Am er i c a n , December 21, 1839 ^ Chicago Daily Journal,

February 20, 1847.


Dances were also often sponsored by social organ­ izations such as the Young Men*s Association, Mechanics* Institute,

and Firemen*s organization.

At the ball sponsored by the Young Men*s Associa­ tion in 1843,

the sum of ninety dollars and thirty-two

cents was left for the benefit of the Association after the expenses were paid.

Citizens were urged to attend

this ball not only for the pleasure of the activity it­ self, but to encourage **the prosperity of the Association*! and rifor the cause's sake.*’

Any individual not wishing

to encourage and attend the party, but desirous to aid the institution,

could have the privilege of paying the

ticket price to the managers.*3

In 1844, the Association

gave a cotillion party for which tickets for a gentle­ man and ladies,

sold for three dollars.

Carriages were

**in attendance to convey the company to and from the Q party.1* According to the editor of the Journal, the party was a success. lbUNO MEN *S ASSOCIATION The amount received from the sale of tickets for the ball recently given for the benefit of the Young Men*s Association was #267, and the sum realized for the Association after deducting the expenses, was #100.50. This is cheering news for the members, who

7 .Chicago Express, February 11, 1843. 8 Ibid, February 4, 6, 1843. 9 Chicago Daily J ou r n a l , December 17, 1844.

2 6 3

will have a hundred dollars worth of well selected books added to the library. ^ The Mechanics*

Institute also sponsored balls,


proceeds to be distributed among the Poor of the City, fll1 or "to raise funds for the erection of *liberty Pole,* which independent of the amusement promised for the occas ion should ensure it a liberal attendance. The Firemen*s balls, beginning in 1846, were held annually on New Year*s Eve,

to raise funds for the de­

pendents or disabled firemen. MAN THE BRAKES— FIREMEN*S BALL.— The Firemen are taking steps to have a Grand demonstration on New Y e a r 1s Eve, for the benefit of the Firemen*s fund, by a ball at the Sherman House. It is a worthy ob­ ject and will call out a crowd. Of course there will be no flames kindled, oht no, the department are opposed to that. We think, however, there should be an insurance effected against loss or dam­ age by bright eyes, and winning looks. 'PLAY AWAY NUMBER ONE.*15 "Upwards of five hundred were in attendance" at this ball,

and it "was most truly a brilliant affair,


flecting credit upon Chicago through those who conducted it."14

Mrs. Burley,

an early settler in Chicago,

1 0 Ibid, December 24, 1844 ^Ibid.



1 2 Ibld, February 9, 1847. 1 S Ibid, December 28, 1847 14

Ibid, January 22, 1847.



a description of the same dance in a letter to relatives in the East* The Firemen* s Ball was the 22d of January and was the grandest affair that Chicago has ever known. Gus was one of the managers. There were thirty—five. He was on the committee of invitations. They sent out 1,050, just think of thatl Both the dining— and the dancing-hall were used for dancing. They were trim­ med with bunting in festoons all over the ceiling# The firemen's caps, trumpets and buckets were hung all around, with innumerable lamps. The new engine, No. 3 was trimmed with flowers and ribbons and set in the lower hall. There was a bell hung in each hall and at the end of each set they gave a stroke on it instead of a tap on the fiddle. Both bands of music were very good, as they have been practicing all winter for the occasion. They had supper-tables set in three rooms all the time, so as not to stop the dancing. Parties of about two dozen could sit at one table, which made it very pleasant as we could pick our company....IS In addition to dances sponsored by different or­ ganizations,

Captains of the lake steamers often arranged

dances on board.

The following description is evidently

typical of such affairs. The BALL Wednesday evening on board the new SteamBaltic, was indeed a brilliant affair, and right well did our city *lads and lasses' seem to enjoy it. About half-past eight might be seen one hundred and fifty of the elite and beauty of the city in her spacious saloon (200 feet long) tripping 'the light fantastic toe* to the admirable and enlivening music of the Baltic Band. What, with the magnificant mir­ rors extending on either side, the chandeliers with their multiplied reflections, and the beauty there assembled, it was the most fairy like scene we have had the pleasure of witnessing for a long, long time. Capt. Kingman was, as usual, quite at home in the crowd, diffusing happiness wherever he moved.... Next we discover an interesting group...enjoying a tete-a-tete, while a goodly number are whirling the

1 5

Caroline Kirkland,

Chicago Ye ste r d a y s , p. 28.


giddy waltz, or dancing the more scientific polka# — T w e l v e o 1clock! ¥ h a t fs the rush? Supper? No.— Yes! Well, if t h a t 1s the da nee we are in...Ice cream and a great variety of cake were passed in abundance, accompanied with the repast, the company at the sound of music again took partners for a cotillion, and away they went like so many fairies bounding in space#... Other dancing parties were arranged by rfprofessors,f of dancing.

As early as 1334 a dancing school had been


of which James A. Marshall was the proprietor , ^

and in 1836 Stephen Balsora advertised dancing lessons at ten dollars a quarter.18

In 1839, Mrs. Ingersoll,


ly with the Illinois Theatrical Company, gave dancing lessons at the Lake House. Dancing Lessons.— "Mrs. Ingersoll is now giving danc­ ing lessons at the Lake House in the polite and use­ ful accomplishments of dancing——including the approved and fashionable style and quadrille and waltzing. She also gives cotillion parties every other Saturday night through the season, the first to commence on the 28th inst. Her terms are reasonable. Mrs. Ingersoll is highly qualified to give satisfactory instructions in this art, and a fine opportunity is here presented for those Ladies and Gentlemen in our city who wish to learn fto trip it on the light fantastic toe.1— She wishes to form a good school for the season, and is receiving applications at room D. of the Lake House.18 Although Mrs.

Ingersoll was to begin her cotillion

parties on September 28, notice appeared in the American November 15, that the nfirst regular Quadrille Party for the season takes place this evening.

The editor urged


Chicago Daily Journal, May 14, 1847. 17

Chicago Democrat, November 19, 1834.

-1 Q

Chicago A m e r i c a n , December 10, 1836. 1 8 PaiIy Chicago A m e r i c a n , September 19,



the "friends in the city,

and those who like and wish to

encourage the ipoetry of the h e e l 1" to attend the dance and "indemnify Mrs.

Ingersoll for her expenses and efforts

Messrs. Davis and Perrior in November 1840, publish ed a notice claiming they intended "to give a series of QUADRILLE PARTIES,

combined with instruction,

at the Lake

Hous e, every Thursday evening...Hours of Instruction,


cluding juveniles from 7-9$ Quadrille Parties from 9 to 1£."21 Other instructors in dancing were J. Robinson who gave lessons in the "art of Dancing and Waltzing" at the Temperance House in 1844. four dollars a quarter. held public dances.

These lessons were given for Robinson and Littlewood also

L.M. Montgomery gave lessons in

waltzing at the Saloon and introduced "a Spanish Oontra Dance and a Spanish Quadrille,

which are entirely new,

which will considerably Increase the practice of waltzing. If transportation were not otherwise provided carriages were "furnished without extra charge. In 1846, Easimi "from the Royal Academies of Lon­ don and Paris" gave lessons at the American Temperance House.

His academy was for the instruction of "Young

Ladies and Gentlemen in the elegant accomplishment of


Ibid, November 15, 1839.

