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The photographs of Edward Weston
[by] Nancy Newhall
The photographs of Edward Weston [by] Nancy Newhall
Weston, Edward, 1886-1958 Date
The Museum of Modern Art Exhibition URL
www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/2374 The Museum of Modern Art's exhibition history— from our founding in 1929 to the present—is available online. It includes exhibition catalogues, primary documents, installation views, and an index of participating artists.
© 2017 The Museum of Modern Art
" __ -
LIBRAHY THE MUSEUSVf OF MODERN ART Received: ! MCHW£
PORTRAIT OF EDWARD WESTON BY ANSEL ADAMS, 1945
EDWARD WESTON NANCY
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish especially to thank Edward Weston for the many months of work and the understanding collabora tion, maintained across a continent, which he has contributed to every stage of this book and the exhibition it accompanies. To Beaumont Newhall, for his invaluable
aid in preparing
the text and the bibliography,
to Charis Wilson Weston, to whose writings and suggestions I am much indebted, permission to quote from his manuscript, I am particularly
and to Jean Chariot for
I wish also to thank Mrs. Gladys
Bolt, Mrs. Gladys Bronson Hart, Mrs. Rae Davis Knight, Mrs. Mary Weston Seaman and Mrs. Flora Chandler Weston for lending the chloride, platinum, and palladio
prints which represent Weston's earliest work. Nancy Newhall
TRUSTEESOF THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART Stephen C. Clark, Chairman of the Board; Henry Allen Moe, 1st Vice-Chairman; Sam A. Lewisohn, 2nd Vicechairman; John Hay Whitney, President; Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1st Vice-President; John E. Abbott, Executive Vice-President; Ranald H. Macdonald, Burden, Mrs. W. Murray
Mrs. Simon Guggenheim, Wallace H. McAlpin, William Beardsley
Treasurer; Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss, William A. M. Disney, Marshall
Field, Philip L. Goodwin,
A. Conger Goodyear,
K. Harrison, James W. Husted, Mrs. David M. Levy, Henry R. Luce, David
S. Paley, Mrs. E. B. Parkinson, Mrs. Charles S. Payson, Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.,
Ruml, James Thrall Soby, Edward
M. M. Warburg,
Duncan Phillips, Paul J. Sachs,
Mrs. John S. Sheppard.
COPYRIGHT 1946, THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART, 11 WEST 53 STREET,NEW YORK 19, N. Y., PRINTEDIN U.S.A.
In 1902 two letters passed between Burbank
Edward Henry, who was spending the summer on a farm. The first, from Dr. Weston, accompanied Bullseye
the level rod on the Old Salt Lake Rail
road, he found mathematics in the hot desert sun overpowering.
Returning to Tropico he set up as a
from house to house, photographing groups, funerals,
loading, standing with the light over one shoulder,
and so on. The second, full of Edward's thanks, ex
dozen. He fell in love and, full of responsibility,
citedly discussed his failures and a first success— a
of the chickens.
From then on photography Edward;
his interest in school dwindled.
young When a
one of his sensitive little
painter or prizefighter
to be a
vanished; he was definitely
solid darkroom cial portraitists,
however, was something else. He
born in Highland
1886, and his beloved
technique and how not to pose a learning to make exact duplicate exposed
negatives of his bosses. he married.
Four sons were
Chandler, 1910; Brett, 1911; Neil, 1914; and Cole, 1919. In 1911 Weston built his own studio at Tropico.
Park, Illinois, in
sister Mary, were the first
prints even from the poorly In 1909
for a dollar
sitter. For a year or two he held jobs with commer
a photographer. came of generations of New England professional
The customers who drifted
in were delighted;
children born out of Maine for more than two cen
with his 11 x 14 studio camera, he was often able
turies. His grandfather
taught at Bowdoin College
moving to the Midwest to head a female
seminary. His father, a general
time during his rounds to teach in a local college. His mother, rebelling her dying
shapes in chiffon scarves or vignetted
The soft-focus Verito lens helped, and he retouched
convinced they looked that well.
