The New Crusaders: Images Of The Crusades In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries 1859283330, 9781859283332

This is the first comprehensive study of the use, abuse and development of the crusade image in popular and high culture

445 117 5MB

English Pages 256 [254] Year 2000

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

The New Crusaders: Images Of The Crusades In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries
 1859283330, 9781859283332

Table of contents :
The New Crusaders
Contents
The Nineteenth Century General Editors’ Preface
Introduction
1 Crusade historiography
2 The crusade ancestor and hero
3 Travellers and plenipotentiaries
4 Crusading warfare
5 First world war
6 A crusade miscellany
7 Scott and the crusades
8 The crusades in literature
9 Popular historical fiction and tales for children
10 Art and the crusades
11 Music and the crusades
Conclusion
Salles des croisades at Versailles - list of subjects and artists
Select Bibliography
Index

Citation preview

The New Crusaders

The New Crusaders Images o f the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

ELIZABETH SIBERRY

Ashgate Aldershot • Burlington USA • Singapore • Sydney

© Elizabeth Siberry, 2000 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without prior pemission of the publisher. The author has asserted her moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this woik. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hants GU11 3HR England

Ashgate Publishing Company 131 Main Street Burlington Vermont, 05401-5600 USA

Ashgate website: http://www.ashgate.com

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Siberry, Elizabeth The New Crusaders: Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries - (Nineteenth Century Series). 1. Crusades. 2. Crusades - Public Opinion - History - 19th Century. 3. Crusades Public Opinion - History - 20th Century. 4. Crusades in Literature, i. Title 909*.07 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Siberry, Elizabeth The New Crusaders: Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries / Elizabeth Siberry. p. cm. - (The Nineteenth Century Series) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Crusades - Historiography. I. Title. II. Nineteenth Century (Aldershot, England) D156.58.S53 2000 909.07-dc21 99-049698 CIP

ISBN 1 85928 333 0 Typeset in Times by Password, Norwich, UK. This book is printed on acid free paper. Printed and bound by Athenaeum Press, Ltd., Gateshead, Tyne & Wear.

Contents General Editors’ Preface Introduction

vii ix

1

Crusade historiography

1

2

The crusade ancestor and hero

39

3

Travellers and plenipotentiaries

64

4

Crusading warfare

73

5

First world war

87

6

A Crusade miscellany

104

7

Scott and the crusades

112

8

Literature and the crusades

131

9

Popular historical fiction and tales for children

150

10

Art and the crusades

161

11

Music and the crusades

175

Conclusion

188

Appendix A Wiffen’s List of English Crusaders B Sir William Hillary’s Crusade Pamphlet C List of works in the Salles des Croisades at Versailles

190 203 208

Select Bibliography

212

Index

221

The Nineteenth Century General Editors’ Preface The aim of this series is to reflect, develop and extend the great burgeon­ ing of interest in the nineteenth century that has been an inevitable feature of recent decades, as that former epoch has come more sharply into focus as a locus for our understanding, not only of the past but of the contours of our modernity. Though it is dedicated principally to the publication o f origi­ nal monographs and symposia in literature, history, cultural analysis and associated fields, there will be a salient role for reprints of significant texts from, or about, the period. Our overarching policy is to address the widest scope in chronology, approach and range of concern. This, we believe, distinguishes our project from comparable ones, and means, for example, that in the relevant areas o f scholarship we both recognise and cut innovatively across such perimeters as those suggested by the designa­ tions ‘Romantic’ and ‘Victorian’. We welcome new ideas, while valuing tradition. It is hoped that the world which predates yet so forcibly predicts and engages our own will emerge in parts, as a whole, and in the lively currents of debate and change that are so manifest an aspect of its intellec­ tual, artistic and social landscape. Vincent Newey Joanne Shattock University o f Leicester

vii

Introduction Recent writing on the crusades has underlined the fact that the crusading movement did not end with the fall of Acre in 1291. In addition to the series of expeditions to the eastern Mediterranean in the later Middle Ages, there were major encounters between Christian and Moslem forces in the early modem period, for example the Hapsburg victory at Lepanto in 1571 and the defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the gates of Vienna in 1683. In fa c t. there is ample evidence that crusade schemes were discussed well into the nineteenth century and the term and image are still widely used today. This continuity of crusading was outlined in Paul Rousset’s Histoire d'une idéologie, La Croisade, published in 1983 and it is very much the theme of The Oxford Illustrated History o f the Crusades, edited by Jonathan RileySmith and published in 1995, which treats the crusading movement as a continuum, from its origins in eleventh century Europe to the present day. It also provides the framework for Christopher Tyerman’s recent book, The Invention o f the Crusades (1998). My contribution to the Oxford volume was a chapter entitled ‘Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries.’ My interest in this subject has evolved over a number of years and has now overtaken my earlier research on the expeditions themselves and criticism of crusading, although it is interesting to see the continuity of several themes of criti­ cism in crusade historiography over the centuries. Within the confines of a chapter in a general history, I could only provide an introduction to the subject. I am grateful to Alec McAulay and Ashgate Publishing for offer­ ing me an opportunity to tackle the subject, which as far as I am aware has not been considered in any detail elsewhere, in more depth. I have taken as my timeframe the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but obviously attitudes towards the crusades did not change dramatically on 1 January 1800. Inevitably some of the trends which are a feature of the nine­ teenth century, such as the romanticization of the Middle Ages can be traced back to the previous century. For example, Horace Walpole’s Gothic novella The Castle o f Otranto, published in 1764, purported to be a translation of an Italian story set in the time of the crusades and, as will be discussed later, Walpole took a close interest in his alleged crusading ancestors. Equally, not all observers and writers in the nineteenth century saw the past through a rosy haze and there are some examples of a more critical approach interspersed throughout the period. At the other end of the timeframe, the conclusion o f the First World War is a more appropriate cut off point than 1900.

X

INTRODUCTION

There are many different ways in which an image can be portrayed and promoted. There are the facts of the crusades set out in histories of the movement, both scholarly and designed for the general reader; edited or translated primary source material; and manuals or histories of chivalry. An analysis of crusading historiography in this period therefore forms the first chapter of this book. In Chapter Two, I discuss the part played by the crusades in creating a national historical perspective and more specifically the advantage to be gained from a crusading ancestor or hero, in helping to establish or confirm medieval credentials. In the course of the nineteenth century, travel to the Middle East became much easier and, to the extent that they mention the crusades, the accounts of travellers and government representatives form the subject of Chapter Three. Chapters Four and Five look at some specific schemes to mount new crusades for the Christian reoccupation of the Holy Land and the development of crusade imagery in the context of contemporary conflicts such as the Crimean War, culminat­ ing in the First World War. And Chapter Six outlines the wider use of the crusade term and image in connection with a range of contemporary politi­ cal, religious and social campaigns. I will argue, however, that for most in the nineteenth century, the image of the crusades is likely to have come from popular culture in a variety of forms, ranging from the novels of Sir Walter Scott, to Romantic and PreRaphaelite poetry and from children’s literature to art and music (in all its forms). Whilst each artist brought a different perspective to his or her work, one can identify certain basic sources of crusade imagery and there are a number of common themes or favourite subjects developed in the various artistic mediums. This varied use of the crusade image forms the subject for the remaining five chapters of this book. With the exception of Chapter One, I have decided to adopt a thematic rather than a chronological approach, but one obvious question which I try to address is whether there is any clear linkage between contemporary poli­ tics or events in the Middle East and artistic interest in the subject of the crusades. My subject is inevitably very broadly based and in order to draw out examples of crusade imagery, I will touch on complex political issues such as the Eastern Question, which are major and controversial subjects in their own right, meriting their own monographs and bibliographies. I will also be skating across the cultural history of the period in all its mani­ festations. Here again there is a vast corpus of scholarship on which to draw, as well as the works themselves in numerous galleries, museums, private collections and libraries and all I have sought to do is to provide a selection of examples to illustrate my argument. There are two ways o f approaching nineteenth century and later medievalism; as a medievalist and crusade historian with a knowledge of the original sources or from the perspective of a modern historian firmly

INTRODUCTION

XI

rooted in the period under discussion. I obviously fall into the former category, but I have tried to read as widely as possible to anchor my com­ ments in current research. I have also been conscious of the danger, in focussing on a single image, of overstating its importance and recognise that however popular and widely used, the crusades and crusaders were but one of a menu of options available to nineteenth and early twentieth century image makers. The wider subject of the Victorians and medieval chivalry has of course been analysed by Mark Girouard in his The Return to Camelot, subtitled Chivalry and the English Gentleman (1981). The focus of my research and thus this book has been Britain, which in itself provides a very rich source of crusade imagery. To attempt to pro­ vide a universal and international analysis would have made the subject unmanageable. There is, however, ample evidence that it was not simply a British phenomenon and to illustrate this, I have tried to set my comments in a wider context by quoting examples of the use of crusade imagery else­ where in Europe and, on occasion, further afield. Some of the examples which I will cite are well known. Others will, I hope, be less familiar and I have certainly tried to pick illustrations which are not easily available elsewhere and supplement the selection which I chose several years ago for The Oxford Illustrated History. They take a variety of forms, from a watercolour by the Princess (later Queen) Victoria and fancy dress costume, to a Punch cartoon and a medieval glass vessel which was probably brought home by a crusader and is now preserved in a London museum. Apart from many hours in libraries, I have found some examples of cru­ sade imagery purely by chance, for example a war memorial in a small rural parish church and a painting in a provincial or foreign art gallery. I make no claim to have exhausted the subject, but the trends are, I believe, sufficiently clear from the examples which I have used to draw certain conclusions. I hope that readers of this book will be able to add to the examples and range of imagery available in this period and look forward in due course to adding to my collection. All authors owe a debt of thanks to those who have offered advice and support along the way. I would like to thank in particular the staff of the British Library, University Library Cambridge, London Library and Witt Library for their help and patience in responding to my requests. The Royal Archives at Windsor allowed me to read the Journals of Albert Edward Prince of Wales and the Princes Albert and George and Pamela Willis and the staff of the Library of St John at Clerkenwell gave me access to the Hillary papers. I would also like to thank my former research supervisor Professor Jonathan Riley-Smith; Dr Peter Edbury and Dr Helen Nicholson for general advice and encouragement and the following for help with spe­ cific queries - Mr Christopher Terry of Brougham Hall; Dr Clare Willsden;

xii

INTRODUCTION

M r David Roberts, Keeper o f Archives and Historical Photographs at Renfrewshire Council; M r Nicholas Hewitt of the National Inventory of War Memorials; Canon Malcolm Forrest and Revd Robert Thompson of All Saints’ Church, Wigan; M r B. Blakeman of Heritage Services, Wigan; the Parish Council of St Mary’s Higham; Dr Peter Garside of Cardiff Uni­ versity; Ms Tessa Chester of the Museum of Childhood; the Curator of Brodsworth Hall, Yorkshire; the Royal Collection; the Irish Genealogical Office, Dublin; Hugh Cheape and Emma Robinson of the National Muse­ ums of Scotland; and Angela Gaffney of the National Museum of Wales.

CHAPTER ONE

Crusade historiography The most obvious way to begin an analysis of nineteenth and early twenti­ eth century im ages and perceptions o f the crusades is to look a t contemporary histories and consider the authors’ access to firsthand ac­ counts of the expeditions in the original Latin or translation and what use they made of this source material. More than half a century ago, crusade historiography formed the subject of two articles by T.S.R. Boase and J.L. La Monte in History (1937) and Speculum (1940) and this subject has been analysed more recently by Jonathan Riley-Smith, in the introductory chapter to the Oxford Illustrated History o f the Crusades and by Christopher Tyerman in his book The In­ vention o f the Crusades. There are also of course various bibliographies of crusade studies by, for example, A.S. Atiya (1962) and H.E. Mayer (1960). As far as I am aware, however, there has not to date been a detailed exami­ nation of British crusade historiography in the nineteenth century, a key period for crusade historiography in Europe and which in some ways still provides the foundations for modern writing on the crusading movement. My definition of historiography will be quite broad and extends from the scholarly account based on careful analysis of primary sources to the more popular and idiosyncratic end of the market. The only real exclusion is histories designed solely for children, which are discussed in a later chap­ ter on children’s literature. At the beginning of the last century, the three most familiar accounts of the crusades available to the English speaking reader were probably those by David Hume, William Robertson and Edward Gibbon. All formed part of larger works by these notable historians and they echoed, and were ech­ oed by, references to the crusading movement in a series of histories of Britain, Europe and the western Church by other Protestant historians of the Enlightenment such as the Scottish Calvinist John Brown. There was also a clear link with earlier historians such as the Cambridge divine Tho­ mas Fuller, whose History o f the Holy Warre was published in 1639. The picture which they painted of the crusading movement was consistent and less than complimentary. Hume’s eight volume History o f England from the invasion o f Julius Cae­ sar to the Revolution in 1688 was published in 1761. In a sentence which has been quoted by numerous modem historians, Hume wrote of the: tumult o f the crusades, which now engrossed the attention of Europe, and

2

THE NEW CRUSADERS

have ever since engaged the curiosity of mankind, as the most signal and dura­ ble monument of human folly that has yet appeared in any age or nation.

He was critical not only of the movement itself, but also of those individuals perceived by contemporaries and later historians as crusade heroes. Thus Hume wrote that Peter the Hermit’s ’folly was well calculated to coincide with the prevailing principles of the time’ and he concluded of King Louis IX o f France, Saint Louis, that the ‘great, if only weakness of this prince in his government, was the imprudent passion for the crusades.’ A nother Scottish historian and close associate of Hume, W illiam Robertson, Principal of Edinburgh University and Historiographer of Scot­ land, saw some benefit in the crusades in terms of exposure to different countries and traditions and their commercial consequences, but overall he agreed with Hume and used very similar language: Before the expiration of the thirteenth century, the Christians were driven out o f all their Asiatic possessions, in acquiring o f which incredible numbers of men had perished, and immense sums of money had been wasted. The only common enterprise in which the European nations ever engaged, and which they all undertook with equal ardour, remains a singular monument of human folly.

This analysis appeared in his History o f the Reign o f the Emperor Charles V, subtitled With a View o f the Progress o f Society in Europe from the sub­ version o f the Roman Empire to the beginning o f the sixteenth century, a four volume work published in 1769 and in its tenth edition by 1802. In his Disquisition concerning Ancient India, published in 1791, Robertson again referred to ‘this pbrensy, the most singular perhaps, and the longest con­ tinued, of any that occurs in the history of our species.’ His focus, however, was the commercial consequences of the crusading movement and how far it contributed to ‘retard or promote the conveyance o f Indian commodities into Europe.’ In this context, Robertson conceded that the crusades had at least been a contributory factor in the commercial development o f Europe and the Eastern trade. This was also part of a wider European historiographical tradition. In France, Voltaire wrote of the ‘madness for the crusades’ in his Essai sur les Moeurs et l ’Esprit, published in 1756 and lamented that they had drained Europe of its men and money ‘without their having the least contributed to civilize it.’ He expressed similar sentiments in an article on the crusades in bis Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences and his History o f Frederick Barbarossa. And, in his Geschichte der Kreuzzuge nach dem heiligen Lande, published in 1784 , the German crusade historian Friedrich Heller warned, ‘Urban and Peter, the corpses of two million o f men lie heavy on your graves, and will fearfully summon you on the day o f judgem ent.’ Some further exam ples o f this type of European

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

3

crusade historiography in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centu­ ries are quoted in lÿ e n n a n ’s recent book. Returning however to eighteenth century British crusade historiography, Edward Gibbon seems to have had an early fascination with the Orient and wished to learn Arabic at Oxford, writing 'before I was sixteen, I had ex­ hausted all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tartars and the Turks.’ In the end he turned to the Roman Empire and his multi-volume The Decline and Fall was published between 1776 and 1788 and in numerous editions (complete and abridged) thereafter. The history of the Byzantine Empire and the crusades formed the main subject of vol- ' ume six and Gibbon drew on Voltaire amongst others, contrasting the First Crusade with less successful subsequent expeditions: The enthusiasm of the First Crusade is a natural and simple event, while hope was fresh, danger untried and enterprise congenial to the spirit of the times. But the obstinate perseverance of Europe may indeed excite our pity and admira­ tion; that no instruction should have been drawn from constant and adverse experience; that the same confidence should have repeatedly grown from the same failures; that six succeeding generations should have rushed headlong down the precipice that was open before them; and that men of every condition should have staked their public and private fortunes on the desperate adventure of pos­ sessing or recovering a tombstone two thousand miles away from their country.

Gibbon noted the pride, avarice, corruption and fanaticism of the Christian soldier and, although some years earlier he had considered Richard the Lionheart as the subject for a biography, he wrote o f Richard the crusader, 'if heroism be confined to brutal and ferocious valour, Richard Plantagenet will stand high above the heroes of the age.’ Whilst he recognised that the crusades had, to some extent, been a force for change, overall Gibbon con­ cluded that they had 'checked rather than forwarded the maturity of Europe.’ His theme was the destructiveness of religion and barbarism and he identi­ fied a series o f cycles of Christian and Moslem history; the crusades proclaimed against the Saracens then turned against the Byzantine Em­ pire, with the sack of Constantinople on the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and ultimately the recapture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Like some modem historians, Gibbon also maintained that one cause of failure was: the abuse and multiplication of the crusades, which were preached at the same time against the pagans of Livonia, the Moors of Spain, the Albigeois of France, and the kings of Sicily of the Imperial family.

Gibbon prided himself upon his scholarship and scrutiny of original sources and in his biography (1988), Roy Porter noted that there are over 8000 source references in The Decline and Fall. His footnotes are therefore a

4

THE NEW CRUSADERS

good guide to what was available to the crusade historian in the late eight­ eenth century. One basic source of crusade texts was the Gesta Dei per Francos, over 1500 pages, published in Hanau in 1611 by the Huguenot diplomat Jacques Bongars, who used it as a vehicle to underline the contribution made by France and its royal house to the crusading movement. Bongars thus delib­ erately took the title of Guibert of Nogent’s account of the First Crusade and dedicated the first part of his collection to King Louis XIII. Judging by the copies now available in major research libraries, the Gesta Dei had quite a wide dissemination in Britain and it contained all the main sources for the First Crusade, enabling Gibbon, who nicknamed it Gesta diaboli per Francos, to do some critical analysis of accounts of the main events of that expedition. He also used a collection of the key French texts assem­ bled by the antiquaries André and François Duchesne in their Historia Francorum Scriptores, published in five volumes between 1639 and 1649 and texts from another collection, the Thesaurus novus anecdotorum, ed­ ited by Edmond Martène and published in five volumes in Paris in 1717. In addition, there were several other eighteenth century collections of French, German and Italian chronicles available, for example in the Rerum Italicarum scriptores, published in Milan from 1723. Gibbon was fortunate to have a large private library and seems to have bad his own copies not only of Bongars, but also, for example, collections of medieval French and Italian chronicles by Bouquet (Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, 1738-86) and Muratori ( Annali d ‘Italia and Antiquitates Italicae medii aevi, 1753-56 and 1738-42) respectively. He also had seventeenth and eighteenth century editions of the accounts of later cru­ sades by Saint Louis’s biographer Joinville and the thirteenth century monastic chronicler of Saint Albans Matthew Paris and the histories of Hume and Robertson. From the text of The Decline and Fall, we know that other pri­ mary sources consulted by Gibbon included The Alexiad, by Anna Comnena, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus and a translated ex­ tract of William of Tyre’s Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis (in addition to the original in Bongars), entitled the History of the First Crusade and Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. William of Tyre’s History had in fact been available in an English translation since 1481, when it was printed by William Caxton as Godefroy o f Bologne, or the Siege and Conquest o f Jerusalem. It was subsequently re-edited for the Early English Text Society in 1893. For the First Crusade, inevitably, Gibbon also referred to Torquato Tasso’s epic poem Gerusalemme Liberata (Jerusalem Delivered) and his library included two copies in the original Italian (1581) and the English transla­ tion by Edward Fairfax (1600). First published in 1581, although Tasso was in fact working on some form of rhymed stanzaic poem on the First Crusade between 1560 and 1593, Gerusalemme Liberata was written

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

5

against the background of the wars between Christians and Turks in the Eastern Mediterranean, culminating in the Christian victory at Lepanto in 1571 in which his father Bernardo took part. The Argument summarised the basic story as follows: God inspires the crusaders to elect as their captain Godfrey (of Bouillon) who promptly marches to besiege Jerusalem (Cantos 1-3). Satan dispatches his fallen angels to thwart the crusaders, through overt and covert actions (Cantos 4-9). God then forbids further covert action by the devils, but permits them to haunt an enchanted wood, the only possible source of materials for Godfrey’s siege machines. Thereupon God sends Dame Fortune to guide two crusaders (Carlo and Ubaldo) who bring back the Christian knight Rinaldo from the enchantress Annida’s prison of love in the Fortunate Isles (Cantos 10-16). The returned Rinaldo destroys the enchantments and the final assault liberates Jerusalem (Can­ tos 1 7 -20).

In addition to the central relationship between Rinaldo and Armida, there are two sub plots involving thwarted love; the love of the crusader Tancred for Clorinda, whom he unwittingly kills and the unresolved love of the shepherdess Erminia for Tancred. Whilst the background and main charac­ ters come from the First Crusade and Tasso was known to have consulted some primary sources such as William of ly re and another historian of the expedition, Robert of Rheims, he used extensive poetic licence. Thus he introduced variations and characters such as Armida and Clorinda, the lat­ ter justified by a chronicle reference that the Saracen women fought against the crusaders. Tunings and dates were also amended for dramatic purposes, in particular Tasso doubled the length of the expedition (six rather than three years from the crusaders’ departure to the capture of Jerusalem) to ‘increase the hardships and dangers of the enterprise.’ Tasso’s influence and role in the development of the image of the cru­ sades in the nineteenth century will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. As I have argued in an article published elsewhere, however, it is difficult to overestimate the influence of Gerusalemme Liberata and as a purveyor of a crusade image to later generations through a variety o f artis­ tic mediums, it will feature in almost every chapter of this book. Gibbon, Hume and Robertson would still have been widely available in the nineteenth century. For example, Gibbon’s crusade chapters were pub­ lished separately in a series on classic English writers in 1870. It was, however, the nineteenth century which can really be said to mark the be­ ginnings of crusade historiography, based on an analysis of primary sources, which in turn were edited and published and therefore more widely avail­ able. The first major source collection chronologically was the four volume Bibliothèque des croisades, published in 1829 by the French royalist his­ torian Joseph Francois Michaud. Its genesis and the context in which it

6

THE NEW CRUSADERS

was produced will be discussed later, but it took the form of translated extracts of the texts in Bongars and Duchesne, and Michaud stated in his Introduction that his purpose was to make these sources available to a wide range of readers. Volume one covered the chronicles o f France; two Eng­ land and Italy; three the Nordic countries, Greece and Turkey and four Arabic texts. The latter was particularly important, since for the first time a crusade scholar unable to read Arabic could see both sides of the story, Christian and Moslem. In parallel, work continued on what became the Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, published in Paris between 1841 and 1906. In fact Michaud was a prominent member of the committee which coordinated the produc­ tion of the Recueil and his Arabic translator, Reinaud, who served as curator o f the king of France’s oriental manuscripts, also worked on its Arabic texts. The collection and publication of western crusade chronicles by the Benedictines of Saint Maur had begun decades earlier, but was interrupted by the French Revolution. It was however resumed by the Académie des Inscriptions et des Belles Lettres and the finished product consisted of a number of separate collections: Historiens Occidentaux (5 volumes 184495); Lois (2 volum es 1841-44); Historiens Orientaux (5 volum es 1872-1906); Historiens Grecs (2 volumes 1875-81); and Documents Armeniens (2 volumes 1869). It was a significant and lasting achievement. Although in most cases historians now have access to more modern edi­ tions, for some works the only published edition still remains the Recueil. In addition, the Société de 1’Orient Latin, founded in 1875 by Count Paul Riant in Paris and Geneva, published the two volume Archives de l’Orient Latin (1881-43) and editions of a number of minor sources for the Fourth Crusade. In England, a number of crusade texts or chronicles which described events on the crusades were published as part of the Chronicles and Memorials o f Great Britain and Ireland in the Middle Ages (London, 1858-1911). The series is more popularly known as the Rolls series, because it originated from a submission from the Master of the Rolls to the Treasury in January 1857 suggesting the publication of material, under competent editors, for the history of this ‘country from the invasion of the Romans to the reign of Henry VIII.’ Its volumes included an account of the Third Crusade in the Itinerarium régis Ricardi (1864) and the thirteenth century expeditions in Matthew Paris’s Chronica maiora (1872-83). Some o f these works were also available in individual seventeenth century editions and collections of English sources by, for example, Thomas Gale ( Historiae anglicanae scriptores quinque 1687) and W illiam Camden (Anglia, Hibernica, Normannica, Cambrica, a veteribus scripta 1602). In addition, the English reader would have had access to a number of English translations of crusade texts. In 1848, the publishers Bohn issued

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

Chronicles o f the Crusades ‘being contemporary narratives of the Cru­ sade of Richard the Lionheart by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey of Vinsauf and the Crusade of Saint Louis by Lord John of Joinville’ in their Antiquarian Library series. As will be discussed in a later chapter, there was a particular interest in individual crusading leaders and heroes and in England of course it was Richard the Lionheart. The Preface to the Bohn edition described the works chosen as ‘three most interesting contemporary chronicles of the crusades which have been handed down to us; two of them recording very fully the romantic deeds o f our lionhearted Plantagenet; the third the chivalric career of the pious and exemplary Saint Louis of France.’ The Latin text of Richard of Devizes had already been published by the English Historical Society in 1838 and the translation used by Bohn was first published in 1841; there was a further translation in 1858 and Richard of Devizes was edited in the Rolls series in 1886. There were at least two nineteenth century English translations of Joinville; one by Thomas Johnes, published by Hafod press in 1807 and the second by James Hutton in 1868, which had reached a sixth edition in 1892. By 1829, the English reader could also have turned to a firsthand account o f the Fourth C rusade, nam ely G eoffrey o f Villehardouin’s History o f the Conquest o f Constantinople, although this translation and edition does not seem to have been widely avail­ able. Sir Frank M arzials, A ccountant G eneral o f the Army from 1898-1904 and the biographer of Charles Dickens and Victor Hugo, who published translations of Joinville and Villehardouin in the Every­ man Library in 1908, noted, however, that the Third Crusade was the one in which Englishmen took most interest, because of Richard’s in­ volvement and the influence of Sir Walter Scott. Reviewing his chosen subject, the Fourth Crusade, M arzials provided a personal perspective of the positive and negative sides of crusading: Did he [crusade preacher Fulk of Neuilly] ever dwell at all, one wonders, on the story of the crusades that had already been undertaken? Did he unfold for his hearers that tragic and teiTible scroll in the history of men - a scroll on which are recorded in strange intermingled, fantastic characters, tales of saintly heroism, and fraud, and greed, and cruelty and wrong - of sufferings at which one sickens and foul deeds at which one sickens more, and acts of devotion and high courage that have found their place among the heirlooms and glo­ ries of mankind.

What did the nineteenth century historian make of these texts and how (and why) did this differ from the perspective of his predecessors? The great nineteenth century crusade historians were to be found in France and Germany rather than Britain. Mention has already been made of Michaud’s Bibliothèque des croisades. This bad been preceded by his

7

8

THE NEW CRUSADERS

six volume Histoire des croisades, published in Paris between 1817 and 1822. A major landmark in European crusade historiography, it was re­ vised after 1831 and already in its sixth edition by 1841, with an English translation in 1852. The 1877 edition included one hundred engravings by Gustave Doré and the work was in its nineteenth edition by 1899. It was also translated into Russian, German and Italian. Michaud’s interest in the crusades seems to have been stimulated partly by his study of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition, partly by the influence of his friend, the writer and traveller the Vicomte de Chateaubriand, who will be discussed in a later chapter and partly by a romantic novel set against the background of the Third Crusade by Madame Sophie Cottin, again of whom more later. Michaud lamented that the deeds of the crusaders should have fallen into obscurity; that those who ‘possess learning and the skill to write, have left these histories neglected’; and the Preface to William Robson’s 1852 English translation described the crusades as one of the most important events of the Middle Ages, ‘not only instructive, but ex­ traordinary, supplying abundance of edifying matter to the statesman, the philosopher, the poet, the novelist and the citizen.’ As recent articles by Kim Mulholland and Adam Knobler have shown, however, Michaud needs to be read in the context of the restored Bourbon monarchy, which, like Chateaubriand, he served as a deputy in the Na­ tional Assembly. He was keen to remind contemporaries of past French (royal and national) glories and achievements and used the crusades to instruct his readers: Without believing that the holy wars have done all the good or all the harm that is attributed to them ... it may be said that after having for a time seriously agitated and shaken society, they have, in the end, much strengthened the foun­ dations of it ... The present generation, which has passed through so many calamities, will not see without interest that Providence sometimes employs great revolutions to enlighten mankind, and to ensure the future prosperity of empires.

In the Preface to the Bibliothèque, Michaud argued that such work was ‘worthy of being encouraged by the descendants of St Louis and Louis XIV* and he duly obtained funding from Charles X, who liked to be com­ pared w ith his cru sad in g a n ce sto r L ouis IX, for h is jo u rn e y to Constantinople, Jerusalem, Syria and Egypt to examine the sites of the crusades in 1830-31. Michaud’s seven volumes of correspondence from this pilgrimage were published in 1833-35. This was also the golden age o f German crusade historiography. For example the monumental seven volume Geschichte der Kreuzzuge nach morgenländischen und abendländischen Berichten was published between 1807 and 1832 by Friedrich Wilken, Professor of History at Heidelberg. In 1880 a later German crusade historian, Reinhold Röhricht

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

9

wrote that W ilken’s work remained a key text and much of it was unsur­ p assed by m ore re c en t research. A fu rth e r m ilesto n e in cru sad e historiography was Heinrich von Sybel’s careful comparative analysis of sources in his 1841 History o f the First Crusade and his lectures deliv­ ered in Munich in 1855 (all translated into English by Lady D uff Gordon in 1861). Textual criticism apart, Sybel commented that the crusades were ‘one of the greatest revolutions that has ever taken place in the history of the human race’ and provided a rather colourful description of the at­ mosphere at the Council of Clermont: Such a state o f mind, we, in our fast and far travelling days can hardly under­ stand; it was much as if a large army were now to embark in balloons, in order to conquer an island between the earth and moon, which was also expected to contain the earthly paradise.

Britain produced historians of equivalent stature, but no one in this first historiographical division writing specifically about the crusades. In the course of the nineteenth century, there were, however, a number of British crusade histories, which provided a range of interpretations and assess­ ments of the crusade movement. They give an indication of what would have been available to the contemporary reader and student and, as will be seen, the authors approached the subject of the crusades from a variety of perspectives and employed very different historical methodology and styles. Although my main focus here will be on works devoted to the crusading movement, other historians would of course have included chapters on this subject in more general histories of the church, Britain and western Eu­ rope. I will also include some examples of essays, lectures and review articles which referred to the crusades. In terms of structure, there are two possible approaches to this subject: chronological and thematic. I have decided to take the former, since one key question is whether it is possible to identify a clear development of historiography during this period linked to particular events in, and British policy towards, the Middle East. A chronology also provides a useful frame­ work for the analysis of other approaches to the development of the image of the crusades in later chapters. A good starting point is the Jewish historian and godfather of future Prime M inister Benjamin Disraeli, Sharon Turner. Writing fifty years af­ ter Hume, there was a marked difference in Turner’s approach to the crusades in his History o f England from the Norman Conquest to the Reign o f Edward I (1814-23), with praise for the crusaders and criticism of their critics: Now that the dangers have passed with which they were menaced and that the scenes have changed in which they were acting, we may with sarcastic com­ placency deride their credulity, or declaim against their z e a l... [but] we must

10

THE NEW CRUSADERS

ever rank the crusades amongst tbe instances of the sublimer exertions and ca­ pabilities to which the human character can raise itself, especially in those periods when men feel rather then calculate - before knowledge has chilled the sensibil­ ity or selfish interest hardened the heart.

Other contemporaries had more mixed views. Although Henry Hallam pro­ vided a largely factual account of the crusading movement in his popular View o f the State o f Europe during the Middle Ages, published in 1818 (and numerous editions thereafter), the first significant crusade history post 1800 was the two volume History o f the Crusades fo r the Recovery and Possession o f the Holy Land published in 1820 by Charles Mills. We know a good deal about Mills because he was the subject of a biogra­ phical memoir by an admirer, Augustine Skottowe, in 1828. The son of a surgeon, bom in Greenwich in 1788, Mills was articled to a solicitor in Lincoln's Inn, London, aged sixteen. From an early age he read exten­ sively and wrote articles and pamphlets, sometimes anonymously, on subjects as diverse as a 'humorous defence of boxing’ and a ‘violent phillipic against music.’ History, however, seems to have been bis passion. In 1809, he compiled for private usc A succinct account o f the history, general na­ ture and peculiar marks and qualities o f the feudal law and in his commonplace book he wrote: there is no subject so proper for you to begin with as history; for there is such natural curiosity in the mind of man to be acquainted with the situation of the world previous to tbe time in which he lives, the study is so amusing, that it makes us in love with books, and therefore is a good opening to other kinds of reading.

A year later in 1810, Mills wrote A brief summary o f some o f the events o f the greatest magnitude in the History o f continental Europe, for the guid­ ance and instruction in modem history of a friend’s fiancee. After finishing his legal work at 9pm or thereabouts, M ills’s biographer noted that he pursued his more general and historical studies at home, for example staying up all night reading and annotating Richard Knolles’s History o f the Turks, which had been published in 1603. Between 1810 and 1813, Mills made various attempts to obtain a legal partnership, but in 1813, he fell seriously ill. On recovery, he returned to his real love, litera­ ture and history. Mills’s fust major published work was An History o f Muhammedanism com­ prising the life and character o f the Arabian Prophet and succinct accounts o f the Empiresfounded by Muhammedan arms. This appeared in 1817, very much due to the encouragement of his dedicatee, the orientalist Sir John Malcolm. It went into a second edition and was translated into French in 1823. His next project was the History o f the Crusades, completed in less than two years and described by Skottowe as ‘among the standard volumes of

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

11

our libraries.’ It ran to a second edition in 1821 and was in its fourth edi­ tion by 1828. Mills was also elected a knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta ’in recognition of his allusions to that fraternity in his History of the Crusades.’ The History was based on a detailed analysis of the sources and extensively footnoted and Skottowe commented ‘ no man was ever more punctilious in the rigid investigation and statement of the facts.’ Mills quoted from the ’noble collection of Bongarius’; he also seems to have had access to other collections mentioned earlier such as Martène and Duchesne; and in his Appendix» he referred to a translation of an Arabic source in Michaud. Inevitably, he also drew on Tasso, ’who so well knew the way to dress truth with the ornaments of fiction.’ The History started with the origins of the First Crusade and concluded, not with the Fall of Acre in 1291, but the ’extinction of the crusading spirit’, manifested in the crusade projects of Henry IV and V of England and the ’fate of the military orders.’ Mills dismissed the work of Hume and Gib­ bon, who be maintained aimed at the destruction of Christianity; ‘though they assert in the title page they will lead you to history, theirs is but the path to infidelity.’ And he lamented that to date only Sharon Turner had appreciated the subject and its significance: Whether the holy wars are considered, then, as belonging to the public affairs of Europe, or as a portion of the early history of England, a history of them in the English language appears to be a desideratum; and as hitherto the subject has been only partially or generally written upon, the present attempt is submitted to the public.

In his Preface, Mills praised the motives and sacrifices of many, if not all, crusaders: On contemplating the cross legged figures in the aisles of our venerable cathe­ drals, the days of chivalry rise before us in awful and splendid recollection. We feel and own the genius of the place; and contrast the present solemn tranquil­ lity and mournful silence of the tomb with the horrid din of paynim war. We trace with fancy’s eye the fortunes of the soldier of Christ from the joyful mo­ ment of his investment with the sacred badge to the hour of his triumph or death. His contempt of a perilous march, and his heroic ardour in the Syrian fields, awe and command our imagination; while his sacrifice of country and kindred throws an air of sublime devotedness round his exploits.

He was not, however, an uncritical observer of events, and individual chiv­ alry and heroism did not obscure the cruelties inflicted upon the Moslems, for example in the capture of Jerusalem in 1099. Mills wrote that when the knight: fixed the sign of the cross on his coat of mail and spurred his charger on the plains o f Palestine, sanctified bittemess mingled with his valour and all the sympathies and charities of the gentle knight disappeared.

12

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Moreover he saw a significant contrast between the idealism of the First Crusade and subsequent expeditions. He lamented of the Second Crusade: valour had lost nothing of its daring, enthusiasm no portion of its confidence. But their tactics were more eironeous and their ambition more selfish and disas­ trous than those of their precursors.

And, whilst he admired the achievements and dedication of Richard the Lionheart and Louis IX of France, overall he saw the later expeditions as bedevilled by discord and defeat: The idea of the impossibility of ultimate success had long been gradually and silently stealing over Europe; and the world was weary of consuming its blood and treasure in the pursuit of barren honour.

Mills seems to have accepted the Albigensian Crusade, but he argued that one of the causes of the failure of the crusading movement as a whole was its diversion to Europe: It is needless to dilate upon the actual injury to Palestine and the scandal and ridicule which were cast on holy wars, when the soldiers of the cross became the regular army of the court of Rome ... crusades against idolaters and erring Christians were considered as virtuous and as necessary as crusades against Saracens.

His overall conclusion was that the crusading movement had: retarded the march of civilization, thickened the clouds of ignorance and super­ stition; and encouraged intolerance, cruelty and fierceness ... Painful is a retrospect of the consequences; but interesting are the historical details of the heroic and fanatical achievements of our ancestors ... So visionary was the object, so apparently remote from selfish relations, that their fanaticism wears a character of generous virtue.

A reviewer in the Gentleman's Magazine of 1820 commented that M ills had Tilled up a chasm in our libraries; that of having the events of the Crusades well narrated to us in a short compass.’ His main criticism was that Mills paid insufficient attention to the longer term cultural and com­ mercial effects of the movement: In a business view, the crusades were the means of vastly extending the knowl­ edge which is indicative of civilization, as tasteful architecture, navigation, the luxury trades, mechanical skill, new inventions, improvements etcetera.

Mills considered a multi-volume History of Rome as his next project, but in fact decided upon a History o f Chivalry as a companion volume to the History o f the Crusades. The two volume work was finished in May 1825, published by the September and in its second edition by the end of the

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

13

year. According to his biographer: Until the appearance of this work, inquiries into the history and institutions of chivalry bad been abandoned to dull antiquarians; and representations of chivalric manners had been employed only for the embellishment of romantic fiction; it was reserved for Mr Mills to clothe the historical truth of the subject in the vivid colouring o f a pictorial imagination.

The two volumes described in some detail the education and equipment of a knight, the chivalric character, tournaments and the state and progress of chivalry in England, France, Spain, Germany and Italy. There was also a chapter on the Military Orders. Again Mills sought to give an objective view. Analysing the merits and effects of chivalry, he wrote of the differ­ ent faces of the knight: the Christianity of the time was not the pure light of the gospel, for it breathed war and homicide; and hence the page of history, faithful to its trust, has some­ times painted the knights amidst the gloomy horrors of the crusades ruthlessly trampling upon the enemies of the cross, and at other times generously sparing their prostrate Christian foes, and gaily caracoling about the lists of the tourna­ ment.

In the History o f the Crusades, Mills had referred to the ‘unsubstantiated charges’ made at the time of the arrest and trial of the Templars between 1307 and 1314 and in the History o f Chivalry he criticised the later Ac­ tional portrayal of the Order in the novels of Walter Scott: The Templars find no favour in the eyes of the author of Ivanhoe and Tales of the Crusaders. He has imbibed all the vulgar prejudices against the Order, and when he wants a villain to form the shadow of his scene, he as regularly and unscrupulously resorts to the fraternity of the Templars as other novelists refer to the church, or to Italy, for a similar purpose.

Although they disagreed on the Templars, Scott admired and used M ills’s History o f the Crusades and helped the young historian with notes from the Scottish chronicles. In a letter dated November 1825, Scott was also anxious to reassure Mills, ‘for whose talent and industry he has the great­ est respect’, that be had not intended any criticism of his scholarship in a footnote in The Talisman. In the History o f Chivalry, Mills recorded the often bitter rivalry between the Templars and Hospitallers, but be defended them against the charge that they had contributed to the fall of the Latin Kingdom: these dissensions were usually hushed when danger approached their charge and a tabal o f the muselmans was seldom sounded in defiance on the frontier of the kingdom without the trumpets of the Military Orders in every preceptory and commandery receiving and echoing the challenge.

14

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Mills traced the history of the Templars through to his own day and the then Grand Master Bemardus Raymundus Fabré Palaprat, noting that the Order was still 'in full and chivalric existence’, with colleges in England and many of the chief cities in Europe. He added that: the brotherhood has been headed by the bravest cavaliers of France, by men, who jealous of the dignity of knighthood, would admit no corruption, no base copies of the order of chivalry and who thought that the shield of their nobility was enriched by the impress of the Templars’ red cross.

Overall therefore it can be said that Mills sought to provide a reasonably balanced account of the crusades. Whilst he recognised examples o f indi­ vidual heroism and idealism, he accepted that these could coexist with selfish ambition and cruelty and some of his language would not have been out of place in Gibbon or Hume. Not long after the publication of the History o f Chivalry, Mills suffered a recurrence of his illness and he died aged thirty eight in October 1826. A measure of his success and popularity as a historian was the publication of Skottowe’s biography in 1828 and his subsequent entry in the Dictionary o f National Biography. Moreover Mills is to be found in most bibliogra­ phies or footnotes of nineteenth century histories of the crusades. M ills’s analysis of events and use of sources was, however, soon the sub­ ject of criticism from elsewhere. The critic in question was George Payne Rainsford James, the son of a London doctor, a pioneer of cheap price fiction, prolific historical novelist and author of a range of works on his­ torical figures as diverse as Charlemagne, Edward the Black Prince, Damley and Richelieu. James bad a varied career. He was wounded in a skirmish after the battle of Waterloo in 1815; became a parliamentary candidate for Kent; and then, with the encouragement of Walter Scott and Washington Irving, took up his pen. In about 1850 he was appointed British Consul General in Massachusetts and he ended his days in 1860 in Venice, as the British Consul General in the Adriatic. James wrote at a prodigious rate - an average o f three books a year - and in his time he was almost as widely read as Scott, whom he visited at Abbotsford. There are over 150 entries under his name in the British Li­ brary catalogue and James’s works were well represented in the various Victorian circulating libraries - some twenty six in Mudie’s 1861 London catalogue and twenty nine at the Bradford Library and Literary Society. Indeed James was appointed Historiographer Royal under William IV and some years later, the Prime Minister William Gladstone became an ad­ mirer. As a further mark of bis popularity, James was satirized as G.P.R. Jeaumes in William Makepeace Thackeray’s burlesque ‘Barbazure’, printed in Punch in 1847. However as Justin McCarthy noted in his History o f our own Timesi\%19), James's fame proved less enduring than that of his Scot-

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

15

tish counterpart: Many o f us can remember, without being too much ashamed of the fact, that there were early days when Mr James and his cavaliers and his chivalric adven­ tures gave nearly as much delight as Walter Scott could have done to the youth of a preceding generation. But Walter Scott is with us still, young and old, and poor James is gone. His once famous solitary horseman has ridden away into actual solitude and the shades of night have gathered over his heroic form.

James was very much a popular rather than scholarly historian, but he stated that he wrote his single volume History o f Chivalry (in fact a history of chivalry and the crusades), published in 1830, ‘because I fan­ cied that in the hypotheses of many other authors I had discovered various errors and misstatements, which gave a false impression of both the institution and the enterprise.’ Drawing upon a range of original sources, which he analysed in the preface, James was critical o f M ills on points o f detail and overall on his criticism of the crusaders’ ac­ tions. Using rather dramatic imagery, he argued that it was wrong to impose upon the M iddle Ages the standards of a later, less violent, era; ‘he who does not grasp the spirit o f the age on which he writes, but judges of other days by the feelings of his own, is like one who would adapt a polar dress to the climate of the tropics.’ Although James agreed that the crusaders were far from perfect, their goal was the protection and relief of a ‘cruelly oppressed and injured people’ and to repel ‘an encroaching enem y’: Such were the objects of the cnisades; and, though much of superstition was mingled with the incitements, and many cruelties committed in its course, the evils were not greater than ordinary ambition every day produces; and the mo­ tives were as fair as any of those that have ever instigated the many feuds and warfares o f the world.

The same themes were picked up in James’s histories of Philip Augustus (1831), over 400 pages and completed in under seven weeks, and Richard the Lionheart (1842-49). The latter was in practice an expansion of his History o f Chivalry and most of the four volumes were taken up with a survey of the crusades and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than the life of Richard. Referring to M ills’s criticism of the plunder of Antioch during the First Crusade, James declared: that writer quite loses sight of the spirit o f the age on which he writes and metes men’s actions by a standard that they never knew. The crusaders were not hypocrites, they were merely fanatics; and in the relentless fury with which they pillaged, injured and massacred the Turks, they thought they did God as good and pleasing service as in singing praises to him for the victory they had obtained.

16

THE NEW CRUS ADERS

James made a similar point in a later volume: The affected philanthropy and assumed liberality of some modem historians, have led them to represent the crusade as altogether cruel and unnecessary; but so far from such being the case, it is evident that this warfare w a s... as just a war as any that ever was waged by man.

A similar approach, was taken by the Revd Henry Stebbing, Rector of St Nicholas Cole Abbey in London and author of a number of histories, po­ etry and a commentary on Tasso. Stebbing’s two volume History o f Chivalry and the Crusades, also published in 1830, won praise for its clearness of style and picturesque descriptions. Although he provided no bibliography and his footnotes were few, he seems to have consulted primary sources such as William of Tyre and Villehardouin and directly quoted Gibbon, Michaud and the ubiquitous Tasso. Stebbing set the crusades, a subject about which ‘popular opinion is more likely to be mistaken than other­ wise’, in the overall religious context of the Middle Ages: the sentiment which gave birth to the grandeur of ecclesiastical institutions; which set men searching for external modes of showing their faith and embody­ ing their feelings in processions ... was the mainspring of those remarkable wars distinguished by the name of the crusades.

This did not mean, however, that he was a completely uncritical observer. Like Mills, Stebbing drew a firm distinction between the First Crusade and its successors, although his language was rather more colourful: The same difference may be perceived between the First Crusade and the after expeditions known by that name, as between the first wild burst of a mountain torrent from its bed and the current of its waters when they have reached the plain and run on in a languid course, which only reminds us of its origins, when some accident of the elements widens or quickens it.

He attributed the Fourth Crusade and the other expeditions in the thirteenth century to ‘more selfish principles of action’ and ‘eager endeavours after wealth’ and lamented the death of Louis IX in Tunis as the ‘last of the line of heroes who seem to have been raised up for the defence of the Holy Land.’ When Stebbing died in 1883, The Illustrated London News described him as a ‘devoted pastor and preacher’ and noted that his literary endeav­ ours had been commended by amongst others the poet Southey. 1830 also saw the publication of an essay on The Influence o f the Cru­ sades upon the Arts and Literature o f Europe by the Revd Frederick Oakeley, author of a number of religious works, including a life of St Au­ gustine. Oakeley was a Fellow of Balliol and his prize essay was read in the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford in June 1827. In its analysis of the dif­ ferent ways in which the crusades had influenced European society and

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

17

culture, it has some echoes of an earlier essay, submitted by Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, a Professor at Göttingen, for a prize offered by the Institut de France in 1806 (and published in 1808). Oakeley concluded that the real impact of the crusades lay somewhere in between what he described as the two extremes of contemporary opinion. On the one hand, he noted that they had invigorated the minds of contemporaries. On the other, the crusaders had destroyed many works of art, particularly in the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. Oakeley went on, however, to suggest that in some sense this process of selection might have cleared the field for the Renaissance: The crusaders then might bave unconsciously done service to future arts and literature, by destroying those superabundant models, which would have cramped the genius, before it could have refined the taste, of European imitators.

Yet another approach to the subject was taken by Thomas Keightley. Born in Dublin in 1789, he settled in London in 1824, after ill health prevented him from following a career at the Irish bar and pursued a literary and journalistic track. The author of a diverse collection of works from histo­ ries of Greece, India and England to The Fairy Mythology and Tales and Popular Fictions, in 1833-34 Keightley published a two volume work, The Crusaders, subtitled, Scenes, events and characters from the times o f the crusades. It was part of a series printed under the direction of the Com­ mittee of general literature and education, appointed by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) and, according to its London pub­ lisher, sold by all booksellers in town and country. In the Preface to bis first volume, Keightley explained that his work was not designed to be *a regular history of the crusades. It is a picture of manners rather than a narrative of events.’ As such it included anecdotes and he argued that ’dis­ cussion has been avoided as being unsuitable for a work of this kind, and reflections are introduced only where they seemed to be required, and pre­ sented themselves naturally.’ Like James, be warned that in writing about the Middle Ages be was dealing with a very different era: we should pity rather than rail at error and superstition and when we contem­ plate them, feel grateful to the Author of all good for the superior degree of light which it has pleased Him to bestow on us.

Keightley then went on to explain his interest in the crusades and reasons for taking up the pen. The first was that the crusade period presented some of the most extraordinary phenomena that the world had ever seen. Secondly, notwithstanding Mills, James and Stebbing, it was: a period of which no adequate and satisfactory account exists in our language, and around the early part of which the genius of one of the greatest modern

18

THE NEW CRUSADERS

poets [Tasso] has cast such a blaze of romantic splendour that the eyes of even the soberest inquirers after historic truth are occasionally dazzled. To dispel illusion, and set before the reader the Crusaders as they lived, thought and acted, is our object

Keightley was clearly familiar with the main crusade sources; he listed the key texts for the First Crusade in a footnote. It was, however, to Tasso that he constantly referred, noting his characterization of the crusade leaders, the individuals who formed the basis for his fictional characters Rinaldo, Aladine etcetera and highlighting where he configured events for dramatic effect. Indeed be seems to have seen himself as an important corrective to the dominance of the sixteenth century Italian poet. In the second volume, apparently produced because of the flattering reception which its predecessor had enjoyed, Keightley’s objective re­ mained to try and strip away romantic notions of the crusaders and crusades, in particular the picture of Richard the Lionheart as a hero o f chivalry, which he attributed mainly to Scott’s novels Ivanhoe and The Talisman: Without wishing to detract from the fame of that most distinguished writer, we may venture to inform our readers that a more total neglect of historic truth is no where to be found than what this last named historic romance presents.

Seeing his role to trace causes, exhibit effects and display characters, he took the story of the crusades from the fall of Edessa to the fate o f the main protagonists of the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart and Saladin. In this second Preface, Keightley was rather more explicit about his sources, in particular M ichaud’s Bibliothèque and Histoire des croisades and Wilken’s Geschichte der Kreuzzüge, which, whilst ‘ all exhausting’, saved him ‘much labour in consulting the original authorities.’ He seemed confi­ dent that his interpretation of events would fmd favour with posterity and the particular audience to which he directed his work, the young: It cannot be regarded as presumption in the writer to say, that he is convinced that the crusades and the crusaders will be better known from these volumes than from Mr Mills’s History of the Crusades or any of the other works on the subject in our language. It is also hoped that they will be instrumental in cor­ recting the erroneous ideas given by those writers who have made the crusades the theme of their romances.

I am not sure that history has fulfilled these ambitions. It is interesting, however, that Keightley’s description of Godfrey of Bouillon was known to the painter Etty and, as will be discussed in a later chapter, used as the source for his portrait of the crusader. The crusades also featured in another work by Keightley, The Secret So­ cieties o f the Middle Ages , published in 1837, under the superintendence

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

19

o f the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in its Library of Entertaining Knowledge. Here the author's objective was to defend the Templars, who featured with the A ssassins and Secret Tribunals o f Westphalia, and ‘show how absurd and frivolous were the charges against them,’ which Keightley attributed to the ‘cupidity, blood thirstiness and ambition of the King of France.’ Once again be was critical of the influ­ ence of Tasso and Scott: Romancers and those who write history as if it were romance, exert all their power to keep up the illusion, and the very sound of the word crusade conjures up in most minds ideas of waving plumes, gaudy surcoats, emblazons, shields, with lady’s love, knightly honour and courteous feats of arms. A vast deal of this perversion of truth is no doubt to be ascribed to the illustrious writer of the splendid epic whose subject is the First Crusade. Tasso ... may be excused ... But the same excuse is not to be made for those who, writing at the present day, confound chivalry and the crusades ... and venture to assert that the valiant Tancred was the beau ideal of chivalry and that the “Talisman*’ contains a faith­ ful picture of the spirit and character of the Crusades.

In 1844, a review of the sixth edition of Michaud’s Histoire in the North British Review prompted another interesting assessment of the crusades. Its author identified two classes of writers who approached the subject through a ‘wrong and distorting medium’: The first only allow themselves the language o f a perfect reprobation. They brand them as idiotic and flagrantly wicked, in unsparing measure. They admit no extenuating plea. The second see in them high policy and statesmanship. They allow them to be guided by no accident or fortuitousness: no impulse or ebullition. They magnify them into proportions of superhuman foresight and magnanimity: they assert them to be a principal climacteric in the progress of mankind.

The reviewer’s own opinion was that the crusades represented both mag­ nificent and doleful tales of human history. Like other contemporaries, he noted the benefits of increased understanding between Europe and Asia and the commercial development of the Italian maritime cities. These posi­ tive effects were, however, to his mind, outweighed by the fanaticism of the crusaders and behaviour contrary to true Christianity. Critical of the tendency of Michaud and others to ‘applaud’ the crusades, the North Brit­ ish reviewer concluded that the true crusade was that of the contemporary missionary: The men of whom we speak are not the ruffians of the camp, and the fanatics of the cloister, honoured by all to whom they are known, they care not for ap­ plause nor for contempt. They esteem themselves debtors to all. Men of like mould and zeal are giving themselves, not as the softer traveller, to sentimental sigh and romantic dream, but to labour and sacrifice.

20

THE NEW CRUSADERS

His review seems to bave been quite influential and was quoted elsewhere. Two examples of this were a history produced by the London Religious Tract Society and Sketches o f the Crusades by George Sargent, both pub­ lished in 1849; a time when popular anti-Catholic sentiment was being mobilised. The author of the former concluded that, although the crusades were a subject of special interest to the English reader and regarded with feelings of romantic interest, in practice they represented a total reversal of the spirit of Christianity, obeying the impulse of a fanatical superstition, rather than the true benevolence and apostolic example of the missionary. Sargent used rather more extreme language. He stated that the object of his work was to compare the motives and actions of the crusaders with the doc­ trines and precepts of Divine Revelation and in this context argued that the crusading spirit was one of the many ways in which 'depraved human nature has perverted the peaceable and lovely religion of the Bible, to serve its own selfish purposes.’ Again be praised those who in his own time were engaged in Africa and elsewhere as Gospel crusaders. Other contemporaries, however, adopted a less critical approach. In 1846, Blackwood’s magazine published an essay on the crusades by Sir Archibald Alison, the author of a popular history o f Europe. The essay was also amongst those published in a two volume collection in 1850. Alison described the crusades as ’the most extraordinary and memorable movement that ever took place in the history of mankind’ and praised the devotion of the crusaders to the ‘rescue of the Holy Sepulchre’ and their sacrifice of self to duty. Reviewing the histories of the crusading move­ ment which had been published in Britain, he argued that no one had yet done justice to the theme. Although Mills was ‘trustworthy and authen­ tic’, the overall impression was too short, dull and without passion. By contrast and unlike the North British reviewer, Alison had great praise for Michaud, quoting atr some length from his descriptions o f the First and Third Crusades. In 1851, The Soldiers o f the Cross or Scenes and Events from the Times o f the Crusades was published in the New Library of Useful Knowledge. Its author focussed on the Third Crusade and argued that writers who had analysed the primary sources and taken a wider view of the subject re­ garded the crusades as ‘not only extrem ely useful, but absolutely necessary’, in order to arrest the ‘growing moslem menace.’ The Revd George Perry, Prebendary of Lincoln, also rather colourfully referred to the genuine religious ardour of the soldiers of the cross and positive long term impact of the crusades in a history published by the SPCK in 1865: Thus in the natural world the violent storm which scatters havoc and ruin all around often produces valuable effects by moderating the temperature and del­ uging the earth with fertilising showers. Just so the errors, the short sightedness and the violence of men are overruled by the Almighty to assist in His grand design of the advancement and development of the human race.

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

21

And the balance between the good and evil aspects of the crusades was the theme of a lecture given to the Young Men’s [Protestant] Christian Asso­ ciation in London by the Revd Daniel Moore and published in 1864. The next popular and widely available history o f the crusades by a Brit­ ish author seems to have been Sir George Cox’s The Crusades published in London in 1874 in The Epochs in Modern History series. It had reached its third edition in 1875 and seventh in 1887, by which time there was also a New York edition. On the frontispiece, Cox was described as the author of a History o f Greece and The Mythology o f the Aryan nations. He also wrote books on Popular Romances o f the Middle Ages, a Manual o f Mythology and Tales o f Gods and Heroes. Cox saw the origins of the crusading movement in causes at woik from the dawn of Christianity itself and its sequel in a series of religious wars which concluded in the Thirty Years War. He wrote in his Preface that be wished to bring before the reader, as living men, the great actors in the wonderful drama of the crusades, but, like Mills, he was not an uncritical observer of the motives and behaviour of the crusaders. For example, ana­ lysing the fate of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem after the Battle of Hattin, he listed eight causes of weakness, from lax military discipline and gen­ eral immorality to quarrels and discord between the lay, ecclesiastical and military leaders. He was also scathing in his criticism of Richard the Lionheart and the Third Crusade: A halo of false glory surrounds the Third Crusade from the associations which connect it with the lion-hearted king of England. The exploits of Richard I have stined to enthusiasm the dullest of chroniclers, have furnished themes for jubilant eulogies, and have shed over his life that glamour which cheats even sober minded men as they read the story of his prototype Achilleus in the tale of T roy... When we turn from the picture to the reality, we shall see in this third crusade an enter­ prise in which the fiery zeal which does something towards redeeming the savage brutalities of Godfrey and the first crusaders is displaced by base and sordid greed, but intrigues utterly of the earth earthy, by wanton crimes by which we might well suppose that the sun would hide away its face; and in the leaders of this enterprise we shall see men in whom, morally, there is scarcely a single quality to relieve the monotonous blackness of their infamy.

Notwithstanding this demolition of the romantic notion of the crusades and crusade leaders, Cox still saw the results of the crusading movement as significant: Worthless in themselves and wholly useless as a means for founding any perma­ nent dominion in Palestine or elsewhere, these enterprises have affected the commonwealths of Europe in ways of which the promoters never dreamed. They left a wider gulf between the Greek and the Latin churches, between the sub­ jects of the eastern empire and the nations of western Europe; but by the mere fact o f throwing east and west together they led gradually to that exchange of thought and that awakening of the human intellect to which we owe all that

22

THE NEW CRUSADERS

distinguishes our modem civilization from the religious and political systems of the Middle Ages.

A later reviewer in The Academy praised Cox's narrative, but thought his criticism of the crusade leaders rather overstated, given the context of the Middle Ages and the background to the crusades and the recovery of the Holy Places from Moslem control: Of the characters of the leaders of all the crusades, as statesmen and generals, Mr Cox has a very poor opinion, and he is especially earnest in denouncing their cruelty to their enemies, with whom he compares them most unfavourably. Of the fact there is no doubt whatever, and the historian serves no good end by ignoring it. Still it does admit of palliation. In a savage and but half civilized age, men can hardly be expected to recognise the common humanity of their fellow creatures of a different colour and different tongue. Even in the present day English soldiers would be very likely to bayonet an Ashantee when they would take a European prisoner.

An important and more balanced overview of the crusades was given in a lecture by Bishop William Stubbs, Regius Professor of Modem History at Oxford, in 1878 and published in his Lectures on Medieval and Modern History . Unlike preceding historians, he made a specific connection be­ tween the crusades and contemporary events, and outlined some of the extreme positions taken on the subject by contemporaries, in the midst of exchanges about the response to the Turkish massacres of Bulgarian Chris­ tians and the subsequent Russian Turkish war: The Crusades are not, in my mind, either the popular delusions that our cheap literature has determined them to be, nor papal conspiracies against kings and peoples, as they appear to the Protestant controversialist, nor the savage out­ breaks of expiring barbarism thirsting for blood and plunder, nor volcanic explosions of religious intolerance. I believe them to have been, in their deep sources, and in the minds of their best champions, and in the main tendency of their results, capable of ample justification. They were the first great effort of mediaeval life to go beyond the pursuit of selfish and isolated ambitions; they were the trial feat of the young world, essaying to use to the glory of God and the benefit of man, the arms of its new knighthood. That they failed in their direct object is only what may be alleged against almost every design which the Great Disposer of events has moulded to help the world's progress ... The his­ tory of the Crusades has always had for me an interest that quite rivals all the interest I could take in the history of the Greeks and Romans.

The subject of the lecture was in fact ‘The Medieval Kingdoms of Cy­ prus and Arm enia' and 1878 was of course the year of the Cyprus Convention which made provision for the island to be occupied and ad­ ministered by Britain. Stubbs noted that he had chosen the subject because of his frustration at the way in which historical facts had become ‘simply weapons of attack and defence’ between the different sides, both of which,

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

23

as will be discussed in a later chapter, used crusade imagery in support of their cause: It will be a good thing if after so much that is disheartening in the popular treatment of great questions, even one little benefit may be secured. Whatever may be thought of the Anglo Turkish Convention, on whatever grounds, moral or political we may determine that the salvation of Turkey is possible, or that Cyprus is an unhealthy island, a Professor of History may draw some little com­ fort from the fact that the attention of the people has been caUed to a portion of the history of Christendom of which little notice has been taken of late years and which is closely connected with one of the greatest movements that ever affected the history of the world.

Stubbs also edited some of the key texts on the Third Crusade in the Rolls series, namely the Itinerarium régis Ricardi and the Gesta régis Henrici and Chronica of Roger of Howden (1867-71), who accompanied King Ri­ chard to the Holy Land. And in the introduction to the Itinerarium , he provided a mini history of the crusades, in which he again unusually drew parallels with contemporary events: I believe the crusades to have been caused by a movement as religious as the reformation, and much less connected with political objects, and to have shared, with almost all purely religious movements, in the baneful results which seem inseparable from any source of popular excitement. As to the direct cause of the crusades, a generation which has witnessed the Crimean War, and traced in its causes and course no indistinct parallel with the events of the Third Crusade, cannot suppose that they have ceased directly to affect the history of the Chris­ tian world, although the state of Palestine at the present day differs little from what it was when Godfrey of Bouillon undertook the conquest.

The wide range of views on the subject of the crusades at the more idi­ osyncratic end of die market can be illustrated by two examples from the 1880s. In 1887, die editor of the Secular Review, a weekly journal of ag­ nosticism, who for some reason called himself Saladin, published a short pamphlet on die crusades. His language was unequivocal: The maddest and bloodiest picture in the history of the world is a Christian picture ... everywhere hideous with swords and skeletons ... every footprint of the crusades is marked with blood, every step is profaned with lust, every im­ pulse is tainted with madness.

Saladin also pronounced on the flagellants, iconoclasts, covenanters and the Inquisition. Annie Keeling, whose Nine Famous Crusades o f the Middle Ages was published in 1889, took a rather different approach. A guide to her his­ torical standpoint is given by the titles of her other works, in particular General Gordon: Hero and Saint, and Heroines o f Faith and Charity. In her Preface, she stated that she had endeavoured to secure accuracy by

24

THE NEW CRUSADERS

consulting only the most approved modern authorities (including Cox) and chronicle and eye witness accounts. She could not, however, resist Tasso: Though in recounting this story we shall adhere scrupulously to its facts as presented to us by the most trustworthy authorities, we shall not fear to borrow from the great Italian poet and other romantic writers some of the fancies with which they have adorned the dark tale of the Holy Wars: those, with the lighter details of ancient chroniclers, may lawfully brighten our pages.

Keeling then proceeded to describe at some length the story of Tancred and Clorinda from Tasso, after recounting Tancred’s role in the fate o f the citizens of Jerusalem. Although critical of the excesses and the behaviour of many crusaders, rather like Stebbing some fifty years earlier, she em­ phasised that medieval perspectives were rather different: when every allowance has been made for the superstition inseparable from the very idea of the crusades, for the sordid motives that swayed too many of their champions, for the vice and the cruelty that disgraced them, they remain in­ vested with imperishable interest, they show us vast masses of men ready and eager for true self sacrifice, willing to risk life and liberty for an object rather spiritual than worldly; and in the providence of God, they so largely served the cause of truth, freedom and humanity, that the careful study of their history is necessary to the right understanding of human progress.

Against the background of increasing political and popular interest in the East, the 1890s was one of the most productive decades for British crusade historiography, with the publication of The Crusades, subtitled The Story o f the Latin Kingdom o f Jerusalem by Thomas A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, published in the Story of the Nations series in 1894; James M. Ludlow’s The Age o f the Crusades in the Eras of the Christian Church series (1897); and Colonel Claude Conder’s The Latin Kingdom o f Jerusalem , published by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1897. Archer had published several articles on the crusades, including an analy­ sis of the Council of Clermont and a selection of translated extracts from the Latin, French and Arabic sources for the Third Crusade under the title The Crusade o f Richard I (1900) in the English History by Contemporary Writers series, but because of ill health, his history of The Crusades was completed by Kingsford. At a time when scholarly research on the cru­ sades was making significant advances in France and Germany, the combined effort did not advance British knowledge to any real degree. To a modem reader, however, it is interesting on three main counts. First it deliberately focussed on the story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than the individual crusade expeditions, on the grounds that through this the ‘true character and importance of the Crusades can alone be dis­ cerned’ and the ‘romance and glamour of crusade expeditions has often

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

25

caused the practical achievements of the crusaders in the east to be un­ derrated.’ Secondly the authors took a distinctly English perspective and unusually specific mention was made of the successful capture of Lisbon by a contingent o f crusaders from B ritain, the Low C ountries and Rhineland, in contrast to the otherwise disastrous results of the Second Crusade: It is with pardonable pride that our English chroniclers dwell on the contrast between the achievement of a humble band of pilgrims and the disaster which attended the great and splendid host, that had gone forth under the leadership of emperor and king to be swept aside like a spider’s web.

