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The Law Code of Īshōʿyahb I, Patriarch of the Church of the East: - (Texts from Christian Late Antiquity)
 9781463244347, 1463244347

Table of contents :
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations
List of Symbols
Introduction
Text and Translation
Bibliography of Works Cited
Index

Citation preview

The Law Code of Īshōʿyahb I, Patriarch of the Church of the East

Texts from Christian Late Antiquity

75 Series Editor George Anton Kiraz

TeCLA (Texts from Christian Late Antiquity) is a series presenting ancient Christian texts both in their original languages and with accompanying contemporary English translations.

The Law Code of Īshōʿyahb I, Patriarch of the Church of the East

Edited and Translated by

Amir Harrak

gp 2022

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2022 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC. ‫ܘ‬

1

2022

ISBN 978-1-4632-4434-7

ISSN 1935-6846

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A Cataloging-in-Publication Record is available at the Library of Congress. Printed in the United States of America

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents ......................................................................... v List of Abbreviations .................................................................. vii List of Symbols ............................................................................ ix Introduction ................................................................................. 1 Outline .................................................................................. 1 Classification of the Codes .............................................. 3 Sources of the Code .............................................................. 4 Sources from Nisibis........................................................ 4 Synods of the Church of the East .................................... 4 New Testament ............................................................... 6 Common sense ................................................................ 6 Hagiographical source .................................................... 6 Church Architecture ............................................................. 7 Bema (bīm)...................................................................... 7 Qankē .............................................................................. 8 Qestrūmā ......................................................................... 9 Diaconicon .................................................................... 10 Altar .............................................................................. 10 Baptistery? .................................................................... 11 Sanctification ...................................................................... 11 Ecclesiastical Orders ........................................................... 12 Eucharist ............................................................................. 14 Chrism ................................................................................ 14 Sanctification at the End of the 6th Century ....................... 15 The Day of the Lord ........................................................... 22 Gifts and Vows to Churches and Monasteries .................... 22 Manuscripts ........................................................................ 23 Previous Editions and Translations .................................... 24 v

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Summary ............................................................................ 25

Text and Translation .................................................................. 29 First Question ................................................................ 38 Reply to the first question ............................................. 39 Second Canon ................................................................ 44 Third Canon .................................................................. 47 Fourth Canon ................................................................ 49 Fifth Canon.................................................................... 52 Sixth Canon ................................................................... 60 Seventh Canon .............................................................. 66 Eighth Canon ................................................................. 68 Ninth Canon .................................................................. 72 Tenth Canon .................................................................. 74 Eleventh Canon ............................................................. 77 Twelfth Canon ............................................................... 81 Thirteenth Canon .......................................................... 84 Fourteenth Canon.......................................................... 85 Fifteenth Canon ............................................................. 88 Sixteenth Canon ............................................................ 98 Seventieth Canon ........................................................ 100 Eighteenth Canon ........................................................ 102 Nineteenth Canon ....................................................... 108 Twentieth Canon ......................................................... 112 F. 233B (Epilogue) ...................................................... 118 (Interpolated Account on the Wheel) F.233A ............. 120 (Interpolated Account on Man and Humanity)........... 121

Bibliography of Works Cited .................................................... 125 Syriac Sources .................................................................. 125 Online Sources.................................................................. 126 Modern Sources ................................................................ 126

Index......................................................................................... 129

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CSCO

Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (Paris and Louvain)

Encyclopedic Dictionary

Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2011)

Journal of the CSSS

Journal of the Canadian Society for Syriac Studies (Toronto)

Ms.

Manuscript

SS

Scriptores Syri

vii

LIST OF SYMBOLS [F. r/v]

Folio number in the Syriac manuscript

( )

Enclosed portion is a supplied word or words

[…]

Portion of uncertain length or words missing

< >

Enclosed portion is a correction made on manuscript



Enclosed portion discussed in a footnote



Gap filler (looks like elongated qōf in ms.)

ix

INTRODUCTION OUTLINE

Īshōʿyahb I was a native of Bēt-ʿArabāyē, 1 whose capital was the important city of Nisibis, made famous by its academy, of which the 5th century Narsai (399–ca. 502) was the director. Sometime after his death, Īshōʿyahb, the author of the current Code of Law, attended this academy and eventually became its director for two years. 2 Īshōʿyahb was appointed as bishop over the city of Arzen, 3 and in about 581–82, he was elected Catholicos of the Church of the East. In 585, he convened a synod, which promulgated thirty-one canons, and in 587, he was sent in embassy by

Bēt-ʿArabāyē is a large region in upper Syria that extended from BētZabday northward, to Balad southward, and to Nisibis westward. A trade route, linking southwest Iran with Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt, passed by this region as early as the second millennium BC; A. Harrak, “Beth ʿArbaye,” Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2011), p. 71. 2 On the School, see A. Vööbus, The Statutes of the School of Nisibis (Stockholm: Estonian Theological Society in Exile, 1962), and on Īshōʿyahb as its director, see p. 27 n. 23. 3 Arzen (of Persia), main city of Arzanene located to the north of the confluence of Bokhtan with the Tigris. 1

1

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

the Sassanian king Hormuzd to Emperor Mauricius of Byzantium. 4 Jean Baptiste Chabot edited and published the acts of the synod of Īshōʿyahb in his very useful Synodicon, 5 and he included a Letter sent by the Catholicos to Jacob, bishop of Darai, discussing legal questions. The manuscript containing the Letter calls it Canons of Mār Īshōʿ(yahb) the Catholicos, which he Composed for Jacob the Bishop of the Island of Darai, who Asked him to Put them in Writing. 6 The questions of the Bishop of Darai, an island in the Persian-Arabian Gulf, are legal, concerning Church and Civil laws. For example, within Church Law, there were local Christians who dived on Sunday, the Day of the Lord, in search of pearls, just as the people of the Gulf, including Kuwait, used to do before the discovery of oil! The Patriarch answered most of the Bishop’s questions, probably after the Synod of 585, since there are correlations between the Acts of the Synod and the Canons of Īshōʿyahb, which can be divided into four parts: a) A long letter addressed to the “virtuous priest and the compassionate and elected bishop Mār Jacob, the shepherd of Darai,” which sounds like a homily on wisdom and other topics. b) The collection of twenty canons, covering a variety of themes, not classified according to themes. c) An epilogue in which the addressee seems to have sent more questions than the mere twenty: “We think that you remember that the questions you wrote and sent to us were in the number of thirty-three, but in the view of the subject, they do not amount to this number. Thus, we necessarily disregarded the number of your distribution.… In this way, they amounted to twenty questions that required receipt of answers.” Īshōʿyahb adds: “We want you to know that we answered your questions Louis Sako, Le rôle de la hiérarchie syriaque orientale dans les rapports diplomatiques entre la Perse et Byzance aux Ve–VIIe siècles (Paris, 1986), p. 103–7. 5 J.-B. Chabot, Synodicon orientale ou recueil de synodes nestoriens (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1902), pp. 130–165, including signatures. 6 Ibid., pp. 165–91. 4

INTRODUCTION

3

in writing… in three ways: by teaching, by refuting and by correcting that teaching.” d) A final text, unrelated to the legal matters, was added to the Canons, possibly by later scribes. Īshōʿyahb’s aim in answering the questions was to edify the addressee, a fact highlighted at the end of all canons: “You must also know that we have not answered your questions by decrees (…). Rather, (we used) words whose terms hold onto the teaching of fathers and teachers and are woven with demonstrations from the nature and from Scripture, which draw toward the love of virtues and warn about and divert from the attraction toward evil.” Classification of the Codes

The codes are arranged randomly, probably because the questions of Bishop Jacob of Darai were not classified according to themes. The codes can be classified as follows: Administration (6/20) Priestly Ranks (§16) Ordinations (§18) Priestly Conduct (§5, 6, 7, 11) Legal (9/20) Will, Marriage, Vows (§14, 15, 20) Lending with Interest (§12) Anathema and Swearing (§8, 9, 10, 13, 15) Liturgical (5/20) Sanctification (§1, 2, 3) Sacred Oil (§17) Sunday Day of the Lord (§19) Although the legal canons are numerous in this classification, the anathema and swearing can also be fitted with the priestly conduct, as it mostly concerns priests. This would also reduce the administrative matters into just two canons. Canons concerned with the liturgy, a quarter of all canons, are appropriate

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

as they deal with the way the sanctification, i.e., the Liturgy, must be conducted.

SOURCES OF THE CODE

Īshōʿyahb I referred to the following sources in writing his responses to Bishop Jacob of Darai: Sources from Nisibis

Answering the questions of Bishop Jacob, the patriarch says that no one before him had dealt with them systematically. He faced such questions at the School of Nisibis as: “We wrote clearly and distinctly on how the priest ought to administer the forgiving baptism and to celebrate the divine offering in an awe-inspiring priestly service that pleases God and that sanctifies the baptised.” He wrote answers raised by bishops and brothers, probably drawing on sources housed at that famous School. Synods of the Church of the East

In code §3, deacons had no right to give communion to priests as commanded “in the sacred and synodical canons,” and in code §11, in the case of a married priest committing adultery, “the ancient canons of the fathers order that he be eliminated from the priestly ministry altogether.” Probably the patriarch refers in both cases to the Synod of Mār Joseph (AD 554). Codes § 5, 6, 7 and 11 find their echo in Act V of the Synod of 585, which deals with the following theme: “Priests and deacons ministering the altar of the New Testament must fit the height of their ministry and their conducts.” 7 Although the tone in the codes bears mostly on hatred, which some celebrants harbored even when serving the altar, Act V concerns itself with the general moral behaviour of the celebrants: “We heard that many among the priests and deacons left out the right side and followed the left side.… while others deviated from the chaste and 7

Chabot, Synodicon, p. 402ff (translation); p. 140f (Syriac).

INTRODUCTION

5

noble conduct that fits the ministry entrusted to them.” While the codes are specific, Act V is broad. Codes §14, 15 and 20 deal with Christians fulfilling their vows and pledges in foreign monasteries and churches, a fact that deprived local monasteries and churches of monetary resources, exposing them to ruin. Act XII blames “those who do not give their vows and pledges to the churches and monasteries of their villages and cities, to benefit them, but arrogantly to other places.” 8 Act X specifically discusses monasteries ruined through negligence, surely of a monetary nature: “On early and holy monasteries, built thanks to the diligence of the ancients, are (now) ruined by the negligence of the later generation.” 9 In fact, Act XI recommends that no new monasteries be built unless with secured funding to sustain them. 10 Code §12, on lending in interest, corresponds to Act XV: “On those who lend money in interest and who care to increase their possession through profit, which is alien to the householders (=the Christians).” 11 Act XVI deals with lending in interest, but the offenders are some clergy and even monks. 12 Finally, Canon §18, “On the distribution of talents— ecclesiastical ranks—that are given to the ministers of the altar by the imposition of the hand…,” echoes Act XXIX: “On orders and ranks in the ecclesiastical ministry, and on the honour due to the middle ones by the lower ones, by the middle ones to the upper ones, and by the upper ones to those who are higher than all of them who are established canonically and paternally.” 13 Īshōʿyahb’s calling the ranks “talents” is probably drawn from the Parable of the Talents in Matthew 25:14–30. The Act also sets the origin of such ranks to Christ himself, who selected, Ibid., p. 408f (translation); p. 147f (Syriac). Ibid., p. 408 (translation); p. 147 (Syriac). 10 Ibid., p. 408f (translation); p. 140f (Syriac). 11 Ibid., p. 412 (translation); p. 151 (Syriac). 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid., p. 419ff (translation); p. 159ff (Syriac). 8 9

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

among other, ebdymeqonṭā (=ἑβδομήϰοντα), the Seventy Apostles. Although Codes and Acts share some similar themes, the Codes are responses to Bishop Jacob’s specific questions, and are thus not Acts. Moreover, Īshōʿyahb made clear at the end of his codes that he did not answer the bishop’s questions in a synodical manner, but “as a master toward his student.” The Patriarch also felt free to join related questions together and not to answer some, “because they are clear to the knowledgeable ones.” The codes are also a source of information on such important subjects as Church architecture, the celebration of the sanctification, and the necessity to honour the Day of the Lord. These and other subjects are discussed in the following sections. New Testament

Paul’s Epistles are often referred to, but Matthew 7:6 is quoted with regard to obvious and notorious offenses committed by a priest, in which case he is “dismissed from the ministry of mysteries: Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before swine” (§11). Interestingly, the patriarch associated quddāšā “Eucharist” with margānītā “pearl.” Common sense

Some rules are coined by human practices. In code §9, the patriarch says: “There is a fair custom among firm believers in many regions that not only when a priest says to a believer: “It is not legal that you do this or say that,” but even when he says: “Do not do this and do not say that,” the believers submit themselves to the priest. The patriarch also mentions human wisdom as the source of rules: “The mind is the source of thoughts and the speech is the treasurer of ideas and their carrier—if their holder is healthy!” (§3). This wise thinking pertains to people who unduly anathematize themselves. Hagiographical source

Code §6 deals with a blessed bishop who, under pressure, sacrificed to idols, but then repented by living away from the world.

INTRODUCTION

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There “the Revelation told him: ‘Now your penance is accepted. Until now you have been penitent, being carefully, conscientiously and regretfully remorseful; from now on, you shall work for your righteousness during the rest of your life.’” The patriarch does not give the source of this story or refer to a specific source, which must be hagiographical.

CHURCH ARCHITECTURE

In discussing liturgical themes, Īshōʿyahb gave names to as many as five sections inside the church building (§§1, 2), some of which are also known to his predecessor Narsai. The following sketch contains the architectural terms given by Īshōʿyahb:

Figure 1: Church structure according to Īshōʿyahb I (§2); drawing by A. Harrak

Bema (bīm) “If the archdeacon (rīš tešmeštā=arḵeḏiaqōn) is not present, the replacement of the deacon (anṭī- arḵeḏiaqōn) or the manager of the bema (haw da-mšammēš bīm) commands the one who would do the Sanctification by order of the bishop” (§2)

“The manager of the bema” is a rare attestation in Syriac but it is not clear if bīm (=bema) refers to the structure placed in the middle of the church, or it refers to the qeṣtrūmā, sometimes called bema. Since Īshōʿyahb mentions the qeṣtrūmā as such, the bema must be the structure in the middle of the church as is in-

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

dicated in Figure 1. This structure was known at the time of Īshōʿyahb, 14 as is also attested in archaeological churches, as in Ḥira and Bazyan. 15 The bema, Greek βῆμα, placed in the middle of the church, serves as the place where the Liturgy of the Word, that is the first part of the Sanctification, was conducted. Sometimes the bema refers to the altar, but not in this context, since the one who replaces the deacon had no right to be near the altar, but generally was in the Qanke. Who this replacement of the Archdeacon is, is not known, but he must have been a deacon or subdeacon, responsible for keeping the bema in order. Qankē “The celebrant gives the offering to the priests and the deacons who are in the Qankē” (§2)

The place and the role of Qankē, Greek κὁγχη, can be deduced from mentions of it in the canons: a) “The one who conducts the Sanctification gives the offering to the priest and the deacon who are in the Qankē” (§2). b) “We believe that the entire Qankē around the altar is full of servers of fire and light” (§5). c) “Nor do (grudged) priests, who are supposed to be forgivers, dread inside the Qankē of forgiveness...!” (§5). The fact that the Qankē is the place “around the altar” and that it is also called “Qankē of forgiveness” means that it is the Jacob of Sarug (d. 521) mentions the Bema: “Turn your ear toward the divine Bema,” listening to the scriptures read on the Bema; A. Harrak, Metrical Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug: Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on the Partaking of the Holy Mysteries, Texts from Christian Late Antiquity 23 (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2010), p. 20. 15 D. Talbot Rice, “The Oxford Excavations at Hira, 1931,” Antiquity 6 (1932), pp. 276–91; D. Talbot Rice, “The Oxford Excavations at Hira,” Ars Islamica 1 (1934), pp. 51–73; Narmen Muhamad Amen Ali, “The “Monastic Church” of Bāzyān, in Iraqi Kurdistan,” Journal of the CSSS 8 (2008), pp. 74–84. 14

INTRODUCTION

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sanctuary, or the Holy-of-Holies, where the altar is placed. Narsai calls the Holy-of-Holies ‫ܒܝܬ ܚܘܣܝܐ‬, “place of forgiveness,” 16 and Īshōʿyahb names it “the place of reconciliation, full of peaceful and merciful hosts” (§5). Here too, sinners can be forgiven “by the free remedies of the mercy of the heavenly physician” (§5). 17 The sin-forgiving Eucharist is an ancient theme found in the Acts of Thomas, §158. 18 The early 7th century Acts of Mār Mārī says that the obvious function of the priests and deacons is to celebrate the “life-giving” body and blood of Christ (§15, 25, 30). 19 15F

16F

17F

18F

Qestrūmā “The celebrant … blesses the people above the step of the Qesṭrūmā” (§2)

On the step of the Qestrūmā, Greek κατάστρωμα, is thus a platform adjacent to the Qankē, which must not have been large, as it was stretched along the central nave only. In Bazyan, three steps give access to the qestrūmā and three more to the bema in the centre, and both are connected by šqāqōnā, a narrow channel, not mentioned by Īshōʿyahb.

A. Harrak, Mar Narsai: Homily 33 on the Sanctification of the Church, Texts from Christian Late Antiquity 54 (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2018), 42 and n. 35, 48 and n. 40. 17 On the sanctification as remedy, see A. Harrak, Le monastère de MarBehnam à la période atabeg – XIIIe S.: L’art au service de la foi (Paris: Geuthner, 2018), pp. 161–62 (with supporting quotations from Ephrem and Jacob of Sarug). 18 A. F. J. Klijn, The Acts of Thomas: Introduction, Text, Commentary (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962). 19 A. Harrak, The Acts of Mār Mārī the Apostle, Writings from the GrecoRoman World, v. 11 (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature 2005). 16

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Diaconicon “If he (=bishop) does not distribute (the Eucharist), he would go into the diaconicon and sits, and there the people who go to him receive from his peace” (§2)

The diaconicon is called in Syriac bēt-dīqōniōn, Greek διακονικόν “place of the deacons,” prefixed by Syriac bēt- “place of.” It was located to the north side of the sanctuary, and in it the bishop “sits, and there people who go to him receive from him peace”. The bishop must have been sitting near the gate of the diaconicon, which was connected with the north aisle. It must have contained liturgical vestments, books, and the oven in which the liturgical bread was baked, as in the Church of Ṭahra in Mosul, where the oven was placed on a second level, accessed through a staircase. Altar “At the time of offering the sacrifice, we believe that the entire Qankē around the altar is full of servers of fire and spirit” (§5)

The altar, in Syriac madebḥā, is called “the altar of forgiveness” (see above) and “living table” (§5) and was worthy of homage and greeting (§2). On the altar, “the oblation immolating sacramentally the sacrifice of the living Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world” was offered (§8). On it, the celebrant “like a skilled painter, mystically depicts the mystery of the death, burial, resurrection and ascension of Jesus our Lifegiver” (§8). Narsai gives more or less the same description: “In her (=Holy-of-Holies) stands the altar, the mystery of the tomb of Christ the Bridegroom, and in it the Cross, the mark of his life-providing death, is placed; on it the body is broken and the blood (is offered) for the forgiving of sins, a living sacrifice of the High-Priest who redeemed her (=the Church) with his

INTRODUCTION

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blood.” 20 During ordinations, the Gospel was placed on the altar (§3). Baptistery?

This room was placed to the right side of the sanctuary and connected with the south aisle of the church. It is missing in the code of Īshōʿyahb, because the patriarch did not systematically discuss church architecture. The Baptistery contained the baptismal font and the Chrism. Canon §17 warns that the baptismal holy oil must not be used for purposes other than baptism. The Acts of Thomas calls this oil the “name of the Messiah (=the Anointed One)” (§132), playing on the common root mšḥ. 21

SANCTIFICATION

Sanctification is called qudšā “sanctity,” qurbānā “offering;” gazzā “treasure” (Old Persian origin, *ganza), rāzā “mystery” (a charged term in Syriac, ultimately deriving from the Book of Daniel 2:18 et passim); debeḥtā mra‘yanītā or mḥassyānītā “acceptable (or) forgiving sacrifice;” sammānē d-maggān damraḥmānūteh d-ʿasyā šmayyānā “free remedies derived from the mercy of the heavenly physician.” The Syriac term sammā, which means both “venom” and “remedy,” 22 occurs also in §6. One term, ṭwpsā “type, likeness,” refers to the body of Christ, whereby the celebrant repeats Christ’s words: I am the bread of life… 23 The term mēkultā d-ṭaybūtā “food of the grace,” recalls ‫“ ܐܓܪܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ‬Holy Reward,” the name inscribed on the cover of

Harrak, Mar Narsai: Homily 33 on the Sanctification of the Church, p. 48. 21 Harrak, The Acts of Mār Mārī, p. xxix. 22 Eduard Beck, Des heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Hymnen de Nativitate (Epiphania), CSCO 186 SS 82 (1959), III:15, p. 23. 23 John 6:41. 20

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a wooden box, found in the Church of St. Meskentā in Mosul. 24 The box was probably created to hold ṭaybūtā “grace” to be partaken by the sick.

ECCLESIASTICAL ORDERS

Ecclesiastics who performed the sanctification are referred to by their religious titles, which are elucidated by the Synod of Īshōʿyahb. The titles are familiar except perhaps for two mentioned especially in the Patriarch’s Canon §2. The titles are as follows: Archdeacon (‫)ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ‬: A long description of the Archdeacon is given in the Act §19 of the Synod of Īshōʿyahb, 25 which calls them along with the priests “ministers of the altar of the New Covenant,” whose personal behaviour must fit their ranks. 26 Canon §2 of Īshōʿyahb calls the Archdeacon “the head (or leader) of the (Eucharistic) ministry,” and during his time, the archdeacon was probably the head of deacons, who appointed priests to conduct sanctifications (§2) and helped priests during baptismal services (§4). Anti-Archdeacon (‫)ܐܢܛܝ ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ‬: This is a rare term in Syriac not mentioned in Acts §19 of the Synod of Īshōʿyahb, but only in his Code §2. The Anti-Archdeacon filled the role of the Archdeacon in case he was not available. ̈ ̈ ‫ܣܦܣܠܐ ܩܫܝܫ‬ Arch-priest (‫ܩܫܝܫܐ‬ ‫)ܪܫ‬: The second word of this Syriac phrase is a coupling not always attested. The Archpriest replaced the bishop, who usually gives communion to the priest who celebrates the Sanctification (§2). Act §19 of the Synod eẍ ̈ plains the meaning of this phrase: ‫ܣܦܣܠܐ‬ ‫ܩܫܝܫܐ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܠܡܘܬܒܘ‬ “(The Archdeacon) designates the seating of the priests on the benches,” while Canon §2 refers to the first or prominent seat 24F

25 F

A. Harrak, Syriac and Garshuni Inscriptions of Iraq, Recueil des inscriptions syriaques 2 (Paris: Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 2010), vol 1: AA.05.13 (picture), vol. 2, pp. 124–25 (edition). 25 Chabot, Synodicon, p. 153 (Syriac). 26 Ibid., p. 140 (Syriac). 24

INTRODUCTION

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given to the oldest priest. The Archpriest may not be an administrative rank, but simply a priest of an old age. Bishop (‫§ ;ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‬2). He is the “leader of a region within an (ecclesiastical) province (hūparkīyyā= επαρχία=eparchy),” as described by the Synod of Īshōʿyahb. 27 The canons listed in the Patriarch’s letter to Bishop Jacob are filled with references to his being the top administrator of the church, a pacifier, and a solver of problems. Metropolitan (meṭropolīṭā=μητροπολίτης): Not attested in the Code of Īshōʿyahb. He is the leader of the hūparkīyyā, 28 which is usually a major city. Patriarch: Not attested in the Code of Īshōʿyahb, except for Biblical Abraham “the patriarch.” It is sometimes attested as a coupling: qātōlīqā paṭriarkīs of the East, Greek καθολικός πατριάρχης. Priest (‫)ܟܗܢܐ‬: A generic term referring to priests, who are also called individually qaššīšā (§2, see above), hence Christian Arabic qāssīs. There are many references to this important rank, and Canon §7 calls the qaššīšā “mediator, provider and administrator of divine mysteries,” the latter being the sacraments. Cleric (‫ܪܝ ܵܩܐ‬ ܼ ‫)ܩ ܹܠ‬: Generic term referring to ecclesiastics who cannot give their seat to ones lower in rank than them (§16). Deacon (‫)ܡܫܡܫܢܐ‬: He has no right to give communion to the priest (§3). With regard to talents (§18) that ecclesiastics receive through the imposition of hands (=ordination), the deacon receives one talent, the priest three talents, including the deacon’s one talent, and the bishop five talents, in addition to the deacon’s one talent and the priest’s two talents. It is “like the Law in five books, the man with the five senses, the hand with five fingers and the body with its five parts” (§18). 26F

27 28

Ibid., p. 130 (Syriac). Ibid. = Synod of Īshōʿyahb, p. 130.

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

EUCHARIST

The Body and Blood is called pagrā wa-dmā d-mārūtā “body and blood of the Lordship.” To “elevate the divine offering” on the altar, vessels are needed, including “pilāsā of the sanctification” in which the body of Christ is divided and distributed (§2), and the “dominical kāsā mārānāyā “dominical chalice” for the blood. The first term is Greek φιάλας, “shallow/flat bowl; paten,” and the second is Semitic (see Hebrew ‫)כּוֹס‬. The act of offering the divine sacrifice is expressed variously: √ QRB: qāreb qurbānā “offering the sacrifice,” being tešmeštā meḥassyānītā or tešmeštā d-ḥūssāyā “forgiving service.” √ KHN: kahhen “practicing priesthood;” masseq/masqā qurbānā “elevate/elevation of the sacrifice.” √ QDŠ: qaddeš “sacrifying.” √ PLḤ: pālaḥ “servicing;” dābaḥ debḥā d-‘emreh ḥayyā dallāhā “slaughtering the sacrifice of the Living Lamb of God” (§17); here too it is said that the priest offers “the oblation, immolating sacramentally the sacrifice of the living Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world.” √ ŠMŠ šammeš “serving (like angels, around the altar).” √ GMR: gammar “fulfilling beside the altar in a priestly way the forgiving of many (people).” Canon §18 mentions Abram who “prefigured the mystery of the cross of the Lord,” in reference to his son Isaac, who is a prototype of Christ.

CHRISM

It is strictly forbidden to use the chrism oil outside of baptism, just as “it is not permissible that anyone uses the holy chalices and patens and the liturgical vessels for other purposes” (§17). Misusing the chrism oil outside baptism is tantamount to anathema. The chrism oil symbolizes the divine adoption of the baptised, “and derived from the Holy Spirit, which those who are worthy of the holy baptism sacramentally receive, and through it they are divinely born for immortality.” The blessing of baptismal oil, qūddaš mešḥā da-‘mādā, was performed by the bishop beside waznā da-‘mādā meḥassyānā “the

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15

forgiving baptismal urn,” while the Gospel was placed on the altar. A priest holds qarnā d-mešḥā “oil flacon,” while the archdeacon holds the liturgical book. The Acts of Thomas (§121) dwelled on the role of the baptismal oil, saying that it contained the “hidden power that dwells in the Messiah,” capable of healing “old” wounds and sores and of restoring weaknesses. This explains why the baptismal urn is described as “forgiving.” The Acts (§132) calls the holy oil “name of the Messiah,” playing on the words mešḥā, “oil,” and mešīḥā, “Messiah” (lit. “The anointed one”).

SANCTIFICATION AT THE END OF THE 6TH CENTURY

Canons §§1–6 mention sections of the sanctification of the Church of the East as it was celebrated during the time of Patriarch Īshōʿyahb I. By contrast, Narsai’s memra 17 “Commentary on the Mysteries,” offers systematically and remarkably comments on the particularities of the Sanctification 29—some 70 to 80 years separated these two great authors. Īshōʿyahb’s sections do not follow the order set in the sanctification, but are referred to irregularly while answering the various questions raised by Bishop Jacob of Darai. It seems that Īshōʿyahb’s quoted prayers are drawn on the Anaphora alone, given the fact that he does not refer to the expulsion of the catechumens, nor does he mention the Creed of Nicaea or the diptychs, but goes directly to the celebrant’s greeting. In the following, the sections of Īshōʿyahb will be discussed following Narsai’s memra, beginning with the giving of peace among the faithful: 1) The priest, after kneeling before the altar, thus greets the faithful: Alphonse Mingana, Narsai Doctoris Syri Homiliae et Carmina, volume 1 (Mosul, 1905; repr. Gorgias Press 2008), pp. 270–98; Mingana says that this memra is misplaced in manuscripts but he secured it in his edition. Dom R. H. Connolly translated this memra: The Liturgical Homilies of Narsai (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 1916), 1–32. 29

16

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Priest: ‫ܫܠܡܐ ܥܡܟܘܢ‬ Faithful: ‫ܥܡܟ ܘܥܡ ܪܘܚܟ‬ “Peace be with you – with you and with your spirit.”

Īshōʿyahb justified this greeting at the beginning of the Anaphora, as it is an invitation “to purify and cleanse all our hearts from all evils, to stand in the Messianic sanctuary as if it is in heaven.” Narsai already mentioned this greeting before the giving of peace among the faithful, 30 a greeting included in the Anaphora of the Apostles and in that of Mār Theodore the Interpreter and of Nestorius. 31 2) Giving Peace (§5): For Īshōʿyahb, the priest must be peaceful toward other ecclesiastics and toward the faithful, when the herald shouts:

(‫ܗܒܘ ܫܠܡܐ ܚܕ ܠܚܕ )ܒܚܘܒܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ‬ ܼ

“Give peace to each other (in the love of Christ)” Īshōʿyahb quoted Matthew 5:24: “leave your sacrifice at the altar, and go first to pacify your brother…,” as Narsai also did. While Īshōʿyahb is homiletic, criticizing hateful ecclesiastics inside the sanctuary, Narsai is descriptive: “First the priests give peace inside the sanctuary, and then the faithful give it in like manner inside the church.” 32 31F

3) Before Sanctus, time of purifying the hearts from sins (§1):

‫ܛܝܒܘܬܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܘܚܘܒܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ ܐܒܐ ܘܫܘܬܦܘܬܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܬܗܘܐ ܥܡ ܟܠܢ‬ “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God the Father and the association of the Holy Spirit be with all of us.” Mingana, Narsai, 273. Ṭaksā d-kahnē d-‛edtā d-madenḥā [Office of the Priests of the Church of the East] (Mosul, 1928; Chicago repr., 2002), p. 23, 61, 78. Hereafter: Ṭaksā d-kahnē. 32 Mingana, Narsai, 277–78. 30 31

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17

Narsai presents the same prayer just before Sanctus, with a short comment on its meaning. Īshōʿyahb comments as follows: ‫)ܒܪܬ‬

̈ ‫ܠܒܝܢ ܡܢ ܟܠ‬ ̈ ‫ܩܠܐ ܕܦܩܕܐ( ܠܡܕܟܝܘ ܘܠܡܡܪܩ ܟܠ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܢ܆ ܘܠܡܩܡ ܒܗܝܟܠܐ‬ ‫(“ ܡܫܝܚܝܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܫܡܝܐ‬The expression which calls) to purify and cleanse all our hearts from all evils, and to stand in the sanctuary of Christ as if in heaven.” The prayer might correspond to one in the Sanctification of the Apostles: 33 ‫ ܗܒܠܢ‬:‫ܡܪܝܐ ܡܪܝܐ‬

̇ ‫ܢܓܡܪܝܗ ܠܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܗܕܐ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܘܬܐ ܘܡܪܝܪܘܬܐ ܘܙܪܘܥ‬ ̈ ‫ܕܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܚܕܕܐ ܘܕܠܘܬ ܟܠ ܐܢܫ‬

̈ ‫ ܒܦܪܗܣܝܐ ܕܡܢܟ‬: ‫ܐܦܐ ܩܕܡܝܟ‬ ‫ܓܠܝܘܬ‬ ̇‫ܕܟܝܢ ܬܐ̈ܪܬܢ ܡܢ ܟܠܗ‬ ̈ ‫ ܟܕ‬:‫ܚܝܬܐ ܘܩܕܝܫܬܐ‬ ‫“ ܒܢ ܚܘܒܐ ܘܫܝܢܐ ܘܐܘܝܘܬܐ‬Lord, Lord,

grant us boldness before you, that with the liberty which is from you we may fulfill this living and holy ministry, while our consciences are cleansed of all wickedness and bitterness. Sow within us love, tranquility, and unity with one another and with every person.”

4) Sanctus (§5): The “Servers of fire and light” (Psalm 103:4; Hebrews 1:7), who surround the altar in the qankē, shout:

(‫ܩܕܝܫ ܩܕܝܫ ܩܕܝܫ ܡܪܝܐ )ܐܠܗܐ( ܚܝܠܬܢܐ ܕܡܠܝܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܘܐܪܥܐ )ܡܢ‬ ̈ ‫ܬܫܒܚܬܗ‬

“Holy, holy, holy, the almighty Lord (God), heaven and earth are full of his praises” (Isaiah 6:3). Narsai is more systematic since he includes the dialogue between the celebrant and the faithful before Sanctus. Īshōʿyahb, by contrast, concentrates his attention on the attitude of the celebrant: “if he is grudged and angry, what is he doing in the place of reconciliation?” 5) Institution (§5): For Īshōʿyahb, the words of the Institution and the warning of St. Paul, “Whoever eats the body of the Lord and drinks from his cup, shall be guilty of eating and drinking” (I Corinthians 2:34) contradicts the attitude of the hateful celebrant.

33

Ṭaksā d-kahnē, p. 27.