holiday to visit
He was particularly ing to capture
successful with children. Try
1912, a 3 Va x4'/4
subtleties of natural light absorbed
got a job with some surveyors,
punching stakes in orange
The curtains obscuring
fornia. Enchanted by the place, he decided to stay,
so deftly and with such regard for actual modeling
cago, Edward went on a two-week
that his patrons, unconscious of any change, were
After three dull years as an errand boy in Chi now married
left it as
become a business man.
should escape and
at the family tradition,
wish that Edward
aware of it. Posing by suggestion, he hid ungainly
and sunny windows
came down; the him. "I have a
room full of corners — bright corners, dark corners, alcoves! An endless change takes place daily
the sun shifts from one window to another ... backgrounds
have been discarded
for special decorative * 1
effects, which are brought
He worked outdoors as well — his baby sons in Ruth St. Denis in Japanese costume
he went East to say goodby
whose husband was now with the steel in
dustry in Ohio. The Armco plant, with its rows of giant smoke stacks, excited Weston to a series of
standing in a shimmer of light and space with one
spot of brilliant sun slanting across her cheek. From
in which his own vision emerges un (p. 11). Mary urged him to go to New
1914 to 1917 he received a shower of honors. Com
York and see the legendary
York, with his mind full of the forms and rhythms of
and asked him to demonstrate.
masters there. In New
salons in New York, London, Toronto, Boston, Phila
rode endlessly on the busses, looking
towering city. Articles on Stieglitz by Paul Rosenfeld
him to membership.
why he was dissatisfied with his own work; actual
with himself, with his hazy Whistlerian anese approach.
he first saw modern painting; introduced
him to contemporary
At the 1915 San Francisco Fair
instead of settling down as a successful
man and father he began to sport a velvet jacket
Seligmann had helped
up at the
man shows at schools and clubs brought him further But he was not content. Something was wrong —
contact with Stieglitz though
left him rather
O'Keeflfe. His greatest enthusiasm was evoked by the clear structure of Charles Sheeler's architectural photographs. In August, 1923, he sailed for Mexico. With Tina, whom he had taught to photograph, portrait
studio in Mexico
he opened a
City. His exhibition
"The Aztec Land" in October
tions. His work was changing.
types of industrial themes, sculptural fragments of were vio
lently asymmetrical. An attic provided semi-abstract
nudes, highly individual temporary
and a cape. He ceased to send to pictorial exhibi By 1920 the Japanese arrangements
out when needed." the garden,
ence for Weston. He decided he would go to live in
life. The Mexican
themes of angular lights and shadows. By accident
he discovered the extreme closeup; focusing on a
tense and understanding
nude, he saw, in the ground glass, forms of breast
intensity with which Latins express themselves has
and shoulder so exciting that he forgot his custom
keyed me to high pitch, yet viewing
the wall day after
with occasional flashes of insight, he
was still trying to impose his "artistic"
took some of Weston's personal work to
Mexico and exhibited
it at the Academia de Bellas
day has depressed
me. I see
siastic. What is more they bought — a new experito bibliography,
in his halting he
took them out into the strong sunlight and watched in his Graflex
my work on
Spanish to control his sitters by conversation,
Artes. Her friends — Rivera, Siqueiros, the artists of
. . . The
too clearly that I have often failed."
had such in
The three years in Mexico were years of ruthless
on his subject matter. Then, in 1922,
him. "I have never before
sky resulted — the keen-squinting at target
vivid series of heroic heads against the Senator
practice, Rose Covarrubias
the sun in her downcast lashes. Commenting on the
utmost exactness: the rough is rough, the smooth is
de Rivera (p. 13), Weston
wrote (1924): "I am only now reaching ment in photography
quality — of things is rendered
smooth, flesh is alive, stone is hard. The things have
that in my ego of several
a definite proportion
in a clearly defined distance one from the other . . .
and weight and are placed
In a word, the beauty which these photographs Weston's possess is photographic
sittings — desperately
With Tina and Brett, Weston traveled
much confined to the studio for fear of losing a
almost unknown regions photographing
customer — he worked
for Anita Brenner's Idols Behind Altars 6 and bold
with still life — jugs— arranging
details of cloud and maguey
for himself. But he
them again and again in new lights, new relations.
was not and never could be Mexican; the time had
Within the courtyard,
come for him to return home.
