The possible contribution of general science to formal health instruction in the secondary schools (the study of opportunities in general science as a contribution to health instruction?)

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The possible contribution of general science to formal health instruction in the secondary schools (the study of opportunities in general science as a contribution to health instruction?)

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H B A X ffB IN S T R U C T ! OH

BY w m m m m Augustus mexbr

Submitted, in p a r t i a l fu lf illm e n t of the requirem ents f o r the degree of Doctor of H ealth and Safety in the School of H ealth, Physical Education, and Recreation Indiana U n iv ersity June, 1950

ProQuest Number: 10295229

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t u p on th e quality o f th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th at th e author did n ot se n d a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th ere are missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e rem o v ed , a n o te will in d icate th e d eletio n .

uest ProQ uest 10295229 Published by ProQuest LLC (2016). Copyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o tec te d again st unauthorized co p y in g under Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

Accepted fcy the fa c u lty o f the School of Health* P hysical Education and Hocre at Ion of Indiana U n iversity as f u l f i l l i n g the t h e s is requirements «

fo r the degree of Doctor of Health and Safety*

Director/OfT*; Doctorate Committee*

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The w r ite r welcomes t h i s o p p o rtu n ity to ex p ress h i s g r a titu d e to e l l th o se who have giv en tim e, h e lp , and th o u g h t to t h i s stu d y . Be i s in d e b te d to Dean W illard i* F a tty f o r d ir e c tin g th e study and g iv in g generously of h i s tim e and e x p e rie n c e , a ls o f o r h i s u n d ersta n d in g a id and encouragement * to X)r, K arl W* B o o to a lto r i n whose c la s s the stu d y f i r s t took form* to th e d i s s e r t a t i o n Committee who gave much v a lu a b le a id and h e lp f u l c ritic is m * Dr, M arjorie f * P h ilip s , Dr, Markham €# W akefield, Dr, A rth u r T* Slater-Haamael, and Dr, h a le ig h w* M olmstedt, Me would Ilk® to ex p ress h is g ra titu d e to th e con­ s u l t a n t s who gave f r e e l y o f t h e i r tim e and energy* Dr* Howard S* Hoyman, A ssociate P ro fe sso r, U n iv e rsity o f Oregon! P ro fe s s o r T. Leonard K elly , Department of S cien ce, S ta te T e a ch ers1 C o lleg e, B ridgew ater, M assachusetts!

Miss

Jean V. L atim er, Bureau of H ealth I n s tr u c tio n , Massachu­ s e t t s Department o f H ealth; Miss Grace D* Keenan, D ire c­ t o r of H ealth E ducation, c i t y o f Brockton, M assachusetts; and P ro fe sso r B u sse ll Melhhold, P ro fe s so r o f S cience, Kho&e Is la n d C ollege of E ducation. lie would lik e to thank Dr, b arren H, Southwortb f o r h i s v alu ab le comments, guidance and advice on the p h ilo s 111

ophy o f h e a lth education# l o s t of a l l h© I s Ind eb ted to- h i s w ife , LouJ.se Joyce ic ie r * f o r h e r s a c r i f i c e s , help* and c o n sta n t encouragement w ith o u t which th e study would n ev er have been completed*

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DiSTiiLBUTXOK OF CONCEPTS OH GDHAftLift CSS * » 164

III.

Di STHI BUTXOH OF CONCEPTS UB ill SFAS.lX . . . .

165

IV.

DISTiiIBUTICX4 OF CoHOA&PIS oH PUSTUKK, CAKE .SX£S * .

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bXSTKIBUTIwli OF CuHCEPTS OH CGoTXilftG

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DISTRIBUTION OF CONCEPTS OH Sl/KEP AftD REST

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V. VI* V II. V III. IX* X* XI * XXX. X III. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. m

DXSTHI BUTXOR OF CONCKPTS OA I*0 CDS • • • • *

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DXSTKiBUTToH OF CoHCKPTS oN isYiiS

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DlETKXBUTXuH oF CONCEPTS uB ii DC0jhtOJLij. TuiiAGCvlj aHD DRUGS * * » v * * * » « « • •

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DlST HI BUTIOH OF CONCEPTS OB PI AST Ail) • • •

186

i)l STKXBUT! 0N oF 0 UUCF FTS oft &ii!iiiTiiD iiYG‘X*j»AE

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uistkibutiuh ov concepts oh hums aho FAMXUr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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JXSTHIBUTIoH OF CoHCEFTS 08 IBDUSTHlAB HXBIEBE ....................................................

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HSADTB SUBJECT MATTER 1H QEMEKAU SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS................................................................

218

REIATIGHSHXF BBSVNSES THE NUMBER OF CONCEPTS FROM GENERAL SCIENCE SOURCES AMD THE HUM* BER OF CONCEPTS FROM BEAUTS SOURCES . . .

280

CONSULTANT OFIHIuH AS TO FLACSM3HT OF ............................................... .... . CONCEPTS

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F ig u re X.

Page R e la tiv e number of H ealth Concepts in h e a lth i n s t r u c ti o n and g e n e ra l scien ce f o r each to p ic • * ....................................

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217

1

CBAttXH I

ZmmDVGTXQM Purpose Of th e Study H ealth ed u c atio n alia® a t th e c o n se rv a tio n o f the h e a lth o f our most trrp o rta n t re so u rc e — our hoys and g ir ls #

American schools a t th e secondary le v e l p re se n t

to th e p u p ils i n s t r u c t i o n i n h e a lth w ith th e wholesome aim th a t those re c e iv in g th e i n s t r u c ti o n may he s tro n g e r, h e a lt h i e r , and h appier*

B esides form ing the b a s is of

th e secondary school c o u rse s I n h e a lt h , h e a lth su b je c t m a tte r i s p re se n t i n o th e r co ursess t h i s i s tr u e in th e case o f g e n e ra l sc ie n c e , th e g e n e ra lly r e t i r e d course p re se n te d a t th e secondary l e v e l f o r th e purpose o f d ev e l­ oping a t t i t u d e s and concept® i n scien ce *

I t i s the p u r­

pose of t h i s study t o show h e a lth concepts th a t are found i n c u rre n t g en e ral scien ce m a te ria l and t o p re se n t th e se concepts as o p p o rtu n itie s f o r te a c h in g and planned i n t e ­ g ra tio n between h e a lth i n s t r u c t i o n and g en e ral sc ie n c e . The f i e l d o f h e a lth e d u c a tio n in which t h i s stu d y i s made i s an im portant p a r t o f th e p re se n t e d u c a tio n a l pro­ gram.

L a te r in t h i s c h a p te r an o b se rv a tio n of th e emer­

gence of h e a lth e d u c a tio n to i t s p re se n t p o s itio n i n sec­ ondary e d u c atio n w i l l be made.

F i r s t , th e reader* s a tte n -

2

t i o n i s d lm e te d to th e statem en t o f th e problem and th e need f o r th e study*

Statem ent o f th e Problem The problem i s to determ ine th e c o n trib u tio n o f g en eral scien ce to form al h e a lth I n s tr u c tio n on th e sec­ ondary le v e l* a*

S u b d iv isio n s o f t h i s problem a re :

To determ ine a l i s t o f h e a lth concepts tak en from 14 approved h e a lth so u rces — seven tex tb o o k s and seven course® o f study*

b*

To l i s t th e s e concepts under th e 26 to p ic s as 1 determ ined by hr* fhith Strang*

e*

To show in ta b u la r form th e number o f d if f e r e n t h e a lth source® i n which th o se concepts appear*

d#

To show in ta b u la r form th e h e a lth concepts from g e n e ra l science so u rces and th e number of d i f ­ fe r e n t g e n e ra l scien c e so u rces in which th ey appear*

e*

To f in d and re co rd th e o p in io n of c o n s u lta n ts as to th e h e a lth co n cep ts found in g e n e ra l science so u rces answ ering th e fo llo w in g q u estio n s? (1) Does th e concept belong in h e a lth i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a te ria l only?

3-Strang, Kuth. p* 10*

S u b ject M atter In H ealth E d u catio n .

3

{$)

th e concept belong i n g en eral s c i » n m i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a te r ia l only?

(3)

m&a th e concept belong i n both fo rm al h e a lth and g e n e ra l sc ie n c e in s tr u c ­ t i o n a l m a te ria l?

f * To make re commendations f o r th e use of th e d a ta i n fo rm al h e a lth in s tr u c ti o n and co o p erativ e te a c h in g on th e secondary le v e l* le a d f o r th e stu d y H ealth h as long been c o n sid e re d to be ®m of th e p r i ­ mary o b je c tiv e s of education*

In 1042* The tw e n tie th Year­

book o f th e Sawed can A sso c ia tio n o f School A d m in istrato rs p o in ted out th e need f o r re q u ire d h e a lth i n s tr u c tio n ax th e secondary le v e l*

2

A y e a r l a t e r th e U nited S ta te s

O ffice o f E ducation Committee on War-Time H ealth Education f o r High Schools recommended d i r e c t h e a lth te a c h in g : F ive p e rio d s p er week of d ir e c t h e a lth te a c h ­ ing* o r the eq u iv alen t* f o r a t l e a s t one sem ester d u rin g th e n in th o r te n th grade w ill be n ecessary in o rd e r to meet th e needs o f en& ering stu d en ts* Five p e rio d s p e r week f o r a t l e a s t on® sem ester d u rin g th e e le v e n th o r tw e lf th g rad e, o r th e e q u i­ v a le n t, w ill be needed f o r ample p re p a ra tio n of th e se s tu d e n ts who are more n e a rly ready to e n te r a d u lt services*®

^American A sso ciatio n o f School M m in is tr a to r s * H ealth in School, $>* 73* ^U nited S ta te s O ffice of E ducation, F ed eral S e c u rity Agency* P h y sic a l f i t n e s s th ro u g h H ealth Education* p . 85.

4

O b e rte u ffe r h as put f o r t h the Id e a th a t : H ealth i n s t r u c t i o n d eserv es a p o s itio n o f prominence a t l e a s t eq u al to t h a t accorded o th e r s u b je c ts In th e cu rricu lu m . f h l s i n d i ­ c a te s a d a ily p e rio d i n th e s e n io r h ig h school f o r a t l e a s t a sem ester, and p re fe ra b ly f o r two sem esters; i t a lso I n d ic a te s a fa v o ra b le hour in th e -sc h o o l schedule and c r e d i t toward gradu­ a tio n * 4 fh u s I t ap p ears th a t th e course in h e a lth in s t r u c ­ tio n i s looked upcn as sound e d u c a tio n a l procedure* Many h ig h sch o o ls, however, have schedules to which no fo rm al h e a lth course h as been added f o r such reasons as d i f f i c u l t i e s I n tim e allo tm e n t o r sh o rtag es o f te a c h ­ ing personnel#

In such c a se s th e c la s s e s i n th e n a tu ra l

sc ie n c e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y g e n e ra l scien ce and b io lo g y — are looked to by a d m in is tra to rs as supplem entary means of g iv in g th e p u p ils th e n ec essary h e a lth co n cep ts. fh e b a s is o f h e a lth I n s tr u c tio n i s scien c e; th e re fo re in b io lo g y , g e n e ra l s c ie n c e , and chem istry as ta u g h t in th e modem secondary school th e re i s some h e a lth in s t r u c ­ tio n .

H early a l l co u rses ta u g h t 11p o ssess c o n ten t which

has h e a lth s ig n ific a n c e i f th e te a c h e r i s I n te r e s te d In u sin g o p p o rtu n itie s f o r c o r r e la tio n w ith h e a l t h . ”5

Co­

o p e ra tiv e te a c h in g , o r in te g r a tio n , can stre n g th e n th e In c u lc a tio n of d e s ira b le h a b its , b e h a v io r, and conduct

^ O b e rte u ffe r, P elb ert#

School H ealth E ducation, p. SO.

® Patty, W. W. Reaching H ealth and Safet y i n elemen­ t a r y g ra d e s , p . 41.

and can a s s i s t In the encouragem ent o f h e a lth f u l view­ point®#

However, th e re l a always & q u e stio n as to th e

e f f e c tiv e n e s s i n te a c h in g h e a lth fact® o r s k ill® i f th e r e s p o n s ib ility i s f i r s t t h a t o f on® departm ent and th e n th a t of another# K llan d er h as re c e n tly s ta te d s H ealth e d u c a to rs m a in ta in th a t th e need f o r i n te g r a t i o n s t i l l c o n tin u e s even though th e r e i s a s p e c ia l course# They s tr e s s t h a t th e c o n trib u ­ tion® of o th e r s u b je c ts and a c t i v i t i e s to h e a lth e d u c a tio n should he i n a d d itio n t o , r a t h e r than i n p la c e o f , th e s p e c if ic h e a lth course#® f Chappele&r found t h a t the percentage o f h e a lth con­ te n t i n th e n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s i s as follow®s 3b#36 p e r ce n t in g e n e ra l science? 35*44 p e r c e n t i n biology? 10.76 p er c e n t in chem istry? and 3*16 p e r c e n t i n physios*

The two

su b jects c o n trib u tin g la r g e ly in th e f i e l d o f supplem ental h e a lth te a c h in g a re g e n e ra l scien c e and biology*

Although

b io lo g y , a s shown by th e above f i g u r e s , Include® s l i g h t l y more (£*00 p e r c e n t) c o n te n t o f h e a lth m a te r ia l, general scien c e i s im p o rtan t f o r th e c o o p e ra tiv e te a c h in g of h e a lth m a te ria l from th e sta n d p o in t o f enrollm ent*

"General

scien ce i s more l i k e l y than any o th e r scien ce course to be re q u ire d o f a l l p u p ils i n a given school? and i t i s o ffe re d

^Kilander, H* P# Trend® in Health Education in Sec­ ondary S ch ools* p# £41* ........... “ ' — ^C happelear, 0 . s . H ealth S ubject M atter in th e n a tu r a l S c ie n c e s, p* 107--------------- — ------------- ----- -

6

a t grade le v e ls where en ro llm en ts have not been g re a tly a f fe c te d by e lim in a tio n o f p u p ils from school#”8 G eneral scien ce was f i r s t accepted as an im portant Q h igh school su b je c t about 1912# T his study re g a rd s g e n e ra l science as a good source f o r in v e s tig a tin g coop­ e r a tiv e te a c h in g i n the h e a lth i n s t r u c ti o n program of th e secondary school because? (1) i t i s u s u a lly a w e ll-e s ta b ­ lis h e d course w ith s e n io r ity o f more th a n a decade over form al h e a lth c la s s e s ; (2) i t a f f e c ts th e m a jo rity of th e p u p ils in th e n in th grade -* a le v e l where school popu­ l a t i o n i s h ig h ; (b) approxim ately o n e -th ird of i t s con­ te n t i s h e a lth m a te ria l# in d is c u s s in g the way in which g e n e ra l scien ce i s r e la te d to th e te a c h in g of h e a lth T urner says: G eneral scien ce c o n trib u te s to th e h e a lth in ­ s tr u c tio n through the d is c u s s io n o f a i r and i t s r e la ti o n to h e a lth ! safe w a te r and i t s h e a lth v a l ­ u es; th e e f f e c t o f w eather upon h e a lth ; s u n lig h t; im portant elem ents o f tfie human body; th e n atu re of l i g h t and v is io n ; sound and h e a rin g ; kinds of p la n ts and t h e i r r e l a ti o n t o th e w e ll-b e in g o f man; anim als as a source o f food and as a ©ource^of d i s ­ ease; and s e le c te d problems i n s a n i t a t i o n .10 Jihen i n th e attem p ted c o o p e rativ e te a c h in g o f two s u b je c ts laclc o f c o o rd in a tio n o c c u rs, th e re i s a lo s s of e f fo rt#

I f a to p ic in a given su b je c t i s p re se n ted

B i l l e t t , Hoy 0#

Fundam entals of Secondary School

^C happelear, ©g. c l t .# p# 42# 10T urner, c . S. P r in c ip le s of H ealth E d u catio n , p . 264.

7

In i d e n t i c a l o r s im ila r manner in two o r more c la s s e s , th e i n t e r e s t of th e p u p il d e c lin e s and th e v a lm of the s u b je c t m a tte r from th e sta n d p o in t of te a c h a b le m a te ria l d e p re c ia te s *

In c la s s e s in g en e ral science as w ell as

i n h e a lth c la s s e s , many broad to p ic s i n h e a lth — such as fo o d , a i r , ©yes, and e a r s — are tre a te d *

There i s

a need t o In v e s tig a te more s p e c i f i c a l ly what h e a lth m a te ria l In term s o f concepts or teach ers* g o als i s p re se n t i n g en e ral science*

I t may he th a t a f t e r an

in v e s tig a tio n and d e te rm in a tio n o f some of th e h e a lth concepts found i n g e n e ra l science s te p s may he tak en toward a re o rg a n is a tio n o f g e n e ra l scien ce c u r r ic u la and co u rses o f study t o b rin g about more o b je c tiv e coopera­ tiv e te a c h in g between g e n e ra l science and h e a lth in s tr u c ­ tio n * I t i s not th e aim of t h i s work to in d ic a te th e e lim i­ n a tio n o f any broad phase o f m a te ria l in e i t h e r f i e l d , hut t o attem pt to p o in t th e way to more org an ised coopera­ tiv e te a c h in g betw een th e two* , Improvement o f in s tr u c tio n i n c e r t a i n concepts of h e a lth e d u c atio n may r e s u lt* The in v e s tig a to r w ishes to s ta t e th a t i n th e study th e re i s no com parison o f on© course of study w ith an o th er, o r one tex tb o o k w ith a n o th e r, e i t h e r fa v o ra b ly o r un­ fav o rab ly *

I t i s n ot the purpose o f t h i s study to v a l i ­

d ate o b je c tiv e ly a l l th e concepts*

The In v e s tig a to r

w ishes m erely to use those stan d ard so u rces as a means of

8

d eterm in in g th e h e a lth concept® p re s e n t in h e a lth sources and o f p o in tin g out those concept© which appear i n g en eral scien ce source®*

In so doing he hopes to show o p p o rtu n itie s

f o r dore c o o p e rativ e te a c h in g -and h a t t e r in s tr u c tio n in the a ll-im p o rta n t f i e l d o f secondary school h e a lth in s tru c tio n !,

fro sen t P o sitio n o f H ealth Education in Secondary Education I t aeons p e r tin e n t a t t h i s p o in t to oh serve how h e a lth e d u c atio n ha® ©merged to It® p re s e n t p o s itio n in secondary education*

Man ha® long reco g n ised th e r e la tio n s h ip be­

tween h e a lth and o th e r a sp e c ts of education*

The state**

m a t o f Juvenal in th e second c e n tu ry A*D* summarise® th e aim su ccin ctly * “le n s *ana i n corpora sun©*1* In the c e n tu ry sine© 1850 in America th e steady tre n d in th e re c o g n itio n o f th e im portance' of h e a lth has s e t th e stag e f o r the te a c h in g of h e a lth In th e schools*

1850 marked

an im p o rtan t i n i t i a l d a te 1b th e f i e l d s o f p u b lic h e a lth and o f education* f o r i n th a t y e a r omm th e p u b lic a tio n o f Lemuel Shat tu c k 9& Report of th e S a n ita ry Commission o f M assachusetts and th e beginning o f ta x support f o r p u b lic schools* in h i s re p o rt Shat tu c k p re se n te d a comprehensive p u b lic h e a lth program in which he in clu d ed a program of h e a lth ©dm? a t io n th a t shows a rem arkable g rasp of th e s p i r i t of modem education*

Tax support f o r p u b lic

9

sch o o ls ms an t u n iv e rs a l e d u c a tio n which i n tim e reached th e c h ild re n o f a l l th e p eo p le.

