The Nonkilling Paradigm: The Nonkilling Paradigm 9811512469, 9789811512469, 9789811512476

This book addresses the human civilizational ethos and explores the concept of the nonkilling paradigm concerning human

664 115 4MB

English Pages 190 Year 2020

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

The Nonkilling Paradigm: The Nonkilling Paradigm
 9811512469,  9789811512469,  9789811512476

Table of contents :
Foreword......Page 5
Preface......Page 8
Contents......Page 12
About the Authors......Page 15
Abbreviations......Page 16
List of Graphs......Page 18
List of Tables......Page 19
List of Illustrations......Page 20
1 The Story So Far......Page 21
1.1 Meaning and Significance of Nonkilling......Page 24
1.2 Why Nonkilling......Page 26
1.3 Questions Unanswered......Page 27
1.4 An Exploration......Page 29
2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle......Page 33
2.1 Power in Ancient Eastern History......Page 34
2.2 Power in Ancient Western History......Page 37
2.3 Power in Medieval West......Page 38
2.4 Power in Medieval East......Page 40
2.5 Power: Meaning and Nature as Understood in Contemporary World......Page 42
2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World......Page 43
2.6.1 Post First World War and Second World War Period Analysis......Page 44
2.6.2 Contemporary Perspectives on Power......Page 52
2.7 Shifting the Power Paradigm......Page 53
3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership......Page 54
3.1 Adolf Hitler......Page 56
3.1.1 Rise of Hitler and His Policies......Page 58
3.2 Mao Tse Tung......Page 59
3.2.1 Consolidation of Power and the Aftermath......Page 60
3.3 Fidel Castro......Page 62
3.3.1 Rise of Fidel......Page 63
3.3.2 Alliance with Ernesto Che Guevara......Page 67
3.4 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov—Lenin......Page 68
3.4.1 Rise of Lenin......Page 69
3.5 Revolution in Indian Freedom Struggle......Page 71
3.6 Perspectives on Violence and Killings......Page 73
3.7 Conclusion......Page 76
4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power......Page 77
4.1.1 Upbringing......Page 82
4.1.2 Struggle Period......Page 83
4.2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi......Page 85
4.2.1 Struggle in South Africa......Page 86
4.2.2 Struggle in India......Page 88
4.2.3 Social Reforms......Page 89
4.3 Nelson Mandela......Page 90
4.3.1 Period of Struggle with the African National Congress......Page 91
4.3.2 Mandela’s Struggle with Nonviolence......Page 92
4.4 Rabindranath Tagore......Page 94
4.4.1 Major Works and Philosophy of Life......Page 95
4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence......Page 104
4.6 Conclusion......Page 114
5.1 Nonkilling......Page 115
5.2 Comparative Study of Political Leaders......Page 117
5.3 Leaders and Their Movements......Page 118
5.4 Impact of the Major Movements Led by Leaders on World History......Page 123
5.5 Conclusion......Page 127
6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace......Page 128
6.1 Homicides and Suicides......Page 129
6.2 Wars and War Crimes......Page 130
6.2.1 Character of War......Page 131
6.2.2 Human Mind and War......Page 132
6.3 Menace of Terrorism......Page 134
6.3.1 Political Aspect of Terrorism......Page 136
6.4 Genocides and Ethnic Cleansing......Page 138
6.5 Capital Punishment......Page 140
6.5.1 Effect of Capital Punishment......Page 141
7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index......Page 142
7.1 A Different World View......Page 145
8.1 The Rule of Law: Changing Paradigm......Page 151
8.2 Fundamental Rights and Nonkilling......Page 152
8.3 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Nonkilling......Page 153
8.4 No Easy Path......Page 154
9.1 Human Consciousness......Page 155
9.1.1 Educational Setup as a Whole......Page 157
9.2 Nonviolence: Principles and Practice......Page 160
9.3 Nonkilling: Theory and Practice......Page 161
9.4 Peace-Building Measures for Affirmative Nonkilling......Page 164
9.5 Future Forward......Page 169
9.6 The Promise to Future Generations......Page 171
10 Post-Lude......Page 173
Annexure I: Questionnaire......Page 175
Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace......Page 177
Index......Page 189

Citation preview

Katyayani Singh Anoop Swarup

The Nonkilling Paradigm For World Peace and Enlightenment

The Nonkilling Paradigm

Katyayani Singh Anoop Swarup •

The Nonkilling Paradigm For World Peace and Enlightenment

123

Katyayani Singh School of Law Jagran Lakecity University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Anoop Swarup Jagran Lakecity University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

ISBN 978-981-15-1246-9 ISBN 978-981-15-1247-6 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6

(eBook)

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Foreword

The book ‘A Nonkilling World—what, why and how!’ has an unusual challenge that its authors have taken on—to explore the possibility of a nonkilling global society. The word nonkilling was coined by Prof. Glenn D. Paige in his seminal work ‘Nonkilling Global Political Science’ published in 2003; since then, it has been translated in over 30 languages. Paige defined a ‘nonkilling society’ as a human community from small to large in which there is no killing of humans: no threats to kill, no weapons designed to kill humans and no justifications for using them, and no conditions of society depends upon the threat or use of killing force for maintenance or change. ‘Is a Nonkilling Society possible? Yes or No?’ Paige’s reply to the question he posed, based on an evidence-based analysis, was in affirmative. His book paved the way for carrying out a significant body of research by scholars over the next decade ‘to promote change towards the measurable goal of a killing-free world by means open to infinite creativity’. The task called for both creativity and mutual support amongst like-minded individuals, organizations and institutions. Drs. Singh and Swarup’s book points to this substantive body of work that has been done over the past decade as well as new research the book represents on the subject. The book examines emerging societal paradigms to comprehend and create awareness of dangers to human life and existence. Their cutting-edge work focuses on the complex theme of how to mitigate the prevalent lethality, laying out a road map for a large-scale reconstruction of a global society, albeit a nonkilling one. They make an excellent case for the paradigm of creating a nonkilling world through a study of history, political leadership and utilizing empirical data to analyse lethal and nonlethal modes of behaviour and activities. The work elicits the positivity and its opposite by juxtaposing violent and nonviolent leadership styles from ‘power over’ to ‘power to’ construct. It outlines a cycle of universal humanist principles and how these when not understood properly and not followed completely by leadership lead to malfunction and get corrupted, resulting in negative human actions of deceit, isolation, destruction, killing, dependence and subjugation. The authors conclude: ‘As for nonviolence to happen nonkilling is needed and for nonkilling to happen positive human relations need to v

vi

Foreword

be developed’. Indeed, ‘perfect peace and happiness is an ideal that can be achieved with gradual reforms directed by good intentions’. Historian Antony Adolf, author of Peace: A World History cited in the work, states that a world where nonkilling is cherished is not a utopian ideal. Such societies have existed in the history of all civilizations be that of the East or West. In fact, the major part of known human history has been long periods of peace that have gone unrecorded because of little interest to historians who are focused on conflict, violence and war. Time and again, history has also shown that no conflict in the name of religion, god or peace has been successfully able to bring perpetual peace. The authors point that states may exist without crimes being committed by individuals but where there exist practices of discrimination, humiliation and suppression of any section of society, peace ends as a farce there. Moreover, if the state actors are themselves committing crimes and even legalizing them, then the danger of eruption of violence and killings, leading the state into anarchy, becomes all the more eminent. Using the above leadership attributes, the work goes on to develop perspectives on nonviolence and nonkilling supported by empirical modelling, testing various killing and nonkilling hypotheses about actions that involve coercion with a conclusion that whether these be wars or terrorism, they are not as successful as we often think. One of the innovative pieces developed in the book is an attempt to prepare an index of killing/nonkilling, the Global Nonkilling Index (GNI), combined with a survey of 500 citizens around the globe. This is to find in what way and quantity deliberate killings occur in different countries. The five variables that went into the preparation of the Nonkilling Index are war deaths, armed conflict deaths (internal), death penalty, homicide and suicide. The specificity of these parameters makes it different from other existing global indexes. The authors describe GNI as the first step or rather the foundational step towards peace and happiness as it is more focused as a direct measure of societal well-being and its parameters are achievable and measurable. Supported by data, condensed in 23 graphs and 12 tables, the pioneering GNI is a remarkable achievement of the book. The use of chi-square tests in modelling brings further insights into validation of various killing/nonkilling hypotheses raised in the work. (For example, a constant threat to human dignity has made people accept violence and killings as natural and sometimes necessary. However, using the chi-square method shows that as first crosstab observation, the hypothesis that constant threat to human life has made people accept killing as natural and necessary, but by the second crosstab, the hypothesis gets rejected. The difference between the two cross tabs is that in the former, killing is equated with charismatic leaders, while in the latter, the question of nonkilling is put forward in a simple manner pointing to more universal and authentic behaviour.) In a robust discussion of affirmative nonkilling peace, the authors point to several underlying causes of lethality, one being parochial political philosophies that dominated past two centuries, dealing mainly with enhancement of the rights, liberty and power of only a certain section—the ruling elites, proletariats, minority or majority. In the long run, these gave birth to revolutions be these capitalist or

Foreword

vii

communist which in turn, despite material gains, resulted in large destruction and disintegration in society and state. A good society does not just ‘promote welfare’, ‘respect freedom’ or ‘create fairness’, it also needs to promote nonkilling-based virtue and fairness to safeguard human dignity. The objective of nonkilling peace is unambiguous—peace which aims to stop killings without killing anyone. The authors refer to the work of Evelin Lindner and Rachel McNair on the subject. States may exist without crimes being committed by individuals, but when there exist practices of discrimination, humiliation and suppression of any section of society, peace begins to erode. Moreover, if the state actors are themselves committing crimes and even legalizing them, then the danger of eruption of violence and killings leading the state into anarchy becomes all the more eminent. In conclusion, this is a book of great value that may be compared with recent works by Steven Pinker and Yuval Harari that have helped in examining the big picture transformative capabilities of humans and humanity in modern times. We need more similar comprehensive nonkilling studies to create awareness of dangers to human life and existence, and ways of mitigating lethal actions and tendencies at individual, nonstate and state levels. The strength of the work is its open-ended evidence-based approach that points to ways of establishing a society with nonkilling institutions and problem solving including infrastructures of nonkilling peace. It describes well its intent and broad scope of a subject that deserves serious attention in politics, academia and with the attentive public. Ottawa, Canada

Balwant Bhaneja Former Diplomat, Author and Scholar

Preface

The book The Nonkilling Paradigm—For World Peace and Enlightenment is a nonfictionalized, in-depth and broad-based attempt to deal with the meaning and significance of nonkilling in contemporary times. Advocating and promoting a nonkilling world view based on evidence-based research and findings, grounded in the ideas and methodologies of political science, philosophy and ethics as well as the principles of the United Nations is unique. The title in itself shows its practical moorings to eventually be a profound and new leading-edge area of social and political sciences work grounded in the ideas and methodologies of political science, philosophy and ethics as well as the principles of the United Nations. I must mention that the work has been tested in a doctoral work, painstakingly by Katyayani Singh under my guidance and my time spent and the deliberations with late Prof. Glenn D. Paige, the author of the 2002 path-breaking book, Nonkilling Global Political Science, who was the founding Chair of Hawaii-based ‘Centre for Global Nonkilling’ (in consultative status with the UN, now Chaired by me). The book examines emerging societal paradigms to comprehend and create awareness of dangers to human life and existence. The attempt is to focus on the complex theme of how to mitigate the prevalent lethality, laying out a road map for a large-scale reconstruction of a global and affirmative nonkilling society to make a case for the paradigm of creating a ‘nonkilling world’ through a study of history, political leadership and utilizing empirical data to analyse lethal and nonlethal modes of behaviour and activities. By comparing and contrasting violent and nonviolent leadership styles from ‘power over, to power to’ construct, it outlines a cycle of universal humanist principles and how these when not understood properly and not followed completely by leadership can lead to disaster by being corrupted, resulting in negative human actions of deceit and destruction, killing, dependence and subjugation. ‘As for nonviolence to happen nonkilling is needed and for nonkilling to happen positive human relations need to be developed’. Indeed, ‘perfect peace and happiness is an ideal that can be achieved with gradual reforms directed by good intentions through affirmative nonkilling and peace’. The presentation of a Global Nonkilling Index based on a global survey is a notable

ix

x

Preface

original contribution and could provide overarch to recently introduced indices in providing a measure for nonviolence, peace and happiness. It is hoped that the book would prove to be of fundamental value as we explore, try and examine the question ‘Why Nonkilling’ at the outset in Chap. 1 as there already exist broad and profound philosophies of peace and nonviolence. The study of human existence and the paradigm of power struggle reveals a unique perspective on the concept of power as elaborated in Chap. 2. The definition propounded by different scholars and schools through history, comprising mainly the idealists and the realists, has been analysed. Starting from Thucydides and going up to Morgenthau, one realizes that it was the realist school that found prominence not only in the subject of political science but also in the field of politics. The power struggle that exists in international politics has led to many devastating wars due to which the League of Nations and the United Nations came into existence. But since the philosophy of power had not changed, the same power struggle exists internationally and in the United Nations too. United Nations was bestowed with great powers to solve international conflicts, but after the analysis by various research scholars, it was felt that the UN had failed substantially in achieving its primary objective of peace owing to its rigid structures. Mostly, researches have been made to change the structure and functions of the United Nations, but no emphasis has ever been made on the kind of philosophy to be adopted, especially with reference to power. Thinkers like Gene Sharp, Hannah Arendt and M. K. Gandhi have tried to give a new definition of power, but that has not been given sufficient recognition, and the generally followed principle is theory of power propounded by the realist school followed by world’s political leaders which instigate conflicts all the more. The book further illustrates in its Chap. 3 that in the contemporary world, coercive power is perceived as strong leadership. The reasons as to why, despite the brutal results of power conflicts, nations still constantly engage themselves in wars are explored. Important change by leaders throughout the world, particularly in the twentieth century, who exercised such coercive powers to bring about change in society has been highlighted. An effort is made to study not only the impact of their policies and as to how far they were successful in achieving the desired objective but also the psychology behind the choice of their action. This study focuses on leaders such as Adolf Hitler, Ernesto Guevara, Fidel Castro, Vladimir Lenin and Mao Tse Tung. In succeeding Chap. 4, in contrast contemporary world leaders who had a consensual approach to power in the twentieth century and who proposed and practised a peaceful transition in society were studied. It reveals interestingly enough that their policies and approach were found to be more successful and their philosophy leads to better human values and promoted nonviolence and nonkilling. Since most of these leaders did not hold political power even after achieving the desired objective, an effort was made to know as to how they could remain nonviolent in the face of injustice and oppression in the society. As an example, Martin Luther adopted a political and economic agenda. Gandhi was perhaps more holistic with his ecological and sociological approach by proposing ideas such as upliftment of weak, cleanliness, social reforms and healthy living. Mandela adopted only a

Preface

xi

political approach which included nonviolence that never approved of killing. Rabindranath Tagore took a different path as he adopted a literary approach by sensitizing the society, not just about rights but also the duties. Tagore talks about humanization and how society as a whole should uplift human qualities and values. Tagore attempted to educate about freedom and rights before we fight for it, for otherwise he felt such subjugation may be exercised again. The concept of freedom and happiness which are determinants in peace become relevant in present-day governance promoted through concepts such as gross national happiness. To bring forth the view of people on nonkilling and the proponents of revolution, a survey was undertaken as brought out in the chapter, and the findings do reveal that persons did take precedence over principles and therefore the so-called revolutionary change was temporary and unstable. A critical outlook on approaches to political leadership and nonkilling peace which explores charismatic political leaders who tried to bring about a change through revolutions (sudden and dramatic change) and evolutions (gradual reforms) have been discussed in Chap. 5. The time frame window selected for this comparison is the twentieth century owing to its relevance and impact in the present times. We do throw light on the duration of the movements by leaders, wherein killings involved in the movement and the political stability of the state or society after the end of their respective movement or revolution indicate to the fact that peaceful change was invariably more stable A contemporary world perspective on nonkilling peace that deals with direct forms of killings perpetrated by the state and nonstate actors are probed in Chap. 6. We do highlight problems of homicide, suicide, ecocide, war and war crimes, death penalty, terrorism, mass-killing and genocide in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as evidenced by factual events that create a hindrance in the establishment of stability and nonkilling peace. An effort is made in Chap. 7 to create first of its kind Global Nonkilling Index that focuses on intentional forms of killings, and an attempt is made to grade countries accordingly. Thus, a Global Nonkilling Index has been introduced, which reveals that lives lost due to homicides, genocides, ecocides, suicides, terror and even capital punishment is even worse than those in an act of war, and the index is a better parameter for judging countries on their record of human development than on the basis of gross domestic product or even gross national happiness indices. It is felt that a nonkilling legal perspective has to be developed based on centuries of human struggle and experience. The legal contributions made by individuals and organizations with regard to nonkilling peace need sanctification which is imperative for us to evolve into a nonkilling society. Thus, to progress to the next level of human evolution has been the prime theme in Chap. 8. To invoke the future paradigm for a nonkilling world, different innovative concepts have been deliberated in Chap. 9 so that people can be made conscious of the value of life and the means for reverence to life are evolved. These precepts and principles such as human dignity based on post-war studies, nonkilling, consciousness and peace have been highlighted. Ideological tenets such as communism, capitalism and perceived misconceptions based on religion, faith and

xii

Preface

idiosyncrasies have often led to instability, violence, terror and even nations to wage war against each other resulting not only in loss of lives, but also endangering those of all those around them. It is suggested that ideologies need to be refined and redefined so that humanity can thrive positively to affirmative nonviolence and nonkilling for positive peace. From a political perspective, it is proposed that a department of peace in every country to instil a framework for constructive schooling and education may prove to be the way forward in every society and country by which theoretical and practical actions may be taken to achieve affirmative nonkilling peace across the globe. In the book, a case for values, religion, trust, ethics and spirituality is also made to highlight the importance of humanism without which our societies could not have evolved at the pace we see today. However, due to the uneven balance between the progress of science and our values, threat to human survival persists, and in such a circumstance, one cannot claim to have achieved enlightenment and perfection. One of the core values brought out in this book is that of reverence to life as such or ‘nonkilling’. Indeed, there are inhuman practices and killings throughout the world in different forms through direct and indirect means. It is our case that there can be no enlightenement without recourse to spirituality and religion in conjunction with science and reason in contrast to the assertions recently being made. For true enlightenment for civilizational ascent to occur nonkilling should be one of the basic parameters to validate it. We do hope that this book will be of great value that may be compared with recent works by Steven Pinker and Yuval Harari that have helped in examining the big picture transformative capabilities of humans and humanity in modern times. We believe that the book will highlight the misconceptions of the ‘power paradigm’ that has led to mayhem, violence and killings in past human history to raise awareness of dangers to human life and existence, and ways of mitigating lethal actions and tendencies at individual, nonstate and state levels. The open-ended evidence-based approach in the book endeavours to point to ways of establishing a society with nonkilling institutions and problem-solving capabilities through new and modified affirmative infrastructures. We present this evidence-based interdisciplinary work for both attentive general reader and specialist experts in the arts, humanities, social sciences and strategic studies by policy-makers as also for graduate and post-graduate studies in universities. Bhopal, India

Anoop Swarup

Contents

1

The 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

1 4 6 7 9

2

Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Power in Ancient Eastern History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Power in Ancient Western History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Power in Medieval West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Power in Medieval East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Power: Meaning and Nature as Understood in Contemporary World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World . . . . 2.6.1 Post First World War and Second World War Period Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Contemporary Perspectives on Power . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Shifting the Power Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

13 14 17 18 20

... ...

22 23

... ... ...

24 32 33

. . . . . . . . . .

35 37 39 40 41 43 44 48 49 50

3

Story So Far . . . . . . . . . Meaning and Significance Why Nonkilling . . . . . . . Questions Unanswered . . An Exploration . . . . . . . .

............ of Nonkilling . ............ ............ ............

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership 3.1 Adolf Hitler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Rise of Hitler and His Policies . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Mao Tse Tung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Consolidation of Power and the Aftermath . . 3.3 Fidel Castro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Rise of Fidel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Alliance with Ernesto Che Guevara . . . . . . . 3.4 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov—Lenin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Rise of Lenin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

xiii

xiv

4

5

6

7

Contents

3.5 Revolution in Indian Freedom Struggle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Perspectives on Violence and Killings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52 54 57

Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power . 4.1 Martin Luther King (Jr.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Upbringing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Struggle Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Struggle in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Struggle in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Social Reforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Nelson Mandela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Period of Struggle with the African National Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Mandela’s Struggle with Nonviolence . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Rabindranath Tagore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Major Works and Philosophy of Life . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership and Nonkilling Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Nonkilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Comparative Study of Political Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Leaders and Their Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Impact of the Major Movements Led by Leaders on World History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling 6.1 Homicides and Suicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Wars and War Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Character of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Human Mind and War . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Menace of Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Political Aspect of Terrorism . . . . . . . 6.4 Genocides and Ethnic Cleansing . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Capital Punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Effect of Capital Punishment . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

59 64 64 65 67 68 70 71 72

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

73 74 76 77 86 96

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. 97 . 97 . 99 . 100

. . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . 109

Peace . . . . . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

. . . . . . . . .

Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 7.1 A Different World View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Contents

xv

8

Nonkilling Legal Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 The Rule of Law: Changing Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Fundamental Rights and Nonkilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Nonkilling 8.4 No Easy Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

135 135 136 137 138

9

Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World . . . . . . 9.1 Human Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Educational Setup as a Whole . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Nonviolence: Principles and Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Nonkilling: Theory and Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Peace-Building Measures for Affirmative Nonkilling . 9.5 Future Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 The Promise to Future Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

139 139 141 144 145 148 153 155

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

10 Post-Lude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Annexure I: Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

About the Authors

Dr. Katyayani Singh is a peace researcher and activist and currently serves as a member of the Political Science Research Committee of the Center for Global Nonkilling, Hawaii (USA). She has contributed several research papers in India and abroad on nonkilling peace and philosophy. She also worked as an Assistant Professor at Jagran Lakecity University School of Law and is presently the Executive Secretary, at the Center for Global Nonkilling, India. Anoop Swarup is the Founding Vice Chancellor of Jagran Lakecity University. He is also the Chairman of the Governing Council of the Center for Global Nonkilling, in Hawaii in 2015 (in consultative status with United Nations). He is a recipient of the International Hiroshima Peace Award and the Republic of India’s Presidential Award. He has over 40 years of professional experience as an educationist, poet, peace activist, life scientist, futurist, social entrepreneur, and as a civil servant working with the Government of India and the United Nations. Professor Swarup has authored numerous books that include His Collection of Poems, Aloha and Arcadia, edited books Give Nonviolence a Chance and Give Nonkilling a Chance released by former Prime Minister of India and the former President of India, respectively, as also several research articles internationally. He is currently the editor of Jagran International Journal on Contemporary Research, the International Journal of Contemporary Research in Engineering and Technology and NICE Journal of Business.

xvii

Abbreviations

ABCC AD ANC BA BCE CE CGNK CIA FEU GOC GPI GTI G4 INA INC INRA IPS MK NAACP NIC NKGPS NKI PLO PTSD P5 SCLC SIPRI S-5

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Anno Domini African National Congress Bachelor of Arts Before Common Era Common Era, recent term used in place of AD Center for Global Nonkilling Central Intelligence Agency Federation of University Students (in Cuba) General Officer Commanding Global Peace Index Global Terrorism Index Group of 4 Nations (Germany, Japan, India and Brazil) Indian National Army Indian National Congress National Institute of Agrarian Reform (in Cuba) Indian Protection Service Umkhonto we Sizwe (The Spear of the Nation) National Association for the Advancement of the Coloured People (in USA) Natal Indian Congress Nonkilling Global Political Science Nonkilling Index Palestine Liberation Organization Post-traumatic stress disorder Permanent 5 Members: China, USA, UK, France and Russia Southern Christian Leadership Conference Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Small Five Group (Costa Rica, Jordan, Liechtenstein, Singapore and Switzerland.)

xix

xx

UN UNDHR UNO UNSC US WHO

Abbreviations

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations Organization United Nations Security Council United States World Health Organization

List of Graphs

Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph Graph

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 6.1 7.1 9.1

Graph 9.2 Graph 9.3

Age group pf respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nationality of respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Educational qualification and sex of respondents. . . . . . . . . Peace practitioners involved in survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possibility of nonviolence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possibility of lasting peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possibility of nonkilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preference for evolutionary leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preference for revolutionary leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using war to counter-terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Killing for fundamental rights and liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Killing for political reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End justifies means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Means justify end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact of communism in last 100 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact of capitalism in last 100 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perception of communism in relation to killings . . . . . . . . . Perception of capitalism in relation to killings. . . . . . . . . . . Top 30 nations with above average suicide rate . . . . . . . . . Top 20 Nations with High Killing Score-2015 . . . . . . . . . . Role of educational institutes in promoting nonkilling and peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terror incidents since 2000–2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatalities in terrorist attack (2000–2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 10 . 10 . 11 . 11 . 60 . 61 . 61 . 62 . 62 . 87 . 90 . 91 . 92 . 92 . 93 . 94 . 94 . 95 . 113 . 126

. . 143 . . 145 . . 146

xxi

List of Tables

Table Table Table Table Table Table

2.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1

Table 5.2 Table Table Table Table Table

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

Wars Since 1945–2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leaders and justification of killing crosstabulated . . . . . . . . . Chi-square test for leaders and justification of killings . . . . . . Countering terrorism and nonkilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chi-square on peace initiatives and nonkilling . . . . . . . . . . . . Brief surmise of the leaders and the revolutionary movements/war launched by them and the aftermath . . . . . . . Brief surmise of the leaders and the nonviolent launched by them and the aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide rate band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide rate band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battle Rate Band/Armed conflict death band . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital Punishment/Death Penalty rate band . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global Nonkilling Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

27 88 88 89 89

. . 107 . . . . . .

. . . . . .

108 127 127 128 128 129

xxiii

List of Illustrations

Illustration 4.1 Illustration 4.2

Positive human relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Negative human relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84 85

xxv

Chapter 1

The Story So Far

Evil rises when the spirit of goodness is separated from the spirit of reality. The two must be wedded. Rabindranath Tagore (Tagore, Rabindranath, 1931, ‘The Religion of Man’, Chapter V: The Prophet, The Macmillan Company, New York)

The title of the book ‘Nonkilling and Global Peace: A Study on Emerging Paradigms and Prospects’ may appear unusual and prophetic. Thus, it is imperative to explain the background of the study as an effort, to foster a nonkilling and peaceful world. Nonkilling is relatively a newer concept compared to nonviolent peace. Nonkilling as an objective is more focused than nonviolent peace; also, it is unique that the concept of nonkilling is not abstract, it is measurable and achievable. The twentieth-century has witnessed lots of wars and bloodshed in not just the form of the two world wars but also in the form of mass killings, genocide, homicide and terrorist activities. The post-industrial age has faced atrocities such as genocide and mass killing that have been neither rare nor infrequent but rather enormous and vast in their number scale and geographic scope, both in their frequency and duration. In the political environments, turmoil as observed in these times in different societies, were rampant all over the world and therefore such a study on nonkilling peace assumes great significance. A brief reference to the past few centuries that have witnessed three industrial revolutions will not be out of place. Structural violence on large scale was initiated during the first industrial revolution that gradually increased with the second revolution. In these two industrial revolutions, human labour and natural resources got exploited to the hilt.1 It was due to the ill effects of industrial revolution that during the eighteenth-century, most of the Afro Asian nations were under colonial rule and were struggling for freedom as the imperialistic and capitalist nations were trying to tap all natural resources to increase their power. In this upsurge of scientific technology and rational ideas, where human life was given the lowest 1 Ultius,

Inc., 2013. “Research Paper on the Industrial Revolution.” Ultius Custom Writing and Editing Services. [Online] Available at: https://www.ultius.com/ultius-blog/entry/research-paperon-the-industrial-revolution.html.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_1

1

2

1 The Story So Far

priority, that perhaps became an inadvertent outcome. Thus, the rise of poverty, disease, and ecological degradation which significantly endangered human life. It was in these turbulenct times that the philosophy of communism had come to surface in nations such as Soviet Union, China, Cuba, Vietnam and elsewhere that aimed to fight against the so called evils of capitalism and colonialism in a post-industrial era. There were clashes between nations as well as clashes between philosophies. In human history, clashes and conflict have always been there but the bloodshed of the twentieth-century reached a fatal level with the advent of the third industrial revolution that improved the communication network globally through digitalization but could not increase the cooperation and solidarity due to prevalence of obsolete philosophies. Therefore, with the advent of the fourth industrial revolution it becomes imperative to understand not only the political scenario but also the backdrop of the philosophies and our understanding of the preceding centuries. Human killings will get all the more multiplied with the assistance of the new technology. The relevance of the present study cannot be underestimated as the great structural deformity in the societal framework could not be justified because of the disruptive change. This thesis is an attempt to bridge that gap in our understanding. The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries witnessed the development of various political philosophies such as German Idealism, Utilitarianism, Marxism, Existentialism, Positivism, British Idealism, Transcendentalism and Social Darwinism.2 Here, an effort is being made to explain these political philosophies as divided into two distinct chains of thought processes. Transcendentalism, German Idealism and British Idealism were based on ethics and morality as the way of human progress. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) developed German Idealism; he recognized the principle of morality as ‘categorically imperative’3 and the standard measurement for rationality. Happiness was not the supreme goal for him as happiness can be observed to be inconsistent with morality on various occasions. Happiness built on the pain of others is a kind of evil; only those actions that are based on goodwill, which satisfy the requirements of moral principles and requirements are considered to be good behaviours.4 Goodness according to Kant can be achieved through the reconciliation of morality and happiness. He held that the highest moral law is self-discipline that embodies human dignity and nobility. On the other hand, utilitarians and Marxists focused on collective good. Utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) and J. S. Mill (1806–1873); both stood for collective happiness. For the utilitarian scholars, the principle was: ‘happiness of the maximum’, ‘pleasure over pain’ so they were ready to sacrifice individual rights and happiness over those of the community. For the purpose of

2 Bowdown,

T. B., 2017. 50 Philosophy Classics. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

3 Johnson, Robert and Cureton, Adam, 2016, “Kant’s Moral Philosophy”, The Stanford Encyclopedia

of Philosophy Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Available from: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2018/ entries/kant-moral/ (23 May 2018). 4 Niansi, Yang, 2014. Kant’s Thought on Morality and Happiness, CSCanada, Studies in Sociology of Science, Vol. 5. No. 4, pp. 64–67.

1 The Story So Far

3

collectivism, the philosophy of Marxism was evolved which propagated class struggle to be a natural trait in human evolution, thereby justifying a collective form of violence. In this context, the philosophy of positivism developed by Auguste Comte (1798–1857) held humans as rational beings who by means of observation make rules for the good of society. Social Darwinism was developed by Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) who is said to have been influenced by Auguste Comte and Charles Darwin in his ideas. He gave an organic view of the state by making an analogy between organism and society wherein the individuals are conceived to be subordinated to the society just as the organs are subordinate to the whole body. Spencer in contrast to Comte was conceived ‘as basically anti-individualistic in his philosophy, who tried to reconcile individualism with his organicist approach and not only conceived the society in individualistic and utilitarian terms but also saw it as a vehicle for the enhancement of the purposes of the individual’.5 Existentialists were more individualist in nature; their philosophy was ‘existence precedes essence’ and humans according to them are not mere rational beings rather they are subjective in nature. It recognized individuals as an independent being rather than a part of the whole; and can be considered to be kind of humanists. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) in his lecture Existentialism is a Humanism states, ‘man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards’.6 His implication was that humans are free to define themselves. The world is meaningless according to them, and it is the individuals that give it meaning by making certain choices. In Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Friedrich Nietzsche another existentialist propounded that ‘God is Dead’ and gives the concept of ‘will to power’, i.e. the driving force in one’s life to achieve the highest accomplishments. The philosophy of ‘eternal recurrence’ is the mainstay of this book which means all the events in one’s life will happen again and again infinitely till the humans through their ‘will to power’ take a different recourse in their actions. The goal of this philosophy is to become ‘superman’ through the will to power but this philosophy does not make any differentiation between good and evil. According to Nietzsche ‘There is no such thing as moral phenomena, but only a moral interpretation of phenomena’.7 Indeed, Nietzche is correct as all philosophies are interpretation about how life should be lived and morality is subjected to our interpretation of human good. Marxists and utilitarians focused on collective good and correlated it with individual human good; the positivists provided the rational for the collective good by stressing on the power of human reason and objectivity; while Social Darwinism tried to undermine the importance of individuals by propounding the organic theory. The existentialist stood for individual supremacy in contrast. The idealists, on the other hand, focused on metaphysics; they sought to study what lied beyond objective experience. Kant’s argument was that there lies knowledge beyond our perceptual and cognitive power; 5 Coser,

Lewis, 2007, Masters of Sociological Thought, p. 98, Jaipur, Rawat Publications. N., 1996. A student’s guide to Jean-Paul Sartre’s Existentialism and Humanism. Philosophy Now, Issue 15: Spring/Summer. 7 Bowdown, T. B., 2017. 50 Philosophy Classics. ‘Beyond Good and Evil- Friedrich Nietzsche’, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 6 Warburton,

4

1 The Story So Far

he tried to apply morality to rational principles that what was moral was rational while that what was immoral was irrational. Therefore, Kantian philosophy stands against all those philosophies that rely on mere rational and objective principles to achieve happiness or goodness. Subsequently, with the exception of idealists, all philosophers undermined the importance of morality and made it subservient to collective or individual interest. There developed perpetual struggle between individualists and collectivists that was devoid of any moralistic principles. The ultimate goal of ‘superman’ or ‘happiness’ was pursued at the cost of moralistic principles and in this course, human life got subordinated. The philosophy of communists and utilitarians began to be used by political leaders to justify killings by war, genocide and capital punishment while the individualistic philosophy was sought to justify homicide and suicide. Henceforth, killings on large scale began to be justified either for the greater good or for individual protection. Consequently, the phenomenon of killing became inevitable and at times was rationally justified. This phenomenon was further aggravated when the realists added that for the sake of national and collective interest, nations enjoy complete independence and sovereignty. The ‘greater good’ began to be decided by the state without any ‘moral obligation’. The overlooking of morality can be further battered and corroborated by observing the policies of the state such as; production and trade of arms, liquor, tobacco and such other harmful products, setting up industries in residential or agricultural areas that pollute the environment and threaten the life that exists around them. These acts of state are aimed at narrow pursuit and profit making by an individual or a group of individuals by putting at stake individual life, liberty and happiness. In this way in the camouflage of the utilitarian and realist theory, states have been constantly committing ‘structural violence’ that may extend to killings. A situation, therefore, has risen all around the world where the nonstate actors and state actors are found to be in conflict with each other and the genesis can be traced to structural defects. As a result, different forms of killings have emerged either by the state or the nonstate actors which can be attributed to a misconceived notion of order and justice. A philosophy according to us that gives precedence to liberty over life is defective and would only add to the existing chaos in society. In this context it is the belief of the authors that reverence to life and nonkilling would be a natural evolution of human beings from the precept of killing both inadvertent or advertent for the next stage of human revolution to take place beyond the established precept of Darwinian evolution.

1.1 Meaning and Significance of Nonkilling The terminology of Nonkilling is new and different from ‘nonviolence’. Nonviolence denotes an absence of violence in any form by word, thought or action during an argument or fight with the other person. The idea of nonviolence was originally preached by Gautama Buddha and Mahavira Jain and then later by Jesus Christ.

1.1 Meaning and Significance of Nonkilling

5

Even the Bhagavad Gita speaks about nonviolence. So, nonviolence is a concept or an idea; however, to measure and achieve it, the indicator of Nonkilling is developed. Nonkilling denotes ‘not to kill’ the other person while fighting with him. Glenn D. Paige describes a ‘nonkilling society’ as: A society, local to global, in which there is no killing of humans and no threats to kill; no weapons designed to kill humans and no justifications for using them; and no conditions of society that depend for maintenance or change upon the threat or use of lethal force.8

The theory of nonkilling has immediate significance as in the contemporary world, the society, state and individuals are committing acts that aim at either structural killing or direct form of killing. Nonkilling seeks to draw the attention of everyone on this problematic area of human life that has endangered human existence itself. The problem with this concept is that too many people including some scholars think the idea of nonkilling does not seem plausible. This is because the historical events are filled with instances of war and struggle. In the words of Ivan Bloch, the history in particular from 1496 B.C. to 1861 A.D. reveals that in the cycle of 3357 years, there were 227 years of peace while as there were 3130 years of war. In other words, he says: Thirteen years of war for every year of peace. Considered thus, the history of the lives of peoples presents a picture of uninterrupted struggle. War, it would appear, is a normal attribute of human life.9

Adolf does not agree with the remark of Bloch.10 According to him, the concept of peace was quantified while peace is a qualitative concept that is continuous in nature. Glenn D. Paige the pioneer of nonkilling philosophy provides major scientific support for confidence in nonkilling human capabilities that are provided by the historic Seville ‘Statement on Violence’. It was issued by an international group of specialists in the disciplines of animal behaviour, behaviour genetics, biological anthropology, ethology, neurophysiology, physical anthropology, political psychology, psychiatry, psychobiology, psychology, social psychology, and sociology11 denied violence and war: as a biologically natural trait in humans; as a behaviour that has been learned more in the human evolution; caused only by an instinct or any single motivation (Paige 2009). All these scholars, Bloch, Paige and Adolf, are correct in their interpretation; however from their statements and concepts, one would think they are contradicting each other. When Bloch was referring to the historical wars, he does not mention them to be acceptable as human behaviour in the society. He was simply pointing out that due to constant warfare, it became an accepted phenomenon which means 8 Paige,

G.D. 2009. Nonkilling Global Political Science, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling, p. 21. 9 Adolf, Antony, 2009. Peace: A World History, Cambridge, Polity Press. 10 Ibid. 11 Paige, G.D. 2009. Nonkilling Global Political Science, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling, p. 50.

6

1 The Story So Far

that people and society were not raising voice against it. They accepted it as a way of life, but did not provide any justification for it. Adolf says peace does not mean only absence of war, but peace cannot be established in the presence of war. For peace to happen, nonkilling has to take place first. The problems with peace research are: it does not have a definite definition and there is no clear consensus on the methodology of peace. The ‘realists’ have their own idea of peace; the ‘idealists’ another. So, the difference in their mechanism often brings them at crossroads with each other. The two need to be linked. The link is being provided by the concept of nonkilling that first came into recognition through Nonkilling Global Political Science. Nonkilling Global Political Science: Nonkilling Global Political Science (NKGPS) refers to the discipline of political science which aims to develop philosophies that aim for a nonkilling, nonviolence and peace. It aims to create such strategies that would help in bringing peace through systematized actions at different levels ranging from the sphere where conflicts get originated, to where they are nurtured, and finally, the sphere where they actually occur. The subject would also speak about the impact of different philosophies that has pervaded the world for a long time. The discipline of NKGPS. was initiated by Glenn D. Paige. Falling into his footsteps in Philippines also, this subject was promoted by Jose V. Abueva who proposed to develop a Nonkilling Index that would measure the killings and killers.12

1.2 Why Nonkilling This book is an attempt to find means to develop a nonkilling world order and through a study of emerging paradigms create mass awareness on the dangers to human life and existence. The purpose of writing this book is to foster in developing a world order that is devoid of any human violence, and killing and where humanity can flourish. Since the evolution, humans have been killing each other for various reasons, primary being the fulfilment of their desires. The uncontrollable desire or emotions of humans have led to some catastrophic wars time and again. As has been said by M.K. Gandhi ‘Earth has enough resources for everyone’s need but not for everyone’s greed’, we need to understand that desires need to be controlled after a point of time and emotions need to be regulated. Even with the establishment of the United Nations, the world has been unable to prevent mass killings. The importance of nonkilling is that this topic is not only applicable in political science and philosophy but also in various other disciplines such as: Anthropology, Arts, Economics and Business, Education, Future Studies, Geography, Health Sciences, History, Law, Leadership, Linguistic Study, Neurosciences, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, Science and Technology, Security and International Relations, Sociology and Spiritual Traditions. Also, the topic of nonkilling extends 12 Abueva, Jose V. 2011. Let’s Build a Nonkilling Philippines, Philippines, Raintree Trading and Publishing, Inc.

1.2 Why Nonkilling

7

to: power, freedom, happiness, religion and peace. These are topics that require great attention from social scientists. These are some intrinsic values that cannot be measured but they play an important role in the life of every individual which in turn affects the society as a whole. The misinterpretation of such conceptual values has had led to the decline of humanity. Human beings may have evolved with time but humanity hasn’t. The study, therefore, makes an effort to elevate humanity by proper understanding and modifications of the conventional precepts which were developed for the sake of development of humans but somehow were used in such a way that the very existence of humans got threatened. The purpose is to pave a way for the creation of peace in the mind first as it has also been stated in the constitution of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed13 ;

1.3 Questions Unanswered In today’s world of violence, killings and terror nonkilling, peace has been recognized as an important concept that can be possible only by affirmative nonkilling.14 But the question that develops here is: Is a nonkilling society possible? At world forums, there are talks of Sustainable Developmental Goals but how far will they have utility if ‘life in humans’ itself cannot sustain itself? Hence, the question is what should be done to preserve human life? And that while preserving one human life, should one resort to such steps where other human lives get endangered or should one sacrifice one’s life for the sake of others? If killing is a crime, so is suicide irrespective of the reason, then how are humans going to protect their lives as well as of the others is the vital question. To many, the idea of nonkilling looks odd for two reasons primarily. It is either they have witnessed, experienced or rather developed a perception that conflicts are natural order of the world and so killing becomes inevitable or they think that when the ideas of peace have already been propounded from such a long time in history, then why the question of nonkilling is being asked. Since nonkilling is more specific and focused, this study tries to probe into it more. The views of people on nonkilling peace are of significance because actions are shaped by thoughts, until and unless people at large are not convinced about the viability of such a society they will not be ready to act upon it. In this regard, the facet for killing has developed because of: 13 UNESCO,

1945, UNESCO Constitution, Available from: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=15244&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (23 May 2018). 14 Swarup, A., 2018. Shifting the Way We Think About Nonkilling, Vision of Humanity. [Online] Available at: http://www.visionofhumanity.org/economists-on-peace/shifting-way-thinknonkilling/[Accessed 12 July 2018].

8

1 The Story So Far

a. The constant threat to human dignity and life by human actions as evolved historically through ideological and philosophical imprints; be it through suppression, coercion or revolution has made people over the ages to accept killing and violence as justifiable and legitimate to achieve their ends whereas nonkilling peace is as yet considered to be an abstract idea or an illusion. b. The threat to society from systematic use of force, violence and killing by state and nonstate actors continues because people remain uninformed and perhaps ignorant about the major political leaders and their political philosophies which even in modern-day world has led to further escalation of violence and killings. Hence, the proposed hypothesis is that ‘constant threat to human life and dignity has made people accept killing as natural and sometimes necessary for survival’. All actions are motivated by some thought process an individual develops over time where educational institutes have a great role in developing and moulding the thoughts. Some philosophies look very appealing to the mass; however, their practice may produce something undesirable. Since political science is concerned with developing political ideas, the efforts should be first to bring a change in the discipline of political science. As a first measure, NKGPS may be recognized as an important discipline at both graduate and postgraduate levels as a field of study. Balance of Science and Philosophy Science and philosophy are two distinct aspects of education but this does not necessarily mean that there is no relation between them. Science deals with technical skills while philosophy provides the wisdom of when and why to use those technical skills. The growth of science and technology on one the hand and degradation of human values on the other have been witnessed and this has only perpetuated killings and nonviolence globally. Albert Einstein, on one the hand, had said, ‘without religion, science was lame’. Science, he argued, can measure and predict events but cannot directly provide advice concerning what is right or wrong, where religion can offer guidance in ethical conduct’.15 However, the compatibility of religion and science is based upon the perception of the term ‘religion’. Religion construed as belief in superhuman force or power is incompatible with science while religion understood as an ethical philosophy is compatible with science (Rao 2006).16 The former kind of religious believers are not just opposed to science but often to humanity as well. Such religions give way for religious traditions and practices that often violate the rights of the minority or the weaker section of the society primarily which included women and children. As per the human rights watch, such traditions and practices are found globally be it Saudi Arabia, Africa or the USA.17 15 Ben-Meir, Alon, 2016, Killing in the Name of God, The World Post, Available from: http://www.

huffingtonpost.com/alon-benmeir/killing-in-the-name-of-go_b_3611883.html (29 June 2017). C.N.S. 2006. Sociology- Principles of Sociology With An Introduction To Social Thought, New Delhi, S. Chand & Company Ltd. 17 Reid, Graeme, The Trouble with Traditions When “Values” Trample Over Rights, Human Rights Watch, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2013/country-chapters/africa (29 June 2017). 16 Rao,

1.3 Questions Unanswered

9

Philosophy relating to the spiritual realm tries to interconnect all living beings by evoking empathy, conscientiousness and human consciousness. ‘The idea of interconnection is found even in physics and this interconnection is described through cooperative phenomena’18 that states that all constituents of a system are dependent on each other and none of them act independently. When philosophy becomes disoriented, it suppresses people, uses science and technology to meet its narrow ends and creates chaos in society.

1.4 An Exploration The research is a combination of exploratory and explanatory research. It tries to explore the mindset of people with regard affirmative nonkillingto peace. For this, a small-scale survey was conducted online in which responses of over 500 people across the globe are collected. This involves not just ordinary people but various peace activists/scholars as well. This was done to know the difference of outlook between them on the idea of means and end, killing and nonkilling, war and peace and also know that how far they are aware of the impact of the political ideologies on the human environment and what is their understanding of peace. By grasping the philosophical ideologies through the survey, a connection is sought between the state of mind and the state of land. To bring a change in the thoughts and actions of people first and foremost, they have to attain conscientiousness and consciousness for which education is the way forward. Most of the participants in the survey are from the age group 15–35, as can be observed from below (Graph 1.1). An attempt was made to record the response of people from outside India as well so as to have diversity (Graph 1.2). India is shown in green as the maximum response was from Indian participants while a response from other countries is comparatively lesser. The ratio of male to female is 6:4 and the educational qualification of a large section in the survey falls undergraduates and postgraduates. Most of the participants are from India but we were able to elicit opinions from various parts of the world as well (Graph 1.3). More than 50% of the participants are peace activists or researchers (Graph 1.4). Survey is represented throughout the thesis with the use of pie charts and to validate the hypothesis chi-square and crosstabulation test has been applied to selected questions. The study involves a multidisciplinary approach as well where it tries to explain the reasons for peace and violence with the help of political, historical, literary, legal and psychological perspectives. It is a mix of a qualitative and quantitative study. 18 Tripathi,

G.S. 2018. Connection Between Philosophy and Science, Times of India.