Archer and Kingsford also made references to crusades in other theatres of war. They noted that the kings of Spain waged a perpetual crusade with the Saracens of their own peninsula and, like some modem historians, lamented the ’perversions’ of the crusade in Europe: The thirteenth century had no Saint Bernard to rouse it to the service of God. Such religious zeal as remained was frittered away in internecine crusades against the Albigeois and a heretic emperor.

The reviewer in The Academy described the crusades as ‘perhaps the most wonderful story in the annals of the human race’ and rather surprisingly claimed that Archer and Kingsford’s work was the ‘only book to my knowl­ edge in English’ dealing with the subject. The Athenaeum reviewer was similarly complimentary, although he commented: One would have liked more enthusiasm and less caution; but the authors belong to a stern school of historians, which declines to pander to the merely literary or romantic tastes o f the unlearned ... Messrs Archer and Kingsford do not often indulge in argument, reflection or rhetoric; they state the facts as they find them in the chronicles, after weighing their authority and they leave their readers to draw their own conclusions and form their own judgements. The result will not be so attractive to the general reader, but the student will appreciate their accu­ racy and impartiality.

Ludlow, the author of several stories set in biblical times such as A king o f Tyre, was rather more explicit about his sources than Archer and Kingsford. He clearly drew upon the crusade texts published in the Recueil and the critical histories of Michaud, Röhricht and Riant, as well as Gib­ bon. The dividing line betw een original sources and rom anticised interpretations of the crusades was, however, far from precise. Thus one finds quotations from both Tasso and Scott, for example Scott’s descrip­ tion of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus from the novel Count Robert o f Paris and Tasso’s account of the siege of Jerusalem on the First Crusade, as well as the first hand accounts from the Recueil. Like other

26

THE NEW CRUSADERS

contemporaries, Ludlow bad mixed views about the crusades. He saw Godfrey of Bouillon as one of the nine greatest heroes of mankind, but wrote of the crusading movement as a whole: Never before or since was there such exalted faith combined with such gro­ tesque superstition, such splendid self sacrifice m ingled with cruel and unrestrained selfishness, such holy purpose with its wings entangled, tom and besmeared in vicious environments.

He added that the Albigensian Crusade was ‘one of the blackest pages of human history.’ Conder’s study of the Latin Kingdom is interesting because he wrote from the perspective of a surveyor and archaeologist and indeed had pub­ lished separately an account of his excavations and researches in Jerusalem. Writing in 1897, the year of Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, Conder used colonial parallels, noting the achievements of the the rulers of the Latin Kingdom between 1099 and 1291: The Crusades were no wild raids on Palestine resulting only in misery and de­ struction. The kingdom of Jerusalem was the model of just and moderate rule, such as we boast to have given to India, under somewhat similar conditions; but the benefits of these two centuries have as yet been mainly enjoyed in the West and a debt due by the Frank has still to be paid in the East.

Conder dismissed Archer and Kingsford’s History as simply a résumé of chronicles, containing little that was new and his work was advertised by the Palestine Exploration Fund as being of special interest at that time: when attention is called to the condition of the Turkish Empire by recent events - the condition o f the Orientals being almost the same as that when Europe intervened in the Eastern question in the days of Godfrey of Bouillon and of King Richard Lionheart

The early years of the twentieth century saw a continued interest in the crusades manifested in further accounts of individual expeditions and a developing interest in the Frankish settlement in the East. In 1904 for ex­ ample William Miller published the first study of The Latins in the Levant: A History o f Frankish Greece from 1204 to 1556. The Fourth Crusade itself had already been the subject o f Sir Edwin Pears’s The Fall o f Constantinople, published in 1886, which drew on the first hand accounts of Villehardouin and Robert o f Clari. Sir Edwin, a bar­ rister, was a resident of Constantinople for forty years and a great lover of the city and its Byzantine history. From this perspective, he not surpris­ ingly saw the Fourth Crusade as a crime and direct contributor to the Ottoman conquest in 1453:

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

27

I arrived at the conclusion that the diversion of the Fourth Crusade caused the introduction of the Turks into Europe, that the destruction of the Empire of the New Rome was then virtually accomplished, notwithstanding its struggle for existence after the recapture of the city by the Greeks in 1261, and that this great European calamity was only brought about by a series of circumstances which rendered New Rome at the moment of attack by the crusaders exceptionally weak. I came to the conclusion that the fall of the East in 1204 was the neces­ sary prelude to the Ottoman conquest in 1453, and that the political consequences of the Latin conquest thus place it among the most important events in Euro­ pean history ... The conquest of Constantinople was the first great blunder committed by the West in dealing with the Eastern Question.

Pears added that the Fourth Crusade had: handed over Constantinople and the Balkan peninsula to six centuries of barba­ rism and rendered futile the attempts of Innocent (III) and subsequent statesmen to recover Syria and Asia Minor to Christendom and civilization.

His work seems to have been widely read and influential. In his biography, Forty Years in Constantinople, published in 1916, Pears claimed that it was the approved textbook on the Fourth Crusade in the University of Ber­ lin and quoted as authoritative on this subject by a leading French crusade historian in lectures delivered in Rome in 1914. As the Daily News corre­ spondent, he was also a key figure in reporting details of the Bulgarian massacres in 1876, which, as will be discussed later, strongly influenced British public opinion towards the Ottoman Empire. The nineteenth century also saw the publication of several monographs on the Military Orders. For example James Bumes, the Physician General of India, published a Sketch o f the history o f the Knights Templars in 1837, with a number of engravings of scenes from the crusades and the names and armorial bearings of existing British knights. He lamented that in his own day 'scattered over the mighty empire of Great Britain there are not forty subjects of His Majesty who are Knights Templars and the whole members of the order do not probably ... exceed three hun­ dred.’ And Major Whitworth Porter of the Royal Engineers, who produced a History o f the Knights o f Malta in 1858, wrote in his Preface, 'the days of chivalry are at an end; but the heart still throbs, and the pulse beats high, as we trace its career, like a meteor’s flash dazzling the page of history.’ Abbé Vertot’s history of the Hospitallers was also published and translated into English in 1728. The educated British reader would also have been aware of crusade his­ tories in other languages. Reviews of crusade publications in France and Germany such as Rohricht’s Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kreuzzuge could be found in magazines or journals such as The Athenaeum, Gentleman 's Magazine and Westminster Review and copies of these works were avail­ able in some libraries. Mention has already been made of circulating

28

THE NEW CRUSADERS

libraries such as Mudie’s and a variety of crusade histories and texts would, for example, have been accessible to members of the London Library, which opened in 1841, through the lending department of the Guildhall, London and the main library in Birmingham. Attitudes towards the crusades seem to have been largely dependent on the perspective and historical training of the individual writer, or the com­ missioning publishers such as SPCK and, Stubbs apart, it is rare that one can draw a precise linkage between historiography and contemporary events. It is, however, possible to discern some evolution o f crusade historiography in the different editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica or Dictionary o f Arts, Sciences and General literature. Established in 1768, by 1910 the Encyclopaedia Britannica had reached its eleventh edition and several historians had contributed articles on the crusades. Predictably, the 1778 article on the ‘croisade’ quoted from Voltaire and, although the author saw some long term benefit in the meeting of east and west and exchange of ideas and culture, overall he summed up the cru­ sading movement as ‘the effects of the most absurd superstition’. By the seventh edition in 1842, however, the perspective had changed and the author used emotive language about the sacrifices of the crusad­ ers: The history of the Middle Ages presents no spectacle half so imposing as that of the expeditions undertaken for the recovery of the Holy Land from the in fid els... Every road leading to Palestine was drenched with blood and along its dreary tract lay scattered at no distant intervals the skeletons and the wrecks of nations.

Whilst the crusader settlements ‘soon melted away like frost work in the sun’, the author wrote at length of the long term influence of the crusades on individual Western kingdoms, the feudal system, commerce and indus­ try. The bibliography included references to Mills and Michaud, as well as the eighteenth century staples Voltaire, Gibbon and Robertson. The balance between analysis of the events of the individual expedi­ tions and the overall impact of the crusades had changed again in the ninth edition, published in 1877. The author of the article was Cox, whose History o f the Crusades had appeared three years earlier. He argued that the crusades ‘prolonged for nearly four centuries the life of the eastern em pire’ and drew parallels with the victory of Charles Martel at Tours in 732, which had halted the eighth century Moslem conquests. Amongst the crusaders themselves, Cox identified ‘men of merciless cruelty and insa­ tiable greed’ as well as those ‘whose self sacrifice, charity and heroic patience furnish an example for all’ and concluded that overall the evil was outweighed by the good. Nearly fifty years later, Ernest Barker’s 1923 article on the crusades played an important part in the development of twen­ tieth century crusade historiography.

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

29

M ost of the above might be described as serious or at least attempts at semi-serious histories of the crusades. Other contemporaries, however, of­ fered rather more unusual perspectives on the crusading movement. One o f these was the wonderfully named Memoirs o f Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness o f Crowds, published in three volumes in Lon­ don in 1841 with further editions in 1852, 1869 and 1892, by Charles Mackay, a friend of Charles Dickens, songwriter, author of the Dictionary o f Lowland Scotch and from 1852, editor of the prestigious Illustrated Lon­ don News. In the Preface to the first edition of Extraordinary Delusions, Mackay declared his purpose as: to collect the most remarkable instances of those moral epidemics which have been excited, sometimes by one cause and sometimes by another, and to show how easily the masses have been led astray, and how imitative and gregarious men are, even in their infatuations and crimes.

He developed this theme further in his 1852 Preface, with specific refer­ ence to the crusades: We find that whole communities suddenly fix their minds upon one object, and go mad in its pursuit; that millions of people become simultaneously impressed with one delusion, and run after it, till their attention is caught by some new folly more captivating than the firs t... At an early age in the annals of Europe its population lost their wits about the sepulchre of Jesus, and crowded in fren­ zied multitudes to the Holy Land; another age went mad for fear of the devil, and offered up hundreds of thousands of victims to the delusion of witchcraft.

Amongst the other subjects which Mackay considered as examples of popular delusions were the South Sea Bubble, the so-called Mississippi delusions, alchemy, witchcraft, and Tulipomania. His views on the cru­ sades filled some 150 pages of text and like other ‘crusade historians’, Mackay drew upon firsthand accounts of the expeditions and the histo­ ries of M ills and Wilken, interspersed with Tasso and Scott. He described Godfrey o f Bouillon as ‘the bravest and most determined leader of the crusades,’ but argued that by the time of the Third Crusade, men were fighting not so much for the Holy Sepulchre as for their own glory and ‘the favour of the lovely’ . In language reminiscent of the eighteenth century, Mackay summed up the results of the crusading movement as follows: Europe expended millions of her treasures, the blood of two millions of her children and a handful of quarrelsome knights retained possession of Palestine for about 100 years ... But notwithstanding the fanaticism that originated and the folly that conducted them, the crusades were not productive of unmitigated evil.

He commented that the philosophic student could have no better field for

30

THE NEW CRUSADERS

the exercise of his powers than this ‘European madness; its advantages and disadvantages, its causes and results/ In his Preface, the author of The Comic History o f England, published in 1848, Gilbert Abbott A’Beckett, described his objective as follows: to blend amusement with instruction, by serving up, in as palatable shape as he could, the facts of English history. He pledged himself not to sacrifice the sub­ stance to the seasoning; and though he has certainly been a little free in the use of his sauce, he hopes that be has not produced a mere hash on the present occasion. His object has been to furnish something which may be allowed to take its place as a standing dish at the library table and which, though light, may not be found devoid of nutriment.

Pledging himself to deprive persons and events of their false colouring, Beckett was highly critical of the crusader king Richard I: It is generally a libel to compare a human being to a brute, but in giving the title o f Lionheart to Richard, the noble beast is the party scandalised. It is surprising that the British lion has never cited this as one of his numerous grievances, for be would certainly have a capital action for defamation if he were to sue by his next friend or in form a pauperis for this malicious imputation of his noble char­ acter.

The nineteenth century also saw a number of histories of Kings and Queens of England, most notably Agnes Strickland’s popular Lives o f the Queens o f England from the Norman Conquest; with Anecdotes o f their courts now first published from Official Records and other authentic documents, pri­ vate as well as public, published in twelve volumes between 1840 and 1848 and dedicated to the young Queen Victoria. It was in fact the work of Agnes and her sister Elizabeth, but the latter disliked publicity and thus only Agnes’s name appeared on the title page. As the full title suggests, the Stricklands prided themselves upon their detailed research and consulted a range of original sources, visiting ar­ chives throughout Britain and in Paris. Agnes was also an admirer of Scott, but unlike some other contemporary historians, she did not favour Tasso. According to her biographer and sister Jane, ‘her feminine feelings could not sympathise with a fighting woman [Clorinda], however exquisitely portrayed by the great poet.’ There were chapters on three crusading queens, Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Louis VII of France and then Henry II of England and a participant in the Second Crusade; Berengaria of Navarre, w ife of Richard the Lionheart; and Eleanor of Castille, wife of Edward I, all in fact written by Elizabeth rather than Agnes. The most interesting for our purposes dealt with Eleanor of Aquitaine. Elizabeth was highly critical of Eleanor, who in her view persuaded Louis to go on the Second Crusade, which she de­ scribed as this ‘insane expedition’. To compound her original error, Eleanor

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

31

then interfered in military matters and brought scandal on the army through her behaviour at Antioch: When Queen Eleanors received the cross from St Bernard at Vezelay, she directly put on the dress of an Amazon; and her ladies, all actuated by the same frenzy, mounted on horseback, and forming a lightly armed squadron, surrounded the queen when she appeared in public, calling themselves Queen Eleanora’s body-guard. They practised Amazonian exercises and performed a thousand follies in public, to animate their zeal as practical crusaders. By the suggestion of their young queen, this band of madwomen sent their useless disstaffs as presents to all the knights and nobles who had the good sense to keep out of this insane expedition. This ingenious taunt bad the effect of shaming many wise men out of their better resolutions; seven thousand of the flower of French chivalry paid with their lives the penalty of their queen’s inexperience in warlike tactics.

The Lives o f Queens proved a highly popular work, in its fourth edition by 1834. Some 11,000 copies of a six volume version were sold in 1864-65 and an abridged text was produced for schools in 1867. The Stricklands’ detailed knowledge of matters medieval was called upon in 1842 by Lady Katherine Jermyn, who wanted to make sure that she wore the correct costume as Queen Berengaria and a member o f the crusaders’ quadrille at Queen Victoria’s costume ball, of which more in a later chap­ ter. The incident in which the Strickland sisters were summoned to Lady Katherine’s London house to provide an expert opinion was recorded in a letter from Agnes to her sister Sarah, along with a description of the dress in question: Her under dress was a gold embroidered white areophanne, over white satin, with long sleeves; it was confined to the waist with a belt of gems ... A royal mantle was fastened to the shoulders, of ruby velvet, lined with white satin, and gloriously embroidered with bullion; the red cross on a small white oval on the veil of gold tissue, richly bordered and spotted with gold.

The three crusading queens also featured in another History o f the Queens o f England by Hannah Lawrence, published in 1839. Lawrence’s depiction of Eleanor of Aquitaine was, however, much less colourful than Strickland’s and she dismissed stories of the queen’s improper conduct on crusade as based on ‘apocryphal authority’. As has been noted, a number o f the histories of the crusades were pub­ lished in several editions, which indicates that sales were good and for those who did not possess a personal copy, access would have been pos­ sible through the circulating and lending libraries. A century later, however, it is difficult to draw any more precise conclusions about how widely available and consulted these histories would have been and there­ fore their specific role in the formation of the crusade image. The range of works accessible through the London Library has already been men­ tioned but the catalogues of other major private libraries provide an uneven

32

THE NEW CRUSADERS

picture. For example, none of the histories discussed above can be found in the 1879 catalogue of the library of the Dukes o f D evonshire at Chatsworth, although there were several copies of Gibbon, Hume and Robertson; some original sources such as Joinville and Stubbs’s Rolls series edition of the Chronicles o f the reign o f Richard /; two complete sets of Scott and eighteen different editions or translations o f Tasso. The libraries in bouses now in the possession of the National Trust are still in the process of being catalogued, but on enquiry I was told that in crusade terms, the most consistent features were likely to be Tasso and of course the works of Scott. An alternative route to the history of the crusading movem ent was through accounts of the expeditions and the crusading ethos in manuals of chivalry and as we have seen, a number of historians such as M ills, James and Stebbing wrote on both subjects. There was also a widely available English translation of the Mémoires de l'ancienne chevalerie (1779) by Jean Baptiste de la Curne de Saint-Palaye, which was ac­ knowledged as a standard authority by Mills and James. The most widely read homegrown manual of chivalry in the nineteenth century seems to have been The Broad Stone o f Honour by another disciple of SaintP alay e, K enelm D igby. T he firs t and second e d itio n s a p p ea re d anonymously in 1822 and 1823; an expanded four volume edition was published under D igby’s name in 1826-7 and there were numerous edi­ tions thereafter. Digby was born c 1797 in Ireland, into a family which claim ed de­ scent from an Aelmer who had held land in Leicestershire in the reign o f Edward the Confessor and some of his ancestors were said to have gone on crusade. The young Kenelm was sent to school in England and became a great adm irer of Scott’s poems and the M iddle Ages. He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1815, where one o f his favourite sports was rowing. Indeed one biographer described him as one of the founders of modern rowing at Cambridge. As an undergraduate, Digby travelled extensively in Europe and the title o f his work on chivalry was inspired by the castle o f Ehrenbreitstein, opposite Koblenz on the Rhine. His other major work was an eleven volume account of the catho­ lic virtues Mores catholici (1831-42), published after his conversion to Catholicism in 1825. The four volumes of the 1826-27 edition of The Broad Stone were enti­ tled Godefridus and Tancredus, after the crusading heroes Godfrey of Bouillon and Tancred of Hauteville; Morus, after Sir Thomas More and Orlandus, after Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso. Digby ranged far and wide in his discussion of chivalry, but there were inevitable references to the cru­ sades as the epitome of chivalric ideals and an example which Digby hoped that his readers would follow.

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

33

In Godefridus, Digby held up the heroes of crusades as a model for sub­ sequent generations: It is our heroic defenders of the Church of Christ which should be dear to the youth of England; it is from the men whose learning and patriotism were guided by eternal truth that we should derive our models of chivalry, to animate our souls with the hope of future renown, or to console them with the remembrance of past greatness.

And he wrote of the feelings of the crusaders as they approached Jerusa­ lem: W hat breast would not have felt that holy rapture experienced by the crusad­ ers when they heard the first bells toll over the holy city? ... which like the music o f angels in the sky, announced to men the blessed tidings of forgive­ ness and peace.

He explained that he had assumed the illustrious name of Godefridus, ‘as in a manner symbolical of that most Christian government, with which the chivalry of the middle ages was so closely connected.’ In Tancredus, there was a detailed justification of the crusades, against the background of criticism from Gibbon, Robertson and Hume. Digby lamented that their ‘pointed sentences’ were repeated by all those ‘shal­ low praters and scribblers who declaim upon this subject’ and his aim was to set this question at rest. Not surprisingly he took a rather different view: The cross o f Christ was no sooner lifted up as the standard under which the defenders of the faith were to rally than aU Europe was united in a band of brothers to testify their love for the Saviour of mankind. Germany, France and England, poured forth the flower of their youth and nobility; men who were led by no base interest or selfish expectation, but who went with single hearts, re­ nouncing the dearest blessings of their country and station, to defend the cause which was dear to them, and to protect from insult and wrong the persecuted servants o f their Saviour.

He accepted that the crusaders were not without fault, but their crimes had been enormously overstated, while their virtues had been ungenerously passed over in silence and he quoted a number of instances of the charity and heroism of the crusaders and their leaders. In Digby’s view, the cru­ sades were justified on ‘every principle of justice and policy’ and he regretted that other opinions held sway: It is much to be lamented that the acquaintance of the English reader with the characters and events of the Middle Ages should, for the most part, be derived from the writings of men, who were either infidels, or who wrote, on every subject connected with religion, with the feelings and opinions of Scotch Pres­ byterian preachers of the last century.

34

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Quoting Hume’s description of the crusades as a ‘monument to human folly’, be declared: if mankind had always been imbued with such a philosophy, we should never have possessed the paintings of Raphael or the poetry of Tasso; we should have had essays moral and metaphysical, not the visions of Dante and the Minstrel’s Lay.

In the final book Orlandus, Digby gave further examples o f Christian chivalry during the crusades and he paid tribute for exam ple to the Hospitallers: The union of warlike spirit with the most tender love for men, is one of the most striking contrasts which the history of the Middle Ages presents. One cannot picture to one’s self, without astonishment, young and bold knights returned from victorious battle, hanging up their swords in their hall, and hastening to minister to sick pilgrims with the gentlest attention, discharging all the duties of a nurse with the most careful delicacy. Yet such were the Knights of St John. The world can afford no sight more grateful than the union of power with be­ neficence, of valour with love for the creatures of God.

The Broad Stone was very popular amongst D igby’s contemporaries. William M orris’s recent biographer Fiona MacCarthy (1994) states that he was ‘addicted’ to it at Oxford and M orris’s friend Edward Burne-Jones apparently kept The Broad Stone and Mores catholici next to his bed. In his Guesses at Truth (1848), Julius Hare described The Broad Stone as ‘that noble manual for gentlemen, that volume which, had I a son, I would place in his hands, charging him, though such admonition would be need­ less, to love it next to his bible.’ A later analysis of chivalry was published by Francis Warre Cornish, the Vice Provost of Eton in 1901. His was a more balanced and less romanti­ cized view, identifying both virtues and vices in the crusades and crusaders and rather interestingly he compared the ‘early crusader’ to those fighting in his own time in Afghanistan and the Sudan: We observe in them reckless courage, personal pride and self-respect, courteous observance of the word of honour, if plighted according to certain forms, disre­ gard o f all personal advantage except military glory; and on the other hand savage ferocity, deliberate cruelty, anger indulged almost to the point of mad­ ness, extravagant display, childish wastefulness, want of military discipline, want of good faith alike to Christians and infidels; the virtues and vices of Homeric heroes, not of Christian paladins as imagined in the ideal pictures of Tasso and Spenser.

Cornish also believed that chivalric ideas had evolved during the course of the crusades, culminating in Saint Louis whom he described as a ‘mediae­ val gentleman’.

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

35

Histories and manuals of chivalry notwithstanding, the abiding impression of the crusades in the nineteenth century may well have come from Tasso’s poem Gerusalemme Liberata. Reference has already been made to the eight­ een editions or translations to be found in the library at Chatsworth and between 1818 and 1876, eight new English translations of Gerusalemme Liberata were published and at least two others survive in manuscript. They were by individuals as diverse as the Revd C. L. Smith, a Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge and Lecturer in Mathematics and subsequently Rector of Little Canfield, Essex; ex-naval officer H.A. Griffith; and Captain A.C. Robertson. One translator, Sir John Kingston James, even visited Jerusalem in 1863 to verify Tasso’s description of the terrain and he described a point in the walls between the Jaffa and Damascus Gates: to which King Aladine retired, accompanied by Enninia, and from which she pointed out the chief leaders of the crusading host On this point which is the high­ est in the city, and from which there is a magnificent panoramic view, it has been my delight to remain for hours, Tasso in hand, realising the various incidents and locali­ ties mentioned in the immortal poem. The entire scene, consecrated as it is by poetry that combines with singular felicity the truth of history with the charm of fiction, was in my eyes haunted ground.

A further indication of its popularity was the inclusion of Gerusalemme Liberata in the Carisbrooke Library, a continuation of the Universal Li­ brary, whose stated aim was: to bring home to Englishmen, without unfair exclusion of any form of earnest thought, as far as may be, some living knowledge of their literature along its whole extent, and of its relations with the wisdom and the wit of the surround­ ing world.

At the same time, Goethe’s play Torquato Tasso (1789) was available in a number of English translations and the poet’s story inspired Byron’s ’La­ ment’ (1817), at least two English plays and an opera by Donizetti (1833). Tasso was read and admired by contemporary poets such as Shelley, Wordsworth and Southey, and Gladstone was another avid reader, although he thought Gerusalemme Liberata inferior to Dante. Tasso was also the subject of a number of biographies, of which the best known was probably by R. Milman, Bishop of Calcutta. One of the most interesting translators of Gerusalemme Liberata was Jeremiah Holmes Wiffen, the Librarian at Woburn Abbey, the ancestral seat of the Dukes of Bedford. His translation in Spenserian verse, dedi­ cated to the Duchess o f Bedford and with a list o f royal and noble subscribers, appeared in 1824, with follow-up editions in 1830 and 1854. In addition to the text, Wiffen provided a life of Tasso and a list of English crusaders and his researches into the latter will be discussed in a later chap­ ter. It is, however, relevant here to consider Wiffen’s assessment of the

36

THE NEW CRUSADERS

significance of Tasso’s poem on the First Crusade and how it stood up against the more conventional crusade histories: M r Mills has, it is true, in his admirable History of the Crusades, portrayed in real colours the nature of those singular expeditions; but who would not will­ ingly continue the illusion which, whether derived from the songs of early minstrels, or the charming tale of Tasso, invests the character of the crusader with I know not what of devotion, generosity and love.

There is, incidentally, a copy of M ills’s History in the library at Woburn, together with various editions of Tasso published between 1585 and 1830. In 1829, Wiffen sent a copy of his translation to his friend Samuel Fox, noting the contrast between the spiritual and tem poral crusade: These tomes of my most studious hours The pleasant fruitage I consign; Happy if e'er, when sadness lowers, They throw the slightest charm o ’er thine But thou need’st not the tuneful dreams, Which fiction yields, or song commands Thy thoughts are of Diviner themes Thy walks in more celestial lands. Engaged in this more blest crusade Be thine that vision from the sky And the sealed bliss to John displayed The New Jerusalem on high.

The influence of Tasso was confirmed by other contemporaries. For exam­ ple, a reviewer in the Westminster Review of 1826 agreed that Tasso produced a more lively and lasting impression than some of the original crusade sources: Tasso, while the memorials of the crusades left by ocular witnesses were yet little read and nearly forgotten, no historian having freed them from the mass of fictions which they contained, was the better enabled to avail himself of their miracles and magic, from the religious faith reposed in them by his own con­ temporaries. The barbarous pages of the Gesta Dei per Francos ... inspired by his genius, assumed the reality of history and the poetry of religion. After the lapse of centuries, the Italians began to find heroes in these knight crusaders, while the construction of the poem, the dignified gravity of the style, the sacred sentiment that pervades it, and, finally the author’s care in preserving the tradi­ tional characteristics of the different nations, and of particular individuals, the customs of the Christians and Turks, the virtues and vices peculiar to the chivalric age, and to those heroes, the tactics of those armies, with the local description of the fields of battle, and the city of Jerusalem, altogether perhaps, produced a more lively impression than if he had ever written a regular history of the cru­ sades.

CRUSADE HISTORIOGRAPHY

37

The author went on to draw parallels between Gerusalemme Liberate and Homer’s Iliad. In his Tales from the Italian Poets, Leigh Hunt (1846) described the ro­ mantic appeal of Gerusalemme Liberate , ‘the favourite epic of the young; all the lovers in Europe have loved it. The French have forgiven the author his conceits for the sake of his gallantry. He is the poet of the gondoliers.’ And the French writer Chateaubriand took a copy of Gerusalemme Liberata with him to Jerusalem, using it as a reference book as he explored the city. In fact he paid his own pilgrimage to Tasso’s tomb in Venice before he set sail for the Holy Land and urged others to make Gerusalemme Liberata their ‘favourite study’, if they relished the beauty, art and interest of poetic composition. A more recent survey of the impact o f Tasso can be found in Charles Brand’s Torquato Tasso: A Study o f the Poet and his Contribution to English Literature (1965). In this, Brand comments that *in the spate of Victorian translations, Tasso has a strange attraction for the cultured young ladies, the clergymen, the convalescent and the retired gentry o f the nine­ teenth century.’ There were, however, always the occasional dissenting voices. Like some contemporary historians, a contributor to the radical Eclectic Review for 1825 was critical of the First Crusade itself: If we viewed the crusades in the light Tasso drew them, we should not be pre­ pared to deny that the Almighty ruler of the universe might have interfered in the way of aiding the Christians or of confounding the infidels, but looking at them in their true light, we must believe that the powers of darkness would rather have taken part with the crusaders against the Moslems, inasmuch as the latter had by far made the least progress in evil, and if the Supreme Being had made any visible manifestations of his power, they would have been in the shapes of wrath to drive away the crusaders from the Holy C ity ... The grand objection to Tasso’s poem is the false view it gives of the achievement which it celebrates ... we must forget that the crimes and cruelties of the crusaders as well as their fanaticism sank them below the Moslems and we must strive to believe that the delivery of Jerusalem was an object worthy of the interposition of the highest intelligence.

And another translator, the Revd J.H. Hunt, seems to have taken Gibbon as his main guide to events, describing the crusaders thus: a knot of brigands, some of them well meaning, but all of them bigotted and deluded, who inflicted innumerable calamities upon the inhabitants of Asia, with whom they had no concern, for the purpose of depriving them of territories to which they had the same right, as any one of themselves had to his own hereditary dominions.

Brand adds that there was a general decline in enthusiasm for Tasso to­ wards the end of the nineteenth century, although as we will see this did not apply to all mediums.

38

THE NEW CRUSADERS

W hat can one conclude from this? First, I think, that there was con­ siderable diversity in historians’ attitude to the crusades in the nineteenth century. The overall picture was not as monochrome as some later h is­ torians have suggested and certainly it is too sim plistic to say that all adopted a rom anticized view of a glorious cbivalric enterprise. There were both critics and advocates o f the crusading movement; works based on a careful analysis of the Latin (or translated) sources and those which sham elessly mixed fact and fiction. The key factor seems to have been the attitude and perspective o f the author and publisber/editor from SPCK to the Secular Review. There was also no consistent chronology for the developm ent o f a particular view, although some flurries o f cru­ sade historiography seem a t least to bave coincided with enhanced interest in the affairs of the M iddle East. N either was it simply a ques­ tion of the historical monograph. W hilst I cannot claim to have tracked down every nineteenth century account of the crusades, it is clear that both the specialist study and short article or review could be influential amongst contem poraries. The volume of publications is an obvious in­ dication o f interest in the subject, but although the histories seem to have been popular, running to numerous editions, this does not neces­ s a rily m ean th a t th ey w ere th e m ain m ed iu m th ro u g h w h ic h contem poraries became aware o f the events of the crusades. Library catalogues give only a partial picture and if one was able to conduct a straw poll of nineteenth century readers, the result would probably be that the majority were more fam iliar with the less historically correct image o f the crusades and crusaders from the hugely popular manuals o f chivalry and the ubiquitous Tasso. This sets the scene for the discus­ sion of the development of the crusade image in various artistic mediums in later chapters.

CHAPTER TWO

The crusade ancestor and hero There was great pride in ancestry in the nineteenth century and the theme of this chapter is the way in which families and nations laid claim to their own crusade ancestor or hero, in both fact and fiction. Relics of the crusades brought home by ancestors were a permanent reminder of a fam ily’s crusade inheritance. In 1376, Mary Countess of Pembroke left to Westminster Abbey a gold and bejewelled cross which her father, William of Valence, had brought back from the Holy Land. And Wroxall, a Benedictine nunnery near Warwick, claimed a ring and chain, brought back from the Holy Land by a local landholder Hugh FitzRichard, who had founded the house in gratitude to St Leonard, the patron saint of the parish church, who had listened to his prayers and rescued him from Moslem captivity. Such stories and treasures may well have been passed on from generation to generation and would have been more widely known through the works of local antiquarians and histori­ ans. This was certainly the case in the eighteenth century. Spears and broad­ swords from a crusading expedition allegedly undertaken by his ancestor Sir Terry Robsart were displayed in the armoury of Horace Walpole’s house at Strawberry Hill, in Twickenham and there is a picture of Robsart on the library ceiling. In fact Walpole confused him with Sir John Robsart, who fought against the Moslems in the reign of Richard II, but the family cru­ sade connection remained. The Walpole family crest, used extensively in the decoration of Strawberry Hill, was a Saracen’s head and in his history of the Gothic style (1978), George Henderson wrote that the house would not have been regarded as genuinely medieval without one or two visual reminders of the crusades. A further indication of Walpole’s own interest in the crusades is the plot of his popular novel The Castle o f Otranto. As has already been mentioned, the Preface to the first edition, published in 1764, described it as a translation of an Italian story at the time of the crusades (unspecified, but sometime between 1095 and 1243). One o f the characters, Frederic has departed for the Holy Land after the death of bis wife, is wounded, imprisoned and reported dead. He eventually, however, returns, a ransom having been paid, and contributes to the resolution of the tale. As Henderson suggests, by the nineteenth century, references to the cru­ sades may have become a standard component of medievalist design. For example, at Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire, built between 1810 and 1824

40

THE NEW CRUSADERS

in the Norman Revival style by Robert Smirke for the 2nd Baron Somers, the wall decoration of the Great Hall is derived from a Moslem banner captured during the crusades and preserved as an altar cloth in Toulouse Cathedral, where it was apparently seen by the designer George Fox. A late nineteenth century traveller, James Mitchell, wrote of a relic to be found in Cluny Castle in Scotland, home of the Macphersons of Cluny and shown to him by the clan chief: There is a very curious belt of thick red morocco leather, with clasps and de­ vices in silver of a religious and oriental character. This has been in the family since the time of the crusades, one of the Cluny race having gone to Palestine to fight against the Turks. The country people believe there is a charm in the belt, particularly for the safe delivery of women in childbirth.

In his book Scotland and the Crusades (198S), Alan Macquarrie also re­ fers to a charm stone in use in Argyll in the eighteenth century, in the form of a polished slice of silicous fossil wood, set in silver. It was said to have been brought from the Holy Land and was presented to the National Mu­ seum of Antiquities in 1890. The museum collection also includes the so-called Glenorchy charmstone, which is alleged to have similar crusad­ ing connections and healing properties. A more macabre relic could be found at Brougham Hall, remodelled in the mid nineteenth century in the style of a feudal castle by the architect Lewis Cottingham, with an armour hall and Norman room, which included a painting of the Bayeux Tapestry. This was the home of Henry, Lord Brougham, chief adviser to the Princess of Wales, later Queen Caroline, and Lord Chancellor from 1830-34. As Brougham himself admitted in his own memoirs (The Life and Times o f Henry Lord Brougham, Written by Himself (1871)), his ancestry was ‘respectable mediocrity’; landholders in Westmorland and Cumberland on the paternal side and Scottish minis­ ters o f the kirk and professors, including the historian William Robertson, on his m other’s. The Complete Peerage notes that his pedigree cannot be traced with certainty beyond a Henry Brougham, described in 1663 as a gentleman o f Scales Hall Cumberland, whose eldest son, John, purchased a portion of the manor o f Brougham, Westmorland, in 1726 and the com­ plexity and uncertainty of the Brougham family tree has more recently been highlighted in Mark Thomas’s book on the history and architecture o f the Hall itself. In later life, however, the Lord Chancellor claimed descent from the De Brohams or Burghams, ancient lords of Brougham Castle and apparently used to entertain his guests with tales and mementoes of his crusader an­ cestors. Lord Campbell, a contemporary biographer, described such an occasion on a visit to Brougham:

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

41

In the church o f Brougham there was the grave of an Edward de Broham, who accompanied Richard I to the Holy Land and fought many stout battles against the Saracens. My noble and learned friend lately opened his coffin, brought away the skull and placed it in his baronial hall, under the purse which con­ tained the Great Seal of England. Being called upon to admire the grinning crusader, I could only say that I was much struck by the family likeness between him and his illustrious descendant - particularly in the lengthiness of the jaw.

Irrespective of any problems about the line o f descent, there is a question mark over the de Broham association with the crusades. The story re­ lated by Cam pbell probably ties in with the discovery, by workmen repairing the Brougham family vault in October 1846, of some de Broham skeletons in nearby Ninekirks church. In particular, they uncovered, un­ der an incised slab, known to the family as the crusader’s tomb, a skeleton buried cross legged, with an iron spur round the left heel. The tomb also contained a fragment of glass which appears to be of eastern origin. The Lord Chancellor’s brother William, who subsequently became the sec­ ond Lord Brougham and spent most of his time at Brougham Hall involved with its ’restoration’, contributed an article on this subject to Medieval Archaeology in 1847, in which the crusader was identified ‘by family tradition’ as Udard de Broham and it was suggested that the glass might be a talisman which he had brought back from the Second Crusade. William Brougham apparently kept the skull and spur at the Hall and they may well have been shown to favoured guests. There is, however, no firsthand evidence that Udard went on crusade and the suggested timeframe, after the northern baronial rebellion in 1174-75, does not fit, unless Udard formed part o f the English contingent on Philip o f Flanders expedition in 1177. Udard could certainly not have participated in Rich­ ard the Lionheart’s expedition, since he died in c ll8 5 , and there is no reference to his son Gilbert as a crusader. There is therefore some confu­ sion between family tradition and historical fact. The grave slab incised with a sword and cross can, however, still be seen today at Ninekirks church. Another possible relic of the crusades, known as the Luck of Edenhall, belonged to a nearby Cumbrian family, the Musgraves. The Luck, now on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, is a slim highly decorated glass beaker, painted in red, blue, green and white enamels with gilding. It is considered to have been made in Syria, probably Aleppo, in the mid-thirteenth century and to have been brought back to England by a crusader, although I have not been able to find any refer­ ence to a Musgrave crusader in medieval sources. Mentioned first in 1729, in the ‘Wharton ballad’ about a famous drinking match at Edenhall, the family legend was that the lord of Edenhall would die should any acci­ dent befall the glass and it was protected by a tooled leather case which was probably manufactured in France in the fourteenth century.

42

THE NEW CRUSADERS

The Scottish and Cumbrian examples suggest that there are likely to be other ‘crusade relics’ in national and regional museums and there are also contemporary literary references. In Guy Mannering (1815), Scott makes a Galloway laird tell an English visitor: I wish you could have heard my father’s stories about the old fights of the Macdingawaies ... how they sailed to the Holy Land, that is to Jerusalem and Jericho ... and brought hame relics, like those the catholics have and a flag that’s up yonder in the garret

And Macquarrie suggests that this is Scott’s adaptation o f the story of the fairy banner or bratach shithe of Dunvegan castle on the Isle of Skye, said to have been brought back from the Holy Land by a crusading Macleod. There is also of course the Lee penny or talisman of the eponymous novel (1825); a triangular cornelian, about half an inch each side set in a silver coin of Edward I’s reign. The tradition is that it was acquired by Sir Simon Lockhart of Lee and Cartland, who accompanied James, Lord Douglas, in 1320 on his expedition to the Holy Land with the heart of Robert Bruce. Douglas, in fact, never reached the East and was killed in battle against the Moslems in Spain but, according to one version o f the tradition at least, Lockhart achieved his goal and succeeded in capturing an emir. The latter’s wife went to the Christian camp to negotiate a ran­ som and in counting out the money or jew els, the stone fell out of her purse. It caught Lockhart’s eye and be insisted that he should have it as well. The em ir’s wife told him that the stone had healing properties when the water in which it had been dipped three times was consumed and subsequently a number of cures (animal and human) were attributed to the Lee penny, as it became known. In 1638, the Presbyterian Assem bly at G lasgow discussed the Lee penny at the request o f a certain Gavin H am ilton and counselled the L aird o f Lee (in L anarkshire) ‘that it be used with the least scandal that may possibly b e .’ It later escaped the censure by the Church o f Scotland of certain m iraculous cures and seems to have been used in p articular to cure those who had been bitten by mad dogs. People apparently came from all over Scotland and N orthern England and one o f the best known cures in the early eighteenth century concerned Lady Baird of Sauchton Hall, near Edinburgh. She was suffering from hydrophobia and recovered after using the w ater in which the stone had been dipped for drinking and bathing. In gratitude for the loan o f the Lee penny, the B airds entertained the L ockharts ‘in the m ost sum ptuous m anner’ at Sauchton H all. It was still believed to have curative pow ers in S co tt’s tim e and the author o f an 1828 History o f Lanark w rote that ‘not a sum m er passes w ithout pilgrim s visiting the Lee penny from all quarters to prove its healing po w ers.’ Even

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

43

as late as 1918, it was displayed by the then Laird of Lee, another Simon Lockhart, in front o f a crow d of ‘interested and generous spec­ ta to rs’ at a fete in aid o f the Red C ross Society and as far as I am aw are it is still in the possession of the Lee family. Scott himself had visited Douglas’s tomb and the story of Douglas and Bruce was mentioned in the preface to Castle Dangerous (1831) and would have been well known to his contemporaries. For example, some years later in 1885, Bruce’s request that his heart should be carried to Jerusalem after his death was the subject of a painting by John Dalrymple Marshall, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy. Although, as has already been discussed, bibliographical information is limited, family libraries would probably have contained crusade histories such as Caxton’s edition of William of Tyre’s The Siege and Conquest o f Jerusalem and of course the ubiquitous Tasso to spur new generations on to great deeds. Stories about crusade ancestors also seem to have survived in collections of local tales and ballads. For example, a collection of Gaelic proverbs published in 1819 included a quatrain attributed to the thirteenth century bard Muiredhach Albanach, said to have been spoken at the head of Loch Long in Argyllshire, when he sat down to rest on his return from the Fifth Crusade. There were also stories of crusading husbands and wives. In the Intro­ duction to his novel The Betrothed (1825), Scott told the tale of the family of Tweedie, near Peebles. The elderly baron apparently had left his young wife to go on crusade and was absent for seven or eight years. When he returned he found a young son, who had clearly been born some consider­ able time after his departure for Palestine. His wife’s story was that one day walking by Tweed Pool a human form arose and told her that be was the tutelar genius of the stream and became the father o f the young boy. The baron had no other heir and so this child became the ancestor of the family, retaining the name Tweed or Tweedie. There was a passing refer­ ence to this story in Scott’s Lay o f the Last Minstrel and obvious parallels with the story of Tyro, beguiled by Poseidon in the shape o f a river god in Homer’s Odyssey. A rather different story concerning Sir W illiam and Lady M abel Bradshaigh was preserved in Popular Traditions o f Lancashire published by John Roby in 1841. Sir William again was said to have gone on cru­ sade and been absent some ten years. During this time, assuming that he had perished, his wife married a Welsh knight, but Sir William eventu­ ally returned in pilgrim ’s habit, pursued and killed his rival. He was outlawed for a year for this deed and his wife was enjoined by her con­ fessor to make penance by going every week barefoot and bare legged to a cross near Wigan, subsequently known as Mab’s cross. In 1338 she founded the chantry o f St Mary the Virgin in the church of All Saints’ Wigan, and

44

THE NEW CRUSADERS

endowed it with property in Haigb and Wigan to enable a priest to cel­ ebrate divine service and remember the souls o f herself, her husband, her ancestors and King Edward II. In fact, there is no contemporary documentary evidence to support the crusading connection; the earliest written account dates from 1564. Rather than a crusade, Sir William was involved in a rebellion against Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in 1315 and fled after the rebel force was defeated at the battle of Deepdale, not returning until Lancaster was beheaded in 1322. The legend, however, was chronicled at some length by Roby and seems to have been passed on to Scott by Lady Balcarres when he visited the family seat at Haigh Hall. He referred to it in both Waverley (1814) and in the Introduction to The Betrothed . Sir William and Lady Mabel were both buried in the chantry chapel at All Saints’ Wigan, but little survives now of the fourteenth century effi­ gies. Under a programme of ’restoration’ by James Lindsay, 23rd Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, whose family had inherited the chapel from the Bradshaighs at the end of the eighteenth century, the tombs of Sir William and Lady Mabel were entirely reworked by the English neoclassical sculp­ tor John Gibson. Although the table tomb itself was dismantled in 1956, the effigies can still be seen today and sketches of the originals made by the antiquary Sir William Dugdale in 1664 were published in Edward Baines’s History o f Lancashire (1891). Scott maintained that the couple’s history was also depicted in a glass window in Haigh Hall, which he pre­ sumably saw on his visit to Wigan. If such a window did once exist, it did not survive the rebuilding of the Hall in the 1830s and 1840s. One can, however, still see the remains of the cross - the base of a pillar and half a four-sided shaft - in Wigan on the Standish Road, outside a primary school called Mab’s Cross. It is likely that there were many other similar tales circulating in nine­ teenth century collections and local histories. A G erm an exam ple concerning the Baron Moringer could, for example, be found in a collec­ tion of Deutsche Volkslieder, published in 1807 and was yet again mentioned by Scott in the Introduction to The Betrothed . Scott also produced a vari­ ant on this theme himself in Waverley. Sir Everard, who is portrayed as a member of an outdated aristocracy living in a rapidly changing world, is preoccupied with the details of family history and spends many hours tell­ ing his grandson Edward stories of his ancestors, including the tale of W ilibert of Waverley, who returned home from the Holy Land to find that his betrothed, believing him to be dead, had married his heir. W ilibert did the honourable thing, relinquished his claims ‘and sought in a neighbour­ ing cloister that peace which passeth not away.’ Sometimes in the large and sombre library, the young Edward Waverley imagined the scene on W ilibert’s return:

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

45

the splendour of the bridal feast at Waverley Castle; the tall and emaciated fonn of its real lord, as he stood in his pilgrim’s weeds, an unnoticed spectator of the festivities o f his supposed heir and intended bride; the electrical shock occa­ sioned by the discovery; the springing of the vassals to arms; the astonishment of the bridegroom; the terror and confusion of the bride; the agony with which Wilibert observed that her heart as well as consent was in these nuptials; the air of dignity, yet o f deep feeling with which he flung down the half drawn sword and turned away for ever from the house of his ancestors.

Various heraldic insignia were claimed to indicate crusading ancestry, from the obvious cross and Saracen’s head to animals encountered by the cru­ saders in the East, such as the ostrich. In his Romance o f Heraldry, first published in 1929, Charles Scott-Giles noted that the crusaders were gen­ erally impressed by the ostrich’s digestive capacity, hence heralds generally represented it chewing iron, a horseshoe for preference. And in her Heroes o f the Crusades (1868) Barbara Hutton commented; Many of the armorial bearings of the gentry of England in the present day, such as crosses, stars, or leopards and lions, birds and beasts, have been handed down by their Crusader ancestors, who adopted them on their coats of arms in the East.

Not all, however, could substantiate, from primary sources, the presence of an individual on a crusade, in support of a longstanding family tradi­ tion. In his Guide to Heraldry (1961), Arthur Fox-Davies wrote of the use of the scallop shell, which began life as a pilgrim badge and was then taken on by participants in the crusades, ‘many other families have adopted them, in the hope of a similar interpretation being applied to the appearance of them in their own arms.’ Whether, however, there was documentary evidence or it was simply a story that went down in family tradition, it is clear that a crusading link was perceived as worth maintaining. For example, the family coat of arms of the Viscounts Bangor (viscountcy created in 1781 and preceding barony in 1770), has as its supporters a knight in armour with a red cross on his breast and a Turkish prince beturbaned with his hands in fetters and the family motto is sub cruce salus (salvation under the cross). No visitor to the family home Castle Ward in County Down, Northern Ireland could fail to be aware of this since the arms are picked up in carpentry, plasterwork and a variety of other mediums throughout the bouse. It is also included amongst the coats of arms of the principal families of County Down in Downpatrick cathedral. It is less easy, given the limited number of names mentioned in the primary sources, as distinct from later chronicles and antiquarian research, to track down the crusading ancestor in question. There is no record of the reasons for including crusade imagery in the Bangor coat of arms in

46

THE NEW CRUSADERS

the Irish Genealogical Office in Dublin, which houses the relevant archives and all one can suppose is, that in discussing the design with the Chief Herald, the then Viscount Bangor decided to pick up on a family tradition that a Ward ancestor had taken part in the crusades. One possible candidate is Robert Warde, who was said to have been present at the siege of Acre on the Third Crusade and is given the family coat of arms in Dansey’s list of crusaders (of which more later). Warde is not mentioned as a member of the Third Crusade in the main contemporary texts, but Dansey quoted as his source a manuscript in the Bibliothèque royale in Paris. There is also a longstanding crusade story associated with the De Vere family, Earls of Oxford until the seventeenth century and ancestors of the present day Dukes of St Albans and Earls of Crawford and Balcarres. Their coat of arms includes a five pointed star, or molet, which is re­ puted to commemorate the exploits of Aubrey de Vere during the siege of Antioch on the First Crusade. According to the sixteenth century antiquary, John Leland, Aubrey fought at Nicaea, Antioch and Jerusa­ lem. During the battle with the Moslem leader Kerbogha, when his army seemed likely to be saved by the darkness, a brilliant five pointed star appeared on De Vere’s banner; the battlefield was illuminated and the day won. The presence of a De Vere at the siege o f Jerusalem is also mentioned by the nineteenth century historian Thomas Macaulay, in a list of key events in which the Earls of Oxford participated, but he does not feature in contemporary sources for the First Crusade, although the chronicles refer to a meteor which seemed to fall on the Moslem camp outside Antioch on 14 June 1098. In his Antiquities o f Heraldry, pub­ lished in 1869, William Ellis offered a rather more prosaic explanation for the molet, linking it with Robert Malet, Aubrey’s predecessor as G reat Chamberlain. Later de Veres are also said to have taken part in the Second and Third Crusades (Aubrey III and first Earl of Oxford and Robert third Earl) and Louis IX ’s first expedition to Egypt (Hugh fourth Earl) and Aubrey and Roger (perhaps Robert) appear in Wiffen and D ansey’s lists of English crusaders. In fact if one looks up the standard crusade related heraldic elements in Dictionaries of Heraldry, there is an extensive list of families with re­ puted crusade connections. The following examples illustrate the range of options available. The tradition behind the Pilkington family coat of arms, which includes four crosses and has as its crest a mower, is that this refers to Leonard Pilkington, who took part in the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and fleeing from the battlefield assumed the clothes of a mower. He was subsequently alleged to have joined in the First Crusade, hence the crosses. And it was claimed that an ancestor of the Perceval Earls of Egmont fought with Richard the Lionheart at Acre and lost an arm and a leg, thereby prompting the family motto sub cruce Candida (under the

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

47

white cross ) and the crest, a knight with one leg. The story given in an antiquarian history o f Somerset quoted by Dansey is that Sir Richard Perceval of Stawel and Weston remained on horseback, in spite of his injuries, until he fell from loss of blood. Another member of the Third Crusade was said to be the source of the three silver scallop shells on red on the Dacre family arms. According to Dugdale’s Armory, the family name itself recalled an ancestor who had distinguished himself at the siege of Acre. This seems to be apocryphal, since there was, according to Scott-G iles, a place named D acre in Cumberland well before the Third Crusade. Scott, perhaps reflecting the currency of the story in the nineteenth century, however, wrote of Lord Dacre in his Lay o f the Last Minstrel (canto IV, stanza xiv): Lord Dacre’s bill men were at band; A hardy race on Irthing bred, With kirtles white and crosses red, Arrayed beneath the banner tall, That streamed o’er Acre’s conquered walls.

And there is a thirteenth century effigy of a knight, who may have been a crusader, in the village church. The crusading credentials of the Villiers family, whose ancestor Sir Ri­ chard de Villiers took part in the Lord Edward’s crusade, are by contrast well substantiated. Their coat of arms is silver, with a red cross and five golden scallop shells and it featured prominently and no doubt deliber­ ately in the costume of the Earl of Jersey at the great medieval costume ball at Buckingham Palace in 1842. The family motto is fidei coticula crux (the cross is the test of faith). A further indication of the interest in medieval and specifically crusade ancestry is provided by two published lists of crusaders. As has already been mentioned, in his English translation of Tasso’s poem, Wiffen, the librarian at Woburn Abbey, provided a list of ‘such of the English nobil­ ity and gentry as went on the crusades’. As far as 1 have been able to establish, Wiffen’s research papers have not survived, but he stated that he had derived the 600 or more names from ‘patient perusal of monkish annals’ and a list of crusaders who had accompanied Richard the Lionheart in a sixteenth century document in the Asbmolean Museum in Oxford, with some assistance from descendants of crusading families. He antici­ pated that it might in due course be augmented by others’ research in genealogy, heraldry and county histories; expressed regret that ‘of the thou­ sands who assumed the cross in England, so few have been recorded by our old chroniclers’ and hoped that bis readers might ‘derive gratifica­ tion from this first attempt to chronicle the names of those who, crowding from the English shores, participated in the fame of Duke Robert or Coeur

48

THE NEW CRUSADERS

de Lion, of Prince Edward or of Salisbury’. W iffen’s full list is printed (in alphabetical order, rather than by expedition) at Annex A. Amongst the specific sources quoted are the Annals o f Waverley and the twelfth and thirteenth century histories of Henry of Huntingdon, Matthew Paris, Roger of Howden and William of Tyre. Predictably, more than half o f the crusaders listed (over 300) were associated with Richard the Lionheart’s expedition. They included Sir Michael Carrington, standard bearer to the king and ancestor of the Smiths, Lords Carrington and Henry, and John Percy, whose descendants became the Dukes of Northumberland. In some cases, Wiffen gave just the name, perhaps with a rather idiosyn­ cratic spelling; in others he mentioned the feats that individual was reported to have accomplished on crusade. In 1833, Wiffen published The Historical Memoirs o f the House o f Russell from the Time o f the Norman Conquest, based on eight years of research in pipe rolls, cartularies and archives in Normandy. It was dedicated to the sixth Duke of Bedford and the work undertaken: with the view o f rescuing from oblivion the achievements and commemorating the various services to the crown and nation of the Ancestors of his House, during a period of 800 years - in the desire that (as the example and character of public men are public patrimony) what was doubtful or of erroneous tendency in their actions may be shunned; what of disinterestedness, patriotism and devo­ tion to the public good, may be affectionately cherished; and what was noble, virtuous and o f unfading reputation may be imitated and excelled by his de­ scendants to many generations.

In his list of crusaders, Wiffen had referred simply to a Russell, ancestor of the Dukes of Bedford. In his history, drawing upon firsthand accounts of the crusades, he traced the ducal family back to Roger of Barneville, who was a key member of the First Crusade and was killed leading a sortie from Antioch in June 1098. Wiffen noted that Tasso was unreliable on this, since he placed Roger’s death during the siege of Jerusalem. He also commented that one of Roger’s sons, William, who had accompanied his father on crusade, added to the family shield three scallop shells, which are still borne by his descendants. A longer and more detailed list, entitled The English Crusaders, was pub­ lished in 1849 by James Cruiksbank Dansey, who was also the author of a work on Lorenzo de Medici. It is a splendid book visually, presented and illustrated in the manner of a medieval illuminated manuscript, with deco­ rated initials, a number of full page lithographs and numerous coats of arms. Dansey made no reference to Wiffen and there are significant differences between their respective lists. He stated that the purpose of his work was to rescue as many of those gallant knights as authentic docu­ ments would furnish account of, in the hope that their descendants, whilst setting aside mistaken enthusiasm, would be found ’zealous defenders of

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

49

the true faith’. Dansey added that he was aware that ’many legends exist in private families relative to their ancestors who were at the crusades’ and welcomed further authentic contributions to his list. He ordered bis list by expedition, preceded by a brief account of the crusade in question and, as with Wiffen, the bulk of names (over 500) are associated with the Third Crusade. Dansey quoted his source for each name in the margin, but the uncritical mixture of primary material, later manuscripts, antiquarian stud­ ies and county histories means that he cannot be regarded as reliable. Irrespective of its historical content, however, the family links with cru­ saders would have been of interest to contemporaries and are therefore relevant here in terms of the development of the crusade image. Dansey clearly liked a good story and a number of bis entries recall leg­ ends about individual crusaders. For example, he quoted a story from Dugdale about Alberic, Earl of Northumberland, who was listed as a mem­ ber of the Third Crusade: Being dissatisfied with his condition, he consulted with the devil, and was told that he should possess Greece; whereon be made a voyage into the East and joined the crusades. When the Greeks understood that his intention was to reign over them, they despoiled him of all he had and expelled him from those parts. After his travels, he returned into Normandy, where King Henry offered him a noble widow in marriage; but when the ceremony was taking place, he discov­ ered that this noble lady was a mere phantom, conjured up by the devil t o deceive him.

He also drew links between the crusades and heraldic insignia or church monuments. One of the more unusual concerned William Dawnay, an an­ cestor of Viscount Downe and alleged to have taken part in the Third Crusade: William Dawnay, during the siege of Acre, killed a chief emir of the Saracens, and afterwards slaying a lion, he cut off a paw and presented it to the king, who, as a mark of his approbation, took from his finger a ring, and ordered that, in commemoration of these exploits, his crest should be a demi Saracen, with a lion’s paw in one hand and a ring in the other, which is the family cognizance of the family o f Dawnay to this day, of which Viscount Downe is the representa­ tive and direct descendant of the above crusader.

Using Wiffen and Dansey’s lists, one can identify a number of ’crusade dynasties’ and the logic of genealogy means that many nineteenth cen­ tury fam ilies would indeed have been justified in claim ing crusade ancestors, even if they were not included in the medieval sources. Draw­ ing on such sources, in his study of English Society and the Crusade 1216-1307 (1988), Simon Lloyd states that twenty one families were rep­ resented in the direct lineage by two crusaders of different generations in the thirteenth century; fourteen families by three members and twelve by

50

THE NEW CRUSADERS

four or more. The m ost im portant crusading fam ilies were B asset, B eaucham p, Bohun, B ruce, Daubeny, Furnivall, Lacy, M andeville, Mowbray, Neville and Quenci and all these names were recorded by both Wiffen and Dansey. For example, Wiffen listed Roger, Nigel and John de Mowbray and Girard and Thomas de Furnivall. Roger de Mowbray took part in the Second Crusade, another expedition in 1164 and died in the Holy Land in 1186; Nigel accompanied Richard I and died at Acre in 1192; and John died on crusade in 1368. Gerard I of Furnivall was one of Rich­ ard I’s close companions on the Third Crusade and took the cross again in 1202; his son Gerard II died in 1219 on the Fifth Crusade; his sons Gerard and Thomas sailed with Simon de Montfort; and William accompanied Ri­ chard of Cornwall to the Holy Land in 1240-41. Wiffen’s translation of Gerusalemme Liberata went through a number of editions and his list would probably have reached a wider and more gen­ eral audience through its inclusion in Thomas Keigbtley’s 1834 history of the crusades. The impact of Dansey’s work is less clear. Almost one hundred years after Wiffen and Dansey published their lists, Richard Hollins Murray included the coats of arms o f twenty one Her­ efordshire and border crusading families, as part of his new cloisters at Dinmore, near Hereford, a former commandery o f the Hospitallers, which commemorated and celebrated the crusades and the Military Orders. The de Bohuns, who were of course Earls of Hereford, naturally feature in this company. Henry took part in the Fifth Crusade, Humphrey took the cross in 1250 but never sailed and his son John probably went to the East in 1290. And in his book England and the Crusades (1988), Tyerman notes that the de Bohuns could boast crusaders in the male line from the Fifth Crusade to the 1360s. Macquarrie has also identified some Scottish crusade dynasties such as the Balliol and Quincy families. At least three (Alexander, Eustace and Ingram) and probably more of the de Balliol family, with estates at Barnard Castle and in Galloway, took part in the Lord Edward’s crusade in 1270-2; Robert de Quincy joined the Third Crusade, defending Antioch in 1191-2 and his son Robert sailed from Galloway in 1219 and died before the walls of Damietta on the Fifth Crusade that November. His heart and entrails were taken back home to the priory of Gwarendon for burial and his body was sent to Acre. A later Robert de Quincy took part in Louis IX’s Egyp­ tian expedition. These and other stories would have been available to the Scottish reader from a series of chronicles and documents published in the nineteenth century. As will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter, participants in the First World War also saw themselves as following in the footsteps of their crusading ancestors. For example T.E. Lawrence claimed an ancestor who fought with Richard at Acre and the obituary of an Old Westminster, Sir

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

51

Herbert Archer Croft, of Herefordshire, who died at Gallipoli, read: Since the days of the crusades, when Sir Jasper Croft was created a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre by Godfrey of Bouillon at the taking of Jerusalem, the Crofts have continually served their king and country as soldiers.

The Croft family history certainly stated that Jasper de Croft took part in the First Crusade and was knighted by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1100, but the source for this is not clear. As with Aubrey de Vere, Jasper de Croft does not feature in any of the primary sources for the expedition and the tradition seems to have been based on a reference in Dansey, without fur­ ther attribution. As a footnote, a later owner of Croft castle was Thomas Johnes, who translated Villehardouin. Returning to the nineteenth century, this interest in crusade ancestors was not simply a British phenomenon. Chateaubriand was very conscious of his crusading ancestor Geoffrey of Chateaubriand, who accompanied Louis IX to Egypt and in his memoirs he recalled how he had been taken at the age of seven, in fulfilment of a vow made by his wet nurse, to the church of Notre Dame de Nazareth at Plancoet near St. Malo. There the Prior recalled the exploits of his ancestor and since that date Chateaubriand had dreamed of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. His mother read him tales of chivalry, including the sad story of the crusading baron’s wife, who died of joy when her husband returned to France and, as has already been men­ tioned, he was an avid reader of Tasso. Chateaubriand fulfilled his dream in 1806, when he travelled to Jerusalem, ‘under the banner of the cross’ and was made a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre. His account of the journey Itinéraire de Paris à Jedrusalem became a nineteenth century best seller and an English translation was in its second edition by 1812. The prime example of the cachet of crusade ancestry, however, must be the Salles des croisades, which formed part of Louis Philippe’s scheme of redecoration at the Palace of Versailles in the 1830s, celebrating the glo­ ries and triumphs of French history. The artistic content of the Salles will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter on the crusade image in art, but in practice history was more important in their creation. The Salles were conceived as a historical narrative and evocation of past national and individual triumphs by a new monarchy seeking to establish its credentials and in his book on History and its images (1993), Francis Haskell notes: The museum of Versailles had been intended to blur (if not to eradicate) the memories associated with one of the most celebrated buildings in France memories of despotic and extravagant monarchs isolated from the subjects over whom they ruled - and to substitute a different set of memories alto­ gether: more than a thousand years of monarchy and nation united in the com­ mon cause o f defeating enemies and spreading civilisation.

52

THE NEW CRUSADERS

And a contemporary account by Eudoxe Soulié claimed that Versailles rep­ resented the largest and most varied collection of works of art that any nation had ever dedicated to the memories of its history; ‘sieges and bat­ tles, conquests, crusades, historical facts, ceremonies, persons illustrious through blood, genius, courage, science or beauty; pictures, portraits, stat­ ues, tombs.’ The design included both paintings and the coats of arms of families whose ancestors bad taken part in the crusades and the demand for inclu­ sion was intense. Anyone who was anyone or who had social pretensions in mid nineteenth century France wished their family to be represented and when the gallery opened in 1840 316 families featured, of which sixty still had living representatives. The following year, however, the rooms had to be closed because of the storm of protest by other families, who demanded to be included and fortuitously produced documents to attest their crusading ancestry. After further coats of arms had been added, the rooms reopened in 1843. This pride in crusading ancestry was under­ lined by a passage from M ichaud’s history of the crusades: If many scenes from this great epoch excite our indignation or our pity, how many events fill us with admiration and surprise! How many names made illus­ trious in this war are still today the pride of families and of the nation! What is the most positive of the results of the first crusade is the glory of our fathers, this glory which is also a real achievement for a nation, for these great m e m o r i e s establish the existence of peoples as well as that of families, and are, in this respect, the noblest source of patriotism.

The new ly-discovered crusading charters were, however, the work of the industrious Eugene-H enri Courtois, Paul le Tellier and Eugene de Stadler, who set up a profitable forgery business. Fam ilies actually paid considerable sums for their crusading credentials. The Countess of Chastenay, for example, was charged 500 francs for a Third C ru­ sade charter, including seal. D oubt was cast on their authenticity as early as 1844. In the Archives généalogiques et historiques de la no­ blesse de France, M. Laine, genealogist to Louis XVIII and Charles X, commented on the high proportion of fam ilies who still had living representatives, forty two out of sixty two this time round. The for­ gery was, however, only exposed as such in 1956 and the charters were used for example by Dansey as authority for some of his English crusaders. In fact, the quality o f the charters can still cause confusion today. Details of all those whose coats of arms were included in the rooms at Versailles were printed in a volume of the Galeries historiques de Palais de Versailles, probably published under the direction of Louis Philippe in 1844 and a further indication of French interest in crusade ancestry was a

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

53

work entitled La Noblesse de la France aux Croisades, published in 1845 by Paul André Roger, an antiquarian and government official. Roger stated that his sources for his list of French crusaders, broken down according to expedition (including the Albigensian Crusade), were chronicles, cartular­ ies and some ‘contemporary charters'. He also provided a brief history of the crusading movement, illustrated with a number of engravings and printed some of the supporting documents. A facsimile of this work was pub­ lished in 1992. The 800th anniversary of the preaching of the First Crusade at the Coun­ cil of Clermont in 1095 was celebrated by the citizens o f the town with a rather comic procession, headed by a local antiquarian in the guise of Godfrey of Bouillon, with chain mail and pince-nez and a statue of Pope Urban II outside the cathedral still commemorates the event. There was at least one triumphal crusade song and in a speech delivered in May 1895, Jacques Monsabré urged his audience to declare a new crusade in support of Christianity and against its enemies, Satan and indifference. He con­ cluded with the emotive phrase Dieu le veut. In his study of Victorian painting (1993), Julian Treuherz commented, ‘history was pictured in terms of national pride and of moral and political exemplars for the modern age, but also of romantic heroes and heroines and nostalgia for a glamorous past’. This was certainly true of the way in which in this period a number of European countries, some newly inde­ pendent or seeking independence, used crusade imagery, albeit on a smaller scale than Louis Philippe at Versailles. For example, Godfrey of Bouillon served as a convenient crusade hero for the newly independent kingdom of Belgium and was commemorated by the famous Simonis statue in the Grand Place in Brussels. A history of the Belgian contribution to the crusades published by André Constant van Hasselt, under the auspices o f the Bibliothèque Nationale in Brussels in 1846, recalled that Belgium bad pro­ vided not only the first ruler of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, but also the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople, Baldwin of Flanders. And these and other noble Belgian crusaders were cited again in 1860, in a pamphlet written by Professeur Metton-Leduc, urging Christian rulers to launch a new crusade in response to Turkish attacks on Maronite Christians in the East. Norway had the crusader King Sigurd, known as Jorsalfar or Jerusalem farer, who had set out for the Latin East in 1107 and assisted King Baldwin in the siege of Sidon. His exploits were commemorated in the Norse saga Heimskringla and in 1865 the French historian Riant published a study of S can dinavian c ru sad ers, en title d Expéditions et pèlerinages des Scandinaves en Terre Sainte. Sigurd was also the subject of a play by the Norwegian nationalist poet Bjornsterne Bjomson, first performed on Independence Day in May 1872, with incidental music composed by

54

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Edvard Grieg. Twenty years later in 1892, Grieg revised and published the work as the Sigurd Jorsalfar suite and it was not without significance that in 1905 it was performed at the National Theatre in front o f the new Norwegian King Haakon. More generally, I have come across at least one nineteenth century English poem about the Norwegian king, by the Aberdeen author William Forsyth, illustrated by Edward Burne-Jones and the Jorsalfar suite seems to have been popular amongst British m usi­ cians, including brass bands. Another indicator of nineteenth century interest in crusade ancestry can be found in references in literature, in particular the novels of Benjamin Disraeli. In Henrietta Temple (1836), the family history of the Armine family started with William the Conqueror’s standard bearer and included a Ralph Armine, who died on the Third Crusade at Ascalon. Amongst the family relics was Ralph’s coat of armour and one of the scenes of family history and glory depicted in the great picture gallery was the siege of Ascalon. The tutor of the young heir also offered to decorate the hall with 300 shields, the emblazonings of the family since the Conquest. In Disraeli’s next novel, Venetia (1837), a version of the story of the poets Byron and Shelley, Lord Cadurcis (Byron) turned his thoughts to his ancestry: They had conquered in France and Palestine and left a memorable name to the annalist of his country. Those days were past and yet Cadurcis felt within him the desire, perhaps the power, of emulating them; but what remained? What career was open in this mechanical age to the chivalric genius of his race?