from the rooftop,
he could get away, he was at work with a more powerful
forms of Mexico;
on the massive
the vast landscapes,
pyramids (p. 12), the people-sprinkled
the huge patterns of
His friends important
as yet unpublished
More even than to the mental stimulation of such
history of the Mexican
to be visited,
at the time when the
of the Renaissance was still
friends as Diego Rivera, Weston responded to "the
tender and amenable
to a primitive race. I had known nothing
He had brought
aissance, wrote recently: "It was the good fortune of Mexico
the little towns.
stimulus and vision. Jean Chariot, in an
to suggestions, by Edward
one of the authentic
of simple peasant people. I have been refreshed
United States has bred. . . . Weston photographs
by their elemental expression. I have felt the soil."
illustrated in terms of today
Close to them, confusions fell
ity of representational
the belief in the valid
art . . . cleansed ...
every illusion, convention, process or device which
Victorian connotations ...
of substance, weight, tactile surface and biological
creation, he concentrated
tials. "Give I create.
on vital essen
and an hour's time
Emotional heights are easily obtained,
He dealt with problems
thrusts that laid bare the roots of Mexican culture. When Rivera was painting The Day of the Dead in
peace and time are not . . . One should be able to
the City in the second court of the Ministry
talked about Weston. I advanced
his work was precious for us in that it delineated
create should be as simple as to breathe." In 1925 he went to California Contact
rhythms, more complex and unposed 8x10
for six months.
motifs — industrials
portraits. Returning to Mexico
with his son Brett, he photographed
the opinion that
with a stronger
of our craft
to the brush. But Rivera, busily
imitating the wood graining on the back of a chair, answered path
in his opinion
feeling for light and texture the markets, the wall
result, of painting."
paintings outside native bars (p. 14), Dr. Atl stand
Back in Glendale,
Weston missed Mexico
as a and
ing beside a scribbled wall. Reviewing the Weston-
was at first unable to work. Then, in the studio of
"In Weston's photographs, the texture — the
Shore, he picked
shells of which she had been making some semi7
abstract studies. His mind was suddenly filled
the dynamic forces of growth, the vital forms and lucent surfaces of shells, fruits, vegetables.
for days on a single form in various
Picasso, Matisse, Brancusi, and Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1932 Merle Armitage
book of thirty-nine reproductions, The Art of Edward
for life with photographic
brought out a handsome
One-man shows swept spontaneously from
or evasion in spirit or
Berlin to Shanghai, from Mexico to Vancouver. Un
technique — to record the quintessence of the object
aided, with neither agent, group, nor institution to
or element before
back him, Weston responded
my lens, rather than an inter
pretation, a superficial phase or passing mood . . ."
He began to free the forms in space. One superb
between 1921 and 1945.
With his first New York show, composed entirely
shimmering darkness of a tin funnel (p. 18). At the
of glossy prints — the shells and rocks demanded
same time, with the same feeling: "I am also pho
brilliance and clarity beyond the bronze tones and
tographing invariably from
a dancer in the nude ...
I find myself
making exposures during the transition
next — the
matte surface of the palladiotype cept stood forth approach:
at seventeen a remarkable
he opened a studio in San Francisco.
Cities increasingly oppressed him; in 1929 he wel
— Weston's con
"This is the
one must prevision and feel, before ex
released coincident with the shutter's release. There is no substitute for realized,
at the time of exposure. Developing
comed a chance to move to Carmel among the
become but a careful carrying
Monterey coast mountains. Here he discovered what
conception . . . "
cameras: an 8 x 10 view camera and a Graflexfor
Robinson Jeffers has described
Point Lobos." He photographed
the writhing silver
roots of cypresses and the strangling starred
posure, the finished print. . . . The creative force is
With Brett, already
artists in America,
nuances of natural light, seeking "to express clearly
nature without subterfuge
strange, stark beauty." of the most significant
succulents and monumental eroded
on of the
He had, and has, two
There is one background,
used behind a sitter. Settling his friends or clients somewhere, indoors or out, where the light is favor able,
he lets them become themselves while he
(p. 19), incandescent salt pools and winged skele
watches fleeting expressions and gestures. He uses
tons of pelicans. Orozco, passing through Carmel in
one film, one paper. He tray-develops
1930, was so moved by these transcendent images
each one to
that he arranged
the exact degree of delicacy or density he wants.
