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CYCLOPEDIA OF AMEEICAISr
BIOGEAPHY BEING THE
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE LIVES OF THE FOUNDERS, BUILDERS, AND DEFENDERS OF THE REPUBLIC, AND OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE DOING THE WORK AND MOULDING THE THOUGHT OP THE PRES-
DISTINGUISHED BIOGRAPHERS, SELECTED FROM EACH STATE KEVISED AND APPROVED BY THE MOST EMINENT HISTORIANS, SCHOLARS, ANI» STATESMEN OF THE DAY
NEW YORK WHITE & COMPANY 1921
9^0 5:^6 Y COPTEIGIIT, 1891, 1899
AVHITE & CO.
[All rights reserved.']
president of the United
States, was boin at Braintree, Mass., Oct. 30 (old style 19), 1735, .sou of John and Susanna (Boylstoii)
Adams. His father (1091-1760) was a well-to-do farmer, an ofHcer in the niili(ia in early life, and afterward deacon of the church and selectman of the town of Braintree his mother was a daughter of Peter Boylston of BrooUtine, and granddaughter of Tliomas "Boylston, a noted Boston merchant. The fa)nily had held a reputable, although not a prominent, po-sitiou from the foundation of the Massachubeing for the most part small farmsetts colony ers but its standing was liighly esteemed by Pres. Adams himself, who once remarked that his aristocratic tendencies found a better foundation in " descent from a line of virtuous, independent New England farmers for a hundred and sixty years " than "from regal or noble scoundrels since the flood." The earliest American ancestor was Henry Adams, who, in December, 1640, received a grant of forty acres at Braintree, and has been supposed to be tlie brother of Thomas Adams, of Plymouth, England, one of the original grantees of the Massachusetts charter and assistant to both Govs. Cradock and Winthrop. From him the line of descent runs through his son, Joseph Adains (1636-94), a selectman of the town of Braintree and surveyor of liighways, and his wife, Abigail Baxter through their son, Joseph Adams (1654-1737), also a fai-mer and selectman of the town, and his second wife, Hannah, daughter of John Bass and granddaughter of John Alden, of Plymouth and through their son, John Adams, the elder. John Adams, 2d, was educated under the direction of Rev. Joseph Marsh, pastor of the First Congregational Church of Braintree, and Joseplr Cleverly, sometime reader of the local Episcopal church. He entered Harvard College, where he was graduated in 1755 his family's social standing not his own scholastic attainments, as some have asserted rating him fourteenth In a class of twentyfour. Among his classmates were John Wentworth, baronet and royal governor of New Hampsliire and Nova Scotia William Browne, judge of the Massachusetts supreme court David Sewall, .iudge of the U. S. district court for Maine, and Samuel Locke, president of Harvard College (1770-73). Shortly after graduation he became teacher of the "circuit" grammar school at Worcester, where he remained for somewhat over a year, instructing, as he says "a large number of little runtlings, just caand troubling the master," pable of lisping and, as shown by his diary, pondering deeply over questions of theology with a possible view of entering the ministry. In the end, however, his "liberal " views on theology, coupled with his great am;
public and secular
determined him to renounce this intention, and he entered upon the studj' of law in the office of James Putnam, of Worcester. On Nov. 6, 1758, he was admitted to the bar .in Boston, where he at once entered upon professional practice. With what earnestness he took up the serious duties of active life we may gather from his diary, in which he sagely advises himself to "let no trifling diversion decoy you from your books no girl, no gun, no cards, no flutes, no violins, no dress, no tobacco, no laziness." Tliis determination to succeed, coupled with the favorable circumstances of comparatively few lawyers and the deeply-rooted litigious habit of the times, rapidly brought him into prominence and comparative competence he also filled, during the affairs,
tenj'earsof his career, several local offices (selectman, assessor and overseer of th e poor for the town of Braintree) honors which indicate that a young man Another facis well thought of by his neighbors." tor in the development of his character and career insight into the was a fervid patriotism and keen general trend of public events which enabled him to early outline the possibilities and future pohcy of the American colonies in dealing with their internal In 1756, when but twenty-one years of age, affairs. and long before the general popular discontent had developed into a desire for separation from the mother country, he wrote to a filend these almost prophetic words: "Soon after the reformation a few people came over into the new world for conscience' sake. Perliaps this apparently trivial incident may transfer It looks the great seat of empire into America. for if you can remove the tni-bulent likely to me Gallicks, our people, according to the exactest computations, will in another century become more nu-
merous than England
Should this be the itself. have, I may say, all the naval stores of the nation in our hands, it will be easy to obtain the mastery of the seas, and then the united foice of The all Europe will not be able to subdue us. only Tvaj to keep us from setting up for ourimpera. Keep Divide et selves is to disunite us. us in distinct colonies, and then some great men in each colon)^ desiring the monarchy of the whole, they would destroy each other's influence and keep the country in equilihria." James Otis' brilliant speecli, in 1761, against the writs of assistance still further added to his passionate dedication to the cause of true freedom; and when, four years later, the entire colony rose in protest against the arbitrary enactments of the stamp act, he f omid himself suddenly brought forward as a popular hero. Although tlie mob violence of the people of Boston the destruction of the houses of stamp-distributor case, since
THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA
Oliver and Gov. Hutcbinson thoroughly revolted him, he became the leader of the nuilcoutents of
up and circulating a petition for a town-meeting, which at his iustaace imanimously adopted instructions to its representative in the general court iu relation to the matter. These resiilutions, being published in the newspapers of the day, were adopted by forty other towns of the proviuce; and John Adams, thus becoming a public character, ^^as appointed of counsel for the city of Boston, with Jeremiah Gridleyand James Otis, to present a memorial praying the governor and council to remove the obstructions placed upon court and commercial business as a I'eprisal for the general refusal to use the stamps. On this occasion his colleagues contented themselves with references to the charter rights of tlie colonists violated by the governor in closing the courts but Mr. Adams exceeded both of them in the strength aud daring of his argument, advancing the now famous proposition that the stamp act was invalid as not being iu any sense our act, we never having conseuted to it," which, then brought forward almost from the inspiration of the moment, he subsequently elaborated by reading and stud}' into an abiding princijile of American law. Later, as counsel for John Hancock, who was being sued for duties on a ca.se of madeira, lauded at night in deflance of the authorities, he argued similarly, on the law: "My client never consented toil; he never voted for it himself, and he never voted for Braiiitree, drawiui;
few days a law for him." tlie council, a Sunday, he makes this entry in his diary: "At home to-day, studying into taxation without consent." About the same time he began to contribute articles on taxation to the Boston " Gazette,"and some of his arguments were reprinted in the London papers, greatly to the increase of his reputation. His legal practice was also in a prosperous condition, and he was frequently letained in notable cases his keen presentation of legal principles and high ora;
powers being considered an almost certain means of suctorical cess.
other oa\iscs he
retained, iu 1770, to defend
Capt. Preston for his share in the Boston massacre, and secured his acquittal in spite of the great prejudice existing in regard to the affair. His own active sympathies with the patriot cause seemed no bar to the conscientious preparation and pleading of the case; his excu.se
probably beiug his abhorrence of mob violence. He also defeuded the seven soldiers indicted with Preston, and secured the acquittal of five. The same year saw Adams elected to the general court; but, after a brief and brilliant career, in course of which lie was freq\iently consulted by Gov. Hutchinson on important matters of administration, he resigned. Thereafter he became more and more prominent as adviser and leading spirit of tlie patriot part}', writing numerous powerful articles, especially tho.se on "The Independence of the Judiciary," criticising the action of parliament in ordering that the .salaries of .iudges be paid by the crown, and not by the colony, as had been the practice. On the organization of the first continental congress, which met at Philadelphia in 1774, he was chosen by the provincial assembly a represeulalive for Massachusetts, together with James Bowdoin.
Samuel Adams, Thomas Gushing and Robert Treat Paine. Of this gathering, he wrote: "It is such an a.ssembly as never before came together ou a sud-
Here are fortunes, eloquence, acuteness equal to any Here is a diversity of I ever met with "in my life. religions, educations, manners, interests sue!/ as it would seem impossible to unite in one line of conduct." It seems clear, also, from his diary and letters, that he was at this time neither settled on any distinct course of action nor fully confident of ability and attainments sufHcieut to cope with the issues at hand. Indeed, some months previous, April 9, 1774, he had writteu to James Warren expressing the " that there is not spirit enough on either opinion. side to bring the question to a complete decision, and that we shall oscillate like a pendulum and fluctuate like the ocean for many years to come, and never obtain a complete redress of American grievances, nor submit to an absohite establishment of parliamentary authority, but be trimming between both, as we have been for ten years past, for more years Our children to come than you aud I shall live. may see revolutions and be concerned aud active in effecting them, of which we can form no conception." None the less, he devoted himself heartily to all measures looking toward resistance of Great Britain, taking prominent part in most of the debates, and drafting such important documentsas its famous resolutions on colonial riglits, and at the end of the first memorable session returned home to participate with equal vigor iu the Massachusetts revolutionary proden
any pait of the world.
Concord, which moved to seize
the public revenues, appointed committees of safety, and provided for the arming of forces for hourly expected conflicts. He also continued his contributions to the public press, especially a series in answer to the loyalist arguments of Massachusettensis (David Leonard) under the pen-name of Novanglus, which reviews the policy of Govs. Bernard and Hutchinson, and strongly sets forth the rights and grievances of the people of Massachusetts province. The battle of Bunker Hill removed the last shadow of d(.iubt in his mind on the possibility of reconciliation, and he accoi'dingly addressed himself with renewed spirit to the work of stimulating congress to the most decisive measures in preparation for the inevitable conflict, and to cease sending useless petitions to the
king and parliament
thus this second congress vir-
tually declared war against England and very largely under his influence. In a letter written at this crisis, Adams declares: "The die is now ca.st. I have pas.sed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish with country is tuialterable determination." He distinguished himself as a hard worker, rendering especially valuable services as a member of the naval committee, for which he prepared a body of rules, still in force as the basis of the jireseut naval code of the United States, and served also as chairman of the board of war aud as meinlier of the committees on declaring independence and on foreign relations. During'his sixteen ,
in cougress he was untiring in" the faithful performance of duty, his custom "being to rise at four o'clock in the morning and to work until ten at
Among his other services was his bolil and diplomatic sti'oke in suggesting George Washington for the chief command, although greatly to thedisappointment of Jnlin Hancock and'oihers of his fellow New Eiiglanders thus disarming the obvious hostility tm the part f>f the southern provinces to Massachusetts, and practically committing Virginia to the policy of resistance and the cause of independence. He had previously succeeded in persuading congress to adopt the army then engaged in besieging the British forces in Boston; "thus laying the real foundation of an American army, and further preparing the several colonies for elTectual and united action. He was the first to move the adoption of selfgovernment by each of the colonies, believing that night.
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. the iuevitablu result would be a confederation and then treaties with foreign powers, aud f New Y^ork, but resigned his seat on the bench upon hemg elected to the U. S. .senate in 1796 re taming his seat until 1800, and presidinove'r that body in 1798. He was a zealous defender of ht '
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. country both in the
questions of public policy, especially on the commercial interests of the country, he evinced great comprehensiveness and foresight. He was the personal friend of both Washington and Hamilton. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Gen. Alexander Macdougall, and afterward Elizabeth Livingston, of He died November, 1810. Philadelphia.
county, Va. in 1700. ,
Thomson Mason, and
he was elected to the U. S. senate, and served through the stormy period of President Adams's administration, clo.sing his third term in 1813. He again served in the state legislature from 1812 until 1816 as a represent;itive from Foster, a town that bore his name. In the meantime, he continued his interest in education, and was very active in promoting the interests of his alma mater, of which he was for several years an overseer. He was also noted as antiquarian, and had collected material for a HLstory of Rhode Island, " which he did not live to complete. In 1786 the degree of A.M. was conferred upon him by Dartmouth. He died in Providence, R. I., Jan. 13, 1828.
