The National Cyclopaedia of Biography being the History of the United States [3]

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The N"ational cyclopedia of American biography PROMINENT CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS. Abbott, Lyman, D. D., LL. D., Pastor of Plymouth Church, and Editor of Christian Union."

Adams, Charles

Curtis, George Ticknor, Author and Jurist.


Deming, Clarence,



Author of " Dialect Ballads." .

Adam:s, Charles Kendall, LL. D., President of Cornell University.

Alger, Bev. William Rounseville, Author.

Andrews, Elisha

B., D. B., LL. D., President of Brown IJniversity. Avery, Col. Isaac W. Author " History of Georgia."

D. D.,


President Oberlin College.

University City of



Samuel C, D.

D., LL. D.,

President of Dartmouth College.


P., Hon. Late President of University of N. C. Blake, Lillie Devereaux,



Bolton, Sarah. Knowles, Author.

Bowker, B. B. Writer and Economist. President of Middlebury College, Vt.

Brean, Hon. Joseph A., Supt. Public Instruction, Louisiana.

Brooks, Noah,

Col. John Mason, Author " History of Kentucky." Burr, A. E., Editor " Hartford Times."

Burroughs, John, A., D. D., President. Emory College, Ga. Capen, Elmer H. , D. D. , President Tufts College.

Carter, Franklin, Ph. D.

Durrett, Col. B. T., Historian of the West.

Dwight, Timothy, D. D., LL. D., President Yale University.

Eagle, James P., Governor of Arkansas,

Egglestoii, George Cary, Author and Editor. Eliot, Charles W., LL. D., President Harvard University. Fetterolf, A. H., LL. D., Ph. D., Field,

Henry Martyn, D. D.

Editor "


New York Evangelist." George P., D. D., LL. D^

Fishier, Prof.

Professor of Divinity, Yale University.

President Amherst College.

Gilman, Daniel



LL. D.


President Johns Hopkins College.

Greeley, Gen. A. W., United States Signal Service and Explorer.


M. A.,

LL. D.

William C, D. D., LL. D.,

Ex-President Lafayette College.

W. W.,

Formerly Editor " Boston Journal."

Clarke, Biehard H., LL. D., President New York Catholic Protectory. Coan, Titus Munson, M. D., Author.

Thomas M. LL.

President Interstate



Everett, S. T. D.,



Mile. Margherita A. ,

Journalist. ,

President Williams College.

D. Commerce Commission.

Cravath, E. M., D. D., President Fisk University. Staff "

President Georgetown College, Ky.

Dunlap, Joseph B.,

Professor Yale University.




Bouglass, Hon. Frederick .W. Dudley, Biehard M., D. D.;

Hadley, Arthur


Cooley, Hon.

President Roanoke College.

Donnelly, Hon. Ignatius,

"Evening Post."




Gates, Merrill E., Ph. D., LL. D.,

Historical Writer.



Dreher, Julius D., Ph. D.,

Garrison, Wendell Phillips,

and Author.

Brown, John Henry,


HXK, Morgan, D. D. LL. D.

President Girard College.

Brainard, Ezra, LL. D.,





Editor " Chicago Times."

Henry Martyn,


Peyster, Gen.

Rector' Trinity Church.

Ex-General Southern Confederacy.




Alexander, Hon. E. P.,

Ballantine, William G.

LL. D.,

Edward P., New York Tribune."



J. D., D. D., President Central College.

W. G., Of the " Philadelphia Inquirer."

Harding, Harper,



President University of Chicago.

Harris, Joel Chandler (Uncle Remus), Author.

Harris, Hon. William T. United States Commissioner of Education.

Hart, Samuel, D. D., Professor Trinity College.

Haskins, Charles H. Professor University of Wisconsin.

Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth, Author.


Ex-president of Yale University.

E. Church.



Porter, Noah, D. D., LL. D.,

Hurst, John F., D. D., Bishop of the



Potter, Eliphalet N., D. D., LL. D.,

Hyde, William De Witt, D. D.,

Powderly, T. V.,

Stilson, Of the "Washington Post."

President Hobart College.

Master Workman, Knights of Labor.

President Bowdoin College.


John D. D.

D. G. D. D. "New York Observer." Prince, L. Bradford, Governor New Mexico. Prowell, George R.,




Jackson, James McCauley, Author and Editor.

Johnson, Oliver,


Author and Editor.

J., Secretary of American Missionary Society,

Sanborn, Frank B.,



President St. John College.

Kennan, George,

Schaff, Philip, D. D.,

LL. D.,


Russian Traveler.

Kimball, Richard B., LL. D.,

Sharpless, Isaac, Sc. D., President Haverford College.


Kingsley, William L. LL. D. Editor " New Englander and Yale Review." Kip, Bt. Rev. William Ingraham, ,



J. B., D. D., President Davidson College, N. C.

Small, Albion W., Ph. D.,

Literary Editor " Chicago Tribune."

President Colby University.

Smith, Charles H.


Author and Traveler.

Smith, George Williamson, D. D., LL. D.j

J., Editor ''Magazine of American History."


President Trinity College.



Smith, William W., LL. D., President liandolph-Macon College.

Editor and Historical Writer.

Snow, Louis Franklin,

Conte, Joseph, LL. D., Professor in University of California.







University. ,


Sumner, William G.


Historical Writer.

Professor Political

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot,


Economy, Yale.

Super, Charles W., A. M., Ph. D.,


President Otiio University.

Swank, James W.

Longfellow, Rev. Samuel;


Secretary American Iron and Steel Association.


Tanner, Edward A., D. D.,

MacCracken, H. M., D. D., LL. D., Chancellor of University of the City of

McClure, Col. Alexander K. Editor " Philadelphia Times."

McCray, D.


Stockton, Frank R.


State Board of Health of Tennessee.

liOckwood, Mrs.

(Bill Arp),


Iiamb, Martha Iiangford,

T., D. D.,

Shearer, Rev.

Kirkland, Major Joseph,

Knox, Thomas W.


President Franklin College.

Bishop of California.



Historical Writer.

Assistant Editor " Century."



Ryder, Rev. Charles

Johnson, R. Underwood, Eell,



President Musicingum College.

New York.

I linois College.

President Vassar College.

Thurston, Robert H.


Historical Writer.


Director Sibley College,

McElroy, George B. D. D. Ph. D. F. ,





Thwing, Charles

F., D. D.,

President Western Reserve University.

President Adrian College.

Mcllwaine, Richard, D. D.,

Tuttle, Herbert,

President Hampden-Sidney College.




President College of William and Mary.

President Pennsylvania College.



Author " Life of John Adams,"

LL. D.,

Professor Cornell University.

McKnight, H. W., D. D., Morse, John T.,


Taylor, James M., D. D.,



H., LL. D.,



Newton, Richard Heber, D. D.,

Walworth, Jeannette H.,

Clergyman and Author. Nicholls, Miss B. B., Biographical and Historical

Warreuj William


Northrup, Cyrus, LL. D.,

Editor " Louisville Courier-Journal."

Webb, Gen. Alexander

Olson, Julius E.,

S., LL. D., President College of the City of New York

Professor University of Wisconsin.

Packard, Alpheus Brown

LL. D.,

Watterson, Henry,

President University of Minnesfita.


F., S. T. D.,

President Boston University.



Weidemeyer, John William,



Historical Writer.

Page, Thomas Nelson,

Wheeler, David H., D. D.,


President Alleghany Colicge.

Parton, James,

Winchell, Alexander,


Patton, Francis L. B. D. LL. D. ,


Late Professor Univor.sity of Michigan. ,

President Prhiceton College.

Peabody, Andrew

P., D. D.,

Wise, John

LL. D.,

Harvard University.

Pepper, William, M. D., LL. D., Provost University of Pennsylvania.


Ex-Congressman from Virginia.

Wright, Marcus

J. , Historian and Custodian of Confederate Records in United States War Department.


;^ew York city. In his first message to the legislature he had the satisfaction of announcing that although the canal was not completed,

the income from the sinking fund, and the tolls from freight, more than paid the interest on the cost of the



John Quincy Adams became president, he ofllered the post of minister to England to Gov. Clinton, but it was declined. On Oct. 36, 1826, he reached the crowning triumph of his life, when, with imposing ceremonies, the waters of Lake Erie were admitted to the canal, and the labor of nine years brought to a successful close. The success of this canal killed all opposition to his plans, and he brought into operation several branches of the main canal, and his influence was successfully exerted to carry the canal system into operation in other states. In youth and early manhood he had been noted for his masculine beauty, and as the years advanced its majestic character became more marked. He was then upward of six feet in stature, straight, and finely proportioned. Material for an extended study of his life may be found in Hosack's "Memoir of DeWitt Clinton" (1839); Renwick's "Life of De

Witt Clinton"


and Campbell's "Life and

AVritings of DeWitt Clinton " (1849). An accident, which shattered a leg in 1818, impaired his health, and he was an invalid during the later years of his life, and died suddenly Feb. 11, 1838. Josepli Christopher, governor of

YATES, New York


was born



The family came from Leeds, 9, 1768. in Yorkshire, Eng., and emigrated to New York at the time of Charles I. The first of the family in America was Joseph Yates. Robert Yates, a descendant, was subsequently chief justice of the supreme court of the state; Abraham Yates, Jr., was mayor of Albany, and Christopher Yates, the father of Joseph C. was one of the principal men of Schenectady before the revolution. During the French and Indian war he was a captain of provincial troops, and was wounded in the attack on Ticonderoga in 1758. In the following year he was present at the capture of Fort Niagara. At the time of the outbreak of the revolutionary war he offered his services and received a commission afterward he was a colonel of New York troops. He was at the battle of Saratoga, and was a man highly respected by his superiors and by those under his command. Col. Yates married Jane Bradt, a descendant of an old and respected Dutch family. Young Joseph's early education was received from a private tutor, who Afterward he was sent lived in his father's family. to an academy, and completed his education in Schenectady. He then entered the law office of his father's cousin, Peter Y. Yates, in Albany, and studied law, being finally admitted to practice, when he opened an office in his native town. He became a shrewd and able lawyer and a public-spirited citizen, and was one of those who founded Union College. In 1798 Schenectady was incorporated as a city, and Mr. Yates was selected as the first mayor. He belonged to the republican party of the time, but chiefly occupied himself with the practice of his proIn 1805, however, he was elected to the fession. N. Y., Nov.




state sen and in 1808 was appointed one of the judges of the supreme court of the state, a position which he continued to hold for fourteen years. As a judge he was distinguished for his plain and practi'

common sense, his uprightness and impartiality, and his courtesy of manner. While not a rapid thinker, he was clear and accurate in his judgment, and he is said to have made very few mistakes. In 181^ Judge Yates was appointed one of the regents oftttie University. In 1817 his name was mentioned as a candidate for the governorship, but he declined to run. In 1833, however, he consented to permit his name to be used for this position, when his elec tion was practically unanimous. He began his oflicial duties under the new constitution, adopted in 1831, and the first difficulty which met cal

him was

the necessity for the

appointment of a great


whose tenure of office had become changed by this instrument. The result was that the city of Albany was thronged by place-hunters, and the matter of these appointments became a officers

serious trouble to the new governor. On this account, and for other reasons, he became unpopular; and there being a proposition to change the electoral law of the state, which brought about a heated and angry debate in the legislature, Gov. Yates fell into disfavor in regard to his opinions and actions on this important question. Eventually he had to call an extra session of the legislature, a movement which not only estranged many of his political friends from him, but was productive of no good, as the legislature, which assembled in accordance with the governor's proclamation, refused by a large majority to transact any business, and, after a session of four days, again adjourned. At the expiration of his term of office Gov. Yates retired to private life, and continued to reside at Schenectady. Gov. Yates was married three times. His first \\ife was Mrs. Ann Ellice, of Schenectady, by whom he had no children. His second wife was Maria Kane, of Albany. By her he had one daughter; and by his third wife, Ann

Elizabeth Delancy, he had two daughters. In all his private relations Gov. Yates was an estimable man and highly respected. But as a politician and a public man he was not successful. He lacked boldness and energy, and the complaint was made against him that he was over-cautious and timorous. In person he was tall and fine-looking, with a dignified manner. The last appearance of Gov. Yates in public was in 1833, when he presided over a citizens' meeting. He died March 19, 1837. PITCHER, Nathaniel, governor of New York (1828-39), was born in Litchfield, Conn., in 1777, but early in life removed to Sandy Hill, N. Y. Very little is known of his life, either public or private. He was a member of the state legislature in He was also a 1806, and again in 1815 to 1817. member of the state constitutional convention, which was held in 1821. He was a democrat in politics, and was elected to congress, serving from 1819 In the state election of 1826 he was what to 1833. was known as a "bucktail," and was nominated by He was a Jackthat party for lieutenant-governor. son man and opposed to De Witt Clinton, the oppoClinton was elected sition candidate for governor. governor, and Pitcher lieutenant-governor, and when Gov. DeWitt Clinton died, 1838, Lieut.-Goy. Pitcher became governor, serving in that position from



February, 1828, to January, 1829. From 1831 to 1833, he was a member of congress. He died at



May 25, 1886. BTJBEN, Martin,







(See Index.)


Thompsoii, governor of New York(1831-33), was born in Johnstown, Montgomery Co., N. Y., Aug. 31, 1784. His family originally lived in Lebanon, Conn. but removed to Nova Scotia when George Bliss Throop, the father of the governor, was a ,

lad. The revolution caused so much ill-feeling in the provinces against the whigs that they were driven out of the country by




George Throop mar-

ried Abiah Thompson, daughter of Ehos Thompson, after the parents named their boy. Immediately after his marriage Mr. Throop removed to Johnstown,


where he purchased land and settled. Here he practiced law and taught school for some years,

when a serious accident destroyed his health, and he died in 1794, leaving his wife and family with-

out other property than the dwelling and lot where they resided. The widow afterward married again. Young Enos received an ordinary village- school education and was adopted into the family of a Mr. Metcalfe, of Albany, in 1798, where he took a clerkship and began to study law. He showed unusual ability and industry and was rapidly pushed forward, being specially favored, moreover, by having the opportunity of listening to the eloquence of such orators as Hamilton, Burr, Gouverneur Morris and Brockholst Livingston. In the spxing of 1801 Mr. Throop returned to John,stown, where he passed a year in a local law ofBce, and then for three years held a clerkship, and in 1806 was admitted to practice at the bar. From 1807 to 1811 Mr. Throop was in partnership at Auburn with Joseph L. Richardson. He was then appointed county clerk of Cayuga county. In July, 1814, Mr. Throop was married to Evelina Vredenburgh, of Skaneateles, N. Y. whose father was of Dutch descent and a large landowner. At the congressional election in the same year, Mr. Throop was elected a member of the fourteenth congress, and soon acquired in Washington a thorough



knowledge of legislation, and by his talents and industry and his elevated character gained a prominent position but his action in regard to what was known as "The Compensation Act," which he advocated, irritated his constituents, and he resigned from congress in consequence. The compensation act changed the per diem allowance of members of congress to an annual salary of $1,500, which was practically a very small increase from the former pay. For some years Mr. Throop now confined himself to his private business, but in 1823 he was appointed by Gov. Yates to the office of circuit judge. In this position he made a most favorable impression on all who had dealings with him. In January, 1827, it fell to Judge Throop to have the alleged kidnappers of William Morgan brought before him for trial. Morgan was preparing a book to divulge the secrets of the Masonic order. He was forcibly abducted, in September, 1826, from Canandaigua and taken to Fort Niagara, where he was confined for several days, when he disappeared. The occurrence created great excitement, and the feeling between Masons and anti-Masons in the state became very hitter and intense and was carried into politics. A body, alleged to have been that of Morgan, was produced, but it was denied that it was Mor;

which brought from Thurlow Weed a remark, became proverbial, that it was "A food enough Morgan until after election. " In 1828 udge Throop consented to run for lieutenant-govgan's,

that afterward

ernor of the state with Martin Van Buren, when they were elected, but the governor receiving the ap-

pointment of secretary of state, Mr. Throop became He opposed the project of a Cheacting governor. nango canal but, as it passed with certain conditions in harmony with his views, he signed the bill. Gov. Throop's messages to the legislature have been pronounced to be remarkably able piiblic documents. In 1830 he was nominated for governor and later was His second term was re-elected by a large majority. He uneventful, and he refused a third nomination. discharged all the duties of his office with ability, and on retiring left the state with its finances prosperous, and with his party firmly in the ascendant. In 1833 Gov. Throop was appointed by President Jackson naval officer at the port of New York, a position which he continued to hold until 1838, when President Van Buren appointed him charge ;

kingdom of the Two Sicilies. He creditably performed the duties of this position until the election of Gen. Harrison to the presidency, when he returned home and retired to private life. For some time he resided at his estate near Auburn, but in 1847 purchased a large farm near Kalamazoo, in Michigan, where he devoted himself to agriculture until 1857, when he relinquished all employment on account of his age, and returned to his old home near Auburn, N. Y., where he died Nov. 1, 1874. "W. L., governor of New York (1888(See Index.) 89). W. H. , governor of New York (See Index.) (1839-43). BOUCK, William C. , governor of New York (1843-45) was born in what is now Fulton, Schoharie He came of German Co., N. Y., Jan. 7, 1786. stock, his great-grandfather having emigrated to this country and settled in the valley of the Schoharie, his son being the first male child born there This son patof white parents. ented from George II., in 1755, 3,000 acres of land, in connection with other parties, and much of this land was afterward inherited by the subject of this sketch. The family suffered much from the inroads of the savages dur ing the French and Indian war. Christian Bouck, the father of the governor, was a patriot in the colonial service during the revolutionary war. William C. Bouck was trained as a farmer, and he received only a commonschool education. In his earliest d'affaires to the



youth, however, he was deeply interested in politics, and in 1807 was chosen clerk of his native town and for the two following years was elected supervisor. He was married in 1807 to Catharine Lawyer, by whom he had eleven children. In 1812 he was appointed sheriff by Gov. Tompkins and held the position a year. Mr. Bouck had now become a leading politician in his section, and in 1813 was elected a member of the assembly; he was re-elected in 1814, 1815 and again in 1817. In the legislature Mr. Bouck was not noted as a debater, but was found most useful in committee work, to which he devoted himself with earnestness and fidelity. In 1821 he was appointed a canal commissioner, and was assigned to the western section, where he superintended the construction of

OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. the Erie Canal from Lockport to

its terminus at faithful and indefatigable in the discharge of his duties, which were not performed without danger, as much of his work lay in


He was


the midst of the unbroken forest, which Mr. Bouck had to traverse on horseback, frequently carrying with him large sums of money, as his monthly payments to contractors averaged as much as $100,000. It fell to-him also to break through the final barrier, the only obstacle in the way of communication between the Hudson and Lake Erie. This he accomplished, and on the 35th of October, 1825, the entire canal from Albany to Buffalo was navigable and on the following day the first boats passed through it. The first boat to pass the locks at Lockport was named in honor of the commissioner, the "William C. Bouck. Besides his work on the western section of the Erie Canal, Mr. Bouck was also selected to take charge of the work on the Cayuga and Seneca, the Crooked Lake and the Chenango canals, all of which were constructed under his superintendence and supervision. In 1833 Mr. Bouck was offered the position of commissioner to superintend the building of the Utica and Schenectady railroad,




he declined.


remained for

nineteen years in the office of canal commissioner, during which time he expended and accounted for

upwards of


Political considerations

caused his removal in 1840. In the same year, at the democratic state convention, his name was brought forward as a candidate for the governorship, but he failed of election. In 1842 he was again nomin-


February, 1821, and went through all the militia grades up to brigadier-general in 1827. His rise in politics was equally rapid, beginning with the state senate in 1823-27, where he gained much repute as a debater and financier, but opposed DeWitt Clinton and helped to remove him from his important post as canal commissioner. In congress, 1827-29, he favored a committee looking toward the abolition of slavery in the district, and was a member of that

which framed the

tariff of 1828,


in later life

He was re-elected, but resucceed W. L. Marcy as comptrol-

he considered too high.

signed in 1829 to ler of the state. During his four years' tenure of this post he was a member of the democratic state conventions of 1830 and 1832, and of the national convention which

nominated Jackson and Van Buren. Jan. 4, 1833, he was elected to the U. S. senate to fill Gov. Marcy's unexpired term. Here he supported Clay's compromise bill, defended the removal of the deposits and most of President Jackson's measures, and opposed the rechartering of the U. S. Bank. Webster complimented him, and Benton called him "the Cato of the Senate." In 1835 he served on the finance committee and in convention promoted the nomination of his friend Van Buren, who was largely guided by his advice. He strove to prepare the minds of his constituents for the independent treasury scheme by two notable articles in the "St. Lawrence Republican," and steadily supported it after his re-election to the senate in 1837. His position with regard to slavery was defined in an oration at Canton, July 4, 1839. He sustained the bankrupt bill urged by Van Buren, and opposed that favored by President Tyler, as also the handing over of surplus federal revenue to the states, and the annexation of Texas in 1838 and in 1844. He voted for the tariff of 1842; kept a suspicious attitude toward Tyler, though approving the bank vetoes, and

ated and was elected by 22,000 majority. He came into power when there was a great deal of factional trouble in the State, and as he was the first democratic executive after a whig administration of four years, he was obliged to largely exercise the appointing power a fact which necessarily made him a great many enemies. His course in regard to appointments, while very impartial, was impolitic, in that he failed to strengthen himself. During the two years of his administration the democrats had the control of both parts of the legislature, but their factional contests Interfered very much with the proper business of the legislature. Shortly before the close of his administration, what was known as the anti-rent struggle broke out, on the manorial withstood Calhoun's efforts to close the mails to lands, when bands of tenants, anti-renters, disguised "incendiary matter" and to disregard petitions themselves as Indians and seized the ofiicial papers against slavery in the district. In 1843 he was again of the sheriff of Columbia county and burned them; re-elected; in December, 1844, he resigned to become while at one of their meetings in that county a governor of New York, after declining a nomination young man was shot dead. Similar disturbances for the vice-presidency,. and^a seat on the bench of occurred in the county of Rensselaer. An armed the U. S. supreme court. During his stormy term force was ordered out, which assisted the authorities as governor, 1845-46, he must have been moved to in Columbia county in enforcing the laws, and the regret the comparative peace of the senate, which offenders were arrested, tried and punished. In was his proper field. His party was torn by facJune, 1846, Gov. Bouck was appointed by President tional discussions, and the state distracted by the Polk to the office of assistant treasurer in the city of anti-rent troubles. The latter he suppressed manfulNew York, and he continued to hold that position ly, quelling an insurrection in Delaware county, and refusing to pardon offenders against the law. But until he was removed by President Taylor, in May, 1849. He then retired to his farm in Schoharie he was unequal to the meaner task of harmonizing county, where he passed the last ten years of his and reorganizing the party, as Van Buren had done Gov. Bouck died on his farm Apr. 19, 1859. in 1820. According to one of his biographers, "he life. Silas, governor of New York (1845- understood men, but not how to use them; he was a statesman, not a managing politician Cato, not 47), was born at Amherst, Mass., May 24, 1795, a descendant of Samuel Wright, who came to Boston Csesar." The middle course which he pursued His father, satisfied neither faction; his opposition to a constituin 1630 and to Northampton in 1654. tional convention was in the interest of the "hunkSilas, a farmer, tanner, and shoemaker, removed in " 1796 to Weybridge, Addison Co., Vt., and was later ers or conservatives, and his veto of the appropriAt fourteen the boy entered an ation for canals in that of the "barnburners." in the legislature. academy at Middlebury, Vt., and by teaching in the Though he sternly put down and punished the antiwinters made his way through the college there, rent riots, his message of 1846 advised the omission graduating in 1815. He read law at Sandy Hill, from future leases of distress for rent, and suggested Washington Co., Vt., was admitted to the bar in other measures of relief. He was renominated but January, 1819, and in October settled at Canton, St. defeated, and at the end of 1846 found himself out Lawrence Co., N. Y., which he never left except of office for the first time since the outset of his cafor his official duties. He was made surrogate in reer. He had declined foreign missions and seats in




when offered by three successive presidents; he now retired to his farm and took the part of Cincinnatus. In the spring of 1847 he put himself on record as in sympathy with the Wilmot proviso and in favor of harbor improvements on the lakes. He died of heart disease at Canton Aug. 27, 1847. His life has been written by J. D. Hammond

the cabinet



J. S.

YOUNG, 49),

was born

Jenkins (1852).

John, governor in Chelsea, Vt.,


New York



12, 1802.


father, Thomas Young, emigrated from Vermont and settled in the town of Conecus, Livingston Co., N. Y., where, for a time, he kept a public house, but in the latter part of his life owned and cultivated a farm. He was not able to afford his son a

college education, and the boy gained what learning he had from the common schools of his neighbor-


He worked on

his father's


until he


of age, when he began the study of law in the office of Augustus A. Bennett, at East Avon, Livingston Co. Meanwhile, he supported himself by teaching school. He completed his clerkship at Geneseo, the county seat of Livingston, and was admitted to the bar of Livingston county in 1827, and to practice in the supreme court in 1839. His professional success was quite remarkable and very flattering both to his talents and his char-

He was shrewd and persevering, very industrious and faithful to the interests of his clients, and it was not long before he was placed at the head of his profession in Livingston county. He entered into politics at an early age; supported Jackson Van Buren in 1828, and at that election ran as the democratic candidate for county clerk, but was defeated by the anti-Masons. In the following acter.


year he connected himself with this party, however, on principle, believing the Masonic order to be dangerous to the state. Fiom 1828 to 1837 he held several

minor town




1831 was elected to the assemHe was a member of the judiciary committee and acquitted himself creditably as a debater. In 1840 Mr. Young was the whig candidate for member of congress from the thirtieth district and obtained the election by about 2,000 maiority. While in the house of representatives he proved himself of greater value as an adviser and a working member than in debate. In 1844 he was again elected to the legislature and led his party in the important debate on the constitutional convention bill, which passed both houses. Mr. Young was again returned to the assembly in In the next session he voted for the law abol1845. ishing distress for rent, as he strongly disapproved of the tenures by which the manorial lands were held by the tenants. In 1846 Mr. Young was nominated and elected governor of the state on the whig ticket. He condemned the Mexican War in his first message. His administration was in the main successful. He pursued an independent course in the matter of appointments, of which he made very few. He pardoned the leading anti-renters, who had be en tried and convicted during the previous administration, on the ground that their offences were political. After his retirement from the office of governor, he supported Gen. Taylor in the election of 1848 and was appointed by him assistant treasurer in the city of New York in place of Ex-Gov. Bouck. He was married in 1833 to Ellen Harris, a daughter of bly.

Campbell Harris, of Livingston county, and had Gov. Young died in New York city

four children. Apr. 33, 1852.

FISH, Hamilton, 51).

governor of

New York (1849-

(See Index.)

HUNT, Washington,

governor of

New York

(1851-53), was born in Windham, N. Y., Aug. 5, Having received only the ordinary common1811.

school education, but being ambitious and determined to follow a profession, he began to study law at an early age and was admitted to the bar when he was He settwenty-three years old. tled at Lockport, and after pracappointed years was ticing two first judge in Niagara county. He interested himself greatly in politics, being a member of the whig party; and in 1843 was He served elected to congress. continuously from 1843 to 1849, when he was elected comptroller In' of the state of New York. 1850 he was nominated for the governorship of the state, in opposition to Horatio Seymour, whom he defeated. But in 1853, when both were again can-

Gov. Hunt admindidates, Seymour was elected. istered the office faithfully, but without achieving of his term he great distinction. At the close any He was temporary chairretired to private life. man of the last whig convention ever held, but, on the breaking up of that party, he became a democrat; and in 1860 he was offered the nomination for vice-president of the United States on the democratGov. Hunt was a deleic ticket, but declined it. gate to the democratic convention at Chicago in 1864. He was prominent in the state in religious circles, being a frequent delegate to the Protestant Episcopal convention. Gov. Hunt died in York city Feb. 3, 1867.




Horatio, governor of York, (1853-55 and 1863-65), was born at Pompey Hill, Onondaga Co., N. Y., May 31, 1810. He derived his origin from the Seymour family, who were among the first settlers of Hartford, Conn., his grandfather, Maj. Moses Seymour, being captain of a troop of horse during the war of the revolution and having distinguished himself at the surrender of Burgoyne. Maj. Seymour had five sons and a daughter. Of his sons, one became distinguished as a financier and bank president, two were high sheriffs, one was a representative and senator in the state of New York, and one was for twelve years U. S. senator from Vermont. Horatio Seymour's grandfather on his mother's side was Lieut. -Col. Forman of the 1st New Jersey regiment in the revolutionary army. His grandmother was a niece of Col. William Ledyard, who commanded at Groton, Conn., when that place was sacked and burned by the British, Sept. 6, 1781, under command of Benedict Arnold. Of the five sons of Maj. Seymour, Henry, the father of Horatio, settled in Onondaga county in the beginning of this century and there in the midst of the wilderness was born the future governor of the state. About nine years later the family removed to Utica. Henry Seymour was a colleague of DeWitt Clinton. Like most of the early settlers of Onondaga county, be was a man of a high order of merit and ability. One of the first things done by the pioneer settlers in this country was to raise money by mortgaging their lands in order to build and endow an academy, and in this academy Horatio Seymour received the rudiments of his education. When he was ten years old he was sent to the Oxford Academy, at the time one

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. of the foremost educational institutions of the state, where he remained for about two years, going thence to Geneva (now Hobart) College, where he remained two years longer. From Geneva he went to Capt. Partridge's celebrated military academy at Middletown, Conn., where he was graduated. Returning to Utica, yoimg Seymour began to study law under the two noted jurists, Greene C. Bronson and Samuel Beardsley, and in 1832 was admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor of the supreme court of the state of Xew York and a member of the Oneida county bar. It was about this time that Mr. Seymour married Mary Bleeker, daughter of John R. Bleeker of Albany. Although Mr. Seymour was thoroughly versed in the law, he never practised, from the fact that he was almost immediately obliged to devote his whole time and attention to the large estate which he inherited. He made many acquaintances, however, among the best men in the state, and

when Martin Van Buren became

president, having Mr. Seymour, as he believed, the elements of a popular leader, he recommended Gov. Marcy to make him his military secretary, which he did. This appointment assisted in bringing about intimate personal relations between Mr. Seymour and the great democratic leaders in the state, and he continued to hold his confidential position near Gov. Marcy until 1839. In 1841 he accepted the nomination for the assembly from the county of Oneida and was elected by one of the largest majorities ever received by a dem-



ocratic candidate in that county, at the age of twentyseven years he actually began his public career. In the assem-

and thus

bly Mr. Seymour at once took rank as a prominent and leading member, and during his first term made a most satisfactory impression. In 1842 he was elected mayor of Utica. He was renominated for that position in 1843, but was beaten by sixteen votes, and in the autumn of the same year, was re-elected a member of the legislature, where he remained until the close of 1845, at which sesIn sion he was elected speaker. 1850 Mr. Seymour received the nomination from the democratic party for governor of the state; he was defeated, however, by Washington Hunt, the whig candidate, but although the latter was assisted by the "anti-rent " vote, he only gained his election by 262 majority in a total poll of 429,000. In 1852 3Ir. Seymour was a delegate to the democratic national convention held at Baltimore, and worked in the inIn the terest of William L. Marcy for president. same year he was again nominated by the democrats for the governorship of the state of ^S'ew York,

against his old competitor, Washington Hunt, whom he this time defeated by a majority of 22,906. The administration of Gov. Seymour was eminently successful, although it occurred at a period of general party disturbance. The temperance agitators were particularly active, and the legislature passed a pro-

hibitory law, which was vetoed by Gov. Seymour. ]\Ieanwhile the repeal of the Missouri compromise had thoroughly shaken the democratic party of the North, while the whig party was abandoned by its leaders and was already making way for the repubAll of these discordant lican party of the future.

and even dangerous elements had

to be encountered

in the course of Gov. Seymour's administration and were met with the courage and fidelity of a statesman and a patriot. In 1854 Gov. Seymour was reBominated, there being four tickets in the field. He



was defeated by Myron H. Clark, the whig and temperance candidate, by a plurality of 309 votes in a grand total of 469,481. In 1856 Gov. Seymour went to Cincinnati as a delegate to the democratic national convention, and gave his support to Buchanan and Breckenridge in the succeeding campaign. His views on the conditions and elements of the existing political situation were deemed to be of so much importance that he was requested to give public expression to them. Accordingly, at Springfield, Mass., on July 4, 1856, before an assemblage numbering many thousands, he delivered an address on The Democratic Theory of Government, " which was published throughout the country and circulated widely as a campaign document, contributing in no small degree to the democratic victory of that year. He argued against centralization, and for local authority, claiming that under such conditions the slavery question would settle itself by all the states becoming free, for the tendency of events was such that power was passing to the free states, and ultimately the ideas which controlled these states would control the Union. On the accession of James Buchanan to the presidential chair, he tendered to Gov. Seymour a first-class mission to one of the European courts, but this offer was gracefully declined, and Gov. Seymour returned to his farm where he always sliowed great interest in agricultural pursuits. At the beginning of the civil war Gov. Seymour, like many other loyal men, sought earnestly to avert the difiiculties and dangers which he saw were threatening the stability of the Union. Possibly misunderstanding the relations of the two sections of the country with regard to their strength and ability to sustain an armed conflict, he was nevertheless certainly right in the effort to avoid a sanguinary and bitter strife as to the possible result of which no mind, however far-seeing, could decide. Gov. Seymour addressed meetings in his own and other states at which he sought to do away with the false impression then prevalent throughout the North with regard to the staying power of the Southern people. "Ninety days" was the limit generally fixed for the war which was obviously to take place, and no effort on the part of such statesmen as were unwilling to swim with the tide against their own convictions had any effect in changing this impression. Gov. Seymour had opposed the republicans during the campaign, but he actively supported the administration after President Lincoln took oflice. At a democratic ratification meeting held in Utica in 1862, he announced in the most spirited manner the intention of Northern democrats to lose no opportunity of showing their loyalty to the Union. He contributed largely in Oneida county to the funds raised for the purpose of enlisting soldiers, and while attending a meeting of the state military association in 1862, at Albany, denounce he began his address by saying, the rebellion as most wicked, because it wages war against the best government the world has ever seen." In September of that year Gov. Seymour was enthusiastically renominated as a candidate for the executive chair of the state of New York. Upon receiving this nomination Gov. Seymour adopted a course at that time unusual in the political history of the state, which was to undertake a personal campaign, by traversing the state and addressing meetings. He spoke at outdoor gatherings as many as nine times a week during the campaign, of course a most trying and fatiguing undertaking, but which resulted in his being elected by a majority of 10,752 votes. In his message to the senate after his election. Gov. Seymour put on record his declaration that under no circumstances could the division of the Union be conceded, and in the strongest manner announced his intention to aid in upholding the govern'





ment, and showing respect to the autliority of



protested against arbitrary arrests and the suppressing of journals and imprisonment of persons without due process of law, holding that the fact of an existing rebellion could not suspend a single right of the citizens of loyal states. Throughout his administration Gov. Seynx,our was conspicurulers.

ous by his energy and ability in raising troops. Within three days after the special demand which was made on tlie occasion of the invasion of Pennsylvania, 12,000 state militia, thoroughly equipped, were on their way to Harrisburg. It was while the

New York

militia were absent from the city in Penn.sylvania that the series of outbreaks known as more unfortunate the " draft riots " took place.


time could not have been even accidentally appointed for the announcement in New York of the names of those who were drafted. It has never, however, been satisfactorily shown that this particular period was not chosen designedly by the war department. Two points with regard to the draft were especially obnoxious: one was that while the poor must go to the war, "willy-nilly," the rich could avoid it by paying $300 to buy a substitute; the other was tliat the quota demanded from New York was inaccurate and unjust, so excessive in fact that the general government was forced afterward to correct it. Gov. Seymour endeavored to have the quota coi-rected, and the draft postponed, but the latter began on Saturday, July 11, 1863, the names being published on Sunday. From that time until Thursday evening the city was in the hands of the rioters; about a

and property amounting to was destroyed. As soon as the riots began. Gov. Seymour went at once to the metropolis, where he is.sued proclamations declaring thousand




several million dollars

the city to be in a state of insurrection, ordering all persons engaged in riotous proceedings to return to their homes and employments, and declaring that he should all the power necessary to restore the peace and order of the city. He made public addresses urging the mob to disperse and insisting upon the obedience of the law, while at the same time he ased every effort to obtain troops and envolunteers. By judiciously refraining from up the already excited passions of the rioters, and, aided by the few soldiers in the forts under the command of Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool, Gov. Seymour did much toward allaying the excitement which ended on Thursday evening, July 16th. On Apr. 16, 1864, the state legislature, which was republican, passed a resolution thanking Gov. Seymour for having procured the correction of the errors committed in regard to the draft by the In the same year Gov. authorities at Washington. Seymour was a candidate for the governorship of the state, but was defeated by Reuben E. Fenton, by a majority of 8,293. After the war was ended Gov. Seymour continued to be prominent in politics. He strongly opposed the republican party, as was natural from a democratic standpoint, and after presiding over state conventions in 1867 and 1868, he was elected permanent cliairmanof the national convention, which met in New York city July 4, 1868, when Seymour and Blair were nominated as the candidates of the democratic party for tlie offices of At the president and vice-president respectively. election Gov. Seymour was defeated by Gen. Grant, the popular vote being 3,015,071 for Grant, and 2,709,213 for Seymour. From this time forward, Mr. Seymour refused to let his name be used as a candidate for any public office. In 1864 he had built on the Deerfield Hills, near L tica, a plain frame cottage, spacious and hospitable, located on the highHere he devoted himself to est point on his farm reading and agricultural pursuits, up to the time of his death, which occurred Feb. 12, 1886. roll



CLABK, Myron HoUey,


governor of (1855-57), was born in Naples, Ontario Co., N. Y., Oct. 33, 1806. His family came from western Massachusetts, his grandfather having emigrated from Berkshire county to York state in the latter pai-t of



Young My-

the last century. ron had the ordinary districtschool education, but became

popular and was elected to several local offices, and was for sheriff of Ontario He removed to Cancounty. andaigua, of which village he was elected president in 1850. In 1852 he was elected state senator. In the senate he interested him.self greatly in the subject of temperance and aid-

two years

ed in securing the passage of a prohibitory liquor law; but it was vetoed by Gov. Seymour. In 1854, the two parties having split on the question of slavery, a combination of anti-slavery prohibitionists, and others, nominated Mr. Clark for governor and succeeded in electing him by a majority of 305 votes in a total vote of 370,000, the smallest majority ever given to a governor of New York. His party called itself republl can, and he was practically the first republican state While in office he succeeded in obtaincandidate.


ing the passage of a prohibitory liquor bill, which was his pet hobby, but it was in force for less than a year, when it was set aside as unconstitutional. In 1874 he was a candidate for governor on the prohibition ticket. Gov. Clark died Aug. 23, 1892.

KING-, John Alsop, governor of IS'ew York York city. Jan. 3, 1788, (1857-59), was born in He the eldest son of Rufus and Mary King. attended school at Harrow, Eng., and upon his return to


New York studied law and was admitted to the bar. He was a lieutenant of cavalry in the U. S. army during the war of 1813. At the close of the war he engaged in farming at Jamaica, N.Y. He was elected to the New York legislature in 1819 and subsequently re-elected a number of times. He opposed most of the measures advanced by DeWitt Clinton but favored the canal and was subsequently elected to the .state

He resigned his place in the senate to accompany his father to the court of St. James as tl-^^^'^g .,y^iY secretary of legation. When on account of ill health his father was compelled to return to the United States, he remained in England as charge d'affaires until the new minister arrived. In 1838 he was again returned to the legislature, and in 1849 was elected to congress by the whig party. He opposed all compromise nieasures, particularly the fugitive slave law, and advocated the admission of California as a free state. He was prominent at several whig nominating conventions and presided at the convention held at Syracuse, N. Y., in 1855, when the republican party was formed, and in 1856 at the Philadelphia convention he was a warm supporter of Gen. Fremont. Mi-. King was elected governor of New York in 1856 and gave particular attention to educational n.atters and internal improvements. He declined a renomination, and on account of advanced vears retired senate.


life. In 1861 at the request of Gov. JHoi-gau be once more consented to come before 'the public as a member of the peace convention. He was a prominent member of the Episcopal church and took a conspicuous part in its diocesan conventions. He died at Jamaica, N. Y., July 7, 1867. Edwin Dennison, governor of New York (1859-63), was born in Washington, Berkshire Co., Mass., Feb. 8, 1811. After passing through the common schools he went to Hartford, Conn., in



1838, where his uncle,

Nathan Mor-

gan, was engaged in business, and entered his store as a clerk on a small salary. At the end of three years he had shown the possession of such business qualities and had become so important to his uncle, that the latter took him into partnership. "While in Hartford he was elected a member of the city council and was acquiring a personal as well as business reputation


highly to his credit and honor that he refused any compensation connected with this commission. In 1862 when Gov. Morgan retired from office, he was elected by the I'epublican party in the state legislature a member of the U. S. senate, where he served until March 3, 1869. In the meantime, he was temporary chairman of the convention "which was held at Baltimore in 1864 and a delegate to that of Philadelphia in 1866. In 1865 President Lincoln ofi:ered him a place in his cabinet as secretary of the treasury, but he declined it. In 1872, occupying the

responsible position of chairman of the national republican committee, he conducted the campaign successfully and Gen. Grant was elected president for his second term. In 1875 Mr. Morgan was candidate for U. S. senator and the following year for governor of New York, but was defeated. When Gen. Arthur succeeded to the presidential chair in 1881, he offered to Gov. Morgan the position of secretary of the treasury, but the governor for the second time. declined it, on this occasion on account of his age. Throughout his life Gov. Morgan was eswhen he decided to remove from teemed as one of the most prominent citizens of the Connecticut and establish himself state, while his name was well known throughin New York. This he did in 1836, out the country as the synonym for loyalty, and founded a mercantile house personal integrity and business ability. He poswhich was rapidly successful. Mr. sessed a very generous nature and gave largely to Morgan was already noted for the charitable institutions and institutions of learning. >^^^^^^ '^''^"'y ^^'^ benevolence of his disThe New York Theological Seminary received from position.and when the cholera broke him as a gift nearly three quarters of a million dolout in New York in 1849, instead lars, and he gave half as much more to Williams of fleeing from the city as most of those did who College library for the erection of suitable buildings. could get away, he remained in the midst of the In his will he bequeathed more than three quarters contagion and personally assisted those who were of a million dollars for the purpose of carrying out sick or poor. In 1850 "Mr. Morgan was elected a his charitable and religious designs. Gov. Moigan member of the state senate and continued to serve in died in New York city Feb. 14, 1883. that body until he was elected governor of the state FENTON,' Reuben Eaton, governor of New in 1858. It thus fell to him to become one of the York (1865-69), was born in Carroll, Chautauqua "war governors," that splendid body of executive Co., N. Y., July 4, 1819, the youngest sou of the officers whose personal efforts had so much to do late George W. Fenton, one of the pioneer settlers with the success of the Union during the civil war. of Chautauqua county, N. Y. He During Gov. Morgan's first two years in that posi- attended the pioneer school in his tion he was preparing, as every one was more or native place until he was fifteen less, for the "impending crisis." He succeeded in years of age, after which he spent reducing the state debt and in increasing the rev- two years at Gary's Academy near enue from canal tolls, and this at a period when Cincinnati and completed his eduthere was the greatest necessity for economizing and cational course at the Fredonia accumulating money in view of the tremendous ex- Academy in Chautauqua. It was penditures which were presently to take place. intended that he should be fitted The part taken by the state of New York in the for the profession of law, and for civil war, that being the first state in the Union in that purpose he studied for a year wealth and population, was necessarily foremost. or two in. the law office of the Every county furnished its quota of volunteers; its Waite brothers in Jamestown, but well-organized and thoroughly drilled militia regi- ill health forced him to abandon ments supplied capable officers to the inexperienced his studies and at the age of twenty army, which was so rapidly formed; and the many he began business as a country factories of the state were kept busy night and day merchant and became almost imin supplying arms, clothing and equipments; at the mediately successful. In the meanWatervliet arsenal alone, 1, 500 men were employed time he had become popular and during the war. The wealth of New York was prominent among his fellow -citpoured out like water to sustain the Union cause. izens and was elected colonel of the 162d regiThe first dollar voted by any city for the equipment ment New York state militia. His profits accumof troops came from York, and that city con- ulated and he invested his savings in the lumber tributed to the Union armies 116,000 men at an ex- trade and personally conducted his first raft of pense of |3.4.500,000, while the entire state supplied timber which cost him his first thousand dollars, to the army 475,000 men, more than one-sixth of the down the Ohio to Maysvifle, Ky., where he sold it entire national force. Of course the extraordinary at a large profit. He soon had the reputation of beduties devolving upon the executive made a con- ing one of the most successful operators in lumber He made considerable money and bestant and severe demand and strain upon all his fac- in his region. ulties. Fortunately Gov. Morgan was physically gan to take rank among the brightest and most prosand mentally thoroughly equipped for such an perous of his neighbors. Prom 1846 to 1853 inclusemergency. Of the entire number of troops sent by ive, he was annually elected supervisor of Carroll.. York to the war, 223,000 were or- He acted with the democratic party of that day the state of ganized and mustered in during his term of office. and in 1849 was nominated by it for the assembly When the state was made a military department in and won the election. In 1852 he was nomina1861 he was commissioned a major-general of vol- ted by the democrats for congress and was unteers and placed over it as commander, but it is elected by a small majority in a district which





hitherto given 3,000 majority to whig candiBitterly opposed to the extension of slavery, Mr. Fenton abandoned his party on the instant that it advocated pro-slavery measures and voted in congress against the Kansas-Nebraska bill. He was very apt to encourage and foster popular measures. He espoused the cause of the veterans of 1812 and carried a bill for their relief through the house. He advocated the cheap-postage system, the regulation of emigration, the extension of invalid pensions and the repeal of the fugitive slave law, and he opposed the invasion of Kansas, the bounty bills and the payment of Confederate losses during the civil war. In committee he was noted for his untiring industry and his excellent judgment. During the rebellion he supported the national government with voice and vote. He entered congress and left it one of the most positive republicans. In 1862 he was proposed for the .republican nomination for governor of New York, but declined, to accept the same honor two years later, when he defeated Gov. Seymour and ran lar ahead of his ticket. At the conclusion of his dates.


term he was renominated and re-elected by an

increased majority. He became a political power in the state, and also in the republican party throughout the country. At the opening of the republican campaign in 1863 his name was mentioned in connection with the presidency, and the republican state convention which met in Syracuse in that year unanimously declared him to be the first choice of the Union party in New York, for vice-president. In 1869 Gov. Fenton was chosen by the legislature senator of the United States for the term of six years, concluding March 3, 1875, and he entered the senate as one of its most prominent members. He now gave his attention particularly to finance, and his speeches on taxation, the currency, tlie public revenue, the public debt and cognate subjects evinced the highest statesmanship and attracted national attention. He opposed bitterly what was known as the "moiety system " which prevailed in the customs department, and which he compared with that which existed in the most corrupt and oppressive period of the French monarchy. Mr. Fenton retired from the senate March 3, 1875, and after that held nO' public office except in 1878, when he was appointed chairman of the commission to take part in the international monetary conference at Paris, on returning from which, in 1879, he resumed his residence at Jamestown. His interest in that city was always deep and sincere, and to his sagacity and wisdom many of the large projects which have materially adHe vanced its growth and prosperity are due. brought about the entrance of two new railroads into city, and was the chief contributor toward the esthe tablishment of the orphanage for Swedish children, which is located there. His last appearance in public was on the occasion of a memorial service held on the occasion of Gen. Grant's funeral. Mr. Fenton was twice married. His first wife was Jane, daughter of John Frew. She lived but two years On June 14, after their marriage, dying in 1840. Scudder, born at 1844, he married Elizabeth Victor, Ontario Co., N. Y., and daughter of Joel Scudder, who survived her hu.sband. By this union he had three children: Josephine, now Mrs. Frank Edward Gifford; Jeannette, now Mrs. Albert GilHis death was bert, Jr., and Reuben E. Fenton. sudden and unexpected. He was president of the First National Bank of Jamestown, and on the afternoon of the day of his death he visited the bank, as was his habit, and seated himself in his accustomed seat in the directors' room. He was reading a letter, when he was suddenly stricken with death. Gov. Fenton's loss was viewed by his fellow-citizens in Jamestown as a personal bereavement, while throughout the state and the Union there was a gen-

and regret on the part of the died Aug. 24, 1885. John Thompson, governor of New York (1869-73), was born at Sing Sing, N. Y., His grandfather, Philip Livingston Jan. 10, 1828. Hoffman, a resident of Columbia county, was educated for the bar. He married Helena Kassam, and his son, Adrian Kassam Hoffman, was the father of John T. Hoffman. Later the family removed eral exp'-ession of grief





Montgomery county and Adrian K. Hoffman

studied medicine and took his degree. He married the daughter of Dr. John Thompson, of Saratoga county, and removed to Westchester county, where he began the practice of his profession.

His son, John Thompson,

received a good education, and while still a boy obtained a repuHe tation as a public speaker. was first educated by the Rev. Dr. Prime, afterward editor of the New York "Observer." "When fifteen years of age young Hoffman entered the junior class of Union College, Schenectady,


This was in 1843, when /If Dr. Eliphalet Nott was president of that institution. He was graduated with all the honors in

N. Y.

1846, and his oration on that occasion is said to have been especially noteworthy, his subject being ' Sectional Prejudices, " a matter with which he was afterward to become more comFrom the time he was a boy pletely informed. young Hoifman adopted the cause of democracy, and to the principles of that party he remained ever after steadfast. After leaving college he began to '

study law with Gen. Aaron Ward and Judge Albert Lookwood, at Sing Sing. He iiegan his political In career before he was twenty-one years of age. the year 1848 he was made a member of the state hardcentral committee by the convention of the shell democracy. " It was at this election that Gen. Taylor carried the state by a plurality of 100,000, and Hamilton Fish was elected governor, both on the whig ticket, in face of the fact that the aggregate democratic vote exceeded that of the whigs. Although not then a voter, Mr. Hoffman took the stump and did good service as a speaker for Lewis Cass. On Jan. 10, 1849, this being his twenty-first birthday, Mr. Hoffman was admitted to the bar, and in the autumn of that year he removed to New York and formed a law partnership with the late Samuel M. Woodruff and Judge William M. Leonard, under the firm name of Woodruff, Leonard & Hoffman. For ten years thereafter Mr. Hoffman devoted himself strictly to the practice of his profession and with marked success. In 1859 his name was put forward by some of the most prominent citizens of New York for the position of U. S. district attorney, and the only objection made to him by Pi-esident Buchanan was on account of his youth. In 1860 Mr. Hoffman was nominated and elected recorder of the city of New York, being the youngest man who had ever filled the place. During his first term as recorder, Mr. Hoffman laid the foundation for the splendid reputation which afterward became his. It fell to his lot to try and sentence many of those engaged in the famous riots of July, 1863. So highly was Recorder Hoffman respected, on account of his conduct in his office, that the republican judiciary convention, on Oct. '




named him

dorsed by both

for re-election.


and Mozart

He was halls,



the press, regardless of party affiliations, sustained


OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHYhim, and he was again elected recorder by an almost unanimous vote. He received 60,000 out of 64,000 votes polled for that office, a record unparalleled in the history of the city up to that time. On Kov. 31, 1865, John T. Hoffman was nominated tor the office of mayor of the city of New York by the Tammany Hall democratic convention. There were three candidates in the field besides Judge Hoffman, they being Marshall O. Roberts for the republicans; John Hecker, nominated by the citizens' association; and C. Godfrey Gunther, renominated by one wing of the democratic party. Judge Hoffman was elected, receiving about twelve hundred votes over the next highest candidate, who was Mr. Roberts. While serving his first term as mayor, Mr. Hoffman was nominated by the democratic party for the governorship, but was defeated by Reuben E. Fenton. In 1867 he was renominated for the mayoralty by Tammany Hall and received over 31, 000 majority over both of his competitors. While serving his second term as mayor, he was again nominated for governor of the state and was elected by a handsome majority. His name had even been mentioned in the national democratic convention in connection with the vice-presidency. He resigned the mayoralty in 1868 to assume the highest executive chair in the state. In 1870 he was re-elected to the governorship; and thus in every office which he held he received the endorsement of the people for a second term. It was during Gov. Hoffman's incumbency of the chair of state that the ^reat tidal wave of popular indignation and opposition to the Tammany democracy occurred, on account of the outrages of the "Tweed ring." Gov. Hoffman was unfortunate in having his name connected with this remarkable oligarchy, but only because he was nominated and supported by the Tweed democracy. No charge that he had ever jiven assistance or service to the ring was ever proven against him. He, however, from- that time forward refrained Trom any active participation in political affairs, maintaining a dignified privacy and devoting himself to his extensive law practice. In person Gov. Hoffman was singularly pleasing. His

manners were courteous, gentle and unaffected, and in conversation he exhibited the well-bred appearance and simplicity of an American gentleman. He traveled much abroad, and was- as familiar with London and Paris as with New York. His favorite place of sojourn, however, was his home on the Hudson. His domestic life, from which neither politics nor the cares of office ever estranged him, was peculiarly happy. As a public speaker Gov. Hoffman always made a deep impression through his evident sincerity and by the clearness of his language and his logic. He spoke as one who believed every word he was saying, and this induced his hearers to believe in him. In 1854 John T. Hoffman married the daughter of Henry Starkweather, of New York city. Ex-Gov. Hoffman died at Wiesbaden, Germany, March 24, 1888.

DIX, J. A., governor of (See Index.)

New York


Jones, governor of New born at New Lebanon, Colum9, 1814. His ancestor, Nathaniel Tilden, who had been mayor of Tenterden, Kent, emigrated in 1763 and settled at Scituate, Mass., whence his son removed to Lebanon, Conn. The governor's grandfather founded New Lebanon, N. Y. his father was a farmer, merchant, and friend of Van Buren. At eighteen the boy drew up an address, which was approved by Van Buren, signed by prominent democrats, and published in the Albany "Argus." Soon after this he spent some time at Yale, but transferred himself to the University of New York, where he was graduated in 1837. In

TILDEN, Samuel


(1875-77), was bia Co., N. Y., Feb.


that year sundry articles of his -on the treasury question appeared in the "Argus " with the signature of "Crisso." In 1838 he wrote the resolutions for

two meetings






Feb. 6th and 36th, and at a debate in Columbia county answered a speech of U. S. Senator N. P. Tallmadge. His speech at New Lebanon Oct. 3, 1840, on currency, prices, and wages, including the history of the U. S. Bank, was circulated as a campaign document, and

pronounced by Conde Raguet "the clearest exposition of the subjects that has yet appeared." He was admitted to the bar in

and opened an office in New York. In 1844 he started the " Morning News," and edited it through the campaign which ended in Polk's election. In 1845 he was elected to the N. Y. assembly, and in 1846 was a member of the constitutional convention and 1841,



the committees of finance cyLriCiJ^ ^ JU£ele^^. canals. From 1846 he devoted himself to his legal practice, which rapidly became lucrative and important, including much railroad business. He won much reputation by his defence of the Pennsylvania Coal Co. against a claim of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Co. for extra toll, in a case which occupied the court for ten weeks. His services were given without fee to A. C. Flagg, whose election as city comptroller was contested in 1856. Another famous case was the claim of Mrs. Cunningham, the opposed supposed murderess, triumphantly by Mr. Tilden, to administer the Burdell estate in 1857. However busy at the law he never lost his interest in municipal, state and national politics. He joined the free-soil movement of 1848, urged constitutional methods in connection with canal improvements in 1851, and was the soft- shell nominee for attorneygeneral in 1855. He wajned a Southerner, in December, 1860, that the South "must not expect Northern democrats to hold the government while they were whipping it, " and said "I will do everything to sustain President Lincoln in the civil war, if it occurs, that I would do to sustain Andrew Jackson if he were president." Gen. Dix blamed Jim a little later for not uniting in the call for a massmeeting, nor attending it, after the attack on Port Sumter. His course during the war was moderate, and he disliked extra-constitutional methods. His most illustrious public service was his unrelenting war on the notorious Tweed ring, and his highest praise came from Tweed himself in 1869: "Sam of



Tilden wants to overthrow




out of politics. He wants to stop the pickings, starve out the bugs, and run the government of the city as if it was a blanked little country store up in New Lebanon. He wants to bring the hayloft and the cheese-press down to the city and crush out the machine. He wants to get a crowd of And country reformers in the legislature. then, when he gets everything well fixed to suit him, he wants to go to the U. S. senate. " Mr. Tilden did, indeed, "want "most of these things, and he obAs chairman of the democratic state tained them. committee, and in the legislature, which he re-entered for this purpose, he brought all his influence to bear against the criminal misgovernment of the city. He was a founder of the Bar Association, and directed its impeachment of Judges Barnard and Cardozo in 1873. After the Times " exposure of ring methods in July, 1871, he pursued the conspirators individually. These labors of reform were his almost


to drive










exclusive business for sixteen mouths. His friends estimated that the neglect of his professional and private affairs during this time cost him "enough to endow a public charity." The sum was quite as well spent in furthering public justice; the ring was broken, and its members prisoners or fugitives. (See "The New York City Ring: Its Origin, Maturity, and Fall," 1873.) In 1874 he was elected governor, with 50,000 majority, over Gen. Dix. Among the more notable deliverances of his administration were his messages of Jan. 5, Jan. 12, March 19 (against the canal rin^), and May 11, 1875; June 4, March 24, 1876. and his .speeches at Buffalo and TJtica Aug. 10 and Sept. 30, 1875. During his term the present capitol building at Albany was begun. The national democraitic convention, meeting at St. Louis in June, 1876, nominated him for president on the second

The election result long doubtful.

was unusually close, and its Mr. Tilden had a popular majoritjr over Mr. Hayes of nearly 251,000, and over all rivals of near 160,000, but the votes of Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida were claimed by both parties; intimidation was charged against the demoballot.



false returns against the republican can-

The excited passions of that anxious tiihe, and the unprecedented embarrassment of the situation, live in the memory of all mature Americans. To avoid a deadlock in congress, the senate being republican and the house democratic, it was agreed to leave the decision to an electoral commission of fifteen, and this, by a strict party vote of eight to seven, accepted the returns of the canvassers vassing boards.




him was written by T. P. Cook

"Writings and Speeches" were edited by John Bigelow(2 vols., 1885). ROBINSON, Lucius, governor of New York (1877-80), was born in Windham, Greene Co., N. Y., Nov. 4, 1810. After receiving a common-school education, he was sent to the academy in Delhi, Delaware Co., N. Y., where he completed his education. He began to study law, passed through an office, and Receiving the apin 1833 was admitted to the bar. pointment of district attorney was the first honor which fell to him, and in 1843 he was made master in chancery for New York city, and continued to hold the position for four years. In the meantime he had become somewhat prominent in politics as a member of the democratic party, but (1876);



republican organization by nominating a candidate for the presidency, Mr. Robinson threw in his fortunes with the new movement. He was elected a member of the assembly of in



party completed


New York



and two

years later was made comptroller of the state, a position which he held until 1865, when the democrats nominated him for the office and he was defeated, but ten years later they again


elected him comptroller. Indeed, his action in leaving the party seems never to have made much difference in his political success as a democrat, and in 1876 he was elected governor on the democratic ticket. In 1879 he again received the nomination at the hands of tlie same party and was defeated. During his administration as governor Of the state, Mr. Robinson made no very marked impression on public affairs. CORNELIi, Alonzo B. , governor of New York (1880-83), was born at Ithaca, N. Y., Jan. 23, 1833. He received an academic education, and at an early age engaged in the telegraph business. His firet employment was at Troy, N. Y. and from his first connection with that office Mr. Cornell was continuously occupied, either as operator, manager, superintendent, director, vice-pre.sident, or acting president of the Western Union Telegraph Company, or His father, the late predecessor companies. its Ezra Cornell, founder of the Cornell University, was associated with Prof. Morse in the early development of the electric telegraph, and in 1843 was appointed by the secretary of the treasury as the superintendent of construction of the first line of tele;

in the three doubtful states, and reported, March 3, 1877, the majority of a single vote for Mr. Hayes. Though some counseled violence, the decision was But half the nation reof necessity acquiesced in. garded ^Ir. Tilden as president de lege. He retained confidence the respect and of his party in an enlarged degree, but refused to allow the use of his name in 1880 and 1884. During the latter years of his life Mr. Tilden was probably the cliief figure in the democratic party, and his opinion was sought on all questions of state or national politics. His last important expression of opinion was in a letter to J. G. Carli.sle, then speaker of the house, urging the necessity of liberal appropriations for a.system of coast defences, that the seaboard of the country might be secured against naval attacks. He died at his country bouse, Orevstone, near Yonkers, N". Y., A>ig. 4, 1886, leaving a large part of his fortune of |5,000,0p0 York; but his heirs to found a free library in (he was a bachelor) contested the will, which was broken, after which the heirs contributed a much smaller sum to endow the library. Probably Mr. Tilden drew more wills disposing of large estates, than any man in the legal profession, biit when making his own, he did not succeed in avoiding legal obstructions, which invalidated the instrument.





Ameiica, between Baltimore and Washing-

The Western Union Telegraph Company. was organized in 1854 by the union of several of the origi-


nal telegraph companies, located chiefly in Ohio, InEzra Cornell, Hiram Sibley, diana, and Michigan. of Rochester, and Jephtha H. Wade, of Cleveland, O., were the practical founders of the company. On his accession to the presidency, in 1869, Gen. Grant appointed Mr. Cornell as surveyor of customs for the part of New York. He performed the duties of that office with such satisfaction that President Grant, in 1870, nominated him assistant treasurer of the United States at New York, to succeed Chai'les J. Folger, who had been elected to the court of appeals. Mr. Cornell preferred the customs service, and declined to accept the treasurership, whereupon Thomas Hiilhouse was appointed to that office. In the performance of duty as surveyor of customs, Mr. Cornell was associated with Moses H. Grinnell,

Thomas Murphy, and

Chester A. Arthur, collectors, New York. Mr. Cornell

successively, of the port of

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. resigned in the autumn of 1872 to accept an election to the legislative assembly of the state of New York; and, despite the fact that it was his first parliamentary service, he was chosen speaker of that body by the unanimous action of the republican caucus, which that year consisted of ninety-six members. The assembly contained a large number of prominent men of great legislative experience, and the choice of Mr. Cornell as speaker, without even the pretence of a canvass for the position, was an un-



has capacity for 350 inmates,

by far the best and cheapest public institution erected by the state since the completion of the Erie


canal enlargement.

corporation state tax law

was enacted under Gov. Cornell's administration, and was designed to relieve overburdened landowners from onerous taxation; but although it has already produced more than ten millions of revenue

though his district was overwhelmingly republican. He preferred to resume his position as vice-president of the Western Union Telegraph Company, in which he continued until the close of 1876, when he accepted from President Grant the appointment as naval officer of customs for the port of New York. In the year 1875 Mr. Cornell was acting president of the Western Union


Telegraph Company during the prolonged absence in Europe of the late William Orton, then president of the company. Factional strife induced President Hayes to suspend Collector Arthur and

than $135,000.


for the state treasury, it has failed to accomplish its intended purpose, owing to the continuous enactment of extravagant tax-levies. Gov. Coi-nell's last annual message was an admirable statement of the condition and necessities of the state. Contrary to the practice of some of his predecessors, he confined his messages to subjects of state jurisdiction and interest. Gov. Cornell was a candidate for renomination in 1883, but as he was not acceptable to the politicians of the party, he was set aside under circumstances which created great dissatisfaction among the people, who elected Grover Cleveland, the democratic nominee, Dy nearly 200,000 majority. Mr. Cornell then retired from political life, and took up his residence in New York city.

usual compliment. As a presiding officer he was remarkably successful, but declined a proffered renomination to the assembly, al-




Officer Cornell


their positions in July, 1878; It was imiversally recognized that this action was founded wholly in political motive. The fact that at the succeeding election Mr. Cornell was elected governor of Yoi'k, and Gten. Arthur vice-president of the United States, served to vindicate their side of the controversy. Gov. Cornell was inaugurated Jan. 1, 1880, and served three years.


CLEVELAND, Grover, governor of New York (See Index.)


B., governor of


FLCWER, E.. P. governor of New York (1893— (See Index.) SANFOKD, irathan, chancellor, was born in ,


Bridgehampton, Suffolk Co., N. Y., Nov. 5, 1777. He received his education at Yale College, and after graduating, chose the profession of the law, was admitted to practice at the age of twenty-two years


settled in

New York



his abilities

soon brought him into public notice. After filling a number of local offices, he was appointed by JeflEerson U. S. commissioner in bankruptcy, and for thii'teen years, including the war of 1813, was U. S.

He was

His adminLstratiou was distinguished for its economfreedom from official scandal, and the

district attorney. York state assembly

general excellence of his appointments. He exercised the veto-power with firmness, and to the great Among the prominent satisfaction of the people. measures vetoed by Gov. Cornell were the code of criminal procedureof 1880, the Croton aqueduct bill, and the new capitol appropriation bill of 1881, the general street-railway bill of 1882, the bill providing a public restaurant in Central Park, and many others. His vetoes of the supply bills were unprecedented in their magnitude, and were cordially approved by the masses. No governor since then has deemed it necessary to apply such radical remedies Many to the correction of scandalous legislation. meritorious measures tending to genuine reformation in the public service were enacted during Gov. The act making women eligible as Cornell's term. school-electors and school-officers was recommended in his first annual message and approved by him. The amendment of the usury, laws enacted in 1883, as recommended in his annual message of that year, has proved to be the most important financial measure adopted by the state since the close of the war It has acfor the restoration of the Union. complished more to equalize New York and London as the chief financial centres of the world than any other act of state legislation. Gov. Cornell strongly urged the creation of the state railway commission which was provided for during his term, but a democratic legislature factiously denied him the satisfaction of appointing the commissioners. The Woman's Reformatory at Hudson was the only new state institution he permitted to be projected byUnder commissioners aplegislative enactment. pointed by him, that admirable institution was completed and put into successful operation at a cost of

in 1811,

ical results, its

New York

(See Index.)

a, member of the


during two terms and speaker

and for three years was state senator. In 1815 he went to Washington as U. S. senator from New York and served six years. In 1831 he was a member of the state constitutional convention, and was appointed chancellor under the new constitution. From 1836 to 1831 he was again .in the U. S. senate,

where he became chiefly known for his earnest

connection with the currency of the counIn 1831 Mr. Sanford retired from public life and settled down at Flushing, L. I. Mr. Sanford was married three times, his third wedding being a notable affair. He married on this occasion a granddaughter of Thomas M'Kean of Delaware, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, and the wedding took place in the White House, the bride being given away by President John Quincy Adams. Mr. Sanford died in Flushing, N. Y., leaving a son, efliorts in


Edward, who became well-known as a contributor of prose and verse to the magazines of his time and as an editorial writer on the staffs of New York and Brooklyn papers. He died in 1876. Mr. Sanford died Oct.