10

Graph 1.1 Age group pf respondents

Graph 1.2 Nationality of respondents

1 The Story So Far

1.4 An Exploration

Graph 1.3 Educational qualification and sex of respondents

Graph 1.4 Peace practitioners involved in survey

11

12

1 The Story So Far

The survey was done for the purpose of observation of thoughts of the people. Along with the survey, the killings involved in the nations are also recorded to prepare a Nonkilling Index to study the types and rates of killings involved in respective nations. The parameters used for observing killing are: homicide, suicide, war deaths, capital punishment and internal war related deaths. The data has been collected from: World Health Organization (for homicide and suicide) Uppsala Conflict Database (war and conflict deaths) and Amnesty International (for capital punishment).

Chapter 2

Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

International politics, like all politics, is a struggle for power. Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim. Hans J. Morgenthau (Morgenthau, H. 1978. Politics Among Nations, New York, Knopf, p. 29.)

The twentieth century has seen massive struggle for power which involved brutal wars costing life, liberty and property of individuals. It was a period in which countries were not just competing against each other economically but militarily as well, to dominate at global level. The paradigm of ‘Power’ that was advocated in the twentieth century can be said to be based on the political thought of Thucydides (460–411 B.C.E.). It resembled Thucydides in the sense that it recognized power as the reality of contemporary politics existing then, it differentiated from Thucydides because it focused only on power while as Thucydides focused on values and power both. Thucydides described the ‘Melian dialogue’ wherein the Melians employ idealistic argument and Athenians, realistic arguments. The Athenians know that the Melians are militarily weak so they plan to attack them. Melians are described as patriotic and courageous. Despite being acquainted with their military weakness, they are prepared to defend themselves at any cost. Their argument is that they have justice on their side while they regard the Athenians as unjust. For the Athenians, security, power and self-interest were the crux of their argument and morality had no place. They urge the Melians to look at the facts—that is, to recognize their military inferiority, to consider the potential consequences of their decision and to think about their own survival. However, upon close examination, flaws can be observed in Athenian argument as well. Melos, was a relatively weak state, neither was it a threat for the Athenians nor did its acquisition brought them any power. By destroying the Melos, Athens could not ensure its victory in the Peloponnesian War that occurred after a few years.1

1 Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, “Political Realism in International Relations”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = (8 January, 2017).

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_2

13

14

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

Thucydides, therefore, made an attempt to show that neither power alone nor hope can solve the problem of any society. The Classical Realists, however, did not take this cue rather they preferred to stick with the Athenian ways. Power was understood as a force over others to subjugate the ‘other’ and make them do something that served their self-interest, irrespective of what the ‘other’ wants to do. It was viewed as a negative force that would increase the importance of its perpetrator while denying the same to those subjected to it. A constant struggle for power rose between the nations to capture power thereby making the environment more and more hostile. The conflict was all the more perpetuated by thinkers like Machiavelli (1469–1527 A.D.) who believed war can lead to peace. He says, You must never fail to respond to trouble just to avoid war, because in the end you won’t avoid it, you’ll just be putting it off to your enemy’s disadvantage.2

Power was the most essential element for a ruler and therefore he states: Machiavelli (2011) To stay in power he’s frequently obliged to act against loyalty, against charity, against humanity and against religion.3

Machiavelli was the thinker who is credited to have separated ethics and religion from politics. The Prince is an important work by him which gave the base to this theory that religion and ethics should be separated from politics. The problem with The Prince is that it still is debated amongst the scholarly circles as to whether it was a book of guidelines to the king or was it sarcasm on the activities of the king. The work no doubt is an important piece of art that shows how politics is done but it is not a philosophical work, it was a pure reflection of the realities of the time in which it was written and for that it has to be applauded. But if those dark themes that it portrayed are looked upon as principles of national interest, then national interest is bound to create conflicts.

2.1 Power in Ancient Eastern History Machiavelli was not alone in attaching supreme importance to power; similar thoughts were propounded by Kautilya (371–283 B.C.) in ancient India. They both believed that ‘end justified the means’ that the ruler should possess ‘fox and lion’ like qualities (clever and bold); the difference, however, lied in consideration of ethics in politics. Kautilya was of the firm view that a ruler should follow Dharma (moral, legal and religious duties) in his every sphere of life but Machiavelli in contrast had separated ethics from politics. In Arthashastra, Kautilya has summarized his economic and political thoughts. The work had been lost for many centuries; however, a copy of it written on palm 2 Machiavelli,

Groups. 3 Ibid., p. 70.

Niccolò, 2011. The Prince. Translated and edited by Tim Parks, London, Penguin

2.1 Power in Ancient Eastern History

15

leaves was rediscovered in India in 1904 C.E. The Arthashastra provides the knowledge for running an empire effectively by probing deeply into the politics and economy of the state. It contains detailed philosophy on source of power for the state and king and how they need to be balanced. The subject of diplomacy and war has been treated in greater detail than any other, and it also includes recommendations on law, prisons, taxation, fortifications, coinage, manufacturing, trade, administrations and spies.’4 The ideas in the book are a combination of immoral and moral ideas. On one hand, he talks openly about assassinations, when to violate treaties and when to spy ministers while on the other hand he says that a ruler should be virtuous in nature. He says: ‘The happiness of the subjects is the happiness of the king; their welfare is his. His own pleasure is not his good but the pleasure of his subjects is his good’. If we see the history of India we find political assassinations, constant wars amongst the states a common phenomenon to capture power. The purpose of such extreme measures was to unite India to function smoothly and so that it can be protected from any external force or power. The dynasties which consolidated the states by means of aggression would often have to face revolt from their states or subjects whenever they were also able to accumulate power. This happens because the states that submit to other rulers would often feel humiliated. So despite treating the people and the king of the state well, they would look for chance to revolt. The assimilation of states, therefore, was not consolidating the states but breaking them from within. Hence, states had to face clashes not just from other states but also from within their states. Such kind of warfare often leads to great amount of human loss. But the worst of all happened during the Mauryan Empire by Emperor Ashoka. Ashoka (304 B.C.–232 B.C.) ruled over lands that stretched from modern Iran to Bengal. He was sending campaigns to conquest states; one of these states—Kalinga—refused to submit to him. It is believed that his army butchered 100,000 Kalingians and displaced as many. Amidst the ruins, he realized all the suffering he had caused, screaming the adage ‘What have I done?’ in horror. Tormented, he went sleepless for days.5 It was after committing such huge amount of bloodshed that he came to realize the value of human life. He found solace in the teachings of Buddhism and tried to spread it throughout his empire to spread peace. Ancient China had its origin in peace, and the proof is presented by the Records of the Grand Historian, attributed to second century B.C.E. historiographer Sima Qian, and the Bamboo Annals, an anonymous chronicle of a slightly later date. According to these works, the world was at first ruled by the Three Sovereigns, demigods: the Heavenly sovereign, the Earthly sovereign and the Human sovereign. They not only ruled benevolently in them but also maintained cordial relations between the three kingdoms. The period of the Five Emperors that came after the Three Sovereigns where we can observe the role of coercive power. It was in this period that armed conflict started to occur; however, the emperors were wise enough to prevent them and resolve them too. The Yellow Emperor, first of the Five Emperors prescribed 4 Violatti, C. 2013. Chanakya. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.ancient. eu/Kautilya/. 5 Adolf, Antony, 2009. Peace: A World History, Cambridge, Polity Press.

16

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

military action to be taken up only as the last resort. It was the Shang Dynasty (1766–1122 B.C.E.) that has the earliest evidence of coming to power by coup. The scale of warfare increased during their period. They were able to capture a vast area; however, they could not provide social cohesion to the diverse captured lands and this led to their decline and finally they were overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty (1122–256 B.C.E.). After them, there were ‘Seven Warring States’ that fought ceaselessly for the next three centuries: the Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin.6 It was the Qin which eventually reunited all of Ancient China by employing new philosophies and practices of peace to create its lasting imperial form. This policy was known as Legalism which was founded by Han Fei. Han Fei made law the basis of peace and order in society. ‘The cornerstone of his school of peace is the legal code, which he argued should be precise, publicly available and the final word on everything for everyone.’7 (Adolf 2009). Law was to bind everything and everyone to establish peace; this negative image of Legalism Han Fei hoped would bring peace to the chaotic war states. On the contrary, Legalism became like an imperial policy for Emperor Qin. It was imperial Qin who used such coercive means to unite the warring states of China and therefore is considered as the founder of China. Later on Li Si’s Legalist principles, endorsed the use of coercive force in unification, and this was backed up by Sun Tzu’s, Art of War., Li Si was his chief minister who introduced coercive legalism that was used as an imperialistic policy of Emperor Qin. They ‘outlawed other schools of thought and peace, burning their books as well as historical records, and burying nearly five hundred Confucians alive.’8 (Adolf, 2009). Li Si killed Han Fei too by this principle as he considered him his political and intellectual rival. The practice of oppressive peace, however, could not last long. Qin was ousted by the revolts that started to occur a decade after Li’s persecution began. The ideology of Legalism as an imperialistic policy was also used in Japan under Taika era (645 A.D.). The Taika reforms were though based on Confucian ideas and philosophies from China, but the true aim was to bring greater centralization of power to the emperor. As a result, oppressive peace was the norm in imperial Japan from the Taika reforms onwards due to which wars were often waged for the removal or imposition of it. There were public wars and private wars; public wars were wars fought on behalf of the state while private wars were wars instigated and fought between Governor’s armies. Earlier private wars were punishable by the imperial state by banishment or death. But later on, the instances of private wars increased so much that the forces called upon to enforce these punishments for breaching the peace were increasingly involved in private wars themselves. Their legitimacy thus was questioned and later on waned (Adolf 2009). The rise of Shogun class was observed during this period; however, due to the conflicts amongst them for supremacy, they were not able to achieve the oppressive peace they aimed for. So the wars (coercive power) waged for peace proved to be a failure. 6 Ibid.,

Chapter: Peace in the Ancient East: India, China and Japan, p. 67. p. 69. 8 Ibid., p. 70. 7 Ibid.,

2.2 Power in Ancient Western History

17

2.2 Power in Ancient Western History In the ancient period, Egypt, Greece and Rome were some of the earliest civilizations in the West that were considered to be very powerful. In ancient Egypt, there were pharaohs who were bestowed with great powers to maintain peace on earth. According to Antony Adolf, ancient Egypt lived in peace for a long time under the pharaohs. However, the ‘seven centuries of unitive peace ended when Upper and Lower Egypt split in only one or two generations.’9 He refers to the archaeologists who held ecological catastrophe responsible for the disturbance of peace. For the restoration of peace, coercive appeasement and forced submission were followed by the pharaohs that led to their assassinations. Amenemhet I promulgated oppressive peace in The Teaching of King Amenemhet I to his son Senusret, and this policy was constantly followed by his successors. After following such oppressive peace, the rulers took to conciliatory and reconciliatory measures to establish peace. The ancient Greek literature is said to be comprehensive corpus of anti-war and pro-peace literature in the West, of which preeminent instances are the Homeric and Hesiodic epics.10 After enjoying long period of peace and prosperity emerged the Spartans and Athenians. They began annexing proximate towns by force and diplomacy. The conflicting paradigm of peace introduced by them brought all ancient Greece to war. By its military tactics, Sparta soon came to control two-fifths of the Peloponnese as its foremost polis. So here again the policy of oppressive peace was practised. Athens, on the other hand, was a maritime superpower that backed Sparta and as its power grew the merchants and tradesmen power also grew. The nobility viewed this as a threat to curtail their power. Hence, Draco (650–600 B.C.) introduced oppressive laws. These laws were considered so oppressive that even Thucydides described it as a danger to day-to-day polis life. Some section of the society which included the women, foreigners, slaves and landless were not considered as citizens of the state and hence could not participate in political process. This was one of the major causes that caused cycle of coups and tyrannies which further precipitated lawless ferocity and violence. But when differences grew between the two, it leads to the Peloponnesian War (431 C.E.–404 C.E.). The war did not bring any final result; it was a stalemate situation, and in the end, Sparta, Thebes and Athens achieved nothing but weakened themselves. This power vacuum was filled by the new ‘rising star Macedon and its Corinthian League’. It was Alexander the Great who emerged victorious here who made many victorious military conquests but his early death (323 B.C.E.) created more chaos in the Greek city states. On observing all these events, Thucydides had come to the conclusion that disputes should be resolved by means of heralds and messengers rather than fighting. Philosophy was considered one such way for it would not only propound peace principles but also show how to put them into practice.

9 Ibid.,

Peace: A World History, p. 32. Chapter: Peace in the Ancient West: Egypt, Greece and Rome, p. 36.

10 Ibid.,

18

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus (twin brothers) in 753 B.C.E.; the very same day Romulus killed his brother Remus.11 There are archaeological references which state that Rome had emerged as a result the vicious struggle for supremacy over the northern Tiber River region between three tribes: Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. After ascending to power, the antagonistic Roman practice of using war to prepare for peace, and peace to prepare for war started. By this method as well as that of divide-and-conquer Rome ‘subjected the last independent peoples of Italy and those of Gaul and Hispania, roughly modern France and Spain, making limited partners of the conquered where this could be done and annihilating them when not.12 ’ (Adolf 2009). Therefore, peace treaties for Rome were strategies to prepare for war. Conquered land and people were Romanized by the victorious Generals, soldiers and settlers which in other words means the land was given to them for plundering. The Europeans of the future adopted the same Roman principles. Peace for them was just a strategy which they cunningly used and for this reason presumably centuries later they would also praise Machiavelli. War became a constant feature of Rome; it was Octavian or Augustus, son of Julius Caesar who is credited to build the Roman Empire. Augustus made guaranteeing internal peace and the rule of law the purpose of the state. He was responsible for building the infrastructure of the state that ranges from revitalization of arts, renovating roads which helped in communication and transportation and making taxes more equitable. Peace was therefore established in Rome; however, there were twofold parameters in the ‘Pax Romana’ period. On one hand, there was internal peace while on the other incessant external wars were made to check the foreigners from invasion and to plunder new territories. As a result of this, anarchic policies Rome fell. The internal peace was disturbed by revolts that would derail the economic prosperity and destabilize the socio-political set-up.

2.3 Power in Medieval West With the fall of Rome, came the medieval ages, 476 A.D. The Germanic and Asiatic tribes are held responsible for the fall of Rome as they continuously raided and invaded Rome. However, it was the Western Roman Empire that had fallen; the Eastern Roman or the Byzantine Empire emerged as the most powerful Christian power in the West during this period. But it was not any empire or state that became powerful in the medieval period it were the religious institutions that assumed power. Christianity and Islam were the most powerful religions in the medieval period. So much so that even the states were guided by them. ‘The Germanic tribes that had entered Rome were not all Romanizing the land but they eventually did convert all the people to Christianity. Conversion was believed to be a diplomatic instrument to confer spirituality that would in turn ensure peace. Such activities were to be 11 Garcia, B. 2013. Romulus and Remus. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.

ancient.eu/Romulus_and_Remus/ (17 July 2017). Adolf, Antony, 2009, p. 48.

12 Ibid.,

2.3 Power in Medieval West

19

performed by some religious authority and hence emerged the position of pope. It was Charlemagne (742–814) the chief bishop of Rome, now known as pope who decided to enhance the position of the pope by land and military might’.13 Antony describes that peace-making was turned into feudal and religious forms, thereby creating various titular heads. Over time when power grew amongst the classes below the king they would revolt against the king or sometimes the king would wage war on those whom he considered to be gaining more power. ‘Medieval bishops were below the Pope in Rome, but sometimes rivalled kings in wealth and influence and could enrich themselves and the Church by using their lands for secular as well as religious purposes.14 ’ In this feudal set-up, another important aspect was the structural violence against the small peasants. There was no power struggle between them but there was exploitation of the serfs by their land lords. The peasants, however, would only rebel against their lords after a great famine or plague which was responsible for the death of many of their fellow men. Constantinople was located on the eastern half of the Roman Empire; it was able to survive for a long time after the fall of Rome, the western part of the Roman Empire due to its geographic location. Justinian I took power in 527 and ruled until his death in 565.15 It is said the Byzantine Empire was the most largest and powerful state in Europe during his death. His power had come through the conquests and wars he had waged around Europe and the debt of which had to be paid by his successors. Heavy taxes were laid on the citizens to keep the empire afloat, while the imperial army was stretched far too long to maintain the annexed lands. The empire then started to struggle to maintain the newly annexed areas. At this point, another threat emerged in the manifestation of Islam. ‘In 634, Muslim armies began their assault on the Byzantine Empire by storming into Syria. By the end of the century, Byzantium would lose Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt and North Africa (amongst other territories) to Islamic forces.’16 In retaliation, the Christians began an attack on the Muslims which came to be known as crusades. The era of crusades began in the eleventh century. The series of holy wars were waged from the period of 1095–1291 A.D. The Seijuk Turks of central Asia were trying to capture Constantinople and so Emperor Alexius I turned to the West for help, resulting in the declaration of ‘holy war’ by Pope Urban II at Clermont (France) that began the First Crusade. Emperor Alexius took an oath of loyalty from the armies of France, Germany and Italy to him so that they may not betray him after regaining the land from the Turks. This coalition, however, did not prove fruitful; Alexius and his army retreated due to which they were accused of betrayal by the crusaders. The animosity developed all the more between the Byzantine Empire and the West during the period of crusade. It increased to such an extent that it culminated in the conquest and looting of Constantinople. The West made every effort to economically weaken the Byzantine Empire; thus, it 13 Ibid.,

p. 105. p. 106. 15 History.com Staff, 2010. Byzantine Empire, History.com, Available from: http://www.history. com/topics/ancient-history/byzantine-empire (29 September, 2017). 16 Ibid. 14 Ibid.,

20

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

was not difficult for the Turkish Empire to take control over it. The final conquest by the Ottoman Empire (Turkish Empire) came in 1453. Edward Gibbon argues in his book The History of the Decline and Fall of Roman Empire that the Roman Empire fell mainly because of the loss of civic virtue amongst its citizens. ‘Mahomet, with the sword in one hand and the Koran in the other, erected his throne on the ruins of Christianity and of Rome.’17 So on one hand, there were churches getting involved in wars while on the other hand, the holy book was being used to convert people to gain their support.

2.4 Power in Medieval East The third and fourth centuries in India saw the rule of the Gupta Empire under which Indian art and culture flourished, and this was the period when India was also known as the Golden Bird not just because of its flourishing economy but also because of the flourishing art, culture and science. The Gupta Empire was also flourishing by the increasing successful conquests by its rulers. Chandragupta I (319–335 A.D.), Samudragupta (335-380 C.E.) and Chandragupta II (375–414 A.D.) made remarkable military conquests.18 Samudragupta is believed to have made the most conquests in the Gupta Empire, and for this, the historian A.V. Smith has given him the title, ‘Napoleon of India’. The only difference for which some other historians criticize this title is that Samudragupta never lost any battle. His great military conquests known from the ‘Prayag Prashati’ were written by his courtier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles.19 However, this richness gained by the Gupta Empire could not be retained for long because one of the major flaws that occurred during their period was the rigidity introduced in the Varna system that turned it into the so-called caste system. Politically, the Gupta rulers were able to unify the country but the thin line of division in the form of caste system was going to create fissures in future in society that would nearly rock the whole nation. In the seventh century began the invasions by Prophet Mohammad, and the vast realm was extended by his successors from the borders of India and China to the Pyrenees and the Atlantic.20 Islam expanded throughout India through invasions, first by Arabs, then by Muslim Turkish armies. The Arab traders arrived in the Indian subcontinent for the first time in the early seventh century A.D., whereas the Turks arrived in the Indian subcontinent in the first half of the eleventh century and lasted 17 Gibbon, Edward, 1776. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter 50 “Fall in the East”, Available from: https://www.ccel.org/g/gibbon/decline/volume2/chap50.htm. 18 Mookerji, Radhakumud, 1947. The Gupta Empire, Bombay. Hind Kitabs Ltd. 19 Mishra, Anand K. 2006. ‘Who is known as the Napolean of India’, Times of India, 9 December, Available from: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/Who-is-known-asthe-Napoleon-of-India/articleshow/756074.cms (26 October 2017). 20 Lewis, Bernard, 1990. Europe and Islam- The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Available from: https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_documents/a-to-z/l/Lewis98.pdf (25 May 2018).

2.4 Power in Medieval East

21

for more than 500 years. The major motivation for Muslim conquest was the spread of Islam. Muslims conquered Kabul, Punjab and Sind before rushing into India. India’s wealth was an allure for some Muslim rulers. In addition, the rivalries between the kingdoms in India paved the way for the Muslims’ entry into India.21 Abdurrahman in his research paper writes about the presence of Islam in India but does not explore the power struggle that was waged between the Islamic rulers. He even falsifies the claims of those authors who have explored the cruel and intolerant policies of Aurangzeb in India. He talks about the smooth administrative set-up by Aurangzeb in his defence. However, it cannot be ignored that Aurangzeb imprisoned his own father and killed his brothers in order to get the throne. He also was committed to make India an orthodox Muslim state; he restricted Hindu festivals and destroyed many Hindu temples.22 One of the prime reasons of people converting their religion after the advent of Islam was the dissatisfaction created by the caste system that was made rigid during the Gupta Empire. Although the condition of the society had declined in the Islamic period, people were adopting the newly found religion. The practices of child marriage, Jauhar (The Hindu custom of mass self-immolation by women in parts of the Indian subcontinent, to avoid capture, enslavement and rape by invaders, when facing certain defeat during a war), Purdha system (A Muslim origin system in which females are prohibited from showing their face to any male except their husband) and all such social evils began with the advent of the Islamic rule in India. Also, regicide and fratricide were kind of recurrent features amongst the Turko Afghan rulers which later on were followed by the Mughal rulers as well. Historians have different interpretation over the unnatural deaths of some rulers. While some like Ibn Batuta hold Mohammad Bin Tughlaq responsible for killing his father, others like Ziauddin Barani account it to the divine intervention. Further while analysing the nature of rulers, Ibn Batuta ha described Mohammad Bin Tughlaq as generous, pious, courageous, unpredictable and ‘of all men the most addicted to the making of gifts and the shedding of blood. His gate is never without some poor man being enriched, or some living man executed’.23 In China on the other hand, efforts were being made to unify China more and more since the ancient period. The period from 907 to 960 A.D. witnessed five dynasties and ten kingdoms; wherein the warfare, official corruption and general hardship had increased.24 Islam had already entered China in the seventh century through trade merchants. Despite the forced unification in China, it did not witness such killings 21 Al-Sahli Haila, Abdurrahman, (2013). Turks In India: Their Presence And Contributions To Islam And Civilsation: An Historical And Analytical Study, West East Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, Riyadh. 22 Encyclopedia.com 2016. “Aurangzeb.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, Retrieved September 30, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacstranscripts-and-maps/aurangzeb. 23 Hays, Jeffrey, 2013. Ibn Batuta in India, Available from: http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat2/ 4sub8/entry-5470.html#chapter-1. 24 Encyclopedia.com. 2016. “Chinese Dynasties ((table)).” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopediasalmanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chinese-dynasties-table (October 01, 2017).

22

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

of its ruler the probable cause can be that Buddhism and Confucian thoughts were being promoted in the society by the rulers. With the advent of a Mongol Emperor, the Yuan dynasty by Emperor Kublai Khan was founded in the thirteenth century wherein both these ideologies were suppressed. The revolts in Mongolia and South China finally brought an end to the dynasty by the fourteenth century. Medieval history of Japan is characterized by famine, drought, disease, pestilence and dirty politics that forced Japan into civil wars. An atmosphere of ‘total war’ is observed from 900 to 1600 A.D. where the entire population was forced into war. Due to the instability in the region foreign attacks were also made in 1274 and 1281 by Mongolian ruler Kublai Khan but failed. By 1477, family alliances across Japan were in constant flux, and it was only when a resourceful Samurai who traded firearms and canons with the Portuguese traders that he was able to bring unification in the country.25 The medieval ages was the era of colonialism and imperialism that only helped in increasing the conflicts. In the West, the struggle for power is mainly observed between the Church and the State. During the early period, the Church and the state shared harmonious relationship where the Church was given more power over the State. But a shift was observed in the years 1000–1200 A.D. when State would support the Church only when it was beneficial for them.26 In the East, the dominance of Islam can be observed easily. The Islamic rulers too were using religion as a tool to convert people and then gaining power through them. By introducing religion, they thought of unifying the nation but it proved to be contradictory for religion then became not a source of attaining power, but the source of conflict not just amongst the rulers but amongst the people as well.

2.5 Power: Meaning and Nature as Understood in Contemporary World Power cannot be restricted to the realm of force alone. Different writers have taken different views on power due to which there exists no uniformity in its definition. Friedrich’s description of it as ‘a certain kind of human relationship’, Tawney’s emphasis is on the identification of power with the capacity of an individual or a group of individuals. Political thinker like Hobbes identify it with ‘some future apparent good’, modern psychoanalysts like Laswell likens it with influence. While Mao Zedong claims that ‘power comes from the barrels of a gun’ Gandhi substitutes the force of gin and bombs with the power of love and truth emanating from the will 25 Solecki, Michael, 2016, Medieval Japan, 900-1600, Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ obo/9780199791279-0165. 26 Cantrell, Cortney, 2010. Struggle for Power: The Relationship Between the Church, the State and the Heretical Movements, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne Opus: Research & Creativity at IPFW, Available from: http://opus.ipfw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1032&context= undhist_conf (11 September 2017).

2.5 Power: Meaning and Nature as Understood in Contemporary World

23

of the people.27 Power, thus, can be said to have certain characteristics according to these thinkers: capacity, influence, relationship, good and force. The whole concept of power, however, depends on its nature that can be either negative or positive. The nature of power determines the type of society and the relations in them. When power is negative, it ensures a relation of superiority and inferiority between the power holder and the subject. The capability (capacity) of the power holder is identified by analysing the geographic extent of the region controlled by the ruler, industrialization progress and economic boost. The subjects live in fear (influence) but are willing to live in such condition because they think such subjugation is necessary for the security and stability (good) of the society. The police and military (force) would have unrestrained power in such a society making it a military state. When power is positive, it ensures a harmonious relationship between the power holder and his subjects. The capability (capacity) is identified with development in science and technology along with the cultivation of virtues, morality and humanity. The power holder is loved (influence) by his subjects, and they are filling to live under such condition for it is helping in their personality development as well as that of the state (good). The police and military (force) would have restricted powers. In pure sense, very few nations today are established with the help of positive power either the state are totally based on negative power like North Korea, Pakistan and China or they are quasi negative like India and USA for they have not worked on the point of cultivation of virtues because of which political leaders also lack in them and in turn they are not loved by all their subjects; if they are loved by some, they are equally despised by others. Such hatred often causes violence and riots in the society due to which there have been times when even democratic states turned dictatorial and when military committed atrocities on the public for instance emergency in Germany (193328 ), South Africa (1960, 1985, 198629 ), India (1975–7730 ) and more recently France (201531 ).

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World ‘The word “power“ has been used to denote the ability of a person to fulfil certain desires a person may have; the term has been used in multifarious contexts like: power 27 Johari, J.C. 2012. Contemporary Political Theory: New Dimensions, Basic Concepts and Major Trends, New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, pp. 456–457. 28 BBC 2014. Hitler’s Rise to Power, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/history/ nationalism/hitler/revision/2/ (23 June 2018). 29 South African History Online, 2012, States of Emergency in South Africa: the 1960s and 1980s, Available from: http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/state-emergency-south-africa-1960-and1980s (23 June 2018). 30 Guha, Ramchandra, 2007. India after Gandhi, London, Macmillan, pp. 503–522. 31 The Local, 2017. This is what happened during France’s state of emergency, Available from: https://www.thelocal.fr/20171031/what-exactly-happened-during-frances-state-of-emergency (23 June 2018).

24

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

of man over nature or material things, and the power of man over man. Most of the theorists of power prefer to restrict its use to “power over human being”. Robert Dahl defines power as a kind of influence; it is exercised when compliance is attained by creating the prospects of severe sanctions for noncompliance’.32 Political power in a country is always rooted in its socio-economic and ideological structure.33 It thus, becomes imperative to understand the centres of power. Economic structure depends upon the natural resources, industrial development and trade relations. Social structure depends upon society and culture; and ideological structure upon the political philosophy. Ideology shapes the society while the society in turn shapes the economic structure. Theorists and politicians have often tried to define power through theory and practice. But the purpose of power often varies and so does their definition. According to Robert Dahl, leaders seek power for collective interest, self-interest and unconscious motives.34 (Paige 1977). Some of the varieties in the definition of power can be observed from the following: Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun’.35 Mao Tse Tung Power and violence are opposites: where the one rules absolutely, the other is absent…. Violence can destroy power; it is utterly incapable of creating it’.36 Hannah Arendt.

2.6.1 Post First World War and Second World War Period Analysis The post war period or post revolution period often witnesses the exercise of extreme form of power which in turn then leads to the humiliation of the subjects. Quincy Wright holds that ‘international law does not recognize the transition period between wars to peace. For international law the mere cease of war stands for establishment of peace. For it war is separated from peace by an instant of time, usually the moment at which the treaty of peace goes into effect. However, international politics has not been able to neglect this transition period’.37 This transition period he says is of extreme 32 Gauba,

O.P., 2003. An Introduction to Political Theory, New Delhi, Macmillan, p. 249. p. 254. 34 Paige, G. D., 1977. Scientific Study of Political Leadership. California: The Free Press, p. 17. 35 Mao Zedong. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved, from BrainyQuote.com Web site: https://www. brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/maozedong137206.html (February 10, 2017). 36 Panampost, 2015. ‘Violence Not Power: Maduro’s Ailing Regime’, 27 March 2015, Available from: https://panampost.com/valerie-marsman/2015/03/27/violence-not-power-maduros-ailingregime/ (9 February 2017). 37 Wright, Quincy, 1942. Commission to Study the Organization of Peace Second Report- The Transitional Period & Papers Presented to the Commission, Carnegie Endowment for International 33 Ibid.,

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World

25

importance as the seed of future war or peace are laid down during this period. According to his suggestion, the victors of war should not in any way humiliate those who lost. They should make every effort to restore all that they can after the war and create infrastructure and institutions with the consent of the people whose territory they have acquired. This would require sensitive and dynamic leadership who can understand the situation and change their policies efficiently according to the needs of the time. This clearly did not happen after the First World War. Coercive power was thought to be the best way to establish peace and international security and henceforth Germany was imposed with heavy penalties and was humiliated by taking away its territories. It was when the Second World War broke that everyone realized the disaster that wars can bring. To not let such a lethal war take place again, it was decided to form an inter-governmental organization where governments can articulate their problem at a world forum and a collective solution may be sought for it. This inter-governmental organization was not the first of its kind. A similar body, known as the League of Nations, was formed after the First World War. However, it failed disastrously because the powerful members either pulled out from it or those who were in the body lost their power at international level or became passive towards global events. Analysing the reasons of its failure, the new body known as the United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945. It was believed that the League of Nations had primarily failed because it had lost its authoritative strength (power) to implement decisions and had starting following the policy of appeasement towards Germany, which they thought was containing Communism and that this was in the interest of the capitalist nations. But here again the victors probably did not humiliate those who lost the war, but they did try to establish their supremacy by making themselves as the permanent members. Moreover, the suggestion made by Quincy Wright was that of helping in rebuilding the destroyed infrastructure of the nations who lost and suffered the most. If any nation suffered the most in the Second World War, it was Japan; no doubt the world war had created destruction all around including those that won the war. But the devastation that was brought about by the two nuclear bombs had its effects for decades on the victims. The after effects of the war were equally devastating as there were abnormally high amounts of cancer, birth defects and tumours that haunted the victims. The bombs did not just create physical damage but psychological damage as well. As per the New York Times, As many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 70,000 in Nagasaki died on the day of the attack or in the weeks immediately following, and the death toll rose by another 130,000’.38

This was the condition even before five years had elapsed. It was reported that more than half the population were either dead or were disabled, while the other half had gone in such a shock that they were not able to maintain useful connection Peace Division of Intercourse and Education Publication and Editorial Offices, New York. Available from: Online: www.unfor.info/transition_text.pdf. 38 Erikson, Kai, 1981. A Final Accounting Of The Death And Destruction, The New York Times, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/1981/08/09/books/a-final-accounting-of-the-death-anddestruction.html?pagewanted=all (23 May 2018).

26

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

with one another and probably went into isolation. The war had affected adults and children equally and deadly diseases like leukaemia, high rate of blood disorders and other such health issues persisted for a long time. A lot many people are believed to have died from the radiation, the statistics of which is not available. Erikson in his article had further made the observation that no proper study was conducted to study the psychological conditions of the survivors. It was five years after the bombing that a Japanese-American Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) went to Nagasaki to conduct a research on the continuing deaths caused by the effect of the bomb. The objective of the commission was only to attain technical information and to make a detailed report pertaining to the opportunities for a long-term study of atomic bomb casualties.39 They were conducting scientific and medical studies but did not offer any medical care to the bomb victims. There was no real funding for medical treatment until 1951. The wartime expenses and the costs of damage done to Japan threatened the long-term economic ruin of their country. Inflation, unemployment and shortages in all aspects of necessity were overwhelming.40 Meanwhile, the victors were looking for ways to prevent such horrific wars from occurring in the future. It was thought that for a body to be successful at world forum, it needs to have authority (power) and it should think beyond the boundaries of national interest. Hence, came the UNO; it granted permanent membership to the powerful members and established principles that would safeguard the interest of all and would be helpful in establishing international peace and security. Its purpose is defined in article I of the UN Charter41 which states that it aims for international peace and security by collective and peaceful means. It wants to promote cordial relations amongst all the nations without jeopardizing their sovereignty and integrity. The UN would serve as a platform for harmonizing the actions between the nations. Though all the organs of the UN aimed for fulfilling its purpose, the Security Council was given special powers for the maintenance of international peace and security. It enjoys investigative powers to resolve the disputes, advisory powers as well as coercive powers42 . Mostly, the UNSC was to work through diplomacy, arbitration and mediation. Military actions were to be the last resort. For checking the military acts of other nations, the trade of military weapons should have been regulated rather than checking them with military contention. Now it is noteworthy here that the permanent 5 fall in the list of top arms exporting nations 39 Brues, J.M. & Henshaw, P.S. 1947. Remarks of the Current Situation in Japan, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission General Report Available from: http://www.nasonline.org/about-nas/history/ archives/collections/organized-collections/atomic-bomb-casualty-commission-series/abccrpt_pt1. pdf. 40 Frame, D. 2015. The effect of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Washington State University, Available from: https://history.libraries.wsu.edu/spring2015/2015/01/20/theeffect-of-the-atomic-bombs-dropped-on-hiroshima-and-nagasaki/. 41 United Nations, Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1945, 1 UNTS XVI, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3930.html [accessed 23 May 2018]. 42 See United Nations Security Council, 1945, Functions and Power, Available from: http://www. un.org/en/sc/about/functions.shtml. (19 January 2018).

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World

27

Table 2.1 Wars Since 1945–2015 UN involved * P5 involved crosstabulation Count P5 involved UN involved

No Yes

Total

Total

0

1

2

3

4

51

29

7

3

1

1

0

0

0

1

2

52

29

7

3

2

93

91

in the world as per the report of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), between 2000 and 2012.43 Weapons trading for monetary interest can lead to destruction, and as ethical ground in such a scenario is often ignored, then the goal of international peace and security is also lost. At the same time, weapons are necessary for self-protection but if they are being used for initiating the war and are aggravating the situation, then a check should be made on such countries for they are violating not just the sovereignty of another nation but also endangering the humanity at large. To know the effectiveness of the Security Council, it should be determined as to how many times since its establishment wars were fought and how many times the United Nations Security Council was able to take some effective stand to prevent it. This analysis does not include those cases where the UN may have intervened and prevented a war, but it simply includes the number of times wars were fought after the establishment of the UN. This is done to just give a rough idea of the success of UN (Table 2.1). The above given tabulation describes how many times wars took place since 1945 to 201544,45 and in how many wars the permanent members were involved. 1. In 51 wars, none of the permanent members of the UN were involved. 2. There are 29 instances when one of the five permanent members was always involved in wars. 3. On seven instances, two permanent members were involved in wars. 4. In three wars, three permanent members were involved. 5. At only one instance, four members were involved in the war. 6. At one instance, the United Nations itself was a belligerent (Korean War 1950–53). 7. Thus, from the period of 1945-2015, a total number of 93 wars have been fought.

43 Deakin,

Daniel R, 2014. http://www.therichest.com/rich-list/the-biggest/the-10-biggest-armsexporting-nations/?view=all (22 May 2016). 44 Ultimate Bible Reference Library, (n.d.) http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Wars_ Fought_Since_1945_to_2010.pdf (22 May 2016). 45 Wikipedia Contributors. 2018. List of 2011 Wars-Present. Available from: https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_wars_2011%E2%80%93present.

28

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

The UN though has been instrumental in solving lot of international crisis and harmonizing international relations through its legal and economic measure, there have also been numerous incidences when UN seemed ineffective. UN has 16 peace keeping missions going around the world, and some of them are continuing way long since 1948. So efforts are being made to achieve negative peace but the life of negative peace is not long; efforts are needed to develop positive peace as well. The failure of the UN is attributed to the archaic structure of the body of UNSC and its sole focus on negative peace. The Razali Plan made recommendations with regard to the structure and functions of the UN (except the veto power)46 ; the High Level Panel and Report by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan analysed the whole body of UN and its weakness to find the challenges it was facing for effective functioning. Suggestions were made to make the UNSC more credible, legitimate and representative. Therefore, he proposed two models for reforming the Security Council: ‘Model A and Model B’47 so as to ensure regional representation. In his address to the United Nations, he further said that the composition of the Council has been the agenda of the UN assembly for over a decade, and it has been agreed virtually by all member states that the Council should be enlarged but there is no agreement on the detail. The Small Five Group (S5) Plan has presented various draft resolutions since 2008 calling for Security Council reform that involve primarily transparency in the working system of Security Council, and then there were other issues relating to membership, use of veto power; and the relationship between the Security Council and the General Assembly. The S5 also proposed to the P5 to abstain from using veto in cases of genocides, crimes against humanity and serious violations of international law.48 In case veto is exercised, the reason should be explained to the other members. Also the large troops contributing nations should be consulted regularly in regard to the peace keeping operations. The G4 plan,49 the African Union Plan50 and Uniting for Consensus51 movement were all based on membership of the UN and the role 46 Global Policy Forum, 1997. Razali Reform Paper, Available from: https://www.globalpolicy.org/ security-council/security-council-reform/41310-razali-reform-paper.html (22 May 2016). 47 Crespi, Giorgia, 2013. UN Security Council Reform- Lights & Shadows, Globalization and Socio economic Co-operation, Available from: https://globalization-cooperation.wikispaces.com/ file/view/un+security+council+reform.pdf, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Italy (22 May 2016). 48 World Federalist Movement - Institute for Global Policy, 2011. Small Five Group Draft Proposal on Security Council Reform- November 11. [Online] Available at: http://www.unelections.org/?q= node/2385 [Accessed 22 May 2016]. 49 G4 Nations, 2005. Reform of the Security Council, A/59/L.64, United Nations General Assembly. [Online]. Available at: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/59/ L.64 [Accessed 23 May 2018]. 50 African Union, 2005. The Common African Position On The Proposed Reform Of The United Nations: The Ezulwini Consensus, Ext/EX.CL/2 (VII). [Online]. Available at: http://www.un.org/ en/africa/osaa/pdf/au/cap_screform_2005.pdf [Accessed 23 May 2018]. 51 Uniting for Consensus. 2005. Fifty-Ninth Session, Reform of the Security Council, UN Doc A/59/L.68, United Nations General Assembly. [Online]. Available at: https://www. auswaertiges-amt.de/blob/231614/9d4e7fc050f08852ebe373cb7e6ed006/draft-resolution-unitingfor-consensus-data.pdf [Accessed 2018 May 22].

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World

29

of veto. However, there is dissent between the groups with regard to membership of the UN and the role of veto. The plans that were put forward by these groups of nations were built on narrow national interest rather than the idea of world peace. The developing nations want the permanent seat to accumulate more power; the weak nations oppose such demands due to their insecurities. So all the nations seem to be struggling with each other inside the UN, and this is creating tensions between such nations which can be observed in international relations and politics as well. A prominent feature that can be observed in these plans is the role of veto in bringing peace. Teng (2003) made proposal of expanding the members without veto power as he held that vetoes were responsible for delay in decision-making by the UN.52 According to the author, it is the veto power that is coming in the way of the reformation of Security Council. Wouters and Ruys (2005) made a proposal to support the idea launched by Australia during negotiations at San Francisco and that is rejection of veto in Chapter VI of UN53 But there are some proposals like that of Jean Krasno which do not want to interfere with the role of veto rather only focus on enlarging the members of the Council (Krasno, 2006).54 In contrast, Ronzitti (2010) proposes veto for nonpermanent members as well. The author also suggests transparency in the working of Security Council and improving its relation with the General Assembly.55 Schlichtmann (2011), in his research paper, makes a proposal for reshuffling of the Security Council where permanent seat would be voluntarily given up by the P5. The writer contrary to Krasno believes that simply increasing the permanent members would make the Security Council less effective and also would prevent the realization of a fundamental principle of the UN, i.e. the transition from an armed to an unarmed peace.56 He is silent over the use of veto. On similar logic, Butler (2012) recommends reshuffling of the Security Council where the permanent members would give up their seat; rather than total abolition of veto power as suggested by some other researchers, he advices to dilute the veto power by assigning a minimum value of 3 to be recognized as valid. In other words, veto from three members would be needed to put an end to any resolution.57 The approach of the Ronzitti, Schlichtmann, Wouters and Ruys and Butler appears dynamic but can be considered utopian as it is compromising with the national interest of the permanent members which makes it less feasible to be accepted. The kind of power enjoyed by the permanent members at present makes it difficult to imagine 52 Teng,

Michael, 2003. The United Nations Security Council Reforms, Stanford, EDGE Autumn. Jan And Ruys, Tom, 2005. Security Council Reform: A New Veto For A New Century, Institute for International Law Working Paper No 78–June. 54 Krasno, Jean, 2006. Legitimacy, Representation, and Accountability: A Proposal for UN Security Council Reform, Yale Journal of International Affairs. 55 Ronzitti, Natalino, 2010. The Reform of the UN Security Council, Rome, Istituto Affari Internazionali. 56 Schlichtmann, Klaus, 2011. An Enduring Concept for Security Council Reform, Beijing Law Review. 57 Butler AC, Richard, 2012. Reform of the United Nations Security Council, 1 Penn. St. J.L. & Int’l Aff. 2. 53 Wouters,

30

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

that they would voluntarily give up their seat. Moreover, keeping out such a powerful nation from the global body may result in weakening of the body. One of the primary reasons for the failure of the League of Nations was that the most powerful members at that time were not part of the global body; therefore, they had no accountability for their actions and had no concern for the wars happening around them. A body can be effective only if its organs are powerful and so social scientists have made persistent efforts to keep the UN powerful. Upon observing the changing power dynamics in the recent geopolitical scene, Yadav (2014) argues for the case of India to become a permanent member of the Security Council on account of its contribution to peacekeeping activities, which reflects its manpower as well as commitment towards peace.58 On the other hand, Cox (2009) recommends Brazil and Nigeria as potential members for the permanent seat of Security Council. Brazil and Nigeria are southern hemisphere states with vast natural resources and secure borders. Predicting them to become powerful nations in the future, the author proposes permanent seat for them.59 However, there are many factors that are responsible for international peace and security: diplomacy, international pressure, domestic opinion, UN sanctions. One criterion alone cannot be held responsible for the establishment of peace and then further for the allotment of permanent seat in the UNSC. Mere possession of natural resources or military contribution does not guarantee power. There are various other factors that contribute in making a nation powerful.60 Further, those factors are also balanced against each other which help in the development of the nation. The problem of consensus in reforming the Security Council has been noted by Thomas Weiss. His vision of reformation of Security Council rests upon the premise of the negative peace. His focus is on the imbalance between ‘seats at the table and actual military capacity outside of the Security Council chamber 61 (Weiss 2003)’. The problem is that most of these reforms were made with the aim of enhancing national interest or making the UN more powerful. Certain fundamental flaws exist in both these concepts as both of them have been interpreted and used in a very narrow outlook. However, those who kept positive peace as the central idea to bring change in the UN varied from the above suggestions. Veto has indeed been viewed as an obstruction in decision-making process. Further, the problem of veto with regard to peace building is well explained in the thesis by Michelle Butters. He argues for the alteration in veto power in cases of genocides and wars against humanity; in such cases veto power should be prohibited from being exercised. The conditions that lead to such crisis

58 Yadav, Manish Kumar, 2014. India’s Quest for United Nations Security Council Permanent Seat with Special Reference to its Peace-keeping Credentials, Global Journal of Political Science, Volume 2. 59 Cox, Brian, 2009. “United Nations Security Council Reform: Collected Proposals and Possible Consequences,” South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business: Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 4. 60 Chatterjee, Aneek, 2010. International Relations Today, Chapter 3: Basic Concepts; National Power, New Delhi, Pearson India. 61 Weiss, T.G. 2003. The Illusion of UN Security Council Reform, The Washington Quarterly, 26 (4), 149.