He was tlie son an
American ancestorwas George "Jlason, whoemigrated from England, settled in Stafford county, Va., and died there in 1686. This George Mason was a royalist, who commanded a troop of horse under Charles II., with of
he escaped after the battle of Worcester, in the disguise of a peasant. Having brought over with him eighteen persons to the colony of Virginia, he received a srant of land which became the family estate. His sons and grandsons were all prominent personages in the history of Virginia. Stevens Thomson Mason was ediicated at William and Mary College, and on the outbreak of the revolutionaiy war volunteered his services and was an aide to Gen. Washington and was present at the siege of Yorktown. Afterward he became a general of militia. He was a member of the house of delegates of Virginia and of the state con.stitutional convention in 1788. On the establishment of the constitutional government, he was elected to the United States senate, in which body he .served from Dec. 7, 179.5, to March 3, 1803. Mason became seriously involved during his senatorial career, in connection with the Jay treaty, which was one of the most serious questions considered by the government of the United States during the first twenty-five years of its history. This treaty, negotiated by John .lay in 1794-9.5,
WELLS, William Hill, senator, was bom in Pennsylvania about 1760. After receiving a good education, he removed to Delaware, and for several years was a successful merchant in Dagsboro' and Millsboro'. He however abandoned business affairs for law, and, after admission to the bar began practice in Georgetown. Later, he settled in Dover, and acquired a large practice, at the same time devoting himself to the care of vast estates in Sussex
cypress .swamp, which he
his wife. He was elected V. S. the place of .Josiah Clavton, deceased, Feb. 4, 1799, until 6. 1804, when
had received from
senator to fill serving from May he resigned, but again served, upon the resignation of James A. Bavard, from .lune 10, 1813, until March He died in Millsboro, Del., March 11, 1829. 3, 1817. James, senator, was born at Moutville, New Loudon co.. Conn., Oct. 21, 17.54, son of William Hillliouse, an eminent jurist, legis-
and soldier. His grandfathei', James Hillliouse, a native of the north of Ireland and a clerg3rman, emigrated to New England about 1719, and in 1723 became pastor of tiie Congregational church at was ratified in secret session by the smallest possible Moutville, at that date a part of New London. In constitutional majority. It was forbidden by the his personal appearance William HilUiouse resemsenate that the treaty should be published, but Sen- bled an Indian, and was jokingly called "the ator ^lason did actually cause to be printed in a Phil- Sachem " by his fellow-congressmen. His son .James adelphia paper, the " Aurora," at first an abstract of resembled him closely, having a swarthy complexion, the instrument and afterward a complete copy of it high cheek-bones, long limbs, a springy step and in all its details. This action created the greatest ex- great powers of endurance. The latter was graducitement between the two political parties, being ap- ated at Yale in 1773, and began the study of law in plauded by the republicans and savagely attacked New Haven; but when the revotjy the federalists. The provisions of the treaty, as lutionary war broke out, volunsoon as they were made public, aroused the greatest teered, w.as made a lieutenant, and excitement among the people, who thought that the in December, 1776, aided in reininterests of the country were being sacrificed to an forcing Washington's army at unworthy consideration for the claims of Great Brit- New York. Onllay 8, 1777, he ain. So great was the irritation caused by this treaty, was elected lieutenant of the 2d or that Alexander Hamilton, who was its strongest ad- New Haven company of Goverherent and advocate, was actually assaulted at a nor's foot-guards, and in May, public meeting in New York. The connection of 1779, became its captain. At the Mason with the .lay treaty gave him his principal if time of Gen. Tryon's invasion of not his only claim to the interest of posterity. Senator Mason was a warm personal friend of Thomas Jefferson, and his .strong political ally during all the struggles which he experienced in his administration of the government. Personally, Senator Mason was also a most popular man, esteemed for his integrity and admired for his remarkable ability as an orator. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 1803.
FOSTEE, Theodore, senator, was born in field,
father, .ledediah distinction and an active
Foster, was a jurist of After graduating from patriot of the revolution. Brown in 1770, Theodore was admitted to the bar,
and opened an office in Providence, R. I., where he had made his home. For more than thirty years he was engaged in active public life during the formative period of his country's history. In 1776 he was a member of the state house of representatives, seiwina until 1782, and thereafter was town clerk of Providence for several years. In May, 1785, he was appointed judge of the court of admiralty. In 1790
New Haven be led a small party of volunteers, and skirmished with the British as they advanced through West Haven". In 1779-80, he was active in Conuecticut in recruiting men for the Continental army. In 1780-89, he was a member of the state legi-slature, and, in 1789-90, of the council, ile was a member of the lower house of congress in 1791-94, and of the senate in 1794-1810, serving as president pro tern, on Jetlerson's retirement. He was a strong Federalist, but thought the .system of government adopted had dangerous tendencies, and as early as 1808 proposed some amendments to the constitution. In 1810-25, he was commissioner of the school fund acquired by Connecticut by the sale of her lands in Ohio, rescued it from a perilous condition, and augmented it to |1, 700,000. "This fund." says Atwater's " History of New Haven," " consisted chiefly of the debts due from the original purchasers of the
THE NATIONAL C^YCLOlMvDIA
Weslorn Reserve, and tliose substituted securities had been accepted in tlieir stead by tlie board of managers of tlie fund." Foy tit'teen years, 5[r.
traversed the thinly iio]nilated reiiions "Where the lands lay, eslablishins; titles, aiding debtors t(i free themselves from insolvency, obtaining
the appointed conunission in .settling the line between He died Feb. 33, those states ami Pennsylvania. 1840.
to counsel." From 1783 inilil Ins death be was treasurer of Yale, and in 1833 ^vas made LL.D. by that institution. In 1825, he became
was a son of Janu's l);ma, the ci'lebrated Connecticut clergyman and .antagonist of .baiatban Edwards. He studied at Yale', where he was graduated in 1775, entered a law otllc(\ was admitted to the bar and became an able and eminent lawyer. He was a federalist in ])olilics and was elected to iHingress by
superintendent of a company formed to construct a canal connecting New Haven with the northern part of the state, aiid in 1839-30 attempted to secure through congress a national subscription toils slocks. The canal did nut prosper, and after twenty years' time gave way to a railroad, greatly to the pecuniary lo,ss of Mr. llillhouse. The beauty of New llavea is largely due to him, for he set out with liis own
that party, and being a nundu'r of tiuK's re-elected, lie was served from .Ian. 3, 1797, until Slay 1, 1810. then elected United Slates .seiial(H- to su bombard, systematic defenses, and a fleet of set on foot to strengthen all war vessels was procured, of whicli " Esek Hopkms, Esci."was made commander-in-chief. His rank was intended to correspond to that held by Washington in the army. His official appellation among seamen was styled adthat of commodore, but he was fi-e(]uently miral in the papers of the period. This fieet, the beginniucr ,,f the Ignited States navy, consisted of the Alfred Capt. Saltonstall; the Columbus, Ca])t. Whipple; and the Cabot, the Andrea Doria, Capt. Biddle One of the Capt. Hopkins the commodore's sou. resolutions organizing the navy was "that the pay of the commander-in-chief of the fleet be |1 25.00^ a At once he proceeded to Philadelphia, month." where there were added to nis fleet the Lexington, fourteen guns, a brig commanded ,^_^._ by .lohn Bariy the Hornet, ten and the Wasp, eight gu runs His instructions were to gun proceed southward to act against ;
ravaging the He" left the coast of Virginia. capes of the Delaware with his on Feb. 17, 1776, and fleet proceeded to the Bermudas, where an attack was made upon the fort at New Providence. This was the first attack of the kind made by the regular American navy, and was entirely successful. A body of 300 marines was sent ashore, the landing being covered by the fleet, and they captiu'ed the governor, the lieutenant-governor and one of the council, as well as nearly 100 cannon and a large quantity of military stores, which were brought safelv to New London, April 8, 1776. When off Block Island on his home voyage Hopkins captured the British schooner Hawke and the bomb-brig Bolten, for which gallant deed he received the official thanks of congress. He next attacked the British vessel Glasgow. She was a full-rigged ship, carrying twenty guns and a crew of 150, and, after an unequal contest lasting .several hours, the Glasgow escaped in the darkness. This escape caused a great deal of excitement and hard feeling, and on October 16th congress passed a vote of censure on him. Charges were preferred against him, which, however, were not substantiated, John Adams defending him with great ability. After his acquittal the "famous Paul Jones wrote him a letter of congratulation. C)u October lyth he was directed to take "command of a fleet formerly put under his care," but he was dilatory in getting ready for sea, and so he was once more summoned before congress. This summons he refused to obey, and on Jan. 2, 1777, he was dismissed from the service. As has been well said, the fame of Com. Hopkins stands unsullied for his bravery and integrity his patriotism is beyond di.spute, and no one has proved him ncLrlectful of his duties. He settled at North Provi.leuee, R. I., where he passed the remainder of his life, and was for many years a member of the general assembly of that state. His son, John Burroughs Hojikins, 'was one of the first caplahis of the revolutionary navy being commissioned Dec. 22, 1775. In 1779 he sailed from Bcjston in command of a squadion, and caplureda number of vessels and twenty-four British olfieers. Com. Hopkins died at North Providence, R. I., Feb. 26, 1802. MTJKEAY, Alexander, naval officer was born at Chesfertown, Mil., July 12 175.5 His grandfather was the Highland 'ehie"f,
Trio espoused the cause of the Pretender and was banished to Barbadoes in 1715. His son, a physician, subsequently removed to
Alexander Murray early went to sea, and was in command of merchant vessels engaged in European trade from his eighteenth to hia
terranean and blockaded two French corvettes in the bay of Cadiz, shortly afterward following the French frigate Yengcanee to Guadaloupe, overtook her at Point Petre, and blockaded her there until his supplies gave out. On his return to the United States he was ordered to the
At the outbreak of the revolu- command of the Constellation, and went to the tionary war he gave uf> this position to accept an Leeward Islands in command of an American appointment in the continental navy, but as there squadron oft Cape Francois, which effectually was no navy he became a lieutenant in the 1st jirotected American commerce against the French Maryland regiment, under Col. Smallwood, and cruisers. ^Vhen the navy was reduced by act took part in the battle-s of White Plains, Flatbush of congress he was one of twelve general officers and others around New York. He was in charge retained, and was sent to the Mediterranean, in of a battery opposing the passage of the British command of the Constellation, during the trouble fleet np> the Hudson river, and the explosion of with Tripoli, blockading that port for several this battery made him almost wholly deaf. He weeks. The Chesapeake relieved him in the Medparticipated in the retreat of the continental iterranean, and he convoyed a hundred or more army across the Hudson, but an illness, which vessels to America. French pirates continued to he had contracted in camp, forced him to resign infest American waters, and Commodore Murray, He was at that time a captain. AVhen having been ordered to the Adams, cruised for in 1777. he recovered he was appointed commander of several months off! Georgia and South Carolina. the letter of marque Eevenge, carrying eighteen In 1812 he was made commander of the navy guns and fifty men. The Eevenge was to con- yard at Philadelphia, but he was not given the voj' forty ships to Holland, but shortly after opportunity to see active service in the war of leaving Baltimore the convoy ran into a superior 1812 because of his deafness. He died at the enemy force and retired to the safety of the head of the U. S. naval service, in Philadelphia, Panuxent ri\er. The convoy was then aug- Pa., Oct. 6, 1S21. mented by ten sail, and set out again only to SEIDEL, Nathaniel, Moravian bishop, was British privateers, one Ijorn at Lauban in Lower Silesia Oct. 2, 1718. meet a squadron of eightcen-gun ship, one sixteen-gun brig and three His youth was spent in poverty, and he fled to schooners. Cant. Murray signalled his convoy to Herrnhnt to escape being impressed into the army. retire, and with the Eevenge, aided liy two In 1 742 he was sent to America and made overAmerican schooners, he attacked the enemy. seer of the young men at Bethlehem, Peun. His After a severe engagement the enemy retired missionary journeys, which began the next year and Capt. Murray and his convoy X'lit back to with a visit to the Susquehanna, extended through Hampton Eoads for repairs. He again set out nuich of New York and New England, as well as on the voyage, and on the banks of Xewfound- his own province and parts of Maryland. In 1746 land captured a British letter of marque brig. he was appointed "Elder of the Pilgrims," or Later he fell in with a large fleet of British overseer of the evangelists sent out by the Moramen-of-war and was pursued and captured by a vian church in October, 1748, he was ordained a T'pon being exchanged, he was ap- presbvter. His journeys were made on foot, and frigate. pointed first lieutenant on the frigate Trumbull were often perilous. In 1750 he went to Europe The Trumbull with Zeisberger, in 175.3 to the West Indies, and, under Capt. .James Nicholson. was captured in a fight with the frigate Iris, on his return thence, to North Carolina, where he thirty-three guns, and the sloop. General Monk, planted a colony on the tract lately purchased by eighteen guns, and was towed into New York. Zinzendorf and in 1755 to Surinam, where he reLient. Murray was wounded in the action and founded the mission abandoned ten years before. was shortly afterward exchanged. He was then In 1756 he was chased by savages and narrowly Again in Europe in 1757, he traveled in fitted out with a brig, which he took, with a escaped. On the way Switzerland with Zinzendorf, and was consecrated cargo of tobacco to St. Thomas. he beat off a British privateer of fourteen guns. a bishop at Herrnhut May 12, 1758. After eight Leaving St. Thomas, he captured a British months in the West Indies, many perils at sea, packet and towed her into Havana, where he and a dangerous illness in Germany, he was sefound an expedition fitting to sail against the lected to succeed Bishop Spangenberg as president At the request of the governor he of the provincial board in America. Eeturning Bahamas. The to Bethlehem in October, 1761, he began a wise, joined the fleet and was given command. fleet sailed luider the American flag, the Span- faithful, and efficient administration, retaining a All the iards contributing 5,000 men, and transports. zealous interest in Indian missions. Arrived at New Providence, Bahamas, Capt. church property was held in his name, and he Murray called on the fort to surrender, which founded a new settlement at Hope, N. J., but it The Spanish captain, Miranda, offered was given up forty years later. In 1768 he conit did. such disgraceful terms to the British that Capt. vened the thirtieth provincial synod at Lititz, Pa., Murray challenged him to a duel, but he de- and the next j-ear attended the eighteenth genclined. On his return home he was ordered eral synod in Germany. In 1771 he visited the aboard the fiigate Alliance as first lieutenant mission in Bradford county, and advised its reHe was the last moval to Ohio. His last years were afflicted by under Capt. .John Barry. some of his ofiicer to hold a naval commission after the revo- the war, by a worldly spirit among lution. Under I>res. Adams he was reappointed flock, and by bodily infirmities, caused by his The massacre to the naval service during the hostilities with labors and hardships in the past. France, and in command of the corvette Monte- at Gnadenhiitten broke his heart, and he died at zuma, and later the frigate Insurgente, cruised Bethlehem, Pa., May 17, 1782, leaving a "precious memory, among the Indians of about West Indian waters, protecting American and excellent shipping. He convoyed over a huntlred sail to both North and South America. STAEIN, John Henry, business man, was born various ports of the" United States without losLater he sailed to the Medi- at Sammonsville, N. Y., Aug. 27, 1825, son of ing a single twenty-first year.
THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA
Fratrum, which he ami Bapliel (Sanimoiis) Starin. Ilia he was attracted to the Fnitas After teaching tor many years, father was a ilry-ilock and lioat liuildor at Fulton- joined in 17-1::. in 17(i(i, to visit the settlennmts in \ille, N. Y.: anil his niothci- was a daughter of he was deimted, His insjiectiini o-xtended from New Mai. Thomas Sammons of a well known New York Ainerica. South Anu-rica, and gave revolutionary family. His first American ancestor York to the coast of Missions of the was Nicholas Starin (or Stern), who emigrated rise to his German "History of the Tlunnas, from the Gorman Flats and settled in the Mohawk P.rethreu in the ('aribhean Islands, St. This work, ^^lhicll ap.A'alley in ITlid. .lohn H. Starin studied medicine St. Croix, and St. .lohn." of specml under an Alliany iloctor until he found that his peai'od in two \iilumes in 1777, is tastes and talents ran in other lines. He then lie- value as gi\ing \ocabulai-ies of the dialects of the came a iderk in a dnif; store conducted by his natives and sla\es. The author held a post at hlbeisdorf, where brnther in Fultnu\illi', N. Y., and at the same time Marieiiliorn 17li9-SI, and then at served as tlir villaLjc |iiistuurster. In Isfii; he went he died March 9, 17S7. J[ynilcrt
to New fai-tuie
SPALDING, Henry Harmon,
and was encracred in tiie uiauuand inrdiianes until tiie shijuduo; of his gnods interested him in the freifj^ht and trans]iortation iirolilem, and snuM^estcd to him ~\'iii'k
Ho born near Hath, Steuben Co., N. V., in ISIII. was graduated at Westeiai Kesiawe I'ollege in ls:i;!, sjieut two years at Lane Seiuinai-y, Cincinnati, the idea of establishing a geuei-al fiei^ilit ai^'cncy, and in IS.'ui was sent by the ,\mericau I'lOard to Mere he labored re]iresentinrj leading railroad and steainslii]i lines. Lajiwai, in ivlnit is now Iil.aho. He was .among the transportation contractors among the Nez Forces Indians nntil his associate, wdiom the United States government picked out to Dr. Whitman, was murdered with others, at Wall.T, Fscaping to the Wib asscndile ami ship trmijis, fond .and clothing dui'ing Walla, in November, 1M7. the civil w.ai'. I'mn. N'amliTlii It ap|iiiinted liini laniettc \'alley in Oregon, he continued his minto solicit freight for the Hudson River railroad. isti'ations to tlu' Indians in that regioib translated In time he built uji so large a freight and lighter- portions of the Pdble into the Ncz Ferccs tmigue, S.1(l-,'"i,^. From age business that fur a number of years he con- and was commissioner of schools trolled piractically all that business of the New lSfi2 lie w.as again at Fapwai, where he acted York Central & Hudson Biver railroad, the Morris until 1871 as sn|ierinteiideiit of education for the toilet' artiidrs
Western, and the Centi'al Railioad
also jirobably the largest inili\iilual
of steamboats, tugs and barges in this country. He originated the idea of transporting freight cars on floats. In addition to his othei' enter|nnses,
Mr. Stai'iu sound and politics
coniniissionei s. He school at Fnitoiuille, \.
Hollnnd Society, the
Society, the American IMuseuin of Natural llistoj'y, the :\fetropolita n Museum of Art, the lieneral Society of .Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York, the Saratoga Monument Association, of which he was president, Oneida Histoi'ic.al Society, Utica I'ominandery Knights Templar, the Albany Ibirgesses Corpis, the Holstein Frisian Association of America, the Fiiion League Fluli, the New ^'ork ^.aldlt Club, and New York Athletic Club. Mr. Starin was married .Ian. 27, lS4(i, to Laura M., daughter of John H. Poole of Oriskany, N. Y., and had two sons, Mynilert and Charles Freeman Starin, and
York State Agricnitnra!
two daughters, Harriet Mears, who married .lames Hickman Sjiraker, and Caroline, who married Howard Carroll. He died in New York city. Mar. 22,
teachings, and a brought a st;ite of i»imThe work of his last few auspices of the Fresbytei'ian lie died at La|iwai, Nez
years w.as under tlie bo.'ird of missions. Forces Co., Iilnlio, Aug.
lie \\'.'is a nienilier other lieiief;ictions were many. of the New York chamlie'r of Foininerce, tlie New York I'rodiice lv\change, the Sons of the American bcvolntion, the New taigL-ind Society,
St. Nichol.as Society, the
extensions with its own nionc\' and .'irrange for universal transfers belwr'on subwiiys, suid'ace and ele\'ated lim'S. His resolution was iiassed unMujmiiiisI\-. He ^vas abri one of the ririginal iinhistri-il
were con\erteil larger
was born in London, tr.ader and a (.,)u.aker. He was Frig., where he was He was was .'irrested in llristol, in IliSl, and thrown in
elected to tiie 4nth ;nid -KItli congresses. one of the liist rapid tr.ansit coinniissinners, ;i|iliy ]ioiiit".l Mayor (ir.-int, and one of his h-ist ollicial acts as vice-president of tin' rajiid transit Cfunnnssiou was a. rcsolutifin refusing to allow the Interborongli to third track the east siih' elevated lines unless the company would agree to build sub-
Christian George Andreas, Moravian missionary, was born near llildesheini. Saxony, March 8, 1721. While a student at .lena
thennipon in'came interostod in Willi.'ini Fenn 's new colony in America, and was among those wdio signed the ''certain conditions or concessions'' in Fngland on duly II of that ^\^' was said year. to have conu^ from Se\'rev, 'Fngland, with the lirst cidonists. Ho attended the first assembly .at npland or CInwtor, on Dec. 4, KiSli, .and was made (diairman of the committee on grie\'.aiices and member of that on preparation of by
was very government
in this assenildy in the his life. Mo w.as resident
the political inteiested in
'onnsyl va iiia a leader in
was pa rMelaware ei|nally
indepimdent with 'ennsyl\;i iii.a. In IfiMS he was ehosen one of tlie jl'idges of the court of common pleas, and on Nov. 21, i('i90, when the provincial snpreme court of the two provinces was reorganized under Chief Justice John Sinu'ock, Judge .lones was ]iromoted to that branch in I'ennfree
a judge of the Delaware Justice William Cl.arke, his
chosen mayor of tln^ idty council on Oct. r,, 17():',, but decliina] and was fimnl foi' refusing to serve. He was more anumable the following year, however, and not oidy took oflice, but secured' the remission of his line. One remark, among otlu'rs of his that has come dowji to later times is his rebuke of William ISraill'iird in ll'iSil, when the gre.at revolutirm was on, for printing Hie old idiarter of Pennsylvania: "It was a very ill thing for thee" lie, said "at this juncture to idfer to print the charter." Nmther the date of his birth or death
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 5^
SMITH, Samuel Stanhope, projoctov of Ilampden-SidiR'V
its tii-st iircsidcnl,
Lancaster Co., Pa., Mavcb Ki, the Rev. Koliert Sinilli, D.D.
son was ciliicated in
Priuceliniin 17li!:l,un(lerDi'..Tolin Yv^itlierspdoii.anil licenseil l)y the presliyteiy of ISTewcastle (fmvliicli Virginia tlien lieldnuTMl), the .samewhich liail previously sent South Samuel Davies, a former jiresident of Princeton, to lal)or as "the apostle of Virginia." Stanhope Smith imitated his ilhistricais preilccc.ssor. Peareil in a log academy.in an age of log colleges, he is identifieihvith the movement in 1771 in the presliytery
(now Hanover) to establish an academy of learning. The outcome of these efforts was the founding of Prince Edward Academy, near the centre of the middle one of the three counties (Cumberland, Prince Edward and Charlotte) in which he was laboring. The land for a site was given by Peter .Johnston, the grandfather of Gen. .Joseph E. JohnSmith was chosen the first rector, and in an advertisement signed Sept. 1, 177.5, he informs the public of the progress of the building, beston.
in March, and the expectation of opening the school on Nov. 10th. The circular further states; "It [the academy] is to be distinguished by the name of Hampden-Sidncy, and will be sub,]ect to the visitation of twelve gentlemen of character and influence in their respective counties; the immediate and acting members being chiefly of the church of England. " " Parents of every denominaQ.y^L^c^^^'dM:^ tion " are addres.sed, and the objects are " to form good men and good citizens, on the common and universal principles of morahty,distiuginshed from the narrowteiietswhicli form the complexion of any sect." The college was thus in its origin intended primarily for the ad .joining section and the whole .south side of Virginia.and was to be supported by all elements, whether of English, or Scotch-Irish, or French Huguenot descent. President Smith resigned in 1779, leaving the academy or college in the charge of his brother, .John Blair Smith, whom he had ijngaged as tutor, and accepted the professorship of moral philosophy in Princeton College, to the presidency of which he succeeded on the This he resigned in 1 812. de'ath of Dr. Witherspoon. Among his works are: " Causesof the Variety of the Complexion and Figure of the Human Species" (1788): " Oration on the Death of Washington," at
Trenton (1800); sermons (1801); "Lectures on the Evidences of the Christian Religion " (1809); 'Love of '
niinatioii at the age of teen years. Even at that early ]ieriod of his career 3Ir. Smith's elo(pieuce and pleasing style of dehvery won him a wide leputation. He was a uum of fine pi'e.senee; tall, erect, with a keen eye, and expressive ccjuntcniuici-. In 1842 he bccanie con\crta
ed to C'ahinisiu, and \\as ordained an orthndo.x minister in Maiden, 3[a.ss. A!.)out the \-car ISoO, Jlr. Smith's health becoming imijaired, he gave up the ministi'V as a regular i)rofessiun and undertook the study of the law. -^l^meit ^aA-^nlJc His diversitied talents made liiiu a ready pleadei', while years nf study liad given him an unfailing fund of illustration, making him apt to see the weak points of an adversary, and quick to take advantage of them. Hr soon after this reainvcd to New York, and to liis two ]n'(jfessions add'd that of journalism. As correspondiaU, of the Elision " Journid " his " Eurleigh Letli'is" allracU'd
from the brilliancy of tln'ir style and tlieir inexhaustifile humor. He slid continued his miiiisU-iial laljors. supplyinu" the pulpits of Congre^iUional, Dutch Reformed, .Methodist, and Presui]i\"iasal attentitai
byterian churches; but ill health prevented his taking:- a settled charge. He was a m.an of iiidcd'atigable enri'iiy, and had a large correspondenia^ willi papers in cities and towns throughout the North and West.
