The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English, English-French [2nd Rev Ed] 0198600674, 9780198600671

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The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English, English-French [2nd Rev Ed]
 0198600674, 9780198600671

Citation preview

English counties

(the names of Scottish, Welsh and Irish counties are shown in full)

\berdeen

0? î?BenNeÿS

if j.

,art*P ‘

Mull/;; Awe**-

24 Kent

1

Avon

2

Bedfordshire

25

3

Berkshire

26

Leicestershire

4

Buckinghamshire

27

Lincolnshire

Lancashire

5

Cambridgeshire

28

Merseyside

6

Cheshire

29

Norfolk

7

Cleveland

30

Northamptonshire

8

Cornwall

31

Northumberland

9

Cumbria

32

North Yorkshire

10

Derbyshire

33

Nottinghamshire

11

Devon

34 Oxfordshire

12

Dorset

35 Shropshire

13

Durham

36 Somerset

14

East Sussex

37 South Yorkshire

15

Essex

38 Staffordshire

16

Gloucestershire

39 Suffolk

17

Greater London

40 Surrey

18

Greater Manchester

41

19

Hampshire

42 Warwickshire

20

Hereford and Worcester

43 West Midlands

21

Hertfordshire

45 West Yorkshire

22

Humberside

46 Wiltshire

23

Isle of Wight

Tyne and Wear

44 West Sussex

lOOikm Giant's Causeway

,

4

lewcastle-upon-Tyne

,„J South Shields atesh,eadflfp, Sunderland . . _ „\4i dral stle II h 3V(

Belfast NORTH

54

lamborough Head

IRISH REPUBLIC

Kingston-upon-Hull Dublin

8‘ 100

500 1 000 m Norwich

LONDON] Cardiff |

.Great Yarmouth

capital city country capital

52' Population of cities: more than 1 000 000 inhabitants Milford Haven

p 500 000 - 1 000 000 inhabitants 'JP

250 000 - 500 000 inhabitants

S a

de 50 000 - 250 000 inhabitants other cities

^Southend-on-Sea

14

international boundary country boundary :eter

P®5!

^

Lyme

BaY

Hf N£L

major road

major canal

Land's

i G u

Penzance

50°

End

Isles | of Scillyj

major airport ATLANTIC major port

Channel Islands Guernsey

Alderneyl 1

Jersey !



f &

^ark

OCEAN

UNESCO World Heritage site

, //

Channel Tunnel

Isle of Wight

Bill of Portland

motorway

sPover 9° 1 'estonev-^.ji 4

Hastings / itôn-^Eastbouirig /

Bournemoui

county boundary

railway

1

rrt>C\aii" S Margate ^^Jantettury

J

Y

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; >

FRANC E 0°

Île-de-France : petite couronne

FRANCE ADMINISTRATIVE Ca'»âfeolf“R0l

St-Omenij',59 '

Y A/Ü M ÊVO N 1

-

6IQUE

V.Q» t SEINE-SAINT-DENIS (Argenteuii Bobigny Nanterr^ . 93 Qj ^

BE L

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MANCHE Dieppe

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SEINE-MARITIME PIChAmÈ AISNE j 08 ^ , HAUT!: 76 ; oisr^adîdîîlLàona f^RDENNES ^ ROUEN \Beauvais Compagne O^jLihel Vouziejs

\ MANCHE \

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From reviews of the first edition:

‘without doubt the best bilingual dictionary I have come across. I have particularly appreciated the boxed gram¬ matical information, and the wide range of examples for each entry. In spite of the detail, however, the dictionary is well-organized and easy to use. The editors and their col¬ laborators are to be congratulated on the finished product. I shall have no further hesitation in recom¬ ending this dictionary to my students’ D. C. Hornsby, University of Kent ‘provides a wonderfully clear snapshot of two cultures’ Guardian ‘revolutionary ... there is a wonderful section explaining the mysteries of French small ads ... Best of all, though, are the explanations of French idioms’ Independent ‘Achieves precision yet maintains the vibrancy of each language. This dictionary will do much to demonstrate the creative use of language in translation through its introduction and layout’ M. Orr, University of St Andrews ‘The endpapers, correspondence, and appendices are an excellent bonus’ F. Fogelman, University of East London ‘The dictionary is not only extremely valuable for Modern Linguists but also students of English and History who need to have a thorough grasp of the language, with help in grammar and syntax’ N. Squire, Lucy Cavendish College, University of Cambridge T also find the dictionary very user-friendly, clear, helpful, and altogether very good value for money—an excellent investment for any student or teacher’ M. Spencer, University College, Cork ‘Excellent on “up-to-the-minute” words. Very good choice of genuine examples, and usage boxes are also excellent’ Marie-Christine Press, University of Westminster ‘It is the best bilingual dictionary currently available’ K. E. M. George, University of Buckingham ‘This dictionary provides an excellent resource for students of French ... The grammar and usage inserts are a welcome innovation’ R. Sampson, University of Bristol ‘Very comprehensive ... The dictionary presents in fact some of the features of a small encyclopedia’ M. R. A. Longstaffe, University of Ulster at Coleraine ‘The boxes are unique and an invaluable feature, as are the samples of letters in French’ H. Cocker ham, Royal Holloway, University of London

‘An excellent dictionary—the sample letters fill a needed gap’ A. Mitchell, University of Anglia ‘The introduction about the corpus is fascinating’ S. Brewer, University of Staffordshire T am very impressed by the dictionary’ I. R. W. Higgins, University of St Andrews ‘The notes on lexical usage are very helpful. Also, the maps and diagrams are a very good idea’ L. Lawrence, University of Wolverhampton ‘Excellent for a variety of different levels—beginners, intermediate, and advanced—with clear examples of lexical usage ... Up-to-date commercial and technical vocabulary, suitable for management studies students’ D. Berry, University of Middlesex ‘Reliable and accurate as well as up to date’ C. P. Courtney, Christ’s College, University of Cambridge ‘provides excellent coverage with very useful (and inter¬ esting) material presented in the boxes. It is exceptionally good value for money’ A. Howe, University of Liverpool ‘above all, it is user-friendly. The boxed-off sections are invaluable’ C. Hershon, UWE Bristol ‘provides an excellent up-to-date lexicon for students of contemporary French’ T. Stenhouse, University of Coventry T cannot fault it on its up-to-dateness, and the “usage” boxes are especially welcome’ P. J. Wagstaff University of Bath ‘An excellent work ... Not just a dictionary but a textbook’ C. Cook, The Nottingham Trent University ‘This dictionary, the fullest and most detailed bilingual one I know, is ah excellent reference for students’ L. Cairns, University of Stirling ‘The context, language-in-use sections are attractive, and invite further research into the specific words and, crucially, into their relatives, friends, and enemies’ Dr C. W. C. Williams, New College, University of Oxford ‘The clear print is a delight and the detailed translation advice is excellent’ P. Manning, University of Middlesex ‘Extremely reasonably priced, user-friendly, up-to-date dictionary ... supersedes all others at present on the market’ G. T. Harris, Professor of Modern Languages, University of Salford

The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary Second Edition

The Oxford French dictionary range includes: The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary The Concise Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary The Compact Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary The Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary The Oxford Colour French Dictionary The Oxford Paperback French Dictionary The Oxford French Minidictionary The Oxford French Dictionary and Grammar French Usage French Grammar 10,000 French Words French Verbs French Correspondence The Oxford-Duden Pictorial French Dictionary, Second Edition

The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary Second Edition

French-English • English-French

Edited by

Marie-Hélène Corréard • Valerie Grundy Second edition edited by

Marie-Hélène Corréard

Oxford New York Toronto

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP Oxford NewYork Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Buenos Aires Calcutta Cape Town Chennai Dares Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Paris Sâo Paulo Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York © Oxford University Press and Hachette Livre 1994,1997 First Edition 1994 Second Edition 1997 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect of any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms and in other countries should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available ISBN 0-19-860067-4 ISBN 0-19-860068-2 (thumb index) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Typeset in Monotype Nimrod by Oxford University Press Printed on acid-free paper in the United States of America

Preface Préface

Preface to the Second Edition

Published in 1994, the first edition of the OxfordHachette French Dictionary is recognized as a landmark in the description of French, marking the beginning of a new age of corpus-based bilingual lexicography. The need for a Second Edition so soon after the first is dictated by new developments in the vocabularies of French and Eng¬ lish which merit inclusion and description. Continuously updated, the language databases used for the Dictionary’s compilation have produced evidence of new words, phrases and idioms which have gained currency since

Preface to the First Edition

This dictionary is the fruit of six years’ sustained co¬ operation between two of the world’s foremost reference publishers. Being a completely original work, it is not constrained by previous editions or prior publications, and so is able to provide a truly fresh and contemporary description of the relationship between French and English. The work was carried out by a team comprising equal numbers of French and English native-speakers, working together on the same site. Editors worked in bilingual pairs, each working only in his or her native language. Editors were able to consult constantly to establish accu¬ rate translations of every item in every entry. This team in turn drew on the resources of many freelance lexicog¬ raphers, translators, consultants, and terminology spe¬ cialists in the French- and English-speaking worlds. This is the first French and English dictionary to have been written using electronic corpora: two huge data¬ bases of electronic texts, one of current French and the other of current English. Each database contained over 10 million words of language in use. Access to these data¬ bases has provided accounts of words and their transla¬ tions which are always authentic and often revealing. Users of the dictionary can feel confident that transla¬ tions presented derive from study of real language as it has actually been used in a wide range of contexts. The resulting text provides modern idiomatic coverage of general French and English, with many new words, extensive treatment of colloquial expressions, and thou¬ sands of example sentences showing real language in action. A wide range of literary vocabulary has been included, together with vocabulary from the special¬ ized fields of science, business, technology, and medi¬ cine.

1994. New evidence from the systematic study of Oxford’s databases of French literature has also been recorded. Hundreds of items have been added, from almost every field of activity, and a new A Z of Contemporary France provides a cultural review of all aspects of modern French society. Together with a new guide to communicating effectively in French, (be it on paper or a postcard, by tele¬ phone, or on the Internet), these additions reflect the pub¬ lishers’ continuing aim to provide the most accurate description possible of today’s French and English.

Préface de la première édition

Ce dictionnaire est le fruit de six années d’étroite colla¬ boration entre deux grands éditeurs d’ouvrages de référence. C’est une œuvre totalement nouvelle et origi¬ nale qui offre une description actuelle et moderne des langues anglaise et française, et de leurs relations. Des rédacteurs anglophones et francophones ont uni leurs compétences et ont constitué des équipes bilingues qui ont travaillé ensemble, en un même lieu. Tout au long de l’élaboration du dictionnaire, chaque rédacteur a tra¬ vaillé dans sa langue maternelle et a pu vérifier, grâce à un échange constant avec les autres membres de l’équipe, la justesse et la pertinence des traductions. Les rédac¬ teurs ont par ailleurs fait appel à de nombreux collabora¬ teurs extérieurs : lexicographes, traducteurs, consultants et terminologues, tous spécialistes des mondes anglo¬ phone et francophone. Les rédacteurs ont, pour la première fois dans l’histoire de la lexicographie bilingue, utilisé un corpus électro¬ nique composé de deux bases de données textuelles de français et d’anglais. Les bases de données française et anglaise comportent chacune plus de 10 millions de mots de la langue usuelle. L’utilisation de ces bases de données a permis un repérage des mots et des traductions, tou¬ jours authentique et pertinent. Les utilisateurs peuvent en toute confiance se servir des traductions proposées: elles sont issues de la langue réelle et employées en contexte. Le dictionnaire recense et traite de nombreux mots nouveaux, des expressions familières, des expres¬ sions idiomatiques et des tournures actuelles du français et de l’anglais. Il accorde également une large place à la langue littéraire, aux américanismes et au vocabulaire de domaines spécialisés: scientifique, commercial, techno¬ logique, médical,...

vi

Preface

The aim of the Publishers has been to provide transla¬ tors, students at all levels, teachers, and business people with a reference work that is without rival in authority, currency, and accuracy.

Les éditeurs se sont fixé un seul but: allier recherche linguistique et effort éditorial afin d’offrir aux traduc¬ teurs, étudiants de tous niveaux, enseignants et au monde des affaires, un ouvrage de référence inégalé à ce jour en matière d’autorité, d’actualité et de fiabilité.

The Publishers Oxford University Press

Project Director Timothy Benbow Commissioning Editor Robert Scriven

Les éditeurs Hachette Dictionnaires

Direction Mireille Maurin Responsable d’édition Héloïse Neefs

The Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary

Editors

Second Edition Chief editor

Marianne Chalmers Françoise de Peretti

General advice on writing in French

Natalie Pomier

Associate Editor

Proofreaders

Mary O’Neill

Isabelle Lemoine Genevieve Hawkins

Marie-Hélène Corréard Tanslator/ Lexicographer

Susan Steinberg An A-Z of Contemporary France

Design

An A-Z of Contemporary France, General advice on writing in French: Text Matters, Reading, UK

Richard Aplin

Editors/Rédacteurs

First Edition Chief editors/Direction éditoriale

Marie-Hélène Corréard • Valerie Grundy

Nicola Addyman Jennifer Barnes Marianne Chalmers Glynnis chantreii Rosalind Combley Gearôid Cronin Laurence Delacroix Françoise de Peretti Janet Gough Gérard G. Kahn Pascal Lecler Jacques Lesca Mary O’Neill Catherine Palmer Martine Pierquin Georges Pilard Nicolas Rosec Catherine Roux Kathleen Shields Susan Steinberg Nicole Truchet Lexicographical adviser/ Conseiller en lexicographie

Beryl T. Atkins

Lexical usage notes and correspondence/ Notes d’usage lexicales et correspondance

Henri Béjoint Richard Wakely Assisted by/Assistés de Ghislaine Ansieau Lucy Atkins Agnès Sauzet Translatorlexicographers/ Traducteurslexicographes

Christopher Dawson Robert Grundy Hélène Haenen Marie-Claude Harrison Frances Illingworth Thiên-Nga Lê Natalie Pomier Muriel Ranivoalison Patrick Ros Gorasny Tamsin Simmil Thérèse Sepulchre Jo Waite

viii

Specialist terminology consultants/ Consultants en terminologie

Centre de Recherche en Traduction et Terminologie Université Lumière-Lyon II Philippe Thoiron Malcolm Harvey University of Brighton Tony Hartley Malcolm Slater Dimity Castellano Consultants/Consultants

Martyn L. Bird Rosalind Fergusson Hélène M. A. Lewis Janet Whitcut North American English/Anglo-américain

Charles Lynn Clark Georgie Boge Amy Deanne Matthews French outside France/Français d’ailleurs

Lilliam Hurst Dominique Péladeau Phonetics/Phonétique

Isabelle Vodoz Jane Stuart-Smith Administration/Administration

Coordination\Coordination Isabelle Lemoine Marion Fox Nadia Jamil Data-capture/Saisie des données

Senior keyboarderIResponsable de la saisie Philip Gerrish Alison Curr Annie Girardin Alexander Ions Fabienne Pearson Muriel Ranivoalison Tim Weekes

Proofreaders/Correcteurs

Stephen Curtis Genevieve Hawkins Isabelle Lemoine \

Freelance lexicographers and translators/ Collaborateurs lexicographes et traducteurs

Marie-Hélène Advielle Isabelle d’Araquy Ibelle Azodi Claudie Balavoine Richard Bateman Ilona Bellos Cyprian Blamires Marion Brilleaud Amanda Broad Marie-Thérèse Brun Flora Buchanan Anne Buisson-Champalle Edwin Carpenter Denise Cavanaugh Joan Chapman Barbara Christie Colin Cooper Thomas Crawford Stephen Curtis Elizabeth Degouge Bénédicte Duchet-Filhol Anne Eddi-Vantal Nathalie Fourrier Brigitte Guérin Helga Harrison Rosemary Hazlerigg Richard Illingworth Malcolm Jones Nicholas Jones Isabelle Joyau Claudie Juillard Teresa Lander Jakeline Larrieu Geneviève Lebaut

Dominique Le Fur Anne Leignadier Fabienne Lemaître Isabelle Lidden-Vallin Sue Lloyd Nicole Maindrault Arabel Mérand Alain Métro Lise de Micheaux Annie Mignard Laurent Milesi Marie Milesi Frank Mullineaux Josiane Parry Elaine Pollard Lise Pomier Brigitte Ponsart Elizabeth Portier Colette Price Caroline Quinnell François Rappaz Joseph Rézeau Sylvia Robertson Valerie Robinson Arthur Root Patrice Salsa Eric Schmoll Karin Soyer Laurence Tron Pierre Vincent Rosemary Whitley John Williams Christine Winter

Design/Maquette

Text I texte: Fran Holds worth Diagrams I organigrammes: Information Design Unit Letters!correspondance: Raynor Design

Acknowledgements Remerciements The editors would like to extend their warmest thanks to a certain number of people and organizations not men¬ tioned in the list of contributors, particularly Beth Levin of Northwestern University, who allowed us to make use of her work on English verb classification. We are also indebted to all those who made it possible for us to build the corpus of contemporary French which, with the Oxford Corpus of Modern English, has been the cornerstone of this dictionary. In particular, our thanks go to Manuel Lucbert, Secrétaire Général of Le Monde, Jean-François Sailly, Gilbert Compagnon and his team, also from Le Monde, Christian Poulin from Libération, Joseph Laveille and Aimé Munoz from Le Progrès de Lyon. Our thanks also go to Dora Carpenter, Colin Hope, Anne Judge, Helen Lawrence, Katherine Manville, Alain Pierrot, and Robin Sawers for their contribution at vari¬ ous stages of the project. Finally we would like to thank all those people, too numerous to mention here, who have given us their sup¬ port and the benefit of their knowledge in writing this dic¬ tionary.

Les auteurs tiennent à remercier un certain nombre de personnes et d’organismes qui n’ont pas été mentionnés dans la liste des collaborateurs du projet, en particulier Beth Levin, de Northwestern University, qui nous a per¬ mis d’utiliser son travail sur la classification des verbes anglais. Nous sommes également redevables à tous ceux qui nous ont aidés à constituer le corpus de français contemporain qui, avec le corpus d’anglais moderne d’Oxford, a été la pierre angulaire de ce dictionnaire. Nous remercions tout spécialement Manuel Lucbert, Secrétaire Général du journal Le Monde, ses collabora¬ teurs Jean-François Sailly, Gilbert Compagnon et son équipe, Christian Poulin de Libération, Joseph Laveille et Aimé Munoz du Progrès de Lyon. Nous remercions également Dora Carpenter, Colin Hope, Anne Judge, Helen Lawrence, Katherine Manville, Alain Pierrot, et Robin Sawers qui ont participé à diverses étapes du projet. Nous adressons nos remerciements à tous ceux qui, trop nombreux pour être nommés ici, nous ont apporté leur soutien et fait bénéficier de leur savoir tout au long de notre entreprise.

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Introduction

Users of this dictionary will find it an effective tool for tackling practical linguistic tasks. In designing this dic¬ tionary we have ensured that every entry provides as much information as possible for each of the following users and tasks: • the native, English speaker trying to understand French, • the native English speaker trying to write or speak French, • the native French speaker trying to understand Eng¬ lish, • the native French speaker trying to write or speak English. Users have different levels of skills and knowledge. For the advanced user, we provide thorough coverage of upto-date language. We include a wide range of vocabulary in specialist but nonetheless highly topical areas such as business, politics, sport, information technology, market¬ ing, social administration, and the environment. For intermediate users, we have designed the diction¬ ary to enable them to work with the foreign language, using it correctly and well. Particular care has been taken in the selection of the translations. Our electronic cor¬ pora (see p. xv) give us a wealth of examples of words in use in real, everyday circumstances. When one good translation has been identified and checked in many con¬ texts, it will often be given as the only general translation for one sense of the headword. It has been our policy throughout to give two or more translations only in those rare cases where they are consistently interchangeable, and to avoid adding less safe alternatives when one equi¬ valent is adequate. Where appropriate, other equivalents, which have been found to work in more restricted con¬ texts, will be shown in examples. Where nuances of meaning within a sense of the head¬ word are translated in different ways, these nuances are pinpointed by means of semantic indicators and/or typi¬ cal collocates. For a step-by-step guide to using this type of information to arrive at the most suitable translation, see the section Using this dictionary on p. xxiii. Translations given in isolation are, however, not enough to enable someone to work in a foreign language: grammatical constructions are also needed if the transla¬ tion is to be used correctly. For this reason, one of our principal concerns has been to include these construc¬ tions wherever they are required. This is a significant fea¬ ture of our dictionary. Headwords, compounds, and phrasal verbs stand out clearly on the page. English compounds are found in their proper place within the overall alphabetical order

of headwords. Phrasal verbs are given a very full and explicit presentation which avoids ambiguous meta¬ language and, for the French user, shows clearly the posi¬ tioning of the noun object. The dictionary has a wide coverage of North American as well as British English, and exclusively British or North American usage is marked. Where appropriate, American variants are given in translations of French words and phrases. The existence of standard American spelling variants is indicated in translations in the French-English side of the dictionary. The needs of users extend beyond the bounds of indi¬ vidual dictionary entries. To make this dictionary an effective aid for somebody working in a language not their own, we offer access to the language in several dif¬ ferent ways. The user thumbing through this dictionary will find lexical usage notes, notes on function words, model letters, documents and advertisements, maps, verb tables, and organizational diagrams. Lexical usage notes

These are boxed notes which appear within the diction¬ ary text. They give the user facts about certain types of words that behave alike, for example, names of countries, languages, colour terms, and days of the week, and pro¬ vide ways of discussing topics such as age, dates, time, and measurement. A full index to these notes is given on p. 1919. The purpose of these notes is to make generalizations across lexical items, by summarizing syntactic facts that are common to most members of the set, thus supple¬ menting the coverage of individual entries: in a onevolume dictionary it is not possible to give all the facts at each headword. Cross-references to the notes are given at all relevant entries, normally immediately after the pro¬ nunciation of the headword. The reference is to the page in the dictionary on which the usage note appears. These notes are intended for specific users: people seek¬ ing to express themselves in a language not their own. Thus, the usage notes which appear in the EnglishFrench half of the dictionary are written in English and present facts about expression in French, and vice versa in the French-English half. Since they are designed to help translation into a foreign language, they do not rep¬ resent a systematic analysis of linguistic facts, nor do they set out to give a comprehensive survey of all possible translations. Their purpose is to allow someone to say or write specific things accurately and naturally in the for¬ eign language. Many of the lexical usage notes represent a functional approach to language use, grouping the basic structures

xiv

Introduction

and expressions necessary in order to write or talk about a specific topic. Thus, as well as being readily usable ref¬ erence aids for the individual user, they will also serve as valuable vocabulary-teaching material for teachers of French and English. Notes on function words

The words of a language may be seen to be of two types: those with lexical meaning like table and slowly and jump, and those with function rather than meaning. The latter are the joints and sinews of the language, uniting the other elements into sentences which carry meaning. Examples of such function words are pronouns like you and it, verbs such as be and have, and determiners such as this and that. The notes within or near function word entries are again intended for use by the person seeking to work in a foreign language. They provide basic information on grammatical words. The function word notes are easily identifiable in the dictionary. In cases where the information can be pre¬ sented fairly briefly, the note will be found at the top of the entry, immediately under the headword. In cases where

the necessary information is more lengthy and complex, the notes are boxed and clearly visible, appearing as close as possible to the headword concerned. Letters and documents

A rich and comprehensive set of model letters and docu¬ ments is to be found in a special section in the centre of the dictionary. Once again, these are designed for people seeking to write in a language not their own. Thus, the model letters for the English-speakers are written in French but introduced in English. A list of the types of letters and documents is given on p. 897. Advertisements

Unlike the rest of the material described above, these are essentially aids to comprehension and as such are in¬ tended for the user seeking to make use of small ads in a foreign newspaper, which are often made incomprehens¬ ible by their extensive use of abbreviations. The sample advertisements, with accompanying guides to understanding them, are to be found on pp. 935-40 in the centre of the dictionary.

A corpus-based dictionary

The use of corpus material is the most important innova¬ tion in the Oxford-Hachette French dictionary: it is cer¬ tainly the feature that distinguishes it from all other bilingual dictionaries available today. Some of our ed¬ itors have been writing dictionaries for twenty years or more, while others cut their lexicographical teeth on this dictionary, and none of us would wish to go back to the bad old days of editing dictionaries without a corpus to help us. We all believe that a corpus is essential to what we are doing when we write a bilingual dictionary—when we try to discover how our own native language works, to line it up against another language and capture the equi¬ valences, to pick out the most useful constructions and phrases and to communicate them in the way that is going to be most helpful to most people. So, what do we mean when we say that we used a corpus to help us compile this dictionary? What is a corpus? Why do we need one? How do we use it? Does it help? This sec¬ tion tries to answer these questions. What is a corpus?

When we talk of using a corpus, we mean an electronic text corpus—or more exactly, two corpora, one of English and one of French—separate collections of printed and tran¬ scribed spoken material held in electronic form in a com¬ puter. Corpus contents range from the text of books, newspapers, magazine articles, leaflets, letters, and so on, 111836 ord with an extraneous espionage plot 402323

for west Oxfordshire

221098

ty and tranquillity

, .

and that

211903

er produced a bottle of

009912

ia

052886

tralian colleagues

to his brother

Bacardi

,

.

,

.PP NELSON ALGREN A Walk On The Wild .