17, 1838.



chancellor of the state of


York, was born at Fredericks, Putnam Co., N. Y., July 31, 1763. His grandfather, Elisha Kent, was a graduate of Yale, and a Presbyterian minister at Philippi, N. Y., where he died in 1776, and his father, Moses Kent, also a graduate of Yale, was a lawyer and surrogate of Rensselaer county. James was one of the founders of the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Yale College, from which he was graduated inl781. Having decided upon the law, heenteredthe office of Egbert'Senson, and was admitted to thebrr He practiced law in Poughkeepsie, whe '? in 1785. he rose early in the morning and devoted his leisu: j



56 time to the study of the


and modern


guages. He was sent to the New York assembly in 1790 and 1792, and, having meanwhile removed to New York city, was again elected in 1796. He was nominated for congress in 1793 as a federalist, but was defeated. Shortly after settling in New York city he was appointed professor of law at Columbia College, a position which he held until 1798. His ability was recognized by such men as Hamilton and Jay, with whose political piinciples Kent was in full sympathy, and in 1798 Jay, then governor of New York, appointed him a justice of tlie supreme court of the state. From 1804 to 1814 he was chief justice of this court. He made a deep study of the principles of civil law, and in 1794 lectured before Columbia College on this subject, and afterward upon constitutional history of the United States and the law of nations. Although he thereby gained a high reputation for learning, his mind did not the less interest itself in matters of practical importance. Thus he lec-

tured before state societies, and


as recorder of the city of York in 1797 was a useful factor in municipal government. Judge Kent resided for a time in Poughheepsie, after his appointment to the supreme court, and later in Albany, and in 1803 he assisted in bringing out an edition of the revised statutes of the state of York. Judge Kent became chief justice of the supreme court of the state he introduced the custom of submitting opinions in writing upon all important cases. He was earnest and industrious in simplifying the law and determining unsettled principles. He succeeded in defining the limitations of the English common law in its application to the United States, and also did much toward the interpretation of the constitution and the construction of statutes and the settlement of forms of procedure and questions of practice all matters of the greatest



importance. Judge Kent was appointed chancellor of New York Feb. 25, 1814. He assumed the position at the time when the court of chancery had become obnoxious to the bar in general and to litigants, on account of the dilatoriness of its procedure and the great expense involved in the conduct of cases before it. Through his original and intelligent methods of applying chancery doctrines. Chancellor Kent succeeded in laying the foundations of equity jurisprudence in the United States. His services to American jurisprudence are amply illustrated by his printed decisions in the New York reports. He administered law with all the learning of the books, and at the same time with a regard to the needs of a new community, in which matters not previously passed upon were being constantly brought up for adjudication. At the age of sixty he was retired, under the statutes, although at that time in possession of the fullest physical and mental vigor. His name was prominently mentioned for a vacancy in the U. S. supreme court, but President Monroe made another choice. On relinquishing his official duties as chancellor, Mr. Kent returned to New York city and resumed his chair in Columbia College. He published a summary of his first ten lectures before that

and later his "Commentaries on American Law "(four volumes. New York, 1826-30), a work covering the entire field of American jurispnidence, including the common law and the statutory law of the states, and the great truths of international law. These commentaries have ever since institution in 1824,

been an authority ia the United States. Judge Kent retired from his professorship in 1825, and from that time devoted, himself to the improvement of his great work. Six editions of the "Commentaries," all revised by the author, were published prior to his death. Other editions succeeded these, the thirteenth being published in 1884. A portion of the work was republished in Edinburgh under the title, "A Treat" (1837). In ise on Commercial and Maritime Law

1828 Judge Kent was .president of the New York Historical Society, and delivered an anniversary adThree years later he spoke dress before that body. before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Yale, and in 1836 he spoke before the New York Bar AssociaIn 1840 he prepared for the Mercantile Lition. York his "Course of brary Association of Reading," which has gone generally into use. He died in New York city Dec. 12, 1847. Reuben Hyde, chancellor of York, was bom at Bozrah, New London Co., Conn., Oct. 26, 1789, the great-grandson of William




Walworth, who came from Loudon with Fitzjohn Winthrop, and settled at Groton, Conn. His father, an officer of the revolution, removed in 1793 to At twelve the boy Hoosick, Rensselaer Co., N. Y. left home, and worked his way through a school of some merit; at sixteen he taught,

At little Latin. seventeen, disabled for farm labor by an accident, he turned to legal studies, supporting himAt self by a rural clerkship. twenty he was admitted to the at an office and opened bar, Plattsburgh. He was a major and adjutant-general of militia in the war of 1812, and, as aide to Gen. Mooers, observed and reported the battle of Plattsburgh later he was division and gained a


judge-advocate and colonel. He was in congress 1821-23, and judge of the fourth district of

New York from 1823-28, when From he became chancellor. 1823 his residence was at Saratoga, except in 1828-33 when he lived at Albany. In the chancellorship, which he held for twenty years, he won a great reputation, and was pronounced by Story "the greatest equity jurist living." He did a work parallel with that of Bentham in England, simplifying and reforming the equity laws, and bringing the procedure of his court under a definite system of "Rules and Orders," which he published in 1829. His diligence is attested by the thiity-uine

volumes of his adjudications in MS. ; many of these were printed in the fourteen volumes of Paige and Barbour's Reports " (1830-49), and in the thirtyeight of Wendell, Hill, and Denio (court of errors) (1829-50). In 1832 Walworth, with Dr. Nott and B. F. Butler, adjusted a dispute between Georgia and the U. S. supreme court. In 1835 he received the degree of LL.D. from Princeton. In 1844 his name was urged for the supreme court, and sent in by President Tyler, but not confirmed. He was twice appointed chairman of a committee to codify the state laws, in 1847 and 1849, but decUned. After, the abolition of his court in 1848 he gave his attention only to chamber practice. His house, "Pine Grove," was for many years the frequent resort of the most eminent men of the state, and of not a few from greater distances. The chancellor was a Presbyterian elder, long president of the state and national temperance societies, a vice-president of the Bible and Tract societies, and a member of the A. B. C. F. M. He published in 1864 the "Hyde Genealogy," two volumes. He died at Saratoga Nov. 21, 1807. folio





^^NDALL, Samuel Jackson, statesman, and showed the finest capacity member of congress and speaker of the house of rep- He was on the aggressive at all resentatives,

He was

was born

in Philadelphia Oct. 10, 1828. the eldest son of Josiah Randall, a noted

lawyer of that city, and of Ann "Worrell, daughter of Joseph Worrell, a prominent democratic political leader in the days of Jefferson. Young Randall obtained his preliminary education in the common schools and in the University Academy in Philadelphia, where he completed his education. From there he went to the business establishment of Hallowell Co., silk merchants, and became a clerk in their counting-room, where he obtained a good idea of business methods. After leaving this house he became a partner in the iron firm of Earp Randall, which eventually established a large wholesale trade. Randall, however, was not thoroughly pleased with a business life, and devoted much of his time and thought to politics, naturally enough inheriting the family trait. His first official experience was as a member of the city council, where he served for four years in succession as an old-line whig. In 1858 he became a member of the state senate, having abandoned the whig parly only when it went to pieces and the republican party was formed on its ruins in 1856. He became a democrat at the same time that his father left the whigs and joined that party. Father and son were in Cincinnati together at the convention in the interests of Buchanan's canvass. The civil war broke out while Samuel J. Randall was in the state senate, and as he was a private in the First City troop of Philadelphia, he joined his company and went to the front, being attached to the command of Col., afterward Gen. George H. Thomas of the 2d U. S. cavalry. Mr. Randall enlisted for a term of ninety days, and before the period expired he had risen from the ranks to be orderly sergeant. Going into the field again, he was promoted to the rank of quartermaster of his company, of which he afterward became captain. This was in 1863, at the time of Gen. Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, and Capt. Randall's company was among the troops advanced to Harrisburg to assist in repelling this invasion. In the summer of that year he made a -brilliant reconnoissance, in which he captured several prisoners, while also making the important discovery that a large body of Confederates had established themselves between Chambersburgh and Williamsport, Pa. During the battle of Gettysburg Capt. Randall was made provost-marshal. On his return to Philadelphia he was nominated on the democratic ticket for congress from the first Pennsylvania district and took his seat in the thirty-eighth congress. From 1863 up to the time of his death



Mr. Randall was elected to each succeeding congress, and for twenty-eight years served his state faithfully as a representative. The first part of his congressional career was chiefly notable for the success with which he kept himself in the background, giving all his time and attention to studying the methods of handling questions by the members of the house and thoroughly familiarizing himself with his new duties. It was in the forty-first congress that Mr. Randall first began to make an impression both on the minds of his associates and on the country as a hardworking and clear-headed member of committees. On the floor of the house he began to be recognized as a ready debater and a shrewd parliamentarian. In the forty-third congress he was placed on the committee on rules, in company with such prominent men as James G. Blaine, Kathaniel P. Banks, James A. Garfield and Samuel S. Cox. During this congress there was a strong, fighting republican majority, and the force bill was introduced and brought In this fight, Randall, about a great struggle. through his perfect knowledge of parliamentary procedure, was able to hold the opposition at bay

as a party leader. times, keeping the

floor day and night, and exhausting every device possible to prevent the passage of the force bill as a law. Having won this battle, Mr. Randall was unanimously given the leadership of his party in the house of representatives. In 1875, when a democratic house had been returned, it was supposed that Mr. Randall would be made the speaker, a dignity which he had richly earned by his splendid tactics in opposition to the force bill, but the South and West were determined to have Michael C. Kerr for speaker, and Mr. Randall cheerfully supported him. _

The new speaker made Randall chairman of the committee on appropriations with the result that there was an immediate demand for retrenchment and econ-

omy in

the national expenditure.

Mr. Kerr dying while in oflice, Mr. Randall was elected speaker, and took his seat at the second session of the forty-fourth congress. He was re-elected by the forty-fifth and forty-sixth congresses, and so it fell to him to preside over the house during the controversy about the presidency in 1876 and 1877. He went to Orleans to watch the count for the state of Louisiana, and he was not in favor of the electoral commission as a mode .J^--u_ of settling the difficulty, but his judgment was not accepted. Mr. Randall, although a democrat, was one of the strongest protectionists in the country, a fact which eventually alienated from him very many of his followers and friends. Kot unnaturally, Mr. Randall was for this reason counted as a republican by many of the democrats, but as a democrat by most of the republicans. As a matter of fact he owed his seat neither to the democratic nor republican party, and it was a recognized fact that if there had been any danger of his being defeated, the republican business men of Philadelphia would have seen to it that he was elected, no matter what amount of money or influence might have been required. A nd yet no one ever thought for a moment of charging Samuel J. Randall with disloyalty to his party, or of the slightest tendency in any direction away from absolute integrity, although he never permitted party restraint or anything else to interfere with principles in his action. His entire life was devoted to the public service, and while, as a democrat he sustained the severest war measures for the defence of the Union, when the South became again a part of the Union, he was a leader in the direction of fraternity and reconciliation, although he had struck some of the hardest blows at i


the Confederacy.

Personally Mr. Randall refused

to accept money to aid in his election as champion of the protective tariff, while in his own district he more than once antagonized the powerful liquor interest. It is stated, also, that when he was a candidate of his party for speaker against Michael C. Kerr, his defeat was mainly brought about by his refusing to permit a prominent railroad millionaire to name the chairman of the railroad committee. Mr. Randall was a dominant force in American politics, while he was personally a most striking-looking man. He was of lofty stature, being more than six feet He stooped a high, and weighing over 200 pounds. little, but carried himself with dignity and impresOne of the strongest features of his characsively. ter as a statesman and a public man was his insistence upon economy and absolute purity in the management of public affairs. It has been stated that his influ-



ence saved the treasury millions. His personal life was that of a comparatively poor man, and being rigorous in his own economies, he insisted, and witheflfect, that the state should follow his example. At the same time be possessed a generous and noble disposition, and when the matter of pensions to Gens. Grant and Hancock was in debate his course showed magnanimity and patriotism. He was only perverse in his special loyalty to Pennsylvania. In this characteristic he was in line with Calhoun in South Carolina, Marcy in New York, and Sumner in Massachusetts. Like them he was even willing that the larger interests of the Union should be subordinated to those of his state. >Ir. Randall married a daughter of Gen. Aaron Ward, of Sing Sing, N. Y., who was a member of congress between 1827 and 1843. They had three children, all of whom lived to adult age, one of them being a daughter, who was his greatest help

Cleveland administration Mr. Lamont formed important business relations with a syndicate of capitalists, and has continued ever since to be engaged Mr. Lain the management of valuable interests. mont married a Miss Kinney of his native town, and was Mr. Lamont, who, when has two daughters. It private secretary to Gov. Cleveland, originated the "Public office a public trust." He used this as a headline in compiling a pamphlet of Mr. CleveThe expression used land's speeches and addresses. by Mr. Cleveland was, "Public officials are the trustees of the people," and it was employed in his letter accepting the nomination for the office of mayor


lege in the private schools of liis native place, and subsequently entered the University of Pennsylvania, from which he was graduated in 1864. Soon after graduating Mr. Oakman accepted a position in the Rogers Locomotive Works, later going to

surest resource in questions of legislation. She Jlr. Lancaster, but after that event continued to aid ]Mr. Randall in his work just as before. She grew to be considered a perfect encyclopaedia of congressional legislation and general information, and was always proud of her .opportunities to assist her able and distinguished father. Jlr. Randall died in Washington Apr. 12, 1890. LAlVtONT, Daniel Scott, journalist and secretary, was born at McGrawville, Cortland Co., N. Y., Feb, 9, 1851. He came of Scotch-Irish ancestry, who emigrated to this country and devoted themFrom such lineage sprung Anselves to farming. drew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Horace Greeley, and mn ny others of the most eminent men of America.

married a

Young Lamont's

father was a well-to-do farmer, and the boy, after having studied in the Cortland Normal College, was sent to Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., but did not graduate. He left college before the end of the course in order to enter the pi'ofession of journalism, for which he possessed both taste and predilection.

He purchased an

est in the "


Democrat," a paper

published at the county-seat of his native coimty, and became its editor, at the same time interesting himself warmly in politics. In 1870 he was appointed engrossing clerk to the New York state assembly, and was chief clerk in the secretary of state's department with John Bigelow. For a time the young man held a position on the staff of the Albany "Argus," and he thus became known to many of the most influential politicians of the AVhen Grover Cleveland was elected govstate. ernor of New York, he met young Lament; and, having had occasion to make of his knowledge and ability in the preparation of his first message, offered him an honorary position on his military staff, which gave him the title of colonel, by which he has ever since been known. Gov. Cleveland next appointed Lamont his private secretary, in which position the latter made himself so useful and valuable, that when Mr. Cleveland became president he took Lamont with him to the White House. As private scci-etary to the president, Mr. Lamont gained the reputation of smoothing the paths of those who visited the executive mansion, while lightening the burden of Jlr. Cleveland as probably no other man could possibly have done. It followed that he became universally popular, while

winning the highest encomiums for his judgment, acuteness, serenitj-, and loyalty. At the close of the

of Buffalo.

OAKMAN, Walter George, railroad manager, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 1845, the sou of John Oakman, a prominent merchant of that city. He was prepared for col-

New York

where he took banking office. He subsequently became intercity,


in a

ested in various railroad enterprises,

and afterward devoted

the principal part of his time to these interests. Pie was at one time division superintendent of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad, vice-president of the Central railroad of New Jersey, and later was president of the Richmond and Danville Railroad Co., and of the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad Co. Mr. Oakman was married in 1879 to Miss E. C. Conkling, a daughter of Roscoe Conkling.

PAGE, Walter Cary, N.

C, Aug.



was born


the son of A. F. Page, a well-known business man of North Carolina, who was descended from the large and illustrious family of Pages in Virginia. Waltei-Page gained his elementary education at the Bingham Military School, N. C, one of the first preparatory schools established in the 15, 1855,

southern states; and afterward attended RandolphMacon College, Va., from which he was graduated in 1876. He next attended the .lohns Hopkins University, as a fellow in Greek under the famous Dr. Gildersleeve (1876-78), after which he accepted a position as teacher, for a year, at the Louisville Boys' High School. He began his literary career at this time by sending an essay to the "Atlantic Month-

which was accepted. Encouraged by this first attempt, which won him some notice, he began writing with considerable success for various newspapers and periodicals. In 1880 he accepted the editorship of the St. Joseph (Mo.) "Daily Gazette," which he conducted successfully for two years. In 1881 he made a slow journey through tlie southern states, and wrote an interesting series of letters to the Springfield (Mass.) "Republican," the Boston "Post," the New York "World," and other leading newspapers. These letters on the reconstructed South won him a position on the New York "World" as a book reviewer and editorial writer. At the change of management in the "World" he resigned his position, and went South. At this time North Carolina, and indeed the South generally, had few papers able to make themselves felt beyond the limits of their own domain. This want was keenly felt by the more intelligent North Carolinians, and they eagerly welly,"


Page, whose reputation had become A newspaper, the " State Chronicle," was founded at Raleigh under his direction, and he threw himself heart and soul into the work of making the resources of North Carolina liuown to the world. In two years the " State Chronicle " became one of the most important newspapers established

among them.

in the Southeast, and its circulation grew extensively. But the metropolis had too many attractions for the ambitious young Southerner, so he resigned, and went back to New York, leaving his paper fully established in new hands. He took a position on the "Evening Post," which he held until 1887, when he became the manager and a stockholder of the "Forum," one of the most important high-class periodicals in the United States. In 1891 he became editor, succeeding Mr. Lorretus S. Metcalf. Mr. Page is a charter-member of the New York Reform Club, and was for three years one of the most untiring of its executive committee.


Robert Means,

Orford Copper Co., was born

president of the

at Corsica, Jefferson

Co., Pa., March 3, 1849, the son of John J. Y. and Agnes (Kennedy) Thompson, and is of Scotch and Irish descent. His father was of Scotch descent,

and one of the

first settlers in

Jefferson county, while

his great-grandfather, Rev. John Jamieson, was a missionary to the Indians, holding service under the form known as the Seceder church. It is a tradition in Mr. Thompson's family that they are descended, father's side, from the Wallace of Scotland. his maternal side, Mr. Thompson is descended

on the


from the Scotch-Irish McClures, the first who came to this country having been John McClure, who obtained a grant of land in Uwchland township. Pa., from the heii's of William Penn, the land being still in the possession of the McClure family. Mr. Thompson received his early education in the common schools of Jefferson county, and at the academy of Elder's Ridge, Indiana Co., Pa. At the age of fifteen he received an appointment as midshipman in the navy, and entered the naval academy, then at Newport, R.



in 1864.



course there he maintained a high standing in his class, and was graduated with honors in 1868, being number ten in a class of eighty. He was immediately ordered into active service, and served on board the Contoocook, in the West Indian squadion, and on the Franklin, Richmond and Guard, in the Mediterranean squadron, until September, 1869.

He was


ensign that year, and ordered to duty at the torpedo station, Newport, R. I., being one of the first officers selected for this duty; received his commission as a master in July, 1870; joined the Wachusett at New York in 1871, and served on board that ship in the Mediterranean until December of that year, when his resignation from the navy was acHe entered cepted, and he returned to private life. the law office of Geo. A. Jenks, at Brookville, In the Pa., and was admitted to the bar in 1872. same year he entered the Harvard Law School, and was graduated in 1874 with the degree of LL.B. He was appointed assistant reporter of the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts, and assisted in making up volumes 115 and 116 of the Massachusetts Law Reports. In 1875 he opened a law ofiice in Boston; was elected a member of the common council of Boston in 1876, and again in the following year. Mr. Thompson argued a number of important cases, and as


caused the precedent to be established, by a decision of the supreme court of the state, that a few piles driven into the ground, with good intentions, constituted a house of religious worship. This decision saved the society of Trinity church several thousands of dollars that would have otherwise gone to pay taxes. In 1879 Mr. Thompson took charge of the Orford Nickel and Copper Co. now one of the largest producers of nickel in the world, and subsequently ,

its president. It is in part due to him that the economical smelting of copper ore in large rectangular brick cupolas has become an established fact; and under his direction, and largely on his suggestion, a new process for the separation of nickel from copper and iron has been perfected, and its inception and successful working place Mr. Thompson Mr. Thompson in the front rank of metallurgists. is a member of the Manhattan Athletic, New York Athletic, and the Racquet and Tennis Clubs. He is also a member of the Century, Players', New York, United Service, Reform, Engineers' and Fulton Clubs, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, and the Downtown Association, and is the first life-member of the Naval Academy Auxiliary Athletic Asso-





30, 1873,

Mr. Thompson married

Sarah, daughter of Gov. Wm. C. Gibbs, of port, R. I. by whom he has one child.



SQ,UIBE, Watson Carvosso,

senator, was Cape Vincent, N. Y., May 18, 1838. His father was a Methodist minister who gave up his pulpit work and went into business in 1857. Wat-



son C. Squire, the son, earned funds by teaching and working on a farm in vacation, and thus assisted himself in his education,

and was grad-

uated from Wesleyan University (Middletown, Conn.), in 1859. He first studied law for awhile, but subsequently became principal of the Moravia Institute, Moravia, N. Y., where he continued until He the outbreak of the civil war. served in the 19th New York in-r| '

fantry, in which he rose vate to first lieutenant of

from pricompany

F. He was mustered out honorably after serving on the upper Potomac until the fall of 1861. For a year Mr. Squire studied law in the office of Judge Rufus P. Ranney at Cleveland, O., and was admitted to practice in the supreme court of Ohio. In the fall of 1862, in response to President Lincoln's call for more troops, he raised a company of sharpshooters, and afterward was placed in command of the first battalion of Ohio sharpshooters. He took part in all the battles of the army of the Cumberland. At the close of the war he was employed by the Remington Arms Co. and visited the capitals of Russia, Spain, Turkey, Mexico and other countries to make contracts for supplying arms. He subsequently became the manager of the company. Having exchanged his interest in the concern for land in Washington territory in 1879 he retired from the company, and in the same year He was appointed govsettled at Seattle, Wash. ernor of the territory by President Arthur in 1884, and made three annual reports that showed its resources and drew immigration. He was in 1889 chairman of the statehood convention in Ellensburgh and was elected first U. S. senator on the admission of Washington territory as a state. During the anti-Chinese ,

agitation in



he fearlessly and

ably advocated a proper check to injurious immigraSenator Squire was tion, yet opposed all violence. re-elected in 1891.



McCIiEN ACH AN, Charles Thomson, lawyer, bom in Washington, D. C, April 13, 1829, a


characters were Robert Macaire and In the latter role he was seeu with delight many hundred times, being excelled in it only by Hackett. Mr. De Bar was generous and kindlyhearted and always helpful to those in need, and as popular with the members of his profession as he was with the public. He was at one time a man of large wealth, but his means were dissipated by unfortunate investments and he died poor. His death occurred best



grandson of Blair McClenachan. Removing to Philadelphia, he was educated at Germantown College. lu 1844 lie went to York, and was an instructor in Dr. Gallaudet's Institute for the Blind for six years. In 1850-61 he served as clerk of the board of councilmen. During the civil war he was quartermaster of the 7th regiment of York. Mr. McClenachan was admitted to the bar in in St. Louis, Aug. 14, 1877. J. Morrison, congressman, was born 1863. He was chief bookkeeper of the department of public works for thirty-six years. By in Baltimore, Md., in 1821, son of Col. David and He was educated at the direction of the city government he edited and Sarah (Montgomery) Harris. published: "Laws of the Fire Department" (1855); Lafayette College. Returning to Baltimore, he be"Opinions of the Counsels to the Corporations" came a bank clerk. In connection with his friend, Charles Bradenbaugh, he founded the Mercantile (1859); "Ferry Leases and Railroad Grants Affecting the City of York from 1730 to 1860" Library Association of Baltimore, and he establislied He began the study of (1860); "Report of the Proceedings in Commemora- a yearly series of lectures. tion of the Laying of the Atlantic Cable" (1863). He law in the office of David Stewart, and was admitted He was one of the presidential was made a member of Munn Lodge, No. 190, of to the bar in 1848. York city, in 1854, and filled every office until, in electors in the Taylor campaign, in 1848; in 1855 was 1860, he was crowned a thirty-third degree Mason, at elected to the 34th congress, and was re-elected to the the same time being appointed deputy for the state of 35th and 36th, serving on committees of the District New York. He was a thorough student of Free- of Columbia, of mileage and of naval affairs. Dr. Har masonry, and as a result of his labors left as an en- ris was recognized in the house of representatives as during monument of his devotion to the fraternity liis one of its most ardently conservative members. He "Book of the Ancient Accepted Rite of Freemasonry" took the strongest grounds against secession, and his (1859); an addendum to Dr. Mackey's "Masonic En- appeals touched the hearts of many Northern, as well He was a delegate to the cyclopsedia" (1884), and " History of Masonry in New as Southern extremists. York." He died in New York city, Dec. 19, 1896. Philadelphia National Union. He was married, in HAMIXiL, Patrick, congressman, was born in 1881, to Sidney C, daughter of B. W. Hall, of BaltiAlleghany county, Md., April 28, 1817, son of Pat- more and had one son, William H. Harris, a lawyer. rick and Mary (Morrison) Hamill, the former a native Clarkson Nott, congressman, was of Ireland, the latter of Scotch-Irish descent. He was educated in private and common schools in the born at Schenectady, N. Y., April 25, 1825, son of neighborhood. He learned the carpenter's trade, at Bishop Alonzo Potter, and grandson of Rev. Eliphawhich he worked one year. Early in his majority let Nott. He was graduated at Union College Mr. Hamill became a local preacher in the Methodist in 1842; entered as a student the Rensselaer PolyEpiscopal church, being ordained an elder therein, technic Institute, Troy, N. Y., and was graduated and afterwards sustained the same relation to the M. there as a civil engineer in 1843. He practiced this E. church. South. He was frequently a lay delegate calling for some time in Wisconsin, but fitted himto both the annual and general conferences of the self for the profession of law, and was admitted to He began his latter denomination, and was one of the founders of the bar in New York state in 1847. that branch of Methodism in Piedmont, W.Va. In practice in the city of New York, and served indus1841 he was appointed collector of Alleghany county, triously in the profession for twenty years. In 1868 and two years later was elected to the state legis- he was elected as a Democrat to the 41st congress York, and lature, being re-elected the following year. He then from the 12th district of the state of engaged in mercantile pursuits, and ten years later was twice re-elected. He declined a renomination to chosen again to the was appointed judge of the orphans' court by Gov. the 44th congress, but was twice Ligon. He held this position, by re-election, seven house of representatives, and served from October, years. He was nominated and elected to the 41st con- 1877, to March, 1881. Here he was placed upon imgress, in which he served on the committees of public portant committees, and was especially active in the expenditures and the navy department. In 1872 he discussion of the disputed electoral votes of Louisiwas the originator and chief promoter of the move- ana and Florida in the presidential election of 1876. ment for the formation of a new county out of the He received the degree of LL.D. from Union Colwestern portion of Alleghany county, Md., and at lege, and was president of the American Bar Assohis suggestion it was named Garrett, in honor of the ciation. He died in New York city, Jan. 23, 1882. then distinguished president of the Baltimore and HAIiLETT, Benjamin Franklin, statesman Oliio railroad. He served as director of the Chesa- and journalist, was born at Barnstable 3Iass., Dec. peake and Ohio canal, and spent the last years of his 2, 1797, son of Capt. Benjamin Hallett. His father life at Oakland, Md. In 1841 he was married to (b. Jan. 18, 1760, d. Dec. 31, 1849,) went to sea when Isabel, daughter of Enoch Kight, and had five sous a boy, and during the revolutionary war performed and six daughters. effective service with the colonial forces both on land Benedict, actor, was born in London, and sea. In 1788 he founded the coasting trade beEngland, Nov. 5, 1812, of French ancestry. In his tween Boston and Albany, and in 1808 built the youth he was a strolling player in the provinces, sloop Twin Sisters, which remained for many years and as such gained his first knowledge of the stage. the most popular passenger packet plying between He came to the United States in 1834, and for sev- New York and Boston. Capt. Hallett was a man of eral years was loading comedian in stock companies deep piety and the founder, of the Bethel chapels for in different southern cities. In 1842 he was stage sailors in New York and Boston. His efforts to furmanager of the Bowery Theatre in New York, and nish sailors with religious instruction were at first from 1849 to 1853 he owned and managed the Chat- strongly opposed by ship owners, but in the end ham Theatre. Following this he starred with great proved successful, and the Bethel movement, inaugupecuniary success for a number of years, purchasing rated by him and in behalf of which he labored zealwith his earnings theatres in New Orleans and St. ously for many years, has since extended to all parts Louis, which long bore his name. As a comedian of the world and has been productive of much good. he was broad in his humor, but never vulgar. His The son was graduated at Brown University in 1816.











then studied law and was admitted to the bar. Johns Hopkins Hospital an^ University he was made attached himself to journalistic enterprises at a trustee and secretary of the board of both foundaProvidence, R. I., and later removed to Boston, tions, a position he still holds. In 1887 he was apwhere he joined the Antimasonie party and was pointed state and city collector of taxes, and by suceditor of its organ, the Boston "Advocate." In 1837 cessive reappointments held the office until 1897. he became one of the editorial writers on the Boston He has shown great administrative ability in his "Advertiser," but the fervor of his extremely par- official capacity, and has won the public confidence tisan articles upon the subjects of temperance, aboli- to an uncommon degree. In politics he is a Jeffertion and anlimasoury offended its readers, and he ^onlan Democrat, and has always taken an active resigned in 1831. He was an influential member of part in political campaigns, being prominent in adthe Democratic party, with which he affiliated him- vocacy of every public measure for the good of the self after the subsidence of the antimasonie furore, community or the advancement of pure administraand served for many years as chairman of the Demo- tion and clean politics. He has been actively assocratic national committee. He was an uncompro- ciated with the Johns Hopkins University and the mising opponent of Henry Clay; was active in secur- Johns Hopkins Hospital, and he is a member and ing the nomination of Pierce and Buchanan, and governor in the Maryland Club. Mr. Hopkins was enunciated the principles of the Cincinnati platform married, in 1871, to Lucy Tomlin, daughter of Corof 1856. He was appointed a U. S. district- attorney bin Braxton, of Chericope.Va., a great-granddaughby Pres. Pierce in 1853. He published "Report of ter of Carter Braxton, a signer of the Declaration of Trial of A. S. Field for Murder of Jonathan Gray " Independence, and has three children, Lucy B., (1836); "Legislative Investigation Into Masonry" Elizabeth Corbin and Lewis N. Hopkins. (1833); "Address to the People of Massachusetts in Relation to Free Masonry" (1838); "Rights of the STONE, Frederick, coneressman, was born in Marshpee Indians" (1834); "The Right of the Charles county, Md., Feb. "7, 1830, only son of People to Establish Forms of Government " (1848). Frederick D. and Eliza (Patton) Stone, and grandHe died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 30, 1863. son of Michael J. Stone. He was graduated at St. MORRIS, John Godlove, clergyman, was John's College, Annapolis, in 1839, and was adborn at York, Pa. Nov. 14, 1803, son of Dr. John mitted to the bar in 1841. In 1853 he, together with Morris, who was a surgeon in the revolutionary war. Samuel Tyler and "William Price, were appointed by He received a classical education, attending both the legislature of Maryland commissioners "to simPrinceton and Dickinson colleges, and was graduated plify and abridge the rules of pleadings, practice at the latter in 1833. He studied theology at the and conveyancing, a duty which was performed Princeton Theological Seminary, and was licensed to with great ability and to the utmost satisfaction of preach at Winchester, Va., in October, 1886. He was the bar and of the bench of the state. In 1855-56 he soon called to the pastoral charge of the First English was a member of the state legislature. He defended Lutheran Church in Baltimore. During his thirty- Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, who was charged with being three years of service here the church was remodeled privy to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, and and enlarged three times, and the congregation so he was also an associate counsel with Hon. Thomas increased that two branches were established. He Ewing for the defense of David E. Harold, one of was appointed first librarian of the Peabody Insti- the conspirators. In both of these cases he displayed such ability, tact and integrity that he was highly tute, and spent three years in purchasing books and organizing the library. In 1864-73 he was pastor of complimented by the attorneys of the government: the Third Lutheran Church. In 1874 he became pas- He was a member of the 40th and 41st congresses, servtor of a church at Lutherville, Md., a village which ing on the committees on private land claims, on eduhe founded ten miles north of Baltimore, where, with cation and labor, and on the District of Columbia. In his brother, he established a ladies' seminary. In 1846 1871 he was again elected to the legislature of Maryhe attended the world's convention in London, and land. He was twice married: first, June 10, 1853, traveled extensively throughout Europe. He was to Maria Louisa, daughter of Nicholas Stonestreet, who died in November, 1867, leaving four children. secretary of the general synod of his church in 1839, and president of the same in 1843 and 1883. He has In June, 1870, he was married to Mrs. Jennie (Stonemade a special study of entomology and microscopy, street) Ferguson, a sister of his first wife. and is a member of many sclentillc societies at William, diplomatist, was born in home and abroad. He was professor of natural history in the Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, of Newport, R. I., Nov. 8, 1805, son of "William and which he was a trustee for many years; was pro- Mary (Robinson) Hunter. His father was a U. S. fessor of natural history In the academic department senator and minister to Brazil. At the age of fifteen of the University of Maryland, and was also pro- he entered the U. S. Military Academy at West fessor of the connection between science and revela- Point, but resigned after two years on account of He studied law in his father's office and tion in the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. He weak eyes. has delivered lectures at the Smithsonian Institution. in 1836 was admitted to the bar of New Orleans. He was president of the Maryland Bible Society, La., where he had long intended to locate, but in and also of the Maryland Historical Society. Mr. the following year was stricken with yellow fever Morris founded the "Lutheran Observer," in 1831, and returned to Newport to recuperate his health, and was its editor until 1833. The Pennsylvania subsequently practicing law in Providence. In 1839 College at Gettysburg conferred upon him the he became translator in the state department at degree of D.D. in 1839, and that of LL.D. in Washington, and in 1833 chief of the departmental Besides many papers and magazine articles, bureau, holding the latter office for fifteen years un1873. der the ministries of Livingston, Forsyth, Calhoun, he published twenty-six books and pamphlets. Buchanan and Webster. In 1853 Daniel Webster HOPKINS, Lewis Neill, secretary, was born in appointed him to succeed William S. Derrick as Anne Arundel county, Md., June 37, 1834, son of chief clerk, at that time the highest clerical position Joseph Janney and Elizabeth (Scofield) Hopkins. His in the department. He declined an appointment as first assistant secretary of state in 1 853, but in 1866 father, an elder brother of the late Johns Hopkins, died in 1845, and soon afterward the family removed he accepted the position of second assistant secreMr. Hunter tary and retained it until his death. to Virginia. He was graduated at Haverford College, Pennsylvania, in 1852, and became a commission died in Washington, D. C, July 33, 1886. His merchant in Baltimore. Upon the inauguration of the brother was Charles Hunter, the naval officer. ,






Amos, merchant, was born at Groton, Jlass., Apr. 22, 1786. The progenitor of the family in this country, John Lawrence, emigrated to America from Wissett, Eng. about 1630, and is supposed to have been one of Gov. Winthrop's company. He was one of the original proprietors of Groton, and from him are descended the numerous fam,

of Lawrences that are now distributed throughout the




The Law-

rences may be .I'ustly proud of their lineage, that can be traced in America for six generations and for sixteen more in England. Cooper has aptly said that the American has a '


better gentility than common, as, besides his own, he may take root in that of Europe."

Amos Lawrence was the son of Samuel Lawrence, a hero of the revolution, and Susanna Parker. The educational facil\SCA>^'^^ ^[l^^^A-vftV-^i.,^

Groton were then limitand Amos, after attending

ities at


the district schools, entered the Groton academy, where he only remained a short time, and in 1799 engaged as clerk in a counAt the age of twentytry store in his native town. one he went to Boston, and soon after his arrival there accepted a clerkship in a prominent business house. The firm soon afterward went into liquidation, and Mr. Lawrence was appointed by the credThis he itors to settle the affairs of the concern. satisfactorily accomplished, and soon afterward enon his own account, and on Dec. gaged in business 17, 1807, opened a shop on Cornhill; the following year Abbott Lawrence became his brother's apprentice. The two brothers conducted the business of the firm on an lionorable and successful basis, that not only laid the foundation of their own fortunes, but that of many members of the Lawrence family. They did much toward the advancement of the manufacturing interests of New England, and in 1830 In 1831 established a cotton factory at Lowell.

Amos Lawrence


from active



devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropic works. Between 1829 and 1853 his books show that he expended $639,000 in charity. Ho gave about $40,000 to Williams college: to Groton academy he gave liberally, founded the library, donated a valuable telescope, willed it all of his works of ait, and made additions to its landed property, and at the time of his death was engaged in raising the sum of $50,000 for the college. In 1846 the name of Groton academy was changed to the Lawrence academy at Groton, on account of his numerous munificent gifts. He also gave to Kenyon college, Wabash college, the theological seminary at Bangor, Me., and other institutions. He established, and for a time maintained the children's infirmary at Boston, gave a building to the Boston society of natural history,

and $10,000 toward the completion of Bunker monument. Mr. Lawrence had a fancy for

Hill dis-

tributing such books as he considered good literaWhen he went to drive, his carriage was ture. filled with books, that he gave away sometimes to friends, oftener to strangers. He distributed books in entire libraries, and large collections were sent to barrel of books was no unliterary institutions. common item found in his record of articles almost daily forwarded to one and another of his distant beneficiaries. He was equally active in his private charities, and several rooms in his house were liept filled with useful articles for distribution to the poor. Mr. Lawrence was twice married; to his first wife,


Sarah Richards, on June



and on Apr.


of Judge Ellis of Claremont, N. H., and daughter of Robert Means of Amherst, N. H. He was a sagacious, liberal-minded man, prominent in commerce and manufacture for upward of forty-four years: he would doubtless have risen to equal eminence in any calling he chose to He died at Boston, Mass., Dec. 31, 1852. adopt. 1821, to





I/A WHENCE, Abbott, merchant, was born at 16, 1792, the fifth son of Deacon Samuel Lawrence, a farmer, who was a major in the revolutionary war, a descendant of John LawGroton, Mass., Dec.

rence, one of the first Puritan emigrants who settled at Watertown about 1635, and in 1660 removed to Groton. The family traces its descent to the twelfth generation, their ancestor, Sir Robert Lawrence, having been knighted by Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, for bravery in scaling the walls of Acre.

Abbott Lawrence attended the district school during the winter, and worked on the farm in summer, as the New England boy of that period was wont to do, and after attending the Groton academy for a few months, he went to Boston, where he apprenticed himself to his brother Amos, who was well estaWHe devoted himself assiduously lished in business. to his business, and spent his evenings in repairing the deficiencies of his education. When he came of age in 1814, the two brothers formed a copartnership which was only severed by death. The firm engaged in the importation and sale of foreign manufactures, and stood at the head of its department of trade. They engaged largely in the sale of cottons

and woolens on commission, and in 1830 became actively interested in the cotton mills at Lowell. When the Suffolk, Tremont and Lawrence companies were established, they became large owners, and were afterward interested in other corporations, and from that time forward their business was conducted on a gigantic scale, and the income derived therefrom was proportionately larger. Mr. Abbott Lawrence was for a number of years successfully engaged in the Chinese trade. He took an active interest in politics and all public matters, and in 1834 was elected to the twenty -fourth congress from the Suffolk district, by the whig party he served on the committee of Ways and Means, and at the end of his term declined re-election, but was again elected to the twentysixth congress in 1839-40, but resigned after fiUing the office but a short term. In 1842 he was appointed a commissioner by the state of Massachusetts, to settle the question of the northeastern boundary of the state. Mr. Lawrence settled this difficult question with Lord Ashburton, the representative of Great Britain, on a basis that was satisfactory to both governments. In 1844 he was delegated to the whig convention, and one of the electorsat-large for the state, and his name was prominently put forward for vice-president, on the ticket with Gen. Taylor, and he only lacked six votes of *=. /rtium;n>,tv what the English themDuring the spring and selves called indignation. summer of 1863, he grew thinner and paler day by No improvement came with winter, and day. early in 1864, under charge of William D. Ticknor, his publisher and friend, Hawthorne undertook a journey toward the South; but at Philadelphia his curator suddenly died, and Hawthorne never recovered from the shock of that event, and the strain that came upon him with it. He was able to return to Concord, but left it under care of ex-. President Pierce about the middle of Jlay, 1864, and journeyed leisurely toward the White Mountains in New Hampshire. At the hotel in Plymouth in that state, he quietly died during the night, his friend finding him without breath, lying in the same posiOn May 33d, the tion as when he had fallen asleep. funeral sei-vices were conducted at Concord, Mass., by James Freeman Clarke of Boston, who had perof |200.


formed Hawthorne's marriage service twenty-two years before, and had not met him since the wedding day. At the gates of the cemetery, on cither side the path, as the carriage containing Mrs. Hawthorne left the grounds, stood H. W. Longfellow, O. AV. stay in England lasted for a year from the middle of In June, 1860, he was again at "The Way1859. side," in Concord, Mass., with his family, which place he proceeded to partially reconstruct, and maIn the agitations preceding the terially to beautify. outbreak of the civil war, he took little or no part, publicly, but his position when war came, whenever it was known, was a well-known one of decided sympathy with the government of his country. In a letter dated May 36, 1861, he said: "One thing as regards this matter I regret, and one thing I am glad The regrettable thing is, that I am too old to of. shoulder a musket myself, and the joyful thing is, that .lulian is too young. " But his physical energies were now on the wane, and he lest flesh rapidly. He took few or no long walks after his return to America. He wrote more or less, however, for the "Atlantic Monthly," at Boston, and the papers, collected and issued in book form, made "Ouv Old Home," before referred to. In the spring of 1862 he visited Washington, and saw something of the "pomp and circumstance," with the sad reality, as This led to a paper in the "Atlantic," well, of war. from his pen, " Chiefly About War-Matters." The situation at Washington harassed and annoyed as well as pained Hawthorne, and the tone of this paper reflected his feelings, and was written half in earnest, half in banter. In fact, at this time he almost despaired of the restoration of the Union. "Dr. Grimshawe's Secret," was published within this

Holmes, J. G. Whittier, J. R. Lowell, Franklin Pierce, and Ralph Waldo Emerson with uncovered heads in sympathy and in honor. Mrs. Hawthorne died in London, Eng., Feb. 26, 1871, having edited her husband's Note Books " and published a volume of her own, " Notes in England and in Italy" In person Hawthorne was a model of (1868). physical beauty and manliness, with manners of great reserve. He indeed lived largely within himself, but the name of no man of letters has shed brighter luster upon the land from which he sprung, '.'

or more signally enriched the guild of romance writers to which he belonged. His best likeness is the Bennock portrait, so called because the photograph from which it

comes was produced by his friend, Francis Bennock of England. His bust, piodeled at Rome by Miss Lander, is in the public library at Concord, Mass. The best complete edition of his works is " The Riverside This sketch has been made,, (13 v., Boston, 1891). in the main, from "Hawthorne and His Wife," by Julian Hawthorne (2 v., Boston, 1885), but a few facts have been taken from the admirable article by George William Curtis, in "Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography." Mr. Hawthorne died May 18, 1864.

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. IiABSON, Lars Moore, educator, was bom Vernon county, Wis., Aug. 30, 1856, the second child of a -well-known farmer, Michael Larson and Rachel Larson, of Norwegian descent, who emi-

HTTEY, Samuel Baird, lawyer, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 7, 1843. The following year his parents removed to Philadelphia where his father for many years and up to the date of his death, in 1886, was president of the Penn Mutual life insur-



grated to this country in 1851. The family traces its fcrothic ancestry hack to the early emigration into Europe from Asia. Lars lost his hearing through sickness when he was but a year and a half old, and grew up to boyhood with healthful alternations of labor and recreation on his father's prairie farm. At the age of thirteen he was sent to the Wisconsin school for the deaf, at Delavan, where, in 1876, he was graduated with honors, the valedictorian of his class. Being ambitious of a higher education, in the following fall he entered the National college for the deaf at Washington, D. C, and. pursued the full course, graduating with the degree of bachelor of arts in 1883. At the same time he was valedictorian of the students' literary society of the college. Mr. Larson, being an enthusiastic student and fine debater, took a prominent part in literary and religious exercises. He organized a young men's Chris-

ance company.

among his fellow-students in college, at the International convention of the Young Men's Christian associations held at Baltimore, Md., in 1879, and at Cleveland, O., in which he represented

and also represented the Chicago Y. M. C. A. as special delegate, on the deaf-mute mem1881,

ducted an independent practice. Natural ability, careful mental training, a determined purpose to succeed, and a genius forhard work

bers' part, in the general convention at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1883. On his graduation he accepted a position in the Chicago deaf-mute day-schools. While there he was also a lecturer on popular and religious subjects to the adult deaf of Chicago. In December, 1883, he married Belle E. Porter, an accomplished young lady, and a graduate of the Clarke in-

won him success from the first. At home in the practice of every department of the law, except the criminal, he has proved himself a valuable colleague and a determined opponent in many hotly contested legal battles. He has secured an important and lucrative practice, and is surrounded by enthusiastic assistants and students. In 1870 he was admitted to the su-

at Northampton, Mass, Three children, all gifted with speaking and hearing, were the stitute

preme and




on motion of Gen. B. F. Butler, to the U. S. supreme


The new penitentiary, and other public buildings. building, rented by the territory, was formally opened He uses the combined sys in the autumn of 1891. tem of instniction in his school, making the signs subservient to the use of the manual alphabet and writing. Mr. Larson maintains an active interest not only in the welfare of the deaf and the blind in the territory, but in the current topics and business of the day. He is an extensive reader, and has laid the foundation for a valuable library.

His mother was Mary A. Baird

of Charleston, 8. C. He was graduated from the Central high school as the valedictorian of his class in 1859, and then entered Princeton college where he completed the course in 1863, winning prizes for oratory and debate. From college he went into the U. S. navy, and was attached to the San Jacinto and Yantic with an interval of service on the staff of Rear- Admiral Bailey. He participated in the attacks on Fort Fisher and Wilmington, j-eceiving. honorable mention for bravery, and then served on blockade duty until December, 1865, when he resigned his commission and commenced the study of law in the office of John C. Bullitt and the law department of the University of Pennsylvania. About the same time he joined the National guard of Pennsylvania, and in turn became captain, major, and adjutant-general on the staff of the commanding general of the Philadelphia troops, until 1878, when he resigned. After his admission to the bar in 1868 he spent the first four years of his professional career associated with his preceptor, Mr. Bullitt. Since 1873 he has con-

tian association

result of the marriage. Mrs. Larson died in 1893. Mr. Larson's warm sympathies for his brethren who were without the means of education led him, in 1884, to resign his place in Chicago, and to undertake the laborious work of a pioneer in deaf-mute instruction in Mexico. He opened his school with five pupils at Santa Fe, in November, 1885. His enterprise was supported by private contributions. By unceasing efforts Mr. Larson had the satisfaction of seeing, in February, 1887, his infant school incorporated by act of the legislature and put on an equal footing with like institutions in the United States, beingplaced under the management of a committee consisting of the attorney-general, the auditor, and the treasurer of the territory, with its founder as superintendent and instructor. Through his energy and patience Mr. Larson has succeeded in placing the school on a sound financial basis. The old accommodations being too small, in the -spring of 1891 Mr. Larson erected, at his own expense, a handsome brick structure, costing $5,000, surrounded by ample grounds, and within sight of the Indian Industrial school, the Ramona Indian school, the state



in 1880,


court. He is counsel for the Penn Mutual life insurance company. Spring Garden fire insurance company, Edison Electric light company, the Bell Telephone company, and the Security 'Trust company of Philadelphia, while his clientage of banking firms and of business houses in New York and Philadelphia is very large. He has frequently acted as counsel for reorganization committees, was concerned in Reading receivership, and in 1892 received a special retainer from the Philadelphia & Reading railroad, in its controversy with the state of Pennsylvania. Mr. Huey has been a governor of the University club and a director of the Art club, and is also a member of the United Service and Country clubs. He is a member of the National bar association, a trustee of the Williamson free school of mechanical trades, a trustee of the Presbyterian hospital, and a member of the Board of education of Philadelphia. Mr. Huey was chosen a member of the Union League in 1868. He was a director and secretary of that organization from 1878 to 1889, and since the latter date, has been its vice-president. When the Union League was losing ground in 1877 and its membership rapidly decreasing, Mr. Huey and other influential members determined to infuse new life into it. As its secretary, with both pen and voice he labored for the desired advancement, and after ten years of active service, resigned the secretaryship of the organization which then had a membership of 1,400, In recognition of his efforts, the League voted him a gold medal and elected him vice-president.




FOOTE, Edward

Bliss, physician and journal-


Ijorn in Cleveland, O., Feb. 20. 1829. He is seventh in descent from Nathaniel Foote, one of the early settlers of Wetherstield, Conn., and his greatist,

great-grandfather, Capt. John Foote. served in the war of the revolution. His early educational advantages were very limited, and at the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to a printer. Acquiring a practical knowledge of the printing busi-

weekly newspaper, which, through his efforts, soon became the largest and most successful weekly in the state. At the age of twenty-two he accejoted a po-

scientific jiropagation in the

as associate editor of a leading New York weekly jour-

opticon, and which is an improvement on the magic lantern, as it

having made

can be used without glass slides. The "Photographic Times," of December, 1882, says of it: "It has certain featui-es of a scientific



the acquaintance of a successful botanical physician, he devoted all his leisure time to the study of medicine. He next became one of the editors of the Brooklyn "jMorning Journal," the first morning paper ever printed on Long Island, and contributed largely to its success. Resigning at the end of two years, he joined his old preceptor, the botanical physician, and devoted himself entirely to the study and practice of medicine, displaying exceptional clearness of mental vision as to the cause and cure of disease. In 1860 he was graduated from the Penu medical university, where he successfully treated a professor affected witli lung trouble that had baffled the skill In fact, he has, during his of the best physicians. entire profe,ssional career, demonstrated the curability of consumption. In 1857-58 he published a work Medical Common Sense, " which reached entitled a sale of over 350,000 copies, bringing his name prominently before the world as a student, thinker, and author, and .securing for him a large and lucrative practice. Of this work N. P. Willis wrote: Medical Common Sense is wisdom cut and dried. This work was followed a few years later by Plain Home Talk, embracing Jledical Common Sense," which reached a circulation of over half a million. In 1875 Dr. Foote completed a serial for the young, of five volumes, entitled "Science in Story," in which he blended the principal facts of anatomy, jDhysiology, and hygiene, with the stirring incidents of a comic story. He is editor of Dr. Foote's Health Monthly." In his practice he has made a specialty of chronic diseases, and has effected many remarkable cures where the old school " system has failed. A large part of his work has been done through correspondence. Thousands of letters have been received by him from patients in all parts of this country and Europe, who have been benefited by his treatment. They attest the value of his sei-vices and his .skill as a physician. '










FOOTE, Edward Bond,

physician and editor, at East Cleveland, O., Aug. 15, 1854, the son of Dr. Edward Bliss and Catharine 6. Foofc. He took his preparatory studies at the Charlier insti-

was born


York, from which he went to Columbia where he gave attention exclusively to such studies in the scientific department as would best fit college,

for a medical course. He then entered the college of physicians and surgeons, from which he was graduated in 1876, receiving tlie Seguin prize for the best report of lectures on diseases of the nervous system. He immediately became associated with his father, and has since acquired a reputation as a skill-



the "Health Monthly," a widely circulated periodical embracing subjects relating to human devel-


tute of


and becoming proficient as a writer, at the age of nineteen he removed to Connecticut, where he engaged as editor on







ful practitioner. He has been a frequent contributor Health in to medical literature, being the author of the Sunbeam," "Bacteria in its Relation to Disease," " Dr. Foote's Health Hints," Illustrated Treatise on Gvnsecology, or Diseases of Women;" " The Radical Remedy in Social Science;" "Food: What is Best to Eat, "'and of a variety of essays relating to medicine and hygiene. He is also associated with his father in the management of

opment, and strong])' advocating family.


In January, 1880, he in-

vented and patented a wonder camera, which has become widely

known under the name of the poly-

nature that we do not remember to have met with before in any lanterns having n similar intention. It is in the ilhunination of opaque pictures where the ingenuity is found. A lamp having an argand burner is placed in one focus of an elliptical refiector, the small pictures to be shown

being in or near its other focus. To effect this the reflector may be compared to a huge egg, having one half sliced off obliquely, against which the picture is placed. The reflector is pierced for the object As the result of this invention polyopticon glass."

became quite common in various sections of the country, especially on the Pacific coast. parties


A., business man, was

His paternal anat Sackville, N. B., in 1854. Brunswick, his grandcestors were all natives of



father having been a shipbuilder of considerable celebrity. On the maternal side, he is a descendant in a direct line of Sir Robert Ennis of Stowe, Scotland, whose enormous fortune was the cause of prolonged litigation. Mr. Atkinson's grandfather spent a large fortime in prfc,senting his claims to the estate, but was eventually defeated, the property reverting His father was a to Lord Ray. shipmaster, principally engaged in the Australian and South

American trade, who, during the thirty-five years of his life as a mariner,

commanded some of

finest vessels .sailing out of

don and Liverpool, and




almost every quarter of the globe, Byron A. was educated at the Mount Allison Wesleyan academy, but having inherited his father's marine tastes,'he followed the sea for some years. In 1870 he abandoned this life, and entered the machine shop of S. A. Woods & Co., at South Boston. After three years spent at this trade, Mr. Atkinson began business for himself at the age of eighteen, making mattresses and repairing furniture in a small way. Tire outlook was at first discouraging, and would have been completely disheartening to a less ambitious and persevering youth. His energy was untiring, and he frequently worked eighteen hours out of the twenty-four. In 1879 he did away with his business of repairing furniture, and opened a small, complete .

OF AMEEICAN BIOGRAPHY. stock of regular house furnishing; his former customers continued to patronize him, and his business soon grew so large that he had to remove to more commodious quarters, and in 1883 rented the Nassau Hall building, six stories high, and having a floor space of 100,000 square feet. His business at this time amounted to $350,000 annually, and it subsequently increased so as to necessitate large accom-

modations, and in 1886 the adjoining Turn Hall building was added. In 1887 further additions were made, and he found himself in possession of the_ largest house-furnishing establishment in the "United States. To his progressive ideas may largely be attributed his success in business. He has a happy faculty of anticipating the needs of the public, and providing for them in advance of his competitors. He introduced the idea of free delivery to any portion of New England, and of paying railroad fare to purchasers from out of town. He was also a warm advocate of purchasing goods by installments, and did much to elevate the system in the public mind. He gives his personal attention to the business, and to his tireless efforts and example the present standard of the installment business is due. By dealing justly with his customers, and never refusing further accommodation in cases of honest inability to meet a contract, he has secured that standard for the trade.

McCONNELL, at Ocala,

Richard Brumby, was born

Marion county,

Fla., in 1867. His father, a native of Georgia, was the first mayor of Ocala, and commander of the' Ocala rifles during the civil war. He died in 1889 a highly respected citizen, and one of the most prominent members of the Florida bar. Mr. R. B. McConnell's uncle, Maj. Thomas Kush McConnell, was also a distinguished officer. After graduating from West Point in 1846, in the class with George B. McClellan, Jesse L. Reno, George Stoneman, Thomas J. Jackson, Dabney H. Maury. Geo. E. Pickett, and others, he was assigned to the 4th infantry, then in Mexico, and foughtat Molino del Rey, CheruHe rebusco and Chapultepec. signed from the army in 1855; was appointed commandant of the Geor-

who was

gia military institute, at Marietta,



Georgia seceded he

offered his services to his native state, and was assigned to duty at Mobile, with the rank of major, where he died in 1861. R. B. McConnell was educated at Atlanta, Ga., and after leaving school entered the Ocala bank as junior clerk, and became cashier in 1885 through a special act of the legislature, which gave him permission to assume the duties of that position, he being at that time only eighteen years of age. When the Merchants' national bank was organized in 1887 by John P. Dunn, he was offered and accepted the position of cashier. He is also president of the Brooksville (Florida) state bank, and is probably the youngest hank president in the LTniied States. Mr. McConnell is alderman of the city of Ocala; captain of the "Ocala Rifles;" secretary and treasurer of the Withlacoochee river phosphate company; assistant treasurer of the Dunnellon phosphate company; treasurer of the La secretary Criolla cigar manufacturing company and treasurer of the Florida bankers' association, and treasurer of the Baulder phosphate company. In 1888 he married Bessie Finch, daughter of Capt. G. R. R. an O. G. Pinch, superintendent of S. S. O. accomplished woman, who is prominent in many good works carried on in Ocala. ;




GrTTNTHEB, Charles Godfrey, mayor



York, was born in New York city Feb. 7, 1823. His parents were natives of Germany, who came to this country when they were young. His father

was Christian G. Gunther, who was of fifty years the leading fur York. He had four sons, of



merchant of



the deceased was the eldest. Young Charles Gunther received his early education at the Moravian institute at Nazareth, Pa., and on returning to New York entered Columbia college grammar school, where lie completed his studies. At an early age he was taken into business by his father, and some time later the firm of C. G. Gunther Co., fur dealers, was established in Maiden Lane, compiising his father and brothers and himself. Taking an active interest in politics he was early in life one of the hardest workers in He became a member of the his party in the city. Young Men's Democratic general committee, and Mr. his vote was cast for Polk and Dallas in 1844. Gunther was one of the founders of the Democratic union club, and in the autumn of 1852, having made a visit to Europe, returned in time to enter vigoi-ously into the presidential campaign, which reIn 1855 sulted in the election of Franklin Pierce. the Democratic young men's national club was formed with James T. Brady as president, and Mr. Gunther received its nomination as one of the governors of the Almshouse. He was elected, leading his ticket by more than 5,000 votes, a fact that was significant of his. popularity, and was not lost upon the democratic organization. He afterward became president of the board of governors. In the spring of 1856 he was elected a sachem of Tammany Hall. In the contest of 1861 Mr. Gunther was a democratic candidate for the mayoralty, but was defeated on that occasion by George Opdyke, the republican candidate. In the fall of 1863 he ran again in a three-cornered campaign, and was elected by a majority of over 7,000. He took his seat as mayor on Jan. 1, 1864, having the reputation of being a


high-toned and honorable merby the

chant, highly respected

As mayor, Mr. Gunther was economical in the expenditure of public moneys to that ex-


tent that, being invited to preside over the festival of the city council of York in honor of the anniversary of Washington's birthday, Feb. 22, 1864, he declined the invi-



"in order

to discounten-

ance so far as is in my power the reckless extra vagance of the times." Mr. Gunther was a member of the old New York fire department, and after its disbandment became president of the Veteran association. After his retirement from his term in the mayoralty, Mr. Gunther attended strictly to his private business. He was one of those who recognized the possible future of Coney Island, and he built the first steam road to the beach, meeting with great opposition from the old Dutch farmers of New Utrecht

and Gi'avesend. Fe also erected a hotel at Coney He built a large Island, but it was not profitable. This was hotel at Locust Grove on Gravesend Bay. destroyed by fire some years later. In 1878 Mr. Gunther was once more drawn into politics, and ran for state senator in the seventh senatorial district, but was defeated. He left a widow, two sons, Christian G. Gunther and George A. Gunther, also two daughters, Mrs. James Miller and Miss Amelia He died at his residence in East FourB. Gunther. teenth street, New York city, Jan. 23, 1885.



CUTLER, Manasseh., clergyman and congressman, was born at Killingly, Conn., May 13, 1743. His father was Hezekiah, descendant of .James Cutler, who left Norfolkshire, Eng. settled at Watertown, Mass. in 1634, and married Anna, sister of Capt. John Grout's wife, a woman of wonderful decision, energy and enterprise. The mother of Manasseh was Susannah Clark Cutler, daughter of one of the ,


early surveyors of Windham county. Conn., a lady of great personal beauty and streugtli of mind, with an education in advance of her limes. He grew up on a farm, and was prepared for Yale college, whence he was graduated in 1765 by Rev. Aaron Brown, of Killingly. In college he was distinguished for diligence and proficiency, and was graduated with high honor. Teaching for a time at Dedham, Mass., Sept. 7, 1766, he was married to Mary, daughter of Rev. Thomas Balch, pastor in that town, and at once settled in Martha's Vineyard, Mass., establishing himself as a merchant at Edgartown. Early in 1767 he was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in that place, but in November of the same year commenced the study of theology. As early as June, 1769, his journals record an observation of the transit of Venus, the first of a long series of scientific records from his pen. Sept. 11, 1771, he was ordained and installed pastor of the Congregational church at Ipswich hamlet, Mass., which became the t"wn of Hamilton, Mass., in 1793. His journal, although brief and somewhat fragmentary, conveys a vivid impression of the feeling created in the province of Massachusetts by the measui'es of the British government which culminated in the outbreak of llie American revolution, and of the excitement caused by the battle of Lexington (Mass.) Apr. His entry made on the 19, 1775. 8th of May says that forty Ameri-

cans were killed and twenty wounded; that there were 2,000 British regulars at Lexington, a force of 1,200 having joined one of 800, and that 800 of these were killed


and wounded and taken prisoners, about 300 colonials being engaged. He states also that the English "took only two prisoners, but what they killed or let go again." The same journal proves the forces engaged in the Bunker Hill battle at 5,000 British, and 3,000 to 3,000 Americans, and the American loss at fifty killed, vdth twenty to thirty taken prisoners; the English loss, 1,400 privates Jan. killed and wounded and eighty-four officers. 2, 1776, Mr. Cutler entered the following: "Mr. Whipple and I made some preparations to make saltpetre. " " Feb. 1st went to Salem, and bought ketAug. 25th he received a tles for saltpetre works." message to go to Dorchester, Mass. and supply the regiment of Col. Ebenezer Francis as its chaplain, His commission was to which his church agreed. dated Sept. 5, 1776, and signed "by order of the major part of the Mas.sachusetts council." This chaplaincy was closed by Jan. 1, 1777, and he resumed his duties at Ipswich, where his pastoral relations were continuous thence onward until his In 1778 he was chaplain to Gen. Titcomb's death. brigade in the unsuccessful campaign of Gen. Sullivan, undertaken to disladge the British from NewIn the latter part of this year he began port, R. I. the study of medicine, which he prosecuted successfully, and ultimately secured among the medical profession of his day the reputation of a safe and In May and June, 1779, he had skillful physician. no less than forty small-pox patients under his care Lord's Day, Sept. 13, 1779, he at Wenham, JIass.

"Col. Jackson's regiment passed through town on their way to the Eastward, and journalized:

They encamped in the meetingThe field officers. Col. Cobb and Maj. Presput up with me. We lodged four commissioned


as far as here.

house. cott,

and supplied the soldiers with sauce, milk, wood, etc. without pay. " In 1782 he opened his popular and successful private reading-school, which was continued for more than twenty-five years. He also taught seamen the art of navigation, insti-ucting particularly in lunar observations. Meanwhile he was botanizing steadily, being the first to examine the flora of Nev England, and holding correspondence with scientific observers in various parts of the United His astronomical observations States and Europe. were also carried forward. In 1784, with others, he otflcers,


made the first ascent to the summit of Mount Washington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and estimated the height of the summit above sea-level at 9,000 feet, an area in excess of 3,707 feet. Early in 1787 he, with others, formed "The Ohio company, " an organization to promote the settlement of lands owned by the United States government on the Ohio river, mainly by New Englanders and largely by officers who had sei^ved in the revolution, and their families, through the purchase of 1,000,000 acres of lands from congress, to which 500, 000 acres were added for bad lands and incidental charges. This arrangement was finally brought about by the visit of Rev. Mr. Cutler to the federal congress in New York, and the first location of these


who became the pioneers in the developof the state of Ohio, was at the present Marietta in that commonwealth. Simple details are to be found in the "Life, Journals and Correspondence of the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.," by W. P. and J. P. Cutler (3 vols., Cincinnati, O., 1888). The original paity of settlers, in which was one of his own sons, aged nineteen, left Dr. Cutler's house in Ip.swich, Mass., Dec. 3, 1787. The wagon, which he had made ready as a protection from cold and storm, and which preceded the company and their settlers,


baggage, was covered with black canvas, and on sides was the inscription in white letters, "For the Ohio at the Muskingum." Rev. Mr. Cutler afterward visited Marietta, where this party took up their habitation Apr. 7, 1788, traveling in a sulky 750 miles in twenty-nine days. His greatest service its


and as well to the United was the celebrated ordinance of 1787 framed by Nathan Dane, of Massachusetts, but drafted by Mr. Cutler for Dane's presentation and advocacy in to this colony, however, States,

congress, the title of the bill being 'An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio," and its sixth article, as finally adopted, reads: " There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said '

OP AMEEIOAN BIOGRAPHY. territory, otherwise

than in punisliment of crimes

whereof the party shall have been duly convicted," thus excluding human slavery from this vast domain. 1 he date of the passage of this ordinance was July 13 1787. In the year 1791 he received the degree ot LL.D. from Yale college. In 1795 he declined a commission as judge of the supreme court of the Ohio territory. But he always had the cares of the early settlers more or less in charge, and persistently advanced their interests, preparing for them, among his other services, the charter of what became Marietta college. In May, 1800, he was chosen to the Massachusetts legislature. In 1801 he was elected as representative to the United States congress as an active federalist, where he continued four years, but

declined a second term on account of ill health. He was a member of the American Philosophical society, and other scientific societies, and his paper, contributed to their "Proceedings," had good repute. He died at Hamilton, Essex countv, Mass., July 28, 1833.

Mcpherson, John

was born 1883.



York, Livingston county, N. Y.,

He came




of the sturdy Scottish stock that has rnade Scotland illustrious, and has vitalized republican liberty in America, and received a common school and academic education. In 1859, at twenty-six years of age, he settled in Jersey City, his present home. He was alderman for six years, from 1864, and three years president of the board; president of the People's Gas Light company, 1888-89; state senator,

1871-73,andTildenandHendricks elector in 1876. He was elected U. S. senator three times, in 1877, 1883, and 1889. Mr. McPherson is


known throughout


whole country, and is an acknowledged leader in the U. S. senate. Perhaps no better proof of his worth could be given than the fact that in eighteen years from the time he came, a stranger, to the commonwealtli of New Jersey, he was chosen to represent her in the national" councils, while through all the changes of politics and the rivalries of ambitious men, he has attained such a hold upon the affection and contidence of his people that he has been twice re-elected. Not only; has he been distinguished in public life, but also in business, his energy and capacity coupled with his admirable integrity and judgment having made him a fortune in cattle dealing on a large scale. In all business enterprises he has been a type of honor and practical sagacity. In the senate he

has taken the highest rank as an exhaustive and philosophical student, and a broad and conservative statesman, his mastery of financial and economical questions being pre-eminent. He has made lofty and powerful speeches on finance, silver, and the tariff, showing profound research, a rare faculty for argument, and the largest catholicity of spirit. In the great senate tariff debate of the fifty-first congress he bore mainly the heavy burden of party leadership, demonstrating himself a loaded depository of tariff knowledge which he showed remarkable skill in using readily and effectively. He also made one of the ablest democratic speeches on the election bill. He married Miss Gregory at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1867.


social side of his character


life is


as pleasant as his



John Eager,


was born in He was care-

Baltimore county, Md., June 4, 1752. fully educated, and, at the death of his father, He entered the baeamc heir to extensive estates.


patriot army in 1775, led a company at the battle of "White Plains, in October, 1776, and in December, 1776, was made major of the 4th Maryland regiment. Owing to his conspicuous gallantry in battles at Germantown, Monmouth, Camden, and other places, he was promoted, in 1780, to be lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Maryland regiment. In the autumn of that year he was transferred to the southern

army, under Gen. Greene. At the battle of Cowpens, Jan, 17, 1781, he headed a charge that secured a victory for the patriot forces, receiving, in person, at this battle, the surrender of seven British officers. For his services

he was subsequently voted a gold " medal by congress. He rendered great aid to Gen. Greene, in the retreat from ^



Many of his opinions in important cases attracted widespread attention; he tempered justice with mercy, and his opinions were founded on common sense and natural justice rather than on fine technical points, though he never allowed his feelings to influence him in the duty that he owed the state in the proper punishment of criminals. In 1863 he married Katherine Lydig, daughter of the late Philip M. Lydig. Judge Brady was one of the founders of the Slanhattan club, and a member of several other social organizations, among them the Lambs. He died in New York city March 16, 1891. STRAITON, John, manufacturer, was born in Scotland May 6, 1830, and traces his descent from Alexander Straiton, first baron of Lauriston, 1296,



ancestor, circa 1124, Robert Straiton of that ilk.


was thoroughly educated



in the

schools of Edinburgh, and at the age of twenty emigrated to the United States, arriving in New in the month of October, 1850. He became an assistant to his uncle in the cigar business, but two years later, in 1853, Mr. Straiton began the importation of cigars, which he conducted with success, and in 1860 he


formed the now well-known firm of Straiton & Storm, which grew with unexampled rapidity as a manufacturing house engaged in the making of domestic cigars, until it became the largest establishment of the kind in the In 1884 the output of world. the Straiton ifc Storm manufactory was 71,293,275 cigars, or twenty -five millions more than tne whole number of cigars imported into the United States during that year. During this period the firm of Straiton Storm had in their

the joint translation into the

which appeared

in 1878.

Turkish language,

While on a

visit to this

country, 1856-58, he taught Hebrew for a short time The degree of in the Union theological seminary. D.D. was conferred upon him by Hanover college, Indiana, in 1858, and that of LL.D. from Amherst Besides numerous religious works, and in 1871. those mentioned above, he has published grammars of the Chaldee, Bulgarian, Modern Armenian and Turkish languages.

HALE, Jolm

S. senator and minRochester, Stratford county,

Parker, U.

ister to Spain, was born at N. H., March 31, 1806.


prepared for college at

was graduated Phillips academy, Exeter, N. H. from Bowdoin in 1827; began the practice of law at Dover, in his native county, in 1830, and entered the legislature in 1832 as a democrat. From 1834 to 1841 he was U. S. attorney for his district. While in congress, 1843-45, he defended the right of petition, and in a letter of Jan. 7, 1845, refused to vote for the annexation of Texas, as the New Hampshire legislature had directed their representatives to This bold action lost him do. his seat, but won him popular favor, which was increased by his canvass of the state as a free-soil candidate, and his ;

debate with Franklin Pierce A year later he in June. was again in the legislature; was made speaker Ijune 3d, and six days after was elected to the senate.

