The National Cyclopaedia of Biography being the History of the United States [11]

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Abbott, liyman, Editor of "

J). D., IiL. D„, The Outlook."

Adams, Charles


D. D., LL. D., D. C. Ii^

P. E. Bishop of Kentucky.

Durrett, Col.






and Historian.

Adams, Charles Kendall,

Dwight, Timothy, D. D., LL. D.,

Alexander, Hon. E. P.j

Egle, William Henry, M. D., A. M., Historian and State Librarian of PennsylTania.

XiL. D., Author, President of Cornell University^

Ex-President of Yale University.

R. R. President, Ex-Confederate General.

Alger, Rev. William. Rounseville,

Eggleston, George Cary,


Author and Editor.

Andrews, Rev. £. Benj., D. D., LL. Do,

Eliot, Charles W., LI,. D., President of Harvard University.

Educator and Author. Col. Isaac W., Author of " History of Georgia."


Henry Martyn, D.

Baird, Rev.

Professor, University City of




New York.

Ball, G. "Washington, Genealogist and Author.



Editor of "

Galbreath, C. B., Librarian of Ohio State Library.


W. R., Professor, Peabody Normal College, and Gates, Merrill E., Ph. D., LL. D., L. President of Amherst College. Gilman, Daniel C, LL. D., Garrett, Dr.

Bowker, R. R., Writer and Economist.

Brooks, Noah, and Author.

John Mason,

Historian, Professor, Johns Hopkins University.


Burton, Rt. Rev. L. W., A. M., D. D., Ky.

President of Tufts College.


President of Williams College. Librarian of Newberry Library, Chicago. Christie, Charles J., Managing Editor of the Cincinnati " Commercial


New York Catholic Protectory. Coan, Titus Munson, A. M., M. D., President of the


Coues, Elliott, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., and Author.


WilUam T., Ph. D., LL. D., United States Commissioner of Education.

Hart, Samuel, D. D., Professor, Trinity College, Hartford.

Higginson, CoL

Thomas Wentworth,

Author. Librarian of Chicago Public Library.


Hosmer, Prof. James K., Ph. D., LL. D.,


Author and Librarian of Minneapolis Public

Civil Engineer.

C, M.

President of the University of Chicago.

Harris, Joel Chandler (Uncle Remus),

Hild, Frederick H.,

Crawford, Edward E., Of the New York Tribune."

Culbertson, J.

Harper, William R., Ph. D., D. D., LL. D.,

Harris, Hon.

Clarke, Richard H., LL. D.,


Gunsaulus, Rev. Frank W., D. D., President of Armour Institute, Chicago. Hale, Rev. Edward Everett, D. D., S. T. D,, Author.

Cheney, John Vance,

Croes, J.

Reuben A., A.M., LI,. D., Author and Librarian Emeritus of Brown Univer-



Capen, Elmer H., D. D., 1,1,.

Chief of United States Signal Service and Explorer.

Green, Sarauel

S., Librarian of Worcester, Mass., Public Library.

Burnett, Mrs. Frances Hodgson,

Carter, Franklia, Ph. D.,

H. D,,

Greely, Gen. Adolphus W.,

Browne, William Hand,

p. E. Bishop, Lexington,


President of Johns Hopkins University.

Author of " History of Kentucky."


A. H., Ph. D., LL. D.,

Rev. Henry Martyn, D. D., The New York Evangelist."



Bolton, Mrs. Sarah Knowles,

Broivn, Col.



Professor, Girard College.



Fallows, Samuel, A. M., D. D., LL. D., Presiding Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal



Editor of the Cincinnati " Lancet-Clinio."

Curtis, George Ticknor, Author and Jurist.

LL. D.,

President of the University of Tennessee.

Deming, Clarence,

Bishop of the M. E. Church. Stil on. Of the Washington " Post."


Ingalls, Hon. John J., LL.D. Author and United States Senator.


Bickman, Hon. Franklin

J., IiL.


Ex-Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio.

Dix, Morgan, D. D., LL. D., D. C. D.,

New York City.

Donnelly, Hon. Ignatius, Author and Congressman.


Hurst, Rev. John F., D. D., LL. D.,

Dabney, Charles W., Ph. D.,

Rector of Trinity Church,

Howe, Mrs. JuUa Ward,

Jackson, Samuel Macauley Author and Editor.

Johnson, Oliver, Author and Editor.

Johnson, R. Underwood, Ph. D., Assistant Editor, " Century."




Potter, Rev. EUphalet N., D. D., Ex-President of Hobart College.

HisloriaD of Kentuck3\

Kennan, George, ~

Prime, Rev. Edward D. G., D. D., Editor of " New York Observer."

Russian Traveler and Author.

Kimball, Richard B., LL. D.,

Pugh, John

J., Librarian of Public Library, Columbus, O.


Ridpath, John Clark, LL.D.

King, Grace, Author.


Klngsley, 'Williani L., I.I1. D., Editor of the " New England and Yale Review." Kip, Rt. Rev. 'William Ingraham. Late Bishop of California.

Kirkland, Major Joseph, Late Literary Editor of the Chicago "Tribune."

Knight, George W.,

J., Late Editor of " Magazine of American History."



LL. D., L. H. D.,


Professor, University of Cincinnati.

Staley, Cady, Ph. D.,


LL. D.,

President of Case School of Applied Science.

Hon. Henry Cabot, LL. D.,

Steams, Frank Preston,

and Author. R.,



Professor, University of Virginia.




Longfellow^, Rev. Samuel,

Stone, Melville E.,


General Manager, Associated Press.

Charles B., LL. D.,

Chief Justice of Delaware, and President of the

Delaware Historical Society. Loy, Prof. M., D. D., Dean of Capital University, Columbus, O. Journalist



D. D.,




LL. D.,

James M., D.


LL. D.,

Thomas, Hiram W., D. D., Pastor of People's Church, Chicago.