18

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

ܿ ̈ ̈ ‫ܐܦܝܟܘܢ ܡܬܩܨܐ ܠܫܘܒܩܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܛܗܐ‬ ‫ܕܗܢܘ ܦܓܪܝ ܕܥܠ‬

“This is my body which is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins” (Luke 2:34). Narsai is theological in commenting upon the Sanctus: “This is the meaning of the crying thrice of Sanctus: it tells that the Lord is of an eternally one nature.…” He also quotes the words of the Institution almost fully, and refers to the “Doctors of doctors and interpreters, Theodore.” 34 Narsai, unlike Īshōʿyahb, comments on the diptychs one by one. 6) “Rūḥāpā-hovering of the Holy (Spirit)” ‫ ܪܘܚܦܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‬occurs in passing in Canon §5, although it is the most important stage of the sanctification. The theme in Īshōʿyahb is again the attitude of the celebrant: he must not partake the body of the Lord or even “remain under the hovering of the Spirit!” Narsai goes at length in describing the rūḥāpā: “The Holy Spirit hovers not because of the worthiness of the priest, but because the mysteries that are placed on the altar.” 35 This quotation emphasizes the unique role of the Holy Spirit in the epiclesis. 7) Qṣāyā-breaking of the consecrated bread (§1): Bishop Jacob asks about the time when the signing of the mysteries takes place, and Īshōʿyahb answers in detail. The celebrant must make the sign of the cross over the mysteries, then takes the upper host, kisses it, and places it near his eyes, saying:

̈ ‫ܕܐܟܘܠܘܗܝ ܠܐ ܿܡܝܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܟ ܠܚܡܐ ܚܝܐ ܘܡܚܝܢܐ ܕܢܚܬ ܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ‬ “Glory to you, living and life-giving bread, which came down from heaven, so that those who partake it may not die” (§1).

While this “glory” is not mentioned in Narsai’s hymn, it is found in the Anaphora of the Apostles, with more or less the same 34 35

Mingana, Narsai, 282. Ibid., 288.

INTRODUCTION

19

wording. In the following, common prayers in the Anaphora and in Īshōʿyahb’s canons are placed in italics: “Glory to your holy name, O our Lord Jesus Christ, and homage to your lordship at all times for ever amen. The living and life-giving bread, which came down from heaven, gives eternal life for the entire world, so that its partakers may not die and its takers be saved and forgiven, and may they live forever amen.” 36 Narsai’s comments on the sign of the cross is as follows: “(The priest) makes the sign of the cross three times above the mysteries as before; he makes the sign in this matter not because the mysteries need the sign but to announce with the last sign the completion (of the mysteries). The priest makes the sign of the cross over the offering and with it he completes and realises it (=the offering).” 37 The celebrant begins to break the bread while saying (§1):

‫ ܐܒܐ‬:‫ܡܘܕܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܟ ܡܪܝܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܡܪܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ ܘܕܐܪܥܐ‬ ‫ ܐܫܘܝܬܢܝ‬:‫ ܕܟܕ ܐܝܬܝ ܕܘܝܐ ܘܒܨܝܪܐ‬.‫ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‬ ̈ ̈ ̈ ‫ܒܛܝܒܘܬܟ ܠܡܬܩܪܒܘ ܠܐ̈ܪܙܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܠܗܝܐ ܕܦܓܪܗ‬ ‫ܘܩܕܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܐ‬ ̈ ‫ ܕܐܫܡܫ ܠܥܡܟ ܘܠܥܢܐ ܕܡܪܥܝܬܟ ܚܘܤܝܐ‬.‫ܘܕܡܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܟ‬ ̈ ̈ ‫ ܘܬܪܥܘܬܐ ܕܟܠܗ‬.‫ܕܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ ܘܦܘܪܩܢܐ ܕܢܦܫܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܫܘܒܩܢܐ‬ ̈ ‫ ܒܫܡ ܐܒܐ ܘܒܪܐ‬.‫ ܘܫܝܢܐ ܘܫܠܡܐ ܕܟܠܗܝܢ ܒ̈ܪܝܬܐ‬:‫ܥܡܐ‬ .‫ܘܪܘܚܐ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܠܥܠܡܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ‬

“I thank you, Lord God, the Lord of heaven and earth, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, who, while I am miserable and poor, made me worthy, through your grace, to offer the awesome and holy mysteries of the Body and Blood of your Christ; to communicate to your people and members of your flock the forgiveness and the pardon of their sins, the salvation of their souls, reconciliation among all people, and tranquility and peace for all created beings, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit forever and ever, amen.”

36 37

Ṭaksā d-kahnē, p. 39. Mingana, Narsai, p. 290.

20

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

This prayer is much similar to the one said at the Epiclesis in the Anaphora of the Apostles; common expressions are in italics: “I thank you, my Father, the Lord of heaven and earth, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, who, while I the sinner and the poor, through your abundant mercy, you made me worthy to offer before you these awesome, holy, life-giving and divine mysteries of the Body and Blood of your Christ; to serve your people and members of your flock the forgiveness of their debts, the pardon of their sins, the salvation of their souls, the reconciliation of the entire world, and tranquility and peace of all churches.” 38 The breaking of the Body of Christ on the altar is mentioned three times in Canon §1 and §5, not in a liturgical context, but as admonition not to partake of the body and blood of Christ except with a pure heart. He even refers to St. Paul’s warning not to take the body and blood of Christ as food and drink (1 Corinthians 11:29). The celebrant says (§5):

ܿ ̈ ̈ ‫ܐܦܝܟܘܢ ܡܬܩܨܐ ܠܫܘܒܩܢܐ‬ .‫ܕܚܛܗܐ‬ ‫ܗܢܘ ܦܓܪܝ ܕܥܠ‬ ܿ ‫ ܘܡܩܦ ܠܗ ܠܘܬ ܪܫ ܛܘܦܤܐ‬:‫ܘܒܕܘܟܬܐ ܐܚܪܬܐ ܟܕ ܡܥܠܐ ܠܗ ܠܛܘܦܣܐ‬ ܿ ̈ ‫ ܐܢܐ ܐܢ̄ܐ ܠܚܡܐ‬.‫ܘܐܡܪ‬ ‫ ܕܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܢܚܬܬ‬:‫ܕܚܝܐ‬ “This is my body which is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins.” 39 And in another place, while he exalts the type (=the bread) and follows it by the archetype (=Christ), he says: “I am the bread of life that came down from heaven.” 40

Narsai is more succinct in describing the epiclesis: (The priest) breaks the bread in the name of the Father, the Son, and the (Holy) Spirit, uniting the blood with the body and the body with the blood… so that everyone confesses that the body and blood are one.” 41 Narsai’s stress on the unity of the body and blood is echoed by the end of the epiclesis in Īshōʿyahb, who uses the Ṭaksā d-kahnē, p. 36. Luke 2:34. 40 John 6:41. 41 Mingana, Narsai, 290–91. 38 39

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21

term “united.” The celebrant places the portions of the consecrated bread in the shape of the cross and says (§1):

̈ ̈ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ܆ ܒܫܡܐ‬ ‫ܐܪܙܐ ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܬܪܫܡܘ ܘܐܬܩܕܫܘ ܘܐܬܚܝܕܘ ܘܐܫܬܡܠܝܘ‬ ‫ܕܬܠܝܬܝܘܬܟ ܡܫܒܚܬܐ ܐܒܐ ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܠܥܠܡܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ‬

“These divine mysteries are signed, sanctified, united and completed in the name of your glorified Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit forever and ever, amen.” This statement is very close to the one mentioned in the Anaphora of the Holy Apostles, as the common words placed in italics show: “These glorious, holy and divine mysteries are assigned, sanctified, accomplished, completed, united, mixed, joined and signed, one by one, in the adored name of the glorious Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.…” 42 8) Pater Noster (§5): The place of this main prayer is hinted at in Īshōʿyahb’s Canon §5: a) Giving peace to each other; b) hovering of the Holy Spirit; and c) fulfilling the command of Christ “at the time of the elevation of the sacrifice.” At this last stage of Pater Noster, “we ask forgiveness of the trespasses that we addressed to him, that he may “forgive us our trespasses and sins as we forgive the trespasses of those who offend us” (Mathews 6:12).

̈ ̈ ̈ ‫ܠܚܝܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܒܩܢ‬ ‫ܚܘܒܝܢ ܡܢܢ‬ ‫ܢܫܒܘܩ ܠܢ ܠܡ‬ ܼ ܿ ‫ܘܚܛܗܝܢ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܐܦ ܚܢܢ‬ This Lord’s Prayer is also in the Anaphora of the Apostles 43 and in Narsai, 44 who gives a lengthy commentary of its meaning. This author also continues his memrā, covering the episodes after Pater Noster. It is clear that Īshōʿyahb’s covering of the Eucharist celebration was not meant to be an interpretation of this central cult in Christianity, but to describe priestly moral attitude toward it. Nonetheless, the Patriarch mentions the major part of the EuṬaksā d-kahnē, pp. 41–2. See also Ṭaksā d-kahnē, p. 47. 44 Mingana, Narsai, 292–93. 42 43

22

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

charistic celebration during his own time, celebration that not only roughly reflects the contents of Narsai’s memra, but also highlights its continuation to this day in the Assyrian and Chaldean churches.

THE DAY OF THE LORD

The “Day of the Lord” (§19) for the earliest Christians was probably Saturday, since they were mostly Jewish, but by the time of Patriarch Īshōʿyahb it had been Sunday for at least three centuries. He says polemically that the outgoing Jews, who kept Saturday, were replaced by the new “householders,” who celebrated Sunday as the Day of the Lord, in which “our Lord quaked and opened Sheol by his resurrection, establishing the Church and announcing the Kingdom of heaven.” The Greeks call Sunday qūriaqī (Κυριακή) “dominical,” and the Christians must keep it from the evening of Saturday to the evening of Sunday. They must sing glory-hymns and psalmodies and read the Holy Scriptures, be diligent in offering alms to the needy, solving disputes, settling peace, and practicing love and mercy within the community. Īshōʿyahb complains that while some Christians refrain from work and travel on Sunday, others do not. They consider Sunday as any other day for various reasons, among them, working to make money. His admonition is a response to Bishop Jacob, in that people dived on Sunday to bring up pearls, as mentioned above. Ultimately, Bishop Jacob, as an administrator close to the matter, had to deal with the divers of the Gulf, and Īshōʿyahb concludes pragmatically: “If it is possible, they must refrain from two things: sin and loss.”

GIFTS AND VOWS TO CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES

The longest canon deals with a question raised by Bishop Jacob: Some faithful offer vows and gifts not to local churches and monasteries, but to foreign ones (§15). Addressing this question, Īshōʿyahb argued that God is not in Jerusalem and not in Gerizim (John 4:21–24), but everywhere, and thus fulfilling vows can be done in any place. He evoked Acts 8:26, in which the

INTRODUCTION

23

official of the Kandake, which means “the queen of the Ethiopians,” came to Jerusalem to worship God, but by means of Apostle Philippe, he understood that with Christ limitation of space was abolished, since Christ became the expectation of all nations. Īshōʿyahb then expressed an economic, if not even a survival concern, saying: “Many (local) sanctuaries would be ruined” if everyone went far away to fulfill their vows. He quoted I Corinthians 9:13–14 to assert that local churches and ecclesiastics have right to be supported for their services: “Don’t you know that those who serve in the temple get their food from the temple?… In the same way, the Lord has commanded that those who preach his Gospel should receive their living from his Gospel.” At the end of his Code, Īshōʿyahb turned pragmatic. If believers visit local churches and monasteries, and then go out to visit monasteries outside their regions, “not if God is especially found there,” the Patriarch does not prevent them. This means that if the faithful pay their dues to local religious institutions, it would be fine if they decide to pay more money to foreign ones.

MANUSCRIPTS

The present edition is based on a manuscript housed at the Vatican Library under the code: http://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Borg.sir.82. The manuscript contains a collection of Syriac documents, but misses the first and last folios, which must have contained a colophon, including the date and place of copying. Īshōʿyahb’s code goes from page 216 to page 234. For convenience, in the present edition, the right page is designated as A and the left page is designated as B. The script of Borg.sir.82, East Syriac, is tiny and sometimes unclear. The titles of codes, usually questions, are written in red, while the commentaries are in black. The text is not vocalized except for difficult terms, and symbols, namely dots, are used to differentiate between homonyms. The copyist often committed mistakes, but he often corrected himself. In this case, missing letters or words are inserted in the margins or above lines, while misspelled words are darkened, that is deleted.

24

tion.

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I The end of side A copies the first word of side B in anticipa-

The copyist filled gaps at the end of short line with a number of gap fillers, including an elongated qōf letter, rendered in the present edition with ▱, em-dash (-----), and shortened words of the following lines. Another manuscript is not extant, except for one code in ʿAbd-Īshōʿ’s Collection. ʿAbd-Īshōʿ of Nisibis compiled acts of synods, named after the patriarchs who convened them, including Īshōʿyahb I, and this compilation was edited and translated into Latin more than a century ago. 45 One synodical Act on honouring the Day of the Lord 46 is also found in Code §19 of Īshōʿyahb, but the contents are different. ʿAbd-Īshōʿ copied “On distinguishing Talents” from Īshōʿyahb’s Letter, different from Borg.sir.82, since there are differences between the two recensions. Interestingly, ʿAbd-Īshōʿ copied acts from “synods,” but copied the code “On Distinguishing Talents” from a source he called “Īshōʿyahb Canonical Teaching.” This must be the Letter of Īshōʿyahb.

PREVIOUS EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS

Chabot edited Īshōʿyahb’s Canons and translated them into French in his Synodicon, placing them right after the Acts of the synod convened by the Patriarch in the year 585. Chabot, following Syriac copyists and editors, named the synods after their patriarchal conveners, including Īshōʿyahb. Although Chabot’s edition is largely correct, he often normalized Syriac texts, changing punctuation and sometimes correcting terms not always notified in footnotes. Given the fact that Borg.sir.82 is not always clear, Chabot’s edition is, nonetheless, valuable. His French translation, not literal, is always annotated in footnotes. A recent Arabic translation of the Synodicon, including Īshōʿyahb’s Canons, was produced by the late Fr. Yousif Ḥabbī 45 46

A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, Vol. X (1838), p. 267. Ibid., pp. 268–69.

INTRODUCTION

25

(† 2000). 47 The fact that this scholar followed Chabot’s edition and translation, his Arabic translation, meant for Arab readers at large, is not helpful in producing a new edition and translation of the Codes of Īshōʿyahb.

SUMMARY

First, the Copy of the Letter First Canon: When the priest offers the sanctification, how does he begin? What does he say? At what point is the signing of the mysteries? Second Canon: At what time the celebrant priest ought to take the sanctified (mysteries) and when is he assigned to do the sanctification? Third Canon: The deacon is not allowed to give communion to the priest. But when there is no priest or a deacon to give him communion, how is he supposed to take communion from the altar? Fourth Canon: How and in what way are those who come to receive the ordination in ecclesiastical ranks to be consecrated? Fifth Canon: Some of the baptized but also priests and instructors of the baptized, reject the peace among themselves, not only outside the walls of the church, but also inside the divine sanctuary and inside the place of reconciliation and forgiveness. Sixth Canon: Someone sinned secretly and repented covertly. He is fearful to make declaration of the matter lest he be uncovered and bears the pressure, fury and mockery of evil ones. Could he be ever corrected in one way or another so as to receive healing, and so survive and not perish? Seventh Canon: It is not permissible for the priest to have a dispute against another person so as to deprive him of the holy mysteries. Yousif Ḥabbī, Majāmiʿ kanīsat al-mašriq [Synods of the Church of the East] (Lebanon: Kaslik, 1999), pp. 397–429 (Codes).

47

26

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Eighth Canon: Whether it is permissible that a priest anathematize himself in sealed writings without the pressure of constraint, but out of his own will. Ninth Canon: Whether the anathema confirmed by the sole word of the priest, without being supported by the word of God, is valid or not valid. Tenth Canon: Whether it is permissible or not that the believers and priests take the oath. Eleventh Canon: A priest who is alone becomes aware of the errors of the priests his colleagues: What must he do? Twelfth Canon: Whether or not it is permissible to take interest and demand usury. If it is permissible to take (interest), how much and how to take it? Thirteenth Canon: The bishop has authority to examine, manage in justice and without scandals, and decide about ones who anathematize themselves or take oaths, whether voluntarily or under pressure. Fourteenth Canon: In what way distribute the property of one among the believers after his death, if he did not leave a will? Fifteenth Canon: Of those who offer their gifts and deliver their vows and pledges for the remission of their sins not in churches and monasteries of their regions, as is the general rule, but in outside sanctuaries. Sixteenth Canon: If a clergyman higher in rank than his colleague has the right to honour the latter with a role higher than his in the liturgy inside the church. Seventieth Canon: It is not permissible to give the chrism oil preserved for the forgiving baptism for other usages, except for baptism. Eighteenth Canon: On the distribution of the talents— ecclesiastical ranks—that are given to the servers of the altar by the imposition of the hand. How many are they and what are their divisions derived from the grace of our Lord? Nineteenth Canon: On the honour of the Day of the Lord, the holy Sunday. Twentieth Canon: If a man marries a woman under a little compulsion, is he blamable or not?

INTRODUCTION (Epilogue) (Interpolated Account on the Wheel) (Interpolated Account on Man and Humanity)

27

TEXT AND TRANSLATION

29

30

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

[F.216B] AGAIN, 1 CANONS OF THE SAME MĀR ĪSHŌʿ[YAHB] (I) THE CATHOLICOS, WHICH HE COMPOSED FOR JACOB, THE BISHOP OF THE ISLAND OF DARAI, 2 WHO WROTE TO HIM TO PUT THEM IN WRI[TING] , THE COPY OF THE LETTER (TO BISHOP JACOB) To the reverend and venerable priest, the chosen Bishop Mār Jacob, the Shepherd of the Island of Darai, located in the neighbourhood of Talon (and) sitting in the vicinity of Rawḥā. 3 Your friend Īshōʿyahb, (made) Bishop and Catholicos by our Lord and hope, who instructs the baptised to please him by the fulfillment of his laws, prays for your life so that it may be preserved to please God. Greeting. Your love for God, O God-loving one, is amply manifested through your love for your diocese. You strive dynamically to please the supreme Pastor through (your) care over his flock— he gave himself (to death) for its sake, according to his majestic promise (made) to her.

In the ms., the acts of the Synod of Īshōʿyahb precedes his canons, published here; for this synod, see Chabot, Synodicon, pp. 390–424. 2 Darai or Dayrin, an island in the Persian-Arabian Gulf, possibly a bishopric as early as 410 and certainly since 486 with Bishop Yazdgerd; Chabot, Synodicon, p. 59 (Syriac), p. 306 (translation); see also p. 671. 3 Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān [Dictionary of Countries], volume III, no editor (Beirut: Dār-Ṣādir, 1986), p. 87, mentions a number of cities named Rawḥā or Rawḥāʾ, final hamza placed to preserve the final alif, as in Petra Batrāʾ and Samarra Samarrāʾ. Yāqūt locates Rawḥā/Rawḥāʾ in Arabia between Mecca and Medina, another in Syria near Raḥbā (Callinicus), and a third one, a village, near Baghdad. Rawḥā of Īshōʿyahb must have been located near Talon. Chabot’s Rouḥa-yateba is unintelligible; Synodicon, p. 242 and 681. 1

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝ ܹܠܗ ܟܕ ܕܝܠܗ ܕܡܪܝ ܝܫܘܥ>ܝܗܒ< ܩܬܘܠܝܩܐ‬ ‫ܬܘ ܼܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܼ‬ ‫]‪ܼ [F.216B‬‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ܠܗ ܒܝܕ‬ ‫ܓܙܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܒܕ ܠܘܬ ܼܿܝܥܩܘܒ ܐܦܝܣܩܘ‪ :‬ܕܕ̈ܪܝ‬ ‫ܕܟܬܒ ܠܗ ܕ ܸܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܟܬܝ ̈ܒـ>ܬܐܩܕܡܐܝܬ ܛܘ‬ ‫ܝܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܣܓ ܵܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܫܘܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ ܝܘܠܦܢ ܫܪܪܐ‬ ‫ܒܛܝܠܘܬܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܥܠ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܐܝ ܼܬ ]‪[F.217A‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ ܘܠ̈ܪܫܝ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܥܡܝܕܝ ܒܫܪܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܬܒܥܝܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܫܡܫܝ ̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܕܥܡܝܕܐ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܗܕܐ ܐܝܬܝܗ ܒܚܘܟܡܗ ܠ̈ܪܚܡܝܗ ‪ :‬ܠܘܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܛܘܒܐ ܡܠܝܟܐ‪ :‬ܤܝܡܬܐ ܼܗܝ ܓܝܪ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܡܐܡܪ ܕܙܢܝ ܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܩܢ ܹܝ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܡܕܟܐ ܠܠܒܘܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܩܝܡܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗ܆ ܒܡܠܚܐ‬ ‫ܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܥܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܬܗ ܕܤܟܠܘܬܐ‪ܼܿ .‬ܘܡܚܟܡܐ ܠܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܒܗܿ‬ ‫ܕܟܘܬܡ ̇‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ܘܛܪܕܐ ܬܡܣܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕ̈ܪܝܫܝ‬ ‫ܢܫܢܘܢ ܼܡܢ ܫܒܝܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܬܕܪܫܘ܆ ܕܠܐ ܤܟ ܼܢܤܛܘܢ ܘܠܐ ܠܓܡܪ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܚܝܢܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܒܥܩܒܬܗ ܕܝܫܘܥ‬ ‫ܠܫܡܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬ܒܛܘܒܬܢܘܬܐ ‪ or‬ܛܘܒܬܢܐܝܬ ‪. It should be either‬ܒܛܘܒܬܢܐܝܬ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪The mīm is not clear, but the noun is correct.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬

34

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

He came down from heaven in a divine way, without changing and unfathomably, appearing from the Holy Virgin and ascending to Heaven from the bottom regions of the earth to the One who had sent him. He will again appear divinely from Heaven— his sanctuary—in the garment of his incarnation, 9 to renew the world and to redeem the creatures. The love for the living instruction is such that the Holy Scriptures—the Torah of Moses and the Gospel of our Lord—entice (people) toward it. The first (=the Torah) is marked temporarily by the blood of dumb animals, and the second (=the Gospel) is permanently and confirmed by His living Blood, which renews everything endlessly, and which is more significant than the blood of Abel. 10 It (=the living Blood) forgave and forgives everything whatsoever, and the fire of His love consumes everyone who is reformed, who masters instruction, and who is zealous and not cruel. Anyone who cares about the love of instruction, assiduously and without negligence, steadfastly and not superficially, truly and not deceptively, is able to please and appease God and to cause many others to please Him and to bring them to Him. You too hold and experience the challenges of those who pleased and caused to please (God), whom the One who chose them, called them the salt of the earth, 11 which purifies the dullness of the ones who are in tasteless error. (Instruction) is the light of the world, which enlightens the ones who fell inside the obscurity of error— of instruction contrary to Truth.

On Christ “putting on the body,” see Robert Murray, Symbols of Church and Kingdom: A Study in Early Syriac Tradition (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2004), pp. 69–70. The second coming of Christ would be in his physical shape (a second incarnation!), so as to renew the world. 10 Hebrews 12:24. 11 Matthews 5:13. 9

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫ܿܗܘ ܕܢܚܬ ܼܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܐܠܗܐܝܬ ܕܠܐ ܫܘܢܝ ܘܕܠܐ ܥܘܩܒ ܟܕ ܕܢܚ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܬܝܬܗ ‪ 12‬ܕܐܪܥܐ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܬܚ‬ ‫ܒܬܘܠܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܣ ܹܠܩ ܠܫܡܝܐ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܠܗܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܠܒܘܫܐ‬ ‫ܫܠܘܚܗ‪ .‬ܘܬܘܒ ܕܢܚ ܼܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܗ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܦܓܪܢܘܬܗ‪ ..‬ܠܚܘܕܬ ̈‬ ‫ܥܠܡܐ ܘܠܦܘܪܩܢ ܒ̈ܪܝܬܐ܆‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ̈‬ ‫ܐܠܨܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܓܪܓܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܬܝܗ‬ ‫ܒܕ ܗܟܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ ̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ ܒܐܘܪܝܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܡܘܫܐ ܘܒܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܕܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܚܝܘܬܐ ܚ̈ܪܫܬܐ ▱‬ ‫ܘܬ ܒܕܡܐ ܚܪܫܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܢ‪ܿ .‬ܗܝ ܕܛܒܝܥܐ ̄ܗ ܼ‬

‫ܙܒܢܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܘܗܕܐ ܕܡܚܬܡܐ ܘܡܫܪܪܐ ܒܕܡܗ ܚܝܐ ܕܡܚܕܬܢܐ ܕܟܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫ܤܝ ܘܡܚܤܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܫܠܘܡܐܝ ܼܬ‪ :‬ܕܡܡܠܠ ܝܬܝܪ ܼܡܢ ܗܘ ܕܗܒܝܠ ‪ :‬ܗܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܬܪܝܨ ܘܬ ܸܩܢ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܠ ܒܟܠ‪ܿ .‬ܗܘ ܕܒܢܘܪܐ ܕܚܘܒܗ ܐܫܬܠܗܒܘ ܟܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܬܥܢܝ ܪܥܝܢܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܕܒܪܚܡܬ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܛܢ ܘܠܐ ܿ ܼܚܪܡܢ‪ .‬ܟܠ ܓܝܪ ܓܝܪ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܫܪܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܦܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܠܐ ܼܡ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܝܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܛ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܫܟܐܝ ܼܬ ܘܡܣܬܬܐܝܬ ܘܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫ܠܡܫܦܪ ܘܠܡܪܥܝܘ ܘܠܣܓܝܐܐ >ܐܫܦܪܥܡܘܛܘܬ< ‪ 17‬ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܕܢܘܟܪܝ‬ ‫ܕܚܫܘܟܘܬܗ ܕܛܘܥܝܝ‬ ‫ܢܗ‬ ‫ܠ̈ܪܦܝܝ ‪ܼ ܿ 16‬ܒ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܠܫܪܪܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Second tāw is placed above the line.‬‬ ‫‪Dōlat above the line.‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܐܫܦܪܘ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪Ms.: (sic).‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܠ̈ܪܡܝܝ ‪ but this should be‬ܠ̈ܪܡܝ ‪Chabot, Synodicon, p. 167 (Syriac):‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܥܡܘܛܬ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬

36

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

You thus follow, as you are commanded, the footsteps of the truthful fathers, writing to us urgent questions and begging us to create a report for you to answer them in writing. As for us, pressed [F.217B] by the request of your love, we reply to your questions without delay, truthfully though briefly, investigating the priestly rituals and ecclesiastical orders related to the ministry of spiritual conduct. We wanted to write, even if briefly, about all the ecclesiastical orders, but because your love asked us specific questions, we wrote to you only about these questions. We think that none of our fathers, teachers and brothers had written about them systematically. We still want you to know this: When we were in the Great School (of Nisibis), 18 at the height of instruction, at the request of the fathers the bishops and famous brothers, we wrote clearly and distinctly on how the priest ought to administer the forgiving baptism and to celebrate the divine offering in an awe-inspiring priestly service that pleases God and that sanctifies the baptised. We have appended each sentence with its commentary in multiplicity of brief notions. While writing according to the apostolic tradition that reached us through teachers and fathers, we dismissed other foreign traditions, which came in from wherever and by whoever, and were accepted in some places. These are held by careless people who teach them without instruction and their futile teaching becomes the means to mislead many people who are easily carried away. Those who receive instruction in upright intent, they must be believed when they teach authoritatively, because they hold, the simple instruction of teachers and fathers. This was already proclaimed in an evangelical way in the entire world beneath the sky, testimony to every rational person, being pride of every baptized one and renewal of everything made.

Īshōʿyahb may have been the director of the School of Nisibis; see Vööbus, The Statutes of the School of Nisibis, p. 27 n.23. 18

‫‪37‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܒܗܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܩܒܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܦܩܝܕ ܐܢ̄ܬ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܗܟܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܠܒܝܟ ܐܢ̄ܬ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܟܬܝܒܬܐ ܢܥܒܕ‬ ‫ܘܐܦܝܣܬ ܠܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܠܝܨܬܐ‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܐ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܬ ܠܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܫܪܪܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܬܥܨܝܢܢ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܥܢܝܢܐ ܕܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܚܢܢ ܕܝܢ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܫܪܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܦܢ‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܦܝܣܗ ܕܚܘܒܟ‪ܿ ܼ .‬ܦܢܝܢܢ ܕܠܐ ܬܘܗܝ‬ ‫]‪[F.217B‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܗܢܝܐ ܘܥܠ ̈‬ ‫ܕܡܥܩܒܝܢ ܥܠ ̈‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܝܟ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ‬ ‫ܛܟܣܐ‬ ‫ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܙܥܘܪܐܝ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܕܥܠ ܟܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܕܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܕܕܘܒ̈ܪܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ‪ .‬ܨܒܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܟ̈ܪܝ ܼܬܐ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܝܢ ܕܚܘܒܟ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܛܟܣܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܢܟܬܘܒ ‪ 19‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܫܐܹ ܠ ܠܢ ܥܠ ܗܠܝܢ ܒܠܚܘܕ ܟܬܒܢܢ ܠܟ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܣܒܪܝܢܢ ܕܐܢܫ‬ ‫̈ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܤܕܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‪ܿ .‬ܨ ܹܒܝܢܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܘ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܒܗܝܢ ܘ̈ܪܒܢܝܢ‬ ‫̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܐܚܝܢ ܼܐ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܗܘܝܢ ܒܐܩܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܗܘܐ ܝܕܥ ܐܦ ܗܝ ܕܟܕ ܒܐܣܟܘܠܐ ̈ܪܒܬܐ ܐܝܬܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩ̈ܪܝܚܐ ܟܬܒܢܢ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܒܗܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܕܘܪܫܐ ܼܡܢ ܦܝܣܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܐܚܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܦܪܫܐܝ ܼܬ ܥܠ ܗܝ ܕܐܝܟܢ ܙܕܩ ܠܗ ܠܟܗܢܐ ܠܡܩܪܒ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܢܗܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܥܡܕܐ ܡܚܤܝܢܐ ܘܠܘܬ ܡܤܩܐ ܕܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܒܬܫܡܫܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܥܡܝܕܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܬܐ ܘܟܗܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܪܥܝܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܚܣܝܐ‬ ‫ܿ ܼܐ ܸܩܦܢܢ ܠܟܠ ܦܬܓܡܐ ܦܘܫܩܗ ܒܣܘܓܐܐ ܕܟ̈ܪܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܓܝܪ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐܒܗܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܠܡܢܘܬܐ ܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܕܡܬܝܒܠܐ ܠܘܬܢ ܒܝܕ ̈ܪܒܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܗܘ‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢ‬ ‫ܕܟܠ‬ ‫ܠܡܫܠܡܢܘܬܐ ܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ ܬܟܣܝܢܢ‪ .‬ܗܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܝܢ ܚܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܥܠ ܘܐܬܩܒܠ ܒܕܘܟ ܕܘܟ‪ .‬ܘܐܬܠ ܸܒܟ ̣ܡܢ ܠܐ‬ ‫݂ܡܢ ܟܠ ܡܢ ܸ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܠܦܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܗܘܐ ܹܒܕܝܐ‬ ‫ܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ ܕܩܒܠܘ ܡܢ ܗܢܘܢ ܕܠܐ ܼܝ ܸܠܦܘ ܘܡ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫ܕܕܠܝ ܼܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܠܡܢܘܬܗܘܢ ܐܘܪܓܢܘܢ ܠܡܫܓܝܘ ܒܗ ܤܓܝܐܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܬܪܝܨܐ ܡܬܗܝܡܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܬܓܪܦܘ‪ .‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܼܕܝ ܹܠܦܘ‬ ‫ܬܠܡܝܕܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܢܝܫܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪22‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫ܛܐܝ ܼܬ< ▱‬ ‫ܕܝܢܢܬ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܡܠܦܝܢ‬ ‫ܝܘ ܼ‬ ‫>ܫ ܼ‬ ‫ܚܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܪܒܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܼܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܒܡܟܝܟܘܬܐ ܕܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܿܪ ܵܒ ܵ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܐܬܟܪܙ ܼܡܢ ܟܕܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܘܐܒܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܟܠܗ ܬܚܝܬ ܫܡܝܐ ܠܣܗܕܘܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܕܡܠܝܠ‪ .‬ܠܫܘܒܗܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܹ‬ ‫ܘܢܓܠܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܥܒܝܕ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܥܡܝܕ‪ .‬ܠܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܟܠ‬ ‫ܕܟܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬

‫‪Kōf placed above the line.‬‬ ‫‪Second dōlat placed above the line.‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪Sic.‬‬ ‫‪22‬‬ ‫‪, which does not make sense.‬ܫܝܘܙܐܝܬ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬

38

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

The holy scriptures full of the wisdom of God were written by the stylus of skilled scribes, 23 and through it the administrators, by means of their teaching and love, and the administered through their hearing and love, are able to fulfill the will of the One who appeared from the sealed womb of the Holy Virgin. He delivered his laws to his baptized ones and provided his flocks to his pastors; [F.218A] he will return from heaven, his sanctuary, to investigate about his laws and to probe his flocks. Powerful and warning laws were established by the Apostle of Nations. The divine Paul, the scribe of the New Covenant, knows in his universal epistles the mysteries of Christ, especially those which he wrote to his spiritual son, Timothy, his disciple and preaching associate, the Bishop of Asia. 24 We return to your questions not as you wrote them but as we placed them in order. For some require priority over others and others need to be joined together without separation, because they are the same. First Question

The most important of all your questions is this: When the priest prepares to hold the Sanctification, 25 how does he begin? What does he say? At what point is the signing of the mysteries? 26

Ms.: The subject and its adjective are singular. Literally “of the Asians.” 25 The Eucharist celebration. 26 It seems strange that a bishop asks such questions, as he must readily know the answers. The prelate must have wanted written records from the patriarch to offer to candidates to the priesthood. The reply must be drawn on the essays written by the patriarch when he was a student in the School of Nisibis. 23 24

‫‪39‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܒܩܢ ܹܝܗ ܕܣܦܪܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܡ ܹܠܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܩ̈ܪܝܢܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ >ܕܟܬܝܒܝܢ< ‪ܼ ܿ 27‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܡܢܗ ܡܨܝܢ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܒܡܠܦܢܘܬܗܘܢ ܘܒܚܘܒܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܟܡܬ ܐܠܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܒܡܫܬܡܥܢܘܬܗܘܢ ܘܒܚܘܒܗ ܠܡܫܡܠܝܘ ܨܒܝܢܗ ܕܗܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܬܝܡܐ ܕܒܬܘܠܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܢܡܘܣܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܐܫ ܹܠܡ‬ ‫ܕܕܢܚ ܼܡܢ ܥܘܒܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܥܡܝܕܘܗܝ‪ܿ .‬‬ ‫ܠܥܠܠܢܘܗܝ ]‪ [F.218A‬ܘܕܢܚ ܼܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܫܠܡ ܡ̈ܪܥܝܬܗ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܩܘܕܫܗ‪ .‬ܘܬܒܥ ܢܡܘܣܘܗܝ ܘܬܒܥ ܡ̈ܪܥܝܬܗ‪ .‬ܢܡܘܣܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܥܡܡܐ ܦܘܠܘܣ ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܚܝܠܬܢܐ ܘܡܙܗ̈ܪܢܐ ܤܝܡܝܢ ܠܗ ܠܫܠܝܚܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܦܪܐ ܕܕܝܬܩܐ ܚܕܬܐ ̇ܝܕܥ ̄‬ ‫‪28‬‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝ ܵܚܐ ܒܐܓܖܬܗ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܙܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈ ܵܵ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܗܠܝܢ ܕܟܬܒ ܠܘܬ ܝܠܕܗ ܪܘܚܢܝܐ ܛܝܡܬܐܘܣ‬ ‫ܠܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܹܬܐ ܹܒܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܹܢܝܢܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܣܝܢܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܠܡܝܕܗ ܘܒܪ ܦܠܚܘܬܗ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܣܕܝܪܐܝܬ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܛ ܿ ܹܟܤܢ‬ ‫ܕܚܢܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܝܟ܆ ܠܘ ܐܝܟ ܕܟܬܝܒܝܢ ܠܟ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܘܬܐ ܕܡܢ ܚܒܖܝܗܘܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܬܒܥܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܩ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܢܗܘܢ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܢܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܕܢܩܝܦܘܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܦܤܩܐ‪ :‬ܒܥܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܡܢ ܕܚܕ ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ‬

‫‪29‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܕܫܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܝܟ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܗܢܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܕ ̇ܩܪܒ ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܪܫ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܟܝܬ‬ ‫ܠܡܩ ܼ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܢܫܪܐ ܘܡܢܐ ܢܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܢܘ ܛܟܣܐ ܕܪܘܫܡܐ ܕܐ̈ܪܙܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (sic).‬ܕܟܬ‪ .‬ܒܝܢ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪ (sic).‬ܒܐܓ̈ܪܬܐ ‪Chabot, Synodicon, p. 168:‬‬ ‫‪29‬‬ ‫‪ “question” but after this code, all the‬ܫܘܐܠܐ ‪Only here the title is‬‬ ‫‪ “canon”.‬ܩܢܘܢܐ ‪following titles are named‬‬ ‫‪27‬‬ ‫‪28‬‬

40

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Reply to the first question

Awe must befall the priest on behalf of himself and on behalf of all the people at that awesome hour, in that awesome place, and in that awesome office, in which he is symbolically buried, effectively resurrected—resurrected mystically. For the priest is commanded to pray for himself and for the whole people and to elevate the begging of all believing hearts. The priest of the New Testament performs the spiritual deed of the forgiving sacrifice inside the sanctuary of the Lord. He is the conciliator of God of all. He is the sanctifier of the community by his mediatory service. He is commanded to stand vigilant, to be non-negligent, pure and without blemish, so that no blame be found in his service, which would be his personal condemnation and a scandal of the believers. Carrying in himself the image of Our Lord and fulfilling in the (altar) place his service, he offers the Sanctification in awe and purity, being aware of the glory and greatness of his service. This is loveable and esteemed even for the heavenly angels, but feared and dreaded by the raging and rebellious demons. After coming close to the altar and kneeling, he (=the priest) stands up to greet it, and soon after, he greets the people and blesses them, saying: “Peace be [F.218B] with you.” This expression orders to purify and cleanse all the hearts from all evils; to stand in the Christian temple as if in heaven; to receive the reply of the congregation to his peace, and to confess that the trust among them is unblemished, saying: “With you and your Spirit.”

