The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia [First ed.]

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The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia [First ed.]

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Contents
Index
A
B
C
D
E
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H
I
J
K
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T
U
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THE PRESS AND POETRY OF MODERN PERSIA

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS C. F. CLAY, MANAGER lLonbon: FETTER LANE, E.C. Ebinfmrgb: 100 PRINCES STREET

13nlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 1Leip)ig: F. A. BROCKHAUS

i\ltm

~ork:

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

)Somba» anb t '~t.·"

First page of No. 833 of the old lithographed dated Tuesday, ~afar 5, A.H. 131'2 (Aug. 8, 1894)

lrall,

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS

49

1316 (=ApriI18, 1908). I possess Nos. 1-.f' Each comprises ... pp. of Il~" x 6f'. Yearly subscription, 8 qrdm in Tihran; 10 qrdlls in the provinces; 30 piastres in Turkey; '2 roubles in Russia and the Caucasus; 5 francs in other foreign countries.

(75)

Urdu-yi-Humaylin (The Ro)'al Camp). u-,~loA lS-,.))-,t A paper published during the march to Khurasan at the time of Na~iru'd-D{n Shah's second journey to Mashhad in A.H. 1300 (= A.D. 1882-3), written in the course of the journey at the different halting places on the road, and circulated amongst the members of the Royal Suite, commonly called "the Royal Camp." The first number was printed at Damawand on Sha'ban II (A.H. 1300=]une 17,1883), and the last at Tihr ~'-~~..:.-~

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Last page, with column in French, of No. 89 of the newspaper Tabrfz, dated August 2, 1911

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS

61 61 editor was arrested. The politics of the paper were Conservative editor was arrested. The politics of the paper were Conservative and Moderate Constitutionalist. and Moderate Constitutionalist.

See Rabino, No. 58. I possess Nos. 7'1. and 89, the fonner dated the '1.3rd of See Rabino, No. (=June 58. I possess Nos.and 7'1. the andlatter 89, the fonner dated the '1.3rd of) of ii, A.H. 1329 Jumada '1.1,1911), the 7th ofSha'han (August Jumada ii, A.H. 9 (=June '1.1,1911), andof pp. the of latter 7th ofSha'han (August 4) of the same year.13 2Each number comprises Yearly subscription, lsi"thex 91". of same number comprises 4 pp. of 15~" x.p91". qrans, Each qralts.Yearly subscription, Tabrfz '1.1 year. elsewhere in Persia 30 qralls, abroad in the in Tabrfz '1. 1 qralls, elsewhere in Persia 30 qralls, abroad .p qralts.

(101) (101) Tadayyun (Religiousness). Tadayyun (Religiousness). A weekly religious paper printed in Tihran in A.H. 13 2 5 A weekly religious paper printed in Tihran in A.H. 13 2 5 (= A.D. 19(7) under the editorship of Mulla $adiq, entitled (= A.D. 19(7) under the editorship of Mulla $adiq, .entitled Fakhru'I-Isldm (" the Pride of Islam "), originally a Chaldaean Fakhru'I-Isldm (" the Pride of Islam "), originally a Chaldaean or Syrian Christian of U rmiya, who was converted to Islam or Syrian Christian of U rmiya, who was converted to Islam (Jad/du' I-Isltim). (Jad/du' I-Islam). See Rabino, No. 59.

I possess No.

of the first year, dated the 1st of Sha 'ban, dated the ofof Sha 'ban, dated the 1st 16th Rajab, dated 16th Rajab, pp. of the 61".of Yearly 12" x A.H. 13'1.7 (=August number comprises pp. of4- 12" x 61".'in Yearly 1'1. qralls3,in1909)' Tihran,Each 15 qralls elsewhere in 4-Persia, roubles Russia subscription, 1'1. qralls Tihran, qralls elsewhere in Persia, -f. roubles 'in Russia subscription, and in 7 rupees in 15 India. and the Caucasus, and the Caucasus, and 7 rupees in India. II

Rabino, No. 9,59.1907), I possess No.'1. 11ofofthe thethird first year, A.H.See 13'1.5 (= Sept. and No. year, A.H. 13'1.5 Sept. 9, 3,1907), No. number '1. of thecomprises third year, 13'1.7 (= (=August 1909)'andEach of A.H.

(102) (102) Tarbiyat (Educatiolz). ~,;; Tarbiyat (Educatiolz). ~.;; A weekly paper lithographed in very fine lzasta'liq in Tihran A weekly paper lithographed in very fine lzasta'liq in Tihran in A.H. 1314 (= A.D. 1896-7). Its owner, editor and chief writer in A.H. 1314 (= A.D. 1896-7). Its owner, editor and chief writer was M{rza MuJ:1ammad J:lusayn of I!?fahan, entitled Zakd'u'l-Mulk was M{rza MuJ:1ammad J:lusayn of I!?fahan, entitled Zakd'u'l-Mulk and poetjcally surnamed Furttghf, author of numerous works on and poetjcally surnamed Furttghf, author of numerous works on history and literature, father of the present MIrza MuJ:1ammad history and literature, father of the present Mlrza MuJ:1ammad 'Ali Khan Zakd'u'l-Mulk, who was a member of the Second 'All Khan Zakd'u'l-Mulk, who was a member of the Second National Assembly. This paper had a special literary importance National Assembly. This paper had a special literary importance in regard to its style, composition, and quality of eloquence, for in regard to its style, composition, and quality of eloquence, for the late Zakti'u'l-Mulk, who was in his time one of the first men of the late Zaka'u'l-Mulk, who was in his time one of the first men of letters and poets of Persia, used frequently to publish his poems in letters and poets of Persia, used frequently to publish his poems in it, for which reason amongst others it held a high and distinguished it, for which reason amongst others it held a high and distinguished place amongst the papers of the period of Autocracy, and place amongst the papers of the period of Autocracy, and enjoyed a considerable influence, though its practice of flattering enjoyed a considerable influence, though its practice of flattering and praising contemporary notables detracted from its literary and praising contemporary notables detracted from its literary value. Its celebrity was chiefly due to its controversy with the value. Its celebrity was chiefly due to its controversy with the paper Thurayyd (" Pleiades," q.v.) about the Persian Calendar of paper Thurayyd (" Pleiades," q.v.) about the Persian Calendar of I:Iajji Najmu'd-Dawla. In consequence of the well-founded l:1ajji Najmu'd-Dawla. In consequence of the well-founded criticisms levelled by Mirza 'All MuJ:1arnmad Khan of Kashan criticisms levelled by M£rza 'All MuJ:1arnmad Khan of Kashan

62

HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PRESS

the editor of the Thurayyd, against the absurdities of the Persian Calendar, the TarbiJlat TarbiJ1at devoted two of its issues from beginning to end to a defence of I:Iajji N ajmu'd-Dawla and an attack on the Thurayyd. This attack gave occasion to the admirers of the Thurayyd to express their feelings and to pour forth their objections, and many articles in refutation of the Tarbiyat from all parts of Persia and from abroad appeared in the Thurtl)'Ya Thura)'Yd and other papers. Translations of useful treatises [composed in other languages] often appeared as jeuilletolls (pd waraqf) at the Tarbi),at. foot of the pages of the Ta rbi)'at. Amongst these were "fa "la Chaumiere indiemze" (Kufba-i-Hindf) (Kulba-i-Hindf) of Bernardin de SaintPierre, "Love and Virtue" ('Ishq u 'Iffat), a translation of Chateaubriand's Aventures du denzier des Abencerages, etc. The Tarbiyat continued pUblication publication until the end of the period of Autocracy and almost until the Constitutional Period. See R~bino, No. 16, according to whom this paper began on the 11th of Rajah, 1314 (=Dec. 16, 1896). It was still going on (No. 4'24) on the 4th of Dhu'l-Qa'da, A.H. 13'24 (=Dec. '20, 1906). I possess a good many numbers, of which the first is No. 58 (second year), dated the '26th of Sha'ban, A.H. 1315 (=]an. '20, 1898), and the last No. 433, dated the '2'2nd of Mui:tarmm, A.H. 13'25 (=March 7, 1907). Each number comprises 8 pp. of 1'2" x 61", the pages being numbered continuously with a view to binding. Yearly subscription, '20 qrd1tS in Tihnin, '25 qrdltS qram elsewhere in Persia, 5 roubles in Russia, 10 rupees in India, and 1'2 1'2 fmncs in Europe, Turkey and Egypt. A.H.

(103)

Taraqqi (Progress). ~;J (=A.D. 1907) A fortnightly paper printed in Tihran in AH. 1325 1325(=A.D.1907) under the editorship of Mirza MuJ:1ammad 'Alf 'AH Khan of Tihran, known as " IslambuH" (" the Constantinopolitan "), who was one of those imprisoned in the Bagh-i-Shah after the Reactionary Coup d'Etat of the 23rd of Jumada i, A.H. 1326 (= June 23,19°8). See Rabino, No. 61, according to whom the publication of the paper began on the '21 and '2'2. Each 17th of $afar, A.H. 13'25 (=April I, 1907). I possess Nos. 16, '2I number comprises 4 pp. of 1 '2" X 6il". The yearly subscription was I'2 qrd1tS qra1tS for Tihnin, 15 for other parts of Persia, 5 roubles for Russia and the Caucasus, 3 mejidiyyes for Turkey, and 10 rupees for India.

(104) Tashwiq (Encouragement). ~~~ A weekly paper printed in Tihran in A.H. 1325 (= A.D. 1907) under the editorship of MIrza Mfrza Sayyid 'All 'AH Tabataba'l. This

ALPHABETICAL LIST LIST OF OF NEWSPAPERS NEWSPAP ERS ALPHABETICAL

paper, like like many many others, others, used used to to attempt attempt aa feeble feeb le imitation imitation of of paper, the Charivari ") of the and Charand-Parand (" Sltr-i-l srdfil, the Charand-Parand (" Charivari") of the Sltr-i-Isrdfil, and published aa comic comic or or satiric satiric section section under und er the the title t itle of of Shirr- Wirr. published See Rabino, Rabino, No. No. 62, 62, according according to to whom whom only only 88 issues issues of of the the paper paper were were published, published, See the first first on on the the 19th 19th of A . H. H . 1325 of Sha Sha 'ban, 'ban, A. 1325 ((= Sept. 227, 1907), and and the the last last on on the the 26th 26th = Sept. i, 19°7), the -8. Each of Shaww:H Shawwal (= Dec. 2) 2) of of the the same same year. year. II possess possess Nos. Nos. 22 -8. Each number number comcom(= Dec. of IS qrdm qrdm in qrdm in of 121" 12f' xx 61". 6f ". Yearly Yearly subscription, subscription, 15 in Tihnin, T ihran, 20 20 qrdm in prises 88 pp. pp. of prises other parts parts of of Persia, Persia, and and 25 25 qrdns qrdm abroad. abroad. other

(105) (105)

(Thought). Tafakkur (Thought). A.H . 1325 (= (= A.D. A.D. 1907) A weekly paper printed in in Tihran in in A.H. Nd/fi11lu'z-Zdkirin. under the editorship of Nd?i11tu'z-Zdkirin. See Rabino, Rabino, No. No. 63, 63, according according to to whom whom only only one one number number was was issued issued on on the the See A.H. 1325 of Rabi' Rabi' i, i, A.H. 1325 (= (=April 16, 1907). 1907). II possess possess this this number, numher, which which comprises comprises 3rd of April 16, 3rd 4 pp. x 61". qrdm in qrdm elsewhere Ii" x pp. of of 1I Ii" 6f'. Yearly Yearly subscription, subscription, 30 30 qrdm in Tihnin, Tihran, 35 35 qrdllS elsewhere in in 425 francs francs in in Europe. Europe. Persia, and and 25 Persia,

(106) (106)

(Civilization). u.:4J Tamaddun (Civilization). Tamaddun u';'" A.H. 1324 (= (= A.D. A.D. 1906-7). A weekly weekly paper paper printed printed in Tihran in in A.H. A in Tihran The proprietor and principal writer was the Mudabbint'lM amdlik The proprietor and principal writer was the Mudabbint'l-Mamdlik of Hirand, who originally belonged to the class of doctors of of Hirand, who originally belonged to the class of doctors of I~fahan, theology and divinity students in and afterwards applied theology and divinity students in I~fahan, and afterwards applied himself to journalism in Tihran. This was one of the best newspapers of the Constitutional Period, and was conspicuous alike for its literary style and for its boldness and steadfastness the Constitution. Constitution. After After the the Reactionary Reactionary Coup and COllP d'Etat d'Etat and for the for bombardment of the MajIis (June the Mudabbiru'l23, 1908) bombardment of the Majlis (June the Mudabbirtt'lMamdlik was was able able to to save save his his life life from from the the revengeful revengeful claws claws of of Mamdlik the partisans of Autocracy, and fled by way of Bushire to India, where he again began to publish the Tamaddun in Bombay. He also spent some time at Calcutta, where he published several Ifablu'l-Matill. He subsequently went to Conarticles in in the Jfablu'I-Mati1t. stantinople, but returned to to Persia Persia during during the the Revolution Revolution (of (of stantinople, but returned and agaiI} agaiq. started started his his paper paper at at Rasht. Rasht. After After the the conquest conquest 1909), and of Tihran Tihran [by [by the the Nationalists] Nationalists] in in A.H. (July, 1909) he A.H . 1327 1327 (July, 1909) he of returned thither and again started his paper, which continued returned thither and again started his paper, which continued publication until until A.H. A.H. 1330 (=A.D. 1330 (= 19 12). During During its its final final A.D. 1912). publication

HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PRESS

appearance in Tihran the Tamaddttll stood aside from the strife of the other conflicting parties, and described itself as the partisan of the policy of fundamental reforms (Radical). During its first publication the Tamaddztll published eighty numbers a year, but afterwards appeared once a week. During the latter part of A.H. 1329 (= A.D. 19II) it became a daily, and was published in small quarto form under the title of I!!ild'dt-irl1zdlla-i-Tamaddztll (" Daily information of the Tamaddzt1l "). This paper epitomized in a very pleasing form the weekly happenings and news of Persia and foreign countries, and in this respect it occupied a unique position amongst Persian newspapers. See Rabino, No. 64, I possess a good many numbers of the First and Second Years. Years. of publication, of which the first is No. II 'of the First Year, dated the 17th of Dhu'l-J:lijja, A.H. 1324 (=Feb. I, 19(7), and the last No. 14 of the Second Year, dated the 11th II, 1908). Each number comprises lIth of Jumada i, A.H. 1326 (=June 11, 4 pp. of II~" x 61". Yearly subscription, 24 qrans in Tihnln, 30 qrans elsewhere in Persia, 7 roubles in Russia and the Caucasus, and 14 rupees in India. A supplementary number dated the 1st of Rama~an, A.H. 1326 (= Sept. 27, 1908), J908), bears over Ncila-i-JlIillat" (" the Nation's Lament "), and above this the the title the words" Ncila-i-.1Iillat" verse from the Qur'an: "Deem not them who were slain in ill the Way of God as dead, but rather as living, cared for by their Lord." Instead of the usual price !;tand the words: "a grain of activity," and readers in Persia are requested to pass the paper on to others. It contains a proclamation from the Mujtahids of Karbala against Mul,lammad 'All Shah and in favour of the Constitution, and was printed at the ijablu'l-lJlat!n Press at Calcutta.

(107)

- ...-

u~

Tamaddun ( Civilizatioll).

A paper published in Bombay in A.H. 1327 (= A.D. 1909) by the above-mentioned MlIdabbiru'I-lJ;Iamdlik MlIdabbiru'I-.lVlamdlik during his stay in India. Only one number appeared. Not in Rabino, and not seen.

(108)

Tamaddun (Civilizatioll).

u~

A paper published in Rasht in A.H. 1327 (= A.D. 1909), edited and written by the above-mentioned Mlldabbirll'l-Mamdlik, MlIdabbirll'I-Mamdlik, during his return from India to Tihran. Only one number appeared, dated 29 Rabi' ii, A.H. 1327 (May 19, 1909). See Rabino, No. 64. according to whom the single Rasht issue was No. 15 of the Second Year. We have seen above that No. 14 of the Second Year was published

ALPHABETICAL ALPHABETICAL LIST LIST OF NEWSPAPERS OF NEWSPAPERS on on June June 11, 1908, I2 12 days days before before the the Coup d' Etat, while the the next next (Rasht) (Rasht) issue, issue, Coup d' Btat, while I I, 1908, been published later, in No. in July, July, 1909, 1909, just just before before No. 15, 15, must must have have been published about about (3 (3 months months later, the the capture capture of of Tihrin Tihran by by the the Nationalists. Nationalists.

(109) (109)

Tanbih (Admonition). Tanbih (Admonition).

A A comic comic paper, paper, partly partly lithographed lithographed and and partly partly printed, printed, published in Tihran, and illustrated with coloured caricatures, in in A.H. under the the editorship editorship of of MU'ta§idu'lA.H. 1325 1325 (= A.D. 1907), 1907), under MU'ta§idu'l(= A.D. A/ibbd. After the restoration of the Constitution (in July, 19(9) 1909) this paper was again published, and continued until these this paper was again published, and continued until these last last times 191 I). In times (end (end of of 191 In politics politics it it belonged belonged to to the the Moderate Moderate Party. See H, See Rabino, Rabino, No. No. 65, 65, according according to to whom whom No. NO.77 was was dated dated the the 14th 14th of of Jumada Jumada ii, 1325 25, 1907). is 1325 (=July (=July 25, 1907). II possess possess No. No. II of of the the Third Third Year, Year, which, which, however, however, is It comprises undated. undated. It I2-~" x comprises 44- pp. pp. of of 121" x 6i". 6i". Pp. Pp. II and and 44 each each contain contain aa caricature caricature (~ot coloured) and and are are lithographed: lithographed: pp. pp. 22 and and 33 are are printed. printed. (~ot coloured) A.H. A.H.

(110) (110)

Tahdhfb Tahdhfb (Purificatioll). (Purification). A weekly A weekly newspaper newspaper printed printed 1910). 1910).

'"':"":!~ ,",:",,:!J.~ In In

Tihran Tihran in in A.H. 1328 (= (= A.D. A.H. 1328 A.D.

Not Not in in Rabino, Rabino, and and not not seen. seen.

(111) (111) at-Tawaddud (Affection). at-Tawaddud (Affection). A A paper paper published published in in Paris Paris in in A.D. under (= A.H. A.D. 1891 1891 (= A.H. 1308--9) 1308-9) under the editorship of Shaykh Abu Na~~ara (-Nadhdhdra). the editorship of Shaykh Abu Na~~ara (-Nadhdhdra). This This paper paper was was published published in in four four languages, languages, Arabic, Arabic, Persian, Persian, Turkish Turkish and and French, French, and and was was illustrated.. illustrated .. As As it it contained contained aa Persian Persian it has been recorded amongst the section section it has been recorded amongst the Persian Persian newspapers. newspapers. Some of its Persian articles were written by Shaykh MuI:tammad Mul).ammad !:lasan of Sfrjan Sirjan (near (near Kirman), Kirman), entitled entitled Sluzyklm'I-Mulk. Slzaykltu'I-Mulk. !:lasan of Not Not in in Rabino, Rabino, and and not not seen. seen. Shaykh Shaykh AM AbU Na~l~

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Superscription and cover of the Jl£ajlllzt'a-i-Bal;.r-i-.1(hazar, or "Revue Transcaspienne" NO.3 of the Third Year, Feb. '28, 1908

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS

135

(307) Mu~akamat

..:A~~

(Judgements).

A paper printed in Tihran in A.H. 1325 (= A.D. 1907-8), at first twice and afterwards thrice a week, under the editorship of l\iajdu'l-Islam of Kirman, to give publicity to the proceedings of the Law Courts. See Rabino, No. 185, who describes it as the organ of the Ministry of Justice, and gives the 17th (sic, hut see below) of Jumada i, A.H. 1325(=June28, 1907), as the date of its first appearance. I possess Nos. 2, 3, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 4-3, 48, and 49, the first dated the 13th of Jumada i, A.H. 1325 (=June 24,19°7), and the last the 14th of Rabi' i,A.H. 1326 (=April 16,1908). Each number contains 4 pp. of 1I:J:" X6£". Yearly subscription, IS qrdns in Tihnin, 18 qrdlls elsewhere in Persia, 2 mejidiyyes in Turkey and Egypt, 4- roubles in Russia and the Caucasus, and 18 francs in Europe.

(308) M~akamat

..:,,~=l.:.-,

(Judgements).

A paper published in Tabdz in A.H. 1326 (= A.D. 1908) under the editorship of MIrza Mal).mud GhanI-zada of Salmas, editor of the Farydd and Bit Qalamltn (q.v.). Not in Rabino, and not seen.

M~akamat-i- Yazd

(309) (Judgements of Yazd).

,)~ ..:,,~6....0

A weekly paper lithographed in Yazd in A.H. 1327 (=A.D. 1909) under the editorship of Mul).ammad $adiq. See Rabino, No. 186, who states that after the arrival at Yazd of the Bakhtiyari Sardar-i-Jang, the newspaper Ala'n:fat (see below, No. 328) was published under the title of Alu~dkamdt, but not more than two or three numbers were printed and circulated. I possess a copy of NO.2 of the First Year, which is dated the 17th of Dhu'l-Qa'da, A.H. 1327 (=Nov. 30, 1909)' It comprises 4- pp. lithographed in large, clear ta'ltq, of I I " x 61". Yearly subscription, 16 qrdlls in Yazd, 20 qrdns elsewhere in Persia, 23 qrdns abroad.

(310)

M:udarris-i-Farsi (The Persian Teacher). U""')l,; V"')Jwo A monthly magazine published in Bombay, partly lithographed and partly printed in small (book) form, in A.D. 1883 (= A.H. 1300-1). Its contents were partly Persian and partly English, and, as its name implies, were chiefly educational and connected with the study of the Persian language. It treated of Persian grammar and literature, and contained Persian stories,

HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PRESS

anecdotes, proverbs, specimens of calligraphy, biographies, and notices of old poets and Kings of Persia, accompanied in most cases by English translations. Its first number was dated Thursday, January I, 1883, and the following verse of poetry was printed on the top of each copy: 0~ ":-"l' .!Jlo...J-! ~, ,

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u-o

u'-,'

~

lSl,)l ulfo ul.P u'.,J

,

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A complete collection of three years (3 6 numbers) of this periodical is preserved in the Library of the British Museum under the class-mark 757. cc. 20. The last (36th) number is dated December, 1885. This periodical was edited by Khan Bahadur G. M. Munshf and his sons. Each number comprised 16 pp., and the yearly subscription was 4 rupees, if paid in advance, and 5 rupees if paid at the end of the year. At the beginning of each number is written in English: "to save much time, trouble and money." In the number for August, 1885, appears an advertisement of the Far/lang, published at I~fahan, and an encomium on it, and in subsequent numbers news is occasionally quoted from that paper. In the later numbers of the Mudarrz"s-z"-Fdrsi Mudarrz."s-z."-Fdrsi there appear advertisements of a paper entitled Mufarr£lfZt'I-Qulub, Mufarr£lfZil-Qulub, which is highly praised, and of which it writes as follows: "This is a weekly Persian newspaper published at Karachi Karachf in Sind, and is the best Persian newspaper in India. It has appeared regularly for thirty years, and it is now the thirtieth year of its publication. I ts Persian style is very good, and entirely accords with the spoken and written idiom of Persia. It contains the latest news from every country, and is in every respect a first-class newspaper. It is chiefly maintained and published by subventions from the rulers, princes, nobility and gentry of Persia, Turkey, Afghanistan, India, Europe, etc. Its proprietors and publishers possess testimonials, guarantees and letters from most of the above-mentioned rulers, nobles and gentry which afford ample evidence as to the excellence of its style and taste. It is especially suitable for the use of students of Persian in India. It is edited and published by two learned, accomplished and well-known persons,

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS

137

Mfrza Mu~ammad Mfrza Mu~ammad Ja'far' (the editor) and Mirza $adiq of Mashhad, Persian Consul at Karachi. KarachI. Yearly subscription for Indian nobles, 12 rupees, if paid- in advance, and 24 rupees if post-paid: for people of the middle class, 10 and 20 rupees, respectively: and for students, 5 and 10 rupees respectively." Not in Rabino, and not seen.

(311)

- ------

;~ (Ci1.'z,/izatioll). \" : ;.M Madaniyyat (Ci'l'z'lizati(J1l). ." A fortnightly newspaper lithographed in Tabrfz in A.H. 1301 (= A.D. 1883-4) under the editorship of the Secretary to the NO.22 was dated WednesArmenian Agency, known as $adra. No. (=ApriI9, day the 12th of Jumada ii, A.H. 1301 (= April 9, 1884). Not in in Rabino, Rahino, and and not not seen. seen. Not

(312) Mad! (? Media). Tihran in A.H. 1325 (= A.D. 1907-8), A weekly paper printed in Tihnin (::::OA.D. edited and written by Shaykh 'Abdu'l-'AH, known as Mztbad, on account of his sentiments with regard to Ancient Persia and the pure Persian language. After the Coup d'Etat of June 23, 1908, and the bombardment of the Majlis, he became acquainted with the celebrated M. Panoff, the correspondent of certain Liberal Russian papers in Persia, who also took part in the Gflan 1909)~ at the time when A.H. 1327 (= A.D. A.D. 1909)~ Gllan Rebellion in A.H. the Russian Legation had expelled him from Tihran. He " Mfrza accompanied him to St Petersburg under the name of "Mfrza 'Ali the Mujtahid," and endeavoured to influence public Shaykh 'Alf opinion in Russia in a manner favourable to Persia by means of public speeches. Not in in Rabino, Rabino, and and not not seen. seen. Not

(313) Mirat-i-Janlib (The Mirror of the South). -:-'~ ":::!J..o ~!ro "'="'~ A weekly newspaper lithographed at Kirman in A.H. 1329 J aIalu'd-Dfn I:Iusayni I:Iusaynf (= A.D. 191 I) under the editorship of Sayyid Jalalu'd-Dfn (=A.D. Mu'ayyidu'l-Ashrdf. Mu' ayyidu'l-Ashrd/.

HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PRESS See Rabino, No. 187. I possess a copy of No. I, which is dated the 3rd of MuJ:tarram, A.H. 1329 (= Jan. 4, 1911). It is lithographed in a large, clear naskh, and comprises 4 pp. of I I~" X 6~". Yearly subscription, 20 qrdllS in Kinnan. This number contains, on p. I, a portrait of MIrza I:Iusayn Khan Sarddr-i-Nu~rat.

(314)

~, o~ -,~, i!,ro Miratu's-Safar wa Mishkatu'l-~a~ar (Tlze Mirror of Travel a1ld Lamp of .sojourn). A newspaper published in RabI' i, A.H. 1288 (= May-June, 1871) on the march and at the halting-places during Na~iru'd­ Din Shah's summer journey to Mazandaran. It gave an account of the events of the journey from start to finish, and was printed and edited by Mul).ammad l:Iasan Khan l'timddu's-Sal!ana. In all thirteen numbers were published. This information is supplied in a letter from H.E. the Ptimddu's-Saltal1a. paper is not mentioned by Rabino, and is not otherwise knm\\n.

(315)

Mirrfkh (Mars).

The

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A newspaper lithographed in Tihran inA.H. 1296 (=A.D. 1879) under the editorship of MIrza J:Iasan Khan $anf'tt'd-Dawla. The first number was dated l\Iul).arram 5 of that year (= Dec. 30, 1878) and the last number the 16th of Jumada ii, A.H. 1297 (= May 26, 188o). In all eighteen numbers were published. This paper took the place of the RltZ1tdma-£-Nt~dmf (" Military Journal") which preceded it, and would seem to have been founded by MIrza J:Iusayn Khan Sipahsdldyl. See No. 191 sltpra. Most of the above particulars are derived from information supplied by Zakd'II'IlIIlIlk. The paper is not mentioned by Rabino, nor have I seen it.

(316) ~'-,\-o Musawat (Equality). A weekly paper printed in Tihran in A.H. 1325 (= A.D. 1907-8) under the editorship of Sayyid Mul).ammad Ri~a of Shiraz, and 1 The P-timddu's.Saltalla in one of his letters attributes the foundation and circulation of this newspaper to Prince Kamran MIrza. entitled Nd't'bu's-Saltana, the son of N~iru'd-Din Shah, who published it with the assistance of the present Sarddr-t'-Kiell. It came to an end, however, after only twelve or thirteen numbers had appeared. It is, however, highly probable, nay, almost certain, that the details mentioned in the text are more correct and accurate, and that the other particulars refer to some other paper of which we have no further information.

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPERS

139

Sayyid 'Abdu'r-Ral).fm of Khalkhal. This paper, by reason of its extreme boldness and steadfastness in Constitutional Principles, was one of the foremost champions in the P~ess of the First Constitution. It achieved great notoriety in consequence of its criticism of the Press Law, on the promulgation of which it published a number full of idle stories, fables and phantasies, saying that henceforth, in consequence of the abovementioned Law, everything except such matters would be prohibited; and also in consequence of a celebrated article entitled H How is the Shah?" directed against Mul).ammad 'All Shah. These actions led to the suppression of the paper and legal proceedings against the editor. The editor of this paper, Sayyid Mul).ammad Ri~a, was one of the eight persons whose surrender Mul).ammad 'All Shah demanded of the First National Assembly, but after the bombardment of the Majlis (June 23, 1908) he escaped and could not he captured. Finally he succeeded in reaching the Caucasus, whence he made his way to Tabdz, where, during the Revolution and siege of that city, he again published the Musawdt. Finally he was elected by Tabdz as one of the Members of the Second National Assembly. In politics the paper was thorough-going Constitutionalist and Liberal. See Rabino, No. 188, who says that in all 25 numbers of the Tihnin edition appeared, the first on the 5th of Rama=?an, A.H. 1325 (=Oct. 12, 1907), and the last at the end of Rab{' i, A.H. 1326 (=May 2,19°8). I possess a fairly complete collection.

(317)

Musawat (Equalit)I). A paper lithographed in Tabdz early in A.H. 1327 (= A.D. 190\ \J~.)~.:J LS~..l.,>..) ~~Ib ~~ ( \ 1. • ) -,')-

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FROM THE SHUl"fAYSA·I-LANDANIYYA

MODERN PERSIAN POEMS ~IODERN PERSIAN POEMS

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( Translatz'on) (Translation)

Hark! the blare of Russian trumpets on the Northern Hark! the blare of Russian trumpets on the Northern breezes comes! Heedbreezes ye! forcomes! the ears are deafened with the roar of HeedRussian ye! fordrums! the ears are deafened with the roar of

Russian drums!

No.

I.

FROM THE SHU.JfA YSA·I-LANDANIYYA

(122) \Veep and louder Shake thy surely

171

wail! the s01Jnds of turmoil loud and ever rise: chains and burst thy fetter~, for the Lion dies!

(123) 'Neath the hosts of savage Cossacks all the boundless Qi pchaq Plain Seems a sea of iron billows, seems a roaring, surging main! (124) Back to back and breast to breast throughout that spacious Plain they stand, While an evil seed of severed heads and limbs fulfils the land.

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(126) Boundless, countless is their army, so that if the stars should see, They would ask, " Of these two armies which may claim infinity? "

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(128) Even from the Bridge of Kabul to the regions of the Pole, Clubs and maces, chests and shoulders, in one seething eddy roll. ((129) 129) Frowning brows and knotted muscles doth each warrior display; Little do they care for China, little reck they of Cathay! (130) Think ye, Lion-Ass, or Ass with Lion's head, that yonder Bear Doth not know the Ass will better yield to him the Lion's share? ((131) 131) Quit the grounds wherein you hunted; turn your steps to house and town, For the Tiger, Wolf and Leopard forces join to hunt you down!

17 22 17

MODERN PERSIAN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

(132) Call Stone whereon (132) Call the the Stone whereon you you stumble stumble empty name! empty name! And thy thy Beauty Bright is is surely surely And Beauty Bright claws of shame 1 ! claws of shamel!

"glad": 'tis but but an an "glad": 'tis caught within within the the caught

(138) Hail, thou Caucasian Monarch! Monarch! Full Full success thou great great Caucasian success (138) Hail, attends thy plan! attends thy plan! Such success success is is thine by virtue virtue of strength which which Such thine by of the the strength makes a man! makes a man! (140) Welladay! Welladay! Each Each lying seemed, would would (140) lying promi'se, promi'se, which, which, it it seemed, serve so well, serve so well, hath brought brought us to the the Now hath hath caught caught us, us, and and hath us even even to Now gates of Hell ! gates of Hell ! (141) Welladay! Welladay! The The (141) molars lies, molars lies, While the sounds sounds While the grave arise. grave arise.

toothsome morsel still still within within thy toothsome morsel thy of dig the the morsel-eater's morsel-eater's of spades spades which which dig

(152) Graceless one! one! II gave gave (152) Graceless prayer laud, prayer and and laud, But for praying praying heard heard But for naught but bawd! naught but bawd!

thee India, India, seeking from thee thee seeking from thee but and for laud got got but braying, braying, and for laud

(153) Did not command thee, saying, saying, "Mate "Mate not not with with the the (153) Did II not command thee, Russian Bear, Russian Bear, For Russian parent's the Russian parent's For the the Russian parent's offspring offspring is is the Russian parent's heir" ?? heir" (154) Mine Mine it to speak, thine to an (154) it was was to speak, and and thine to lend lend an ear: ear: Mine to warn warn thee, thee, thine thine to to scorn me: mine mine Mine to scorn me: jeer! thi ne to thi ne to jeer!

inattentive inattentive to counsel, counsel, to

1 Gladstone and Bright, the prototypes of our modern Russophil Ministers, were, I Gladstone and Bright, the prototypes of our modern Russophil Ministers, were, however, at onc~ more magnanimous and more moderate than these, and'Gladstone onc~ more magnanimous and more moderate than these, and -Gladstone however, at Edward Grey. Grey. on occasion occasion showed showed aa firmness firmness for for which which we we look look in in vain vain in in Sir Sir Edward on

No. No.

I. I.

FROM THE SHUlIfAYSA-I-LANDANIYYA FROM THE SHUlIfAYSA-I-LANDANIYYA

(155) the East (155) II bestowed bestowed the East my Light: my Light: Thou didst see Thou didst see the the mirk of mirk of night. night.

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173 173

upon upon thee thee that that thou thou might'st might'st behold behold Light, and turning didst prefer the Light, and turning didst prefer the

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(167) from aa mountain mountain fastness grizzly Bear (167) Sudden Sudden from fastness doth doth the the grizzly Bear appear, appear, And my it, swoons swoons away And my Darling Darling sees sees it, it, loves loves it, away with with passion sheer. passion sheer. (168) soul fulfilled fulfilled with longing, to the Bear (168) Heart Heart and and soul with longing, to the Bear she she draweth nigh, draweth nigh, Saying, my beloved, this the Apple of mine Saying, "This "This IS IS my beloved, this the Apple of mine Eye!" Eye!" form so so sleek comely! See the beauty (169) (169) See See her her form sleek and and comely! See the beauty of her gait! of her gait! Worthy dainty Plorsel Plorsel for jaws which which it Worthy such such aa dainty for the the jaws it await! await! said she, she, "am "am India's the milk (170) (170) "I," "I," said India's sugar, sugar, he he the milk of of SamarSamarqand: qand: "We mix like "We shall shall mix like milk milk and and sugar, sugar, we we shall shall travel travel hand in hand ! hand in hand !

(17 I) "I the Lion South, and he the the valiant (171) "I the Lion of of the the South, and he valiant Northern Northern Bear: Bear: "Who to oppose oppose us us when when together "Who shall shall venture venture to together forth forth we fare?" we fare?" (172) the former's are the (172) Subject Subject to to the former's sceptre sceptre are the realms realms of of West West and East: and East: East the pouch East and and West West lie lie in in the pouch and and pocket pocket of of the the second Beast. second Beast. the Bear (173) is terror, terror, Where the Bear is, is, there there is (173) Where and fear: and fear: the powers of Lion IS Where IS the powers of Where the the Lion disappear. disappear.

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there are cruelty there are cruelty nerve and nerve and muscle muscle

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174 174

MODERN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS MODERN PERSIAN

(175) From From the the face face of of earth earth all (175) all human human kindliness kindliness hath hath passed passed away: away: Brutish cruelty becomes once the order order of of the Brutish cruelty becomes once more more the the day. day.

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India's that India's Where is (186) Where is Cyrus, Cyrus, now now that (186) Russia's sake? Russia's sake? each other, them kkiss other, Let them iss and and hug hug each Let l l stolen stolen cake cake !!

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sick with with love love for for sick ere they share the they share ere the

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(( 20 204)

Come, 0 Bear, and take this Lion: lead her to thy dismal lair, There to teach her all the arts which make the cunning of the Bear.

(210) (210)

Till at length there cometh one to take them both unto a place \\There \\T here like conies they shall shiver, threatened by a stronger race.

(211) (211)

There shall they be held in bondage in a prison and a cage, Till unto a milk-like mildness turns their roughness and their rage!

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(2)

The second specimen, published in No. 4 of the $ltr.;.£-Isrdffl $ltr.;.z"-Isrdffl NO.4 20, 1907, 1907, refers to an event (" Trumpet-call of IsrafH") of June 20, which happened at Qllchtm in Khurasan on the Russo-Persian frontier a year or two previously2, when a number of the inhabitants, including several young girls, were carried off by Turkmans subject to Russia, with the connivance, it was asserted, of A~aflt'd-Da'Wla A~aflt'd-Da'Wla and the governor of Burujird, who was subsequently tried for this offence. 1 1 22

"Cyms" typifies Persia, Persia, which, which, II take take it, it, is is also also intended intended by by "the stolen cake." "Cyms" typifies "the stolen cake." II think 1905. See See my my Persian Persian Revolution, Revolution, p. p. Ill. III. think in in November, November, 1905.

NO.2. No. 2.

BALLAD THE GIRLS QUCHAN BALLAD OF OF THE GIRLS OF OF QUCHAN

175 175

This bears the the following following superscription: superscription: This ballad ballad bears Persiall COllcert, wlzich the girls of Quchdll, Quchdll, at at the the request request of of Persiall COllcert, wltich the girls of tlte Russians alld Turkmdns, give ill a at Tijlfs. Cafe chantant tlte Russians alld Turkmdns, give ill a Cafe chantant at Tijlfs.

Girls, ill ill c!wrus, c!wrus, to tUlle of of the Girls, to tlte tlte tUlle the ta~n{f ta~n{f (ballad) (ballad) " Ay -Khuda, Layla yar-i-ma "Ay Khuda, Layla yar-i-ma n{st!" n{st!" (" God, Layld is not not our (".. .. 00 God, Layld is our friend! friend! "-) "-)

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    No.2. No. 2.

    177

    TH-E GIRLS OF QUCHAN BALLAD OF THE

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    ( Trallslation) (1) (The girls, ill cltorlts) chorus) (Tlte " Our nobles all are drunk with pride, "Our us /) /) (0 God, nobody cares for itS From justice and virtue they stand aside, (0 God, etc.) Dumb, blind, untaught the people abide, (0 God, etc.) sevell, one eight, one nine, two 11aught: One seven, naught: one of us No olle ItS taketh heed or thought / B.

    12

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS MODERN PERSIAN

    (2) (2) "Thou seest how Heaven with doth play, play, "Thou seest how Heaven with us us doth (0 God, Ilobody cares for us /) (0 God, Ilobody cares for us /) From kith kith and and kin kin we we are are torn away; (0 (0 God, God, etc.) From torn away; etc.) The ill ill that that is is wrought wrought us us shall shall ill ill repay! repay! (0 (0 God, God, etc.) etc.) The One seven, one eigh~, eigh~, etc. etc. One seven, one (3) (3) "Though exiled exiled far far from from our our home home so so dear, dear, "Though (0 God, nobody Ilobody cares for us /) I) And pI unged by exile in sorrow and fear, (0 God, etc.) We love it and dream of it ever here! (0 God, etc.) Olle seven, one eight, etc. (4) (A girl of twelve, solo) 'c Pause, 00 breath in my breast: meseems meseems "Pause, breath in my breast: (0 God, nobody Ilobody cares for us /) That the breeze with the scents of the home-land teems: (0 God, etc.) What delicate scent from what land of dreams! (0 God, etc.) Olle sevell, olle one eight, etc.

    (s) (5) (The girls, ill chorus) "Sweet doth the breeze from the home-land smell! (0 God, Ilobody cares for us /) I) Life doth it give and grief dispel! (0 God, etc.) But alas, for of exile it speaks as well! (0 God, etc.) sevell, one eight, e.ight, etc. Olle seven, (6) hath o'ercome o'ercome our our men men II ween, ween, C'Sleep hath "Sleep (0 God, nobody cares for us I) (0 God, nobody cares for us /) And blunted our townsmen's honour keen, (0 God, etc.) And our friends dishonoured by foes have been! (0 God, etc.) Olle sevell, one eight, etc. One

    NO.3. No. 3.

    "A. KABLA.V!" "A KABLAY!"

    179

    (7) (The girl of twelve, solo) "Who to the M ajlis a message will bear Majlis (0 God, nobody cares for us /) Of heart's surrender and hope's despair? (0 God, nobody cares for us /) Is our name remembered no longer there? (0 God, nobody cares for us /) One seven, one eight, one nine, two naught: No one of us taketh heed or thought /" The spectators in unison: "Hurrah, hurrah, hurrah! Slava gratziozllfm dyevitsdl1l Persii/ Slava A-raju'd-Dawla! Persii/" Slava Millistyerstvu Persiil"

    Ydshdsltl1 irdnin gyuzel qizlari! Ydshdsun A-raju'd-Dawla / Ydshdsun millet vezlrleril

    (In Russian and Turkish.) ((cc Long live the pretty girls of Persia! Dawla! Long live the Persian Ministry!"

    Long live A~afu'd­

    (3)

    The following poem, like the last, is taken from the $ur-iSur-iThe c, Kabla'f" to whom it is lsrdfil for November 20, 1907. The" addressed is taken by some to refer to the poet himself, but by others to the ex-Shah, Mu~ammad 'Alf, who was at that time the ruler of Persia. The word" Kabld'£" KaNa"!" or " K abldy" is a popular abbreviation of Karbald'i, a title given to those who have visited the holy tombs of Karbala in Turkish Arabia; just as one who has visited Mashhad is entitled "Mashhadi," and one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, "Bajji." "Majji." The two former titles, however, are seldom used except by muleteers, tradespeople, and others of humble condition, and" Kabldy Kabldy"" especially has come to be used colloquially in a somewhat familiar or even contemptuous way, as though we should call a man whose name was unknown to us "Johnnie." "J ohnnie." The original poem is slangy, 12-2

    MODERN MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS

    180 180

    and this feature I have and have endeavoured endeavoured toto preserve preserve inin the the transtranslation, which is somewhat lation, somewhat freer freer than than the the preceding precedingones. ones.

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    No.6. No. 6. AA PATRIOTIC PATRIOTIC APPEAL APPEAL

    187

    (6) (6)

    The following following poem poem isis from from the the same same paper paper (No. (No. II,I I, January 31, 31, 1908) 1908) as as the the two two last, last, and and is,is, I I think, think,also also byby Ashraf, since since itit bears bears the the signature signature Faqir, Faqir,which which heheelsewhere elsewhere uses. He He appeals appeals to to the the 'ulallta 'ulamd (or (or so-called so-called "clergy"), .. clergy"),the the Shah (Mu~ammad (Mul;l.ammad'All) 'All)totoobserve observethe theConConDeputies and the the Shah Deputies and stitution, enforce the the law, law, and and guard guard the the country country from from the the stitution, enforce designs of foreign foreign foes, foes, "the "the Turk, Turk, the the Two-headed Two-headed Bird Bird(i.e. (i.e. designs of eagle), the Bear Bear and and the the Old Old Dog," Dog," and and the the Sh£'ite Shi'ite faith faithfrom from eagle), the its Sunnt Sunn{ adversaries. adversaries.

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    (pi;) (7) (7) The following poem is also by Ashraf, but it is placed in the The following poem is also bygrotesquely Ashraf, butnamed it is placed in the mouth of an imaginary reactionary, (as Morier of ancharacters" imaginary reactionary, grotesquely (as Morier mouth his named Mulla Nadan," "Mlrzanamed AJ:tmaq," etc.) "Mulhi Nadan,"to "Mirza named his characters "Kharab-'Alf Mlrza," who is supposed reproachAI:tmaq," Ashraf etc.) for "Kharab-'AH Mirza," who is supposed to reproach for his enthusiasm for the Constitution. I have appendedAshraf a prose rendering. his enthusiasm for the Constitution. I have appended a prose rendering.

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    NO.7. No. 7.

    REMONSTRANCE OF OF A REMONSTRANCE A REACTIONARY REACTIONARY

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    (Prose (Prose Translation) Translation) " 0 Ashraf, no longer Be not insistent about about "0 Ashraf, be be no longer over-bold over-bold 11 Be not so so insistent the Constitution! the Constitution! the people will not not II am am an an adversary adversary and and enemy enemy to to all all the people jj II will unite with anyone; unite with anyone; II am Do not am aa Reactionary, Reactionary, aa Reactionary, Reactionary, aa Reactionary! Reactionary! Do not thou preach Constitutionalism! thou preach Constitutionalism! o little the lute! lute! 00 little little little minstrel, minstrel, arise, arise, strike strike the the harp harp and and the quickly! cup-bearer, give wine cup-bearer, give wine quickly! If it! Prate Prate not Turk If the the Empire Empire is is lost, lost, to to Hell Hell with with it! not of of the the Turk and the Empire! and the Empire! II drink the people; eat for drink for for wine wine the the blood blood of of the people; II eat for roast roast meat meat the flesh people; the flesh of of the the people; no fear fear of torment and and retribution; do not not put put me off II have have no of torment retribution; do me off with threats of to-morrow's Resurrection! with threats of to-morrow's Resurrection! Put not not thy trust in the Franks; Put thy trust in the the words words of of the Franks; talk talk not not of of the maxims of the schools; the maxims of the schools; Do not such as ancient ways; not Do not find find fault fault with with such as love love the the ancient ways; do do not exult in the awakening of the Nation! exult in the awakening of the Nation! What do? the He has broken What can can II do? the enemy enemy is is sharp-witted? sharp-witted? He has broken into garden and into this this garden and meadow: meadow:

    190

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

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    DAKHAW A POEM POEM BY BY DAKHA A W

    (Prose Translatz"on) Translatt'on) (Prose "To-day the the appeal appeal of of Dakhaw Dakhaw ascends ascends to to the the Throne Throne of of "To-day God; with grief for the Constitution the bones of God; with grief for the Constitution the bones of Dakhaw are are burned. burned. Dakhaw In this this land land of of Qazwln, Qazwln, through through the the tyranny tyranny of of Despotism, Despotism, In the household of Dakhaw is utterly forgotten. the household of Dakhaw is utterly forgotten. When the the luminary luminary of of the the Constitution Constitution arose arose from from Persia Persia When the spirit of Dakhaw was illuminated by its dawning. the spirit of Dakhaw was illuminated by its dawning. When the Sun Sun of of the the Constitution Constitution arose arose talk talk of of it it was was When the ever on Dakhaw's tongue. ever on Dakhaw's tongue. May my my tongue tongue be be cut cut out out now now that that II hear hear that that harm harm May befalls the pillars of the Parliament! befalls the pillars of the Parliament! The ambassador ambassador of of Autocracy Autocracy hath hath set set his his foot foot in in the the The .it1ajlis; an autumnal blast hath blown over Dakhaw's lJfaj!£s; an autumnal blast hath blown over Dakhaw's garden. garden. The foreigner foreigner hath hath stepped stepped into into the the midst midst of of the the Deputies; Deputies; The Dakhaw's gelder-rose and cypress and Judas-tree are Dakhaw's gelder-rose and cypress and Judas-tree are broken! broken! (which God forbid!) forbid!) the the Parliament Parliament suffers suffers hurt, hurt, Dakhaw's Dakhaw's If If (which God enemies will set fire to his soul. enemies will set fire to his soul. The Imdm-JlIm'a (Chief Priest) Priest) of of Qazwln Qazwfn hath hath cast cast the the Imam-jum'a (Chief The fire of of tyranny, tyranny, malice malice and and despotism despotism on on the the family family fire of Dakhaw. of Dakhaw. On account account of of the the tyranny tyranny and and spite spite of of this this autocrat autocrat 111 On in sheep's clothing clothing the the wailing wailing and and lamentations lamentations of of sheep's Dakhaw affect affect the the very very stones. Dakhaw stones. will become become one one of of the the humble humble servants servants of of Ashrafu'd-Dfn Ashrafu'd-Din II will if this piteous poem of Dakhaw's should be inserted inserted if this piteous poem of Dakhaw's should be [in his paper]." [in his paper]." (9) (9)

    The following following poem, poem, which, which, like like No. NO.7, is cast cast in in the the form form of of The 7, is aa letter letter of of remonstrance remonstrance emanating emanating from from an an imaginary imaginary reactionreactionary, is is also also by by Ashraf, Ashraf, and and appeared appeared in in No. No. 16 of the the second second year year 16 of ary, of the Nastm-i-S/zimal, on April 14, 1908. of the Nasfm-i-Shimdl, on April 14, 1908.

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    ANOTHER REACTIONARY'S REMONSTRANCE

    193

    (Prose Translation,) (I) "0 Ashraf, what is this outcry and lamentation? What is this sighing and crying for the people? (2) Speak out plainly: who and what are you? Are you [a man of] one maund, or ten maunds, or twenty? (3) Even if the flood carries away this city and l~lnd, know for a surety that sleep overpowers us. (4) What is the newspaper? What is this disturbance? Think of some action, for there is no dearth of talents. (5) Russia and Japan are nothing to us! What have we to do with Prussia and Germany? (6) If the luminary of the Constitution hath shone forth, what is that [to us]? If the Sun of Knowledge hath arisen, what is that [to us] ? (7) You vehemently urge and incite the children to [attend] the new schools; (8) Then you desire in every town and district to establish a teachers' college. (9) Alas for the child who goes to school! A child should run about the streets: (10) A child should make kites: a child should play pitch and toss: (I I) A child should break the mltlld's mulld's ankles: a child should break [people's] heads with stones. (12) A child should be an adept at stone-throwing: a child should be worse than a cat at face-scratching. (13) Do not make these children's days more gloomy than nights! Do not call a prison a school! (14) When they consign us to the earth, English will not serve 1 to interpret our thoughts 1 ! Qur'an, is sufficient for us: Tihran is sufficient for (15) This Qur'dn, the Shah's capital! (16) If the floods of misfortune attack us, grieve not, -for' misfortune is love's portion!' 11 This refers to the "Questioning of the Tomb," when the angels Munkir and Nakfr come to the dead man and examine him as to his faith. Naturally he will will be expected to reply to them in Arabic, or some other Musulman language.

    B. B.

    13

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    194

    (17) If I am abased in this world, 0 uncle, yet shall I be glorified in the Resurrection, 0 uncle! (18) Smite us not on the neck with thy pel1! Beat not the drum on the roof of our Shaykh! (19) 0 Ashraf, do not urge us to [cultivate] Art! Do not talk to us about foreign sciences! (20) I fear that in the end the sooth-sayer, the spiritual director and the admirer of ancient fashions will break your feet and hands! " (10)

    The following poem is another o( those abounding with slang. It appeared in No. 18 of the Nasim-z'-Shimdl, dated May 1 1,1908.

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    Sayyid Mu1)ammad Yazdi teaching the Jimlfs how to overthrow the Constitution (From the illustrated comic weekly Azarbd):jall, No. 17, Oct. II, 1907)

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    ( Translatz"01i) (I) (1) While addled in our reverend master's pate, And dust and rust our spirits obfuscate, And drunk and dizzy's he who guides our fate, And this old humbug still directs our gait Needs must our caravan be lame and late! (2) Vainly our lives to hardship we expose While in each heart the fire of hatred glows: For while the Nation doth the Shah oppose, And while the Shah supports the Nation's foes, And while Reaction dominates the State Needs must our caravan be lame and late!