^~*~Ibid, November 50, 1840. oo Chicago Daily J o u r n a l , November 13,




He taught the "Lancers,

La Gallopade,


the Polka Dance,



Spanish Dancing,


Fancy Dances,


Terms were five dollars for twelve


lessons. The waltz,

which was just making its debut in Chicago,

was rejected by some people as being immoral and indecent* Several interesting articles on this controversial subject, taken from other sources, were reprinted in the daily news­ papers of Chicago,

one by Washington Irving,

another from

the New York Commercial Advertiser. When the gentleman with one arm closely encircles the slender waist of his partner, and with his other hand clasped in her*s, gently presses her half conceal­ ed bosom upon which his roving eye falls unreprovedj when the heated blood mantles the cheek, and soft langour pervades the frame and the tell-tale glance looks forth from the half-closed eyelids, how could kisses, sweet, tender impassioned kisses, come amiss? We do not believe that the majority of the young Ladies, who night after night abandon themselves in the waltz to the embraces of young men, are fully aware of the indecorum, or of the light in which it is regarded, although it is difficult to imagine any young girl so totally devoide of that instinctive delicacy which we are wont to associate with the fe­ male character, that no unbidden thought arises in her bosom to rebuke such sacrilege. If they are insensible, as doubtless many are, to the improper feelings which a dance so enticing is fitted to incite, it matters little. Some are passionless by nature, others are passionless from art and education, cramped by stays and corsets into sylph-like forms, with temperaments frigid as ice and complexions as pallid as snow. But this is not the case with the men, and it is enough to curdle a beholder,s blood to see a notorious rake


Ib i d , April 24, 1846.

2 6 8

clasping in his arms an unsuspecting maid. Of wives and mothers who waltz in public we will not trust ourselves to speak, but to the parents whose daughters thus amuse themselves, we would earnestly appeal, and in behalf of their c h i l d r e n s happiness and their own entreat their interference. If you wish to p r e s e r v e in its freshness their innocence, nor allow unhallowed thoughts to violate the maiden shrine— if you would not that their names should be bandied in the mouths of rakes and coupled with unworthy jsets— if you would present them at the altar to the husbands of their choice with reputations not only untainted but unsus— pected, fitted both in head and heart virtuously to bring up children to embrace your knees, and bless, with the promise of their virtues, your declining years——suffer them not to waltz. Frown on the in— siduous dance as you would upon the tempter if he ap­ peared before you in person. Listen not to the voice of the charmer, charm he ever so wisely. Washington Irving,

in a very different style, makes

some interesting statements regarding the same form of dancing. ....The lady (then) leans gently on his shoulder? their arms entwine in a thousand seducing, mischievous curves— don*t be alarmed, madam— closer and closer they approach each other, and in conclusion, the par­ ties being overcome with ecstatic fatigue, the lady seems almost sinking into the gentleman*s arms, and then— ^gll» sir! what then! Lordl madam how should I know, ® There were a few professional danders who visisted Chicago during the period being studied, Antonio family, who,

for thirty cents,

among them the

gave "interesting

and amusing entertainment" which was a "grand scientific and musical entertainment of Moral and Classical" nature.^®


Taken from the New York Commercial Advertiser, reprinted in Chicago E x p r e s s , April 7, 1843. 25

Excerpt from one of Washington Irving*s writings, reprinted in the Daily Chicago American, August 10, 1841. S 6 Chicago Daily J o u r n a l , June 25, 1847.


The editor of the Journal claimed that although the ad­ mission charge was only "three dimes— the Chinese dance alone is worth four.

Go and see them."

LAST APPEARANCE OF THE ANTONIO FAMILY Sig. Antonio respectfully announces that he will give his last performance, assisted by his four sons,— Antonio, Lorenzo, Augustus and Alphonso, on Saturday evening, July 10th, when they will perform all of their wonderful Feats in the Acrobat Scenes, Scotch, Italian and other dances, etc. Admission 25 cents. Music to commence at 7^-— per­ formance to commence at \ past 8 . ^ Although dancing was not accepted by all the members and organizations of the community, people did dance.


its development the dance changed from the informal fron­ tier dance to the more formal invitation ball.

With this

change in pattern came the dancing teachers who not only influenced the new pattern, forms.

but also introduced different

Moreover dancing even at this early date took on

certain commercialized aspects which were to plague it for a century to come. public dance halls,

Commercialized dancing through

taverns and the taxi dance hall, has

created many social problems,

particularly in urban areas.

Although there had been dances for audiences between acts on theatre programs, Chicago in 1847,

the Antonio family which appeared in

gave the first entertainment In which

dancing in itself was the main attraction.

97 * Ibid,

July 10, 1847.



dancing for spectators had made its appearance in Chicago. The introduction of new exciting dances such as the waltz and the polka gave new popularity to the ball room, and even though they were denounced by manyof the more con­ ventional folk, they were here to stay.



as in every community,

then and now,

there were some who did not pursue the more normal types of recreation which were accepted by the majority of the citizens.

A number of gangs existed in Chicago and vicin­

ity during this period? some of them restricted their pranks to practical ^okes, while others carried on more destructive activities.

It is with this first group that

this chapter is primarily concerned,

even though at times

these gangs carried play activities so far as to do harm. In its early days, Chicago was considered a "giddy place for susceptible young men, not well ballasted with prudence and forbearance. luring schemes, eties."*1’

Those were the days of rough activities, rushing enterprises, and intoxicating gay-

It is not surprising that "many were led so far

into the depths, out of which they could neither wade nor swim•"^ Hurlbut tells of a dozen or so persons, whom he classes together under the name of "the club" who played

^H.H. Hurlbut, 2Loc. cit.

Chicago Antiquities, p. 335.

practical jokes*


For example,

they stole the cannon

which had been recovered after having been sunk in the river ever since the Fort Dearborn Massacre?

they freed

the wild animals in the menagerie and rode them from one dramshop to another*^1 Gangs of loafers often blocked the walks,

or made

a general nuisance of themselves in other ways* summer of 1839,

In the

a newspaper of Jackson, Michigan,


ly remarked that wthe population of Chicago is said to be principally composed of dogs and loafers.”^

That same

year, on April 25, the following warning was published in the American. The scoundrel who set fire the other night to the postoffice building is suspected* He and all other suspicious loafers about the city had better, as soon as possible, make themselves scarce, or the city watch will be at their heels*® A popular prank of less serious nature was steal­ ing signs*

In 1841, the editor of the American received

letters from seven business men complaining that their signs had been stolen*

The following is one of the letters

which was published in the newspaper. Mr. Editor!— The individual who stole my sign last Monday night, is informed that *he is known,1 and unless he make immediate restitution he shall be brought to punishment. The respectability of his con-


L o c * cit*

^Joseph Kirkland, ^Herbert Asbury,

The Story of Chicago, Volume I,p.142 Gem of the Prairie* p. 38.

^ flhicago A m e r i c a n , April 25, 1839.

273 nections has alone prevented exposure. If people choose to get drunk it*s no reason why they should steal, and I would advise the young gentleman in question, the next time he*s on a spree, to steal liquor instead of s i g n s * ? That this practice was still in vogue in 1845, is indicated by the following notice. DOINGS OF THE ROWDY GANG.— The latest act of these precocious youngsters was to steal a sign of *Ready made Coffins* and fasten it up on the Court House. If a work-house were established, and justice done, the most appropriate sign for It would be *boys to let, * enquire within.8 In 1846,.the attention of the City Marshall was requested in regard

to the ’’number of boys who at

all hours

of the day,

together on the Southern pier

and select


that spot for the exhibition of the human form divine."® The following month a notice of another kind appeared in the Journal regarding "genteel loafers." NUISANCES.— Speaking of nuisances South Water Street is especially favored, to say nothing of the genteel loafers sober—grog—shop keepers and some that aint so sober. There are the groups now almost daily to be met with engaged in the elevating occupation of pitch­ ing coppers. Whether the Superior fever has brought on this rage for speculating in small change or not, we cannot say. But this we can say, that a crowd of from 20 to 30 great stalwarth. men might find better employment than playing *pitch and toss.*-^ Other gangs,



"fraternity of idlers” obstructed

Daily Chicago American, August 6, 1841. Chicago Daily Journal, February 27, 1845.