There he was

the first, and for two years (1847-i9) the only, avowed opponent of the slave system, acting with neither party, and avowing his creed as freely as if it were that of a majority. & employ more than 2,000 men and women, and His eloquence, wit, good humor, and fine presence their weekly pay-roll was more than $20,000. Mr. made his doctrines less ofEensive to his colleagues Straiton retired from active interest in the business than was the case with Sumner, who took his of the manufactory in 1885. He has interested .seat four years later. Turning his reforming zeal himself in the cause of education, to which ho de- toward abuses which had fewer opponents, he, in voted much thought and attention during the num- 1850 and 1852, secured laws to abolish flogging In 1851 he deber of years in which he was an active member of and grog-rations in the navy. the school board of the twelfth ward of the city of fended the rescuers of the slave Shadrach in New York. Mr. Straiton has been a director of the Boston. He had declined a presidential nomination from the liberty party in 1847; in 1852 he acSt. Nicholas bank since 1878, and of the Lincoln national bank since 1885. He possesses large prop- cepted that of the free-soilers, and received 157,680 In 1853, disgusted at the spectacle of a proerty interests in the upper part of the city and also votes. slavery president and senator from his own state, at Arverne-by-the-Sea. both his political foes, and the latter his successor, RIGGS, Ellas, missionary, was born at New he removed to New York; but, the tide soon turnProvidence, N. J., Nov. 19, 1810. At eleven years ing, he was sent back to the senate in 1855 to take of age he commenced the study of Hebrew without the place of C. G. Atherton, who had died in the secan instructor, and in spite of the fact that the only ond year of his term. By re-election in 1858 he kept Hebrew text-book within his reach was without his seat until March, 1865. In this later service he vowel points. He entered Amherst college in 1825, was much less alone; the North came over by debefore he was fifteen years of age, and while there grees to his position, and he witnessed the triumph took up, in addition to the regular studies of of his principles at the polls and in the field. He The gram- had been one of the many sufferers from the Nathe curriculum, Chaldee and Syriac. mar used by him in his work upon the latter lan- tional hotel poisoning in 1857, and never entirely reguage he himself translated from Latin into Eng- covered from its eflEects. His career at the court of After being graduated in 1829 he entered the Spain, 1865-69, was stained by disagreements with lish. Andover theological seminary, and was ordained to the secretary of his legation, and charges of illicit The same profits from the privileges of his office; the scandal the Christian ministry three years later. year he sailed for Greece as a mi.s.sionary. He la- made more noise than its cause would justify. Durbored in Greece, principally at Argos, until 1838, ing his last years he suffered from mental and bodily then among the Greek population of Smyrna, Tur- disorders, the latter aggravated by two serious accikey, for five years, after which he devoted himself dents. He died at Dover, N. H., Nov. 19, 1873. HAMBLiIN, Thomas Sowerby, actor and theto the Armenians; then went to labor at ConEarly in his career he translated the atrical manager, was bom in London, Eng., May 14, stantinople. Bible into Armenian and Bulgarian, and assisted in 1800, and made his first appearance -on the stage at


OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. Sadler's Wells theatre, in 1819. Soon after he appeared at Drury Lane, and his native intelligence, fine features and distinguished bearing, brought him rapid advancement, his personation of Hamlet being most favorably received by the London public. He came to the United States in 1825, and made his American debut at the Park theatre. New York, as Hamlet. Following this, he traveled through the country as a star for five years. In August, 1830,

he became manager of the Bowery theatre,' New York, and save for one or two brief periods, he retained the direction of a New York play-house until the time of his death, himself frequently appearing as a star. His repertoire was a very extended one, but Hamlet, RoUo, Pierre, Macbeth, and Othello were the characters in which he was seen most frequently and in which he is best remembered. As an actor he was given to noise and bustle, and never fulfilled the promise of his youth. He was upright and honorable in his business transactions, but in his relations with women he was notoriously loose. He was four times married. His first wife, Elizabeth Blancliard, from whom he was divorced, was an actress long prominent on the stage in England and America. She died in 1849. His second wife, Naomi Vincent, and his third wife. Miss Medina, each died soon after marriage. His fourth and last wife, Mrs. Shaw, was a gifted actress and a beautiful woman, and fulfilled many engagements with her husband. Hamblin died in New York Jan. 8, 1853. Samuel, associate justice of the supreme court of Georgia, was born in Oglethorpe county Dec. 12, 1848. His great-grandfather, John His Lumpkin, founded a distinguished family. sons were Wilson, governor of, and U. S. senator from, Georgia; Joseph Henry, chief justice of Georgia, and Samuel, grandfather of the present associate justice of Georgia, whose father, Joseph Henry, Jr., died at the age of twenty-six, after attaining distinction as a lawyer. He left Samuel to the care of his noble Christian mother, who was, before marriage, Sarah E. Johnson. Justice Lumpkin attended the state university at Athens, Ga., and Mercer university at Penfleld, graduating from the former in July, 1866, with first honor, when seventeen and a half years old. He taught school in Georgia in 1866, and in Mississippi through 1867; was admitted to the bar in April, 1868, at Lexington, Ga., and began practice at Elberton


with Col. Robert Hester. He practiced in Americus, Ga., with Col, C. T. Goode, in 1870-71, then returned to make Lexington his home. He was, in 1871, appointed clerk of the house of representatives, was appointed solicitor-general, northern circuit, by Gov. Smith in 1873,

and reappointed in 1873 for four years; was postmaster at

^O/yyiZ c^^M^H'ifi^t^^


Lexington in 1877, and was elected state senator the same year. He was elected in 1884, by the legislature, judge of the superior court of the

northern circuit, unanimously re-elected in 1888, was elected in 1890 associa'te justice of the supreme court of Georgia, again unanimously, and in 1891 was made LL.D. by the Southwestern Baptist uniJustice Lumpkin comes versity of Jackson, Tenn. of a family of lawyers, jurists and statesmen renowned in the annals of Georgia. He is the second of his family to grace the supreme bench of his An able and useful legislator, he was on the state.


judiciary committee, and as chairman of the railroad committee was largely instrumental in creating the railroad commission. As a prosecuting officer and judge he kept up the legal repute he won as a lawyer in large practice, being always accurate and painstaking, and dispatching business rapidly, impartially and wisely. Few of his judgments were reversed by the supreme coui't, and in that, the highest tribunal of Georgia, he now perfoi-ms his duties ably. As a citizen he is genial, generous and charitable, and noted for honesty, truthfulness and loyalty to obligation. He mamed, in 1878, Kate, daughter of Walker Richardson, and granddaughter of Col. A. M. Sanford, distinguished citizens of Alabama.

PRENTICE, George Denison,



born at Preston, Conn., Dec. 18, 1802. He was graduated from Brown university in 1823, then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1829, but did not practice. He became editor of the " Connecticut Mirror " in 1825, and in 1828 of the "New

England Weekly Review," an anti-federal sheet published in Hartford, Conn., to which he

contributed many poems, and which, under him, gained a national reputation for the excellence of its literary department.

John G. Whittier published some of his earliest poems in the "Review," and succeeded Mr. Prentice as its editor. In 1830 Mr. Prentice went to Kentucky to collect material for a campaign life of Henry Clay,

which was published at Hartford in 1831, and became editor


of the Louisville "Journal," a

whig newspaper, the first number of which appeared Nov. 34, 1830. He edited this for a number of years, becoming known by his •contributions to it and its successor, the "Courier Journal," as well as to the New York " Ledger," as the leading humorist of the country. His editorials were ably written and exerted a powerful influence colin behalf of the Union during the civil war. lection of Mr. Prentice's poems was published at Cincinnati in 1876, and a volume of selections from his writings, entitled " Prenticeana," at New York in 1859 (rev. ed., 1870). Mr. Prentice died at Louis-


A memorial address was deliv-

ville Jan. 32, 1870. ered at his funeral by

RIPLEY, Henry author,

was born


Henry Watterson. Jones,

clerical educator

Boston Jan.

38, 1798.



at the Latin school; was graduated from Harvard in 1816, and at Andover in 1819; entered the Baptist ministry, and for some years did missionary work among the Southern negroes. Most of his life was spent at Newton theological instituand tion, where he held the chair of Biblical literature pastoral duties from 1836 to 1832, then that of the former alone until 1839, and that of sacred rhetonc and pastoral duties, 1839-60. After renewed ministrations to the freedmen in Georgia, he returned to Newton as librarian in 1865, and was associate proHis defessor of Biblical literature there 1872-75. gree of D. D. was conferred by the University of Ala-

prepared for college

He wrote in 1844, and by Harvard in 1845. for the religious press, and published: a "Memoir of T. S. Winn" (1834); "Christian Baptism" (1833); "Notes" on the Gospels, 3 vols. (1837-38): on the Acts (1844), on Romans (1857), and on Hebrews (1868); "Sacred Rhetoric" (1849); "Exclusiveness of the Baptists" (1857), and " Church Polity" (1867). He died at Newton Centre, Mass., May

bama much

21, 1875.




Alfred Ludlow,

physician, was Aug. 4, 1833. The name of the family from which he is descended is one of the oldest surnames in existence, and Charles Carroll of

born in

New York


CarroUton, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, was in the regular line of descent from the founder of this family. The name of Carroll was given to this ancient family by the pious Bryen Boiroimhe, monarch of Ireland,

anno 1032.





arch who gave surnames to all the Irish families, and in imita-

custom was adopted by the Germans, French and

tion thereof the

was from this Carroll that Ely the royal was called Ely O 'Carroll to distinguish it from Italians;




The name


Florence bravery, courage, etc. (Fionn) O'CarroU, King of Ely, died A.D. 1205. Tatheus (Teige) O'Carroll is the chief whose name is inscribed on the casket of the celebrated relic known as the "Book of Dimma," a copy of the fospels written for St. Cronan. 'rom him the CarroUs of this country are descended, and Dr. Alfred L. Carroll's line of descent is continuous and unbroken through Daniel, son of Tatheus, Douough, "William, Donough (1377), Roderio, Daniel, Roderic, Donough, Teige, Donough, Daniel, Anthony, Daniel. This Daniel had two sons, Anthony and Charles. The latter emigrated to this

country and settled in Maryland in 1688, and became " the progenitor of the Charles Carroll of CarroUton branch. Anthony, the eldest son, remained in Ireland. His son, James, was a captain in Lord Dongan's dragoons. His son, Anthony, the grandfather of Alfred, was an officer in the garde royale, known as Marie Antoinette's guard. After serving through the French revolution, he came to this country in 1793, and became a prosperous merchant in New York city. His son, Anthony, the father of Alfred, was a prominent lawyer of New York. He married Frances Ludlow, daughter of Gulian Ludlow, '


traced from William Ludlow temp. Gabriel, the American ancestor, born at Castle Cary, Eng., came to America in 1694, settled in New York city, and married, in 1697, Sarah Hanmer, daughter of Rev. Joseph Hanmer, D.D. The descendants of the Ludlows married into the families of the Schuylers, HofDmans, Beekmans, Livingstons, Bleeckers, Goelets, Ogdens, and other old and distinguished families of New York. Dr. Carroll, the subject of this sketch, having been a pupil of Dr. Valentine Mott, was graduated from the medical department of the University of New York in 1855. Owing to the warm personal friendship of Dr. Mott, he continued to assist him, and was more or less associated with him up to the time of his death in 1865. For some years past he has virtually confined himself to the duties of consulting physician. He has been for many years prominently identified with the state health organization. lie organized the first board of health in the state at Staten Island in 1872. Under the act of the legislature in 1880 he organized the board of health at New Brighton, S. I. and was for some time its president, afterward becoming secretary and executive officer of the State Board of health. He was one of the founders of the State Medical association, and has been a member of the council since the second year of its existence. He has been an extensive contributor to the medical journals of the country, and is the author of numerous monographs, some of which have attracted widespread attention. Among them

whose descent



III. a.d. 1350.


are: "Relations of Hygiene to Therapeutics," and "Question of Quarantine," his treatment of the latter subject being widely different from former methods. He is a member of the American Medical association, State and County medical associations, and

Dr. Carroll inherits British Medical association. from his ancestors that high sense of honor, unflinching courage, and unimpeachable integrity and honesty, that have distinguished them in every age; and of all of them, down to the present generation, it may be truly said they have been sans Dr. Carroll married, in peur ei sans reproahe. 1862, Lucy Johnson, daughter of Bradish JohnYork city. Two sons are the issue son, of of this marriage, one of whom, Bradish Carroll, is York university, and is a graduate of the associated with his father in his practice, giving bright promise for the future.





William, manufacturer, was

Greenbank, N.



May 24,


James M. Brookfield, was born in His great-grandfather, Wni. 1813.

His father,


Jersey in

Brookfield, was They are the dealso born in New Jersey in 1790. scendants of Norwegian and Irish stock. His paternal grandfather was a sea captain, and his maternal grandfather was a commissioned officer in His father was educated in the revolutionary war. the district schools, and set to work to carve out his own fortune at the age of fifteen, learning the glasscutting business, and marrying Catharine A. BranWilliam was educated at the Cayuga Lake diH. academy, leaving there in 1862. In 1864 he, with his father, established the Bushwick glass works, which with a small beginning increased until their extensive works covered three and one-half acres Nine-tenths of all the insulators used of ground. throughout the country are manufactured at these works; in fact, they control this great and important field, together with the large number of battery jars that are used in the different electrical concerns cff the country. He is a regular attendant and pewholder in Dr. Hall's church, a member of the Union League club. Lawyers' club, Down-town association,

Manhattan and

New York


clubs. Produce, Consolidated, Mining and Stock exchanges, member of the committee on admissions to the Union League club, director in letic

Kings county and Greenwich Fire Insurance companies, treasurer of Cigimora Manganese company, director in the Shel don Axle company, vicepresi dent of the Addison and Penn sylvania railroad, also vice-pres ident of the Fulton club. Being recognized as an active mem ber and a strong believer in the principles of the republican party, as well also as an organizer of superior abilities, he was elected president of the republican club, as well also as president of the republican county committee, and being considered the most available and best qualified member of that committee, he was elected to the important position of chairman of the republican state committee, an honor which few could hope to attain. He married Kate Morgan, daughter of Henry Morgan of Aurora, N". Y. Eus wife, who is a woman of superior culture and high social standing, is the niece of Edwin B. Morgan, one of the founders of the New York "Times," also of Christopher Morgan, who held the

N. Y. secretary Seward was governor. office of

of state

when William H.



JOHNSON, David Bancroft, educator, was born in La Grange (West Tenn.), Jan. 10, 1856, where his father founded, and until his death, was president of the La Grange Female college. In a direct line he is descended from John Johnson who came to America from England with Winthrop, the first governor of the colony of Massachusetts. He worJied his way through the University of Tennessee

from which he was graduated with the highat Knoxville, est

honors of a large class in and immediately took


up as


profession of teaching of the boys'

first assistant

high school at Knoxville. After some service in the University of Tennessee, as assistant professor of mathematics,


and having develwhich de-


manded a larger sphere for their full exercise, he entered upon his life work. His rare talent, as an organizer, was recognized, and by his masterful application of the true principles of teaching, he infused new life into the system of public instruction, and a spirit and enthusiasm among the teachers, which prepared theway for his remarkable success. He organized graded schools at Berne, N. C, and so marked was their success as to attract the attention of educators in that and adjoining states. Having demonstrated his executive ability and his thorough grasp of school organization and management when the system was adopted by the city of Columbia, S. C, in 1883, Prof. Johnson was called to oi'ganize it, and in tlie course of a few years, under his superintendence, out of the crude material of the old common school, a system of public instruction has been evolved, which is an honor to the state, and has become an example after which many of the larger towns and cities of the state have hastened to model their schools. To meet this requirement for better teachers to introduce these better methods, Prof. Johnson, aided by the Peabody board, established in 1886 the Winthrop Training school for teachers. The legislature of


South Carolina provided a permanent appropriation for the maintenance of one beneficiary in the institution from each county in the state at a cost of $150 each per session, and afterwards made it a full state institution under the name of Winthrop Normal college of which Prof. Johnson is president. This training school was at the time the only one for white teachers in that section embracing the states of South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, and Florida. Its fraduates are teaching successfully throughout outh Carolina and adjoining states. Prof. Johnson has served as an instructor in successive State Normal institutes, and was president for several years of the State teachera' association, which he reorganized

and placed on

present satisfactory basis in 1888. He organized in 1889 the State Association of school superintendents, of which he is president. He organized the Columbia (8. C. ) branch of theY. M. C. A. and is president and also chairman of the state executive committee of the organization. The governor of the state, in recognition of his ability and his high educational record, appointed him a member of the State Board of examiners, and also a member and chairman of the special commission of three to make an investigation and report to the next legislature for action, on the subject of the estaMishment by the state of a normal and industrial college f or women for South Carolina. Upon the admirable report of this commission, the legislature founded the its


South Carolina Industrial and Winthrop Normal college which bids fair to equal any institution of its kind in the country. Much of the honor of the general adoption and success of the graded-school system in South Carolina may be justly accorded to Prof. Johnson.

HILL, John Lindsay, lawyer, was born in Florida, Montgomery county, N. Y., Oct. 31, 1840, sou of Sergeant Nicholas Hill, who served for some years in the war of the revolution, enUsting as drummer boy at ten years of age, and discharged as sergeant. John L. Hill's mother was Sarah Hegeman, a descendant of one of the prominent Holland families of New York. Her mother was Bathsheba Palmer, descended from a well-known New England family. Mr. Hill was prepared for college at the Jonesville and the Amsterdam academies, and was graduated from Union college in the class of '61. While a student at college he studied law with Cornelius A. Waldron, of Saratoga county, and subsequently with Judge Stephen H. Johnson, of Schenectady. He was admitted to the bar in 1863, and soon after commenced practice in partnership with Judge Johnson, at Schenectady. He rose rapidly in his profession, and in 1864 was elected district attorney, holding the position for iive years. He was also appointed counsel for the state commissioner of canals for the eastern district. He removed to New York city in 1868, and became associated with Guy K. and T. D. Pelton, which continued until 1873, when he formed anew copartnership under the name of Barrett, Eedfield Hill, which continued until 1876, succeeded by Kedfield Hill until 1883, and then by Redfleld, Hill Lydecker. From 1884 to 1887 he was alone, and in the latter year he formed a new copartnership under the name of Lockwood Hill. During his long term of practice he has been connected










of the most notable being that of the celebrated Beecher trial, in which he was associated with Mr. Evarts, Judge Porter, Gen. Tracy, and Austin Abbott, Esq., in the defence of Mr. Beecher. In his trial of cases he is earnest, forcible and impressive. The prominent traits of his mind are strength, sagacity and penetration. To these he united great industry and habits of laborious research, which are sustained by a powerful physical organization. His influence with courts and juries is increased by the purity of his life, a character of the highest integrity, and a keen love of justice.

In politics he was brought up a democrat, worked with the Union party through the war, a liberal republican thereafter. In 1873 he was identified with the party which nominated Horace Greeley for '


He was

a candidate for the assa^bly,

and though defeated, ran several hundred ahead of

He has been well known in social life in Brooklyn for many years, and assisted in founding the Oxford, Montauk, and Brooklyn Gun clubs, and his ticket.

vice-president of the latter. He is also a member of the Hamilton club, Brooklyn club, Carlton club of Brooklyn, of the Lawyers' club of New York, the New York Law Institution, Brooklyn Bar association. Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Delta Phi clubs of New York, and of several other college societies, and of the society of the Sons of the Revolution, being one one of the few real living sons of revolutionary soldiers. He married, in 1868, Adelaide Eddy, daughter of Geo. W. Eddy, of Waterf ord, N. Y. a descendant of one of the early New" England families.






John, iron manufacturer, second son of David Thomas, founder of tlie antliracite pig iron industry of this country, was born at Yniscedwin, South Wales, Sept. 10, 1829, and at the age of ten years came with his parents to Catasauqua, Pa., where his youth was spent. He obtained his education at the Allentowu academy, and at Nazareth hall, a noted institution of learning at Nazareth, Pa. Determined to acquire a thorough knowledge of the manufacture of iron in all its details, he first engaged in the business as an employee in the blacksmith shop connected with the Crane iron works, of which his father was then superintendent. Having become familiar with that department, lie passed on to the machine shops and the furnaces, and after several yeai's of faithful service in these departments, the practical information lie thus obtained admirably fitted him to become superintendent of the Crane iron works in 18.54, when his father withdrew from that position to organize the Thomas iron company. During the succeeding thirteen years Mr. Thomas superintended the worlLs at Catasauqua with exceptional ability and marked success. In 1867 he re-signed the position to accept the appointment of general superintendent of the extensive works of the Thomas iron company at Hokendauqua. Pa., of which his father was one of the directors from the time of the organization of the company. The history of Mr. Thomas is really the histoiy of this great iron company, and of the rise and growth of anthracite pig iron in this country. There has probably been no iron manufacturing company that has done so much for the advancement of this great industry as has this company. It has always been splendidly managed, both in its financial and in its selling departments. These have not been under the direct charge of Mr. Thomas, but they could have accomplished but very little had they not been so efficiently seconded by the great abilities "When he took of Mr. Thomas as a manufacturer. charge of the works in 1867 the company owned but four furnaces, making about 50,000 tons per annum. They have increased the number of their furnaces to eleven, and are now producing abovit 200,000 tons per annum. The v/orks themselves are a model of neatness and of efficiency. Notwithstanding the keen competition and the exceptional advantages of the southern states for producing cheap pig iron, Mr. Thotaas has always been able to meet the competition, and still make iron at a profit. He is also largely identified with other interests, as vice-president of Catasauqua and Fogelsville railroad, president for some years of the Catasauqua manufacturing company, manager of the Ironton railroad, director of the Upper Lehigh and Dodson coal companies, besides being interested in many other mining and manufacturing industries. Not only has he been most successful the manufacture of iron and all in which he has been engaged, but as a manager of men he has attained a high position. Coming up from the ranks himself, and having a warm heart for his people, he has always encouraged thrift and enterprise among his workmen, taking a great interest in the education of their children, and the welfare of their families. The social and moral influence of his presence, and that of his immediate family has been exceedingly salutary, as is well evidenced by the high character of the inhabitants of Hokendauqua, a town composed of the workmen of the Thomas iron company


and their families. Here every good cause has flourished, and this is largely owing to the helpful hand and advice of Mr. Thomas. In religion he is a PresMr. Thomas byterian, and in politics a republican. was married May 7, 1855, to Helen, daughter of Hopkin Thomas of Catasauqua, also a native of Wales. Their surviving children are David H., now superintendent of the furnaces of the Thomas iron company; Miriam (Mrs. Perry" Harrison of Minneapolis, Minn.); Bessie; Samuel R., a graduate of the Kensselaer polvtechnic institute, of Troy Katherine (Mrs. E. 5". Wilbur, Jr., of South Bethlehem, Pa.), and John W., a student in Lehigh University. ;


Henry B., lawyer and railroad president, was born at Douglas, Mass., Feb, 18, 1840, the son of Parley Hammond, a banker, and Elizabeth Buffom Mansfield. His parents removed to Worcester, where he received his early education and preparation for college. He chose law as his profe.s.sion, and in 1861 took his degree of LL.B. at Harvard law school. He then entered the office of Judge Francis H. Dewey, but at the outbreak of the civil war went to Washington as aide and private secretary to his uncle. Gen. Mansfield, at that time in command of the forces protecting the Capitol. In 1861 he accepted the position of consul to Dublin, Ireland, which office he conducted with such tact and ability that he not only was able to give his country valuable information, but also retained the most cordial and friendly relations with the people resident in his consulate. He did much to stimulate emigration to America, and was instrumental in establishing the money-order system at present existing in the postoffice. Upon his resignation

the people of Dublin presented him with a silver service and a complimentary address,

by such men John Gray, Charles .signed

as Sir Stuart

Parnell, Charles Edward Tisdell, D.D., Prof. Thomas T.

F.F.C.D., W. Nelson Hancock, V. O. B. O'Connor, Joseph T. Pi-ice, William Frey, J. Godkin, and others. He returned to America, and began the practice of law in New York city. This he conGray,


^.^•l-W'WV ffy^X,^

tinued until 1881 when the exacting demands of his various railroad interests obliged him to retire from active practice. As a railroad manager and organizer, he stands pre-eminent, and in this career he has achieved his chief success. He was secretary of the Union Pacific railroad from 1867 to 1870-73, and was attorney for the same road. In 1871 he became president of the Indiana and Illinois Central railroad, then only an organization with a franchise to build a railroad. He pushed it forward to completion, and from that time to the present he has been identified with its history. He has acted as president, receiver, etc., for various other important corporations at diflEerent times, and the success he made of the practically worthless Boston and New York air line, when he was appointed president and manager, is not (he least of his achievements. He was president of the Continental Construction company, 1881, director of the Atlantic and Pacific telegraph company, 1882-83. He is a recognized authority on all matters of railroad history and construction, and possesses one of the most complete railroad libraries in the United States. He is known as a man of scrupulous integrity, energy and persi.stence, and has the remarkable gift of being a leader of men.




born in Chester county, Pa.,




the eldest son of James Bverhart, a soldier of the revolutionary war. He taught school, and practiced surveying with success, and at twenty-one began a mercantile career in his native county. In the war of 1813 he commanded a company of riflemen. In 1833 he sailed for Europe in the packet ship Albion, which was wrecked on the coast of Ireland, and he was the only cabin passenger saved. He lost $10,000 in gold, which he had taken with him to buy merchandise. Some time afterward a part of this sum was tendered him, the money having been recovered from the wreck, but not being able to identify it as his own money he declined to receive it. In 1834 Mr. Everhart purchased a farm on the suburbs of West Chester, Pa., upon which he erected a large number of houses. He turned his attention to developing the growth and prosperity of the town, and soon became its most influential citizen In 1853 he was elected to the lower house of congress, and while a member of that body delivered a vigorous and forcible speech on the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and foretold the direful results that followed its passage. He declined a reelection in 1854, and continued in the mercantile business until 1867, when he retired. He married Hannah Matlack, daughter of Benjamin Matlack, a revolutionary soldier. William Everhart died Oct. 17, 1785,

30, 1867.


James Bowen, lawyer and congressman, was born near West Chester, Pa., July 36, 1831, son of William Everhart. He obtained his preliminary education at the Bolmar academy, and then entered Princeton college, where he was graduated in 1843. He began the study of law with JosLewis of West Chester, then spent one year at Harvard law school, and another year in the ofBce of William M. Mere-



dith of Philadelphia. After his admission to the bar he practiced law three years, and then made an extended tour of Europe, Asia, and a part of Africa, visiting a large number of places of historic He spent nearly one interest. year at the University of Berlin, also several months at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and after an absence of three years returned to West Chester, where he resumed the practice of law, which he relinquished in 1860. In 1863 he commanded a company during Lee's first northern invasion, and in 1863, at the time of the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania, lie raised a company of emergency men, remained in the service several months, and was promoted to major of his regiment. He was elected to the senate of Pennsylvania in 1876, and re-elected in 1880. He was the only republican member of that body who voted in favor of the electoral


He soon became

prominent and influen-

the deliberations of the senate, and opposed special legislation by interposing constitutional objections, bat advocated the passage of the bill giving criminals the right to testify in their own behalf, supported legislation for a geodetic survey of the state, and delivered eulogies before the senate on the death of Bayard Taylor and Gov. Bigler. In 1883 he was chosen a member of congress from the sixth Pennsylvania district, and in 1884 was re-elected by the largest majority ever given a candidate in that district. He was an influential member of the committees on commerce, weights and measures, and war claims, and missed a final vote on any measure before the tial in all



house while he was a representative. Mr. Everhart spent his leisure time in diligent study of the best literature. He published, in 1863, a volume of "Miscellanies," containing interesting accounts of the people and places he visited abroad. In 1867 he issued a collection of poems, also his speeches in book form, and in 1875 he published "The Fox Chase," a lively and spirited poem, conveying a splendid idea of the noble chase, the scene laid in Chester county, Pa. along the historic Brandywine. He died Aug. 33, 1888. Jobn Roskell, surgeon, was born in West Chester, Pa., in 1838, son of William Everhart. He was graduated from Princeton college in 1850, and received his medical degree after completing the course at the University of Pennsylvania in 1853. He then went to Paris to continue his studies in medicine and surgery, and upon his return entered upon an active practice. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon to the 97th Pennsylvania regiment, and during his three and one-fourth years of service earned the approbation of officers and men for his diligence and courage in attending the wounded on the field, and the sick in hospitals, especially during the prevalence of the yellow fever among the troops at Hilton Head, S. C, in 1863, where, owing to his skill in treatment and efficacious sanitary regulations, he kept the disease under control, and it soon disappeared within his command. He was appointed brigade surgeon, and also a member of the board of medical examiners for the department of the South under Gen. Hunter, and continued in the service until after the close of the war, retiring with the rank of brevet Dr. Everhart has traveled exlieutenant-colonel. tensively since the war, and in 1893 published "By Boat and Rail," an interesting work, attractive in

works of



and filled with valuable information about the people and the countries he has frequently visited. style,

HAWKINS, was born

Richard Eenner, at Lowell,

Mass., the son of Alpheus and Celia A. his educakins. He i-eceived tion at the common schools and the high school in Springfield, Mass., and at the age of sixteen he was employed as turer,

iron manufac9, 1837,




boy by Stone & Harand bridge builders. In 1863 he became a partner of D. L. Harris in the same an




business, succeeding to the entire control of it in 1867, which

conducts under the Hawkins Iron Works, the products being steam boilers, iron castings, iron bridges, machinery, etc.




of R. F.

On Sept. 3, 1863, in New York city,Mr. Hawkins married Cornelia Morgan, daughter of A. B. and Sarah (Cadwell) Howe, and has several children. For


many years Mr. Hawkins has been identified with all current matters of importance in Springfield, but he has never sought to enter political life, preferring to devote himself to the details of his prosperous business. the office of alderman three years, but has invariably declined to accept various other important positions offered him until 1893, when he was prevailed on to accept the position of water commisMr. Hawkins is highly esteemed in the sioner. community, and both he and Mrs. Hawkins are liberal but unostentatious in their donations to charitable institutions, and to individuals who are

more congenial

He held

in need.




clergyman, was born at Haven, Conn., Oct. 3, 1775. His ancestors came with Rev. John Davenport and with Theophilus Eaton, from England to Boston, Mass., in 1638. In that company was one, Hannah Beecher, a widow,


whose husband had died just before the party sailed, and her son John. She was about to leave the enterprise on her husband's death, but was induced to continue with the company by a promise that she should have her husband's share in the town plot. Anxiety to secure her coming arose from the fact that she was a midwife. The promise made to her was kept, and it was under a large oak which grew upon her land that the settlers observed their first Sabbath, Apr. 15, 1638, and that Davenport preached sermon from Matt. iv. 1. The inventory of Mrs. Beecher's estate at her death (1659) amounted Joseph Beecher, John Beecher's son, to £55 5s. 6d. had a son Natljanlel, six feet high, and a blacksmith anvil standing on the stump of the oak by trade, his tree under which Davenport preached. He married Sarah, a descendant of Richard Sperry, one of the their first

Her original settlers of New Haven, in 1639-45. mother was the daughter of a full-blooded Welshman. Lyman Beecher's grandmother was a woman of decided piety. His father was David, a blacksmith in New Haven. He is reported as "living well, according to the times, " and as having laid up $4,000 to $5,000. He was a well-read man, versed in astronomy, geography, and history, and in the records of the Protestant reformation in Eu-

He was

also an active Roger Sherman used say that he always calculated



to to see Mr. Beecher as soon as he got home from congress, to ' talk over the particulars. " He '


five times married,


Beecher being the only child of his third wife, Esther, daughter of John Lyman of Middletown, Conn., whose father came from Scotland to Boston, Mass. The

mother died two days after the child was born, and he was forthwith removed to North Guilford, Conn., to be cared for by Mrs. Benton, a maternal aunt. As he gi-ew up and seemed disinclined to the life of a farmer, an arrangement was made by which his uncle Benton at Guilford, and his father at New Haven should bear the expenses of his college education, the uncle clothing him and the paWhen the uncle died he left to rent doing the rest. Lyman Beecher a house in Guilford, and land worth about $2,000. He was graduated from Yale college During his junior year he was stirred to in 1797. serious thought upon personal religion. His autobiography gives a brief but clear record of his exin this respect, saying that one result of perience it was that he had a severe conflict whether he should preach, which extended into his divinity year. He had no part in the public exercises at his graduation, those being given on mathematical excellence chiefly, as to which he was deficient, but he gave the valedictory address at the cla,ss presentation day, He then studied six weeks before commencement. theology under Dr. Timothy Dwight, president of

Yale college, and twice a week walked over to West Haven, Conn., and spoke in evening meetings. " The people turned out to hear us," he says, "and The fact is, I there were some conversions. made the application of my sermons about as pungent then as ever afterward." He was licensed to preach by the West Haven association of Congregaregutional ministers, in 1798, and preached his first .





lar" sermon at Guilford, Conn. Having been invited to the pastorate of the Presbyterian church at Easthampton, L. I., he appeared before the presbytery to which the church belonged, for examination, Aug. 19, 1799, and was examined for six hours as to his religious and theological opinions and faith. Sept. 5, 1799, he was ordained to the ministry and Sept. 19th of the to the charge of that church. same year, he was married to Roxana Poote of Guilford, Conn. When he had been at Easthampton for four or five years, and approved himself as a hard worker and a spiritual minister, his family and expenses had so increased that extra income was needful, his salary, originally $300, and then but $400 per annum, being inadequate to meet his outgoes, and accordingly Mrs. Beecher opened a private school, in which her husband also gave some instruction, and they received some of its young lady pupils into their family. His first sermon that, as he said, "was much known," was that upon dueling, preached to his congregation on New Year's day, 1806, in reference to the duel in which Aaron Burr shot Alexander Hamilton. This was printed, and found its way to New York. There it was reviewed by Rev. Dr. John M. Mason, and as a result anti-dueling societies were started in New York and vicinity. Not long after this the Presbyterian synod met at Newark, N. J. and strong opposition to these societies was developed, led by a reverend doctor, who had been told by individuals in his faith, politically afiiliated with men of dueling principles, that "this thing must be stopped." This was just an occasion to rouse Beecher, who was a member of synod. "When time came," he wrote, "I rose and ,


knocked away

their arguments, and made them ludicrous. I never made an argument so short, strong, and pointed in life Oh, I declare if I did not switch 'em, and scorch 'em, and stamp on 'em. It swept all before it. The reverend doctor made no reply. It was the center of old fogyism, but' I mowed it down and carried the vote of the house." An impression was indeed made that never died out. The sermon and discussion started a series of efforts that affected the whole northern mind, and led to action by the U. S. congress disfranchising a duelist. When Henry Clay was a candidate for the U. S. presidency, his opponents printed an edition of the sermon, of 40,000 copies, and scattered them


over the northern states. In 1810 Mr. Beecher resigned his charge of the church at Easthampton, and during the same year was settled over the Congregational church at Litchfield, Conn., on a salary of $800 per annum. Here he continued for sixteen years, taking rank among the leading clergymen of that denomination. Not long after going to Litchfield he was called to Plymouth, Conn., a few miles distant, to attend the ordination of a pastor over the Congregational church in that town, and found there a broad sideboard set out for the ministers in the new pastor's house, covered with decanters and bottles of liquor, sugar, and pitchers of water. The drinking, he noted, was apparently universal, and this preparation for their clerical guests by the Plymouth people was made as a matter of course. "When the ministers came together they always took something to drink round; also before public services, and always on their return from them. As they could not all drink at once, they were obliged to stand and wait, as people do when they go to mill. There was a decanter of spirits, too, on the table, to help digestion, and gentlemen partook of it through the afternoon and evening, as they felt the need, some more and some less; and the sideboard, with the spillings of water and sugar and liquor, looked and smelled like the bar of a very active grog shop. None of the convention (associated body of churches and ministers) were drunk; but that there all


OF AMBEICAN BIOGRAPHY. was not at times a considerable amount of exhilaration, I cannot affirm." saw more of this not long after, and heard murmurings from the people at the


quantity and expense of liquors consumed.


alarm and shame and indignation," he said, "were intense. 'Twas that that woke me up for the war, and silently I took an oath before God that I would never attend another ordination of that kind. I was full. My heart kindles up at the thought of it now. These were some of his utterances years afterward.


general association (Congregational) of the state

had already appointed a committee to get, the facts as to the consumption of liquor, and make report, as had the kindred body in Massachusetts. When the Connecticut body met at Sharon in 1812, theii' committee reported that they did not perceive that anything could be done to stop this evil of intemperance, the wide-spread existence of which they adrnitted and deplored. Instantly Mr. Beecher was on his feet, with a motion that a committee be raised to report at that meeting what measures could be taken to stem this tide of evil. He was made its chairman, and reported, the next day, what in his old age he styled the most important paper that ever '


I wrote."


practical steps which his report rechad, as the first of their number, that appropriate discourses on the subject should be preached by all ministers of the association. The



ing his ministry here he made great efforts to uphold the union of the Congregational churches and the state in that commonwealth, which existed under the name of the "standing order," and was correspondingly depressed when it was overthrown by the triumph of the democratic party, so called, in 1817, In after life he declared, For several days I suffered what no tongue can tell, for the best thing that ever happened to the state of Connecticut. " He preached his renowned sermon, "The Bible a Code of Laws," which was the reproduction of his farewell sermon at Easthampton, L. I., that had also been preached at Litchfield to his people, at Boston, Mass., on the installation of Rev. S. E. Dwight as pastor of its Park street Congregational church, Sept. 3, 1817, '


and its after consequences were momentous. It was on this first visit to Boston that he met his second wife, a Miss Harriet Porter, to whom he was married at Portland, Me., in the fall of the same year. His sermon on "The Design, Rights, and Duties of Local Churches " was intended by him as the opening of what he regarded as both a war of defense and of attack against the rising Unitarianism in the eastern state of Massachusetts. It was followed by others,

notably that on " The Faith Once Delivered to the Saints," preached at "Worcester, Mass., in 1823, and after full correspondence with leading Congregationalists in Massachusetts, he became the pastor of the Hanover street church in Boston in 1836. His ministry at Litchfield had been marked by more than one revival of religion that at Boston was to be more controversial, but the same aspect of revival labor and revival success characterized it. His Boston ministry closed in 1833, that he might then accept the presidency of the new Lane theological seminary (Presbyterian), at Walnut Hills, near Cin;


report was adopted, and 1,000 copies ordered to be printed. By the next year it was seen that the effect of this action had been salutary in Connecticut. It


in support of this reform that, about 1814,


delivered and published the famous "Six Sermons on Intemperance," which have been declared to contain eloquent passages hardly exceeded by anything in the English language. They went all over the

United States, went through many editions in England, were translated into many languages in Europe, and have had large sale, even after the lapse of fifty

He also agitated (1813) a "reformation society" for the state. He set on foot in the ecclesiastical circles of Connecticut a movement which issued in numerous petitions to the congress of the United States, against "Sunday mails." He also preached on "The building of waste places," and his sermon resulted in the institution of the Domestic missionary society for the work of home evangelization in Connecticut. He corresponded with others in and out of the state upon the subject of forming a national Bible society, and lived to be among the last survivors, if not the last, of the convention of delegates by which the American Bible society was instituted in 1816, of which convention he was secretary. Returning full of zeal from the first corporate meeting of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions (1812), he called together clergymen and laymen from different parts of the country, who organized the Litchfield county foreign missionaiy society, the first auxiliary of the American board. DurSept. 33, 1816, his first wife died at Litchfield. years.


which he retained

for twenty years,

serving also, during their first half, as pastor of the second Presbyterian church at Cincinnati. His name, moreover, was continued in the catalogue of this seminary until his death. Three years after his removal to Ohio, he was obliged to defend himself in an ecclesiastical trial for heresy in religious doctrine, the prosecution coming in the appointment of a committee by the Presbytery of Cincinnati to investigate reports of Mr. Beecher's unsoundness of laitb. This he did successfully, and his opponents appealing to the Synod, Dr. Beecher was a second time sustained. Appeal was taken to general assembly, but unsuccessfully. The labors of Dr. Beecher during this period of his career were extraordinary in

magnitude and

in variety.

The danger



Catholic supremacy in the western United States was made the subject of one of his most elaborate and earnest appeals to the Protestant religious public The rising wave of anti-slavery agitaat the East. tion in the country reached the seminary, and by the exertions of the gifted Theodore D. Weld fierce discussion sprang up among the students which resulted in the trustees forbidding any public meetings or addresses among them without the approbation of the faculty, and requiring that the anti-slavery society and the colonization society of the institution should be abolished providing, also, that students not complying with them as with other rules, should be dismissed. This was done in the absence of Dr. Beecher on his summer vacation, and then the students, almost with one consent, withdrew from the seminary. Their withdrawal was followed by the establishment of a new college at Oberlin, O. Mr. Beecher was given the degree of A.M. by Yale college in 1809, and of D.D. by Middlebury college in 1818. His autobiography correspondence, etc., was edited by his son, Charles Beecher, and pub-


York in 1863. "Life lished in two volumes in and Services of Lyman Beecher," by Rev. D. H. Allen, was published at Cincinnati, O., in the same




HLs was one of the most marked, impressive figures which have as yet adorned the American pulpit. He died in Brooklyn. N. Y., year.




at the home of his son, 10, 1863.

Henry Ward Beecher,



Catharine Esther, educator, was born at Bast Hampton, N. Y., Sept. 6, 1800, the first daughter and eldest of thirteen children of Lyman Beecher, who removed to Litchfield, Conn., when she was about ten years old. By the death of her mother, the care of her father's household devolved upon her when she was but sixteen years of age. She was educated at the seminary in Litchfield, and when about twenty years old became engaged to Prof. Fisher, who was lost in the Albion while on a voyage to England. Her whole religious faith, very strange to say, was unsettled by this aflSiction, and she found no relief in the religious counsels offered by her father and friends. Then she determined to give her life for others. In 1823, with her sister, she opened a select school for young ladies at Hartford, Conn. At this time she prepared

an arithmetic

for the use of her pupils. Four years and with the help of generous

later she planned, friends built and

equipped the Hartford female seminary, whi6h gave girls a better opportunity for education, and was an attempted approach to the instruction given young men at that period. At this time she published a pamphlet, " Suggestions on Education," which excited nmch attention. She wrote a "Mental and Moral Philosophy" for the use of her school, which like the Arithmetic, was printed but never published. At the end of seven years her health failed in consequence of incessant activity, and in 1833 she went to Ohio with her father, when he was elected president of Lane She opened a school for young theological seminary. women in Cincinnati, but in two years ill health compelled her to give it up, and for the rest of her life she was occupied in writing on educational and domestic topics. With other ladies she formed an association called " The National Board of Popular Education," the aim of which was to supply the West with educated teachers. Ex-Gov. Slade of Vermont lectured widely as the agent of this society to raise funds, and several schools were founded and a number of teachers were obtained. Miss Beecher died at Elmira, N. Y., May 13, 1878. BEECHER, William Henry, clergyman, was born at East Hampton, N.Y., Jan. 15, 1803, the eldest son of Lyman and Roxana (Foote) Beecher. He was educated at his father's fireside and studied theology under his direction, and afterward at Andover. He became a clergyman of the Congregational denomination, and took charge of a congregation at Newport, R. I. In 1837 he removed to Ohio, where his father with his family had preceded him

Here he settled in Putnam, Muskingum county, but ill health and the labor of

in 1833.

missionaiy life in a new country forced him to return to the east, and he accepted a pastorate at Batavia, soon drifted

New back

York. to



where he preached at Toledo and Euclid. Again he went east, locating at Reading, and afterward at North Brookfield, Mass. While at the latter place he served as postmaster. Upon the death of his wife he took up his residence with his two daughters, Mary and Roxana, in Chicago, 111., which he made the home of his old age. He died there .June 33, 1889,

BEECHER, Edward, clergyman, was born at East Hampton, N. Y., Aug. 37, 1803, the second son of Lyman and Roxana (Foote) Beecher. His early education was acquired at home, both his father and mother being his teachers. He was there prepared for college, entered at Yale, and was graduated in Destined for a preacher, 1832. he studied theology at Andover and at New Haven, where he afterward was a tutor at Yale until in 1835 he removed to Boston to take charge of the Congregational church on Park street. He served this congregation for five years, when he was elected president of Illinois Here he college, Jacksonville. continued for fourteen years, during which the college increased wonderfully, and the

graduates who went from its doors during Dr. Beecher's presidency became prominent as pioneers in the development of the new "West." In 1844 he return- ^-, ^ ed to Boston and took charge of Ch»:Ut^^^^s::-a.e/Lej» the Salem street church, where he remained until 1855, when the Congregationalists at Galesburg, 111., gave him a call, which he accepted. .


preached to them until 1870. The Chicago theoseminary had Dr. Beecher as their professor of exegesis during part of this time. He retired from the ministry and removed to Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1873. logical

He received the title of D.D. from Marietta college He has been a continuous and acceptable contributor to periodical literature; was, for the first six years after the establishment of the "Oongregain 1841.

and after his removal to Brooklyn a regular contributor to the Christian Union. His published works have been subjects of much tionalist," its editor,



In "The Conflict of Ages he presented man's life upon earth as the outgrowth of a former as well as the prelude to a future life, this conflict between good and evil to go on until it results in an everlasting concord. His last work, on hell, entitled "History of Opinions; or, "The Scriptural Doctrine of Retribution" (1878), was largely controversial criticism.

read and criticised.


George, clergyman, was born

May 6, 1809, man and Roxana (Foote) Beecher. He entered Yale college in his East Hampton, N. Y.,


third son of Ly-

fifteenth year, and was graduated in the class of 1838. He studied for the ministry in the Yale divinity school, under the in.struction of Dr. Nathaniel W. Taylor, of he was an ardent admirer and devoted friend. In 1832 he went with his father.




Beecher, then

elected the president of Lane theological seminary, to Cincinnati, 6. little later, after an exciting contest over his case, between the advocates of the old and the new school views in theology, he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Cmcinnati. His first charge was at Batavia, O., his second in Rochester, N. Y., and his third in Chillicothe, O. He was an enthusiastic lover of music, poetry, and the natural sciences, a devoted pastor and an inspiring preacher. He married Sarah Sturges Buckingham, of Zanesville, O., July 13, 1837. He died by the accidental discharge of a gun on the 1st of July, 1843.


^yt^^t^ CyrS^^''^




BEECHER, Henry Ward,


in Litchfield, Conn.,

son of


Lyman and Roxaua

clergyman, was fourth

24, 1813,.the

(Poote) Beecher. His but three years old;

mother died when he was his stepmother, under whose guardianship his childhood's days were spent, was an Episcopalian. Both parents were devoted Christians, his father one of the most influential of New England pastors in an important transition period of her historj'. His home training was of the severe New England type, alleviated, however, by an irrepressible sense of humor in his father, and a poetic and mystical spirit in his stepmother. He was graduated from Amherst college in 1834, in his twenty-first year. He did not stand hlgli in collegiate studies; was characterized there, as throughout his life, by following the bent of his own inclination rather than any course marked out for him by others. But that course he followed with diligence, energy, and a patient assiduity. He made a careful study of English literature, submitted himself to a very thorough training in elocution, took hold of phrenology^not of course a college study with great zest, gave lectures upon phrenology and temperance, and participated in prayer-meetings and religious Tabors in neighboring country towns with characteristic fervor and self-abandon. His father was an intense and polemical, but for his time liberal evangelical divine; taking an active part in the theological controversies of his age, as against the old school or extreme Calvinistic party in the orthodox church, laying stress

on human liberty and responsibility; as against the Unitarian defaomination,' then just- coming into prominence, in Eng-



land, urging the doctrine of the depravity of the race, the divinity of Jesus Christ, the vicarious atonement, regeneration, and the inspiration and authority On of the Scriptures. Henry doctrines these

Ward was them he was familiar from

with and he never


his boyhood,


to the dav of his death lost the impression they put upon his character and method of thought. But at a

very early period they passed with him from a


to a vital spiritual experience in which, through a conscious realization of Christ as the manifestation of a God of infinite mercy, coming into the world not to judge,but to redeem and educate, Mr. Beecher himself entered into a new spiritual consciousness, in which love took the place of duty in the law of life, and the place of justice in the interpretation of God. He has

described with characteristically simple eloquence the " blessed morning of May," when this thought first took possession of him, and it never left him. Henceforth, with no other change than that of increasing clearness of perception, strength of conviction, and depth of experience, theology took on this form the depravity of the race was selfishness; the divinity of Jesus Christ, the personal disclosure of a God of love set forth clearly to human apprehension in the life of Jesus of Nazareth; the atonement, a moral and spiritual access to God the Father, through the revelation of Him in Jesus Christ; regeneration, a new life born of God, manifesting itself in practical fruits of love; and the Scriptures, a book infallible and authoritative only in so far as it revealed through the words and experience of holjr men of old these transcendent truths. This experience settled what :



to be his life-work. He devoted himself to the Christian ministry; upon graduating from Amherst college, he entered Lane Theological seminary (Cincinnati), where at this time his father had become professor of systematic theology, and pursued his studies there, receiving probably quite as much from the spiritual life and keen dialectic conversations at home, as from the more formal instructions of the seminary. At the same time he engaged in Christian work as a Bible-class teacher, and in journalistic work in connection with a Cincinnati paper in which he took an active part as an ardent abolitionist in the anti-slavery campaign then fairly begun. His first parish was the Presbyterian churcli at Laurenceburg, Indiana, a small settlement on the Ohio river. Twenty persons, nineteen women and one man, constituted his entire church. He was both sexton and preacher, lighted the lamps, swept the church, rang the bell, and took general charge After a year or two of service here of the edifice. he was called to a Presbyterian church in Indianapthe then growing capital of the state. His reolis, markable gifts as an orator gave him almost from the first a crowded church. His infiuence was felt throughout the state in intellectual and moral impulses given to members of the legislature, and to public men, who, attracted by his originality, earnestness, practicality and courage, came in great numbers to hear him. His pulpit did not, however, absorb either his thought or his time. He preached


through the

state in itinerant revival labors; lectured frequently, generally without compensation, for impecunious charities, and edited weekly the" agricultural department of the "Indiana Journal." After eight years increasingly successful of ministry in Iiidiana, Mr. Beecher received and accepted a call to the then .

newly organized Plymouth church of Brooklyn, N. Y., entering upon the duties of his pastorate Oct. 10, 1847.


this church he remained until his death, March 8, 1887.

The history of these forty years is the history of the theological and polemical progress of this country during that There was no theological question in which time. he did not take an interest, no problem having any recognized bearing on the moral well-being of the country which he did not study, and upon the practical aspects of which he did not express himself, and no moral or political reform in which he did not take an active part. His fertility of thought was amazing. He rarely exchanged preached twice every Sabbath, usually to houses crowded to ovei-flowing; lectured through the week so that there is scarcely any city and few towns of any considerable size and any pretension to literary character in the country, in which he has not spoken; and wrote extensively as a contributor of occasional articles, or as an editor, at onetime of the New York " Independent," and sub;

sequently of the "Christian Union," which he founded, and of which he was editor-in-chief until within a few years of his death, when the necessary demands upon him as a lecturer led him to resign the charge of the paper to other hands. A. career such as his, so immersed in conflict, in which hard blows were both given and taken, could not be passed without arousing bitter enmities, but of all the numerous assaults upon his memory only one



sufficiently significant to pass into history; and that has already, for the most part, faded from men's minds, leaving his name unsullied; and it is safe to say that no man, unless it be George Washington,


has ever died in America, more widely honored, more deeply loved, or more universally regretted. Mr. Beecher's great work in life was that of a pulpit and platform orator; and the effects of such an one are necessarily transient; yet he wrote enough to prove himself master of the pen aa well as of the voice. His principal works, apart from his published sermons, ai'e his Lectures to Young Men, " delivered during his Indiana ministry; "Yale Lectures on Preaching," delivered on the Henry Ward Beecher foundation at Yale Theological, seminary; "Norwood: A Tale of New England Life," a novel, first published in serial form in the "New York Ledger;" "Star Papers" and "Flowers, Fruits, and Farming " (one vol. each), made up from occasional contributions to various journals; and the Life of Jesus the Christ," left unfinished at his death, but subsequently completed by his son with extracts from sermons. As an orator, Mr. Beecher has had no '




any equal, in the American pulpit, and probably none in the history of the Christian church. themes were extraordinarily varied, everything His that concerned the moral well-being of men being superior, if

by him

as legitimate subjects for the pulpit. He had all the qualities which art endeavors to cultivate in the orator; a fine physique, rich and full blood currents, that overmastering nervous fire


which we

magnetism, a voice equally remarkfervor and flexibility a true organ of


able for its speech, with many and varied stops and a natural gift of mimicry in action, tongue, and facial ex-

Training would have made him one of pression. the first actors of dramatic history. Yet he was not an actor; for he never simulated the pa.ssion he did Genuineness and simplicity were the not feel. foundation on which he built his oratorical success; and he never hesitated to disappoint an expectant audience by speaking colloquially, and even tamely,

was not

in him. Efence he was equally on special occasions when much was expected of him, and to surprise on an occasion when no expectation had been aroused. To these natural qualities he added, as the fruit of long and


the passion

liable to disappoint

patient training, perfect elooutionaiy art become a second nature, an overwhelming moral and spiritual earnestness which took complete mastery of him, and a singularly combined self-control and selfabandon, so that in his more impassioned moments he seemed utterly to forget himself, and yet rarely failed to perceive instinctively what could serve his purpose of immediate persua,sion. He was always en rapport with his audience, but never robbed his humor of its spontaneity by the self-conscious smile, or his pathos of its power by breaking down himself in eye or voice. His five great orations delivered in England during the civil war in 1863, the mast potent, though not the only influence in turning public sentiment in that country against slavery and the cause of the South, are, in the dilficulties which the orator encountered, his self-poise and self-control, his abundant and varied resources, his final victory, and the immediate results produced, unparalleled in the world's history of oratory. There is no space in 80 brief a notice as this for any critical analysis of either the man or his teaching. It must suffice to say that the excellencies and the defects of both belonged to a man, who, living himself by the power of spontaneous life within, sought to develop a like life in others. More than any other man of his time he led the church and the community from a religion of obedience under external law, to a life of .spontaneous spirituality, from a religion which feared Grod as a moral governor, to one which loves hftn as a

from one which regarded atonement and regeneration as an inexorable, but too frequently dreaded necessity, to one that welcomes them as the incoming of God in the soul, from one which yielded a blind intellectual submission to the Bible as a book of divine decrees, to one which- accepts it in a spirit of glad yet free allegiance, as a reflection of the divine character and purposes in the minds and Mr. Beecher hearts of his enlightened children. was married in 1837 to Eunice Bullard, who survives him; he has left also four children, tliree sons who are engaged in business pursuits, and one daughter, married to Samuel Scoville, a Congregational clergyman of New England. On Jan. 18, 1893, a tablet in honor of its famous preacher was dedicated and unveiled in the vestibule of Plymouth Church. The tablet is of and enamel, mounted on a panel of; antique oak, 64 x 47 inches in size. border of interlaced oak leaves surrounds the tablet, upon which appears a medallion bust in bronze. The inscription is in has relief: " lfn memoriam Ibenrg lUaarO JScecber, flret pastor of iplBnioutb Cburcb, 1847=1887. ' 11 bavc not conceaIe& Q^bg lovs father;


ing NinOness aii6 Zbv trutb fvom tbe great Mr. Beecher died at his home congregation.' " in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 8, 1887.

BEECHER, Eunice White Bullard, wife of Henry Ward Beecher, was born in West Sutton, Mass., Aug. 36, 1813, the daughter of Dr. Artemas Bullard, a Congregational minister.


She was educated



Mass., and at the time of

her engagement to young Beecher, who was a classmate at Amherst of her brother, was en-

gaged in school teaching. She eighteen, and a year

was then

older than her future hu.sband. In 1887 he came East, from

Lawrenceburg, Ind., liis first and on Aug. 3d tlie young couple were mari'ied on parish,

Bollard's Hill, West Sutton, by Rev. Dr. Tracy. The wedding ring was bought by the youthful preacherwithapartof the money received for his first public address. The salary at Lawrenceburg, though nominally $600,

'M^ was soon busily employed. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected judge of the superior court of Cincinnati, and remained in position three years. In 1883 he was nominated that for governor, but was defeated by Judge Hoadly, the democratic candidate. In 1885 he had better fortune, being again nominated and elected, and reIn 1889 he was again renominated elected in 1887. but was defeated by the democratic candidate, James Campbell, of Butler county. Gov. Foraker has been noted for his oratory. For fearless and passionate eloquence, he is said to have no superior in the state. Although aggre.ssive in his disposition, and particularly in politics, he is very popular. The Foraker family have always been Methodists, and Gov. Foraker was named Joseph Benson, after the author of a Methodist commentary on the Bible. In regard to his military record, it is said of him that when only sixteen years of age he was able to recruit mcirc men for his company than any other

person in the same district. While in the array he kept a daily journal, in which there is plenty of evidence that while he was entirely loyal and courageous, he was not in the least enamored of a military life. At Chattanooga, Dec. 4, 1863, he wrote; "Reached the regiment just in time to go into a Don't like fighting well enough to make a fight. profession of it. "War is cruel, and when this conThe flict is over I shall retire from public life." final conclusion expressed in this quotation from his diary was a different one from what actually occurred, as Gov. Foraker did not really begin to be in pubhc life until fifteen years thereafter, and has been in it ever since. CAMPBELL, J. E., governor of Ohio (189092).

(See Index.)


J., governor of

Ohio (1893-

(See Index.)





Lynchburg, Va., Nov. 18, 1813. His grandfather was a Baptist clergyman and a slaveholder, but he became early in life impressed with views against slavery, and in 1819, with his family, removed to Chillicothe, O. Here the elder Thurman taught school and the boy was one of his pupils. Later senator,

was born


young Allen attended the Chillicothe High School, and was a student in the academy in that town. He was proficient in all his


but advanced in math-

ematics to such a degree that he

was known among



mates as "right-angled, tri-angled Tiuirman." Mrs. Thurman was a half-sister of William Allen, governor of Indiana, a woman of remarkable ability and who did much toward the instruction of her sou and toward the guidance of his after life. At the age

^^^ ^-^ ,5^

„ of eighteen the young man en- •^'^'^ " rL-iC/t the first to embark in that industry. The business steadily developed, and in 1870 he discovered and patented the product universally known as vaseline. In 1876 he organized the Chesebrough manufacturing company, which has since greatly developed, having branches in London, Paris, BerIn 1881 he erected the immense lin, and Montreal. oflBce building facing the Battery, in lower New York, which bears his name and was constructed under his personal supervision, with special appliances for heating and ventilating, his own invention, which have proved to be efficacious, and have attracted the attention of architects and builders. Mr. Chesebrough is a large holder of real estate in and about New York city. He was the originator of the New York Real Estate exchange, and second vicepresident and one of the building committee of the He vigorously opConsolidated Stock exchange. posed the use of Castle Gai-den as an immigrant depot by the state, and to liis continued efforts is directly traced the action of the general government in taking charge of the department and removing it

At the time of the Paris exposition to Ellis Island. of 1878, the state department took no action looking toward a general exhibit for the U. S. government, but :Mr. Chesebrough organized a meeting of intend-

ing exhibitors in New York, and through Mr. P. R. Coudert obtained from the Duke Descazes, of the French cabinet, permission to exhibit as Americans without the action of the government. This movement induced the state department to take action,

and the American exhibit was made under its guidance. Mr. Chesebrough married Margaret McCredy, sister of the wife of Frederic R. Coudert, on Apr. She died Apr. 3, 1887, leaving three sons 28, 1864. and one daughter. Mr. Chesebrough belongs to a number of charitable organizations and societies which have benefited by his donations. His summer home was at Legget's Point in the annexed district, but has since been sold to an English syndicate for improvement. His city residence is at No. 17 East FortyHis tastes are simple, and the charge of fifth street. his household is in the hands of his daughter, MarMr. Cheseion, who superintends its management. brough is a member of the New York riding, the Manhattan Athletic, the Exchange, the IJnion League, and other clubs and societies. He is also the author of "A Reverie and Other Poems," which has been favorably criticised. He was also president of the 1890.

Down Town republican club in New street in Among the revolutionary archives of the

Senate house at Kingston, N. Y. , are two large oil paintings of the father and mother of the wife of William Maxwell, in which are the holes made by the bayonets of the British soldiers in the Maxwell Their portraits were preresidence in Wall street. sented to the Senate house by Mr. Chesebrough.




was born in South

Devonshire, Eng., Sept. 28, 1840. In his early childhood he was placed in Groom's Hill college, Kent, thence went to Oxford, where he was graduated.

In July, 1878, he came to America and settled in

New York

city, and was in due season naturalized In September, 1881, a citizen of the United States.

he removed to Chicago soon afterward settled in JolMr. iet, 111., and then, in 1885, in St. Paul, Minn. Thompson drifted into journalism soon after graduating from Oxford, and was connected with the first "Era," an illustrated and sporting paper, of London, Eng. and has naturally de;


voted himself to journalistic


since his

coming to

the United States. He began with a part interest in the Joliet "Press," then became interested in the Wellington " Review " and the Braceville "Gazette," being at ene time interested in and partly owning three weeklies and one daily. After settling in St. Paul, he became employed on the daily "Dispatch," and after three

months owned one-third of 'SLr,yji> r


Madison, then in England seeking consecration In 1792 he became professor of "huas bishop. manity" in William and Mary college; on Madison's death in 1813 became president, and in 1814 was elected bishop of the Episcopal church, an office, however, which he .declined .the following He year, probably on account of failing health. died July 15, 1818. succeed

who was

SMITH, John Augustine,

tenth president of

William and Mary college, was born in Westmoreland county, Va., Aug. 39, 1782, son of Rev. Thomas He was Smith of 'Copel Parish in that county. graduated from William and Mary college in 1800, studied medicine and settled as a physician in New York city. In 1809 he became lecturer on Anatomy at the College of physicians and surgeons, and editor of the '"'Medical and Physiological Journal." In 1814 he was elected president of William and




then consisted of Dr.

faculty J.


gustine Smith, president; William Nelson, professor of law and police; Dr. T. Jones, proof chemistry and natphilosophy, and Ferdinand S. Campbell, professor Dr. Smith of mathematics. was the first layman to hold the presidency, and in 1824 he deemed it necessary to remove the college to Richmond as the best means to rid the college of its ancient popular disadvantages and enable it to make a new start. But in this Dr. Smith incurred the opposition of John Tyler, on the board of visitors, who voiced J. a. the local feeling, and Thomas Jefferson, who was then busy with the scheme of founding the university at Charlottesville, feared the effect of the removal upon the liberality of the legislature to which he was then appealing for pecuniary aid in favor of his pet enterprise. The united opposition defeated Smith's measure, and in 1835 he resigned. He resumed practice in New York city, and from 1831 to 1843 was president of the College of physicians and surgeons. He published numerous addresses, lectures, and essays including, "Infessor




Discourse" at


Medical college,

Crosby street (N. Y., 1837, 8vo); " Select Discourse on the Functions of the Nervous System " (1840, 12mo); "The Mutations of the Earth" (1846, 8vo); monograph upon the " Moral and Physical Science " (1853, 12mo). Dr. Smith edited the New York "Medical and Physiological Journal " in 1809, and was a man of splendid talents. A handsome portrait of Dr. Smith, the gift of his son and daughter, resident in New York city, hangs in the colleee library. & J


died Feb.




Christian; " a sermon on "The Anniversary of John the Baptist " (1820). One of his sons, Richard H. Wilmer is bishop of Alabama, and another. Rev. George I. Wilmer, was for some time a distinguished professor of William and Mary college. He died Aug. 24, 1827, of a distressing bilious or congestive fever at the age of forty-five. He was buried under the chancel of the parish church. The inhabitants of the town, irrespective of sect, put on badges of mourning, and defrayed his funeral expenses. handsome tablet in Bruton parish church commemorates his virtues. EMPIE, Adam, twelfth president of William and Maiy college, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., Sept. 5, 1785, son of John Empie, of Dutch descent. He was educated at Union college in that place. He married Ann Eliza, daughter of Judge Joshua Wright of Wilmington, N. C. He entered the ministry of the Episcopal church as assistant minister of St. George's church, Hempstead, L. I. in 1809 and he resided there till 1811. Prom 1811 to 1814 he was rector of St. James's parish at Wilmington, N. C. chaplain and professor at West Point, N. Y., from 1814 to 1816, and again rector of St. James's parish, Wilmington, N. C. from 1816 to 1827. After Dr. Wilmer's death in 1827, he was elected president of William and Mary college, and continued in that ofiice until July 6, 1836. Under Dr. Empie the college began rapidly to revive from longcontinued depression. The old jealousies had fallen into the background, and the sale of its formerly unproductive lands in different parts of the state had realized a considerable endowment fund. In 1785 the endowment fund in money was only $2,503.44. In 1824 it had reached, through judicious sales of land, the sum of $151,794.20. In 1826, the last year of Dr. Smith's administration, the number of students in attendance was twelve only but in 1836, the last year of Dr. Empie's term, the number was sixty-nine. Dr. Empie resigned the presidency of the college to accept the rectorship of a new








"WIIiMER, William Holland, eleventh president of William, and Mary college, was born in Kent county, JId., Oct. 39, 1782, the fifth son of Simon and Ann Wilmer. He was educated at Washington college in Kent county and was ordained by Bishop Claggett in 1808. He was appointed to the charge of Chester parish, Maryland, but in 1812 he removed to Alexandria, Va., where he had charge of Xjy*3>t^/ y. t^l^ Af , C^^t'Cuf^cY' St. Paul's church. He took an active part with Meade and other young ministers in resuscitating the Episcopal church in Virginia and ha,d much to do in securingthe election of Dr. Richard Channing Moore to the Episcopate. In 1816 he was elected to the charge of St. John's church in Washington city, but declined the appointment. In 1818 he was


president of the Education society of the District of Columbia, of which he was one of the originators. In 1819 he commenced the publications of the Washington "Theological Repertory " and furnished many of its leading articles till his death. After bis removal to Virginia he was delegate to every general convention while he lived, and in 1821, 1823, and 1826 he was president of the House of clerical and lay deputies of that body. In 1820 he received the degree of D. D. from Brown university. In 1823 he filled the chair of systematic theology, ecclesiastical history and church polity at the Theological seminary near Alexandria. In the spring of 1826 he was chosen assistant rector to Bishop Moore in the Monumental church at Richmond, but he declined the call. few montlis later he was appointed president of William and Mary college and rector of Brutoa parish church. His administration was brief. Dr. Wilmer married three times first Harriet Ringgold; secondly, Marion H. Cox, and thirdly, Annie B. Fitzhugh. His published works were: Sermon preached before the Military Brigade of Alexandria, July 4, 1813; " " A sermon before the convention of the Diocese of Richmond" (1814); "Episcopal Manual" (12mo, 1815); sermon on the death of Bishop Claggett of MaryControversy with Baxter, a Jesuit land " (1816); Priest" (1818); a sermon entitled, "The Almost







church which had been built in Richmond, and named St. James in compliment to his old parish of St. James in Wilmington. There he continued to serve most acceptably until the year 1853, when.enfeebled by disease, and having nearly attained tlie allotted age of man, he returned



Wilmington, to die among the people to whom he had formerly ministered. He published a small work on baptism, and a volnme of sermons. The manuscript of a work by him on " tractarianism " is believed to be in the theologiHe died Nov. 6, 1860. cal seminary at Alexandria. DEW, Thomas K., thirteenth president of William and Mary college, was born in King and Queen county, on Dec. 5, 1803, the son of Thomas R. Dew and Lucy Gatewood, his wife. His father was a large land and slave holder in King and Queen to

county, Va., who liad served a short time in the war of the revolution, and as a captain in the war of 1813. Thomas R. Dew, the son, was graduated from William and Mary college in 1820, after which he traveled two years in Europe. On Oct. 10, 1836, he was elected professor of history and political law iu Will-

iam and Mary college. The chair of history, which was established for the first time under Rev. Robert Keith, in 1830, was developed by Mr. Dew into one of first importance. At that time history and political science were scarcely kuown among the In 1836 Mr. Dew bestudies of American colleges.