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World

31

should also be probed into in order to prevent their occurrence (Butters 2007).62 The case studies {Cambodia, Rwanda, former Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Kosovo), Darfur and Sudan.} shown by the author has revealed that how veto power can be a hurdle in protecting humanity but perhaps this has not been realized by the powerful members. Looking into these recommendations and proposals, Edward Horgan believes that: The UN and the anarchic nature of international system needs to be transformed, superseded or replaced by more effective global jurisprudence and global governance’.63 (Horgan 2008)

He argues that the primary problem is that without the approval of the permanent five, no changes can be made in the body of the Security Council. A revolutionary reform as suggested by Horgan (2008) may give us a new global body, but whether it will be effective in serving the purpose of establishing peace and security remains a doubt. Horgan focuses his study in the area of Asia, Africa and Middle East where it is further probed that how far UN has been successful in establishing peace there? He has come to the conclusion that the UN failed in Asia, Middle East and Africa substantially. The UN is the highest institution working on the agenda of peace which envisions a peaceful and killing free world. Since a long time, various reforms were suggested by scholars and nations with regard to the structure and functions of the Security Council but the only reform in the UNSC that was in this regard was in 1965 and that was: increase of nonpermanent members from 6 to 10. The functioning and structure of UN can be decided by permanent members only; all others can give only suggestions. This, however, has been established by research that the UN has failed to establish peace in many areas of the world, especially: Asia, Africa and Middle East. Theoretically, UN has taken steps to promote peace in the form of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The spirit of peace is envisioned in the 16th goal which is to ‘Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels’.64 In particular, these points focus on creating a killing free or nonkilling world as: 16.1 focus on significantly reducing violence and violence-related deaths; 16.2 aims to promote human dignity and rights. These two points are factors of positive peace that need to be worked upon by the society. Points 16.3 and 16.4 are measures for the state to be taken to check the organized crime in states. The schemes of restraining nations from involving themselves in violent conflicts by coercive means have really not solved the problem. Many of the suggested UN 62 Butters,

M. 2007. Genocide Prevention through Changing the United Nations Security Council Power of Veto, Master of Arts in International Relations & Security Study thesis, University of Waikato, New Zealand. 63 Horgan, Edward J. 2008. The United Nations—Beyond Reform? The Collective Insecurity of the International System and the Prospects for Sustainable Global Peace and Justice, Ph.D. thesis University of Limerick, Ireland. 64 Open Working Group of General Assembly, 2014. Proposal for Sustainable Development Goals, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1579SDGs%20Proposal.pdf (27 April 2017).

32

2 Human Existence: Paradigm of Power Struggle

reforms have been made guided by national interest, but this fact has been agreed upon that the UNSC needs to change its structure and functions as per the changing realities of global politics. Perhaps the concept of power needs to be handled differently not just by nations but the political scientists as well such as to provide its ‘holistic’ meaning and only then the reforms can be truly effective.

2.6.2 Contemporary Perspectives on Power Ralph Summy describes the various perspectives of power as viewed by Gene Sharp, Gandhi and other political scientists. Sharp speaks about ‘power from’ and ‘power with’; in simpler words taking the power from the ruler and increasing the power with themselves. Gene sharp’s ideology is based on the idea of ‘consent’. If the people withdraw their consent from the ruler’s unjust laws, the ruler will have only two options: either to give into the demands of the people or to exercise violence to make the people obey. Police and military are the authority with whom the power of violence, and it is again on their consent to obey the ruler or not. Further, when a leader exercises power in such a brutal manner against his/her own people, it proves to be counterproductive. Gandhi’s concept of power begins with the individual. Individual can generate ‘power within’ that radiates outward as ‘power through’ to all other forms of power. In other words, Gandhi talks about creation of power and its circulation, while the others are concerned with power distribution and its exercise. Gandhi equates power with the doctrine of Satyagraha implying insistence on truth. ‘Satyagraha was an instrument of nonviolently tackling an issue or eradicating a problem, it also can be used as a transcendental philosophy to be pursued in one’s private life and to bring change in the world. Satyagraha for him is both means and an end as he feels means determine the end. There were 4 cardinal virtues for Satyagraha: truth, love, nonviolence and self-sacrifice. Gandhi wanted a total transformation of the society to a nonviolent society and for that he proposed self-purification’.65 Thus, Gandhi’s concept of power excludes physical violence (Summy 2013). The political scientists to which Summy refers to talk about ‘power to’ and ‘power over’ implying the potential of people to bring change in their life and the world, while the latter is a sort of negative concept of power which is based on domination, the former is based on mutual support. Power has always been understood and implemented with the view of domination. The cold war era that started after the formation of UN was nothing but a show of power domination which was manifested in the arms race and armament programs. Apart from political scientists and philosophers, those whose perspective on power matters most are the political leaders. The political leaders of different nations interpreted and implemented power in their own ways, mostly applying the concept of 65 Summy,

Ralph, 2013. “Changing the Power Paradigm” In Pim, Joám Evans (ed.) Nonkilling, Security and the State, Honolulu, Centre for Global Nonkilling, pp. 48–50.

2.6 A Critical Analysis of ‘Power’ in Contemporary World

33

‘power over’. Leaders of the twentieth century such as Mao Tse Tung, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and Hitler have applied this context of power while formulating their respective policies in their respective nations and would be studied in the next chapter.

2.7 Shifting the Power Paradigm From time immemorial power was and is viewed as a coercive measure used to exert one’s opinion and fulfil their desire. Through a brief history of the world, it was depicted that coercive power and oppressive peace were always short-lived. When the brutality of war was witnessed, institutions were erected to preserve the peace of the world but even there power politics developed and despite the proposals to reform the UNSC, no significant steps have been taken in this regard. For the fear of losing their hegemony in world politics, the permanent members had continuously tried to dominate the UN, not allowing any reforms to be made that may check their power. The UN no doubt has succeeded at various instances to prevent war, yet it cannot be denied that it had failed in many more places. Thinkers like Gandhi and Sharp had tried to give a new definition of power giving it a more positive outlook but that what is generally followed or prescribed to is the theory of power developed by the Realist school which instigates conflicts all the more.

Chapter 3

Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

Violence produces only something resembling justice, but it distances people from the possibility of living justly, without violence (Sohail, K. 2013. Prophets of Violence, Prophets of Peace, Leo Tolstoy—And the Path of Love and Peace, Ontario, Green Zone Publishing) Leo Tolstoy

In the previous chapter, we discussed how the struggle of power has impacted all lives globally. In this chapter, we would try and explore as to why despite the brutal results of power conflicts, nations constantly engage themselves in it. Retracing our steps to philosophy, a reference of Hobbes statement is made who also belonged to the realist school of thought that has found prominence in contemporary times. He says: We are all basically selfish, driven by fear of death and the hope of personal gain, he believed. All of us seek power over others, whether we realize this or not.1

Fear and selfishness are the two factors according to Hobbes that drive humans in the competition to seize power. When these feelings start dominating the personality, it leads to psychological disorders. In the words of Evelin Lindner, ‘Fear can hamper constructive conflict resolution or enhance it when it sharpens our senses and alerts our thoughts’.2 For when we fear something either we resort to fight or flight depending upon the situation. Lindner also notes here that there are situation where people neither ‘fight’ nor ‘flight’ but compromised and consented to live under the domain of fear calling it ‘peace’. Further, she says ‘Intense fear causes “tunnel vision,” reducing the range of one’s perceptions, thoughts, and choices, putting us in danger of making suboptimal decisions’.3 She says that the awareness of fear and death makes people go in emotional distress and after that she refers to Erich Fromm’s Escape from Freedom that points out that emotional distress makes people vulnerable to charismatic leaders. Charisma has been described by Robert House 1 Yale

University Press (2013). Available from: http://yalebooksblog.co.uk/2013/04/05/thomashobbes-solitary-poor-nasty-brutish-and-short/ (18 February 2017). 2 Lindner, Evelin 2009. Emotions and Conflict, London, Praeger Publishers. 3 Ibid, p. 27. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_3

35

36

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

as a quality by which the sociopolitical leaders have a ‘profound and extraordinary effects on followers’.4 The traits of a charismatic leader are described as: dominance, self-confidence, need for influence and strong convictions. The followers of such leaders therefore totally rely on their leaders and do not wish to even check them when they start turning absolutist after assuming power. House comes to the similar conclusion as Erich, he says, ‘a strong feeling of distress on the part of followers is one situational factor that interacts with the characteristics and behaviour of leaders to result in charismatic effects’.5 So, a stressful environment can be said to be the setting ground for charismatic leadership to emerge. The rise of charismatic leaders is not a problem rather it is the blind followership of people towards that leader which creates a problem. Such kind of followers accept the absolutism of their leaders so much so that they are even ready to be a part of the inhumane programs of their leaders including genocide. An absolute leader creates a rigid and intolerant society, and hence, human life and dignity come under jeopardy. What Hobbes had described was his observation of power holders, and the way they exercised their power then. His theory on power was built upon the assumption of ‘power over’ others that come through subjugation only. But subconsciously, even he did not want such extreme form of power and that is why both elements of ‘absolutism and individualism’6 can be found in his philosophy as well. There are various leaders from the twentieth century who believed in this approach of ‘power over’. Through the literature survey the leaders who propagated such concepts of power were identified and then political and psychological analyses were attempted to understand why they chose the concept of ‘power over’. The base of the analysis is the philosophy given by Hobbes that recognized fear and selfishness to be the two prominent driving forces to capture power. This would help us in reasserting the theory of Hobbes in contemporary times as well. Hobbes held that it was the scarcity of resources that created such fear and selfish attitude, but the world has progressed a lot since his days. The technological innovations have helped us in increasing our natural resources yet fear persists in the society. Thus, it is necessary that we study the background and psychology of the political leaders as well. For the scope of this chapter, it would be tried to focus upon those charismatic leaders of twentieth century who seized power from another organization or leader by forceful means, study their policies as a leader and know the psychology behind their choice of actions. Mao Tse Tung, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Lenin are some eminent and famous charismatic leaders who came to power by means of civil war, whereas Hitler came to power by applying emergency in his nation. Therefore, he would also be included in this study for using emergency to exert one’s rule is an indirect means of using force to come to power. 4 House,

Robert J. 1976. A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership, Working Paper Series 76-06, University of Toronto. 5 Ibid, p. 23. 6 Lloyd, Sharon A. and Sreedhar, Susanne, 2014. “Hobbes’s Moral and Political Philosophy“, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.). URL: https://plato.stanford.edu/ archives/spr2014/entries/hobbes-moral/.

3.1 Adolf Hitler

37

3.1 Adolf Hitler His autobiography ‘Mein Kampf’ gives a great insight into the settings he was born in, the values he had and his attitude towards the social problems. Hitler was born at a time when Germany was divided into German Empire and German Austria. The German Austria was under the Habsburg Crown. From his childhood, Hitler was a rebellious and a patriot as well. He was rebellious towards the rulers of German Austria and patriot towards his motherland. He had a harsh childhood as he lost his parents at an early age. In youth, he wanted to be a painter, and politics was a secondary field for him which he observed silently. In order to earn his bread and butter, he takes up the job of a worker in a factory of Vienna. There he dwells on the kind of society: gaps between the small bourgeoisie and the labourer class, the difference between the upstarts and the upper class. The social evils in Austria he believes had increased the ridge between the rich and the poor. He defines two kinds of persons as evils but doesn’t know which one is more evil: those who ignore social problems or those who show off about their charity or expect some favour in return for their charity. The ruthless attitude of the big city creates great contempt for itself in the mind of Hitler. The dislike is increased when he observes how it creates greed in the mind of people to come to it and then mercilessly breaks away all their dreams. Misery creates bad surroundings and children brought up in such surrounding develop negative thoughts for everything, the school, the state, the people and the society. In order to ‘nationalize’ the people, the essential requirement he believed was, to establish healthy social conditions, for only family upbringing and school education inculcates cultural, economic and above all political knowledge, the national pride in this way can be developed in the individual. Further in his biography, he talks about the German Democratic Party and the bourgeoisie class. The bourgeoisie class did not understand the needs and demands of the people while the German Democrats were simply using the trade union to fulfil their ends and not that of the people. Now here Hitler points towards the Jews says that the only key to understand the inner nature and real aim of social democracy is knowledge of the Jews. The man who has come to know this race has succeeded in removing from his eyes the veil through which he had seen the aims and meanings of this party in a false light.7 (Hitler 1925)

Marxism was also the product of the Jewish mind, and he abhorred that equally. Hitler thinks that by standing against the Jews, he is defending the handiwork of the Lord–the human beings. Hitler considers democracy to be the breeding ground of Marxism so he stands against both democracy and Marxism. He feels that the concept of majority opinion or majority rule is flawed and gives his preference for the monarchical system as it guarantees stability. The media he viewed was a tool for mass manipulation and so expresses his dislike for it too. The system of democracy is invented so that the actual decision-makers can hide in the dark while making decisions, this way they will not be held accountable for the decisions. 7 Hitler,

Adolf, 1925. Mein Kampf, Mumbai, Jaico Publishing House, p. 58.

38

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

Here again Hitler holds the view that only a ‘Jew can praise an institution which is as corrupt and false as himself ’ (Hitler 19258 ). He supports survival of the fittest to have a strong nation and therefore is against restricting birth rate. The survival of the fittest applies not only to individuals but to nations as well as the culturally inferior races, otherwise will increase and then decisions will be made in favour of numerically stronger races that according to him are not well civilized. Self-preservation is the only virtue for him, he states: Man has become great through perpetual struggle. In perpetual peace his greatness must decline. (Hitler 19259 )

The survival he believes comes through expansion which should be direct and not based on commercial means. The Germans suffered in the First World War because the German government aligned itself with Austria just to preserve peace. The belief is that the idea of preserving peace actually called out for a war had the Germans retaliated against the Austrian state, and it would have resulted probably in a war but the world war could have been avoided. Hitler joined in the war for his love for Germany. The war as known did not result into the advantage of Germany as because he believed they did not have a spiritual base for the use of force. To combat an idea or ‘Weltanschauung’ (term used by Hitler which means: Outlook of the World) he says mere force is not enough, an equally aggressive idea is needed upon which the forces can be build. Besides this, the art of propaganda is essential to win a war and such propaganda should appeal to the sentiments of the people rather than their rationality, only then the spirits of the war can be kept high. The German authorities did not do any such thing, instead did all that would bring down the spirits of the soldiers, and the officials were apathetic to the fighting soldiers and here again Hitler holds the Jews culpable for it, he said: Government offices were staffed by Jews. Almost every clerk was a Jew and every Jew was a clerk… In the business world they had become indispensable and like leeches, they were slowly sucking the blood from the pores of the national body. (Hitler 192510 )

The Jews he believed were making business out of the war. When the war was lost Hitler was dismayed, his hatred for the originators of the crime increased and then he decided to enter into politics. His oratory skills caught the attention of a newly formed party—the German Labour Party; they wished to incorporate him in it. He had already formed his view on state with regard to its purpose and to preserve the racial stock. Persons of mixed blood are relatively inferior to a person of pure blood. He recognizes only one type of right which is also a duty, and that is, the purity of the racial blood should be safeguarded so that the best types of human beings may be preserved that would make possible a more noble development of humanity itself. The task of the state is also to provide healthy children to the nation and to complete that task modern medical discoveries would be helpful. In other words, science was being used not to cure disease rather but to 8 Ibid,

p. 93. p. 133. 10 Ibid, p. 181. 9 Ibid,

3.1 Adolf Hitler

39

proclaim as unfit for procreation all those who are inflicted with some visible hereditary disease or are the carriers of it; and practical measures must be adopted to have such people rendered sterile. (Hitler 192511 )

Such people can adopt unknown children and give their love and affection to them. The state has to ensure physical fitness of the individual for this military training would be given, and only after they possess the certificate of fitness, they should be allowed to marry. Also, a diploma would be given to enable him to take part in public affairs.

3.1.1 Rise of Hitler and His Policies In 1933, Hitler became the chancellor of a coalition government and the Nazis held two seats apart from Hitler out of 10 in the cabinet. Then a mishap took place, on 27 February 1933, when the German parliament (Reichstag) building was burned down due to arson. It was alleged by the government to be the conspiracy of the communists to overthrow the state. The decree of emergency for the protection of German people was declared by Hitler’s cabinet on 4 February 1933. This arsenal incident gave the opportunity to implement the order that imposed emergency in the state, thereby depriving the citizens of their fundamental rights and giving the police unrestrained rights including those on police investigation and arrest.12 For Hitler, the alacrity as well as the brutality with which power is exercised and is reflective of the source of strength, and this trait, he felt was possessed by only two of his contemporaries, Stalin and Mussolini. However, he considered Mussolini as the weakest amongst them and rather wanted to extend his friendship to Stalin and ‘undertake the redistribution of world with him’. He genuinely did not feel that anything was wrong with his ideology for he felt that history does not analyses anyone from a moral perspective but only through political perspective. He cited the example of Genghis Khan who is seen by history as solely the founder of state despite the slaughter of millions of women as well as children. The opinion of the weaker civilizations such as those of western Europeans is insignificant for him.13 His autobiography and facts of history complement each other. He had a rough childhood and hated the social evils which he had to face as a child. In his analysis of social evils, he found the Jews accountable and therefore decided to do away with them as a whole including their ideas and ideals. According to Lindner, ‘Hitler wanted recognition and acknowledgement but failed to achieve these things. He later 11 Ibid,

p. 227. States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “The Reichstag Fire”, Holocaust Encyclopedia, Available from: https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007657 (20 February 2015). 13 Bardakjian, Kevork 1985. Hitler and the Armenian Genocide, Armenian National Institute, Available from: http://www.armenian-genocide.org/hitler.html (7 May 2017). (The text above is part of the English version of the German document handed to Louis P. Lochner in Berlin.). 12 United

40

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

identified with German humiliation and put the whole German population to the task of “remedying” it’14 (Lindner 2000). His policies therefore were ruthless and extremely dynamic for he wished to bring a change in society which he believed would be for the good of all. From point of view of many, Hitler was an evil person; but from my point, he was a victim of the evil surrounding he was brought up in. It made him get hungry for power for he could see right from his childhood that how power holders manipulate everything around them. Carl Jung and Langer had psycho analysed the personality of Hitler and Jung had wherein both have described him to be neurotic and inhuman and more importantly he possessed a messiah complex implying he thought himself to be the liberator of sorrows and miseries of the world. The complex personality of Hitler according to Langer displayed many schizophrenic symptoms, and he therefore proposed that Hitler was most likely to commit suicide.15 Hence, from a psychological analysis it is revealed that Hitler was afflicted with a variety of psychological disorders, and as a result, his character was that of a deeply disturbed person and this has been exhibited by his beliefs and behaviour (Hyland et al. 2011).

3.2 Mao Tse Tung Mao was born in 1893 in the province of Hunan to a peasant family. In 1911, the Xinhai Revolution began against the monarchy, and Mao joined the Revolutionary Army and the Kuomintang, the Nationalist Party. The party was led by Chinese statesman Sun Yat-sen, which successfully overthrew the monarchy in 1912 and founded the Republic of China.16 ‘Dr. Sun Yat-sen and his political organization had overthrown the imperial dynasty but could not gain control over the whole of China’.17 The political struggle continued, and there emerged two parties in China around 1920: Communist Party and Kuomintang (Nationalist). Both had a socialistic orientation. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the founder of Kuomintang party whom Mao greatly admired. However, his early death in 1925 caused problems of succession in the party. Chiang Kai Shek soon took over and was ready to co-operate with the Communists this caused a rift in the party for there was a right wing that opposed such cooperation. Chiang however managed to consolidate his power and set for a northern expedition in 1926–27 that was considered a success but some independent actions taken by 14 Lindner, Evelin 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, p. 29, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies. org/documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf. 15 Hyland, P, Boduszek, D & Kielkiewicz, K. 2011. A Psycho-Historical Analysis of Adolf Hitler: The Role of Personality, Psychopathology, and Development, Psychology & Society, Volume 4 (2), 58–63. 16 Biography.com Editors (n.d.) Mao Tse-tung Biography, The Biography.com website, Available from: http://www.biography.com/people/mao-tse-tung-9398142 (22 February 2017). 17 Watkins (n.d.) Thayer, The Long March of the Communist Party of China, San Jose State University, Available from: http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/longmarch.htm (22 February 2017).

3.2 Mao Tse Tung

41

the Communist party without the knowledge of Chiang made him and his followers to believe that they were pursuing some hidden agenda, and this gave rise to power struggle between the two parties. Chiang’s followers turned upon the communist in Shanghai and massacred them. Similar such slaughters within the Kuomintang took place throughout other parts of china where the communists massacred the nationalists (Kuomintang followers). The northern urban China was therefore under Chiang Kai Shek, whereas in the rural south especially in the Jiangxi and Hunan province Mao was gaining popularity. Most of the communists who were able to escape from the massacre went to south and joined Mao, thereby increasing his strength. It was then that Mao led the peasants’ revolt against Chiang Kai Shek by adopting the technique of Guerrilla warfare. Under his leadership, the Jiangxi Province expanded and he finally became the President of China in 1949.

3.2.1 Consolidation of Power and the Aftermath Mao was a charismatic leader but whether his actions were in conformity with his thoughts that can be known only by studying him more intimately. In his biography by his private physician, Dr. Li Zhisui, he observes and says that Mao was a hypocrite. He said himself ‘My deeds and my words are inconsistent’18 (Zhisui 1996, p. Xix). Li also states that morality had no place in Mao’s politics, and he was shocked to learn that Mao identified with China’s emperors and his greatest admiration was reserved for the most ruthless Chinese emperors. ‘He was willing to use the most brutal and tyrannical means to reach his goals’19 (Zhisui 1996). Zhisui states that Mao wanted peace and rapid development, and if for the sake of progress, human lives had to be sacrificed he was all ready for it. Though he gave the slogan ‘Serve the people’, it really meant to serve Mao. He wanted to rectify the communist party, and so in 1957, he gave a slogan ‘letting one hundred flowers bloom, one hundred schools of thought’. This was to invite the Chinese intelligentsia to criticize the political system then established in Communist China. Mao wanted certain changes to be made in the party and to pressurize the party leaders he came up with this policy. However, the policy backfired as people began to question the very authority of the Communist party. Mao was an ardent supporter of communist system and that of cult personality. He had no tolerance for those who differed from his views and wanted to ‘reform’ the ‘rightist’ and people of Democratic Party or view. Mao perhaps wanted not to kill except for the thoughts that were not in synchronization with that of his own. His subordinates, however did find it hard to kill the thoughts; as the much easier way was to kill the people. As a consequence, mass killings indeed took place and the perpetrators of crime were never brought to justice but for some criticism from Mao; which was much better to have than the wrath they 18 Zhisui, Li 1996. The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Toronto, Random House of Canada Limited, p. xix. 19 Ibid, p. 122.

42

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

confronted when they failed the assignment given to them by their leader. Yes, those found to be diverging from the path of communisms were to be ‘reformed’ by the executive authorities. Li Zhisui speaks about these reforms as a place where people died miserable deaths. In his two weeks of stay at a labour camp, he realized that these reforms often meant a tortuously slow and painful death for people who were forced to do physical work far beyond their capacity which shattered them completely and often made them confess crimes which they didn’t commit. Thus, people died in these labor reform camps, where death seemed better than Mao’s reform. (Zhisui 199420 ) His next policy was that of Great Leap Forward program which aimed to transform the agricultural status of China to industrialization and to move from poverty to abundance in period of 15 years. The plan was grandiose, utopian and a disaster which greatly deteriorated the economic condition of China and was responsible for bringing a famine. The peasants had to compensate with their lives for the extravagant program which could not provide any beneficial output for them. Mao was not informed about the failure; on the contrary, he was told about the program to be of great success. When he realized the program was a failure, he abolished it. The fault, however, he believed did not lay in the program itself, but the manner in which it was implemented. People died of starvation but that was not his concern, the prime concern was how to bring China to overtake Britain in 15 years from 1958. The problem was Mao never wanted to hear criticism against his schemes and neither did the officials possess the courage to face his wrath by telling the truth, so they lied. The failed policies of Mao but still did bring criticism from different leaders and certain officials. Mao turned against all of them including Dalai Lama of Tibet who wanted ‘to correct the ultra-leftist trend in Tibet’. He accused them all of bourgeois thinking and this he wanted to eliminate from its root. So in 1966, the Cultural Revolution was launched in the sphere of literature, history, law and economics. The ulterior motive of this revolution was to purge all the leaders, officials and common people who had a slightest inclination towards rightist wing or democracy. The revolution was spread throughout China with the help of students by bombarding of the party headquarters, which had Mao’s blessings. The students were organized into an army known as the ‘Red Guards’. The Red Guards were given complete control over examining the character of people—bourgeois or socialist. This included everyone even the party leaders. The mass mobilization soon assumed a violent form and was responsible for utter chaos in the country; no one was spared, be it the common man or the party official. The problem was not so much with the policy but with the fact that he never believed to have committed a mistake. Thereby, his dictatorship caused millions to suffer, wherein millions not just died but ‘had to violate their conscience and sacrifice their ideals in order to survive’ (Zhisui 199421 ). Mao Tse Tung also probably had some personality disorders, Jung Chang researched and wrote the 800-page biography of Mao Zedong—Mao: The Unknown Story—with her husband, historian Jon Halliday. The book argues that far from being 20 Ibid, 21 Ibid,

p. 216. p. 638.

3.2 Mao Tse Tung

43

the great peasant leader of communist mythology, Mao was never a true communist but was motivated by a ruthless pursuit of personal power which he wanted to extend across the globe. In an interview to Eleanor Hall for World Today, he said that Mao enjoyed violence ‘when he first encountered mob violence, when people were beaten to death in ghastly ways in 1927 in the villages in Hunan, Mao said that he felt kind of ecstasy he had never felt before. Before he had been a lukewarm communist, but after that experience he felt that communism and Stalinism suited him’.22 The work by Jacques Andrieu, Psychologie de Mao Tse-Tung (The Psychology of Mao TseTung), has the merit of analysing one peculiarity of the neurotic personality of the Great Helmsman, his deep hatred of intellectuals, not only those opposed to him, but intellectuals per se.23 In his study on Mao, Lifton observes two kinds of anxieties: one for his death and the other for the possible death of his revolution(s). The failure of the Great Leap Forward program (1958) was observed to be the primal cause of his anxiety. The regime was saved of this disastrous program by providing some temporary liberalization. However, this separated Mao from his more pragmatic colleagues like Liu Saho-Chi. Mao made a comeback through his revolution by the Red Guards (1966). Mao’s “early courage and vision, his revolutionary romanticism, his close identification with the rural masses, his national pride, even the vision of transcendence in his poems, all have contributed’ to the tragic transition from the great leader to the despot”. To be precise, Mao wanted to be immortal by his grandiose programs; however, he failed, and the more he failed, the more he wanted the people to obey.24 Lucian Pye in his psychological study of Mao assessed that the man who ‘condemned bourgeois individualism spent hours as a young man reading the works of western authors in search for personal identity.25 This point has been emphasized by Zhisui too when he said that he was shocked to find that Mao had the greatest admiration for the most ruthless emperors and tried to identify himself with them.

3.3 Fidel Castro Fidel Castro was born in 1926 in Cuba. He adopted leftist anti-imperialistic attitude while studying law at the University of Havana. He participated in the rebellion 22 Hall, Eleanor (2005). Dispelling the myth of Mao: Jung Chang sheds new light on the Communist leader, The World Today, Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2005/ s1419468.htm (18 February 2017). 23 Jacques Seurre, « Jacques Andrieu, Psychologie de Mao Tsé-toung (The Psychology of Mao Tse-Tung) », China Perspectives [Online], 50 | November–December 2003. Online since 20 April 2007, connection on 20 February 2017. URL: http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/784 (Translated from the French original by Peter Brown). 24 Fairbank, John K., 1968. “A Psycho History of Mao Tse Tung”, Chicago Tribune, 20 October, page 5. Available from: http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1968/10/20/page/340/article/a-psychohistory-of-mao-tse-tung (20 February 2017). 25 Gewerts, Ken 2003. Harvard News Office, Available from: http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/ 2003/12/mao-under-a-microscope/ (20 February 2017).

44

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

against the right wing government in the Dominican Republic and Colombia and then planned to overthrow the Cuban President Batista. His initial attempts failed but with the help of Che Guevara and Raul Castro, his brother he was successful in overthrowing Batista in 1959.

3.3.1 Rise of Fidel Fidel always held contempt for multiparty democracy. From the writings of Jose Marti, Cuba’s national hero he learnt that the USA was responsible for many of Cuba’s weakness and deficiencies.26 In 1945, he plunged into university politics and joined the University Committee for the independence of Puerto Rico and the Committee for Democracy in the Dominican Republic. The subservient status of Cuba created because of the dominance of the USA was not liked by many people, and Fidel was passionately seeking to overthrow this dominance. His dominant attitude was observed in the meeting, where he was reluctant to follow procedures. He showed little faith in conventional democratic process. His name began to be known after his fiery speech directed against the Grau government (Ramon Grau served as President from 1944 to 1948). Castro’s ambition to become the President of Federation of University Students (FEU) was so high and desperate that he attempted an assassination of his rival candidate Lionel Gomez. For Castro violence was either good or bad depending on the motive. According to Castro, the regime of Batista had sown the seeds of evil during their eleven years of abusive and injustice rule. Those who suffered this injustice such as assassination of their comrades wished to avenge them. The blame according to him: does not lie with those young men… They wanted to make a revolution at a moment when this was impossible. Many of those who died as gangsters, victims of illusion, would today be heroes.27 (Coltman 2013)

Castro was probably regarded as a great threat and so he was threatened by authorities, gangs in the university. He was prohibited from entering in the university, but he was able to amass some support from his friends in the form of men and arms, and finally, he was able to enter the university. Castro prided himself in standing against the exploitative and corrupt regimes; though had it not been for the support of his friends, he would not have been able to withstand the opposition he faced at the university. The Batista government acquired power in Cuba by unlawful means, Castro wanted to overthrow it. He organized and launched an attack on 26 July 1953 which resulted in a failure. He was taken into prison, where he was sentenced for 15 years of imprisonment. Then in 1955, an unconditional amnesty bill was passed by the Congress and signed by Batista under which all prisoners were released including Castro. After his release, Castro went to Mexico to organize the revolt from outside 26 Coltman, 27 Ibid,

Leycester 2013. The Real Fidel Castro, London, Thistle Publishing. p. 32.

3.3 Fidel Castro

45

and then launch an attack. In Mexico, Fidel came in contact with Ernesto Guevara, the latter then went on to become one of the important leaders of the former’s organization. Fidel was able to gain financial help, personnel help and even media help to give momentum to his movement. The morale of the rebels, however, was shaky, after all they were not trained soldiers. To discipline them, Castro used draconian methods. He threatened death for desertion, treachery, disobedience and even defeatism. Those found guilty of such things were indeed shot. However, the army of Batista too dealt cruelly with the citizens. Castro was not in favour of direct assassination of leaders, but he believed in change through revolution and not election. It was also observed that Castro did not have complete control over the leaders of his movement in different areas. The movement, however, was launched, and Castro saw that the USA was supporting Batista, the contempt against the USA was heightened after this and Castro swore to rise against the USA, once he gets the power. In 1959, finally Fidel assumed power and his dictatorial attitude soon began to be observed. Initially, the ‘people were happy as they felt liberated not just from the tyranny of Batista but also from the tyranny of a legal system which had rules and procedures but did not deliver justice’.28 (Coltman 2013)

Fidel became the Prime Minister of Cuba in 1959; his next task that he set for himself was to win over the North American public opinion while maintaining his antagonistic attitude against the US government. Fidel paid a visit to the USA, where he was able to impress the public to a great extent, but the government officials were least impressed. Vice President Nixon felt he was naive about communism, ignorant about economics than any leader he had met and that his anti-Americanism was virtually incurable. Fidel also visited other Latin American countries and preached the idea of a regional common market for Latin America to which the USA would be invited to contribute as well. However, the Latin American nations were reluctant to bring any change as most leaders felt comfortable under the protective lines of the USA. The market system Fidel observed was a device that allowed the strong to prey on the weak. He saw through the flaws of the dependency system that made the poor nations more poor and the rich, richer. He looked upon the Soviet Union as a role model that could convert a backward agricultural country into an industrialist superpower. It was all possible because of a determined leadership, state planning and state control, and so Castro decided to redress the social injustices and inequalities prevailing in Cuba. Steps for nationalization were taken: public utilities were ordered to lower their charges, rent for low-cost accommodation were halved, low salaries were raised, and agrarian reform was enacted. Castro made himself the President of National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA). INRA was responsible for reorganization of land holdings, housing, electrification, health and education in rural areas. INRA virtually created a separate government which ensured that even after giving private ownership the land could not be sold. Lands owned by Batista and his followers was directly taken by the state, where compensation was payable for the seized land it took the form of a bond for 20 years. The reforms were 28 Ibid,

p. 193.

46

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

radical enough to provoke protests from the affected landowners. In short term, all sections of the society, except the very rich found themselves better off; however, his brother Ramon had warned that his reforms would be disastrous for agricultural production. Some moderates in the government soon became wary of the communist influence observed in administration. Ministers who criticized the heavy-handed agrarian reform were replaced. Castro observed some disaffection in the government and managed to turn public anger against the people whom he suspected for treason, not against the state, but against him. Gradually, all those who spoke against Fidel either were displaced or resigned and were replaced by Castro’s nominee. Some laws were soon launched that would mark the beginning of the end of freedom of press. Meanwhile, the interference of the US government in Cuban affairs kept agitating him and increased his bitterness. Within a short span, Castro made a lot of enemies: the middle-class Cubans, several governments of the Caribbean and the USA. There were many attempts to overthrow him, but the mass was with him and he made that sure by making regular public appearance and reminding them about the utility of the revolution. The rising instances of the opposition made Castro cautious, and he decided to have an armed militia. Castro looked to help from Soviet Union which they agreed when they found his stand on communism was good and that he commanded respect from his people too. Castro had communist thoughts but didn’t like to make public statements in favour of communism; he preferred to call himself a revolutionary. Castro feared an American backed revolution to overthrow him and took every measure to safeguard his position. It was after the Bay of Pigs Invasion by America that Castro formally declared for the first time that his revolution was a socialist revolution. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from a long time had been interfering in the Cuban affairs, and Castro knew about it. He was able to foil their attempts with the help of the armed militia to overthrow him; however, the darker side of this period was that a large number of people were arrested as precaution which caused mass intimidation. After the victory, things turned worse as political opponents and social deviants began to be arrested as well. Throughout Castro’s regime, the economy was shaky and freedom of citizens was restrained so much people in large numbers tried to migrate to other nations. He too wanted to get rid of the disaffected people, but when he found the number was larger than he expected, he imposed restriction on migration ‘people aged in between 15 and 26 were not allowed to leave’. Castro even began to control the literature of his country to prevent any mass rising against him. However, there were changes in his outlook in the later years of his life. He questioned the utility of civilizations and that of institutions like UN and even man’s conscience in relation to deaths due to hunger, poverty and health. At this point, he started proposing peace in some way as he said: Bombs can kill hungry, the sick and the ignorant but they cannot kill hunger, disease, ignorance or people’s just rebellion. In a holocaust the rich will also die they will have the most to lose.29 (Coltman 2013)

Castro when dealt with contempt would react with hostility but when dealt with moderate views responded with reasonability and responsibly. He attached much 29 Ibid,

p. 336.

3.3 Fidel Castro

47

importance to Socialism and gave the slogan of ‘Socialism or death’ which later turned to ‘There will be Socialism whatever the price’ Sacrifice therefore turned into killing. The way Castro managed public opinion was excellent and that was the reason why he was able to attract the public even with a dictatorial attitude. He had a charismatic personality which is corroborated by Fagen in his research, wherein he describes how Fidel fulfilled the criteria of a ‘charismatic leader’ which is described by Max Weber.30 Despite being a charismatic leader, Fidel too misused power which affected the lives of his countrymen. There was exodus in Cuba which is divided into four phases. The first phase exodus occurred in between 1959 and 1962; second in between 1965 and 1974; third in 1980; and the fourth between 1985 and 1984. In the initial phase, it was only the elite class that shifted but as the time passed the crisis and tension in Cuba heightened, those accused of standing against the states were included in the category of criminals and either left the state on their own or were forced to. Finally, when the crisis situation increased, all Cubans became desperate to leave the country even at the risk of their death. ‘They began to leave through balsas (rafts, tires, makeshift vessels) that drifted on the ocean, risking death due to starvation, dehydration, drowning, or sharks’.31 Castro was not just responsible for the exodus but of genocide as well. British historian Hugh Thomas, in his study Cuba or the pursuit of freedom, stated that ‘perhaps’ 5000 executions had taken place by 1970, while The World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators ascertained that there had been 2113 political executions between the years of 1958–67. Professor of political science at the University of Hawaii, Rudolph J. Rummel estimated the number of political executions to be between 4000 and 33,000 from 1958 to 1987, with a mid-range of 15,000.32 A report from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) which was classified for a long time says that Fidel was highly neurotic ‘as to be quite vulnerable to certain kinds of psychological pressure. The outstanding neurotic elements in his personality are his hunger for power and his need for the recognition and adulation of the masses. He is unable to obtain complete emotional gratification from any other source’.33 The trait of selfishness, thus, was dominant in him for which he craved for power.

30 Fagen, Richard R. 1965. Charismatic Authority and the Leadership of Fidel Castro, The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, Part 1, pp. 275–284. 31 Pedraza, Silvia 1998. Cuba’s Revolution and Exodus, The Journal of the International Institute, Vol. 5, Issue 2, Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.4750978.0005.204 (29 April 2017). 32 Goldman, David (2016). Fidel Castro‘s Mass Murder by the Numbers, Pjmedia, Available from: https://pjmedia.com/spengler/2016/11/28/fidel-castros-mass-murder-by-the-numbers/ (29 April 2017). 33 Psychiatric Staff, Central Intelligence Agency (1961). Psychiatric Personality Study of Fidel Castro, Available from: https://catalog.archives.gov/id/7065385 (24 May 2018).

48

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

3.3.2 Alliance with Ernesto Che Guevara Ernesto Guevara was born in Argentina, and from his early age, he had shown interest in the writings of Karl Marx and other political theorists. In his later life, he became to be better known as Che Guevara. He had attended a medical school in Buenos Aires and got his degree as a medic in 1953. During a motorcycle trip in Latin America, he discovered the social problems like poverty, oppression and injustice that were widespread. He came to the conclusion that a united armed revolution is the only answer to these problems. He too felt like Castro that the USA was trying to prevent the reforms of Latin America. In 1954, he came in contact with Fidel Castro and decided to help him in bringing communism in Cuba. He joined the movement as a medic initially. The dilemma came when during a fight, he had to choose between medicine and ammunition, and he chose the latter. He also earned the reputation of being ruthless as he executed several men for spying, desertion and informing. After the success of the Cuban revolution, he was granted Cuban citizenship and was appointed the Commander of the La Cabana Fortress prison. His next positions in the government were as President of National Bank of Cuba and as an officer of the INRA. “The INRA carried out comprehensive land redistribution plan, seizing almost the larger plantation of Cuba from their international owners and redistributing them to the peasants who worked on the land”.34 Che went for a world tour and visited North Korea, China, Egypt, Mali, Ghana, etc. He returned to Cuba in 1965, but disappeared from public eye. Che now wanted to bring socialism outside Cuba, and this came to be known through a letter read by Castro.35 He also gave up his citizenship of Cuba. His first mission was in CongoKinshasa which failed due to the US interception, the exiled group of Cuba that was opposed to Castro and Che, and the Congolese government. His attempt to bring socialism this time was a failure. Castro tried to convince him to come back to Cuba, but he only came to stage his next revolution in Bolivia. The US army and the CIA learnt of his presence in Bolivia and were able to capture him, and finally, he was executed by Bolivian President’s order.36 After death, he was praised by Jean Paul Satre as ‘the most complete human being of our age’. Cubans have mixed reaction for him as some of them revere him and some call him the ‘butcher of La Cabana’. At times, he treated his prisoners well, and at times, he executed them without trial. Che is said to be ruthless not just against his enemies but also those who deserted him. He killed so many people without trial that Castro had to beg him to stop. He opposed democratic elections, believing that only the party could know what was good for the people.37 (Cawthorne 2014) 34 Paz, Juan Valdés, 2011. The Cuban Agrarian Revolution: Achievements and challenges, Estudos Avançados 25 (72). 35 Guevara, Ernesto Che, 1965. Farewell letter from Che to Fidel Castro, Available from: https:// www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1965/04/01.htm (23 June 2018). 36 Cawthorne, Nigel, 2014. Che Guevara: The Last Conquistador, Endeavour Press. 37 Ibid, p. 5.

3.3 Fidel Castro

49

It would not be wrong to conclude that he was a dictator. Probably, it was his fear that gave way for his dictatorship. His last words when he was captured by the Bolivians were: I am much more valuable to you alive than dead.38

This signalled that he was not as courageous as people thought. However, due to some contrast opinions such as that of Jean Paul Sartre, it is difficult to state whether he was brave or fearful but there is no doubt on his violent aspects like the mass killings without trial and dictatorial attitude. These all point towards an element of fear in his personality.

3.4 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov—Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov better known as Lenin was born in the town of Simbirsk in the Russian Empire in 1870. His parents were patriotic and never sympathized with the revolutionaries. However, times were changing; the Russian society was experiencing oppression everywhere. This included the schools where the school curriculum was strictly monitored so as to not to promote any revolutionary ideas in any form of literature. The education system put the pupils under great strain due to which many students dropped out. However, Lenin and his elder brother were very bright in their studies. It was Alexander first who took the bold initiative of revolting against the monarchy to come out from the oppression they had been living under for a long time. But his efforts were not successful; he was caught and hanged to death in 1887, and the same year their father also had expired, before the execution of his son. This episode made Lenin bitter towards the monarchy. It is interesting to note when there was famine in the country, he refused to support the efforts to relieve the famine. He is observed by service to be extremely hard hearted and unsympathetic towards the peasants. A disturbing famine had occurred in the Volga Province where corpses were found to be lying in the streets but this did not affect him at all rather he insisted on full payment from the Krushvits, who managed his provincial estate and this meant that the peasants would have to pay Krushvits in full regardless of circumstances.39 (Service 2011)

38 Stamm, Justin, 2017. Was Che Guevara a Hero or Murderer? The Epoch Times, 13 April. Available from: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/2242312-was-che-guevara-a-hero-or-murderer/ (1 May 2017). 39 Service, Robert, 2011. Lenin: A Biography, ‘Path to Revolution’, Pan Macmillan Limited, London.

50

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

3.4.1 Rise of Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was recognized as Lenin with his controversial work ‘What Is to Be Done’? which he wrote under the pseudonym of N. Lenin. The pamphlet attracted attention not because it offered some innovative political theory but because it seemed to applaud those leaders who were recognized as terrorist leaders such as P. A. Alexeev, I. N. Myshkin, S. N. Khalturin and A. I. Zhelyabov and their methods. Throughout his piece of work, he seems to have glorified mass terror; to the readers, he therefore appeared like an ‘agrarian socialist terrorist in Marxist disguise’. Owing to his radical views, Lenin soon began to have fallout with the leaders whom he admired as Marxists like Plekhanov and Kautsky. Lenin soon began to feel isolated, but his belief in his cause as a righteous one kept him going. On the other hand, troubles for the Romanov dynasty kept on mushrooming: the poverty situation in Russia, war with Japan (1904) and the ‘Bloody Sunday’ event where the peaceful peasant procession was fired upon contributed to the downfall of the Tsar regime. Lenin at the Congress held in 1905 endeavoured to specify how to make revolution; he presented a set of slogans that electrified the audience: ‘armed insurrection’, ‘a provisional revolutionary government’, ‘mass terror’, ‘the expropriation of gentry land’. Due to his revolutionary temperament, Lenin had to be in exile most of the time, but he always managed to convey his thoughts to the party. However, Lenin was not known to most of the subjects of the Tsar, Nicholas II at least until 1917 when Lenin finally thrust himself into the Russian politics. Lenin returned to Russia after the February Revolution, wherein the monarchy was replaced by a provisional government of the Mensheviks. Lenin accused the provisional government to be an ally of the imperial regime. Through his electrifying speeches and slogans, he was able to replace the government by a coup. To come out from the state of anonymity apart from doing some credible work, it was important to seize political opportunities as well as to be recognized as a popular leader; Lenin had the knack for it. He not only drafted the April Theses of 1917 that was a strategy for the party to seize power but also insisted to seize power in October, famously known as the October Revolution. He was also able to fend off the German invasion of Russia by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. Through his New Economic Policy, he was able to save the Soviet state from being overwhelmed by popular rebellion. If Lenin had not campaigned for these strategical shifts, the USSR would never have been established and consolidated.40 (Service 2011)

Service states that, however, not everything he did was well planned. In particular, he had little foresight about what he was doing when he set up the centralized oneparty state. His institutional legacy was immense for he set up the Sovnarkom, created Cheka, convoke the Communist International but he also eliminated concern for ethics, justified dictatorship and terror and

40 Ibid,

chapter: Introduction.

3.4 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov—Lenin

51

applauded the political vanguard and the need for firm leadership. Lenin convinced his party that his Marxism was pure and that it embodied the only correct policies.41 (Service 2011)

Raphael Cohen-Almagor asserts that Lenin moved towards violence gradually.42 He states that Lenin was of the view that: Individual terroristic acts are impractical as a means of political strife. It is only a mass movement that can be considered to be a real political struggle.43

The individual terrorist acts he believed could only be helpful when they are directly linked with the mass movement. Hence, violence and terrorism were being justified and systematized by him to come out from the prolonged oppression by the Tsars. There is no doubt about the contribution that Lenin had made towards bringing a better change for the Soviet Union. Indeed it was the result of his perseverance and hard mettle that the Soviet Union was able to come out from the oppressions of the Tsars. However, the elimination of ethics and glorification of violence were some things which would prove to be fatal for the Soviet Union in the near future. The successors of Lenin were bound to tread on the path created by him. It is said that: Stalin had nearly a million of his own citizens executed, beginning in the 1930s. Millions more fell victim to forced labor, deportation, famine, massacres, and detention and interrogation by Stalin’s henchmen.44

The untimely death of Lenin’s father and the execution of his brother at a young age had disturbed him a lot. The probable reason of him shifting towards violence can be attributed to these causes: the execution of his brother and impounding the elite status of the family that was earned by his father. The way he was not just a witness to the famines but also participant in it; the glorification he provided to terrorist leaders suggests his selfish interest to seize power. He wanted power because he felt he could do better with it in providing justice and equality, and so in order to seize it, some lives had to be sacrificed that he did not mind it.