Among the books that lie wrote are: " .Aharvels of Prayer," " Sunshine and Shadow in New York, "and •'Successful Folks." These were but a sm.all portion of his writings. His vast c.'rrespondence and innumeralile letters would till volumes. It was as a lecturer that JIatthew Hale Smith achieved his greatest success. ()a this held he was master and could display to the best his vi-i'satile tah-nts. He nuale extensive- lectui'e toui's o\er the coimtry, one of which, in 1877, in Californi.a, lasted for nine months. He excelled as a humorist, l)ut his humor was always retlned, .and a vein of sound judgmcnl ran through all his disconise. Among his most popular lectures wia-e: " l-'roni the Th.aniesto the Tiber, " drawn from
scenes ano incidents on a Euro|ican tour; also, "
"Wit and Humor."
In April, bsijl, as chaplain of the 12ih regiment, X. Y. S. M., he wem to the seat of war at the hrst
and all through that struggle, in public ,addre.ssr-s and in other services, devoted call
himself to the cause of bis country. He was chaplain of the "(lid tJuanl" in New York city at tlietimeof his death. His last public address'was iu behalf of the Sunday-school cause. In earlv life .Mr. Smith married, in Ijosion. Mass., 3[arv, graiidniece of John .\danis, second president of the United States. By her be had sevi-n children, five of whom, three sons and two daughters, snrvi\-ed him. Two of the sous studied law. and one went into the railroad b\rsiness in the West, The elilest son took his grandmother's name (his father's nom-deplnine), " Burleigh, " upon coming of age, and is now Judge Burleigh of ."Massachusetts, His .second son, G. Melville Snu'th, entered the ministry and was settled over the Second Presbyterian church of New-
His daughter, Louise, is an artist of acknowledged ability'. She acted as his araamien,sis, and traveled abroadwith him on his last trip to EuShe was married in 1870 to Albert C. Squiei, rope. an extensive builder and contractor of New York, and it was in their home that Matthew Hale Smith buryport, JIass.
passed the last years of his lyn, "
died in Brook-
at Frankeducated at Y'ale College, whence he was graduated in 1778, and afterward directing his attention to the law, was admitted to the bar in 1781, and rose to eminence in He served in the Connecticut state that profession. legislature from 1788 to 1793, when he was elected to congress as a federalist and .served in the lower house until 1796, wdien he became U. S. .senator in place of Jonathan Trnndjull, and remained in that position imtil his death, which was caused bv exlin,
a fellow-senator. He in the congressional buryinti'-ii'round ai Washington. His three dautiliters married three .judges, viz.' Judge Gould, of Litch field, Conn.; Judge H(nve, of Northampton, Mass., and Judge Jletcalfe, of Dedhara, Mass. Senator reputation for wit, was an able orator, Tracy had a graceful in his mode of delivery and lucid in argument. He was an ardent debater, his itleas coming rapidly and being eloipienlly .set forth. He was greatly admired by his friends and respected by his opponents. He died July, 19, 18117. ]ios-!. o'^ iNew York cily. IIs,"i1, wlieai litleen years old, camit iactiirer,
with bis mother and Aiiierii;a, settling in
where he was
Albany, X. Y.,
one of the ]iioiieer manubietiirers of pianos and ]iiano actions. ^Vllile aci|iiiriiig- a tbcjrongb knowledge of be art of jiiaiio and piano-action inakiii^', be was also perfecting himself in tbe bianebes. EiiLilish lam^iiaiie and After com|iletiiig his a|ipreiitieesbi]i, be \\"orke(l for a time as a Erickiii2er,
until, in lyfjo, lie
admitted as a partner in the biisiiie-s. Seeking a lariifr field be sold out his mtere-f and in isi;:; came to New Yolk, wliei-e, foi' tlie iie.vt four years, he was layimj the foil lion for lii^ |iresiait business by ^t iidyiiiL'' be meil in use in the various piano mamdaetorie,. In bS(i7 lie commenced tbe inanufaetiire of |.iaiio aeii(,iis in a small way, (.-miiloying one man and two boys. Seeing liat the grandand upright jiianos wamld be tbe jiianosof the future, he
himself diligently to tbe improvement of so eminent ly did be sneeeed in |)erfecting tliem tliat lie has been and is rcco'jnizi-d as tbe leadiiiL' mamilai'l iiier of piano actions. In 1K91 hi-; e-ialili-linieni b.ad beerane one olilie largest of this kind in tlie world, with a ea|jaeii\- for the cnijiloymrait of over foil men. Tliis has'all been due to'a great extent to his skill, inventive genius and perfect a]iplied
tlie. r: act ions, aiiCl
OF AMERICAN BIOGRATMIY. knowlcdcrc of this branch of piano manufacture together with his having worked hand in hand with
those inventive and progressive spirits among the piano maljers who never rested till they liail made the American pianoforte uuapproacliable for its nuisical qualities
ican piano trade renowned for
and the Amer-
its sla'hility, intei'rity
enterprise. Mr. Strauch occupies a'higli position in tlie fiuanciid woi-ld, has been the acting president of the Gansevoort Bank and lioldsollier'iu'ominent positii.ms of trust. He is also an active member of the General Society of Meclianicsand Trades-
men. Associated with him are liis two sons Albert T., and William E., both of whom have already attained a prominent position in the commercial world, and who, by their skill and enerny, have contributed much to the growth and development of the business,
BOX, Henry W. lawver, was Ixirn in Cornwall England, Apr. 33, 1836. By the death of his father, he was left at the age of eight years to the care of his mother, who was burdened with the support of a large family, and he passed his early yea^rs in a" constant struggle with poverty, and without the advantages of an education. Re,
solved to seek a
ditions of life were easier, the lad embarked for America, and landed in
New York ycai-s
wdien but fifteen
forethought he traveled to the country seeking the woi-k to which he had been accustomed in England, and found employment on a faTin at $6 a month near Htmesdale, Penn., where
he remained three years. A natural love of study aud an ambition to rise above mechanical labor, was at time the turning-point in the Taking advantage of the first opportunity for regular study that was offered him, he entered the district school at Bethany in his eighteenth J'ear, passed into the seminary of Bethany, and so thoroughly mastered the course of study there that in twenty months from his entrance to the district school he was granted a teacher's certificate. During this time he had partly supported himself by various odd labors performed imt of this
mer, he saved his wages and entered Wyoming Seminary at Kingston, Pa., where he was graduated. His education opening to him the iios.sibilities of a professional career, aljout the same time he studied law in Wilkesbarre, Pa., and was admitted to practice Sept. 8, 1859, supporting himself in the meantime by teaching sometimes in classes, and later, in the public schools of Scranton and Honesdale. In 1861 he removed to Buffalo, N. Y., having but eight dollarsat his command, and entered as a law student the office of Sherman S. Rogers. He was admitted to the bar Feb. 2, 1863. For two years Mr. Box practiced alone and reached the front rank of his profession
through his commanding abilities and zeal in the pro.secution of his cases. He then formed a partnership with William H. Gurney, and subsequently with Frank R. Perkins, wdio was city attorney during a part of the time. In order to manage better their increasing practice, the firm admitted new partners Norton, Mr. and took the name of Bo.\', Hatch Box, in consequence, becoming the consulting member of the firm. Mr. Bo.x stands among the leading criminal lawyers of his state, having for more than twenty years given special attention to that class of He has also practice, as well as to heavy civil suits. attained a high reputation as a corporation lawyer, and is retained by such bodies as the Street Railway
the Western Tnion Co the le ephone Co,; and llie Union - — .^. Fire ^ ,x^_. ii±.3(iiance Insula rpi . Ihe lie real estate 1 business has likewise received llusiuc^ a I large share of Ins altentioii, by which his large personal estate has been iiiateriallv increaseil Tlioindi a republican and a hard worker for thei)romotioii of l.arty measures, Mr. liox has .always declined political preferment, preferring to work in a quiet way for measures pertaining to the welfare and happiness of le public. Consequently, he is a leader in philan(liroiiic work, to which lie devotes a large part of his •
His enterpri.ses are ciiietly for Uie amelioration of the condition of the poor Chief among these has been the building of 150 hou.ses as
homes for workingmen, which they are induced to purchase on easy terms. Mr. Box is at present president of the Buffalo, Bellevue and Lanca,ster Railroad anil comnn.ssioner to the World's Fair from New "i ork. In imr, he married Jlary Mason Peabody a native of New England. They have but one child ' a daughter.
SE WALL, Joseph,
clergyman, was born in BosAug. 15, Iftss, ihe son of Chief .lustice Samuel SewalU 1652-1730). He was gi-aduated from Harvard ton,
1707, and liegan his niinistrv in as colleague of E. Pemberton at the
September 1713 Old South church' where he remained Ihrough life. Benevolent and fervent, though rigidly conservative, he supported Whitefield, and was styled " the weeping prophet." He was a commissioner of the Society for the Propa'i-ation of the Gospel in New England, and a corre-
sponding member of that in Scotland for promotiuoCliristian Knowledge. He declined the presidency of Harvard in 1724, but in later years ^ave the college a number of books.aud a fund for tlie help of poor scholars. He received the decree of D.D. from the University of thirty .sermons,
1731, published neariy Bosion .luue 27 1761) banker and railroad manager, was b(jrn in Newark, N. ,1., Apr. 10, 1835. His paternal ancestors came from Holland in 1665, and settled on the Hudson, near Coxsackie. His grandfather, Jerome Barhydt,
soldier in the war of the revolution, and served in the quartermaster's department in the Avar of 1813. Theodore's mother was de-
scended from the Gardiner family which was one of the first to settle in
-Jersey. Tlieodore infant, his father removed
to Schenectady, N. Y., and was in bu.siness there until his death in 1851. Left an orphan at .sixteen, 'Sir.
ton, la., in March, 1855, aud has since resided there. He was issistant postmaster at Burlington for several years, but in 1859 he engaged in the boot and shoe bu.siness on his ;
gradually became other lines of busi- »A/vr/J' ser\ ice ]ii. resinneil the piesidency. In 1M;,'1 he look cliarne of a leehle coiej relation in Ne«-port, oiiciK. 1., ihe- parish of Dr. Samuel Hopkins, hut re^inni-d ill fs-,;.!, and letniiieil lo W'orceslei- lo I'cside wil li a nephew. Always con^l in il tonally dis|ioseil lo look on Hie darker side, he heeamc me4an(4iolic, lost his Ilea III, holh of hody and mind, and siihcred ferrihly fiom menial anniiish. He lived for a lime at; .
Koilliamplon, ,Ma--., and a flerward at Glaslonhurv, liesiiles .sever.al oi.'cadonal .scjiiions, he left Conn, these wiitiii'is: "A \'iew of the Church;" "Controversi;il Jjc-iters on Iia[itism," 2 series (fSlOo-O); a "Uissenlalion on Ciiristian 'I'heolo-jy " (182(1). He afso collected and edited the " Works of President
Dr. Austin died Dec.
Daniel, third ]iresident of (licUniVermont (1821-24), was horn at "I^reston, June, 1784. He was nradnateij from Vale Colli-L'-e in ]sir_', ami i.aii-jhl si.4iool fora few }earsat Xoi u icli and Colchesler. Conn.
cepfor was Sinilli,
Samu(4 Stanhope in
oiin., alier\Mirfl in
Albans, \4., and was selilcd over the First Conercjal ional church in liurlin^rton, Apr. Hi, ixbi, from which jiosiiion he was in\iled to the iHcddeiicy of the eolli-e His pastorale ^vas a suee-essliil one. Hie clmrcli havimjmore than ipiadrii|4ed iinih-r his care. His learninLC especially in St.
wide-; his ilieolony v.a- Hial of Ihe old school his inliuenee in the ;
community kindly and ing,
dei-asiojially lielon; iinlihe iiistitutious, (jr wrote for lie was joint autlioi' ol' a, " (gazetteer of liie luess. " (Jhronologthi- United Slates "( IH-i:!); pulilisjjed a
View (.1 the W'oi'ld " (1^45), .and eiliteil for the llai'pers the American ]iart ol .M(-( 'ulloeh's ' Uniile'. di('dm (iazelle-er," 'i vols. ( l.S4:i-4-l). vei'sal Brookh'ii Au',;. 9, 1M4H.
