The Lithuanian Family in the United States

Citation preview

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

Ju n e

19 ..M

This dissertation prepared under my direction by Rev* J o s e p h B ogusas

entitled

The L i th u a n i a n F a m ily i n t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s _____

has been accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree o f_________Docto r o f Phi l o s ophy...........................

4 'S-

/

C (Faculty A

THE LITHUANIAN FAMILY IN THE UNITED STATES

BY R ev eren d J o se p h Jo h n B ogusas M*A*, Fordham U n i v e r s i t y , ’40

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPART­ MENT OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AT FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK 1942

ProQuest Number: 10992520

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10992520 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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i TABLE OF CONTENTS

C h a p te r

I.

II.

III. IV .

V.

V I.

V II.

V III.

IX .

L.

Page

LIST OF TABLES................................................................................... . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION................................................................................... ..................... NATIONAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND.......................................................... A. P o l i t i c a l and C u lt u r a l H e r ita g e B. P o p u la tio n o f L i th u a n i a STRUCTURE OF THE LITHUANIAN FAMILY IN THE OLD COUNTRY A. G e n e ra l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s B. The I n n e r S t r u c t u r e EMIGRATION............................................................................................................. TOWARD THE FORMATION OF THE LITHUANIAN-AMERICANFA M ILY .... A. S o c ia l and Econom ic M a la d ju stm e n t B. C hanging B e h a v io u r P a t t e r n s FAMILY EXPERIENCE OF THE LITHUANIAN-AMERICANS • ................... A. L i f e i n t h e P a r e n ta l F am ily B. C o u r ts h ip and M ate S e l e c t i o n ( 1 ) C o u r ts h ip a s a C hanging Phenomenon ( 2 ) M ate S e l e c t i o n ( 3 ) The P ro c e s s o f C o u r ts h ip C. M a rria g e D. The New Home E . P a r e n ta l E x p e rie n c e ( 1 ) P e r io d o f I n c r e a s i n g S o l i d a r i t y ( 2 ) The E m a n c ip a tio n o f Y outh F . The S ta g e o f t h e Empty Home STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF THE LI THUANIAN-AMERI CAN F A M IL Y ...... A. S iz e and C o m p o sitio n o f t h e F am ily U n it B. Afee and D u r a tio n C. S ta n d a rd o f L iv in g D. S o c io - C u l tu r a l L e v e l E . S t a b i l i t y and S o l i d a r i t y INTERMARRIAGE.......................................................................................... A . F a c t o r s i n I n te r m a r r ia g e B. The S t a t i s t i c a l A sp e c t o f I n te r m a r r ia g e C. E x p e rie n c e s o f th e I n te r - M a r r ie d DISORGANIZATION OF THE LITHUANIAN-AMERICAN FAMILY................ A . F a c t o r s L e a d in g t o D iv o rc e B. D iv o rc e F req u en cy C. Some A s p e c ts o f D iv o rc e among L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s D. The E f f e c t s o f D iv o rc e E . D e s e r tio n THE WAY AHEAD............... APPENDIX............................ BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................

iv v 1

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22 26

36

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148 150 152

J

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r LIST OF-TABLES

T a b le

I#

Some V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s on t h e P o p u la tio n o f L i t h u a n i a # . . . .

9

II.

S t a t e s H aving G r e a te s t Number o f L ith u a n ia n - S to c k P e p o le .

24

III.

IV .

The A t t i t u d e s o f 2 0 0 L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s o f th e Second G e n e ra tio n (1 0 0 Young Men an d 100 Young Women) on M ate S e l e c t i o n ........................................................... • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 52 The A verage Time o f A r r i v a l o f C h ild r e n ......................................

77

V.

P r o p o r tio n o f F a m ilie s C o n ta in in g S p e c i f i c Num bers................

99

V I.

P e r c e n ta g e o f F a m ilie s A c c o rd in g t o T h e ir T y p e s.......................

100

The A verage Age a t M a r r i a g e . . . . . .............................................

102

The A verage Age o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s a t D eath ( p e r 1 0 0 c a s e s ) . ..............................

103

IX .

N a t i o n a l i t y I n te r m a r r ia g e s among L i th u a n i a n - A m e r ic a n s ....

121

X.

The N a t i o n a l i t i e s W ith W hich L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s I n t e r ­ .................. m a rry , A cc o rd in g t o P e r c e n t a g e s

122

D iv o rc e R a tio Among L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s D u rin g t h e L a s t D ecad e................................................

134

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f D iv o rc e s A cc o rd in g t a t h e S iz e o f th e F a m ily .................................................................... • • • • .................................

138

V II. V III.

XI • X II.

L.

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THE LITHUANIAN FAMILY IN THE UNITED STATES

V

INTRODUCTION

The s tu d y o f im m ig ran t g ro u p s i s o f im p o rta n c e f o r t h e i n t e l ­ l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r in f l u e n c e and r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n A m erican l i f e .

B ut i f vag u e g e n e r a l i t i e s a r e t o b e a v o id e d ,

i n v e s t i g a t i o n m u st b e c o n f in e d t o some p a r t i c u l a r p h a se and group* H ence, th e p r e s e n t t r e a tm e n t aim s a t a c q u a in ti n g t h e A m erican r e a d e r w ith th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and d ev elo p m en t o f t h e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily i n t h e U n ite d S ta te s * L ith u a n ia n s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a r e by no m eans c o n sp icu o u s* I n c lu d in g th e f o r e i g n and n a t i v e - b o r n , th e y do n o t e x ce ed s i x h u n d re d th o u sa n d i n number*

E x c e p tio n a l a b i l i t i e s , g r e a t accom­

p lis h m e n ts o r d e e d s a r e h a r d ly th e r u l e among them*

N e v e r th e le s s ,

i n c e r t a i n f i e l d s , th e y hav e s u c c e e d e d q u i t e w e l l , w h ile i n o th e r s th e y h av e f a i l e d .

I n s p i t e o f t h a t , th e L ith u a n ia n s i n A m erica seem

t o b e a g ro u p o f im m ig ra n ts whose l i f e and b e h a v io u r r e p r e s e n t s a v e ry s u ita b le to p ic f o r s o c io lo g ic a l in v e s t ig a t io n . p h ase o f L i th u a n ia n l i f e w ould be to o b ro a d a f i e l d .

To s tu d y e v e ry H ence, in

o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n we h av e l i m i t e d o u r s e lv e s t o a s tu d y o f th e L ith u a n ia n f a m ily . The p r e s e n t s u rv e y aim s a t a c h ie v in g t h e f o llo w in g e n d s t t h e i d i o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e L ith u a n ia n f a m ily i n A m erica, i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , and i t s

fu tu re tr e n d s .

I n d i r e c t l y , we h av e

a l s o e n d e a v o re d t o a n a ly z e th e s o c i a l p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n and A m e r ic a n iz a tio n a s i t a p p e a rs w i t h i n t h e e t h n i c L i th u a n i a n g ro u p . w ork h a s u n f o r t u n a t e l y b e e n h a n d ic a p p e d by b o th a l a c k o f p r e v io u s

Our

vi

r

n r e c o r d s , and by th e in a d e q u a c y o f t h o s e t h a t a r e a v a i la b l e * As i n any o t h e r s tu d y o f t h i s k in d , f o r o u r v a r io u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , we hav e u s e d th e m a t e r i a l w h ich was s e c u re d th ro u g h o b s e r v a ti o n an d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w ith t h e L i th u a n ia n fa m ily i n t h e h o m elan d , a s w e ll a s i n A m erica*

I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l l e t t e r s and

ev en a few l i f e h i s t o r y docum ents hav e b e e n in c o r p o r a te d t o co nven­ i e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e g e n u in e m e n t a l i t y and e x p r e s s io n o f th e L ith u a n ia n p e o p le . T h i r t y L i th u a n ia n f a m i l i e s b o th o f f o r e i g n and n a t i v e o r i g i n hav e b e e n s e l e c t e d a s th e m o st r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ty p e s o f t h i s e t h n i c g ro u p . Each f a m ily was v e ry c l o s e l y o b s e rv e d d u r in g th e p e r io d o f two y e a r s an d m in u te d e t a i l s w ere re v e a le d *

F u rth e rm o re , num erous p e r s o n a l

i n t e r v ie w s w ere made w ith each member o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s , and a l s o w ith p r i e s t s , l e a d e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l men and women, th e s e l a t t e r r e p r e ­ s e n t a t i v e s b e in g q u e s tio n e d by t h e a u t h o r c o n c e rn in g th e above m e n tio n e d f a m i l i e s , a s w e ll a s a b o u t t h e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily i n g e n e r a l . A ll t h i s b ro u g h t up many in f o r m a l d is c u s s i o n s on L i th u a n i a n fa m ily l i f e , an d t h e s e w ere in s tr u m e n ta l i n s e c u r in g a n e x a c t and o b j e c t i v e id e a on th e q u e s tio n * I n a d d i t i o n to th e t h i r t y t y p i c a l L i th u a n ia n f a m i l i e s w hich w ere s tu d ie d i n p a r t i c u l a r , a f a r b r o a d e r know ledge was s e c u re d by th e g e n e r a l s tu d y o f some f i v e th o u s a n d L ith u a n ia n f a m i l i e s s c a t t e r e d th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d S t a t e s T h e

f o llo w in g q u e s ti o n now a r o s e :

From w hich p e r io d o f im m ig ra tio n t o ch o o se t h e s e f a m i l i e s f o r s tu d y , w h e th e r th o s e b e lo n g in g t o th e e a r l i e r , p e r io d (1 8 6 0 -1 9 0 0 ), o r th o s e o f th e l a t e r p e r io d (1 9 0 0 -1 9 4 0 ). l. 1*

T h is l a t t e r g ro u p b e in g more num erous,

A t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e a p p r o x im a te ly 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i l i e s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m eric a.

->

v ii r

n w as, o f c o u r s e , e a s i e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e *

F u rth e rm o re , i t was a more

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g ro u p , and i t made p o s s i b l e many p e r s o n a l c o n ta c ts * H ence, i t i s th e l a t t e r g ro u p t h a t we h av e c h o sen f o r in v e s t i g a t i o n *

L.

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1

CHAPTER I

NATIONAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND

A* P o l i t i c a l and C u l t u r a l H e r ita g e

The L i t h u a n i a n s , a d i s t i n c t b ra n c h o f t h e In d o -E u ro p e a n r a c e , f o r many c e n t u r i e s l i v e d on th e B a l t i c s h o r e s i n t h a t r e g io n b etw ee n th e V i s t u l a and D vina r i v e r s . th e

I n th e e a r l y c e n t u r i e s , th e y form ed p a r t o f

g e n e r a l g ro u p o f p e o p le s who w ere known a s B a lts o r A e s t i i .

T h is

g ro u p was composed o f t h r e e m ain t r i b e s , n a m e ly , P r u s s ia n s ( o r B o r u s s i a n s ) , L i t h u a n i a n s , and L e t t s ( o r L a t v i a n s ) . I n t h e c o u rs e o f tim e t h e fa m ily o f A e s tia n p e o p le s was c o n s id e r a b ly r e d u c e d . I t l o s t th e Old. P r u s s i a n s , who f e l l u n d e r t h e sway o f t h e T e u to n ic K n ig h ts and w ere g e rm a n iz e d . A lre a d y i n t h e s e v e n te e n th c e n t u r y , th e P r u s s i a n s had abandoned t h e i r a n c i e n t id io m and a d o p te d G erman. Today th e a n c i e n t B a l t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o n ly by th e L i th u a n ia n s and L a t v i a n s . T hese two p e o p le s , h o w ev er, h av e d e v e lo p e d a lo n g d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . The L a tv ia n s p a s s e d u n d e r th e do m in io n o f th e T e u to n ic O rd e r, and became P r o t e s t a n t , w h e re a s th e L ith u a n ia n s form ed a n in d e p e n d e n t s t a t e and a r e Roman C a t h o l i c s .^ A ll f o r e i g n s c h o la r s u n an im o u sly r e c o g n iz e th e g r e a t b e a u ty and r ic h n e s s o f t h e L i th u a n i a n la n g u a g e , and i t s im p o rta n c e a s a n i n d i s ­ p e n s a b le a i d t o t h e s tu d y o f c o m p a ra tiv e p h i l o l o g y . I t . i s t h e o l d e s t sp o k en la n g u a g e i n E u ro p e , and h a s v e r y a n c i e n t g ra m m a tic a l fo rm s , w h ich i n f a c t a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o S a n s c r i t , G reek , and L a t i n . Both t h e L ith u a n i a n and L a tv ia n la n g u a g e s a r e m a in ly b a s e d on common r o o t s . T hese two B a l t i c la n g u a g e s a r e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e S la v o n ic ( R u s s ia n , P o lis h ) and German to n g u e s .2

1 . E.

J . H a r r is o n , L i t h u a n i a , L ondon, 1 9 2 8 , p . 25. 2 . K. P a k s t a s , The L i th u a n ia n S i t u a t i o n , 1 9 4 1 , p . 5 ; c f . F . E . G a l l i n e , The I n f lu e n c e o f t h e B a l t i c L an g u ag es on t h e German Language i n E a st P r u s s ia , 1940. .

L

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2

f~

I n num ber, th e L ith u a n ia n s h av e n e v e r ex ceed ed f i v e m illio n *

"I

N o tw ith s ta n d in g t h i s f a c t , d u r in g t h e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , th e y w ere so e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r u n d e r ­ t a k i n g s t h a t th e y w ere a b l e t o c r e a t e a n em pire s t r e t c h i n g from t h e B a l t i c t o th e B la c k Sea*

As th e y a c q u ir e d t h i s p o l i t i c a l power and

suprem acy o v e r t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f E u ro p e , th e L i t h u a n i a n s , a s y e t a pag an p e o p le , r e a l i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o m a in ta i n t h i s su p rem acy , th e y w ould h av e t o become C h r is ti a n s *

The R u s s ia n o rth o d o x r e l i g i o n ,

a l th o u g h i t was t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e i r num erous s u b j e c t s , d id n o t a t t r a c t them s in c e i t was somewhat o r i e n t a l i n c h a r a c te r * t h e n was th e o n ly s o l u t i o n t o t h e p ro b le m .

C a th o lic is m

B ut h e r e a g a in t h e r e

a p p e a re d c o n s id e r a b le d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e c a u se t h e i r n e a r e s t C a th o lic n e ig h b o rs w ere t h e T e u to n ic K n ig h ts and t h e P o le s , b o th o f whom w ish e d t o r u l e t h e L ith u a n ia n s *

A t t h i s p e r i o d , Kinq M indaugas

(M indow e), a c l e v e r p o l i t i c i a n , became C a t h o lic , and th ro u g h Pope I n n o c e n t IV , t r i e d t o c h r i s t i a n i z e h i s p e o p le w ith o u t th e i n t e r ­ v e n t i o n o f th e s e tw o n e ig h b o rs *

I n t h i s he fa ile d *

But l a t e r , th ro u g h

d i r e c t c o n t a c t w ith P o la n d , t h e L ith u a n ia n p e o p le became th e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l ’’a l l i e s ’1 o f th e P o le s*

T h is m eant t h e i r p erm an en t

c u l t u r a l s u b ju g a t io n and f i n a l l y t h e e n t i r e l o s s o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l in d ep en d en ce* I t i s a known f a c t t h a t P oland a t one tim e was q u i t e d e p e n d e n t upon F ra n c e i n r e g a r d t o h e r own p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s * P o lan d i n t u r n w ish e d t o e x e r c i s e a s i m i l a r k in d o f p a t e r n a li s m to w a rd L i t h u a n i a , e s p e c i a l l y s in c e L ith u a n i a w ould b e a b l e t o s e r v e a g a i n s t t h e common m e n ace, t h e T e u to n s .

L i th u a n i a d id i n f a c t a i d

t h e P o le s a g a i n s t t h i s enemy, b u t i n so d o in g sh e l o s t h e r own

j

3

r

t

in d e p en d en ce*

T h is f a c t , t o g e t h e r w ith th e r e p e a te d f a i l u r e o f t h e

P o le s t o r e c o g n iz e th e h i s t o r i c a l tr a g e d y o f t h e L ith u a n ia n n a t i o n , i s t h e c h i e f and p e r e n n i a l c a u s e o f t h e i r u n f r i e n d l i n e s s * ^ A n o th e r f a c t o r t h a t h a s d e e p ly in f lu e n c e d t h e L ith u a n ia n e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t h e R u s s ia n o c c u p a tio n t h a t e x te n d e d from 1795 t o 1 9 1 5 . T h is i s one o f t h e s a d d e s t and d a r k e s t p e r io d s i n L ith u a n ia n h i s t o r y . G e n e r a tio n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n o f L ith u a n ia n s knew t h e b i t t e r n e s s o f R u s s ia n p e r s e c u t i o n w h ich s p a r e d no c l a s s o f s o c i e t y and made no d is tin c tio n *

P r i e s t s , r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s , and

ev en t h e h u m b le s t o f p e a s a n ts w ere p e rs e c u te d *

I n 1 8 64, t h e R u s s ia n

governm ent c lo s e d a l l C a th o lic p a r i s h s c h o o ls i n L ith u a n ia *

In i t s

f a n a t i c d e t e r m in a tio n t o r u s s i a n i z e a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f L i t h u a n i a , th e govern m en t f o r b a d e a l l books t o b e p r i n t e d i n an y o t h e r c h a r a c t e r b u t th e R u s s ia n , t h i s l a t t e r b e in g e n t i r e l y f o r e i g n t o th e L ith u a n ia n p e o p le .

F u rth e rm o re , t h e R u s s ia n p o l i c e , d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n v i o l a b i l i t y

o f th e home, ra n s a c k e d them f o r ’’f o r b id d e n ” l i t e r a t u r e .

They ev en

s p ie d upon w o r s h ip p e r s a t home and i n c h u rc h t o s e e i f th e y w ere u s in g books p r i n t e d i n an y o th e r b u t t h e R u s s ia n c h a r a c te r *

N ev er­

t h e l e s s , n e i t h e r th e l o s s o f p o l i t i c a l in d e p e n d e n c e , n o r c o n tin u o u s e f f o r t s o f c u l t u r a l p e n e t r a t i o n by i t s n e ig h b o rs c o u ld d e s tr o y t h e L ith u a n ia n n a t i o n a s a s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g ro u p .

T h is was due t o th e

v e ry h ig h d e g re e o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c io u s n e s s w h ich th e y p o s s e s s e d , and 1 * I t i s w o rth w h ile t o n o te t h a t ev en b e f o r e th e p r e s e n t w a r, t h e P o le s

had t h e same m is ta k e n id e a * A c e r t a i n w ell-k n o w n j o u r n a l i s t and member o f t h e P o l i s h P a r lia m e n t w ith whom I sp o k e o n ly one m onth b e f o r e t h e o u tb r e a k o f th e w a r, a s k e d me t h i s q u e s tio n s ”Do t h e L ith u a n ia n s s t i l l e n t e r t a i n a n u n f r i e n d l y f e e l i n g to w a rd s P o lan d ? Would i t n o t b e b e t t e r f o r u s a s two C h r i s t i a n n a t io n s t o u n i t e i n o r d e r to f i g h t more s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t t h e common f o e ? ”

L

J

4

r

w h ich h e lp e d them t o p r e s e r v e a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r .

n

C u lt u r a l l i f e i n p r e - w a r L i th u a n i a m ig h t b e d e s c r ib e d i n many ways and from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . t a k e a b i r d s - e y e v ie w o f i t s

F o r o u r p r e s e n t s u rv e y i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e d u c a tio n a l a s p e c t s , and o f t h e s o c i a l

id e a s and movements a s t h e s e d e v e lo p e d i n s o c i e t y . The m o ral s t r e n g t h t h a t i s em bodied i n e v e ry s o c i e t y i s n o t o n ly t h e b a s i s o f i t s c u l t u r a l l i f e b u t i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s th e v e r y c h a ra c te r o f th e c u ltu re p a tte r n s .

M o r a li ty , from t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l

p o i n t o f v ie w , em braces n o t o n ly t h e c o r r e c t e t h i c a l b e h a v io u r b u t i t c o n t a in s s o c i a l a s w e ll a s n a t u r a l v i r t u e s such a s c o n tin e n c e , j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y , and s o c i a b i l i t y , a l l o f w h ich b e lo n g t o t h e s o c io ­ m o ral b e h a v io u r .

L ith u a n ia n s from tim e im m em orial show a v e r y h ig h

a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m o ral and e t h i c a l v a l u e s .

P e rh a p s no o t h e r f o r e i g n

o b s e r v e r e v e r had such a th o ro u g h i n s i g h t i n t o t h e L ith u a n ia n c u l t u r a l an d s o c i a l l i f e a s P r o f e s s o r Jo se p h E h r e t ,^ who i n h i s b r i l l i a n t b o o k , La L i t h u a n i e , P a s s e , P r e s e n t , A v e n ir , makes t h e fo llo w in g o b s e r v a tio n s The p a s t h i s t o z y o f L i th u a n i a and th e many sad e x p e r ie n c e s w h ich came t h e i r way th ro u g h o u t th e c e n t u r i e s h av e b ro u g h t them t o a h ig h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e g r e a t v i r t u e s o f c o n tin e n c e , j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and p e r s e v e r a n c e . An a s p e c t o f t h e p r e - w a r L ith u a n ia n c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r w h ich m ig h t be ch o sen f o r s p e c i a l e m p h a sis , i s th e u n u s u a l r e l i g i o u s n e s s and s o b r i e t y o f i t s p e o p le , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e u s e o f i n t o x i c a n t s . W ith r e g a r d t o t h e l a t t e r p o i n t , i t i s w o rth w h ile t o n o te t h a t a t th e /

1 . J o se p h E h r e t , La L i t h u a n i e , P a s s e ,

/ y P r e s e n t , A v e n ir , G eneve, E d i tio n

" A t a r , ” 1 9 1 7 , p . 37.

L

J

5

r end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and to w a rd t h e b e g in n in g o f th e

t

t w e n t i e t h , L i th u a n i a s u f f e r e d l e s s th a n any o t h e r c o u n try from a lc o h o lis m *

I n f a c t , i n th e d i s t r i c t o f Kaunas and V i l n i u s , in th e

y e a r 1 8 6 0 , 83*3 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u la tio n o b s e rv e d t o t a l a b s ti n e n c e from a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s .

