The Poetry of Allusion: Virgil and Ovid in Dante’s ‘Commedia’ 9781503623422

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The Poetry of Allusion: Virgil and Ovid in Dante’s ‘Commedia’

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The Poetry of Allusion


Virgil and Ovid in Dante's Commedia

Contributors Robert Ball Douglas Biow Kevin Brownlee 1ohn Freccero Peter S. Hawkins Robert Hollander Rachel 1acoff Pamela Royston Macfie Michael C. 1. Putnam 1effrey T. Schnapp William A. Stephany

The Poetry of Allusion


Virgil and Ovid in Dante's Commedia

Edited by Rachel 1acoff and 1effrey T. Schnapp

Stanford University Press 1991 Stanford, California

Stanford University Press Stanford, California © 1991 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University Printed in the United States of America CIP data appear at the end of the book

In memory of Luis Varela Beltran, David Kalstone, Jack Winkler, Carlos Dominguez, and Franco Renzulli

Manibus date lilia plenis


The idea for this book took shape gradually over the course of two Dante Institutes sponsored by the National Endowment for the Hu, manities and held at Dartmouth College in the summers of 198 5 and 1986. These Institutes provided a unique opportunity for continuing collaborative study of the Commedia. In addition to a daily sequen, tial reading of the poem, canto by canto, the core faculty and guest lecturers also took part in symposia designed to address the question of Dante's use of Virgil (1985) and Ovid (1986). Because of time constraints, these symposia were organized so that each speaker dis, cussed in detail one particular Virgilian or Ovidian allusion and its implications. This intensive focus turned out both to ground and to encourage wider considerations of narrative and poetic strategies. The book as it now exists is the cumulative product of two sum, mers of collaborative work and several years of subsequent medita, tion on the issues raised in the Institute symposia. Its purpose is to provide the specialist and nonspecialist reader alike with a series of analyses that extend recent critical formulations of Dantean inter, textuality. In order to make it more representative, we decided to include papers not only of the symposia participants, whose original essays have been expanded and revised, but also of a number of other scholars who were involved in the Dante Institutes or whose work on Virgil and Ovid in the Commedia was of critical importance in our discussions. For reasons of structural clarity, the volume is divided into two discrete parts, the first devoted to Dante's Virgil and the second to Dante's Ovid. The essays within each section are ordered sequen, tially according to the appearance in the Commedia of the allusions

viii I Preface

that they take as their points of departure. Observing the heuristic structure of the symposia, each begins with a close analysis of a par, ticular allusion, and then develops a more general formulation of Dante's response to the literary authority of his predecessor. We have avoided certain familiar passages that have dominated many earlier discussions of the subject: for example, Dante's adaptation of the falling leaves simile in Inferno 3 in the case of Virgil and the metamorphoses of the thieves in Inferno 24-25 in the case of Ovid. In their place we have emphasized less,studied areas of inquiry such as the extraordinary pervasiveness of Ovid in the Paradiso. Our Introduction is designed to situate the essays in the context of an overview of Dante's use of Virgil and Ovid, and to provide a sense of the conclusions reached and questions raised by the collec, tion as a whole. A bibliography of all the works cited concludes the volume; it offers a selective entry into the extant scholarship on the topic. This endeavor owes much to the participants in the Dante lnsti, tutes, and to their generous and enthusiastic responses to the read, ings given in the initial symposia. We are also grateful to Nancy Vickers for her thoughtful suggestions on an earlier version of the manuscript and for her invaluable contributions during the summers of 1985 and 1986. Kevin Brownlee encouraged and enlightened us along the way, and Peter Hawkins gave us generous and valuable counsel. The NEH provided financial support for the Institutes at Dartmouth and then again at Stanford University in 1988; it was during this third and final Institute that the manuscript was com, pleted. We are grateful to the Stanford Humanities Center, and to its director, Bliss Camochan, for their support at that time. Last but not least, we would like to acknowledge the assistance of Helen Tar, tar, Karen Brown Davison, and Nancy Atkinson, as well as that of Wellesley College and Stanford University. R.J. J. T.S.




Note on Texts and Translations



Rachel Jacoff and Jeffrey T. Schnapp

Part I Virgil in Dante Theological Semantics: Virgil's Pietas and Dante's Pieta


Robert Ball Dante's Harpies: "Tristo annunzio di futuro danno" William A. Stephany


From Ignorance to Knowledge: The Marvelous in Inferno 13


Douglas Biow The Eternal Image of the Father


John Freccero Dante's Misreadings of the Aeneid in Inferno



Robert Hollander Virgil's Inferno


Michael C. J. Putnam Dido, Beatrice, and the Signs of Ancient Love

Peter S. Hawkins




I Contents

lntertextualities in Arcadia: Purgatorio 30.49- SI


Rachel ]acoff "Si pia 1' ombra d' Anchise si porse": Paradiso I 5. 2 5


]effrey T. Schnapp

Part II Ovid in Dante Ovid, Arachne, and the Poetics of Paradise



Pamela Royston Macfie Erysichthon and the Poetics of the Spirit William A. Stephany

I7 3

Watching Matelda


PeterS. Hawkins Pauline Vision and Ovidian Speech in Paradiso



Kevin Brownlee Dante's Ovidian Self.. Correction in Paradiso I7



]effrey T. Schnapp Ovid's Semele and Dante's Metamorphosis: Paradiso



Kevin Brownlee The Rape/Rapture of Europa: Paradiso 27

Rachel .lacoff





Index Loco rum

3I 3

Index of Names




Robert Ball was formerly Assistant Professor of Spanish and Com, parative Literature at Stanford University. He is currently Adjunct Professor of History at Montana State University. He has published and lectured on Dante, Petrarch, and Gongora. He lives on a sheep ranch, where he is raising five adopted sons. Douglas Biow is Assistant Professor of Italian in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature at Syracuse University. He has published on Pirandello. Kevin Brownlee is Professor of Romance Languages at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of Poetic Identity in Guillaume de Machaut (Madison, Wis., 1984), and coeditor of The New Medi, evalism (Baltimore, Md. ), 1991. He is currently working on a study of Christine de Pizan. John Freccero is Rosina Pierotti Professor of Italian Literature at Stanford University. He is the author of Dante: The Poetics of Con, version (Cambridge, Mass., 1986), as well as studies on Petrarch and John Donne. PeterS. Hawkins is Associate Professor of Religion and Literature at Yale Divinity School. He is the author of two books, The Language of Grace: Flannery O'Connor, Walker Percy, Iris Murdoch (Cam, bridge, Mass., 1983) and Getting Nowhere (Cambridge, Mass., 1985); and editor of two collections of essays, Ineffability: Naming the Un, namable from Dante to Beckett (New York, 1984) and Civitas: Re, ligious Interpretations of the City (Atlanta, Ga., 1986). His essays on Dante have appeared in Dante Studies, Stanford Italian Studies, and


I Contributors

PMLA, as well as in essay collections. Currently he is working on a book on Dante and the Bible.

Robert Hollander, Professor in European Literature, holds a joint ap~ pointment in the departments of Comparative Literature and Ro~ mance Languages at Princeton University. He is the author of a number of books and articles, most devoted to examinations of the works of Dante and Boccaccio. In 1988 the city of Florence awarded him its Gold Medal for his contributions to Dante studies. Rachel ]acoff is Marion Butler Mclean Professor of the History of Ideas, and chairman of the Department of Italian at Wellesley Col~ lege. She is coauthor, with William Stephany, of Lectura Dantis Americana: Inferno II (Philadelphia, 1989), and editor of Dante: The Poetics of Conversion (Cambridge, Mass., 1986), a collection of es~ says by John Freccero. She has written several articles on Dante and was the director of the Stanford Dante Institute sponsored by the NEH in 1988. She is an assistant editor of Speculum, and has been a fellow at the Bunting Institute, Villa I Tatti, and the Stanford Hu~ manities Center.

Pamela Royston Macfie teaches Renaissance literature at The Uni~ versity of the South, in Sewanee, Tennessee, where she is Assis~ tant Professor of English. She has published on the poetry of Mar~ lowe, Chapman, Wyatt, and Spenser, and is currently completing a study of gender and genre in sixteenth~century mythological erotic narrative. Michael C.]. Putnam, Macmillan Professor of Classics at Brown University, is currently Mellon Professor~in~Charge at the Ameri~ can Academy in Rome. He has published six volumes of criticism devoted to Roman poetry, most recently Artifices of Eternity (Ithaca, N.Y., 1986). A former president of the American Philological Asso~ dation, he was awarded the Association's Goodwin Award of Merit in 1971 for Virgil's Pastoral Art (Princeton, N.J., 1970). Jeffrey T. Schnapp is Associate Professor of Italian and Comparative Literature at Stanford University. He is the author of The Trans~ figuration of History at the Center of Dante's "Paradise" (Princeton, N.J., 1986) and of essays on Hildegard of Bingen, Dante, Boccac~ cio, Machiavelli, D'Annunzio, and Marinetti and Italian Futurism. In addition, he is coeditor of L' espositione di Bernardino Daniello da




Lucca sopra la Commedia di Dante (Hanover, N.H., 1989) and of Fas, cism and Culture, the 1989 special issue of the Stanford Italian Review. William A. Stephany, Professor of English at the University of Ver, mont, is coauthor, with Rachel Jacoff, of Lectura Dantis Americana: Inferno II (Philadelphia, 1989). He has also written several articles on Dante, has twice served in the core faculty of Dante Institutes sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and has twice led NEH,sponsored Summer Seminars for School Teachers on Dante.

Note on Texts and Translations

Unless otherwise specified, all quotations from Dante's Commedia are from Charles S. Singleton's text and translation. Because of ease of access, we use the Loeb Classical Library texts and translations of both Virgil's Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphoses. Latin quotations from the Bible are from the Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam Clementinam; translations are from the Douay version of The Holy Bible. All works are fully cited in the References section at the back of this volume.

The Poetry of Allusion ~

Virgil and Ovid in Dante's Commedia

Introduction Rachel]acoff and Jeffrey T. Schnapp Virgil and Ovid offer an optimal unit for examining issues of literary influence and imitation in Dante's Commedia: Virgil, because he is Dante's explicit authorial model, his primary guide and literary "father"; Ovid, because he is second only to Virgil in the number of allusions Dante makes to his works and because he is repeatedly presented by Dante as the principal literary countermodel of the Dantean Virgil. The essays in this book deal with the Commedia's two most significant classical subtexts, the Aeneid and the Metamor~ phases. They track the relationship between Dante's poem and these texts as it develops in a series of discrete instances drawn from the course of the entire Commedia. In exploring a variety of strategies and effects by which intertextuality becomes central to Dante's on, going poetic self,definition, the essays show that his poetry of allu, sion is also a poetics of allusion. The question of allusion in Dante has traditionally been studied within the framework of Quellenforschung (the pursuit of sources). With sometimes invaluable results, Dante's commentators have pro~ ceeded on the assumption that a given allusion recalls a single locus in a source~text. The reader's task has thus been defined as that of determining the single source and ascertaining its appropriateness to the poetic context. The notion of "borrowing" that lies at the heart of such an approach is insufficient, however, to describe the pro, cesses of textual realignment characteristically at work in Dante's text. Identifying the source is only a first step; by returning to the original context of the source and then examining its implications one begins to see the ways in which Dante's citations are often di, alogic or even confrontational.


I Rachel 1acoff and 1effrey T. Schnapp

We have broadened the meaning of the term "allusion" to include a wide spectrum of intra- and intertextual phenomena. The "poetry of allusion" studied here extends from explicit quotation of a predecessor text to "dialectical" and "synecdochical" cross-references, oblique echoes, and even "screened" or suppressed allusions. This broadened concept of allusion is necessitated by the range of practices found within the Commedia and by the variety of interpretive and ideological functions served by such practices. For each of the essays here, the central question remains that of the meaning of the allusions studied. Although diverse answers are proposed to that question, what is striking overall is how Dante repeatedly thematizes the relationship of his text to its predecessors in the process of citation, a practice Thomas Greene has usefully called "heuristic imitation." In their attention to this self-conscious and self-defining aspect of literary imitation, the essays here are both congruent with and influenced by contemporary efforts to elaborate a general rhetoric of allusion that might go beyond the philological apparatus of Quellenforschung and thus respond to recent theoretical developments in the study of what has come to be referred to as "intertextuality."

Virgil in Dante The opening cantos of the Inferno establish Virgil's role as the pilgrim's guide while simultaneously suggesting, through a variety of echoes and allusions, the centrality of Virgil's epic to Dante's creation of his own poem. The representation of Virgil as a literary character and of the Aeneid as a model epic are therefore to some extent reciprocal or coincident. As character, Virgil is accorded homage and treated with tender affection in scenes of increasing intensity; as father, mother, pedagogue, and guide, he is granted sufficient authority to have been read as a personification of Reason by centuries of commentators. The Aeneid, too, receives special homage: Dante uses the same language for its seminality that he employs for Scripture, and the word "autore" is reserved exclusively for Virgil and the "author" of Holy Scripture. Dante insists on the importance of Virgil's text in literary, moral, and spiritual terms, especially in the encounter with Statius in Purgatorio 21-22. Nonetheless, Virgil, both as a character and as a textual presence, is subject to continual subversion and revisionary rewriting.




