The New Tibetan-English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan [2 ed.] 0520204379

The New Tibetan-English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan surpasses existing dictionaries in both scope and comprehensiveness

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The New Tibetan-English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan [2 ed.]
 0520204379

Table of contents :
Goldstein Tibetan-English Dictionary......Page 2
Ka......Page 20
Kha......Page 106
Ga......Page 192
Nga......Page 312
Ca......Page 348
Cha......Page 368
Ja......Page 406
Nya......Page 426
Ta......Page 462
Tha......Page 502
Da......Page 542
Na......Page 620
Pa......Page 660
Pha......Page 692
Ba......Page 732
Ma......Page 802
Tsa......Page 864
Tsha......Page 888
Dza......Page 922
Wa......Page 938
Zha......Page 940
Za......Page 972
'A......Page 998
Ya......Page 1006
Ra......Page 1034
La......Page 1072
Sha......Page 1104
Sa......Page 1128
Ha......Page 1186
A......Page 1202
Addendum and Errata to The New Tibetan-English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan......Page 1211

Citation preview

The New Tibetan-English Dictionary of Modern Tibetan Melvyn C. Goldstein Editor

T. N. Shelling and J. T. Surkhang Assistant Editors

WITH THE HELP OF

Pierre Robillard

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS

Berkeley • Los Angeles • London

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England ©2001 by The Regents of the University of California

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The new Tibetan-English dictionary of modern Tibetan I Melvyn C. Goldstein, editor; T. N. Shelling and J. T. Surkhang, assistant editors ; with the help of Pierre Robillard. p. cm. ISBN 0-520-20437-9 (alk. paper) 1. Tibetan language-Dictionaries-English. I. Goldstein, Melvyn C. II. Shelling, T. N. III. Surkhang, J. T. PL3637.E5 N48 2001 495'.4321-dc21

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Printed in the United States of America 08

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The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ANSI!NISO Z39.48-1992 (R 1997) (Pennanence of Paper)[email protected]

Contents

Acknowledgments and Preface ............................................... vii Pronunciation ............................................................. ix Using the Dictionary .................................. .' .................... xi Grammatical Introduction .................................................. xiii Abbreviations ........................................................... xvii Tibetan-English Dictionary ................................................... 1

Acknowledgments and Preface The opening of Tibetan areas in China to the outside world and the development of numerous Tibetan communities in exile have brought Western students and researchers face-to-face with an enormous mass of Modern Tibetan official and unofficial written materials. This dictionary has been prepared to assist Westerners to read those materials. Compilation of the dictionary was made possible by grants from the International Research and Studies Program ofthe Department ofEducation (P017A30010) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (RT-21671-95), and I am grateful for their support of this project. I am also very grateful to Tashi Tsering and Ben Jiao for their careful and thoughtful assistance in defining lexical entries, to Pierre Robillard for his unstinting advice and assistance in creating and fine-tuning the Tibetan and linguistic fonts and for converting the entire dictionary into camera-ready copy. And last but certainly not least, I also want to offer thanks to Jan McDonald for her help in proofreading the final camera-ready copy and the many graduate and undergraduate students at Case Western Reserve University who worked on this project. This dictionary of modern Tibetan contains a wide range of lexical items used in political, social, economic, literary and scientific discourse. It includes the tens of thousands of new words that have been coined or have come into use since the incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China in 1951, as well as new terminology used in the Tibetan exile communities in South Asia. It also contains the core lexical terminology that is used in everyday life and standard modern writing, together with a large corpus of proverbs and sayings that appear frequently in contemporary literary materials. In addition, the dictionary includes lexical items characteristic of the specialized genre called I:Jjln,·~"i·~·a:;t:IJ~·~""·, \Ji''>ln_·z:;;~~:.·~n,-a:;t!]'>l'',p:::, :!F~n_-.qz:;;·~c:,'>j·, .q'=i·~·ia-J·~'ll·~·,~w, ~-~I:Jj~·qfil\'~""·, ~-f'a·ia-J'~t:IJ·~· ~

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The main novels, folktales and histories that were utilized were: t!]~t:IJ·t!]~·, 'l'l'~t:IJ~·l:lp)a-J'~"'i·; "\Sn.J·L:if3,·~a-J·J;t:,·~· .:>:,t:,·~·n:)·~'>l·Qiz:;;·Ji"· ~z:;;·il:;t:IJ ~·!!:le· ~- ~n_-~"·il:;I:Jj. ~- ~n_·~~:.·q·q~ ""·q· q~'>j· ~""· a:;c:,·~·t:IJ7a-l'~""· fiF'il)I:Jj·m""·~·~·~z:;;· ' ~z:;;· i"·"c:.·~·!:IJC3:J;q'a-J' ...., ' ....,...., ~....,,

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.:x;~:.·~~:.·.;a~:.'>l:o, t!]'>l""·q~f3,·:;"i·~·, ~t:,·~c·qz:;;a-J~·q~z:q'>l·, ~c:.·t:IJ7a-l'I:Jj'>l""'ia-J·§·.lj~·s·~"i·~n.J·~1'"\::1"\'l:l]~n,-~·a:;.qz:;;a-J'>l'~I:Jj~·. In addition to these materials, a variety of dictionaries, glossaries and word lists have also been consulted: From CHINA z:;;~·.q.lj'>l'i'>l·~·:!Jtlj~·. q.e(z:;;t!]·~~:.-~I:Jj·l:lj'>li1.1'-CJ'-CJ~I:Jj~·. China, 1957. ll:l!·~z:q·a-J·~.:x:,·i1.1a-J'-CJ.;at::.·. China, 1958. "\t:IJ'~tlJ·I:Jj~-'·q~t:IJ~·. China, 1979.

viii

;;·i;ir:;·$Jc:.·a-t~z:;;·. China, 1979.

i;iz:;;·~·4il\.~'"'-·~·~·~B:r:rll!z:;;·d;llJ·a-t~r:;·. China, 1983. ~c:.·z:;;~·~il\· (Ed.). ~·2:ir:;·d;'l]·a-tlz:;;·~d)·Ji·, China, 1985. z:;;ZJ·.i~·~·qf.i.·q·~;z:;;-8·. China, 1986. ,n:-~il\'~il\· and iJ\~·~