The Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary, with a Concise Hawaiian Grammar 9780824840723

Pukui Mary Kawena : Mary Kawena Pukui was a noted authority on the Hawaiian language. She had a long professional ass

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The Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary, with a Concise Hawaiian Grammar

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The Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary

The Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary


University of Hawaii Press Honolulu

Copyright © 1975 by The University Press of Hawaii All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America 92 91 90 89

10 9 8

Book design by Roger J. Eggers Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Pukui, Mary Wiggin, 1895The pocket Hawaiian dictionary, with a concise Hawaiian grammar. Bibliography: p. 1. Hawaiian language—Dictionaries—English. 2. English language—Dictionaries—Hawaiian. I. Elbert, Samuel H., 1907— joint author. II. Mookini, Esther K., joint author. III. Title. PL6446.P841975 499.4 74-78865 ISBN 0-8248-0307-8


Preface vii Pronunciation of Hawaiian ix Abbreviations used in the dictionary x Hawaiian-English 1 English-Hawaiian 161 Hawaiian given names from English 241 Grammar 251 1. Overall view 253 2. Pronunciation: Amplification and commentary 254 3. Verbs and verb phrases


4. Nouns and noun phrases 258 5. Person words 262 6. Transformations 267 7. Numerals 268 8. Qualifying particles 269 9. Conjunctions 270 10. Loanwords 270 11. The Polynesian language family 271 References 275


The Hawaiian Pocket Dictionary is intended for residents of the Islands and visitors who are interested in the Hawaiian language, and, more particularly, for beginning students of Hawaiian and for students of comparative Polynesian languages. Advanced students desiring to translate Hawaiian legends, historical documents, chants, and songs will need to consult Pukui and Elbert's Hawaiian Dictionary, which served as the source of the entries for the present volume and for the definitions and glosses. Words to be included in this book were chosen on the basis of frequency of use in the contemporary Hawaiian scene. Words traced back to ancestral forms were also included even though a few of them are not in common use today. About 6,000 Hawaiian words are entered in this book, and, in the English-Hawaiian seetion, about 4,800 English words. These totals represent about 23 percent of the 26,000 Hawaiian entries in the Pukui and Elbert dictionary, and nearly 40 percent of the 12,500 English entries. About 1,300 words in the Hawaiian-English section are labeled as inherited from ancestral Polynesian forms, Proto Polynesian and its less remote daughter languages. The methods used in tracing these words are briefly explained in section 11 of the grammar included in this volume. The Pukui and Elbert dictionary, in contrast, traced back only about 239 words, but to a greater antiquity. In the English-Hawaiian section, as well as in the Pukui and Elbert prototype, Hawaiian glosses for any given word are arranged in approximate order of frequency of usage. Not every Hawaiian word appearing here will be found in the Hawaiian-English section, but all will be found in the

vii) Preface Pukui and Elbert dictionary. Not all derivatives of a given English base are entered. For example observe is included but not observation,

abortion but not abort, happy but not

happiness. In general, Hawaiian verbs are made into nouns by the addition of 'ana to the base; comparatives are made by addition of a'e to the Hawaiian base. The careful student will note a few changes in spelling in this volume, especially in the assignment of macrons. We believe the present rendition to be the more accurate, and the one that should be used by modern students. Study of a language for several decades is bound to result in refinements of analysis. A very few other changes have been made; particularly in updating the scientific names of plants and animals. The grammar section was read in manuscript by Andrew Pawley and Albert J. Schiitz. Dr. Pawley also checked reconstructed ancestral forms. We are grateful also to Elizabeth Bushnell for her helpful criticisms. While we have attempted to take advantage of the many wise suggestions offered by these friends, none of them can be held responsible for our shortcomings!

Pronunciation of Hawaiian Consonants p, k about as in English but with less aspiration, h, 1, m, n about as in English. w after i and e usually like v; after u and o usually like w; initially and after a like v or w. * a glottal stop, similar to the sound between the oh's in English oh-oh. Voweb Unstressed a like a in above e like e in bet I like y in city but without off-glides. o like o in sole o like oo in moon Stressed a, a like a in far e like e in bet but without off-glides; vowe like ay in play els marked with macrons are I, T like ee in see somewhat longer than other o, o like o in sole u, u like oo in moon. vowels. Diphthongs ei, en, oi, on, ai, ae, ao, an

these are always stressed on the first member, but the two members are not as closely joined as in English.