Weston's first New York one-man
show that fall. In 1927 the reaction to the first shells was sur
by inspection, bringing
under an overhead
bulb with a printing
he makes only contact prints, dodging
prise and dismay. Many people, including Rivera,
areas beyond the scale of paper so deftly that the
thought them phallic. As the closeups grew more
subtle and powerful they struck beholders with the
amidol, scrupulously fixed and washed, more than
half of the first prints from his negatives are exhi
bition quality. These prints are then drymounted on
white boards and spotted. This is technique at its
Seattle to Boston discovered they were "art" prattled
most basic and direct;
the result of decades
Van Dyke called a meeting
and proposed Group f.64* — f.64 being one of the
experience, its emphasis is entirely on vision. In his professional work he was still compelled to
smaller shutter stops and therefore
sharp focus. Lloyd Rollins, the new director of the
film with the old Verito lens stopped down
M. H. de Young Museum in San Francisco, strongly
use evasions, enlarging the Graflex 8x10
night in 1932 Willard
just short of sharp. Printing the results on matte
ural exhibition in the fall of 1932. The most ardent
retouching or hid the last invisible
the nascent group and held its inaug
Adams and Van Dyke, both opened
division between personal and professional stand-
started a salon of "pure photography."
him. He campaigned
sitters. More and more people discovered that the
of their pronouncements Weston could not agree.
Gently, he withdrew. As an active spearhead, Group
of one's own face,
quick with thought completed
worn into character,
by mobile hands, has a curiously excit
Friends liked the little prints and the
unostentatious way they fitted
living. By 1934 he could at last hang out a sign:
f.64 lasted only a year or two; as the violent peak of a great
movement, its influence
still persists. In the early
friends by breaking away from the extreme closeup, doing clouds and villages in New Mexico, perspec
"Unretouched Portraits.'' To thousands of photographers
Weston was be
tives of a lettuce
ranch in Salinas, the massive
to his friends a sanctuary as
naked hills of the Big Sur. Then came, in 1936, a
well. To live more freely and simply than Thoreau,
classic and majestic series. From their new studio
to work with a bare technique and produce bril
in Santa Monica
coming a challenge;
and Brett worked
liantly, to walk free, without help or compromise —
gether among the vast, wind-rippled
these things are not easily achieved in the cluttered
and frantic twentieth century.
shadow to stand dazzling
His isolation was ending. Brett was changing from a prodigy to
to a co-worker the
and others were coming companionship:
sand dunes at
which rose from deep swirls of morning
and sculptural at noon,
(p. 22). Photographing
across from one bank to
another, with the sun along the same axis as his
Adams, whom they met as a pianist with some prom
camera, Weston made a series of nudes in which
ising but immature photographs;
a subtle line of shadow outlines the figure, round
who left his filling station for two weeks to study
ing the living skin away from the harsh brilliance
with Weston. These young photographers,
of the sand (p. 20).
with creative matter, groping
for their own approaches,
The old longing to be free of clients led Weston to apply
for a Guggenheim
Fellowship "to make
to form a group around Weston. The more they
a series of photographic
grew away from Pictorialism the more intolerable
In 1937 he became the first photographer
they found it that there should exist a system which
put a premium on the obvious and the sentimental
able to concentrate
documents of the West."
years he was at last
on his personal
and consistently squeezed any honest or original thought into decadent
The idea of organizing
occurred to them. One
*The charier members of Group f.64 were: Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunning ham, John Paul Edwards, Sonia Noskowiak, Henry Swift, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston. Later members: Dorothea Lange, William Simpson, Peter Stackpole. Associates: Preston Holder, Consuela Kanaga, Alma Lavenson, Brett Weston.
by his own
of the $2000
slow drives coastal
but even of the decay In 1938 simple
Returning ered the
of vision. Weston
such as waves
or esthetic astonishing felt he had
among dark again.
humor and love of the characterized
surges with new themes. fresh
a series of startling
houses — with
him, the long vista
We Fight For, Civilian
an 8 x 10 produced
that have always
binations — old
series — and
he also began
to his backyard.
houses. In Louisiana
light and smoke obscures
but to cre
in a quieter
to go on.
to Lobos, he discov
new themes — surf and tide headlands
on the decay
In the bare
ers on the headlands.
of unpredictable cattle.
on a mountainside
Point Lobos the
of man's works.
or a human
he worked swamps,
and the people
vision — forces which irresistibly
nists in Weston's
His aim was not to illustrate
to the last cent and
and of the
journey — the
them on the
8 x 10, sunning
to see and
In California Charis,
In most mediums,
by his process.
in almost only
a lifetime ceives.