The idea of the Middle Ages as a golden age of chivalrous ideals and just government, lay and ecclesiastical, which should be emulated by later cen­ turies was certainly a key theme of the Young England movement, led by Disraeli and three young men who had been friends at Eton and Cambridge and joined Parliament together in 1841 - Lord John Manners, the second son of the Duke of Rutland, George Smythe, son of Viscount Strangford and Alexander Cochrane, the son of an admiral. The movement flourished between 1842 and 1845 and is now perhaps best known through Disraeli’s Young England trilogy, Coningsby, Sybil and Tancred. Much has already been written about these novels and indeed the Young England movement itself. My purpose here is much more limited, namely to draw out the references to the crusades. D israeli’s first Young England novel, Coningsby, published in 1844, told the story of a young aristocrat (Smythe) who was inspired by his mentor, the Jewish financier Sidonia (modelled on Disraeli himself) to consider his responsibilities and the direction of contemporary English society against the background of the Industrial Revolution. In discus­ sion, Sidonia comments on the limitations of human reason as a basis for social revolution:

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

55

It was not Reason that sent forth the Saracen from the desert to conquer the world; that inspired the crusaders...Man is only truly great when he acts from the passions; never irresistible but when he appeals to the imagination.

Coningsby’s friend Lord Buckhurst (modelled on Cochrane) is said to be enchanted with the Temple, in London; The tombs in the church convinced him that the crusades were the only career. He would have himself become a law student if he might have prosecuted his studies in chain armour.

And the Heroes of the Holy Sepulchre were amongst the costumes listed in the description of the June Montem ceremony at Eton. In Sybil, published in 1845, Disraeli told the story o f Egremont, the younger brother of the Earl of Marney, who was educated at Eton and Oxford, but achieved his real education at the hands o f the Sybil of the title, the poor daughter of a m ilitant chartist leader. The sub-title was The Two Nations, namely the rich and the poor. One of the main characters, Lord Fitzwarene of Mowbray castle, is much preoccupied with bis pedi­ gree; ‘his coat of arms was emblazoned on every window, embroidered on every chair, carved in every com er.’ And Earl Marney, who was him­ self descended from a favourite of Henry VIII, is described as treating Fitzwarene with a certain degree of ceremony ‘especially when the de­ scendant of the crusaders affected the familar ’. Disraeli made Lady Maud Fitzwarene announce: I know that it is the fashion to deride the crusades, but do you not think that they had their origin in a great impulse, and in a certain sense, led to great results? Pardon me if I speak with emphasis, but I never can forget that I am the daugh­ ter o f the first crusaders.

The basis on which she made such a claim, however, was somewhat ques­ tionable. The source of the family wealth was a John Warren, a London waiter who made his fortune in India and married the daughter of an Irish earl. There is a further crusading allusion when Lord Valentine goes to the Queen’s ball, presumably intended as a reference to the 1842 royal ball, as Richard the Lionheart, clad in an old family suit of armour. The third novel of the trilogy, Tancred, subtitled The New Crusader, was published in 1847. The hero, Tancred, Marquess o f Montacute and only son of the Duke of Bellamont, again is a young nobleman who has all the advantages that wealth and power can bestow. He decides, however, to reject the lure of earthly possessions and status, specifically a safe parlia­ mentary seat, in favour of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to ‘the sepulchre of my Saviour’, to find faith and, through faith, duty, thereby following the example of one of his ancestors, who bad taken part in the crusades.

56

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Disraeli described a gallery one hundred feet long which occupied the great portion of the northern side of the family castle Bellamont: The panels of this galleiy enclosed a series of pictures in tapestry, which repre­ sented the principal achievements of the third crusade. A Montacute had been one of the most distinguished knights in that great adventure and had saved the life o f Coeur de Lion at the siege of Ascalon. In after ages a Duke of Bellamont, who was our ambassador at Paris, had given orders to the Gobelins factory for the execution of this series of pictures from cartoons by the most celebrated artists of the time. The subjects of the tapestry bad obtained for the magnificent chamber which they adorned and rendered so interesting, the title of the Cru­ saders’ Gallery.

Tapestries such as those displayed at Bellamont may well have been on display in some nineteenth century great bouses. Certainly in the four­ teenth century the country residence of Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Gloucester and son of Edward III and his wife Eleanor, daughter of the crusader Humphrey de Bohun, contained fifteen tapestries based on the romance of Godfrey of Bouillon and there were a number of seventeenth century tapestries depicting scenes from Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata . Tancred explains his desire to follow the example of his ancestor to his father thus: Our castle has before this sent forth a De Montacute to Palestine. For three days and nights he knelt at the tomb of his Redeemer. Six centuries and more have elapsed since that great enterprise. It is time to restore our communications with the Most High.

Disraeli himself had visited the Holy Land as part of his Grand Tour in 1830-31 and his personal knowledge is evident in his descriptions of Jeru­ salem. He lamented that others did not share Tancred’s enthusiasm for pilgrimage: more than six hundred years before, it [England] had sent forth its king and the flower o f its peers and people, to rescue Jerusalem from those who they consid­ ered infidels and now, instead of the third crusade, they expend their superflu­ ous energies in the construction of railroads.

Writing at a time when some of his contemporaries favoured the estab­ lishment of a Christian Protectorate in the East, Disraeli did not, however, advocate a restoration of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem : Jerusalem, it cannot be doubted, will ever remain the appanage either of Israel or of Ishmael; and if, in the course of those great vicissitudes which are no doubt impending for the East, there be any attempt to place upon the throne of David a prince of the House of Coburg or Deuxpoints, the same fate will doubt­ less await him as, with all their brilliant qualities and all the sympathy of Eu­ rope, was the final doom of the Godfreys, the Baldwins, and the Lusignans.

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

57

The almost obligatory crusade ancestor also featured in the novel Guy Livingstone, published anonymously in 1857 by George Alfred Lawrence. Guy himself is described as having the 'face of one of those stone crusad­ ers, who look up at us from their couches in the Round Church of the Temple’ and the great hall at the family estate in Kerton, Northampton­ shire is decorated with ‘countless memorials of chase and war, for the Livingstones had been hunters and soldiers beyond the memory of man.’ These include a portrait of an ancestor Sir Malise, sumamed Poing de fer, who ‘went up to the breach at Ascalon, shoulder to shoulder with strong King Richard.’ Guy himself, however, does not perform truly heroic deeds and the main plot concerns his divided affections between the good Constance Brandon and Flora Bellasys, a femme fatale. He predictably succumbs to temptation, but in the end, he repents, dying in great agony after a hunting accident. In his work on Victorian Popular Fiction (1983), Reginald Terry comments: Lawrence goes to some lengths to establish a feudal context for his hero’s she­ nanigans, but unfortunately Guy has no Saracens appropriate to his crusade and no Christian ethic to sustain his actions; he is a Victorian rebel without a cause, dangerous and thereby destructive in a way quite at odds with Livingstone’s ideas about him.

This is, however, very much a later twentieth century perspective on a fictional character and work which enjoyed considerable popularity in the Victorian era. Crusade ancestors also featured in two poems by Alfred Tennyson. As has already been mentioned, grand balls decorated with suits of armour and coats of arms of real or putative ancestors were a popular feature of the Victorian medieval-style ancestral mansion and Charles Tennyson d’Eyncourt, uncle of the poet, was no exception at Bayons Manor. He claimed descent from the medieval d’Eyncourts, as well as the Lovels and Beaumonts amongst others and in the 1830s, as I will discuss in a later chapter, corresponded with the hero of Acre, Sir Sidney Smith, about the creation of an English Branch of the Order of the Temple. Against this background, in the Prologue to ‘The Princess’, Alfred Tennyson described the home of Sir Walter Vivian: Betwixt the monstrous horns of elk and deer, His own forefathers’ arms and armour hung. And this, be said, was Hugh’s at Agincourt; And that was old Sir Ralph’s at Ascalon: A good knight het we keep a chronicle With all about him.

58

THE NEW CRUSADERS

And in ‘Locksley Hall Sixty Years After’ (1886), he wrote of the tomb o f a crusader: Yonder in that chapel, slowly sinking now into the ground, Lies the warrior, my forefather, with his feet upon the hound. Cross’d! for once he sail’d the sea to crush the Moslem in his pride; Dead the warrior,dead his glory, dead the cause in which he died. Yet how often I and Amy in the mouldering aisle have stood, Gazing for one pensive moment on that founder of our blood.

As we have seen, some of Disraeli’s characters, such as the Fitzwarenes, did not have any justification for claiming crusading ancestors and in his great social novel The Way We Live Now , published in 1875, Anthony Trollope attacked what he described as the ’commercial profligacy of the age’ and social pretensions. An example relevant to the crusade theme con­ cerned Lady Monogram, who was asserting her social position over an old unmarried friend, the daughter of a (Jewish) city financier. Trollope pro­ vided a short but telling pen portrait of her husband Sir Damask: a man o f great wealth whose father had been a contractor. But Sir Damask himself was a sportsman, keeping many horses on which other men often rode, a yacht in which other men sunned themselves, a deer forest, a moor, a large machinery for making pheasants...He had really conquered the world, had got over the difficulty of being the grandson of a butcher and was now as good as though the Monograms had gone to the crusades.

Other contemporary authors satirised the romanticised view of the Middle Ages promoted by the Young England movement. For example, in Novels by Emi­ nent Hands, printed in Punch between April and October 1847, Thackeray produced a satire on D israeli’s Coningsby entitled Codlingsby by D. Shrewsberry Esq. Perhaps significantly, he could not resist the occasional crusading reference. The Marquis of Codlingsby is one Godfrey de Bouillon and he regularly attends performances of Armida (the enchantress in Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata) at the theatre. In another burlesque, Thackeray gave the Earl of Baracres, whose ancestor fought with Plantagenet at Acre, the name John George Godfrey de Bullion Thistlewood and in the burlesque Barbazure, he has bis character Romane de Clos-Dougeot transcending the bounds of historical chronology and recalling his time on crusade: I stood by Richard of England at the gates of Ascalon and drew the spear from the sainted Saint Louis in the tents of Damietta ... I have broken a lance with Solyman at Rhodes and smoked a chibouque with Saladin at Acre.

The crusades also featured in the popular and comic Ingoldsby Legends, written by Richard Harris Barham, a minor canon of St Paul’s London. The Legends, subtitled Mirth and marvels by Sir Thomas Ingoldsby Esq.

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

59

and purporting to be extracts from the family memoranda, were published initially in instalments in 1837 and then collected in one volume in 1840. The most famous story was that of ‘The Jackdaw of Rheims’, who steals the archbishop’s ring, is cursed, falls ill, repents, dies in an odour of sanc­ tity and is canonised as Jack Crow. A number of the other legends, however, also made brief reference to the crusades and two laid claim to Ingoldsby crusading ancestors. ‘The Ingoldsby Penance’ tells the story of Ingoldsby de Bray who goes on crusade and kills numerous Saracens in battle. Wor­ rying about the fate of his wife, Lady Alice, at home, he is given permission to return to the West by King Richard and, convinced that she has betrayed him, strangles her. He founds Ingoldsby Abbey in penance for this and the murder of a friar. ‘The Grey Dolphin’ tells of Sir Robert de Shurland, who accompanied the Lord Edward to the Holy Land. His career is summa­ rised as follows: He had been present at Acre when Amirand of Joppa stabbed the prince with a poisoned dagger, and bad lent Princess Eleanor his own toothbrush after she bad sucked out the venom from the wound. He bad slain certain Saracens, con­ tented himself with his own plunder and never dunned the commisariat for ar­ rears of pay. Of course he ranked high in Edward’s good graces, and had re­ ceived the honour of knighthood at his hands on the field of battle.

Elsewhere in ‘The Spectre of Tappington’, there is reference to an anti­ quary who is ‘master of Gwillim’s Heraldry and M ills’ History o f the Crusades and ‘The Lay of St Genghulphus’ provides a variant on the ab­ sent crusader and abandoned wife. The latter turns to the company of a learned clerk, with disastrous results for all concerned. The moral of the story runs as follows: Now you grave married Pilgrims, who wander away, Like Ulysees of old (vide Homer and Naso), Don’t lengthen your stay to three years and a day, And when you are coming home, just write and say so. And you, learned Clerks, who’re not given to roam, Stick close to your books, nor lose sight of decorum; Don’t visit a house when the master’s from home! Shun drinking, and study the Vitae Sanctorum! Above all, you gay ladies, who fancy neglect In your spouses, allow not your patience to fail; But remember Gengulphus’s wife - and reflect On the moral enforced by her terrible tale!

This variation on a theme, however, itself indicates the currency of the image and Barham’s achievement has been summarised as follows:

60

THE NEW CRUSADERS

his poetic strategy was to build, upon the very modest foundations of the Kent­ ish manor house (Tappington Everard) which he hardly ever occupied, the leg­ endary house of Ingoldsby, with its ancestral crusading connections, its comic spectres and its skeletons in the cupboard.

Indeed the Ingoldsby Legends seem to have been as popular in the 1840s as Scott's novels in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century. There is also evidence that the crusade hero was seen and promoted as an example to emulate. In the Preface to his History o f the Crusades, Charles Mills wrote of Palestine as the theatre of English chivalry: M any o f our most vigorous and warlike princes sought m artyrdom or glory in Asia. Richard Coeur de Lion is chiefly rem em bered for his m artial p il­ grim age to the Holy Land; Robert Curthose (the eldest son of W illiam the Conqueror), Richard, Earl o f Cornwall (the brother of Henry III) and the all praised Edward (afterwards Edward I) were heroical votaries of the cross.

And in their 1899 History o f the Crusades, Archer and Kingsford con­ cluded, in contrasting the age of the crusades with the early Renaissance: it was not altogether a change from the worse to the better that gave France a Louis the Treacherous for a Louis the Saint and England a Richard of the Subtle Brain for a Richard of the Lion Heart.

Another British crusade exemplar was William Longsword, Earl of Salis­ bury, who fell at the battle of Mansurah on Louis IX ’s Egyptian crusade. His exploits would have been known to readers o f Matthew Paris and Joinville, in the original or translation and Dansey included a transla­ tion of a medieval French poem about Longsword in his list of English crusaders. The noble crusader’s effigy could be seen in Salisbury Ca­ thedral and would also have been fam iliar to many from Charles Alfred Stothard’s Monumental Effigies o f Great Britain (1811-33). Thomas Leland’s historical romance, Longsword, Earl o f Salisbury, was first published in 1762 and reprinted in 1831. One can also see the develop­ ment of the crusade hero theme in children’s literature, but this is the subject of another chapter. In Britain it is not surprising that there was a particular emphasis on Richard the Lionheart. As will be discussed in later chapters, he provided ample subject matter for artists, writers and composers and two examples of this are epic poems by Henry Burges and Eleanor Porden. Sir Henry Bland Burges was an MP for Cornwall, supporter o f William Wilberforce’s anti-slavery campaign and for a short period Under Secre­ tary at the Foreign Office. His real love, however, was literary pursuits and he composed an epic poem - eighteen books and more than 17,000 thou­ sand lines, in Spenserian stanzas - entitled Richard Coeur de Lion and

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

61

published in London in 1800. It seems to have been well received by con­ temporaries, prompting a letter of praise from William Wordsworth and Burges’s friend the dramatist Richard Cumberland commented admiringly o f the speed with which he wrote, far exceeding the rate at which Pope translated Homer. Another letter of congratulation from his cousin C. L. Bayntum, reminded Burges that their common ancestor Sir Henry Bayntum was Knight Marescball to Henry III and his brother John a ’knight of Jeru­ salem’ who was slain in the Holy L a n d . To a more modern reader the style is stilted, but Burges’s approach to the story of Richard’s crusade is interesting. Rather like Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata, Satan on bearing of Richard’s crusade sends bis demon Moloch to England to raise famine, pestilence and civil war and Belial to Palestine to sow dissension among the Christian leaders. The events of the Third Crusade then unfold, but the majority of the poem takes the form of Rich­ ard’s defence before the Diet of Worms of the charges laid against him. After his triumphant return to England, the king uses his sword Excalibur to rescue Queen Berengaria, who has fallen into the hands of his enemies and overcome his rival King Philip of France. The opening stanza runs as follows: The lion-hearted monarch, who display’d His banner on Judaea’s shore, I sing. Immortal muse) impart thy powerful aid From the Aonian mount with rapid wing Descending, heavenly inspiration bring: Teach me to trace th’effects of Austria’s bate And the foul wrongs of Gallia’s treach’rous king, To tell how Richard, long oppress’d by fate, O ’er adverse bell prevail’d and grew by suff’rings great.

Eleanor Porden’s epic poem, Coeur de Lion or the Third Crusade, was published in 1822 and dedicated to King George IV ’the enlightened pa­ tron and protector of English literature’. In the Preface, she states that her ’fancy was captivated by the chivalrous and romantic spirit which breathes from every page of their [the crusaders] history and ... the wish to see them poetically treated.’ She makes reference to the works of both Mills and Michaud, but argues that ‘it is absurd to try the justice or prudence of the crusades by the feelings and opinions of the nineteenth century.’ Ad­ mitting that much of fiction is necessarily blended in the poem, Porden alluded to some of the problems encountered by female authors in the 1820s; ’much of the necessary information was to be derived from sources almost inaccessible to a female’. The poem opens with the crusaders before Acre and then follows the fortunes and intrigues of the participants until Richard’s truce with Saladin. Porden writes of Richard:

62

THE NEW CRUSADERS

For Britain! not in this thy noon of fame, Hast thou a son to noble hearts more dear, Than he, the terror of the moslem name Who on the deep thy White Cross dared to rear And spread in Palestine, till it became The Christian’s day star and th’apostate’s fear Who mix’d with martial deeds the minstrel lyre, He of the Lionheart, the dauntless soul of fire.

The text is littered with names of English crusaders, including the story about the Perceval who was severely wounded at Acre: But Perceval, long bound by grateful ties To D’Oyly’s house, enraged to vengeance flies. In vain, his better arm the Persian cleaves, And pale as earth the wounded Norman leaves, And but his squire was near on Arsouf’s plain The son o f Ascelin had swelled the slain.

Turning to her own era, in her opening Ode to George IV, Porden expresses the hope that her contemporaries will emulate their predecessors : Say not Chivalry if dead; That her spirit charms no moreNoble souls still love to tread Paths of legendary lore: ...Still many a sculptured hero proudly tells, For her he bravely fought, for heaven and England died ...That we to heaven our eyes may cast. For present good our grateful anthems raise And wish that future years may but reflect the past.

Much the same sort of imagery could be found in accounts of the polar expeditions undertaken by her husband, Sir John Franklin. He perished in 1847, in the course of an expedition to discover the North West passage which captured the Victorian popular imagination. In an epitaph Tennyson wrote of the ’heroic sailor soul’ and an article in the Cornhill Magazine declared that ‘dying in the cause of their country, their dearest consolation must have been to feel that Englishmen would not rest until they had fol­ lowed in their footsteps.’ The French equivalent of Richard the Lionheart was Louis IX, who was the subject of a number of nineteenth century plays, poems and paintings. And the portrayal of the crusading king in French epic and drama has re­ cently been the subject of an interesting article by William Chester Jordan. Louis also proved a popular subject for some British authors and the Heroes of Nations series published in 1901 included three crusade figures - Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and Louis IX - amongst its forty or so titles.

THE CRUSADE ANCESTOR AND HERO

63

The idea of the crusader as a general role model for the chivalric ideal predictably also featured in correspondence between members of the Young England group in the 1830s and 1840s. In 1837, George Smythe wrote of his friend Lord John Manners: Thou shouldst have lived, dear friend, in those old days When deeds of high and chivalrous enterprise Were gendered by the sympathy of eyes That smiled on valour - or by roundelays Sung by the palmer minstrel to their praise Then surely some Provençal tale of old That spoke of Zion and crusade, had told Thy knightly name and thousand gentle ways.

Ten years later in a letter seeking to console Manners after his election defeat, he deliberately used similar imagery: You have...realized the prophecy of my boyish sonnet, are a perfect type among us of an older time, and the Christian cavalier. In your love, your poetry, your politics, your popularity, your religion, you realize images and ideas, as obselete as ‘the mystic rose’ or the crusaders’ faith, or the worship of a Masaccio or a Raphael. You are a miracle of purity in an age of impurity.

In summary therefore, there would seem to be strong evidence that during this period families were keen to lay claim, justifiably or otherwise, to a crusade ancestor. Whilst some could display relics allegedly brought back from the Holy Land, others relied on family crusade stories and anecdotes recorded by antiquarians. The idea of a national crusade hero also found favour with nineteenth century European nationalists. In Britain the image of a crusader, reflected in art and literature, was seen as something noble and romantic and the inevitable focus was on Richard the Lionheart, who was held up as an example to emulate in epic poetry. Although there were a number of literary detractors of the romantic view, in practice they only confirm the currency of the crusade image.

CHAPTER THREE

Travellers and plenipotentiaries Another perspective on the crusades was offered to those who travelled to the Holy Land, Egypt and Syria. The late nineteenth century saw the be­ ginnings of mass tourism and the establishment of the package tour by the firm of Thomas Cook. Numerous accounts of these journeys or pilgrim­ ages survive and guidebooks of the region were also published for future travellers. For most, the prime focus was sites associated with the Bible and the life of Christ, but some, as they travelled around, took note of subsequent events and strata of history, including the crusades. A selection of their observations are discussed here. In England, one of the earliest travellers was Edward Daniel Clarke, whose scholarly interests ranged from history and archaeology to miner­ alogy; he became professor of mineralogy at Cambridge and his entry in the Dictionary o f National Biography notes that he was famous for his invention of a gas blowpipe for use in laboratories. Clarke was an invet­ erate traveller and the first instalment of his account o f his journeys, entitled Travels in Various Countries o f Europe, Asia and Africa, was published in 1810 and became a guidebook for subsequent English trav­ ellers. Clarke arrived in Acre in 1801, on a British naval vessel bringing supplies to the forces opposing Napoleon’s army in Egypt and proceeded to Jerusalem, where be was struck by the ‘degrading superstitions which pollute the Holy Land’ and in this context critical of the example set by the crusaders: It is a very common error to suppose everything barbarous on the part of the Mahometans and to attribute to the Christians, in that period, more refinement than they really possessed. A due attention to history may shew, that the Saracens, as they were called, were in fact more enlightened than their invad­ ers; nor is there any evidence for believing they ever delighted in works of destruction. Whatsoever degree of severity they might exercise towards their invaders, the provocation they had received was unexampled. The treachery and shameful conduct of the Christians, during their wars in the Holy Land, have seldom been surpassed. Every treaty was violated; and the most dishon­ ourable practices were said to be justified by the interests of religion. Acre, during almost two centuries, was the principal theatre o f the crusades, and it had been long memorable on account of perfidies committed there by men who styled themselves its Heroes. The history of their enormities we derive from their own historians; nor is it possible to imagine what the tale would be, if an Arabic writer were presented to us with the Mahometan records of those times.

TRAVELLERS AND PLENIPOTENTIARIES

65

Some of Clarke’s sentiments could, as we have seen, be found in eight­ eenth and even nineteenth century histories of the crusades, but other trav­ ellers took a rather more romanticized view of the crusades and crusaders. As already noted, Disraeli visited the Holy Land as part of his Grand Tour of the Near East and the Mediterranean. His visit has been described by his biographer Lord Blake as one of the formative experiences of the future Prime M inister’s life, setting the background for several of his nov­ els and influencing his attitude many years later to the Eastern Question. The Holy Land featured in particular in the novels Contarini Fleming, Alroy, Tancred and Lolhair and whilst in Jerusalem, Disraeli, like other contem­ porary travellers visited the tombs of the crusader kings and seems to have been conscious of the crusading heritage and sites. In 1862, the year after the death of his father, the Prince Consort, the Prince o f Wales him self travelled to the East and was joined at Alexan­ dria by the churchman and geographer the Revd Arthur Stanley, Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford and the future Dean of Westminster. It was noted that he was the first heir to the throne to set foot in Palestine since the crusade of the Lord Edward, later Edward I, in 1270 and the Prince wrote a Journal which survives in the Royal Archives at Windsor. He was also accompanied by the photographer Francis Bedford and an exhibition of Bedford’s photographs of Pales­ tine was subsequently held in the British Museum. In the Journal there are occasional references to visits to sites associated with the crusades and, during his stay in Jerusalem , the Prince’s tent was apparently pitched under olive trees, between the Damascus and St Stephen’s gates, on the same site as that of Godfrey o f Bouillon during the siege o f Jeru­ salem on the First Crusade. A photograph of the tree and site in ques­ tion was published in the Reminiscences of Mrs Finn, wife of the B rit­ ish Consul in Jerusalem during the royal visit, of whom more later. The Prince went on to Damascus where he saw amongst other sites the tomb of Saladin. Stanley was already familiar with the local geography and history from his previous visit in 1852 and bis book Sinai and Palestine in Connection with their History was published in 1856 and reissued every year for the rest o f the century. There were again a number of references to key events in the history of the crusading movement such as the battle of Hattin and Stanley seems to have been particularly struck by the turbulent history of Acre: The peculiarity o f the story of Acre lies in its many sieges - by Baldwin, by Saladin, by Richard, by Khalil in the middle ages; by Napoleon, by Ibrahim Pacha and by Sir Robert Stopford in later times ... the singular fate which it enjoyed at the close of the crusades gives it a special interest never to be forgotten by those who in a short space of an hour’s walk can pass round its

66

THE NEW CRUSADERS

broken walls. Within that narrow circuit - between the Saracen armies on one side and the roar of the Mediterranean Sea on the other - were cooped up the remnant of the crusading armies, after they had been driven from every other part of Palestine... All the eyes of Europe were then fixed upon that spot. Acre contained in itself a complete miniature of feudal Europe and Latin Christen­ dom.

Brief histories of the crusades could also be found in guidebooks produced for the developing tourist market to Palestine and Syria. In his Journal, the Prince of Wales made frequent reference to M urray’s guidebook for the region and Cook’s handbook was published in 1876, covering everything from history to money, health and the postage system. Cook’s description of the Holy Sepulchre included references to the sword and spurs alleged to have belonged to Godfrey of Bouillon and mention was made of the battle of Hattin and the siege and fall of Acre. Moreover listed amongst the sites to visit in Damascus were the tombs of Saladin and the Mamluk Sul­ tan Baibars, ‘one of the most inveterate foes of the crusaders.’ Cook quoted from a contemporary traveller: The Holy Land, although no longer an object of bloody ambition, has lost none o f the deep interest with which it once inspired the most vehement crusader. The first impressions of childhood are connected with that scenery; and infant lips in England’s prosperous homes pronounce with reverence the names of forlorn Jerusalem and Galilee.

The two sons of the Prince of Wales, Albert Victor and George, made their own visit to the Holy Land, as part of their world cruise in HMS Bacchante between 1879 and 1882 and a compilation of their letters and journals, with significant additions by their chaplain, the Revd John Dalton, entitled The Cruise o f HMS Bacchante, was published in 1886. This included, in the midst of accounts of holy sites, references to the crusades and, like their father, the princes were shown the tomb o f Godfrey o f Bouillon and his alleged sword and spurs in the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusa­ lem. They also saw the battlefield of Hattin and indeed, according to Dalton, camped under the shade of a carob tree on the limestone hill where the crusaders had pitched camp on the eve of the disastrous engagement. And in Damascus, they visited the tomb of Saladin. As the Bacchante left Beirut, Dalton commented on possible options for the future Christian governance of Palestine: On 9 October 1193, Richard Coeur de Lion took leave of Palestine, watching with tears its receding shores, as he exclaimed “O Holy Land, I commend thee and thy people unto God! May he grant me yet to return to aid thee." The pious wish of the gallant, though wayward crusader king was never fulfilled. But now the time cannot be far distant when once more Syria will be ruled by a Christian power. “The Franks are about to return" is the firm belief of both fellaheen and the Bedouin and such return, if it were under fair and reasonable

TRAVELLERS AND PLENIPOTENTIARIES

67

arrangements, would be heartily welcomed by both, as a deliverance from the yoke o f the Turk.

As in the Middle Ages, however, he saw rivalries between fellow Chris­ tians as an impediment to this objective and noted the increasing influence in the region of Germany. The continuing interest of travellers in the crusades is shown by an ac­ count of a journey In the Footsteps o f Richard Coeur de Lion published by Maude Holbach in 1912 and the following year saw the publication of the record of a trip made to the Holy Land in 1901, entitled A Camera Crusade by Dwight Elmendorf. One manifestation of the increasing German interest in the area was the visit of Kaiser Wilhem II, first cousin of the Prince o f Wales, to Constan­ tinople, Jerusalem and Damascus in 1898, organised by the firm o f Tho­ mas Cook. The K aiser’s party was several hundred strong and required three trains for the journey between Jaffa and Jerusalem. The ostensible purpose was to dedicate the Lutheran church of the Redeemer in Jerusa­ lem, but the political overtones and the K aiser’s behaviour attracted con­ troversy, criticism and some ridicule. On 29 October, Wilhelm entered Jerusalem through a specially prepared breach in the walls. Rather like a medieval crusader, he was mounted on a black charger, wearing a white ceremonial uniform and with a helmet surmounted by a burnished gold eagle. The scene was recorded for posterity by the court artist Knackfuss. Back in Germany, the K aiser’s arrival in the Holy City was proclaimed from the pulpits o f Berlin as a great religious event and he him self was very conscious that no Christian sovereign had entered the city since the Emperor Frederick II in 1229. Developing this image and sense o f his­ torical continuity, Wilhelm and his wife, the Empress Augusta Victoria, were depicted surrounded by eight crusader kings on the vault of the Ascension chapel of the German hospice which they sponsored on Mount Scopus. In his address, Wilhelm declared: From Jerusalem there came tbe light in the splendour of which the German nation has become great and glorious, and what the germanic peoples have be­ come they became under the banner of the cross...As nearly two thousand years ago, so there shall today ring out from Jerusalem the ary voicing the ardent hope of all, ‘Peace on earth.’

Not all, however, saw events in the same light. A Punch cartoon in Octo­ ber actually depicted Wilhelm as a Knight Templar, with the title Cook’s Crusader and a purported exchange between the Kaiser and Saladin, in which the latter’s new found friend sympathised with his ill-treatment by the Christians. Having made his Christian pilgrimage, in a speech at a banquet in Da­ mascus on 8 November, Wilhelm declared himself the friend of the Sultan

68

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Abdul Hamid and the 300 million Mohammedans. He expressed his feel­ ings on treading the same soil as Saladin, ‘one of the most chivalrous rul­ ers in history’ and laid a satin flag and bronze gilt laurel wreath on the latter’s tomb, with the inscription ’from one great emperor to another.’ In fact the Kaiser provided money for the restoration of Saladin’s mausoleum and a modem marble tomb, which remains today, beside its medieval coun­ terpart. Georges De Gaulis, who provided a detailed account of the Kai­ ser’s expedition in his La Ruine d ’Empire (1913), commented on Wilhelm’s audacity, proclaiming homage to both Christ and Saladin within a space of two weeks. By an ironic twist of fate, the wreath was brought back to Brit­ ain by T. E. Lawrence in November 1918 as a trophy after the First World War and is now on display at the Imperial War Museum in London. A note in Lawrence’s own handwriting states that he had removed it from Damas­ cus in October 1918, ‘as Saladin no longer required it.’ The Kaiser’s own crusading ambitions in that war are discussed in another chapter, but it is worth noting that the cult of Saladin is still very evident in Damascus and, probably courtesy of Wilhelm, has rather superseded that of Baibars, al­ though the latter was actually more successful in defeating the crusaders and Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. A much earlier French traveller and pilgrim was o f course Chateaubriand. As has been mentioned in an earlier chapter, he very much saw himself as the heir of the crusaders and wrote in the Itinéraire: Probably I shall be the last Frenchman that will ever quit his country to travel to the Holy Land with the idea, the object and the sentiments of an ancient pilgrim. But if I have not the virtues which shone of yore, in the Sires de Coucy, de Nesle, de Castillon, de Montfort, faith at least is left me and by this mark I might yet be recognised by the ancient crusaders.

In his Génie du Christianisme, he had challenged the criticism o f the cru­ sades by eighteenth century historians and in the Itinéraire he provided a more positive analysis, quoting from contemporary sources. There are not surprisingly a number of references to crusade leaders such as Godfrey of Bouillon and Louis IX, and Chateaubriand duly paid homage at the tombs of Godfrey and Baldwin in the Holy Sepulchre, taking pride in the achieve­ ments of his fellow countrymen: I saluted the ashes of these royal chevaliers, who were worthy of reposing near the tomb which they had rescued. These ashes are those of Frenchmen and they are the only mortal remains interred beneath the shadow of the tomb of C hrist What an honourable distinction for my country.

Like a number of other nineteenth century travellers, he was made a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, with what were said to be the sword and spurs of Godfrey. The ceremony clearly moved him deeply and he described the

TRAVELLERS AND PLENIPOTENTIARIES

69

proceedings in some detail: if it is considered that I was at Jerusalem, in the church of Calvary, within a dozen paces o f the tomb of Jesus Christ, and thirty from that of Godfrey de Bouillon; that I was equipped with the spurs of the Deliverer of the Holy Sepul­ chre; and had touched that sword, both long and large, which so noble and so valiant an arm had once wielded ... I am a Frenchman; Godfrey de Bouillon was a Frenchman; and his ancient aims, in touching me, communicated an in­ creased ardour for glory and for the honour of my country. My certificate, signed by the guardian and sealed with the seal of the convent, was delivered to me. With this brilliant diploma of knighthood, I received my humble passport of a pilgrim. I preserve them as a record of my visit to the land of the ancient travel­ ler Jacob.

The sword and spurs can still be seen today, but their appearance suggests that they are late medieval rather than from the period of the First Crusade. Appropriately Chateaubriand finished his peregrinations in Tunis, where Louis had died on his last crusade. Another notable French traveller to the Holy Land was the poet and poli­ tician Alphonse de Lamartine. His Souvenirs, impressions, pensées, et paysages pendant un voyage en Orient, describing his travels in Greece, Syria and Palestine in 1832-33, was published in 1835, with an English translation in 1837. Lamartine contrasted his reactions and emotions to those chronicled by Chateaubriand: He sought Jemsalem in the double character of pilgrim and of knight, the Bible, the Gospel and the Crusades in bis hand: I visited it only as a poet and philoso­ pher: and I am returned with the emotions of my heart deeply awakened, and my mind enlightened by sublime and awful lessons.

In his Preface, however, he paid tribute to the historian Michaud, who in his Correspondence d ’Orient, had ‘enriched his description of the scenes he vis­ ited with all the lively memorials of the crusades with which his mind is stored.’ During his own journey, Lamartine was clearly aware of the crusading context and for example read Joinville’s account of the death of Louis IX at Tunis as his ship approached the North African coast. He was also an admirer of Tasso, although unlike Chateaubriand he challenged the accuracy of the Italian poet’s descriptions of Jerusalem. Lamartine himself described vividly the overlay of history in the midst of everyday Arab life and the ‘poetry of a scene’ near Mount Carmel: Women milk their cows on the steps of an amphitheatre; flocks of sheep jum p one after another through the architecturally ornamented window of the palace of an emir, or o f a gothic church of the epoch of the cmsades; cross legged sheiks smoke their pipes under the sculptured arch of a Roman arcade, and camels are strapped to the Moorish pilasters of the portico of a harem.

70

THE NEW CRUSADERS

In bis style of travel, Lamartine was, however, far from a simple pilgrim. He chartered his own vessel, with a 500 volume library o f ‘History, Poetry and Travels’ in the main cabin and his caravan for the journey from Beirut to Jerusalem consisted of eighteen horses. Other travellers noted clear reminders in Palestine of the French crusad­ ing heritage. For example, Stanley commented that the French flag was still unfurled over the Convent on Mount Carmel founded by Louis IX whenever a French vessel came into sight. The most famous nineteenth century American traveller to the Holy Land was the author Mark Twain. In 1867, he was engaged by a newspaper to join the first package tour ‘to the Holy Land, Egypt, the Crimea, Greece and intermediate points of interest’, organised by Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth church, on the paddle steamer Quaker City. The result was The Innocents Abroad, published in 1869. Over 65,000 copies were sold in the first year, which possibly indicates the level o f interest in the countries visited amongst the reading public. On his journey through Europe, Twain noted a number of sites linked with the crusades, such as the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris where the Patriarch of Jerusalem had preached the Third Crusade. In the Holy Land itself, he visited the battlefield o f Hattin where in 1187 ‘the doom of the Christian power was sealed’ and in the Holy Sepulchre claimed to have been particularly struck by the sword o f Godfrey: No blade in Christendom wields such enchantment as this - no blade of all that rust in the ancestral balls of Europe is able to invoke such visions of romance in the brain o f him who looks upon it - none that can prate of such chivalric deeds or tell such brave tales of the warrior days of old. It stirs within a man every memory of the Holy Wars that has been sleeping in his brain for years, and peoples his thoughts with mail clad images, with marching armies, with battles and with sieges. It speaks to him of Baldwin, and Tancred, the princely Saladin and great Richard of the Lion Heart.

Twain, with characteristic tongue in cheek, went on to imagine himself as a knight of old using the sword to cleave a Saracen in two. He concluded his chapter by reminding readers of the continued power of the Holy Sep­ ulchre, with a reference to the recent Crimean War: for fifteen hundred years its shrines have been wet with tears of pilgrims from the earth’s remotest confutes; for more than two hundred, the most gallant knights that ever wielded sword wasted their lives away in a struggle to seize it and hold it sacred from infidel pollution. Even in our day a war, that cost millions of treasure and rivers of blood, was fought because two rival nations claimed the sole right to put a new dome upon it.

Overall, he portrayed the Holy Land stripped of its biblical and literary romanticism and highlighted some of the physical realities faced by the

TRAVELLERS AND PLENIPOTENTIARIES

71

nineteenth century traveller. Travellers apart, in the 1840s most of the Christian powers of Europe established diplomatic and ecclesiastical representatives in Jerusalem. The British were first with a Consul in 1839 and the jo in t Anglo-Prussian bishopric in 1841. French, Sardinian and Prussian Consuls followed in 1843; then Austria in 1849, Spain in 1854 and the United States in 1857. As in the Middle Ages, there were disputes over primacy between the Christian powers, encouraged by the Turks, and after a run-in with his Sardinian counterpart, the French consul advised Paris,’what we need is a crusade, with battleships to back up every discussion; for every day there are fresh quarrels over a carpet, a lamp or a nail.’ One of the most famous and controversial consuls of the period was James Finn, British Consul from 1845-63, whose account of his days in Jerusa­ lem entitled Stirring Times was published in 1878. It was much influenced by the background of the Crimean War and in her own introductory note as editor, Mrs Finn commented: we had in the Crimean War one more Crusade waged for rescue of the Holy Places, only this time the crusade was being fought by the champion of the Eastern Church, and there was room for doubt as to the purity of the motives which animated that champion in his zeal.

She added that to understand the significance of the early crusades it was necessary to have lived in Jerusalem and the history of the crusading move­ ment and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was apparently one of the sub­ jects discussed by the Jerusalem Literary Society founded in 1859. One of the events which James Finn described was the investiture cer­ emony for the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre and, not surprisingly, his perspective was rather different from that of Chateaubriand. The recipi­ ents apparently had to declare themselves of the Roman Catholic religion and vow to hold themselves ready to come to the aid of the Holy Sepul­ chre. A fee equivalent to about fifty pounds was payable and, although the Order was then recognised only in the Roman States and Austria, there had apparently been more than 150 French knights since Chateaubriand. There may also have been some interest in England. A footnote refers to a letter which Finn had received in 1856 from an English clergyman, writing on behalf of a friend, to learn on what terms an individual could aspire to the privileges of the Order. The consul highlighted the irony of such a cer­ emony in a Jerusalem ruled by Moslem Turkey: Only conceive the odd circumstance of the above solemn vows being made at the Santissimo Sepolcro, with the formalities o f watching, fasting and prayers, and the accolade o f Godfrey of Bouillon’s sword and investiture o f his spurs, within earshot of the Moslem effendis who are sitting within the porch calmly smoking chibooks or drinking sherbet, in simple unconscious­

72

THE NEW CRUSADERS

ness o f the tenour of the vows and promises thus made. Strange among the many strange things that are done by Europeans within the Sultan's dom in­ ions.

Another bizarre exchange, with echoes of the crusades, was described by Finn as an example of bis dealings with the local Turkish governor: Some years later than the date of the Crimean War, and in reference to a totally different subject, a high-spirited Turkish Governor of Jerusalem delighted him­ self in affirming that when occasion should arise, be had only to raise the green banners of the Hharam esh Shereef (Sanctuary on Mount Moriah) and the whole world of Mohammedans would rally in one army around it and that no crusade from Europe would nowadays avail against such a demonstration as that. See­ ing him in a state of mental exaltation, I merely made him a civil bow, observing that was not the business for which we had met, but that my efforts during all my years of service had been loyal in upholding the Sultan’s government

In her own Preface to Finn’s work, Viscountess Strangford, wife of the British Ambassador to Constantinople, denounced the continued schem­ ing of France and Italy in the Holy Land and Finn gave a number o f exam­ ples of consular rivalries and pretensions during his own time in Jerusa­ lem. For example, in 1848 the office of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem was revived for the first time since the crusades and the Genoese ecclesiastic appointed arrived in the Holy City to take up his position. As Consul for the nation designated from the sixteenth century as Protector of Christian­ ity in the East, the French Consul took precedence, but his Sardinian coun­ terpart was not to be outdone, wearing a new scarlet uniform for the occa­ sion. Finn noted: We were informed that on this important occasion be regarded himself, not so much as Consul, but as taking part in the ceremonies in the capacity of Envoy of the King of Jerusalem - one of the titles claimed by the King of Sardinia. How strange this sounded within the walls of the Holy City, amid all the stir and excitement conse­ quent on the revival of the Latin Patriarchate and the fust public ceremonial of the great church of the West since the fall of the Crusading Kingdom.

He commented elsewhere that the particular contribution of the English nation to the crusades should not be forgotten, but clearly the competition for crusading credentials was intense. These tales of nineteenth century travellers and plenipotentiaries would all no doubt have contributed in some way to the development of the cru­ sade image in this period in various mediums.

CHAPTER FOUR

Crusading warfare Reference has been made in previous chapters to military campaigns which were promoted by their protagonists as a form of crusade, or which were deemed to recall the alliances of the crusading era and this was in fact a consistent theme in the nineteenth century. Much more research needs to be done on this subject, but this chapter offers some examples at least of this use of the crusade image. On 19 May 1799, a young naval captain, Sir Sidney Smith, in command of the Tigre, an eighty gun ship of the line, joined forces with the Turkish defenders of Acre, the last outpost o f the Latin Kingdom o f Jerusalem which had fallen to the Mamluks in 1291, to repel the army o f Napoleon Bonaparte. It proved to be the turning point in Napoleon’s campaign to conquer Asia, which, emulating his hero, Alexander the Great, was in­ tended to act as a launch pad for his conquest o f Europe. Smith’s crucial intervention was remembered by Napoleon, who lamented in 1811: Without the English filibuster and the French emigrant who directed the Turkish artillery, and who, with the plague, made me raise the siege, I would have conquered half Asia and come back upon Europe to seek the thrones of France and Italy.

By a curious coincidence of history, Smith’s nephew, who had been on his ship the Tigre at Acre, captained the barge which ferried Napoleon to Elba in 1814. Smith, a member of a military and naval family, had already been made a Knight of the Swedish Order of the Sword for his participation in the war against Russia. And in 1794, be captured the British popular imagination by his daring escape from French captivity in the Temple prison in Paris, follow­ ing the destruction of the French fleet at Toulon. He now added Acre to his list of victories. A resolution thanking Sir Sidney for his ’conspicuous skill and heroism’ was made by the Secretary of State for War, votes of thanks in the House of Lords were moved by Lords Hood, Spencer and Greville and Parlia­ ment subsequently voted him an annuity of £1000 a year in recognition of the victory at Acre. The British cannon used at the siege can incidentally still be seen today outside the walls of Nicosia in Cyprus. Sir Sidney’s feat was popularized (and exaggerated) by a series o f paintings which showed the young naval officer standing on the bat­ tered walls of Acre, amidst his Turkish allies. Engravings ensured that this image reached a wider audience and in 1801, Sir Robert Ker Porter’s The Siege o f Acre was displayed at the Lyceum in London. Other sketches were published in 1803 under the title Picturesque Scenery in the Holy

74

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Land and Syria delineated during the campaigns o f 1799 and 1800; there were popular ballads about Smith’s exploits and he featured in an anony­ mous poem entitled The Crusaders or The Minstrels o f Acre (1808). Whilst its main theme was the Third Crusade, the poet looked ahead to future threats and English victories: And if, in some far distant year, From Cairo’s gates with paynim boast A faithless chief shall urge his host. On Turon’s mount his ensigns rear, ‘Gainst Acre’s wall his fury spend: Again, so Heaven decree! be found A Christian knight from English ground These red-cross bulwarks to defend, And match the trophies tbou [Richard] has won.

Sir Sidney was also an obvious hero for the adventure novel and he is a central figure in At Aboukir and Acre, a story about Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign by George Alfred Henty, the doyen of the genre. Smith’s own coat of arms very clearly commemorated his victory. The shield itself depicted the breach in the walls of Acre, with the standards of the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain; one supporter was a lamb with an olive branch supporting the banner of Jerusalem, the other a tiger with a palm branch, supporting the Union Flag of Britain, with the inscription Jerusalem 1799 upon a cross of St George. His motto was Forward Coeur de Lion. Not one to adopt a low profile, when Smith ultimately returned to Britain in 1801 The Times reported that he landed attired in Turkish dress: turban, robe, shawl and girdle round his waist with a pair of pistols. There was a great fashion for things Turkish or Egyptian and he apparently showed the Princess of Wales, who wished to decorate a room as a Turkish tent, a drawing of Murad Bey’s tent and instructed her interior decorator in the art of drawing Egyptian arabesques to ornament the ceiling. Although he fought with the Moslems against Christians at Acre and proudly exercised his delegated authority from the Sultan in Cyprus, Smith clearly saw himself as a Christian knight, in the tradition of the Military Orders and the crusaders and after his victory he went to the Holy Places in Jerusalem. There the Superior of the Franciscan monastery told him that ’every Christian in Jerusalem was under the greatest obligation to the English nation, and particu­ larly to Sir Sidney and his officers and ships’ companies, by whose means they had been preserved from the merciless hands of Buonaparte.’ This per­ ception was reinforced by the gift of a cross, apparently worn by Richard the Lionheart, from the Greek Archbishop of Cyprus, as a reward for his interven­ tion in an insurrection of Janissaries in 1799. The crusading theme was reinvoked in a speech made on Smith’s return

CRUSADING WARFARE

75

to Britain by the City Chamberlain of London, when he was awarded the Freedom of the City: By this splendid achievement you frustrated the designs of the foe on our east Indian territories, prevented the overthrow of the Ottoman power in Asia, the downfall of its throne in Europe and prepared the way for that treaty of peace which, it is directly to be wished, may long preserve the tranquillity of the uni­ verse and promote friendship and goodwill among all nations. It must be highly gratifying to every lover of his country, that this event should have happened on the very spot where a gallant English monarch formerly displayed such prodi­ gies o f valour, that a celebrated historian, recording his actions, struck with the stupendous instances of prowess displayed by that heroic prince, suddenly ex­ claimed, ‘Am I writing history or romance?* Had, Sir, that historian survived to have witnessed what recently happened at St Jean d*Acre, he would have exultingly resigned his doubts, and generously have confessed, that actions, no less extraordinary than those performed by the gallant Coeur de Lion, have been achieved by Sir Sidney Smith.

After further adventures in the Mediterranean and South America, Smith returned to London in 1809. His rival Nelson bad been dead for four years and he was greeted as a hero. Amongst other honours, Smith was awarded an honorary degree in civil law by Oxford University and the ceremony was marked by the reading of a poem entitled Palestine, Relative to the exploits o f Bonaparte and Sir Sidney Smith, which began: When he, from tow’ry Malta’s yielding isle; And the green waters of reluctant Nile Th* Apostate Chief from Misraim’s subject shore To Acre’s walls his trophied banner bore.

Smith settled in Paris in 1815 and there became closely associated with the Order of the Temple. As I have described in an article published elsewhere, in the next two decades, he was involved in an attempt to create an English branch and at one point held the office of Grand Prior, but to advance the cause ceded this to George Ill's son, Augustus, Duke of Sussex. He also campaigned against the depredations of the Barbary pirates, writing to amongst others the anti­ slavery campaigner William Wilberforce and in 1814 founded a society called the Knights Liberator for the redemption of Christian slaves in Africa. Contri­ butions from a subscription dinner and ball went to fund a large silver lamp to be hung in the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, to bum as a re­ minder of Christian suffering under slavery. Smith died in 1840 and is buried in the Père Lacbaise cemetery in Paris. Before his death, he had assisted his first biographer Edward Howard and within a decade bis correspondence was edited and published and his life chronicled in a second biography by John Barrow. He is commemorated in London by a statue outside the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich.

76

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Sir William Hillary was another contemporary crusader. Born in 1771 to a Quaker family in the Yorkshire Dales, Hillary was a great character who served as equerry to the Duke of Sussex and as an Essex landowner raised a regiment of 1800 men during the Napoleonic wars. He was also, more significantly, a key force behind the foundation of the Royal National In­ stitution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwrecks in 1824 (from 1853 the Royal National Lifeboat Institution - RNLI ), publishing an appeal to the British nation on this subject and taking part in a number of sea rescues himself, helping to save several hundred lives, although he actually could not swim. In 1797, Sir William had visited Malta and witnessed the inauguration of the Grand Master of the Sovereign Order, Ferdinand von Hompesch. The event made a great impression upon him: It was the period o f the ceremonials of the inauguration and under these pecu­ liarly favourable circumstances I witnessed I may say the last days of splendour o f that dignified order whose history bad shone from many countries and then on the eve o f being extinguished - 1 will now hope not for ever - 1 heard all the romantic details, saw all the brilliant trophies of times long past and certainly then received a veneration for that O rd e r.

In 1798 of course Malta was captured by Napoleon and the Sovereign Or­ der then went through a difficult period. Some three decades later, how­ ever, Hillary was involved in the rather bizarre story, which has been chroni­ cled elsewhere by Jonathan Riley-Smitb, of the attempt to establish an Eng­ lish langue (or tongue) and duly held office as both Lieutenant Turcopolier and Capitular Bailli. Hillary had in fact first suggested Sir Sidney Smith, ‘the cbivalric defender of John d’Acre, before whose walls more than one o f our Grand Masters have perished in our cause,’ for the former post, but he died before he could take up office. It is also relevant and of interest in this context that this proposed English langue really owed its genesis to an abortive attempt to send an expedition to assist the Greeks in their fight for independence from the Turks. In 1840 Hillary began a campaign for the Christian reoccupation of the Holy Land, which would be governed by the Order of St John; a Victorian crusade, albeit by negotiation rather than military combat In the autumn of that year, revolts had broken out in Syria against the tyranny of the Egyptian Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali. In early November, the British Navy, under the command of Commodore Charles Napier captured Beirut and Acre, which were returned to the Sultan of Turkey, then in alliance with the Christian pow­ ers of Western Europe. The reaction at Constantinople was captured in an oil painting by Sir David Wilkie entitled The Tartar Messenger narrating the news o f the victory o f St Jean d ’Acre, in which the men surrounding the courier listen eagerly as the events of the battle are narrated.

CRUSADING WARFARE

77

News reached the western capitals on 24 November and Hillary immedi­ ately saw the prospect of achieving the long term Christian reoccupation o f the Holy Land. Confined to his home on the Isle of Man by ill health, largely attributable to his sea rescues, on 5 December 1840, he wrote to Sir Richard Broun, Grand Secretary and Registrar of the English langue : The last mails have indeed brought us stirring intelligence from the east. In what strange and eventful times do we live - after the lapse of six centuries, once more to see the standards of England and Austria floating over the walls of St John of Acre - that renowned fortress, so long defended, in olden time, by the chivalry o f Europe against the Saracens.

Hillary noted that England, France and Russia had recently established a Christian monarchy in Greece. Why should the Holy Land remain under Moslem rule? He accepted that it might prove impossible for the various countries to agree upon a candidate. He therefore proposed that the Order of St. John should fill the void: Let then the Order of St John of Jerusalem be patronised and supported by all the Christian powers and remodelled where necessary and practicable, to suit the occasion and let the paschalics of Gaza and Acre be placed under their sov­ ereign rule paying only a stipulated annual revenue to the Sultan; the perpetual neutrality and possession to be guaranteed to the Order, both by the Christian and Mohammedan powers.

The geographical boundaries would be from the desert frontier of Egypt to the north of Tyre and Sidon, including Jerusalem. Hillary sought the views of Broun and fellow members of the English langue and his letter was duly read out at the Chapter of Council meeting on 18 December 1840. His side of the correspondence and the chapter’s deliberations are preserved in the archive o f the Order o f St John in Clerkenwell, London, but apart from a handful of letters in the RNLI ar­ chives, virtually none of Hillary’s own papers have survived. The Decem­ ber letter seems to have been well received, for Hillary wrote again to Broun on 8 March 1841: In my last letter to you, I threw out some hints of my views on the present state o f the Holy Land which met with your flattering approbation and you further requested that I would put them in such a form that they might be o f feted to the public.

Hillary gave Broun authority to release the text to newspapers and to make amendments as he saw fit. The result was a pamphlet entitled Suggestions fo r the Christian Occupation o f the Holy Land as a Sovereign State by the Order o f St John o f Jerusalem, which was printed in London in 1841. It is not clear how widely it was circulated, but the text was published for ex­

78

THE NEW CRUSADERS

ample in the Morning Herald on 27 March 1841 and is printed in full in Annex B. In the pamphlet, Hillary expounded his ideas in rather more detail, recall­ ing, in emotive language, the achievements and sacrifices of the crusaders: The Christian occupation of the Holy Land has, for many centuries, been the most momentous of any subject which has ever engaged the attention of man­ kind. Nearly a thousand years ago it called forth the religious and warlike enthusiasm of the Christian and Moslem through almost every region of Eu­ rope and Asia. This great contest occupied a longer space of time - called more numerous armies into the field - produced a greater display of chivalric and hardy valour, but attended with the most appalling sacrifice of blood and treasure, of any cause in which human ambition, enthusiasm, or superstition were ever engaged. It seems universally agreed that Syria must not be re­ stored to the Egyptians and almost all equally agree that the dominions of Mehemet Ali and those of the Sultan, at least on the shores of the Mediterra­ nean, in order to prevent perpetual hostilities, ought to be separated by some third power; and does it not inevitably follow that this third power should be a Christian state?

Hillary outlined an ideal state wherein Moslem and Christian would enjoy religious freedom and commercial prosperity and the Order of St John would be restored to its former state and dignity. He urged that this unique op­ portunity to secure the peace and happiness of the Christian and Moham­ medan world should not be lost and noted: The Emperors of Austria and Russia, the King of the French and many illustri­ ous Sovereigns and Princes of Europe, are already members of the Older of St John of Jerusalem; it therefore may be permitted to conclude, that a measure which would conduce so highly to its dignity, and at the same time secure the ascendancy of the Christian name in the Holy Land, would have their cordial and powerful support.

Hillary envisaged a revival in the commercial prosperity of Palestine and the fortunes of the English langue: Numerous bodies of knights from all the Christian langues would once more flock to Palestine, either for temporary or constant abode, carrying with them the wealth and civilization of Europe, while the English langue would be nobly recruited by many of her naval and military heroes, by whose prow­ ess Syria has been so lately won, enrolling themselves under its banner.

He was not alone in wishing to exploit this opportunity. On Sunday 28 March 1841, The Argus reported: A circular has been published in Malta, proposing to the Christian powers of Europe, that the Syrian territory comprised between Gaza, on the South, Mount Carmel on the north, the lake of Gennaseraeth, the Jordan and the Dead Sea on the East, and the Mediterranean on the West, shall be erected into an independ-

CRUSADING WARFARE

79

ent Christian state, under the government o f a prince to be appointed by joint consent o f the Christian powers.

The article added that the German papers reported a similar proposition 'which would place the state under the protection of the Knights of St John o f Jerusalem, has been made to the Papal see and favourably received.’ And Hillary had also seen reports of a project under consideration by Prince Metternich: for the appointment by the Sultan on the recommendation of the Great Powers of a separate Pasha for the district of Jerusalem, who shall be independent of the Pasha of Syria with other arrangements for the protection of the Christians in the Holy Land.

He regarded this, however, as an unsatisfactory half measure, prone to abuse and evasion. C orrespondence between Broun and H illary continued throughout 1841, although the latter had other pressing financial preoccupations which involved the sale of most of his possessions. Broun made it clear that he considered the English langue too weak in members to take up the project, but they discussed how to promote the scheme more widely. In May 1841, Hillary suggested that his pamphlet should be sent to Prince M etternich and some of the leading statesmen of Europe, par­ ticularly in France and Germany. He also wished to canvas British m in­ isters and noted: Some little time ago I sent copies accompanied by short letters to the Duke of Wellington, Lord Palmerston and others and have received acknowledgements both from his Grace and the Viscount, but of course without committing their opinion on the measure, a thing you know Ministers seldom do.

The English langue certainly appears to have done its best to promote the scheme amongst its fellow knights in Europe and elsewhere. At a Chapter of Council meeting on 11 June 1841, it was announced that newspaper articles quoting Hillary’s pamphlet had been sent to the Chevalier Robert Pearsall at Karlsruhe, Duchy of Grand Baden, who had translated it into German and sent it for publication to one of the German newspapers; to the Chevalier Murray at Malta and to the Chevalier Bumes at Bombay. At a Grand Chapter meeting on 24 June, a letter dated 7 June from Pearsall was read out stating that a copy of the pamphlet had been sent to the Allegemeine Zeitung, but it had not been published 'because that journal is said to be under the influence of Austria and to admit nothing affecting any subject in which Austria takes an interest without first learning the will and pleasure of the imperial gov­ ernment thereon.’ Pearsall bad, however, received a more positive response when be bad shown the pamphlet to some fellow knights at Karlsruhe, al­ though they expressed doubts as to the practicability of the project.

80

THE NEW CRUSADERS

The range of responses is illustrated by an article in The Tunes on 7 June, which was read out by Broun at the Chapter meeting: The Pope, we are assured is zealous for the restoration of the Order of St John of Jerusalem to resume the power of Godfrey (of Bouillon), a leader of the First Crusade, who assisted in the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 and Lusignan in the Holy Land.

The author, however, also foresaw practical difficulties: The experience o f the last five and twenty years king making years ought to have taught the great truth, that states are only formed by the same inward vital principle o f strength and growth, and that it is as impossible to create a kingdom by joining a few provinces of an empire from which the spirit and the power of a nation has departed.

Adopting Hillary’s own language, the Chapter agreed a number of propo­ sitions in relation to the proposed Christian reoccupation of the Holy Land, including the following: T hat the C hevaliers forming the British langue, having the deepest anxiety that this auspicious m om ent to adjust the balance o f pow er in the Levant should not be the last to invite the cooperation o f their brother C hevaliers o f the continental langues in one com m on effort to stim ulate the powers party to the Treaty o f IS July last, in conjunction with France, to confide the Holy Land to the protection and governm ent o f the Sovereign O rder of St John, under an equitable arrangem ent with the Sublim e Porte.

In a letter written on 27 June 1841, Hillary, then in bis seventy second year, assured bis confrères of his continuing commitment to the scheme, even offering to go to the Holy Land himself, if it would serve any useful purpose: And I have yet sufficient enterprise should the moment ever arrive when I could suppose my presence could be of any avail, and if by the facilities aris­ ing from steam navigation I could sufficiently overcome my bodily injuries, sustained in another cause, to make that practicable, I would undertake the Voyage, and most probably close my days in the Holy Land and I may add, Lady Hillary is such an enthusiast in the same cause, that she would not hesi­ tate to accompany me.

In July he sent B roun an Address to fellow knights o f St John and subsequently m ade arrangem ents for 500 copies to be printed. The language and argum ent of the Address resem ble the pam phlet and ap art from the tim e fram e, w ould n ot have been out o f place in a crusade serm on from the pen o f a tw elfth or thirteenth century e c ­ clesiastic:

CRUSADING WARFARE

81

For more than six centuries, every Christian visitor or sojourner in the Holy Land has been exposed to the p ails, the extortions, the cruel persecutions and the humiliations imposed by the delegates of as distant and despotic Sultan of another faith. But in the wonderful and mysterious course of events - what the most powerful combinations of all the great Princes of Christendom ... could not permanently effect - has now, in the inscrutable ways of Divine Providence, been accomplished.

Hillary concluded: It now only remains for m e ... to entreat my Brother Knights ... to form a new crusade, not as in days of yore, to convert the Holy Land into a field of carnage and blood, but a Crusade of Peace - to restore to Palestine that lofty and glori­ ous pre eminence from which she has long fallen and again to plant the banner of the cross in the land of the Redeemer.

In September, Hillary wrote to Broun suggesting that his Suggestions should be sent to the new British Cabinet and in October he was optimistic that something would soon happen. The English langue believed that a general Conference of the Austrian, Italian, French, Spanish and Portugese langues was due to take place and there was also the approaching election of a Grand Master. Sir Warwick Tonkin was sent to Paris to confer with the French Council; Hillary’s Address was mentioned at a Chapter of Council meeting in November and a vote of thanks for his efforts formally recorded in the minutes. Hillary was still actively promoting his scheme and Address in a letter to Broun dated 5 January 1842, placing his hopes in rumours of a Grand Chap­ ter meeting in Boulogne and at an English Chapter of Council meeting on 29 January a formal address was agreed to Frederick William of Prussia. The king, who was on a visit to England, turned the scheme down, of­ fended by a reference to the Order’s sovereignty. Hillary, however, con­ tinued to take a keen interest in the subject and took up his pen again in March 1846, prompted by an article in The Times about a meeting of the Knights of St John at Vienna concerning a settlement o f a division of the Order for Algeria. Hillary thought this a ’poor imitation’ of his own project. He was, however, more excited by a plan submitted by the ministers of some of the great powers to place certain districts in Lebanon under Chris­ tian protection and urged the English langue to address the proposed as­ sembly of knights at Vienna and ‘encourage them to take my plan into their serious consideration’. Hillary died aged seventy six on 5 January 1847. There was a short arti­ cle about his life (but not his crusading plans) in the 1901 supplement to the Dictionary o f National Biography, but the only modem biography by Robert Kelly (1979) focusses on his work in respect of the RNLI and his tomb on the Isle of Man suffered from neglect until a restoration in prepa­ ration for the centenary of that organisation in 1924.

82

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Despite bis passionate advocacy of the crusading cause, Hillary seems to have bad little success, not least because the main preoccupation of his fellow confrères in the English langue was to achieve recognition from the Sovereign Order. This they failed to do and on 20 December 1858, the Sovereign Order, embarrassed by the antics of the English knights, a mix­ ture, in the words of Jonathan Riley-Smith, of incurable romantics and fraudsters, formally severed any connection with them. It was not until 1871 that a new constitution was drawn up for the Protestant Order o f St John of Jerusalem in England, which was in turn granted a Royal Charter in 1888 and began its distinguished history. Hillary, however, was not a lone voice or the sole advocate of the new crusade. In fact, in the middle decades of the nineteenth century there seem to been a number of other European schemes to establish a Christian Pro­ tectorate in the Holy Land, taking advantage of favourable political cir­ cumstances and alliances. These merit more detailed study, but overall, like their predecessors in the later Middle Ages, such plans seem to have foundered as a result of political rivalries between nations. Two interesting analyses have, however, recently been published by Kim Munholland and Adam Knobler of the use of the crusade image to promote a contemporary military campaign, namely the French expeditions in North Africa under Charles X and then Louis Philippe. In the Preface to the 1838 abridged version of Michaud’s history of the crusades, his collaborator the orientalist Jean-Joseph Poujoulat declared, ‘the conquest of Algiers in 1830 and our recent campaigns in Africa are nothing other than crusades’. And it was certainly to the advantage of both Charles X and Louis Philippe to por­ tray the expeditions as latter-day crusades and evoke memories o f their cru­ sading ancestors, in particular Louis IX. It was no coincidence that at the time of the Algerian campaign, Louis Philippe was commissioning paint­ ings of the medieval crusades and crusaders for the Salles des croisades at Versailles and events in the Algerian campaign were commemorated in the Salle de Constantine and Salle de la Smalah. The painter Horace Vemet’s Second Expedition to Constantine: The Assault on Constantine, 13 October 1837 prompted the following observation from a contemporary : We there find again, after an interval o f five hundred years, the French nation fertilizing with its blood the burning plains studded with the tents of Islam. These are the heirs of Charles Martel, Godfrey de Bouillon, Robert Guiscaid and Philip Augustus, resuming the unfinished labours of their ancestors. Mis­ sionaries and warriors, they every day extend the boundaries of Christendom.

