The rock inscriptions of lower nubia

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Plates_zkontrol.pdf
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Citation preview

C H A R L E S U N I V E R S I T Y OF P R A G U E C Z E C H O S L O V A K I N S T I T U T E O F EGYPTOLOGY I N P R A G U E A N D I N C A I R O PUBLICATIONS, VOLUME I

The expedition boat Sadiq en-Niiba

at

Shabliil. Photo by 2. Zkba

C H A R L E S UNIVERSITY O F P R A G U E CZECHOSLOVAK I N S T I T U T E O F EGYPTOLOGY I N P R A G U E A N D I N C A I R O PUBLICATIONS, VOLUME I

THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS O F LOWER NUBIA (CZECHOSLOVAK CONCESSION)

With Contributions by Fritz Hint z e (Meroitic and Carian Inscriptions), Latin Inscriptions and those in Greek contributed by the author. Followed by a PA LAE 0 G RA P H Y of the Ancient Egyptian Rock Texts here published by

7

ZbynEk Z h b a

and

Miroslav Verner

With CCXXIX photographic plates and

PRAGUE 1974

12

maps

O Universita Karlova, Praha 1974

TO PROFESSOR JAROSLAV

CERNY,

PhDr., F. B. A.

Honorary Member of the Czechoslovak Institute of Egyptology the first Czech Egyptologist to work in Egypt this book is dedicated

LOWER NUBIA

Map. No. I

CONTENTS

LIST OF MAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 LIST O F NON EGYPTIAN INSCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CONCORDANCE O F INSCRIPTION NUMBERS WITH FIELD NUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '7 TEXTS I . Rock Inscriptions of Lower Nubia (Czechoslovak Concession) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2 . Appendix . Rock Inscriptions from the Marsa (Alum-EdfkRoad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 EXCURSI Excursus I Dates of El-Girgawi Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Excursus I1 Personal Names and Filiations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Excursus I I I Formal Aspects of Rock Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 A PALAEOGRAPHY O F THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ROCK TEXTS HERE PUBLISHED preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 259 2 . A Note to Signs G 39 and H 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 3. Palaeographic Tables. by ZbynCk Zkba and Miroslav Verner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 INDEXES I . PERSONAL NAMES OF COMMONERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 2 . TITLES AND OCCUPATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 3. ROYAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 4 . DIVINE NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 5 . GEOGRAPHICAL. TOPOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNIC NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 6. EGYPTIAN WORDS AND PHRASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 7. ARAMAIC NAMES AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8. CARIAN NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 g COPTIC NAMES AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 10. GREEK NAMES AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 11. LATIN NAMES AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 12. MEROITIC NAMES AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 13. GENERAL INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 LIST OF PLATES . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 PLATES I-CCXXIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 a

.

LIST OF M A P S

No. I Map of 1,ower Nubia. By J. Hcjtmrinek and J. hlareeek, p. 9 No. I1 Eleven section maps showing location of Inscription Numbers and Field Numbers. By J. Hejtmanek and J. Maretck. Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section

comprisirlg comprising 3 comprising 4 comprising 5 comprising 6 comprising 7 comprising 8 comprising g comprising 10 comprising I I comprisirlg I

2

Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions Inscriptions

Nos, Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos. Nos.

I - 80, p. 81- 89, p. go- 94, p. 95- gy, p. I oo - 143, p. 144- 179, p. I 80- I 98, p. 199-201, p. 202-203, p. 204 207, p. 208 - 243, p.

2j I20 I 28 132 I 35 157 182 195 196

200

203

L I S T O F N O N EGYPTIAN INSCRIPTIONS Aramaic Nos. 180--183, 20:) Carian KO. 196 Coptic No. 19:) Greck (Latin names writtcrl i n Grcck script included) NOS.75, 184 -- 189, 207, 234-235, Latin 236, 238 -240 Meroitic 5, 90, 97 Unknown (pseudo-inscription ?) 9 I All the remaining inscriptions arc in Ancicnt E g ~ y t i a n .

237, 241 --242, A 25

CONCORDANCE OF INSCRIPTION NUMBERS WITH FIELD NUMBERS

1:icld

I ~ i s c r Sns. .

I A I

do.

22

25

'7 R 77,6

6

7

8 '3 I 0 II

12

'3 14 15 IG

'7

I8

'9 20

2I

26

"

R 77, 13 R 30 g-/Z 28 a-nz R 30 i-f 29 1 7 K 30 '7 3O 1 7 R 30 b 3' 1 7 R 30 C 32 17R30d 1 7 R 30 ' 1 33 1 7 R 30 0 34 35 1 7 R 30 1' 36 1 7 R 30 r 37 17R3o~ 38 I7 R 3 0 t 39 1 7 R 30 21 4O 1 7 R 30 2 -11 1 7 R 32 a 42 1 7 R32 b I 7 R 32 clj 43 44 1 7 R 32 c p 1 7 R 32 d 45 46 17 R34c 47 7 7 R 34 g ZJ 7

.

161,16I

B

16R28a 16 R 28 b 1 7 R 6 .4 17K6C:n 1 7 R 14 11 17 R 14 b 17 R 14c 1 7 R 14 d ' 7 R 77, 1 '7-f, ' 7 R 7798 ' 7 R 77,3 77 R 77, 4 11 1 7 R 77, 4 b I 7 R 7794c 1 7 R 77,5 1 7 R 77, ' 0 1 7 I3 77, 1 0 b 1 7 R 77, I O C , d 1 7 R 77, '0 e 1 7 R 77,9 ' 7 R 77, 1 1

2

3 4 5

Inscr. Nos.

Nos.

17 I7 I7

2

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60A 60B 61 . 4 B 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

73 74 75 76

77 78

79 80 8I 82 83 84 85-86 87 88 89 90 $11

92 93 94 93

Field Sos

K 35 x R 3 j I, I7R35~ '7 R 3 5 a '7 R 35 c '7 R 35" ' 7 R 35f 1 7 R 353' 1 7 R 35 k ' 7 R 35 1 ' 7 R 35 m ' 7 R 3.5I 17R3.x 17R35t 17R35u I 7 R 35 zt ' 7 R 35 w '7R35" 1 7 R 354' 17R35.s 1 7 R 35 a! I 7 R 35 P I7 R 33 y I 7 R35 v 17 R 35 E 17 K 35 2 I 7 R 35 o '7 R 35 0 '7 R 47 '7 R 76 I 7 R XII, 41 1 7 R XIX, 1 1 7 R XIX, 2 17 R XIX, 3 18R I 18 R 2 18L3a 18L3b 18 L 3 C, d 18L3e 18L 3 f '8L39 '9R3 '9 R 4 '9R5 1gR 11 a I C J R I Ib 20R I 17 17

Inscr. Nos.

Field Nos

Inscr. Nos.

Field Nos.

Inscr. Nos.

177-8

779

I 80

181-2 '83 84 '85 I 86 '87 188 89 '9" '9' '92 I93 '94 195 a-c 196 I97 'g8 199

'

'

200 20 I

202

203 204 205 206 207

208 209 210 2' I

Field Nos.

31 L 3 B 31 L 2 32R8Aa 32R8Ca 32 R 1 2 32 L 50 32 L 49 32 L 48 32 L 36 a 32 L 36 b 32 L 35 A 32 L 26 32 Id 16 32 L 9 32 L 8 32 L 4 32 R I c 32 L 3 32L2A 32 L I 33 bis I, 46 33 his L 37 33 his L 34 33 L 8 33L2Ac 34 bis L 3 a 34 bis L 3 b 34 bis L 3 c 34 bis L 2 B 34L2a 34L2b 34 R 36 34 R 37 A

Inscr. Nos.

Field Nos.

LIST O F ABBREVIATIONS

ANTHES, Hatnub = R. ANTHES, Die Felseninschriften uon Hatnub, Leipzig, 1928. ASA = Annales du Service des Antiquite's de 171?gypte. BIFAO= Bulletin de I'lnstitut Frangais d'drchiologie Orientale du Caire. BREASTED,Ancient Records = J . H . BREASTED,Ancient Records of Egypt, 5 vols. Chicago, 1906-7. ERN+, The Inscriptions o f Sinai, cf. GARDINER-PEET-CERN~.. Cairo Stela - quoted from H . 0. LANGEand H . SCHAFER,Grab- und Denksteine des Mittleren Reiches, in the Catalogue gknkral des antiquitis e'gyptiennes du Muse'e du Caire, I 902 -- 25. CHAMPOLLION, Notices Descriptives = CHAMPOLLION L E J E U N E Monuments , de I'EgYpte et de la Nubie. Notices Descriptives, Paris, I 844 - 79. COUYAT-MONTET,Hammdmdt = J . COUYAT and P. MONTET,Les inscriptions hikrogbphiques et hie'rattiques du Ouadi Hammamat, Cairo, I g I 2 - I 3. DRIOTON-VANDIER, LYEgypte = E. DRIOTONand J . VANDIER, Les Peuples de 170rient MiditerranLen, 11, L'Egypte (collection "Clio"), 4 t h ed., Paris, I 962. EDEL, Altagyptische Grammatik = E. EDEL, Altagyptische Grammatik I (Analecta Orientalia 34), I1 (ibidem 34/39), R o m a , I955 and 1964FAULKNER,Dictionary = R. 0. FAULKNER,A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford, 1964. GARDINER, Grammar = S I R ALANGARDINER, Egyptian Grammar, 2nd ed., O x f o r d , 1950. GOYON, Hammamat = G. GOYON,Nouvelles Inscriptions Rupestres du Wadi Hammamat, Paris, I 957. HELCK, Untersuchungen zu den Beamtentiteln = W . HELCK, Untersuchungen zu den Beamtentiteln des agyptischen Alten Reiches, i n &yptologische Forschungen, H e f t I 8 , Gliickstadt-Hamburg-Ncw Y o r k , 1 954. HELCK,Verwaltung = W . HELCK,xur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs, Leiden, 1958. JAMES,The Hekanakhte Papers = T . G. H . JAMES,The Hekanakhte Papers and Other Early Middle Kzngdom Documents, New Y o r k , I 962. J E A = Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. J N E= ~ Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Grammaire de 1 ' ~ ~ ~ p t Clas~ique, ien and ed., Le Caire, 1955. LEFEBVRE,Grammaire = G . LEFEBVRE, LEPSIUS, Denkmaler = R. L E P S I U SDenkmder , aus Agypten und Athiopien, 6 parts, Berlin, 1849-58. L E P S I U SDenkmaler.., , T e x t = R. L E P S I V SDenkmaler , aus Agypten und A'thiopien, Text herausgegeben b y E. NAVILLE,v01. I V , bearbeitet v o n K . SETHE,v01. V , bearbeitet v o n W . Wreszinski, Leipzig, 1901 and 1913. 1.p.h. = may he liw, prosper, and be hale, as translation o f crib, wg!,, Snb. MOLLER = G. MOLLER,Hieratische Palibgraphie, 3 . ~ 0 1 s Leipzig, .~ 1909- 1 2 . Orientalia = Journal o f the Pontifico Instituto Biblico. PORTER-MOSS= B. PORTER, R. L. B. M O S S ,E. BURNEY, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroghphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, vol. V I I , Oxford, 1951. PSBA = Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. RANKE = H . RANKE, Die agyptischen Personennamen, 2 vols., Gliickstadt, 1935 -53. Rec. Trau. = Recueil de travaux relatifs h la philologie et h 17archt!ologie kgyptiennes et assyriennes. Rev. d7Eg. = Revue d7Egyptologie. SAVE-SODERBERGH= T . SAVE-SODERBERGH, Agypten und Nubien. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte altagyptischer Aussenpolitik, L u n d , 194 I . SETHE,Urkunden I = K. SETHE,Urkunden des Alten Re'ichs, Leipzig, 1933. WEIGALL = A. E. P. WEIGALL, A Report on the ~ n t c ~ u i t i eofs Lower Nubia (the jrst Cataract to the Sudan frontier) and their Condition in 1906-7, Oxford, 1907.

WEIGALL, Travels.. = A. E. P. WEIGALL, Travels in the Upper Egyptian Deserts, Edinburgh and London,

'

909. ZA'S = ZeitschriJt fiir agyptische S'rache und Altertumskunde. Other books are quoted in full except for dates of publication and collections in which they appeared, for which see I. PRATT, Ancient Egypt, Sources of Information in the New Ygrk Public Library, New York, 1925 and 1942, and similar reference books. For the usual abbreviations of Ancient Egyptian texts cf. GARDINER, Grammar, List of Abbreviations. In the sections TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION the usual system of brackets is used (cf. e.g. CERN?, The Inscriptions of Sinai 11, p. X I ) .