In t h i s fa v o ra b le s o i l

th e seed o f h e a lth e d u c a tio n was able to r o o t .

As th e

H arvard B eport p o in ts o u t. ttTh© r o le of th e school i n th e development of h e a lth may be d e c is iv e . f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i ty

Although

t h i s m a tte r r e s t s w ith the

fa m ily and th e community, in some p la c e s th e schools must assume th e ta s k ©f g iv in g d i r e c t I n s tr u c tio n in h e a lth , p e rso n a l and c i v i c . ”H ealth i s a s t a t e of com plete p h y s ic a l, m en tal, and s o c i a l w e ll-b e in g and n o t m erely freedom from d is e a se o r i n f i r m i t y . P r e s e n t day i n t e r e s t i n h e a lth i s w orldw ide.

In 1946 r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s from 61 n a tio n s cam©

t o a faceting of th e World H ealth O rg an izatio n In Hew York and s e t f o r t h as t h e i r o b je c tiv e "th e attain m en t by a l l p eo p les of th e h ig h e s t p o s s ib le le v e l o f h e a lth * " 2^ H ealth was s e le c te d as th e f i r s t of th e C ard in al O b jectiv es o f Secondary E ducation In 1918,^

and th e term

" h e a lth e d u c a tio n 1* was proposed f o r th e f i r s t tim e in 1919 a t a conference o f le a d e rs o f h e a lth and of ©duca-

^ B e p o rt of th e H arvard Committee. G eneral Kducation in a F ree S o c ie ty , p . 168. ^ C h ro n ic le of th e ^ o rld H ea lth O rg a n isa tio n . V ol. 1, no* 1, 194*7 ♦ p . 1. ^ I b l d . , p. 13. 14 U n ited S ta te s Bureau of E d u catio n . C ard in al P rln c l p le s o f Secondary E d u catio n . B u lle tin n o. 55, p . I .

10

t l o a c a lle d by th e C hild H ealth O rg a n isa tio n .

is

in 1928

h e a lth e d u c atio n was d efin ed by Dr. Thomas D. wood of Columbia U n iv e rsity , a le a d e r In th e school h e a lth move­ ment, as “th e sum o f a l l e x p e rie n c e s which favorablX in ­ flu e n c e h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge r e la te d to in d l» ic v id u a l and community h e a lth . R ecently Dr. Ruth B. Grout h as suggested th a t i t i s “th e t r a n s l a t i o n of what i s known about h e a lth in to d e s ira b le in d iv id u a l and com­ munity b eh av io r p a tte r n s by means of th e e d u c a tio n a l p r o c e s s .11

The 1948 e d itio n of H ealth E ducation, which

i s p u b lish ed as th e work of a J o in t Committee of th e n a tio n a l E ducation A sso ciatio n and th e American Medical A ssociation^ p o in ts out th a t “h e a lth ed u c atio n has com© of

During th e q u a r te r of a ce n tu ry in which

h e a lth e d u c atio n has become an I n te g r a l p a r t of American ed u catio n , th e sch o o ls have been c a lle d upon to p la y m in c re a s in g ly v i t a l ro le In th e p re p a ra tio n of th e p u p il f o r l i f e i n a democracy. The J o in t Committee r e f e r r e d to above has s e t down th e alms of h e a lth e d u c a tio n th u s :

Ib g ro u t, Ruth.

H ealth Teaching i n Schools* p. 17.

^ n a t i o n a l E ducation A sso c ia tio n . The n a tio n a t Work on the P u b lic School C urriculum , p . 226” " "1"'llr",“r — ^ G r o u t, og. c i t .

p. 4.

^ N a tio n a l E ducation A sso c ia tio n and American ’M edical A sso c ia tio n . H ealth E d ucation. 1948. p. x .

11

1* fo i n s t r u c t c h ild re n and youth so th a t they may conserve end improve t h e i r own h ea lth * 2* Toe s t a b l i s h i n the® th e h a b its and p r in c ip le s o f liv in g which throughout t h e i r school l i f e and i n l a t e r y e a rs w i l l a id i n p ro v id in g th a t abundant v ig o r and v i t a l i t y which are a fo u n d a tio n f o r th e g r e a te s t p o ssib le h ap p in ess and se rv ic e in p e rso n a l, fa m ily , and community lif e * S* l*o promote s a ti s f a c to r y h a b i t s and a t ti tu d e s among p a re n ts and adult© through p aren t and ad u lt ed u c atio n and through th e h e a lth e d u c atio n program f o r c h ild re n , s© t h a t th e sch o o l may become an e f f e c tiv e agency f o r th e advancement of th e s o c ia l aspect© o f h e a lth e d u c a tio n i n th e fa m ily and in th e school i t s e l f * 4* To improve th e in d iv id u a l and community l i f e ©f th e fu tu re ? to in s u re a b e t t e r second genera­ tio n , and a s t i l l b e t t e r t h i r d generation? t©1Q b u ild a h e a l t h i e r and f i t t e r n a tio n and race* H ealth ed u c atio n i s broad In scope.

I t must be

planned and co o rd in a te d in to an o rd e rly program based upon th e th re e m ajor area© — h e a lt h f u l school liv in g , 20 school h e a lth s e rv ic e , and h e a lth in s tru c tio n * As T urner p o in ts outs in p ro v id in g an adequate program f o r h e a lth ed u catio n w© ©hall seek to give th e c h ild h e lp fu l e& perienees both In s id e and o u tsid e of th e organ­ ise d h e a lth - in s tr u c tio n program. The program should be co n tin u o u s, graded, and p ro gressive? i t should be organized and s y ste m a tic , n o t hap­ hazard* I t w i l l c o n sid e r m ental and em otional h e a lth as w e ll a© p h y sic a l h e a lth * I t w i l l

^®Hational E ducation A sso c ia tio n and American Medi­ H ealth Education* 1941* p* 15*

cal Association*

W i l l i a m s , *T. F* and B row nell, c* L. The Adminis­ t r a t i o n o f H ealth and P h y sical E d u catio n * p7 ,’WT~'™a—

546671

12

re g a rd h e a lth beh avior and h e a lth a t t i tu d e s as more im p o rtan t th a n h e a lth knowledge* I t assum es, however, th a t h e a lt h knowledge as w e ll as s a tis f y in g e x p e rie n c e s must he p ro ­ v id ed I f we expect th e in d iv id u a l to co n tin u e to m ain tain sound h e a lth b eh av io r and to meet m m h e a lth problem s s u c c e s s f u lly d u rin g a d u lt l i f e * 21 For th e p u rp o ses of t h i s study th e f i r s t two a re a s d e sig n a te d above w i l l be assumed as e s s e n t i a l elem ents of th e t o t a l school program and a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d ir e c te d toward th e t h i r d m ajor a re a — h e a lth i n s t r u c t i o n . H ealth e d u c a tio n , as can be seen by exam ining the aims quoted above, em braces a c t i v i t i e s which are p r e d i­ cated upon th e l i f e - t i m e o f th e boy o r g i r l and even look forw ard t o h i s o r h e r progeny*

H ealth i n s t r u c t i o n a p p lie s

to th e s p e c if ic te a c h in g o f h e a lth knowledge*

The c h ild

needs ac c u ra te in fo rm a tio n co n cern in g h e a lt h .

He needs

to know and u n d ersta n d th e s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s which i n f l u ­ ence h is w e ll-b e in g and th a t of h i s p e a rs and of h i s com­ munity*

as

th e American A sso c ia tio n of School Adminis­

t r a t o r s p o in ts o u ti H ealth i n s t r u c t i o n means te a c h in g c h ild re n in th e classroom s and i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s in the sch o o l, both by d ir e c t and by in c id e n ta l m ethods, so t h a t each c h ild may le a r n , f o r exam ple, th© s c i e n t i f i c b a s is f o r c o r re c t l i v i n g as r e la te d to n u t r i t i o n , c lo th in g , e x e r c is e , r e s t , c le a n lin e s s , im m unization,

21

T u rn er, oj>. c i t * , pp. 6 -7 .

13

f i r s t a id , s a fe ty , s a n ita tio n , and d e s i r ­ ab le s o d a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .2# file development of h e a lth e d u c a tio n , th e n , h as been in accord w ith American p r in c ip le s stemming from the e sta b lish m e n t o f f r e e p u b lic education*

The p o s s i b i l i t i e s

f o r i t s e x is te n c e have been In h e re n t f o r a c e n tu ry in pub­ l i c e d u c a tio n .

In th e p a s t t h i r t y y e a rs i t has developed

as a recognized su b je c t ta u g h t I n th e secondary school to aid i n th e attain m en t of h e a lth goals#

At p re s e n t, ac­

co rd in g to S tein h au s, th e program in th e b e st organized schools in c lu d e s : a . The h e a lth s e rv ic e s such a s h e a lth examina­ t i o n s , sc re e n in g program s, and d a ily in s p e c tio n (o r continuous p u p il o b s e rv a tio n )• b# C arefu l and p e r s i s te n t fo llo w -u p , educa­ t i o n a l e f f o r t s to ensure the c o r re c tio n of d e f e c ts (in c lu d in g d e n ta l d e fe c ts ) uncovered i n th e exam inations and screenings# c . P h y sic al a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l c h ild re n , i n ­ clu d in g r e s t r i c t e d programs f o r th e handicapped# d# S y stem atic, scheduled h e a lth in s tr u c tio n in c lu d in g s a f e ty in s tru c tio n # e* C o rre la tio n of h e a lth te a c h in g w ith o th e r s u b je c ts and w ith school lunch program s. f# Close a tte n tio n to the h e a lth and s a fe ty a sp e c ts of th e environm ent provided by th e school and su rro u n d in g community# g* C ooperation w ith p riv a te and p u b lic h e a lth ag en cies in th e com m unity*^

^A m erican A sso ciatio n of School A d m in istrato rs, op* c i t *, p* 21. ^ S te ln h a u s , a . H# H ealth Education in the U nited S ta te s , pp. 505-6.--------------- ------ — — ------ ------------- ——

24

In I t s p re s e n t statu® h e a lth ed u c atio n in c lu d e s a course i n h e a lth s u b je c t m a tte r and th e c o r r e la te d h e a lth m a te ria l from o th e r co u rses m a v i t a l p a r t of th e i n s t r u c t fcion which w i l l h e lp young people to do f o r them selves what i s good f o r t h e i r own h e a lth and f o r th e h e a lth o f th o se who follow them#

Jfeth$& o f work fM rb y -b h ree sch o ol system s ware chosen from th e l i s t of system s whose su p e rin te n d e n ts p a r tic ip a te d In th e p roceedings of th e m eeting o f th e American A ssocia­ t i o n of School A d m in istrato rs o f th e n a tio n a l E ducation A sso ciatio n In 1946 •

The geographic s e c tio n s o f th e

U nited S ta te s were considered i n th e choice#

th e sy s­

tems were contacted by l e t t e r r e l a t i v e to in fo rm atio n regarding} 1#

Textbooks used In h e a lth in s tr u c tio n on th e secondary level#

2#

Courses o f stu d y u sed i n h e a lth in s tru c tio n #

3*

Textbooks used i n g e n e ra l science#

4#

Courses o f stu dy used i n g en eral science#

tw enty-seven of th e school system s responded to the above req u est*

Seven u p -to -d a te secondary h e a lth t e x t ­

book® were s e le c te d from c u rre n t p u b lic a tio n s of h e a lth textbooks#

Of th e f i v e tex tb o o k s in h e a lth recommended

15

by Isis® M assachusetts Doperbmnt of Public Health, D ivision o f Health In s tru c t ion, th ree were used i n the study*

The

Indiana S tate Department of Public In stru ction chocked th e l i s t o f t i t l e s and indicated th at two of the text-** books mm adopted arid reeenmended f o r the S tate of Indians#

Each textbook chosen was veeoamnded by at

le a s t one of th e system® .responding to the i n i t i a l quest#

re­

th e name® and. dates of p u b lica tio n of these hooks

are l i s t e d In th e bibliography# Seven co u rse s o f study in h e a lth were s e le c te d from c o u rse s o f stu d y o f th e system s which responded t o th© re q u est#

Three o f th e course® o f study in h e a lth

s e le c te d are In clu d ed i n th e N atio n al E ducation A ssocia­ t i o n B u lle tin , U s t of O utstanding Teaching and le a rn in g i& terl& Is* 1945-1946 » The %mmcs o f ay sterna in the- s e v e ra l geographic a re a s of th e United S ta te s whose co u rses o f stu d y i n h e a lth i n s t r u c t i o n were am ly ced are found in th e M bliogr&phy* Seven c u rre n t g e n e ra l scien c e te x tb o o k s were s e ­ le c te d from th e p u b lication * o f well-known publishing houses#

Each hook se le c te d was reconuaended by at le a s t

one o f th® system s responding in th e correspondence# The names o f th * seven g e n e ra l scien ce textbook® a re l i s t e d In th e bib lio g raphy# Seven co u rse s o f stu d y in g e n e ra l m im im m m s e le c te d from the c o u rse s o f stu d y o f th e systems which

16

responded to th e req u est*

She n am s of th e system s in

th e s e v e ra l geographic areas o f th e U nited S ta te s whose co u rse s of study i n g e n e ra l scien ce were analysed are found i n th e b ibliography*

In th e case of each source in h e a lth i n s tr u c tio n th e m a te ria l was re ad c a r e f u lly and the h e a lth concepts were a b s tra c te d on to sh e e ts of paper IX by 8& inches* fhes© co n cep ts were l i s t e d according to th e 26 to p ic s s e t 24 down by Dr* JRnth Strang* The h e a lth co u rses of study were th en read c r i t i c a l l y and th e concepts a b s tra c te d and l i s t e d under th e same t o p ic s .

I d e n tic a l concepts

were recorded by a n o te as to th e source of each appear­ ance*

f h l s avoided r e p e t i t i o n of any concept.

$in@

hundred and th irty -o n © d if f e r e n t h e a lth concept© were th u s o b tain ed and l i s t e d under th e 26 d if f e r e n t to p ics* f h e s© 9b 1 concepts were re -re a d and, where n ec essary , re w ritte n and e d ite d f o r b r e v ity and c l a r i t y .

They were

th e n tr a n s f e r r e d to la rg e lin e d c h a r t s 34 by 28 Inches* fh© concepts wore l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y on th e l e f t sid e of th e ch art*

fh e so urces were l i s t e d h o riz o n ta lly

as headings to th e columns of q u a r te r in ch squares to th e r ig h t of the concept*

As th© concept appeared in

any or i n a l l of th e fo u rte e n h e a lth so u rces i t was so checked on th e la rg e m aster c h a rts*

^ S t r a n g , lo c . c i t i .r p . 10.

1?

The 14 scien ce so u rces were then c a r e f u lly read and th e h e a lth co n cep ts under th e 26 to p ic s a b stra c te d #

vnly

th e concepts th a t were fch© same as those d eriv e d from th e h e a lth so urces m m l i s t e d and checked as to the number of scien c e source© In which each occurs#

Throe hundred and

seventy*aevon h e a lth concept® were l i s t e d from g en eral scien c e so u rces by checks under th e column heading naming th e iexiooo& o f course o f study i n which oaeh concept occurred* tw en ty * six t m i e s 9 one f o r each to p ic , m m prep ared showing the cod© number of th e in d iv id u a l concept and th e number o f d i f f e r e n t so u rces In h e a lth and in science in which i t appears#

The code number was composed a© a lo g i­

c a l c o u rin a tio n of th e number of th e to p ic and th® number of th e concept under th a t topic*

For exam ple, a l l con­

c e p ts d e a lin g w ith Foods b ear th e number 1 f o r Topic I as th e f i r s t d i g i t md th e re are 55 concepts In sequence ; a l l co n cep ts d e a lin g w ith G eneral P hysiology b ear the number 26 f o r Topic XXVI as the f i r s t two d i g i t s and th e re ar© 61 con­ c e p ts In sequence *

Thus, as an example, the re a d e r w i ll

f in d th a t th e tw e n ty - f if th concept under th e Topic X ii, D isease ** nin f lu e n t a i s caused by a virus*1 — I s num­ b ered 625# The 67? h e a lth co n cep ts from Um scien ce sources m re th en copied In to a s e p a ra ta l i s t according to to p ics* Copies o f th e l i s t ware sent to fiv e c o n s u lta n ts f o r

IB

c r i t i c a l judgment* The c o n s u lta n ts were s e le c te d on th e b a s is of at le a s t te n years* experience in the te a c h in g of h e a lth o r science in secondary ed u c atio n o r in te a c h e r tra in in g * The group o f f iv e consultant® i s composed of a u n iv e r s ity p ro fe s s o r in h e a lth ed u c atio n and au th o r of h e a lth i n s t r u c ­ t i o n a l m a te ria l f o r use In h e a lth i n s tr u c tio n on the secon­ dary l e v e l; a p ro fe s s o r of scien c e a t a te a c h e r - tr a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n w ith ex perience i n su p e rv isio n of th e te a c h in g

of scien ce a t th e secondary le v e l; a teachers* c o lle g e p ro fe s s o r of scien ce w ith ex p erien ce in th e te a c h in g of science on th© secondary le v e l; a h e a lth i n s tr u c tio n spe­ c i a l i s t w ith the M assachusetts .Department of P ublic H ealth who i s an au th o r o f m a te ria l d e a lin g w ith h e a lth in s tr u c tio n a t th e secondary l e v e l ; and th e d ir e c to r of h e a lth educa­ tio n f o r th e p u b lic schools o f a c i t y o f 70,000 p o p u la tio n . The c o n s u lta n ts were asked to read c a r e f u lly each con­ cep t and to p lace a d is c r e te number - - 1, 2, o r 3 - - a t th e end of each concept to in d ic a te w hether in t h e i r judgment the concept belongs? (1) in h e a lth i n s tr u c ti o n m a te ria l, only; (2) in g e n e ra l science m a te ria l only? (3) in both f i e l d s of in s tru c tio n * Th© r e s u l t s o f t h i s survey w ill be found in C hapter V of t h i s study* As a g en e ral a n a ly s is of th e amount of h e a lth i n s tr u c ­ tio n a l m a te ria l to be found i n g en e ral science tex tb o o k s,