.PP

It

'sa strange time to rejoin

and for good measure added lightning sketches

poured himself a large measure

The 296 prisoners were removed as a

'

precautionary measure

..PP The most effective

121666 o an objective agreed by everybody 052886

in for good measure

's been achieve for some measure

The Commonwealth remained in large measure a ceremonial affair after 1960

289870 n ever-lengthening letters .

thrown

to transcripts of conversations, lectures, and discussions which have been keyed in specially from the audio recording of the event. The computer can find in a matter of seconds all the occurrences of a particular word in the corpus. It makes a concordance for the word: some of the 1,500-odd concordance lines for the word measure are shown in Fig. 1, displayed in a way that allows the lexico¬ grapher to see how the word is actually being used. The numbers at the start of each line identify the text from which the example is drawn: for instance, 052886 shows that the example was found in the Guardian news¬ paper, while 006992 refers to Margaret Forster’s novel Lady’s Maid, and so on. It is important for editors to know this, so that they can base decisions on a consensus view of how a word behaves; twenty examples of a particular usage from twenty different people are much more im¬ portant than twenty examples from the same person, who may have quirks of language use that we do not wish to reflect in our dictionary. Fig. 1 shows what the lexicographers see when they start on a new entry: a sample of all the citations for the headword measure, set out here in alphabetical order: first, of the various forms of that word, and second, of what comes immediately after it in the sentence. This lay¬ out helps us to find the constructions that follow the head¬ word, highlighting as it does the patterns that occur frequently: even a cursory glance at these lines alerts us

,

,

added some coca cola

"

after unusually high levels of

,

with a role .

for th

He complaine

looked in the fridge

,

com

the bacteria were

international measure against apartheid in recent years has been the sque

are valuable beyond measure

.

.PP After completing

1988 Act to accept a measure against his and its policy

Now it could be compelled by the

,

from memory

the restructuring of B

.

.PP THE Energy S

021335 ding interests

in the Middle East

,

partly as a security measure

,

and partly in conjunction with a Dutch holding co

003401

,

was embarrassed beyond measure

)

and

fastidious Max

052886 e 009912

.

"

within earshot

,

A few paragons who display these qualities

ar the public

from the proceedings as a further security measure

310200 physical penetration

,

or if possession is

052886 e complaint

:

no

,

though

fill-up at

052886

been designed for easy fitting

200317

and because of

005581

doing

006992

,

020255

,

of Elizabeth Woodville It points out Nilsson disc

003401 us Christ 229834

.

the Jones

into my life

052886 ugh stand paid off .

Look at

009912

global

,

short measure to measure

.

,

,

fuel "

the malice

.

,

to prove

it works

Give a man a weapon and he .

.PP

v

.PP The

.

It

I didn't ask to do

this .

,

" Mr

the boy

Wilson clu

forebodings

in 1973

But the RMIF wants car tax taken out ov

Every little urn

realized

,

she blamed herse

in a Scottish pub

short measure

)

is drawn from a recital with Geoffrey parsons

've been comforted beyond measure

.

"

offers

is where a certain measure of

The

junior agriculture minist

.PP If only it could be local autonomy or

local

that

simple

initiative

.

,

modern radios and circuit breakers were

finally supported the measure

.

.PP Ms Ruddock

eyes

.

shall get short measure next

I

,

.

time

,

The measure now returns

we have a very good measure of agreement

Fig. 1 (continues overleaf)

à

to the Lords .

i

installed

's achievement can be measured by

but only for one drink "

(

The relig

is encouraged

Also as a safety measure

.

final parliamentary hurdle issues

.

"

,

per cent

"

{

in the average measure

12

by comparison

in his

.

.PP

"

her worst

temporary measure

.PP



,

"

'

.

is a syst

’ll use it

took a pencil and drew a simple map }

.

and if possession is acknow

.PP GILELS and an Amadeus Quartet b

consumption '

,

,

.

introduced as a

And I

issues and regional

cost

Shocked and distressed beyond measure

and ministers

has passed its

stressed the

Exceptionally Well

but he was overruled by a higher court

for the money .

'

Hope says

that this was (

had always

,

ignificant aspect of decentralisation

052886 he NHS

is

,

With a tape measure

a cabbage

139998 d the prop were overhauled completely 200088 him

,

for Flush and then for good measure he

the circumference of

052886 h pub but a decrease of about 133169

full price

We have computers

I agree with rearmament as a safety measure

find some greenery and space s

'

as a career-woman

something you measure by its financial

Moran seized the can violently and poured the measure himself

"

057992 precisely 113999

that

.

,

full measure are rated by the committee as

in

.

His annoyance

for approval and should ga

They had covered events in

'

regio

xvi A corpus-based dictionary

052886

's main measure of the price was a measure of and mentally . You ’ll be in no doubt whatsoever that a measure of egree of ' public embarrassment " that finally lead to a measure of

288665

r drink ?

077989 166340 227590

takeovers between

ians

1922

from the land of

and 1988

.

Prester John

.PP The study

an acquisition

.

autonomy granted to what were now emerging as na

But

change

in your

change

.

’s

success

life

With them

is

the subsequent cour

is essential now ,

.

Take your

she also played Rosalind

,

’m starving

!

"

052886

.PP As Taff poured me a good measure of cider and handed me a boiled egg and a chunk of e South-east , the CSO said they should not be used as a measure of comparative living standards , since regional va cution of many millions of calculations . .PP The common measure of computer performance , MIPS , refers to the numb successfully attain the criteria . .PP In return , some measure of discipline is expected . In the specific case of

256579

ass of a cooked chicken

.

Into his

@52886

that Matthaus can be both stagehand and leading man

052886

is

052886 211311

I

small

labours he received a cheque for 5,000

important

’s milk .

from a jug on the window-ledg

Schillaci

’s goals have been pricel

the true measure of his success is five victories at Beckenham for t .PP It is a measure of how dangerous the National Front has become in F

,

but

. to re-open the border is a measure of how impossible is the choice that the authoritie gendarmes have been introduced to an Oxford school is a measure of how seriously schools in Oxfordshire are taking 402323 177775 would make the APR more than 5,000 per cent _ at least a measure of how very little use following-on is to her . In 211311 ranked order . .PP The inventory ratio provides a useful measure of how well inventory is being controlled , but it 052886 d its proposal to abolish the right to silence . Another measure of its apathy is its failure to implement reforms 1 244460 009912

,

than

ladled a measure of fresh goat is a measure of his impact

cup he

the minutiae of psephology

despite the obvious risks

,

220797

the measure of is a measure of s , but mainly will just to allow the two men to get the measure of et the benefit of what we said to him . But we do have a measure of aluminium company whose arrival in Banbury had brought a measure of

009912

point about the

037783

sks

244999

enses all practically at

the last

052886

or who understood Bowden

’s

009912 402323

.

'

licensing laws

For me at any rate

052886

ighly commercialised sport

009912

e Lambeth

,

228703

I

I

.

.PP It

.

"

one another

.

,

at

least where they are most

success at Manchester

Foreign News

that when t

Page 10

they might reflect

» stare ou look il m’a regardé d’un air absent; 4 (stupid) stupide,

vacant lot n US terrain m vague, vacantly /'veikonth/ adv 1

(absently)

[answer, stare] d’un air absent; 2 (stupidly) [smile, stare] d’un air stupide,

vacant possession n GB

Jur jouissance /

immédiate.

vacate /vo'keit,

US 'veikeit/ vtr quitter [house, premises, job]; libérer [room, seat],

vacation /va'keijn,

US vei-/ I n gen, Univ vacances fpl; Jur vacances fpl judiciaires; the long ~ GB, the summer ~ les grandes vacances; on ~ en vacances; to take a ~ prendre des vacances; during ou over ou in the ~ pendant les vacances; did you have a good ~? as-tu passé de bonnes vacances? II modif[date, course, job, trip] de vacances. III vi US passer des vacances; they're ~ing in Miami ils passent leurs vacances à Miami. IV vacationing pres p adj US en vacances,

vacationer /vo'keijbnoff),

US

vei-/ n US

vacancier/-ière m//

vaccinate

/'væksmeit/ (against contre).

vtr

vacciner

vaccination /.væksi'neijn/ I n vaccination / (against, for contre); polio/smallpox ~ vaccination contre la polio/la variole; to have a ~ se faire vacciner. II modif [clinic, programme, campaign] de vaccination.

vaccine /'væksirn, US væk'sim/ n vaccin m (against, for contre); tetanus/polio vaccin contre le tétanos/la polio.

~

vacillate /'væsaleit/ vi hésiter (between entre; over au sujet de), vacillation /.væso'leijn/ n indécision/, hési¬ tations fpl. vacuity /va'kju:oti/ n sout 1 (inanity) vacuité /; 2 (empty space) vide m. vacuous /'vækjuas/ adj sout [person, look, expression] niais; [optimism, escapism] béat pej. vacuum /'vækjuom/ ln'\ Phys vide m; par¬ tial ~ vide partiel; to create a ~ faire le vide; to observe an effect in a ~ observer un effet sous vide; 2 (lonely space) vide m; emotional/intellectual ~ vide affectif/in¬ tellectuel; it left a ~ in our lives ça a fait un grand vide dans notre vie; I'm in a ~ je n’ai pas de points de repère; 3 (also ~ clea¬ ner) aspirateur m; 4 (also ~ clean) to give [sth] a ~ passer un coup d’aspirateur sur [sofa, carpet]; passer l’aspirateur dans [room], II vtr (also ~ clean) passer [qch] à l’aspira¬ teur [carpet, upholstery]', passer l’aspirateur dans [room, house], vacuum: ~ bottle n US = vacuum flask; ~ brake n frein m à vide; ~ cleaner n aspirateur m; ~ flask n bouteille / thermos®; ~ gauge n vacuomètre m. vacuum pack I n emballage m sous vide. II vtr emballer [qch] sous vide. III vacuum packed pp adj emballé sous vide. vacuum: ~ pump n pompe / à vide; ~ sweeper n US = vacuum cleaner; ~ tube n tube m à vide. vade mecum /,va:di ‘meikum, ,veidi 'mùkom/ n vade-mecum m inv. vagabond /‘vægobond/ n, adj vagabond/-e (m/f). vagal /‘veigl/ adj vagal, vagary /‘veigori/ n sout caprice m. vagi /'veigai/ npl ►vagus, vagina /valuing/ n (pl -nas ou -nae) vagin m. vaginal /va'dsami/ adj vaginal; ~ discharge pertes fpl blanches, vagrancy /'veigransi/ I n gen, Jur vaga¬ bondage m. II modif [act, law] sur le vagabondage, vagrant /'veigrant/ n, adj gen, Jur vagabond/ -e (m/f). vague /veig/ adj 1 (imprecise) [person, account, idea, memory, rumour, term] vague; 2 (evasive) to be ~ about rester vague sur or évasif/-ive au sujet de [plans, intentions, past, role] \ 3 (distracted) [person, state, expres¬ sion] distrait; [gesture] vague; to look ~ avoir l’air distrait; 4 (faint, slight) [sound, smell, taste] vague, imprécis; [fear, embarrassment, disgust, unease] vague (before ri); [doubt] léger/-ère (before n); a ~ sense of guilt un vague sentiment de culpa¬ bilité; 5 (unsure) I am (still) a bit ~ about events je ne sais (toujours) pas très bien ce qui s’est passé; we're rather ~ about his plans nous ne connaissons pas très bien ses projets. vaguely /'veigh/ adv 1 (faintly) [sinister,

amusing, classical] vaguement; [resemble] vaguement; it feels ~ like a bee sting cela fait un peu comme une piqûre d’abeille; it seems ~ familiar cela me dit vaguement quelque chose; 2 (slightly) [embarrassed, insulting, irritated] vaguement; 3 (distract¬ edly) [smile, gaze, say, gesture] d’un air distrait or vague; [wander, move about] distraitement; 4 (imprecisely) [remember, understand, imagine, reply] vaguement; [de¬ scribe] de manière vague or imprécise; [de¬ fined, formulated] vaguement, vagueness /'veigms/ n 1 (imprecision) (of wording, proposals) flou m; (of thinking) impréci¬ sion /; (of outline, image) manque m de netteté; 2 (absent-mindedness) distraction/ vagus /'veigas/ n (pl -gi) (also vagus nerve) nerf m vague. vain /vein/1 adj 1 (conceited) vaniteux/-euse, vain (after n); to be ~ about sth tirer vanité de qch; 2 (futile) [attempt, promise, hope] vain (before n); [demonstration, show] futile; in a ~ attempt ou effort to do dans une vaine tentative de faire. II in vain adv phr en vain. idioms to take sb's name in ~ hum parler de qn (derrière son dos); to take God's name in ~ blasphémer le nom de Dieu. vainglorious /,vem'gb:rias/ adj littér [person] suffisant, vain (after n); [boast, assessment, ambition] plein de suffisance, vainly /'vemii/ adv 1 (futileiy) [try, wait, struggle] vainement, en vain; 2 (conceitedly) [look, stare] avec vanité; [admire oneself] avec complaisance. Valais ► 17761 pr n the (canton of) — le (canton de) Valais. valance /'vælans/ n (on bed base) tour m de lit; (round canopy) lambrequin m; (above curtains) cantonnière /. Val-de-Marne ► 11631 pr n Val-de-Marne m; in/to — dans le Val-de-Marne. Val-d’Oise ► H63I pr n Val-d’Oise m; în/to ~ dans le Val-d’Oise, vale /veil/ n littér val m liter, vallée /; ~ of tears vallée de larmes. valediction /.væli'dikfn/ n sout 1 (farewell) adieu m; 2 (farewell speech) discours m d’adieu; funeral ~ oraison/funèbre, valedictorian /,vælidik'b:nan/ n US Sch Univ major m d’une promotion (qui prononce le discours d’adieu). valedictory /.væli'diktari/ adj sout [speech] d’adieu. valence /'veibns/ n Chem valence/. Valencia /va'lensia/ ► 18181 pr n Valence; in ~ à Valence. Valencian /va'lensian/ I n Valencien/-ienne m/f II adj [custom, identity] de Valence, valency /'veilansi/1 n Chem, Ling valence/. II modif Chem [electron] de valence; Ling [grammar] de la valence, valentine /'væbntain/ n 1 (also ~ card) carte / de la Saint-Valentin; 2 (sweetheart) who is your *»? qui est-ce que tu aimes?; be my ~ veux-tu m’aimer? Valentine(’s) Day n la Saint-Valentin.

valerian valerian /væ'liarian/1 n Bot, Pharm valériane / II modif [flower, tablet] de valériane; [mixture] à la valériane, valet /'vælit, -lei/ ► 16921 I n 1 (employee) valet m de chambre; 2 US (rack) valet m de nuit. II vtr nettoyer [clothes, car interior], III vi être valet de chambre. valet parking n service m de voiturier, valet service n 1 (car-cleaning) service m de nettoyage de voitures; 2 (clothes repair) service m d’entretien. valetudinarian /.vælitjmdi'nearian/ n, ad] sout valétudinaire (mf ); hum hypocondriaque (mf). Valhalla /væl'hæta/ pr n Walhalla m. valiant /'væliant/' adj [soldier] vaillant; [attempt] courageux/-euse; to make a ~ attempt to do tenter courageusement de faire; to make a ~ effort to smile s’efforcer bravement de sourire; despite their — efforts malgré tous leurs efforts, valiantly /'væliantli/ adv [fight] vaillam¬ ment; [try] courageusement, valid /'vælid/ adj' 1 (still usable) [passport, visa, licence] valide; [ticket, voucher, offer] valable (for pour); 2 (well-founded, reasonable) [argument, reason, excuse, method] valable; [complaint, objection] fondé; [point, comment] pertinent; [comparison] légitime; 3 (in law) [consent, defence] valable, valide; 4 (in logic) [inference, proposition] valide, validate /'væhdeit/ vtr 1 prouver le bienfondé de [claim, theory, conclusion]; 2 vali¬ der [document, passport], validation /.vælfdeijn/ n validation / (of de). validity /va'lidati/ n 1 Jur (of ticket, document, consent) validité /; 2 (of argument, excuse, method) validité /; (of complaint, objection) bienfondé m. valiset /va'li:z, US va'li:s/ n nécessaire m de voyage. Valium® /'væham/ n Pharm valium® m. Valkyrie /væl'kiari/ pr n Valkyrie/, valley /'væli/ n (pl ~S) vallée /; (small) vallon m; the Thames — la vallée de la Tamise. valor n US = valour valorous /'vælares/ adj littér valeureux/-euse liter.

valour GB, valor US /'væh(r)/ n littér valeur / liter, bravoure /; for ~ Mil pour la valeur militaire. idioms discretion is the better part of ~ Prov prudence est mère de sûreté Prov. valuable /'væljuabl/ adj 1 [commodity, asset] de valeur; to be — avoir de la valeur; a very — ring une bague de grande valeur; 2 [advice, information, lesson, member] précieux/-ieuse; to be ~ in treat¬ ing être précieux dans le traitement de [ill¬ ness], valuables /'væljuablz/ npl objets mpl de valeur; 'do not leave — in your car' ‘ne laissez aucun objet de valeur dans votre voiture’. valuation /.vælju'eijn/ n (of house, land, company) évaluation /; (of antique, art) expertise /; to have a ~ done on sth faire évaluer qch; a — of £50 une valeur esti¬ mée de £50; to take sb at his own ~ juger qn selon l’opinion qu’il a de lui-même, valuator /'væljueite(r)/ ► 16921 n expert m. value /'vælju:/ \ n “\ (monetary worth) valeur /; of little/great ~ de peu de/de grande valeur; of no ~ sans valeur; to have a — of £5 valoir 5 livres sterling; it has a — of £50 cela vaut 50 livres sterling; to the — of pour une valeur de; 40% by ~ 40% en valeur réelle; you can't put a — on loyalty la loyauté n’a pas de prix; 2 (useful¬ ness, general worth) valeur/; to have ou be of educational — avoir une valeur éducative; to set great ~ on sth attacher une grande

variant

1861 valeur à qch; the — of sb as la valeur de qn en tant que; the ~ of doing l’importance de faire; novelty/entertainment ~ caractère nouveau/divertissant; 3 (worth relative to cost) to be good/poor ~ avoir un bon/mauvais rapport qualité-prix; to be good — at £5 ne pas être cher/chère à 5 livres sterling; you get good — at Buymore on en a pour son argent à Buymore; he's always good ~ for satir¬ ists fig c’est toujours une mine d’or pour les satiristes; the set menu offers good ~ ou — for money avec le menu vous en avez pour votre argent; to get — for money en avoir pour son argent; a —-for-money product un produit qui vous en donne pour votre argent; 4 (standards, ideals) valeur /; puritan/family ~s valeurs puritaines/fami¬ liales; 5 Maths, Music, Ling valeur/. II vtr 1 (assess worth of) évaluer [house, asset, company]-, expertiser [antique, jewel, painting]-, to have sth —d faire évaluer or expertiser qch; to — sth at £150 évaluer qch à 150 livres sterling; 2 (esteem, appreciate) apprécier [person, friendship, advice, opinion, help]-, tenir à [reputation, indepen¬ dence, life]-, to ~ sb as a friend apprécier qn en tant qu’ami; if you — your freedom si tu tiens à ta liberté.

value-added tax, VAT n taxe / à la valeur ajoutée, TVA/. valued /'vælju :d/ adj [colleague, customer, employee, member] apprécié; [contribution, opinion] précieux/-ieuse. value: — date n Fin date / de valeur; —free adj objectif/-ive; — judgment n juge¬ ment m de valeur. valueless /‘væljulis/ adj sans valeur (after n); to be quite ~ n’avoir aucune valeur, value pack n Comm lot m économique, valuer /'væljüa(r)/ ► 16921 n expert m. valve /vælv/ n 1 (in machine, engine) soupape /; (on tyre, football) valve /; 2 Anat (of organ) valvule /; 3 (of mollusc, fruit) valve /; 4 (on brass instrument) piston m; 5 GB Electron lampe / valve: — gear n distribution /; — house n bâtiment m à vannes; —-inhead engine n US moteur m à soupape en tête; ~ spring n ressort m de soupape, valvular /'vælvjulaOr)/ adj (all contexts) valvu¬ laire. vamoose0 /V3’mu:s/ vi US filer0, vamp /væmp/ I n 11 péj (woman) vamp /; 2 (on shoe) empeigne/; 3 Mus improvisation/. II vi 1 Mus plaquer des accords; 2t péj (seduce) jouer les vamps. ■ vamp up: — [sth] up, ~ up [sth] rafraîchir [clothing]; remettre [qch] au goût du jour [story]; remanier [written notes], vampire /'væmpaia(r)/ n vampire m. vampire bat n Zool vampire m. van /væn/ n 1 Aut (small, for deliveries etc) fourgonnette /, camionnette /; (larger, for removals etc) fourgon m; 2 US (camper) autoca¬ ravane /, camping-car m; 3 (vanguard) avantgarde /; to be in the — of être à l’avantgarde de. vanadium /.va'neidwm/1 n vanadium m. II modif [atom] de vanadium; [compound] du vanadium; [Steel] au vanadium.

Vancouver

/væn'ku :va/

► 18181

pr

n

Vancouver.

Vancouver Island ► 13811 pr n île / de Vancouver.

V and A prn (abrév = Victoria and Albert Museum) musée des arts décoratifs à Londres.

vandal /'vændl/1 n (hooligan) vandale mf. II Vandal pr n Hist Vandale mf. vandalism /'vændslizam/ n vandalisme m. vandalize /'vændalaiz/ vtr gen vandaliser; Jur to — a building/telephone commettre des dépradations dans un bâtiment/sur un téléphone.

van driver ► 16921 n chauffeur m de camionnette. /vein/ n 1 (also weather ~) girouette /; 2 (blade of windmill) aile /; 3 (on turbine, pump, projectile) ailette /; (of feather) barbe/; 4 (of quadrant, compass) pinnule/. vanguard /'vænga:d/ n Mil, fig avant-garde /; to be in the ~ être à Tavant-garde (of de). vanilla /va'mta/1 n Culin, Bot vanille/. II modif [sauce, ice cream] à la vanille; [pod, plant] de vanille. vanilla: ~ essence n extrait m de vanille; —-flavoured adj (aromatisé) à la vanille; — sugar n sucre m vanillé, vanish /'vænij/ vi (all contexts) disparaître (from de); to — into the distance dispa¬ raître au loin. idioms to — into thin air se volatiliser, vanishing /'væmjii)/1 n disparition/ II adj [species, environment] en voie de dispa¬ rition. idioms to do a — act se volatiliser, vanishing: — cream n crème / de jour; — point n point m de fuite; — trick n tour m de passe-passe. vanity /'vænati/ n 1 (quality) vanité /; all is — tout n’est que vanité; 2 (dressing table) coiffeuse/; 3 (basin) = vanity unit. vanity: — bag, — case n vanity-case m; — mirror n Aut miroir m de courtoisie; — plate n Aut plaque / minéralogique personnalisée; — press n maison / d’édi¬ tion publiant à compte d’auteur; — unit n meuble m sous-vasque. vanload n fourgonnette/(of de), vanquish /'væqkwij/ vtr littér défaire liter, vaincre [enemy]; surmonter [doubt, preju¬ dice, fear], vantage /'va:ntid3, US 'væn-/ nï avantage m. vantage point n 1 gen. Mil point m de vue, position/ élevée; from my — I could see . de ma position je voyais...; from the — of du haut de; 2 fig (point of view) perspective/. Vanuatu /'vænu:ætu:/ ►11311 pr n Vanua¬ tu m. vapid /'væpid/ adj [person, expression, remark, debate] mièvre, fade; [style, novel] insipide, fade. vaporize /'veiparaiz/ I vtr vaporiser [liquid], II vi se vaporiser. vaporizer /'veip3raiza(r)/ n (all contexts) vaporisateur m. vaporous /'veiparas/ adj vaporeux/-euse. vapour GB, vapor US /'veipa(r)/1 n vapeur /; water — vapeur d’eau. II vapourst npl to have a fit of the —s avoir des vapeurs fpl. vapour: — lock n bouchon m de vapeur; — pressure n pression / de vapeur; — trail n tramée / de condensation, tramée / d’un avion. Var ► 11631 pr n Var m; in/to the — dans le Var. variability /.vearra'bilati/ n variabilité/, variable /'vearrabl/ I n gen, Comput, Math variable /; dependent/free/random — variable dépendante/libre/aléatoire. II adj gen, Comput variable, variable : — pitch propellor n hélice / à pas variable; — star n étoile /variable, variance /'veorians/ n 1 gen désaccord m (between entre); to be at — with être en désaccord avec [evidence, facts]; my views are at — with his mes opinions divergent des siennes; that is at — with what you said yesterday cela ne concorde pas avec ce que vous avez dit hier; 2 Math, Phys, Stat variance /; 3 Jur (discrepancy) discordance / (between entre). variance analysis n analyse / de variance. variant /'vearisnt/ I n variante/(of de; on par rapport à).

vane

variation Il adj [colour, species, strain] différent; ~ reading ou text ou version variante /; ~ form Bot variante/. variation /.veori'eijn/ n 1 (change) variation / différence /(in, of de); regional/seasonal ~ variations régionales/saisonnières; ~ between A and B différence entre A et B; subject to considerable/slight ~ sujet à des variations importantes/à de légères variations; 2 (version) version/(of de); (new version) variante/(of de); what he said was just a ~ on the same theme il n’a rien dit de nouveau; 3 Mus variation/(on sur),

varicose /'vænkous/ adj variqueux/-euse; ~ veins varices fpl.

varied /'veorid/ adj varié; her talents are many and ~ ses talents sont divers et variés.

variegated /'veorigertid/ adj 1 gen [assort¬ ment, landscape] varié; 2 Bot, Zool [leaf, animal’s coat] panaché,

variegation /.veori'geijn/ n 1 (diversity) diversité/; 2 Bot, Zool panachure f. variety /va'raiati/ Ini (diversity, range) variété / (in, of de); wide ~ grande variété; for a ~ of reasons pour diverses raisons; the dresses come in a ~ of sizes/colours ces robes existent dans un grand choix de tailles/de colons; 2 (type) gen type m; Bot variété /; new ~ Bot nouvelle variété; lighters of the disposable/refillable ~ des briquets jetables/rechargeables; 3 0 Theat, TV variétés fpl. II modif Theat, TV [artist, act, show] de variétés.

variety: ~ meats npl US abats mpl; ~ show n spectacle m de variétés; ~ store n US bazar m.

variola /va'raiala/ ► 13541 n variole/. various /'vearias/ adj 1 (different) différents (before n); at their ~ addresses à leurs différentes adresses; 2 (several) divers; at ~ times à diverses reprises; in ~ ways de diverses manières.

variously /'veoriasli/ adv (in different ways) [arranged, decorated] de différentes ma¬ nières; (by different people) [called, described, estimated] à tour de rôle.

varrnint°t /'va:mint/ n péj vermine f varnish /'va : ni J/1 n vernis m. II vtr vernir [woodwork, painting]', to ~ one's nails GB se vernir les ongles. III varnished pp adj [woodwork, nail] verni.

varnishing I'va:nijTq/ n vernissage m. varsity /‘va:sati/ In It GB université /; 2 US Sport première équipe/. modif 1 (university) [match, sports] universitaire; 2 US (first) [team] premier/ -ière (before n).