Virgil's authority is simultaneously affirmed and denied, built up and undermined. This doubleness brings into ever sharper focus the poignant and finally unresolvable tension between Dante's devotion to the Aeneid and his conviction that its author is not and cannot be saved. The allusions studied in the present volume often crystallize this tension, and in so doing, they place the narrowly literary issue of imitation within a broader historical frame: that of the overlap and opposition between Christian and classical culture. For Dante, who had no direct access to Homer, the Aeneid was by definition the canonic epic model. With passionate conviction, Dante viewed the Aeneid less as a "mere" poetic fable than as the sacred scripture of ancient Rome, the record of the exodus of the Trojans into the promised land in which the empire would achieve its providentially ordained dominion. The historical and quasi, scriptural authority of Virgil's poem was of crucial importance be, cause it granted legitimacy to Dante's claim that the Commedia, even though composed in the humble Tuscan vernacular of the fourteenth century, might also be vested with similar authority and prophetic force. At the same time, Dante regularly reminds us of the Aeneid's limitations, and indeed of the incompleteness of all pagan sources of knowledge. In this context, he invokes the cen, trality of Christian revelation necessarily absent from Virgil's text and the pre,Christian world. This he accomplishes by playing the Aeneid off against the text of Scripture, whose "verace Autore" [true Author; Par. 26.40] is regularly invoked as the Commedia's true and ultimate model author. With respect to the Commedia, then, Virgil's epic occupies an ambivalent position. On the one hand, it appears as an absolute po, etic model, as the very emblem of what literature can aspire to and accomplish. On the other, it is seen as so firmly rooted in the soil of history that its vision must remain tragically partial. The net result is Dante's notion that the Aeneid is open to-and, indeed, re, quires-the sort of retrospective critique, revision, and fulfillment proposed in the Commedia. Dante's reading of the Aeneid bears certain affinities with that de, veloped by Virgil scholars such as Adam Parry, Michael Putnam, Ralph Johnson, and Gian Biagio Conte, who emphasize the epic's tragic dimension. Postwar scholarship has repeatedly pointed to the subtle presence of multiple {and even contradictory) perspec,


I Rachel 1acoff and 1effrey T. Schnapp

tives within the Aeneid's larger narrative, as well as to Virgil's deep awareness of the terrible human cost incurred in founding the Ro, man imperial state. Dante was as haunted by the specter of civil war as Virgil and envisaged a near,identical solution to the threat of per, petual internecine strife: an imperial monarch, hal£,man and half, god, poised above the warring interests and cupidities of the citi, zenry. But, unlike Virgil, Dante was fated to remain the poet of an imperial vacuum; and in the absence of any actual or probable world monarch he had even less desire than Virgil to rend the ideological veil of empire. Dante strove to further buttress the theory of univer, sal monarchy by placing it within a Christian theology of history and granting it divine sanction. This theological emphasis, how, ever, entails a challenge to Roman conceptions of human and civil worth. Persuaded that the unanswerable finality of death calls into question the human achievements the Aeneid honors, Dante counter, poses to them a promise of Christian consolation alien to Virgil's poem and his world. The connection between Dante's Christian epic and its Roman predecessor may also be thought of as a drama of fathers and sons, wherein the pagan father is eventually replaced by a Christian (Cac, ciaguida) who grants his son the vocation to compose a Christian epic that will supplant Virgil's. The two texts are placed in a rela, tion of promise and fulfillment, following the model of the Chris, tian reading of Hebrew scripture. Virgil's poem becomes a provision, ally sacred text analogous to the Old Testament book of Exodus. As the inspired narrative of the Trojan's pilgrimage, it is granted its "true" intelligibility not from within, but rather from a hermeneutic point external to the text itself. The perspective of the Christ eventand by implication Dante's Christian poem-is posited as the ulti, mate arbiter of its significance. By remotivating the idea of Virgil as a proto,Christian prophet, Dante succeeds in rescuing the Aeneid (and with it the political ideals of the Roman empire) from the powerful critique proposed in Augustine's City of God. But he also sets up Virgil's inevitable dis, placement. Just as the Old Testament "must" give way to the New, so Virgil "must" give way to Beatrice, classical tragedy to Christian comedy. In Purgatorio 30 the author of the Roman book of exodus is left standing on the edge of Eden like a pagan Moses on the bank of


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the Jordan, unable to cross over into the promised land. It is per, haps inevitable that several of the essays collected in the first sec, tion of the present volume should hover in and around this staging of Virgil's effacement. The wide,ranging opening essay, by Robert Ball, takes as its point of departure Dante's description in Inferno 2.4-5 of "la guerra/ sl del cammino e sl della pietate" [the strife, both of the journey and of the pity], an evident paraphrase of Anchises' descrip, tion in Aeneid 6.688 of how filial love conquered the arduous path: "vic it iter durum pietas." Ball explores the semantic range of the Aeneid's central value,term, pietas, in a variety of Latin contexts, both pagan and Christian. He then charts the multiple transforma, tions that its vernacular cognate pieta undergoes from Inferno 2 through Purgatorio 30-31, to the last canto of the Paradiso, paying particular attention to the mutations in the dialectic of father and son that result from the Christianization of the term. Ball reads the importance of female mediation in Dante's poem as a critique of Virgilian pietas and a resolution of its oedipal dynamics. The second essay, by William Stephany, insists not so much on the gap between Dante and Virgil as on their complementarity. Analyzing the Harpies who appear in Inferno 13. r2 bearing a "tristo annunzio di futuro danno" [dismal announcement of future ill], Stephany illustrates one of the Commedia's most characteristic modes of allusion: allusion "by synecdoche," whereby the recollection of a single locus in the source,text also recalls the larger narrative within which it occurs. In the case of Inferno 13, Dante refers directly to Celaeno's haunting prophecy in Aeneid 3.253-57 that the Trojans will starve before they can found Rome. Stephany proposes that it is impossible either to interpret the Harpies' "dismal announcement," or to understand its figural relation to the wood of the suicides, without looking also at Aeneid 7· 120-22, where the prophecy's fulfillment turns out to be surprisingly favorable. Like its many infernal counterparts, then, the "future ill" that the Harpies proph, esy is not at all what it first appears. Stephany connects the sui, cidal despair of Pier della Vigna, his response to the loss of his earthly status, with Dante's possible reaction to infernal prophecies of his own fall from political power into exile. Just as the Harpies' prophecy is given a positive meaning by subsequent developments


I Rachel ]acoff and ]effrey T. Schnapp

in the Aeneid, so the "ill" in question-Dante's exile-will prove a salvific elixir when viewed through the corrective lens of the final canticle. Douglas Biow's study of Inferno 13 concentrates on another as~ pect of this canto's relationship to Virgilian precedent. While Ste~ phany finds an unexpected congruence between the two texts in Dante's allusion to Virgil's Harpies, Biow argues that the whole of canto 13 is dedicated to setting up an opposition between Dante's poem and Virgil's. Here Virgil for the first time openly calls atten~ tion to his own text, guiding the reader to compare Dante's encoun~ ter with Pier della Vigna and Aeneas's meeting with Polydorus in Aeneid 3. The language of this canto brings to the foreground ques~ tions of verisimilitude and faith, and probes the contrasting nature of the believable in its Virgilian and Dantean formulations. Biow argues that Dante affirms his own poem's freedom to historicize the marvelous by calling into question Virgil's ability to imagine just such a move. John Freccero's reading of Inferno 15 brings us back to the issues of literary paternity, genealogy, and authority raised by Ball's open~ ing essay. The focus of Freccero's essay is Dante's disquieting en~ counter with his teacher, the vernacular father figure Brunetto La~ tini. Freccero reads Dante's characterization of Brunetto as "cara e buona immagine paterna" [dear, kind, paternal image, v. 83] in re~ lation to the imago of Anchises in Aeneid 6, as well as to Bernardus Silvestris's commentary on this Virgilian topos. He situates the fig~ ure of Brunetto in a series of paternal analogues that include and extend the specifically Virgilian prototype. Like Ball, Putnam, and Schnapp, Freccero views Dante's engagement with paternal ana~ logues as constitutive of his own poetic authority and mission. Robert Hollander's study of Inferno 20 places the Virgil~ Dante re~ lation in a more adversarial perspective than any we have yet seen. This is fitting since Hollander is concerned with the most blatant and most aggressive of Dante's rewritings of Virgil. The appearance of Manto among the diviners punished in the fourth ditch of the Malebolge leads Virgil to recount a new version of the founding of his native Mantua that not only contradicts Aeneid 10.198-203, but also insists that it alone is accurate. The discrepancy between these two stories leads Hollander to the conundrum of Purgatorio 22, where Virgil speaks to Statius of a second Manto who resides in




limbo rather than in hell. Hollander treats the confusing presence of these two Mantos-usually attributed to a lapse on Dante's part-as the product of a deliberate triangulation by Dante of his own text with those of Virgil and Statius. He argues that by intro, clueing the Statian Manto, Dante intends to offer hope for pagan prophecy and poetry-a hope embodied, not in Virgil, but in Dante's own figure of the chiuso Cristian [secret Christian; Purg. 22.90], Statius himself. Michael Putnam's essay, "Virgil's Inferno," begins by noting the distinct echo found in Inferno 10 of Virgil's idea of the "blind prison" of bodily and historical existence, and analyzes the latter's implica, tions for the whole of the Aeneid. His account of the Aeneid's in, ability to imagine a fully linear teleology or a paradise beyond the embrace of historical time culminates in a reading of Virgil's epic as "spiritually fulfilled and generically incomplete," a reading that has resonances for many of the other essays in this collection. In his discussion of Virgil as an Anchises figure, Putnam emphasizes the importance of the first major Virgilian allusion in Purgatorio 30, in which Anchises' funereal lament for the death of Marcellus at the conclusion of Aeneid 6 is transformed by Dante into the greeting of Beatrice in her triumphal advent at the summit of the mountain of purgatory. The next two essays explore the subsequent Virgilian compo, nents of the succession scene in Purgatorio 30. Peter Hawkins exam, ines the implications of Dante's rewriting of Virgil's Dido in his own encounter with Beatrice atop Mount Purgatory. Demonstrating Dido's importance as a counterexample to Dante's conception of the redemptive potential of erotic love, Hawkins discusses both her role in the Aeneid and her presence in the Commedia. Dante greets Be, atrice by translating the words that Dido had used to acknowledge her love for Aeneas; embedded within this translation Hawkins finds not only a rethinking of the possibilities of eros, but also an attempt on Dante's part to position himself with respect to Virgil. In the final essay on the succession scene, Rachel Jacoff glosses the triple repetition of Virgil's name that occurs at the very instant of his disappearance from the Commedia. She links this threefold repetition to the analogous scene of Eurydice's disappearance in Georgics 4, which Dante deforms or, actually, reforms. Jacoff sees this allusion as layered, a double allusion that recalls not only Gear,


I Rachel]acoff and Jeffrey T. Schnapp

gics 4 but also Statius's rehearsal of the same motif at the conclusion of the Thebaid. The triple repetition of "The Arcadian" brings the narrative of the Thebaid to a conclusion by mourning the Arcadian Parthenopaeus, whose name may be seen as an oblique reference to Virgil himself. The saturation of Dante's text not only with Vir~ gilian allusions but also with the name of Virgil comes to a climax in the Roman poet's disappearance from Dante's text, an event punc~ tuated by the proclamation of Dante's own name in the first word uttered by Beatrice in her role as guide. Although Virgil disappears as a character in Purgatorio 30, his text remains a significant presence in the poem until its conclusion. Jeffrey Schnapp brings our consideration of Dante's use of Virgil to a close by analyzing the role of the Aeneid in the Paradiso. His topic is the extended reenactment of the Elysian encounter of Anchises and Aeneas in Paradiso 15-17· Schnapp's essay maps the subtle symbolic shifts and reversals that underwrite Dante's claim both to salvage the Virgilian enterprise and at the same time to transcend it in the encounter with his great~great~grandfather Cacciaguida. He locates the crucial difference between Virgilian Elysium and Dantean para~ dise in Christianity's theology of fruitful sacrifice. As Schnapp's es~ say makes clear, the presence of the Aeneid in the Paradiso may be less frequent than in the other canticles, but it is by no means less important. Although the nine essays in Part I discuss a variety of models of imitation and appropriation, they move to remarkably cohesive conclusions about the thematic and ideological implications of Dante's critical engagement with the Aeneid. While the Aeneid re~ mains a powerful and empowering prototype for the Commedia, Dante repeatedly stages the superiority of his own Christian epic by making us aware of the limits of Virgil's poem, its ethos and its pa, thos. Dante returns to those passages in the Aeneid where this~ worldly and human values are poignantly undercut by the thwarting of individual fulfillment. In Dante's reading, the absence of hope in Virgil's text finds its correlative in the condition of the souls in Limbo as Virgil describes it: "Sanza speme vivemo in disio" [With, out hope we live in longing; Inf. 4.42]. Since Limbo is, of course, the place to which Dante's poem consigns Virgil for eternity, Virgil himself remains, to use Robert Hollander's phrase, "the tragedy


I 9

in the Comedy." Virgil's exclusion from the Christian heaven is a haunting reminder of what Dante chooses to suppress and exclude.