Amongst those who fought in Algeria was the Prince de Joinville, a naval officer and descendant of Louis IX ’s biographer and, again promoting his link with France’s crusading past, Louis Philippe commissioned two paint­ ings of the crusading king at Acre and Tunis by Georges Rouget and erected a statue in his memory at Tunis.

CRUSADING WARFARE

83

Like bis predecessors, Napoleon III was also anxious to stress historical continuity amidst the turbulence of nineteenth century French history and in 1860 there were calls for a new crusade to aid the Christians of Syria and Lebanon. Crusade terminology was used in a number of pamphlets promoting this cause and in his Expédition de Syrie - La Nouvelle Croisade, Alfred Poissonier drew a link between the medieval expeditions and con­ temporary events and declared that the time had now come for the last crusade. In similar vein, Alexandre de Saint Albin wrote that the spirit of Pope Urban II lived again in Pius IX and exhorted his contemporaries to echo the cry of their ancestors, Dieu le veut. And in La Question d ’Orient, Napoleon III was described as not only the Emperor o f France but also the leader of the last crusade. This use of the crusade image can in fact be traced throughout the nine­ teenth century and into the twentieth century up to the present day. Writ­ ing in the aftermath of the Crimean War, Consul Finn noted how times and alliances had changed since the days of the medieval crusades: The acclamation ‘God wills it’, which impelled the first crusade bore against the Moslem holders of the Holy Sepulchre, but the shouts of war we are now consid­ ering were directed by representatives of the same nations, who fought in that First Crusade; but now they were fighting in defence of the Moslem holders of that treasure, against a power [Russia] which has only become fully Christian since the crusades and which equally covets possession of the Holy Sepulchre.

Finn went on to lament that Christian England had failed to make the most of the opportunities offered by the successful outcome of the war, with the result that there were further calls for crusades for relief o f Christians un­ der Moslem rule. Back in Britain, at the time of the Crimean campaign, there was certainly a sense of engagement in a holy war, fighting on behalf of Christ against tyrants and oppressors. The Crimean War was in fact the last British war to begin with the proclamation of a General Fast and as with the medieval crusades, military disasters were seen as a punishment for human sinful­ ness and the church frequently denounced the neglect of public worship and drunkenness. The sense of a noble and heroic enterprise was also promoted in plays and spectaculars in the London theatres and it was probably not a coinci­ dence that the subject of the play The World's War performed in April 1854 was Richard the Lionheart and the Third Crusade. In the Preface to his collection of poems entitled The Crusader published in 1856, the Scottish poet Adam Chalmers observed: wartime is pre eminently the season of stirring enterprise and romantic adven­ ture ... the poetic feeling is, in those who possess it, raised to a more elevated pitch; while the popular enthusiasm is fed and gratified by the perusal of senti-

84

THE NEW CRUSADERS

meats which are the embodiment of its own unspoken ardour.

Chalmers’s poem actually dealt with a familar theme, rivalry in love, against a backcloth of the crusades. Another curious example from elsewhere in Europe was an epic poem published by Vaisse de Salon in France in 1858, entitled La Croisade de Sebastopol. Dedicated to Lamartine, it begins with the poet being rescued from the infernal darkness by Napoleon III and seeing a vision of Christ and the victory of the cross in the Crimea and the East. Much ink has been, and no doubt will continue to be, expended on the sub­ ject of the Eastern Question in its various manifestations during the latter part of the nineteenth century. My purpose here is much more limited, namely to follow through examples of the use of crusade imagery in this context. In May 1876, the Turks suppressed a Bulgarian insurrection. When news of the atrocities committed against fellow Christians reached the West, there was widespread outrage and in the public and political campaign one can find numerous examples of the use of crusade terminology. One of the leading campaigners was the young Northerner William Thomas Stead, editor of the Northern Echo and later the Pall Mall Gazette. In an article in the Northern Echo in September, Stead declared that the crusades were ’no longer an enigma’ to him and in January 1877, he compared himself directly with the preacher of the First Crusade: I wrote dozens o f letters a day, appealing, exhorting and entreating and at last I raised the North. I felt that I was called to preach a new crusade. Not against Islam, which I reverenced, but against the Turks who disgraced humanity. I realised the feelings of Peter the Hermit. God was with me.

And in his Gladstone and the Bulgarian Agitation (2nd edition 1975), Ri­ chard Shannon comments ‘if Freeman [the historian Edward Augustus Free­ man] was the Bernard of Clairvaux of the atrocities agitation, Stead was its Peter the Hermit.’ The leading political opponent of Disraeli’s Conservative government’s continued alliance with Turkey was the former Liberal Prime M inister William Gladstone and Shannon refers to him on a number of occasions as a crusader. This description was also clearly used by Gladstone’s contem­ poraries. For example, George Russell, nephew of the former Prime Min­ ister and Foreign Secretary Lord Russell, commented, ‘if ever Mr Gladstone had the passionate devotion of young men and young churchmen, it was during the years of bis great crusade 1876-80.’ The image was developed further in a speech by the Liberal MP John Bright at a meeting in Birming­ ham Town Hall on 4 December 1876: About 700 years ago the people of this country, as history tells us, joined the crusaders, and went to Palestine for the purpose of liberating the Holy Places

CRUSADING WARFARE

85

from the possession of the infidel and the Mahometan. And now what do we do? We give the blood and the treasure of England to support this Turkish Government We give Bethlehem, Olivet and Calvary to the Turk. We condemn to perpetual ruin those vast regions which have become a wilderness and a desert under the Turkish sceptre. We do all this for the simple purpose, to prevent Russia passing any ships of war from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. Now that is the policy which brought about the Crimean War in 1854. I will not tell you the cost o f that war.

As has been discussed earlier, the reactions aroused by events in the East prompted the historian William Stubbs to write about the crusades and some years later, in his analysis of Britain’s relationship with Turkey, published in 1896 (Our Responsibilities fo r Turkey - Facts and Memories o f Forty Years), the Duke of Argyll criticised those who had deprecated the crusad­ ing spirit. The use of the crusade image was not, however, restricted to opponents o f the Turks. Other contemporaries cautioned against support for Russia and in a pamphlet entitled Note o f an English Republican on the Muscovite Crusade, the poet Algernon Swinburne protested against the claims of a crusade which had Alexander of Russia for its Godfrey of Bouillon and Thomas Carlyle for its Peter the Hermit: I see nothing holier in a Sultan than in a czar, in the wane of the now misnamed crescent than in the advance of the heavy and homicidal cross, which has been laid too hard already on too many a tribe and nation; but if we were compelled to choose between a waxing and a waning evil...in that case I confess myself unable to understand how any but the lovers of darkness could bid us cast in our lot with the stronger.

Swinburne also attacked Bright, Carlyle and Gladstone in a poem graphi­ cally entitled The Quest o f Sir Bright de Bromwicham, Knight Templar, A Ballad o f Bulgaria, sung at the Feast o f Notre Dame de Bon Marché by a Perishing Savoyard. The Oxford theologian Benjamin Jowett denounced the sham medieval­ ists who would like to have a sham crusade and an anonymous pamphlet­ eer lamented the return of that ancient spirit of holy war, in language remi­ niscent of eighteenth century crusade historians: there are sad to say, signs of a vigorous revival of this strange Christian anomaly. Bishops of the church have not hesitated to follow the example of Peter the Heimit, an example which resulted immediately in the violent deaths of some two million of men and immediately in lighting a flame of rancour and hate which it seems lias steadily continued to smoulder all these intervening centuries.

In a pamphlet entitled The Anti Turkish Crusade: A Review o f Recent Agi­ tation, the Chartist George Harney also criticised those who supported Russia against T urkey.

86

THE NEW CRUSADERS

A further indication of the currency of the crusade image can be found in comments by the wife of the writer Robert Louis Stevenson in the Fore­ word to his novel The Black Arrow (1888). Referring to the illustrations in the weekly paper The Young Folks, in which the novel was serialised, she recalled: It was an endless amusement to my husband to discover Mr Gladstone in medi­ eval armour on the poop of a Spanish galleon, or Lord Beaconsfield scaling a wall with a broadsword in his teeth, or John Bright throwing down a gauntlet to the Saracens.

The subject also appealed to other writers of historical fiction. In 1896, the novelist Robert Cromie published a tale of romance and war, entitled The Next Crusade, in which the armies of Austria and Britain defeated Turkey, Russia and Germany. The choice of title was explained in a chap­ ter which described the departure of the British fleet; ‘it was a new cru­ sade, the grandest that had ever sailed from the West unto the East.’ And a later short story by John Buchan, entitled The Last Crusade, described a campaign to launch a crusade against Russia which started with a chance remark made by a Wesleyan pastor in South Africa, which was then devel­ oped and promoted by the media. The language of the Christian hero and martyr was also of course widely used in connection with General Gordon, who was killed during the siege of Khartoum in the Sudan in January 1885. Gordon saw himself very much as a soldier fighting for the Christian cause and, in a letter to a friend dated January 1880, he criticised British Government policy towards Turkey and declared, ‘I will go to Rome and see the Pope and obtain a brief to mount a crusade and preach against these people.’ There were yet further examples of crusade imagery in the Boer War. This was the first major conflict to produce war memorials in any significant number and a detailed study of these was published in 1911 by Colonel Sir James Gildea. A few made deliberate use of crusader kings and heroes. For example, in a stained glass window in Exeter cathedral in memory of the men of Devonshire who died in the South African War, the effigy figures in the lower order include Edward I and the story of Queen Eleanor and his poisoned wound at Acre. Richard the Lionheart features in a similar memorial to the men of Gloucestershire in the Chapter House of Gloucester Cathedral. Rather more surprisingly, the Gloucester window depicts St Louis of France, as a crusader and example of ’valour under defeat’. He can also be seen in the South Staffordshire Regiment memorial in Lichfield Cathedral as a ’heroic soldier and sufferer in the crusades’ and amongst die kingly and warrior heroes of the faith in memory of die men of the county and city of Nottingham commemorated in St Mary’s Church. In die early years of the twentieth century, the crusades were therefore still very much an image on which contemporaries could and did draw.

CHAPTER FIVE

First world war The most marked use of the crusade image in relation to contemporary warfare was, however, to be found during the First World War. It was not by any means the predominant image and in fact the portrayal of the war as holy and its participants as medieval knights or crusaders attracted criti­ cism, in the face of the heavy casualties, horror and suffering of the trenches. Nevertheless, the crusade image appeared in connection with all theatres of operation from France to Palestine and was used by all sides. The First World War therefore provides a particularly interesting example of the de­ velopment of the crusade image. Much has been written about the war, from the campaigns themselves to the poetry which they inspired and the use of crusade imagery by the An­ glican church is for example the subject of Albert M arrin’s The Last Cru­ sade: The Church o f England and the First World War (1974). The way in which the imagery was used and developed has not, however, as far as I am aware, previously been analysed in any detail. In Britain the concept of the war as a holy war seems to have originated in sermons preached by Anglican clergymen such as Bishop WinningtonIngram of London, the so-called Bishop of the battlefields. In a sermon to soldiers at Bisley on 6 September 1914, he spoke of a holy war against the Antichrist, in which it was an honour to fight, and in an appeal published in June 1915, he urged the mobilization of the nation for a holy war. More specifically, in an Advent sermon in 1915, later published in the collection The Potter and the Clay (1917), he declared: eveiyone that loves freedom and honour, everyone that puts principle above ease, and life itself beyond mere living, are banded in a great crusade - we cannot deny it - to kill Germans: to kill them not for the sake of killing, but to save the world.

And Stuart Mews commented in his doctoral thesis on Religion and Eng­ lish Society in the First World War (1974), ‘when the archbishops were giving temperate and restrained addresses, Ingram donned the mantle of Peter the Hermit.’ Sim ilar imagery was used by Basil Bourchier, a close associate of Winnington-Ingram who was vicar of St Jude’s Hampstead from 1908-30, served with the Red Cross in 1914 and was an Army chaplain in 1915-16. In one of his pastoral addresses in 1915, he stated:

88

THE NEW CRUSADERS

we are fighting not so much for the honour of our country, as for the honour of our God. Not only is this a holy war, it is the holiest was that has ever been waged ... It is the honour of the most high God which is imperilled ... This truly is a war o f ideals. Odin is ranged against Christ. Berlin is seeking to prove its supremacy over Bethlehem. Every shot that is fired, every bayonet thrust that gets home, every life that is sacrificed is in very truth for his name’s sake.

Bourchier saw the Dardanelles campaign in particular as a crusade: It is, in a very real sense, the latest of the crusades. Should Constantinople fall it will be the greatest Christian victory that has occurred for hundreds of years. Surely this is something to captivate the imagination and to make us see that perhaps even greater things are at stake than the future of England .... A vision arises before the mind of Byzantium once again a Christian city; St Sophia once again the home of Christian worship, and who knows, once again the Holy Land rescued ftom the defiling grip of the infidel.

This campaign of course had a rather different conclusion in practice. The Revd Paul Bertie Bull, co-founder of the Community of the Resur­ rection at Mirfield, Yorkshire, a former chaplain to Sir John French’s cav­ alry division in the Boer War and a virulent critic of pacifists and consci­ entious objectors, declared in a sermon entitled T h e Soldier’s Sacrifice’ (published in Peace and War: Notes o f Sermons and Addresses in 1917) : In this supreme hour of England’s destiny when she stands before the world as the champion of liberty we must place no limit to our spirit of self sacrifice. The war began with the proclamation of the loftiest spiritual principles of righteous­ ness and justice, liberty and truth - a note which awakened the soul of England and made this war a holy war, a real crusade.

This sentiment was, however, not confined to the Church of England. The m ost belligerent Free Churchman seems to have been W illiam Robertson Nicholl, a friend of Lloyd George and editor of the leading nonconformist paper the British Weekly. His biographer T. H. Darlow, who is quoted by Mews, wrote of Nicboll’s response to the war, ’the proud highland blood in his veins leapt to meet the German menace. His whole faith broke out in fire for the crusade...his one absorbing care was to secure victory.’ In fact they all used language which would not have been out of place in a crusade sermon of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and drew on the same corpus of bibilical texts. Germany was identified with the devil and conversely for the British soldier there was the concept of sacrifice for a holy cause, which would in tum attract the highest reward, a form of mar­ tyrdom. In a sermon entitled ‘Is England worth dying for’, Bourchier de­ clared:

FIRST WORLD WAR

89

To die for England, consciously to die for England, knowing that by his death he protects English homes from destruction, English fields from havoc, English woman and children from the inexpressible devil’s work of a most savage and iniquitous barbarism - this for the young Englishman must be the glittering topmost peak of beatitude, he could desire in the flush of manhood no more shining doorway into this enchanting mystery which we call life.

In another sermon, Bull took as his text Romans 1 2 :1 - Therefore my broth­ ers, I implore you by God’s mercy to offer your very selves to him: a living sacrifice, dedicated and fit for his acceptance, the worship offered by mind and heart - and preaching on Good Friday 1915, James Plowden-Wardlaw, Vicar of St Edward the Martyr, Cambridge, drew specific parallels between the soldier’s sacrifice and Christ’s own suffering and sacrifice. A picture o f a dead soldier lying at the feet of the crucified Christ, entitled The Great Sacrifice was to be found in many churches, homes and hospitals and The Graphic, in which it had first appeared in Christmas 1914, described it as ’the most inspired picture of the war.’ There was even a sense of taking the cross, akin to the crusade vow and symbolism. Thus Bull wrote of his missions to France in which he had seen thousands of soldiers kneeling at the altar, ‘to receive the crucifix which pledged them to entire consecration to our Lord and then marching off in a state of mystic exaltation to follow him wherever he may lead them.’ As I have discussed elsewhere, in relation to medieval criticism of the crusades, crusade apologists such as St Bernard argued that the crusade was a means of putting the faithful to the test, to give them an opportunity to win salvation, and chroniclers of the expeditions wrote that the crusad­ ers were tried and purified of their sins like gold in a furnace (Psalms 11:7). The very same imagery can be found in a sermon preached by PlowdenWardlaw on Easter Day 1915: This has been, indeed, a time of testing for the youth of most European lands, and the testing of war has not only struck out sparks of gold in this land but in the land of our allies, and also in the land of our chief enemy ... They have indeed been through a fiery trial which we may reverently compare with the passion of our Lord.

And his collection of sermons published in 1916 was entitled The Test o f War. A key element of the medieval crusader’s sacrifice was his parting from home, family and friends, to take part in an uncertain and hazardous enter­ prise. There was also the sacrifice and suffering of those left behind. Again one finds this theme in First World War sermons. For example, Frederick Homes Dudden wrote of wives and mothers awaiting the feared telegram and Bull commented in his sermon ‘C hristianity and W ar’, ‘many a home had yielded up its dearest and its best in the awful sacrifice which

90

THE NEW CRUSADERS

God demands. Many a widow and orphan is bravely bearing their share in the passion of the world.’ This sense of sacrifice was also extended to those who stayed at home working for the war effort. Against this background, it was difficult to explain a reverse. First World War apologists therefore turned to the same reason as their medieval cru­ sade predecessors. Defeat was a punishment for sin and victory would come when the combatants and those at home reformed. And the extension of the crusade image to wartime missions to promote the faith amongst the munitions workers in Woolwich will be discussed in the next chapter. Through publication, these sermons reached a much wider audience and one can, for example, find references to a holy war in speeches printed in diocescan newsletters and newspapers such as The Church Times and The Record. In June 1915, The Record reprinted a monthly letter from the Bishop of Liverpool to the clergy and laity of his diocese, in which he declared: we are contending for the fundamental principles of the Christian faith and moral­ ity, and for what Christendom for nearly two thousand years has held most sacred and dear. If ever there was a war in the world to which the word holy might justifiably be applied it is surely this in which we are now engaged.

There was a variation on this theme in an editorial the following month: If this is not a holy war, we do not know what war could be so considered ... This is the holiest war in history and every soldier of the allies who strikes a blow in it performs a religious duty.

This concept was soon picked up by politicians and the idea of a holy war, involving sacrifice and a campaign waged for spiritual as well as material reasons, can be found in a number of speeches delivered in 1914 and 1915. As Chancellor of the Exchequer, in an appeal for recruits to form a Welsh Army Corps at the Welsh National Conference in Cardiff in September 1914, Lloyd George spoke of a holy war to battle for justice and right and as Minister of Munitions, addressing his constituents at Conway in May 1916, he praised the response to such appeals: we are the first nation in the history of the world that has raised over three millions o f men for any great military enterprise purely by voluntary means. Young men from every quarter of the country flocked to the standard of interna­ tional right, as to a great crusade. It is a glorious achievement and well may Britain be proud of i t

In fact a collection of his speeches between 1915 and 1918 was published under the title The Great Crusade. The crusade image was also used by Austen Chamberlain, in a speech given to mark bis election to the presidency of the Liberal Unionist Asso-

FIRST WORLD WAR

91

d atio n at Birmingham in April 1915. He was, however, anxious that there was no misunderstanding about the scale of the undertaking and its impli­ cations: we should little understand how much is at stake for us, if we thought we are merely embarked in a chivalrous crusade on behalf of another nation, without our interests being engaged ... it is not for Belgium only we are fighting. It is not merely a crusade for right and for law against wrong and brute force though it is all of that - but it is a struggle for the vital interests of this country.

The image also appeared in poems written both by those at the front and their friends and families back at home. For example, Frederick Orde-Ward published a book of what be termed patriotic poems in 1917 entitled The Last Crusade, in which there are numerous references to the holy war and those who suffered and bore the cross and The Holy War was the title cho­ sen for another collection of poems in 1916 by the Irish poet, novelist and friend of W. B. Yeats, Katherine Tynan. Her two sons served in the army (and in fact survived the war) and in ‘To the Others’ she sought to reassure her readers that the sacrifices being made were indeed holy and justified: This was the gleam then that lured from far Your son and my son to the Holy War: Your son and my son for the accolade With the banner o f Christ over them, in steel arrayed. ...Dreams of knight’s armour and the battle shout, Fighting and falling at the last redoubt; Dreams of long dying on the field of slain: This was the dream that lured, nor lured in vain. Your son and my son, clean as new swords Your man and my man and now the Lord’s Your son and my son for the Great Crusade With the banner of Christ over them - our knights new made.

Similarly in ‘The Heart of a Boy’ Tynan wrote of ‘a young knight riding forth to war’ and the image of knights in Paradise appeared in a number of her other poems. They would probably have reached a wider audience through publication in a variety of magazines such as The Tablet and the Westminster Gazette and were apparently popular in both Catholic and Anglican pulpits. In 1918, St John Adcock published an account of soldier poets who had been killed in the course of the war, entitled For Remembrance. He drew a distinction between the romantic and patriotic war lyrics of previous campaigns and words written in the ‘mud and squalor of the trenches,’ but his knowledge of the suffering did not prevent his use of crusade imagery:

92

THE NEW CRUSADERS

No Hymn of Hate is among them, no glorification of slaughter, no note of boast­ fulness or blatancy, but a deep love of country, a clear rational sense of the tragedy and dire necessity of what must be done, in such an hour as this, by all who value liberty and honour more than peace at the price of both, an unwaver­ ing vision of the end to be fought for, faith in God and in each other, with those qualities o f self sacrifice and heroic resolve that you would look for in men who had rallied to what they were determined should be a last crusade against the folly and crime of war, and had gone forth together on that knightly quest, fol­ lowing the Holy Grail of a great ideal.

The sense of the soldiers of the First World War following in the steps o f medieval knights and crusaders could also be found at first hand in ‘The Road’ by Captain Gordon Alehin of the Royal Flying Corps and published in Edward Osborn’s The Muse in Arms 1917: A thousand years (when England lay Beneath the heel o f the Norman raider): The cobbles of the age worn way Echo the march of the mailed crusader: Whilst many an oath of pious fervour, Between their chaunt and roundelay, Gives proof to any close observer, That men are little changed today.

The Muse at Arms was one of the most popular wartime anthologies. First published in November 1917, it was reprinted immediately and again in Feb­ ruary 1918. And in his poem ‘Crusaders’, Richard Molesworth Dennys, a Cap­ tain in the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, who died of wounds received in the Somme in July 1916, wrote of the privilege of sacrifice, picking up again the biblical image of fire and suffering as a cleansing force. Turning to specific theatres of war, the poet Rupert Brooke, who died o f blood poisoning in April 1915, en route to Turkey and Gallipoli, saw the Aegean expedition to fight the Turks as a successor of the Trojan Wars and the crusades. He wrote to bis friend Jacques Raverat, ‘this is probably the first letter you ever got from a crusader. The early crusaders were very jolly people. I’ve been reading about them. They set out to slay the Turks and very finely they did it when they met them.’ Brooke told Violet Asquith that his ambition from childhood was to go on a military expedition against Constantinople and a fellow officer Patrick Shaw-Stewart declared, ‘I shall take Constantinople and avenge the Byzantine Empire.’ Brooke’s epitaph was appropriate for such sentiments: ‘Here lies the servant of God, a sub lieutenant in the British navy, who died for the deliverance of Constanti­ nople from the Turks.’ Using similar language, Lord Ribblesdale wrote of his son Charles Lister, who served in the embassies at Rome and Constantinople and died in Au­ gust 1915 at Gallipoli, having been wounded for the third time in four

FIRST WORLD WAR

93

months, that the ‘war had taken possession of him with all the intensity of the crusades of his younger days.’ And in The New Elizabethans, a selec­ tion o f lives of those who bad fallen in the war, published in 1919, Osborn described Lister and his friends as: inspired with the spirit of the old crasaders; the call to dare and endure things, in company with their inarticulate and ungifted countrymen, came upon them as the Holy Ghost came upon the Apostles - as a sudden great sound in the like­ ness o f fiery tongues.

The historical conflict between Christian and Moslem also provided the background to John Masefield’s Gallipoli, published in 1916. Each sec­ tion was preceded by a quotation from The Song o f Roland and Masefield wrote of the courage of the soldiers, ‘the unseen cross upon the breast.’ The purpose of M asefield’s work was to answer some of the criticism of the Dardanelles campaign, which he had encountered during a lecture tour of America in 1916 and he portrayed the expedition ‘not as a tragedy, nor as a mistake, but as a great human effort, which came more than once very near to triumph.’ Gallipoli was dedicated to the commander in chief, Sir Ian Hamilton, whom he compared with Roland at Ronces vaux, defending Christendom against Islam and Hamilton himself wrote of the Anzac forces ‘crusading at Gallipoli.’ The sense of the fallen as martyrs again appeared in St John A dcock’s ‘Gallipoli G raves’, part o f The Anzac Pilgrim's Progress: Say those dead o f yours and mine Make this barren shore a shrine; AH these graves - they’ll draw us back; And for ever in our track, Down the years to come, will pace Pilgrims of our Anzac race; God, while this old earth shall stand, Where but here’s our Holy Land.

And after the disaster at Suvla in August 1915, in which the Irish D ivi­ sion had suffered heavy casualties, Tynan wrote four poems, intended to console the bereaved that their loved ones had now received an eternal reward: Sands o f Suvla, scarlet-dyed, Where the cross is down in shame And the crescent flaunts its pride! Was it for this they went aflame, The young shining sons we nursed. For the fire and the fierce thirst.

94

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Suvla, that is holy ground Sown so thick with martyr’s seed: There’s no Christ now, but Mahound, Now the Prophet and his breed Hold the hill, their glorious grave, Where they died but could not save.

Another of Osborn’s New Elizabethans, Professor Thomas Kettle, a L ieu­ tenant in the Dublin Fusiliers, formerly MP for East Tyrone and a practis­ ing barrister, as well as an academic, who was killed in action in Septem­ ber 1916, declared in his ’Song of the Irish Armies’ : Then lift the flag of the last crusade. And fill the ranks o f the last Brigade March onto the fields where the world’s remade And the ancient dreams come true.

Not surprisingly, however, the use of crusade imagery was particularly marked in firsthand accounts of the war in Palestine, with parallels being drawn with the Third Crusade and Richard the Lionbeart. For example, Donald Maxwell, who was sent by the Admiralty to Palestine in 1918, to produce sketches for the Imperial War Museum, commented that as he worked on his diary and notes, he found himself unconsciously piecing together the story of the last cnisade and subsequently took this as the title o f his book (1920). Maxwell drew frequent geographical and historical parallels with the crusades: You [the reader] are evidently unfamiliar with chronicles of the crusades or you would know that long, rambling and discursive writing is the proper thing, and no crusader who was worth his salt ever got to the Holy Land without taking an enormous time about it and generally engaging in all sorts of adventures en route.

He commented that the ’alarms and excursions’ which caused his delayed departure from Taranto might have ‘done duty for a pukka crusader of the time of Coeur de Lion.’ Another account of the campaign by Captain Ralph Adams of the 231st Infantry Brigade was entitled The Modern Crusaders (1920) and the same sort of military parallels were drawn by Edward Thompson in Crusader's Coast (1929), writing of the coast south of Haifa: A perfect trap o f commingled rock and thorn, the ridge helped the crusaders in their despairing limpet clinging to the last strip of dominion and made amends for the earlier suffering it caused them. It is fortunate that the Turkish machine gunners never had their nests in it.

This sense of participation in a crusade seems to have been very much in

FIRST WORLD WAR

95

the mind of T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, in civilian life a student of the medieval expeditions and author of a study of crusader castles. In The Seven Pillars o f Wisdom (1926), Lawrence noted that he had drawn upon his knowledge of the Third Crusade to influence his own strategy in the desert and one of his ancestors Sir Robert Lawrence was reputed to have accompanied Richard on that expedition, although again he is not mentioned in contemporary sources. After Lawrence's death, the author E. M. Forster wrote: the notion o f a crusade, of a body of men leaving one country to do noble deeds in another, now possessed him, and I think it never left him, though the locality of the other country varied: at one time it was Arabia, later on it was the air.

Parallels with the crusades were inevitably strengthened by the capture of Jerusalem and Allenby’s triumphant entry into the Holy City on 11 De­ cember 1917. He himself declared ‘today the wars of the crusaders are completed* and a cartoon published in Punch in September 1919 entitled ‘The Return from the Crusade’ showed him clad in armour and on horse­ back returning to his lady love Britannia. An earlier Punch cartoon from December 1917, entitled ‘The Last Crusade’, had Richard the Lionheart gazing down at Jerusalem with the text - At last my dream come true. As I have already mentioned, a number of accounts of the Palestine cam­ paign featured the term crusade or crusaders in their title and in his With Allenby’s Crusaders (1923), John More, a Captain in the Royal Welch Fu­ siliers, concluded that with Allenby’s victory ‘the great crusade was at last ended.’ In similar terms, the author of his Foreword, Lt Col. Parry, stated that it was a book to which we shall ‘frequently and gladly turn in order to recall to our minds memories of the greatest of crusades.’ Like his medi­ eval predecessors, on arrival in Jerusalem, Captain Alban Bacon of the Hampshire Regiment went to pay his respects at the Holy Sepulchre. He found a French sentry guarding the entrance and restricted visiting hours, but he was not to be deterred from his objective: from seeing what we had come so far to see and what any Christian soldier had every right to see, more particularly if he had the good fortune to take a hand in the winning bade o f the sacred shrine from the hands of the Saracen in this last crusade.

Bacon, who had also fought in India and France, entitled his story The Wanderings o f a Temporary Warrior: A Territorial Officer’s narrative o f Service (and Sport) in three continents (1922), and quoted from poems about the crusades by Wordsworth and Longfellow. And Harry Pirie Gordon, a modern Knight Hospitaller, who had a keen interest in the cru­ sades and visited Palestine, even bizarrely claimed that be had published his history of Allenby’s campaigns anonymously, in the hope that future

96

THE NEW CRUSADERS

historians might consider it the last of the anonymous continuations o f William of Tyre. Allenby himself was, however, quick to point out the differences between his own expedition and the crusades, not least the role of Moslem mem­ bers of the army such as the Egyptian camel corps and, perhaps conscious of the potential power of the image, Edward Thompson recalled that ‘spe­ cial and often repeated routine orders’ were issued forbidding the soldiers to describe themselves as crusaders. Nevertheless there was a certain his­ torical symmetry and symbolism in the award of the Grand Cross of the Order of St John of Jerusalem to Allenby by the Grand Prior, the Duke of Connaught, in Jerusalem in 1919. A variation on this theme was the memoir The Romance o f the Last Cru­ sade - With Allenby to Jerusalem, published in 1923 by the actor Major Vivian Gilbert. The book was dedicated to Gilbert’s mother and ‘the moth­ ers of all the boys who fought for the freedom of the Holy Land’ and it began with Brian Gumay, just down from his first year at Oxford in 1914, dreaming of the crusading exploits of bis ancestor Sir Brian de Gumay, a member of the Third Crusade. King Richard was discouraged by the out­ come of his expedition, but Brian: dreamt of another crusade that would finally prove successful. The years had passed, crusade after crusade had been organised, equipped and sent out to over­ come almost unheard of difficulties, to go through adventures that made one’s blood race through one’s veins only to read about, but all these crusades had failed in their object. The last crusade had never taken place.

Gilbert then took up the account of the Palestine campaign in his own name. He saw his men as successors of the crusaders and was very conscious o f the sites and history of the crusades: what did it matter if we wore drab khaki instead of suits of glittering armour. The spirit of the crusaders was in all these men of mine who worked so cheer­ fully to prepare for the great adventure. And even if they wore ugly little peaked caps instead of helmets with waving plumes, was not their courage just as great, their idealism just as fine, as that of knights of old who set out with such daunt­ less faith under the leadership of Richard the Lionhearted to free the Holy Land.

Gilbert wrote of the capture of Jerusalem, ‘of the ten crusades organised and equipped to free the Holy City only two had been successful, the first under Godfrey of Bouillon and the last under Edmund Allenby.’ This romanticization contrasted with Gilbert’s direct experience of the Palestine campaign, in which he saw his fellow combatants, including bis own servant, suffer terrible injuries and die. In the various theatres of war, he also lost three brothers and another was seriously wounded. On bal­ ance, however, he concluded that, with the end of the crusade and the res-

FIRST WORLD WAR

97

foration of peace and freedom in the Holy Land, it had all been worthwhile. Similar imagery appeared in a poem entitled ‘Crusaders’ by Lieutenant Arthur Lewis Jenkins, who served with the Duke of Cornwall’s Light In­ fantry in Palestine, then joined the Royal H ying Corps and was killed in a flying accident in 1917: The clamorous guns by day and night Toss echoes to and fro White winged above the dusty fight The ranging war hawks go, And stout King Richard’s proud array Is but a shining tale, But English courage goes as gay In khaki as in mail.

The theme was also developed in stories for children written by authors such as Lt Col. Frederick Brereton, who wrote stirring tales of the exploits of courageous youths in the Handers, Gallipoli and Palestine campaigns, which were very popular with contemporaries. The central characters of With Allenby in Palestine: A story o f the latest crusade (1919) were the public school educated English officer Tom Masterman and his Scottish and less privileged colleague Donald Carruthers. As they travelled through the Syrian desert, they noted a number of crusade landmarks and sites and when he first caught sight of Jerusalem, Donald recalled names and stories from the crusades which he had heard in his childhood: How wonderful it seemed to be there looking upon such hallowed ground, and to remember that just as Englishmen of old, heroes such as Richard Coeur de Lion, came to this holy land to free it of the infidel, so now were he and his comrades bent on the same errand.

Interestingly The Last Crusade was also the title of a novel about Allenby’s campaign published by Colin Smith as recently as 1991. The theory and parallels with the crusaders did not, however, always live up to the practice and in the dedication of his Temporary Crusaders pub­ lished in 1919, Cecil Sommers warned his daughter Margaret not to be­ lieve those who described the soldiers as crusaders in shining armour with a big red cross: The butcher, the baker, the man who comes about the drains, and the rest of them, are all Temporary Crusaders now, whether they are in Palestine or France. But they are in eveiy way the same men that you will know later on and very ordinary men at that. Remember this and when in days to come Daddy strafes Mummy because the porridge is burnt you won’t be tempted to think to your­ self, ’how poor father must have deteriorated since he was a crusader.’

There were also, not surprisingly, linkages drawn between the crusades and the

98

THE NEW CRUSADERS

work of the St John Ambulance Association in the various theatres of battle during the First World War. For example, a short article in The Commonwealth, a Christian Social Union Magazine, in June 1917, entitled ‘Knights Old and New’, summarised the history of the Order of St John and its current activities and concluded ‘whether in peace, or, as is now unfortunately the case, in war, the Modem Knights of the Hospital are worthy of the old traditions of their Order; and in chivalry and courageous service they fall no whit behind their brethren of long ago. ’ And a booklet about the St John Hospital at Étaples com­ mented, ‘it is a measure of pride and pleasure to those associated with the Hos­ pital to know that they are tending the sick and wounded soldiers as did the old Knights Hospitaller, thus maintaining the privileges and prestige of the Most Ancient Order of Chivalry.’ Once again, there was an appropriate Punch car­ toon, subsequently used in programmes for St John fundraising events, which depicted two St John’s members tending a wounded soldier, with a ghostly fig­ ure of a Knight in the background, with the dates 1099-1914. Another way in which the crusade image was used was in British (and other) war memorials to commemorate those who had fallen in the conflict. My own researches and the records of the National Inventory of War Memorials, which is currently being compiled under the auspices of the Imperial War Museum and Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, indicate that numerically crusade references featured in a very small proportion of the thousands of memorials in towns, villages and schools to those who had fallen in the Great War. Much more common, and no doubt in the circumstances considered more appropriate, were simple crosses and the figure of Victory or St George, both as warrior saint and patron saint of England. Where crusade imagery did occur, however, the context and treatment is interesting and the subjects are similar to those chosen for earlier Boer War memorials. The mediums involved also range from the memorial brass, to stained glass and sculpture. A particularly interesting and unusual example o f a memorial to an in­ dividual can be found at Sledmere in Yorkshire. In 1895, Sir Tatton Sykes had commissioned a copy of the Eleanor Cross at Northampton for the green opposite his house. In 1919, it was turned into a war memorial for the village, with the insertion of names and brass plaques at the lower level. Much of the imagery was medieval and chivalric, with for exam­ ple a plaque depicting Captain Edward Bagshaw, who was killed in Flan­ ders in 1918, as a medieval knight and ‘preux chevalier.’ Sir Tatton’s son, Sir Mark Sykes, an eminent orientalist who drew up the Sykes Picot treaty in 1915, survived the war, but died of influenza in Paris in 1919, during the peace negotiations. He was commemorated on the Sledmere cross as a modern crusader, with a Saracen ‘paynim’ beneath his feet and as background the city of Jerusalem. Sadly the cross itself is now in much need of restoration, but one can identify the details from a photo­ graph published in 1923 in Sir Shane Leslie’s biography of Mark Sykes.

FIRST WORLD WAR

99

For individuals, parallels were also predictably drawn with Richard the Lionheart. Thus Captain Richard Partridge, the lord of the manor of Ab­ bey Dore in Herefordshire, who died in France in September 1918, was commemorated by a stained glass window in the local church depicting the crusader king, with the text *1 have fought a good fight, I have fin­ ished my course, I have kept the faith.’ And there is a very similar figure of Richard, this time accompanied by St George, commemorating six casu­ alties from the Suffolk Regiment in the village church of St M ary’s at Higbam. Advertisements for various types of memorial windows, in­ cluding histo rical designs, w ere published in the new spapers and Crockford's Clerical Dictionary and more examples o f this particular design may well emerge in due course from the completed National In­ ventory. As a variation on this theme, in St Petroc’s church in Bodmin, Cornwall, there is a window in memory of Percy Ashton, who died years later, as a result o f wounds received in the war, featuring King Arthur, Sir Percevale, Richard and another royal crusader, Edward I. Rather more unusual, although consistent with the Boer War memorials, is a figure of St Louis, again with St George, in a window in the church of St Swithun, Bathford, near Bath, commemorating Captain Henry Langton Skrine, who died in September 1915. The most notable crusade war memorial is, however, probably The Spirit of the Crusaders, which surmounts the cenotaph at Paisley in Scotland and was unveiled in July 1924, in the presence of a crowd numbering 20,000. The architect was Sir Robert Lorimer and the sculptor Gertrude Meredith Williams and the design was chosen out of one hundred and ninety five submitted to the Memorial Committee. In the centre is a me­ dieval crusader in a coat of mail and on horseback, carrying a pennon and in each corner there is a soldier in First World War battledress and shrapnel helmet. It has been described as ’one o f the few dignified and spiritual war memorials’ and the contrast between the figures drawn as follows: Footsore and crushed by the heavy kit, footdeep in Flanders mud, the dragging limbs, bent shoulders and lowered heads press irresistibly forward with deter­ mined will; and the swing of the kilt, the lines of the heavy coats, and trend and swing of rifles, all emphasise the onward movement In strong contrast with these is the upright figure of the mailed crusader on his forward stepping chaiger; his long straight and upright lance bearing on its banner the saltire of St Andrew.

And in his report, submitted with the design, Lorimer wrote: The group suggested for the crowning feature of this memorial is intended to convey the idea that our men in their splendid determination were led on by the same spirit and were working towards the same ideal as the crusaders of old.

100

THE NEW CRUSADERS

The original design, a small terracotta model, was exhibited in the Royal Scottish Academy exhibition in 1921 and a large plaster cast of the fin­ ished model was put on display at Wembley. Today the official bronze model can be seen at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff. Williams produced a number of other war memorials, but Paisley is the only one with a crusade theme. One might expect rather more medieval and chivalric imagery in the nu­ merous war memorials commissioned by public schools. In practice, how­ ever, I have found only two examples with crusade references. At Winches­ ter, there is a stone cross in the centre of the War Memorial cloister, with a figure of a crusader on either side, sculpted by Alfred Turner. The inscrip­ tion which runs around the cloister underlines the sense of a noble sacrifice, which has been discussed earlier in the context of sermons: In the day of battle they forgat not God, Who created them to do bis will, nor their country, the stronghold of freedom, nor their school, the mother of godli­ ness and discipline. Strong in this threefold faith they went forth from home and kindred to the battlefields of the world and treading the path of duty and sacri­ fice, laid down their lives for mankind. Thou therefore, for whom they died, seek not thine own, but serve as they served, and in peace or in war bear thyself ever as Christ’s soldier, gentle in all things, valiant in action, steadfast in adver­ sity.

Another First World War Commonwealth memorial using crusade imagery can be found at Waitiki Boys’ High School, Oamuru, New Zealand. Here the memorial Hall of Memories has a large East window symbolising the spiritual unity of the Empire through sacrifice in war. The central panel depicts an Anzac warrior, flanked by King Alfred and Richard the Lionheart, subjects chosen to typify the spiritual and fighting virtues of the soldiers. There were also a number of memorials which featured anonymous me­ dieval knights in armour, some of whom may have been intended to depict crusaders. For example, the cross on his surcoat and shield suggests that the central figure in the Renwick Memorial to the Northumberland Fusi­ liers in Newcastle upon Tyne may fall into this category. By contrast, there was virtually no use of crusade imagery in other forms of art, either paintings by First World War artists or posters and postcards. British war posters seem to have been largely typographical, with some predictable images of soldiers and the occasional St George. As for post­ cards, in his Return to Camelot, Girouard has as an illustration a card de­ picting two knights going into battle under the sign of the cross, accompa­ nied by angelic protectors, but he notes that these seem to have been very rare and they are not included in the standard study of First World War postcards by Tonie and Valmai Holt (1977). It was not only the British army which drew upon crusade imagery. It seems in fact to have been used by most countries in some form or other

FIRST WORLD WAR

101

and by both sides in the conflict. For example, Joseph Bowes, author of The Young Anzacs and The Anzac War Trail, published the wonderfully named The Aussie Crusaders, subtitled With Allenby in Palestine in 1920. Bowes described the British advancing on Jerusalem as the ‘twentieth cen­ tury crusaders’ and wrote of the capture of Beersbeba: Nor were they old soldiers reckoned by years, wbo won the tough Turkish strong­ hold. They were young men - youths in whom the spirit of the old crusaders dwelt, inspiring them in battle to the point of a splendid audacity that laughed at impossibilities ... They were true successors to Richard the Lionbeart

In similar vein, F. H. Cooper’s account of the African Artillery in Egypt and Palestine (1919), drawn from articles published in the Cape Times, was entitled Khaki Crusaders and the cover depicted a crusader on horse­ back, overlooking Jerusalem, with an artillery waggon in the foreground. Cooper commented: may we dream, unscomed, the dream that we are striking our puny blows in the world’s last great struggle for conquest and temporal power and lust of blood; on the last and holiest and greatest of all crusades.

The New Zealand riflemen in Sinai and Palestine were also described as crusaders in another book published in 1920. In France, the letters written by Captain Ferdinand Belmont, an officer in the Alpine Infantry who died in December 1915, to his family and friends were full of the language of heroism, sacrifice and martyrdom and the title chosen when they were published and translated into English in 1917 was A Crusader o f France. Indeed Belmont even used the term Gesta Dei per Francos and a French recruiting poster had the caption ‘Pour Achever La Croisade au Droit ’. The French General de Mondésir referred to the Ameri­ can relief division which arrived in France in July 1918 as members of ‘a new crusade’ and the American Commander Joseph Dickman chose the title The Great Crusade for his account of the campaign published in 1927, rather as General Eisenhower did in the Second World War with his mem­ oirs The Crusade in Europe (1948). In his concluding comments, Dickman sought to draw some parallels between the medieval crusades and his own experiences. He noted that, whereas the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and therefore Christian rule of the Holy Land had lasted less than two centu­ ries, ‘our crusade helped to complete the overthrow of the most powerful autocracy the world had ever known’ and the Palestine campaign provided a direct linkage with previous crusades; ‘who can doubt that but for the great expedition from beyond the Western Ocean the Holy Sepulcher would now be in the hands of the Turk.’ Overall, however, the US centric Dickman does not seem to have been impressed by his European experience:

102

THE NEW CRUSADERS

As in other crusades, we had the experience of disillusionment The American soldier was surprised to fmd how far the Latin countries of Europe were behind the times in the development of modem civilization. Intercourse with the peo­ ple was pleasant and the same, on the whole, may be said of their armies; but the official and political classes were - and continue to be - disappointing. It seemed to be difficult for them to accord us a recognition of perfect equality, and they did not come up to our expectations of cordiality, frankness and coop­ eration in the pursuit of the ideals of our people.

Similar examples can be found in relation to the war in Russia, but the use and manipulation of the crusade/ holy war image by the Germans and their allies the Turks was particularly marked and has recently been the subject of a book by Peter Hopkirk, entitled On Secret Service East o f Constanti­ nople (1994). It was also of course the storyline of John Buchan’s wartime novel Greenmantle, a fictional account of the fall of Ezerum, published in 1916, but very much informed by the author’s own involvement in and history of the war. Buchan’s character Sandy Arbuthnot is said to have been modelled on Aubrey Herbert, who served as an intelligence officer in the Near East and he described both as latterday crusaders. In real life, Hopkirk describes how the Holy War was actively promoted by Germany and leaflets produced in Berlin and Constantinople were circulated in an attempt to persuade the Moslems to rise against British rule in India and Russian rule in the Caucasus. One such leaflet intercepted by the Russians used language which would not have been out of place in a medieval jihad and declared: The time has come to free ourselves from infidel rule. The Caliph has powerful allies. This war was sent by God to give Muslims their freedom, so those who do not join in are the enemies of God. If force of arms is not used against the infidels now, then we will never be free.

In similar vein, a German commander at Gallipoli reassured his troops that the ’greatest happiness awaits him who gives up his life in this Holy War’ and the autobiography of Rafael de Nogales, Inspector General of the Turk­ ish Forces in Armenia and Military Governor of Sinai during the war, en­ titled Four Years beneath the Crescent (1926), made several references to the holy war. Nogales wrote thus of the first battle of Gaza: G aza, where knights of St G eorge and paladins o f M ahom et still struggled face to face in m ortal com bat for the suprem acy o f C ross or C rescent in the thousand times sacred land of Palestine. It seemed that day as if Richard Coeur de Lion and Sultan Saladin them selves had com e to life am id the cam paign.

It would be wrong, however, to suggest that this use of the crusade image and romanticization of the conflict went unchallenged, against the back­

FIRST WORLD WAR

103

ground o f the horrors o f the trenches and heavy casualties. Bishop Winnington-Ingram’s call for national mobilization in a holy war stimu­ lated a lively exchange of views and in particular prompted protests by Henry Scott Holland, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford and Walter Lock, Warden of Keble College. Holland argued that it was inappropriate to describe as a holy war ‘the piteous parody ... that we are offering as a spectacle to angels and men on the blood soaked fields of Flanders’ and wrote in The Guardian in June 1915 : a Holy War is bound to suggest that our foes are enemies of God and hated of Him, but o f course His love embraces them and us in spite of all the hateful sins that we sin against Him...So we will not ask the clergy to become Mad Mullahs preaching a Jehad.

Overall in the subsequent correspondence Winnington-Ingram’s support­ ers seem to have outnumbered his opponents, but similar criticisms were made by the poet and First World War veteran Siegfried Sassoon. In his Memoirs o f An Infantry Officer, published in 1930, he referred specifically to the use of crusade imagery: Bellicose politicians and journalists were fond of using the word crusade. But the chivalry which I had seen in epitome at the army school had been mown down and blown up in July, August and September and its remnant had finished the year’s crusade in a morass of tonnent and frustration.

Even so, the range of examples quoted in this chapter show that the cru­ sade image had a widespread and international currency, not only amongst those who could romanticize in safety from afar, but also with participants in some of the bloodiest theatres of war.

CHAPTER SIX

A crusade miscellany Military campaigns apart, as now, the term crusade was used in a wide variety of ways and contexts in the nineteenth and early twentieth centu­ ries. One indication of the diversity of usage is the number of titles of works published between 1800 and 1920 in the British Library catalogue which include the word crusade or crusader; more than 270 works under crusade(s), including of course some histories of the medieval expeditions, but also more contemporary subjects and themes, and over a hundred un­ der chisader(s). My aim in this chapter is to discuss a selection o f these contemporary and miscellaneous crusades, recognising that this is but one aspect of Christian missions, the temperance and other social campaigns which are major subjects in their own right. In the chapter on crusade historiography, I referred to some nineteenth century critics of the crusades who argued that the medieval expeditions had been debased by violence and advocated the peaceful conversion o f the Muslims by contemporary missionaries. This theme was developed by an Oxford undergraduate writing in 1812-13, who styled himself Peter the Hermit. His pamphlets and essays on the crusade in the nineteenth century were addressed to the Chancellor of Oxford University and local Chris­ tians and promoted the cause of the British and Foreign Bible Society. This Peter recalled past crusade heroes: Lords of the biting axe and beamy spear. Wide conq’ring Edward, Lion Richard, bear! At Albion’s call your crested pride resume, And burst the marble slumbers of the tomb! Your sons behold, in arm, in heart the same, Still press the footsteps of parental fame; To Salem still hear their generous aid supply, And pluck the palm of Syrian chivalry.

He argued, however, that the contemporary crusades might be contrasted with great interest and advantage with their medieval predecessors: proving the gradual and progressive substitution of real and internal for politi­ cal and external religion, the infinite superiority of the sword of the spirit, in effecting the recovery of Palestine, to the sword of the flesh and the additional hopes we may soberly entertain of the success of our present enterprise, from the peculiar adaptation of our weapon to the warfare of a spiritual crusade.

And in his Six Speeches published in 1813, Peter bailed his crusade o f

A CRUSADE MISCELLANY

105

peace and charily, in which ‘angels might join without contamination.’ In the mid nineteenth century, one o f the main uses of the term and image o f the crusade was in connection with anti-catholicism in Britain and Ire­ land. Appropriately, a recent analysis of this subject by John Wolffe was entitled The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain 1829-1860 (1991) and crusade language seems to have been widely used by both Protestant and Catholic campaigners in this period. For example, in England a ‘crusader’ published a pamphlet in 1829, in response to Archdeacon Wrangham’s let­ ter to the clergy of the East Riding of Yorkshire supporting the cause of catholic emancipation and in 1846, Protestant evangelicals in Ireland were urged to go into battle using the language o f a holy war: Those excellent confessors of Christ’s truth are placed in the forefront of the battle of his church against the reigning apostasy of Rome. The struggle which they are maintaining at the outposts is for the presentation of the whole body. Not more surely did the British army fight the battle for all Europe at Waterloo, than do the spiritual cleigy and laity of the Church of Ireland fight at this mo­ ment the battle of God’s truth against the apostasy of Rome, for the Christians of England as well as for themselves.

In his study of Protestant Catholic relations in Ireland between the Act of Union and Disestablishment ( The Protestant Crusade 1977), Desmond Bowen refers to the anti-catholic crusade of Alexander Dallas, the found­ ing father of Protestant missions to the Catholics o f Ireland and a counter crusade was launched by Paul Cullen, the papal legate and primate, who has been described as ‘a crusader, an ecclesiastical general, who recog­ nised that in Ireland a battle was in progress between two rival religions and cultural imperialism.’ Once again this was not just a British phenomenon. One of the maga­ zines of the American anti-catholic movement in the 1850s was entitled The New York Crusader and when the Hungarian Louis Kossuth, who was perceived as a symbol of Protestantism and liberty, arrived in the United States in 1851, he was described by the New York Times as a ‘Peter the Hermit of a New Crusade.’ Crusade language was also used to described the counter campaign and the Presbyterian Board o f Foreign Missions de­ clared in 1844: The Papal Cnisade is against the troth wherever it is found - the warfare is against the liberties of the world. We cannot therefore, avoid this contest, unless we deem the truth, and everything dear to the Christian and to man not worth contending for. In such a contest there can be no neutrals; it is between Christ and anti-Christ and there is no middle ground.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, crusade language was adopted by Christian missions and evangelical movements. For example, the Cru­ saders’ Union, which became an international movement, began in 1900 as

106

THE NEW CRUSADERS

a Bible class for boys in North London. There were a number of Christian publications with the title Crusader and an interesting example of this genre was the monthly magazine of the Carmarthen Wesleyan Methodist Circuit, started in January 1888. By 1890, this had become, under the same title, the journal for Progressive Methodists and was available in every circuit in Britain and Ireland. Every edition included in the heading a figure o f a crusader and the first issue gave the following explanation of the choice of title: The old crusaders went forth to subject the world to the cross. That is the ideal o f this magazine. It will seek to promote Christian life and experience gener­ ally. It will maintain the principles of Christianity as taught in the Word of God and uphold the highest possible standard of spiritual life ... Especial promi­ nence will be given to the rights and privileges of the children as members o f the body o f Christ; to the temperance reform in all its bearings; to social purity; to the evangelisation of the masses.

Regular features included The Crusader’s Pulpit (sermons), a story (For Young Crusaders), Temperance Crusade (the Bible and teetotalism) and Gospel Crusade (Carmarthen Circuit Notes). In August 1889, there was also a Young Crusader’s competition for the best paraphrase of a crusade poem by Mrs Hemans. The editor urged young readers to emulate the young crusaders, ‘for there is fighting for you too. There are Saracens who will try to hinder you on your pilgrimage to the Heavenly Jerusalem.’ To provide context, the history of the crusades was outlined in several early editions and the crusade parallel was picked up again in connection with the ‘aggressive Christian work’ of the Methodist mission bands. There was debate about the badge which the methodist crusaders should wear and one suggestion was blue, tipped with white and with a red C, explained as follows: From the earliest ages men have been accustomed to wear various devices as symbols of what they have at heart The crusaders fought in the Holy Land with a cross painted upon their backs ... The red C would indicate our desire to be Christ’s Christian crusaders and to carry the war into the enemy’s territory. It would also typify our need of the blood of Jesus Christ to cleanse us from all sin. Members o f the Mission Band might adopt the name ‘crusader’ as sugges­ tive of the character of their work in carrying on a crusade against drunkenness, immorality and all sin. The name is worthy of being associated with nineteenth century deeds of valour.

The crusader’s badge was to be worn on Gospel Crusades, such as the week’s expedition by the Methodist’s Gospel Crusader’s Union to preach the word in Herefordshire and Breconshire in August 1889. As has been mentioned in the previous chapter, there was a two week mission to the munitions workers at Woolwich arsenal in September 1917,

A CRUSADE MISCELLANY

107

which was described and subsequently reported as the Woolwich Crusade. The Church Times summarised its aims as ‘to express the sympathy of the church with what is best in the aspirations and ideas of working men, and to appeal to them to cooperate with us in an effort for reconstruction of the national life on a Christian basis.' More than 200 ‘crusade’ speakers and workers were involved and it began with a procession from the local parish church and address from the Bishop of Woolwich. The plan was that the crusaders would stand outside the main gate of the arsenal and catch the workers as they started their shift, during the midday break and at the end of the working day. A temporary platform was constructed for speakers and there was a crusade banner depicting St George overcoming the dragon. It was intended as much more than a local mission and outside speakers included the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishops of London, Oxford, Lichfield, Edinburgh and Rochester. Many of those involved were said to have regarded the crusade as the most uplifting time of their lives, but their audience was less receptive. Described in the Church Times as a testing ground on which operations on a much wider scale might depend, the net result seems to have been disappointing and the formal report issued by the dio­ cese of Southwark noted that it had highlighted the need for reform in the church if it was to appeal to workers. The Archbishop of Canterbury, preach­ ing on the last Sunday, had to contend with a rival speaker and, although there was subsequently debate in the correspondence columns of the Church Times and The Commonwealth about the response of the laity, overall the conclusion seems to have been that the crusade confirmed lay hostility to­ wards the Church of England and its clergy were perceived as institutional­ ising the division between the social classes. In very different circumstances, but again against the background of the First World War, crusade language was used by Conrad Noel, vicar of Thaxted, Essex. In April 1918, he and some fellow Christian Socialists launched the Catholic Crusade of the Servants of the Precious Blood to transform the Kingdom of this world into the Commonwealth of God. A crusade mass was held every week and the crusaders were urged to be active soldiers in the Holy War. Noel also picked up this language in bis Manifesto o f the Catholic Crusade and sermons supporting the Russian Revolution and the Irish Republic and encouraging a parallel English Revo­ lution. Not surprisingly, his group proved controversial and there was some confusion and anxiety about this use of crusade terminology. It was entirely appropriate, however, that crusade terminology was used in connection with the work of the St John Ambulance Association. After its foundation in 1879, the work of First Aid instruction was promoted throughout Britain, particularly amongst factory workers, miners and rail­ way men, who suffered heavy losses from work-related accidents. In 1882 for example nearly 1500 men were killed on the railways and over 8500

108

THE NEW CRUSADERS

injured. One of the key figures was Army Surgeon Major George Hutton, who undertook two Ambulance Crusades or missions in the North, in which he gave first aid classes and presented certificates. In bis speeches, he re­ ferred to the history of the Order of St John and the hospital in Jerusalem which had catered for all, the only passport to admission being that the sufferer should be in pain. He expressed the hope that the St John Ambu­ lance Association could do the same and in October 1887 Lady Knightley used similar language in her speech at the annual conference of the North­ ampton Centre: No one who had yet spoken on the subject that evening had alluded to what was to her a very interesting thought in connection with this work, and that was that they in this nineteenth century were canying on in the same spirit the work which was begun some eight hundred years ago. It was not perhaps exactly in the same form, but to her mind the Order of St John of Jerusalem, founded somewhere about the year 1095, for the purpose of helping pilgrims to Jerusa­ lem who fell by the way, carried out a work they were at present engaged in. The Order had passed through many vicissitudes, and its history was perhaps not altogether one to look back upon as satisfactory, but she believed many great and noble acts had been carried out under its auspices, and it seemed to her a very beautiful thought that in the nineteenth century they were carrying out the original Christian idea of helping pilgrims who fell by the way.

One can also find references to the crusades in a rather curious poem, T h e Haunted House’, by John H. Easterbrook, published in the Handbook to the Hungarian and Eastern Bazaar in aid o f the Ambulance Association in London in 1881: Your higher deeds of simple faith and mercy Live with us to the last And horn these time worn walls which saw your banner When first its cross of mercy was display’d. Now, in these later days, a knightly order Arms for a new crusade: The World their battlefield: - the work you left them ‘To aid the sick and suffering’ - yet goes on. And in a holy warfare still is famous The old gate of St John [Clerkenwell].

As has already been discussed, the image developed in connection with the important work of the Order during the First World War. Crusade language was also used in more general social reform campaigns such as the temperance movement. For example, in 1846, John Hope, a wealthy Presbyterian lawyer and anti-catholic campaigner in Edinburgh launched a so-called crusade against ‘popery and drink’ and one also finds this language in the1870s and 1880s in connection with the League of the Cross and Crusade against Intemperance. One of the key figures in this

A CRUSADE MISCELLANY

109

stage of the anti-drink campaign was Frederick Nicholas Charrington, a scion of the brewing family, who engaged in a number of other social cam­ paigns against music halls and prostitution in the East End of London. In the late 1880s, Charrington organised his own band of temperance mili­ tants called the crusaders, who wore a band with a red cross on black vel­ vet on their left arm and marched through the streets of the city with simi­ larly decorated banners, and the biography of the American campaigner Mother Stewart, who also promoted the temperance cause in Britain, was entitled Memories o f the Crusade: A Thrilling Account o f the Great Upris­ ing o f the Women o f Ohio in 1873 against the Liquor Crime. This crusade theme was picked up in temperance literature. Thus the Tem­ perance Crusade was, as already noted, a regular feature in the Carmarthen Crusader magazine and in 1874 the official organ of the West Surrey Dis­ trict of the independent Order of Good Templars was called The Crusader. In fiction, a novel entitled Our New Crusade: A Temperance Story published by Edward Hale in 1875, told the story of a campaign against drinking in Bromwich and it concluded with the sentence, ‘the loyal resolve of every­ body to live in the common life was the inspiration and the success of The New Crusade.’ A play by Bernard McCarthy entitled The Crusaders was performed in the Abbey Theatre Dublin in 1917 and the currency of the image is indicated by Lilian Shiman’s modem analysis of the subject, Cru­ sade against Drink in Victorian England (1988). The term crusade(r) also seems to have been applied to individual social campaigns and campaigners such as Auberon Herbert, son of the Earl of Caernarvon. As a soldier in India, Herbert himself had published a literary magazine entitled The Crusader and as a British MP he took up a range of causes, which prompted a later biographer to describe him as a Crusader for Liberty. The British Library catalogue provides further evidence of the use of the term crusade in connection with a range of other campaigns, covering social issues from destitution, slavery and vice to tuberculosis and women’s suf­ frage. For example, Lady Josephine Elizabeth Butler, the social reformer and campaigner against prostitution, published Some Thoughts on the Present Aspect o f the Crusade against the State Regulation o f Vice in 1874 and her Personal Reminiscences o f a Great Crusade appeared in 1894. Butler’s sup­ porters were known as crusaders and she wrote of receiving the sacrament at Geneva, T would rather have liked that we had all received it standing, with a drawn sword in one hand, as the old crusaders did.’ The Crusaders was also the title of a play by Henry Arthur Jones about nineteenth century social reform. The story, which involved several ro­ mantic intrigues and had more than a hint of irony and caricature, con­ cerned the efforts of the London Reformation League and their campaign to improve young women based at a rose garden in Wimbledon. In the

no

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Preface, Jones drew a direct link with the crusades, stating that ‘the banner of social reform serves as a rallying point for all that is noblest and basest, wisest and foolishest in the world of today ... The movement is in truth as dramatic an element in the life of the nineteenth century as were the cru­ sades in that of the thirteenth.’ And the play concluded with an impas­ sioned speech addressed by Una Dell to the cynical Lord Burnham: Century after century the same mad chase, the same mad dream! We hunt for what we will never find, we dream what will never come hue. We know it; but we still pursue, and we still dream! Our Dulcinea is always false, but we always think her true; we give our strength for a parsley garland; we drain Europe of its flower of manhood to buy a little sacred spot in Jerusalem; we ride shameless through Coventry; we spUl our blood like water for the Stuarts; we send Paris, red with butchery, dancing after liberty, equality, fraternity; we tilt at every wind­ mill, we dash ourselves on every p ik e!... Our madness breeds your ideals, and you're dead, you’re dead without ideals.

The Crusaders was performed at the Avenue Theatre in London between November 1891 and January 1892, but received poor reviews and does not appear to have been a success, losing its author £4000. It is interesting, however, in this context as yet another variation on the use of crusade im­ agery. Moreover, the scenery and furniture for the play were designed by William Morris, who, as will be discussed later, himself campaigned for a social crusade and ‘holy warfare against the age.’ Another indication of the popularity and perhaps dangers of the crusad­ ing campaign image was a novel published in 1910 entitled The Next Cru­ sade: A Cautionary Political Story. Amongst the causes taken up by the chief protagonist are the Shark Endowment Bill and Shocking Example Factory and the anonymous author commented: Mr Griffith Evans from the moment be decided that there was fat in his father’s idea, proceeded with the skill which distinguishes his class and once again proved how extremely easy it is to make a living out of human passions, if only they can be found raging over a piece of uncovered ground. The initial difficulty, of course, was that o f taking an office and paying for the printing and postage of a first batch o f circulars. But he soon realised that if this could be overcome, he would be able to keep a well stoked pot boiling and possibly even to extend his connection beyond the dreams of roguery.

More generally the widespread use of the term crusade can be seen by the content (and title) of Heroes o f Modern Crusades: True Stories o f the un­ daunted Chivalry o f Champions o f the Down Trodden in Many Lands, pub­ lished by Edward Gilliat, a former master at Harrow, in 1909. His chapters describe a range of campaigns, from temperance to anti-slavery and work to alleviate the suffering of the poor and the parallels between medieval and modem crusades are drawn out in the Preface:

A CRUSADE MISCELLANY

111

In the Crusades of old, the warriors who took part in them exposed their lives to jeopardy and their estates to ruin ... The heroes of our modem crusades have had to fight a strenuous and sustained battle against ignorance, prejudice and self interest. The results they won were always good and profitable to the state, yet many of them fought long without any encouragement or help from Govern­ ment or people. It seems strange that wrongs so terrible should need to have been righted in times so near to ours. It is pleasant to think that some reader of these lives may be helped one day to take his part in leading a crusade yet more modem than these herein described.

One of the most idiosyncratic uses of the crusade image, however, must surely be in connection with the campaign to improve sanitary conditions throughout the world. The British Library collection includes a pamphlet, based on an article by Robert Boyle, published in the Building News of 1890, entitled A Sanitary Crusade round the world, which tells the story of the campaign in the Middle and Far East and subsequent publications cov­ ered sanitary crusades in South Africa and Australasia. As today, therefore, the language and imagery of the crusades was widely used, and one might argue abused, by campaigners in the nineteenth and early twentieth century to promote their cause, even when their aims and motivations were radically different from those of the original medieval crusaders.

Fig. 1 The Luck of Edenhall, reproduced by permission of the Victoria and Albert Museum Picture Library, London.

Fig. 2 Mab’s Cross, Wigan. Photo taken by the author.

Hg. 3 The Tomb of Sir William and Lady Mabel Bradshaigh, All Saints Church Wigan. Photo taken by the author.

Hg. 4 The Tomb of Udard de Broham, Ninekirks Church, Cumbria Photo taken by the author.

Fig. 5 Coal of Anns of the Viscount of Bangor, Downpatrick Cathedral, Downpatrick, Northern Ireland. Photo taken by the author.

Fig. 6 Panel from the statue of Godfrey of Bouillon, Grand Place, Brussels. Photo taken by the author.

’S £

Iä 1 « Ä?

« ja EU

PUNCH. 0 * TH» LONDON CHà EIVAIL

Fig. 9 Portrait of Sir William Hillary by courtesy of the Royal Fig. 10 The Return of the Crusade reproduced with permission National Lifeboat Instituten. of Punch Ltd.