II

vary /'veari/ I vtr varier [food, menu, programmé] -, faire varier [flow, temperature]; changer de [approach, method, pace, route]. II vi [objects, people, tastes] varier (with, according to selon); to ~ from sth diffé¬ rer de qch; to ~ from X to Y varier de X à Y; it varies from one town/child to another cela varie d’une ville/d’un enfant à l’autre; they ~ in cost/size ils varient quant au coût/à la taille; to ~ greatly varier considérablement,

varying /'vearnq/ adj [amounts, degrees, opinions] variable; [circumstances] varié; with ~ (degrees of) success avec plus ou moins de succès.

vascular /'væskjula(r)/ adj Anat, Bot vascu¬ laire.

vase

/vq:z, US veis, veiz/ n vase m; flower ~ vase à fleurs.

vasectomy /va'sektami/ n vasectomie/. Vaseline® /'væsili:n/ «vaseline®/. vasoconstrictor /.veizsukan'strikta^)/ n Med, Anat vasoconstricteur m.

vasodilator /,veiZ3udai'leita(r)/ n Med, Anat vasodilatateur m.

1862

vasomotor /'veiz3ümaut3(r)/ adj vasomoteur/-trice. vassal /'væsl/ n Hist, fig vassal/-e m/f. vassalage /'væs3iid3/ «vassalité/, vast /va:st, US væst/ adj 1 (quantitatively) [amount, sum, improvement, difference] énorme; [number] très grand; [knowledge] extrêmement étendu; the ~ majority la très grande majorité; 2 (spatially) [room, area, plain] vaste (before «), immense, vastly /'va:sth, US væstli/ adv [improved, increased, overrated, superior] considérable¬ ment, infiniment; [complex, popular] terrible¬ ment; [different] complètement, vastness /'va:stms, US 'væstnis / « immensité /. vat /væt/ « cuve /; beer/wine ~ cuve à bière/vin. VAT (abrév = value-added tax) I « GB TVA/. II modif GB [return, rate] de TVA; [payment] de la TVA. Vatican /'vætikan/ pr n (palace, governing body) Vatican m. Vatican: ~ City ► 11311. 18181 pr n Vatican m; ~ Council n concile m du Vatican. Vaucluse ► 11631 pr n Vaucluse m; in/to the ~ dans le Vaucluse. Vaud ► 17761 pr n the (canton of) ~ le (canton de) Vaud. vaudeville /'vo:davil/ I « 0 Theat variétés fpl II modif [act, star] de variétés, vaudevillian /.vaxb'vilran/ I n (performer) artiste mf de variétés. II adj [style] digne des variétés, vault /vo:lt/ I n 1 (roof) voûte /; the ~ of heaven la voûte céleste; 2 (underground room) (of house, hotel) cave/; (of church, monas¬ tery) caveau m\ (of bank) chambre/forte; (for safe-deposit boxes) salle / des coffres; wine ~ cave / à vin; family ~ caveau m de famille; 3 Anat voûte/; 4 (jump) saut m. II vtr gen, Sport sauter par-dessus [fence, bar], III vi gen, Sport sauter (over par-dessus). vaulted /'vodtid/ adj Archit voûté, vaulting /'vo:ltiq/ I « 1 0 Archit voûtes fpl\ 2 ► 12821 (in gymnastics) saut m\ 3 Equit voltige /. II adj [ambition, arrogance] démesuré, vaulting: ~ horse n cheval m de saut; ~ pole « perche /. vaunt /vo:nt/ vtr vanter, vaunted /'vomtid/ adj vanté; much ~ tant vanté. VC « 1 (abrév = vice chairman) vice-président/-e m/f, 2 GB Univ (abrév = vice chancellor) = président/-e m/f d’université; 3 (abrév = vice consul) vice-consul m\ 4 GB Mil abrév ►Victoria Cross; 5 US Mil (abrév = Vietcong) Viêt-cong mpl. VCR (abrév = video cassette recorder) I « magnétoscope m. II vtr US enregistrer [qch] en vidéo. VD ► 13541 (abrév = venereal disease) 1 n MST/. II modif [clinic] de vénérologie. VDT « (abrév = visual display terminal)

= VDU VDU (abrév = visual display unit) I « écran m de visualisation. II modif [screen] de visualisation; [operator] de terminal de visualisation, veal /vi :1 /1 n veau m. II modif [stew, cutlet] de veau; [pie] au veau; [rearing] des veaux. veal: ~ calf « veau m de boucherie; ~ crate n batterie/(d’élevage) pour veaux, vector /'vekta(r)/ I « 1 Biol, Math vecteur m; 2 Aviat trajectoire/. II modif Math [product, sum] vectoriel/-ielle; [field] de vecteurs.

vectorial /.vek'toural/ adj Math vectoriel/ -ielle.

veined veep° /vi:p/ « US vice-président/-e m/f. veer /vra(r)/ I vtr 1 Naut (alter direction of) faire virer [ship]; 2 (slacken) filer [rope, chain], II vi 1 lit (change direction) [ship] virer; [person, road, wind] tourner; to ~ away from/towards sth se détourner de/vers qch; to — off the road s’éloigner de la route; to ~ away ou off s’éloigner; to ~ off course dévier de sa route; the car ~ed across the road la voiture a traversé la route; 2 fig [person, opinion, emotion] changer; to ~ (away) from sth se dé¬ tourner de qch; to ~ towards sth se tourner vers qch; to ~ between depres¬ sion and elation osciller entre le décourage¬ ment et l’allégresse. veg° /ved3/ « GB (abrév = vegetables) lé¬ gumes mpl. vegan /'vi:gan/ n, adj végétalien/-ienne (m/f). veganism /'vùganizam/ « végétalisme m. vegeburger /'ved3ib3:ga(r)/ n croquette / pour végétariens. vegetable /'ved3tobl/ I « 1 (edible plant) légume m; 2 (as opposed to minerai, animal) vé¬ gétal m; the ~ kingdom le règne végétal; 3° fig to become a ~ être réduit à l’état de légume. II modif [knife, dish, rack] à légumes; [soup, plot, patch] de légumes; [fat, oil, matter] vé¬ gétal. vegetable: ~ garden n potager m; ~ marrow « GB courge /; ~ peeler n épluche-légumes m. vegetarian /vedsfteanon/ n, adj végétarien/-ienne (m/f). vegetarianism /vedsi'teariamzam/ « végé¬ tarisme m. vegetate /’ved3iteit/ vi (all contexts) végéter, vegetation /,ved3f teifn/ « végétation/. vegetative /’vedsitotrv/ adj végétatif/-ive. veggie0 /’ved3i/ n 1 (vegetarian) végétarien/ -ienne m/f ; 2 (vegetable) légume m. vehemence /’viornons/ « (of speech, action) véhémence/; (of feelings) intensité/, vehement /'vùomont/ adj [tirade, gesture, attack] véhément; [dislike, disapproval] violent. vehemently /'vùomantli/ adv [speak, react] avec véhémence; to be ~ opposed s’oppo¬ ser avec véhémence. vehicle /'viakl, US 'vi :hikl/ « 1 Aut véhicule m\ 'closed to ~s' ‘interdit à la circula¬ tion’; 'unsuitable for wide/high ~s' inter¬ dit aux véhicules larges/hauts; 2 Pharm, Chem véhicule m; 3 (medium of communication) véhicule m (for de); 4 Cin, Theat (showcase) to be a ~ for sb être destiné à mettre en valeur qn. vehicular /vi'hikjuh(r), US vi:-/ adj 'no ~ access', 'no ~ traffic' ‘circulation inter¬ dite’. veil /veil/ I « 1 Fashn, Relig voile m; (on hat) voilette/; to take the ~ prendre le voile; 2 fig voile m; a ~ of secrecy le voile du secret; let's draw a ~ over that episode oublions cet épisode. II vtr 1 [mist, material, cloud] voiler; 2 fig (conceal) dissimuler [emotion], III veiled pp adj 1 [person] voilé; 2 (indir¬ ect) [hint, threat] voilé; a thinly ~ed allu¬ sion une allusion à peine voilée. vein /vein/ « 1 (blood vessel) veine /; 2 (on insect wing, leaf) nervure /; 3 (thread of colour) (in marble) veine/; (in cheese) veinure/; 4 (of ore) veine /; to work a ~ exploiter une veine; 5 (theme) veine /; to continue in a similar ~ continuer dans la même veine; a ~ of nostalgia runs through his work on retrouve un élément de nostalgie à travers toute son oeuvre; in the same ~, she criti¬ cized the town council dans le même esprit, elle a critiqué le conseil municipal, veined /vemd/ adj [hand, marble, rock, cheese] veiné (with de); [leaf, wing] nervuré.

veinule veinule /'veinjud/ n veinule/. velar /'vi:te(r)/ adj Phon, Anat vélaire. Velcro® /'velkrau/1 n velcro® m. II modif [strip, fastener] velcro. veld(t) /velt/ n veld m. vellum /‘vclom/ n vélin m; in/on ~ en/sur vélin. velocipede /vi'lDsipi:d/ n Hist vélocipède m. velocity /vi'IdsoU/ n 1 Tech vitesse/; 2 fml vélocité /.

velocity of circulation n

verminous

1863

US Fin vitesse/

de circulation. velodrome /‘vetadroum/ n vélodrome m. velour(S) /voTu3(r)/ I n 1 (material) velours m; 2 (also ~ hat) feutre m. II modif [curtain, seat] de velours, velum /'vi:bm/ n (pl -la) Anat voile m du palais.

velvet /'velvit/ I n 1 (fabric) velours m; crushed ~ velours frappé; 2 (on antler) peau/veloutée. II modif [garment, curtain, cushion] en velours. III adj [skin, paw, tread, eyes] de velours; [tones, softness] velouté. idioms to be in ~f avoir la belle vie. velveteen /,velvi'ti:n/1 n velvet m. II modif [garment, curtain, upholstery] en velvet.

velvet: ~ glove n gant m de velours also fig; ~ revolution n Pol révolution / de velours.

velvety /'velvoti/ adj velouté, vena cava /,vi:na 'kervo/ n (pl venae cavae) veine/cave, venal /'vi:nl/ adj vénal, venality /vù'næbti/ n vénalité/ vend /vend/ vtr tou Jur vendre, vendee /ven'di:/ n Jur acheteur/-euse m/f. Vendée ► 11631 pr n Vendée /; in/to the ~ en Vendée.

vendetta /ven'deto/ n vendetta / (between entre; against contre), vending /'vend!!)/ n vente/. vending machine n distributeur m auto¬ matique. vendor /'vendo(r)/ n 1 (in street, kiosk) marchand/-e m/f; 2 (as opposed to buyer) vendeur/-euse m//; 3 US (machine) distribu¬ teur m automatique. veneer /vi'nio(r)/ n 1 (on wood) placage m; 2 fig (surface show) vernis m. venerable /'venorobl/ adj vénérable, venerate /'venorert/ vtr vénérer, veneration /.veno'reijn/ n vénération/(for pour). venereal /vo'moriol/ ► 13541 adj vénérien/ -ienne; ~ disease maladie/vénérienne, venereology /va nion'Dbdji/ n vénérologie f

Venetian /vi'ni:Jn/1 n Vénitien/-ienne m//. II adj [custom, church] vénitien/-ienne; [in¬ habitant, carnival] de Venise. Venetian: ~ blind n store m vénitien; ~ glass n verre m de Venise. VenetO /’venetau/ pr n Vénétie / Venezuela / vem'zwerb/ ► 11311 pr n Vene¬ zuela m. Venezuelan /.vem'zweibn/ ► 14861 I pr n Vénézuélien/-ienne m//. II adj [town, river, politician] vénézuélien/ -ienne; [embassy] du Venezuela, vengeance / vendions/ n vengeance /; to take ~ (up)on sb se venger de qn (for pour); with a ~ de plus belle, vengeful /'vend3fl/ adj sout [person, act] vengeur/-eresse; [desire, need] de vengeance, vengefully /'vend3fali/ adv sout vindicative¬ ment. venial /'vi:mal/ adj sout véniel/-ielle. Venice /'vous/ ► 1818l pm Venise, venison /'vemsn, -zn/ I n (viande / de) chevreuil m.

II modif [stew, steak] de chevreuil; [pie] au chevreuil.

Venn diagram /ven/ n diagramme m de Venn.

venom /'venam/ n Zool, fig venin m. venomous /'venomas/ adj Zool,

ridique. fig veni-

meux/-euse.

venomously

/'venamash/

adv

fielleuse-

ment.

venous /'vi:nas/ adj veineux/-euse. vent /vent/ Int (outlet for gas,

pressure)

bouche / conduit m; air ~ bouche d’aéra¬ tion; to give ~ to fig décharger [anger, feel¬ ings]-, 2 (of volcano) cheminée /; 3 Fashn (slit) fente /; 4 US (window) déflecteur m; 5 Zool orifice m anal. II vtr 1 fig (release) décharger [anger, spite, frustration] (on sur); 2 (air) aborder publi¬ quement [question, topic]-, 3 (let out) évacuer feas, smoke], III vi [gus, chimney, volcano] s’évacuer, vent glass n Aut déflecteur m. ventilate /'ventileit/ I vtr 1 (provide with air) aérer [room, office]; 2 Med ventiler [patient, lungs]-, 3 fig (air) exprimer [qch] publique¬ ment [idea, opinion]. II ventilated pp adj 1 [room, building, tunnel] aéré; well/badly ~d bien/mal aéré; 2 Aut [disc brakes] ventilé; 3 (slatted) à lames. ventilation /,venti'leijn/ n 1 aération f ventilation /; 2 Med (of patient) ventilation / artificielle. ventilation: ~ shaft n puits m d’aérage; ~ system n système m de ventilation, ventilator /'ventileita(r)/ n 1 Med respira¬ teur m artificiel; to switch ou turn off the ~ arrêter l’assistance respiratoire; 2 Constr (opening) aérateur m; (fan) ventilateur m. ventricle /'ventrikl/ n ventricule m. ventriloquism /ven'trilakwizam/ n ventri¬ loquie /. ventriloquist /ven'tnbkwist/ ► 16921 n ventriloque mf. ventriloquist’s dummy n pantin m de ventriloque. ventriloquy /ven'tnlakwi/ n = ventrilo¬

quism. venture /'ventja(r)/1 n 1

Comm, Fin (undertak¬

aventure / entreprise /; a publish ing/media ~ une aventure éditoriale/mé¬ diatique; her first ~ into marketing sa première expérience dans le marketing; 2 gen, Sci (experiment) essai m; a scientific ~ un coup d’essai en matière scientifique; his first ~ into fiction son premier essai dans le domaine littéraire; 3 sout (journey) voyage m d’aventure (to à). II vtr 1 (offer) hasarder [opinion, remark, suggestion]-, to ~ the opinion that hasarder l’opinion selon laquelle; might I ~ a suggestion? puis-je me permettre une suggestion?; 'maybe she's right' he ~d ‘il se peut qu’ elle ait raison’ se hasarda-t-il de dire; to ~ to do se risquer à faire; I ~ to suggest that..., I would ~ that... sout je me permets de suggérer que... fml; 2 (gamble) risquer [bet, money] (on sur). III vi 1 (go) to ~ into s’aventurer dans [place, street, city]; to ~ out (doors) s’aventurer dehors; to ~ down¬ stairs/further s’aventurer en bas/plus loin; 2 Comm (make foray) to ~ into se lancer dans [retail market, publishing], idioms nothing ~d nothing gained Prov qui ne risque rien n’a ric-n Prov. ■ venture forth littér se risquer à sortir, venture: ~ capital n capital-risque m; ~ scout n GB routier m, scout m de la branche aînée. venturesome /’ventjasam/ adj litter aventureux/-euse. venue /’venju:/ n 1 gen lieu m; a change of ~ un changement de lieu; the ~ for the match was/will be le match a eu lieu/aura lieu à; 2 Jur lieu m du jugement. Venus /'vi:nas/ pr n (planet, goddess) Vénus/. ing)

Venus fly-trap n Bot dionée / Venusian /vi'nju:zian/ adj vénusien/-ienne. veracious /va'reifas/ adj sout [statement] vé¬ veracity /va'ræsati/ n sout véracité/ veranda(h) /va'rænda/ n véranda/; on the ~ sous la véranda,

verb /v3:b/ n verbe m. verbal /'V3 :bl/ adj gen, Ling (all contexts) verbal.

verbal abuse n

Jur emploi m de propos

injurieux.

verbalize /'V3:balaiz/ vtr, vi verbaliser, verbally /'V3:bah/ adv verbalement. verbal reasoning n raisonnement m verbal.

verbatim /V3:'beitim/ I adj [report, account] textuel/-elle. II adv [describe, record] mot pour mot. verbena /v3:'bi:na/ n verveine/; lemon ~ verveine citronnelle, verbiage /'V3:bnd3/ n sout verbiage m. verbless /'V3:bhs/ adj sans verbe, verbose /v3:'baus/ adj sout verbeux/-euse fml.

verbosity /v3:'bDsati/ n sout verbosité/fml. verb phrase, VP n syntagme m verbal, verdant /'V3:dnt/ adj littér verdoyant liter, verdict /'V3:dikt/ n 1 Jur verdict m; to return a ~ rendre un verdict; to reach a ~ arriver au verdict; a ~ of guilty/not guilty un verdict positif/négatif; the ~ was suicide/accidental death l’enquête a conclu au suicide/à une mort accidentelle; 2 fig (opinion) verdict m; well, what's the ~?° eh bien, qu’est-ce que tu en penses?; to give one's ~ on sth se prononcer sur qch.

verdigris /’V3:digris, -gri :s/ n vert-de-gris m inv.

verdure /’V3:d3a(r)/ n littér verdure/, verge /V3:d3/ n 1 GB (by road) accotement m, bas-côté m; grass ~ accotement herbeux; soft ~ accotement non stabilisé; 2 (brink) on the ~ of au bord de [tears]; au seuil de [adolescence, old age, death,]; on the ~ of success sur le point de réussir; on the ~ of doing sur le point de faire; on the ~ of sleep/a discovery sur le point de s’endormir/de faire une découverte; to bring ou drive sb to the ~ of amener qn au bord de [bankruptcy, despair, revolt, suicidé]; to bring ou drive sb to the ~ of doing amener qn au point de faire. ■ verge on: ~ on [sth] friser [panic, stupidity, contempt]; to be verging on the ridiculous/the illegal friser le ridicule/l’illégal. verger /’v3:d3a(r)/ ► 16921 n Relig (caretaker) bedeau m; (in ceremony) huissier m à verge, verifiable /'verifaiabl/ adj vérifiable, verification /.verifikeifn/ I n (of claim, facts) vérification /; (as procedure) contrôle m; Mil vérification/. II modif [measure, process, technique] de véri¬ fication, de contrôle, verify /'verifai/ vtr vérifier, verilyt /'venli/ adv en vérité, verisimilitude /,vensi'militju:d, US -tu:d/ n sout vraisemblance/ veritable /'ventabl/ adj sout véritable, verity I've rati/ n littér vérité / vermicelli /,v3:mi'seli, -'tjeli/ n 16921. 14811 ra violoncelliste mf.

violoncello violoncello

visualize

1867 /.vaiabn'tfeho/

► 14811

n

violoncelle m. VIP (abrév = very important person) I n personnalité / (en vue), VIP m inv, personnage m de marque. II adj [area, tent, facility] réservé aux personnalités; ~ guest hôte mf de marque; ~ lounge salon m réservé aux personna¬ lités; to give sb (the) ~ treatment rece¬ voir qn en hôte de marque; to get (the) ~ treatment être reçu en hôte de max-que. viper /'vaipa(r)/ n Zool, fig vipère/. idioms to nurse a ~ in one's bosom littér réchauffer un serpent dans son sein; a nest of ~s. a ~s' nest fig un panier de crabes, viperish /'vaiparif/ adj péj de vipère, virago /vi'ra:gau/ n {pi -goes ou -gOS) péj mégère/, virago/ pej. viral /'vaiaral/ adj viral. Virgil /'v3:d3il/ pr n Virgile, virgin /'V3:d3in/ I n (woman) vierge /; (man) puceau0 m, homme m vierge; to be a ~ être (encore) vierge. II Virgin pr n the Virgin Relig la Vierge /; the Virgin Mary la Vierge Marie; the Virgin and Child la Vierge et l’Enfant. III adj (ail contexts/vierge. virginal 'v3:d3inl/1 n Mus virginal m. II adj [smile, expression, woman] innocent; [white, innocence] virginal. Virgin Birth n the ~ Relig la conception virginale. virgin forest n forêt/vierge. Virginia /va'd3inia/ ► 17441 pr n 1 Geog Virginie/; in ~ en Virginie; 2 = Virginia

tobacco. Virginia creeper n vigne/vierge. Virginian va'djinian/ I n Virginien/-ienne m/f. II adj de Virginie.