19

a page count was made*

A ta b le showing the p e r cent of

pages devoted to h e a lth m a te ria l in the seven g e n e ra l scien ce te x t hooks I s found i n th e summary o f C hapter V, D e f in itio n s For th e purposes of t h i s study th e fo llo w in g to m s w ill he th u s d e fin e d : H ealth E du catio n * *• SJh e a lth ed u catio n i s th e sum of ex p erien ces which fa v o ra b ly in flu e n c e p ra c tic e s-, a t t i ­ tu d e s, and knowledge r e l a t i n g to h e a l t h # " ^ H ealth I n s t r u c ti o n * — *H ealth in s tr u c tio n may i n ­ clude any i n s tr u c tio n t h a t i s c a r r ie d on as d i r e c t In O/S

s tr u c tio n o r th a t I s I n te g r a te d In to th e curriculum *p " C oncept* — "Concepts are the teacher*© goals* They are reco g n isab le advances In e d u c ativ e growth to be made by th© p u p ils * ”®^

Secondary Level* - - The s ix -y e a r o rg a n iz a tio n of th e secondary school emu-races grades seven through 1 2 $ th e d i ­ v is io n as to th r e e - th r e e o r tw o -fo u r between ju n io r and s e n io r high i s regarded only as an o rg a n iz a tio n a l problem*

SatIon a l iictuc at 1 on As so c l ;t1 ion and mt.b r I c an Led 1c a l A ssociation* 1948* ©p. c lft** p . 4* o u t, 0£ . p i t *, p* 9* ^ d l l l e t t , og* cl t *, p. 27b*

20

CHAPMR IX HSlAffKD STUDIKB For some time s tu d ie s have been ©ad© on the c o n ten t m a tte r i n v a rio u s secondary school co u rses In h e a lth in s tr u c tio n #

Courses i n b io lo g y , g e n e ra l sc ie n c e ,

ch em istry , and p h y sics have undergone c a r e f u l a n a ly s is by s e v e ra l in v e s tig a to rs *

With the im petus to h e a lth

I n s tr u c tio n i n th© e a r ly tw e n tie s h e a lth s u b je c t m a tte r h as been su b je c te d to v a rio u s k in d s of In v e s tig a tio n s w ith th e hop© of im proving in s tru c tio n * Pr* *Ruth Strang*** h as done p io n eer work on th e con­ t e n t m a te ria l In h e a lth education*

Her stu d y g iv es a

q u a n tita tiv e d e s c r ip tio n of tex tb o o k s and co u rses of study*

Dr# S tran g ta b u la te d th© frequency of m ention

o f th e to p ic s In tex tb o o k s and co u rses of study examined. From the sta n d p o in t of frequency of m ention she found t h a t 21 p e r cen t of th e t o t a l h e a lt h m a te ria l was devoted to food fa c ts *

C le a n lin e ss and diseas© re c e iv e d th e

n ex t h ig h e st freq u en cy of mention* D efects were found I n th© c h a ra c te r of th e statem en ts used in th e tex tb o o k s examined.

The d e f e c ts wex*© of

s e v e ra l ty p e s : statem en ts which were to o g en e ral o r too obvious; statem en ts which were o n ly s l i g h t l y r e la te d to

^S tran g , Ruth* 108 'p p . «w

Subject M atter In H ealth E ducation* J h—

f-

r 114*

The measure of energy a p p lie d to any given amount of food I s th e c a lo rie *

115.

P ro te in s are the p r in c ip a l c o n s titu e n ts o f p la n t and animal protoplasm and c o n ta in n itro g e n .

115 .

V itam ins and m in erals are in d is p e n sa b le c o n s titu e n ts of th© body c e l l s , o f body f l u i d s , and of gland se c re tio n s*

117.

Vitamin C i s one of th e best-known v ita m in s.

118.

A good n a tu r a l com plexion, good p o s tu re , firm m uscles, and a normal r e s is ta n c e to fa tig u e and in f e c tio n are a l l in d ic a tio n s of good h e a lth .

119.

The only sa fe way to reduce i s by c u ttin g down on th© t o t a l amount of food e a te n w ithout c u ttin g down on th e elem ents e s s e n t i a l to h ea lth *

120*

The cause o f food a lle r g y I s u s u a lly a p ro te in to which th e body r e a c ts as I f i t were a poison,

.

121

one can go w ithout food f o r se v e ra l weeks, but one cannot liv e w ith o u t w ater f o r more th a n a few days.

122.

S c ie n tif ic meal p la n n in g g iv e s g re a t s a t i s f a c t i o n and i s not too d i f f i c u l t *

12b•

Good m eals may b© d e fin e d a s those which supply th e body need s, p ro te c t a g a in st d is e a s e , and give en­ joyment.

124.

B reak fast i s more im portant th an any o th e r meal.

125*

A ppetite i s not an adequate guide in th e s e le c tio n of food*

128.

Food s u p p lie s the f u e l which in tu r n en ab les th© human fu rn ace to provide h e a t and energy f o r movement*

127.

P ro te in i s needed i n th e d i e t to b u ild new t i s s u e and to re p la c e those t h a t have been d estro y e d ,

128*

jtfach v ita m in has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p ro ­ duces i t s own e f f e c t s on th e body.

129*

The g re a t advances in d ie ta r y science In, the p a s t few y e a rs have produced th e in fo rm atio n f o r b u ild in g sound and balanced d ie ts*

130#

Green p la n ts are th e b a s ic source o f th e food. mat © ria ls of th© world#

181*

Quick cooking under p re ssu re so fte n s th e p la n t t i s ­ sue, p re se rv e s th e c o lo r and f l a v o r , and p re v e n ts undue d e s tr u c tio n of vitam ins*

132*

The calcium th a t i s i n t e e t h , bones, and blood, and t r a c e s i n a l l c e l l s , i s d eriv ed from c e r ta in kinds of food#

138*

Almost ©very kind o f food t h a t i s e a te n , except r e ­ f in e d f a t s and sugar, c o n ta in s phosphorus.

134.

M a ln u tritio n I s not the o n ly harm ful e f f e c t of inade­ q uate d iet#

136*

The q u a n titie s o f th e v ita m in s th iam in e, r ib o f la v in , n ia c in , and a sc o rb ic a c id are expressed In m i l l i ­ grams o r th o u san d th s of a gram*

136.

The continuance o f l i f e I® said to depend upon about n in e Inches of to p -s o il*

36

137.

Foods are p re se rv ed by r e f r i g e r a tio n , canning, and dehydration#

138.

'Th© seven b a s ic food groups a r e : Group X: green and yellow v e g e ta b le s | Group IX: oranges, tomato©®, g r a p e f r u it and raw cabbage; Group l i h

p o ta to e s

and o th e r v e g e ta b le s and f r u i t s ; Group IV: m ilk and m ilk p ro d u c ts; Group V: m eat, p o u ltry , f i s h , o r eggs; Group VI: b read , f l o u r , and c e r e a ls ; Group ¥11: b u tte r and fa ts * 139.

Some vitamin® such as thiamin©, r ib o f la v in , n ia c in and v itam in G are l o s t i n th e cooking water#

140.

Thiamine and v itam in

0

are d estro y e d by h e a t;

vitam in A and v ita m in Q are l o s t by slow oxidation* 141.

One can develop p h y s ic a l v ig o r by m eeting the n u t r i ­ tio n a l needs of th e body#

142.

I t i s Im portant f o r on® to ©at a t & re g u la r m eal-tim e In a re la x e d and u n h u rrie d manner*

143.

I t i s im p o rtan t f o r on® to e a t grade A school lunch©® o r w ell-b a la n ced m eals in th e c a fe te ria *

144.

one should d rin k p a s te u ris e d m ilk and. e a t only prop­ e r ly p rep ared and cocked foods#

146.

One should consume sweet®, condim ents, and so ft d rin k s m oderately and a b s ta in from te a and c o ffe e ,

146 «

one should be aware of the fa d s and f a l l a c i e s in th e a d v e rtis in g of some foods#

36 147*

Qm should us© v itam in o r m in eral p i l l s only on th© advice of a physician*

148*

On© should he f a m ilia r w ith lo c a l and s ta te agencies where on© can o b ta in a u th e n tic in fo rm a tio n about n u tritio n .

149.

dood p h y s ic a l, m ental, and em otional habit© and a t t i ­ tu d es are conducive to good n u t r i t i o n .

150.

The energy fo o d s are f a t s and carbohydrates? th e bon© b u ild in g foods c o n ta in calcium and phosphorous? th© blood b u ild in g foods c o n ta in a v a ila b le iro n and copper.

151.

D ietary a d a p ta tio n s should be mad© f o r d if f e r e n t in d i­ v id u als*

152*

lo have th© p ro p e r value food® must be grown in s o il t h a t ha© not been d e p le te d of e s s e n t i a l m inerals*

153.

Very young c h ild re n re q u ire much le s s food th an o ld e r persons? boys re q u ire more food th a n g i r l s of the sa m age? a bookkeeper needs le s s th a n a lumberman.

154.

O rd in a rily protein® a re n e c e ssa ry f o r th e b u ild in g of protoplasm ; ca rb o h y d rates are used f o r supplying energy; f a t s are used f o r s to rin g energy.

155.

Among th e p ro te in food® are meat, eggs, cheese, and legumes; among th e carbohydrate food® &r© su g ar, p o ta to e s , many ro o t and stem v e g e ta b le s and f r u i t s ; among th e f a t t y foods are n u ts , cream p ro d u cts, and anim al f a ts *

37

XX C le a n lin e ss 201#

C le a n lin e s s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e h e a lth of th e s k in .

202*

Th© h a s t sk in cl© an sin g ag e n ts known are soap and warm water*

203*

in most c a se s re g u la r b a th in g w ith any pure t o i l e t soap and w ater g iv e s adequate p ro te c tio n a g a in s t body odor*

204*' Th© id e a l b ath in g ro u tin e i s a b ath o r a shower ©very day# 205*

The hands should always be clean ed w ith soap and w ater befo re e a tin g o r p re p a rin g food and a f t e r going to th e t o i l e t #

200#

The f a c e , neck, e&rs0 and hands should be washed a t le a s t i n th© morning and evening and as o fte n in

1

between as th ey are v i s ib ly soiled*

207* The h y g ien ic reaso n s f o r c le a n lin e s s d e a l w ith pro* t e c tin g the body a g a in st harm ful b a c te ria # 208* Many sk in d is e a s e s are more p re v a le n t among persons o f u n clean h a b its# 209# Skin s p e c i a l i s t s do n o t recommend the d a ily bath f o r a l l people# 210.

Mot a l l persons r e a c t w ell to cold baths#

211* U sually washing th© h a i r weekly o r bi-w eekly h e lp s to keep i t in good condition* 212* Clean and w ell-trim m ed n a ils add to th e a t t r a c t i v e ­ n ess o f th e hands.

38

21b # A warn b ath w ith the use of p le n ty of soap, follow ed toy a co o l shower o r plunge, i s id e a l. 214*

A person w ith a c le a n skin should wear c le a n c lo th e s .

£15-

fto cream w i l l take th e p lace of soap and w ater in c le a n s in g th© sk in .

21$*

The n a ilb ru s h 1© th e b e s t choice f o r c le a n in g th e n a i l s .

217 *

A c le a n s in g h ath should he tak en two o r th re e tim es a week*

218.

Pure whit© o a s t i l e soap i s h ig h ly recommended.

212 •

Any good, q u a lity soap may he used p ro v id in g i t i s so o th in g to the s k in .

220

.

ilie f e e t should he bathed ev ery few days.

221

*

C le a n lin e ss i s an im portant f a c t o r in good grooming.

222.

There I s a d e f in ite r e la tio n s h ip between c le a n lin e s s and p e rso n a lity *

225*

I t i s im p o rtan t to us© clea n e a tin g and d rin k in g u te n ­ s ils *

224.

one should us© only c le a n t o i l e t a r t i c l e s — to w els, w ash -clo th s, h a n d k e rc h ie fs, comb and b ru sh .

225.

I t i s Im port ant t h a t we keep our hands and unclean a r t i c l e s away from mouth, nose, eyes and e a rs .

226 .

Schools should to® kept clean and san itary *

227*

A shower a f t e r gym I s n ec essary .

1X1 501*

D isease

knowledge of how germs and in f e c tio n s are spread i s Im portant In m ain tain in g good h e a lth .

39

502.

Gems are liv in g th in g s of m icroscopic size*

503*

Germs, in c lu d in g b a c te r ia capable of causing a d i s ­ e a s e , are c a lle d pathogens*

504. Whether an in f e c tio n i s s e rio u s depends upon th e kind and number of germs and th e tis s u e s * 305. The sig n s of inflam m ation are re d n ess, sw ellin g , and p a in . 508.

Most germs cause only s p e c if ic d is e a s e .

507.

h s p e c if ic communicable d is e a s e i s one th a t i s a l ­ ways due to th e same s o rt of germs.

508*

Germs may leave a sic k p erso n by way o f the sk in , from any of th e n a tu ra l openings of the body, o r In any of th e f l u i d s se c re te d or e x c re te d from the body.

509.

A com paratively d ir e c t .method of t r a n s f e r of germs I s by means of th e hands.

810.

Germs from In fe c te d human beings may contam inate w ater, food, o r m ilk and th ere in ' be tr a n s f e r r e d to o th e r s .

511*

An in s e c t o r o th e r animal which serv es to tra n sm it germs i s c a lle d a v e c to r.

312*

host kind© of germs die not long a f t e r they leave the m oisture and warmth of th e body.

313*

Some germs may be destroyed by h ea t and boiling*

314.

Some ch em icals, c a lle d germ icides, w i ll k i l l b a c te r ia .

315.

D irect su n lig h t can d e stro y most germs.

516.

The body may s e t up s p e c if ic re s is ta n c e which d e stro y s

40

c e r t a i n b a c te ria * 317*

I t 0 body may ac t up a n a tu r a l .re sista n c e to in f e c tio n c a lle d g e n e ra l re a lsta n c e *

318*

flic re i s a degree o f Immunity fo llo w in g in f e c tio n .

319*

Some p erso n s become r e l a t i v e l y immune to c e r ta in d i s ­ eases*

320.

fh o re are se v e ra l im portant drugs which when ta k e n i n t e r n a l l y e x e rt damaging e f f e c t upon b a c te r ia .

321*

Many drug© have a n o n -s p e c ific value I n tr e a tin g d is e a s e germs.

322.

Colds are th e most fre q u e n t of a l l in f e c tio u s d is e a s e s ,

323.

fher© a re no s p e c if ic methods of t r e a t i n g c o ld s.

324.

B ro n c h itis means I n f e c tio n o f th© b ro n c h ia l tu b e s .

325.

In flu e n z a i s caused by a v iru s*

326*

Pneumonia i s an I n f e c tio n o f the lungs*

327 * tu b e rc u lo s is i s a chronic in f e c tio n o f the lungs * 328.

411 boys and g i r l s in t h e i r te e n s should have a p e rio d ic check-up, in c lu d in g a ch est x ray . C hildren should be In o c u la te d according to the p h y s ic ia n 1s a d v ic e . C h ild ren should n ot be w i l l f u l l y exposed to "children* s d is e a s e s 1** i f a known exposure to d is e a s e o ccu rs, the d o cto r should be to ld a t one©*

338.

D ip h th eria a n tito x in cure© many cases of d ip h th e ria i f given e a rly enougja.

41 533.

th© Schick t e s t may to© g iv en to determ ine immunity to d ip h th e ria *

334*

V accin atio n i s a sim ple and safe method to prev en t sm all pox*

535*

Bheumatic f e v e r i s a s e rio u s in f e c tio n in v o lv in g th e jo in ts *

336 .

P o lio m y e litis i s a s e rio u s d ise a s e o f te n causing c rip p lin g s as y e t no method o f im m unization i s a v a ila b le *

337 «

M alaria, yellow f e v e r , plague, and typhus fe v e r are inseet-toorn© d is e a s e s , i . ©*, c a r r ie d toy v e c to rs .

338 *

Typhoid f e v e r , d y se n te ry and c h o le ra are e n te r ic d is e a s e s ,

1*

©*, th o se th a t involve th e d ig e s tiv e

tr a c t* 339*

The p re v e n tio n of © nteric d is e a s e s i s c h ie f ly toy s a n ita tio n *

340 *

B otulism i s a very s e rio u s d is e a s e from to x in s formed in fo o d .

341 *

Human beings acq uire t r i c h i n o s i s toy e a tin g unclean and uncooked pork#

342 .

Hookworm and te ta n u s are two s o il-b o rn e d is e a s e s .

345 .

Good h e a lth f o r everyone toecome s more p o ssib le each y e a r as science a id s more in d iv id u a ls through h e a lth a g e n c ie s.

344*

hi seas© -producing b a c te r ia are c l a s s i f i e d according to t h e i r c h a r a c t e r is t i c shape*

42

345*

P rotozoans cause dysentery,, m a la ria , and A frican s le e p in g sic k n e ss; v ir u s e s cause sm allpox, yellow f e v e r , m easles, and many o th e r d iseases*

346* C o n tro l o f m osquito-borne d is e a s e s in v o lv es screen ­ in g , d ra in in g and sp ray in g w ith l i g h t o i l . 347. T ularem ia i s an animal d ise a s e which may he tr a n s ­ m itte d to man from ra b b its * 348* P h agocytosis i s th e ta k in g i n o f a p a r t i c l e of m a te r ia l fo re ig n t o th e body by the w hite blood c e lls * a

349* S t e r i l i z a t i o n i s the d e s tr u c tio n of a l l form s of org an ic l i f e * 350* D iseases may be caused by d e fic ie n c y in the d i e t . 351* Persons may be poisoned by le a d , mercury, o r phosphorus* 352* A dults in m iddle l i f e fre q u e n tly develop d is e a s e s t h a t in v o lv e the h e a r t, kidneys, and blood v e s s e ls . 353. Cancer i s th e w ild and u n c o n tro lle d growth o f c e l l s . 354* Tapeworm eggs can be tra n s m itte d to the human body by the e a tin g o f in fo o te d undercooked meat o r fish * 385. The akin i s composed of two la y e rs — the epiderm is and th e d erm is. 355# S y p h ilis i s an in f e c tio u s d ise a se c o n tra c te d by ex­ posure in such a way th a t the liv in g sp iro c h e te s com® in to c o n ta c t w ith mucous membrane o r a break In th e skin*

43

357#

M&bles, o r hydrophobia, a d ise a s e which i s not spread from man to man hut I s c o n tra c te d from dog b i t e , i s p rev en ted toy a vaccine*

358#

P a ste u r and Koch were two le a d in g p io n e e rs In th e stu, th e sunshine v itam in , in flu e n c e s th e us® of calciu m and phosphorus in b u ild in g bones and te e th .