9 Ibid.


July 20, 1 8 4 6 . August 13, 1846.



passages of the churches at times and caused ’’annoyance of ladies • ” On Sabbath evenings, a fraternity of idlers who are old enough to know better, are accustomed to cohgregate about the doors of the several churches where services are held, much to the annoyance of ladies passing in and out. What with the remarks, in which they indulge and the obstructing of the in­ gress or egress of the congregation, it is a prac­ tice which calls loudly for abatement,^1 At another time J.W. Freer found a ”gang of rowdies’* teasing a little Negro boy, and upon requesting them ”to |desist from this cruelty” the boys jumped on him and gave him a "severe beating. Gangs of pranksters also often caused disturbances at charivari ® , i a custom which was said to have been in­ troduced by the early French settlers.

The charivari is

a mock serenade of discordant noises with which newly weds are often greeted.

These noises, made with kettles,

or tin horns often disturbed the peace. early Illinois historian,


According to one

the French had great fun at such

parties and all went home in the best of spirits, without any hard feelings.

"But with the Americans,

this charivaris

is sometimes attended with disagreeable consequences. And, in fact,

11 12

the serenading party is sometimes indicted for

Ibid, September 27, 1847. Ibid,

March 4, 1847.


breach of peace.

Charivari parties often caused dis—

turbances in Chicago,

and the participants were sometimes

arrested. CHARIVARI•— —Five lads engaged In the Charivari, evening before last, have been arrested and bound over for appearance at the next term of the Circuit Court on a charge of making unusual noises and dis­ turbing the peace of the city. Three entered recog­ nizances at once. Two were committed to jail, but bailed out, after sufficient time had been given for reflection, probably upon the best manner of playing upon tin pans and horse fiddles.14 Some people complained about these arrests, that other people were involved,


but ffas they were men

and voters no notice was taken of them.”

As election time

was near the officers "on a sudden,... manifest unusual re­ gard for the laws.”

A "charivari has taken place once a

fortnight for the last ten months” but this was the first instance of an arrest.


Another activity which was participated in by both individuals and gangs, was gambling.

Most of the gambling

in the early days was betting on the frequent horse races promoted by Mark Beaubien.


although dis­

approved by the "respectable members of society,” often provided opportunity for gambling.

In 1842,

much criticism

was leveled against a Mr. Pearson for his attitude toward

13 14 15

John Reynolds,

Pioneer History of Illinois, p. 146.

Chicago Express, January 21, 1843. Ibid,

January 24, 1843.


betting on elections. LEGISLATURE •••.Mr. Pearson introduced bills to repeal all laws prohibiting betting on elections, and to repeal an act regulating carriages and the law of the roads. The gentleman would, doubtless, be well pleased if we should have no laws at all....16 In speaking of gambling and burglary in 1847, the editor of the Journal Includes the following pithy notice in his newspaper. IMPROVING.— We have not heard of a burglary in forty eight hours. They are getting out of fashion, and the more genteel* profession of gambling is taking the place of them.1 ^ Even at an early date there were a few games con­ ducted by professibnals who had drifted into the settle­ ment from Cincinnati and St. Louis. these tricksters,

"Little is known of

but their activities were extensive

enough to incur the wrath of the godly element of the pop­ ulation. .. and make them the object of Chicago*s first moral crusade."16 Jeremiah Porter,

founder of Chicago*s first regu­

larly organized church, and the town’s first resident preacher,

made an attempt to drive the gamblers out of


Several powerful sermons so aroused the author­

1 6 Ibid, December 19, 1843. ^ Chicago Daily J ournal, June 18, 1847.

2 77

ities that two ^nests'* were raided and two card players put in jail for a few days, while others were warned that they must obey the law and close their resorts.^®


practice was abated for a while, but soon gambling be­ came more prevalent than ever, with the result that Rever­ end Porter made another in 1834* was held in October,

A mass meeting

in which the anti-gambling faction

appointed a committee of nine to devise measures for the eradication of gambling joints or houses.^*®

This committee,

appointed at a public meeting on October 24, 1834, passed resolutions against the existence of gambling in Chicago, and the members pledged themselves to withhold their friend­ ship from gamblers,

vowing to get rid of "sharpers and

blacklegs,” and withhold patronage from public houses which permitted gambling*.

They resolved*

,fThat cost what it may,

we are determined to root out this vice,

and to hunt down

21 those who gain by it an infamous subsistence.”

campaign was launched in 1835,

and during a "season of

prayer” a number of young men were converted, gamblers imprisoned.

and two


In spite of Reverend Porter*s campaigns,




Ibid, pp.34—35.

^ Chicago Democrat, October 29, 1834. 21 22

L o c . cit ; Chicago American, July 11, 1835. Asbury,


c i t . , p.



were not greatly disturbed, ferred to Peoria.

and the minister was soon trans­

The financial boom of 1835 and- 1836,

followed this attack and city officials became too busy calculating profits on lots to worry about gambling.


became larger and the gamblers increased in numbers.


person identified himself as a gambler in the City Directory for 1839,

and another as a "Generous Sport.1

By the early 1840*s, despite the collapse of the boom and the complete stagnation of the city!s commer­ cial life, Chicago harbored more gambling-houses than either Cincinnati or St. Louis, and was the most im­ portant gaming center north of New Orleans and west of the Allegheny Mountains. Short card games, such as brag, poker, and seven up, were principally played with an occasional faro bank and sometimes a session of chess, checkers, and backgammon.24 Although,

as previously mentioned,

betting on horse

races had been one of Chicago*s favorite pastimes since Mark Beaubien*s day, bookmaking was evidently not intro­ duced until 1844,

when W.F. Myrick laid out his race track

on the prairie between Twenty-sixth and Thirty-first Streets and Vincennes and Indiana Avenues. Some of the Slab Town (Chicago) gamblers of the 1840*s were kicked out of Natchez and Vicksburg during the uprising against the sharpers which swept through the Mississippi Valley in 1835; and virtually all had learned their trade on the Mississippi River steam­ boats. Among them were such noted sporting men as John Sears, George Rhodes, Walt Winchester; Cole Mar­ tin and King Cole Conant, who afterward kept a famous house in St. Paul; and the Smith brothers— Charles, Montague, and George, the last-named better known as

23 24

Robert Fergus, Asbury,

comp. Directory of the City of Chicago

QP_. c i t ., p. 36.

2 7 9

One—Lung, The deal of this group, and the outstanding figure of early Chicago gambling, was John Sears, the most expert poker—player of his time. But even more than for his skill at cards Sears was noted for his love of poetry, especially that of Burns and Shakes­ peare, for his gifts as a story-teller, and for his good looks and elaborate wardrobe. For years ye was considered the best—dressed man in Chicago. *He was a singularly handsome man,* wrote an old-time gambler, *of jovial and generous temperament, and with fault­ less manners. He enjoyed the reputation of being a thoroughly 1square1 player, and though he died poor, his demise was widely and sincerely lamented.25 Thus far the discussion has dealt chiefly with pro­ fessional gambling which activity is carried on by gamblers. There are many other types of gambling,

including such ac­

tivities as raffles and lotteries which are participated in by all kinds of people*who are considered respectable members of society.