Thurston, Robert H., C. E., Ph. B., LL. D.,

MacCraoken, H. M., D. D., LL. D.,

Director of Sibley College.

New York University. McClure, Col. Alexander K., LL. D., Chancellor of the

Thwing, Charles

F., D. D.,



President of Western Reserve University.

Editor of the Philadelphia " Times."



Lyon G., M.

LL. D.,


President of the College of William and Mary.

Historical Writer. "CThler,

Mcllwaine, Richard, D. D., T., Jr.,

Author of " Life of John Adams," Myers, PhUip V. N., LL. D., L.

Phihp R.,

Provost of Peabody Institute, Baltimore. Utley, H. M., A. M.,

President of Hampden-Sidney College.

Librarian of Public Library, Detroit. etc.


"Van Dyke, Rev. Henry, D. D., LL. D.,


Author and Clergyman.

Professor, University of Cincinnati.

Venable, William H., LL. D.,

Newton, Rev. Richard Heber, D. D.,


Clergyman and Author. Nich"lls, B. B., Biographical and Historical Writer.

Warren, William F., D. D.,

S. T. D.,

LL. D.,

President of Boston University.

"Watterson, Henry, D. C. L.,

Norton, Frank H.,

Editor of Louisville " Courier Journal."

Author and Editor.

Orr, Charles, Author and Librarian of Case Library, Cleveland. Page, Thomas Nelson, Litt. D., Author.

Watterson, Rt. Rev. John A., D. D., Late R. C. Bishop of Columbus.

Webb, Gen. Alexander

S., LL. D., President of the College of the City of



"Weeks, Stephen B., A. M., Ph. D.,

Parton, James,



Patton, Rev. Francis L., D. D., LL. D., President of Princeton University.

Peabody, Rev. Andrew Profe-ssor,


President of Vassar College.

R. C. Bishop of Louisville.

Morse, John

M. W., D.

President of Hamilton College. Professor of Political Economy, Yale University.

and Author, Mempliis, Tenn.

McCloskey, Rt. Rev. William


Sumner, "William

Mathes, Capt. James Harvey,




U. S. Senator

McCray, D.

Hiram Ladd,

Editor and Poet.

Historical "Writer.


(Bill Arp),


P. E- Bishop of Ohio.


Harvey W.,

Editor of the " Oregonian."


Professor, University of California.

Long, Joseph


Smith, Maj. Charles H.

Leonard, "Williani Andrew, D. D.,


D. D., LL. D.,

Senn, Nicholas, M. D.,

Editor and Historical Writer. Iieach, Col. J. Granville, Genealogist and Author. Tie Conte, Joseph, IjL. D.,


J., D. D., Secretary of American Missionary Society.

Ryder, Rev. Charles


Xiamb, STartha

liOckw^ood, Mrs.

Russell, Addison P., Editor and Author.

Schaflf, Philip,

Author and Traveler.



President of Northwestern University.


Knox, Thomas W.,


Henry Wade, A. M., LL.


Sanborn, Frank B.,

Professor, Ohio State University.


LL. D.,

P., D. D., Harvard University.


Peckham, Stephen Farnum, A. M., Chemist and Autlior.

Porter, Rev. Noah, D. D., LL. D., E.x-President of Yale University.

"Weidemeyer, John Williani, Historical Writer.

Winchell, Alexander, D.,'

Late Professor, University of Michigan.

Worthington, Rev. Edward W., Rector of Grace Church, Cleveland, O.

Wright, Gen. Marcus


Histori.'iii and Custodian o"f Confederate Department. in United States





William, tvventy-fiftli president of the United States (1897-1901), was born at Niles, Trumbull co., O., Jan. 29, 1843, seventh child of "William and Nancy (Allison) McKiuley. From the west of Scotland, and during the reign of Charles migrated to 11. some of his paternal ancestors county Antrim, Ireland, and settled in tlie neighThence, about 1743, two borhood of Belfa-st. brothers came over to Pennsylvania, one of whom, ,

James, made his home and had a son, David, a

at Clianceford, York co., soldier, in the Continental

army who

participated in the capture of Paulus hook. James McKinley, grandson of the emigi-ant, was married to Mary Rose, of Doylestown, Pa., and removed to Ohio, where he established iron foinidries: at New Lisbon, Columbiana co., and in Trumbull county, the one at Niles passing into the hands of his son, William, father of the president. William McKinley, Sr., continued the business successfully, both in Ohio and in Pennsj'lvania, and later had similar interests in Michigan, naturally being a strong adv(jcate of a. protective policy. His wife, the daughter of Abner and Ann (Campbell) Allison, and of English, Scotch and German descent, lived to see her sou receive the highest honor his country has to bestow, dying in DecemIn 18o3 the McKinleys removed to ber, 1897. Poland, Mahoning CO. for the better education of their children, and their sou William entered Union Academy, where he .stood high in "his classes, especially in mathematics and languages, and was prominent in debates and literary exercises. At the age of sixteen he entered Allegheny College, Meadville. Pa., as a junior, but in less than a year's time was obliged to leave on account of ill-health. After teaching a district school for a term he became a clerk in the post-office at Poland, and was thus eraployed when the civil war began. On June 11, 1861, he enlisted in the 23d Ohio volunteer infantry, which was assigned to the army of the Potomac. ,

As commissary sergeant at Antietam he performed a feat probably never before undertaken, of supplying the men of his regiment with hot coffee and meats during an active engagement, risking his life in so doing, but coming out unscathed and receiving as a result a promotion to the position of second lieutenant. He was promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant on Sept. 24. 1862. He served on the staff of Gen. Rutherford B. Hayes for nearly two years; was promoted to firet lieutenant, Feb. 3, 1868, and for gallantry at Winchester, to captain, July 25, 1864. At Opequan and Fisher's bill, Capt. McKinley was an aid to Gen. Ciook_ and

after the latter's capture

was retained

for several

months by Gen. Hancock.