41 See

footnote 40. Raphael, 1991. Foundations of Violence, Terror and War in the Writings of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1991), pp. 1–24. 43 Ibid, pp. 12–13. 44 Haven, Cynthia, 2010. Stalin killed millions. A Stanford historian answers the question, was it genocide? Available from: http://news.stanford.edu/2010/09/23/naimark-stalin-genocide-092310/ (4 May 2017). 42 Almagor,

52

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

Contribution of Coercive Power in Establishing Justice and Peace It was the belief of all the above leaders that coercive power is necessary to use in order to establish justice in the society. Hitler felt the Jews could not be corrected, Mao thought those who were antagonistic to his ideas were enemies of nation, Fidel and Che Guevara felt the Cuban society had fallen into corrupt hands while as Lenin wanted to eliminate the remnants of the Tsarist regime. By removing the respected problems in the society they thought they would be able to establish justice. So Hitler started to eliminate the Jews, Mao crushed the dissent, Cuba was captured by Fidel and Che by means of revolution, and so was Russia, by Lenin by removing the elites. The aftermath of all these movements resulted in antagonizing the other class, Jews in case of Hitler, intellectual class in case of Mao and Kulaks in case of Lenin. In case of Che Guevara, it was the US government whom he saw as an enemy and which indeed was antagonized by his violent activities. Credit must be given to Fidel for not associating any class in particular with corruption. Probably that is the reason the Cuban government did not face such instability as the other countries. Indeed people were dissatisfied with some of his policies due to which there was mass exodus but it was only a mark of inefficiency, not of discrimination. The genocides that occurred in China,45 Russia,46 Cuba47 and Germany48 after the respected leaders had taken over the government show that they were far from achieving their stated goal of justice and peace.

3.5 Revolution in Indian Freedom Struggle The Indian freedom struggle though is said to be a nonviolent struggle, but even it saw some of the revolutionaries who relied on coercion; one such was Subhas Chandra Bose. Sisir Kumar Bose talks about the struggles of Subhas Chandra Bose during the Indian freedom struggle. Initially being the member of INC between 1921 and 1940, Bose also waged nonviolent protests. ‘He went on hunger strike in prison twice. The first time was in Mandalay (Burma) in 1926 on the issue of right of political prisoners to perform Durga pooja in jail. The second time was in 1940 in protest against the illegality and injustice of his detention. He won both battles’49 (Bose 2016). The unique feature about him was his organizing capability. As the General 45 Akbar, Arifa, 2010. “Mao’s Great Leap Forward ‘killed 45 million in four years’” Independent, 17 September, Available from: https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/maosgreat-leap-forward-killed-45-million-in-four-years-2081630.html (7 May 2017). 46 White, Matthew, 2001, Free Republic, Available from: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fnews/547066/posts (9 May 2017). 47 Stanton, Gregory H., 1998. Available from: http://www.cubaverdad.net/genocide.htm (15 May 2017). 48 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “The Final Solution”: Overview, Available from: https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005151 (7 May 2017). 49 Bose, Sisir Kumar, 2016. Subhas and Sarat: An Intimate Memoir of the Bose Brothers, New Delhi, Aleph Book Company, p. 26.

3.5 Revolution in Indian Freedom Struggle

53

Officer Commanding (GOC) of the Congress, he organized the volunteers on military lines. Later due to differences with Gandhi, he was ousted from Congress party. He then formed his own party known as the Forward Bloc in 1940. The party urged for military action against the British colonial rules. Soon Bose got arrested, and in 1941, he escaped from house arrest and fled from India. In 1942, the Forward Bloc also got banned. The aim of Bose was to make contacts with the leaders of different nations that were hostile to British and use it to their advantage to get freedom. So he went to Germany and Japan to muster all support he could to pressurize the British government from outside. He also sought help from Gandhi in this endeavour. He wanted Gandhi to create tension within the country while he would pressurize from outside by military conquests. In one of his message to M. K. Gandhi, he had said that according to him freedom could be won through blood only. Foreign aid he said in this regard was just like a loan which could be repaid later. Unfortunately for Bose, he could never materialize his principles as his coalition partners (Japan and Germany) were defeated in the Second World War. It must be noted here that Subhas had a transition from nonviolence to violence, and more importantly, the nonviolent struggles waged by him were successful rather than the violent struggles such as the organization of the Indian National Army (INA) and even the Forward Bloc party for that matter. So one must understand and analyse that despite being successful in his nonviolent endeavours why he diverted from his path and resorted to nonviolence. While studying about his life and achievements, one can find that he was a brilliant student since his youth and active member of the Indian National Congress (INC) but when Bose decided to run for the post of President of Congress in 1939, he was viewed sceptically by Gandhi and his followers. Due to the political differences, he was ousted from the party too, that too after being elected as the President. It is difficult to say whether he was angry at such treatment for things were not simple for him also. ‘Bose was elected the Congress President in 1939 for the second consecutive term despite Gandhi’s opposition. Gandhi didn’t take it sportingly and declared: “Pattabhi’s defeat is my defeat”. He felt Bose was getting too independent and then his commitment to nonviolence was not as pure and absolute as he would have wished’.50 Such statements can discourage and dishearten anyone and perhaps this was one of the major flaws of Gandhi that has invited a lot of criticism upon him as well. This was a kind of humiliation for not only there were verbal remarks but unjust actions as well of ousting him from the party by his pride and honour were stripped away from him. To understand humiliation better, Humiliation the definition given by Evelin Lindner can be relied upon for she owes the credit of making deep studies in this area, she says: ‘Humiliation means the enforced lowering of a person or group, a process of subjugation that damages or strips away their pride, honour or dignity’.51 When someone is placed against their will and more often 50 Celly,

Ashok, 2007. Bhagat Singh, Bose and the Mahatma, Mainstream Weekly, VOL XLV, No 31. Available from: https://mainstreamweekly.net/article231.html. 51 Lindner, Evelin, 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/ documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf (4 October 2017).

54

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

than not in a hurtful way to make them greatly inferior is a form of humiliation”. Though Bose never showed any signs of disrespect or ill feelings towards Gandhi but the violent path he took cause the loss of life of many soldiers. If rather than ousting him efforts were made to channelize his energy in a constructive way, the nonviolent movements could have been more successful than they were. Bose was only trying to prove his worth that was ignored by his party leaders but the path taken by him amounted to large-scale bloodshed.

3.6 Perspectives on Violence and Killings James Gilligan had tried to study the psychology behind violence and killing. In his book titled as ‘Why Some Politicians Are More Dangerous Than Others’, he provides his theory based on his research. He comes out with two factors: shame and guilt that are largely responsible for homicide and suicide, respectively. Those who have been shamed by others want to restore their pride and prestige and to do that they justify any form of violence. Over here he gives the example of Hitler who came to power on the campaign of ‘undo the shame of Versailles’. On the other hand, when the feeling of guilt is high in the person, it leads him/her to commit suicide. This kind of shame culture is propagated by some political parties which creates a hierarchy in society and ‘which is a recipe for violence’.52 The author is of the view that in the USA, the Republican Party was majorly responsible for perpetuation of violence in the society. The author further enquires that if more peace or stability was attained during the period of Democrats then why and how the Republicans were coming to power. He explains that inequality arose during the tenure of Republicans. By 1998 the richest 1 per cent owned nearly 40 per cent of the country’s real estate and almost half of its money and other liquid assets.53 (Gilligan 2011)

Still the Republicans were coming to power. This was made possible by what is known as ‘Bourbon Strategy’. Lyndon Johnson defined this as a strategy where racial discrimination was to be maintained. He said it was to the political and economic advantage for the Republicans that racial discrimination continues in the South because as long as it did the poor whites would continue to fight with the poorer blacks, thus distracting them from feeling envy and resentment towards the rich whites because of their much greater wealth.54 (Gilligan 2011)

So when such a party comes to power that favours the racial feelings or discrimination people prefer it over that party which propagates peace and equality. The poor commit crime out of insecurity while the rich commit crime to be richer, but 52 Gilligan,

James, 2011. Why Some Politicians Are More Dangerous Than Others, Polity Press. p. 74. 54 Ibid, p. 76. 53 Ibid,

3.6 Perspectives on Violence and Killings

55

many people do not realize this; moreover, their attention is directed towards the poor who commit some direct crimes which are palpable in contrast to the crime done by the rich who conceal their crimes cleverly. The author further observes that for the political interest of some parties (indicating the Republican Party), it is necessary that violence be committed in the state. The author has also come to a finding where the prisoners who got education in prisons as reformatory program of the jails, did not commit crime after that. This was a case observed in Massachusetts prison where Boston University professors had volunteered to teach. Further, Evelin Lindner too explores that humiliation has a great role in instigating violence that is responsible for killing the people. She makes a study on Germany, Somalia, Rwanda and Burundi, places where the gravest genocides of the twentieth century have occurred. She says, ‘The Treaty of Versailles humiliated a defeated Germany and together with economic hardship prepared Germany for Hitler’.55 The Rwandan Genocide where 800,000 Tutsi were executed not by military but by the general public using crude weapons. This happened because ‘Extremist members of the Hutu ruling class—Hutu being the former “underlings” in the traditional Tutsi Kingdom of Rwanda—feared the return of past humiliation if their former Tutsi masters were to regain influence’56 (Lindner 2000). Then the ‘Somalis felt humiliated by certain operations that were part of an international intervention that was intended to help Somalis. As a result, they killed the UN peace keepers and publicly humiliated the dead bodies of US pilot’57 (Lindner 2000). Till date it is considered a dangerous area, especially for the Western tourists. In Somalian history, the idea of humiliation was mischievously inculcated by President Mohammed Siad Barre by finding scapegoats. The failures he suffered in the process of unification of Somalia were cleverly turned against the people from the northern parts of Somalia, the Issaks mainly. As a result, a huge rift was created between the people from the North and people from the South of Somali. Lindner points out that Samatar has understood that this rift is caused because of ‘humiliation that went too far’58 (Lindner 2000). So there were not just ethnic clashes but government clashes with the people as well where the government was killing its own people.59 In nonkilling psychological science, the genetic and environmental factors that influence killing behaviour are explained. Rubén Ardila discusses the biological as well as the conditional factors responsible for killing. His chapter notes that most of the organized inter-group violence that has taken place in recent years has occurred in developing parts of the world, very often between rival ethnic groups. He also points out to the tremendous loss of lives because of economic reasons. Basically, he holds 55 Lindner, 2000. The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany. PhD Thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo. 56 Ibid, p. 22. 57 Ibid, p. 25. 58 Ibid, p. 60. 59 See An African Watch Report, 1990, “Somalia A Government at War With Its Own People”, USA, Available from: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/somalia_1990.pdf.

56

3 Contemporary World: Coercive Power and Leadership

economic insecurities responsible for killings. By outlining the violent conflicts in the Third World nations such as those from the sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia he proves his point. The problem in developing parts of the world is mainly ‘structural violence’ rather than direct forms of violent episodes (Galtung 1969). After examining some of the psycho-social causes of killing, Ardila concludes with a proposition that finds wide agreement amongst psychologists which is: Humans are not genetically programmed to kill, nor is killing inevitable. Human behaviour is largely learned…Because of learning humans are capable of violence but also harmony and solidarity.60 (Ardila 2012)

Bedrosian and Nelson make a key distinction between reactive (impulsive) and instrumental (planned) type of aggression. Distinction has further been made between structural violence and direct form of violence, and the conclusion reached upon is that more people die from structural form of violence rather than direct forms of violence. The consequences of killing are further analysed by MacNair. His works shows that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-known diagnostic category in the manual of mental disorders. Further, it is the finding of scientists that humans have an ‘innate aversion to killing other’. According to historian S.L.A. Marshall, ‘75% of soldiers never fired their weapons during the combat’.61 This was his finding from the informal interviews that he conducted with thousands of American combat soldiers during Second World War. This was also found to be applicable in other wars such as the American Civil War, First World War, and the Falklands War. Despite this, the killing frequency has been high ‘and the answer was given by anthropologist Paul Roscoe and that is humans excel at overcoming their biological limitations using technological innovation’.62 Therefore, in order to motivate people to kill, the practice of dehumanization of the opposition was started and still is followed. The first step of dehumanization is propagation of such literature which will prepare the human mind to believe that killing or destroying a corrupt entity is justified. While talking about dehumanization, Salzaman states that it is difficult for us to kill anyone or passively see the other person get killed when we relate ourselves with them. But when the other is seen as less than human, their killing becomes acceptable. The American history is cited as an example for the US constitution described the African slaves as only ‘3/5th human’. Description of Native Americans as vicious savages devoid of “God” justified murderous and assimilationist policies that reduced any dissonance arising from such brutal treatment used by the good and god-fearing settlers of the “new land”.63 (Salzaman 2012) 60 Ardila,

R. 2012. Nature and Nurture. In D. Christie, & J. E. Pim„ Nonkilling Psychology (pp. 71–84). Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 61 Bailey, Dan, 2013, Available from: http://smellslikescience.com/the-psychology-of-killing-andthe-origins-of-war/ (21 May 2016). 62 Ibid. 63 Salzman, M. B. 2012. Dehumanization as a Prerequisite of Atrocity and Killing. In D. Christie, & J. E. Pim, Nonkilling Psychology (pp. 107–124). Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling.

3.6 Perspectives on Violence and Killings

57

According to psychologists, fear and threat are tools that help in dehumanizing the enemy or the ‘other’ class while as the historians and political scientists emphasize upon manipulating the emotions of fear and threat to make the ruler more powerful. This indeed bestows the leaders with great factors but while focusing on such negative emotions their outlook also became narrow, and they could therefore not predict their own failure in the long run.

3.7 Conclusion The chapter started with Hobbes assumption that humans who seek power over others are basically selfish-driven individuals and the two factors that drive humans to seek such power are fear and selfishness. When we analysed the revolutionary leaders closely, we come across situations, where it can be clearly observed that the base of their action was either fear or selfishness. With a psychological analysis, it has been observed that the feeling of humiliation was often the cause of fear or selfishness to rise. The fear of humiliation often makes the people resort to violence. Political leaders, on the other hand who may or may not have suffered the humiliation, use their charismatic personality to appeal to the pride of the people which they know have been hurt and mobilize the mass to take up to aggressive actions. Though the goals they spoke about achieving are still far from being achieved, capitalizing on emotions has always paid. From the study, we know that each of these leaders committed genocide or mass killing directly or indirectly. This was done by dehumanizing the opponents initially which prepares the people to mentally accept and practice killings. These leaders have claimed that the killings would only be continued to achieve their goal. However, once the goal is achieved, there comes another goal; therefore, the goal keeps changing while the violence and killings never cease. The main observation of this chapter is that when fear and selfish interest are the driving source for power, it causes irreparable damage to the whole society.

Chapter 4

Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

The philosophy and strategy of nonviolence should become immediately a subject for study and serious experimentation in every field of human conflict, including relations between nations. Martin Luther King (Jr.) (King (Jr.), Martin Luther 1998. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King (Jr.), ed.Carson, Clayborne, New York, Warner Books)

Due to the differences between the cultures, customs and the various kinds of religions, we find them always in conflict with each other. The idea of respecting a different opinion, culture or religion seems to have been neglected by each society due to which people have even stopped respecting the lives of people from heterogeneous background. The cultures and customs were developed to ensure smooth functioning of the society and if any foreigner tried to interfere in it people often thought it as an attack to break the society, and indeed, it proved to be true many times. But there were also times when these customs were impeded by philosophers who preached humanity, nonviolence and peace for they found those customs violating the whole idea of peace and justice, such as the practice of Sati, child marriage, sacrifice and ban on widow remarriage (India). The Indian philosophers like Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore and many more social and religious reformers took the initiative in India to reform the cultures and customs and were able to succeed too. But their accomplishments are not very well received in Indian history. This can be said to be the case for the whole history of humanity as it is mentioned by Ardila who says human history is filled with war description, conflicts, ideological struggles, territorial fights, crimes of state, homicide, regicide, alliances to create or end a war. There are ‘periods of peace and the appearance of new wars. It is like a cycle that seems to have no end’ (Ardila 2012).1 This makes people assume that humans are killers by nature. But this is not true, through studies it has been found that ‘less than 0.5% of human beings who have

1 Ardila,

R. 2012. Nature and Nurture. In D. Christie, and J. E. Pim, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. pp. 71–84.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_4

59

60

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Graph 4.1 Possibility of nonviolence

existed have killed another human being (Paige 2009)’.2 Culture has the power to surpass biological limitations and that is what differentiates animals from humans. There are cultures that have had apostles of nonviolence in them: Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, Islam and so on. But the history that we read is filled more with the stories of wars, assassinations and struggle for power. The idea of nonkilling, nonviolence and peace, therefore, seems to be a utopian idea for many people. When in our survey questions were asked to people about their views on peace, nonviolence and nonkilling, they seemed to show more conviction on the possibility of a nonkilling world in comparison with lasting peace and nonviolence (Graphs 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3). The reason for this ambiguity is that peace and nonviolence are very broad terms. People have different interpretations about them while such is not the problem with the term nonkilling. We also asked wanted to know their belief or faith in the philosophy of various kinds of leaders, to which we received the following responses (Graphs 4.4 and 4.5). The belief of any philosophy rests upon the premise that how far the people understand a particular philosophy and how far they can go to implement it. Sometimes people believe in philosophies but do not know how to implement them. Due to such ignorance, those philosophy and practice of peace that originated in different cultures become redundant in contemporary society. It is in these times that certain 2 Ibid,

p. 71.

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Graph 4.2 Possibility of lasting peace

Graph 4.3 Possibility of nonkilling

61

62

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Graph 4.4 Preference for evolutionary leaders

Graph 4.5 Preference for revolutionary leaders

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

63

socio-political leaders emerge who claim who either portray their understanding of philosophies that lead to peace or claim to comprehend the philosophies and its practical implication to establish peace. Whether their understanding is correct or not is analysed from the consequences of their actions. But one thing that is confirmed is that when there is a division between philosophies so much so that they contradict each other rather than complementing each other peace can never be established. This contradiction has created such fault lines in the society that peace and harmony are looked upon as utopian ideas while as wars and bloodsheds are viewed as natural and real principles of life. This can be further corroborated from the response to this survey that aimed to collect the views of the people in context to nonkilling, nonviolence and peace. It is important to note here that the comment section was optional and so by putting forth these comments people have simply reflected the dilemmas they have with achieving holistic peace. • Anonymous: ‘For peace and nonkilling, I strongly believe that we together as society should take a step against terrorism and this cannot be done with nonviolence. Nonviolence is an old way for peace although it had a possible impact on society but it won’t work in today’s time. We have to fight against terrorism and violence. The voice of the time is to raise the voice against it, the ways can be different’. • Anonymous: ‘Peace is an illusion. For peace to last, there will have to absolute suspension of human free will. Free will and peace can never co-exist. It is the basic human nature’. • Anonymous: ‘The truth is the world is going deep in an unknown territory where the outlook does not look favourable. Money, power, fame, jealousy, elitism have taken over so badly that it would take quite a brute force to recover and return back to our beautiful world we created two–three decades ago’. (To establish • Anonymous: peace it is necessary to fight sometimes). That was the different ERA of Gandhiji-Mr. Mandela… In the present ERA, counter-attack is the only way to control/handle/stop/finish the terrorism. • Anonymous: ‘I would prefer a world where there was no sexism, racism, or general discrimination between religions, disabilities, appearances, etc. other than general cultural differences. But there is no chance of that happening as most people in power aren’t sympathetic to these issues and encourage more issues such as war over nothing. Extremists cock it up for the rest, e.g. Hitler, ISIS which means no one trusts people of a similar religion’. • Anonymous: ‘The basic architecture of the universe is diverse. Hence, killing and peace shall continue to co-exist. As a society, we must always preach peace to our generations, but preaching peace at the cost of our own annihilation is unacceptable. The basic architecture of the universe is diverse. Hence, killing and peace shall continue to co-exist’. • My thoughts might appear contradictory, but there is difference between what I feel and what is ethically and socially correct. If spoke about terrorism, it is like viral flu. And its end is possible if either virus (terrorists) kills the host (civilians)

64

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

or host kills the virus. And we need to kill the virus. It is again homicide but for justice, equity and right to life, we may do that too. As we can observe from these comments, peace is often being understood as an objective for which people are ready to use any means available at hand. Terms like counter-violence are often being used for the establishment of peace. Killing is regarded as natural trait in human beings that seems unavoidable. It seems that death is being confused with killings and hence has been considered as natural phenomenon, the universe was created on the principles of creativity and unity and this is how it has flourished. Decay and death of materials that have completed its life are natural, but the rampage killings are not a natural trait of human beings. So to start afresh in preaching about peace, we would need to start with the basics which start with the idea of nonkilling.

4.1 Martin Luther King (Jr.) Martin Luther King Jr. was born on 15 January 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. He was outstanding in his studies since his youth. At the age of 25, he completed his PhD. He got married in 1953, and like his father, he became a pastor in 1954 in Montgomery. The life and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr. provide a text for learning how to understand and live in a world of conflict and change without creating conflict or becoming a passive victim of the negative conflict and violence.3 He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. Its goal was to end racial segregation that had penetrated deeply into the society through legalization process. By means of nonviolence and civil disobedience movements, the fight against the discrimination and segregation of the Blacks was won as they led to the passage of 1964 Civil Rights Act, 1965 Voting Rights Act and 1968 Fair Housing Act. Through these acts, the Blacks attained an equal status in society.

4.1.1 Upbringing From his father, Martin Luther learned to abhor segregation on rational and moral grounds. In his childhood, he encountered the racial problem for the first time, and from that time, he started to hate the Whites. He was influenced by Thoreau’s essay on ‘Civil Disobedience (King 1998)’. From his readings, he felt ‘Truth is found neither in Marxism nor in traditional capitalism’ (King 1998).4 3 LaFayette,Jr., Bernard 2008. ‘Lessons from the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr’ in Global Nonkilling

Leadership First Forum Proceedings, ed. Glenn D. Paige and Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonviolence. 4 King (Jr.), Martin Luther 1998. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King (Jr.), ed.Carson, Clayborne, New York, Warner Books.

4.1 Martin Luther King (Jr.)

65

4.1.2 Struggle Period In 1953, King got married, and by 1954, he became a pastor in Montgomery. Despite being busy with church and his thesis, he took an active part in the social problems of his society. He insisted that every member of the church should become a registered voter and a member of National Association for the Advancement of the Coloured People (NAACP) and organized within the church a social and political action committee—designed to keep the congregation intelligently informed on the social, political and economic situations. He launched various boycotts, sit-ins, nonviolent marches in various parts of USA and tried to mobilize the people especially in the southern areas like Montgomery, Alabama, Albany, Birmingham, Florida and Mississippi against the practice of segregation. It was a problem he describes that could only be experienced but not seen. The Negroes lived and died a segregated life without being noticed. Nonviolence as a tool was first used in Albany by direct action expressed through mass demonstrations; jail-ins; sit-ins; wade-ins and kneel-ins; political action; boycotts and legal actions. In no other city of the deep South had all those methods of nonviolence been simultaneously exercised. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) gave full moral and financial support to the Albany Movement and the noble efforts of that community to realize justice, equal rights and an end to second-class citizenship. After the ‘jail-ins’, the City Commission repealed the entire section of the city code that carried segregation ordinances. The public library was opened on a thirty-day ‘trial’ basis—integrated! But neither of these events could be measured as a full victory, nor did they signify defeat. It was a partial victory which they got in Albany so it was a beginning of their struggle and not the end according to Martin. In the Birmingham campaign, he used civil disobedience movement to protest. His actions were criticized in press by the clergymen calling it ‘unwise and untimely’. To this, he responded that it has been made clear by him that: It is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends.5 (King 1998)

So according to him, neither means can be justified by their ends nor ends could be justified by their means. Referring to the press, he says that it is a means of expression for the people but when it is misused or used to support injustice, it becomes all the more dangerous for the society. In Selma movement in 1965, there were some people who did not accept King’s nonviolent path, and King observed here that: The few days of violent action caused more deaths than 10 years of nonviolent action. The backlash of violence is felt far beyond the borders of the community where it takes place.6 (King 1998) 5 Ibid, 6 Ibid,

Chap. 17: Birmingham Campaign. Chap. 27: Watts.

66

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

In 1963, King along with a large number of followers marched on to Washington DC where he delivered the famous speech ‘I Have a Dream’. But then, there came a blow to the Blacks when some young girls were bombed in a church. This attack King said told them not just to think about the murderers but also about the system, ‘the way of life and the philosophy which produced the murderers’. The year 1963 saw many assassinations of Negroes, but the final blow came when their White President John F. Kennedy was also assassinated. King explains Our late President was assassinated by a morally inclement climate. It is a climate filled with heavy torrents of false accusation, jostling winds of hatred, and raging storms of violence.7 (King 1998)

Further, King holds the view that they all collectively as a society were responsible for the assassination of their president, a horrible act that tarnished the image of their nation. He points out towards the passive silence, the compromise on significant principles, the readiness to trade with arms and towards the television and movie industry that glorified violence. By creating such conditions, he says: we have created an atmosphere in which violence and hatred have become popular pastimes. (King 1998)8

Hate he stated ‘is like a virus that cannot be confined to a single room/place, it grows and spreads indiscriminately. Its growth brings nothing but devastation and destruction in the society’. Therefore, King’s desire to win over his enemies by love and nonviolence can be observed here. In Mississippi, democracy was facing a more serious threat. Negroes there would be brutally murdered by White mob and the police would not take any action against them. The Negroes in Mississippi had begun to learn that change would come in that lawless, brutal police state only as Negroes reformed the political structure of the area. They had begun this reform in 1964 through the Freedom Democratic Party. The voter registration workers suffered great brutality even more than the underdeveloped nations where Peace Corps were being sent from their nation. A very nominal number of around 1000 had been registered as voters from the whole population of Negroes in America. Political leaders promised to help them, but such promises had been made before so people were sceptic about them. However, such leaders were considered preferably better than who were hard core racist. There were three important concerns for King: racial injustice around the world, poverty and war. These all problems he says appear isolated but are actually interlinked. He wanted to overcome these problems by a combination of power and love. He said that the problem of history is that it has often shown power and love as polar opposites but he maintained that: Power without love is reckless and abusive and that love without power is sentimental and anemic.9 (King 1998) 7 Ibid,

Chap. 21: Death of Illusion: ‘Assassinated by a morally inclement climate’. Footnote 7. 9 Ibid, Chap. 29: Black Power; ‘Powerlessness into creative and positive power’. 8 See

4.1 Martin Luther King (Jr.)

67

According to him, the best form of power is love implementing the demands of justice and justice is best when power is used to correct everything that stands against love. For the fight against the racial oppression, there were debates between use of violence and nonviolence between their groups. Those advocating violence quoted Fanon’s ‘The wretched of the Earth’ which argued that violence is a psychologically healthy and tactically sound method for the oppressed. When asked that if public consensus is on use of violence why doesn’t King agrees to go along with them for otherwise he may lose his say King replied ‘a genuine leader is not a searcher for consensus but a moulder of consensus’.10 He was against use of violence and would advocate for it even if he were the lone voice for it. During the Vietnam War, King was against the bombings that USA was doing in North Vietnam. But the whole of USA including Negroes criticized King for his stand, but for him, his decision was born out of conscience which is based on ‘what is right’. So despite of being criticized by every media and nearly every USA citizen, he did not change his stand. To get freedom and power, one needed to demand it from his oppressor for it is not something given voluntarily. This struggle he says was even waged by Jesus so to know about revolution one need not to study Marx as many leaders of that time did. Struggle can be waged nonviolently too like Jesus did. Thus, a fight for justice should be based on the principles of justice for: Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.11

The contribution of King is remarkable in bringing progressive change in the American society. His political philosophy for bring change in society is not passive rather it is dynamic and peaceful at the change time. He waged nonviolence in an extremely hostile climate, so when individuals think the times of ‘Mandela, Gandhi and King’ were different, it is an assumption they are making without having a complete understanding of the problems faced by them.

4.2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi M. K. Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, India. He got married at an early age of 13 years. He considers it a bitter episode as it was child marriage. ‘Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father had hoped he would also become a government minister, so his family steered him to enter the legal profession’.12 In 10 Ibid,

Cha. 29: Black Power, ‘A Genuine Leader is not a searcher for consensus’. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches, Harper Collins, New York. 12 Biography.com Editors, Mahatma Gandhi Biography.com, Available from: https://www. biography.com/people/mahatma-gandhi-9305898 (10 June, 2017). 11 Martin Luther King Jr., 1991.

68

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

1888, he went to study law in London. In 1891, he returned to India to practice law but was not successful. In 1893, he sailed to Natal, South Africa, to perform legal services there after attaining a one-year contract. It was there that he first used nonviolence to fight injustice.

4.2.1 Struggle in South Africa When he went to London, he changed his lifestyle from comfort to modest by renting cheap rooms and cooking for himself. This change harmonized his inward and outward life, and he was able to enjoy more with these changes as it suited his simple life in India. It was in London that he came across two Theosophists who inspired him to read Gita and when he read it he found it to be priceless. He also read the New Testament. He began to compare all what he read—Bhagavad Gita, Sermon on the Mount, The Light of Asia. The philosophy of renunciation in all these books appealed to him the most. It is pertinent to know that earlier he was an atheist disliking all religion. Initially, he had read Manusmriti which didn’t impress him much, and he disliked Christianity which in those days was converting the people and making them abuse their own religion (Hindus) and God. His guiding principle of his life was derived from a Gujarati dialect which asked to do greater goods for smaller favours and good for the evil deeds as well. For a bowl of water give a goodly meal… If thy life be rescued, life do not withhold… But the truly noble know all men as one, and return with gladness good for evil done.13 (ch.10)

While travelling to Pretoria for a legal case that he had undertaken to fight, he was shoved from the first-class compartment despite of having the ticket. It was then he became acquainted with the prejudiced attitude towards the Indians in that country. The stay in Pretoria enabled him to make a deep study of the social, economic and political condition of the Indians in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. In the Orange Free State, the Indians were deprived of all their rights by a special law enacted in 1888 or even earlier. If they chose to stay there, they could do so only to serve as waiters in hotels or to pursue some other such menial calling. Gandhi prolonged his stay in South Africa to fight for the rights of Indians in South Africa. The franchise rights of Indians there had been taken away by a bill and the fight began with this bill. Inspired by the INC, he formed the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) in 1894 there to fight for the rights of Indians. His activities made him popular not just amongst Indians in South Africa but also amongst the parties in India. The labour laws especially relating to indentured labours also were unfair and treated the labours as slaves. Gandhi fought a case for an indentured labour, and it increased his popularity amongst the labouring classes as well. There was also heavy taxation imposed upon them against which, not only the NIC launched a fierce campaign 13 Gandhi, M.K., 1925. ‘An Autobiography Or The Story Of My Experiments With Truth’, Chap. 10,

Ahemdabad, Navjeevan Publishing House.

4.2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

69

but also against which the Indian government showed objection. The Indians finally triumphed in the end with the reduction in tax from 25 to 3 £. In 1896, Gandhi decided to go home to meet his family and to bring them back and settle with them in South Africa. When he came to India he helped in educating the people about hygiene due to which diseases had broken out. He had come in contact with Pherozshah Mehta by this time. He was advised by Pherozshah with regard to the South African matter that help will be provided and for that he had to meet people and that the President of such a meeting should be a nonparty man. He started to meet the big personalities like—Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhle and so on. He was then suddenly called back to South Africa where then he sailed off with his family. By the time he returned, the Whites in South Africa were highly angered by Gandhi and there were two charges against him: 1. That while in India he had indulged in unmerited condemnation of the Natal Whites; 2. That with a view to swamping Natal with Indians he had specially brought the two shiploads of passengers to settle there. When he finally arrived (1897), he was pelted by stones, rotten eggs, brickbats and even kicked. The police intervened, and he was finally able to reach his destination. At the friend’s house also, the crowd came and threatened him. From there, he escaped in disguise possibly to save his friend’s property and also his family as he later claimed. Finally, he went for refuge in a jail. After the incident, he gave an interview which clarified all what while his stay in India he had said the same things which he had said in South Africa and that his condemnations were not unmerited. Further, he added that he had no hand in bringing anyone to Natal. Many of those people were old residents, and moreover, most of them intended to go to Transvaal. His clarifications and the decision he took, to not prosecute any of the assailants, ashamed the Europeans there. His refusal to prosecute the assailants ended the violence against him and also earned prestige for him in South Africa. When the Boer War in South Africa began in 1899, Gandhi organized the Indian Ambulance Corp in which 1100 Indians heroically helped injured British soldiers.14 He united the Indians under Ambulance Corps to medically help the wounded in war and also came much closer to the Indians. After the relief from war duty in South Africa, Gandhi made his mind to return to India and provide his aid there. In 1899, he returned back to India. He got acquainted with all Congress members and got all the training of political work and knowledge of political conditions through Gopal Krishna Gokhle whom he considers his political teacher. Gandhi started working as a lawyer in Bombay when suddenly he was called in South Africa. Chamberlain was expected in South Africa, and Gandhi had to meet him for the purpose of the Indians there. The Indians had made a deputation headed by Gandhi to meet Chamberlain, but the authorities were bound not to let this happen. 14 Jennifer

Rosenberg, 16 December 2014. Mohandas Gandhi‘s Life and Accomplishments, Available from: http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/gandhi_2.htm (10 May 2017).

70

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Now Gandhi decided to enrol in the Transvaal Supreme Court to help the Indians there or else he felt the Indian community would be hounded if he left them alone. The Asiatic department that was created for Asians was filled with corrupt officers and despite of a strong case made against them by Gandhi they were acquitted for the proofs was there, but the Jury was English that would not take action against them when standing against coloured men. Though after this incident, the government did try to get rid of these officers and the faith of Indians was reassured. However, there was no personal grudge that Gandhi held against those officers and instead helped them in getting employed. It was the system against which he was fighting and not the people. In 1904 with the advice of Madanjit Viyavaharik, the Indian Opinion was launched. Gandhi actively contributed articles in it. He expounded on the principles and practices of Satyagraha as he understood. Gandhi here realized the responsibility of journalism; it should be focused on public service alone he felt. It had immense power and it should be controlled from within and not from outside he believed. He expounded on the principles and practices of Satyagraha as he understood. This was done to train the people to fight justly against injustice.

4.2.2 Struggle in India At the instruction of Gopal Krishna Gokhle, Gandhi returned to India in 1914. With the advent of the world war, Gandhi proposed to volunteer in it from the Allies side. He faced certain objections here from fellow friends, but here Gandhi proposed that certain form of himsa is necessary for the existence of life. He says: Ahimsa is a comprehensive principle. We are helpless mortals caught in the conflagration of himsa. Man cannot for a moment live without consciously or unconsciously committing outward himsa.15 (Gandhi1925)

The intention of the action rather than the result is of more importance as consciously or unconsciously humans are bound to commit some form of violence, but the source of all actions should be compassion, and hence, they should constantly try to the best of their ability to shun violence against the tiniest of the creatures, thus, incessantly striving to be free from the deadly coil of violence. The outward violence in its entirety is not plausible, but by this way, humans will be able to attain inner peace. Ahimsa is based on the thought of unity of life but not all individuals are alike; an error by one affects all and hence the idea of absolute peace and nonviolence is not possible. In case of war, Gandhi says it become the duty of votary of ahimsa (nonviolence) to stop the war but those who do not possess the power to resist war may participate in the war and yet at the same time should try whole-heartedly to free themselves, their nation and the world from war.16 15 Ibid, 16 Ibid.

p. 185.

4.2 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

71

When he reached India, he again made the use of Satyagraha to fight oppression in Champaran, Ahemdabad and Kheda district of Gujarat. The foundation of Satyagraha Ashram was laid in 1915, later it came to be known as Sabarmati Ashram. He also organized mass strikes against the ‘Rowlatt Act’ and also advocated Swadesi good to promote self-reliance but the violence that he observed there indicated to him that the people were not ready for Satyagraha. He felt that it was his mistake that he launched a mass-scale movement without training the people about Satyagraha, its meaning and necessity. He started ‘Navjeevan’ and ‘Young India’ to educate the people about it. A Voluntary Corps was also formed to recruit volunteers of Satyagraha and to train them in it who would further train the public, and the volunteers, however, were very small in number and the growth was not as expected. It was realized that this process would take time. Congress proceedings at Amritsar took place which Gandhi regards as his real entry into Congress politics. The Congress leaders were pleased with the Punjab enquiry by Gandhi with regard to the Jallianwala tragedy. In Nagpur Congress session, the ‘nonviolence resolution’ was passed. Resolutions about Hindu–Muslim unity, the removal of untouchability and Khadi too were passed. The non-co-operation movement was finally launched in 1920, but owing to a violent incident at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the movement as he felt that the people have not understood the essence of nonviolence. After the non-co-operation movement (1920), civil disobedience (1930) and Quit India movement (1942) were organized but owing to British tactfulness and oppression they were soon broken without any fruitful result.

4.2.3 Social Reforms The unique feature about Gandhi was not his political ideas but the social reforms. Gandhi was not just fighting against the rigid caste structure of the Hindu society, against the induced conversions, against untouchability but also against the unhealthy life that was spreading diseases and taking the lives of the people. In 1896, when he had come to India, he helped the people in educating the people about hygiene due to which a disease had broken out. When the Black Plague (bubonic plague) broke out in South Africa in 1904, he along with some volunteers went to give their service to the affected people. It helped the municipality a lot to control the plague, and on the other hand, it increased his influence again on the poor Indians (Gandhi 1925). Gandhi was not just a political leader, he was a humanist. He respected all those values that would improve the quality of life for everyone. The freedom which he was seeking for India was not to empower himself but to empower each and every citizen of India. Through his different awareness campaigns he was trying to teach the people the concept of duty. It was imperative for the people to realize how their morals had gone down and it was the result of this degradation of morality that they were living like slaves in their own country. He was trying to raise the morality of the

72

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

people as by doing that he felt; people will themselves realize that how they have to fight against their enemy. Thus, we can say he was preaching the principle of ‘power within’.

4.3 Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 at Mvezo in the district of Umtata. Mandela describes 1918 as the year that marked the end of the Great War that killed millions throughout the world and the visit of a delegation of the African National Congress to the Versailles Peace Conference to voice the grievances of the African people of South Africa. He describes Mvezo as a place where life had not changed since 100 years. The clan name of Mandela is ‘Madiba’ and he is often addressed by that name. His father was deprived of his chieftainship at Mvezo when Mandela was a child and this brought a strain in his character which Mandela believes he inherited. He describes his father too of rebellious nature. In tribal matters, his father was not guided by the rule of England there but by the Thembu customs. His father was charged with insubordination without any enquiry or investigation. This procedure was reserved only for the White civil servants. His father was deposed by the Magistrate thus ending the Mandela family chieftainship. His father was deprived of his wealth and titles both. Nelson describes the situation of Africa when he was a child. Africans were not entitled to private ownership of land but were tenants, paying rent annually to the state. The largest portion of Africans diet was Maize because they could not afford anything richer than that. Most of the men spent the greater part of the year working on remote farms or in the mines along the reef. The hoeing, weeding and harvesting were left to the women and children. Few knew how to read and write and the concept of education was nearly foreign. His father passed away when he was 9 years only. After this he was offered guardianship by Jongintaba, a regent. He had become the acting paramount chief due to the intervention by Mandela’s father. He was brought up with the children of regent without any bias. The regent enjoyed universal respect from both—Black and White. Rule under him was quiet democratic where everyone was heard, and the women, however, were deemed as second-class citizens. It was at the meetings of the Regent where Mandela discovered the great African patriots who fought against western domination. One of the tribe chief said that the Africans had lived in peace until the White people came. At one of the meetings a Chief finally disillusioned Mandela about the status of Africa. He revealed that the Africans were slave under the British and had no freedom or independence (Mandela 1995).

4.3 Nelson Mandela

73

4.3.1 Period of Struggle with the African National Congress In 1942, Nelson passed the B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) exam. But Mandela had learnt that education alone cannot bring them freedom, and moreover, there were fewer teachers and even fewer schools to educate. A friend at the firm—Gaur, believed that the African National Congress (ANC) can bring the change needed in South Africa for it was the oldest national African organization in the country further, Its constitution denounced racialism, its presidents had been from different tribal groups, and it preached the goal of Africans as full citizens of South Africa.17 (Mandela 1995)

Gaur had a deep impression on Mandela, and for Gaur, the quest was for liberation and he could think of nothing else but revolution. Mandela went with Gaur to all the meetings of ANC to observe the body and the members debating and analysing them. In August 1943, he marched with Gaur, and ten thousand others, in support of the Alexandra bus boycott, a protest against the raising of fares from four pence to five. This campaign had a great effect on him. He now felt that from an observer he has become a participant. Mandela was also impressed by the boycott’s effectiveness: after nine days, during which the buses ran empty, the company returned the fare to four pence. Nelson came across many places where he was the victim of racial oppression however there were some White people who helped him fight the situation. These instances all the more convinced him to fight for the Africans and the women who were not treated equally. The formation of the Atlantic Charter after the Second World War that showed commitment on the part of allied nations to fight against tyranny and oppression inspired the ANC to create its own charter. They, thus, formed a charter called African Claims, calling for full citizenship for all Africans, the right to buy land and the repeal of all discriminatory legislation. The ANC proposed to form a Youth League to mobilize mass support. The primary purpose of the Youth League was to give direction to the ANC in its quest for political freedom. There were disagreements over question of nationalism. Some leaders believed that all those who opposed racial discrimination should be indulged in the political quest, while others felt that only the Blacks should carry on this political struggle; Mandela too was of the same view and so opposed Communists or Whites to join the league. Around 1946 a number of events took place that shaped his career: Mineworkers strike involving 70,000 African miners, Asiatic Land Tenure Act, Election to the Executive Committee of the Transvaal ANC, 1947. A Doctor’s pact was signed between Transvaal Indian Congress and the Natal Indian Congress agreeing to join forces against a common enemy. It was a step towards the unity of the African and Indian movements, but due to some differences, they broke their agreement later. The government started to introduce more oppressive policies now. Through the Separate Representation of Voters Act, the Coloured people were robbed of their representation in Parliament while through The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act followed by the Immorality Act, personal liberty was attacked upon as it made sexual relations between White and Nonwhite illegal. Further, the Population 17 Mandela,

Nelson, 1995, ‘The Long Walk to Freedom’, Boston, Little Brown & Company, p. 57.

74

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Registration Act labelled all South Africans by race, making colour the single most important arbiter of individuals. Next, the Group Areas Act was introduced further that required segregation of urban areas according to the racial group. This Mandela described as ‘the very essences of apartheid’ for the Blacks were legally segregated from the society and their freedom to live like humans was taken away. In the past, Whites took land by force; now, they secured it by legislation. In 1949, the ANC launched a landmark effort to turn itself into a truly mass organization. The Youth League wing drafted a Program of Action, the cornerstone of which was a campaign of mass mobilization. They called for boycotts, strikes, stay at-homes, passive resistance, protest demonstrations and other forms of mass action. The government took repressive measures to oppress the peace protests and killed few people. Suppression of Communism Act was introduced. The act outlawed the Communist Party of South Africa and made it a crime, punishable by a maximum of ten years’ imprisonment, to be a member of the party or to further the aims of communism. But the bill was drafted in such a broad way that it outlawed all but the mildest protest against the state, deeming it a crime to advocate any doctrine that promoted ‘political, industrial, social or economic change within the Union by the promotion of disturbance or disorder’. A letter was formulated by ANC which asked to repeal six unjust laws, and if this does not happen, it was stated that unconstitutional action would be adopted. The government replied with a threat of using all state forces if such action was taken and that it would not take back any of its laws. So the ANC started a defiance campaign: more than 250 volunteers around the country violated various unjust laws and were imprisoned even Mandela was arrested (1952). It was this campaign that shot up the popularity of the ANC. The government took repressive measures declaring ANC as illegal due to which it started to work underground. Again Mandela was arrested during this period, but the sentence got suspended. In this period of underground activities, some violence streak in Mandela had developed to fight the government. The government on the other hand kept on introducing laws of suppressive nature. Most of the leaders got banned or arrested. The leaders of ANC including Mandela got illegally detained by the government. There were various times when Mandela was arrested but it was during the Rivonia trial, 1964, that he got sentenced for life imprisonment for treason against the state. Mandela had the chance to appeal but he didn’t, for he felt the purpose of the struggle would be defeated. He states in his biography that what he and his party had done was done proudly and these actions were based on moral reasons and so: We were not now going to suggest otherwise in an appeal. Our message was that no sacrifice was too great in the struggle for freedom. (Mandela 1995)

4.3.2 Mandela’s Struggle with Nonviolence Mandela spent 27 years in prison where he observed the harsh life; in midst of this harshness, he sometimes could see the human nature in the warders, or other

4.3 Nelson Mandela

75

authorities around and his faith in humanity thus, was never shaken. People could be won over by love. However, there remained some organization or certain groups of people in society that was provoking violence and due to which the ANC was also forced to use violence. Mandela got released from prison in 1990 with the efforts of the then Prime Minister De Klerk who was trying to do away with the apartheid system that had penetrated in the society. A lot of reforms took place under him, and because of this, both De Klerk and Mandela were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1993. However, after sometime some covert operations were launched again the ANC members in which many people were killed on different occasions. Reports came that the police had an indirect involvement in this; also the police was not taking any protective measures. A situation of distrust arose between the government and ANC but when the fatalities kept increasing it made way for new negotiations and finally free elections for Africans took place in 1994 where the ANC members won a good number of seat though not the majority, but yet it was an election which gave a new constitution to South Africa in which all Africans irrespective of their colour took part. Mandela was actually one of those leaders who had a transition from violence to nonviolence. The initial nonviolent campaigns that he had joined were not on the basis of the intrinsic value of the concept but on the practical effects which he found very favourable. He himself confesses in his autobiography that he considered ‘nonviolence to be a useless strategy in overturning the White regime and giving a call for violence as the only tool available to destroy apartheid’ (Mandela 1995).18 That period he felt nonviolent passive resistance is effective as long as your opposition adheres to the same rules as you do. But if peaceful protest is met with violence, its efficacy is at an end. For him nonviolence was not a principle but a strategy. When one of his nonviolent movements did not go as expected (Sit at Home campaign), he started to seriously consider an armed struggle. He felt whether they propose it or not people will resort to it and if they are guided in it that would be better than leaving them astray and creating more chaos. Initially, many people opposed it for nonviolence was a principle for many of them, while for Mandela it was a tool not principle. Finally, everyone agreed with Mandela as they realized that violence was inevitable. The idea was now to create a separate and independent organ that would lead the military movement linked to the ANC and in overall control of ANC but fundamentally autonomous. Mandela was given the task of starting an army. The name of this new organization was Umkhonto we Sizwe (The Spear of the Nation)—or MK for short.19 The intention was to begin with what was least violent to individuals but most damaging to the state. So Nelson began to read about how to organize an armed struggle by going through the writing of and about armed revolutionaries like: Mao Tse Tung, Che Guevara and Fidel Castro. Four types of violent activities were considered in planning the direction of MK—sabotage, guerrilla warfare, terrorism and open revolution. Sabotage was the preferred action as it involved least risk to life and also because the ANC had reluctance in taking up armed struggle. The MK finally 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid

p. 93. Chap. 41.