These people aren’t considered gamblers

even though they do occasionally gamble.


gambling is carried on chiefly in houses or joints especial­ ly used for that purpose, while gambling carried on by the other group may be in ordinary homes,


or other

public places. In the eighteen thirties and forties, both the city of Chicago and the state held lotteries for money raising purposes. Gambling existed in Chicago before its incorporation into a city. In 1819 during the first legislative assembly In Illinois, a lottery was authorized to raise funds for improving the public health. The money was to be used for draining the ponds in the state bottoms, but the lottery became a dead issue

9K I b i d ,

p p .

5 6 - 5 7 .

2 8 0

In a short time* It was revived again in the state legislature in 1858, a year after Chicago received its city charter, but again enough money for the project could not be raised, and in 1847 a law was passed in which the lottery scheme was declared il­ legal.25 Paintings,

musical instruments,

sometimes disposed of by lottery.

and pastry were

This form of lottery

was perhaps the equivalent of our present day raffle. In In an earlier chapter mention was made of the lotteries held by the artist, Samuel Brooks.

The following quotation

gives further information on one of these lotteries. ....He proposes to dispose of these paintings, pro­ nounced by competent judges as superior specimens of the art, by a lottery of sixty tickets at 05 each.By this methoc he trusts that he will be able to accom­ plish what has been through many a toiling hour a cheering hope to him.... Tickets may be had at the Bookstores. The present would be a favorable opportunity for those wishing their miniatures taken. Mr; Brook’s stay will probably be short. Keen and Company disposed of two pianos by lottery in 1847. To Amateurs and Lovers of Music.— We understand that the scheme (for the disposition by lottery of the two pianos at K e e n ’s No. 146 Lake St.) is nearly completed, "and the Ladies particularly have been the purchasers of tickets. Now we propose to those gentlemen who are meditating on matrimony, to step and show their gallantry by securing a chance for the one who is to share with them the fortunes of married life, as but a few more re­ main unsold.^®

26Sam Ross, Gambling in Chicago. (Manuscript of the Illinois Writer's Project.) ^ Chicago Daily Journal, March 25, 1845. g8Ibid. July 19, 1847.

2 8 1

In interesting lottery was held in December, 1847, in which cakes were disposed of by lottery. Splendid Cake.■"-Johnson, at his finely fitted up Saloon for Ladies, on Clark Street, has the perfection of rich cake, of every variety, which is to be dis­ posed of this evening by lottery. The first prize is ’Buena Vista,” Soldiers, Sentinels, and all as natural as life. Cgll in and see them.^9 Thus lotteries came to be accepted as a legitimate method of raising funds for a variety of purposes,


were evidently not considered a form of gambling by most of tlae residents of Chicago. still persists today,

This attitude toward gambling

although often in different form.

Raffles are held by churches, women's clubs and welfare organizations as a means to raise money for their various projects.

The slot" machine, punch board and the selling

of chances are popular forms of gambling, which are not however,

usually considered as such by the participants.

As is often the case in American frontier towns, prostitutes followed professional gamblers to Chicago. 1835,


the City Council adopted an ordinance which imposed

a fine of twenty-five dollars upon any person convicted of keeping a house of ill fame,^0 later* in February 1838,

and less than three years

another ordinance demanding still

higher fines, was passed with particular reference to

^ Ibid, December 30, 1847. ^ Chicago Democrat, August 19, 1835.


2 8 2

"Houses of 111 Fame," located on Wells Street between Jack­ son and First. Prostitution and gambling continued to flourish in spite of sporadic attempts to eradicate them by ministers and church men, and laws and regulations passed by the City Council.

Chicago's growth and expansion,


of a boom town, attracted the followers of money, making it impossible for the better element to control vicious activ­ ities.



t MISCELLANEOUS RECREATIONAL OCCASIONS There were numerous other forms of recreation in Chicago which received little or no notice by the newspaper editors and historians of that day. nics,

election celebrations,

Rooster fights, pic­

maple sugaring, weddings,


cursions and other miscellaneous forms of recreatioh un­ doubtedly added variety to frontier life. Weddings have for ages offered opportunities for recrea­ tion closely associated with and even growing out of the public celebrating of a new sex union.

The mood for such

occasions Is not merely devotional or mystical but not in­ frequently highly secular, trous in merrymaking.

festive and even crude and bois—

Frontier life lent itself to such

somewhat broad festivity. The marriage of Ellen Marian Kinzie, child born upon the site of Chicago, cott,

the first white

to Dr. Alexander Wol­

July 20, 1823, was, according to some authorities,

the first event of that kind between white people in Chicago. In 1834,

a memorable wedding took place.

In the marriage

of Robert Allen Kinzie and Gwenthlean Whistler, toric families,

the two his­

the Kinzies and Whistlers, were joined to­


^ p .

7 8 .





M o s e s

a n d

J o s e p h

K i r k l a n d ,


i s





o f









2 8 4

The wedding took place in the fort, and was, of course followed by a dance.... Home-made confectionary,cakes, pies, sweetmeats,1 perhaps a few precious Eastern apples, cold meats, pountry and game, and some convivial liquids as the garrison could furnish— this was probably all the union of the housewifely forces could provide, and good and ample it was, and gay the talk and laugh­ ter.2 & Weddings between white people and Indians were not uncommon during the earlier days in Chicago, when there was such a scarcity of women.



in a

lecture before the Sunday Lecture Club in Chicago in 1876, recalled such a wedding which he witnessed in 1836 or 1837. One of the daughters of Laframboise,

an Indian,

married a

clerk in the post office. This wedding made a strong impression on my mind, as it was the first time I ever saw the Indian-War-Dance. Some of the guests not only had their tomahawks and scalping knives, bows and arrows, but a few of them had real scalps*... Their faces were decorated with all the favorite pictures of the Indians. And some of our young white men and ladies played the part of the In­ dians so well that it was difficult to distinguish them from the real ones.^ Weddings,

for the most part very informal during

the frontier period in Chicago, social gatherings.

furnished opportunity for

It was not until 1856 that Chicago

had its first formal church wedding.


Recreation of quite a different kind was provided


Joseph Kirkland,

The Story of Chicago, p. 137.


John Wentworth, Early Chicago, a_ Lecture Delivered before the Sunday Lecture Club, May 7, 1876.(Fergus Histor­ ical Series, No. 7") p p • 33-54 f ^ C a r o l i n e

K i r k l a n d ,

C h i c a g o












P .

4 1 .

2 8 5

fcy lake excursions.

Steamboat excursions,

captains of the boats,

first given by

and later taken over by various or­

ganizations and societies as a means of raising funds, to be immensely popular*


Music was furnished by the boat*s

band and dancing was often a considerable part of the pro­ gram.

Holiday excursions might take an afternoon and even­

ing, a whole day,

or occasionally a week-end.

The Great Western, ”The proudest ornament... of the Lake” carried with her ”the fbeauty and chivalry,* the fair women and brave men of our city” on a pleasure excursion 5 on August 13, 1839* The following May there was a ”pleas— ure excursion*1 on board ’’the beautiful steamer The boat was ’’crowded to overflowing by the pleasure loving citizens of Chicago,

and glided over the still smooth

waters of Lake Michigan, like a fairy vision.” were ’’loaded with luxuries,...

The tables

In addition to ice-creams

and bon-bons, the company were entertained with music and dancing. .. all fwent merry as a marriage bell.'”6 Other excursions were held on such boats as the Chesepeake, Cleveland, Boston, and Independence. boats were not primarily excursion boats,


but between

their regular voyages they planned pleasure excursions.


5Paily Chicago American, August 14, 1849. 6

Ibid, June 1, 1840. Chicago D p,ily A m e r i c a n , J u l y 2,6,20


and August 4,


During the summer of 1842, the Young M e n ’s Associa­ tion gave a pleasure excursion for the benefit of the or­ ganization.