He was

then assigned

as assistant adjutant-general to the staff of Gen. Samuels. Carroll, commanding the veteran reserve corps at Washington. On March 14, 1805, Pres. Lincoln brevetted him major for gallantry at Opequan, Fisher's hill and Cedar creek. He was mustered out on July 26th, and, yielding to his father's advice, returned-iGbQhio, though anxious to enter the regulararmy.'fjIa_i^IcKinle3'begauthe study of law at Poland, ancTafter a course at the Albany "(N. Y. Law School was admitted to the bar in March, 1867, and formed a law partnership at Canton with Judge Belden. He was prosecuting attorney for Stark county (1869-71); was active as a Republican campaign speaker in the Grant-Greeley campaign of 1872, and was equally active in behalf of Hayes in 1876, In 1876 he addressed a large audience at the Union League, Philadelphia, creating so profound an impression that demands for his services as a platform speaker came from all parts of the country. Major JIcKinley was elected to congress in that year by 3,300 majority, and was re-elected in 1878, but by 1,334 majority oiily, his district having been " gerrymandered." His first speech, April 15, 1878, was in opposition to a non-protective tariff introduced by Fernando Wood, and this marked him as one of the best equipped defenders of protection in congress. He was re-elected in 1880 and served on the judiciary committee; on the board of visitors to West Point; and succeeded Garfield on the ways and means committee, becoming chairman in 1890. In 1880 he represented Ohio on the Republican national committee, accompanied Garfield on his tour

New York, and made speeches in other In 1882 the Democrats carried Ohio, but he was returned by the narrow plurality of eight votes; in 1883 again the Democrats carried the state, and in 1884 they redistricted it. This caused McKinley's claim to his seat in congress to be contested, and on May 37th, though defended by such eminent Democrats as Frank H. Hurd, of Ohio, atid Roger Q. Mills, of Texas, he lost it. He was returned to congress, however, in October. During this year he served asa delegateat-large to the national Republican convention; accompanied James G. Blaine on his western tour, and made campaign speeches in Ohio, New York and West Virginia. The general assembly, chosen in 1885, restored his old district, and in 1886 he was re-elected. In the 50th congress (1887-89) he led the opposition to Pres. Cleveland's views and policy respecting the tariff, which through


were substantially embodied in what became known as the Mills bill (also called the dark lantern bill,

from the secrecy attending



and on


THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA he delivered what was considered by the Re- of the campaign at Niles he said: "lam in favor publican party to be one of the most eloquent and of tlie double standard, but I am not in favor effective speeches in defence of American labor of the free and unlimited coinage of silver in the and the cause of protection on record. A delegate- United States until the nations of the world shall at-large to the national Republican convention of join us in guaranteeing to silver the status which 1888, he was chairman of the committee on resolu- their laws now accord to gold." He was re-nominated in 1898 and was elected, his plurality over Lawrence tions, as he had been four years previous; and would have been put forward as a presidential candi- T. Neal, Democrat, being 80,995, the largest, with date but he forbade the use of his name because he was one exception, polled by any candidate In the hispledged to vote for John Sherman. He was nomi- tory of the state; his majority was 43,026. Both nated for congress for the seventh time in 1888 and administrations were highly satisfactory. Theexecudefeated George P. Ikert, Democrat, by 4,100 votes. tive gave especial attention to the improvement of He was a candidate for speaker in the olst congress, public institutions, the canal system and the roads, but was defeated by Thomas B. Reed. Amendment and on his initiative a state board of arbitration was of the old code of rules governing proceedings in established as a means of settling disputes between the house having become desirable he was one of a employers and emploj'ees. At the state Republican committee of four, two being Democrats, which re- convention of 1893 McKinley was elected a delegateported a code of rules based on those of previous at-large to the national convention at Jlinncapolis, congresses, but containing provisions e.\pre.ssly in- of which body he became permanent cliairman, also tended to enable the majority to legislate. He serving as chairman of the Ohio delegation. He introduced, on Dec. 17, 1889, a bill "lo simplify was pledged to support Pies. Harrison for renomithe laws in relation to the collection of revenue," nation, and when an effort was made to stampede the and on April 16, 1890, the general tariff measure convention in his own behalf, 183 votes being cast for which bears his name. As amended the bill re- him, he checked the movement by taking the floor duced internal revenue taxes on tobacco and tobacco and moving that Harrison's nomination be made licenses about $6,000,000, and customs duties about unanimous. At the national Republican conventiiin $60,000,000; placed tifty articles previously duti- which met in St. Louis in 1896 the names of Willable, including raw sugar, on the free list; slightly iam B. Allison, of Iowa; Thomas B. Reed, of lowered the duty on a num- Maine; Levi P. Morton, of New York; William McKinber of articles; slightly raised le3', of Ohio, and Matthew S. Quay, of Pennsylvania, 18, 1888,

it on others, and sufficiently on some to give protection to the American product; it

authorized the president to suspend the free importation of several articles from countries wliich refused reciprocity andimposed unequal and

unreasonable duties upon the products of tlieUniled States. This bill became a law, Oct. 1, 1890, and was signed by Pres. Harrison, Oct. 6th.

was superseded by the

^i/7^ ^'''-^



son bill in 1894. In June, iu a caucus of the Republican


of the house,


Kinley offered a substitute for tlie

Among its provisions was


silver bill.

one making the certificates issued on bullion purchased legal tender for private debts; another for free coinage upon the ratio of 16 to 1 where silver had risen in price sufficiently to make 371.25 grains of pure silver worth 23.23 grains of pure gold, and another for the discontinuance of the compulsory coinage of .silver dollars. The bill, slightly amended, passed the house; but the senate eventually changed it so that it became an entirely new measure, an unlimited free coinage and an unIt limited legal tender amendment being adopted. passed the senate, but was changed by the house, the senate amendments being defeated; and having been passed a second time, was referred to a conference committee composed of sound-money and free-coinage EepubHcans, who maiured a compromise bill, now called tlie "Sherman law." The passage of the tariff bill cost McKinley his seat in congress, Oliio going Democratic in 1890, but the majority of his opponent, John G. "Warwick, was only 300. Besides serving on the committees of ways and means and rules while in congress, JIcKinley was a member of the committee on the revision of tlie laws and of that on expenditures in the post-office department. In 1891, after an exciting canvas, he was elected governor of the state of Ohio, his plurality over James E. Campbell, Democrat, being 21,511. In the opening speech