Stress (or Accent) On all vowels marked with macrons: a, e, 1, o, fl. Otherwise on the next-to-last syllable and alternating preceding syllables of words, except that words containing five syllables without macrons are stressed on the first and fourth syllables. Final stress in a word (') is usually louder than preceding stress or stresses 0 ) : hdle, makd'u, holohSlo, 'elemakule. For more details see section 2 of the Grammar.

Abbreviations used in the dictionary


a. Eng. Fig. Lit PEP

beginning with a capital letter compare of English origin figuratively literally Proto Eastern Polynesian reconstruction (see Grammar, section 11)

Proto Nuclear Polynesian reconstruction (see Grammar, section 11) Proto Polynesian reconstruction (see Grammar, PPN section 11) Redup. reduplication variant Var. PNP


a. 1. Of. PPN (')a. 2. Like, in the manner of. 3. When, until, as far as. 4. And. -a. Passive/imperative suffix. PPN -a. a. Jaw. PEP aa. 'a. Oh! Well! Ah! 'a. Fiery, burning, ho'a. To set on fire, to light. PNP kaa. 'a-. In the nature of. See 'ahina. a'a Small root, vein, nerve, tendon. PPN aka. 'a'a. 1. To dare, challenge. 2. To gird, tie on. 3. Bag, pocket; fiber from coconut husk. PPN kaka. 'a'a. 1. To burn; glowing, ho'a'a. To kindle, light. PPN kakaha. 2. Aa lava; stony, abounding with rough aa lava. 'a'a. 1. Dumbness; to stutter, stammer. 2. Dwarf, small person. 3. Demented, panicstricken. ho'a'a. To look about in confusion. 4. Male 'o'6 bird. PPN kakaa. PEP kaakaa. 'a'ahu. Clothing in general; to put on or wear clothing. See 'ahu. 'a'ahuwa. To speak reproachfully; jealous challenge, 'a'al. 1. Redup. of 'cd, 1; eating, spreading, increasing (as a sore). 2. Bright, as of contrasting colors, 'a'aiole. Inferior, weak. Fig., of persons dying before their time. 'a'aka. Surly, cranky, roiled, 'a'aki. Redup. of 'aki, 1; to nip repeatedly. Fig., thick, obscure, dark, penetrating, a'a koko. Vein, blood vessel, a'a kukuku. Varicose veins. Lit., raised veins, 'a'ala. Fragrant, sweet-smelling. Fig., of high rank, royal. PPN kakala.

'a'ala-'ula. A branching, velvety-green, succulent-appearing seaweed (Codium edule). a'alele. Pulse. Lit., leaping vein, 'a'ali. Redup. of 'ali, 1; scarred, marked, grooved, 'a'ali'i. Native hardwood shrubs or trees (Dodonaea, all species). 'a'aiina. 1. Scarred. 2. Large, fat, weak, 'a'alo. Redup. of 'alo, 1,2. 'a'a lole. Coconut cloth, European cloth, a'alolo. Nerve. Lit., brain vein, 'a'alu. Ravine, small stream, valley. 'a'ama. 1. A large, black, edible crab (Grapsus grapsus tenuicrustatus) that runs over shore rocks. PPN kamakama. 2. To spread and relax, as the fingers. 'a'S maka. To stare with wideopen eyes, as in desire, fear, or intent to frighten. h&'a'S maka. To stare, 'a'amo'o. Young coconut cloth; gauze. Lit., lizard coconut cloth. 'a'ana. To use abusive language, revile. 'a'anema. To criticize maliciously, 'a'a niu. Coconut cloth, 'a'ano. Overbearing, arrogant, daring, hd'a'ano. To act the bully, boast of courage that is lacking; to challenge, dare, 'a'api. Waiped, curved, 'a'apo. To learn quickly, 'a'apu. Coconut-shell cup; cuplike. hS'a'apu. To form a cup of the hollow of the hand; to fold a leaf into a cup. 'a'apuhaka. Girdle, belt Lit., loin belt 'a'i pu'upu'u. Sharp or waterworn, coarse gravel or rock, 'a'au. To move here and there, rove.