PREFACE

In May 1956, at the invitation of the Republic of Egypt, the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education and Culture sent a delegation to Egypt to help prepare the ground for drafting a cultural agreement between the two countries. Far from being ministerial officials, the members of the delegation included an actor (Andrej Bagsr, National Artist), writer and painter (Prof. Adolf Hoffmeister), journalist (Jaroslav Putik), film director (Ivan Fri?) and two Egyptologists (Academician FrantiSek Lexa and the author of the present book). Undoubtedly it was the friendly, informal tone set by Minister of Education and Schools, Mr. Kam5l ed-Din Husein, when receiving the delegation that induced me to approach him with a quite personal question - whether his country would agree if Charles University in Prague should consider sometime in the future establishing an Institute of Egyptology in Cairo. Without any hesitation, the Minister replied in the affirmative and added that Egypt would be needing the help of scholars in Nubia, in the area due to be flooded by the reservoir of the future Nile dam at Aswan. Of course, to obtain firsthand material in Egypt was the dearest wish of all of us who had been privileged to attend Prof. Jaroslav Gernq's lectures on archaeology at Charles University, but on our return home, I submitted the proposal for establishing an archaeological institute of Charles University in Cairo with some misgivings as to how it would be received by the University and the Ministry. After thorough examination and lengthy preparations, the idea was favourably received, thanks in no small measure to the wholehearted support of Academician Lexa, whose authority as the founder of Egyptological studies at Charles University carried considerable weight. The University's request was then approved almost immediately under the terms of the cultural agreement that had in the meantime bccn concluded with the United Arab Republic. In June 1959, the General Director of the Department of Antiquities of the UAR, Dr. Anwar Shukri, spoke at a ceremonial gathering, attended by Academician Lexa and Professor Julius Dolansk?, Dean of the Philosophical Faculty of Charles University, on the occasion of the foundation of the Czechoslovak Institute of Egyptology in Cairo. O n March 8, 1960, at the request of the United Arab Republic, UNESCO issued through its General Director, Vittorino Veronese, an appeal to the world to help in saveguarding the cultural heritage of ancient Nubia which was threatened by the reservoir of the projected Aswan High Dam. The Czechoslovak Republic immediately promised its help and delegated the work to the Czechoslovak Institute of Egyptology of Charles University in Prague and Cairo. The Institute's first expedition to the UAR left Prague on May 18 of the same year. Unfortunately, Academician Lexa did not live to see this day; he died in Prague on January I 3, I 960, at the age of 84 years. The Institute obtained permission from the Department of Antiquities of the UAR to undertake long-term excavation of the large tomb of the vizier Ptabshepses at Abiisr near Cairo. The first expedition in 1960 started this work, while also establishing the Institute's Cairo centre as the headquarters for a series of five epigraphical and archaeological expeditions to Nubia, in accordance with the plans made by our Institute for aid to the UAR long before the UXESCO appeal. From the start we worked in close cooperation with the Department of Antiquities of UAR and the Centre of' Documentation and Study of the Art and Civilization of Ancient Egypt in Cairo. At the invitation of UNESCO, the author attended meetings of experts in Cairo in 1959 and 1960. During the first expedition, he started work at the Documentation Centre on filling in the blank maps made for the Centre by the Paris Institut Giographique National for the use of all future expeditions to Nubia. This work, using other maps, Egyptological literature and aerial photographs, was continued by Polish colleagues. As regards field work in Nubia, our Institute planned a complete epigraphical survey and documentation of all rock inscriptions and rock drawings and paintings throughout Lower Nubia, together with archaeological and epigraphical documentation of the rock temple at Ellesiya and archaeological investigation of a cemetery in the southern part of Lower Nubia. Primarily with a view to enabling the epigraphical survey to be completed in five years without having to rely on boats of deep draught, the Institute brought from Czechoslovakia a special twinhulled craft of catamaran type constructed according to the author's requirements by her subsequent captain, Milan Hlinomaz. This readily controlled craft was launched above the Old Aswan Dam and named Sadiq en-Nriba, "Friend of Nubia", on July I I , 1961. She came up to our best expectations; her two engines

PREFACE

made for easy navigation, she could turn on the spot and her draught of a mere I 2 cm. enabled her to sail along the banks and over stones close below the surface; moreover, she could carry up to 80 people, and a jeep could easily be driven off on to the bank. Thanks to a light and airy tent construction on deck, conditions were bearable even in the hottest Nubian summer. When the second expedition, which was to be the first to Nubia, arrived in Egypt in April 1961, the Institute was fully prepared to carry out the above plan. However, M. Louis A. Christophe, UNESCO's special delegate for Nubian affairs at the Documentation Centre, asked us to change our original plan in favour of an urgent task which no other expedition was in a position to undertake that year. The objectives were: I. to rediscover on a plain one kilometre long and half a kilometre wide, once the site of ancient Taphis, "the southern temple of Tifa", the location of which was known only very approximately from drawings and two daguerreotypes by 18th and 19th century travellers, but which had since been submerged by mud. The temple was to be entered on the map of the settlement and so reinstated among the other buildings of Taphis. 2. T o make the first accurate plans of the big fort at Qerfasi, about seven'kilometres to the north. Unfortunately, neither site had been investigated during the work of saving Nubian antiquities when the first Aswiin Dam was under construction; since then, both the Taphis plain and the Qeriiisi fort had been flooded for eleven months of the year, especially after the last raising of the Old Aswan Dam, and they were covered in mud. Only for one month, at the height of the African summer, were the sites left high and dry by the lowering of the lake surface in preparation for the annual Nile flood. I n summer 1961,the level of water was to be especially low to facilitate archaeological work in Nubia, so that this and the following year would be the most favourable for the work and, indeed, provide the last opportunity. The concession in this area had been allotted to Chicago University, whose representatives, however, announced that they would not be working at Taphis and Qertiisi in the summer. Furthermore, considerable areas had already been promised as concessions to other foreign archaeological expeditions that were to be responsible at the same time for epigraphical surveys. Our original request to undertake the epigraphical survey of the whole of Egyptian Nubia could not, therefore, be met in full. Finally, the epigraphical and archaeological investigation of the rock temple at EllFsiya was, as in the case of all temples, the responsibility of the UAR Documentation Centre. Frankly, our Institute was of the opinion that the best results would be obtained if the survey of rock inscriptions and rock drawings were not divided u p among the numerous archaeological concessions, but entrusted to a single institution as an epigraphical investigation in the broadest sense (i.e. a survey of both rock inscriptions and rock engravings and paintings) covering all Nubia and independent of the archaeological work of other expeditions. A systematic epigraphical survey of the Nubian area that would not miss a single inscription or rock drawing would require the training of native workers who would help to "comb" the region and would take part in further expeditions of this kind, so that the experience gained in one season would be used in subsequent years. The same, of course, applies to the members of the institution directing'such work. Moreover, it would be much easier to work on material, both inscriptions and rock drawings, gathered from the whole area of Lower Nubia, than for number of expeditions from various institutions to concern themselves with smaller sectors; field work, and still more the subsequent evaluation of material, would suffer in view of this dispersion from a lack of comparative material from other sectors. I t was also questionable whether archaeological expeditions would always have the time to devote to epigraphical surveys of their concessions and whether they would include on every occasion trained epigraphists and their indispensable technical assistants. Finally, there was the not negligible consideration that only a single institution entrusted with working on the epigraphical material throughout Lower Nubia would be able to guarantee uniform documentation and treatment of material. Nevertheless, our Institute's primary concern was to provide the assistance asked of us by the organisers of the salvage campaign; we therefore agreed to undertake the unexpected and difficult work at Taphis and Qerfiisi and accomplished it successfully during two summer expeditions, in 1961 and 1962. For epigraphical survey combined with archaeological one in the following years we were offered two areas, of which the first, northerly, including epigraphical and archaeological investigation on both banks of the Nile, was covered by the maps (the numbers refer to the French maps at the UAR Documentation Centre) Minute 16 (end), 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, while the second, further to the north, appeared on maps Minute 28 bis, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 bis, 33, 34 bis, 34 and 35 (beginning). We were then asked to hand over part of our northern concession, covered by maps Minute 28 bis, 28, 29 and 30, to the expedition of the Archaeological Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. We agreed to make this transfer, so that finally we were left with two areas that together; measured along the Nile bank, were only about I O O kilometres in length. The southerly one lay between Nagc el-Bir (not quite I I kilometres downstream from the temple of rAmZda) and the temple of Wadi es-Sebiica; for epigraphical work we were allotted both banks in this area, for archaeological work only the left bank. The concession to the north, with permission for epigraphical and archaeological investigation on both banks of the Nile, lay between the temples of Gerf Husein and Kalabsha. The location of the two concessions on the map of Lower Nubia

PREFACE

and their distribution on the 1)ocumentation Centre's map sections are shown or1 our comprehensive map No. I .*\ A systematic survey of the areas allotted to us in Nubia required two epigraphico-archaeological expeditions and one archaeological, which were made in 1963-65. The first two expeditions (1963, 1964) carried out a complete epigraphical survey of our concessions and a preliminary archaeological survey, excavations being made only when finds lay at places directly threatened by higher water in the next year.**) More extensive diggings, resulting from findings of the preliminary archaeological survey, were undertaken by the third expedition in 1965,***) and the most northerly of the epigraphical finds on the left bank were documented. The first of these epigraphical expeditions lasted from May 1 9 to July I I , 1963. It found and documented rock inscriptions Nos. I -80 published in this book, and rock drawings that are to be included in the Catalogue of Rock Drawings of Lower Nubia,Ctechosloz~akConcession, under the site numbers 376-382, 388- 455, 464- 954. T h e second epigraphical expedition worked in Nubia from April 26 to May 29, 1964. I t found and documented rock inscriptions Nos. 81-230, published in this book, and rock drawings from sites Nos. I -375, 383-387,456-463, which will also be included in the above-mentioned catalogue.****) Inscriptions Nos. 23 I -242 were found and documented on May 2 I , 1965, during the third, mainly archaeological expedition. Inscriptions Nos. A I -29, published together with the already-known inscription A 30 in the Appendix of the present book, were discovered by chance beside the road between Edfii and Mars5 rAlam in the course of the various expeditions when travelling by car from Cairo to Aswan and back. The expeditions were headed by Prof. ZbynCk &iba, acting as Field-Director and chief epigraphist ( '963, 1964) Acting Inspectors of Antiquities were: Mr. rAbd el- Aziz Sidecl of the Documentation Centre of the UAR, who also helped as epigraphist (rock drawings and rock paintings) and was in charge of maps (1963) Mr. FZriiq Gomfa ( I 964) Reis of our Egyptian workmen was : Mr. h b d u el-KerEti All members of the Institute staff' took part in the search for rock inscriptions and drawings, and the captain of our boat in 1964, Dr. E. Hnatek, also cooperated, when he was not occupied with his other duties. Among our Egyptian workers from Quff, who had been chosen from those who had proved their abilities during the Institute's work in 1960-62, valuable services were rendered in this respect by their foreman, reis of the Department of Antiquities, Mr. h b d u el-KerEti. Before starting our systematic survey, our attention was called to some inscriptions and drawings by the local Nubian population, sometimes through the rornda (local mayor), or our Nubian cook, Muhammad esh-Sherif. The relations between our expedition and the Nubian people were always most cordial. For this we are largely indebted to Dr. Eugen Strouhal, anthropologist, archaeologist and physician, who was always ready, with the agreement of the inspectors of the Department of Antiquities, to give medical assistance to the local people. O n one occasion (at Korosko) we were told about some antiquities at Es-SahrigZt by the rAbiibda nomads, whose Sheikh lent me his camels for the journey. In our systematic survey of the area, we set ourselves the aim of not missing a single inscription or rock drawing. The difference between the systematic method employed by our expeditions and the type of search made by our predecessors is best illustrated by the number of our finds at places where we know that inscriptions and rock drawings were actually sought. As examples we may cite Korosko, of which WEICALLwrote that "a fairly thorough search over the neighbouring hills and valleys, and for some five kilometres along the caravan road did not reveal a single inscription or graffito" ( A Report on the Antiquities of Lower Nubia . . ., 1907, p. 107) and where he found neither our inscription No. 77 (not to mention inscriptions Nos. 78-81), nor the three rock shelters with fine paintings; further, the *) Precise delimination as communicated to us: Southern concession: from points on Documentation Centre map sheet 16 - from a line at right angles to the Nile, at the intersection of the "parallel" marked 994 and the "meridian" marked 748, to the point on the 1j.C. map sheet 2 1 marked by "meridian" 771. Northern concession: From the intersection of the "parallel" marked 66 on map D.C:. sheet 31 with the "meridian" marked 8ro on the east bank of the Silc, and on the west bank of the Nile fimm the northern end of the facade of the temple of Gerf tjusein to the parallel labelled 97 on map D.C:. sheet 35. * * ) .An anepigraphic rock tomb near NagC el-Bir in 1963 and a rock toml) at Xagc el-E'arriq in 1964. The epigraphical material from the latter site (inscriptions on sandstone sarcophagi) will be published in a volume, now in preparation, The Archaeological Surz~tyof .\Ubia, C,iechoslovak (,hncession. ***) The results of the expedition's excavations at Wadi Qitna and Kal5l)sha will be published in The iY-G'roup Cemeteries of bt7idi Qiltla a t ~ doJ' Kalib.rha. ****) 1:ollowing pul~licationof this catalogue, which is to go to press probally in 1975, the Institute will publish an extensive work by its members, including a comprehensive treatment of respective subject-groups of rock drawings in the Czechoslovak concession.