236 came

president, and the college, under his enlightened management, achieved a degree of prosperity never previously known. In 1840 the number of students in attendance was 140. The time was one of great political activity, and his Lectures on the Restrictive System," depicting the evils of the tariff system, were very popular, not only with liis students, but with the Southern public, and are thought to have had much weight in shaping the opposition to the tariff laws of 1828 and 1832. His essay in favor of slavery had a marked effect, it is said, on the slavery question. But his greatest work was his "Digest of the Laws, Customs, Manners, and Institutions of Ancient and Modern Nations," embracing lectures delivered to his class. Dr. Herbert B. Adams pronounces this work the most, thorough and comprehensive c ourse on history of which he has found any record during '


Dr. Dew contributed largely to the "Souththis earlj' period.

ern Review." In 1845 he married Natilia Hay, daughter of Dr. Hay of Clarke county, Va., and died suddenly on his wedding trip. The faculty formally bore testimony in their minutes that it was difficult to decide whether " liis wisdom as president, his ability as a professor, or his excellence as a man was most to be admired." He died in Paris, France, Aug. 6, 1846. Robert, fourteenth president of William and Mary college, was born in Williamsbui'g, Va., Jan. 25, 1805. He entered the University of Virginia the first year of its eventful career, and took the law course of lectures. In 1833 he was


made professor

of mathematics in William and Mary and continued in tliat position after his appointment as president pro tern, by the faculty of the college. The appointment was regularly confirmed by the visitors on Oct. 1, 1847. The faculty college,

at this time consisted of President Saunders, professor of mathematics, Judge N. Beverley Tucker, professor of law, Dr. John Millington, professor of natural philosophy and chemistry, Charles Minnegerode, professor of humanity,

and George Frederick Holmes, professor




economy, and national law. Prof. Saunders was the son of Robert Saunders, whom Bishop Meade represents in his

"Old Families

and Churches" "as a lawyer of distinction, and highly esteemed for his religious character." His father left Wilham and Mary college with other students, to join the Continenta) army in the revolution, and was with Gen. Greene in the South. personal friend-


ship grew up between them, which extended into the next generation. Robert Saunders, the son, ''f/r^ traveled in Europe with Gen. Greene's daughter, in Paris met Wo/. and was entertained by Lafaj'ette, and became the fortunate possessor of mementos of Lafayette and of Gen. Greene's family. The admini.stration of Prof. SaunDissensions arose in the ders, however, was brief. faculty, and it was deemed expedient at the end of the se.ssion for all the members of the faculty to resign their offices. Mr. Saunders never held any further connection with the college, but his career


of usefulness did not end here. For a long time he at the head of the affairs of the "Eastern luna-


asylum," and just before the late war was president of the York River railroad. Throughout his life, until disfranchised by the U. S. government, he was variously a member of the legislature, mayor, magistrate, city councilman of Williamsburg, and vestryman of Bruton parish. In the late war he was offered a regiment, but did not feel equal to the hardships of active service, and took the position of captain in the quartermaster's department of the Confederate service, and was most industrious and energetic. He died Sept. 11, 1868, leaving by his wife, Lucy Page, daughter of Gov. John Page of tic

Rosew-ell, eight children. John, fifteenth president of AVilliam and Mary college, was born in Castle, Del., July 10, 1796, the second son of Kensey and Ann Van Dyke Johns. In 1813, at the age of sixteen he entered Princeton college. Jersey, and was graduated in 1806, in the same class with Bishop Mcllwaiue, of Ohio, Gov. McDowell, of Virginia,




Dr. John McLean, president of New Jersey college, and Prof. Charles Hodge, D.D. He studied for the ministry, and his first parish was All Saints, Frederick, Md. Entering upon the charge of that parish in 1819, he remained there until called in 1839 to the rectorship of Christ church, Baltimore, Md. Here he remained, his

ministry blessed with great success, until

he was elected



bishop of Virginia, May He was still holding 21, 1842. as.sistant

when he was elected president of William and Mary college. As reorganized this position

the faculty consisted in 1849 of professor of moral and intellectual philosophy; Benjamin S. Ewell, professor of mathematics; Nathaniel B. Tucker, professor of law; William F. Hopkins, professor of natural philosophy and chemistry; Dr. Silas Totten, pro

John Johns, president and


fessor of moral and intellectual science; Henry A. Washington, professor of history and political economy, and J.Morgan Snead, profes sor of humanity. Tlie number of students steadily rose from twenty-one in 1849-50 to eighty -two in 1853-54, and when on March 31, 1854, Bishop Johns sent his letter of leave-taking to the faculty, he could say with truth that he could retire without solicitude as to the future of the college." He was a man of rare pulpit ability and extensive scholastic attainments. In 1834 he received the degree of S.T.D. from Cohunbia college, and from the University of New York, and in the year 1855 the degree of LL.D. from William and Mary college. He was descended from distinguished ancestors. His father was chief justice of the state of Delaware, and on the maternal side his grandfather was Gov. Nicholas Van Dyke, who served many years in congress, and was the second president of the commonwealth of Delaware. He was thrice married: fiist to Juliana Johnson, of Frederick, Md., second to Jane Shaaf, of George town, D. C, and third to Mrs. Southgate, who survives him. Bishop Johns retired to his residence near Alexandria, and on the death of Bishop Meade in 1863 he succeeded to the olHce of bishop of the diocese. long period of usefulness eusued, and at length on Apr. 6, 1876, he died in the eightieth year of his age. Benjamin Stoddert, sixteenth president of William and Mary college, was born in Washington City June 10, 1810, the son of Dr. Thomas '




OF AMERICAN" BIOGRAPHY. Ewell, Prince William county, Va., and of Elizabeth Stoddert, his wife, daughter of Benjamin Stoddert, first secretary of the U. S. navy, and a descendant of the Bladens, Taskers and Lowndes of Maryland. He first attended the preparatory department of Georgetown college. At the age of eighteen he became a cadet of the U. S. military academy at West Point, where he was

graduated in 1833.

He was made

lieutenant of artillery in the regular army of the United States, and being detailed to serve as assistant instructor at the academy, acted as such in the department of mathematics, natural philosophy and chemistry, until 1836, when he left the army, and became an assistant engineer on the Central railroad leading from Baltimore. This road was completed in 1889, and Ewell was during- this year elected professor of natural philosophy and chemistry


with Col. Ewell, and received also the warm endorsement of Gen. William B. Taliaferro of the board of visitors, and of Judge Warner T. Jones, also of the board. It was received with favor by the general assembly, and a bill was approved by the governor March 5, 1888, appropriating annually $10,000 to the support of the college. Under the bill a reorganization was again effected, and Col. Ewell, having declined any active connection with the institution by reason of his age, was elected president emeritus an honor which he still (1893) enjoys. Col. Ewell is a brother of Gen. Richard Ewell, late of the Confederate states army, and resides near Williamsburg with his daughter, Mrs.


Hampden-Sidney college, Va. This position he filled until 1847, when he was elected professor of at

mathematics and military science at Washington college a professorship founded and endowed by the

Society of the Cincinnati at the time of



and of which Prof. Ewell was the first incumbent. In 1848 he was elected president and professor of mathematics by the board of visitors of the College of William and Mary. He accepted the professorship, but declined the presidency, acting, however, as president ^0 tern, until Bishop John .Johns anived. After Bishop Johns resigned in 1854, Prof. Ewell was elected permanent president, and filled the posi-


the faculty was reorganized, Ewell was retained as professor, an Episcopal clergyman of South Carolina was chosen He declined, and Prof. Ewell was as president. again installed. At this time John Tyler was elected chancellor, the first since Gen. Washington. In 1859 the main building of the college was accidentally destroyed by fire, and a year after its restoration in 1860, in September, 1863, the building once more fell a victim to the flames, kindled by the soldiers of the Federal army. Previous to this President Ewell had been made colonel of the 33d regiment of Virginia volunteers, and later he was, on application of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, assigned to duty as asIn May, 1863, Gen. Johnsistant adjutant-general. ston asked the Confederate government to make Col. Ewell his chief of staff, with the rank of brigadiergeneral a request not granted because there was no law authorizing a staff officer to hold the rank of After the war was over Col. brigadier-general. Ewell went to the assistance of the college, and opposed the project of the removal of the institution to Richmond. The burnt buildings were restored, in 1869 the faculty was again organized. Col. Swell chosen president, and Hugh B. Grigsby elected The cost of repairs, and the pay of prochancellor. fessors made a heavy drain on the endowment fund which the fees of the students did not make up, and after many efforts to support the sinking fortunes of the institution, President Ewell was compelled to witness a suspension of the exercises in 1881. The attempts to raise money in the North by personal subscription, and to obtain indemnity from congress had also failed, and the college seemed sunk to its lowest state. After seven years of suspension, during which time the revenues of the college were well husbanded, it was determined by the board of visitors to apply to the legislature for aid to connect a system of normal instruction and training with the This idea had been a favorite one college course. tion until 1857, and while Prof.

TYLEB, Lyon Gardiner, seventeenth president of William and Mary college, was born at " Sherwood Forest," in Charles city county, Va., in August, 1853, son of President John Tyler and his second wife, Julia Gardiner of New York, who was a descendant of Lyon Gardiner, commander of Port Saybrook in Connecticut, and first proprietor of Gardiner's island, N. Y. He went to school to Andrew Ferguson of Charles city county, Va., and to Dr. Percy G. Meyer of Staten island, N. Y. In February, 1870, he entered the University of Virginia, and was graduated in July, 1875, with the degrees of bachelor and master of arts. Then he studied law under John B. Minor one year. While at the university Mr. Tyler was twice elected orator of the Jefferson society, and obtained the scholarship as best editor. After leaving the university, Mr. Tyler was elected in January, 1877, professor of .

William and Mary colwhich he held until November, 1878, when he accepted an invitation to Memphis, Tenn. Here Mr. Tyler was head of a At high school for four years. the end of that time he returned to Virginia, and in September, 1883, settled in Richmond, where he entered on the practice of the law, and took an active part in lettres in

lege, a position

In 1887 he was elected of the house of delegates, and among other important measures was patron in that body of the bill which proposed, .„ ^^,^^^ as we have seen, to appropriate f/^ * annually the sum of $10,000 to "^^^'^^^ ^• ~ -k/^ JfZ^

Columbus, Ga., Nov. 25, 1847, son of rard, a prominent cotton merchant.


completing his twenty -first year, and subsequently formed a partnership with Mark H. Blandford.

OC»e Continental trust company of New York, and has successfully managed several large estates of which he has been executor and trustee. He has frequently contributed to the press on political, religious and general subjects. Among the prin-


which he was engaged without interruption for the subsequent fifty years, and during forty years of the time was head of the largest house in the busi'






bought out

his brother-in-law's interest in the firm of Israel

Corse & Son, and afterward conducted the business under his own name, the firm undergoing several changes, his son, Edwin Thorndale, being a member of the concern for fifteen years. Upon the death of his father, in 1849, Mr. Thorne came into possession of the family estate of Thorndale, which he subsequently made his summer residence. He also paid much attention to breeding stock, and imported the best shorthorn

and Durham



from Eng-

land, frequently paying as much as $5,000 for a single animal, "rhe venture proved very profitable, and the Thorndale stock became noted both at home and abroad. As a merchant Mr. Thorne acquired a large fortune, and an enviable reputation for his honesty and integrity. The different kinds of leather are divided into three classes: perfect sides, slightly damaged sides, and badly damaged sides. He required his men, in sorting these over, to put the slightly and badly damaged sides

So much good material was found in his damaged leather " that it became celebrated, and commanded an unusually high price. In all his

together. '


other business dealings he maintained an equally honorable position, and always held the confidence



In 1823 he married Lydia, daughter of Israel Corse. She died in 1872, and in 1874 he was married to Mrs. Merritt, daughter of George L. Fox.

and esteem of his customers.


S., mecliauical engineer Brandon, Vt., Nov. 6, 1847. He was educated at tlie common schools of his native

and inventor, was horn


town, and subsequently devoted his attention to scientific research. He was afterward for a while professor of physics and chemistry in the State normal school, at

White Water, Wis. Mr. Johnson soon turned his mind to the suband the result he has given to the world many new and valuable deject of invention,

has been vices.




number may

be mentioned Johnson's system of heat regulation, which is now generally used throughout the world, and the impulsive railway, by means of which mail and express matter is forwarded on special cars, the cars being propelled by the explosion at interProf. Johnson is vals of a mixture of gas and air. the inventor of many electric and pneumatic contrivances.

GILMOBE, Patrick Sarsfield, musician and bandmaster, was born in Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. He attended a public school until apprenticed to a wholesale merchant in Athlone, of the brass band of which town he soon became a member,

but, his passion for music conflicting with the duties of a mercantile life, his position as clerk was exchanged for that of musical instructor to tlie young sons of his employer. At the age of nineteen he sailed for America, and two days after his arrival in Boston, Mass., was put in charge of

the band-instrument department of a prominent umsic house. In the interest of tlie publications of this house he organized a minstrel company known as " Ordway's eoliaus," in connection with which lie first achieved prominence as a cornet soloist. Later, he was called the best E-flat cornetist in the United Stales. He became leader, successively, of the Suffolk, Boston Brigade, and Salem bauds. During his connection with the Salem band he originated the famous Fourth of July concerts on Boston Common, afterward adopted by the Boston city government as a regular feature of independence day cele brations. He also gave a series of promenade concerts in Boston music hall, the phenomenal success of which was the first recognition conceded the military band as a legitimate factor of in-door concert music. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore returned to Boston and founded the organization famous thereafter as " Gilmore's band." On the outbreak of the civil war he attached this band to the 24th Massachusetts volunteers. Laler, when the economical policy of dispensing with music was proved a mistake, Mr. Gilmore was entrusted by Gov. Andrew, the "war governor of Massachusetts," with the reorganization of state military bands, and upon his arrival with his own band in New Orleans, Gen. Banks, then in command of the department of the Gulf, made Mr.

Gilmore bandmaster - general. While detained in Orleans Mr. Gilmore gave in the opera-house


a series of promenade concerts, to which the leading Confederate families of the city were invited. The note of social arbitration tlius sounded swelled later into the harmonious chord of political peace, when, in Lafayette square, at the inauguration of Gov. Hahn, ten thousand school-children, the great majority of them belonging to Confederate families, at the signal of Mr. Gilmore's baton, and to the accompaniment of six hundred instruments, the combined batteries of thirty-six guns, and the united fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the "Star Spangled Banner," "America," "The Union Forever," and other Union airs whose harmonizing echoes rang throughout the length and breadth of America. In recognition of this political as well as musical triumph, 100 prominent citizens of New Orleans tendered Mr. Gilmore a complimentary dinner at the St. Charles hfk-,1, presenting him with a silver goblet appropriately inscribed, and filled to the brim with gold coin. To this public tribute Gov. Hahn added a personal letter to President Lincoln, mentioning Mr. Gilmore as one who had " done great good to file cause of tlie Union ly Ms faithful and patriotic sermces" " a musician of the highest ability," and " a true gentleman." In June, 1867, Mr. Gilmore conceived the idea of celebrating the dawn of national peace by a gigantic musical festival. This project was universally discouraged as chimerical, but the projector's enthusiasm was unquenchable, his efforts herculean, and his perseverance indomitable.

On June




stepped upon the stage of the Boston colosseum, avast structure erected for the occasion, and in the presence of an audience of 50, 000 persons, including, as invited guests, the most prominent clergy, Boifon Simmsn politicians and public men of the day, lifted his baton over an orchestra of 1,000 and a chorus of 10,000, whose first note, accompanied by the





by electricity, and


simultaneous ringing of all the bells in the city, proclaimed the opening of the greatest popular musical festival then on record. jJVhen the signing of the treaty of Washington ratmed peace between the republic and the mother-country, Mr. Gilmore conceived a second and doubly gigantic idea that of having the National peace jubilee followed by an International peace jubilee, which should not only

represent home talent by an orchestra of 2,000 and a chorus of 20,000, but also present the military bands of all nations, from whose respective governments the services of the bands were solicited for Mr. Gilmore in a personal letter from U. S. Grant, then president of the United States. colosseum, with a seating capacity of 100,000, was erected at «, cost of half a million dollars, and on the 17th of June, 1872, the International peace jubilee was inaugurated. The bands of the Grenadier guards, from London, of the Garde republicaine, from Paris, of the Kaiser Franz regiment, from Berlin, and a band from Dublin, Ireland; with Johann Strauss, the waltz-king, Franz Abt, the Germau song-writer, and many famous soloists, vocal and instrumental, were among the foreign attractions of the International jubilee programmes. The jubilee continued for eighteen days, and at its close Mr. Gilmore was presented by the citizens of Boston with two gold medals and the sum of $50,000. In 1873 Mr. Gilmore accepted an oifer from the 23d regiment of New York to become its bandmaster, a position he continued to hold up He reorganized his band, to the time of his death.




it to 100 members, and gave 600 concerts Madison square garden, which, under the name of " Gilmore's Garden," became the most popular


New York. On the 150th night of this phenomenally successful season Mr. Gilmore was given a benefit, and was presented, in the presence of an audience numbering 10,000 persons, with a magnificent gold and diamond medal. On the 4th of July, 1876, Mr. Gilmore gave a mammoth national concert in Independence square, Philadelphia, followed by sixty concerts in the main exposition building of the Centennial exhibition. In 1878—having made, meantime, a concert tour of America from Maine to California, Mr. Gilmore took his band to Europe, making a successful tour of Great Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. Of the resort in




eight successive seasons, his band had given over 1,500 concerts to ever larger and more enthusiastic audiences, Mr. Gilmore died from heart failure, after one day's illness. In death he was paid both military and civic honors. His wife and his only child (a daughter) survive him. Leila Bobinson, lawyer, was born in Boston, Mass., on July 33, 1850. She was carefully educated, and after leaving school was for several years employed as a writer for various Boston papers, being at that time the only wo-


man thus engaged. In 1878 she matriculated at the law school of Boston university, from which she was graduated with honor

honors of which, during this tour, Mr. Gilmore was recipient, may be mentioned a medal from the French government. From his return to New York in 1878 until his death in 189?, Mr. Gilmore's professional career was one of ceaseless activity and ever-increasiug success, as evinced by his bi-yearly tours through the United States and Canada, his long and renewed engagements at all the great ex-


positions of the country, his fourteen successive seasons at the popular summer resort, Manhattan beach, and the association of his band not merely as a familiar but as a necessary feature of every great public celebration of its day. On the midnight of Dec. 31, 1891, 30,000 persons gathered in the vicinity of the New York city hall to hear the serenade of sacred and patriotic music with which Gilmoi-e^s one hundred," organized for a grand "Columbian tour," welcomed the dawn of Ameiica's great quadricentennial year. Such was the last of the many patriotic services offered by Mr. Gilmore to the country of his adoption. Professionally, P. S. Gilmore was an unique and striking figure original, independent, unconventional, daring—distinctively a musical pioneer as well as a musical teacher. He lifted the military band to a lofty niche in the temple of music, and popularized the classics for the education of the people. The ultra-classicists decried him, the conservatives resented his innovations in the adaptation of great orchestral compositions for reed-band production, and his introduction of electric cannon, anvils, drum corps, etc., for dramatic effects. But the masses enthusiastically supported him, and his mu Personally, sical mission was an eminent success. Mr. Gilmore was a man of rare magnetism; social, generous to a fault, and a general favorite. His tal-

the courts of the commonwealth. She practiced her pro-




ents were brilliant and versatile. He was ready alike with the pen of the composer and the tongue of the eloquent and witty speaker. Among his best-known compositions, words and music, are: "The Voice of the Departing Soul; or, Death's at the Door," National anthem, "Columbia," etc. His song, " Good News from Home," written during the war, attained a world-wide popularity; "When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again, " the words of which he wrote under the nom de plume of Louis Lambert, was very popular during the war, and long after it closed. In politics, as an Irishman, he was for home-rule, and a concert he gave in response to Ireland's appeal, netted for the Parnell parliamentary fund the sum of $6,000. In religion he was a practical Catholic. Among the material evidences of public favor which outlast him are jeweled, gold, silver, ivory and ebony batons, jeweled and gold medals, silver and gold goblets, costly badges and emblems, gold and silver instruments, plate, ornaments, etc. but the proudest laurels laid upon his grave were the tears of the poor, the love of the people, and the praise of his fellow-musicians. On Saturday, Sept. 34, 1892, during the initiatory engagement of the Colum bian tour of "Gilmore's one hundred" at the St Louis exposition, in whose magnificent music-hall, in

May, 1881. In December, law was enacted through

1881, a

her efforts, by the legislature of Massachusetts, permitting the admission of women to the bar on the same terms as men, and in June, 1883, Miss Robinson was admitted to practice in all



in Boston



she removed to Seattle,

Wash., opening u, law office in Subsequently she returned to Boston, and in April, 1890, was married to Eli A. Sawtelle,

that city.

causing a great loss to the cause of woman's enfranchisement. While visiting in Washington, D. C, during her wedding tour, she was admited to practice before the supreme court. Mrs. Sawtelle was the author of "Law Made Easy " and "The Law of Husband and Wife, " both published after her return to Boston from Seattle. Her death occurred very suddenly on Aug. 10, 1891, from an overdose of medicine. Emil, brewer, was born at Obermoshel, Ehenish Palatinate, in the kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, Apr. 16, 1840, the son of Joseph William, of the royal service, as collector of the revenue of the department of the Palatinate, and Louise Schandein. Emil Schandein received his early education at private schools in his native place, and afterward was graduated from the academy and commercial college at Kaiserslautern. He desired to become a civil engineer, but was prevented by the reaction following the revolution of 1848. After remaining a year in his father's


he emigrated to America in New York. He went almost immediately to Philadelphia, where he was emjDloyed as bookkeeper in a large importing house, and remained there two office,

1851, landing at

years. He then traveled for several years through the United States, representing various firms in the capacity of commercial traveler, with the idea of learning the customs of the country. He afterward settled at Bellville, III., but in 1863 went to Wiscon-i sin to accept a position offered In 1866 he rehim by a firm in Watertown. moved to Milwaukee and became a member of the brewing firm of Philip Best Co. During his residence in Milwaukee he was a director of the North




insurance company,' president of the

Milwaukee brewing association, and secretary, and later on president, of the Brewers' association of Milwaukee. In 1869 he vrent to Europe as a com



paniou to Philip Best, wlio was an Invalid, and who sought health from the mineral springs and baths of Germany. Mr. Schandein was successful in all his business enterprises, and not less so in society. Liberal in his religious views, tolerant in politics, upright, honorable and genial, he was a general favorite. In May, 1866, he married Lizette, daughAfter the death of Mr. ter of Ma j. -Gen. Philip Best. Schandein, at a meeting of the stockholders of the Pabst brewing company, then known as the Philip Best brewing company, Mrs. Schandein was elected

vice-president of the company, representing her own interests as well as those of her three children in the most extensive brewing industry in the United States. Mr. Schandein died at Bremen July 22, 1888. Nathaniel, professor of theory and practice of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania from 1816 to 1850, was born at Summer His paHill, Fairfax county, Va., May 28, 1780. ternal ancestor came to Virginia with the first colony under Sir Walter Raleigh, of whom he was a near relative. He obtained his preliminaiy education at the classical


academy founded by "Washington

c^K. /;

Bishop) Jaggar, he accepted the rectorship of All Souls' (Anthon Memorial) church. New York. Here he has labored with very

great success since 1870. Being one of the first advocates of the principles of Higher Criticism," and introducing these views of "Broad Churchmanship " into his pulpit, he became very poptilar to church-goers, and at the same time very obnoxious to the " old-time " clergy. Early in 1891 a vehement attack upon Dr. Newton was made by Father Ignatius, an Anglican monk, who was holding services in New York, and his accusations of heresy aided in calling attention anew to Dr. New'


ton's impatience with some usages and accepted interpretations of the church. On March 14th Bishop Potter received a protest, signed by 106 clergymen and fifty-two laymen of York and vicinity, who


complained that during the Lenten seasons of 1890

and 1891 Dr. Newton and Dr. Rainsford, also of New York, had "invited persons not duly licensed or ordained according to the laws of the church, to by delivering sermons and public addresses. Several protests from bishops followed, and in May the attention of the late Bishop Horatio Potter was called to Dr. Newton's teaching by twelve clergymen representing various shades of thought in the church. These clergymen reminded their superior of the law which provides that, in case a bishop has reason to believe that a clergyman has committed any offence for which he is Kable to be tried, the former shall appoint five persons to examine into tlie case and make the presentment. Dr. Newton courted such an inquiry, and on May 19th preached in reference to the subject, using on that occasion the following language: " Our church must face the fact that while she holds the possibility of becoming a centi'e for a reunited Protestantism in this country, she is in danger of sinking into a sect as narrow as are the men who, apparently not understanding the philosophy of their own formula of faith, would now rule out from the church the very thought from which sprang the Nicene creed." During that year he preached a series of sermons, in one of which he called attention to the fact that no creed rests upon the authority of Jesus Christ bimself, and in another officiate,




was among the


of which he opposed the High-church theory, that the Episcopal church alone is the true church in this country. In 1891 Dr. Newton was presented for heresy by three of his clerical brethren, but Bishop Potter did not sustain the charge, and Dr. Newton was not brought to trial. In 1893 a second charge of heresy was brought against him, whereupon he demanded from his friend and bishop, Rt. Rev. Henry C. Potter, a regular trial instead of " a drumhead court-martial." Bishop Potter ordered such a presentment to be made, but the presenters failed to appear, and Dr. Newton, owing to ill health, asked for a leave of absence for one year from the church. Dr. Newton has taken a deep interest in all the philanthropic movements of the city, outside of those in the church, and is a prominent member of the Nineteenth century club. One of his latest movements, in company with Father Ducey, was the attempt at municipal reform in New York. Dr. Newton has a large following in New York and throughout the country, and by many is considered the most scholarly, most able and most influential preacher in his church. His style is lucid and epigrammatic, and his utterances are characterized by an earnestness that is very impressive. His principal published works, which have attracted a great deal' of attention at home and abroad, are: " The Ethics of Trade" (1876); " Womanhood" (1879); "Right and Wrong Uses of the Bible" (1883); "Philistinism " (1885); " Social Duties " (1886); " Stories in the Life of Jesus" (1888); " Church and Creed Dr. Newton received his degree of D.D. (1891). from Union college in 1881.

DTJNLAP, Robert,

merchant, was born in



citj Oct. 17, 1834, the son of Scotch-Irish parents. He was educated in the public schools, at an early age was apprenticed to a hatter, with he served out his time, and then was admitted to his employer's store as a salesman, remaining with him until 1857, when he rented a store at 557 Broadway, and established himself in business on a capital less


than $2,000. By judicious advertising and keeping up in the matter 'of style and manner of manufactures so as to give satisfaction, he soon became widely known. He also kept in advance of the " up-town " movement by occupying a store in the Fifth Avenue hotel as soon as it was opened, thus establishing himself as the leader in his line of business, which position he has since retained. Mr. Dunlap has established branches in Chicago and Philadelphia, with authorized agencies in all the larger cities of

the United States. His manufactory, located in Brooklyn, N. Y., is the largest in the world devoted to the exclusive manufacture

and complete in all employing upward of 1,000 people. Mr. Dunlap has

of dress hats, its details,

interested himself in enterprises outside of his regular business. The largest and most important of his ventures was the establishment of the Dunlap cable news company, which was formed to meet the demand for a more thorough interchange of current





news promptly furnished between the two continents by means of unrestricted and independent cable communication. The company was organized in 1891, and in less than a year was recognized as the formidable rival of the older companies. Afterward the company was consolidated with a European concern, and became known as the " Dalziel's News Agency in Europe.

OF AMEBICAW BIOGRAPHY. Mr. Dunlap also became interested, in 1890, in founding the illustrated -weekly periodical, " Tmth," and later he purchased the entire plant, and from that time its success was phenomenal. He also interested himself in various enterprises, either instituted or fostered by himself, which have been uniformly successful. Mr. Dunlap is a lover and patron of the drama, and art generally, and has a valuable collection of rare examples, collected in all parts of the world. He is a member of the American geographical society, fellow of the National academy of design, of the Metropolitan museum of art, and American Museum of natural history. He belongs to the

Manhattan, New York, Colonial, Coney Island jockey, and New York yacht clubs. In 1860 he married a daughter of Dr. T. H. Burras, who is directly descended from the French Huguenots, and whose great-grandfather was buried in Trinity churchyard. They have four daughters and one son, who is associated with his father in business, and destined as his successor.


George Edmund,

born in Newbern, N. C, Apr.

statesman, was His father

17, 1795.

was a native of Connecticut, but removed, in early manhood, to the South, where he became a lawyer of distinction. The son was prepared for college in the schools at Newbern, and at the age of fifteen entered Yale. relative, a man of fortune at the North, furnished the means for his college expenses, but suddenly, at the close of the young man's sophomore year, the support was withdrawn, and he was


left to his





turned to his southern home and prosecuted his studies alone. Notwithstanding his absence from Yale during the junior and senior years of the course, his name was kept and enrolled among the sons of the college, with whom he

should have been graduated in 1813, and at a later period Yale acknowledged his still higher

advancement in

liberal learning conferring on him the degree of LL.D. his other studies he took up law, and progressed so rapidly that at the age of twenty he was admitted to the bar. The war of 1812 was at the time disturbing the country, and Gov. Hawkins called out the militia. Badger took the field, and served as aide-de-camp t" (ieu. Calvin Jones, with the rank of major. His sol'li°> life was short, and he returned to his legal practice. He was elected to the legislature in 1816, the year of his majority, and devoted the next four years of his life to law and legislation. In 1820 he was appointed judge of the superior court, and filled the judicial bench with marked ability until 1825, when he resigned and removed to Raleigh, where he continued to reside until the end of his life. In 1840 he took an active part in' the Harrison presidential campaign, and soon after Mr. Harrison's inauguration was appointed secretary of the navy. After the death of President Hai'rison, and the separation of Mr. Tyler from the whig party, Mr. Badger resigned, giving as a reason his non-agreement with the policy of Mr. Tyler. In 1846 he was elected to the U. S. senate to fill an unexpired term of two years, and in 1848 In 1853 President Fillre-elected for a full term. more nominated him as a judge of the IT. S. supreme court, but the nomination was not confirmed by the senate. At the expiration of his senatorial terjn he retired to his home and entered again on the practice of his profession. When the mutterings of civil war

by With

III.— 20.


were heard, and a convention was called for the purpose of seceding from the Union, Mr. Badger consented to serve as a representative from his county. He spoke ably in defence of the Union, and after the ordinance of secession was passed was known as a member of the conservative party. He was a vigorous speaker, but rarely wrote anything. He excelled in debate, and in tide subjects he studied made profound research. Mr. Badger married three times, in each case forming an alliance with a distinguished

family. He was prostrated by a stroke of paralysis Jan. 5, 1863, and, after a lingering illness, died May 11, 1866, at Raleigh, N. C.



manufacturer, 30, 1813, the son of Nathaniel and Sophia (Chafee) Barstow. The progenitor of the family in this country, William Barstow, emigrated from Yorkshire, Eng., in 1633, and settled in Dedham, Mass., being one of the signers of the petition for the incorporation of that town. He subsequently removed to Scituate, Mass., and became the first settler of that part of the town which is now called Hanover. Amos Barstow was educated at public and private schools in his native town. He declined the advantages of a collegiate education, his passion for mechanics and commercial pursuits dominating him then as it has since done. He early gave evidence of his mechanical genius, and his first position was in a retail store, but before he

was born

at Providence, R.



had been there six months he was tendered a place at double the wages he had been receiving.

Mr. Bars-

tow advanced from one position to

another until 1836,

when he was

invited to bea partner in a small iron foundry engaged in the manufacture of stoves. Wood was at that time the principal fuel used in America. Anthracite coal was just beginning to come in use for factoiy purposes, but found its way slowly into houses small for use in grates. amount of soft coal was imported from England. The stoves for cooking purposes were arranged for the variety was small, and the use of wood only the workmanship faulty and coarse, and their demand limited. Mr. Barstow had for some time been woi'king with a view to making improvements in the manufacture of stoves, and made his first patterns in the fall of 1836. But the result of his improvements was not placed upon the market until the following spring. The stoves met with ready sale, and in a short time it became necessary to double the size of the factory. He removed his works to Providence in the fall of 1844, enlarging from year to year, until the products of the manufactoiy were sold in. all parts of America, in the islands of Politically, he the Pacific, China, and England. was an old-time whig, an original republican, and from the first was prominently identified with the temperance and antislavery movements. In 1851 he was elected to the assembly by the whig party, and, in 1870, was made speaker of the house. 'In 1853 Mr. Barstow was also elected mayor of Providence, declining re-election on account oi the pressure of his personal business, and a natural disinclination for public life. In 1875 he was appointed to the board of Indian commissioners by President Grant, holding oftice until 1880, and was chairman of the board during the last two years. He is president of the City national bank, president of the Mechanics' sav-






Island liospital various religious and benevolent organizations, national as well as local. Notwithstanding the engrossing demands of his business, he has always been ready to work in the cause of philanthropy, either as a private or a public citizen. Mr. Barstow was married on May

the Lockwood press, and which has served as the foundation of several other successful newspapers, such as the " American Stationer,',' " The American Mail and Export Journal," the "American Bookmaker," and " Lockwood's Directory of the Paper and Stationery Trades," which has long been a stan-

Bmeline Mumford Eames, daughter of James and Sarah Mumford Eames of Providence,

ried Carrie

ings bank, a director in

company, and an




officer in

28, 1834, to




Oct. 35, 1883, Mr.

Lockwood mar-

Baker Done, a granddaughter of the late Colgate. Mr. Lockwood was an active

of the Typothetee of New York, and represented it at the meeting in Chicago in 1887, which resulted in the formation of the United typothetse. The first constitution of the national society was drafted by Mr. Lockwood. He was also first chairman of the executive committee of that organization, was twice re-elected, and has done much tor the sucMr. Lockwood was a memcess of the association. ber of the Union league. Lotos, Manhattan, Grolier, and Aldine clubs, and of the Sons of the revolution. Huguenot and New England societies, and of the Chamber of commerce. He died in New York city



ROY, Herman,

merchant, and founder of the once noted firm of Le Roy, Bayard & Co., was the son of an old New York merchant, who died in 1791. The tirm began business before 1800 and came to be one of the largest commercial houses in the United States. It traded with every part of America and prospered until 1837, when it failed. Mr. Le Roy was one of the fifteen citizens of New York, in 1815,


who owned a carriage. He as

was the custom


in those days,

over his counting-house, which


situated in

Hanover square.

"When, under the



tration of Washington, diplomatic relations were established with

New York line,

dard work.

the Netherlands, Mr. Le Roy was appointed consul-general for



His daugliter, Caro-


married Daniel "Webster.


publisher and printer,

and founder of the Lockwood


was born


"White Plains, "Westchester county, N. Y., March 9, 1846, the son of Gen. Munson I. Lockwood, who was for many years prominent in the social and political life of the country, and a lineal descendant of

who emigrated from England to country in 1630, and settled at "Watertown, Mass. The descendants of Robert Lockwood took an active part in the colonial and revolutionary wars, twenty-three of them having fought in the former, and 156 in the latter. On his mother's side Mr. Lockwood was descended from Nicholas Delaplaine, a distinguished Huguenot, who emigrated to this country, and setRobert Lockwood,


New York

tling in in 1790.

city,died there

The Lockwood house

at "White Plains stood on the plain that was traversed by "Washington's earthworks, and close by is an old mortar abandoned by "Washington in his retreat. It was in this battle that Lieut. Simon Ingersoll, great-grandfather of Howard Lockwood, lost his life. About a mile distant from the Lockwood residence is

the building occupied by "Washington as his headquarters, and where may be seen a handsomely bound register, the gift of Gen. Munson I. Lockwood. After completmg his education, Mr. Lockwood removed to New Y^ork city, and in 1865 was employed in a paper warehouse in Duane street, where, paying strict attention to business, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of the paper trade proper, and of the scope, extent, and processes of paper manufacture. Believing that the paper business required a newspaper to represent its constantly developing energies, in 1873 he established the "Paper Trade Journal," from which has grown the large business known as





Philip, one of the signers of the declaration of independence, and son of the- second "lord of the manor" of Livingston, New York, was born at Albany, Jan. 15, 1716, and was graduated from Yale college in 1737. In 1754 he was made alderman of the East ward of New York city (then containing only 10,881 inhabitants), and was annually elected to this office, one of importance and dignity, for nine years. In December, 1758, he became a member of the assembly of his province, and took a distinguished part in the proceedings of the following year, notably in the voting of troops and supplies for the invasion of Canada. He also labored to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, and in 1764 uttered a firm but respectful protest against taxation by England, without consent or representation. In =2l/Ov.«-v.X7/^t>li_ 1768 he was chosen speaker of the new assembly, called upon the dissolution of the one preceding, and this being in turn dissolved, he was returned to that of 1770 (declining an election for New York city) from the manor of Livingston, but was unseated on a trivial charge. In 1774 he was a delegate to the first Continental congress, serving on the committee which prepared the address to the people of Great Britain, and was also a member of the association in his state, to execute the plan of commercial Interdiction. In 1775 he was returned to congress, and also appointed president of the congress of New York, and July 4, 1776, voted for, and signed, the declaration of independence. The same month he was made a member of the board of treasury, and in 1777 was placed upon the committee on marine, and also elected to the New York legislature, with additional power to frame the constitution of the state. Under this constitution he was elected senator for the southern district of New York, and also returned to congress, which, in the most gloomy and trying period of the revolution, had adjourned to New York from Philadelphia. His presence in that body was requested by the state government, although the condition of his health was such as to render such attendance the last act of patriotism. About the same time he sold a portion In 1754 of his property to sustain the public credit. he was one of those who set on foot subscriptions for the public library of New York city; he was also one of the first governors of its hospital; assisted


was taught him with his A B C's, and he very early apprehended, and has ever since cherished, the truth that true success in life lies in an untiring activity tempered by a calm judgment, and directed and controlled by principles of the strictest probity, in private as well as in business and social life; and every stage of his career has illustrated the power and attractiveness of a character built upon snch lines. He is a director of the Hamilton loan and trust company, vice-president of the Mercantile accident insurance society, president of the Drygoods chronicle publishing association, and a mem-

in founding the Chamber of commerce, and Inestablishing King's, now Columbia college. By his wife Christina, daughter of Col. Dirck Ten Broeok, he had five sons and three daughters. On June 13, 1778, he expired at New York, and his interment took place the next evening. The funeral was attended in a body by congress, and mourning was worn for


him one month.


Philip, brewer, was born


Sept. 36, 1814.




received a


education in his native town, after which he learned the brewing trade and carried it on in various parts of Germany and France. He came to America in 1848 and located in Milwaukee, where, together with his fatlier and three brothers, he established the famous brewery of Philip Best & Co. He was prominently interested in the affairs of his adopted state and took active part in its military soliool

ber of the Chamber of commerce of the city of New York, and an officer of the Lafayette avenue Presbyterian church, Brooklyn. On June 33, 1870, Mr. Beach married Mary Linnette Nelson, daughter of Elisha Nelson of Cold Spring, Putnam county, N. Y., and has several children, the oldest of whom is now a student in Hamilton college, Clinton, N. Y., Mr. Beach being a firm believer in (as having himself experienced its advantages) a classical education, whether the subsequent life be devoted to business or to one of the learned professions. The degree of M.A. was conferred upon Mr. Beach Jan.

organizations for many years, being major general of the -

Wisconsin state militia, and was connected with various

17, 1893,

financial enterprises, which added largely to his wealth and influence. He made two visits to Europe in 1859 and 1869, and died in the latter year at

THOMAS, Theodore Gaillard, physician, was born on Edisto Island, near Charleston, S. C, Nov. 31, 1831, as,

She still lives in the old homestead at Watkins, where she has resided continuously for forty years. John N. was educated at the public schools, at the Ovid

academy, Ovid, Seneca county, N. Y. (in the palmiest days of that venerable institution), and at Hamilton college, Clinton, After Oneida county, N. Y. leaving college he engaged for a time in the retail dry-goods business at Watkins, N. Y., there gaining much of that experience and practical knowledge of the requirements of a country drygoods trade which afterward contributed so largely to his success in business. to New York city in 1867, where he went into the wholesale drjr- goods busiwhich he very soon made himself known

He removed

and felt. He was a member of the firm of P. Van Volkenburg & Co., and of Van Volkenburg, Beach & Co., from 1873 to 1879, and has been a member of the present firm of Teflt, Weller & Co., since the Beyond the sound constitution inherited latter date. from his parents, and the early school advantages his parents were enabled by a wise economy to give him, Mr. Beach's present high standing is in no wise the result of fortuitous circumstances. A manly

son of


Edward Thom-

an eminent clergyman of the

and author of a volume of sermons largely circulated through the South, and known as "Thomas's Sermons." He came of a family founded in America by Rev. Samuel


BEACH, M". , merchant, was born at Lodi, Seneca county, N. Y., Aug. 1, 1837. His father was George Clinton Beach, in early life a teacher and farmer, and subsequently engaged in mercantile pursuits, who died in Watkins, Schuyler county, N. Y., in 1876, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, highly respected by the entire community in which he had lived for so many years. His mother was Mary Ann Covert, youngest daughter of Col. Rynear Covert, of Seneca county, N. Y.

by Hamilton

Protestant Episcopal church,

Altenglan, Bavaria. He was buried at Landstuhl. He left surviving three children, one son, Henry, and two daughters, the wives of Capt. Fred Pabst and Emil Schandein, re-

at once ness, in


Thomas, who was sent over ,

by the church

of England, in found branches of the church in the New World. His mother's family was founded by Theodore Gaillard, a French Huguenot, who went to South Carolina upon the revocation of the "Edict of Nantes " by Louis XIV. All 1704, to

the relatives of the


on both sides were loyal to George III., and were known as

tories in the war of the revolution. Dr. Thomas was educated at the College of Charleston, and was graduated in medicine in 1853, being the "first honor man" of that year. After his graduation he removed to New York city, and served as resident physician in Bellevue and Ward's Island hospitals. He then went to Europe, and while there was resident physician in the Rotunda hospital, Dublin. On his return he took up the private practice of medicine. He established, and has maintained, a large private hospital for the treatment of the diseases of women, and has, as well, a large practice in surgery. He is the author of "Diseases of Women," published in 1868. This work has passed through seven editions, and has been translated into French, German, Italian, SpanHe was one of the eminent physiish and Chinese. Centenary of American cians selected to prepare " Medicine," published in 1876, and has prepared and published various pamphlets and addresses. In 1863 he married Mary Theodosia Willard, of Troy, N. Y., granddaughter of Mrs. Emma Willard, the celebrated founder of the Troy Female seminary, and author of a "History of the United States." Dr. Thomas has been professor of obstetrics and diseases of women in the College of physicians and surgeons, surgeon to the Woman's, Bellevue, St. Luke's, Roosevelt and Long Island hospitals, and is con-




suiting surgeon to the Woman's, Frencli, PresbyHe is also terian, Cancer, and other hospitals. honorary member of the Gynecological and Obstetrical societies, of London, Edinburgh, Berlin, and many other of the European cities.


Wood-ward, business man, was born in Cecil county, Md., Oct. 3, 1814, being the fourth of the family in this country to bear the name. His uncle, William Abrahams, was one of the defenders of the three -gun on the Patapsco river, during the war of 1812. His fa-

battery, ther.

a sea

Woodward Abrahams, was captain who settled upon a

farm bordering the Susquehanna, after several years of sea-faring.

Woodward Abrahams, his early days



upon the farm and

then learned the printer's trade, becoming interested in a printing establishment in Petersburg, Va. He was for a time one of the publishers of two Baltimore Journals, the "Eastern Express" and the Kaleidoscope, " but of late years he has devoted himself principally to the management of an extensive ice business. He is interested in charitable works and '


a patron of the fine arts, his own art collection being one of the best known in Baltimore. He has in preparation a history of Freemasonry. is


Charles Henry ("Bill Arp"), humorwas born at Lawrenceville, Ga., June 15, 1826, of Scotch-Irish parents. He Ijegan to acquire an


education at a manual-labor school, attended Franklin college, Athens, now the University of Georgia, studied law for two months, and was admitted to the bar. He removed, in 1850, to Eome, Ga. where ,

he was associated with Judge


H. Underwood, in the practice of law, until the breaking out of the war. He was a member of the military family of Gen. G. T. Anderson (" Old Tige"), for two years, after which he was assigned by Mr. Davis to judicial duty with Judge Eugenius A. Nisbet of Macon, a duty which he faithfully performed until the federal Gen. Wilson dissolved the court. Mr. Smith began to write humorous J.

letters in 1861, to amuse the soldiers, and they were decidedly

popular, but it was not until after the war that his talent fully displayed itself. The people of the

South were undone, but


characteristic American spirit were inclined to take a cheerful view of events, and so "Bill Arp " became their mouthpiece. With a smile he nipped up


shams, and he wrote the truth with a hand so firm and a touch so ^.iX? light that he turned the thoughts of the people from their individual misfortunes. Perhaps no author has ever more thoroughly represented the people he wrote for, or has ever had a more sympathetic audience. Two volumes of his letters were published, both of which were very popular. Of late years he has written a letter for the "Atlanta Constitution." The in the " Bill Arp " letters has been called homely. It is that and something more. It is rich and mellow. It embodies a definite knowledge of human nature, and has the touch which "makes the whole world kin." If the author of the " Bill Arp "



had been possessed of a desire to engage in creative works, his success would have been instantaneous. He has everything but the incentive. In 1877 he retired from the practice of law, and became a farmer, working with his boys until they grew up and married, or left the farm for more inviting occuHis home is in the village of Cartersville. pations. He has had ten children. " The crop is laid by," as letters

he says, but he has had grandchildren around him He has had success as a lecturer. of late years. His latest volume is entitled "The Farm and the Fireside."


G-eorge, signer of the declaration of independence, was born near Hampton, Elizabeth He learned little at school, but City, Va., in 1726. was well taught by his mother. Orphaned and wealthy before he came of age, he gave way to the temptations of youth, but at thirty suddenly changed his way of life, and from that time maintained the highest character. He was admitted to the bar in 1 757, where he soon gained a high position. From 1758 he was a member of the house of burgesses, and in November, 1764, was one of a committee to draw up a petition to George III. and remonstrances to the two houses of parliament with reference to the threatened stamp Wythe prepared the paper intended for the act. commons in so plain and strong a manner that it required much toning down before it could be adopted and used. As war approached, he was among the foremost to rouse a spirit of rejoining, for a time, a But his serof volunteers. vices were more needed in the council than in the field, and in August, 1775, he was sent to the Continental congress, where he sat for two years. Here he broke with the crown as well as with sparliament in February, 1776, and in July was prompt to sign the declaration of independence. In November, 1776, he was appointed, with Jefferson, Pendleton, and two others who did not act, to revise the Virginia laws, in view of the change from a colony to a state. In June, 1779, this committee resistance,


ported 126 bills. In 1777 he was made speaker of the house of delegates and a judge of the court of chancery. From 1776 to 1789 he held the chair of law at the College

When his court was reorof William and Mary. ganized in 1786, he became the sole chancellor of the state. He was a member of the convention which framed the federal constitution in 1787, and the next year of the Virginia convention, which ratified it. He was the first judge to decide, against much popular clamor, that British claims for debts contracted by Americans before the war were recoverable, displaying in this action "scrupulous impartiality and rigid justice." He received the degree of LL.D. from William and Mary in 1790. His "Decisions" appeared in 1795, the second edition of which, pviblished in 1852, has a memoir of him by B. B. Minor. -

beloved by his law pupils, among were two presidents and Chief Justice Mar-

He was much


shall; Henry Clay, for four years clerk of his court, was also indebted to him for many kindnesses. He was quick to note "the latent powers of great men,

and help them

to great careers;" his benevolence, sweetness of temper, and simplicity of character, were as notable as his rigid integrity, legal learning, and proved ability. In later life he freed liis slaves and provided for them. Jefferson, his pupil and friend, began a, sketch of Judge Wythe, which was used in Sanderson's "Biography of the Signers." His powers were unimpaired, and he was still chan-


OF AMERICAN BIOGKAPHT. cellor -when 1806.


he died by poison


Richmond June


Farmer has been a steady adherent of the republi-can party from its foundation, but has never been an active politician or an aspirant for oflice. The firm name of Farmer, Little & Co., is familiar to thousands of newspapers in all sections of the country.

A nephew was tried for the murder and MANNING, John Alexander, manufacturer,


was born

in Troy, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1838. His father, William H., was about the first manufacturer of paper from manilla rOpe, the strongest paper made. The early education of the son was received in the Troy academy, but at the age of seventeen he was

CABKOLL, Howard,

journalist and author, in Albany, N. Y., in 1854. His father. Gen. Carroll, a gallant and cultured young Irishman, who early gained distinction as one of the ablest civil engineers in the country, was killed while leading a charge at the battle of Antietam, in the

was born

obliged to leave his school studies, and aid his father in the management of his rapidly growing business. At the time of his father's death in 1855, he had but one moderate-sized mill, but under the wise foresight and driving energy of the son, two other mills were built. Mr. Manning has been for many years the largest manufacturer of rope manilla paper in the world, shipments being constantly made to all parts of the globe. He was the first to make a satisfactory paper for flour sacks, now so universally used throughout the United States. In addition to the management of his immense manufacturing interests, Mr. Manning is director of the Troy city bank, trustee of the Troy club, trastee of Troy Savings bank, president of the Star knitting mills of Cohoes, and treasurer and manager of the Adirondack pulp company of Gouverneur, N. Y. He married, in 1861, Mary B. Warren, daughter of George B. Warren of Troy, N. Y. Aaron D., type-founder, was born at Bolton, Tolland county. Conn., on Jan. 18, 1816. His education, being that of his time and locality, was limited. When only fourteen years of age he went to New York in search of employment, and with rare good fortune, found his way to the type-foundry of Elihu White, which had been established in 1810 at the corner of Lombard and Thames streets. He entered there as an apprentice in 1830; and proved himself so efficient and industrious that his employer gradually promoted him, finally making him manager of the manufacturing depart-

war. The boy thus early left an orphan was educated in the old Henry street grammar school. New York city, and subsequently in Hanover, Germany, and Geneva, Switerland. Returning to New York when nineteen years of age, he found employment as a subordinate reporter on the New York " Times," but rapidly developed so marked a talent for journalism that he was quickly promoted from one position to another, until he became the principal political and traveling correspondent of that journal. It is notable that when he was only twentythree years of age, he was the special Washington correspondent of the " Times,'' and enjoyed the confidence of such men as President Grant, James G. Blaine, Roscoe Conkling, Simon Cameron, Chester A. Arthur and James A. Garfield. He wrote over civil

his own signature, "H. C," and his letters, especially those from Washington,

the South and West, and from different parts of Europe, attracted wide attention. His work in Charleston, S. C, and Memphis, Tenn., and in the Mississippi cities, during the yellow fever epidemic, was fear-





and during

the race-troubles in the cotton states, which he has since characterized as " the war of 1876," Mr. Carroll gained a national reputation because of his un-

advocacy of Gov. Packof Louisiana, and Gov. Chamberlain of South Carolina. His writings at this time were tiring


particularly influential because }\^;r^'&T>Ay((]S^AAMl^ of the fact that he was just as by the firm of Charles T. White outspoken in his denunciation of Co., and this house in turn republican corruption as he was of democratic outrage and murder for political ef(1857) by Farmer, Little Co., which soon employed from 200 fect. During the administration of President Arthu r, to 375 men. From the day when Mr. Carroll, who was his close personal friend, was Mr. Farmer became manager of offered the position of private secretary, and also Mr. White's manufacturing de- that of minister to Belgium, but he declined them partment, he has given his spe- both. In the memorable Folger-Cleveland campaign cial attention to that important in New York state, Mr. Carroll was nominated for branch of the business, and many congressman-at-large on the republican ticket against wonderful mechanical processes Gen. Slocum, democrat, and he ran nearly 80,000 have been developed under his votes ahead of his ticket, although he was of course eye and hand. All the varie- defeated with the rest of the republican candidates ties of plain and ornamental of that year. Mr. Carroll is the author of two books, " Mississippi Incident " and " Twelve Americans." 'C/c^i^d^:^^^^ type, borders, ornaments, rules and dashes, and all the type- He has also written a number of plays, one of which, casting machines, steel punches, "The American Countess, " has been produced in matrices, and other appointments of a thoroughly all the large cities of the country with much success. equipped type-foundry have been produced under In recent years he has engaged extensively in busihis skilled direction. For more than half a century ness, being the managing director of the Starin he has labored in this department with the same ap- transportation company, as well as director in a plication which he would exact of an employee. Mr. He is also number of other large enterprises. Farmer was married to Sarah Burns, of New York president of the New York riding club, was one city, by whom he has had two daughters and one of the founders of the New York press club, son. The latter, William W. Farmer, having been and is a member of various social and political brought up in his father's foundry, has thoroughly organizations in New York city. His journalistic acquainted himself with the various details of the training has greatly benefited him in his busibusiness, in which he is now partner. Mr. Aaron ness career.



Mr. White was succeeded








C. , president of Indian Uniin Scott, Cortland Co., N. Y., Apr. 25, 1830. His early days were spent on a farm, but at the age of fifteen he went to the neighboring village of Cortland and took work in a tailor's shop, where he came into contact with young men who were preparing for college. The village contiguous to Cortland is Homer, and at its somewhat noted academy he secured, with much pains and privation, sufficient education \o qualify him to teach district schools in the winter, so enabling him to pursue his'studies in the summer, until he was ready to enter college. With $10 in his pocket, and versity,

was born

borrowed money at that, he entered the university at Rochester, N. Y.,

and was graduated

in 1858.


ing the teacher's avocation, he has held prominent positions in the schools of New York, New Jersey, Ohio, and Michigan. But the work in which he became especially interested and that to which he has given the best part of his life, was He was that of Indian education. called to take charge of the Chero-

kee Male Seminary, located



lequah, Ind. Ter., the capital of the

Cherokee nation, in 1878. Here he had under his care, for one and a half years, over 100 young men and boys, and after consultation with prominent missionaries, the work of founding a university that should be pre-eminently a Christian institution, with the object of training up Christian

workmen, was entered upon. Despite obstacles in the way, in 1880 a few students were gathered in a small room in the Baptist mission house at Tahlequah, and the trial of the experiment was fairly begun as r.n individual enterprise, the language of Prof.


Eicone this

to himself being, ""With the help of one thing I do." The number of students

soon increased, aid for beneficiary students was obtained from Sunday-schools and churches in the East, and after a few terms the American Baptist Home Missionary Society assumed the partial sup-

and it is destined to become one of the most prominent institutions of learning in the southwest, already having an extended influence in giving a Christian education to the remnant of Indians. This university, in sending teachers, preachers and workmen who are equipped to lead the thought and direct the morals of their various tribes, will finally demonstrate the possibility of introducing civilization where the eflforts of four centuries have failed. istry,

WAIiES, Salem Howe, journalist, was born He is descended in Wales, Mass., Oct. 4, 1835. from one of the Puritan fathers who came to this country with Richard Mather in 1631. He was educated at the common schools of his native town, and at the Academy of Attica, N. Y. York, In 1846 he came to and for about two years was em-


ployed in an importing house. Two years later he associated himself vnth Mr. O. D. Munn in the publication of the " Scientific American, and remained managing editor of that journal for nearly twenty-four

He was appointed in 1855, by Gov. Seymour, commissioner for the state of New York to the Paris years.

exhibition, where he remained several months, publishing a series of letters on that subject in the "Scientific American," and in the

New York prominent



//ffM^ C^~.,

took a

in the affairs of the civil war, and was an active member of the executive committee of the Christian Commission an organization devoted to the care of sick and wounded soldiers. In 1872 Mr. Wales was a delegate to the republican national convention, and the same year was one of the presidential electors for the state of York, and one of the delegates to the national convention held at Cincinnati in 1876. In 1873



he was appointed park commissioner under the reformed government of Mayor Havemeyer, and was chosen president of the department. In 1874, upon his return from Europe, Mr. Wales was nominated

by the republican convention





York. Later, a vacancy occurring in the department of docks, he was appointed by acting Mayor Vance to fill it, serving two years as president. In 1880 he was again appointed a park commissioner, serving a short time as president' of the department, but resigning his offlce in the spring of 1885. He was chairman of the executive committee of the Union League club, and is now (1892) a vice-president. He had charge of the construction of the present Union League club building. He has been actively engaged in charitable work in the city and state of New York, and was appointed by Gov. Dix one of the trustees of the insane asylum at Middletown, N. Y. He was instrumental in founding the Hahnemann hospital and the New York homeopathic medical college, and has been the president of both institutions. He was also a founder of the Metropolitan y^



luH^^vi'..... .U.'-C


port of the institution. charter was obtained from the Creek Council, and money was liberally conltibuted for the erection of a commodioiis building. In 1885 a removal was made to the present location near Muskogee. The property interest in the university is now about |30,000. Five hundred and twenty-six Indian students, representing nine tribes, have, for a longer or shorter time, enjoyed its advantages. Sixty of them have been in preparation for teaching, and thirty-three for the Christian min-


of art, and is now treasurer of that corporation and a member of its executive committee. He has for many years been a director in the Bank of North America and of the Hanover insurance company. By the appointment of the supreme court of the state of New York he was made one of the commissioners to determine the amount of damage caused to private property by the construction of the elevated railroad through the streets of the city. Mr. Wales is a member of the Union League club, the Century association, the New York press club, and the Church club, founded luider the auspices of

Bishop Potter.







Nortli Granby, Conn., June 18, 1787, the son of Elijah Holcombe 2d, and Lucy, daughter of Silas Holcombe, of Simsbury, Conn. He was a descendant, in the sixth generation, from Thomas Holcombe, who settled in Boston, Mass., in 1630, and in the fifth generation from Nathaniel and Mary Bliss Holcombe, of Springfield, Mass. He supplemented his common-school education by an extensive course of reading on scientific subjects, and teaching young men privately in civil engineering, surveying, mathematics and astronomy. He had devoted considerable attention to astronomy, and constructed a telescope for the use of his classes, which was examined by Prof. Benjamin Silliman, who purchased one for Yale, and advised him to continue the manufacture of similar instruments. This he did successfully for a period of twenty years, during which time he disposed of numbers in Europe and America. He had no competitors in the manufacture of tlie reflecting telescope for twenty years, and, in recognition of his skill in this department, in 1835 were awarded the Scott medal from Philadelpliia, Pa.; in 1838 a silver medal from the Franklin institute, Philadelphia; in 1839 a gold medal from the New

York American


in 1840 a diploma




from the


also constructed instruments for civil engineering. For thirty years he was a licensed preacher in the Methodist church, was justice of the peace for thirty-two years, and for thi-ee years represented the district of Southwick, Mass., in the state legislature, and in 1840 was elected state senator. He constructed

the first instrument and took the first Daguerrean portrait ever taken in this country, in Jul^ or August, 1839, with an instrument he had made for a New York order. In matters of surveying in the locality where he lived he was regarded as an expert; and in action of water and its power, where large dams were to be constructed,, his testimony

was highly regarded, and he was frequently for weeks before the courts of Hartford, Conn., and In 1837 Williams college honored him with the degree of A. M. He died at Southwick, Mass., Feb. 37, 1873. Springfield, Mass.


Chester, diplomatist, was born Herkimer county, N. Y., Oct. 16, 1843 (seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, at Boston, 1630), the son of Rev. Bethuel and Sarah Beebe Holcombe. He was graduated from Union college at twenty, and subsequently became a clergyman and went to China with his wife, where both were teachers and missionaries. He mastered the three principal dialects of China, and was tendered the position of secretary to the U. S. embassy at Pekin, and at the recall of Mr. Seward he became acting minister until the appointment of John Bussell Young. He is at at Winfield,

present (1893) a resident of Hartford, Conn., but is interested in matters connected with China, visits annually. Curtis Wilson, second auditor in the land oiflce in Washington for ten years, is a lawyer, and was born at Granby, Conn., Feb. 31, 1840. He is son of Blihu E. Holcombe, and seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, the Puritan. still

which place he



Frederick, clergyman, was born Granby, Conn., Oct. 13, 1786 (fifth generation from Thomas Holcombe, at Boston, 1630), the son of Capt. at


Jesse and Louise Pinney Holcombe. He was graduated from Williams college in 1809, and afterward studied theology for three years, was subsequently stationed at Harwinton, Conn., and in 1814 assumed the pastorate of the First Episcopal church of Watertown, Conn., of which he continued rector until his death. He was one of the founders and a trusteeof Trinity Episcopal college, Hartford, Conn., and of the Episcopal academy, Cheshire, Conn., and was awarded the degree of D.D. from Trinity college. He died at Watertown, Conn., May 26, 1873. HOLCOMBE, George Otoed, banker and cattle-breeder, was born at Elizabethtown, N. Y., April 25, 1851, son of Obed Gilman Holcombe, who was the sixth generation from Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, 1630. He is one of the most active men in his region in the interests of the farmer. He has been twice president of the Agricultural association, which holds fairs at Elmira, N. Y., for Chemung county, N. Y., and Bradford county. Pa. He is connected by marriage with Pomroy Bros., bankers, Troy, Pa., where he lives, and is highly respected for his business qualities.


Henry, musician, was born at Salisbury, Eng., 1680. He was first a chorister in the Canterbury cathedral, and subsequently went to London, where he sang in English and Italian opera, and afterward, when his voice failed, taught harp and singing, and in 1745 published the "Musical Medley," a collection of English songs, and also cantatas set to music, and the "Garland," a collection of songs, cantatas, etc. He died and was interred in Canterbury cathedral in 1750. Henry, clergyman, was born in Prince Edward county, Va., Sept. 22, 1762, son of Grimes and Elizabeth Buzbee Holcombe; was a captain in the revolutionary war. Soon after it had terminated he concluded to study for the ministry, and was ordained in 1785. His first pastorate was at Pipe Creek church, S. C, and he was afterward pastor of four churches near Beaufort, S. C, and finally settled in that place and was one of the founders of the Beaufort college. In 1799 he was called to the charge of the First Baptist church in Savannah, 6a., where, in 1799, he preached the funeral ser-


mon on


He was

a delegate to the convention of South Carolina for ratifying the constitution of the United States; was one of the founders of the Savannah female seminary; was editor of the Georgia " Analytical Repository;" was instiTimental in establishing the Baptist academy at Enon in 1804, and in 1806 the Georgia Baptist

missionary society. In 1810 he accepted a call to the First Baptist church in Philadelphia, where he remained until his death. In 1813 he published the "First Fraits," a series of letters written to his brother. Rev. James Holcombe, pastor of the Baptist church at Beach Island, S. C. Brown university conferred on him the degree of D.D. Henry Holcombe died at Philadelphia, Pa., May 23, 1836. Dr. Holcombe was 6 feet 2 inches in height. Hosea, clergyman, was born in Union District, S. C, July 30, 1780, the son of Hosea H. and Phebe Smith Holcombe. He was originally a planter, but was converted to the Baptist faith and subsequently became a clergyman, and in 1801 was licensed to preach in South Carolina. Af-





ter ten years he removed to North Carolina, and afterward" to Jonestown, Ala. In 1815 he published a collection of hymns, and in 1823 "Lectures on Primitive Theology; " in 1836 "Anti-Mission Principles Exposed," and in 1840, the "History of the Alabama Baptists." His son, William Hosea Hol-

combe, was a clergyman. His grandson, Henry Cannon Holcombe, a banker, resides in Sherman, Tex. Hosea died July 20, 1841. HOLCOMBE, Hugh. Hamilton, clergyman, was born at Gran by. Conn., in 1835, son of Lemuel Cicero Holcombe, who was a teacher and had among his pupils John Van Buren and Josiah Sutherland. Hugh Hamilton became a minister in the Protestant Episcopal church, and subsequently went as a missionary to Africa, where he died, at the age of thirtytwo, at Cavalla, near Cape Palmas, West Africa,


13, 1857.


Foote, was born



by. Conn., Jan. 20, 183t, son of James Holcombe and Mary Holly, and seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, at Boston, 1630. Rev. J. F. Holcombe was educated in Ohio, and for twenty years has represented the Presbyterian board of foreign missions in India at Allahabad, and other places. He is greatly assisted by his wife, who was born Harriet Helen Howe.



educator, was born at Lynchburg, Va. Sept. 25, 1830, the son of Rev. James Holcombe, William M.D., and Eliza Clopton, of Lynchburg, Va., a lineal descendant of John Holcombe and Miss Grimes, of King and Queen county, Va., who resided there as early as 1720. James Philemon received his education at Yale college, and also at the University of Virginia, where he was professor of law and belles-lettres for a period of twelve In 1861 he was a member of the Virginia years. secession convention, in 1861-63 a member of the Confederate congress, and in 1863-65 a member of the Confederate commission to Canada. At the close of the war he accepted the position as principal of the Bellevue (Va.) high school. He was a fine scholar, an eloquent orator and author, and published: "Leading Cases on Commercial Law; " "Difest on the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the Fnited States;" "Merchants' Book of Letters;" " Literature and Letters." He was a member of the Virginia historical society, and a frequent contributor to the leading periodicals of his time. He died at Capon Springs, Va., Aug. 35, 1873. William Henry, physician, was born at Lynchburg, Va., May 25, 1825, brother of ,


James Philemon Holcombe. He was graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1847. He subsequently became a convert to homoeopathy, and in 187'^75 was president of the American

homoeopathy. He is an author of repute, and, besides, a constant writer for general and Swedenborgian literature. He has published "Our Children in Heaven;"

institute of

"The Scientific Basis of Homoe"The Lost Truths of Christianity;" "The

opathy;" "Poems;"

New Life, " etc. Dr. Holcombe's literary style is good, and he ^/^t7ai*>.utt.^ writes with an earnestness and force that show a deep conviction of the trath of the views he holds.

HOLCOMBE, John navy, was

Hite Lee,

lieutenant U. S. born at Lynchburg, Va., Sept. 13, 1856,

the son of Royall and Matilda Tabb Holcombe, a descendant, in the fifth generation, from John Holcombe and Miss Grimes, of King and Queen county

He was graduated from Annapolis in 1880, and was ensign in the United States expedition to China and the East, and was subsequently ordered in 1730.

He left the Pacific coast in to Central America. 1893, and is now at Washington navy yard.

HOLCOMBE, John Marshall, underwriter, was born at Hartford, Conn., June 8, 1848, the son of James Huggins and Emily Merrill Johnson Holcombe. He is in the seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, in 1630. He was graduated from Yale in 1869, and at once became connected with the insurance business, and is at the present time (1893) vice-president of the Phoenix mutual life insurance company. He married Emily Seymour Goodwin, of Bristol, Conn. He has served as president of both boards of the Hartford city govei'nment; is vice-president and trustee of the Fidelity insurance company; director of the American national bank, and of the Connecticut fire insurance company; trustee of the Mechanics' savings bank, etc., and has frequently contributed articles to the North American Review " on life insurance. '





assistant in

the bureau of education at Washington, D. C, was born Nov. 18, 1853. He is a descendant of John of Va., a graduate of Harvard, and served for years as one of the commissioners of education for the state of Indiana, located at Indianapolis.

HOLCOMBE, John Winslow,



born at N^wstead, N. Y., Sept 1, 1836, the son of Seth H. and Lucy Winslow Holcombe. He is in the seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, who settled at Boston in 1630. In 1857 he was graduated with the highest honors from the University of Toronto, Canada, and in 1859 was graduated at law from the same university. He afterward located and practiced at Grand Rapids, Mich., where he was elected justice of the lower court. He has held a number of other important offices, and is at present one commissioners of education and of of the (1893) public institutions of the state of Michigan.



physician, was born June 19, 1762, son of Jonathan and Abigail Hillyer Holcombe, and in tlie fifth generation from Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, 1630. He entered Yale college, and was licensed to practice medicine, though he did not graduate in the regular course. Of his kinsmen are Col. Pythagoras Holoombe, U. S. A.; William Horace Holcombe is now ninety-six, father of William Horace Holcombe, late vice-president of the U. P. railroad; Hannah, a daughter of Dr. Holcombe, aged ninety-three years, is at Hamilton, O., where Jonathan Holcombe at Sheffield, Mass.,


died Oct.




Joseph Gales, civil engineer, Lynchburg, Va., Dec. 2, 1862, son of Royall and Matilda Tabb Holcombe, for some years in the Washington (D. C.) water works, and was afterward for two years assistant engineer for the Nicaragua canal expedition, which place he resigned to accept the position of engineer on the surveys of the Upper Columbia river, which he still was born


retains (1893).

HOLCOMBE, Judson, was born July 25, 1819, grandson of Eli Holcombe, of Connecticut, and son Hugh Holcombe, sixth in descent from Thomas Holcombe, at Boston, 1630. Jiidson Holcombe was of

republican representative in Pennsylvania legislature in 1855. He has held offices in Pennsylvania state treasury,


clerk in U. S. house of representatives.


OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. at Washington, D. C, and has been editor of the Bradford county " Repuhlican," at Towanda, Pa., for many years. His grandfather, Eli, settled in Ulster, Bradford county. Pa. in 1790 came from Coqnecticut with his wife, Hannah Croffut of Danburv, Conn. HOLCOMBE, Origen Pinney, clergyman and teacher, was born Apr. 8, 1794; was educated at ,


Cheshire, Conn., studied there for the


and was for many years settled over the First Episcopal church at Windham, N. Y. On account of ill health he resigned and returned to Cheshire, Conn., where he taught boys. Revs. Frederick and O. P. Holcombe were nephews of Abel Holcombe, one of the earliest settlers in the Catskill mountains, at Windham, Greene county, in 1803, who came from Granby, Conn., with several children. He and his sous became very well known as dealers in cattle and lumber, and as tanners and farmers. Hobart Jay Holcombe, M.D., of New York city, is descended from Abel H., also Mary Josephine Holcombe, wife of Capt. A. S. Taylor, U. S. N. She was favorably known as a soprano in Holy Trinity church, Brooklyn, N. Y., for many years. Abel Holcombe died at Big Hollow, N. Y., Dec. 23, 1849, aged 87 years. O. P. Holcombe died

March 38, 1869. HOIiCOlVEBE, Reuben, clergyman and educator, was born at Simsbury, in the part now West Granby, Conn., Feb 11, 1753, the son of Reuben and Susannah Hayes Holcombe, fifth generation from Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, 1630. He was graduated from Yale college, 1774, studied divinity



deep interest in the common schools of his vicinity. He and his adopted son were pioneei's in the best methods of agriculture and horticulture in Massachusetts. He died Oct. 18, 1824, aged seventyfive.