Virginia tobacco n tabac m blond. Virgin Islands, VI ► 13811 n îles fpl Vierges.

virginity /va'dgmati/ n virginité /; to lose one's ~ perdre sa virginité. Virgo / v3:gau/ ► 19161 n Vierge/ Virgoan /v3:'gauan/ n Astrol to be a ~ être (du signe de la) Vierge, virgule /'V3:gju:l/ n Print barre/oblique, virile /'virail, US 'viral/ adj lit, fig viril, virility /vi'rilati/ n virilité/ virologist /vaia'rDlad3ist/ ► 16921 n virolo¬ gue mf, virologiste mf. virology /vaia'rDlad3i/ n virologie/. virtual /'v3:tjual/ adj 1 (almost complete) [col¬ lapse, failure, disappearance, standstill1 quasi-total {after n); the ~ disappearance of this custom la disparition quasi-totale or la quasi-disparition de cette coutume; he was a ~ prisoner il était quasiment0 or pratiquement prisonnier; it's ~ slavery c’est presque de l’esclavage; she is the ~ ruler of the country de fait c’est elle qui dirige le pays; 2 Comput, Phys virtuel/-elle. virtually /'v3:tJoali/ adv pratiquement, pres¬ que; ~ anywhere presque or pratiquement partout; it's ~ impossible c’est quasi¬ ment0 impossible; ~ every household has one chaque ménage ou presque en a un; there is ~ no public transport les trans¬ ports en commun sont quasiment0 inex¬ istants. virtual reality n réalité /virtuelle,

virtue

/'V3:tju:/ Ini (goodness, good quality, chastity) vertu /; to lose/preserve one's ~

perdre/préserver sa vertu; a woman of easy ~ une femme de petite vertu; 2 (ad¬ vantage) avantage m; to have the ~ of convenience ou of being convenient avoir l’avantage d’être pratique; to extol the ~s of sth vanter les mérites de qch. II by virtue of prep phr en raison de. idioms ~ is its own reward Prov la vertu est sa propre récompense; to make a ~ of necessity faire de nécessité vertu, virtuosity /,v3:tJu'DS3ti/ n virtuosité/.

virtuoso /,v3:tju'ausau, -zau/ I n {pl -sos ou -si) virtuose mf (of de); piano/violin ~ virtuose du piano/violon. II adj de virtuose. virtuous /'v3:tju3s/ adj vertueux/-euse; ~ indignation indignation outragée, virtuously /'v3:tJo3sli/ adv 1 (morally) [behave, live] de façon vertueuse; [help, act] vertueusement; 2 (self-righteously) avec satisfaction. virulence /’virulans/ n gen, Med virulence/, virulent /’virubnt/ adj Med, fig virulent, virulently /‘virubnth/ adv avec virulence, virus /'vaiaras/ ► 13541 n Med, Comput virus m; the flu/rabies/Aids ~ le virus de la grippe/de la rage/du sida, visa /'vi:z9/ n visa m; entry/tourist ~ visa d’entrée/de touriste. vis-à-vis /,vi:za:'vi:/1 n (person) homologue m. II prep (in relation to) par rapport à, vis-à-vis de; (concerning) en ce qui concerne, viscera /'visara/ npl viscères mpl. visceral /'visaral/ adj Anat viscéral; fig (in¬ stinctive) [feeling, reaction] viscéral; (raw) [power, performance] qui vous prend aux tripes0. viscid /'visid/ adj visqueux/-euse, gluant, viscose /'viskauz, -kaus/1 n viscose/. II modifiex [garment] en viscose, viscosity /vi'sküsati/ n viscosité /. viscount /'vaikaunt/ ► 12681 n vicomte m. viscountcy /'vaikauntsi/ n vicomté/. viscountess /'vaikaontis/ ► 12681 n vicomtesse /. viscounty /'vaikaunti/ n = viscountcy. viscous /'viskas/ adj visqueux/-euse, gluant, vise /vais/ n US étau m. visé /'vi:zei/ n US visa m. visibility /.viza'bilati/ n 1 (clarity, ability to see) visibilité /; ~ is good/poor il y a une bonne/mauvaise visibilité; ~ is below 150 metres la visibilité est inférieure à 150 mètres; to have restricted ~ avoir une visibilité limitée; 2 (ability to be seen) visibi¬ lité /; light clothes improve your ~ des vêtements clairs vous rendent plus visible la nuit. visible /'vizabl/ adj 1 (able to be seen) visible; clearly ~ bien visible; to be ~ from être visible de; to be ~ for miles around être visible à des kilomètres à la ronde; 2 (concrete) [improvement, sign] évi¬ dent; [evidence] flagrant; with no ~ means of support sans ressources appa¬ rentes. visibly /'vizabli/ adv 1 (to the eye) [shrink¬ ing, ill, paler] visiblement; 2 (clearly) [annoyed, moved, relieved] manifestement. Visigoth /'vizigD0/ pr n Wisigoth/-e m/f. vision /'vi3n/ Ini (mental picture, hallucina¬ tion) vision /; to have ~s avoir des visions; to appear to sb in a ~ apparaître à qn; 2 (conception, idea) vision /; her ~ of Europe in the 21st century sa vision de l’Europe au XXIe siècle; Rousseau's ~ of the ideal society l’idée de la société idéale selon Rousseau; 3 (imaginative foresight) saga¬ cité /; to have/lack ~ avoir de la/manquer de sagacité; a man of ~ un visionnaire; 4 (ability to see) vue /; to have poor/good ~ avoir une mauvaise/bonne vue; to have blurred ~ avoir la vue trouble; to come into ~ devenir visible; 5 (sight, visual image) image /; a ~ of loveliness/hell l’image de la beauté/de l’enfer; 6 TV (picture) image /; sound and ~ le son et l’image. II vtr US imaginer. visionary /'vi3anri, US 'viganen/ n, adj visionnaire {mf). vision mixer n (person) réalisateur m de direct; (equipment) mélangeur m d’images, visit /'vizit/1 n 1 (call) visite/; an official ou state ~ une visite officielle; a home ~ une visite à domicile; a flying ~ une visite éclair; on her first/last ~ to China, she...

la première/dernière fois qu’elle est allée en Chine, elle...; he is on an official ~ to Canada il est en visite officielle au Canada; to pay a ~ to sb, pay sb a ~ (to friend) aller voir qn, rendre visite à qn; (on business) aller voir qn, aller chez qn; I'll have to pay a ~ to the dentist il faudra que j’aille chez le dentiste; to have a ~ from rece¬ voir la visite de [parents, friend, nurse, police]-, to make a ~ to visiter, inspecter [premises, venue]-, to make home ~s [doctor etc] faire des visites à domicile; 2 (stay) séjour m; a ~ to France un séjour en France; it's my first ~ to this country c’est la première fois que je viens dans ce pays; to go on a ~ to faire un séjour à [town], II vtr 1 (call on) aller voir, rendre visite à [family, friend]-, aller voir, aller chez [doctor, dentist, solicitor, client]-, when can I come and ~ you? quand est-ce que je peux venir te voir?; 2 (see) visiter, aller voir [monu¬ ment, exhibition, region] -, 3 (inspect) inspecter [school, workplace, premises]; 4 (on holiday etc) to — sb venir chez qn; to ~ a country faire un séjour or séjourner dans un pays; come and ~ us for a few days venez passer quelques jours avec nous; they often come to ~ (us) ils viennent souvent chez nous; 5 (affect) sout to be ~ed by être éprouvé par [disaster, difficulty]; 6t (inflict) to — sth (up) on sb infliger qch à qn; 7 US (socially) to ~ with aller voir, rendre visite à [family, friend], visitation /.vizi'teijn/ Ini (supernatural sign) signe m (from de); 2 (punishment) châti¬ ment m (from de); 3 (by official person) visite /(from de). II Visitation pr n Relig Visitation/. visiting /’vizitii)/ adj {épith) [statesman, stateswoman] en visite; [athlete] visiteur/ -euse; [orchestra] invité.

visiting: ~ card n US carte / de visite; ~ fireman n US visiteur m de marque; ~ hours npl heures fpl de visite; ~ lecturer n (short term) maître m de confé¬ rence invité; (long term) maître m de confé¬ rence associé; ~ nurse ► 16921 n US infirmier/-ière m/f à domicile; ~ professor n (short term) professeur m invité; (long term) professeur m associé; ~ room n parloir m; ~ teacher ► 16921 n US Sch enseignant/-e m/f à domicile; ~ team n visiteurs/-euses m/fpl; ~ time n heures fpl de visite. visitor /'vizita(r)/ n 1 (caller) invité/-e m/f; we have ~s nous avons de la visite; she didn't often have ~s elle ne recevait pas beaucoup de visites; they were frequent ~s to our house ils venaient souvent chez nous; 2 (tourist) visiteur/-euse m/f; I've been a regular ~ to this country/to the museum je vais souvent dans ce pays/au musée; 3 (animal bird) migrateur m; a summer ~ un migrateur d’été. visitor: ~ centre n centre m d’accueil et d’information des visiteurs; ~s’ book n (in museum, exhibition) livre m d’or; (in hotel) registre m. visor /'vaiza(r)/ n 1 (part of helmet, eyeshade) visière/; 2 Aut pare-soleil m inv.

vista

/'vista/ n lit panorama m; fig perspective /; to open up new ~s ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives. visual /'vi3ual/ I visuals npl (photographs, pictures) images fpl; Cin (visual effects) effets mpl visuels; Sch (visual aids) supports mpl visuels. II adj (all contexts) visuel/-elle. visual: ~ aid n support m visuel; ~ artist ► 16921 n plasticien/-ienne m/f; ~ arts npl arts mpl plastiques; ~ display

terminal, VDT, ~ display unit, VDU n Comput écran m de visualisation; ~ field n champ m visuel.

visualize /'vi3ualaiz/ vtr 1

(picture) s’imagi¬ ner, se représenter [person, scene]; she had ~d the house as more modern elle

visually

1868

The human voice Voices and singers soprano

voice = soprano m

mezzo-soprano contralto alto counter-tenor tenor baritone bass-baritone bass

= mezzo-soprano m = contralto m = alto m = haute-contre f = ténor m = baryton m = baryton-basse m = basse f

singer soprano m or f (depending on whether a boy soprano or

a woman) mezzo-soprano f contralto f alto m haute-contre m ténor m baryton m baryton-basse m basse f

In the following examples tenor and ténor stand for any of the above voices: he’s a tenor = il est ténor or c’est un ténor he sings tenor = il chante ténor a tenor voice the tenor part a tenor solo

= une voix de ténor = la partie ténor = un solo de ténor

s’était imaginée que la maison serait plus moderne; I met him once, but I can't ~ his face je l’ai rencontré une fois, mais je n’arrive pas à me rappeler sa tête; 2 (en¬ visage) envisager. visually /'V1303I1/ adv visuellement, visually handicapped I n the ~ (+ v pl) (partially-sighted) les malvoyants/-es mlf pl; (non-sighted) les non-voyants/-es mlfpl. II adj (partially-sighted) malvoyant; (nonsighted) nonvoyant. visually impaired I n the ~ (+ v pl) les malvoyants/-es m//pl. II adj malvoyant. vital /'vaitl/ adj 1 (essential) [asset, document, expenditure, information, research, industry, supplies] essentiel/ielle, primordial; [role, issue, need, interest] fondamental, primordial; [match, point, support, factor] décisif/-ive; [service, help] indispensable; [treat¬ ment, importance] vital; it is ~ that, it is of ~ importance that il est indispensable or vital que (+ subj)\ ~ to sb/sth indispensable à qn/qch; it is ~ to do il est indispensable de faire; of ~ importance d’une importance capitale; to play a ~ role ou part jouer un rôle capital; 2 (essential to life) [organ, force] vital; 3 (lively) [person] plein de vie or de vitalité; [culture, music] vivant. vitality /vai'tæloti/ n vitalité /. vitally /'vaitoli/ adv [important] extrême¬ ment; [necessary, needed] absolument, vital statistics n 1 Stat données fpl démo¬ graphiques; 2 hum gen informations fpl essentielles; (of woman’s body) mensurations fpl. vitamin /'vitamin, US 'vait-/ I n vitamine/; ~ A/B/C vitamine A/B/C; with added ~s, ~ enriched vitaminé. II modif [requirements] en vitamines; to have a high/low ~ content être riche/pauvre en vitamines, vitamin: ~ deficiency n carence / en vitamines; *» pill, ~ tablet n comprimé m de vitamines. vitiate /'vifieit/ vtr sout gen, Jur vicier. viticultiu*e /"vitikAltJa(r)/ n viticulture f. vitreous /'vitnos/ adj 1 Tech [enamel] vitri¬ fié; [rock, china] vitreux/-euse; 2 Anat [body, humour] vitré.

vitrification /lvitrifi'keiJ'n/ n vitrificationf. vitrify /'vitnfai/1 vtr vitrifier. II vi se vitrifier. vitriol /'vitriol/ n Chem, fig vitriol m. vitriolic /.vitn'olik/ adj Chem de vitriol; fig au vitriol. vitriolize /'vitnolaiz/ vtr vitrioler.

vitro ► in vitro. vituperate /vi'tju:pareit, US vaftu:-/ I vtr vitupérer contre. II vi vitupérer (against contre), vituperation /vi,tju:po'reiJn, US vai.tu:-/ n JVdrai3(r), US ,wo:J-/ n lave-linge/sèche-linge m.

washer-up(per)° /,wDjV,\p(o(r)), US ,wo:J-/ n (in restaurant) plongeur/-euse m//; who's going to be the —? hum qui va faire la plonge?

washerwoman /’wDjawumon, US ’wo:|-/ ► 16921 n lavandière /.

wash: —-hand basin n lavabo m; —house n buanderie/. washing /’wojig, US ’wo:Jig/ n 1 (act) (of oneself) toilette /; (of clothes) lessive f; 2 (laundry) (to be cleaned) linge m sale; (when clean) linge m; to do the — faire la lessive;

to hang out the — étendre le linge; to take in — faire des lessives chez soi (comme métier).

washing: — day n jour m de lessive; — facilities npl douches-lavabos fpl; — line n corde/à linge; — machine n machine/ à laver; — powder n GB lessive / (en poudre); — soda n soude/ménagère. Washington /'wDjigtan, US ’wo:]-/ ► 18181. 17441 pr n (city, state) Washington m.

washing: — -up n GB vaisselle /; —-up bowl n GB cuvette /(pour la vaisselle); —up cloth n GB lavette /; —-up liquid n GB liquide m à vaisselle; —-up water n GB eau/de vaisselle.

wash: — leather n peau/de chamois; — load n capacité/de lavage; —out n fiasco m dû à la pluie; —-rag n US lavette /; —room n toilettes fpl; — sale n US Fin (on Stock Exchange) vente /fictive; —-stand n US (washbasin) lavabo m; (table) table/de

wash symbol toilette;

~ symbol n symbole m de lavage; ~ trough n (for gold) bâtée /; —tub n bassine /; ~-wipe n Aut lavage m du pare-brise,

wasn’t /'wDznt/ = was not. wasp /wDsp/ n guêpe/. WASP /wdsp/ n US (abrév = White AngloSaxon Protestant) membre de l'élite des blancs protestants d’origine anglo-saxonne.

waspish /'wDspiJV adj acerbe, waspishly /'wDspifh/ adv d’un ton acerbe, wasp-waisted /.wDsp'weistid/ adj [person] à taille de guêpe; [clothing] cintré à la taille,

wassail!

/'wDseil/ I n (merry-making) ribotet/, beuverie / (surtout à Noël). II vi GB (sing carols) to go — ing aller de maison en maison en chantant des chants de Noël.

wastage /'weistid3/ n 1 (of

money, resources, talent) gaspillage m; (of heat, energy) déperdi¬ tion /; through ~ par gaspillage; 2 (also natural —) Sociol, Econ élimination /

naturelle.

wastage

rate

n

watch fire

1877

Sociol,

Econ

taux

m

d’abandon.

waste /weist/ I n 1 (£

(squandering) (of commodity, food, resources, money, energy, oppor¬ tunity) gaspillage m (of de); (of time) perte/

(of de); that was a complete — of an afternoon l’après-midi a été perdu complète¬ ment inutilement; what a — ! quel gaspil¬ lage!; don't throw it away, it's a — ne le jette pas, c’est du gaspillage; it's a — of her talents elle gaspille ses talents (doing en faisant); a — of effort un effort inutile; taking taxis is a — of money prendre des taxis c’est jeter l’argent par les fenêtres; that car was a complete ~ of money cette voiture est de l’argent complètement gaspillé; it's a — of time and money c’est une perte de temps et d’argent; it's a — of time trying to explain it on perd son temps à essayer de l’expliquer; to go to — être gaspillé; that's another good opportunity gone to ~ et voilà encore une bonne occa¬ sion de perdue; to let sth go to ~ gaspil¬ ler qch; there is no every part is used il n’y a pas de déchets, chaque élément est utilisé; 2 kilos of tomatoes sold by the kilo there are about two pounds to a kilo

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

combien pèse le colis? quel poids fait-il? il pèse dix kilos environ dix kilos il pesait deux kilos de trop A pèse plus lourd que B A est plus lourd que B B est plus léger que A A est aussi lourd que B A a le même poids que B A et B ont le même poids six livres de carottes deux kilos de beurre un kilo cinq cents de tomates vendu au kilo il y a à peu près deux livres anglaises dans un kilo

Note the French construction with de, coming after the noun it describes: a 3-lb potato = une pomme de terre de trois livres a parcel 3 kilos in weight = un colis de trois kilos

pas résister à l’examen; 3 Naut to — anchor lever l’ancre. II vi 1 (have influence) to ~ with sb compter pour qn; to ~ heavily/very little with sb compter beaucoup/ très peu pour qn; to — against sb faire du tort à qn; to ~ in sb's favour jouer en faveur de qn; 2 (be a burden) to — on sb peser sur qn; the responsibility —s heavily on her la charge lui pèse; to ~ on sb's conscience peser sur la conscience de qn; to ~ on sb's mind préoccuper qn. III v refil to ~ oneself se peser. ■ weigh down: f ~ down on [sb/sth] peser sur [person, object]; 1j ~ down [sth/sb], ~ [sth/sb] down lit surcharger [vehicle, boat]; faire plier [branches, tree]; bloquer [papers, sheet]; fig [responsibility, anxiety, debt] accabler [person]; to be —ed down with [person] crouler sous le poids de [luggage] ; être comblé de [gifts, prizes] ; être accablé de [worry, guilt], m weigh in 1 [boxer, wrestler] se faire peser; [jockey] aller au pesage; to ~ in at 60 kg peser 60 kilos (avant la course ou le combat); 2 (contribute to appeal, effort) contri¬ buer; to ~ in with sth donner qch; 3 (inter¬

vene in debate) intervenir; to — in with one's opinion intervenir en donnant son opinion. ■ weigh out peser [ingredients, quantity], u weigh up: ~ up [sth/sb], ~ [sth/sb] up 1 fig évaluer [prospects, situation]; juger [stranger, opponent]; mettre [qch] en balance [options, benefits, risks]; after —ing things up, I decided... tout bien pesé, j’ai décidé... ; 2 lit peser [fruit, coat], weigh: —bridge n pont-bascule m; —-in n Sport pesage m. weighing machine /’wenrj moji n/ n 1 (for people) balance /; 2 (for luggage, freight) bascule /. weighing scales n balance/. weight /weit/ I n 1 (heaviness) poids m; to lose/put on — perdre/prendre du poids; to be under/over 1 kilo in — avoir un poids inférieur/supérieur à 1 kilo; by — au poids; what is your —7 combien pesezvous?; to be twice sb's — peser deux fois plus que qn; they're the same — ils font le même poids; to put one's full — on/against sth appuyer de tout son poids sur/contre qch; to put one's full — behind

weightiness a blow frapper de toutes ses forces; he's quite a — ! il est drôlement lourd!; 2 (system of measurement) poids m; unit of ~ unité/de poids; 3 (object of a fixed heaviness) poids m; a 25 gramme — un poids de 25 grammes; to lift —s soulever des poids; what a ~! quel poids! the — of responsi¬ bility le poids des responsabilités; to sink under the — of sth fig crouler sous le poids de qch; to carry ~ [horse] être handi¬ capé; 4 fig (credibility, influence) poids m; of some intellectual — d'un certain poids intellectuel; to add ou give ou lend — to sth ajouter or donner du poids à qch; not to carry much — ne pas peser lourd (with pour); what she says carries — elle a du poids or de l’influence (with auprès de); to add one's — to sth faire jouer son influence en faveur de qch; to throw one's ~ behind sth soutenir qch à fond; 5 fig (im¬ portance, consideration) to give due ~ to a proposal accorder à une proposition l’importance qu’elle mérite; to give equal — to accorder une importance égale à; 6 (in statistics) coefficient m pondérateur. II vtr 1 (put weight(s) on) lester [net, hem, dart, arrow, boat]; 2 (bias) to ~ sth against sb/sth faire jouer qch contre qn/qch; to ~ sth in favour of sb/sth faire jouer qch en faveur de qn/qch; 3 (in statistics) pondérer [index, variable, average, figure], idioms by (sheer) ~ of numbers par la force du nombre; to be a — off one's mind être un grand soulagement; to pull one's — faire sa part de travail; to take the ~ off one's feet s’asseoir, se reposer; to throw one's ~ about ou around faire l’important/-e m//. ■ weight down: — down [sth], — [sth] down retenir [qch] avec un poids [paper, sheet] (with avec); lester [body], weightiness /’weitims/ n importance / (of de). weighting /'weitiq/ n (of index, variable) pondération /; London — indemnité / pour résidence à Londres. weightless /'weitlis/ adj 1 lit [state, environ¬ ment] d’apesanteur (after n); [body, object in space] en apesanteur (after n); 2 fig [grace, movement] léger/-ère. weightlessness /'weithsms/ n 1 (in space) apesanteur/; 2 (of dancer, dance) légèreté/aé¬ rienne. weight: —-lifter n haltérophile m; —lifting ► 12821 n haltérophilie f; — loss n perte /de poids; — machine n appareil m de musculation; — problem n problème m de poids; ~ training ► 12821 n muscu¬ lation / (en salle); ~watcher n gen personne/ qui surveille son poids; (member of group) personne/qui suit un régime amai¬ grissant. weighty /'weiti/ adj 1 (serious) [problem, consideration, reason, question] de grand poids; 2 (large) [book, treatise] monumental; 3 (heavy) [object, responsibility] lourd. weir /wio(r)/ n 1 (dam) barrage m; 2 (for trap¬ ping fish) écluse/ à poissons. weird /wiad/ adj 1 (strange) bizarre; it's ~ that c’est bizarre que (+ subj); — and wonderful étrange et merveilleux/-euse; 2 (eerie) mystérieux/-ieuse. weirdly /’wradli/ adj 1 (strangely) bizarre¬ ment; 2 (eerily) mystérieusement. weirdo0 /‘wiadou/ n loufoque0 mf. welcome /'welkam/ I n accueil m; to give sb a warm —, to extend a warm ~ to sb fml faire un accueil chaleureux à qn. II modif [speech] de bienvenue. III adj 1 (gratefully received) [boost, initiative, relief, news] bienvenu; that's a — sight/sound! ça fait plaisir à voir/entendre!; nothing could be more — ! rien ne pourrait tomber plus à propos!; thank you for your most — gift sout merci de votre cadeau des plus opportuns fml; 2 (warmly greeted) to be —, to be a — guest ou visitor être le bienvenu; 'children

1884 —' (on sign) ‘les enfants sont les bienvenus’; I never feel very — at their house je ne me sens jamais le bienvenu chez eux; to make sb — (on arrival) réserver un bon accueil à qn; (over period of time) accueillir qn à bras ouverts; 3 (warmly invited) you are — to spend a few days with us si vous voulez passer quelques jours chez nous, n’hé¬ sitez pas or vous êtes le bienvenu; if you want to finish my fries you're — to them (politely) si tu veux finir mes frites, ne te gêne pas; if you want to watch such rubbish you're — to it! (rudely) si tu veux regarder ces idioties, libre à toi!; you're — (acknowledging thanks) de rien, je vous en prie fml. IV excl — ! (to respected guest) soyez le bien¬ venu chez nous!; (greeting friend) entre donc!; — back, — home! je suis content que tu sois de retour!; — on board/to the United States! bienvenu à bord/aux États-Unis! V vtr accueillir [person]; se réjouir de [news, decision, intervention, change]; être heureux/-euse de recevoir [donation, contri¬ bution]; accueillir favorablement [initiative, move]; they said they would — a meet¬ ing ils ont dit qu’ils souhaiteraient une rencontre; we would — your view on this matter nous aimerions savoir ce que vous pensez de cette affaire; I — this opportunity to express my thanks je suis heureux/-euse d’avoir l’occasion d’exprimer ma gratitude; 'pléase — our guest tonight, Willie Mays' ‘applaudissons notre invité d’honneur, Willie Mays’; I'd — a hot drink je prendrais bien une boisson chaude. idioms to put out the — mat for sb fig faire un accueil chaleureux à qn; to wear out one's — abuser de l’hospitalité de qn; to — sb with open arms accueillir qn à bras ouverts. ■ welcome back: — back [sb], — [sb] back accueillir [qn] à son retour; (more demonstratively) faire fête à [qn] à son retour. ■ welcome in: — in [sb], — [sb] in faire entrer [qn] chez soi.

welcoming /welkarniq/ adj 1 (warm) [atmo¬ sphere, smile, person] accueillant; 2 (recep¬ tion) [ceremony, committee] d’accueil,

weld /weld/1 n soudure/. II vtr 1 lit souder [metal, joint] (on, to à); 2 fig souder [team, nation, workforce], III vi [metal, joint] être soudé ensemble. ■ weld together: — [sth] together lit, fig souder.

welded /'weldid/ adj lit, fig soudé, welder /'welda(r)/ ► 16921 n 1

(person) soudeur/-euse mjf; 2 (tool) appareil m à souder.

welding /'weldiq/ n 1 lit soudage m; 2 fig union /.

welfare /’welfeafr)/ I n 1 gen (well-being) bien-être m inv; (interest) intérêt m; national — intérêt national; student — intérêts mpl des étudiants; to be concerned about sb's — se faire du souci pour le sort de qn; to be responsible for sb's — avoir la responsabilité de qn; 2 (state assistance) assistance/sociale; (money) aide/sociale; to go on — US demander l’aide sociale; to be (living) on — US vivre de l’aide sociale. II modif [system] de protection sociale; US [meal] gratuit; — cuts réductions fpl dans les dépenses sociales; — spending dé¬ penses sociales.