PREFACE

country "between Korosko and Derr", where Weigall "found nothing except a few drawings of animals" (loc. cit.), compared with 72 inscriptions b'etween Korosko and Nagr Abii Shaniik alone (the remaining 14 kilometres on'the way to Ed-Derr lay outside our concession); or "the country between Es-Sebfira andrAmiday' (left bank), of which Weigall says that "along this whole stretch of 55 kilometres the writer was unable to find more than one insciiption, and that was unreadable" (op. cit. p. 100) and where we found 32 inscriptions (Weigall's "unreadable" inscription was probably our No. I A B). The same goes for rock drawings; for example, DUNBAR,who made not less than 25 surveys in Lower Nubia between 1929 and 1939, described and published in his The Rock Pictures of Lower Nubia (1941) anly 13 pictures from the Korosko area, compared with our 2,196. We have referred to the length of our toncessions above. As regards the depth of the survey from the Nile bank into the surrounding country, the situation varied considerably, because'the limits were supposed to be set by the water line of the future reservoir, and this was determined by the configuration of the land at any given place. In 'most cases the banks of the reservoir could be traced from the contour lines on the maps that the French Institut Ge'ographique National had made for the UAR Documentation Centre in Cairo by photogrammetric means from aerial photos, and which were lent to expeditions by the Documentation Centre so that they could enter their finds. However, these maps had two big drawbacks. Firstly, they were not made from photographs taken at the absolutely lowest level of the Nile (according to the captions on the maps, the photographs were taken in September 1g5g), secondly, in the case of deep valleys they were useless, showing empty patches at places that would obviously be flooded and would therefore require investigation. Finds at such places could not be entered on these maps. In our case this concerned Wadi Korosko and Wadi Rabma. I n both instances we had to make our own more or less accurate sketch maps with entries of our finds. It is unfortunate that these original maps, on which the finds of the different expeditions were entered, have not been published, and that despite the fact that the territories concerned have or will be flooded, the ban on their publication still holds. Some foreign expeditions have therefore refrained from publishing any maps of their work in Nubia (e.g. William Kelly SIMPSON, Heka-nefer and the Dynastic Material from Toshka and Arminna, New Haven and Philadelphia '1963); or have confined themselves to small maps of finds (e.g. Jesus LOPEZ,Las Inscripciones Rupestres Faraonicas entre Korosko y Kasr Ibrim, Madrid 1966). The expeditions oi' our Institute marked the field numbers of' our finds on the Documentation Centre maps. In 1963 this was undertaken, in agreement with the Documentation Centre, by Mr. rAbd el-~Aziz9iideq ; in 1964, the work was entrusted to Dr. F. VBhala. Since the Documentation Centre maps were not published, Ing. JiPi Hejtm6nek and Jaroslav MareEek have prepared the sketch maps No. I I , sections I - I I for this publication according to all the available maps of Nubia that have been issued. Our maps show the location of inscriptions, not of rock drawings and paintings, and therefore the inscriptions are numbered according to this publication. However, to allow at least the system of field numbers to be followed, the range of fleld numbers is recorded on each map and the coverage of each map has been chosen so that it always contains a complete group of field numbers. For our work in Nubia we chose the field numbers of finds so that the first number would be identical with the number of the sheet (Minute of the French original) of the Documentation Centre map. This number is followed by the letter L or R, denoting the left or right bank of the Nile. There follow the find numbers, starting again from one for each new number of the Documentation Centre map. The field numbers for the left and right banks run independently, i.e. insofar as the same Documentation Centre map (e.g. on map Minute 21) covers finds on both banks, and for each bank they start from one (in the case cited, 21 L 1-11, 21 R 1-3). The field numbers of finds do not distinguish among inscriptions, rock drawings or paintings. I n this book, which is devoted to rock inscriptions, there are therefore gaps in the field numbers, the missing numbers being those of rock drawings. For example, on map Minute 18, the field numbers of inscriptions on the right bank are 18 R I -5, I I and on the left, 18 L 3. Similarly, in our publication on rock drawings and paintings the field numbers of inscriptions will be lacking. I n cases where inscriptions or rock drawings were found on different surfaces of one and the same rock or of rock walls, the surfaces are denoted by capital letters. Individual inscriptions or rock drawings on the same surface of the same rock are marked by small letters and sub-divided by Greek letters. This subdivision has not been entered separately on the Documentation Centre maps. For reasons of navigation and supply, it was decided, in consultation with Captain Hlinomaz, to follow the stream of the river in investigating inscriptions. The reader will see from the field numbers that this order was adhered to in 1963 and 1964 in the southern concession, while in 1964 the reverse, upstream direction was.chosen for the northern concession for the same practical reasons. The direction following the stream of the Nile, i.e. roughly from south to north, also corresponded to the numbering of the Documentation Centre maps and was suitable for numbering inscriptions found in some highly concentrated groups on the right bank, where the natural direction of ancient Egyptian writing from right to left could be adhered to in recording the order of inscriptions on one rock according to their beginnings. This system was therefore adopted for adjusting the field numbers of inscriptions to the

PREFACE

serial numbers in the present book. Moreover, this direction fits our idea that when the Ancient Egyptians journeyed to Nubia, there was probably more time for making inscriptions on the homeward journey than on the way out (the text of inscription No. 73 also confirms this). But it should be stated that no generally valid and irrefutable argument can be advanced for this or the reverse direction of numbering. The inscriptions were given their serial numbers only in the first stage of preparing them for publication. The serial numbers with No. before them have not been changed, even when further study showed that what was originally regarded as a single inscription actually consisted of two (in this case A and B respectively have been added to the number concerned). Conversely, when it was found that two inscriptions were really one, the two numbers were put together to avoid confusion in marking the many photographs, fascimiles, copies and various sheet indexes. Consequently, the final number of our Nubian inscriptions (No. 243) does not indicate the actual number of inscriptions found. I t has to be realized that in any event the division of inscriptions was inevitably arbitrary to some extent. For example, it is difficult to decide whether the two inscriptions on stela No. 61, which are identical in arrangement and content, but contain different names, should be regarded as one or two. In this case the rock stela was taken to be a unit, with the number 6 1 , and the inscriptions were labelled A and B. O n stela No. 70 there is the figure of a man and beside it there are indecipherable, or very indistinct, signs that it was impossible to transcribe. Nevertheless, it seemed advisable to give this stela the serial number of an inscription. The signatures of soldiers on the rock in the Wadi Girgawi each received a separate number, because they have to be regarded as separate inscriptions (Nos. 6 -g), while in the case of the inscriptions on the brow of the rock shelter at Nagr el-Girgiiwi it seemed logical to give Enyotef's own inscription a special number (No. 27) and to denote the heading of his list of maternal brothers and friends by another (No. 28), with subdivisions for the different signatures (Nos. 28 a - m ) , since the unifying factor here is the heading "List of my friends and maternal brothers". As distinct from the field numbers, the serial numbers of inscriptions in this publication follow from south to north irrespective of the bank. An inscription that lies further downstream, whether on the left or right bank, has a higher number than any above it. Insofar as there is no explicit statement in the paragraph describing the position of an inscription in the field (LOCATION), the bank can easily be ascertained from the letter in the middle of the field number, which is always given at the end of the description (DESCRIPTION). Since the photographic material of our inscriptions and rock drawings that was handed over to the Documentation Centre in Cairo after each expedition was marked with the field number (as mentioned above, the serial numbers of inscriptions and of rock drawings were allotted later, in preparation of this book) the main purpose in including these letters was to enable the staff of the Centre, who have the maps on which we entered the field numbers in Nubia, toidentify these numbers with the serial numbers of inscriptions in this, publication. Moreover, recording of the field numbers of inscriptions was found to be useful for comparison with the field numbers of rock drawings published here. I n principle, the inscriptions covered by the present book are Ancient Egyptian (including one Coptic - No. ~ g g ) ,and Ancient Greek (including one Carian), Latin, Aramaic and Meroitic inscriptions found in our concession, while separate publications, now in preparation, will be devoted to the rock drawings and paintings. They will consist primarily of a catalogue of rock drawings, publication and treatment of rock paintings, and finally treatment of rock drawings. Nevertheless, it has not been possible to avoid publishing some rock drawings in the present book of inscriptions. Firstly, all rock drawings that form an obvious part or accompaniment of rock inscriptions have been included. Drawings considered as integral parts of rock inscriptions include a large figure following the name of the author of an inscription, or of a person it was intended to honour, when the name lacks its own determinative, even when the personal names recorded in the same inscription or in other inscriptions of the same period have determinatives. I n such a case, the large figure undoubtedly serves as a determinative of the preceding name written in much smaller signs, although it may also represent a portrait of the person whose name stands before it. This second function of' the rock drawing derives, however, solely from its size. In these cases it is considered correct to append this "sign" to the hieroglyphic transcription of the inscription, either in brackets, if it is reduced to the size of the letters, or in a size proportionate to that of the original, as is commonly done with fascimiles. In one inscription from the New Kingdom, the disproportionately enlarged picture of a horse is exceptionally employed as an ideogram. Furthermore, this publication includes "pharaonic" rock drawings that were intended as pictures representing people mentioned in inscriptions, even if they accompany the names without fulfilling the function of determinatives (when the name is already determined by a sign of normal size) or when the figure is of a form that docs not occur in the function of determinative (e.g. the figure of a standing archer on stela No. 54), despite the fact that the preceding name unexpectedly lacks the usual determinative and this picture, despite its unusual form, in some way fulfils the role of a name deterrninativc. In such cases the presence of a picture is indicated in the transcription by the word Figure. Rock drawings, especially figures, that were appended at a later date to some inscriptions have also been published and commented upon, particularly where the addition was made in antiquity. The

PREFACE

principle followed is that rock drawings bearing at least some indirect relation to inscriptions alongside or nearby them have been included and treated. This principle has been adhered to not only with regard to inscriptions and rock drawings of the so-called pharaonic period, but also to non-Egyptian inscriptions of later date. So, for example, it was not possible to omit the figure by the Meroitic inscription No. go, the altars beside the Greek written names of the Roman period (Nos. 186 and 189), the planta pedis by the names of the same period (No. 207), rock drawings and reliefs representing horses near inscriptions by members of the Roman mounted cohorts etc. I t was all the more necessary to include cases where there may be some doubt whether what has appeared to some as a rock drawing may not be in fact an inscription (e.g. our No. I 71 B). A certain number of the rock drawings published here, in view of their relation to inscriptions, will be published again in the Institute's books of rock drawings, where they will be treated in the context of the general occurence of drawings of one type or another, that is, including drawings without inscriptions, such as some figures, or altars and plantae pedis of the Roman period. The author of this book has seen and copied in the field all inscriptions published here, with the exception of two insignificant cases. He has measured them, and investigated possible cases of superposition, the location of the inscription on rocks, and of the rocks in the countryside. Where a number of inscriptions occurred on one rock, especially where the position of the rock did not allow room for taking an inclusive photograph, plans of the relative positions were sketched by author's assistant, Dr. M. Verner. Fascimiles of some ancient Egyptian inscriptions on transparencies were made by Dr. Verner, fascimiles of Meroitic inscriptions were contributed by Dr. Priese of the Egyptological Institute of Humboldt University at the request of the Director of the said Institute, Prof. Fritz Hintze, who kindly prepared our Meroitic and Carian finds for publication. From fascimiles made in the field we traced some inscriptions, that were exceptionally difficult to read on the photographs, on the other photographs with white or black ink, according to the colour of the background. In every such case, however, the original photograph is also published in its untouched state. The chalking of inscriptions in the field, which was sometimes requested when a photograph would be unreadable, was resorted to only in special .cases, because too often it was found that indistinctly pecked or incised inscriptions, especially where the patina had fallen off in places untouched by the point of the instrument, allowed too many alternatives after chalking. For this reason, too, fascimiles were used as little as possible and stress was placed on photographs, although we are well aware that many are far from perfect. Photographs were also preferred on the assumption that the plates in this book would be printed by collotype. Unfortunately we were compelled against our will to forego this and the equally costly photogravure and to abandon our demand that all photographs should be reproduced in the minimum size of our photographic prints, that is 18 by 24 cm. The basic documentation, that is reference to most illustrations, is given in the Description of each separate inscription. Occasionally there are references in the paragraphs headed Location to general views, and in the Notes to some detailed photos. As suggested by Prof. Cernf, all photographs are marked with their number to enable any requests for copies to be met. The number of the inscription should, however, always be cited as well. The forms of the hieroglyphic letters used in the Transcriptions of our texts and in the Notes have been derived from the hieroglyphs of the temple of Abydos. The signs were selected by Dr. Verner acThe Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos; the signs missing cording to CALVERLEY-BROOME-GARDINER, there were provided by forms from various other antiquities; some had to be amended in order to correspond more closely to the forms of signs in our inscriptions. The drawings and preparation for the press are the work of Ing. JiEi Hejtmhnek and Jaroslav MareEek. For the translation of the texts, the model for vocalization of many personal names was taken from the forms used by Prof. &rnf in GARDINER-PEET-CERNY, The ~nscriptionsof'sinai 11. As far as the personal names of rulers are concerned, however, the Greek transcriptions were not used, and the vocalized Ancient Egyptian forms customary in Czechoslovak Egyptology were adhered to. Fortunately, these forms are not unknown in more recent English publications, although the traditional Greek transcriptions still predominate. A concession to the English usage was made reluctantly in the case of the Latin form of the name of the god Horus, in place of the original form HGr, which would have appeared too unusual in the English text, especially in the case of 'the Horus name' of kings, which has become a technical term. The situation is similar with some place names known to the English reader almost exclusively in the forms adopted from the classical Greek or Latin authors. One of the knottiest problems is presented by the translation ofAncient Egyptian offices and titles; all too often we are still in ignorance of their true significance. In such cases, preference has usually been given to a literal translation (insofar as this was possible) rather than a dubious modern equivalent and any attempts at explanation and references to literature have been relegated to notes. Since there is no English translation of ERMAN-GRAPOW, Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache, which in any case is out of date, a useful aid in checking the English meanings of many Ancient Egyptian words was found to be A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyttian by R. 0. FAULKNER (1964).