”It is more than usually entitled to public

regard since it unites the useful with the sweet.”


for this excursion sold fof fifty cents, or ”for a Gentle­ man with one or more Ladies one d o l l a r . ”8 Churches found excursions a profitable way to raise funds for such things as ”the steeple of their new church; ”the completion of their new Church edifice” ; and the "erection of a Church for the Episcopal congregation at Ottawa.”^

This latter excursion ”fell short fifty dollars”

of the amount desired.

”The result is much to be regretted,

as the object was one which commended itself to the liber­ ality of our c i t i z e n s . I n


the Universalist Society

’’seized upon the now common mode” of obtaining funds to ’’liquidate” their church debt. amusements,

”In addition to the usual

a fine display of rockets and other fire works,

will take place. Other pleasure excursions were given, one on the Great Western on July 31, 1846,

for the "benefit of two

8 Ibid, July 25, 1842. ^ Chicago Daily Journal, July 10, 1846. 1 0 Ibid, August 1, 1846. 1 1 Ibid, July 28, 1846.


blind children” harbor,

another for the improvement of the

in which ’'pleasure and the promotion of our own

interests will*,.go hand in ha nd” *1 ^

and still another

for the ^benefit of the volunteers of our city who are on the eve of departure for the battlefield.”14

This latter

statement referred to the war with Mexico which was in progress at that time. Advertisements for the excursions, although varied, ran similar to the follov/ingl The Excursion of the Empire.— On tomorrow this splendid boat will give our citizens an opportunity to escape the heat and dust of our city, and enjoy the refreshing breeze on the Lake. No pains have been spared to make the Empire1s , the crack excursion of the season. We understand Briare will be on board with lots of his inimitable Ice Creams and other *fixins.* The object for which the excursion is given, will surely commend itself to every liberal mind. Don*t forget the fEmpire Excursion* tomorrow.1 ^ Excursions became increasingly popular as the for­ ties drew to a close.

They were inexpensive and provided

a means of recreation which the common man could enjoy. It is interesting to compare the excursions of that day s s 9m q p § with those of today, when during the summer months, two/ are used exclusively for excursions.


13 14

This, however,

Ibid, July 50, 1846. Chicago Daily American, June 1, 1842. Chicago D a i l y J o u r n a l , J un e 4, 1846.

1 5 Ibid,

J u l y 27,


is a


marked decline in comparison to 1926, when five or six boats sailed d a i l y , P r i c e s

for these pleasure trips

of 1840 and 1940 are remarkably similar despite variance in .rages and purchasing power of the dollar for the two dates*

As noted in the quotation advertising the excursion

in 1842,

tickets were fifty cents per person*

Usually these

trips lasted from three or four in the afternoon until late in the evening,

thus providing longer trips than those that

can now be secured for the same price^^ Evening trips on the S,3*

firand Rapids cost fifty cents and on the S.S.

Roosevelt seventy-five cents in 1 9 3 7 , Entertainment on these excursions today is undoubtedly more varied than that of a century ago, but the main features of this form of recreation have remained relatively constant during the last hundred years.

The boat excursion as a form of recrea­

tion has persisted. Another recreational outlet of quite a different nature during the frontier period was the camp meeting. Al­ though its primary purpose was to revive people spiritually, it also provided exciting entertainment.

Crowds of people

gathered at these meetings to listen to the oratory of the evangelist,

to join in hymn singing,

and to visit with one




The Chicago

L o e • o it •

R e c r e a t i o n S u r v e y , Volume II,

p. 114*

£ 8 9

When a camp meeting was announced,

people gathered

from miles around, many travelling for several days to reach the grounds* and some on foot*

Some came on horseback,

others in wagons,

A place was chosen which was near water

and usually in the woods,

or on the edge of a grove of trees*

Tents were pitched and a platform raised for the evangelist* The meetings usually lasted for a week or ten days, after which the participants wended their way home again, revived spiritually,



such as the young people,


red emotionally because of newly found sweethearts# Camp meetings were held in W arrenville, River,

and other nearby places.

to bring, their own supplies,

on the Oplain

All persons were expected

although "pasture is procured

for horses free of expense."^®

Notices of the meetings

appeared in the local newspapers.

The following are examples

of such advertisements* •GAMP MEETINGS On the 30th day of June next, a Gamp-meeting will be holden on Du-Page, Circuit, Chicago district, on the land owned by Messrs. E. and J. Carey about one mile north of Warrenville.— Accomodations for water and horse feeding excellent* Said meeting will, probab­ ly continue eight days or more. It is very desirable that there should be a general attendance.... WM. KIMBALL19 CAMP MEETING The Protestant Methodist of Rock Creek Circuit will commence their Camp Meeting at John W i t m o r e ^ near the mouth of the Somonauk Creek, on the £9th day of June, 184£. The people generally are respectfully invited to a t t e n d * ^

1 8 Paily Chicago American, June 6, 1840. 19r 2


I b i d ,

.. J u n e


1 8 4 £ .

2 9 0

A camp meeting was something which a pioneer could enjoy#

This was especially true of those of a conservative


In a day when the church forbade many forms of en­

tertainment , the camp meeting provided a means of social intercourse for many of its members#

This stands out in

striking contrast to present day churches,

for they not

only tolerate a wide variety of entertainment,

but take an

active part in providing recreation for their members*

CHAPTER XV (SOCIOLOGICAL GENERALIZATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS In the introductory chapter of this study mention was made of the universality of play.


the form

which various types of play may take Is determined to a large degree by the total cultural pattern in which it finds itself.

According to Turner in his Frontier in

American History, the frontier has a unique culture of Its own which is quite Independent of the more settled parts of the country.

In the present study, however,

not found to be entirely true.

this was

Although there were types

of recreation which were indigenous to Chicago during the period under study,

there were also imported forms of play.

Among those activities which were native to the fron­ tier were such sports as hunting,

fishing and bathing. Dur­

ing the earlier settlements, procuring food by means of hunting and fishing was a necessity, activities was a by-product.

and pleasure in the

As food became more plentiful

these pursuits developed Into sports, and as they became more common, laws were passed to regulate them. case with hunting in and near Chicago.

Such was the

Although little men­

tion is made in the newspapers of that period to fishing, this probably followed a similar pattern.

Z9Z Horses on the frontier were an utter necessity and nothing could be more natural than the emergence of con­ tests between their owners.

Occasions such as funerals*

hangings and camp meetings furnished opportunities for races, said it was not uncommon for people to meet in large numbers for the sole purpose of a horse race. The ability to protect oneself against animals as well as against his fellow man, was indispensable to a pioneer.

This was a most natural development and even­

tually led not only to organized hunting but also even to wrestling matches which were much more brutal than those of today.

In spite of this acceptance of certain types of

fighting which were native to the region,

there was resis­

tance to formalized combats such as prize fights. There were still other forms of recreation which were native to the frontier.

Story telling, which re­

ceived little or no mention in the newspapers of the per­ iod, must have been a common form of entertainment. who during this same period lived in New Salem,


only about

a hundred and fifty miles from Chicago, was famous for his stories,

as were many other frontiersmen.


early Chicagoan who lectured in Chicago in 1876,



the fact that one of the early ferrymen with an inexhaust­ ible fund of stories was "constantly spinning his yarns to those who patronized his institution*"1

S e e

p a g e

1 3 3 .

2 9 3


especially during the earlier years, was

provided by local residents, although at an early date song books and musicians were imported from other parts of the country.