4> !I

!

5>* .

1e a

I _g 8

:IH Vi

§

1 «-* s

>ii "l-s

2 öS

ill

U, 2 CQ

f jlf «I! £

ä^g

X cd -g ÇJ * 3 z: o *2 t? •o

(N

i? :

s

Fig. 14 Solomon Alexander Hait, Richard Coeur de Lion and Saladin (1835), reproduced by permission of the Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery)

Fig. 15 Poster for The Blood Red Knight at Astley’s (1810), reproduced by permission of the Victoria and Albert Museum Picture Library, London.

Fig. 16 William Etty, The Warrior Arming or Godfrey de Bouillon the Crusader Arming for Battle (1835), reproduced by permission of Manchester City Art Galleries.

Fig. 18 James Joseph Tissot, Nahum Gallery, London.

TheCrusader’s

, by c

Fig. 20 John Everett Millais, The Departure o f the Crusaders, Bridgeman Art Library, London.

Fig. 21 The title page from music for Benedict’s Opera The Crusaders. Photo taken by the author.

Fig. 22 Watercolour by Princess (later Queen) Victoria of Madame Albertazzi as Giossilino in Sir Michael Costa’s opera Malek Adel, reproduced by permission of the Royal Collection 1999 HM Queen Elizabeth II.

CHAPTER SEVEN

Scott and the crusades The crusades also provided a rich source of imagery for writers, artists and composers in the nineteenth century and one of the most influential figures in the creation of the popular image of the Middle Ages and the crusades themselves was Sir Walter Scott. Scott was the pre-eminent historical novelist of bis day, extensively read by his contemporaries and bis work and influence have been the subject of much literary scholarship. My purpose here is to focus more narrowly on the way in which he wrote about the crusading movement. There are in fact a wide range of references to the crusades in Scott’s essays, poems and novels, some of which have been mentioned in previous chapters. This chapter looks in more detail at the development and dissemination of that image. Scott described his appetite for books as ample, indiscriminating and in­ defatigable and when as a child confined to bed by illness, be wrote that he amused himself by modelling fortresses and arranging shells, seeds and pebbles to represent armies. ‘I fought my way thus through Vertot’s Knights of Malta, a book which, as it hovered between history and romance, was exceedingly dear to me.’ Aged thirteen, he made the acquaintance of Tasso’s poem on the First Crusade, Gerusalemme Liberata and above all Bishop Percy’s Reliques o f Ancient English Poetry, first published in 1765. Percy wrote of chivalry and the quest for adventure: that fondness for going in quest of adventures, that spirit of challenging to sin­ gle combat, that respectful complaisance shown to the fair sex ... are all of gothic origin, and may be traced to the earliest times among all the Northern nations. These existing long before the feudal ages, though they were called forth and strengthened in a peculiar manner under that constitution and at length arrived to their full maturity in the times of the crusades, so replete with roman­ tic adventures.

Percy’s portrayal of chivalry had a considerable influence upon the future novelist. As a young student at Edinburgh University, Scott and his friend John Irving continued to read voraciously tales of chivalry and romance, in­ cluding Walpole’s Castle o f Otranto and on long walks together invented stories of chivalry for each other’s amusement. Scott later wrote: These legends in which the martial and the miraculous always predominated we rehearsed to each other during our walks, which were usually directed to the most solitary spots about Arthur’s seat and Salisbury crags ... Whole holidays

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

113

were spent in this pastime, which continued for two to three years and had, I believe, no small effect in directing the turn of my imagination to the chivalric and romantic in poetry and prose.

Scott, however, also came to this subject against the background of eight­ eenth century historiography and, although he tends to be considered a romanticist, when one analyses his writing in more detail, his attitude to­ wards the crusades and crusaders is not that far removed from that of Hume and Robertson. Scott read extensively in the primary sources and made specific allusion, as we will see later, to Raymond of Aguilers (St Gilles), the historian of the First Crusade; the Alexiad of Anna Comnena; William of Tyre and Joinville. Amongst contemporary historians, he also referred to Charles Mills and G. R R. James. As has already been mentioned, he corresponded with Mills over a reference in The Talisman and James was among the many visitors to Scott’s house at Abbotsford. The 1838 catalogue of Scott’s library at Abbotsford reveals the range of his reading and interests, in lo­ cal, British and international history and literature, both original works and criticism; some 20,000 volumes in all. There are ten entries for the ubiquitous Tasso and Scott knew enough of French, German, Italian and Spanish to enjoy works in their original language. In fact in his early years, he produced a number of translations of medieval and contemporary works. As a novelist, Scott was not constrained by exact historical detail and he mixed and matched according to his literary requirements. Thus he recy­ cled for twelfth century purposes some events which had occurred both in his own time in the Scottish borders and in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, as described by one of his favourite writers, the chronicler Froissart. Scott explained how he approached his subject in his Prose Works: he that would please the modem world, yet present the exact impression of a tale of the Middle Ages, will repeatedly find that be will be obliged, in despite of his utmost exertions, to sacrifice the last to the fust object and eternally ex­ pose himself to the just censure of the rigid antiquary.

Chronologically, the first crusading reference I have found is in Scott’s 1796 translation of the German Gottfried August Biirger’s poem Leonore. The historical background to Biirger’s poem was King Frederick o f Prussia’s defeat of the Austrian army at the battle o f Prague in 1757, but Scott, probably because it suited his own interests better, shifted the story to the time of the Emperor Frederick I and the Third Crusade and retitled the work William and Helen. The opening stanzas depict the anxieties of Helen for her crusading lover, about whom she has received no news: From heavy dreams fair Helen rose, And eyed the dawning red;

114

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Alas my love, thou tam est long! O ait thou false or dead? With gallant Frederick’s princely power He sought the bold crusade; But not a word from Judah’s wars Told Helen bow he sped. With Paynim and with Saracen At length a truce was made. And every knight return’d to dry The tears his love has shed.

Everyone that is except William. Eventually, however, his spectre appears and takes Helen away at dead of night, on a black steed, to his grave. Burg­ e r’s poem seems to have been popular in the early nineteenth century and the theme of the long absent crusader, based on medieval ballads and tales, subsequently featured in a number of Scott’s novels. Other examples from elsewhere in art, music and literature are discussed in subsequent chapters. Another early comment on the crusades can be found in Scott’s 180S review of George Ellis’s Early English Metrical Romances, which included the romance of Richard Coeur de Lion and a description of the crusaders feasting on the flesh of their Saracen victims. Whether fact or fiction, Scott saw this as symptomatic of the behaviour of the crusaders: The other exploits of King Richard in the Holy Land were in similar taste with this cannibal entertainment; and we are of opinion, that when such feats are imputed by way of praise and merit to the hero of the crusaders, and received, as doubtless they were, with no small applause by the audience, the fact will go a long way to ascertain, whether the European character was improved or de­ based by these Eastern expeditions.

More generally Scott suggested that the crusader ’discarded from his bosom all that was amiable and mild in the spirit of chivalry.’ Ellis would prob­ ably have echoed these sentiments and wrote in his own Introduction of the 'madness of pilgrimage’ and 'these fanatical expeditions’. Scott returned to the subject of the crusades in his Essay on Chivalry, published in 1818 as a supplement to the Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Hav­ ing set out the origins of chivalry, its characteristics and institutions, Scott then analysed its progress and ultimate decay and extinction. He used the crusades to illustrate the misplaced zeal of the Christian knight: The real history o f the crusades, founded upon the spirit of chivalry, and on the restless and intolerant zeal which was blended by the churchmen with this mili­ tary establishment, are an authentic and fatal proof of the same facts. The hare­ brained and adventurous character of these enterprises, not less than the prom­ ised pardons, indulgences and remissions of the church, rendered them dear to

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

115

the wairiors o f the middle ages; the idea of re-establishing the Christian religion in the Holy Land, and wresting the tomb of Christ from the infidels, made kings, princes and nobles blind to its hazards; and they rushed, army after army, to Palestine, in the true spirit of chivalry, whose faithful professors felt themselves the rather called upon to undertake an adventure Dorn the peculiar dangers which surrounded it, and the numbers who had fallen in previous attempts.

The foundation of the Military Orders, in Scott’s view, represented the ‘perfect’ union between spiritual and temporal chivalry, but he did not ac­ cept that the end, conversion to Christianity, justified the means, the slaughter of many infidels. He also referred to the corrupted morals of returning crusaders and the poverty to which these ‘fatal’ expeditions had reduced some noble families. Overall, whilst the crusades might be con­ sidered ‘exploits of national knight errantry’, Scott believed that the apogee of chivalry had been during the wars between France and England and be cited frequent examples from his favourite medieval chronicler Froissart. Nevertheless, the crusading movement in some form or other provides the background to four of Scott’s historical novels. His first crusading, and indeed medieval, novel Ivanhoe was published in 1819 and is set against the background of the Third Crusade, with the returning Saxon knight Ivanhoe, the Templar Sir Brian de Bois Guilbert and the Black Knight, later revealed as King Richard himself. In the Dedicatory Epistle, Scott explained that he might be guilty of some artistic licence: T am conscious that I shall be found still more faulty in the tone of keeping and costume, by those who may be disposed rigidly to examine my tale, with reference to the manners of the exact period in which my actors flourished. It may be that I have introduced little which can be positively termed modem; but, on the other hand, it is extremely probable that I may have confused the man­ ners of two or three centuries, and introduced, during the reign of Richard the First, circumstances appropriated to a period either considerably earlier or a good deal later than that era.

In terms of the crusades, Scott was critical of the behaviour of ‘dissolute crusaders or hypocritical pilgrims’ and noted, like some critics in the late twelfth century, that because of the dissension between Richard and the French king Philip Augustus, the former’s ‘repeated victories had been rendered fruitless, his romantic attempts to besiege Jerusalem disappointed and the fruit of all the glory he acquired had dwindled into an uncertain truce with the Sultan Saladin.’ As a later commentator, J.E. Duncan notes, he was also blunt in his portrayal of Richard as a king: In the lionhearted king, the brilliant but useless character of a knight of romance was in great measure realised and revived; and the personal glory which he acquired by his deeds of arms was far more dear to his excited imagination than that which a course of policy and wisdom would have spread round his govern­ ment.

116

THE NEW CRUSADERS

A description of a more romantic crusader appears in the king’s comic and drunken exchange with the hermit: High deeds achieved of knightly fame, From Palestine the champion came; The cross upon his shoulders home, Battle and blast had dimm’d and tom. Each dint upon his batter’d shield Was token o f a foughten field; And thus, beneath his lady’s bower. He sung, as fell the twilight hour.

There is, however, more than a hint of irony in this scene and it should not be taken at face value. Ivankoe is also of course famous for its image of the evil Templar, ‘an infidel of another stamp’ and Scott made Bois Guilbert boast of the way the Order had abandoned ‘the idiotical folly of our founders’ and the extensive possessions and wealth which it now enjoyed. In 1825, Scott published his Tales o f the Crusaders - The Betrothed and The Talisman. In the Introduction to the former, Scott explained that the title was selected on the advice of friends, in particular Archdeacon Williams, the Rector of the new Edinburgh Academy, who pointed out the ‘interest which might be excited by the very name of the Crusades.’ His reservations concerned not the subject matter but the expectations which it might arouse: that interest was o f a character which it might be more easy to create than to satisfy, and that by the mention of so magnificent a subject each reader might be induced to call up to his imagination a sketch so extensive and so grand that it might not be in the power of the Author to fill it up.

Scott chose the theme of The Betrothed as ‘less an incident belonging to the crusades than one which was occasioned by the singular cast of mind introduced and spread wide by those memorable undertakings.’ The story, set against the background of the Third Crusade, in fact concerns the im­ pact on families and relationships of these expeditions and the long absences, often with little news, of their participants. The heroine is Eveline, the daughter of the Norman Raymond Berenger, who is betrothed to the rather older Constable of Chester Hugh de Lacy, a member of a good cru­ sading family. In a manner similar to the exchange between the medieval French poet Rutebeuf’s crusader and non crusader, a copy of which was available in Scott’s library, Hugh weighs the pros and cons of leaving his young and beautiful affianced lady and departing for the uncertainties o f the East. He is sorely tempted to abandon his crusade vow, but is dissuaded by the forceful Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury. When Hugh returns from Palestine after more than three years, the agreed period of their en-

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

117

gagement, Eveline is waiting, but he has to accept that her heart favours his younger nephew Damian de Lacy. In writing about the crusade, it is clear that Scott was familiar with Gerald of Wales's history of the Archbishop’s preaching tour of Wales, which was available both in the original Latin and in translation in the early nine­ teenth century. Whilst be emphasized Baldwin’s devotion to the crusades, one of his characters makes reference to some of the negative consequences: I see little save folly in these crusades, which the priesthood has preached up so successfully. Here has the Constable been absent for nearly three years and no certain tidings of his life or death, victory or d e fe a t... In the meanwhile, the people that are at home grow discontented; their lords, with the better part of their followers are in Palestine - dead or alive we scarcely know; the people themselves are oppressed and flayed by stewards and deputies, whose yoke is neither so light nor so lightly endured as that of the actual lord. The commons, who naturally hate the knights and gentry, think it no bad time to make some head against them; ay, and there be some of noble blood who would not care to be their leaders, that they may have their share in the spoil; for foreign expedi­ tions and profligate habits have made many poor.

The Betrothed did not find favour with Scott’s childhood friend and busi­ ness partner, James Ballantyne, but its companion volume The Talisman was a great success and this in turn encouraged sales of the earlier work. Scott’s publisher, Constable, wrote thus in June 1825: the success o f the Crusaders is very great. All the copies we reserved here are gone, and we have been obliged to order back some of those sent to London, and, what is not less gratifying, the general opinion, so far as it has reached me, is “both tales are o f equal excellence.”

In his Introduction to The Talisman, Scott stated that his literary friends, presumably chiefly Ballantyne, had encouraged him to set his story in the Orient: They urged that without direct allusion to the manners of the eastern tribes, and to the romantic conflicts of the period, the title of a ‘Tale of the Crusaders’ would resemble the playbill which is said to have announced the tragedy of Hamlet, the character of the Prince of Denmark being left out.

Scott again was wary of his subject, noting that the love of travel had per­ vaded all ranks and every member of the Travellers’ Club constituted his critic and corrector. He decided, however, to choose the Third Crusade and in particular the contrasting characters of Richard I and Saladin as his fo­ cus: the warlike character of Richard I, wild and generous, a pattern of chivalry, with all its extravagant virtues, and its no less absurd errors, was opposed to that of Saladin, in which the Christian and English monarch showed all the cruelty and

118

THE NEW CRUSADERS

violence of an Eastern Sultan; and Saladin, on the other hand, displayed the deep policy and prudence of a European sovereign, whilst each contended which should excel the other in the knightly qualities of bravery and generosity. This singular contrast afforded, the author conceived, materials for a work of fiction, possessing peculiar interest.

In Ivanhoe, Richard had been the disguised knight, now he bore the ‘avowed character of a conquering monarch’ and Scott ‘doubted not a name so dear to Englishmen as that of Richard I might contribute to their amusement for more than once.’ Although he prepared himself by reading histories of the crusades, including Mills’s, his was self avowedly a work of fiction, with variants on the facts of the crusades as appropriate and some exotic minor characters and disguises. In this he owed some debt to Tasso and the Hermit of Engaddi is twice explicitly compared to Tasso’s Peter the Hermit. The basic plot is that a poor Scottish crusader known as Sir Kenneth or the Knight of the Leopard, encounters a Saracen emir with whom he strikes up a friendship. The emir, who eventually proves to be Saladin himself, appears in the crusader camp as a physician and heals the ailing Richard. Meanwhile Sir Kenneth is dishonoured, having left his post, tempted by a message said to come from his beloved Edith Plantagenet. Disguised as a Nubian slave of exotic appearance, however, be saves the life of Richard; the various disguises are revealed and Sir Kenneth himself proves to be Earl David of Huntingdon, brother of the King o f Scotland. Saladin duly presents the talisman of the title, an amulet with healing powers, to bis Christian friend. In the text there are observations about the behaviour of the crusaders which chime with criticisms to be found in chronicle accounts of the Third Crusade such as the Itinerarium régis Ricardi. Scott thus noted that the disunity of the crusaders, an international band with longstanding rival­ ries, began to emerge when Richard fell ill, rather like old wounds which may break out under the influence of disease or debility. He focussed par­ ticularly on the rivalry between the Scottish and English, illustrated by the attitude of the English noble De Vaux towards Sir Kenneth and lamented that without the jealousies of the Christian princes, the expedition might well have achieved its objective, Jerusalem. Scott also wrote of the disso­ lute license of the crusaders; the luxury and profligate indulgence of the Christian leaders and the ‘motley concourse’ in their tents of musicians, courtesans and ‘all the varied refuse of the Eastern nations’. And in his study of Scott and history (1981), Anderson, echoing Scott’s own Intro­ duction, comments that the ghost of Hume lurks behind the portrayal of Richard and Saladin, with the Christian king decidedly inferior to bis Mos­ lem antagonist. The presence of Earl David on the Third Crusade is actually question­ able. Macquarrie notes that there are references to Earl David fighting the

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

119

Saracens in a late fifteenth century chronicle and this was perpetuated in the sixteenth century, most notably by Hector Boece in bis History o f the Scots, which has David at the siege of Acre and instrumental in its capture. Whilst the Earl’s most recent biographer, Keith Stringer (1985), does not completely rule out his participation in the crusade, he was probably in England in August 1190, when be married the daughter of Ranulf, Earl of Chester. Scott, however, took the Boece story and the legend of the Lee Penny and produced The Talisman. In his Essay on Chivalry, Scott referred to an episode which had occurred when the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus had been receiving the hom­ age of the leaders of the First Crusade. According to Anna Comnena, a French knight had sat down beside the emperor and when rebuked for his audacity, declared himself ‘of the noblest race of France.’ The stoiy became the basis of Scott’s last crusading novel Count Robert o f Paris, published in 1831. It was also one of his last novels and because of ill health was dictated to an amanuensis, his old friend William Laidlaw. A painting of Scott in his study, in the intervals of dictating Count Robert, was commissioned from Sir Francis Grant by Lady Ruthven and is now to be found in the Writers’ Museum in Edinburgh. In quality, Count Robert of Paris is very much inferior to Ivanhoe and the Tales of the Crusaders and the pros and cons of publication were discussed at some length by Scott, his publisher and printer, Cadell and Ballantyne. It was also at their request, and against Scott’s own wishes, extensively rewritten by Lockhart after the author’s departure for Malta. Nevertheless, it deserves mention here because of its portrayal of the First Crusade. It has also been described by John Sutherland, in his recent biography of Scott (1995), as the fust of the nineteenth century muscular novels and its author’s most ‘powerful exercise in the grotesquerie’. Set in Constantinople at the declining imperial court, which Sutherland suggests Scott may have intended as a parallel of the crumbling Tory he­ gemony of the early 1830s, the story centres on the arrival o f a more vigorous and conflicting ideology, one of Scott’s favourite themes and in this instance the crusaders. As a further complication, there is a plot against the emperor by bis son-in-law Nicephoros Briennius. Count Robert and his wife, the Amazonian Brenhilda, are detained as hostages when the cru­ saders, after declaring their homage to Alexius, cross over to Asia. Robert is rescued by the Anglo Saxon Hereward, a member of the Varangian guard, and eventually the count and countess are reunited and Hereward marries his old love, Bertha, the countess’s waiting woman. Scott ended his tale noting that Robert was wounded at the battle of Dorylaeum and unable to take part in the capture of Jerusalem, but his heroic countess ‘enjoyed the great satisfaction of mounting the walls’ of the holy city ‘and in so far discharging her own vows and those of her husband.’ In addition, in an allusion which probably reflects contemporary interest in the subject, Scott made the Revd Josiah Cargill, a character in his novel

120

THE NEW CRUSADERS

St Ronan’s Well (1823), the author of a poem on the siege o f Acre and much preoccupied with the history of the crusading movement. He thus asks a visitor the distance from Acre to Jerusalem and, hearing that M r Touchwood has been in Palestine, expresses the hope that he may be able to enlighten him on the subject of the crusades: bis acquaintance with eastern manners, existing now in the same state in which they were found during the time of the crusades, formed a living commentary on the works of William of Tyre, Raymond of St Gilles, the Moslem annals of Abulfaragi, and other historians of the dark period, with which his studies were at present occupied.

Scott also turned his own hand to the history of the crusading movement in his Tales o f a Grandfather, dedicated to his grandson John Hugh Lockhart. The early volumes, published in 1827-29, tell the history of Scotland and were apparently inspired by J. W. Croker’s popular Stories from the His­ tory o f Englandfor Children, published in the 1810s. In 1831, Scott extended his scheme to the history of France, up to the reign o f Louis XII; a country ‘whose influence upon the continent of Europe has almost always been struggling and contending with that of England herself. ’ He gave a factual account of the First Crusade and the Military Orders and his research also fed in parallel into Count Robert. Scott then picked up the story of the crusades again in the context of the reign of Louis VII. Here, in language reminiscent of Agnes Strickland, he was critical of Queen Eleanor and the behaviour of the individual crusaders: It was, indeed, the curse of these religious expeditions, that although a large proportion of the persons engaged in them were actuated by feelings of real devotion, a much larger consisted of men of debauched and infamous habits, who looked for little besides the pleasure of practising, with impunity, the grossest vices, amid the profligacy of an ill-regulated camp.

With the Third Crusade, Scott, as in Ivanhoe, wrote of the dissension be­ tween the English and French monarchs and he described R ichard’s persistence with this ‘insane adventure’. No mention was made of the Fourth or Fifth Crusades, but drawing heav­ ily on Joinville, Scott told of the two ‘imprudent and ill fated engagements’ of Louis IX. More unusually, he also referred to the Albigensian Crusade: These holy expeditions were originally confined to the recovery of Palestine. But, as their effects were found so many ways profitable to the church, it oc­ curred to the popes that there might be great policy in extending the principles o f the crusade, not only to the extirpation of infidelity and heathenism in for­ eign parts, but to that of heresy at home.

Scott was highly critical of the behaviour of Simon de Montfort and his fellow crusaders:

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

121

Under his command, these crusaders indulged an indiscriminate thirst for slaugh­ ter and plunder amid the peaceful Albigenses, without accurately distinguish­ ing the heretic from the orthodox, under the pretext that they were extirpating evil and erroneous opinions, and thereby rendering acceptable service to God and the Christian church.

To complete the crusade canon, there is an unpublished novel, dating from Scott’s journey to Malta in 1831, entitled The Siege o f Malta and telling the story of the siege by the Turks in 1565 and the heroism of the Hospitallers. Largely ignored by Lockhart, the story of Scott’s journey and the composition of his last novel have now been recreated by Donald Sultana. Scott was much less critical of the Hospitallers than he had been o f the Templars in Ivanhoe and seems to have had a lifelong interest in their history. In his library, he had a much-loved and well-thumbed copy of Vertot’s history of the Order which he had first read as a child. He also studied the Scottish history of the Military Orders and there is, for exam­ ple, a reference to the Edinburgh houses of the Scottish Knights Hospitaller in The Heart o f Midlothian (1818). It is difficult to underestimate the influence and popularity of Scott’s works in creating and perpetuating an image. Although he was writing historical fiction, his readers took it as historical truth and he created a completely believable medieval world. The Waverley novels were read by many of his fellow British writers such as William Wordsworth and Felicia Hemans; the poem inspired by the latter’s first encounter with The Talisman is mentioned in the next chapter and they were also seminal influences on, for example, Kenelm Digby, author of The Broad Stone o f Honour; the translator of Tasso, Jeremiah Wiffen and William Morris. The latter had apparently worked his way through all the novels aged seven. Morris was not alone as a young enthusiast for the novels of Scott. In his Juvenile Literature as it is, published in 1888, Edward Salmon collated the results of a survey of the most popular children’s books. Amongst boys, Scott was the third most popular author, after Dickens and W. H. G. King­ ston and he won second place after Dickens with girls. Ivanhoe came fourth on the boys’ list of favourite books and eighth with girls and the basic story appeared in numerous different editions and inspired variations on the theme of the Saxon maiden and Norman crusader by other authors some of which will be discussed in a later chapter on children’s fiction. In their various editions, the novels were in fact both national and interna­ tional best sellers amongst readers of all ages and new volumes were eagerly awaited. For example, in his novel Henrietta Temple, Disraeli described Sir Ratcliffe Armine reading the latest Scott novel, which had just arrived from the neighbouring town, to his wife. And the collected edition of the Waverley novels in the late 1820s, with notes and Introduction by Scott, sold at the rate of 30,000 copies a month. They were read, as we will see later, from Moscow

122

THE NEW CRUSADERS

to the American frontier and writers such as Balzac, Manzoni, Pushkin and Fenimore Cooper all confessed to Scott’s influence upon their own work. Scott’s novels also influenced contemporary historians. The historian and historical novelist G. P. R. James wrote of the Third Crusade: The spirit o f the whole of this crusade ... has already been fully, perfectly and feelingly displayed, in that most beautiful composition, The Talisman; wherein Sir Walter Scott, however he may have altered some historical facts to suit the purposes of fiction, has given a more striking picture of the human mind in that age - of the characteristics of nations as well as individuals than any dull chronicle o f cold events can furnish.

And the French historian of the Norman Conquest, Augustin Thierry, com­ mented, ‘my admiration for this great writer was profound; it grew as I contrasted his wonderful comprehension of the past with the petty erudi­ tion of the most celebrated modem historians. I saluted the appearance of Ivanhoe with transports of enthusiasm.’ In fact he stated that Ivanhoe was the inspiration for his history. Other historians such as Thomas Keightley claimed to be a corrective to Scott’s influence and the German historian Leopold von Ranke resolved to forswear any such temptation; T took the resolution to avoid in [his] works all imagination and all invention and to restrict myself severely to the facts.’ The more romanticized image of the crusades and crusaders developed and indeed flourished in the broader artistic transmission and interpreta­ tion of Scott’s novels. This trend is well illustrated by the popularity, in various guises, of the Ivanhoe story. The first dramatisation opened at the Surrey Theatre in London on 20 January 1820 and received at least thirty eight performances and in his Scott Dramatized published in 1992, Philip Bolton lists some 290 Ivanhoe derivative dramas. Whilst dramas based on a few other novels such as Guy Mannering were numerically greater, Bol­ ton notes that plays derived from Ivanhoe seem to have been published more often and in popular versions. Its dramatic appeal was described by Mary Russell Mitford, authoress of a collection o f rural sketches entitled Our Village, writing in January 1820: I know nothing so rich, so splendid, so profuse, so like old painted glass or a gothic chapel full o f shrines and banners and knightly m onum ents... The melo­ dramatic air, by which one feels almost as if the book were written for the ac­ commodation of the artists of the Coburg and Surrey theatres [in London], with a tournament in act the fust, a burning castle in act the second, a trial by combat in act the third - nothing for the dramatist to do but cut out the speeches and there is a grand spectacle already made.

In 1820, sixteen versions of Ivanhoe were performed in London, Edin­ burgh, Bristol, Plymouth, Bath, Exeter, Liverpool, Birmingham and Weymouth. In many the novel just served as a loose basis for the plot and

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

123

there were considerable variations on the original theme. The playwright Andrew Halliday promoted his Rebecca: Romantic and Spectacular Drama, which opened at Drury Lane in London in 1871, as follows: The scene is laid in England, in the reign of the Lionhearted Richard, the type of the frank, brave Englishman which the mixed race produced. The pages of the romance are a glowing epitome of English life at that time. We see the old Saxon halls and the native barons o f the land still sullenly resenting the power of the Norman invaders; we catch a glimpse of the crusaders; we are made eye witnesses of the revival of chivalry in all its pomp and splendour, and our boy­ ish dreams o f Coeur de Lion, Robin Hood, Friar 'Dick and Sherwood Forest become living, moving realities, instinct with life and soul and action.

In 1837, Ivanhoe or The Lists o f Ashby was performed at Astley’s amphi­ theatre, the popular venue for the spectacular and a pantomime, Wilfrid o f Ivanhoe, was performed at Colchester in 1881. Ivanhoe was also adapted for the use of children in home theatres and there were several burlesques such as Ivanhoe à la carte, a spoof by the Cambridge Amateur Dramatic Company in 1851 and Thomas Plowman’s Ivanhoe Settled and Rebecca Righted (1878), a sketch for the benefit of the firemen of Oxford, per­ formed by the students of the town. Not all contemporaries, however, appreciated Scott’s romanticization of history. In his Notes o f a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo published in 1846, the novelist William Thackeray remarked: When shall we have a real account of those times and heroes (the crusades and the crusaders) - no good humoured pageant like those of the Scott romances but a real authentic story to instruct and frighten honest people of the present day, and make them thankful that the grocer governs the world now in place of the baron.

Thackeray’s variation on the theme of Ivanhoe, a novella, Rebecca and Rowena : A Romance upon Romance, was published in 1849 and pur­ ported to carry on the story, with Ivanhoe growing weary of the virtuous Rowena and longing to resume the campaign against the infidel. He duly fights in Spain and North Eastern Europe and is eventually rewarded by a reunion with Rebecca, whom he marries, and in the novel Pendennis, the hero’s horse is named Rebecca after his favourite literary heroine. As I have already mentioned, there were also references to the crusades in some of Thackeray’s burlesques and his Miss Tickletoby’s lectures on English History published in Punch. Ivanhoe’s popularity was truly international. For example, by 1832, New Yoik audiences could have seen at least six different productions; a ver­ sion in 1846 had a large equestrian corps in ’one of the most brilliant spectacles yet seen’ and in 1893 a humorous arrangement was produced for the Columbia University Strollers.

124

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Many of the plays would bave featured music, but Scott’s novel also served as the plot for a number of operas, with music by Samuel Beazley (1820), Francesco Morlacchi (1824), Giacomo Rossini (1826 and 1828), Heinrich Marschner and Guiseppe Nicolini (1828), Giovanni Pacini (1832), Otto Nicolai (1840), Thomas Sari (c 1863), Bartolomeo Pisani (1865), Castegnier (1884), Attilo Ciardi (1888), and Sir Arthur Sullivan (1891). Scott himself saw a performance of Rossini’s Ivanhoe in Paris in 1826 and recorded the event in his Journal: In the evening at the Odéon, where we saw Ivanhoe. It was superbly got up, the Norman soldiers wearing painted helmets and what resembled much hauberks of mail, which looked very well. The number of the attendants, the skill with which they were moved and grouped on the stage, were well worthy of notice. It was an opera and of course the story greatly mangled and the dialogue in a great part nonsense.

An English version entitled The Maid o f Judah or The Knights Templar was performed in Covent Garden in London in March 1829; Dublin in June 1830; New York in February 1832 and Philadelphia in March 1834. Marschner’s opera, with a libretto by WilhelmWöhlbruck, was first per­ formed in Leipzig in 1829, but within twenty years there were productions all over Europe, including Amsterdam, Budapest, Copenhagen, London, Riga, St Petersburg and Vienna. And Nicolai’s II Templario was performed as far afield as Mexico City (1840) and Buenos Aires (1851). Sullivan’s Ivanhoe, dedicated to Queen Victoria, was the opening performance at the Royal Eng­ lish Opera House (now the Palace Theatre) at Cambridge Circus, London in 1891, with the composer conducting and ran for more than one hundred con­ secutive nights. For those who did not attend the actual performances, reviews and illustrations of the scenes and costumes would have been available in publications such as the Illustrated London News and Athenaeum. Songs from the operas or based on the novels were also published for the indi­ vidual musician and the British Library music catalogue includes nearly seventy items under Ivanhoe, including works for the piano, from valse to polka and the occasional march. Ivanhoe was quickly translated into French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. In Milan in 1830 for example, there were five distinct collected editions of the Waverley novels running contemporaneously and Ivanhoe clearly influenced the novel Marco Visconti (1831-34) by the Italian nationalist writer Tommaso Grossi. Set in the time of the crusades, it has a familar tournament scene, even including an un­ known knight on a black horse. The Dutch novelist Jacob van Lennep was also influenced by Ivanhoe and his Ter Leede House (1828), in a variation on the absent crusader theme, tells the story of the Lord of Lederdam, who after an absence of nine years returns to Holland and marries the sister of a knight

SCOTT AND THE CRUS ADES

125

whom he had saved in Palestine. The devil, to whom he has sold his soul, becomes a guest at the castle and all is well whilst the pious lady prays for her husband and bouse. Her brother, however, comes and takes her away and they both perish because their horse is possessed by an evil spirit. The castle is subsequently found burnt down and the Lord of Lederdam disappears. Van Lennep’s tales illustrating Dutch History, Our Dutch Ancestors (183844), probably influenced by Scott’s Tales o f a Grandfather, included a set of stories told by thirteen very different individuals, including a sailor, student and cook, who are travelling from Sicily to Genoa, en route back home from Edward I’s crusade. Scott’s success was, however, particularly marked in France. The statistics speak for themselves. Of the 220 novels published in France in 1830, eighty two w o e by Scott and in 1832, Stendhal estimated that Scott had some 200 French literary imitators. According to an advertisement in 1840, up to 2 million vol­ umes of one translation had been sold and his novels appeared in at least twenty six catalogues of Parisian lending libraries published before 1842. Across the Atlantic, Henry Brooks Adams recalled that ’the happiest hours in a boy’s education were passed one summer lying on a musty heap of congressional documents in the old farmhouse at Quincy, reading Quentin Durward, Ivanhoe and The Talisman and raiding the garden at intervals for peaches and pears.’ W hilst Ivanhoe seems to have been the most widely read and adapted of the ’crusade novels’, The Talisman also proved popular, with about sev­ enty dram atizations listed by Bolton, the first, a t the Theatre Royal Edinburgh in June 1825, the year of publication. Other variations included the memorably named travesty by J. F. McArdle Plantagenet Preserved in a Salad in Pickle (1874) and a Christmas pantomime, Harlequin Crusader, in Glasgow in 1850. In the novel, Sir Kenneth’s dog Roswal seizes Conrad of Monferrat by the throat when he attempts to steal the English standard. This led to a number of what Bolton terms dog dramas, many featuring the actor Mr Wood’s dog Bruin, who merited bold type on the advertising post­ ers. For example, an anonymous playwright produced Crusader’s Dog or The Knights o f the Golden Cross at Rochester in 1837. There were also dramas with incidental music and operas by Sir Henry Bishop (1826 and 1829), Pacini (1829), Adolphe Adam (1844) and Michael Balfe. The Knights o f the Cross or The Hermit’s Prophecy, with music com­ posed by Bishop, who was Professor of Music at Oxford, proved popular in New York in 1828 and in 1874, Balfe’s last opera, II Talismano or The Knight o f the Leopard, attracted some notoriety in his home town of Dub­ lin. The clergy denounced a scene showing a chapel and altar on the stage, with nuns and acolytes in procession. For the general public, however, the church’s response made it an even greater attraction. The author of Musi­ cal Gossip in The Athenaeum of October 1874 commented:

126

THE NEW CRUSADERS

A compromise has been entered into, as regards the chapel scene in the Talismano at Dublin, between Cardinal Cullen [papal legate and primate of Ireland and author of a counter crusade against Protestant missions] and the lessees of the Theatre Royal. The altar and cross have been removed; the acolytes with in­ cense are seen no more and the nuns have turned their dresses, so that the red crosses on them are no longer visible ... We have heard that Mr. Chatterton has been denounced because of the chapel sce n e... but it is clear that the era of the crusades is not ended.

As with Ivanhoe, there were also a number of songs and instrumental pieces by less well known composers based on The Talisman. There were again numerous translations into European languages and, for example, the library records show that The Talisman was borrowed from the University Library in Oslo 116 times between 1828 and 1830. The playwright Henrik Ibsen also apparently borrowed Scott’s novels from the library of the Scandinavian Society in Rome in the 1860s. Even The Betrothed was the subject of an opera by Pacini, first performed in Naples in 1829 and a play staged in London in January 1826. These dramas and operas provided both a visual and musical image, usually highly romanticized. A similar image of Scott’s crusaders was conveyed to the public by artists and illustrators. In her study of the illustration of Scott’s novels, Catherine Gordon estimates that between 1805 and 1870 some 300 painters and sculptors produced works drawn from his novels and poetry and some 1000 works were exhibited at the Royal Academy and the British Insti­ tution in London. An example of the Scott fashion was a commission from ’a Manchester gentleman’ in 1881 for the artist Sir James Dromgoole Linton to paint two subjects and six single figures from each of Scott’s novels and when be visited the studio of Prince Albert, the Academician J. C. Horsley found the Prince Consort working on some unspecified Scott scenes. Amongst the other contemporary artists who provided illustrations for editions of the Waverley novels was Joseph Mallord William Turner. Looking specifically at the crusade novels, the Royal Academy list for the nineteenth century includes over twenty subjects from Ivanhoe and six from The Talisman, by artists such as Abraham Cooper and Edwin Austin Abbey, both of whom, as will be discussed later, painted other scenes from the crusades. The paintings exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy again show a predominant interest in Ivanhoe and in his Paintings from Books Art and Literature in Britain 1760-1900, David Altick (1985) states that he has identified some hundred paintings drawn from Ivanhoe, a third of which featured Rebecca. The Talisman provided the inspiration for Rich­ ard Coeur de Lion and Saladin (1835), by Solomon Alexander Hart, which is now amongst the collection at the Walker Gallery in Liverpool. And in 1831, John Watson Gordon exhibited The Knight o f the Leopard’s dog Roswal seizing the banner o f the Marquis ofMontferrat, who had wounded him when he destroyed the banner o f Richard Coeur de Lion , a subject

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

127

which, as we have seen, was also popular with dramatists. Such set pieces would have reached a much wider audience through col­ lections of engravings of characters from the Waverley novels. For example, Rowena and Rebecca ( Ivanhoe), Rose Flammock and Eveline Berenger (The Betrothed ) and Queen Beiengaria ( The Talisman) featured in Charles Heath's Waverley Gallery o f the principal female Characters in Sir Walter Scott’s Romances published in monthly parts between 1840 and 1842. In his Address, Heath commented: how much more intensely are our sympathies excited when we are as it were introduced to the parties, when the abstractions which have floated dimly and indistinctly before the mind’s eye are, by the painter's art, rendered palpable to the bodily organ. The Waverley Gallery will not, it is hoped, be without its influence in exciting such poetic and enthusiastic feelings and in recalling to the minds o f the admirers of Scott a store of the most pleasing reminiscences.

Images from the novels would also have been available in other medium such as pottery and sculpture. For example, a silver trophy of a scene from Ivanhoe - the meeting in the Yorkshire forest between the Prior of Jervaulx and the Templar Sir Brian de Bois Guilbert - which was presented as the Doncaster Cup in 1855, is now to be found at Brodsworth Hall in Yorkshire. As I have already mentioned, Prince Albeit seems to have painted scenes from Scott and frescoes depicting characters and episodes from the novels were included in the decoration of one of the rooms in the now demolished Garden Pavilion in the grounds of Buckingham Palace. In the frieze, there were small landscapes depicting the scenery described in the novels, with bas reliefs from some of Scott’s poems. These were then surmounted by eight lunettes with subjects from different novels, including E dith Plantagenet from The Talisman and Brian de Bois Guilbert and Prior Aylmer from Ivanhoe. Finally in the spandrels of the vault, there were eight heads in white stucco of heroines from Scott’s novels, including Edith Berenger from The Betrothed. Again it was not just a British phenomenon. The French painter Delacroix, who actually travelled to England in the 1820s to study Scott’s novels, depicted at least four Ivanhoe subjects between 1846 and 1860, including two major Salon versions of The Abduction o f Rebecca by the Templar Sir Brian de Bois Guilbert. One of these dated 1858 is now in the Louvre in Paris; the other at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The Ab­ duction o f Rebecca was also a subject chosen by his fellow countryman Leon Cogniet and now in the Wallace Collection in London. In fact Delacroix’s list of suitable literary subjects in 1860 included twenty four from the novel. The range of French artists who chose scenes from Scott has been analysed by Beth Wright and Paul Joannides, on the basis of works submitted to the various Salon. From 1822-26, the number ranged from

128

THE NEW CRUSADERS

one to seven; there were twenty to thirty each year from 1827-33, declin­ ing to betw een six and sixteen (including less rigorous provinical exhibitions) in 1834-41. As in England, these works would have reached a wider audience through book illustrations and collections of favourite char­ acters and Ivanhoe was undoubtedly the most popular crusade novel with over fifty works, followed by The Talisman. Scenes from The Talisman were also painted by the Italian artist Francesco Gonin in Milan in 1837 and his compatriot Francesco Hayez, who has been described as Italy’s greatest exponent of romantic painting, produced a series of illustrations for Ivanhoe. Another reflection of Scott’s popularity was the choice of his characters for costumed balls. Thus costumes from Ivanhoe featured in a ball organ­ ised by the Prince and Princess of Orange in Brussels in 1823. The prime example, however, and one of the great social events of the era, was the Plantagenet costume ball in aid of the silk workers of Spitalfields, London, held by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Buckingham Palace in May 1842. The royal party went in fourteenth century dress with the Queen and the Prince Consort as Edward III and Queen Philippa, an event commemo­ rated in Sir Edwin Landseer’s portrait of the royal couple. There were then four quadrilles - the Crusaders (Red Cross Knights), He­ roes and Heroines of the Waverley novels, Cossacks and Greeks, led respectively by the Marchioness of Londonderry, the Countess de la Warr, Baroness Bninow and the Duchess of Leinster, all leaders of die fashionable world. The rest of the nobility, led by the Duchess of Cambridge, formed a procession representing French, German, Italian and Spanish costumes from the mid fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries. The event was extensively re­ ported in The Times and Illustrated London News and the former commented: It is a day long past since the chivalry of England have appeared in what might not inaptly be tenned the costume of their race; and gratifying as the richness and vari­ ety of the dresses, both in colour and decoration, were to the eye, yet there was a still greater pleasure in seeing the impersonation of those historical associations so inter­ woven with the record of the honour and the glory of Britain.

Half the characters in the Waverley quadrille came from Scott’s crusade novels - Lady Frances Vane and the Marquess of Blandford went as Rowena and Ivanhoe; Lady Alexandra Vane, Viscount Cantilupe, Lady Elizabeth Campbell and Lord John Manners were Queen Berengaria, Richard Coeur de Lion, Edith Plantagenet and Kenneth the Scot respectively from The Talisman and the Hon. Lavinia Lyttleton and Hon. Hugh Cholmondeley were Eveline Berenger and Damian de Lacy from The Betrothed. In addi­ tion, Lady Ernest Bruce, a member of the crusaders quadrille, went as Rebecca from Ivanhoe, because there was not room for her character in the Waverley quadrille.

SCOTT AND THE CRUSADES

129

The invitation requested that costumes should be as accurate as possible and mention has already been made of the request by Lady Katherine Jermyn for advice from the Strickland sisters. In his Souvenir o f the Bal Costumé (1843), J. R. Planche commented: The Antiquary and the Herald are courted for their information. The Book or Printseller finds a ready sale for his most costly publications. Artists are em­ ployed to copy and artisans of all sorts to reproduce the Armour or Costume of bygone days.

Planché’s text was illustrated with drawings from the original costumes by Coke Smyth and for example Damian de Lacy’s costume was described as ‘a short tunic of rich brocade with flowers in their natural colours, the sleeves being of a crimson and gold stuff of a trelliced pattern, crimson hose and mantle, the latter embroidered with gold, golden waist belt, shoes black and gold, white embroidered gloves.’ The men of the crusader’s qua­ drille such as the Hon James Stuart Wortley went armed in mail, with a white surcoat bearing the mantle of the Order of the Temple, and a red cap over a white coif and Planché commented that the effect as a body was ‘exceedingly good’. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert held further costume balls on other historical themes in the 1840s and 1850s, as did members of the aristoc­ racy. Towards the end of the century, one of the most famous costume balls was the Duchess of Devonshire’s ball, to mark the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, in July 1897. Lady Randolph Churchill (mother of Sir Winston) recorded in her Reminiscences (1908) the preparation which went into the costumes: Great were the confabulations and mysteries. With bated breath and solemn mien a fair dame would whisper to some few dozen or more that she was going to represent the Queen of Cyprus or Aspasia, Fredegonde or Petrarch’s Laura, but the secret must be kept. Historical books were ransacked for inspiration, old pictures and engravings were studied, and people became learned in respect of past celebrities of whom they had never before heard.

This time, none of the main costumes followed a crusading or Scott theme, but Lady Randolph recalled an encounter between her younger son Jack, as a courtier of Louis XV, and another young gentleman over a young lady: Both losing their tempers they decided to settle the matter in the garden and pulling out their weapons they began making some passes. But the combatants were unequally aimed, one being a crusader with a double handed sword,the other a Louis XV courtier armed with his rapier only. He, as might have been expected, got the worst of it, receiving a nasty cut on his pink silk stocking.

An album of photographs of the main costumes presented to the Duchess

130

THE NEW CRUSADERS

by her friends also included the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, as Grand Prior of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Taking all these examples in the various mediums, it is clear that Walter Scott as poet, essayist and novelist provided a range of images and tales of the crusades and crusaders on which contemporaries could draw. His atti­ tude towards the crusading movement and its participants was not as one-dimensional or romanticized as one might expect. The catalogue of his library shows that he had copies of a number of primary sources and some of the flaws which be identified were similarly highlighted by con­ temporaries. There are also parallels with the works of eighteenth century historians such as David Hume. Many read Scott not only in Britain but also in Europe and further afield and his fine literary portraits of crusade figures such as Richard I and Saladin were expanded upon and romanti­ cized by dramatists, artists and composers. There is no doubt that his influence in the creation of the nineteenth century image and public per­ ception of the crusades was very significant.

CHAPTER EIGHT

The crusades in literature Scott, however, was not the only nineteenth century author to take up his pen and write about the crusades. The nineteenth century, and its middle decades in particular, was the age when books became much more widely available and a popular literary culture and audience developed. One ele­ ment of this was the advent of the circulating library, of which the most famous seems to have been Mudiés, based in New Oxford Street in Lon­ don. It acquired over 900,000 books between 1853 and 1862 and an analysis o f its catalogues provides quite a good guide to the reading preferences of the Victorian public. This was also a period in which journals and literary reviews enjoyed increasing circulation. This gave some literary works an even wider readership through serialisation. In my search for examples of the literary use of crusade imagery, I have consulted a range of bibliographies, concordances and library catalogues. Given the very large literary output during this period (prose and poetry), it would be impossible to read or consult every published work, but I have tried to cast my net as widely as possible. I cannot claim to have uncovered a vast corpus of crusade-related literature. O verall and num erically Arthurian legend seems to have been a much more potent medieval image. The references to the crusades in nineteenth century English literature in the form of novels, poems and plays are, however, of interest because they are yet another form of crusade image and certain common themes can be traced across the various artistic mediums. The Romantic poetess Felicia Dorothea Hemans (née Browne), is now perhaps best remembered for ‘Casabianca’, which included the famous line T h e boy stood on the burning deck,’ but in her time her poems enjoyed great popularity. In fact she was the best selling contemporary poet apart from Scott and Byron and her fame certainly spread as far as America, where she was read by the young Henry Thoreau. Hemans wrote poetry on a diverse range of subjects, from romantic scen­ ery to religion and she won a number of prizes for her poems on historical themes. She met both Scott and Wordsworth and in ‘An Hour of Romance’, she describes the impression made upon her when, lying on a grassy mound under her favourite beech tree, she first read Scott’s The Talisman: a tender gleam O f soft green light, as by the glow worm shed Came pouring throught the woven beech-boughs down And steeped the magic page wherein I read

132

THE NEW CRUSADERS

O f royal chivalry and old renown A tale of Palestine... the shout O f merry England’s joy swelled freely out, Sent through an eastern heaven, whose glorious hue Made shields dark m inors to its depths of blue.

On her visit to Scott at Abbotsford, Hemans wrote that one of the swords in his collection looked ‘as of noble race and temper as that with which Coeur de Lion severed the block of steel in Saladin’s tent.’ She was also a devotee of Tasso and translated some of his poems. A number of Hemans’s poems make reference to the crusades in predict­ ably romantic vein. ‘The Troubadour and Richard Coeur de Lion’, from Tales and Historic Scenes (1819), tells the story of Blondel and the impris­ oned king and amongst the Miscellaneous Poems (1818) there is both ‘The Crusader’s War Song’ and ‘The Crusader’s Return.’ ‘The Crusader’s War Song’ exhorts chieftains to take the cross: Strike the loud harp, ye minstrel train! Pour forth your loftiest lays; Each heart shall echo to the strain Breathed in the warrior’s praise. Bid every string triumphant swell The inspiring sounds that heroes love so well. ...Soon shall the red cross banner fly On Salem’s loftiest tower! We burn to mingle in the strife, Where but to die ensures eternal life.

By contrast, ‘The Crusader’s Return’ describes the homecoming of a pil­ grim, with sunburnt brow and a long withered palm branch in his hand. In a variation of the scene depicted by artists and a number of other contem­ porary writers, he is so changed that his mother at first fails to recognise him. And in Songs o f the Affections (1830), ‘The Lady of Provence’ de­ picts the wait for news of a crusader’s fate, confirmation of his death and the funeral train. In addition, amongst Hemans’s unpublished plans for poems was ‘The Picture G allery’, in which a young bride leads her husband through the castle of her ancestors in the Languedoc. As they walk in the picture gallery, she tells stories of the sons and daughters o f her house, including a Saracen girl brought home from the East by a returning crusader and eventually reconciled with his family. Hemans also sketched out a poem entitled ‘The Deathbed of Saint Louis at Tunis’ and amongst the manu­ scripts found after her death was a play The Crusaders (1824), which was never performed and was initially thought to have been lost. Its al­ ternative title is De Châtillon and it is described as a tragedy. The plot

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

133

concerns two brothers, Raimer and Aymer de Châtillon. The latter is in love with the daughter of a Saracen emir and thereby deemed a traitor to his family, but at the same time he is responsible for the death of the em ir’s son. A gainst this background, it would bave been difficult to achieve a happy ending and in fact both brothers die, Aymer pressing the cross to his lips and Raimer exclaiming ‘For the Cross - De C hâtillon.’ A similarly romanticized view of the crusades can be found in Wordsworth’s Ecclesiastical Sonnets, published in 1822. His intention was to produce a verse history of Christianity in England, highlighting the longstanding un­ ion of the church and state, at a time when there was agitation for catholic emancipation. As part of this survey, he included four sonnets on the cru­ sades, beginning with ‘The Council of Clermont’. Richard the Lionheart predictably merits one to himself and the others are entitled simply ‘Cru­ sades’ and ‘Crusaders’. The former refers to the upheaval of all Christendom ‘to tear from the Unbeliever the precious tomb, their haven of salvation’ ; the latter describes the fate of many crusaders: Furl we the sails, and pass with tardy oars Through these bright regions, casting many a glance Upon the dream-like issues - the romance Of many-coloured life that Fortune pours Round the Crusaders, till on distant shores Their labours end; or they return to lie, The vow performed, in cross-legged effigy, Devoutly stretched upon their chancel floors. Am I deceived? Or is their requiem chanted By voices never mute when Heaven unties Her inmost, softest, tenderest harmonies; Requiem which Earth takes up with voice undaunted, When she would tell how Brave, and Good , and Wise, For their high guerdon not in vain have panted!

Sim ilar imagery appeared in a poem entitled ‘The C rusader’s Tomb’ in Francis Palgrave’s Visions o f England. Palgrave was Professor of Poetry at Oxford and is now chiefly remembered for his anthology The Golden Treasury o f Songs and Lyrics (1861). In 1881, however, he published Visions, dedicated to his father, also Francis Palgrave and Henry Hallam, ‘friends and fellow labourers in English History.’ Palgrave’s aim was to provide ‘single lyrical pictures o f such leading or typical characters and scenes in English history...as have seemed to me amenable to strictly po­ etical treatm ent.’ And in his Preface, he states that he has striven ‘to keep as closely to absolute historical truth in the design and colouring of the pieces as the exigencies o f poetry permit...to enter in each case, within the atmosphere of the age, to penetrate and be penetrated by the passion o f the moment.’ His other subjects include Alfred the Great, Hastings, Crecy and Joan of Arc. The crusade in question is Richard the Lionheart’s

134

THE NEW CRUSADERS

expedition and the tomb belongs to a crusader who had returned to E ng­ land and died many years later c.1230: One who fought his fight and held his way, Through life’s long latter day Moving among the green, green English meads, Ere in this niche he took His rest, oft mid his kinsfolk told the deeds Of that gay passage through the Midland sea; Cyprus and Sicily; And how the Lion Heart o ’er the Moslem host Triumph’d in Ascalon Or Acre, by the tideless Tyrian coast

Palgrave paints a romanticized picture of medieval England, ‘her fresh fields and gardens trim; her tree-embower’d halls’, which obviously rep­ resents an ideal rather than the real thing. The same is true of the image of the crusades in the works of members o f the Young England movement, in particular Frederick William Faber, who was a close friend of Smythe and Manners. As a child he had spent his holidays in Westmorland and wrote of ‘ruined halls and castles ... land o f knightly days.’ In 1836, he submitted a poem on the Knights of St John, the subject for that year, for the Newdigate Poetry Prize at Oxford. Working at the same time for his final examinations, be began to regret ‘turning the sandpaper of fancy to the rusty swords of the K nights Hospitaller of St John of Jerusalem’, but in the end he won the prestig­ ious prize. Second place was awarded to Henry William Burrows, later Vicar o f Edmonton and Canon of Rochester, whose poem on the Knights of St John was printed for private circulation in 1892. The Hospitallers were also the subject of a poem in 1855 by Frank Fellows, him self a Knight of St John, better known for his writing on the metric system of weights and measures. Faber also included a sonnet on the crusades in his Thoughts while read­ ing history (1857), noting their role in the development of Europe: The burden of her martial spirit cast; And many a noble kingdom, self-relieved, Joyed in new joys, o’er holier sorrows grieved. Then localized affections grew unharmed, And home was felt, and sympathy, before Unknown, ascended to embrace the poor,Meek wisdom learned by Europe thus disarmed.

He longed to go to Jerusalem and in 1840 he set out for this destination with a companion. In the end, his ambition was thwarted because of plague at Smyrna, but there are reflections on the Holy Land and the cru­ sades in his account of the journey, a mixture of travel writing, history,

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

135

social and theological comment, entitled Sights and Thoughts in For eign Churches and Among Foreign Peoples (1842), d ed icated to W ordsworth. Faber wrote o f earlier pilgrims: They went to see Christ’s tomb and to kneel where his cross was planted. What were France and Germany and Turkey and the green wastes of Anatoli to them? To my eyes there was something very touching, a deep moral beauty, in seeing men thus represent in act an allegory of their mortal lives. We are but crossing one land in order to get to another.

Much of the work consists of a dialogue between Faber and a Stranger, who comments that there will be at some future time another crusade. Faber replies: You do not surely mean a crusade like the old ones. “No” he answered “ but more like them than you would now believe to be probable.” “Nay” said I “the days for such actions are gone by long since.” “Yes” said he “so long since, that they may be almost beginning again and coming back in tim e’s wide circuits ... The seeds of the Middle Ages have long been deposited in the fertile mould of neglect and disbelief. They are now beginning to swell and split underground. You will see their green shoots parting the dull mould shortly.”

This was of course very much the argument of the Young England Move­ ment. The image also served the Anglo Catholic and Roman Catholic revivals and in 1845 Faber himself was converted to Roman Catholicism. The Pre-Raphaelite poets and artists seem to have favoured Arthurian legend and characters in their evocation of the Middle Ages. There are, however, some references to the crusades in the writings of Morris, BurneJones and Swinburne. As students at Oxford, Morris and Bume-Jones talked o f founding a brotherhood and Bume-Jones wrote to a friend 'w e must enlist you in this crusade and holy warfare against the Age.’ The image of crusaders is also used by M orris’s biographer Fiona MacCarthy in connec­ tion with his home in London, The Red House - ‘it is also the place the knights ride out from. Red House’s inner courtyard has its Arthurian over­ tones; it is the departure point for the crusade against the age.’ And there are further reflections of the crusades in Morris’s poem ‘A Good Knight in Prison’ (1858), in which Sir Guy returns to his lady love after spending ten years as a prisoner of the Moslems. At one stage, Swinburne interestingly seems to have contemplated writ­ ing an epic poem on the Albigensian Crusade. His main use of crusade language, however, was in connection with contemporary events. As has been noted in a previous chapter, Swinburne wrote a pamphlet denouncing calls for a Muscovite crusade in response to the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. He also considered using his pen to promote the cause of national­ ism. In the early 1860s, Swinburne had sent his poem ‘Ode to Greece’ to

136

THE NEW CRUSADERS

the Italian nationalist Guiseppe Mazzini. Literature as well as art and mu­ sic was called to aid in the struggle for Italian unity and in a letter dated 1867, acknowledging receipt of the Ode, Mazzini urged the young poet to use his talents for the cause of liberty: Whilst the immense titanic battle is fought..with a new conception of life...a new European world struggling to emerge from the graves of Rome, Athens, Byzantium and Warsaw, kept back by a few crowned unbelievers and a handful o f hired soldiers, the poet ought to be the apostle of a crusade ... tell us all that we have a great duty to fulfil and that before it is fulfilled, love is an undeserved blessing, happiness a blasphemy, belief in God a lie. Give us a series of Lyrics for the Crusade.

In the end, the Songs o f the Crusades were published as Songs before Sun­ rise (1871), but in an essay, Swinburne defended the use of medieval imagery : For neither epic nor romance of chivalrous quest or classic war is obsolete yet ... [life] is omnipresent and eternal, and forsakes neither Athens nor Jerusalem, Camelot nor Troy, Argonaut nor Crusader, to dwell, as she does with equal good will, among modem appliances in London and New York.

There were inevitably also a number of poems on the theme of the absent crusader and his loved ones at home. A traditional ‘Crusader’s Farewell’, in the style of the troubadours, was amongst the ballads assembled by William Motherwell in his Minstrelsy Ancient and Modern, published in 1827. And The Last Crusader, an anonymous poem in four cantos pub­ lished in 1867, is a standard tale of thwarted romance. Menteeth, ‘a youth whose fame from Man to Kent was sung by minstrel eloquent’ believes that he is disdained by his beloved Lurline and leaves on crusade. Some time later, when she is being forced by her guardian to marry another, she meets a harper from Constantinople and enquires of M enteeth’s fate. The harper assembles a local force to prevent the marriage and in the best spirit of romance, proves to be Menteeth himself. The couple are reconciled and marry. A similar misunderstanding features in ‘The Knight’s Tale’ by Letitia Landon (1839), in which the crusader Lord Arnold, made prisoner by the Moslems, escapes and returns to the West. Initially he misinterprets a meeting between his lady Adeline and a stranger, but it turns out that the latter is her brother, who has travelled to Palestine to establish Arnold’s fate and all ends according to plan. Another poem by Landon, ‘The Crusader’, ends less happily, with the knight returning home to find his family slain and his beloved in her grave. And the uncertainties of crusading feature in several other poems. Thus Arthur O ’Shaughnessy, a friend of Rossetti, wrote in ‘Châtivel or the Lay of Love’s Unfortunate’, one of his Lays o f France (1872), o f a Lady Sarrazine, whose beloved lies in a tomb in paynim land, buried with her

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

137

parting gift of a lock of her golden hair. His spectre, however, soon returns to challenge a rival, Châtivel, for her love and the last line tells of their fight till doom. There is also the more macabre The Knight's Heart (1875) by an author who styled himself QED. A Champenois knight leaves his lady for the Holy Land and dies fighting against the Saracens. His squire returns to France with his embalmed heart, but he is intercepted by her cruel husband. He tricks her into eating her beloved’s heart and, not sur­ prisingly distraught, she starves herself to death. The copy of this poem in the British Library was presented by the author to Gladstone as ’an authen­ tic episode from the holy wars.’ As yet another variation on this theme, in ’The Romaunt of the Page’, Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1850) depicts a lady who accompanied her knight on crusade, disguised as a page. Having saved his life on a number of occasions, she ultimately dies in battle without revealing her true iden­ tity. The poem concludes: The tramp o f hoof, the flash o f steel The paynims round her coining! The sound and sight have made her calm False page, but truthful woman! She stands amid them all unmoved; The heart, once broken by the loved Is strong to meet the foeman.

And in The Saxon’s Daughter: a Tale o f the Crusades by Nicholas Michell (1835), the Saxon Ada follows her Norman lover Julian Beaumont to the Holy Land and saves his life in a battle against Saladin’s army. Full of remorse after she dies in his arms, Julian becomes a hermit and keeps watch over her tomb. A more unusual interpretation is offered by the poem ’Gilbert Beckett and the Fair Saracen’ (1874) by Lewis Morris, who has been described as a mediocre imitator of Tennyson. As the title indicates, it is based on the legend that Thomas Becket’s mother was the daughter of a Saracen chief, who met her future husband Gilbert Becket when he was imprisoned by her father. The poem tells of the young Saracen maid who mourns for her departed crusader and sails to England where they are eventually reunited Interestingly a painting on a related theme, The Liberation o f Gilbert Becket from captivity, was exhibited at the British Institution in 1845. An indication of wider interest in the crusade image is provided by the number of poems by minor (and anonymous) authors which can be identi­ fied through research in bibliographies and the catalogues of the main British copyright libraries and a selection of these are described here, grouped according to the crusade expeditions which seem to have inspired their authors. Judgements about their popularity are difficult to make, but a num ber were clearly privately printed and uncut pages in the British

138

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Library copies suggest that they have not been widely consulted by other readers. Yet more crusading poems served as the text for songs by nine­ teenth century composers. William Stigand’s poem on the First Crusade, entitled Athenais, published in 1846, draws parallels with Tasso and tells the love story o f Bertrand D ’Aureval and the eponymous Byzantine princess, against the background of the expedition to Jerusalem. He described it as ‘at once an idealistic, philosophic and historico-poetic version of the First Crusade’ and the Iliad of the Cross. Arranged in six cantos, an early stanza laments that the era of the crusades has passed: They made for us a new heroic age On which Romance will ever fondly dwell. Grander than ought in Tune’s recording page: They made the Sword serve truth; their valour’s spell Maintains its charm where’er they fought and fell, Tho’ Godfrey’s sword, which shaped for Christ a throne Where not a Christian now dare sound a bell, Is but a relic to the curious shown, And Islam dreadless sits upon the victor’s stone.

The latter is presumably a reference to the alleged sword and spurs of Godfrey of Bouillon on display in the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem which, as has been noted earlier, were regularly shown to for­ eign visitors. The First Crusade also provides the background to ‘The Crusader: a Romaunt’ by G. N.C. published in 1879, which tells the tale of Sir Giles de Guortemir and his beautiful daughter Geraldine. Sir Giles decides to go on crusade and tells his daughter: For to the plains of Palestine I go, To fight and to defend the righteous faith, Unto Mahoun declar’d a mortal foe, And to enforce it with my latest breath; It is the path o f jeopardie and death, Yet leads to life eternal at the la st

Influenced by Tasso, Richard Lewis Browne wrote a short poem entitled The Taking o f Jerusalem in the First Crusade in 1832 and no doubt there are other examples which were submitted for various competitions, pub­ lished in journals or privately printed. For example, my attention has been drawn to an ‘Ode on the Council of Clermont’, recited on Speech Day at St Edmund’s College, Ware in 1846. The play King Rodolpho’s Will set in Sicily at the time of the crusade, was also produced by the Revd Duke as entertainment for the Boy’s Guild in the parish of St Patrick’s Bradford in 1880.

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

139

Not surprisingly, however, most poems and plays seem to have related in one way or another to the Third Crusade. After a brief survey of crusading history, the anonymous author of The Crusaders or The Minstrels o f Acre, published in six cantos in 1808, vividly describes the reaction to news of Saladin’s victory over the forces of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem at the battle of Hattin in 1187 : As o ’er the summer mom a cloud, The news o’er Europe came. From land to land in echoes loud As pour’d thy voice the tidings, Fame; Sadness darken’d every face Mute were the pipe and harp and song: No dance, no tilt, no sylvan chase. The very boys their games forsook, And slow and cheerless moped along: Or if they play’d, in shadowy nook Lurking, or solitary field, Ashamed their sport conceal’d No traveller in the crowded street Was heard his ancient friend to greet No wife her husband’s quick embrace Late from his work returning hail’d; Virgins fair each youthful grace In robes of mourning veil’d And matrons grey their sorrow shed, As though they leam ’d a son was dead. The peasant by his cottage fire, The monarch on his throne, Shiver’d with grief, and glow’d with ire, And felt the cause his own. Aged heroes from the wall Of gallery lone, or darksome hall, Snatch their rusted armour down, And oe’r the pointless weapons frown As though beneath the helmet's weight The tottering neck begin to fail; Their courts bestride with martial gait. And round them brace the stubborn mail, And wish themselves beyond the sea.