PREFACE

Notes have been restricted to a minimum. The author was mainly concerned to substantiate readings and translations and to give references to sources. Particular attention has been paid to the personal names occurring in our inscriptions. Wherever Die agyptischen Personenamen 1-11 by H . RANKEcould throw light on forms, dating, frequency (i.e. frequent or rare occurrence) etc. of personal names, this work has been cited, giving the page and number in place of the reference S . U . to facilitate orientation. With regard to identification of persons, the author succeeded in identifying those well known from other sources, either at once in the field or shortly after starting work on this book. Later, Dr. Verner attempted the unenviable task of identifying at least some of the less-known persons. As was to be expected, very few could be established with certainty, some with only a measure of probability. In those cases where Dr. Verner was able to add to the number of the author's own identifications, his name is mentioned. It is interesting that it was more common to find the name of the same person several times in the area of our concession or in our concession and in other places in Nubia, insofar as these latter cases have already been published (their number will undoubtedly grow following the publication of all new finds), than in Nubia and Egypt proper. Finally, the author has tried to point out in the notes any new information provided by a given inscription. Unfortunately, however, with the exception of short visit to Oxford and Berlin and work in the Egyptological libraries in Cairo, insofar as time could be found during our expeditions in the UAR, he has not had the opportunity of working on this book in a complete Egyptological library. Some years of further study of the inscriptions and comparison with others would undoubtedly contribute to greater precision of translations and interpretations, but it would also unduly delay the presentation of our material to Egyptologists. Moreover, if every author were to wait for the publication of material by other expeditions, no work would ever see the light of day. Originally, the Institute envisaged the publication of work by its Nubian expeditions in their actual chronological order. I t is therefore necessary to explain the issue of epigraphical work dating from the 1963-4 expeditions before the results of' the earlier expeditions of 1960- 2. Although the preparation of the findings of these two expeditions for our publication Tqa and QerlZsi 1961-2 (our thanks are here due to our Egyptian colleague, Mr. Shafiq Farid for the inclusion of his report on his excavations on the Tafa plain in 1960) was far advanced, the need to work over the large quantity of rock drawings from our expeditions to Nubia demanded that priority be given to evaluating the rock inscriptions, particularly from the standpoint of comparing patinas in order to establish the age of the petroglyphs. The contributions made by the governments of individual countries and the work of UNESCO in organizing the salvage of Nubian antiquities are well known. Special mention should, however, be made of the untiring efforts by Mme Christiane DESROCHES-NOBLECOURT in causing epigraphical investigations to be included in the UNESCO programme. With regard to the arrangements for the expeditions sent by our Institute to Nubia, the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education and Charles University in Prague, who incidentally bore all the costs incurred by the work of the Czechoslovak Egyptological Institute in Prague and Cairo, merit the highest recognition for their understanding and support. We wish to express our thanks to the staff of the Department of Antiquities of the UAR and especially to the General Director; Dr. Anwar Shukri and his successor, Dr. Mubammad Mahdi, further to the Centre of Documentation and Study of the Art and Civilization of Ancient Egypt, its Director, Prof. Ahmad Badawi, Deputy Director Dr. Garnil MukhtZr - the present Director of the Department of Antiquities - and to all their colleagues; to the Director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Mr. Muhammad Hasan rAbd er-Rabman; and last but not least, to our colleague, M. Louis A. Christophe, special delegate of UNESCO for Nubian antiquities, for all that he has done to help us in our work. In relation with the UAR authorities we received much help in Cairo from the head .of the Foreign Relations Office of the UAR Department of Antiquities, Mr. Zaki Rizqalliih, and in Aswan from the head of navigation, Mr. Muhammad Husein esh-Shiirbagi. The greatest contribution to the success of the expeditions was made, of course, by members of our Institute together with our Egyptian workmen in the field. Their perseverance, and willingness to work in the most difficult conditions of the African summer, resulted not only in many finds at places formerly regarded as bare of inscriptions, but also in discovery of important inscriptions that had been under water in the colder seasons ever since the construction of the first Aswan Dam. The author's special thanks are due to his former teacher, Prof. Jaroslav ~ e r n f who , despite the burden of his own work, checked the transcriptions by comparison with the photographs, and in the most difficult cases either dispelled doubts about the correctness of readings or suggested alternatives. The best possible conditions for discussion with Prof. cern)i were available in 1966 on the UAR Documentation Centre's boat fAwwZma on the Nile at Luxor. The inscriptions from the Roman period were discussed with Dr. Vidman of the Academy's Department for Greek and Latin Studies. Through the kind intermediary of Dr. J. Petirka, Assistant Professor of Charles University, notes on treatment and amendments to the dating of some of these inscriptions were contributed by Prof. Jean Bingen of the UniversitC Libre de Bruxelles. We herewith record our thanks.

PREFACE

For the publication of our Mejoitic inscriptions in this book we are indebted to the Director of the Egyptological Institute of Humboldt University in Berlin, Prof. Fiitz Hintze, who also determined our Carian inscription. The facsimiles of the Meroitic inscriptions have been drawn by Dr. Priese of Humboldt University. We take this opportunity to reiterate our thanks for several excellent photographs of our inscriptions made by Assistant Professor Ursula Hintze, also of Humboldt University, during Prof. Hintze's travels in Nubia in 1957. As far as the palaeographic part ofthis book is concerned, we refer the reader to the preface to that section. Contracts with the publishers and the press were undertaken on behalf of the Institute by Dr. F. Vahala and Dr. M. Verner. The preparation of the manuscript for press was undertaken by Dr. M. Raab. The manuscript was written in English; the author expresses his thanks for help in this connection to Mrs. K. M. Merrit (Oxford) and Mr. David Leff.

TEXTS

Map No,11, Section 1a, b a: Inscr. Nos. 1-3 (Field Nos. 16 L 1 1 and 16 R 28)

b: Inscr. Nos. 4-80 (Field Nos. 17 R 6 -76)

0

1

2 Miles I

I N S C R I P T I O N S No.

I

(A and B)

LOCATION: Beneath the upstream part of Nag< el-Bir, on a perpendicular rock surface rising from a narrow rock floor partly surrounded by a law wall built of loose stones. The floor of this shelter is about 4 metres above the Nile Maximum Level. The stone walls are recent; a great quantity of droppings show that the shelter was used for keeping sheep and goats. DESCRIPTION: From left to right, there is a series of rock drawings (Field Nos. I 6 L I 3 - I 6), some of which undoubtedly are of the same date as our inscription No. I (16 L 16 l ) , which is the last of the series. Here we shall deal only with drawings which are of Pharaonic character; the others will be discussed in our Institute's publication on petroglyphs of Nubia. The first rock drawing (16 L I 3, see Fig. I , photo N 2- 14) is of a god, 36 cm. high, with a tall crown on his head, holding a sceptre in his right hand and the mb-sign in his left. The figure is pecked in sunken relief. About go cm. to the right there are a few insignificant drawings (16 L 14- 15) and immediately after these comes the series 16 L I 6 a-1, see Fig. 2 (photo N 2 - I 8). The rather badly shaped petroglyphs a, b (crouching men) and c (a jackal? on a crescent-shaped boat; under a, b) are followed by two larger figures d and e. The first (d), on the left, pecked to a depth of 2 to 3 mm., is that of a man standing with a sceptre in his right hand and a stick in his left. He wears a long wig and a beard, and is clad in a long apron. This figure, 47.5 cm. tall, is comparatively well drawn, which cannot be said of the female figure e (44.6 cm. tall). Clad in a long robe and with long hair, her arms are too thin and end without any indication of hands. The profile of the man is well depicted, but the face of the female figure is not drawn with a sharp line and is therefore difficult to follow clearly.. It is possible that the face as we now see it is a later addition. Some of the following figures of men with sticks (f-g) are unfinished, with the possible exception of g, although it seems more probable that the short legs of this figure were left unfinished and were not really intended to be as they are now. The figure k is not so well executednas d, nevertheless its shape is quite passable. I t holds a stick or a WIS-sceptrein the left hand and a kerchief in the right. The height is 35.5 cm. In front of this figure, i.e. to the right of it, there is a horizontal line of inscriptions, our No. I A B (Field Number 16 L 16, I ) , see Fig. 3 (photo N 2 - 2 3 ) . TRANSCR1,PTION

TRANSLATION

A

The retainer Sobek.

B Bau.

NOTES For the MK name $bk cf. RANKE, Die agyptischen Personennamen I, 303, 20. The sign is not well formed and the lower loop, if not fortuitous, is curious. The determinative is of a form relatively rare ih our rock inscriptions; cf. MOLLER,Hieratische Palaographie I, 33 (Illiihiin, lower example, i.e. GRIFFITH, Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob, 30). The following signs are not so clear. For the first group Professor cernf tentatively suggests the readI first thought of ,$ , now also favoured by my pupil Verner, but the characteristic beak ing is missing and the next sign, which seems to be a is difficult to connect with it. Therefore we probably have to read &&+ (with the figure acting as a determinative). For the first sign cf. MOLLER, op. cit. I, 208 and for the name BIW cf. RANKE, op. tit. I, 89, 22. These two signs seem to me to constitute the name belonging to the figure, whereas SmSw Sbk is to be considered another person, as suggested by a different size and shape of signs. Thus we possibly have here two separate inscriptions, of which the first is probably of the MK and the second of the Second Intermediate Period.

x:.

4,

The inscriptions previously found in the region of Er-Riqa were not rock inscriptions, see RANDALLTopographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian -MAGIVER,and WOLLEY,Areika; cf. also PORTER-MOSS, Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, VII, 64-65. It seems possible to relate at least part of our group of rock drawings with the Fort at El-Gezira excavated by the University of Pennsylvania and dated by JUNKER (Ermenne, p. 12) and by SAVE-SODERBERGH (Agypten und ~Vubien,p. 132) as the Second Intermediate Period. Perhaps the figures a and b are not unfinished but represent'prisoners, comparable op. cit., p.. 133).In this case the third figure c could to those found on clay seals (cf. SAVE-SODERBERGH, be compared with the animal on some of the clay seals, considered by the authors of Areika to be "an animal like a dog"-. DATE: Middle Kingdom - Second Intermediate Period(?).

INSCRIPTIONS NOS.

2

AND 3

LOCATION: At the southernmost end of our concession, behind, i.e. east of Nag< Abii ShanZk (right bank), there is a conspicuous hill (Fig. 4, photo 2 27-5-637, taken from the top of the Gebel el-Girgawi). At the foot of this hill, under the side facing the Nile, on a large rock which has fallen from the hill. DESCRIPTION: On the perpendicular side of the rock facing downstream, see Fig. 5 (photo N 6-11) and Fig. 6 (photo N 6-12). Approximately in the middle of the left broken part of the rock is No. 2 ; to the left and higher up, are the shallower incisions of No. 3. The whole of No. 2 is 23.5 cm. high and, in its middle part, I I cm. wide. The n-sign of No. 3 is 14.3 cm. long. The patina of the incisions of both inscriptions is the same as that of the surrounding rock surface. - Field Number 16 R 28.

TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSLATION No.

No.

2:

No. 3:

2:

The God N.

No. 3 : Netjeren.

--P NOTES

The inscription No 3 clearly gives the name of the IInd Dynasty king, whose name was read Ntr-mw by SETHE (Untersuchungen 111, 40) and N(i)-ntr by GRDSELOFF (ASA 44, 287). GARDINER ( ~ & t Of the Pharaohs, 430) rejects Sethe's reading mw of the sign n here and in the name of the king Dn (Sethe's Wdi-mw), but leaves Grdseloff's reading N(i)-nlr and the sign-by-sign reading N'rn undecided, although on p. 4x5 of his book he seems to prefer NJrn. EMERY(Archaic Egypt, Penguin Edition, p. 93) also uses the transcription Ntrn and gives .N&mw in bradkets only. KAPLONY, in whose work Die Inschriften der igyptischen ~riihze2the epigraphic documentation of this rule is collected in vol. 111, Figs. 265, and 743-748, writes Nj-njr. (The different vocalisations attempted by these authors are here omitted.) The inscription No. 2 may prove helpful in elucidating the true reading. I t seems to give us at least the right sequence of both components of the king's name. Although the lower part of the drawing is not closed by any horizontal line, there is little doubt that it was a serekh that was sketched here, however imperfectly. In the serekh there are clear traces of an -- . On the top of the serekh stands the sign ntr, which curiously enough here replaces the usual image of the falcon-god Horus, the sequence of words thus being Xtr JV. The @-sign above the serekh may certainly be explained as a mere abbreviation ('the god'. i.e. Horus), but in this case we are left with the name .N alone, although in all other inscriptions the Horus name of the king is written Njr-n placed inside the serekh and with the image of Horus on the top of it. Such unusual avoidance of this god's name might also have a deeper reason and may indicate the same kind of disturbances which decided Peryebsen to put the image of Seth on the top of his serekh and Khafsekhemui to surmount it by Horus and Seth facing each other. Whether we see in this writing a deeper significance or consider it to be only a faulty or a playful rendering of the ruler's name, the fact remains that the division and sequence of both signs invalidates the reading Ni-nir. The absence of the Horus-sign in our example prevents us from translating 'Horus N&-N', since the serekh alone does not constitute a Horus name, as we have seen in the cases of 'Seth Peryebsen' and of 'Horus-Seth Khafkhesemui'. I n order to indicate the position of the sign n_tr outside of the serekh we seem to be justified in our translation of No. 2 as 'The god 3V'.

If the presence of' the king's name here marked a military expedition, it must have taken place after the year 20, as the Palermo Stone does not mention any war in Nubia during the twenty years of this ruler's reign recorded in that document. For the form of the sign n_tr with one band on the pole, cf. PETRIE,Royal Tombs 11, pl. VIII, I I. DATE: Early Kingdom, Dyn. 11.