There were traditional river songs which were

characteristic of the Mississippi River boatmen.


along the Illinois shore became familiar with such tunes as "One Eyed Riley" and "Louisiana Gals."2

Although it was

more common for visiting musicians to receive more notice in the newspapers than those of the home town,

editors fre­

quently mentioned with pride that certain musical programs were "home affairs" or that "the Band are from our own citi­ zens."

In the primary sources there was no mention of sing­

ing schools,

but they must have been common during the

earlier days of the settlement,

as they were prevalent in

other areas of Illinois at that time. Dancing, which is universal,

appeared in Chicago

during the first year of the settlement.

The locale in

which it found itself influenced the pattern which it took. The Indian influence was quite marked during the earlier days.

Wentworth mentions that in the early 1830*s, on the

occasion of the wedding of a clerk in the post office to an Indian maiden,

the Chicagoans danced Indian dances. He

He claimed that some of the white young people played the part of the Indians so well that it was difficult to dis—

S e e

p a g e

1 3 2 .

tinguish them from the real ones#^


as the popula­

tion increased and contact with the outside world became more frequent,

some of these earlier dance patterns were

dropped and imported ones were Introduced in their stead. In many instances it is difficult to discover which recreational activities were imported and which were in— ' digenous,

as in many instances they were so interwoven that

it was impossible to determine the source of the different traits which made Lip the particular culture complex. for example,


which was Just mentioned.


The early

settlers brought with them certain dancing customs from the East and South as well as from other sections of the country.

In time these patterns were intermingled with

those of the Indians, later to be changed as new dance forms were introduced from other parts of the country,


as the cotillion from the East and folk dances such as "Old Dan Tucker," from the South. The attitude toward innovation in respect to new forms of recreation is of particular interest to sociologists The interaction between protest and acceptance and between novelty and acceptance offers an interesting field for re­ search.

The methods by which attempts were made to get

around the taboos when new recreation patters were intro­ duced into early Chicago are especially intriguing.

S e e

p a g e

2 8 4 .


2 9 5

The waltz offers a significant illustration of this process# There had been dancing since the first days of the settle­ ment of the fort, but with the innovation of the waltz there was sharp protest.

In April, 1843, an article from

the New York Commercial Advertiser was reprinted in the Chicago Express, in which waltzing was denounced as as im­ moral and parents were urged to fffrown on the insiduous dance as you would upon the tempter if he appeared before 4

you in person.'1

Chicago clergymen likewise denounced this

and other forms of dancing and urged their membership to refrain from participation in such immoral activities# The waltz,

first frowned upon,

soon ceased to be news and was

thereafter just mentioned in the notices of the dances and dancing teachers, which indicates a wide acceptance# As previously mentioned,

fighting was native to the

frontier, but formalized fighting in the form of prize fights was frowned upon.

The attitude toward prize fight­

ing furnishes an interesting example of the breaking down of resistance toward an innovation. of the Chicago Journal^

In 1845, the editor

commented on a "disgusting and

brutalizing exhibition denominated a *prize fight,'" which had taken place in England.

Two years later the same

editor told of a prize fight in New York, but in much


See page 268.

5 S e e

p a g e

7 4 #


milder language.®

Although no record was found of a prize

fight in Chicago during this period,

boxing equipment was

sold, revealing that amateurs participated in the sport. Professional and commercialized prize fighting were on their way.

Xn spite of this attitude toward the manly sport,

as early as 1845, cises."

a school was opened for "pugilistic exer­

In order to make it acceptable to the residents,

the exercises were advertised under the heading "self defenss." In order to get around the taboos on all these activ­ ities, attempts were made to word advertisements in such ways as to make them conform to existing mores.


were urged to attend lectures because they afforded a "use­ ful and rational amusement," or were of a "pleasing and in­ structive nature."

Regarding a lecture on astronomy,


editor stated that there was no "Science better calculated to expand the mind,

and improve the heart, than that of

astronomy. Art exhibitions were held in the churches and the moral qualities of the pictures were stressed.

That some of

the population were still hesitant about attending these ex­ hibitions is evidenced by the following statementl


pictures for their moral effect are well worthy of being seen,

and that delicacy must be an exceedingly spurious one

which can see anything spurious one which can see anything


See page 74.

7S o ee page 18*

2 9 7

improper in the exhibition."®

People were urged, to see the

picture "Adam and Eve" which was exhibited in 1840, because it presented a "useful moral lesson," The theatre (in most instances an impdrted type of recreation) was,

according to one editor,

"obnoxious to a

respectable and intelligent portion of every community; but they are permitted and must be permitted, of general expedience."®


on the ground

the theatre received

considerable attention in the daily newspapers, be an accepted form of entertainment. note, however,

and came to

It is interesting to

that no mention is made in the newspapers

of a local amateur company which was organized in 1842.10 The commercial theatres advertised* The museums offered a form of entertainment which was accepted by the folkways of the period.

Wot only did

the museum itself offer a "quiet, pleasing, refined and intellectual recreation," but many other forms of recreation were carried on within the confines of the museum which were frowned upon when presented on the outside*

When there

was still considerable antagonism to the theatre, many theatrical performances were held in the museum and thus

Q See page 123. 9

See page 16.



See page 102

2 9 8

accepted as proper. The circus furnished an excellent example of not only getting around the taboos, but of using the taboos for its own ends*

Like the minstrel show, the circus

was native to the United States*

American was developing

its own distinctive forms of recreation which were soon to replace many of the former types of entertainment• The circus evolved gradually and had many forerunners in the menagerie, Barnum,

travelling museum, and comical entertainers*

who visited Chicago In 1840 with his entertainers,

Master Diamond and Yankee Jenkins, father of the circus*

is considered the

Although he did not go Into the

regular circus business until a later date than covered by this study, he had his American Museum in New York from which each summer he sent out a number of travelling companies which were forerunners of the circus* While the theatre, lyceums, and musical companies struggled against the prejudices of the day, such as re­ ligious scruples, the urge for "culture," and the doctrine of all work and no play,

Barnum and the managers of travel­

ling museums and so called circuses manipulated these motives for their own purposes*

People who would never have stepped

Inside of a theatre witnessed the performance of "Uncle Tom*s Cabin" and "The Drunkard" in Barnum*s "lecture room," num claimed that his performances were educational and


2 9 9

highly moral,

that his entertainments were "chaste."


stead of struggling against the prejudices and taboos of his day, he capitalized on them. Appeals such as the following were made by the editors of the newspapers in an attempt to secure attendance at the museum,

circus and zoological exhibitions,


tive exhibitions every evening, free from a grossness or immorality that would offend the most fastidious.ffl1 One circus was advertised as providing "unprecedented splendour.,f

Fearing to use the dubious label "circus,”

many companies used such euphemisms as menagerie or zoological exhibition,

terms approved by the more conven­

tional folk. Another common plea in the advertising was the appeal of class prestige. a circus,

For example,

in commenting on

one editor claimed that a "class of people who

have never before attended a circus are found among the patronage."


Other comments,

such as the fact that the

"beauty and fashion of the city," or the "elite" were attending certain programs, to gain prestige,

frequently appeared.

mention was often made in the advertise­

ments of what other cities were doing, Boston,

such as New York,

and even the capitol of the state,


11 C h i c a g o



I b i d ,

In order



J u n e

i l


1 1 ,






1 8 4 7 .





u l


1 6 ,

1 8 4 6 .

5 0 0

Regarding the theatre,

the following statement appearedl

"If the Ladies are waiting for *fashionable precedents1 we will inform them that at 'Springfield' in the State,


theatre was attended, the beauty and the fashion of the fair sex and by the gentlemen of the place.


implication in these advertisements is that if you want to become one of the "elite" you should attend these pro­ grams,

This technique is still common today. One of the most interesting factors in the study

of the resistance and acceptance of certain patterns of behavior was revealed in the study of women in relation to recreation.


not only in the field of recreation,

but in other activities as well, were particularly evident concerning women. tier,

With the arrival of women on the fron­

with two exceptions,

namely the self-sufficient

frontier wife who worked along with her husband,

and an­

other type of woman such as professional prostitute, were subjected to a violent set of taboos.