Thus num ber ev en in c r e a s e d l a t e r . *

E d u c a tio n i n L i th u a n i a u p to t h e tim e o f th e W orld War showed s te a d y p r o g r e s s .

I n s p i t e o f th e trem en d o u s e f f o r t s o f th e R u s s ia n

governm ent t o im pede t h e e d u c a tio n o f t h e L i th u a n ia n p e o p le , i t i s a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t a t t h e end o f th e n i n e t e e n t h c e n tu r y e th n o ­ g r a p h ic L i th u a n i a p o s s e s s e d some f o u r t o f i v e h u n d red p rim a ry and se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls s e c r e t l y c o n d u c te d u n d e r t h e a u s p ic e s o f p r i e s t s and l a y - t e a c h e r s .

W herever t h e e r e c t i o n o f su c h s c h o o ls was im p o s s ib le ,

eac h fa m ily s e p a r a t e l y h ad t o p r o v id e f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f i t s c h i l d r e n . To th e m o th e r who u s u a l l y had more l e i s u r e t i m e , f e l l th e im p o r ta n t t a s k o f te a c h in g t h e c h i l d r e n .

The f a m ily i n t h i s p e r io d o f h i s t o r y was t h e

m ost im p o r ta n t i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l and C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n o f t h e L i th u a n ia n p e o p le .

The w ell-k n o w n L ith u a n i a n

s c u l p t o r , P e t r a s R im sa, i n a g ro u p e n t i t l e d ”L ie tu v o s M okykla” ( ”The L ith u a n ia n S c h o o l” ) h a s to u c h in g ly sy m b o liz e d t h i s sa d p e r io d i n L ith u a n ia n h i s t o r y .

I t r e p r e s e n t s a m o th e r te a c h in g h e r c h i l d r e n t o

re a d w h ile s e a t e d a t h e r s p in n in g w h e e l . 2 I n 1904 t h e c z a r i s t g overnm ent g r a n te d freed o m o f th e p r e s s , and

1 . A . A1 e k n a , Kun., Z em aiciu V yskupas V a la n c iu s , K au n as, 1 9 3 7 , p . 8 5 . 2 . P e tr a s Kimsa i s a n o u ts ta n d in g L i th u a n i a n s c u l p t o r whose w orks h av e

b e e n shown i n s e v e r a l E u ro p ean c a p i t a l s , and i n A m erica; c f . H a r r is o n , L i t h u a n i a , p p . 9 4 , 1 2 5 .

L

J

6

r

n

e v en a llo w e d t h e o p en in g o f p u b li c sc h o o ls *

A lth o u g h t h e R u s s ia n

la n g u a g e was s t i l l t h e o n ly one o f f i c i a l l y a llo w e d , t h e s c h o o ls r e c e iv e d su ch a w elcom e, t h a t i n te n y e a r s t h e i r num ber was in c r e a s e d t h r e e - f o l d . T e a c h in g i n th e home, w h e re v e r n e c e s s a r y , was s t i l l m a in ta in e d * a d d i t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a tio n was in tr o d u c e d th r o u g h o u t th e c o u n try * i l l i t e r a c y among t h e p e o p le r a p i d l y d e c re a s e d *

In Thus

A cco rd in g t o o u r own

e s t i m a t i o n , i t d e c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x im a te ly 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n * ^ The g r e a t e d u c a tio n a l p r o g r e s s made i n p r e - w a r - L ith u a n ia may be i n f e r r e d from th e f a c t t h a t n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e a t t h a t tim e was i n c r e a s i n g ra p id ly * .

P ra y e r-b o o k s and v a r io u s e d u c a tio n a l p a m p h le ts

w ere f i r s t p u b lis h e d .

T hese r e c e iv e d en co u rag em en t and g e n e ro u s

s u p p o r t from t h e C a th o lic Church*

The n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a and

s e v e r a l w e ll- e d u c a te d e m ig ra n ts i n A m eric a, now made n o t a b l e c o n t r i ­ b u ti o n s t o t h e n a t i o n a l L i th u a n ia n l i t e r a t u r e *

T h e ir w o rk s, i n f a c t ,

c o v e re d th e v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a tio n , and p o e try * Some o f th e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s w ere so w id e ly re a d t h a t th e y ev en r e a c h e d t o two h u n d re d an d f i f t y e d i t i o n s *

p

The e f f e c t o f t h i s g ro w in g l i t e r a t u r e , and o f t h e num erous p e r i o d i c a l s , w h ich w ere p u b lis h e d f o r t h e m o st p a r t o u t s i d e th e f a t h e r ­ l a n d , was c o n s i d e r a b l e .

F o r i t h e lp e d s t r o n g l y t o com bat th e

o p p r e s s o r s , and i n a d d i t i o n i t g av e r i s e t o v a r io u s id e a s an d new

1 * Dr* Leo R asch k es-R asch k e o f B e r l i n U n iv e r s it y

(G erm any) i n h i s in a u g u r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , D ie B ev o elk eru n g L i t a u e n s , B e r l i n , 1 9 3 5 , p* 1 7 , g iv e s a h ig h e r p e r c e n ta g e , b etw ee n 4 0 -5 0 $ . 2 * P ra n a s G a i l i u n a s , L i e t u v i u Knygos T ir a z a s P r i e s a u s r y , Z i d in y s , V o l. XXX, n o s . 8 - 9 , p . 2 0 3 .

L

J

7

r

s o c i a l m ovements i n s i d e t h e c o u n try *

i

The id e a o f n a t i o n a l in d e p e n d e n c e ,

t h e a n t i - a l c o h o l i c m ovem ent, and t h e p r o d u c e r s and consum ers c o - o p e r a t iv e m ovem ent, and many o t h e r s o c io -e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n ts w ere r i s i n g s te a d i ly * T h u s, a b o u t th e b e g in n in g o f th e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , L i th u a n i a was w e ll o r g a n iz e d s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y , and c o u ld s ta n d s i d e by s id e w ith many o t h e r E u ro p ean n a t i o n s w h ich h ad b e e n f r e e f o r c e n t u r ie s *

B. P o p u la tio n o f L i th u a n i a I n o u r s tu d y o f t h e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily , we w i l l b e g r e a t l y f a c i l i ­ t a t e d i f we h av e a p r e li m i n a r y u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e p o p u la tio n i n th e f a th e r la n d *

To a t t a i n t h i s e n d , we s h a l l c o n s id e r f i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e

L ith u a n ia n p o p u la tio n , n am ely , ( a ) i t s c o m p o s itio n a c c o r d in g t o n a t i o n a l i t y , ( b ) s e x an d ag e d i s t r i b u t i o n , ( c ) o c c u p a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s , (d ) econom ic c o n d i t i o n s , and l a s t l y , ( e ) i t s

s o c ia l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .

L ack o f s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c a l d a to on t h e p o p u la tio n o f p re -w a r L i th u a n i a m akes t h i s s tu d y d i f f i c u l t *

I t was o n ly i n 1 8 9 7 , when

L i th u a n i a s t i l l b e lo n g e d t o R u s s ia , t h a t a g e n e r a l c e n su s o f th e w hole R u s s ia n E m pire was m ade.

We can make u s e o f t h i s c e n su s i f we

remember t h a t e th n o g r a p h ic L i th u a n i a i s made up o f t h r e e d i s t r i c t s , n am ely , K au n as, V i l n i u s , and G ard in as*

By o b ta in in g th e t o t a l popu­

l a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e d i s t r i c t s , we can o b ta in a p p r o x im a te ly th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f L i th u a n i a i n t h a t y e a r*

T h is f i g u r e shows t h a t i n 1897,

w i t h i n th e b o u n d a r ie s o f e th n o g ra p h ic L i t h u a n i a , t h e r e w ere a b o u t t h r e e m i l l i o n in h a b i t a n t s * ^ The n e x t c e n s u s was ta k e n i n 1923 ( i . e . , t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s a f t e r 1.

C

Hermann' S a c h e r ,' ( e d < ) H e rd e r & C o . , 1 9 2 9 .

S ta a ts J . e x ik o n , 5A, I I I B ., 1026 S . , F r e i b u r g , . J

8

r

1

th e R u s s ia n C ensus o f 1 8 9 7 ), a f t e r L i th u a n i a had become a n in d e p e n d e n t n a tio n *

A t t h a t ti m e , L i t h u a n i a ’ s e a s t e r n r e g io n s ( V i l n i u s , S u v a lk a i,

G a rd in a s ) h ad b e e n o c c u p ie d by P o la n d , and th u s h e r a r e a was re d u c e d t o 2 2 ,5 0 0 s q u a re m i l e s , w ith a t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f o n ly 2 ,2 0 6 ,3 4 9 i n h a b ita n t s * ^

More r e c e n t c e n su s d a ta i s n o t a v a i l a b l e *

T h is le a v e s

o n ly t h e 1923 o e n s u s a s t h e b a s i s f o r o u r p r e s e n t study.** A cc o rd in g t o t h i s c e n s u s , th e i n h a b i t a n t s o f L i th u a n i a (fro m th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f n a t i o n a l i t y ) a r e made up o f t h e f o llo w in g g ro u p s? L i t h u a n i a n s , Je w s, G erm ans, R u s s ia n s , P o l e s , L a t v i a n s , e tc * The c e n su s o f 1923 shows t h e f o llo w in g c o m p o s itio n a c c o r d in g t o n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n e th n o g r a p h ic L ith u a n ia ? L i t h u a n i a n s ...............*.......................... • • • • • • 8 3 * 8 8 % Jews • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7* 58% P o l e s ....................... 3.23% R u s s ia n s • ••••' • • • • • • • • • • • • 2*49% Germans • • • • • • • • • • ................• • • • • • • • • • • • 1 *44% L a t v i a n s ....................• • • • • • • • • • ....................... 0*73% O th e r s ....................................................................... 0.37% F o r e ig n e r s * • • • • • • • ................................ • • • • 0*35% T o ta l

100.00%

T h ere i s r e a s o n t o assum e t h a t th e c o m p o s itio n o f t h e n a t i o n a l i t i e s o f L i th u a n i a b e f o r e th e w ar was somewhat d i f f e r e n t th a n i n d i c a t e d by 1 . C e n t r a l i n i o L ie tu v d s S t a t i s t i k o s B iu ro B i u l e t e n i s , n o . 7 9 , K aunas,

1924. The l a r g e r a r e a and p o p u la tio n o f L ith u a n i a had b e e n re c o g n iz e d by t h e T r e a ty o f Moscow, 1 9 2 0 , and by t h e T r e a ty o f P a r i s , May 1 7 , 1 9 24. A t p r e s e n t , t h e t e r r i t o r y in h a b i t e d by L ith u a n ia n - s p e a k in g p e o p le c o m p rise s an a r e a o f o v e r 3 0 ,0 0 0 s q u a re m i l e s , w ith a b o u t 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 in h a b ita n ts . 2 . T h is i s th e f i r s t o f f i c i a l ce n su s made by th e L ith u a n i a n G overnm entj i t i s a m ost r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f in f o r m a tio n on t h e L ith u a n ia n popu­ l a t i o n , a lth o u g h i t d o es n o t e x te n d i t s s u rv e y t o t e r r i t o r i e s o c c u p ie d by P o la n d .

L

J

9

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"i

t h e c e n su s o f 1923*

The Je w ish p o p u la tio n a s w e ll a s th e R u s s ia n and

L a t v i a n , was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r , b e c a u s e d u r in g o r s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e w a r, many o f t h e members o f t h e s e t h r e e g ro u p s m ig r a te d t o R u s s ia , o r to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h o m e lan d s, n e v e r t o r e tu r n * W ith r e g a r d t o s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n i n p re -w a r L i t h u a n i a , we a g a in h av e no r e c o r d s .

N e v e r t h e l e s s , we do know t h a t t h e 1923 ce n su s shows

th e f o llo w in g s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n : m a le s , 4 7 .7 ^ , and f e m a le s , 5 2 .3 $ . P r a c t i c a l l y th e same f i g u r e s a r e g iv e n by th e s t a t i s t i c a l b u re a u o f Germany i n 1 9 2 7 , w h ich a r e a s f o llo w s : m a le s , 1 ,0 0 0 and f e m a le s , 1 ,0 5 9 * ^

T h is d i f f e r e n c e i s d u e m o s tly t o th e d e a th s c a u se d by t h e

w a r, and t o th e g r e a t e r e m ig r a tio n o f men*

I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , th e

L ith u a n ia n p o p u la tio n was r a t h e r e v e n ly d i s t r i b u t e d b e f o r e th e war*

TABLE I Some V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s on t h e P o p u la tio n o f L i th u a n i a ( P e r c e n ta g e s p e r th o u s a n d p o p u la tio n ) Y ear

M a rria g e s

B irth s

D eath s

T o ta l A nnual I n c r e a s e

1923

7 .1

2 8 .4

1 5 .4

1 3 .0

1927

8 .6

2 9 .4

1 7 .3

1 2 .1

1931

8 .0

2 6 .8

1 5 .8

1 1 .0

From t h e above s t a t i s t i c s , we g a t h e r t h a t th e a n n u a l b i r t h r a t e a f t e r th e w ar rem a in ed a t a b o u t 2 8 .0 p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u la tio n .

The m o r t a l i t y

r a t e i n p r e - w a r L i th u a n i a was v e r y h ig h , e s p e c i a l l y among i n f a n t s . A bout 40 p e r c e n t o f a l l i n f a n t s n e v e r re a c h e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r .

In

1 9 2 9 , even a f t e r c o n s id e r a b le p r o g r e s s i n t h e c a r e o f i n f a n t s , th e

1 . R a s c h k e s -R a s c h k e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 . L

J

10

r ^ 1 m o r t a l i t y r a t e among them was s t i l l 28%*

T

The u rb a n p o p u la tio n o f L ith u a n ia ,, a th o r o u g h ly a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y , was o n ly 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u la tio n b e f o r e t h e w a r, w h ile t h e re m a in in g p a r t was composed o f fa rm e rs an d t h e i r h i r e d w o rk e r s .

O f t h e fo rm e r, some 2 2 .9 1 p e r c e n t w ere in d e p e n d e n t o w n ers,

w h ile a b o u t 5 5 .8 2 /p e r : c e n t w ere s m a ll t e n a n t s who, i n o r d e r t o im prove t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n , w orked f o r o t h e r f a rm e rs an d l a n d l o r d s .

The

re m a in in g 2 1 .2 7 p e r c e n t was made u p m a in ly o f m anual l a b o r e r s , d e p e n ­ d e n t c h i e f l y u p o n t h e r i c h e r c l a s s , an d upon t h e g o v e rn m e n t. Among t h e L ith u a n ia n s i n th e h o m elan d , c e r t a i n w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d , n am ely , t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n v a r io u s d is tric ts .

F o r up u n t i l t h e f i r s t W orld W ar, L i th u a n i a was

d iv id e d i n t o tw o m ain p r o v in c e s , n a m e ly , t h a t o f K aunas, t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f L i t h u a n i a , and t h a t o f S u v a ik a i, t h e p r o v in c e s i t u a t e d b elo w t h e Niem en r i v e r i n t h e t r i a n g l e b etw ee n Germany and P o la n d .

T h is

c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n b etw ee n t h e two h ad i t s o r i g i n i n th e f a c t t h a t th e tw o w ere g o v ern ed by two d i s t i n c t l e g a l c o d e s .

The Kaunas

p r o v in c e , w h ich was t h e n o r th w e s te r n p a r t o f I m p e r ia l R u s s ia , was r u le d f o r a c e n tu r y and a q u a r t e r by t h e R u s s ia n I m p e r ia l C ode.

The

S u v a ik a i p r o v in c e , b e lo n g in g t o t h e W arsaw r e g i o n , was s i t u a t e d i n t h e s o u th w e s te r n p a r t o f t h e R u s s ia n E m p ire .

T h is l a t t e r r e g io n , from th e

tim e o f t h e N a p o le o n ic w a r s , was g o v e rn e d b y t h e F re n c h o r N a p o le o n ic C ode.

T h i s , i n many r e s p e c t s , d i f f e r e d c o n s id e r a b ly from t h e R u s s ia n

Code, and i n g e n e r a l , we may sa y t h a t i t was b e t t e r s u i t e d t o t h e L i th u a n i a n c h a r a c t e r b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y .

N ot o n ly t h e

1 . R a sc h k e s-R a sc h k e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 . L

J

11

r

-1

N a p o le o n ic Code, b u t a l s o th e e n t i r e F ren ch l e g a l sy stem was b e t t e r a d a p te d t o W e ste rn c u l t u r e .

The R u s s ia n Code, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was

b e t t e r s u i t e d t o E a s t e r n s o c i e t y , f o r t h i s l a t t e r was more s t a b l e , more o r g a n ic , and f u r th e r m o r e , i t was th o r o u g h ly p a t r i a r c h a l i n c h a r a c t e r . The p e o p le o f S u v a ik a i, h a v in g a b e t t e r a d a p te d l e g a l s y ste m , a l s o e n jo y e d g r e a t e r fre e d o m .

I n f a c t , th e y w ere a llo w e d t o h av e t h e i r own

s c h o o ls from t h e y e a r 1904 o n w ard s.

I t i s a w ell-k n o w n f a c t t h a t th e .

huge F re n c h a rm ie s o f N a p o leo n , w h ile m a rc h in g on Moscow i n 18 1 2 , s to p p e d i n e a s t e r n P o lan d and i n t h e S u v a ik a i p r o v in c e .

A fte r

N a p o le o n 's l a s t " b l i t z k r i e g ” had f a i l e d , th e w hole F ren ch army s t a r t e d t o r e t r e a t , and c e r t a i n o f i t s u n i t s r e tu r n e d by way o f L i t h u a n i a . B ecause t h e i r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s w ere a l r e a d y e x h a u s te d , many o f them d e c id e d t o s to p somewhere a lo n g t h e S u v a ik a i d i s t r i c t , and t h e r e th e y b eg an t o w ork among t h e p e a s a n t s .

F i n a l l y , th e y w ere c o m p le te ly

a b s o rb e d by t h e L ith u a n ia n p e o p le * ^ B e s id e s t h i s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l in f l u e n c e on t h e p e o p le o f S u v a ik a i, a n o t h e r made i t s e l f f e l t , n am ely , t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e o f th e G erm ans.

The L i t h u a n i a n s , l i v i n g v e r y c lo s e t o th e s e

n e ig h b o r s , and h a v in g many common p ro b le m s , h ad a s s i m i l a t e d many German s o c io -e c o n o m ic p a t t e r n s , among w h ich r u l e s c o n c e rn in g i n h e r i t a n c e a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r im p o rta n c e .

I n th e S u v a ik a i p r o v in c e , th e p a r e n t a l

p r o p e r ty ( u s u a l l y a f a r m ) , i f i t h ad l e s s th a n s e v e n ty o r e ig h ty a c r e s , c o u ld n o t b e d iv id e d among t h e members o f th e f a m i ly .

The e n t i r e la n d

was u s u a l l y t i l l e d by a l l t h e members o f th e f a m ily , and o n ly a f t e r t h e f a t h e r ’ s d e a th d id t h e e l d e s t so n i n h e r i t i t .

I n c a s e s w here t h e r e

1 . A. S ap o k a, L ie tu v o s I s t o r i j a , K au n as, 1932,. p .. 3 8 2 . L

J

12

r

“i

w ere s e v e r a l so n s i n t h e f a m i ly , th e y c o u ld re m a in t o g e t h e r , b u t i n m o st c a s e s th e y w ould le a v e t h e p a r e n t a l farm an d e n t e r some o t h e r o c c u p a tio n , a s t h e p u r s u i t o f s t u d i e s , s k i l l e d l a b o r , o r ev en m anual l a b o r on a n o t h e r fa rm .

A c e r t a i n num ber o f t h e s e young men w ould even

s e e k em ploym ent i n f a c t o r i e s . I n t h e Kaunas p r o v in c e , a d i f f e r e n t i n h e r i t a n c e la w p r e v a i l e d . H ere t h e p a r e n t a l e s t a t e was u s u a l l y d iv id e d among t h e c h i l d r e n , g e n e r a l l y i n t o two o r t h r e e p a r t s , w ith no a t t e n t i o n b e in g p a id t o t h e s i z e and t h e econom ic e f f i c i e n c y o f th e fa rm .

S in c e t h e f a m i l i e s

w ere g e n e r a l l y v e ry n u m ero u s, t h i s sy stem o f p a r c e l l i n g la n d was v e r y d e t r i m e n t a l f o r i t b ro p g h t a b o u t a to o rap id , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o p e r l y . T h is soon r e s u l t e d i n t h e im p o v e rish m e n t o f th e p e o p le . I t m u st b e a d m itte d t h a t i n th e e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f Kaunas p r o v in c e was s u p e r i o r .

H ow ever, to w ard t h e end o f

t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and t h e b e g in n in g o f th e t w e n t i e t h , i t becam e r a t h e r s ta g n a n t and u n p r o g r e s s iv e .

The L o w la n d e rs, a s t h e

p e o p le o f t h i s p r o v in c e w ere c a l l e d , p o s s e s s e d a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f s c h o o ls ; t h e i r g e n e r a l econom ic s ta n d a r d was lo w e r .

For th i s

r e a s o n , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e S u v a ik a i d i s t r i c t lo o k e d down upon th e m .

N e v e r th e le s s , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i n g e n e r a l w a s, and t o t h i s day

re m a in s , m ore s t a b l e , m ore f r i e n d l y and a l t r u i s t i c .

The S u v a ik a i

p e o p le , on t h e c o n t r a r y , a r e d i s t i n c t l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , a m b itio u s , s e l f - s e e k i n g , and f l e x i b l e , w ith a te n d e n c y to w a rd s a s u p e r i o r i t y com plex.

T hese t r a i t s o f b o th g ro u p s h av e n o t e n t i r e l y d is a p p e a r e d

ev en among th e L ith u a n ia n s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

L

J

IS

CHAPTER I I

STRUCTURE' OF THE LITHUANIAN FAMILY IN THE OLD COUNTRY

A* G e n e ra l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

E u ro p e , l i k e t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , i s p a r t o f th e g r e a t c u l t u r a l a r e a o c c u p ie d by W e s te rn C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n .

C e r t a in fu n d a m e n ta l c u l t u r e

p a t t e r n s , su ch a s monogamy, a r e p r a c t i c a l l y u n i v e r s a l th r o u g h o u t t h i s are a .