618.

A baby d e riv e s g re a t b e n e fit from sun b a th s.

519.

Exposure to sunshine 1® e s p e c ia lly h e lp fu l because i t ca u ses e r g o s te r o l in th e skin to change to vitam in D.

520.

The rat© a t which the body cool® depends la r g e ly upon how ra p id ly th e a i r n ex t to th e & in i s removed*

50 521*

A p erso n may liv e w ithout food f o r months and w ithout w ate r f o r a few days, but w ithout a i r he d ie s i n a few m inutes*

522.

Walking in open a i r quickens th e c i r c u la ti o n ,

523*

fhe prim ary purpose of r e s p i r a t io n i s to supply the c e l l s of th e body w ith oxygen and to r id them of e x c e ss c a rb o n -d io x ld e •

524.

E x te rn a l b re a th in g concludes w ith th e passage o f oxygen to th e blood v e s s e ls in th e lungs*

525*

I n t e r n a l r e s p i r a t io n ta k e s p lace when the oxygen of the blood I s tr a n s f e r r e d to th e t i s s u e s of th e body.

526*

P roper b re a th in g movement a are im portant f o r good h e a lth *

527

.Ju st

b efo re in h a la tio n th e m uscles of the c h e st w a lls ,

th e r i b s , and th e diaphragm en larg e the c h e st c a v ity . 528*

A c u rre n t of a i r p assin g in through th e b ro n c h ia l tu b es in c re a s e s th e p re ssu re w ith in th e lu n g s.

529.

During sleep th e b re a th in g movement® are in v o lu n ta ry .

5^0.

As th e carbon d io x id e In a room In c re a s e s , th o se p re s e n t are caused to b re a th more quickly*

531.

Deep b re a th in g e x e rc is e s the m uscles of th e diaphragm, s tim u la te s th e c ir c u la tio n , and In c re a se s th e power of th e ch est m uscles.

532*

P roper tem p eratu re f o r th e s i t t i n g room i s 68° to 72° F a r e n h e lt*

833 *

The lu n g s are made up of many minute a i r sacs*

51

534*

oxygen I s needed toy a l l l iv in g c e lls *

535.

Cartoon monoxide i s a dangerous component of air*

Vi 601.

T eeth

P ro p er care of th e mouth and te e th i s an im p o rtan t h e a lth p ra c tic e *

60S.

C a rie s, o r decay, are due to germs.

603.

onee th e enamel has become unsound, in f e c tio n in th© d e n tin e i s l i k e l y to occur*

604.

There i s much th a t can be done to b u ild sound enamel toy fu rn is h in g p ro p er d ie t*

605.

lio food d e b ris should be allowed to remain in con­ t a c t w ith th e te e th .

606.

A safe ru le i s to brush th© te e th thoroughly a f t e r ta k in g any food, also b efo re r e t i r i n g and a f t e r ris in g .

607.

T eeth should be examined toy a d e n t i s t p e r io d ic a lly — every six months o r a t l e a s t one© a y e a r.

608*

A good b ite , o r proper o c c lu sio n , i s n ec essary f o r chewing.

609.

The gums should to© pink and should not b leed .

61C.

Gum i n f e c ti o n s , such as V in cen t’ s in f e c tio n , ar© communicable to others*

611.

A to o th th a t has begun to decay i s an in fe c te d wound.

612.

The d e n t i s t i s an e x p e rt in re p a ir in g and re p la c in g te e th *

62

613*

F or th e m aintenance o f v ig o r th© gums need ex e rcise*

614*

The d e n t i f r i c e used should he of proven q u ality *

616*

Each to o th c o n s is ts of th re e p a r ts : th e crown, th© ro o t, and the n eck.

616*

Th© o u ts id e p a r t of th© to o th I s a h ard n o n -liv in g substance*

617*

I f the permanent t e e t h become crooked and do not have c o rre c t b i t in g s u rfa c e , th e y should be s tra ig h te n e d by an o r th o d o n tis t.

618*

Tooth decay p ro g re sse s r a p id ly once s ta rte d *

619*

Pyorrhea i s a t e r n a p p lie d to a v a r ie ty of d is o rd e rs o f th© gums*

620.

Trench mouth i s a h ig h ly co n tag io u s d is e a s e of th e mouth re q u irin g m edical treatm ent*

621.

A thorough b ru sh in g of th© t e e t h cannot toe accom­ p lis h e d i n le s s th a n th re e m inutes.

622.

In fe c te d t e e t h may r e s u l t i n weakening v i t a l o rg an s.

623.

I n f e c tio n from th e t e e th may get in to th© blood stream and t r a v e l through th© body.

624*

A com bination of s a liv a , germs, and m in erals may cans® th e d e p o s itio n o f a substance known as t a r t a r .

625.

T a r ta r when f i r s t d e p o site d i s r a th e r s o f t and may toe removed by b ru sh in g .

.620*

T a r ta r does no p a r t i c u l a r damage to th e te e th ; i t may I r r i t a t e th© gums.

627*

Calcium and phosphorus are needed in bones, t e e th , and o th e r body t i s s u e s .

628*

Th© prim ary fu n c tio n o f th© te e th i s m astic a t io n ; secondary fu n c tio n s o f th e te e th have to do w ith speech and appearance.

629*

The f i r s t permanent t e e th to e ru p t are th© s ix y ear molars*

630.

The l a s t permanent te e t h to appear are th© wladorn te e th *

631*

Im pacted wisdom te e th fre q u e n tly cause tro u b le and may have t o toe removed toy s u rg ic a l operation*

632.

A to o th I® made up m ostly o f toon©-like m a te ria l c a lle d d e n tin e .

633.

The to o th , w ith the e x c e p tio n of th© enamel and eementuM, i s a liv in g s tru c tu re *

634.

Permanent t e e t h form under th e tem porary te e th *

635*

The n ecessary to o th -b u iId in g foods are m ilk, choose, raw v e g e ta b le s and f r u i t s , supplemented toy v itam in to*

636.

T eeth decay most ra p id ly when acid-form ing b a c te r ia , caused toy su g ars, are allow ed to grow and p e r s i s t i n la rg e numbers.

637.

I f a to o th which has decayed In to th e pulp c a v ity i s n o t s u c c e s s fu lly t r e a te d , pus from th© pulp chamber t r a v e l s down th e ro o t c a n a ls and c o lle c ts a t th© ends o f th© r o o ts .

638*

A n o n -d ra in in g abscess a t th© ro o t of a to o th i s f r e ­ q u en tly d i f f i c u l t to d e te c t except toy Xray examina­ tion*

54

639*

A p l e n t i f u l supply of v ita m in C found i n c i t r u s f r u i t s , tom atoes, and f r e s h v e g e ta b le s, i s an im p o rtan t f a c t o r in keeping th e gums healthy*

640*

The d e n t i s t may clean th© te e th w ithout pain*

641*

C a v itie s should be f i l l e d as soon as they are evident*

642*

A d e v ita lis e d to o th i s one i n which th e nerve has been d estro y ed by i n f e c ti o n .

643*

when u sin g d e n ta l f l o s s on© should be c a r e f u l not to in ju r e the gums.

644*

i!h® in c is o r s a re f o r c u tt i n g , th e can in es f o r te a r in g , and th© m oiars f o r g rin d in g th e fo o d .

645*

With th e e x c e p tio n o f th© common c o ld , to o th decay i s th® most p re v a le n t diseas® known*

646.

There i s a la c k o f adequate and a u th e n tic knowledge re g a rd in g d e n ta l h e a lth .

647.

D ental in fo rm atio n should apply p e rso n a lly to the in d iv id u a l*

648*

Deciduous o r baby te e th should be cared f o r as long as p o ssib le*

649*

Decay o f the t e e t h can to© c o n tro lle d but not com pletely p re v en ted .

650.

Tooth decay i s a d e s tr u c tiv e provoss, not s e lf - lim itin g , and not n a tu r a lly re p aired *

651*

In M assachusetts over 95 p e r cent of the people s u ffe r from d e n ta l decay.

652.

For reaso n s unknown, about th re e p e r cent of th e people o f M assachusetts do not hav© d e n ta l decay.

55

663*

Thar© I s a r e la tio n s h ip between th e anatom ical con­ f i g u r a ti o n o f th e t e e th and t h e i r s u s c e p ta b ility to decay.

654*

A sample count of D.48.F* i s now g e n e ra lly accepted as a v a lid measure of th© number o f d e n ta l c a r ie s an In d iv id u a l h as had.

The count i s the t o t a l of de­

cayed (U) p lu s m issing (M) p lu s f i l l e d (P ). 655.

The D*M«P* count when d iv id e d In to I t s component p a r ts shows th e h i s t o r y o f th e in d iv id u a l or th e group d e n ta l s ta tu s *

656.

The a c tu a l stu d y of d e n t i s t r y I s of fo u r years* d u ra tio n , le a d in g to th e degree luD .S . o r D.M.D.

657.

k g re a t o p p o rtu n ity I s o ffe re d women as a u x il lia r y w orkers In th© f i e l d o f d e n ta l hygiene*

V II

C lo th in g

701.

C lo th in g may safeg u ard h e a lth .

702.

To be d re sse d c o r r e c tly one should wear c lo th e s t h a t are n ea t and c le a n and s u ita b le f o r th e o ccasio n .

703.

Proper d re s s should b© hygienic*

704.

I f c lo th in g I s too t i g h t , c ir c u la ti o n w il l be d i s ­ turbed*

705*

C lothes should be ©oft In te x tu r e and f i t lo o s e ly ,

706.

C lo th in g worn next t o th® ©kin should b© of a type th a t w i l l absorb p e r s p ir a tio n but w ill not dry to o q u ic k ly .

56

707.

C otton and rayon are Is©at f o r underw ear.

70S.

Wool makes warm o u te r garm ents because of i t s loose me six*

709.

E f f o r ts should be made to buy c lo th e s w ith in o n e 's mean a.

710.

C lo th es should be p laced on hangers im m ediately a f te r th ey are tak en off*

711.

Whenever removing s ta in s t r y th e c le a n in g f l u i d on a sm all p iece o f th e garment to see w hether o r n o t i t w i l l In ju re th© f a b r i c .

712.

f i g h t g a r te r s o r b e l t s imped© c ir c u la tio n .

715*

C lo th in g r e g u la te s th© rat© a t which th e body c o o ls.

714*

Smoothly woven c o tto n becomes s a tu ra te d w ith p e r s p ir a ­ tio n .

715.

O uter c lo th in g should be v a r ie d according to th© a t ­ mosphere and should not be worn in d o o rs.

716.

w ell~chosen c lo th in g adds to p e rso n a l charm.

717.

Persons who engage in w in te r s p o rts should wear warm c lo th in g .

718.

M a te ria ls th a t a r e mad© from v eg e ta b le f i b r e s , lik e c o tto n , are good conductors of h e a t and allow th© body h e a t to b© l o s t more rapidly*

719.

M a te ria ls th a t a re mad© from anim al f i b r e s , lik e wool, are poor co n ductors of h e a t and are warm.

720*

The f i t of c lo th in g , th e number o f la y e r s , andth© p ro p o rtio n of th e body to be covered are im portant

57

721*

The c o o le s t c lo th in g i s o f t h i n , porous c o tto n , lin e n , o r rayon.

722.

A ll c lo th in g should he cleansabl© and fre q u e n tly washed*

725.

iroor p o stu re may c o u n te ra c t the appearance of good clo th in g *

724.

White c lo th in g i s c o o le r th a n dark c lo th in g because th e lig h t c o lo r r e f l e c t s heat*

725.

E vaporation h e lp s to m ain tain normal body tem p eratu re.

726*

Underwear and sto c k in g s should be changed often*

VIXX

S leep and Host

801.

I t i s im p o rtan t t h a t one le a r n to r e la x .

802.

Science h as shown t h a t the c e l l s of th e b ra in , n erv es, l i v e r , and ad ren al glands run down during wakeful h o u rs and sle e p alone can r e s to r e them.

803.

Sleep en a b le s th e whole body to repay i t s oxygen d e b t.

804*

Sleep e n a b le s th e m uscles to re la x and re p le n is h t h e i r s to re of f u e l .

805*

The average a d u lt needs seven to nine hours sleep p e r n ig h t.

806*

i f one does not g et enough s le e p , he pays f o r i t in la c k o f e ffic ie n c y *

807*

Sleep and r e la x a tio n go to g e th e r.

58 808*

Sound and lig h t should b© shut out .of the sle e p in g room; f r e s h a i r should he a v a ila b le .

809.

one should assume good p o stu re when ly in g down to s le e p .

810*

F atig u e may be i n o n e1a mind.

811*

k change may be as good as a r e s t .

812.

I t ap p ears more im portant to sleep w e ll than to s le e p long.

815.

Kveryon© needs to get out o f the ru t a t le a s t once a week.

814.

A change of scene f o r a week o r two each y e a r i s b e n e f ic ia l.

815.

One should spend some tin e each day o r weak working a t what one l i k e s to do.

816.

o c c a sio n a l lo s s o f sleep does l i t t l e harm provided th© lo s s i s mad© up latex*.

817.

fo rm a lly a p erso n spends about o n e -th ird of h is l i f e i n bed.

818*

A high school

stu d e n t norm ally re q u ire s between

e ig h t and te n h ours 819*

of sle e p d a ily .

Avery in d iv id u a l should have a re g u la r time f o r re tirin g .

820*

During sleep a l l th e body p ro c esses go on as u su a l, but some of

821.

reco v ery from

them a t a dim inished rate* i l l n e s s may depend as muchon sleep

as on m edicine.

59 822*

To I n te r r u p t work f o r a few m inutes In o rd e r to r e ­ la x i s co n sid ered v ery h e lp f u l to hard w orkers.

823.

There are drugs t h a t d u ll th e f e e lin g of f a tig u e j th e se are l i k e l y to do harm whan th ey cause a c t i v i t y to continue a f t e r r e s t should have begun*

824.

A t i r e d nerve c e l l compared w ith a re s te d one shows decided changes in th e c e l l body and th e nucleus*

825.

I n t e r e s t improve® th e body to n e , and f a tig u e p oisons are co n seq u en tly e lim in a te d q u ic k ly .

826.

I t i s b e lie v e d th a t n o is e causes c e r ta in body p a r ts to t i r e and h a ste n f a tig u e .

827.

Sounds have a d e f in i te e f f e c t upon th e nervous sy s­ tem as w e ll as upon o th e r p a r ts o f th e body.

828.

Each n ig h t a normal person spends only one and o n e -h a lf hours in deep, m o tio n less s le e p .

829.

une i s n o t a t h is b e st the f i r s t hour o r two a f t e r waking.

830.

S en satio n s o f f a tig u e should be heeded as a danger sig n .

831.

K ecreation and s le e p should be c a r e f u lly planned.

832.

Kest and f a tig u e a f f e c t appearance.

833.

Hard work i s one of th e causes o f p h y sic a l f a tig u e .

834.

Aorry may cause nervous f a tig u e .

835.

Extreme f a tig u e i: p a i r s muscle c o o rd in a tio n .

836.

Heat aid© d ig e s tio n .

837.

C arbohydrates h elp to d estro y fa tig u e -p o is o n s c a r r ie d by the blood.

60

Normal fa tig u e i s a f e e lin g of w earin ess due to the presen ce o f unremoved c e l l wastes* Poor v e n t i l a t i o n may cause d is e a s e .

IX 901*

hyeg

Good v is io n b rig h te n s th© s a t i s f a c ti o n of re c re a ­ tio n and in c re a s e s th e e f f ic ie n c y of busin ess or s o c ia l a f f a i r s .

90S*

The meehanIsm of v is io n fu n c tio n s much lik e a camera*

903*

The in n e r co at of the eye i s c a lle d the r e ti n a .

904.

Behind th® i r i s the le n s d e f le c ts the lig h t rays and tra n s m its them to th© o p tic nerve which in tu rn c a r r i e s th e im pulse to th e brain*

905.

The o u te r edge of the r e t i n a i s generously supplied w ith rod-shaped c e l l s which are s e n s itiv e to l i g h t and darkness*

906.

The rod-shaped c e ll s c o n ta in a pigment* v is u a l purple* which needs vitam in

a

f o r m aintenance and i s con­

s ta n tly b ein g fo rc e d out as i t i s exposed to l i g h t • 907.

The o p tic n e rv e s from th© two ©yes lead backward and jo in to form a re la y s t a ti o n .

90S. ' The e y e lid s serv e as s h u tte r s which keep out small f l y i n g o b je c ts and d u s t. 909.

The lachrym al glands* s itu a te d above the o u te r c o m e r of th e eyes* s e c re te a lim ite d amount of tears*

61 910*

Classroom s need from te n to f i f t e e n fo o t-c a n d le s of l i g h t on th e su rfa c e o f a desk.

911*

P ro p er car® of th® ey es I s an im portant f a c t o r in good h e a lth .

912*

Th® ©ye exam iner may he an o c u lis t* an opth&lmalo* g i s t , an o p to m e tris t, o r an o p tic ia n *

913*

O c u lis ts and opth& lm aloglsts are p h y sic ia n s who have made a s p e c ia l study of th® eye*

914*

An o p to m e tris t knows th e ©ye alth o u g h ha i s not a physician*

915*

An o p tic ia n i s a person tr a in e d to g rin d lens®a and r e p a ir g la s s e s .

910*

Many s t a t e s have laws re q u irin g th© a tte n d in g p h y sic ia n to place in th e eyes o f th e new-born In fa n t a few drops o f s i l v e r n i t r a t e .

917.

Th© most common eye d e f e c ts ares n e a rsig h te d n e ss (myopia) and fa rs ig h te d n e s s (h y p e ro p ia), both o f which a re c o rre c te d by le n s e s .

918.

A stigm atism occurs from a c e r ta in d e fe c t i n th® cu rv a tu re o f th e r e f r a c tiv e su rfa c e s of th e eye.

919*

D iseases of th e ©ye u s u a lly a f f e c t th e d e lic a te mem­ brane which covers the e y e b a ll and lin in g s of th® e y e lid s*

920.

The N atio n al Eye Bank lo c a te d in the c i ty o f Mew York attem p ts to keep on hand a supply o f h e a lth y human co rn eas.