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    (3) (3) We say that now at last the Press is free, We say that now at last the Press is free, That Persia shall regain prosperity, That Persia shall regain prosperity, That firmly based is now our Liberty, That firmly based is now our Liberty, That colleges abound increasingly. That colleges abound increasingly. Bottle and stone best typify our state! Bottle and stone best typify our state! Needs must our caravan be lame and late! Needs must our caravan be lame and late! * * * ** * ** (5) (5) An ass becomes our arbiter supreme, An ass becomes our arbiter supreme, A dog controls each project and each scheme, A dog controls each project and each scheme, A fox the object of respect doth seem, A fox the object of respect doth seem, ShapshaP a trusty treasurer we deem: ShapshaP a trusty treasurer we deem: What piece can move to save the King from mate? What piece can move to save the King from mate? Needs must our caravan be lame and late! Needs must our caravan be lame and late! (11) (11) The following poem, with the refrain" How can hearing be The following poem, with the refrain" How can hearing be like seeing?" appeared in the Nasfm-i-Shimdl for May 29, 1908 like seeing? " appeared in the Nasfm-i-Shimdl for May 29, 1908 (No. 19). It a]so is from the pen of Ashraf. (No. 19). It a]so is from the pen of Ashraf.

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    The following following ta~nif, ta~nif, or or ballad, ballad, appeared appeared in in the the same same issue issue The It of the (No. as the last. is written in aa Nasfm-i-Shimdl 22) of the (No. 22) as the last. is written in and somewhat colloquial style. and Mz'-sht na-mfvery simple very simple and somewhat colloquial style. Mt'-she and sht (" will will it it be?" be?" "it "it cannot cannot be!") be!") are are common common colloquial colloquial she contractions for mf-shawad namf-shawad; siyd and (black) contractions for mf-shawad and namf-shawad; siyd (black) = siydh; shahwat-clzardnf shahwat-clzardlZf means" means" self-indulgence," self-indulgence," "pampering "pampering = the passions"; passions"; Jdn-i-Mawld (analogous (analogous to to Jdn-i-pidar) means Jdn-t'-pidar) means the literally" Soul Soul of of the the Lord," Lord," i.e. "God's "God's beloved," beloved," and and is is equivaequivaliterally" lent to to "my "my good good friend"; friend"; and and ydn2 that friend" friend" of of ours) ours) ydnt (" (" that lent refers to some person, known to the speaker and the hearer only, refers to some person, known to the speaker and the hearer only, not desired to name. is used contemptuoft~n It whom it is whom it is not desired to name. It is oft~n used contemptuously, and and here, here, presumably, presumably, refers refers to to Mul).ammad Mul).ammad 'AH 'Ali Shah. Shah. ously,

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    ~~~~ cS~ cS~ ~ h~ f::, cS~ cS~ ~ .rJ; y...,; ~ (Balasowar of of the the maps) maps) is is situated situated near near the the western western shore shore of of the the Pilasuw,ir (Balasowar 1 PIlasuw.1r 1 T:Hish, close close to to the the Russo-Persian Russo-Persian Caspian, in in the the northern northern part part of of the the province province of of Talish, Caspian, frontier, and and was was the the scene scene of of one one of of the the earliest earliest acts acts of of Russian Russian aggression. aggression. frontier, is aa district district between between Azarbayjan A..zarbayjan and and Talish, Talish, between between Ardabfl Ardabfl. and and Khalkhdl is 22 Khalkhdl Miyana. Miyana.

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    200

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    After the Coup d'Etat of June 23, 1908, and the destruction of the First National Assembly, the free press of the first Constitutional Period entirely disappeared for some months, and Sh£raz, the editor of the $ltr-i-lsrdfil $ltr-z"-lsrd/il lVHrza J ahang{r Khan of Shiraz, (" Trumpet-call of IsraHl "), one of the most notable publications of that period, was put to death by the ex-Shah Mu1).ammad 'All in the Bagh-i-Shah. "c'DakhawI," DakhawI," one of the most talented contributors to that paper, escaped to Europe, and again began to publish the paper at Yverdon in Switzerland on Mul).arram I, A.H. 1327 (January 23, 1909). Only three numbers, so far as I 11

    See p.

    190 190

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    Mirza 'Ali Akbar "Dakhaw" (right) and Mirza J:Iusayn Danish Khan (left), both notable Persian poets

    No. 14.

    IN MEMORY OF JAHANGIR KHAN

    201

    know, appeared; the third, published on March 8, 1909, contained the following elegy on Mirza Jahangir Khan, "that Martyr of the Path of Liberty and most faithful defender of the rights of his country," by his associate and friend, the above-mentioned Mirza 'All Akbar Dih-khuda, better known as "Daklzaw." It will be noticed that this poem, in the arrangement of its rhymes, shows strong traces of European influence. I t runs as follows:

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

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    IN MEMORY OF OF JAHANGfR JAHANGfR KHAN IN MEMORY KHAN

    203 203

    (Prose Translation) (Prose Translation) "In Memory Memory of of my my incomparable incomparable Friend: the offering offering of an "In Friend: the of an at the shrine of that most high and holy Spirit. unworthy brother unworthy brother at the shrine of that most high and holy Spirit. (I) (I) "0 bird of the the morning, this gloomy gloomy night night puts "0 bird of morning, when when this puts aside aside dark deeds, its its dark deeds, And, at at the the life-giving breath of of the Dawn, besotted slumber And, life-giving breath the Dawn, besotted slumber departs from the heads of those who sleep, departs from the heads of those who sleep, And the the Loved One enthroned enthroned on on the the dark dark blue blue litter litter loosens loosens And Loved One the knots from her golden-threaded locks t, the knots from her golden-threaded locks t, And God God is is manifested of evil And manifested in in perfection, perfection, while while Ahriman Ahriman of evil nature withdraws withdraws to to his his citadel, citadel, nature Remember, 00 remember, Lamp2! Remember, remember, that that extinguished extinguished Lamp2!

    (2) (2) "0 companion companion of oseph in this bondage, bondage, when when the the interpretation "0 of J Joseph in this interpretation of the the Dream Dream becomes thee, of becomes plain plain to to thee, And thy thy heart of joy, joy, and and thy thy lips sweet laughter, laughter, And heart is is full full of lips with with sweet and thou art as thy friends would have thee, and envied and thou art as thy friends would have thee, and envied by thy foes, by thy foes, And thou gone back back to thy friends friends and and kin, kin, freer freer than And thou hast hast gone to thy than the zephyr or the moonlight, the zephyr or the moonlight, Remember him him who, throughout the the night, night, in in the the Remember who, for for aa while while throughout desire to meet the friends, with thee counted the stars until desire to meet the friends, with thee counted the stars until the morning. the morning. "When the the garden garden smiles smiles again, again, 00 poor, longing nightingale, "When poor, longing nightingale, And when when the the horizons become like the picture-gallery picture-gallery of China And horizons become like the of China with hyacinths, hyacinths, red roses and and marjoram, marjoram, with red roses And when when the the rose rose is is red, red, and and the the dew dew stands stands like like sweat sweat on on its its And thou hast relinquished rest and consideration, cheek, while cheek, while thou hast relinquished rest and consideration, 1 The golden rays of the sun in the dark blue pavilion of the sky are intended. 1 The golden rays of the sun in the dark blue pavilion of the sky are intended. In Persian Persian there there is is no no gender, gender, but it is the sun In but it is worth worth noting noting that that in in Arabic Arabic the sun is is feminine, feminine, while while the the moon moon is is masculine. masculine. 2 i.e.M£rza Jahangfr Khan, who lighted us on our way ere the Dawn broke, until 2 i.e. Mirza JaMngfr Khan, who lighted us on our way ere the Dawn broke, until his light was was quenched quenched in in death. death. his light

    204 204

    MODERN MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS

    Remember Remember that that budding budding rose rose which which bloomed bloomed before before its its time, time, and and which which withered withered in in sorrow sorrow in in the the chill chill of of December December ere ere it it had had assuaged assuaged the the fires fires of of its its cravings! cravings!

    "0 "0 thou thou who who wert wert the the companion companion in in the the Desert Desert of of 'I 'I mran's mran's son! son! When When these these few few years years have have elapsed, elapsed, And And that that sweet sweet comrade comrade at at the the Banquet Banquet of of \Visdom \Visdom hath hath made made manifest manifest his his promise, promise, And And when when each each morning morning the the fragrance fragrance of of ambergris ambergris and and aloes aloes to Saturn from the Golden Altar, ascends ascends to Saturn from the Golden Altar, Remember Remember him him who, who, for for the the sins sins of of an an ignorant ignorant people, people, yielded yielded up hoping for up his his life life in in the the Desert, Desert, hoping for aa sight sight of of the the Promised Promised Land! Land! (5) (5) "vVhen "vVhen the the times times are are once once more more propitious, propitious, 00 Child Child of of the the Golden Golden Age, Age, And And God, God, gladdened gladdened by by the the obedience obedience of of His His Servants, Servants, once once again assumes Divinity, again assumes Divinity, And And there there endures endures neither neither the the fashion fashion of of Iram Iram nor nor the the name name of Shaddad 1, but earth stops the mouth of him whose of Shaddad 1, but earth stops the mouth of him whose food food was was filth filth (i.e. (i.e. whose whose words words were were folly), folly), Remember Remember him him who, who, punished punished for for the the crime crime of of glorifying glorifying the the truth, truth, drained drained the the draught draught of of Union Union from from the the point point of of the the headsman's headsman's sword!" sword!" (15) (15)

    This This and and the the two two following following poems poems are are of of some some historical historical interest in connection with the incipient rising in interest in connection with the incipient rising in Rasht, Rasht, which, which, in conjunction with with the the gathering gathering of of the the Bakhtiyad Bakhtiyarl clans clans at at in conjunction I~fahan, I~fahan, culminated culminated in in the the capture capture of of Tihran Tihran and and deposition deposition of of Mul).ammad Mul).ammad 'Alf 'Alf Shah Shah in in July, July, 1909. 1909. The The first first of of these these three three poems poems appeared appeared in in the the Nasfm-i-Shimdl (No. (No. 23) of February February 15, 23) of 15, 1909, and recommends "deeds not words" to the 1909, and recommends "deeds not words" to the people people of of Gflan. Gflan. 1 For 1 For the the ancient ancient Arabian Arabian tyrant tyrant Shadda:d Shadda:d and and his his wonderful wonderful Garden Garden of of see see sura of the the Qur'an, Qur'd1l, verses verses 5-7, and the the commentaries commentaries on on it. it. 5-7, and surd lxxxix lxxxix of Mu1:tammad Mu1).ammad 'Alf, 'Alf, the the ex-SMh, ex-SMh, and and his his garden, garden, the the Bagh-i-Shah, Bdgh-i-Shdh, are are meant. meant.

    Tram, Tram, Here Here

    No. 15. No. 15.

    "HE IS A MAN •.• " "HE IS A MAN ••• "

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    (Prose Translation) (Prose Translation) Sovereignty endureth not for cruel and tyrannical kings: to lay Sovereignty not for cruel of andone's tyrannical to and lay down lifeendureth for the amelioration countrykings: is meet down life for the amelioration of one's country is meet and proper. proper. So long as thou makest no effort, no one will open the door So long as thee: thou makest no effort, no one door he is a man who shuts hiswill lipsopen and the stretches before thee: he is a man who shuts his lips and stretches before out his arm! out his arm! The Prophets have included in their utterances discourses on The Justice: Prophetsallhave included in celebrated their utterances discourses on the Saints have the praises of Justice: of Justice: Justice: all the Saints have celebrated the praises All the learned have enshrined in their writings traditions of All the learned have enshrined their traditions of Justice: unseemly to-day is in vain talkwritings about Injustice: Justice: unseemly to-day is vain talk about Injustice: He is a man who shuts his lips and stretches out his arm! He is a man who shuts his lips and stretches out his arm! " Strive" (jdhidu) saith God both in the Gospels and in the (jdhidu) " Strive" Godlike both the Gospels andlayindown the Qur an: arise, saith then, and a " in striver" (mltjdhz'd) Qur arise, then, and like a an: l " striver" (mztjdhid) lay down thy life for thy country's sake ! thy life for thy country's sake l ! 1 See Qur'an, v, 39; ix, 41, 87; xxii, 77. Alujahid (the title given.during the 1 SeeRevolution 41, 87;Volunteers) xxii, 77. isfllujdht'd (the title given .during Qur'dn, v,to39; Persian theix,National the participle corresponding to the Persian Revolution the National Volunteers) is theway" participle corresponding to the noun Jihdd, which to means a I, striving" "in God's (/1 tabllt' lldh), and in noun whichfighting means afor'I the striving" God's and in The the Jihad, Qur'an especially Faith, "in but in theseway't days (/1 for sabfINldh), the Fatherland. especially fighting for the but inisthese days for Fatherland. for The Qur'dn to appeal the Gospels as well as Faith, the Qur'an interesting andthecharacteristic, it appeal the Gospelsthat as well is interesting and characteristic, must betoremembered manyasof the thoseQUr'dlZ Afujahidltz were Armenian Christians. for it must be remembered that many of those flfujdhidltz were Armenian Christians.

    206 206

    .MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS .MODERN

    Dagge~) Dagge~)

    javelin are are as as the rose, the the narcissus narcissus and the javelin the rose, and the roar of cannons and guns which will dissipate roar of cannons and guns which will dissipate

    arrow and arrow and basil: it is the basil: it is the our sorrows our sorrows !! He is man who who He is aa man

    shuts his his lips lips and and stretches stretches out out his his arm! arm! shuts

    (16) (16) The following following verses verses appeared appeared in in the issue of of the the The the same same issue Nasim-z"-Shz"l'lldl as the last, and celebrate the adhesion (or Nasim-z'-Shz'1'1ldl as the last, and celebrate the adhesion (or apparent adhesion) of the Sz"pahddr, who had previously been apparent adhesion) of the Sz'pahddr, who had previously been employed by by the the Shah Shah in in the the siege siege of of Tabdz, to the Nationalist employed Tabdz, to the Nationalist Cause. The quatrain immediately following these verses apapCause. The quatrain immediately following these verses peared in the the issue issue of of the the same dated March 5, 1909, 1909, and. and. peared in same paper paper dated March 5, them celebrates celebrates the the praises the S $ipahddr. like them praises of of the like ipahddr. , ,

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    No. 16. 16. No.

    GREETING TO SIPAHDAR GREETING TO THE THE SIPAHDAR

    207 207

    (( Translation) Translation) Once again again Gilan the blessing blessing of of Once Gilan is is filled filled with with radiance radiance by by the the advance of of the the Sipahddr. Sipahddr. the auspicious auspicious advance It were meet that all the people of should make make the It were meet that all the people of Gilan Gilan should the dust of his advance collyrium for their eyesight! dust of his advance collyrium for their eyesight! Conqueror of of the the world, world, 00 Saviour-Chief, Saviour-Chief, whose whose fame fame hath hath oo Conqueror become spread abroad throughout the lands, become spread abroad throughout the lands, No inhabitant inhabitant [of hath ever ever in or No [of this this land] land] hath in his his life life beheld beheld or will behold a patriot like thee! will behold a patriot like thee! If the House House of of Buwayh Buwayh appeared appeared from from Daylam, Daylam, from from Tankabun Tankabun If the l hath appeared one like thee ! hath appeared one like thee l ! amongst hundreds hundreds of of thousands thousands of of the the people, people, God God saw saw Since, amongst Since, thee worthy of every work and deed, thee worthy of every work and deed, In Mercy He whispered into into the the ear ear of of thy thy heart, In His His Mercy He whispered heart, "" 00 make make haste, and take charge of Gilan ! haste, and take charge of Gilan ! Take charge charge of it, that thy name may endure endure for for ever! ever! Take "" Take of it, that thy name may Take charge of it, and may thy life be long!" charge of it, and may thy life be long!" 0, so so long long as as the the Standard Standard of of the the Constitution Constitution stands, stands, and 0, and so long long as the cup Constitution brims over, so as the cup of of the the Constitution brims over, May Ashraf Ashraf ever be thy panegyrist! May God the Ruler of of May ever be thy panegyrist! May God the Ruler the world keep thee in safety! the world keep thee in safety! May May May May May May And And

    the name name of of the Sipahddr the the Sipahddr the name of the Sipa/uidr the name of the Sipa/uidr the the Sipahddr Sipahddr the name name of of the may it be inscribed the may it be inscribed in in the

    be bright and and resplendent, be bright resplendent, continue and continue and endure! endure! live on on earth earth t live t register of Heaven! register of Heaven!

    (17) (17)

    The following appeared in in the the NasI11l-i-Shimdl, NasI11l-i-Shimdl, in The following poem poem also also appeared in 27, issued on March 5, 1909. It is supposed to express express the the No. No. 27, issued on March 5, 1909. It is supposed to despair of Devil at downfall of of Despotism, Despotism, and is not not despair of the the Devil at the the downfall and is lacking in merit and originality. lacking in merit and originality. 1 The House of B\lwayh ruled over the greater part of Southern Persia from A.D. 1 The House of B\lwayh ruled over the greater part of Southern Persia from A.D. 932 1055, and and came came originally originally from from the the shores shores of the Caspian Caspian Sea. Sea. Though Though their their . 932 to to 1055, of the of humble and immediate ancestor ancestor was was of humble station, station, they they claimed claimed noble noble Persian Persian descent, descent, and immediate the the learned learned al-Bfn'mf al-Bfn'mf supports supports this this claim. claim.

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    208 208

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    "WHAT'LL I DO?"

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    The wily old Devil did groan and greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do? "For the Constitution has found its feet: "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do? "The Bird of Liberty preens its wings in a rose-girt land, "And Tyranny's vein is severed at last by Justice's hand, "And the Despot's eyes are blinded by Freedom's gleaming brancj, brang, "And the autocrats are, it would seem, dead beat, "\Vhat'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" The wily old Devil did groan and greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" (2)

    "I, the Devil, with this vexation am now laid low; "All the despots despot~ are dead, and I am grown old with woe; "In very truth I am sorry and sick at the way things go. "I'm exposed to the finger of scorn in the street: "What'H I do? 0 what'll I do?" The wily old Devil did groan and greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" (3) I am mad: 'Twere best you should let me

    ""Men Men of sense! alone! ""Lest Lest I arise and break your heads with stick or with stone stone'!'! "For the autocrats all are uprooted and scattered and overthrown,

    No. 17. No. 17.

    "WHAT'LL "WHAT'LL II DO?" DO?"

    211 211

    "And "And the the Flag Flag of of Freedom Freedom the the people people greet: greet: "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" The The wily wily old old Devil Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    "For "For many many aa year year from from all all and and sundry sundry II sucked sucked the the gore, gore, stole the hard-won moneys I found in the widow's "" And And stole the hard-won moneys I found in the widow's store, store, "" And And afflicted afflicted the the heart heart of of the the people people with with sorrows sorrows and and griefs griefs galore: galore: "But "But now now we're we're beggars beggars who who roam roam the the street, street, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" The The wily wily old old Devil Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    (5) (5) "Deceit is dead, and cruel oppression "Deceit is dead, and cruel oppression hath hath passed passed away: away: "Hypocrisy's crushed and godless bribery's lost its "Hypocrisy's crushed and godless bribery's lost its sway: sway: "" Fallen is the Fallen and and dead dead is the despot, despot, his his head head with with grief grief grown grown grey: grey: "His "His sighs sighs to to heaven heaven rise rise swift swift and and fleet, fleet, "What'll "What'll II do? do? 00 what'll what'll II do?" do?" The wily old Devil The wily old Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    (6) (6) "For "For seven seven months months this this country country no no Constitution Constitution knew: knew: "With our whips and our scourges the backs of "With our whips and our scourges the backs of the the peasants peasants were black and blue. were black and blue. "But tables the "But now now from from the the libertine's libertine's tables the chickens chickens and and game game and stew and stew "Have "Have taken taken their their flight flight with with hurrying hurrying feet: feet: "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" The The wily wily old old Devil Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    :MODERN PERSIAN POEl\IS :MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    212 212

    (7) (7) "" Heavens! Heavens ! \Vhat \Vhat hath hath become become of of our our curses curses and and oaths oaths and and blows? blows? "Our " Our pavilions pavilions and and pomps, pomps, and and the the thrones thrones and and truncheons truncheons which we dispose? which we dispose? "The " The sticks sticks and and scourges scourges and and rods rods that that were were ready ready in in ranks ranks and rows? and rows? "What hath arrested "What hath arrested our our nimble nimble feet? feet? "\Vhat'll I do? 0 what'll "\Vhat'll I do? 0 what'll II do?" do?" The The wily wily old old Devil Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    (8) (8) "" What What hath hath become become of of our our slaughter slaughter of of peasants peasants and and torments torments grim? grim? "" What What of of our our roasted roasted lambs lambs and and our our goblets goblets filled filled to to the the brim? brim? "" What of our sherbets sweet and the succulent capon's What of our sherbets sweet and the succulent capon's limb? limb? "Whither "Whither is is gone gone our our delectable delectable meat? meat? "What'll I do? 0 what'll "What'll I do? 0 what'll II do?" do?" The The wily wily old old Devil Devil did did groan groan and and greet, greet, "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?" "What'll I do? 0 what'll I do?"

    **

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    (18) (18)

    The Nasim-iThe following following poem poem appeared appeared in in No. No. 45 45 of of the the Nasz'm-iShimdl on July 12, 1909, the very day on which the first Shimal on July 12, 1909, the very day on which the first detachment detachment of of the the Nationalist Nationalist Volunteers Volunteers under under the the command command of of the Sipahddr entered Tihr\.;,; \ ~)==,.) \.;0u'\).) ~.) ~..,..;.) ..=,.....!,; '\.; ~\j) Uk.) 0!\ ~f. \.; 0 \.:. \).) ~.) 0!"Y .) ..:-:...) '~~ j'" 'c:~ ~~lb ).;W~.) 't~Cl ~\ ~\ t~Cl ~ .......i~.) ~ '~~ ~~\ ~... \ ~~/b t~1Il ';\.l..";> ..)\~j;" f" ,

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    THE AUCTION THE AUCTION

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    1 The execution of Shaykh F3.?-lu'lhih of N"t'tr, the reactionary lIlujtaht'd, is an1 The execution of Shaykh Fa.?-lu'lhih of Nllr, the reactionary 1Illljtahia, is announced in the latest news in this same issue. nounced in the latest news in this same issue. 2 The allusion is to the .frfuqtadir-i-Nl~dm, who had been already punished in 2 The allusion is to the iJ'fuqtadir-i-Nl~dm, who had been already punished in April, 1908, for the part he took in the Abortive Coup d'Etat of December, 190i. April, 1908, for the part he took in the Abortive Coup d'Etat of December, 190i. (See my Persian Rt!VO!U#Ol1, p. 199') He was not, however, hanged in August, 1909, (See my Persian Rt!Vollltioll, p. 199') He was not, however, hanged in August, 1909, as this poem implies. as this poem implies. 3 The Mufdkhirtt'!-fl[u!k, who had been Vice-Governor of Tihnin and had taken 3 The Mufdkhirtt'l-llfulk, who had been Vice-Governor of Tihnin and had taken refuge at the Russian Legation, was condemned to death by the Special Court refuge at the Russian Legation, was condemned to death by the Special Court instituted to try such cases, and was shot on July 29, 1909. See my Persian instituted to try such cases, and was shot on July 29, 1909. See my Persian RevO!uti011, p. 3'29. Revolution, p. 329.

    ~IODERN ~IODERN

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    PERSIAN POEMS POEMS PERSIAN

    (20) (20)

    The following following poem poem by by Bahar Bahar of of M M ashhad, ashhad, of of which which the the The general character has been discussed in the last article, appeared general character has been discussed in the last article, appeared in No. No. II of of the the Irdll-i-Naw (Cl New New Persia Persia ") ") on on August August 24, 190 9. in 24, 1909. frdll-i-Naw ("

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    (21) The following poem, entitled ,. the disordered dream of The following poem, entitled "the disordered dream of Mulfammad 'AI! Mirza on the first night of his arrival at Mu}:lammad 'All Mirza on the first night of his arrival at Odessa in Russia," appeared on December 16, 1909, in No. 91 in Russia," appeared on December 16, 1909, in No. 91 ofOdessa the frdn-i-Naw, of the frdn-i-Na w.

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    T rauslation) ( (Translation) "I dream dream once once more more I I rule rule o'er o'er Persia's Persia'sland, land, "I And in my garden scoff at God's command, And in my garden scoff at God's command. Bahddurjang fang before before me me still still I I see, see, Bahddur Who cries '0 King! May I thy ransombe!' be!' \Vho cries '0 King! May I thy ransom Liakhoff too, my Russian colonel true, Liakhoff too, my Russian colonel true, myview. view, Marshals his his Cossacks Cossacks still still before before my Marshals Mttshint's-Sal!ana, the the cow! cow! While old old Mushiru's-Sallalla, \Vhile Drains, as of yore, the people's life-blood now, Drains, as of yore, the people's life·blood now, And Sa'du'd-Dawla, egotist unique, And Sa'du'd-Dawla, egotist unique, Still to my ears of Russian aid doth speak. Still to my ears of Russian aid doth speak. The Shaykh of 'Nur and Mirza Basan both The Shaykh of N ur and Mirza ijasan both Sanction the breaking of my solemn oath, Sanction the breaking of my solemn oath. The Imd11Z-fu11Z'a and his pious peers The lmdm-jum'a and his pious peers V rge me to break my word and have no fears. Urge me to break my word and have no fears. Kur AmuH and Akbar Shah withal Kur Amuli and Akbar Shah withal Me still 'God's shadow on the Earth' do call. Me still 'God's shadow on the Earth' do call. Mu/allal, with the wine-cup in his hand, MuJallal, with the wine-cup in his hand, With locks dishevelled doth before me stand; With locks dishevelled doth before me stand; While smooth-cheeked pages with love-wanton eyes While smooth-cheeked pages with love-wanton eyes Bemuse my wits and make my heart their prize; Bemuse my wits and make my heart their prize; And 'Ayntt'd-.Dawla, $amad and Ral){m And 'Aynu'd-Dawla, $amad and Ra~{m Still loot the town of Tabriz in my dream. Still of Tabdz dream. Still loot fromthe thetown Russian Ban k inmymywars to wage Still from the Russian Bank my wars to wage I beg for cash and offer pledge and gauge!," I beg for cash and offer pledge and gauge l ." I All the persons mentioned in the above poem were notorious reactionaries, and: All the persons in the notorious reactionaries, and full1 accounts of mostmentioned of them will be above found poem in mywere Persian RevolutiO/l, viz. of Amlr full accounts of most them will166, be 199-200,227, found in my Persian Revolution, viz. of AlIlirof Bahddur Jallgon pp,ofII4, 162, z6r, 321, 330,334 and +46-7; r62, 166, 199-200,227,261,321,330,334 446-7; of Balzddur Liakhojf,Jallgon passim;pp.of11..., lIIushfru's-Saltalla, pp. 334, +05, 4+5; of and Sa;du'd-Daw!a, Liakhoff, passim; lIIush{ru's-Sal/alla, Sa 'du'd-Dawla , , 334405, and445; pp. 52, 131, 137, of140. 154-5, 166, 306 ,pp.33 0334, 443;of of 'Abidin Khan. 5'2, 13 1, 137, 140, 166,330, 306 ,+3330, 334and 443; of pp. and447-8; of 'Ayltu'd-Daw!a,. 'Abidfn Khan 2 , 445 lIfuja!la!u's.Su1fdll, pp. 154-5, 198-200, 1IIujallalu's.Sul/tbz, pp. 198-200, 330, 432, 445 and 447-8; of 'AYllu'd-Dawla,.