Y et i n E u ro p e , ev en m ore th a n w i t h i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , th e

fa m ily i n s t i t u t i o n shows many r e g i o n a l , c l a s s and r e l i g i o u s v a r i a t i o n s . E urope may he d iv id e d r o u g h ly i n t o t h r e e g r e a t s u b - a r e a s a s r e g a r d s fa m ily l i f e i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n .

Though th e s e a r e a s hav e no c l e a r

b o u n d a r ie s , l e t us r e f e r t o them a s th e N o r th e r n , S o u th e r n , and E a s te rn re g io n s . L ith u a n ia n s a s b e lo n g in g t o t h e n o r t h - e a s t s e c t i o n , o r g a n iz e d t h e fa m ily l i f e o r i g i n a l l y on t h e p a t t e r n t h a t m ig h t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e x - e q u a l i t y , m o d e ra te p h y s ic a l l a b o r f o r women w ith n o n - s e c lu s io n , c h i v a l r y , a s i n g l e s ta n d a r d o f s e x - b e h a v io u r , no d iv o r c e , l i t t l e

o r no

a d u l t e r y , n o n - s c i e n t i f i c i n f a n t c a r e , an d r ig o r o u s c h i l d d i s c i p l i n e . M a rria g e u s u a l l y to o k p la c e a t an e a r l y a g e , an d a lw a y s u n d e r s tr o n g C hurch c o n t r o l .

The g e n e r a l fa m ily p a t t e r n w as, and s t i l l i s , th e

p a t r i a r c h a l s y ste m .

So d e e p ly was t h i s sy stem r o o te d i n t h e s o c i a l

s t r u c t u r e o f th e c o u n try t h a t t h e v o lu n t a r y d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e i n d i ­ v id u a l fa m ily was r a r e l y c o n s id e r e d .

I n d e e d , i t was s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e .

F o r th e woman i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e was no r e f u g e o u ts id e t h e f a m ily e x c e p t t h e m ore o r l e s s d e s p is e d c o n d i t i o n o f th e s p in ,s t e r o r a l i f e o f £ ic e .

I n L i t h u a n i a , f a m ily l i f e c o r r e l a t i v e t o t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s , and j

14

r

“>

i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t r i t h t h e l a t t e r , was c o n firm e d by su ch le g a l-e c o n o m ic p r i n c i p l e s a s t h e f a m i l y - i n h e r i t e d t r a d e o r c r a f t an d th e r i g h t o f th e p e a s a n t fa m ily t o th e la n d i t c u l t i v a t e d .

T hese an d o t h e r re a s o n s hav e

made th e L i th u a n ia n f a m ily b o th a s o c i a l and econom ic u n i t .

The

s t a b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y o f f a m ily l i f e r e s u l t e d n o t o n ly from i n t e r n a l c o h e s io n , b u t i t was a l s o g r e a t l y a id e d by e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e and e t h i c a l m o t iv a t io n . Some o f th e m ost s t r i k i n g a s p e c t s o f th e o ld L i th u a n i a n f a m ily w ere i t s p a t r i a r c h a l f o m an d i t s a t t i t u d e to w ard s e x .

The h u sb an d

f a t h e r was i n evexy r e s p e c t t h e h ead o f th e h o u s e h o ld .

C h ild r e n

d e f e r r e d t o h i s w is h e s a s th e y d id t o t h e i r e l d e r s i n g e n e r a l .

The

good w if e to o was e x p e c te d t o c a t e r t o h e r h u s b a n d ’ s w an ts a s a m a t t e r o f c o u rse .

I n a l l fa m ily p ro b lem s and d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e r e was no d o u b t

t h a t f i n a l a u t h o r i t y r e s i d e d i n h im . by common s e n tim e n t and by la w .

T h is a u t h o r i t y was u p h e ld b o th

S tr a n g e t o s a y , even t h e w i f e ’ s

p e r s o n a l b e l o n g in g s , in c lu d in g money e a rn e d by h e r p e r s o n a l l y , and p r o p e r ty a c q u ir e d b e f o r e h e r m a r r i a g e , was t o b e d is p o s e d o f by h e r husband.

P u b lic o p in i o n , h o w e v e r, condemned t h e h u s b a n d ’ s r i g h t t o

i n f l i c t o o r p o r a l p u n ish m e n t on h i s w if e . C h ild r e n w ere l i k e w is e s u b o r d in a te t o t h e f a t h e r i n e v e ry r e s p e c t . He had t h e r i g h t , a t l e a s t by cu sto m , t o a l l t h e w ages e a rn e d by th em . N e v e r th e le s s o n ly a b o u t tw o - t h i r d s o f t h i s money w ent t o th e fa m ily fu n d , w h ile t h e c h i l d r e n w ere u s u a l l y a llo w e d t o k eep th e r e s t f o r sp e n d in g m oney.

I n c a s e s o f i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , th e f a t h e r and m o th e r (an d

i n r a r e c a s e s , e l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a s w e l l ) h ad t h e r i g h t t o i n f l i c t c o r p o r a l p u n is h m e n t, b u t n o t t o m u t i l a t e th em .

C h ild r e n w ere

■^aught t o b e s e e n r a t h e r th a n h e a r d , and t o s u b m it t o t h e w is h e s o f th e ^ fr

15

r e ld e rs.

The a t t i t u d e o f p a r e n t s to w a rd s t h e i r c h i l d r e n was g o v e rn e d by

t

a fu n d a m e n ta lly C h r i s t i a n p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e , an d h e n c e , t h e r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip b etw ee n p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , th o u g h a t f i r s t g la n c e somewhat c o ld and f o m a l , was i n r e a l i t y q u i t e f r i e n d l y and t o l e r a n t .

B. The I n n e r S t r u c t u r e E v ery i n s t i t u t i o n , a c c o r d in g t o Sumner,^- c o n s i s t s o f a c o n c e p t and a s tru c tu re .

The f u n c t i o n and p u rp o s e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a r e d e f in e d

i n th e c o n c e p t.

The L ith u a n ia n s u n d e r s to o d t h e f a m ily a c c o r d in g t o th e

C h r i s t i a n d e f i n i t i o n o f th e te rm , i . e . , a s a p erm an en t s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n o r g a n iz in g th e l i f e o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n o r d e r t o a c h ie v e g r e a t e r h a p p in e s s and t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f m an k in d .

T h is id e a was

p e rh a p s n o t v e ry c l e a r t o t h e a v e ra g e m in d , b u t e v e ry o n e p e r c e iv e d t h e immense im p o rta n c e o f t h e f a m ily i n s t i t u t i o n w h ich ta k e s c a r e o f t h e m o st v i t a l human i n t e r e s t s . The i n n e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily may b e b e t t e r se e n i f we exam ine i t s s o c i a l f u n c ti o n s and i t s i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A c c o rd in g t o O g b u m ,

p

t h e fa m ily f u n c t i o n s i n a r u r a l s o c i e t y a s

f o ll o w s : 1 . a f f e c t i o n a l , 2 . eco n o m ic, 3 . r e c r e a t i o n a l , 4 . p r o t e c t i v e , 5 . r e li g io u s , 6 . e d u c a tio n a l. As t o t h e a f f e c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n t h e L ith u a n ia n f a m i ly , i t was u n d o u b te d ly w i t h i n t h e f a m ily c i r c l e t h a t a t t i t u d e s o f l o y a l t y ,

1 . W. F . S um ner, F o lk w ay s, p p .

5 3 -5 6 . 2 . E . R. G row es, and -W. F . O g b u m , A m erican M a rria g e and F am ily R e l a t i o n ­ s h i p s , p . 1 4 9 ; c f . a l s o M owrer, F am ily D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , p p . 4 8 -5 6 , 1 1 0 -1 1 3 . S in c e O gbum d o es n o t t r e a t t h e p r o c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f th e f a m i ly , we w i l l n o t in c lu d e i t h e r e . T h is a s p e c t w i l l b e t r e a t e d m ore f u l l y to w a rd s t h e end o f t h i s c h a p t e r . L

-1

16

sy m path y , a l t r u i s m , c o o p e r a tio n , and good w i l l w ere d e v e lo p e d and fo s te re d .

H ere to o o b e d ie n c e t o a u t h o r i t y was i n c u l c a t e d .

A lth o u g h

t h e s e same v i r t u e s w ere t a u g h t b o th by C hurch and s c h o o l, i t was th e fa m ily e x p e r ie n c e t h a t l e f t t h e d e e p e s t im p r e s s io n on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , b e s id e s s e r v in g a s t h e medium w herehy t h e c u l t u r e th u s form ed was t r a n s m i t t e d to s u c c e e d in g g e n e r a t i o n s . The econom ic f u n c ti o n was h ig h l y c e n t r a l i z e d w i t h i n th e L ith u a n ia n f a m ily c i r c l e .

T h ere was t h e common f u n d , h a n d le d by th e f a t h e r , t o

w h ich t h e d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e fa m ily had t o c o n t r i b u t e a c c o r d in g to t h e i r c a p a c ity .

From t h i s fu n d th e e n t i r e h o u s e h o ld was p ro v id e d

w ith th e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e .

lAihen t h e c h i l d r e n m a r r i e d , t h e p a r e n t s

drew from t h i s same fu n d a sum o f money t o a s s i s t them i n s t a r t i n g t h e i r new l i f e .

I t s h o u ld b e n o te d h e r e t h a t b e c a u s e o f th e u n d e ­

v e lo p e d c o n d i tio n o f i n d u s t r y , th e home was t h e sc e n e o f many f l o u r i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s and o c c u p a tio n s . g r a i n , v e g e t a b l e s , f r u i t and l i n e n . h e r e c e iv e d a good r e t u r n .

Each la n d o w n er r a i s e d h i s own

From t h e s a l e o f d a i r y p r o d u c ts ,

S in c e p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e fo o d n eed e d by

t h e f a m ily was r a i s e d on t h e fa rm , and s in c e a l l t h e w ork c o n n e c te d w ith d o m e s tic l i f e was done by women, t h e e x p en se o f ru n n in g t h e farm and p r o v id in g f o r t h e fa m ily n e e d s was v e r y s m a ll. The r e c r e a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e L i th u a n ia n fa m ily i s v e ry i n t e r e s tin g f o r i t re v e a ls a tr u e p ic tu r e

of i t s s o lid a rity .

Of

c o u rs e i t had n o t th e v a r i e t y o f o u r d a y , and we c a n n o t c o n c e iv e

of

much am usem ent w ith o u t th e a i d o f a u to m o b ile s , r a d i o s , t h e a t r e s , e la b o ra te b a l l s , e t c e te r a .

Even t h e u s e o f e l e c t r i c i t y was l a c k i n g .

The p e o p le , h o w ev er, fo u n d am usem ent i n v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l s , w h ich w ere jie ld b e f o r e c e r t a i n f e a s t s , i n w edding an d B a p tism a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , i n

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17

n

r l e a v e - t a k i n g g a t h e r in g s when young men l e f t f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e o r f o r d i s t a n t la n d s *

T h ese o c c a s io n s w ere made v e r y im p re s s iv e *

In v ita tio n s

t o them w ere s e n t n o t o n ly t o i n d i v i d u a l s b u t t o e n t i r e f a m i l i e s so t h a t young and o ld a l i k e w ere in c lu d e d i n su c h e n te r ta in m e n ts * As t o t h e p r o t e c t i v e f u n c ti o n o f t h e L i th u a n ia n f a m i ly , l i t t l e n e e d be s a id h e r e , a s t h i s a s p e c t h a s b e e n d e a l t w ith i n d is c u s s in g th e g e n e r a l fa m ily s t r u c t u r e *

S in c e t h e c h i l d r e n w ere c l o s e l y s u p e r v is e d by

t h e i r p a r e n t s , an d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d ep en d en ce on them s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m ic a lly , and t o a c e r t a i n m e a s u re , even r e l i g i o u s l y , th e s e y o u n g e r members w ere p r o t e c t e d from t h e d is o r g a n i z in g in f l u e n c e o f th e o u ts id e w orld*

As r e g a r d s t h e p a r e n t s , th e y to o w ere p r o t e c t e d by t h e fa m ily

in s titu tio n *

Laws and custom s f a v o r e d them , and i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f

c a s e s th e y w ere p r o v id e d f o r i n t h e i r o ld ag e by t h e i r c h ild r e n * The r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t o f t h e L ith u a n i a n f a m ily was o f p rim e im p o r­ ta n c e from a m o r a l, and ev en from a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view*

In

f a c t i t was th e C hurch t h a t s a f e g u a r d e d and c o n t r o l l e d t h e f a m ily a s an i n s ti tu ti o n *

Even b e f o r e t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l i f e o f

t h e C hu rch , th e

members o f th e f a m ily r e c e iv e d c a r e f u l r e l i g i o u s

t r a i n i n g a t home* p a r i s h church*

The m a r r ia g e c e re m o n ie s w ere p e rfo rm e d o n ly i n th e

T hese w ere c a r r i e d o u t u s u a l l y by t h e p a s t o r who knew

th e young p e o p le from t h e i r c h ild h o o d *

M a rrie d c o u p le s w ere e x p e c te d

by custom t o a t t e n d th e c h u rc h s e r v i c e s t o g e t h e r w h en ev er p o s s ib le * B ut when th e fa m ily grew i n num ber and t h e r e w ere v e r y young c h i l d r e n t o b e ta k e n c a r e o f , e i t h e r th e f a t h e r o r m o th e r, o r one o f th e o ld e r members had t o be a b s e n t from Mass*

I n th e s e c a s e s t h e f a m ily w ould

be a sse m b le d d u r in g t h e h o u r o f Mass and th e Mass p r a y e r s , th e r o s a r y ^ind t h e v a r io u s l i t a n i e s w ould be r e c i t e d by t h e member i n ch arg e*

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r

D u rin g th e w eek, th e f a t h e r o r m o th e r w ould g iv e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s to t h e i r c h ild re n .

i

On Sunday a f t e r n o o n , th e d a y ’ s G ospel and th e m o rn in g ’s

serm on w ere e x p la in e d f o r th e b e n e f i t o f th o s e who c o u ld n o t go t o c h u rc h .

A f a m ily h a v in g a so n c o n s e c r a te d t o t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e A l t a r

e n jo y e d c o n s id e r a b le p r e s t i g e i n t h e com m unity. w ere h e ld i n g r e a t h o n o r and r e s p e c t .

The c le r g y th e m s e lv e s

The c o n s t r u c t i v e v a lu e o f

r e l i g i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t o t h e g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n L i th u a n i a i s c le a r ly e v id e n t. A few w ords h av e a l r e a d y b e e n s a i d c o n c e rn in g t h e q u e s tio n o f e d u c a tio n i n t h e L ith u a n ia n f a m i ly .

I t h a s b e e n p o in te d o u t t h a t

s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s w ere e n t i r e l y in a d e q u a te u n d e r R u s s ia n r u l e , w h ich fo r b a d e p e o p le t o be t a u g h t i n t h e i r n a t i v e to n g u e and a c c o r d in g t o t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s .

T h is h a n d ic a p had t o b e overcom e

p o s s i b l e b y home t r a i n i n g .

as fa r as

W h atev er e d u c a tio n y o u th was t o r e c e i v e ,

had t o b e p r o v id e d by th e f a m i ly .

A p r i v a t e t u t o r was engaged by th o s e

who w ere w e a lth y enough t o a f f o r d o n e .

T h is p e rs o n a g e was known o n ly

t o th o s e d i s c r e e t enough t o h id e h i s i d e n t i t y from gov ern m en t a u th o ritie s .

He u n d e rto o k t h e e d u c a tio n o f s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s u n d e r one

r o o f , and when he had t o w ith d ra w t o a v o id d e t e c t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n ’ s i n s t r u c t i o n was c o n tin u e d by th e m o th e r who t a u g h t them r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , an d a r i t h m e t i c , t o g e t h e r w ith r e l i g i o n .

When we r e a l i z e th e

r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll num ber o f L ith u a n ia n s who w ere e n t i r e l y i l l i t e r a t e b e f o r e t h e f i r s t W orld W ar, we r e c o g n iz e th e trem en d o u s t a s k p erfo rm e d by t h e L i th u a n ia n f a m ily .

We s e e to o t h e g r e a t im p o rta n c e o f t h e o ld

L i th u a n i a n f a m ily i n th e c u l t u r a l l i f e o f s o c i e t y . From t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily w hich we h av e •juried t o d e s c r i b e , l e t u s now t u r n t o i t s e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , b e g in n in g

19

r

w ith i t s a v e ra g e s i z e .

L e t i t be rem ark ed a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h e

n

L i th u a n ia n f a m ily was alw ay s l a r g e , and t h a t l a r g e f a m i l i e s w ere g e n e r a l l y h e ld i n r e s p e c t .

I t was n o t a n uncommon t h i n g t o f in d a s

many a s t e n o r m ore c h i l d r e n i n a v i l l a g e f a m i ly .

H ow ever, th e

a v e ra g e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily b e f o r e th e W orld War d id n o t ex ceed s i x i n num ber. A f t e r e x am in in g th e L ith u a n ia n f a m ily from i t s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s , l e t u s now lo o k a t i t from t h a t o f i t s l o n g e v i t y . d iv i d e th e l i f e o f t h e fa m ily i n t o s t a g e s .

To do t h i s l e t u s

P r o f e s s o r R. M clver^

d iv i d e d i t a s f o llo w s : t h e f o r m a tiv e p r e n u p t i a l s t a g e , th e n u p t i a l s ta g e b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f o f f s p r i n g , t h e s ta g e o f c h i l d r e a r i n g , and t h e s ta g e o f th e em pty hoisie, o r t h e p e r io d when th e o ld p a r t n e r s , h a v in g f u l f i l l e d t h e i r p a r e n t a l and econom ic d u t i e s , a r e l i v i n g to g e th e r in re tire m e n t.

T hese s ta g e s form an i n e v i t a b l e tim e -

s u c c e s s io n w h e re v e r t h e f a m ily e n d u re s and f u l f i l l s i t s p rim a ry s o c i a l fu n c tio n s .

The le n g t h o f e a c h p e r io d v a r i e s w ith s o c i a l c o n d itio n s

and w ith ti m e .

I n th e o ld L ith u a n ia n f a m ily , t h e f i r s t and seco n d

p e r io d s w ere u s u a l l y v e r y s h o r t .

The c h i l d - b e a r i n g p e r io d o f c o u rs e

depended on t h e m o th e r ’ s h e a l t h .

B i r t h - c o n t r o l was known a f t e r a

f a s h i o n , b u t b e c a u s e o f e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s , m o tiv e s , i t was seldom p ra c tis e d .

The l a s t s t a g e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e s t and i n a c t i v i t y , was

p e rh a p s t h e l o n g e s t i n d u r a t i o n .

A f t e r b r in g i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n

and s e e in g them s e t t l e d , t h e p a r e n t s u s u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h e i r p r o p e r ty among t h e i r c h i l d r e n and made t h e i r home w ith one o f th em , a s a r u l e w ith th e one who i n h e r i t e d t h e o ld h o m e ste a d .

1 . R o b e rt M c lv e r, S o c i e t y , New Y ork, 1 9 3 3 , p . 1 9 9 . L

J

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r

i

A few w ords m ig h t b e ad d ed h e r e r e l a t i v e t o d is o r g a n i z in g m ovements

i n th e L i th u a n ia n f a m ily .

I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t th e g e n e r a l

s t r u c t u r e was s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e r e w ere c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o ra liz a ­ t i o n w hich te n d e d t o d i s r u p t t h e p r e - w a r :'L ith u a n ia n f a m ily . t h e s e w ere a d u l t e r y an d i l l e g i t i m a c y .

Two o f

G e n e r a lly s p e a k in g , a d u l t e r y was

r a r e i n L i th u a n ia n s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y among th e o r d in a r y p e o p le . w ould b e h a r d t o s t a t e a c c u r a t e l y t o w h at e x t e n t i t e x i s t e d .

It

O b se r­

v a t i o n shows t h a t d i f f e r e n t s ta n d a r d s e x i s t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . U n d h a s tity was r e g a r d e d more o r l e s s w i t h t o l e r a n c e among s e r v a n t g i r l s , w h ile among p e o p le o f h ig h e r s o c i e t y , i t was s e v e r e l y condem ned. Hence i l l e g i t i m a c y w i t h i n o r o u ts id e t h e fa m ily was a lm o s t e x c l u s i v e ly a phenomenon o f th e lo w e r c l a s s e s ,

W hile i t w ould be d i f f i c u l t t o

i n d i c a t e w ith e x a c t i t u d e t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f i l l e g i t i m a c y , i t w ould be s a f e t o s a y t h a t up t o th e W orld W ar, i t n e v e r ex ce ed ed f i v e p e r c e n t . D iv o rc e , b i r t h - c o n t r o l , a b o r t i o n , i n c e s t and s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s w ere a lm o s t e n t i r e l y unknown.

Much m ore common w ere s e p a r a t i o n ,

d e s e r t i o n , and d o m e stic d i s c o r d .

Due t o th e a b s e n c e o f l e g a l d i v o r c e ,

and i t s s tr o n g p r o h i b i t i o n by th e C h u rch , d o m e stic d is c o r d g e n e r a l l y ended i n s e p a r a t i o n , o r i n some s o r t o f d o m e s tic r e c o n c i l i a t i o n .

In

t h e e v e n t o f d i s c o r d , i f o b j e c t i o n s w ere r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e h u sb a n d , t h e u s u a l outcom e was a l i f e o f c o n tin u e d b i c k e r i n g .

B ut i f t h e f a u l t

b e lo n g e d t o t h e w if e , t h e p ro b lem was m ore s e r i o u s , and i n many c a s e s ended i n a r b i t r a r y s e p a r a t i o n w ith , th e c a s e re m a in in g u n s e t t l e d b o th l e g a l l y and r e l i g i o u s l y .

The p a r t i e s l i v e d a p a r t , t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n

g o in g w ith t h e m o th e r, and t h e o l d e r o n es re m a in in g w ith t h e f a t h e r . Thus we s e e t h a t a num ber o f n e g a t iv e e le m e n ts w ere a t w o rk , t o d is o r g a n i z e f a m ily l i f e i n p r e - w a r L i t h u a n i a .