WiUard, fourth president of the was oorn at UxlS!2.j-:i(i), Univcjsilv of Veinnait 1 le was totted lor colhiid,!i:e, .Alass., Jlay :i'-J, 1TH5. Icp; jiy Di'.f 'raneof Northhrid.i^e, (
those who opposed his As head of the university he was vigorous and practical. In two years the number of students had increased from twenty-twf, to s,.v.aily, and the enere-y of his ;idmmistralion promr-eil lamer tliinL'S in the future, wh-n m ls-;tlieeo]|ene eiliiiee, villi libraryand a))paratus, was laid in ashes, 'ihe heallli and reason of the president broke under the trial, and some of the officers withdrew. The reniainim: portion of his life, after several attempts to get relief from his
Iwui ujadc pr(4ession of reli;.don and turned to heolo.iry, and in lt:iOK luceived a lic^ense to hut
iie.\t h rce years in lie In .laniiary, IHI'J, he he-
St. Allians, \
wascompellcd o.seek a milderelimale in Se|il cm her, IHI,";. From I
hail a snc-
ministry in I'roviilence, '•jfe^i^si^i^z^"!^ 'JyZ£J^^i\/ IM. In lH:il he was installed o\er the First chiiicli in llurlinnlon, where fiy his talents and characlei- he gained such respect as to he sidected to siicra-eil I'residiail Hask(4 as head id' the univei'sily. As a colleiii- olliecr, hi' won the admiration and love of the sliidcnls, anfl is s|ioken of as a man "of ^eiil lemanly hearing-, of simple, genial and ccs.sful
the pulpit. cullies
of I'are eloquence
oecadoneif hy disci|diiie.
as his health ]iermitted, and he Jndependenf Presbyterian cliiircli in Savannah, (4a. "J4iere he lahore'd with n/il'ailin'j- vinor for iiearlv a (juarler of a century. At one lime, foi' sev'en years fo^ii-t lii-r, he never left the cily, sa\e on some minisleiial duly. During the yellow fever of 18-1;") he neve]- left his post, but ministered lo the sick and ilvdiiL';. His death was felt lo lie a public loss. Two'volunies of Ids " Sermons " were issued bv his son in \>^7u prefaced by a .sketch of Hie author. He died in Sa\aiiiiah, Ga.,
iiialadv, w,-isoceu|iie preparatory edueation in the HinesbiirLdj Acade-niy, entered tlie 'Univer-ity of Vermont in ISi-jy, and 'ivas graduated in l«yy, iia\in^ been absent, teacliing, for more than a year. From tliis time until liisajipointnient to the ].irofe-,orsbip of Laliii and
Greek in Ijis alma matei- in hs42, he tilled the place of ]jrin(i|.al in the academy at ilonlpi-lii-r, Vt. In IHol he was licen>ed to jire-acb. In December, ISoo, he- -ui.'.-.-d'-d Dr. Smith in thi; prrsideni'V, and the next vear was made It.D. bv Hi- fiuaiiMiddlebui-y Cnll.-jc lie cial plans for the luiielit of Ihwarii-d by the wi-re Coll'-L'C I
a \"aba-d in'-iab'a' nf iln- ^taie board of i-dmaiioii .'iiid pri-idriit of tlic \'criiiont Ti-adaT-' A^-'iciation from ls."ii; iinlil la- h-ft the cnl-
Jb-ri-, in Kocla-rcr, X.'V. a ministry of Ic-s than tu-u yi-ar-, hi- l"--t and ripi--t work was ipjijc. Dr. Pi-a-i- \va- a -oiind and accu-
a -.killful and iii-piriiiLr tiac-ln-r, "the -oul of the -late board of edu'-ation. " .\ s he- wa-, cljaraitei i/.i-d by pre-i ii-nt of the iMii\-i-r-it his cliise, broth rl\- iiili-r(--l in the- w(-1fari; of ea
next year became of Ne"v Y^ork in-
colonel fantry. He was legislated out of office by a change in the law in 1849, but was
assigned, over the heads of a number of seniors, to tlie command of the 22d regimental di-strict. In 1851 he became brigadier-general.
time his broke down, Kurope, and
healtli e.'itirely anil lie went to
Gov. Hunt apiioinfed liim military agent of the state, with directions to examine and report upon whatever might seem advantageous for the improvement of the militia. He returned in 18.53, and his reiioits
were submitted and approved, and afterward pi-irUed as a senate document (No. 74. March 2li, 18.53). Gen. de Peysler was among Die Hrst to urge thesidjstitutiou of a paid hre depai'tment, witli stemn file engines, for volunleer organizaliiars. He also ii.seil his influenre foi' tlie oi'L'-aruzaliori of a diseiplincd police. wJiich was (he fonndalion of Ihi- e.xislin"metropolilau foice. During Hie iii-.>;l fi-w yi-ii i-s he published a miniher of hisiorie.-d works. At Hie
Pi'ck. ing, the
ten years of unremitted .siitrer.service in the Held, "I'ork city, April 13, 1873,
consequence of arduous in
born Dec. 13, 1843, second son of Gen. de Peyster. At the age of eighteen, at the beginning of the civil war, he entered the Federal service, and did duty both in the line and staff, and was with Gen. B. F. Butler, wJien, with about 800 men of the 8th New York andOtli Mas.sachusetts militia, heacccm|ilished his celebrated occupation of Baltimore--a feat of audacity and resoluteness not exceeded in the war. lie performed efficient service at the first battle of Bull Run, and in the 4th corps on the Peninsula, in 1863, wdiere he suffered from an attack of endemic fever, wJiich ended in consumption. For hisccaidiict at Bull liun he was brevetted major U. S. V., and colonel N. Y^ V. lie died at the home of his hither, Rose Hill, in the town of lied Hook, Dutchess Co., N. Y., Oct. 30, 1874.
was born at Tivoli, .June 14, 1846. youngest of Gen. de Peyster, and is of t.iie eighth generalion of the family in America.. He was educated dier,
private schools, by private tutors, at Highland Military Academy, Newburgh, N. Y., and Coliimhia Grammar School, New 'i'ork cily. In 1862 he raised a majority ol company C, 138tri New York volunteers, Iml, being loo young, he did not muster in. In May, 1864, he enleritd the army as .second lieutenanl, biili Ni-w 'I'oik vohiiiteca- lii-avy arlilleiy; was proal
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, moted to be first and captain 96Ui mustered
lieutenant of the same re"inient volunteers, but was not brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel U. S. v., and colonel New York volunteers by the state, and received a vote of thanks of the city of New Y'ork in 1867, for hoisting the "first
American "tiaa:" over Kichmond, April 3, 1865, In 1869 he accompanied Maj.-Gen Sickles, U. S. real
minister to Spain, as military attache or aide. He was four times president of the village of Tivoli (1886-89), and is trustee of the New York Society Library. He was a member of the assembly of 1889, serving on the committees
on state cliaritable institutions, agriculture, and roads and bridges, and was re-elected \ij a plurality of 659, his opponents being
Alfred T. Ackert (Dem.) and Walter F. Tabor (Pro-
His plurality in 1888 was 499.
David Glasgow, naval oflicer, admiral of the IT. 8. navy, was born at Campbell's station, near Kno-xville, Tenn., July 5, 1801, son of George and Elizabeth (Shine) Farragut. His first
father (1755-1817), a native of Giudadela, Island of Minorca, came to America in 1776, and, like Kosciusko, Steuben, Pulaski and other Europeans, espoused the American cause, serving in the cavalry of the Coutinenia! army, and participating in many engagements, notably the battle of Cowpeus, where he is said to have saved the life of Gen. Washington. After the war, he resided at various places in Tennessee and Louisiana was muster-master for the district of Washington (eastern Tennessee), with the rank of major (1793-93); entered the naval service early in the nineteenth century; served in 1810 as sailing-master of the expedition dispatched by Gov. William C. C. Claiborne, of Louisiana, to take possession of the disputed territory on the gulf coast of Mis.sissippi and Louisiana; was for a time magistrate of Pascagoula county, and accompanied his friend. Gen. Jackson, on his Indian campaigns in 1813-14. He was married some years after the revolution to Elizabeth, daughter of John and Ellenor (Mclven) Shine, of Dobbs county, N. C, who bore him three sons and two daughters. The Farragut family was an old one in the Balearic islands; the line being traceable through numerous distinguished personages to the thirteenth century, when Don Pedro Ferragut won fame and property tuider King lago I., of Aragon, surnamed El Conquistador, in the campaigns against the Moors. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries thirteen representatives of the family are recorded councilors of the kingdom of Majorca three were magistrates of the city of Palma one, Augustin Ferragut, a noted theologian, was prebendary of the cathedral of Palma and benefactor of the house of repentants there; another, Pablo Ferragut, was topographer and historian of Majorca, and another, Capt. Antonio Ferragut, won distinction under Philip IV. of Spain, and becpieathed his ;
property to found a college, still in existence. The admiral's grandfather, Antonio Ferragut, son of Jorge and Ursula (Guitai't) Ferragut, was married to Juana Mesquida, of Ciudadela, whose surname seems to have supplanted that of her hirsband in the In other parts of Spain, howisland of Minorca.
ever, representatives of the family are still found in prominent official and eccle.siastical positions Qouzolo Ferragut, a native of Pollenza, and a member of the Dominican order, was made bishop of Urgel in 1837, and of Yoiza in 1831, wliere he continued until his death, in 1843 duiing the Spanish- American war of 1898 tiiere was an officer in the Spanish naval service bearing tlie same family name. David ;
G. Farragut, the most illu.strious of this long and notable line, never knew childhood in the ordinary sense, his early years being filled with wild adventures in the Indian country, and almost equally hazardous exploits with his father, who seems to have been afraid t)f nothing on sea or laud, "and frequently made voyages in small boats between New Orleans and Havana, across Lake Pontchartrain and on other equally hazardous routes. When scarcely eight years of age, he lost his mother by yellow fever, her death occurring in the same house and at the
with that of David Porter, sailing-master
New Orleans, and father of who, on succeeding to the otHce, adopted young Farragut into his family. This in the U. S.
real beginning of his naval caieer for, after over a year's schooling in Washington, D. C, and Chester, Pa., the lad received an appointment as midshinman in the navy, Dec. 10. 1810. He made his first voyage under Capt. Porter on the frigate Essex, and spent the next two years, until the outbreak of the war of 1813, in alternate cruising and attending school. When wai' was declared the Essex was attached to the small squadron brought together in New York harbor, consisting, beside itself, of the President and the Hornet, and, putting to sea at once, opened hostilities by the capture of several British vessels, among them the Alert of 20 gims. Later, whilelyingin the Delaware river, Capt. Porter received orders to join Com. Baiuhridge's squadron in West Indian waters, and cruise with him in the track of British merchantmen, or, failing to overtake The result was him, to act at his own discretion. the memorable voyage of the Essex in the Pacific ocean, in course of which it touched at numerous
islands of the INfarquesas and Galapagos gro\i]DS, and captured sevei'al prizes. Farragut's account of this voyage in liis journal abounds in interesting episodes of adventure and prowess, such as characteiize the naval service of that day. Finality, having run into the harbor of Valparaiso, the Essex was met by the British frigates Phoebe and Cherub, which kept her blockadedfor over three months. Early in May she attempted to escape, and would probably have succeeded had not he^- mainmast gone by the board, and caused Capt. Porter to attempt a return into tlie This proved a fatal mistake, and, if we may harbor. judge from Farragut's statement, was a wholly un-
He says: "I consider o\ir originecessary move. nal and greate.st mfstakewas in attempting to regain the anchorage; as, being greatly sui^erior to the enemy in sailing qualities, I think we should have Then borne up and run before the wind. have pas.sed on, leaving both we could vessels behind, until we had replaced our topmast, by which time they would have been separated, as, unless they did so it would have been no chase, the Cherub being a dull sailer." As it was. Porter, lacking the experience or the daring afterward displayed by his illustrious critic, found himself at the mercy of both English ships, and after a tiglu seldom exceeded for "pluck and gallantry, and in course of which his ship was nearly destroyed, was obliged to Although little more than tuirteen years surrender. of age, Farragut bore a distinguished part in this action, being,"to use his own words, "a man on occasions," performing the "duties of quarter-gunner, powder-boy, and, in fact, did everything that was required." In his oflicial report, Capt. Porter spe.