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    222

    (22)

    The following fine poem originally appeared Nashn-z"-Slzimdl, No. 47; and again 1909, in the Nashn-z"-Shimal, z"-Naw, No. 93, on December 19, 1909. In the first z"-Na'lV,

    y~r;. the superscription ". ...r;,. .J~ r'Y6 r~ Lr' u--'

    on July 26, in the lrdnlyanonly it bears

    In the second it is followed

    M{r~a Taqf Khan Darwish, by another poem signed Mfqa Dar'lVish, but it is not clear whether this signature is intended to apply to both poems or only to the second.

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    III, 113, 117-118, Ili-ll8, 1'24, '256, '27'2, 3'27; pp. 105,108-9, 111,113, 124,256,272, 327; of $amad Khan Shttjd'tt'd. Shttjd'ze'd. Da7v/a, pp. 270, '270, 273, '273, 442 44'2 and 446; and of Ral)Im Da'Zv/a, Ral:lfm Khan, pp. 141-'2, 141-2, 148, '256, 256, '269, 269, '271, '296, 347, 3~9, 44 1 and 446. By "the Shaykhof Nt'u'" Nt'n-" ismeant is meant Shaykh Fa?lu'llah, Fa?lu'lIah, 271,296,347,3-19,441 concerning whom see pp. 113, 148-9. '24'2, 24-2, '26'2 262 and 444-5 44-4-5 of the same work. For mujtahid of Tabrfz, MIrza I:Iasan the lIlujtahid I:Iajji Mfrza Tabriz, see ibid., ibid" pp. 107, '249 249 and '26'2; 262; for the Tihran, l\Hrza MIrza Abu'l-Qasim, pp. 80-81, 89-90,131, '281 and 444. Imam-Jlllll'a of Tihnin, Imdm-Jtem'a 89-90,131,281 444' By Ki'er-i-A11lu1f Ki'er-i-AlIlttll (" the Blind Man of AmuJ Amul ") is meant Mulla Mul)ammad MUQammad of Amnl, A.muI, in Kt'tr-i-AIaw{il. Sayyid Akbar Shah was a ra~a-khwan, Mazandanin, also called Kt'er-i-AIaw{il. mw~a·khwdn, or Mazandaran, religious rhapsodist.

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    A PATRIOTIC LULLABY A PATRIOTIC LULLABY

    225 225

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    (,.~~l...J~ J~ 'l) j~ '.l) CJ\..:.;l.J)"" (( T T rallslation) rallslation) Morn lam-lay, Morn hath hath come come and and the the time time for for work, work, with with aa ldm-ldy, 'Tis a shame any longer to sleep or to 'Tis a shame any longer to sleep or to shirk, shirk, with with aa

    ldm-ldy lam-lay!! Ldy-ldy, Lay-lay, bdld bala ldy-ldy! lay-lay! Ldy-ldy, Ldy-ldy, bdld bala ldy-ld),! lay-ld)I!

    ldm-ldy; lam-lay; ldm-ldy, ldm-Iay,

    (2) (2) \Var's with aa \Var's toward, toward, and and work work for for all; all; no no time time to to waste, waste, with

    ldm-ldy; ldm-Iay;

    Our ldm-ldy, Our country's country's hope hope on on this this work work is is based, based, with with aa lam-ldy,

    ldm-ldy; lam-lay;

    Rise, ldm-ldy! Rise, then, then, rise, rise, and and to to college college haste, haste, with with aa ldm-ldy, lam-lay, lam-lay!

    Ldy-ldy, Lay-Idy, bdld bald ldy-ldy! lay-lay!

    Ldy-ldy, Lay-lay, bdld bald ldy-ldy! lay-lay I

    From with aa lamldmFrom the the martyrs' martyrs' blood blood and and thy thy forbears' forbears' dust, dust, with

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    A ldm-ldy, A rampart rampart rings rings thee thee which which thou thou canst canst trust, trust, with with aa lam-lay,

    lam-Idy: lam-ldy:

    Sorrow ldm-ldy! lam-lay, lam-My! Sorrow we we may, may, but but struggle struggle we we must, must, with with aa ldm-ldy,

    Ldy-Idy, Lay-My, bdld bala ldy-ldy! lay-lay.'

    B. B.

    Ldy-ldy, Lay-lay, bdld bala ldy-lay! lay-lay!

    15 15

    226 226

    MODERN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS

    A A Persian Persian boy boy art art thou, thou, and and Persia Persia thy thy fatherland, fatherland, lam-lay; lam-lay; vVell Well in in aa faultless faultless body body aa fearless fearless soul soul doth doth stand, stand, lam-lay! lam-lay! That That soul soul art art thou, thou, and and this this body body of of thine thine is is the the land, with a lam-lay! land, with a lam-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bala lay-lay! lay-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bala lay-lay! lay-lay!

    with with aa with with aa Persian Persian

    (5) (5) Rise in arms, and to save the Rise in arms, and to save the State State thy thy quality quality show, show, with with aa lam-lay! lam-lay! Wherefore, Wherefore, 0 tender rose-bud, rose-bud, is is Persia Persia brought brought so so low, low, with with 0 tender aa lam-lay! lam-lay! \Vith \Vith aa garment garment of of glory glory invest invest thyself, thyself, that that it it be be not not so, so, with a lam-lay! with a lam-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bdla lay-lay! lay-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bdld lay-lay! ldy-lay! (6) (6) No now is No longer longer the the cot cot but but the the saddle saddle now is thy thy proper proper place, place, wi lam-lay! wi th th aa lam-lay! o lion-cub, with aa lam-lay, lion-cub, 'tis 'tis time time for for the the chase, chase, with lam-lay, lam-lay! lam-lay! Arise, Arise, arise, arise, for for aa foeman foeman lurks lurks in in each each sheltering sheltering space, space, with with aa lam-lay! lam-lay! Lay-lay, ldy-lay! Lay-lay, bala bald lay-lay! lay-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bala lay-lay!

    (7) (7) Suffer Suffer not not that that thy thy native native land land be be the the foeman's foeman's share, share, with with aa lam-lay! lam-lay! Since it Since it hath hath like like thee thee aa hero hero bold bold and and aa champion champion rare, rare, wi th a lam-lay! wi th a lam-lay! Let Let not not its its honour honour decline decline and and its its hope hope be be turned turned to to despair, despair, with a lam-lay! with a lam-lay! Lay-lay, lay-lay! Lay-lay, Lay-lay, bala bala lay-lay! lay-lay! Lay-lay, bala bala lay-lay!

    No.

    24.

    RAI:IfM KHAN AND THE RUSSIANS

    227

    (24)

    The following poem, also by Lahutl of Kirmanshah, appeared on February 9, 1910, in No. 129 of the frall-i-Naw, and is a denunciation of the notorious Ral}im Ral)fm Khan ChaHbanlu. The earlier career of this miscreant is recorded in my Persian RevoMul)ammad 'All, on lution. Immediately after the deposition of Mul}ammad August 8, 1909, he began to loot sundry Armenian villages in N.W. Persia and to massacre the inhabitants. Ten days later he openly revolted against the restored Constitutional Government. On August 29 he was captured by Russian troops, but was released by them on September 18 on payment of a considerable sum of money. A month later he marched on ArdabH, which was reported to have fallen into his hands on November 2. A few days later a second body of Russian troops was sent to Ardabll, ostensibly to effect his capture, and on November 10 it was stated on the authority of the Times correspondent at Tihran that £25,000 had already been expended by the Persian Government on the equipment of an army to take the field against him. This army, commanded by Yeprem Khan, the Armenian, inflicted a severe defeat upon him on December 331, I, 1909, and four days later had driven him back on the Russian frontier and surrounded him so thoroughly that only across that frontier could he escape. The Persian Government, appealing to the explicit provisions of the Treaty of Turkman-chay, begged the Russian Government not to permit him to take refuge across their border; they not only allowed him to do this, however, but refused his extradition on February 4, 1910, and allowed him to proceed to Elizavetpol (the ancient Ganja), where he remained for Tabdz (about nearly a year. He subsequently returned to Tabriz January 23, 191 I) where he was ultimately put to death. His was one of the numerous flagrant cases of Russian patronage and protection accorded to Persian subjects in active revolt against their Government. An illustration facing p. 440 of my Persian Revolution shows him, surrounded by a number of his followers, with his hand affectionately clasping that of a Russian Consular official, while a Russian officer stands a little distance from him on the other side.

    15- 22

    PERSIANPOEMS POEl\fS ~10DERNPERSIAN MODERN

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    No. 25.

    "COCK-A-DOODLE-DO!"

    229

    (25)

    The following excellent poem, entitled Ququliqz't Qztquliqz't (" Cock-adoodle-do!") appeared in the Nasim-i-Slzimdl of December, 1910, and is signed Mdhi-gfr Mdhi-gir ("Fisherman "), perhaps on account of the allusion in the last verse to the obnoxious Fishery Concession (shildt) on the Persian shore of the Caspian granted to a Russian named Lianzof or Lianozoff, of which the original scope was violently extended by the concessionaire, supported by his Government, to the upper waters of all the rivers of Mazandaran and Gflan discharging themselves into the Caspian.

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    Translation) (( Translation) (I) (I) "Mother dear, dear, II slept, slept, II saw saw aa vision: vision: "Mother was over, Mother dear; was over, Mother dear; Everyone in in clover, clover, Mother Mother dear! dear! Everyone But my my dream dream was was aa delusion, delusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! But All delusion delusion and and confusion, confusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! All Rama~an Rama~an

    (2) (2) " Mother dear, dear, II slept, slept, II saw saw aa VISIOn: VISIOn: "Mother The Constitution flourished, Mother dear; The Constitution flourished, Mother dear; All the poor were housed and nourished, Mother dear! dear! All the poor were housed and nourished, Mother ~ut my dream was a delusion, Mother dear! ~ut my dream was a delusion, Mother dear! All delusion delusion and and confusion, confusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! All

    234

    MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS MODERN

    (3) " Mother dear, dear, I I slept, slept, I I saw saw a a vision: vIsion: "Mother Spacious street street and and splendid splendid square, square, Mother Mother dear; dear; Spacious Like some some Frankish Frankish city city rare, rare, Mother Mother dear! dear! Like But my my-dream dream was was aa delusion, delusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! But All delusion delusion and and confusion, confusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! All (4) (4) dear, I I slept, slept, I I saw saw aa VISIon: VISIon: ""Mother Mother dear, The baths baths were were clean clean and and sweet, sweet, Mother Mother dear; dear; The e Snap your your fingers, fingers, stamp stamp your your feet,' feet,' Mother Mother dear! dear! 'Snap But But my my dream dream was was aa delusion, delusion, Mother Mother dear! dear! All All delusion delusion and and confusion, confusion, Mother Mother dear! dear!

    (5) "Weep ,e Weep not, not, Mother Mother dear, dear, I I pray, pray, nor nor worry: worry: I I will buy you sugar-loaves and sweets will buy you sugar-loaves and sweets untold, untold, And And aa pretty pretty out-door out-door mantle mantle stitched stitched with with gold, gold, For For when when crushed crushed by by household household care, care, Mother Mother dear! dear! You You fill fill me me with with despair, despair, Mother Mother dear!" dear!" (27) (27)

    The Khabar dar! dar! ("("Look The following following poem, poem, entitled entitled Klzabar Look out!") out!") and signed Fikrz'-J,i-Barzgar, appeared in the Nasz'm-i-Slzimal and signed Fikrf-yi-Barzgar, appeared in the Nasbn-i-Shimal ofofMay 7 ofofthe May rI, (No.7 the Fourth FourthYear). Year). Its Its real realauthor authorisis II,1911 191 I(No. said to be Ashraf of Rasht, the editor of the paper above said to be Ashraf of Rasht, the editor of the paper above menmentioned, tioned,and andthis thisisisvery veryprobable. probable.

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    'J.~ ..).,> .).,> ~ A ~~ A J..J~ 'J.~ JJ~ ... rii ~~ .... ()J.t! tSfl . ~.\) ~.\) ()).t~ tSp Translation) (( Translation) After your your prayers, prayers, 00 reverend reverend Sir, Sir, to to meditation meditation turn: turn: After Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own own Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your concern! concern! In truth truth in in this this our our age age each each one one doth doth mind mind his own affair; affair; In his own The scorpion's scorpion's thinking thinking of of his his sting, sting, the the bulbul bulbul of of his his air; air; The The bearded bearded chin chin of of beardless beardless cheek, cheek, the the beardless beardless chin chin of of hair. hair. The Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! concern!

    o dervish dervish friend, friend, my my eyes' eyes' delight, delight, at at large large the the fields fields you you graze, graze, and colleges colleges did did spend spend laborious laborious days! days! Who once once in in schools schools and Who N aught know you save the lecturer's rhetorical displays; N aught know you save the lecturer's rhetorical displays; Since each each one one minds minds his his own own affair, affair, you you mind mind your your own own Since concern! concern! One calls calls himself himself aa Shaykhl, Shaykhl, one one calls calls himself himself aa Bab£; One Bah£; One faction i'tiddli, one party InqildbiI, One faction l'tiddli, one party InqildbfI, While in in "self-help" "self-help" another another lot lot unto unto themselves themselves aa Law Law be; be; While Since each each one one minds minds his his own own affair, affair, you you mind mind your your own own Since concern! concern! The rival rival sects sects of of the the Babfs Babfs and and the the Shaykhls Shaykhls are are well well known known to to all all students students of of 11 The modern Persian Persian history. history. The The political political parties parties named named l'tidd/f l'tiddlf (" (" Moderate Moderate ") ") and and modem Inqildbt ("Revolutionary") ("Revolutionary") took took definite definite shape shape after after the the opening opening of of the the Second Second lnqi/dbf National Assembly Assembly in in 1909. 1909. National

    The Boy-Colonel declines to have his bath (From lilt/lid Na!rll'd-Dtl1, Year iii, NO.5, Feb. 16, 1908 )

    No. 27.

    "YOU MIND YOUR OWN CONCERN!"

    237

    Some in the name of Jshim foul innovations breed; Through love of worldly wealth some turn their faces to Yazfd, And by their hand at his command the Prophet's children bleed 1, Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! By Royal \Varrant this one's a Colonel, that a Knight: Their titles and their honours nor reason have nor right, While purse and pouch and pocket they fill with silver bright. Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! Some in the Nation's name the wealth of others strive to gain, That in the Bank their balance may ever grow amain, That they may eat the choicest meat and drink the best champagne! Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! Some mount the patient camel and thus to Mecca fare; Some in the middle of the mosque are occupied with prayer; While some pursue the women, some seek their joys elsewhere. Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! One takes the name of Friday: one Saturday they call, These fight like cats and dogs and on each other's vitals fall; The fire these wantons kindle burns cotton, wool and all! Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! Some charlatans in journals long articles indite, And though the garb they don is black, the sheets they use are white; And now, alas! his turban casts aside each reverend wight2! Since each one minds his own affair, you mind your own concern! 1 The Umayyad Yaz!d ibn Mu'awiya, the slayer of al-J:Iusayn, the Prophet's grandson, is the Pontius Pilate of Persia. The allusion here is probably to the incident described on pp. 117-118 of my Persian Revolutioll. 2 In consternation at the" hlasphemous " innovations of the Press.

    MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS MODERN

    (28) (28) The following following poem, poem, signed signed Sayyid Sayyid NNajaf-i-Bamzd the ajaf-i-Bamld (" ("the The Builder"), "), appeared appeared on on May May I II,I, I9I 191I,I, inin No. NO.7 of the the Fourth Fourth 7 of Builder Year ofofthe the NNasim-i-Sht'mdl. asim-i-Shz"mal. Year

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    "lIfUBARAK.ASl' /"I" " lIfUBARAK-AST

    239239

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    (~(~~ ~~ ~ ~Lu\) ~t.a..\) The Theoptimistic optimistictone toneofofthis this poem poem isis partly partly due due to to the the withwithof the Russian troops (except 80 Cossacks, retained drawal as drawal of the Russian troops (except 80 Cossacks, retained as a "Consular Guard") from Qazwin on March 13-15,191 I, alluded a "Consular Guard") from Qazwin on March 13-15, 191 I, alluded to in stanza 8; and partly to the arrival at AnzaH on the very to in stanza 8; and partly to the arrival at AnzaH on the very day of the poem's publication of Mr Morgan Shuster and the day of the poem's publication of Mr Morgan Shuster and the other American advisers, alluded to in stanza 10. This poem is other American advisers, alluded to in stanza 10. This poem is quite easy, and I have not thought it necessary to add a transquite easy, and I have not thought it necessary to add a translation, but the following observations may facilitate its comlation, but the following observations may facilitate its comprehension. The newspaper Nasi1Jl-i-Shi1lldl boasts itself the prehension. The newspaper Nasfm-i-Shimdl boasts itself the champion of the poor artisans and peasants, and then gives a champion of the poor artisans and peasants, and then gives a long list of the places in Persia where its advent is hailed with long list of the places in Persia where its advent is hailed with joy. Those mentioned in stanza 3 are towns of importance in joy. Those mentioned in stanza 3 are towns of importance in various parts of Persia, while the twelve villages enumerated in various partsallofinPersia, while the twelve villages in stanza 4 are the Caspian provinces of G!lanenumerated and Mazanstanza 4 are all in the Caspian provinces of GHan and Mazandar;;in. The Tallgztz Yil (" Year of the Pig") mentioned in Yfl ("of Year of the Pig") in daran.7 isThe stanza oneTangUz of the cycle twelve years, eachmentioned called after is one of the cycle of twelve years, each called after stanza 7 some animal, brought into Persia by the Tartars (tatzgZtZ in the Tartars (ta1tgztz in some animal, into Persia Oriental Turkishbrought is equivalent to the by Ottoman Turkish domuz). Oriental Turkish domuz). is equivalent to the Ottoman Turkish The translation of stanza 9, which may be of interest to feminists translation is The as follows :~ of stanza 9, which may be of interest to feminists is as follows :- all tlzc girls slza!! be cducated; "Henceforth

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    No. 29. CONGRATULATION No. 29. CONGRATULATION Stanzas II and 12 contrast the luxury and dissipation of the Stanzas I I and 12 contrast the luxury and dissipation of the wealthy nobles with the misery of the poor and their half-starved wealthy nobles with the misery of the poor and their half-starved children. The last stanza expresses confidence that God's help children. The last expresses confidence thatthe God's help will keep Persia for stanza the Persians, however gloomy outlook will keep Persia for the Persians, however gloomy the outlook may be. mayThe be. two following poems both appeared in the Nasim-z·The two following poems both appeared in the N asim-t"Sh£mdl of July 30, 191 I (No. 10 of the Third Year), and both July Shimdl 30, 191 I (No. 10 of the Third Year), and both attempt (July 19, 1911) of the ex-Shah refer to ofthe recent refer to the recent attempt (July 19, 1911) of the ex-Shah Mul).ammad 'AI{ (aided and abetted by the Russians) to recover Mu~ammad 'AH (aided and abetted by the Russians) to recover his lost throne, an attempt which was ended on September 5 by his lost throne, an attempt which was ended on September 5 by what the Times correspondent described as "a decisive and what the Times correspondent described as "a decisive and brilliant victory of the government troops," the execution of brilliant victory of the government troops," the execution of A rshadlt'd-Dawla, the ex-Shah's best and most devoted general, Arshadlt'd-Dawla, the ex-Shah's best and most devoted general, and the flight of the ex-Shah himself on a Russian ship on and the flight of the ex-Shah himself on a Russian ship on September 7. September 7. (29) (29) The first of these two poems, entitled "Congratulation" The first of these two poems, entitled (( Congratulation" (Tabrlk), is a very short one and runs as follows. (Tabrik), is a very short one and runs as follows.

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    (( Trallslatiol1) Trallslatiol1) (I) (I) Behold o'er Astarabad what sudden Behold o'er Astarabad what sudden plague plague is is spread, spread, For there that selfish despot once more doth For there that selfish despot once more doth rear rear his his head. head. How well divergent factions to meet this plague combine! How well divergent factions to meet this plague combine! God God bless bless the the Nation's Nation's Union! Union! God God bless bless this this effort effort fine! fine! (2) (2) All, all combine together, for All, all combine together, for Progress Progress is is their their quest, quest, And And Muslim Muslim and and Armenian Armenian each each strives strives to to do do his his best; best; Absorbed are all the Persians in tl}is endeavour Absorbed are all the Persians in tl}is endeavour blessed. blessed. With With hope hope deferred deferred is is wasted wasted this this vagrant vagrant libertine! libertine! God bless the Nation's Union! God God bless the Nation's Union! God bless bless this this effort effort fine! fine! (3) (3) The The Democrats Democrats and and Moderates, Moderates, like like one one fraternity, fraternity, Unite their bands and join their hands Unite their bands and join their hands in in all all equality: equality: Persia and rule of Despots-remote may these Persia and rule of Despots-remote may these two two be! be! The just are now exalted, the tyrants loud The just are now exalted, the tyrants loud repine; repine; God God bless bless the the Nation's Nation's Union! Union! God God bless bless this this effort effort fine! fine! (30) (30)

    The The next next poem, poem, described described as as aa rajaz (a term term applied applied to to heroic, heroic, rajaz (a or in this case mock-heroic verse) is supposed to express or in this case mock-heroic verse) is supposed to express the the feelings feelings of of the the ex-Shah ex-Shah Mul).ammad Mul)ammad 'All 'All on on beholding beholding the the failure failure of of his his efforts efforts to to regain regain the the throne throne which which for for two two years years and and aa half half he so unworthily filled. he so unworthily filled.

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    MUI;IAMMAD MfRZA's DESPAIR MUI;IAMMAD 'ALf 'ALi MiRZA's DESPAIR

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    ( Tra1lslation) (Tra1lslation) "I "I am am that that famous, famous, shameless shameless libertine libertine Whose days and nights Whose days and nights were were passed passed twixt twixt sleep sleep and and wine! wine! Although Although my my belly belly daily daily larger larger grows, grows, My My strength strength is is waning waning like like the the melting melting snows. snows. to Tihran once an entrance Could I Could I to Tihran once an entrance gain gain II ts ts people people butcher-like butcher-like I'd I'd cleave cleave in in twain, twain, And its inhabitants, both great and And its inhabitants, both great and small, small, vVith vVith shot shot and and shrapnel shrapnel II would would dose dose them them all! all! As for the Regent!, off his head should go, As for the Regent!, off his head should go, Who Who caused caused my my projects projects to to miscarry miscarry so; so; And And with with my my pen-knife pen-knife out out the the eyes eyes I'd I'd bring bring Of Sultan Al).mad shah, the reigning Of Sultan Al)mad shah, the reigning king2; king2; Out Out the the Sardar-i-As'ad's Sardar-i-As'ad's heart heart I'd I'd take, take, And the Sipahdar into mince-meat And the Sipahdar into mince-meat make; make; The The Parliament Parliament with with cannons cannons II would would shake, shake, For freedom's balm to me's a poisoned For freedom's balm to me's a poisoned snake; snake;

    J 1IHmi Abu'l-Qasim Khan Ndfine'I.Mulk, elected Regent (Nd'ibu's·Sal{alta) on J Mirza Abu'l-Qasim Khan Ndfine'I.Mulk, elected Regent (Nd'ibu's.Sal{alta) on September 23, 1910, immediately after the death of his predecessor A~udtt'I.Afulk. September 23, 1910, immediately after the death of his predecessor A~udtt'I.Afulk. 2 He succeeded to the throne on July 18, 1909, on his father's deposition. 2 He succeeded to the throne on July 18. 1909. on his father's deposition.

    No. No. 30. 30.