Ovid in Dante If Dante's reading of Virgil is characterized by a relative stability and thematic coherence, his treatment of Ovid is far more elusive. Like the Aeneid, the Metamorphoses is a key text for the Commedia, but Dante does not make its author a significant character in the nar, rative, nor does he encourage us to think biographically about Ovid-a pointed choice given the fate of exile both poets suffered. While Dante emphasizes the congruence between Virgil's biography and his literary production, he cuts Ovid's work loose from any such reciprocity; this grants the Metamorphoses an autonomy that makes it susceptible to a variety of uses within Dante's poem. This freedom from biographical and historical implications-as well as the Meta, morphoses's own great diversity and variety-allows Dante to treat Ovid's work with different meanings from context to context, can, tide to canticle. Defined by a greater susceptibility to multiple ap, propriations, Ovid's writings come to stand for the creative energies of the image,making faculty itself, whether human or divine: its freedom to combine and recombine, to join fantasy with fact, to exemplify in order to teach, to stage a narrative persona in the mode of either self,censorship or self,display. In actual practice, this translates into a layered engagement with Ovid's writings: a multi, tiered synthesis that adapts Ovidian materials to specific ethical and poetic issues pertinent in each of the Commedia's canticles. In the Inferno, Ovidian metamorphosis provides an important precedent for Dante's depiction of the transformative consequences of sin within a Christianized Aristotelian moral scheme. According to this scheme, sin not only turns mankind away from God but also does violence to the human form, which God created in the divine image. Sin disfigures and deforms, and its result is the sort of down, ward ontological drift marked by the Inferno's pervasive imagery of bestiality, monstrosity, and reification. Having turned against hu, man nature and the divine likeness, the damned undergo sometimes literal metamorphoses: the suicides become thorn bushes, the thieves merge into and out of snakes. This downward motion along the


I Rachel 1acoff and 1effrey T. Schnapp

chain of being may be viewed as a parodic inversion of the upward motions that characterize the successive canticles, namely, justifica~ tion (or re~formation) in the Purgatorio and transfiguration (or deifi~ cation) in the Paradiso. For the most part, Dante presents infernal disfigurements exter~ nally; rather than assuming the ludic persona of the Ovidian nar~ rator-who is at once deus ex machina, participant, and voyeur within his own poem-Dante generally keeps his pilgrim~protagonist separate from the Commedia's poet~narrator. Yet the most dramatic infernal mutation occurs in a passage in which the narrator~poet's detachment is openly compromised. In Inferno 25 the theme of imaginative freedom is linked to a virtuoso poetics of self~display fraught with moral and artistic perils. Dante enters into a poetic competition with Ovid; making use of what Curtius called the "out~ doing topos," he boasts that he has surpassed and even silenced Ovid (and Lucan as well). Dante's claim to have outdone Ovid in the act of "poetando" is presented with a braggadocio more in keep~ ing with the spirit of infernal self~aggrandizement than with Chris~ tian humility. The grandstanding of this episode is itself an Ovid~ ian device that replays Ovid's own obsession with technique, an aspect of his poetic identity acknowledged and criticized even in antiquity. Dante's flirtation with such a ludic stance is, however, promptly qualified since he immediately redefines his indulgence in poetic ri~ valry by moralizing the stylistic issues involved. Even before the conclusion of canto 25, Dante admits his errancy, and opens the following canto with an apology. Since this backward~glancing apologia is the prelude to Dante's encounter with Ulysses, his nega~ tive double and the overreacher par excellence, Dante's rivalrous performance in canto 2 5 can be seen as a deliberate lapse: a tempo~ rary fall into a poetics of hubristic display that serves to drive home a moral and poetic point. The attempt to outdo Ovid is a momen~ tary capitulation that retrospectively both dramatizes and exorcises seductive tendencies associated with the figure of the Ovidian artist. Ovidian allusions in the Purgatorio are not as explicitly tied to the figure of Ovid as they are in Inferno 25. Most of the Ovidian allusions in this canticle function within its dominant poetics of ex~ emplarity. Ovidian exempla are found on every terrace except that of the slothful; for the most part, they concur with the moralizations




already implied within Ovid's own version of the stories, and thus may be said to function in a "neutral" manner. Arachne and Niobe as examples of pride, and Aglauros as an example of envy, are uti~ lized as straightforward illustrations rather than being rewritten by Dante. An exception to this practice of allusive neutrality surfaces in the clusters of allusions that serve to mark off certain imaginative spaces as "Ovid ian." This is clearest in the first dream sequence in Pur~ gatorio 9, where stories of erotic violence and transgression accom~ pany Dante's experience of dreaming and of being transported to the gate of purgatory proper. Dante's entry into the earthly paradise is likewise marked by a cluster of citations of Ovidian stories of erotic violence. But in both cases, Dante revises the equation of eros and death by superimposing a Christian narrative of sublime and sub~ limated love that underscores the distance between the Ovidian original and its Dantesque reworking. The structural importance of these episodes becomes clear when we reach the Paradiso, the site of Dante's freest and most complex reworking of Ovidian materials. With considerable daring, Dante fragments and rewrites a number of Ovidian tales in the Paradiso, either subjecting them to a positive rewriting {Marsyas, Semele) or contrasting their tragic outcomes with his own comic itinerary (Phaeton, Europa). In Dante's mapping of the differences between Ovidian metamorphosis and Christian transfiguration, stories of tragic encounters between humans and gods become negative types of that successful union of the human and the divine, the lncar~ nation, which underwrites-theologically and poetically-Dante's own endeavor. Since earlier attempts to provide an account of Ovid's presence in Dante's text have concentrated on the Inferno, the essays col~ lected here focus on the Purgatorio and Paradiso. They explore Dante's rewriting of Ovidian tales in relation to a number of key themes. In the opening essay of Part II, Pamela Royston Macfie ex~ plores Dante's treatment of one of Ovid's emblematic artist figures, Arachne. Like Narcissus and Phaeton, Arachne figures in all three canticles, but is present in different guises in each of them. Tracking her successive appearance from Inferno 17 to Paradiso 18, Macfie shows how Arachne is consistently linked to Dante's poetic self, definition, and to the transformations it undergoes in the course of


I Rachel] acoff and] effrey T. Schnapp

the poem's unfolding. She traces the correlation between the evolv, ing definition of Arachne's artistry and Dante's own development as a specifically Christian poeta. Dante's fracturing and reordering of Ovid's original is the sub, ject of the essay by William Stephany that immediately follows, as well as of two subsequent contributions by Kevin Brownlee. Ste, phany concentrates on the link between the tale of Erysichthon from Metamorphoses 8 and Dante's representation of the gluttons in Purgatorio 23.25-27 as "a buccia strema ... fatto secco, I per di, giunar" [withered to the utter rind by hunger]. His analysis shows that, even when Dante seems to be treating a tale as a neutral ex, emplum-a mere illustration to be cited in passing-the citation performs an interpretative maneuver that heightens the moral and poetic drama of Ovid's story. As a result, Ovid's tale of transgression and divine retribution becomes a parable about the letter and the spirit, about how to "read" a man's body in relation to the condition of his soul. A similar concern with reading and misreading is found in "Watching Matelda," Peter Hawkins's study of the interaction be, tween secular and sacred texts in Purgatorio 28. Hawkins begins by noting the misleading hermeneutic cues offered in Dante's initial description of the Garden of Eden and of its genius loci (later identi, fied as Matelda). The initial tension between the traces of Guido Cavalcanti's ballad of erotic dalliance, "In un boschetto trova' pas, turella," and the prelapsarian condition of Eden recurs later in the canto when Dante invokes a sequence of Ovidian similes. By com, paring Matelda to Proserpina and Venus, and the pilgrim to Xerxes and Leander, Dante seems to suggest that a shockingly inappropri, ate Ovidian scenario linking eros, tragedy, and death is relevant to Eden. Matelda herself, however, quickly forecloses this possibility. She glosses the Garden with a sacred song, the N inety,first Psalm, which celebrates God as Creator and song itself as a response to di, vine creation. Her Christian pastoral, therefore, argues the case for an alternative poetry of divine love and praise that goes beyond the Ovidian interpretive models and their tragic equation of love and death. Kevin Brownlee's essay.on Marsyas, Glaucus, and St. Paul deals with the first extended set of Ovidian allusions after the apparent repudiation of pagan poetry in the Garden of Eden. Brownlee ana,





lyzes the tales ofMarsyas and Glaucus in the light of Dante's fragmen~ tary retelling of them in the first canto of the Paradiso, demonstrating how they take on a new and specialized meaning by conflation with the story of Paul's rapture from 2 Corinthians. Glaucus's deification comes to represent the transformation of Dante~pilgrim at the level of plot, while Marsyas's "disembodiment" comes instead to stand for the transformation of Dante~poet at the level of composition. Together, Brownlee suggests, they permit Dante to translate into words and images what the Apostle Paul had refused to disclose in his second letter to the Corinthians: the actual substance or content of paradisiac vision. The emphasis in Jeffrey Schnapp's "Dante's Ovidian Self~Correc~ tion" is also on Dante's self~representation. But whereas the preced~ ing essay (like that of Stephany) dealt with cases of what may be called "creative misprision," the twin Ovidian allusions of Paradiso 17 respect the letter of Ovid's text. The first compares the pilgrim's anxious state as he awaits Cacciaguida's prophetic words to that of Phaeton querying his mother about his divine father. The second commands the pilgrim, who has now heard intimations of his forth~ coming exile, to imitate Hippolytus, who, falsely accused, left his native Athens to set off along the bitter path of exile. The structural parallels between the two tales seem to confirm the pilgrim's worst fears: if both Phaeton and Hippolytus die tragic deaths, so too, it follows, must the pilgrim. Yet, as Schnapp shows, the apparent paral~ lelisms are in fact an interpretive trap, since the story of Hippolytus's death is followed by the narrative of his rebirth, which transforms apparent tragedy into comedy by ultimately resurrecting the hero. If this dialectical use of Ovidian materials is unique to Paradiso 17, the practice of dispersing and reassembling Ovid ian tales con~ tinues into the heavens of Saturn and of the fixed stars, where, as Kevin Brownlee shows in his second essay, Dante is presented as a corrected Christian Semele. Ovid's tale of the impossibility of Jupiter's accommodating himself to human view without lethal con~ sequences is transformed into a parable of divine accommodation within a Christian universe. Unlike Jupiter, who strives to temper his appearance in Metamorphoses 3 but nonetheless ends up incin~ erating his beloved Semele, Beatrice protects and prepares Dante for the sight of her smile and ultimately for celestial vision. Ovidian imaginative, erotic, and poetic energies are at work



I Rachel ]acoff and ]effrey T. Schnapp

throughout the Paradiso in a sequence of allusions to myths con, cemed with divine and human desire. For Ovid himself the em, blematic story of this desire is that of the rape of Europa, and it is with Dante's allusion to that story that Rachel Jacoff's essay brings the collection to a close. While Dante's brief allusion in Paradiso 27.83-84 to "illito I nel qual si fece Europa dolce carco" [the shore where Europa made herself a sweet burden] is usually assumed to re, fer to Metamorphoses 2, Jacoff argues for two other Ovidian sources: Metamorphoses 6, where Europa's abduction appears as the paradig, matic rape story in Arachne's tapestry, and Fasti 5, where Europa's abduction is linked instead to the sign ofTaurus and her triumph as the eponymous mistress of the European continent. The former as, sociates Europa with the problem of artistic self,representation; the latter hints at a more positive reading in which rape is transformed into rapture, transgression into transcendence. This wider set of interpretative possibilities is, the essay argues, implied by Dante's pairing of Europa's "sweet burden" with Ulysses' "mad track" [il varco I folie d'Ulisse; 27.82-83]. Despite the differences in emphasis and even in conclusion reached by these essays, they all suggest that Dante remains in con, trol of the implications of his allusions, and that those implications are both purposive and intelligible. The hypothesis that what Dante is doing is deliberate, programmatic, and meant to be discovered is heuristically valuable even if it is, of course, unprovable. Indeed, as many Dante scholars would agree, one of the powerful pleasures of Dante's poem is its capacity to reward the reader's effort to uncover its implicit hermeneutic guidelines. Furthermore, the process of elu, cidating the correspondence as well as the gaps between Dante's text and its models encourages the reader to participate in or iden, tify with Dante's strategies. One tends to align oneself with Dante as he reworks his predecessors' texts and merges them into the Com, media with a freedom that, at times, seems almost Olympian. Despite its inherent appeal and heuristic value, such an alliance between poet and reader is not always fruitful. It applies no critical pressure to Dante's self,proclamation as the final judge and arbiter of ancient poetry-a proclamation that raises at least as many ques, tions as it answers. It also seemingly assents to Dante's claim that what grants him authority and legitimacy is not only poetic genius





but also the historically privileged and divinely sanctioned truth of Christian revelation. This claim justifies an omnivorous ethos of ap, propriation, which only the unusual depth, variety, and thoughtful, ness of Dante's readings of Virgil and Ovid can effectively temper. Perhaps more than any other medieval writer, Dante gives the im, pression of responding to the nuances, complexities, and historical specificity of his classical source,texts. In so doing, he forces his readers to revisit these texts as well, with a paradoxical effect. The return to the source,text yields a greater awareness of Dante's mas, tery as a literary appropriator and adapter. But, reminding us of the remarkable power of the poetry of Dante's ancient masters, it also summons us to attend to that which in Virgil and Ovid eludes, re, sists, and challenges Dante's Christian vision.