‫‪41‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ ܕܫܘܐܠܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܚܠܬܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܚܠܦ ܢܦܫܗ ܘܚܠܦ ܟ ܹܠܗ ܥܡܐ ܼ ܿܪ ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܒܗܝ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܡܝ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܐ ܕܩܒܝܪ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܐ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܐܬܪܐ ܕܚܝܠܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܥܬܐ ܕܚܝܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܪܙܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܚܠܦ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܢܚܡ‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܢܐܝ‬ ‫ܘܐܬܢܚܡ‬ ‫ܛܘܦܣܢܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܢܦܫܗ ܘܚܠܦ ܟܠܗ ܥܡܐ ܦܩܝܕ ܟܗܢܐ ܼܠܿܡܨܠܝܘ‪ .‬ܘܫܐܠܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܹܠܒܝܢ̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܚܣܝܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܗܝܡܢܝܢ ܿ ܼܡ ܹܣܩ‪ .‬ܐܘܡܢܘܬܐ ܓܝܪ ܪܘܚܢܝܬܐ ܕܕܒܚܬܐ‬ ‫ܦܠܿܚ ܟܗܢܐ ܕܕܝܬܩܐ ܚܕܬܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܒܝܬ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܡܪܢܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܪܥܝܢܐ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗ ܟܠܐ܆ ܘܡܚܤܝܢܐ ܕܓܘܐ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܒܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܕܡܨܥܝܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܣܬ‬ ‫ܕܥܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ‪ 30‬ܕܠܐ ܡܗܡܝܢܘ‬ ‫ܘܦܩܝܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܕܟܝܐܝ ܼܬ ܕܠܐ ܡܘܡ ܢܩܘܡ‪݂ .‬ܡ ܸ‬ ‫ܘܠܟܫܠܐ ܕܐܝܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܐ ܡܘܡܐ ܒܬܫܡܫܬܗ‪ :‬ܠܚܘܝܒܐ ܕܩܢܘܡܗ‬ ‫ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܹܠܐ ܒܕܘܟܬܐ ܕܬܫܡܫܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܗܝܡܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܒܕܝܘܩܢܗ ܕܡܪܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܛܥܝܢ‪ܼ .‬ܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܕܟܝܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܡܫܬܘܕܥ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܘܪܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫̇ܩܪܒ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܬܫܡܫܬܗ ܗܝ ܕܪܚܝܡܐ ܘܟܚܝܕܐ ܐܦ ܥܠ ܥܝ̈ܪܝ ܪܘܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܙܝܥܝܢ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܫܐܕܐ ܒܥܪܝ̈ܪܝܐ ܘܡ̈ܪܘܕܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܢܗ ܐܦ‬ ‫ܐܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܒ ܿ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܒܬܪ ̇‬ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܫ ܸܠܡ ܡܕܒܚܐ‬ ‫ܘܣܐܡ ܒܘܪܟܐ܆ ܿܩܐܡ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܒܪܟ ܠܥܡܐ ܟܕ ܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܫܠܡܐ ]‪ [F.218B‬ܥܡܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܒܪܬ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܸܠܡ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܒܝܢ ݂ܡܢ ܟܠ ̈‬ ‫ܘܠܡܡܪܩ ܟܠ ܸܠ ̈‬ ‫ܒܝܫܢ܆ ܘܠܡܩܡ‬ ‫ܩܠܐ ܕܦܩܕܐ ܠܡܕܟܝܘ‬ ‫ܸ‬

‫ܗܘ ܡܢ ܥܡܐ‬ ‫ܒܗܝܟܠܐ ܡܫܝܚܝܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܫܡܝܐ‪ :‬ܡܩ ܹܒܠ ܕܝܢ ܐܦ ܼ‬ ‫ܥܢܝܢܐ ܕܫܠܡܐ ܟܕ ܡܘܕܝܢ‪ .‬ܕܠܝܬ ܡܕܡ ܕܢܘܟܪܝ ܠܫܪܪܗܘ ܢ ܒܝܢܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪܝܢ‪ .‬ܥܡܟ ܘܥܡ ܪܘܚܟ‪.‬‬

‫!‪‘Ayn looks like šīn‬‬

‫‪30‬‬

42

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

He immediately adds: “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God the Father and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with all of us.” With this apostolic expression, 31 he blesses while praying that these (words) be said over everyone who is baptized. Then he says other prayers following the sequence of the ecclesiastical liturgy, about which you did not have questions— you did not include them in the list of your questions, because they are known, being recited in all the churches of God. At the end of each successive , along with his tongue duly uttering glorifying prayers, his hand must canonically sign the divine mysteries with the sign of the holy cross. Once he completes the three sections, he approaches to sign, not as you wrote, but as we (now) write: He takes in his hand the upper (portion of the) host, kisses it and places it on his eyes, and lifting up his mind and his eyes to Heaven, says: “Glory to you, living and life-giving bread, which came down from heaven, so that those who partake it may not die.” He begins to break (the consecrated bread), and while breaking it, he says: “I glorify you, Lord God, Lord of heaven and earth, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, who, while I am miserable and , made me worthy, through your grace, to offer the awesome, holy and divine mysteries of the Body and Blood of your Christ; to communicate to your people and members of your flock forgiveness and pardon , the salvation of their souls, reconciliation among all people; peace and tranquility for all creatures, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit forever, amen.” He then signs the Body (with the blood) in the Fraction, saying: “The holy Body is signed with the forgiving Blood in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit forever, amen.”

31

2 Corinthians 13:13.

‫‪43‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܘܡܚܕܐ ܿ ܼܡ ܸܩܦ‪ .‬ܛܝܒܘܬܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܘܚܘܒܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܐܒܐ ܘܫܘܬܦܘܬܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܬܗܘܐ ܥܡ ܟܠܢ‪ ..‬ܒܒܪܬ ܩܠܐ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܡܒܪܟ ܟܕ ܡ ܿܨ ܼ ܹܠܐ‪ .‬ܕܗܠܝܢ ܢܗܘܝܢ ܥܠ ܟܠ ܕܥܡܝܕ‪ .‬ܘܗܝܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܿܐܡܪ ܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ‪ :‬ܠܦܘܬ ܢܩܝܦܘܬܐ ܕܛܘܟܣܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܐܢ̄ܬ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܫܘܐܠܝܟ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܐܢܝܢ ܒܤܝܣܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܪܙܬ‬ ‫ܠܐ ܫܐܸ ܠܬ ܥܠܝܗܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝܕܝܥܢ ܘܡܬܐܡ̈ܪܢ ܒܟܠܗܝܢ ܥܕܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫>ܦܤܘܩܐ< ‪ :32‬ܥܡ ܠܫܢܗ ܕܡܫܒܚ‬ ‫ܝܘܒܠ‬ ‫ܒܫܘܠܡܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܟܠ ܚܕ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܬܬܚܝܒܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܐܦ ܐܝܕܗ ܪܫܡܐ ܥܠ ܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܛܘܦܣܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܨܠܝܒܐ ܡܪܢܝܐ ܩܢܘܢܐܝܬ‪ .‬ܘܡܐ ܕܫ ܸܠܡ ܬܠܬܝܗܘܢ ܦܣܘܩܐ܆ ܩܪܒ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܬ܆ ܐܠܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܚܢܢ ܟܬܒܝܢܢ‪̇ .‬‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܠܡܪܫܡ ܠܘ ܐܝܟ ܕܐܢ̄ܬ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܹܠܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܘܗܝ ܦܪܝܣܬܐ ܥܠܝܬܐ ܘܡܢܫܩ ܘܣܐܡ ܥܠ ܥܝܢܘܗܝ‪ܼ .‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܥܝܢܘܗܝ ܠܫܡܝܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܠܟ ܠܚܡܐ ܚܝܐ ܘܡܚܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܪܥܝܢܗ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܡܩܨܐ ܘܟܕ ܩܨܐ‬ ‫ܕܢܚܬ ܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܕܐܟܘܠܘܗܝ ܠܐ ܡܝܬܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܡܫܪܐ ݂‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܡܘܕܐ ̄‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐܢܐ ‪ 33‬ܠܟ ܡܪܝܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܡܪܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ ܘܕܐܪܥܐ‪:‬‬

‫ܐܒܐ ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܕ ܐܝܬܝ ܕܘܝܐ >ܘܒܨܝܪܐ< ‪:34‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܫܘܝܬܢܝ ܒܛܝܒܘܬܟ ܠܡܬܩܪܒܘ ̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܩܕܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܐ‬ ‫ܠܐ̈ܪܙܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܠܥܢܐ ܕܡܪܥܝܬܟ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝ ܵܚܟ‪ .‬ܕܐܫܡܫ ܠܥܡܟ‬ ‫ܕܦܓܪܗ ܘܕܡܗ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫>ܕܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ< ‪ 35‬ܘܦܘܪܩܢܐ ܕܢܦܫܬܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܘܤܝܐ ܘܫܘܒܩܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܬܪܥܘܬܐ ܕܟܠܗ ܥܡܐ‪ :‬ܘܫܝܢܐ ܘܫܠܡܐ ܕܟܠܗܝܢ ܒ̈ܪܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܒܫܡ ܐܒܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܪܫܡ ܥܠ ܦܓܪܐ ܒܗ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܠܥܠܡܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ‪..‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐܒܐ‬ ‫ܒܩܨܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܡܬܪܫܡ ܦܓܪܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܒܕܡܐ ܡܚܤܝܢܐ ܒܫܡ ݂‬ ‫ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܠܥܠܡܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪̈ . A wāw was inserted after semkat, but the large yōd is‬‬ ‫ܦܣـܘܩܝܐ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪not necessary.‬‬ ‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪First olaph not clear.‬‬ ‫‪34‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܘܒܨܝܕܐ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫ܕܚܛܠܗܝܗܘܢ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬

44

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

When he places the portions in the shape of the cross, he says: “These divine mysteries are signed, sanctified, [F.219A] united and completed in the name of Your glorified Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit forever, amen.” At this point, he makes the sign of the cross not on the mysteries, but between his eyes. These details are enough about the signing of the mysteries, for you too, in the section about the canonical mysteries, 36 sought (information) from us only about the signing of the mysteries. 82F

Second Canon

Concerning the priest, who offers the sacrifice: At what time he ought to partake the offering and when is he assigned to do the sanctification? The priest assigned for the awesome ministry, which offers up the divine sacrifice, takes communion before the bishop and before all the assembly of the priests, according to the ecclesiastical law, for two reasons. First, it is written 37 the hardworking farmer should be the first to consume of his fruits. Second, because he serves as intermediary in the sanctification does not mean that he does not need it. Rather, being in more need of the gift and forgiveness of the mysteries, he must, before any baptised one and before any priest, rush and yearn to partake (of the mysteries) as a poor man who longs to be forgiven.

This suggests that Bishop Jacob classified his questions according to themes, but the listing of his questions in Īshōʿyahb’s reply is haphazard. 37 2 Timothy 2:6. 36

‫‪45‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܐܪܝ ܐܬܪܫܡܘ‬ ‫ܠܩܨܝܐ ܒܛܘܦܣܐ ܕܨܠܝܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܕܣܡ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐܫܬܡܠܝܘ ܐܪܙܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܐܠܗܝܐ܆‬ ‫ܘܐܬܩܕܫܘ ]‪ [F.219A‬ܘܐܬܚܝܕܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܒܫܡܐ ܕܬܠܝܬܝܘܬܟ ܡܫܒܚܬܐ ܐܒܐ ܘܒܪܐ ܘܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܥܠܡܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܪܟܐ ܕܝܢ ܠܘ ܥܠ ̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪38‬‬ ‫ܘܪܫܡ‬ ‫ܥܝܢܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܐܠܐ ܒܝܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܖܙܐ ܣܦܩܢ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܐܦ ܐܝܬ ܒܫܪܒܐ‬ ‫ܨܠܝܒܐ‪ .‬ܗܠܝܢ ܥܠ ܪܘܫܡܐ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܩܢܘܢ ̄‬ ‫ܬܒܥܬ ܡܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܕܥܠ ܪܘܫܡܐ ܕܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܒܠܚܘܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܬܪܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܕܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܕܡܟܗܢ ܐܡܬܝ ܿܙܕܩ ܕܢܣܒ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܘܐܡܬܝ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܦܪܫ ܕܢܩܕܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܬܐ‪ :‬ܕܡܣܩܐ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܐܬܦܪܫ ܠܬܫ ‪ 39‬ܠܬܫܡܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܟܠܗ ܟܢܘܫܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܼܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ̣‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܘ ̇‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢܡܘܤܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܡܛܠ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܩܘܕܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܗ ݂ܢܐ܆ ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܩܕܡܐ ̣ܡܢ ܦܐ̈ܪܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ̇ܗܝ ܕܟܬܝܒܐ‪ .‬ܕܠܐܟܪܐ ܕܠܐܹ ܐ ܘܠܐ ݂ܠܗ܆ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܢܣܬܝܒܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܐܚܪܬܐ‪ .‬ܕܠܘ ܡܛܠ ܕܡܫܡܫ ܡܨܥܝܘܬܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ܸ .‬‬ ‫ܤܢܝܩ ܥܠ ܡܘܗܒܬܐ ܘܚܘܤܝܐ‬ ‫ܤܢܝܩ ܥܠܘܗܝ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܗܢܐ ܟܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܡܟ ܹܗܢ ܡܣܬܪܗܒ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܟܠ‬ ‫̈ܪܙܐ‪݂ .‬‬ ‫ܕܐ ݂‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܟܠ ܕܥܡܝܕ ̣‬ ‫ܠܡܣܒ ܐܝܟ ܤܢܝܩܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܐܝܒ ܕܢܬܚܣܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܝ ݂‬ ‫ܘܡܬܝܐܒ ݂‬

‫‪.‬ܪܫܡ ‪Chabot, Synodicon, p. 169:‬‬ ‫‪Gap filler.‬‬

‫‪38‬‬ ‫‪39‬‬

46

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

The bishop, if nearby, gives (communion) to him (=the priest), and if he is not nearby, the head of the priestly ranks—the oldest priest. And in turn, the one who performs the Sanctification gives it to the one who had given it to him. These details also pertain to the Lord’s chalice: The celebrant gives the offering to the priests and the deacons who are in the Qankē, 40 and blesses the people above the step of the Qesṭrūmā. 41 After bringing down the mysteries, the celebrant utters the word of the Apostle: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all of us forever, amen. 42 Then the priests distribute the mysteries while the celebrant returns to pay homage to the altar and bid farewell. He (then) stands to the right side (of the sanctuary) looking southward, if he does not go down to distribute (the mysteries). If it is necessary, on account of the small number of priests, the bishop too goes down to distribute (the mysteries), while a deacon or a priest holds the paten of the mysteries; if he does not distribute, he would go into the diaconicon and sits, and there the people who go to him receive from his peace. He who is commanded to conduct the Sanctification [F.219B] is not designated in advance but during the time when the bishops and the priests take peace from the altar and from each other. The archdeacon informs the one who would offer the Sanctification. If the archdeacon 43 is not present, the Anti-Archdeacon or the manager of the bema 44 commands the one who would do the Sanctification by order of the bishop. 89F

90F

That is the ‟apse.” The platform before the Royal Gate. 42 Romans 16:24, et passim. 43 Literally “the head of the office.” 44 It is not clear if this technical term refers to the structure placed in the middle of the church, or it refers to the qeṣtrūmā, which replaced the bema and which was placed before the Royal Gate. 40 41

‫‪47‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܪܝ ܼܒ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ ܠܐ ܩܪܝܒ ̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܝܗܒ ܠܗ ܪܫ‬ ‫ܝܗܒ ܠܗ ܕܝܢ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܐܢ ̇ܩ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿܣ ̈‬ ‫ܠܗܘ ܼ ݇‬ ‫ܘܝܗܒ ̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܗܘ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܫܝܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܦܢܐ ݀‬ ‫ܕܝܗܒ ܠܗ‪ܼ .‬ܗܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܩܕܫ‬ ‫ܦܣܠܐ ܩܫܝܫ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܝܗܒ ܩܘܕܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܫ‬ ‫ܕܩ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܡܪܢܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟܣܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬ ‫ܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܡܒܪܟ ܠܥܡܐ‪ :‬ܠܥܠ‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܕܒܩܢܟܐ ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ‪ܼ .‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܕ̈ܪܓܐ ܕܩܨܛܪܘܡܐ‪ :‬ܒܬܪ ܕܢܚܬܝܢ ܐ̈ܪܙܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܡܪ ܒܪܬ ܩܠܗ‬ ‫ܕܫܠܝ ܵܚܐ‪ .‬ܛܝܒܘܬܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܬܗܘܐ ܥܡ ܟܠܢ ܠܥܠܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܡܝܢ‪..‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܫ ܹܠܡ ܡܕܒܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܣܓܕ‬ ‫ܘܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܩܘܕܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝܕܝܢ ܡܦܠܓܝܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܘ ܢܚܬ ܘܡܦܠܓ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܩܐܡ ܼܡܢ ܝܡܝܢܐ ܠܐܦܝ ܬܝܡܢܐ ܐܢ ܠܘ ܐܦ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܐܠܨܐ ܡܛܠ ܙܘܠܗܙ ܟܗܢܐ ܐܦ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܢܚܬ ܠܡܦܠܓܘ‬ ‫ܦܝܠܤܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܛܥܝܢ ܩܕܡܘܗܝ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܐܘ ܟܗܢܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܝ ܿ‬ ‫ܡܦܠـܓ ܿ‬ ‫ܥܐܠ ܿܝܬܒ ܒܝܬ ܵ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܼܢܝܘܢ ܕܥܡܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܨܐܒ ܠܘܬܗ ܿܫܩܠ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܢܗ ܫܠܡܐ‪ .‬ܗܘ ܕܝܢ ܕܡܬܦ ܹܩܕ ܕܢܩܕܫ ܠܘ ܼܡܢ ܩܕܡ ]‪ [F.219B‬ܙܒܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܘܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܥܕܢܐ ܕܫܩܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܬܦܪܫ ܠܗܕܐ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܒܗ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܚܕܕܐ‪ .‬ܡܘܕܥ ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ ܠܗܘ ܕܡܩܕܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܠܡܐ ܼܡܢ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܪܝܒ‪ .‬ܐܢܛ ܼܝ ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ ܐܘ ݀‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܡܫܡܫ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܪܫ ܬܫܡܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܒܝܡ ܼܡܢ ܦܘܩܕܢܗ ܕܐܦܝܤܩܘܦܐ ܦܩܕ ܠܗܘ ܕܡܩܕܫ‪.‬‬

48

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Third Canon

The deacon is not allowed to give communion to the priest. But when there is no priest or a deacon to give him communion, how is he allowed to take communion from the altar? In the sacred and synodical canons, it is commanded that a deacon is not allowed to give communion to the priest, and the reason why it is not allowed is described there. If there is no other priest to give (communion) to the priest who wants to partake in it, a deacon is present, he does a deed following a fair custom held among instructed people. The priest takes a portion from the altar and places it in the hands of the nearby deacon, and he prostrates himself to pay homage to the Body of the Lord. Then the priest takes it from the hands of the deacon with the fingers of his right hand, and handles it with the fingers of his left hand to place it in his right hand, while the deacon says: “The body of Christ.” After taking it, he returns and falls on his face; he takes the chalice from the altar and places it in the hands of the deacon. He pays homage, takes the chalice from the hands of the deacon, partakes from it, and returns to give the chalice to the deacon who places it on the altar. If a deacon is not present, the priest takes communion from the altar in the same ritual that he would take from the hands of the deacon out of necessity. This takes place if there is sacred treasure (=Eucharist). In its absence, the priest is not allowed to do the Sanctification by himself without a deacon or another priest. How can he be permitted to do the Sanctification without the one who holds the pieces of the offerings, while he is the preacher of the Church, who awakens with his words the people and invites these to prayer?

‫‪49‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܬܠܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫݀ ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܫܠܝܛ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܕܢܬܠ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ ܠܝܬ ܵܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܗܝ ܕܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܦܩܝܕ ܕ ܼܢܣܒ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܘ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܕܢܬܠ ܠܗ ܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܕܒܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܣܘܢܗܘܕܝܩܝܐ ܦܩܝܕ ܕܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܒܩܢܘܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܢܬܠ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܠܟܗܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܩܪܚܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܬܡܢ ܡܛܠ ܡܢܐ ܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ܆‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܝܬ ܟܗܢܐ ̄‬ ‫ܐܚܪܢܐ ܕ ܼܢܬܠ ܠܟܗܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܠܡܣܒ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܥܐ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܪܝ ܼܒ܆ ܢܬܦܪܢܣ ܣܘܥܪܢܐ ܐܝܟ ܥܝܕܐ ܫܦܝܪܐ ܕܐܚܝܕ ܒܝܬ ܝܕܘܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̇ܩ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܘܣܐܡ‬ ‫ܼܢܣܒ ܟܗܢܐ ̣ܡܢ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܡܢܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܩܫܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܝܒ ܘܢܦܠ ܘܣܓܕ ܠܦܓܪܐ ܕܡܪܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܫܩܠ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܩ ܿ ܸܒܠ ̇‬ ‫ܒܨܒܥܬܗ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܘܗܝ ܕܡܫܡܫܢܐ‬ ‫ܒܨܒܥܬܗ ܕܝܡܝܢܐ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܣܡܠܐ܆ ܘܣܐܡ ܠܗ ܒܓܘ ܐܝܕܗ ܕܝܡܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܫܡܫ ܐܡܪ ܦܓܪܗ‬ ‫ܦܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܫܩܠ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܫܩܠ ܟܤܐ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܦܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܢܦܠ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝܚܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܝܗܒ ܠܐܝܕܝ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܣܓܕ ܘܫܩܠ ܠܗ ܠܟܣܐ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܒܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܢܗ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܦܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܝܗܒ ܠܗ ܠܟܤܐ ܠܡܫܡܫܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܫܩܠ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܘܗܝ ܕܡܫܡܫܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܣܐܡ ܠܗ ܥܠ ܡܕܒܚܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܠܐ ̇ܩܪܝܒ܆ ܼܢܣܒ ܟܗܢܐ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܼܡܢ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܒܗ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܢܩܐ‪ .‬ܘܗܕܐ ̇ܗܘܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܝ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܛܟܣܐ ܕ ܿܫܩܠ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܡܢܗ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܓܙܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܠܝܬ ܠܐ ܡܦܤ ܠܟܗܢܐ ܸ‬ ‫ܘܠܗ ܒܠܥܕ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܐܘ ܒܠܥܕ ܟܗܢܐ ̄‬ ‫ܐܚܪܢܐ ܢܩܕܫ‪ .‬ܒܠܥܕ ܓܝܪ ݀‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܠܒܝܟ ܡ̈ܪܫܬܐ ܘܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܟܪܘܙܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܥܝܪ ܒܝܕ ̈‬ ‫ܒܢܬ ܩܠܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܥ ܹܗܕ ܠܗܘܢ ܠܨܠܘܬܐ ܐܝܟܢܐ ܿ ܼܡܦܣ ܠܡܩܕܫܘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܥܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬

50

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Fourth Canon

How and in what way ought those who come to receive the ordination in ecclesiastical ranks to be consecrated? You remember, [F.220A] O my lord, that you did not ask us to write about all the canons pertaining to the imposition of hands 45 on those to be ordained, except for this alone: if the Gospel ought to be placed on the altar at the time of any imposition of hands. On this, I inform you that not only at the time of the imposition of hands but also at the time of offering up the divine Sanctification and when the baptismal oil is consecrated: The Gospel must be nearby to complete the divine services. When the bishop or the priest draws near to consecrate the fount of forgiving baptism, the archdeacon takes the Great Book (=the Gospel), and the priest the vase 46 of the oil. They would stand, along with the bishop or the consecrating priest, around the fount. At the time of the imposition of hands, while the Gospel is placed on the altar, the bishop talks to those to be ordained about the sublime and the glory of the ministry for which they are selected to fulfill, and about a pure and virtuous life that they ought to have to become the ministers of the divine mysteries around the forgiving altar. 47 Then they wash their hands pure mind freed from all evils, for the forgiving ministry performed by the ranks of the heavenly hosts with all vigilance.

That is the ordination. Literally horn (of oil). 47 Name given by Narsai to the Holy-of-Holies, the altar place; A. Harrak, Mar Narsai: Homily 33, p. 42 and n. 35. The gate to the sanctuary in the Monastery of Mār-Behnām (13th century), is inscribed with ‫ ;ܡܕܒܚܐ ܡܚܣܝܢܐ‬Harrak, Syriac and Garshuni Inscriptions of Iraq, p. 334, AE.01.33. 45 46

‫‪51‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܐܪܒܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܕܐܝܟܢܐ ܘܒܐܝܢܐ ܙܢܐ ܿܘܠܐ ܕܢܬܒܪܟܘܢ ܿܗܢܘܢ ܕܐܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܩܒܠܘ ܟܝܪܛܘܢܝܐ ܒܕ̈ܪܓܐ ̈‬ ‫ܥܕܬܢ ܹܝܐ ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܵܕܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܗܕ ]‪ [F.220A‬ܐܢ̄ܬ ܐܘ ܡܪܝ ܕܠܘ ܥܠ ܟܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܤܝܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܬܬܣܝܡܝܢ ܒܥܝܬ ܡܢܢ ܕܢܟܬܘܒ ܠܟ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܗܕܐ ܒܠܚܘܕ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܢ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܿܙܕܩ ܕܢܬܬܣܝܡ ܥܠ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܒܥܕܢܐ ܕܤܝܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܗܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܢܐ ܕ ܸ‬ ‫ܕܥܠܝܗ ܕܗܕܐ ܡܘܕܥ ̄‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܤܝܡ ܐܝܕܐ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܐܦ‬ ‫ܐܢܐ ܠܟ‪ .‬ܕܠܘ ܒܥܕܢܐ‬

‫ܒܥܕܢ ܡܤܩܐ ܕܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܘܒܥܕܢ ܩܘܕܫ ܡܫܚܐ ܕܥܡܕܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܡܐ ܕܝܢ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܩܪܒ‬ ‫ܒܩܪܝܒܘܬܐ ܕܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܢܗܘܐ ܫܘܡܠܝܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܢܩܕܫ ܘܙܢܐ ܕܥܡܕܐ ܡܚܤܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܐܪܟܕܝܩܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܐܘ ܟܗܢܐ ܼܕ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ ܪܒܐ ܼܢܤܒ܆ ܘܩܫܝܫܐ ܩܪܢܐ ܕܡܫܚܐ‪ .‬ܘܥܡ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‪ .‬ܐܘ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܕܡܩܕܫ ܚܕ̈ܪܝ ܘܙܢܐ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܩܝܡܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܣܝܡ ܐܝܕܐ ܟܕ ܤܝܡ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܥܠ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܢܡܠܠ‬ ‫ܒܥܕܢܐ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܥܡ ܿܗܢܘܢ ܕܡܬܬܣܝܡܝܢ‪ :‬ܥܠ ܪܘܡܐ ܘܫܘܒܚܐ‬ ‫ܚܝܐ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐܬܦܪܫܘ ܠܡܫܡܠܝܘ‪ .‬ܘܥܠ ̈‬ ‫ܘܙܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܢܟܦܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܗ‬ ‫ܕܬܫܡܫܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܬܐ ܚܕ̈ܪܝ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܕܚܘܤܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܫܡܫܝ‬ ‫ܕܢܗܘܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܦܩܝ‬ ‫ܕܒܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ܕܪܥܝܢܐ ܫܦܝܐ ܕܡܚܪܪ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ ܡܫܝܓܝܢ ܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܠ ܸ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܝ ܪܘܡܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܕܒܛܟܣܐ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܘ܆ ܠܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܚܣܝܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܟܠ ܡـ‬ ‫ܡܫܬܡܠܝܐ ܒܟܠ ܙܗܝܪܘ‬

52

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

The canons, which are set like a held law, are to be fulfilled concerning them (=the candidates), just as we also specified about them somewhere. Fifth Canon

Some of the baptized but also among priests, instructors of the baptized, reject the peace among themselves through hate, not only outside the premises of the church, but also inside the divine sanctuary and inside the place of conciliation and forgiveness. Christ, our Life-giver, defeated our death by his death, and by his crucifixion he smote the destroying or (rather) abolished enmity: he came to announce peace to those who are far and to those who are near. 48 Those who united their minds with this truthful hope following our Faith, the truth in them impedes them out of the divine pasture, in the context of the family 49 to which they are called. There are some among the baptized who are sick of anger and stricken by distancing themselves from [F.220B] the members of their discipleship, in such a way that even at the time of reconciliation, while they are inside the divine sanctuaries, they refuse to seek peace to be healed from the disease of hatred that torments them. Nor do forgiving priests dread inside the forgiving Qankē 50 and remember their forgiving ministry, but are rather oppressive, either out of evil like audacious ones, or out of weakness like idiots.