welfare: — adviser n US = welfare rights adviser; - assistant ► 16921 n GB Sch = femme/de service; — benefit n prestation / sociale; — department n service m d’aide sociale; — hotel n US foyer m d’accueil; — mother n US mère seule bénéficiant de l’aide sociale; — officer ► 16921 n GB conseiller/-ère m// en matière d’assistance sociale; US employé/-e m// des services sociaux; — payment n = wel¬ fare benefit; — recipient n bénéficiaire mf de l’aide sociale; — rights adviser ► 16921 n GB conseiller/-ère m/f en matière

well d’assistance sociale; — services n servi¬ ces mpl sociaux. welfare state n (as concept) État-provi¬ dence m; (stressing state assistance) protection / sociale; to be dependent on the — survivre grâce à l’aide sociale; a — mental¬ ity péj une mentalité d’assisté. welfare: — work n assistance / sociale; — worker ► 16921 n employé/-e m/f des services d’assistance sociale. welfarism /‘welfearizam/ n doctrine / de l’État-providence. welfarist /’welfearist/ n apôtre m de la protection sociale. welfarite0 /’welfearait/ n US péj assisté/-e m/f welkin /’welkin/ n littér voûte/céleste. well1 /wel/ I adj, comp better, superl best I (in good health) to feel — se sentir bien; are you — ? vous allez bien?, tu vas bien?; I'm very —, thank you je vais très bien, merci; she's not — enough to travel elle n’est pas en état de voyager; he's not a — man il a des problèmes de santé; people who are — don't need doctors les gens qui se portent bien n’ont pas besoin de méde¬ cin; she doesn't look at all — elle n’a pas l’air en forme du tout; to get — se réta¬ blir; get — soon! rétablis-toi vite!; 'how is he?'—'as — as can be expected' ‘com¬ ment va-t-il?’—‘pas trop mal étant donné les circonstances’; 2 (in satisfactory state, condi¬ tion) bien; all is — tout va bien; she began to fear that all was not — elle commençait à craindre qu’il y eût un problème; all is not — in their marriage il y a des problèmes dans leur mariage; I hope all is — with you j’espère que tout va bien pour vous; all being —, I'll be home before six si tout va bien, je serai à la maison avant six heures; that's all very —, but tout ça c’est bien beau or joli, mais; it's all very — to go on strike, but c’est bien beau or joli de faire la grève, mais; it's all very — for you to laugh, but tu peux rire, mais; that's all very — for him, but some of us have to work for a living tant mieux pour lui, mais certains d’entre nous doivent gagner leur vie; if you think you can cope on your own, — and good si tu penses que tu peux te débrouiller tout seul, c’est très bien; 3 (advisable, prudent) it would be just as — to check il vaudrait mieux vérifier; it would be as — for you not to get involved tu ferais mieux de ne pas t’en mêler; it might be as — to telephone first il vaudrait mieux téléphoner d’abord, ce serait peut-être aussi bien de téléphoner d’abord; 4 (fortunate) it was just as — for him that the shops were still open il a eu de la chance que les magasins étaient encore ouverts; it's just as — you're not hungry, because I didn't buy any food c’est aussi bien que tu n’aies pas faim, parce que je n’ai rien acheté à manger; the flight was delayed, which was just as — le vol a été retardé, ce qui n’était pas plus mal. II adv, (comp better, superl best) 1 (sa¬ tisfactorily) [treat, behave, feed, eat, sleep, perform etc] bien; to work — [person] bien travailler, [system] bien marcher; these scissors cut — ces ciseaux coupent bien; he isn't eating very — il ne mange pas beaucoup; she can play the piano as — as her sister elle joue du piano aussi bien que sa sœur; that boy will do — ce garçon ira loin; he hasn't done as — as he might il n’a pas réussi aussi bien qu’il aurait pu; I did — in the general knowledge ques¬ tions je me suis bien débrouillé pour les questions de culture générale; to do — at school être bon/bonne élève; mother and baby are both doing — la mère et l’enfant se portent bien; the operation went — l’opération s’est bien passée; you did — to tell me tu as bien fait de me le dire; he would do — to remember that il ferait bien de se rappeler que; we'll be doing — if we get there on time on aura de la

well chance si on arrive à l’heure; if all goes ~ si tout va bien; all went ~ until tout allait bien jusqu’à ce que; — done! bravo!; ~ played! bien joué!; he has done very — for himself since he became self-em¬ ployed il s’en tire très bien depuis qu’il travaille à son compte; to do oneself — bien se soigner; to do ~ by sb se montrer généreux/-euse avec qn; they're doing quite ~ out of the mail-order business leur affaire de vente par correspondance marche très bien; some businessmen did quite ~ out of the war certains hommes d’affaires se sont enrichis pendant la guerre; she didn't come out of it very — (of situa¬ tion) elle ne s’en est pas très bien sortie; (of article, programme etc) ce n’ était pas très flatteur pour elle; as I know only too ~ comme je ne le sais que trop bien; he is ~ able to look after himself il est assez grand pour se débrouiller tout seul; 2 (used with modal verbs) you may ~ be right il se pour¬ rait bien que tu aies raison; I might ~ go there il se pourrait bien que j’y aille, je pourrais bien y aller; the concert might very — be cancelled il est bien possible que le concert soit annulé; I can ~ believe it je veux bien le croire, je n’ai pas de mal à le croire; it may ~ be that il se pourrait bien que (+ subj), il est bien possible que (+ subj)) I couldn't very — say no je pouvais difficilement dire non; you may — ask! je me le demande bien!, alors ça, si je le savais!; we might just as — have stayed at home on aurait aussi bien fait de rester à la maison; we may as ~ go home on ferait aussi bien de rentrer; one might ~ ask why the police were not informed on est en droit de se demander pourquoi la police n’a pas été informée; 'shall I shut the door?'—'you might as —' ‘est-ce que je ferme la porte?’—‘pourquoi pas’; he offered to pay for the damage, as — he might! il a proposé de payer pour les dégâts, c’était la moindre des choses!; she looked shocked, as — she might elle a eu l’air choquée, ce qui n’avait rien d’étonnant; we didn't panic, as — we might (have done) nous n’avons pas paniqué, alors qu’il y avait de quoi; 3 (intensifier) bien, largement; to be ~ over the speed limit être bien audessus de la vitesse autorisée, avoir large¬ ment dépassé la vitesse autorisée; she is — over 30 elle a bien plus de 30 ans; she looks — over 30 elle fait largement 30 ans; there were — over a hundred people il y avait largement plus de cent personnes ; the house is — over a hundred years old la maison a bien plus de cent ans; the museum is — worth a visit le musée mérite vraiment la visite; it was ~ worth waiting for ça valait vraiment la peine d’attendre; the weather remained fine — into September le temps est resté au beau fixe pendant une bonne partie du mois de septembre; she was active — into her eighties elle était toujours active même audelà de ses quatre-vingts ans; temperatures are — up in the twenties les températures dépassent largement vingt degrés; profits are — above/below average les bénéfices sont nettement supérieurs/inférieurs à la moyenne; stand — back from the kerb tenez-vous bien à l’écart du bord du trottoir; the house is situated — back from the road la maison est située bien à l’écart de la route; it was — after midnight il était bien après minuit; it went on until ~ after midnight ça s’est prolongé bien audelà de minuit; the party went on — into the night la soirée a continué tard dans la nuit; 4 (approvingly) to speak/think — of sb dire/penser du bien de qn; 5 to wish sb ~ souhaiter beaucoup de chance à qn; I wish you — of it! iron je vous souhaite bien du plaisir! iron; 6 as ~ (also) aussi; as — as (in addition to) aussi bien que; is Tom coming as —? est-ce que Torn vient aussi?; you know as — as I do why he left tu sais aussi bien que moi pourquoi il est

well-thought-of

1885 parti; he is studying Italian as — as French il étudie à la fois l’italien et le français; I worked on Saturday as — as on Sunday j’ai travaillé samedi et diman¬ che; they have a house in the country as ~ as an apartment in Paris ils ont une maison à la campagne ainsi qu’un apparte¬ ment à Paris; by day as ~ as by night de jour comme de nuit; 7° GB it was ~ good! ou ~ bad! (in approval) c’était d’enfer0! Ill excl 1 (expressing astonishment) eh bien!; (expressing indignation, disgust) ça alors!; (expres¬ sing disappointment) tant pis!; (after pause in conversation, account) bon; (qualifying statement) enfin; ~, who would have thought it! eh bien, qui aurait pu croire ça!; —, I think so eh bien, je crois; —, you may have a point, but bon or d’accord, ce que tu dis est peut-être vrai, mais; ~, you may be right après tout, tu as peut-être raison; ~, as I was saying bon, comme je disais; —, that's too bad c’est vraiment dommage; — then, what's the problem? alors, quel est le problème?; they've gone already? oh ~! ils sont déjà partis? tant pis!; oh ~, there's nothing I can do about it ma foi, je n’y peux rien; —, —, —, if it isn't my aunt Violet! ma parole, c’est ma tante Violet!; —, —, ~, so you're off to Amer¬ ica? alors comme ça, tu pars aux ÉtatsUnis!; the weather was good, ~, good for March il faisait beau, enfin beau pour un mois de mars; 'he said he'd kill himself'—'—, did he?' ‘il a dit qu’il se tuerait’—‘eh bien or et alors, est-ce qu’il l’a fait?’; very — then très bien. idioms all's ~ that ends — Prov tout est bien qui finit bien; to be — in with sb° être bien avec qn°; to be — up in sth s’y connaître en qch; to leave ~ alone GB ou ~ enough alone US (not get involved) ne pas s’en mêler; I would leave — alone if I were you moi à ta place je ne m’en mêle¬ rais pas; you're — out of it°! heureuse¬ ment que tu n’as plus rien à voir avec ça!; ~ and truly bel et bien; — and truly over/lost bel et bien fini/perdu. well2 /wel/ I n 1 (sunk in ground) puits m\ to get one's water from a — tirer son eau d’un puits; 2 (pool) source /; 3 Constr (shaft for stairs, lift) cage /; 4 GB Jur (in law court) barreau m. II vi = well up. ■ well up monter; tears —ed up in my eyes les larmes me sont montées aux yeux; anger —ed up inside me j’ai senti la colère monter en moi. we’ll /wi:l/ = we shall; we will. well-appointed /wel/ adj [room, house] bien aménagé. well-attended adj the meeting was — il y avait beaucoup de monde à la réunion. well /wel/: —-balanced adj [person, meal, diet] équilibré; —-behaved adj [child] sage, bien élevé; [animat] bien dressé; —being n bien-être m inv; —-bom adj bien né, de bonne famille. well-bred /,wel’bred/ adj 1 [person] (of good birth) bien né; (having good manners) bien élevé; 2 [animal] gen de pure race; [horse] pur sang. well-built /.welbilt/ adj [person] bien bâti, solide; [building] solide, bien construit. well-chosen /.wel’tjouzn/ adj bien choisi; a few — words quelques mots bien choi¬ sis. well-defined /,weldi'faind/ adj [shape, outline, image] net/nette; [role, boundary] bien défini. well-developed /.weldi'velapt/ adj 1 Anat bien développé; 2 [instinct] très développé; [structure, system] très développé, très évolué; [plan, argument] solide. well-disposed /.weldi'spsuzd/ adj to be — towards être bien disposé envers [person]) être favorable à [regime, idea, policy].

well-done /.wel'dAn/ adj 1 Culin bien cuit; 2 (well performed) [task, job] bien fait, well /wel/: —-earned adj bien mérité; — educated adj (having a good education) instruit; (cultured) cultivé; —-favoured adj tou hum beau/belle; —-fed adj bien nourri.

well-formed /,werfo:md/ adj 1 [mouth, nose, features] bien modelé; 2 Ling syntaxi¬ quement correct. well /wel/: —-founded adj [rumour, assumption] fondé; —-groomed adj [person, appearance] soigné; [hair] bien coiffé; [horse] bien pansé, wellhead /wel/ n source/. well /wel/: —-heeled0 adj riche, aisé; —hung * adj hum [man] bien monté», well-informed /,welm'fo:md/ adj [person] bien informé (about sur); he's very — (knows a lot about current affairs) il est très au courant de l’actualité; — source Journ source / sérieuse. Wellington (boot) /’weliqtan/ n GB botte/ de caoutchouc. Wellington /’weliqton/ ► 18181 pr n Wellington.

well

/wel/: —-intentioned adj bien intentionné; —-judged adj [statement, phrasé] bien senti; [performance] intelligent; —-kept adj [house, garden, village] bien entretenu, bien tenu; —-knit adj [body, frame] solide, bien bâti; fig [argument, plan, plot] bien construit. well-known /.wel’noun/ adj 1 (famous) [person, place, work of art] célèbre, connu; she's not very — elle n’est pas très connue; to be — to sb être connu de qn; 2 (widely known) it is — that, it is a — fact that il est bien connu que. well-liked /.wel’laikt/ adj [person] très apprécié. well /wel/: —-made adj bien fait; —mannered adj bien élevé, poli; —meaning adj [person] bien intentionné; [advice, suggestion, gesture] qui part d’une bonne intention. well-meant /.wel’ment/ adj his offer was —, but she was too proud to accept it sa proposition partait d’une bonne intention, mais elle était trop fière pour l’accepter; my remarks were —, but I offended her je ne voulais pas être désagréable dans ce que je disais, mais je l’ai offensée, well-nigh /.wel’nai/ adv sout pratiquement, presque; — impossible quasiment impos¬ sible. well-off / wel’Df/ I n (+ v pi) the well-off les gens mpl aisés, les riches mpl) the less well-off les plus défavorisés mpl. II adj 1 (wealthy) [person, family, neighbour¬ hood] aisé; 2 (fortunate) you don't know when you're — tu ne connais pas ton bonheur; 3 to be — for avoir beaucoup de [space, provisions etc], well-oiled /.wel’oild/ adj 1 lit [machine, engine] bien graissé; fig (smooth-running) [de¬ partment, organization] bien au point; 2° (drunk) bien parti0, soûl, well /wel/: —padded0 adj hum [person] bien rembourré0, bien en chair; —-paid adj [person, job] bien payé, bien rémunéré; —-preserved adj bien conservé; —read adj cultivé, instruit, well-respected /.welri’spektid/ adj [person] très respecté. well-rounded /.wel'raundid/ adj 1 [educa¬ tion, programme, life] complet/-ète; [indivi¬ dual] qui a reçu une éducation complète; 2 (shapely) [figuré] harmonieux/-ieuse; [cheeks] bien rond. well /wel/: —-set adj [person] bien bâti; —-spoken adj [person] qui parle bien. well-spoken-of adj he's very — on dit beaucoup de bien de lui. well /wel/: —-tempered adj Mus bien tempéré; '—thought-of adj [person,

well-thought-out product] apprécié; —-thought-out adj [plan, theory, plot etc] bien élaboré, well-timed /.wel'taimd/ adj [remark, take¬ over] qui tombe/tombait à point; that was — ! (of entrance, phonecall etc) c’est bien tombé! well-to-do I n the — (+ v pi) les gens mpl aisés. II adj aisé. well-tried /wet/ adj [method, remedy] éprouvé. well-trodden /.weftrodn/ adj a ~ path lit, fig une voie très empruntée, un chemin battu. well-tumed /,wel't3;nd/ adj 1 [phrase, remark, compliment etc] bien tourné; 2t [ankle, leg] galbé. well-upholstered /wel/° adj hum = well

padded. well-wisher /'welwijoff)/ n gen personne / qui veut témoigner sa sympathie; Pol sympathisant/-e m//; 'from a —' (as signature) ‘un ami qui vous veut du bien’, well-woman clinic /wel/ n centre m de conseils médicaux pour les femmes, well-worn /wel/ adj [carpet, garment] élimé, usé jusqu’à la corde; [steps, floor¬ boards] usé; fig [joke, theme, phrase] rebattu. welly0 /'well/ n GB 1 (abrév = Wellington (boot)) botte /en caoutchouc; 2 fig (accelera¬ tion) reprises fpl. idioms to give it some ~ appuyer sur le champignon0. welsh /wel|/ vi to ~ on faire faux bond à [person] ', manquer à [promise, deal], Welsh /wel|/ ► 14861. 14021 Ini (nation) the ~ (+ v pi) les Gallois mpl\ 2 Ling gallois m. II adj gallois. Welsh; ~ dresser n GB vaisselier m; — harp ► 14811 n harpe / galloise; -man n Gallois m; ~ mountain pony n poney m welsh; — Office n in GB ministère m des Affaires galloises; — rarebit, — rabbit n toast m au fromage; ~ secretary n GB Pol ministre m des Affaires galloises; — terrier n welsh terrier m; —woman n Galloise / welt /welt/ n 1 (on shoe) trépointe /; 2 (on knitted garment) brodure/ à cotes; 3 (on skin) marque/(de coup). welter /'welto(r)/ I n a — of un fatras de [objects, fragments]; un bain de [blood, water] ' un déferlement de [emotions, criti¬ cism, influences], II vi to ~ in baigner dans [blood, water, emotion], welterweight /'weltoweit/ I n poids m welter. II modif [boxer, champion] poids welter inv, [fight, competition] dans la catégorie welter, wen /wen/ n Med loupe /; the great — fig hum Londres. wenchï /went|/ also hum I n gigolettef /. II vi courir la gueuse. wend /wend/ vtr to — one's way chemi¬ ner (to, towards vers); to — one's way home prendre la route du retour. Wendy house /'wendi haus/ n GB cabane / (pour les enfants). went /went/ prêt ► go. wept /wept/ prêt, pp ► weep, were /W3:(r), wo(r)/ prêt ► be. we’re /wio(r)/ = we are. weren’t /w3:nt/ = were not. werewolf /'wrawulf/ n (pi -wolves) loupgarou m. Wesleyan /'wezlion/ I n Wesleyen/-enne m/f. II adj wesleyen/-enne. west /west/ ► 15681 I n ouest m. II West n 1 Pol, Geog the West l’Ouest m, l’Occident m; 2 (in cards) ouest m. III adj (épith) [side, bank, face, coast, wall] ouest inv, [wind] d’ouest. IV adv [move] vers l’ouest; [lie, live] à

whack

1886 l’ouest (of de); to go — of sth passer à l’ouest de qch. idioms to go — (die) euph passer l’arme à gauche; (get lost) se perdre; there's another glass gone — ! voilà encore un verre de cassé! west: West Africa pr n Afrique / de l’Ouest; West African adj [person, culture etc] de l’Afrique occidentale; West Bank pr n Cisjordanie f. West Bengal /,west ben'gad/ pr n BengaleOccidental m. westbound /'westbaund/ adj [carriageway, traffic] en direction de l’ouest; the — plat¬ form/train GB (in underground) le quai/la rame direction ouest. West Country pr n GB the — le Sud Ouest (de l’Angleterre). West End pr n GB the ~ le West End m (quartier de théâtres et de boutiques chic au centre ouest de Londres). westerly /'westali/1 n vent m d’ouest. II adj [wind] d’ouest; [point] à l’ouest; [area] de l’ouest; [breeze] venant de l’ouest; in a — direction en direction de l’ouest, western /'westan/ ► 15681 I n Cin western m. II adj (épith) 1 Geog [coast, boundary] ouest inv, [town, region, custom, accent] de l’ouest; — France l’ouest de la France; 2 Pol occi¬ dental. western: Western (omelet) n US Culin omelette au jambon, aux poivrons et aux oignons; Western Australia pr n Austra¬ lie /occidentale. westerner /'westana(r)/ n Occidental/e mjf. western: Western Europe pr n Europe/ de l’Ouest, Europe /occidentale; Western Isles ► 13811 pr npl îles fpl Hébrides occi¬ dentales. westernization /.westanai'zeifn, US -m'z-l n occidentalisation/. westernize /'westanaiz/ vtr occidentaliser; to become — d s’occidentaliser, western: —most adj à l’extrême ouest, le/la plus à l’ouest; — roll n Sport saut m en rouleau ventral; Western saddle n US Equit selle / américaine; Western Sahara pr n Sahara m Occidental; Western Samoa ► 11311 pr n Samoa fpl Occidenta¬ les. west-facing /'westfeisirj/ adj exposé à l’ouest. West German / west 'd33:man/ ► 14861 I n Hist Allemand/-e de l’Ouest m/fi II adj Hist ouest-allemand. West Germany /,west 'd33:mam/ ► 11311 pr n Hist Allemagne/de l’Ouest. West Glamorgan /west gla'mo:gan/ ► 16241 pr n West Glamorgan m. West Indian /.west 'Indian/ ► 14861 I n Antillais/-e m/f. II adj antillais. West Indies / west 'mdi:z/ ► 11311. 13811 pr npl Antilles fpl. West Midlands /.west ‘midlandz/ ► 16241 pr n West Midlands fpl. Westminster /'westminsta(r)/ n Westminster (siège du parlement de GrandeBretagne)', to be elected to — être élu au Parlement (de Grande-Bretagne). West Point n US West Point m (académie militaire américaine). West Sussex /.west 'sASiks/ ► 16241 pr n West Sussex m. West Virginia /.west V3:'d3ima/ ► 17441 pr n Virginie /occidentale, westward /'westwad/ ► 15681 I adj [side] ouest inv; [wall, slope] du côté ouest; [journey, route, movement] vers l’ouest; in a — direction en direction de l’ouest, vers l’ouest. II adv (also —s) vers l’ouest. West Yorkshire /.west 'ja:kja(r)/ ► 16241 pr n West Yorkshire m. wet /wet/ I n 1 (dampness) humidité /; this

plant is tolerant of the — cette plante tolère l’humidité; ducks like the — les canards aiment l’eau; the car won't start in the — la voiture ne veut pas démarrer par temps humide; the tyre performs well in the — le pneu a de bons résultats sur terrain mouillé; 2° GB (feeble person) péj chiffe / molle0 pej; 3 GB Pol conservateur/ -trice m/f modéré/-e. II adj 1 (damp) [clothing, hair, hand, grass, road, surface, patch] mouillé; — with rain/urine mouillé par la pluie/l’urine; — with blood/tea mouillé de sang/de thé; — with tears [hanky] humide de larmes; her face was — with tears son visage était baigné de larmes; — with sweat trempé de sueur; to get — se faire mouiller; to get one's feet/clothes — se mouiller les pieds/les vêtements; to get the floor/the towel — tremper le sol/la serviette; — through trempé; 2 (freshly applied) [cernent, clay, plaster, varnish] humide; [paint] frais/fraîche; '— paint' peinture fraîche’; the ink is still — l’encre n’est pas encore sèche; to keep sth — empêcher qch de sécher; 3 (rainy) [weather, climate, season, day, night, area] humide; [conditions] d’humi¬ dité; [speM] de pluie; tomorrow, the North will be — demain, il pleuvra dans le nord; when it's — quand il pleut; 4 GB péj [person] qui manque de caractère; [remark, action] sans intérêt; don't be so — ! du nerf!; 5 GB Pol [Tory, minister, cabinet, MP] modéré; 6° (where alcohol is sold) [state, country] où l’on peut acheter des boissons alcoolisées. III vtr 1 (pprés -tt-; prêt, pp wet) (with water, blood, sweat, tea) mouiller [floor, object, clothes]', 2 (urinate in or on) to — one's pants/the bed [adult] mouiller sa culotte/le lit; [child] faire pipi dans sa culotte/dans son lit. IV v refl to — oneself gen mouiller sa culotte; [child] faire pipi dans sa culotte.

► ear, whistle. wet: —back0 n US ouvrier agricole mexi¬

cain entré clandestinement aux États-Unis', — blanket0 n éteignoir m, rabat-joie mf inv, — cell (battery) n pile / à liquide.

wet dream n (dream) rêve m érotique; (emis¬ sion) éjaculation/nocturne,

wet fish n GB poisson m frais, wether /’weôa(r)/ n bélier m (châtré), wetland /'wetland/ I n terres fpl maréca¬ geuses. II modif [bird, plant, wildlife] des terres marécageuses; [area, site] marécageux/-euse.

wet-look

/'wetlok/ adj Fashn [plastic, leather] luisant; [hair get] à effet mouillé,

wetly /'wetli/ adv [glisten, gleam] d’humi¬ dité.

wetness /'wetms/ n (of

climate, weather, soil,

garment) humidité /

wetnurse /'wetn3:s/1 n nourrice/. II wet-nurse vtr 1 lit allaiter [baby] ; 2 fig dorloter [person]; mitonner [project],

wet: — rot n carie / aqueuse; — suit n combinaison/de plongée,

wetting /'wetiq/ n to get a — se faire mouiller; to give sth a — faire tremper qch.

wetting agent n mouillant m. we’ve /wi:v/ abrév = we have. W Glam n GB Post abrév écrite ►West Glamorgan. whack /wæk, US hwæk/ Ini (blow) (grand) coup m\ to give sth/sb a — donner un grand coup dans qch/à qn; 2° (share) part/; to get one's — recevoir sa part; to do one's — faire ce qu’on doit; to pay one's — payer sa quote-part; 3 GB° (wage) to pay/earn top — payer/recevoir un très gros salaire; to pay top - payer le maxi¬ mum; 4° (try) essai m; to have ou take a — at (doing) sth essayer (de faire) qch; to get first - at sth/at doing avoir la primeur de qch/de faire.

whacked

1887

whatever

what As a pronoun

In questions When used in questions as an object pronoun, what is translated by que or qu’est-ce que. After que the verb and subject are inverted and a hyphen is placed between them: what is he doing? = que fait-il? orqu'est-ce qu’il fait? When used in questions as a subject pronoun, what is translated by qu’est-ce qui: what happened?

= qu’est-ce qui s'est passé?

Used with preposition After a preposition the translation is quoi. Unlike in English, the preposition must always be placed immediately before quoi: with what did she cut it? = avec quoi l’a-t-elle coupé? or what did she cut it with?

II excl paf! III vtr 1

battre [person, animal]-, frapper [ball]-, 2° GB (defeat) piler0; 3 fig to — £10 off the price réduire le prix de dix livres. idioms out of, ~° US [cupboard] mal foutu°; [arm, leg] blessé. ■ whack off* se branler*. whacked0 /wækt, US hwækt/ adj (jamais épith) (tired) vanné0; (stoned) US défoncé9. whacking0 /'wæknj, US 'hwæk-/ I n raclée0 /. II adj GB énorme. III adv GB ~ great, ~ big énorme. whacky0 /'wæki, US 'hwæki/ adj [person] dingue0; [sense of humour, joke] farfelu0; [party, clothes] délirant0, whale /well, US hweil/ Ini Zool baleine /; 2° a ~ of a difference/story une super0 différence/histoire; to have a — of a time s’amuser comme un fou. 110 vtr US (thrash) lit, fig donner une raclée0 à. whale: —boat n baleinière /; —bone n (in corset etc) baleine /; — calf n baleineau m; —man ► 16921 n US pêcheur m de baleines; — oil n huile/de baleine, whaler /'weita(r), US ’hweilar/ ► 16921 n 1 (ship) baleinier m; 2 (person) pêcheur m de baleines. whaling /’weilip, US hweilirj/ n 1 (whale fish¬ ing) pêche / à la baleine; to go — aller pêcher la baleine; 2° US (thrashing) lit, fig raclée0 /. wham /wæm, US hwæm/1 n grand coup m. II excl vlan! 111 vtr (p prés etc -mm-) frapper [qch] avec force. whammy0 /'wæmi, US 'hwæmi/ n US poisse f whang° /wæq, US hwæp/ I n coup m retentissant. II vtr jeter. wharf /wo:f, US hwo:f/ I n (pi wharves) quai m. II vi [boat] se mettre à quai, wharfage /'wo:fid3, US 'hwo:fid3/ n 1 (accommodation) emplacement m à quai; 2 (fee) droits mpl de bassin, wharves /wo:vz, US hwo:vz/ npl ►wharf, what /wot, US hwot/ I pron 1 (what exactly) (as subject) qu’est-ce qui; (as object) que, qu’est-ce que; (with prepositions) quoi; — is happening? qu’est-ce qui se passe, qu’est-ce qui arrive?; — are you doing/up to°? qu’est-ce que tu fais/fabriques0?; with/ about — ? avec/de quoi?; or — ? ou quoi?; and — else? et quoi d’autre?; — is to be done? que faire?; — do six and four add up to? que font six et quatre?; — is up there? qu’est-ce qu’il y a là-haut?; —'s wrong?, —'s the matter?, —'s up? qu’est-ce qu’il y a?, qu’est-ce qui ne va pas?; — does it matter? qu’est-ce que ça peut faire?; —'s that machine? qu’est-ce que c’est que cet appareil?; —'s her telephone number? quel est son numéro de téléphone? ; (hit)

To introduce a clause When used to introduce a clause as the object of the verb, what is translated by ce que (ce qu’ before a vowel): / don t know what he wants = je ne sais pas ce qu'il veut When what is the subject of the verb it is translated by ce qui: tell me what happened = raconte-moi ce qui s'est passé For particular usages see I in the entry what. As a derterminer

what used as a determiner is translated by quel, quelle, quels or quelles according to the gender and number of the noun that follows: what train did you catch? = quel train as-tu pris? what books do you like? = quels livres aimes-tu? what colours do you like? = quelles couleurs aimes-tu? For particular usages see II in the entry what.