76

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

struck and the government also decided not to sit back at this. An armed struggle therefore started between the government and the ANC. Meanwhile, international sanction had also been imposed on South Africa and political violence continued to get intensified. It was the fatalities of this political violence that made Mandela and De Klerk realize that their path was the path of destruction and solution can only be achieved through negotiations. Mandela died at the age of 95 in 2013. His autobiography gives a great insight not just about his struggle but also about human nature that comprises of love and hate both. There were times when Mandela thought that when peaceful and nonviolent measures do not work and that violent means should be adopted. But on another occasion he would see some humanely act in the most violent or cruel person. Apart from this he also observed that there is always some kind of destructive forces working in the society that tries to ignite violence between two parties just to gain its selfish interest. The road to freedom in his words has just started. For to be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.20 (Mandela 1995)

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore was born in a wealthy and educated family in 1861. He was a ‘poet, philosopher, educationist, patriot, humanist and internationalist. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Indian nationalism during the period of struggle for independence. He was granted the title of “Knight” by British government in India which he returned after the dastardly act of Jallianwala Bagh’.21 His father Debendranath Tagore was a prominent leader in the Brahmo Samaaj—a reforming Hindu organization. Rabindranath began writing from an early age and impressed with his free flowing style and spontaneous compositions. He mostly rejected formal schooling; he spent much time being taught at home. In 1878, he travelled to England and sought to study law at University College, London, but he left before finishing the degree. After returning to India in 1901, Tagore moved to Shantiniketan—‘Abode of Peace’ to found an ashram which became his focal point for writing and his view on schooling.22

20 Ibid,

p. 365. V.P., 2006. Rabindranath Tagore, Modern Indian Political Thought, Lakshmi Narayan Agarwal, Agra. 22 Pettinger, Tejvan, 1 June 2009, ‘Rabindranath Tagore’, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net. Available from: http://www.biographyonline.net/poets/tagore-rabindranath.html. 21 Varma,

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore

77

4.4.1 Major Works and Philosophy of Life He has written in different genres: poems, fictions, nonfictions, plays and essays. His most prominent work is Gitanjali (song offerings) published in 1910 for which he received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1912. Tagore tried to mobilize the people not just against the imperialism then existing in India but also against the social evils and customs existing in the Indian society with the help of the literature. These include ‘Ghar Baire’ or ‘The Home and the World’ wherein he examines and scrutinizes the dangers of nationalism,23 and in Haimanti, he attacks the practice of self-immolation prevalent at that time in Hindu traditions.24 The problems of untouchability and caste can be observed in ‘Chandalika’.25 Tagore was trying to reflect the problems of Indian society through his literary writings. He wanted to raise the consciousness of the people without adopting any forceful means. Tagore refers to a self-conscious principle of divine unity within man which extends itself in the infinity. In his book, The Religion of Man, Tagore explains the meaning of religion in a holistic manner thereby trying to inculcate spirituality in all beings. In Sadhana-The Realization of Life, he probes into the principles that need to be undertaken in order to enhance our life. Tagore wanted to achieve peace and freedom through educational means rather than political means. ‘He was resistive of the non-co-operation idea of Gandhi as he believed the peaceful demonstrations would not remain peaceful and would instead lead to violent confrontation between the protestors and the police’.26 He foresaw the danger that which nobody else could see. Gandhi too realized later that without educating the people about nonviolence, he had asked them to practice nonviolence, and therefore, people treated it as a mere tool and not a principle. ‘Tagore wanted people to set their own house in order before they protest against imperialistic arrogance. If the people perform their obligations, their initiative and capacities are strengthened, otherwise they suffer from atrophy.27 According to Tagore, the essence of civilization is the love of humanity and not the accumulation of material power.28 He dreamt of a synthesis between the East and the West for perpetual harmony. Tagore believed that nationalism fosters separatism and its infectiousness constitutes a threat to the civilization of the world’.29 He was a champion of the people and not of the nation,30 as he wanted the people to get educated so that they can learn to love and stay in harmony with all. With reference to power, he states that it has to be made secure not 23 Tagore,

R., 1919. The Home and the World. London: Macmillan. R., 2012. Haimanti: Of Autumn, Translated by A. Dutta: Amazon. 25 Tagore, R., 2005. Three Plays: Mukta-dhara, Natir Puja & Chandalika. 24th ed. Translated by Marjorie Sykes, New Delhi: Oxford Unity Press. 26 Dr. Sohail, K., 2013. Rabindranath Tagore—The Story of Tagore and Gandhi’s Relationship, Prophets of Violence, Prophets of Peace, White Knight Publications, Toronto. 27 Ibid, Varma, V. P., p. 82. 28 Ibid, Varma V. P., p. 83. 29 Ibid, Varma, V. P., p. 91. 30 Ibid, Varma, V. P., p. 92. 24 Tagore,

78

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

just against the powerful but also against the weak for even no matter how insignificant or weak certain section of the society is, they still possess the power to cause imbalance. He equates the strong with an elephant and the weak with the quicksand that can easily drag down the most magnificent being similarly the weak section of society are capable of dragging down any material progress made by the powerful minority. He says that people who grow accustomed to wield absolute power forget that by doing so they unleash an unseen force that is capable of destroying their power into pieces. For such subjugation creates an environment for great revolt that is based on moral grounds and this he says has been repeated in history time and again and was also the prevailing situation then (Tagore 1931).31 Tagore was a prophet of rights. He stood for India’s right to political freedom. He acutely pointed out that lack of political freedom degrades the moral fibre of the people and narrows their soul. Only self-determination can vindicate the rights of humanity.32 Evolution as explained by Tagore is a process where different units, or individual are bound together by some intricate relationship and not by force (coercive). In this voluntary association, there is freedom of self-expression to every unit for them to grow. This is the rhythm of life and anyone who tries to break this rhythm for their selfish interest, perishes forever. Man33 also was born out of unity in evolution and though he possesses great powers he must not disturb this unity. Tagore further explains that when isolated, Man misses himself, he finds his larger & truer self in his wide human relations.34 (Tagore 1931)

In this evolution of humans, another element that developed in them was—‘Mind’. Both Mind and life have always wanted their freedom of expression and so many times they clashed as they worked on different principles but despite this or probably because of this the new current evolution of Man, is bringing wealth to him. Human mind compressed the knowledge of different beings surviving in different terrain for their advantage, for Man desired to be the great representative of the multiform of life by purposeful selection of opportunities with the help of the reasoning mind. As a result of this endeavour various inventions were done leading to development of arms and weapons. But all this happened without humanizing the humans and so to play with one’s life or others life became a prominent act. The spirit of Life was overridden by the spirit of Man. After this Man attempted to capture the governments and make their own codes of legislation. The very essence of life is creativity and self-surrender and when these virtues are failed in any being, life begins to fail in them resulting in their demise forever. Tagore therefore regards that civilization to be best that preach love and humanity:

31 Tagore, Rabindranath, 1931, ‘The Religion of Man’, The Macmillan Company, New York. p. 127. 32 Ibid,

Varma, V. P., p. 88. term Man has been used by Tagore in a holistic sense and does not refer to man as a gender. 34 Ibid, Tagore, Rabindranath, p. 13. 33 The

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore

79

Civilizations must be judged and prized, not by the amount of power it has developed, but by how much it has evolved and given expression to, by its laws and institutions, the love of humanity. Sadhna: The Realization of Life (1916)35

The idea of unity is thus not a mere subjective idea, but an energizing truth. The consciousness of this unity is spiritual and our effort to be true to it is—our religion he says. This unity is achieved through the development of consciousness. Knowledge about this consciousness makes them realize about their immortality. Religion, he says is not about God of cosmic forces rather it is about the God of human personality. Relationship is the fundamental truth of this world of appearances. All the substances of the universe are interrelated with each other. Tagore then gives a reference to Upanishad where it is said everything in this world is always moving yet everything is connected by some divine unity. So for true enjoyment, one must learn to surrender themselves to the universe rather than trying to satisfy one’s greed. This super soul present in all moving things is the God of this human universe. When earth’s resources began to be devoured by the immoderate appetite of the gigantic creatures in history, it resulted in the demise of such creatures as life began to fail in them. But the most important fact that has come into prominence is the possession of a spirit which has surplus wealth far in excess to the biological needs. This spirit is called the Angel of Surplus, of Leisure, of Detachment. It is at this point when humans realize themselves in the perspective of infinite that they become religious. It is the greatest delight for humans to realize themselves in others, and this Tagore describes to be the definition of love. All these explanations are made by Tagore in his book The Religion of Man. The word ‘religion’ here actually denotes spirituality. The world has forever fought in the name of religion; by giving a new definition of religion, Tagore is trying to harmonize not just human relations but also the religions. Perfect peace and happiness is an ideal that can be achieved with gradual reforms directed by good intentions. As for nonviolence to happen nonkilling is needed and for nonkilling to happen positive human relations need to be developed. Tagore identified certain principles that were needed to inculcate in every individual for positive human relationship, while Gandhi and King consciously or unconsciously acted upon these principles. They are: • Creation: Tagore had stated that the universe has evolved itself through creativity. Life therefore rests upon the principle of creativity and so do human relations. People often fight for freedom as they want some material thing or to show others that they are strong but the purpose of freedom is actually to make one realize his full potential that would help him in creating something beautiful. It was with the help of this combination of freedom and creativity that humans made such great progress in science and technology. Similar such creative ideas are needed 35 Pettinger,

Tejvan, 1 June 2009, ‘Rabindranath Tagore’, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net. Available from: http://www.biographyonline.net/poets/tagore-rabindranath.html.

80

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

to develop humanity for science without humanity will not be able to sustain for long. For this, it is essential that we introduce creative changes in all spheres of life, in academics for instance examinations system that are merely based and conducted on the memorization power of the individual can be modified so as to test not just the memory but also the creativity of the students. According to Tagore, civilization has evolved not by the process of elimination of the original material but by a magical grouping of them, through the discipline of art, discipline of curbing & stressing in proper places., thus imparting a unique value to our personality in all its completeness.36 (Tagore 1931)

• Communication: as Tagore emphasizes is necessary in human relations and perhaps, this maybe the reason that he became a firm advocate for freedom of expression. When there is healthy communication it leads to the foundation of healthy relations. The art of discourse amongst the peer group, with the subordinates, with the superiors, at work place and even at home requires serious attention for this is the seed that helps in culminating good or bad relations. • Interrelation, is based on communication when individuals are able to relate themselves with the people around them even when they come from a totally different background the feeling of empathy is developed. Indian mythology and philosophy is deep rooted in its positive and affirmative approach to life. It classifies people into three categories: Satvik, Rajsik and Tamsik. Tamas is symbolized with darkness or inactivity; Rajas is activity, expressed as attraction or repulsion; and Sattva is the equilibrium of the two.37 These three qualities are present in every human being but the predominance of either of these qualities determines the nature of any individual. A Satvik person sees the world of many connected to each other, Rajsik person sees the world as isolated, noninteracting and unconnected, for Tamsik people the whole world is meaningless except for themselves, they live in self-created darkness, devoid of knowledge, they are lazy, slothful, inert and blind to reason and truth.38 In the classification of material qualities, Krishna said in Chap. 18 of Gita ‘Understand that knowledge to be in the mode of goodness by which a person sees the one undivided imperishable reality within all diverse beings’.39 Arts such as the literature and cinema can be useful in building relations not just between humans but also between humans and nature for they convey human emotions and it is emotions that connect us with each other. Often the emotional vacuum amongst individuals has led to depression and frustration in society and it is in this vacuum that emotions can turn dangerous. In Ghar Baire (The Home and the World), Tagore shows the dilemma in the mind of certain people during the 36 Ibid,

Chap. VIII-The Music Maker, p. 124. S.1896. Karma Yoga. [Online] Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/top-freeebooks-by-swami-vivekananda-1770693. 38 Tripathi, G., 2018. Connection Between Philosophy and Science. Bhopal: Times of India. 39 Bhagvad Gita, Chap. 18: Verse 20. Available from: https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/ 18/verse/20. 37 Vivekananda,

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore

81

period of freedom struggle in India. When everyone was chanting the slogan of Vande Matram there was a man who wanted freedom for the country but not at any cost, for he claims ‘to worship my country as god is to bring a curse upon it’.40 In the story, the man has empathy for a common English woman who used to come to work at his home but got scorned for being English and who finally went back to her country. He is against acts of coercion because force is not just and ‘it is only weak who dare not be just’. Thus, Humans are interrelated to each other and when they do hurt any other human by any means it has an effect on themselves too subconsciously. However, not everyone is able to recognize this and those who recognize it have empathy towards every human without any prejudice and they are then able to hold human dignity in reverence. • Interdependence is needed in every society even if it is very rich and powerful. Just like in the human body the organs are interrelated with each other, they are also interdependent on each other for the full functioning of the body. Similarly in the human society, people communicate with each other, relate with each other and also depend upon each other for smooth functioning. Allotment of different task to different group of people based on their specialization helps in smooth functioning. The Varna system that existed in ancient India ensured this kind of interdependence; however, in due course of time the Varna system got replaced with what is known as caste system that was rigid in nature due to which it flexibility in profession and marriage was lost that was prevalent in the Varna system. The caste system that was born in medieval India does not exist in that same rigid structure in modern times as there is flexibility in profession and even to some extent in marriages which is a matter of personal choice. With reference to nation states, countries like Japan and Germany, they have chosen the option of intensified international division of labour in the international economy and liberals believe this kind of interdependence helps in reducing violent conflicts between states. According to Tagore, it is the perfect arrangement of interdependence in the human world that gives rise to freedom. Those who own no responsibility are savages who fail to attain their fullness in manifestation. Some people say existence is evil but, that is, because they do not know the truth of existence. All broken truths are evil. They hurt because they suggest something they do not offer. Death does not hurt, but disease does for it reminds us of health yet withholds it from us, while life pretends to give finality when it is incomplete. All tragedies remain far from truth remaining in fragments, its cycle not being complete. There is no ‘mukti’ (liberation) from the bond of love, i.e. the bond of union between the finite and the infinite soul. • Freedom—Most of the political movement in history and even those of today are fought for freedom however, according to both Tagore and Vivekananda absolute freedom is neither possible nor desirable. Tagore says that ‘Man was born out of unity in evolution…when isolated man misses himself and finds his larger and truer

40 Tagore,

R. 1919. The Home and the World, Macmillan, London: Translated [from Bengali to English] by Surendranath Tagore.

82

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

self in wide human relations’.41 According to Vivekananda, the term ‘free will’ in itself is a contradiction because will is based on our knowledge and knowledge is limited to our universe and everything within the domain of the universe is moulded by the conditions of space, time, and causation. Everything that we know, or can possibly know, must be subject to causation, and that which obeys the law of causation cannot be free.42 (Vivekananda 1896)

Freedom carries a different meaning for different people, but everyone desires for freedom. The saint is oppressed with the knowledge of his condition of bondage, and he wants to get rid of it; so he worships God. The thief is oppressed with the idea that he does not possess certain things, and he tries to get rid of that want, to obtain freedom from it; so he steals.43 The saint aspires for freedom of his soul from any bondage, while the robber aspires for freedom for possession and this forges all the more bonds. If we want absolute freedom, then we must give up all our worldly attachments and this is possible by two means, one is called Neti Neti (Not this, not this), the other is Iti (This). The first one is negative and is very difficult to practice, in this the person denies everything and his senses obey him. The second one is a positive method, comparatively easier for in this one relishes the material aspects of life and after getting satisfied gives them up willingly. Liberation from materialism is achieved by making use of all the bondages themselves to break those very bondages. This is a kind of giving up as it is done slowly and gradually, by knowing things, enjoying them, thus, obtaining experience and knowing the nature of things until the mind lets them all go at last and becomes unattached.44 Freedom is not mere sense of independence, perfect freedom is perfect harmony of relationships which we realize not through our response to it in knowing, but in being45 (Tagore 1931).

So by that definition those freedom movements that disturb the harmony of state and society are not perfect freedom movements and hence, should not be looked upon as ideals. The problems that disrupt the harmony of the universe are: disease, stupidity, ignorance, insanity and sin. Disease prevents humans from attaining freedom in their physical aspect. In rational aspect, they are prevented by—stupidity, ignorance and insanity from attaining freedom whileas sin prevents from attaining freedom in spiritual aspect. Humans are ignorant and often act with insanity and stupidity, but for the purpose of making them reasonable, actions such as aggression or humiliation should not be employed. The act of colonization, imperialism, subjugation and humiliation of 41 Tagore,

R., 1931. The Religion of Man. New York: The Macmillan Company. S., 1896. Karma Yoga. Chap. 7: Freedom[Online] Available at: https://www. thoughtco.com/top-free-ebooks-by-swami-vivekananda-1770693 (25 August 2018). 43 Ibid, Chap. 8: The Ideal of Karma Yoga. 44 Ibid, Chap. 7: Freedom. 45 Tagore, R., 1931. The Religion of Man. Chap. XII—The Teacher, New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 170. 42 Vivekananda,

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore

83

individual and society and environmental violations are sins that humans have committed in history and continue to commit. All higher religions speak about freedom of the soul. ‘The soul, the spiritual self has enjoyment in the renunciation of individual self for the sake of supreme self. But renunciation is not negation of self but dedication of self. The purpose is the realization of its unity with some objective ideal of perfection, some harmony of relationship between the individual and the infinite man. Freedom is not pure negation of bondage but in some positive realization that gives immense joy to our being’.46 • Sacrifice, the worth of freedom can only be understood by the spirit of sacrifice. Freedom does not mean aggressively fighting for your beliefs or rights at the cost of hurting others. Freedom calls for sacrifice. In the struggle for freedom, we develop many desires and it is the negation of these desires that makes one angry and not simply the negation of freedom. Tagore gives a reference to Gita which speaks about disinterested action that should be done in the presence of the eternal. This disinterested fight of the serene soul helps in our union with the Supreme Being. Those who wish to be allied with the good mind must give up all anger, all violence.47 (Tagore 1931)

The reason of advocating a disinterested fight is that if one has a vested interest in his fight, then it shows that the person is fighting out of passion and in the fights of passion and desire it often happens that the cause is lost. Freedom can be achieved only when people learn to sacrifice their desires. On sacrifice, Vivekananda further says that self-abnegation comes through nonattachment and attachment to anything causes fanaticism to rise, so it is imperative that we work in a disinterested manner. When wars occur we wrongly assume the material factors as the main causes of war, such as land, property or wealth. Those materialistic things over which wars are waged only manifest our spiritual bondage. However, sacrifice is not to be confused with giving up of material or worldly possessions as some dogmatic rituals demand, for then it is fanaticism of the other end. Sacrifice does not imply human sacrifice or destruction of material things it simply means ‘nonattachment’ (Illustration 4.1). These are the key factors that when comprehended well would create such a cycle. But these principles have not been followed completely. Their partial comprehension have led to the malfunction of the cycle and resulted in a corrupted cycle. The corrupted form consists of the following features • Conceal—By means of freedom of speech, people are able to communicate their feelings. But when they try to conceal their feelings, it shows a mark of distrust. There can be many reasons for this. Normally, people like to voice their feelings. The only time they conceal it is when they fear that their speech would endanger them and those around. In such scenario not only feelings are hidden but also information of great importance.

46 Ibid, 47 Ibid,

Chap. XIII-Spiritual Freedom. p. 86.

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Illustration 4.1 Positive human relationship

B&WINPRINT

84

Communication Creativity

Inter-relation

Sacrifice

Interdependence Freedom

• Isolation—Tagore states that, the great philosophers of all ages have realized the freedom of soul in their spiritual kinship of man which is universal. When man goes in isolation he develops a mentality that is extremely selfish. He does not share any bond with his fellow beings. Humans in isolation can be most fatal for they have no empathy, no bond with anyone else in the society. Often those who turn into terrorist or rebels have had an isolated past even now we can observe that those areas that are geographically or socially disconnected from others breed people with contempt in their hearts towards others. Naxalite areas in India are found in remote regions where transportation is difficult or has been made difficult, people from Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and North Korea are with either no Internet or state-regulated Internet. • Dependence—Such isolation does not create independence as many people mistakenly think. Nothing in this universe can be completely independent; there will always be some connection in the form of dependence or interdependence. An individual, organization or a nation state are related to the people and the environment they live in; they have depended initially for their life on others and when they claim absolute independence for themselves it implies not only their denial of the duty they have towards the society but also it may lead to creation of a system where they are independent, but everyone around them is completely dependent upon them for their basic needs. The dependency theory shows that the poor nations provide the natural resources, raw material and cheap labour to the first world nations in return first world nations manufacture goods with such help and sell it at a greater price to those nations under the system of free market. • Subjugation—So whenever there is absolute independence of one party, it leads to dependence of others and further in the subjugation of the dependent. The dependent is exploited of all his resources and is subjugated by the power holder. This is the time when feeling of negativity develops in those people that are dependent. These people do not take pride in any of the scientific or human achievements rather they feel alienated from all such developments and become aggressive and

85

Illustration 4.2 Negative human relationship

B&WINPRINT

4.4 Rabindranath Tagore

Conceal Destruction

Isolation

Killing

Dependence Subjugation

completely unsympathetic to all around. The philosophy of communism is one such thing that had emerged due to this kind of subjugation and alienation. • Killing—The killings that would follow such subjugation is an inevitable course of action. When people would realize how their human dignity and rights are being violated they cannot be silenced easily. It would be either them trying to take revenge or the power holders who would go for the kill. The dependent section or person on the one hand would try to assassinate the power holder and take his position instead. On the other hand would be the power holders or their associates who in order to keep the situation in control would be ready to kill such people. • Destruction—These killings would then create a chain reaction calling for more killings and the outcome would be destruction of that society or civilization. This cycle has been repeatedly found in various civilizations from the past. The Egyptian and Roman civilizations are the prime examples where despite its grandeur crumpled and vanished when the killings got triggered (Illustration 4.2). Hitler hid his feelings when Germany lost the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles not only humiliated Germany but also made it go in isolation. Initially, Germany had to depend on the powerful nations for its sustenance. The dependence that subjugated Germany gave rise to the personality of Hitler, he was aggressive, unsympathetic and took to the most coercive means he could to fight this subjugation that he suffered for such a long time. For him, the power holders who exploited Germany were the Jews so he initiated to kill them which then spread on to new targets he could identify for subjugation and dominance of Germany. The result was: over 60 million people were killed.48 In wars as such it really does not matter, who emerges as the winner because it is only a ‘Pyrrhic victory’ (a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is equivalent to defeat).

48 Hanson,

V. D., 2017. A War Like Many Others, National Review, Available from: https://www. nationalreview.com/magazine/2017/10/30/war-many-others/. (24 May 2018).

86

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence For Gandhi, nonviolence was not an end in itself; it had clear consequential dimensions; and it was a moral force and was extended to communication as well for expression. Anger conceals a weak argument and shows an unwillingness to communicate and communication is necessary for the growth of human relation and human potential according to Tagore. Martin Luther King (Jr.) also remarked once ‘The self cannot be a self without other selves. I cannot reach fulfillment without thou’.49 During his visit to Cornell College in 1962, he stated ‘Men often hate each other because they fear each other, they fear each other because they don’t know each other, they don’t know each other because they cannot communicate…’. All the matter that exists in shape of material goods or human body needs to be knit together in such a way that it provides uniqueness to their property. When molecules of hydrogen mix with oxygen it results into creation of water, but all such natural associations are based on natural will. Similarly, it is by associating with each other that humans will progress; the dualism that exists between the humans needs to be overcome by a creative approach so that they can be at peace with themselves and others. However, the duality that exists in nature has to be overcome by consensual and peaceful approach that upholds human dignity. King and Gandhi relied on Satyagraha and boycotts to convey their feelings to their oppressor. They did not intend to do any kind of harm to anyone but rather focused on maintaining human dignity for themselves as well as their oppressors. Actions that involve coercion are not as successful as people think. ‘Political scientists such as Erica Chenoweth and Maria Stephan analysed 323 attempts at regime change between 1900 and 2006. They were curious about the comparative success of violent and nonviolent campaigns, among other things. They found that violent campaigns succeeded 26 percent of the time, and that nonviolent campaigns succeeded 53 per cent of the time’.50 However, the masses are of not such a view their perception about war is quite different from that of the researchers and this can be corroborated by our survey as well (Graph 4.6). • Anonymous: ‘Violence can never be justified, but we must understand that there is no alternative at times. We cannot categorize counter-terrorism activities into violence. Impromptu violence is condemnable but retaliatory measures are always welcome. An eye for an eye will not make the world blind; in fact, it will just eliminate the bad eyes and in turn help us see a better world’. • Anonymous: ‘Good fences make good neighbours. Defensive offence is good to deter malice’. • Anonymous: ‘Peace comes with a price and mostly that price is counter-violence’. 49 Ira Chernus, 2010. “President Eisenhower and Dr. King on Peace and Human Nature”, In Adolf, Antony (ed.) Nonkilling History: Shaping Policy with Lessons from the Past (p. 161), Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. 50 Lakey, George, 2012. The More Violence, the Less Revolution, Waging Nonviolence, PeoplePowered News and Analysis, Available from: https://wagingnonviolence.org/feature/the-moreviolence-the-less-revolution/.

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence

87

Graph 4.6 Using war to counter-terrorism

• Anonymous: ‘Human beings are the most complex creation of God. Mahabharata is the best example. The war that has started is a never ending one’. • Anonymous: ‘It’s a high time now. Terrorism cannot be tackled by peaceful technique. They should be now given answer in their language only’. These responses suggest that people look at coercions as the only and the best answer to bring peace to the world. The figures suggest that around 42% from 500 people do not agree with the concept that war can bring peace. But at least 35% have shown agreement. Such people will always not just believe in coercion but also promote it. To validate they hypothesis ‘constant threat to human dignity has made people accept violence and killings as natural and sometimes necessary’ crosstab and chi-square test have been applied on the following questions (Table 4.1). The two questions put into crosstabulation illustrate how people subconsciously accept killings. In a direct manner, they do not accept it but if they believe those leaders to be good and effective to bring change who were revolutionaries and were responsible for mass killings it means at a subconscious level people show support for charismatic leaders (which includes their acts of killing) who convince the people of speedy delivery of rights, justice or progress. Mesmerized by their charisma people are unable to identify their brutality and hence, the too participate in the killing process initiated by their leaders. The chi-square test given below is to check the significance of the result, and since 0.016 is less than 0.05, it can be said the result has significance (Table 4.2).

88

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Table 4.1 Leaders and justification of killing crosstabulated Revolutionary leaders (such as those who adopted armed struggle or violent means to bring change in society such as Subhas Chandra Bose, Lenin, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara) are good and effective leaders * Killing of a human being can be justified for fight of fundamental rights and liberty Killing of a human being can be justified for fight of fundamental rights and liberty Strongly agree Revolutionary leaders (such as those who adopted armed struggle or violent means to bring change in society such as Subhas Chandra Bose, Lenin, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara) are good and effective leaders

Strongly agree Agree

Not sure

Disagree

Strongly disagree Total

Agree

Not sure

Disagree

Total

Strongly disagree

Count

10

17

17

29

20

93

Expected count

5.2

21.3

17.1

33.7

15.7

93.0

Count

12

60

40

80

23

215

Expected count

12.1

49.2

39.6

77.9

36.3

215.0

Count

4

23

24

38

16

105

Expected count

5.9

24.0

19.3

38.1

17.7

105.0

Count

2

14

8

33

20

77

Expected count

4.3

17.6

14.2

27.9

13.0

77.0

Count

1

4

6

7

8

26

Expected count

1.5

5.9

4.8

9.4

4.4

26.0

Count

29

118

95

187

87

516

Expected count

29.0

118.0

95.0

187.0

87.0

516.0

Table 4.2 Chi-square test for leaders and justification of killings Chi-Square tests Pearson’s chi-square

Value

df

Asymptotic significance (2-sided)

30.402a

16

0.016

Likelihood ratio

29.881

16

0.019

Linear-by-linear association

7.607

1

0.006

No. of valid cases

516

a4

cells (16.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.46

The questions tabulated below however, give a different picture. When people were questioned directly about the possibility of nonkilling, they have shown consensus in majority even when the question of countering terrorism with nonviolent and peaceful initiatives was put forward. About 108 people show faith in both nonkilling and countering terrorism by peace. The next largest majority believe in nonkilling but are not sure about countering peace with nonviolent and peaceful initiatives, while as the third majority believe in nonkilling but disagree with countering terrorism through nonviolent measures. Hence, through this observation we learn that despite

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence

89

dangers to human lives put by terror attack people still believe in the feasibility of nonkilling and peace (Tables 4.3 and 4.4). Since the chi-square value is less than 0.05, it again has significance. In the first crosstab observation, the hypothesis got validated that constant threat to human life has made people accept killing as natural and necessary but by the second crosstab the hypothesis gets rejected. The difference between the two crosstab is that in the former one killing is equated with charismatic leaders while in the latter the question of nonkilling is put forward in a simple manner. War is an embodiment of violence and killings and that which has been placed in history as a mark of a powerful state. Though it has become outdated now but its prominent features of violence and killing are still being considered when killing was Table 4.3 Countering terrorism and nonkilling Terrorism can be best countered using peace initiatives and nonviolent policies * Is nonkilling possible (considering the fact that nonkilling is measurable)? Is nonkilling possible (considering the fact that nonkilling is measurable)?

Terrorism can be best countered using peace initiatives and nonviolent policies

Strongly agree

Agree

Not sure

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Total

Strongly agree

Count

12

24

7

9

3

55

Expected count

5.3

27.6

10.0

10.3

1.8

55.0

Agree

Count

12

108

29

20

1

170

Expected count

16.5

85.2

31.0

31.7

5.6

170.0

Count

8

57

34

23

2

124

Expected count

12.0

62.1

22.6

23.1

4.1

124.0

Count

11

52

19

24

3

109

Expected count

10.6

54.6

19.9

20.3

3.6

109.0

Count

7

17

5

20

8

57

Expected count

5.5

28.6

10.4

10.6

1.9

57.0

Count

50

258

94

96

17

515

Expected count

50.0

258.0

94.0

96.0

17.0

515.0

Not sure

Disagree

Strongly disagree Total

Table 4.4 Chi-square on peace initiatives and nonkilling Chi-Square tests Value

df

Pearson’s chi-square

71.741a

16

0.000

Likelihood ratio

62.242

16

0.000

Linear-by-linear association

18.662

1

0.000

No. of valid cases

515

a4

Asymptotic significance (2-sided)

cells (16.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.82

90

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Graph 4.7 Killing for fundamental rights and liberty

linked with the philosophy of power and fundamental rights, the second hypothesis. The majority of the responses may be against killing, but that is irrelevant for the killers have always been in minority, and secondly, the survey covers people across the globe with significant amount of education, a global representation is not possible, but the variation in response is limited and that has been shown through this survey. The main goal was to show that if such perception exists in the minds of educated people regarding wars and violence, they may very well propagate the same to others or would be passive witness to such acts (Graphs 4.7 and 4.8). On the question of killings Dr. Shahid Yamin says, ‘Killing of human beings cannot be justified no matter what the cause it. I am inspired by Gandhi‘s quote “You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty”. I strongly believe that the world should engage the disengaged in the human community towards sustainable economic empowerment and therefore increase physical and financial resources that allow socio-economic human development. I strongly believe that inspiration is gained through “dream the dreaming”. It may seem that dreams are non-pragmatic and not realistic. I would argue that if dreams are not beyond the realistic boundaries than there is no real vision. The mission should be strive to make unrealistic dreams a reality’. The act of killing either by the state actors or by the nonstate actors can never be justified. Indeed at times killing becomes inevitable when the issue of self-protection comes but such instances are rare. Most of the terrorists kill in the name of freedom; revolutionaries too have killed in the name of freedom but as they failed to comprehend the meaning of freedom they also failed to implement it. The reality is that freedom in absolute sense is a mirage; it can only be achieved with values and ethics

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence

91

Graph 4.8 Killing for political reasons

and that will be its limitation. Both the means and end of any goal being demanded such as freedom, liberty, rights or justice should be ethical in nature. This is the place where most people go wrong or get confused. The survey conducted also took the perspective of the people in relation to means and ends (Graph 4.9). As we can see about 36% from 500 people are not sure about this question. Perhaps, it is because they did not understand what it meant or were unsure about it due to certain dilemma. An end is never a final end; on its fulfilment, it becomes the means to achieve another end. Attaining power has never been the sole end of any political leader, be it Hitler, Lenin or Stalin but the propaganda made by them left the public to think so for even after coming to power such leader used violence to rule the people. For the next question, a similar response was received where about 45% from 500 were not sure about it (Graph 4.10). The above question perhaps was complicated but Gandhian and Kingian thoughts shed some light on it. Both have specifically maintained that means and ends are interlinked and that corruption in any would corrupt the other as well. King explains it by giving the example of press who used their freedom of speech to support suppression. The fundamental rights are the means by which a society or civilization progresses, but if they are used for egotistical purposes to serve the interest of certain sections creating dissension in the society, they are not to be justified then. Further questions regarding the perception of philosophy and awareness about them in relation to killing were asked. Capitalism and communism had been the two dominant

92

Graph 4.9 End justifies means

Graph 4.10 Means justify end

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence

93

Graph 4.11 Impact of communism in last 100 years

philosophies since the Second World War. It was the clash of these two philosophies which culminated into the Second World War. Communism was basically a reaction to the exploitative world order developed under the domain of capitalism. Capitalism was about liberty, while communism was about equality, capitalism promoted individualism, whereas communism promoted communitarianism. In all these ‘isms’, however, one ism that got ignored was humanism (Graphs 4.11, 4.12, 4.13 and 4.14). Over the question of philosophy in relation to killing, we received diverse comments. Again being a subjective question, people found it difficult to answer it in one word. Dr Khalid Sohail, a psychotherapist and an active research member in the Center for Global Nonkilling (CGNK), states, ‘I am a socialist and I believe in social justice. In my opinion ideologies, whether religious, political or economic, become dangerous for humanity when they start justifying violence’. He expresses his desire to share his philosophy on peace through this short poem. PEACE There is inner peace and there is outer peace There is emotional peace and there is social peace There is religious peace and there is political peace There is local peace and there is global peace These are all colours of peace.

More clarity was provided on the philosophical aspect in relation to killing was provided by Bill Bhaneja, former vice chairman of CGNK and retired Canadian

94

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power

Graph 4.12 Impact of capitalism in last 100 years

Graph 4.13 Perception of communism in relation to killings

4.5 Perspective on Nonkilling and Nonviolence

95

Graph 4.14 Perception of capitalism in relation to killings

diplomat, member of nuclear disarmament movement Canadian Pugwash Group and the Science for Peace, Co-founder of Canadian Peace Initiative and Annual Ottawa Peace Festival. He says: Capitalism has helped in promoting democracy but is also responsible for killing due to “Military Industrial Complex and Colonialism”. The nonkilling paradigm, aiming for a killing-free world as a measurable goal and ensuring that metrics of behavioural/social science methodology is available to evaluate and develop policies and programs for preventing global violence. Globally, we must use all intellectual, material and spiritual means at our disposal to achieve this next stage of human revolution. Peace is a large tent and has always been awkward to define. Political leaders have used the term peace while pursuing militaristic policies, dropping bombs including the Atom Bomb in the name of peace (e.g. Hitler, Stalin, and Bush). However when we are trying to build infrastructures/architecture of peace, we need something tangible. Nonkilling Peace provides clarity. Its objective is unambiguous— peace which aims to stop killings without killing anyone. Nonkilling Society as defined by Professor Glenn Paige in 2003 to be “a human community, smallest to largest, local to global, characterized by no killing of humans, and no threats to kill; no weapons designed to kill humans and no justifications for using them; and no conditions of society dependent upon threat or use of killing force for maintenance or change.” This is not a Utopian vision. Nonkilling is aimed explicitly at actions for the betterment of fellow citizens, doing good through preventing injury/killing to self, others and group(s). Nonkilling seeks concrete actions through building infrastructures of nonkilling peace. An obstacle is the myth that humans are killers and have animal nature. The truth is that less than 5% of world population have ever killed anyone in a combat mission, and in most societies the rate of anyone having killed another person is less than 1%. A good example is to look at your home town and count murders committed each year; compare it with population size or compute percentage and you will see the truth of the nonkilling paradigm: most humans are not killers. Majority of killings at the same time are generally not by wars but what happens within societies through lethality pertaining to suicides, homicides, communal violence etc. between nations have been often less than the above. The World Health Organization (WHO) Report on Violence and Health in 2002 concluded that “violence is a preventable disease”, similar to the conclusion of Glenn Paige’s book, Nonkilling Global Political Science that humans can stop killing each other, also published in 2002 independently from the WHO Report.

96

4 Contemporary World: The Consensual Approach to Power Both works focused upon need for systemic processes of remedial actions of above three kinds of violence with a serious anatomy of killing and cures, focusing upon the imminent need for measurable indices of lives saved.

4.6 Conclusion This chapter explores the role of charismatic evolutionary leaders in building up a peaceful society as well as tries to look into the perception of the common people as well as eminent peace scholars on such leaders and their principles. A stark difference can be noted through the comments given specially in the survey. For affirmative nonkilling peace, it becomes essential on our part to bridge this gap of indifference and respect for human life. No leader or no individual can be perfect but rather than being resentful towards them one need to learn from their mistakes as well as their positive precepts and principles that helped in enhancing human life and dignity. Through the exploratory random survey and its analysis, it is revealed that principles of peace, nonkilling and nonviolence are not explicit to the people and presumably this is a major hindrance towards the path of affirmative nonkilling peace.

Chapter 5

A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership and Nonkilling Peace

The essence of government is the relationship between the leaders and the led. Oddly enough no aspect of political science has received less objective investigation. (Paige, Glenn D., 1977, The Scientific Study of Political Leadership, California, The Free Press) Glenn D. Paige

5.1 Nonkilling The term ‘Nonkilling’ has been coined by Glenn D. Paige (1929–2017) in his book entitled as ‘Nonkilling Global Political Science’. In Nonkilling Global Political Science, Paige has come to the conclusion that ‘there is a possibility of Nonkilling Society’. The thesis presented that a nonkilling global society is possible but that requires changes in the academic discipline of political science and its social role. The promise of nonkilling transition rests upon examples of nonkilling individuals, men and women, celebrated and unknown, whose courageous lives testify to its achievability1 (Paige 2009). However, the nonkilling capacity of individuals is largely dependent upon the institution of the state as well. States have been bestowed with absolute and unrestricted powers for maintaining law, order, peace and sovereignty of the nation. The realist school has especially focused on enhancing the power of the state so as to make it capable of protecting its national interest. Also, many of the traditional political thinkers especially the social contractualists and realists held a pessimistic view of the state of humans in the early state of nature. Hobbes defines the state of nature as:

1 Paige,

Glenn D., 2009, Nonkilling Global Political Science, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. p. 129.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_5

97

98

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership … No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death: and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.2

Hence, the implication was that human beings were not just uncivilized in the sense that they did not know communicate, produce goods for consumption but also that being brutal was their natural trait and feelings of empathy and morality were altogether absent. So, to protect life, Hobbes desired for an absolute state, but then by Rousseau’s theory, human life also became subordinate to the state for he stated and if It is expedient for the State that you should die, he must die; since his life is no longer only a benefaction from nature, but is a conditional gift from the State.3

State, therefore, was given more importance than individuals, for without a strong state the weaker individuals would be exploited by the stronger ones. So, to prevent chaos in society, state was entrusted with supreme powers. Various prominent theorists such as Machiavelli and Morgenthau also gave pessimist view on individuals, thereby depriving them of their basic rights on the basis of the supremacy of collectivism to individualism while, on the other hand, the state was glorified and considered as omnipotent. The concept of raison d’état (reason of state) developed with time completely revolved around the state. So, gradually, the state did become the ‘march of God on earth’. With such absolute powers, corruption was bound to happen and those who had fallen prey to corruption took up violence as a primary resort for safeguarding their interest. The authorities entrusted with power were easy to lure with money and power and it was no wonder that they made anarchic decisions not accounting for their own accountability and rationality. Its aftermath then was nothing but a chain reaction which escalated more with further increasing lethal measures that were adopted by the very originally state meant to prevent them. At national and international level, conflicts increased as the dependent individuals and dependent nations both found themselves being exploited in an oligarchic world order. While some resorted to violence, others kept quiet more due to diplomatic sensitivities than any principled reasonableness, both of which did not solve the problem; war crimes, genocides and interstate killing started on a large scale. The institution that was created for the protection of individuals became the annihilator of its very own species. Political leadership and statesmanship play an important role not only in maintaining state sovereignty and integrity but also the maintenance of stability and peace and the affirmation of the nonkilling paradigm so much critical for the spiritual advancement of the society and the country. According to Paige ‘Pattern of political leadership behaviour are a function of personality, role, organization, task, value and setting factors in reciprocal interaction, plus error variance for which these 2 Hobbes,

T., 1651, Thomas Hobbes Quotes from Leviathan, Available from: http://www.rjgeib. com/thoughts/nature/hobbes-quotes.html. 3 Paige, Glenn, 2009, Nonkilling Global Political Science, p. 24. Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

5.1 Nonkilling

99

variance do not account’4 (Paige 1977). He has tried to explore the concept of leadership developed by political science. He is of the view that not much has been done in this area. His hypothesis is ‘political leadership constitutes a source of enormous creative potential that has been inadequately appreciated by modern political science, political leaders themselves and the citizens’. In political science too, creativity is needed and political creativity means ‘combining ideas and actions in such a way as to produce conditions that are, for a given society, different from those previously existing’5 (Paige 1977). Paige focuses on the importance of political leadership for social life. The author asks, in particular, the political scientists to recognize the importance of political leadership. His definition of leadership is quite broad. He defines political leaders as not just monarchs, premiers or presidents but small-scale leaders as well like governors, provincial chairmen and mayors also. Leadership can be collective also and not just single; based not just on reason and consensus but also on force; admirable and despicable; successful and failed. Further, Paige points to the inattention given to the subject of political leadership by the discipline of Political Science in USA. He points out to the American Political Science Review, political scientists like: Sabine, Robert Dahl (Power), Snyder (Decision making), Easton, Lasswell, etc. Only Karl Deutsch mentions the importance of leadership; however, he fails to give a proper definition of leadership. He then poses the question that whether political science should prepare research scholars who are specialists on political leadership and if yes, how? Then he asks, ‘Should the discipline give special attention to the educational needs of persons (1) who are already in position of political leadership; (2) who have strong interest in eventually occupying such positions; (3) who seek to perform unconventional political leadership role; (4) who have a high probability of working in close association with political leaders; or (5) who are required to respond to, make demands upon, and evaluate the competence of political leaders in their own or other societies throughout their civic life cycle’6 (Paige 1977).

5.2 Comparative Study of Political Leaders The eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been transformative and there is a lot to learn in a twenty-first century world to free it from violence and killings. In the present study, twentieth century examples have been taken for better appreciation of the socio-economic and psychological forces in a post-industrial society. The focus of this chapter has been on individuals from across the nations who were selected owing to their charismatic personalities and well-known movements either that advertently or inadvertently espoused or led to killing and nonkilling. 4 Paige, Glenn, 1977, The Scientific Study of Political Leadership, California, The Free Press. p. 104. 5 Ibid, 6 Ibid,

p. 4. pp. 35–35.

100

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership …

Though generalization were made for better brevity and ease of deductive rationalization, the facts cited in the study have been based on historical and neutral sources. In this chapter, we would be studying single leadership based on consensus and coercion. The parameter of success would include time period of the movement, killings involved in the movement and political stability of the country after achieving the stated object. Political leadership based on force include leaders such as: Hitler (Germany), Mao Tse Tung (China), Subhas Chandra Bose (India), Fidel Castro (Cuba), Che Guevara (Argentina), Vladimir Lenin (Soviet Union), Kim Il-Susng (Korea). Political leadership based on consensus includes Mahatma Gandhi (India), Martin Luther King (Jr.) (USA), Nelson Mandela (South Africa), Candido Rondon (Brazil) and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pakistan).