Ephesians 2:17. Baytōyūtō: lit. “members of the house,” that is Fellowship. 50 Qankē: As described below on p. 221A, it is the space “around the altar.” 48 49

‫‪53‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܚܪܩܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܢܡܘܣܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܬܡ ܹܠܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܚܝܕ ܐܝܟ ܕܐܦ ܠܢ ܪܫܝܡ ܠܢ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܒܕܘܟ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܚܡܫܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܡܝܕܐ ܘܐܦ ܼܡܢ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܥܡܝܕܐ܆‬ ‫ܡܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܢܫܝܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿܟܠܝܢ ܫܠܡܐ ܼܡܢ ܚܕܕܐ ܐܟܬܢܐܝܬ‪ :‬ܠܘ ܒܠܚܘܕ ܠܒܪ ܼܡܢ ܕ̈ܪܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ܆‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܐܦ ܒܓܘ ܗܝܟܠܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܘܒܓܘ ┐ܐܬܪܐ ‪ 51‬ܕܬܪܥܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܚܘܤܝܐ ‪.52‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܩܛܠܗ‬ ‫ܐܡܝܬܗ ܠܡܘܬܢ‪ .‬ܘܒܙܩܝܦܗ‬ ‫ܡܫܝܚܐ ܟܝܬ ܡܚܝܢܢ ܒܡܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܐܬܐ ܿܣܒܪ ܫܠܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܒܥܠܕܒܒܘܬܐ ┐ܩܛܝܠܬܐ ܐܘ ܘܩܛܘܠܬܐ ‪.53‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ـܓܝܢ‬ ‫ܠ̈ܪܚܝܩܐ ܘܠܩ̈ܪܝܒܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܓܝܪ ܕܒܗܠܝܢ ܣܒ̈ܪܐ ܫܪܝ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܙܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈ܪܥܝܢܝܗܘܢ ܠܦܘܬ ܢܩܝܦܘܬܐ ܕܗܝܡܢܘܬܢ܆ ܠܐ ܡܪܦܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܫܪܪܗܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܝܗ ܕܒܝܬܝܘܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܠܗ‬ ‫ܕܒܬܚ‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܘܡܐ‬ ‫>ܕܢܫܢܘܢ< ‪ 54‬ܠܒܪ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܬܩܪܝܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܦܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ܆ ܕܟܪܝܗܝܢ ܒܐܟܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܡܝܕܐ‬ ‫ܐܢܫܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܢܝ ܬܘܠܡܕܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܕܐܦܠܐ ܒܫܥܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ]‪[F.220B‬‬ ‫ܒܡܬܛܪܝܢܘܬܐ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܡܬܪܡܝܢ ܠܡܫܬܝܢܘ‬ ‫ܗܝܟܠܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܪܥܘܬܐ ܟܕ ܒܓܘ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܫ ܸܢܩ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܦܠܐ‬ ‫ܬܐܤܝܘ ܼܡܢ ܟܘܪܗܢܐ ܕܤܢܐܬܐ ܐܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܡ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܚܣܝܢܐ‪ :‬ܒܓܘ ܩܢܟܐ ܕܚܘܤܝܐ ܿܙܝܥܝܢ ܘܥܗܕܝܢ ܬܫܡܫܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܢܝܬܐ ܐܠܐ ܛܠܡܝܢ‪ .‬ܐܘ ̣ܡܢ ܒܝܫܘ ܐܝܟ ܡ̈ܪܚܐ܆ ܐܘ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܚܤܝ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܕܝܘܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܣܝܪܘ ܐܝܟ‬

‫‪Written on the right margin.‬‬ ‫‪Ms.: This question, written in red, is slightly effaced but legible.‬‬ ‫‪53‬‬ ‫‪The first and last words are interchangeable as the sign (˜) indicates.‬‬ ‫‪ is not needed.‬ܩܛܘܠܬܐ ‪, the conjunction before‬ܐܘ ‪With‬‬ ‫‪̈ , probably indicat‬‬‫ܢܘܡܐ ‪ܿ ܼ . A sign over this word and over‬ܕ ܼܿ‬ ‫‪54‬‬ ‫ܢܫܢܙܘܢ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪ing their place interchange, but this probability is not possible.‬‬ ‫‪51‬‬ ‫‪52‬‬

54

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

They generate scandal and sins and bring blame for the unblemished instruction. At the moment when the herald of the Church shouts “Give peace to each other,” either they go out in disdain like strangers, not like members of the mysteries, or they dare to stay to trample on the majestic law of peace, and (Judas) Iscariot. He who is entirely hard and cruel must not remain under the hovering of the (Holy) Spirit and must not dare to partake the conciliating body of the Lord, while under irritating obstacles overwhelmed by enmity. Rather, he must utterly be eliminated and absolutely rejected, so that he may not do ministry, lest he, like a gangrene pustule, corrupt many, until he regains his mind and obeys the teachers and the lord of the community. We are allowed by our Lord, like ones who fulfill His orders, to say two things before him in great clarity, at the awesome time of offering the Sanctification: We give forgiveness, just as we are commanded, to those who offend us; we ask forgiveness, just as he allowed us, about the forgiveness of our own trespasses, that he may forgive us our trespasses and sins as we forgive the trespasses of those who offend us. 55 Admirable is the order as it entices us to practice virtue. Admirable also the promise, which invites us to the forgiveness of our offenses and presents to us the healing from the stains of sin. Who would not wish that, and who, among the sagacious ones, would not rush toward the forgiveness of his wrath? In this way, he receives forgiveness of his offenses from his Lord. Those who are worthy of becoming the children of God [F.221A] by grace say this: “O our Lord, Lord of all, forgiver of sins, as you commanded us, we have forgiven those who trespassed against us. And you, O Lord, who loves penitents, forgive us our sins as you promised.”

55

Matthew 6:12.

‫‪55‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܡܘܠܕܝܢ ܟܫܠܐ ̈‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢ ܥܠ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܹܥܕܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܚܛܗܐ‪ ..‬ܘܥܕܠܝܐ ܡ ܹ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܥܬܐ ܿܗܝ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܒܘ ܫܠܡܐ ܚܕ ܠܚܕ‪ .‬ܐܘ‬ ‫ܕܩܥܐ ܟܪܘܙܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܢܦܩܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ ܠܐ ܒܢܝ ܐ̈ܪܙܐ܆ ܐܘ ܡܡܪܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܒܣܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫‪56‬‬ ‫>ܩܐܝܢܐܝ ܼܬܘܥܒܕܐ ܕܗܘ< ܡܪܐ ܛܒܐ ܕܩܪܐ ܠܢ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫݂‬ ‫ܬܪܥܘܬܐ ̈‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܩܪܒ‬ ‫ܕܚܕܕܐ‪ :‬ܟܕ ܣܕܪ ܠܢ ܒܓܙܪ ܕܝܢܐ ܕܥܬܝܕ‪ .‬ܡܐ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܐܢ̄ܬ ܩܘܪܒܢܟ ܥܠ ܡܕܒܚܐ‪ :‬ܘܬܡܢ ܬܬܕܟܪ ܕܐܚܝܕ ܥܠܝܟ ܐܚܘܟ‬ ‫ܐܟܬܐ ܡܕܡ܆ ܠܐ ܬܡܪܚ ܠܡܩܪܒܘ‪ .‬ܒܕܠܘ ܚܘܒܐ ܕܫܦܝܪ ̣ܡܢ ܟܠ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܫܦܪ ܠܟܠ ݁ܦܐܚ ̣ܡܢ ܩܘܪܒܢܟ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ >ܒܥܠܕܒܒܘܬܐ< ‪ 62‬ܕܡܪܓܙܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܓܪܓܐ ܠܓܗܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫ܘܥܒܕܐ‪̇ :‬‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪݂ .‬‬ ‫‪, which does not make sense.‬ܒܥܠܬ ܒܡܘܬܐ ‪Ms.:‬‬

‫‪61‬‬ ‫‪62‬‬

58

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

What does the one who offers sacrifice do? “Leave your sacrifice there on the altar, and go first to reconcile your brother!” And he adds, in adulation and warning: “Rush to get in terms with your adversary, while you are still [F.221B] on the road with him, and there is still time,” so that the stricken by the sores of their sins can be healed by the appropriate repentance of sinners and by the free remedies of the mercy of the heavenly physician, before death faces them to become inheritors of eternal hell. Therefore, let the hater, bitter of spirit and whose taste of conscience is not sweetened by the living instruction, not dare to partake the sacrifice, for he will never benefit from it. It is said in one of the holy lectionaries by one among those filled with the Spirit: Whoever eats from the body of the Lord and drinks from his cup, while he is unworthy of them, shall be guilty of eating and drinking. 63 How dissimilar is the apostolic word in its external content from the promise of the Lord, our Life-giver, who said: This is my body which will be broken for you for the forgiveness of sins. 64 And in another place, while he lifted up the type (=the bread) and bringing it near the archetype (=Christ), he said: I am the bread of life that came down from heaven. 65 The Lord himself affirms that he who comes forth, he is worthy to receive the gift of the life-giving mysteries.

1 Corinthians 11:27. Luke 2:34. 65 John 6:41. 63 64

‫‪59‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܩܪܒ‪ .‬ܫܒܘܩ ܬܡܢ ܩܘܪܒܢܟ ܥܠ ܡܕܒܚܐ܆ ܘܙܠ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܐ ܢܥܒܕ ܿܗܘ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܡܫܕܠܝܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܠܘܩܕܡ ܐܬܪܥܐ ܥܡ ܐܚܘܟ‪ :‬ܘܬܘܒ ܡܘܤܦ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܡܤܪܕܢܐܝܬ‪ܼܿ .‬‬ ‫ܒܥܠ ܕܝܢܟ ܥܓܠ܆ ܥܕ ܥܡܗ‬ ‫ܡܬܐ ܹܘܐ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫]‪ [F.221B‬ܐܢܬ ܒܐܘܪܚܐ‪ .‬ܥܕ ܐܝܬ ܐܬܪܐ‪ .‬ܕܒܬܘܪܨܐ ܕܬܝܒܘܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܒܤܡܡܢܐ ܕܡܓܢ ܕܡܪܚܡܢܘܬܗ ܕܐܣܝܐ ܫܡܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܚܛܝܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܥܕܠܐ ܨܦܚ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܵܚܝܐ ܼܡܢ ܚܒ̈ܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܢܬܐܣܘܢ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܘܢܕܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܗܘܝܢ ܝܪܬܐ ܕܓܗܢܐ ܕܠܥܠܡ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܬܚ ܼܠܝ ܚܟܐ ܕܪܥܝܢܗ‬ ‫ܠܐ ܡܕܝܢ ܢܡܪܚ ܐܟܬܢܐ ܡܪܝܪ ܢܦܫܐ‪ .‬ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܚܝܐ‪ :‬ܕ ܼܢܣܒ ܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܒܕܠܐ ܣܟ ܝܬܪ ܡܢܗ‪ :‬ܒܕܐܡܝܪ‬ ‫ܒܡܠܦܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܚܕ ܼܡܢ ܩ̈ܪܝܢܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ‪ .‬ܠܚܕ ܼܡܢ ܡܡܠܠܝ ܒܪܘܚܐ‪ .‬ܕܡܢ ܕܐܟܠ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܦܓܪܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ ̣ܡܢ ܟܣܗ܆ ܘܠܐ ܿܫܘܐ ܠܗ‪ :‬ܚܘܝܒܐ ܼ ̄ܗܘ ܠܢܦܫܗ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܟܠ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܫܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܘ ܟܡܐ ܤܩܘܒܠܝܐ ܡܠܬܐ ܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܟ ܼ‬ ‫ܡܬܐܡܪܢܘܬܗ ܿܒ ܵܪܝܬܐ ܠܫܘܘܕܝܗ ‪ 66‬ܡܪܢܝܐ ܕܡܚܝܢܢ ܕܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܕܗܢܘܿ‬ ‫ܿ ܼ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܓܪܝ ܕܥܠ ܐܦܝܟܘܢ ܡܬܩܨܐ ܠܫܘܒܩܢܐ ܕܚܛܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܒܕܘܟܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܥܠܐ ܠܗ ܠܛܘܦܣܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܘܡܩܦ ܠܗ ܠܘܬ ܪܫ ܛܘܦܤܐ‬ ‫ܐܚܪܬܐ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܼ ܹ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܚܬܬ‪ .‬ܠܗ ܓܝܪ ܠܡܪܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ‪ .‬ܐܢܐ ܐܢܐ ܠܚܡܐ ܕܚܝܐ‪ܼ :‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܒ ܿܗܘ ܕܡܫܬܘܐ ܠܡܣܒܐ ܕܡܘܗܒܬܐ ܕܐ̈ܪܙܐ ܡܚܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼܡܫܪ ܸ‬

‫‪The letter dōlat is inserted above the line.‬‬

‫‪66‬‬

60

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

You the apostle, who know the mysteries of Christ, why then do you call his forgiving body “condemnation of him who receives it”? Because he does not perceive the body of the Lord,” 67 which means he takes it with contempt and not with love and awe. He comes forth toward the table of life as if an ordinary table, and takes the graceful food, which is very special, as usual food. And following the disdaining mind of the one who comes forth toward condemnation and not toward mercy, he receives the lifegiving mystery of the conciliating sacrifice. The old Simeon, inspired by the Spirit, said about him: Behold, this one is set for the rise and fall of many. 68 Following the thinking of the believers and the non-believers, these will rise because they believe, and those will fall because they do not believe. We have said these things at length because we really are in anguish concerning those who cause hatred and those who keep wrath. When (such) teachers and preachers of the baptized are established, they turn to scandalize many, [F.222A] and thus they condemn themselves. Sixth Canon

Someone sinned secretly and repented covertly. He is fearful to declare the matter lest he be uncovered and be subdued by pressure, fury and mockery of evil ones. Could he ever be corrected in one way or another so as to receive healing, survive and not perish?

67 68

1 Corinthians 11:29. Luke 2:34.

‫‪61‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܠܡܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܐܘ ܫܠܝܚܐ ̇ܝܕܥ ̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝܚܐ‪ :‬ܠܦܓܪܗ ܡܚܣܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܐ̈ܪܙܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܫܡܗܬܝܗ ܡܚܝܒܐ ܕܢܣܘ ܹܒܗ‪ .‬ܕܠܐ ܠܡ ܦܪܫ ܦܓܪܗ ܕܡܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܵ ܵ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܢܣܒܗ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܕܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܡܒܣܪܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܘܠܘ‬ ‫ܚܘܒܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܘܕܚܘܠܬܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܬܘܪܐ ܫܚܝܡܐ ܐܬܩܪܒ ܠܘܬ ܦܬܘܪ ܚܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܕܒܡܐܟܘܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܝܕܐ ܐܬܚܫܚ ܒܡܐܟܘܠܬܐ ܕܛܝܒܘܬܐ ܕܠܥܠ ̣ܡܢ ܵ‬ ‫ܥܝܕܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܕܩܪܒ ܠܚܘܝܒܐ ܘܠܘ ܠܚܘܤܝܐ‪ .‬ܩܒܠܗ ܿ‬ ‫ܡܒܤܪܢܐ ̇‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ̇‬ ‫ܪܥܝܢܗ‬ ‫ܠܗܘ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܐܦ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܕܥܠܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܘܗܘܝ‬ ‫ܡܪܥܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܕܒܚܐ‬ ‫ܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܚܝ‬ ‫ܐܪܙܐ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܤܒܐ ܫܡܥܘܢ ܐܤܝܪ ܒܪܘܚܐ‪ :‬ܕܗܐ ܗܢܐ ܣܝܡ ܠܩܝܡܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܘܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܕܣܓܝܐܐ܆ ܠܦܘܬ ܪܥܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܡܦܘܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫‪69‬‬ ‫ܕܗܠܝܢ ܩܝܡܝܢ ܒܕ ܠܐ ܡܗܝܡܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܗܢܘܢ ܢܦܠܝܢ ܒܕܠܐ ܡܗܝܡܢܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܤܓܝܐܝܬ ܒܕ ܛܒ ܿ‬ ‫ܥ ܼܝ ܼܝܩܐ ܠܢ ܥܠ ܡܓ̈ܪܓܝ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܗܟܝܠ ܐܡܪܢܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܥܡܝܕܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܠܦܢܐ ܘܟ̈ܪܘܙܐ‬ ‫ܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܣܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܟܬܐ ܘܥܠ ܢܛܪܝ ܐܟܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ ܼ‬ ‫ܿܗܦܟܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܣܓܝܐܐ ]‪ [F.222A‬ܘܡܚܝܒܝܢ ܵܝܬܗܘܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܟܫܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܘ ̇‬ ‫ܘܩܢܛ ܕܢܓܠܐ ܕܕܡ‬ ‫ܟܣܝܐܝܬ‪:‬‬ ‫ܫܝܫ‬ ‫ܕܚܛܐ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܼ‬ ‫ܟܣܝܐܝܬ ܼܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܬܚܣܢ ܡܢ ܐܘܠܨܢܐ ܘܚܣܕܐ ܕܚ̈ܪܡܢܐ ܘܕܡܡܝܩ ܹܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܢܬܦܪܣܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܘܠܐ ܛܟ ܓܝܪ ܕܒܐܝܢܐ ܙܢܐ ܢܗܘܐ ܬܘܪܨܗ ┐ܘܢܩܒܠ ܐܤܝܘܬܐ‬ ‫‪70‬‬ ‫ܘܢܫܬܟܚ ܘܠܐ ܢܐܒܕ‪.‬‬

‫‪Ms.: sic.‬‬ ‫‪Written vertically on the right margin. The question, written original‬‬‫‪ly in red, is partially unclear.‬‬

‫‪69‬‬ ‫‪70‬‬

62

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

The Holy Spirit established priests inside the sheepfold of his flock as physicians of souls, by means of the remedies of the instruction of the Spirit and the assistance derived from prayers that they spiritually offer for penitents before the lover of penitents. The priests are the ministers of forgiveness, who heal the stricken ones, so that they may join the ecclesiastical community from which they seceded, depriving themselves from its healing during the whole time they were tormented on the bed of sickening sin. 71 On this account, the priests, who are appointed over the ministry of forgiveness, need compassionate minds never stained by harshness, and permanent prayer never subjected to negligence, so that they may be reliable and skilled physicians, healing many diseases without revealing them. They know that in this way they give rest, and in this manner, sicknesses are treated. Even more than this, the spiritual physicians, the priests of the Church, ought to suffer with the sick people as if they are sick, to carefully bring them back from the sickening sins that are hidden and serious. They must not reveal them but rather heal them with a divine skill and by the spiritual remedies that are entrusted into their hands. If the sinner is afraid to reveal his offences, because righteous and attentive priests are not found everywhere, the sinner should investigate where thoughtful and merciful priests are located. We say this as a warning for priests, so that this shameful thing of great liability does not pervert them and face them. They must not be irritators instead of conciliators, scandalous instead of forgivers, ruthless instead of being merciful, and gossipers instead of being discreet. We know all too well that the assembly of Christ is not devoid of priests who are reserved, careful, faithful, and lovers of healing the stricken ones.

The concept of sin as disease is found in James 5:14 and especially in the Acts of Thomas §121. Here, Baptism and the Eucharist are the sources of healing.

71

‫‪63‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ ܒܓܘ‬ ‫ܕܢܦܫܬܐ ܣܡ ܐܢܘܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܣܘܬܐ ܟܝܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܤܡܡܢܐ ܕܡܠܦܢܘܬܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܘܒܝܕ ܥܘܕ̈ܪܢܐ‬ ‫ܵܛ ܵܝܪܐ ܕܡܪܥܝܬܗ‪ .‬ܕܒܝܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܨܠܘܬܐ ܕܪܥܝܢܐܝܬ ܡܩܪܒܝܢ ܥܠ ܬܝܒܐ ܩܕܡ ܪܚܡ ܬܝܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܡܚܝܐ ܘܢܬܠܝܦܘܢ ܒܦܓܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܟܗܢܐ ܡܫܡܫܝ ܚܘܣܝܐ ܕܢܐܣܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܐܬܢܟܪܝܘ ܼܡܢ ܚܘܠܡܢܗ ܟܠܗ ܙܒܢܐ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܕܐܣܬܕܩܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܬܢܘܠܘ ܒܥܪܣܐ ܕܟܐܒܐ ܕܚܛܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܥܠ ܗܕܐ ܪܥܝܢܐ ܚܝܘܣܬܢܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܪܡܢܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܨܠܘܬܐ ܐܡܝܢܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܤܟ ܵ‬ ‫ܫܠܛܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܚ‬ ‫ܕܠܐ ܤܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܟܬܡ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܦܩܝܕܝܢ ܒܬܫܡܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܡܗܡܝܢܘܬܐ ܚܫܚܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܠܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܚܘܤܝܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܐܪܟܝܐܛ̈ܪܐ ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܘܡܗܝ̈ܪܐ ܕܠܟܐܒܐ ܤܓܝܐܐ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܚܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܒܗܕܐ‬ ‫ܡܐܣܝܢ ܟܕ ܠܐ ܡܦܪܣܝܢ‪ .‬ܕܡܦܣܝܢ ܕܒܗܕܐ ܡܢ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܐܣܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܟܐܒܐ ‪ :72‬ܗܟܢ ܘܝܬܝܪ ܡܢ ܗܟܢ ܿܘܠܐ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܬܒܝܐܝܢ ܡ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܪܘܚܐ ܟܗܢܝܗ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܕܢܚܫܘܢ ܥܡ ܟ̈ܪܝܗܐ ܐܝܟ ܟ̈ܪܝܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܟܣܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܚܛܗܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܟܝܦܐܝ ܼܬ ܿܢܦܢܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܼܡܢ ܠܘܬ ܟܘ̈ܪܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܣܩܝܢ ܠܐ ܢܦܪܣܘܢ܆ ܐܠܐ ܢܚܠܡܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܒܐܘܡܢܘܬܐ ܐܠܗܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܐܝܕܝܗܘܢ ܡܓܥܠܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒܤܡܡܢܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܘܡܘܗܝ‪ .‬ܒܕܠܘ ܒܟܠ ܕܘܟ‬ ‫ܢܝܛ ܚܛܝܐ ܕܢܓ ܸܠܐ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܫܟܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܿ ܼܩ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܟܐܢܐ ܘܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ‪ :‬ܢܥܡܠ ܚܛܝܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܟܪ ܕܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ ܘܡ̈ܪܚܡܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܗܕܐ ܐܡܪܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܙܘܗܪܐ ܕܟܗܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܤܟ‬ ‫ܼܢܥܩܡ ܠܗܘܢ ܘܢܛܪܐ ܒܗܘܢ ܗܢܐ ܚܤܕܐ ܕܪܒ ܚܘܝܒܗ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܢܗܘܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܟܫܠܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܚܠܦ ܡ̈ܪܚܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܚܣܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܚܠܦ ܡ̈ܪܥܝܢܐ ܡ̈ܪܓܙܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܚܠܦ‬ ‫ܕܝܥܝܢܢ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܚ̈ܪܡܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܚܠܦ ܢܛ̈ܪܝ ܠܫܢܐ‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪܝܥܝ ܦܘܡܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܛܒ ܼܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܗܝܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܢܛܝܖܐ ܘܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܐܬܓܪܕ ܼܝ ܟܢܘܫܬܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܡ ̈‬ ‫ܚܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܚܡܝ ܐܤܝܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬

‫‪̈ .‬‬ ‫ܟܐܒܐ ‪Ms.: sic for‬‬

‫‪72‬‬

64

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Even though there are among them [F.222B] those who are perverse, irritating and not straight, there are many within the ranks of the priests who have pleased and still pleasing many people and satisfy the Lord of the universe in all generations in all regions. This is the rule that must be observed for the reason indicated. It is written that many were baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River, confessing their sins, 73 but blessed David concealed his double sin not by negligence or by unwillingness to repent, but by fear of scandalizing many and for being ashamed by many. But his Lord shamed him by the parable which he devised for him at the hands of the prophet, 74 so that, with zeal and might, he pronounced his own condemnation, and especially regretted his fault in such a way that he suffered, lamented and repented, becoming entirely the embodiment of conciliating penitence. The grace, which had deserted him when he angered (the Lord), had returned to him, for there is no hypocrisy before the Judge of the worlds. 75 He was forgiven not to be lost, and after his truthful repentance, he was beaten so as to be vigilant and that through him many become wary and watchful. We are aware that also others, between themselves and God, have laboriously and painstakingly healed their illnesses, because they did not trust anyone else. This is the case of the blessed bishop who was compelled to apostatize and offered sacrifice to idols, but after he escaped, he spat in the face of the world and ran from it altogether. As he remained in one place, not seeing anyone and no one saw him for thirty-seven years, the Revelation told him: “In this year, your penance is accepted. Until now you have been penitent, being carefully, conscientiously and regretfully remorseful; from now on, you shall work for your righteousness during the rest of life.”

Matthew 3:6. 2 Kings 12. 75 Cf. 1 Peter 1:18. 73 74

‫‪65‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܗܘܢ ]‪ [F.222B‬ܕܦܬܝܠܝܢ ܘܡܪܓܙܢܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܬ̈ܪܝܨܝܢ܆‬ ‫ܐܦܢ ܓܝܪ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܡܫܬܟܚܝܢ‪ .‬ܕܒܬܓܡܐ ܕܟܗܢܐ ܕܫܦܪܘ ܐܘ ܐܫܦܪܘ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܥܝܘ ܠܡܪܐ ܕܒ̈ܪܝܬܐ ܒܟܠ ܕ̈ܪܝܢ ܒܟܠ‬ ‫ܐܐ‬ ‫ܠܣܓܝ‬ ‫ܘܪ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܿܙܕܩ ܕܢܬܢܛܪ ܡܛܠ ܥܠܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܝ ܕܐܡܝܪܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܛܒ ܟܬܝܒܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܡܕܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ ̣ܡܢ ܝܘܚܢܢ ܡܥܡܕܢܐ ܒܝܘܪܕܢܢ ܢܗܪܐ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܠܡ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܘܕܝܢ ܒܚܛ ̈‬ ‫ܣܝ ܬܪܝܢܘܬ ܚܛܗܘܗܝ ܠܘ ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܗܝܗܘܢ ܠܛܘܒܢܐ ܕܘܝܕ ܼܟ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܗܡܝܢܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܠܐ ܡܬܬܘܝܢܘܬܐ ܐܠܐ ܡܛܠ ܸܟܫܠܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܪܤܝܗ‪ .‬ܒܝܕ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܡܪܗ‬ ‫ܕܣܓܝܐܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܛܠ ܟܘܚܕܐ ܕ ‪ 76‬ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ‪ܸ .‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܙܝܙܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܘܥ‬ ‫ܦܠܐܬܐ ܼܕܪ ܹܟܒ ܠܗ ܒܐܝܕܝ ܢܒܝܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܕ ܟܐܡܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܛܢܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܼ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܼܢܚܫ ܥܠ ܣܟܠܘܬܗ ܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܥܠ ܵܝܬܗ ܿܡ ܹܦܩ ܚܘܝܒܐ܆‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܗܘܐ ܟܠܗ ܒܟܠܗ ܡܫܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ‫ܘܐܬܗܦ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܐܝ‬ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܚܫ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܐܦ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܦܢܬ ܠܘܬܗ ܛܝܒܘܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܝ ܕܝܠܗ ܿܗܝ ܕܫܒܩܬܗ‬ ‫ܢܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܬܝܒܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܥܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄ܗܘܬ ܗܝܕܝܟ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܓܙ ܒܕ ܠܝܬ ܡܤܒ ܒܐܦܐ ܩܕܡ ܕܝܢܐ ܕܥܠܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܪ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܢܙܕܗܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܬܩܦܚ‬ ‫ܘܐܬܚܣ ܼܝ ܕܠܐ ܢܐܒܕ‪ .‬ܘܒܬܪ ܚܘܤܝܗ ܫܪܝܪܐ܆‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܤܓܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒܗ ܢܬܚܣܢܘܢ ܘܢܙܕܗܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܝܢ ܚܢܢ ܕܝܢ ܐܦ ܒܐܚ̈ܪܢܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܘܠܐܠܗܐ ܥܡܝܠܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܪܓܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܤܝܘ ܟܐܒܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܒܕܠܐ ܐܬܬ ܸܟܠܘ ܥܠ ܐܢܫ܂ ܐܝܟ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܘܢܓܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܛܘܒܢܐ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܕܐܬܥܨܝ ܘܟܦܪ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܕܒܚ ܠܦܬܟ̈ܪܐ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ ܐܫܬܘܙܒ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܗܘܐ ܒܕܘܟܬܐ‬ ‫ܓܡܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܐܦܘܗܝ‪ .‬ܘܥܪܩ ܡܢܗ‬ ‫ܪܩ ܠܗ ܠܥܠܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܫܢܝܢ܂‬ ‫ܘܫܒܥ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܐܬܚܙ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܐܢܫ‬ ‫ܙܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ܆ ܘܠܐܢܫ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܐܬܩܒܠܬ ܬܝܒܘܬܟ‪ .‬ܥܕܡܐ ܓܝܪ ܠܗܫܐ܆‬ ‫ܠܗ ܓܠܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܕܒܗܕܐ ܫܢܬܐ‬ ‫̤‬ ‫ܘܡܪܥܝܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܥܡܝܠܐܝ ܼܬ ▱ ܘܪܥܝܢܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬ‪ .‬ܒܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܬܝܒܐ ܐܝܬܝܟ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪77‬‬ ‫ܬܒܬ‪ .‬ܡܟܝܠ ܕܝܢ ܘܠܗܠ܆ ܒܫܪܟܐ ܕܚܝܐ ܕܐܫܬܚܪ >ܠܟ< ܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿܦܠܚ ܐܢܬ܂‬

‫‪Gap filler.‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܘܠܟ ‪Ms.:‬‬

‫‪76‬‬ ‫‪77‬‬

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The beginning of penance is the cessation of errors. Now the priests who are preachers and teachers of the community must watch over their tongues; [F.223A] they must place doors on their lips, so that they may not rob and divulge the confidential words of the faithful. It is said by the prophet on behalf of the Lord of prophets and priests: For the lips of a priest ought to preserve knowledge, and people seek instruction from his mouth. 78 As he (=the priest) is a teacher and fulfiller of virtue, because he is the angel of the mighty Lord, he is (also) the mediator between God and humanity in the likeness of the prophet Moses and the example of our Lord, the Lord of Moses, who receives all the committed believers from God to instruct them. The priests of God must not forget what was said concerning the wisdom of most tested among the wise men: Deliberate your cause with your colleague and reveal not a secret to another; 79 and: The slanderer reveals the secret, but the revealer of a secret destroys his faith; 80 and: the one who reveals a secret is a shameful one. 81 And to admonish even more, it says: If you heard a rumor, let it die in your heart; let it not be an arrow to pierce you and get out. 82 More sayings as these are expressed for us as warning and as benefit for . Seventh Canon

It is not permissible for the priest to have a dispute against another person, so as to deprive him from the grace of the holy mysteries.