    (10) (10)

    (15) (15)

    MUI;IAMMAD MUI;IAMMAD 'ALi 'ALi MiRZA's MiRZA's DESPAIR DESPAIR

    245 245

    And, And, by by my my worthless worthless Northern Northern Friend's Friend's advice, advice, I'd crush the folk, as though they I'd crush the folk, as though they were were but but lice; lice; The The Deputies Deputies to to one one long long rope rope I'd I'd tie, tie, And And topsy-turvy topsy-turvy turn turn the the Ministry. Ministry. Now in the dust my head Now in the dust my head is is bowed, bowed, and and I serpent from the Nation's Glide like a Glide like a serpent from the Nation's eye. eye. A hundred thousand thousand guineas guineas in in aa year year A hundred II wrung wrung as as 'road-tax' 'road-tax' from from the the people's people's fear. fear. The 'Sea of Light!,' gold, rubies The 'Sea of Light!,' gold, rubies beyond beyond price price II squandered squandered on on my my drinking drinking bouts bouts and and dice. dice. To To please please my my Russian Russian mistress mistress when when she's she's glum glum II play the tambourine and beat the drum. play the tambourine and beat the drum. How How in in Odessa, Odessa, when when my my funds funds ran ran low, low, To Belgium sped my agents, all To Belgium sped my agents, all men men know. know. Only Only to to change change my my name name II did did decidedecide'MuJ:1ammad 'Mul).ammad J:lusayn, I:Iusayn, rascal rascal double-dyed.' double-dyed.' Although the vulgar call Although the vulgar call me me Mamdall' Mamdali' 2 I'm '; in wits few equal me! I'm not' not' daIl dali2'; in wits few equal me! The The people's people's blood blood in in streams streams I'll I'll cause cause to to pour pour From Astarabad unto Sabzawar! From Astarabad unto Sabzawar! To To ArdabH ArdabH Mujallal Mujallal swift swift doth doth hie; hie; Alas! Alas! Ill-fortune Ill-fortune bears bears him him company! company! Arshadu'd-Dawla, Arshadu'd-Dawla, like like aa tortoise tortoise slow, slow, At Urmiya about my work At Urmiya about my work doth doth go. go. My My flag flag at at Gyumush-tepe Gyumush-tepe II display, display, Hoping Hoping in in ruins ruins town town and and land land to to lay. lay. Though~ of three foes my heart Though~ of three foes my heart with with hate hate doth doth freezefreezeThe Bakhtiyaris, GHan and Tabriz. The Bakhtiyarfs, Gflan and Tabrfz. But But most most of of all all Tabriz-that Tabrfz-that ruined ruined land land Where Where Sattar Sattar Khan Khan this this conflagration conflagration planned. planned. to think that one escaped alive II weep weep to think that one escaped ali ve 3 Of Of those those my my foes foes who who in in the the Park Park did did strive strive 3•• I I

    (20) (20)

    1 This celebrated diamond (the Darya-J'z·-Nur) is the companion gem to the still 1 This celebrated diamond (the Daryd-J'i-Nur) is the companion gem to the still more more celebrated celebrated Kuk-z·-nur Kun-i-llur (" (" Mountain Mountain of of Light Light "). "). 2 "Mamdall" is the vulgar contraction of lIbt~a11lmad 'All. The The meaning meaning of of 2 "Mamdall" is the vulgar contraction of lIbtlfa11lmad 'All. the Turkish word" dafl" (or" dell") is "mad." the Turkish word" daH" (or" dell") is "mad." 3 This alludes to the conflict of August 7, 1910, in the Atabak's Park at Tihran, 3 This alludes to the conflict of August 7, 1910, in the Atabak's Park at Tihran, on theji(M'{s. on the the occasion occasion of of the the disarming disarming of of thejidd'{s.

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    (25) Should Tihran once again become my share Not one of all its people will I spare. Of grocer, baker and of caterer, Of druggist, butcher and of fruiterer, Townsman and peasant, toilers without rest, Of aged men and children at the breast, Of blacksmith, joiner, carpenter therewith, Of draper and of pedlar and goldsmith, The blood in such wise on the earth I'll shed That it shall form a sea with waves of red! (30) But cruel fate has tied my hands, alack! And fortune sinister doth brea.k break my back! I'm poor, I'm poor, I'm poor, I'm poor indeed; I have not, have not, have not, aught I need! o belly, belly, belly, belly mine, 'Tis you who cause me thus to grieve and pine! To thee, Bahcidur, Bahadur, greetings do I send; Where art thou? Help me, 0 my trusty friend! Sardar Muhiyy, I hear, hath marched from Ray, And wends towards Mazandaran his way. (35) This time, for all my bulging paunch, I feel That on the gibbet I shall dance a reel! With empty purse and brains of sense bereft, I've neither foot to fly nor refuge left!"

    (31)

    The following poem, like the last, is supposed to express the feelings of the ex-Shah Mu1:).ammad Mul).ammad 'AU 'Alf after the failure of his attempt-to regain the throne in August, 1911. It appeared in the Nasfm,-i-Shimdl (No. 12 of the Third Year) on September 1 I, 191 I. It contains a certain number of slang or colloquial expressions, especially in the last bayt of each stanza, e.g. nami-shl nami-sht (= nami-shawad), Mamdali (= Mu!zammad 'Alf), Shd Slzd (for Shdh), Shdll), mi-khdd (for mi-khwdhad), mi-khd11l (for mi-khwd/zam), mi-kllwdhad), mi-khdm mi-kllwdlzam), etc. I have not thought it necessary to add a translation of this poem.

    NO.31.

    247

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    The following poem appeared in the CharalZd Pat'and column The following poem appeared in the Charand Parand column of the Szer-z'-/srd.ffl (No. 24) for February 27, 1908. It is entitled of the $ltr-i-Isrdfil (No. 24) for February 27, 1908. It is entitled Ru' asti wa 1I1illat (" the Leaders and the Nation "), and is difficult Ru' asd wa Millat (" the Leaders and the Nation "), and is difficult to understand fully, being written in the language employed by to understand fully, being written in the language em ployed by mothers in speaking to their small children. Of all the poems mothers in speaking to their small children. Of all the poems

    JL.

    No. 32.

    249

    THE LEADERS AND THE NATION

    here cited it is the most remote from the ordinary literary language. The" leaders of the people" are, apparently, represented as an ignorant mother, and the Nation as a sickly child, who finally expires in its mother's arms in consequence of her mismanagement.

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    (I) Dust on my head l ! The child has woken up! Go to sleep, my pet; the Bogey-man 22 is coming! Don't cry! The ogre 3 will come and eat you up! The cat will come and take away your kiddy4! This expression is equivalent to " Botheration take mt! ! " Literally" the two-eared one-head," an imaginary monster with which children are intimidated. 3 LulU Lulu is another kind of bogey. 4 BlIzbuzi Bttzbuzl is anything, such as a pet animal or a toy, to which a child is much attached. 1

    2

    MOPERN MOPE RN PERSIAN POEMS

    Oh, oh! vVhat ails yout, my pet? "I am hungry" [you say]2? May you burst 3 ! You have eaten all this: is it too little 4 ? Get ouP, dog! Pussy, puss, puss, come here! Hushaby, darling! You are my rose! Hush, hush! (5) "Mamma! I am ready to die with hunger! " Don't cry! To-morrow I will give you bread! "0 dear, Mamma! lVly life is ready to leave me!" Don't cry! The pot is just on the hail! "0 my hand! See, it is as cold as ice!" Fie, fie, my Soul! See, the breast is dry6 ! "Why does my head spin so? " [Because] the lice are digging holes in your head! ! ... What ails you, my Soul? Hdq, Aklz-kh-kh 1 H dq, hdq7! 0 my Aklz-kh-klt Aunts! V\Thy are its eyes turned up to the ceiling? AuntS! (10) Come here! Alas, see, its body also has become cold! colour turned so pale? Dust on my head! Why has its colour'turned (II) Woe is me! My child is gone from my hands! Alas, alas! To me there remain but sighs and grief! Alas, alas~! (33)

    I do not know whether or where the following poem was published, but its title, "On the departure of Mr Shuster from Persia," sufficiently fixes its date as the latter part of the year 19I~I. Mr Shuster's dismissal was demanded by the Russian 19I~I. Government on November 29 of that year, and he handed over his charge to MrCairns on January 7, 1912,and left Tihr r )j 0\~ U\~.. C6.i\> 0~ r ~4.i\>. u\ ~

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    ( Translation) (I) Shame on the host whose guest unfed doth from the table rise! Rather than this should happen, make thy life his sacrifice! Should Shuster fare from Persia forth, Persia is lost in sooth: o let not Persia thus be lost, if ye be men in truth 1 (2) Behold, these Ministers of ours] our Muslimhood divide, And each unto our common foe his portion doth confide; One party still 2 in unison demands that thou should'st stay; \Ve're naught but heathens if we let our Faith thus slip away!

    (3) To~day a gang of thieves become the guardians of our land: To-day In all this Kingdom thou alone dost see and understand! Close clinging to thy skirts a band of suppliants are we, For, should'st thou go, our Country's name, alas! will go with thee!

    (4) Our cup is full unto the brim, our measure overflows; Our homes are meanly filChed away by base and cruel foes! And if we suffer Shuster now to leave our Persian land Eternal infamy our name in history shall brand!

    (5) The wolf and shepherd's dog are one like Layla and Majnun 3 ; A cowardly herdsman guards the flock and will betray it soon. o what creative energy our Hearts' Exemplar" showed! Let not our faithful guardian quit our desolate abode! (6)

    o leave us not, although our life and thought are merged in night! The eyes of those who wish us ill grow blind when we unite: But, left by thee, the banquet's glee turns to reaction drear, And thus it is that 'Arif's wail cloth doth reach to Saturn's sphere ll ! i.e. the Cabinet who effected the dissolution of the Majlis in December, 191 J. Presumably the so-called" Democrats," who were the patriotic party_ 3 LayIa Layla and Majnun are the typical lovers of Eastern romance. 4 The "Ka'ba The" Ka'ba of hearts" is that to which men's hearts turn as the Faithful turn towards Mecca. "KUIl fa-yakull 11" (("" 'Be!' and it is") is God's Creative \Vord. 5 i.e. the seventh and highest heaven, which is the "Sphere of Saturn." 1

    2

    The Poet 'Arif of Qazwin

    No. 34.

    253

    A TRIBUTE TRIBUTE TO TO SIR SIR EDWARD EDWARD GREY GREY A

    (34) (34) The following qa-Ffda, entitled "A "A Critical Critical Tribute Tribute to to Sir Sir The following qa~(da, entitled Edward Grey," appeared appeared in in the the Calcutta Calcutta Jfablu'l-Matbt /fablu'l-Matfn of of Edward Grey," November 11, 1912, and is by the poet Bahdr of Mashhad, November II, 1912, and is by the poet Bahdr of Mashhad, entitled Maliklt'sh-Slllt'ard (" (" the the King King of of poets poets "). "). entitled Malikl/sh-Slllt'ard

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    No. 34. 34. AA TRIBUTE TRIBUTETO TOSIR SIREDWARD EDWARDGREY GREY No.

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    ranslatio1Z) ( T( T ranslatz'on) To London London speed, speed,0 0 breeze breezeofofdawning dawningday, day, To Bear this this my mymessage messagetotoSir SirEdward EdwardGrey. Grey. Bear To thee thee inin skill, skill,wise wiseCouncillor CouncillorofofState, State, To Ne'er did did the theworld worldproduce producea apeer peerorormate! mate! Ne'er Great Peter's schemes to thine were shifting sand, Great Peter's schemes to thine were shifting sand, And weak by thine the plans that Bismarck planned. And weak by thine the plans that Bismarck planned. Ne'er from Toulon Napoleon's hosts had gone Ne'er from Toulon Napoleon's hosts had gone Ifon on the the Pyramids Pyramidsthy thyname namehad hadshone. shone. If Had Paris been in league with thee, vain Had Paris been in league with thee, in invain The German hosts had swamped Alsace-Lorraine. The German hosts had swamped Alsace-Lorraine. Had England 'gainst the States sought help from thee Had England 'gainst the States sought help from thee No Washington had won them victory. No Washington had won them victory. Had thy prestige companioned England's arms Had thy prestige companioned England's arms Ne'er had the Boers caused England such alarms. Ne'er had the Boers caused England such alarms. Would Kuropatkin's hosts before Japan Would Kuropatkin's hosts before Japan Had fled had he been guided by thy plan? Had fled had he been guided by thy plan? Had the Manchus been aided by thy thought Had the Manchus been aided by thy thought The rebels ne'er against their king had fought. The rebels ne'er against their king had fought. And had thy schemes included Persia's life And had thy schemes included Persia's life Not fruitless had remained this storm and strife. Not fruitless had remained this storm and strife. "\i\'hen fortune frowns on man," the proverb goes, "\Vhen fortune frowns on man," the proverb goes, "His wisest act no good resultant shows." "His wisest act no good resultant shows." Alas that thou, for all thy wits, hast wrought Alas that thou, for all thy wits, hast wrought A deed which save regret can yield thee naught! A deed which save regret can yield thee naught! For India's gates, closed for a hundred years, For India's gates, closed for a hundred years, To Russia now you open without fears. To Russia now you open without fears.

    256

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    (25)

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    You nurse the wolf-cub in your arms: a deed \Vhich folly prompts, and which to grief will lead. To this o'erbearing partner you submit, And bow your head, bereft of sense and wit. Your pacts with Russia made in time gone by Brought loss unseen by your short-sighted eye. In Afghanistan, Persia and Tibet Before your foe a three-doored wall you've set. Mosul to Si'stan's Sfstan's now an open way: "Nay!"I, Herat, Tibet they claim, nor fear your "Nay! Henceforth this three-fold road to watch, indeed, A million men on land and s~a you'll need. India's advantage if you squander so N aught will you reap except remorse and woe. You knew not, though both town and desert knew, What hurt to England would from this accrue. Not Persia only feels the Russian squeeze; 'Tis felt by Afghans and by Kashghads! "Russia her pact will keep," you answer me: Her records read, and wondrous things you'll see! Not I but human nature tells you plain That pacts weigh naught compared with present gain; The more since Russia longs for India still As longs the hawk for partridge on the hill ; Else why did she o'er Persian lands let loose Her Cossack hordes to crown her long abuse? Why in Khurasan, India's broad highway, Do all these troops of hers unmotived stay? Such mischief wherefore hath she wrought, and why Done deeds redounding to her infamy? From Tabdz to Sarakhs her soldiers dwell, Some twenty thousand, if you count them well. From North to East our land all peaceful lay: Why without reason do the Russians stay? Reason, forsooth! The Russians there remain some . more glorious campaign Waiting for some. \Vith India for its goal: this goal they crave, These pampered pirates of the Caspian vVave!

    No. 34. 34. No.

    257257

    TRIBUTETO TOSIR SIREDWARD EDWARDGREY GREY AATRIBUTE

    The more more soso should shouldyou youculpably culpablydelay delay The Till Russian Russian rails railstotoIndia Indiafind findtheir theirway. way. Till These rails rails shall shallbring bringthy thyfoeman foemannear nearto tothee: thee: These Avoid such roads so fraught with jeopardy! Avoid such roads so fraught with jeopardy! (35) 'Twas 'Twas Persia Persiabarred barredthe theroad: road:woe woeworth worththetheday day (35) Which swept this ancient barrier away!, Which swept this ancient barrier away 1, cursed obstinacy, obstinacy,which whichdid didraise raise oQ cursed This veil, and set the feet in such maze! This veil, and set the feet in such a amaze! Headstrong and rash you wrought a deedof of shame: Headstrong and rash you wrought a deed shame ·Which stolid Turk and vagrant Arab blame. \Vhich stolid Turk and vagrant Arab blame. Woe toto that thatjudgement judgementcool, cool,that thatreason reasonbright, bright, Woe Which now have put you in so dire a plight! V/hich now have put you in so dire a plight 1 All hail hail that thatjudgement, judgement,hail hailthat thatinsight insightrare, rare, All Of which, men say, you hold so large a share! Of which, men say, you hold so large a share! (35) (35) The following poem, entitled "An offering of thanks and The following poem, entitled "An offering of thanks and welcome to the honoured and revered guest," is a curious protest welcome to the honoured and revered guest," is a curious protest against the intrusion of Germany (real or supposed) into Persian against the intrusion of Germany (real or supposed) into Persian affairs; for, by the generality of Persians, Germany was favourably affairs; for, by the generality of Persians, Germany was favourably regarded as friendly to Islcim and hostile to Russia. It appeared regarded as friendly to Islam and hostile to Russia. It appeared in No. 17 of the illustrated comic paper Azarbdyjdn on October in No. 17 of the illustrated comic paper ;!.zarbdyjdn on October 11,190 7.

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    ( Translation) (" Fortunate is your advent! Greeting and Welcome to thee, o Germany!") "0 newly-arrived guest of Persia, welcome! o Germany! Your place is on our eyes: welcome! Persia is like a well-filled table with foreigners for guests; o guest un bidden to this table, welcome! Thanks be to God! The morning of union hath appeared; The nights of separation have come to an end: welcome! To take captive the bird-like hearts of your unhappy lovers With the snare in your hand and the grain in your apron, welcome!

    No. 35.

    AN IRONIC WELCOME TO GERMANY

    259

    (5) Claiming to be the protector of Islam and the Muslims Thou hast entered the gang of thieves: welcome! But, since your competitors have carried off all that there was, I am afraid that disappointment may be your portion: welcome! Islam was friendless and helpless; now A hundred thanks, it has found a guardian like thee: welcome! I know thee well, 0 libertine of many spells! The Devil sings the praises of thy cunning: welcome! Thy favour ever embraces Islam; we are unable to voice the thanks which are your due: welcome! (10) Cunning prompted thee to extend the hand of friendship to the Turk; Thou didst whisper into his ear the verse of loss: welcome! Then, on the pretext of friendship for the Sultan of Fez, Thou didst hasten towards Tangier: welcome! The injury which Morocco experienced from such a friend as thee It had never experienced from the enmity [of another]: welcome! Having finished with the affairs of these two, without delay Thou didst appear in the land of Persia: welcome! To shear the heads of a handful of innocents Thou bringest in thy hand a sharp razor: welcome! (15) Wantonly, with pretexts of College and Bank, Thou hast attained thy secret object: welcome! Our cry of lamentation still rises to heaven On account of the Russian and British Banks: welcome! In short it seems that we have now no option Save to submit to the orders of the Franks: welcome! .\.i

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    MODERN MODERN PERSIAN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS

    (37) (37)

    The second second poem poem inin this this collection collectionis,is,ininthe thewords wordsofofthethe author, aa portion portion of of "a "a metrical metrical history historyofofPersia Persiadown downto tothethe time of Mu~ammad 'All, mingled with moving exhortations, sent Mu1)ammad 'All, mingled with moving exhortations, sent to the Shah by means of Mltsldru's-Sal!ana, the Court Chamberto the Shah by means of Musllfru's-Sal{ana, the Court Chamberlain (Wazfr-i-Darbdr), (Wazlr-z'-Darbdr), which, lain which,however, however,produced producednonoeffect." effect." It It also was composed in Jumada i, A.H. 1327 (= May-June, 1909), also was composed in Jumada i, A.H. 1327 (= May-June,19(9), but seems poem but seems not not to to have have been beenpublished publishedatatthe thetime. time. This This poem also II consider also consider worthy worthy of ofbeing beingreproduced reproducedhere. here.

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    POEMSBYBYBAHAR BAHAR POEMS

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    "0 watchman, watchman, how howlong longthis thissloth slothandandheavy heavy sleep? "0 sleep? Sleep is not for the watchman; 0, raise thy head from slumber! Sleep is not for the watchman; 0, raise thy head from slumber! Behold thy flock without watchman or shepherd, Behold thy flock without watchman or shepherd, On one one side side the theraging ragingwolf, wolf,ononthethe other roaring lion; other thethe roaring lion; On That one one snatches snatchesthe themorsel morselfrom fromthethe claws That claws of of thisthis one,one, andand this one from that one, this one from that one, Each one one having havingdyed dyedhishisclaws clawsand andfangs fangswith with blood Each thethe blood of of this flock. this flock. The watchman drunk, the flock preoccupied, the enemy The watchman drunk, the flock preoccupied, the enemy watchfulwatchfulThe matter rests with God, for it has passed out of our hands! The matter rests with God, for it has passed out of our hands!

    (2) (2) "Accept advice freely, 0 King, from this loyal nature: "Accept advice freely, 0 King, from this loyal nature: Seek not for fairness from the foul, nor friendliness from thy Seek not for fairness from the foul, nor friendliness from thy neighbours; neighbours; Then put away out of thine head the words of these worthThen put away out of thine head the words of these worthless ones: less ones: How long wilt thou seek for constancy from these inconstant How long wilt thou seek for constancy from these inconstant ones? ones? Thy kingdom, 0 Prince, is a treasure, a royal treasure, Thy kingdom, 0 Prince, is a treasure, a royal treasure, And I fear, 0 King. lest this treasure may slip from thy hands And I fear, 0 King, lest this treasure may slip from thy hands without a struggle. without a struggle.

    MODERN PERSIAN MODERN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS

    wondrous treasure treasure hast thou got AA wondrous got in in thy thy hands hands without without trouble! trouble! King, since since thou thou hast obtained oo King, obtained itit without without trouble, trouble, how how of the the treasure? treasure? shouldst value of shouldst thou thou know know the value

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    " "All Kings, 00 prince, prince,are areno novain vaintale; tale; Allthese these monuments monuments of the Kings, AA king, 0 King, cannot dispense with kingly qualities. king, 0 King, cannot with kingly qualities. sluggard and and madman; madman; Kingship Kingship does does not not befit befit every sluggard Yea, it is the candle, not the moth, which illuminates thebanquet! banquet! Yea, it is the candle, not which illuminates the Lo there is is no no master master save save thee, thee, Lo and and behold, behold, in in this this house there Yet desolate as as thine, thine, 00 Prince! Prince! Yet isis there there no no house house so so desolate prosper by by Justice JlIstice and and Bounty, Bounty, Arise, thy house house to to prosper Arise, cause cause thy away the the stranger stranger from from thee!" thee!" And, And, little little by by little, little, put put away (38) (38) The about the the same same time time asas the the last last The third third poem, poem, written written about (May-June, 1909), is also addressed to MuJ:tammad 'Ali, then (May-June, 1909), is also addressed to Mu~ammad 'Ali, then Shah. known as as aa takhmis, takhnzzs, oror "five"fiveShah. ItIt isis what what isis technically technically known taJ?nzilz, or amplification, of one of Shaykh Sa'dl's some," and a some," and a ta~mill, or amplification, of one of Shaykh Sa'dl's to each each verse verse of of Sa'd£'s Sa'df's ode ode are are odes (ghazals), that odes (ghaza!s), that isis to to say say to five half-verses thus obtained prefixed three new half-verses, the prefixed three new half-verses, the five half-verses thus obtained poem runs runs as as follows: follows: constituting constitutingaa band band or or stanza stanza 11. This This poem

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    27 0

    The poem has has been been already alreadygiven given(No. (No.20,20, 218-20 The fifth fifth poem pp.pp. 218-20 supra). It was published not only in the irdn-i-Naw (from supra). It was published not only in the frdn-i-Naw (from which it was quoted), but also in the papers KhurdsdlZ, Taraqqf, which it was quoted), but also in the papers Khurdsdn, Taraqqf, and Ijablu'l-Matfn. and Ijablu'l-Matf7Z. The poem was was originally originallydeclaimed declaimedinina great a great assembly The sixth sixth poem assembly of the notables, officials and people of Mashhad held in Holy of the notables, officials and people of Mashhad held in thethe Holy Shrine of the Imam Ri~a to celebrate the opening of the Second Shrine of the Imam Ri~a to celebrate the opening of the Second National Assembly (about (about November November15,15,1909). 1909). It It praise National Assembly is is in in praise of Freedom, comprises fifteen couplets, and begins: of Freedom, comprises fifteen couplets, and begins: 'LS.)\)\

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    'J).:i ~~\ 0\S:!-4~ y. .)~ 0~~ The seventh poem was written in July, 1910, at a time of The seventh poem was written in July, 1910, at a time of 'political crisis and change of Cabinet. It is a tarkfb-band political crisis and change of Cabinet. It is a tarkib-band of four strophes, and appeared in the newspaper rus, No. 50. of four strophes, and appeared in the newspaper Tus, No. 50. The last strophe is as follows: The last strophe is as follows:

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    (40) (40) The The eighth eighth poem poem appeared appeared in in No. NO.33 II of of the the newspaper newspaper Tus on the Persian Nawruz (New Year's Day), March It 22, 1910. 1910. on the Persian (New Year's Day), March 22, It is a 11Zltstazdd of fifteen stanzas, and is worthy of notice -both is a mltstazdd of fifteen stanzas, and is worthy of notice 'both on on account account of of its its intrinsic intrinsic beauty beauty and and its its allusions allusions to to recent recent events events in in Persia. Persia.

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    Ral)im Khan Khan Qaraja-Daghi, Ral.lim Qadja-D;ighi, notorious Re;u:tionarr Reactionary rereUl-d referred to thethenulorio'h to in in verse ve rse [3' l ofofPoem I'ot\.;~

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    (42)

    The tenth poem, a musaddas or "six-some," appeared in No. 1 of the newspaper Naw Bahdr in the month of Shawwcil, A.H. 1328 (= October-November, 1910). Five of the twelve stanzas of this poem (Nos. 3,6,7, 8 and 12) are here given.

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    POEMS BY BAHAR

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    The paper Naw Bahdr (see No. 357, p. 149 supra) first 14, 1910), appeared on the 9th of Shawwal, A.H. 1328 (= October 14,1910), at Mashhad. The celebrated I:Iaydar Baydar Khan, called 'Amu-oghlzt (" cousin "), was its founder, and our poet Bahdr, its editor. It was suppressed at the instance of the Russians exactly a year after its inception (on October 14, 1911).