This was clear­

ly reflected in many forms of recreation in early Ohicago. Women in the higher social classes were especially limited by what was considered proper. In getting around these folkways, frequent appeals were made by the editors of the newspapers.

Remarks such

as "Why do not the fair Ladies of our city lend the Theatre



S e


p a g e

2 8


5 0 1

occasionally the light of their countenance?n appeared in one of the newspapers in 1839."^

That the taboos on women

attending the theatre were breaking down is evidenced by the following statement regarding the opening of Rice's 1 Theatre in Chicago in 18471

"We notice a large number of

||Ladies— the beauty and fashion of the city in nightly I attendance.


This is the well known "bandwagon" technique*

| other ladies may be induced to jump on board, | | Similar appeals were made in reference to concerts | and lectures as can be seen by the fact that the ladies I were urged to attend a concert given by Dempster in 1839

i, } because "The presence of Ladies, we are informed, makes I I a great improvement in his singing,"^6 i

II In referring to a lecture given at the Chicago II ljAthaeneum in 1836, the announcement read, "Ladies are reij 2.7 | spectfully and particularly invited to attend." More p than ten years later similar pleas were made in an effort |] I to get the attendance of the ladies at the horse races, || As in the case of the theatre, separate entrances were ! provided for the "ladies." Police were in attendance at 's'

I the race tracks so that no disturbances would take place | i







Chicago American, September 5, 1839.

1 5 Chicago Daily Journal, July 1, 1847.








Chicago American, September 14, 1839. I b i d ,

F e b r u a r y

1 3 ,

1 8 3 6 .

3 0 2

which might bring a "blush to the cheek."

Furthermore "no

indecent language" was allowed during the races.*^ In considering the conflict between imported and indigenous forms of recreation,

various trends emerged,

some of which will be discussed in the following pages. In the first place, the status of women in regard to recreation was changing.

The attendance of women at

horse races and foot races,

as well as their increasing

attendance at the theatre, was an indication that some of the taboos regulating the proper status of women were breaking down.

The fact also that fewer statements urging

the women to attend public events appeared in the news­ papers is also evidence that it had become the acceptable thing for the "fairer sex" to be present at such functions In the second place,

Chicagoans were beginning to

participate in many forms of recreation frankly because they enjoyed them and hot just because they were supposed to "improve the mind" or receive "cultural uplist."


taboo on recreation for its own sake was being broken down. • Along with this second trend,

came a third movement

namely the definite acceptance of some of the newer forms of recreation in preference to some of the former types of entertainment;

In speaking of a home talent minstrel show,

1 8 C


i c a g o

D a












F e b r u a r y

1 3 ,

1 8 5 6 .

3 0 3

which had undoubtedly secured its stimulation from visit­ ing minstrel showmen, follows!

one of the editors commented as

"These *Native melodies* are perhaps the best

antidote that can be administered for the sickening bane of the fashionable and affected—to—be—understood—and ad­ mired Italian and other Opera of the d a y . T h e


tator went on to say that although such shows might not be Calculated to instruct," they did provide amusement. In time many of the innovations gained such a foothold that older forms of entertainment lost their appeal.


so popular in the 1830*s, were to a

certain extent replaced by other more novel forms of en­ tertainment such as the circus and the minstrel show, which were sometimes labeled a ’'serenade,1* of this,

In speaking

a commentator bemoaned the fact that a certain

lecturer was "so unfortunate as not to be an Ethiopian Serenader or a dancer of *breakdowns. 1"

He went on further

in claiming the tragedy of lose of interest in lectures by stating that the "Ladies and gentlemen of this city should manifest their sympathy for these lamentable de­ fects."20 A fourth trend was evidenced in the growth of pro­ fessionalism

and commercialism in recreation.

S e e page 161. 20 S e e

p a g e

2 0 8 .

In discus-

3 0 4

sing the various types of recreation it is essential that the three general forms,

namely, private,

public recreation be defined*

commercial and

The term private recreation

is applied to non—professional activities provided by groups and private agencies primarily for the educational and recreational value for the participants} commercial recreation refers to those recreational activities which are promoted as a business enterprise; public recreation denotes that supported by public funds. In the period covered by this study, both dancing and sports were private enterprises,

although the policy

of including dancing as an added attraction for a business enterprise was practiced by both tavern keepers and lake captains of excursion boats. The practice of utilizing dancing as an attraction for business is a device employed in a limited degree by our pioneers but extensively for many years by commercial agencies, particularly by the liquor interests. as in other great cities,

In Chicago,

dance halls were a part of pre-

prohibition saloon equipment; and liquor and dancing in post—prohibition times have been taken up by taverns and night clubs. It was not until the present century, however,


the commercial value of dancing resulted in the erection of great dance palaces and that dancing became a distinct

3 0 5

commercial commodity quite separate from the liquor business. Another type of dancing almost wholly unknown in pioneer Chicago,

is the type exhibited on the stage by pro­

fessional dancers and its counterpart engaged in by amateurs. Thus,

our observations indicate that among the early

settlers of Chicago dancing was primarily non-commercial and recreational

eventhough at times it was used as an adjunct

to business;

that this function has increased steadily and

holds a prominent that dancing

place at present.


it is apparent

is so popular with the masses of people that

it constitutes a profit making business as both recreation and entertainment. Frontier sports in Chicago may be regarded as purely recreational.Even though there was some gambling on horse races and on election returns,

such gambling as existed at

that time may be considered in terms of private vice, where­ as in present day Chicago it is big business.

The commercial

ism and professionalism so prominent in sports today had practically no place a hundred years ago.

These qualities

prevail not only in the recognized old time sports such as baseball and boxing, but also in wrestling, ice hockey, and even basketball. hunting,





Pioneer sports such as


and no doubt swimming,

although little is said about it, were wholly recreational, non-competitive and non-professional,

in the modern sense.

3 0 6

Although there were newspaper advertisements of games,

such as the old type of cards and board games in

the eighteen forties, little else was written about them. Such activities were doubtless so much a part of the folk­ ways that they were taken for granted. Drama, productions.

then as now, depended largely on professional The professional,

commercial and amateur

elements were all present but due to scarcity of local talent,

it was necessary to depend largely on professionals

for dramatic entertainment.

The dramatic urge of these

early Chicagoans found expression in colorful parades* and in the eighteen forties in May Day pageants and amateur school and

church programs; and although in several instances

local amateurs took part in plays produced by visiting thea­ trical companies,

amateur dramatics in the form of plays

had little place in the life of these people. Notwithstanding the scope of cultural change, the development ofpublic recreation,

the commercialization and

professionalism that have taken place in the recreation of the people of Chicago in the past hundred years, the hypothesis that specific types of play-behavior are univer­ sal in human society finds support in the records which con­ stitute the basis of this study.













Primary Unpublished Calhoun, John, Subscription Book for the Chicago Democrat, November, 1855» Manuscript* Chicago Historical Society Library* Chicago American, Day Book, August 1 , 1857-June 28. 1841* Manuscript. Chicago Historical Society Library. Edwards, Ninian, Ninnian Edwards Papers. Chicago Historical Society Library. Hubbard, Gurdon S., Hubbard Papers. Historical Society Library.