Theological Semantics: Virgil's Pietas and Dante's Pietd ea.

Robert Ball

A comparison of the semantic range of pietas in the Aeneid with that of its Italian cognate pieta in the Commedia may seem difficult to justify at first glance, since the Latin word comprises both "duty owed to the gods, to one's parents, and to one's country" and "clem~ ency, sympathy, fellow feeling," but in medieval Italian (and in Old French, Old Spanish, and Middle English as well), pietd is generally limited to the second sense, especially as "pity, compassion." 1 Pietd is a key word in the poetic lexicon of the dolce stil nuovo, in which it functions as the Tuscan equivalent and reinterpretation of the mer, cey and pietat begged, or exacted, of their ladies by the Proven' '£KTOpOovow (}vry'Y1 Ka0'Y}YBJJ.iiw ["our illustrious teacher"; my translation]. See also De divinis nominibus 3.2. Dante shared the standard medieval belief that the fifth~ or sixth~century Greek Neoplatonist theolo~ gian whom we know as the pseudo~Dionysius was identical with the Di~ onysius the Areopagite whose conversion by St. Paul in Athens is re~ counted in Acts I7: 34· See also Dante's Epistola II. I6, Epistola I3.6o (Letter to Can Grande), and Par. IO. rrs- q, where Dionysius is identified by St. Thomas in the first circle of the theologians in the heaven of the sun (between Solomon and Orosius): "Appresso vedi illume di quel cero I che giu in came piu a dentro vide I l'angelica natura e 'l ministero" [At its side behold the light of that candle which, below in the flesh, saw deepest into the angelic nature and its ministry].


Schnapp, "Dante's Ovidian


r. Traube divides the Middle Ages into three distinct periods according to the Roman poet whose influence was prevalent: "Schon im I2. und I3· Jahrhundert enthalten sich die Dichter wieder der Leoniner, die sie im Io. und besonders im I I. Jahrhundert ganz ausnahmslos verwandten. Es ist das Zeitalter, das ich die aetas Ovidiana nennen mochte, die Zeit, die der aetas Vergiliana, dem 8. und 9· Jahrhundert, und der aetas Horatiana, dem ro. und I r. Jahrhundert, folgt. Denn so konnte man ungefahr die Jahrhunderte abgrenzen nach den Dichtem, die ihnen die nachahmenswertesten schie~ nen" (p. rr3). 2. A notable exception is the De vetula (The Old Hag), a thirteenth~ century forgery by Richard de Foumival, in which Ovid figures as a foolish lover who turns from the world of love to that of letters, becoming in the end a proto~Christian philosopher. If one may judge by the manuscript tra~ clition, the work enjoyed considerable popularity well into the fourteenth century. 3· Cf. V.N. 25.9: "Per Ovidio parla Amore, sl come se fosse persona umana, ne lo principia de lo libro c'ha nome Libro di Remedio d'Amore, qui vi: 'Bella mihi, video, bella parantur, ait. "' (The citation is from verse 2 of Ovid's Remedia amoris.) Dante's emphasis on the "amatory" Ovid seems characteristic of his earliest writings, whereas Met. has become the primary point of reference by the time of the De vulgari eloquentia, Conv., and Commedia. 4· Manegold of Lautenbach, for instance, believed that, like Dante's Statius, Ovid had been a secret Christian who practiced pagan worship out


I Notes to Pages 215-17

of fear. The pseudo,Ovidian author of De vetula imagined that Ovid had been converted by the Apostle John. On the Christianization of Ovid see Bischoff, pp. 144- so; and on the specific case of Manegold, see Meiser. 5· After wandering through the Court of Virtues and the Vale of Love, the Brunetto of Il tesoretto finds himself before the "amatory" Ovid: "In un ricco manto I vidi Ovidio maggiore, I che gli atti dell'amore I che son cosl diversi, I rasembra 'n motti e versi" (vv. 2357-61). (Cf. the possible echo of "Ovidio maggiore" in Conv. 3·3·7·) After this, Ovid frees the enlimed Brunetto with his wisdom: "Ma Ovidio per arte I mi diede maestria, I sl ch'io trovai la via" (vv. 2390-93). The prayer of penitence with which the Tesoretto concludes begins some thirty verses later. 6. There is some controversy over how widely Dante had read in the Ovidian corpus. Moore, for instance, takes the extreme position that "it does not appear . . . that Dante's familiarity with Ovid extended much be, yond the Metamorphoses" (p. 206), while nonetheless acknowledging that Dante must have had some exposure to the Remedia amoris. The evidence, however, for Dante's extensive familiarity with texts such as the Amores, Ars amatoria, and Heroides seems incontrovertible, while even in the ad, mittedly more ambiguous cases of the Fasti,. Tristia, and Epistulae ex Ponto, the evidence is stronger than Moore believed. For a general survey of Dante's Ovidian allusions, see Paratore, "Ovidio." 7· This parallel between Par. I7 and Aen. 6 was first proposed by Chia, renza in "Time and Eternity" (p. 134). The Ovidian allusion in the first terzina of canto 17 further underscores this shift from female to male by identifying Dante with Phaeton, who looks first to Clymene (Beatrice), only to seek his ultimate consolation from Apollo (Cacciaguida). 8. On the Cacciaguida cantos as a rewriting of Aen. 6 and De republica 6, see Schnapp, Transfiguration, esp. pp. r6-69. 9· On the mythography of canto I7, the most important recent studies are Brownlee, "Phaeton's Fall"; Chiarenza, "Hippolytus' Exile" and "Time and Eternity"; and Stephany, "Cacciaguida, Boethius, Hippolytus." 10. The story ofHippolytus is also alluded to in Aen. 7.761-82, where the name of Virbius is cited in the midst of a catalogue of Rutulian war, riors. This Virbius is not the resurrected Hippolytus himself, but rather his son, whom the resurrected Hippolytus-Virbius pater-had named after himself. Par. 17.46-48 clearly refers to the Ovidian version of the tale, since Virgil nowhere mentions the city of Athens, nor does he emphasize the theme of exile. II. Certain narrative details make the connection explicit. In the Phae, ton story, Apollo had insisted that the true task was to rein in the horses ("labor est inhibere volentes," Met. 2. u8) and to hold the middle course ("medio tutissimus ibis," 2. 137). Phaeton, however, finds himself unable either to release or tighten the reins ("nee frena remittit I nee retinere

Notes to Pages 2r7-r9


valet," 2.191-92). Then, dropping them entirely ("lora remisit," 2.2oo), he lets the horses run unhindered ("nulloque inhibente," 2.202). In the case of Hippolytus, his hands are powerless to hold onto the foam,covered reins: "Ego ducere vana I frena manu spumis albentibus oblita luctor" (r5.5I8-r9). 12. The passage from Cicero reads as follows: "Acne illa quidem pro, missa servanda sunt quae non sunt his ipsis utilia, quibus illa promiseris. Sol Phaethonti filio, ut redeamus ad fabulas, facturum se esse dixit quidquid optasset; optavit ut in currum patris tolleretur; sublatus est; atque is, ante quam constitit, ictu fulminis deflagravit. Quanto melius fuerat in hoc pro, missum patris non esse servatum! Quid, quod Theseus exegit promissum a Neptuno? Cui cum tres optationes Neptunus dedisset, optavit interitum Hippolyti filii cum is patri suspectus esset de noverca; quo optato impetrato Theseus in maximis fuit luctibus" (De officiis 3.25.94; Cicero's important discussion of Ulysses's ruses follows). Chiarenza, in "Hippolytus' Exile," also takes note of John of Salisbury's reworking of Cicero in Policraticus (3. u). 13. Although Benvenuto does not mention the question of Clymene's infidelity, his gloss on the opening terzina of canto 17 proposes some inter, esting structural parallels: "Sicut Pheton filius solis turbatus eo quod im, properatum fuerat sibi ab emulo suo, recurrit ad Clymenem, matrem suam, ut certificaretur de re produbia multum pungente animum suum, et illa re, misit eum ad solem; ita ad propositum dicit Auctor, quod ipse, 'tamquam verus filius solis, quia sapientissimus, turbatus eo quod fuerat sibi imprope, ratum a multis adversariis, recurrit nunc ad Beatricem, matrem suam, que remisit eum ad antiquum patrem suum, ut declaretur de re sibi dubia et suspecta valde cruciante animum eius'" (quoted in Biagi, 3: 382). !4· In Met. 2.98-99, Apollo tries to dissuade his son from taking the solar chariot's reins by insisting that he has confused a reward with pun, ishment: "quod vero nomine poena, I non honor est: poenam, Phaeton, pro munere poscis!" At the confusion's root is a transgression of the bounda, ries between the mortal and immortal orders: "Sors tua mortalis, non est mortale, quod optas" (2. 56). 15. Phaeton is mentioned explicitly in Inf. 17· w7 ("quando Fetonte abbandono li freni"), Purg. 4.71-72 ("la strada I che mal non seppe car, reggiar Feton"), Purg. 29. u8 ("quel [carro] del Sol che, sv'iando, fu com, busto"), Par. 17· I ("Qual venne a Climene"), and Par. 31.124-25 ("il temo I che mal guido Fetonte"). Dante also refers to him in Rime 40A, vv. 4-5 ("que' che vide nel fiume lombardo I cader suo figlio"), Conv. 2.14.5 ("la favola di Fetonte"; and Epistola 11.5 ("non aliter quam falsus auriga Pheton exorbitastis"). The link between Phaeton and artificer figures such as Ulysses and Daedalus suggests that the danger Phaeton embodies is that of creating an errant artifact that will lead to the destruction of its author. Cf. Brownlee, "Phaeton's Fall."