5.3 Leaders and Their Movements Consensual Leader: 1. Brazil: Candido Rondon—Cândido Rondon (1865–1958) is one of the Brazil’s towering national heroes after whom the state of Rondônia is named. Rondon had founded the Indian Protection Service (IPS) in 1910, to halt nineteenth century atrocities against indigenous groups. He was made Marshal, the highest military rank in Brazil. He is credited with organizing nonkilling military missions and led a joint expedition with Theodore Roosevelt in 1913–1914 that explored an unknown Brazilian river then. Rondon is renowned for his IPS oath and motto: ‘Die if necessary, but never kill!’ (Keyes 2013). In the course of constructing the lines, he came across an indigenous tribe that was so insecure and dangerous that it would kill any westerner that would come in contact with it. The tribe was known as the Chavante Indians who lived in the Matto Grosso region. They were considered as the fiercest and unpredictable of all tribes. A mission was sent to make peace with them comprising of six members. The Chavante after listening to them poisoned them and attacked them. After that, another expedition was made to find the six bodies and to talk peace to the Chavantes again without any reprisal. Finally, the effort succeeded when the Chavantes agreed to a treaty in 1946. It was with his ideals that Brazil Government could connect with the native people.7 2. USA: Martin Luther King (Jr.)—King, as discussed in the earlier chapter, was fighting against the segregation system directed against the blacks in USA. In his autobiography, he explains the atrocities being committed against the Black people and how they were facing segregation in every sphere of their life. His fight against segregation never took a revengeful turn because he made sure that his 7 Keyes, Gene, 2013, ‘To Give Life’ in Nonkilling, Security and the State, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

5.3 Leaders and Their Movements

101

followers while trying to change the system have reconciliation as part of their strategy for their enemy as well. In his speech, at Raleigh, North Carolina in 1960, he emphasized on the presence of ‘reconciliation’ in all kind of resistance and nonviolent movements for its reconciliation with the enemy that gives true meaning to any resistance as the ultimate end is to create a ‘beloved community’.8 In his struggle, there were various occasions where he got arrested and even faced hideous atmosphere in prison where the prisoners were subjected to debilitating conditions. At critical moments, he got the help of friends and family and sometimes leaders like John F. Kennedy who would often bail him out whenever he would be wrongfully imprisoned. King was very clear with his philosophy, for him ‘both means and ends in life were important’. There were times when the people of their movement were attacked or killed. A major blow came when the President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. These all incidents he said had occurred because of the environment of hatred and violence that had been created for the Blacks. 3. India: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi—The significance of the Indian freedom movement lay in its nonviolent methods that were promoted by M.K. Gandhi. The three major movements led by Gandhi were—the non-co-operation movement (1920), civil disobedience movement (1930) and the Quit India movement (1942). Before coming to India, Gandhi had already earned his name while fighting for the rights of Indians living in South Africa. The apartheid system was a prominent feature of the South African society. To fight against this system, he adopted nonviolence means. These lines describe why Gandhi resorted to nonviolence: He advocated nonviolence not because it offered an easy way out, but because he considered violence a crude and in the long run, an ineffective weapon.9

Gandhi knew the road to transformation was not a smooth one but while advocating the change, he refused to resort to a violent path. 4. South Africa: Nelson Mandela—Nelson Mandela was a South African antiapartheid revolutionary. He went on to become the President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was imprisoned for almost 27 years for protesting against the evils of apartheid. The black South Africans’ overwhelming numerical majority made use of massive non-co-operation.10 The movement finally ended successfully in 1994. While fighting a prolonged battle for equality, he was unjustly awarded life imprisonment and faced hardships during his imprisonment period. There were many setbacks during his struggle period due to which they were not 8 King,

Martin Luther (Jr.), 1998. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King (Jr.), ed. Carson, Clayborne, Warner Books, New York. 9 Nanda, B.R., n.d., ‘Gandhi and Nonviolence’, Gandhian Institutions – Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal & Gandhi Research Foundation, Available from: http://www.mkgandhi.org/nonviolence/gandhi_ and_non.htm (3 February 2015). 10 Zunes, Stephen, 15 December 2013. Available from: https://www.popularresistance.org/mandelaviolence-vs-nonviolence.

102

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership …

able to make any progress in their struggle and this made Mandela angry. For Mandela, nonviolence was a tool and if the tool loses its utility, it needs to be changed. So, when Mandela felt that nonviolence had started to lose its utility, he was ready to make his struggle a violent one and even convinced his party, the ANC to do so. After a prolonged struggle between the government and his party, both realized that it was getting them nowhere near at their goal and costing not just material loss but also loss of human lives at a large scale which was only increasing with time. It was this realization by him and the then president, De Klerk that they finally decided to stop all forms of violence and have a peaceful negotiation. This transition from violence to peace was the step that got them the Nobel Prize for peace. 5. Afghanistan: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan—He was born in 1890, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He launched a fearless movement against British colonizers based on ‘nonviolence’. He served prison sentence both under British Indian and Pakistani governments for his nonviolent activities for around 30 years. His aim was to promote education, women’s right, fight against slavery and campaign for democracy. He was also a champion of Hindu Muslim Unity. He founded the ‘Khudai Khidmatgar’ force in 1929 and trained them to wage their struggle nonviolently. The movement was suppressed and attacked by the British violently that involved the ‘Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre’, killing more than two hundred people. On a second firing incident, at Peshawar, 12 more people were killed. Appalled at the atrocities of the government oppression, a large number of frontier inhabitants enrolled themselves in the Khudai Khidmatgar cadres, thus providing a boost to the movement.11 Revolutionary Leaders: 1. Soviet Union: Lenin—Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, made some changes in the theory of revolution propounded by Marx. He believed in organizing an armed struggle with the help of an organization that would primarily be a communist party. The organization would constantly be involved in some revolutionary activities. The philosophy given by Lenin did not come to a halt even after Soviet Union became independent from the Czar. More than 2 million people died in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922. The movement was successful but perhaps the state had dug its own grave by following this philosophy. Stalin who came to power immediately after Lenin is considered to have committed genocide on a large scale. So, the vital question that remains is that whether the people really achieved the freedom they strived for by supporting the revolution waged by their leader.

11 Shah, S., Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Khudai Khidmatgars, Congress and the Partition of India, Pakistan Vision, Vol. 8, No. 2, Available from: http://results.pu.edu.pk/images/journal/studies/PDFFILES/Shah-4%20new.pdf.

5.3 Leaders and Their Movements

103

2. China: Mao Tse Tung—The Marxian thought was further developed upon by the Chinese communist leader Mao Tse Tung. According to him: ‘all means of violence and extremism, including guerrilla warfare, should be adopted by the revolutionaries’.12 Born in 1893, Mao remained a rebel since youth. The political party of Dr. Sun Yat Sen overthrew the last imperial dynasty but could not gain control over China after that whereas Mao was able to mobilize the masses in his favour and form his government in China. China under Mao suffered innumerable human rights violation. His policies for economic development were failing but instead of changing them he sent those people to labour camps who criticized him or his policies. It is estimated that over 6 million people had died in the Chinese Civil War for independence and more than 44 million in the campaigns he launched in his tenure. The freedom Chinese people got left a question mark amongst the political scientists. The different programs carried out in Mao’s regime, like Rural purges, Urban purges, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, Labour camps etc., resulted in enormous deaths. The Marxist concept developed by Mao did not just affect China but also its neighbouring nations as well. 3. Cuba: Fidel Castro—Fidel Castro was a Marxist revolutionary. He was the prominent figure in the Cuban revolution. The Batista regime in Cuba had turned tyrannical when it realized that its election through the public ballot was not as foolproof as it thought. Castro organized his revolt with great secrecy and boldness and the attack was launched on 26 July 1953. There was lot of bloodshed and even the revolt was not successful, and Martial law was imposed in the country. Castro decided to form an army to revolt against the Batista government as he considered the Batista government to be a puppet government of the US regime and so he wanted to overthrow it. He adopted guerrilla warfare method to fight against the Batista regime and disciplined his army by draconian laws. The period of Cuban revolution was from 1953 to 1959 where the reported casualties have been in thousands.13 As observed in the previous chapter, focusing on Fidel Castro, soldiers who were inefficient or proved to be treacherous had to pay for their faults by giving their lives. Sometimes the army would be cruel to the citizens as well but at the end, the revolution proved to be a success. However, under the communist regime, people began to lose individual freedom, and the economic condition also worsened. Above all, Cuba was isolated at international level and could not get help from anywhere but from Russia in this crisis. There was mass exodus and genocide in Cuba which lasted around four to five decades.

12 Johari,

J.C., 2012. Contemporary Political Theory, p. 392, III edition, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi. 13 Jacoby, Jeff, 2006. In Cuba, 9,240 victims—and counting, The New York Times, Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/04/opinion/in-cuba-9240-victims-and-counting.html (25 May 2018).

104

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership …

4. Palestine: Yasser Arafat—He became the leader of Palestine Liberation Organization in 1964 and he remained its leader till his death in 2004. Its purpose was liberation of Palestine through armed struggle. Initially, it was a guerrilla organization that carried actions against Israel in 1970s and early 1980s. Its early armed actions include terrorist acts, war of attrition and the Lebanese Civil War. The estimated fatalities were more than 1, 00,000. The PLO charter in fact called for the destruction of a member state of the UN, in violation of the UN charter.14 It was only in 1996 that Yasser Arafat annulled those sections of the PPLO’s Charter, which called for the destruction of Israel and for armed resistance.15 The organization has greatly destabilized the region without any success to their cause. Apart from this, it was under PLO that ‘Black September’ and the ‘Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine’ evolved. These groups believed that the only way Israel could be forced into returning land was to be through force and violence, and bombing, hijacking and murder became their modus operandi.16 5. North Korea: King Jong II—He became the President of the newly formed North Korea in 1948 and remained in autocratic power till 1994. He invaded South Korea to integrate it with North. Millions died not just in the war but in crimes committed by the state against the individuals as they continue to die till date. It was reported by the Tokyo Shimbun newspaper in 2012 that around twenty thousand people have died because of starvation in South Hwanghae Province that was ten per cent of the area’s population that time. Moreover, there were regions where every day one thousand people were dying. This famine was attributed not to natural causes but to ‘forcible confiscation of food from farmers and their families to feed the military and the political elites’.17

14 Palestine

Liberation Organization, 1968. MidEast Web Historical Documents. The Palestinian National Charter, Available from: http://www.mideastweb.org/plocha.htm (26 May 2018). 15 Ibid. 16 Trueman, C N, 16 August 2016. ‘The Palestinian Liberation Organisation’ Available from: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/modern-world-history-1918-to-1980/the-middle-east1917-to-1973/the-palestinian-liberation-organisation/. 17 Park, Robert, 2013. ‘The Forgotten Genocide: North Korea’s Prison State’ World Affairs Institute, Available from: http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/forgotten-genocide-north-korea%E2% 80%99s-prison-state (3 February 2017).

5.4 Impact of the Major Movements Led by Leaders on World History

105

5.4 Impact of the Major Movements Led by Leaders on World History 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The Russian Civil War led by Lenin was fought in 1917 in which the death toll is estimated to be between 2,000,000 and 8,000,00018 (minimum and maximum). After Lenin, Stalin came to power who is reported to have committed genocide. The status of Russia was not stable until Gorbachev’s reformatory measures of Glasnost and Perestroika came to the surface. In the Chinese Civil War (1945–1949) Mao Tse Tung was the leader wherein the people who lost their lives are estimated to be in between 1,000,000 and 6,194,000. After he came to power, the campaigns and war under Mao caused (44–72 million) death between 1949 and 1975.19 Therefore, it is questionable whether life was stable or stagnant during Mao’s rule. The Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara (1953–1959) caused about 1392–16,282 deaths,20 comparatively much lower than the other four revolutionaries. There was, however, lot of forced migration and forced death in between 1959 and 1987, about 35,000–141,00021 people were killed. Yasser Arafat launched the Palestine Liberation Movement which has been continuing since 1964. The armed action of PLO gave birth to Lebanese Civil War, War of attrition, Black September and terror acts in Tunis and Israel primarily.22 The estimated death toll is 100,000–1,000,000 and the region has been unstable since then. Life is under constant threat of terror. The Korean War was led by Kim Il-sung (1950–1953) in which the estimated loss of life was 2.5 million.23 At least one million persons are estimated to have died in the DPRK’s prison camps, assuming that 10 per cent of a constant prison population of 200,000–300,000 died each year. In addition, famine due to government intent or recklessness has killed one to 2.5 million persons.24 There has however, been no violent activities by the public but the autocratic regime puts a question on the stability of the country.

18 White,

Matthew, 2001. Free Republic, Available from: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fnews/547066/posts (9 May 2017). 19 Ibid. 20 Stanton, Gregory H., 1998, The Issue of Genocide and Cuba, Available from: http://www. cubaverdad.net/genocide.htm (15 May 2017). 21 Ibid. 22 Robinson, Glenn, n.d. ‘Palestine Liberation Organization’. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies, Available from: http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/ article/opr/t236/e0618 (26 May 2018). 23 Millett, Allan, 2018, Korean War, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Available from: https://www. britannica.com/event/Korean-War (26 May 2018). 24 Kang, Grace, 2006, A Case for the Prosecution of Kim Jong Il for Crimes against Humanity, Genocide, and War Crimes, Bepress Legal Series, Available from: http://law.bepress.com/expresso/ eps/1394 (26 May 2018).

106

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership …

6.

In the Indian independence movement, we have the leadership of M.K. Gandhi and Subhas Chandra Bose. Under Gandhi, the death was more than 1000 from 1920 to 1942.25 7. Nelson Mandela led the Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa (1948–1994). An analysis of all deaths due to political violence from 1948 to 1994 in South Africa has been done and it has been found that as many as 21,000 thousand people died as a result of this movement out of which 14,000 actually died from 1990 to 199426 in which it was actually the Blacks who were killing the black for there were different political parties such as Pan Africanist Congress who were against the methods of ANC to achieve independence. 8. In all his expeditions, Rondon strictly followed the maxim ‘Die if necessary, but never kill’! The loss of lives in such expedition on an estimate is in hundreds.27 9. The Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King (Jr.) in USA costing lives in between 100 and 200 (1953–1968).28 10. The Khudai Khidmatgar movement (1929–1947) was led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. During this nonviolent protest, the volunteers were not just suppressed by violent actions but also massacred. More than 200 people are considered to have died as a result of this movement. In Tables 5.1 and 5.2, we can observe two things broadly: 1. The violent movements caused fatalities on a large scale while the fatalities in the nonviolent movements were minimal. With the exception of Cuban Revolution, all armed revolts caused deaths in millions. This is because of the unique feature of the Cuban Revolution—guerrilla warfare. This technique, however, will not be applicable in all regions; moreover, with the advanced technology of knowing position through satellites, it is unlikely to succeed today. 2. The period of the nonviolent struggle is more but has minimal casualties and does succeed in achieving its goal better. The common feature of armed struggle was that it caused destabilization wherever it took place. China under Mao and Russia under Stalin suppressed this by committing more and more atrocities, whereas the area around Palestine is still unstable because of large destabilization caused there. The Middle East, on the other hand, at present is suffering more because there lethality is idolized in their society. The tyrannical

25 Claude,

Markovits, ‘India from 1900 to 1947’ 6 November 2007, Available from: http://www. sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/india-1900-1947 (3 February 2015). 26 Tshabalala, Vusile 5 June 2011, ‘How many blacks died under Apartheid’ blogpost, Available from: http://iluvsa.blogspot.in/2011/06/how-many-blacks-died-under-apartheid.html (2 February 2017). 27 Keyes, Gene, 2013, “To Give Life” in Nonkilling, Security and the State, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling, p. 106. 28 BBC, 25 June 2015, ‘South Africa Profile-Timeline’, Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/ world-africa-14094918 (3 February 2015).

5.4 Impact of the Major Movements Led by Leaders on World History

107

Table 5.1 Brief surmise of the leaders and the revolutionary movements/war launched by them and the aftermath Revolutionary movement

Leaders

Period

Death toll

Aftermath

Stable/unstable

Russian Civil War

Lenin (Soviet Union)

1917

2,000,000–8,000,000 (est.)

Stalin committed genocide killing 10 million between 1939 and 1953

Became stable after Gorbachev’s peace approach of Glasnost and Perestroika

Chinese Revolution and Campaigns

Mao Tse Tung (China)

1945–1949

1,000,000–6,194,000 (est.)

Campaigns and war under Mao cause (44–72 m) death between 1949 and 1975

Stable?

Palestine Liberation Movement

Yasser Arafat

1964–till date

100,000–1,000,000 estimation

Ongoing movement

Unstable

Korean war and regime

Kim Il-sung (1948–1994)

1950–1953 (Korean war)

2.5 million (est.)

2.1 million death from 1948 to 1987 (not counting the Korean war) 600,000–850,000 unnatural deaths in between 1993 and 2008 Genocide reported till date

Stable?

Cuban Revolution

Fidel Castro and Che Guevara

1953–1959

1392–16,282

Mass Exodus and genocide. 35,000–141,000 killed between 1959 and 1987

Stable?

rulers as Mehdi had pointed out ‘brandished swords in the hands of people and villainized people from other faith and cultures’29 (Mehdi 2008). It is the surmise of the author that western armed intervention added more fuel to the fire. The victory of Castro and his post-revolutionary foreign policy had global repercussions. Not only had he repressed any revolutionary activity through strong armed tactics, being influenced by Lenin, he also sought to export his revolution in other countries in the Caribbean and beyond by sending weapons to Algerian rebels in 1960. In the following decade, Cuba sent military aid to insurgents in Ghana, Nicaragua, Yemen and Angola. Such violent activities led to ties between Soviet Union and Cuba and Soviet Union started to build nuclear missile sites in Cuba. This called for the Cuban Crisis in 1962 which had brought the world to the brink of Third 29 Mehdi, Syed Sikander, 2008. ‘Building Nonkilling Societies: Relevance of Abdul Ghaffar Khan’, in Global Nonkilling Leadership First Forum Proceedings, ed. Glenn D. Paige and Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonviolence.

108

5 A Critical Outlook on Approaches to Political Leadership …

Table 5.2 Brief surmise of the leaders and the nonviolent launched by them and the aftermath Nonviolent movements

Leadership

Duration

Death toll

Aftermath

Stable/unstable

Indian Protection Service

Candido Rondon (Brazil)

1910–1943

Less than 1000

Building of telegraph lines across Brazil

Stable

Indian Nonviolence Movements

M. K. Gandhi (India)

1920–1942

More than 1000

Independence of India and advent of democracy

Stable

Anti-Apartheid Movements

Nelson Mandela (South Africa)

1948–1994

About 21,000

End of apartheid system. South Africa takes seat in UN General Assembly after 20 years of absence

Stable

Civil Rights Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. (USA)

1954–1968

100–200

End of racial segregation

Stable

Khudai Khidmatgar

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pakistan)

1929–1947

More than 200

Incomplete movement

Unstable

World War. The tyrannical rule in North Korea may have given it stability but its human rights violations that the future has to contend the idea of armed race with South Korea once again has been a source of trouble. On the other hand, the nonviolent actions though were time taking but had brought peaceful transformations in the society. The ‘Indian Independence Movement’, ‘Indian Protection Service’, ‘Anti-Apartheid Movement’ and the ‘Voting rights Movement’ did not have any repercussions and were successful without endangering the lives of people. The movement of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was not pursued by the Muslim society with such vigour and probably that is the reason that the ‘Khudai Khidmatgar’ Movement couldn’t succeed in its objective after independence. No doubt there were deaths reported in the nonviolent movements as well but they were comparatively far less than the deaths that were reported in violent movements.

5.5 Conclusion

109

5.5 Conclusion Following points can be concluded from the data collected above: 1. The revolutionaries who resort to violence and killing to achieve their goal have not achieved any of the stated objectives. 2. Violent revolutions have led to further escalation of violence and deaths and as such not resulted in lasting peace. 3. Any violent revolution leads to total disregard to human dignity and human rights in their authoritative approach (es). 4. Peaceful and nonkilling approaches in contrast have been detrimental in providing lasting attainment of set objectives through tolerance and reconciliation. 5. However, a charismatic leader respected by all factions in the society is a prerequirement for the working and success of any peaceful nonkilling movement. To summarize, it may be stated that nonkilling is not at all a utopian idea but an achievable goal for mankind. The twentieth century cited examples make it abundantly clear that individuals are capable of creating a nonkilling society. The process can be catalysed through the intervention of the United Nations as also the nonkilling state apart from better advocacy, organizational efforts and commitments focused media for public opinion and other individual planned and extended interventions.

Chapter 6

Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

Fanaticism is a retarding element creating hatred and anger, and causing people to fight each other, and making them unsympathetic. Swami Vivekananda (Vivekananda, Swami, 1896. Karma Yoga, Chapter 5: We Help Ourselves Not the World. Available from: https://www.thoughtco.com/top-free-ebooks-by-swamivivekananda-1770693.)

The contemporary world is predominated by problems which are the product of human mind of the preceding century manifested in the action of modern humans. The purpose of any philosophy is to make human condition better, but when philosophy is alienated from humans it gives rise to evil. Rabindranath Tagore had in his observation of the human condition found that as a result of losing touch with human nature the world is going into an abyss.1 He stated that human have lost their touch with the nature, their connection with the universe and so the moral consciousness in them has started to decline. Referring to the modern humans he said through their scientific endeavours, they have been able to develop various machines and appliance, and hence, their armaments are also getting sophisticated which no doubt is a splendid achievement according to him but would also lead to ‘dire destruction’2 (Tagore 1915). This would happen because humans isolate themselves from other beings and the nature in their aspiration towards modernization. As a result of this, the spirit of comprehension is lost, and the spirit of exclusiveness instead takes control. Diversity in nature or in humans, thus, is seen as evil, and it is either tried to be manipulated or forced to change. Religious wars do not exist now but terrorism based on religion is one of the fatal global problems that are faced today in the twenty-first century. Then, there are states where difference in philosophy or ideology from that of the state is seen as the mark of a traitor. To ensure peace and safety in the society, states resort to coercive measures sometimes which later prove to be counter-productive. Destructive 1 Tagore,

Rabindranath, 1915. Sadhana, The Realization of Life.

2 Ibid.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_6

111

112

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

conflict, therefore, is a major phenomenon occurring globally. The dualism that we see throughout our lives in every object of the nature is not something to be feared yet humans are fearful of it. Anything they regard as ‘other’ they want to destroy it for they fear the loss of their identity if the ‘other’ takes over them. Homicides, wars, mass killing, terrorism and genocide, therefore, were some of the brutal forms of killings that the modern nations of twentieth century faced and has crept its face in the twenty-first century as well.

6.1 Homicides and Suicides Homicide refers to killing of the ‘other’ while suicide implies killing of the ‘self’. There are different types of homicide: first degree, second degree, felony murder and manslaughter.3 • A person may be charged with first degree murder when the act is deliberate and premeditated. • Second degree is charged only when the act is deliberate but not premeditated. • Felony murder is charged when the person was a party to the killing but himself/herself did not kill the victim. • Manslaughter is unlawful killing without any personal malice. Homicide and suicide are often committed due to psychological disturbances or due to some fanatical elements in the character of the individual. It represents low conscious and conscientious value in that individual for when an individual commits murder even out of self-defence the act haunts them. But when it is done with an objective in mind, it symbolizes that the person has such high egoistic issues that human life does not seem to have any significance. For those people who commit suicide, they on the contrary have high guilt due to which they don’t want to face anyone, and hence, they commit suicide. Suicide is a grave problem for many of the developed nations as well in contemporary times (Graph 6.1). In this chart, the top 30 nations facing the highest suicide rates are depicted for the year 2015,4 20165 and 2017.6 The world average suicide rate is 10 for each of the three years and which at least is crossed by as large as 70 countries. In order to increase the reverence in the people for human life, situation conducive towards human lives needs to be evolved. 3 England, D.C. 2018. Homicide: Murder and Manslaughter Available from: https://www. criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/murder-and-homicide.htm (1 September 2018). 4 World Health Organization, Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/mental_health/suicide_ rates/en/. 5 Lindsay Lee, Max Roser and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, 2017, “Suicide”, Available from: https:// ourworldindata.org/suicide. 6 World Population Review, 2017, Crude Suicide Rates by Country 2018, Available from: http:// worldpopulationreview.com/countries/suicide-rate-by-country/.

6.2 Wars and War Crimes

113

Graph 6.1 Top 30 nations with above average suicide rate

6.2 Wars and War Crimes In political terms, war refers to conflict between nations or states. Various scholars define war in their own way. Cicero defines war as a ‘contention by force’; according to Thomas Hobbes ‘By war is meant a state of affairs, which may exist even while its operations are not continued’; for Karl von Clausewitz, ‘war is the continuation of

114

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

politics by other means’7 ; Karl Marx in his analysis explains war as ‘class struggle between the bourgeoisie and proletariats’ and so on. So, war does not mean military conflict between the states only, even if there are feelings of animosity amongst the nation states, it is considered as war. The military conflicts are just the manifestation of those feelings. Therefore, to prevent war, the hostile feelings that have been developed amongst the nation states would need to be regulated first. In the ancient times, leaders and thinkers had made war look a natural phenomenon and even legalized it. Thus, the nation states all over the world in the ancient and medieval times were in constant warfare. But the war deaths actually increased in the twentieth century primarily due to two main factors: the development of new science and technology and loss of human consciousness. This does not imply that we should be wary of scientific developments but that we need to develop human consciousness too at least keeping in pace with the scientific developments. Though now wars have been made illegal by the UN they continue even today, although they have declined as per some reports.8 But the theory of just war often leads to situations wherein the permanent members often get involved in certain wars. Wars waged in self-defence are often justified but selfdefence and national interest are always subjected to the interpretation of the actors themselves. They can be justified at times and in other times may not be justified. However, a situation of war only rises when either of the actors involved has pursued their national interest at the cost of damaging the environment around them.

6.2.1 Character of War War by nature is fundamentally violent, political and interactive.9 The character of war describes the changing ways war manifests itself in the new world. In the twentyfirst century, wars by legal definition have diminished but covert and indirect wars are prevalent all over the globe due to which tensions, hostility and distrust between the nations seem to have increased. Cyber warfare and infiltration activities are forms of covert wars that often instigate civil wars in a country. The infiltrators try to bring disharmony first by ideological means then by material or physical means such as smuggling weapons or indulging in physical acts of violence. Communal disharmony, therefore, sometimes results in riots, genocide or civil war situation. Wars, therefore, now are not just external but also internal which makes it very difficult to contest because the identity of opposition is not known in internal wars. 7 Moseley,

Alexander, (n.d.) The Philosophy of War, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002, Available from: http://www.iep.utm.edu/war/. (3 February 2018). 8 Roser, M. 2016. ‘War and Peace’. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/war-and-peace (10 December 2017). 9 Mewett, Christopher, 2014, Understanding War’s Enduring Nature Alongside Its Changing Character, Available from: https://warontherocks.com/2014/01/understanding-wars-enduring-naturealongside-its-changing-character/ (2 June 2018).

6.2 Wars and War Crimes

115

The reasons for war are mainly as follows: economic gain, territorial gain, religion, nationalism, revenge, civil war, revolution and self-defence.10 Human nature also plays a great role in causing the wars. However, when it comes to analysing wars, often people look at the immediate causes and attribute some external factors to the cause of war. The inner dissatisfaction is the primary cause for wars, and this inner dissatisfaction does not arise always due to paucity of resources that it may also be caused due to insatiable desires. In other words, wars are fought for protection of resources as well as expansion of resources. But reason being any, the result is always destruction.

6.2.2 Human Mind and War McNair says that in the early years, the psychologists were of the view that killing was a natural aggression instinct. But since the vast majority of people are not engaged in this form of aggression, he says it becomes difficult to believe this. This idea was developed in a time when wars and riots were justified as something that could not be helped. ‘In recent decades, psychologists have been very clear that killing is not something the human mind naturally tends toward’.11 (McNair, 2012). The relation between human nature and war is very close. It is believed by psychologists that the more insecure a human being is, the more aggressive he becomes. There are different kinds of threats: realistic threat (i.e., competition for scarce resources); symbolic threat (i.e., threats to transcendent cultural symbols); inter-group threat (i.e., negative prior experience) and negative stereotypes.12 When these threats pose a danger to the identity and existence of any group, they are ready to wage a war despite knowing its horrific results. At this juncture, they look for leaders who are in resonance with them and are strong enough to take any bold step for their protection. The fear of the humans tends to make their visions narrow, and they are ready to surrender their freedom in order to get rid of that state of life. Hitler attacked all those people and states of whom he was fearful; similarly, the USA too attacked those nations after the 9/11 attack whom it feared to be endangering its sovereignty. This type of actions are classified as fundamentalist action, and the problem with fundamentalism is it never solves the problem rather creates more destruction who look upon the sacred text as the sole source of meaning while all other concerns are subordinated to the concerns of the divine which will be indicated in the text. Moreover, ‘they suggest that religious fundamentalism provides a “unifying philosophy of

10 Goodman, Paul 2017. The 8 Main Reasons for War, Owlocation, Available from: https://owlcation.

com/social-sciences/The-Main-Reasons-For-War (30 January 2018). R. (2012). Psychology of Nonkilling. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 12 Salzaman, M. 2012. Dehumanization as a Prerequisite of Atrocity and Killing. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 11 McNair,

116

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

life within which personal meaning and purpose are embedded’.13 (Salzaman 2012). The so-called sacred text can be any ideology they proposed or any religion to which they subscribe and those who go contrary to it are recognized as evils. Therefore, rituals and practices of the respective religions gained importance over human life and dignity. From the Mahabharat (A Sanskrit epic of ancient India that describes in detail the destructions and devastations of a war that was fought between the members of one family. A variety of weapons are observed along with the damage they caused to human life and environment) to the Second World War, it has revealed time and again that humiliation and loss of human dignity were significant factors contributing to the cause of war. The Mahabharata reflects the indignity hurled at individuals that ultimately caused the brutal war while the modern state wars have been caused by humiliations inflicted at the nation states. The fanaticism prevalent in the leaders, religious or political has often dragged nations into avoidable wars. Moreover, the subject of fanaticism has not been dealt seriously by social scientists; the reason being till the time fanaticism did not manifest itself in the form of aggressive behaviour it was never considered so problematic. Social science has based its action on things that it could observe and measure, and by the time it was able to observe and measure fanaticism it found that it could only be checked by being more aggressive. Had it tried to confront it in the philosophical stage; shown reverence for human life rather than materialism; not pushed subjectivity completely out of its domain perhaps the level of lethality in the world would have been comparatively lesser. By glorifying wars and revolutions for greater interest, the effects on participants and victims of it were hidden. Some psychologists have made attempts to observe those soldiers who participated in First and Second World War14 (McNair, 2012). It was found that the soldiers were refrained from killing despite the adverse situations, while as insanity was observed amongst those soldiers who participated in an attack. There were psychiatric casualties not amongst the victims but amongst the perpetrators of an attack. The concept of war crime is new, and in the ancient days war crimes were considered to be natural phenomenon in the course of wars as because war itself was considered a necessary feature for human survival. The idea of the war crimes began after the World War II. But the people usually tried for committing war crimes belonged to the losing side. This statement finds its base on the argument that lots of Nazi party members were accused of war crimes and were tried at Nuremberg famously known as the Nuremberg Trials but the nuclear attack on Japan has been justified by the victors as ‘necessary’. The BBC says that this is not always the case for there have been some Americans who were tried for committing war crimes in the Vietnam War and in the former Yugoslavia.15 The development of war crime 13 Ibid.,

p. 118. R. 2012. Psychology of Nonkilling. In J. Pim, & D. Christie, Nonkilling Psychology. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 15 BBC 2014, Ethics Guide, War Crimes, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/ overview/crimes_1.shtml. (10 December 2017). 14 McNair,

6.2 Wars and War Crimes

117

has come as lot of unforgivable atrocities including cases of mass rape, murder and genocides were observed during wars. Therefore, certain laws of wars have been developed and breach of it calls for the accused to be tried as an individual criminal. The third Geneva Convention16 relates to the treatment of prisoners of war, and the fourth17 convention relates to the protection of civilian persons in times of wars. To come out from the dilemma of war and war crimes, demilitarization has been suggested by some scholars.18 In fact, there are 26 countries that do not have an army, and 23 of them are members of the UN. Nonmilitarization decreases the possibility of war and with that the possibility of killing disappears. The possibility of nonmilitarization has been depicted by some countries so it cannot be regarded as a total utopian idea. If there are wars, there would be war crimes; they cannot be isolated from each other justifying the former and penalizing the later.

6.3 Menace of Terrorism Terrorism seems to be a global problem existing all around with different names and faces. It has not only threatened international peace but also taken away lives indiscriminately, brought fear, endangered societal progress and peaceful coexistence. To add to the challenge, we have legal issues with defining terrorism particularly violence and terrorism, is a freedom fighter a terrorist, the web of jurisdiction and sovereignty vis-a-vis governance, international co-operation and the real intent of governments, state sponsored terrorism: the use of force and hot pursuit in a foreign territory.19 But terrorism is not something that was prevalent in the ancient and medieval times. In fact, it has only emerged in the twentieth century. A scrutiny of the political philosophy and historical events though have been done in earlier chapters but the impact that they had at that point of time on human lives is something that does not find place in history or philosophy but in literature. Literature is often understood to be the mirror of society and if one wants to observe the changes brought about in the human relations and emotions with the advent of science and technology perhaps the period of Second Industrial Revolutions can be looked into as it was a phase of rapid industrialization. The effects of it could be investigated by enquiring into the literature of those times. The nineteenth century is symbolic of industrialization and capitalization all over the world. This brought a 16 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Third Geneva Convention), 75 UNTS 135. Available at: http:// www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36c8.html [accessed 13 February 2018]. 17 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Geneva Convention), 75 UNTS 287. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36d2.html [accessed 13 February 2018]. 18 Barbey, Christophe, 2013, Nonmilitarisation and Countries without Armies, in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. 19 Swarup, Anoop, The Nonkilling Paradigm-For Peace is War Really Necessary? New Delhi, Shobhit University.

118

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

striking change in the lives of the people and society. Industrialization brought rapid changes, changes with which human emotions could not cope up; it brought wealth but at the cost of disintegration of the society. The industrial age is synchronous with the Romantic age (1798–1837). The romantic writers tried to contend the rapid mechanization process; poets such as Williams Wordsworth, P.B. Shelly and John Keats tried to bring humans closer to nature by glorifying it in their poems. Perhaps, they foresaw the danger of mechanizing the humans. The Romantic age is succeeded by the Victorian age, and a bleak sense of darkness is often observed in their literature. Some known writers of the Victorian age are Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Lewis Carrol, Robert Browning and Lord Alfred Tennyson. Destitution, exploitation and solitary lives are some of the prominent themes of the literature of Victorian age. Oliver Twist 20 reflects upon the problem of industrialization on the society primarily poverty and illustrates systematically how poverty leads to crime. It depicts how poverty forces social evils like prostitution leading to the growth of orphans who are forced to take up criminal activities by adverse circumstances. The protagonist Oliver is a passive victim of institutionalized violence who is forced to become a criminal but he manages to escape from that place and is able to live a better life. The Mayor of Castor Bridge is a tragedy that shows how in the process of industrialization, virtues have begun to decline and the adverse effects they have on the character of humans. The problems of poverty are again depicted not with the perspective of crime but with the perspective of human emotions and relations. The protagonist of this novel when in a drunken state is emotionally overwhelmed by his problems and so sells his wife. Though after several years, he is able to reunite with his wife but because of the competitive feelings instilled in him gets alienated from his family once again and dies a lonely death.21 Crime and Punishment 22 another masterpiece written in 1866 portrays the despicable situations of the Russian society stricken by destitution and debauchery resulting in an atmosphere where young girls are forced into marriage with much older men, into prostitution and then there are children living as orphans despite the existence of their parents. In such a vile environment, a young man develops a theory of eradicating those people from the society who are cruel to others and whose existence does not benefit anyone but rather disturbs all the people. The young man looks upon Napoleon as his inspiration and thinks that what it if he was born in such a time and place as the young man was, what would he do then? To test his theory, he commits a murder, though his poverty was also responsible for it but only partly. The notion of dividing the human beings into superior and inferior and eradicating the inferior was incidentally also the idea of Hitler, Stalin, Mao and others like them. These writings show how poverty was spreading like a disease and what other ill effects it was producing in the society. By taking control over the society, the capitalist classes not only exploited the resources of the nation but also the people and reduced them to such miserable life that a reaction to this kind of human suppression was bound to come. Dostoevsky foresaw that how such abominable atmosphere 20 Dickens,

Charles, 2007, Oliver Twist, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd. Thomas, 2007, The Mayor of Casterbridge, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd. 22 Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 1866, Crime and Punishment, New York, Bantam Classic. 21 Hardy,

6.3 Menace of Terrorism

119

would result into humans killing without any remorse or conscience. Perhaps, this was his foresight on the phenomenon of terrorism. Conceptually, terrorism has been defined as premeditated use of violence to fulfil a political motive or social objective, by intimidating an audience that is primarily noncombatant in nature or is unprepared to face the attack.23 Usually, a murder may be spontaneous or planned in which case there is repentance when it is spontaneous. A planned murder is equivalent to terrorist killings for not only the perpetrator of the crime attacks the victim when they are defenceless but also convince themselves about their act so as to not have any repentance. The kind of theory possessed by the young man in Dostoevsky’s novel depicts how adverse situations are responsible for creating killers. But despite being able to convince himself, his consciousness kept pricking him due to which he confessed his crime later. With regard to terrorist, also is the same case for only those individuals who become terrorists and who were living in adverse conditions. The element of consciousness, however, may not be present in all, but it is also not completely absent. But on the whole, their action was a reaction to the exploitative system that had deprived them of their basic needs. From their perspective, it was their life that was in danger so they are ready to do anything to protect themselves. The situation becomes worse when seekers of power use them to topple a government or state and reclaim it for themselves. There are various terrorist organizations all over the world, and each of them have been able to justify themselves to the public and as a result these terrorist organizations are thriving with participants who are providing support in form of personnel, material and resources for them to continue. The virus of terrorism, therefore, only seems to be multiplying with the passage of time. The counter-coercive measures may suppress the problem in one place but the problem then seems to surface itself in some other time or some other place as the social evils produced by the process of capitalists have not been contained rather they have mushroomed.

6.3.1 Political Aspect of Terrorism Terrorism may not have a religion but it has some kind of political philosophy making it operative. It is imperative, therefore, to know that political philosophy and its ground of development for that would pave the way of countering it. Terrorism owes its origin to the suppression of fundamental rights but now terrorism is about capturing power where religion and ideologies are employed as tools to get material and personnel support. There are some conventional dichotomies, and we are made to believe that the world is in conflict due to them; ‘capitalist versus communist, Eastern versus Western, industrial versus pre- or post-industrial, right versus left, religious

23 Sandler,

Todd, 2015, Terrorism and counterterrorism: an overview, Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 67, Issue 1, Pages 1–20, Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpu039.

120

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

versus secular’.24 The list could be extended by ‘realism versus idealism, hatred versus love, altruism versus egoism, self-interest versus common interest, collectivist versus individualist, big versus small government, visible hand versus invisible hand, globalization versus localization, and so forth’.25 If anything at all creates conflict, it is monetary hegemony. Lindner holds ‘monetary hegemony has been wielded in all contexts, “communist” and “capitalist,” privatized and state, each time with the promise of well-being for all, while creating ill-being except for a few26 ’ (Lindner 2017). No philosophy, no religion and no state can bring peace if they prioritize money and power over humanity. Capitalism led to oppression and exploitation but communism its antithesis did not prove to be much useful. The allegory depicted by George Orwell in his book Animal Farm27 portrayed how revolutionaries after attaining power turn to become the same kind of despotic rulers as their predecessors or perhaps even worse than them. Leaders and group that desire for an instant change in authority not so much to change the system but to replace the people who run that system and take their place. If at all, in the political revolutions that have occurred till date, anything has changed is not the system as has been conceived in the philosophies rather the face of the system. These indigenous groups are not to be accused alone for creating terrorism; the organized society and government are to be held much accountable for such activities. As Lindner describes it is ‘systematic terror’ that is created with conviction that this particular kind of arrangement is best for the society.28 The idea of creating a social and economic system is to integrate the society but if a system is creating disintegration in the society then an alternative must be sought for. Terrorism if often equated with particular religions, in straight forward terms in contemporary times many hold Islam responsible in contemporary times for the increase in terrorism around the globe. On logical grounds, they can’t be refuted as the major terrorist organizations today: ISIS, Al-Qaida, Taliban, Boko-Haram and Lashkar-e-Taiba share a common religion, not only their religion is common but they also contend that their religion teaches them to kill the Kaafirs (Nonbelievers in Islamic revelation). The problem is when certain group of fanatics try to mobilize the people in the name of religion, people often ignore them and before they realize anything else they find themselves completely under their control. The problem of Muslim terrorist situation has been accurately described in an article titled as Why the Peaceful Majority is Irrelevant.29 In it he describes the situation of Germany as how some Germans initially were enjoying the return of German pride that Nazism brought while others just ignored 24 Lindner, Evelin, 2017, Honor, Humiliation and Terror, World Dignity University Press, Lake Oswego, Available from: www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/book/05.php. 25 Ibid., p. 156. 26 Ibid. 27 Orwell, George, 1944, Animal Farm, Available from: https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/o/orwell/ george/o79a/. 28 Lindner, Evelin, 2017, Honor, Humiliation and Terror, World Dignity University Press, Lake Oswego. pp. 159. 29 Marek, P. 2007. Why the Peaceful Majority is Irrelevant, Arutz Sheva, Available from: https:// www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/6996 (21 January 2018).

6.3 Menace of Terrorism

121

it. He claims that very few people were Nazis and the majority ignored them considering them as fools. Before he says, they knew it; they got owned by Nazis and lost control over everything they had. Similar situation he says is developing now, though the vast majority of Muslims want to live in peace, somehow they stand irrelevant due to their silence. Be it Rwanda, China or Russia, it was always some fanatic group that unleashed the horror of mass killing. It is therefore, the duty of society and government to check such fanaticism. The government and the people need to come out in open to express their opinion against such fanaticism or else they are viewed as silent supporters.

6.4 Genocides and Ethnic Cleansing The term genocide has been coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1941. It means killing of people of a particular race. The twentieth century has witnessed some horrendous cases of genocides across the African and European continent. After witnessing the horrors it created, the UN was fast enough to pass a convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide. Speaking on genocide the UN said: ‘genocide is an international crime, which entails the national and international responsibility of individual persons and states’.30 Moreover, this convention has been widely accepted by the nations and ratified by majority of the states. But deaths due to genocides have been a major problem of the twentieth century. An estimated, 187 million human beings are believed to have died as a result of political violence.31 The twentieth century has witnessed gross genocides in Bosnia–Herzegovina (1992–95), Rwanda (1994), Cambodia (1975–79), Germany (1938–45), Japan (1937–38), Russia (1932–33) and Turkey (1915–18).32 Genocide and nationalism share common etymological roots. Genocide derives from the ancient Greek genos (race, kind, category, overlapping with class, tribe and people) subsequently leading to the Latin word gens. Nationalism comes from the Latin verb nascor, nasci, natus sum (to be born), and -cide is a Latin word that means to kill. The word ethnic cleansing on the other hand became popular in the global media since the 1990s. According to Daniele Conversi, it is because of ‘giving an exalted status to dominant nations that the complexity of superiority and inferiority rises amongst nation that is followed by discriminatory actions that is manifested through different ways such as assimilation of the subaltern groups thereby merging

30 International Committee of the Red Cross, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948, Available from: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/ 357?OpenDocument (9 December 2017). 31 Levene, Mark, 2000, Why Is the Twentieth Century the Century of Genocide? University of Hawai’i, Press Journal of World History, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 305–336. 32 The History Place, 2000, Genocide in the twentieth Century, Available from: http://www. historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/index.html (12 March 2018).

122

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

their identities, marginalization attitude to keep them aloof and isolated.’33 Both these practices can lead to genocide for when assimilation or marginalization is forced, it symbolizes that the cultural identity of the so-called subaltern group is not being acknowledged, and this rift is not only the representative of the division in society but also responsible for the cause of genocide which may be committed either by the dominant group or by the subaltern group. The fervour of nationalism paves the way for cultural genocide. In cultural genocide, there is the elimination of the intellectuals and professional cadres. According to Conversi, such phenomenon was frequent especially under Third World dictatorship ‘like Major Mengistu Haile Mariam’s Ethiopia, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, General Abacha’s Nigeria, and Turkey in the 1980’s with the elimination of moderate Kurdish and Islamist leaders’.34 The ethnic cleansing is usually followed after the elimination of the intellectual class. In the recent times, this form of cultural genocide has been observed in China as well which is not a developing nation but rather falls under the developed nations. It is believed by some scholars that since the U.N. Convention on Prevention and Punishment of Genocide was formulated by the First World War victors, they defined it in such a way so to keep themselves clean. That the annihilation of the Jews by Hitler was considered genocide, but the high bombings in Dresden (Germany) and Hiroshima (Japan) that resulted in great number of fatalities were not to be classified as such. ‘Moreover, a pro-Soviet bias was also present in the Convention’s excision of any reference to the mass murder of class and ideological enemies, thus condoning Stalin’s elimination of class and political opponents, like the kulak’.35 Therefore, Rummel introduced the term democide, which meant murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide and mass murder. Leaders who gave extreme importance to nationalism often led to democide. Some scholars such as Conversi find that the obsession with rapid industrial development and westernization is a recurrent feature in most genocide. But I would like to add something more here; when industrial development was put above human progress, it paved the way for genocides. The twentieth century was also the century when lots of nations had come out from the yolk of colonialism or imperialism and were trying their best to keep in pace with the rest of the world. West was seen as a superpower, and so nearly everyone was trying to imitate it. Evelin Lindner on the other hand connects genocide with humiliation.36 In her observance, she has found that genocides have occurred after a history of humiliation of one race or class by another. She has conducted interviews of the survivors of genocides that are the targeted groups in Rwanda and Germany. The genocides are often based on the protection of honour or status. Germany was humiliated at 33 Conversi, Daniele, 2006,

‘Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and Nationalism’, The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, ed. G. Delanty & Krishan Kumar, Sage Publications, pp. 320–333. 34 Ibid., pp. 326. 35 Ibid., pp. 327. 36 Lindner, Evelin, 2000, The Psychology of Humiliation: Somalia, Rwanda/Burundi, and Hitler’s Germany, PhD Thesis, University of Oslo, Available from: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/ documents/evelin/DissertationPsychology.pdf.

6.4 Genocides and Ethnic Cleansing

123

international level after the First World War. In Rwanda, the Hutus were humiliated by the Tutsi in the traditional Tutsi Kingdom of Rwanda. As a consequence, Germany under Hitler committed genocide against the Jews and the Hutus against the Tutsi. However, one may ask that does the rationale and humanity of every member are destroyed so much so that all get ready to kill the ‘other’ without a thought. Also, do they feel any emotional setback after committing such heinous crimes? A rational argument here would be human nature is not universal, and everybody acts and reacts differently. If they are observed to be acting similarly, it means they are being controlled either by manipulation of their emotions or by fear. In the description of the Rwanda genocide case, Lindner describes how the Hutu females were forced to kill their Tutsi family (husband and children) in the name of honour to show their love to their clan.37 In Germany too, there were officers who refused to kill the Jews, though they were not killed but were severely humiliated. Such officers were imprisoned, beaten, stripped of rank and prestige and threatened with death for their impertinence.38 So one may conclude that in order to protect their honour and rank, people were ready to either participate in genocide or remain bystanders.