THE NATiaNAL CTCLOP^DIA
recommended him for bravery, expressing retoo young to be eligible for prolie was
After the action he volunteered as surnever earned Uncle geon's assistant, and, as he says, Sam's money so faithfully " as then, rising at day'
break to arrange bandages and plasters, and spending most of the day attending the patients in various ways. Shortly after his return to New York he was again put to school at Chester, Pa. this time tuider a " queer old individual named Neif," one of Napo,
famous old guard, who had the original method of teaching orally, and without books, requiring the pupils to take notes and pass examinations. Late in N'oveniber, 1814, he was exchanged, and at once ordered to the brig Spark, one of the squadron fitted out under Com. Porter to prey on the enemy's commerce. Peace having been declared before the fleet was ready for sea, his commission was changed to the razee Independence, as aide to Capt. William M. Crane, commanding, which, arleon's
riving on the Barbary coast too late to take part in the Algerine war, crui.sed through the Mediterranean After passing the sea on the homeward voyage. winter in Boston harbor, Farragut was transferred to the Macedonian, and later to the Washington, Capt. Creighton, flag-ship of Com. Chauncey. " The captain," writes Farragut, "was the greatest martihad what is called a crack net in the service. that is, she was in beautiful order, with the ship greatest quantity of 'bright work,' clean decks, and a well-drilled crew for performing their duty with dispatch. But all this was accomplished at the sacrifice experiof the comfort of every one on board. ence in the matter, instead of making me a proseIj'te to the doctrine of the old officers on this subcrack ship,' if ject, determined me never to have a In this it was only to be attained by such means." ship, Farragut made a voyage over the Mediterranean during 1816-17, meeting with numerous amusing adventures, which he graphically describes in his journal. While at Naples the ship was visited by the emperor Austria and the king of of
Naples. flue order
"Everything was in on board," he writes, grand display was
entertain our ilhistiious guests. I acted as interpreter to the empei'or on that occasion. Prince Metternich was of the party, and I remember that he lauglied at me during our tour around the ship, for addressing the emperor as misto
might even be supposed that, with his characteristic sense of humor, Farragut was thus actually indulging in a sly joke at ro_yalty's expense. At any rate he proceeds to state " The emperor was the only one of the party that whose appearance struck me as ridiculous. He seemed to be a mere puppet, was attired in a white coat with two loops of .silk cord on each shoulder, buttoned to the collar, five large stars on his breast, and wore short, red breeches, with stockings and miliiary boots. His cocked hat was decorated with a green plume, and he took short, mincing steps, ter.
presenting to my yotuhful mind altogether a silly appearance. The king of Naples was a tall, rawboned, common-looking man." Excessive reverence does not seem to h,ave been a failing of Farragut's character at this time he was also no admirer of the rigid and unreasonable notions of discipline then entertained in the n.avy, which were several times in his experience made the subject of remon.sl ranees to the navy department and congress, and which, he ;
us, made the post - captains, "with the exception of a question of life and death, in the absolute authority they assumed, but little inNeither ferior to the czar of all the Russias." does his sea -training seem to have been the best preparation in the world for a social favorWhen in Marseilles, in the winter of 1817, ite. he made the acquamtance of an American family by the name of Fitch, and was several times enterOn one occa,si(m, at a dinner tained at their hou.se. party, he was, much against his inclination, obhged "Not getting along very well with to play whist. my hand." he says, "the partyr showed great impatience, and I thought were rather insulting in their One individual went so far as to dash his remarks. cards on the table in derision of my play, when I returned the compliment by throwing them at his head. I apologized to Mr. Fitch and retired, much mortified at being compelled to violate the proprieties of the occasion and the feelings of my host, but my temper had been sorely tried." Late in 1818, while sojourning at Pi.sa, he was invited to a ball given by the Countess Martioniinhonor of the grand duke of Tuscany. Here again the display was by no means calculated to excite admiration in this sinwere gularly independent young ofRcer. shown" into the supper-room," he says, "prepared for the duke and his suite, and allowed to feast were on the table. . our vision permitted to walk around the table, and make our During the evening he exit on the opposite side." records such errors of his as treading on the grand duke's toe and catching his shoe-buckle in the flounce of the archduchess' dress, and then, preparing to retire in confusion, only discovered his cocked hat extemporized into a foot- warmer by the Countess Testa. " I drew it to me rather unceremoniously," he says, "at which she remarked that I 'ought to feel myself highly complimented, and should not be offended.' To which I replied, Madam, it might be so considered in your country, but not in mine,' " In the autumn of 1817, Rev. Charles Folsom, chaplain of the Washington, having been appointed U. S. consul at Tunis, obtained leave of absence for the young midshipman in order that he might continue his studies, wdiich constant sea-duty had seriously interrupted, and for nearly a year thereafter he I'esided at Tunis, perfecting his knowledge of modern languages, hterature and mathematics, also traveling extensively in the Barbary states and southern Europe. In December, 1818, he reported for duty at Messina, Sicily, where he spent the remainder of the winter, and in the summer of 1819 was appointed acting lieutenant on the brig Shark. "I consider it a great advantage," he writes, "to obtain command young, having observed, as a general thing, that persons who come into authority late in life shrink from responsibility, and often break down under its weight." After cruising in the Mediterranean for about a year he was ordered home to pass examinations for a full commis.sion, and, finding no war ship ready to sail for the United States, took passage in the merchantman America. Within a few days' sail of their destination they fell iu with a Colombian brigof-war, and the captain, supposing it to be a pirate, gave over the command to Farragut, who prepared to defend himself to the last extremity. 'The ship's mis.sion proved to be merely a recjuest to take charge of a packet of letters, but theallair served well lo display the young olficer's powers and cool-headedness. Passing his examination, none too well to s\iit his ambition, he was for about a year and a half stati(med atNorfolk, Va., where he nrade the acquaintance of the lady he afterwaid married. In jMay, 1823, he w^as ordered to the sloop-of-war .Tohn Adams, which conveyed U. S. minister .Joel R. Poinsett to Mexico, and on his return was transferred to the tells
THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. schooner Greyhound, of Cora, Porter's fleet, sent against the pirates in West Indian waters. In the latter expedition he distinguished himself in several hazardous encounters, principally in command of landing parties, and through numerous romantic and ludicrous adventures svicceeded in driving them from their haunts, and practically destroying some of their best bases of supply. He also narrowly escaped llje yellow fever, which carried off twenty-three out of
the twenty-flve officers attacked, and after a brief vi.sit to his family at New Orleans, again went to sea on the Ferret. On this ship, in July, 1823, he obtained his first command after some difficulty in overcoQiing Com, Porter's scruples against an apiiearance of partiality and his rule fixing promotions by seniority in service, and during the next two years was on duty mostly in the direction of convoying merchant ships through the Gulf of Jloxico, as a'guard against iiirates. He finally returned to Washington, where he was for several weeks veiy ill with yellow fever, and in August, 1825, shortly after his recovery, he received the lieutenant's commis.siou for which he had vainly worked and waited during several years. On this point he wittilj' remarks: "One might suppo.se that these events of my life passed lightly by; on the contrarj', I liad always to contend with the burden first imposed on me by Com. Porter's saying that I was 'too young for promotion.' Although that remark was made just after the action of the never Essex, I appeared to get any older in the eyes of the government or commander, and consequently had to contend inch by inch, as opportunities presented, with men of riper age and apparently more entitled to the jilaces sought. Still, my good star prevailed in this instance, and it is to the enjoyment of thi'se trials that 1 have always felt myself indebted for whatever professional reputation I "have attained," Immediately after his promotion he was ordered to the frigate Brandywine, Capt, Charles Morris, which had been designed to convey the Mar-
quis de Lafayette to France. This ship, which was one of the fastest vessels in the world, made the voyage in twenty-five daj-s, although she sprang a leak the first night out, thus necessitating the throwing over of 3,000 shot and some other stores. Upon his return in May, 1826, Farragut located in New Haven, Conn., where his wife, a great sufferer from neuralgia, was placed under the care of an eminent practitioner, and lie himself attended lectures in Yale college. In the following October he was stationed on the receiving-ship Alert at Norfolk, where he continued for two years, meantime establishing and conducting a school for the boy.s, many of whom did not know their letters. He, however, discovered great ability as a teacher, and his charges made such rapid progress as to elicit from Sec. Southard " one of the few, the veiy few, compliments I ever received from the nav}' department or its head." From October, 1838, to December, 1829, he was executive officer of the sloop-of-war Vandalia, which cruised in Brazilian waters during the revolution culminating in the independence of the Argentine republic witnessing the festivities incident upon the marriage of Emperor Dom Pedro I., of Brazil, to his .second wife, Donna Amelia Augusta, daughter of Prince Eugene, duke of Leuchtenburg, and being presented Finally an at court with other American officers. affection of the eyes, due to a partial sun stroke in Tunis in 1818, had so undermined his health that he was obliged to obtain a furlough and return home for treatment, taking pas.sage on tlie brig Barnegat Off cape St, Hoque they were cha.sed for Boston, by a supposed pirate craft, and by Farragut's direction mounted their entire armament, four 18-poiuider ;
hands "cut up their flannel and prepared to give battle with " twenty- four pounds of powder and a quantity of carronades, while
shirts for cylinders,"
musket-balls and spike-nails," Fortunately the Barnegat outsailed her pursuer, and the circumstance served only to furnish "something to talk about during the rest of the voyage," Arriving in Norfolk after a voyage of tifi.y tlays, he was stationed for seventeen months on "the receiving-.ship Congress being ordered to the frigate Java in August, 1831, and transferred to the Natchez with the commission of first lieutenant in December, 1833, He personally selected the Natchez' crew from the receivingship, and setting sail on Jan, 3, 1833, ran into the port of Charleston, under orders to compel observance of the U. S, revenue laws, threatened by the South Carolina nullificationists Their presence w\as, however, by no means hostilely construed, social events occupying most of the officers' time. Indeed, says Farragut, "our boats were generally employed in bringing company on board, and we entertained our visitors with music and dancing," On March 26th the ship set out on the return to Norfolk, arriving within a week with Gen. Scott as a pas;
for its new station on the coast of Brazil. At the end of about nine months, in course of which sail
they had touched at Pernambuco, Babia, Montevideo, Rio Janeiro and other ports, Farragut was transferred to the command of the schooner Boxer, in which he started for
home, June tlieir
8, 1834. arrival the .sJiip
her commander, being allowed a leave of absence on shore, was during the next four years on duty in "every naval court-martial held at Norfolk." From Aug. 7, 1838, to Jan. 13, 1839, he commanded the sloop Erie, cruising along the Mexican coast, and witnessing such naval operations of the Franco-Mexican war as the blockade of the port of Vera Cruz and the fall of the supposedly impregnable castle of San Juan de Ulloa, on which he made copious notes and observations. After his return he was for two years on land-furlough, having no regular official duties outside of naval courts-martial, and literally devoting his entire time to the care of his invalid wife un"No more striking til her death, Dec. 27, 1840. illustration of his gentleness of character is shown," saj'S his son, "than in Farragut's attentiiai to his His tenderness in contributing to her invalid wife. every comfort, and catering to every whim, through sixteen years of suffering, forms one of the brightest He furspots in the history of his domestic life." ther quotes the remark of a lady of Norfolk that: "When Capt. Farragut dies, he should have a monument reaching to the skies made by every wife in the city contributing a stone to it." Having applied for sea service he, on Feb. 33, 1841, received appointment as executive officer of the Delaware, and made another cruise in Brazilian waters, being on his relaid
on Sept. 27th following, commissioned commander. "I proceeded at once," he writes on taking command, "to overhaul her and rig ship with all possible dispatch," and his splendid seamanship was never better demonstrated than in then devising a method of placing the " half tops " in about fifteen or twenty minutes, instead of "from four hours to During his sojourn in half a day," as previou.sly. South American waters he made numerous observations of interest, and among other notable characters met Juan Manuel de Rosas, the Argentine dieturn,
Uii Juiit 1. 1842, 1r- was liaiisferred to'tlif comiimiid of tlie Decalur, and iu Xdvc-mljer folldwiiiy; set out (111 the ix-liira voyage, aiTiviiig at Nijrfoll< Feb. IS, ' This cruise under Com. ]\I(irris," he says, 1S4:1 lo the navy; it was Ihe old ollieors to e.xerei.so in naval tacties b}' the squadron, aliimsl aliandoned siuee ]Hf2." On his return he went to Washingtnn "in older lo
one of great interest
P. Upshur, lion secretaiy of the navy, laughed at his " prelonsiuns for retaining coiniiiand of the Decatur, which was destined for the coast of Africa." This method of Ircaling ellicient officers
may have been may have been
perfectly usual, Farraunderrated or his seusiliilities over keen, yet his journal abounds in complaints of the iiijiislice dinie him by his supei'iors, whom, in turn, he frecdy erilicizes. In April, 1H44, Ire was apiioinled e.xeeiilive othcer nf IhePenn.sylin the service gut's abilities
he continues, "called u new board ten years after, neces.sary changes lo suit the introduction of sleani and heavy guns, and the names of I do the original board were obliterated. not care for the praise that such a volume might win, but I despise the spirit that prompts those who have a little temporai-y povvei- about the seat of govern-
and made a few
to ])iijloin the credit
he petitioned for an appointment as U.