Silas Wright, lawyer, was born Willsborough, Essex county, N. Y.,"Dec. 8, 1842, the son of Diodorus Sicculus Holcombe, who was a descendant, in the sixth generation, of Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, 1630. He was graduated from Dartmouth college in 1864, and from the law school at Albany, N. Y., in 1866, and subsequently became a member of the law firm of Fitzgerald & Condon, of New York city. In 1890 he was elected to represent the ninth assembly district at Albany, N. Y. at

HOIiCOMBE, Solomon,

farmer and merchant N. J., for sixty years, was born N. J., Oct. 4, 1789, son of Samuel, from John and Jacob, Quakers from near Tiverton, Devon, Eng., who came in the time of Wm. Penn to Philadelphia, Pa., and settled in 1700 at Abington, Pa., and in 1705 located lands in Bucks county. Pa., on the Delaware, near where at Mount Airy, at West Amwell, third generation


Lambertville, then called " Coryell's Feriy,"


Amwell, N. J. On the farm of Richard Holcombe Gen. Washington had his headquarters, and


in his field notes speaks of him as "a fine old Quaker." In his region, Solomon Holcombe, owing to his large possessions and numerous posterity, was called King Solomon. " He was greatly respected, looked like a Quaker preacher, and was an active man until his death. The Holcombes of '



Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania are from the Quakers, Jacob and John, who emigrated about seventy years later than Thomas H., the Puritan, who came to Boston in 1630. Jacob's grandson, George, was a major in the revolutionary war, and his son,

Rev. Joseph Strong, of Simsbury, Conn., whose daughter, Abigail, he married. He was ordained June 15, 1779, over the First Congregational church, in the West Parish of Lancaster, now Sterling, Mass. andpreached there thirty-five years. He was George Holcombe, M. D., was one of the eight founders of graduated from Princeton, and the "Worcester Association" was twice elected to congress. which compiled "TheWorces- Albert Atwood Holcombe, lieu*^'" Catechism" in connection tenant in the U. S. navy, was . )!^'-=- '^ with Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft, probably of the New Jersey eOeinmH'£ea9*t& father of the historian, Geo. Holcombes, as he was entered Bancroft. Mr. Holcombe, who as a cadet from New .lersey in was much interested in agriculture, had one of 1828. He was regarded as a the finest fruit farms in Worcester county, and man of ability, and honored as an officer. He died engaged in the silk-worm industry, and silk was in August, 1858, of apoplexy, while on duty on the woven by his wife from home-made cocoons. He Mississippi river. Wm. Penn Holcombe of this raised hemp, had fine cattle and horses, and was a family is now professor at Swarthmore (Pa.) college. great lover of both. For an essay on " Best Method George Holcombe Larison, M.D., of Lambertville, of Raising Wheat," he received in 1790, from N. J., president of the Hunterdon county historical "The Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of society, is of this family. Solomon Holcombe died Agriculture," a silver tankard of the value of thir- at Mount Airy, N. J., March 26, 1871. teen pounds sterling. His only printed sermons were HOLCOMBE, Theodore Isaac, clergyman of two, in opposition to the war of 1813. He fitted the Protestant Episcopal church, was born at Namany youths for college; among others were Rev. ples, N. Y., the son of Joseph and Julia Blanchard Thaddeus Mason Harris, of Dorchester, Mass. Rev. Holcombe, the sixth generation from Benajah HolIsaac Bayley, of Ward, Mass. Rev. Thomas Moore; combe, son of Thomas Holcombe, of Boston, 1630. Rev. Pierson Thurston of Somersworth, N. H. Rev. He was graduated from the Episcopal college and James Kendall, of Plymouth, Mass. Bartholomew theological seminary of Nashotah, Wis., in 1858, and Brown, lawyer and musician, of Bridgewater, Mass.' immediately began missionary work among the MinRev. Hosea Hildreth, of Gloucester, Maine (the nesota Indians. He was one of the founders of the father of Richard Hildreth, historian); Amos Wil- First Episcopal church of St. Paul, Minn. In 1880 lard Rugg; Nathaniel Wright, lawyer, of Lowell, he was a delegate to the general Episcopal convention at New York, and since 1888 has been the finanMass.; Nahum Houghton Groce; Solomon Jewett Mark Moore; Martin Moore; Ezekiel Hildreth and cial agent of " The Episcopal clergymen's retiring Abel Fletcher were prepared for college by Rev. fund society for the United States." He has pubReuben Holcombe. He educated his adopted son, lished a number of sermons and essays, the theme Capt. Augustine Holcombe, who was a son of his of which has principally been the " Wrongs of the He was an early ad- Clergy." His daughter, Nellie, has published sevbrother, Nahum Holcombe. vocate of the best education of women, and took a eral poems. ,











emigrated from England, and his name appears in fourth report of commissioners of Boston, pages 9, 13, 396, as selling his " houses and lands to Richard Joanes, on 13 Aug., 1635." He then moved to Windsor, Conn., and in 1639 was at Poquonnock, Conn. Rev. Joseph Twitchell, in his address on the 350th anniversary of settlement of Hartford, says that Thomas Holcombe was one of the Windsor men, who helped form the first constitution of the state of Connecticut. Thomas Holcomhe and wife had a daughter Mary, who married Josias Ellsworth, and became ancestor of Oliver Ellsworth, first chief justice of the United States, under Gen.


by appointment.

Gen. Washington

often visited Oliver Ellsworth at Windsor, Conn. Thomas died Sept. 7, 1657, age unknown.

HOLCOMBB, Thomas, was born at Newcastle, He is a lawyer, and for years has been recorder at Wilmington, Del. President Cleveland in 1893 appointed him as fifth auditor of the U. S. Treasury. He was son of Chauncey Pettibone Holcombe, who was a noted lawyer in Philadelphia, Pa., and a native of Granby, Conn., where Bel., July 13, 1843.

his father,

Thomas, was of the sixth generation from

Thomas Holcombe,

the Puritan, at Boston, in 1630.




aud aur-

was born at Sterling, Mass., Apr. 3, 1837, only son of Capt. Augustine Holcombe, of West Granby, Conn., and Lucy Bush of Boylston, Mass.; is seventh generation from Thomas Holcombe, the Puritan, at Boston, 1630, and sixth generation from Nathaniel Holcombe and Mary Bliss of Springfield, Mass. Dr. Holcombe married, in 1853, Margaret, daughter of Moses Wanzerand Sarah Akin, Quakers, of Sherman, Conn. In 1847 he entered the office ist,


Alden March, M.D.,

of Al-

bany, N. Y., and was graduated from Albany medical college in 1850. He studied several years in Europe, and was the first, in America, appointed professor of diseases of the eye and ear to the New York

medical college, in 1863.


became professor in several other New York medcolleges, was seventeen years the eye and ear surgeon to the Demilt dispensary, was mem-


ber of the international medical congresses of 1881 1888, is a member of the New York academy of medicine, and of the various medical societies of New York and of Paris; is author of the manuscripts: "The Genealogy and History of the Holcombes of


America and England;" of "The Bush Family of Watertown aud Boylston, Mass. " of " The Valueand Importanceof Family Records;" " Our Record-Duties to Our Ancestors, to Ourselves, and to Our Descendants." Dr. Holcombe gave in his native town, at Sterling, Mass., on June 15, 1881, the centennial address. Dr. Holcombe is one of the seven founders of the New York genealogical and biographical ;

He is also member pf the Society of the sons of tlie revolution of New York city, and is physician to the New England society of New York city. society.

DAVIS, Samuel T., physician and president of the State board of health of Pennsylvania, was born at Cottage P.O. in Huntingdon county, Pa., March 6, 1838, the son of Henry Davis, an industrious blacksmith. He attended the public schools and worked on a farm until he was fifteen and then be-

came an apprentice in his father's shop, where he spent four years at the anvil, and in the meantime continued his studies at school four months of each yeai'. His industry and studious habits attracted the attention of the family physician, who encouraged him to prepare to teach school. After followmg that occupation for two winters near his home, he entered the state normal school at Millersville, Pa., spending the summer sessions at that, and in the winter teaching in Lancaster county. In answer to the first call for troops in 1861, he entered the three months' service as a private in company H, 15th Pennsylvania volunteers, the company having been recruited largely from his native county. He was soon promoted to ordnance sergeant of the regiment, and saw his first active service in the engagement at Falling Waters, Va. He next became a second lieutenant in tlie 77th Pennsylvania, a three-year regiment, and upon its organization was promoted 1;o adjutant of his regiment. At Shiloh he was chief of staff for Gen. Edward N. Kirk, when the latter was wounded; at. Stone River, owing to «, scarcity of officers in his old regiment, he joined its commanding officer in a charge on a Confederate battery, and received from Col. Housum his last words, "Davis, I I am wounded; stand by the brave boys of the 77th; " at Chickamauga he was wounded in the leg, but did not leave the field. While posting a picket line during the night he was captured, together with the colonel and almost the entire regiment, but in the darkness managed to escape, while many of his comrades were sent to Libby prison. After the expira-

tion of his tliree years' term he was commissioned' captain of company in the 77th Pennsylvania veteran volunteers, which he recruited, and upon his return to the army in Sherman's historic march through Atlanta, Ga., was detached as acting as-


adjutant -general on the Gen. Wm. Grose. While ordering a charge at the battle of Resaca, May 33, 1864, he received a dangerous wound in the left thigh which closed his brilliant military career. After lying under the trees five days near the sistant

staff of

battle-field, until the railroad


Chattanooga, he was removed to a hospital in that rebuilt to city,


later to



cers' hospital in

Cincinnati, O., where he received his discharge by special order of the war department Aug. 15, 1864. He par£UaAj ticipated in the siege of Corinth, the battles of Shiloh, Triune, Lavergne, Liberty Gap, Stone River, Chickamauga, Buzzard's Roost, Dalton, Resaca, and numerous minor engagements. He attended medical lectures in Jefferson medical college in 1864, and was graduated from Long Island college hospital in 1865. He settled at Millersville, Pa., until his removal to Lancaster, Pa. in 1874. He soon acquired a large general practice, aud also won a wide reputation for skill in surgery and gynecology. He is a member of the county



state medical societies, the American medical association, and was one of the original members of the American surgical society. Dr. Davis was a member of the Lancaster city council from 1878 to In 1884 he 1881, and its president the latter year. was elected to the ststte legislature as a republican, was re-elected in 1886, servmg four years. He was largely instrumental in securing the passage of a state pharmacy law, as well as a bill creating a state board of health, of which he became a member in 1889, and in 1893 president. Dr. Davis was married in 1866 to Lizzie Fenstermacher, of Millersville, Pa.




John, journalist, and inventor of the typewriter, was bom in Unionville, S. C, Apr. 14, 1831. His father was a judge for over thirty years in South Carolina, and his grandfather, on his mother's side, was a judge under the life system then in vogue. The son was educated in liis native state, was graduated from Cokesbury college in 1849, and for some years was a journalist and lawyer in the South. He married, at the age of twenty-one, Julia R. Porter, a daughter of Judge Benjamin F. Porter, of Alabama. In 1864 Mr. Pratt and his wife went to England, where they remained for several years, he devoting his time to the invention of a mechanism which he designated the "Pterotype." It proved to be the first working typewriter that ever secured a sale. In 1867 his machine was exhibited before the Society of Arts in London, the Society of "Engineers and the Royal Society of Great Britain. paper read by the inventor before the Society of Arts was printed in the journal issued by that body. Provisional protection to the invention was granted by the -^.^ British government in February, , /JJi^,:tr~ 1864. Letters Patent No. 3,163 f^t-^^-V .5pere granted on Dec. 1,1866. Mr. Pratt claimed four operations as requisite to the accomplishment of his purpose: That it was necessary to bring any one of a number of types at the will of the operator, and in arbitrary succession, to a common point; to form a colored or other legible character at that common point; to feed the paper across the common point so as to make proper intervals between the letters and words; to prepare a device for bringing the paper readily and speedily back to its starting point, with an interval between the lines. His invention received editorial mention and description in several of the English journals, and it was one of these descriptions that attracted the attention of Sholes & Glidden, of Milwaukee, in 1867, and laid the foundation by them of the Remington typewriter, which has met with such remarkable success, together with its scores of followers. On returning to the United States in 1868, Mr. Pratt secured letters patent in August of that year (see U. S. Let. Pat., No. 81,000). There is preserved as a curiosity, among the treasures of the patent office, a typewritten letter from him which accompanied his model. The spacing, alignment, etc., it is claimed, have never been excelled. He has since been actively identified with typewriting inventions, and a patent was granted as recently as the latter part of 1891. The second patent granted Mr. Pratt by the United States (Nov. 14, 1883) was sold to the Hammond Com..





pany. It embraced the axial movement of the typewheel, thus rendering available several rows of type, and upper and lower case letters. Mr. Pratt was the inventor of a machine in which a type-wheel was moved by key-levers; also in which a connected solid body, that is, a tjrpe-plate or type-wheel, was

moved by key-levers. He was

the first man to make typewriters, having sold several in London in 1867. Among his purchasers were Sir Charles Wheatstone and Dr. Bence Jones, the author of a "Life of Faraday." He was the first to use compound motion, and thus utilize several rows of type on plate or wheel; the first to apply escapement to feed motion and trip-hammer action in a wheel or plate machine. He has, since 1886, been a resident of Brooklyn, and is still engaged in inventive studies. If Sholes can be called the "father of the typewriter," Pratt may justly be called the grandfather.



SHOLES, was born


Christopher liathani,^ inventor, Columbia county, Pa., Feb. 14, 1819. New Englanders, and served with

His ancestors were

distinction in the revolutionaiy army. His grandmother, on the maternal side, was a lineal descendant of John Alden. At the age of fourteen, young Sholes was apprenticed to the editor of the "Intelligencer," Danville, Pa., to learn the printing business, but, at the age of eighteen, determined to join a brother tlien living in Green Bay, Wis. year later, when only nineteen, he took charge of the house journal of


the territorial legislature, and carried it to Philadelphia, then a long journey, to be printed. At the age of twenty he went to Madison and took charge of the

Wisconsin ' Inquirer, " owned by his brother Charles, and in 1840, at the age of twenty-one, edited '

the Southport, afterward Kenosha, "Telegraph," and four years later became the postmaster, receiving his appointment from President Polk. Later, during his residence in Milwaukee, he was postmaster, and filled with credit the positions of commissioner of public works and collector of customs. He was for a long time the editor of the "Sentinel," and the "News," which at a later date was absorbed into the Sentinel. " It was while he was collector of customs in 1866, that he became interested with an old friend, Soule, in making a machine for consecutive numbering, especially on bank-notes and on the pages of blank books, '



his attention was directed to an article, published in an English journal, regarding writing by mechanism, and devised by John Pratt. With a quick intuition he saw the possibilities of a revolution



in the handling of the pen. From that moment he devoted his whole time and thought to the idea which has given to the world the typewriter. This wonderful creation is the result of his inventive gen-

In 1867 the first crude instrument was made. James Densmore became interested, and in 1873 the invention was so far perfected as to warrant the production of machines on an enlarged scale. The Remington factory at Ilion, N. Y., was selected, and manufacture begun. The world has felt the benefit. For a long time the financial returns were small, and Mr. Sholes, who was to receive a royalty on each ma-


chine, disposed of his right for a comparatively small sum. Later he invented several improvements, which, with an excess of conscience characteristic of the man,, he gave to the persons in control of the manufacture. In the last two years of his life, although confined to his bed, he invented two new machines for typewriting, which were more satisfactory to him than any of his previous inventions. This last work of the weary hours in the chamber of sickness was consigned to the care of his executors. In addition to his inventive powers, Mr. Sholes did much as an editor and a politician. He witnessed the evolution of the state of Wisconsin from its wild beginnings, and contributed no small share to shape the laws that were necessary to set the new state government in successful motion. Although at all times interested in general politics, he was never a strictly party man. He was raised a democrat, but in 1848 joined in the free-soil movement. He served in the state senate in 1848-49 from Racine county; in 1853-53 represented Kenosha county in the legislature, and in 1856-57 was state senator, being president pro tern, for more than a year. He was a man of such broad and generous sympathies that he took naturally to the side of the minority. His innate abhorrence of wrong and cruelty made him an abolitionist, and he was one of the most active founders of the republican party in the state. He

was a dreamer and an idealist, and though not a writer of poetry, was imbued with a true poetic nature. He disliked the details of business, and the painstaking necessary to make money was his particular aversion. He was a man of excessive tenderness of conscience, viewed from the usual btisiness point of view. It was because of this that he did not reap the pecuniary reward of his invention of the first successful typewriting machine. He lived to see the work of his genius accepted throughout the world, and to hear the pleasing compliment rendered him that he was "the father of the typewriter." He died in Milwaukee Feb. 17, 1890, leaving a family of six sons and four daughters, all of whom possess in marked degree the characteristics of the father. DEITSMOBE, James, editor and promoter, was born at Moscow, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1820. He was a sou of Joel Densmore, a veteran of the war of 1812. He received his education in the public schools and in Alleghany college; was married at the age of twenty-nine to Artelissa Finch, daughter of an eminent educator in Crawford county. Pa., but lost his wife some five years later, leaving a daughter, Tena, who afterward became the wife of E. J. Delehanty, a lawyer in New York citv. He was married again, in 1864, to Mrs. Delia ft. Barron, widow of Wm. Barron, and mother of Walter J. Barron and Ernest R. Barron, and by whom he had one son, Darsa J. In 1848 he established in Oshkosh, Wis., the first newspaper published in that section, naming it the "True Democrat.'' At the end of three years he sold the paper, and entered upon the publication of the "Star," of Hudson, Wis., and afterward became associate editor of the St. Paul "Press," and still later of the Wisconsin "Free Democrat," in Milwaukee, in connection with S. M. Booth and C. Latham Sholes, of typewriter fame. He

was an enthusiastic abolitionist, and made friends and enemies in abundance. In 1861 he severed his connection with newspaper work, and removing to Meadville, Pa., engaged in the oil business. His attention was directed to the Sholes & Glidden machine in Sholes, his former partner in the newspaper 1867. work, wrote a letter to him asking his aid, and offering a quarter interest in his invention for 1 1 000. He promptly accepted, although not yet having seen the machine, but having unbounded confidence in Sholes; and from that time onward he devoted his time, energies, and wealth, to the development of the Sholes machine. He coined the word "typewriter," and at a later date, the word "caligraph." He formed a partnership with G. W. N. Yost, and the two devoted their energies to the success of ,

new venture. By reason of faulty construcand apparent indifference on the part of tlie manufacturers, the machines, as sent out from the shops, were not successful. Seventy-five per cent, of the machines sold throughout the country were returned for repairs, " and interest in the typewriter " had begun to wane. The firm of Densmore & Yost determined on utilizing various of the patents held by them, and started a rival enterprise, maintaining secrecy in regard to their movements in the matter. As a result, the Caligraph came into existence. It was, like the machine already in hand, of "basket" construction, and, while there were many variathe






tions resultant on slightly differing patents, there were

features enough in common to enable actions to be begun for infringements, and a wordy war was speedily begun. factory was established in New York city, and thoroughly advertised, thereby calling attention to the two enterprises, the Remington, and the new candidate, the Caligraph, the rival factories little dreaming that


the same

men were


them both on. As a result, better work was put out, and two good machines put on the market. From that time forward Mr. Densmore devoted his attention to the advancement of the typewriter, and made many improvements in the mechanism in its various details. His devotion to the work made a success and a revolution where otherwise there was a palpable failure. The name of Densmore is linked with that of the typewriter,

owing to his comprehension of its possibiliand his financial aid that it became a success. He was often heard to say, when speaking of the machine, "It will become a household article the same as the sewing-machine." With a bull-dog pertinacity he clung to the work, and when machine after machine of the few hundred put upon the market was returned, he would not permit a shade of discouragement to show itself upon his features. for

it is


On the contrary, he summoned the best of the skilled workmen at his command and forced success, where with men of less grim courage there would have failure. He lived to reap success and a fortune for the money expended under the most adverse conditions. He died Sept. 16, 1889, in Brooklyn, N. Y., leaving a widow, but abundantly provided for, and a memory that deserves the perpetuation accorded it by appljring his name to one of the machines asking recognition of public favor, the " Densmore," a machine possessing features that had been omitted from the previous venture, and rank it among the best in the market.

been absolute



DENSMOBE, Amos, inventor and promoter, was born in Rochester, N. Y., Jan. 28, 1835. He was a son of Joel Densmore, a veteran of the war of 1812, and a brother of James Densmore, of type-

the purchasers that they were not to be depended upon, it wa^ determined to utilize some of the many patents held, and quietly start a rival machine. The name of "Caligraph" was adopted, and the new machine duly christened. Densmore was a taciturn, conservative man; Yost was enthusiastic to the last degree, and remarkably gifted with inspiring others with his own thoughts and views. Matters were at a very low ebb when, in the summer of 1879, Mr. Yost selected Franz Wagner, a skilled German mechanic, and under his direction the first machine on the opposition plan was duly constructed. Lawsuits were immediately entered in the courts for infringements of their respective patents, by the "Remington " and the "Caligraph " people, and a wordy war entered upon in the newspapers, which naturally served as a most successful means of advertising the two machines. As a matter of fact, Yost & Densmore, as a power for crowding the Remington, fought Yost & Densmore as a power in urging the claims of the Caligi'aph, and the public, not even the firms engaged in the manufacture of the different machines, had any idea of the genius

writer fame. He received his education in the public schools and in




and mar-

the age of twenty-three, Priscilla Compton, a daughter of Hugh Compton, another veteran of the war of 1813. While engaged in the oil regions in Pennsylvania in 1861, with his brother James, under the firm name of the "Densmore Brothers," and where he made a fortune, his attention was called to the Sholes & Glidden typewriter, and, with his brother ried, at


(q. v.), he promptly devoted his energies to the enterprise. Possessing a naturally inventive mind, he made many suggestions "T^f^-?-? and improvements, which, at a later date, culminated in the Densmore machine. In 1888 he sold

out all his interest in the his brother James, and

Remington typewriter

of the men who waged the fight between two apparently conflicting forces. The result of the "fight" was that both shops began to turn out better work. They naturally became rivals. Having thoroughly awakened to the fact that a success had been made of two machines, and seeing rare possibilities in the future of the typewriter with the possibilities of improvements on varying principles, and after having disposed of his Remington and Call graph interests, he devoted his attention to a machine that should dispense with the inked ribbon, secure perfect alignment by locking the type-bar at the moment of impact, and at the same time secure simplifications in the workings of the different parts. His efforts culminated in the "Yost Type-writing Machine." Not satisfied with this, he pushed forward and placed on the market "The New Yost." While Sholes thought out and put into practical shape the ideas advanced by John Pratt in his Pterotype, Yost was one of the men who gave life, health, and development to the typewriter, and made it a


devoted himself to the


YOST, George Washington Newton, ventor,


was born near Dundee, Yates county, N. Y.,

Apr. 15, 1831. In 1873, while engaged in business in the oil regions of Pennsylvania, his attention was directed to a new mechanism, to which the name of

"Typewriter" had been given.

His enthusiastic

nature and genius for mechanics enabled him to see a brilliant future for the new candidate for public favor. partnership was entered into with James Densmore, of Meadville, Pa., and the best energies of the two men were devoted to the work. C. Latham Sholes, of Milwaukee, was the original inventor, but took his inspiration from the "Pterotype" invented by John Pratt, of Centre, Ala., in 1867. Under the financial backing of Mr. Densmore, Sholes kept improving his machines, one after an other," until finally a contract was entered into with the Remingtons, of Ilion, N. Y., famed for their gun manufacture, and 1,000 machines were made, with 24,000 conditional to follow. The machine was then known as the Sholes & Glidden typewriter. In 1873 Mr. Yost was urged to direct his energies to its development, and, leaving all other undertakings, devoted himself exclusively to the typewriter. About July 1, 1874, the first instruments were placed on the market. In six months, 400 had been sold. In the early part of 1876, Mr. Yost, with three expert mechanicians, went to Cincinnati to establish a business, and sold 100 machines.


They proved

financial success. He will go down to posterity as instrumental in creating a new industry that has revolutionized office methods; given employment to thousands of men and women, and facilitated the methods of business in a very marked degree.

CliEPHANE, James Ogilvie, lawyer and





engaged in business were


the Pentennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and samples of





by him. Dissatisfaction with manuscript copies led

under the repairer's hands. Both Yost and Densmore were exasperated, and sought a remedy. The machine had been exhibited at

able patent connected with the typewriter was seSeeing, cured, either by purchase or otherwise. during the years 1876 and 1877, about 3,000 machines in use, bi^t with a universal complaint from

was born in Washington, D.


defective in work-

parts of the world, creating sur-


Feb. 21, 1842, of Scotch parentage. Beginning the study of phonography at an early age, he soon took first rank in his chosen profession. All the important trials taking place at the nation's capital during the time he was ac-

manship, and in less than six months seventy -five per cent, of the entire lot had been repeatedly

work had been scattered, with an abundance of advertising, in all



at an early date to take up the matter of typewriters, and as Mr. Sholes, the inventor of the Remington, often said, it was the practical encouragement given by Mr. Clephane, and the severe as well as impartial criticisms he gave regarding the machines, that materially aided in their improvement. At the same time he was urging forward other inventions, and expending large amounts of capiAmong other persons with tal for the purpose. whom he was brought in contact, were Charles T. Moore of Washington, D. C, Byron A. Brooks of New York, A. J. Ambler of Washington, D. C, and



W. Morgan of Urich, O. The numerous patents taken out by these gentlemen evidence the genius and industry which were applied in this direction. His greatest achievement, however, was in discovering and aiding to develop at his own expense, the transcendent genius of Ottmar Mergenthaler, the inventor of the celebrated and popular Linotype machine now in use in so many printing offices in the country, and to which he has devoted his constant attention ever since. In 1893 he was elected president of the Linotype Reporting and Printing Co. Mr. Clephane also devoted a large amount of capital and enterprise toward the development of the Graphophone, invented by Prof. A. Graham Bell and Prof. Sumner Tainter. rivalry immediately began with the phonograph invented by Thomas A. Edison, and the two machines were put upon the market in competition with one another. Being deeply interested in inventions of any practicable kind, Mr. Clephane sought for a printing press which would enable press work to be done directly from Linotype bar, thus avoiding the necessity of stereotyping, and by his assistance the Fowler Henkle press was completed for the purpose. Walter J., inventor, was born at Meadville, Pa., June 27, 1846, of American parents; received his education in the common schools of that George







was graduated from Humiston's


tary Institute, at Cleveland, O., in 1865. He married at the age of twenty-two, and engaged in the petroleum business, both as a producer and refiner, until 1871. He was the first to make wooden tanks for the transportation of crude petrolum on railway cars; also the first to make 500 and 1,000 barrel stills for refining petroleum previous to 1866 the largest stills In use holding but forty barrels.

In 1868 he became acquainted with C. Latham Sholes and Carlos Glidden, of Milwaukee, Wis., then experimenting on a typewriter, and devoted himself from that time forward to invention and improvements in the machine, the most important being in connection with the adjustable type-bar and hanger, and the paper-carriage as now used in many machines. In the autumn of 1871 he introduced the typewriter into the offices of the Automatic

Telegraph company. New York city, where it was used for the transcription of commercial messages and press despatches. Mr. Barron became manager of the New York oflSces of the company, and assisted in the invention and perfection of the receiving and transmitting instruments and the perforator u.sed by the company, remaining in its employ until the autumn of 1873, when he exhibited the typewriter one of the Milwaukee machines, now known

as the

Remington typewriter


Institute Pair in York awarded the silver medal.




the American where it was


made many

inventions and improvements for the Remington typewriter, among the most important of which are the reversible scales or indexes for the paper carriage, the loops which encircle the key-levers, the adjustable universal bar for letter-spacing, and the release-key for the paper carriage. In October, 1875, he introduced the typewriter into the offices of the New York Associated Press. He improved the system of manifolding, taking from twenty-six to thirty-two impressions at one operation by the use of carbon and tissue papers. Mr. Barron invented the letter-spacing mechanism, carriage guide, rods, universal bar, index scales, ribbon movement, and minor devices used in the Caligraph typewriter. The

letter-spacing device is composed, in part, of two racks attached to the rear of the carriage, one of which has a lateral movement of the distance of a type and its necessary space. The racks are connected by a spiral spring. When the machine is at rest a pawl, operated by the key-levers, is engaged with the loose rack. When a key is depressed the pawl is disengaged from the loose rack and engages the other rack, thus pei-mitting the spiral spring to draw the loose rack endwise a letterspace. When the finger is taken from the key the pawl returns to the loose rack and the power which operates the paper-carriage overcomes the resistance of the spiral spring and permits the carriage to move forward a letter-space, and this operation is continued until the line is finished. Mr. Barron invented many improvements now in use on leading typewriters, important among which are the ink-pad liolder used on the Y''ost typewriter and a letter-spacing device for the same machine. In 1888 he invented the Universal typewriter, a machine with movable types, which are inked singly before printing. The types pass through a guide, are rigidly clamped, and the paper thrown against it as in a printing press. The writing is in plain view of the operator, and the alignment perfect. Forty good manifold copies can be made with this machine. In 1891 he perfected the Densmore and the Barron typewriters. The Densmore typewriter is constructed upon the lines of the Remington, and has two types on each bar, a shift-key being used for capitals and punctuations. peculiar feature in the construction of this machine is the manner in which the type-bar is operated. The type-bar is independent of the connecting wire attached to the key-lever, and is thrown against the paper by an intermediate lever. As there is no direct pull on the type-bar it will remain in position indefinitely, thus retaining its alignment. The carriage is detachable, two being furnished with each machine. The Barron typewriter has a key and type for each character, and the type-bars and hangers are the same as those of the Densmore. The ribbon moves longitudinally and transversely at the same time, and is automatically reversed when it reaches the end. The carriage is detachable, and it reqxiires but ten seconds to take it from the machine and replace it with another. Mr. Barron has made many other inventions, among others a flexible keyknob for telegraph sounders, to aid operators and prevent paralysis of hand and arm, and the "snapper " sounder now in general use. In 1873 he formed a co-partnership with James O. Clephane, official stenographer of the house of representatives, Washington, D. C, and Charles P. Young, a stenographer York city, for the purpose of carrying on a of general copying business with the aid of typewriters, having offices in both cities, and this was the beginning of the immense business of this character which In the fall of 1891 is now general the world over. he took a contract to improve and perfect the Franklin typewriter, the invention of W. P. Kidder, of Boston, Mass., and afterward became inspector and general manager of the Franklin typewriter company, in Boston. He is a resident of Brooklyn, N.Y.



BABBON', Ernest R.

promoter and inventor, , He rein Meadville, Pa., May 33, 1844. ceived his early education in schools of his native town, and married, at the age of twenty-five, Rachel Wyman, a daughter of a prominent manufacturer in Crawford county, Pa. His father, William M. Barron, attained to the rank of brigadier-general in the militia, and filled many important positions in his time. His grandfather on his mother's side, during the war of 1813 he being but seventeen years of age broke loose from the restraints of home, and taking a beeline for Lake Erie, thirty-six miles away, insisted on

was born


OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. enlistment, was finally accepted, and passed safely through the conflict with credit and honor. The grandson, Ernest, named above, inherited his pluck and endurance. Being of a naturally inventive turn of mind, he early devoted his attention to mechanics. In 1874 he became interested in the typewriter, then engaging the attention of James Densmore, his stepfather. From this time forward Mr. Barron's time was devoted to the improvement and development of the new machine which was destined to revolutionize the world. On Apr. 20, 1874, he went to the Remington armory, where the first machines

were being manufactured. Two experimental machines had been made, and numbered respectively " 1 " and "2." It was decided that the model was too large. Mr. Barron began on No. " 3." His genius was called into active play, and in May, 1874, he had the pleasure of sending to James Densmore, who was then in New York, the first machine made by the Remingtons that went into actual use. While engaged in the work he made many important inventions, several of which were patented, notably the combination of the reversed dial or scale with and attached to the band-shield (U. S. pat. No. 207,003), and now used on the leading typewriters. Another was the combination of spring guides with the pressure rollers, carriage frame and cylindrical platen (No. 360,133), and is known as the paper feed on the Caligraph, Yost, Densmore, and machines of lesser note. He terminated his connection with the Remingtons in 1878, and a year later took a similar position with the American writing machine company on the Caligraph, a new candidate for public favor. He superintended the constniction of the first Caligraph, assembled and aligned it, and witnessed its success as From that time forward a rival of the Remington. his time has been devoted exclusively to improvements in typewriting mechanism. In 1885 he turned his attention toward the development of a new machine, which is fully completed and is owned by the Densmore estate. As one of the executors of the


typewriter, then just put upon the market, and he invented what has since become famous as the shift, whereby capital letters, as well as lower case, are fitted on the same bar, and operated by the same key. Mr. Brooks was an eminent mechanician, as well as a mathematician. He constructed the "shift" upon the principle of the tangent to the circle. In his invention each type-bar is provided with two types, and by shifting the cylindrical platen at right angles to the line of print, the point of impact is changed, and either type printed at will. This greatly increased the efficiency of the typewriter, without materially increasing the number of parts. The principle demonstrated by Mr. Brooks has been largely adopted by many later machines. The Brooks "shift key" contributed greatly to the popularity of the typewriter, and is regarded as one He then of the leading inventions of the day. launched out into other inventions, and produced the "People's" typewriter, following it with the Crown, " and later with the Philadelphia." These were wheel machines. His crowning effort was the "Brooks" typewriter, constructed upon the same Remington, " but printing in sight. lines as the Mr. Brooks has also made many important invenLinotions in printing mechanics, notably in the type, " which has revolutionized the manner of setting type. William Ozmun, for many years pi'esident of the Remington standard typewriter manufacturing company, and senior member of the Benedict, and now presifirm of Wyckoff, Seamans dent of the corporation of that name, was born on his grandfather's farm in the town of Lansing, Tompkins county, N. Y., Feb. 16, 1835. Although never having enjoyed the advantages of a college education, he was a constant attendant at the public schools, and for a time a student at the Ithaca academy. About the year 1856 '














on government land

James Densmore, he is interested in many typewriter patents, and, owing to his inventive as well as business ability, derives a handsome royalty from the manufacture of the world-renowned favorHis residence is in Brooklyn, and his attention ite.

in Blue Earth county, Minn.,

to business is of the closest kind.

ing on, he abandoned that idea, and in July returned to Ithaca and began the study of law in the office of a prominent attorney there. When the civil war broke out he discontinued his

estate of

BBOOKS, Byron Aldeu,

author and inventor, N. Y. Dec. His grandfather, Dr. James Brooks, was 12, 1845. the first physician to settle in the town. His maternal grandfather was John L. Parrlsh of Connecticut, of English ancestry. Mr. Brooks inherited from his father, a skilled millwright, a taste for mechanics. His early education was in the village school. At the age of eighteen, by the sudden death of his faHe became ther, he was left dependent on himself. a teacher, and afterward entered the Wesleyan seminary at Gouverneur, N. Y., graduating in 1866; then, entering the Wesleyan university at Middletown, Conn., was graduated in 1871, an "honor man" and class poet. " He was married at the age of twentyseven, and became assistant editor of the "National Quarterly Review." In addition to his editorial work he contributed extensively to numerous newspapers and magazines. In 1876 he published his Tragedy, " which met "King Saul: first work, with a fiattering reception. In 1882 he published "Those Children and their Teachers," a clever expose of the educational methods then in vogue. In 1885 he published a popular juvenile, "Phil Vernon and His Schoolmaster," and in 1893 " Earth ReIn 1867 he took up the study of stenogvisited." raphy, and began the study of a mechanism that should take the place of hand effort. In 1874 his

was born

in Theresa, Jefferson county,







called to the




acquiring 160 acres, with the intention of earning

enable course.



him to take a college The crisis of 1857 com-

law studies and joined the


company organized in Tompkins county, a company which formed a part of the 32d N. Y. volunteers. Before the regiment reached the front Mr. Wyckoff, who had enlisted as a private, was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant; immediately after the battle of Bull Run he was advanced to the rank of first lieutenant, and before the full term of two years for which he had enlisted had expired, he was made captain of the company, his commission arriving soon after the battle later

West Point. Returning to Ithaca at the expiration of his term of service, Capt. Wyckoff resumed his law studies, and on Nov. 16, 1863, at Binghamton, N. Y., passed a successful examination at the general term of the supreme court, and was admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor. About that time he pursued a course of study, and was graduated from Ames's business college at Syracuse, N. Y. Mr. Wyckoff early became interested in the phonographic art, pursuing this study while attending school, reading law and during his leisure hours in the service. He was married Oct. 20, 1863, to of

Frances V. Ives, of

South Lansing, N. Y.





January, 1866, he was appointed official steuog rapher of the supreme court for the sixth judicial district of New York, which position he held for He was also one of sixteen consecutive years. the founders of the New York state stenographers' association, holding for one term the office of president of that association, and still retaining his membership. It was about the year 1875 that Mr. Wyckoff decided that a typewriter would help him He purchased a Remin his stenographic work. ington typewriter, and was so well pleased with it that he applied for and obtained from the company an agency for the sale of their machines. When not engaged in court work he applied himself diligently to the introduction of the machine into law offices and business houses. His efforts in that direction proved so successful that in 1883, at the solicitation of the Remingtons and others interested, he associated with himself Messrs. C. W. Seamans and H. H. Benedict, and the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans Benedict was formed, for the purpose of carrying on the typewriter business, and at that time they Sons entered into a contract with E. Remington to take their entire production of typewriters and place them on the market. The venture proved so successful that in the year 1886 all the right, title, interest, franchise, tools, machinery, etc. pertaining to the manufacture of the Remington typewriter Benepassed into the hands of Wyckoff, Seamans When, on May 19, 1893, the Remington dict. standard typewriter manufacturing company was consolidated with the Standard typewriter company (a corporation taking the place of the firm of WyBenedict), the consolidated corpockoff, Seamans ration being styled Wyckoff, Seamans Benedict, with a capital of $3,000,000, Mr. Wyckoff was again elected president of the new company. JVIr. Wyckoff was one of the early and most active members of the Union League club, of Brooklyn, N. Y., to whose phenomenal growth, standing and influence he has largely contributed. For three years he has been a member of the club's executive committee, and was also chairman of the reception committee on the occasion of the dedication of a new building erected by the club. Alexander, inventor, was born in Pruntytown, W. Va., Sept. 23, 1836. He pursued his studies at Oberlin, O., showing a decided genius for mechanics. During his attendance at his studies, he earned the means for defraying his expenses by mechanical pursuits, and by land surveying. After leaving school he followed teaching for several years, having charge of schools in various states. Both as a student, and afterward as teacher, he constructed apparatus to illustrate the studies pursued, notably, orreries illustrative of the solar system; apparatus for explaining problems in natural philosophy, and a variety of appliances for other studies, for the benefit of the students.. In 1864 he became associated with W. D. Rutledge in the management and owner.ship of a commercial school in Springfield, 111. The rooms of the firm were fui'nished with offices, representing cities, and the idea occurred to Mr. Davidson of establishing a various intercourse among them by means of miniature cars propelled by electricity, to make the commercial transactions taught approximate as nearly as possible to those of actual business. So great was the success of the enterprise that the legislature, then in session, adjourned, and the heads of departments made a special visit to wit ness the operation of this new feature in education. All who saw it were deeply interested, and some of the more enthusiastic of the observers ventured the prediction that the mysterious force which actuated it would, as a motive power, some day become the i-ival of steam. The subsequent triumphs of electri city abundantly proved that their prophetic vision








was not an idle dream. The novelty of the construction of this miniature railroad, and the miniature merchandise used in connection with it, rendered the instruction given realistic and interesting. It not only became very popular, but largely increased the patronage of the school. In 1869 Mr. Davidson sold out his interest in the school, and entered the revenue service of the government. While so engaged he prepared a history of Illinois, completing and publishing the work in 1873. The success of the book required an abridged edition for use in public schools, and Mr. Davidson withdrew from the employ of the government to devote his time to He next turned his attention to its preparation. general invention, and designed a paddle-wheel for boat propulsion, which was patented in 1881. Having as early as 1875 seen what was probably the first Remington typewriter that entered the city of Springhe became interested. He rented it for three months with the understanding that if it proved satisfactory he was to become a purchaser. This machine was then in its early days, but realizing the possibilities in store for a mechanism of that kind, Mr. Davidson devoted himself to study for its improvement. From that time onward he gave all his time to the improvement and the development of the typewriter. He studied every feature; invented devices for improvement in eveiy possible department. His many inventions were crowned with success, and he accomplished much for the perfection of the mechanism which has realized and aided in producing a revolution in business methods, not only in the United States but throughout the civilized world. One of the many very important features of the work acfield, 111.,

complished by Mr. Davidson, a scale regarding the value


of the letters of the alphabet. As the result of an extended study he prepared a table that gives, according to the closest invastigations, the estimated value of each of the letters in

the language. The labor was especially entered upon in order to fix a standard key-board for the typewriter, and its ready manipulation by both hands.

The number appended

to each

following table represents the letter's value as a factor in the formation of sentences in ordinary language: letter in the


OF AMERICAN BIOGEAPHY. "Yost" machine, an outgrowth


In his political



of the


Mr. Davidson met with

some peculiar experiences. One of them was a sudden dismissal in 1878 from government employ, hy the postmaster at Springfield, 111., on the excuse that there was a superabundance of help in the department, and his services were no longer required." Mr. Davidson had previously positively refused to furnish certain funds demanded for campaign purposes, and readily understood the animus of the dismissal. He preferred to use his earnings at his own pleasure rather than turn them over into the hands of irresponsible politicians to be used in ways they were unwilling to explain. In 1887 he sold out his various patents to the "Yost Writing Machine company," and since that time has been devoting himself to constant study and improvement of the typewriter in any and every way. Mr. Davidson is a man of most decided character, of keen perception and firm resolve. He is devoting himself to invention, particularly in the direction of the typewriter, and is determined to do what he can to make it an absolutely perfect machine. '


HAMMOIfD, James Bartlett, inventor, was horn in Boston, Mass., Apr. 33, 1839. He is descended on his father's side from the Hammonds of colonial times; and his mother, Harriet W. Trow, was a granddaughter of Ephraim Swan, a soldier of the revolution. He was educated in the public schools of Boston, was graduated from the Lawrence School in 1851, receiving the Franklin medal became a member of the Boston High School, was transferred to the Boston Latin School; was fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Andover, and was graduated from the University of Vermont, an honor man, in 1861. He became an expert stenographer during his course at college, and reported for the New York ;

"World." He also reported in full the lectures of George P. Marsh at the Lowell Institute, Boston, on the 'Origin and Growth of English Language and Literature. " This work opened for him, at the beginning of the war, a career as army correspondent for the New York "Tribune, "in which capacity he achieved several notable triumphs, and had many thrilling adventures. At one time, in going from Winchester to '

Harper's Ferry, after the retreat of Gen. Sheridan, for the purpose of conveying news to the telegraph, he was captured by a band of Moseby's guerrillas. While preparations were being made to hang him on a charge of " writing abolition lies for Horace Greeley" the guerrilla band was suddenly summoned to an attack upon a squad of Federal cavalry, Hammond was clothed by his captors in a rebel uniform and taken into the fight, in the course of wliich he made his escape to Harper's Ferry. In the intervals of active army work he took up the study of theology, which he continued afterward at the Union Theological Seminary, New York city. Several months were devoted by him to the translation and annotation of a volume of "Lange's Commentary on St. Matthew," after which he went to Germany to complete his theological and literary studies, the most of which were pursued at the University of Halle, and there he was treated with great kindness by Prof. Tholuck.then at the zenith of his influence. Mr. Hammond returned to America, broken in health and disturbed by difficult theological and philosophical questions. At the request of the editor of the American edition of "Lange's Commentary," he began the translation and annotation of the "Book of Psalms." His facility as a shorthand writer always made the labor of penmanship irksome, and he frequently turned from his literary work to sketch the outlines of a machine which should relieve the labor of the pen and substitute mechanical for manual effort. Realizing the usual fate of inventors, he tried again and again to discard the notion as chimerical, but he

III.— 31.


finally found himself fully absorbed in the purpose of making a writing machine to be operated like a piano-forte. At that time, he was not aware that

the problem had ever been entertained or prosecuted by others. Within a year or two, learning of patents for a type-bar machine (The Sholes Glidden),with the enthusiasm of the inventor he concluded that his own idea was thoroughly feasible if not superior to theirs, and he continued his work with increased zeal. For many years after beginning this inventive work he had to contend with poverty, sickness and the remonstrances of friends. In his experiments the momentum of the typewheel, which he insisted should be brought under control, refused to be arrested. Its momentum seemed a fatal and impassable barrier to the accomplishment of his purpose. About the year 1876 he produced a machine which, coming to the knowledge of the manufacturers of the Remington typewriter, excited an interest on their part, and he was invited to go to Ilion and there perfect and develop his machine, which threatened to be a formidable rival to their own. After more than a year's work at Ilion, the Remingtons being financially embarrassed, were willing to withdraw from the contract, and Mr. Hammond again secured possession of his invention. He continued for several months to work upon his models, and introduced some improvements which determined the question of ulti•mate success. The work performed by the machine was correct in impression and alignment, and nothing but careful mechanical construction seemed necessary to the production of a perfect typewriter. Offers to manufacture the machine


came from several important man-


ufacturing establishments. year and a half was spent by him in experiments at the Colt's Armory, and another year and a half at the Florence Sewing Machine Works.


models were made and deperfected. In 1880a factory was established in New York city for producing the machines. Some parts, particularly the typewheel, tails

were incorrigible, and many hopeless experiments were made to reduce it to subjection. Experts in rubber manufacture were consulted, all of whom insisted that an


instrument of precision so exact as was required, could not be produced in hard rabber, and yet no other material appeared to have the necessary qualities of durability, lightness, etc. In the surnmer of Hammond " machines were put upon 1884, the first the market. In the winter of 1884-85, the machine made its apiDearance at the New Orleans Exposition where it received the gold medal. During the previous autumn a contract had been made for the manufacture of 5,000 machines. These were put upon the market in limited numbers until 1886. In 1890 a machine was produced in a modified form, adapted to the use of operatoi-s already conversant with the straight keyboard of the Remington machines. The originality of Mr. Hammond's invention has been "Engirecognized by engineers and societies. neering" (England), the Massachusetts Charitable Association, the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, have all borne the amplest testimony to his originality. The Hammond typewriter is not simply a de'


velopment or an improvement of an existing or pi'evious invention, but marks a new epoch. A professor of mechanics of Amherst College, on seeing and observing the operation of the invention, expressed surprise at the result attained, in view of the peculiar difficulties of the problem. Having been asked whether, with his clear apprehension of the difficul-




be overcome, he could have aided the in- in the United States, but in Great Britain, Germany, ventor, he said No, I should simply have advised rFranoe and Belgium. He devotes his energies to him to desist, not knowing any other machine in new features of invention, and hopes to produce tire which the same or similar results had been accom- ideal typewriter of the future. plished. I should have regarded it as impracticable, SFIBO, Charles, author and inventor, was born but you seem to have accomplished it." The work in York city Jan. 1, 1850. His father was the was done and proved an eminent success. proprietor of a watch-making establishment, and the CRANDAIili, Lucien Stephen, inventor, was son grew up among machinery and tools. His early born in Broome county, N. Y., May 4, 1844. His fath- education was received in the public schools of the er was a Methodist minister of Puritan stock, and on city. It was the father's intention that he study his maternal side he is a descendant from Gen. "War- medicine, but he was too young to enter the New ren, whose gloiious acts have never faded from York college, then known as the "Free academy," Bunker Hill. At twelve years of age he became a according to the rules regarding admission, and, worker at the printer's case. At the age of eighteen having a love for mechanics, he went into his father's he enlisted in the 109th i-egimentN. Y. volunteers, factory as an apprentice in the art of watch-making, under Col. B. F. Tracy, who afterward became sec- devoting his evenings to the study of mathematics, retary of the navy. He served until the close of the mechanical drawing, languages, letters, violin playwar, and then began a career of journalism. In 1874, ing, etc., -under private tutors. This was continued while on the reportorial staff of the New York Tri- until he was seventeen years of age, when he was bune," he conceived the idea of a type-setting and declared a journeyman watch and chronometer distributing machine, and while engaged on a model, maker. His father retired from business a year came in contact with Mr. Yost, of typewriter fame, later, and the young man of eighteen became his and thenceforward devoted his energies to the tj-pe- successor. Before he was twenty-one his inventive writing Industry. His first effort culminated in the powers were put to work. He designed a new es" Crandall " typewritei', so well known to the public. capement for clock timing, a watch winding and This was followed by many improvements and the setting attachment (U. S. Pat. No. 96,844, Nov. 16, building of new machines. His inventive faculties 1869), machinery for the rapid duplication of watch were given full rein, and in addition to the "Cran- parts notably an automatic lathe, which received dall," the second "edition" of which was greatly straight wire, turned, ground, polished, and finished improved, he invented many the several shoulders and pivots on balance staffs features in the "Internation- and pinions; also improvements for music boxes, " al," the 'American Standard and machinery for spotting the cylinder pins in and the " Victoria " (British). music boxes. In his twenty-first year, his health One of Mr. Crandall's patents failing, he went to Europe, and traveled extensively is fundamental in the Remingin England and on the continent. On his return he ton typewriter, and was by him entered Washington university as a law student, assigned to the Remington graduating in 1874, and entering the senior class of company. The "Deusmore" New York university, was graduated from there a typewriter, the "National" year later. For nine years he devoted himself to typewriter, and the "Fitch" the practice of law, but, his thoughts turning to intypewriter were also licensed vention, he devoted more or less time to the study of under his patents. In 1875 mechanism. In 1879 he designed and constructed a he obtained a patent for a matrix - making machine consisting of a carriage typewriter for the use of the adapted to receive sheets of rolled wax. On the left blind. There were several of the machine and above the carriage, a lever was types upon each type-bar, with pivoted on a line parallel to the travel of the carriage. a compound movement of the This lever was fitted with a sleeve. On the free end bar to bring into line groups of the lever was a handle rigidly attached to a quickof two types upon eacli bar, acting screw, adapted to reciprocate the sleeve. The and also with a lateral, trans- sleeve was fitted with individual type-punchers. In 1879 he organ- There was a plunger above the sleeve adapted to be verse movement of the platen. ized the " Crandall typewriting company," with a depressed on any one of the punchers brought under capital of $250,000, and began to manufacture, sub- it when the lever actuating the sleeve was depressed. sequently assigning his interests to the Crandall ma- In 1880 he published a new system of phonography, chine company, of Groton, N. Y., himself retiring wherein shaded lines were dispensed with. Then, from the active management. In 1886 he organized becoming interested in typewriters he constructed the Parish manufacturing company, at Parish, N. Y., various styles of these instruments, both single-hand His first patent was with a capital of $100,000, and began the man- and double-hand machines. ufacture of the American Standard and the Vic- granted in 1885, on "The Columbia typewriter, 3," largely its counterpart, and organized where he introduced a feature desigtoria, a com- Nos. 1 and pany for the manufacture of the latter in Great nated as " variable spacing." He also invented, the Britain. They were all eventually superseded by same year, a typewriter for music notation. At a the " Internationa], " which Mr. Crandall considers later date he produced the Bar-lock " typewriter, his most original and best work. This machine was which has an extensive sale in Europe as well as the first offered to the public in 1889 and was received United States. The feature of the "Bar-lock" is with favor. radical feature in its construction is that the writing is constantly in view. It is a lever a slotted disc, by which the types are guided to the machine, and the levers strike downward, being printing point with unerring and unfailmg accuracy. firmly secured at the point of impact by a brace ol Mr. Crandall wrote the first piece of typewriter lit- peculiar construction, and securing perfect align erature ever given to the public. It was in the form ment. He has also invented an automatic ribbon of a catalogue and description of the Remington, reverse mechanism, a ball and socket type-bar joint on which he was at the time engaged, and was ex- a reciprocating ribbon carrier, and many other de Beginning with the tensively distributed from the store on Broadway in vices to perfect the invention. the year 1874. He also secured a situation for the year 1886 he experimented extensively in thermo first typewriter girl who went out to clerical serelectricity, and devoted his energies to the investiga vice. He has been granted many patents, not only tion. He has also invented and patented a system

ties to











OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. largely in use of colored baths for the development of photographic plates, and for developments without the necessity of a dark room. He has been since 1869 a frequent contributor to the "American Horological Journal," and other periodicals treating of mechanics. He was married at the age of thirty to

Grace Smadbeck, and makes




New York


HAIili, Tliomas, inventor, was born in Philadelphia, Pa. Feb. 4, 1834. His father was a manufacturer. The son was educated in the public schools and in the University of Pennsylvania, and married at the age of twenty-eight. He had been intended for a mercantile life, but a genius for invention caused a deviation of his life into a study of mechanics and mechanical appliances. He became in 1863 a member of the Franklin institute of the state of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of mechanical arts, and devoted several years to the study of the principles of mechanics. His inventive genius has shown itself principally in typewriting mechanism and sewing machines. In 1868, while a resident of St. Louis, he devised an instrument for printing by touching keys." He moved to Milwaukee in 1861, and there developed his device. His first patent for a practical typewriter was issued by the U. S. patent office in June, 1867. company was formed, and the manufacture of machines begun. In the same year, 1867, his typewriter was exhibited in the Paris exposition, and attracted ,






The ma-

chine differed from all others known at that time in that the direction of the blow or stroke

was downward. The blow from the type-bar was given on a flat table, and at all times the writing was in full view. Its capacity was equal to that of any of the machines of later date. The paper was put upon a delicately constructed platform, which glided into the lower part of the machine.

The width

of the letters corresponded to the width of the letters ordinarily produced in printing. The pressure of a knob on the top of the machine caused the sheet of paper to be drawn


Each key had



type-bar and suspended in the

A cushioned ring was through which all the letters were struck. An extremely even impression was secured. An inked ribbon was used, and a blank key did the Elaborate plans were laid for the manuspacing. facture of this first effort, but business complicaIn 1873 Mr. tions arising, they were abandoned. Hall spent a year in travel in Europe, and devoted a large part of his time to a study of the mechanisms type-head.


displayed in the Vienna exposition, and the schools and workshops of Paris, St. Petersburg, and other leading European cities. In 1881 he produced the typewriter which bears his name, and which displays a feature of originality radically different from anything ever seen before in typewriting mechanism. The machine is "singlerhanded," and so light and convenient that it can be readily used by travelers en route. There is a novel application to bring the characters to a common centre. Rubber types are employed, and the tablets are so arranged that they tablet can be made are instantly interchangeable. in any language, and the impressions are made diThe "dial plate" is about rectly from the type. two inches square, and so adjusted that absolute alignment is secured by the locking of every key when at the point of impact. The operation of the



mechanism is by a "stylus," worked by the right hand while the left is kept free for the manipulation of the paper, etc. Of the single-handed machines it occupies the first place, being the most complete, and combining the highest features of skillful mechanism.

an especial favorite with

travelers, auto its portability and ease of manipulation. Mr. Hall, not content with devoting his time to inventions on the typewriter, has achieved many successes in other fields, notably in the line of sewing machines, and similar mechanism. He labors constantly in the field of invention, and is urging himself to produce the ideal " typewriter of the future. Miles Marshall, inventor, was born in Vienna, O., Feb. 3, 1844; was educated in the common schools; married, at the age of thirty, Gilead D. Moore, a daughter of Capt. Lewis W. Moore, who was a veteran of the Mexican war, and later, of the civil war. In 1870 Mr. Bartholobecame court stenographer in the courts of St. Clair and Madison counties. 111. The possibility of making a machine for shorthand writing was suggested to him in 1873,byseeingthe Remington typewriter. Analysis showed that an average of two and a half letters to the word is sufficient to represent words accurately and legibly as they occur in ordinary sentences for that number of words. Assuming 160 words per minute as sufficient for verbatim reporting, it was found that 400 letters per minute would be required to write them. His first patent was granted in May, 1879 (U. S. pat. No. 215,554), and was followed by others in 1882 and 1886. The machine has five writing keys, four of which are V-shaped, with a finger-piece at each extremity. There is also a spacing key and a device for moving the paper. roll of paper is slowly unwound as the fingers depress the keys, each key making its own mark, which is simply a small vertical dash. the five keys are depressed at once a line of marks is made across the paper ribbon, thus: By combinations of these five dots or dashes the whole The phonetic plan of writing alpliabet is formed. was adopted. All pronounced consonants are writthors,

It is

and clergymen, owing









all initial

or final vowels.


uses are

Owing identical with those of shorthand writing. to the mechanical uniformity of the. characters prowork performed is more accurate than by pen or pencil shorthand. There being

duced, the that done

but one way of writing each letter, or representing each sound, it is much more easily learned than orBy a skillful folding apparatus dinary shorthand. the machine occupies scarcely more space than an ordinary sized field glass, and weighs but about three pounds. It can be operated without being looked at, thus enabling the operator to fix his attention upon the person who is speaking, while writing what he says, and to look at books and papers while copying or making extracts from them.

ESSICK, Samuel V.,


was born


Franklin, O., Jan. 19, 1841, the son of John and Mary (Brown) Essick, of German and ScotchIrish parentage. His early education was had in the public schools, and afterward in Mt. Union colWhile yet pursuing his college lege. Alliance, O. studies he was, at the age of but eighteen, an inventor, and received a patent from the United States for a mechanism for loading hay, that proved a success. At the age of nineteen he entered on the study of law, and celebrated his arrival at majority by being admitted to the bar. He had not entered upon the practice of his profession when, in 1862, he enlisted in the 115th regiment of Ohio volunteer infantry, and served till the end of the civil war. At its close he returned to his native state and devoted the next twenty years to the practice of law, and to inven-




Among otlier things whicli sprung from his genius were two single-needle knitting-machines. The most important effort upon which he entered was the invention of the Essick printing telegraph. This is a mechanism with a typewriter keyboard. The message is type-written in full view of the operator, and at the same time, by electrical appliances and connections, a duplicate message or letter is printed on a corresponding machine at any telegraphic distance. The capacity of the instrument is limited only by the number of electrical connections, as many as 500 instruments being under the control of a single operator, and, the transmission of the message being in Roman characters, equally good on all the connected instruments. For example, a transmitter in Washington could report the doings of congress in plain Roman print simultaneously in every principal editorial room in the country. In general appearance the machine is more like a parlor ornament than a printing-machine, but in practice it is capable of binding in tendons of wire and nerves of steel the utmost limit of telegraphic recompany was organized under the quirement. name of the Essick printing telegraph company in 1889 for the development of the work, the American patents transferred, and an energetic business entered upon. Inasmuch as the machine is used as readily as an ordinary typewriter, and the message is in plain print instead of dot and dash, it is destined to supersede all other systems of telegraphy. The following are some of the fields in which the Essick will be used: 1st. For commercial business. 2d. For distribution of news. 3d. As a substitute for the telephone. 4th. For stock reporting. 5th. For railroad purposes, for which it has peculiar value, owing to the certainty of its work. The company began its operations by building a line connecting Boston, Providence and other New England towns and cities, rapidly extending toward New York city, whence radiating lines will be run to other important points. Mr. Essick was married Sept. 33, 1863, to Mary J. Dundas, a daughter of the Rev. J. R. Dundas, D.D., a Presbyterian divine, who spent over fifty years of his life in the ministry. Eight children resulted from the union. SQ.tJIEB, Frank, merchant, was born in Charlton, Saratoga county, N. Y., Apr. 14, 1840, brother of Ephraim G. Squier, the author, son of Rev. Joel Squier, a Methodist minister, who moved from Ashford, Conn., and settled in Albany county, N. Y. His great-great-grandfather was Philip Squier, a descendant of Thomas, who came over in the Good Hope with his brother George, in 1633, and was admitted a freeman at Boston in 1634. This Philip was one of the founders of "Woodstock, Windham county, Conn., in 1714. He had a son Philip, and a grandson Ephraim. The latter, who was the grandfather of Frank Squier, was one of eighty men who enlisted from the town of Ashford, Conn., in Capt. Thomas Knowlton's company, "for the relief of



Boston in the Lexington Alarm " Apiil, 1775. He subsequently re-enlisted, and took part in several important engagements, notably, the battle of Bunker Hill, Arnold's expedition to Maine, battle of Bemis's Heights, and surrender of Burgoyne. He kept a diary of the daily events, which enabled him at a later period in life to obtain a jiension. The English family of Squiers, from which the American emigrant is descended, is one of great antiquity. The earliest record shown is that of John Squier, mayor of Barnstable (a walled town in the days of the Saxons), Devon.shire, Eng., a.d. 1353, and since frequently mentioned in English history. The

New York

city in 1863, with the firm of J. Q. Preble Co., wholesale stationers. He remained with this firm for three years, and in 1866 obtained a position with Perkins, Goodwin Co., at present (1893) one of the largest paper houses in the country, and was admitted a member of the firm in 1879. He has been for several years prominently identified with York stationers' board of trade, and in 1893 the was elected its president. He has long been an active worker in the ranks of the republican party of Brooklyn, and is at present (1893) a member of the executive committee of the Young republican club His natural fondness for painting has of tliat city. led him to devote much of his leisure time to this delightful occupation. He assisted in organizing the Brooklyn art club, composed of the best artists of that city, some of have achieved a national reputation, and whose exhibits are found annually among the best art collections of the country. Mr. Squier was elected president of the department of painting of Brooklyn institute, in 1890, and






personally popular with


patrons. He has also found time to devote to literary pursuits, for which he is naturally gifted. He spent three years in editing and arranging his brother's celebrated work on Peru, which the latter was unable to complete in consequence of impaired health. The final completion and publication of the work is due largely to Mr. Frank Squier's efforts. Mr. Squier married, in 1868, Estella Marshall, daughter of Rev. J. D. Marshall of Stanwich, Conn., 55^^^—^ a descendant (probably) of Capt. Samuel Marshall of Windsor, Conn., who was killed in the great swamp fight with the Indians, Dec. 19, 1675, the hardest ever known in New England. Mrs. Marshall is a descendant of the Lawrences, of whom William Lawrence, who came from Gravesend, Eng., on the Planter, in 1635, was one of the original patentees and largest landed proprietors of Flushing, L. I. His widow, Elizabeth, married Sir Philip Carteret, governor of New Jersey, who named Elizabeth, N. J., for her. Mr. Squier is a member of the Society of the sons of the revolution, and other organ-

members and


JAIMES, Charles

Tillingh.ast, statesman and


inventor, was born in West Greenwich, R. I., in 1804. He learned the carpenter's trade in his

youth, and later became an expert machinist and mechanician. For some years he was superintendent of the Slater cotton mills in Providence (serving at the same time as major-general of the Rhode Island militia), and then for a considerable period was_ engaged in the construction of cotton mills in various parts of the country. In 1849 he returned to Rhode Island and built the Atlantic delaine mill at Olneyville. From 1851 until 1857, as a whig, he repreAfter sented Rhode I.sland in the U. S. senate. leaving the senate he gave his chief attention to perfecting a rifle -cannon and a projectile, upon

which he had been engaged for many years, and died from injuries received wliile prosecuting his experiments.


his early educational opportuni-

maiden name of Frank Squier's mother was Maria

had been limited, he was a man of varied accomplishments and a frequent contributor to magazines and periodicals, among which was a series of papers on the culture and manufacture of cotton in the

Kilmer, a descendant of one of the old Holland famMr. Squier was educated of New Y''ork state. at Poultney, Vt., and began his business career in

south. In 1838 Brown university gave gree of A.M. He died at Sag Harbor, 17, 1863.




the de-

N. Y., Oct.



AGAR, John New

Giraud, lawyer, was



Orleans, La., June 3, 1856. His mother was Theresa Price, a native of Louisville, Ky., and descendant and kinswoman of the earlier settlers of that state. She was a woman of much force of character and sweetness of disposition, and from her Mr. Agar has inherited those qualities. His father, William Agar, sprang from one of the ancient families of county Carlow, Ireland, and early in life was sent


to ability

Orleans, where his natural and family influence soon

placed him in the front rank of the mercantile community. During the civil war John G. Agar was a boy, and like many boys of that epoch

had his intelligence and energy quickened by the exciting scences of which he was, perforce, a spectator. During this unsettled time he was taught at home by his parents and private tutors, but at the same time his natural intelligence enabled him to understand something of the meaning of the conflict that was then raging. It is not improbable that the exciting scenes of those early years made an impression upon his youthful mind, and inclined him in later years to take a leading part in politics. In 1869 he was sent to the preparatory school of the University of Georgetown, D. C, and in 1872 entered the University, from which he was graduated in 1876 with the degree of B.A. In the autumn of the same year (1876) he went to England and for two years was a student at the Roman Catholic University of Kensington, London. Completing the course in biology and moral and mental science in that institution in 1878, he went to New York, entered the School of Law of Columbia College, and in May of 1880 took his degree of LL.B., and was admitted to the bar. As a law student and practicing lawyer, he attracted attention by the soundness of his legal arguments and the eloquence of his addresses to juries, and in June, 1881, he (although a democrat) was appointed by President Garfield assistant U. S. district attorney He continfor the southern district of New York. ued in this office for about a year, when he resigned his position under the U. S. government, and became the senior member of the law firm of Agar, Ely & Fulton. His natural inclination and the opportunities of his acquaintance, however, forced him to take a distinguished part in public affairs. He became a prominent member of the People's Municipal League of the City of New York, an organization created for the purpose of procuring necessary reforms in municipal government. He became also one of the early and most prominent advocates of a On Sept. 2, 1891, he was apState Naval Militia. pointed by Gov. Hill a lieutenant of the first battalion of the Naval Reserve Artillery of the State of New York, and acting paymaster. In the New York state election of 1891, he was chairman of the campaign committee of the People's Municipal League, and in that capacity had the responsibility of organizing the assembly districts throughout the city. To him was due the fact that the candidates for state or municipal offices pledged themselves to procure the adoption of the Australian system of voting by blanket ballot. The University of Georgetown conferred upon him the degree of M.A. in 1888, and in 1889 the degree of Ph.D.





born in Charlestown, N. H., Apr. 17, 1830.. His mother, who was a sister of Henry Hubbard, then a


representative in congress, afterward U. S. senator and governor, died the same year, whereupon his father, Henry H. Sylvester, a merchant in Charlestown, removed to Washington, D. C, and resided at the capital from that time until 1853, holding various positions of trust under Presidents Jackson, Van Buren^and Polk. He was acting commissioner of patents during the incumbency of Edmund Burke, and afterward engaged in business on his own account. Richard H., when a mere boy, made an extended trip through what was then the far West, and was thus early inspired with a desire to migrate in the same direction. He was four years at Phillips Exeter Academy, entered Yale College, class of 1851, left at the beginning of his junior year, and began the study of law with his cousin, Edmund L. Cushing, subsequently chief justice of New Hampshire. He finished his law studies at Ann Arbor, Mich., where he was admitted to the bar. From Michigan he removed to Iowa, and accepted a position as reporter of legislative debates on the Iowa Capital Reporter, " then s«^-^"^ published at Iowa City by John Clark, a brother-in-law of Samuel '


Kirkwood, Iowa's noted war A year or two later he bought an interest in the "Reporter," the name of which was changed to "State Press "on the removal of the capital to Des J.


Moines, and made it the leading democratic and general newspaper in the state. He was for two terms superintendent of schools of Johnson county, la., and three years treasurer of Iowa City, but never sought or held any higher office.

During the war his newspaper work was confined almost entirely Inl864hetook Memphis, Tenn., and during the great cotton movement and business revival of that period and several years later, he became largely interested in fire and marine insurance. He occasionally contributed to the Memphis "Appeal," when edited by the late Albert Pike, but for the time being was practically out of the profession. In 1869 he accepted a position on the St. Louis " Times," of which paper he was for several years the managing, editor. In 1880 he declined an offer of the St.Louis "Republican" to take charge of its Washington correspondence, and associated himself with the Post, which, in 1877, had been established at the national to correspondence. his residence in






the original proprietor of the



"Times." He conducted this paper editorially up to and through the Cleveland campaign. From 1885 to 1888 he managed the Washington "Critic," an evening journal of popular local repute but upon ;

the transfer of the Post " to its pi'esent owners, whereupon it ceased to be a party newspaper and '


became thoroughly independent and non-partisan, with broad, progressive views, he accepted and now occupies the position of its associate editor and leading editorial writer. Mr. Sylvester is married and has a family. His wife was the daughter of Rev. W. W. Woods, a prominent Presbyterian clergyman of, Iowa, who, as a chaplain in the army, died at Ft. Nelson, Ky., during the war. He is of strong domestic attachments, a great reader and an indefatigable worker.