INSCRIPTION No. q LOCATION: O n a detached rock (Figs. 7 and 8, photos Z 22-5-63-1 and N 3-14 respectively, the latter showing the downstream surface C), which in past geological times fell down from the westernmost spur of the Gebel el-Girgiiwi and landed in the bed of the eastern part of the entrance to the Wadi el-Girgawi, not far from the foot of the promontory, and close to the path which leads from Nagr elGirgiiwi, going behind (south of) the Gebel el-Girgiiwi and through the .Wiidi er-Rahman to the KhGr Fomm el-Atmir. The rock lies at a distance of about 150 metres from the first (westernmost) house of present-day Nag el-Girgawi. DESCRIPTION: The inscription is cut on the vertical side denoted by us as A) of the rock surface facing the river, i.e. NE by E, and is I 18 cm. above the rock floor. The rock surface had been smoothed to receive the inscription, and the partition lines added. The inscription comprises eight vertical lines altogether and is I O O cni. wide; line 2, up to the horizontal line above, is 31.7 cm. tall. See Figs. g and 10 (photo N 3- 24, showing lines 2 -8 and part of line I , and photo N 3 -25, detail of line I ). Fig. I I is a photo of a plaster cast made from our latex imprint (photo Z 66-2 I 9). Recent Arabic inscriptions have been superimposed upon the old Egyptian one as well as above and below it. - Field Number 17 R 6 (surface) A. TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSLATION 'The retainer Khnzimu, sthe retainer AmenemEFt, sthe retainer Ishteka, 4the King's Son(?) [Nakhti (?)I (or: t may he live.forever, we came to Nakhtisu?) : 'In the year 29 of the king of Upper and Lower E ~ p6ShetebyebrFr, vanquish W5w-set'. P R E V I O U S K N O W L E D G E OF T H E I N S C R I P T I O N Concerning the discovery of this inscription in I 875 Heinrich BRUGSCH writes in his Geschichte Aegyptens unter den Pharaonen (Leipzig, 1877): "Die bisher unbekannte Inschrift ward bei einem Ausfluge von Korusko aus zufallig durch meinen Reisegefahrten Hr. Dr. Luttge* 1875 entdeckt, der mich spater an Ort und Stelle hin begleitete" (op. cit. p. I 17, fn. 3). The site of the find is given as a "Felsblock an dem Eingang des Thales von Girgawi, zu welchem von Korusko aus die Strasse fiihrt" (op.cit. p. I 17). I n his Geschichte Brugsch only gives an inaccurate and incomplete translation: "Im Jahre neun und zwanzig Konigs Amenemhat, lang lebe er! da kamet ihr zu schlagen die Bewohner des Landes Uaua=t9' (op.cit. p. I 18). Five years later (seven years after the discovery) Brugsch published for the first time a hieroglyphic transcription of a part of this inscription, printed in the ZdS 20 (1882), p. 30 (Die Negerstamme der UnaInsthrift). Only the last four lines are given. Judging from the cross-hatched lines following the word

W l w ~ tBrugsch , supposed the end of the inscription to be missing. Some other translators, e.g. Breasted, held the same opinion. In this publication Brugsch describes the site of find as "Auf einem einsam stehenden Felsblock, wenige hundert Schritte von dem heutigen Orte Korusko, auf der ostlichen Seite des Niles." This description is much less accurate than that given by Brugsch in his Geschichte. This time the translation runs as follows: "Im Jahre 29 des Konigs Sebotp-ab-rP (Amenembat I) des immerdar lebenden, seid ihr gekommen, um zu schlagen das Land (oder das Volk) von "Uauat" (1oc.cit.). Nine years after the discovery Brugsch published a drawing showing the side of the rock facing the Nile and a very inaccurate handcopy of the inscription, in his Thesaurus inscriptionurn Aegyptiacarum, vol. V (Historisch-biographische Imchriften altagyptischer Denkmaler, I 89 I ) , p. I 2 I 3 ; see our Fig. I 2. This time the seven last lines of the text are given, the first one being omitted. The site of the find is described as follows: "Inschrift auf einem einsam stehenden Felsblock aus rothlichen Sandstein auf der uralten Bergstrasse (mit Spuren kiinstlicher Stufen) von Korusko nach dem Siiden, etwa 10 Minuten vom Nil entfernt, am Eingang zum Wadi Girgawi." (1oc.cit.) Unfortunately, in all subsequent books on the history of Ancient Egypt the inscription has invariably been translated from Brugsch's shorter 1882 edition of the text ( Khnemhotep(?) .

NOTES

Hty is a frequent MK name, cf. RANKE, op.cit. I, 277, 26. AS it is, the second name can be transcribed oniY Mdw-htp, which is unknown and, moreover, fails to make sense. Professor Hintze suggests Sw-htp, again unknown to RANKE.The most probable seerns to me Professor Gernys suggested reading, Hnmwby, a frequently occuring name. The access to this rock surface is difficult, as there is no firm foothold there and this may be the reason why the second stroke of the hieratic sign j n m has not been incised. For the elipse of the word for filiation s l cf. our No. 69 (with determinatives following each of three Grammar, $85. names), and Nos. 83 and 84 (without determinatives, two names). Cf. also GARDIHER, DATE: First Intermediate Period- or beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

INSCRIPTION No. 135 LOCATION: On another rock, nearly perpendicular, facing east, several metres downstream from the preceding No. I 34. About 5 metres above the Maximum Nile Level, 6 metres inland from it. DESCRIPTION: One horizontal line of inscription I 19 cm. long; the sign wir is 21.5 cm. high. Fig. 241 (photo 2 5-64- 12). - Field Number 2 I L 6 a. TRANSLATION

TRANSCRIPTION

Overseer of the house of counting people rich in new generations, Naayeb, may he repeat life. NOTES The writing of rm_tt with 4a is attested from Dyn. XVIII onward, cf. GARDINER,Grammar, Sign-list H 4. It seems that the expression wirjlrnw (or -hrdw ?) is to be considered as an epithet of the House of Reckoning.

R E G I O N OF

For the MK name Nrr-ib cf.

WADIEL-rARAB

RANKE, op.cit. I, 182, I3 (masculine) and 11, 366. Ranke knows no

NK or later examples. According to the Worterbuch I, 341, 4, the expression wbm [email protected] 'repeating life' is an epithet of the dead. Neither here nor in our next examples Nos. 195 and 202 (for another case in Nubia cf. WEIGALL, op.cit. pl. XVIII, No. 6) is there any reason to consider people whose names were carved on rocks as deceased. Dead men did not write their names on rocks and if a living one were to do so, he certainly would not forget to leave us his own name with some explanatory note, e.g. 'made, i.e. written by ..' I therefore suggest that here and in similar cases we have to consider the expression whm rnyh not as a statement but as a wish and to translate accordingly 'may he repeat life'. DATE : Second Intermediate Period?

I N S C R I P T I O N No. 136 LOCATION: About 70 cm. above the sign ib of the preceding inscription. DESCRIPTION: One vertical line of inscription I 6 cm. high. Fig. 242 (photo N 38-2). Number 21 L 6 b. TRANSCRIPTION

- Field

TRANSLATION

NOTES For the name cf. RANKE,op.cit. I, 1 2 , 19 and PORTER-MOSS, op.cit. VII, I 17 (Ahmose called Tw-r). For the form of the sign i ~ h(reversed) cf. GARDINER, Grammar, Sign-list N 1 2 (note 2), Ranke's examples, and, in Nubia, e.g. WEIGALL,op.cit. pl. LXV, 4. DATE: New Kingdom or end of the Second Intermediate Period.

I N S C R I P T I O N No. 137 LOCATION : On another rock surface downstream from the preceding inscriptions Nos. I 35 and I 36. DESCRIPTION: One vertical line of inscription 40 cm. high. Fig. 243 (photo N 40- 1). - Field Number 21 L 7 d. TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSLATION Nakht's son EyGtef.

NOTES

(

Another example of the "eggw-shaped st in a vertically written inscription. DATE : Middle Kingdom.

I N S C R I P T I O N No. 138 LOCATION: About 4 metres to the right of the preceding inscription. DESCRIPTION: Four vertical lines of inscription 61 cm. high and 59 cm. wide incised on a slightly reclining rock surface. About 5 metres above the Maximum Level and 8 inland. Fig. 244 (photo Hintze

EN 3 -8) 21 L 7 c .

showing No. I 38 (left) and No. 139 (right) ; Fig. 245 (photo 2 5-64-

TRANSCRIPTION

I

CAd

g

4

ta

Field Number

TRANSLATION a of

A boon-which-the-king-may-grant to the ka the intendant, leader ox the gangs (of miners) Xeni, born to SatkheperrFf, 'engendered by Snofru.

nt

$1

10). -

NOTES

hhh

Line I Rock inscriptions of Nubia containing the htp-di-nSw formula are rather rare. WEIGALL (op. cit.) recorded none, ROEDER found two near Koshtamna West (Der Tempel von Dakka I, p. 369, fig. 43 and p. 370, fig. 45), republished by PIOTROVSKIY, Drevnyaya Nubiya p. 235, fig. 5 and p. 239: fig. 8. Our expeditions discovered four of them, Nos. 138, 139, I 57 and 158. The form of the formula is that usual in the Old and in the Middle JEA 25, 34) ; all our three examples are dated Kingdom (cf. the Wiirterbuch 111, 186 and SMITHER, to the Middle Kingdom. It is obvious that here, written on the rock surfaces in the open air, the formula is no longer used in its original meaning of a funerary formuIa in a tomb. It has rather character of a wish or of a prayer. Nothing indicates that it was written by somebody else for a deceased person. BIFAO 15, 169-206, PIEPER,Milanges Maspero I, Line 2 For the title imy-r rhnwty cf. GAUTHIER, 180 ff., GARDINER, Ancient ~ ~ $ i a nOnomastics I, 44-g5*, HELCK, /Zi(r Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs p. 85 ff. Gauthier has shown that this title was unknown in the Old Kingdom; it appeared in Dyn. I1 and was very common until the end of the Middle Kingdom, but relatively rare later (cf. Gardiner, 1oc.cit.). The title is usually extended by an indication of an office of which the bearer was the imy-r rhnwty, translated 'directeur de bureau' by Moret, 'chef du bureau (?)' by Gauthier, 'Kabinettsvorsteher' by the Wiirterbuch, 'chamberlain' by Gardiner, 'Biirovorstand', 'Vorstand,' 'Leiter' by Helck, and 'intendant' by tern); (The Inscriptions if Sinai 11, p. 97), which is the version we prefer here. There are only four other titles that have often been directly added: I . brp skw, or 2. brp ktwt, or 3. brp nfrw, or 4. imy-r TI-mbw. A fairly complete bibliography of the title brp skw (alone and following imy-r c_hnwty) is given by Helck (op.cit. p. 86, fn. 8. All examples are from the Middle Kingdom (Gauthier, op.cit. p. 201, Helck, op.cit. p. 86). Helck states that this title occurs especially in Nubia and that those who held it were therefore leaders of expeditions ("dieser Titel, der besonders aus Nubien bekannt ist, diirfte Expeditionsleitern zugestanden haben"; 1oc.cit.). To examples from rock inscriptions found in Nubia quoted by Helck are now to be added our No. 138 and that from Koshtamna West published by Roder and by Pyotrovski (in the latter's publication, [email protected] p. 234, fig. 4). Since the title imy-r r_hnwty seems to be merely a contraction of one of the more developed forms which state the office (cf. tern);, op.cit. p. IS), we have probably to bnderstand imy-r f_hnwpn pr nbw 'Intendant of the House of Gold'; skw were here miners who extracted the precious metal. Nnz' is not an infrequent name in MK inscriptions, cf, RANKE,oP.cit. I, 205, 4. The name of Neni's mother Slt-gpr-Rr is a contraction of Stt-gpr-kt-Rf as is Sjt-&kt (for this name cf. RANKE,op.cit. I, 292, 17. For similar abbreviations of royal names in names of commoners cf. our note to inscription No. 10, line I . The name gives us a terminus a quo; the inscription could not precede the reign of KheperkarEf Senwosret (I). For the form of the determinative cf. Lebensmiide line 73. For the name of Neni's father Snfrw cf. RANKE,op.cit. I, 315, 18 (a frequent MK name) and our next inscription. Curiously enough, the sign nfr seems to have been deliberately damaged in both our inscriptions. DATE: Middle Kingdom, from Dyn. XI1 (rule of Senwosret I) onward.

b e e 4 86

\

I N S C R I P T I O N No. 139 LOCATION: 75 cm. to the right of the preceding inscription. DESCRIPTION: Four vertical lines of inscription 46.5 cm. high (line 244 and Fig. 246 (photo 2 5-64-9). - Field Number 2 1 L 7 b.

2)

and 55 cm. wide. Fig.