Malachi 2:7. Proverbs 25:9. 80 Cf. Proverbs 11:13; Sirach 27:17. 81 Cf. Ecclesiastes 22:22. 82 Cf. Sirach 19:10. 78 79

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܣܢܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܫܘܪܝܗ ܕܝܢ ܕܬܝܒܘܬܐ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܦܘܫܐ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܟ̈ܪܘܙܐ ܘܡܠܦܢܐ ܕܓܘܐ܆ ܢܙܕܗܪܘܢ ܒܠܫܢܝܗܘܢ ]‪[F.223A‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪83‬‬ ‫ܠܣܦܘܬܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܢܒܙܘܢ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܩܝܡܘܢ ܬ̈ܪܥܐ >ܘܣܘܟ̈ܪܐܠܚܟܡܐ ̈‬ ‫ܐܡܝ ̈ܖܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܚܝܢܙܪܒ< ܠܗ ܕܠܒܪ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ ܩܛܝܪܐ ܕܐܢܢܩܐ ܠܐ ܕܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܘܕܫܠܝܛܢܐ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܥܝܕܗ ܘܠܒܪ ܡܢ ܨܒܝܢܗ ܼܢܟܬܘܒ ܘ ܼܢܚܬܘܡ ܘ ܼܿܢܚܪܡ ܢܦܫܗ‪ :‬ܠܐ‬ ‫ܿ ܼܡܦܣܘ ܿ ܼܡܦܣܝܢܢ ܠܗ ܼܿ‬ ‫ܕܢܫܢܐ ܼܡܢ ܵ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܒܠܐ܆‬ ‫ܥܝܕܗ ܘܨܒܝܢܗ ܫܦܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܠܐ ܩܢܘܢܐ ܿ ܼܡܛܥܢܝܢ ܚܢܢ ܠܗ ܐܝܟ ܚܝܒܐ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܠܘ ]‪ [F.224A‬ܫܪܒܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̣ܗܘ ܕܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ ̈‬ ‫ܕܘܒܖܐ ܕܒܗܘܢ ܡܦܪܓ ܫܪܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܚܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܦ ܠܐ ܥܠܠ‬ ‫ܚܘܝܚܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܩܒܠܝܢܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ ܥ̈ܪܨܐ ܐܦ ܠܡܘܬܐ‬ ‫̇ܗܢܘܢ ܕܟܠ ܩܝܘܢܕܝܢܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܣܬ ܕܡܕܡ ܕܢܘܟܪܝ ܘܣܩܘܒܠܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܛܝܒܐܝ ܼܬ ܝܗܒܝܢܢ ܢܦܫܢ ܕܠܐ ܦܘܠܓ‪ܼ .‬ܡ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܒܘܬܢ ܘܕ ܹܟܝܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܠܫܪܪܢ ܠܐ ܣܟ ܢܓܫܘܦ ܒܢ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܟܕ ܪܣܝܤܝܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܛ ܵ‬ ‫ܢܘ‬ ‫ܒܝܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܬܐܪܬܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܡܚܡܤܢܝܢܢ ܒܬܘܕܝܬܐ ܕܣܒܪܢ ܕܠܐ ܡܨ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ ܕܠܐ ܙܘܥܙܥ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܒܕܘܒ̈ܪܐ‬

‫ܐܪܒ ‪Ms.:‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܝܼܿ ܸ‬

‫‪90‬‬

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

If there is a priest who loves despicable riches, willingly and habitually, the following applies to him: He will be barred and no longer be able to minister, like anyone who abandons the conciliatory law of his priesthood, until he returns being thoughtful of holiness and despiser of riches. Ninth Canon

If the anathema is confirmed by the sole word of the priest, without being supported by the oath by God: Is it valid or not valid? There is a fair custom among firm believers in many regions that not only when a priest says to a believer: “It is not legal that you do this or say that,” but even when he says: “Do not do this and do not say that,” the believer believes that the priest talked to him in genuine terms of an anathema. Thus, he abides carefully by the word of the priest, like the latter’s own student, not opposing it until he is allowed to. If he (=priest) confirmed the words by uttering, “you have no right…,” then there is no doubt, because he (=believer) knows that this indicates a law. This is also known, without doubt, to the believers, because the priest joins and strengthens the priestly anathema with “by the word of God,” to shame and scare troublemakers and doers of wrong, for perhaps they would yield and fear. Injustice and sin cannot be used in judgement and in settling dispute between a man and his brother. For our Lord thus gave authority to the priests: Whatsoever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 91 He (=priest) has also authority over forgiving sins [F.224B]: If you forgive the sins of any person, they are forgiven for them; if you retain them against any person, they are retained. 92

91 92

Matthew 18:18. John 20:23.

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܝܘܬܖܢܐ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܟܗܢܐ ܕܐܝܟ ܿ‬ ‫ܛܢܦܐ ܼܡܢ ܨܒܝܢܗ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܪܚܡ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܢܟܠܐ ܒܗ ܘܠܐ ܢܫܡܫ ܐܝܟ ܐܝܢܐ ܕܫܢܝ‬ ‫ܩܪܒ ܠܗ ܠܗܕܐ܆ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܒܥܝܕܐ܆ ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܗܘܐ ܡܪܥܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܢܡܘܤܐ ܡܪܥܝܢܐ ݂ܕܟܗܢܘܬܗ܆ ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܡܤܠܝܢܐ ܕܝܬ̈ܪܬܐ ܀‬ ‫ܕܚܣܝܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܬܫܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܠ ݀‬ ‫ܡܬ ܿ ܼܚܡ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܡܠܬ ܟܗܢܐ ܒܠܚܘܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܗܝ ܕܐܢ ܫܪܝܪ ܚܪܡܐ ܒܗܢܐ ܼܕ ܼܒ ܸ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܐܠܗܐ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܠܐ ܫܪܝܪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܙܝܓ ܹ‬ ‫ܒܡ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܒܐܬ̈ܪܘܬܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܐܚܝܕ ܥܝܕܐ ܗܢܐ ܫܦܝܪܐ ܒܝܢܬ‬ ‫ܬܩܢܐ܆ ܕܠܘ ܒܠܚܘܕ ܡܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܡܗܝ ̈ܡܢܐ ̈‬ ‫ܕܐܡܪ ܠܗ ܟܗܢܐ ܠܡܗܝܡܢܐ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ ܐܢܬ ܠܡܥܒܕ ܙܦܠܢ ܐܘ ܠܡܡܠܠܘ ܙܦܠܢ܆ ܐܠܐ ܐܦ ܟܕ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܣܒܪ ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܕܒܢܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܕܠܐ ܬܥܒܕ ܙܦܠܢ ܘܠܐ ܬܡܠܠ ܙܦܠܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܙܗܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܐܬܐܡܪܬ ܠܘܬܗ ̣ܡܢ ܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܘܢܛܪ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܥܝܢܐ ܕܚܪܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܬܠܡܝܕܐ ܕܟܗܢܐ ܡܠܬܐ ܕܟܗܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܦܣܣ ܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܒܗܝ ܕܠܐ ܫܠܝܛ ܐܢܬ ܢܬܚܡܗ܆ ܠܝܬ ܡܟܝܠ ܦܘܠܓܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܕ ܝܕܥ‬ ‫ܐܢ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܩܢܘܢܐ ܛܥܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܦ ܠܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܝܕܝܥܐ ܼܗܝ ܗܕܐ ܕܠܐ ܦܘܠܓ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܗܝ ܕܒܡܠܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ܆ ܼܡܙܓ ܼܿܘܡܙܝܢ ܠܗ ܟܗܢܐ ܠܚܪܡܐ ܟܗܢܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܕܠܟܘܚܕܐ ܘܠܕܘܚܠܐ ܕܚ̈ܪܝܢܐ ▱ ܘܕܩ̈ܪܝܝܐ܆ ܕܛܟ ܡܬܪܟܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܙܝܥܝܢ܆ ܘܠܐ ܡܫܬܡܫ ܛܠܘܡܝܐ ܘܚܛܗܐ ܒܕܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܒܫܪܝ ܚܪܝܢܐ ܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܓܒܪܐ ܠܐܚܘܗܝ‪ .‬ܡܪܢ ܓܝܪ ܗܟܢܐ ܼ ̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ‪ :‬ܕܡܕܡ‬ ‫ܝܗܒ ܫܘܠܛܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܬܐܣܪܘܢ ܒܐܪܥܐ܆ ܢܗܘܐ ܐܣܝܪ ܒܫܡܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܕܡ ܕܬܫܪܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܛܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫܪܐ ܒܫܡܝܐ‪ .‬ܫܠܝܛ ܕܝܢ ܐܦ ܥܠ ܫܘܒܩܢ‬ ‫ܒܐܪܥܐ܆ ܢܗܘܐ ܹ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܫ ܡܫܬܒܩܝܢ ܠܗ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ‬ ‫]‪ [F.224B‬ܐܢ ܬܫܒܩܘܢ ܠܡ ܚܛܗܐ ܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܬܐܚܕܘܢ ܠܐܢܫ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܐܚܝܕܝܢ‪.‬‬

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Also, vigilance is required from the priests not to undermine the terrible priestly anathema beyond necessity, in whatever way and for whomever. They would make a fruitful thing fruitless and debase the priesthood, which is venerable and respected for the heavenly and the earthly ones. It rules and governs in heaven and on earth. Tenth Canon

Whether or not it is permissible for believers and priests to take oath. The ancients used oaths to solve their quarrels—those hidden from the eye and from human awareness. Nonetheless, Christ, our Life-giver, elevated to the point of perfection the evangelical way of Christianity over the juridical way of younger 93 Judaism. He indicated that the heavenly way was now revealed . He ordered in his law-setting that the disciples of his Gospel must not take oaths, but, like perfect ones, must confirm their statements and settle their quarrels with (saying): “yes” and “no.” 94 (They must be) like ones who reject superfluous things that do not fit their ownersthese (things) are an afflicting sin that cannot provide any solution for difficulties. In his prayer, Christ taught the crowds that submitted and that submit to his teaching: Give us the bread we need this day. 95 Here he rejected superfluous things, which lead to sin and are not needed. He allowed the use of necessary things without which there is no solution, things when begged from God by prayer, are not blamable or repulsive.

Literally “milk-drinking (Judaism).” Matthew 5:37. 95 Matthew 6:11. 93 94

‫‪75‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܠܨܬܐ ܟܠ‬ ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ ܙܗܝܪܘܬܐ ܡܬܒܥܝܐ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܕܠܘ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܐܦ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܠܐ ܕܟܗܢܘܬܐ ܆‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܡܛܠ ܟܠܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢ‬ ‫ܕܗܘ‪ :‬ܢܒܕܪܘܢܝܗܝ ܠܚܪܡܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܢܫܘܛܘܢܗ ܠܟܗܢܘܬܐ ܕܟܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܥܒܕܘܢܝܗܝ ‪ 96‬ܠܦܐܪܐ ܕܠܐ ܦܐ̈ܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܬܚܬܝܐ܆ ܘܐܚܝܕܐ ܘܡܫܠܛܐ ܒܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܐ ܘܥܠ‬ ‫ܘܝܩܝܪܐ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܒܐܪܥܐ ܀‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܥܣܪܐ ܀‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܟܗܢܐ ܐܘ ܠܐ ܀‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܐܡܘܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܕܐܢ ̇ܙܕܩ ܕ ܹܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܚ̈ܪܝܢܝܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܟܣ ܸܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܒܡܘܡܬܐ‪ܿ .‬ܫܪܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܥܝܢܐ ܘܡܢ ܼܝܕܥܬܐ ̄‬ ‫ܡܥ ܹܠܐ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܐܢܫܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܡܫܝܚܐ ܕܝܢ ܡܚܝܢܢ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܵ‬ ‫ܓܡܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‪ :‬ܝܬܝܪ ܼܡܢ ܕܘܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܕܘܒܪܐ ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ ܕܟܪܣܛܝܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܝܢܩܬ ܚܠܒܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܚܘܐ ܕܕܘܒܪܐ ܫܡܝܢܐ܆‬ ‫ܢܡܘܣܝܐ ܕܝܗܘܕܝܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܐܬܪܙܙ< ̣ܡܢ ܟܕܘ‪ .‬ܦܩܕ ܒܤܝܡ ܢܡܘܣܘܗܝ܆ ܕܠܐ ܤܟ‬ ‫ܐܬܓܠܝ >‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܣܒܪܬܗ ܐܠܐ ܒܐܝܢ ܘܠܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܓܡܝ̈ܪܐ ܢܫܪܪܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܠܡܝܕܐ‬ ‫ܢܐܡܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܣܠܝܢܐ ܕܝܬܝ̈ܪܬܐ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܠܝܗܘܢ ܘ ܼܢܫܪܘܢ ܚ̈ܪܝܢܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܢܝܗܝܢ܆ ܿܗ ̈‬ ‫ܠܩܢ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܠܨܬܐ ܢܣܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܢܝܢ ܕܚܛܝܬܐ ܡܫܢܩܢܝܬܐ ܘܠܘ ܚܫܚܬܐ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܢܗܝܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܐܦ ܒܨܠܘܬܗ ܡܠܦ ܠܟܢܘܫܝܐ ܕܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܐܬܬܠܡܕܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܬܠܡܕܝܢ ܠܝܘܠܦܢܗ‪ .‬ܗܒ ܠܢ ܠܚܡܐ ܕܣܘܢܩܢܢ ܝܘܡܢܐ‪ .‬ܗܪܟܐ ܓܝܪ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܡܚ ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐ ܹܦܣ ܥܠ ܚܫܚܬܐ ܕܐܠܨܬܐ‬ ‫ܛܝܢ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܐܤܠ ܼܝ ܝܬܝ̈ܪܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܚܫܚܢ‪ܼ ܿ .‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܠܥܕ ݁ܝܗ ܠܐ ܿܫܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܕܐ ܕܐܦ ̣ܡܢ ܐܠܗܐ ܟܕ ܡܬܒܥܝܐ‬ ‫ܒܨܠܘܬܐ܆ ܠܐ ܥܕܝܠܐ ܘܠܐ ܫܟܝܪܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Dōlat, a bit thick, above the line.‬‬

‫‪96‬‬

76

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Moreover, some among the children of the Church, who are not cautious, used and still use oaths, not with the permission of the leaders of the Church, but by the choice of their for the benefit of their purses. While they were not given permission , nor do the leaders of the Church ever give them such a permission, it is not that they despise the law set by the Lord—God forbid! Perhaps they were pressured by pagans and non-believers [F.225A] at the beginning, but this (move) became firm among them as a means to perhaps spare them from injustice, freeing them from lies, sin and annoyance—they were not able to behave following the perfection and the laws of the Lord. Firm and cautious people never take an oath. The believer who takes an oath as a habit must be banned and dismissed from the assembly of believers, his acquaintances, for a given time, even if he takes an oath correctly—the benefit of his purse is more important than the good name that befits the believers! Priests must never take an oath. If anyone among them takes an oath unusually and involuntarily, he must not exercise ministry for a given time, even if he takes an oath justifiably, until he eliminates his mistake, containing it by his penitence. Now if he receives permission from his bishop under the pressure of pagans, even in this case he must not exercise ministry for a given time. If he takes an oath in falsehood, he must not exercise ministry whatsoever. He makes of himself an offender and a scandal for many, voluntarily and knowingly. All these are left for the fair, just, and blameless management of the bishop. He is the head of the ecclesiastical administration of the whole region, which is entrusted to him.

‫‪77‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܫܝܢ ܠܐ ܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܚܫܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܒܡܘܡܬܐ ܐܬܚܫܚܘ‬ ‫ܒܬܪܟܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝܗ ܕܥܕܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܠܐ ̣ܡܢ‬ ‫ܕܥܕܬܐ‪ :‬ܠܘ ܒܡܦܣܢܘܬܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܒܢܝ ̇ܗ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܓܒܝܬܐ >ܕܨܒܝܢܗܘܢ< ܡܛܠ ܝܘܬ̈ܪܢܐ ܕܟܝܣܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ ܡܦܤܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܬܦܣܣ‬ ‫ܡܬܦܣܣܘ‬ ‫ܐܬܝܗܒܬ ܠܗ> ܕܢܕܐܡܘܢ< ‪97‬܆ ܐܦܠܐ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝܗ ܕܥܕܬܐ‪ .‬ܠܘ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܒܣܪܝܢ ܥܠ ܣܝܡ ܢܡܘܤܐ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܐܬܥܨܝܘ‬ ‫ܡ̈ܪܢܝܐ܆ ܚܣ‪ :‬ܐܠܐ ܟܒܪ ܼܡܢ ܚܢܦܐ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܫܬܪܪܬ ܗܕܐ ܒܝܢܬܗܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܐܝܕܐ ܕܛܟ‬ ‫]‪ [F.225A‬ܒܫܘܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܚܣܟܐ ܠܗܘܢ ̣ܡܢ ܛܠܘܡܝܐ ܘܡܚܪܪܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܼܡܢ ܕܓܠܘܬܐ ܘܚܛܝܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܢܡܘܤܐ ܡ̈ܪܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܫܚܩܐ‪ :‬ܒܕܠܐ ܐܫܟܚܘ ܕܠܦܘܬ ܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܢܬܕܒܪܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܩܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܘܙܗܝ̈ܪܐ ܠܐ ܣܟ ܿܝܡܝܢ‪ .‬ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝܡܐ ܐܢ ܕܥܝܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄ܗ ܼܝ ܠܗ ܢܬܟ ܸܠܐ ܒܗ܆ ܘܢܬܢܟܪܐ ܼܡܢ ܤܕܪܐ ܕܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܚܒ̈ܪܘܗܝ܆ ܙܒܢܐ‬ ‫ܝܕܝܥܐ‪ .‬ܐܦܢ ܒܫܪܪܐ ܿܝܡܐ‪ :‬ܥܠ ܕܐܬܝܩܪ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܝܘܬܪܢܐ ܕܟܝܣܗ܆‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܤܟ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܗܝܡܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܬܝܪ ܼܡܢ ܫܡܐ ܛܒܐ ܕܦܐܸ ܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܢܐܡܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ ܐܝܬ ܼܡܢܗܘܢ ܕܠܒܪ ܼܡܢ ܥܝܕܐ ܕܠܐ ܒܨܒܝܢܗ ܝܡܐ܆‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܚܦܐ ̇‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܐ ܢܫܡܫ ܙܒܢܐ ܝܕܝܥܐ‪ .‬ܐܦܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܟܐܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܿܝܡܐ܆ ܥܕܡܐ ܼܕ ܼܿ‬ ‫ܘܚܡܠ ̇‬ ‫ܠܣܟܠܘܬܗ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܠܗ ܒܬܝܒܘܬܗ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܡܦܣܢܘܬܐ ܗܘܝܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪98‬‬ ‫ܠܘܬܗ ܡܢ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܗ ܡܢ ܥܨܝܢܐ ܕܚܢܦܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܦ ܗܟܢܐ ܠܐ ܢܫܡܫ‬ ‫ܙܒܢܐ ܝܕܝܥܐ‪ .‬ܐܢܕܝܢ ܒܕܓܠܘܬܐ ܿܝܡܐ܆ ܠܓܡܪ ܠܐ ܢܫܡܫ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܐܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܨܒܝܢܗ ܘܒܝܕܥܬܗ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܣܓܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܡܚܝܒܢܐ ܕܩܢܘܡܗ ܘܡܟܫܠܢܐ‬ ‫ܫܒܝܩܢ ܠܦܘܪܢܣܐ ܫܦܝܪܐ ܘܟܐܢܐ ܘܠܐ ܥܕܝܠܐ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܗܘܐ ܠܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܕܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܪܫ ܦܘܪܢܣܐ ܕܥܕܬܢܝܬܐ ܕܟܠܗ ܐܬܪܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܗ ܡܓܥܠ ܀‬

‫‪.‬ܘܢܕܢܐܡܘܢ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܗ‪⁄‬ܪܟܢܐ ‪Ms.‬‬

‫‪97‬‬ ‫‪98‬‬

78

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Eleventh Canon

A priest who alone is aware of the errors of the priests his colleagues: What ought he do? If an offending priest involuntarily committed an offense, his offence being a slip, and no one else is aware of his sin, the aware priest must inform the bishop. The bishop must examine the matter in the presence of the two. If the delinquent priest confesses as penitent that he committed the offense, he (=bishop) sanctions against him a time for penitence corresponding to his offense; he must not exercise ministry until he is healed. If he is defiled in fornication or adultery, while he has a wife, the ancient canons of the Fathers order that he be eliminated from the priestly ministry altogether. The fathers, who later occupied tribunal seats for the members (of the Church), 99 [F.225B] would assign him to penitence courteously, (the fathers) being compassionate. They would not assign him to penitence through negligence like slack doctors, as is described in the synod. 100 If his offense is obvious and notorious, he must be rebuked in the ecclesiastical assembly, according to the order of the divine Apostle: Them that sin rebuke before all people, that others also may fear. 101 Such offenders must be dismissed from the ministry of mysteries, following the warning of the Lord: Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast pearls before swine. 102 He calls dogs and pigs those of actions, who transgress the divine laws and disregard the canons of the fathers. He calls the sacred mysteries sacredness and pearls, like things that are precious and esteemed among people.

̈ Ms. ‫ܕܒܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܟܘ̈ܪܣܘܬܐ‬: Translation based on the context. Chabot, Synodicon, 438, suggested to read ‫“ ̈ܪܒܢܝܐ‬magisterial,” but this is not certain. 100 Canon 17, Synod of Mār-Joseph. 101 1 Timothy 5:20. 102 Matthew 7:6. 99

‫‪79‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܕܚ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܩܢܘܢܐ ܼܿ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܟ ̈ܗܢܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܕܟ ܵ‬ ‫ܠܘ ܵܬܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܒܤ ̈ܟ ܵ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܕܗܘ ܿ ܼܒܠܚܘܕܘܗܝ ܪܓܝܫ ܿ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܵ‬ ‫ܟܢ ̈ܘ ܹܬܗ‪:‬‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܡܣܥܪ ܠܘ ܹܬܗ ܀܀‬ ‫ܵܗܢܐ ܡܢܐ ܙܕܩ ܹܠܗ ܸ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܓܝܪ ܟܗܢܐ ܡܣܟܠܢܐ‪ :‬ܠܘ ܕܨܒܝܢܐ ܐܠܐ ܕܫܘܪܥܬܐ ܼ ̄ܗܝ ܹܠܗ‬ ‫ܣܟܠܘܬܗ‪ .‬ܘܐܢܫ ̄‬ ‫ܐܚܪܝܢ ܠܐ ܪܓܝܫ ܿ‬ ‫ܒܚܛܝ ܹܬܗ܆ ܿܗܘ ܟܗܢܐ ܕܪܓܝܫ‬ ‫ܒܗ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܠܐܦܝܣܩܘ‪ :‬ܘܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܒܩܪܝܒܘܬܐ ܕܬ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ ܢܒ ܹܚܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ‬ ‫ܡܘܕܥ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܐܣܟܠ‪ :‬ܢܓܙܘܪ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܙܒܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܣܟܠ ܐܝܟ ܡܬܬܘܝܢܐ ܡܘܕܐ‬ ‫ܿܗܘ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܐܤܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܬܝܒܘܬܐ ܠܦܘܬ ܣܟܠܘܬܗ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܢܫܡܫ ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܐܢܬܬܐ‪ :‬ܦܩܝܕ ܥܠܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܒܓܘܪܐ ܐܘ ܒܙܢܝܘܬܐ ܐܫܬܚܛ‪ :‬ܟܕ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܓܡܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ ܢܬܕܚܩ ܼܡܢ ܬܫܡܫܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܒܗܝܐ܆‬ ‫ܩܕܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܒܩܢܘܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܗܢܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܒܗܬܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܒܬܪܟܢ ܫܡܫܘ ܟܘ̈ܪܣܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܗܡܝܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܚܝܘܣܬܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܝܟ ]‪ [F.225B‬ܡ̈ܪܚܡܢܐ ܘܠܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܩܪܚܐ‬ ‫ܡܠܦܢܐ ܕܪܦܝܘܬܐ ܠܬܝܒܘܬܐ ܫܕܐܘܗܝ܆ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܒܣܘܢܗܘܕܘܣ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܓܠܝܐ ܘܛܒܝܒܐ ܣܟܠܘܬܗ܆ ܒܟܢܘܫܝܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܢܬܟܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܦܘܩܕܢܗ ܕܫܠܝܚܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ‪ .‬ܠܐܝܠܝܢ ܠܡ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܚܛܝܢ ܩܕܡ ܟܠ‬ ‫̄ ̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܗܠܝܢ ܢܬܢܟܪܘܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܫ ܼܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܕܐܦ ܫܪܟܐ ܕܐܢܫܐ ܢܕܚܠܘܢ‪ܼ .‬‬ ‫ܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܕܐ̈ܪܙܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܟ ܙܘܗ̈ܪܐ ܡ̈ܪܢܝܐ‪ .‬ܠܐ ܠܡ ܬܬܠܘܢ ܩܘܕܫܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܚܙܝܖܐ‬ ‫ܟܠܒܐ ܟܝܬ‬ ‫ܠܟܠܒܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܐ ܬܪܡܘܢ ܡ̈ܪܓܢܝܬܐ ܩܕܡ ܚܙܝ̈ܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪103‬‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ܆‬ ‫ܢܡܘܤܐ‬ ‫ܒܥܒܝܕܬܗܘܢ‪ :‬ܥܒ̈ܪܝ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܿܩܪܐ ܐܢܘܢ >ܠܫܟܝ̈ܪܝܡܩܛܓܪܐ ‪ ܠܐ< ‪ 109‬ܚܛܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܦܩܕ ܥܠ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܕܡ‪:‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܬܟܣܚ ܀‬ ‫ܘܬ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܬܤܓܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܐ ܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ ܬܬܡܚܠ ]‪ܸ [F.226A‬‬ ‫ܬܬܚܝܠ ܼ‬

‫‪Patch hide the latter part of the term.‬‬ ‫‪Missing but see the following partial sentence.‬‬

‫‪108‬‬ ‫‪109‬‬

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I Twelfth Canon

Whether or not it is permissible to take interest and demand usury. If it is permissible to take (interest), how much and how to take it? The Divine Books command the believers 110 many times over not to mingle interest and usury with the affairs of their riches, for this particular doing, which endorses the love of money, is the root of all evils. How many times does it slip toward greed, which is the cult of idols, generating, so to speak, usury and interest lending. among the believers wisely protect themselves by never taking interest and usury, because they prefer good reputation, which awaits good reward, over the sinful greed of money, which awaits endless torment. Now others among the believers, 111 willingly and without permission, take interest with a rate that they themselves determine. They boast, saying: “Out of the one hundredth we levy (some) for the Church,” but they determine usury not as baptised ones, but greedily. 112 This is blamable and dismissible! This must not have room among the baptized, for it is alien to a reconciling way of life. As for from the one hundredth that they claim to levy for the Church, Church leaders restrict it for the support of the poor. Many among the poor, not to say all of them, beg lenders forever, asking them and imploring to lend them in interest, so as not to be destitute, and many times over they agree. It is fair for the believers to work for perfection, as we clearly described, based on the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and which we often wrote about in short terms.

Literally “the household.” Ibid. 112 Literally “anti-baptism.” 110 111

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‫ܵܩ ܵ‬ ‫ܢܘܢܐ ܕܬ ܵܪ ܿ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܬܒܥ ܵ‬ ‫ܩܨ ܵܨܐ ܐܘ ܠܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡܤܒ ܪܒܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܡ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܕܐܢ ܼܡܦܣ ܹ‬ ‫ܼܥܠ ܗܝ ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܠܡܣܒ ‪113‬܀‬ ‫ܢܣܒ ܐܢ ܘ ܹܠܐ ܹ‬ ‫ܘܕܟܡܐ ܘܕܐܝܟܢ ܸܬ ܼܬ ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܦܩܕܝܢ ܠܒܝܬܝܐ ܕܠܐ ܢܚܠܛܘܢ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܥܡܠܐ ܕܡ̈ܪܗܛܝܗܘܢ ܸܪ ܿܒ ܼܝܬܐ ܘܩܨܨܐ‪ .‬ܒܕܦܘܪܢܣܐ ܼ ̄ܗܘ ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܪܚܡܬ ܟܣܦܐ ܥܩܪܐ ܕܟܠܗܝܢ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܫܪܓܠ ܟܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܤܝܥ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܙܒܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܕܠܡܐܡܪ ̇ܡܦܩ ܠܗ ܠܩܨܨܐ ܘܡܪܒܐ ܟܣܦܗ܆ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܚܠܬ ܦܬܟ̈ܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܠܘܒܘܬܐ ܕܗ ܸܝ ܗ ܼܝ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫> ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܩܠ‬ ‫ܐܢܫܐ ‪ ܕܥܢܕܘ< ܒܡܪܢ܆ ܕܢܬܩܝܡܢ ܙܕܩ‪ .‬ܘܫܘ‬ ‫ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܠܐ ܿ ܼܡܦܣ ܕܢܗܘܐ ܒܗܝܢ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܕܠܡܐ ܥܠ ܚܘܒܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܗ‪ :‬ܐܘ‬ ‫ܥܢܝܕܐ ܘܠܐ ܼ ܿܦ ܹܩܕܘ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܒܝܢ܆ > ܼܿܟܡܘܕܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܬ̈ܪܘ ܵܬܐ< ܼܕܝܠܗܘܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܪܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܒܕܝܖܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܥܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܘ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܦܪ‬ ‫ܠܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܦܘ̈ܪܫ ܼܢܝܗܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܼܕ ܼ‬ ‫ܢܕ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ ܵ ܼ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܼ‬ ‫̈ܪܘܡܝܢܝܗܘܢ ܼܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘܢ ܿ ܼܐܝܟ ܵܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܚܛ ܿܗ ̈ܝ ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܘ ܵܤܐ ܵܓ ܵܘ ܵܢܝܐ‪ :‬ܐܠܐ ܼܿ‬ ‫ܠܒܪ ‪ 121‬܀‬ ‫ܒܗ ̈ܝܟ ܹܠܐ ܼܕ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܕܠܥܘܡ̈ܪܐ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܘܩܕܡ ܗܟܝܠ ܵ‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ ܘܥܕܬܐ ܘܕܝ̈ܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܝܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܩܘ̈ܪܝܣ ܘܒܐܬܪܐ ܕܬܘܬܒܘܬܗܘܢ ܢܣܥܪܘܢ ܒܐܟܝܦܘܬܐ ܕܦܐܝܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ ܢܫܡܠܘܢ ܢܕ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ ܘܦܘ̈ܪܫܢܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܬܡܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܟܘܦܪ‬ ‫ܤܬ ܕܠܐ ܟܕ ܡܫܬܪܒ ܥܝܕܐ ܕܟܪܘܟܝܐ ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܪܡܘܢ ̈ܪܘܡܝܢܝܗܘܢ ܼܡ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܼܢܚܪܒܘܢ ܘܢܫܬܡܫ ܚܛܗܐ‬ ‫ܐܬܪܐ ܠܐܬܪܐ ܥܘܡ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪122‬‬ ‫ܒ̈ܪܝܐ ܘܢܒܙܚܘܢ ܒܢ‪ .‬ܘܢܬܟ ܹܠܐ‬ ‫ܓܘܝܐ܆ ܘܢܡܝܩܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܬܟܫܠܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܐܝܕܝ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܡܦܣܝܢ ܼܡܢ ܩ̈ܪܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܣܓܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܘܠܡܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ‪ .‬ܒܝܘܬ̈ܪܢܐ ܘܒܚܘܣ̈ܪܢܐ ܕܓܘܐ‪ :‬ܢܐܠܦܘܢ ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܓܒ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܡܒ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܥܕܠܢ‬ ‫ܢܝܢ ܠܗܘܢ ܘܢܦܘܫܘܢ ̣ܡܢ ܐܝܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܢܫܐ ܐܝܠܝܢ ]‪[F.227B‬‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܬܗܘܐ ܡܪܥܝܬܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ ܐܝܟ ܥܢܐ ܕܠܝܬ ܠܗ ܪܥܝܐ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܝܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܕܒܪܢܐ‪ .‬ܥܠ ܛܘ̈ܪܐ ܕܡܓܪܕܝܢ ܡܢ ܪܥܝܐ ܘܡܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܵ‬ ‫ܪܥܝܐ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫̣ ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܠ ܹܝܢ ܚܝܘܬܐ ܣ̈ܪܘܚܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܐܝܟ ܝܕܘܥܐ܆ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܩܦܠܘܣ ܐܝܟ ܤܪܛܢܐ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܠܐ ܝܕܝܥܝܢ܆ ܒܕ ܠܐ ܼܿܝ ܼܠܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܦܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܼܐ ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪123‬‬ ‫ܣܪܝܩܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܘ ܟܦܪ‬ ‫ܢܦܫܗ‬ ‫ܩܪܩܦܬܐ ܐܘ ܐܘܛܘ ܹܩ ܼܦܠܘܣ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܕܒܪ ܵ ܵ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܢܓܕ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܩܠـܠܐ ܘܚܣܕܐ ܢܓܝܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܤܡܝܢ ܿܚܕܐ ܒܩܛܠܗ ܒܕ ܼ‬

‫‪The same theme is included in the acts of the synod of Mār‬‬ ‫‪Īshōʿyahb I; Chabot, Synodicon, p. 147n (Syriac).‬‬ ‫‪122‬‬ ‫‪The letter mīm is above the line in this term partially darkened.‬‬ ‫‪123‬‬ ‫‪Greek αὐτοκεφαλία.‬‬ ‫‪121‬‬

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They must abide by of the expert among the Apostles, Paul the Apostle of the nations: Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they watch for your souls, as people who must give account about you, that they may do it with joy, and not with groans; 124 not for indignation but for [ … ]. The administrators must stand before God at all times, begging for the children and the fellows of their discipleship, so that all things become and not for the demolition, following the will of the Good Shepherd who gave himself for his flock. Why then and for what kind of assistance do believers run around in regions that are not theirs? If it is for pleasure, then this is childish, a body satisfaction and not a soul benefit. If for spiritual help they leave the holy sanctuaries that are in their regions and go to pray in holy monasteries outside their regions, thinking that over there God better listens to them, especially answers them, and fulfills their and accepts their offerings, then their hope will deceive them. Let them therefore listen to us and come to our perfect teaching, which we accepted from our Lord and Life-giver. When he talked to the Samaritan woman, he abolished the erring teaching of the Samaritans and the old immature teaching of the Jews, while bringing in the riches of his own perfection: The time is coming, and it now came, neither on [F.228A] this mountain of Gerizim, as you Samaritans err, nor in Jerusalem, as Jews childishly hold, thinking that only there does God visit, manage, answer and reply. From now on, not only in these regions do those who are instructed by me in the perfect instruction that I give them, worship God. God is spirit and those who worship him must worship him in the Spirit and in truth. 125

124 125

Hebrews 13:17. John 4:21–4 (paraphrased).