On the first ballot McKinley received 661>4 votes; Reed, 84X; Quay, 61>rotecliou to Amei'ican industries. On the same day an act was passed authorizing the president to suspend discriminating duties imposed on foreign vessels and commerce. The Republican platform had declared against the free coinage of silver except by international agreement with the leading commercial nations which it pledged the party to jiroinote, and one of the first acts of Pres. McKinley was to appoint (April 14th) a commission headed by Sen. Wolcott, of Colorado, to sound the principal governments of Europe with regard to this question. France alone gave assurances of co-operation. On May 5th the senate rejected the trejity of arbitration with Great Britain, signed at Washington, Jan. 11th, by Sec. Olney and Ambassadoi- Pauncefote. On June 6th the cougress of Venezuela adopted the terms of a treaty of arbitration with Great Britain for the peaceful settlement of their ten-year dispute over the Guiana boundary, and on June 14th the On June 16th a treaty was ratilied at Washington. treaty providing for the annexation of Hawaii was signed by the plenipotentiaries of that republic and was submitted to the senate by the president with


a message




the policy of non-intervention be continued; and onMay 20, 1897, congress passed a joint resolution recognizing the Cubans as belligerents, he But in January, 1898, withheld his approval. Fitzhugh Lee, U. S. consul-general at Havana, Cuba, reported that American interests in that city were endangered, and, in consequence, the Atlantic squadron was ordered to the coast of Florida, Soon after a private letter written by Senor de Lome,. Spanish minister to Washington, was published, which cliaracterized Pres. McKinley as "a loW/ politician," and there was an increase of indignation in the United States. De Lome resigned the recall of Gen. Lee was demanded by Spain and was refused; congress discussed the question of intervention; aud then came the tragedy of the blowing up of the battleship Maine, which had been sent to the harbor of Havana the month previous on "a visit of couitesy," with the loss of two officers and 264 men (Feb. 15th). On March 9th Pres. jMcKinley signed a bill appropriating $.50,000,000 for national defence, and on the Uth the war department began the mobilization of the array. The U. S. minister at Madrid, Stewart L. Woodford, was instructed tO' demand: first, an armistice until October 1st, looking to peace through the offices of Pres. McKinley; second, immediate revocation of the reconcentrado order; third, arbitration by Pres. McKinley if terms of peace were not satisfactorily settled by Oct.



The second demand was complied with on March 31st; an offer to concede the first was made 1st.

on April


and a disposition


concede the third


treaty was ratified unanimouslj^ by the Hawaiian senate, Sept. 17th; but action on it by the U. S. congress was deferred until July 7, 1898, when a joint resolution accepting the offered cession and incorporating the ceded territory into the Uniou was

adopted by congress and approved, and on Aug. 12, 1898, the sovereignty of the islands was formally transferred. On Nov. 8, 1897, a treaty to protect the seals in Behriug sea was signed at Washington by representatives of theUnited States, Russia and Japan. In his annual message, Dec. oth, the president remarked: ought to enter upon a currency revision which will make our demand-obligations less onerous to the government and relieve our financial

was evident, but the

president replied that he could not assume to influence the action of congress. On April 1st congress passed a naval appropriation bill and on the 5th the D. S. consuls in Cuba were recalled. In a special message on the subject, delivered laws from ambiguity and doubt," aud he recom- on the llth.Pres.McKinley advised against the recogmended that as soon as the receipts of the govern- nition of the insurgent government, and asked conment were sufficient to pay all i(s expenses, U. S. gress to empower him to take measures to secure a notes presented for redemption in gold should be final termination of hostilities aud the establishment kept and set apart and only paid in exchange in of a stable government in Cuba, stating that he had gold. Referring to this in his annual message a used every effort to relieve " the intolerable condiyear later, he observed that in his judgment the tion of affairs which is at our doors." Congress condition of the treasur}' amply justified the enact- passed joint resolutions on the 19th declaring the ment of legislation to that end. He also called at- people of Cuba to be free and independent, and a tention to the need of revision of the existing tariff j demand for the relinqnishment of authority by law. The most important event in Pres. JlcKin-f Spain and the withdraw-al of the Spanish forces ley's first administratiou was the war with Spain, a] to be the duty of our government; empowering the war which he had striven earnestl}' to avert, believ- president to use the entire laud and naval forces, and ing that the independence of Cuba could be brought the militia if necessary, to cany the resolutions about by diplomacy. A struggle for independence into effect, and disclaiming any intention on the had been in progress in Cuba since February, 1895, part of the United States to exercise sovereignty resulting in serious injury to the trade with that or control over the island, except for the pacificaisland, and subjecting the U. S. government to tion thereof. It was signed by the president on. great expense in its efforts to enforce the neu- April 20th, and its contents were cabled, with a trality laws; while popular indignation had been formal demand that before noon on the 23d, Spaia greatly excited by the barbarous treatment of should relinquish authority and government in the reconcentiudos (non-combatant Cubans pent in Cuba and withdraw her forces. Before Minister towns) by Weyler, captain-general of the Spanish Woodford could present this ultimatum he received An offer of mediation, made by Pres. his passports, and as this meant that Spain preferred forces. Cleveland in April, 1896, was rejected by Spain, war rather than grant the demands of the United and the insurrection continued with increased exas- States, the war practically began on April 21st. peration on the part of the United States. In his inau- proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers was gural address Pres. McKinley had recommended that signed by the president on April 23d. On April