T hese h o w ev er, w ere

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n

n e i t h e r so s tr o n g n o r so w id e s p re a d a s t o c a u se s e r i o u s d e tr im e n t to th e fa m ily i n s t i t u t i o n , ■which i n f a c t rem ain ed a s tr o n g r e s i s t e n t , and w e ll- b a la n c e d s o c i a l u n i t .

L

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CHAPTER I I I MIGRATION

Many reasons prompted the emigration of the Lithuanian to the United States, among 'which might be mentioned the desire to escape military service or the czarist persecution; but the most outstanding motive -was the economic situation.

As already mentioned, a large

percentage of the Lithuanian population were small land tenants unable to provide adequately for their family needs, and who were hence dependent on richer farm owners or landlords. be added the

To this might

agricultural proletariat,” consisting of domestic

servants, farm hands and unskilled laborers who barely managed to eke out a living.

This class had a natural admiration for the independant

farm owners, and their greatest ambition was to save sufficient money to buy a farm and to establish a home for themselves. possible way of doing this was to emigrate.

The only

Many of them left their

country, therefore, for England, Germany, and the United States.

This

lattdr was for the Lithuanian, as for so many other emigrants, ”the Promised Land.” Young men by the hundred, and even young women, in spite of strong protests on the part of the clergy and of parents, set out for the German border on their way to America, to freedom and wealth. As early as 1867, large numbers of Lithuanians had arrived at these shores.

Some of them settled on New England farms, others went

on to the mines of Pennsylvania or found work building railroads. Before long fair sized groups of Lithuanians were to be found along Hihe Atlantic seaborad and in the Middle West.

J. Jonas in his book,

23

L ith u a n ia n s i n A m eric a, p o i n t s o u t w ith some e x a g g e r a tio n t h a t " i n 1899 t h e r e w ere 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 L ith u a n ia n s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s I n

1914

t h e A m erican F e d e r a l Governm ent s t a t i s t i c s showed t h a t from 1899 t o 1914 2 5 2 ,5 9 3 L ith u a n ia n s had la n d e d i n A m eric a, and t h a t d u r in g t h e same p e r io d o n ly 1 9 ,1 7 1 o r 13*2 p e r c e n t o f them r e tu r n e d t o L ith u a n ia * t h e n e x t i n f l u x was a b o u t 2 3 3 ,4 2 3 .

Thus

I n th e m e an tim e, p ro b a b ly 7 5 ,0 0 0

d i e d , w h ile o n ly a b o u t 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 w ere b o r n , t h i s b e in g due t o t h e s m a ll num ber o f m a r r ia g e s among th e m .

T ak in g th e s e t h i n g s i n t o a c c o u n t, th e

t o t a l num ber o f L ith u a n ia n s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s i n 1914 c o u ld n o t have b e e n m ore th a n 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 , and o f t h e s e a b o u t 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 w ere n a t i v e b o r n , and 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 i m m i g r a n t s F r o m 1914 t o 1941 t h e i n c r e a s e due t o im m ig ra tio n was o f f - s e t by t h e l a r g e num ber o f d e a t h s .

On t h e o th e r

h a n d , t h e i n c r e a s e due t o b i r t h among im m ig ra n ts an d l a t e r among t h e n a t i v e - b o r n h a s r a i s e d t h e num ber o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s i n t h i s c o u n try c o n s id e r a b ly .

T h u s, t h e a p p ro x im a te num ber o f L ith u a n ia n s i n

t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n 1 9 4 1 , in c lu d in g th o s e b o rn h e r e o f L i th u a n i a n e x t r a c t i o n , i s c l o s e t o 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 , o f whom a b o u t 27 p e r c e n t o r 1 6 0 ,0 0 0 “a r e im m ig ra n ts ; 48 p e r c e n t

o r 2 9 0 ,0 0 0 a r e n a t i v e s o f im m ig ra n t

p a r e n t a g e , and 23 p e r c e n t o r 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 a r e o f t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n . A lth o u g h l a r g e r o r s m a l le r g ro u p s o f t h e L ith u a n ia n p e o p le can v i r t u a l l y b e fo u n d i n e v e ry s t a t e o f th e U n io n , m o st o f them s t i l l i n h a b i t t h e a r e a s w here th e y f i r s t s e t t l e d , n am ely , New E n g la n d , th e M id d le - A t la n ti c , and t h e C e n tr a l S t a t e s .

The f o llo w in g t a b l e g iv e s a

ro u g h id e a a s t o t h e i r num ber i n some S t a t e s .

1 . J . J o n a s , L ith u a n ia n s i n A m eric a, P ly m o u th , P a . , 1 8 9 9 , p* 1 3 . 2 . The 1930 U .S . C ensus shows t h a t t h e r e a r e 4 3 9 ,1 9 5 p e o p le o f L i th u a n i a n s to c k i n t h i s c o u n t r y , o f whom 1 9 3 ,6 0 6 a r e f o r e i g n - b o r n , w h ile 2 4 5 ,5 8 9 a r e n a t i v e - b o r n . ,

24

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TABLE I I

^

S t a t e s H av in g t h e G r e a te s t Humber o f L ith u a n ia n - S to c k P eo p le

S ta te

1930 U .S . C ensus

P e n n s y lv a n ia ......................... I l l i n o i s ................................... M a s s a c h u s e tts New Y o rk C o n n e c tic u tt.• • • • • • • New J e r s e y .............................. M ic h ig a n * • • • • • • • • • • . O hio .......................................... W is c o n s in ........................ M a ry la n d .......... O th e r S t a t e s * • • • • • • •

Our E s tim a tio n (1 9 4 1 )♦

9 9 ,8 8 2 9 2 ,9 6 1 5 5 ,7 7 5 4 9 ,2 3 5 3 0 ,6 9 0 2 3 ,2 4 7 20,4 8 9 1 6 ,1 5 4 8 ,6 3 2 7 ,4 4 3 3 4 ,6 8 4

1 3 5 ,0 0 0 1 3 0 ,0 0 0 7 0 ,0 0 0 6 0 ,0 0 0 4 0 ,0 0 0 3 0 ,0 0 0 2 5 ,0 0 0 2 0 ,0 0 0 1 0 ,0 0 0 1 0 ,0 0 0 7 0 ,0 0 0

* We a l s o in c lu d e L ith u a n ia n s o f t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n , n u m bering a b o u t 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 . As t o th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e L ith u a n ia n s who came t o t h i s c o u n tr y , th e y w ere f o r t h e m o st p a r t o f t h e young g e n e r a t i o n and th e y w ere m o s tly men* I t w ould be d i f f i c u l t t o s a y j u s t e x a c t l y w hat was t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f men and o f women among t h e e a r l y L ith u a n i a n im m ig ra n ts , b u t a s t o t h e l a t e r p e r io d we hav e q u i t e good s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta *

A c c o rd in g t o t h e Im m ig ra tio n

B ureau f i g u r e s , t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f m a les among L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts from t h e y e a r 1899 t o 1914 was a b o u t 72 p e r cent.-*-

One c a n r e a d i l y s e e t h a t

th e L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra tio n was n o t i n any s e n s e a n im m ig ra tio n o f f a m i l i e s , b u t one o f u n m a rrie d men* o f im m ig ra n t l i f e *

T h is i s an im p o r ta n t f a c t o r i n t h e t o t a l s e t - u p

I n many i n s t a n c e s i t a c c o u n ts f o r c o n d i tio n s t h a t

a f f e c t th e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r r a t h e r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , o f im m ig ran t s o c i e t y i n t h i s c o u n tr y , w h ich w i l l b e t r e a t e d m ore f u l l y i n a f o llo w in g c h a p te r* As t o t h e a g e , R everend A* M ilu k a s , fo rm e r p a s t o r o f The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n 1. L

The p e r c e n ta g e o f L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n t m a le s i s c o m p a ra tiv e ly low* P r o f e s s o r E . H* F a i r c h i l d p o i n t s o u t t h a t d u r in g t h i s same p e r io d tU e re w ere 96 p e r c e n t m ale G reek im m ig ra n ts , and o f t h e s e , th e g r e a t e r num ber w ere u n m a rr ie d ; c f . G reek I m m ig r a tio n , New H aven, Y ale U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 1 1 , p p . 111-113*

25

r

i

C h u rch , M a sp e th , L . I . , New Y o rk , a s s u r e d me t h a t w ith few e x c e p tio n s ,

t h e L ith u a n ia n s whom h e m et a t v a r io u s p o r t s o f a r r i v a l i n t h i s c o u n try w ere u n d e r t h i r t y - f i v e , v ig o r o u s and a m b iti o u s .

H a rd ly any o f them

had o v e r a h u n d re d d o l l a r s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s io n on l a n d in g .

D u rin g t h e

y e a r s 1 9 0 5-1914 th e U n ite d Im m ig ra tio n B ureau p o in t s o u t t h a t o n ly 3 ,5 1 8 ,4 5 5 d o l l a r s w ere ta k e n i n t o t h i s c o u n try by 1 4 8 ,9 0 3 L i th u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts —a n a v e ra g e o f $24 p e r p e r s o n I The p e r c e n ta g e o f s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s among th e L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n ts was p r o b a b ly v e r y lo w , m a in ly b e c a u s e L i th u a n i a w as, and s t i l l i s , p r in c ip a lly an a g r ic u ltu r a l c o u n try .

F o r t h i s same r e a s o n , i l l i t e r a c y

r a n r a t h e r h ig h , so much so t h a t 43 p e r c e n t o f t h e L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n ts w ere i l l i t e r a t e s , a c c o r d in g t o t h e im m ig ra tio n s t a t i s t i c s .

H ow ever,

t h e i n t e r e s t i n and t h e d e s i r e f o r a n e d u c a tio n was u s u a l l y p r e s e n t b u t u n r e a l i z e d b e c a u s e o f R u s s ia n o p p r e s s io n .

One o f t h e i r f i r s t p re o c c u ­

p a t io n s i n t h i s c o u n try was t o f i n d some c o u rs e o f i n s t r u c t i o n .

Many a

L ith u a n i a n im m ig ran t w i l l f o n d ly r e c a l l h i s f i r s t e x p e r ie n c e i n a n A m erican n i g h t s c h o o l.

T hose who h ad h i g h e r a m b itio n s e a g e r ly s e iz e d

t h e v a r io u s e l e c t i v e s o f f e r e d t o a l l b y t h e A m erican sy stem o f f r e e e d u c a tio n .

T h u s, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a g e s , n o t a few o f them became

en g ag e d i n th e l e g a l and m e d ic a l p r o f e s s i o n s , i n t e a c h i n g , and i n th e s e r v i c e o f th e C hurch C o u rag e, en e rg y and a m b itio n w ere p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r th e L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n t.

He had t o a d a p t h im s e lf n o t o n ly t o a n e n t i r e l y new s o c i a l

and econom ic o r d e r , b u t a l s o t o r e c o n s t r u c t th o r o u g h ly h i s i n d i v i d u a l life .

The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o n ly a c h ie v e d t h i s t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t .

It

was t o b e more f u l l y a c h ie v e d o n ly when th e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily o f t h e seco n d g e n e r a tio n w ould h av e b e e n fo rm ed .

.

26

CHAPTER IV

TOmRD THE FORMATION OF THE LITHUANIAN-AMERICM FAMILY

A* S o c ia l and Econom ic M a la d ju stm e n t

P re -w a r L i th u a n i a i s a t y p i c a l exam ple o f a w e ll - b a la n c e d s o c i a l life .

As we h av e a l r e a d y s e e n , L ith u a n ia n fa m ily l i f e a c c u r a t e l y

r e f le c te d th e s o c ia l s tr u c t u r e .

E m ig r a tio n , h o w ev er, became

n e c e s s a r y , and t h i s s e v e r in g o f f a m ily t i e s , t h e le a v in g o f p e a c e f u l homes an d co m m u n itie s, th e s e p a r a t i o n from t h e f a t h e r l a n d c a u se d a s e r i o u s c r i s i s i n th e h i s t o r y o f th e c o u n tr y .

L ik e m o st p e o p l e s , and

p e rh a p s m ore so th a n o t h e r s , t h e L i th u a n ia n was a t t a c h e d t o h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e , t o h i s p e a c e f u l home, and t o th e t r a d i t i o n s o f h i s f o r e f a t h e r s . Hence we can r e a l i z e t h e m o ra l s t r e n g t h i t r e q u ir e d t o p a r t from a l l th e se .

T h is s e n tim e n t o f f a m ily s o l i d a r i t y , t h i s lo v e o f c o u n tr y , was

so s tr o n g t h a t a t tim e s i t r e s t r a i n e d t h e w o u ld -b e im m ig ra n t from t a k i n g th e f i n a l s t e p o f s e p a r a t i o n .

T hese same s e n tim e n ts a l s o

e x p l a in why th o s e who d id h av e t h e co u ra g e t o e m ig ra te d id so i n g ro u p s . Group o r m ass movement i s alw ay s e a s i e r from a p s y c h o lo g ic a l p o in t o f v ie w th a n i n d i v i d u a l m i g r a t i o n . T h is b r e a k in g u p o f f a m ily t i e s b r o u g h t a b o u t by e m ig r a tio n was d e t r i m e n t a l t o many s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .

So much so t h a t i t some­

tim e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s o f p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r .

In o th e r c a s e s ,

h ow ever, th ro u g h th e medium o f new ly c r e a te d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e i r s t r a n g e e n v iro n m e n t, many L ith u a n ia n e m ig ra n ts s u c c e e d e d i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b a la n c e o f t h e i r somewhat d i s l o c a t e d L

J

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liv e s .

Thus i t -was t h a t fo rm e r b e h a v io u r p a t t e r n s w ere t o some e x t e n t

re s to re d .



I t m u st be b o rn e i n m in d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t th e p r o c e s s o f

r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was a lo n g o n e , and so la b o r i o u s t h a t i t to o k many y e a r s t o a c c o m p lis h . How t h i s r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n was e f f e c t e d i s a q u e s ti o n beyond th e sco p e o f t h i s l i m i t e d s u r v e y .

C e r t a in p h a s e s o f i t , h o w ev er, a r e

i n t e r e s t i n g t o a n a ly z e i n so f a r a s th e y c o n t r i b u t e t o th e b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e g e n e r a l f a m ily s t r u c t u r e . L ik e m o st im m ig ra n ts , t h e L ith u a n ia n s b e l ie v e d t h a t th e y w ould f i n d i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a la n d o f u n p a r a l l e l e d l i b e r t y , w o n d e rfu l o p p o r t u n i t y , and b l i s s f u l h a p p i n e s s .

B ut w h ile j u s t i f i e d i n many

r e s p e c t s , t h i s dream was e x a g g e r a te d and d e s ti n e d one day t o end i n b i t t e r d is illu s io n m e n t.

I n f a c t th e y w ere n o t lo n g h e r e b e f o r e th e y

r e a l i z e d t h a t l i f e i n A m erica w ould mean i n c e s s a n t l a b o r i n t h e ra n k s o f t h e p o o r w o rk in g c l a s s , s e g r e g a t i o n , and f i n a l l y , a lo n g , b i t t e r s tru g g le f o r e x is te n c e .

The f o llo w in g q u o ta tio n from th e l e t t e r o f a

L i th u a n ia n t o h i s r e l a t i v e s i n E urope i s t y p i c a l o f w h at t h e newcomers t o t h e s e s h o re s e x p e r ie n c e d . The s i t u a t i o n i n w h ich I found m y s e lf was e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t and e m b a r r a s s in g . H aving no know ledge o f E n g l is h , I was u n a b le t o a s k f o r d i r e c t i o n s , and h a v in g no f r i e n d t o whom I c o u ld t u r n i n t h i s f o r e i g n la n d , a f e e l i n g o f a b s o l u t e abandonm ent s e iz e d m e. As I g ro p e d a lo n g , p e o p le s t a r e d c o ld ly a t m e, w h ile o th e r s sim p ly p a s s e d me by u n n o ti c e d . A f t e r lo n g h o u rs o f w a n d e rin g , I f i n a l l y s tu m b le d upon a n i g h t 's lo d g in g i n a ch ea p b o a r d in g - h o u s e . F o r tu n a t e ly t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h e L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts e x p e r ie n c e d w ere n o t augm ented by u n p le a s a n t tr e a tm e n t a t t h e h an d s o f t h e A m erican p o l i c e and im m ig ra tio n o f f i c i a l s .

The l a t t e r w ere i n

g e n e r a l p o l i t e and o b l i g i n g , th o u g h th e y knew l i t t l e

o r n o th in g a b o u t

j

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L i th u a n i a a s a n a t i o n .

A t t h a t tim e L i th u a n i a was i n f a c t u n d e r

n

R u s s ia n r u l e , h e n c e th e te n d e n c y o f a l l p o r t o f f i c i a l s t o c l a s s i f y th e L i th u a n ia n im m ig ra n t a s a R u s s ia n . d is p r o v e

T h is t h e L ith u a n ia n s t r i e d t o

by s t a t i n g t h a t th e y w ere C a t h o l i c s .

D e s p ite t h e i r b e s t

e f f o r t s , th e y w ere f r e q u e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d e i t h e r a s R u s s ia n s o r P o le s . A n o th e r o b s e r v a ti o n m ig h t b e.m ad e h e r e .

As i s n o t uncommon among th e

n a t i v e s o f s m a ll n a t i o n s i n E u ro p e , many L ith u a n ia n s knew a t l e a s t one o t h e r la n g u a g e b e s id e s t h e i r own.

Some f o r exam ple w ere c o n v e rs a n t

w ith th e German to n g u e , a f a c t t h a t l e d t o t h e i r b e in g c l a s s e d a s G erm ans.

O th e rs knew P o lis h o r R u s s ia n .

A ll th e s e f a c t s e x p l a in i n

a l a r g e m e a su re t h e in a c c u r a c y o f o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s c o n c e rn in g L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts . To g iv e a b r i e f , b u t d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e f i r s t im p re s s io n s made by A m erican l i f e upon t h e L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n t w ould n o t be e a s y . T hese im p r e s s io n s w ere p r o b a b ly s i m i l a r t o th o s e e x p e r ie n c e by o th e r im m ig ra n ts o f th e same p e r i o d .

The f i r s t s t r i k i n g t h i n g w h ich th e y

rem ark ed was t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f la n g u a g e s h e a r d i n t h e s t r e e t s o f a c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n New Y o rk .

T h is was i n m arked c o n t r a s t t o c o n d i tio n s

i n E urope w here each c o u n try h ad one s p e c i f i c m o th e r - to n g u e , and w here i t was r a t h e r uncommon t o h e a r o t h e r la n g u a g e s sp o k e n .

The p re s e n c e t o o ,

o f .so many d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s and r a c e s m u st h av e b e w ild e re d them , e s p e c i a l l y i f we remember t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f L ith u a n ia n s had n e v e r b e f o r e s e e n a C h in e se o r a N eg ro .

Ilshat im p re s s e d them m o s t, ho w ev er,

was th e m e ch an iz ed a s p e c t o f A m erican l i f e , and t h e g i g a n t i c s c a l e on w hich t h i n g s w ere d o n e .

The lo n g s t r e e t s and a v e n u e s , th e to w e rin g

s k y s c r a p e r s , a l l t h i s t o g e t h e r w ith t h e s q u a lo r o f t h e slum s made th e jiram igrant r e f l e c t d e e p ly .

B ut t h o u g h .th e s i z e , t h e n o i s e , th e w e a lth , j

29

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t

and th e p o v e r ty o f th e c i t y somewhat b e w ild e r e d th e L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n t, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t v e r y many o f them a c t u a l l y s e t t l e d down i n th e l a r g e c i t i e s , and n o t i n th e r u r a l s e c t i o n s o f th e c o u n tr y .

Thus we

f in d t h a t n o t a few o f them to o k u p t h e i r ab o d e i n t h e crow ded b u s in e s s a r e a s , l i v i n g t h e r e w ith t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s , a f a c t w h ich p ro v e s t h a t th e L ith u a n ia n s p o s s e s s e d c o n s id e r a b le a d a p t a b i l i t y . Q uick a d a p t a b i l i t y o r f a c i l i t y o f a s s i m i l a t i o n is . a s ig n o f • e i t h e r a weak n a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r o f a h ig h ly f l e x i b l e c u ltu ra l s tr u c tu re .

T h is l e t t e r m akes i t e a sy f o r a man t o a d o p t

a s tr a n g e c u l t u r e , an d t o e s t a b l i s h h im s e lf s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a new s o c ie ty .

B oth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t e s p e c i a l l y t h e l a t t e r , w ere found

i n t h e L i th u a n ia n im m ig ra n t.

We s h o u ld n o t t h i n k , h o w ev er, t h a t t h i s

p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was sm ooth and e a s y , and t h a t i t d id n o t in v o lv e any e m o tio n a l s h o c k , o r s a c r i f i c e .

F o r a t tim e s , th e

L ith u a n ia n fo u n d th e g ap b etw een h i s own c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and th e A m erican way o f l i f e to o g r e a t t o b e b r id g e d e a s i l y , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t a d a p t a t i o n became slo w and l a b o r i o u s .

F u rth e rm o re , c e r t a i n

L ith u a n ia n s d i s l i k e d v a r io u s p h a s e s o f A m erican l i f e n o t i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e b e h a v io u r p a t t e r n c h e r is h e d i n t h e i r own n a t i v e la n d . C u lt u r a l d iv e r g e n c e s o f v a r io u s k in d s p ro d u ced s e v e r e i n n e r c o n f l i c t s and d i s o r d e r s . The u p s h o t o f th e s e v a r io u s e x p e r ie n c e s was t h a t many L i th u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts l o s t c o n fid e n c e i n t h e A m erican way o f l i f e and la p s e d i n t o a s p i r i t o f lo n e ly i s o l a t i o n .

F o llo w in g i n t h e o r d in a r y p a th o f t h e

p e s s i m i s t s , th e y b eg an t o a v o id t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e i r m ore A m e ric a n iz e d f r i e n d s , an d th u s u n w i t t i n g l y , a b a r r i e r s e p a r a t i n g them from e x t e r n a l ^ m e r ic a n iz in g in f l u e n c e s wra s c r e a t e d .

B eing o f su ch a fram e o f m in d ,

j

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“i

t h e i r th o u g h ts n a t u r a l l y tu r n e d t o th e ho m elan d , and t o c h e r is h e d m em ories o f th e p a s t .