Ihe iiaval opei-ations of theCi-imcau war, but was instead assigned to the duty of eslablishing the navy yard at Mare Island, in Han Pablo Tlie-re he remained until .July, 1858, debay, i'al. voiing his energies to the work and strictly refraining from inlcrferenee of luiy kind in local affair.s, B3' this wise policy he mainlairied the strict neu-
t:iti\e lo obseiAi'
government in Ihe roubles following the high handed aels of the vigilance committee of 1850, and thus, likely, saved the slate from At the end of his term of the ljori-ors of civil war. appointment he was summoned home and a.s.signcd to Ihe newly coiii|)leled cruiser Prooklyn, which lie comniiiided on her trial tri]), and lalcr on an exIt nd( d cruise in Ihe gulf of ]\lexii'o, conveying U. S. Alimsb r liobert M. Mtdvane lo various jioinis along trality of Ihe I'l'dcral
ioisI, as his official duties
d of havini;'
conscnlcd lo be at the beck of
he n-plicd, charaeteiislically, that her be subject lo the dircclions of an iiili 111 lit man api>oinlcd by Ifie govci'iimcnt, for a I, and iii[i .ccount of his qualifications, than lo b( iindiu' some old fool" whose only meiit was Yet the 111 il lie had been in the navy all liis life." ^ iMinmi'iil's aelioii in similarly jilacing !i junior ver him, \\ hen the Drooklyii wasdcsignated lo IIk ii\(\ III exploringjiarly for a proposed route across I
nil le ci\iliaii,"
met willi his jironqit and was accordingly relieved and returning from As|iin\vall to
vigorous resentment. vania, of which
Smi]iit, and was hen made second Norfolk navy yard under Com. Wilkinson. The outbreak of the Mexican war found him I
officer of the
again making application for a command, iirgiiiLi' as a ground of fitness for active service his previous experience in gulf waters and among S|iaiiisli peoples. "I urged," he sa)-s, "lliat I could lake Ihe c;istle of San .Iiian with Ihe Pennsylvania and two .sloops-of-war like the Saiviloga, for which declaration I came very near being ruled out as a monomaniac. I was willing to lake the inferior ]iosilion
of executive officer on board the Pennsylvania, that I might have the duly of organizing her cri-w for the fight but it was not iierinitteil, and I did not obtain command of Ihe Saratoga iinlil Febnuiry, 1847." 'i'akiui as a wdiole, it is not rcinark.ablc hat Farragutcalls this cruise the " most morlifying " in liis experience. He arrived in time to find thecastle in tlie hands of the U. S. army, not the navy, and, aQimadverliiu;- severely on the misleailing statement otan English officer. Ih.al "the castle could sink all the shiiis in Ihe world," procei-ds to remark that Ihe nav3' had there missed an unpreeedenled opjjortiinity, as a result of whii4i, of the officers concerned, " not one will ever wear an admiral's Hag." Added to this annoyance, he nearly died of yellow fever, and, having had a clash with Com. i\I. Pcrrj^, was asslLoied to ribsciire and ingloriousdnlies. lie finally petitioned lo be relie\-ed of his command, and reaching New ^ ork after about one year's absence was returned lo his formiu- position in the Norfolk navy yard. In October, ]n,"jl), with four other officers, he •was ordered to draw up a book of ordnance rcnnlations for the navy— a task wliiclj occiijjicd in all ;
Ihe be-l fealures wr-ie
we con-idercil line Those «ho liavl the power "
i;i \\ iii;j ,, .
Norfolk, reniaiiic(l on waiting orders until the outbreak of the civil w.ar. Allhoiigli a soulherner by liiilli and by all the lies of blooil and friendship, his loyalty to tiie old tlag iiiidcr wdiicli Ik; had served so long made him, Ihrough all the jieriodof secessionist agitation, a firm opponent of the armed I'esislarice he foresaw as inevitable. On hi' other hand, it has been slated, a [leaeeablc wilhdrawal of the southern states would likely lane ioiind him among his friends. I.
" tnat I
should raise my hand against the South." Yet when Virginia [lassed the ordinance of secession and the forts and arsenals were seized, he openly declared that Pres. IJncolii was fully jiistitied in calling for trooijs. The iinmiiient esiiangemeut from all his a.ssociates conscqiii-nt on his loyalist o)iiiiionsled liim, on April 19, IHGI, to remove from Norfolk, and thereafter, urilil the close of the war, liis family resided at Ilastings-on-IIiidson. In this quiet retreat Farragut himself remained for nearly a year, .seeing no ollieial service .save on the naval retiring tiiiard convened in Brooklyn. jVIeantime Ids energetic sjiirit chafed with impatience at enforced idleiK«s wdien there was work doing for his country,
and, while cagi-rly awaiting Lis turn, ]ictitioiicd the government for a command to follow and ovei-fake the Confederate cnii.ser Sumter, regarding the movemenls of wiii(4i he had very well-di-fined ideas. The governmeiil, however, was alri'ady considering the advisability of apjiointiiig him to a iniicli wider field the command of the proji;cled westfu-n-gulf blockading sipiadron. Finally, on Jan. 18(i2, lie was
informed of bis appointment to this imporlant triisl, and on Feb. 2d he sailed on the steam sloop Ilarlford from IIani|iton Poads, arriving at Ihe appoiiiled rendezvous. Ship Island, in scveiileen ofllcially
days. His fleet, ciaisisling of six war sleamers, sixteen gunboats, twenty-one nioriar vesscds, nndercom-
OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY.
niand of Com. David D. Porter, iuid tive supply vulsion " After passing beyond the range of St,, sliips, was the largest tliat had ever sailed under the Pliilip, Capt. Bailey's division engaged in a desperAmerican flau'. Yet the task assigned him. the pass- ate encounter with eleven Confederate gunboats, ing of the forts below New Orleans, the capture of wliicli were destroyed one after anotljer amid prodithe city, and the opening of the Jlississippi river gies of valor on bolfi sides. But one Federal ve.s.sel, through its entire length, was one of dilheultj' un- tlie Varuna, was lost, although three others were so precedented iu the history of naval warfare. Ar- badly damaged a,s to turn back and float helplessly rived the mouth of the river, the real worlv began down the river. The greatest loss of life (thirtyin the attempt to force an entrance over the bar with seven) occiu-red on tlie"Pen.sacola, while the Hartthe larger vessels of his squadron. Oue.theColo- ford, Cayuga and Brooklyn escaped as by a miracle raiio, drawing tweutj'-two feet of water, had to be from the gravest dangeis. At one time the Hartleft outside; and three others, the Broolclyu, Pensaford ran aground, and was set on fii'e by a fiie raft ]\Iississi[ipi, cola and were towed with great delay pushed against her by the ram Manassas; only the and labor througli a foot of mud. Meantime, on coolness of the commander and the perfect disciApril 8tli, Capt. Gerdes had, by Farrag\it's orders, pline of the crew saving her from certain destrucmade a complete triangulation of the river shore below tion. The Mana.s.sas was almost inimediately after the forts, and on the 18th the mortar schooners, their riddled hy shot from the Mi,ssi.ssip|ii, and then, masts dresseil with bushes to conceal their positions boarded and set on fire, she drifted down the ciu'behind the thick woods, opened fire on the fortifica- rent and blew up opposite Fort Jackson. " When After over a week of steady work, in course tions. the sun struggled up through the morning mist," of which nearly 6, 01)0 shells were thrown, no appresays Headley, "he looked down on a scene never to ciable damage wasdone to the defenses of the enemy, be forgotten while naval deeds are honored by the nor were any of his guns silenced. Farragut's disnation. There ]nj the forts with the rebel trust of the mortar service seemed fully jastified by And flags still flying, but their doom was sealed. this result, as iu his opinion they had .served only to there, driven ashore or wrecked or captuied were warn the Confederates of the impending attack, and the enemy's gunboats, which had tieen brought during the delay the other vessels of his fleet had down to a.ssist the forts in demolishing our fleet." suffered mucli from the swiftness of the current, sevOur total loss in this unparalleled condoat was 171, eral of them parting their anchor cables and incurCapt. John '\Vill..t
writiu'g in his journal shortly after: " I was as glad boy. I to see Bell on his return as if'he had been was up all night, and could not sleep until he got back to the ship." At last, shortly before 4 o'clock on the morning of April 24th, the squadron set out on its hazardous attempt to pass the torts that had in 1815 defied the British fleet for nine days, and even at The atthat late date were considered impassalile. tack was made in two columns; the right led by Capt. Theodorus Bailey with eight vessels, including the
Cayuga, Pensaco'la and
Farragut, with the Hartford, Brooklyn, Richmond and six others, while Porter brought up the rear with six gunboats, under orders *o take up a posi tion where he could pour iu an enfilading fire while The first of the ships the others pa.ssed the foits. had scarcely passed the hulks supporting the severed chain across the stream when both forts Jackson and St, Philip— opened on her with a furious tire. Meantime Porter's mortars had ojiened on Fort Jackson from below% and the two divisions of Farragut's pourfleet, so soon as the works were in ran.ire, began inifin grape and canister. Amid thedeafVuing thunder of" over 200 guns they moved steadily on at fidl steaiu, the siglial "close action" blazing fronr the "The white smoke rose and Hartford's main-top. heaved in vast volumes along the shuddering waters, and one of the wildest scenes in the history of war Louder than rehad now commenced. doubled thunders the heavy guns sent their deafening roar throueh the gloom, not in distinct exploas sions, but in one long, wild, protracted crash, though the ribs of nature were breaking in flnal con-
This event was closely followed by city hall. the capitulalion of forts Jackson and St. Philip, and within a week the forces under Gen. Btitler had occupied New Orleans. At this time Farragut's desire was to proceed at once to Ihe attack on Jfobile,
Ala., and he hence abandoned his contemplated attack' on the strong defenses of Vicksburg, and reThere he received orders Orleans. turned to to contin\ie in the Mississippi until the river was opened to the Federal fleet through its entire len.eth. He accordingly proceeded to Vicksburg, taking Grand Gulf in passinc, and, having run by the batof ironteries, joined Com. Charles H. Davis' fleet
clads above the city.