R E G I O N OF

WAD^

ECtARAB

A boon-which-the-king-my-grant (to) a the gods which are in this foreign land - for the ka Sof Snofru, born to Sebekhotep. NOTES Line z - 2 For the meaning of the htp-di-nSw formula here cf. our note to the preceding-inscription, line I . Unusual is the continuation nJrw imyw yh,St tn; cf. however GARDINER-PEET-CERNQ, The Sinai Inscriptions, Nos. 27-28. The formula, funerary in origin, serves here as a mere introduction to a prayer of a traveller in foreign parts to the local gods. Line 3 S$TW of No. 139 is probably the same as Snfrw of No. 138, i.e. father of Neni. The sign following the name is probably a very abbreviated masculine determinative (cf. a similar form in No. 144) or an uncompleted one (if. No. 138, end of line 2) rather than Jrw which, without a preceding m j r , would be meaningless. All the determinatives occurring in Nos. 138 and 139 are curiously shaped. Line p For the frequent female MK name Sbk-btp cf. RANKE,op.cit. I, 305, 6. It is difficult to decide whether we have to transcribe at the end of the name &4or simply . The 'sign' to the left seems to be a later addition, as in No. 138 (at nearly the same place) and cf. also the incision between the two inscriptions. DATE: Middle Kingdom, from Dyn. XI1 (rule of Senwosret I) onward,

INSCRIPTION No. 140 LOCATION: Several metres downstream from inscriptions Nos. 138-9, on a corner rock, on the surface facing ENE, I metre above the Maximum Nile level. The rock surface is nearly perpendicular. DESCRIPTION: One horizontal line of inscription 19 cm. long. Fig. 247 (photo 2 Kn-r 2). Field Number 2 r L 8. TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSLATION

NOTES For the writing of Mnjw without the phonetic complement n in the same name cf. our No. DATE: End of the First Intermediate Period or beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

12.

INSCRIPTION No. 141 LOCATION: A few metres downstream from the preceding inscription, on a perpendicular rock surface facing SSE. DESCRIPTION: One horizontal line of inscription, carved in monumental hieroglyphs, 285 cm. long; followed by two horizontal lines one below the other, the upper one 49 cm. long. The whole inscription is 360 cm. long. Fig. 248 (photo N Kn-2, taken in 1964), Fig. 249 (photo N Kn-3). - Field Number 21 L g. TRANSCRIPTION

EQ &do %&& J ~ & J & 0 a

584s ]

TRANSLATION

The Horus: Snefertiwtyd the TWO Ladies: Snefertiiweyef, the Horus of Gold, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt ~ a k n r c t h eSon of Rir En , may he live forever.

NOTES I t is indeed unfortunate that this inscription escaped the vigilance of Weigall and of all other scholars and travellers who copied inscriptions in Nubia before the construction of the Old AswZn Dam, since other inscriptions, now destroyed, could possibly have been found in their days below this inscription. The tops of signs of the main inscription are 85 cm. above the Maximum Nile Level of the Old Aswan Dam reservoir, but year by year the waves and water mounting by capillarity have been eating away the rock surface, undermining the hard patina, until all except the tops of the signs has fallen off. The progress of the destruction can be followed on the two photographs. Fig. 248 of 1964. We described above, for convenience sake, the remaining part of the inscription as one horizontal line in monumental hieroglyphs followed by two horizontal lines, one above the other, incised in smaller hieroglyphs. I n reality the whole inscription consisted of seven vertical lines: [email protected] 2$n$r[-t,.wy.f], 3Nbty [Snf-t~.wy.j], 4flr[nbw] 5n-Swt bity 2 s Rr ~ 'In-it. f XI-kl-Rr, rnk &. The signs put here in square brackets are no longer visible, but they could be safely restored by referring to other inscriptions dating from the period of the same ruler. The reversed order in which the nomen and praenomen of the king have been written can only be explained if we presume that originally only the praenomen Qakarec has op.cit. pl. LIV, been meant to be written as e.g. in the two inscriptions opposite Ed-Derr (WEIGALL, Nos. 4 and 6), and then the nomen has been added, as an afterthought, in the wrong place. One can see in our Fig. 248 that the nomen is written higher than the preceding monumental signs of the king's protocol. This inscription is an addition to the list of fourteen examples of this king's names hitherto known from Nubia. Our No. 141 is then the fifteenth and, in Save-Soderbergh's counting from north to south (op.cit. p. 47), it should be inserted as No. 5 between that of Gerf Husein region (which we have also rediscovered, cf. our No. 149) and that of the rAmZda rock. For the bibliography see Save-Soderbergh's LYEgypte,4th ed., p. 243 and p. 269. For the two graffiti recently found book and VANDIER-DRIOTON, Heka-nefer-, pl. XVIII a, fig. 28 and pl. XVIII b. south of the village of Arminna East cf. SIMPSON, In contrast to other inscriptions of the king, his names are here not in cartouches; a curious oversight by the scribe. For a similar disposition of the names in two superposed lines following the king's protocol cf. the op.cit. pl. LXII, No. 2 and pl. LXIV, No. 4. inscription at Ibrim, WEIGALL, To the use of the abbreviation 'In for 'In-it. f in the name of the king Wahankh Enyotef (11) in his tomb stela, Cairo Museum No. 2 0 512, last line of the text, and in the Papyrus Abbott P1. 2, line 8, quoted by MEYER,ZJS 44, I 15, add the same variant in names of commoners, cf. our No. 128 and our note. For the writing of the title SI-Rr within the cartouche cf. the cartouches of Enyotef I and Eny6tef I1 (of Vandier-Drioton counting) ; it is however occasionally found with the name of Amenemhet I (cf. LEPSIUS,Denkmaler 11, I 18 d) and Senwosret I (WEIGALL, op.cit. pl. XVIII, No. 17. During our visit to the site in 1964 the king's praenomen was visible only in traces, cf. our Fig. 249 with finger pointing to the centre of the sign Rr; For the traces of rnb -dt cf. our Fig. 248 (extreme left). DATE: Uncertain, see notes to No. 150.

I N S C R I P T I O N No. 142 LOCATION: About 60 metres downstream from the preceding inscription, on a perpendicular rock facing east. About 1.5 metres above the Maximum Nile Level and 2 metres inland from it. DESCRIPTION: One horizontal line of inscription 48.5 cm. long, partially damaged by a rock drawing of later date. Fig. 250 (photo 2 5-64-7). - Field Number 2 I L 10. TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSLATION Inspector (?) of those who are at the head of the 8-estates of the Royal Palace and overseer (?) of foreigners ( ?) Setka ( ?). NOTES

Dictionav p. 239. The exact For the provisory translation of S[rd as 'inspector (?)' cf. FAULKNER, meaning of the expression bntyw-S is equally uncertain. It seems that they had to provide the Royal Palace with the produce of estates called S ('lake fields'? 'orchardsy(?)or simply 'well irrigated fields'?).

- R E G I O N OF WADI EL-CARAB

The imy-r, 'overseers' and Shd, 'inspectors (?)' of the yhntyw-S were administrative titles of those who supervised them. In this respect the coupling of both these titles with that of 2 imy-r r IW (cf. WEIGALL op-cit. pl. LVIII, Nos. 29-30 = SETHE,Urkunden I, 208-9) seems to be of great importance. Some imy-r rjw also held the title Spsi-n-Swt (cf. our No. IOO and WEIGALL, op.cit. pl. LVIII bottom, Nos. 12, I 3, 14, I 7 and pl. LXIV, No. 3. A certain Sjb i gives his titles and occupations in this order : I . $psiSn-Swt, 2. imy-r Entyw-S Pr-C (e.g. Hatniib 24, 8). However, it is to be noted that all our examples of the normal hieratic form which are contemporaneous with our narrow, tall form, are of the crossed type (cf. above, under 2 ) . Be it as it may, our tall form could have been derived from the normal hieratic form by making the upper oblique stroke vertical and by shifting it to the centre of the lower horizontal stroke. We may perhaps compare our example of the tall form from the beginning of line- I of our inscription No. 2 7 (the forked top is probably accidental, but the ductus of the line, i.e. the turn of the downward stroke to the left just before drawing the short horizontal trait, would agree with this idea quite well).

PALAEOGRAPHY JAMES, however, presents another suggestion when explaining the origin of Moller's No. 216 B. After the study of the texts which he edited under the title The Hekanakhte Papers and the Other Early Middle Kingdom Documents (New York 1962)~he came to the conclusion that the "eggM-shaped form conceals two distinct signs merged together, namely a vertical stroke which according to him is the determinative of the preceding name of the father in a highly abbreviated, 'degenerate' form, and a cursive form of sr in the form of L, cf. the examples of both components still separatedly written, e.g. L f (text X, line I 7) ; cf. op.cit., p. I 38. We do not suppose the material available to us to be sufficient to solve the problem. Let us, however, at least survey the two theories in the light of our own examples. I t is interesting to see that in some of the documents edited by James, the small, low sign (transcribed by him as o ) is used below other signs (e.g. V [vekanakhte] 41; 44; 45; 51 ; 53; cf. also VII, 7) alike as in our rock inscriptions Nos. 6 and 7, second example. In the position between two names one ending and the other beginning with separate signs, we find in the same document either the group 1 ) , transcribed by James as (V [Hekanakhte accounts] 39; 4 2 ; 43, 49) or the sign 4 alone (V, 52). Similarly, in X [Harhotpe], the small form is put below another sign in lines 6-8; 12; 16, or stands alone as the group& f, cf. lines 5 -6; 9; 1 1 ; 13- I 7. I n other documents, e.g. in V I [Hekanakhte accounts], 2 ; 7; 16; 17, the small sign is also used between two other signs as in our isolated exampIe No. 41. Now, in all our cases where the tall sign is used, it is found alone, without any preceding vertical stroke or determinative. Our 1 would accordingly correspond rather to the single example of V [Hekanakhte], 52 and would represent the sign alone, not a fusion of the small sign reduced to one short horizontal line with the determinative itself reduced to a vertical stroke. This seems, however, improbable since in our examples Nos. 6 and 27 h the forms b and 1 are presented as having the same value. If o is derived f r o m d o , but 1 from 4 alone, then the grandfather's name N-Sw-Mntw in this example would once be written without the determinative, whereas the father's name-~tp-nb would be written with a determinative, however concealed. James, to whom our examples were unknown, did nevertheless answer this question by supposing that "the Egyptians themselves soon forgot that to rethe stroke represented j$ "; "a draughtsman working from a hieratic draft might well take present % alone. I n later times it becomes o simply" (op.cit., p. 139). James may be quite right and the scribe of his document V, line 5 2 might have simply forgotten the stroke once on a page where he has four times written the group 11 or, when below another sign, the small, nearly always closed "egg"-shaped for'm. Here we must, however, mention two variants of forms which seem to point to another origin of our 1 than derived from C alone, without the preceding vertical stroke. They are & and , l ofour No. 16 (cf. also No. 1 7 ?) and 4 and 4 of our No. 153. The first example seems to be our 1composed of a rudimentary h reduced to L ; the stroke could then be the determinative in the 'degenerate' form. In the second example we may hesitate between the same stroke merged with c and may compare JAMES, op.czt., X, 9, or an only partly abbreviated determinative. I t seems, however, certain that one Egyptian scribe from the end of the rule of Amenemhet I, Eny6tefoqer, son of Mentjuwoser son of Iay by name, considered the small form a* and apparently also the tall form 1 as nothing more than an abbreviated form of the hieroglyphic form of s l y since in No. 7, between the names of his grandfather and his father, he used the form d which corresponds to 1 in the other inscription giving the same name. For him at least, the first downward stroke of both signs represented in both forms, in the low as well as in the tall one, the neck of the pintail duck of the sign +f , while the oval, reduced in 1 to a simple horizontal stroke, was the body of the bird. This may well be only a misinterpretation of a sign, the origin of which might have been already obscure to a scribe at the beginning of the XIIth Dynasty. After Dyn. XI1 the direct mode of expressing filiation, later exclusively used, was adopted; its use is marked in hieroglyphic examples by a stroke above the sign S I ( ?S$ ). This stroke is believed by some scholars again to represent the determinative 2 (cf. BERLEV,op.cit., p. 39; cf. however SETHE, ktp, 'child of the Royal Nursery', 95. -

SI, 'Son', ' King's

( ? cf. note to No. 83),83; 84; 87; 118; 130; 14.4; 146; 147. fnrj n sp k t hr &twt(?), 'recipient of thousand portions from the table of offerings', 148. rnb (n) i t hkt, 'member of the ruler's household', 117; 145; '53. rnb t t & t nt .. 'member of the ruler's household of ..', 72. r_d-mr Dp, 'administrator of Dep', 74'2.

son' ? '(King's) representative'?, 63; 64; 71. SI-pry 'policeman', 158. SI-niw, 'King's son', (?), 4, 4. SI-nSw, for St-nSw n XI;, A 18; A 19. St-nSw n K(t)s', 'Viceroy of Nubia', I 12, 1x3. s t b imy-r sS(w), 'senior ( ?) overseer of scribes', A 2. s~b t y p , 'Chief Justice(?), [IO, 4.1 ; 73, 12. Smnty, 'prospector' (?, n Mint, 'of the Hare City'),

wrb, 'werb-priest', 175; A 23. wrb n Wh-h tt n 'Irnn, 'werb-priest of AmGn's bark 'Strong-is-the-Front', 133. wcb n f l Nb b tSwt, 'werb-priest of Horus, lord of the Hill-country', A 17. wrrtw, 'controller', 47. wrrtw jt n h41 niwt, 'controller of the household of the City ruler', 150. wr mdw Smrw, 'greatest of the Tens of Upper Egypt', '52. wr n M icm, 'Prince of Mi ram', A 5. wr-swnw, 'master-physician', 163. whm(w) ?, 'herald', A 8. ws'bt, 'wailing-woman', 102. wdpw, 'butler', 131; 150; 203; 213.