    (43)

    The eleventh poem is evidently modelled on a well-known fragment by the great poet ]aml, Jamf, beginning: ,

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    ItItwas Shawwal, A.H. A.H. 1328 1328 was published published inin the the Naw Naw Bahdr Bahdr in Shawwal, October-November, 1910), 19IO)J and and is is as follows: (=October-November, follows: ,

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    The the "Afshar "Afshar The twelfth twelfth poem poem isis aa ta.f1zfj', or ballad, ballad, in in the ta.f1li/, or Mode," and appeared in the Naw Bahdr in the month of Dhu'lMode," and appeared in the Naw Bahdr in the month of Dhu'lI:Iijja, A.H. 1328 (= December, 1910). It runs as follows: ijijja, A.H. 1328 (= December, 1910). It runs as follows:

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    POEMS BY POEMS BY BAHAR BAHAR

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    The The thirteenth thirteenth poem poem was was recited recited at at the the official official celebration celebration held on the birthday of Sultan A}:lmad Shah by the Provincial held on the birthday of Sultan AJ:1mad Shah by the Provincial Council Council of of Khurasan Khurasan in in August, August, 191 191 I, I, and and was was afterwards afterwards pubpublished N aw aw Bahdr. Bahdr. II tt is is aa qa,#da qa#da of of twenty-seven twenty-seven verses, verses, lished in in the the N poet Farrukhl, composed composed in in the the style style of of the the old old poet Farrukhf, and and begins: begins: .pi" ". .~ od"'". ." . ~ ,'4~r~.J4; J.! u ~~:f ~ J.~.J~ .s\~) ~ ~:f .l! ~~.J~ k. ~ ~t.~ ~ ~r~.J 4; LS\ ~ J ~.J.Jc:: J.!a.J~ ~ 4 ~~ ~~ ~ ~ jj 4. ~~ '.!.N.i ·~f \;4 ~~ '~.) \,:.-.) jj o.)~ o.)~ ~ ~ .)~ .)~ j.J.) j.J.) \;o.)~ ~o.)~ 0

    (45) (45) The fourteenth poem was The fourteenth poem was published published in in the the Naw Naw Balzar Bahdr in in (= It A.H. 1329 191 August-September, I). comprises Rama~an, Rama~an, A.H. 1329 (= August-September, 191 I). It comprises eleven eleven verses, verses, and and is is an an imitation imitation of of aa poem poem by by Minuchihrit. Minuchihrl l ,

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    The fifteenth fifteenth and and last last poem poem in in this this collection collection is is placed placed in in the the The of the ex·Shah Mu~ammad 'All, whose raid into Persia mouth mouth of the ex-Shah Mu~ammad 'Ali, whose raid into Persia in August, August, 191 191 I, ended, in spite of the hardly-concealed help in I, ended, in spite of the hardly-concealed help of the Russians, in the the defeat defeat and and death death of of his his most most capable capable of the Russians, in Arshadu'd-Dawla, at General, Arshadu'd-Dawla, at the end of of August August and and beginning beginning General, the end of September, and his flight back to Russia soon afterwards. of September, and his flight back to Russia soon afterwards. Naw Bahdr. Bahdr. This poem poem also also was was published published in in the the Naw This

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    POEMS BY BY RADAR BAHAR POEMS

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    POEMS BY BAHAI?

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    (47)

    The following poem, not included in the above collection, is also by Bahar, and was sent to me separately by a 'Persian friend, It is, I think, a parody of a well-known ode (ghazal) of I:Iafi~ or some other of the classical poets, and, though couched in the erotic strain usual in this class of poems, is full of political allusions.

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    The following following fine fine poem poem by byPur-i-Dawud Pur-i-Dawudhas hasa aless lesspurely purely Persian vocabulary than he generally affects. It was communiPersian vocabulary than he .generally affects. It was communiin November, November, 1913, 1913, and and has, has, I Ithink, think,never neverbefore before cated me in cated to to me been published. been published.

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    Translation) ( T1'a1zs1atz'o1t)

    (r) With With sighs sighs II dry dry up up the the water of all the sea, and with tears (I) turn into into aa sea sea all all the the face of the plain. II turn In all all the the company company of friends I seek no confidant, nor In nor spiritual ascetic, ascetic, nor beauteous sweetheart. spiritual The virtue virtue and and talent talent of a man are not in the robe The robe of of brocade; for all my learning and nobility I wear brocade; for all wear aa coat coat ofcloth. cloth. of IfII be be free free II can can be be happy in a dervish's cell, while If while II desire desire not aa hundred hundred lofty palaces [if I be] in bonds. bonds. not (5) There There isis aa crowd crowd at the door of the Mosque, Mosque, aa troop troop (5) [moving] towards [the idol-temple of] Farkhar, a [moving] towards of] Farkhar, a host host entering the synagogue, a congregation [filling] [filling] the the entering the synagogue, church. church. If the the Fire-temple Fire-temple has has been been extinguished extinguished through If through the the tyranny of of Fate, Fate, II will will kindle kindle in tyranny in the the chamber chamber of of the the heart the the altar altar of of the the Avesta. Avesta. heart

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    No. No. 48. 48.

    ( 10) ( 10)

    (IS) (IS)

    (20) (20)

    POEMS POEMS BY BY PUR-I-DAWUD PUR-I-DAWUD

    How How can can my my sorrow sorrow be be cured cured by by colleges colleges and and lectures? lectures? Music, cymbals and flute are more congenial Music, cymbals and flute are more congenial to to the the madman who has lost his heart. madman who has lost his heart. Although Although wine wine is is forbidden forbidden in in the the Musulman Musulman creed, creed, in in the the drinking of wine I will pursue the Christian practice. drinking of wine I will pursue the Christian practice. II would would fain fain fall fall down down dazed, dazed, drunken drunken and and overcome overcome by by wine, so that I may not hear from Persia wine, so that I may not hear from Persia this this clamour clamour and and crying. crying. From From the the direction direction of of Persia Persia every every moment moment there there reaches reaches the ear a voice which causes this blue vault [of heaven] the ear a voice which causes this blue vault [of heaven] to to tremble; tremble; A voice like needles; A voice whereat whereat the the very very hair hair becomes becomes like needles; aa whereat thou seest the heart of granite voice filled with with voice whereat thou seest the heart of granite filled blood. blood. She She cries cries to to thee, thee, "0 "0 son, son, consider consider thy thy state! state! Seek Seek the the ease of to-morrow by the efforts of to-'day ! ease of to-morrow by the efforts of to-'d ay ! "Out thou canst "Out of of this this wool wool which which thou thou art art twisting twisting thou canst not not weave brocade; from this thorn thou canst not weave brocade; from this thorn thou canst not gather gather the the red red rose rose !! the "" Loose Loose the chains chains from from me, me, and and only only then then take take in in thy thy hand hand the chain-like tresses of thy charming sweetheart! the chain-like tresses of thy charming sweetheart! "I "I am am fevered, fevered, tormented tormented and and grieved, grieved, thou thou art art glad, glad, happy happy and cheerful; such heedlessness is a shame and cheerful; such heedlessness is a shame in in aa youth youth like thee! like thee! "Through "Through the the blood blood of of my my young young men men the the ground ground is is all all rosy-red; come back and gaze for a moment on rosy-red; come back and gaze for a moment on my my rose-walks rose-walks and and rose-show! rose-show! "" Through the tyranny Jamsh£d Through the tyranny of of evil evil men men the the Kingdom Kingdom of of J amshld and Kay hath been made desolate: Behold Persia, and Kay hath been made desolate: Behold Persia, once once exalted'to exalted ' to Heaven, Heaven, become become aa ruin ruin haunted haunted by by owls. owls. "The Lion of "The Lion of the the Kayanians Kayanians is is hidden; hidden; it it is is the the time time of of the jackal's prowling; humiliation hath succeeded the the jackal's prowling; humiliation hath succeeded the splendour splendour and and glory glory of of Darius. Darius. "King N ush{rwan sI urn bers "King N ush{rwan sl urn bers in in the the dark dark tomb, tomb, while while the the Bear stands over his place. Behold the tricks of Bear stands over his place. Behold the tricks of Fate! Fate!"" If, If, through through love love of of his his native native land, land, Pur-i-Dawud Pur-i-Dawud should should one one day mount the scaffold, still will he give day mount the scaffold, still will he give aa hundred hundred thanks thanks and and praises praises to to the the One One God! God!

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS POEMS MODERN PERSIAN

    II possess other poems poems by by Pur-i-Dawud, Pur-i-Dawud,ofof possess some some half half dozen dozen other which the A1ZJitman A 1?jumall or or Council Council(in (inthis this which three, three, one one in in praise praise of of the case, to judge by the context, the National Assembly or Majlz's) case, to judge by the context, the National Assembly or Majlis) and tongue (Pdrsf-yi-Bdstdll), (Pdrsf-yi-Bdstdn),are are and two two inin praise praise of of the the old old Persian Persian tongue that almost pure Persian which this poet, like Shaykh written in written in that almost pure Persian which this poet, like Shaykh 'Abdu'l-'AH and one one or or two twoothers, others,isis 'Abdu'l-'AH of ofTihnin, Tihran, called called MltbadI, Mttbadl, and wont to cultivate in h-is writings. One of these is here givenasas wont to cultivate in his writings. One of these is here given aaspecimen. specimen. (49) (49)

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    (52) (52) The following poem, which might be entitled "a Persian The following poem, which might be entitled "a Persian patriot's nightmare," is by Ja'far-i-Khamna'i of Tabrlz. It was patriot's nightmare," is by ]a'far.. i.. KMmna'i of Tabrlz. It was communicated to me by a friend, and I do not know that it has communicated to me by a friend, and I do not know that it has ever been published before.

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    No. 54. No. 54.

    POEM BY TABiB-ZADA KAAIAL POEM BY TABis-ZADA KAJIAL

    299

    299

    How long this sleep? Awake, unclose thine eyes! How long this sleep? Awake, unclose thine eyes! Rouse thee for one last Lion-charge, and go Rouse thee for one last Lion-charge, and go To yield thy life or else destroy thy foe! To yield thy life or else destroy thy foe!

    TWO POEMS COMMUNICATED BY TWO POEMS COMMUNICATED BY ASHRAF-zADA ASHRAF-zADA The two following poems were communicated to me on The two following poems were communicated to me on October 23, 1913, by MIrza Ma4mud Khan Ashraf-zada, October 23, 1913, by Mfrza Ma~mud Khan Ashraf-zada, formerly editor of the newspaper Farwardbz (published at formerly editor of the newspaper Farwardbz (published at Urmiya in Azarbayjan), who suffered so cruelly at the hands Urmiya in Azarbayjan), who suffered so cruelly at the hands of the Russians in January, 1912. He quoted them from memory of the Russians in January, 1912. He quoted them from memory and cannot vouch for their verbal exactitude, while, as will be and cannot vouch for their verbal exactitude, while, as will be seen, lines have here and there been forgotten and their places seen, lines have here and there been forgotten and their places left blank. left blank.

    (54) (54) This short poem, dealing with what is known in Persia as This short poem, dealing with what is known in Persia as IIJ,t£kdr or Anbdr-ddri (i.e. making a "corner" in wheat or bread JI}t£kdr or Anbdr-ddrf (i.e. making a "corner" in wheat or bread -an abuse which has frequently led to popular disturbances -an abuse which has frequently led to popular disturbances from ancient times), is by MIrza I:Iusayn Tabib-zdda, poetically from ancient times), is by M{rza I:Iusayn Tabib-zdda, poetically surnamed Kamdl, who was the principal of the Kamdl College surnamed Kamdl, who was the principal of the Kamdl College (Madrasa-i-Kamdl) at Tabdz, and afterwards edited a Persian (Madrasa-i-Kamdl) at Tabdz, and afterwards edited a Persian paper of the same name in Egypt, in the second number of which paper of the same name in Egypt, in the second number of which these verses appeared. See supra No. 100 (pp. 60-1) and Nos. these verses appeared. See supra No. 100 (pp. 60-1) and Nos. 283-4 (p. 128). 283-4 (p. 128).

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    300

    Translation) ( Trallslatioll) So long as the fingers of the bread-cornerers are on the bread There is unrest in the world and ruin in the age. That fair ascendant star of Justice is eclipsed; That beauteous face of Equality is hidden. hungry child, cry not thus, or else There will be a slap on thy face from the hands of the breadcornerers! mother, surrender that ornament of thy embrace to the earth, For a human life is cheaper than a mouthful of bread! The pen is wearied of talking so much of bread; Kamal are dyed with blood: what hurt is there The pages of the Ka11ldl in this?

    o o

    Apropos propos of this holding back of corn from the people it is not A out of place to quote the following verse which appeared in a shab-ndma secretly published at Tabdz shab-1ldma TabrIz on a similar occasion. ?" , " ~.r..r. \o::_,..,\~...\.> ~ o\,;\.).J.~ 0\;\.).J.~ ~ ~\~..l> J.\ ~\

    ,"

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    "These drops of rain which fall on the arable lands, Each drop is an arrow in the eyes of the corn-holders!"

    (55) The following poem, also communicated from memory by Mfrzei MaQ.mud Mal).mud Ashraf-zada, is a musamma! musam11la! by MIrza Mfrzei MuQ.ammad Mul).ammad MIrza $adiq Adfbu'l-Ma11lalik, which was·published in the Adab $eidiq Khan Adfbu'l-Ma11ldlik, newspaper at Mashhad. (See Nos. 38-40, pp. 37-9 supra.) Some of the lines and verses which Ashraf-zada Ashraf-zeida had forgotten have been supplied (also from memory) by MIrza Mfrza Ka~imzada.

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    No. 55. 55. No.

    POEM BY POEM BY ADiBU'L-lIfA1UALIK ADiBU'L-lIfA1UALIK

    301 301

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    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

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    THE LAMENT OF THE KINE (56)

    The following very simple and even uncouth verses, wherein a Persian peasant is supposed to apostrophize his cow, appeared under the heading Adabiyydt-i-Bdbd A(l1lzad A(l1Jzad (" Baba A}:lmad's Literary Column") in No. I I of the Chanta --i-Pd-baralma i-Pd-baralma (" Beggar's Wallet "), which bears no date.

    32

    "The La.mcnt Lament of the "The the Kine" K;ne" FromNo. No." I J I~,-j ,, ,...,lS~ \...;\.) \...;\ ~ ~~ rJ~.Jr t.S~

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    PERSIAN POEMS

    r

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    ( Translation) The Kingdom of Persia was like unto a man sick unto death; The partisans of Despotism were, in their mischief, the malignant humours. For the expulsion of these evil humours from the sick man The National Assembly became as an emetic of antimony. If these humours should again find their way into the constitution of the patient, They will roll up the scroll of the sick man's life! (61)

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    ( Translation) If you look at the deeds of Despotism and Constitutionalism The differences between Despotism and Constitutionalism are countless. In the days of Despotism they sought dogs for the chase: In the days of the Constitution they seek men for work! I much regret that the limits imposed on the size of this book do not permit me to add to the number of poems here cited. The mass of available material was so great that I have been obliged to limit the selection almost entirely to

    RECENTLY PUBLISHED POEMS

    contemporary political and topical poetry, and of this to admit only what had hitherto remained unpublished. or had been published only in an ephemeral form in the newspapers, and which. for some reason, appeared to me of some especial interest in form or matter. Amongst the contemporary poems separately published in the form of tracts or pamphlets I should like especially to mention a remarkable tasd!s (or" six-some") based on a qa,ffda of the celebrated classical poet Khaqani of Shfrwan Sh{rwan by my very accomplished friend I:Iusayn Danish, son of Mfrza MIrza Hashim of I~fahan, who, long resident at Constantinople in the service of the Turkish Government, is recognized as one of the leading contemporary writers both in Persian and Turkish. This poem. (Meda'z'nKhardbaentitled (in Turkish) "the Ruins of Ctesiphon" (Medd'z"1ZKhardbalart), is dedicated to another most learned, accomplished and lar£), single-minded friend of mine, Dr Ri~a Tevf{q, Tevfiq, Deputy for Adrianople in the last Turkish Parliament, who contributes a critical and historical preface. It was published at Constantinople in A.H. 1330 (A.D. 1912), when Persia's fortunes were at their darkest and her foes at their cruellest, as a small tract of 37 pp. at the modest price of three piastres (about 7~d.). I n the same Naw-rttz, year, on March 21, on the occasion of the Persian Naw-rztz, or New Year's Day, the same poet published (also at Con(iran z"chun), z'chun), stantinople) another fine poem "for Persia" (lrd1Z dedicated to the eminent Turkish man of letters Tevffq TevHq Fikret (Hadz'yya-z'-Sdl), and Bey, entitled "A New Year's Present" (Hadz"yya-Z"-Sdl), comprising 56 couplets. From both of these works I should like to have quoted here, both on account of the beauty and pathos of the verses, and on account of my regard for the author; but both poems should be read in their entirety to be judged fairly, and, moreover, can without difficulty be obtained from Constantinople. Mention has already been made in Part I of this book of a periodical publication, in magazine form, issued at irregular Dabfrz'yya, written intervals, beginning on April 20, 1908, entitled Dabfrz"yya, Dabz'ru'I-Mamdlz'k, and conby Mfrza Mirza Sayyid 'Abdu'r-Ral).man Dablru'l-Mamdl£k, taining an extensive selection of the verses (estimated by their author at 35,000) composed by him during the preceding thirty 20-2 20-2

    MODERN PERSIAN POEMS MODERN PERSIAN POEMS

    or forty years. Most of these poems refer to the leading Persian or forty years. Most of these poems refer to the leading Persian statesmen and courtiers of this period, and many of them are statesmen and courtiers of this period, and many of them are satires, which naturally had to remain in manuscript until the satires, which naturally had to remain in manuscript until the greater freedom of the Press inaugurated by the Constitutional greater freedom of the Press inaugurated by the Constitutional Regime permitted their publication. I am indebted to Mr H. L. Regime permitted their publication. I am indebted to Mr H. L. Rabino for a bound volume containing a good many numbers of Rabino for a bound volume containing a good many numbers of this magazine. The poems which it contains vary a good deal in this magazine. The poems which it contains vary a good deal in quality and merit, and, though some of them deal with events quality and merit, and, though some of them deal with events subsequent to the deposition of Mu1:)ammad 'AH and the subsequent to the deposition of Mul)ammad 'AH and the enthronement of his young son Sultan Al).mad, the reigning enthronement of his young son Sultan Al)mad, the reigning sovereign, they are on the whole of an old-fashioned type, and sovereign, they are on the whole of an old-fashioned type, and the satirical poems incline to that coarseness of language which the satirical poems incline to that coarseness of language which is characteristic of most of the older hajwiyydt and hazliyydt. is characteristic of most of the older hajwiyydt and hazliyydt.

    APPENDIX

    A Brief Chronology of the Persian Revolution. From December,

    1905

    to April,

    1912.

    CHRONOLOGY OF THE

    PERSIAN REVOLUTION

    For convenience of reference, and for the better understanding of the sequence of events illustrated by the preceding poems, a brief statement of the principal events and epochs of the Persian Revolution, or Constitutional Movement, is here appended. Details of these events down to the Nationalist victory of July, 1909, the capture of Tihnin, and the deposition of the ex-Shah Muo.ammad 'Ali, will be found in my Persian Revolution, 1905-1909 (Cambridge, 11)10). The connected history of the subsequent period, which I hope to embody in another volume, has not yet been written, and must be pieced together from Blue Books and press·cuttings, press-cuttings, supplemented by such oral and written evidence as is obtainable. The admirable Persian "History of the Awakening of the Persians" (Ta'rfkh-i-Biddri-yi-irdniydn) (Ta'rfkh-i-Biddn'-yt'-irdniydn) of the Nd~imu'l-Isldm of Kirman, of which up to the present time only the Introduction (pp. 272), first volume (pp. 255), and second volume (pp. 240) have been published, does not at present carry the story beyond July, 1906, and so stops short of the granting of the Constitution by Mu~affaru'd-Dfn Mu~affaru'd-Din Shah (August 5, 1906) and the opening of the First National Assembly (October 7, 1906). For all events before these dates it is by far the richest source available, and contains the texts of many important documents and masses of detail not to be found elsewhere. From the earliest historical times until 1906 the government of Persia was, both in theory and in practice, an absolute despotism, of which the general character is well described by Mr R. G. Watson at pp. 12-13 and 15-20 of his admirable History of Persia from the beginning 0/ tlte Ninetemth Cmtury to tlte Year 1858. Signs of a new ferment appeared in Persia, as in so many other countries, in the memorable year 1848, at the end of the reign of Muo.ammad Shih and the beginning of that of his successor, Na~iru'd-Dfn Na!?iru'd-Din Shah, when the Babi insurrection threatened for three or four years the stability of the Qajar Dynasty. This movement, though essentially religious, was not, as the Comte de Gobineau has well indicated, devoid of political significance, and above all showed the Persian character in a new, unexpected and heroic light. It was contemporary with and violently opposed by one of the greatest l\linisters Ministers whom Persia has produced in recent times, Mfrza Mirza Taqi Khan Amfr-i-Kabir, Amfr-i-Kablr, whose courage, integrity and far-sighted political vision have led the recent historians of the Constitution to claim him as the fore-runner of the Constitutional Movement, or at any rate as a very wise and sincere patriot. Spiritually this may be true, but historically he belongs entirely to the "Days of Autocracy" (Ayydm-i-Istibddd), that long period of some 2500 years through which the history of Persia can be clearly and certainly traced, and which by analogy should be called (for I have not

    CHRONOLOGY OF OF THE THE PERSIAN PERSIAN REVOLUTION REVOLUTION CHRONOLOGY

    33 II II

    actually met met with with the the expression) expression) "the "the Greater Greater Autocracy" Autocracy" (Istibddd(Istibdddactually (Istibddd-iin contradistinction contradistinction to to "the "the Lesser Lesser Autocracy" Autocracy" (Istibddd-ii-Kabtr), in i-Kabtr), which lasted lasted from from June June 23, 23, 1908 1908 to to July July 16, 16, 19°9. 1909, and and of of Saghtr) which $aghtr) which we we shall shall shortly shortly speak. speak. which The history history of of the the Constitutional Constitutional struggle struggle in in Persia Persia may may be be divided divided The into the the following following periods: periods: into I. The The Preparatory Preparatory Period, Period, or or Prodromata Prodromata of of the the Revolution. Revolution. I. II. The First Constitutional Period (August 5, 1906-June 23, 23, H. The First Constitutional Period (August 5, 1906-June 1908), or or Period Period of of the the First First Majlis or National National Assembly Assembly (October (October 7, 7, Majlis or 1908), 06 -June 0R ).). 1906 -June 23, 23, 19 19 0R 19 III. The" (Istibddd-i-Saghtr), during The" Lesser Lesser Autocracy" Autocracy" (Istibddd-i-$aghtr), during which which Ill. and the the ex-Shah, ex-Shah, Mubammad Mubammad 'Ali, 'Ali, the Constitution Constitution was was suspended suspended and the (June 23. 23. 1908-July 1908-July 16, 1909). re-established despotic despotic rule rule (June 16, 1909). re-established IV. The The Second Second Constitutional Constitutional Period Period (July (July 16, 16, 1909-December 1909-December 24, 24, IV. 1911), which was was brought brought to to an an end end by by the the Russian Russian Ultimatums Ultimatums of of I), which 191 November 12 12 and and November November 29, 29, the the expulsion expulsion of of Mr Mr 'v. Morgan November \V. Morgan Shuster, Treasurer-General, Treasurer-General, and and the the invasion invasion of of North North Persia Persia by by the the Shuster, Russians, with with the the concomitant concomitant atrocities atrocities committed committed by by them them and and their their Russians, at Tabdz, Tabdz, Rasht Rasht and and elsewhere elsewhere (December, (December, 1911 191 I and and myrmidons at myrmidons January, 1912 1912 onwards). onwards). January, V. The The present present anomalous anomalous period, period, which which can can be be described described neither neither V. nor Constitutional, Constitutional, the the Persian Persian Government Government being being terrorized terrorized as Autocratic Autocratic nor as and paralysed paralysed by by Russia, Russia, which which is is gradually gradually converting converting all all North North Persia Persia and in the the cant cant of of diplomacy diplomacy aa "Veiled "Veiled Protectorate" Protectorate" into what what is is called called in into (January I, 19I2 to to the the date date of of writing). writing). I, 1912 (January Some of of the the principal principal events events and and dates dates of of the the first first four four of of these these Some be but but aa death-agony death-agony or or mortal mortal lethargy) lethargy) periods (for (for the the last last appears appears to to be periods now be be given. given. will now will

    The Preparatory Preparatory Period. Period. 1. I. The The beginning beginning of of this this cannot cannot be be exactly exactly fixed, fixed, hut hut it it may may be be divided divided The of intellectual intellectual preparation preparation and and propaganda, propaganda, and and one one into two two parts, parts, one one of into of actual actual revolt revolt against against the the prevailing prevailing intolerable intolerable conditions. conditions. The The of intellectual preparation preparation was was chiefly chiefly the the work work of of two two men, men, Sayyid Sayyid JJ amaIu'damaIu'dintellectual Din aI-Afghan! aI-AfghanI (born (born 1838, 1838, died died 1897) 1897) and and Prince Prince Malkom Malkom Khan Khan Din l'''d~imu'd-Dawla (born 1833, died 1908), and their disciples. The l'''d~i11Zu'd-Dawla (born 1833, died 1908), and their disciples. The manifold political political activities activities of of the the former, former. which which are are fully fully discussed discussed manifold the first first chapter chapter of of my my Persian began, so so far far as as the the Near Near Persian Revolution, Revolution, began, in the in East is is concerned, concerned, ahout ahout 1870, 1870, when when he he visited visited Egypt Egypt and and ConstantiConstantiEast nople for for the the first first time. time. In In Persia Persia his his direct direct activity activity was was greatest greatest during during nople the years years 1886-189°, 1886-189°, when when he he was was expelled expelled ignominiously; ignominiously; but but his his the death in in 1897, 1897, and and was the chief chief factor factor indirect influence influence survived survived his his death was the indirect the revolt revolt against against the the Tobacco Tobacco Regie Regie (May, (May, 189o-January, 189o-January, 1892) 1892) and and in the in Na~iru'd-Dln Shah Ri~a of I, 1896) the assassination assassination of of Na~iru'd-Dln Shah (May (May I, 1896) by by Mirza Mirza Ri~a of the Kirman, one one of of the the Sayyid's Sayyid's disciples. disciples. Prince Prince Malkom Malkom Khan's Khan's monthly monthly Kirman, Qdnun (" (" Law"), the Qdnun Law"), which which all all students students of of the the subject subject agree agree in in paper, the paper, of the the most most potent potent literary literary factors factors in in bringing bringing about about regarding as as one one of regarding

    312

    CHRONOLOGY OF THE PERSIAN REVOLUTION

    the Constitutional Movement, first appeared on February 2(), 1890, 18go. and seems to have continued publication for about three years and a half, forty-one monthly numbers having been issued in all. The successful revolt against the Tobacco Concession in 1891 18g1 was a momentous epoch in the history of Persia, and may fairly be regarded as the starting-point of the Revolution, of which, however, the immediate prodromata began in December, 1905. Ig05. The chief of these events, with their dates, down to the granting of the Constitution on August 5, 1906, Ig06, are as follows:

    1905 Dec. 11 I, I, 1905. Ig05. Merchants and Sayyids bastinadoed by 'Ald'u'dDawla, with the approval of 'A)'nu'd-Dawla, on account of the rise in the price of sugar. Bazaars closed and assembly at Masjid-i-Shdh. Dec. 13, 1905. Ig05. Some two thousand mullds, students and merchants, headed by Sayyid Mub.ammad Tabataba'i and Sayyid 'Abdu'llah Bahbahani, leave Tihnin as a protest and take sanctuary at the Shrine of Shah 'Abdu'l-'A~fm. 'Abdu'l-'A~im. This is known as the Hijrat-i-$ttghrd Hijrat-i-$ughrd Or "Lesser Exodus" (d~ ~~). 1906 Jan. 12, 1906. Ig06. After prolonged negotiations with the Shah and his Court and Ministers, the fugitives (muhdjirbz) return to Tihran on receiving from the Shah an autograph rescript (dast-khatt), which was publicly read in the Mosque on the same day, promising the establishment of a "House of Justice" Justice" ('Addlat-khdna), the dismissal of the obnoxious Ministers 'Ayntt'd-Dawla 'Aynu'd-Dawla and 'Ald'u'd-Dawla, and other demands of the people as voiced by their spiritual leaders the mullds. On this day, according to the" History of the Awakening of the Persians," the cry of " Long live the Persian Nation!" Nation!" (Zinda bdd Millat-i-frdn I) was first heard. On the following day Tihran Tihnin was illuminated as a sign of joy. June 17, 1906. Majdu'l-Isldlll of Kirman Ig06. Mfrza Mirza I:Iasan Rushdiyya, Majdlt'l-Isldlll and Mfrza T~fahan were exiled to Kalat. Mirza Aqa of I~fahan June 221, I, 1906. Ig06. During a successful attempt made by the people to rescue one of their leaders, who had been arrested by the soldiers, some fifteen persons, including two Sayyids named I:Iusayn and 'Abdu'lMajid, were shot dead. The increasing discontent of the people, who saw themselves cheated of the promised reforms, was met by increasing severity on the part of the Government. July 6, 1906. Ig06. Sayyid Mub.ammad Tabataba'i preached to a vast crowd, denouncing the existing tyranny and misgovernment and urging the absolute necessity of a "House of Justice." ./uly, 19°6. The leading ecclesiastics, accompanied by a vast con1 g06. course of students, merchants and others, left Tihran Tihnin for the holy city of Qum, where they took sanctuary. This is what is known as the Hijrat-i-Kubrd, or "Greater Exodus" ":"'.J'~). About the Exodus"

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    CHRONOLOGY OF OF THE THE PERSIAN PERSIAN REVOLUTION REVOLUTION CHRONOLOGY

    [3 33 [3

    same time time aa number number of of merchants, merchants, bankers, bankers, tradesmen tradesmen and and others, others, with with same the permission permission of of the the British British Charge Charge d'Affaires, d'Affaires, Mr Mr Grant Grant Duff, Duff, took took the the grounds grounds of of the the British British Legation Legation at at Tihnin. Tihnin. The The numbers numbers refuge in in the refuge 13,000 or or 14,000 14,000 souls. souls. increased daily, daily, until until they they finally finally reached reached some some 13,000 increased Aug. Mu~affaru'd-Din 5, Ig06. Shah finally gave way, granted Aug. 5, Ig06. Mu~affaru'd-Din Shah finally gave way, granted aa Constitution and and Parliament, Parliament, dismissed dismissed the the 'Aynu'd-Dawla, and promised promised 'Aynu'd-Dawla, and Constitution to the the relatives relatives of of the the murdered murdered Sayyids. Sayyids. This This monetary compensation compensation to monetary event, celebrated celebrated aa few few days days later later with with great great rejoicings rejoicings as as "the "the National National event, marks the the beginning beginning ofthe of the Constitutional Constitutional Epoch. Epoch. Victory" (Fat!z-i-Millt), (Fat!z-i-Millt), marks Victory" the Mul).ammadan Mul).ammadan Calendar Calendar it it fell fell on on the the 14th 14th of of Jumada Jumada According to to the According A.H. 1324. ii, A.H. 1324. and and its its first first anniversary anniversary was was celebrated celebrated with with great great splendour splendour ii, and enthusiasm enthusiasm on on the the same same date date of of the the following following Mul).ammadan Mul).ammadan year, year, and under the the title title of of "the "the National National corresponding with with July July 25, 25, Ig07, corresponding Ig07, under Festival" (Jashn-i-Alillf). (Jashn-i-Alillf). Festival"

    II. n.

    The First First Constitutional COllstitlttiollal Period. Period. The (A£ashrt't(a-i-Awwal), Aug. Aug. 5, 5, Ig06-June Ig06-June 23, 23, Ig08. Ig08. (lJ£ashn't(a-i-Awwal), Aug. Ig, Ig06. Solemn official opening of the new House of of Aug. Ig, Ig06. Solemn official opening of the new House Parliament in presence of the high ecclesiastical authorities, who were Parliament in presence of the high ecclesiastical authorities, who were entertained as as the the Shah's Shah's guests guests for for three three days. days. entertained Sept. g, Ig06. Electoral Law promulgated. Sept. g, Ig06. Electoral Law promulgated. Sept. 18-27, 18-27, Ig06. Ig06. A A number number of of citizens citizens of of Tabrfz Tabriz took took refuge refuge Sept. at the the British British Consulate Consulate there there as as aa protest protest against against the the tyranny tyranny of of at ul).ammad 'Ali 'Ali Mitza, Mitza, the the Crown Crown Prince, Prince, afterwards afterwards Shah. Shah. 1\1 ul).ammad 1\1 Oct. 7, 7, Ig06. Ig06. The The first first Majlis, or National National Assembly Assembly was was opened opened Majlis, or Oct. under the the presidency presidency of of Sanf'u'd-Dawla. Sant'u'd-Dawla. under 23, Ig06. Ig06. Proposed Proposed joint joint Anglo-Russian Anglo-Russian Loan Loan of of £400,000 £400,000 Nov. 23, Nov. Majlis. rejected by by the the Majlis. rejected Nov. 25, 25, I906. I906. The newspaper Majlis first appeared. appeared. Nov. The newspaper Afajlis first Dec. 27, M'dd-yi- Watan Watall first 27, Ig06. The newspaper newspaper M'dd-yifirst appeared. appeared. Dec. Ig06. The Dec. 30, 30, Ig06. The Fundamental Fundamental Laws Laws were were ratified ratified by by Mu~affaru'd­ Mu~affaru'd­ Dec. Ig06. The Din Shah Shah and and promulgated, promulgated, and and the the form form of of the the Persian Persian Constitution Constitution Din was th th us us fixed fixed and and defined. defined. was 1907 1907 8, Ig07. Ig07. Death Death of of Mu~affaru'd-Din Shah. Jan. 8, Mu~affaru'd-Din Shah. Jan. Jail. Ig, Ig, Ig07. Coronation of of his his son son Mul:tammad Mul).ammad 'Ali, 'Ali, of of which which Jan. Ig07. Coronation the Majlis received no no official official notification, notification, and and to to which which none none of of its its Majlis received the Members were were invited. invited. Members 7, Ig07. Ig07. Arrival Arrival at at Tihran Tihran of of the the Tabriz Tabriz Deputies, Deputies, including including Feb. 7, Feb. Taqi -zeida, who who received received aa great great ovation. ovation. Sayyid Taqi-zeida, Sayyid g07. The The Shah Shah was was compelled compelled by by the the M to dismiss dismiss Feb. 10, ajlis to Feb. 10, 1 Ig07. Majlis 1\1. N N aus, aus, the the unpopular unpopular Belgian Belgian Chief Chief of of the the Customs Customs .. 1\1. 17, Ig07. The Mushfru'd-Dawla resigned the the Premiership. Premiership. Mushfru'd-Dawla resigned .L~Iarch 17, .L}Iarch Ig07. The Ig07. The or returned April Aminu's-Sultdn, Atdbak-i-A'$am, 26, April 26, Ig07. The Aminu's-Sultdn, or Atdbak-i-A'$am, returned

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    to Persia after three and a half years' exile to assume, at the invitation of the Shah, the position of Premier. founded.. April 29, 1907. The Tihran Qablu'l-Matln newspaper founded ltfa)', 1907. Plot contrived by RaOlm Khan and his son to raise a .Jfa)', disturbance in Tabdz and murder leading Constitutionalists. It was Shah.. believed to have been instigated by the Shah ltfa)' 26, 1907. This being the eve of the Shah's birthday, and .Jfa)' 'fihran decorated and prepared for illumination, the people pulled down the decorations and would not allow them to be replaced until the Shah handed over RaOlm Khan to the Ministry of Justice to stand his trial for conspiracy. May 30, 1907. The weekly newspaper $ur-t:Isrdfil Sur-t:Isrdfil first appeared. June, 1907. Rebellion of the Shah's brother Sdldru'd-Dawla at Hamadan. He was defeated on the historic field of Nihawand, and surrendered, on his safety being guaranteed, to the Shah's representative on June 22. July 25, 1907. Celebration of the" National Festival" (Jashll-iMillf) on the first anniversary (according to the Muoammadan Calendar) Mill!) of the granting of the Constitution. Aug. 31, 1907. The Anglo-Russian Agreement was signed. The 'Abbas Aqa, a moneyAmblu's-Sul{dn, or Atdbak-i-A'$am, was shot by 'Abhas changer of Tabdz, as he was leaving the National Assembly, and died half an hour later. The assassin committed suicide. Memorandum Sept. 4, 1907. Sir Cecil Spring Rice's celebrated l\lemorandum (Ydd-ddsht), designed to allay the anxieties of the Persians as to the scope and aim of the Anglo-Russian Agreement, was communicated to the Persian Foreign Minister, and was published ten days later in the Tihran Qablu'l-Matfn (No. II IS). Sept. 10, 1907. l(ztishdlllu's-Salfalla elected President of the Assembly. hfushfru'd-Da'U_'la. Sept. 13, 1907. Death of Na~ru'llah Khan hfush!ru'd-Da'll'la. Sa'du'd-DazlIla made Foreign Minister. Sa'dzt'd-Da'wla I, 1907. Oct. I, The Princes of the Blood and Nobles of the Court attended the National Assembly and swore an oath of allegiance to the Constitution. Oct. 2, 1907. Sa'du'd-Dawla resigned, and a new Cabinet was Nd-riru'l-Mulk (the present Regent). formed under the presidency of the Nd{iru'l-Mulk This Cabinet resigned on the 14th of December, 1907. , Oct. 6, 1907. The fortieth day (chz'lla) (chilla) after the death of 'Abbas mfnu's-Sultdn, was celebrated with great enthusiasm Aqa, who killed the A m!nu's-Sultdn, and circumstance by a large number of his admirers. RZI(zu'I-Qudus (" the Holy Spirit") 1907- The newspaper Rzt(zu'l-Qudus Nov. 6, 1907. published a violent and threatening article addressed to the Shah, and was suppressed by the National Assembly in consequence. Nov. 12, 1907. The Shah visited the National Assembly in state, and again swore fidelity to the Constitution.

    CHRONOLOGY OF OF THE THE PERSIAN PERSIAN REVOLUTION REVOLUTION CHRONOLOGY

    33 II 55

    Dec. IS. IS. 1907. 1907. Beginning Beginning of of the" the" Abortive Abortive Coup Coup d'Etat" d'Etat" (called (called Dec. by the the Persians Persians JVdqi'a-i-Mayddn-i-Tup-khdna, "the Event Event of of the the JVdqi'a-i-Mayddn-i-Tup-khdna, "the by Artillery Square," which place served as the rallying-point of the Shah's Artillery Square," which place served as the rallying-point of the Shah's hired ruffians). ruffians). Arrest Arrest and and threatened threatened destruction destruction by by the the Shah Shah of of the the hired Nd{iru'l-i}/[ulk, who who was was saved saved by by the the intervention intervention of of the the British British LegaLegaNd{iru'l-i}/[ulk, and left left Persia Persia next next day day for for Europe. Europe. Complete Complete triumph triumph of of the the tion, and tion, Assembly and and collapse collapse of of the the Shah Shah on on Dec. Dec. 22. A new new Cabinet Cabinet was was 22. Assembly A Zillu's-Sultdn was under Nizdmu's-Saltana. The Zillzt's-Sultdn was ordered ordered to to formed under Nizdmu's-Saltana. The formed leave Tihran.· Tihran.· leave .. .. .. 1908 1908 Feb. 1908. 1908. An An attempt attempt was was made made on on the the Shah's Shah's life life by by means means of of aa Feb. one of of his his attendants attendants and and wrecked wrecked an an automobile. automobile. bomb, which killed killed one b, which born The thrower thrower of of the the bomb bomb was was never never identified. identified. The April, 1908. I!ztishdmu's-Salfana resigned 1908. The The Il.ztishdmu's-Salfana resigned the the Presidency Presidency of of April, the National National Assembly, Assembly, and and was was succeeded succeeded by by .lIfittntdzu'd-Dawla. JJ/it1ntdzu'd-Dawla. the Several prominent prominent reactionaries reactionaries who who had had taken taken part part in in the the Abortive Abortive Several Coup d'Etat of the preceding December, or in the murder of the the Coup d'Etat of the preceding December, or in the murder of Zoroastrian Arbab Arbab Firidun, Firidun, were were exiled exiled to to KaIat, KaIat, or or bastinadoed, bastinadoed, or or Zoroastrian both. Amongst Amongst these these were were Sa1zZ'-i--f£a~rat (afterwards hanged hanged on on July July Sanz'-i--f£a~rat (afterwards both. Muqtadir-i-Ni~dm. and Muqtadir-i-Ni~dm. 29. 1909) 1909) and 29. May, 1908. Increasing tension tension between between the the Shah Shah and and the the National National May, 1908. Increasing Assembly. Assembly. 2, 1908. June 2, 1908. Intervention, Intervention, with with implied implied threats, threats, of of the the Russian Russian June M. de de Hartwig Hartwig and and the the British British Charge Charge d'Affaires d'Affaires Mr Mr Marling Marling Minister M. Minister of the the Shah. Shah. on behalf behalf of on June Flight of 3, 19°8. of the the Shah, Shah, escorted escorted by by Persian Persian Cossacks Cossacks June 3, 1908. Flight under the the command command of of the the Russian Russian Colonel Colonel Liakhoff, Liakhoff, from from Tihran Tihran to to under his adjacent garden, the Bdgh-i-Shdh. his adjacent garden, the Bdgh-i-Shdh. June 5, 5, 1908. 1908. At At the the invitation invitation of of the the Shah, Shah, aa deputation deputation of of notables notables June Bdgh-i-Shdll, but but were were treacherously treacherously arrested. arrested. waited on on him him at at the the Bdgh-i-Shdh, waited June 11, II, 1908. 1908. The The Shah Shah proclaimed proclaimed martial martial law and threatened threatened June law and JJ£asjid-i-:SiPahsdldr unless the .lI£asjid-z'-"Sipahsdldr unless the the people people there there assembled assembled to bombard bombard the to dispersed. dispersed. 12, 1908. 1908. The The Shah Shah demanded demanded the the expulsion expulsion of of eight eight June 12, June of the. the. Press, Press, and and disarmament disarmament of of the the National National popular leaders, leaders, control control of popular Volunteers. Volunteers. June 23, (Tltp-bandi-yi23, 1908. 1908. The The Bombardment Bombardment of of the the Majlis Majlis (Tztp-bandi-,yiJune Coup d'Etat or Reactionary Triumph JJ£ajlis), (.?arba-i--f£ukumat), .lI£ajlis), Coup d'Etat (.?arba-i--f£ukumat), or Reactionary Triumph (Waq'a-i-Irtijd'iyya), carried carried out out by by the the instrumentality instrumentality of of Colonel Colonel (Waq'a-i-Irtijd'iyya), and the the other other Russian Russian officers officers of of the the Persian Persian Cossack Cossack Brigade. Brigade. Liakhoff and Liakhoff of leaders leaders of of the the popular popular party party we~e arrested and and carried carried we~e arrested A number number of A Bdgh-i-Shdlz. I:Iijji I:Iijji Mirza Mirza Ibdhim Ibrahim Aqa, Aqa, Deputy Deputy for for Tabrfz, Tabrfz, captive to to Bdgh-i-Shdlz. captive was killed. killed. was 24, 1908. 1908. Mirza Mirza Jahangir Jahangir Khan Khan of of Shfriz, Shlraz, editor editor of of the the SttrJune SltrJune 24, i-Isrdfll, and Maliku'l-Mutakallimln, aa prominent and the the Maliku'l-Mutakallimln, prominent orator, orator, were were i-Isrdfll, the Bdgh-i-Shdh. Some of of the the Nationalists Nationalists whose whose lives lives Bdgh-i-Shdh. Some strangled in in the strangled the British British Legation. Legation. Many Many houses houses were in in danger danger took took refuge refuge in in the were

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    of persons obnoxious to the Shah, including those of his uncle the and his cousin Prince Jaldlu'd-Dawla, were destroyed and looted. Colonel Liakhoff was appointed military governor of Tihran.

    ~illu's-Sultdn,

    Ill. III.

    " The Lesser Tyranny" or "Autocracy" (Is/ibddd-i-Saghfr). During this period, which lasted from the Coup d'Etat of June 23, 1908, and the destruction of the First National Assembly until the Nationalist victory and deposition of Mu1:lammad 'AIl 'Alf on July 16, 1909, the Constitution was suspended and Reaction was dominant in Tihran. Tabrfz, Tabdz, however, rallied gallantly to the Constitutional Cause, under the leadership of Sattar Khan and Baqir Khan, expelled the Reactionaries, and sustained a siege of nine months, which was brought to an end on April 29, 1909, by the entrance of Russian troops under General Znarsky. Meanwhile its resistance had given time and encouragement to the N~tionalists, who were at first bewildered and discouraged by the Coup d'Etat, to rally, and two armies were gradually formed, one at Rasht under the nominal leadership of the Sijallddr, another consisting of the Bakhtiyarf Bakhtiyad tribesmen under the leadership of their chief Sarddri-As 'ad, and these two forces gradually converged until they effected a junction at Karach to the west of Tihran on July 8, 1909. After indecisive skirmishes at Shahabad and Badamak, a body of the Nationalists, eluding the vigilance of the Royalist troops and the Cossack Brigade, slipped through the lines of their opponents and entered Tihran on July J 3· Fighting continued in the capital for four days, until finally, on Friday, July 16, the ex-Shah took refuge in the Russian Legation, which act was considered as tantamount to abdication, and Colonel Liakhoff and the Cossack Brigade surrendered. The ex-Shah's son, Sultan A1:lmad, aged only twelve years, was proclaimed King, and the aged 'A~udu'l-Mulk Regent; the Constitution was re-established, and steps were taken as soon as possible to convene a new Majlis or National Assembly. The principal events of this period of thirteen months, with their dates, are as follows: August 4, 1908. J908. The defenders of Tabriz Tabdz are greatly encouraged by news of the successful Revolution in Turkey. August 20, 1908. 'Aynu'd-Dawla and the Sijahddr Sipahddr arrive before Tabriz to prosecute the siege. Sept. 16, 1908. The" Race-course Incident" at Tihran, where Indian suwdrs of the British Legation guard are attacked by Persian Cossacks. Colonel Liakhoff is compelled to apologize, and the incident is hushed up. Oct. I, 1908. Sir George Barc1ay Barclay arrives at Tihran as British :Minister. Oct. 5, 1908. Defeat of Royalists at Tabriz. Oct. 1I I, 1908. Four hundred Persian Cossacks under the command of the Russian Captain Ushakoff leave Tihran to take part in the siege of Tabriz. Oct. 12, 1908. Further Nationalist success at Tabriz. Tabdz.

    CHRONOLOGY OF THE PERSIAN REVOLUTION

    3J7

    Oct. 17, 1908. Russia threatens to intervene at Tabriz, but Sir Edward Grey informs her that such intervention intervention""will will create a very bad impression " in England, and she desists. Oct. 30, 19°8. Formation of the Persia Committee in London. Nov. 7, 1908. Fictitious demonstration against the revival of the Constitution at the Bdgh-i-Shdh. November (middle). M. de Hartwig, the Russian Minister, leaves Tihran for good. NmJ. NOLl. 19, 1908. The Shah Shih issues a proclamation declaring that he will not restore the old or grant any new Constitution. December (middle). Expulsion of M. Panoff, the Bulgarian revolutionary and correspondent of the Russian paper Ryech, from Tihran Tihrin by the Russian Legation. 1909

    Jan. 5, S, 1909· Sam.fdmu's-Saltana at the head of a .Bakhtiyari force takes possession of I~fahan, expels the Shah's Shih's representative, and declares for the Constitution. Jalluary (end). Arrival of Mr W. A. Moore as correspondent of the Manchester Guardian, Daily News and Daily Chronicle at Tabriz. Feb. 8, 1909. Rasht is seized by the Nationalists, the Shah's Shih's governor killed, and the Constitution proclaimed. Feb. 11, in to Tabriz, that from Julfa, J ulfa, is 1 I, 1909. 19°9. The last road open into occupied by the Royalists, and the blockade of the city completed. Feb. 22, 1909. Sattar Khan Khin vainly endeavours to re-open the Julfa Road. Marclz Marcll 7, 1909. Sattar Khan's "distinguished personal courage" praised by Mr Wratislaw, the British Consul at Tabriz. April 20, 1909. \Vith Sir Edward Grey's approval, it was decided to send Russian troops to raise the siege of starving Tabriz, open the roads, and bring in supplies. April 21, 2 I, 1909. A last attempt was made by the besieged to break out of Tabriz to obtain provisions. The sortie was led by Mr 'v. 'Y. A. Moore ar.d Mr Baskerville, a young American. The latter was killed. April 29, 1909. Arrival of the Russian force under General Znarsky at Tabriz. May S, 1909· The Constitutionalist army of Rasht occupied Qazwin. May 6, 1909. 19°9. Persian Cossacks commanded by the Russian Captain ZapQlski were sent out to guard the Karach bridge, and the Nationalists were advised by the Russian Legation, with threats, to desist from their advance. JJ£ay 17, 1909. The Sipahddr formulates the four demands of the Constitutionalists. May 22, Yusuf of I:Iukrnabad 22, 1909. I:Iukmibad (who was afterwards, in Jan. 1912, most cruelly put to death and his body cut in two and hung up in

    3318 18

    CHRONOLOGY CHRONOLOGY OF OF TIlE TIlE PERSIAN PERSIAN REVOLUTION REVOLUTION

    the the street street by by Slutjti'u'd-Dawla, Slutjd'u'd-Dawla, the the Russian Russian protege) protege) was was arrested arrested by by the the Russians and his his house house blown blown up up with with dynamite dynamite at at Tabriz. Tabriz. Russians and llfay llfay (latter (latter part). part). Sattar Sattar Khan, Khan, Baqir Baqir Khan, Khan, Taqi-zada, Taqi-zada, and and other other leading Tabriz leading Constitutionalists Constitutionalists take take refuge refuge in in the the Turkish Turkish Consulate Consulate at at Tabriz high-handed actions as as aa protest protest against against the the high-handed actions of of the the Russians. Russians. flme 17, 17, 1909· 1909· The The Bakhtiyaris Bakhtiyaris begin begin their their march march on on Tihran. Tihran. pme June JUlle 23, 23, 1909· 1909· The The advance advance guard guard of of the the Bakhtiyaris Bakhtiyaris reaches reaches Qum. Qum. Jlme Jlme 27, 27, 1909· 1909· Further Further attempt attempt on on the the part part of of the the British British Minister Minister and and the the Russian Russian Charge Charge d'Affaires d'Affaires to to check check the the Bakhtiyari Bakhtiyari advance. advance. June 30, 1909. Russian expeditionary force June 30, 1909. Russian expeditionary force assembled assembled at at Bakli. Baku. July formulated July 4. 4. 1909. 1909. Skirmish Skirmish at at Shahabad. Shahabad. Eight Eight demands demands formulated by by the the Sipaltddr. Sipaltddr. July 6,, 19°9. of two two days. days. Armistice of 4- 6 19°9. Armistice July 4Two or three thousand July 8, 1909. Russian troops troops disembarked disembarked July 8, 1909. Two or three thousand Russian at at AnzaH. AnzaH. July I, 19°9. 19°9. Russian Russian troops troops reach reach Qazwin. Qazwin. Skirmish Skirmish at at Badamak. Badamak. July II I, July 12, 1909. 1909. Fighting Fighting renewed renewed at at Badamak. Badamak. July 12, July 13, 1909. 19°9. Tihran Tihran entered entered by by part part of of the the Nationalist Nationalist forces, forces, July 13, headed by Bakhtiyaris. After four days' fighting (July headed by Bakhtiyaris. After four days' fighting (July 13-16) 13-16) during during which (no European European being being hurt) hurt) Mul:tammad Mul,1ammad 500 men men were were killed killed (no which some some 500 'AH the Russian Russian Legation Legation and and abdicated. abdicated. Colonel Colonel Liakhoff Liakhoff took refuge refuge in in the 'Ali took and and the the Cossack Cossack Brigade Brigade surrendered. surrendered. This This event event is is known known as as Fat!z-iFat!z-iJ1fi!1{ ~j) with J1fi!/{ (" (" the the National National Victory," Victory," uL ~j) with which which the the Third Third Period, Period, called "the Lesser Lesser Tyranny" Tyranny" (Istibddd-i-.Saghir) concludes. (Istibddd-i-.)aghir) concludes. called "the

    The The Secolld Secolld Constitutional Constitutional Period Period (Mashntfa-i-Thdnl), (Mashntfa-i-Thdnl), beginning beginning with the the accession accession of of Sul~an Ab.mad Shah, Shah, and and ending ending with with the the Sul~an Ab-mad with dissolution of the Second National Assembly and the Russian dissolution of the Second National Assembly and the Russian aggressions of Dec. Dec. 1911 1911 and and Jan. Jan. 19121. 19121. aggressions of July Sul~an July 18, quondam Crown (Walf-'ahd), Sul~an 18, 1909. 1909. The The quondam Crown Prince Prince (Walf-'ahd), Ab-mad, Al,1mad, was was proclaimed proclaimed Shah, Shah, entered entered Tihran, Tihran, where where he he was was enthusienthusiastically on July July 20, 20, held held his his first first reception reception (darbdr) on July July 22 I, I, (darbdr) on astically received, received, on and was formally recognized by Russia and England on the same and was formally recognized by Russia and England on the same or or the the following following day. day. July 26, 1909. 1909. The The ex-Shah ex-Shah was was offered offered aa pension pension of of £5000 £5000 aa July 26, year year on on condition condition of of his his leaving leaving Persia Persia at at once. once. Russia Russia threatens threatens aa punitive the Shahseven Shahseven tribesmen, tribesmen, and and increases increases punitive expedition expedition against against the the the number number of of her her troops troops at at Qazwin Qazwin to to 2300 2300 men. men. A A special special CourtCourtmartial was instituted instituted to to try try political political offenders offenders at at (Di1IJdn-i-IjIdrb) was martial (Di:wdn-i-IjIdrb) Tihran. Tihnin. IV. IV.