With such colourful writing, one can almost picture the scene. The anonymous poet then describes how many crusaders answered the call in Europe and in England 'from Dover cliffs to Castrian Dee." Again his imagery and language is worth quoting: And Cornwall her subterranean hive Has emptied, inured from times of yore

140

THE NEW CRUSADERS

With pickaxe the bars of earth to rive; And with wedge and hammer’s pondrous dint From granite veins and seams of flint To wrench the imbedded ore. And Humber! The youth have deserted thy plain; For they thought of the days when invaders slain Did long obstruct thy crimson tide The sons of those who slew the Dane Shall humble Turkish pride! And Cumbria sends her mountain race, Through Eskdale bog and Derwent ford From Skiddaw wont with Gillsland sword The Teviot mosstrooper to chase. And Need wood’s sons, of peerless fame The yew to bend, the shaft to aim. In dells where, future king of oaks, Swilcar uplifts his saplin crest. Leave the sylvan deer at rest; Eager to pierce with nobler strokes The saracenic breast

There is a festal banquet after the successful siege of Acre and, as has already been mentioned, one of the minstrel songs looks forward to a later siege of Acre in 1799, where another Christian knight from English ground, namely Sir Sidney Smith, defended the ’red-cross bulwarks’, only this time be fought with the Turks against the French army o f Napoleon. A John Breakenridge of Osgoode Hall, barrister-at-law, published a poem in 1846 telling the story of the crusades from the battle of Dorylaeum to the Third Crusade and one of Richard’s knights De Courtenay is the hero of Francis Buchanan of Perth’s poem ’The C rusader’ dated 1848. Matilda (1830) by Henry Ingram is another lengthy (and complicated) poem of thwarted love and suffering against the background of the cru­ sade and the play The Fair Crusader (1815), the ‘work o f a lady’ tells o f a different Matilda who travels to the Holy Land disguised in boy’s cloth­ ing in search of her imprisoned crusader brother, the Scottish knight Sir Ralph Douglas. In fact there seems to have been a steady flow of poems and plays about the exploits of Richard the Lionheart as crusade hero and king. Some ex­ amples are discussed in G. H. Needier’s Richard Coeur de Lion in Literature (1890) and a more recent analysis of the legends surrounding Richard by Janet Nelson (1992). These in practice, however, represent only a small selection of the variety on offer. For example, the story of the captive Richard and his faithful minstrel Blondel inspired a poem by the young Charlotte Bronte (1833) and the lionhearted king was the chosen subject for the Newdigate competitions in 1828 and 1912, won respectively by Joseph Anstice of Christchurch and a Rhodes Scholar William Caswell

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

141

Greene. Another anonymous historical romance in the style of Scott, richly illustrated with woodcuts and engravings, was published in 1845 and Scott’s passing reference in St Ronan’s Well suggests that the siege of Acre, with Richard as the central character, may have attracted a number of other au­ thors, whose poems may never have been completed or published. Turning to drama, in addition to his epic poem Richard Coeur de Lion, Burges wrote a comedy, entitled The Crusaders, published in 1817 but never (and not surprisingly) performed. The plot concerns Ethelinde, daugh­ ter of the Earl of Clare, who is secretly married to the crusader Sir Albert de Mortimer. Her father, unaware of this, is keen to marry her to the pow­ erful Sir Reginald de Clifford, but she is saved by Albert’s return. He has won fame by saving Richard’s life, an honour which seems to have been claimed by many. The Baron von Poppindorf, a nouveau riche Jewish bro­ ker and comic character with a mock Germanic accent (and spelling), who buys a neighbouring estate and has his own designs on Ethelinde, provides a business perspective on the crusades: Ah these wars, these crusades to the Holy Lant! On my wort that Saladin has been the best friend I have. The Christians go fight with him for Cherusalem, and the Chews they pocket their monesh. I often make my little joke and say, Your varra humble savant, Mister Saladin, you make a me a varra rich man.

And in 1873 Henry Verlander, author of several historical plays, pro­ duced Richard Coeur de Lion, with scenes ranging from England to Sicily, Cyprus, Palestine, Germany and France and characters including Donald McSaunders, a poor brave Scottish knight and Patrick de Killarney, an Irish knight. Another anonymous historical tragedy in five acts dated 1861 followed Richard’s career from coronation to death and a similar timeframe was taken by Catherine Swanwick’s legendary drama published in 1880. More unusual was J. Dunbar Hylton’s The Sea King: A Tale o f the Crusade under Richard / o f England (1895), featuring sea nymphs and other marine exotica. In addition, the early 1900s were the time when Frederick Rolfe, Baron Corvo, was writing his novel Hubert’s Arthur, in collaboration with Harry Pirie-Gordon, although it was still in manuscript at the time of Rolfe’s death. Pirie-Gordon described the style as an enriched variant upon that o f the Itinerarium régis Ricardi and W illiam o f Tyre, influenced by Maurice Hewlett ( The Life and Death o f Richard Yea and Nay (1900)) and the plot, which bears little relation to actual events runs as follows:

Arthur, Duke o f Brittany, instead of being murdered by King John, escapes with the assistance of Hubert de Burgh and takes refuge among the crusaders in what was then left of the Holy Land. In spite of every obstacle he marries Yolande, the heiress o f the kingdom of Jerusalem (who really married the

142

THE NEW CRUSADERS

elderly John o f Brienn] and becomes King of Jerusalem in her right. He re­ covers Jerusalem by a coup de main from the Saracens.

In due course Arthur also regains the throne of England. In fact in the book, he tells the pope, ‘I will wear the crown of Hierusalem enclosed in the crown of England, so that it shall be secure from Saracens and similar trash.’ The popularity of Richard is further confirmed by bis appearance in works intended to satirise the romantic medievalism of the Young England move­ ment and others. For example, in his novel Maid Marian (1822), Thomas Love Peacock wrote: Richard Coeur de Lion made all England resound with preparations for the crusade, to the great delight of many zealous adventurers, who eagerly flocked under his banner in the hope of enriching themselves with Saracen spoil, which they called fighting the battles of God...Richaid the First of England, the arch crusader and anti jacobin by excellence, the very type, flower, cream, pink, symbol and mirror of all the holy Alliances that have ever existed on earth, excepting that he seasoned his superstition and love of conquest with a certain condiment of romantic generosity and chivalrous self devotion, with which his imitators in all other points have found it convenient to dispense.

Richard was mentioned again as England’s greatest hero and mirror of chiv­ alry in a discussion between Mr Chainmail and Captain Fitzchrome in Crotchet Castle (1831) and Chainmail proposed that he should follow the route travelled by Gerald of Wales and Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury in Wales, when the latter was preaching the Third Crusade. Peacock com­ mented, however, that he soon met a young lady and forgot both the Captain and Gerald. In bis analysis of the English Historical Novel, Fleischmann (1971) remarks that Peacock represented ’only the top layer of the fund of popular works that responded to the wide public interest in and amusement by the romance of the Middle Ages.’ A humorous reference to Richard the crusader also appears in a poem entitled ‘The Troubadour’ by Winthrop Mackworth Praed, who composed a number of comic historical ballads in the 1820s and 30s as a student at Eton and Cambridge and then as an MP: In sooth it was a glorious day For vassal and for lord, When Coeur de Lion had the sway In battle and at board. He was indeed a royal one, A Prince of Paladins; Hero o f triumph and of tun’ Of noisy fray and noisy fun. Broad shoulders and broad grins... And Saracens and liquor ran, W her’er he set his foot.... So fierce and funny in the ranks,

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

143

That Saladin the Soldai) said, When’er that madcap Richard led, Alla! he held his breath for dread, And burst his sides for laughing.

All rather different from the romantized image of the crusade hero and king. More unusually, Catherine Laura Johnstone published a poem ‘The Con­ quest of Constantinople by the crusaders’ (the Fourth Crusade) in 1898 and her choice of subject seems to have been deliberate, against the back­ ground of Italian emancipation and the campaign to end French/Austrian rule of Venice: Enthroned in state upon the azure sea, Venice the beautiful, and once the free, How low since those past happy days of yore, When oft thy valiant sons and vessels bore Thy dreaded flag triumphant through the wave, Defying all who dared thy arms to brave, Didst thou sink down! Beneath a stranger’s thrall Thy soul lay crushed; none mourned thy sudden fall, For that once honoured, feared and glorious name, Had long become a thing of scorn and shame.

There were also several poems about the crusades of Louis IX. In The Last Crusade, published in 1887, Alfred Hayes, a Birmingham teacher, wrote of the departure of the crusaders, the debate about the attack on Tunis, Louis’s death from fever and the resumption of the crusade by the Lord Edward. The following quotation illustrates the high romanticism of his language: Far as the eye could strain, As 4twere beyond the faint horizon line, Faded the lily winged fleet of France, Fraught with the flower of all her chivalry, Fraught with the purest saint, her noblest king, Fraught with the failing hope of Christendom. Behind them lay what most the earthly heart Holds dear; broad pastures, miles of sunny com, Silvery valleys with their bosomed slopes Clad in the russet garment of the grape. Quaint chateaux with their files of marshalled trees, Rich chambers eloquent with heraldry, The constant quiet joy of gentle wives, The careful hope of princely babes, and all The pride and art and luxury of life.

The French king was also the subject of a poem by Cecil Moore, which won the Newdigate Prize at Oxford in 1873. Moore later became a London clergyman and used bis poem, published in 1882, and Louis’s example,

144

THE NEW CRUSADERS

to exhort others to pursue a contem porary missionary crusade in A f­ rica: Now, as then, War with the Infidel; the pagan mail O f secret debt, or open hate, shall fail Before the spirit’s sword. Upon your brow Is stamped the silent witness of your vow. Not for the Holy Sepulchre contend, But for its holier occupant... And now is heard again. The tearful pleading, shall it be in vain.

Louis's Egyptian crusade also provided the background to Selma, a lengthy novel in rhyme by Alexander Ross of the Pacific Fur Company and the author of stories about the early settlers in North West America. Selma was a work of his youth and the Preface makes it clear that Ross was un­ certain about the reception which it might receive when published in 1839, some years after its composition. The eponymous Selma is a captive Mos­ lem girl, who is rescued by and subsequently falls in love with the crusader Count Albert. His rival, however, is the wicked Osman, who eventually captures the young couple and, thwarted of his bride by her conversion to Christianity, sentences both to death. Inevitably they are saved at the last minute and all ends happily. And the linked crusade of the Lord Edward inspired The Croisade or The Palmer's Pilgrimage, a metrical romance by Charles Kerr, published in 1821. References to lesser crusades in Europe or the Near East seem to have been few and far betw een. The A m erican poet H enry W adsw orth Longfellow, however, published a short poem on the Children’s Crusade of 1212 in bis collection In the Harbour (1882): Never since the world was made Such a wonderful crusade Started forth for Palestine ... Little thought the hermit, preaching, Holy wars to knight and baron, That the words dropped in bis teaching, His entreaty, his beseeching, Would be children’s hands be gleaned, And the staff on which be leaned Blosson like the rod of Aaron.

And Charles Robert Maturin, an Anglican priest, who came from a French family which had settled in Dublin after Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1683, produced a gothic novel entitled The Albigenses, which runs to some four volumes and nearly 1500 pages. Maturin also wrote a number of tragedies which were performed on the London stage

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

145

and several novels, of which the best known is Melmoth the Wanderer, published in 1820. Its theme is the sale of a soul to the devil in return for a prolonged life. In his Preface to The Albigenses, Maturin explained his choice of subject as follows: The splendid barbarism of the feudal age, with their wild superstitions and du­ bious Christianity, their knightly gallantry and baronial oppression, the native fierceness of the Gothic conqueror, mingled with the levity, bigotry and base­ ness of his Italian and Gallic slave, offer powerful materials to the painter of manners with the pen.

It was intended to be the first of three historical romances, illustrating European feelings and manners in ‘ancient times, in middle and in mod­ em ’ and the subject suited both M aturin’s interest in aspects o f religious fanaticism and his admiration for Scott’s historical novels. It proved, how­ ever, to be his last book and he died in the year o f publication, 1824. A copy presented to his mentor elicited the following response: Your very interesting volumes arrived safe and gave me high pleasure in the p eru sal... The characters are drawn with great force and spirit - a little exag­ gerated perhaps - but not more so than is pardonable when we look back upon ancient days and form our calculations of mortality upon the heroic scale.

The main characters are Bishop Fulk of Toulouse, Prince Lewis of France and Simon de Montfort, leading the crusading contingent; Count Raymond of Toulouse; the Lord of Courtenaye and his niece Isabelle; the knights Sir Paladour de Croix Sanglant and Sir Amirald and the beautiful young her­ etic Genevieve. History is adapted for literary purposes and effect and sometimes facts changed seemingly for no purpose. Thus Simon de Montfort dies at the siege of Tarascon rather than Toulouse. The basic plot, which takes place against the background of encounters between heretics and cru­ saders, concerns the romances between Paladour and Isabelle; Amirald and Genevieve. All works out well in the end, with Paladour not only reunited with Isabelle but also revealed as the long lost son of Count Raymond. In the meantime, however, the lovers endure fire, battle and captivity. There are also the standard gothic elements - ghostly creatures, sorcery, stifled cries at midnight, secret panels and sudden and unexplained disappear­ ances. Maturin even included a werewolf, apparently one o f the first lycanthropes in English fiction, who shared captivity in a haunted cham­ ber with Sir Paladour. In short, it is an unusual crusade novel. Charles Kingsley, rector of Eversley in Hampshire and Professor of His­ tory at Cambridge from 1860 to 1869, is now best known for his novel Westward Ho (1855). In 1848, however, he produced a dramatic poem en­ titled ‘The Saint’s Tragedy* about the life of St Elizabeth of Hungary, wife of the crusader Louis, Landgrave of Thuringia, who died in 1227 at Otranto. In his Introduction, Kingsley made clear that his theme was the two great

146

THE NEW CRUSADERS

mental struggles of the Middle Ages - the conflicts between innocence and prudery and the natural affections (in this case between husband and wife) and asceticism. Rather than her husband’s death, to Kingsley’s mind the real tragedy was Elizabeth’s retreat from the world and domination by her confessor Conrad of Marburg. Kingsley was against the powerful in­ fluence of the medieval church and wrote in one of his historical essays that the crusades bad ’failed in the object at which they aimed.’ In fact, paradoxically, their main legacy was to bring Moslem and Christian closer together. Nevertheless, he used some familiar romanticized language to describe the departure of the crusaders. As Louis and his wife part, there is a crusader chorus: The tomb o f God before us, Our fatherland behind, Our ships shall leap o’er billows steep, Before a charmed wind. Above our van great angels Shall fight along the sky; While martyrs pure and crowned saints To God for rescue cry.

There is a similar scene in the oratorio The Legend o f St Elizabeth by the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt (1865) and the Landgrave’s departure was also one of the subjects chosen for the set of murals painted by Moritz von Schwind at the Wartburg Castle, near Eisenach in Germany, the young cou­ ple’s home during their short married life. So much for literature, in its various forms. For many, however, the abid­ ing image of the crusades was more likely to have come from spectaculars performed at Astley’s amphitheatre, near Westminster Bridge in London, which could hold over two thousand spectators. In 1810, Astley put on a bippodrama entitled The Blood Red Knight, which opened on Easter Mon­ day and ran for over 170 consecutive performances, netting Astley and his fellow proprietors a profit of £18000. The story, which in practice tended simply to serve as background to staged battles and action, concerns the attempts of Sir Rowland, the Blood Red Knight, to seduce Isabella, the virtuous wife of bis brother, the crusader Alphonso. Just as Rowland seems to be about to succeed, Alphonso returns and rescues his wife He is then captured, but reappears and launches an assault on the castle. The ensuing battle occupies all of the second act and the stage directions for the final scene are as follows: Horse and foot are seen in action on the bridge. The castle being forced, the action becomes general on the stage, ramparts, water and bridge. Some of the guards are immersed in the water, surrounded by friends and foes. The castle is at length seen on fire in several places, while the dead and dying (both men and

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

147

horse), are seen confusedly mixed together. The Blood Red Knight has a furi­ ous combat with Alphonso, who is disarmed by him and at the moment the Blood Red Knight is about to cleave him down with his sword Isabella enters and seeing Alphonso’s danger she shoots Sir Rowland, who falls and expires. A most interesting picture is formed by Isabella, Alphonso, and the child, and the curtain falls amid the shouts of the victorious troops of Alphonso.

There were several revivals, the last of which seems to have been in 1830. In 1833, Astley’s mounted The Siege o f Jerusalem, involving an appear­ ance by S aladin’s w hite bull C oraccio, a grand A siatic B allet and Divertissement and the arrival of the French and Austrian fleets, against a background of the Third Crusade. The action also included an ‘animated illustration and living representation of Sir Walter Scott’s beautiful de­ scription of the equestrian and pedestrian encounter of Saladin and the Knight of the Leopard.’ In 1837, Astley’s offered The Lists o f Ashby or The Conquests o f Ivanhoe and in 1843 there was another new production based on the events of the Third Crusade, Richard and Saladin or The Crusaders o f Jerusalem, which featured a combat between the two main protagonists of the expedition. This scene was illustrated in the Illustrated London News in May 1843. There was also an equivalent of Astley’s in Paris, the Cirque Olympique. In March 1836 it staged Jérusalem délivrée, which was said to eclipse even the productions of the day at the Paris Opera. Based on Tasso, the second tableau of Act III represented the lists at Jerusalem: A magnificent procession of trumpeters, Soliman with eight knights and their squires, Aladin on horseback with his assorted wives in palaquins borne by eunuchs, and the horse drawn chariot of the enchantress Armide entered through the portico of Armide’s palace, and the infidels took their places to await the arrival o f the Christians. Announced by fanfares and preceded by heralds and squires, the eight mounted champions of Christendom and their leader then ap­ peared and took their places.

Batde then ensued and Soliman was defeated by a mysterious combatant, Renaud. Spectaculars apart, there are also examples of the use of the romanti­ cized crusade image in other European countries. In the previous chapter, I have referred to the influence of Scott and novels with a crusading theme by the Dutch novelist Jacob van Lennep and Italian writer Tommaso Grossi which drew upon Ivanhoe. A French example of the popular crusade novel is Madame Sophie Cottin’s Mathilde, published in 1805. There was a Lon­ don edition in the same year with an English translation, Matilda and Malek Adel the Saracen: a Crusade Romance in four volumes, in 1833 and at least twelve French editions. The story is set against the background o f the Third Crusade and the heroine M atilda, aged sixteen is the sister of Richard the Lionheart. As

148

THE NEW CRUSADERS

the novel opens, Matilda is in a convent waiting to take the veil, but before she renounces the world she decides to accompany her brother to the Holy Land. (The real Matilda was rather older and did not travel to the Holy Land with her brother.) On the journey to the East, M atilda becomes the intimate of Richard’s bride Berengaria and both are ship­ wrecked near Damietta and captured by Saladin’s brother Malek Adel. To cut a long story short, Malek Adel falls in love with Matilda. Con­ scious of her vow to enter a convent and that he is an infidel, she rejects him, but he persists and, after he has saved her life and agreed to be converted to Christianity, she accepts him as her ‘husband’. Nothing, however, is straightforward and there are numerous obstacles to their marriage, not least Malek’s rival in love, favoured by Richard, Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. In the end Guy and Malek are both fatally wounded in single combat. Malek dies in M atilda’s arms, having been baptised by the Archbishop of Tyre and is buried at the convent o f Mount Carmel. (The real Malek Adel of course outlived his brother.) M atilda remains behind in the Holy Land, takes the veil and spends her days vis­ iting and praying at her ‘husband’s’ tomb. In its time Mathilde was very popular and the colourful descriptions of characters and Egypt influenced French fashion. Lithographs of Mathilde and Malek Adel seem to have been widely available and their images were also popularized on a variety of household items. As will be discussed in a later chapter, Mathilde was the inspiration for a number of paintings and operas by European composers such as Sir Michael Costa and in 1827 Cap­ tain Longmore of the Royal Staff Corps produced a historical drama in five acts entitled Matilde or The Crusaders. Although Mathilde took considerable liberties with the facts and events o f the Third Crusade, Cottin knew the crusade historian Michaud, whose firm published several of her books. And in her study of Cottin's works, Laura Sykes (1949) has published thirty nine letters exchanged by Michaud and Cottin between 1802 and 1807. As the Preface to the first edition of Mathilde, Michaud wrote a history of the first three crusades which pre­ ceded and seems to have acted as an inspiration for his later more comprehensive study of the crusading movement. The 1818 edition of Cottin’s works also included a Tableau historique des croisades, highlight­ ing the role of France in these expeditions, with extracts from the works of Joinville and Villehardouin. In researching his Preface, Michaud consulted a number of earlier crusade histories and it is possible that Cottin similarly did her historical homework. Michaud also, however, recommended that she should read Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata ‘which is full of touching scenes of love.’ In a later chapter on music, I will mention a number of plays by Euro­ pean writers such as Ignaz Castelli and August von Kotzebue, which, albeit

THE CRUSADES IN LITERATURE

149

loosely and with little respect for the historical facts, drew their plots from the crusades and subsequently were adapted as librettos of operas. The most famous German crusade play, however, is probably Nathan der Weise, written in 1778 by Gottfried Ephraim Lessing, and first performed in Ber­ lin in 1783. It remained popular throughout the nineteenth century and is relevant here because there were several English translations in the 1860s. The main events concern a young Templar who is captured and released by Saladin. He in turn rescues a young Jewess Recba and religious differ­ ences notwithstanding seeks her hand. The wise tolerance of Nathan her . father wins him Saladin’s favour and, after various inevitable twists and turns, it is discovered that the Templar and Recha are in fact brother and sister, the children of Saladin’s deceased brother and his Christian wife. In summary, one can therefore find examples of the use of the crusade image in English prose and poetry throughout the nineteenth century. It is not surprising that this theme was taken up by popular Romantic poets, the Young England movement and the Pre Raphaelites. Crusade poems by lesser (and sometimes anonymous) writers, however, suggest that the image had a wider currency and popularity. The standard formulae seem to have been employed, from the absent and returning crusader to the romanticized cru­ sade hero, fictional or historically based, in particular Richard I and, as ever, Tasso and Scott were the key sources of imagery and influence. There are also parallels in other European countries such as France, Germany, Italy and Holland.

CHAPTER NINE

Popular historical fiction and tales for children In addition to the standard histories, the crusades proved a popular subject for children’s writers with accounts of expeditions specifically designed for the younger reader and intended to convey a moral message of heroic deeds in a holy war. In 1860, John G. Edgar, author of The Boyhood o f Great Men; Footprints o f Great Men and Heroes o f England and a regular contributor to Beeton’s Boys Own Magazine, published The Crusades and the Crusaders or Stories o f the Struggle fo r the Holy Sepulchre. In the Preface, be noted the piety and chivalry of the Christian warriors and la­ mented that the crusades: have since seldom - save in the case of men too sceptical to sympathise, or too stupid to comprehend - failed to excite admiration and curiosity. My object in this book for boys is to give an idea of the heroes who, animated by religion and heroism, took part in the battles, the sieges, the marvellous enterprises of valour and despair, which make up the histories of these great adventures known as the crusades.

Predictably, he highlighted the role of the national crusade hero: To that period we can, in a national point of view, look back with pride, for, while the Germans can point to Frederick Barbarossa, and Frenchmen to Godfrey of Bouillon, Philip Augustus and Saint Louis, as prominent in the world’s de­ bate, Englishmen can discern among the armed throng, far away indeed but still distinct in the distance, Richard Coeur de Lion, the feudal king par excellence, William Longsword, the flower of Anglo Norman nobles and our fust Edward, the greatest of those mighty monarchs, strong in battle and wise in council, who for more than three hundred years were the pride of England and the terror of England’s foes.

Edgar hoped that the example of these gallant deeds would exercise a whole­ some influence on the minds of youthful readers and his works would prob­ ably have been presented as school prizes. A similar motive was the inspiration for Barbara Hutton’s Heroes o f the Crusades. My copy, purchased in a secondhand bookshop, was awarded as a school prize in 1905 to the under 10 class of Woodford House School in Birchington, presumably as edification for the young reader and to set an example of past noble and heroic deeds. In her Preface, Hutton wrote:

POPULAR HISTORICAL FICTION AND TALES FOR CHILDREN

151

The dangers that the crusaders went through, the hardships they endured, may teach us a lesson, that to be heroic we must endure; and though many a century has passed away since the Crusades, we may find much to imitate in the story of those warriors of old who gave up, often from genuine motives, lands and home to become crusaders and to fight for the Holy Land.

Her heroes were Peter the Hermit, Godfrey of Bouillon (who merits two chapters), Louis VII of France, St Bernard of Clarivaux, Saladin and, of course, Richard the Lionheart. Hutton was not, however, a competely un­ critical observer. For example, she saw Peter the Hermit as an example of the dangers of fanaticism and bemoaned the plunder and carnage at Antioch. Like Scott, who portrayed Saladin in The Talisman as the noble heathen, on occasion superior to his Christian counterparts, Hutton wrote: Saladin might be called the hero of the Third Crusade, as Godfrey of Bouillon was of the First. He was zealous as a Mussulman, and hated the Christians, but when they were suppliants and at his mercy, he was never cruel or re­ vengeful. He had certainly a mind above and beyond the age he lived in, and never consulted magicians or astrologers, but was fond of religious reading and study.

As a further example of Moslem chivalry, Hutton told a story of a family in Burgundy called the Saladins d’Anglure; their name a reminder of the gen­ erosity of Saladin, who released a prisoner to return to his wife and family, on condition that every eldest son be named Saladin and the family bore the crescent as well as the cross in its arms. And Hutton again praised the character and prowess of Saladin in her Tales o f the Saracens (1871), in which she traced the history of key Moslem rulers from Mohammed to the fall of Granada in 1492. The continuity of the crusading tradition was the theme picked up in A Plain and Short History o f England written by George Davys, principal master to the young Princess Victoria from 1827 until her succession to the throne in 1837 and subsequently Bishop of Peterborough. Published in 1871, it took the form of letters to his son, with a set of questions at the end of each letter and Davys reflected: When I think of the crusades, I can never help admiring the zeal and devotion of those warriors, who went forth in the cause of the Christian religion. At the same time, I think that they were quite mistaken in their notions of religion, in expecting to propagate the mild spirit of the Christian faith by means of war and bloodshed. Still, however, these great soldiers showed a zeal and earnestness in the cause of the Gospel, which may well make us ashamed of our carelessness and indifference in the same cause. The warriors who went on these crusades wore a red cross on their right shoul­ der and you see that many noblemen and gentlemen who are descended from those ancient soldiers, have, at this day, red crosses on their coats of arms. I do not expect that they will now draw their swords, as their forefathers did, in the

152

THE NEW CRUSADERS

cause o f the Gospel; but many of them are encouraging the knowledge of it by means much more likely to succeed, and much more likely to be favoured with the divine blessing.

In The Wars o f the Cross or The History o f the Crusades, published in 1883, William Davenport Adams, author of a book of anecdotes and exam­ ples for youth, similarly recalled the honour and self sacrifice of the cru­ saders, as well as their less attractive characteristics. And Henry Frith, a prolific author of stirring tales, explained why he believed the crusades and crusaders to be a worthy subject for his young readers in his In the Brave Days o f Old: The Story o f the Crusades published in 1886: In this volume the ever-interesting story of the crusades has been told with as much lightness and as much adventurous detail as is deemed consistent with such a purely historical subject While the writer cannot claim any more credit than is due to his re-arrangement of material in as attractive form as possible, he trusts his method o f dealing with the adventurous and chivalric incidents which marked the period of the crusades will find favour in the eyes of the young people for whose amusement - it may be instruction - he has catered. In the deeds of the leaders of the chivalrous hosts who left home to gain the Holy City there is much to admire. The self-devotion which many exhibited, the piety of others, and the gallant bearing of all, may still teach us something, and exercise an ennobling influence on our minds even now.

Nevertheless be was sceptical about the long term results of the crusades and classed them amongst the first of many popular and fanatical movements. The Crusaders - A Story o f the War fo r the Holy Sepulchre published in 1905 by the Revd Alfred John Church provides an example from the early part o f this century. Church, a former Professor of Latin at University Col­ lege, London, was the author of a range of popular children's histories, from Stories o f Homer, Virgil and Livy to Heroes o f Chivalry and Romance. In his Preface to The Crusaders, he explained that it was not his intention to write a continuous narrative of the expeditions, but rather to pick out key events, using a linking character, in this case a wandering Jew. He devoted ten chapters to the First Crusade; twelve to Saladin and the Third Crusade and nine to the expeditions of Louis IX. There were also illustra­ tions of the main characters and events. I have discussed earlier the tremendous popularity of Kenelm Digby's Broad Stone o f Honour and there were a number of Boy's Books o f Chiv­ alry, which not only described the duties and ceremonies of knighthood but also referred to the crusades and the Military Orders. The most famous is perhaps Sir Henry Newbolt’s Book o f the Happy Warrior published in 1917, which traced the evolution and principles of chivalry from the Mid­ dle Ages to the ethos and culture of the Public School and highlighted the crusading kings Richard the Lionheart and Saint Louis as examples for the young readers to emulate.

POPULAR HISTORICAL FICTION AND TALES FOR CHILDREN

153

Another work by Hammond Hall (1916) sought to give a more balanced picture of the crusading movement: The histoiy o f the remarkable movement which within the space of 200 years hurled eight or nine European armies into the Holy Land is not entirely pleasant reading. The aims of the prelates who inspired the crusades and the motives and conduct o f the military leaders who endeavoured to execute them are too often controlled by the desire for aggrandisement or plunder. But though it be true, as one historian has remarked, that the crusaders strewed the road to Jerusalem with fragments of the Ten Commandments, it is equally true that among the hordes o f greedy and cruel men who disgraced the sacred symbol which they bore were many who were inspired by the loftiest motives and who, when due allowance is made for the darkness of the times in which they lived, stand out as stars of chivalry. Two such stars were Godfrey of Bouillon and Tancred, the Christian heroes of the First Crusade.

Of the other crusades until 1270, the author deemed only the Third worth mention 'because its chief heroes were a valiant English king and a Saracen as brave as he, and not less chivalrous.’ Again, my copy was given as a school prize for proficiency in religious knowledge. The crusades also seem to have been one of the standard subjects in chil­ dren’s and popular historical fiction, serving as a backcloth for individual tales of courage and heroism. The main bibliographies of nineteenth cen­ tury historical fiction list more than thirty titles and most of the popular series seem to have featured a crusade tale, with illustrations providing dramatic and probably lasting images of the crusades and crusaders. Some stories were written by well-known authors such as Henty and Yonge whose names are still familiar today. By contrast, very little is known about some of the other authors and their books are difficult to find even in the major reference libraries.. Chronologically, there was at least one children’s novel for each of the main crusade expeditions to the East up to 1270. Although each author took a slightly different approach, the following examples are, I believe, representative of the way in which the events of the crusades were de­ scribed to young readers in this period. The First Crusade was the subject of Florine, Princess o f Burgundy by William Bernard Maccabe, published in Dublin in 1860. Maccabe’s aim was to provide instructive literature for the younger members of the catho­ lic community and he focussed on the events surrounding the siege and capture of Antioch, highlighting the role of Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy. The Florine of the title was betrothed to the crusader Swein o f Denmark and the story of their death in Asia minor was described in Albert of Aachen’s Historia Hierosolymitana and repeated and popularised by Tasso. The required happy ending comes with the betrothal of Amine, daughter of Firuz, who handed over one of the towers of the city to the crusaders, to the Irish knight Philip of Brefney.

154

THE NEW CRUSADERS

In God Wills It, published in 1901, William Stearns Davis explained that he had chosen the subject because Scott’s Count Robert o f Paris was the only other novel dealing with these important events and in bis Preface, he described the First Crusade rather unusually as ’the sacrifice of France for the sins of the Dark Ages.’ The story, which includes even more historical coincidences than usual, opens with the scene at the deathbed o f Pope Gregory VII in 1085. Amongst those present are the future Pope Urban n , Godfrey of Bouillon and a young boy Richard Longsword, the son of a Norman lord in Sicily. The pope’s dying words exhort Urban and Godfrey to launch a crusade and in due course Richard also takes the cross. He and bis young wife Mary have an eventful crusade, involving periods of Mos­ lem captivity, but they are eventually reunited after the capture of Jerusa­ lem. To provide historical continuity, before his departure for the East, Richard meets a young Burgundian, later Bernard of Clairvaux and of course the preacher of the Second Crusade. F. Marion Crawford, author of a number of historical novels, produced a romance of the Second Crusade, entitled Via Crucis, published in Novem­ ber 1899 and in its third printing by that December. It tells the story of Gilbert Warde, whose great grandfather had been on the First Crusade and whose maternal grandfather had gone on pilgrimage to the Holy Land and never returned. By various twists of fate, Gilbert finds himself a member of Louis VII’s contingent and indeed a favourite of the then French Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. He duly performs various heroic feats, including saving the king’s life and, to the queen’s chagrin, is reunited with his child­ hood sweetheart. Gilbert’s family crusading tradition enabled Crawford to draw a familiar contrast between the idealism of the First Crusade and its successor and foreshadow the heavy loss of life and ultimate failure of the Second Crusade: So all that great and noble host went out in state (from Constantinople), chant­ ing the lofty hymn that rang with tunes of victory, while among cypress groves on far Asian hillsides the ravens waited for the coming feast of Christian flesh and the circling kite scanned the broad earth and dancing water for the living things that were to feed him full to death.

The descriptions of Eleanor and her armed female companions are also reminiscent of Strickland’s Lives o f the Queens, produced, as noted ear­ lier, in an abridged edition for schools in 1867. In 1879, Emily Holt, an author who wrote principally for young girls, published Lady Sybil's Choice, a much adapted story of Guy of Lusignan and Sybil of Jerusalem, with Guy’s invented half-sister Elaine as narrator. Taking a child’s perspective, it outlines the history of the Latin Kingdom against the background of the advance of Saladin. Thus Elaine fears the wicked and idolatrous Saracens:

POPULAR HISTORICAL FICTION AND TALES FOR CHILDREN

155

I knew before that they worship idols and deal in the black art; but it seems that Sal ad in, when he marches, makes known his approach by a dreadful machine produced by means of magic, which roars loud«’ than a lion, and strikes tenor into every Christian ear that is so unhappy as to be within hearing. This is, of course, by the machinations of the Devil, since it is impossible that any true catholic could be frightened of a Saracen otherwise.

The machine in question is in fact a drum. The main focus amongst British authors, however, was inevitably the Third Crusade and the entourage of Richard I. As the following examples illustrate, there seems to have been a standard formula, involving a young squire, who rises to prominence and often saves the king’s life. George Alfred Henty, a war correspondent who wrote some eighty books or col­ lections of stories, with sales of 25 million copies by 1914, published his crusade tale, Winning His Spurs, in 1882. It tells the story of Cuthbert, who goes on crusade in the entourage of Walter, Earl of Evesham; is knighted as a reward for saving the king’s life in battle; with the help of the minstrel Blondel rescues the imprisoned Richard and ultimately marries the Earl’s daughter and himself succeeds to the title. Before he leaves for the Holy Land, Henty gives Cuthbert and thus his readers a short history lesson on the crusades, through the mouth of Father Francis. In this he highlights the strengths and weaknesses of previous expeditions and notes that not all crusaders were motivated by strong religious feeling. For many, including Cuthbert, the excitement of war and adventure and the attraction o f travel to new lands is a key motive. When, however, Father Francis preaches the cross at Evesham, he uses the language o f medieval crusade sermons, urging his audience to avenge the capture of the Holy Sepulchre by the infidel: He did not attempt to bide from those who stood around that the task to be undertaken was one of grievous peril and trial. But be spoke of the grand nature of the works, of the humiliation to Christians of the desecration of the shrines and of the glory which awaited those who joined the crusade, whether they lived or died in the Holy L and... Falling upon their knees, the crowd begged of him to give them the sign of the cross, and to bestow his blessing upon their swords, and upon their efforts.

In a conversation between Cuthbert and a Moslem woman in Jerusalem, there is, however, also the recognition that Jerusalem is a holy city for both Christians and Moslems and criticism of the crusaders’ behaviour from Saladin. The heroes of F. Bayford Harrison’s Brothers in Arms, published in 1884, are the brothers Eric and Robert, stepsons of John, saddler to Sir Arthur d’Albiac. They insist upon accompanying their father on the Third Cru­ sade and Eric declares, in the presence of Richard I, T will get a little sword and cut off the heads of all the Turk boys, and then they will never

156

THE NEW CRUSADERS

grow up into Turk soldiers.’ After tbe standard trials and tribulations, they return to England, but more adventures await them. Eric is revealed to be the son of a Scottish lord and Robert, knighted by King Richard, marries the daughter of Sir Arthur. Harrison explained in his Preface that he had chosen the crusades as his subject because, ‘finding them so curious and interesting, I thought that I might present them to young readers in a popu­ lar narrative form, with the story of two lads as the element of fiction amid a great deal of history.’ In For Cross or Crescent (1897) by Gordon Stables, a regular contribu­ tor to Boy’s Own Paper and former naval surgeon, the main character is young Ethelred, Lord Lovegrace, whose father bad been a Knight Templar, and Henfrid de Castellan and Ralph of Kingston, pages in the service of Sir Wakelin de Ferrars, are the key figures in Gertrude Hollis’s Between Two Crusades, published by the SPCK in 1908. Bryan Ward, the author o f Sir Geoffrey de Skeffington or A Romance o f the Crusades (1896) ex­ plained his choice of subject in his dedicatory epistle to a former Leices­ tershire MP: Whilst a romance founded upon historical facts may illustrate in glowing col­ ours many a stirring incident in the lives of those who in ages long gone by have helped to make England great, and to raise her name high amongst the nations of the earth, it may also serve to remind us that there is something far nobler to aim at than mere material prosperity, which is, a sturdy performance of duty in tbe sight of God without regard to the favour of man.

His chosen hero is a young Saxon franklin, who captures a Saracen who turns out to be Saladin. Knighted for valour in the battle for Acre, Sir Geoffrey visits Jerusalem and the Holy Places under Saladin’s protection and then returns home to marry his lady. Peter Donne, an apprentice to a clothier in Lincoln and the principal char­ acter in Paul Cieswick’s With Richard the Fearless: A Tale o f the Red Cru­ sade (1904), has a particularly eventful crusading career. Knighted for his services to the king’s sister Joan, he is the first crusader to enter Acre, cap­ tures Saladin and presents his broken scimitar to Richard and finally, with the help of Blondel, frees his king from captivity. In an unusual twist, Peter, whose likeness to the king has already attracted some attention, proves to be the son of his secret marriage with Alice of Brittany. Another variation on the Third Crusade theme is Rider Haggard’s The Brethren (1904), which was inspired by a visit to the battlefield of Hattin. Its rather curious plot concerns Rosamond, allegedly the daughter o f Saladin’s sister and an English knight. Her uncle attempts to persuade her to settle in the East, but she is protected by two English brothers, Godwin and Wulf, from a long line of crusaders. Robert Irwin has commented, in a recent article on Saladin and historiography, that Haggard drew his Saracens

POPULAR HISTORICAL FICTION AND TALES FOR CHILDREN

157

rather like the Zulus of his other novels and there is a clear flavour of Henty and the rescue of damsels in distress. Mary Rowles Jarvis’s Dick Uonheart (1909) has a more contemporary theme. Her hero, an orphan, inspired by tales of Richard the Lionheart, sets out for an industrial city many miles away and the home of his uncle, where, after many trials and tribulations, he finds sanctuary and happiness. In addition, there were of course school editions and dramatized versions o f Scott’s Ivanhoe and The Talisman and adaptations of Scott’s stories by lesser authors. For example, the story of Ivanhoe seems to have inspired the wonderfully named The Crusader or The Witch o f Finchley, published as a free supplement to Work Girls o f London in 1865. Its characters in­ clude a beautiful Jewess, her moneylender father, a wicked baron, Sir Brian de Bracy, who has recently returned from the crusades and the just and noble King Richard. And Richard Coeur de Lion (1845), described as an historical romance, tells the story of Alena, daughter of the Saxon Oswald, the crusader (and son of a Norman member of the First Crusade) Eustace de Vere, the Jewess Rachael (daughter of Eleazar) and Ranulf de Bracy, the Knight Templar. From the thirteenth century, the bibliographies list several stories based on the events of the Fourth Crusade, in which Britain played little part and there were at least six tales of the Children’s Crusade. For example, The Young Crusader: a Catholic Tale, published anonymously in 1857, tells the story of the Kerugal family in Brittany. Lord Englebert has been absent on crusade for six years and, inspired by a pilgrim knight, his sons Enguerrand and Isolin decide to follow him to the East. Like many of the participants in the Children’s Crusade, they are captured and sold into slavery. In Egypt they discover that their father has undergone a similar fate. All, however, ends happily and they return to France to be reunited with their mother/wife. There were several other stories of young crusaders who endured Moslem captiv­ ity and eventually returned to the West, including The Children’s Crusade: a Story o f Adventure by Evelyn Everett Green, whose works were published by the Religious Tract Society and SPCK and often given as Sunday School prizes. Rather more unusually, William Everard’s Sir Walter’s Ward, pub­ lished in 1888, concerns Dodo of Hohenburg, son of a crusader and member of Frederick U’s crusade, who accompanies his lord to the Holy Land and plays a part in accomplishing the treaty with the Sultan. The Sir Walter of the title is the minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide. Louis IX’s exploits were the subject of another story by Gertrude Hollis, A Slave o f the Saracens: A Tale o f the Seventh Crusade (1907), in which the history of the Egyptian expedition is interwoven with the tale of Zanekin (Jean) de Vendome’s search for his brother Raymond, who has been sold into Moslem slavery. And John Mason Neale, the famous nine­ teenth century author and divine, based one of his Stories o f the Cru-

158

THE NEW CRUSADERS

sades, published in 1846, on Joinville. The latter is joined on crusade by Everard de Blechingley, from N eale’s local town Reigate in Surrey. Everard is betrothed to Joinville’s daughter Isabelle and after many trials and tribulations they are reunited and all ends happily. The Lord Edward’s (later Edward I’s) expedition also attracted several authors, including Charlotte M. Yonge. By contrast, the later crusades and expeditions against heretics and Christian lay powers in Europe seem to have provoked little interest. There is, however, a rather curious story, The Monk's Revenge by Samuel Spring (1847), set against the background of the crusade against Varna in the 1440s. Yonge was a very significant figure in children’s literature in this period. The daughter of an army officer, who spent all her life in the Hampshire vil­ lage of Otterboume and started reading Scott at the age of ten, she produced more than 150 books, ranging from her most famous novel The HeirofRedclyffle (1853), to stories for children, religious works and popular histories. She also edited a magazine for young girls entitled The Monthly Packet, which again was intended to show examples ‘both good and evil of historical persons, and may tell you the workings of God’s providence both here and in other lands.’ In a letter, Yonge wrote of her interest in historical writing: I believe that to look into real life minutely is the best school for one’s own mind and for fiction. If I write nothing but fiction for some time 1 begin to get stupid and to feel rather as if it had been a long meal of sweets; then history is a rest, for research and narration brings a different part of the mind into play.

Her crusade tale, The Prince and the Page, was first published in 1865 and reprinted on numerous occasions in the latter part of the century. The page hero is Richard de Montfort, son of Simon de Montfort, who was defeated by Edward I at the battle of Evesham. It is historical fact that Simon had a son called Richard, but in her Preface Yonge admitted that she alone was responsible for his role on the crusade. She not only retold the familiar story of the attempted poisoning of Edward at Acre, but also described a second attempt on his life by another Montfort son Simon. Richard inter­ venes and saves his lord’s life, but at the expense of his own. Poisoned by his brother’s dagger, he dies in Edward’s arms and is buried in Acre. In her Preface, Yonge expressed the hope that her tale would: fix young people’s interest and attention on the scenes it treats of, and to vivify the characters it describes; and if this sketch at all tends to prepare young peo­ ple’s minds to look with sympathy and appreciation on any of the great charac­ ters o f our early annals, it will have done at least one work.

The crusades and Military Orders also featured in a number of Yonge’s other works, both histories and novels, for example Landmarks o f History (1853), which first appeared in The Monthly Packet', The History o f France

POPULAR HISTORICAL FICTION AND TALES FOR CHILDREN

159

(1881) and A Book o f Golden Deeds (1885). She also included extracts from other general and specific crusade histories such as Dean Millman’s History o f Latin Christianity and G. P. R. Jam es's Richard Coeur de Lion in her Historical Selections. Yonge did not really do anything more in these than narrate the main events of the expeditions, but in Landmarks she lamented that by the mid thirteenth century ‘men thought but little of the Holy City compared with their own ambitious plans.’ St Louis’s sec­ ond expedition, however, proved that ‘beneath the crosses of the last cru­ sade were hearts as pure and true as those of the first king of Jerusalem and of Tancred, the first of its warriors.’ The way in which stories of the crusades seem to have captured the popular imagination is illustrated in two of Yonge’s novels, Abbeychurch or Self Control and Self Conceit (1844) and Magnum Bonum or Mother Carey's Brood (1879). In the former, one of the central characters, Anne Merton, is compiling a book of true knights; the characters ‘who come up to my notion of perfect chivalry or rather of Christian perfection’ and is described by her brother as a ‘devotee of crusading’. And in Magnum Bonum , the two children Armine and Barbara create their own imaginary story of the defence of Jotapata by a crusading family: which went on from generation to generation with unabated eneigy, though they were apt to be reduced to two young children who held out their fortress against frightful odds of Saracens, and sometimes conquered and sometimes converted their enemies. Nobody but themselves were fully kept au courant with this wonderful siege, which had hitherto been recorded in interlined copy­ books or little paper books pasted together and very remarkably illustrated.

This particular epic died a natural death during the winter spent by the authors in Egypt and Palestine, but Barbara subsequently composes a poem on the death of Saint Louis and a fancy dress ball takes place in a pavilion modelled on Armida’s garden from Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata. Their mother, the heroine of the story, also seems to have been brought up on Tasso. The sense of crusading more generally as a noble action is the theme of Hubert's Crusade, published by SPCK in 1864. When Hubert and bis sis­ ter go to stay with their cousins, he recounts the story of the crusades. They decide to launch their own crusade, the enemies being Self, Sulks, Passion and Heedlessness. God is the captain of this crusade and his sol­ diers only do battle on his orders. In What Katy Did, published in 1872 by the American authoress Susan Coolidge, the eponymous heroine declares T mean to do something g ran d ... perhaps ... I’ll head a crusade and ride a white horse with armour and a helmet on my head and carry a sacred flag.’ As a footnote, the Victorian boy would undoubtedly have included among his soldiers Richard the Lionheart and a band of crusaders and, although I have not been able to confirm this, I have been told that there was a game in the nineteenth century entitled Saracens and Crusaders.

160

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Children's histories and works of fiction for young readers therefore pro­ vided yet another vehicle for the image and exemplar of the crusade ances­ tor and hero, not only through the written word but also with numerous illustrations and engravings of figures such as Saladin and Richard the Lionbeart. Predictably the most popular subject for British writers was the Third Crusade and authors created a wide variety of young heroes, many of whom laid claim to having saved the king’s life. A few of these stories by writers such as Henty and Haggard crossed the boundaries between ju ­ venile and adult fiction and would therefore have reached an even wider audience

CHAPTER TEN

Art and the crusades In the nineteenth century, art was becoming more popular, with annual exhibitions in London such as the Summer Exhibition at the Royal Acad­ emy (1769 onwards); British Institution (1806 onwards) and Society of British Artists (1824 onwards), which attracted large audiences and were replicated in a number of regional towns and cities. By the 1880s, there were about 350,000 visitors a year to the Summer Exhibition, and the Man­ chester Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857 drew over a million during a six month period. This was also the period when museums and galleries were being built in Birmingham, Leeds and other major British towns and cities, under the patronage of the leading industrialists of the day such as the brewer Walker of Liverpool. It was, however, not only a question o f seeing works of art face to face. There was in parallel a development of reproduc­ tive techniques such as lithographs and images of paintings thereby reached a much wider audience. One vehicle for this was The Illustrated London News, which published exhibition notices and illustrations. Started in 1842, it was selling 250,000 copies by 1852. As has already been noted in the context of Scott’s novels and popular histories, one has also to take into account book illustrations. In the pro­ spectus for the illustrated edition of Hume’s History o f England, Thomas Bowyer wrote that the aim of the illustrations was ’to rouse the passions, to fire the mind with emulation of heroic deeds, or to inspire it with de­ testation of criminal actions.’ And the 1860 Sale Catalogue of George Baxter had one hundred engraved steel plates and listed in all 100,000 items. Lord Brougham maintained that Baxter’s prints bad done more than anything else to ’make the great mass of people fond of good pic­ tures and familiar with them.’ And in his study of Victorian Painting, Julian Treuherz comments that ‘many famous events were fixed into the national consciousness by painted reconstructions, later reproduced in encyclopaedias and school textbooks until the images took on lives of their own.’ Roy Strong analysed the development of Victorian history painting in his book And When Did You Last see Your Father, published in 1978, under three headings: Gothick Picturesque, Artist Antiquarian and Intimate Ro­ mantic. As a benchmark, he took the number of paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy on historical themes. In the 1820s, the average was six per annum; in the 1840s, 1850s and 1860s between fifteen and twenty and then by the 1880s back to six per year. Strong explained the beginnings of the

162

THE NEW CRUSADERS

movement amongst artists such as David Wilkie, whose main work lay in other genres, through to those such as Benjamin West for whom history painting was a major proportion of their opus and then ultimately the con­ tinuation of a tradition which had lost its vitality. In parallel with this interest in history and particularly the Middle Ages, the nineteenth century also saw considerable interest in the Near East amongst European artists. One could cite numerous examples of scenes from middle eastern life, the sukh, the odalisque and the harem, by artists such as John Frederick Lewis; the landscape o f desert and deep blue sky by Edward Lear; and sites and buildings associated with the Bible by William Holman Hunt. There are also stories of intrepid painters venturing into unknown territory. For example, Hunt reportedly sat by the Dead Sea with a paint brush in his right hand and a loaded gun in the other, to ward off unruly Bedouins. There were specialist collectors such as the Marquess of Hertford, the British envoy to Constantinople whose collection can now be seen in the Wallace Collection in London and in 1893 a Society of French Orientalist Painters was established, with an annual salon in 1894. One contemporary commented: At no time since the crusades has the Orient been so often visited as today, nor has it ever aroused so much interest. It is no longer the pious pilgrims of the Middle Ages, with staff and sword in hand, to kneel on the ground consecrated by the miracles of Christ or to fight against the in fid el... There are legions of artists, of the curious, who wish to see the vast expanses of azure, these golden sands, these horizons lit by the blistering sun.

As an artistic subject, the crusades had the advantage of combining the exoticism of the east with the romantic appeal of the age of chivalry and, as has already been discussed, travellers saw the crusading movement as another aspect of the multi-faceted history of the Near and Middle East. One artist who certainly seems to have been conscious of the crusades as he journeyed through the Holy Land and Egypt was David Roberts, whose sketches were extremely popular during this period. In his Journal for November 1838, he wrote ‘long before the moon rose, we had our sails set to the light evening breeze and I sat till late on deck reading the history o f the Crusades’ and at Acre he commented ‘sitting in my tent opposite the once celebrated St Jean d ’Acre and who knows but on the same spot Coeur de Lion may have occupied under similar circumstances.’ As David Altick has pointed out, only a very small proportion of the works produced in the nineteenth century are readily identifiable today; in other words can be seen in public galleries and museums or whose wherea­ bouts in private collections are known. In considering the treatment of the crusade theme by artists in nineteenth century Britain, we are, however, fortunate to have lists of the works exhibited at the Royal Academy, Brit­

ART AND THE CRUSADES

163

ish Institution and Royal Scottish Academy and from these and other sources, it is possible to draw some general conclusions about the use of crusade imagery and most popular themes. Looking through the list of pictures exhibited at the Royal Academy be­ tween 1769 and 1904, there are about seventy with some form of crusade subject. This is a tiny proportion of the total number (the list runs to some eight large volumes) and perhaps not very significant, given the scale of the crusading movement and length of time involved, if one compares this figure with for example the twenty paintings of Edward III and the Black Prince and fifty four on Anglo Saxon themes. The breakdown of subjects is, however, interesting. There are for example seven pictures of episodes from the Third Crusade, including Richard I returning from Palestine and Richard Vs treatment o f Isaac, Prince o f Cyprus (1791) by Thomas Stotbard, the dominant painter and illustrator of medieval subjects in this period and Abraham Cooper’s Richard I called Coeur de Lion at the Battle ofAscalon in the act o f unhorsing Saladin (1828) and Richard I reviewing the crusad­ ers in Palestine (1840). There was even a study of Saladin by the sculptor George Bumard (1858). The First Crusade seems to have been less popu­ lar, with only two paintings of Peter the Hermit (James Archer 1897 and W. H. Furse 1845). Otherwise the expedition was depicted in the Tasso version. And the only Second Crusade scene is James Archer’s St Bernard preaching at Vezelay (1897). But then neither expedition could really serve to evoke the glories of British history. The focus on an individual is also characteristic and has already been discussed in the context of crusading ancestor and national hero. A similar pattern emerges from the works exhibited at the British Institu­ tion in London from its foundation in 1806 until 1867. There were, for example, depictions of The Battle ofAscalon on the Third Crusade by Henry Courtney Slous (1844) and Abraham Cooper (1829) and more unusually, The Massacre o f Beziers from the Albigensian Crusade by J. S. Brook (1853). And amongst the works exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy was Robert Caunter’s Richard I on his way to the crusades, approaching Messina with his fleet (1855). The majority of woiks with a crusade theme which appear in the Royal Academy and British Institution lists are, however, scenes from Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata and the novels of Scott and the same applies to the Scottish Academy. The artistic representation of Scott’s crusade novels has already been considered in a previous chapter. Turning to Tasso, Benjamin West, who succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as President of the Academy and from 1772 onwards described himself as Historical Painter to King George III, produced five paintings of scenes from Gerusalemme Liberata and the events and characters depicted in the poem would have been familiar from paintings in country houses and private collections by

164

THE NEW CRUSADERS

other seventeenth and eighteenth century artists. An example from the Acad­ emy list is Frederick Richard Pickersgill’s Rinaldo destroying the Myrtle in the Enchanted Forest, which was exhibited in 1851. Many o f the Eng­ lish translations of Tasso available to the nineteenth century reader would also have included engravings of scenes from the poem by contemporary artists. Gerusalemme Liberata was also a popular subject for other European painters. For example, in the 1820s, the Marchese Carlo Massimo, head of one of Rome’s oldest families and a notable benefactor of the arts, com­ missioned several members of the group of German artists known as the Nazarenes to decorate bis garden house at the Casino Massimo in Rome with frescoes illustrating the works of Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto and Tasso. It was recognised as a significant commission at the time and referred to in letters and newspaper reports. Friedrich Overbeck began work on The Preparation fo r the Siege o f Jerusalem from Tasso, which was intended to face a parallel work on the liberation of the Holy City and to be comple­ mented by other scenes from the poem, such as Erminia with the Shepherds, on the inner walls and ceiling panels. In fact, the Preparation took three years to complete and Overbeck abandoned the scheme when the Marchese died in 1827. The Tasso room was eventually completed by the Bohemian artist Josef von Führich, who painted The Crusaders at the Holy Sepulchre (1829), incorporating portraits of the new Principe Massimo and his fam­ ily; Rinaldo ’s Disenchantment o f the Magic Forest and Rinaldo and Armida on the Battlefield (1827-28). Tasso was also a favourite subject of Delacroix, whose works included Erminia and the Shepherds (1859) and Francesco Hayez, whose Rinaldo and Armida (1814), now at the Museum of Modem Art in Venice, has been described as the greatest work of his neo-classical period. In Britain, Richard the Lionheart’s participation in the Third Crusade was amongst the subjects chosen to decorate the new Houses of Parlia­ ment in the 1840s. After the fire of 1834, a Select Committee met in 1841 to consider the ‘promotion of the fine arts of this country in connection with the rebuilding of Parliament’, with examples in mind of other na­ tional monuments such as Louis Philippe’s redecoration of the palace o f Versailles and Ludwig of Bavaria’s murals at Munich. A Royal Commis­ sion was established, chaired by Prince Albert and it was decided that the Houses of Parliament should be decorated with murals of historical and allegorical scenes in fresco. Competitions were held in 1842, with entries exhibited the following year in Westminster Hall. The plan for the Royal Gallery included nineteen paintings of scenes from British his­ tory by Daniel Maclise, a young artist from Cork, two of them familiar setpieces from the crusades: Richard the Lionheart coming in sight o f the Holy City and Queen Eleanor saving the life o f Edward I. Partly because

ART AND THE CRUSADES

165

of the scale of the task and partly because o f the difficulties o f the fresco technique, the plan never came to fruition. Prince Albert o f course died in 1861 and when the Select Committee o f the House of Lords reported in July 1907, only two of the panels had been filled, neither of them crusade subjects. At the same time, the Lords turned their attention to the uncompleted work on St. Stephen’s Hall and chose eight subjects to re­ flect British history, each one paid for by a peer. None were o f current or even recent events. The Committee concluded that: the latter part of this long record was no very happy subject for the art of today. It was undesirable to revive smouldering embers of the party conflicts and per­ sonal feelings o f the last two hundred years. It followed that only such scenes could be chosen as would be of the highest and most far reaching significance and that the period they were to cover must be the eight centuries which begin with King Alfred and end with Queen Anne.

One painting by Glyn Philpot and sponsored by Viscount Devonport, enti­ tled Richard /, later Coeur de Lion, leaves England with an expeditionary force to join the crusade in Palestine (1927), depicts the crusader king surrounded by his knights and literally about to embark for the East and it can still be seen as one enters the Houses of Parliament. The subject was chosen by the sponsor and as far as I am aware Philpot painted no other crusade scene. In the precincts of the Palace of Westminster, there is also of course the statue of Richard on horseback by Baron Marocbetti, with two scenes on the plinth depicting the king’s death and the siege o f Acre. Marocbetti was Italian by birth but settled in London and became a favourite society sculp­ tor; his most famous commission was the tomb of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Frogmore. The history of the sculpture of Richard, which now stands as a monument to his fame and crusading exploits, was, however, far from straightforward. In 1851, Marocbetti’s work was displayed at the Great Exhibition. The illustration in The Illustrated London News suggests that it enjoyed a promi­ nent position, but in fact it was near a cabstand at the western entrance. A later commentator in The Illustrated London News queried: what could possibly induce any sculptor of the nineteenth century to adopt that madcap fanatic sovereign as the subject of his spontaneous labours and what conceivable associations could there be between his reckless and wasteful achievement and the industrial triumphs of this age of progress.

After the exhibition, the sculpture was returned to Marochetti’s studio. In due course a subscription was raised to have it cast in bronze and in 1860, permission obtained from the Board of Works to have it set up in the Old Palace Yard near the entrance to the House of Lords, where it stands to this

166

THE NEW CRUSADERS

day. The cost (£3000) was met by public subscription, with the pedestal (£1650) paid for by Parliament Its pair was intended to be a statue of the Black Prince. One contemporary declared that Marochetti’s Richard ‘deserves to take rank with the few great statues of that class [equestrian] in Europe.’ In January 1861, the critical Illustrated London News writer, however, re­ mained unconvinced, describing the statue as one of many eyesores of London and remarked again on the inappropriateness of its location: If Richard Coeur de Lion and his fierce feudal times had nothing in common with the Industrial Exhibition in 1851, much less can they have with any build­ ing appropriated to the constitutional legislature of this now freed but then en­ slaved country.

If Richard was not a universally popular subject, he still found a place among the statues on the facade of Northampton Town Hall (1861-64) and in 1886, the Blackfriars Bridge Committee selected models of statues of four of England’s warrior kings - Richard, Edward I and III and Henry V to be placed on the pedestals at either end of the bridge. By the turn of the year, however, the committee had changed its mind. The British Architect of 1886 commented: The Corporation, in deciding not to proceed further with a project involving the expenditure of some £30,000, acted wisely, for the one substantial reason that the subjects are not such as commend themselves to a generation which lives in the present... Have we no history of the present worthy of record in permanent form.

Another crusader king on show at the Great Exhibition was Godfrey of Bouillon, sculpted astride his horse, waving his flag as a rallying sign for his comrades in arms, by Eugene Simonis. The original in bronze was ex­ hibited at Brussels in 1848 and as mentioned earlier, still stands in the Grand Place in the Belgian capital. Godfrey and Simonis enjoyed a rather better press from The Illustrated London News and indeed better location at the Great Exhibition itself. Other statues of Godfrey can be found at Mons and, in youthful pose, at his home town of Bouillon and he features in a number of paintings depict­ ing his departure on crusade and the capture of Jerusalem. For example, Godfrey was the subject of The Warrior Arming or Godfrey de Bouillon the Crusader arming fo r battle (1835) by the British artist William Etty, which was exhibited at the Royal Society of Artists in London in 1849 and is now in the Manchester City Gallery. In his portrait Etty, who had begun to build up his own collection of medieval armour, depicted Godfrey in a breastplate, with a crimson plumed helmet and wearing a gold crucifix, with his turbaned servant standing behind his left shoulder. In many cases,

ART AND THE CRUSADES

167

it is difficult to establish the source used by the artist, but Etty at least seems to have taken as his authority a physical description of Godfrey which appeared in Thomas Keightley’s History o f the Crusades published in 1834: To valour Godfrey joined piety, chastity, moderation, mildness and generosity. His exterior was also agreeable; his features were handsome, his hair a light brown, his person tall, and he was equally strong and active in his limbs.

The Lord Edward, later Edward I, of course also took part in the crusades and after the death of Louis IX at Tunis travelled to Acre, only returning to England in August 1274. He was a less popular crusade subject than Rich­ ard, but one alleged incident seems to have captured some artists’ imaginations. At Acre in June 1272, an Assassin, disguised as a native Christian, made his way to the king’s chamber and stabbed him with a poisoned dagger. He was saved by the skills of a surgeon, but by the four­ teenth century the legend had developed that Queen Eleanor herself had sucked the poison from the wound, thus saving her husband’s life. As has already been mentioned, this story was to have been one of the scenes depicted in the Royal Gallery in the new Houses of Parliament. It was also chosen as a subject by Joseph Severn (displayed at Westminster Hall in 1843); Alfred Montague (British Institution 1851) and the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor Thomas Woolner (1843), whose varied career included an unsuc­ cessful stint in the Australian goldfields Not surprisingly Louis IX and his two crusades were a popular subject for French artists and sculptors and examples are at least as numerous as the treatment of Richard the Lionbeart in Britain. As we have seen, the memory of Louis as a national and royal hero was deliberately evoked by his successors in the nineteenth century, as a symbol of their legitimacy and association with the glories of French history. Paintings and tapestries of scenes from the life of the royal saint were for example commissioned by Louis XVIII, Charles X and Louis Philippe. The sculptress Félicie de Fauveau even produced a statuette of the crusader king with the features of Henri, Duke of Bordeaux, the man who, in her view, should have succeeded Charles X in 1836. The other obvious French crusade subjects were Pope Urban II, Peter the Hermit and St Bernard. And the British painter George Frederick Watts apparently considered a series of giant wall frescoes beginning with Time and Oblivion, which would illustrate the history of the progress of man’s spirit from the hunter stage to the preaching of Peter the Hermit and be­ yond. This scheme was, however, never realised. Statues of the crusading heroes Godfrey, Richard and Louis were also available for display at home. As I have mentioned elsewhere, an Illus­ trated Catalogue o f Furniture and Household Requisites, published in 1883, offered imitation and real bronze figures of all three. For example, Richard

168

TOE NEW CRUSADERS

(not the Marochetti version) could be purchased on a polished wood stand, in green antique, brown, smoked and dark green bronze. Another royal crusade story with an artistic appeal was that of St Elizabeth of Hungary. As has already been mentioned, her story was told in a dra­ matic poem by Charles Kingsley entitled The Saint's Tragedy and a painting St Elizabeth o f Hungary finds the crusader's cross in her husband's purse by Alfred E. Elmore was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1873. St Elizabeth was also one of the twelve saints surrounding the sarcophagus of the Duke of Clarence, in the Albert Memorial Chapel at Windsor Castle (c.1894-96), sculpted by Alfred Gilbert. And an earlier polychromed and jewelled version of the saint's figure can be found at Kippen Parish church in Stirlingshire. In Italy, the crusades appealed to artists who wished to promote the na­ tionalist cause. For example, Hayez produced a number of crusade scenes, including The Preaching o f the First Crusade by Urban II and Peter the Hermit and deliberately used the subject to convey a patriotic message. In 1833, he began a large canvas intended to be bis greatest work - The Thirst suffered by the First Crusaders beneath the walls o f Jerusalem - which was eventually hung in the Hall of the Bodyguards in the Royal Palace at Turin in 1850. Hayez was among a number of artists inspired by Grossi's nationalist poem I Lombardi (the subject of Verdi’s opera, of which more later) to depict the role of the Lombards on the First Crusade. He also, as mentioned earlier, painted scenes from Tasso and was an illustrator of the works of Scott. In 1825, the Italian historical novelist, painter and political activist Massimo d’Azeglio, son in law of Manzoni, began a crusade painting The Death o f Montmorency - an incident o f the Crusades, a subject drawn from Madame Cottin’s novel Mathilde. d’Azeglio’s original plan had been to produce a large scale work depicting the battle of Thermopylae and the last stand of Leonidas, but his father apparently warned him that the sub­ ject matter might be deemed too radical for presentation to King Charles Felix of Piedmont-Sardinia. In the event, the crusade painting was well received and exhibited in Turin and Rome. D ’Azeglio, a Piedmontese na­ tionalist, consciously drew parallels between the events o f bis own day and the medieval crusades and bis Order of the Day for the Piedmontese troops on the 5 th of April 1848 urged them to go forward wearing the cross of Christ. In 1859, he wrote of the campaign against the Austrians: You ask if I expect the war, whether it seems to me that it will be proclaimed like the First Crusade in the days of Peter the Hermit ... I must say that I believe in a war that will be the fifth act of the drama, and have as much importance in the political field as the Thirty Years War in the religious one, but not yet.

ART AND THE CRUSADES

169

In Germany, the Düsseldorf school was responsible for a series of frescoes at Heltorf Castle recalling the history of Frederick Barbarossa. Three focussed on his participation in the Third Crusade - The Taking oflconium, The Battle oflconium and The death o f Barbarossa - and were described in some detail in the British journal The Athenaeum (1849), although the author of the article does not appear to have been an admirer o f the Dusseldorf style. The artist of the first two scenes, Carl Friedrich Lessing, also painted several works depicting a single crusade figure, of which more later, highlighting his skills both as a landscape artist and in the psycho­ logical characterization of his subjects. In addition, scenes from the crusades in North Eastern Europe attracted nineteenth century artists in Germany and Eastern Europe and for example amongst the Czech National Gallery’s collection in Prague is a work by Antonin Lhota entitled Ottakar II bringing Christianity to the pagan Prussians (1845). It refers to King Ottakar of Bohemia’s crusade against the Prussians in 1254-55 and a similar scene was chosen for a mural in the Belvedere in the grounds of Prague Castle. The most striking example, however, of the national glorification of the crusades is the Salles des croisades at Versailles, completed, as I have dis­ cussed in another chapter, as part of Louis Philippe’s programme of works to turn the palace into a museum dedicated to the glories of France. There are five crusade rooms, displaying paintings of key crusade events and individuals and the coats of arms of participants. The final room also in­ cludes a Gothic portal from the fortress of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem at Rhodes, which was presented to Louis Philippe by the Sultan of Turkey in 1836. The works have been catalogued by Claire Constans in her study of the paintings at Versailles (1995) and a full list was also published by Eudoxe Soulié in 1854. In total, there are over 120 paintings of individual crusad­ ers and scenes from the main expeditions, the emphasis not surprisingly being on French crusade heroes and battles and sieges in which French crusaders played a major role, ending with the siege of Malta in 1565. More than fifty artists were employed by Louis Philippe on this particular enterprise. For some it was a unique commission, but others were respon­ sible for a number of paintings not only in the crusade rooms but elsewhere in the palace and one of the most prolific was Emile Signol, who depicted The Crossing o f the Bosphorus by Godfrey o f Bouillon and his brother Baldwin,1097; The Arrival o f the crusaders before Jerusalem; The Cap­ ture o f Jerusalem, Junel099; Louis VII; Philip Augustus; Louis IX and St Bernard Preaching the Second Crusade. Overall the most famous work now is probably Eugene Delacroix’s Entry o f the crusaders into Constan­ tinople on the Fourth Crusade, which was transferred to the Louvre, where it remains today.