THE KATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 25th a message recommending a declaratiou of war



tion of peace by the president, April 11th. Later in his administration a treaty of amity, commerce and navigation with Spain was negotiated. The annexation of Hawaii and the changed relation of the United States to Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines led the president (in his annual message, Dec. 5, 1898) to advocate the prompt adoption of a maritime policy by the United States with the newly acquired islands; especiallj' the establishment of regular and fi°equent steamship communication, encouraged by the United States under the American flag.

by the president to congress, and was adopted by botli liouses unanimous!}'. But Spain was in no condition to oppose so formidable a power as the United States. Her treasury was depleted, seat

her credit gone, her navies ill-nianued, lier strategy Inadequate. The war, consequently, was of short duration, though it was not ended until some bloody battles had been fought. The first capture that of the Spanish ship Bueua Venlura by the Nashville was made on the 23d the first bombardment tliat


of the town and batteries of Matanzas by the New York, Puritan and Cincinnati occurred on tlie 27th. From that time until the cessation of hostilities, Aug. 12lh, Pres. MoKiuley carrietl out tlie pro-

gramme he had formulated as commander-in-chief of the army and navy with a sagacity which led tlie London " Times" to observe that he had manifested J" the highest measure of statesmanship possible to la chief-magistrate acting within the lines of the ^American constitution." Tlie appointment to important commands of Gens. Wheeler, Fitzliugh Lee and otlier ex-Confederate officere, increased the president's popularity and secured the unanimous support of the South; practically unifj'ing the nation for the first time since the civil war. (Details of military movements, battles and sieges are to be found in the biographies in vol. IX., pp. 1-31). Briefly stated, the chief events after the formal dec-

e.xchange of ratifications, and the proclama-

A war revenue act, made necessary by the heavy expense of the war, was passed by congress, June 9, 1898, levying stamp duties and internal revenue taxes on certain articles. A loan, not to exceed $400,000,000, was also authorized by congress, and three percent, bonds to the amount of $200,000,000 were issued by the national treasury and immediately taken by the people. Soon after the close of the war with Spain a period of great prosperity began. So extensive was the demand for American cereals and manufactures that exports exceeded Imports, and there was a steady flow of gold into the country. The stock of gold increased to over a quarter of a billion dollars, and all fears of a change in the standard of value were allayed. With this condition of affairs came a revival of business confidence, a bno3-aut stock market, and great commercial and industrial activity. The di-sposition of the new possessions was a subject of considerable argument. As the war had been undertaken for freedom and humanity, it was argued tliat the islands should be given over to the inhabitants for self-goveiumeut; but this course was pronounced diflicult and, indeed, impossible, by a majority in congress and large numbers of prominent civilians. Cuba and PoiTo Rico were put under military governors, temporarily, and Gen. Otis was ordered to extend military government to the whole of the ceded territoryinthePhilippiueislands. Here, however, armed resistance

laration of war were Dewey's victory at Manila, May 1st; the creation of the new military department of the Pacific, including the Philippines, May 16th; the president's second issue of a call for volunteers, 75,000 in number. May 23th; the sinking of the Merrimac by Lieut. Hobsou in the entrance to Santiago harbor, June 3d; the signing by the president of the war revenue bill June 13th; the capture of the Spanish earthworks at El Caney and San Juan, July 1-2; the annihilation of Adm. Cervera's fleet, Santiago, July 3d; the surrender of San tiago, July 17th, and of Nipe, Guanica and Ponce, Porto Rico, July 3'.-28; the request of the Spanish

government through the French ambassador, Cambon, for terms of peace, July 26; the formal acceptance by Spain of the president's terms, Aug. 9tli; the signing of a peace protocol (Aug. 12tli), stopping hostilities and providing for the appointment of commissioners to settle details with reference to Spanish islands in the Pacific, for the withdrawal of the Spanish forces from the West Indies, and for the cession of Porto Rico; the surrender of Manila, Aug. 13th; the formal occupation of Porto Rico by U. S. forces, Oct. 18th; the demand of the United States, through its peace commissioners, for the Philippine islands, Oct. 31st; the signing of the treaty of oeace at Paris (one of whose provisions was for the cession of the Philippine islands, for which an indemnity of |20, 000,000 was paid), Dec. 10th; the signing of the treaty by the president, Feb. 10, 1899, and by the queen-regent, March 17tli the ;

was made


American authority. Aguin-

aldo had proclaimed himself dictator of the Philippines, and beginning on Feb. 4th, when the natives attacked the defences at Manila, there followed two years of desultory fighting. During the spring the southern islands were occupied by American forces; on April 4tli the Philippine commission, consisting of Pres. Jacob G. Schurmau, Prof. DeanC. Worcester, Hon. Charles Deuby, Adm. George Dewey and Gen. Elwell S. Otis issued a proclamation that while enforcing the supremacy of the United States the purpose of the government was the welfare and advancement of the people. On Julj' 7th the president called for ten regiments of volunteers to quell the insurrection, and in the following November, Gen. Otis reported that the whole of central Luzon was in the hands of the militarj' authorities, and that Aguinaldo was a fugitive. "The rebellion was prolonged by opponents of the president's policy who encouraged the belief that with a change of administration the islands would be' made independent. The re-election of JIcKinley, followed soon after by the capture of Aguinaldo, entirely disheartened the leaders, and practically ended opposition to Ameri-







which became laws during the

mentioned, the

last session of

55th congress (1898-99), were: an act for increasing the efliciency of the army of the United States; the provisional army act (March 2d), a compromise measure making the strength of the army to consist of 65 000 until July 1, 1901, and authorizing the recruiting of 35,000 volunteers during that period, also the re-enlistment of volunteers for six months; an act (March 2d) creating the office of admiral of the navy (Rear-Adm. George Dewey being immediately raised to that rank); the navy personnel act (March

OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 3d) to reorganize and increase

tlie efficiency

of the

navy and marine corps, and fixing tlie number of sailors at 17,500 and of mariues at 6,000. On May 29, 1899, tlie president removed from the classified civil service list about 4,000 officers; au act which was condemned as inconsistent by civil service reformers. Under the reciprocity clause of the Diug-

critical. The other powers, having tsken similar steps to insure the safety of their legations, planned a large expedition to strengthen the legation guards

open railw.ay commimication with the the Chinese forts at Taku attempted to prevent the landing of troops and in turn were shelled and finally captured, June 17th. Rear-Adra. ley tariff act (July 24, 1897) the presideut sigQcd a Kempff, of the U. S. navy, took no part in this attreaty with Portugal in June and one with Great tack, onthe ground that the United States was not Britaia in July, for lier colonies in the West Indies at war with China. On June 25th China requested and Guiana; also with France, Nicaragua and Ar- an armistice, but our government replied that free gentina. similar treaty with Germany was signed communication with the legations must be allowed in August. In Jlay^uly, a universal peace con- first; for by this time the relief expedition had been gress held sessions at the Hague, and the delegates checked, communication with Pekin was cut ofif, the from the United States had au important part in Europeans in the capital, to the number of 400, had the proceedings. On Oct. 20th a modus vivendi was been besieged in the narrow compass of the British concluded with Great Britain, by which the United legation since Jime 20th, and niassjicres of missionStates retained possession of disputed passes in aries continued to be reported in different parts of Alaska leading from tidewater to the Klondike re- the empire. On July 3T^ Charleston, and filled that position until 1873. He was a delegate to the national Democratic conventions of 1868 and 1872; member of the executive committee of the Democratic party from 1872 until 1876, and an active member of the taxpa3'ers' conventions of 1871 and 1874. His later years were devoted to efforts to secure local selfgovernment and the creation of a Union Reform party in his native state. He died in Charleston, S. C, April 30, 1878. cate.

HALIi, Asaph, astronomer, was born at Goshen, Litchfield co., Conn., Oct. 15, 1829, son of Asaph and Hannah C. (Palmer) Hall. His grandfather was a revolutionary settlers of that



and one of the

The family was



but through business failures had bepoor. The father died when Asaph was only thirteen years old, and the oldest in a family of six. Their farm was mortgaged heavily, and Asaph and his mother attempted by three years of hard work to free it from debt, but failed to do so. Asaph then apprenticed himself to a local carpenter for three years, and at the end of that time worked for himself as ajourneyman. Decidingto become an architect he studied iiiatliematics at the Norfolk (Conn.) wealthy,





Academy. After ayear and a half (1854-55) at Central College, McGrawviUe, N. Y., he went to Wisconsin, where he remained for several years. He then studied at the University of Michigan for a single term, and after a year of teachiog at Shalersville, 0., entered Harvard as assistant in the college observatory at a salary of three dollars a week. He occupied his spare time in study, and added to liis income by outside work. In 1802 he was appointed assistant iu the naval observatory at Washington, and in the following year was appointed professor of mathematics, with the relative rank of captain.

He remained

in the government service until Oct. 15, Duriug liis stay at the observatory he was 1891. sent out on several e.xpeditious for the governmeut.

In 1869 he went to Behring straits, in 1870 to Sicily, and to Colorado in 1878, to observe eclipses of the sun. He was at Vladivostock, Siberia, iu 1874, during the transit of Venus, and in 1883 lie took a party to San Antonio, Tex., at the time of the later transit. In 1896 he was elected to the chair of astrouonij' at Harvard, and still (1901) occupies this position. He has made many astronomical discoveries, the chief of which was Iiis discovery of the two moons of Mars on Aug. 11th and 17, 1877. In 1879 the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him its gold medal for his discoveries; iu 1878 he received the Lalande prize from Paris; in 1895 the Arago medal from the

French Academy of Sciences, and he was made an honorary member of the Royal Scientific societies of

England and Russia, and of the French Academy.

member of the National of Sciences, and is its vice-president for tlie term ending 1903. Hamilton couferred the degree of Ph.D. upon him in 1878; Yale, that of LL.D. in Dr.Hallwas 1879, and Harvard, of LL.D. in 1886. married, at Elkhorn, Wis., March 3, 1856, to Angeliue, daughter of Theophilus Stickuey, of Rodman, N. Y. Four sons were born to tliem, of Asaph is professor of astronomy in Michigan UniSince 1875 he has been a




D£liAFI£IiD, John,

New York


city, Jan. 22, 1786, eldest


was born iu sou of John aud

(Hallett) Delafield.





Josepli Hallett, was one of the Sous of Liberty, a, member of the revolutionary committee of safety, and of the first three York provincial con-






the founder of the well-known New York famih-of that name, was boru at Avlesburj', Bucks,

England, Mafcli 16, 1748, liereditary count of the Holy

Roman Empire and

the oldest

lineal representative of the Deiafields, who for centuries

had been large landed propriIn etors in the shires of Buckingham and Oxford. 1783 ho emigrated to this country, taking passage upon the Vigilante. This sliip carried letters of marque, and captured a French vessel on the way over. Young Delafield volunteered in tlie fight, and received £100 as his share of the prize money. Upon reacliing New York he was welcomed as tlie bearer of a manuscript copy of the treaty of peace, which had been entrusted to him by an officer in the British service at the moment of sailing. The official copy had been forwarded, but the vessel bearing it did not for several days. Mr. Delafield became one of the mercliant princes of that period, retiring in 1798 with a large fortune. He was a founder and director of the Mutual Insurance Co., established in 1787, the first company of tlie kind organized after the revolution. In 1793 he became

New York branch of the U. S. 1796 he was one of forty gentlemen who subscribed $10,000 each aud founded the United Insurance Co., of which he was president for many years. He was at the head of private underwriters, aud during the peri(xl when American sea a director of the

Bank, and


from British and French aggression, sacrificed his entire capital to make good the losses thus iucurred, though not legally bound to do so. He also mortgaged his country mansion, " Sunswick," opposite Blackwell's island, where Ravenswood, Long Island, now stands. Tliis was then one of the handsomest and most spacious private houses near York city. j\Ir. Delafield died on July 3. 1834. traffic suffered