expedition failed, how-
THE NATIONAL CTCL0PJ3DIA
from non-support by the land
151 h he again ran past the city and returned to New Orleans. The next day congress, in recognitiiiu uf liis exi'f;|iii(inal services, created tlie riudi of rear-:ulniiral fur his expn/ss l«-iietit. He was also the first In reeeive Ihe title (if \ii'i- admiral on Dec. 2i, IMWi. The remainlylj4, and of admind (in .July der of tlie year 1WIJ2 was passed in the river witli small engagements at various points, and the capture of such strongholds as Corpus Cliristi, Sabine Pass and Galveslon, and when, early in ls;i;:i. arrangemenls had Ijeen perfected for cd-operalid]! of the army and navv. F.ai-ra-m, returned to lie task of rc(lucing Isii;;, wilh two ships he 4-, Vickshurg. (Jn .March
SUCCei/ded in i-iiimim; Ihe gaunllet of ll)e balli.-ries at Port Hudson, bmr milesdn extent; all his otln-r vessels suffering seveicly in Ihe attem|il, and the frigate Mississippi, having run agi'oiiiid, was AVith the Hartford blown up bv lier comm.indcr. and AlhaUvjss he blockaded the mouth of the Ked river for over two in(.inths, effectually cutting (jII the Coiifederale supplies, and later co-operating with Gen. Banks in the investment of P(ji-t Hudson, asfine
were called and Farragut took the trumiiet, every man under him was aliveand eager for duty." After the terrible fight in Jlobile bay, itis related thatFarragnt, old though he was in the ways of war, shed tears "like a little child," as his quarter-uuister puts and wounded b(jdie3 it, on seeing Ihe mangled dead The tliat had paid the luice of his great victory. Admiral was twice married: first, on Sept. 24, 1823, to Su.san, daULiiiter of Jordan .Marcbant, of Norfolk, Va. tshe died in 1840); and second, on Dec. 30, 1843, also of to VirLdnia, dau'jhler of William Loyall, Norfolk, who siirviveil him with one son, L(iyall An excellent biograjihy has been written Farraeii'l. by his son (New York, 187'J), and another by Joel A statue of him by St. f^audens adorns T". Headle.\-. sipiare. New York, and anothi;r by Vinnie Pieam is in F;irragut square, Washington, D. 0. He died at P(Ulsmoutli, N. H., Aug. 14, 1870, and was buried in Woodlawn cemetery, New York
./ALSH, Patrick, V. S. senator ami .journalist, was born at Lallingaiy, Comity Limerick, Ireland, Jan. 1, 1840, son of Michael and ilary (Hayes) After about five Walsh. The family came to America in 1K48, and sisted in its capture on July 0th months in Xew York, awaiting the refitting of hia Patrick was apprenticed to the "Evening News," squadron, he returneil lo the command of the Gulf of Charleston, S. C. He was attending Georgetown ler completed squadron, and in the following sii College when South Carolina seceded from the his preparations t(j co-opeiale wilh Gen. Gordon Union, and entering the Confederate army served in Granger in the capture of ilohile. On Aug. oth he Ihe 1st Carolina rifle militia until the regiment was steamed past the balteries in llie bay to a point di- disbanded. In 1862 he obtained employment on the rectly opposite the city, thus repeating in daring and ''Daily Constitutionalist," of Augusta, Ga., becombrilliancy hia achievement in Ihe Mississiijpi Ijelow ing local editor in 186J. In 1800 he was apNew Orleans over two years belore. It was in this pointed southern agent of the New York Assofight, and afler the sinking of the ironclad Te- ciated Press, and in 1867 he became business cnmsen, Ihat Farragut I'lshed himself lo the rigging manager of the ''Ghronielc and Sentinel," of of the Hartford, hr(^ke from his [ilaee in the line ami Augusta, then published and edited by Henry hurried to put his vessel in tin; van of the Heet. The Moore and Gen. A. R. Wright. U[ion the death coolness and determinal ion of this m.inoiiiver, exeof the latter in 1879, Mr. Walsh formed a partcuted in a se.Li liiiig liie in the fiice of the greatest nership wdth his son, Henry Gregg Wright, and danger, in-pired the whole lle-et wilh conti(l(aic(; and [lurchased the paper. In five years the ''Chronicle saved the day. As at Xew (Jrleans, the Confederate and Sentinel" paid for itself out of its own earnfleet was entirely destroyed, even including the ram ings, its reputation was established and its stability Tennessee, which, defying the fire of the fleet and In 1877 it was consolidated with the menacing the flag-slji|) with clestrnciion, was finally insured. 'Joiistitutionalist, " Mr. Walsh managing the compelled to surrender by the inonitms with their One of the bjrts. Fort Mor- business side and Mr. Wright the editorial. Mr. terrilile IJahlgreu guns. gan, held out for tiireedays, but Farragnt's dash had Walsh resigneil his position wdth the New York rendered resistance useless, and aclually crushed Associated Press in 1892 to become treasurer and the last hope of the Confederatesiu the Gulf waters. later general manager of the Southern Associated Shortly after this achievement he was relieved i^f his Press, continuing until 1898, when the southern command at his (jwn re(pjest, and in December was papers abandoned their independent organization. given a grand (ovation in New York city, and a gdft Mr. Walsh was a member of the city council of Later he ac- Augusta in 1H70-71 and of the general assembly of $.jO,o6o to purchase a house there. cepted a teni|Hjrary command in the Jannis river, fif (ieorgia during lS7:!-77, serving in the meantime He was delegate Virginia, where he was stationed at the time of the on many important committees. In 1808 Adm. Farragut sailed from his county to the state Democratic convenfall'of Richmond. tion in the frigate Franklin, and of 1880, a from Brooklyn comdelegate to the national convention manded the Eur'jpean sipradron for about a year. which nominated General Hancock for president, During this perieid he visited many of the countries and in 1884 one of the delegates-at-large to the of Europe, and touched at several stations in Asia Chicago convention, which nominated Cleveland. and Africa, being receive(l with distinguished honor He was also for four years the Georgia member of by rulers and people wherever he landed. The sul- the national Democratic executive committee. In tan of Turkey accorded liirn an honor previously March, 1894, upon the death of Sen. Alfred H. Colreserved exclusively for royalty permitting him to quitt, he was appointed to fill the unexjiired term Shortly after in the U. S. senate. pass the Dardanelles in a war-ship. His maiden speech in that his return from this trip, failing health compelled his body was at once a eulogy and a defense of the retirement from active service, Adm. Farragut'a South, a statement of Democratic doctrine and an was an exceptional character, not only in its strength, argument in favor of the Wilson tariff bill, the inbut also in its gentleness anfl deep feeling. His re- come tax and a plea for free silver coinage. In ligious faith was childlike and sincere. In his fam- 1896 he was again elected delegate to the national ily life he was the indulgent father and the devoted Democratic convention, and was chosen mayor of husband; on ship-board the stern disciplinarian, and -4ugusta in 1897. He was a man of unimpeachyet the beloved commander of the humblest .sailor. able character and unswerving rectitude of purOne of his fellow-officers wrote when Farragut was pose. He was married Aug. 1, 1866, to Ann Isaexecutive officer of the Natchez (Wi'i) '"'Never bella, daughter of John E. McDonald, of Edgewas the crew of a man-of-war better disciplined or held, S. C, and died without issue in Augusta, Ga., more contented and happy. The moment all bauds Mar. 19, 1899. '
OP AMEPvICAN BIOGRAPHY.
William, patriot, was bcnn at Boston, Mass., Dec. 1, 1737. At the beniuniiii,' of the French and Indian war he enlisted in tlie provincial army, and served until 1703. He reached the rank of captain; fought under Geu. Amherst, and was engaged in the battles of Fort William Henry and Crown Point. He entered the Continental army at the beginning of the revolutionary war, and in 1777 was colonel of the 4th Massachusetts regiment. He served until peace was declared; was engiiged in twenty-two battles, and won the reputation of being an efficient and courageous officer. From 1788 to 1790 he was a member of the executive council; he was also a brigadier-general of militia; and was in command, in 1786, at the time of Shay's rebellion, and held the Springfield arsenal against the insurgents. He was promoted to be major-general of militia, and was elected to congress in 1797, .serving until 1803. He died in Westfleld, Mass., Nov. 11, 1817.
the seventh and four
succeeding congresses of the United States, was born 9, 1703, at Greenbush, N. Y., in the mansion
erected for his ancestor, Killian 1042,
and " Koopmans-
" in the solid stone.
nierk His great-grandfather, Jeremias, was the founder of the iamily'in America, and from him all of the name in this country are deHis father. Col. Killian Van Rensselaer, scended.
was a soldier of the revolution, as were also three of his sons. He -w as educated at Yale College, and was made by Gen. Schuyler, who had married his cousin, his private secretary. He early took a place at the bar as the companion of .James Kent, DeWitt Clinton, Ambrose Spencer, Egbert Bon.son. and the other distinguished men of the time. Hedied .Time 18, 1,S45. Among his descendants is the subject of the succeeding .sketch.
VAN RENSSELAER, Maunsell, clergyman,
at Albany, N. Y., Apr. 1.5, 1819, in direct line of descent from the founder of the Van RensselHe was educated at the aer family in America. Albany Academy, and at
Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., being graduated from the latter institution in 1838. He received his theological education at the General Theological Seminary in New
and was admitted
to holy orders June 37, 1841. His ministerial labors began at St. Peter's church, in Albany, N. Y., and were continued at Whitehall,
Morris, 0.\ford and Rochester, in the state of New York. In 1859 he was made president of De Veau.x College, Niagara City, N. Y., and in 1873 he was elected president of Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. e/cuyr- He received the degreeof D. D. from Hobart College in 1800, and of LL.D. from Union He resigned the presidency of HoCollege in 1874. bart College in 1876, and went abroad. In Europe he had charge of Emmanuel church, the American chapel at Geneva, Switzerland, the corner-stone of which was laid by Gen. U. S. Grant. When the church was completed it was consecrated by Bishop Littlejohn of the Diocese of Long Island, U. S. A. He has been a frequent contributor to newspapers and magazines, and has published "Annals of the
His Rensselaers in the United States," etc. spent in the city of New York, have been largely taken up by duties connected with " The House of the Holy Comforter for Incurables."
CCWARDIN, James Andrew,
and founder of tlje Richmond "Dispatch," was born near Hot Springs, Va., Oct. 6, 1811, the son of John Lewis and Polly (Rhodes) Cowardin, and grandson of Abraham (Jowardin, who married Miss Lewis, daughter of Mrs, Lewis (who at one time owned the famous Warm Springs in Bath county), and who was of the numerous lisher,
family of Lewises of Virginia, of which Gen. Charles and Merriwether Lewis, of the Lewis and Clarke Rocky Mountain explorers, were members. At (he age of thirteen years James entered the office of the Roanoke " Sentinel," Danville, Va., to .serve his time at the "art preservative of arts." In 1837 or 1838 he removed to Lynchburg, Va., and at twenty-one
of the " Jeflersonian Republican," and occasionally wrote for it. He held this posiliou until 1834, when he removed to Richmond, Va., where he became chief and confidential clerk of Thomas Ritchie, editor and owner of the "Dail_y Enquirer, " and the Nestor of Southern journalism. Politically they were far apart, but Ritchie's heart was won by the cheerful and willing spirit, the active and obliging disposition of yoiuig Cowardin. Letters which passed between them when they stood in the relation of em, ployer and employee, and after they had separated, show Mr. Ritchie's high estimate of his young clerk, and his sincere desire to .see him advanced in life. Mr. Cowardin held his clerkship in the "Enquirer" otflee until 1838, when he bought out the interest of John S. Gallagher in the "Times and Compiler," W. H. Davis being the remaining partner, the firm Davis. Later, desiring to enbecoming Cowardin gage in financial pursuits, he disposed of his interest in the "Times and Compiler" to W. C. Carrington, and embarked with his brother-in-law, Charles W. Purcell, in the banking and brokerage business. Of this he .soon tired, and on Oct. 19, 1851), in connection with H. Davis, Mr. Cowardin started the "Daily
Dispatch," which was independent in politics, and the first penny paper ever published south of Baltimore, Md., and after years of toil he established it upon a firm foundation, and made it one of the most progressive and prosperous papers in the Southern states. At the close of the civil war Mr. Cowardin associated with himself H. K. Ellyson, who became half-owner in the " Dispatch." In the whig campaign of 1853 Mr. C^owardin was nominated by the old whig party as one of the candidates to represent the city of R'ichmond in the house of delegates of Virginia, and was elected. In the great struggle of 1809, when Virginia was seeking to release herself from military rule and secure readmission to the Union, he again consented to take an active part in politics and helped it to organize the committee of nine, and went with
Washington in the interest of the "Walker movement." Ilis letters from Washington to the "Dispatch " measurably prepai-ed the Virginia mind for liually the acceptance of "the new departure," and
a great friend of internal im-
provements, and wrote well upon this and all other the public questions, and was thoroughly loyal to His sanguine history and traditions of his state.
temperament and cheerful disposition, shown m his serwritings and in his daily life, were of inestimable folvice to Virginia in the dark and forbidding days lowing the burning of Richmond and the surrender He was a charming newspaper correspondof Lee. His editorials on the ent graphic and humorous.
" Old VirLHuia (ill
Fiddlers," ic. of JcUrrsnii,
binv. (iilnier, (inv. ('alndl, \Vliitwell Tuii^bdl, and uih.-i-s, who il.-li^iiird in :, "cmicord of s\v(rei Miuiid^,":ind W(/iv a(coni|)hMi'Ml iHTfornicrs ou tlie liddli- (as hi- was hinisrll), are well ri;nieinbered. >[r. Cowardin was inan-ied, in 1H4I), to Annie Jlarie Purcdl, danLditer of Charles and Sarah Pureell. lb- died ;if Pichinond, \'a., Xov. '^\, 1K«'3.
Belmont, Franklin Co., X. "V., .Inlv '^H, ]K-i-',. the sou of Pioswell Ah-ott and Sarah A'. (Mr-ail) AVee-d, both natives of Xew Hampsliire. His ancestors took part in the revolutionary w.ar and the war of 1812. YouiiL'- Weeil was eduealed in the public
introdnce-d and passed in the assemljly a Ihe eonstruelion of a ship raiial Ironj tlie Hudson river to Lake ChamJilain, wbii/h was de-b-aled in the senate bi;eause of
and Iron Co., lieeame inn leslerl in these mines in tlii-y were in an entirely undeveloped IH'JT, condilion, aiid in is.sl lonned Ihe (;orporation with a ca|iilal of si .oOO.iHM). iloin'i an e.vlensive business and ein|iliiyiie.i- 'J.OOO men. In hile years he has lieec
schools of mercanlile
after live \-ears spent in life, beM-;in the study of ];i\v wilJi .Judge Beckwith. ()n.J;in. 1, lyrif;, h'e- w.as ail mil led as an attorney of llie su)uenie Court, and at oiii;e eaitered Harvard haw School, immediately taking a foremost rank in the ej.L-s. Jb; was twice eli-elei| speaker of the Dane Law Seliool assembly, and in fSi-lT was graduated with the ileLn-ee of LL.B. .Mr. Wei-d bcLeiii the practice of law at Plaltsbnriih. in partnership with .JiidL'e Beckwith and Heairv .lohnson, and from 18.17 to 1880, notwithstandiim- I'lie many lari'e and varied bii-inc-s inlcicsS of wliicli lie laid a--miiei| the respon^ibilily, and liis active I-'latlsbnri.di,
tional polilie-, he found ainjile time to Luve -Iriel allcnlion to his e.xleir-i\c fnv piactiee,
wbicli had liiown to be one of Ihe lai'jc-i ill the northern jiari of Xew York- -lute. In after
and for yenrs
inunicition from re/ \Yliiie|i
to lii, enei L ellort, may be