I Notes to Pages


16. The Apollo~Cacciaguida conflation is enhanced by numerous tex~ tual details, of which I cite only two. As the god of poetry and prophecy, Apollo has an eye-the sun-that sees all things ("Sol oculis ... quibus adspicit omnia," Met. 2.32); similarly, Cacciaguida prophesies gazing into that divine mirror in which all contingent things are depicted, just as the eyes reflect a ship going downstream (Par. 17·37-42). The cross of light with which Cacciaguida is identified is hailed with the Apollonian greeting "0 El'ios" (14.96), only to become in canto 15 (v. 4) a "dolce lira" [sweet lyre], like the lyre of Apollo. 17· The importance of the second half of Hippolytus's story to the in~ terpretation of Cacciaguida's words in canto 17 was first brought to my at~ tention by Chiarenza's "Hippolytus' Exile." My own views and those of Chiarenza are anticipated by a number of the early commentators, includ~ ing Jacopo della Lana, who writes: "Sl come Ippolito se partl d'Atene perche non volse observare le seducioni della soa madregna, e murfo e po' re~ suscito, cussl Dante, perche non vorrai consentire alli barattieri del to Commune, serai fatto exulo de Fioren~a, e dopo molta briga tu vedrai tale vendetta di toi nemisi che tu serai restituido nelle toe rasuni e stado" (quoted in Biagi, 3: 389). The same argument is also present in the Ottimo commento: "sl come 'si partl da Atene per non volere fare quello che la rna~ trigna volle, e morinne, e poi risuscito, cosl diverra di te, che non vorrai consentire alli tuoi cittadini, e sarai cacciato di Firenze; rna dopo molta briga uscirai dello esilio" (quoted in Biagi, 3: 389). 18. As always, Dante is acutely sensitive to the interconnections be~ tween Ovidian tales. The description of Hippolytus's body as "unumque erat omnia vulnus" (Met. 15.529) identifies him with the figure ofMarsyas, presented as "nee quicquam nisi vulnus" (Met. 6.388) after his flaying (and cited by Dante in Par. I. 19-21 as an exemplum). The reference to the underworld as the kingdom where Apollo's rays do not shine ("luce ca~ rentia regna," 15.531), on the other hand, provides a further direct con~ nection to the story of Phaeton. Apollo had first made his fateful promise swearing by that "Stygian pool whereby gods swear, but which mine eyes have never seen" ("promissi testis adesto I dis iuranda palus, oculis incog~ nita nostris," Met. 2.45-46) and then tried to retract it in the same man~ ner: "dabitur (Stygias iuravimus undas), I quodcumque optaris; sed tu sa~ pientius opta" (2.101-2). Phaeton's catastrophic journey, however, brings Apollo's light to the underworld: "Lumen et infemum terret cum coniuge regem" (2.261). 19. The etymological gloss originates with Servius's commentary on Aen. 7· 761: "Diana Hippolytum, revocatum ab inferis, in Aricia nymphae commendavit Egeriae et eum Virbium, quasi bis virum iussit vocari" ( Servii, vol. 2, 7· 761). 20. On this subject see de Gaiffier. In "Hippolytus' Exile" (p. 66),




222-3 r


Chiarenza cites an interesting passage from Jerome's commentary on Eph. 4: 16, where the restoration of the dismembered mystical body of the Church through Christ's second coming is compared to the restoration of the dis~ membered Hippolytus through Virbius. 21. My translation. 22. Dante's faith in the salvific potential of first~pcrson, confessional narration may, in and of itself, have determined his special emphasis on the story of Glaucus (in the opening canto of the Paradiso) and Hippolytus (in the canticle's central canto). Both are unique inasmuch as they are tales of deification narrated by the deified mortals themselves, whereas the great majority of Ovid's tales are recounted by third parties.

Brownlee, "Ovid's Semele and Dante's Metamorphosis" This essay is a slightly revised version of an article that appeared in MLN 101 ( 1986): 14 7-56. I am grateful to the Johns Hopkins University Press for permission to reprint. I. Hawkins notes that "this request to see one of the blessed, as Ben~ venuto da lmola puts it, in pura essentia ('in pure being'), is unique in the whole of the Paradiso" ("by Gradual Scale," p. 261). Hawkins insightfully interprets this episode as a function of "Dante's understanding of the con~ templative life as a formal, regularized preparation for nothing less than the beatific vision: for the sight of God facie ad faciem, face to face" (p. 262). 2. Jacoff, Dante, Chap. 4· I am grateful to Professor Jacoff for gener~ ously allowing me to consult her book in manuscript form. 3· This scene (and the vision of Mary and Gabriel that follows it) in~ volves the first instance of partial violation of the mode of accommodative metaphor hitherto operative in Par. In Hollander's words, "Here for the first time Dante is vouchsafed a direct vision of Heaven" ("Invocations," p. 239). 4· For the important implications of the shift in Dante's use of meta~ phoric discourse here see Freccero, "Dance of the Stars," in his Dante, pp. 22I-44· 5· At the same time, Dante's temporary blindness in Par. 23 anticipates similar episodes of blindness in Par. 26 and 30. An important program is operative here with regard to the Pauline model for Dante~protagonist in Par., since each of these moments recalls the Apostle's preconversionary blindness on the road to Damascus (Acts 9, 22, and 26). See Brownlee, "Language and Desire," and Jacoff and Stephany, "Pilgrim and Poet," pp. 57-89 in their Inferno II. 6. The "regina celi" (Par. 23. 128) with which the heavenly hosts later celebrate Mary and the Incarnation would thus involve an implicit and contrastive evocation of the Juno of Met. 3, who angrily insists on her


I Notes to Pages 2 3 r- 38

(ambiguous) status as queen of heaven ("sum regina" [I am the queen],

Met. 3.265). The Commedia's only other explicit reference to Semele (Inf. 30. 1-3) emphasizes Juno's anger: "Nel tempo che Iunone era crucciata I per Semele contra 'l sangue tebano, I come mostro una e altra fiata." 7· It is worth noting in this context that Par. 23. ss-63 marks the defini, tive displacement, the final rejection of the pagan Muses as figures of poetic inspiration in the Commedia. See Hollander, "Invocations," pp. 236-40. 8. The two other explicit references to Bacchus in the Commedia both involve the city of Thebes. In Inf. 20.59 Virgil refers to Thebes enslaved by Creon as "la citta di Baco." In Purg. 18.93 Dante uses "Bacco" metonymi, cally to designate the Theban "Bacchic orgies" (see Singleton, Divine Comedy, voL 2, pt. 2, p. 44).

Jacoff, "The Rape/Rapture of Europa" r. The earliest complete version of the Europa story is the second cen, tury B.c. Alexandrian poem ofMoschus. It has been brilliantly analyzed as a tale about the threshold of puberty and exogamy by Barkan, pp. 12-18. Horace, Odes 3.27, also has Europa as its subject. 2. Otis, p. 83 and passim. 3· Whether Jupiter actually changes form or merely disguises himself is not clear. In the Fasti Jupiter is clearly disguised, while in Met. 2 the "imago tauri" may refer to a temporary transformation. Cf. Met. 8.122-25, where Scylla's rejection by Europa's son Minos leads Scylla to posit Europa's lover as a real bull and to link Europa's story with that of Minos's wife, Pasiphae. 4· All translations of Ovid's Fasti in this essay are by Sir James George Frazer. 5· Barkan analyzes the story and its ambiguities in ways very similar to my own reading. His argument would have been even stronger if he had taken account of Ovid's multiple retellings of the story. 6. Among many interpretations of this painting, I have found the fol, lowing most suggestive: Rosand, "Titian and Eloquence," pp. 85-95, and "Ut Pictor Poeta," pp. 527-46; Panofsky, pp. 102-8; Fehl, pp. 3-23. 7· Cf. Barkan, pp. 5-8, and Rosand, "Ut Pictor Poeta," p. 545, on Velazquez. 8. Dante's circling is represented in spatial terms, but contains the only time reference in the whole of Par. From the fact that he has circled ninety degrees, it is possible to say that Dante spends six hours in the constellation of Gemini in the eighth sphere. Durling and Martinez, pp. 241-48, relate this unique temporal reference to the fact of Dante's descent into time in the constellation of Gemini. Dante's focus on geographical boundaries (the boundaries of the Mediterranean, which are cited here) is also important,

Notes to Pages 239-46


and figuratively linked to the larger alternation of physical and spiritual boundaries in canto 2 7. 9· Dante does, however, name Taurus on his entrance into the Gemini; in Par. 22. III, he calls the Gemini" '1 segno I che seque il Tauro" [the sign which follows the Bull]. The constellation plays a role in Titian's Europa as well; Fehl, following Tanner, argues that the group of barely visible white dots above the right hand of Europa are the sign ofTaurus. Fehl argues that the presence of the constellation in the picture is important to its accor~ dionlike union of the burlesque and the sublime (p. I8). IO. Benvenuto, 5: 396; my translations. The rest of the portion I have excerpted reads: "Respondebo tibi, quod negari non potest, quin poetae finxerunt multa vana et inhonesta, sed tamen ex hoc poetria nobilissima non culpanda; culpandi potius sunt poetae in talibus. Homines enim fue~ rent, et non solum homines sed pagani: sic magnos theologos, magnos haereticos vidimus et magnos morales cum pessimis moribus. Sicut enim ista consequentia non valet; . . . culpa est non artium, sed artium male utentium." For Lactantius, see 6. qo; cf. Arnobius, 5:1265. I I. On the allegorizing tradition see Born; Allen, pp. I63 -99; Battaglia, pp. 57-62; Seznec, pp. 9I-95; Robotham; Barkan, esp. pp. I03-I?· I2. Bersuire, pp. 109- IO, my translation. Cf. Ovide moralise, I: 276-8o (2. I1.496o-end). Scott, p. 222, discusses and rejects the use of such moral~ izing glosses by Jacopo della Lana and Pezard. I3. Cf. Hawkins, "Watching Marelda," in this volume. I4. Poliziano picks up Dante's "dolce" in his own description of Jupi~ ter's abduction of Europa; see Stanze I. 105, where he speaks of Jupiter's carrying off "il dolce suo ricco tesauro." I 5. On the presence and function of gender reversals in the Commedia see my "Models" and "Tears," esp. pp. 8-10, and Schnapp, "Gender and Genre." I6. See Chapin. The tales of Io and Europa are paired in Moschus and elsewhere in Ovid as well. 17. There are certain similarities between Dante's violation of Ovid's original here and his rewriting of the Erysichthon story, as discussed by William Stephany in Part II of this volume. I8. Interpolated translation mine. I9. See my "Tears," on the maternalization of eros. A good example of the reverse tendency is the extended opening simile of Par. 23, where the mother bird (Beatrice), and her feelings, are described with adjectives that normally belong to love lyric ("dis'iati," "amate," "ardente," etc.). 20. Cf. Hawkins, "Transfiguring the Text," pp. us-4o.


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Index Locorum

In this index an "f" after a number indicates a separate reference on the next page, and an "ff" indicates separate references on the next two pages. A continuous discussion over two or more pages is indicated by a span of page numbers, e.g., "57-59." Passim is used for a cluster of references in close but not continuous sequence.

DANTE Il convivio 2.Canz. 43-44: 30 2.Canz. 46: 30 2·5·14: 265 2. 14·5: 291 3·3·7: 290 3· II. 16: 265 4: 265 4· 7: 125, 127 4·7·7: 125 4· 7· 7-8: 125-26 4·7·8: 126 4·7·9: 126 4· 15-21: 280 4·24: 126 4·24.12: 126 4· 24· J4: 126 4·24. 15: 126 4·24· q: 126-27 4.25.5-6: 55 4.26: 119

De monarchia 2. !.2: 53 2.1.5-6: 53 2.3: 251, 275 2. 1!.22: 279 3·!.27: 279

De vulgari eloquentia r. 2. 52-66: 161 159 I. 17·3: 159 2.4. 7: 154, 280 2.11.2: 160 2. II.6- 10: r6o I. 14·4:

La divina commedia Inferno 1: 41-46 passim, 223, 260, 283 !.2: 45, 95, q8 I.IO: 283 !.14:223 r.16:223 r.18:223


I Index Locorum

1.21: 31 1.37-40: 238 1.49= q8 1.49-so: q8 1.63: 45 I. 73-74= 251 I. 75= z6s 1. 79-So: So, n6 1.86-87: 28 1.98-gg: qS-79 1.131:127 2: s, 43, 137, 276, 286 2.4: 250-51 2.4-s: s, 19 2. s: 251 2. 28-30: 202 2. 28-32: 106 2.32: 202 2.35= 20 2.106: 31, 251 2. 133= 31 2.141-42: 274 2.142: 95, IIS- 16 3·40: 260 3·94= 274 4= go, ISS, 269 4· IS: 274 4·42: 8 4·54= 128 4.8o: 273 4·90: 214 s= 246, 28sf 5·39= 29, 257 5.61-62: IIg 5.62: 121 5·71-72: 257 5· 72: 251 s.Ss: ng, 124, 257 5·93= 257 5· 106: z8s 5· II6- q: 257 5· 127: z8s 5· 129: z8s

5·136: 115 5· 140: 251 5· 140-41: 257 6.2: 251, zs8 6.6s-66: 40-41 9.91: z6o-61 10: 7, 74, 284 10·49= 41 10. sS- 59: 69 IO. 58-60: 94 10. 100- 108: 41 10.122-23: 41 10.125:41 10. 130-32: 73 13: sf, 37-61 passim, 259-62

passim 13· 10-12: 37 13· 12: 5 13· 19-20: 64 13.20: 45 13.20-21: 45 13.24: 45, 47 13·32: 45-46 13·46: 47 13·46-49= 47 13·46- 51: 46 13·48: 46 13·50-51: 50 13·55-78: 40 13.82-84: 47 13.100-102: 37 13· 105: 38 IS: 6, 64, 2I5f, 283 15·7= 67 15.24: 52 15·3o= 6s 15·33= 71 15·46-47= 69 15·52: 71 15·52-54= 72 15·53= 71 15·54= 71 216