DUVAL, Henry Rieman, was born

railroad president, in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 17, 1842. He is de-

scended from Mars Marin Duval, a French Hugue-

who fled to England from France, and came to Maryland in 1643; received a large grant of land in what are now Prince George and Arundel counties, Md. Much of this property is still in the hands of not,



his descendants. Mr. Duval was educated in private schools, and St. Timothy's Hall Military School,

near Baltimore. He entered the Confederate army in 1861, served under Gens. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Early and other commanders; was a prisoner of war at Johnson's Island (U. S. prison) from June, 1864, to June, 1865, and was released upon the terminaHe entered the service of the Baltion of the war. timore & Ohio R. R. Co. in 1872, and has since continued in the railway service; was receiver of the Florida Railway Navigation Co. from Nov. 1, 1885, to May 1, 1889, when the property of that company passed to the Florida Central & Peninsular R. R. He is a memCo., of which he became president. ber of the Maryland Society of the Cincinnati, anhis revolutionary inheriting the title through cestors.-


Ifelson, lawyer, manufacturat Southbury, New Haven Co., Conn., May 30, 1807. His father re-





was born

to the town of Scipio, Cayuga Co., N. Y., in 1808 and continued to reside there for twentyeight years. He represented the county in the state assembly and was also a member of the state senate. He had twelve children. In 1836 he removed to Auburn. He was for a time in charge of Roswell, his second son, the Auburn State prison. is the oldest postmaster in the United States, having held the office from the early part of John Quincy Adams's administration without a break in his long term. William C. was postmaster of Auburn and president of the Auburn Exchange Bank. Nelson Beardsley was educated at the Cayuga Academy at Aurora, N. Y., where for three years he pursued his preparatory classical studies. He was then admitted to the freshman class of Yale College, and was graduated in 1827.


On leaving New Haven, Mr. Beardsley went to Auburn, where he entered the office of J. W. Hurlburt and soon afterward was invited

by William H. Seward


continue his studies in the latter's office. He did so, and on being admitted to the bar in the autumn of 1830 was offered by that eminent lawyer and statesman a copartnership, and the firm of Seward and Beardsley continued for years to prosecute a large and successful practice. In 1829 the 83d regiment of artillery was organized, with Mr. Seward as colonel and Mr. Beardsley as paymaster. In 1832 Mr. Seward was promoted to be brigadier-general and Mr. Beardsley was a member on his stafE and held the position of judge advocate. On the election of Mr. Seward as governor of the state, Mr. Beardsley united in partnership with John Porter, and the firm did a large business for several years, Mr. Beardsley being appointed also taxing master in chancery under Chancellor Walworth. In 1833 the Cayuga County Bank was incorporated, and Mr. Beardsley was one of the original stockholders. The crash of 1837 seriously embarrassed the new bank, and changes in the board of directors being demanded, in 1840 Mr. Nelson Beardsley headed the

new ticket. He was elected and might have been president, but preferred that his father should fill that position, and was himself made attorney and managing director of the bank. In 1843 John Beardsley resigned from the presidency to accept the management of the state prison at Auburn, and Nelson Beardsley was then elected president and by successive elections has continued to fill the oflice nearly fifty years, being the oldest bank president

in the state. His acceptance of this position made necessary his witlidrawal from general law practice, and thereafter he took no active part in the business of his firm except in cases where the bank was interested. In 1848 Mr. Beardsley was one of the incorporators of the Oswego starch factory under the new process of Thomas Kiugsford. This business developed enormously, the capital being increased from $50,000 at the outset to $500,000. In the meantime the company was under the presidency of Dr. Willard for more than thirty-five years, but in 1883 Mr. Beardsley, who had been vice-president during all this time, was unanimously chosen president and still holds that position. Dr. Willard having resigned. In 1849 Mr. Beardsley was one of the original trustees of the Auburn Savings Institution, of which the name was changed twenty years later to the Auburn Savings Bank, and of which he has been for several years and still is the president. In 1864 Mr. Beardsley was one of the incorporators of the First National Bank of Auburn, having a capital of $100,000, which, in 1875, on its consolidation with tiie Auburn City National Bank, was increased to $300,000. Mr. Beardsley is a director and stockholder in most of the manufacturing companies of Auburn. He was one of the first to interest himself in the railway system connecting the Mississippi valley with the Atlantic coast and invested in Western railroads and became a director in quite a number of corporations. In 1836 he was married to Frances, daughter of James Powers, of Catskill, N. Y. Mrs. Beardsley died in 1854, leaving six daughters, since which time Mr. Beardsley has remained unmarried, his home being presided over by his youngest daughter,



G., lawyer and busi-

ness man, was born July 11, 1830, in Venice, Cayuga Co., N. Y., the brother of Nelson Beardsley (q. v.). He studied at the local schools and then in the Cayuga Lake Academy at Aurora and afterwards in the academy at Auburn, intending to pursue a collegiate course, but instead of this entered the law office of

Porter & Beardsley in 1839. He was admitted to the bar in 1843, and became a member of the firm of Porter Beardsley, aftei'ward forming a legal copartnership under the style of Porter, Allen & Beardsley, from which Mr. Porter withdrew, and the firm continued as Allen and Beardsley, although Mr. Beardsley himself gradually turned his attention to other lines of business. In 1848 Mr. Beardsley married Anna Phillip Porter, the daughter of his law partner, and the same year was elected secretary of the Oswego Starch Factory. He continued in this po-


when he became treasurer, an office which he has held until the present time. In 1858 Mr. Beardsley formed the firm of Casey, Clarke & Co., for the manufacture of carpenters' planes and plane irons, which had been commenced in the state sition until 1858,

prison at Auburn in 1823. In 1864 the partners were incorporated as the Auburn Tool Company. He Co., and afterward entered the firm of Sheldon their successors, Burtis Beardsley, carried on the manufacture of the Cayuga Chief mower and reaper until the consolidation in 1866 of the different firms then making the machines patented by Cyrenus Wheeler, Jr., in the Cayuga Chief Manufacturing This concern afterward consohdated their Co. firms with it, and Mr. Beardsley became treasurer of the corporation, from which he retired in 1879. He was connected with the Auburn Water Works Co. from its inception, and for a number of years has been president, and is director and officer in all the local banks. He is interested in the educational and other institutions of the city, including the Auburn Young Ladies' Institute, of which he was one of the






Mr. Beardsley has had seven children,


died in childhood.


merchant, was

as alderman,

born at Byron, Ogle county. 111., July 38, 1856, son of James L. Spalding, an earlv pioneer of that section. His mother was the daughter of Johnson Goodwill, a prominent lawyer and poUtician of Batavia, N. Y., from 1835 to 1850. James "Walter was educated at the public school at Rockford, 111., and was graduated in 1873. He commenced his business career at the age of seventeen as a clerk in a hank at Osceola, la. In 1874 he accepted a position as bookkeeper in the Winnebago national bauk of Rockford, 111., where he acquired a method

and knowledge



matters that has been of great service to him in his subsequent business enterprises. He remained in this position until March, 1876, when he became associated with his brother Albert in establishing the pres-

J.j^hc£^^ Jfi>^,>t^






house of A. G. Spalding


Bros, of Chicago, New York and Philadelphia, with branches in all the leading He was early interested cities of the United States. in athletic sports, especially base-ball, becoming a liberal patron and supporter of that sport, and the love of such games led him to engage in the business of the manufacture and sale of athletic goods in company with his brothers, and in which they achieved a phenomenal success, ranking the leading manufacturers and dealers in that line in the world. Among his business associates and acquaintances he enjoys the reputation of being an excellent business man, and his capacity for handling various enter-

which he

now connected

has given him a high standing in the business world. Mr. his success close application to Spalding attributes to details, and to a genuine liking for the occupation In 1884 he married Mary in which he engaged. Boardman, daughter of the late Henry K. W. Boardman, of Chicago, 111. prises with


STEVENSON, William dent,

was born

H., railroad presiat Bridgeport, Conn., in 1847, and

received a thorough education, graduating early from Eastman's business college with the degree of Master of Accounts. In 1864 he entered the office of the Housatonic railroad, Bridgeport. In 1873 he received the appointment of special agent of the New York and New Haven railroad, and in two years paymaster of the New York Cen-

and Hudson River railroad. The same year this appointment was received he was made super-


intendent of the Shore Line road. He brought this line to a more prosperous state than it had ever been before, and in 1883 accepted the position of superintendent of the New York division of the

York, New Haven and Hartford railroad. In this, as in all other offices, he displayed pronounced ability, and in 1885



elected president of the association of American railroad su-

In 1887 he was perintendents. elected vice-president and general manager of the Housatonic railway. He rose to prominence in other phases of life, as well as the one he had taken as his special field. He was elected counsel of Bridgeport, sei-ved on the finance committee, was returned



327 re-elected.


received the demo-

nomination for election against P. T. Barnum. In 1878 he passed his examination for a lawyer and was admitted to the bar. In 1881 he received the democratic nomination for mayor. In 1884 he was elected president of the Young Mens Democratic and Cleveland and Hendricks clubs. He is a member of the democratic state convention. He was third president of the Elective club of Bridgeport, Master of Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows for the state of Connecticut, and other similar honors are his just due. In 1887 he was elected president of the New York, Rutland and Montreal railroad, and is also a cratic

New York

and New England railwas president of the New Haven and Derby railroad, and director of several other roads, and has carried to success some difficult railroad projects. Under his able management the Housatonic railroad is rapidly becoming the leading director in the road. In 1888 he

one of

New England.


Hiram., editor, was born at SheafEerstown, Lebanon county, Pa., May 14, 1830, a descendant of Alexander SheafiEer, founder of the town, whose son, Capt. Henry Sheaffer, served in the revolutionary army. His maternal grandfather, Frederick Oberlin, was descended from John Frederick Oberlin, of Ban de la Roche, of Alsace, who was born at Strasbourg. Hiram Young was educated at the village school, and at the age of fifteen went to Lancaster, Pa., to learn the saddlery business, remaining there until 1850, when he obtained a position in a bookstore. He devoted his evenings to reading and studying, and after a few years gave up business to prepare for college, and entered the Lancas-

high school, but subsequently abandoned his idea of taking a university course, and obtained a position with the publishing house of Uriah Hunt & Sons, and later with



Co., in Lippincott, Grambo After a few Philadelphia. years he returned to Lancaster, and was successful in building up a leading book-store.

Mr. Young retired firm, and removed On to York, Pa., where he bought a book-store. June 7, 1864, Mr. Young issued the first number of the "True Democrat," at York, Pa., which is now known as the "Semi-weekly Dispatch and True Democrat." In 1876 he started the "Evening Dispatch," now the " York Dispatch." Formerly, Mr. Young was a Douglas democrat, and when the civil war broke out he warmly supported the government. In 1871 he organized a movement against what was known as the York county " court house ring, "and was strongly supported by many democrats. In 1888 he was a candidate for congress on the republican Mr. ticket in a minority district, but was defeated. Young devotes much time to agricultural interests, and has given special attention to the tobacco culIn 1860

from the

ture industry.


has organized agricultural clubs,

and has done yeomen service in advancing the interests of the farming community. He has made the laws a special study, believes in protection to industries, and has been a member in the Farmers' alliance. Mr. Young represented the national sheep and wool growers from Pennsylvania at Washington, D. C, in 1890, and has been manager In of the Pennsylvania state agricultural society. 1893 he was appointed postmaster at York, Pa., by tariff


President Harrison.



KNOX, bom

George William, expressman, was

Me., July 4, 1829, of a family whose ancestors on both sides had been noted for at Belgrade,

many generations, and which


ward gave over forty soldiers to the civil war. At seventeen years of age he left home to seek his fortune, and for eighteen years was engaged in ventures in all parts of the country with varying success. In 1864 he started at" Washington a small express, with a modest team worth $350. Since that time his business developed enormously, until he employed hundreds of men and horses. He was for twenty years U. S. mail contractor, and was employed to do a large amount of tran.sportation for the government, including the material used in the construction of the Washington Monument, in the state and war ^yyi^:;^ buildings, and the congressional library building. Knox's express was during his lifetime the largest express in the country controlled and operated by an individual. Mr. Knox was a director of and large contributor to most of the local charities of Washington. He died March 13, 1892. Jerome A., editor and soldier, was born at Conklin, Broome Co., N. Y., Sept. 6, 1840, the son of Orin J. Watrous, who was born at Bridgewater, Susquehanna Co., Pa., and who is descended from one of three brothers by the name of Watrous, who came to America from England about the year 1700, and settled in Connecticut. Two of these brothers married Welsh women the third had married a Scotch woman before coming to this country, and from him are descended many bearing the name of Watrous. Orin J. Watrous located at Sheboygan Falls, Wis., in 1844. In 1849 he settled on some wild lands in Calumet county, same state, now known as Hayton. He died the next year.



His widow and children



to their old




York, and during the

next six years Jerome worked on a farm, attending school three months in the winter. In July, 1837, he returned to Wisconsin. In April, 1859, he entered Lawrence University, but left at the end of a term to learn the printer's trade at

Appleton.Wis. for troops




When the


break of the

call at the out-

war, he enlisted June 24, 1861, in the 6th Wisconsin infantry. He was made ordnance sergeant of the brigade, and held the position until September, 1862, civil

when he was made


ordnance sergeant. In August, 1864, he was appointed sergeant-major of the regiment, and in October was promoted to be first lieutenant and adjutant. In March, 1865, he

became adjutant-general of the "Iron brigade," commanded by Gen. John A. Kellogg. On March was killed under him at Gravelly Run, and he was taken prisoner, and confined in Libby Prison, being one of the last to be released. He was brevetted captain for gallant conduct on the day of his capture, and by virtue of being a paroled prisoner was mustered out May 20, 1865. He r.emoved to Black River Falls, Wis., purchased an interest in 31st his horse

the "Banner," and became its editor. In 1866 he served as county school superintendent, and was elected to the assembly from Jackson and Clark counties as a republican. In 1869 Col. Watrous became one of the editors and publishers of the Fond du Lac "Commonwealth," establishing a daily the next year. He has been editor of the Milwaukee "Telegraph" for ten years; he was state pension agent from 1885 to 1889, and has been collector of customs since December, 1889. He served eight years as colonel in the national guard, and three years as brigadier-general. Col. Watrous is a thirtythird degree Mason, a member of the Mystic Shrine and the Elks. He was republican candidate for congress in 1870. His popularity among the members of the press is best proved by the fact that he was for two years president of the Northern press association, president of the Wisconsin press association in 1880 and 1881, and president of the Milwaukee press club in 1888.

IiANGSTOlT, John Mercer, congressman, was born in Louisa county, Va., Dec. 14, 1829. His father was Ralph Quarles, Esq., and his mother, Jane Langston, of African and Indian descent, his father's favorite slave and he thus combines the AngloSaxon with the native blood of two continents. Mr. ;

Quarles freed his slaves by will,




to Ohio.


D. Gooch was young Langston's guardian, and made him a member of Col.

his family,


ing him the

and he

Gooch teach-

New Testament,


when he was

ignorant of his colored blood. He was graduated at Oberlin college in 1849,


in the-

ology in 1853; became lawyer in 1855, and practiced in Ohio fifteen years; was town-



ship officer several times, council member of Oberlin twice, and on the board of education twelve years; recruited actively for colored regiments during the war; was inspector-general of the Freedmen's Bureau in 1868 for two years; law dean of Howard university in 1869 for seven years; on the

board of health, District of Columbia, commissioned by President Grant in 1871, and acted seven years as chairman ordinances committee and board attorney, minister resident and consul-general to Hayti, and charge d'affaires to Santo Domingo under President for eight years; West India attorney of John Co., of Philadelphia; vice-president and acting president of Howard university in 1872; president of the Virginia normal and collegiate institute, Petersburg, Va., in 1885 for three years, and national representative from Virginia in 1888 to the fifty-first congress, being seated therein after a contest, Sept. 23, 1890. Prof. Langsl on has taken rank as one of the ablest and most influential and pi-ominent colored men of the country. Enjoying the best educational advantages, he has achieved by his talent, energy, and worth, the first standing among his race as lawyer, professor, college president, foreign minister, and congressman, these distinctions attesting his ambition and qualities. In all of these high trusts he has borne himself so as to win the esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens. He has made a large number of able and thoughtful addresses, well written, and full of historical illustration, bearing upon the elevation of his race, to which he is devolume of his addresses under the title of voted.


Wanamaker &



Freedom and

Citizenship," has been published. married in 1855, C. M. Wall, daughter of Col. Stephen Wall of North Carolina, educated at Oberlin, who has graced all of his positions. They have four


living children, all business.


citizens in responsible

SYKES, Martin officer,


Luther, railroad manager, was born in Springfield, Mass., March 26, 1826. He is descended from Richard Sykes, who emigrated from England in 1630 to 1633 with the company that came to the country with Gov. Winthrop and William Pynchon, Esq., whose


son, Richard Sykes, settled in Springfield, Mass., and was made

a freeman


name Sykes



or Sikes




from the Anglo-Saxon sich, a water course or water furrow. Ancient documents, in Latin and English, show that some of these were located at Flockton, in the parish of Thornhill, near Leeds, Eng., about the year 1200, when Agnes del Sicke acquired lauds at Flockm/X(£j(^''2—^ ton. The arms from a remote period are derived from the same source. The name has been associated with the British peerage for several generations. Mr. Sykes completed his education at the high school in Springfield, Mass. He commenced his business career in mercantile pursuits, wholly dependent upon his own resources. In 1844 he became connected with the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield railroad, then in course of construction between Springfield and Hartford, and was engaged in outside duties under the division engineer, in inspecting materials, assisting as rodman, and in other field work, and for a short time was with the engineers on the construction work of the Connecticut River railroad between Springfield and Cabotville. After the completion of the road between Springfield and Hartford, he was transferred to the operating department; first to the New Haven freight office, and then to the general offices at Hartford, as clerk to the president and superintendent, paymaster of the road, and employed in other capacities in general service. He passed through the several grades, becoming familiar with the details of its construction and management, and in 1853 acted as superintendent. In 1851 he accepted the superintendency of the Connecticut River railroad, of which Chester W. Chapin was president, but subsequently resigned this office to resume his connection with the New Haven, Hartford and Springfield road, remaining there until 1853. For a brief period he was employed in the office of the eminent bridge -builders, Daniel L. Harris and A. D. Briggs at Springfield. He then became superintendent of the Morris and Essex railroad in New Jersey. In 1854 he was invited by Edwin D. Morgan, president of the Hudson River railroad, to the superintendency of that road, where he continued until 1857, having been promoted to From this he resigned, and its vice-presidency. went to Chicago to take charge of the Chicago Milwaukee railroad as superintendent and vicepresident. He held these positions for three years, until 1860, when he was chosen vice-president of the


Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana railroad. The company, at this time, was in default in its payments, with its stock selling at less than ten, and During its securities and credit greatly depreciated. the five years of his administration (in which he became its president) its credit was restored, and its stock sold at a premium. This covered the period of the war, during which the movement of thousands


of troops, together with large quantities of munitions of war, required the first attention of the railroad under his supervision, and demanded transportation, in season and out of season, even at the sacrifice of the regular traffic. By affording the best facilities of his company, Mr. Sykes, in his official position, rendered important service in that eventful crisis. In 1865 Mr. Sykes returned to York, and became vice-president of the Delaware, Lackawanna Western railroad, continuing from July, 1865, until January, 1867, when he accepted the vice-presidency of the Cleveland, Painesville Ashtabula railroad, and went to Cleveland, O. During the same year, in 1867, he accepted the position of second vicepresident of the Chicago Northwestern railway, and again returned to York. His connection with this company covers a quarter of a century, during which time the mileage contained in the system has grown from 1,152 to 5,681 miles. He was second vice-president from July 22, 1867, to June 30, 1870, then vice-president to June 30, 1873, when he was elected vice-president, treasurer, and secretary, which positions he now holds. He is also vicepresident, treasurer, and assistant secretary of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis Omaha railway, of 1,481 miles, and of the Milwaukee, Lake Shore Western railway, of 784 miles, besides occupying official positions in several minor railway companies,







embraced within the Chicago

& Northwestern




has now seen forty-eight years of railway life, nearly one half of which has been devoted to operating work, and the balance to filling important official positions in the general and financial departments of railway service, and he has now the satisfaction of seeing all the roads with which he has been connected, whether now existing as separate or associate lines, maintaining a high credit and reputation, and enjoying as large a measure of prosperity as is compatible with the shifting conditions of railroads in this country. WAIiKEB, Robert J., clergyman, was born in Noxubee county. Miss. March 12, 1844. His father, a Scotch-Irishman, was an intelligent cotton-planter, and a near relative of R. J. Walker, formerly secretary of the U. S. treasury. Gen. George B. lyicClellan, and President Polk. Robert attended the tem.


Centenary Male Institute, Suinmei-field, Ala., for four years,

and then entered Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. joined the Confederate army in 1861, was wounded



31, 1864,

on the


and then placed list.



some time on a farm

in Mississippi, taught school in Ala-

bama, and afterward was a Methodist



Georgia, where he rented a horse with one eye rider


at $25 per annum, having to take rain and sunshine alike, as the animal would not permit

him to carry an umblessed in his work, receiving 200 members the first year, but his health failed, and after spending some time in Kansas, he entered the Protestant Episcopal ministry. His first rectorate


He was

was at Kewanee, 111., his second at Fort Dodge, la., his third at Elizabeth City, N. C, and his fourth at Marion, Ala. He located finally at St. Athanasius' church, Burlington, N. C, where he is laboring in a field in which his experience, energy and untiring zeal have resulted in building up a flourishing church. He is prominent in the councils of the diocese, ably supporting the work of Bishop Lyman.




Sir William, soldier, was June 37, 1696, at Kitteiy, Me., the son of Col. William Pepperrell and Margery Bray, both natives William Pepperrell, Sr., was born in of England. Tavistock, near Exeter, in Cornwall, of humble parentage, and was apprenticed when quite young to the owner of a fishing vessel employed on the coast of New England. At the age of twenty-two he emigrated to America and settled on the Isles of Shoals, where he became interested in the fishing business with a Mr. Gibbons. They soon afterward removed to


Kittery Point, Me., nine miles north of the Isles of Shoals. The Pepperrells were engaged in shipbuilding and fisheries, and sent numerous vessels to the West Indies laden with lumber, oil, fish and live stock, to exchange for cargoes of West India products; others were shipped to Europe to exchange for wine, dry-goods and salt, or for the purpose of They also traded in selling both vessel and cargo. southern ports, but their largest business was done in the fisheries. William Pepperrell, Jr., was educated at the vOlage school of his native place, and was taught the art of surveying land and of navigating a ship, under a private tutor. His hand-writing was beautiful, and he was a valuable assistant to his father, for whom he copied letters and wrote his justice docket when he was but ten years old. He was thus brought into intimate contact with those who traded

with his father, and was early initiated in the practical walks of life and in the methods of trade.

Born and reared amid the dangers of savage warfare, he was naturally imbued with a military spirit at an early age, and at sixteen bore arms in patrol duty.


the death of his brotlier

Andrew, the style of the firm changed from William Pepperrell & Son to William Pepperrell, and retained that form until his father's death.


firm dealt in lumber,

and provisions. William was hardy, robust and muscular, and as he grew older developed great powers of endurance. naval

stores, fish

The Pepperrells by degrees extended their business and were for years the largest merchants iu New England. The money they accumulated was devoted to the purchase of real estate, which was purchased at a low price and rapidly increased in value, and thus the firm amassed a princely fortune. In 1716 they purcliased a greater part of the present town of Saco, extending from the sea several miles along the Saco river, taking in all the mill sites, and in 1729 the younger William bought an adjoining former, and thus became sole proprietor of the greater part of the towns of Saco and Seaborough. At the age of twenty-one he assumed the duties of an outdoor partner, and directed his attention to tlie improvement of this vast estate and to contracting for the building of vessels on the tract, east of the

Piscataqua and Saco rivers. Mr. Pepperrell's business brought him into intimate relationship with the public men of Boston, and he had no sooner attained his majority, than he was commissioned justice of the peace and a captain of a company of cavalry, and rapidly promoted major, lieutenant-colonel, and, at the age of thirty, was brevetted colonel and placed in command of all the militia of Maine. In 1736 he was elected representative of Kitteiy, and the following year appointed a member of the board of councilors, which appointment was renewed thirty-two successive years up to the time of his death, during eighteen of which he served as secretary of the board, He was married, on March 16, 1733, to a

Samuel Moody of York. Gov. Belcher appointed him a chief justice of the court of common pleas, which oflice he retained until In 1744 he was called to perform an his death. act which added lustre to his already famous name, immortalized his memory on the pages of and has niece of the Rev.

Col. Pepperrell history. in-chief of the body of with which he was to


elected commanderEngland volunteers, undertake the siege and


reduction of Louisburg, the strongest fortress in America, which the French had built at a cost of After a siege of forty-nine days, during $6,000,000. which the severest hardships were encountered, the fortress was compelled to surrender. Com. Warren with several large ships assisted the land forces by cutting off supplies coming to the garrison during the siege. The announcement of the brilliant victory filled the Americans with joy and Europe with surprise. In the seaports of Europe bells were rung, salutes fired, and the towns illuminated; the king was overwhelmed with congratulations, while the joy in America was as universal and enthusiastic. While both commanders received the highest encomiums from the government for their unanimity of action and bravery, the glory of the day was due to Col. Pepperrell.


several legislatures of the

provinces voted him thanks and congratulations soon after the capture, and the Duke of Newcastle, upon receiving his olficial account, replied at length, and, among other things, said: "I lost no time in transmitting copies of your dispatches to my Lord Harrington at Hanovei', to be laid before the King. I have now the pleasure to acquaint you that the news of the reduction of Louisburg was received by his majesty with the highest satisfaction, which the king has commanded should be signified to all the commanders and other officers, both of land and sea, who were instrumental therein; in consequence of which I am to desire you would acquaint the officers under your command with his majesty's most gracious approbation of their services on this occasion. It is a great satisfaction to me to acquaint you that his majesty has thought fit to distinguish the commander-in-chief of this expedition by conferring on you the dignity of a Baronet of Great Britain, and by giving a flag to Mr. Warren." Sir William was also given the command of a regiment of royal troops with power to appoint most of the officers. He was the first native American honored by being knighted. Soon after the conclusion of peace he retired from business, having amassed the largest fortune in the colonies. He is said to have been worth £300,000, of which he gave liberally for the expenses of the Louisburg expedition. He also was active in raising and equipping troops during the French war of 1755, and was employed In 1755 he was in negotiations witli the Indians. commissioned a major-general in the British army and placed in command of the forces that were to protect the frontiers of Maine and New Hampshire. He was acting governor of Massachusetts in 1756-58. Sir William visited London in 1749, and was cordially received in all quarters. The Prince of Wales and mayor of London gave him special marks of preferment. The memory of the victory at Louisburg was still fresh in the minds of the peoAfter ple, and he was an object of general interest. his return from England he began a style of living

that befitted his ranli. The many distinguished visitors that came to his house were elegantly received. His walls were decorated with costly paintings and mirrors. Handsome silver ornamented his sideboard. He had a large retinue of servants, a coach and six, and a splendid barge, with a black crew dressed in uniform. He dressed in the style of the period in a suit of scarlet heavily trimmed with gold lace; wore a powdered wig, and maintained his estate in

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. true baronial style. He met with a bereavement that saddened the closing years of his life when his only son and heir, Andrew, a graduate of Harvard, died at the early age of twenty-four. Though the names of the revolutionary heroes have eclipsed those of the sturdy American generals who did so much for the formation of the army that "Washington and his generals led to victory, their names will always hold a bright place in the history of the early colonies. Several portraits of Sir William Pepperrell, in full court costume, were painted soon after he was created a baronet: the most valuable, believed to have been painted by Smybert, is now the property of one of his descendants who resides in New York city. He died at Kittery, Me., July 6, 1759. Samuel Lightfoot, chief engineer and surveyor of Philadelphia, was born at Edgemont, Delaware county. Pa., Dec. 39, 1832. He is of the sixth generation from George Smedley of Derbyshire, Eng., who came to America in 1683, with other followers of William Penn, and settled one mile west of the present town of Media, Pa., where he purchased land, still owned, occupied, and cultivated by his descendants. William Smedley, the grandson of George, the founder of the American family of Smedleys, about 1754, on the site originally purchased of William Penn, built the historic Smedley mansion, shown in the





were necessarily of great value to the city, which embraces within its corporate limits 129 square miles. The improvements and constructions prosecuted by Mr. Smedley cost many millions of dollars, and, among other things, include the building of the Penrose ferry bridge; the iron cantilever bridge at Market street; the Fairmount bridge the new Walnut street bridge, the iron work of which is 2,400 feet long, and the Girard avenue bridge. All these cross the Schuylkill river, but in the list of his constructions are numerous bridges crossing smaller streets, The Girard avenue bridge is canals, and railroads. of iron, is 100 feet wide, 1,000 feet long, and cost ;

The city of Philadelphia is mtersected railroads, in laying out which, and in making adjustment to avoid grade crossings in the original locations, Mr. Smedley acquired a great reputation for proficiency, and by his determination secured a safe and grand entrance to Fairmount park by tunneling the railroad at Green street entrance. Largely under his direction, 476 miles of sewers were built, $1,500,000.

by many

including Cresheim creek aqueduct, with the extraordinary span of a 116-foot stone arch, being next to the largest in this country. He raised the grade of Market street, west of the Schuylkill obliterated a valley with steep ascents and descents, and brought the beautiful part of West Philadelphia within easy reach of the centre of the city. Mr. Smedley visited ;

It is

situated on a prominence overlooking the beautiful town of Media, and a broad expanse of country, including a magnificent view of the Delaware river, and has been the scene of interesting reunions of the numerous descendants of George Smedley. Here Samuel L. Smedley, Sr., the father of the


subject of this sketch, was born. He possessed superior mental endowments, acquired a good education, and became a successful surveyor, conveyancer, teacher, and farmer, but died at the early age of thirty -six. His wife, Hannah, daughter of Joseph Pennell, was a woman of many noble qualities of mind and heart. She took a devoted interest in the education and training of their three sons, of Samuel L. Smedley, the youngest, was but two years old when his father died. The lad inherited the mental tastes and strong characteristics of his parents, and developed early in his youth a remarkable talent for mathematics. When a boy of fourteen, as is shown by demonstrations still in existence, he had mastered the most abstruse questions


of geometry, trigonometry, surveying, and higher astronomy. His studies were prosecuted at the Friends' academy, Westtown, Pa., and a classical school in Germantown. Ambition to excel in his studies, with its inevitable overwork, affected his health, and he was ordered to leave his studies when but fifteen years of age. The succeeding four years were spent in outdoor life at home. At the age of twenty-one he went to Philadelphia, where, under the instruction of Joseph Fox, a noted surveyor, he became an expert draughtsman. Being a superior mathematician, he made rapid progress as surveyor and engineer. In 1856 he plotted a district of West Philadelphia into streets, and soon after published the first complete atlas of Philadelphia, which became the standard authority for many years. Fi'om 1858-78 he was a member of the board of city surveyors, and from 1873 until his resignation in 1893, he filled the responsible position of chief engineer and surveyor of Philadelphia. By reason of his large experience, his services during so long a period

the large cities of Europe in 1865, and was forcibly impressed with the value of their public parks. Soon after his return, with other persons he advocated the establishment of a park for Philadelphia. The result was the purchase from the Barings of England of 150 acres, known as " Lansdowne," along the Schuylkill. This became the nucleus of the famous Fairmount park. He made the original surveys; was instrumental in securing George's hill, with its commanding view of the city designed and laid out many of the walks and drives, and from 1878-93 was, ex-officio, a member of the board of park commissioners. Mr. Smedley is a member of the American society of civil engineers, and the Engineers' club of Philadelphia, a member of the Historical society of Pennsylvania since 1857, and its recording secretary for fourteen years. He is also a member of the Antiquarian society. Academy of natural sciences, Franklin institute. West Philadelphia institute, Delaware county institute of science, the Union league of Philadelphia, and the American public health association. Like his ancestors, he is a member of the Society of Friends. As a public ofiicer, he always maintained the honor and dignity of his position, and has a record of fidelity, probity, and trustworthiness. ;

HTJTCHINS, Charles Lewis,

clergyman, was Concord. N. H., Aug. 5, 1838. Among his ancestors were Col. Gordon Hutchins, of revolution-





aiy note, and Rev. Thomas Barnard, second minister of Andover, Mass. He was graduated from Williams college in 1861, and, after a year's travel, at the York Episcopal general theological seminary in in 1865. He was rector of St. John's church, Lowell, ]Mass., 1865-69; assistant minister of St. Paul's cathe dral, Buffalo, N. Y., 1869-72; rector of Grace church, Medford, Mass., 1873-90, when he relinquished pa-


work and removed to Concord, Mass. Since 1877 he has been secretary of the Episcopal general convention. He has edited several musical books, notably the "Church Hymnal," which is widely used, and the "Sunday-school Hymnal," of which 250,000 copies have been sold. Since 1874 he has edited the "Parish Choir," the only weekly in the world devoted to church music. His " Annotations of the Hymnal " (1872), though little appreciated by the public, gave him a place among hymnologists. rochial

CHURCH, Benjamin



and hy-

draulic engineer, was born Apr. 17, 1836, at "Belvidere," the family homestead on the Genesee river, Allegany county, N. Y. He is the great-grandson of John B.


who was commissary-

general in Washington's array, and a noted man of the time.

John ica,

Schuyler, whose sister was the of Alexander Hamilton. On trivial provocation, Aaron Burr challenged and fought John B. Church in a duel, but after an exchange of shots, matters were amicably arranged. This was a short time before Burr's fatal duel with Hamilton, in which the pistols used were John B. Church's arms, and Hamilton was buried from Church's house. The son of JohnB. Church, Philip, afterward judge, was captain on the staff of his uncle. Gen. Hamilton, at the time of the fatal duel. Large tracts of land were subsequently purchased in the western part of the state, and there Judge Church built, in the "primeval forest," the first stone house in Allegany county, and "Belvidere" is still in possession of the family. The Judge married Ann Stewart, daughter of Gen. Walter Stewart, revolutionary hero, and personal friend of George Washington. Washington gave away the young bride, and gave her as a weddingpresent a miniature of himself set in diamonds. Judge Church's son was the father of Col. Benjamin Silliman Church. The latter is descended, on his mother's side, from John Alden and Priscilla Mullens of Plymouth (Mass.) colonial fame, from the two Govs. Trumbull of Connecticut, and from Gen. Gold Silliman and Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Sr., of Yale college. He has been, and is still, connected with very many engineering works of note, standing easily at the head of his profession. He received a thorough scientific and collegiate education at Dartmouth college. His reputation for concise reports upon various engineering works in all parts of the country, in which his judgment has been sought, is deservedly high, his 'opinions thus stated being remarkable for simplicity and clearness of scientific statement. "He handles abstruse subjects in a way that a child can understand," was the remark of the projector of a great work of irrigation, "and he develops all the bearings in an exhaustive manner." He has had charge of the water supply of the city of New York, from time to time, during the past thirty years. His greatest achievement, and that which has given him his world-wide note



B. Church married Angeldaughter of Gen. Philip

in his profession, has been the projecting and constructing of the new Croton aqueduct, the source of York city, of which he the water supply for was engineer-in-chief from its inception to its virtual completion. The aqueduct is a vast rock-tunnel, running under ground for thirty miles. It dips under the Plarlem river, and emjjties the Croton river into the reservoirs within the city limits. Taking into account the appurtenances pertaining to a work of such magnitude, it has been pronounced the greatest engineering achievement of its character in the world. Col. Church married Mary Van Wyck, whose ancestry was also prominent in colonial times. He saw service in the civil war, enlisting, among the first, in the 12th New York regiment, and being


corporal under colonel, afterward Gen. liutterfleld.

Soon after reaching Washington, D. C, he was placed on duty with the U. S. topographical engineers, and made the earliest reconnaissance in Virginia together with Capt. Suydam of the U. 8. corps. He was one of the first otflcers captured by the Confederate forces, but escaped from them. Not being ordered to dismount, he watched his opportunity, and, spurring his horse, left the lines of the enemy, fortunately escaping the bullets which were sent Having been laid up from exposure in after him. the field, he re-entered the service in 1863, but owing to sickness contracted in the army, he was forced to retire before the close of the war.

BURLESON, Rufus C, educator, was born near Decatur, Ala., Aug. 7, 1823. He is of Welsh descent. His great-grandfather on his father's side was one of seven brothers who fought for the American cause in the revolutionary war, and he was finally killed by the Indians while emigrating from North Carolina to Kentucky. His grandfather was noted as an Indian fighter in Kentucky and Alabama. His father, for thirty years a member of the county court, began life in poverty, but by the exercise of economy, industry, and the common sense, with which he wa^ liberally endowed, became a wealthy cotton-planter and slaveholder, accumulating during his lifetime over $200,000, and educating On the maternal side, Rufus was thirteen children. descended from Sir William Byrd, the founder of Richmond and Petersburg, Va., and from Gov. William Adair, of Kentucky. He fitted for college under private tutors, and in 1840 entered Nashville university, but he was obliged to leave at the end of two years on account of sickness induced by oversludy. His father, fearing for his son's health, firmly but kindly declined to send him back to his stud-


Rufus, however, had upon an education, and finally secured his reluctant consent to a ies.

set his heart

scheme by which he was to return if he still wished to do so, after he had earned




for himself the necessary funds. In three years and a, half he saved He then $1,050, and entirely recovered his health. entered the Western theological institute, CovingSoon after ton, Ky., and was graduated in 1847. he became pastor of the First Baptist church of

Houston, Tex., continuing there until 1851, when he was elected president of Baylor university, Tex., an institution which had never been strong, and which

OF AMERICAN BIOGKAPHY. was threatened with complete dissolution at that time by the sudden resignation of the president and the entire faculty. He has filled this position ever having had a longer term of service, it seems, than any college president except Dr. Bliphalet Nott and Dr. Francis Wayland. Thus, in a sense, he has made the university his own. It has grown


steadily under his management, until it lias an enrollment of about 700 male and female students, and it has had a proportional increase in efficiency. He has instructed over 6, 000 young ladies and gentlemen in the last forty years. It is said to have been the third college in the country to adopt the system of co-education. President Burleson has been a leader among the Baptists of the southwest for many years, having found time, apart from his college duties, to perform the work of a clergyman. He has preached the gospel in every town in Texas with her 274,000 square miles. In 1852 he married Georgia Jenkins, whose rare culture, gentleness, and energy have been great factors in his remarkable success as an educator and preacher. Benjamin, signer of the declaration of


independence, was born near Philadelphia, Jan. 3, 1746, and was descended from one of Cromwell's officers,

who came to America in six,

1683. Orphaned at he attended the school of his

uncle, S. Finley, D.D., at Nottingham, Pa., and was fitted for

Princeton college, from which he was graduated in 1760. His medical studies were more prolonged, being pursued at home under Dr. J. Redman; in Edinburgh 176668, where he took the degree of jM.p., and for another year in London and Paris. He kept through life a note-book or journal, the early pages of which supply our only knowledge of the yellow fever of 1762. In 1769 he began practice, at the same time accepting the chair of chemistry in IJ&P^UMrUyi^l'ie.Cirn^ the College of Philadelphia. His first volume, consisting of a few essays, appeared two years later. He was early and actively interested in the cause of liberty, wrote much for the press, and in the Pennsylvania provincial conference moved to urge congress to a separation. In June, 1776, he was sent to congress to fill a vacancy, and soon after married the daughter of another member, R. Stockton. He was surgeon to the Pennsylvania navy 1775-76, and for the military hospitals 1777-78, for



he would take no pay. In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which ratified the United States constitution and framed one for the state. In 1785 he established the first dispensary in the country. In December, 1789, his chair was exchanged for that of the theory and practice of medicine, previously held by Dr. John Morgan, who had founded the medical school in 1765. Certain additions were made to the department in 1791, when the college was merged in the University of Pennices

and again in 1797. Dr. Rush held the post while he lived, and bore a large part in educating some 2,800 students, and in promoting medical science. He was also a surgeon to the Pennsylvania hospital from 1784, and physician to the post 179098. In the terrible yellow-fever season of 1793 he is said to have saved 6,000 lives by using a new method, based on a MS. of Dr. John Mitchell of Urbana, Va., narrating experiences in a similar epidemic in 1741. For this departure from the usual practice W. Cobbett attacked him in print fiercely and Dr. Rush was awarded $5,000 damages. Dr. Rush showed the indigenous and non-contagious sylvania,


character of the disease, and for his additions to medical knowledge in this respect received medals from the king of Prussia in 1805, the queen of Etruria in 1807, and a diamond ring from the czar of Russia in 1811. During the epidemic of 1793 he was forced to refuse many applications every day, and to drive past persons who tried to stop him in the streets, but at other times he found leisure for more useful activities than can be recounted. He was a founder of Dickinson college at Carlisle, Pa., and of the City bible society, vice-president of the latter, and of the Philosophical societ}', president of the City medical society, and of that for the abolition of slavery, treasurer of the U. S. mint from 1799, and a member of very many learned bodies and benevolent associations at home and abroad. Pew pliysicians have been more honored, or have done more to add luster to their pro-


fession. established more principles, and added more facts to the science of medicine, than all


preceded him " in America.

He was

a voluminous writer, and the editor of several professional books. The more important of his earlier papers were gathered in five volumes of " Medical Inquiries and Observations" (1789-98), and twice reprinted in four volumes, in 1804 and 1809. His "Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philosophical," appeared in 1798, and again in 1806. They were followed by "Sixteen Introductory Lectures to Courses of Medicine" (1811), and "Diseases of the Mind" (1812), which reached a fifth edition in 1835. Dr. Rush received the degree of LL.D. from Yale in 1812. He died in Philadelphia Apr. 19, 1813, leaving an unfinished MS. on the "Medicine of the Bible." His life has never been adequately written. See his " Eulogium " by D. Ramsay, M.D. (1813). BTJSH, Benjamin, grandson of Benjamin, and son of Richard Rush, was born in Philadelphia Jan. 23, 1811. He was graduated from Princeton college in 1829 was admitted to the bar in 1833 became, in 1837, secretary of the U. S. legation in London, and for a time acted as charge d'affaires there. He wrote "An Appeal for the Union" (1861), and " Letters on the Rebellion " (1862). He died in Paris .June 30, 1877. ;




business liian, was born Dundalk, Ireland, where he was educated. His parents died when he was fifteen years of age, and he decided to emigrate to America, and settled in Baltimore, Md., where he obtained employment and apprenSept.


1830, in

ticed himself to the firm


Regester, of Champitt brass finishers and manufacturers of plumbers' supplies, etc. At the termination of his apprenticeship he was enabled to enter the same business on his own account, and being a careful and stu-

dious mechanic who closely attended to his business, soon attained success. In 1869 he formed a co-partnership with Co., of



Wm. New


^^ >iy_ r»_ up to the time of his death. (^C^*-"-*^ •s»*^*^^*-e»-«.*^ York, which he continued

This firm had important branch houses in Brooklyn, N.Y., Boston, Mass., and In 1872 the bell foundry was in Washington, D. C. established as a special department, being under the supervision of a German expert, and it was not long before the McShane bells became famous for their sweet, full, and rich tones, and superior quality, and soon took a foremost rank among the best-known At present (1893) the establishbells in the market.


334 ment

in Baltimore covers a floor space of nearly seven acres, and comprises three sets of large buildings, each occupying half a block. He lived a temperate life and rose from the humble ranks of a day laborer to a high place in the commercial world. He was considerate of his employees, and frequently aided them with his advice, which was always calculated to make them worthier members of society. He was a Eoman Catholic in faith, and left a wife and six children to mourn his loss. Mr. McShane died Feb. 23, 1889. TRTJMBXJIilj, John, colonel in the war of the revolution, was born in Lebanon, Conn., June 6, 1756. His father, Jonathan Trumbull, was a. distinguished scholar and governor of the state of Connecticut during the entire war of the revolution, and his mother was granddaughter of John Robinson, the father of the Pilgrims. Young Trumbull was afflicted, immediately after his birth, with serious illness caused by compression of the brain, from which he was only relieved by tlie careful care and nursing of his mother, but through this means, by the time he was three years old, the natural of his head was restored, and the trouble At this connection with his brain ceased. time Lebanon was celebrated for having the best school in New England. It was kept by Nathan Tisdale, a graduate of Harvard, who had become so well and so favorably known as a teacher, that he had scholars from the West In-



and from the Southern well as from the New

dia Islands states, as

England and Northern


colonies. this excellent scholar John

Trumbull was placed, while he was still a mere boy, and his intellect, which had been so long repressed by disease, seemed to spring forward with increased energy when the

upon his brain was reat once a singular facility for acquiring knowledge, particularly of languages; and it is said of him, that, at the age of six years, he could read Greek with ease. Meanwhile he began to exhibit a taste for drawing, which, to a certain extent, as it proved, influenced About 1766 Jonathan Trumbull met his after life. with financial disaster, as in one season nearly all his property was swept away. This fact somewhat interfered with the education of his son, who, at the age of twelve years, was sufliciently advanced in his studies to enter college. In 1773, however, his father was able to send him to Cambridge, where he examination, passed and was admitted to the junior class, then in the middle of the third year, so that he had but one ,year and a half to remain at college. Meanwhile he had progressed in his drawing, and had executed several paintings during his stay in college, one of which even met with the approval of so distinguished an artist as John Singleton Copley. Trumbull was graduated from Harvard in 1773 with honor, and returned to Lebanon. In the same year his former master, Nathan Tisdale, having been disabled from performing his duties, Trumbull took charge of his school dui-ing one winter. This brought him into the spring of 1774, when the disturbance pressure

moved. He displayed

take command of the army before Boston, Trumbull learned that the commandfer-in-chief was desirous of obtaining a correct plan of the enemy's works in front of the American position on Boston neck. He accordingly drew up such a plan, with which Washington was so well pleased that he appointed Trumbull his second aide-de-camp. In this position he attracted the attention of Gen. Gates, with whom he became such a favorite, that, when in June, 1776, Gates was appointed to the command of the northern department, he named Ti-umbull as one of his adjutants with the rank of colonel. Col. Trumbull accompanied Gen. Gates to Crown Point, but the army fell back to Ticonderoga, where Col. Trumbull made himself u.seful in drawing plans of the works. He remained with the northern division of the army until the end of November, 1776, after which he accompanied Gen. Gates, who joined Washington ia New Jersey a few days before the battle of Trenton. Early in 1777 Col. Trumbull resigned from the army on account of a misunderstanding with regard to his commission as adjutant-general. He now returned to Lebanon, but soon after went to Boston, where he devoted himself to art as a profession. In 1778, though, he volunteered his services to Gen. Sullivan, during his attempt on Rhode Island, which was, however, unsuccessful, and Trumbull returned to Boston, and continued to pursue his profession as

an artist. In May, 1780, Col. Trumbull sailed for Europe, having a commercial project in his mind, which, however, failed, and after spending a brief feriod in Paris, he went to London with letters to Benjamin West from Franklin and others. He continued painting in London but at the end of the year 1780, the news of the execution of Major Andre caused the British government to order his arrest, and he was imprisoned until June, 1781, when, through the influence of friends, he was released by an order from the king. Soon after he sailed for America, where he arrived in January, 1783, and where he continued to live until the latter part of 1793, when, peace having been declared in the meantime, he returned to London and studied with Mr. West, and at the Royal academy. During the next ;

year Col. Trumbull conceived the idea of his


cal pictures of the revolution, and went to Paris, where he painted his "Declaration of Independence," assisted by the information and advice of Thomas Jefferson. His next work was the Sortie from Gibraltar," which, according to Horace Walpole, was "the finest picture he had ever seen painted on the northern side of the Alps." Toward the end of 1787 Col. Trumbull painted the portrait of Thomas Jefferson, and also the French oflicers in the " Surrender of Lord Cornwallis." In 1789 Col. Trumbull returned to America, and in the following year painted for the city of Philadelphia a fulllength portrait of Gen. Washington, and in 1791 a In the meantime likeness of Gov. George Clinton. he had painted pictures of the battles of Bunker Hill '


and of Quebec, from which engravings have been made. In 1794 Trumbull returned to London as private secretary to John Jay, and two years later he was appointed a commissioner to carry into effect the treaty negotiated by Mr. Jay between Great He continued in Britain and the United States. Europe until the spring of 1804, when he sailed for New York, and on arriving there established himbetween Great Britain and her colonies became self as a portrait painter, and continued to prosecute serious, and John Trumbull joined a number of his profession in this direction until 1809, when he other young men of his neighborhood in learning the returned to England, where he was obliged to reuse of the musket and military drill. In the latter main until the close of the war of 1813. Meanwhile, part of April, 1775, Jrumbull entered the army as among his important works were portraits of John adjutant of the 1st Connecticut regiment, at that Jay and Alexander Hamilton, painted for the city of time stationed at Roxbury, from which place, in New York, and those of Timothy Dwight and June, he had a distant view of the battle of Bunker Stephen Van Rensselaer, which are at Yale college. Hill. Soon after the arrival of Gen. Washington to He returned to America in 1815, and resumed the

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. practice of his profession in





congress ordered from him four paintings, viz.: "The Declaration of Independence," "Surrender of Lord Cornwallis," "Surrender of Gen. Burgoyne," and the " Resignation by Gen. Washington of his Commission to Congress." These works occupied his time until 1824. In April of that year he had the misfortune to lose his wife, to whom he had been wedded for twenty-four years. Col. Trumbull now began a new series of paintings, but was embarrassed in his completion of these by illness and poverty. Finally he arranged with the corporation of Yale college, in December, 1831, to bestow upon that institution his unsold paintings in exchange for an annuity of $1,000 for the remainder of his life. Eventually the arrangement was made with regard to these paintings, that the proceeds of their exhibition should be appropriated toward defraying the expense of educating poor scholars in Yale college. On the completion of tlie Art school building of that institution, these paintings were removed thither. Trumbull remained in New Haven from 1837 until

when he removed to New York. The most among Col. Trumbull's paintings in the "Trumbull Gallery," in New Haven are: "The Battle of Bunker Hill," "The Death of Gen. Mont1841,


at Quebec," "The Declaration of Independence," "The Battle of Trenton," "The Battle of Princeton," "The Surrender of Gen. Burgoyne," " Surrender of Gen. Cornwallis," " Washington Resigning his Commission," " Our Saviour with Little Children," "The Woman Accused of Adultery," "Peter the Great at Narva." Among his portraits, besides those already mentioned, are those of


John Adams, Jonathan Trumbull, Rufus King and Christopher Gore. A number of his works are in the hall.

New York historical society's rooms, the City New York, and in other public institutions and

private galleries; but most of them are in the gallery at Yale, where also may be seen his bust by Ball Hughes. 'Trumbull painted a portrait of himself in 1833. Gilbert Stuart painted another, and others exist by various artists. He died Nov. 10, 1843. Trumbull and his wife lie buried beneath the old art gallery at Yale. SSIEAD, Isaac David, inventor and manufacturer, was born at Coleraine, Franklin county, Mass., July 81, 1849. His father, Ezra Smead, was a mechanic and farmer, and the place of his nativity was in Windham county, Vt. The first American representative of his family came to America from Wales about two centuries ago. His mother, Eleanor (Caldwell) Smead, was a descendant of a family which came to New England from Coleraine, Ireland, about 160 years ago. Mr. Smead's maternal grandfather, David Caldwell", a cousin of John C. Calhoun, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and fought in the battle of Bennington. He was also, for several terms, a member of the Massachusetts legislature. Mr. Smead obtained his education at the district schools, attending, for a few terms, a select school. At the age of sixteen, after the death of his mother, he left his quiet eastern home for the active and growing West. Reaching Bloomington, 111., he entered the employ of W. A. Pennell Co., manufacturers of heating furnaces, as office boy. The enterprise was new, and the firm made numerous experiments in efforts to test the practicability of the theories of Henry Ruttan, of Coburg, Canada, who had written a work advancing theories for the combination of heating and ventilating apparatus, and which formed the nucleus which grew in Mr. Smead's inventive and mechanical mind until his subsequent successful invention was evolved. He directed his attention to the thing at hand, and becoming deeply interested, he was a valuable aid to the company, and his worth was recognized from



time to time by promotions, so that after a term of fifteen years in their employ, he withdrew, having been the president for the last three years. This was in 1882. He had made and continued to make various improvements in heating apparatus, adding to its warmth-giving power that of ventilating. In this year he went to "Toledo, and under the name of Isaac D. Smead & Co., commenced the manufacture of his invention.






companies were formed at great manufacturing centres, viz.: Isaac D. Smead & Co., Kansas City, Mo.; Smead & Northcott, Elmira, N. Y.; Smead, Wills


Co., Philadelphia, Pa.;

Smead warming

and ventilating company, Boston, Mass.;

Dowd &


Blackman - Smead ventilating company, London, Eng., and the Smead foundry company, Toledo, O., of which Mr. Smead Co.,




president, and almost entire owner, and which is one of the largest and most complete establishments of its kind in America. The organization and successful operation of these several companies arose not entirely from the truly meritorious article manufactured, but largely from the consummate business ability of their principal. In one instance especially is this proven. When the 'Toronto project was being is

and would not


that he has never known failure. His quick intuitive mind has never failed to meet an emergency when it arises, to devise a tool, or


discussed, his friends demurred tion the enterprise. They feared that foreign prejudice

would be its ruin. He would not draw back, however, and met with the same success as had always repaid his efforts before. The Smead heating and ventilating apparatus is known throughout the world, and its universal use alone testifies to its merits. The in-

ventor has patented twentyone different inventions on the parts which go to make up the completed whole, and this represents the work and study of years of the life of a busy man. remarkable fact



an improvement when

needed. Furthermore, his efforts are never wasted. Utility is the word with him. As he enigmatically expresses this, "I have patented many inventions but have never invented a patent." While his work has been remunerative, and he owns valuable real estate in the cities in which he operates, and one of the largest orange groves in Florida, which he manages himself, benefits are scattered everywhere, resulting from his success. His employees, whose worth he fully appreciates, receive them, and the public welfare is advanced by the use of his healthful inventions. He has never held an elective office, and the reason for this is best expressed in his own words: "I believe in undertaking only that which I can do well, and, as my own business in its development has required constant attention, I have not allowed myself to mingle in outside affairs, except as it becomes a citizen to be interested in local matters. I try not to shirk duty when I am fully convinced it is a duty that urges." In a communication declining to become a candidate for congress, he said, "There is but one bee in my bonnet, and that bee sings in harmony with the music of the wheels at the Smead foundry." He has rendered .public service as a member of the board of managers of the Ohio penitentiary, having been appointed by Gov. Foraker in 1886, who also conferred upon him the distinctive title of colonel. After serving a term of three years it is



he was reappointed for five years, but resigned

at the Col. Smead expiration of the first year of the term. excels iu the domestic virtues. An estimable wife, the daughter of J. W. Armstrong of La Salle county, 111., to whom he was married in 1874, and two bright sons add to the attractiveness of his home at Toledo, O., which is replete with articles of comfort and works of art. The colonel is a Knight Templar.




was born

in Sandgate, county of Kent, Eng., Aug. 23, 1817. He was the son of a pensioner, who had been a soldier in the peninsular war, and from him first obtained the food for his imagination, which afterward became of so much use to him, by listening to relations of the siege of Corunna, the burial of Sir John Moore, and other such episodes of the old soldier's war experience. His mother is described as a gentle, lovely woman, whose tender affection exercised more influence over her son than anything else in his experience. As a boy he is said lo have attracted the attention of Wilberforce, from his ability as wound in his a reader. orator,


head, received while he was still young, was considered to have afterward affected his nature and temperament and inclined him to his unfortunate lapses from temperance. When only a boy of twelve, he came to America, and after a brief stay in the western part of York state, he settled in York city, and began to learn the bookbinding business. Having saved a little money, he sent for his mother and sister, and the family lived together, but was soon reduced to great poverty. In 1835 he lost his



mother, and this painful occurrence had such an efupon young Gough that from this period for a long time his life was one of steady degradation. Having a good musical voice, and being quite a mimic, he made himself attractive to his associates, and had no difficulty in obtaining the means for dissipation. For a lime he performed at the Franklin theatre, New York, in farces, and sang comic songs, and afterward he became an actor and traveled through Rhode Island, but obtained little remuneration. Later he had an engagement in a Boston fect

theatre, which lasted him until 1837, and then, for a long time, he was in an utterly hopeless condition. He married in 1839, and tried to redeem himself, occasionally having temperate periods, but gradually going down, until at last he suffered all the tortures of delirium tremens. Then he lost his wife and child, and at length he became a wretched outcast iu the streets of Boston, Worcester, and other towns, until 1842, when he was induced to sign the pledge, and from that time forward struggled until he succeeded in overcoming the habit. He now determined to devote his life to the cause of temperance, and as his brilliant talents as an orator began to make themselves felt, he found no difficulty in obtaining opportunities to lecture in all the large towns, even in Boston, where he had so long tramped the streets in abject misery and despair. In 1843 he married again, and from that time on, for seventeen years, he traveled about, delivering his lectures and telling his stories, always in the interest of temperance. In 1858 he went to England, and lectured at Exeter Hall, London, and throughout the principal English cities. He revisited England in 1857, and again in 1878. The strength of Mr.

Gough's oratory lay in his power to delineate imaginary or real scenes, possessing the qualities calculated to awaken the emotions, either by throwing his audiences into shouts of laughter or bringing them to tears. He was original and very effective in his mode of delivery, his voice was musical, and his memory excellent, serving him well for incidents with which to illustrate his discourses. During the latter part of his life Mr. Gough resided at West Boylston, Mass. He was delivering a lecture at the first Presbyterian church in Frankford, Pa., when he

stricken down by an attack of apoplexy, and died a few days afterward on Feb. 18, 1886. E.OCKWOOD, Ebenezer Arthur, merchant, was born in Enfield, Hampshire county, Mass. Jan. 6, 1889, the eldest son of Dr. Ebenezer H. and Juliet (Bliss) Rockwood. The name is derived from a place in England called " Rocky Woods," the place of the exploits and abode of the first who assumed The family coat of arnis is a shield with six it. chess rooks thereon, a wreatli below, a lion rampant above, with a spear in his paw. Tradition says that a page by the name of Rockwood, at the court of Henry VIII., in a game of chess with his king, won a manor belonging to one of the monasteries distributed in his reign, and that in commemoration of this victory he received from the king six chess rooks Ebenezer Rockwood defor his coat of arms. scends, in the eighth generation, from Richard Rockwood, a planter iu Dorchester, Mass., as early as 1686, from whom descended all who bear His the name in this country. grandmother, Elizabeth Breese Hazard, wife of Ebenezer Rockwood, was the daughter of Erskine Hazard, the first postmaster of New York, and the first postmaster - general imder George




Ebenezer Rock-

wood received a common-school education in his native town. In 1855, at the age of sixteen,

he went to New York city, where for fourteen years he filled the position of clerk and salesman in different importing dry-goods houses. In 1869 he went South, where he acted as supply-agent for the Alabama and Chattanooga railroad. The next year he opened a rubber store in Buffalo, and afterward consolidated with the Goodyear rubber company, taking the management of their branch store in He joined Buffalo, which position he still holds. the 7th regiment Sept. 21, 1862, and was on duty during the draft riots in the city. He was drafted and sent a substitute, as the city of New York would not part with members of the national guard. Upon removal to Mount Vernon, Westchester- county, he was transferred to the 17th regiment, and elected lieutenant of company I, Sept. 13, 1867. He was detailed acting adjutant of the 17th for about one year, when the regiment was mustered out of the service, and he was tran.9ferred to the supernumerary list. Upon going to Buffalo he was appointed adIn June, 1875, he was jutant of the 74th regiment. appointed inspector of rifle practice of the 81st briF. Rogers. On gade, on the staff of Brig.-Gen. Apr. 11, 1877, he was promoted inspector of rifle practice of the 8th division N. G. S. N. Y., on the staff of Maj.-6en. R. L. Howard, with rank of lieuApr. 22, 1881, he was promoted to tenant-colonel. be adjutant -general of the 8th division, and chief of staff of Maj.-Gen. P. Rogers, with the rank of colonel, which position he held until 1885, when, at his own request, he was placed on the supernumerary first






OF AMEEIOAN BIOGRAPHY. of officers, retaining his rank and commission. Col. Kockwood married, July 2, 1864, Catharine Elizabeth, daughter of Gamaliel Lyman and Catharme Henshaw (Jones) Dwight, by whom he lias four sons. His great-grandfather, David Howell (born Jan. 1, 1747, died July 3, 1834), was a member of the list

Mr. Mason took to frame the Federal constitution. here, also, a leading part in debate, favoring the election of the U. S. president directly by the people, for a term of seven years, with subsequent in-

He spoke with the greatest energy against that clause of the constitution which prohibited the abolition of the slave trade until 1808, declaring that slavery was a source of national weakness and demoralization, and it was therefore essential that the general government should have power to prevent its increase. Propositions to make slaves equal to freemen as a basis of representation, and to require a property qualification from voters, were strongly opposed by him. He considered some of the features of the constitution, as agreed on in the convention, so dangerous that he refused to sign it, and afterward, in Virginia, opposed its ratification, and in this aided Patrick Henry, the two insisting on a bill of rights and about twenty alSome of these terations in the constitution itself. amendments were subsequently adopted by congress, and are now a part of the constitution. Mr. Mason was chosen one of the first U. S. senators from Virginia, but declined the position, and spent the rest Thomas Jefferson deof his days at Gunston Hall. clared of George Mason, that he was a " man of exeligibility.

Continental congress from 1783 to 1785. He is president of the Erie county society for the prevention of cruelty to animals vice-president of the New ;




association; also vice-president

of the American humane association of the United States, and treasurer of the Buffalo children's aid society, and treasurer of the Bay View rifle association, 4th division, N. G. S. N. Y. He became a member of the Market street Dutch Reformed church, New York, March, 1857; of the Dutch Reformed church in Mount Vernon, N. Y., in 1868; of the North Presbyterian church in Buffalo in 1871, and of the Church of Christ (Scientist), Buffalo, in 1890, of which church he is chairman of the board of trustees. G-eorge, statesman, was born in Doeg's (afterward Mason's) Neck, Stafford (now Fairfax) county, Va., in 1736. He was descended from Col. George Mason, a member of the English parliament in the reign of Charles I., and an officer in the army of Charles H., who, after the defeat at Worcester, in 1617, escaped to Virginia in disguise, losing his es^te in England. George Mason, the statesman, after his marriage with Aim Eilbeck, built Gunston Hall on the banks of the Potomac river, where he took up his permanent residence, and this continued in the Mason family until after the American civil war of 1861-65. Mason was the intimate friend, as well as the neighbor, of George Washington, Ms home being situated in Truro parish, which included Mount Vernon. It was Mason's pen that drew up the non-importation resolutions, which were presented by Washington, and unanimously adopted by the Virginia legislature in 1769, one of them pledging the planters to buy no slaves imported after Nov. 1st of that year. Against the assertion by the British parliament of the right to tax the colonies, Mason wrote a tract, entitled "Extracts from the Virginia Charters, with some Remarks upon Them." At a meeting of the people of Fairfax county, Va., July 17, 1774, he presented a series of twenty-four resolutions, which reviewed the whole ground of controversy, recommended a congress of the colonies, and urged the policy of non-intercourse with the mothercountry. The Virginia convention sanctioned these resolutions, and on Oct. 20, 1774, they were substantially adopted by the first In 1775 Continental congress. Mason was a member of the Virginia convention. But he declined an election to congress for family reasons, and urged Francis Lightfoot Lee to take his place. He served, however, as one of the Virginia committee of safety. Mr. Mason was also the author of the famous declaration of rights and the plan of government unanimously adopted by the Virginia convention in 1776. His ability as a debater, as well as his liberal spirit, was eminently displayed in the first legislature of Virginia, when striving for the repeal of all disabling acts, and for legalizing all modes of worship. J. Madison pronounced him to be the finest debater he had ever known. In 1777 Mason was chosen to the Continental congress, but declined to serve. In 1787, however, he sat in the convention


III.— 32.


. '

pansive mind, profound judgment, urgent in argument, learned in the lore of our former constitution, and earnest for the republican change on democratic principles." He died at Gunston Hall Oct. 7, 1792. ROBINSON, Jolm, showman, was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1806. He was brought up to his father's trade of blacksmith, but ran away when eleven years old and joined Blanchard's circus. Rising in the business, he was well known throughout the country for half a century, traveling in succession with the Robinson & Eldrich circus (1854); the

& Amar



and menagerie




Lake circus (1859-62). From 1864 the Robinson the combination bore the name of "Old John Robinson." He was a generous man, and when exhibiting in the Shenandoah Valley gave liberally for the rebuilding of churches which had been destroyed in the war. He retired about 1883, making the show over to his son, and died in Cincinnati Aug. 4, 1888. BAIjTON, John, merchant and U. S. consul at Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, was born at Manchester, Eng., Jan. 14, 1822. His parents emigrated to Brooklyn soon after his birth, and he received his education in that city. At the age of eighteen young Dalton went to South America, and eventually established a mercantile and shipping business at Ciudad Bolivar, introducing American manufactures and produce into a region where, till then, they had been unknown. His business grew to large proportions owing 'to ,

his intelligence, activity


honesty, and he became the owner of a fleet of saihng vessels carrying the American flag, which soon secured him a large fojt'une. In 1862 the '



•government appointed

at Ciudad Bolivar (Angostura), Venezuela, a position which he held until his death. During this period he efficiently protected Ameri-

him consul

can interests and subjects, his house being a place of recognized shelter in times of political





married, in 1849, Juana Bermudez-Romero, a native of Venezuela, and eight children born of this marriage survive, viz., two sons and six daughters. His death occurred at Ciudad Bolivar, on June 19, 1884.