O nly th e s e p l e a s a n t r e m in is c e n c e s o f th e

hom eland and o f t h e p a s t , r e l i e v e d t h e i r p essim ism and g lo o m ,. The f o llo w in g s t o r y ta k e n from t h e u n p u b lis h e d l i f e - h i s t o r y o f a L ith u a n ia n g i r l w i l l i n a g e n e r a l way i l l u s t r a t e th e aboves Upon coming t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s I o b ta in e d a p o s i t i o n i n a J e w ish r e s t a u r a n t w here th e w ork was e x tre m e ly h a r d , u n p le a s a n t and u n s a n i t a r y , I rem ain ed h e r e f o r t h r e e m o n th s, b u t f i n a l l y , b e c a u se o f p i t i f u l l y low wages and t h e v e r y a rd u o u s w ork t o w h ich I was n o t a c c u sto m e d , I was f o r c e d t o l e a v e . B eing f o r t u n a t e enough t o o b ta in a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n w ith a German f a m i ly , I fo u n d th e w ork t h e r e m ore p l e a s a n t , c l e a n e r and m ore r e m u n e r a tiv e . H ow ever, I c o u ld n o t g e t u se d t o th e new a tm o s p h e re . A ll was so d i f f e r e n t from w hat I h ad known a t hom e. L ack o f know ledge o f t h e E n g lis h la n g u a g e and o t h e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s — a l l t h e s e , c o u p le d w ith a n a tr o p h y in g n o s t a l g i a c o n t r i b u te d t o c r e a t e a m e n ta l c o n d i tio n o f d e s o l a t i o n and d e s p a i r , I h ad no r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s t o whom I c o u ld t u r n . One d a y , t h e r e f o r e , w h ile c l e a n in g windows on th e f o u r t h s t o r e y , I d e c id e d t o commit s u i c i d e by le a p in g t o t h e s t r e e t . B e fo re t a k in g th e f i n a l s t e p , h o w ev er, I p ra y e d a l i t t l e , an d s tr a n g e a s i t may seem , t h e d e s i r e t o k i l l m y s e lf somehow p a s s e d aw ay. I l a t e r beg an to g e t a c c lim a te d and f i n a l l y found my b e a r i n g s .^ I n t r e a t i n g o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f th e L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n t, a n o th e r f a c t m ust b e ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , n am ely , t h e d e t e r ­ m in a tio n o f a b o u t 90 % o f a l l L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts t o r e t u r n one day to t h e i r n a tiv e c o u n try .

T h is d e s i r e t o r e t u r n , on t h e one h a n d , and

a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o th e A m erican way o f l i f e , on t h e o t h e r , w ere o b v io u s ly two d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o sed f o r c e s .

Of t h e s e , t h e d e s i r e t o

r e t u r n t o L i th u a n i a u s u a l l y p r e v a i l e d , and h e n c e , a l l t h e en e rg y and e f f o r t s o f t h e im m ig ra n t w ere d i r e c t e d t o t h i s one a im .

I t was t h i s

m o tiv e t h a t l e d th em t o lo w e r t h e i r s ta n d a r d s o f l i v i n g a s r e g a r d s

jL. U n p u b lish ed l i f e h i s t o r y docum ent.

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fo o d , c l o t h i n g , r e c r e a t i o n and e d u c a tio n , by l i m i t i n g th e m s e lv e s t o t h e

b a re n e c e s s itie s o f l i f e .



B ecau se o f t h i s same m o tiv e , th e y w ere w i l l i n g

t o a c c e p t any o c c u p a tio n how ever m e n ia l o r u n s a n i t a r y , a s lo n g a s i t h e lp e d them f i n a n c i a l l y .

The e d u c a tio n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n was n e g l e c t e d ,

r e c r e a t i o n was reg ard ed , a s u n n e c e s s a r y , and o c c u p a tio n s su ch a s s a lo o n k e e p in g o r even s t r e e t - c l e a n i n g w ere a c c e p te d a s means t o an e n d .

T h is

a t t i t u d e d id n o t te n d t o make them good A m e ric a n s. F o r t u n a t e l y , h o w ev er, th e W orld War o f 1914 h e lp e d t o change t h i s a ttitu d e .

C om m unications b etw een d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s w ere i n t e r r u p t e d

by t h e w a rj o cea n t r a v e l became d a n g e ro u s .

The th o u g h t o f w a r; and o f

t h e d e s t r u c t i o n and d i s a s t e r t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y f o llo w e d i n i t s w ake, g r e a t l y dampened t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o L i t h u a n i a .

Prom t h a t tim e

on, t h e L ith u a n i a n im m ig ra n t b eg an t o r e c o n c i l e h im s e lf t o h i s p r e s e n t mode o f l i f e , and n o t t o c o n s id e r i t m e re ly a s a s ta g e i n a jo u rn e y t h a t would te r m in a t e when th e y would h av e r e tu r n e d t o t h e i r n a t i v e v i l l a g e s i n th e h o m elan d .

T h u s, one o f t h e m o st im p o r ta n t o b s t a c l e s

t o A m e r ic a n iz a tio n d is a p p e a r e d . T h ere e x i s t e d a n o th e r c a u s e o f s o c i a l m a la d ju s tm e n t among t h e L ith u a n i a n im m ig ra n ts .

F o r, a s a l r e a d y n o te d , many among them d id

n o t m a rry , w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t a t t h i s tim e , f a m ily l i f e was n o t w id e ly e s t a b l i s h e d .

T h is f a i l u r e t o m a rry was due t o th e r e l a t i v e l y

s m a ll num ber o f women.

But t h e r e w ere th o s e who a v o id e d m a rr ia g e so

a s t o be a b le t o sa v e m ore m oney, and t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r c o u n try w ith l e s s encu m b ran ce.

Home l i f e s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y i n co n seq u en ce o f t h i s .

W o rk e rs, a f t e r a h a rd d a y ’ s w ork i n t h e f a c t o r y o r c o a l m in e , w ould spend t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u rs i n s a lo o n s o r p o o lro o m s.

H ere th e y w h ile d

^way t h e tim e i n d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n a l t r o u b l e s , p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , o r i n j

32

r t d r in k i n g and g a m b lin g , b o th o f -which o f t e n enough ended i n f i g h t s , and i n th e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e .

The g r e a t e r number o f L ith u a n ia n

im m ig ra n ts , h o w ev er, w ere la w - a b id in g and o r d e r l y . L ack o f fa m ily l i f e , a s s e e n a b o v e , was a s e r io u s s o c i a l m a la d ju s tm e n t f o r i t h a s b een my o b s e r v a ti o n t h a t -w herever fa m ily l i f e i s w eak, p r o g r e s s and t h e p r o c e s s o f A m e r ic a n iz a tio n a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y r e t a r d e d . A t t h e tim e o f th e W orld W ar, th e num ber o f women im m ig ra n ts in c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y , and i n co n seq u en c e t h e num ber o f m a r r ia g e s li k e w is e b eg an t o grow . once m o re.

W ith t h i s , t h e n o rm al d ev elo p m en t o f f a m ily l i f e b eg an

T h is , a s a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d , f o s t e r e d t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i ­

m i l a t i o n and A m e r ic a n iz a tio n .

A m ore im p o r ta n t f a c t o r , e v e n , was th e

a p p e a ra n c e o f th e second g e n e r a t i o n .

B ut b e f o r e c o n s id e r in g t h i s

f a c t o r , we w i l l f u r t h e r s tu d y i n some d e t a i l t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , f o r th e y to o s lo w ly b e g a n t o a c q u i r e t h e A m erican v ie w p o in t, an d to a s s i m i l a t e new p a t t e r n s .

B. C hanging B e h a v io u r - P a tte r n s

U nder r e a s o n a b ly n o rm al c o n d i t i o n s , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l d i s o r ­ g a n i z a t i o n b r in g s a b o u t a r e a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n some form o f r e o r ­ g a n i z a t i o n t h a t m ig h t b e c o n s id e r e d a s a n o th e r p h a se o f th e same p r o c e s s . As o ld s ta n d a r d s c e a s e t o f u n c t i o n owing t o changed c o n d i t i o n s , new b e h a v io u r p a t t e r n s em erg e.

I n th e c a s e o f t h e L i th u a n ia n im m ig ran t

t h i s p r o c e s s b eg an q u i t e e a r l y , b u t f o r v a r io u s r e a s o n s i t s p r o g r e s s was s lo w .

Even u n d e r c o n tin u o u s s o c i a l p r e s s u r e , i t to o k m ore th a n two

d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e tr a n s f o r m a t i o n re a c h e d i t s c o m p le tio n .

The f i r s t

s ig n o f t h i s was t h e w id e r u s e o f t h e E n g lis h la n g u a g e , th e in c r e a s i n g L

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im p o rta n c e o f w hich became e v i d e n t . y e a r s h ad p a id l i t t l e i t d ilig e n tly .

Some L ith u a n ia n s who f o r many

o r no a t t e n t i o n t o E n g l is h , now b eg an t o s tu d y

Though t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f th e la n g u a g e was n o t an e a s y

t a s k , some su c c e e d e d a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s o f h a r d w ork i n m a s te r in g i t . They b eg an t o r e a l i z e t h a t t o l e a r n a la n g u a g e one m u st re a d a g r e a t d e a l.

H aving l i t t l e

i n t e r e s t i n E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e , th e y so u g h t f o r

r e a d in g m a t e r i a l n e a r a t h a n d , n a m e ly , i n th e d a i l y A m erican n e w sp a p e r. Thus th e L i th u a n ia n n ew sp ap er l o s t i t s fo rm e r im p o rta n c e i n t h e im m ig ra n t home.

The r e a d in g o f th e d a i l y A m erican p a p e r in c r e a s e d

i n t e r e s t i n t h i n g s A m erican , and made t h e L i th u a n ia n f e e l m ore a t home w ith h i s A m erican n e ig h b o r .

T h u s, th r o u g h th e medium o f th e

s c h o o l an d t h e p r e s s , t h e im m ig ra n t became a c t i v e i n e v e r y th in g t h a t r e g a r d s t h e A m erican c i t i z e n .

B ut t o b e a t r u e A m erican c i t i z e n , he

n eed ed t o t a k e one m ore s t e p , i . e . , t o be n a t u r a l i z e d . B e fo re t h e W orld War o f 1914 t h e L i th u a n ia n im m ig ran t was f a r b e h in d o t h e r n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s a s r e g a r d s n a t u r a l i z a t i o n .

But

d u r in g t h e p a s t few d e c a d e s , t h e num ber o f n a t u r a l i z e d L ith u a n ia n s h a s c o n s id e r a b ly in c r e a s e d .

The c h i e f c a u s e o f t h i s i n c r e a s e was th e

im p o r ta n t in f l u e n c e o f th e A m erican g overnm ent i n g iv in g h e lp and a d v ic e t o th e im m ig ra n t.

N a tio n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and c lu b s p la y e d o n ly

a s e c o n d a ry r o l e i n t h i s a f f a i r .

Y et i n s p i t e o f t h e e f f o r t s o f th e

governm ent and th e s u p p o r t g iv e n t o th e n a t u r a l i z a t i o n movement by t h e L i th u a n ia n n a t i o n a l a l l i a n c e s an d p o l i t i c a l c l u b s , t h e r e re m a in a b o u t 8 6 ,8 9 2 o r 4 3 ^ o f th e L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts i n t h i s c o u n try who a r e s t i l l

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t

a l i e n s *1 T ak in g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a b o u t tw e n ty y e a r s ago o n ly a b o u t 1 2 /t o f th e L i th u a n i a n p o p u la tio n w ere n a t u r a l i z e d c i t i z e n s , t h e i n c r e a s e i n th e l a s t d e c a d e s i s a s to u n d in g *

I t is tru e th a t

u n t i l th e l a s t d eca d e o r so th e L i th u a n i a n im m ig ra n t’s i n t e r e s t i n c i v i l a f f a i r s was s l i g h t *

T h is was due t o t r a d i t i o n a l id e a s and th e

e v e r-p re s e n t d e s ire to r e tu r n to th e fa th e r la n d .

T hen, t o o , th e

econom ic s t r e s s o f d a i l y l i f e was so g r e a t f o r him t h a t p o l i t i c s and c i v i l r i g h t s w ere o n ly o f s e c o n d a ry im p o rtan ce *

F u rth e rm o re ,

th e L i th u a n ia n r e t a i n e d t h e o ld t r a d i t i o n a l id e a s i n r e g a r d t o c i v i c r i g h t s and o b li g a ti o n s *

H aving l i v e d f o r one h u n d re d and

tw e n ty y e a r s u n d e r t h e d e p r e s s in g in f l u e n c e o f R u s s ia n d o m in a tio n , he came t o r e g a r d t h e g o v ern m en t a s so m eth in g s u p e r f lu o u s b e c a u se he was n o t g iv e n any s h a r e i n i t *

T h is was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r

t h e women, who, i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d , to o k ev e n l e s s i n t e r e s t i n governm en t a f f a i r s th a n men*

A ll t h i s a c c o u n ts f o r th e f a c t t h a t

fe w e r L i th u a n i a n women have ta k e n o u t c i t i z e n s h i p p a p e r s th a n men* I f , hov«rever, th e same p r o g r e s s i s made i n th e n e x t d ecad e t h a t was made i n th e p a s t d e c a d e , by 1950 t h e r e w i l l be b u t few L ith u a n ia n s i n t h i s c o u n try who w i l l n o t be f u l l - f l e d g e d A m erican c i t i z e n s * The a c q u i s i t i o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p and t h e a d o p tio n o f A m erican ways o f l i f e h av e in c r e a s e d t h e L i t h u a n i a n ’s i n t e r e s t i n h i s a d o p te d c o u n try ,

1* U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f J u s t i c e s t a t i s t i c s , q u o te d i n The New Y ork T im es, Decem ber 1 , 1940*

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and on t h e -whole h av e made him h a p p i e r h e re *



Those custom s and h a b i t s

n

t h a t d id n o t f i t i n w ith th e A m erican mode o f l i f e , h e h a s le a r n e d t o f o r g e t*

Some o f th e v i c e s a c q u ir e d i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f h i s l i f e h e r e ,

su ch a s g am b lin g and d r i n k i n g , s t i l l e x i s t , b u t h e h a s b e e n a id e d i n overcom ing them by t h e u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s o f t h e C h u rch , and v a r io u s c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , so t h a t t h e s e e v i l s h av e c o n s id e r a b ly d im in ish e d * S t r e e t - f i g h t i n g , w h ich was a n o t h e r e a r l y b ad h a b i t i s a t p r e s e n t n o n ­ e x is te n t*

O th e r m isd em ean o rs o f a d o m e stic o r m o ral c a ta g o r y t h a t

w ere alw ay s r a r e a r e now ev en more so* H aving th u s ex changed Old W orld h a b i t s and custom s f o r A m erican w ays, and h a v in g r a i s e d h i s s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g , th e L i th u a n ia n h a s now ta k e n h i s p la c e i n A m erican s o c i e t y a s one o f i t s m em bers, e n jo y in g i t s a d v a n ta g e s and s h a r in g i t s c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s *

I t was n o t , h o w ev er,

b e f o r e r e a c h in g t h e .s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n t h a t t h i s f u l l a s s i m i l a t i o n to o k p la c e *

Hence th e L ith u a n ia n f a m i ly , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e seco n d

g e n e r a t i o n , p r o v id e s t h e b e s t m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s tu d y o f t h i s c o m p li­ c a te d p r o c e s s w hich r e s u l t e d i n th e g r a d u a l .d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f th e s p e c i f i c a l l y L i th u a n i a n c u l t u r e , and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e A m erican way o f l i f e *

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i

r CHAPTER V FAMILY EXPERIENCE OF THE LITHUANIAN-AMERICANS

A. L i f e i n t h e P a r e n t a l F am ily

N e a rly e v e ry s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g i s t a f f ir m s t h a t f a m ily l i f e i s v e ry im p o r ta n t i n t h e f o r m a tio n o f a c h i l d ’ s mind and s p i r i t .

B e h a v io r,

c h a r a c t e r and t a l e n t s can be d e v e lo p e d o r h in d e re d by good o r p o o r fa m ily e n v iro n m e n t.

I n a w o rd , t h e fa m ily i s b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o

e d u c a te c h i l d r e n f o r fa m ily l i f e .

The p a r e n t a l fa m ily o f f e r s a

m a t e r i a l b a s i s f o r th e f u t u r e f a m i l i e s o f i t s c h i l d r e n .

B ut m ore

im p o r ta n t s t i l l , i t p r o v id e s t h e s p i r i t u a l , c u l t u r a l b ackground o f t h e s e f u t u r e f a m i l i e s , w h ich t h e r e f o r e i n m ost c a s e s b e a r a s t r i k i n g re se m b la n c e t o t h e o r i g i n a l .

The p a r e n t s n o t o n ly p r o t e c t t h e i r

c h i l d r e n b u t a l s o th e y i n d i r e c t l y p r e p a r e them f o r s i m i l a r f u t u r e re s p o n s ib ilitie s .

T h e r e f o re l i f e and e x p e r ie n c e i n o n e ’ s fa m ily

u s \* a lly s e r v e s a s a p a t t e r n f o r th e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . I n t h e p re -w a r p e r i o d , L i th u a n i a n fa m ily l i f e , and p u b li c l i f e a s w e l l , w ere c o n d itio n e d m ore by t r a d i t i o n th a n by in d i v i d u a l th in k in g .

P a r e n t s , a s a r u l e , d id n o t g iv e any fo rm a l i n s t r u c t i o n s

o r a d m o n itio n s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b u t r a t h e r in f l u e n c e d them i n d i r e c t l y e i t h e r by t h e i r own ex am p le, o r by o c c a s io n a l d is c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r ie n c e d , l e t u s s a y , i n t h e d o m e stic l i f e o f some r e l a t i v e .

On su c h o c c a s i o n s , t h e c h i l d r e n n o t o n ly a c q u ir e d

th e o u tlo o k o f t h e i r p a r e n t s b u t i n a d d i t i o n r e c e iv e d p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s tio n s a s t o how t o s o lv e f a m ily p ro b le m s .

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I n b r i e f , t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t a l b e h a v io u r , a s fo u n d i n th e t y p i c a l

i

f a m ily , and r o o te d i n c o n c r e te s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , so g r e a t l y in f lu e n c e d t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a tio n t h a t th e y w ould a u t o m a t i c a l l y h av e fo llo w e d th e way o f l i f e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s .

The te n d e n c y to w a rd s su c h m e c h a n ic a l

i m i t a t i o n i s i n d i s p u t a b l e , and c o n s e q u e n tly o u g h t n o t t o b e o v e r lo o k e d . I n a c t u a l i t y , and i n r e a l l i f e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s te n d e n c y m e e ts w ith o b s t a c l e s , a s i n L i th u a n i a i t s e l f , w here th e W orld War p ro d u ced su ch v i o l e n t ch an g es i n th e m anner o f l i f e .

I n A m erica a s w e l l , among th e

L i t h u a n i a n s , t h i s s o c i a l i n e r t i a c o u ld no lo n g e r c o n tin u e t o e x e r t i t s f u l l in flu e n c e .

F o r t h e o ld t r a d i t i o n s and cu sto m s had t o be r e a d j u s t e d

g r a d u a l ly t o th e new e n v iro n m e n t an d c i r c u m s ta n c e s •

A c t u a l l y , many

o f th e s e custom s and t r a d i t i o n s re m a in e d , a lth o u g h tr a n s f o r m e d and a d a p te d t o new c o n d i t i o n s .

As an ex am p le, we may ta k e e a r l y m a r r ia g e .

T h is was q u i t e cu sto m ary i n L i t h u a n i a , b u t i n A m erica econom ic c o n d i tio n s r e q u ir e d a lo n g e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m a r r i a g e .

In s p ite o f

t h a t , m a r r ia g e s among L i th u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts u s u a l l y to o k p la c e a t an e a r l y a g e , and lo n g p o stp o n em en t o f m a rr ia g e was uncommon. A n o th e r custom among th e Old W orld L ith u a n ia n s was n o t o n ly t o a s k p a r e n t a l a d v ic e i n r e g a r d t o o n e f s p a r t n e r i n m a r r ia g e , b u t a l s o t o r e l y upon " p r o f e s s i o n a l " m atchm akers ch o se n by th e m .

Such a p r o ­

c e d u re i n t h i s c o u n try was s tr a n g e and t h e r e f o r e had t o be ab an d o n e d . I n a c e r t a i n num ber o f c a s e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , we do f i n d t h a t th e s e m atchm akers w ere em ployed, a t l e a s t a p p a r e n t l y .

Thus f o r a tim e th e

s h r e d s o f t r a d i t i o n w ere p r e s e r v e d , a lth o u g h i n a l a t e r p e r io d t h i s same t r a d i t i o n was t o became m e a n in g le s s and f o r g o t t e n . O th e r f a c t o r s o f e q u a l im p o rta n c e i n t h e f o r m a tio n o f im m ig ran t £ a m ily l i f e w ere u n d o u b te d ly t h e new e n v iro n m e n t and changed c o n d i t i o n s j

38

ItVhile l i v i n g w ith t h e i r p a r e n t s th e y w ere accu sto m ed t o e n jo y a l l th e freed o m and a d v a n ta g e s o f c o u n try l i f e .

They l i v e d among t h e i r own

p e o p le , i n a hom ogeneous f a c e - t o - f a c e s o c i e t y ; w h ile i n A m eric a, th e y w ere f o r c e d t o s t a r t f a m ily l i f e i n a h e te ro g e n e o u s s o c i e t y , l i v i n g m o s tly i n t h e p o o r q u a r t e r s o f l a r g e tow ns and c i t i e s .

I n th e o ld

c o u n tr y , t h e n e w ly -fo u n d e d L i th u a n i a n f a m ily d e r iv e d c o n s id e r a b le a s s i s t a n c e from t h e 'p a r e n t s on b o th s i d e s .

I n c a s e o f m is f o r tu n e o r

econom ic d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h i s n ew ly -fo rm e d fa m ily was n o t o n ly a s s i s t e d b y , b u t fo u n d r e f u g e i n th e p a r e n t a l hom e.

T h is a s s i s t a n c e , w h e th e r

m a t e r i a l o r s p i r i t u a l , was c o m p le te ly a b s e n t i n th e New W o rld . soon a s t h e c h i l d r e n b eg an t o grow u p , new p ro b lem s a r o s e .