—'s that button for? à quoi sert ce bouton?; — did he do that for? pourquoi est-ce qu’il a fait ça?; — for? (why) pour¬ quoi?; (concerning what) à propos de quoi?, à quel sujet?; 'I'm going to the shops'—'— for?' ‘je vais aux magasins’—‘qu’est-ce que tu veux?’; —'s it like? comment c’est?; —'s it like having an older brother? comment c’est d’avoir un grand frère?; —'s this called in Flemish, —'s the Flemish for this? comment dit-on cela en flamand?; — did it cost? combien est-ce que ça a coûté?; 2 (in rhetorical questions) —'s life without love? que serait la vie sans l’amour?; —'s the use? (enquiringly) à quoi bon?; (exasperatedly) à quoi ça sert?; — does he care? qu’est-ce que ça peut bien lui faire?; — can anyone do? qu’est-ce qu’on peut faire?; 3 (whatever) do — you want/have to fais ce que tu veux/as à faire; 4 (in clauses) (as subject) ce qui; (as object) ce que, (before vowel) ce qu’ ; to wonder/know — is happening se demander/savoir ce qui se passe; to ask/guess — sb wants demander/deviner ce que qn veut; they had everything except — I wanted ils avaient tout sauf ce que je voulais; this is — is called a 'monocle' c’est ce qu’on appelle un ‘monocle’; do you know — that device is? sais-tu ce que c’est que cet appareil?; and — is equally surprising is that et ce qui est tout aussi étonnant, c’est que; she's not — she was elle n’est plus ce qu’elle était; — I need is ce dont j’ai besoin c’est; a hammer, a drill and I don't know — un marteau, une perceuse et je ne sais quoi encore; drinking — looked like whisky buvant quelque chose qui ressemblait à du whisky; and —'s more et en plus; and —'s worse ou better et en plus; 5° (when guessing) it'll cost, —, £50 ça coûtera, quoi or combien, dans les 50 livres?; 6 (inviting repetition) —'s that, — did you say? quoi? qu’est-ce que tu as dit?; he earns —? il gagne combien?; he did — ? il a fait quoi?; George — ? George comment?; 7 (expressing surprise) and — it must have cost! combien ça a dû coûter!; 8t GB (as question tag) a good dinner, —? c’était un bon dîner, non? II det 1 (which) quel/quelle; — magazines do you read? quels magazines est-ce que tu lis?; — time is it? quelle heure est-il?; do you know — train he took? est-ce que tu sais quel train il a pris?; 2 (in exclamations) quel/quelle; — a nice dress/car! quelle belle robe/voiture!; — 3 iovely apartment! quel bel appartement!; — a strange thing to do! quelle drôle d’idée!; — use is that? lit, fig à quoi ça sert?; 3 (the amount of) — money he earns he spends tout ce qu’il gagne, il le dépense; — little she has le peu qu’elle a, tout ce qu’elle a; — belong¬ ings she had she threw away elle a jeté tout ce qui lui appartenait or toutes ses affai¬ res; — few friends she had les quelques amis qu’elle avait. III what about phr 1 (when drawing atten¬ tion) — about the letter they sent? et la

lettre qu ’ils ont envoyée, alors?; — about the children? et les enfants (alors)?; 2 (when making suggestion) - about a meal out? et si on dînait au restaurant?; — about Tues¬ day? OK? qu’est-ce que tu dirais de mardi? ça te va?; ►about; 3 (in reply) '— about your sister?'-'— about her?' et ta sœur?’—‘quoi ma sœur?’ IV what if phr et si; — if I bring the dessert? et si j’apportais le dessert? V what of phr — of Shakespeare and Lamb? littér qu’en est-il de Shakespeare et de Lamb?; — of it°! et puis quoi0! VI what with phr — with her shopping bags and her bike avec ses sacs à provi¬ sions et son vélo en plus; — with the depression and unemployment entre la dé¬ pression et le chômage ; — with one thing and another avec ceci et cela. VII excl quoi!, comment! idioms I'll tell you — tu sais quoi; to give sb — for° GB passer un savon0 à qn; to know —'s — s’y connaître; he doesn't know —'s — il n’y connaît rien; well, — do you know iron tout arrive; — do you think I am°! tu me prends pour quoi!; —'s it to you°? en quoi ça vous regarde?, qu’estce que ça peut bien vous faire?; —'s yours°? qu’est-ce que tu bois?; you know — he/she etc is! on le/la etc connaît!

what: —d’yer-call-her°, —’s-hername0 n Machine0 /; —-d’yer-callhim°, — ’s-his-name n Machin0 m\ — d’yer-call-it°, —’s-its-name° n machin0 m, true0 m.

whatever /wDt’eva(r), US hwDt-/ I pron 1 (that which) (as subject) ce qui; (as object) ce

que; to do — is expedient/required faire ce qui est nécessaire/exigé; 2 (anything that) (as subject) tout ce qui; (as object) tout ce que; do — you like fais tout ce que tu veux; — you can afford to give is welcome tous les dons même les plus modestes seront les bien¬ venus; — he says goes c’est lui qui décide; — you say (as you like) tout ce qui vous plaira; 3 (no matter what) quoi que (+ subi)-, — happens quoi qu’il arrive; — I do, it's wrong quoi que je fasse, j’ai tort; — he says, don't pay any attention quoi qu’il dise, n’y fais pas attention; — it costs it doesn't matter quel que soit le prix, ça n’a pas d’importance; 4 (what on earth) (as subject) qu’est-ce qui; (as object) qu’est-ce que; —'s the matter? qu’est-ce qui ne va pas?; — do you mean? qu’est-ce que tu veux dire par là?; — did he say? qu’est-ce qu’il a bien pu dire?; —'s that! qu’est-ce que c’est que ça!; 'let's go'—'— for?' ‘allonsy’—‘pour quoi faire?’; 'I've bought some caviar'—'— for?' ‘j’ai acheté du caviar’—‘quelle idée!’; — next! qu’est-ce que ça sera la prochaine fois?; 5° (the like) curtains, cushions and — des rideaux, des coussins et toutes sortes de choses; to the cinema or — au cinéma ou n’importe où ailleurs; you add it or subtract it or — vous l’ajoutez ou le soustrayez ou n’importe quoi d’autre.

whatnot

1888

when when can very often be translated by quand in time expressions: when did she leave? = quand est-ce qu’elle est partie? or elle est partie quand? or quand est-elle partie? Note that in questions quand on its own requires inversion of the verb and subject: when are they arriving? = quand arrivent-ils? but when followed by est-ce que needs no inversion: quand est-ce qu’ils arrivent? Occasionally a more precise time expression is used in French: when’s your birthday? = quelle est la date de ton anniversaire? when did he set off? = à quelle heure est-il parti? Remember that the future tense is used after quand if future time is implied: tell him when you see him = dis-le-lui quand tu le verras It is often possible to give a short neat translation for a when clause if there is no change of subject in the sentence: when I was very young, I lived in Normandy = tout jeune, j’habitais en Normandie when he was leaving, he asked for my address = en partant, il m’a demandé mon adresse In expressions such as the day when, the year when, où is used: the day when we got married = le jour où nous nous sommes mariés For examples of the above and further uses of when, see the entry when. II det 1 (any) ~ hope he once had tous les espoirs qu’il avait; they eat — food they can get ils mangent tout ce qu’ils trouvent à manger; — items you've bought, return them il faut rendre tous les articles que vous avez achetés; 2 (no matter what) ~ the events/their arguments quels que soient les événements/leurs arguments; ~ the reason quelle que soit la raison; for — reason pour je ne sais quelle raison; any race of — creed toutes les races quelles que soient leurs croyances; 3 (expressing surprise) — idiot forgot the key? quel est l’imbécile qui a oublié la clé?; ~ video was that? qu’est-ce que c’était que cette vidéo? III adv (at all) no evidence — pas la moindre preuve; to have no idea — ne pas avoir la moindre idée; 'any chance?'—'none —' ‘il y a une chance?’—‘pas la moindre’; 'any petrol?'— 'none ~' ‘il y a de l’essence?’—‘pas du tout’; anything ~ n’importe quoi; is there any possibility — that you can come? y a-t-il la moindre chance que tu puisses venir? whatnot /'wotnDt, US 'hwot-/ n 1 (furniture) étagère /; 2° (unspecified person or thing) machin0 m; 3° (and so on) ...and —... et ainsi de suite. whatsit0 /'wDtsit, US 'hwDt-/ n (thingummy) machin0 m, true0 m; Mr/Mrs Whatsit M./Mme Machin. whatsoever /,WDts3ü'eva(r), US 'hwDt-/ It pron = whatever I. II adv = whatever III. wheat /wi:t, US hwi:t/1 n blé m. II modif [field, sheaf] de blé. idioms to separate the ~ from the chaff séparer le bon grain de l’ivraie. wheatear /’wi:tra(r), US 'hwi:t-/ n Zool culblanc m. wheaten /'wi:tn, US 'hwi:tn/ ad; de blé. wheat: ~ flour n farine / de blé, farine / de froment; ~ germ n germe m de blé; —meal n farine / complète; —meal bread n pain m complet; — rust n rouille / du blé. wheedle /'wi:dl, US 'hwi:dl/ vtr to — sth out of sb soutirer qch à qn par la cajolerie; to — sb into doing sth amener qn à faire qch par la cajolerie. wheedling /'wi:dliq, US ’hwùdlii]/ I n cajo¬ leries fpl. II adj [voice, tone, person] cajoleur/-euse. wheel /wi:l, US hwi:l/ I n 1 (on vehicle) roue /; (on trolley, piece of furniture) roulette /; front/back — roue avant/arrière; 2 (for steering) (in vehicle) volant m; Naut roue / (de gouvernail); to be at ou behind the — être au volant; to take the — (in vehicle) pren¬ dre le volant; Naut tenir la roue; to fall asleep at the — s’endormir au volant; 3

(in watch, mechanism, machine) rouage m; the —s of government fig les rouages du gouvernement; 4 (for pottery) tour m; 5 Hist (instrument of torture) roue /; 6 Games (in roul¬ ette) roue /. 11° wheels npl (car) bagnole0 /, voiture /; are these your new —s? c’est ta nouvelle bagnole0?; have you got —s°? tu es moto¬ risé0? III vtr pousser [bicycle, barrow, pram]\ to — a child in a pram promener un enfant dans sa poussette; they —ed me into the operating theatre ils m’ont emmené dans la salle d’opération sur un chariot. IV vi 1 (also — round) (circle) [bird] tournoyer; 2 (turn sharply) [person, regiment] faire demi-tour; [car, motorbike] braquer fortement; [sftip] virer de bord; to — to the right [person, regiment] faire demi-tour à droite; right/left — ! Mil demi-tour droite/gauche! V -wheeled (dans composés) a three-/four— ed vehicle un véhicule à trois/quatre roues. idioms to — and deal magouiller0; the — of fortune la roue de la fortune; it's —s within —s l’affaire est plus compli¬ quée qu’elle n’en a l’air; to reinvent the — réinventer la roue; to be fifth — US être la cinquième roue du carrosse.

■ wheel in = wheel out. ■ wheel out: — [sth] out, — out [sth]

remettre [qch] sur le tapis [argument, story] ; ressortir [excuse, statistics], wheel: — alignment n Aut parallélisme m; —barrow n brouette /; —base n Aut écartement m des essieux; —chair n fauteuil m roulant. wheelclamp /'widklæmp, US 'hwi:l-/ I n Aut sabot m de Denver. II vtr mettre un sabot de Denver à [car], -wheeler /’wi:ta(r), US 'hwidsr/ (dans composés) it's a two/three— (vehicle) il/elle a deux/trois roues, wheel: — er dealer0 n péj magouilleur/ -euse0 m//; —house n timonerie f. wheeling and dealing n (+ v sg) péj (intri¬ gue) gen manigances fpl, micmacs0 mpl\ (during negotiations) tractations fpl. wheelwright /wi: Irait, US hwi:l-/ n charron m.

wheeze /wi:z, US hwi:z/ Ini (breathing) respiration / sifflante; 2° tGB a good — une idée géniale; 3 US (cliché) adage m; (joke) blague0 f. II vtr dire d’une voix rauque. III vi [person, animal] ahaner; [engine, machine, organ] crachoter. wheezy /’wi:zi, US 'hwi:zi/ adj [person] qui a la respiration sifflante; [voice, cough] rauque; [chest] qui siffle, whelk /welk, US hwelk/ n buccin m. whelp /welp, US hwelp/ I n 1 (of dog) chiot

when m; (of wolf) louveteau m; 2° tpéj (young man) garnementt m. II vi mettre bas. when /wen, US hwen/ I pron 1 (with preposi¬ tions) quand; by —? avant quand?; from — until — ? de quand à quand?; since —? depuis quand? also iron; 2 (the time when) that was — it all started to go wrong c’est à ce moment-là que tout a commencé à mal aller; that's — I was born (day) c’est le jour où je suis né; (year) c’est l’année où je suis né; now is — we must act c’est maintenant qu’il faut agir; he spoke of — he was a child il a parlé de l’époque où il était enfant. II adv 1 (as interrogative) quand (est-ce que); — are we leaving? quand est-ce qu’on part?; — is the concert? c’est quand le concert?; — is it possible to say/use...? quand est-ce qu’on peut dire/utiliser...? ; — do the first rains come? quand commence la saison des pluies?; — was it that he died? quand est-ce qu’il est mort?; 2 (as indir¬ ect interrogative) quand; ask him — he wrote the letter demande-lui quand il a écrit la lettre; I wonder — the film starts je me demande à quelle heure commence le film; I forget exactly — (time) j’ai oublié l’heure exacte; (date) j’ai oublié la date exacte; there was some disagreement as to —... tout le monde n’était pas d’accord sur la date à laquelle...; tell me ou say — (pouring drink) dis-moi d’arrêter; 3 (as relative) on Monday/in 1993 — lundi/en 1993 quand; at the time — (precise moment) au moment où; (during same period) à l’époque où; the week — it all happened la semaine où tout s’est passé; on those rare occasions — les rares fois où; there are times — il y a des moments où; it's times like that — c’est dans ces moments-là que; it's the time of year — c’est la période de l’année où; one morning — he was getting up, he... un matin en se levant, il...; 4 (then) she resigned in May, since — we've had no applicants elle a démis¬ sionné en mai, et depuis (lors) nous n’avons reçu aucune candidature; until — we must stay calm d’ici là nous devons rester calmes; by — we will have received the information d’ici là nous aurons reçu toutes les informations; 5 (whenever) quand; he's only happy — he's moaning il n’est content que quand il rouspète; — on holi¬ day you should relax quand on est en vacances il faut se détendre; — I sunbathe, I get freckles chaque fois que je prends un bain de soleil, j’ai des taches de rousseur; — necessary quand c’est nécessaire; — possible dans la mesure du possible. III conj 1 (at the precise time when) quand, lorsque; — she reaches 18 quand elle aura 18 ans; 2 (during the period when) quand, lorsque; — he was at school/just a trai¬ nee quand il était à l’école/simplement stagiaire; — you're in your teens quand on est adolescent; — sailing, always wear a lifejacket quand on fait de la voile, il faut toujours porter un gilet de sauvetage; 3 (as soon as) quand, dès que; — he arrives. I'll tell him quand or dès qu’il arrivera, je le lui dirai; — drawn up, the plan... quand le projet sera rédigé, il..., une fois rédigé, le projet...; 4 (when simultaneously) quand; I was in the bath — the phone rang j’étais dans mon bain quand le téléphone a sonné; 5 (when suddenly) quand; I was strolling along — all of a sudden... je marchais tranquille¬ ment quand tout d’un coup...; hardly ou scarcely ou barely had I sat down — je venais à peine de m’asseoir quand; 6 (once, after) quand, une fois que; — you've been to Scotland, you'll want to go again and again quand or une fois que vous aurez visité l’Écosse, vous aurez forcément envie d’y retourner; 7 (when it is the case that) alors que; why buy their products — ours are cheaper? pourquoi acheter leurs produits alors que les nôtres sont moins chers?; 8

whence (whereas) alors que; she became a nun ~ she could have been an actress elle est devenue religieuse alors qu’elle aurait pu devenir actrice; he refused ~ I would have gladly accepted il a refusé alors que j’aurais été ravi d’accepter. whence! /wens, US hwens/ adv, conj d’où, whene’er adv littér = whenever, whenever /wen'evo(r), US hwen-/ adv 1 (as interrogative) ~ will he arrive? quand est-ce qu’il va finir par arriver?; ~ did she find the time? comment est-ce quelle a bien pu trouver le temps?; 2 (no matter when) ~ you want quand tu veux; till ~ you like aussi longtemps que tu veux; ~ he does it, it won't matter il peut le faire quand il veut, ça n’a pas d’importance; I'll come ~ it is convenient je viendrai quand cela vous arrangera; 3° (some time) or ~ ou n’importe quand: 'how long are you stay¬ ing?'—'till ~' 'combien de temps est-ce que tu vas rester?’—‘on verra bien’ ; 4 (every time that) chaque fois que; ~ I see a black cat, I make a wish chaque fois que je vois un chat noir, je fais un vœu; ~ he sees a spider, he trembles il suffit qu’il voie une araignée pour qu’il tremble; ~ (it is) neces¬ sary quand c'est nécessaire; ~ (it is) possi ble dans la mesure du possible; 5 (expressing doubt) she promised to return them soon, ~ that might be! elle a promis de les rendre bientôt, mais je ne sais pas quand.

where /weo(r), US hwear/_ ■ Note where is generally translated by où: where are the plates? = où sont les assiettes?; do you know where he’s going? = est-ce que tu sais où il va?; I don't know where the knives are = je ne sais pas où sont les couteaux. - Note that in questions où on its own requires inversion of the verb: where are you going? = où allez-vous? but où followed by est-ce que needs no inversion: où est-ce que vous allez? I pron 1 (with prepositions) où; from ~?

d'où?; near ~? près d’où?; to go up to ~ sb is standing s’approcher de qn; to go past ~ sb is standing passer devant qn; not from ~ I’m standing lit pas de là où je suis; fig ce n’est pas mon avis; 2 (the place or point where) là que; this is ~ it happened c’est là que c’est arrivé; this is ~ we're at c’est là que nous en sommes; that is ~ he's mistaken c’est là qu’il se trompe; so that's ~ I put them c’était là que je les avais mis; here's ~ we learn the truth voilà enfin la vérité; France is ~ you'll find good wine c’est en France que vous trouverez du bon vin. II adv 1 (as interrogative) où (est-ce que); ~ is my coat/do you work? où est mon manteau/est-ce que tu travailles?; ~ would I be if...? où est-ce que je serais si...?; ~ does Martin figure in all this? qu’est-ce que Martin vient faire dans tout ça?; ~'s the harm? quel mal y a-t-il à ça?; ~'s the problem? je ne vois pas le problème; ~ have you got to in your book? où est-ce que vous en êtes dans votre lecture?; 2 (as indirect interrogative) où; ask him/I wonder ~ he's going demandelui/je me demande où il va; I told him ~ he could put them lit je lui ai dit où les mettre; ®fig je lui ai dit qu’il pouvait se les mettre où je pense®; to know ~ one is going savoir où on va; fig savoir ce qu’on veut; you don't know ~ it's been! tu ne sais pas où ça a traîné!; I forget exactly ~ it is j’ai oublié où o’est exactement; 3 (as rela¬ tive) où; the village ~ we live le village où nous habitons; at the spot ~ he died à l’endroit où il est mort; up there ~ there's a branch là-haut à l’endroit où il y a une branche; near ~ she lived près de l’en¬ droit où or près de là où elle habitait; to lead to a situation ~ aboutir à une situ¬ ation où; to reach the stage ~ arriver au stade où; in several cases ~ dans plusieurs cas où; 4 (here where, there where) stay/go ~ it's dry reste/mets-toi à l’abri;

1889

it's cold ~ we live il fait froid là où nous habitons; it's ~ the Indre meets the Loire c’est au confluent de l’Indre et de la Loire; it's not ~ you said (not there) ça n’y est pas; (found elsewhere) ce n’est pas là où tu crois; 5 (wherever) où; put them/go ~ you want mets-les/va où tu veux; 6 (whenever) quand; ~ necessary si nécessaire; she's stupid ~ he's concerned elle se conduit toujours de façon stupide quand il s’agit de lui; ~ children are at risk quand les enfants sont menacés de violence; ~ there's a scandal there's a reporter dès qu il y a un scandale il y a des journalistes; ~ possible dans la mesure du possible. Ill conj = whereas.

whereabouts I /'wearabauts, US 'hwear-/ n do you know his ~? savez-vous où il est? II /.weara'bauts/ adv gen où; 'I've put them in the living room'—'**'?' ‘je les ai mis dans le salon’—‘où ça?’

whereas /.wear'æz, US ,hwear-/ conj she likes dogs ~ I prefer cats elle aime les chiens mais moi je préfère les chats; he chose to stay quiet ~ I would have complained il a choisi de ne rien dire alors que moi je me serais sûrement plaint,

whereby

/wea'bai, US hwear-/ conj a system ~ ail staff will carry identifica¬ tion un système qui prévoit que tous les membres du personnel auront une carte; the criteria ~ allowances are allocated les critères selon lesquels les allocations sont attribuées.

wherefore /’weafa:(r), US 'hwear-/ I adv littér pourquoi. Ht conj donc. idioms the whys and ~s le pourquoi et le comment.

wherein /wear'in, US hwear-/ pron, adv sout où.

whereof /wear'DV, US hwear-/ pron Jur en té¬ moignage or en foi de quoi,

wheresoever! /,weasao'eva(r), US ,hwear-/ adv = wherever. whereupon /.weara'pDn, US .hwear-/ conj sout sur quoi.

wherever /wear'eva(r), US hwear-/ adv 1 (as interrogative) ~ did you put them? où est-ce que tu as bien pu les mettre?; ~ has he got to? où est-ce qu’il a bien pu passer?; ~ did she get that from? où est-ce qu’elle a bien pu trouver ça?; 2 (anywhere) ~ she goes I'll go où qu’elle aille, j’irai; ~ you want où tu veux; ~ you put the painting it won't look right tu peux mettre le tableau où tu veux, de toute façon il ne rendra pas bien; we'll meet ~'s conve¬ nient for you nous nous retrouverons là où ça t’arrange; 3o (somewhere) or ~ ou n’importe où ailleurs; 4 (whenever) ~ there's an oasis, there's a settlement dès qu’il y a une oasis, il y a une implantation; ~ necessary quand c’est nécessaire ; ~ possible dans la mesure du possible; 5 (ex¬ pressing doubt) she's from Vernoux ~ that is! elle vient de Vernoux mais ne me demande pas où c’est! wherewithal /'weawi,ôa:l/ n the ~ les moyens mpl (to do de faire),

whet /wet, US hwet/ vtr (p prés etc -tt-) 1 (stimulate) to ~ the appetite stimuler l’appétit; the book ~ted his appetite for travel les livres lui donnèrent envie de voyager; 2! (sharpen) aiguiser [tool, knife],

whether /’weôa(r), US ‘hweôar/ ■ Note When whether is used to mean if, it is translated by si: I wonder whether she got my letter = je me demande si elle a reçu ma lettre. See 1 in the entry below. - whether often occurs after verbs such as ask, doubt, decide, know, say, see and wonder, with adjectives such as doubtful, sure, and with nouns like doubt, question. You can find further examples at these entries. - In whether...or not sentences whether is translated by que and the verb that follows is in

which the subjunctive: whether you agree or not = que vous soyez d’accord ou non. See 2 in the entry below. conj 1 (when outcome is uncertain: if) si; I wasn't sure ~ to answer or not ou ~ or not to answer je ne savais pas s’il fallait ré¬ pondre, je n’étais pas sùr qu’il fallait ré¬ pondre; I wonder ~ it's true je me demande si c’est vrai; you can't tell ~ she's joking or not c’est impossible de savoir si elle plaisante; they can't decide ~ to buy or rent ils n’arrivent pas à déci¬ der s’ils doivent acheter ou louer; can you check ~ it's cooked? est-ce que tu peux vérifier si c’est cuit?; it's not clear — they've reached an agreement c’est diffi¬ cile de savoir s’ils sont tombés d’accord; the question is ~ anyone is interested le problème est de savoir si quelqu’un est intér¬ essé; she was worried about ~ to invite them elle se demandait si elle devait les inviter; 2 (when outcome is fixed: no matter if) you're going to school ~ you like it or not! tu iras à l’école que cela te plaise ou non!; ~ you have children or not , this book should interest you que vous ayez des enfants ou non, ce livre devrait vous intéresser; ~ or not people are happy is of little importance que les gens soient heureux ou non ce n’est pas très important; they need an adult ~ it be a parent or teacher ils ont besoin d’un adulte que ce soit un parent ou un professeur; everyone, ~ students or townspeople, celebrates tout le monde, que ce soient les étudiants ou les habitants de la ville, fait la fête. whetstone /'wetstaon, US ’hwet-/ n pierre/