Smnt(yw), in imy-r krpw ;kw fmnt(yw), A XI. [Sm(i)], 'semt-priest', 74'8. Smr w ct(y), 'Sole Friend', 10,z (written with w rtt) , 74' 1. Shd rh(w)t(yw) ( ?) Pr-(I, '~nspector(?) of the cultivators(?) of the (Royal) Palace', 174. Srid hc(w) or Shd wi,(w) ?, 'ship's lieutenant', 208. Shd - hntyw-i P r - r ~ 'inspector , ( ? ) of those who are at the head of the S-estates of thc (Royal) Palace', 142. sS, 'scribe', 7 ~ ~ 1 96; 4 ; 103; 105; 106; 107; 1x1; 1x4; 195 C ; A XI; A 14 (twice), A 17; A 20; A 23; A 29. sS ibr n dbrw(.f ), 'scribe excellent with his fingers', 7372. sS n pr-hg', 'scribe of the treasury', 99. sS n nbw (nbyw ?) t~.wy, 'scribe of gold (of the goldsmiths ?) of the Two Lands', A 17. sS n S~-niwMry-mi, 'scribe of the Viceroy of Nubia MerymGse', A 18; A 19. sS nbw (nbyw ?) n b~St, 'scribe of gold (of the goldsmiths ?) of the Hill-country', A 16. sS [email protected] n 3rw nbw (n t~ Wjt n Hr, Nb Mirm), 'scribe of god's offerings of all the gods (of Road-of-Horus-Lord-of-Mi ram) ', 194. s i S p ( ~ ) t'district , scribe', 210. sS sb-ntr, 'scribe of the Divine Booth', 92; A 15. sS Sft n imy-r pr(?), 'despatch-writer of the stcward ..', 232. sS Srt n niwt.. 'dispatch-writer of the City ..', 233. sSy in stb imy-r sS(w), see this. SSmw w twt nfr(w) t,. 'guide to good ways', A I ;A 27. Sdiw(?)-bity, 'royal seal-bearer', 10, I -2 ; 52 ( ? ) ; 74, 1 . S_d~w(?)-ntr, 'seal-bearer of the god', A 22. Sdm, 'servant', in S_dm pr-htp 'Irnn, A 4.

211.

mn( i ) w-htr, 'groom', A 13. mn iwdsmw, 'dog-keeper' ('master of hounds'), 50;

72n iS(w)

10,

'summoner of ten',

222;

224.

[r Piw nb], 'spokesman of every Pe-ite', 74'2. rwd, 'agent', 231. rb-nSw, 'King's Acquaintance', 124. rb-ns'w m I r, 'true King's Acquaintance', 10,I ; 74, 1-2 (?). -

h 19-r, 'local prince', 10,I ; 73, I 2 ; 74, I . htty-r, 'mayor', 96; 132. htp-r n ~ b w ,'mayor of Elephantine', A 19. hm, 'slave', in hm n hm-njr, 1x1. hm-ntr, 'prophet', 93; gq; 132; 190; 193; 205. try nb(y)w, 'chief of goldsmiths' (PI-,htl, 'Irnn- ipt, 'of the House of Offerings of Amun of Luxor'), A 3. hry-SStt, 'master of the secrets', A 12. hry SmSw, 'chief letter-carrier', 111. hkt, 'ruler', 150~3;in rn_h nJt h k ~ ,see this. hkt niwt ( ?), 'City ruler', in w rrtw At n h k ~niwt (?), 150'1.

J'S i

hrp Skw, 'leader of the gang (of miners)', 138. brp Skw, in i'my-r brp(w) Skw Smnt(yw), A I. brp Sndt [nb(t)], 'master of every apron', 74, 8.

nSw, 'King's gentleman', 100. imc, Smcy, 'musician', IOI ; 104. SmSw, 'retainer', I A ; 4 (three times) ; 18; 116; 127; 143; 167; 169. imiw, 'letter-carrier', 108 ( ? ) ; 197; 198. SmSw nb.f r nmtt.5 'letter-carrier of his lord on his travels', 195 c. SmSw, in bry SmSw, see this. id(d?) hnw, 'librariany(?),'library farrash'(?), 121.

kry-bbt, 'lector-priest', 202. -hy-hbt hv-tp [m t r] ,'[rcalJ chief lector-priest', 74,8.

tyty, 'the Shrouded One', in s ~ tlytyttty, b 'Chief Justice ( ?) ', [ I O , ~;] 73, I 2. -t tty, 'vizier' ('Prime minister'), 10, 4; 73,12,

V

INDEXES

3. ROYAL N A M E S

rt-bpr-k~-Rr,Thutrn~seI, A 28. mb-mht, in @r mb-miwt, Scnwosret I, 74.

S-n-Wirt], Senwosret I, idr-tr.wl.f, iYorus and fib9 name of $,-k~-Rr, 141. Sbtp-ib-~r (in cartouche), ArnenembEt I, 4; 73,

W&, in Hr W ~ d(j?), ' H O ~ U WSr_dy (Edj6; Djet)', A 30.

@tp- i b : ~ r (without cartouche), Amenemh~t1, ,273 168.

'In,

for

'In ( - i t J ' ) , in St Rr 'In, KJ-kr-Rr, 141.

Mri- 'fmn, Thutmose I,

13.

Kr-kr-Rr, in S, Rr 'In (without cartouche) K ? - k 1-Rr (without cartouche), 141.

A 28.

KJ-kr-R r

-Dt,

gfr-kl-Rr,Senwosret I, 74.

(in cartouche), 149.

see W.&.

4. D I V I N E N A M E S

Afo.fa: Names of deities occuring in personal names are excluded. 'Ima, Amiin, 102; A 3; A 4. Ws'z'r,Osiris,158. B;st(t), Bastet (nbt B,st, 'Lady of Bubastis'), "3.

Bbdl(y), in(Hr)Bhdt(y), 'Horus the Behdetite', 749 Bhdt(y), in B[zdt(y), n_tr r ~ nb , pf, 'the Bebdetite, Great God, Lord of Heaven', A 4. Mwt, Miit, A 24.

Rr, in di mi -dd

w1S mi Rr _dt and in dz' Snb mnb 74. .Hr, Hotus (the Bebdetite), picture of, A 5; A 10; A 15; A 24; A 25. fir B!idt(y), Horus the Behdetite, 74; A 4. &, nb Mirm, Horus, Lord of Miram, 194. gr, nb b ; j t , H O ~ ULord S , of the Hill-country, A 17. yr, preceding the Horus name of a king, 74; X4I; A 30; replaced by thc sign uJr above the serekh of Ni-njr, 2. H r [nbw], 'Horus of Gold', 141. W I ~ ,

Nbbf, Nekhbet, 74.

Hpr(i?), A 21, LJ

R f , REr, in Sr Rr 'In, 141. Rr, in Rr Nbbt, 'Rer and Nekhbet', 74.

see Index I .

Tzrt, picture of, A 7.

5. G E O G R A P H I C A L , TOPOGRAPHICAL,

A N D ETHNIC NAMES rbw, Elephantine, A 19.

'Irmw, Imu, capital of thc IIIrd nome of Lower Egypt, 28 1. 'Ift, Luxor, in the title hry n6 ( Y) m pr-by 'lmn- ipt A 3. 'it, Irtjet, 58.

WJWrt, Wswet, Lower Nubia, 4;KO;73;A 5 (?). Hr> Nb Mir(m)f,Road-of Horus-Lord-of-Miram, 194. Wnt (Wnw ?), 'Hare City', capital of the 'Hare

WIr

nome',

[@I,

211.

Brst, Bubastis, 113 (twice). Mirm, Mir(m)t, Micam (El-rAn;ba), A 5; 194.

JV~S(J), Southerner, Kubian, 73, y; cf. T,-NF (?). N K ( y ) w , Southcrncrs, Nubians, 73,7. SJW, Sais, capital of the Vth nome of Lower Egypt, 28 m. S I ~ W(?), Satju, 58. SJtww (?), inhabitants of Satju, in imy-r b~.ft Scww, .64.

wr m_dw hw, x52. K(t)J, KO, Kush, U p p e r Nubia; in S?-nJwn Ki, Viceroy of Nubia, 112; 113.

Smrw,Upper Egypt, in

T?-n&w, Lower Egypt, the Delta, in !my-r Tr-mbw, 51. [email protected], 'Land of the Nubians', Nubia, 53.

INDEXES

6. E G Y P T I A N W O R D S A N D P H R A S E S Nok: This index is a complete vocabulary of the texts published'in this book. ~ w tib- 'joy', in nb ~ w tib, - 195 c. ~ b d'month', in dates: 52; 53; 58; 65. f i t 'Inundation-season', 52.

.

j i 'come', 24 (?); 59; 68 ( ? ) ; 225. iw (copula), 68 ( ?) ; 73, I a (twice ?), 73, 4. iw 'come', 4, 6; 10,4. i'w ' l ~ a r n ~27, ' , 2. ib, in mfi id nSw, which see; in n St-ib.J see under St- ib. imrb 'honour', in the epithet nb i m h , which see. z'm& 'the honoured one', preceding a personal name, 124; 159 ( 1 ) . imy 'who is in', in la~4w imy(w) !?St tn, 139. imy-7n.f n 'list of names of', 28 a. i'n 'by', in dd mdw in, 74ini 'bring', 53, 6; 73, 13. ink 'Iy, 27; 56; [74,61. dr 'as for', in ir (g7t) plus Sdvn.~.fiform, 24; 56; 573 58, iri 'make', 'write (inscription)', in ir.n m, 73; irlj'_ds.f, r 1 2 ; r 13; ir n 'made, written by',

A

4.

iri 'beget', in i r (mother), I 16;131; ir.n (mother), 85; 117; 121; 155; 157; x58; 171;irt.n(mothcr), 120; 157; ir.n(fathcr), 23; 148 (?) ; translated 'born to' or 'engendered by'. ira' 'do', in iw hsst nb.f r r nb 'who does what his Lord is praising every day', 10, 2-3. iri 'accomplish' (miff, 'the like thereof'), 73, I I . z'r i r 'to act against s.o.', in m i ir.fjw) r sb i hr niw, 'as one has to act against him who rebelled against thc King', 73, I o- I I . i r i r in n ir;. ii iw r sjlw. i, 'I caused no harm to my assemblage of recruits', 27, 2. i h ~'charge down upon', in i h , ~nht, 'charging down upon the strong oneY,56. ib 'bull', 68 ( ? ) ; in the title i~rv-rP, bib ibm (kjw 3 , 155; '57i&r 'excellent', in si ifir n _dbrw.f, 'scribe excellent with his fingers', 73, 2. idb 'river-bank', in N4i br idb.f, 'the Nubian on his river-bank', 73, g. r r 'here', in

id.i) r I 'when I have been herc',

733, 12.

Hpt-(jt, 73, 13; in nir TI, A q. r ,{w) 'foreigners' ( ?), 'foreign mercenary troops' (?), in imy-r r 1 (w) , 82; I&; for the proof of the reading r I cf. notes on No. 82; for the sign cf. also 148 (?). rnk w_d~Snb 'may he live, prosper, and be hale', after Nb 'Lord', 61 A; 6r B; after @ I 'ruler', 150, 3 ; after names of commoners (cf. note on No. 13), 13; 54; 6 3 ~ 64; 67; 72; 74; cf 127. r3 'great', in

rnb SnB

W I I

127.

cnh _dt (following royal names) 4; 73; rn! 'life', in di rnh _dd w I S , 74.

141

(traces).

r e w 'living (people)', 74. '41 'fight', 53. rhlt(y)w 'warriors', 74, g. rhr (auxiliary verb), in rhr.n J".J 73, 6- 7; in chr.n.i S&.kwi, 73, 8 (see notes on No. 73). T ~ C W 'fleety, in imy-r r h r ~'overseer of the fleet', 10, 3; zg A (?). Cf. trw and wir. rbnwty, see the title imy-r f_hnwty. W I S 'dominion', see rpluh _dd w ~ (74). i w ~ 'road', t 'way', in SSmw w ,wt nJr(im)t, 'who leads to good ways', about a imy-r brpw Skm Snangw (?I, A I ; about a imy-ir~y,A 27. For W I n~Hr see Index 5. w i , (or hr) in Shd br ( r a ! i / ? ) see Index 2. wrtt, writing for wrty in Smr z~rt_l~, 10, 2. wP(w)!Y 'envoy', 74, 7wnn 'be', in wn.t(w) hr bd Bnrt fin, 'one has been engaged in building this stronghold (?)', 73,6; in da'.f wn.f bnt k ~ w rnkw nb 'he (the god) caused him (the king) to be at the head of the spirits of all the living (people)', 74. wr 'great', in the titles im9-r hwwt 6 wrt, 73; 74; and z'mj-r pr.wy wr, 74. whm(w) fn/j 'may he repeat life', after personal names of men presumably still living when the inscription was written, 135 (see notes) ; 195; 202; A 87 (three times). WSr-hjt 'Strong-is-the-Front', name of Arniin's bark, 133. wir drmw (or Ardw?); 'rich in new generations', epithet of the House of Counting People, following the title !my-r pr-hfb rrntt, 135. [email protected] 'having free access (to the magistrates)',

74,

2-

bit, in S_d~w(?)b i t ( y ); in ns'w-b it, which see.

pt 'heaven', in (@r) Bhdt(y) nlr r , nb pt; large sign pt above royal protocoI on top of stela No. 74; below the image of Horus the Behdetite, A 49 pw 'it is', in _hrd pw n _d?mw, 'it is a young man of the troops', 168. pn 'this (hcrc)', in bnrit) pn, 73, 6. pr 'housey, about houses of the Nubians, 73, 10. $r 'house,', in titIes imy-r fir, imy-r p r . wr, ~ see Index 2. Pr-rr 'Great House', i.e. '(Royal) Palace', in the titles Sbd .. Pr-rr, q.v. pr-btp ' ~ o u s eof Offerings', in titles brgt nb ( y ) w 'Inn, A 3, and S_dm 'Imn-ipt A 4. gr-hd- 'treasury', in the title ss' pr-hd, .- 99. p r i r 'advance against (a country)', 10,4. prt 'winter', 53; 58. phrt 'frontier-patrol' 53 (?) ; 58.