For as

The c h i l d r e n

had t o be s e n t t o a n A m erican s c h o o l, f o r th e y n eed ed a know ledge o f th e E n g lis h la n g u a g e , w hich u n f o r t u n a t e l y was a s y e t s tr a n g e t o th e p a r e n t s th e m s e lv e s .

No m a t t e r o f w h at n a t i o n a l i t y im m ig ra n ts m ig h t b e , t h e i r

d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e f a r m ore num erous th a n th o s e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and u n t i l t h e im m ig ra n t fa m ily r e a c h e s t h e f i n a l s t a g e , o r em pty home, i t m ust c o n s t a n t l y u n d erg o change and m o d i f i c a t i o n . I n t h e s h a p in g o f t h e f a m ily l i f e o f th e seco n d g e n e r a t i o n , two m a jo r i n f l u e n c e s p la y e d a p a r t , n am ely , e x p e r ie n c e i n t h e p a r e n t a l home, and o b s e r v a ti o n o f o t h e r A m erican f a m i l i e s a b o u t th e m .

The

fo rm e r i n f l u e n c e was n a t u r a l l y p rim a ry and m ore g e n u in e , w h ile t h e l a t t e r th o u g h s t r o n g , c o u ld e x e r c i s e o n ly a n e x t e r n a l and s e c o n d a ry r o l e .

To

c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s ta n d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h ich t h i s y o u n g e r g e n e r a tio n fo u n d i t s e l f , we m u st r e a l i z e t h e s e tw o f a c t s .

F i r s t o f a l l , th e c h i l d r e n

o f t h e im m ig ra n t f a m ily f e l t th e m s e lv e s t o b e r e a l A m e ric a n s, and t h e r e f o r e , o b lig e d t o a d j u s t th e m s e lv e s t o A m erican s o c i e t y .

S e c o n d ly , th e y r e a l i z e d

jjbhat t h e i r p a r e n t s w ere im m ig ra n ts , and t h a t th e y c o n s e q u e n tly w ere nojj

39

t o be fo llo w e d i n a l l t h i n g s .

Such a c o n d i tio n was n o t i d e a l , f o r i t

d im in is h e d p a r e n t a l p r e s t i g e i n th e e y e s o f th e c h i l d r e n , ev en th o u g h i t h a s te n e d t h e p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l o ld - w o r ld p a t t e r n s t o th o s e o f th e new w o r ld .

T h is p r o c e s s c o u ld n o t b e su d d e n , f o r th e

t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f th e f a m ily was t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t s u p p o r te d by t h e C hu rch ,

T h e r e f o r e , ev en th o u g h y o u th a t tim e s d e p a r te d from

t r a d i t i o n a l v ie w s , i n t h e m ore s e r i o u s p ro b lem s o f l i f e i t c o n tin u e d t o f o llo w th e s e same t r a d i t i o n a l v ie w s ,

A t h i r d f a c t o r o r in flu e n c e

l i k e w is e e x e r te d i t s e l f , n a m e ly , t h e ch an g es w i t h i n A m erican s o c i e t y its e lf.

F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e a n a l y s i s o f young f a m i l i e s o f im m ig ran t

p a r e n ta g e i s so i n s t r u c t i v e , a s i t p r e s e n t s c a s e s o f s o c i a l phenomena w here th e i n f l u e n c e o f c e r t a i n in tr a - d y n a m ic ch an g es i s ad d ed t o th e > norm al h i s t o r i c o - e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e lo p m e n t. I n th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , we s h a l l s t r i v e t o o b s e rv e f a i t h f u l l y th e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e im m ig ra n t and t h e n a t i v e - b o r n d e s c e n d a n ts o f im m ig ran t p a r e n t a g e .

T h is w i l l be done f o r th e f o llo w in g r e a s o n ,

n am ely , t h a t th o u g h t h e two above-nam ed c l a s s e s a r e s i m i l a r i n m o st e s s e n t i a l s , y e t th e y show many a c c i d e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s .

I t i s th e s e

d i f f e r e n c e s p r e c i s e l y w h ich a r e o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , a s th e y a r e e n l i g h t e n i n g , and show f o r how lo n g a p e r io d s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s can m a in ta i n th e m s e lv e s i n a new s o c i e t y , and how a n a t i v e - b o r n fa m ily u l t i m a t e l y a d a p ts i t s e l f t o t h e new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n . T here i s y e t a n o t h e r 'type o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i ly , n am ely , t h a t i n w h ich one p a r e n t i s o f im m ig ra n t s to c k , w h ile t h e o t h e r i s n a tiv e b o rn .

T h ese f a m i l i e s a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l phenom ena, and

n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y become p r o b le m - f a m i lie s . f a m i l y ty p e s l a t e r i n o u r s tu d y .

We s h a l l d e a l w ith su ch

A t t h i s p o in t i t m i l s u f f i c e t o s t a t p

40

t h a t th e l a t t e r ty p e o f fa m ily i s a c r o s s r o a d w here two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and tw o s o c i a l f o r c e s o f u n e q u a l s t r e n g t h m eet i n o p p o s i t i o n . The ch an g es t h a t a r e b ro u g h t a b o u t by t h i s i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e a p p e a r b e s t i n f a m ily e x p e r ie n c e w h ich e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n th e b e h a v io u r o f th e fa m ily -m e m b e rs, and i n t h e i n t e r p l a y o f t h e i r r o l e s .

L e t u s now

t u r n t o a m ore d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h i s in n e r s t r u c t u r e .

B. C o u r ts h ip and M ate S e l e c t i o n (l)

C o u r ts h ip a s a C hanging Phenomenon

C o u r ts h ip may be d e f in e d a s a p r o c e s s i n t h e fo rm in g o f a f a m ily ; o r a s th e b r id g e b etw ee n th e l i f e o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e p a r e n t a l home and t h e l i f e o f th e a d u l t i n h i s own f a m i l y C o u r t s h i p i n i t s g e n u in e s e n s e means p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e m a r i t a l l i f e . w e ll a s a n a d ju s tm e n t.

I t i s a n e x p e rim e n t a s

A p e r s o n en g ag ed i n c o u r t s h i p e n t e r s i n t o a

new p h a s e o f l i f e i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e f o r a f u t u r e m a r r i a g e .

D u rin g

t h i s p r o c e s s , h e n o t o n ly b e g in s t o know t h e o t h e r p e r s o n , b u t he a l s o b e g in s t o u n d e r s ta n d h im s e lf b e t t e r .

Thus a c l o s e l i n k i s

e s t a b l i s h e d b e tw e e n th em , and th e y b e g in t o a d j u s t th e m s e lv e s i n t h e i r m u tu a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .

A d e ta ile d a n a ly s is o f t h i s p ro cess is

n o t deemed n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t , a lth o u g h we m ust make t h e o b s e r ­ v a t i o n t h a t d u r in g r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h av e b e e n g r e a t ch an g es i n th e form o f c o u r t s h i p . The p r o c e s s o f c o u r t s h i p , i n f a c t , v a r i e s from one c o u n try t o a n o t h e r , and ev en i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e same c o u n tr y .

The

m anner o f c o u r t s h i p i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s h as l i k e w is e u n d erg o n e a

ll . W. W a l l e r . , The F a m ily , p . 1 7 7 .

j

41

m arked c h a n g e , and i t s e v o l u t i o n i s s t i l l c o n tin u in g *

T hese changes

i n A m erican c o u r ts h i p h av e b een b r o u g h t a b o u t by th e same i n f l u e n c e t h a t m olded t h e s t r u c t u r e o f m a r i t a l and fa m ily l i f e .

Among t h e s e we

may l i s t t h e g r e a t e r econom ic in d e p e n d e n c e o f women, th e w id e r s p re a d o f e d u c a tio n , in c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n , c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s , and th e w id e s p re a d u s e o f th e a u to m o b ile *

The g e n e r a l t r e n d h a s b e e n to w ard

g r e a t e r f r a n k n e s s b etw een t h e two s e x e s , more freed o m , and a l a r g e r d e g re e o f i n i t i a t i v e on t h e p a r t o f women* C o u r ts h ip among L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s i n th e c o u r s e o f tim e u n d erw en t v a r io u s changes*

I n th e b e g in n in g , em p h asis was p la c e d on

a c q u a in ta n c e ; l a t e r , m u tu a l u n d erstancfejg,com radeship, and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m a r r ia g e became m ore im p o rta n t*

W ith th e e a r l y im m ig ra n ts i t was

c u sto m a ry t o b e g in c o u r t s h i p w ith a fo rm a l in tr o d u c ti o n *

They h ad t o

b e in tr o d u c e d t o one a n o t h e r , and t h i s was t h e p o in t o f d e p a r t u r e o f th e p r o c e s s o f c o u r ts h ip *

B ut w ith custom s and l i v i n g c o n d i tio n s i n

A m erica d i f f e r e n t from th o s e i n t h e hom eland ( v .g * , g r e a t e r s c a r c i t y o f women, lo n g h o u rs o f w o rk , and c o m p a r a tiv e ly l i t t l e

le i s u r e tim e ) ,

t h e fo rm a l in t r o d u c t o r y s t e p was g e n e r a l l y s im p l if ie d *

When a young

L ith u a n ia n le a r n e d o f t h e a r r i v a l o f a g i r l from t h e h o m elan d , o r even from a n o t h e r c i t y i n t h i s c o u n tr y , h e would t r y t o f i n d a p e r s o n who knew h e r p r e v i o u s l y , and w ould t h e n v i s i t h e r w ith h im , i n o r d e r to o b t a i n a fo rm a l in t r o d u c ti o n *

A f t e r s e v e r a l m e e tin g s w h ich u s u a l l y

to o k p la c e i n h e r home, a t a C hurch p i c n i c , o r a t some o t h e r p a r i s h f u n c t i o n , th e y w ould d is c u s s m a r r i a g e , and th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a rr ia g e b e tw e e n them*

Those o f t h e l a t e r im m ig r a tio n .p e r io d b eg an t h e p r o c e s s

o f c o u r t s h i p w ith o u t an y f o m a l i n t r o d u c t i o n .

W ith th em , i t was sim p ly

^ q u e s ti o n o f g e t t i n g a c q u a in te d a t some s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , a w edding

j

42

r

"i

b r e a k f a s t , some o t h e r f e s t i v e o c c a s io n , o r ev en a t a f u n e r a l#

In

g e n e r a l , c o u r t s h i p becam e q u i t e s im p lif ie d # Up t o t h e f i r s t W orld War, t h e r e alw ay s e x i s t e d a s c a r c i t y o f L ith u a n ia n women.

T h is f a c t p la y e d a n im p o r ta n t p a r t i n s h o r te n in g t h e

p r o c e s s o f c o u r ts h ip #

T h is f a c t o r i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s , and a t v a r io u s

p e r i o d s , was so m arked t h a t i t c a u s e d vehem ent r i v a l r i e s among L ith u a n ia n men#

H ow ever, i t m u st be n o te d t h a t no g r e a t d is tu r b a n c e s

w ere c au sed by t h i s c o m p e titio n , f o r w h en ev er a g i r l saw t h a t h e r hand i n m a rr ia g e was e a g e r ly s o u g h t by s e v e r a l s u i t o r s , sh e w ould e i t h e r m a rry one o f them w ith o u t f u r t h e r d e l a y , th u s e n d in g a l l s t r i f e , o r e l s e w ould move t o a n o t h e r l o c a l i t y , i f sh e p r e f e r r e d e s c a p e a s a s o lu tio n #

I n t h i s w ay, d e s p i t e t h i s somewhat un so u n d and to o h u r r i e d

m anner o f c o u r t s h i p , no s e r i o u s t r o u b l e a r o s e , w h ereas i n L i t h u a n i a , s i m i l a r r i v a l r i e s e s p e c i a l l y among th o s e o f th e p o o r e r c l a s s o f p e o p le , w ould a t tim e s end i n s h o o tin g and m urder# I n t h i s c o u n tr y , a t a n e a r l i e r p e r io d , i f a g i r l w ish ed t o h a s te n h e r m a r r i a g e , sh e w ould d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s p l a y h e r c lo s e a c q u a in ta n c e w ith some young man p u b li c ly #

L a t e r , i f he f a i l e d t o

m a rry h e r , sh e w ould a c c u s e him i n th e p r e s e n c e o f h i s em p lo y er o f d e s e r t i n g h e r#

She m ig h t ev en ta k e th e c a s e t o c o u rt#

A t o t h e r ti m e s ,

w ith o u t an y fo rm a l p r o c e d u r e , th e em p lo y er o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to o k t h e m a t t e r t o th e p a s t o r o f th e p a r i s h , w here t h e c a s e was u s u a l l y s e t t l e d ” f o r b e t t e r o r f o r w o r s e .”

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t th e

p r o c e s s o f c o u r t s h i p i n L i th u a n i a was much l o n g e r , and u s u a l l y l a s t e d from s i x m onths t o t h r e e y e a r s , a lth o u g h th e g e n e r a l p r e p a r a t i o n was much s h o r t e r .

As was c u sto m ary i n E u ro p e , s p e c i a l em p h asis was p la c e d

gn t h e dowry w h ich th e g i r l p r e p a r e d from h e r y o u th , w ith th e h e l p o f

j

43 r h e r p a r e n ts *

n

I n a r r a n g in g a m a r r ia g e , n o t o n ly th e p e r s o n h im s e lf was ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , b u t li k e w i s e h i s fa m ily and p a r e n t a l b a c k g ro u n d . The r o l e o f m atchm aker i n L i th u a n i a was to in t r o d u c e th e f u t u r e groom t o t h e b r i d e , and t o g iv e some know ledge o f t h e f a m ily b a c k g ro u n d s o f th e two p a r t i e s co n cern ed *

The p r o s p e c ti v e b r i d e and groom , a t t h e

end o f t h e p e r io d o f c o u r t s h i p , v i s i t e d one a n o th e r w ith t h e i r e n t i r e f a m i l i e s i n o r d e r t o o b ta in a b e t t e r know ledge o f a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t m u st b e s a id t h a t t h e r e w ere s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u r t s h i p among v a r io u s c l a s s e s o f p e o p le .

-Among t h e m ore p r o s p e r o u s , w e a lth and

s o c i a l s t a t u s w ere s t r e s s e d .

F u rth e rm o re , t h e b o u rg e o is-

a ttitu d e

was p r e v a l e n t i n L i t h u a n i a , and a s r e g a r d s m a r r ia g e s w ith p e r s o n s o f a lo w e r econom ic s ta n d a r d , o r o f i n f e r i o r e d u c a tio n , th e s e w ere r a t h e r s t r i c t l y d is c o u r a g e d .

T h is a t t i t u d e to w a rd s t h e m a r r ia g e o f p e r s o n s

o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l ra n k was f r e q u e n t l y th e c a u s e o f tr a g e d y when su ch m a r r ia g e s w ere a t te m p t e d .

I n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n o f

c l a s s e s from th e v e r y b e g in n in g was n o t ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e fa m ily b ack g ro u n d to o k p l a c e .

The e s s e n t i a l

t h i n g was t h e m u tu a l lo v e and u n d e r s ta n d in g o f one p e r s o n f o r t h e o t h e r ; a l l th e r e s t was u n im p o r ta n t.

I n L i th u a n i a t h e r e e x i s t e d

a n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n , nam ely t h a t t h e p r o s p e c ti v e b r i d e and groom s h o u ld be m ore o r l e s s from t h e same l o c a l i t y , i . e . t h e same p a r i s h o r c o u n ty . The m a r r ia g e s o f p e o p le who l i v e d q u i t e some d i s t a n c e a p a r t w ere n o t w elcom ed an d w ere even r e g a r d e d w ith s u s p ic io n *

I n A m erica, h o w ev er,

e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c irc u m s ta n c e s f o r c e d t h e young p e o p le t o d i s r e g a r d a l l su ch n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s - - s o lo n g a s one m a r r ie d a L i th u a n i a n , ills d id ijiot m a t t e r from w hat d i s t r i c t o r p a r t o f L i th u a n i a sh e o r h e cam e.

j

44

r M o reo v er, th o s e who m a r r ie d so o n a f t e r coming t o t h i s c o u n try u s u a l l y

"i

p r e f e r r e d t o m a rry p e o p le from t h e i r own p r o v in c e ; o n ly t h e 'S u v a l k a i p e o p le c o n s id e r e d i t d i s g r a c e f u l t o m a rry a p e r s o n from o t h e r p r o v in c e s who was lo o k e d u p o n 'b y them a s l e s s e d u c a te d an d c u l t u r e d .

B u t, l a t e r

o n , when th e y r e a l i z e d t h a t A m erica was su ch a v a s t c o u n try and t h a t th e L i th u a n ia n s h e r e w ere so few , th e y b eg an to m a rry i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , d i s r e g a r d i n g L i th u a n i a n p r o v i n c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s .

P r a c t i c a l l y , th o s e

who d id m a rry o t h e r s from d i f f e r e n t L i th u a n ia n l o c a l i t i e s , even i n th e e a r l i e r p e r io d o f im m ig r a tio n , d id n o t show any s ig n s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t i n f a m ily l i f e .

The r a p id d is a p p e a r a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s

in f l u e n c in g th e s e l e c t i o n o f p a r t n e r s f o r m a r r ia g e among L ith u a n ia n im m ig ra n ts , ev en th o u g h o f l i t t l e

im p o r ta n c e , n e v e r t h e l e s s i s v e r y

s i g n i f i c a n t from th e v ie w p o in t o f a s s i m i l a t i o n .

I t shows t h a t

L ith u a n ia n s w ere a b le t o a d a p t th e m s e lv e s q u ic k ly t o new s i t u a t i o n s and c o u ld change t h e i r custom s a c c o r d in g ly .

(2 )

M ate S e l e c t i o n

As r e g a r d s m a t e - s e l e c t i o n , i t was t h e a s s o r t a t i v e m a tin g t h a t p r e v a i l e d th e n and t h a t p r e v a i l s to d a y among L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s

1 . By a s s o r t a t i v e m a tin g i s m eant th e c o n s c io u s o r u n c o n s c io u s te n d e n c y o f a n i n d i v i d u a l t o s e l e c t a m ate h a v in g c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o h i s own. T hese may b e p h y s i c a l , su ch a s s t a t u r e , co m p le x io n , h a i r , e y e s , c o l o r ; o r p s y c h ic , su c h a s i n t e l l i g e n c e , v i v a c i t y o r d i s p o s i t i o n . By p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g i s m ean t th e c o n s c io u s o r u n c o n s c io u s c h o ic e o f a m ate b e c a u s e o f c e r t a i n d e s i r a b l e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h e th e r o r n o t th e s e a r e p o s s e s s e d t o any m arked d e g re e by t h e one d o in g th e c h o o s in g . I n a s s o r t a t i v e m a tin g , much o f t h e s e l e c t i o n i s u n c o n s c io u s , b u t i n p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g a l a r g e s h a r e o f i t i s c o n s c io u s and th u s m ore am en ab le to s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y e d u c a t i o n . . . .R ay E . B a b e r, M a rria g e and t h e F a m ily , M cG raw -H ill C o ., New Y o rk , 1 9 3 9 , p p . 1 4 3 -1 4 5 . L.

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“i

I t can b e n o t i c e d from o u r d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e p r o c e s s o f c o u r t s h i p t h a t c h o o sin g a m ate was n o t a n e a sy t a s k f o r L ith u a n ia n s b e c a u se o f th e s c a r c ity o f s u ita b le p a rtn e rs .

On t h e o t h e r h a n d , th e y d id n o t d e s i r e

any s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w hich th e y d id n o t p o s s e s s th e m s e lv e s ; b u t th e y d id w ant t o f i n d a m ate who w ould h av e t h e same p h y s ic a l a t t r i b u t e s and e d u c a tio n a s th e m s e lv e s . A g a in , p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g i s p o s s i b l e o n ly i n a more o r l e s s hom ogeneous g ro u p , b u t L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s a lm o s t alw ay s l i v e i n a s o - c a l l e d " d i a s p o r a , ” and o n ly i n a few e x c e p tio n a l c a s e s a r e th e y found t o be c l o s e l y c o o r d in a te d .

To a c e r t a i n d e g r e e , some c la n is h n e s s

i s n o t i c e a b l e i n a few tow ns and c o m m u n itie s, and g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r g ro u p s o l i d a r i t y u s u a l l y e x i s t s among th em .

N a t u r a l l y , some e le m e n ts

o f p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g , e s p e c i a l l y w ith r e g a r d t o e x t e r n a l , p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , su ch a s a g e , c o m p le x io n , s t a t u r e and even te m p eram en t, a r e e a s i l y t r a c e a b l e i n t h e i r m ate s e l e c t i o n , and ev en m ore so i n t h e i r m a rria g e s .

I t seems t h a t th e y had m a in ta in e d and s t i l l d o , t h a t

th e d i f f e r e n c e i n ag e sh o u ld n o t b e g r e a t e r th a n t h r e e - t o - f i v e y e a r s , th e man, o f c o u r s e , b e in g th e o l d e r ; i t was a l s o cu sto m ary t o s e e t h e w if e somewhat s m a l le r i n s t a t u r e , b u t o f t h e same b lu e e y e s , f a i r s k in and b lo n d e h a i r .

T h is e v e n t u a l l y , was n o th in g e x t r a o r d i n a r y , f o r i t c o rre s p o n d e d

t o v e r y sim p le t r a i t s t h a t a r e commonly fo u n d i n a lm o s t e v e ry i n d i v i d u a l o f L i th u a n ia n e x t r a c t i o n .

W ith th e seco n d g e n e r a t i o n , t h e r e a p p e a re d a

l a r g e v a r i e t y o f t a s t e s and c h o i c e s , and o n ly th e n p r e f e r e n t i a l m a tin g b e g a n t o b e m ore im p o r ta n t .

Among t h e im m ig ra n ts , h o w ev er, i t was n o t

w id e ly known b e c a u s e o f p o o r s o c io -e c o n o m ic c o n d i tio n s and l a c k o f e d u c a tio n . M ate s e l e c t i o n o f young A m e ric a n -L ith u a n ia n s d i f f e r s w id e ly from

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"i

t h a t o f t h e i r p a r e n ts *

The g r e a t e s t f a c t o r t h a t h as c a u se d t h i s

d i f f e r e n c e i s th e change i n c u l t u r e and p h y s ic a l e n v iro n m e n t. Born and r e a r e d i n A m eric a, t h e L ith u a n ia n - A m e r ic a n s , from t h e i r e a r l y y o u th had t h e i r b e h a v io u r and c h a r a c t e r f o r m a tio n s u b je c te d t o v a r io u s i n f l u e n c e s .