62 921*

A s k i l l f u l surgeon tr a n s p la n ts a h e a lth y cornea to th© a f f e c te d eye of th© p a tie n t and d e li c a t e l y s t i t c h e s i t In to place#

922*

Th© eye can be in ju re d toy e i t h e r to o much o r too l i t t l e lig h t#

923*

Much e y e s tr a in I s caused toy re a d in g when th e l ig h t i s p lace d In such a p o s itio n as to produce g la re

on th e page# 924*

k common cause o f eye in ju ry 1® read in g w ith in a u ff ic ie s t lig h t.

928*

One should n o t read ly in g down o r w ith th e head in a r e c lin in g p o sitio n #

926.

The page should toe h e ld a p ro p er d is ta n c e away from th e eyes — twelve to fo u rte e n inches - - and th e l i g h t should come from th e rear#

927*

The eyes should toe r e s te d p e r io d ic a lly from any c lo se work*

928*

A minute foreign, body th a t g e ts In to the ®y© may to© flu s h e d out w ith c l e a r w ater o r a very m ild so lu ­ t i o n o f s a l t w ate r, o r a f o u r per cen t s o lu tio n o f b o ric acid#

929.

Among the common oye d ise a se s i s pink eye, o r con­ j u n c t i v it i s #

930.

M edical a t t e n t i o n should always to© given when a s ty occurs#

931*

The box o f th e eye-cam era c o n s is ts of a tough p ro ­

63

te c tiv e co a t c a lle d th e s c l e r o t i c c o a t. 932.

The dark l i n in g o r second la y e r of the eye i s c a lle d th© ch o ro id .

933.

C olor b lin d n e s s i s due to the f a u l t y fu n c tio n in g of th e cones*

034:

t)

I n a b i l i t y to see in a very dim l i g h t i s c a lle d n ig h t b lin d n e ss; t h i s -condition i s c o u n te ra c te d by v itam in

935.

A,

There i s a b lin d spot i n each eye where th e o p tic nerve le a v e s th e e y e b a ll.

936.

The co lo red p a r t o f the eye, th e i r i s , i s f o r regu­ la t i n g th e l i g h t .

937.

L iquid le n s e s are formed in th e ©y© by th e aqueous and v itr e o u s humor.

938.

The c r y s t a ll i n e le n s of th e ay© i s made up of a c o lo r le s s j e l l y - l i k e su b stan ce.

989.

The th ic k n e s s of the le n s in th e eye i s re g u la te d by the c i l i a r y muscle*

940.

The i n t e r n a l m uscles of th© eye d i r e c t both ©yes

\

toward th e same o b je c t. 941.

Th© normal ©ye see© o b je c ts tw enty f e e t away w ith th e l e a s t e f f o r t .

942.

Th© eyebrows shade th e ©yea from overhead l i g h t s and keep o u t p e rsp ira tio n *

943.

Human eyes are ac cu rate because fchoy both see the same o b je c t.

64

944.

In crosii eyes (stra b ism u s) th e eyes do n o t focus on th e same o b je c t.

945- one should avoid. th e h azard s o f eye in f e c tio n which are occasioned by wiping th e eyes on a s o ile d tow el o r h an d k erch ief • 94b* fhe ey es, rem arkable s tr u c tu r e s , may be used d u rin g waking h o u rs w ithout fa tig u e * 947* Xlo a id th e eye in fo c u sin g , a le n s of g la s s may be worn in f r o n t of th e eye having a r e f r a c ti v e e r r o r . 948. A ll the p r o te c tio n th e eyes need from o rd in a ry sun­ li g h t i s th e shade of the brim of a h a t. 949.

As sun g la s s e s one should o b ta in standard g la s s e s developed by o p tic a l s c i e n t i s t s to absorb d a z z lin g g la re and to f i l t e r out some of the in v is ib le u l t r a - v i o l e t ra y s .

950. Light re g u la r ly r e f le c te d produces in d i r e c t g la r e } an unshaded source of lig h t f a l l i n g in th© lin e o f v is io n produces d i r e c t glare* 951. C olor of a su rface depends upon which l i g h t rays ar© re fle c te d . 952. Xho lig h t m eter i s th e instrum ent used f o r m easuring in t e n s i t y of l i g h t on an illu m in a te d s u rfa c e . 95b. fwice each y e a r th e eyes of ©very school p u p il should b© t e s te d by u sin g th e S nellen 5y© C h a rt. 954. armed C erv ices t e s t s show th a t one out of every 25 ■en i s c o lo r blind#

85

955*

A’aeh e y e b a ll i s moved by six v o lu n ta ry m uscles a tta c h e d to i t s o u te r surface*

958*

At th e f r o n t o f th e e y e b a ll th e o u te r la y e r forms th e tra n s p a r e n t s e c tio n c a lle d the c o rn e a .

957 *

P resbyopia i s a type o f fa rs ig h te d n e s s which o ccurs among o ld e r people because th e c r y s t a l l i n e le n s lo s e s some of i t s e l a s t i c i t y .

958.

o c c a s io n a lly a non-communicable d is o rd e r known as c a ta r a c t develops in th© ©yes o f e ld e r ly p e rso n s.

X A lcohol, Tobacco, and Drugs

. A lcoholic

1001

beverages and drugs are harm ful to h e a lth

and w e lfa re .

.

1002

K thyl alco h o l la v a lu a b le as a so lv en t f o r many sub­ sta n c e s th a t w il l not d isso lv e in w ate r.

1005.

Alcohol i s a p re s e rv a tiv e and r e ta r d s th e growth of m olds.

1004.

Man abuses th© us© of a lco h o l by p re p a rin g a lc o h o lic b ev erag es.

1005.

A lcohol tak en i n sm all amounts i s a s tim u la n t, tak en i n la rg e amounts i s a d e p re s sa n t.

1006.

Alcohol im p a irs onef s judgment and may cause uncon­ sc io u s n e s s .

1007.

A lcohol I s th e wrong chem ical to give a person when an emergency re q u ire s th a t h is body be kept warm.

1008* Alcohol im p a irs sim ple m ental fu n c tio n s* 1009* A lcohol im p a irs ©ye-hand co o rd in atio n * 1010* Alcohol te n d s to im p air onef s r e s is ta n c e to d isease* 1011*

la rg e do ses of a lc o h o l i n h i b i t th e normal growth of young anim als and probably im p air th e m ental and moral development of young people*

1012*

Alien tak en i n sm all amounts a lc o h o l may be co n sid ered a food; when taken in la rg e amounts, a poison*

1013*

The body sometimes develops a crav in g f o r alcohol*

1014*

Alcohol i s a c o n trib u to r to crime*

1015*

Most s t a t e s have law® f o r c o n tr o llin g th© s a le of a lc o h o l and drugs*

1016* Tobacco 1® harm ful to good h ealth * 1017*

Smoking h as no advantage over o th e r form s o f r e c r e a ­ tio n .

1018*

Smoking i s an expensive habit*

1019.

Th© le a f o f th e tobacco p la n t c o n ta in s a drug c a lle d n ic o tin e *

1020.

In smoking n ic o tin e sp lit® in to p y rid in e and an o th er drug c a lle d c o llo d in e .

1021*

P y rid in e I s about ©n©~twenti@th as poisonous a® n ic o ­ tin e *

1022*

P y rid in e and n ic o tin e c o n s tr ic t th e blood v e s s e ls , cause a r i s e i n blood p re s s u re , and in c re a s e th e h e a rt r a t e .

1023.

D iffe re n t tobaccos have v a rie d n ic o tin e content*

67

1024*

The human body can ac q u ire a to le ra n c e f o r d if f e r e n t poisons*

1026*

Tobacco d u l l s th e a p p e tite f o r food and d elay s th e p ro c ess o f d ig estio n *

1026* P ersons sig n t h e i r names to ad v e rtise m e n ts f o r th e us® o f tobacco u s u a lly f o r th e f in a n c ia l re tu r n th ey re c e iv e , 1027* Age and p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n determ ine th e e f f e c t alcohol hag on any person* 1028* There i s some evidence th a t a lc o h o l and tobacco cut down th e l i f e span* 1029* Smoking d r ie s out th e mucous membranes* 1030* S ubstances I n tobacco smoke, In c lu d in g n ic o tin e and a sm all amount of carbon monoxide, a re d i s t i n c t poisons* 1031* a lc o h o l I s an in to x ic a tin g beverage made by ferm en ta­ tio n o r d i s t i l l a t i o n of g ra in s o r f r u i t ju ices* 1032# Pew d o c to rs In h o s p ita ls and p riv a te p r a c tic e have used a lc o h o l as a medicine# 1033# The kidney, stomach, and h e a rt show th e 111 e f f e c t s o f a lc o h o l. 1034* a lc o h o l i n la rg e doses causes a type of in s a n ity known as d e liriu m tremens# 1036* C e rta in n a r c o tic s are r i g h t f u l l y used i n m edicine to r e lie v e p a in and to produce sleep* 1036* N arco tics have a v ery harm ful e f f e c t upon th e nervous

68

system* 1037*

The g r e a te s t danger i n th e use of n a r c o tic s i s th e p o s s i b i l i t y of form ing a h a b it d i f f i c u l t to break*

1036*

Opium i s a n a r c o tic th a t comes from th e Ju ice of th e POPPY p lan t*

103-9*

Morphine, o b tain ed from ©plum, i s used by p h y sic ia n s to r e lie v e p a in and induce sleep*

1040* Codeine i s a d ru g s im ila r to morphine* 1041* H eroin i s a drug d eriv e d from opium. 1042* le a v e s from th e coca t r e e fu r n is h a drug known as cocaine* 1043.

A substance c a lle d novocain has la r g e ly re p la c e d cocaine in m edicine and d e n ti s tr y because i t i s l e s s h a b it-fo rm in g .

1044*

The flo w e rin g p la n t, In d ia n Hemp, c o n ta in s th e n a r­ c o tic known as m ariju an a.

1045*

Marijuana has no m edical value and has a v ary pro­ found e f f e c t upon th e nervous system*

1046.

The b a r b itu r a te s are used m ed ically to produce sle e p and to overcome nervousness! th e y are h a b it form­ in g and should be used only on the ad v ice o f a physician*

1047.

?iih©n a lc o h o l reaches th e stomach th e blood Immediate­ ly b eg in s to absorb i t w ithout any chem ical change*

1048.

A c o n c e n tra tio n o f 0*7 p er ce n t alco h o l In the blood

69

r e s u l t s in death* 1049*

A lcohol causes a d i l a t a t i o n of th e blood v e s s e ls n ear th e sk in and. a f a ls e sense of warmth*

1050*

Borne p a te n t m edicines c o n ta in drugs which should not be used ex cep t on advice of a competent physician*

1051*

Cure of a d d ic tio n to th e more pow erful d ru g s, such as opium and m arijuana, re q u ir e s tre a tm e n t a t an i n s t i ­ tu tio n *

1062*

The f i r s t breakdown of alco h o l o ccurs in th e l i v e r .

1063*

Alcohol produces a f a t t y l i v e r which fa v o rs th e d ev el­ opment of c irr h o s is *

1064*

In one out o f ev ery f iv e t r a f f i c a c c id e n ts in th e U n ited S ta te s th e d r iv e r o r p e d e s tria n

whs

re p o rte d

as having been drinking* 1055*

The Fure Pood and Drug Act passed in 1906 com pelled m an u factu rers to give n o tic e on th e c o n ta in e r la b e l of the presence of and th e amount of c e r ta in n a rc o tic d ru g s in a p a te n t medicine*

1056*

C affein e i s p re s e n t in sm all amounts in c o ffe e , te a , and cola*

1057*

Benzedren© s u l f a t e , a drug th a t has a s tim u la tin g e f f e c t , should not be used except on advice of a p h y s ic ia n .

1058*

There are s e v e ra l kinds of a lc o h o l; th e kind found, in a lc o h o lic d rin k s i s e th y l a lc o h o l.

1059*

Some people d rin k alc o h o l to do what the group i s d o in g .

70

1060.

On® can h&v© more fu n w ith o u t a lc o h o l becuas® onjoym©nt i s k e e n e r.

1061 * In o rd e r to be a b e t t e r a t h l e t e , one should n o t d rin k a lc o h o l. 1062*

On® who does n o t d rin k w i l l be re s p e c te d by w orth­ w h ile p eo p le.

1065 * M arijuana i s so ld in. th e form o f c i g a r e t t e s .

XX F i r s t Aid 1101

.

F i r s t Aid, o r knowing what to do w hile w a itin g f o r th e d o c to r, i s a n ecessary f a c t o r in e d u c a tio n .

1102.

Many a c c id e n t v ic tim s re q u ire some bandaging to p ro te c t them from e x c essiv e b le e d in g and in fe c tio n *

1105.

F o r f i r s t a id th e tr i a n g u l a r bandage I s sim ple and quick.

1104.

Heat can be ap p lied to good advantage In th e form o f h o t-w a te r b o t t le s or bags, s a l t p ack s, hot to w els, and h o t b a th s .

1106.

I f p o s s ib le , p a tie n ts should be kept a t th e scene o f th e a c c id e n t u n t i l th e d o c to r1® a r r i v a l so as to avoid more s e rio u s in ju ry In tra n s p o rta tio n *

1106.

I f sever® b leed in g i s not stopped im m ediately, d e a th may r e s u l t .

1107.

I t I s v ery Im portant to remember th a t a to u rn iq u e t should be loosened f o r a moment o r two ©very tw enty m in u tes.

71 1X08*

Minor bum s may be t r e a te d by th e a p p lic a tio n of b u m ointm ent o r a s o lu tio n o f b ic a rb o n a te o f soda,

1109#

bog* c a t, and o th e r anim al b i t e s should be tr e a te d much the same as o th e r wounds, except th a t th e re i s a ls o th e p o s s i b i l i t y of rab ies*

1110

#

I n a compound f r a c tu r e no attem pt should be made to push th© bone In to th e f l e s h .

m i#

S p ra in s, which are p a r t i a l d is lo c a tio n s , should be tr e a te d w ith cold a p p lic a tio n s a t f i r s t .

1112 #

In case of a d is lo c a tio n th© d o c to r should be c a lle d im m ediately.

m e*

i f unconsciousness l a s t s more th an a few m in u tes, a p h y sic ia n should be summoned immediately*

1114*

Sunstroke v ic tim s have a high f e v e r and a flu s h e d ffe.ce*

1115.

For su n stro k e plae© th© p a tie n t in a cool s p o t, and apply ic e packs, o r re p e a te d ly dash c o ld w ater o v er the body.

1116 #

Lay a v ic tim of h@ut ex h a u stio n l a a cool sp o t, lo o sen th© c lo th in g , and give stim u lan ts#

1117.

I f a v ic tim o f e l e c t r i c shock i s s t i l l in c o n ta c t w ith the w ire , do not touch him o r th© w ire ; push th e w ire o u t o f th e way w ith a wooden s tic k *

1118.

bo n o t do an y th in g in th© way o f f i r s t aid t h a t i s n o t approved In the Hed Cross F i r s t Aid Book.

1119*

To c o n tro l flam in g c lo th in g r o l l th© p a tie n t i n a rug*

72 112 0 .

To check sev ere b leed in g a knowledge of th e main p re ss u re

1121.

A s tr a in e d

p o in ts of th e body i s

needed.

muscle can be soothed by

h o t w ater o r hot

compresses* 1122

.

F or f a i n t s , i f fa c e i s p ale and p u lse and b re a th in g slow, lay p a tie n t down o r have him s i t w ith h i s head between h is knees. The S chaefer method of r e s u s c i ta ti o n c o n s is ts in fo rc in g th e p a t i e n t ’ s ch est to im ita te th© movements of o rd in a ry b re a th in g , th u s e x p e llin g gas o r w ater from the

1124 *

a i r tu b es and drawing

In every house m a te ria ls

f o r g iv in g

in

a ir. f i r s t a id

should

be a v a ila b le . 1125*

The most u rg en t need f o r f i r s t a id occur when a p a tie n t (1} i s b leed in g p ro fu s e ly ; (2) i s not b reath in g s (5) has swallowed p o iso n ; (4) i s s u f­ f e r i n g from shock o r severe pain*

1126.

in case of shock p lace v ic tim on back and keep him warm w ith b la n k e ts o r nevtfsp&pers.

1127.

O b jects lodged In the th r o a t may be removed by a s la p on th e back o r by c a r e f u lly hooking i t out w ith the f i n g e r .

1120.

T etan u s, caused by b a c te r ia which m u ltip ly ra p id ly i n th e absence of oxygen, may be guarded a g a in st by encouraging b leed in g from th© wound.

112 9 .

when one h as swallowed p o iso n , c a l l th e d o c to r; meanwhile, I f th e poison was not a l k a l i o r a c id , give an em etic •

1130*

Burns, u s u a lly t r e a te d by o i l o r s a lv e , are c l a s s i ­ f i e d and t r e a te d according to th© degree o f depth to which th e tis s u e has been I n ju r e d .

1131.

The b lack widow s p id e r i s co a l b lack and shiny w ith a sm all head and la rg e smooth abdomen.

1132#

I f t e a r s do not remove an o b je c t from the eye, p u ll th e upper l i d down and o u t, b lin k in g a t th e same tim e, o r wash th e eye w ith b oric a c id s o lu tio n .

1133*

In t r e a t i n g fro s tb it© th© o b je c t i s to in su re a g ra d u al r e tu r n to normal c ir c u la tio n ,

1134#

bo not attem pt to fore© a sem i-conscious o r an unconscious person to d rin k .

1135

• Asphyxia o r s u ffo c a tio n g e n e ra lly r e s u l t s from drowning, e l e c t r i c shock, o r gas p o iso n in g .

1136#

S lig h t wounds g e n e ra lly cause th e blood to ooze from sm all c a p illa r ie s #

1 1 3 7 * A r t e r i a l b leed in g may be stopped by a p p lic a tio n of

p r e s s u r e between the wound and th e h e a r t. 1138.

Treatm ent f o r a f r a c tu r e c o n s is ts of making th e p a tie n t co m fo rtable, k e e p i n g him from moving, and p la c in g s p l i n ts on th e f r a c tu r e d member.

1139.

Washing a wound w ith w a t e r i s not a safe p ro ced u re; germs may b© washed in to th e wound.

74

X14Q*

A d i s i n f e c t a n t , such as two p e r cent tin c tu r e of Io d in e , may be a p p lie d to a sm all wound.

114 X.

I f P lead in g i s n ot se v e re , p re ss u re upon th e wound w i l l a id th© blood to c lo t and the b leed!ng to sto p .

1142.

Even p in p ric k s should be t r e a te d as wound®, f o r the s m a lle s t can adm it many germs*

114 o * o fte n th e q u ic k e st way to o b ta in a p h y sic ia n i s to ask th® p o lic e departm ent to do so. 1144.

F i r s t a id m a te ria ls have been s ta n d a rd is e d by h e a lth a u t h o r i t i e s ac co rd in g to th© req u irem en ts f o r m eeting common em ergencies*

1145.