"mass-production the artist
"I am seeker."
a prolific, His
All the signs point
PIRAMIDE DEL SOL, MEXICO, 1923
GUADALUPE DE RIVERA, MEXICO, D. F., 1924
D. F„ 1926
NUDE, MEXICO, 1925
^^SfStPSti t' ?••*••• •..•;;x ''v^f^fc^'^'
vm *W(m%. it .#.
mJL tf: jkLs~+4%A. #*_*:
DETAIL, ABANDONED CAR, MOJAVE DESERT,1937
GHOST TOWN, RHYOLITE, NEVADA, 1938
WRECKED CAR ON BEACH, NORTH COAST, CALIFORNIA, 1939
ZOHMAH AND JEAN CHARLOT, POINT LOBOS, 1939
ROOFTOP PORTRAIT, NEW YORK, 1941
BELLEGROVE, LOUISIANA, 1941
PELICAN, POINT LOBOS, 1942
7 A.M., PACIFIC WAR TIME, 1945
Park, Illinois, of New England 1927
First photographs, in Chicago
with Bullseye camera
three years. Continued
clouds, etc. for himself. November: (formerly
To California surveyors cided
to stay. Worked
in Los Angeles
Began series of extreme
closeups: shells, vegetables,
Began series of California
born: Chandler, 1911
own studio in Tropico,
and prizes, demonstrated
to live in Mexico. Ohio;
August: to Mexico.
Return to larger
f. 64; first group
Tina Modotti, then Mexico
motifs: landscapes, and Monterey
posed portraits; 1925
3 or 4
in pro are unre-
studio with Brett.
to be awarded from
and photographed Nevada,
most of year
house built by third son, Neil. Spent 1500 negatives.
New Point Lobos series; new series of 8 x 10 portraits in landscape.
for 6 months; studio in San Fran Industrials;
series: dunes, nudes.
cisco with Johan Hagemeyer. portraits.
To Santa Monica;
closeups of still life, trees, rocks, clouds.
Returned to California
City. Met Rivera,
Renaissance. Massive realization
U. S. Government
studio, first in Tacubaya,
Film und Foto,
and installed Delphic
Returned to Carmel; 1923
of nudes and faces.
show in Mexico
sister in Middletown, to New
angles and lightings,
in New Mexico
at 1915 San Francisco Fair.
Discontent with own direction painting
Elected to London Salon, 1917. Many one-man
First Point Lobos series rocks, kelp.
lished Art of Edward Weston.
societies. Won medals and honors in Pictorial
in Los Angeles. January
studio with second
1910; Brett, 1911; Neil, 1914; Cole, 1919.
Built and opened
and, with Steichen,
To Carmel; begun:
to photograph. 1929
etc. To San Francisco, opening 1903
nudes in motion.
given by father,
and the West published. through
for an edition
Trip cut short by Pearl Harbor 1942-1945
satires, cats, portraits,
of Whitman's attack;
Leaves of Grass.
and nudes in landscape.
to Carmel. backyard:
ONE-MAN EXHIBITIONS 1921-1946
as those prior to 1921 and those in Germany and Japan, are not 1936
LOS ANGELES: Shaku-Do-Sha. ifornia
CITY: "The Aztec Land."
ST. LOUIS: of
of Nebraska. Renaissance
(portraits). of War
YORK: The Museum of Modern
ture 14nol65:354-6 STATEMENT Weston,
Hall of State Museum.
By Edward Weston
il Photo Minia
Weston — Brett
Los Angeles Museum, 1927. in Spanish, Forma (Mexico)
1 [LETTER DESCRIBING PORTRAIT TECHNIQUE]
Club. of Art.