Index Locorum

I5.6I-62: 2I6 I5.70-7I: 2I6 I5.SI: 70, 2I5 IS.S3: 6, 33, 62 Is.S6-S7: 66 Is.SS-90: 72 Is.SS-93: 260 IS-9S: 7I I5.I06-7: 66 IS. IIS-24: 70 IS. II9-20: 2I5 IS. I2I: 7I I6: I65 I6-q: I72 I6. I24: I66-67 I6. I24-32: 270 I6. I24- 36: 5 I I6. I27: 52 I6. I2 7-30: I66 I6.12S: 57 I6.I3I-32: I65 I6. I32: 57 q: II-12, I62, I64, I66, 2SI I7. 7: 2SI I7. I6- IS: 166, 2S I J7.I07: 29I 17· III: 219 19: 242 20:6-7,77-93,267,2 69 20.22-24: 20-21 20.2S: 20 20.29-30: 2I 20-52-57: 79 20.52-99: So 20.53: 266 20.55: So 20.59: 294 20.61-SI: So 20.92-93: SI 20.94-96: So 20.97-99: SI 20. IOO- 102: S2 20.106- II: 26S

20.106-17: Ss-S6 20. I23: 267 23: 54 23·37-39: 25S 23· 124-26: 54 23. I4S: I27 24.4-s: I27 24.100: 244 25: IO 25-97: 244 26.52-54: 139 26.9I-93: 25I 26.92: 20 26.94-99: 20 26.125: 20, 23S 26. I4I: 25I 27.25: 270 2S.4S: 52 2S.67-6S: 52 29·36: 2I 30. I-3: 294 30-98: S6 33· I4I: 2S3

Purgatorio I-n: I79 I. 7-12: I6I 1.95:III I.I33-36: III 1.I34:ss 2-49: 12S 2.69: 52 2.So-SI: 14S 3-27: 27S 4-7I-72: 291 5· 134: 27S 7-S: I55 9: II 10: 2Ssf 10-12: J72 10·94: 2S6 I0-97-9S: 286 10-99: 2S6

I 3I 5


I Index Locorum

12: 162-68 passim, 281 12.22-23: 168 12.37: 167 12.37-48: 281 12.40: 167 12.43-45: 167 12.43-54: 281 12.46: 167 12.64-69: 168 13: 260 13. IIO: 260 13. II9: 260 14-18: 149 16.33: 53 16.42: 53 16.66: 270 16.82: 283 16.82-83: 183 18: J79 18.93: 294 19.20: 284 19.22: 284 19.24: 284 21: 89, 1J7, 283 21-22: 2 2!. 70: 257 2!.94: 84 21.94-99: 82, II7 2!.94- !02: 143 2!.97-98: 33· 143-44 21.131-32:34 22: 6-7, 78, 89f, 92 22.67-69: 76 22.67-73: 89 22.73: 144 22.79-87: 89 22.88-89: 269 22.90: 7 22. !09- J4: 90 22. II3: 90-91 22.129: 127 23: 174f, 18o 23.22-30: !73

23.25-27: 12 23.25-39: 18o 23.28-29: !76 23.31-33: 180 23.34-39: 177 23·37: 282 23.64-69: !79 23·72: !79 25.20-21: 177 25.88-89: I29 25.89: 283 25·95: 283 25·99: 283 25. I03-8: I77-78 25· I27-32: 245 26: 67, 246 26·97-99: 33 27: 274 27·46: 274 27·5I: 123 27·76-84: 193-94 27· 79: 194 27.I04: 284 27.!06: 284 27.!08:284 27.I39: 194 27· I40: 193 28: I2 1 I8I, I86f, I93• I97, I99• 283ff 28-33: ISS 28.2: I2I 1 I8I 28. IS: 200 28. I6- I8: 200 28.q: 286 28.23: I27 18I 28.23-24: 283 28.28-30: 188 28.3I-32: 186 28.32: I83 28.38: 283 28.38-39: 18I-82, 183 28.40: 181 28.4I: 197 1

Index Locorum

28.43-45: r82 28.43-51: 185-86 28.44= 197. 283 28.48: 195 28.49-sr: r86 28.49-75= r8s r88 190 28.s6-s7: r89 28.s9: 195 28.6o: r89, r9s, 197 28.64-66: r89 28.6 5 : r 9 o 28.69: 190 28.70-75= 191 28.79= 285 28.8o-8r: I9S 28.81: 199 28.90: 200-201 28.96: r83, r88 28. n8: r8r 28.127-29: 110 28.136: n6 28.139-40: r84 28. 143= 187 28. 14s-46: II6 29: II3, 145-46 29· r: 195 29.4-5: r8r 29·S5-S7: 54, 146 29.118: 283, 291 30: 4-8 passim, 54, 97, 113, rq, 121-3I passim, 273 30-31: S 30· IS: 137 30.19: 32, 73, 113 30.21: 32, !07, II3, 131, 2S8 30.25-27: 201 30.28: 113 30.28-48: II4 30·33= IIS, 123 30.36: 115 30·39: nsf, 201

I 3q

30·40: IIS 30.41: liS 30.42: rrs 30·43= us, 275 30.44: u6- 17 30.46: u6-q, I3S 30.48: 107, 113-24 passim, 128, 131, 2S8 30.49- SI: 32, 107-8, 131, I3S, 2S8 r2o 30.s2: 273 30·5S: 31, I3S 3o.s6-s7: 136 30.73: 3 I, 136 30.79-81: 31 30.109-45: 2 7S 30.121-32: 121 30.123: 129 30.130: 275 30.131: 27S 30.133: 129 30.134: 129 30. 134-3s: 129 31: 121, 242 31. q-21: 242 3!.48: 129 3 ~. 5 6: r2 9 31.59-60: 121 31.70-72: 122 31.72: 273 31.101-2: 274 31. IIS- q: 136 31. Il7: 123 31. u8- 19: 123 31. 133= 122 31.139: 122 32.2: 276 32.6: 130 32·9= 279 32.26-30: 242 32·38: 194 32. roo: 198

3 I 8 I Index Locorum

32. I02: 32, I20 33·4: 2 57 33·49: 265

Paradiso I: I3 I62, 202- I3, 286-87 1.4-12: 203 I. I3: I 52 I. I3- IS: 286 I.I3-2I: I6I, 204-5 I. I9-2I: 292 1.32-33: 286 1.67-69: 210 1.68-69: 2IO 1.70: 230 I. 70-72: 2I2, 258 I. 73-75: 2I2 1.98: 55 I.I00:257 I. I2I-26: 128-29 2.7: 32-33 2.25: 55 3: I69 3.25: s6 3·46: I69 3 . 5 6- 57 : I69 3·94-96: I69 3· 126: I30 4·38: I29 4·44-45: I 29 4·105: 36 5· I-2: I23 5.4: s6 5· I I - 12: I23 5· I2I: 34· 257 6: II9, I46 6.32: 128 6.82: 128 6.100: 128 6. II6: 283 8.9: 119, I23 8.105: I29 9: 246 1

9· 77: 257 9·97-98: 11 9 9·98: !20 9·131: 283 IO. 115- q: 289 I I. II9-20: I29 12. 45 : 283 13.25-27: 231-32 14: 147 I4-I8: 149· 152-53· 28o 14·52: 82 14.89: I53 I4.92: 153 I4·96: 292 14.101: 128 14· 106: 153 14.125: I 53 IS: 2I, 62, 64, 97· J46f, I49· 155. 22I Is-q: 8, I46 IS- 18: ISO, 287 I5. I: 200 I5·4: 292 15 .25: 34, I45- s6, 257, 279 I5.25-27: I48 I5.25-30: 2I, 279 15.26: 106 I5.28: I47 I5.28-30: 105, I49ff 15·39: I49 I5·42: I29 I5·45: I29 I5·47: I49 I5·48: I52 106 Is.88-89: ISO I5.89: 34· I49 IS· 115-29: qo IS· I35: ISO IS. I48: I48 I6: I49- 50, 2 I9 22 I I6. I: ISO 1

Index Locorum I 319

I6. IO: ISO I6.29: 82 I6. 59 : 22I 17: I3, 4I, I6o, 170, 2I4-23, 290f 17· I: 217, 29I 17· I-4: 2I8 I7·4: 2I8 17· s: ISI 17·17-I8: 63 17· I9: 32 17·24: 4I 17·27: 4I 17·29: 42 17·3I-33: I06 17·34-35: 73. 220 17·37-42: 292 17·43-45: 42 17·46: 217 17·46-48: 220, 290 17.56-57: 4I I7·59: 223 17.6I: 223 17.62: 220 17·63: 223 17.68-69: 22I 17·98-99: 107 17· 100- ws: 169 17· 101: 73 17· 109: 4I 17· 12I-22: 64 17· 128: I 53 18: II- I2 1 I62, 170 18.64-69: 171 18.70-78: 17I-72 I8.9I-93: 83 18. IOO- 108: 83 I8. 109- II: 172 18. no: 83 18.124: 183 I8. 126: 183, 283 I8. 129: 34. 257 19: 84

19· I3: 257 I9.8o: 267 I9·99: 267 19.101-2: 128 19. I07: 267 20: 84, 267 20.52: 267 20.67-72: 274 20.87: 55 20.101: 55 20. n8-26: 274 20. I30- 38: 84 20.I33-34: 8s 20. I34: 267 20. 1 4 I: 8s 21:23I 21-22: 224 2I-23: 23I, 241 21.4-12: 225 21. n: 229 21.61-63: 226 21. I39-42: 226 22.7-12: 227 22.58-6o: 227-28 22.61-6 5 : 228 22. III: 295 22.151: 238 23: 75· 224, 229, 293· 295 23.28-33: 229 23·35-39: 229-30 23·40-45: 230 23·46-48: 230 23·55-63: 294 23·97-102: 231 23· 120: 231 23.128: 293-94 24: 2 25·49: 257 25.49-so: 34 25·73: 200 26: 246, 293 26.40: 3 26. I17: 129, 241


I Index Locorum

27: 233, 238-46 2 7.2o: 5 6 27.80: 242 27.82: 242 27.82-84: 238 27.83-84: I4 27.84: 242 27.87: 238 27.88-96: 243 27·97-99: 244 27. I4I: 283 28. I2 7 -29: 56 28. I36-39: 2I3, 288 30: I46, I56, 293 30. n: I 56 30·90: 228 31.27: I30 3L3I-33: 245 31.3I-4o: 6o 31.62: 257 31.62-63: 34 3!. 79-87: I37 31.8I: I24 3!.93: I30 31. II2: 34 3!. I24-25: 29I 3LI38-39; I06 32·35= 228 32. II6- n= 34 32.IJ7: 257 32. I22-23: 35 32. I42: 35 33: J79, 2I3 33· I: 34 33· I9-2I: 34 33·27: 35 33·33: 35 33·43: 35 33·67: 2I3 33·95-96: 264 33· I27-32: 35 33· I3I: I30 33· I38: 35-36

Epistolae 3·7: 23I II. 5 : 2 9 I II. I6: 289 13.60: 289

Rime 40A.4- 5: 29I 43· II: 242 45·45-46: 257 46.36: II9 46·70: 257

Vitanuova 2.3: II4-I5 I5·5: 283 20: 286 23. n: 257 25·9: 289 3!.8: 257 31. n: 257 35·3: 29-30 37·6: 257

OVID Art of Love 2·93-96: 277

Fasti !.467-69: 278 2.289: I39-40 2.290: I40 2.760: 242 s: I4 5.603: 23 6 5.6o4: 239 5.6o5: 236 5.6o8: 236 5.617- IS: 23 6 6. 733-62: 222

Index Locorum

Hero ides I8:I9I I8.2q: I9I I9: I9I I9·4: I9I I9. I09: I9I I9· I 58: I9I I9. I59-60: I9I

Metamorphoses I: 234 I.I-4: 205-6 1.89- II2: I84 !.452-567: 286 I. 548-67: 205 !.567-747= 234 1.754: 218 I. 757-6I: 2I8 I. 760-6I: 2I8 I. 764: 2I8 2: J4, 2I9, 234, 236f, 294 2.32: 292 2.38: 2I8 2.44= 217 2.45-46: 292 2. 56: 2 9 I 2.60-62: 2I8 2.9I: 2I8 2.98-99= 29I 2. IOI-2: 292 2.!28: 290 2.I37= 290 2. I9I-92: 290-9I 2.200: 29I 2.202: 29I 2.26I: 292 2.323: 2I9 2.40I- 530: 234 2.846-5I: 234-35 2.852-56: 235 2.857: 235 2.873-75: 235

2.87+ 239 2.875= 235 3= I3, 235, 293-94 3.8: 229 3·8-9: 229 3.260-61: 23I 3.265: 293-94 3·287-3I5: 224 3·30I: 226-27 3·302-7: 225-26 5: I6o 5.265-66: I86 5.299: I86 5·3IO: I86 5.385-96: I87 5.385-40I: I86 5.386-87: I87-88 5·39I: I87 5·4I5- I6: I88-89 5·570-7I: 20I 5.6 77 -68: I86 6: I4, I6of, J7I, 236 6. I- 144: I86 6.46-49: qo 6.63-67: I66 6.8o: I64 6. IOI-2: I63 6. I03-4: I6j 6. !03-7= 236 6.II2-I3: J7I 6. I27-28: I63 6. I3I: I63 6. I33: I64 6. I57-64: 79 6.383-9I: 206 6.385-9I: 206 6.388: 292 6.392-400: 209 8: I2, 277 8. I22-25: 294 8. 738-878: I74 8. 774= I75 8.8I8-2o: q8