Pierpont, astronomer was born in Roxburj^, Mass., now a part of Boston, Aug. 22, 1834. After graduating from and


the Boston Latin school, he studied civil engineerWhen but ten ing, and afterward architecture. years old he had shown a fondness for astronomy, in reading such books upon the subject as were within his reach, and later in constructing the lenses and mirrors of his own telescopes and part using them with success. of the years 1864 and 1865 he spent in Europe, and upon returning he decided to devote himself thenceforward to the pursuit of science, and with this in view he entered as


assistant at tlie observatory. Harvard college. He was then offered a position on the academic staff at the U. S. naval academy in Annapolis; where he was engaged, in ad-




dition to his otlier duties, in remounting the instruments in the small observatory, originally built by Prof. Chauvenet. In 1857 he was invited to become the director of the Allegheny observatory, at/^(^^-yy^^^ tached to the Western university Pennsylvania at Pittsburg, of with the title of professor of astronomy and physics, a position which he accepted, witn the expectation of occupying it only temporarily, but where, in fact, ho remained and .labored during the succeeding twenty years. In 1887, at the request of Prof. Baird, he accepted the position of assistant secretary of the Smithsonian institution, and upon Prof. Baird 's death in 1887, was chosen by the board of regents as his successor to the secretaryship. The history of the Allegheny observatory is a record of Prof. Langley's individual energy and skill.


he took charge there was nothing Ijut the observatory building and an equatorial of thirteen inches aperture. Other than this there was no telescope, no meridian instrument, or clock, or chart, or book; no apparatus The of any kind, and no means to provide any. equatorial itself was not provided with the necessary accessories, the observatory was entirely empty, even of furniture, and the director was at liberty to carry on original investigations only on condition that this involved no neglect of the duties of a chair No assistants were provided, and, at tlie college. excepting for an endowment of the professorship, the observatory had no income! Resolved, in spite of all obstacles, to carry out liis plans for research, and without means for their cost, his first care was to devise, if possible, some soui-ce of income to provide for the expenses of the observatory. Time signals had been occasionally used from different ob.servatories in the country; but up to this period no extended system had been established, and under the stimulus of necessity, it occured to Prof. Langley to devise such a system as a permanent means for the support of investigation. The conception of the possibility of creating a regular systematic and paid "Time Service," such as has since become familiar, was then a novelty, and its practical embodiment was attended witli the difficulties that wait on tlie inAfter very considertroduction of all new ideas. able labor in convincing the officers of the great railroads centering in Pittsburg, of the advantages of a uniform system of standard time, arrangements were made for supplying signals automatically by electricity to tliese roads, to numerous private offices, and to the city of Pittsburg, and by 1870 the system was in successful operation. From the income derived from tlie sale of these time signals, the Allegheny all its regular means and the demand for a sys-

observatory has derived almost for original research


tematic service having been created, and its utilitydemonstrated by the example of the Allegheny observatory, the example has been followed by others, and such "Time Services" for the sale of signals have grown to be a most important item in the support of many of the observatories of the country. Prof. Langley was a member of the parties sent out by the U. S. government to observe the total solar eclipses of the years 1869 and 1870; in 1869 being stationed at Oakland, Ky., and in 1870 at Xere.5, Spain. The eclipse of 1878 he observed at Pike's Peak, Colorado, and a part of the winter of that year he spent in observatories in the upper regions of Mount Etna in Sicily. In 1881 he organized an expedition to the top of Mount Whitney in California, for the purpose of continuing certain observations upon solar radiation, the expenses of the expedition being borne jointly by the U. S. signal service and by private subscription of the late William Thaw of Pittsburg, a generous patron of science, as of every good work, and one to whose friendship and support Prof. Langley has often declared his deep indebtedIn 1870 he began his series of brilliant reness. searches upon the sun, which have since made him an acknowledged authority upon all questions of solar physics. His first paper was on the structure of the photosphere, and was shortly followed by another with a plate giving his beautiful drawing of a " Typical sun spot." This paper was followed by a study of the heat of the solar surface by means of the thei-mopile, showing as the result of very delicate measurements that the direct effect of sun spots upon terrestrial temperatures is appreciable, but practiFinding that the thermopile was cally unimportant. not sufficiently sensitive and reliable for further investigations, he devised an instrument to which was given the name of bolometer, "and with this his more recent investigations upon solar energy have been '


made. The bolometer consists essentially of two systems of extremely thin strips of platinum or other metal disposed as a Wheatstone body, through which an electric current passes. A sensitive galvanometer connected with both systems keeps its needle steady when the currents are equal, but if one system is exposed to heat radiations while the other is protected from them, the temperature of the first is raised, its electric resistance is increased and the battery currents through the two systems affected, so that the galvanomand eter needle then moves, the amount of the motion meas-

amount of heat disturbThe sensitiveness of the

ures the ance.

instrument is from ten to thirty times greater than that of the

most delicate thermopile; it will measure variations in tempei'ature of the one-millionth part of a degree, and its constancy specWith ially fits it for its "work. this instrument an extensive serabsorpof observations on the ies tion of the earth's and sun's atmospheres was made, extending over some years, whose results showed, among other things, that the solar light was so essen-



way to us that our previous constitutes "light" was very incomplete, the original color of the sun before any absorption being blue, rather than while, and" white " light being not the " sum of all radiations but only of such dregs of this original blue as these atmospheres have allowed to filter down to us. These researches at the same time added very greatly


modified on







to our knowledge of the spectrum, for while Newton's scale of wave lengths of light had a compass

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. of less than an octave (which others in recent time have extended, somewhat doubtfully, to about an octave and one-half), the bolometer in the hands of Prof. Langley has ranged over eight times the length of Newton's spectrum by actual mea,surement, and has indicated the existence of energy in a field more

than fifty times greater. In one sense, therefore, these investigations have partly bridged over the gulf between the shortest wave length of sound

and the longest wave length of heat. Prof. Langley 's published scientific papers are quite numerous, and are to be found in the transactions of

making further improvements.


works upon astro-physical research, was originally based on a series of lectures delivered by


at the Lowell Institute in Boston in 1883, which were


the subject of a series of articles contributed to the " Century Magazine " in 1884 and 1886, since republished in book form. Prof. Langley is a correspondent of the Frencn Institute (in the Academy of Sciences), a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and of numerous other foreign and American scientific In 1878 he was made vice-president of secbodies. tion of the American Association for the advancement of science, and in 1886 was elected president of that association, delivering an address at the Cleveland meeting in 1888, entitled the " History of a Doctrine." He has received numerous degrees from learned bodies, among them that of LL.D from the University of Wisconsin in 1882, the University of Michigan in 1883, and from Harvard University in 1886. He was the first to receive (in 1886), the Henry Draper medal of the National academy of In 1887 sciences, for work in astronomical physics. he was awarded the Rumfbrd medal by the Royal society of London, and the Rumford gold and silver medals by the American academy of arts and sciences. He has never abandoned the investigations with which his name has been associated, though these are now subordinated to the general scientific and administrative duties which occupy him as secretary of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington.



electrical inventor,

He 9, 1802. in poverty, apprenticed to a blacksmith at fourteen, and diligently improved his meagre opportunities of self-improvement. In 1823 he settled at Brandon, Vt. Ten years later, on witnessing an exhibition of an electro- magnet, he conat

England, which he had he was enabled to


biiilding large


ment. The "New Astronomy," the most popular of recent

was born



journals. He has, however, turned aside in one case from his ordinary labors to give a popular account of some of the results of late investigations iu his depart-


gaining much praise but little of the help he needed. He afterward built several small circular railways, propelled in the same manner, which he also exhibited. At length, in 1836, Ransom Cook of Saratoga became his partner; funds were supplied, a patent was secured in February, 1837, and a joint stock company formed in New York. A year later Mr. Cook withdrew on account of financial trouble, caused by the dishonesty of the company's agent, and the inventor was By left to struggle on alone. the sale of the patent right for

learned societies where they have appeared, and in the the



Williamstown, Vt., July

was brought up

ceived the idea that by cutting and re-connecting the wires the current could be broken and revived, as well as by removing the battery cups from the He purchased solution and again immersing them. the instrument, tested his theory, and after long and patient experimentation constructed an engine possessing all the electrical features of the modern elecThis he exhibited in various towns and tric motor. before institutions of learning, winning the interest of Profs. Turner, Eaton, Henry, and Bache, and

continue operations for a time,

machines and

In 1840 he issued a newspaper, Magnet, " iDrinted on a press propelled by one of his the



engines. But the depression of the times, and the heavy expense of his experiments soon exhausted his means he ^^S^?^ returned to Brandon, where the strain of severe labor and anxiety, so long endured, resulted in an illness that left him with a shattered constitution. He retired to a farm near Salisbury, Vt. and there applied the electric current to the strings of a piano, so as to prolong the sound and yet preserve its purity and richness of tone. For this invention he filed his caveat in the patent office, but died before the instrument was entirely perfected or the patent attained, having illustrated in his life the ill- fortune that so often attends inventors. He died at Salisbury, Vt., July 6, 1851. Henry H., physician, was born at Wallingford, Vt., Aug. 28, 1818, the son of Lyman and Rachel Button. At the age of ten years he was left with the care of a younger sister, by the death of his father and mothei', who died within a very His boyhood was spent short time of each other. upon the farms in the neighborhood, wherein the summer he acquired means to defray his winter schooling. By hard study he fitted himself for a collegiate course at Brown university, where he was graduated in the class of 1842, with high honors. He accepted a position of private tutor in a Virginia family, after which he took up the study of medicine, and received his diploma in 1845, from the celebrated Dr. Mott. On Dec. 30, 1847, ;



he married Elizabeth A., daughter of Luther Pearson of Providence, R. I., and resided and practiced medicine for a short time in Brooklyn, N. Y. In the fall of 1849 he removed to Milwaukee, Wis., and associated himself with Thomas A. Greene in the drug business, in which he continued to the time of his death. His family consisted of two sons, Henry H. and Charles P., and one daughter, Louisa M. His life was a business and social success. For many terms he was president of the Merchants' association and the Milwaukee Gas Light company; vice-president of the Chamber of commerce; for twenty years trustee of the Unitarian church; in fact, closely identified with all organizations that benefited the growth and advancement

He died, after only of the home of his adoption. four days' illness, on Feb. 14, 1890.

> *^ -^^'^'^^'/^ (^


He was


pleas of

a state. In the colonial general assembly he represented the counties of Salem and Cumberland from 1763 to 1769, and was a deputy for Salem in the provincial congress which assembled at Trenton in 1775. Of the council of safety he was also a member in 1778. His son, Anthony Keasbey, was scarcely less prom-

pecially directed to the study of public buildings of the day. Mr. Bruce made public structures a specialty, and at the close of the war opened an office in Knox-

inent, filling, among other public positions, that of a representative Qf Salem county in the general assembly of the state from 1798

he removed to Atlanta, Ga., and formed the partnership of Bruce & Morgan, which immediately sprang to the lead-

His father was Edward Q. Keasbey, a physician and surgeon, eminent in his pro-

ership of the architectural business in Georgia, designing some of the most important private and public buildings in that and the adjoin5Ir. Bruce has ing states. •4-i.-t--e< easily become the foremost architect of the South, and has a reputation co-extensive with that section. His firm has planned and erected court houses in the five states of Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida and North Carolina. There are over twenty of these Federal buildings, besides city halls; over 360 residences, stores and blocks, ten hotels, fifteen hanks, five jails, thirty colleges and schools, forty-five churches, four libraiies and depots, and other sti-ucThe finest tures stand monuments to his skill. buildings in Atlanta were designed by him, among them the Technological Institute, Kiser law strucMr. ture, High school and County court house. Bruce uses the Italian style of architecture, seeking stately proportion rather than ornamentation, u.sing projecting porticos, flat roofs rather than steep, and well-proportioned towers, thus securing the needs of

to 1801.

appointed a judge of the court of Salem county in 1840, and in 1844 he was chosen a presidential elector, and gave his vote for Henry Clay. The son, Anthony Q. Keasbey, was at an early age prepared to enter upon his Gollegiate studies. In 1843 he was graduated from Yale college, and soon after became a student at law in the office of Francis L. McCuUoch, in his native town. He finished his studies in Newark, N. J., and in October, 1846, having been admitted to the bar, he resumed his residence in Salem, where he entered upon the practice of his profession, and

where he pursued it until 1853, when he removed to Newark. In 1855 he entered into partnership with Gortlandt Parker, and that relation continued for more than twenty years. In April, 1861, he received from President Lincoln the appointment of U. S. attorney for the district of New Jersey, and in 1865 was reappointed. It was discovered, however, after the death of Mr. Lincoln, that the commission had not been signed, and Mr. Keasbey was thereupon appointed by President Johnson until the next session of the senate, when, in 1866, he was regularly




designed a


of court houses and public buildings in that sec-

prominent among them being the Chattanooga court house. In the spring of 1879 tion,




ried, in 1866,

He marair, light and ventilation. Jane H. Hagan, in Nashville, Tenn.







Gulf railroad, subsequently consolidated with the

of John Baxter, who was U. S. circuit judge for the sixth circuit, comprising Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. At the age of seven he was taken by his parents to Knoxville, Tenn. Being prepared for college he entered Hobart, from which he was graduated in 1870. He subsequently read law with his father, and was admitted to practice in 1873. j\Ir, Baxter soon took a foremost place among the members of the bar, and

Mississippi River railroad, forming a through line from Paducah to Memphis, Tenn., and of this railway he became president. He took active part in constructing the Elizabethtown (Ky.) and Paducah M., now forms what is line, which, with the P. Southwestern known as the Chesapeake, Ohio railway. In 1884 the Louisville Nashville railcompany was in a very road ijrecarious financial condition. An enormous amount of the funds of the company had been lost in speculation and mismanagement, a heavy floating debt had been created, the credit of the company was ruined, and bankruptcy impended. The majority of its stock beiug owned in Europe, the foreign holders had sent an agent to the United States to reorganize the com-



William M., lawyer, was born C, Aug. 30, 1850, the eldest son

has been

number cases.


in a celebrated, two most not-



able were an injunction suit against the railroad commission, established by an act of the Tennessee legislature passed in 1883, reported in volume sixteen of the American and EngThis lish railroad cases. resulted in a repeal of the The other act in 1885; was the suit known as the Tennessee Bond Case, '



wherein it was attempted to hold the railroad com-



y4^,M,^m^^&^ rT.k°cipa?rnTS?erS^ "" "^


bonds of certain state which bad been issued by them notwithstanding an adjustment of the inThe amounts involved debtedness by the state. aggregated $20,000,000. The bondholders were de-

The cases are reported in feated in the litigation. In 1883 Mr. Baxter became 114, U, 8. Reports. feneral solicitor of the legal department of the East 'ennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad company, and retained the position through the receivership and reorganization. Eckstein, banker and railroad


financier, was born at Russellville, Ky., Dec. 16, His parents were in moderate circumstances, 1831. and his early educational advantages were confined to the ordinaiy opportunities of a common school. At fifteen years of age he was clerk in a country store in his native town, at a salary of $1.50 per week, and three years later he opened a general store on his own account in the same place. In the fall of 1851, he became a iJartner at Paducah, Ky., of his brother, F. Norton, who conducted a well-established mercantile business there, and in 1852 he bought his brother's interest, and carried the business on alone until 1854, when he went to Cairo,



& &

pany. In the new movement Mr. Norton was elected a director, and (October, 1884) vice-president, the finances of the company being placed in his hands. He at once secured cheaper ofliices in New Y^ork city, and inaugurated an economical administration of affairs, which saved $40,000 per annum in the expenses of the New York office alone. This retrenchment had a beneficial effect on the whole system, and Mr. Norton was soon recognized as a man of superior executive ability, and his election to the ijresideucy of the road followed in 1886. At present the Louisville & Nashville railroad controls over 4,300 miles of track, and is considered the most important system in the South. Under Mr. Norton's management, the physical condition of the road has been well cared for large amounts having been ;



bridges, ballast, side tracks, and in double-tracking portions of the line. The equipment of the road has also been largely increased, both in freight and passenger cars, and also in locomotives; the freight-car equipment alone being increased nearly sixty per cent. This has caused a corresponding increase in the business. The earnings of the road for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1886, were $13,177,018, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1890, $18,846,003, showing an increase of Under Mr. Norton's administi'ation the $5,668,985. policy of the Louisville Nashville has been to in


construct new lines and branches, which have added largely to the business of the main line, furnishing, as well, transportation facilities which have caused the development of the vast mineral and other resources of Kentucky and Tennessee, He was also largely interested both as stockholder and director in several banks, insurance companies, and in other railroads. He died Jan. 12, 1893.

RUST, Nathaniel Johnson,

and made a favorable contract to serve as receiving and forwarding agent for the Illinois Central rail-

uated from Harvard in 1707. The first of the family came to New

road company, whose line had reached Cairo, and was in process of extension (o Chicago. This venture was a very successful one, as was the establishment of the Norton

Gorham academy, he


Brothers' banking house at




place he returned in 1857.

Early in 1864 he removed to l^Tew York, and there formed the banking and commission house of Norton, Slaughter & Co., afterward E. Norton & Co., in which he is alone In 1868 he purchased the Paducah & interested.

merchant, bank

president and legislator, was born at Gorham, berland county, Me., Nov. S8, 1833. He is descended from the Rev. Henry Rust, who was grad-

England through

in his







entered a

country drug store at sixteen, and two years later one in Boston. In 1862 he established the wholesale drug house of Carter, Rust & Co. the firm name was changed in 1866 to Rust Bros. & Bird, and in 1890 to the Rust & Richardson drug company. Mr. Rust has always been an active business man, holding position as


president or director in many large corporations, and for the past seven years has"been prasldent of the Lincoln national bank of Boston, of which he was one of the founders. He was elected to the Massachusetts

OF AMERICAN BIOC^RAPHY. house of representatives in 1874-75-76, to the city council of Boston in 1878-79, and to the board of al-


for 1891




many generations.

gies, etc. His more important writings include: " Sermons for the People," " Christian Believing and Living," "Christ in the Christian Year," "The Bohlen Lectures on the Fitness of Christianity to Man," "The Grahame and Lowell Lectures on Divine Aspects of Human Society," " Helps to a Holy Lent," in two series, "Memorials of a Quiet Life," "Forty Days with the Master," " The Pastoral Letter of the House of Bishops at the General Convention of 1883. " In 1843 Bishop Huntington was married to Hannah Dane,daughter of Epes Sargent, and sister of the poet of that name. He has five living children, two of them being clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal church. Bishop Huntington holds the degiees

was an orthodox

of S.T.D. and

a fi-iend to honest government and opposed to all trading in politics, believing rest and recreation after labor, he is a is



of several prominent clubs.

HUNTINGTON, Frederic Dan, first P.E.bishdiocese of central New York, was boin in ?, "^\ Hadjey, Mass., May 38, 1819, on an ancestral homestead beautifully situated on the left banlj of the Connecticut river opposite Northampton, where the family of his mother, Elizabeth Porter Phelps, had


resided for His father




associated himself with the Unitarian school repre-

sented by Rev. Dr. Channing and other Massachusetts divines, and the subject of this sketch, who was the youngest of seven sons, was raised in that belief. He first studied under the direction of his father, then at Hopkins academy, and afterward entered

Amherst college, where he was graduated as valedicto-

CT5 he went to Peru as the architect-in-chief of the public woiks of Lima, returning in 1882 to resume his old position in the park department. Among the last designs he made was one for a temporary tomb of Gen. Grant. Besides illustrating the second volume of the "Alhambra," Mr. Mould contributed to Owen Jones's "Grammar of Ornament." He illustrated indepen-



dently Gray's " Elegy," and an edition of the "Book of Common Prayer, " and wrote a number of opera librettos. He was a musician of superior order, and a tine linguist. He died in New York city June 14, 1886, and was buried in Greenwood cemetery. Ralph Waldo, poet and'philosopher, was born in Boston, ]\Iass., May 25, 1803, the second of five sons of Rev. William and Susan (Haskins) Emerson. He belonged to what Oliver Wendell Holmes has called "the Brahmin caste of New England." His grandfather, at the sixth remove. Rev. Joseph Emerson of Mendon, Mass., married the granddaughter of Rev. Peter Bulkeley, one of the founders of Concord, Mass. Rev. William






William, was pastor of the Congregational church at Concord during the revolution, and the memorable battle on Apr. 19, 1775, took place near his residence. No less than seven clergymen were among the American ancestors of Ralph

Waldo Emer-

son, all men of distinction in their profession, and it was strictly in

accordance with the laws of heredity that in their eminent descendant were blended their patience and self-control, moral sensibility, love of truth and honesty, and devoutness of life; but by no law of heredity did he inherit a power of imagination and a philosophic insight such as have been possessed by very few minds of the Anglo-Saxon race. He has been styled "The Columbus of modern thought," and since Lord Bacon no English or American thinker has arisen so absolutely original as Emerson. However, in classing him as both poet and pliilosophei-,

we need to adopt his own definition: "While the poet," he says, " animates Nature with his thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that one proposes beauty as his main end, the other, truth. The true philosopher and the true poet are one; and a beauty which is truth, and a truth which is beauty, is the aim of both." Emerson was born into an atmosphere of narrow dogmatism in speculative theology and practical materialism in actual life, but the old order was about to change; new forces were working in New England life, and these forces came to a focus and found expression when, in the same week that Emerson was born, William Ellery Channing entered the pulpit of the Federal street church in Boston and proclaimed that God is love, and "His tender mercy is over all His works." Then began a storm of controversy, by which the old creed was shaken to its foundation, and the Congregational churches of New England were divided. AVhen tlie storm liad partly cleared the air, there arose a new creed which whether true or false liberated men's minds from the shackles of Calvinism and created, in addition to a new theology, a new philosophy and a of literatui'e. I'his last had its humble beginning in the year following

not a single work of any value had been produced by a native author. The magazine died, but the club survived, and five years later, in 1815, reinforced by Edward Tyrrell Channing, Richard Henry Dana, and a few other young men, it set on foot the

"North American Review," so named to indicate its distinctly American character, which has lived to this This periodical secured, with its first issue, a day. recognition for American prose, and two years later, by its publication of William C. Bryant's "Thanatopsis," it announced the birth of American poetry. In the centre of this conflict between the new and the old, both in theology and literature, Ralph Waldo Emerson grew up, and if we fail to unravel his genius from the hidden strands of his ancestral descent, we can with ease trace its subsequent bent to the liberating influences that surrounded his boyhood. His father died only a year after the " Monthly Anthology" expired, and the oversight of the lad's education devolved upon his mother, a woman, it is said, of great patience and fortitude, of the serenest trust in God, of a discerning spirit and the most courteous bearing. By her he was sent to the Boston grammar school when eight years old, and four years later to the Boston Latin school. At fourteen he entered Harvard, and he was graduated in 1821 at the age of eighteen. Like other students of narrow means, he had, while in college, eked out his support by teaching school during vacation, and on leaving Harvard he ttirned naturally to it as the readiest means of gaining a livelihood. He followed teaching about five years, meanwhile studying divinity under Dr. W. E. Channing, after which he passed one year at the Cambridge divinity school, and in 1836 was approved as a preacher of the Unitarian church. Then poor health obliged him to spend some' time at the South, but returning to Boston he was, on March 11, 1839, ordained as colleague to Henry AVare, Jr., an eminent man, both as clergyman and author, and at that time pastor of the Second Unitarian church of Boston. Mr. Ware resigned

Ralph Waldo Emerson's birth, when his father. Rev. William Emei-son, pastor of the First Unitarian church of Boston, in connection with William Tudor, John Quincy Adams, John Thornton Kirkland, Joseph L. Buckminster, and some others of like ability, formed the Anthology club, and began the publication of "The Monthly Anthology and Boston Review." The periodical had a sickly existence of but six years, but it marked the birth of a distinctly

American school of letters and philosophy. Heretofore American readers had been fed from Bj-itish sources, and, with a few unimportant exceptions,

in about a year,leaving to Mr. Emerson the sole charge of this large and highly intelligent congregation. About this time he married Ellen Louisa Tucker, wlio died in 1831. In the foUowingyearhe resigned hispastorate,and went to Europe to repair his broken health.

He there met Wordsworth, Coleridge and Thomas Carlyle, with the last of whom he formed a friendship that lasted through tjieir lives, and is recorded in the interesting correspondence which has been published under the editorship of Charles Eliot Norton. He returned from Europe in the fall of 1833, and- in Sep-

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. tember, 1835, was married to Lidian Jackson, sister of the eminent scientist, Charles T. Jackson, who claimed to have communicated to Prof. S. F. B.


his first idea of tlie electric telegraph.


son then removed his residence to the home of his ancestors at Concord, Mass., where he soon drew about him a circle of coneenial people—the families of A. Bronson Alcott, ifathaniel Hawthorne, William Henry Channing, together with the eccentric Thoreau, and there he passed the remainder of his days, his quiet life broken only by periodical lecturing tours, and by two further visits to Europe, the historic village becoming, from his presence in it, a kind of rustic Weimar, to which literary pilgrims resorted from all parts of America and Europe. The few incidents which are enumerated above comprise what is most noteworthy in the outward life of Emerson.

His inward


and growth

— what may be termed

his spiritual biography can only be read in his books. Perhaps no author, excepting solely Shakespeare, ever put so little of himself into his writings, and yet his inner life and character are so distinctly portrayed there, that to any one in sympathy with his "subtle thought and high imaginings," they are as clearly discernible as would be his bodily presence; but so evanescent, so elusive is tlie portrait, that it cannot be conveyed by one mind to another. It must be sought and seen by each one for himself. In reading his books it is well to take them up in the order in which they were produced, beginning with "Nature," which, written in his thirty-second year, contains the germs of all that he subsequently wrote. His other books are merely the flowering out of the seed there implanted, but aside from the truth that they convey, they are of absorbing interest to any one who would watch the gradual unfolding of his powers. In the same year in which " Nature" appeared (1836), Emerson introduced Carlyle to Americans through "Sartor Resartus," advance sheets of which he had edited, and in 1838 three volumes of essays by the same author were edited by Emerson, and all appeared in this country before they were published in England. In 1836 he became a member of a club which included such radical thinkers as Theodore Parker, Bronson Alcott, Orestes A. Brownson and Margaret Fuller, and willinerlv shared with them the ridicule that was cast by the public upon the lofty and often abstruse subjects they discussed. An address delivered before the senior class in the divinity school at Cambridge, in July, 1838, excited much comment, generally adverse, by the extreme ground its author seemed to take, and in 1838 and 1839 a course of lectures was given by Emerson, in which needed reforms in politics and social life were urged with the same boldness he had shown in treating religious questions. The high thinkers with whom he was associated were nicknamed " transcendentalists," and Emerson took occasion to defend their position in a lecture delivered in 1843, in which he defined transcendentalism as "simply modern idealism," and that the so-called new views were old thoughts in a new dress. In July, 1840, appeared the first number of a journal designed as a vehicle of the opinions of the transcendentalists, and bearing the name of "The Dial." Margaret Fuller was its editor for a short time, and was succeeded by Emerson, who conducted it until it failed in 1844, and published in it some of his best-known poems. Naturally, he sympathized considerably with the zealous men and women who founded the Brook

Farm community, but

never connected himself with In 1841 he published a volume of essays, and in 1844 a second series, which attracted much attention abroad. In 1846 a volume of "Poems" was issued, and while these were not of a popular nature, they were welcomed by all who valued thought rather than form. In 1847 Emerson visited the society.



England and Scotland, where he lectured to large audiences and was enthusiastically received, and he also made atrip to Paris, returning home in 1819. In 1850 a new volume appeared, "Representative Men," being a course of lectures he had given in

England, and treating of Plato, Swedenborg, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon and Goethe. For several years succeeding he lectured in several places delivered addresses advocating abolition, and even made campaign speeches, and it was not until 185fr that his next book, "English Traits," appeared, perhaps the best work of its kind in any language, and this was favorably received on both continents. It must be said that no American writer, not even Hawthorne, had to wait so long for an audience as Emerson. His "Nature" had been before the public thirteen years before 500 copies of it had been sold, and not until 1860, when "Nature" had been published twenty-seven years, did his " Conduct of Life " meet a demand that was at all remunerative. And not only did Emerson receive neglect he was subjected to public ridicule and opprobrium. By those who had not read, or did not understand his writings, he was styled a deist and apantheist, and even that friend of his father's, John Quincy Adams, said of him as late as 1840: " After failing in the every-day vocations of a Unitarian preacher and schoolmaster, he starts a new doctrine of transcendentalism, declares all the old revelations superaif-

nuated and worn

and announces the approach



revelations." But all this time his thoughts were silently working their way among thinkers and earnest people, and acquiring for him an influence, both in this country and Europe, such as has not been wielded by any modern writer. "The Conduct of Life " (1 860) was followed by May-Day and Other Poems " (1867); " Society and Solitude "(1870), and "Letters and Social Aims " (1875). He contributed to the "Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli" (1853); wrote an introduction to a translation of Plutarch's "Morals" (1870), and to W. E. Channing's




poem, "The Wanderer" nassus," a collection of


poems by

and edited "Pardifferent authors,

His last published paper, an essay on "Suin 1874. perlatives," appeared in the "Century" magazine Three volin 1883, a short time before his death. umes were published after his decease: "Miscella"Lectures and Biographical Sketches," and of his poems. He was one of the early contributors to the "Atlantic Monthly," which was nies,"


new edition

started in 1857,

and to "The Dial," a new periodical

with the old name, which was established in CincinAmong the many public adnati a few years later. dresses made by him were those on the anniversary of West Indian emancipation, in 1884; at the Woman's Rights convention in 1856, and at the unveiling of the statue of the "Minuteman," at Concord, In his "Life of Emerson," in the "Great in 1875. Writers " series, Richard Garnett pays the following tribute to him: "More than any other of the great He is almost imwriters of the age, he is a voice. He is pure from the taint of sect, clique. personal.




does not argue, but announces; lie the spirit moves him, but not longer. Better than any contemporary, he exhibits the might of the spoken word. He helps us to understand the enigma how Confucius, and Buddha, and Socrates, and greater teachers still, should have produced such marvelous effects by mere oral utterance." Oliver Wendell Holmes, in his life of the Concord philosopher, is not less emphatic, remarking: "He cannot properly be called a psychologist. He made notes, and even delivered lectures, on the natural history of the intellect but they seem to have been made up, according to his own statement, of hints and fragments rather than of the result of systematic -study. [He was a man of intuition, of insight, a seer, a poet, with a tendency to mysticism. This tendency renders him sometimes obscure, and, once in awhile, But almost, if not quite, unintelligible. that which is mysticism to a dull listener may be the highest and most inspiring imaginative clairvoyance Too much has been made to a brighter one. He was an intellectual of Emerson's mysticism. rather than an emotional mystic, and, withal, a cautious one. He never let go "the string of his balloon. He never threw over all his ballast of common sense so as to rise above an atmosphere in which a rational being could breathe." To these tributes may be added, appropriately, that of one peculiarly fitted to appreciate Emerson, namely, WalJ Whitman, who calls him "an author who has through a long life, and in spirit, written as honestly, spontaneously, and innocently, as the sun shines or the wheat grows the truest, sanest, most moral, sweetest literary man on record unspoiled by pecuniary or other warp ever teaching the law within ever loyally outcropping his own self only his own poetic and devout soul " Emerson's interest in Concord was constant. He attended its town meetings conscientiously, annually read a paper before its lyceum, and gave its school of philosophy his support. In 1874 he was nominated for the law rectorship of Glasgow university by the independents and received 500 votes, but was defeated by Disraeli, who polled 700. He received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1866, and in 1867 was elected one of its trustees. Emei-son wrote or party.










very little after 1867, owing to failing health, and by 1880 his mental powers had weakened. He died Apr. 37, 1883, from the effects of a severe cold. A most distinguished company attended the funeral, and he was buried near the graves of Hawthorne and Thoreau. BARNES, Amos, hotel proprietor, was born at East Lebanon, N. H., Aug. 15, 1838. He attended the village school, and occupied his leisure time in assisting his father, who kept the prominent hotel in that town. When quite a young man he entered in the employ of the Passumpsic railroad, and continued in the railroad business for nearly twenty years. He did not relinquish his interest in the road when he left

employ, but continued a large stockholder, and was chosen its vice-president and director. In 1869 Mr. Barnes leased the United States hotel in Boston, and continued there until 1879, building up a large and prosperous business. He also acquired an interest in the Burnet house in Cincinnati, of which Mr. John W. Dunklee was senior proprietor. In 1879 the firm of Barnes Dunklee was formed, and a lease was effected of Hotel Brunswick in the famous "Back Bay district " of Boston. The Brunswick is now known as one of the finest and most successful American-plan hotels in this country. Ln its


1883 Messrs. Barnes & Dunklee built and opened the Hotel Ponemah at Milford Springs, N. H., a summer In 1886 resort which has been highly successful. they leased the Hotel Victoria, Boston, which is kept plan, and is located in a fashionable European on the portion of the city. Mr. Barnes also leased the Hotel Vend6me, Boston, and associated himself with These four hotels Messrs. Greenleaf & Dunklee. Mr. are exceptionally prosperous and successful. Barnes is a quiet and unpretentious gentleman, and the high and honorable position whict he occupies has been won wholly by his own unaided efforts, in which he has always shown rare business ability, skill,

and sagacity.


Stephen, senator, was born in Pendleton district, S. C, Oct. 17, 1804, son of David Adams, In 1806 his a Baptist minister. father removed to Bedford county, Tenn., where Stephen resided imtil 1812,

when he removed to In 1837 he was

Franklin county.

elected constable, but soon resigned the office to begin the study of law, and in 1829 obtained a license to In 1833 he was elected practice. to the state senate, and in 1834 removed to Monroe county, Miss. In 1837 he was elected circuit judge, and was twice elected to In 1846 he rethe same office. signed, and was elected that same year to the national house of rep-

In 1850 he was elected a member of the state legislaresentatives.

ture, in 1851 a delegate to the state convention, and in 1853 to the served on several committees, U. S. senate.


He and on leaving congress removed to Tennessee to practice his profession, but was smitten with small-pox, and died at Memphis Majr 11, 1857. BECK, James Burnie, statesman, was born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, on Feb. 13, 1833. He received an academic education in Scotland, and came to the United States with his parents in his youth, settling in Lexington, Ky. He worked on a farm to obtain means with which to continue his studies, and was graduated"" from the law department of Transylvania university in March, 1846. He then practiced law in Lexington, and soon became one of the leading lawyers of the state, John C. Breckinridge being his partner for many years. During the civil war he was a sympathizer with the South, but took no part in the struggle. Though an active and earnest democrat, he refused to hold oflice until 1866, when he was elected to congress. He was three times re-elected, and served until 1875, declining a reelection. While in the house Mr. Beck served on many important committees, was a leader in debate, and gained recognition as an authority on the tariff and monetary questions, and as a capable and industrious legislator. In May, 1876, he was appointed a member of the commission to define the Virginia and Maryland boundary, and in the same year was elected to the U. 8. senate as a democrat; was re-elected in 1883 and 1888, and served as senator until his death. Soon after his entrance into the senate he became the democratic leader in that body. He was a man of resolute character, of clearly defined and positive views upon all public questions, of untiring industry, a cogent reasoner, and a log-


; ;

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. and always impressive speaker. He was a stout and unwavering partisan, but his impulses were broadly patriotic. He died suddenlv in Washine-




C, May



VESPTJCITJS, Americus, otherwise Amerigo Vespucci, was born in Florence, Italy, March 9, 1451. His father was an Italian merchant, who had brought his son up to his own business, which led the young man to visit Spain and other countries. He was enterprising and ambitious, and, becoming interested in the new world which Columbus had found, he studied navigation and geography. At this time Alonzo de Ojeda, who had sailed with Columbus on his second voyage, fitted out an expedition of four ships, and, talking on board Vespucius, sailed May 20, 1499, for the West Indies. They reached land in twenty-six days, and, after sailing along the coast, stopped at a village, the site of the present city of Maracaibo, which, on account of its appearance, he called Venice; and this name, slightly altered, afterward became Venezuela. As a matter of fact, the most of the land reached by this expedition had been previously discovered by Columbus, and was well-known to Ojeda. Among other countries, one was found which the natives called xVmaraca, and it is believed, as related by Humboldt, that the first settlement on the mainland was made in this country, Amaraca, and originally named New Toledo. It is what is now known as Venezuela, and is believed by many modern writers to have given the name "America," so long attributed to Americus Vespucius, to two continents. Vespucius returned to Cadiz with the expedition of Ojeda in November, 1500. The king of Portugal, now jealous of the success of Spain in its new adventures, invited Vespucius to his country, and gave him the command of three ships, with which he sailed from Lisbon


10, 1501, and,

reaching Bra-

went down the entire coast of South America to Patagonia, re-


turning to Lisbon in September, 1502. He was again sent out in the following year with six ships, having the design to discover a western passage to the Moluccas. He was detained on the coast of Brazil by bad weather for five months, and returned to Portugal in June, 1504, without having accomplished his purpose, but as he

brought with him quantities of Brazil wood, and other articles of value he was received with great joy. About the year 1507, Vespucius published a work, giving a description of his voyages, accompanied by a chart, and as this was the first publication of the kind, and Vespucius made claim to the honor of having first discovered the mainland, the latter received the name of America. Serious charges have been made against Vespucius. He claimed to have made four voyages, while the most authentic records state that he only made two, the entire account of his other voyages being a fabrication. Vespucius seems to have taken advantage of the fact of his Christian name resembling one already But really existing in the newly discovered land. neither Columbus nor Vespucius first discovered the mainland of America, as the Cabots sighted and coasted Labrador in the summer of 1497, while wellauthenticated Icelandic discoveries antedated these by nearly five centuries. Vespucius died in Seville, or, according to other auSpain, Feb. 22, 1512 thority, two years later at the island of Tercera. letter of Vespucius, describing his voyage of 1499, and said to have been written July 18, 1500, was ;

published by Bandini at Florence in 1745.




David, senator, author of the "Wilproviso," was bom at Bethany, "Wayne county. Pa., Jan. 20, 1814. He obtained a fair education was admitted to the bar at Wilkesbarre in 1834 settled at Towanda, Bradford county, Pa. ; was elected to congress as a democrat in 1845, and kept his seat for three terms. His famous proviso was introduced during his first year in the house, Aug. 8, 1846, as an amendment to a bill to appropriate $2,000,000 for the mot

purchase of land from Mexico; it stipulated "that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the republic of Mexico by the United States, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the said territory." Carried in the house, this failed to pass in the senate, but it had done its work, and the freesoil party adopted the principle later. Webster, who voted for the proviso in the senate, claimed, at the Massachusetts whig convention of September, 1847, that it contained nothing new, since he had taken the same ground long before in a speech

two years



1850, he denounced its application to New Mexico as " a wanton taunt and reproach to the South." Wilmot adhered to his position supported Van Buren for the presidency in 1848 became a republican at the fonnation of the party was a delegate to its national conventions of 1856 and 1860 temporaiy chairman of the latter, and an unsuccessful candidate for the governorship of his state in 1857. He was president-







judge of the thirteenth district of Pennsylvania, 1853-61 U. S. senator (to fill Cameron's unexpired term), 1861-63, and judge of the TJ. S. court of claims from 1863 until his death at Towanda, Pa., ;

March 16, 1868. HOTISTOKT, William Churchill, lawyer, was born

South Carolina

His father, a native North Carolina with Lord Cabarrus. He was graduated fiom Princeton college, N. J., in 1768, having for a year or two preceding supported himself by acting as master of the grammar school attached to that institution. In 1769 he became a tutor in the college, and in 1771 was appointed professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. When the American revolution bioke out. Prof. Houston and Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon were in

of Ireland,

in 1740.

settled in

the only professors attached to the college. The students scattered, and on Feb. 28, 1776, Mr. Houston was appointed captain of a company of the Somerset county (N. J.) militia, serving until the next August, when he resigned, and resumed his duties at the college. In 1777, retaining Ms connection with his alma mater, he was chosen a member of the New Jersey assembly, and, in 1878, of the State council of safety, of which council he was, for a time, treasurer. He was a member of the ContinenHe was tal congress in 1778, and served until 1782.

During this also a member from 1784 till 1786. year he resigned his professorship at Princeton, to take up the practice of law at Trenton, N. J. {having been admitted to the bar in 1788), and here he acquired a large practice. He was a delegate to the convention at Annapolis, Md., in 1786, which recommended the assembling of a convention to frame a federal constitution, and was chosen to attend the constitutional convention, but failing health obliged him to omit its later sessions. From 1784^88 Mr. Houston was clerk of the supreme court of New Jersey. He died at Frankfort, Pa., Aug. 12, 1788.



STEPHENS, Alexander Hamilton,


president of the Confederate States of America, was born near Crawfordsville, Ga., Feb. 11, 1812. His grandfather, Alexander, who settled in Pennsylvania in 1746, was in England an adherent of Prince Charles Edward. In this country he fought in the Indian war, under "Washington in the French war, and besides was a brave revolutionary captain. After peace was declared he removed to Georgia. Young Alexander, who was left an orphan at fifteen, was placed by his uncle, Clias. C. Mills; in tlie school of Rev. Alexander Hamilton Webster at "Washington, "Wilkes county, from whom he took the middle name of Hamilton. In 1838 he was sent to Franklin college, Athens, Ga., now the State university, by the Presbyterian educational society, repaying the money thus loaned him by teaching school after his graduation in 1832, on which occasion he took the first honor. At this time his health was feeble and his spirit melancholy. July 22, 1834, he was admitted to the bar after only two months' study, passing a perfect examination, the questions being propounded by Jos. H. Lumpkin and "Wm. H. Crawford. His first year at the bar earned him $400, and he lived on $6 a month. His practice was so successful that he soon bought the old family homestead and his now famous Liberty Hall. He was elected state representative on a plat-

form opposing


in 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839 and 1840, but declined further election in 1841. He was a delegate to the Southern commercial

convention at Charleston

in 1839, was elected state senator in 1842, and in 1843 representative to the twenty-

ninth congress by 8,000 majority. There were then no congressional districts, the membei's being elected under the "general ticket" method.

He was re-elected in 1845, 1847, 1849, 1851, 1853, 1855 and 1857, and in 1859 retired from public life, making an eloquent farewell speech at Augusta, Ga., in

which he declared the country at rest and slavery secure. In 1860 his name was discussed for the U. S. presidency, and he was an elector-at-large on the Douglass and Johnson ticket. In 1861 a delegate to the Georgia secession convention, he voted against secession. He was chosen a member of the Confederate convention at Montgomery to organize a provisional Confederate government, and was elected successively provisional and permanent vice-president of the Confederacy, serving later as Confederate commissioner at the celebrated Hampton roads conference of Februaiy, 1865, to negotiate peace with Lincoln and Seward. In May, 1865, after Lee's surrender, Mr. Stephens was arrested by the United States authorities, and incarcerated at Fort "Warren, Boston harbor, until the following October, when he was released on his own parole. He was elected U. S. senator in February, 1866, but was not allowed to take his seat was appointed delegate to the National union convention at Philadelphia in the following August; was counsel for the Columbus prisoners in 1868; was defeated as a candidate for the U. S. senate by Joshua Hill, in July of the same year; became editor and proprietor of the Atlanta " Daily Sun " in 1871 was again defeated as a candidate for senator by Gen. John B. Gordon, but was elected the same year representative to congress, to wliich he was re-elected in 1875, 1877; 1879 and 1881, resigning in 1882. The same year he was elected governor of Georgia, but he died before the expiration of his ;


Gov. Stephens was a remarkable man, his enbeing a sort of miracle. His career was a wonder. That a mind so powerful and a spirit so knightly should tenant a body so diseased and frail was nothing less than miraculous. At any lime during his hard-working and distinguished life his death would have been no surprise yet his physical weakness never impaired his public usefulness, and for forty-five years he held a foremost place in state and nation. His name and fame reached even the old world, thereby rendering him illustrious and illustrating Georgia. His purity, public spirit, spotless honesty, loyalty to principle, worship of truth, simplicity, boundless charity, exalted patriotism, freedom from prejudice, sincerity of conviction, invincible courage, supreme eloquence, and powerful statesmanship were continually appearing in his long, valuable, and brilliant public career. Perhaps his strongest excellence was his moral intrepidity. No public opinion could terrify, no majority daunt him. insensible popular clamor or frenzy. He was to His entire political course exemplified his nerve and interm.

tire life



He stemmed Know-nothingism when


seemed to be sweeping

his state, battled sturdily against secession when his people were aflame with its fire, spoke for the Union when it was hopeless, and was always an original and progressive thinker. His first speech as a young man of twenty-four in the Georgia legislature not only stamped him at once in public estimation as an orator, but helped create the "Western and Atlantic railroad which linked Georgia to the great "West. His first speech in congress was in favor of congressional districts on the line of home rtile. He opposed Polk on the Mexican war; favored California's admission as a free state, and was one of the authors of the "Georgia platform of 1850," which held the American Union secondary only to its principles. He wrote in July, 1852, the famous card of the whig leaders, refusing to support Scott, which practically destroyed the whig party. He voted for "Webster after he was

In 1854 he defended the Kansas-Nebraska His honest independence was always asserting itself courageously. In 1840, though a states rights man, he voted for Harrison. He desired the annexation of Texas, but was for Clay, who said its admission would create war. He voted with the democrats in 1845 to admit Texas. In 1860 he was for Douglass against Breckinridge, the states rights champion, because of the former's squatter sovereignty views. He took determined issue with President Davis against his conscription policy. Mr. Stephens dead. act.

orator and made in his life many historical addresses in congress: in 1846 on the Mexican war; in Baltimore on the anniversary of "Washington's birthday in 1852; in 1856 on the admission of Kansas; in 1859 on his retirement from congress; in

was a great

1860 to the Georgia legislature, upholding the Union; in 1861 his great " Corner-Stone " address delivered in Savannah, declaring -slavery to be the cornerstone of the new Confederate constitution; a patriotic address to the Georgia legislature in the closing year of the war; a statesmanlike speech in 1866 to the Georgia general assembly on the reconstruction of the Union; an admired oration on the uncovering of the painting, "The Signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, " and a powerful speech delivered while sitting in his roller chair in the Opera House at Atlanta, Ga., in 1882, on the occasion of his election as governor of Georgia. He had a well-earned national fame for eloquence. Twice in his life Mr. Stephens resorted to the code of honor in the vital chivalry of his spirit. He once challenged Gov. Ilerschel V. Johnson and Senator Benj. H. Hill, but neither would accept the call. He educated over 100 young men, many of whom have made both useful and distinguished citizens. dramatic inci-



life, illustrative of his resolute spirit, was the attack made upon him with a knife hy Judge Francis Cone. Judge Cone cut him savagely, but Mr. Stephens defied him with the weapon at his throat. Mr. Stephens had a great fondness for dogs. He kept open house at Liberty Hall. His humanity was universal. distinguislied delegation went for and escorted him from his home at Orawfordsville, in a special car, to be inaugurated as governor of Georgia. rough, seedy-looking man was seen among the |roup. "When asked wlio was the incongruous figure, his servant replied, "That is Mars Alec's tramp," and he added, " Mars Alec is kinder to dogs than most people is to folks." Gov. Stephens was in 1868 elected professor of political science and history in the Georgia university, but declined on account of ill health. He published in 1867 and 1870 the " War Between the States; " in 1870-71 a "School History of the United States; " in .January, 1878, in the "International Review,"adiscussionof theHayesTilden matter, and in 1883 a History of the United States. " His death, a few months after his inauguration, was due to the fatigue and exposure of a trip to Savannah, Ga., where he made his greatest speech at the Georgia sesqui-centennial celebration. He died in doing honor to his state at Atlanta, Ga.,









Hiram, sculptor, was born in Woodstock, Vt., July 39, 1805. He was the eighth of a family of nine children and the son of a farmer who found ditficulty in providing his family with the necessaries of life. As was usual among England boys at that time, he worked on his father's farm in the summer and studied in the district schools in the winter; as a child he exhibited mechanical ingenuity, made toy wagons, wind-mills, weapons for his comrades, and showed some skill in drawing, parUnfortunately for the famticularly in caricature. ily, the elder Powers lost all his property by becoming security for a friend, and as one of his sons had passed through Dartmouth college and was editing a newspaper in Cincinnati, his father determined to migrate thither, which he did, with all his remaining household goods and his family, in two wagons. This was in 1819, and they traveled across the country until they reached the Ohio river, when they floated down stream on a flat-boat to Cincinnati, at that time a city of 14,000 inhabitants. Assisted by his eldest son, Mr. Powers obtained a farm not far from Cincinnati, where he settled with his family, but unfortunately it was in an unhealthy locality and


the whole family were taken down with fever and ague, of which Mr. Powers died. Hiram succeeded in obtaining a place in adry-goods store in Cincinnati, but his employers failed, and he next accepted a place to collect bad debts for a clockmaker /SU

and organ-builder.



with this position for some time with varying success, but was finally given a place in the organ factory by his employer, where he succeeded in doing good work, even inventing a machine to cut out wooden clock-wheels, which was a great improvement on the one in use in the factory. Hiram's first tendency in the direction of art was aroused by seeing a plaster cast of Houdon's bust of

Washington in the Cincinnati museum. The sight awakened his innate artistic capacity, and finding a German who could instruct him a little in modeling, he soon succeeded in making a portrait bust which showed real capacity and talent. He remained in the employment of the organ-builder and clockmaker, however, giving his leisure hours to practice at his new


art, which was further fostered, at length, through the opening in Cincinnati of a museum of natural history and wax figures. The latter had been badly broken and disfigured in transportation, and Powers entered the employ of the Frenchman who conducted the museum, and mended, corrected and remodeled his figures, remaining in that service for seven years. In the meantime he married and had children to support, and finding that he could not save money by working in the wax-flgure business, he cast about for something else to do. Fortunately for him his abilities as an artist attracted the attention of Mr. Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, who aided him in going to Washington, with the idea that he could there engage in making busts of the distinguished men of the nation. He accordingly went to that city in 1835 and remained there two years, dining which time he modeled busts of Andrew .Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Calhoun, Chief Justice Marshall, Levi Wood bury, Martin Van Buren and Daniel Web ster. In 1837, through the kindness of Gen. Preston of Columbia, S. C, a gentleman of great wealth, Powers was enabled to go to Italy and settled in Florence, whither his models followed him. His work was warmly praised by the artists there, and also by his countrymen who visited the city. He met Thorwaldsen who pronounced his bust of Webster the best work of its kind of modern times. Meanwhile, orders came in rapidly and he soon had as much busi ness as he could attend to, but in his leisure time he made the "Greek Slave," afterward the most popular of all of his works, which was purchased by an English gentleman of wealth, while duplicates of it were exhibited in America and in England. He also completed his statue of


"Eve," which was pronounced by Thorwaldsen Powers contin"fit to be any man's masterpiece." ued to reside in Florence for thirty-six years, or unreasons for thus expatriating til his death. His himself were purely economical, for while the opportunities of studying art abroad were infinitely greater than at home, the practice of art was far less expen.sive, especially that of the sculptor who had to depend so much upon the labor of his workmen. Besides the ideal figures already mentioned, Mr. Powers completed: "The Fisher Boy" (1846); "America" (1854); "II Penseroso" (1856); "California" (1858), and the "Indian Girl" (1873). His "America" was designed for the top of the capitol at Washington and was destroyed by fire in 1866. Some of Mr. Powers's ideal busts ai-e: "Genevra" "Proserpine" (1845); "Psyche "(1849); Diana" (1853); "Christ" (1866); "Faith," "Hope," and "Charity" (1867-71), and "Clytie" (1868). Three duplicates in marble were made of "The Fish(1840);

His er Boy," one of Powers's most popular works. latest portrait busts were those of Henry W. LongHis fellow and Gen. Philip H. Sheridan (1865), statue of Washington was made for the state of of South for the state Louisiana and that of Calhoun Carolina. His "Benjamin Franklin" and "ThomThe as Jefferson " are in the capitol at Washington. statue of Calhotm was brought over in a vessel which was wrecked on the coast of Long Island, and the figure remained in the sea for some time, but, being wellpacked, was found when raised to be only slightly damaged by the water. Mr. Powers died in Florence June 37, 1873.


Solomon, merchant, was born


son of Daniel Bachman, dry-goods merchant. Solomon was educated at a business college, and was apprenticed to a

Kups, Bavaria, Germany,

in 1837, the



firm in Munich that was engaged in banking, and in the export of fine furs. At the age of seventeen he came to America, landing at New York city in July, Going from store to 1845, with $4 in his pocket. store the next day, offering his services as clerk or bookkeeper, he finally obtained a position for which he received $6 a month and He was board and lodging. subsequently employed as clerk in other establishments, and in 1849 concluded to start in busiBeing inness for himself. Newburyport, that formed place in good Mass., would be a which to settle, he opened a dry-goods shop there, and in less than four years was doing a large business. In 1861, Mr. Bachman commenced a dry goods jobbing business in New York city, under the name of Bachman Co., which he continued until 1864. He then undertook the manufacture of balmoral skiits, bought a mill at Paterson, N. J., with machinery -


to make yarns, and power looms skirts and sliawls. In 1876 Mr. Bachman exhibited his goods at the centennial exhibition in Philadelphia, and was awarded the highest pre-



In 1877 he bought the Merrimack woolen which he continues to run. Mr. Bachman is considered the largest shawl manufacturer in the country. He attributes his success to having always attended strictly to his business, selling his own goods, endeavoring to his customers, and to living within his means. He is a member of the Chamber of commerce.


mill in Lowell, Mass.,





director of the department of public works of Philadelphia, was born in that city, July 4, 1840, of ScotchIrish parentage. He obtained his education at Girard college, and in 1856 was indentured to John W. Torrey to learn the architectural profession,

studying later with John Notman, architect. Failing health necessitated a change to outdoor life, and he removed to West Chester, Pa., where he worked as a carpenter for several years, then returned to Philadelphia and became a draughtsman. In 1860 he was selected by John Walsh to superintend the construction of the Episcopal hospital of Philadelphia, and when that work was done, was given an important position in the planning of the erection of the Union depot for the Pennsylvania railroad company at Pittsburg, Pa. At a later date Mr. Jay Cooke, the distinguished financier, engaged him as architect for his country seat,


Having achieved

reputation, Mr. Windrim's services were called into requisition in designing many costly public buildings and private residences, including one for the Fidelity trust company, the Fourth street office of the Pennsylvania railroad company, the National bank of Northern Liberties, and the Tradesmen's national bank of Philadelphia. He also planned and superintended the building of the bank and office of the National safe deposit company; the

Fleming oifice building at Washington, D. C, and handsome building for the Western saving fund







distinction in his profession by designing the handsome and costly Masonic temple on Broad street, Philadelphia, one of the most imposing buildings of its kind in America, which cost about $1,350,000. He was also the architect for the Masonic temple In recogniat Altoona, Pa., which cost $75,000. tion of his merit and ability in his chosen field, the board of city trusts of Philadelphia, in 1871, appointed Mr. Windrim architect for the famous Girard estate, and in that capacity he designed and superintended the erection of new buildings for Girard college, enlarging it sufficiently to accommodate 1,600 pupils. In 1889, upon the recommendation of Jolm Wanamaker, Mr. Windrim was appointed by Secretary of the Treasury Windom supervising architect of the United States. He held that posUion until Apr. 7, 1891, when he resigned to accept tlie office of director of the department of public works of


tendered him by

Mayor Edwin



WHITE, Leonard

Dalton, banker, was born

in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 14, 1833, the eighth in descent from William White, an Englishman, who landed at Ipswich, Mass., in 1635. Leonai'd, one of the descendants of William White, and grandfather of Leonard Dalton White, was born in Haverhill, Mass., May 3, 1767; was graduated from Harvard in 1787; was town clerk of Haverhill for many years, member of congress from Essex county, and for a long time cashier of the

Merrimack bank, Haverhill. He married Mary, daughter of Tristam Dalton, an ardent patriot, a leader of the whigs in his district, a man of rare elegance of manners and scholarly attainments, a speaker in the house of representatives, a senator in the first U. S. congress, and a close personal friend of Gen. Washing-

was an intimate friend of Mrs. Washington. On his mother's side Mr. White's family is equally notable. She was sixth in descent from Robert Davis, who came from England in 1638, and her grandfather was chief justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts, and a warm personal friend of James Otis. Her father served in the war of 1813, and the men in the family before him, three brothers and a cousin, fought in the battle of Bunker Hill. Mr. White's education was not, like that of his forefathers, accompanied by the sound of war. ton, while his wife


studied in the University grammar school of the city of York, and then went into business as a clerk in his father's office. he was seventeen years old his father died, leaving the family depend-



upon him for support. Before he had readied his majority young White determined on launching out alone, and went into business for himself, opening an office at 35 Wall street. He soon after formed ent

a partnership with his brother, and the firm, under the name of L. D. F. White, became well known. Two years later, or about 1858, Charles O. Morris became a member of the firm, and the name was changed to White, Morris Co. During the civil war the firm of White, Morris Co. dealt extensively in government bonds, and proudly claim that from the very beginning of their establishment their house has safely weathered every financial gale. Mr. White has invariably avoided political preferment. He is secretary and a trustee of the Greenwich savings bank, and a deacon of the Madison avenue Bap-







banker for forty years, beginning


OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. before he was twenty-one, he

is able to say to the in his office, "Honor, promptness, integrity, are safe watchwords."

young men


William Starbuck, artist, was born at Bedford, Mass., Sept. 11, 1854, the son of William Henry Macy, of John Boyle & Co. He was descended from Thomas Macy,




Nantucket. WiUiam Starbuck was educated at the New Bedford public schools, and at the art at the

age of sixteen studied

New York and

academy of design, went to MuBavaria, where he studied

at twenty-one


under the Russian master, Vel-

He exhibited at the Paris salon of 1877. He received one of the six "A'' medals for landscape at the Mechanics' Pair, his subject being "Meadow near Munich" now (1893) in possession of his father. He has exhibited continuously at the annual exhibition of the National academy of design in New ten.

W,^. Vncvci^


congress, 1829-31, he, with William Wirt and others, vainly opposed the unfair treatment of the Cherokees which ended in their enforced removal in 1838. He received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1819, and from Harvard in 1821. He retired to a farm at Lyons, Wayne county, N. Y. in 1839, but was chairman of the whig national convention at Baltimore in 1844, and in his last years wrote against the movement to make the judiciary elective with short terms. He died at Lyons, March His memorial appeared in 1849. 13, 1848. Asa, cousin of the above, was born at Salisbury, Conn., in September, 1747 ; was a soldier in tlie war of independence; took part in the storming of Stony Point, N. Y., July 15, 1779, and later removed with his family to Fort Covington, Franklin county, N. Y., where he died in 1828. His son, Abner Peck Spencer, U.S.A., was a cfiptain in the war of 1813, and afterward military governor of



PEABODY, George Harm an,


was born at Baltimore, Md. the son of Jeremiah Dodge Peabody, and nephew of the late well-known mil,

George Peabody. The Peaone of the oldest in Massachusetts,

lionaire philanthropist,

body family


having settled there in 1635, and from the start taking rank with the leading citizens of their place of Mr. Macy's creations, "Edge residence, having married and of the Forest" (1881); Old Forest in Winter;" "Win- intermarried with the aristoter Sunset" (1884); "Old Mill" (1885); "January cratic old residents, such as in Bermuda" (1886)^ are noteworthy examples of the Endicotts, Gov. Bradford's his finished works. He has studios in New York family, and others of equal city, and at New Bedford, and while New England distinction. George H. Peaeffects have been his chief studies, he has not limited body received a liberal eduhis work to one locality, having made studies in the cation. For four years he Mr. Macy is a life ^vas art writer of the old New far West, as well as abroad. member of the Lotos club, also a member of the York Express," under the editorship of Erastus Brooks, Artists' fund society. SPENCER, Ambrose, jurist and member of and for eight years art editor congress, was born at Salisbury, Litchfield county. of the "New Yoi'k CommerConn., Dec. 13, 1765, descendant in the fifth degree cial Advertiser," which posifrom William Spencer. The son of a farmer and tions he did not accept for mechanic, he passed from Yale to Harvard; was pecuniary benefit, but for the Graduated from the latter in 1783; studied law at sole purpose of advancing haron, Conn. married, in 1784, the daughter of his American art. He has received began practice at Hudson, many grateful acknowledgpreceptor, J. Canfield artists was made town clerk in 1786, and sent to ments from who, N. Y. the legislature in 1793. While in the state senate, through his influence, were 1795-1803, he accomplish- enabled not only to dispose of their paintings, when ed the important reform other-nisethey would have been overlooked for forof restricting the death eign productions, but were made known to the public, penalty to cases of mur- and the art world. He has been enabled during the der and treason, and se- last twelve years to advance the interests of hundreds cured the erection of a of American artists by finding purchasers for their state prison, wherein some works; and by his personal efforts in educating the offenses, previously capipurchasers to an appreciation of American art, he ta], were to be punished has done much good. He was honored by being by confinement with hard one of the invited guests at the first dinner given by










He became


ant attorney of the county in 1796, attorney-general of the state in 1803, and in 1804 a judge of the t

New York supreme court. In 1808


and P.

Munro were appointed



the report reforms in chancery procedure of the emistate. He was an

nent equity lawyer, active in

politics, a presidenelector in 1809, and an intimate associate of De Witt Clinton until 1813, when he supported the war, and opposed the charter of the bank. He was chief justice 1819-33, and a member of the York constitutional convention of 1819. From 183339 he practiced at Albany, where he was mayor tial



and held sundry minor




academy of art (April, 1890) the academy had been in existence over sixty-five years at that time, and numbered among its invited guests 150 persons "who had done something for art." He was the leading founder of the Free and unsectarian Peabody home for aged and indigent women, the American

first institution of the kind organized on an independent basis, not looking to the patronage of any church organization, and absolutely free to any woman coming under its plan who is sixt.y-five years old or over, and entirely dependent. The success of this plan was by some at the time thought uncertain, and by others, able and distinguished men, warmly seconded. It is now on a prosperous iDasis, has many friends, and needs further enlargement to supply the constantly increasing demands of the applicants for admission. It depends upon the public for support. Mr. Peabody was awarded a handsome souvenir, personally signed by the late Right




Rev. Bishop Horatio Potter, and 137 the trustees of Home, for his work in behalf of this charity, to which he has so liberally donated his time and money. It is especially worthy of public attention. Always foremost in the cause of charity and good works, he is a worthy representative of the name he The "New York World " of so worthily bears. May 8, 1880, said: " Mr. George H. Peabody, who worthily wears a name identified with practical benevolence has just purchased the old-fashioned homestead on the Boston rOad, in the West Farms district of this city, which has been occupied as the "Home for Incurables," and presented it to the trustees of the Peabody home for aged indigent the

women "

(free of all rents

and taxes for

six years).

In 1892 Mr. Henry E. Pellew, formerly head of the Board of charities of New York state, wrote " I cannot refrain from congratulating you heartily on the success of your long and persistent efforts in carrying on this valuable and truly catholic charity. To you belongs all the credit and honor, as formerly :



the financial responsibility,

which made you

the mainstay of the Institution."

piled a " Register of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Civil War " (Trenton, 1873), the first work of this character ever prepared and issued by any state, and a " Record of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Civil War, 1861-1865 " (1876). He has also published many monographs relating to the history of New Jersey, among these being: "The Red Controversy " (Trenton, 1876); "Trenton One Hundred Years Ago " (1878); " New Jersey Continental Line in the Virginia Campaign of 1781" (1882); "The Princeton Surprise" (1882); "Washington's" Reception by the People of New Jersey in 1789 (1882); " The Capture of the Block House at Toms River, N. J." (1883); "New Jersey Continental Line in the Indian Campaign of 1779 " (1885); "The Old Barracks at Trenton, N. J." (1885); " The New Jersey Volunteers— Loyalists' (1887). He has been for many years engaged in the preparation of two works, '

"The Battles of Trenton and Princeton" and "The Battle of Monmouth." In writing these volumes he made an exhaustive search, among the military archives of Germany, for new facts concerning the Hessian contingent. Gen. Stryker is a entitled

of a large number of State historical sociea fellow of the American geographical society, and of the Royal historical society of London, and



William Scudder,



was born June 6, 1838, at Trenton, N. J., of descent, his ancestors having left Holland in 1653 and settled in New Amsterdam. There, as a great burgher of the colony, the representative of author,



Knickerbocker family

took part in the memorable cormcils of Gov. Stuyvesant. In the revolution a very zealous soldier, Capt. John Stryker, a partisan otflcer of the state troops of New Jersey, greatly distinguished liinLself during the entire war by the dam-

upon the whenever they passed through the JerWilliam S. Stryker seys. was early prepared for college, was graduated from age he



Princeton in the class of 1858, and began the study of law in Trenton. He )

enlLsted as a private soldier, Apr. 16, 1861, assist-

in organizing the 14th Regiment New Jersey volunteers, and in February, 1863, was ordered to Hilton Head, S. C, where he served as aidede-camp, with the rank of major, to Maj.-Gen. Quincy Gillmore, commanding the department of the South, participating in the capture of Morris Island, in the night attack on Fort Wagner, and in all the toils and danger of the bombardment of Fort Sumter and the siege of Charleston. Returning to the North on account of severe illness, he became senior paymaster in charge of all disbursements in the district of Columbus, O. was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious services, and resigned from the army, June 30, 1866. Soon after he was placed on the military staff of the governor of Jersey, and since Apr. 13, 1867, he has filled the office of adjutant-general of the state. He was brevetted a major-general in February, 1874, by the governor and senate of New Jersey, for long and meritorious service. He was admitted to the bar in 1866, and for some time was president of the Trenton hanking company, and afterward the president of the Trenton savings fund society. He has been a close student of American history, and in his residence at Trenton, has a large and valuable historical library, especially rich in Americana. He has com-






a member of the American historical association, and of the society of the Cincinnati.

AVERY, Alphonso Calhoun, associate justice supreme court of North Carolina, Morganton, Burke county, Sept. 11, father was Col. Isaac T. Avery, ca.shier ganton bank, and an influential citizen. nal grandfather. Col. Waightstill Avery, of the

of the

was born


1837. His of the MorHis pater-

was a signer Mecklenburg declaration of independence, a


of the Colonial congress, the first attorneygeneral of North Carolina, and stood head and shoulders in influence and in greatness above his contemporaries. He was a native of Groton, Conn. His ancestor, Christopher Avery, and his little son James, came over in the Arbella, in 1631, to become members of the English settlement commenced by descendant of James Avery John Winthrop, Sr. married the daughter of Gov. John Winthrop, Jr. The niaternal grandfather of Justice Averj' was William W. Erwin, a man of broad culture and a He was a member of Christian of the highest type. the Fayetteville convention, that adopted the Federal constitution, and afterward was cashier of the Morganton bank. W. W. Erwin married a daughter of Col. William Sharpe, a distinguished revolutionary character, whose wife was a daughter of David Reese, a signer of the Mecklenburg declaraMr. Avery was educated at tion of independence. the University of North Carolina, standing first in a class of men who have since become leading men in public life. After graduation he studied law with Chief Justice Pearson, and was licensed to practice Before applying for his supein the county court. rior court license, the tocsin of war had sounded throughout the South, and with enthusiastic devotion to the Confederacy, he was among the first to volunteer. In May, 1861, he joined the 6th North Carolina regiment, was conunissioned first lieutenant of Company E, and was fighting at Manassas when Col. Fisher fell. He and his brother. Col. Isaac T. Avery, who was killed at Gettysburg, were both complimented for gallant conduct on that bloody field. In 1863 he was elected captain of his company, and in the same year was commissioned major and assistant adjutant-general of Hill's division, army of Virginia, and in 1863 accompanied him to the Western army, then at Chattanooga. He afterward served on th'e staff of Breckinridge, Hindman, and Hood. He was on Hood's staff in the great retreat from Dalton to the Chattahoochee river. Two of his


OF AMEBIC AN BIOGRAPHY. brothers having heen killed, he received a permit to come to North Carohna, was placed in command of a battalion, and was organizing a regiment when he was captured near Salisbury by Stoneman's raiders. He was kept a prisoner until August, 1865. Returnmg home after the war, Mr. Avery resumed the practice of law, which he had just begun at the outbreak of the war. In 1866 he was elected by a large majority to represent his district in the state senate, and served that legislature, which was the last body elected exclusively by the white voters of the state. In 1868 he was re-elected, but the republican senate refused to allow him to take his seat, because in 1861


he had been elected solicitor of the county court of Burke county. In 1875 he was sent by his county as its representative to the constitutional con-

vention, one of the most important bodies that ever assembled in North Carolina. The parties had an equal number of votes, and it was long doubtful which party would control its action. It was largely due to the wisdom and ability, as


he had visited every county In 1888 he was nominated for assoin the state. ciate justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, and elected for a term of eight years. He has thus been on the superior and supreme court bench more than a dozen years, and has taken rank with the ablest and wisest jurists who have honored the bench in North Carolina. Mr. Avery was married to Susan "W. Morrison, a daughter of Rev. R. H. Morrison, a granddaughter of Gen. Joseph Graham, and a great-granddaughter of John Davidson and Neill Morrison, both signers of the Mecklenburg declaration of independence. Judge Avery being a descendant of Waightstill Avery and of David Reese, the children of this marriage have four ancestors who signed the Mecklenburg declaration of independence. After the death of his first wife Mr. circuit

_ '



an organizer, of Mr. Avery, that the democratic party controlled the convention. In 1876 he was a Tilden elector, and in 1878 he was elected superior court judge of his held this honorable position, riding the

rotation, until

Avery married, Dec.

31, 1888, Sallie I;Ove


a daughter of William H. Thomas of Jackson county, and a great-granddaughter of Robert Love of Buncombe county. HILDRTJP, William Thomas, manufacturer, was born at Middletown, Conn., Feb. 6, 1832, the son of Jesse Hildrup, of Hartford. He grew to manhood in his native town, and obtained his education in the public schools, where he excelled in the study of mathematics. He then learned the carpenter's trade, and at nineteen started out in life with energy, enthusiasm and a firm determination to succeed in a career of usefulness and activity. For two years he worked at his trade at Cape Vincent, Jefferson county, N.Y., and in 1843 proceeded to Worcester, Mass., where he became an employee in the car works of Bradley & Rice. Det&rmined to gain a complete theoretical and practical knowledge of the business of car-building, he diligently studied the science of mechanics. This, together with nine years of active work in the Worcester shops, fitted him for more reIn 1853 sponsible duties than those of an employee. he started a car-wheel foundry and machine shop at Elmira, N. Y., but the following year moved to Harrisburg, Pa., where he organized the Harrisburg car manufacturing company, of which he became su-


perintendent and general manager, and soon after

To aid his employees to become skillful workmen, he took his place among them in the shops; and to prepare young men for profitable po-


works, he established free night schools to give instruction in free-hand and mechanical drawing; thus improving the skill and eflSciency of his corps of employees, and adding greatly to their material welfare. Assiduous in caring for the interest and well-being of all the workmen, he acquired and retained their good will and highest regard. When the financial panic of 1857 caused a lull in the car -building industry, Mr. Hildrup, in order to keep sitions in the car

workmen employed, advocated and secured the addition the company's works of a to foundry and machine shop for the manufacture of machinists' tools. They also began a genehis

ral oil

foundry business, and made tanks, machine work, en-

gines and boilers. This enterprise developed into the Har-

risburg foundry and machine works. saw and planing mill was also added, and the capital stock of the company increased to more than twelve times the


original amount, made up solely from the earnings of the car works and their associate Indus tries.

The corresponding


crease in the manufacturing capacity made the works of this company prominent among the industries of Pennsylvania. The car works were entirely destroyed by fire in 1873, and within ninety days were rebuilt. During the succeeding twenty years this enterprise met with almost unrivaled pros perity. Mr. Hildrup ranks as one of the oldest car builders in America. Frederick Carroll, lawyer, was born in Philadelphia May 15, 1835, a direct descendant of William Brewster,the ruling elder of the Pilgrims of the Mayflower. His initial education was in the old Friends' select school, where he was also fitted for college. He entered the University of Pennsylvania, and as a student displayed wonderful industry and aptness for study, gradiiating at the early age of sixteen with the highest honors. His father was a lawyer, and the son, entering his office immediately on graduation from college as a law student, was admitted to the bar in 1844 at the age of nine teen. His line of practice was chiefiy in the civil courts, crim inal cases being usually avoidYet some of the most ed. notable criminal cases tried in the commonwealth have been "fought out " by him. In 1863


city solicitor, was re-elected 1865;" in 1866 became judge of the court of common After serving in this pleas. than three office for more tX, -AoJiAt^Jt /2ltA*^n.f:£IL. years, Mr. Brewster was ap pointed by Gov. Geary attor ney-general of the commonwealth, continuing in the office during the years 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1873. To a knowledge of the science of jurisprudence, profound and extensive, he possesses the gift of imparting it to those who seek his office as a school of His office, preparation for admission to the bar. owing to his reputation, has many of the features of

he became



a law school, even to the annual gathering of the "graduates" and their preceptor in social reunion. of LL.D. was conferred upon him in 1870 by the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of: " Moliere in Outline," "Life of Disraeli," "Condensation of Blackstone," "Rule in Shelly's Case," " Digest of Pennsylvania Reports," four vols. of "Reports," and two on "Practice."