6.5 Capital Punishment Capital punishment refers to the state authorization to execute individuals found guilty of crime(s) that the state considers as heinous. States have different interpretations on the definition of heinous crimes. In other words for the same crime, one state may execute the individual while the other may give some other form of punishment that does not take away the life of the individual. For isolated crimes, death penalty is often ignored but when it comes to terrorists guilty of mass murder everyone wants them to be executed for two reasons mainly fear of that individual going on a killing spree again and providing justice to the victims. As per this logic, there should be a strict code that needs to be followed while awarding capital punishment to any person. According to the reports from Amnesty International, ‘1634 people were executed in 25 countries in 2015’.39 The major countries involved in the execution were just five: China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the USA (in decreasing order). Though China was at the top, the exact amount of execution is not known ‘as this data is considered a state secret.’40 While as 23 countries were known to have carried out judicial executions in 2016. At least 1032 executions were 37 Lindner,

Evelin, 2009, Emotions and Conflict, Praegar Publishers, London. Sharon M., 1995, Holocaust: Those Who Defied Orders To Kill Jews Did Not Die, Researcher Says At BYU, Deseret News, Available from: https://www.deseretnews.com/article/ 408671/HOLOCAUST--THOSE-WHO-DEFIED-ORDERS-TO-KILL-JEWS-DID-NOT-DIERESEARCHER-SAYS-AT-BYU.html (10 December 2017). 39 Amnesty International, 2016. Death penalty 2015: Facts and figures, Available from: https://www. amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/04/death-penalty-2015-facts-and-figures/ (10 December 2017). 40 Ibid. 38 Haddock,

124

6 Contemporary World Perspectives on Nonkilling Peace

carried out in 2016; a 37% decrease from the previous year41 and yet again the figure of China remains unknown. It has been found by Amnesty that in many countries the trial was not based on fair proceedings. Such reports across the world have given rise to the debate as to whether capital punishment should be given or not. There are around 104 countries that have abolished death penalty or capital punishment for all crimes, seven for ordinary crimes only while 30 of them have abolished it in practice that is they have not awarded it to anyone since last 10 years. Only 57 countries have retained it for ordinary crimes as well. Those who retain it argue that it serves as a deterrent to the criminals in society. It would prevent them from committing crimes in future. Some Japanese psychologists believe that retention of capital punishment is necessary to reinforce the belief that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people.42 This argument is also backed by 81% of the population. When it comes to awarding death penalty to terrorist, it is largely supported by the people on account of being retributive and also providing deterrence to other such terrorists.

6.5.1 Effect of Capital Punishment The problem is we cannot say with affirmation that death penalty has helped in creating such deterrence. The attitude of inculcating fear in the subjects to make them obey is an ancient concept. Fear does not have a lasting effect and to counter the state and to counter it the nonstate tries to become more powerful to dissolve the state. It is interesting to note that political scientists like Machiavelli and his followers regard fear an important aspect for a ruler to rule but Evelin Lindner; a psychologist has found in her studies that fear narrows the vision of the person and often has a harmful effect. So if the state itself is trying to make its subject fearful, then it is actually planting a time bomb amongst them. Capital punishment operates on the concept of fear of death but when the fear of death ceases to exist in the individual it no longer will function successfully. In case of terrorists, such is the case they view themselves as martyrs so their execution probably all the more alleviates them in front of the other terrorist and them the executed terrorists serve as an ideal. If we are looking upon only the coercive power of the state and try enhancing that only such as capital punishment to solve the problems of society and state, then we will always be disappointed. A state that operates only on war and harsh punishments to maintain peace reflects that it has no positive elements into build a peaceful society. Whether the states retain it or abolish it totally or partially should be their call but that what they are doing should be made transparent.

41 Death Penalty Information Center, 2017, The Death Penalty: An International Perspective, Available from: https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/death-penalty-international-perspective. 42 BBC, 2014, Ethics Guide, Arguments in favour of capital punishment, Available from: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/capitalpunishment/for_1.shtml (11 December 2017).

Chapter 7

Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

An attempt in this chapter is made to prepare an index of killing so as to know in what ways and quantity killings occur in different countries. It may be important to draw a distinction with the Global Peace Index (GPI) that contains 23 parameters,1 the Happiness Index with seven parameters2 and Global Terrorism Index (GTI). They are broad indexes that aim to measure terror, peace and happiness on a large scale. Nonkilling on the other hand is more focused as a direct measure of societal well-being, also being achievable and measurable. It is the first step or rather the foundational step towards peace and happiness. One cannot overlook it while talking about peace and happiness. The variables taken up for the preparation of the index are war deaths, armed conflict deaths (internal), death penalty, homicide and suicide. In the Nonkilling index, killing of not just the others but also of the self is tried to be observed. The index is built on quiet simplistic calculations. Each of the five variables has been assigned the value of five (just like the GPI), making the total score to 25. The GPI has given different weightage to different variables after holding robust discussion on it. Internal peace was given more weightage as it was argued that internal peace also affects external peace. But here, each of the five variables is given equal weightage. The homicide3 and suicide4 rates are taken from the website of World Health Organization (WHO). The war deaths and internal armed conflict deaths are taken

1 Institute

for Economics and Peace, (2017). Global Peace Index Report, Available from: http:// visionofhumanity.org/indexes/global-peace-index/. (24 May 2018). 2 Helliwell, J., Layard, R., and Sachs, J. 2017, World Happiness Report 2017, New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. 3 World Health Organization 2017, http://apps.who.int/gho/athena/data/GHO/VIOLENCE_ HOMICIDENUM,VIOLENCE_HOMICIDERATE?filter=COUNTRY:*;AGEGROUP:-;SEX:-& format=xml&profile=excel. 4 World Health Organization, Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/mental_health/suicide_ rates/en/. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_7

125

126

7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

Graph 7.1 Top 20 Nations with High Killing Score-2015

from Uppsala Conflict Data Programme5 and Global Peace Index6 , respectively. Death penalty is taken from the report of Amnesty International.7 The period of the data collection is for the whole year of 2015 (1 January–31 December), the reason being suicides rates are collected by the WHO in every five years. The homicide and suicide rates are calculated as number of deaths divided by the total population; the result multiplied by one lakh. The scoring of death penalty is done as number of executions divided by the population of that State and multiplied by one lakh. Marks from five are allotted according to the highest and lowest range. The marks are allotted according to the band prepared for each variable. The rate bands are prepared according to the highest and lowest rate of that particular variable. Thus, the more the score is the more would be the killing. The average score of all 172 countries is taken out to benchmark the score as to which country is performing better and which worse. The average that came out is 5.8. So, countries that have killing rate above 5.8 reflect a bad score (Graph 7.1 and Tables 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 and 7.5). The chart above portrays the score of top 20 countries whose killing rate is the highest. There are different reasons for the high killing rates in these countries. Some are affected by war and terrorism, while few others are facing internal disturbances that lead the people to kill. The internal disturbances and war, however, are not prevalent all around the world. The suicides and homicides which are universally found all over the globe are also matter of great concern. But sadly, the government has only been able to take negative steps to curb them. There are laws against those 5 Uppsala Conflict and Data Program,

Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Available from: http://ucdp.uu.se/#/exploratory. 6 Institute for Economics and Peace, 2016, Available from: http://economicsandpeace.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/06/GPI-2016-Report_2.pdf. 7 Amnesty International, 2015, Death Sentences and executions in 2015, Available from: https:// www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2016/04/death-sentences-executions-2015/.

7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

127

Table 7.1 Homicide rate band 1/5

2/5

3/5

4/5

5/5

0–5.99

6–12.9

13–29.9

30–49.9

>50

0–5.9

Decimal place

6–12.9

Decimal place

13–29.9

Decimal place

30–49.9

Decimal place

0.1–0.6

1

6

2

13

3

30

4

0.7–1

1.1

6.1–7

2.1

13.1–15

3.1

30.1–32

4.1

1.1–2

1.2

7.1–8

2.2

15.1–17

3.2

32.1–34

4.2

2.1–2.5

1.3

8.1–9

2.3

17.1–19

3.3

34.1–36

4.3

2.6–3

1.4

9.1–10

2.4

19.1–21

3.4

36.1–40

4.4

3.1–3.5

1.5

10.1–11

2.5

21.1–23

3.5

40.1–42

4.5

3.6–4

1.6

11.1–11.5

2.6

23.1–25

3.6

42.1–44

4.6

4.1–4.5

1.7

11.6–12

2.7

25.1–27

3.7

44.1–46

4.7

4.6–5

1.8

12.1–12.5

2.8

27.1–29

3.8

46.1–48

4.8

5.1–5.99

1.9

12.5–12.99

2.9

29.1–29.99

3.9

48.1–49.

4.9

Table 7.2 Suicide rate band 1/5

2/5

3/5

4/5

5/5

0–5.9

6–12.9

13–21.9

22–29.9

>30

0–5.9

Decimal place

6–12.9

Decimal place

13–21.9

Decimal place

22–29.9

Decimal place

0.1–0.6

1

6

2

13–13.5

3

22–22.5

4

0.7–1

1.1

6.1–7

2.1

13.6–14

3.1

22.6–23

4.1

1.1–2

1.2

7.1–8

2.2

14.1–15

3.2

23.1–23.5

4.2

2.1–2.5

1.3

8.1–9

2.3

15.1–16

3.3

23.6–24

4.3

2.6–3

1.4

9.1–10

2.4

16.1–17

3.4

24.1–25

4.4

3.1–3.5

1.5

10.1–11

2.5

17.1–18

3.5

25.1–26

4.5

3.6–4

1.6

11.1–11.5

2.6

18.1–19

3.6

26.1–27

4.6

4.1–4.5

1.7

11.6–12

2.7

19.1–20

3.7

27.1–28

4.7

4.6–5

1.8

12.1–12.5

2.8

20.1–21

3.8

28.1–29

4.8

5.1–5.9

1.9

12.6–12.9

2.9

21.1–21.9

3.9

29–29.9

4.9

who commit homicides and even in some countries against those who commit suicide but nothing done by the state and society to cultivate a healthy mind. The government and the law can only create a deterrent force in this regard. The task of creation of a healthy society rests primarily with the educational institutions and society.

128

7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

Table 7.3 Battle Rate Band/Armed conflict death band 1/5

2/5

0–1000

3/5

1001–5000 1001–5000

4/5

5001–15,000 Decimal place

5/5

15,001–30,000

5001–15,000

Decimal place

>30,001

0–1000

Decimal place

15,001–30,000

Decimal place

0–100

1

1001–1200

2

5001–6000

3

15,001–16,000

4

101–200

1.1

1201–1500

2.1

6001–7000

3.1

16,001–17,000

4.1

201–300

1.2

1501–2000

2.2

7001–8000

3.2

17,001–18,000

4.2

301–400

1.3

2001–2500

2.3

8001–9000

3.3

18,001–20,000

4.3

401–500

1.4

2501–3000

2.4

9001–10,000

3.4

20,001–22,000

4.4

501–600

1.5

3001–3500

2.5

10,001–11,000

3.5

22,001–24,000

4.5

601–700

1.6

3501–4000

2.6

11,001–12,000

3.6

24,001–26,000

4.6

701–800

1.7

4001–4500

2.7

12,001–13,000

3.7

26,001–28,000

4.7

801–900

1.8

4501–4800

2.8

13,001–14,000

3.8

28,001–29,000

4.8

901–1000

1.9

4801–5000

2.9

14,001–15,000

3.9

29,001–30,000

4.9

Table 7.4 Capital Punishment/Death Penalty rate band 1

2

3

4

5

0.001 & Less

0.002 to 0.005

0.006 to 0.009

0.01 to 0.09

0.1 & above

7.1 A Different World View In this era of war and the menace of terror and conflict it has become difficult to establish peace and time, and again history has shown that no war in the name of religion, god or peace has been successfully able to bring perpetual peace. States may exist without crimes being committed by individuals but where there exists practices of discrimination, humiliation and suppression of any section of society peace is only a farce there. Moreover, if the state actors are themselves committing crimes and even legalizing them, then the danger of eruption of violence and killings leading the state into anarchy becomes all the more eminent. The art and literature of any society are helpful in comprehending the mindset of that society at large; so not only the freedom given to them but also the message given by them should be understood. The Nonkilling index is a critical measure for human progress, and hence, its inclusion is proposed in human development index, happiness index as well as in their reports.

7.1 A Different World View

129

Table 7.5 Global Nonkilling Index Armed Conflict Score Internal

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Battle Death marks

Countries Brunei Darussalam Greece Cyprus Armenia Italy Kuwait Tajikistan Morocco Trinidad and Tobago Spain Bahrain Bosnia and Herzegovina Malta Albania Luxembourg The former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia Barbados Germany Netherlands Norway Portugal Switzerland Denmark Fiji Georgia Romania Slovakia Tunisia Australia Czechia/ Czech Republic Mauritius Montenegro Canada Ireland

Suicide Rate Marks 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2 2.1 1.7 1.8 1.6 2.3 2.1 1 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.6

Death Penalty Marks

Homicide Rate Marks 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.7 1 1.2 2.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.1

Total 2.4 2.7 2.9 3 3 3 3 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

(continued)

130

7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

Table 7.5 (continued) Armed Conflict Score Internal

35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

Battle Death marks

Countries Malawi Nepal Azerbaijan Bulgaria Uruguay Austria Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Croatia France Iceland Bhutan Maldives New Zealand Serbia Solomon Islands Sweden Timor-Leste Qatar Cambodia Chile Israel 1.1 Slovenia Algeria Cuba Mozambique Finland Madagascar Hungary Kyrgyzstan Belgium Cabo Verde Costa Rica Djibouti Paraguay Republic of Moldova Ecuador Poland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

1

1.1

Suicide Rate Marks 2.5 2.2 1.5 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.9 2.4 1.9 2.9 2.4 1.9 3.2 1.5 2.5 2.9 3.2 2.2 3.3 2.3 3.4 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.2 3.6 2.5

Death Penalty Marks

Homicide Rate Marks 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.7 2.3 1.3 1.8 1.2 1 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.2 2.2 1.2 2.2 1.2 1.9 2.4 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.5 1.1

Total 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 4 4 4 4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.7

2.2

4.7

(continued)

7.1 A Different World View

131

Table 7.5 (continued) Armed Conflict Score Internal

73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111.

Countries Bahamas Guinea-Bissau Rwanda United Republic of Tanzania Argentina Estonia Ghana Guinea Mauritania Senegal Comoros Liberia Gabon Gambia Indonesia Peru Panama Benin Eritrea Lao People's Democratic Republic Lebanon Bangladesh Botswana Jamaica Nicaragua Papua New Guinea Viet Nam Latvia Namibia Republic of Korea Malaysia Togo Burkina Faso Kenya Belarus Guatemala Democratic Republic of the Congo Turkmenistan Brazil

1

Battle Death marks

1

1

Suicide Rate Marks 1.2 2.4 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.2 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.7 1.4 2 1.9 3.2 3 3.1 1.5 2 2.9 1.2 2.4 2.7 2.4 3.5 2.5 4.4 2.1 3.3 3.4 2.5 3.7 1.4 2.8 2.9 2

Death Penalty Marks

2

2

1

2

Homicide Rate Marks 3.6 2.4 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.4 1.7 3.1 3.3 2 2.2 2.1 1.7 1.4 2.5 4.3 3.1 2.8 2.1 2.1 3.1 1.2 1.6 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.1 4.4 3.1 3.1 4.1

Total 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 5 5 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6 6.1

(continued)

132

7 Time for Creating a Nonkilling Global Index

Table 7.5 (continued) Armed Conflict Score Internal

112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150.

Countries Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Turkey Dominican Republic Japan Haiti South Africa Sri Lanka Uganda Uzbekistan Lithuania Thailand 1.2 Belize Honduras Myanmar 1.8 Libya 2.4 Angola Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Swaziland Zimbabwe Democratic People's Republic of Korea Jordan Kazakhstan Lesotho Mongolia Sierra Leone Suriname Philippines 1.5 Zambia Congo 2.2 Côte d'Ivoire United Arab Emirates El Salvador Mali 1.4 Oman Burundi 1.5 1.9 Niger Singapore Russian 1.2

Battle Death marks 1 1.9

1.1

1

1.6 1.2

1.5

1.1 1.1 1.1 1

Suicide Rate Marks 4.6 2.9 2.5 2.2 3.3 2.7 2.8 5 3.4 1.5 4.6 2.9 2.3 1.7 1.7 2 4.5 3.8 3.5 4.5 3.3 1.6 4.7 3.1 4.8 4 4.6 1.6 3.5 2.7 4.7 2.2 2.5 2.5 1.8 3 2.3 2.3 3.5

Death Penalty Marks

2

2 4

4

4

4

Homicide Rate Marks 1.5 2.2 1.7 4.1 1 3.8 3.7 1.5 2 5 2.1 1.6 4.4 5 1.6 1.3 2.4 3.1 3.4 2.4 1.7 1.4 2.3 3.9 2.3 3.1 2.5 2.7 3.8 2.5 2.7 1.2 5 2.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 1.4 2.5

Total 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 7 7 7 7 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.7 8.2

(continued)

7.1 A Different World View

133

Table 7.5 (continued) Countries Federation 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172.

Armed Conflict Score Internal

Guyana Ukraine China Nigeria India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Colombia United States of America Central African Republic Cameroon Mexico Chad Egypt Saudi Arabia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Somalia Pakistan South Sudan Afghanistan Yemen Iraq

3.3 1.1 1.5 1 1.4

3.1 2.1 5 2.4 3.1 2.5 5 2.7 3.1 5 4.5 3.5 5

Battle Death marks

Suicide Rate Marks

Death Penalty Marks

Homicide Rate Marks

Total

4

3.3 1.6 1.1 2.4 1.6

8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.8

3

1.7 4.9 2.2

9.3 9.4 9.5

2.1

3.7 3.5 1.8 3.2 1.5 1.6 2.6

4 4 5 3

3.1 2.6 3.3 2.3 1.8 1.9 2.1

9.9 10.1 10.1 10.7 11.4 11.6 12.3

5 2 2.3 1.4 4.2 3 3.6

1.5 2.3 1.3 2.4 2.2 2.6 1.7

5 5 4 2 4 4

1.3 1.9 2.4 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.9

12.8 13.9 14.1 14.5 15 15.5 17.2

2.8 1.4

5 1.4 2.3 3.3 3.3

1.1 1

1.6 2 3.3

2.1

1.9 1.2 1.7

1 5

Chapter 8

Nonkilling Legal Perspectives

No punishment has ever possessed enough power of deterrence to prevent the commission of crimes. Hannah Arendt (Arendt, H. 2006. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Group USA)

The purpose of law should not be just to establish peace and order in the society but also to uphold transcendental values for the upliftment of human beings. As has been observed through history, peace and order can be brought in society by coercive means as well. This kind of peace is not just oppressive peace but also illusionary peace as has been described by Anoop Swarup1 . Through legal history, one can learn about atrocious laws that were based on the principle of an ‘eye for an eye’; Islamic laws till date do not give respect to women and oppress them by system of purdah (system in which women are supposed to cover their whole face with a veil), polygamy, triple talaq (system where a man can divorce his wife by simply uttering talaq three times); laws such as that of public flogging or public hanging and likewise. A society cannot thrive positively through such an oppressive and degrading system.

8.1 The Rule of Law: Changing Paradigm Rigidity and absolutism of law can shake the whole foundation of human existence. Law needs to be equated with justice, fairness and equity; it should evolve itself so as to promote human dignity and improve human life. The term rule of law basically signifies the supremacy of law in government and administration. As elucidated by Dicey, rule of law is based on three tenets primarily: equality before law, no punishment unless proven guilt by ordinary courts and supremacy of rights of citizens that is based upon common law of the land and in various judicial cases brought

1 Swarup,

Anoop. 2018. ‘Shifting the Way We Think About Nonkilling, Vision of Humanity’. Available from: http://visionofhumanity.org/economists-on-peace/shifting-way-think-nonkilling/ (accessed 12 July 2018).

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_8

135

136

8 Nonkilling Legal Perspectives

forward by private citizens.2 Hence, a rule of law guarantees rights to citizens but the same can be taken away if the individual is proven guilty in the court of law in accordance with ordinary legal procedure for any action that has been described as a crime in the legal books of that state. For such criminal actions, a person may not just be devoid of his liberty and property but their life as well. This puts a question mark on the principle of ‘fairness’ in law. Liberty and property are things that can be restored but life is one such thing that cannot be restored. The legal procedures and justice imparted are not infallible; they are made and delivered by humans who are not free from errors. ‘Procedure established by law’ as such implies that if a law is duly enacted, it would be followed even though if it goes against the principles of justice and fairness. The absolutism of rule of law has been checked by ‘due process of law’ which was evolved in the USA. It seeks to check not only if there is a law made to deprive the life and liberty of a person but also sees to it that the law made is just and fair and not arbitrary. Conventions and traditions have made people to accept and follow the codes prescribed in their book; however, many of these codes are being identified as outdated and measures are being taken to develop new codes. Those countries that recognize the importance of human life and dignity have tried to check the absolutism of law yet a collective consciousness of the states is still required.

8.2 Fundamental Rights and Nonkilling Individuals have been bestowed with fundamental rights for the purpose of enhancement of their personality and character. The state but puts restriction on the fundamental rights so as to make them compatible with the rights of other individual as well as that of the state. By restricting fundamental rights, the states check the absolutism of the individuals; however, when it comes to checking the absolutism of itself, it gives the name of security and peace to maintain its power over the individuals. The clash between the state and individuals over fundamental rights can be observed in the Indian cases such as A.K. Gopalan v. State of Madras (1950), Shankari Prasad v. Union of India (1951), Sajjan Singh v. State of Rajasthan (1965), Golaknath v. State of Punjab (1967), Kesavananda Bharti v. State of Kerala (1973)3 and Minerva Mills v. Union of India (1980).4 The core case of conflict in all the mentioned case was who should be given more power, the people or the parliament. In other words, should fundamental rights be given more importance or parliament for the purpose of establishing peace? In the first three cases, primacy was given to the state but a turn came in Golaknath case when fundamental rights of individuals were recognized and 2 Rathore, L.S. and Haqqi, S.A.H. 2011. Political Theory and Organization, Lucknow, Eastern Book

Company. pp. 336–338. 4 Laxmikanth, M. 2010. Indian Polity, Directive Principles of State Policy, New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill, pp. 8.6–8.7. 3 Ibid,

8.2 Fundamental Rights and Nonkilling

137

given supreme importance. Kesavananda Bharti case made an important landmark judgement by giving primacy to the ‘basic structure of the constitution’. Further, the Minerva Mill case explained the meaning of ‘basic structure of the constitution’. It sought to strike a balance between the rights of the state and the individual in such a manner that they complement each other. It was keeping in mind the importance of human life that writs such as Habeas Corpus were introduced. This shows again that no matter the powers given to the executive machinery of the state it has no right to take away human lives.

8.3 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Nonkilling The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) was adopted on 10 December 1948 in view of the atrocities committed and the loss of human lives in the Second World War. The opening line of article one of the UNDHR emphasizes on the importance of ‘human dignity and rights’ and recognizes the presence of ‘reasons and conscience’ in every person.5 It tries to ensure human dignity through Article 24 which gives the right to ‘rest and leisure including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay’.6 This is a positive way of affirming human dignity. Article 4 and Article 5 are negative or protective in nature as they negate slavery, torture and cruel or degrading punishment. The essence of nonkilling can be captured in Article 3 that states ‘right to life, liberty and security of a person’. Apart from this, it tries to ensure economic, political and civil rights as well. But without human life and human dignity, all other rights will have no meaning. A priority to human life is imperative but saving ‘lives’ alone will not serve the purpose and that is why human life and human dignity go hand in hand for each is incomplete and insignificant without the other. Further, efforts have been made by CGNK to push forward the nonkilling principle at the UN. The CGNK representative at UN aims to prepare reports for all countries by a systematic approach on the ‘lack of international legal recognition of the right to life’.7 Hence, from a legal perspective indigenous organizations are working towards raising consciousness towards the principle and practice of nonkilling but this would be possible only with the cooperation of all nation states.

5 United

Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. Available from: http://www.un. org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. (1 September 2018). 6 Ibid. 7 Barbey, C. 2018. Nonkilling and the Right to Life through The Universal Periodic Review Of all Countries At the Human Rights Council, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

138

8 Nonkilling Legal Perspectives

8.4 No Easy Path This chapter made an attempt to briefly probe the evolution of law in accordance with nonkilling principles. It highlights laws and cases that violated human life in the past and even in present along with the initiatives taken by individuals as well as organizations to protect, preserve as well as enhance human lives. The goal of nonkilling cannot be achieved without legal initiatives and sanctions.

Chapter 9

Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

When individuals are cultivated, families become harmonious. When families are harmonious, states becomes orderly. And when states are orderly, there is peace in the world. Confucius (Adolf, Antony, 2009, Peace: A World History, Chapter 3: Peace in the Ancient East: India, China and Japan, Polity Press, U.K.)

9.1 Human Consciousness A lot of work on peace has developed but mostly when talking about peace people are looking at external events or factors only. Wiberg had made an attempt to summarize the theories and findings on negative peace published in Journal of Peace Research 1964–1980. He discusses peace through balance of power; peace through deterrence; the causes and roles of arms races; causes of wars and other forms of collective violence, and their implications; and findings on how to end wars. Then, he discusses the factors of positive peace: economic sanctions; nonviolent action; world peace through world law; integration and ‘peace structures’; the roots and roles of socialization; and the background and role of the peace movement.1 The internal factors of peace are talked by fewer scholars such as T.H. Green who considers ‘human consciousness as a pre-requirement for liberty that involves right and which further demands a state’. The concept and philosophy of liberty, rights and state are extensively dealt with by philosophers, but the premise of this statement that is ‘consciousness’ or ‘human consciousness’ is something that has to be focussed specifically upon so as to better understand other political precepts. Consciousness and peace are interrelated concepts, and peace can be well comprehended only with the understanding of consciousness. Certain scholars have specifically spoken about it such as Rabindranath Tagore, Swami Vivekananda. These Indian thinkers have 1 Wiberg,

Hakan, (1981). “JPR 1964–1980—What Have We Learned About Peace?” Journal of Peace Research XVIII (2):111–148.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_9

139

140

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

actually worked on the topic of human consciousness. In particular, Tagore’s internationalism can be observed through these lines where he reflects the problem of division in nations, knowledge, humans and in nature. This is according to him ‘breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built, and everything has to fight hard for its entrance into our recognition’.2 Works such as Sadhana—The Realization of Life and The Religion of Man deal with subjects of self-consciousness, problem of evil, beauty, action and above all the idea of infinite, the misconception of which has led humans to disrespect life. In Karma Yoga, Swami Vivekananda emphasizes on action and describes neither pleasure nor happiness is the aim of life but knowledge. The utilitarian scholars might not agree with this idea however but these ideas need to be brought together at the same stage and a constant debate on this is required for people to truly understand the concept of happiness, pleasure, knowledge and action. In fact, he has strongly contested against the utilitarian school in these words: ‘If happiness is the goal of mankind, why should I not make myself happy and others unhappy?’3 The ethical actions of people cannot be explained by the utilitarian school he says. ‘Without the supernatural sanction, or the perception of the superconscious as I prefer to term it, there can be no ethics. Without the struggle towards the Infinite there can be no ideal’.4 Further, he adds that the utilitarians want people to give up the struggle towards the infinite as they consider it impracticable and absurd but then ‘in the same breath, asks us to take up ethics and do good to society. Why should we do good? Doing good is a secondary consideration. We must have an ideal’.5 The way he has dealt with consciousness, it uplifts the humanity in humans. Though he is using the word religion, he is actually referring to transcendentalism. He wishes to do away with the old idea of religion which is narrow in nature. ‘Religions, having tremendous power in them, have often done more injury to the world than good, simply on account of their narrowness and limitations’.6 So he wishes to develop religious ideas that are universal, vast and infinite. For this, a fellow feeling between the religions needs to be developed. The way he talks about how to uplift the individuals so as to uplift humanity is inspiring. The social contractualists too have spoken a lot on human nature, but they never proposed on how to improve it rather they accepted human nature as they saw around them and proposed laws to be made accordingly. Often there is confusion and conflict amongst people about performing their duties. Vivekananda tries to solve this dilemma too in Karma Yoga. On judging the character of a man, he says that merely their achievements should not be the criteria of judgement for: ‘Great occasions rouse even the lowest of human beings to some kind of greatness, but he alone is the really great man whose character is 2 Tagore, Rabindranath, (1915). Sadhana—The Realization of Life, The Macmillan Company, New York, Available from: https://fortunedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/sadhana-by-tagore.pdf. 3 Vivekananda, Swami, 1899, Jnana Yoga, Available from: https://www.thoughtco.com/top-freeebooks-by-swami-vivekananda-1770693. 4 Ibid, Chapter I—The Necessity of Religion. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid.

9.1 Human Consciousness

141

great always, the same wherever he be’.7 He also explores the concept of power within humans to empower themselves, something which Gandhi too ponders and deliberates upon through ‘power within’ (discussed in Chap. 3). Vivekananda says that nonresistance due to weakness or slothfulness is different from nonresistance practiced by the strong and active for those in the former category do not have the ability but those in the latter know ‘that they can strike an irresistible blow if they like; yet they not only do not strike, but blesses their enemies’.8 So in simple words those who have the power of resistance should stop resisting while those who do not have that power should show resistance. However, these philosophies of human consciousness have not been adequate attention. Often they are dismissed as too idealistic or vague. As a result, goodness and morality in the human life have altogether diminished. The violent conflicts that we see around are the symbols of decreasing morality in our society. An analysis of the educational system with regard to human consciousness is done to find how it has affected the consciousness of the people.

9.1.1 Educational Setup as a Whole At present, the education system focuses on intellectual and skill development that would help the people to gain some job. Initially, education meant the development of character along with some skill, but with time, its focus was changed to development of skill only. This happened because earlier human nature was a main topic for study. But thinkers such as Hobbes, Machiavelli and Morgenthau gave a permanent value to human nature—being selfish. Since human beings were self-centred, it was obvious that nations give primacy to national interest. ‘The international system, according to the Realists school of thought, is an environment that is free from any morals or values and in which the state is seen as a rational and unitary actor that finds itself in constant conflict with the other states of the system due to the lack of an overarching world government’.9 As a result, the study on human nature declined and based on this assumption that conflicts are unavoidable, many political leaders practiced some ruthless policies for they felt that every human being is selfish and therefore in order to restrain them brutal use of force would be justified. The human nature is in fact dynamic in nature and therefore needs to be constantly studied in order to deal with it. Earlier the US President, Eisenhower was of the view that ‘war and conflict are natural human traits that are so deeply imbedded that no study would ever teach the 7 Vivekananda,

Swami, 1896. Karma Yoga, Available from: https://www.thoughtco.com/top-freeebooks-by-swami-vivekananda-1770693. 8 Ibid, Chapter 2: Each is Great in His Own Place. 9 Oldemeinen, Mareike, 2010. The Political Realism of Thucydides and Thomas Hobbes, EInternational Relations Students, Available from: http://www.e-ir.info/2010/02/15/the-politicalrealism-of-thucydides-and-thomas-hobbes/.

142

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

world how to end war. But one could well study the conduct of war’.10 So he planned to create an institute of war and peace studies but by the time he became president, he realized that the threats posed by war were of apocalyptic magnitude to be handled by such institute. It was then that he turned to spiritual means to spread peace. He talks about a moral fibre that needs to be regenerated amongst all the people so that they may respect their rights. For Eisenhower, if anyone was responsible for war, it was communism and the communists. The only solution to this problem he saw was in the continuance of cold war. He felt that by prolonging the cold war only could peace be achieved. Spiritualism, however, cannot occur in such a sceptical atmosphere. While on the one hand there were leaders like Eisenhower holding communism responsible for all the chaotic problems and killings in society, on the other hand, there were leaders like Mao Tse Tung holding capitalism for all the sufferings in the society. Therefore, in their fight for freedom and liberation of the people they became nothing but mere fanatics who were ready to accept anywhere that they too through their policies and ideologies have caused a lot of human suffering. To protect their ideologies, leaders around the word started defence and strategic studies that were based on the ideas of classical thinkers such as Sun Tzu, Clausewitz, and Machiavelli and so on. But along with that peace, studies should have also been established that would help in character development. Strategic studies are useful only in rare situations of war and revolution, but in general day-to-day life the individuals who perpetrate crime cannot be treated as an equivalent of national enemy. Moreover, the police and army can only act after the crime has been committed, if anything can control an individual from committing a crime would be their character development for which the civil society have to take step. A survey on 500 people around the world was done, wherein it was asked that whether educational institutes can help in promoting a nonkilling world. As we can see below, the majority people believe that educational institutes can be helpful. The education system helps in developing the belief system of a person. So it should be designed in such a way that people understand the value of life (Graph 9.1). The responses of certain peace activists and intellectuals will be helpful in understanding how to bring that change: • Anonymous: ‘Peace is not just absence of violence. It can be approached by constructive means which transforms society from individual short term interests to peace-loving coexistent tolerant one. Value based good education system can play a vital role in this direction. I myself try to practice these broad principles in my life and try to persuade my fellow beings in same direction’. • Anonymous: ‘I feel that knowing the principles of Holistic Inner Science will help people to do projections to be non-violent. If we can understand the science of life and how the world works, then killing can certainly be reduced, and if this can be spread, then very good results can be obtained’. 10 Chernus, Ira, 2010. “President Eisenhower and Dr. King on Peace and Human Nature”, In Adolf, Antony (ed.) Nonkilling History: Shaping Policy with Lessons from the Past, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

9.1 Human Consciousness

143

Graph 9.1 Role of educational institutes in promoting nonkilling and peace

• Anonymous: ‘We must know and understand the ‘Science of Happening (circumstances)’ that, why at all does anything happen? Knowing this science, we will come to understand that the physical violence what we see around in the world, in whatever form, is a Karmic result ONLY; applicable for me and everyone around. Meaning, it is the result of a previous cause of a wrong decision made by us to do the same. So, if you want to stop this, you MUST feel sorry for the violent act committed and decide TODAY NOT to commit that mistake ever again and that will STOP my violent activity. CAUSE and EFFECTS are EQUAL and OPPOSITE, that was Newton’s 3rd Law and of course a Natural Law! Please note: This is applicable to Human Society only because all other living beings lives naturally. They NEVER KILL but they eat other living beings, ONLY to satisfying their hunger. Humans, under the potent influence of ANGER, PRIDE, POSSESSIVENESS, GREED, LIKES and DISLIKES lives violently and keeps committing violence!!! We must find a solution to STOP these INNER vices first and hence the violence for our own self-esteemed PEACE and HAPPINESS!’ • Anonymous: ‘When you volunteer and help at the neighbourhood level, by doing small services, you promote goodwill among the neighbours. This goes to help and promote brotherhood among a small population. AND THIS GENERATION OF GOODWILL IS YOUR WAY OF CONTRIBUTING TOWARD PEACE AND COEXISTENCE. Peace is by product of justice. Therefore when you contribute toward justice peace is the result, small or big’.

144

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

Those who believed in a peace-building approach believe that education can be helpful in bringing peace in society. Fortunately in this survey, a lot of people believed in value-based education system and felt that it can help in creating a nonkilling and peaceful world. But there remained a certain section of people who did not have knowledge or belief in such approaches to establish peace. It is insignificant that whether such believers are in majority or minority in the society, for if there would be political leaders like Eisenhower who consider war and conflict to be a natural trait in human beings, then they will not attempt to establish peace by peaceful means rather would maintain a system that would create oppressive peace. A positive way towards achieving affirmative nonkilling peace has been well described by few respondents above especially those who have talked about ‘holistic peace’.

9.2 Nonviolence: Principles and Practice The earlier chapters have gone through the different notions of power mainly to show how its misinterpretation or misconception can cause violence and can be problematic. The first challenge to this idea of coercive power was posed by Hannah Arendt. She had made some observations in this regard of some early political thinkers such as Sorel, Fanon and Sartre. She criticizes Jean Paul Sartre in particular for his ‘irresponsible glorification of violence’. She accuses Sartre of misunderstanding Marx in his ‘amalgamation of existentialism and Marxism’.11 She quotes C. Wright Mills who starkly affirms that ‘all politics is a struggle for power and the ultimate power is violence’. Similarly, she quotes Weber’s definition of state that defines it as ‘the rule of men over men based on the means of legitimate, that is allegedly legitimate violence’.12 If this is how power is defined, she says then the ultimate form of power will undoubtedly be ‘violence’. So perhaps the leaders and people who use violence to exert their power, it is not their fault alone. She further explains the “principles of violent actions are ‘ruled by the means-end category’; however, when it gets applied on human affairs, it was always found that the ‘end’ got overwhelmed or rather destroyed because of the violent means used to achieve it.”13 This implies that ends and means are connected with each other, and by making the means impure, then end also turns impure. Violence used to gain power will hence destroy the same. Power and violence both are antithetical to each other; one cannot justify violence to gain power, as it will destroy the power in the end. Maorong Jiang states that conventional philosophies are no longer relevant in establishing peace in society for the killings amongst people, genocides at state level and wars at international level

11 Bernstein,

R. 2011. Hannah Arendt’s Reflections on Violence and Power. IRIS, 3(5), 3–30. Retrieved from: http://www.fupress.net/index.php/iris/article/view/10145/9379. 12 Ibid, p. 6. 13 Arendt, Hannah, 1970. On Violence, New York, A Harvest Book Harcourt, Inc.

9.2 Nonviolence: Principles and Practice

145

‘points towards the failure of existing ideologies and social system. A new outlook towards the world, a nonkilling vision, a new perspective is what is needed’.14

9.3 Nonkilling: Theory and Practice Killings on large scale often result due to activities such as war or terrorism. From 2000 to 2016, the total deaths that have occurred due to battle and conflicts are 987,005.15 The terrorist incidents on the other hand since 2000–201616 are depicted in the following graph which shows a stunning increase in the incidents of attacks since 2000 (Graph 9.2). While the fatalities17 involved in these terrorist attacks are depicted below (Graph 9.3). According to the GTI, 2016 was the third most deadly year since 2000 with regard to terrorist activities. Although a decline in death was observed since the previous year, the number of countries facing terrorism increased to 77. ‘This is more than at any time in the past 17 years with two out of every three countries experiencing Graph 9.2 Terror incidents since 2000–2016

14 Jiang,

Maorong, 2013. Political Conscience for Future Generations in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. 15 Uppsala Conflict and Data Program, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, UCDP Battle Related Death Dataset Available from: http://ucdp.uu.se/downloads/. 16 Global Terrorism Database, 2017. Terror Incidents Over Time, Available from: http://www.start. umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?chart=overtime&casualties_type=f&casualties_max=&start_ yearonly=2000&end_yearonly=2016&criterion1=yes&criterion2=yes&criterion3=yes&dtp2= some&target=17. 17 Global Terrorism Database, 2017. Available from: http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results. aspx?charttype=pie&chart=fatalities&casualties_type=f&casualties_max=&start_yearonly= 2000&end_yearonly=2016&criterion1=yes&criterion2=yes&criterion3=yes&dtp2=some& target=17.

146

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

Graph 9.3 Fatalities in terrorist attack (2000–2016)

at least one terrorist attack, according to the GTI’.18 However, the phenomenon of killing does not occur in the disguise of terrorism or war only; homicide, suicide and death penalty are also detrimental factors contributing towards killing. Antony Adolf in his work, Peace: A World History has come to the conclusion that a world where nonkilling ideas are cherished is not a utopian idea. Such societies have existed in the history of all civilizations be that of the east or west. It is only a matter of systematic and persistent work. He builds a peace pyramid to show how world peace can be achieved.19 At the base, he has kept corporeal peace that exists of: education, healthcare, shelter and sanitation and nutrition. When this base would be of good quality, then only the structure built upon them would have utility. In his thesis, Paige focuses on the educational aspect of peace. He wants to make changes in the academic discipline of political science. Killing is a phenomenon which is mostly learnt and how people enter this killing zone is explained by him.

18 START,

2017. Institute for Economics and Peace releases Global Terrorism Index, University of Maryland Available from: http://www.start.umd.edu/news/institute-economics-and-peace-releasesglobal-terrorism-index. 19 Adolf, Antony, 2009, Peace: A World History, “Conclusion: The Pyramid of Peace: Past, Present and Future, Polity Press, U.K.

9.3 Nonkilling: Theory and Practice

147

1. “The first zone is the Neuro-Biochemical Capability Zone that comprises physical, biological and psychological factors that contribute to killings. It is concerned with our genetic predisposal to kill. 2. The structural reinforcement zone to the structure created and reinforced by society and state in such a manner that predisposes and supports killings such as the system of Sati in Hindus, polygamy and triple Talaq in Muslims and likewise. 3. In the cultural conditioning zone, killing is accepted as unavoidable and legitimate, and in this religion, political ‘isms’ celebrations of triumphs and atrocities, family traditions, law, mass communications, and the arts play an important role. We are predisposed to accept killing as unavoidable and legitimate. 4. The socialization zone is where people learn to kill, directly by training or vicariously by observation of models for emulation such as through violent movies, news and video games or through rigourous training to soldiers. 5. The killing zone is the zone where killings occur from homicide to mass annihilation”20 (Paige, 2009). Along with the genetic factors, the structures and institutions created by humans are responsible for creating killers in the society; rather, the created structures and institutions are more responsible than the genetic factors that predispose humans to kill since scientists have proved that humans are not killers innately. Therefore, rather than killing the killers we need to change the environment that keeps giving birth to new killers in the society. This environment includes the society and the institutions that try to stay in power by oppressing the individuals. The kind of philosophy Paige and Adolf want to build can be found in the thoughts of Rabindranath Tagore (discussed in Chap. 5). Tagore believes the primary objective of an institution should not be just to train the limbs or mind to be in efficient readiness, but they should be in tune with the responses between life and the world. In his school, he tried his children to be taught to love nature and become one with it. Simplicity for Tagore does not mean living in poverty, for it is only a negation of things. In his school, he taught his children to love all by making them close to nature, their soul and human surroundings with the help of literature, festive ceremonials and religious teachings which he says ‘enjoins us to come to the nearer presence of the world through the soul, thus, to gain it more than can be measured like gaining an instrument in truth by bringing out its music’21 (Tagore, 1931). However, educational institutions are actually more focused on training the limbs and minds than on the sensitivity of human relationship. Education that could address the heart of the individuals perhaps would be more useful rather than that which addresses the mind. In certain countries, special attention is being paid to the concepts of peace and happiness. Five governments have already established Ministers of

20 Paige,

Glenn, 2009, Nonkilling Global Political Science, 2nd revised English ed., Honolulu, Center for Global NonKilling. pp. 75–76. 21 Tagore, Rabindranath, 1931, The Religion of Man. The Macmillan Company, New York. p. 178.

148

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

Peace: the Solomon Islands, Nepal, Costa Rica, Papua New Guinea22 and most recently Ethiopia (2018).23 Canada too has proposed a bill in the same direction: Bill C-373: An Act to Establish a Department of Peace.24 The purpose is to provide: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Peace Education and Training Activities; Domestic Peace Activities; International Peace Activities; Arms Control and Disarmament; and Human and Economic Rights.

Peace education is an important factor in the shaping of the society, and some countries have already started paying attention to it. But a holistic approach is needed over here. The more countries try to contribute towards peace education the better it would be. The activities on peace on local or universal level can only be practiced when people learn about it.