    1 As my Persian Nevolutio1Z of 1905-[909, though recording the opening of the 1 As my Persian Nevolutio1Z of 1905-[909, though recording the opening of the Second Second National National Assembly Assembly on on Nov. Nov. 15, gives aa continued continued narrative narrative of of events events 15, 1909, 1909, gives only only to to the the Conquest Conquest of of Tihnin Tihnin in in July, July, 1909, have made made the the chronology chronology of of this this 1909, II have period very much fuller than the previous ones, though it is covered hy Mr Morgan period very much fuller than the previous ones, though it is covered hy Mr Morgan Shuster's admirable work the St1'allg1illgq( Persia (published in 1912). Mr Shuster's Shuster's admirable work the St1'allg1illgq( Persia (published in 1912). Mr Shuster's narrative, narrative, however, however, only only becomes becomes full full and and continuous continuous from from the the date elate of of his his arrival arrival in in Persia Persia (May (May 11, II, 1911). 1911).

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    319

    July 29, 1909. Execution of Mufdkhiru'l-Mulk (former Head of the Police at Tihrin) and Sani'-i-.lfa~rat. $ani'-i-.lfa~rat. July 30, 1909· Colonel Liakhoff recalled to Russia. He left Tihrin on August 4. July 3 1, 19:>9. Execution of the Ajuddn-bashf, Ajuddn-bdshf, who commanded the artillery to fire on the Majlis on June 23, 1908; and of Shaykh Fa?lu'llah, on the charge of complicity in the murder of Mirza Mu~tafa, son of Mfrza Ashtiyanf, and one of the students of the German Mirza I:Iasan Ashtiyani, College. Aug. 4, 1909· Ex-Shah's pension fixed at ,.(,15,000 £15,000 a year. Aug. 5, 1909. The ~illu's-Sltltdn, ~illu's-Sltltdll, uncle of the ex-Shah, reached Anzalf Anzali from Vienna, where he was detained, and not allowed to leave again for Europe until he paid a forfeit of £60,000, which he only consented to do on August 23. Aug. 8, 1909. Ral)fm Rablm Khan plunders an Armenian village In N. \V. Persia and massacres the inhabitants. Taqf-zada arrives at Tihrin from Tabriz. The Reactionary Mir Hashim is captured. Aug. 9, 1909· Mir Hashim and his brother are hanged. Aug. 13, 1909. Trial of the editor of the Tihran .lfablu'l-Matbt, Sayyid I:Iasan of Kashan (see p. 74 supra), for publishing an article alleged to be derogatory of Islam. He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Aug. 17, 1909· The extraordinary National Council (J/fajlis-i-'A'li) (iJifajlis-i-'A'li) consisting of some 300 or 400. members, which was formed on the capture of 'fihrin, is supplemented by a Directory (HaY'at-i-NIudira) (HaY'at-i-.kIudira) of twenty persons, including both the Sipahddr and the Sarddr-i-As'ad. The elections" in the first degree" degree " for the new National Assembly were concluded at Tihrin. A box containing 60,000 gold tt/mdns was discovered at the Ministry of Finance. The debts of the ex-Shah to the Russian Bank and other creditors were estimated at £4°0,000. Aug. 18, 1909. Rebellions in N. \V. Persia, headed by Ral)im N.\V. Rabim Khan and the Shahseven tribesmen, who threaten Ardabil, Iqbdlu's-Sa1talla Iqbdlu's-Sa1tana at Maku, and Mulla Qurban 'All 'Ali at Zanjan. Aug. 19, 1909. Proposed tax on alcohol, opium and salt (known as Dd'ira-i-thaldtha) to yield £300,000 a year. Fifteen deputies elected Sa1zf'u'd-Dawla, for Tihran, including I:Iusayn-quli Khan Nawwdb, $aJzf'u'd-Dawla, 'Abdu'I-I:Iusayn Khan of Kashan entitled Waf.zldu'l-Mulk, Wal.zldu'l-Mulk, and Taqizada. Aug. 22, 1909. Messrs Alan Wright and James, of the Imperial Bank of Persia, kidnapped by brigands near Kirman, Kinnan, but released on Aug. 26. Aug. 29, 1909. The notorious brigand Ral)im Rabim Khan was captured by the Russians, but released again by them on Sept. 18, q.v. q. v. Aug. 31, 1909. General amnesty proclaimed by Persian Government. The ex-Shah appeals to the Tsar for support. The Russian

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    CHRONOLOGY OF THE PERSIAN REVOLUTION CHRONOLOGY OF THE PERSIAN REVOLUTION

    Legation opposes the dismissal of M. Smirnoff, the young Shah's tutor. Legation opposes the and dismissal of M. Kurds Russians at Smirnoff, Urmiya. the young Shih's tutor. Fight between Fight between Kurds and Russians at Urmiya. Sept. I, 1909. Alllfr Bahddur /ang, Sa'du'd-Dawla and Mushtru'sSept. are Alllfrexcluded Bahddurfrom Jang,the Sa'du'd-Da'lllla and Mushtru'sI, 1909. exiled and amnesty. Growing distrust Sal/ana are exiled National and excluded from placed the amnesty. Growing of distrust Sal/ana of the Sipallddr. volunteers under command Taqiof the cousin Sipallddr. National volunteers placed under command Taqizada's 'All Mul).ammad Khan (afterwards assassinated on of Aug. 2, zida's cousin 'Ali Mul).ammad Khin (afterwards assassinated on Aug. 2, 1910, q.'lJ.). 1910, q.'ll.).

    Sept. 7, 1909' Signature by Persian, Russian and British repreSignature by Persian, Russianplace andofBritish repreSept. 7,of 1909, the Protocol regulating the ex-Shah's banishment, sentatives sentatives of theand Protocol the ex-Shih's of banishment, future conduct pensionregulating (finally fixed at 100,000place tltllldlls or £ 16,666 and pension (finally 100,000 tttllldllS or £ 16,666 afuture year).conduct French expert called in tofixed valueatCrown Jewels. a year). French expert called in to value Crown Jewels. Sept. 9, 1909· Departure of ex-Shah Mul).ammad 'Ali from Tihran. Sept. 9, 19°9. Departure of ex-Shah Mul).ammad 'Ali from Tihran. Sept. 13, 1909. The young Shah holds a darbdr to celebrate his 13, 1909. The TheDirectory young Shih holds a darbdris toincreased celebratefrom his Sept.birthday. (Hay'at-i-Mudtra) twelfth twelfth 20 to 40birthday. members. The Directory (Hay'at-i-Mudtra) is increased from 20 to 40 members. Sept. IS, 1909. Russo-Persian" incident" at Pila-suwar (BelyaSept. 15, 1909. Russo-Persian" incident" at Pila-suwar (Belyasuvarski). suvarski). Sept. 18, 1909. Ral).im Khan released by the Russians on payment Ral).im Khan released by the Russians on payment Sept. 18, of £T.20 0001909. and 180 camels. of £T.20 000 and 180 camels. Sept. 23, 1909· Motor-car service established between Julfa on the Sept.and 23, Tabriz. 1909· Motor-car service established between Julfi on the Araxes Araxes Sept.and 24, Tabriz. 1909. Arrival of the new Russian Minister, M. PoklevskiSept. at24,Tihran. 1909. Arrival of the new Russian Minister, M. PoklevskiKoziell, at Tihran. Koziell, Sept. 26, 1909. The ~illu's-Sul/dll is allowed to return to Europe 26, 1909. The ~illu's-Sul/d1l is allowed to return to Europe on Sept. payment of 100,000 tUmdlls (£16,666) and the promise to pay on payment of within 100,000 (£16,666) and the formerly promise Persian to pay doubk this sum fourtumdlls months. 'Ald'u's-Sal/alla, doubk within 'Ald'u's-Sal/alla, formerly Persian Ministerthis in sum London, is four mademonths. Foreign Minister. Minister in London, is made Foreign Minister. Sept. 28, 1909. The ex-Shah reaches Rasht. The Sipahddr IS Sept. 28, 1909. The ex-Shih reaches Rasht. The Sipahddr IS made Premier. made Oct.Premier. 5, 19°9. The ex-Shah reaches Odessa, his place of exile. 19°9. The ex-Shih reaches Odessa, his place of exile. Oct. Oct. 5, 16, 19°9. One battery and two companies of Russian troops Oct. 16,from 19°9.Tabrfz. One battery and two of Russian troops withdrawn Three days latercompanies General Znarsky, who was in withdrawn of from Three later Russian General troops Znarsky, who was to in command thisTabriz. force, and one days thousand were stated command this force,from andTabrfz. one thousand Russian troops were stated to have been of withdrawn haveOct. been from Tabriz. 191withdrawn 1909. Ardabil threatened by Ral).im Khan. 19, 1909. Ardabil threatened by Ral).im Khan. Oct. Oct. 26, 1909. The Persian Government proposes to send an The Cossacks, Persian Government proposes an Oct. 26,of 1909. expedition 100 Persian 3°0 infantry and 2 gunstoto send Ardabil. expedition of 100 Persian Cossacks, 30::> infantry and 2 guns to Ardabil. Oct. 28, 1909. The Nd~iru'l-Mulk (actually the Regent) returns 28, 1909. The Nd~iru'l-Mulk (actually the Regent) returns fromOct. Europe to Tihnin. fromNov. Europe to Tihnin. I, 1909. Announcement that the Russian force at Qazwin will Nov. I, to 1909. Announcement the Russian at Qazwin will be reduced 50 men, and that 45that ° more will be force distributed between be reduced to 50 men, and that 450 more will be distributed between Rasht and AnzaH. Rasht and2, Anzali. Nov. 1909. Reported fall of ArdabH. Fresh troops sent from Nov. 2, 1909. Reported fall of Ardabfl. Fresh troops sent from Russia. Russia.

    CHRONOLOGY CHRONOLOGY OF OF THE THE PERSIAN PERSIAN REVOLUTION REVOLUTION

    32 32 II

    Nov. 5, iVOV. 5, 19°9. 19°9. A A second second detachment detachment of of Russian Russian troops troops sent sent to to Ardabil. Ardabil. Nov. 7, 19°9. 19°9. \Vithdrawal \Vithdrawal of of Russian Russian force force from from Qazwin Qazwin postponed. postponed. Nov. 7, The Times praises The Times praises the the Persian Persian relief-force relief-force destined destined for for ArdabH, ArdabH, on on which which some £25,000 had had been been expended, expended, and and regrets regrets that that Russia Russia will will not not give give some £25,000 them them the the chance chance of of restoring restoring order order there there by by themselves. themselves. Nov. 9, 19°9. 19°9. Ral).im Ral).im Khan Khan threatens threatens to to march march on on Tihran, Tihran, destroy destroy Nov. 9, the the Constitution, Constitution, and and restore restore the the ex-Shah. ex-Shah. Nov. IS, 1909. 1909. Opening Opening of of the the Second Second National National Assembly Assembly under under Nov. 15, the Mumtdzu'd-Dawla the presidency presidency of of the the Mustashdru'd-Daulla, Mustashdru'd-Dawla, with with the the lIfumtdzu'd-Dawla and Na~ru'llah as and Sayyid Sayyid Na~ru'llah as Vice-presidents. Vice-presidents. Nov. 16, 1909. Ra1)fm Nov. 16, 1909. Ral)im Khan Khan retires retires from from Ardabfl. Ardabil. Two Two thousand thousand more more Russian Russian troops troops embark embark at at Baku Baku for for Persia. Persia. Nov. Nov. 23, 23, 19°9. 19°9. The The Persian Persian Government Government protests protests against against the the highhighhanded handed action action of of the the Russians Russians at at Ardabil. Ardabil. NOlI. 24, 1909. 1909. 'A?udu'l-Muln 'A?udu'l-Muln confirmed confirmed in in Regency. Regency. M. M. Passek, Passek, Nozl. 24, Russian The Russian Consul Consul at at Bushire, Bushire, attacked attacked by by brigands brigands near near Shfraz. Shiraz. The Persian Persian Government Government apologizes apologizes for for this this occurrence occurrence on on Dec. Dec. I. I. Nov. Nov. 26, 26, 1909. 1909. Rashfdll'I-Mulk Rash/du'l-Mulk made made Governor Governor of of ArdabH. Ardabil. Dec. Dec. 7, 7, 1909. 1909. The The Persian Persian Government Government agrees agrees in in principle principle to to aa loan and foreign foreign (i.e. (i.e. Angle-Russian) Anglo-Russian) loan and to to the the empfoyment empfoyment of of foreign foreign advisers, to Russian but objects objects to Russian officers officers in in the the Gendarmerie. Gendarmerie. advisers, but Dec. Dec. 13, 13, 19°9. 19°9. The The Persian Persian Government Government applies applies to to England England and and Russia for a loan of '£5°0,000. (See Feb. 16, 1910, infra.) Russia for a loan of '£5°0,000. (See Feb. 16, 1910, infra.) Dec. 31, 1909. 1909. The The Persian Persian expedition expedition under under Yeprem Yep rem Khan Khan the the Dec. 31, Armenian Armenian obtains obtains aa victory victory over over Ra1)irn Ra1)irn Khan. Khan.

    1910 1910 Three more detachments Three more detachments of of Russian Russian troops troops sent sent to to

    Jan. Jan. 20, 20, 1910. 1910. Ahar. Ahar. Jan. 24, 1910. 1910. Ra1)im Ral).im Khan, Khan, hard hard pressed pressed by by the the Persian Persian GovernGovernJan. 24, ment ment troops, troops, has has no no way way of of escape escape save save into into Russian Russian territory. territory. On On Feb. 4 he Feb. 4 he crosses crosses the the Russian Russian frontier frontier unhindered, unhindered, and and on on Feb. Feb. 6 6 reaches reaches Elizavetpol. Elizavetpol. The The Persian Persian Government Government demands demands his his extradition extradition in in conformity conformity with with the the Treaty Treaty of of Turkmanchay, Turkmanchay, but but its its request request is is ignored ignored by by Russia. Russia. Jan. Jan. 27, Muwaqqaru's-Sal{ana is 27, 1910. 1910. Muwaqqaru's-Sal{ana is hanged. hanged. Feb. 4, 1910. 'Ald'u's-Sal{ana resigns Feb. 4, 1910. 'Ald'u's-Sal{ana resigns the the position position of of Foreign Foreign Minister. Minister. Feb. The 19 II 0. The people people of of Varamfn, Varamfn, incited incited by by Shaykh Shaykh Mal).mud, Mal)mud, Feb. II I, I, 19 0. aa Russian Russian protege, hoist Russian Russian flags flags over over their their houses. houses . protege, hoist peb. 16, .reb. 16, 1910. 1910. The The Russian Russian and and British British Ministers Ministers formally formally comcommunicate municate to to Thiqatu'l-Mulk, the Acting Acting Minister Minister for for Foreign Foreign Affairs, Affairs, the the Thiqatu'l-Muln, the conditions conditions demanded demanded by by them them for for aa loan loan of of £4°0,000. £4°0,000. These These include include "privileged "privileged rights" rights" in in their their respective respective "Spheres "Spheres of of Influence" Influence" to to B. 21 B. 21

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    CHRONOLOGY PERSIAN REVOLUTION CHRONOLOGY OF OF THE THE PERSIAN REVOLUTIOK

    appoint railways. (See appoint military military instructors instructors and and build build railways. (See Dec. Dec. 13, 13, 1909, Ig09, supra.) supra.) Feb. Persian Persian merchants merchants beg beg their their Government Government not not to to Feb. 20, 20, 1910. 1910. accept on the the conditions conditions indicated indicated above. above. accept the the proposed proposed loan loan on Ftb. Russo-Persian Ftb. 28, 28, 1910. 1910. Russo-Persian dispute dispute at at Langanld Langanld as as to to the the fishery fishery concession concession (~h{ldt) in the the Caspian Caspian provinces provinces granted granted to to the the Russian Russian (~hfldt) in Lianosoff Lianosoff (or (or Lianazoff) Lianazoff) in in $afar, $afar, A.H. A.H. 1324 1324 (= April, 1906), 1906), for for aa period period (= April, of of twenty twenty years. years. Persia Persia has has to to give give way way on on March March 5. 5. March The March 1, Sipahddr and Sarddr-i-As'ad tender 1, 1910. 1910. The Sipahddr and Sarddr-i-As'ad tender their their resignation on of the the continued continued presence presence of of Russian Russian troops troops on on resignation on account account of Persian Persian soil. soil. (See (See under under April April 20, 20, 1910, 1910, infra.) infra.) A March March 16, 16, 1910. 1910. A French French expert, expert, M. M. Falconburg, Falcon burg, arrives arrives in in Tihran to value the Crown Jewels, at a fee of £1000 for 8 days' Tihran to value the Crown Jewels, at a fee of £1000 for 8 days' work, work, but but this this period period proving proving insufficient insufficient it it was was afterwards afterwards extended. extended. Rumours Rumours of of aa French French loan loan to to Persia. Persia. The The Persian Persian New New Year's Year's Day Day (NawrUz) (NawrUz) was was not not observed, observed, as as aa sign sign of of mourning mourning for for the the continued continued presence presence of of foreign Persian soil. soil. foreign troops troops on on Persian March 17, 19 I o. M. March 17, 1910. M. Bizot, Bizot, the the French French financial financial adviser, adviser, left left Tihran Tihran on on three th ree months' months' leave leave of of absence. absence. March March 20, 20, 1910. 1910. Mu'dwimid-Dawla Mu'dwimid-Dawla is is appointed appointed Foreign Foreign Minister. Minister. Sattar Khan and and Baqir Baqir Khan Khan leave leave Tabriz Tabrfz under under Russian Russian pressure pressure and and Sattar Khan come come to to Tihran. Tihran. March Some March 27, Some 400 fresh Russian Russian soldiers soldiers sent sent to to Tabriz. Tabriz. 27, 1910. 19TO. 400 fresh March Herr R. 30, 1910. 1910. March 30, Deutsche Herr R. Said-Ruete, Said-Ruete, representing representing the the Deutsche Bank, He left in Tihran. Tihran. He left for for Berlin Berlin on on May May q. q. Bank, in April ~~xpiry 1910. ~~xpiry of April 8, 8, 1910. of Persia's Persia's undertaking undertaking to to Russia Russia (in (in the the Convention Convention of of 1900) 1900) not not to to build build railways. railways. April Persia 1910. h), 1910. Persia rejects rejects the the proposed proposed Anglo-Russian Anglo-Russian loan loan on on April h), The account of the dangerous political conditions attached to it. account of the dangerous political conditions attached to it. The total total value value of of the the Persian be £750,000, but this this £750,000, but Persian Crown Crown Jewels Jewels was was stated stated to to be was of M. M. Falconburg Falconburg was, was, II was mere mere rumour, rum our, for for the the actual actual estimate estimate of believe, of Persia, Persia, one one of of whom, whom, believe, only only known known to to two two representatives representatives of Petros Petros Andreassian, Andreassian, the the Armenian, Armenian, was was subsequently subsequently hanged hanged by by the the The Russians Russians at at Tabriz Tabriz in in Jan. Jan. 1912. 1912. The other, other, from from whom whom II learned learned these these particulars, particulars, was was one one of of my my oldest oldest Persian Persian friends, friends, who who held held many many high and whose whose word word II trust trust implicitly. implicitly. high positions positions in in the the Government, Government, and April Mr 17, 1910. Mr Bill, Bill, aa member member of of the the Indian Indian Civil Civil Service, Service, April 17, 1910. who who had had been been acting acting as as British British Consul Consul at at Shiraz, Shiraz, and and who who vehemently vehemently advocated Southern provinces, provinces, was advocated British British occupation occupation of of the the Southern was attacked attacked at at Yazdikhwast Yazdikhwast Three Three days days later later he he reached reached I~fahan safely. It It subsubI~fahan safely. sequently sequently transpired transpired that that Mr Mr Bill Bill had had taken taken the the initiative initiative in in the the conflict. conflict. April The The Sipahdar and Sarddr-i-As'ad consent to to April 20, Sipahdar and Sarddr-i-As'ad consent 20, 1910. 1910. resume supra) provided $anf'u'dresume office office (see (see under under March March I, I, 19 19 10, 10, supra) provided the the $anf'u'dflawla, "who Dawla, "who is is not not aa persona with the the Legislations," Legislations," is is excluded. excluded. persona grata grata with The The Cabinet Cabinet crisis crisis ends ends on on May May I. I. May Death May 6, Death of of King King Edward Edward the the Seventh. Seventh. Reported Reported 6, 1910. 1910.

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    323

    confederation of tribes in South Persia to maintain Persian independence. May 25, 1910. Rumours of a projected German loan to Persia. May 27, 1910. Violent scene in the National Assembly on account of the suppression of the daily paper Sharq. May 29, 1910. Zanjan attacked by Darab Mirza, a Persian prince who had become naturalized as a Russian subject and held a commission in the Labinsky Cossack regiment at this time occupying Qazwin. He obtained leave of absence to go to Russia, but instead rallied round him disaffected persons, obtained for them "letters of protection" (Ia'mfn-ndma) signed by the Russian Colonel Rakuza, and with their (ta'mfn-ndma) aid endeavoured to overthrow the Constitutional Government at Zanjan. The Persian Government send a small force against him commanded 'Ali Khan; the Russians also sent a force of Cossacks, which, while by 'All returning to Qazwin with Daclb Darab Mfrza, Mirza, fell in and fought with the 'All Khan. The incident was a typical Persian force and killed its leader 'Alf and disgraceful example of Russian intrigue, but both in the Blue Book for this period and in the debate in the House of Commons on July I, 1910, its real nature (clearly exposed in original documents in my possession) was concealed. Internal loan of £5,000,000 authorized by Persian Government. Persian women sell their jewels to provide money for the State. June 4, 19 10• Kashan captured by the outlaw Na'ib I:Iusayn. JUlie June 7, 19 10 . Persian Government demands full statement o( its debts to Russia. June 12, 1910. Sir Charles (now Lord) Hardinge appointed Viceroy of India, and Sir Arthur Nicholson, British Ambassador at St Petersburg, appointed to succeed him as Permanent Under-Secretary at the British Foreign Office. Both appointments warmly approved by Russia, whose approval is reported by the Times. June 13, 1910. Announcement that no loan will be made by Germany to Persia. Russia objects to the exemption from taxation of silver destined for the Persian Mint. Tabriz, June (middle), 1910. Aggressive actions of the Russians at Tabdz, including arrest of Persian police, invasion of Thiqalu' l-bldm' I-Isldm' s house in search of Russian deserter, and demand for dismissal of Mukhbiru'sSalldna the Governor.-Arrival at Tihcln Tihrin of Mr \V. A. Moore in conSaltdna nection with the projected Seligman~ loan to Persia. Yep rem Khan and July I, 1910. Triumphal entry into Tihran of Yeprem his troops after suppressing the marauding tribesmen who threatened Ardabil. July 3, 19 10. Heated debate in the Majlis between Taqi-zada and his party (the Democrats) and the Ecclesiastical party. Taqi-zada is Tihrin on "given permission to retire" for three months. He left Tihran July 30 . Zakd'u'l-Mulk becomes President of the Majlis. .fuly 4, 1910. Zakd'u'/-Mulk 21-2

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    July IS, 19 10. Russian bombardment of a Persian village on the July IS, 19 10. Russian bombardment of a Persian village on the Caspian shore near Gyumush-tepe.-Assassination at Tihran of Sayyid Caspian shore near Gyumush-tepe.-Assassination at Tihran of Sayyid 'Abdu'lhih Bahbahani. 'Abdu'lhih Bahbahani. July 16, 1910. Attempted boycott of Russian goods by Persians. July 16, 1910. Attempted boycott of Russian goods by Persians. July 26, 1910. New Cabinet formed, comprising Mustawfi'/July 26, 1910. New Cabinet formed, comprising Mustawji'/Mamdlik (Premier), Farllldn.jarmd (Interior), I:Iusayn-quH Khan Mamdlik (Premier), Farllldn.jarmd (Interior), I:Iusayn-quH Khan 1vawwdb i\lawwdb (Foreign Qiwdmu's-Sa1tana (War), Dabfru'/-Mulk (Foreign Affairs), Affairs), Qiwdmu's-Sa1tana (War), Dab!ru'/-Mulk (Justice), Asadu'llah Mirza (Post Office and Telegraphs), and Ifak{mu'/(Justice), Asadu'llah Mirza (Post Office and Telegraphs), and Ifak{mu'/Mulk (Finance). Mulk (Finance). Aug. 2, 1910. Assassination by Nawruzoff, Kadm and Mahdi-quH Aug. 2, 1910. Assassination by Nawruzoff, Kadm and Mahdi-quli of 'AH Mu1;ammad Khan, a close friend of Taqi-zada's, and Sayyid of 'Ali Mu1;ammad Khan, a close friend of Taqi-zada's, and Sayyid 'Abdu'r-Razzaq Khan, in retaliation, as it was alleged, for Sayyid 'Abdu'r-Razzaq Khan, in retaliation, as it was alleged, for Sayyid 'Abdu'llah Bahbahani's murder on July IS. (See Aug. 17, infra.) 'Abdu'llah Bahbahani's murder on July IS. (See Aug. 17, infra.) Aug. 3, 1910. State of siege proclaimed in Tihnin for three months. Aug. 3, 1910. State of siege proclaimed in Tihran for three months. Aug. 4, 1910. National Volunteers \.J

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