His sou, John, was graduated at Columbia Cuilege iu 1803, and began his commercial life asacontideutial clerk and supercargo. Subsequently he engaged iu the shipping business. In 1808, while makhig a voyage on one of his own vessels, a tempest drove him "into the harbor of Coiumia. Spain, where lie witnessed the storming of that city by the French.


the night of Jan. 17th the enemy opened fire on the shipping, and he was compelled to put to sea, taking with him a family of Spanish refugees, beside his crew. Though greatly overburdened, and not provisioned for so many persons, the ship was brought safely to London. There he established himself as a banker. During the war of 1812 he was held as a prisoner for a tiuie, but tlie influence of his English relatives obtained for him the privilege of traveling within fifteen miles around Uxbridge, his country place of residence, and to tlie city of London, where he continued in business. financial crisis suddenly swept away his fortune, and it was at this period that Washington Irving dedicated to him "The Wife," published in the "Sketchbook." In 1820 Mr. Delafield returned to New York city, where he was cashier and president of the Phaniix Banking Co., until 1838, when he resigned to become president of the New York Banking Co. The University of New York, for which he procured large subscriptions, was founded largely through his eiforls, and he was also instrumental in reviving the New York Historical Society. He was one of the fouuders of the Shisical Fund Society, and tlie first president of the New York Philharmonic Society'. His leisure was devoted to the improvement of his countrj^ seat at Hellgate, which became a marvel of horticultural beauty. Western repudiations obliged the New York Banking Co. to suspend, and again Jlr. Delafield found himself impoverished; he was enabled, however, to give the rest of his life to his favorite pursuit, agriculture. In 1842 he removed to his place, "Oaklands," near Geneva, N. Y., aud soon made it known throughout the state as a model farm. The importance of making a cliemical aualj'sis of the soil and of scientific drainage were early advocated by him. For several years he was president of the New York State Agricultural Society, aud he was the first presidiug officer elected by the State Agricultural College. He was married, in 1821, to Harriet W., daughter of Benjamin Tallmadge. They had two sons and two daughters. He died at Oaklands, near Geneva, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1853. Joseph, lawyer, soldier and scientist, was born in New York city, Aug. 33, 1790, second son of John and Ann (Hallett) Delafield. He was graduated at Yale in 1808, and after acquiring a legal education was admitted to practice in 1811. In 1810 he was appointed lieutenant iu the 5th regiment of New York state militia, and in 1813 he liecame captain of drafted militia. In the latter year he received his commission iu the U. S. army as captain in Hawkins' regiment, and on April 15, 1814, was promoted to the rank of major of the 46th infantry. At the close of the war lie resigned from the arm3'. When the northern boundary of the



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. United States was set off lie was appointed U. S. agent, and Jiad charge of the paities in tlie field from 1821 until 1828. Tlie fidelity with which Maj. Delafield discharged this duty was formally acknowledged by the president and by congress. It was during his period of service in the North that he began to form the collection of minerals that was for many years considered one of the best in this country owned by a private individual. Maj. Delafield belonged to many scientific associations in Europe and in this country. For tiftj'-two years he was a member of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, and was its pre.sideut from 1827 until 1866, when he declined a re-e]ecti(m. His countiy seat, " Fieldston," was situated on the Hudson at Yonkers, "and in 18 he built a limekiln there, which was so constructed that it wouUi burn continuously. This was a novelty in this country, and the works, which yielded large profits for several years, served as a model for others. He was married, in 18 to Julia, daughter of Judge Maturin Livingston, of Staatsburg, N. Y. Her maternal grandfather was Gen. Morgan Lewis, son of Francis Lewis, signer of theDeclaration of Independence. Maj. Delafielddied in New York city, Feb. 12, 1875. His son, Jlaturin Livingston Delafield, merchant, was born in New ,

city in 1836. He was graduated at Columbia College in 1856, and four years later received the degree of A.M. Jlr. Delafield is prominent in social life, and is a member of the Metropolitan and Union clubs. Sons of the Revolution, the Scientific Alliance and other scientific and historical societies. He was married, in 1868, to jMary Coleman, daughter of Eugene Augustus Livingston. Their sou, Maturin Livingston, Jr., is associated with his father in



DEIiAFIEIiD, Henry, merchant, was born at Sunswick, now a part of Ravenswood, Long Island, July 19, 1792, son of John and Ann (Hallett) Delafield. He was prepared to enter Yale College, but chose to begin his business career and gave up the collegiate course. After several years of experience in subordinate positions, lie founded with his twin, brother, "William, the firm of H. & \V. Delafield, and conducted an extensive foreign trade with England, India, China, South America and tlie AVest Indies. At one lime they owned the largest merchantman sailing from the port of Xew York under the American






1835 so


had practicall}' They were again sucto begin business life again. Both cessful, and regained their former wealth. brothers served with Capt. Swartout's " Iron Grays" When Faustin Soulouque was in the war of 1812. duced

their large fortune that they

established as emijeror of Hayti, Henry Delafield was appointed consul for that country in New York city, which oftice he retained during the emperor's administration, and through a part of Pres. JefWilliam Delafield died in 1853, and a few frard's. years after Henry admitted Tallmadge Delafield, a son of his brother John, to the firm, which was subsequently known as Heniy Delafield Co. In 1857 Mr. Delafield retired from shipping and foreign business, retaining only certain banking and trust interests, which were later transferred to Maturin Livingston Delafield, son of his brother Joseph. The nephews continued the business sucHenry Delafield was married, in 1865, to cessfully. Mary Parish, daughter of Judge L. Monson, of Delaware county, N. Y., and they had one daughter, who died at the age of seventeen. Air. Delafield's death occurred in' New York city, Feb. 15, 1875. Two older brothers, Maj. Joseph and Dr. Edward Delafield had died respectively on Feb. 12 and 13, 1875, and the almost simultaneous death of the three brothers and their joint funeral from Trinity Church excited much interest.