9.4 Peace-Building Measures for Affirmative Nonkilling An effort through this chapter is made to evolve new ideologies that would be interdisciplinary in nature and that which would touch more intricate aspects of human life. A philosophy is significant not just from the perspective of its relevance in the present times, but also from the outlook it has on the future generations. Hence, philosophies need to evolve with time so as to take humans to a higher degree of consciousness. Parochial philosophies such as that which aim to deal only with enhancing the rights, liberty and power of only a certain section like the elites, proletariats, minority or majority in the long run have shown their harmful effects which has resulted in the disintegration of society and state. It is these parochial philosophies that give birth to revolutions be it capitalist or communist which in turn endangers the life of every being in the environment. A good society does not just ‘promotes welfare’, ‘respect freedom’ or ‘creates fairness’. It also promotes virtue to make people better.25 The spectrum of virtue is probably quiet wide to define, but the ideologies that lay the

22 The Peace Alliance, 2017. Global Alliance for Ministries and Infrastructures for Peace, Virginia, Available from: https://peacealliance.org/global-alliance-for-ministries-and-infrastructuresfor-peace/. 23 Borkena.com. 2019. Ethiopia to have Ministry of Peace as it cuts down No. of govt ministries. [online] Available at: https://borkena.com/2018/10/14/ethiopia-to-have-ministry-of-peaceas-it-cuts-down-number-of-gov-t-ministries/ [Accessed 27 Jun. 2019]. 24 Bhaneja, Bill, 2012, “Bill C-373, 1st Session, 41st Parliament: An Act to Establish a Department of Peace in the Government of Canada”, Journal of Parliamentary and Political Law, V. 6, No. 3, pp. 573–58. 25 Bowdown, T. B., 2017. 50 Philosophy Classics. Justice- Michael Sandel. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

9.4 Peace-Building Measures for Affirmative Nonkilling

149

foundation of virtue are much easier to recognize. Conventional political philosophies probe into: liberty, equality, freedom, power, sovereignty and justice.26 These philosophies revolve around human life however and have also been responsible for taking away the same. The revolutionary activities be that of some communist, capitalist or terrorist groups all have been waged on principles such as freedom, equality, liberty or power. This does not imply that these principles are wrong, but that the importance attached to them is wrong. These principles help in the cultivation of a good life but because of their utility they do not surpass life itself. Nonkilling, human dignity and human consciousness are subjects directly relate to upliftment of virtues and have been developed by prominent scholars from the field of psychology, sociology and political science as well. By introducing them in the curriculum of school and college, there is high probability especially amongst the youths to not be misguided by any intellectual fanatic group, biased media or paid institutions to take up violent means to counter the oppression in the society. The elite intellectuals in media, academia, politics and literature are nothing special but people who have read some old and classical age theorists. Lindner refers to Johan Galtung who asked ‘Where do the elites we have today get their ideas from?’ People picked up Thucydides, Carl von Clausewitz and Machiavelli.27 It implies that elites of today are in general those with primitive life philosophy that was essentially preached with the idea of survival alone. Therefore, Lindner says: “War for peace is the motto, and this means maintaining a balance of terror.” Due to the security dilemma power seeking people are selected as leaders and as soon as they have an upper hand “they are likely to create narratives that justify why might is right, and they will institute strategies to maintain might.28

Richard Matthews describes how in a patriarchal society males are given privilege over women and that such a society identifies models of ideal male behaviour which glorify male violence as morally appropriate action. For a patriarchal system to work, it is believed that male violence must be used to compel weaker men and all women to serve under them as they can provide protection without which the weaker class will not be able to survive. It is for their safety and protection that the males particularly the strong ones will dominate and enjoy the privileges of the society. With this privilege assumed by them, began the practice of torturing in physical and mental form. This may not kill the individual, but it kills the identity of individuals or rather their souls which is equally cruel. This practice of torture is neither natural nor moral rather it is culturally and systematically developed by the society and the state to weild power and maintain the status quo. Such a privilege system needs to be done away with in order to have a nonkilling society29 (Matthews, 2013). 26 Asirvatham,

E. and Misra, K.K., 2011, Political Theory, New Delhi, S. Chand & Company Ltd. Evelin, 2017, “Honor, Humiliation and Terror”, World Dignity University Press. 28 Ibid, Chapter 15: Maintaining a Balance of Terror Is Costly, p. 225. 29 Matthews, Richard, (2013). Privilege, Torture and Nonkilling in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. 27 Lindner,

150

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

Human dignity can be observed to be in danger from local to global levels. For the purpose of security, the wars are justified while as for the protection of women patriarchal system stands. It is ironic to think that all the humiliation and suffering that are caused are done in the name of protection of the victims. The subjugated person is also brainwashed so much so that even he/she would come to defend his/her subjugation. In such cases, the intervening parties are sometimes held responsible for disturbing the peace which is actually oppressive peace or rather illusive peace. Security can be built by solidarity and dignifying human relation too. For this, empathy needs to be created amongst the people. In this regard, Piki Ish Shalom gives the idea: ‘narrating the life story of those people who were victims of collateral damage. In some cases, the author argues it is impossible to avoid a war in spite of knowing the chances of collateral damage for there are situations at war where a state must resort to killing or else loose its citizens and its sovereignty. On this basis the just war theory was developed that permits killing under restrictive conditions and as a last resort. But after this the life story of every single collateral damage victim should be narrated so as to raise the awareness of the lost lives and to create empathy towards them. It is especially important that these life stories should be made available to the killing party’s citizens, as the very purpose of the narration is to evoke empathy for the collateral damage victims. Once the procedure and resources for this is established, the next duty of the state would be to narrate the life story of those individuals who died due to the recklessness and negligence of the society and state’s organs’.30 It may amaze some people to think that why would a state acknowledge its own mistakes? Will it not show the weakness of the state? Why will a state want to portray itself as a weak organization? To answer these questions, I would like to highlight the core Gandhian principle that is acknowledging one’s own mistake is not the mark of a weak rather the mark of the strong. It will symbolize that the state while concerned with its security and sovereignty issue does not undermine human life. The value of life is of much importance than national interest. But as a nation is concerned about its own citizens first, it resorts to war; however, it also recognizes the value of lost lives and the destruction caused by war so it would help in not just rebuilding the infrastructure of the defeated state but also in recognizing the contribution of those individuals who lost their lives. This sort of recognition does not show weakness on part of the victor nation but its strength. Strength comes with empowering others and not through dehumanization and humiliation. In the First World War, Germany was humiliated by imposing the unjust Treaty of Versailles. This gave rise to Hitler, who dehumanized the Jews and communists, thereby making the mass launch an attack on all the members of those groups. After Germany was defeated in the Second World War, it again had to face the repercussions apart from the destruction of its city by the heavy bombardments. If the Japanese people did not value the life of the Chinese, their lives were in turn not valued by the Americans and Europeans. So as we can observe humiliation often leads to violence and where there is violence, killing is but natural to occur. ‘Of all the history it is the 20th century that has recorded the most 30 Shalom, P. (2013). Nonkilling Society as A Lighthouse Narrative in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

9.4 Peace-Building Measures for Affirmative Nonkilling

151

destruction and killing. In initial wars it was found that individuals were reluctant to kill, so they were provided some training which indeed helped them to kill more and which also increased the cases of collateral damage. But after going through such training there were some adverse effects on these individuals as well’.31 Lindner too states that the value of life is being disrespected; this she explains is happening in particular because transcendence is being abused. In order to become immortal, people tend to identify with the greater good and so they had built religious or secular cultural symbol systems. Works of arts are also created with the same aim. ‘In the context of a strong security dilemma, an experience of transcendence may lead men to agree to give their lives in war, to kill, or die for the common good, writes Jaspers’.32 But when similar philosophy starts being used by the extremist factions who by force want to unite or break and in the name of religion or culture ask people to kill, it results in the abuse of transcendence. Transcendence has been described by Rabindranath Tagore as realizing oneself in wider and deeper relationship with the universe. When humans are moral, they have a sense of obligation and freedom at the same time; when they are spiritual, they are able to find love in this sense of obligation and freedom. The freedom of opportunity is attained the moment nature’s forces are combined with human powers similarly freedom of social relationship is attained through owning responsibility to their community which gives them collective power for their own welfare. The freedom of consciousness would be attained when there is a realization of unity with a super human being which is referred to as ‘his larger being’, thus ‘finding fulfilment in the dedicated life of an ever-progressive truth and ever active Love’.33 The very concept of transcendence means to go beyond your senses, if the basis of one’s action is limited to their senses alone there will always be selfishness in what one does. Transcendence means to come out from the world of ‘I’ and ‘Me’ and to create a world of ‘We’ and ‘Us’ and to think that this can be done by using force is highly ignorant on the part of such individuals. We need to work beyond our senses, which we think can provide us pleasure. Transcendence gets abused mainly when people cannot differentiate between religion and spirituality. It is believed that spirituality can be even achieved by atheists and could be endangered by religious preachers.34 It does not matter what political ideology one has till the time he is recognizing the value of life. However, for the developers of political ideology and religion it is necessary that they teach the value of human life. One cannot question or accuse the other person for killing and spreading violence when they themselves are the one who are preaching about its advantages. 31 Cicovacki, Predrag and Luo, YaHui, (2013). Reverence of Life and Reverence for Death in “Nonkilling Security and the State”, ed. Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling. 32 Lindner, Evelin, (2017). “Honor, Humiliation and Terror”, World Dignity University Press, p. 226. 33 Tagore, Rabindranath, 1931. ‘The Religion of Man’, Chapter 2; The Creative Spirit, The Macmillan Company, New York. 34 Giorgi, Piero P. 2015. Spirituality and Nonkilling Theoretical Basis and Practical Evidence in “Nonkilling Spiritual Traditions”, ed. Joám Evans Pim & Pradeep Dhakal, Honolulu, Center for Global Nonkilling.

152

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

There are extensive studies and researches on war and conflicts, and theories on strategies of war are discussed, but studies relating to post-war conditions or post-war rebuilding measures are inadequate and limited. It is important to learn the effect of such wars on the victims and even the perpetrators of war. One of the important problems that occur after war is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Iribarren, it is ‘a psychiatric disorder that can result from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events such as terrorist attack, violent crime and abuse, military combat, natural disasters, serious accidents or violent personal assaults’.35 These disturb the effected person emotionally, and if not cured, it affects the physical health as well. Evelin Lindner explores the problem posed by Richard Matthews of patriarchal society. She explains that owing to biological differences, distinction is made between male and female. But more than nature, it is the cultural disposition that is responsible for assigning a lower status to women in society. Her argument with regard to biological and cultural disposition is: We are also not slaves of history as it is mediated by genes or culture.36

We have the capability to evolve our culture and even overcome our biological limitations by means of meditation. We have the freedom to create anything, and this opportunity should be taken to create something that is positive in nature by which whole of humankind may benefit”. Differences in the ability of person cannot define their status. A human body is made of different parts each having special function that cannot be performed by another. If parts of human body were to be given status, then which of the body can we say is not required or is an inferior organ and we can live without it? A society too is such an organism, and people may have different abilities, but imposing a belief on another person by subjugating them is not healthy. Moreover, abilities are something that can be developed with proper training. After looking into the problems of the society, today researchers have come to hold the view that a new outlook to life and philosophy is needed. The history is not to be simply followed but to be learnt. Things that created disturbance or chaos in the society need to be done away with. If we keep on clinging to our past because of our attachment towards our history, we will never be able to come out from the vicious circle of violence. History should be looked upon as a source for learning lessons and not as a mandate to be followed.

35 Iribarren,

J., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(4), 503–512. Available from: http://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neh127. (9 October 2017). 36 Lindner, Evelin, (2010). Gender, Humiliation and Security, Praeger Security International.

9.5 Future Forward

153

9.5 Future Forward After understanding the history, philosophy, political scenarios of different countries, contemporary perspective of people in relation to human life and exploring the killing rates few ideas have been developed. An Indian Department of Peace is proposed over the department of happiness (enclosed in annexure). This department should seek to develop peace-building measures and study the conditions that are conducive towards a peaceful society. Also just like international nonviolence day, an ‘international nonkilling day’ can be introduced by world agencies such as the UN so that awareness towards it can be made. In the academic sphere, a start can be made by incorporating the following concepts in the educational curriculums of schools and colleges. • Human Consciousness: Human consciousness is a subject of wide range. Philosophers like Tagore and Vivekananda have tried to explain the link between the individuals and the universe. They have focused on the development of not just the individuals but the whole of humanity. They have tried to cover the problems individual face in life and provided a vision as to how should the problems be tackled without creating another problem. Some of their ideas may look utopian but nonetheless the philosophy of human consciousness can help in creating empathy in human mind. • Human Dignity: Humiliation is often the source of conflict. We study theories like liberty, equality, rights and justice yet we have failed to achieve human dignity. The problems of caste exploitation, class struggle, racial conflicts and gender humiliation still are prevalent in society. Of course without groundwork, nothing is possible. But the problem is when people resorting to the above ideas (liberty, equality, rights and justice) commit violence, become martyrs rather than criminals or culprits. They not only justify themselves but also provoke others to follow their path. From psychological perspective, some good amount of studies have been made in this area but to understand it better specific attention to it is needed. Dictators like Hitler and revolutionaries like Mao can be studied with the perspective of how at first they faced humiliation (real or perceived) and then themselves committed it against others. An action is the outcome of certain sets of ideology, and if the actions need to be countered, the ideology also needs to be countered. • Nonviolence: Political scientist Benjamin A. Valentino provides an overview of political science literature on violent conflicts and also highlights recent research trends. In his analysis, he concludes that understanding the source of political violence is ‘necessary but not sufficient condition to prevent it. The task for scholars as well as policy makers is to identify ‘successful strategies of intervention to limit violence against civilians. The society on the other hand should have the political will to implement such policies implying that such approaches should be backed up

154

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

by the society as well to be successful’.37 According to my research, it is time that we include studies on nonviolence in schools as well as primary college level by incorporating leaders like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Martin Luther King (Jr.) and Nelson Mandela. • Post-War/Revolution Studies: War strategy theories on how to wage a war, what weapons to be used during the war are prevalent in international relations. But what happens to the soldiers and civilians of the countries, to both the victor and the victim have hardly been dwelt upon. Human life, does it continue to live after suffering such a trauma. The genocide by Hitler was considered disastrous, but the bombing of Germany and Japan has been justified in history books owing to the Pearl Harbor attack by Japan. A crucial point here is that Henry Stimson the Secretary of War in his diary had recorded where he notes that he described his anxiety to President Truman while making the decision to drop the bomb. He was hesitant to drop the bomb as probably by doing this they would outdo Hitler in atrocities, and he also believed that ‘before they could get ready the air force might have Japan so thoroughly bombed out that the new weapon would not have a fair background to show its strength’.38 But Truman did not consider his anxiety seriously rather laughed and said that ‘he understood’. Evidences have now come around which reveal that there was no need for the nuclear bomb explosion even at Hiroshima for USA had the information that Japan was going to surrender soon and most of the war generals were against it.39 On similar grounds to counter subjugation, revolutionaries have been glorifying revolution and holding them as the only practical means to achieve equality and freedom in the society. So it becomes imperative to study the post-war/revolution situations such as situation in Russia after the Russian Revolution; the condition of China after the civil war and in all similar places where the revolution was adopted to bring a change in the society. Just war theories have been built which specify the conditions under which wars can be fought and what should be the conduct of the belligerents during these wars.40 So as we can observe, we have philosophy available on how to conduct a war but what impact do these wars have on the normalcy of the society has never been much of a concern for social scientists.

37 Valentino, Benjamin A. “Why We Kill: The Political Science of Political Violence against Civilians,” Annual Review of Political Science, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-082112141937. Available from: https://journalistsresource.org/studies/international/conflicts/why-we-killreviewing-political-science-research-violence. (13 October 2017). 38 Bernstein, Barton, (1999). The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 74 No. 1. 39 Alperovitz, G., 2015. “The War Was Won Before Hiroshima—And the Generals Who Dropped the Bomb Knew It,” The Nation. [Online] Available at: https://www.thenation.com/article/why-theus-really-bombed-hiroshima/. [Accessed 3 July 2018]. 40 Moseley, Alexander, Just War Theory, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002, Available from: http://www.iep.utm.edu/justwar/. (16 October 2017).

9.5 Future Forward

155

• Nonkilling: Debates exists even today on ‘whether the U.S. was right in dropping the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on a civilian population.41 It is argued that a prolonged war would have created more death and destruction and US did not want to sacrifice anymore of its people. Mass killings and genocide depends upon philosophy as also found by Koenigsberg and further deliberated upon by Lee’.42 The author holds the view that the patriotism of Hitler motivated him to sacrifice himself and his countrymen, and since there were no objections raised on such sacrifice, he believed that killing is justified on that basis. So killings occur because of misplaced ideologies and herein lay the importance of nonkilling philosophy for it firmly advocates those precepts by which affirmative nonkilling can be achieved. In this context, certain prominent works have been brought forward such as Nonkilling Global Political Science (2009),43 Nonkilling Security and the State44 (2013) and Nonkilling Leadership45 (2008). These works are important especially for those scientists and scholars who are interested in peace. Also if a nonkilling index is built by every country specific states as well as for the countries as a whole, it would give a microscopic and macroscopic view of the state of human lives. When it comes to establishing peace after the occurrence of conflict or crime, laws should be applied according to morality and reasons rather than on the general emotions. Heinous crimes like rape, genocide and murder tend to shake the human spirit and call for immediate and strict action. However, each of these crimes requires a mental conditioning, and the role of these mental conditionings needs to be determined before awarding any punishment. Death penalty should only be sought in the rarest of the rare case such which the law should determine. In cases of internal war and conflicts, training should be provided on how to fight the rebels without killing them at the same time keeping oneself also safe.

9.6 The Promise to Future Generations This chapter seeks to create a paradigm by which positive peace can be developed. Previously, an overview of the killings across the nations in 2015 through the GNI helped us to observe the forms as well as rate of killings. Herein, we seek to create 41 Mason, Emma, 2014. Was the US justified in dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War? You debate, History Extra Magazine, Immediate Media Company Limited. Available from: http://www.historyextra.com/feature/second-world-war/was-us-justifieddropping-atomic-bombs-hiroshima-and-nagasaki-during-second. 42 Lee, M.D. 2010. Nations Have the Right to Kill: Hitler, the Holocaust and War, Journal of Genocide Research, 12: 1, 127–129. 43 Paige, G. D., 2009. Nonkilling Global Political Science. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 44 Pim, J.E. 2013, et al. Nonkilling Security & the State. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling. 45 Paige, G.D. & Pim, J.E. et al., 2008. Global Nonkilling Leadership First Forum Proceedings. Honolulu: Center for Global Nonviolence.

156

9 Future Paradigm: Creating a Nonkilling World

such a paradigm that would create such conditions in the society that would lay the foundation for perpetual harmony and peace. Creation of reverence for human lives is imperative for the establishment of holistic and positive peace, wherein human consciousness plays an important role. The various platforms of socialization such as family, school, college, media, politics play an important role in imbibing values in individuals. So they should be conscious of what values they are inculcating in the people. Any scientific or material progress is hollow without humane progress of mind and where there exist primitive mindsets. Unity in action is the key ingredient for any creation, but this unity is false when based on coercion. Real unity of action lies in association based on love and harmony; only then can humans progress truly. Through rigorous review of literature, it was felt that philosophy relating to human lives has been developed by scholars from east and west both yet it has not attained adequate attention. After identifying the key elements through which affirmative nonkilling philosophy can be developed, it is proposed to bring forth these ideas in academics through which these ideas can further be spread out.

Chapter 10

Post-Lude

The book is an effort to study the existing literature and asses the emerging paradigms to foster a nonkilling society for global peace. A review of human political history reveals time and again that in different frames of time and space, that power struggle-based paradigms have always resulted in socio-psychological stress both at the individual and societal level that had led to killings and protracted carnage. Revolutions or wars fought even for just reasons never led to just order or society. Rather such societies had, in fact, faced an oppressive peace crushing the very soul of the people themselves which it had sought to bring salvation. An unjust social order leads to individual and class-based inequities that lead to killings. The emergence of various charismatic leaders throughout history reveals the importance of leaders in pioneering any movement. The leaders thus should recognize the impact of their thought and actions on individuals and the society at large for succeeding generations in order to take measures to channelize their ideologies into a positive and affirmative movement. The research reveals that peace established by revolutionary (who sought change irrespective of the means) or evolutionary leaders (who sought that justified the means) is distinct as it were the evolutionary leaders only who were able to establish durable change and affirmative nonkilling peace. Despite their contribution to our civilizational process, the thoughts and teachings of these leaders fail to find its rightful place in the educational curriculum and often they are unfortunately enough dismissed as abstract ideals. The study determines that a ‘change’ reflects a positive or a negative outcome in our socio-psychological being and includes environmental, economic and political transformation. By clinging to the violent past that led to a great loss of human lives and misery during and after the industrial revolution, we cannot evolve ourselves to a better society at the same time by ignoring or dismissing our nonkilling or nonviolent history. In the process of our own evolution, we need to adopt those principles which develop the individual as well as collective conscientiousness and consciousness. Such principles can be found in the past in many societies and can be evolved to the present. The need for us is only to identify those principles and to think of creative ways by which these

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6_10

157

158

10 Post-Lude

principles and precepts are propagated across controls for individuals and societies through affirmative nonkilling in place of erstwhile illusive nonkilling approaches. For the purpose of this thesis, an exploratory survey across the globe was conducted to elicit the views of a random cross section of people in relation to nonkilling. The survey is one of its kinds as it has tried to explore an unchartered area in order to study the different opinions of people with respect to nonkilling principles and whether a future nonkilling society is possible. When questioned on the relevance of ‘ends and means’, a majority of the respondents affirmed their faith that ‘ends should justify the means’. Thus a communist, socialist or a capitalist ideology based on past precedence had to be through the right means only by a nonviolent and nonkilling process. From the views recorded, it was found that nonkilling as an idea seems to be feasible for people even while encountering violence, terror and killings. However, when questions were asked about charismatic revolutionary leaders and their ideals of fundamental rights and liberty that had cost human lives across different time and space, people seem to have shown reverence and faith in those leaders and philosophy. The ‘Nonkilling Index’ is a first of its kind efforts and reveals that killings occur at fatal levels even in the developed and economically sound societies and countries. So mere economic development is not enough spiritual, and conscientious progress is necessary for perpetual peace. When the economic system is so created that it creates competition and stress fault lines, it causes depression in individuals who make the society leading to suicide, homicide even genocide that catapults to terror and war. Thus, even capital punishment may not serve as a deterrent as also apparent from the higher suicide rate of the countries which are above the world average. It is surmised that economic development is not at all a guarantee for nonkilling peace and happiness. It is the finding of this research that a Nonkilling Index for countries should be taken as a critical tool for measuring the human development index, happiness index and the human development report of the United Nations. The ‘Nonkilling Index’ as well as the ‘Survey’ explored threats faced to human life, its sustenance and to devise efforts to promote affirmative nonkilling in contemporary times. Through affirmative nonkilling peace in contrast to illusive nonkilling, it is proposed to create conditions that promote the right environment through better upbringing and value education of every human being irrespective of political, economic or religious ideologies so that the consciousness of the people can be raised. This effort would be monumental and need support from all sections of the society including the United Nations and national governments. The most essential tool apart from education in influencing people is the social media, news publications and the audio-visual means. To ensure a revolutionary approach to bring a collective change, we need collective wisdom and action. Through a joint human effort, the goal of affirmative nonkilling peace can be achieved and this would mark a new beginning for humanity to flourish in all its aspects to usher a human nonkilling revolution.

Annexure I: Questionnaire

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Name Age Sex Educational Qualification Nation

S. No.

Questions

Strongly Agree/very Good

Agree/good

Not Sure/neutral

Disagree/bad

Strongly disagree/very bad

6.

Evolutionary leaders (such as those who believe in peaceful transition in society like Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther Jr. and likewise) are good and effective leader

7.

Revolutionary leaders (such as those who adopted armed struggle or violent means to bring change in society such as Subhas Chandra Bose, Lenin, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and likewise) are good and effective leaders

8.

Using war or counter violence is best way to counter terrorism

9.

Terrorism can be best countered by using peace initiatives and nonviolent policies

10.

What do you think has been the impact of Communism on society in last 100 year

11.

Do you believe the philosophy of Communism has promoted more violence and killing in last 100 years

12.

What do you think has been the impact of Capitalism on society in last 100 years?

13.

Do you believe that Capitalism has led to more violence & killing in last 100 years

14.

Do you believe the world would have been better off without Capitalism and Communism

15.

Does ‘End’ justify the ‘Means’ (continued)

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6

159

160

Annexure I: Questionnaire (continued) S. No.

Questions

Strongly Agree/very Good

Agree/good

Not Sure/neutral

Disagree/bad

Strongly disagree/very bad

16.

Does ‘Means’ justify the ‘End’

17.

Is lasting peace possible?

18.

Is nonviolence possible considering the fact that nonviolence in an absolute sense may not be fully achievable?

19.

Is nonkilling possible considering the fact that nonkilling is measurable?

20.

Are we as a society moving towards a nonkilling world?

21.

Educational institutions can help in promoting nonkilling and peace in the world

22.

Killing of a human being according to you can be justified for fight of fundamental rights, liberty

23.

For political and religious reasons, killing can be justified

24.

Are you a peace practitioner?—Yes/No

25.

Further comments

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

Whereas the Parliament of India is of the view that the establishment of a Department of Peace would help to advance the cause of peace in India and throughout the world; And whereas peace is not simply the absence of active hostilities but rather a state of nonviolence, harmony and amity based on a foundation of principles supported by the United Nations. Now, therefore, the president, by and with the advice and consent of the upper and lower house of India, (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha) enacts as follows: SHORT TITLE Short title 1. This Act may be cited as the Department of PeaceAct. INTERPRETATION Definitions 2. The following definitions apply in this Act. ‘Civilian Peace Service’: Civilian Peace Service means the service established under paragraph 14(2)(b). ‘Department’: Department means the Department of Peace established under subsection 3(1). ‘Minister’: Minister means the Minister of Peace appointed under Section 3. ESTABLISHMENT OF DEPARTMENT Department established 3. (1) A department of the Government of India called the Department of Peace is established, over which the Minister of Peace, appointed by commission under the president, is to preside.

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6

161

162

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

Minister (2) The Minister holds office during pleasure and has the management and direction of the Department. MISSION OF DEPARTMENT Mission 4. The work of the department is to be dedicated to peace-building and the study of conditions that are conducive to both domestic and international peace and, in particular, the department must. (a) hold peace as an organizing principle in society, coordinating service with every level of Indian society; (b) promote justice and democratic principles in order to expand human rights; (c) strengthen nonmilitary means of peace making; (d) promote the development of human potential; (e) work to create peace, prevent violence, divert from armed conflict, use fieldtested programs and develop new structures for nonviolent dispute resolution; (f) take a proactive, strategic approach to the development of policies and programs that promote national and international conflict prevention, nonviolent intervention, mediation, peaceful conflict resolution and structured mediation of conflict; (g) address matters both domestic and international in scope; (h) support the development of initiatives from local communities, religious groups and nongovernmental organizations; and (i) assume a leadership role amongst federal departments in addressing matters of peace, order, justice and good government, and in carrying out the responsibility to protect Indians from harm. POWERS, DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MINISTER Powers, duties and functions. 5. (1) The powers, duties and functions of the Minister extend to and include all matters over which parliament has jurisdiction—and that have not been assigned by law to another department, board or agency of the Government of India—relating to peacemaking and the study of conditions that are conducive to both domestic and international peace. Minister’s jurisdiction. (2) The Minister’s jurisdiction referred to in subsection (1) encompasses, but is not limited to, jurisdiction over the matters referred to in subsection (3). Powers, duties and functions. (3) The Minister must. (a) work proactively and interactively with each branch of the federal public administration on all policy matters relating to conditions of peace; (b) serve as the cabinet spokesperson on matters relating to peace;

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

163

(c) include the intellectual and spiritual wealth of the people of India by involving private, public and nongovernmental organizations in the administration of the department and in its development of policy and programs; (d) monitor and analyse causative principles of conflict and make policy recommendations for developing and maintaining peaceful conduct, with a view to preventing crisis and violence; (e) promote and develop programs involving citizen participation, including a Indian Civilian Peace Service aimed at preventing crisis and violence, which would involve the participation of trained citizens in all elements of peacebuilding, peacemaking and peacekeeping; (f) develop an intercultural competence within the department to manage conflicts between individuals and groups; (g) assist in the establishment and funding of community-based violence mitigation and prevention programs, including restorative justice practices and violence prevention models and their implementation; and (h) develop strategies and implement programs to address unhealthy manifestations of violence in Indian culture as they relate to both humans and animals. HUMAN SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES Nonviolent conflict resolution strategies. 6. (1) The Minister must develop nonviolent conflict resolution strategies applicable to situations where human security is threatened by conflict that (a) is geographic, religious, ethnic, racial, gender-, sexuality- or class-based in its origin, or related to other human rights violations; (b) results from economic concerns, including trade or misdistribution of wealth; or (c) is initiated through disputes concerning scarcity of food or natural resources, including water and energy resources, or environmental concerns. Information relating to strategies. (2) The Minister must offer to provide information relating to the strategies referred to in subsection (1) to all parties involved in a conflict referred to in that subsection. EDUCATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES Education. 7. The Minister must (a) consult with established and innovative peace educators, from across India to develop an agenda of peace themes, which is to include studies of i.

the human rights movement in India and throughout the world, with special emphasis on how co-operative endeavour and involvement have contributed to advancements in peace and justice, ii. peace agreements, and

164

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

iii. circumstances in which peaceful intervention has worked to stop conflict; (b) in co-operation with provincial and territorial ministers of education, (i) offer incentives in the form of grants and training, (ii) work with educators to design and develop resources to achieve methods of instruction on peaceful conflict prevention and resolution, and (iii) develop an intercultural competence to manage conflicts between different groups; (c) establish and maintain a public website for the purposes of soliciting and receiving ideas for the development of peace from the people of India; (d) engage the critical thinking capabilities of grade-school, high-school and university students and teachers by means of the Internet and other media and issue periodic reports concerning submissions received from such persons; (e) establish, in collaboration with post-secondary institutions in India, a National Peace Academy to provide diploma or degree courses of instruction in peace education, whose graduates will be required to provide five years of public service in programs dedicated to domestic or international nonviolent conflict resolution; and (f) provide grants for peace studies departments in universities and colleges throughout India. DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES Domestic responsibilities. 8. The Minister must (a) provide financing for community initiatives that rely on local resources to create peace projects to facilitate the development of strategies for conflict prevention and resolution at a national level and thereby inform and inspire national policy; (b) assist in the development of community-based strategies for celebrating diversity, promoting respect and combating racism and sexism; (c) assist in the establishment and funding of community-based violence prevention programs; (d) develop policies that address family violence, including spousal abuse, child abuse and elder abuse; (e) develop policies to address violence against animals; (f) analyse existing policies, implement field-tested programs and develop new approaches to deal with the implements of violence, such as handguns and other firearms; (g) develop new programs that relate to the societal challenges of school violence, gangs, racial and ethnic violence, violence against gays and lesbians, transphobic violence and disputes involving relations between police services and communities; (h) make policy recommendations to the Minister of Justice regarding human rights, labour law and civil liberties;

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

165

(i) provide counselling services for and advocate on behalf of women victimized by violence; (j) provide for public education programs concerning hate crimes so as to promote healing and respect for racial, religious, ethnic, gender and sexual diversity; and (k) ensure, through such participatory and evaluative methods as social and narrative research, that federal official language policies and employment equity policies are guided by principles that are consistent with developing a culture of peace. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES International responsibilities. 9. The Minister must (a) advise the Minister of National Defence and the Minister of Foreign Affairs on all matters relating to national security, including the protection of human rights and the prevention, amelioration and de-escalation of unarmed and armed international conflict; (b) provide for the training of all Indian personnel who administer post-conflict reconstruction or demobilization in war-torn societies; (c) sponsor national and regional conflict prevention and dispute resolution initiatives, create special task forces and draw on local, regional and national expertise to develop plans and programs for addressing the root sources of conflict in troubled areas; (d) provide, between India and other nations, for exchanges of individuals who work for governments and for nongovernmental organizations that endeavour to develop domestic and international peace-based initiatives; (e) encourage the development of international sister city programs, pairing Indian cities with cities around the globe for artistic, cultural, economic, educational, peace and faith-based exchanges; (f) develop and administer the training of civilian peacekeepers who participate in multinational nonviolent police forces or provide support to civilian police participating in peacekeeping; (g) develop and administer a Civilian Peace Service cadet program to engage youth in community service in India and overseas; (h) work jointly with the Minister of Finance to strengthen peace enforcement through the hiring and training of monitors and investigators to help with the enforcement of international arms embargoes; (i) facilitate the development of peace summits at which parties to a conflict may gather—under carefully prepared conditions—to promote nonviolent communication and mutually beneficial solutions; (j) submit to the prime minister recommendations for reducing the numbers of weapons of mass destruction and for stopping their proliferation; (k) submit an annual report to the prime minister on the sale of arms from India to other nations, including an analysis of the impact of such sales on the defence of India and how such sales affect peace;

166

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

(l)

in consultation with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, develop strategies for the sustainability and management of the distribution of international funds; (m) advise the Indian Ambassador to the United Nations on matters pertaining to the United Nations Security Council; and (n) provide to the Department of National Defence, on a regular basis, ethical and value-based analyses of programs and other initiatives of that department. CONSULTATION WITH MINISTER In case of conflict. 10. (1) If it appears that India is about to be involved in an armed conflict with another government or entity, the Minister of National Defence and the Minister of Foreign Affairs must, in accordance with the process referred to in subsection (4), consult with the Minister with a view to resolving the conflict by nonviolent means. Diplomatic initiatives (2) If an armed conflict involving India and any other government or entity is ongoing or recently concluded, the Minister must arrange for independent study of diplomatic initiatives undertaken by India and other parties involved in the armed conflict. Effectiveness of initiatives (3) Immediately, after an armed conflict involving India and any other government or entity has concluded, the Minister must assess the effectiveness of any diplomatic initiatives that played a role in ending the conflict. The Minister must report to parliament on the results of the assessment within six months after the end of the armed conflict. Formal consultative process (4) The Minister must immediately establish a formal consultative process with the Minister of National Defence and the Minister of Foreign Affairs to address any issues that may arise in respect of (a) any potential or ongoing armed conflict involving India and another nation; and (b) the use of Department of National Defence personnel within India. Treaties and peace agreements. 11. The Minister is to be consulted before the Government of India enters into any treaty or peace agreement. DEPARTMENTAL OFFICERS Deputy Minister. 12. (1) The Governor in Council must appoint an officer called the Deputy Minister of Peace to hold office during pleasure and to be the deputy head of the department. Absence or disability. (2) The Deputy Minister must designate other officers of the department to act for and perform the functions of the Deputy Minister during his or her absence or disability.Other officers. 13. (1) The Governor in Council must appoint the following departmental officers:

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

167

(a) an Assistant Deputy Minister for Peace Education and Training, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 14; (b) an Assistant Deputy Minister for Domestic Peace Activities, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 15; (c) an Assistant Deputy Minister for International Peace Activities, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 16; (d) an Assistant Deputy Minister for Arms Control and Disarmament, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 17; (e) an Assistant Deputy Minister for Policies and Programs for Peaceful Engagement, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 18; (f) an Assistant Deputy Minister for Human, Social and Economic Rights, who is to be responsible for carrying out the functions and responsibilities referred to in section 19; (g) a general counsel to provide legal advice to the Minister and Deputy Minister on all matters relating to the administration of the Department and the activities of the Department and its officers; and (h) four additional officers to perform general duties as prescribed by the Deputy Minister, including. (i) parliamentary relations functions, (ii) public information functions, including providing, through the use of the latest technologies, useful information about peace and the work of the Department, (iii) management and budget functions, and (iv) planning, evaluation and policy development functions, including development of policies to promote the efficient and coordinated administration of the department and its programs and to encourage improvements in conflict resolution and violence prevention methodologies. Additional functions. (2) Each officer referred to in this section must report to the Deputy Minister and must, in addition to any functions assigned to the officer under this Act, perform any functions assigned to the officer by the Minister or Deputy Minister. Office of Peace Education and Training. 14. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for Peace Education and Training is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of Peace Education and Training. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must

168

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

(a) carry out those functions of the department relating to the creation, facilitation and support of peace education programs and training at the elementary, secondary, university and postgraduate levels; (b) establish a Civilian Peace Service to promote nonviolent means of conflict resolution on a local, regional and international basis; and (c) establish a Civilian Peace Service cadet program to engage young persons in community service in India and overseas and to prepare them for careers as peace professionals. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) undertake research on and document peaceful approaches to conflict faced by Indian society and by our allies, with the objective of making the department a source of innovative approaches and practices for peace-related strategies; and (b) hold a yearly conference with provincial and territorial ministers of education and other leaders in education to share new findings in peace-related strategies applicable in Indian society and abroad and to demonstrate how these findings could be potential content for school curricula. Grants. (4) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) provide peace education grants to universities and colleges for the creation and expansion of peace studies departments; and (b) create a community peace grant program under which grants are to be provided to not-for-profit community organizations and other nongovernmental organizations for the purposes of developing local peace-building initiatives and innovative neighbourhood programs for nonviolent conflict resolution. (c) Office of Domestic Peace Activities. 15. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for Domestic Peace Activities is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of Domestic Peace Activities. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must carry out those functions of the department relating to domestic peace activities, including the development of policies that increase awareness of the availability and effectiveness of intervention and counselling in respect of domestic violence and conflict. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) develop new policies and build on existing programs responsive to the prevention of crime, including the development of community policing strategies and peaceful settlement skills amongst police and other public safety officers; (b) develop community-based strategies for celebrating diversity and promoting respect; and

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

169

(c) promote the use of restorative justice practices in the resolution of conflict at the community, regional and national level. Office of International Peace Activities. 16. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for International Peace Activities is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of International Peace Activities. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must carry out those functions of the department relating to international peace activities. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) provide for the training and deployment of Civilian Peace Service graduates and other nonmilitary conflict prevention and peacemaking personnel; (b) sponsor national and regional conflict prevention and dispute resolution initiatives in countries experiencing social, political or economic strife; (c) advocate the creation of a multinational nonviolent peace force; (d) provide training for the administration of post-conflict reconstruction and demobilization in war-torn societies; (e) provide for personnel exchanges between India and other nations who are endeavouring to develop domestic and international peace-based initiatives; and (f) create early detection, assessment and response mechanisms to respond to emerging conflicts in order to mitigate or prevent violence. Office of Arms Control and Disarmament. 17. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for Arms Control and Disarmament is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of Arms Control and Disarmament. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must carry out those functions of the Department relating to arms control programs and arms limitation agreements. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) advise the Minister and Deputy Minister on all interagency discussions and all international negotiations regarding the reduction and elimination of weapons of mass destruction throughout the world; (b) advise the Minister and Deputy Minister on incidents of dismantling of weapons of mass destruction and the safe and secure storage of materials related thereto; (c) assist nations, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations in determining the locations of nuclear weapons build-up; (d) develop nonviolent strategies to deter the testing or use of offensive or defensive nuclear weapons, whether based on land, air, sea or in outer space;

170

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

(e) facilitate the role of all parties and relevant government departments in advancing the development of a nuclear weapons convention for the establishment of national and international legislation and policies on the responsible use, disposal and future elimination of nuclear weapons; and (f) provide a depository for copies of all contracts, agreements and treaties that deal with the reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons or the protection of outer space from militarization. Office of Policies and Programs for Peaceful Engagement 18. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for Policies and Programs for Peaceful Engagement is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of Policies and Programs for Peaceful Engagement. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must carry out those functions in the Department relating to research and analysis in respect of creating, initiating and modelling approaches to peaceful engagement and nonviolent conflict resolution. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must. (a) study the global impact of war, especially on the physical and mental condition of children (using as a guide the ten-point agenda in the 1996 United Nations Children’s Fund report, The State of the World’s Children and the 2004 World Report on Violence and Health of the World Health Organization), as well as the effect of war on the environment and public health; (b) implement United Nations Resolution 1325 to promote the enhanced participation of women in all aspects of peace activities, from conflict prevention to post-conflict reconstruction; (c) review and implement United Nations deliberations on the Rapid Response Planning Process (R2P2)—Responsibility to Protect, with particular emphasis on the responsibility to prevent; (d) publish a monthly journal of the activities of the Department and encourage scholarly participation; (e) gather information on effective community peace-building activities and disseminate such information to local governments and nongovernmental organizations in India and abroad; (f) research the effect of reports of violence in the media and make such reports available to Parliament annually; and (g) sponsor conferences throughout India to enhance awareness of the work of the Department and nongovernmental organizations that work in partnership with the Government.

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

171

Office of Human, Social and Economic Rights 19. (1) The Assistant Deputy Minister for Human, Social and Economic Rights is responsible for the establishment and administration of the departmental Office of Human, Social and Economic Rights. Functions. (2) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must carry out those functions in the Department that support the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights passed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. Specific responsibilities. (3) The Assistant Deputy Minister referred to in subsection (1) must (a) assist the Minister and Deputy Minister in furthering the incorporation of the principles of human rights, as enunciated in United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217A (III) of December 10, 1948, into all agreements between India and other nations, in order to assist in the reduction of causes of violence; (b) gather information on and document human rights abuses, both domestically and internationally, make such findings available to other agencies in order to facilitate nonviolent conflict resolution and recommend to the Minister nonviolent responses to correct such abuses; (c) provide trained observers to work with nongovernmental organizations for the purposes of creating a climate that is conducive to respect for human rights; (d) conduct economic analyses of the scarcity of human and natural resources as a source of conflict and make recommendations to the Minister regarding the nonviolent prevention of such scarcity, nonviolent intervention in case of such scarcity and the development of programs of assistance for people experiencing such scarcity, whether it be due to armed conflict, maldistribution of resources or natural causes; and (e) assist the Minister, in co-operation with the Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Finance, in developing strategies regarding the sustainability and the management of the distribution of funds from international agencies, the conditions applicable to the receipt of such funds and the impact of those conditions on the peace and stability of the recipient nations. Commissioner of Peace. 20. (1) The Minister must appoint a Commissioner of Peace, who is to monitor the work of the Minister and the Department and report to Parliament every six months on the effectiveness of the Minister and the Department in carrying out their functions and responsibilities under this Act. Additional duties. (2) The Commissioner must. (a) make any recommendations that he or she considers advisable to the Minister regarding the policies of the Department relating to peace and nonviolent conflict resolution;

172

Annexure II: Bill for Department of Peace

(b) provide a forum for representatives of foreign governments and other entities and federal, provincial, territorial and local governments to discuss peace issues; (c) promote better intergovernmental relations; and (d) report annually to the Minister, the Prime Minister and Parliament on the impact of federal peace activities on provincial, territorial and local governments. Advisory council 21. (1) The Minister must appoint an advisory council to assist the Commissioner in carrying out his or her functions under section 20. The council must, in consultation with the Commissioner, also serve as a national and international sounding board on issues relating to peace and nonviolent conflict resolution and as a nexus for fostering peace. Members. (2) The advisory council is to be composed of 10 members, including representatives of peace groups and nongovernmental organizations. The members of the advisory council must serve without remuneration but are to be reimbursed for any reasonable expense incurred in the course of their work.

Index

A Affirmative nonkilling peace, 9, 96, 144, 157, 158

C Castro, Fidel, 33, 36, 43, 44, 47, 48, 76, 100, 103, 105, 107, 159 Consciousness, 9, 77, 79, 111, 114, 119, 136, 137, 139–141, 148, 149, 151, 153, 156–158 Crimes, 7, 28, 31, 38, 41, 42, 54, 55, 59, 74, 98, 104, 105, 113, 116–119, 121, 123, 124, 128, 136, 142, 152, 155, 165, 168

D Death penalty, 123–126, 128, 146, 155

E Education, 6, 8, 9, 25, 37, 45, 49, 55, 72, 73, 90, 102, 141, 142, 144, 146–148, 158, 163–165, 167, 168 Emotions, 6, 35, 57, 80, 117, 118, 123, 155 Evolution, 3, 5, 6, 78, 81, 138, 157

G Gandhi, 6, 22, 23, 32, 33, 53, 54, 63, 67–71, 77, 79, 86, 90, 100, 101, 106, 108, 141, 154, 159 Genocide, 1, 4, 28, 30, 31, 36, 39, 47, 51, 52, 55, 57, 98, 102–105, 107, 112, 114, 117, 121–123, 144, 154, 155, 158 Global Nonkilling Index, 129, 155 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 K. Singh and A. Swarup, The Nonkilling Paradigm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1247-6

Guevara, Che, 33, 36, 44, 45, 48, 49, 52, 76, 100, 105, 107, 159

H Hitler, 23, 33, 36–40, 52–55, 63, 85, 91, 95, 100, 115, 118, 122, 123, 150, 153–155 Homicide, 1, 4, 12, 54, 59, 64, 95, 112, 125–127, 146, 147, 158 Human dignity, 2, 8, 31, 81, 85–87, 109, 116, 135, 137, 149, 150, 153

K Killing, 1, 2, 4–9, 12, 21, 31, 41, 47, 49, 54–57, 63, 64, 85, 87–91, 93–96, 98–100, 102, 106, 107, 109, 112, 115–117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 126, 128, 142, 144–147, 150, 151, 153, 155, 157–160 King, Martin Luther (Jr.), 59, 64, 67, 86, 100, 101, 106, 108, 154

L Leaders, 4, 8, 23, 24, 32, 33, 35, 36, 41–43, 45, 47, 50–54, 57, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 71, 73–76, 87–89, 91, 95–97, 99–105, 107–109, 114–116, 120, 122, 141, 142, 144, 149, 154, 157–159, 168 Lenin, Vladimir, 36, 49–52, 91, 102, 105, 107, 159 Life, 1–8, 13–15, 17, 28, 32, 36, 41, 46, 48, 53, 54, 63–66, 68–72, 74–82, 84, 89, 96, 98–101, 105, 106, 111, 112, 173

174

Index 115, 116, 118, 119, 123, 135–138, 140–142, 147–154, 158

M Mandela, Nelson, 63, 67, 72–76, 100–102, 106, 108, 154, 159 Mao Tse Tung, 24, 33, 36, 40, 42, 43, 76, 100, 103, 105, 107, 142

N Nonkilling, 1, 5–9, 12, 31, 32, 55, 56, 59–61, 63, 64, 79, 86, 88, 89, 93, 95–100, 106, 107, 109, 111, 115–117, 125, 128, 129, 135–139, 142–151, 153, 155–158, 160 Non killing, 63 Nonviolence, 4–6, 8, 32, 53, 59, 60, 63–68, 70, 71, 75, 77, 79, 86, 96, 101, 102, 107, 144, 153–155, 160 Non violence, 71, 108, 160

P Peace, 1, 5–9, 11, 14–19, 24–31, 33, 35, 38, 41, 46, 52, 54, 55, 59–61, 63, 64, 66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77, 79, 86–89, 93, 95, 96, 111, 114, 117, 124–126, 128, 135, 136, 139, 142–150, 153, 155–172 Peace building, 30, 144, 153 Philosophy, 2–6, 8, 9, 13, 15–17, 24, 32, 35, 36, 59, 60, 63, 64, 66–68, 77, 80, 85, 90, 91, 93, 101, 102, 111, 114, 115, 117, 119, 120, 139, 141, 144, 147–149, 151–156, 158, 159 Politics, 13–15, 22, 24, 29, 32, 33, 37, 38, 41, 44, 50, 71, 114, 144, 149, 156

Power, 1, 3, 7, 8, 13–26, 28–33, 35, 36, 39–41, 43–45, 47, 50–52, 54, 57, 60, 63, 66, 67, 70, 72, 77–80, 84, 85, 90, 91, 97–99, 102, 104, 105, 119, 120, 122, 124, 136, 137, 139–141, 144, 147–149, 151, 157, 162 Psychology, 5, 6, 36, 40, 43, 53–56, 59, 115, 116, 122, 149

R Revolution, 1, 2, 8, 24, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 67, 73, 76, 95, 102, 103, 105–107, 109, 115–117, 120, 142, 148, 154, 157, 158 Rights, 2, 8, 31, 38–40, 44, 52, 64, 65, 68, 73, 78, 83, 85, 87, 90, 91, 98, 101–103, 106, 108, 109, 119, 135–137, 139, 142, 148, 149, 153, 155, 158, 160, 162–165, 167, 171

S Spirituality, 18, 77, 79, 151 Suicide, 4, 7, 12, 40, 54, 95, 112, 125–127, 146, 158

T Tagore, Rabindranath, 1, 59, 76–84, 86, 111, 139, 140, 147, 151, 153 Terrorism, 51, 63, 76, 86–89, 111, 112, 117, 119, 120, 125, 126, 145, 146, 159

W War, 1, 4–7, 9, 12–22, 24–27, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 50, 53, 56, 59, 60, 63, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 83, 142