Atkins and Torrey
Arts Gallery. MEL:
SAN FRANCISCO: 1931
ST. PAUL: Gallery
Art Gallery. Katharine
East West Gallery.*
Museum of Art (retro
LOS ANGELES: Sha
NEW YORK: Nierendorf
Johan Hagemeyer). 1925
LOS ANGELES: Jake Zeitlin Gallery.*
de Bellas Aries. 1938
bieri and Price (portraits).*
il In Deutsche Werkbund
Film und Foto, Stuttgart,
STATEMENT, il The San Franciscan D 1930 p22-23. Reprinted with il Experimental Cinema, no 3:13-15 1931. PHOTOGRAPHY— 20 Jy 1930.
NOT PICTORIAL, il Camera
FROM MY DAY BOOK, il Creative AMERIKA UND FOTOGRAFIE.
Ansel Adams Gallery.
STATEMENT in exhibition Weston, Reprinted,
Delphic Studios, N Y, 1932. Hamsa no 5:76
Esto Publ Co, 1934 (Enjoy Your
ARTICLES with il in Camera
v 46 1939:
WHAT IS PHOTOGRAPHIC
BULLIET, C. J. Photos make a bid to be ranked
art. il Chicago
Daily News S 16 1933.
THE CARMEL CYMBAL Ap 17 1935. Edward Weston special number. Statements Una Jeffers, Henrietta Shore, Lincoln Steffens
CHARLOT, JEAN. Edward
by Johan Hagemeyer, and others.
Arts & Arch 57no4:
20 Ap 1940.
IS A (F-Mr
BEAUTY? (Je p247-55);
FIVE YEARS OF PORTRAITURE (S-0 p399-408, PHOTOGRAPHIC 1941.
Reprnted from the author's Art from the Mayans to Disney, N Y & London, Sheed and Ward, 1939. Revision of material published in exhibition catalog Edward Weston, 100 Photographs, Increase Robinson Galleries, Chicago, 1933 and in Bibl no 5.
DELPHIC STUDIOS, N Y. Exhibition Weston, 1930.
Catalog with foreword by Laurence Bass-Becking.
and Charis Wilson Weston
AND THE WEST. N Y, Duell, Sloan and Pearce,
Exhibition catalog with excerpts from press notices.
1940. 127p, 96 plates. HALLIDAY, F. H. Edward OF THE WEST, il U S Camera
ADAMS, ANSEL. Photography.
purist, il American
FRANCES D. Lowly
N Y Sun
y la fotografia
are the moderns thinking
& Shade Je 1931 p4-7,
about? il Light
D 5 1933. MILLIER, ARTHUR. Realism or abstraction?
il N Y Times Mag N 16 1930 p 6-7, 20.
[MARTIN, IRA.] What
at de Young Museum.
Arts & Arch 58no I:
McBRIDE, HENRY. Photographs
O 22 1930.
D 18 1931 p21-22. Review
16-17 Ja 1941.
MERLE, ed. The art
F 9 1930.
1932. 12 p, 39pl.
Statements by Armitage, Jean Chariot, Lincoln Steffens, Edward Weston.
Sunday Times Ja 2 1927.
Jy 24 1931.
O 25 1929. The Edward
Print of the Month
THE AZTEC LAND, MEXICO. sus fotografias. Exhibition
Weston — exposicion
RIVERA, DIEGO. Edward de
from press notices.
BARUCH, RUTH MARION.
BRENNER, ANITA. Edward
Weston nos muesta nuevas modali-
de su talento.
Revista de Revistas (Mexico)
by Tina Modotti
11,000 copies of this book were New York.
DAVID ALFARO. Una transcendental
S 4 1925.
O 4 1925. 8 WHITMAN,
thesis in preparation]
Idols behind altars. N Y, Payson and Clarke, 1939. Illustrated
Jy 29 1931.
and Tina Modotti.
2no 1:16-17 Ap-My
N Y, Limited
Club, 1941. Containing
for the Trustees of The Museum of Modern
by The Plantin Press,
PUBLICATIONS OF THE MUSEUM OF MODERN AR.' Now Available
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