I 32I


I Index Locorum

10: I89 10.86-87: I89 IO. I 53-54: I90 10.527: I90 10·532: I90 10.s 56: I 9o IO. 725-26: I90 IO. 738-39: I90 II.S0-53: I35 I3.904-59: 210 I3.944-48: 2IO- I I I3·949: 211 I3·950: 211 I3·952: 211 I3.956-s9: 211 I3·960-67: 288 I5·49S-96: 22I IS.soo: 22I Is.sos: 220 IS. SI4- IS: 220-2I I5.5I8-I9: 29I I5·529: 22I, 292 I5·53I: 292 I5·53I-J4: 22I-22 I5.s6o-64: 264

Remedia amoris 2: 289

VIRGIL Aeneid I: 273 I-6: 252 I. I-7: 255 I. IO: 2I 1.25: I02 1.54: IOJ 1.94-96: 26I I.IOO-IOI:27I 1.203-7: 44 1.253: 25

1.294-96: IOJ 1.294-300: 253 1.348-49: 254 1.378: 254 1.378-8o: 24 1.439: 263 1.544-45: 2I, 25I 1.659-6o: 117 1.695-722: I23 2: 103 1 271-72 2. 79-80: 268 2.90: 25I 2. I 14-19: 86 2.116: 268 2.IJ7-J8: 251 2.148-49: 268 2.174: 263 2.426-27: ISS· 274 2.622-23: 26 2.68o: 263 2. 792-94: 14 7 3: 6, J8, 108 3·2-3: 265 J.26: 49· 263 3·32: 48 3·39: 49 3·42: 48-49. 254 3.6o: 48-49 3·96: 273 3·253-57: s, 39 3·3I0-12: 95 3· 522-23: 77 3·7IO: 108 4: 108, 117- I8, 273 4.23: 113, u6f, 124 4·24-27: 120 4·26: I2I 4.68-73: 275 4· IOI: 118 4·171-72: 275 4· I82: 263 4·361: 25 4·393: 25

Index Locorum I 323

4·441-49: !22 4·446: !22 4·496: 254 4·5!7: 254 4·637: 254 4.66r-62: rr8 s.s-6: rr8 5·4!7- r8: 252 5 .688-89 : 28 5 .827-28: 25 2 6: 6f, 95, ro3, ro8, rrr, 121-22, 147, rso, 215, 280, 290 6.48: 266 6.87-89: IOI 6.99: ro6 6.123: 280 6. !25: 280 6.!25-31: rsr, 280 6.127: ros 6.131: 280 6.134: 279 6.134-35: ros, I 52 6.143-44: III 6.197: 280 6.322: 280 6.394: 280 6.403: 2! 6.405: 25 6.440-76: rr8 6.442: I2I 6.467-68: !22 6.480: 278 6.563: 48 6.6!2- 13: 253 6.639: rss 6.679: 279 6.679-702: 279 6.684-85: 279 6.68s: r 47 6.686: 147 6.687-88: 20, rso 6.688: s, 2!6 6.698: 279

6.700-702: 147, 152, 279 6.706: IOI 6. 706-9: roo 6. 709: IOI 6. 715: 98 6. 719-21: 98, 216 6. 733: 270 6.734: 95 6.755: 98 6. 792-94: 98 6.826-35: ro4-5 6.834-35: 152 6.83s: 105, 153, 252 6.8sr-s3: ro9 6.865: ror 6.866: IOI 6.872-73: IOI 6.878-79: 26 6.883: 32 6.883-85: roo 6.88s: r 3 4 7: 39 7·1-4: 20 7·5: 251 7·45-46: 99 7·64: 26 7·78: 264 7.1!2-13: 260 7· rr6: 39 7.Iq-r8: 39 7· 120-22: s, 40 7.321: IOI 7·750: 276 7·759-60: 276 7.76r: 292 7· 76!-82: 290 8: 141, 278 8.196:99 8.252: 263 8.253: roo 8.259: roo 8.265: roo 8.28r: roo



Index Locorum

8.324-25: 99 8.326-27: 99 8. 53 8- 4o: 2 71 8. s8 9 - 9 o: 141 8.618: IOO 8.620: IOO 8. 721-22: 99 9: 104 9.6o1: 104 IO: 81 IO. 198-203: 6, 78, 268 IO. 199: 267 10.206: 81 1o.6q: 254 10.824: 255-56 I I. 549-50: 242 12. J66: 24 12.8o6: 273 12.839: 26 12.933-34: 25 12.938: 273

12.945: 102 12.946: 104 12.946-47: 102 12.947-50: 25 12.952: 272

Eclogues I. 70: 253 4:89,92

Georgics !.468: 253 I.5II: 253 4: 7-8, w8, 131-38 passim, 276f 4·464-66: 133 4·487: 134 4·SII-IS: 277 4· 523-27: 134 4· 525-27: 258 4· s63-64: 143

Index of Names

In this index an "f" after a number indicates a separate reference on the next page, and an "ff" indicates separate references on the next two pages. A continuous discussion over two or more pages is indicated by a span of page numbers, e.g., "57-59." Passim is used for a cluster of references in close but not continuous sequence. Abelard, Peter, I98, 285 Achilles (in Dante), 9 I, 246 Achilles (in Virgil), IOif, 252, 271-72, 280 Adam (in Dante), 35 Adonis (in Dante), 241 Adonis (in Ovid), I90, 192 Aeneas (in Dante), 2of, 34, 43-5I passim, w6f, uo, rq-22 pas, sim, I49, 202, 25I, 275 Aeneas (in Virgil), 20-30 passim, 38-5I passim, 64, 73, 96-II2 passim, II8, I2If, IJO, 147, 152f, 215, 252-56 passim, 263, 27I72, 273, 278ff Aeschylus, 2 78 Aesculapius (in Ovid), 221-22 Aglauros (in Dante), r I Ahl, Frederick, I41-42, 278 Alcmaeon (in Dante), 36 Alighieri, Pietro, 259 Amor (in Dante), I23 Amor (in Ovid), 2I4 Amphiaraus (in Dante), 79-80

Anchises (in Dante), 7, 2I, 32, 34, 97, w6f, uo, 148-53 passim Anchises (in Virgil), 6, 20-28 passim, 73, 98, wo, I04- II pas, sim, IJ4, I42, I4 7f, 152, 2I5, 252, 255, 270, 27J, 279 Andromache (in Virgil), 95 Anna (in Virgil), II? Anonimo Fiorentino, 43, 26I Antigone (in Dante), 9 I Antigone (in Ovid), r63 Antigone (in Virgil), 91 Antoninus, 23 Apollo (in Dante), 220, 223, 290 Apollo (in Ovid), 163, 205f, 208, 2qff, 221, 2J4, 290-91, 292 Apollo (in Virgil), 86 Apollonius, 96 Aquinas, St. Thomas, 27, 92, 254, 289 Arachne (in Dante), II-!2, I6o72 passim, 241ff, 28off Arachne (in Ovid), 14, I6o-66 passim, qo, 172, 236-37, 24I


I Index of Names

Argia, 9I

Argonautica (Apollonius), 96 Aristaeus (in Virgil), 133, 136f Aristophanes, 254 Aristotle, 53, 264 Arnobius, 295 Arnulf of Orleans, 28o Arruns (in Dante), 79-80 Artemis (in Ovid), 222 Asterie (in Ovid), 237 Astolfo, 6I Athena (in Ovid), I86 Athena (in Virgil), 272 Auerbach, Erich, 74 Augustine, St., 4, 27f, 36, 62-63, 68-69, 75-76, 92, II9 1 I36, 255, 260, 275 Augustus Caesar (in Dante), 32, I 52 Augustus Caesar (in Ovid), 223 Augustus Caesar (in Virgil), 2326 passim, 96- IOO passim, I 52, 253f, 27I Austin, Roland, 22, 26 Bacchus (in Dante), 23I-32, 294 Bacchus (in Ovid), I63, 23I, 237 Ball, Robert, sf, 19-36, 75 Barchiesi, Alessandro, 2 72 Barchiesi, Marino, 266f Barkan, Leonard, 237, 294 Barnard, Mary E., 277 Barolini, Teodolinda, 108, 263, 28I, 283-84 Beatrice (in Dante), 4, 7f, I3, 29-34 passim, 4I, 52-59 pas, sim, 72f, 75, I07- IS passim, I2o-24 passim, 128-3I passim, I35ff, I45, I99-200, 20I, 2IO, 219, 224-30 passim, 241-46 passim, 257, 267, 273-77 pas, sim, 290, 295

Benedict, St. (in Dante), 224, 227-28 Benvenuto da lmola, 43, 239, 243, 252, 259, 261, 266f, 269, 28I, 29I, 293. 295 Bernard, St. (in Dante), 34f Bernardus Silvestris, 6, 64-65, II9, 256, 262-63, 275 Bersuire, Pierre, 240 Biagi, Guido, 275 Biow, Douglas, 6, 45-6I Bloom, Harold, 274 Boccaccio, Giovanni, 19, 43, 91, 250, 259. 26I, 269f Boethius, 69, 26I Bonaventure, St., I98-99, 285 Bono, Barbara, II9, 275 Bosco, Umberto, 281, 283 Boyde, Patrick, 264 Branca d'Oria (in Dante), 28 3 Brodsky, Joseph, 274 Brooks, Robert, 263 Brownlee, Kevin, I2- I3, I62, 202-I3, 224-32, 24I, 282 Brunetto Latini (in Dante), 6, 33, 52, 62-75 passim, 216, 260, 283. See also Latini, Brunetto Bucolicum carmen (Petrarch), 278 Bulgarini, Bellisario, 59 Buti, Francesco da, 43, u6, 258- 59 , 26I, 2 7s Caccia, Ettore, 266-67, 270 Cacciaguida (in Dante), 8, 13, 2I, 34· 4I-42, 52, 62ff, 73-74· 82, Iosff, 146-53 passim, I6o, 170, 215-23 passim, 287, 290, 292 Cacus (in Virgil), 99f, 278 Caesar (in Dante), 22 I Caiaphas (in Dante), 54 Calchas (in Dante), 87f Calliope (in Ovid), 186f

Index of Names

Callisto (in Dante), 244f Callisto (in Ovid), 234, 244 Camilla (in Virgil}, 141, 242, 271f Cassell, Anthony K., 259, 26If Cato, 22-23 Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti (in Dante}, 69, 95 Cavalcanti, Guido (in Dante}, 12, 29, 64, 184, 192, 256, 283-84 Celaeno (in Virgil), 5, 39f Ceres (in Dante}, 188, 282 Ceres (in Ovid), 175, 186ff, 201 Chapin, D. L. Derby, 244 Charon (in Virgil}, 21, 25 Chiarenza, Marguerite, 73, 215, 260, 290-93 passim Christ (in Dante}, 224, 229, 230-31 Ciacco (in Dante}, 40-41 Cicero, 22, 62, 97-98, 215-16, 217, 253· 270f, 290f Cinyras (in Ovid}, 163 City of God (Augustine}, 4, 75, 275 Clay, Diskin, 263 Cleopatra (in Virgil}, 99 Clymene (in Dante}, 220, 29of Clymene (in Ovid), 218f Colish, Marcia, 58

Commentariorum in Isaiam prophe~ tam (Jerome}, 164 Commentum (Bernardus Silvestris}, 256 Comparetti, Domenico, 262, 267

Compendium theologiae veritatis (Bonaventure}, 285

Confessions (Augustine}, 28, 6263, 75-76, 119, 136, 260, 275 Conrad III (in Dante}, 149 Consolation of Philosophy (Boe, thius}, 69, 261 Conte, Gian Biagio, 3, 272 Contini, Gianfranco, 256-57 Cratylus (Plato), 271

I 32 7

Creusa (in Dante}, 120, 275 Creusa (in Virgil}, 147-48 Cupid (in Ovid), 190 Curtius, Ernst Robert, 10, 284 Cyrene (in Virgil}, 133 Daedalus (in Dante}, 219, 291 Daedalus (in Ovid), 138, 277 Danae (in Ovid), 234 Daniello, Bernardino, 132, 276 Daphne (in Ovid), 205, 234 Death in Venice (Mann), 67-68 De civitate Dei (Augustine}, 4, 75, 275 De coelesti hierarchia (Pseudo, Dionysius}, 288-89 De deorum natura (Cicero}, 253 Deidamia (in Dante), 9of De inventione rhetorica (Cicero}, 253 Deiphyle (in Dante}, 91 Della Torre, Ruggero, 250 De mulieribus claris (Boccaccio}, 91, 269f De officiis (Cicero}, 217, 291 De partitione aratoria (Cicero}, 253 De republica (Cicero}, 97, 215-16, 253· 271, 290 Derrida, Jacques, 36 Desport, Marie, 78-79, 265-66 De vetula (Fournival}, 289f Diana (in Dante), 244f Diana (in Ovid}, 234, 244 Dido (in Dante}, 7, so, 119-20, 124, 257, 273· 275 Dido (in Virgil}, 7, 25f, 28, 1071o passim, 113, 117-24 passim, 130, 136, 254, 256, 263 Diomede (in Dante}, 139 Dionysus (in Ovid}, 163 Dis (in Ovid), 222 Domitian (in Dante), 89 Donatus, 143, 252 D'Ovidio, Francesco, 19, 47, 250, 262, 267f