was born


son of John and Ann was graduated at the U. S.

city, Sept. 1, 1798,

(Hallett) Delafield.



head of his class, after being promoted second lieutenant in the corps of engineers, was attached as astronomical and topographical draughtsman to the American boundary commission under the treaty of Ghent. In 1830 he became first lieutenant, and in 1828, captain. In 1819-24 he served as assistant engineer in the Military

in 1818, at the


construction of Forts M(.nioe and Calhoun, and was next iissigned to the Jlississippi river, where he took charge of the defenses of Plaquemine bend, the surveys of the Delta, and the general supervision of imiiiove-

Subsequently he was superintending engineer successively in theconstructiouof the Cumberland road; in building Fort Delaware; in repairing Fort Mifflin, and in the improvement of the Delaware river harbors and bleak water. In 1838 he was promoted to major, and was appointed superintendent of the U. 8. Military Academy. His administratiouat West Point greatly advanced the reputation of the school, and ranks in value with that of Col. Thayer; It has been officially' said that "a history of the superintendeucies of Thayer and Delafield would leave nothing of moment to record concerning the origin, early struggles and often precarious existence of the academy, and finally its slow, steady and triumphant progress." In 1845-56 Maj. Delafield was supeiintending engineer of the New York iiieius.

harbor defenses; of Hudson river improvements,


of the

New York

light-house district; chief-

engineer of the department of Texas; member of the boards for improvement of rivers and harbors; and for the armament of fortifications, and president of the board for revision of the curriculum of studies at the U. S. Military Academy. In 1855 he was senior member of a commission sent to the

Crimea during the war there, to report on modem methods of warfare. !Maj. Alfred Mordecai and Capt. George B. McClellan were his associates, and each member submitted a separate report; that of JIaj. Delafield was a massive quarto volume, illustrated, containing a comprehensive treatise on the art of war in Europe in 1854-56. This work is considered a masterpiece of its kind. In 1856 he was again appointed superintendent of the U. S. Military

Academy, and


position until April, request, he was relieved. He became lieutenant-colonel in 1861, and colonel in 1863. Upon his retirement from the academy he was placed on Gov. Morgan's stafif, to assist in organizing and equipping the forces of York state for the field and in supplying ordnance stores for the Atlantic and Lake defenses. During the same time he superintended the construction of York harbor fortifications, and served on several important boards and commissions. In April, 1864, he was appointed chief of U. S. engineers, with the rank of brigadier-general, and took up his residence in AVashington, D. C. He was brevetted major-general in the U. S. army in May, 1865, "for faithful, meritorious and distinguished services in 1861,


at his





the engineer department during the civil war," and Aug. 8, 1866, he was retired from active service. Dur ing the rest of his life the winters were spent in Washington and the summers at his family residence in New York city. He was married, June 2, 1833, to Harriet Baldwin, daughter of Gen. Elijah




Moman Covington, Bowling Green, Ky. His -wife survived liim, with five daugliters and one son. Gen. Delafield died in Washington, D. C, Nov. 5, 1873. SIABKOE, Thomas Masters, surgeon, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 13, 1819, son ot Francis and Sarah (Caldwell) Markoe. His father, a graduate of Princeton College (1795), was a merchant. His mother was a daughter of Samuel and Martha (Rownd) Caldwell, of Philadelphia. He was educated at Pittsfield, Mass., and at Princeton College, where lie was graduated in the class of 1836. Then studying medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeon.s, New York, lie received the degree of M.D. there in 1841. His success as a practitioner began at an earlj' periml of his professional career. He was associated with Dr. Edward

Delafield from 1849 to 1865, and when Dr. Delafield retired, a partnership witii his son. Dr. Francis Delafield, followed. He was for some years professor of anatomy at the Castleton Medical" College, Vermont, until called to the New York University, and at the latter institution he was for two years (1853-54) professor of pathological anatoniv. When, in 1860, the College of Physicians and Surgeons assumed formal relations with the corporation of Columbia College as its medical departs ment. Dr. Markoe accepted the adjunct professorship of surgery, which he held until 1871. During the civil war he was appointed by Gov. Jlorgan a member of the special corps of volunteer surgeons, being stationed at Fortress Monroe. In 1863 he ""'as one of the board of examrf5^' iners of contract pliysicians ^\]5tJ," and surgeons, and in 1863 was visiting surgeon to the New York soldiers' depot at 50

"^'R \

Howard street. In 1864 he was ordered to Fredericksburg, and subsequently to Belle plain. He became a trustee of the -\stor Library in 1863, remaining as one of its directors until its absorption into the consolidated librar}' plan. From 189195 he was president of the Astor

* 't^ T *rt.< ^ *a^ Library. He was professor of the principles and practice of surgery at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (1871-79); professor of the principles of surgery (1879-88); and emeritus professor from 1888 until his death. At different times he was attending surgeon at the New York, the Roosevelt, Bellevue, and Mt. Sinai hospitals and consulting surgeon to the Woman's Hospital of the State of New York, and to the Orthopedic, St. Marj^'s and Vassar hospitals, and consulting physician to the Nursery and Child's Hospital; a member of the consulting staff of the New York Dispensary, and pliysician to the Northern Dispensary. He was a member of the New York County Medical Societj'; New York Medical and Surgical Society; Society for the Relief of Widows and Orphans of Medical Men; of the New York Pathological Society; New York Academy of Jledicine, and of the Medical Journal Association. His chief literary contribution was a "Treatise on Diseases of the Bones " (1872). He had for years one- of the largest family practices in New York. Dr. Markoe was married, in 1850, to Charlotte A. How, of New York, and left four children, two daughters and two sons. Dr. Francis H. Markoe (surgeon), a graduate of Princeton (1876), and Dr. James W. Markoe (obstetrician). He died