.

-

-

INDEXES

phrt 'offering-meal', for& in the title rnb n

- !zk~

?,

117.

fm?'magnificence', in rdi.n Nb t3.w~f3w.J 'he whose magnificence the Lord of the Two Lands has furnished', 74, 3-4. j d i 'pluck (corn)', 73, g. m 'in' (a place) : rn WIWI~, 73, 7; rn [email protected], 9-3. 13;

m 'into', in d y hI m p~w.Sn 'put fire into their houses', 73, 8. m 'in', in m nbt, 'in victory', i.e. 'victoriously', or 'as a hero'?, 73, 8. m 'among', in nb $fit m bnrniw.J 'enjoying respect among his fricnds', 73, 5-6. m 'from', 73, 2 ; with the verb in;, 53. rn 'as well as', 'together with', ,'andy, 28 a. rn 'in' (time), in m h?t-sp, 27; 53. m-m 'among', 27, 2. m - b v - 8 'among', 73, 4 ; 'in the midst of' (people), 739 4-5. ~ J -'true7, C 'real7, in the titlcs rb-ns'w m,r and mry Nb.f rn I r, 10;74, 2 ; 74, 4 ; cf. 74, 8. mrr-brw 'triumphant', 'justified', following the name of a person possibly dead: 27; 73, 14; 155 (mother) ; 21 I ; probably still living : 155 (the scribe), 213; 215 (1); 228. See notes on these inscriptions. m i 'as', in m i k.t(w) r Shi, 73, 10-11; 'like', in the epithets di Snb rnb W I S mi Rr and di r ~ z b dd w ~ mi i Rr _dt, 74, mitt 'the like (thereof)', 73, r r. mwt 'mother', in mwt.S, 23; 74; in Snw nw mwt(. i>, 'maternal (uterine) brothersy, 28 a. mrz' 'love', in ~12yv.J 'his beloved one', 7 4 5 ; in mry rnwt.f it.f, 74'6; in mrwt(y) _d~naw,74, 7 ; in mr m?,mid&mt, 'loving life and hating death2, 56m m t 'affection', in 81 rnru~tb m . f , 'great in affection of his Majesty', 7 ~ 3 . mrwt(y) 'well-bcIoved', see under mr i (74, 7). rnh ib njw 'King's confidant', 'Favorite of the King', 74, I . mbt 'post (?)', in the expressions kr m+t nf / m w n Nb, 61A; 61 B; hr mbt 12 nt rS, 57; 59; br mht I n nt 'let etc., 58; cf. 24. di 'bear' 'to be born', in mSy. a' rn ( t ~ t - s jetc., 27, r .; in mS,n (mother) in filjations (the father's name not given) : 54; 62; 73; 14; 124; 139; 211; (the father's name introduced by ir.n): 138, 3. mid 'hate', in mr rnb, mi& mt, 56. mSr 'expedition', in the titles imj-r m3r (?), A 26; whmw ms'r (?), A 8; 'army', 53 (?). mt, (mwtj, 'death?, 56, 6 ; 56, 7 , mt a 'die of', in rn(w1t.f n nmp nSw, 57; m(w)t.f n d ~ nnzty, t 24, ('he shall die', after the S_dm.p.jy form). nzdw 'words', in the formula _dd mdw in, 'words

spoken by', 74.

(f.),

n (neg. part.), in the n S'm.J'form, 27, 2 ; 73, 1 1. n (prcpos.), passim; with a place name, 'from', 28 1; 28 m; 113. with a placc?name, put after filiations, but continuing the title or occupation, 98; 194; n sr for s; n, 'son of' , A 17;after h ~ t - s p--,introducing the king's name, 4; 27. n(i), in n 3-ib, 'of his affection', 'having his aKectianY,74, 4 --5. n iwt 'the (pyramid) city', in the titIe imy-r n iwt, 73, 12; 10, 4. n iwt 'the City' ('4-T,.xy ? Writ ?), 73, 13. niwt, in & J nl'wt, written n iiut rh. k (?) ~ ;belonging t o i t pa niwt ? 150, r . n i w f 'town', in the 'title' n niwt 'townsman', see Index 2. nw [genitive), in Snw nw mwt, 'maternal brothers', 28 a.

'time', in r nw r nw, 'at the vcry proper time', 58. nb 'Lord', i.e. the ruIer, 61A; 61 B; in irr b s ~ f nb. f r r nb, 10, 2-3; in the epithet Nb T;.w,y, 'Lord of thc Two Lands', 74,4; A 28; in pl nbb. f n B ~ I ,'to his Lord, to the ruler, I.p.h.', 150,3. lib 'Lord', i.e. a god, in nb Pt, 'Lord of heaven' (about Horus the Behdetitc), A 4; in nb b~s't, 'Lord of the Hill-country' (about the same), A 17, in wit-br-Nb.S, 'In-front-of-her-Lord' (Amfin), name of Thebcs, 73, 2. nb 'master', in fmiw nb.f r nmtt, 195 c. nb 'possessor (of)', i.e. 'having s.th.', in nb Sfyt 'enjoying respect', 73, 5; in the epithet nb irnlb, 'possessor of honour', 83; instead of nbt tmjb following m.I r (t)-&w, 2 r x ;nb ~wttb, 'possessor of joy', following mhm rrh, 195 c. nb, nbt 'every', 'all', 73, 7; 74; 74, 3 ; 194. Nbty, 'the Two Ladies', in the royal protocol, nre,

141. nbw 'gold' (or nb(y)w, 'goldsmith' ?), in the titIe ss' nbw b ~ S t ,A 16; in the title sS n nbru t~.ruy, A 17. nb(yjw Lgoldsmiths', in thc title bry nb(?)m, A 3. nfr 'good', in the cpithet u..r afr, 'thc good god' (about the king), 74; A 28; in s'.imw zmrtwt nfi-(w)t, A 27; in 7n.f nfr, 73, I . nSp 'well', in dd nfr, 'speak well', 73, 4. nmtt 'journeys', 'travels' in .i'mSru nb.f r nmtt, 195c. nmty 'executioner', 24; in nmty dm,57. nn 'this, about a text which preceded, 73, 12. nn (neg. part.), 53, 5 ; 53' 6. nbt 'tree', 73, 10. nhn 'the younger', after a personal name, 86. n_ht 'strong one', 56; 'victory', in m nbb, 'victoriously' (?), 73, 8. nSw (ni-Swt), 'king of Upper Egypt'; 'king' in general, 73, r I ; in titles and occupations, nmty niw, 57; rfi niw, 10,2 ; 174, I ] ; 124; !my-r Swt , nbt nt niw, 74; 3 ; in mh ib nhu, 74, I. dw-bdp 'king of Upper and Lower Egypt', 4; 27; 73; [ X I ; 168&(Y) 'whoy, in rlty m-rn _d,mw, 17. n_tr 'god', replacing Horus above the serekh, and giving with N, written as a separate name in

INDEXES

the strtkh, the name of the king read NJY-n, Ni-n~r,Ntr-mw; 2. n_tr 'god', in n_tm imy(w) 41it tn, 139, in sS htp-n? n grw nbw, 1% njr 'god', in the titles it-nqr, hm-nir, see Index 2. njr r j 'the Great God', in Bhdt(y), nLr rj, nb pf, A 4. nh - nfr 'the Good God', royal epithet, 74; A 28. ndm - 'pleasant man', 73, 2. n& 'man of vigour', in ndi - (cn, 'valiant man of vigour', 73, I . r (prepos.), passim; r nmtt, 195c; with the verb hi, 27, 2 ; 73, 1 I . rC 'day', in rr nb, 10, 3. rmn 'arm', in dh rmn, 'law of arm', i.e. 'humble one', 73, 3. rm&.r, rmlt 'people', 73, 5; 74, 1 0 ; 135. rnpt 'year', in mft 20, 'for (the last) twenty years', 10, 3. rs' 'South', 57, 3; 59, 3.

h;i 'charge down upon', see i k ~(i.a.p.j. h16 'send', h~b.lw, ro, I . hn 'box, chest', 'chest with papyri'?,. see fd(d?) hn, Index 2.

'prow' of ship, in the title iry-h tt, 110. btt-sp 'regnal year', 4; I r ; 27; 53; 56; 57; 58; 59; 64; 65; 74; 204. Missing before a date, 211. b~ 'ship' ( w i ?), ~ in the title [email protected] , 208. bwt 'mansion', in the title imy-r hwwt 6 wrt, 73, I 2 ; 74, 3 ; in bmt-njr 'temple', see the title !my-P irwt n hwt-njr, zoo. h b h 'clothes', 73, 3-4. hpt 'oar', in flpt-r r, ship of Amenernbet I, called 'Great Oar', 73, 13. hmf 'wife', in hmt.f,74, 1 5 (?); 131; 157. h n f 'with', 'in the company of', 73, 2 . br (prepos.), passim; 'on (a place), in br idb.S, 73; g; 'at' (a place: in llr mbt, 57; 58; 59; 61 A ; 61 B; in hr j p ( t ) t , 63; 64; 71; 53; cf. 50; in pseudover&al construction, 73, 6.8.9.9; 'from', in rnb n sfi h~ !tr btwt, 148; with verbs, Sb i hr 'rebel a g a i n a , 73, r I . hi 'praise', in irr hssf nb.f' rr nb, 10, 2 - 3 ; by 'the praised one', 74, 4. bib 'count', 'reckon', in the titles iny-Tpr Pb [email protected], 135, and ;my-r pr h.6 ihw, 3155; 157. 'ruler', 150; in the 'title' r~zbn -tt ha . k ~which , h.k j see. nb(y)w pr-btp 'Imn, ss* htp 'offering', in the titles btp-nz n nirw nbw, see Index 2 ; in the btp-d i-nSw formula (continued by n k~ plus name, 138; by ntrw imyw $;it tn, n kl n name, 139; by UTSir, hjt

-

358).

btr 'horses') in mnz'w htr, 'groom', Index 2.!zdi 'damage', 'injure", 'destroy', in the S4rn.ty.b form, 24; 57; 58.

&;

'thousand', in rnh n sp

:J

!r,&twt, see Index 2.

h twt 'table of offerings', 148; cf. similar titles with tt under rnh n 3 361 in Index a. b>t 'hill-country', 64; 13% A 16; A 17. &ftt-br (f.), in Btt-br-Nb.S, name of Thebes, 73, 2. bnmS 'friend', 73, 3-6. bnrt (masc. 'forteresse' ? 'prison'? in hnrt pn, 73,6. knt 'at the head of', in en/ kjw inhw n6, 'at the head of the spirits of all the living (people)', 74. hntd 'sail upstream', 73, 8 &n?rm-i, in the title i M hnps-.i P r - r ~ see , Index 2. brp, in the title irny-r&$(L) ikw ~mnt(~ym), Index I. bt 'fire', in dy kt rn prw.Sn, 73, 10. hdi 'travel downstream', 53; 73, g ; 58. V V

!I,

in Jrd pw n j m w , 'it is a young man of the troops', 168; in the title _hrd (n) k ( r ) p , see Index 2 .

hrd -

s 'man',

in s I;b nt(y) m-m _dlmw, 27,

2;s

n _d~rnw,

56.

S (suffix), for i n , 73,

10.

it 'storehouse', in the title i m ~ - rSwk abt n tasw, see Index 2. St-ib 'affection', in n St-2'b.J '-having his affection', 749 4-54 s; 'son', in filiations, see Excursus 11; omitted by error, 28, h ; 39; 106 (?), 143. SI, a title, see Index 2 . S~-njzvand SI-niw n KI, titles, scc Index 2. Sr-Rf 'son of Ref', in thc name of the king K I - k I-Rc, 141. s r b 'senior', in the title s ~ imy-r b s.r(wj, see Index 2. stb 's~b-dignitary', in the title imy-r S~b(w),see Index 2. Sw 'day' in dates, 52. Sw 'it' (ncutre), 24, 3; 57, 3 ; 58, 6 . S W I 'cut down (trees)', 73, 9. sr~lnw'physician', in wr-swnw, see Index 2 . Sbm' Er 'rebel against s.o.', 73, I I . sp 'remaining', 'rest of', in spw nbwt.S f'n,i, 'their remaining trees', 73, 10. SP 'portion', in the 'titlc' [email protected] n sp & J !zr b~wt,

148,3. spt 'remaining part', in rpt nbt m W t w ~ t ,73, 7. j p ( ~ ) t'district', in hr [email protected] n S I .., 63; 64; 71; in the titles imy-r Spt and sf .Fpt, see Index 2. ipr 'arrive', 58, 3. in11 'slaughter', (Nubians), 73, 6-7; 73, 8. jn (suffix), 73, I n; cf. s' for in. in "brother', in Sn.f, g, 2 ; in Snw nw mwt, 'my maternal brothers', 27, 2. Snb 'be hale', in di inb rnb WIS, 74; in the epithet rnb w,d, Snb, see under rnj; in