170

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Because of the scale of the Salles and their importance in any analysis of crusade imagery in this period, I have listed all the subjects and artists at Annex C, with the dates of the commission (from Constans) and, where appropriate, exhibition at the annual Salon. All in all, the Salles des croisades are the pictorial equivalent of a multi-volume French history of the crusades, with, as has already been mentioned, a clear purpose, namely to emphasise the continuity of French history under Louis Philippe. And there seems to be a clear coincidence in timing between the commission­ ing of a number of the crusade paintings and the king’s renewal of Charles X ’s crusade in Algeria. Many would have visited Versailles and seen the paintings and crusade rooms at firsthand; others would have attended the annual Paris salon at which many were exhibited or seen copies in one form or another, includ­ ing tapestries. There were also detailed guidebooks. In a recent article, Michael Marrinan has described the interaction between viewer and paint­ ing and the whole Versailles experience: The museum at Versailles was engineered horn the start to be a great machine for writing stories of ... events, whatever the time or place; within its spaces each viewer/ visitor became an essential cog of the narrative mechanism, for it was only by reading and seeing that the story would unfold in full colour simu­ lation. Indeed, we might say that to ‘see pictures’ at Versailles implies participa­ tion in the writing of a history with which one might not agree, but cannot physically avoid.

There is also a painting by Prosper Lafaye showing Louis Philippe and the royal family visiting the Salles des croisades in 1844. Tasso and Scott apart, the literary sourcing of crusade paintings is often rather obscure. Occasionally, however, the linkage is well established. In 1835, Daniel Maclise painted The Chivalric Vow o f the Ladies and the Peacock, which refers to a vow supposedly taken by departing knights and crusaders. His source seems to have been Saint Palaye’s Mémoir de T ancienne chevalerie, which included a poem on the vow of the peacock and the story of such a vow taken by knights at the court of Philip of Bur­ gundy in 1453, after the Fall of Constantinople to the Turks and Maclise’s painting in turn inspired another poem by Letitia Landon. As discussed earlier, a number of poems dealt with the subject of cru­ sading wives and their plight whilst their husbands were absent, often w ithout news of their fate, for many years and one story, from La Villemarque’s Chants populaires de Bretagne, which had reached their fourth edition in France in 1846, inspired a pencil drawing by James Joseph Tissot entitled The Crusader's Wife. This was used as an illustration for the 1865 English translation of the Breton ballads by Tom Taylor, an art critic of The Times. The central figures are a shepherdess and a knight on horseback. The latter proves to be her long lost husband, returned from the

ART AND THE CRUSADES

171

crusades. He bad left her in the care of his brother, but, instead of a com­ fortable life in a castle, she was set to tend the sheep: And soon a stately sight it was that youthful dame to see. In the castle-court of Faouet, among the gentilrie, Each a red cross on his shoulder, with great horse and pennoncel, To gather for the holy war with the lord that loved her well. He had not ridden many a mile beyond the castle wall, When sullen speech and scornful that dame must brook in hall. “Do off thy robe of grain, and don a peasant’s gown of gray. And up, and out to tend the sheep, lest on the heath they stray.”

Wife and husband are, however, eventually reunited and the wicked brother rebuked for his betrayal of trust. The crusader is identified by Taylor as the Lord of Faouet, near Quimperle, and the crusade in question the First. The poem was also illustrated by a wood engraving in the style of Sir John Everett Millais. The source for George Cattermole’s watercolour The Warning Voice (sold at Christies in 1869) is less clear, but was probably another ballad or cru­ sade exemplum. The story is described by Cattermole himself as the legend o f a baron who decides to go on crusade. His wife tries earnestly to dis­ suade him from this course, but fails. She therefore adopts a different strategy. When the baron goes to his armoury, she persuades one of the retainers to conceal himself inside a suit of armour and in a solemn voice warn the baron of the dangers which he is about to encounter. The baron, thinking that the voice emanates from the spirit of his departed ancestor, abandons his design. The scene is typical of Cattermole’s work, costumed figures in a carefully constructed architectural interior. Cattermole was also another illustrator o f the novels of Scott. William Bell Scott, a friend of the Pre-Raphaelite Dante Gabriel Rossetti, is probably now best known for his murals on local historical subjects at Wallington Hall, Northumberland and Penkill Castle, Ayrshire. At least two o f his works, however, featured the crusades. A watercolour, exhib­ ited at the Dudley Gallery’s first exhibition in 1865 and entitled Return from a long Crusade, depicts the return, after a long absence, of a crusader who, half knight, half palmer/pilgrim, presents an appearance ‘so grotesque as to be scarcely recognizable by his astonished wife and son.’ Bell Scott also produced a smaller watercolour on the same subject with just the three key figures, husband, wife and son. This problem of the returning crusader was highlighted in Hutton’s Heroes o f the Crusades : Sometimes it happened that the master of some castle of Normandy or Eng­ land or elsewhere would return when all who had loved him believed him

172

THE NEW CRUSADERS

dead. It would then not be the least bitter part of a pilgrim’s lot if be was unrecognised and unwelcomed, or found, perhaps, his wife and children did not know him in his medicant’s garment, his face wan with hunger, privation, or from the heat of eastern deserts and the dampness of Oriental dungeons and he would have to trust to the memory of some faithful servant before the rightful lord could seat himself as master at his own board.

In Frederick Pickersgill’s The Knight's Return (The Return o f the Crusader) dated 1846, the crusader, in full armour, is by contrast not much affected by the perils and travails of his journey and his womenfolk have no prob­ lem in recognising him. Millais, another member of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, seems to have had a number of attempts at a work on the crusades. In addition to The De­ parture o f the Crusaders, now in the Art Gallery at Oldham, Lancashire, he completed two pen and ink drawings The Crusader’s Departure and The Crusader’s Return, both dated April 1846 and intended as a pair. The first depicts the crusader leaving his wife and family; its partner, now in the Asbmolean Museum, shows him kneeling at a tomb, surrounded by his weep­ ing family, who appear to have given him up for dead. A German parallel is Lessing’s The Return o f the Crusader dated 1836, now in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum in Bonn, which depicts a white haired knight and weary horse, both obviously aged and fatigued by their exploits, against a background of wild mountain scenery. The source for the image was probably a poem Kreuzfahrers Einzug by Karl Immerman, a Dusseldorf civil servant, who fought as a volunteer rifleman at Waterloo and, heavily influenced by Scott, wrote a number of plays and novels, in the 1830s. The same figure of a knight also appears in the three versions of The crusader’s vigil in the desert produced by Lessing between 1834 and 1836. One of these is today amongst the collection of the Städiscbes Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt. There also were a number of paintings of unspecified crusade scenes and battles, such as John Gilbert’s The Crusaders on the March (1862). And these subjects were crafted in other medium such as plaster and silver. For example, a silver plaque of a crusade battle was apparently amongst the items in the Royal Collection in the reign of Queen Victoria. Not surprisingly, most crusade paintings with a general theme or depict­ ing an individual crusader seem to have favoured the rom anticized interpretation of events. In this context, it is worth mentioning two crusade paintings by American artists who spent some years in Britain. George Inness was a member of the Hudson River School of landscape painting and much influenced by another American artist Thomas Cole, who was known for his interest in medievalism. Inness made a number of visits to Europe in the 1850s and 1870s and exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1884-88. In 1850, he produced a highly romanticized study of a band of

ART AND THE CRUSADES

173

crusaders, with white surcoats emblazoned with a red cross, marching, pre­ sumably to war, across a rustic bridge, with the obligatory romantic ruin in the background. The March o f the Crusaders is now in the Fruitlands Mu­ seum collection near Boston, Massachusetts. Inness’s work is curiously reminiscent of an image in Henry Thoreau’s Walden, published some four years later. Thoreau wrote of hearing musi­ cians in the distance from his retreat at Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts, ‘these martial strains seemed as far away as Palestine and reminded me of a march of crusaders in the horizon, with a slight tantivy and tremulous motion of the elm tree tops which overhang the village.’ In fact as a student at Harvard in the mid 1830s, influenced by Tasso and the poetry of Hemans, Thoreau wrote a poem entitled Godfrey o f Boulogne about the march of the crusaders to the East. Another American painter, Edwin Austin Abbey, who also travelled ex­ tensively in Europe, exhibited a study of three Templars against the background of the Third Crusade, entitled The Knights Templar in sight o f Jerusalem. It is a vivid scene, the Templars gazing down on the army in the plain below, the sun glinting on their chain mail and the banner waving against the blue sky. A critic in The Athenaeum described it as follows: Three champions, clad in thirteenth century suits of banded ring mail and long white surcoats bearing the cross in red, have attained the summit of their road to the Holy City just when the sun, attended by the morning breeze, has risen above the mountain tops. Filled with joy, they look upon its towers and walls still in shadow, while the golden light breaks upon their faces, armour and arms and the wind rustles strongly in the half-black, half-white banner of the Temple which one of the knights bears so that it stands between himself and the sky. His war wom face is strongly expressive of passion. The second Templar stands on lower ground than the banner bearer, and his face and figure are relieved against the form of his companion: he is bareheaded and the rapture of his mood is finely expressed. The third knight kneels in front of his companions and ar­ dently presses the cross hilt of his sword against his breast. Of the rigour of the design, there cannot be two opinions.

The purpose behind the individual characterisation of the three faces was described by the artist’s wife, Mary Gertrude Abbey: The first soldier bearing the oriflamme of the crusaders ... is a bluff, hearty rough chap, visibly excited by his first glimpse of the holy city. The open mouth, the gaping stare, the taut muscles, testify to bis wonder and amazement. The second soldier kneeling, with his blond hair and sensitive face, is obviously more of the mystic. Perhaps those blue eyes of his penetrate beyond the city he sees and envisage that city in which He ministered and taught. The third sol­ dier, with the seams of many past crusades sewn upon his face, has no illusions. He has seen it all before and the scene awakens no response as he kneels with his chin sunk in his hands, clasping the hilt of the sword buried deep in the hillside.

174

THE NEW CRUSADERS

It would be interesting to know which books the Abbeys consulted about the Third Crusade. The painting at any rate would have been known to a British audience. After the Royal Academy (1901), it was exhibited at the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists (1902) and at the Coronation Exhibi­ tion in Shepherd’s Bush in London (1911) before its return to America. It is now part of the Abbey collection at Yale University. Abbey was inciden­ tally yet another artist who illustrated Scott. A final word needs to be said about the use of knightly figures as monu­ mental effigies in the nineteenth century, of which the prime example is Prince Albert at Frogmore. In most instances it was a generic knight rather than a crusader, but a literary example, which perhaps underlines the cur­ rency of the image, can be found in Henry James’s novel Roderick Hudson (1875). Hudson is a young American sculptor and among his works is a sepulchral monument for his brother Stephen, who had been killed in the American Civil War. James describes it thus: The young soldier lay sleeping eternally with bis hand on his sword; the image of one o f the crusaders Roderick had dreamed of in one of the cathedrals be had never seen.

The specific use of the figure of a crusader and indeed crusader kings in war memorials has of course been discussed in a previous chapter. The examples quoted here are far from a definitive list, but they clearly indicate that the crusades were a standard subject for nineteenth century artists and paintings on this theme appeared regularly in exhibition cata­ logues throughout the century. As in literature, British artists favoured Richard I and their French counterparts Louis IX, with the crusading move­ ment as a whole forming a set piece in the context of Louis Philippe’s glorification (and manipulation) of French history at Versailles. Again, the Tasso and Scott version of the crusades had many artistic followers, but there were a variety of individual interpretations and images of crusaders and crusade scenes. Set piece exhibitions such as those at the Royal Acad­ emy and British Institution would have enabled many thousands to see large scale crusade paintings and they would have reached an even wider audience through engraved illustrations in books and journals, all of which helped to form the image of the crusades in the nineteenth century mind.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

Music and the crusades Another way of conveying an image is of course through music and the m id , nineteenth century was a time when, as with literature and art, music was more widely available, both in terms of public performances and in pub­ lished form for performance at home. Concerts were not confined to Lon­ don and for example in his recent study of Popular Music in England be­ tween 1840 and 1914 (1977), Dave Russell analyses the wide variety of performances and forms of popular music-making in Yorkshire. The 1840s also saw the production of cheap editions of major works by music pub­ lishers such as Novello and there was a wide selection o f individual songs and instrumental pieces and collections of popular items available for use at home or in small groups. Choral societies began to flourish and there were also local and national music festivals at which new works might be performed. Opera provides a useful starting point for a study of the musical develop­ ment of the crusade image. At the turn of the century, London audiences would have been fam iliar with a variety of operas based on Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata. For example, Antonio Sacchini’s Armida was per­ formed at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, London, in 1780 and the ballet Rinaldo and Armida, with music by Ludwig Lebrun, was staged in the same theatre in 1782, with dramatic effects, including dragons and riv­ ers of fire. In 1790, the historical romance The Crusade, with music by William Shield, who became Master of the King’s Musick, and libretto by Frederic Reynolds, had its first performance at Covent Garden. The action theoretically takes place against the background o f the First Crusade and the final chorus runs as follows: Welcome, welcome Christian power, welcome now the festive hour, welcome musick’s cheerful strains, sounding triumph over our plains. Godfrey now the foes o ’erthrown, welcome to the Christian crown; Saracens no more shall sway, crusaders ever bless the day.

Rather more unusually, there is an troubadour air with Scotch (sic), Welsh, Irish, English and French tunes. The English one owes little to the Middle Ages:

176

THE NEW CRUSADERS

When errant knights in proud array assembled first on Clermont’s plain, this was the burden o f their lay, and every champion joined the strain - St George for ever! for ever live the chief St George, Old England and roast beef, Oh the roast beef of Old England, And Oh the roast beef of Old England.

Some choruses and solos seem to have been sufficiently popular to have been published individually and ‘The crusade. Women, War, Wine’ was described as an admired song by a publisher in 1800. The first home grown nineteenth century crusade opera seems to have been The Crusades by Sir Julius Benedict, which was first performed at Drury Lane in London in February 1846. Its cast included Conrade, King o f Jerusalem; Bobemond, Prince of Tarentum; Raymond, Count of Tou­ louse; William, Archbishop of Tyre; Hassan, Prince of the Assassins; two o f his followers and Almea, a Sumnite. The chorus or extras consisted of crusaders, Assassins, Knights Hospitaller, Ladies of the Court and the populace of Jerusalem. In the Preface, the author of the libretto, Alfred Bunn, admitted that he had violated the chronological order, leaping from the First to the Third Crusade and that the incidents described were partly historical, partly legendary, with some assistance from Tasso. The opera begins with the Sumnite women attempting to intoxicate the crusade lead­ ers by their beauty and wines. In a scene reminiscent o f Rinaldo and Armida, Bohemond is in a forest wherein there is an enchanted garden, ‘from every tuft of flowers a young odalisque arises, entangles him in garlands and a mass of roses open and reveal Almea.’ In Act II there is an attempt on the life of Bohemond and the siege of Jerusalem, complete with battering rams, cranes and mangonels. In the finale, Almea enters a convent and Bohemond marries Iseult, the daughter o f Raymond of Tou­ louse in the Holy Sepulchre. The Illustrated London News reviewer com­ mented that The Crusades played to packed houses and was the compos­ e r’s greatest work, but The Athenaeum considered that musical effects had been sacrificed to pageantry. Benedict also composed the music to a cantata Richard Coeur de Lion, which was first performed at the Norwich Festival in September 1863. The soloists were Mathilda (soprano), Urbain a page (alto), Blondel (tenor) and Richard (baritone) and the libretto is based on the story of Blondel’s search for his imprisoned master. The individual songs and duets were also published and sold separately. Another operatic composer, who was British by adoption, was Sir Michael Costa, who was bom in Naples in 1808 but settled in England in 1829, became conductor of Italian opera at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, Musical Director of Her M ajesty’s Haymarket in London and died in Hove, Sussex in 1884. His most successful opera was Malek Adel, performed at the King’ s Theatre in 1837. The Malek o f the title is a general in the Turkish army and brother of Saladin. The other dramatis

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

177

personae included Richard, Coeur de Lion; William o f Tyre; Lusignan, King of Cyprus and Richard’s sister Matilda and the chorus and supernu­ meraries numbered Templars, Arabian officers, Friars and Nuns of Mount Carmel and slaves of both sexes. The story is drawn from the novel by Madame Cottin, but with variations. After Malek is killed in battle with the crusaders, the chorus sing ‘our swords and the brilliancy of the cross will subdue the Syrians and hurl them into the infernal abyss.’ One of those who saw Costa’s opera was the Princess, later Queen Victo­ ria, who was a great opera enthusiast. Her drawings of characters from the operas which she attended fill three quarto volumes in the Royal Library at Windsor and include several from Malek Adel such as the soprano Mad­ ame Albertazzi as Giossilino (Josselin of Montmorency). Malek Adel was also used as the basis for an opera by at least ten other composers, includ­ ing the Italians Pacini and Nicolini and an outline for an opera on this theme was produced by the German Giacomo Meyerbeer. In 1890, The Globe Theatre in London staged another British crusade operetta, The Crusader and the Craven, with music by Percy Reeve, a composer of a number of choral and orchestral works which are now largely forgotten. In this, the three main characters were Sir Rupert de Malvoisie, Blondel fitzOsbome and Dame Alice. Whilst Sir Reginald is away, Blondel, himself a returned crusader, serenades Dame Alice, but the knight returns unexpectedly and ejects Blondel out of the window. One of Sir Reginald’s solos runs as follows,’I am a fierce crusader, a terror to each foe, to infidel invader, I carry death and woe.’ A curiosity now, the press reviews used to advertise the production indicate that at the time it was well received. Of course operas by other European composers would also have been performed in London and indeed elsewhere in Britain and a guide to what might have been seen by a nineteenth century audience is provided by the catalogue of plays submitted to the Lord Chamberlain between 1824 and 1851. The various productions offered a range of interpretations and im­ ages of the crusades. In June 1825, the year after its premiere in Venice, London saw a per­ formance of Meyerbeer’s opera II Crociato in Egitto, with a libretto by Gaetano Rossi. An English translation was available the same year (in par­ allel text) and we know a good deal about the reaction to the production from Meyerbeer’s letters and a short history of the King’s Theatre by its manager John Ebers. The opera attracted particular interest because of the appearance of the famous castrato Giovanni Battista Velluti in the lead role as Armando and the first night was attended by a distinguished audi­ ence, including the Duke of Wellington and his party, who dined before­ hand at Apsley House. Initally Velluti had to struggle against murmuring from the London

178

THE NEW CRUSADERS

audience, unused to the castrato voice, but he won them over and both he and II Crociato were enthusiastically received and there were a number o f revivals. The reviewer in The Harmonicon, which published an unu­ sually lengthy article of some sixty pages, reported that the opening cho­ rus was encored, ‘a circum stance we believe u n p reced en ted ’ and M eyerbeer sent a number of articles from the British press to an Italian journalist, requesting that he inform the Italian public of II Crociato’s success. Ebers provided an account of the preparations and expense in­ curred in staging the opera, ‘which at Paris took nine months to get up ( b u t)... were here accomplished in one’ and there were repeat perform­ ances in January 1826. The painter Calcott Horsley saw a performance o f II Crociato as a child of five and recalled many years later the scenes in Cairo and boats on the Nile. He was not however a fan of Velluti. In fact II Crociato enjoyed success throughout Europe and Frederick William III of Prussia, who attended the second performance in Paris in 1825, issued a Cabinet decree in which he invited Meyerbeer to compose a German opera. Performances also took place as far afield as Russia, America and Brazil. Within eighteen months of its composition, there were four versions of the story. The libretto of the 1825 London performance, recently recorded and issued with detailed notes in the Opera rara series, was set against the background of Louis IX’s Egyptian crusade and focussed on Armando d ’Orville, a knight of Provence and nephew of the Grand Master of the Order of Rhodes, who, having been left for dead on the battlefield, as­ sumes the name Elmireno and lives in Damietta, then ruled by the Sultan Aladino. In Provence, Armando had been betrothed to Felicia; in Damietta he has fallen in love with the Sultan’s daughter, Palmide; she converts to Christianity, they marry in secret and have a son. Meanwhile a band of knights of Rhodes, plus Felicia, arrive in Damietta to see if Armando is still alive and to negotiate a peace with the Sultan. After many twists and turns, Armando is restored to favour with both his uncle the Grand Master and the Sultan and all ends happily ever after. Again the opera was mag­ nificently staged, including the arrival of ships of the Sultan and Knights of Rhodes at the port of Damietta. In 1829, London saw a rather more idiosyncratic crusade production, Rossini’s opera Le Comte Ory, with libretto by Eugène Scribe and CharlesGaspard Delestre-Poirson, based on a fourteenth century Picard ballad, which had been published with its traditional tune in 1785. In the ballad, Count Ory and his men give siege to nuns in a convent, but Scribe and Delestre-Poirson changed this to ladies whose menfolk were fighting in the crusades, creating a one act vaudeville, entitled Le Comte Ory, which was performed in Paris in December 1816. The opera libretto then fol­ lowed in 1828 and was Rossini’s first opera written in French and designed

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

179

for the Paris audience. The story concerns the Count of Formoutiers (some­ where in France), who has gone away on crusade (not specified but prob­ ably the Fourth Crusade since the action takes place around 1200), leav­ ing his sister Adèle and her female retinue unguarded in the castle. Whilst he is absent, the Count Ory and his friend Raimbaud try to seduce Adèle, first disguised as hermits and then as nuns. In Act II, they sing a lively drinking song, describing the bottles in the Count's wine cellar as an 'immense, noble army ... more redoubtable than that of Sultan Saladin.’ Before they have a chance to seduce the ladies, however, the count re­ turns and Ory and his followers are forced to flee. Although the crusade takes place off stage, there are several direct references in the libretto. In Act I Radegonde, stewardess of the castle, sings of the womenfolk left at home: While our gallant cavaliers, fired by the desire for fame, in Moslem fields gather their harvest of laurels, their wives and sisters, though in the prime of life, have, like me, sworn to spend their widowhood in the castle of Formoutiers.

And the Countess Adèle reads a letter from her brother describing his ex­ ploits in the Holy Land and announcing their return, ‘we have been seen fearlessly liberating the Holy Land and our swords are tainted with the blood of the Saracen.' A similar story of a young Provençal girl threatened with seduction whilst her fiancé, John of Brienne, is away on crusade formed the subject of Rus­ sian composer Glazunov’s ballet Raymonda, first performed in St Petersburg in1898. This time the returning crusader defeats the guilty party, a Saracen, marries his beloved and they honeymoon in Hungary, thus providing Glazunov with an opportunity to compose a Hungarian dance or czarda. Glazunov incidentally also included a movement entitled T h e Crusades’ in his orchestral suite From the Middle Ages (1902), in which he depicted the departure of a crusading army amidst a fanfare of trumpets, priests chanting a blessing and the cheers of the crowd. In 1846, Verdi’s opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata reached London. It has been described as an early essay in Italian patriotism and the libretto was written by Temistocele Solera, who had a colourful career as a courier for Napoleon III and Cavour, superintendent of police for the Khedive of Egypt and an antique dealer in Paris. His source was a popular historical romance of the same name by Tommaso Grossi, who, as has already been mentioned, was inspired both by Tasso and Scott’s Ivanhoe and the plot liberally mixes fact and fiction. The story concerns two Lombard brothers, Arvino and Pagano, rivals for the hand of Viclinda. Arvino proves successful and Pagano is ban­ ished, having tried to kill him. Years later he returns and, tortured with jealousy, tries again, but by mistake murders their father, Folco and flees

180

THE NEW CRUSADERS

from court. Meanwhile the First Crusade has been declared and the sec­ ond act of the opera finds Arvino, accompanied by his daughter, Giselda, leading a Lombard contingent outside the walls o f Antioch, with Pagano, in repentance for his parricide, living as a hermit in the desert. Compli­ cations abound and in particular Giselda is captured and falls in love with Oronte, son of Acciano, tyrant of Antioch. In the final act, Oronte, mortally wounded by Arvino, agrees to be baptised and the Lombard broth­ ers are reconciled, Pagano dying of wounds received in battle against the Moslems, having received bis last wish, a view of Christian banners on the walls of the Holy City. One of the most dramatic scenes in the opera depicts the Lombard army outside Jerusalem. At first a chorus of Cru­ saders and Pilgrims sing of their exhaustion and thirst in the fierce heat: O Lord, thou didst call us with holy promise from our native hearths; we have hastened at the bidding of a holy man, rejoicing on the rough road. But the heads of thy bold and doughty servants are bowed and humbled. Ah! let not thy faithful warriors O Christ, serve but as mockery to the w orld!... An ill starred and cruel gift is the thought that depicts you [Jerusalem] so clearly to our eyes and the sand of an arid soil is harsher and more burning to our lips.

The crusaders are then refreshed by the waters of the pool of Siloam and Arvino urges them, ’to scale once more the walls you abandoned. Do not let the infidels anticipate us ... Hark the trumpets of Bouillon blare out! Today the Holy Land shall be ours.’ Like a number of other contemporary artists and poets, Verdi in I Lombardi consciously used his music for political ends. When first performed in Mi­ lan in 1843, 1 Lombardi and in particular the chorus ‘O Signore, dal tetto natio’ sparked a political demonstration. The Milanese decided that they were the Lombards, Italy the Holy Land and the Austrians the Saracens and the Risorgimento poet Guiseppe Guisti recalled the Lombardi chorus in his Sant ' Ambrogio. By 1845, the opera had reached St Petersburg, Corfu, Berlin and Bucharest and the next year it was introduced to London. In 1847, it became the first Verdi opera to be performed in America. Not everyone, however, admired Verdi’s style. The critic in The Ath­ enaeum wrote: superbly as it is put on our stage, there is hardly a scene or a combination which did not make us wistfully fall back on new or old operas similar in style and period - on Benedict’s Crusaders, on the Malek of Costa, on the Crociato of Meyerbeer, and most sadly of all on the Pietro l’Eremita of Rossini. Talk of Signor Verdi’s science ... it is like talking of the invention of a Surrey melodramatist, with Shakespeare on the shelf.

The Rossini opera cited was a rather curious adaptation of his Mose in Egitto, which was deemed unsuitable in its original form for the Protestant sensi­ bilities of the London audience during Rossini’s visit in 1822-23.

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

181

Building, however, on the generally favourable reception of I Lombardi, in 1847, the ever adaptable Verdi produced a French version, Jérusalem, for the Paris Opera, with the same basic plot, but with the Lombards as Franks and the two brothers Raymond and Roger of Toulouse. There was also a ballet. Jérusalem was performed twice at the Tuileries and appar­ ently so pleased Louis Philippe, as an further evocation of the glories of French history, that he made Verdi a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur. Although translated into German, Polish, Dutch, Russian and Portugese, however, it was much less successful than the original and was not per­ formed in Britain until this century. Rather surprisingly, no British composer in the nineteenth century ap­ pears to have produced a ‘straight’ opera on the subject of Richard I and the Third Crusade. The story, however, of the imprisoned king and his min­ strel Blondel, with variations on the theme including characters such as Sir Williams, an expatriate Welshman who claims to have been a member of Richard’s contingent, was the subject of the Belgian composer AndréEmest-Modeste Grétry’s comic opera Richard Coeur de Lion, with a li­ bretto by Michel-Jean Sedaine. First performed in Paris in 1784, it enjoyed a number of revivals in the nineteenth century, with over 200 perform­ ances under Napoleon I and a run of 302 between 1856 and 1868 under Napoleon III. It also played at the St James’s Theatre in London in March 1849. Grétry wrote that ‘never was a subject more proper for musical treat­ ment’ and some of the most popular numbers from his opera were pub­ lished individually. The original play by Sedaine was also adapted and translated for the Brit­ ish stage by Sir John Burgoyne, who had a diverse career as a playwright and the British general at the battle of Saratoga during the American War of Independence. In its first year in 1786, Richard ran for forty three per­ formances and there were seven revivals before 1800. At least nine edi­ tions of the historical romance were also published during the nineteenth century. Unusually Burgoyne*s version has the heroine Matilda discover­ ing the imprisoned king, rather than Blondel, ‘to increase the interest of the situation.’ In addition to Rossini’s Count Ory, a number of other composers pro­ duced operas based on the problems of the wives, sisters or daughters of absent crusaders. For example, Verdi’s opera Aroldo, first performed in Rimini in 1857, tells the story of Mina, who has been unfaithful to her husband Aroldo whilst he has been absent on crusade with Richard I. (Aroldo’s companion Briano is said to have saved the king’s life at the battle of Ascalon.) When he returns home, Aroldo is greeted as the mighty crusader who has increased the honour of Kent and the chorus sings: It is good to return home peacefully, from the fierce fields of war! It is pleasant to recount tales of dangerous adventures to the admiration of contented loved ones.

182

THE NEW CRUSADERS

The scene, however, soon changes when Aroldo discovers his wife’s adul­ tery. In the ensuing drama, her father, Egberto, an elderly knight, kills her lover Godvino and Aroldo and Mina part. Some years later, however, Mina and Egberto, the latter a fugitive, are shipwrecked on the shores o f Loch Lomond in Scotland. Aroldo, living as a hermit in the village, is reunited with and forgives his repentant wife and all proclaim that the divine law of love has triumphed. The opera was in fact a reworking o f Verdi’s Stiffelio, in which the w ife of a Protestant m inister committed adultery. This ran into cen­ sorship problem s and Verdi therefore decided to commission a new libretto. Interestingly, be told his librettist Francesco M aria Piave that he did not want to make Stiffelio a crusader. He preferred ‘something new er and more exciting,’ but Piave stood his ground and Aroldo was the result. Verdi apparently paid close attention to the detail o f the first production, from the costum es to the village bell which sounded the Ave M aria in Act IV and which he worked with a file to obtain the right note. Given the presence of Verdi and the opening of the new theatre at Rimini, there was considerable interest in Aroldo and in its early years it was staged in Vienna, Buenos Aires, Lisbon and several American cities including New York. Although set in B ritain, how ­ ever, it again does not seem to have been perform ed here until this century . In Die Verschworenen or The Conspirators (1823), a short opera by Franz Schubert, the libretto by the Viennese poet and playwright Ignaz Castelli borrowed heavily from the Lysistrata o f the fifth century BC Athenian poet Aristophanes. The opera opens with Countess Ludm illa o f Ludenstein and her ladies expecting the arrival of their crusading husbands. Hearing that they plan to depart again after a few days, the countess persuades the others to protest by withdrawing their conjugal rights until they promise to stay at home and abandon any further ideas o f crusading. The men, hearing of the conspiracy, make their own plans and spend their first evening at home drinking and exchanging war sto­ ries. Both sides find it difficult to maintain their resolve, but the men then concoct a story that they have sworn to withhold affection for their wives until they agree to accompany them to war. The count duly enters to find his wife trying on a suit of armour, a scene later depicted in the foyer of the Vienna Court theatre by the artist M oritz von Schwind. In the end all is resolved happily and each of the men sets down his weap­ ons at bis lady’s feet, urging her in turn to use only the weapons o f love and tenderness. The opera was rejected by the Vienna Court Opera and in fact was never performed in Schubert’s lifetime. It was, however, produced in 1861 and became an international favourite thereafter, with translations into a number

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

183

o f languages, including English, French, Russian and Hungarian. Moritz von Schwind commented ‘what richness of talent and what an instinct for drama* and a reviewer in January 1897 declared: About the opera itself, there is nothing new we can say; who does not already know and love it? Chivalrous courage, tender devotion, amorous teasing, rogu­ ish humour - all live and sparkle in this music, which, with its naive geniality and cordiality, is stronger and more lasting than many music dramas of recent times.

Schubert also set to music the poem ‘Der Kreuzzug*, by Carl Gottfried Ritter von Leitner, which told of a monk’s meditations as he observed a departing band of crusaders. The text is worth quoting in full as an exam­ ple of the romanticized literary interpretation of the crusades: A monk is standing in his cell At the lattice window grey, A train of knights in armour bright Is riding throught the glade They're chanting songs the pilgrims sing, In fair and earnest choir, Amid them flies of softest silk, Crusaders’ flag borne high They reach the seashore and embark ‘pon a vessel high and grand. Yet it escapes on that green path, Looks soon much like a swan. The monk stands at his window still, Looks after them out there: T am, like you a pilgrim too, Although I stay at homel Life’s journey through the treacherous seas And hottest desert sands. Is it not too a true crusade Into the Holy Land?

Another Schubert song was based on the song sung by Richard the Lionheart in the forest hermitage in Scott’s Ivanhoe. The nineteenth century also inevitably saw yet more operas based on Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata, not least Rossini’s Armida, which opened the re­ built Teatro San Carlo in Naples in 1817, with a range of dramatic effects including in Act II Armida and Rinaldo riding on a cloud, which transformed itself first into a garden and then into the interior of a magnificent castle and a carriage drawn by fiery dragons in Act III. In fact, in all there are almost one hundred operas and ballets based on Tasso’s poem, a number of which I have discussed in an article published in Medieval History. Tasso also pro­ vided the inspiration for a ballet Renaud and Armide by the British com­ poser Henry Bishop (1806), Brahms’ dramatic cantata Rinaldo (1868) and Antonin Dvorak’s last dramatic work Armida (1902-3).

184

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Yet another adaptation of the story of the First Crusade was provided by Louis Spohr’s last opera Die Kreuzfahrer, first performed in New Year’s Day 1845 at Kassel and based on August von Kotzebue’s eponymous drama (1803). In Act L Baldwin, presumably the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, returns to the crusader camp after escaping from Moslem captivity with the assistance of the papal legate Adbemar of Le Puy. He asks after bis betrothed Emma, whom he has left in Germany and is told that she is either married or dead. In turn Emma, who has journeyed to the Holy Land to join Baldwin, is told that he is dead and decides to enter a convent. Mean­ while, Baldwin protects the emir’s daughter from harassment and thereby earns her father’s gratitude. In Acts II and III, Emma finds herself dressing Baldwin’s wounds. She recognises him, falls into a swoon, is discovered by the abbess, imprisoned and threatened with entombment. Baldwin is in despair, but Emma is rescued by the grateful emir and everything ends happily, even if the early crusaders would have had difficulty recognising the plot. The opera was well received in Kassel and Berlin, but the libretto appears to have given some offence in Catholic cities such as Munich and Vienna. Whilst I have found no record of a British performance, Spohr visited this country and a five act English version of Kotzebue’s drama, entitled Alfred and Emma, had been published in 1806. A Baldwin of Eichenhorst and Emma von Falkenstein, who undergo similar trials and tribulations against the background of the First Crusade, were also the prin­ cipal characters in a spectacular by Joseph Ebsworth, performed at the Marylebone Theatre in London in 1849. As has already been discussed, there were also the various operas based on the crusading novels of Scott. And, whilst I have found no record of British performances, Steiger’s Opern Lexicon (1975) lists a number of other works on the crusade theme, including Paul d ’Acosta’s Godefroi de Bouillon which was performed in Antwerp in 1899. Turning to oratorio, The Triumph o f Faith or The First Crusade AD 1097 by the German composer August Ferdinand Haeser, was chosen for per­ formance at the Birmingham Festival in September 1837. The original German text, by Gustavus Moltke, seems to have been influenced by Tasso and in addition to the standard crusade figures Godfrey of Bouillon and Peter the Hermit, included the fictional characters Sophronia, Olindo, Solyman and Argantes. A work demanding large musical resources (the Birmingham orchestra was some 400 strong), there are twelve choruses o f Christians and Saracens. It opens with the Christians singing ‘Lord from these our depths of woe’ and ends, after the capture of Jerusalem, with the chorus ‘Praise the Almighty’. The First Crusade also provided the background to several cantatas. The Crusader (Y Croesgadwr), a dramatic cantata with music by Benjamin Parsons and a libretto in English and Welsh, won a prize at the National

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

185

Eisteddfod in Wales and was published by Novello in 1889. It begins with Earl Meyric about to leave on crusade. His daughter Gwenhwyfar is loved by Maldwyn, but for some reason he has displeased the Earl, who tells him to bestow his affections elsewhere. In Act II, Maldwyn visits Dwynwen, the fifth century Welsh saint considered the patron saint of lovers and as­ sociated with Anglesey, and is advised to take the cross and journey to the Holy Land. Years later (in Act III), Meyric returns triumphant and accom­ panied by a knight who is famous for his bravery and heroism. He turns out to be Maldwyn and all ends predictably. The opening chorus provides a flavour of the crusade imagery to be found in such works and is reminis­ cent o f some of the contemporary poetry discussed earlier: We will wave the symbol glorious, Banner of our cross victorious! We will rescue sacred Zion, Cradle of our good religion, And regain the Saviour’s tomb. Host united, we will conquer We will raise our cross mark’d banner O ’er Jerusalem’s old towers, We will turn the Moslem’s powers And his pride to lasting gloom. Brave crusaders! Saints exhort us! Angels and our God support us. Honour’d mission-chosen warriors O f God’s wrath on proud oppressors, To avenge Him on the foe! And achieve the restoration O f the pride of every nation, Home o f Him, Prince of compassion. Land that witness’d his great Passion And divine appointed woe.

Another variation on this story was Maldwyn, a dramatic cantata in Welsh with music by William Lane Frost (1895), in which the returning hero is greeted by the minstrel Cerddor and chorus singing ‘The valiant knight that wears the leek’. And one of the standard items in the Welsh male voice choir repertoire was ‘The Crusader (Milwyr y Groes)’ by Daniel Protberoe (1891). Novello also published a sacred cantata, The Crusaders, with words by Marion M iller and music by Dr. Henry Hiles, Professor of Harmony and Composition at the Royal Manchester School of Music. The Athenaeum reviewer writing in August 1874 observed: The story o f The Crusaders, which is rather fantastically tangled, describes a pilgrim band lost in the desert on the way to the Holy Land, meeting with Godfrey

18 6

THE NEW CRUSADERS

the Crusader and his folowers. Then succeed evening hymns and marches and forestallings of Jerusalem in songs and choruses and a ceaseless interchange of Lobegesàngs.

This reviewer may have had his doubts, but the work was for example performed in Glasgow in 1887. Still on the theme of the First Crusade, in 1893, Thomas Facer, a com­ poser of anthems and a number o f works for children, produced The Crusader for use by choral societies and church choirs. The three solo­ ists were Peter the Hermit (bass), Christian (crusader and tenor) and his fiancée M argaret (soprano). In Scene I, Peter the Hermit urges the men o f a small town in France to join the crusade. M argaret exhorts Christian not to go, but he is firm in his resolve and there follows an impassioned duet. The departing army and people go to the cathedral to invoke G od’s blessing and, skipping the journey to the East, Scene IV finds Christian engaged in a skirmish outside Jerusalem and captured by the Moslems. In prison, be dreams of home and angels sing words o f com fort and hope to him. When the crusaders mount their main and successful attack on Jerusalem, Christian is released and in Scene VII he returns home and is reunited with the patient Margaret. Peter the Hermit declares that the crusaders’ mission is ended and all thank God for his mercies. The subject also appealed to other European composers. For example, an English translation of the cantata The Crusaders by the Danish composer Niels Gade (1865-66), who helped initiate the national Romantic move­ ment in Denmark, was published by Novello in 1876. Based on a text by Carl Andersen, the soloists were Peter the Hermit, with Tasso’s Rinaldo and Armida. In the final movement, entitled ’Towards Jerusalem’, Peter, Rinaldo and the Crusaders sing: To war! God wills it, up arouse thee! Up, yon flag with hope endows thee! Jerusalem! the goal is there; We cry aloud. Hosanna.

One of Gade’s contemporaries, the Provost o f Copenhagen, wrote o f his reaction to the piece, ’I was inspired to action, beguiled by desire, filled with painful remorse. I stood jubilant before the gates of Jerusa­ lem .’ And a more recent critic has described G ade’s selection o f Tasso as a vehicle to describe a spiritual journey. In Part I, the hero sets out in search o f a goal (the crusades). In Part II, he encounters the evil tempt­ ress Armida, but in the final part he rejects temptation and achieves his goal, Jerusalem. All the works which have been discussed to date involved quite large scale public performances. The crusades, however, also provided ample

MUSIC AND THE CRUSADES

187

subject matter for composers of songs and other instrumental pieces for performance at home. The names of the composers of the music and lyrics (or adapted poems) are now largely forgotten and some do not even meet the threshold for inclusion in standard reference works. But in their own time, they produced songs which seem to have appealed to the public. The themes very much echo those favoured by artists and writers; sto­ ries of thwarted love; the crusader’s farewell to his lady; and his return. The following are a selection of examples of the genre. In 1829, Augustus Meves set to music a poem by Frederick Fox Cooper which described the departure of a crusader, leaving behind his lady Isabel and the title page depicts a knight on horseback hailing bis lady, who waves a handkerchief from a castle tower. And in Valentine Hemery’s ‘The Crusader’ (1889), the knight departs to do his duty with a tress of his lady’s golden hair in his helmet. ‘The Crusader’s Return, a Romaunt’, written by Charles d ’Ace in 1871 and dedicated to a Mrs Charles Bath of Swansea, begins ‘Hark from yonder pealing tower are notes of gladness s e n t’ There then follows ‘His vow redeemed he homeward sped, to claim a promised bride’ and ‘The lady sate in lonely halls and mourned his absence long’, but then she spots a plume in the distance and sorrow turns to joy. There were also a number of songs of battle, including some musical settings of Mrs Hemans’s cru­ sade poems and once again Scott’s crusade novels seem to have been irre­ sistible. For the instrumentalist there were a number of crusade marches for pi­ ano and a crusader’s valse. The master of military marches, John Philip Souza composed a march entitled ‘The Crusaders’ (1888) and I have even found a grand march and valse entitled ‘Saladin’. As can be seen therefore, the musical development of the crusade image was just as diverse and idiosyncratic as other artistic mediums. Images would have been conveyed and imprinted on people’s minds by live per­ formances of opera, with exotic scenery, costumes and stage effects. Some might have heard or taken part in a crusade oratorio or dramatic cantata and the crusader also found his way into the Victorian parlour and drawing room, through highly romanticized songs purchased for a few shillings, collections of choral items from the opera and pieces for the piano.

Conclusion Drawing the various threads together, what can one conclude about the image of the crusades, its use and development in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? First, that it was not simply a question of un­ critical romanticism. It is hardly surprising that one can find numerous examples of the romanticized image, in literature, art and music, since the crusades and crusaders had all the right components; knightly valour, a campaign waged in a noble cause and the exoticism o f the East. They therefore naturally appealed to groups such as the Young England move­ ment and the Pre-Raphaelites. They also served the cause of nationalism, since most countries could find a royal or noble hero who bad gone on crusade and performed great deeds. Moreover, this period saw a growing interest in family history and which encouraged the identification of cru­ sade ancestors, with or without documentary evidence and supporting crusade relics. At the same time, however, there were those who took a more objective view, drawing on primary sources and who pointed out the negative as well as the positive aspects of crusading. Crusade historiography in this period is not as monochrome as some might suggest and key factors in the attitude of the various authors towards the crusading movement were their individual background and reason for writing, from the learned Anglican clergyman to the professional academic and secular journalist. The diver­ sity of contemporary opinion is also illustrated by the mixed views ex­ pressed about the crusading king Richard the Lionheart. There are many things which contribute towards the formation of an im­ age in an individual’s mind, from a description in words recalled from a children’s story to a poem, a picture, a popular song or a scene in an opera. And it is humbling to a historian to realise the relatively minor part played by scholarly analysis based on primary sources. Each nineteenth century image maker and receiver would have drawn upon their own image bank, but there is no doubt of the pervasive influence of Scott and Tasso. With some basic ingredients, there was then scope for elaboration by the indi­ vidual imagination and artistic inspiration. And the variations on the theme of the departing and returning crusader in the various artistic mediums provide an example of the often quite idiosyncratic range of imagery which could result. Popular usage and in particular media headlines suggest that the crusade image is still very much alive and well in the latter part of the twentieth century and the same variety of usage can be found in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As I have tried to show, the term crusade was applied to a number of contemporary military campaigns, even when, as in

CONCLUSION

189

the Crimean War, Christians fought in alliance with the Turks against fel­ low Christians. It was also, as now, used to promote a range of social cam­ paigns, from temperance to moral reform and provided a useful propa­ ganda weapon in the armoury of the anti-catholic movement in England and Ireland. If one tried to plot a graph with one line showing, in chronological order, political events in the Middle East during the nineteenth century, and the other the use of the crusade image in the same period, would the lines run in parallel? The answer is that in Britain, unlike for example France, there seems to be no clear and consistent correlation between the two. The cru­ sade image appears regularly throughout the period with no dramatic peaks and troughs. Not surprisingly, political developments in the East in, for example, the 1840s increased interest in the crusades, but there are only occasional examples of a precise linkage between history and contempo­ rary politics such as Stubbs’s lecture against the background of the Cyprus Convention and the massacres of Christians by the Turks in Bulgaria. Each use of the crusade image therefore deserves to be treated in its own right and it is this which, to my mind, makes the subject so diverse and interest­ ing.

APPENDIX A

A List o f such o f the English Nobility and Gentry as went on the Crusades, published in J.H. W iffen’s 1824 translation o f Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata Abeiin o f Labein, Nicholas de Agilon, Robert Agilon, W illiam de Albem arle, Stephen, Earl o f - led the rear o f the C hristian army at the Battle o f Antioch Albington, Philip de Albini, Philip de Albini Pincema, William de, second Earl o f Arundel, called William with the Strong Hand Albini, William de, third Earl of Arundel and first o f Sussex - remained with R i­ chard the First, the whole period of his captivity Albini, W illiam de, fourth Earl o f Arundel and second of Sussex Aleton, John Ansard Anselm, Chaplain to Henry Apuldorfeild, Henrye de, whose arms, won in valiant fight from the Saracens, were, in the time o f Weever, shewn by the sexton o f Lenham church Apelfourd, W illiam de Arcedeacon, Adam de Argentine, Richard de Argentine, Reginald de, Standard bearer at the battle of Antioch, carried the ban­ ner, till his arms and legs being broke, he was there slain Arthenus, a Welch nobleman Atheling, Edgar, with an army o f 10,000 men from Scotland and its Isles Aldithley, or Audley, James -W illiam Astley, Thom as de, of W arwickshire Autrine, W illiam de Badelismer, Raffe de Balliot, Eustace de Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, with a train o f 200 horse and 300 foot, his banner inscribed with the name of Thomas à Becket

APPENDIX A

191

Balun, John de Bardolphe, Hugh -William Barkele Barnes, Raffe de Barnev ille Basem es, Godefraye de B asset o f Drayton, Ralph -Symond -A stell de Bassingborne, Waren de Baud or Bauld, Symon de Boys Beaucham p or Beaunmont, Earl o f Warwick -W illiam de -Richard de, Earl o f Warwick Beaucham p o f Eaton, Hugh de, slain at the battle o f Tiberias -of A lcester and Powyk, W alter d -John de -W alter de Beaumont, Robert de, second Earl of Leicester, surnamed Blanchm ains -Robert de, third Earl, was taken prisoner by the Saracens, and paid 2000 m arks for ransom Beff, Gifford le Beices Hameris Bek o f Eresby, Hugh de -Anthony Berry Besace Betune, Baldewin de -John de Beuchamp, John de Bevent, Adame Bigot, Earl o f Norfolk Bikenor, John de Birmingham, W illiam de Blundeville, Ranulph de, third Earl of Chester Bodiham, W illiam de Bodville Bohun Henry, Earl o f Hereford -Humphrey, his son, Earl of Essex Bokesle Boliere, Baldwyn de Bonet, Hamond de Borheise, Hubert de Borgo Borne, John de

192

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Botone, Stephen de Boves, Hughe de Bovile, William Boun, John de Brackley Breouse, Philip de -W illiam de -Richard de -Renald de Brandes, Sir Bertram Bray Braybroke, Henry de Breton, John Bruce o f Annandale, Robert de -Sir W illiam de, slain at Aeon -Ingram de Bruere, Robert de Burblinge, William de Burchelle, Henry de Burnell, Robert Butler Byron, James Calverley Camoyes, John de Cam vill, Richard de, slain at Aeon -William de, drowned before Aeon -Roberte de Camwell, Sir Richard de Cantelow, John de Carone, or Carun, Baldwin de Carrington, Sir Michael, standard bearer to Richard the First, ancestor to the Smiths, Lords Carrington Cham berlayne, William de Cham berlayne, Phillype de Champayne, Roberte de Champernoun, Henrye de -John de C handler Chaworth o f Derbyshire, Pain de -Hervie de -Patrie de Chaworth, Thomas de Chene, Alexander de Chenegin, Robert or Roger de Chevenem, Andrew de Clare, Richard de, Earl of Gloucester and Hereford, died at Aeon

APPENDIX A

193

-Gilbert de, Earl o f Gloucester, his son -Thomas, G ilbert's brother, took prisoners four Saracens and brought them to England, in temp Henry the Third Clifford, Sir Robert de Clinge, William de Clinton, Roger de, Bishop of Litchfield, an ancestor of the Earls o f Lincoln and present Duke of Newcastle, slain in the Battle o f Antioch - John de, o f Coleshill, Warw. Clyfford, Roger Cobeham of Roundell, Henry de -John de Cokefield, Robert Cokyntone, Henry de Colvile, Geffrey de Corbet, Robert Cornwall, Richard Earl of -Henry, his son Cornwale, Robert de Cosinton, Estephin de Covert, Roger le Courcy Courtney, Joescelyn, made him self Count of Edessa Creon, Guy de Crepin, William de Creye, Symond de Criell, Robert de -Nicholas de Croxby Cudham, Olyver de -Robert de Dambesas, William Dancy, Guy de Daras, Cheselin de Darcy, Norman Daubeni, Raffe -Philippe -W illiam de Despreux, William, saved the life of Richard the First, when surrounded by a squad­ ron o f Saracen horse, by exclaiming *1 am the King of England!* Richard ransomed him of Saladin by exchange of ten emirs. Dethicke, of Dethicke Hall, Staff Dinant, Robert de -Oliver Dotavile, Walter de Dreux, John de, Earl of Richmond Dufford, Robert de

194

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Edward, Prince, son o f Henry III Eleanor his wife Einion, son o f Einion Clyd, Prince of Elven in Wales Elmham Erslynge, Raffe de Estornham , Bartolemew Estotevile or Stutevile, Robert de Eveby, R obert de Fasington Fenkeham, W illiam de Feringes, Lucas de Fem i, Philippe de Ferrars, William, Earl o f Derby •William -Robert Fiennes, Ingelram de, ancestor to the Lords Say and Sele Fitz Allen, John de -Henry Fitz Apuldorfeild, Henrye le Fitz Count Brien, o r Brien de Walingford -Henry, Earl o f Cornwall, son o f Reginald the natural son of Henry I Fitz Geffray, gentlem an o f the bedcham ber to Richard I - to his care the captive king o f Cyprus was com m itted Fitz Gerald, Warene de Fitz Gerard, standard bearer to Bohemond -M orris Fitz Hugh Fitz Humphrey, Walter Fitz John Fitz Lee, W illiam Fitz Nell, Robert Fitz Osbert Fitz Parnell, Robert, fourth Earl o f Leicester, bearing the arms o f Richard I, u n ­ horsed and slew the Soldan in tourney Fitz Ralph Fitz Roberts, Earl o f Leicester Fitz Roger, John Fitz Walter, Robert, Lord Fitz Waren, Fowlke de Flandres, Balwyne de -Constantine de Foncbe, Roger de Fortibus, W illiam de, Earl o f Albemarle, one o f R ichard’s admirals Furnivall, Girard de •Thomas de

APPENDIX A

Gatton, Hamon de Genville, Geffrey Giffard, David Gifford, Osberne de -Walter -Elys Gise, Auncell de Glanville, Ranulph de, Lord C hief Justice of England under Richard I Godfrey, brother of Henry III Goldsmith Gordun, Adam Gorges, Ralphe de Gosehalle, Raffe de Gournay, Girard de -Hugh de, divided the booty of Aeon between Richard and the French king Grandison, Otho de, Governor of Guernsey and Jersey Gras, Nicholas le Graye, Reginald de-Richard de Grentesm aisnil, W illiam de -Ivo de Grey o f Codnover, Richard de -Wilton, John de Gruffyth, o f the family of Rhys ap Gruffyth, Prince o f Wales Guader, or Wader, Ralph, Earl o f Norfolk and Suffolk -Emma, his wife Gyffard, Robert Hacket, Raffe de Hall Harcourt, William, Baron Hardres, Robert de Hastinge, John de -W illiam de Hastings Haulo, Nicholas de Hautreve, Ranulph de, Archdeacon of Colchester Hautem e Hector, o f Wales Helyon, Walter de Henry o f Huntingdon Henry, W illiam de Herice, Henry de Heringoe, William Hise, Nicholas de la Hilton Hornes, W illiam de Hengham, Robert de

195

196

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Humes Huntercom be, W illiam de Huntingfield, W illiam de -Peers de Huntingfyld, Cael de Hussy, Henry Ichingham , William Irie, Mathewe de Kent, W illiam de -Thomas de Kyme, W alter de, died at Aeon -Philippe de Kynnersley Kyrketon, Raffe de Labom e, William de Lacy, John de, Earl o f Lincoln -Henry -G ilbert de, Knight Templar, surprised Noreddin in his tent, and entirely defeated him -John de, Constable of Chester -Roger de, his son Lahaye, John de Lake, taken with King Richard, in Austria Lewkenor, Roger de Lamarc, John Lambume, John de Langele, Geffrey de Lapole, W alter de Latimer, William, ancestor to the celebrated reform er Leben, or Len, Nicholas de Lebom e, W illiam Legenne, W illiam Leiburne, Roger de Lestrange, Hamon de Levelande, Ralfe de Lewkenor, Roger de Lexby, Richard de, died at Aeon -Beringer, his brother Lindsay, Richard de Linet, Robert Longspee, W illiam, second Earl o f Salisbury -W illiam, his son Lovell, Philip -John

APPENDIX A

197

Lucenburth, W illiam de Lucy, W alter de -Geffraye, or Godfrey de -Emery de Luttrell Lyle, Gerard -Robert Lynnesey, Raffe de M acwire, W illiam de M aili, Gylles de M ales, John M alet, Robert M algo, son o f Cadwallon, Prince o f M elenia in Wales M alemeynes, Nicholas de M almaine, Henry de Malo, Roger, King R icharde Vice Chancellor M altrevers, Walter de M andeville, W illiam de, third Earl o f Essex, in the train of Philip, Earl of Flanders -Geffrey de, Earl of Essex -Richard M ansell, Robert, a native o f Wales, assisted G ilbert de Lacy in the defeat of Noureddin M antell, W illiam de Manvers, John de M anvesin, Henry de M arco of Wales M arconvile, Ralfe de Marely, Jebane de M arlet, Richard M annes, Thom as de M annion, William -Philippe M arshall, Gilbert, Earl o f Pem broke -John de M aube, W illiam M auley M eremone, Geffrey Mingee, Adam de M innot, Peter, slain at Aeon M inshul M oloun, Symone M oncey M onhault, Adam de M onnile, Benedick M ontait, Roger de M ontfort, Almaric de, Earl o f M ontfort and Leicester

198

THE NEW CRUSADERS

-Symon de, Earl o f Leicester -Hugh de M ontgom ery M orston, Barthole me we M ortimer, Robert M orwick, John de, Canon of York M ountjoye, Esteven de M ountforth, Peers de M onvile, Gilbert de Mowbray, Roger de, in the train o f Louis of Prance -Nigel de -John de Moy, Walter de M unceus, John de M ünchen, Stephen de, made one of the governors of Aeon by King Richard M unchesne, William de M unforte, Robert or Roger M usard, Raffe de M uschaf M untein, Robert de M uttans, Walter de Nell, Raffe de Neville, Alan de, C hief Justice o f the Forests throughout England Neville, Hugh de, slew a lion in the H. L. first shooting him with an arrow, and then fighting him with his sword: the deed was recorded in a monkish hex­ ameter, 4Viribus Hugonis vires periere leonis*: he lies buried in W altham church Nevylle, Lawrence Neureford, William Nigel 1 o f Kent Normanvile, Raphe de Northie, W illiam de Northwood, Roger de Numchams, Stephen de, brother to the Bishop of Ely, made one of the governors o f Aeon Odingselle, William de Okstede, Roland de Oldeham, Thomas de Ore, Nicholas de -Richard de Oreby, Philip de Orleston, William de Otigedene, Ralfe de Parke, Henry de

APPENDIX A

199

Pancevot, Grym bolde de Paynell or Pagnel, William -Thomas Pecham, John de Peche, G ilbert -John Peyfrer, W illiam de Pembryge, Henry Penecester, Pynchester, or de Penshurst, Estephyn, Lord Warden o f the Cinque Ports under Edward I Percy, Ralph, son to the first Earl o f Northumberland -W illiam de -Henry de -John de Perdu Perot, Raffe Pierrepoint, Robert -Symone Pesone, Nicholas de P everell, Pain, standard bearer to Duke Robert -Thomas Philipps Pigot, Henry, seneschal to Earl Warren and Surry Pinkney Pipard, G ilbert Plantagenet, Richard rex -Henry Plokenet, Alen de Poltimor, Lucas de Poole, W illiam de Poynge, Lucas de Preston, William de Purcell, W illiam Pusac Quincy, Sayer de, Earl o f W inchester -Robert, his son -Robert de, Earl of Leicester Ralle, Henry de Ralph, Archdeacon of Colchester, died at Aeon Richmond, Auncell de, slain before the Castle of Arches, on the way to Jerusalem, in the first crusade Rochford, Ellis de Rode, W illiam de Rome, Roger de Romevalle or Romenalle, Ralfe

200

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Roosse, Robert de •or Ross o f Hamlake, W illiam de Ros, W alter de Russell, ancestor to the Dukes o f Bedford Saint Albans, Robert de, a Knight Templar, deserted to Saladin, and m ade an un­ successful attem pt to surprise Jerusalem -Aubrey, G ilbert de -John, John de St Leger, William de -Raffe de St Liz, Simon de, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland St Quintin, Robert de St Valerie, Bernard de Sakevile, Sir Robert -Adame de Salisbury, Bishop o f Sand air, Thom as de Santaver, Hughe Santone, Bartholemew Savage, Raffe de Savoy, Peter de, Earl o f Richmond Saye, W illiam de Scales, Henry de Scoveney, John de Scott, David, Earl o f Huntingdon, brother to William, King of Scotland Scotto, Roben de Scroop of Barton, Robert, died at Aeon -Walter, died at Aeon Segrave, Nicholas de Silligheld, John de Silvester, seneschal o f the Archbishop o f Canterbury Sintmore, Lawrence de Sodan, Stephen de Somerye, Robert de -Symone de Spencer, Hughe de Stafford, Hughe de, Earl of Stafford Staverton, John de Stopeham, Raffe de Strange, John le Stuart Stuteville, Osmond de Suard Sully Talbot, Gerard

APPENDIX A

201

-Roger de Tame, Richard Tamworth, Gyles de Tancre, Bertram de Theodore, Prior o f the Hospitallers Tibetot, Sir Robert de Tilmaston, Roger de Tilney, Frederic Tony, Raffe de Traseme, Otes de Tregoz, Henry -John Tryvet Tuithman, Alain de Tupigen, W alter de Turkevyle, Hughe Turnham, Robert de Tychesey, Thom as de Tyrrel, Walter Ufford, Robert de Valence, Sir W illiam de, uncle to Prince Edward -Aymer de, Earl o f Pembroke Valentine Valoynes, Walrois de Vantour, John de Vaux, Ranulph de -John de Vel, Robert le Vennor o f Pomfret, Robert de Vere, Roger de, nat. son of Aubrey de Vere, second Earl of Oxford Vere, Aubrey de, third Earl of Gisney, Great Chamberlain o f England, recovered by his sword the Christian banner, captured at the battle of Antioch Verdun, Bertram de, appointed one of the governors of Aeon -John de -Theobald Vescy, John de -W illiam de Viene, Lucas de Vile, Ansele de Vipont, Robert de Wake, Baldwyn de Wale Waleis, Richard W alleran, Earl o f M ellent and Leicester

202

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Walter, Hubert, Archbishop of Salisbury Wanton W illiam de W arbeton, Thomas Warde, Robert de Ware, Roger le Warren, W illiam de, third Earl o f Warren and Surrey W atervile, Sir William Welles, Symon de Willoughby, W illiam de -o f Eresby W ilton, Raffe de W itefelde, Robert de W odebith, Raffe de Wotingby, Bartelmew de Zouch, Aleyn -W illiam

APPENDIX B

Suggestions for the Christian Occupation o f the Holy Land as a Sovereign State by the Order o f St John o f Jerusalem by Sir William Hillary The Christian occupation of the Holy Land has, for many centuries, been the most momentous of any subject which has ever engaged the attention of mankind. Nearly a thousand years ago it called forth the religious and warlike enthusiasm of the Christian and the Moslem through almost every region of Europe and Asia. This great contest occupied a longer space of time - called more numerous armies into the field - produced a greater display of chivalric and hardy valour, but attended with the most appalling sacrifice of blood and treasure, of any cause in which human ambition, enthusiasm or superstition were ever engaged. From the first crusade to the conquest of Jerusalem by Godfrey of Bouil­ lon, in 1099, millions on both sides perished in this sanguinary contest. The Christian monarchy in Palestine was one continued scene of foreign war or desperate contest during the eighty eight years in which its kings occupied their precarious throne, until worn out by the perpetual drain upon the valour and the treasure of the European princes, whose jealousies of each other prevented them from acting with united energy, and hard pressed by the warlike and ambitious Saladin, Jerusalem was lost and the Saracens over ran the Holy Land, which even the super human valour of our lionhearted king could not recover, though his brilliant deeds of arms placed his renowned name at the head of the chivalry of Christendom. From that period the great military Orders of St John of Jerusalem, the Templars, and the Teutonic knights, in many a bloody field desperately defended all which remained of the Christian name in Palestine, until St John of Acre was taken, after the three Grand Masters of those Orders had fallen in battle, and their gallant knights were almost exterminated. Thus the crusades may be said to have terminated, after a most desperate and devastating struggle of many centuries, and all for which Christian zeal and enthusiasm had so long contended has to the present day remained under the Mohammedan yoke, and the Christians and the Jews have never

204

‘HIE NEW CRUSADERS

since been more than tolerated sojourners in the Holy Land, subjected in their devotional pilgrimages to the caprice, the extortion, and the oppres­ sion of the despotic satraps by which it has in succession been ruled. But in these eventful times in which we live, how wonderfully have the scenes changed! and after a lapse of six centuries we once more see the standards of England and Austria floating over the walls of St John o f Acre, that renowned fortress so gallantly taken and so long defended in the olden time by the redoubted chivalry of Europe against the Saracens, and more recently by the heroic Sir Sidney Smith against that mixture o f all faiths, led by Napoleon in person, only to be repulsed from before its walls. But now we see the crescent standard of the Sultan also displayed upon its towers, side by side with the proud banners o f England and her allies; and are we then to witness Acre and the Holy Land wrested by Christian prowess from the infidel Pacha of Egypt to be delivered up to the Sultan Sovereign of the Mohammedan creed. Only recently England, France and Russia took Greece from the Turk to place a Christian king upon its throne; but Syria, with as large a population of Christians as Greece, we conquer from one infidel to give it up to an­ other. In wbat an anomaly are we placing ourselves - There is an incongruity in these things, founded more upon the expediency of the moment than on the great and unchangeable principles of justice and of truth. Is not Syria as worthy as Greece to have a Christian king? Are the classical associations which had so much influence upon the affairs of Greece more powerful than the Christian recollections which must forever remain inseparable from the Holy Land? Shall the ardent devotions of the disciples of Mohammed for the tomb of their prophet exceed the veneration of Christendom for the sepulchre of their Redeemer? It seems universally agreed that Syria must not be restored to the Egyp­ tians, and almost all equally agree that the dominions of Mehemet Ali, and those of the Sultan, at least on the shores of the Mediterranean, in order to prevent perpetual hostilities, ought to be separated by some third power; and does it not inevitably follow that this third power should be a Christian state? To this project the complicated politics of Christendom might raise up almost insuperable obstacles to a sufficient union and cooperation in such a measure, and it might prove difficult to agree from what Christian church, and from what nation such Sovereign should be chosen. To obviate these difficulties let the Sovereign Order of St John of Jerusa­ lem be restored to its original splendour. Let it be patronized and sup­ ported by all the great powers of Christendom, and remodelled where nec­ essary and practicable to suit the important occasion. And let the Pachalics of Gaza, of Acre, (in which are situated Jerusalem and other places cel­ ebrated in sacred history) and, perhaps, the mountain regions of Christian Lebanon be placed under their Sovereign rule, paying only a stipulated

APPENDIX B

205

and certain annual revenue to the Sultan, and let the perpetual neutrality and possession be solemnly guaranteed to the Order, not only by all the Christian, but also the Mohammedan powers, and in return the future in­ tegrity of his remaining dominion should be equally secured to the Sultan; but, to remove all jealousies, and to avoid too great preponderance to France, by her having, as at present, three separate langues of the Order, it would become requisite that each of the great European monarchies, who were parties to this measure, should possess one langue; varying in the respec­ tive number of knights according to the relative importance of the several powers. The Order of St John, or of Malta, yet remains sufficiently organised to be qualified to take its part in this measure. The various langues or nations o f which the Order is composed, are in cordial cooperation with each other throughout Europe; its constitution is susceptible of being re-established on the basis of that of Malta and the future Grand Masters and the dignitar­ ies should be elected accordingly. Such a measure as this would be a worthy, though tardy, act of justice to the ancient and illustrious Order of St John, by the fortune o f war, and the events of the French revolution, deprived of that high place which it so long held amongst the independent states of Christendom. Its splendid harbours, its impregnable fortresses, its stately palaces, raised by their pred­ ecessors at so vast a cost of labour and of treasure, and so long bravely defended with their best blood, have now become one of the most impor­ tant possessions of the British crown, but with more of power than magna­ nimity, without one compensation having been made to that much injured and noble fraternity. Upon every principle acknowledged, and in most cases acted upon, at the Congress of Vienna - viz ‘that if any principality, from imperious circumstances, could not be restored to its legitimate own­ ers, they should be indemnified for the loss by the cession of an equivalent state/ the Order ought to have had, but were denied, all indemnity for the enormous losses they had sustained. The concession now proposed would meet every claim of retributive jus­ tice, and remove many obstacles to peace and harmony amongst the great powers of Europe, which are perpetually endangered by the affairs of the East. Under such an arrangement the strong claims of the descendants of the houses of Judea and Israel on their fatherland should be met in the most magnanimous manner. In Palestine it is not enough that their faith should be tolerated; they should have their religion, their temple, their rites, and usages guaranteed to them, as citizens of a free state; the Mohammedan should have his mosque, his religion, and his rights firmly secured. And every sect of the Christian faith should have equal laws and equal rights under the sovereign rule of the Order of St John. The subjects of every nation, guaranteeing the sovereignty and neutrality of the Order, should equally enjoy the commercial rights and the civil privi­

206

THE NEW CRUSADERS

leges of the most favoured people, and with so many safeguards for the protection of person and property, with the ports open to the commercial navies of the whole world, it is most unquestionable that Palestine would soon become the great emporium of the Levant, the sources of wealth and traffic would be opened with all the interior of Asia, and uninterrupted commmunications with the Euphrates and the Tigris, and all the rich and boundless territories of the East, would be effectually secured. The rev­ enues of the Order would thus become ample for the support of its own government and the payment of its stipulated income to the Sultan, with­ out placing any heavy burdens on the people. Numerous bodies o f knights from all the Christian langues would once more flock to Palestine, either for temporary or constant abode, carrying with them the wealth and the civilisation of Europe, while the British langue would be nobly recruited by many of her naval and military heroes, by whose prowess Syria has been so lately won, enrolling themselves under its banner. It would not be requisite, in order to secure all these great objects, that the Sultan should be deprived of his wide, extended, and rich dominions of Damascus, Antioch, Tripoli, and the northern coast o f Syria, between which and Palestine a permanent boundary line should be established by compe­ tent authorities; but the powerful aid given by Britain to the youthful Sul­ tan in the hour of his utmost need, and the splendid deeds of arms and the prowess of her naval and military forces under the gallant Stopford, Napier, Walker, Smith, and other brave officers, in conjunction with a small Aus­ trian division, with her intrepid Archduke, must entitle England to take a leading part in these negotiations, in order to have her future interests se­ cured, and the important point established, that her uninterrupted inter­ course with India and Central Asia, through the dominions restored to the Sultan, should be unequivocally recognised and guaranteed. At this extraordinary crisis of the affairs of the East, this great question each day forces itself with increased interest on the minds and feelings of almost every Christian people, accompanied by the deepest anxiety that this most auspicious moment may not be lost, but that one common effort should be made to stimulate the Powers, parties to the Treaty of the 15th of July last, in conjunction with France, to establish the Holy Land as a Chris­ tian and a Sovereign State, upon the most firm and permanent foundation, by which, above every other measure, would be secured the peace and happiness of the Christian and Mohammedan world. The Emperors of Austria and Russia, the King of the French, and many illustrious Sovereigns and Princes of Europe, are already members of the Order of St John of Jerusalem; it therefore may be permitted to conclude, that a measure which would conduce so highly to its dignity, and at the same time secure the ascendancy of the Christian name in the Holy Land, would have their cordial and powerful support. The restoration of the Order of St John to its former state and dignity - of once more becoming the protector and defender of Palestine, appears to be

APPENDIX B

207

the great connecting link in that chain, through which alone, perhaps, could the contending and conflicting interests of so many great and powerful nations be brought cordially to adopt any one measure as common to all. On this comprehensive scale might be based those mutual arrangements to which France would feel it, in accordance with her honour and her inter­ ests warmly to accede, as a member of this great Alliance; and thus that estrangement, which, after twenty five years of peace, had unhappily arisen between that kingdom and the allies, might be effectually removed, and the affairs of the East and the balance of power in Europe be permanently and honourably adjusted, and secured on principles calculated to endure,, and long to avert the calamities of war from so many nations.