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‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܥܡܡܐ ܦܘܠܘܤ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܫܠܝܚܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܚܝܪ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܢܬܛܦܝܣܘܢ ܠܙܘܗܪܗ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܬܛܦܝܣܘ ܠܡ ܠܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝܟܘܢ܆ ܘܐܫܬܡܥܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܼܗܢܘܢ ܓܝܪ ܫܗܪܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܫܐ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝܗܒܝܢ ܚܘܫܒܢܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܕܒܚܕܘܬܐ ܢܥܒܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܠܦ ܢܦܫܬܟܘܢ܆ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܬܢܚܬܐ‪ .‬ܠܘ ܠܡ ܠܪܘܥܡܐ ܐܠܐ ]‪ -[...‬ܕܩܕܡ ܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܗܕܐ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܩܘܡܘܢ ܒܟܠܥܕܢ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܡܬܟܫܦܝܢ ܥܠ ܒܢܝܐ ܘܬܠܡܝܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܝܢ ܟܠܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܣܘܚܦܐ‬ ‫ܕܪܒܢܘܬܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟܝܐ >ܕܠܒܢܝܢܐ< ‪ 126‬ܘܠܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܨܒܝܢܗ ܕܪܥܝܐ ܛܒܐ‪ :‬ܕܣܡ ܢܦܫܗ ܚܠܦ ܥܢܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܢܐ ܥܘܕܪܢܐ ܡܬܟܪܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܢܐ ܟܝ ܐܘ ܡܛܠ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܥܒܕܐ ܼܗܘ ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܒܐܬ̈ܪܘܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܛܠ ܦܘܪܓܝܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܕ ̈‬ ‫ܒܒܘܣܐ‪ܵ .‬‬ ‫ܘܢܝܚܐ ܼܗܘ ‪ 127‬ܕܟܪܤܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܘ ܝܘܬܪܢܐ ܼܗܘ ܕܢܦܫܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ ܕܒܐܬܪܗܘܢ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐ ̄ܙܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܗܝܟܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܥܘܕܪܢܐ ܢܦܫܢܝܐ ܫܒܩܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ ܕܠܒܪ ܼܡܢ ܐܬܪܗܘܢ܆ ܒܕ ܡܬܪܥܝܢ ܕܬܡܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܨܠܝܘ ܒܥܘܡ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܪ ܿ‬ ‫‪128‬‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܐܠܗܐ ܘܝܬܝܪ ܥܢܐ ܠܗܘܢ‪ܼ .‬ܘܡܫܡܠܐ >ܫܐܠܬܗܘܢ< ܆‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܒܠ ܦܘ̈ܪܫܢܝܗܘܢ܆ ܡܬܕܓܠ ܠܗ ܤܒܪܗܘܢ ܒܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼܢܫܡܥܘܢ ‪ 129‬ܗܟܝܠ ܡܢܢ ܘܢܐܬܘܢ ܠܘܬ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܕܝܠܢ‪ :‬ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܹܠܠ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܡܪܢ ܘܡܚܝܢܢ ܩܒܠܢܝܗܝ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܠܘܬ ܫܡܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܠܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܕܛܘܥܝܝ ܕܫܡ̈ܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܥܬܝܩܐ ܕܝܠܘܕܘܬܐ ܕܝܗܘܕܝܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܒܛܹܠ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ‪ .‬ܘܝܘܬܪܢܐ ܕܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܗ ܿ ܼܡ ܹܥܠ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ‪ .‬ܕܐܬܝܐ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܫܥܬܐ ܘܐܦ ܗܫܐ ܐܝܬܝܗ܆ ܕܠܐ ܒܗܢܐ ]‪ [F.228A‬ܛܘܪܐ‬ ‫ܕܓܪܙܝܡ ‪ 130‬ܐܝܟ ܕܐܢ̄ܬܘܢ ܫܡ̈ܪܝܐ ܿܛܥܝܬܘܢ ܘܐܦܠܐ ܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܚܝܕܝܢ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܿ‬ ‫ܣܥܪ ܘܡܕܒܪ‬ ‫ܣܒܪܝܢ ܕܬܡܢ ܒܠܚܘܕ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܕܝܗܘܕܝܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܒܒܘܣ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܦ ܹܢܐ ܠܘ ܒܠܚܘܕ ܕܒܗܠܝܢ ܕܘܟܝܬܐ ܣܓܕܝܢ ܠܐܠܗܐ܆‬ ‫ܘܥܢܐ ܐܠܗܐ ܼܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܡܟܝܠ ܘܠܗܠ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܝ ܡܬܬܠܡܕܝܢ ܒܕ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ̇ܡܠܦ ̄‬ ‫ܐܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܗ܆ ܒܪܘܚܐ ܘܒܫܪܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܪܘܚܐ ܼ ̄ܗܘ ܓܝܪ ܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܤܓܕܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܿܘܠܐ ܕܢܣܓܕܘܢ‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬ܕܒܢܝܢܐ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪ preceded the independent pronoun but was deleted, as‬ܕ ‪Probably‬‬ ‫‪there is a dark patch in its place.‬‬ ‫‪128‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܫܠܐܬܗܘܢ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪129‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܘ ܼܢܫܡܥܘܢ ‪Originally written‬‬ ‫݇‬ ‫‪130‬‬ ‫ܕܓܪܘܝܡ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪126‬‬ ‫‪127‬‬

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The Father requires worshippers as these, who offer him perfect worship, fitting the perfection and the infinitude of his nature. This is also held now among the true, righteous and firm Christians. Before the advent of our Lord, idols and statues were served everywhere and gods and goddesses were worshiped, the greatest error in the universe. Some people investigated: the true God and where is the place of (his) worship? And there they rushed to worship, offering their vows and begging about their requests. The Jews, scattered in various places on account of subjecting the Palestinians (by the Romans?), rushed to go up once a year, just as the Queen of Sheba came from the ends of the earth to hear the Wisdom of Solomon and to pay homage to the God of all. 131 Naaman the Aramean, after obtaining healing at the hand of the celestial physician, the Prophet of the Spirit, and having been purified from his leprosy and cleansed from idolatry, went up from time to time to Jerusalem to pay homage and thanksgiving to the Lord of the prophet. At the hands of the divine prophet, (God) resurrected his body from the mortal (and) impure leprosy. 132 The official of the Kandake, (which means) the queen of the Ethiopians, used to go to Jerusalem following an old custom, to pay homage to the God of the Hebrews, who is the true God, fashioner and regulator of all. 133 He who went up from his region was not a pagan [F.228B] suffocated by error, but a Jew, who sucked milk in childhood. 134 When he returned, going down to his region, he was not a Jew attached to the shadows of the law, and preceptor and pedagogue of youngsters, but a Christian (disciple) of perfection.

3 Kings 10. 2 Kings 5. 133 Acts 8:26. 134 Meaning he was educated in his Jewish religion since childhood. 131 132

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܐܦ ܐܒܐ ܓܝܪ ܣܓ ̈ܘܕܐ ܕܐܝܟ ܗܠܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܒܥܐ‪ .‬ܕܠܦܘܬ ܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܣܝܟܘܬܐ ܕܟܝܢܗ ܣܓܕܬܐ ܓܡܝܪܬܐ ܒܟܠ ܡܩܪܒܝܢ ܹܠܗ‪ .‬ܐܝܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܬܩܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܚܝܕܐ ܒܝܬ ܟ̈ܪܣܛܝܢܐ ܫܪܝ̈ܪܐ ܘܬ̈ܪܝܨܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܦ ܗܫܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܒܗܝ ܕܒܟܠܕܘܟ ܦܬܟ̈ܪܐ ܘܓܠܝܦܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܡܐܬܝܬܗ ܕܡܪܢ‪:‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܘܐܠܗܘܢܐ ܘܐܠܗܬܐ ܡܣܬܓܕܝܢ ܗ ܼܘܘ ܘܛܥܝܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܬܦܠܚܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ܆‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܘܬ ܒܒܪܝܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܢܫܝܢ ܡܥܩܒܝܢ ܗ ܼܘܘ‬ ‫ܕܪܫ ܛܥܝܘܬܐ ܡܗܒܒܐ ܗ ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܝܟܘ ܐܬܪܐ ܕܦܠܚܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܠܬܡܢ ܪܗܛܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܝܢܢܘ ܐܠܗܐ ܕܫܪܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ܠܡܤܓܕ ܘܠܡܩܪܒܘ ܢܕ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ ܘܠܡܒܥܐ ܫܐܠܬܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܡܒܕ̈ܪܝ ܒܐܬܪ ܐܬܪ܆ ܒܥܠܬܐ ܕܫܒܝܐ ܕܦܠܤܛܝܢܐ ]ܒܝܕ‬ ‫ܡܠܟܬ ܫܒܐ‬ ‫̈ܪܘܡܝܐ؟[ ܪܗܛܝܢ ܣܠܩܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ ܚܕܐ ܒܫܢܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܥܒ̈ܪܝܗ ܕܐܪܥܐ ܠܡܫܡܥ ܚܟܡܬܗ ܕܫܠܝܡܘܢ‪ :‬ܘܠܡܤܓܕ‬ ‫ܕܐܬܬ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܐܠܗ ܟܠܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܼܿܢܥܡܢ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܕܡܢ ܒܬܪ ܕܩܒܠ ܐܤܝܘܬܐ ܒܐܝܕܝ̈‬ ‫ܓܪܒܗ܆ ܘܐܬܕܟܝ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܢܐ ܢܒܝܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܘܐܬܕܟܝ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܐܤܝܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܥܕ ܢ ܠܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܠܡܦܪܥ ܣܓܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܢܦܘܬܗ‪ .‬ܘܣܠܩ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ ܡܢ ܥܕܢ ݂‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܬܘܕܝܬܐ ܠܡܪܗ ܕܢܒܝܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܕܒܐܝܕܝ ܢܒܝܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܢܚܡܗ ܠܦܓܪܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܡܢ ܡܝܘܬܘܬܗ ܕܓܪܒܐ ܛܡܐܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܫܠܝܛܐ ܕܩܢܕܩ ܡܠܟܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܘܫܝܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܐܝܟ ܥܝܕܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܠܡܦܪܥ‬ ‫ܕܐܬܐ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫ܿ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܬܩܢܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܒܖܝܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܣܓܕܬܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܗܘܝܘ ܐܠܗܐ ܕܫܪܪܐ ܼܘ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܟܠ‪ :‬ܗܘ ܕܣܠܩ ܗ ܼܘܐ ܡܢ ܐܬܪܗ‪ .‬ܠܘ ܚܢܦܐ ]‪[F.228B‬‬ ‫ܘܡܛܟܣܢܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܚܢܝܩ ܠܛܘܥܝܝ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ̄‬ ‫ܘܦܢܐ ̄ܗ ̣ܘܐ‬ ‫ܒܒܘܣܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܝ ܹܢܩ ܚܠܒܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܛܠܠܝ ܢܡܘܣܐ ܘܡܬܪܐܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܚܬ ܠܐܬܪܗ‪ .‬ܠܐ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܐܚܝܕ‬ ‫ܘܦܕܓܘܓܐ ܕܫܒ̈ܪܐ‪ :‬ܐܠܐ ܟܪܣܛܝܢܐ ܕܓܡܝ̈ܪܬܐ‬

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By means of the preacher of perfection, the Apostle Philippe, he found the Lord of perfection, who is the end of the law and the expectation of nations. Many are like these who walked in the paths of the “household” 135 towards the folds of the “household.” They assessed (things) with the weak mind of the faith, and disliked and rejected the vain beliefs of the erring people— weakly, because they believed that God acted here and there. 136 Now that the light of Our Lord has shone in the hearts of those who confess the Faith, and that many parts of the earth are subjected to the yoke of the cross of the Lord, many, if not countless people, shine by the spreading rays of the expected perfection. Why are members of the mysteries of perfection grope about in the obscurity of imperfection, feeling the walls at midday, like blind people without eyes and like the deaf without hearing? Let the Christians not be like the unjust and futile Jews who fought against the divine teaching told by godly prophets and righteous priests, until they were uprooted and thrown far away from Palestine. They scattered to all regions, deprived of their good things and estranged from the unique diligence, which led them and visited them for many years. It (=diligence) carried them on account of the many reasons that are not hidden to the versed in the Holy Scriptures, namely the unparalleled good that is hidden in the race of the house of Abraham.

The term is found in Ephesians 2:19: “Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and strangers, but fellow citizens with God’s people and also members of his household.” 136 The last sentence means God acts in a specific place, e.g., Samaria and Jerusalem. 135

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܠܡܪܗ‬ ‫ܕܒܐܝܕܝ ܟܪܘܙܐ ܕܓܡܝ̈ܪܬܐ ܕܦܝܠܝܦܘܣ ܡܤܒܪܢܐ ܐܫܟܚܗ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܣܓܝܐܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܡܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܗܘܝܘ ܣܟܐ ܕܢܡܘܤܐ ܘܣܘܟܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܫܒܝܠܐ ܕܒܝܬܝܘܬܐ ܪܕܘ ܠܛܝܖܐ ܕܒܝܬܝܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܸ ܢܘܢ ܕܐܝܟ ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܠܕܚܠܬܐ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܖܝܩܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܒܪܥܝܢܐ ܕܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ ܡܚܝܠܬܐ ܡܥܩܒܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܒܢܝ ܛܘܥܝܝ ܿ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫݁‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܚܝܠܐܝ ܼܬ ܕܝܢ‪ :‬ܒܕ ܣܒܪܝܢ ܗ ܼܘܘ‬ ‫ܒܣܪܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ ܘܡܣܠ ܹܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܗܪܟܐ ܣܥܪ ܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܬܡܢ >ܥܢܐ ‪.. The emendation is that‬ܥܢܐ< ‪ is related to‬ܣܥܪ ‪. The verb‬ܘܠܐ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪of Chabot, Synodicon, p. 184 (Syriac),‬‬ ‫‪138‬‬ ‫‪Gap filling.‬‬ ‫‪137‬‬

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If there are believers who, after having visited churches and monasteries of their regions, desire to visit monasteries outside their regions, not as if they especially find God there, but as people wo wish to give a little portion from their riches to the Lord of the monastery and the Lord of possession, [F.229A] we do not prevent them, because they are not blamable. But if they go with the other mind that we described above, going, moving around and racing like people who have lost their God, not knowing where they would find him and how he would answer them, they distress themselves and deviate from the perfect teaching of the Truth. If they are sick, in need of healing, the instructors and directors who are established for their safeguarding do not neglect their wellbeing. Rather, they are under urgent diligence to bring them back to the instruction of the doctrine of perfection. There are many believers in various places who do not even want to give their offerings in the church in which they were baptized, and in it they pray and partake the forgiving gifts of the holy mysteries. By saving something small, they gain the disdain of intelligent people and convey cursed habits that are foreign to the good customs of the Church—they were handed down without change by the Apostles and the Fathers. They adorned the Church with pleasing laws and helpful customs, and taught the baptized to assist with their riches the divine monasteries and those in them who serve God on behalf of the entire congregation. The stupid ones are perhaps not aware that the fact that they are commanded to give something to the Church is to their benefit, which means the atonement of their sins, and to the growing and blessing of their riches.

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܕܡܢ ܒܬܪ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܕܬܐ ܘܕܝ̈ܪܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܣܥܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܒܐܬܪܗܘܢ‪ܼ :‬ܪܓܐ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܐܦ ܥܘܡ̈ܪܐ ܕܠܒܪ ܼܡܢ ܐܬ̈ܪܘܬܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܐܠܗܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܢܤܥܪܘܢ܆ ܠܘ ܐܝܟ ܿܡܢ ܕܟܐܡܬ ܬܡܢ ܝܬܝܪ ܡܫܟܚܝܢ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܡ̈ܪܗܛܝܗܘܢ ܪܓܝܓܝܢ ܕܢܬܠܘܢ ܠܗ ܠܡܪܗ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܐܝܟ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܥܘܡܪܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܪܐ ܕܩܢܝܢܐ ܡܢܬܐ ܩܠܝܠ‪ :‬ܗܠܝܢ ]‪ [F.229A‬ܠܐ ܿܟܠܝܢܢ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܪܥܝܢܐ ̄‬ ‫ܥܕܝ ܼܠܝܢ ‪ .139‬ܐܢܕܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܐܚܪܢܐ ܕܡܢ ܠܥܠ ܪܫܝܡ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ ݇ܒܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܢ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫‪140‬‬ ‫ܐܙܠܝܢ ܘܡܬܟܪܟܝܢ ܘܛܝܪܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܡܘ ܸܒܕ ܠܗܘܢ ܐܠܗܗܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܠܐ ܝܕܥܝܢ ܐܝܟܐ ܡܫܟܚܝܢ ܠܗ ܘܐܝܟܐ ܥܢܐ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܗܠܝܢ ܠܢܦܫܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܛܠܡܝܢ ܘܡܢ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܓܡܝܪܐ ܕܫܪܪܐ ܿܡܣܛܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ ܟ̈ܪܝܗܐ ܥܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܝܢ ܥܠ ܢܛܘܪܬܗܘܢ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܩܝܢ‪ .‬ܡܠܦܢܐ ܘܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ‬ ‫ܚܘܠܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܤܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܤܢܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܐܝ ܼܬ ܹܬܐܟܦ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܠܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܼܿܢܗܡܘܢ ܡܢ ܬܘܪܨܗܘܢ ܐܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܝܘܠܦܢ ܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܼܢܦܢܘܢ ܐܸ ܢܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܒܐܬܪ ܐܬܪ܆ ܕܐܦܠܐ ܒܥܕܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܝ‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܒܝܢ ܡܘܗܒܬܐ ܡܚܤܝܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܗ ܥܡܕܝܢ ܘܒܗ ܡܨ ܹܠܝܢ ܘܒܗ ܢܣ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈ܪܘܡܝܢܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܒܕ ܚܝܣܝܢ ܥܠ ܡܕܡ‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ‪ܿ :‬ܨܒܝܢ ܠܡܪܡܝܘ‬ ‫ܕܐ̈ܪܙܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܙܥܘܪ܆ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܢܘܟ̈ܪܝ ܼܝܢ‬ ‫ܩܛܦܝܢ ܒܘܣ̈ܪܢܐ ܼܡܢ ܦ̈ܪܘܫܐ ܘܡܠܦܝܢ ܥܝܕܐ ܼܠܝܛܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܠܥܝܕܝ ܿܗ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܠܝܚܐ‬ ‫ܛܒܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ‪ܿ .‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܡܬܝܒܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܫܘܚܠܦ‪ .‬ܡܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐܒܗܐ ܕܗܕܪܘܗ ܠܥܕܬܐ ܒܢܡܘܣܐ ܡ̈ܪܥܝܢܐ ܘܒܥܝܕܐ ܡܥܕ̈ܪܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܥܡܝܕܐ ܕܡܢ ܡ̈ܪܗܛܝܗܘܢ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܣܝܥܘܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܠܥܘܡ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܹܟܡܘ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܠܗܝܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܒܗܘܢ ܡܫܡܫܝܢ ܠܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܚܠܦ ܟܠܗ ܓܘܐ‪ .‬ܠܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܟܘܦܪ‬ ‫ܗܕܝܘܛܐ ܕܐܝܟ ܕܠܝܘܬܪܢܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܛܟ ̈ܪܓܝܫܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܛܗܝܗܘܢ܆ ܘܐܝܟ ܕܠܬܘܣܦܬܐ ܘܠܒܘܪܟܬܐ ܕܡ̈ܪܗܛܝܗܘܢ ܦܩܝܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܢܬܠܘܢ ܡܕܡ ܠܥܕܬܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪ is wrongly inserted.‬ܝܢ ‪It seems that‬‬ ‫‪Second hē above the line.‬‬

‫‪139‬‬ ‫‪140‬‬

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

For the divine Paul reminds them urgently on the basis of the Old and New Testaments: Don’t you know that those who serve in the temple get their food from the temple, and that those who serve at the altar share with altar (in what is offered)? In the same way, our Lord has commanded that those who preach his gospel count on living from their preaching. 141 Now every good deed given willingly and in good habit, its reward is prepared and revealed, but if the charity is not offered willingly, it is of no benefit to its giver. Therefore, let the disciples and the teachers be aware that foreign customs must not be left growing inside the ecclesiastical assemblies. Sixteenth Canon

If a clergyman higher in rank than his colleague has right to honour the latter with a role higher than his in the liturgy inside the church. [F.229B] A clergyman of high rank who wants to honour his colleague who is lower than him in rank, placing him higher than him, must not be prevented from what he wants. It would be fair if he does it with a right intention, but this must be done with the knowledge and consent of the master of ceremonies 142 before some clergymen, so that it would not be a frequent habit, pushing those who are not worthy to demand honour. Henceforth, a strife would kindle, difficult to curb, when both clergymen—the honouring and the honoured—would realise that it would not be easy to change one only offer, which they did willingly, under no pressure.

141 142

Cf. I Corinthians 9:13–14. On the term, see below, Canon 19 of Īshōʿyahb.

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܘܡܢ‬ ‫ܦܘܠܘܣ ܓܝܪ ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܕܟܪ ܥܠܝܗܝܢ ܼܡܢ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ̣‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܚܕܬܐ‪ .‬ܠܐ ܠܡ ܝ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܥܝܬܘܢ ܕܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܒܒܝܬ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܦܠܚܝܢ ܡܢ ܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܩܘܕܫܐ ܡܣܬܝܒܪܝܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܥܡ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܿܦܠܚܝܢ ܥܡ ܡܕܒܚܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܦܩܕ‪ :‬ܕܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܣܒܪܬܗ ܡܟܪܙܝܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܦܠܓܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܟܢܐ ܠܡ ܐܦ ܡܪܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܥܝܕܐ ܛܒܐ ܒܨܒܝܢܐ ܡܛܝܒܐ‬ ‫ܣܒܪܬܗ ܼܢܚܘܢ‪ .‬ܟܠ ܡܕܡ ܓܝܪ ܼ‬ ‫ܿܗܘܐ܆ ܢܛܝܪ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܩܪܚ ܦܘܪܥܢܗ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܒܨܒܝܢܐ ܡܬܦܠܚܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ܆ ܕܠܐ ܝܘܬܪܢ ܐܝܬܝܗ ܠܥܒܘܕܗ ܢܙܕܗܪܘܢ ܗܟܝܠ ܬܠܡܝܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܢܘܫܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܢܘܟ̈ܪܝ ܼܝܢ ܠܐ ‪ 143‬ܢܫܒܩܘܢ ܕܡܫܬܪܒܝܢ ܒܓܘ‬ ‫ܕܥܝܕܐ‬ ‫ܘ̈ܪܒܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܀‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܬܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܵܩܢܘܢܐ ܕ ܹܫ ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܪܝ ܵܩܐ ܿܫ ܼܠܝܛ ܿܕ ܼܿܢܝ ܿܩܪ ܿܚܒܪܗ ܵ‬ ‫ܕܬܐ ܒ ܿܛ ܵ‬ ‫ܟܣܐ ܼܿܟܕ‬ ‫ܒܓܘ ܹܥ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܕܐܸ ܢ ܩ ܹܠ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ ܼ ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡ ܹܢܗ ܀‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܠܥܠ ܸ‬ ‫ܡܥܠܐ ܹܠܗ ܸ‬ ‫]‪ [F.229B‬ܩܠܪܝܩܐ ܟܝܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܨܒܐ ܕܢܝܩܪ ܠܚܒܪܗ ܟܕ ܡܥܠܐ ܡܩܝܡ ܠܗ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܠܗܘ ܕܠܬܚܬ ܡܢܗ ܤܝܡ ܗ ܼܘܐ܆ ܠܐ ܢܬܟ ܹܠܐ ܼܡܢ ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܢܗ‬ ‫ܠܥܠ ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ܠܗ‪ .‬ܒܪܡ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܨܒܝܢܗ܂ ܫܦܝܪ ܼ ̄ܗܘ ܓܝܪ ܐܢ ܒܢܝܫܐ ܬܪܝܨܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܫܝܢ ܡܢ ܩܠ̈ܪܝܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܦܘܪܢܣܐ ܬܗܘܐ ܩܕܡ‬ ‫ܒܝܕܥܬܗ ܘܒܦܘܩܕܢܗ ܕܪܫ‬ ‫ܣܬ ܕܠܐ ܥܝܕܐ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܢܬܪܓܪܓܘܢ ܕܢܬܒܥܘܢ ܐܝܩܪܐ ܟܕ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܼܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܥܤܩ ܠܡܫܝܫܘܬܗ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܝܕܥܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܟܐ ܢܕܠܩ ܚܪܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܗܐ ܸ‬ ‫ܫܘܝܢ‪ܼ .‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܕܡܬܝܩܪ ܕܠܐ ܦܫܝܩ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܡܝܩܪ‬ ‫ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܪܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪144‬‬ ‫ܕܢܫܚܠܦܘܢ ܗܘ ܡܕܡ ܕܚܕܐ ܙܒܢ ܙܒܕܘ ܒܨܒܝܢܐ ܕܠܐ ܥܨܝܢܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪The negative particle seems to be deleted.‬‬ ‫‪The letter šīn is above the line.‬‬

‫‪143‬‬ ‫‪144‬‬

100

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Many who work hard in virtue and study are worthy of honour due to them by the leaders of the Church, because through them, they open the door to the practice of virtue and the study of doctrine to many. In this manner, the ecclesiastical assemblies were greatly enlightened, giving reason that many find God, and that the instruction of outsiders and the strength of householders increase. Discipleship endures a bit, because, as with the Magi, two things work together: the labourers in virtues and discipleship are a few, but when they are many, they pretend being virtuous through big words and elegant and bright apparels. Few—if not some individuals—are those in whom their promises are fulfilled, in rightful intention, and with sober but not superficial mind and truthful action that does not crash. Now the bishop must manage this task with a rightful intention, for the sake of edification, not headfirst on account of his love for someone unworthy, nor in affront because of hatred like […] of some people. Rather, with the mind of the psalmist of the Spirit, he teaches as incentive: He who honours those who fear the Lord (will never be shaken). 145 Seventieth Canon

It is not permissible to give the chrism oil preserved for the forgiving baptism for other usages, except for baptism. [F.230A] The holy oil of chrism, which is kept in the church in every region according to tradition, is universally and figuratively the mystery of the garment 146 of filial adoption and of no corruption. It is the promise of chrism derived from the Holy Spirit, which those who are worthy of the holy baptism inwardly receive, and through it they become divinely born for immortality.

145 146

Psalm 15:4 (and 5). On the “garment” motif see Murray, Symbols, pp. 69–70.

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܕܥܡܝ ܼܠܝܢ ܒܡܝܬܪܘܬܐ ܘܒܕܘܪܫܐ ܠܐܝܩܪܐ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܓܝܪ ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝܗ ܕܥܕܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܿܡܢ ܕܒܝܕ‬ ‫ܐܫܬܘܝܘ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܬܚܝܒ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܣܓܝܐܐ ܦܬܚܘ ܬܪܥܐ ܠܘܬ ܦܘܠܚܢܐ ܕܡܝܬܪܘܬܐ܆ ܘܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܢܘܫܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܘܪܫܐ ܕܒܝܘܠܦܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܒܗܢܐ ܦܘܪܣܐ ܪܘܪܒܐܝܬ ܐܬܢܗܪܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܢܫܬܟܚ ܐܠܗܐ ܘ ܼܢܤܓܐ‬ ‫ܘܝܗܒܘ ܥܠܬܐ ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܥܕܬܢܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܝܬܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܘܠܡܕܐ ܕܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ ܘܫܘܪܪܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܗܝ ܵ‬ ‫ܩܡ ܠܗ ܕܝܢ ܬܘܠܡܕܐ ܒܨܝܪ ܩܠܝܠ‪ܿ .‬‬ ‫ܕܠܡܓܘܣ ܡܬܦܠܚܢ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܕ ̈‬ ‫ܦܠܚܝ ̇ܗ ܕܡܝܬܪܘܬܐ ܘܕܡܕܪܫܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܟܕ ܣܓܝܐܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܝܠܐ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܣܟܡܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܡܙܠܦܐ ܡܫܬܘܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪ܿ .‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܒܪܘܪܒ ̈ܡܠܐ ܘܣܩܝܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܝܬܪܘܬܐ܆ ̈‬ ‫ܘܚܕܚܕܢܐ‪̇ .‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܒܢܝܫܐ ܬܪܝܨܐ ܒܚܘܫܒܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܝܠܐ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܪܡܝܣܐ ܕܠܐ ܿܛܐܦ‪ .‬ܘܒܥܒܕܐ ܫܪܝܪܐ ܕܠܐ ܚܪܘܒ ܡܫܬܡ ܹܠܐ ܒܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܛܠܬܗ ܵ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܘܠܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܫܘܘܕܝܗܘܢ ܒܪܡ ܕܝܢ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‪ .‬ܒܢܝܫܐ ܬܪܝܨܐ‬ ‫ܡܬܩܕܡܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܛܠ ܚܘܒܐ ܕܐܢܫ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܢܦܪܢܣܝ ܿܗ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܒܢܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܠܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܠܐ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫‪147‬‬ ‫ܫܘܐ܆ ܘܠܘ‬ ‫ܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܛܠ ܣܢܐܬܐ ܐܝܟ ]‪ [...‬ܕܐܢܫܝܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܡܬܛܪܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܒܗܘ ܪܥܝܢܐ ܕܡܙܡܪܢܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܓܘܪܓܐ ̇ܡܠܦ‬ ‫ܕܠܕܚܠܘܗܝ ܕܡܪܝܐ ܡܝܩܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܵ ܿ‬ ‫ܫܒܬܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܵܩܢܘܢܐ ܼܕ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܵ‬ ‫ܠܥܡܕܐ‬ ‫ܕܦܪܝܫ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝܚܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܫܚܐ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܿܗܝ ܕܠ ܿܐ ܼ ܿܫ ܼܠܝܛ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܵ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܚܫܚܬܐ ̄‬ ‫ܤܝܢܐ܆ ܼܠ ܼ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܠܥܡܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܢ ܹܠܗ‬ ‫ܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ ܸܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܼܿ‬ ‫ܬܝ ܹܗܒ܆ ܐܸ ܠܐ ܸ‬ ‫]‪ [F.230A‬ܡܫܚܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܕܡܫܝܚܘܬܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܐܝܟ ܕܒܝܘܒܠܐ ܢܛܝܪ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫▱‬ ‫ܘܛܘܦܤܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܐܘܚܕܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܦܢܝܢ܆ ܘܐܝܬܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܒܥܕܬܐ ܒܟܠ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܢܝܐ ܘܕܠܐ ܡܬܚܒܠܢܘܬܐ܆ ܘܫܘܘܕܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܤܝܡܬ‬ ‫ܐܪܙܐ ܕܠܒܘܫܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ܿ :‬‬ ‫ܕܟܤܝܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܩܒܠܝܢ ܠܗ ܐܝܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܗܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܝܚܘܬܐ ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܒܗ ܡܬܝܠܕܝܢ ܐܠܗܐܝܬ ܠܠܐ ܡܝܘܬܘܬܐ܆‬ ‫ܕܡܫܬܘܝܢ ܠܥܡܕܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܹ‬

‫‪Empty space.‬‬

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102

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

This is why it is commanded that it be sealed and be given for no other use whatsoever, except for the divine baptism, for which it is kept and preserved. He who gives it and he who takes it, except for baptism, may both be anathematized, until they are healed by penance and then forgiven. As it is not permissible that anyone uses the holy chalices, patens and vessels of the Sanctification offering for other purposes, so too with regard to the chrism oil; it is sealed and retained forever, and it will be retained forever as it is now retained. Eighteenth Canon

On the division of the talents—ecclesiastical ranks—that are given to the servers of the altar by the imposition of hands. are they and what are their divisions derived from the grace of our Lord? Although many things have been said concerning the division of talents inside the Church, which are conferred through the imposition of hands, the ones received from our Lord are: Bishops, priests, and deacons, 148 so as to administer the rituals and mysteries of the Church. Nonetheless, the Fathers of the true and acceptable Spirit, like doctors of the Truth, delivered their tradition to their disciples through rightful examination, tradition known from the number and order of talents: 149

In Christian Arabic nowadays, diaconate, shammāsiyya, includes deacons and sub-deacons. Nevertheless, what Īshōʿyahb refers to is what is called in the Syriac ordination book, ‘Evangelical Diaconate,’ for the deacon is entitled to publicly read and interpret the Gospel. 149 See Matthew 25:14–30. 148