The degree

CHASE, Waldo


iron manufacturer,

N. Y., in 1847. He wasthe son of Luther and Sophia Chase, who removed from Stillwater to Troy, N. Y., in 1849. His father, whose ancestors came from Rhode Island, was of

was born

in Stillwater,

Quaker descent. Mr Chase's education was acquired in the public schools of Troy, N. Y., academy in Nassau,


at the

Rensselaer county, N. Y. His natural aptitude for trade exhibited itself in his school days, when he was engaged in selling newspapers. In Aug-ust,





seventeen years of age, young Chase enlisted in the 10th regiment, N. Y. volunteers, in which he served until May, 1865. In November, 1864, he was severely wounded at Petersburg, Va., and


in hospital until

he was


returning home he '^^as engaged as clerk in a store until he obtained a position with Harrison & Kellogg, iron manufacturers, of Troy, N. Y. He soon acquired an interest in the '£L^i^ y^r -^^i^s. business, and shortly after went into partnership with two others. The new firm bought out the business of Harrison & Kellogg, which rapidly developed until it became one of the leading concerns of the United States in the manufacture of malleable iron. The business soon grew beyond the facilities of their plant, and the firm acquired an interest in a similar enterprise at Bridgeport, Conn. Mr. Chase is now vice-president of the Troy and Bridgeport companies. In 1870 he married Ada P.Wood, daughter of Capt. Ephraim Wood, late of Troy, N. Y. They have three children. Mr. Chase has always been a stanch republican, and is now a member of the Union league club of New York city. discharged.

LAUBENS, Charleston, S.


Henry, in 1724.

statesman, was born in His ancestors in America

were French Protestant refugees, who had left France after the edict of Nantes was revoked. They first settled in New York, but subsequently removed to South Carolina. He was educated in Charleston, first under a Mr. Howe, and afterward under a Mr. Corbett, but there is no record of him as a scholar other than that his course of studies tended to fit him for a mercantile career. Throughout his life he was remarkable for his business methods, having derived peculiar ideas of business under Mr. Crockett of London, Eng., to which place he went to receive thorough practical commercial training. After his return from London he engaged in business with Mr. Austin of Charleston. He had such a high reputation as a business man, was so noted for his extraordinary punctuality, and discountenanced so strongly its violation in others, that to have served an apprenticeship in Mr. Laurens's counting-house was to a j'oung man a recommendation in itself. Of untiring industry, he required corresponding industrious habits in his employees. He was probably unsurpassed as a business man. He was prominent in his opposition to British aggression, and was often engaged in disputes with the crown judges, particu-

larly in regard to their decisions in marine law and He published some artiin the courts of admiralty. cles against these measures in pamphlet form, which

In 1771 he went abroad, fine legal talent. principally to superintend the education of his sons, whose future fully realized their youthful promise. While there, he was one of the thirty-nine native Americans who petitioned the Bj-itish parliament not to pass the Boston port bill. Finding that the exertions of the colonies to avoid war were futile, he returned home to take part with his countrymen Strong efforts were made to disagainst England. suade him from his purpose bright prospects were presented to him, and he was even offered indem-


nity against any losses he might sustain, provided he would remain in England. But he rejected these propositions in a manner worthy of I shall never forhis character. get your friendly attentions to '




dare not return. Your ministers are deaf to information and seem bent on provoking unnecessary contest. I think I have acted the part of a faithful subject. I now go, resolved still to labor for peace, at the same time determined in the last event to stand or fall with my country." He arrived in Charleston on his return in December, 1774. He was appointed president of the council of safety. He was a member of the first provincial congress in 1775, and drafted the form of association to be signed by all those who favored in^/TAA-*.^ tt«rfet>l.»'^v^-^J dependence. He was made vicepresident of South Carolina under He was appointed a the new constitution in 1776. delegate to the Continental congress, of which he was elected president Nov. 1, 1777, upon the resigHe resigned this position nation of John Hancock. Dec. 10, 1778, receiving the thanks of congress "for his conduct in the chair and in the execution of public business." In 1779 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary from the United States to Holland. His mission was to negotiate a treaty that Van Berckel, pensionary of Amsterdam, had unofficially proposed to William Lee. Mr. Laurens was captured on the voyage, and though he threw his papers overboard they were recovered and disclosed the obHe was taken to England and imject of his trip. prisoned in the Tower of London, where he was committed on suspicion of treason and confined a close prisoner. Holland declined to punish Van Berckel at the command of Lord North's ministry, and war was immediately declared between Great Britain and that country. Mr. Laurens's health was impaired when he was taken prisoner, and, though ill, no attention was paid to his comfort and no medical attendance was provided. He was placed in solitary confinement, and allowed neither writing materials nor communication with the outside world. He, however, contrived to secure pencils, and, through a tru.sty person, sent out communications, and even went so far as to correspond with American newspapers. He was on two occasions offered his parole on conditions his proud and magnanimous spirit declined to accept. In 1781, when his eldest son, Lieut. -Col. John Laurens, was in France as mininterests,"




Mr. Laurens was urged to notify that if he would withdraw from that court he might possibly obtain his father's release. Mr. Laurens's reply was, "He loves me dearly and would lay down his life to save mine; but I am sure nothing woidd tempt him to sacrifice his honor, and I applaud him." After he had been confined a year, Mr. Laurens was given permission by the secretary ister of congress,



OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. of state to use pen and ink to draw up a bill of exchange to procure money for medical attendance and other necessaries. The privilege was immediately withdrawn. His suifering and confinement attracted general sympathy toward the close of 1781, and efforts were put in motion to obtain his release. Through the efforts of friends the British government offered to release him gratuitously, but having considered himself a prisoner of war, holding high and independent views, and not desiring to feel himself obligated in any degree, he proposed that the Earl of Cornwallis be exchanged for him. The

exchange was effected, and Mr. Laurens was once free man. The confinement in the Tower so completely undermined his health that he remained an invalid the rest of his life. Soon after he was released he received a commission from congress, appointing him one of the ministers to negotiate peace with England. He went to Paris and, in connection with Dr. Franklin, John Jay and John Adams, on Nov. 30, 1783, signed the preliminaries of peace/ whereby the independence of the IJnited States was clearly acknowledged. Mr. Laurens soon afterward returned to South Carolina, where his countrymen, in admiration of his career abroad, were anxious to honor him with the marks of distinction that were in the gift of the people, but he

more a

positively declined all kinds of political preferment and lived quietly the remainder of his life, devoting himself to his family and to agricultural pursuits. At the conclusion of his will was a strange behest, which was rigidly executed: "I solemnly enjoin it upon son as an indispensable duty that, as soon decease, he cause as he conveniently can after body to be wrapped in twelve yards of tow cloth, entirely consumed, and then, coland burnt until it is ashes, deposit them wherever he may see lecting proper." His was the first body cremated in America. Mr. Laurens was a clear, forcible writer, and had an admirable style for a letter-writer. Two volumes of his official public correspondence, when president of the old congress, are yet within its archives. He died at Charleston, S. C, Dec. 8, 1792.





ZIEGENFUSS, Samuel Addison, clergyman, son of Samuel and Catherine Ziegenfuss, was born at Quakertown, Bucks county. Pa., Dec. 12, 1844. He received his preparatory training in a normal and classical school at Quakertown, and in the preparatory department of Pennsylvania college at Gettysburg, Pa. He entered Pennsylvania college in the fall of 1866, but left to enter the sophomore class in Muhlenberg college, at the opening of the first session of that newly established institution in 1867, from which he was gradu-

He studied theated in 1870. ology in the Lutheran theological seminary, Philadelphia, was graduated in 1873, and shortly after was ordained to the office of the ministry in the Lutheran church by the ministerium of Pennsylvania. His first appointment was at Sellersville, Pa., to 1875, when he went to Bath, Pa., until January, 1893, since which time he has been pastor of St. Michael's Lutheran church, Germantown, Philadelphia, one of the oldest Lutheran congregations in that city. In his charges Mr. Ziegenfuss has been remarkably successful, and all congregations under his care have increased in numbers

from 1873

and in influence. He thoroughly understands human His early training has endowed him with an unusual amount of thrift and energy, and he is nature.


an indefatigable worker in whatever he undertakes. He has an excellent English and German education, both of which languages he speaks with fluency. In the pulpit he nified,



easy and graceful, earnest and dig-

as a speaker


pleasant, interesting


forcible. He has filled trust in the church.

many positions of honor and He has been a trustee of since 1883, a member of the

Muhlenberg college executive and examination committees of the same since 1884, and secretary of the board of trustees and

of the executive committee since 1886. He is also the English secretary of the ministerium of Pennsylvania, the oldest and largest synod in America, and president of the


association of the Luthei-aa theological

seminary of Philadelphia, and one of the directors of that institution.

DBA!KE, Charles Daniel,

lawyer, U. S. senborn in Cincinson of Dr. Dan-

ator, chief justice, and author, was nati, 0., Apr. 11, 1811, and was the

Drake. His education was very limited, and all schooling ceased in 1837, when he was appointed a midshipman in the TJ. S. navy. He the navy until 1830, when he entered on the study of law. In 1833 he • '^'*^» was admitted to the bar in Cincinnati. In 1834 he removed to St. Louis, Mo., where he resided, with an intermission of about three years, until December, 1870, when he took up his residence in Washington, D. C. In 1838 he originated the St. Louis law library, wrote the original subiel

scription paper therefor, and obtained the subscriptions of its first

twenty members.

60 he

In 1859-

was a member

of the Missouri house of representatives ,a.,C -Afftrt^

simllimum to my case. As I have lived and practiced for others, I will do for myself, for I hruiw it is the right way." Often during his illness he said, "If I must die, I wish it recorded that I died true to my principles." In his delirium he imagined himself prescribing for the sick, and would direct those about him to prepare certain remedies for them. He was a member of numerous medical societies, including the American institute of homoeopathy, Massachusetts surgical and gynecological society, honorary member of Hahnemann medical society of Madrid, Spain, and "Instituto Homoeopathico Mexicano." He received the honorary degree of M.D. in 1863, from the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, in which he was professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children from 1861 to 1869, and dean of the faculty three years. He was professor of materia medica in Hahnemann medical college, from 1871 to 1874, and was also dean during that time. Dr. Guernsey wrote and published a work on "Obstetrics and Diseases of

Women and

Children," which has reached its third therapeutic portion of this work was translated into French, and published in Paris. " Lectures on Materia Medica," delivered at Hahnemann college, Reports on Obstetrics, " to the American institute of homoeopatliy, "Plain Talks on Avoided Subjects," "The Key-note System," are among his numerous publications possessing a high order of merit. He was married Apr. 27, 1845, to Statira Colburn of Boston, Mass., by whom he had three children, Elizabeth W., Joseph C, and Henry William. He died June 27, 1885. Robert J., professor, physician, and editor, was born in Philadelphia Apr. 6, 1836. He studied medicine under Dr. Wm. S. Helmuth, was graduated from the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania in 1856, practiced medicine several years in Bethlehem, Pa., and in 1863 removed to Philadelphia, where he gained distinction He filled the chair of anatomy for in his profession. two years in his alma mater, and from 1867 to 1883 edition.





professor of pathology and practice of medicine As editor of the college. " Hahnemannian Monthly" from 1868 to 1878, he exerted a marked influence in his profession on account of the vigor and force of his writings, and his

was in

Hahnemann medical

wide knowledge of medical literature. He was a most efficient general secretary of the American institute of homoeopathy from 1871 to 1879, was largely instrumental in effecting the organization of the Hahnemann club of Philadelphia in 1871, served twelve years as its president, was nine years secre-




and two years president of the County society of Philadelphia, originated the movement whicli resulted in founding the Children's hospital of Philadelphia, -was president of Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania in 1874, and was unceasing in using his best efforts to promote and advance the best interests of all the societies of which he was a


In 1871 Dr. McClatchey prepared and Domestic Medipublished a revision of Laurie's cine," and later assisted in the revision of Guernsey's " Obstetrics." The "Transactions " of the national and state societies contain valuable contributions from his pen. For twenty years he attended to a large practice in Philadelphia, where he died Jan.


1860 to 1866." He also contributed to Hill and Hunt's "Practice of Surgery," and to JohnSi's " Materia Medica," and in 1888 published a pathogenetic





17, 1883.


Charles, physician, professor of medicine in the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, was born in Bremen, Germany, Apr. 19, 1809. His stepfather was Prof. List, a noted writer on political economy, with whom he came to this country when quite young, and settled in Reading, Pa., where he began the study of medicine under Dr. Isaac Heister. He attended medical lectures for three years at the University of Pennsylvania, and two years at the Philadelphia medical institute, and took a course of clinical inDuring his struction at the Pennsylvania hospital. medical course he was taken very cured sick and was by homoeoclinical

pathic treatment, which had just been introduced into Philadelphia. This result induced him to accept the new school of medical practice, and he was graduated from the Homoeopathic academy He at Allentown, Pa., in 1837. returned to Europe several times for the sake of study, visited the hospitals at Leipsio and Vienna, and received the degree of doctor of medicine, surgery and obstetrics from the University of Jena, and then settled in the practice 1^/ " " ^-, of his profession in Philadel, /J'^i^si^^-^e.-i.^i^ phia, when homoeopathy was He has lived in its infan y. to see its wonderful growth and development to a degree far beyond his original expectations, and has himself won success and an excellent reputation as a skilful physi-


cian. Dr. Neidhard was one of the first members of the American institute of homoeopathy on its organization in New York in 1844, and about the same time received an honorary degree from the Chicago hospital college. From 1849 to 1853 he was professor of clinical medicine at the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania. Since his retirement from the college, he has devoted all his time to his practice. Dr. Neidhard has contributed a number of valuable works to the literature of homoeopathy, among which are the following: " Homoeopathic Medicine," translated from the Fiench in 1837, the work originally beiiig written by M. Croseric, M.D., president of the Homoeopathic society of Paris; "Answer to tlie Homoaopathic Delusions of Oliver "Wendell Holmes" (1843); "Homoeopathy in Germany and England, " being discourses delivered at the Homoeopathic college of Pennsylvania in 1850; " Universality of the Homoeopathic Law of Cure " (1851, second edition, 1874); this'wasa public lecture delivered before a large audience at the invitation of the Homoeopathic society of Providence, R. I. " Crotalus Horridus," its analogy to yellow fever, also iMalignant Bilious and Remittent Fevers" (1860 this work was translated in Havana, Cuba, into Spanish by D. Antonio Rergnes de Las Casas, 1861); " Diph;



theria as



Prevailed in the United States from

clinical repertory of the diseases of the


with their concomitants. A great variety of articles from his pen have appeared in medical journals of United States and England. Dr. Niedhard died in Philadelphia, Pa., April 17, 1895.

Jacob, professor

of the practice of

medicine in the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, was born in Philadelphia Oct. 4, 1800. He studied medicine under Dr. Joseph Parrish, received the degree of M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania 1823, and practiced medicine as an allopathic ph3'sician for twelve years. In 1835 he became a homoeopathist, and in 1838 published a work on "Practice of Medicine" which at once brought him into prominence. He was a diligent student of matei'ia medica and endeavored to condense the most cliaracteristic symptoms. He introduced to the practice of homo3opathy many new remedies. In 1848 he was one of the founders of the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania and became a member of its first faculty. In 1844 he was one of the founders of the American institute of homoeopathy, and was an active and infiuential member of the Philadelphia society and the State medical society. He was one of the closest observers and most successful practitioners of his school of medicine. He was a developed Hahnemannlan, yet inde^ pendent in thought, and devoted much of his leisure time to the study of astronomy and botany. He died of apoplexy Dec. 17, 1877. FABRIHGTON, Erne?t E. , professor of materia medica in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Williamsburg, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1847, and early in his boyhood removed with his parents to Philadelphia, where he obtained his preparatory education, graduating from the Central high school with the degree of A.B. in 1866, at the head of his class and up to that date with the highest average ever at-


tained by a student of that institution. He began the study of medicine under his brother, Dr. H. vV. Farrington, matriculated at the Homoeopathic medical college in the fall of 1866 and the next year passed to the newly organized Hahnemann medical college, from whicli he received his degree of M. D. in 1868. He established a large practice in Philadelphia immediately after his graduation, and was remarkably successful throughout his professional In 1869 he was elected to the chair of forencareer. sic medicine in his alma mater, and succeeded to the chair of pathology and diagnosis two years later. Prom 1874 to 1885 he was professor of materia medica, filling the position with exceptional ability both on account of his proficiency in that department of medicine and his popularity as a lecturer to students. He developed a great talent for analyzing the specific action of drugs, and made a thorough research and study of every interest pertaining to homoeopathy. As a writer he was clear and forcible. series of articles from his pen on "Studies in Materia Medica," published in the " Hahnemannian Monthly," belong to the classics of medical literature, and his lectures on " Clinical Materia Medica,"


by Dr. Clarence Bartlett, and published in book form after his death, has had a wide circulation edited

Dr. Farrington died in Philadelphia Dec. 17, 1885. SMALL, Alvin Edmoud, professor of the practice of medicine and physiology in the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, and later one of the chief founders of the Hahnemann medical college of Chicago, was born at "Wales, Lincoln county, Me., March 4, 1811. After obtaining a good preparatory education at Monmouth, he began the study of medicine at Saco, Me., under Drs. Putnam and Greene, and then entered the medical department of


OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. the University of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 1841. He began the practice of his profession at Upper Darby, Delaware county, Pa., as an allopathic physician, but in 1842 accepted the doctrines and espoused the cause of homoeopathy. In 1845 he removed to Philadelphia, and upon the organization of the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania he was elected to the chair of physiology, and two years later was transferred to the chair of practice of medicine, which he filled with marked ability for seven years. Delaware college gave him the honorary degree of A.M. in 1851. During his residence of eleven years in Philadelphia he acquired a large practice, and in the meantime wrote and published

' '



which had an extensive sale. In 1857 he removed to Chicago, and in 1859 was chosen a member of the


board of trus-

and professor of theory and practice of medicine in tees,

Hahnemann medical

college of Chicago, which position he filled for nearly thirty years. He was dean, and also treasurer of the college, and, at the time of his death, president of the board of trustees. His executive ability, professional attainments, and his popularity as a lecturer to students largely contributed to the success of the institution. As a physician he took high rank in his profession in Chicago, and was widely known all through the West, and the entire country. He took a deep interest in medical societies, was several times president of the Slate society of Illinois, and in 1873 was president of the American institute of homoeopathy. He wrote, "Diseases of the Nervous System," " Diseases of the Chest," and late in life published an admirable work on "Practice of Medicine." Pew men of his profession did as much as he to extend and diffuse a knowledge of homoeopathy, and commend it to the world. As general superintendent of the Scanlan hospital of Chicago he did an important work. Dr. Small was a man of imposing presence and dignified bearing. He possessed a kindly, genial and benevolent nature, which endeared him to all who knew him, and inspired confidence in a wonderful degree. After a life of great usefulness he died in Chicago Dec. 31, 1886. GrAtrSE, OTven B. , professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children at Hahnemann medical college from 1867 till 1888, was born at Wilmington, Del., in June, 1825. He entered the Homoeopathic medical college at Cleveland, O., in 1855, but remained there only a few months, and the same year matriculated at the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania, from which he was graduated in 1857. He began the practice of his profession in Trenton, N. J., where he resided until 1862. He was elected to the chair of physiology in his alma mater in 1860, which position he held until 1864. Prom 1867 till 1888 he was professor of obstetrics and diseases of women in Hahnemann medical college, and filled the position with exceptional ability. Dr. Gause was one of the most active members of the Homoeopathic medical soHe was one ciety of Philadelphia for many years. of the founders of the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania; was its president in 1869, and the same year became a member of the American inAt present he resides at stitute of homoeopathy. Aiken, S. C., spending his summers at Asbury Park,

N.J. III. -31.


THOSIAS, Am.os Bussell, physician, and dean of Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia since 1874, was born at Watertown, N. Y., Oct. 3, 1826. He is descended from Welsh ancestors who were among the earliest settlers of Massachusetts, his father being Col. Azariah Thomas, who served on the northern frontier under Gen. Jacob Brown during the war of 1812. Dr. Thomas passed the first twenty years of his life on a farm, an experience which served to develop ths robust health and splendid physique for which he is still remarkable. The rudiments of his education were acquired in the common schools, supplemented by a course at Black Kiver institute,

Watertown, N. Y.


1850 he engaged in mercantile pursuits at Ogdensburg, N. Y., but finding these uncongenial he entered upon the study of medicine in 1852 at the Syra-

cuse medical college, from which he was graduated in 1854. The same year he removed to Philadelphia, where

he pursued a course of study and was graduated from the Penn medical university. Directly after graduation he was appointed demonstrator, and in 1856 professor of anatomy in that institution, which latter position he held for ten years. In 1856 he was also appointed professor of artistic anatomy in the Pennsylvania academy of fine arts, being the first person in America to deliver a course of lectures on anatomy This position he filled specially i*ended for artists. In 1863 he became professor of for fifteen years. anatomy in the School of design and served as such After the second battle of Bull Run for ten years. he volunteered as a surgeon in the army, and was placed in charge of a ward in the Armory Square Soon after removing hospital at Washington, D. C. to Philadelphia he became a convert to the homoeopathic system of medicine, and in 1867 was called to the chair of anatomy in the Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, of which institution he became dean in 1874. Both of these positions he still

Besides various addresses delivered as occupies. president of the Philadelphia county medical society, and of the Pennsylvania state society, and numerous scientific papers contributed to the medical journals of his school. Dr. Thomas is author of a

work on "Post-Mortem Examinations and Morbid Anatomy," of the section on diseases of the blood vessels in Arndt's " System of Medicine," and of a history of the " Descendants of William Thomas of Hardwick, Mass., 1678-1891." For four years he valuable



editor of the "American Journal of Homoeopathic Materia Medica." He is a member of the American institute of homoeopathy, the Philadelphia county medical society, the Medical society of the state of Pennsylvania, the Fairmount Park art association, the Academy of natural sciences, the Historical society of Pennsylvania, and of the His long Genealogical society of Pennsylvania. terms of service in the various positions he has occupied bear striking testimony to the ability with which he has discharged his multifarious duties. He is singularly attractive as alecturer, and hiskindliness of heart and uniform suavity of manner have greatly endeared him to the many graduates of the institution with which he has been so long connected, while his large experience and diagnostic acumen easily place him in the foremost rank of physicians in a city of physicians. During his long administration as dean, Hahnemann college has had a constantly increasing prosperity. The curriculum has been enlarged, the standard of requirements elevated, the course lengthened, and, largely through his exertions, the new college and hospital buildings, on Broad street above Race, have been erected. Hahnemann college, organized in 1848, is the oldest homoeopathic college in the world. Its graduates number over 3,000. It has made an enviable reputation by ete-xating the standard of medical education and by first introducing a three-years' graded course, a feature since adopted by nearly all the medical colleges in the United States. The new college and hospital buildings are an ornament to the city of Philadelphia. They are provided with abundant laboratory facilities, a well-appointed museum, and a large and valuable library. In September, 1847, Dr. Thomas married Elizabeth M. Bacon of Watertown, N. Y., by whom he has had two children, Charles M. Thomas, M.D., and andaughter, Florence L., who married Dr. J. N. Mitchell of Philadelphia. BETTS, B. Frank, has held a professorship in the Hahnemann medical college of Philadel-



phia, since 1873. He was born at Warminster, Pa., Dec. 1, 1845, and spent his early life in this neighborhood, which is liberally provided with facilities for acquiring a practical education. Most of his youth was spent at a private school at the Lollar academy, or in a Friends' school at Horsham, which were within a short distance of his parents' residence. At fifteen he entered the Mt. Holly institute, N. J., under the care of Rev. Samuel Aaron, and there finished his preparatory education. Interested in the acquisition of knowledge, the hours usually set apart for recreation were spent by him in the study of branches not generally included in the course of instruction in the schools he attended. At the age of seventeen he accepted a position in a large mercantile house in Philadelphia, in charge of his uncles, Seneca E. and Dr. Benjamin Malone, and with the family of the former he made his home. His tastes, however, soon led him to become interested in the study of medicine, his attention having been first directed to it by an attack of typhoid fever, during which he was attended by the eminent physician and surgeon, Washington L. Atlee. He carefully investigated the mes-its of both schools of practice, and was convinced of the superiority of homoeopathy. After a thorough preparation, he entered the Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania in 1866, and was graduated in 1868. He then spent nearly two years in Europe, pursuing a

special course in several departments of medicine and surgery at the clinics of the large hospitals of Vienna, Paris and Berlin. Returning home with increased confidence in the system of practice he had adopted, he established himself in his native city. In 1873 he was called to the chair of physiology and microscopic anatomy in the Hahnemann college, and retained that position until the department of diseases of women was created, when he was elected professor of gynecology. To the establishment of this department, which was growing rapidly in importance throughout the medical world. Prof. Betts devoted all his time and energy. College clinics were instituted for the treatment of the diseases peculiar to females, and in conjunction with his course of lectures on this subject, he delivered a course on hygiene and dietetics. 'The latter topics were beginning to be considered an important part of the course of instruction in all first-class medical colleges, and Prof. Betts, who was the first to institute a course in gynecology, was also the first to deliver lectures on hygiene and dietetics in this institution. To his successor in the chair of physiology was, however, assigned, at the request of Prof. Betts, the lectures on hygiene, in 1887, and another new department was created more closely related to that of his choice, viz., the department of the diseases of children, so that to the course of lectures on gynecology Prof. Betts added a course on psediatry. He is a member of the American institute of homoeopathy (since 1870), of the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania (since 1875), of the Philadelphia county society, and of the Hahnemann medical club of Philadelphia. By request, he prepared and read a paper on " The Scope of Homoeopathic Therapeutics in Gynecological Practice " before the World's homoeopathic convention of 1891. Prof. Betts is consulting gynecologist to the Homoeopathic hospital of Wilmington, Del and to the out-patient department of the Children's homoeopathic hospital of Philadelphia, and gynecologist to the Hahnemann college hospital. Pemberton, professor of institutes of medicine and hygiene in Hahnemann medical college, was born near Torresdale, Philadelphia, Oct. 17, 1837. His father, William Dudley, belonged to the England family of that name, whose ancestors fol.




lowed the Mayflower about ten years later. The family traces its lineage through several of the most interesting chapters of English history to a period antedating the Norman Conquest, and is


to be of Saxon origin. His mother, EUenor Wood, was descended from Robert Wood, who emigrated from Gloucester,

Eng., in 1699, and settled at Newtown, L. I. and whose posterity migrated to Newtown, IJucks coun^^«^4»^2fe.^. ty. Pa., about 1750. Dr. Dudley obtained his early education in the public schools and at an academic institution, supplemented by careful reading and study while at work on his father's farm. He taught school two years, and at the same time read medicine under Dr. David James, then attended lectures in Jeflferson medical college one year, and Homoeopathic medical college of Pennsylvania another year, graduating from the latter institution in 1871, since which time he has practiced in Philadelphia. Dr. Dudley assisted to organize the Philadelphia county homoeopathic medical society in 1866, joined the State medical society in 1867, and has been president of both. He became a member of the American institute of homoeopathy ,


m 1869, has regularly participated in


general and

business, and since 1887 lias been general secretary and editor of its annual volume of "Transactions," a work of nine to twelve hundred pages. At the session of 1871 he initiated the movement which led to the holding of the world's homoeopathic convention in 1876, and was a member of the committee appointed to perfect its preliminary arrangements. This convention led to a series of similar congresses once in five years, in various parts of the world. The fourth one was held at Atlantic City, N. J. in 1893, when Dr. Dudley was again a member of its committee of arrangements, and was elected its recording secretary. He is honorary secretary of the World's congress of homoeopathic physicians and surgeons in Chicago in connection with the Columbian exposition of 1893. He holds honorary membership in the Maryland state bomceopathic medical society, in the Southern homoeopathic medical association, and in the Homoeopathic institute of Mexico. In 1868 Dr. Dudley was chosen to the chair of chemistry and toxicology in his alma mater. He gave his support to the efforts wliich, in 1869, resulted in uniting the two homoeopathic colleges in Philadelphia. This union relieved him from further duty as a teacher, but in 1876 he was called to the chair of physiology and microscopic anatomy, which he filled until 1890, when he was transferred to his present position. He was a member of the building committee appointed to superintend the erection of the new college and hospital buildings, and entered with great zeal into the preparation of the plans of these structures. As a member of the Hahnemann club of Philadelphia, Dr. Dudley aided in organizing the Children's homoeopathic hospital of Philadelphia, and became a director and member of its medical staff. This club of physicians, having in 1880 become the proprietors " of the Hahnemannian Monthly," appointed him its editor, which position he held until 1888. During these eight years the journal easily maintained its position among the leading homoeopathic periodicals of the world. Dr. Dudley was appointed by Gov. Pattison one of the seven members of the State board of health upon its organization in 1885, and was reappointed by him in 1891 for another term of six years. Several productions of his pen on public health have appeared in the "Annual Reports" of this board, and he has written and published numerous articles in the journals of his school of medicine. scientiflfi


On medical questions Dr. Dudley may be considered a "liberal," in that he insists that each physician, in the exercise of his calling, should be absolutely free to form and execute his individual judgment, unrestrained by the dicta of a society or by the unyielding dogmas of an arbitrary creed. Yet his views of the curative potency of his preferred system of medicine homoeopathy within its operative domain, On Dec. 25, 1867, are both radical and exclusive. Di'. Dudley married Sarah K., daughter of Rev. John Perry Hall, who was formerly a well-known Baptist clergyman of Philadelphia and vicinity. They have two children, a son and a daughter. The former, Perry flail Dudley, has adopted his father's



Charles Monroe, professor of ophthalmology and otology, and for fourteen years professor of operative surgery in Hahnemann medical college, was born in watertown, N. Y., May 3, 1849. He is the son of Dr. A. R. Thomas, and in 1854 removed to Philadelphia with his parents. He obtained his education in the schools of that city, was graduated from the Central high school with the degree of A.B. in 1868, and received the degree of A. M. in 1874. After taking a course of instruction at a commercial college, he commenced the study of medicine with his father in 1869, and was graduated


from the Hahnemann medical collegein 1871 He con.

tinued his studies at the University of Pennsylvania,


in March, 1872, went to Europe, where he devoted special attention to surgery and diseases of the eye and ear for two and one-half years in the universities of Heidelberg, Vienna and Edinburgh. He returned to Philadelphia in 1874, and entered upon the practice of medicine, making a specialty of surgery, and on account of his skill, he almost immediately won eminence in his profession, and soon took rank with the foremost surgeons in this country. He was appointed demonstrator of surgery in his alma mater in 1875, and professor of operative surgery, ophthalmology and otology in 1878. In these positions his recognized ability as an operator, wide knowledge of the branches in which he gave instruction, and successful experience as a physician infused an enthusiastic interest in

those branches among the students of Hahnemann college, and all persons identified with its prosperity. In the meantime his private practice increascid very rapidly and assumed such proportions that it was impossible for him to attend to it even with the aid of an assistant. He therefore gave up general surgery in 1891, and has since devoted himself exclusively to the eye and ear; at the same time he resigned the professorship of operative surgery in the college, retaining that of ophthalmology and otology. Dr. Thomas has contribut-

ed numerous articles to medical literature,'especially in the depart-

ments of surgery and ophthalmology. He holds the position of ophthalmologist and otologist to Hahnemann hospital, is consulting surgeon to the same institution, and to the Children's homoeopathic hospital, Philadelphia, and is a member of numerous medical and scientific societies, including the American institute of homoeopathy. Dr. Thomas was married Apr. 18, 1876, to Marion Elmslie, daughter of Dr. Laurence T'urnbull, of Philadelphia. They have six children.

JAMES, John Edwin,


and professor

surgery in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Somerton, Philadelphia, Jan 18, 1844, the youngest son of Dr. David and Amanda W. James. His father conducted a very extensive practice at his rural home, and in 1855 removed to Philadelphia, where he became widely known for his skill and ability in obstetrics and minor surgery. Dr. John E. James was educated in the public schools, the Philadelphia high school, and Edge Hill seminary He began the study of medicine at Princeton, N. J. under his father and Dr. James B. Garretson; with the latter he spent two years in a private school of anatomy, and attended Jefferson medical college during the session of 1864-65, and the University of Pennsylvania in 1865-66; was graduated with the degree of of

the latter institution in 1866, and was appointed assistant demonstrator of anatomy under Prof. D. Hayes Agnew and served for one year. The following year he took a partial course of lectures at Hahnemann medical college and then engaged in tlie active duties of hi? profession in Philadelphia in partnership with his father, and thus early in his career had the advantages of the counsel and wisdom of a Upon the successful physician of large experience. death of his father in 1873, he succeeded him in In 1876 Dr. James associated himself practice. with the clinical staff of the surgical department of Hahnemann medical college. In 1877 he was elected

M.D. from



adjunct professor of surgery -with Prof. J. H. McClelland, and in 1878 professor of principles and clinical surgery, dividing the department of surgery with Dr. Charles M. Thomas, who was professor of operative and clinical surgery and ophthalmology. In June, 1889, upon the resignation of Prof. Thomas from the surgical portion of his chair, Prof. James was given the entire charge of the department as professor of surgery. Since 1887 he has also been registrar of the faculty. The honorary degree of the college was conferred on him in 1886. He has always taken a deep interest in the prosperity and development of the college, and has been a leader in all ovements for raising the standard, and advancing the requirement, of To him bea medical education. longs much of the credit for the present system of clinical instruc-


tion at




system gives to advanced students probably more practical clinical (bedside) instruction than any other For years premedical college. vious to their erection in 1886, Dr. James was an earnest advocate of modern college and hospital buildand when the movement was MH^iA*^^^'--^ ings, started to purchase the present site on Broad street, Philadelphia, he was placed on both the building and the finance committees, and continued on them Almost the enuntil the buildings were finisJied. tire work of the building committee was committed the dean, and Dr. James, reto Dr. A. R. Thomas, quiring very much of their time and attention, which was given most cheerfully, and the present commodious and well-adapted buildings are the direct He was elected a surresult of their joint labors. geon to the hospital in 1878, and continues to serve In 1866 he became a member of it in that capacity. the American institute of homoeopathy, and was made a senior in 1891. He joined the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania in 1867, and served as its president in 1885; has been a member of the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelphia since its organization in 1866; was one of the originators of the Hahnemann medical club of Philadelphia, served as its secretary for several years, and its president in 1890; was one of the incorporators of the Children's homoeopathic hospital of Philadelphia, organized by the Hahnemann club in 1877, and was a member of its board of managers and one of the surgeons to the hospital for about ten years, when he resigned because of the demands made upon his time by the work in connection with the college and hospital. Since then he has been consulting surgeon to the Children's homoeopathic hospital.

mOHB, Charles, professor of materia medica and therapeutics in Hahnemann medical college, was born in Philadelphia May 3, 1844. He was educated in the public and private schools of his native city, and early showed a liking for scientific studies, and especially for medicine but yielding to the wishes of his parents, who desired him to follow mercantile pursuits, he entered a large importing and manufacturing establishment, where he gave evidence of good business qualifications and soon occupied a position of trust and responsibility. His early desire for a professional career never left him, and he devoted most of his spare hours to the reading of medical works, and finally decided to devote his enlire time and energy to medicine. In 1873 he placed himself under the preceptorship of Prof. E. A. Farrington, M.D., matriculated at the Hahnemann medical college in 1873, entered the Philadel;

phia school of anatomy in 1874, and was graduated

from the former institution March 10, 1875. Owing to his natural abilities, he soon rose to prominence in the profession, and his thorough business training was often turned to good account in the conduct and management of existing homoeopathic institutions, and the organization of new ones. The success of the Homoeopathic medical society of the county of Philadelphia depended greatly upon his devoted services as secretary from 1878 to 1884. He also worked effectively in the thorough or ganizalion of the Hahnemann college dispensary, having been chief-of -staff continuously from 1877 to 1883. At present the Hahnemann hospital shares much of his time and attention. He is one of the corporation trustees and visiting physician to the hospital, and takes an active part in all that pertains to the welfare and growth In his alma of the institution. mater he was successively appointed lecturer on pharmacy in 1879, professor of clinical medicine and physical diagnosis in 1881, and professor of materia medica and therapeutics in 1885, still holding the latter chair.

Materia medica has


his most earnest attention, and besides lecturing to large classes, he has contributed liberally to various journals, and has conducted provings to determine the pathogenetic effects of indium

ways received

metallicum, natrum phosphoricum, zincum piericum, adonis nernalis, lilium tigrinum, ehininum arsenieosum, zincum metallicum, zincum jodaium, zincum phosphoricum, zincum valerianicum, and stannum metallicum. After Dr. C. Hering's death he became one of his literary executors, and was co-editor of " Hering's Guiding Symptoms of Our Materia Medica," completed in 1891, in ten octavo volumes. For the past fifteen years Dr. Mohr has been engaged in writing a text-book on materia medica and therapeutics, which will be published in 1893. He is a member of various medical and scientific societies, is a clear and forcible writer and a very successful Instructor.

GOODNO, William Colby, professor of pathology and practice of medicine in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Kenosha, "Wis., during a temporary residence of his parents in that city. His father, Rev.W. S.Goodno, a Baptist clergyin New York state, Welsh ancestry. His mother Dr. was a native of Vermont. Goodno obtained his preliminary

man, was born of

education in the high schools of Dixon, 111,, and Jersey City, N. J. He entered Geneva medical college, whei-e he spent two years, and then matriculated at Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 1870. After seizing as demon stralor of surgery several years in





appointed lecturer on microscopy,

and pathological anatomy. In this position he attracted attention, and met with gi'eat success on account of the clearness and force with which he presented the subject matter upon which he gave instruction. He dehistology

means of illustrating his lectures in order to more deeply impress the information imparted on vised

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. the minds of students. He acquired a practical knowledge of the art of photography, and for dem onstrating purposes, as -well as for his professional work, did a large amount of photographing from the microscope. In 1885 he was elected to the chair in the college, which he now holds, as professor of the practice of medicine. In his descriptions of dis ease in its clinical aspects and its pathology, he is clear, concise and graphic, and his therapeutic teachings are marked by originality and thorough investigation. He is a firm believer in the truth of the law of similars, but claims that the progressive physician should not be limited in his resources by that law. Before he was elected to his present position in Hahnemann college he conducted a very large and successful general practice in Philadelphia, and also won an excellent reputation as a surgeon. During the past few years a large part of his professional duties have been those of an office practitioner. Dr. Goodno has done a large amount of original work of a practical kind in pathological histology. He was one of the flrst of his profession, if not the first, to demonstrate the serial transmissibility of the bacilli of Koch, and was one of the flrst to study the supposed development of blood corpuscles in the spleen. few years ago he published in the " Hahnemannian Monthly " a series of 300 unselected cases of typhoid fever, in which the mortality was only two-and-onehalf per cent., which is the lowest mortality rate ever published for a similarly unselected group. His contributions to pathology and clinical medicine in journals have been very numerous, and he also wrote the section on diseases of the spleen in Arndt's "System of Medicine. " After five years of careful preparation he has completed, and will soon publish, a work of about 1,200 pages on the " Practice of Medicine. Dr. Goodno is a member of the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia county homoeopathic medical society, the Chuical society of Philadelphia, and the American institute of homoeopathy. He is physician to Hahnemann hospital, and was the originator of, and for eight years physician to, the Pennsylvania homoeopathic hospital for children, or until it was united with Hahnemann



MITCHELL, John Nicholas, stetrics in

Hahnemann medical

professor of ob-


was born

in Philadelphia Apr. 10, 1847, son of John C. and His father was a Rebecca Nicholas Mitchell. prominent member of the Philadelphia bar, and his grandfather, Thomas Mitchell, was one of the first persons to make conveyancing and real estate business a specialty in Philadelphia. Dr. Mitchell obtained his education at the Episcopal academy in his native city, and the University of Pennsylvania, and then engaged in business from 1864 to 1870. He commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Samuel H. Metzger, of Lancaster, Pa., continued it iB with Dr. A. R. Thomas in Philadelphia, matriculated at the Hah•


nemann medical



graduated from that institution in 1873, and then engaged in the practice of his profession in Immediately afPhiladelphia. ter his graduation he was ap-

pointed assistant demonstrator of obstetrics, and then instituted in Hahnemann college the flrst course of practical obstetrics given in Philadelphia, founded upon the method of teaching that subject in the universities of GerHis success in this department won for many. him prestige and influence as an instructor in medi-

cal science, stetrician.


and soon gave him high rank as an obIn 1886 Dr. Mitchell was appointed ad-

junct professor of obstetrics in the college, and in 1888 was elected to the full professorship of that department, which he now holds. His skill and ability in his specialty have been widely recognized, and he has established a large private practice in Philadelphia. He has been one of the gynecologists at Hahnemann hospital, and is now the obstetrician there. He is one of the ex-presidents of the Philadelphia county homoeopathic medical society, is a member of the State society, the American institute of homoeopathy since 1875, the American obstetrical He has read society, and the Sons of the revolution. numerous papers on subjects connected with obstetrics before all the societies to which he belongs, and has also been a frequent contributor to medical jourDr. Mitchell was married in 1877 to Flornals. ence, the only daughter of Dr. A. R. Thomas.

BIGLEB, William ology in





Hahnemann medical

colleae, was born in 1840, the son of Rt.

Philadelphia, Pa., .Tune 10, Rev. David Bigler of the Moravian church. first seventeen years of his life were spent in New York city, where his father was then pastor of a church. He was graduated from the Moravian college and Theological seminary at Bethlehem, Pa., then spent two years in Europe at the universities of Berlin and Erlaugen. Upon his return to Arnerica he was appointed professor in his alma mater, which position he filled eight years. He married the daughter of Dr. Augustus W. Koch, a prominent physician of Philadelphia. He studied medicine and was

graduated from


Hahnemann med-

and has, since that time, been connected continuical college in 1871,

ously with the institution in some capacity. After graduating he was appointed on the dispensary staff, and for a number of years had charge of the eye and ear department. He also lectured on ophthalmology in the college, both during the summer course and the regular winter sessions for several years. For three months after the death of Dr. W. B. Trites, he lectured on the practice of medicine during the absence of the regular professor of that branch. In 1890 he was appointed associate professor of physiology, and in 1891 became full professor Dr. Bigler has been treasurer of the of that branch.

alumni association of Hahnemann college since its He has been a member of the Homoeoorganization. pathic medical society of Pennsylvania since 1872, was first vice-president of that society in 1886, and to the death of Dr. Crowley, the president, office until the following annual meetHe was president of the County medical soing. ciety for two years, and has been a member of the American institute of homoeopathy since 1876, having served on various bureaus in both organizaIn 1876 he was co-editor of the "American tions.


served in that

Journal of Homoeopathic Materia Medica, " published He has read numerous papers bein Philadelphia. fore the societies of which he is a member, and has contributed many articles to medical journals, mostly on his specialty, ophthalmology.

James Henry, physician and professor of chemistry in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Skippackville, Montgomery county, Pa., His father, Dr. James Hamer, Jr., Oct. 1, 1847. a physician, was graduated from the medical de-




partment of the University of New York in 1844, and his grandfather, Dr. James Hamer, Sr., was


obtained his medical degree of Pennsylvania, graduating in When nine years old he removed with his 1813. parents to Oneida, N. Y., where they remained three years, and then returned to Kulpsville, Pa., and in 1863 removed to Freeland, in his native county. He obtained his education at Freeland seminary, now Ursinus college, taught public school at North Wales, a private school at Kulpsville, was assistant teacher in Frederick institute, and was an instructor for two also a physician

from the University

years at Freeland seminary under Dr. Fetterolf, now president of 6ir-

He went to Europe in and spent most of the succeeding four years in London. Upon his return in 1873, he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. Adolphus Fellger, one of the pioneers of homoeopathy, matriculated at Hahnemann medical college inl873,andwas graduated in 1875, when he received ard college. 1868,

the anatomical prize for the best dissection. After graduation he practiced medicine at Collegeville until 1888, when he removed to Philadelphia and continued his profession there. In 1889 Dr. Hamer was chosen demonstrator of chemistry in Hahnemann medical college; filled the chair of chemistry as substitute, during the illness of Prof. E. L. Oatley, during the session of 1891-93; and, owing to his efficiency and popularity as a lecturer, he was, after the latter's death, chosen to the professorship in 1893. Prof. Hamer is a member of the Philadelphia county and the Pennsylvania homoeopathic medical societies. He was married May 5, 1879, to Flora, daughter of H. A. Hunsicker, the founder of Freeland seminary, and has four children living.


Bufus B. lecturer on surgical anatomy, and demonstrator of anatomy in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Gettysburg, Pa., Jan. 10, 1841, son of Samuel and Elizabeth A. Weaver. He obtained his preliminary education in the public schools of his native town, then entered Pennsylvania college, from which he was graduated A.B. in 1863, ,

and three years

later received the degree of A.M. The study of anatomy and physiology during his college course deeply

interested him, and immediately after his graduation he commenced the study of medi-

and upon completing the course at Penn medical university, obtained his degree of M.D. in 1865. The same year he took a course of anatomical instruction under Dr. D. Hayes Agnew, and attended a full course of lectures in the Medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1867-68. He then matriculated at the Jefferson medical college, where he took a course of lectures on clinical medicine in 186869. In the fall of 1869 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the Hahnemann medical college, and in 1878 was chosen lecturer on surgical anatomy. Dr. Weaver has held these positions continuously, and next to the dean. Prof. A. R. Thomas, is the oldest instructor in the college. His unceasing devotion to the interests of the college and its students, his comprecine,

hensive knowledge of anatomy, and his remarkable and extensive experience in dissecting, have very large given him high rank in his profession. number of the specimens for anatomical, surgical, college museum, and pathological instruction in the which is one of the most complete collections of its have been prepared by himself, in the country, kind and are the product of his own mechanical genius. In 1887 Dr. Weaver went to Europe, and visited the anatomical museums of Great Britain and the continent. Failing to see in any of them a complete dissection of the nervous system, such as he had for some years contemplated making, the following year, after six months of continuous work at the rate of ten hours a day, he completed and mounted the entire cerebro-spinal nervous system of a human being in a single specimen, detached from all other This specimen is now in the colparts of the body. lege museum, and is the only one of its kind known The great labor and to have ever been produced. delicacy of the work required in producing such an anatomical preparation, makes its completion a monument of enduring patience, a marvel of manipulative skill never before excelled, and probably never equaled in the history of practical anatomy. Dr. Weaver revisited the medical institutions of Europe in 1889, and in 1891 the Hahnemann medical college gave him the honorary degree of M.D., in recSince his ognition of his scientific attainments. graduation in 1865, he has devoted nearly all of his time to anatomy. Dr. Weaver was married Dec. 31, 1869, to Madeleine Louise, daughter of Charles W. and Matilda Bender of Philadelphia. skill



Erving Melville, lecturer on pharmacy, toxicology, and materia medica in Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, was born at Barry, Massachusetts, Sept. 11, 1848. He began the study of medicine in his native town with Dr. A. E. Kemp in 1868. Two years later he entered Cornell university, and was graduated from that institution in 1873, and during his college career took a special course in comparative anatomy, under Prof. Burt G. Wilder. In 1874 he matriculated at Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, and received his medical degree in 1877. Immediately after his graduation he began the practice of his profession in Camden, N. J., where he has since resided. By means of his ability, close attention to the duties of his profession, and successful experience as a general practitioner of medicine for sixteen years. Dr. Howard has become one of the leading homoeopathists in Jersey. He was appointed lecturer on botany in his alma mater in 1878, on pharmacy in 1881, and on toxicology in 1886, and has since continued in these departments. He is surgeon to the Camden hospital for women and children, and is on the medical staff of the eye and ear department of the West Jersey dispensary. He is a member of the


West Jersey homoeopathic medical




Jersey state

homoeopathic medical society, American institute of homoeopathy, the New Jersey state sanitary association, the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelphia, and the Philadelphia medical club. Dr. Howard was married Aug. 6, 1874, to Angle L., daughter of the Rev. Miles Sanford, who was seventeen~"years pastor of the Baptist church at

North Adams,

IVINS, Horace Fremont, lecturer on laryngologv and otology in Hahnemann medical college, son of Isaac and Sarah A. Ivins, was born in Penu's manor, Bucks county. Pa., Oct. 30, 1856. He obtained his education in the public schools, at Peirce's boarding school in Bristol, Pa., and at Swarthmore college. In 1874 he began to read medicine with Dr. 6. W. Kirk, then of Bristol, matriculated at

^ OF AMERICAJSr BIOGRAPHY. Hahnemann medical

college of Philadelphia, in 187b, and was graduated from that institution In 1879, as one of the first students to take a threeyears course. During his college career he was two years secretary of the Hahnemann medical institute, i* or eighteen months after graduation Dr. Ivins was associated in private practice with Prof. Charles Monroe Thomas, and

during 1879-80 matriculated and took a special course in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. In order to more thoroughly prepare himself for the practice of his specialties, he went to Europe in April, 1881, and re-

mained there

until April, 1883.


spent the time in the hospitals of London and Vienna, and while in the former city was a student under the late Sir Morell Mackenzie. Upon his return to Philadelphia he located in that city, and has since had his office on Arch street. During the years that have intervened, he has huilt up a large practice, by means of his close application and ability. He j!f^!fyTXt>SA>^r^H has wonprominence in hisprof ession as a specialist on laryngology, otology, and ophthalmology, and since 188'3 has filled the position of lecturer on laryngologyand otology in his alma mater. For nine years hehad charge of the throat and ear department of the college dispensary; for three years was ophthalmologist, otologist, and laryngologist to the Germantown homoeopathic dispensary, and at present (1893) is laryngological editor of the "Journal of Ophthalmology, Otology,andLaryngology, "of New York. He has been a member of the American institute of homoeopathy since 1887, and was for two years recording secretary of tiie Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, for three years secretary of the Homosopathic medical society of Philadelphia, and for two years second vice-president of the Alumni association of Hahnemann medical college. In 1881, when in Europe, he became a member of the International medical congress, which met in London that year. In 1888 he spent five months in practical hospital work in Paris and London, and while in Europe that year, was a member of the International ophthalmological congress which met at Heidelberg. As a result of his successful career in his profession. Dr. Ivins published in 1893, "Diseases of the Nose and Throat," a text-book for students and practitioners. The work contains 507 pages, with 139 illustrations, including eighteen colored figures, chiefly original, from drawings and photographs of anatomical dissections. It is a thorough and comprehensive treatise on those subjects, and has already been accepted as a textbook in nearly every homoeopathic college in the United States. Dr. Ivins was married in April, 1888, to V., daughter of William H. Melcher of Philadelphia.



liENNEP, William

surgery in

Hahnemann medical

Bird, lecturer on college, was born

in Constantinople, Turkey, Dec. 5, 1853, the son of the Rev. H. J. Van Lennep, for thirty years a promiment missionary of that country, and the author of many standard works on the Orient. Dr. Van Lennep obtained his preparatory education at Sedgwick institute. Great Barrington, Mass., then entered Princeton college, graduating with the degree of A.B. in 1873, and later received the degree of A.M. from that institution. Deciding to enter the medical profession, he matriculated at the Hahnemann medical college, Philadelphia , in 1877, and was graduated in 1880. For six months he was on the York city hosresident stafl: at Ward's Island,



and then returned to Philadelphia, and the succeeding eighteen months took charge of the pital,

private practice of several of his professional friends during their absence from home. Desiring to obtain comprehensive knowledge of surgery and pathology, he went to Europe in 1883, and made a practical study of those departments of medical practice for two years in the hospitals of London, Paris and Vienna. In 1884 Dr. Van Lennep established himself in his profession in Philadelphia, and by means of his superior skill and ability as a surgeon soon took high rank as an operator, and has now a large practice, and a wide reputation as one of the most successful physicia,ns of that city. He has been chief of the surgical dispensary connected with Hahnemann college surgeon to the Hahnemann hospital of Philadelphia, to the Pennsylvania homoeopathic hospital for children, to the Children's homoeopathic hospital of Philadelphia; and consulting surgeon to the Wilmington homoeopathic hospital, the Camden (N. J.) homoeopathic hospital, the Harper memorial hospital, and to the ;

Treaton homoeopathic hospital. lecturer on pathology in his alma mater soon after graduation, which position he still holds, and subsequently lecturer on surgery in the same

He was


For several years he has been one of the editors " of the Hahnemannian Monthly," and has exerted a strong influence in building up and institution.

maintaining the high character of that medical journal. He has contributed to the literature of his profession valuable pa pers on abdominal and intestinal surgery, and the surgery of the bladder, urethra, bones and joints. He is a member of the city, state, and other med-4n:v^?r«^^«-c.-A*'— ical societies, and the American institute of homoeopathy, and has acted in the capacity of chairman or member of various surgical and pathological bureaus. He is also member of the Academy of natural sciences, the Franklin institute, the Union League, the Art club, the Bachelors' barge club of Philadelphia, the Masonic order, and the Sigma Phi college fraternity. Dr. Van Lennep was married in April, 1886, to Clara R., daughter of Thomas Hart of Philadelphia, anifl has one daughter. Edward Boland, lecturer on physical diagnosis in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Millport, Lancaster county, Pa., Jan. 10, 1855. He obtained his education in the public schools of Lancaster and Harrisburg, and duiing the earlier years of his life occupied various positions on the Lancaster "Inquirer," and on the "Express." He was graduated in medicine in 1884 from Hahnemann college, and has since practiced in Philadelphia. He was resident physician at the college hospital for two years, and then became chief of the dispensary staff, when he commenced a systematic study of the diagnostic features of diseases of the heart, lungs and abdomen; was assistant in the clinic for diseases of children, became demonstrator of physical diagnosis in 1886, and in 1888 was appointed lecturer on that branch, succeeding Prof. A. R. Thomas. He is clinical chief of the heart and lungs department of the college dispensary, and of the same department in the Children's hospital of Philadelphia, and consulting physician to the Harper memorial hospital. He has filled the chair of practice of medicine during the absence of the regular professors, and has given many of the regular medi-




He is a member of the Hahnemann the Boenninghausen, the Oxford, and the Germantown medical clubs, and the American institute of homoeopathy, and is the corresponding secretary of the Pennsylvania homoeopathic medi-




cal society.

GRAMM, Edward



on dermatol-

Hahnemann medical

college, in Baltimore, Md., July 28, 1858, son of Dr. Gr. E. Gramm, who became a successful practitioner of homoeopathy in Philadelphia. He obtained a good preparatory education in the public schools,

ogy and syphilology


was born

the Central high school, from which he was graduated in 1874, and at an excellent school in Philadelphia. He then began the study of medicine under Dr. Constantine Hering in 1876, and at the same time entered Hahnemann medical college, from which he received his medical degree in 1880. Dr. Gramm was appointed physician to the department of general medicine at the college dispensary in 1881, and when the department of syphilology and skin diseases was created in the dispensary in 1883 he was placed in charge of it. He has held this position continuously since, and through his indefatigable energy, recognized ability and enthusiastic efforts, has builit up the department to its present excellent condition. Since 1885 he has been lecturer on skin diseases in the college. He is a member of the Philadelphia medical club, Gei-mantown medical club,

Homoeopathic medical society, of which he is secretary, Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, and the American institute of homoeopathy. He has published numerous articles on his specialties in various medical journals, and has read papers before the state and county societies.


Clarence, lecturer on neurology in Hahnemann medical college, was born in Brooklyn, N. T., May 23, 1858, and removed to Philadelphia in 1864. He entered the Central high school of that city in 1871, and was graduated in 1875.

The same year he




medical college, received his medical degree in 1879, and for the next four years was one of the physicians in the general medical department of the dispensary connected with the institution. From 1879 to 1883 he was also assistant to Dr. W. H. Bigler in the eye and ear department of the dispensary. When the department of diseases of the nervous system was created in 1883, he was placed in charge of it, and then resigned his other positions in the dispensary.

He lectured in the spring course on "Nervous Diseases," beginning with 1884. He was appointed lecturer on mental and nervous diseases in the college in 1889, and in 1890 electrology was added to the lectureship. He was neurologist to the Children's homoeopathic hospital in Philadelphia for two years, and since 1890 has filled the same position in the Hahnemann hospital. From 1883 till 1885 he was recording secretary, and from 1885 till 1888 corre sponding seci-etary of the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, and has been chaiixaan of various bureaus of the State society, and the American institute of homoeopathy. In 1890 he was chosen an honoraiy member of the Homoeopathic medical society of the state of York. Dr. Bartlett acted as assistant to Dr. Dudley, editor of the " Hahnemannian Monthly," from 1883 till 1888, when, in connection with Dr. Van Lennep, he took entire charge of that iournal. He contributed numerous articles of great interest and value to its columns. In 1893 he abandoned the main work on the journal to Dr. Van Baun. Occasional articles from his pen have appeared in other medical journals, and in the "Transactions" of the American institute of homoeopathy. In 1885 he was elected provisional


secretary of the Alumni association of the Hahne mann college of Philadelphia, which office he reIn tained until 1893, when re-election was declined. 1887 he edited and published " Farrington's Clinical Materia Medica," being shorthand notes of Dr. FarIt made a rington's lectures from 1876 till 1880. volume of over 750 pages, of which a second edition was called for in 1890. Dr. Bartlett was married Sept. 39, 1885, to Anna C. Miller.

HAINES, Oliver Sloan, lecturer on clinical medicine in the Hahnemann medical college, was born in Philadelphia Aug. 13, 1860, son of Samuel E. and Mary A. Haines. He obtained his preliminary education at the Friends' central high school in his native city, and began the study of medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. J. Nicholas Mitchell in 1878. In 1879 he matriculated at the Hahnemann medical college, and was graduated from that instiImmediately after obtaining his detution in 1882. gree he was appointed resident physician to the old Upon the election of college hospital. Dr. Mitchell to the professorship of obstetrics, Dr. Haines succeeded him as demonstrator of obstetrics, which position he occupied until 1890, resigning it to become lecturer upon clinical medicine. He has filled each one of thy positions to which he has been chosen with marked ability. In the position which he now holds he has shown a peculiarly happy faculty of imparting information to students by clinical demonstrations. His Hahnemann

in diagnosis points him out as one of the prominent men of the younger generation of physicians. He has conducted a large private practice in Philadelphia Dr. for a number of years past. Haines has had charge of the department of general medicine in the Hahnemann college dispensary since 1889, and Is one of the visiting physicians to the Hahnemann hospital of Philadelphia. He is a member of the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia medical club, the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, and the American institute of homoeopathy. Dr. Haines was married July 34, 1890, to Marie Florence Eldredge, daughter of Mr. Charles H. Eldredge of ^ Wayne, Pa.


MESSEBV^, Frederic W., demonstrator of normal histology in Hahnemann medical college, was born at Crosswicks, Burlington county, N. J., Aug. 9, 1860, and obtained his education in the public schools and at a Friends' select school in his native town. He matriculated at Hahnemann medical college in 1883, was graduated in 1885, and at once entered the college hospital to remain one year as resident physician, then became assistant to the eye department of the college dispensary, and in 1892 was placed in charge of the refraction bureau of that department. In 1888 he was chosen assistant demonstrator of normal and pathological histology in the college, and in 1889 was appointed demonstrator in When a division of the departin 1893 he became lecturer and demonstrator of normal histology. He is also engaged in the practice of his profession as an ophthalmologist, otologist, and laryngologist in Philadelphia. Dr. Messerve is a member of the Hahnemann instit>ite college alumni association, Germantown medical club, Hahnemann clinical club, the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelthat department.

ment was made

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. phla, and the Pennsylvania homceopathic medical society.

MEKCEB, Edward

W., demonstrator of obHahnemann medical college, was born in Kennett Square, Chester county, Pa., Aug. 9, 1859, and obtained his education in the high school and Martin academy of his native town. He began the study of medicine at home under Dr. I. D. Johnson, entered Hahnemann medical college in 1881, and was graduated in'1884. The next year he was resident physician at the college hospital, then spent one year in Europe, principally in the hospitals of Vistetncs in

enna, and since his return has practiced in Philadelphia, giving special attention to obstetrics and gynecology. Dr. Mercer was assistant demonstrator of histology and pathology in the college from 1887 to 1890, when he was appointed to his present position. He is also clinical chief of the department of obstetrics in the Hahnemann dispensary. He is a member of the Philadelphia medical club, the County and the State homoeopathic medical societies, and the American institute of hom.oeopathy.

THOMPSON, Landretli Worthington, demonstrator of surgery,


lecturer on surgery at Hahwas born In Philadelphia Nov. 5, 1863. He obtained his preparatory education in the public schools and Rugby academy in his native city, and was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1884, and received the degree of A.M. three years later. In 1884 he entered Hahnemann medical college, and obtained his medical degree from that institution in 1887. Immediately after graduation he was chosen assistant surgeon in the Hahnemann hospital dispensary, aad soon afterward was placed in charge of this department, which position he relinquished in 1890, and has since occupied hispresent position in the college. Dr. Thompson has been surgeon to the Children's homcsopathic hospital of Philadelphia since 1891, and practices surgery as a specialty. He is a member of the Hahnemann clinical club, the Germantown medical club, the County and State homoeopathic societies, and the American institute of homcBopathy.

nemann medical



Carl V., lecturer on general pathology, and demonstrator of pathological histology and bacteriology in Hahnemann medical college, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., June 6, 1866. He obtained his preparatory education in the public and private schools of his native city, then began the study of medicine under Dr. William E. Van Lennep, at the same time entering the Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 1887. The following year he was resident physician to the Children's homffiopathic hospital of Philadelphia, then spent two years in the Universities of Heidelberg and Vienna, in diligent study After his return of general surgery and pathology. to this country he was the private assistant of his former preceptor. Dr. Van Lennep, for one year, and has since devoted his attention to the practice Dr. Vischer was appointed to of his specialties. his present position in Hahnemann college in 1892. is also junior surgeon and pathologist to the college hospital, and is one of the clinical chiefs of the department of surgery in the college dispensary. He is a member of the Philadelphia medical club,


club, the Columbia and Art clubs of Philadelphia, the American club of Vienna,

Germantown medical

Philadelphia county homoeopathic medical society, the Homoeopathic medical society of Pennsylvania, and the American institute of homoeopathy.

SmEDLEY, Thomas Feb.


Isaac G., physician, son of G. and Elizabeth G. Smedley, was born He obtained his education at the 1855.


West Chester, Pa., and at college, graduating from the latter inHaving developed a talent for stitution in 1876. higher mathematics during his college career, immediately after his graduation he took a summer course in practical astronomy at the Cambridge observatory, connected with Harvard college, but the Friends' high school in


following year he began the study of medicine at West Chester, and in the fall of 1877 matriculated at Hahnemann medical college, receiving his medical degree from that institution in 1880. The succeeding sixteen months he was resident phyIn sician at the college hospital. 1881 he went to London, where he spent one year as clinical asto the Soho hospital for in attendance at the Samaritan, and other noted hosDuring his pitals of that city. residence in England he became a member of the International medical congress, which, in 1881 met in London. Upon his return to Philadelphia he was chosen assistant gynecologist in the college dispensary, where he is one of the chiefs in charge, and during the past tliree years has been gynecologist to the Hahnemann hospital. For several years he has been clinical lecturer on gynecology in the spring course at Hahnemann college. Dr. Smedley is a member of the Philadelphia medical club, the Hahnemann club, the Germantown medical club, the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelphia (of which he has been treasurer for four years), the Pennsylvania homoeopathic medical society, and the American institute of homoeopathy. He practices gynecology and obstetrics as a specialty in Philadelphia, and by means of his skill and successful experience has built up a large practice, and has won an excellent reputation in his profession. He was married Aug. 19, 1886, to Elizabeth K. Hallowell, a granddaughter of Benjamin Hallowell, a noted educator and minister among the Society of Friends. sistant

women, and



BAUN, William Weed, editor of the " Hahnemannian Monthly," son of Harriet F. and St. John D. Van Baun, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 30, 1858. He obtained his preparatory education at the Philadelphia high school; entered Hahnemann medical college, Philadelphia, in 1877, and was graduated in 1880. After serving as resident physician at the Hahnemann hospital for nearly one year, upon invitation he went to Vicksburg, Miss., as the successor of the late Dr. Hardenstein, and soon acquired a large practice. Finding the field too circumscribed, he returned to his native city, where he continued his practice, and again took up hospital work in the throat department of the

dispensary connected



He has hospital. engaged in his profession in Philadelphia, 1887 and 1891, when he took special the hospitals of Vienna and Paris, conresearches to his specialties the diseases

Hahnemann since been

except in courses in

fining his He has frequently of the heart, throat, and lungs. lectured on the heart and its diseases at his alma mater, and is one of the visiting physicians at the Hahnemann hospital. Dr. Van Baun has become



as the editor-in-chief of the "Hahneis the largest and most influential of the serial publications devoted to homoeopathy. Associated with him as editor is Dr. Clarence Bartlett of Philadelphia, and on the staff are many distinguished writers, including Drs. Wil-



mannian Jlonthly," which

liam B. Van Lennep, Charles M. Thomas, and J. N. Mitchell of Philadelphia, George R. Southwick of Boston, Prank H. Pritchard of Norwalk, O., and a of foreign correspondents. He was secretary of the Homoeopathic medical society of Philadelphia for five years, and was then elected its president. He was prominent in the movement which resulted in the official recognition of homoeopathy in the city of Philadelphia, and has been active in the interest of state medical legislation. The Alumni association of Hahnemann medical college, organized in 1857, and which virtually ceased to exist in 1868, was reorganized in 1884, largely through the energy andactivity of Dr. Van Baun, who has since been its secretary. It has about 1,000 active members, earnestly devoted to the best interest of their alma mater, to the encouragement and support of higher medical education, and to the enjoyment of a frequent renewal of college fellowship. Dr. Van Baun is a member of the Philadelphia medical club, German-


town medical club, Pennsylvania homoeopathic medical society, and the American institute of homoeopathy.

KEIM, William H. of surgery in


physician, demonstrator college from 1877

Hahnemann medical

was born at Merion Square, Montgomery March 15, 1843, son of Samuel and Mary Keim. He is descended from a family noted in the history of Pennsylvania, and many of its members have occupied prominent and influential till


county. Pa.,

positions in this country. After obtaining his preparatory education in the public schools, he began the study of medicine in 1868, first attending the Philadelphia school of anatomy; he then entered

the lege

Hahnemann medical


of Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in Subsequently he took 1871.

a course of lectures at Jefferson medical college, and at the University of Pennsylvania.

Immediately after his

graduation he was appointed on the medical staff of Hahne-



and for several

years had charge of the outpractice of the first medical district of Philadelphia, comprising the territory south of Spruce street between the Delaware and the Schuylkill rivers. He served two years as assistant

demonstrator of


anatomy at and was


in 1877 elected demonstrator of surgery, which position he filled for twelve years, and during that period did most efficient and selfsacrificing work in building up the department of practical surgery in the college, placing it on a plane unexcelled in this country. His lectures on practical surgery were a special feature of his career at this institution. This position he resigned in 1889. Dr. Keim visited Europe in 1887 and in 1890, and made a careful study of advanced methods of medical and surgical practice in the noted hospitals of London, Vienna and Munich. In January, 1880, during an amputation of the thigh, he accidentally received a puncture of the right thumb, which resulted in a severe case of pysemia; his recovery from that disease is one of the few cases of its kind on record in medical practice. Dr. Keim is an ex president

of the Homoeopathic medical society of the county of Philadelphia; he is also a member of the Pennsylvania homoeopathic medical society, the American Germantown institute of homoeopathy, and the medical club. Since his retirement from the position in the college, he has devoted his entire time to a large and remunerative practice, giving special attention to the diseases of women and children.

MIDDLETON, Melbourne F.,



born in Camden, N. J., Jan. 31, 1843, the eldest son of Timothy and Hester A. K. (Jenkins) Middleton. His ancestors for several generations were prominent residents of that city, and his father in 1863 was chosen mayor of Camden. Dr. Middleton obtained his early education in the schools of Camden and

Philadelphia, and then spent four years at work on During this time and after leaving the farm (his father returning to Camden) he entered upon special branches of study to fit himself more fully for active business life. He was next employed as a clerk in his uncle's store, and then as a salesman in a Philadelphia cloth house. Securing the position of assistant bookkeeper in the large establishment of Dr. D. Jayne & Son in Philadelphia, he performed his duties so satisfactorily that he was soon made the correspondent of the firm, which did a very extensive his father's farm.

business. ties of

The arduous du-

this position

at the

end of two years overtaxed his physical endurance, and in order to

recuperate his health he was entrusted with the power of attorney from his employei-s, and sent out traveling in their interests for two years. This valuable experience had broadened his views of men and