Th© most common type© of wounds are a b ra s io n s , i n ­ c is io n s , la c e r a tio n s , and punctured wounds.

1146.

O rd in a rily fo re ig n o b je c ts In the body can be r e ­ moved w ith a p a i r o f fcwee&ers; s e rio u s cases r e ­ q u ire a p h y s ic ia n .

1147.

Persons who 11 v© i n a re a s in h a b ite d by poisonous snakes should wear h i^ i-to p p e d boots and under­ stand snake-bit© f i r s t a id .

1148.

Th© le a v e s from p o iso n iv y , po iso n oak, and poison sumac s e rio u s ly i r r i t a t e th e skinj the symptoms may be removed by calam ine.

1149.

A lcoh ol should n ev er be u sed as a stim u la n t in f i r s t aid*

75

1150*

C hair, s tr e tc h e r , and hand tr a n s p o r ta tio n f o r th© in ju re d should he und ersto o d by a l l who may be c a lle d upon to p r a c tic e f i r s t aid*

1151.

For tr a n s p o r ta tio n of th o se w ith severe i n j u r i e s an ambulance should be ca lled *

XIX

Mental Hygiene

1201, The term n e u ro s is i s a p p lie d only to th e fu n c tio n a l d is o rd e r s i n which th e re i s no dem onstrable change in th e nerve c e lls * 1202* In o rg a n ic psychoses th e re i s an impairment o f nerve c e l l s tr u c tu r e duo t© s y p h ilis , b r a in tumor, h ard en in g o f th© a r t e r i e s , a lc o h o l, drugs, o r in ju ry * 1203*

The tendency to le s s severe types o f neuroses i s now b e lie v e d t o be la r g e ly c o n tro lla b le d e s p ite in h e rita n c e *

1204.

M ental hygiene p re v e n ts disorder© by b u ild in g th© m ental h a b its and a t t i t u d e s n ecessary f o r fa c in g r e a l i t y and assuming normal r e s p o n s i b il i ty .

1205*

M ental d is tu rb a n c e s do not always have a m ental o rig in *

1206*

Jhjcperiments give evidence th a t th e b ra in c e l l s g en e rate e l e c t r i c c u r re n ts which, I t i s b e lie v e d , are d i s t r i b u te d by th© nerv es c o n tin u o u sly to a l l

76

c e l l s and organs o f th© 'body* 1207*

Em otional u p s e ts cause a c tu a l b o d ily ha™ i f th ey are allow ed t o occur to o o fte n o r are prolonged*

1208*

A p s y c h i a t r i s t must have com plete m edical tr a in in g and have earned th e degree M* D.

1209*

A modern m ental h o s p i ta l i s a com bination o f h o sp i­ t a l , r e s o r t , hot® !, and school*

1210.

The d e s ire to liv e i s the most fundam ental of a l l in s tin c t® .

1211* Be-sides mere com panionship, most people d e s ire and need th e warmth and assurance o f human a ffe c tio n s * 1212* E xcessive day-dream ing i® a w ithdraw al from r e a l l i f e and r e a l people* 1213*

One may grow up i n c e r t a i n a s p e c ts o f p e r s o n a lity and rem ain a c h ild i n other® .

1214*

The fa m ily e x i s t s f o r th® m utual b e n e fit of a l l and should be m ain tained by a ll*

1215* Hurry d e f e a ts it© own purpose because c o n tra d ic to ry nerve im pulses to th e m uscles r e s u lt in f r u s t r a ­ tio n , undue f a tig u e and lo s s of e ffic ie n c y * 1216*

as

f a r as p o s s ib le a person should p la n h is study and work so th a t h® i s able to do th e type of th in g he w ishes to do.

1217. Emotions sp rin g from unconscious i n s tin c ti v e u rg e s. 1218* P e rs o n a lity development must tak e p lace from w ith in , f o r a wholesome m ental a t t i t u d e i s based upon

7?

p h y s ic a l v i t a l i t y and a h e a lth y body. 12X9*

A v ery s ig n if ic a n t fo u n d a tio n -s t one o f p e r s o n a lity I s v i t a l energy which e x p re sse s i t s e l f as en­ th u siasm and am b itio n .

1220.

Adolescence i s th© p e rio d from about 12 to 20 y ears o f age, a lth o u g h in some i t s t a r t s sooner and in o th e rs i t l a s t s longer*

1221

.

Most people f e e l Inadequate o r i n f e r i o r In some re s p e c ts .

1222

.

1223.

The joy o f accomplishment i s h e a lt h f u l. The most s c i e n t i f i c way to speed recovery from any d is e a s e i s th ro u g h a com bination o f p h y sic a l and m ental tre a tm e n ts .

1224.

S e lf-c o n sc io u sn e ss v an ish es as soon as a person t r u l y c o n c e n tra te s h i s a tte n tio n on h is com­ p an io n s.

1225*

To he a good le a d e r a p erso n must f i r s t le a r n to be a good fo llo w er*

1226*

The term ”in te g r a te d p e r s o n a lity ” h a s been used to d e fin e the b alance of p h y s ic a l, m ental, and s p i r i t u a l re sp o n se s.

1227.

I t i s normal f o r on© to have e i t h e r a concealed o r an ex p ressed i n t e r e s t In th© people th a t one ad­ m ires most.

1228*

There i s no c o n f li c t between scien ce and r e lig i o n .

78

1229.

One*8 p e r s o n a lity i s r e a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of o n e 's a s s o c ia te s .

1230*

T em ptation w ill ennoble a p e rs o n 's c h a ra c te r I f h© overcomes I t and come® f o r t h unscathed*

1251*

The word " r a t i o n a li z a t i o n ” a p p lie s to those who p u t up a d efen se a g a in s t Inadequacy in s te a d of f in d in g a s o lu tio n f o r th e d i f f i c u l t y .

1232. environm ent co nsist® o f

e v e ry th in g e x te r n a l which

a c ts upon one from b i r t h . 1233.

I n te llig e n c e te st® show how w e ll th e machinery of mind w orks.

1234*

A cquiring th e h a b it of s e l f - r e li a n c e i s a g rad u al p ro c e ss which sta rt® in e a r ly childhood and i s f o r t i f i e d by p r a c t ic e .

1235* The a b i l i t y to d e a l w ith

thing® as th e y are i s th©

t e s t o f an em o tio n a lly mature person* 1236.

Th© I n tr o v e r t turn® h i s th o u g h ts and f e e lin g s inward; th© e x tr o v e rt tu rn s hi® th o u g h ts and f e e lin g s o u t­ ward*

1237.

Although each p erso n l a an in d iv id u a l w ith h is o r h e r own unique q u a l i t i e s , i t i s tru e also th a t many persons are a lik e In p o sse ssin g c e r ta in a ttitu d e ® and In showing c e r ta in em otions.

1238*

Mental Hygiene d e a ls w ith ways o f liv in g which fa v o r m ental h e a lth and a good p e r s o n a lity ,

79

th ere b y h e lp in g to achieve a happy and e f fe c tiv e lif e * 1239.

F act i s a b e t t e r b a s is f o r a c tio n th an f ic tio n *

1240.

I f r e a l i t y i s u n p le a s a n t, sometimes th© most adap­ tiv e a c tio n i s to change i t*

1241.

As a r e s u l t o f ex p erien ce persons tend to develop broad l i k e s and d i s l i k e s known as a ttitu d e s *

XIIX

1301.

A rousing D esire f o r H ealth

o fte n an in d iv id u a l has to go through a tu rb u le n t tim e i n o rd e r to come to a h ig h e r em otional le v e l*

1302.

Th© p r a c tic e o f having a g e n e ra l exam ination by a com petent p h y sic ia n to a v e rt I l l n e s s i s now fo llo w ed by many i n t e l l i g e n t and h e a lth -c o n s clo u s people*

1303 * One o f th e ta s k s o f the h e a lth c o u n se lo rs i s to check m edical and d e n ta l c e r t i f i c a t e s to make sure p u p ils a re p h y s ic a lly f i t * 1304*

A p le a s in g p e rso n a l appearance I s a v a lla b 1© to a l l , f o r i t depends upon c a r e f u l grooming and I n t e l l i g e n t and h e a lth f u l liv in g *

1306 •

In stu d y in g h e a lth i t i s im portant to know one1s a s s e ts and l i a b i l i t i e s *

1306«

Th© human body has a l l th© equipment n ec essary f o r liv in g #

1307*

The c o n d itio n o f th© body has a g ro a t d e a l to do w ith th© c a p a c ity to re ach a goal in l i f e .

1508.

A ll b ab ies born In to th© w orld a t a given in s ta n t of tim e do not have an eq u al chance f o r p e rfe c t h ea lth *

1509.

From h is environm ent a baby re q u ire s many d if f e r e n t th in g s ; such a s , food and w a te r, which are sup­ p lie d u n t i l he can g e t them f o r h im s e lf.

1510.

Good h e a lth in v o lv e s much i n t e l l i g e n t a c tio n .

1311. un© should le a r n to ta k e advantage of m easures of d is e a s e p revention* 1312.

Oood h e a lth In v o lv es freedom from organic and func­ t i o n a l d iso rd e rs*

1313.

Good h e a lth In v o lv es knowledge o f th© p r in c ip le s of f i r s t aid*

1314*

Sound m ental h e a lth i s an Im portant f a c t o r In good h ea lth *

1315* We u s u a lly assume t h a t a person who knows how to a c t i n t e l l i g e n t l y w i l l in v a r ia b ly do so, but t h i s i s n ot always the c a se . 1316*

The scien ce of m edicine i s th e science of p re se rv ­ in g h e a lth and of t r e a t i n g d isease*

1317. The purpose of a h e a lth exam ination, o r h e a lth a p p r a is a l, i s to p ro v id e d e ta ile d in fo rm atio n

SI

cone© rn in g on©1© h ea lth * 1518.

H ealth exam inations v ary g r e a tly i n th e kind and amount o f in fo rm a tio n so u g h t,

1519*

th e fo llo w -u p of th e h e a lth exam ination i s even more Im portant th an th© exam ination i t s e l f *

XXV S a fe ty

1401.

The human 'brain i s lim ite d In re a c tio n time and power o f thought*

1402.

According to s t a te re c o rd s each y e a r n e a rly on© hun­ dred thousand d e a th s are tra c e a b le to a c c id e n ts ,

1405.

n a tio n a l s tu d ie s show th a t dangers In many s p o rts are due c h ie f ly to poor c o n d itio n , im proper su p e rv isio n , and th e u se of u n s u ita b le equipment and p lay in g areas.

1404.

In o rd e r to avoid a c c id e n ts i t I s exceedingly impor­ ta n t to warm up thoro u g h ly before e n te rin g reg u ­ l a r co m p etitio n or heavy p r a c tic e .

1405.

S afety-m in d ed p eo p le do many th in g s to prevent a c c i­ dent s .

1406.

Hunting i s on© o f th© most hazardous s p o rts ; each y e a r o v er 2,500 p erso n s are k i lle d a c c id e n ta lly In America by firearm s*

1407.

Many drowning a c c id e n ts co u ld be prev en ted i f th e p erso n s concerned could avoid f e a r and panic*

82 1408.

Moat swimmers are ig n o ra n t o f h azard s th e y w ill ©nc o u n te r when th e y e n te r th e s u r f .

1409.

F or s a f e ty in th e w ate r th e Hod Cross su g g ests th e l i f e sav in g slogans "Throw, How, Go.”

1410.

Most a c c id e n ta l death© may he p rev en ted hy i n t e l ­ l i g e n t , th o u g h tfu l, and co u rteo u s a c tio n .

1411.

S afety e n g in e e rs a re now g iv in g in c re a se d a tte n tio n to th© p o s s i b i l i t i e s of making th e autom obile sa fe r.

1412.

S afe ty re q u ir e s making c a r e f u l d riv in g th e only b u s in e s s w hile a t th e w heel.

141o * V eh ic u la r d e f e c ts are causes of many a c c id e n ts each y e a r. 1414.

B icycle r id in g i s c lo s e ly r e la te d to th e p e d e s tria n problem and i s a m ajor cause of a c c id e n ts .

1415.

A safe d riv in g a t t i t u d e i s perhaps th e most im portant s in g le f a c t o r i n p re v e n tin g a c c id e n ts .

1416.

S afety d i r e c to r s have shown th a t most a c c id e n ts are p re v e n ta b le .

1417.

Bum s, s c a ld s , and c u ts c o n s titu te a m ajor source of home a c c id e n ts .

1418.

Horn c a re o f th© s ic k and in ju re d re q u ir e s s p e c ia l a tte n tio n .

1419.

The gymnasium accounts f o r approxim ately o n e - th ird of a l l in s id e a c c id e n ts .

1420.

A la rg e p ercen tage o f school-ground a c c id e n ts occur

i n Inform al u n su p erv ised a c t i v i t i e s . 1421.

I t i s n e c e ssa ry to d is c o v e r school h a z a rd s.

1422 •

The s a fe ty c o u n c il a p p o in ts chairm en to he respon­ s ib le f o r th e s e v e ra l main d iv is io n s of school s a f e ty .

1428.

Fir© d r i l l s should be h e ld p e r io d ic a lly .

1424.

One o f th e most im portant a re a s f o r applying school s a f e ty I s th e shop.

1425.

Every community should have safe p la y a re a s f o r the ch ild ren *

1426.

C e rta in p a th s and roads should be provided f o r safe b ic y c le rid in g *

1427.

A c a r should be cheeked every thousand m iles of d riv in g .

1428.

Accident® on th© job a re u s u a lly prevented by © quipping m achines w ith s a fe ty device® and t r a i n ­ in g men i n s a f e ty .

1429.

A h azard I s an y th in g which p a r r ie s w ith I t an ex­ posure to chance o r lo s s o r in ju r y .

1450.

F a l l s may ba p rev en ted by removing o b je c ts from th© flo o r*

1481*

Matches should be k ep t o u t of reach o f sm all c h ild re n .

1452.

The t i n i e s t ©park w ill ig n ite vapor from Inflammable d ry c le a n in g flu id s *

1455.

A llow ances sh ou ld be mad© f o r th e escape of carbon

84

monoxide from f l u i d fu e ls * 1454.

Sm all c h ild re n should n o t be allow ed to p la y w ith o b je c ts on which th ey may choke.

1455.

I f th e body conies in c o n ta c t w ith an exposed ©lee* t r i e w ire, e l e c t r i c shock w ill r e s u l t .

1456.

A f i r e , no m a tte r how sm all, should be re p o rte d to th© f i r e departm ent*

1457.

I n a l l c a se s o f carbon monoxide poisoning th e d o cto r should be c a lle d #

1438.

About f i f t y p e r cent o f autom obile a c c id e n ts involve p e d e s tria n s *

X? H eight and Weight

1501.

Fundam entally h e ig h t i s a m a tte r of in h e rita n c e a l ­ though I t i s n o t o fte n p o s s ib le to f o r e t e l l what determ iner® f o r h e ig h t a c h ild w ill I n h e r i t.

1502.

A person who i s p o o rly fe d may grow very t a l l y e t not be strong*

1503.

The normal w eight ?or a given in d iv id u a l depends upon h i s h e ig h t, age, sex, and type of s ta tu r e .

1504.

Some p erso n s are n a tu r a lly t a l l and slim , some sh o rt and sto ck y , and o th e rs n e it h e r th e one nor the other#

1505.

An underw eight p erso n i s u s u a lly m alnourished.

83

1506 •

A perso n who I s tw enty p e r cent above h is own normal w eight i s c l a s s i f i e d obese*

1607 < A p erso n cannot f a i l to lo se w eight e v e n tu a lly I f he c o n tin u o u sly ta k e s few er c a lo r ie s th an he uses In d a ily a c tiv ity * 1508*

In reducing to one*s p ro p e r w eight I t i s not d e s ir ­ ab le to lo s e w eight f a s t e r th an two pounds p er week.

1509.

A p erso n who i s th in and does not f e e l e n e rg e tic should have a p h y s ic a l exam ination.

1510

*

F or the most p a r t w eight i s a p e rso n a l m a tte r, f o r th e re i s no s c i e n t i f i c way to determ ine e x a c tly what one should w eigh.

1611.

Xn g en e ral young people should keep t h e i r weight s l i g h t l y above th© f ig u r e s shown in h e ig h t, w eig h t, and age c h a r t s .

1512*

An overw eight person should fin d out f i r s t whether o r not he h a s any p h y s ic a l d is o rd e r which accounts f o r the e x tr a poundage.

1516.

F ro m th e s ta n d p o in t o f h e a lth th e re are se v e ra l good reaso n s f o r being n e i t h e r too f a t nor too th in .

1514.

E xcessive masses of f a t crowd th© in te r n a l organs, ten d to c u t down m uscular a c t i v i t y , put e x tr a Weight on th© arch es of the f e e t , and d e stro y p h y s ic a l e f f ic ie n c y and good lo o k s.

86

XVI 1601.

The H eart and Blood

Few organa o f the body are more Im portant th an those which c o n tro l th e c i r c u l a t i o n o f th e blood.

1602

.

The human h e a r t , which i s a hollow m uscular organ about the s iz e of a clenched f i s t , i s s itu a te d n e a r th e c e n te r of th e body, over th e diaphragm, and d i r e c t l y behind th® b re a s t bon©.

1603.

The l e f t v e n t r i c l e f o r c e s blood through th e aorta#

1604*

The s tim u la tio n which causes th e h e a r t to beat r i s e s w ith in th© h e a r t i t s e l f *

1605.

The v a lv e s keep th e blood going i n th© p ro p er d ire c ­ tio n .

1606

.

Both th e a o r ta and pulmonary a r te r y co n tain valve© n o t f a r from th© v e n t r i c l e s .

1607.

There are th r e e ty p es of blood v e s s e ls : the a r t e r i e s which c a rry blocd away from the h e a rt, th e v ein s which c a rry blood back to th© h e a r t, and the c a p i l l a r i e s which connect a r t e r i e s and v e in s .

. The

1606

p re ssu re o f blood w ith in th e a r t e r i e s i s an im p o rtan t index to h e a lth .

1609.

A r t e r ia l p ressu r e i s e x p r e sse d in numbers re p r e­ se n te d by th e h e ig h t o f a column o f mercury.

1610.

The c i r c u la ti o n o f the blood i s d iv id e d In to two main p a r ts : th e pulmonary and th e system ic c i r c u la ti o n .