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Kenyon, William Asbury, Miscellaneous Poems, To Which are Added Writings in Prose on Various Sub.jects. Chicago* James Campbell and Company, 1845. Kinzie, Mrs. John H . , Wau-Bun. The Early Day in the North­ w e s t . Philadelphia* J.B. Lippincott and Company, 1875. Latrobe, Charles Joseph, The Rambler in North America* 1852-1855. 2d edition, Volume I, II. London* R.B. Seeley and W. Burnside, 1836. Mcllvaine, Mabel, ed. Reminiscences of Early Chicago. The Lakeside Press. Chicago* R.R. Donnelley and Sons, 1912. Martineau, Harriet., Society in America. Volume I, II, III. London* Saunders and Otley, 1847. Pierce, Bessie Louise, ed., As Others See Chicago. Chicago* University of Chicago Press, 1935. Porter, Jeremiah, The Early Religious History of Chicago. (Fergus Historical Series, Number 14^. Chicago* Fergus Printing Company, 1881. Reynolds, John, The Pioneer History of Illinois, contain­ ing the Piscovery, in 1675, and the History of the Country to the Year 1818, when the State Government was Organized. Belleville, Illinois* N.A. Randall, 1852. Schoolcraft, Henry R . , Personal Memoirs of Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the Ameri­ can Frontiers * with brief notices of passing event s , facts and opinion, A. D . 1812 to A . D . 1842. Philadelphia* Lippincott, Grambo and Company, 1851. Thomas, Jesse B . , Report of Jesse B. Thomas, as a Member of the Executive Committee appointe £ £ 2: the Chicago Harbor and River Convention, of the Statistics concern­ ing the City of Chicago. Chicago* R.L. Wilson, Daily Journal Office, 1847. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, Early Western Travels, 1748-1846. Volume XXVI. Cleveland* A.H. Clark, 1904. Trollope, Frances, Domestic Manners of the Americans. Volume I. London* Whittaker-Treacher Company, 1832.

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John, Two Years Residence in the Settlement on the in the Illinois Country, U. S . .. .with ff&bits and Customs of the Back—Woodsman. By an Englishman who emigrated to America sending it back i a £rj-.ends _and relatives in England. 18 22 . London! Longman, Hurst, Reese, Orme, and Brown, 1823. Prairie

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Chicago American. (Whig Daily.


Chicago Democrat. (Democrat. Weekly. 1833-61. Absorbed by the Chieago Tribune, 1861. Name changed to Weekly Chicago Democrat. June 23, 1846.) PgJJ-Y. Democrat. (Probably a continuation of the Chicago Morning Democrat. Name changed to Daily Democrat about June, 1845. Absorbed by Chicago Tribune, 1861.) Chicago Express*


Chicago Daily Journal. Caily. 1844-1929) Gem of the Prairie.

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Republica, Literary.

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Directories Fergus, Robert comp. Directory of the City of Chicago, 1839. (Fergus Historical Series, Number 2) Chicago! Fergus Princint Company, 1896. Norris^J, General Directory and Business Advertiser of the City of Chicago, for the year 1844. Chicago* Ellis and Fergus, 1844. .•• • • f A Business Advertiser and General Directory of the City of Chicago, for the Year 1845-6, Together with a Historical and Statistical Account Second Year o f













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Secondary Books Andreas, A.T., History of Chicago from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Volume I. Chicago: A.T. Andreas 1884. Arlington, L.C., The Chinese Drama from the Earliest Times Pntil Today. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, Limited, 1930 Asbury, Herbert, Gem of the Prairie, an Informal History the Chicago Underworld. New lork: Alfred A. Knopf, 1940. Bennet, Frances 0. History of Music and Art in Illinois. Chicago! Societe Universell Lyrique, 1904. Bross, William, History of Chicago. McClurg and Company, 1876.



Chicago Daily News, Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book, 1935. Chicago! Chicago D aily News, 1932. Chicago Recreation Commission, Chicago Recreation Survey. Volumes, I, II, III, IV, V. Chicago: Chi cago Recrea­ tion Commission, 1937-1940. Child, C.M., Physiological Foundations of Behavior. New York: Henry Holt and Company, T 1 9 2 4 ) ---Codrington, R.H., The Melanesians, Studies in Anthropology and Folk-Lore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891. Currey, J. Seymour, The Story of Old Fort Dearborn. Chicago A.C. McClurg and Company, 1912. Dewey, John, Human Nature and Conduct. Holt and Company, 1922. Drury, John, Old Chicago Houses. of Chicago Press, ^1941 )'•

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Gardner, Helen, Art Through the Ages, an Introduction to its History and Significance. New York: Harcourt, Brace and C o m p a n y ^ (1926)

Gilbert, Paul and Bryson, Charles Lee, eds., Chicago and s Makers. Chicago* Felix Mendelsohn, 1929. Gomme, A.B., Dictionary of British Folk-Lore * Part I, Traditional Games of England. Scotland and Ireland, Volume I. London* David Mutt, 1894. Groos, Karl, The Play of Animals. and Company, 1915. • • • • » The Play of Man* Company, 1916.

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Groose, Ernest, The Beginnings of A r t . Appleton and Company, 1899.

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Hall, G. Stanley, Youth, Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene. New York* D. Appleton and Company, 1908. Hornblow, Arthur A., History of the American Theatre, from its Beginnings to the Present Time. Volume I. Phildaelphia* J.B. Lippincott, 1919. Hughes, Glenn, The Story of the Theatre> A Short History of Theatrical Art from its Beginnings to the Present D a y . New York* Samuel French, 1928. Jansen, Florence A . , The Background of Swedish Immigration, 1840-1950. Chicago* University of Chicago Press, 1931. Kempf,'John Edward, Autonomic Functions and the Personality. New York* Nervous and Mental Disease Publication, Series Number 28, 1918. Kidd, Dudley, The Essential Kaffir, London* Black, 1904. Kidd, Dudley, Savage Childhood. Black, 1901.


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Kirkland, Joseph, The Ohicago Massacre of 1812. A Histori­ cal and Biographical Narrative of Fort Dearborn. Chicago* Alahambra Book Company, 1893.

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Krout, John Allen, "Annals of American Sport,B Pageant of America. Volume XV. New Haven* Yale University Press, 1929. Langfeld, Herbert S., The Aesthetic Attitude. Harcourt, Brace and How, 1920.

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Wentworth, John, Early Chicago* A Lecture delivered before the Sunday Lecture Society, at McCormick Hall on Sunday Afternoon, May 7th, 1876. (Fergus Histori cal Series, Number 7). Chicago! Fergus Printing Company, 1876* • • • * , Reminiscenses of Old Chicago.(Fergus Historical Series Number 8 Y~, Chicago! Fergus Printing Company 1876. Wundt, E . , Elements of Folk Psychology. Outlines of a Psychological History of the Development of Mankind, authorized translation by Edward Leroy Schaub. New York! The Macmillan Company, (1916). Magazines Allen Rev. William. ’’The Relation of New England to the Growth and Prosperity of the West,” Weekly Chicago Democrat, July 13, 1847. Davies, R . , ’’Some Arab Games and Puzzles,” Sudan Notes and Records, Volume tflll, 1925.

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Name; VAN ZEE, VIOLA ALICE Birth: ^urlock, California, January 15, 1910 Education;

1927-29 1929-30 1930-36 1935-36 1937-42

Los Angeles Junior College Pasadena College A.B. 1930 University of Southern California M.A. 1935 University of Washington Northwestern University

Experience: 1931-35 Grade teacher, -Arizona schools 1935-36 Bart-time teacher, Seattle Pacific College SS 1935 Case worker, Los Angeies relief 1936-37 Case worker, Washington C&iictnen’s Nome Society Part-time teacher of ^ociology, Evanston 1937Collegiate Institute