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܘܡ ܿ‬ ‫ܬܚܡ ܕܠܚܫܚܬܐ ‪ 150‬ܕܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ ܠܓܡܪ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܗܕܐ ܦܩܝܕ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܢܬܝܗܒ ܐܠܐ ܠܥܡܕܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܗܘ ܕܠܗ ܢܛܝܪ ܘܡܬܢܛܪ‪ .‬ܗܘ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܝܗܒ ̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܫܩܠ ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܠܥܡܕܐ‪ :‬ܡܚ̈ܪܡܐ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܬ̈ܪܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܒܬܢܘܝ ܡܬܚܤܐ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ ܕܒܬܝܒܘܬܐ ‪ 151‬ܡܬܐܣܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܟܣܐ ܘܒܦܝܠܣܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܘܒܡܐܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܐ ܓܝܪ ܫܠܝܛ ܐܢܫ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܕܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܢܬܚܫܚ ܐܝܟ ܕܠܚܫܚܬܐ ܕܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ܆ ܗܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܢܐܚܘܕ‬ ‫ܐܦ ܥܠ ܡܫܚܐ ܕܡܫܝܚܘܬܐ܆ ܡܬܚܡ ܘܐܚܝܕ ̣ܡܢ ܥܠܡ܆‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܐܚܝܕ ܀‬ ‫ܠܥܠܡ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵܩ ܵ‬ ‫ܬܡܢܬܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܢܘܢܐ ܼܿܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܦܘܠ ܵ ܵܓܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܵ‬ ‫▱‬ ‫ܓܐ ܸܥ ̈ܕܬ ܵܢ ܹܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܵܕܐ‬ ‫ܤܝܡ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܟ̈ܪܐ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܒܕ̈ܪ ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܟ ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܝܗ ܵܒܢ ܼܠ ܿ ܼ ܿ‬ ‫ܡ ܼܬ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ ‪153‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪152‬‬ ‫ܘܐܝܟܢ ܐܝܬܝ ܹܗܝܢ ܼܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܡܫܡܫܝ ܼܡܕܒܚܐ > ܼܕܟܡܐ ܕܩܕܡܐܝܬ‪ < 155‬ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܡܬܒܪܟ‪ .‬ܘܟܢ ܫܠܝܛ ܠܡܩܒܠܘ‬ ‫ܕܒܗܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܒܕܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܗܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܟ̈ܪܐ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ ]‪ [F.230B‬ܕܟܗܢܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܬܡܝܗܐ ܿܦܠܚ‪ .‬ܗܝܕܝܟ ܟܕ ̇ܩܪܒ ܠܡܫܡܫܘ ܥܒܕܐ ܕܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܐܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܐܝܕܘܗܝ ܒܡܥܒܕܢܘܬܐ ܕܪܘܚ ܩܘܕܫܐ ܡܬܝܠܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܬܘܠܡܕܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܕܒܐܪܙܐ ܡܬܪܫܡܝܢ ܠܕܘܒܪܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܝܘܬܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܛܘܒܬܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܣܬܟܝܐ ܘܗܝܕܝܢ ܟܕ ̇ܩܪܒ ܠܘܬ ܡܕܒܚܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܪܙܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܕܒܚܐ ܕܐܡܪܗ ܚܝܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܒܚ‬ ‫ܒܙܒܢܐ ܕܡܣܩܐ ܕܩܘܪܒܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗܐ ܿܫܩܠ ܚܛܝܬܗ ܕܥܠܡܐ‪ .‬ܘܬܡܢ ܐܝܟ ܿ‬ ‫ܨܝܪܐ ܡܗܝܪܐ ܿܨܐܪ‬ ‫ܦܠܐܬܢܐܝܬ ̄‬ ‫ܐܪܙܐ ܕܡܘܬܗ ܘܕܩܒܘܪܬܗ ܘܕܩܝܡܬܗ ܘܕܡܤܩܬܗ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܝܫܘܥ ܡܚܝܢܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܬܬܘܣܦܢ ܠܗ ܥܠ ܬܠܬ‪ .‬ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ ܥܠ ܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܠܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܫܡܫܢܘܬܗ ܘܥܠ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ ܕܩܫܝܫܘܬܗ܆ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ ܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܬܚܝܬ ܐܝܕܗ ܢܒܥܝܢ ܟܕ‬ ‫ܕܡܛܠ ܣܝܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ܕܕ̈ܪܓܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܬܝܒܠܐ ܡܘܗܒܬܐ ܒܡܨܥܝܘܬܗ ܘܒܬܫܡܫܬܗ‬ ‫ܒܕܡܘܬ ܢܘܪܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܚܕ ܕܠܩܐ ̈‬ ‫ܕܠܩܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܿܚܣܪ‪ 156 .‬ܕܠܩܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ‪ .‬ܠܐ ܓܝܪ‬ ‫ܫܠܝܛ ܠܡܩܒܠܘ ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܟܕ ܠܘܩܕܡ ܡܫܡܫܢܘܬܐ ܘܩܫܝܫܘܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܟܟܖܝܢ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܠܐܦܝܤܩܘܦܐ ܕܠܐ ܸܚܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܩܒܠ‪ .‬ܘܡܛܠ ܗܢܐ ܚܡܫ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܚܕܐ ܗܝ ܕܒܗ ܡܫܡܫ ܼܒܕܡܘܬ ܡܠܐܟܐ ܚܕܖܝ ܡܕܒܚܐ‪ .‬ܘܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܟܗܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܚܘܤܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܕܒܛܟܣܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܩܕܡ ܡܕܒܚܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܣܓܝܐܐ ܓܡܪ‪ .‬ܘܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ ̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܗܝܢ ܢܒܥܐ ܝܡܝܢܗ‬ ‫ܗܢܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܚ̈ܪܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܙܢܝܢ ̈‬ ‫ܡܫܚܠܦܐ ̈‬ ‫ܤܝܡ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܙܢܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ‬

‫‪.‬ܩܕܡܝܬ ‪Written phonetically‬‬ ‫‪ appears, possibly the wrong‬ܩܐ ‪Following this term something like‬‬ ‫‪ of the term that comes after.‬ܕܠـ ‪beginning of‬‬ ‫‪155‬‬ ‫‪156‬‬

106

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

The grace of the ecclesiastical administration is completed with the five talents, like the Law in five books, the man with the five senses, the hand with five fingers and the body with its five parts. And it is like the divine providence with five stages, since the world began its admirable course, continuing without stop, until the end of its course, following the command that was formed and fixed in the beginning, [F.231A] before the times of the world. (The world) did not exist, but through his eternal foreknowledge, (God) made a sign and the world was with beginning and with end. He will order, and the world will stop its course full of changes. He will give it another beginning whose course is beyond changes and resisting the end. It will remain without end, beyond the comprehension of every creature. 157 The Providence established five eras in this world: One from the first man to the Deluge. Another from Noah who was the leaven, which renewed the human race, until Abraham the Patriarch. Another from Abram the Hebrew 158—he prefigured the mystery of the cross of the Lord 159 to see the day of Christ and saw him and rejoiced 160—until Moses the lawgiver and the first born of the prophets. Another (era) from Moses, intermediate between the Old Testament and Christ, the end of prophetic predictions, the fulfiller of promises, the giver of the New Testament, and the indicator of the expected perfection and beatitude.

The author probably means the eternal world to come. Name of Abram in Genesis 14:13. 159 Abram prefigures the cross of the Lord, while his son Isaac is a prototype of Christ; on him, see Genesis 21; see also the Introduction, p. 14. 160 John 8:56 “Your father Abraham rejoiced that he would see my day. He saw it and was glad.” 157 158

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܘܒܚܡܝܫܘܬ ܟܟ̈ܪܐ ܡܫܬܡܠܝܐ ܡܘܗܒܬܐ ܕܡܕܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܥܕܬܢܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈ܪܓܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܐܘܪܝܬܐ ܒܚܡܫܐ ܣܦܖܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܒܚܡܫܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܨܒܥܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܦܓܪܐ ܒܚܡܫܐ ܦܠܓܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܐܝܟ ܐܝܕܐ ܒܚܡܫ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܩܠ ܥܠܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܐܝܟ ܡܕܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܐܠܗܝܬܐ ܒܚܡܫܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܼܡܢ ܟܕ ̣‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫‪161‬‬ ‫ܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܣܟܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܫܬܘܫܛܘ ܒ̈ܪܗܛܘܗܝ ܕܡܝ̈ܪܐ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܬܠܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪162‬‬ ‫ܘܪܫܝܡ ]‪[F.231A‬‬ ‫ܕܪܗܛܗ ܠܦܘܬ ܦܘܣܩܢܐ ܕܡܢ ܒܪܫܝܬ ܗܘ ܕܨܝܪ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܝܕܥܬܗ ܡܩܕܡܬܐ‬ ‫ܼܡܢ ܩܕܡ ܙܒܢܐ ܕܥܠܡܐ ܠܐ ܡܫܪܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܫܘܠܡܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܕܪܡܙ ܥܠܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܬܘܡܝܬܐ ܿܗܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܫܪܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫݇‬ ‫ܘܦܩܕ ܠܗ ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܫܠܐ ܡܢ ܪܗܛܗ ܡܠܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܐ‪ .‬ܘܝܗܒ ܠܗ ܫܘܪܝܐ ܐܹ ܚܪܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܩܘܐ ܠܐ‬ ‫ܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܘܡܪܝܕ ܡܢ ܫܘܠܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܕܘܒܪܐ ܕܡܥܠܝ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫┐‬ ‫‪163‬‬ ‫ܠܘܡܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܠܥܠ ܼܡܢ ܡܬܕܪܟܝܘܬܐ ܕܠܟܠ ܕܥܒܝܕ ܚܡܫܐ‬ ‫ܵܫ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܗܟܝܠ ̈‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܠܡܕܒܪܢܘܬܐ ܒܗܢ ܥܠܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܦܘܠܓܐ ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܛܘܦܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕ ܗܘ ܼ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܗܘܐ ܚܡܝܪܐ ܘܚܠܦܬܐ ܠܛܘܗܡܐ ܘܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܢܘܚ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܘܚܕ ܗܘ ̣‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܐܒܪܗܡ ܪܫ ܐܒܗܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܚܕ ܼܡܢ ܐܒܪܡ ܥܒܪܝܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܨܪ ܐܖܙܘܗܝ ܕܙܩܝܦܐ ܡܪܢܝܐ ┐ܘܤܟܝ ‪ 164‬ܕ ܼܢܚܙܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܚܕܝ ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܡܘܫܐ ܣܐܡ ܢܡܘܣܐ‬ ‫ܘܚܙܐ‬ ‫ܝܘܡܗ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܢܒܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܘܟܪܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܚܕ ܡܢ ܡܘܫܐ ܡܨܥܝܐ ܕܕܝܬܩܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ܆ ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܡܫܝܚܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܕܝܬܩܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܘܠܟܢܐ ܘܝܗܘܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܫܡܠܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܘܕܩܐ ▱‬ ‫ܤܟܐ‬ ‫ܚܕܬܐ܆ ܘܡܚܘܝܢܐ ܕܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܘܕܛܘܒܬܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܣܬܟܝܐ‬

‫‪The following sign () is a gap filler.‬‬ ‫‪, unless the olaph is a patch, and‬ܕܨܐܪ ‪It seems that it was originally‬‬ ‫‪in this case yōd is not clear at all.‬‬ ‫‪163‬‬ ‫‪Written above the line.‬‬ ‫‪ܿ .‬‬ ‫‪164‬‬ ‫ܘܣܓ ܼܝ ‪Ms.‬‬ ‫‪161‬‬ ‫‪162‬‬

108

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Another era from the advent and appearance of Our Lord from the Holy Virgin, until his (second) advent and appearance from the heaven of his holiness. At that point, there will be the life after death, salvation and renewal of totality. The details on the division of five talents are enough, for this orderly division is not confusing, since it is known through examples from the Scriptures and the world. Nineteenth Canon

On the honour of the holy Day of the Lord, Sunday. The Jews kept the Sabbath when they were “householders,” and now they are expelled from the “household” and are rejected as strangers. They laid wicked hands on the corporeal purples 165 of the royalty of the Son of God, but did not succeed. On this day (of Sabbath) that was sanctified assumingly for the rest of Him who was not tired and does not get tired, as is written, 166 they engaged in divine matters on account of the laws and the prophets until John (the Baptist). From this time, the kingdom of heaven was announced and given to the “householders,” 167 [F.231B]. Instead of the day of the assumed rest of God, it is (now) the day of the corporeal resurrection of the Son of God. And instead of the workless and restful day of people and animals, it became the day in which the renewal of absolutely everything was completed figuratively and is being completed in deed. And instead of the day at the end of the week, it became the day of the beginning of the week.

On the ‘garment’ motif see Murray, Symbols, p. 69–70. Genesis 2:3 “Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made.” 167 In this case the Christians. 165 166

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̄‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܒܬܘܠܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܦܘܠܓܐ ܐܚܪܢܐ ܼܡܢ ܓܠܝܢܗ ܘܕܢܚܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܫܡܝܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܗ ܘܗܝܕܝܢ ̈‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܚܝܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܓܠܝܢܗ ܘܕܢܚܗ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܝܬܐ ܘܦܘܪܩܢܐ ܘܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܒܟܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܥܠ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܦܩܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܕܡܢܗ ܕܦܘܠܓܐ‬ ‫ܦܘܠܓܐ ܕܚܡܝܫܘܬ ܟܟ̈ܪܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܡܚܘܝܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܡܛܟܣܐ ܕܠܐ ܡܕܘܕ‪ :‬ܘܐܝܟ ܼ‬

‫ܥܠܡܐ ܡܬܝܕܥ ܀‬

‫ܵܩ ܵ‬ ‫ܢܘܢܐ ܼܿܕ ܼܬ ܼܿܫܥܣܪ ܀‬ ‫ܵ ܵܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܵܩܪܗ ܵ ܵ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܼ ܿ‬ ‫ܕܒܫ ܵܒܐ ܀‬ ‫ܘܩ ܼ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܝ ܵܫܐ ܼܿ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܝܘܡܐ ܡܪܢ ܵܝܐ ܿ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܗܘܕܝܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܫܒܬܐ ܢܛܪܝܢ ܗ ܼܘ ܼܘ‪ :‬ܟܕ ܒܝܬܝܐ ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫̄ܗ ܼܘܘ‪ .‬ܘܗܫܐ ܕܛܪܝܕܝܢ ܼܡܢ ܒܝܬܝܘܬܐ ܘܡܣ ܹܠܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ‪ :‬ܒܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝܕܝܐ ̈ܪܫܝܥܬܐ ܥܠ ܐ̈ܪܓܘܢܐ ܦܓ̈ܪܢܝܐ ܕܡܠܟܘܬܗ ܕܒܪ‬ ‫ܿ ܼܐܘ ܸܫ ܼܒܘ‬ ‫ܐܠܗܐ ܟܕ ܠܐ ܐܟܫܪܘ܆ ܘܒܗ ܒܗܢܐ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܐܬܩܕܫ ܟܐܡܬ ܵ‬ ‫ܒܢܝܚܗ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܘ ܘܐܦ‬ ‫ܠܐܝ ܘܠܐ ܠܐܹ ܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܕܟܬ ܼܝܒ‪ :‬ܡܬܥܢ ܹܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ܗܝܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܒܐܠܗܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܝܢ ܕܢܡܘܣܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܒܝܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܝܘܚܢܢ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܬܝ ܼܗܒ ܠܒܝܬܝܐ ]‪ [F.231B‬ܚܠܦ‬ ‫ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ ܡܣܬܒܪܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܝܘܡܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܟܐܡܬ ܕܐܠܗܐ‪ :‬ܝܘܡܐ ܕܢܘܚܡܗ ܕܒܒܣܪ ܕܒܪ ܐܠܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܢܝܚܗ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܢܝܚܢܐ ܕܒܢܝܢܫܐ ܘܕܒܥܝܪܐ܆ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܒܗ‬ ‫ܘܚܠܦ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܒܛܠܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܟܠ ܒܟܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܬܓܡܪ ܛܘܦܣܢܐܝܬ ܘܡܬܓܡܪ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܚܠܦ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܫܘܠܡܐ ܕܫܒܘܥܐ ܝܘܡܐ ܕܫܘܪܝܗ ܕܫܒܘܥܐ‪.‬‬

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In it, this world whose times are terminable began, and in it, the world to come begins—it began but did not end and its course is not terminated yet. In it, the righteous Noah came out into the light from the darkness of the ark. The shipmaster, rescuer and guide of its dwellers in the rescuing vessel of the house of Noah, was the commander and regulator of the created worlds. In it, the divine Moses erected the temporary tabernacle. Greater and most perfect than all of these (days), is Sunday, in which our Lord quaked and opened Sheol by his resurrection. He established the Church, which he announced (as the path) to the kingdom of heaven. Concerning this matter, the children of the doctrine of life must keep, from evening to evening, the day in which these wonders happened and are still happening. They must honour it with glory-hymns, psalmodies of the Spirit, and holy scriptural readings. They must become righteous by offering alms to the needy, solving disputes, (providing) just judgements, and offering peace, love and mercy towards one another. With such sacrifices as these, one pleases God, as it is said. 168 Some believers refrain from work and from travelling on the day of Sunday until the church is shut. Others consider the Sunday of the Lord like Saturday or like Monday, either because of urgent matters that present themselves forcefully against their will, or because of their disdaining, shameful and disobedient will, like defiant children. They never respect it (=Sunday), that is, they refuse to be honoured by it, through divine and righteous worship that can be acquired and cannot be dissolved. Now they toil for the love of purses that causes sinning and cannot be owned. The Greeks call the day of Sunday qūriaqī, 169 [F.232A] that is dominical, hence the day of the Lord, the day of salvation, the day that was [restful!] and beloved because of its achievements. Christianity holds on it and is proud of it, on account of the promises of its mercy, salvation and renewal that it carries in reality. 168 169

Hebrews 13:16 “with such sacrifices God is pleased.” Greek Κυριακή.

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܙܒܢܘܗܝ ܘܒܗ ܡܫܪܐ ܥܠܡܐ‬ ‫̇ܗܘ ܕܒܗ ܿܫܪ ܼܝ ܗܢ ܥܠܡܐ ܕܡܬܚܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܫ ܹܪܐ ܘܠܐ ܫܠܡ‪ .‬ܘܗܘܦܟܗ ܠܐ ܡܬܚܡ‪ .‬ܘܒܗ ܢܘܚ ܟܐܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܬܝܕ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܥܡܛܢܗ ܕ ܹܟܐܘܠܐ‪ :‬ܐܠܦܐ ܡܫܘܙܒܢܝܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܠܢܘܗܪܐ‬ ‫ܢܦܩ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܗܘ ܩܘܒܪܢܝܛܐ‬ ‫ܢܘܚ܆ ܗܝ‬ ‫ܕܩܘܒܪܢܝܛܗ ܘܡܫܘܙܒܢܗ ܘܗܕܝܝܐ ܕܥܡܘ̈ܪܝܗ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܡܛܟܣܢܐ ܕܒ̈ܪܝܬܐ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ̄ܗ ܼܘܐ‪ .‬ܘܒܗ ܐܦ ܡܘܫܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܩܝܡ ܡܫܟܢ ܙܒܢܐ‪ .‬ܘܕܪܒܐ ܘܓܡܝܪܐ ܡܢ ܟܠܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܒܚܕܒܫܒܐ ܐܦ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܘܐܟܪܙܗ‬ ‫ܘܢܨܒܗ ܠܥܕܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܬܪܥܗ ܠܫܝܘܠ ܒܩܝܡܬܗ‬ ‫ܙܥܙܥܗ‬ ‫ܦܪܘܩܢ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܫܡܝܐ‪ .‬ܕܥܠܝܗ ܥܠ ܗܕܐ ܦܩܝܕܝܢ ܒܢܝ ܬܘܠܡܕܐ ܕܚܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܗܘܝܢ ܒܗ‪ .‬ܢܛܪܘܢܝܗܝ ܼܡܢ ܪܡܫܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܝ ܒܗ‬ ‫ܬܡܝܗܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܠܝܘܡܐ ܕܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܬܫܒܚܬܐ ܘܒܙܡܝ̈ܪܬܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܪܡܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܢܝܩܪܘܢܝܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܒܩ̈ܪܝܢܐ ̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܒܫܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܩܐ‬ ‫ܕܣܢܝ‬ ‫ܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܡܘܗܒ‬ ‫ܒܗ‬ ‫ܩܕܝܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܢܙܕܕܩܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ̈‬ ‫ܘܒܕܝܢܐ ܟܐܢܐ ܘܒܫܝܢܐ ܘܒܚܘܒܐ ܘܒܡܪܚܡܢܘܬܐ ܕܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܕܚ̈ܪܝܢܐ܆‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܕܒܚܐ ܓܝܪ ܕܐܝܟ ܗܠܝܢ ܿܫܦܪ ̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܫ ܠܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ܕܐܡܝܪ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܕܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܕܡܫܬܪܝܐ ܥܕܬܐ ܢܛܪܝܢ ܢܦܫܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܢܫܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܐ ܘܡܢ ܐܘܪܚܐ ܒܝܘܡ ܚܕܒܫܒܐ‪ .‬ܐܚ̈ܪܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܐܝܟ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܨܝܢܐ ܕܐܢܢܩܐ ܕܩܛܝܪܬܢܝܐ ܼܡܢ ܨܒܝܢܗܘܢ ܡܛܝܒܐ ܐܘ ܡܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܢܝܐ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܨܒܝܢܗܘܢ ܕܡܒܤܪ ܘܓܘܡܕܢ ܘܠܐ ܡܬܛܦܝܣ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܡܬܛܦܝܤܢܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܝܟ ܫܒܬܐ ܘܐܝܟ ܝܘܡ ܬܪܝܢ ܒܫܒܐ ܚܫܒܝܢ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܝܘܡܐ ܡܪܢܝܐ ܕܚܕܒܫܒܐ܆ ܘܠܐ ܣܟ ܡܝܩܪܝܢ ܠܗ‪ .‬ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ ܠܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܨܒܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܠܗܝܬܐ ܘܕܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ ܕܡܬܩܕܝܐ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܬܝܩܪܝܢ ܒܗ ܒܦܘܠܚܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܪܚܡܬ ̈‬ ‫ܟܝܣܐ ܕܡܚܛܝܢ ܘܠܐ ܡܬܩܕܝܢ‪ .‬ܝܘܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܬܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܥܡܠܝܢ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫‪170‬‬ ‫ܫܡܗܘܗܝ ܠܝܘܡ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ‪ .‬ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ ]‪ [F.232A‬ܩܘ̈ܪܝܩܐ‬ ‫ܡܪܢܝܐ‪ .‬ܝܘܡܐ ̄ܗ ܼܘ ܓܝܪ ܕܡܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܝܘܡܐ ̄ܗ ܼܘ ܕܦܘܪܩܢܐ‪ .‬ܝܘܡܐ ̄ܗ ܼܘ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪171‬‬ ‫ܐܚܝܕܐ ܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܥܒܝܕܬܗ‪ .‬ܘܟܪܣܛܝܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܘܪܚܝܡ‬ ‫ܕܪܫܝܡ ]‪[...‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܕܦܘܪܩܢܗ ܘܕܚܘܕܬܗ̇‬ ‫ܕܫܘܘܕܥܐ ܕܚܘܣܢܗ̇‬ ‫ܘܡܫܬܒܗܪܐ ܒܗ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܿ̈‬ ‫ܒܥܒܕܐ ܛܥܝܢ ܀‬ ‫ܒܗܘܢ‬

‫‪Greek Κυριακή.‬‬ ‫‪A space of roughly an inch is left.‬‬

‫‪170‬‬ ‫‪171‬‬

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Concerning the divers who bring up pearls, about whom you wrote to us, let us inform you that if it is by their will that they have to give up (diving), they would be protected by it. As they are made righteous, they will be blessed by it, because they are like us, the disciples of the Gospel. If an urgent matter prevents them, you, as administrators close to the matter and aware of it, command concerning their affairs what is beneficial and not detrimental. If it is possible, they must refrain from two things: sin and loss. Twentieth Canon

If a man marries a woman under no or little compulsion, is he blamable or not? My thinking advised me not to say anything about this question, because the administrators and doctors of the Church do not say anything about it, but your love brought me to give an answer concerning it. If someone concludes that legally a man must not marry a barren woman, he would drag many barren women to perversion, for they would come to the promise 172 by the force of the canons and not by the choice of their will. And because (a forceful promise) lacks free will, which many times over it resists and triumphs, it falls out of the natural weakness, being disturbed by burning desires, generating aggravating corruption. There are of course widows who are strong in persevering in their widowhood and who fulfill the promise of their choice.

172

Promise to stay virgins, not involved in misbehaviour.

‫‪113‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܟܬܒܬ ܠܢ܆ ܡܘܕܥܝܢ ܠܟ‪ .‬ܕܐܢ‬ ‫ܡܤܩܝ ܡ̈ܪܓܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܡܘܕܐ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܒܨܒܝܢܗܘܢ ܫܒܩܝܢ ܟܕ ܢܛܪܝܢ ܠܗ ܠܚܕܒܫܒܐ ܒܬܢܛܪܝܢ ܒܗ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܬܠܡܝܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܙܕܕܩܝܢ ܒܗ ܡܬܒܪܟܝܢ ܒܗ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܐܦ ܗܢܘܢ ܐܟܘܬܢ‬ ‫ܐܸ ܢܘܢ ܕܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܢ ܕܝܢ ܥܨܝܢܐ ܕܩܛܝܪܬܢ ܡܢܗܘܢ ܼܿܙ ܸܪܒ ܠܗܘܢ‪:‬‬ ‫ܐܢ̄ܬܘܢ ܐܝܟ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܕܩܪܝܒܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܘܝܕܥܝܢ ܀ ܦܩܘܕܘ ܥܠ ܦܘܪܢܣܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܣܬ ܕܐܢ ܡܨܝܐ ܡܢ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܕܡܘܬܪܐ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܡܤܓܦܐ‪ܼ .‬ܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܬܚܤܟܝܢ‪ܼ :‬ܡܢ ܚܛܗܐ ܘܐܦ ܼܡܢ ܚܘܣܪܢܐ ܀‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܣܪܝܢ ܀‬ ‫ܕܥ ܼ‬ ‫ܵܩܢܘܢܐ ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܐ ܥܠܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܕܐܢ ܥܕܝܠ ܠܿܡ ܿܐ ܵ‬ ‫ܝܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܫ ܹܩܠ ܿ ܼܐܢ̄ܬܬܐ ܒ ܸܢ ̈ܫܐ‬ ‫ܿܕܠܘ ܼܿܣ ܿܓ ܼܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܼܝܠ ܀܀܀܀‬ ‫ܥܩܪܬܐ< ܼܐܘ ܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫> ܼ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܠܝ܆ ܕܠܐ ܐܹ ܼ ܿܦܢܐ ܡܕܡ ܥܠ ܵܗܢ ܫܘܐܠܐ܆‬ ‫ܬܪܥܝܬܝ ܗܟܝܠ ܡܪܬܝܐ ̄ܗ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܕܠܐ ܡܡܠܠܝܢ ܥܠܘܗܝ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝܗ ܘܡܠܦܢܝܗ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܡܕܡ‪ .‬ܚܘܒܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ ܠܘܬ ܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ ܕܥܠܘܗܝ ܐܝܬܝܢܝ‪.‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܢܣܒܝܗ ܓܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܐܢܫ ܗܟܝܠ ܿ ܼܡܫ ܸܠܡ ܕܐܢ̄ܬܬܐ ܥܩܪܬܐ ܠܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܡܘܤܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܠܘܬ ܫܘܚܛܐ ܡܓܪܓ ܠܥܩ̈ܪܬܐ ܣܓܝܐܬܐ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܬܝ ܠܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܩܢܘܢܐ ܟܐܡܬ܆ ܘܠܘ ܼܡܢ ܓܒܝܬܐ ܕܨܒܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܩܛܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܙܝܓ ܒܗ ܨܒܝܢܐ ܚܐܪܝܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܡܐ ܙܒܢܝܢ̈‬ ‫ܫܘܘܕܝܐ‪ :‬ܘܡܛܠ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܙ ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܥܙܥܐ ̇‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܫܦܠ ܡܢ ܡܚܝܠܘܬܐ ܟܝܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܥܨܹܐ ܘܡܨܠܚ܆ ܼܡ ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܐ̈ܪܡܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܪܓܬܐ ܕܚܘܬܚܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܡܬܝܠܕ ܫܘܚܛܐ ܡܪܓܙܢܐ‪ .‬ܐܦܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܥ ̈‬ ‫ܙܝܢ ܒܚܘܡܣܢܐ ܕܐܪܡܠܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܘܓܡ̈ܪܢ ܫܘܘܕ ܵܝܐ ܕܓܒܝܬܝܗܝܢ‪.‬‬

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A man who has children from his first wife who died and who marries a barren woman, even though he does not need permission of the administrators, bears no blame. There are also men who took barren wives in the past [F.232B] but were not aware of their barren state. Later on, they become aware of their infertility through experience, but are not allowed to leave their wives on account of an accidental infirmity that caught them. They are commanded to persevere too and consent until their last breath, whether their wives procreate after being visited by helpful grace, or they depart from this mortal life with the disease 173 of infertility. The blessed Patriarch (Abraham) was patient and accepted the Promise and believed in God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, as it is written. 174 It ought not to be believed that a childless man would desire to marry a barren woman, unless he lost his mind or disdained the divine blessing, 175 considering it as useless. It (=blessing) is buried like a leaven in the dough in the fertility of our race, being carried like a flash of light (transported) by the sphere—a thing hard to comprehend. No man desires this foolishness, that one would marry a woman for the sake of a childless marriage, like someone who lost hope. He 176 would have no children who would inherit him but only relatives, just as he inherited from those of whom he was born. 177 Chabot translates “infirmité,” but disease is more appropriate, since in ancient Mesopotamia and elsewhere, infertility was considered a divine curse, like any disease. A curse in Parthian Edessa wishes the delinquent not have any “children to throw dust upon his eyes” at his internment; Han J. W. Drijvers and John F. Healey, The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene (Leiden: Brill, 1995), pp. 193–194. 174 Romans 4:22. 175 Children were considered to be a blessing: Psalm 127:3–5; Proverbs 17:6. 176 Ms.: The gender is feminine. 177 The term “strangers” in the text means relatives, who can inherit a dead relative who has no children, just he himself inherited from his own parents. 173

‫‪115‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܕܡܝܬܬ܆‬ ‫ܒܢܝܐ ܡܢ ܐܢܬܬܗ ܩܕܡܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܓܒܪܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܐܝܬ ܠܗ‬ ‫̣‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܫܩܠ ܥܩܪܬܐ ܐܦܢ ܥܠ ܡܦܣܢܘܬܐ ܕܡܢ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܠܐ ܣܢܝܩ‪ :‬ܐܠܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܥܕܠܝܐ ܠܐ ܡܫܟܚ ܠܗ‪ ܵ .‬ܐܦ ܓܝܪ ܗܢܘܢ ܕܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܢܫܐ ܥܩܖܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܩܕܝܡ ]‪ [F.232B‬ܠܐ ܪܓܝܫܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ ܒܥܩܪܘܬܗܝܢ܆ ┐ܘܡܢ ܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܣܝܘ ܵܢـܐ‬ ‫ܼ ܸ‬ ‫ܵܒ ܿܬܪܟܢ ܿ ܼܐܪܓܫܘ ܿ‬ ‫ܩܪܘ ܼܬ ܹܗܝܢ ‪ 178‬ܠܐ ܿ ܼܡܦܤ ܠܗܘܢ ܕܢܫܒܩܘܢ ̈‬ ‫ܢܫܝܗܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܥ ܼ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢܝܢ‪ .‬ܐܸ ܠܐ ܦܩܝܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܐܕܪܟܬ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܤܓܝܦܘܬܐ ܓܕܫܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܕܢܚܡܣܢܘܢ ܐܦ ܗܢܘܢ ܘܢܬܛܦܝܣܘܢ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܢܫܡܬܐ ̄‬ ‫ܐܚܪܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܢܫܝܗܘܢ ܟܕ ܡܣܬܥ̈ܪܢ ܼܡܢ ‪ 179‬ܬܥܕܝܪܐ ܕܛܝܒܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܢ‬ ‫ܐܢ ܡܦܪܝܢ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܗ ܒܟܐܒܐ ܕܥܩܪܘܬܐ ܡܫܢܝܢ ܡܢ ܚܝܐ ܗܠܝܢ ܡܝܘܬܐ܆ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܗܝܡܢ ܒܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܐܒܗܬܐ ܕܐܓܪ ܪܘܚܗ ܘܩܒܠ ܡܘܠܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܛܘܒܢܐ ܪܫ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܬܚܫܒܬ ܠܗ ܠܙܕܝܩܘ܆ ܐܝܟ ܕܟܬܝܒ‪ .‬ܐܦܠܐ ܓܝܪ ܘܠܐ ܠܡܗܝܡܢܘ‪:‬‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܒܢܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܢܝܐ ܐܢ̄ܬܬܐ ܥܩܪܬܐ ܐܬܪܓܪܓ ܕ ܼܢܣܒ‬ ‫ܕܓܒܪܐ ܕܠܝܬ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܕܠܡܐ ܐܒܝܕ ܗܘܢܗ ܕܠܒܘܪܟܬܐ ܐܠܗܝܬܐ ܿܗܝ ܕܛܡܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܚܡܝܪܐ ܒܓܒܝܠܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܒܡ ܹܦ ܵ‬ ‫ܢܘ ܹܬܗ ܕܓܢܤܢ ܘܡܬܝܒܠܐ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܪܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܐܣܠܝܗ ܘܕܠܐ ܚܫܚܘ ܚܫܒܗ‪ .‬ܗܕܐ ܕܥܣܩܐ‬ ‫ܐܣܦܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܙܠܝܩܐ ܥܡ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܠܡܗܝܡܢܘ‪ .‬ܒܕ ܠܐ ܐܢܫ ܐܬܪܓܪܓ ܠܗܕܐ ܫܢܝܘܬܐ ܕܡܛܠ ܙܘܘܓܐ‬ ‫ܦܤܝܩ ܤܒܪܐ ܼܢܣܒ ܐܢܬܬܐ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܦܐ̈ܪܐ ܡܢ ܩܕܝܡ‬ ‫ܕܠܐ ܦܐ̈ܪܐ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܼܝ ܹܪ ܼܬ ܠܐܝܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܗܢܘܢ ܢܐܪܬܘܢܗ ܘܠܐ ܢܘܟ̈ܪܝܐ‪.‬܂ ܐܝܟ ܕܐܦ ܼ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܡܢܗܘܢ ܐܬܝܠܕ‬

‫‪Written vertically on the left margin.‬‬ ‫‪Deletion of a letter after this term.‬‬

‫‪178‬‬ ‫‪179‬‬

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This is according to the natural and divine law, accompanying our race from the ancient days until the admirable transfiguration, 180 which is beyond passions and (sexual) needs. The one who does not get married and does not have children and progeny, but follows (spiritual) perfection, he goes beyond any pleasure that troubles the mortal state caused by the Creator of all. (This state) was established for procreation and continuation of our race in a temporal manner. These will be abolished by (God’s) power and wisdom through the perfect life, in which, passions, desires and needs have no power whatsoever. Rather, (the perfect life) will shine with righteousness, peace and joy through the Holy Spirit. It is rich and fruitful in faith, hope and love, and in affection of praises and glory-hymns that the blessed ones offer up blissfully to the Blessed of all, without ceasing and without end. *** [F.233A] We now want you to know that we answered in writing the questions presented to us by the love of learning of your reverence, in three manners, that is in teaching, refuting and rebuking. Teaching deals with fair and urgent matters to do and with blamable and unfair things. For refutation, refute mixed with zeal with regard to people who are negligent and unruly and who resist. As for rebuke, judges and administrators employ sentences against transgressors who disobey divine laws and who step on the canons of the fathers. Now these things greatly help the administrators and the judges who teach, and the administrated ones and the arraigned to learn. Everything must be done with wise and not harsh zeal and with love, compassion and justice, far from softness that does not fit offenders and from stubbornness and harshness which do not pity the penitents.