87 1811,

in th e pulmonary c i r c u la ti o n th e blood i s pumped to th© lungs*

1612,

In th e system ic c i r c u la ti o n the blood i s puisped from th e l e f t v e n tr ic le to th e a o r ta and through* o ut th© body*

ICilb#

To com plete both pulmonary and system ic c ir c u la tio n re q u ire s about tw e n ty -fiv e seconds*

1614.

bn i t s r e tu r n t r i p to the h e a rt th e blood from the sm all i n t e s t i n e fo llo w s a s p e c ia l route known as p o r ta l c irc u la tio n *

1615* Some o f the blood from th© a o rta in the abdomen fo llo w s a s h o r t- c u t rout© through th e kidneys known as the re n a l c irc u la tio n * 1§16. Plasma o u tsid e th e blood i s known as lymph* 1617* Lymph c lo s e ly resem bles blood except f o r the f a c t I t la c k s red c o rp u sc le s and c o n ta in s sm aller q u a n ti­ t i e s o f p r o te in substances* 1818# The h e a lth o f th© c ir c u la to r y system I s a f fe c te d by a v a r ie ty of simple f a c t o r s , in c lu d in g d i e t , e x e rc is e , r e s t , and em otions. 1619.

o c c a s io n a lly i n th e v e in s of the le g s a c o n d itio n known as v a ric o s e v e in s develops in which the v e in s become e n larg ed and th© v a lv e s f a i l to o p e ra te properly*

1620.

S ev eral d is e a s e s such as t o n s i l l i t i s , severe c o ld s, d ip h th e ria and s c a r le t fe v e r, tend to weaken the

h e a r t m uscle, hut u s u a lly only tem porarily* 1621* Three c o n d itio n s th a t a r is e from damaged blood ves­ s e ls are a r t e r i o s c l e r o s i s , o r hardening of the a r t e r i e s , th ro m bosis, and apoplexy* 1622* Blood tr a n s f u s io n s have been given f o r many years* 1825* A ll human blood i s of fo u r ty p eaj p h y sic ia n s can match th e se types* 1624* Th© g r e a te s t p ro g re ss i n th e use of blood tr a n s f u ­ s io n s fo llo w ed the d isco v ery t h a t plasma alone may be used i n tra n sfu sio n s* 1625* Plasma need n o t 'be typed; i t may be d rie d in to a powder and k ep t f o r long p e rio d s of time* 1626. At any given moment the blood stream c o n ta in s m a te ria ls from th e environm ent and a lso m a te ria ls made w ith in th e body* 1627* i t h as been e s tim a te d t h a t an a d u lt of average sis:© h a s s i x t y two thousand m iles o f blood v essels* 162 B.

Kheumatie f e v e r causes In ju ry of th® v alv es of th© h e a rt*

1629* The f l u i d p a r t o f th© blood i s c a lle d plasma* 1650. Three k in d s o f blood c e l l s f l o a t In the plasma: the red c e l l s c a rry in g oxygen, th e w hite c e l l s o r le u c o c y te s r e s i s t i n g in f e c tio n , and th© p l a t e l e t s concerned w ith c lo ttin g * 1651* An in c re a se In the number of w hite c e l l s i s c a lle d le u c o c y te s! s, a d e fic ie n c y of whit© c e l l s i s

89

c a lle d leucopenia* 1632.

A d ecrease i n th e number o f red c e l l s i s c a lle d anemia; p e rn ic io u s anemia i© caused by a f a u lt y p ro d u c tio n of re d c e l l s .

1633.

C lo ttin g i s an i n t r i c a t e chem ical and m echanical p ro c e ss in v o lv in g th© p l a t e l e t s and se v e ra l com­ ponent s o f plasma*

1634.

In th® normal a d u lt th e re a re u s u a lly about s ix q u a rts o f blood#

1636.

ifveryone 9s blood i s e it h e r Wn p o s itiv e o r Kh nega­ tiv e ! t h i s f a c t o r i s im portant in newborn b a b ie s.

1636.

Persons

18-60

y e a rs of age in good h e a lth can

u s u a lly give on® p in t o f blood a t in te r v a ls of th re e months; blood volume i© re s to re d almost a t once, and rod c e l l s in seven to e ig h t weeks. 1631?*

Th© e x tr a supply of blood f o r em ergencies i s s u p p lie d inaptly by the sp le e n .

1638.

The norm al p u ls e , which i s th® h e a rt r a te , i s 70-85 b o a ts p e r m inute.

1639.

There a re few er w hite blood co rp u sc le s in the human body th a n red ones — about on© w hite to seven hundred re d .

1640.

The blood stream se rv e s as a h eat re g u la tin g d ev ice .

1641*

itegular loss©© of w ater from the blood are made up by a c o n sta n t s h i f t i n g of w ater in to the blood from re s e rv e s in th e tis s u e spaces.

90 1642.

B leed ers are people whose blood f a i l s to c l o t .

1645.

S teth o sco p e, flu o ro sc o p e , and e le c tro -c a rd lo g ra p h are v alu ab le in stru m e n ts used to examine the h e a rt.

1644.

The s y s to le of th e h e a r t i s mad© up of a c o n tra c ­ t i o n o f th© a u r ic le s and v e n t r i c l e s .

1645.

Th© r e la x a tio n of th© h e a rt i s known as d ia s to le .

1646.

Two sounds a re mad® d u rin g a h e a rt beat! one i s caused by th© c o n tra c tio n o f th© heavy v e n tr ic le s , th e o th e r by th e c lo s in g of th e semi lu n a r v a lv e s.

XVXX E lim in a tio n of Body Waste

1701.

The main e x c re to ry organs are th© k idneys.

1702.

Th© w a te r and w aste removed from th© blood pass th ro u g h th e k idneys to form a liq u id c a lle d u r in e .

1705.

D ischarge o r v o id in g of u rin e i s c a lle d u r in a tio n o r m ic tu ra tio n .

1704.

Chronic n e p h r i t i s , o r B rig h t* s d is e a s e , i s one of th© 10

1705.

m ajor cau ses of d e a th .

Exam ination of a specimen o f the u rin e i s c a lle d u rin a ly s is .

1706.

F eca l m a te ria l, d isch arg ed from th© colon, c o n s is ts of in d ig e s tib le f i b e r , c e llu lo s e , sm all b i t s of d ig e s tib le m a te ria l, a l i t t l e w ate r, and many germs.

91

1707.

As ati a id to th e r e g u la r i ty or isowe 1 a c tio n a c o r­ r e c t d i e t I s im portant*

1708*

C o n stip a tio n i s e s p e c ia lly common in those who s i t s t i l l a g re a t deals g e n e ra l a c t i v i t y seems to have an e x c e lle n t e f f e c t upon bowel a c tiv ity *

1709*

L ax a tiv es, c a t h a r t i c s , o r p u rg a tiv e s should not b© ta k e n ex cep t on a p h y s ic ia n 1© advice*

1710*

The p r in c ip a l f a c t o r s t h a t in flu e n c e th e e lim in a tio n ©f w aste from th e d ig e s tiv e system are c o n d itio n s ©f th e m uscles of th e i n t e s t i n e , s e n s i t i v i t y of th e n e rv e s , n atu re o f th e I n t e s t i n a l contents*

1711*

Among th e symptoms a s s o c ia te d w ith c o n s tip a tio n are headache, w e a rin e ss, and g e n e ra l d u lln ess*

1712*

I n g e n e ra l th e 111 e f f e c t s of c o n s tip a tio n are exag­ gerated*

1715*

B esides c a rry in g n u t r i e n t s th© plasma of th e blood c a r r i e s w aste products*

1714*

The l i v e r removes and e x c re te s w astes from th e blood

1715*

I f th e u rin e rem ains In th© b la d d e r too long, p o i­ sonous w astes are re-ab so rb e d by th e blood*

1716*

Since th e u rin e c o n ta in s th© end pro d u cts

of metab­

o lism of a l l th© body c e l l s , a study of i t r e ­ v e a ls many o th e r c o n d itio n s o f th© body* 1717*

i’h e re a re liq u id and gaseous waste th a t m ist fin d a means o f escape from th e body*

92 17X8#

The kidneys n ot only f i l t e r out u rea and o th e r n itro g e n o u s w aste from th e blood, hut th e y help to m a in ta in th e p ro p e r volume of th e blood by removing ex cess w a te r.

1719.

The sk in i s c o n s ta n tly g iv in g o f f waste $ i t ex­ c r e te s. liq u id s c o n ta in in g s a l t , u re a, and o th e r so lu b le su b sta n c e s.

1720.

I t i s h e a lt h f u l to d rin k from s ix to e ig h t g la sse s o f w ater each day*

1721.

The k id n ey s, u r e te r s , and b la d d e r are e x c re to ry org an s.

1722.

E x cretio n



th e e lim in a tio n o f u n d ig ested foods

and c e llu lo s e waste p ro d u c ts. 1723.

P roper e lim in a tio n o f w aste m a te ria l i s q u ite as im p o rtan t to th e c e l l s as th e food which n o u rish es them.

1724.

The k id n ey s, two in number, are bean-shaped organs about fo u r in ch es long, two to th re e in c h e s wide, and an In ch thick*

1725.

The u r e te r c o n tra c ts in p e r i s t a l t i c motion fo rc in g th e u rin e downward from th e kidney to th e b lad d er.

1726.

The b la d d e r i s th e hod&ow m uscular organ which s to re s th e u r in e .

1727.

A p a in In th e back a t th e w a is tlin e , and a d i f f i ­ c u lty i n v o id in g u rin e should b© considered s e rio u s enough to c o n s u lt a p h y sic ia n .

1728.

Qm Im portant fu n c tio n of th e lungs i s the elim in a­ t io n o f carbons, d io x id e , a waste product of a l l a c t i v i t y , found i n ex p ired a i r .

1729 *

In the d ig e s tio n o f p ro te in c e r ta in w aste m a te ria ls are l e f t to b® thrown o f f by the k idneys, making e x tr a work f o r th e kidneys.

XVIII

1801*

H ealth

ageneles

Ifivery s t a t e h as a- h e a lth departm ent made up of o f f i ­ c i a l s who work c lo s e ly w ith lo c a l h e a lth o f f i c i a l s .

1802.

The work of d epartm ents of h e a lth in c lu d e s th e f o l ­ lowing s e r v ic e s ; (I) s a n ita tio n , (2) p re v en tio n and c o n tro l o f communicable d is e a s e s , (3) la b o ra to ry exam ination, (4) m aternal and c h ild h e a lth , {5) h e a lth e d u c a tio n , ( 6 ) v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s .

1803.

As on® phase of th e s a n ita tio n program, p u b lic h e a lth departm ents safeg u ard w a te r s u p p lie s, e s p e c ia lly th o se in congested d i s t r i c t s .

1804.

P u b lic h e a lth o f f i c i a l s supervise the s a n ita tio n of swimming p o o ls and b a th in g .

1805.

one food to which p u b lic h e a lth o f f i c i a l s give p a r t i c u l a r a tte n tio n I s m ilk ?/hich i s e s p e c ia lly l i k e l y to become contam inated.

1806.

P u b lic h e a lth departm ents ca rry on a broad range of a c t i v i t i e s aimed a t th e prev en tio n and c o n tro l of

94

communicable d is e a s e * 1807*

a l l p u b lic h e a lth departm ents promote in o c u la tio n as a means o f p r o te c tio n from communicable disease*

1808*

B esid es exam ining culture® from th e human body, la b o ra to ry te c h n ic ia n s examine samples of w ater and food p ro d u c ts f o r th e presence of d is e a s e producing organism s.

1809.

In many communities p u b lic h e a lth departm ents give s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n to th e h e a lth of p ro sp e c tiv e mother®,

1810.

P u b lic h e a lth departm ents re n d er v alu ab le s e rv ic e s to th e p u b lic through co n tin u in g programs of h e a lth e d u c a tio n .

1811*

H ealth department® accom plish much i n h e a lth educa­ ti o n th rough th e ro u t!n e work of o f f i c i a l s and nurses*

1818.

The f e d e r a l agency which i s charged p rim a rily w ith guarding th e n a tio n 1s h e a lth I s th e U nited S ta te s P u b lic H ealth S erv ice, a branch of th e F ed eral S e c u rity Agency.

1813.

The P u b lic H ealth S ervice works to prevent communi­ c a b le d is e a s e s from being c a rrie d in to t h i s country from o th e r c o u n trie s and to p rev en t the spread of communicable d ise a se from s ta te to s t a t e .

1814.

The Food and Drug A d m in istratio n , lik e th e United S ta te s P u b lic H ealth S erv ice, i s a d iv is io n of

96

th e F e d e ra l S e c u rity Agency* 1815*

th e C hildren* s Bureau* a d iv la lo n of the u n ite d S ta te # ftepartm ent o f Labor, seeks to prevent the harm ful employment of ch ild ren *

1016*

wna o f th e f i r s t o rg a n is a tio n s among v o lu n te e r ag en cies t h a t co m * to mind

1#

th e hm vlcm , N ation­

a l m d C ross because o f v a lia n t se rv ic e In peace

m d war* 1817*

Much o f th e c r e d i t f o r th e g a in s In com batting tu b e r­ c u lo s is may be a t t r i b u t e d to th e N atio n al fu b ereu l o s l s A sso c ia tio n , a v o lu n te e r agency*

1818*

fh e l a t l o a a l S a fe ty Council* a v o lu n te e r agency* c a r r i e s on a continuous p r o g r a m f o r the re d u c tio n of a c cid en ts*

1819*

Mmmrotm n a tio n a l o rg a n is a tio n s which are o rganised f o r e th e r purposes promote s p e c ia l typos

of h e a lth

programs# 1820*

Com© of th© p ro fe s s io n a l a s s o c ia tio n s I n te r e s te d in p u b lic h e a lth are fh© American iledical A sso ciatio n , th e American d e n ta l A sso c ia tio n , Too A f r ic a n P u b lic H ea lth A sso c ia tio n and Tm Americas A ssocia­ t i o n f o r H ealth , P h y sic al E ducation, and docrea­ tio n *

1821*

How to secure adequate m edical se rv ic e f o r a l l i s p erhaps th e g r e a te s t h e a lth problem*

1828*

Laws and h e a lth a u th o r i ti e s can do much to s a fe ^a&rd th e food supply, but much s t i l l depends on th e in d iv id u a l*

1825,

F resh foods are in dsnger of contamination by d u s t, f i l e s , ro ach es, dogs, c a ts , and human hands.

1824.

By f a r th e most Im portant h e a lth problem a com­ m unity fa c e s i s sewage d is p o s a l.

1825.

come o f th e d is e a s e s which re q u ire i s o l a t io n are in flu e n z a , chicken pox, d y sen tery , m easles, mump®, trachom a, tu b e r c u lo s is , whooping cough, and. r a b ie s .

1826.

'Mo community can overlook the r e s p o n s ib ility f o r p ro v id in g wholesome and safe r e c r e a tio n .

1827#

Tha problem o f adequate and h e a lth f u l housing has become acu te d u rin g th e p a st few y e a rs.

1B2B.

P ro g ressiv e p u b lic schools attem pt to provide f o r th e pupils*' h e a lth i n th re e ways: (1) h e a lth f u l school, environm ent, ( 2 ) adequate h e a lth s e rv ic e s , ( 5 ) a p p ro p ria te h e a lth i n s tr u c tio n .

1829.

Animals which may spread d isease should b© under the c o n tro l o f th e board of h e a lth .

1850.

For la rg e o r sm all communities a system of sewers i s th e b e s t method o f d isp o sin g o f w astes pro­ v id in g th ey d ra in in to a d is p o s a l p la n t •

1851.

Perhaps th e most s ig n if ic a n t lin k in the ch ain of p u b lic h e a lth o rg a n is a tio n s i s the S tate H ealth D epartm ent.

97

1832*

The Qroup H ealth A sso c ia tio n In Washington, B* C. , I s a n o n -p r o f it o rg a n is a tio n p ro v id in g m edical s e rv ic e and h o s p i t a l i s a ti o n on a stan d ard fe e basis*

1855*

The iV* &* K ellogg Foundation f o r th e promotion of h e a lth i s su p p o rted by endowments*

1864*

P u b lic h e a lth i s an i n t e r e s t i n g type of work to , pursue#

XXX Bose and T hroat

1901*

B reath in g may be c a rrie d on through e i t h e r th e nos© o r the mouth, but th e n a s a l rout©

1902#

1 ® p re fe rre d *

An In d iv id u a l i s fo rced to b re a th e through h i s mouth when th e n a s a l passages are o b s tru c te d o r when he i s engaged In strenuous a c tiv ity *

1905*

The n a s a l p assag es a re sep a rated from the mouth by th e p a la te | th e h ard p a la te (ro o f of th e mouth) i s composed o f bone, th e s o ft p a la te i s composed o f m uscular tis s u e *

1904*

^ t e n d i n g v e r t i c a l l y midway of th e m ostril© i s a p a r t i t i o n p a r tl y c a r t il a g e , p a r tly bone, c a lle d th e septum*

1905*

A s t r a i g h t septum g iv es symmetry to th e nos© and allow® f o r f r e e passage of a ir*

1906.

The bony s tr u c tu r e s a d ja c e n t to th e nos© c o n ta in

98

a number or c a v iti e s c a lle d s in u s e s . 1907.

The pharynx, o r c a v ity back of th e mouth, commonly known as th e th ro a t i s a m eeting p lace of th e a i r routes*

1908.

a l l th e tu b es which meet i n the pharynx provide passage f o r a i r except th e esophagus which con­ d u c ts food and drink*

1909.

The pharynx i s generously supplied w ith lymph nodes in c lu d in g t o n s i l s , one on e i t h e r sid e , adenoids n e a r th e openings of th e n a sa l c a v it i e s , and o th e r masses of tis s u e n e a r th e base of th e to n g u e«

1910.

The purpose of the Isiust&chian tube i s to conduct a i r to th e middle e a r so th a t a l l a i r p re ssu re on th e In s id e of th e e a r w ill be the same as th a t on th e o u ts id e .

1911.

The la ry n x which somewhat resem bles the h u l l o f a sh ip w ith th e bottom removed i s made up of bones and c a r t il a g e bound to g e th e r.

1912.

E xten d in g a c r o ss th e laryn x from fr o n t to back in

th e g l o t t i s are two bands o f fir m t i s s u e , th e v o c a l cord s.

1915.

Th© nose a c ts not only as an a i r c o n d itio n e r but a ls o as a f i l t e r .

1914.

Th© common o b s tru c tio n s to b re a th in g are c h ro n ic a l­ ly in f e c te d and sw ollen n asa l membranes, en larg ed

tu r b in a te bones, a crooked septum, and In fe c te d adenoids* 1915 * The to n sil© are u s e fu l structux*es as long as they rem ain h ealth y # 1916*

The t h r o a t I s u s u a lly somewhat in fe c te d during a c o ld , t h i s i s c a lle d p h a ry n g itis*

1917*

The co v erin g between th e tu r b in a te hones and th e p a r t i t i o n between th e n o s t r i l s co n tain s th e c e l l s f o r sm e llin g .

