The Physical Processes and Observing Techniques of Radio Astronomy: An Introduction 3319169815, 9783319169811

This is a textbook for undergraduate courses on radio astronomy. Written by an active professor and researcher in the fi

433 66 7MB

English Pages 393 [407] Year 2020

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

The Physical Processes and Observing Techniques of Radio Astronomy: An Introduction
 3319169815, 9783319169811

Table of contents :
Preface
Acknowledgements
Contents
Acronyms
1 Introduction: Why Make Astronomical Observations at Radio Frequencies?
1.1 Introduction
References
2 Angles, Gravity, Light, the Bohr Model of the Atom and Relativity
2.1 Angles
2.1.1 Trigonometry
2.1.2 Solid Angle
2.1.3 Sky Coordinate Systems
2.1.3.1 Altitude-Azimuth Coordinate System
2.1.3.2 Equatorial Coordinate System
2.2 Gravity
2.3 Orbits and Orbital Motion
2.3.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
2.3.2 Kepler's First Law
2.3.3 Kepler's Second Law
2.3.4 Kepler's Third Law
2.4 Light
2.4.1 Wave-Like Properties of Light
2.4.2 Particle-Like Properties of Light
2.4.3 Wave-Particle Duality for Light
2.4.4 Polarization of Light
2.4.5 Doppler Effect
2.5 The Bohr Model of the Atom
2.6 Relativity
2.7 Cosmic Rays
Problems
References
3 Emission Mechanisms: Blackbody Radiation, An Introduction to Radiative Transfer, Synchrotron Radiation, Thermal Bremsstrahlung, and Molecular Rotational Transitions
3.1 Blackbody Radiation
3.2 An Introduction to Radiative Transfer
3.3 Synchrotron Radiation
3.4 Thermal Bremsstrahlung
3.5 Molecular Transitions
Problems
References
4 Radio Observations: An Introduction to Fourier Transforms, Convolution, Observing Through Earth's Atmosphere, Single Dish Telescopes, and Interferometers
4.1 An Introduction to Fourier Transforms
4.2 Convolution
4.3 Angular Resolution and Observing Through Earth's Atmosphere
4.4 Single Dish Radio Astronomy
4.5 Interferometry
4.5.1 Two-Element Interferometer
4.5.2 Multi-Element Interferometers
4.5.3 A Discussion about Interferometer Observations
Problems
Appendix: Bessel Functions
References
5 Solar System Radio Astronomy
5.1 Radio Emission from the Solar System: An Overview
5.2 Radio Continuum and Radar Observations of Astronomical Sources in the Solar System
5.2.1 Continuum Radio Observations
5.2.2 Radar Observations of Solar System Objects
5.3 Radio Observations of the Sun
5.4 Radio Observations of the Planets
5.4.1 The Moon and The Terrestrial Planets
5.4.2 The Giant Planets
5.5 Radar and Radio Observations of the Minor Bodies in the Solar System
5.6 Radio Searches for Exoplanets
Problems
References
6 Galactic Radio Astronomy: Galactic Structure, HII Regions, Supernova Remnants, Neutron Stars and Pulsars
6.1 Overview of Radio Observations of the Milky Way Galaxy
6.2 Radio Observations of the Diffuse Component of the Milky Way Galaxy
6.2.1 Galactic Coordinate System
6.2.2 HI Emission: The 21-cm Line
6.2.3 Galactic Rotation
6.2.4 Motion in the Galaxy
6.2.5 Magnetic Fields: The Zeeman Effect and Zeeman Splitting
6.2.6 Propagation Through the Interstellar Medium and Plasma Frequency
6.3 Radio Observations of Star Formation Sites in the Milky Way Galaxy
6.3.1 The Virial Theorem
6.3.2 Molecular Clouds
6.3.3 Masers
6.3.4 HII Regions
6.4 Radio Observations of the End Points of Stellar Evolution in the Milky Way
6.4.1 Maser Emission from Evolved Stars
6.4.2 Microquasars
6.4.3 Supernova Remnants
6.4.3.1 Equipartition
6.4.4 Neutron Stars and Pulsars
6.4.5 Rotation Measure and Dispersion Measure
6.4.6 Galactic Center
Problems
References
7 Extragalactic Radio Astronomy: Galaxy Classification, Active Galactic Nuclei, Superluminal Motion, Galaxy Clusters, and the Cosmic Microwave Background
7.1 Extragalactic Radio Astronomy and Galaxy Classification
7.1.1 Cosmology and Hubble's Law
7.2 Normal Galaxies
7.2.1 HI Line Observations
7.2.2 Tully–Fisher Relation
7.2.3 Radio Continuum Observations
7.3 Radio Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei
7.3.1 Blazars
7.3.2 Classification System of Radio Galaxies
7.3.3 Radio Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei
7.3.4 Superluminal Motion
7.3.5 Radio Lobes
7.3.6 Spectral Energy Distributions of Radio Galaxies
7.3.7 Doppler Boosting
7.4 Galaxy Clusters and Associated Diffuse Radio Emission
7.5 The Cosmic Microwave Background
7.6 The Sunyaev–Zeldovich Effect
Problems
References
Glossary
Solutions
Problems for Chap.2
Problems for Chap.3
Problems for Chap.4
Problems for Chap.5
Problems for Chap.6
Problems for Chap.7
Index

Polecaj historie