APPENDIX C

Salles des croisades at Versailles - list o f subjects and artists Dates (from Constans catalogue of paintings at Versailles, Paris, 1995) o f original commission and Salon exhibition.

Room 1 Coats of arms of those who had taken part in the first three crusades

Paintings R oger o f Sicily and Saracens at siege o f Salerno c. 1016 - Eugène Roger 1839 (exhibited 1840) Robert Guiscard, Duke o f Apulia - M erry Joseph Blondel 1843 Roger, Count o f Sicily - Blondel 1843 Robert Guiscard captures Pope Leo IX at battle o f Civitate, 1053 - Adolphe Roger 1840 (exh 1842) Contest at Ceramo 1061 - Prosper Lafaye 1838 (exh 1839) Henry o f Burgundy being invested as Count o f Portugal, 1094 - Claudius Jacquand 1838 (exh 1842) Raymond, St Gilles, Count o f Toulouse - Blondel 1843 Bohemond, Prince o f Antioch - Blondel 1843 Odo, D uke o f Burgundy - Blondel 1843 A lexis Comnenus receiving Peter the Hermit, 1096 - Gillot Saint Évre 1839 A doption o f Godfrey o f Bouillon by Comnenus, 1097 - Alexandre Hesse 1838 (exh 1842) Crossing o f the Bosphorus by Godfrey o f Bouillon and his brother Baldwin, 1097 - Emile Signol (exh 1855) Battle o fN icaea, 1097 - Calixte Joseph Serrar 1838 Contest between Robert o f Normandy and a Saracen, 1098 - Jean Dassy 1838 Contest at Harim, February 1098 - O scar Gue 1842 Capture o f Antioch, June 1098 - Louis G allait 1838 (exh Brussels 1842 and copy in M usée royale d ’art et de l’histoire, Brussels) Battle o f Antioch, 1098 - Frederic Henri Schopin 1838 (exh 1840) Capture o f Albara, 1098 - Edouard Pingret 1842 (exh 1845) Capture o f Marrah, 1098 - Henri Decaisne 1842 (exh 1844) Capture o f Jerusalem, July 1099 - Signol 1842 (exh 1848) G odfrey o f B o u illo n e le c te d kin g o f Jeru sa lem , J u ly 1099 - F ré d é ric d e M adrazol837 (exh 1839)

APPENDIX C

209

Room II Coats of arms from first five crusades

Paintings Eustace II, Count o f Boulogne - Edouard Alexandre O dier 1843 Baldwin II, King o f Jerusalem - Odier 1843 Alan, Duke o f Brittany - Odier 1843 Battle ofA scalon, A ugust 1099 - Jean Victor Schnetz 1842 (exh 1848) Godfrey o f Bouillon presenting the trophies o f Ascalon to the Holy Sepulchre — François M arius Granet 1838 (exh 1840) Funeral o f Godfrey o f Bouillon, July 1100 - Edouard Cibot 1838 (exh 1839) Capture o f Tripoli 1102 - Alexandre Debacq 1838 Josselin o f Courtenay, Count o fE d essa - Odier 1843 Battle o f Jaffa 1102 - Serrur 1842 Capture o f Beirut, M ay 1109 - Eugène Modest Edmond Lepoitevin 1842 (exh 1845) Defence o f Cilicia by Raym ond Dupuy, Grand M aster Hospitallers 1130 - Cibot 1842 (exh 1845) Raym ond Dupuy taken prisoner by Turks 1130 - Cibot 1842 (exh 1845) St Bernard preaching the Second Crusade - Signol 1838 (exh 1839) Chapter o f Order o f Temple at Paris, A pril 1147 - Granet 1842 (exh 1845) Louis VII takes banner o f the cross at St Denis 1147 - Jean Baptiste M auzaisse 1838

Room III Coats of arms from Louis IX’s first crusade

Paintings Battle ofA scalon, N ovem ber 1 1 7 7 - Charles Philippe Larivière 1842 (exh 1844) Guy o f Lusignan, King o f Jerusalem and Cyprus - Francois Edouard Picot 1843 Conrad, Marquis o f Tyre - Picot 1843 Meeting o f Philip Augustus and Henry II at Gisors, January 1188 - Saint Évre 1838 Frederick I o f Germany - Picot 1843 Philip Augustus taking banner o f the cross at St Denis, June 1 1 9 0 - Pierre Revoil 1840 (exh 1841) Battle o fA r s u f 1191 - Eloi Finnin Féron 1842 (exh 1844) Capture o f Beirut 1197 - Hesse 1842 Boniface o f M ontferrat elected leader o f Fourth Crusade 1201 - Decaisne 1847 (exh 1848) Treaty between crusaders and Venetians 1201 - Charles Caius Renoux 1839 (exh 1840)

210

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Baldwin I, Count o f Flanders, Latin Emperor - Picot 1843 Baldwin crowned Emperor, May 1204 - Louis G allait 1842 (exh 1848) (sketches at Tournai and Brussels) John o f Brienne, King o f Jerusalem and Latin Emperor - Picot 1843 Andrew o f Hungary receiving Order o f St John o f Jerusalem 1218 - St Évre 1842

Room IV Coals of arms of crusaders and military orders 1248-1553

Paintings Recapture o f castle o f Jaffa 1192 - Edouard Girardet 1842 Departure o f Louis IX f o r D amietta, June 1249 - Georges Rouget 1838 Louis IX receives Patriarch o f Jerusalem at Damietta 1249 - O scar Gué 1842 Walter o f Châtillon at Mansurah - Karl Girardet 1842 (exh 1844) Philip III o f France - Alexandre Laemlein 1843 William o f Clermont defends Acre 1291 - Dominique Louis Papety 1842 Jacques Molay takes Jerusalem 1299 - Jacquand 1842 (exh 1846) Capture o f Rhodes, August 1310 - Féron 1839 (exh 1840) N aval battle o f Episcopia 1323 - Auguste Etienne François M ayer 1838 Capture o f Smyrna 1344 - Debacq 1838 (exh 1845) N aval battle o f Imbros 1346 - LePoitevin 1835 (exh 1842) K nights o f St John in Arm enia 1347 - Henri Delaborde 1842 (exh 1845) Philip o f Artois, Constable o f France - Laemlein 1843 John the Fearless, Duke o f Burgundy - Laemlein 1843 Jean Boucicault, M arshal o f France - Laemlein 1843 R e lie f o f siege o f Constantinople 1402 - Jean Pierre Granger 1838 (exh 1840) Chapter General o f Order o f St John at Rhodes 1514 - Jacquand 1838 (exh 1839)

Room V Arms of principal crusaders

Paintings P eter the Hermit - Leon de Lestang - Parade 1838 Adhem ar o f Le Puy - Blondel 1846 Godfrey o f Bouillon, King o f Jerusalem - Signol 1842 (exh 1844)4 Baldwin, King o f Jerusalem - Blondel 1844 Tancred, Prince o f Tiberias - Blondel 1844 Hugh o f Vermandois - Decaisne 1843 Robert, Duke o f Normandy - Decaisne 1843 Robert, Count o f Flanders - Decaisne 1843 Tancred takes possession o f Bethlehem, June 1099 - Revoil 1838 (exh 1840)

APPENDIX C

211

Tancred on M ount o f Olives 1099 - Signol 1840 A rrival o f crusaders before Jerusalem 1099 - Signol 1840 Procession o f crusaders around Jerusalem July 1099 - Schnetz 1838 (exh 1841 Godfrey o f Bouillon holds fir st assizes o f Jerusalem January 1100 - Jules Jollivet 1838 Raym ond du Puy - Laemlein 1842 (exh 1842) Establishm ent o f Order o f Hospitallers February 1113 - Decaisne 1838 (exh 1842) Count o f Tripoli receives surrender o f Tyre - Alexandre Francois Cam inade 1838 Hugh ofP a yn s, fir s t Grand M aster o f the Temple - Henri Lehmann 1840 Establishm ent o f Order o f the Temple 1128 - Granet 1840 (exh 1841) Pope Eugenius II receiving ambassadors fro m Jerusalem 1145 - Hortense Victoire Lescot Haudebourt 1838 (exh 1840) Louis V I I - Signol 1840 Henry o f Champagne - Decaisne 1843 St Bernard - Lestang-Parade 1840 Capture o f Lisbon, October 1147 - Auguste François Desmoulins 1838 Louis VII crossing the M aeander 1148 - Tony Johannot 1838 (exh 1842) Louis VII at Latakia 1148 - Antoine Felix Boisselier 1838 (copy of earlier paint­ ing at Fontainbleau) Assem bly o f crusaders at Acre 1148 - Debacq 1838 (exh 1840) Capture o fA sca lo n 1152 - Sebastien Com u 1838 (exh 1841) Battle o f Putaha 1159 - Feron 1838 Philip Augustus - Signol 1840 Richard I - Blondel 1840 A lbéric Clement, M arshal o f France - Decaisne 1843 Death o f Albéric Clement at siege o f Acre July 1191 - Alexandre Evariste Fragonard 1838 Acre taken by Philip and Richard, July 1191 - Blondel 1838 (exh 1841) Margaret o f France leading Hungarians on 1196 crusade - Pingret 8183 (exh 1839) Capture o f Constantinople 1204 - Eugène Delacroix (exh 1841) Capture o f Damietta 1219 - Delaborde 1838 Louis IX - Signol 1842 (exh 1844) Robert, Count o f A rtois - Decaisne 1843 Alphonse, Count o f Poitiers and Toulouse - Decaisne 1843 Charles o f A njou - Decaisne 1843 Jean de Joinville, seneschal o f Champagne - Blondel 1846 F u it de Villaret, Grand M aster o f St John - Eugène G oyet 1840 (exh 1841) Pierre Aubusson, Grand M aster o f St John - Odier 1838 R elief o f siege o f Rhodes July 1480 - Odier 1838 (exh 1841) Philippe Villiers de l ’Isle Adam, Grand M aster o f S t John - St Évre 1840 Knights o f St John at Viterbo 1527 - Auguste Hyacinthe Debay 1840 (exh 1842) De l ’Isle Adam takes possession o f Malta O ctoberl530 - Rene Theodore Berthon 1838 (exh 1839) Jean Parisot de la Valette, Grand M aster - Larivière 1840 R elief o f siege o f Malta Septem ber 1565 - Larivière 1838 (exh 1843)

Select Bibliography The main secondary works or sources are identified in the text. This bibli­ ography, arranged by chapter, is intended only to highlight some key background texts or analyses:

Chapter One Historiography The main analyses of crusade historiography are: A.S. Atiya, The Cru­ sade: Historiography and Bibliography (Bloomington, Indiana, 1962); T.S.R. Boase, ‘Recent developments in crusading historiography’, History, xxii (1937), 110-25; G.P. Gooch, History and Historians in the nineteenth century (London, 1913); J.L. La Monte, ‘Some problems in crusading historiography’, Speculum , xv (1940), 56-75; H. E. Mayer, Bibliographie zur geschickte der Kreuzzüge (Hanover,1960); C. Tyerman, The Invention o f the Crusades (London, 1998). There are studies of the library of Edward G ibbon by G. Keynes (Dorchester, 2nd edn 1980) and the Dukes of Devonshire at Chats worth, by J. Lacaita (1879) and the Dictionary o f National Biography provides a useful point of reference for the biographies of some of the main histori­ ans. Agnes Strickland was the subject of biographies by her sister J.M. Strickland (1887) and U. Pope-Hennessy (1940) and S.M. Ellis, The Soli­ tary Horseman (1927) wrote about the life and adventures of G.P.R. James. I have written previously about the influence of Tasso, J. E. Siberry, ‘Tasso and the Crusades: history of a legacy’, in Journal o f Medieval History, xix (1993), 163-9. See also C.P. Brand, Torquato Tasso: A Study o f the Poet and his Contribution to English Literature (Cambridge, 1965). For recent work on French crusade historiography, see M. Marrinan, ‘His­ torical Vision and the Writing of History at Louis-Philippe’s Versailles’ and K. Munholland, ‘Michaud’s History of the Crusades and the French Crusade in Algeria under Louis Phillipe’, in P. Ten-Doesschate Chu and G.P. Weisberg, ed. The Popularization o f Images: Visual Culture under the July Monarchy (Princeton, 1994), 113-65 and A. Knobler, ‘Saint Louis and French Political Culture’ in Studies in Medievalism, ed. L. J. Work­ man and K. Verduin, vol. viii (Cambridge, 1996), 156-74.

Chapter Two The crusade ancestor and hero For general studies of the national contribution to crusading, see S. Lloyd,

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

213

English Society and the Crusade 1216-1307 (Oxford, 1988); A. Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades, 1095-1560 (Edinburgh, 1985) and C. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095-1588 (Chicago, 1988). J.S.C. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders 1095-1131 (Cambridge, 1997) has more recently used the primary source material for the First Crusade to analyse the participa­ tion of various family groups and there were of course the lists of English crusaders by J.H. Wiffen (1824) and J.C. Dansey (1849). The sources for later traditions about the crusades such as the Haigh story are E. Baines, The History o f the County Palatine and Duchy o f Lancaster, vol. iv (1891); B. Blakeman, Wigan: a historical souvenir (1996) and J. • Roby, Popular Traditions o f Lancashire, 3 vols (London 1841). V. Anderson has published a useful history of The De Veres o f Castle Hedingham (Lavenham, Suffolk, 1993); for the Walpole story see Selected Letters o f Horace Walpole ed. W.S. Lewis (Oxford, 1951) and O.G.S. Croft wrote a history of his family, The House o f Croft o f Croft Castle (Hereford, 1949). For the Wiffens, see The Brothers Wiffen, Memoirs and Miscellanies ed. S.R. Pattison (1880) and J.H. Wiffen, Historical Memoirs o f the House o f Russell (1883). References to the alleged Brougham crusaders can be found in W. Brougham,’The Tombs of the De Brobam Family’, Archaeological Journal iv 1847, 59-61; G.T. Garratt, Lord Brougham (London, 1935); C.W. New, Life o f Henry Brougham to 1830 (Oxford, 1961) and M. Tho­ mas, A History o f Brougham Hall and High Head Castle (Chichester 1992). For the stories of crusade relics such as the Talisman, see W.C. Hazlitt, Faiths and Folklore : A Dictionary (1905) and T. Reid, T h e Lee Penny’ in Proceedings o f the Society o f Antiquaries o f Scotland, vol. lvii (1922-23), 112-19. The legend of the Luck of Edenhall is described in a guide pro­ duced by the Victoria and Albert Museum (London, 1976), H. Tait, T h e Palmer Cup and related glasses exported to Europe in the Middle Ages’ in Gilded and Enammelled Glass from the Middle East’, ed. R. Ward (Lon­ don, 1998), 45-63 and M. Lefebure, Cumberland Herbage (London, 1970). See also E. Mason, ’Legends of the Beauchamp Ancestors: the use of ba­ ronial propaganda in medieval England,’ Journal o f Medieval History, x (1984), 25-30. The study of heraldry requires a bibliography in its own right, but see G.E. Cockayne, Complete Peerage o f England, Scotland and Ireland (1910); Debrett’s Illustrated Peerage, Baronage, Knightage and Companionage; A.C. Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry (London, 1969); C.W. Scott-Giles, The Romance o f Heraldry (rev. edn 1967) and The Oxford Guide to Heraldry (1988). For the Salles des croisades and the Courtois forgeries see D. Abulafia, ’Invented Italians in the Courtois Charters’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. P.W. Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), 135-47 and the more recent articles by Knobler, Marrinan and Munholland quoted above. The paintings themselves

214

THE NEW CRUSADERS

have been catalogued by C. Constans, Musée national du Chateau le Ver­ sailles: Les Peintures, 3 vols (Paris, 1993) and Notice du Musée Imperial de Versailles, ed. E. Soulié, 2 vols (Paris, 1859-80) and the names o f those whose armorial bearings were included in the design are listed in C. Gavard, Versailles - Salles des Croisades (Paris, 1844). The history of the Young England movement is set out in R. Faber, Young England (London, 1987) and C. Whibley, Lord John Manners and his Friends, 2 vols (London, 1923). For Richard the Lionheart as a literary hero, see J.R. Gillingham, ‘Some legends of Richard the Lionheart: their development and influence’, in J.L. Nelson ed. Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth (London, 1992), 51-69 and G.H. Needier, Richard Coeur de Lion in Literature (Leipzig, 1890). There is a biography of Eleanor Porden by Mrs Gell (London, 1930). For Louis IX, see W.C. Jordan, ‘Saint Louis in French Epic and Drama’, Studies in Medievalism viii, 174-95.

Chapter Three Travellers and plenipotentiaries The main travel narratives are cited in the text, but there is useful back­ ground and bibliography in M. Gilbert, Jerusalem The Rebirth o f a City (London, 1985). See also N. Shepherd, The Zealous Intruders (London, 1987). The Kaiser’s pilgrimage is described in A. Palmer, The Kaiser: Warlord o f the Second Reich (New York, 1978); E. Swinglehurst, The Ro­ mantic Journey. The Story o f Thomas Cook and Victorian Travel (London, 1974) and W. Treloar, With the Kaiser in the East in 1898 (London, 1915). For Chateaubriand, see F. Basson, Chateaubriand et la Terre Sainte (Paris, 1959) and Disraeli’s Grand Tour is the subject of a monograph by R. Blake (Oxford, 1982). Mrs. Finn’s own Reminiscences were published in 1929.

Chapter Four Crusading warfare The main secondary works on Sir Sidney Smith are J. Barrow, Life and Correspondence o f Sir William Sidney Smith, 2 vols (London, 1848); T. Pocock, A Thirst fo r Glory: Life o f Admiral Sir Sidney Smith (London, 1997); Lord Russell of Liverpool, Knight o f the Sword: The Life and Let­ ters o f Admiral Sir Sidney William Smith (London,1964); P. Shankland, Bewate o f Heroes - Admiral Sir Sidney Smith ’s war against Napoleon (Lon­ don, 1975). The minute book of the English langue and volumes of correspondence, both to be found in the Library of the Order of St John at Clerkenwell, London, are the key sources for the discussion of Sir William Hillary’s

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

215

crusading plans. They are quoted here with the kind permission o f the li­ brarian. Clerkenwell, the RNLI Library at Poole and the British Library all have copies of Hillary’s pamphlets - Suggestions and the Address. Hillary has an entry in the Dictionary o f National Biography, Suppl, x x ii, pp.8478 and there is also a lifeboat biography by R. Kelly, For Those in Peril (Douglas, Isle of Man, 1971). More generally, the history of the military orders in Britain in the nineteenth century is discussed in J.S.C. RileySmith, ’The English Order of St John 1827-58’ andJ.E. Siberry, ’Victorian Perceptions of the Military Orders’, both in The Military Orders - Fight­ ing for the Faith and Caring fo r the Sick, ed. M. Barber (Aldershot,1994). For the imagery of holy war during the Crimean War, see O. Anderson, ’The Crimean War, The Reactions of the Church and Dissent towards them’, Journal o f Ecclesiastical History, xvi (1965), 209-20 and J.S. Bratton, ‘Theatre of war: The Crimea on the London Stage 1854-5’, in Perform­ ance and politics in popular drama: Aspects o f popular entertainment in theatre, film and television 1800-1976, ed. D. Bradley (Cambridge, 1980). There are numerous works on the Eastern Question, but R.T. Shannon, Gladstone and the Bulgarian Agitation 1876 (2nd edn 1975) was particu­ larly useful in this context. For William Stead, see J.W. Robertson Scott, The Life and Death o f a Newspaper (London, 1952); John Bright’s speech at Birmingham is printed in The Public Addresses o f John Bright MP ed. J.E.T. Rogers (London, 1879) and other contemporary perspectives are provided by the Duke of Argyll, Our Responsibilities for Turkey - Facts and memories o f Forty Years ( London, 1896) and M. MacColl, Three Years o f the Eastern Question ( London, 1878). A number of the French crusade pamphlets published in 1860 can be found in the British Library. For a biography General Gordon, see J. Pollock, Gordon - The Man be­ hind the Legend (London, 1993).

Chapter Five First world war For analyses of the Anglican church and the war, see A. Marrin, The Last Crusade: The Church o f England in the First World War (Durham, North Carolina, 1974); S. P. Mews, Religion and English Society in the First World War (Cambridge PhD thesis 1974) and A. Wilkinson, The Church o f Eng­ land in the First World War (London, 1978). There is a biography of Bishop Winnington-Ingram by S.C. Carpenter (London, 1949) and the main col­ lections of sermons are B.C. Bourcbier, For all we have and are (London, 1915); P. B. Bull, Peace and War: Notes o f sermons and addresses (Lon­ don, 1917); F. Homes Dudden, The Heroic Dead and other sermons (London, 1917) and The Problem o f Human Suffering and the War (Lon­

216

THE NEW CRUSADERS

don, 1916) and J. Plowden Wardlaw, The Test o f War (London, 1916). The imagery in medieval cnisade sermons is discussed in J.E. Siberry, Criti­ cism o f crusading, 1095-1274 (Oxford, 1985). Other relevant works are P. Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford, 1975); P. Hassall, Rupert Brooke (London, 1964); C. F. Kemot, British Public School War Memorials (London, 1927); P. Parker, The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public School Ethos (London, 1987) and A. P. Wavell, Allenby, Soldier and Statesman (London, 1940).

C h ap ter Six A crusade miscellany For the anti catholic movement, see R.A. Billington, The Protestant Cru­ sade 1800-6: A Study o f the Origins o f American Nativism (New York, 1938); D. Bowen, The Protestant Crusade in Ireland (Toronto, 1978); D.N. Hempton, ‘The Methodist Crusade in Ireland, 1795-1845’, Irish Histori­ cal Studies xxii (1980-1), 33-49 ; P.T. Phillips, ‘Alexander R.C. Dallas :Tbe Warrior Saint’, in The View from the Pulpit: Victorian Ministers and Society (Toronto, 1978), 17-45 and J. Wolffe, The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain 1829-60 (Oxford, 1991). The Woolwich crusade is discussed in a report issued by the Southwark diocese, published by SPCK (1918) and journals such as The Commonwealth and Church Times. R. Groves has written on Conrad Noel and the Thaxted Movement (London, 1967) and The Crusader magazine of the Carmarthen Wesleyan circuit is available in the British Library. The library of the Order of St John at Clerkenwell has a good collection of press cuttings of, for example, Hutton’s Ambulance Crusade to which I was kindly allowed access. For an introduction to the temperance movement, see L.L. Shim an, The Crusade against drink in Vic­ torian England (London, 1988); G. Thome, The Great Acceptance: The Life Story o f EN. Charrington (London, 1913) and The League o f the Cross and Crusade against intemperance, Official report o f the Conventions 18756. There is an Autobiographical memoir o f Josephine E. Butler by G.W. and L. Johnson (London, 1909) and S. H. Harris wrote Auberon Herbert: Crusader for Liberty (1943)

C h ap ter Seven Scott There is an extensive bibliography of numerous articles and books about Scott and bis works. Those which I found most useful for this chapter are Scott and his Influence, ed. J.H. Alexander and D. Hewitt (Aberdeen, 1982); J. Anderson, Sir Walter Scott and History (Edinburgh, 1981); Scott Bicen­ tenary Essays, ed. A. Bell (Edinburgh/London, 1973); J.G. Cochrane,

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

217

Catalogue o f the Library at Abbotsford (Edinburgh, 1933); J.E. Duncan, "The Anti-Romantic in Ivanhoe’, Nineteenth-Century Fiction, ix (1953), 293-301; A. Fleishmann, The English Historical Novel - Walter Scott to Virginia Woolf (London, 1971); K. G am erschlag, ‘The m aking and unmaking of Sir Walter Scott’s Count Robert of Paris’, Studies in Scottish Literature xv (South Carolina, 1980), 95-124; J. Mitchell, Scott, Chaucer and Medieval Romance (Kentucky, 1987); G. H. Needier, Scott and Goethe (Oxford, 1950); D. Sultana, The Journey o f Sir Walter Scott to Malta (New York, 1986); J. H. Raleigh, ‘What Scott meant to the Victorians’, Victorian Studies, vii (1963-64), 7-35; J. Sutherland, Sir Walter Scott (London, 1995) and J. Vissink, Scott and his influence on Dutch Literature (Amsterdam, 1922). For Scott’s influence on drama and music, see H.P. Bolton, Scott Drama­ tized (London, 1992); H.A. White, Sir Walter Scott’s Novels on the Stage (Yale, 1927) and J. Mitchell, Scott’s Operas (Alabama, 1977). For Scott’s legacy in art, see in particular D. Altick, Paintings from Books - Art and Literature in Britain 1760-1900 (Ohio, 1985); C. Gordon,’The Illustration of Sir Walter Scott: Nineteenth Century Enthusiasm and Adaptation’, Jour­ nal o f the Warburg and Courtauld Institute, xxxiv (1971), 297-317; P. Ten-Doesschate Chu, ‘Pop Culture in the Making: The Romantic Craze for History’, in The Popularization o f images, ed. P. Ten-Doesschate Chu and G. P. Weisberg, 166-89; B.S. W right and P. Joannides, ‘Les romans historiques de Sir Walter Scott et la peinture française 1822-63’, Bullétin de la Société de l ’histoire de l ’art française, ix (1982), 119-32 and Wright, ‘Scott’s historical novels and French historical painting 1815-55', Art Bul­ letin, lviii (1981), 268-87 and Painting and History during the French Restoration: Abandoned by the Past (Cambridge, 1997). The Garden Pa­ vilion at Buckingham Palace is discussed in The Decorations o f the Garden Pavilion in the grounds o f Buckingham Palace, engr. L. Grüner, introduc­ tion by Mrs A. Jameson (London, 1846) and C. Willsden will be publishing shortly a general study of nineteenth century British murals. There was a lavishly illustrated Souvenir o f the Bal Costumé given by Queen Victoria, with drawings by Coke Smyth and descriptions by J.R. Planché (London, 1843) and the ball is also discussed by A. Munich, Queen Victoria ’s Secrets (Columbia, 1996). For a later such event, see S. Murphy, The Duchess o f Devonshire’s Ball (London, 1984).

Chapter Eight Literature For helpful general surveys of nineteenth century British literature, see H.A. Beers, A History o f English Romanticism in the nineteenth century (London, 1902); Catalogue o f Plays submitted to the Lord Chamberlain

218

THE NEW CRUSADERS

1824-51 (London, 1964); A. Chandler, A Dream o f Order: The Medieval Ideal in Nineteenth-Century English Literature (London, 1971); A. Fleischmann, The English Historical Novel. Walter Scott to Virginia Woolf (Baltimore, 1971); G.L. Griest, Mudie’s Circulating Library and the Victo­ rian Novel (Newton Abbot, 1970); C.W. Reilly, Late Victorian Poetry 1880-99: An Annotated Bibliography (London, 1994); L. Stevenson, The Pre Raphaelite Poets (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1972); R.C. Terry, Vic­ torian Popular Fiction 1860-80 (London, 1983); M. Wheeler, English Fiction o f the Victorian Period (London, 1985) and J. Wordsworth, The Bright Work Grows: Women Writers o f the Romantic Age (Poole, 1997). On individual authors, there is a memoir of Mrs Hermans’ life by her sister (1839) and a study of Charles Maturin by R.E. Lougy (1975). The spec­ taculars at Astleys are described in M. Willson Disher, The Greatest Show on Earth (London, 1937) and A.H. Saxon, Enter Foot and Horse: A His­ tory o f Hippodrama in England and France (New York, 1968) and there are copies of the posters in the collection at the Theatre Museum in Lon­ don. For other European literature, see for example J.S. Allen, Popular French Romanticism: Authors, Readers and Books in the nineteenth cen­ tury (Syracuse, New York, 1987) and Deutsches Theater Lexikon, ed. W. Kosch (Klagenfurt/Wien, 1960).

Chapter Nine Children's literature The following provide useful background to children’s authors and their books; E.A. Baker, A Guide to Historical Fiction (repr. New York 1968); J. Marriott, English History in English Fiction (London, 1940); Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, ed. H. Carpenter and M. Prichard (Ox­ ford, 1984); J.R. Townsend, Writtenfor Children (London, 1990) and World Historical Fiction Guide, ed. D.D. Me Garry and S.H. White (New Jersey, 1973). Robert Irwin has also written an article on ’Saladin and the Third Crusade; A Case Study in Historiography and the Historical Novel, in Com­ panion to Historiography ed. M. Bentley (London and New York, 1997)

Chapter Ten Art and the crusades Helpful general surveys of nineteenth century British art (including sculp­ ture) are given by S. Beattie, The New Sculpture (1983); Grove 's Dictionary o f Art and Artists, ed. J. Turner (London, 1996); F. Haskell, History and its images: Art and the interpretation o f the past (London, 1993); B. Read, Victorian Sculpture (1982), R. Strong, When did you last see your father: The Victorian Painter and British History (London, 1978); J. Treuherz,

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

219

Victorian Painting (London, 1993). The key lists of works exhibited are British Institution 1806-67. A Com­ plete Dictionary o f contributors and their work from the foundation o f the Institution, ed. A Graves (London, 1908); The Royal Academy o f Arts: A Complete Dictionary o f Contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904, ed. A. Graves 8 vols (London, 1905-6); Royal Scottish Acad­ emy Exhibitors 1826-1990, ed. C.B. de Laperrière (Edinburgh, 1991). The Witt Library, in Somerset House, London, also remains a valuable point of reference and reviews of a number of paintings can be found in contempo­ rary journals and periodicals such as The Athenaeum and Illustrated London News. Examples of studies of individual artists/themes are K. Andrews, The Nazarenes: A Brotherhood o f German Painters in Rome (Oxford, 1964); A. Boime, The Art o f the Macchia and the Risorgimento (Chicago, 1993); C. Castellaneta and S. Coradeschi, VOpera Compléta di Hayez (Milan, 1971); R. Cooke, The Palace o f Westminster (London, 1987); Massimo d’Azeglio, Things I Remember, trans. E.R. Vincent (Oxford, 1966); D. Farr, William Etty (London, 1958); U. Finke, German Painting from Romanti­ cism and Expressionism (London, 1975); L .Johnson, The Paintings o f Eugene Delacroix (Oxford, 1986); E.V. Lucas, E.A. Abbey, 2 vols (1921); K. Sim, David Roberts 1796-1864 (London, 1984); R. Marshall, Massimo d ’Azeglio - An Artist in Politics 1798-1866 (Oxford, 1966) and H. von Erffa and A. Stanley, The Paintings o f Benjamin West (Yale, 1986)

Chapter Eleven Music and the crusades A number of the operas mentioned in this chapter are available on current recordings, with detailed and helpful notes. I have also made use of pro­ gramme notes o f recent perform ances, for exam ple Schubert’s Die Verschworenen, which featured in the 1997 BBC Proms season in London and the 1997 Glyndeboume production of Rossini’s Le Comte Ory. Grove’s New Dictionary o f Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie (London, 1980) and F. Steiger’s Opern Lexicon (Tutzing, 1975) are important reference works and the British Library’s Catalogue o f Printed Music up to 1980 is particu­ larly helpful for individual songs and instrumental works. Reviews of performances can be found in journals such as The Athenaeum and Illus­ trated London News and T. Fenner has written on Opera in London. Views o f the Press 1785-1830 (Southern Illinois University Press, 1994). For worics on individuals composers, see H. and G. Becker, Giacomo Meyerbeer - A Life in Letters (London, 1989); C. Brown, Louis Spohr - A Critical Biography (Cambridge, 1984); J. Budden, The Operas o f Verdi (London, 1973); D. Charlton, Grétry and the Growth o f the Opera Comique

220

THE NEW CRUSADERS

(Oxford, 1986) and C. L. Kennedy, A Memoir o f Michael William Balfe (London, 1875). I bave also previously discussed Ibis subject in T ales of the Opera: The Crusades’, in Medieval History (1994). For the general context, see D. Russell, Popular Music in England 1860-1914, 2nd edn (Manchester, 1997) and C. Price, J. Milhous and R. D. Hume, Italian Op­ era in late eighteenth century London, I, The King's Theatre, Haymarket, 1778-91 (Oxford, 1995). A list of the works derived from Tasso is given in M.A. Balsano and T. Walker eds, Tasso, la musica, i musicisti (Florence, 1988).

Index A bbey, Edw in A ustin, 126, 1 7 3 -4 The Academ y, 22, 23 A dam s, W illiam D avenport, The Wars o f the Cross, 152 A dam s, C aptain R alph, T he M o d e m C rusaders, 94 A lbert, P rince C o n so rt, 65, 1 2 6 -8 , 1 6 4 -5 ,1 7 4 A lbert V ictor, P rince, 66 A lbigensian crusade, 1 2 ,2 5 - 6 ,1 2 0 1 ,1 3 5 ,1 4 4 - 5 ,1 6 3 A lcin, C aptain G ordon, 92 A lgerian cam paign (1830), 82,170 A lison, S ir A rchibald, The C m sades, 20 A llenby, G eneral, 9 5 -6 A m bulance crusades, 108 A nglican church and F irst W orld war, 8 7 -9 0 an ti-catholic crusades, 1 0 5 ,1 8 8 A rcher, T hom as A. and C. L. K ingsford, The C rusades, 2 4 -6 , 60 A shton, Percy, m em orial, 99 A stley ’s am phitheatre, 1 2 3 ,1 4 6 -7 The A thenaeum , 25, 2 8 ,1 2 4 ,1 2 6 , 1 6 9 ,1 7 3 , 1 7 6 ,1 8 0 ,1 8 5 -6 B acon, C aptain A lban, The Wander­ ings o f a Tem porary Officer, 95 B alfe, M ichael, The K night o f the Leopard, 1 2 5 -6 B arker, E rnest, 29 B ath ford , S t S w ith u n’s church, w ar m em orial, 99 B eck ett, G ilbert A bbott A’, The C om ic H istory o f E ngland, 30 B elgium and the crusades, 5 3 ,1 6 6 B elm ont, C aptain Ferdinand, A C rusader o f F rance, 101 B enedict, S ir Ju liu s, The Crusades, 1 7 6 ,1 8 0

B ishop, S ir Henry, The K nights o f the C ross and R enaud and Arm ide, 1 2 5 -6 ,1 8 3 B lackw oods M agazine, 20 B odm in, St P etro c’s church, m em o­ rial, 99 B ongars, Jacques, G esta D ei p e r F rancos 4 ,1 1 , 37 B ourchier, R evd B asil, F o r a ll w e have and are, 8 7 -9 B ow es, Joseph, The A u ssie C rusad­ ers, 101 B radshaigh, S ir W illiam and Lady M abel, 4 3 - 4 B reakenridge, John, 140 B rereton, Lt Col F rederick, With A llenby in P alestine, 97 B right, John MP, 8 4 -6 B ritish Institution, 1 2 6 ,1 3 7 ,1 6 1 -3 , 174 B roham , U dard de, 41 B ronte, C harlotte, 140 B rooke, R upert, 92 B rougham , Lord, crusade ancestors, 4 0 -4 1 B roun, S ir R ichard, 7 7 -8 1 B row ne, R ichard Lew is, The Taking o f Jerusalem , 138 B row ning, E lizabeth B arrett, 137 B uchan, John, 86, 102 B uchanan, Francis, 140 B ulgarian m assacres, 2 2 ,2 7 ,8 4 - 5 , 1 3 5 ,1 8 8 B ull, R evd P aul B ertie, P eace a n d War, 8 8 -9 B urges, S ir H enry B land, R ichard C oeur d e Lion and T he C m sa d ers, 61, 141 B urgoyne, G eneral S ir John, 181 B urne-Jones, Edw ard, 3 4 ,5 4 , 135 B um es, S ir Jam es, Sketch o f the history o f the K nights Templars, 'l l , 79

222

THE NEW CRUSADERS

B u rro w s, H enry W illiam , K n ig h ts o f S t John, 134 C astelli, Ig n az, 149,182 C atterm o le, G eorge, 171 C h alm ers, A dam , T he Crusader, 8 3 4 C h am b erlain , A usten, 9 0 -1 C h arles X o f F rance, 5 2 ,8 2 ,1 7 0 ch arm sto n es, 4 0 ,4 2 - 3 ,1 1 8 C h ateau b rian d , V icom te d e, 8, 37, 5 1 ,6 8 - 9 , 171 c h ild re n ’s literatu re, x, 60, 121,1 5 0 60 C h u rch , R evd A lfred, The C rusad­ ers, 152 C hurch Times, 90, 107 C lark e, E dw ard D aniel, T ravels in va rio u s co u n tries, 6 4 -5 C lerm ont, C ouncil of, 800th an n i­ versary, 53 C o ch ran e, A lexander, and Young E ngland m ovem ent, 54 C onder, Lt C ol C laude, T he L atin K ingdom o f Jeru salem , 24, 26 C o o k , T hom as, travel firm , 6 4 ,6 6 - 7 C o o lid g e, S usan, W hat K a ty D id, 159 C ooper, A braham , 126,163 C ooper, F. H ., K h a ki C rusaders, 101 C o rnish, F rancis W arre, H isto ry o f C hivalry, 3 4 -5 C o sta, S ir M ich ael, M a lek A del, 148, 1 7 6 -7 ,1 8 0 C o ttin , M adam e S ophie, M a tild e, 8, 1 4 7 -8 ,1 6 8 ,1 7 7 C o u rto is ch arters, 52 C ox, S ir G eorge, The C rusades, 2 1 2, 2 4 ,2 8 - 9 C raw fo rd , F. M ario n , Via crucis, 154 C resw ick, P aul, With R ichard the F earless, 156 C rim ean w ar, x, 2 3 ,7 0 -2 ,8 3 -5 ,1 8 8 C ro ft fam ily, 51 C rom ie, R obert, The N e x t C rusade,

86 C ru sad e re lic s, 3 9 -4 3

T he C rusaders o r T he M in strels o f A cre, 7 4 ,1 3 9 -4 0 T he C rusader o r The W itch o f Finchley, 157 D acre fam ily, 47 D ansey, Jam es C ruikshank, The E nglish C rusaders, 4 6 -5 2 D ardanelles cam paign, 88, 9 2 - 4 ,9 7 ,

102 D avid, Earl o f H untingdon, 118-19 D avis, W illiam Stearns, G o d W ills It, 154 D avys, G eorge, P lain an d S h o rt H isto ry o f England, 1 5 1 -2 D aw nay, W illiam , an cesto r V iscount D ow ne, 49 D ’A zeglio, M assim o, 168 D elacroix, E ugene, 1 2 7 -8 ,1 6 4 ,1 6 9 D ennys, C aptain R ichard M olesw orth, 92 D ickm an, G eneral Joseph, The G reat C rusade, 1 0 1 -2 D igby, K enelm , The B ro a d S to n e o f H onour, 3 2 -4 ,1 5 2 diplom atic rep resen tatio n in Jeru sa­ lem , 7 1 - 2 D israeli, B en jam in (later E arl o f B eaconsfield), G rand T our 5 6 -8 , 65; novels C oningsby, 5 4 - 5 ,5 8 ; H enrietta Temple, 5 4 ,1 2 2 ; Sybil, 55; Tancred, 5 5 - 7 ,6 5 ; Venetia, 54; 84, 86 D udden, F rederick H om es, The H eroic D ead, 89 D uke, R evd, K ing R odolpho ’s Will, 138 E astern Q uestion, x, 27, 65, 84 E astnor C astle, 3 9 -4 0 E cle ctic R eview , 31 E dgar, John G , The C rusades, 150 E dw ard 1 (L ord E dw ard) and th e crusade, 3 1 ,4 8 , 5 9 - 6 0 ,6 5 ,8 6 ,

223

INDEX

9 9 ,1 0 4 ,1 5 0 , 158, 166-7 E dw ard, P rin ce o f W ales (later E dw ard V II), 6 5 -6 ,1 3 0 S t E lizab eth o f H ungary, 1 4 5 -6 , 167- 8 E llis, G eorge, E a rly E nglish M e tri­ ca l R om ances, 114 E n cyclo p a ed ia B rita nnica, 2 8 ,1 1 4 — 15 E n glish cru sad e fam ilies, 50 Etty, W illiam , 1 9 ,1 6 6 -7 E verard, W illiam , S ir W alter's Ward, 157 E x eter C ath ed ral, w ar m em orial, 86 Faber, F rederick W illiam , K nights o f S t Jo h n an d o th e r w orks, 134-5 Facer, T hom as, The Crusader, 186 fan cy d ress b alls, xi, 3 1 ,4 7 ,5 5 , 1 2 8 30 F ello w s, F rank, K n ig h ts o f S t John, 134 F inn, Jam es, B ritish C onsul in Jeru salem , 7 1 -2 , 83 F inn, M rs, 6 5 ,7 1 F irth, H enry, The S tory o f the C rusades, 152 F o rsyth, W illiam , 54 F rederick I, B arbarossa, 1 13,150, 168- 9 F rost, W illiam L ane, M aldw yn, 185 F uller, T hom as, H istory o f the H oly Warre, 1 G ade, N iels, T he C rusaders, 186 G en tlem a n 's M a g a zine, 1 2 ,2 8 G eorge, P rince, 66 G erald o f W ales, 1 1 7 ,1 4 2 G ib b o n , E dw ard, The D ecline and F a ll o f the R om an E m pire, 1, 3 5, 1 1 ,1 6 ,2 8 , 3 2 - 3 ,3 8 G ilb ert, M ajo r V ivian, The R om ance o f the L a st C rusade, 9 6 -7 G illiat, E dw ard, H eroes o f M o d e m C rusades, 110-11 G ladstone, W illiam E w art, 14, 3 5 -6 , 8 4 -6 ,1 3 7

G lazunov, R aym onda, 179 G loucester cathedral, w ar m em orial,

86 G odfrey o f B ouillon, 19, 23, 26, 29, 3 3 ,5 1 , 5 3 ,5 9 , 6 5 -6 , 6 8 - 7 0 ,7 2 , 82, 96, 138, 1 5 0 - 1 ,1 5 3 - 4 ,1 6 6 7 ,1 8 4 G ordon, G eneral, 2 4 ,8 6 G N C , The Crusader, 138 G reen, E velyn E verett, T he C hil­ dren's C rusade, 157 G retry, A ndre-E m est-M odeste, R ichard C o eu r d e Lion, 181 G rieg, E dvard, Sig u rd Jorsalfar, 54 G rossi, T om m aso, I Lom bardi, 125, 1 4 7 ,1 6 8 ,1 7 9 H aeser, A ugust F erdinand, The Trium ph o f Faith, 184 H aggard, R ider, The B rethren, 156,160 H all, H am m ond, The B o y ’s B o o k o f C hivalry, 153 H arney, G eorge, The A nti-T urkish C rusade, 85 H arrison, F. B ayford, B ro th ers in A rm s, 155-6 H art, S olom on A lexander, 127 H ayes, A lfred, T he L a st C rusade, 143 H ayez, F rancesco, 1 2 8 ,1 6 4 , 168 H eeren, A rnold H erm ann Ludw ig, 17 H eller, F riedrich, G eschichte d e r K reuzzüge, 2 H em ans, M rs F elicia D orothea, The C rusaders and o th er w orks, 106, 1 2 1 ,1 3 1 -3 ,1 7 3 ,1 8 7 Henty, G eorge A lfred, From A b o u kir to A cre and W inning h is Spurs, 7 4 ,1 5 3 ,1 5 5 -6 ,1 6 0 heraldry, crusade sym bols, 4 5 -7 H erbert, A uberon, 109 H erbert, A ubrey, 102 H igham , S t M ary ’s church, S uffolk, w ar m em orial, 99 H iles, H enry, T he C rusaders, 1 85-6 H illary, S ir W illiam 7 6 -8 2 , A ppen­ dix B

224

THE NEW CRUSADERS

H ollis, G ertrude, B etw een Two C rusades an d A Slave o f the Saracens, 1 56-7 H olt, Em ily, L a d y S y b il’s Choice, 154-5 H u b e rt’s C rusade, 159 H um e, D avid, H istory o f E ngland, 1 - 2 ,5 ,1 1 ,3 2 - 4 ,1 1 3 , 119, 130, 161 H utton, B arbara, H eroes o f the crusades, 45, 1 5 0 -1 ,1 7 1 -2 H ylton, J. D unbar, The Sea King, 141 Illu stra te d London N ew s, 16, 29, 124, 1 2 8 ,1 6 1 ,1 6 5 -6 ,1 7 6 In g o ld sb y L egends, 5 9 -6 0 In n ess, G eorge, 1 72-3 Ingram , H enry, M atilda, 140 Jam es, G eorge Payne R ainsford, H isto ry o f ch ivalry and o th er w orks, 1 4 -1 7 , 3 2 ,1 1 3 ,1 2 2 , 158 Jam es, Henry, R o derick H udson, 74 Jam es, S ir John K ingston, 35 Jarv is, M ary R ow les, D ick L ionheart, 157 Jenkins, L ieutenant A rthur L ew is, 97 Jo in v ille, 4 , 6 - 7 , 3 2 ,6 9 ,8 2 ,1 1 3 , 1 2 0 ,1 4 8 ,1 5 7 -8 Joh n sto n e, C atherine L aura, The C onquest o f C onstantinople, 143 Jo n es, H enry A rthur, The C rusaders, 109-10 K eeling, A nnie, N in e F am ous C rusades, 24 K eightley, T hom as, T he C rusaders and o th er w orks, 1 7 - 1 9 ,5 0 ,1 2 2 , 1 66-7 K err, C harles, The Croisade, 144 K ettle, P ro fesso r Thom as, 94 K ingsford, C harles L ethbridge, see A rcher H istory K ingsley, C harles, The S a in t’s Tragedy, 1 45-6

K nights o f th e H oly S epulchre, 51, 6 8 - 9 ,7 1 - 2 K otzebue, A ugust von, 1 4 9 ,1 8 4 L am artine, A lphonse de, 6 9 - 7 0 ,8 4 L andon, L etitia, 1 3 6 ,1 7 0 The L a st Crusader, 136 L aw rence, G eorge A lfred, G uy L ivingstone, 57 L aw rence, H annah, H istory o f the Q ueens o f E ngland, 31 L aw rence T E, 5 1 ,6 8 ,9 5 L ee penny, 4 2 -3 L ennep, Jacob van, 1 2 5 ,1 4 7 L essing, C arl F riedrich, 1 6 9 ,1 7 2 L essing, G otthold E phraim , N athan d e r Weise, 149 library catalogues, 28, 32, 36, 113, 1 2 5 ,1 2 7 ,1 3 0 - 1 ,1 3 7 - 8 L ichfield C athedral w ar m em orial,

86 Lister, C harles, 9 2 -3 L iszt, F ranz, The L egend o f S t E lizabeth, 146 L loyd G eorge, D avid, and F irst W orld War. 8 8 .9 0 London Library, 28, 32 L ondon R elig io u s Tract Society, 20 L ongfellow , H enry W adsw orth, 144 L ongm ore, C aptain, M atilde, 148 L ouis IX o f F rance (S aint L ouis), 7 8 ,3 5 , 6 0 ,6 3 , 6 8 ,8 2 ,8 6 , 9 9 ,1 5 0 , 152, 1 5 7 -9 ,1 6 7 L ouis P hilippe, o f France, 5 1 -3 , 82, 1 6 4 ,1 6 7 -7 0 ,1 7 4 ,1 8 1 Luck o f Edenhall, 4 1 - 2 Ludlow , Jam es M ., T he A g es o f the C rusades, 2 4 -6 M accabe, W illiam B ernard, F lo rin e P rincess o f Burgundy, 153 M ackay, C harles, M em oirs o f extraordinary p o p u la r delusions, 2 9 -3 0 M aclise, D aniel, 164, 170 M acphersons o f C luny, 40 M anners, L ord John, and Young

225

INDEX

E ngland m ovem ent, 5 4 ,6 3 ,1 2 9 , 134 M arocbetti, B aro n , 1 64-5 M arschner, H einrich, 124 M arzials, Frank, 7 M asefield, Jo h n , G a llipoli, 93 M atu rin , C harles R obert, The A lbigenses, 144-5 M axw ell, D onald, The L a st C rusade, 94 M azzini, G uiseppe, 136 M eyerbeer, G iacom o, II C rociato, 1 77-8 M ichaud, Jo seph F rancois, B iblio th èq u e and H istoire d es croisades, 5 - 8 ,1 6 , 18-20, 26, 28. 6 1 .6 9 ,8 2 ,1 4 8 M icb ell, N icholas, The S a x o n ’s D aughter, 137 M illais, S ir Jo h n E verett, 171-2 M iller, W illiam , The L atins in the L evant, 26 M ills, C harles, H isto ry o f the crusa d es and oth er w orks, 1 0 14, 16, 1 8 ,2 0 - 1 ,2 8 - 9 , 3 2 ,3 6 , 5 9 -6 1 ,1 1 3 , 118 m issions as crusades, 105-7 M oore, C ecil, S t Louis, 143-4 M oore, R evd D aniel, 21 M ore, C aptain John, With A lle n b y ’s C rusaders, 95 M o rris, L ew is, 137 M o rris, W illiam , 34, 1 1 0 ,1 2 1 ,1 3 5 M otherw ell, W illiam , 136 M u d ie’s circu latin g library, 14, 28, 113,131 M urray, R ichard H ollins, 50 M usgrave fam ily, se e Luck o f Edenhall N apoleon III, o f France, 8 3 -4 N azarenes, 164 N eale, Jo h n M ason, S tories o f the C rusades, 1 5 7 -8 N ew bolt, S ir Henry, The H appy Warrior, 152 N ew digate prize, 1 3 4 ,1 4 0 -1 ,1 4 3 - 4

N ew L ibrary o f U seful K now ledge,

20 N icholl, W illiam R obertson, 88 N oel, C onrad and T b ax ted C rusade, 107 N ogales, R afael de. F o u r Years beneath the C rescent, 102 N orth B ritish R eview , 19-20 N orthum berland, A lberic Earl of, 49 N orw ay and the crusades, 5 3 -4 N ottingham , St M ary ’s church, w ar m em orial, 86 N ovello m usic publishers, 1 7 5 ,1 8 5 -

6 O akeley, R evd F rederick, E ssay on In fluence o f the crusades, 1 6-17 O am uru, N ew Z ealand, w ar m em o­ rial, 100 O rde-W ard, F rederick, The L ast C rusade, 91 orientalism , 162 O sborn, Edw ard, The M use a t A rm s and N ew E lizabethans, 9 2 -4 O ’Shaughnessy, A rthur, L ays o f France, 136-7 O xford Illu stra ted H istory o f the C rusades, ix, 1 Paisley, w ar m em orial, 9 9 -1 0 0 P alestine cam paign, 9 4 - 7 ,1 0 1 - 2 P algrave, F rancis, 1 3 3 -4 P arliam ent, H ouses of, L ondon, 164—5 Parsons, B enjam in, Y Croesgadwr, 184-5 P artridge, C aptain R ichard, w ar m em orial, 99 Peacock, T hom as Love, 142 Pears, S ir E dw in, The F all o f C onstantinople, 2 6 -7 P erceval, S ir R ichard, 4 6 -7 , 62 Percy, B ishop, R eliques o f A n cie n t E nglish Poetry, 112 Perry, R evd G eorge, T he C rusades,

20-1 P eter the H erm it, 8 4 -5 , 8 7 ,1 0 4 -5 ,

226

THE NEW CRUSADERS

118, 151, 163, 1 6 7 -8 ,1 8 0 -1 , 184, 186 P h ilpot, G lyn, 165 P ick ersg ill, F rederick, 1 6 4 ,1 7 2 P ilk in gto n , L eonard, 46 P irie-G o rd o n , H arry, 9 5 - 6 ,1 4 1 - 2 Plow den-W ardlaw , R evd Jam es, The Test o f War, 89 P o rden, E leanor, C o eu r d e Lion o r the Third C rusade, 6 1 -2 P orter, M ajo r W h itw orth, H isto ry o f the K n ig h ts o f M a lta , 27 p o stcard s, 100 P raed, W inthrop M ack w orth, 1 42-3 P re R ap h aelite m ovem ent, 1 3 5 ,1 4 9 , 1 6 7 ,1 7 1 -2 , 188 P rotheroe, D aniel, M ilw y r y G roes, 185 P u nch, xi, 58, 67, 95, 9 8 ,1 2 3 Q E D , The K n ig h t's H eart, 137 R ec u eil d es h isto rien s des croisades, 6, 26 R eeve, Percy, The C rusader an d the R aven, 177 R ichard I o f E ngland (L ionheart), 3, 7, 1 5 ,1 8 , 21, 3 0 -1 ; 4 1 ,4 6 , 51, 5 5 - 7 ,5 9 - 6 3 cru sad e hero; 6 6 - 7 , 7 0 ,7 4 - 5 ,8 3 , 86; 9 4 -7 , 9 9 -1 0 0 ,1 0 2 F irst w orld w ar parallels; 104; 114, 115-18 and S cott; 1 3 2 -3 , 140-3 in literatu re; 1 5 0 - 2 ,1 5 4 - 7 ,1 5 9 - 6 0 c h ild re n ’s literatu re; 162— 6 in art; 181 m usic; 188 R ich a rd C o eu r d e Lion, 157 R iley -S m ith , Jon ath an, ix, 1,76, 82 R o b erts, D avid, 162 R obertson, W illiam , D isquisition co n cerning A n cie n t In d ia and H isto ry o f C harles V, 1 - 2 ,5 ,2 8 , 3 2 - 3 ,4 1 ,1 1 3 R o h rich t, R einhold, 8 - 9 ,2 6 , 28 R olfe, F rederick, B aron C orvo,

H u b e rt’s Arthur, 1 4 1 -2 R olls series, 6, 23 R oss, A lexander, Selm a, 144 R ossini, G iacom o, L e C om te Ory, 1 2 4 ,1 7 8 -8 1 , 183 R oyal A cadem y, London, 1 2 ,1 2 6 , 1 6 1 -3 ,1 6 8 , 172, 174 R oyal S cottish A cadem y, 1 2 6 ,1 6 2 -3 S t John A m bulance A ssociation, 98, 107-8 S t Jo h n , O rd e r of, 7 6 -8 2 St Jo h n A dcock, F or R em em brance and The A n za c P ilg rim 's Progress, 9 1 -3 S aint-P alaye, Jean B ap tiste d e la C urne de. M ém oires de l ’ancienne chevalerie, 32, 170 S aladin, 2 3 - 4 ,6 3 , 6 5 -8 ,1 0 2 , 1 1 8 1 9 ,1 4 7 - 9 ,1 5 1 - 2 ,1 5 4 - 6 ,1 6 0 , 1 6 3 ,1 7 6 , 179, 187 S alles d es cro isad es (V ersailles), 5 1 3, 8 2 ,1 6 9 -7 0 , A ppendix C S argent, G eorge, S ketch es o f the C rusades, 20 S assoon, S iegfried, 103 S chubert, F ranz, D ie Verschworenen, 182-3 S chw ind, M oritz von, 1 4 6 ,1 8 2 -3 S cott, S ir W alter, general in flu en ce, x, 7 , 1 4 - 1 5 ,1 9 , 26, 2 9 ,3 0 , 32, 1 1 2 -3 2 ,1 4 5 ,1 4 7 , 1 4 9 ,1 5 1 , 158, 1 8 7 -8 ; novels etcetera The B etrothed, 4 3 - 4 ,1 1 6 — 1 7 ,1 2 6 -7 , 129; C a stle D angerous, 4 3 ; C ount R o b ert o f Paris, 26, 1 1 9 -2 0 ,1 5 4 ; E ssay on chivalry, 1 1 4-15, 119; G uy M annering, 4 2 , 122; H eart o f M idlothian, 121 ; Ivanhoe, 1 8 , 1 1 5 -1 6 „ 1 1 8 29, 157; L ay o f the L a st M instrel, 34, 43, 47,

INDEX

S t R onan ’s Well, 1 2 0 ,1 4 1 , The Sieg e o f M alta, 121, Tales o f a G randfather, 1 2 0 1 ,1 2 5 ; The Talisman, 1 3 „ 1 8 ,113, 1 1 6 -1 9 ,1 2 1 -2 ,1 2 5 -9 , 1 3 1 -2 ,1 5 1 , 157; Waverley, 4 4 -5 ; W illiam a n d H elen, 113-14; in art 1 2 6 -8 ,1 6 1 ,1 6 3 ,1 6 8 , 170, 1 7 2 ,1 7 4 ; d ram atizatio n s, 122-6; o p eras b ased on 1 2 4 -6 ,1 7 9 ,1 8 4 ; translations 1 2 4 -6 S cott, W illiam B ell, 170-1 S co ttish crusade fam ilies, 50 S ecu la r Review, 23, 38 S hield, W illiam , The C rusade, 1 7 5 -

6 S ignol, E m ile, 169 Sledm ere, w ar m em orial, 98 Sm ith, S ir Sidney, 5 7 ,7 3 - 6 , 140 S m ythe, G eorge, and Young E ngland m ovem ent, 54, 6 3 ,1 3 4 social cru sades, 1 0 9 -1 1 ,1 8 8 S o ciety f o r P rom oting C hristian K now ledge (SP C K ), 17, 2 1 ,2 8 , 3 8 ,1 5 9 S o ld iers o f th e Cross, 20 Som m ers, C ecil, Tem porary C rusad­ ers, 97 songs, 187 Spohr, L ouis, D ie Kreuzfahrer, 184 S pring, S am uel, The M onk's R e ­ venge, 158 S tables, G ordon, F o r C ross o r Crescent, 156 Stanley, R evd A rthur, S in a i a n d P alestine, 6 5 -6 ,7 0 S tead, W illiam T hom as, 84 S tebbing, R evd Henry, H istory o f C hivalry and the crusades, 16, 18, 24, 32 S tevenson, R obert L ouis, 86 S tigand, W illiam , A thenais, 138 S traw berry H ill, T w ickenham , 39 S trick lan d , A gnes and Elizabeth,

227

L ives o f the Q ueens o f E ngland, 3 0 -1 ,1 2 0 ,1 2 9 ,1 5 4 S tubbs, W illiam , L ectures on M edieval an d M o d e m H istory, 2 2 -3 , 28, 8 5 ,1 8 8 S ullivan, S ir A rthur, Ivanhoe, 124 S w anw ick, C atherine, 141 S w inburne, A lgernon, 8 5 ,1 3 5 -6 S ybel, H einrich von, H isto ry o f the F irst C rusade, 9 S ykes, S ir M ark, 9 8 -9 tapestries, 56 Tasso, G erusalem m e L iberata, general influence, 4 -5 , 16, 18-19, 24, 26, 2 9 -3 0 , 3 2 ;3 4 - 8 tran slatio n s;’4 3 ,4 7 - 8 ,5 1 ,5 6 ,5 9 , 6 1 ,7 0 ,1 1 2 -1 3 , 118, 1 2 1 ,1 3 2 , 1 3 8 ,1 4 7 -9 , 153, 159; 163-4, 168 in art; 1 7 5 -6 ,1 7 9 ,1 8 3 - 4 , 186 m usic; 188 tem perance crusades, 1 0 6 ,1 0 8 -9 Tem plars, revival of, 75 Tennyson, A lfred, 5 7 -8 , 6 2 ,1 3 7 Tennyson, C harles d ’E yncourt, 57 Thackeray, W illiam M akepeace, burlesques and other w orks, 5 8 9 ,1 2 3 - 4 Thom pson, Edw ard, C ru sa d er’s Coast, 94, 96 T horeau, H enry, 1 3 1 ,1 7 3 T issot, Jam es Joseph, 170-1 T rollope, A nthony, The Way We L ive N ow , 58 Turner, Sharon, H istory o f E ngland, 9-11 Tw ain, M ark, The In n o cen ts A broad, 70-1 Tyerm an, C hristopher, ix, 1, 3, 50 Tynan, K atherine, The H oly War, 91, 9 3 -4 Verdi, G uiseppe, I Lom bardi, Jerusalem , AroIdo, 179-82 Vere de, fam ily, 4 6 ,5 1 Verlander, Henry, R ichard C oeur de

228

THE NEW CRUSADERS

Lion, 141 V ersailles, see S alles d es croisades V ertot, A bbe, 2 7 -8 ,1 1 2 , 121 V ictoria, Q ueen, xi, 3 0 - 3 1 ,1 2 8 - 9 , 1 5 1 ,1 7 7 V illiers, E arls o f Jersey, 47 V oltaire, 2, 28 W alpole, H orace, The C astle o f O tranto, ix, 39, 112 W ard fam ily (V iscounts B angor), 4 5 -6 W ard, B ry an , S ir G eoffrey d e S keffington, 156 W ar m em orials - B o er War, 86; F irst W orld War, 9 8 -1 0 0 W est, B enjam in, 1 6 1 ,1 6 3 W estm inster R eview , 2 8 ,3 6 - 7 W iffen, Jerem iah H olm es, tran slato r o f Tasso and list o f E nglish cru sad ers, 3 6 ,4 6 - 5 0 ,1 2 1 , A ppendix A

W igan, A ll S aints church, 4 4 W ilken, F riedrich, G eschichte d e r K reuzzüge, 8 - 9 ,1 8 , 29 W ilhelm II, K aiser, 6 7 -8 W illiam L ongsw ord, Earl o f S alis­ bury, 6 0 ,1 5 0 W illiam o f T yre, 4 - 5 ,1 6 ,4 3 ,4 8 ,9 6 , 113 W inchester S chool, w ar m em orial,

100 W innington-Ingram , B ishop, The P o tter a n d the C lay, 87, 103 W oolw ich crusade, 9 0 ,1 0 6 - 7 W ordsw orth, W illiam , 1 2 1 ,1 3 1 ,1 3 3 , 135 Yonge, C h arlo tte M , T he P rince a n d the Page, 153, 1 5 8 -9 T he Young Crusader, 157 Young E ngland m ovem ent, 5 4 -6 , 1 3 4 -5 ,1 4 9 ,1 8 8