ISOS*

Many people have o b s tru c tio n s in t h e i r a i r passageway©| a t l e a s t 15 p e r cen t of those of school age s u f f e r from n a s a l d e f e c ts .

1919.

F o rc ib le blowing o f th e nose i s dangerous because i t may d riv e in f e c te d mucous In to th e E ustachian tu b e «

XX H air

.

2001

H air grows more o r l e s s n o tic e a b ly on a l l p a r ts of th e body ex cept the palms of th e hands and the s o le s of in e f e e t .

2002*

The c o lo r o f the h a i r i s date m in e d by a pigment in

th e c e l l s o f the c e n tr a l la y e r o f the s h a f t, 2005

th a t h er h a i r



s t r a ig h t o r c u rly depends on the

shape o f th e h a i r f o l l i c l e s ; i f th e f o l l i c l e s are round, th e h a i r i s s t r a i g h t; I f they are o v al,

100

th e h a i r I s curly* 8004.

The permanence of h a i r , lik e many o th e r c h a ra c te r­ i s t i c s , seems to be c o n tro lle d by h ered ity #

8005.

In th e e a r l i e r generation® men took g re at p rid e In c u l t i v a t i n g b eards according to a wide rang© of fash io n s*

2006,

Many men shave ©very day, and o th e rs le s s o ften ; bu t always when th e y wish to look t h e i r b e s t.

2007.

Mot only men remove unwanted h a i r s ; women o fte n remove h a i r s from exposed p a r ts of the body, e s p e c ia lly th e arms and legs*

2008.

In th e permanent removal o f h a i r , a derm atologist should 'be c o n su lte d because o f the danger of in ­ f e c tio n and scars#

2009.

A ttra c tiv e h a i r grows only from a h e a lth y sc a lp , and a s c a lp in o rd e r to be h e a lth y must have a p l e n t i f u l supply of blood,

201Q.

w ily h a i r re q u ir e s shampooing more fre q u e n tly than d ry h a ir#

2011

.

o r d in a r ily d an d ru ff may be prevented o r c o rre c te d by keeping the h a i r and sc a lp clean,.

.

2012

A n ilin e and m e ta llic h a i r dyes should be avoided sin ce th e y sometimes produce se rio u s in fe c tio n s o f th e s c a lp .

2015*

The sebaceous glands always 11© f a i r l y clo se to h a i r f o llic le ® and d isch arg e t h e i r s e c re tio n ,

101

known as sebum, in to the f o llic le © u sin g them as p assages to th e s u rfa c e . 2014.

The sebum se rv e s as a n a tu r a l o i l f o r the skin and h a ir.

2015.

The sc a lp and h a i r need o c c a sio n a l washing; two se p a ra te w ashings w ith warm w ate r and soap are re q u ire d w ith thorough rin s in g a f t e r the second.

2016*

Permanent waving i s lik e ly to 'Change th e c o lo r and te x tu re o f th e h a i r , but not of th a t n e a r th© s c a lp .

2017.

N atu ral h a i r c o lo rin g should be accepted and kept c le a n and g lo ssy .

2018.

As w ith a l l liv in g c e l l s , h a i r ro o ts demand adequate nourishm ent and good c irc u la tio n #

2019.

D aily b ru sh in g and massage are im portant f o r h e a lth y h a ir.

XXI

2101

.

E ars

The e a r c o n s is ts of th re e p a r ts commonly re fe rr e d to a s th e o u te r e a r , th e middle e a r, and the in n e r ear*

2102 *

The a u d ito ry c a n a l lo ad s inward to the tympanic mem­ b ran e, o r e a r drum, - - a th in tis s u e th a t separ­ a te s the o u te r e a r from the middle ear*

2105.

The middle e a r , p ro te c te d by th e s k u ll, in c lu d e s

102

th re e ti n y boness th e m alleus — a hammer-shaped bone, th e in c u s — an an v il-sh ap e d bone, and the ©tapes — a s tirru p -s h a p e d bone. 2104.

There are two openings In the middle ear* one open­ in g i s from the E u stach ian tube which serves as a pathway f o r a i r from th e pharynx; th e second opening le a d s to a i r spaces In the s k u ll, the m astoid c e lls #

2105.

The in n e r e a r I s made up of the cochlea and the s e m ic irc u la r c a n a ls; v ib r a tio n s in the cochlea give r i s e to th e s e n s a tio n of sound, the sem icir­ c u la r c a n a ls are curved bodies f o r m aintaining b alan c e.

2106 *

The e a r r e q u ir e s d e lic a te h an d lin g ; I f cerumen, or wax, hardens i n th e a u d ito ry can al i t should be removed by washing.

2107.

An ab scess of the middle e a r i s v ery se rio u s; i f th e I n f e c tio n spreads to th e m astoid c e ll s i t causes a c o n d itio n known as m a sto id itis*

2108.

In some ca ses Impairment o f h e a rin g seems to b© h e r e d ita r y and cannot be p rev en ted .

2109.

D efectiv e h e a rin g i s more p re v a le n t than most people r e a l i z e .

2110.

Many schools t e s t the h e a rin g of c h ild re n in groups by means o f an audiom eter, a machine th a t resembles a phonograph.

103

2111.

Them a re se v e ra l ty p es of b ea rin g a id s .

2112*

Xt I s j u s t as s e n s ib le to wear h ea rin g aid s in case o f d e fe c tiv e h e a rin g as i t I s to v/ear g lasses In ease o f d e fe c tiv e v isio n *

2113*

The nerve from th e b ra in to th e e a r, the aud ito ry n erv e, has re c e p to rs which respond only to sound s tim u li •

2114.

The e a r should be p ro te c te d In swimming and diving? the c o r re c t tech n iq u e o f b re a th in g In swimming should be learn ed and p r a c tic e d .

2115*

There are two ty p o s of d e a fn e ss: conduction deaf­ ness and nerve d ea fn ess; th e form er i s the more com m on *

2118.

The n erv es of th e speech and h ea rin g organs are so c lo s e ly connected t h a t a person unconsciously t r i e s to im ita te th e sounds he h e a rs.

2117.

Deaf i s ap p lied to an e a r o r e a rs deaf from b ir th ; deafened refer© to th e e a r th a t has had hearing but has l o s t i t a f t e r a c q u irin g speech.

2118#

Pain In th e e a r I© a danger s ig n a l and should be in v e s tig a te d by th e d o c to r.

2119#

H earing may be safeguarded hr avoiding v io le n t blowing o f the nose.

2120.

There i s a close r e la tio n s h ip between failure) In s tu d ie s and d e fe c tiv e h e a rin g .

2121.

Many of o u r larg e c i t i e s and some of our s ta te s

104

fam e s p e c ia l schools f o r th e d e a f. 2122.

In the study of h e a lth i t i s im portant to know the p r in c ip le s of h e a rin g .

2123.

. to coorcl 1.1)atI or o f ac11v .111c s and 1 1\o roainte i &;.ca o a mil lib riu m .

156

2616.

The s p in a l cord I s a c y lin d r ic a l mass o f n e m t i s s u e ©xtending downward from fch® m edulla.

261*?*

Tli© u n it o f th e nervous system i s th e neuron*

2620.

The autonomic nervous system o p e ra te s a u to m a tic a lly and regulate® w holly o r in p a r t th e h eart* stomach* i n t e s t i n e s , s a liv a r y glands, pancreas, l i v e r , kidm y®, and blood v e s s e ls .

2621.

The autonomic nervous system i s d iv id ed in to two se c tio n s.8 th e sym pathetic which bring® about a s tim u la tin g e f f e c t on c e r ta in organs, and the p arasy m p ath etic which i n h i b i t s the organs*

2622.

Hormones &r@ chem icals m anufactured i n se v e ra l organs o f th e body*

2623*

The work of th e endocrine system i s th e produc­ tio n of hormones.

2624.

Home of th e im portant s tr u c tu r e s th a t produce h o r­ mones a re th e p i t u i t a r y gland i n th e s k u ll, th e th y ro id gland a t th e f r o n t o f th e neck, the p a ra ­ th y ro id s n e a r the th y ro id s , and th e a d re n a l glands n e a r th e kidneys*

2625.

Food cannot be absorbed by th e blood, n o r can i t be used by th e body c e ll s u n t i l i t has been com­ p l e t e l y changed i n form.

2626.

When any carb o h y d rate food i s to be d ig e ste d I t must be broken down in to tin y molecule® of glucose*

157

Chemical d ig e s tio n I s brought about by eucyaea, which are su b stan ces produced by c e r ta in c e lls w ith in th e body* 2628*

-then f a t s are d ig e s te d they are broken down Into f a t t y a c id s and g ly c e r o l.

2829*

i'40®t of th e d ig estio n , I s c a r r ie d on in th e sm all I n te s tin e #

2630#

The p an creas re g u la te s the sugar metabolism by producing in s u lin ; an upset of i n i s gland may produce d iab etes*

2631#

a. o n e -c o lle d organ!sm lik e th e amoeba I s s e l f s u f f i c i e n t ; th a t i s , in a very simple fa sh io n t h i s on© c e l l i s able to c a rry on u l l fu n c tio n s of l i f e *

Nummary From th e 14 g e n e ra l science sources th e fo reg o in g 377 h e a lth co n cep ts were a b stra c te d *

They were recorded on the

c h a rts b e a rin g th e h e a lth concept® from th e 14 h e a lth sources#

The to p ic d ise a se ( i i l ) prosent® the g re a te s t

number of co n cep ts from g en eral science sources as I t does i n th e case o f th e co n cep ts frora h e a lth sources# At t h i s p o in t, a f t e r reading the concepts from h e a lth so u rces and th e co n cep ts fr©m g e n e ra l science sources In th e preced in g two c h a p te rs , the re ad er may fin d too follow ­ in g f a c t s worfcny of n ote in I n te r p r e tin g the fin d in g s;

158 I.

f o r two of the to p ic s th e re are no concepts ia ta n

from the g e n e ra l ©olenee sources*

These to p ic s are Defects

In General (X X iii) and I n d u s t r i a l hygiene (X :v). 2*

Thei*© I s but s li g h t © tress in th e general science

so u rce s examined on s ix of tls© topics*

The number o f con­

c e p ts from g e n e ra l scien c e sources as compared with the number of concepts from h e a lth sources shows a range of 22 p er cent to 11 p er cent*

That i s, th e re are from

s l i g h t l y more than f i v e to one to s lig h tly fsons than 10 to one more concepts from the h e a lth sources than from g e n e ra l scien ce so u rces in the fo llo w in g to p ic s ; Tosfcure, Care of the F e e t, and ,>Xirclse (IV / 28 p er cent; height and weight (.XV) 22 p e r c e n t; oafefcy (XIV) 21 p er c e n t; Sleep and d est (VjU I) 21 per c e n t; henfc&l hygiene (XXI) 12 p e r cent; and Teeth (Vi) 11 p e r cent*

Om

in seven o f th e to p ic s th e number of concepts

found In g e n e ra l scien ce was between 77 p e r cent and 50 p a r cen t of th e number found i n h e a lth sources*

They

are as fo llo w i G eneral ih y slo lo g y (XXVI) 77 per c e n t; h i seas© ( i l l ) 7b p e r c e n t; foods (I) 62 per cen t; ..-..ars (XXI) 60 p e r c e n t; f i r s t .-id (XI) 59 per c e n t; re<h Agencies (X V ili) 58 p e r c e n t; and u lo ttin g vVx^) 80 p ar cent#

159

OHAPTEli V CQMFAH1S0H OF SUUKCJSS QF HSAU’H COKCEPTS The t o t a l number of h e a lth concepts l i s t e d i s 901. Of t h i s number 077 are found in g e n e ra l science so u rces. ih@ fo llo w in g 86 ta b le s show the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these co n cep ts i n tex tb o o k s and co u rse s of study in h e a lth and in textbook© and co u rses of study in g en eral scien c e.

A

key code i s used f o r numbering the concepts according to t h e i r arrangem ent in C hapter I I I .

Concept number one

under th e to p ic fo o d s has th e key number 101, concept number two h as th© key number 102, and so on up to the l a s t concept l i s t e d under th e to p ic of foods, number 55, which h a s th e cod© number 155. th ro u g h o u t the 26 ta b le s .

The same code i s follow ed

For example, concept 2651 in

Table XXVI r e f e r s to concept number 51 of to p ic XXVI. A ccording to th e ta b le the re ad er w ill fin d th a t concept 2651 o ccu rs in fo u r h e a lth te x ts and in on© h e a lth course of stu d y , f o r a t o t a l m ention in f iv e h e a lth sources; a ls o , in two g e n e ra l science te x ts and In no gen eral scien ce course o f study examined, f o r a t o t a l mention in two g e n e ra l scien ce so u rc e s.

Thus, any of the coded

numbers i n th e 26 ta b le s may be compared w ith th e sequen-

160

h i a l l y numbered, l i s t under each, to p ic In C hapter I I I f o r id e n tlfIc a tlo n .

A b r i e f summary I s Included a t the com­

p l e t i o n o f each ta b le In d ic a tin g th© s ig n if ic a n t fe a tu r e s of th e d a ta . Table I shows the co n cep ts from h e a lth sources on th© to p ic Foods arran g ed by cod© number v e r t i c a l l y a t the l e f t o f th e t a b l e .

Columns are arranged under headings to

show th e sources of the concept In (1) h e a lth textbooks, (2) h e a lth co u rse s o f stu d y , (6) t o t a l s f o r th e number of h e a lth so u rces, (4) g e n e ra l science tex tb o o k s, (5) g e n e ra l scien c e co u rses of study, and (6) t o t a l s f o r th e number of g e n e ra l scien ce so u rce s.

This six-colum n arrangement i s

used n o t only i n Table X but in the ensuing 25 ta b le s which complete th e ta b u la r record of th e d is tr ib u tio n of co n cep ts under th e 26 to p ic s .

lex £

X*

M &&£$ckfcra f a h llc SeBooli; ,iloetfblM ,''"m i33'r«;'“O T .

SO pp*

Seranton* Pennsylvania* gen eral Setone©*

T entative Q ow m o f Study i n aeWnton

leH iESET^lSrasylyania^ 1946*

475 pp.>*

248

Books and P erio d icals (American A ss o c ia tio n o f School A d m in istra to rs J H ealth i n S ch o o ls. T w en tieth Yearbook, N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , W ashington, I). c . , 1942# 544 pp. Beauchamp, W ilbur b . ’’I n s tr u c tio n i n Science*’ N atio n al Survey o f Secondary E ducation . B u lle tin no. 17, monograph ^2. lasH ngfcon, I). G ., 1952. 63 pp. B i l l e t t , Hoy Q.

Teaching. m l pp.

fundam entals of Secondary School

HdugEton M ff lin Co., Boston, 1940 •

C happelear, Claud© S. H e a lth SubJeot M atter in the N a tu ra l Sc len ce s . 'c d n t r l h u t i ohs l;o Sduc a lio n , ho'. '341 i''' S u r e a u o f P u b lic a tio n s , T eachers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv e rsity , New York, 1929* 108 pp. {departm ent of S uperintendence 3 The N ation a t ¥/ork on th e P u b lic School Curriculum ! FourW ^earB ooET B ftfcionirSd^^ I on, W ashington, D. C ., 1926. 520 pp. G ro u t. Hath. co .,

H ealth Teaching in S chools, w. B. Saunders ■m pp.

£H arvard Committee .3 G eneral E ducation in a F ree S o c ie ty . Heport of th e H ai^ arS T b b i^ tte© • harvard U n iv e rsity P re s s , Cambridge, M ass., 1945. 267 pp. Ki la n d e r, H olger f » ’’Trends i n H ealth Education in Secondary S c h o o ls.” The Jo u rn al of School H e a lth * v o l. XIX, pp. 237-*245. The Im erl c ah "School H ealth A sso c ia tio n , B u ffa lo , New York, Nov. 1949. L atim er, Jean V. ’’H ea lth E ducation S ta tu s of High School P u p ils and Need f o r C oordinated School H ealth Pro grams. ” J o u rn a l o f th e American School H ealth A s s o c ia tio n , v o l . 15, no. 1. 'J a n .,"194$* pp. 1^8• Laton, Anita D. The Psychology of lea rn in g Applied to H ea lth E d u cation through B iology. c o n trib u tio n s to E ducation, n o * 'b i t . Bureau of P u b lic a tio n s , T eachers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv e rsity , New York, 1929. 103 pp.

249

M artin , iH H a m k * A P eterainafcIon o f to e P r in c ip le s o f the, Blologgl e iT &clem©s o f ta^orfShe© ' '^or W ^ e ra i f S u ^ ^ 1iiS83BH3Bw^^ ym vsFSTFj of M ichigan, L ib rary o f U n iv e rsity , k m Arbor, Michigan# 1044# 101 pp. M©i©r, Lola# H e a lth Mate r i a l in $ e i m m ffextbooks* C o n tr ih ^ io K irr'lo ''M ^ a tio n ^ of P u b lic a tio n s , fe& chers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv e rsity , Hew York, 102?# 158 pp# R a t i o n a l B&uc&tlon AasocI a t io n m& American M edical A®aociatio»#J H ealth ■Education# J o in t Committee on H ealth F ro h lS T T iT S&icafcim * i&shingfcon, 2>* C», 1941, 56© pp* H ealth Education* J o in t Committee on H ealth FroW lemi^Xn"M ucatlon# Washington, D# C*, 1948* 415 pp* Q h e rte u ffe r, D elbert# School H ealth E ducation* Bros*, Mew York,"TL’Bl'S'T-”'WW pp* 'n

H arper

F a tty , W illard W* te a c h in g H ealth and S afe ty i n Elem entary Cfra&es* P r e n tlc e S a lX , ’'ISiT^'SeST 'I f o r S r ^ ’SI'S#"1"

w rw * Buef, Dorothy* H ealth E ducation in S en io r HIidy School* O o n trl bvXTvS&rr£o Jih u catlo h , hoTm'"^S,*'n f©aiSlSre C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv e rsity , Sew York, 1934# 10© pp#

Soufchworth, Warren H* ^T estin g TechniQues and P rocedures Employed i n th e M assachusetts Study o f H ealth in S en io r High Schools#1* Jo u rn a l of th e American School H ealth AssoeI atio n # voIT T j^laST T ® * M r r r o r ggr 3 m s m : Staton, Wesley M.

A D eterm ination o f Fundam ental Concepts

Dnpublished ciocto r i s "d i^ se iS a F f on, ~'senool"' o f E ducation, Boston U niversity# In L ib rary of U n iv e rsity , Boston, M assachusetts, 1948* 105 pp*

250

Stelnhaus* A rth u r H« 11H ealth E ducation in th e U nited S ta te s * w J o u rn a l o f th e American a s s o c ia tio n f o r Health* Physioal~ E^ucatiIonl &n