B ecause o f t h e h ig h l y h e te ro g e n e o u s n eig h b o rh o o d

th e y w ere f o r c e d t o m ix w ith c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s , c u l t u r e s and ev e n r a c e s .

T hen, s c h o o l, p la y - g r o u p s , o c c u p a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s , v a r io u s

s o c i a l m e e tin g s , d a n c e s , p i c n i c s , e t c . , g r a d u a l ly in c r e a s e d th e o p p o r­ t u n i t i e s o f m e e tin g new p e o p le and n a t u r a l l y opened up new v i s t a s o f c o u rts h ip . L iv in g i n su ch a h e te ro g e n o u s g ro u p , one e a s i l y o v e rlo o k s h i s own p e o p le and t u r n s t o o th e r s f o r co m p an io n sh ip ; som etim es su ch a change i s c o n s c io u s ly made and th u s t h e h o m o g en eity o f th e g ro u p i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e s tr o y e d .

O fte n su ch a d v e r s e a t t i t u d e s w ere b ro u g h t

a b o u t by t h e p a r e n t s th e m s e lv e s , who, i n th e c a s e o f d is o b e d ie n c e u s e d t o t h r e a t e n t h e i r c h i l d r e n by t e l l i n g them t h a t th e y w ould be s e n t t o L i th u a n i a w here th e y w ould h a v e a t a s t e o f p o v e r ty , h u n g e r , and b a c k ­ b r e a k in g l a b o r .

Such ’'c o l o r f u l ” d e s c r i p t i o n s o f th e m o th e rla n d n o t

o n ly h e lp e d t o c r e a t e a d r e a d f u l im p r e s s io n o f L i th u a n i a b u t i t a l s o i n d i r e c t l y d i s t o r t e d t h e i r n a t i o n a l a m b itio n and s e l f - e s t i m a t i o n . C h ild r e n o f L ith u a n ia n p a r e n t s w ere ev en asham ed t o c a l l th e m s e lv e s L i t h u a n i a n s , and i n many c a s e s ch anged t h e i r nam es, m aking th e m s e lv e s "A m erican s” o v e r n ig h t .

I n m a t t e r s o f c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e , th e y

b e g a n t o c a r e m ore f o r " o u t s i d e r s " and i n t e r - m a r r i a g e im m e d ia te ly became much m ore common. A n o th e r f a c t o r g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c i n g in t e r m i n g lin g w ith o th e r e t h n ic g ro u p s was a f a l s e c o n c e p t o f A m e r ic a n iz a tio n t h a t s u d d e n ly a p p e a re d

. _j

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r

d u rin g t h e f i r s t W orld War*

1 Some h ig h ly p a t r i o t i c A m ericans s t a r t e d th e

movement f o r q u ic k A m e r ic a n iz a tio n o f im m ig ra n t p eo p le *

WiCh trem en d o u s

sp eed th o u s a n d s upon th o u s a n d s o f im m ig ra n ts w ere ta u g h t E n g lish * c i v i c s , and i n a s h o r t tim e became n a t u r a l i z e d A m ericans*

T h is i n t e n s i v e move­

m ent q u ic k ly r e a c h e d t h e L ith u a n ia n s and th e y , e s p e c i a l l y th e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , to o k i t t o mean t h a t , i n o r d e r t o b e a good A m erican , one m ust c o m p le te ly f o r g e t a b o u t h i s n a t i o n a l i t y *

T h at i s , i n re n o u n c in g

a l l e g i a n c e t o th e m o th e r c o u n tr y , i t had t o b e a co m p lete b r e a k o r one was n o t a good and l o y a l A m erican* H ow ever, b etw ee n t h e y e a r s 1922 and 1925, t h e r e was a d e c l in e i n t h i s tr e n d and i n t e n s i v e A m e r ic a n iz a tio n l o s t i t s im p e tu s ; t o g e t h e r w ith t h i s d e c l i n e , t h e f e e l i n g o f i n f e r i o r i t y among a l i e n s h a s d e c re a se d * Today, i t seems t h a t t h e r e i s no s tig m a a t t a c h e d t o th e f a c t t h a t one i s o f f o r e i g n d e s c e n t*

I n s p i t e o f t h i s f l u c t u a t i o n i n t r e n d , many

young L ith u a n ia n s f a l l i n lo y e w i t h , c o u r t and m a rry p e o p le o f o t h e r e t h n i c g ro u p s*

T h ere a r e s e v e r a l e x p la n a tio n s f o r t h i s .

The f i r s t and

fo re m o s t r e a s o n f o r n e g l e c ti n g t h e im p o rta n c e o f o n e ’s n a t i o n a l d e s c e n t i s common A m erican o r i g i n and a common la n g u a g e ( E n g lis h ) *

In fa c t,

t h e s e two f a c t o r s u s u a l l y a r e th e m o st im p o r ta n t and m ost common i n d e te r m in in g o n e ’s acknow ledge n a t i o n a l i t y *

Of c o u r s e , th e te rm ,

n a t i o n a l i t y , h a s a much w id e r m e a n in g ; b u t , i n s p i t e o f t h a t , th e s e two e le m e n ts a r e e x tre m e ly im p o r ta n t.

B ein g b o rn i n th e same c o u n try and

s p e a k in g t h e same la n g u a g e , one h a s so much i n common w ith h i s n e ig h b o r t h a t s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a lm o s t t h e e v e n tu a l o utcom e, and i t i s e s p e c i a l l y e a s y when s o c i e t y and th e g o v ern m en t a p p ro v e and ev en e n c o u ra g e i t . L

F u rth e rm o re , i t i s b u t n a t u r a l t h a t one v e ry e a s i l y becom es

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a c q u a in te d w ith th o s e who l i v e n earb y *

"i

T h is e x p la in s why t h e f a c t o r o f

n e ig h b o rh o o d i n c o u r t s h i p i s so im p o r ta n t; th e ch an c es o f m a rry in g someone l i v i n g n e a rb y a r e much g r e a t e r th a n commonly supposed* e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n s m a ll tow ns*

T h is i s

Even i n l a r g e c i t i e s , w ith t h e i r

s c a t t e r e d s e c o n d a ry c o n t a c t s , t h e r o l e t h a t p r o p in q u i ty o f h a b i t a t i o n p la y s i s re m a rk a b ly i n f l u e n t i a l * ^

I t w ould b e e x tre m e ly d i f f i c u l t t o

gauge th e im p o rta n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r i n th e o u t- o f - g r o u p c o u r tin g o f L i th u a n i a n A m ericans f o r i t i s im p o s s ib le t o i s o l a t e i t ; y e t u n d o u b te d ly , i t i s o f f a i r l y g r e a t im p o rta n c e * O c c u p a tio n a l p r o p in q u i ty li k e w is e commands a t t e n t i o n i n th e m a tte r o f m a tin g *

The e n tr a n c e o f women i n l a r g e num bers i n t o t h e w o rk -a -d a y

w o rld h a s b r o u g h t men and women t o g e t h e r i n t o new g ro u p in g s and i n t o new c ir c u m s ta n c e s .

W ith s e x a t t r a c t i o n a f a i r l y c o n s ta n t f a c t o r , i t i s

i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i n th e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f k in d r e d l a b o r , th e y sh o u ld be draw n m ore c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r w ith m a rr ia g e a f r e q u e n t r e s u l t * e x t e n t and c o n s ta n c y o f t h i s f o r c e i n m a rr ia g e i s s u r p r is in g *

The In

W a te rb u ry , C o n n ., w here th e p o p u la tio n i s q u i t e m ixed and w here t h e r e a r e many o c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e s f o r y o u th , I have fo u n d t h a t i n 1941 t h e r e was p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t h e same number o f m a r r ia g e s among th e em ployees o f t h r e e S c o v i l l ( b r a s s , c o p p e r an d m u n itio n ) f a c t o r i e s a s among th e c h i l d r e n o f L i th u a n ia n - b o r n p a r e n ts * t h a t t h e r e was so l i t t l e

The im p o r ta n t d e d u c tio n i s n o t

i n t e r m a r r i a g e w i t h i n th e l i n e s o f n a t i o n a l i t y

1 * B o ssa rd fo u n d , by s tu d y in g th e r e s i d e n t i a l a d d r e s s e s o f th e a p p l i c a n t s

f o r 5 ,0 0 0 c o n s e c u tiv e m a r r ia g e l i c e n s e s i s s u e d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h a t one s i x t h o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s l i v e d l e s s th a n one b lo c k from e a c h o t h e r ; t h a t n e a r l y one q u a r t e r l i v e d w i t h i n two b lo c k s , one t h i r d w i t h i n f i v e b lo c k s and m ore th a n one h a l f 'w ith in tw e n ty b lo c k s o f e a c h o th e r* Cf* J . H* B o s s a r d , ’’R e s i d e n t i a l P r o p in q u ity a s a F a c t o r i n M a rria g e S e l e c t i o n , ” A m erican J o u r n a l o f S o c io lo g y 3 8 * 2 1 9 -2 2 4 , S ep tem b er 1932; a l s o B a b e r, op* c i t . ,p* 158* j

49

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.

i i

b u t t h a t t h e r e was so much i n t e r m a r r i a g e w i t h i n t h e same o c c u p a tio n s ."

The g r e a t m ix in g o f young L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s w ith o th e r n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s may a l s o be due t o some y e t u n m en tio n ed f a c t o r s , su ch a s p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s t o in t e r m i n g le w ith g ro u p s o u ts id e t h e i r own. T hese p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s upon c l o s e r e x a m in a tio n , m a n if e s t th e m s e lv e s i n l e i s u r e tim e and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .

I h av e fo u n d t h a t a b o u t f o u r

tim e s a s many L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n g i r l s c o u r t and. m a rry o u ts id e t h e i r n a t i v e g ro u p a s do L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n b o y s .

Though th e y l i v e and

w ork i n q u i t e t h e same e n v iro n m e n t, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f m ix tu r e i s t h r e e tim e s h ig h e r among th e g i r l s th a n among t h e b o y s . Why?

I s i t t h a t L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n g i r l s a r e more a t t r a c t e d by young

men o f o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , o r i s i t due t o t h e i r a b i l i t y o f a s s i m i ­ l a t i n g m ore e a s i l y ? N o th in g d e f i n i t e can b e s a id on t h i s q u e s ti o n a lth o u g h t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f c a u s e s in v o lv e d , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s phenom enon.

One o f

1 . From th e 500 c a s e s s t u d i e d i n I f e te r b u r y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t L ith u a n ia n s m a r r ie d w i t h i n t h e i r own g ro u p s a t a r a t e o f 5 4$, w h ereas w o rk ers i n th e S c o v i l l f a c t o r y i n t e r m a r r i e d a t th e r a t e o f 57 $ . C e r t a in ly we m ust a llo w f o r t h e f a c t t h a t many p e o p le w o rk in g a t S c o v il l* s w ere o f t h e same n a t i o n a l i t y , t h i s n a t u r a l l y d e c r e a s in g t h e c o rre s p o n d in g p e r c e n ta g e . M arvin s t u d i e d 49000 c a s e s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a and fo u n d t h a t t h e r e w ere " tw ic e a s many m a r r ia g e s b etw ee n em ployees o f t e x t i l e m i l l s a s b etw ee n t h e c h i l d r e n o f German b o rn p a r e n t a g e . ” C f. D onald M. M a rv in , "Occu­ p a t i o n a l P r o p in q u ity a s a F a c t o r i n M a rria g e S e l e c t i o n , " P u b lic A m erican S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 6 s l3 1 - 1 5 0 , S ep tem b er 1 9 18. A ls o , B a b e r, o p . c i t . , p . 158 f f .

L.

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p a r t i c u l a r im p o r ta n c e ’ i s t h e f a c t t h a t boys o f o t h e r e t h n i c g ro u p s ta k e g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n L i th u a n ia n g i r l s and t h a t L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n g i r l s ta k e l e s s i n t e r e s t i n th e b o y s o f t h e i r own group* I n a d d i t i o n t o o c c u p a tio n a l p r o p i n q u i t y , n e ig h b o rh o o d and n a t i o n a l i t y , t h e r e a r e many o t h e r h ig h l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n c o u r t ­ s h ip and th e m a t e - s e l e c t i o n o f seco n d g e n e r a t i o n L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s* The m o st commonly known a r e th e f o llo w in g ; i n t e l l i g e n c e , te m p e ra m e n t, c h a r a c t e r , r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , and t a s t e s *

The

im p o rta n c e o f th e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i f f e r e n t incBvidteOs is not alw ay s t h e sam e; i t v a r i e s w ith d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s and a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s ; p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s m ig h t p r e f e r some r a t h e r th a n o th e rs *

H ow ever, one t h i n g

i s common t o a l l o f them : t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s h i s m ate t o p o s s e s s th e s e t r a i t s i n th e same d e g r e e a s h im s e lf*

F o r i n s t a n c e , th e

q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e n e x t p a g e ) showed t h a t from 1 0 0 L i th u a n i a n g i r l s , o v e r 90$ p r e f e r r e d t o k eep company w ith and t o m a rry boys o f th e same te m p e ra m e n t, c h a r a c t e r , r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y , and m o ral s ta n d a r d s * The o n ly d i f f e r e n c e was a s r e g a r d s i n t e l l i g e n c e ; 79$ w an ted t h e i r m a tes t o b e o f g r e a t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h ereas o n ly 2 1 $ p r e f e r r e d a n e q u a l am ount o f in te llig e n c e .^ The te n d e n c y to w a rd s p e o p le o f t h e same b i o l o g i c a l an d p s y c h o lo g ic a l t r a i t s i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t shows t h a t t h e L i t h u a n i a n s , a s th e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f o t h e r A m e ric a n s, do n o t c a re to o much f o r any s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t a r e r a t h e r a t t r a c t e d by p s y c h o lo g ic a l s i m i l a r i t y , i . e * p e o p le o f t h e i r own k in d .

T h is m eans t h a t t h e i r m ate s e l e c t i o n i s

s t i l l fo u n d ed p r i n c i p a l l y on a n a s s o r t a t i v e b a s i s , a lth o u g h s l i g h t p r e f e r e n c e s may e x i s t * 1 * T his' f i g u r e i s

n o t to o h ig h .b e c a u s e i t c l o s e l y c o in c id e s w ith th e r e s u l t s ■- o f o t h e r s t u d i e s ." B ab er h a s fo u n d t h a t women m ore o f t e n th a n men s e l e c t t h e i r m a te s f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , Op* o i t . , p . 1 4 4 ; C f. Popenoe and Jo h n so n ,. A p p lie d E u g e n ic s , New Y o rk , 1 9 3 3 , p . 1 0 3 .

51

r

1

To l e a r n th e e x a c t m e n t a l i t y , o f young p e o p le i n m ate s e l e c t i o n , I d i s t r i b u t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o 2 0 0 L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n boys and g i r l s o f th e seco n d g e n e r a tio n ;^ -

i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i r t e e n s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s l i s t e d ,

t h e r e w ere t e n o th e r s o f a m ore g e n e r a l ty p e # sim p le#

The m ethod u s e d was v e r y

Young men and women w ere b o th c o n f r o n te d w ith s p e c i f i c b u t

n e c e s s a r i l y h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s ; th e y w ere a sk e d w hat t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s w ould b e i n e a c h case#

I n ea c h o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n te d

a l l b u t one o f t h e n in e f a c t o r s in v o lv e d w ere assum ed t o b e s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e re m a in in g one ( a d i f f e r e n t one i n e a c h s i t u a t i o n ) b e in g assum ed u n s a tis fa c to ry # T a b le I I I shows t h e r e s p o n s e s a s th e y w ere g iv en #

Economic s t a t u s ,

when s e l e c t i n g m a te s i s o f u n e q u a l im p o rta n c e t o boys and g i r l s #

A bout

one f i f t h o f th e boys and a lm o s t h a l f o f t h e g i r l s c la im e d th e y w ould show no h e s i t a t i o n i n m a rry in g someone who was l e s s f a v o r a b ly s i t u a t e d f i n a n c i a l l y th a n th e m s e lv e s #

They w ere n o t i n d i f f e r e n t t o money, th e y

m e re ly d id n o t p la c e i t f i r s t # I t was q u i t e s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t a b o u t t h r e e f o u r t h s o f th e boys c o n s id e r e d good lo o k s a s a n im p o r ta n t and a n e c e s s a r y t r a i t i n t h e i r m a te s , w h ereas o n ly 21% o f t h e g i r l s c o n s id e r e d i t e s s e n t i a l #

It

is. h a rd t o s a y w h e th e r t h i s was t h e i r h o n e s t o p in io n o r w h e th e r th e y w ere m e re ly bow ing g r a c e f u l l y t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e #

As t o p e r s o n a l i t y

and m o ra l s t a n d a r d s , b o th men and women i n d i c a t e d t h e i r u n w illin g n e s s

1 # T hese bo y s and g i r l s

w ere s e l e c t e d a t random from one Hew E ngland com m unity; th e y a l l w ere C a t h o l i c s , u n m a rr ie d , o f d i f f e r e n t o c c u ­ p a t i o n s , w e a lt h , and e d u c a tio n #

i_

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• • • cs* o >> CO © o f A m erican f a m i l i e s a r e u s u a l l y b ro k e n up by d e a t h , and \1% a r e b ro k e n up by d i v o r c e , c f . W a lle r ., op* o i t * , ^*489*

93

r

t h i s so?

P erh ap s i t i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n men,

n

b e in g em ployed g e n e r a l l y i n h eavy i n d u s t r i e s , i n f a c t o r i e s , m in e s , and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , h av e a v e r y h ig h m o r t a l i t y r a t e .

T h u s, L i th u a n i a n -

A m erican women h av e much b e t t e r c h an c es o f s u r v iv in g t h e i r h u sb an d s b e c a u se th e y e i t h e r s t a y a t home o r a r e em ployed i n l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s . H ow ever, a t t h i s p 'o in t, we a r e l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a t i s t i c s th a n i n t h e way l i f e i n t h e fa m ily i s c a r r i e d o n . A n o th e r q u e s tio n o f i n t e r e s t m ig h t b e t h e f o llo w in g s

How do

L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n widows an d w idow ers o r g a n iz e t h e i r l i v e s ? a r e t h e i r means o f s u b s i s te n c e ?

What

What p e r c e n ta g e o f them rem a rry ?

I n t h e h o m elan d , widowhood was lo o k e d upon a s a r e s p e c t a b l e and m e r i t o r i o u s way o f l i f e .

Widows i n many c a s e s w ere h e ld i n g r e a t e r

r e s p e c t even th a n m a r r ie d women, and g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e s w ere a c c o rd e d them by la w and by s o c i e t y .

T h is t r a d i t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s

c o u n tr y .

We s e e i n Am erica) t h a t L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n widows r a r e l y

re m a r ry .

They manage t h e i r f a m ily p ro b lem s v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y , and i n

t h e c a s e s t h a t I h av e o b s e r v e d , t h e r e was b u t l i t t l e m a la d ju s tm e n t o r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t h e f o llo w in g c a s e w i l l shows When my h u sb an d d ie d , I was v e ry d e p r e s s e d f o r a lo n g tim e and I d id n o t know w hat t o do and how t o c o n tin u e my fa m ily l i f e . I h a d s i x c h i l d r e n , a l l o f them w ere v e r y y o u n g . The o l d e s t was b a r e l y s i x t e e n and was o f l i t t l e h e l p t o me a s he c o u ld n o t y e t manage o u r fa rm . A f t e r lo n g r e f l e c t i o n and i n d e c i s i o n , I f i n a l l y d e c id e d t o re m a in a widow, ev en th o u g h I had many o c c a s io n s t o re m a r r y . I m is s e d my h usband v e r y much and was d e e p ly c o n c e rn e d a b o u t .t h e f u t u r e o f my c h i l d r e n . Som etim es I was on t h e v e rg e o f r e m a r r y in g . B ut a g a in t h e th o u g h t o f a s t e p - f a t h e r d e f r a u d in g my c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r r i g h t f u l p a trim o n y w ould d e t e r me. F i n a l l y , I r e s o lv e d t o s t a y u n m a rr ie d . I n th e b e g in n in g , I fo u n d g o in g v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I had t o h i r e two p e o p le , a g i r l and a young m an, t o h e l p me w ith th e farm c h o r e s . T h is s i t u a t i o n was im proved when my c h i l d r e n grew u p . I now f e e l v e r y s a t i s f i e d and happy and e v e r y th in g goes on s m o o th ly . My c h i l d r e n lo v e me and a r e o b e d ie n t and we a l l l i v e h a p p i ly t o g e t h e r 1. Unpublished life-$istory document.

^

94

The A m erican c h i l d r e n b o rn o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n a n c e s t r y i n t h i s c o u n try h av e seldom re a c h e d t h i s l a s t s ta g e o f fa m ily l i f e . H ow ever, th o s e who hav e show many s i m i l a r i t i e s w ith o t h e r A m erican p e o p le .

They a r e much more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and l i b e r a l .

T h e ir

r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith t h e i r n e ig h b o rs and t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e l e s s c o ld and f o r m a l.

They d i s p l a y v e r y few s p e c i f i c m arks o f t h e i r own n a t i o n a l

tra d itio n s . H?hen th e p o s t- w a r g e n e r a t i o n r e a c h e s t h i s p h a se o f fa m ily l i f e , i t w i l l , p e r h a p s , h av e c o m p le te ly a s s i m i l a t e d t h e A m erican p a t t e r n o f life .

T h e ir p ro b lem s w i l l n o t d i f f e r from th e g e n e r a l p ro b lem s o f

A m erican l i f e , once t h i s co m p le te a d a p t a t i o n h a s te k e n p l a c e .

L

95

CHAPTER VI

STRUCTURAL ASPECT OF THE LITHUAHIAN-AMERICAN FAMILY

The s tu d y o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m ily e x p e r ie n c e h a s shown us t h e p s y c h o lo g ic a l s id e o f t h e fa m ily *

We h av e s e e n how t h e L i th u a n i a n -

A m erican f a m ily b e g in s i t s l i f e , how i t u n d e rg o e s v a r io u s ch an g es in i t s d e v e lo p m e n t, and w h at a r e th e f a c t o r s t h a t m ould and sh ap e t h i s change*

How we a r e re a d y t o s tu d y m ore d e e p ly th e a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e

o f t h e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i ly , i t s p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e and i t s p o s s i b l e f u t u r e tr e n d s * T h ere a r e f i v e m ain q u e s ti o n s t o b e c o n s id e r e d , n am ely : ( a ) s i z e and c o m p o s itio n o f th e f a m ily ; ( b ) ag e and d u r a t i o n ; ( c ) s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g ; (d ) s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , and ( e ) s t a b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y .