à aiguiser. whew /fju:/ excl (in relief) ouf!; (in hot weather) pff!; (in surprise) hein! whey /wei, US hwei/ n petit-lait m, lactosé¬

rum m spec.

whey: ~-faced adj au teint blême; ~ powder n lactosérum m en poudre, which /witj, US hwitj/ I pron 1 (also ~ one) lequel m, laquelle /; ~ do you want, the red skirt or the blue one? laquelle estce que tu veux, la jupe rouge ou la bleue?; ~ of the groups...? (referring to one) lequel des groupes...?; (referring to several) lesquels des groupes ...? ; ~ of you...? lequel/la¬ quelle etc de vous or d’entre vous...?; I know ~ you'd like je sais lequel/laquelle etc tu voudrais; show her ~ you mean montrelui celui/celle etc dont tu parles; ~ is the best/the shortest route? quel est le meilleur chemin/le chemin le plus court?; do you mind ~ you have? est-ce que tu as une préférence?; I don't mind ~ ça m’est égal; can you tell ~ is ~? peux-tu les distinguer?; 2 (relative to preceding noun) (as subject) qui; (as object) que; (after preposi¬ tions) lequel/laquelle/lesquels/lesquelles; the painting ~ hangs in the sitting room le tableau qui est accroché dans le salon; you'll see some crates behind ~ I've placed... tu verras des caisses derrière lesquelles j’ai mis...; the contract ~ he's spoken about ou about ~ he's spoken le contrat dont il a parlé; 3 (relative to preceding clause or concept) (as subject) ce qui; (as object) ce que; he said he hadn't done it, ~ may be true/~ he can't prove il a nié l’avoir fait, ce qui est peut-être vrai/ce qu’il ne peut pas prouver; ~ reminds me... ce qui me fait penser que...; upon ~ she disap¬ peared littér sur quoi elle a disparu; we'll be moving, before ~ we need to... nous allons déménager mais avant il faut que nous...; he's resigned, from ~ we must assume that il a démissionné, d’où on peut déduire que. II det 1 (interrogative) quel/quelle/quels/quel¬ les (before n): ~ books? quels livres?; ~ medals did he win? quelles médailles a-t-il gagnées?; he told me ~ jacket he'd like il m’a dit quelle veste il aimerait avoir ; she asked me ~ coach was leaving first elle

whichever

whimsy

1890

which As a pronoun

In questions When which is used as a pronoun in questions it is translated by lequel, laquelle, lesquels or lesquelles according to the gender and number of the noun it is referring to: there are three peaches, which do you want? = il y a trois pêches, laquelle veux-tu? 'Lucy’s borrowed three of your books' ‘which did she take?’ = ‘Lucy t'a emprunté trois livres’ 'lesquels a-t-elle pris?' The exception to this is when which is followed by a superlative adjective, when the translation is quel, quelle, quels or quelles: which is the biggest (apple) ? = quelle est la plus grande? which are the least expensive (books)? = quels sont les moins chers? In relative clauses as subject or object When which is used as a relative pronoun as the subject of a verb, it is translated by qui: the book which is on the table = le livre qui est sur la table the books which are on the table = les livres qui sônt sur la table When which is the object of a verb it is translated by que (qu' before a vowel or mute‘h’): the book which Tina is reading = le livre que lit Tina Note the inversion of subject and verb; this is the case where the subject is a noun but not where the subject is a pronoun: the book which I am reading - le livre que je lis In compound tenses such as the present perfect and past perfect, the past participle agrees in gender and number with the noun que is referring to: the books which I gave you = les livres que je t’ai donnés the dresses which she bought yesterday = les robes qu’elle a achetées hier In relative clauses after a preposition Here the translation is lequel, laquelle, lesquels or lesquelles according to the gender and number of the noun referred to: the road by which we came = la route par laquelle nous sommes or the road which we came by venus m’a demandé lequel des cars allait partir le premier; ~ one of the children...? lequel or laquelle des enfants...?: 2 (relative) he left the room, during ~ time. . il a quitté la pièce et pendant ce temps-là...; you may wish to join, in ~ case... vous voulez peutêtre vous inscrire, auquel cas...; he failed to apologize, for ~ mistake he paid dearly sout il ne s’est même pas excusé, (c’est une) erreur qu’il a payée cher, whichever /witj'evafr), US hwitj-/ I pron 1 (the one that) (as subject) celui m qui, celle / qui; (as object) celui m que, celle / que; 'which restaurant?'—'~ is nearest/you prefer' ‘quel restaurant?’—‘celui qui est le plus proche/que tu préfères’; come at 2 or 2.30, ~ suits you best viens à 14 h ou 14 h 30, comme cela te convient le mieux; choose either alternative, ~ is the cheap¬ er choisis la moins chère des deux solu¬ tions; 2 (no matter which one) (as subject) quel m que soit celui qui (+ subj), quelle / que soit celle qui (+ subj): (as object) quel m que soit celui que (+ subj), quelle/que soit celle que (+ subj): both courses are worthwhile ~ you choose les deux cours sont aussi intéressants quel que soit celui que tu choi¬ sisses; ~ of the techniques is used, the result will be the same quelle que soit la technique utilisée, le résultat sera le même; 'do you want the big piece or the small piece?'—'~' ‘est-ce que tu veux le gros ou le petit morceau?’—‘n’importe’; 3 (which on earth) ~ did he choose in the end? qu’estce qu’il a fini par choisir? II det 1 (the one that) let's go to ~ station is nearest allons à la gare la plus proche; you may have ~ dress you prefer tu peux avoir la robe que tu préfères; under¬ line ~ answer you consider correct souli¬ gnez la réponse que vous jugez bonne; 2 (no matter which) it won't matter ~ hotel we go to peu importe l’hôtel où nous irons; I'll be happy ~ horse wins quel que soit le cheval qui gagne je serai content; ~ way you look at things quelle que soit la façon dont tu envisages le problème; 3 (which on earth) ~ one do you mean? mais

the expressions for which we have translations = les expressions pour lesquelles nous avons une traduction Remember that if the preposition would normally be translated by à in French (to, af etc.), the preposition + which is translated by auquel, à laquelle, auxquels or auxquelles: the addresses to which we sent letters = les adresses auxquelles nous avons envoyé des lettres With prepositions normally translated by de (of, from etc.) the translation of the preposition which becomes dont: a blue book, the title of which I've forgotten = un livre bleu dont j'ai oublié le titre However, if de is part of a prepositional group, as for example in the case of près de meaning near, the translation becomes duquel, de laquelle, desquels or desquelles: the village near which they live = le village près duquel ils habitent the houses near which she was waiting = les maisons près desquelles elle attendait The translation duquel etc. is also used where a preposition + noun precedes of which: a hill at the top of which there is a house = une colline au sommet de laquelle il y a une maison As a determiner

In questions When which is used as a determiner in questions it is translated by quel, quelle, quels or quelles according to the gender and number of the noun that follows: which car is yours? = quelle voiture est la vôtre? which books did he borrow? - quels livres a-t-il empruntés? Note that in the second example the object precedes the verb so that the past participle agrees in gender and number with the object. For translations of which as a determiner in relative clauses see II 2 in the entry which.

duquel/de laquelle est-ce que tu peux bien parler?

whiff /wif, US hwif/ n (smell) (of perfume, food) odeur / also pej (of de); (of smoke, garlic) bouffée / (of de); fig (of danger, failure, contro¬ versy) relent m (of de); to get ou catch a ~ of sentir l’odeur de. whiffy0 /’wifi, US hwifi/ adj GB puant.

whig /wig, US hwig/ n, adj Pol Hist whig mf. while /wail, US hwail/ I conj 1 (although) bien que (+ subj), quoique (+ subj): ~ the house is big, it is not in a very good state bien que or quoique la maison soit grande, elle n’est pas en très bon état; the peaches, ~ being ripe, had little taste les pêches, quoique mûres, avaient peu de goût; 2 (as long as) tant que; ~ there's life there's hope tant qu’il y a de la vie, il y a de l’espoir; 3 (during the time that) (with different subjects) pendant que; (with the same subject) alors que; sit there ~ I speak to Brigitte asseyez-vous là pendant que je parle à Brigitte; he made a sandwich ~ I phoned il a fait un sandwich pendant que je téléphonais; he met her ~ on holiday il l’a rencontrée pendant qu’il était en vacances; ~ in Spain I visited Madrid pendant que j’étais en Espagne j’ai visité Madrid; he collapsed ~ mowing the lawn U a eu un malaise alors qu’il tondait le gazon; 4 (at the same time as) en; I fell asleep ~ watching TV je me suis endormi en regardant la télé; this eliminates draughts ~ allowing air to circulate cela élimine les courants d’air tout en permettant à l’air de circuler; close the door ~ you're about ou at it ferme la porte pendant que tu y es; 'MOT ~ you wait' ‘contrôle technique express’; 'heels repaired ~ you wait' ‘talons minute’; 5 (whereas) tandis que. II n a ~ ago ou back0 il y a quelque temps; a ~ later quelque temps plus tard; a good ou long ~ ago il y a longtemps; for a good ~ pendant longtemps; a good ~ later longtemps après, beaucoup plus tard; a short ou little ~ ago il y a peu de temps; a short ~ later, after a short ~ peu de temps après; it will be ou take a ~ cela va

prendre un certain temps; it takes a ~ to cook cela prend un certain temps à cuire; rt may take a ~ ça risque de prendre un certain temps; to wait a ~ longer attendre encore un peu; to stop/rest for a ~ s’arrêter/se reposer un peu or un moment; after a ~ he fell asleep au bout d’un moment il s’est endormi; after a ~ I started to trust him au bout d’un moment or au bout d’un certain temps j’ai commencé à lui faire confiance; he worked, humming all the ~ ou the whole ~ il travaillait tout en chantonnant; and all the ~ ou the whole ~, he was cheating on her et depuis le début , il la trompait; once in a ~ de temps en temps; in between ~s entre-temps. ► worth. ■ while away: ~ away [sth] tuer (hours, minutes] (doing, by doing en faisant); to ~ away the time by playing cards tuer le temps en jouant aux cartes. whilst /wailst, US hwailst/ conj = while I. whim /wim, US hwim/ n caprice m: on a ~ sur un coup de tête.

whimper /’wimpafr), US ’hwim-/ I n gé¬ missement m (of de). II vtr 'I'm cold,' she ~ed ‘j’ai froid,’ ditelle en gémissant. III vi 1 [person, animal] gémir; 2 péj (whinge) [person] pleurnicher. idioms to end, not with a bang, but a ~ finir sans éclat.

whimpering /’wimporiij, US hwim-/ I n (of person, puppy) gémissements mpi, pej (of person) geignements mpl. II adj [voice] geignard; pej [person] pleurnicheur/-euse; a ~ sound ou noise un gé¬ missement.

whimsical

/’wimzikl, US ’hwim-/ adj [person] fantasque; [play, tale, manner, idea] saugrenu; Fin [market] capricieux/-ieuse. whimsicality /.wimzi’kætati, US ’hwim-/ n fantaisie f.

whimsically /’wimzikh, US ’hwim-/ adv [remark, write] de façon saugrenue; [decide] sur un coup de tête.

whimsy /’wimzi, US ’hwim-/ n littér fantaisie

whimwhams whimwhams

/'wimwæms, US 'hwim-/ npl US frousse0 /; to get the ~ avoir la frousse0.

whine /wain, US hwain/ I n (of person, animal) geignement m; (of engine) plainte/; (of bullet) sifflement m; her voice had a nasal ~ elle parlait d’une voix nasillarde. II vtr Tm hungry/ he ~d j’ai faim,’ dit-il d'une voix geignarde. III vi (complain) se plaindre, geindre (about de); (snivel) pleurnicher; [dog] gémir. whinge0 /wind3/ vi râler0, whingeingo /’winder)/ GB I n plaintes fpl. II adj [person] geignard, whining /'wainiq, US 'hwain-/ I n (com¬ plaints) jérémiades fpl, geignements mpl; (of engine) gémissements mpl aigus; (of dog) gé¬ missements mpl. II adj [voice] (complaining, high-pitched) geignard; [child] pleurnicheur/-euse; [letter] de réclamation. whinny /'wmi, US 'hwim/ I n faible hennissement m. II vi [horse] hennir doucement; fig péj [person] hennir. whinnying /wiryirj, US 'hwmmj/ I n (of horse) (faible) hennissement m; fig péj (of person) hennissement m. II adj péj [voice, sound] hennissant, whip /wip, US hwip/ I n 1 (for punishment) fouet m; (for horse) cravache /; 2 GB Pol (offi¬ cial) député chargé d'assurer la discipline de vote des membres de son parti, chef m de file ; (notice, summons) convocation / (envoyée aux membres d'un parti lors d’une séance de Parlement importante)', three-line ~ convo¬ cation / urgente (pour assister à une séance de vote)', to resign the party ~ démis¬ sionner du groupe parlementaire; 3 Culin mousse /; strawberry — mousse aux fraises; instant ~ dessert m instantané. II vtr (p prés etc -pp-) 1 (beat) fouetter [person, animal]', the wind — ped our faces le vent nous fouettait le visage; 2 Culin fouetter [cream]; battre [qch] en neige [egg whites]; 3° (remove quickly) she — ped the newspaper from under his nose elle lui a chipé0 le journal sous le nez; I ~ped the key out of his hand je lui ai arraché la clé des mains; he —ped the plates off the table il a prestement retiré les assiettes de la table; 4 GB (steal) piquer0, chiper0 (from sb à qn); 5 surfiler [fabric]; surlier [rope]; 6 US (defeat) battre. 111° vi (p prés etc -pp-) (move fast) to ~ in/out entrer/sortir précipitamment; he —ped into a shop to buy a paper il est entré rapidement dans un magasin pour acheter un journal; I'll just ~ out to get some milk je sors juste une minute pour aller acheter du lait; she's just ~ped over ou round to the neighbours elle est juste allée faire un saut° chez les voisins; to — round se retourner brusquement. ■ whip away: ~ away [sth], ~ [sth] away [person] retirer or enlever prestement [plate, book]; [wind] faire voler, emporter brusquement [hat, scarf], m whip back: 5[ — back [branch, wire] revenir brusquement en arrière; 51 — back [sth], — [sth] back récupérer [qch] brusquement [object]; I wanted to read the letter, but he ~ped it back je voulais lire la lettre mais il me l’a arrachée des mains. ■ whip in: 5[ — in Hunt être piqueur; 5[ — in [sth], ~ [sth] in 1 Hunt rassembler [hounds]; 2 Culin incorporer [qch] (avec un fouet) [cream]; 5! ~ in [sb], ~ [sb] in US Pol rallier [party members], ■ whip off: ~ off [sth], — [sth] off enle¬ ver or ôter [qch] à toute vitesse [garment, shoes], m whip on: ~ on [sth], ~ [sth] on 1 enfiler [qch] à toute vitesse [garment]; 2 (urge on) cravacher [horse], m whip out: ~ out [sth] sortir [qch] brusquement [wallet, gun], m whip through expédier [task, book], m whip up: ~ up [sth] 1 (incite) attiser

whistle

1891 [hatred, enthusiasm] ; provoquer [fear] ; rani¬ mer [indignation, hostility]; éveiller, stimu¬ ler [interest]; rallier [support] ; inciter, provo¬ quer [strike, unrest]; to — the crowd up into a frenzy mettre la foule en délire; 2 Culin battre [qch] au fouet, fouetter [cream, eggs]; 3 (produce quickly) préparer [qch] en vitesse [snack, meal, report], whipcord /’wipko:d, US hwip-/ n 1 Tex whipcord m; 2 (part of whip) mèche / de fouet.

whip hand n to have the — avoir le dessus; to have the ~ over sb l’emporter sur qn.

whip: —lash n coup m de fouet; —lash injury n Med coup m du lapin, traumatisme m cervical; —ped cream n crème / fouettée; —per-in n Hunt piqueur m. whippersnappert /’wiposnæpoOj, us 'hwipa-/ n freluquett m.

whippet /'wipit, US 'hwipit/ n Zool whippet m.

whipping Avipit], US 'hwip-/ n 1 correction f (au fouet); to give sb a — donner le fouet à qn, fouetter qn; 2 (stitching on fabric, rug) surfilage m.

whipping: — boy n souffre-douleur m inv; — cream n crème / fraîche (à fouetter); — post n poteau m (des condamnés au fouet); — top n toupie /. whippoorwill /'wipuowil, US 'hwip-/ n engoulevent m.

whip: —-round' n GB collecte /; —saw n « scie/à ruban; —snake n couleuvre /; —stitch n surfil m. whir n, vi = whirr. whirl /W3:l, US hw3:l/1 n 1 fig (of activity, exci¬ tement) tourbillon m (of de); the social — le tourbillon social; to be in a — vivre dans un tourbillon; my head's in a — tout tourbillonne dans ma tête; 2 (swirl of dust, air, leaves etc) tourbillon m; 3 (spiral motif) spirale / II vtr 1 (swirl, turn) faire tournoyer [sword, flag, leaves, snowflakes, dust]; 2 (whisk, hurry) to — sb along/away entraîner/emmener qn à toute vitesse. III vi 1 (swirl, turn) [dancer] tournoyer; [blade, propeller] tourner; [snowflakes, dust, mind, thoughts] tourbillonner; 2 (move quickly, whizz) to — in/past [person, vehicle] entrer/filer à toute vitesse. idioms to give sth a —° essayer qch. ■ whirl round: 5 — round [person] se retourner brusquement; [blade, rotor, clock hand] tourner brusquement; 51 ~ [sth] round faire tournoyer [sword, rope], whirligig /'W3:ligig, US 'hw3:l-/ n 1 (merrygo-round) manège m; 2 (spinning top) toupie/; 3 fig (whirl) tourbillon m. whirligig beetle n Zool gyrin m, tourni¬ quet m. whirl: —pool n tourbillon m, remous m; —pool bath n bain m bouillonnant; —wind n tourbillon m. whirlybird0 /'W3:lib3:d, US 'hw3:l-/ n US hélico0 m. whirr /W3:(r), US hw3:r/ I n (of propeller, motor) vrombissement m; (of toy, camera, insect) bourdonnement m; (of wings) bruisse¬ ment m. II vi [motor, propeller] vrombir; [camera, fan] tourner; [insect] bourdonner; [wings] bruire.

whisk

/wisk, US hwisk/

Ini

Culin (also

egg

—) (manual) fouet m; (mechanical, electric) batteur m; 2 with a — of its tail d’un coup de queue. II vtr 1 Culin (beat) battre [sauce, mixture, eggs]; — the eggs and cream together battre les œufs avec la crème; 2 (transport, move quickly) he was —ed off to meet the president on l’a emmené sur le champ rencontrer le président; she was —ed off to hospital elle a été emmenée d'urgence à l’hôpital; she —ed open the gate elle a ouvert rapidement le portail; he — ed the

plates off the table il a enlevé les assiettes de la table d’un geste rapide; 3 (flick) the cow —ed its tail la vache fouettait l’air de sa queue; she —ed the fly away with her hand elle a chassé la mouche d’un geste rapide de la main. Ill vi she —ed into the room elle est entrée précipitamment dans la pièce; he —ed off in his long cloak il est parti rapi¬ dement, vêtu de sa longue cape; he — ed around the room with a duster il a donné un rapide coup de chiffon dans la pièce. whisker /'wiskafr), US 'hwi-/ I n 1 lit (of animal) moustache/; 2 fig to lose/win by a — perdre/gagner d’un poil° or de justesse; to come within a — of victory/of winning être à deux doigts de la victoire/de gagner. II whiskers npl (of animal) moustaches fpl; (of man) (side-whiskers) favoris mpl; (beard) barbe/; (moustache) moustache/. whiskery /'wiskori, US 'hwi-/ adj [chin] poilu.

whisky GB, whiskey US, lr /‘wiski, us 'hwi-/ I n (pl -kies GB, —s US, lr) whisky m; — and soda = whisky-Perrier®. II modif [bottle, glass] à whisky; [sauce] au whisky. whisky mac n cocktail m.

whisper /'wispo(r), US 'hwrs-/ I n

(of person, voices) chuchotement m; fig (rustling sound) (of trees, leaves, wind) chuchotement m, bruisse¬ ment m; (of water) murmure m; fig (rumour) bruit m, rumeur /; to speak in a — ou in

—s parler à voix basse; to say in a — dire à voix basse; her voice hardly rose above a — sa voix était à peine plus forte qu’un chuchotement; his voice dropped to a — il a baissé la voix et s’est mis à chucho¬ ter; I don't want to hear a — out of you je ne veux pas t’entendre; there is a — going round that fig le bruit court que. II vtr chuchoter (to à); to — sth to sb chuchoter qch à qn, dire qch à voix basse à qn; 'she's asleep,' he —ed ‘elle dort,’ dit-il en chuchotant; she —ed sth in his ear elle lui a chuchoté qch à l’oreille; it is —ed that fig on dit que, le bruit court que. III vi [person] chuchoter, parler à voix basse; [leaves, trees, wind] chuchoter; [water] murmurer; to — to sb parler à voix basse à qn; it's bad manners to — c’est impoli de faire des messes basses0. whispering /'wispariq, US 'hwi-/ I « C (of voices) chuchotement m; (of leaves, trees, wind) chuchotement m, murmure m, bruissement m; (of water) murmure m; fig (rumours) rumeurs fpl insidieuses. II adj [person] qui chuchote; [leaves, trees, wind] chuchotant, murmurant; [water] murmurant; — voices chuchotements mpl. whispering: — campaign n campagne / de diffamation; — gallery n galerie / à écho. whist /wist, US hwist/ ► 12821 n whist m. whist drive n tournoi m de whist. whistle /'wisl, US 'hwi-/ î n 1 (small pipe) sifflet m; (siren) sirène/; the factory — goes at 5 pm la sirène de l’usine sonne à 17 h; to blow the ou one's — donner un coup de sifflet; to blow the — for half time siffler la mi-temps; 2 (sound) (made by mouth, kettle, train, wind) sifflement m; (made with a small pipe) coup m de sifflet; to give a — of surprise pousser un sifflement de surprise; 3 Mus flageolet m. II vtr gen siffler [tune, command]; (casually) siffloter [melody], III vi 1 (make noise) [bird, person, kettle, train, wind] siffler; to — at sb/sth siffler qn/qch; to — for siffler [dog]; he —d to us to come il nous a sifflés pour nous faire venir; 2 (move fast) to - past ou by [arrow, bullet] passer en sifflant; [train] passer à toute vitesse; the arrows —d past our heads/through the air les flèches sifflaient au-dessus de nos têtes/dans l’air. idioms to blow the — on sb dénoncer

whistle-blower qn; to blow the ~ on sth révéler qch; (as) clean as a ~ propre comme un sou neuf; you can ~ for it°! tu peux toujours courir0!; to wet one's ~° se rincer le gosier0; to — in the dark essayer de se donner du courage. ■ whistle up°; ~ up [sth] dégoter0 [object, volunteer].

whistle-blower0

/'wislbbuafr), US 'hwisl-/

n dénonciateur/-trice mtf.

whistle-stop

/'wislstDp, US 'hwisl-/ US Rail I n gare /à arrêt facultatif. II vi (p prés etc -pp-) s’arrêter dans les petites gares.

whistle-stop tour n

who

1892

(by diplomat, president)

tournée / éclair inv (of de); (by candidate on campaign) tournée/ électorale (of de),

whitt /wit, US

hwit/ n brin m; not a — pas un brin; it bothered him not a — ça ne l’ennuyait pas le moins du monde.