‫)ܥܐܕܐ( ܕܫܘܚܠܦܐ‬: in the likeness of Christ; Matthew 17:1–8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28–36.

180

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܕܠܘܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܠܓܒܝܠܬܢ ܼܡܢ ܪܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܢܡܘܣܐ ܟܝܢܝܐ ܘܐܠܗܝܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝܘܡܬܐ ܘܥܕܡܐ ܠܫܘܚܠܦܐ ܿܗܘ ܬܡܝܗܐ ܕܠܥܠ ܼܡܢ ܚܫܐ ܘܣܘܢܩܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿܗܘ ܕܠܐ ܝܗܒ ܐܝܕܐ ܠܙܘܘܓܐ ܘܠܝܠܕܐ ܘܠܡܦܪܝܢܘܬܐ ܒܕ ܗܘܦܟܐ‬ ‫ܡܝܘܬܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܕܡܬܬܙܝܥܐ‬ ‫ܕܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܡܪܝܡ ܼܡܢ ܟܠ ܪܓܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܕܠܡܦܪܝܢܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܕܒܪܘܝܘܬܗ ܕܡܬܩܢܢܐ ܕܟܠ ▱ ܐܬܬܣܝܡ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܘܠܝܘܒܠܗ ܕܓܢܣܢ ܒܕܘܒܪܐ ܙܒܢܢܝܐ‪ .‬ܡܒܛܠ ܠܗܘܢ ܒܚܝܠܗ ܘܒܚܟܡܬܗ‬ ‫ܒܕܘܒ̈ܪܐ ܕܓܡܝܪܘܬܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܠܐ ܣܟ ܫܠܛܝܢ ܒܗ ̈‬ ‫ܚܫܐ ܘ̈ܪܓܝܓܬܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܣܘܢܩܢܐ܆ ܐܠܐ ܡܦܪܓ ܒܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ ܘܫܠܡܐ ܘܚܕܘܬܐ ܒܪܘܚܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܝܢ ܒܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ ܘܣܒܪܐ ܘܚܘܒܐ ܘܪܚܡ‬ ‫ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܥܬܝܪ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܛܘܒܬܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܼܡܢ ܛܘܒܬܢܐ ܠܛܘܒܬܢ ܒܟܠ‬ ‫ܒܩܘܠܣܐ ܘܒܬܫܒܚܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܠܘܡܐܝ ܼܬ ܤܠܩܢ ܀‬ ‫ܡܫܬܠܝܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫]‪̇ [F.233A‬ܨܒܝܢܢ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܬܗܘܐ ̇ܝܕܥ ܕܒܬܠܬܐ ̈‬ ‫ܙܢܝܢ ܟܬܒܢܢ ܘܦܢܝܢܢ‬ ‫ܠܘܬ ̈‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ ܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܕܒܚܤܝܘܬܟ‪ .‬ܗܢܘ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܐ ܕܐܬܩܪܒܘ ܠܢ ܼܡܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܡܠܦܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܢ‪ .‬ܕܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܟܣܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿܡܠܦܢ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܟܣܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܦܐܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐܠܨܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܣܬܥ̈ܪܢ‪ .‬ܘܗܠܝܢ ܥܕ ܼܝܠܢ ܘܠܐ‬ ‫ܫܦܝ̈ܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܗܡܝܢܐ ܘܠܐ ܡܛܟܣܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܙܝـܓܐ ܒܛܢܢܐ ܕܠܘܩܒܠ‬ ‫ܕܝܢ‪ .‬ܟܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܡܟܘܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܕܝܢ‪ .‬ܟܕ ܒܓܙܪ ܕܝܢܐ ܡܬܚܫܚܝܢ ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܝ ܿܢܐ‬ ‫ܥܨܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܠܘܬ ܡܬ̈ܪܫܝ ܹܢܐ ܦܣܥܝ ܥܠ ܢܡܘܣܐ ܐܠܗܝܐ ܘܕܝܫܝ ܩܢܘܢܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܒܗܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܣܓ ܼܝ ܡܥܕ̈ܪܢ ܠܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ ܘܠ ̈ܕܝܢܐ ܕܡܠܦܝܢ ܘܠܡܬܕܒ̈ܪܢܐ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܗܟܝܠ‬ ‫ܬܬܕܝ ܵܢ ܹܢܐ ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪181‬‬ ‫ܕܝܠܦܝܢ‪ .‬ܟܠܗܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܒܛܢܢܐ ܕܚܟܝܡ ܘܠܐ ܿܚܪܡܢ‬ ‫ܘܠܡ‬ ‫ܘܠܡܬ‬ ‫ܹ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܘܒܚܘܒܐ ܘܒܚܘܣܢܐ ܘܒܟܐܢܘܬܐ ܕܪܚܝܩܝܢ ܼܡܢ ܪܦܝܘܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܼܦܐܝܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܠܬܝܒܐ‬ ‫ܥܨܝܝܘܬܐ ܘܩܫܝܘܬܐ ܕܠܐ ܿܚܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ‬ ‫ܒܡܣܟܠܢܐ‪ܼ .‬‬

‫‪Gap filler.‬‬

‫‪181‬‬

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THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

(Stubbornness and harshness) do not entice sinners, do not visit the sick and do not treat the stricken. Jesus, our Life-giver, is the heavenly physician who healed gratis the wounds and sicknesses of our race with the medicine of his compassion. You must also know this: We have not answered your questions by decrees, a reply that fits those who set rules in decisions joined with anathemas, placed as terror for unruly members. Rather, (we used) words whose terms hold on the teaching of the fathers and of the teachers and which are woven with demonstrations from nature and from Scripture; (the terms) entice toward the love of virtues and warn about and divert from the attraction toward evil doings. As they show the how and why of an affair, they instruct the reader and clarify things to him so as to expand his wisdom. F. 233B (Epilogue) 182

The bishops and brothers who are with us ask about your wellbeing. May the grace be with all of us, amen. We think that you remember that the questions, which you wrote and which you sent us, were in the number of thirtythree, but considering the(ir) content, they do not amount to this calculated number. Thus, we necessarily disregarded the number of your distribution, and following the intention of their author, we turned their count in such a way that they amounted to twenty questions that required from us to answer them, and they acquired (answers) according to our weakness. There are some that were not answered.

This epilogue is placed after the two interpolated accounts about the wheel and about humanity.

182

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‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܡܡ ̈‬ ‫ܚܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܚܛܝܐ ܘܠܐ ܤܥܪܐ ܠܟ̈ܪܝܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܥܨܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܐ ܡܓܪܓܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܐܤܝ ܡܓܢ ܒܤܡܡܢܐ ܕܚܢܢܗ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ܝܫܘܥ ܡܚܝܢܢ ܐܣܝܐ ܫܡܝܢܐ ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܟܘܬܡܬܗ ܘܚܒ̈ܪܬܗ ܕܓܢܣܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܘܢܝ‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܝܟ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬ ̇ܝܕܥ ܕܠܘ ܒܦܣܩܐ ܦܢܝܢܢ ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܦ ܗܕܐ ̣‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܦܬܓܡܐ ܕܠܚܡ ܠܤܝܡܝ ܩܢܘܢܐ ܕܒܬܚܘܡܐ ܕܡܙܝܓܝܢ ܒܚ̈ܪܡܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܒܢܝ ̇ܗ ܕܠܐ ܡܬܛܦܝܤܢܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܒܡܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܤܝܡܝܢ ܠܣܘܪܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܓܕܝܠܬ ܒܬܚܘܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܥܝܕܘܗܝ ܕܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܐܒܗܝܐ ܘܪܒܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܕܐܚܝܕܐ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܛܒܬܐ‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬ‬ ‫ܠܘܬ‬ ‫ܕܡܓܪܓܐ‬ ‫ܕܐ‬ ‫ܐܝ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܘܡ‬ ‫ܟܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܡܥܪܩܐ ܼܡܢ ܪܓܬܐ ܕܒܬܪ ܒܝܫܬܐ‪ .‬ܕܟܕ ܠܣܘܥܪܢܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܙܗܪܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܝ ܼܬܘܗܝ‪ :‬ܠܩܪܘܝܐ ܡܚܟܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܚܘܝܐ ܠܗ ܕܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܡܦܫܩܐ ܕܢܘܤܦ ܥܠ ܚܟܡܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫)ܚܘܬܡܐ( ‪F. 233B‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘܐܚܐ ܕܥܡܢ‪ .‬ܛܝܒܘܬܐ ܥܡ ܟܠܢ‬ ‫ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܐ‬ ‫ܫܐܠܝܢ ܫܠܡܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܵܐܡܝܢ ܀‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܫܘܐܠܐ ܕܟܬܒܬ ܘܫܕܪܬ ܠܢ ܬܠܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܬܪܥܝܢܢ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܥܗܝܕ ܐܢ̄ܬ ܼ ̄ܗܘ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܢ ̄ܗ ܼܘܘ ܒܡܢܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܒܚܝܠܐ ܕܝܢ ܕܣܘܟܠܐ ܠܐ ܤܠܩܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܬܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܐܗܡܝܢܢ ܡܢ ܡܢܝܢܐ‪ .‬ܕܗܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܠܨܐܝ‬ ‫ܡܢܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܗܢ‬ ‫ܩܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܠܣܝ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܦܘܠܓܐ ܕܝܠܟܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܠܦܘܬ ܪܥܝܢܐ ܕܣܝܘܡܗܘܢ ܥܒܕܢܝܗܝ ܐܦ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܫܘܐܠܐ ܿܗܢܘܢ ܕܡܢܢ ܐܠܨܐ‬ ‫ܕܢܣܬܩܡܘܢ ܼܥܣܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܡܢܝܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܝܟܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܕܢܩܒܠܘܢ ܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟܢܐ ܕܐܦ ܩܒܠܘ ܠܦܘܬ ܒܨܝܪܘܬܢ‬ ‫̄ܗ ܸ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܬܦܢܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܒܕܐܝ ܼܬ ܡܢܗܘܢ ܕܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܢܝ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܠܘ ܡܛܠ ܕܠܐ ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܬܦ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܢܘܢ‪.‬‬

120

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

It was not because they cannot be answered, but because they did not need to be put as questions and answers in writing, either because they are clear to the knowledgeable ones, or because the Church administrators handle them wisely following the held tradition, for edification and not for devastation. As for you, read what is written and add what is missing. Mention us in your divinely inspired prayer, for we fulfilled the desire of your Christian love in answering your questions; these enrich everyone who is reasonable and who loves learning. These things are written following a teaching method, between the one who raises questions—the student—and the one who answers them—the master. It is not (done) in a synod, in the assembly of bishops, as decrees and definitions 183 arranged lawfully among many things that are published. (Interpolated Account on the Wheel) F.233A 184

It is therefore clear that the mortals are ordered to be fair righteousness, during the entire time in the course of their lives, which means three quarters, four thirds, six doubles and twelves transformations that are splendidly and admirably attached in one wheel. This (wheel) has two eyes, one of which beholds its border and the second beholds its transformation. [F.233B] The head wheel follows the final wheel, and (the chariot?) runs around until the end of times. As/like […] from the beginning, it was set authoritatively, helpfully, and wisely, by the One from whom everything derives and to whom everything belongs, his hand holding everything, and to him all go. To him glory, greatness and worship forever. Īshōʿyahb I presided over the synod of 585, which also enacted canons in the likeness of his own code of law. 184 As Chabot noted, Synodicon, p. 450, this unusual text does not belong to Īshōʿyahb, as it does not fit his canons. Does its content relate to the mystical merkavah, very popular in Jewish circles? The story of the merkavah draws on Ezekiel chapter 1. 183

‫‪121‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫̈‬ ‫ܟܬܝܒܬܐ‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܒܕܠܐ ܐܠܨܐ ܕܒܫܘܐܠܐ ܘܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ ܒܝܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܝܕܘܥܐ‪ :‬ܐܘ ܡܛܠ ܕܒܗ ܒܥܝܕܐ ܕܐܚܝܕ‬ ‫ܢܗܘܘܢ‪ .‬ܐܠܐ ܒܕܓܠ ܹܝܢ‬ ‫ܚܟܝܡܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܠܒܢܝܢܐ ܘܠܘ ܠܤܘܚܦܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܦܪܢܣܝܢ ܠܗܘܢ ܡܕܒ̈ܪܢܝ ܥܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐܢ̄ܬܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܩܪܘ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܟܬܝܒܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܘܤܦܘ ܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܚܣܝ̈ܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܕܫܡܠܝܢܢ ܨܒܝܢܗ ܕܚܘܒܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܝܪܬ ܒܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܚܠܦ‬ ‫ܘܫܐܸ ܠܘ ܠܢ ܨܠܘܬܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܕܬܪܝܨ ܘܪܚܡ‬ ‫ܕܫܘܐܠܝܟܘܢ ܡܘܬ̈ܪܝ ܠܟܠ‬ ‫ܡܫܝܚܝܐ ܒܦܘܢܝ ܦܬܓܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܠܦܢܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܫܘܐܠܐ ܐܬܟܬܒܘ ܒܝܬ ܿܗܘ ܕܡܫܐܠ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܬܠܡܝܕܐ ܿ‬ ‫ܤܘܢܗܘܕܝܩܐܝ ܼܬ ܒܓܘ ܟܢܘܫܝܐ‬ ‫ܪܒܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܘܠܘ‬ ‫ܠܗܘ ܕܡܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܫܠܛܐܝ ܼܬ ܐܬܬܩܢܘ ܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܕܐܒܗܬܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܒܦܣܩܐ ܘܒܬܚܘܡܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܣܓܝܐܐ ܘܐܬܬܣܝܡܘ‪.‬‬ ‫‪F. 233A‬‬

‫)ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܓܝܘܪܬܐ ܕܓܝܓܠܐ(‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܝܘܬܐ ܕܒܗ ܦܩܝܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܚܝܐ‬ ‫ܓܠܝܐ ܼ ̄ܗܝ ܗܟܝܠ ܕܟܠܗ ܙܒܢܐ ܕܪܗܛܐ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫̈ܪܒܝܥܢ‬ ‫ܕ ܼܢܫܦܪ >ܒܬܐܓܘܪܬܐ‪ < 185‬ܕܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ‪ .‬ܗܢܐ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܬܠܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܼ̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܚܙܝܩܢ ܒܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܚܠܦܢ‬ ‫ܘܬܪܬܥܣܖܐ‬ ‫ܥܦܝܦܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܠܝܬܢ ܘܫܬ‬ ‫ܘܐܪܒܥ‬ ‫ܕܐܝ ܼܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܬ̈ܪܬܝܢ ܵ‬ ‫ܥܝܢܐ ܕܚܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܕܡܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܡܦܪܓܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܓܝܓܠܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̇‬ ‫ܬܚܘ ̇‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܝܗ ܘܐܚܪܬܐ ܐܚܝܕܐ ܫܘܚܠܦܢܝܗ‪[F.233B] .‬‬ ‫ܡܢܗܝܢ ܐܚܝܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܵ‬ ‫ܠܬܚܘܡܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܥܕܡܐ‬ ‫ܘܪܫ ܓܝܓܠܐ ܢܩܝܦ ܠܫܘܠܡ ܓܝܓܠܐ‪ .‬ܘܡܬܟܪܟܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܥܕܪܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܡܫܠܛܐܝ‬ ‫ܕܡܢ ܒܪܫܝܬ‪ .‬ܕܣܝܡ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܙܒܢܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܟ ]‪ܼ 186 [... ...‬‬ ‫ܘܚܟܝܡܐܝܬ ܡܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܡܢܗ ܟܠ ܘܕܝܠܗ ܟܠ ܘܒܐܝܕܗ ܟܠ ܘܠܘܬܗ ܟܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܕܝܠܗ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܘܪܒܘܬܐ ܘܤܓܕܬܐ ܠܥܠܡ ܀‬

‫‪.‬ܒܬܐܟܘܪܬܐ ‪Written‬‬ ‫‪Gap of roughly one and a half inches.‬‬

‫‪185‬‬ ‫‪186‬‬

122

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I (Interpolated Account on Man and Humanity) 187

There is on the one hand a human and on the other hand there is humanity, 188 for there is no humanity unless there is a human, and there is no human unless there is humanity: the one (=humanity) is and the other (=human) is individual; the former is generic, and the latter is specificeveryone is (mixed) with all of them (=humanity), and all of these (are mixed) with everyone. The ones (=humans) die and pass away according to succession, [F.234A] but the former (=humanity) remains admirably with its properties. This one (=humanity) projects its properties onto the other one (=the human). Now the effects do not give their properties to the cause. The matter is without doubt as it fits God its maker. *** The twenty questions and their answers are completed in short terms.

This text must be interpolated, as it does not relate to the codes of Īshōʿyahb. It is placed on p. 233B, five lines from the bottom. 188 ‫ ܐܢܫ‬is Aramaic generic ‫ ֱאנָ שׁ‬as in Ezra 4:11 et pass., and in Arabic ̄ is an abstract equal to ‫( ناس‬nās). Thus, the composite term ‫ܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ‬ ‫ܒܪܢܫܘܬܐ‬. 187

‫‪123‬‬

‫‪TEXT AND TRANSLATION‬‬

‫)ܬܫܥܝܬܐ ܓܝܘܪܬܐ ܕܒܪܢܫܐ ܘܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ(‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܡܚܕܐ ܓܝܪ ܒܪܢܫܐ‪ .‬ܡܚܕܐ ̄‬ ‫ܒܪܐܢܫܐ ‪:189‬‬ ‫ܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ‪ .‬ܡܛܠ ܕܠܝܬܘܗܝ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ ܒܪܢܫܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܝܬܘܗܝ ܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܐܝܬܘܗܝ‬

‫ܓܢܣܢܐܝ ܼܬ‬ ‫ܒܪܢܫܐ‪ .‬ܗܢܐ >ܓܘܢܐܝܬ‪ < 190‬ܘܗܢܐ ܝܚܝܕܐܝܬ‪ .‬ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܐܕܫܢܐܝ ܼܬ‪ .‬ܟܠܗ ܥܡ ܟܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܟܠܗܘܢ ܠܘܬ ܟܠܗ‪ .‬ܗܠܝܢ ܦܛܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܘܡܦܛܪܝܢ ܡܬܝܒܠܢܐܝܬ‪ [F.234A] .‬ܗܢܐ ܡܩܘܐ ̈‬ ‫ܒܕܝ ܵ‬ ‫ܡܝܪܐܝ ܼܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܝ ܹܬܗ ܕ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܠܗܠܝܢ ܿ‬ ‫ܝܗܒ ̈‬ ‫ܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܝ‬ ‫ܕܝܠܝܬܗ‪ .‬ܥܠܬܢܐ ܕܝܢ ܠܥܠܬܐ ܠܐ ܝܗܒܝܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܿ‬ ‫ܘܐܝ ܼܬ ܿ‬ ‫ܥܒܘܕܗ ܀‬ ‫ܝܗ ܕܠܐ ܦܘܫܩ ܘܦܐܝܐ ܠܐܠܗܐ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫***‬

‫ܿ ܵܵ‬ ‫ܫ ܠ ܡܘ ̈‬ ‫ܫܘ ܐܠܐܹ ܥ ܣܪ ܼܝ ܢ ‪ .‬ܘܦܘܢܝ ܦܬ ܿ ܼ ̈‬ ‫̈ܪܝܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܟ‬ ‫ܓܡܝܗܘܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܹ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܹ‬

‫‪̄ .‬‬ ‫ܐܢܫ ܒܪܢܫܐ ‪That is‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܟܘܢܐܝܼ ܼܬ ‪Ms.‬‬

‫‪189‬‬ ‫‪190‬‬

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED Acts of Thomas

SYRIAC SOURCES

F.J. Klijn, The Acts of Thomas: Introduction, Text, Commentary (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962).

Narsai

Alphonse Mingana, Narsai Doctoris Syri Homiliae et Carmina, volume 1 (Mosul, 1905; repr. Gorgias Press 2008).

Patriarche Īshōʿyahb of Bēt-ʿArabāyē

J. B. Chabot, Synodicon orientale ou recueil de synodes nestoriens (Paris, 1902).

ʿAbd-Īshōʿ (synodical) Collection

A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, vol. X (1838).

Ṭaksā d-kahnē

Ṭaksā d-kahnē d-‛edtā dmadenḥā [Office of the Priests of the Church of the East] (Mosul, 1928; Chicago repr., 2002).

125

126

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Law Code in Syriac

Mai

ONLINE SOURCES

Vatican Library https://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Borg.si r.82 Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, vol. X: Google https://ia800205.us.archive.org/35/ite ms/bub_gb_ssNAAAAAcAAJ/bub_gb_ss NAAAAAcAAJ.pdf

MODERN SOURCES

Narmen Muhamad Amen Ali, “The “Monastic Church” of Bāzyān, in Iraqi Kurdistan,” Journal of the CSSS 8 (2008), pp. 74–84. Eduard Beck, Des heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Hymnen de Nativitate (Epiphania), CSCO 186 SS 82 (1959). J. B. Chabot, Synodicon orientale ou recueil de synodes nestoriens (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1902). R. H. Connolly, The Liturgical Homilies of Narsai (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 1916). Han J. W. Drijvers and John F. Healey, The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene (Leiden: Brill, 1995). Yousif Ḥabbī, Majāmiʿ kanīsat al-mašriq [Synods of the Church of the East] (Lebanon: Kaslik, 1999). A. Harrak, The Acts of Mār Mārī the Apostle, Writings from the Greco-Roman World, v. 11 (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature 2005). ——, Mar Narsai: Homily 33 on the Sanctification of the Church, Texts from Christian Late Antiquity 54 (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2018). ——, Le monastère de Mar-Behnam à la période atabeg – XIIIe S.: L’art au service de la foi (Paris: Geuthner, 2018). ——, “Beth ʿArbaye,” Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, NJ.: Gorgias Press, 2011), p. 71.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

127

——, Syriac and Garshuni Inscriptions of Iraq, Recueil des inscriptions syriaques 2 (Paris: Académie des inscriptions et belleslettres, 2010). ——, Metrical Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug: Jacob of Sarug’s Homily on the Partaking of the Holy Mysteries, Texts from Christian Late Antiquity 23 (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2010). A. F. J. Klijn, The Acts of Thomas: Introduction, Text, Commentary (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962). A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, vol. X (1838). Eugene Manna, Dalīl al-rāghibīn fī lughat al-ārāmiyyīn [The Guide for Those who Desire the Aramaic [=Syriac] Language] (Mosul, 1900). Alphonse Mingana, Narsai Doctoris Syri Homiliae et Carmina, volume 1 (Mosul, 1905; repr. Gorgias Press 2008). Robert Murray, Symbols of Church and Kingdom: A Study in Early Syriac Tradition (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2004; revised edition). Louis Sako, Le rôle de la hiérarchie syriaque orientale dans les rapports diplomatiques entre la Perse et Byzance aux Ve-VIIe siècles (Paris, 1986). D. Talbot Rice, “The Oxford Excavations at Hira, 1931,” Antiquity 6 (1932), pp. 276–291. ——, “The Oxford Excavations at Hira,” Ars Islamica 1 (1934), pp. 51–73. A. Vööbus, The Statutes of the School of Nisibis (Stockholm: Estonian Theological Society in Exile, 1962). Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān [Dictionary of Countries], volume III, no editor (Beirut: Dār-Ṣādir, 1986).

INDEX THEMATIC INDEX

Adultery 4, 78–79 Anathema 26, 68–72, 84–85 Anger and forgiving Eucharist 52–53, 56–57 Apostles 6 Apostolic (writings) 36 Architecture 6, Altar (madebḥā; tomb of Christ), 5, 8, 10, 24, 46–47, 48–49, 50 n.47 Apse 46 n.40 Baptistery (font) 11 Bema 7, 8 and n.14, 46 and n. 44 (manager) Diaconicon 9, 10 Holy-of-Holies 9, 10, 50 n.47 Qankē 8–9, 46–47, 52 n.50, 56–57 Qestrūmā 7, 9, 46 and n. 44 Royal Gate 46 nn.41, 44 Šqāqōnā 9 Assembly 62–63 Authors/authorship

Acts of Thomas 9, 11, 15, 62 n.71 Mār Mārῑ 9

Baptism 4, 11, 14–15, 52–53, 62 and n.71, 68–69 Behavior 16, 68–69 (Christian and secular) Bible 34, 38, 82–83, 88–89, 106–107, 106–107, 118– 119 Breaking (consecrated bread, qṣāyā) 18–20 Church Assyrian/Chaldean 22 Buildings 12, 40 Church Law 2, 3, 10, 36, 38 Christianity 32, 74–75, 82–83 (‘household’); 92–93 Common sense 6 Communion 46–47, 48–49 Congregation 56–57, 62–63, 76–77, 88–89, 90–91, 94– 95 Creed 15 129

130

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Cross 10, 44 Day of the Lord 22 (Greek Κυριακή), 23, 27, 108–109 Death 86–87 Debts 86–87 Diseases 92–93 (leprosy) Dispute 26, 66–69 Dowry 86 and n.118, 87 Ecclesiastic Administration 13 (eparchy); 32, 38, 76–77, 90–91, 106–107, 116– 117 Law/regulations 44–45, 48–49 Ecclesiastical Ranks 98–99 Ecclesiastics Anti-Archdeacon 7, 12, 46–47 Archpriest 12, 46–47 Archdeacon 7, 12, 46–47 Bishop 13, 46–47, 76–81, 104–105 Celebrant 8 Cleric 13 Deacon 48–49 Metropolitan 13 Ranks 12–13, 24 Deacon 4, 8, 13, 25, 48–49, 104–105 Monks 70–71 Patriarch 13 Priest 4, 8, 13, 15, 16– 22, 25, 40, 48–49, 52–53, 62–63, 66– 67, 68–69, 71–72,

72–73, 78–79, 80– 81, 98–99, 104–105 Son of the Covenant (see Monks) Economy (of monasteries) 23 Estates (of the deceased) 26, 86–87 Eucharist 48. 62 n.71 Act of offering the Eucharist 14, 16–22 Anaphora 15, 21 Archetype (=Christ) 58– 59 Celebrant 21 Contents 16–22 Divine Offering 114 Epiclesis 20 Grace of the Holy Mysteries 66–67 Host 42, 48–49, 56–57 Living Sacrifice 10, 14 Ṭaybūtā 11–12 Type (bread and wine) 11, 58–59 Vessels 14 Fathers of the Church 36, 92– 93 Feasts 116 n. 180 Forgiveness 9, 44–45, 54–55, 58–59, 88–89 Gifts, donations 5, 22–23, 88– 89 (to foreign monasteries), 96–97 God 64–65 (Judge), 74–75, 92–93

INDEX

131

Glorification 42 Gospel/Scriptures 11, 50–51

Ordinations (Imposition of hands) 13, 25, 50–51

Hagiography 6 Healing 11, 15, 52–53, 62 and n.71, 64–75, 78–79 Humanity (=man) 122 and n.188, 123

Paganism 76–77 Palestinian 92–93 Peace (in Eucharist) 40, 42, 54–55 Penance 64–65, 66–79 Perfection 84–85, 92–95, 97– 97 Physician (of souls) 62–63 Possession (material) 32, 72– 73, 76–77, 96–97

Inheritance 88–89, 114 and n.177, 115 Institution 17–18 Interest, usury 5, 26, 82–83 Jews 92–95 Judaism 74–75, 92 n.134 Judges 116–117 Letter (of Īšōʿyahb I) 30–38 Literature Prologues 30–38 Liturgy 3 Lord’s Prayer 21, 54–55 Marriage 27, 112–113, 114 and nn. 173, 175, 115 Mary 38 (Holy Virgin) Merkavah (mystical) 120 n.184 Mešḥā (mešῑḥā) 14–15 Mind (source of thought) 84– 85 Oaths 26, 74–77, 84–85 Obedience (to priests) 72–73 Offenses (see sins) Oil 15 (flacon), 26

Rebuke 116–117 Reconciliation 9 Refutation 116–117 Resentence 60–61 Riches (see possessions) Ritual Holy oil (=Chrism) 11, 50 and n.46, 51, 100–101 Sacraments 14 Baptism 14, 24, 25, 52–53 Chrism 14–15 Communion 46–47, 48– 49, 24 Rāzā 11, 16–22, 44–45, 54–55 Sanctification/ Eucharist/offering (names) 4, 9 and n.17, 11, 12, 14, 16–22, 25, 38–47, 50–51, 54–55, 56–57, 60–61 Sanctuaries 52–53 Sanctus 17, 56–57

132

THE LAW CODE OF ĪSHŌʿYAHB I

Sign of the Cross 19, 42, 44– 45 Sin and confession 24, 25, 60–65; (sin as disease) 62 n.71, 80–81 (offenses); 118–119 Synod 4, 12, 13, 24, 30 n. 1, 48–49, 78–79 Talents 5, 13, 26, 102–103 Teaching 116–117

Tongue (treasure of thoughts) 84–85 Tribunal 78–79 Trinity 19, 21, 42, 44–45 Wheel (account) 120–121 Wills 86–87, 88–89 (depriving wives in wills) Woman (Samaritan) 90–91 Womb (physical and Baptismal) 68–69 Worshipping 92–93

PERSONAL NAMES

ʿAbd-Īshōʿ (of Nisibis) 24 Abel (biblical) 34 Abraham (biblical) 94–95, 106 and nn.158–116, 107, 114–115 Cain (biblical) 54, 55 and n.56 David (biblical) 64–65

Holy Spirit 18 (rūḥāpā ‘hovering’) 18, 42, 54–55, 104– 105, 116–117 Hormuzd (king) 2 Īshōʿyahb I 2 et pass, 30 et pass., 120 n.183, 122 n.187 Jacob (bishop of Darai) 2, 3, 4, 13, 15, 18, 30, 44 n.36 Jesus Christ

Body and Blood 9, 42, 44– 45, 48–49, 54–55, 58– 61 Bridegroom, death, burial, resurrection, ascension 5, 10; 52–53 Crucifixion 52–53 High-Priest 10, 106–107 Incarnation 34 and n.9 Life-giver 52–53, 74–75, 90–91 Messiah 15 Mysteries 38 Second Coming 34 n.9 Supreme Pastor 30 John the Baptist 64–65 Joseph (patriarch; +554) 4 Judas Iscariot 54–55 Kandake 23, 92–93 Mauricius (Byzantium) 2 Mary (mother of Christ) 108– 109

INDEX

133

Moses 66–67, 106–107

Philip (Apostle) 23, 94–95

Naaman (the Aramaean) 92– 93 Narsai (399–ca. 502) 1, 10, 15–21, 50 n.47 Nestorius 16 Noah 106–107, 110–111

Sheba (Queen) 92–93 Simeon (Old) 60–61

Paul (Apostle) 6, 38, 90–91, 98–99 Arabia 30 n.3 Arzanene 1 n.3 Arzen 1 n.3

Theodore (of Mopsuestia) 16 Timothy (of Asia) 38 (Unnamed) Bishop (sinner) 64–65

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

Baghdad 30 n. 3 Balad 1 n.1 Bazian 8, 9 Bēt-ʿArbāyē 1 n.1 Bēt-Zabday 1 n.1 Bokhtan (river) 1 n.3 Darai (or Dayrin; Island) 30 Egypt 1 n.1 Ethiopia 23 Gerizim 23 Ḥira 8 Jerusalem 23, 92–03, 94 n.136

Jordan River 64–65 Mecca 30 n. 3 Medina 30 n.3 Mesopotamia 1 n.1 Nisibis 4, 36 and n.18 (School), 38 n.26 Palestine 1 n.1 Raḥbā (Callinicus) 30 n. 3 Rawḥā (in Gulf) 30 and n. 3 Samaria 94 n.136 Samarra/’ 30 n. 3 Syria 1 n.1, 30 n. 3 Talon (in Gulf) 30 and n. 3 Tigris 1 n.3 Vatican (Library) 23