I Index of Names

Dryads (in Ovid), 175 Durling, Robert, 294 Egeria (in Ovid), 221 Ennarrationes (Augustine), 68 Ennius, 22 Envy (in Ovid), 163 Epaphus (in Ovid), 218 Erichtho (in Dante), 79, 266f Eros (in Virgil), II7 Erysichthon (in Dante), 173-80, 282f, 295 Erysichthon (in Ovid), 173-78 passim, 282 Eteocles (in Dante), 138-39 Euripides, 2 17, 2 78 Europa (in Dante), 14, 233, 237-46 Europa (in Ovid), 14, 163, 234-39 passim, 244, 294f Europa (Titian), 295 Euryalus (in Virgil), 271 Eurydice (in Dante), II7, 133 Eurydice (in Ovid), 189 Eurydice (in Virgil), 7-8, 108, 131-38 passim, 143, 277 Eurypylus (in Dante), 78, 83-88 passim, 268 Eurypylus (in Virgil), 87, 268 Evander (in Virgil), 99, 278 Eve (in Dante), 273 Expositio in hexaemeron (Abelard), 198 Fames (in Ovid), 174f, 178 Farinata degli Uberti (in Dante), 41, 215 Fehl, Phillip, 295 Ferrante, Joan, 282 Fordyce, C. J., 2 78 Forese Donati (in Dante), 179, 283 Foster, Kenelm, 93 Foumival, Richard de, 289f

Fowler, W. Warde, 253 Francesca (in Dante), 31, 257, 285f Freccero, John, 6, 20, 62-76, 131, r8o, 251, 257f, 260, 270-71, 274 Frederick II, 259 Fulgentius, II9, 259, 262-63, 275 Gabriel (in Dante), 231, 293 Ganymede (in Dante), 246 Garcilaso, 2 77 "Geography" (Merrill), 233 Geri del Bello (in Dante), 21 Geryon (in Dante), 51-52, 57- s8, 93· 16sff, 219, 281 Giamatti, A. Bartlett, 283 Giovanni del Virgilio, 280 Girard, Rene, 142 Glaucus (in Dante), 12-13, 211-12, 213, 287, 293 Glaucus (in Ovid), 210-12, 222, 287 Gmelin, Hermann, 19-20, r 16, 251f, 279, 283 Gorgias (Plato), 271 Grandgent, Charles H., 267 Greene, Thomas, 2 Gregory (in Dante), 84 Gregory I, Pope, 27, r64, 281 Guido da Montefeltro (in Dante), 270 Guido da Pisa, 259 Guinizzelli, Guido (in Dante), 33, 286 Gulliver's Travels (Swift), 268 Haemus (in Ovid), r62-63 Harpies (in Dante), 5-6, 37-44, 258-61 Harpies (in Virgil), 39 Hawkins, PeterS., 7, 12, 107, II330, r81-201, 246, 293

Index of Names

Hector (in Virgil), 95f, 10rf, 252 Helenus (in Virgil), 73, 215 Helice (in Dante), 244f Helice (in Ovid), 245 Helicon (in Ovid), r6o Hercules (in Virgil), 99f, 278 Hero (in Dante), 241 Hero (in Ovid), 191f Hero and Leander (Marlowe), 233 Hilanderas (Velazquez), 237 Hippolytus (Euripides), 217 Hippolytus (in Dante), 13, 220-23 passim, 293 Hippolytus (in Ovid), 219-23 pas~ sim, 291f Hippolytus (in Virgil), 290 Hollander, Robert, 6-9 passim, 46, 77-93, 132, 205, 260, 277-81 passim, 286, 293 Holloway, J., 284 Homer, 3, 22f, 62, 74, 96f, 101-3, 138, 181, 252-53, 254, 263, 27If Horace, 23, 270, 294 Hugh of St. Victor, 52 Hypsipyle (in Dante), 90f Hypsipyle (in Virgil), 91 Icarus (in Dante), 2I9 Icarus (in Ovid), 277 Iliad (Homer), 96, ror, 102-3, 138, 252-53, 254, 271f lntegumenta ovidii (John of Gar~ land), 280 Io (in Dante), 244 Io (in Ovid), 234, 295 Iphigenia (in Virgil), 86 Isidore of Seville, I 59, 266 Isis (in Ovid), 234 Ismene (in Dante), 91 Ismene (in Virgil), 91

ltinerarium mentis in Deum venture), 198-99, 285


I 329

Jacoff, Rachel, I - IS, 107, 131-44, 212, 229, 233-46, 288, 293 Jacopo della Lana, 38, 292, 295 James, St. (in Dante), 72, I29 Jerome, St., 164, 293 Jewish War (Josephus), q6 John of Garland, 280 John of Salisbury, 282, 291 Johnson, W. R., 3, 271 Josephus, Flavius, 173, 175-76, r8o, 282 Julius Caesar (in Dante), 152f Julius Caesar (in Virgil), 24, 1045, 252 Juno (in Dante), 294 Juno (in Ovid), 163, 245, 293-94 Juno (in Virgil), 26, 33, 43, 96, 101f, 109, 254, 272f Jupiter (in Dante), ISS, r6s, qof, 224-29 passim, 239-46 passim Jupiter( in Ovid), 13, r62f, 218, 22427 passim, 234, 237, 244f, 294 Jupiter (in Virgil), 26, 28, 102, 104, 108f, 254, 272f, 28o Justinian (in Dante), II9, 146 Jutuma (in Virgil), 102, 272 Kay, Richard, 270 Kennedy, William J., 262 Knauer, Georg N., 272 Knoche, Ulrich, 252-55 passim Lacan, Jacques, 254 Lactantius, 239, 295 Lancelot duLac, 219 Lanci, Antonio, 19, 250, 252 Landino, Cristoforo, 67 Latini, Brunetto, I84-85, 215, 284, 290. See also Brunetto Latini (in Dante) Latinus (in Virgil), 99 Latona (in Ovid), 91 Lausus (in Virgil), 256


I Index of Names

Lavinia (in Dante), 119, 275 Lavinia (in Virgil), 25, 118 Laws (Plato), 217, 254 Leah (in Dante), 284-85 Leander (in Dante), 12, 241 Leander (in Ovid), 191f Leda (in Ovid), 234, 237 Lee, Owen, 276 Leopardi, Giacomo, 245 Lewis, C. S., 269 Livy (in Dante), 47 Lucan, 10, 79, 85, 256, 266 Lucan (in Dante), 47, 78 Lucy (in Dante}, 31, 246, 276 Macfie, Pamela Royston, II-!2, 159-72 Manegold of Lautenbach, 289-90 Mann, Thomas, 36, 67-68, 70 Manto (in Dante), 6-7, 78-92 passim, 266, 268, 270 Manto (in Ovid), 91 Manto (in Virgil), 78-79, 88, 92, 266f Marcellus (in Dante), 7, 32 Marcellus (in Virgil), 26, 100- IOI, 107, 142 Marco Lombardo (in Dante), 53, !83, 270 Marigo, Aristide, 132 Marlowe, Christopher, 233 Mars (in Dante), qof Marsyas (in Dante), 12-13, I6If, 206- I 3 passim, 292 Marsyas (in Ovid), 206- IO passim, 292 Martinez, Ronald, 285, 294 Mary (in Dante), 35, 173, 175, 224, 231, 244f, 293 Matelda (in Dante), 12, u6, I8I20I, 283-86 passim Mazzotta, Giuseppe, 263, 275

Medea (Seneca), 272 Medusa (in Ovid), 186

Meno (Plato), 274 Mercury (in Virgil), 108 Merrill, James, 233 Metaphysics (Aristotle), 264 Mezentius (in Virgil), 256 Milton, John, 94 Mincius (in Virgil), 81 Mind's Road to God (Bonaventure), 198-99· 285 Minerva (in Ovid), 16o-66 pas~ sim, qo, 2 36 Minos (in Ovid), 294 Moore, Edward, 132f, 265, 290 Moralia in]ob (Gregory I), 27, 164, 281 Moschus, 294f Moskalew, W., 2 72 Muses (in Dante), 294 Muses (in Ovid), 160, 186-90

passim Myrrha (in Ovid), 190 Narcissus (in Dante), 11, 172 Nardi, Bruno, 79 Neoptolemus~Pyrrhus (in Virgil), 271-72 Neptune (in Ovid), 162f, 237 Niobe (in Dante), II, 281 Niobe (in Ovid), 91 Nisus (in Virgil), 104, 271 Nubes (Aristophanes), 254 Numa (in Ovid), 221 Oceanus (in Ovid), 211 Ocnus (in Virgil), 79, 81, 85, 88, 266 Octavian (in Virgil), 272 Odes (Horace), 294 Odyssey (Homer), 96, IOI-2, 263 Oedipus (in Dante), 138-39

Index of Names

Old Hag (Foumival), 289f Olympus (in Virgil), I53 On Christian Doctrine (Augustine), 255 Oresteia (Aeschylus), 272 Orosius (in Dante), 289 Orpheus (in Dante), 32 Orpheus (in Ovid), IJ5, I89-90 Orpheus (in Virgil), 108, IJI-38 passim, I43, 258, 277 Otis, Brooks, 234, 252, 255f Ottimo commento, 292 Ovid (in Dante), 9-I4, 78, 85 Ovide moralise, I64, 222, 28of, 295 Ovidius moralizatus ( Bersuire), 240 Padoan, Giorgio, 258, 262, 265, 269, 275 Pallas (in Virgil), 25, 102, I4I, 27I Panthus (in Virgil), 274 Paolo (in Dante), 257, 285 Paratore, Ettore, 262, 268, 282 Paris (in Virgil), IOI Parodi, Emesto G., 267-68 Parry, Adam, 3 Parthenopaeus (in Virgil), 278 Parthenope (in Virgil), I43 Pasiphae (in Dante), 22I Pasiphae (in Ovid), 294 Pasquazi, Silvio, 2 70 Patrizi da Cherso, Francesco, 59, 264 Paul, St. (in Dante), I2- IJ, 20, )6, 70, I06, !26-27, 202-IJ passim, 258, 288, 293 Pegasus (in Ovid), I86 Perret, J., 252 Perseus (in Ovid), I86 Peter, St. (in Dante), 35, 56 Peter Damian, St. (in Dante), 224, 226f Petrarch, Francesco, 36, 278

I 33 I

Pezard, Andre, 66, 295

Phaedo (Plato), 254, 27I, 274 Phaedra (in Dante}, 22I Phaedra (Seneca), 217, 272 Phaedrus (Plato), 27I, 274 Phaeton (in Dante), II, IJ, I72, 219f, 22) 1 290f Phaeton (in Ovid), 217-23 passim, 290-9I, 292 Phoebus (in Ovid), 237 Phoenician Women (Euripides), 278 Piccarda Donati (in Dante), I69 Pier da Medicina (in Dante), 52 Pier della Vigna, 259, 261 Pier della Vigna (in Dante), sf, 38-4 7 passim, 26off Pieri des (in Dante), I62 Pierides (in Ovid), I6o, I86 Pierus (in Dante), I61 Pierus (in Ovid), I6o, 186 Pietrobono, Luigi, 259, 267 Plato, 68, 97f, 217, 254, 27I, 274 Plotinus, 35, 4 7, 69 Plutarch's Lives, 264 Pluto (in Dante), r88f Poggioli, Renato, 284f Policraticus (John of Salisbury), 282, 29I Poliziano, Angelo, 2 77, 295 Polydorus (in Dante), 48-54 pas~ sim, 262 Polydorus (in Virgil), 6, 46-49 passim, 254, 262 Polynices (in Dante), I 38-39 Poschl, Viktor, 26, 256 Priam (in Virgil), 86-87, 271, 273 Propertius, 2 78 Proserpina (in Dante), 12, I88-89 Proserpina (in Ovid), I87, I92, 20I Proserpina (in Virgil), 134 Proteus (in Virgil), I33 Pseudo~Dionysius, 288-89


I Index of Names

Putnam, Michael C. J., 3, 6f, 94-II2, 276 Pygmalion (in Virgil), 254 Pyramus (in Dante), 241 Rabelais, Fran