Whit /wit, US hwit/ n: abrév ► Whitsun, white /wait, US hwait/ ► 11041 Ini (colour) blanc m; I like — j’aime le blanc; in ~ en blanc; a shade of ~ un ton de blanc; 2 (part of egg, eye) blanc m; the —s of sb's eyes le blanc des yeux de qn; 3 (also White) (Caucasian) Blanc/Blanche m//; 4 (white ball) bille / blanche {de billard/snooker); 5 (wine) blanc m; 6 (in chess, draughts) blancs mpl; I'll be ~ je prends les blancs; — wins les blancs gagnent; 7 (also White) Pol (reactionary) Blanc/Blanche m//. II whites npl 1 (clothes) crick¬ et/tennis/chef's —s tenue / de cricket/ de tennis/de chef-cuisinier; 2 Med (leucorrhoea) pertes fpl blanches. III adj 1 [paint, tooth, flower, hair] blanc/blanche; bright/cool ~ blanc écla¬ tant/glacial inv; to go ou turn — devenir blanc, blanchir; to turn sth — faire blan¬ chir qch; to paint/colour sth — peindre/colorer qch en blanc; 2 (Caucasian) [race, child, skin] blanc/blanche; [area] habité par des Blancs; [culture, prejudice, fears] des Blancs; a — man/woman un Blanc/une Blanche; an all-— jury un jury exclusivement composé de Blancs; 3 (pale) [face, person, cheek] pâle (with de); to go ou turn — pâlir (with de). idioms he would swear black was — il a l’esprit de contradiction; the men in — coats hum les infirmiers psychiatriques; two blacks don't make a — on n’efface pas un tort par un autre; whiter than — [reputation, person] plus blanc/blanche que neige. ■ white out: ~ out [sth], ~ [sth] out effacer [qch] (avec du blanc),

whitebait /'waitbeit, US 'hwait-/ npl 1 (raw) blanchaille/; 2 (fried) petite friture/, white: —beam n Bot alisier m blanc; — blood cell. — blood corpuscle n globule m blanc; —board n tableau m blanc; — book n US livre m blanc, rapport m officiel (on sur); — bread n pain m blanc; —cap n mouton m; — cedar n cèdre m blanc; White Christmas n Noël m avec de la neige; — coffee n (at home) café m au lait; (in café) café m crème,

white-collar /,wait'kDb(r), US ,hwait-/ adj [job, work] d’employé de bureau, de col blanc; [staff] de bureau; [vote] des cols blancs; [neighborhood] US résidentiel/-ielle.

white: —-collar crime n délinquance / en col blanc; —collar union n syndicat m des employés de bureau; —-collar worker n employé/-e m// de bureau, col m blanc; —d sepulchre n péj hypocrite mf; — dwarf n naine/blanche. white elephant n péj 1 (item, knicknack) bibelot m; 2 (public project) réalisation/coû¬ teuse et peu rentable.

white: — elephant stall n stand m de bibelots; White Ensign n pavillon m blanc {de la marine de guerre britannique)', —faced adj [person] pâle; [animal] à tête blan¬ che.

white feather n: symbole de reddition, avec

white tie Ini (tie) nœud m papillon blanc;

connotation de poltronnerie. idioms to show the — se rendre comme un poltron. white: — fish n poisson m blanc; — flag n drapeau m blanc; ~fly n aleurode m; — fox n (animal) renard m polaire; (fur) renard m blanc; — friar n carme m; — gaso¬ line n US essence/sans plomb; — gold n or m blanc. white goods n 1 (appliances) gros électro¬ ménager m; 2 (linens) blanc m nous oyons...

j’ouïrai...

il pleuvait

il plut

il pleuvra

ils pleuvaient

ils plurent

ils pleuvront

i

je pourvois, -s, -t, -ent

y

nous pourvoyons, -ez

je pourvoirai... je pourvoyais ... je pourvus ...

ie

j’assieds, -ds, -d

ey

nous asseyons, -ez, -ent

j’ assiérai... j’ asseyais ... j’assis ...

j’assois, -s, -t, -ent

oy

nous assoyons, -ez

42 prévoir

oi

je prévois, -s, -t, -ent

oy

nous prévoyons, -ez

j’ assoirai... j* assoyais ...

je prévoirai... je prévoyais ...

i/u

je prévis ...

eu

je meus, -s, -t, -vent

ou

nous mouvons, -ez

je mouvais ...

u

prévaloir

j’ouïs ...

ils pleuvent

oi

45 valoir

je viendrai...

il pleut

asseoir (oi/oy replace ie/ey)

44 devoir

je vins ... ils vinrent

j’oyais...

i

43 mouvoir

Future

je venais ...

U 41 asseoir

Past Historic

mouvrai... je mus, -s, -t, -(û)mes, -(û)tes, -rent

û in the past participle masc. sing.

je dois, -s, -t -vent nous devons, -ez

au, aille

je vaux, -x, -t

al

nous valons, -ez, -ent

je dus ... je devais...

je devrai...

je vaudrai... je valais ...

je valus...

French verbs 1933

CONDITIONAL

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Present

Imperfect

je viendrais ...

que je vienne, -es, -e, -ent

que je vinsse ...

IMPERATIVE

que nous venions, -iez

PARTICIPLE Present

Past

36

viens venons, -ez

venant

venu, -e

37 gisant

que j’oie ... nous oyions ...

que j’ouïsse ...

il pleuvrait

qu’il pleuve

qu’il plût

ils pleuvraient

qu’ils pleuvent

qu'ils plussent

je pourvoirais ...

que je pourvoie, -es, -e, -ent

pourvois

que nous pourvoyions, -iez

pourvoyons, -ez

j’ ouïrais ...

ois oyons, -ez

pleuvant

pourvoyant

41 asséyant assis, -e

que j’assisse ... que j’assoie, -es, -e, -ent

assois

que nous assoyions, -iez

assoyons, -ez

que je prévoie, -es, -e, -ent

prévois

que ns prévoyions, -iez

prévoyons, -ez

assoyant

42 prévoyant prévu, -e

que je prévisse ... que je meuve, -es, -e, -ent

meus

que nous mouvions, -iez

mouvons, -ez

43 mouvant mû, mue

que je musse ...

je devrais ...

je vaudrais ...

39

pourvu, -e

asseyons, -ez

que j’ asseye ... que nous asseyions ...

je mouvrais ...

plu

assieds

je assiérais ...

je prévoirais ...

38

40

que je pourvusse ...

j’ assoirais ...

ouï, -e oyant

que je doive, -es, -e, -ent que nous devions, -iez

que je dusse ...

devons, -ez

que je prévale, -es, -e

que je valusse ...

valons, -ez

44

devant

45

vaux

que je vaille, -es, -e, -ent que nous valions, -iez

dû, due

dois

valant

valu, -e

1934 French verbs

INFINITIVE

Rules

INDICATIVE Present

46 voir

oi

je vois, -s, -t, -ent

oy

nous voyons, -ez

Imperfect

48 vouloir

5 forms

veu/veuil

je sais, -s, -t, nous savons, ez, -ent

Future

je vis ...

je verrai...

je sus ...

je saurai...

je voulus ...

je voudrai...

* je voyais ...

i/e/u 47 savoir

Past Historic

je savais ...

* je veux, -x,,-t, veulent je voulais...

voul/voudr

nous voulons, -ez

eu/u(i)

je peux, -x, -t, peuvent

ouv/our

nous pouvons, -èz

je pouvais ...

50 falloir

Impersonal

il faut

il fallait

il fallut

il faudra

51 déchoir

choir and échoir are defective

je déchois, -s, -t, -ent nous déchoyons, -ez

je déchoyais ...

je déchus...

je décherrai...

49 pouvoir

52 prendre

prend

je prends, -ds, -d

pren

nous prenons, -ez ils prennent

je pus...

je prendrai... je prenais ... je pris ...

pri(s) je romps, -ps, -pt, nous rompons ...

53 rompre

54 craindre

55 peindre

56 joindre

57 vaincre

58 traire

je pourrai...

ain/aind

je crains, -s, -t

aign

nous craignons, -ez, -ent

ein

je peins, -s, -t

eign

nous peignons, -ez, -ent

oin/oind

je joins, -s, -t

oign

nous joignons, -ez, -ent

aine

je vaincs, -es, -c

ainqu

nous vainquons, -ez, -ent

i

je trais, -s, -t, -ent

y

nous trayons, -ez

je rompais ...

je rompis ...

je craignais...

je craignis...

je peignais ...

je peignis...

je joignais...

je joignis...

je vainquais...

je vainquis ...

je romprai...

je craindrai...

je peindrai...

je joindrai...

je vaincrai...

(obsolete) je trayais ...

je trairai...

French verbs 1935

CONDITIONAL

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Present

Imperfect

vois

que nous voyions, -iez

voyons, -ez

que je sache ...

que je susse ...

je décherrais ...

voyant vu, -e

sache, -ons, -ez

sachant

que nous voulions, -iez

que je voulusse ...

voulons, -ez (veuillez)

que je puisse ...

que je pusse ...

{obsolete)

qu’il faille

qu’il fallût

que je déchoie, -es, -e, -ent que nous déchoyions, que je déchusse ... -iez

48 voulant

voulu, -e

pu

49

{no form)

{obsolete)

fallu

50

déchois

{no form but échéant)

51 déchu, -e

déchoyons, -ez

52

prends prenons, -ez

que je prenne ...

prenant pris, -e

que je prisse ... que je rompe ...

que je rompisse ...

romps -pons, -pez

rompant

crains

je craindrais ... que je craigne ...

que je craignisse ...

craignons, -ez

que je peigne ...

que je peignisse ...

peignons, -ez

que je joigne ...

que je joignisse ...

joignons, -ez

que je vainque...

que je vainquisse .. .

vainquons, -ez

que je traie, -es, -e, -ent

{obsolete)

trais

que nous trayions, -yiez

trayons, -ez

craint, -e

54

peint, -e

55

joint, -e

56

vaincu, -e

57

trait, -e

58

joignant

vaincs

je vaincrais ...

53

peignant

joins

je joindrais ...

rompu, -e

craignant

peins

je peindrais ...

je trairais ...

47

pouvant

je prendrais ...

je romprais ...

su, -e

veux (veuille)

je pourrais ... il faudrait

Past

46

que je visse ...

que je veuille, -es, -e, -ent je voudrais ...

PARTICIPLE

Present

que je voie, -es, -e, -ent

je verrais ... je saurais ...

IMPERATIVE

vainquant

trayant

1936 French verbs

INFINITIVE

59 plaire

Rules

ai

INDICATIVE Present

Imperfect

je plais, tu plais, il plaît (but il tait) nous plaisons...

je plaisais ...

met

62 suivre

63 vivre

je plairai...

je plus ... je mets, nous mettons

je mettais...

mis 61 battre

Future

*

u 60 mettre

Past Historic

je mettrai.., je mis...

t

je bats, -ts, -t

tt

nous battons ...

je battais...

je battis ...

je battrai...

je suivis ...

je suivrai...

ui

je suis, -s, -t

uiv

nous suivons ...

je suivais ...

vi/viv

je vis, -s, -t, nous vivons

je vivais ...

véc

je vivrai... je vécus ...

64 suffire

je suffis, -s, -t, nous suffisons ...

je suffisais ...

je suffis...

je suffirai...

65 médire

je médis, -s, -t, nous médisons, vous médisez (but vous dites, redites)

je médisais ...

je médis ...

je médirai...

66 lire

i

je lis, -s,-t

is

nous lisons, -ez, -ent

je lirai... je lisais...

u 67 écrire

je lus ...

i

j’écris, -s, -t

iv

nous écrivons, -ez, -ent

j’ écrivais ...

j’ écrivis ...

68 rire

je ris, -s, -t, nous rions ...

je riais ... nous riions, -iez

je ris ... nous rîmes ...

je rirai...

69 conduire

je conduis ...

je conduisais ...

je conduisis...

je conduirai...

70 boire

71 croire

oi

je bois, -s, -t, -vent

u(v)

nous buvons, -ez

oi

je crois, -s, -t, ils croient

oy

nous croyons, -ez

u

j’ écrirai...

je boirai... je buvais...

je bus ...

je croirai... je croyais ... je crus ...

French verbs 1937

CONDITIONAL

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Present

je plairais...

que je plaise ...

IMPERATIVE Imperfect

PARTICIPLE Present

plais plaisons, -ez

plu mets mettons, -ez

que je mette...

59

plaisant

que je plusse... je mettrais...

Past

60

mettant mis, -e

que je misse ...

61

bats je battrais ...

que je batte...

que je battisse ...

battant

battu, -e

suivons, -ez

suivant

suivi, -e

vis vivons, -ez

vivant

battons, -ez

62

suis je suivrais ...

que je suive...

je vivrais ...

que je vive ...

que je suivisse ...

vécu, -e

que je vécusse ... je suffirais ...

que je suffise ...

que je suffisse ...

63

suffis suffisons, -ez

suffisant

suffi

64

(but confit,

déconfit, frit, circoncis)

je médirais ...

que je médisse ... que je médise... que nous médisions, -iez

médis médisons médisez (but dites, redites)

médisant

médit

66

lis

je lirais...

lisons, -ez

que je lise...

lisant lu, -e

que je lusse ... écris

j’écrirais ...

65

écrit, -e

67

que j’écrive ...

que j’écrivisse ...

écrivons, -ez

écrivant

que je rie...

que je risse...

ris, rions, riez

riant

ri

68

que nous riions, -iez

que nous rissions ..

je conduirais ...

que je conduise ...

que je conduisisse . .. conduis conduisons, -ez

conduisant

conduit, -e (èwtlui, nui)

69

je boirais...

que je boive, -es, -e, -ent

je rirais ...

que nous buvions, -iez je croirais ...

70

bois que je busse ...

buvons, -ez

buvant

bu, -e

71

crois

que je croie ...

croyons, -ez que je crusse ...

croyant cru, -e

1938 French verbs

INFINITIVE

Rules

INDICATIVE Present

72 croître



je croîs, -s, -t

oiss

nous croissons, -ez, -ent

Past Historic

Imperfect

je croissais ... je crûs ...

je connais, -s, -ssons, -ssez, -ssent

je connaissais ...

il connaît

je connaîtrai...

î before t

je nais, nais, naît

je naîtrai...

naisse

nous naissons, -ez, -ent

je naissais ... je naquis ...

naqu ou/oudr

je résous, -s, -t

ol/olv

nous résolvons, -ez, -ent

je résolvais ...

77 moudre

80 maudire

je résoudrai...

have no past historic)

je coudrai...

oud

je couds, -ds, -d

ous

nous cousons, -ez, -ent

moud

je mouds, -ds, -d

moul

nous moulons, -ez, -ent

je moulais ...

je moulus...

je conclus, -s, -t, nous concluons, -ez, -ent

je concluais...

je conclus...

je conclurai...

je clos, -os, -ôt ils closent

(iobsolete)

0obsolete)

je clorai...

je maudis, -s, -t nous maudissons, -ez, -ent

je maudissais...

je maudis...

je maudirai...

78 conclure

79 clore

(absoudre and dissoudre

je résolus...

olu

76 coudre

je connus ...

î before t

74 naître

75 résoudre

je croîtrai...

»

û

73 connaître

Future

Defective

je cousais ...

je cousis...

je moudrai...

French verbs 1939 CONDITIONAL

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Present

IMPERATIVE Imperfect

je croîtrais...

PARTICIPLE Present

Past

croîs que je croisse ...

croissons, -ez

72 croissant

que je crûsse ...

crû, crue {but accru, -e)

que je connaisse ...

que je connusse ...

connais, -ssons, -ssez

73 connaissant

connu, -e

je connaîtrais .. nais

né, -e

74

(absous, -oute; dissous, -oute)

75

je naîtrais... que je naisse ...

naissons, -ez

naissant

que je naquisse ... je résoudrais ...

résous que je résolve ...

résolvons, -ez

résolvant

que je résolusse ... je coudrais ...

couds que je couse ...

que je cousisse ...

je moudrais...

je conclurais...

résolu, -e

cousons, -ez

76 cousant

cousu, -e

mouds

77

que je moule...

que je moulusse ...

moulons, -ez

moulant

que je conclue ...

que je conclusse ...

conclus concluons, -ez

concluant

moulu, -e

conclu, -e

78

(.but inclus, -e)

je clorais...

que je close ...

0obsolete)

clos

closant

clos, -e

79

je maudirais...

que je maudisse qu’il maudisse

que je maudisse qu’il maudît

maudis -ssons, -ssez

maudissant

maudit, -e

80

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\

Verbes irréguliers anglais

Vous trouverez ci-après la liste des formes irrégulières des verbes qui figurent dans le dictionnaire, à l’excep¬ tion: • des verbes composés s’écrivant avec un trait d’union et dont l’un'des éléments est un verbe irrégulier (ex. baby-sit) ; • des verbes dont on double la dernière consonne au prétérit et au participe passé (ex. spot) (la conjugaison est indiquée dans le dictionnaire pour cette caté¬ gorie); • des verbes dont le y final devient -ie dès que l’on ajoute la désinence -d ou -s (ex. try). Les verbes dont les formes irrégulières ne s’appliquent qu’à certains sens sont signalés par un astérisque (*) (ex. costed).

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

abide arise awake

abode, abided arose awoke

abode, abided arisen awoken

be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend beseech beset bespeak

was/were bore beat became befell begot, begatff began beheld bent beseeched, besought beset bespoke

bet bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast browbeat build burn

bet, betted bade, bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast browbeat built burned, burnt GB

been borne beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent beseeched, besought beset bespoke, bespoken bet, betted bidden, bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast browbeaten built burned, burnt GB

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

bust buy

bust, busted GB bought

bust, busted GB bought

cast catch choose cleave cling come cost creep crow cut

cast caught chose clove, cleaved clung came cost, *costed crept crowed, crewft cut

cast caught chosen cleft, cleaved, cloven clung come cost, *costed crept crowed cut

deal dig dive do draw dream drink drive dwell

dealt dug dived GB, dove US did drew dreamed, dreamt GB drank drove dwelt

dealt dug dived done drawn dreamed, dreamt GB drunk driven dwelt

eat

ate

eaten

fall feed feel fight find flee fling floodlight fly forbear forbid forecast foresee foretell forget forgive forsake forswear freeze

fell fed felt fought found fled flung floodlit flew forbore forbade, forbad forecast foresaw foretold forgot forgave forsook forswore froze

fallen fed felt fought found fled flung floodlit flown forborne forbidden forecast foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forsaken forsworn frozen

gainsay

gainsaid

gainsaid

1942 Verbes irréguliers anglais

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

get give go grind grow

got gave went ground grew

got, gotten US given gone ground grown

hamstring hang have hear heave hew hide hit hold hurt

hamstrung hung, *hanged had heard heaved, *hove hewed hid hit held hurt

hamstrung hung, *hanged had heard heaved, *hove hfewn, hewed hidden hit held hurt

inlay inset interweave

inlaid inset interwove

inlaid inset interwoven

outshine overbid overcome overdo overdraw overeat overfly overhang overhear overlay overlie overpay override overrun oversee overshoot oversleep overtake overthrow

outshone overbid overcame overdid overdrew overate overflew overhung overheard overlaid overlay overpaid overrode overran oversaw overshot overslept overtook overthrew

outshone overbid overcome overdone overdrawn overeaten overflown overhung overheard overlaid overlain overpaid overridden overrun overseen overshot overslept overtaken overthrown

keep kneel knit know

kept kneeled, knelt knitted, knit knew

kept kneeled, knelt knitted, knit known

partake pay 'plead prove put

partook paid pleaded, pled US proved put

partaken paid pleaded, pled US proved, proven put

lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose

laid led leaned, leant GB leaped, leapt GB learned, learnt GB left lent let lay lit, lighted lost

laid led leaned, leant GB leaped, leapt GB learned, learnt GB left lent let lain lit, *lighted lost

quit

quit, quitted

quit, quitted

read /ri:d/ rebuild recast redo rehear remake rend repay reread /-ri:d/ rerun resell reset resit retake retell rewrite rid ride ring rise run

read /red/ rebuilt recast redid reheard remade rent repaid reread /-red/ reran resold reset resat retook retold rewrote rid rode rang rose ran

read /red/ rebuilt recast redone reheard remade rent repaid reread /-red/ rerun resold reset resat retaken retold rewritten rid ridden rung risen run

saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shear shed

sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed

sawed, sawn GB said seen sought sold sent set sewn, sewed shaken shorn, *sheared shed

make mean meet miscast misdeal mishear mislay mislead misread /,mis'ri:d/ misspell

made meant met miscast misdealt misheard mislaid misled misread /.mis'red/ misspelled, misspelt GB misspend misspent mistake mistook misunderstand misunderstood mow mowed

made meant met miscast misdealt misheard mislaid misled misread /.mis'red/ misspelled, misspelt GB misspent mistaken misunderstood mowed, mown

outbid outdo outgrow output outrun outsell

outbid, outbidden US outdone outgrown output, outputted outrun outsold

outbid outdid outgrew output, outputted outran outsold

Verbes irréguliers anglais 1943

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

Infinitif

Prétérit

Participe Passé

shine shit shoe shoot show shrink shrive shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spotlight spread spring stand stave steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive sublet swear sweep

shone, *shined shat shod shot showed shrank shrived, shrove shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelled, smelt GB smote sowed spoke sped,‘speeded spelled, spelt GB spent spilled, spilt GB spun,spanft spat split spoiled, spoilt GB spotlit, spotlighted spread sprang stood staved, stove stole stuck stung stank strewed strode struck strung strove sublet swore swept

shone, ‘shined shat shod shot shown shrunk, shrunken shrived, shriven shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelled, smelt GB smitten sowed, sown spoken sped,‘speeded spelled, spelt GB spent spilled, spilt GB spun spat split spoiled, spoilt GB spotlit, spotlighted spread sprung stood staved, stove stolen stuck stung stunk strewed, strewn stridden struck strung striven sublet sworn swept

swell swim swing

swelled swam swung

swollen, swelled swum swung

take teach tear ted think thrive throw thrust tread

took taught tore told thought thrived, throve threw thrust trod

taken taught torn told thought thrived, thrivenff thrown thrust trodden

underbid undercut undergo underlie underpay undersell understand undertake underwrite undo unfreeze unlearn unstick unwind uphold upset

underbid undercut underwent underlay underpaid undersold understood undertook underwrote undid unfroze unlearned, unlearnt GB unstuck unwound upheld upset

underbid undercut undergone underlain underpaid undersold understood undertaken underwritten undone unfrozen unlearned, unlearnt GB unstuck unwound upheld upset

wake waylay wear weave wed weep wet win wind /waind/ withdraw withhold withstand wring write

woke waylaid wore wove, weaved wedded, wed wept wet, wetted won wound /waund/ withdrew withheld withstood wrung wrote

woken waylaid worn woven, weaved wedded, wed wept wet, wetted won wound/waund/ withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written

MbfW

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La Constitution française

L’Union européenne

Circuit des décisions communautaires

Appendix 9 The European Union Procedure for legislation COUNCIL begins deliberations

A. . T

COMMISSION issues a proposal

★ ★

★ * ★

* ★ *

★ ★



.T

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE and COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS issue opinions

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT (EP) first reading, issues opinion

Reproduced with permission from the Local Government International Bureau's European Information Service.

The constitution in the United Kingdom

The Church of England ••• •••

BISHOPS

•••

Archbishop of Canterbury

JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL

CLERGY

EXECUTIVE / LEGISLATURE

JUDICIARY (England and Wales) Supreme Court of Judicature

CABINET

Prime Minister

*■

HOUSE OF COMMONS Speaker

Lord Chancellor

HOUSE OF LORDS | Appellate Committee

Speaker / Lord Chancellor

tr Department of Health

Ministry of Defence

Her Majesty's Treasury

Scottish Office

Welsh Office

Home Office

Department of Social Security

Department for Education

Department of the Environment

Department of Trade and Industry

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food

Foreign and Commonwealth Office

COURT OF APPEAL

-K

Civil Division

Lord Chief Justice

Master of the Rolls

: A CROWN COURTS

~\i~

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HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE Queen's Bench Division

Chancery Division

Lord Chief Justice

President Vice Chancellor of Family Division

Family Division

A

V

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(Criminal cases)

Employment Department

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Criminal Division

_/L

J

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SHERIFFS

COUNTY COUNCILS

METROPOLITAN POLICE

chairman, councillors

Commissioner of Police CID

*

COUNTY POLICE AND POLICE AUTHORITIES

(civil cases and family matters)

CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE

Justice of the Peace, or stipendiary, or metropolitan magistrate

Chief Constable

1 METROPC)LITAN DISTRICT COUNCILS

chairman, councillors

_ _t PARISH COUNCILS (ENGLAND) COMMUNITY COUNCILS (WALES)

DISTRICT COUNCILS

1

PARISH COUNCILS (ENGLAND) COMMUNITY COUNCILS (WALES)

COUNTY COURTS

(civil cases)

Key

.■ direct responsibility

chairman, councillors

__

LORD LIEUTENANTS

MAGISTRATES' COURTS

TV

direction in which cases are (or can be) referred to a lawcourt direction in which appeals go from one lawcourt to another

This diagram shows structures in England and Wales. Different arrangements apply in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

The US constitution

Federal Government EXECUTIVE

JUDICIARY

LEGISLATURE Congress

President

SENATE

President of the Senate

CABINET

FEDERAL SUPREME COURT

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

Chief Justice

Speaker

j

y

COURT OF APPEALS

MAIN FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS Justice

Commerce

Transportation

State

Interior

Labor

Energy

Treasury

Agriculture

Health and Human Services

Housing and Urban Development

Defense

Education

FEDERAL DISTRICT COURT

State Government LEGISLATURE

EXECUTIVE

JUDICIARY

SENATE

Governor

£

---

1

f

---

STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS Justice State Police Force Treasury Public Health Transportation Public Welfare National resources Protection of Life and Property (National Guard) etc.

Key responsibility/approval direction in which appeals go from one law court to another

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (or General Assembly)

1 CITY MAYORS IN COUNCIL Municipal services such as: Health Sanitation Water Supply Police Education Highways Justice etc. LOCAL JUSTICES' COURTS

NORTH AMERICA AFfCTPC OCEAN Fédération

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Anchorage

Seattle lontreal

S Detroi

Denver

Boston New York ladelphia

Philadelphie

I Baltimore WASHINGTON DC Washington

Los Angele:

ATLANTIC Atlanta ouston

j»New Orleans La Nouvelle-Or -Orléans

nterrey

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GIlILF OF M Golfe du

Miami

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HONDURAS GUATElVfALAp^ EL SALVADOR

NICARAGUA

Population of cities: Population des villes COSTÀRU ice cap inlandsis et glaciers

PANAI

1 - 5 000 000 inhabitants de 1 à 5 000 000 hab.

swamp marais

OTTAWAj

more than 5 000 000 inhabitants plus de 5 000 000 hab.

100 000 - 1 000 000 inhabitants de 100 000 à 1 000 000 hab. capital city capitale d'État

international boundary limite d'État

COLOMBIA ColomJbLL^

other city autre ville

ECUADOR Équateur

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