A* S iz e and C o m p o sitio n o f th e F am ily U n it The f i r s t t h i n g t o be d is c u s s e d i s t h e s i z e o f th e L i th u a n i a n A m erican fa m ily u n i t ; i* e * , t h e num ber o f p e rs o n s i n th e f a m ily and how t h i s fa m ily number com pares w ith th e s i z e o f t h e a v e ra g e fa m ily i n th e U n ite d S ta t e s *

A n o th e r q u e s tio n c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o th e fo rm e r

i s t h e c o m p o s itio n o f th e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily *

I n w hat ways

a r e th e i n d i v i d u a l s com posing i t r e l a t e d t o one a n o th e r ? By m a rria g e ?

By b i r t h ?

How many c o n s i s t o f m a r r ie d c o u p le s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r

w ith o u t c h ild r e n ?

Among f a m i l i e s w ith c h i l d r e n , w hat p r o p o r ti o n o f

them h av e b u t one c h i l d ; w hat p r o p o r ti o n o f them h av e s e v e r a l? The m o st c o m p re h en siv e s tu d y o f t h e m a rr ie d p o p u la tio n o f th e ^ U n ite d S t a t e s i s th e U n ite d S t a t e s Census*

H owever, t h e ce n su s d o es

^

96

r

n o t have a n y th in g p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d in g th e L i th u a n ia n -A m erican fa m ily a s such*

n

L ith u a n ia n s a r e in c lu d e d v /ith o th e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s , th o u g h ,

i n f a c t , th e y d i f f e r i n many r e s p e c t s . m ore th a n a g e n e r a l g u id e f o r u s . from o t h e r s o u r c e s .

The C en su s, th e n , can be no

P a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s m ust be g a th e r e d

F o r t u n a t e l y , th e A m erican Roman C a th o lic H ie r a r c h y

h a s o r d e r e d a ce n su s t o b e ta k e n i n t h i s c o u n tr y .

I n th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,

t h e r e a r e 123 L i th u a n ia n Roman C a th o lic p a r i s h e s , w ith a m em bership o f a b o u t 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 , o r a b o u t h a l f o f a l l th e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s i n t h i s country .^"

The ce n su s ta k e n i n th e s e p a r i s h e s em braces o v e r 5 0 ,0 0 0

fa m ilie s .

But we w ere u n a b le t o o b t a i n a l l t h e c o l l e c t e d d a ta on

th e s e f a m ilie s .

Vfe h av e s e c u r e d c e n su s d a t a f o r a p p ro x im a te ly 5 ,0 0 0

f a m i l i e s from d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s , w h ich r e p r e s e n t a r e a s m ost d e n s e ly p o p u la te d by L i t h u a n i a n s .

T h is ce n su s i s q u i t e im p e r f e c t b e c a u s e i t

was n o t ta k e n from a s o c i o l o g i c a l v ie w p o in t.

Y e t, i t s e r v e s o u r

p u rp o s e by h e l p in g u s t o make f a i r l y a c c u r a te d e d u c tio n s . I n an y c e n su s o f th e m a r r ie d p o p u la tio n , i t i s v e r y im p o r ta n t t o c o n s id e r t h e f a m ily u n i t .

T hus, even b e f o r e b e g in n in g , we m ust have

some kind of a definition of the family as such.

Among the different

s o c i o l o g i c a l s u rv e y s o f t h e p a s t and o f t h e p r e s e n t , a b e w ild e r in g v a r i e t y o f d e f i n i t i o n s hav e a p p e a r e d .

T h is i s u n d e r s ta n d a b le b e c a u s e ,

f o r th e m o st p a r t , e a c h w r i t e r h a s b een c o n c e rn e d w ith some s p e c i a l p ro b le m , su ch a s d i f f e r e n t i a l f e r t i l i t y o f v a r io u s g r o u p s , th e r e l a t i o n b etw ee n t h e s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g and th e f a m ily w age, t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f p h y s ic a l and m e n ta l t r a i t s , e t c .

Out o f t h i s w e l t e r

o f d e f i n i t i o n s , some v a g u e , some m ore p r e c i s e , t h r e e m ain d e f i n i t i o n s em erg e.

The f i r s t i s t h a t a d o p te d by t h e U n ite d S t a t e s Census

1 • Y ear Book o f th e L i th u a n ia n Roman C a th o lic P r i e s t s L eague o f A m erio^, Hew Y o rk , T 9 4 1 , p p . 9 6 -1 0 1 .

97

B u re a u .1 h o ld .

I t in c lu d e s a l l p e r s o n s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n th e same h o u s e ­

T h u s, r e l a t i v e s o f a l l k in d s , f r i e n d s , l o d g e r s , and s e r v a n t s ,

a r e a l l in c lu d e d , p ro v id e d th e y h a b i t u a l l y form a p a r t o f t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s e h o ld g ro u p . a r e e x c lu d e d .

C h ild r e n and r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g e ls e w h e re

The seco n d d e f i n i t i o n em bodies th e c o n c e p t o f th e

n a tu r a l o r b io lo g ic a l fa m ily .2

I t in c lu d e s o n ly th e p a r e n t s and

t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , l i v i n g and d e a d . a d o p te d i n f e r t i l i t y

T h is d e f i n i t i o n i s n e a r l y alw ay s

s t u d i e s f o r o b v io u s r e a s o n s .

The t h i r d d e f i ­

n i t i o n i s w hat may b e te rm e d t h e ’’n a t u r a l - S o c i a l f a m i l y . ”

I t c o n s is ts

o f a g ro u p o f p e r s o n s who b o th l i v e t o g e t h e r and h av e m a r i t a l o r p a re n t-c h ild r e la tio n s h ip .

A ll u n m a rrie d so n s and d a u g h te r s l i v i n g

a t home w ith e i t h e r o r b o th p a r e n t s a r e in c lu d e d , b u t c h i l d r e n n o t l i v i n g a t home a r e e x c lu d e d .

T h is d e f i n i t i o n o f f a m ily i s em ployed

b y Bay M onroe.^ As one can e a s i l y s e e , t h e l a s t two d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t h e m ost s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u se th e y d e a l w ith t h e f a m ily a s s u c h , and n o t w ith th e m a rr ie d p o p u l a t i o n .

U n f o r tu n a te ly , th e c e n su s o f th e L ith u a n ia n

C a th o lic p a r i s h e s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s im p lie s s t i l l a n o t h e r d e f i ­ n i t i o n o f t h e f a m ily .

H ere th e f a m ily i s c o n s id e r e d a s a g ro u p o f

i n d i v i d u a l s bound by m a r i t a l and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , l i v i n g i n one o r s e v e r a l p l a c e s .

The e m a n c ip a te d c h i l d r e n , even th o s e l i v i n g

o u ts id e t h e fa m ily home, a r e i n c lu d e d .

M a rrie d and dead c h i l d r e n a r e

n o t in c lu d e d b e c a u s e th e y no lo n g e r b e lo n g t o t h e f a m ily .

C o n s e q u e n tly ,

Reoent S o c ia l T ren d s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , R e p o rt o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s R e s e a rc h C om m ittee on S o c ia l T re n d s , 2 v o ls r ., New Y o rk , M cG raw -H ill, 19 3 3 , p . 682. 2 . M ild re d P a r t e n , ”A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is o f th e Modern F a m ily ,” A n n als o f th e A m erican Academy, 1 6 0 s 2 9 ,3 7 , M arch 1 9 32, p . 3 1 . 3 . Day M onroe, C hicago F a m i lie s ? A S tu d y o f U n p u b lish e d Census D a ta , C h ic a g o , U n iv e r s it y o f C hicago P r e s s , 1 9 30, p . 9 8 .

98

r

i

th e f i g u r e s b a s e d on t h e c e n su s o f t h e Roman C a th o lic p a r i s h e s a r e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from th o s e p r e v io u s l y m en tio n ed * The a v e r a g e s i z e o f th e fa m ily i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s i s c o n s ta n t ly d e c r e a s i n g , a c c o r d in g t o th e Census B ureau r e p o r ts *

I n 1920 i t was

4 . 6 ; i n 1 9 3 0 , 4 * 1 ; and i n 1 9 4 0 , i t d e c r e a s e d t o 3 * 8 .

T h is f i g u r e a s

r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w hole c o u n try i s by no means t r u e i f a p p l i e d t o p a r t i c u l a r g ro u p s o r p a r t i c u l a r com m unities*

F o r ex am p le, Bay M onroe’s

s tu d y o f C h ic a g o .f a m ilie s i n 1930 shows th e a v e ra g e was o n ly 3*8*

The

same i s t r u e o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n New Y ork C ity , w h ic h , a c c o r d in g t o t h e s t u d i e s made b y L* B* B a d g le y ,^ c o n ta in e d , i n 1 9 30, 3 .9 5 m em bers, and i n 1940 o n ly 3*43*

*

My s tu d y o f a b o u t 5 ,0 0 0 L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i l i e s shows t h a t th e a v e ra g e s i z e o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily ( b o th o f f o r e ig n - b o r n and o f th e seco n d g e n e r a t i o n ) , i s o n ly 3* 5 . is a l i t t l e

I n some c o m m u n itie s, i t

h i g h e r , b u t i n o th e r s i t i s s l i g h t l y lo w e r .^

I t i s my f ir m

b e l i e f t h a t some t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s ago t h e a v e ra g e s i z e o f t h e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m ily was much g r e a t e r , p ro b a b ly a b o u t 4*5 o r 5* T oday, h o w ev er, we w itn e s s a s u b s t a n t i a l d e c lin e * o f t h i s d e c l in e ?

Vilh&t i s th e c au se

The p r i n c i p a l c a u s e i s th e same a.s t h a t w h ich h a s

a f f e c t e d a l l A m erican f a m i l i e s i n g e n e r a l , n am ely , b i r t h - c o n t r o l , econom ic f a c t o r s , t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e , and th e g r e a t e r em ploym ent o f women* W ith r e g a r d t o L ith u a n ia n - A m e r ic a n s , t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s .

1 . L . D. B ad g ley (F*H.A . C h ie f m a rk e t a n a l y s t ) , ’’R e p o rt on New Y ork S t a t e F e d e r a l H ousing P ro b le m s, q u o te d by The New Y ork T im es, Decem ber 1 , 1941. 2 . F o r ex am p le, i n B ro o k ly n , New Y o rk , th e s i z e o f L ith u a n ia n f a m i l i e s i s a p p r o x im a te ly 3 .3 8 , w h ereas i n some co m m unities o f P e n n s y lv a n ia , t h e a v e ra g e s i z e r e a c h e s 3 . 7 . L

99

r

t

Many o f th e im m ig ra n t f a m i l i e s to d a y h av e r e a c h e d t h e s ta g e o f th e em pty home.

T h e ir c h i l d r e n , h a v in g re a c h e d a d u lth o o d , h av e l e f t home.

By c o n t r a s t , t h e p r e s e n t young L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i l i e s a r e s t i l l i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m a tio n .

They a r e j u s t r e a c h in g th e s ta g e when

t h e g r e a t e s t num ber o f c h i l d r e n i s t o b e e x p e c te d .

T h a t i s why th e

a v e ra g e s i z e o f th e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily o f th e f i r s t and seco n d g e n e r a tio n i s so much lo w e r th a n we w ould e x p e c t.

H owever, a g e n e r a l a v e ra g e o f

t h i s k in d t e l l s u s v e r y l i t t l e . F ig u r e s on th e p r e v a le n c e o f e a c h s i z e a r e m ore i l l u m i n a t i n g , and a r e g iv e n i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e .

table

r :.

P r o p o r tio n o f F a m ilie s c o n t a in in g s p e c i f i c num bers

Humber o f Members

New E n g lan d

Two T h ree Four F iv e S ix S even and m ore T o ta l

B ast?- N o r th - C e n tr a l

C h ic ag o *

2 4 .3 3 4 .0 2 5 .5 1 0 .1 2 .3 3 .8

2 5 .4 3 2 .8 2 4 .9 1 1 .4 3 .1 2 .4

2 3 .8 2 2 .1 2 0 .2 1 4 .4 8 .8 1 0 .7

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

* F ig u r e s f o r C hicago a r e ta k e n from Day M onroe, C hicago F a m i l i e s .

I t w i l l b e n o te d t h a t o n ly one f o u r t h o f th e f a m i l i e s h e r e m e n tio n e d c o n ta in t h e a v e ra g e o f f o u r p e r s o n s .

The fa m ily c o n s i s t i n g

o f t h r e e p e r s o n s i s somewhat -ty p ic a l f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f a l l fa m ilie s .

Why?

B e c a u se , a s we have a l r e a d y m e n tio n e d , many

young c o u p le s p r a c t i s e b i r t h - c o n t r o l , an d do n o t d e s i r e m ore th a n one ^ c h ild .

I n a d d i t i o n , th e o l d e r f a m i l i e s had m ore c h i l d r e n , b u t s in c e

j

100

r

i

m ost o f th e c h i l d r e n have grow n u p and h av e l e f t th e p a r e n t a l home, th e s e homes now h av e o n ly o n e , o r p e rh a p s no c h i l d r e n . why th e L i th u a n i a n f a m ily , a t p r e s e n t , i s so s m a ll.

T h is e x p la in s

The p o p u la r

c o n c e p tio n t h a t t h e im m ig ran t f a m ily i s l a r g e i s t r u e o n ly a s r e g a r d s i t s e a r l y p e r i o d , b u t a s tim e g o es on i t s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e s . A n o th e r im p o r ta n t ite m f o r s tu d y i n th e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily ty p e i s i t s

c o m p o s itio n .

H ere a l l 5 ,0 0 0 f a m i l i e s w ere d iv i d e d i n t o

f o u r d i f f e r e n t ty p e s a s l i s t e d i n th e f o llo w in g t a b l e . TABLE VI . P e r c e n ta g e o f F a m ilie s A c c o rd in g t o T h e ir Types

Type o f F am ily a s R egards I t s C o m p o sitio n

P e rc e n ta g e

H usband and w ife

2 4 .8

H usband, w ife and c h i l d r e n

5 7 .3

H usband, w if e , c h i l d r e n and r e l a t i v e s

8 .4

One p a r e n t and c h i l d r e n , o r c h i l d r e n o n ly

9 .5 T o ta l

1 0 0 .0

From th e s e f i g u r e s , i t may b e s e e n t h a t th e h u s b a n d - w if e - c h ild r e n fa m ily i s th e m o st p r e v a l e n t t y p e , and in c lu d e s o v e r h a l f o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m i l i e s •

I n a d d i t i o n , 8 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e

f a m i l i e s a r e composed o f h u s b a n d - w i f e - c h i l d r e n - r e l a t i v e s .

I n o th e r

w o rd s, 6 5 .7 p e r c e n t o r a p p r o x im a te ly t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e f a m i l i e s c o n t a in b o th p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .

The fa m ily composed o f o n ly

husband an d w if e c o n s t i t u t e s a n o t h e r 2 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l .

In

jt h e l a t t e r ty p e , t h e r e a r e c o u p le s w h ich have n e v e r had c h i l d r e n , a s

101

r w e ll a s th o s e whose c h i l d r e n h av e m a rr ie d and l e f t home*

t

The s o -

c a l l e d " in c o m p le te f a m i l i e s , " o r f a m i l i e s w ith o n ly one p a r e n t , o r none a t a l l , compose o n ly 9 .5 p e r c e n t o f a l l f a m i l i e s .

From th e s e

s t a t i s t i c s one g a t h e r s t h a t th e c o m p o s itio n o f th e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n fa m ily i s s t r u c t u r a l l y s tr o n g and w e ll b a la n c e d .

B. Age and D u r a tio n

The fa m ily s t r u c t u r e i s n o t o n ly i n d i c a t e d by t h e s i z e and c o m p o s itio n o f t h e s i n g l e f a m ily u n i t , b u t a l s o by i t s d u r a t i o n . F o r th e f a m i ly , l i k e an y o t h e r l i v i n g o rg a n is m , dep en d s on i t s in n e r s t r e n g t h , s t r u c t u r e , and e n v iro n m e n t.

H ence, i t s s u r v i v a l a s a

u n i t f o r a s h o r t e r o r lo n g e r s p a c e o f tim e h a s c o rr e s p o n d in g in f l u e n c e s on th e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s members an d on th e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i r m a t e r i a l needs. One o f t h e f i r s t a n d , I may a d d , th e m o st i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s id e r a tio n s i n t h e L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n f a m ily l i f e i s t h e tim e o f i t s w hat ag e do m o st L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s m arry ?

in itia tio n .

We h av e b e e n a b le t o o b ta in

f a i r l y good s t a t i s t i c s on t h i s p o i n t . * F o r many L i th u a n ia n Roman C a th o lic p a r is h e s h av e t h e r e c o r d s o f m a r r i a g e s , on w h ich a r e i n s c r i b e d n o t o n ly t h e n a t i o n a l i t y and r e l i g i o n o f th e c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s , b u t li k e w i s e t h e d a t e and p la c e o f t h e i r b i r t h .

At

From t h e s e r e c o r d s ,

g a t h e r e d from s e v e r a l c o m m u n itie s, I have t a b u l a t e d t h e f o llo w in g d a t a :

102

r

n

TABLE V II.. The A v erag e Age a t M a rria g e

Y ear

Number o f M a rria g e s

1900 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940

110 135 137 198 122 128 97 128

T o ta l

1055

Age o f M ales

Age o f Fem ales

2 7 .5 y e a r s 2 7 .0 2 6 .5 2 9 .5 2 9 .5 2 7 .0 2 7 .0 2 6 .0

2 2 .0 y e a r s 2 2 .5 2 3 .0 2 6 .0 2 6 .0 2 2 .5 2 3 .0 2 3 .0

2 7 .5

2 3 .5

As we s e e from t h e above t a b l e , t h e ag e a t w h ich L ith u a n i a n A m ericans m a rry v a r i e s c o n s id e r a b ly , due l a r g e l y t o ch an g in g s o c i a l c o n d itio n s *

F o r i n s t a n c e , p r e v io u s t o W orld War I , th e ag e a t w hich

th e y m a r r ie d was q u i t e s t a b l e , e * g . , i n 1 9 10, f o r t h e men th e a v e ra g e was 2 7 .0 , and f o r women 22*5*

Towards t h e end o f t h e W ar, and f o r a

few y e a r s a f te r w a r d s th e number o f m a r r i a g e s , a s w e ll a s t h e ag e o f t h o s e who m a r r i e d , r a p i d l y in c re a s e d *

A f t e r 1 9 2 5 , when c o n d itio n s

became m ore s e t t l e d , t h e r e was a new d e c l i n e i n t h e ag e and number o f m a rria g e s .

W ith th e coming o f more, p ro s p e ro u s ti m e s , many c o u p le s

m a rr ie d a t an e a r l y a g e , w h ile o th e r s who had p r e v io u s ly b een f o r c e d t o p u t o f f m a rr ia g e b e c a u s e o f econom ic c o n d i t i o n s , now m a r r i e d . . Once norm al c o n d i tio n s w ere r e e s t a b l i s h e d , th e a v e ra g e a g a in a g a in became s t a b l e .

Though th e a v e ra g e f o r a l l 1055 c a s e s i s 2 7 .5 f«?r men

and 2 3 .5 f o r women, n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e l a s t d e c a d e shows t h a t t h e r e i s o n ly a t h r e e y e a r d i f f e r e n c e b etw ee n men and women, w h ich v e r y c l o s e l y c o rre s p o n d s t o t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f A m erican m a r r i a g e s .

T h is age

d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e one g e n e r a l l y d e s i r e d by L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s ( c f .

103

Q u e s tio n n a i r e , A p p e n d ix ). Once we h av e a t l e a s t a p p r o x im a te ly le a r n e d t h e ag e a t w hich L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s m a rry , i t i s e a s y t o c a l c u l a t e th e le n g t h o f fa m ily l i f e among th em .

T h is we c a n do by ta k in g t h e a v e ra g e a g e a t

w hich th e y g e n e r a l l y m a rry and t h e ag e a t w h ich m a r r ie d p e o p le u s u a l l y

die.l

TABLE m i The A v erag e Age o f L ith u a n ia n -A m e ric a n s a t d e a th ( p e r 1000 c a s e s )

1920

1925

1930

1935

1940

Men

4 9 .5

5 2 .5

5 6 .0

5 8 .5

5 9 .0

Women

4 3 .0

4 5 .0

5 1 .5

5 4 .0

5 0 .0

Our e s t i m a t i o n i s t h a t t h e a v e ra g e d u r a t i o n o f t h e L i th u a n i a n A m erican f a m ily up t o 1930 was o n ly a b o u t 20 y e a r s , b u t from. 1930 on i t l a s t s a b o u t 30 y e a r s and m o re.

I t i s t h e im m ig ra n t L i th u a n ia n

fa m ily t h a t h a s th e s h o r t e r l i f e s p a n , w h ereas t h e n a t iv e - b o r n g e n e r a l l y s u r v iv e lo n g e r .

Why i s t h i s ?

The e x p l a n a ti o n i s t o be

fo u n d i n th e v e r y a rd u o u s w ork a n d i n th e u n f a v o r a b le c o n d i tio n s w hich c o n f r o n te d th e im m ig ra n t f a m i ly . in c r e a s e d m o r t a l i t y r a t e .

T hese n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t e d i n a n

I n a d d i t i o n , o u r e s ti m a t e c o in c id e s w ith t h e

g e n e r a l t r e n d o f th e p o p u la tio n i n A m eric a, w h ic h , a t p r e s e n t , l i v e s lo n g e r th a n i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s t e n o r tw e n ty y e a r s a g o .^

1 . F am ily l i f e c a n a l s o t e r m in a t e by d iv o r c e , o r by s e p a r a t i o n . But a s we h av e s e e n , th e p e r c e n ta g e o f d iv o r c e s among o t h e r im m ig ra n ts was v e ry s m a ll, and t h i s f a c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , can b e n e g l e c t e d .