THE INDIANA CENTENNIAL 1916; A Record of the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of Indiana's Admission to Statehood

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THE INDIANA CENTENNIAL 1916; A Record of the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of Indiana's Admission to Statehood

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The act of the Indiana General Assembly signed by Governor Ralston on March 8, 1915, creating the Indiana Historical Commission, assigned to that body as one of its duties to collect and publish documentary and other materials on the history of Indiana. The law provides that these volumes should be printed and bound at the expense of the State, and be made available to the public. Copies are offered at practically the cost of printing the volumes, the proceeds to go into the State treasury for the use of the Historical Commission in producing other volumes. One copy is to be furnished at the expense of the Commission to each public library, college and normal school in the State. Two hundred copies are to be furnished to the Indiana State Library and two hundred copies to the Historical Survey of Indiana University, for purposes of exchange with other states for similar publications. Of the $25,000 appropriated to the Commission for Centennial purposes, $5,000 were permitted to be used for historical publications.


Samuel M, Ralston, President

Frank B. Wynn, Vice-President Harlow Lindley, Secretary James A. Woodburn Charles W. Moores Samuel M. Foster

John Cavanaugh Charity Dye Lew M. O'Bannon publication committee James A. Woodburn Charles W. Moores

Harlow Lindley

Walter C. Woodward, Director Lucy M. Elliott, Assistant Director 'Governor James P. Goodrich became a member of the Commission ex 8, 1917, and was elected President of the Commission, May 25.

tion January


upon his inaugura-









A Record

of the Celebration of the

One Hundredth

Anniversary of Indiana's Admission to



HARLOW LINDLEY Secretary Indiana Historical Commission



Allen County Public Library

900 Webster Street PO Box 2270 Fort Wayne, IN 45S0 1-2270

PREFACE The Indiana


Commission presents to the people

of the State a report of its activities during the Centennial

and State These events have become a part of the history of our Commonwealth and it seems only appropriate that a record of them should be permanently preserved. The Secretary of the Commission, upon whom has devolved the responsibility of collecting and editing this material, wishes to acknowledge in particular the valued services of Dr. Walter year, together with a history of both the County



Woodward, Director

of the Centennial activities of the

Commission, in writing the history of the County celebrations, and that of County Day in connection with the State celebration at Indianapolis, October sixth.

Harlow Lindley.



The Beginnings

of the State




C.)MMissi )n's Activities.

Organization and Scope of the Commission A Campaign of Centennial Education Work in Schools and Clubs


Pageantry Permanent Memorials State Parks as a Centennial Memorial

36 42

20 3-3

Indiana Centennial Medal

45 56

Historical Publications








County Celebrations

71 280

State Celebration at Indianapolis The Indiana Pageant at Indianapolis

The Ohio Valley



Historical Association



The Observance




Exercises, December




343 344

State Celebration at Indianapolis

APPENDIX. Centennial Addresses by Governor Samuel M. Ralston. Indiana

Day Address

at the Panama-Pacific E.xposition, June 26, 1915

Indianapolis Board of Trade Centennial Dinner, Pebruar}- 22, 1916

Fayette County Centennial Address at Connersville, July Unveiling Exercises, State House Yard, October 0, 1916 (9)



375 390 395 397

ILLUSTRATIONS The Indiana Centennial Medal The Constitutional Elm The Indiana Historical Commission

Frontispiece 13


Riley Telling the Story of Indiana William Chaiincy Langdon, Pageant Master


29 37

Turkey Run Views of Turkey Run McCormick's Creek Canon Walter C. Woodward, Director Lucy M. Elliott, Assistant Director The Capitol at Corydon The Corydon Pageant Territorial Legislative Meeting Hall at Vincennes The Pageant of Bloomington and Indiana University The Pageant of Indiana Indiana's One Hundredth Anniversary

319 342

Hymn to Indiana Indiana Slogan

372 400




51 52

69 69 135 163 187 2 9



The Beginnings of the State


The Beginnings of the State 1679-1816

One hundred years ago Indiana was admitted to the Union. was the sixth State to be added to the original thirteen and one of five States carved from the vast and fertile region of It

wilderness and prairie lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River that had been earlier known as the North-

west Territory. white men within the December, 1679, when with a band of twentythe portage path from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee near the site of the present city of South Bend. The French had established settlements in Canada on the St. Lawrence River seventy years

The first record that we have of present boundaries of Indiana was in LaSalle, a French explorer and trader, eight men, traveling by canoe, crossed

before and their missionaries, explorers and traders had made visits to other parts of the rich territory surrounding the Great Lakes and the rivers of the west. For nearly a century thereafter the Ohio and Mississippi valleys were generally recognized as French territory.

The date of the first permanent settlement within what are now the boundaries of Indiana is not definitely known, but from the records of the Jesuit missionaries and fugitive accounts by French officers and traders, it seems that the post on the Wabash at Vincennes must have been established very early in the eighteenth century.

The struggle between the English and French

for posses-

and for the control of the valuable fur trade, which extended over many years, was ended by the treaty of 1763 when the French gave up this territory to the sion of the Ohio Valley


After the outbreak of the American Revolution, Governor Patrick Henry of Virginia gave instructions to Colonel George

Rogers Clark to proceed with a little army of militia against the posts at Kaskaskia and Vincennes. The final success of this expedition in February, 1779, was one of the important (15)



achievements of the American army and added a vast dominion to the territory of the Colonies. When a treaty of peace was signed with the British in 1783, the American possessions were bounded on the west by the Mississippi River and on the north by the Great Lakes. The western territory v/as recognized as being under the control of Virginia, whose troops had captured it from the English, but in 1784 Virginia ceded it to the United States. By the Ordinance of 1787, Congress provided a government for this Northwest Territory and also enacted that out of it there should be created not less than three nor more than five States, each of which was to be admitted to the Union when it could be shown to have at least 60,000 free inhabitants. Under this Ordinance the first popular government was established within this territory, to succeed the French and British military administrations in which the people had no voice. The creation of the first organized civil government within the boundaries of what is now the State of Indiana was, in 1790, when Winthrop Sargent, the acting governor, organized at Vincennes the county of Knox, a subdivision of the Northwest Territory larger than the present State of Indiana. But the distances between the settlements were so great and the exercise of even the simplest forms of government so difficult that plans for subdividing the Northwest Territory were soon advanced by William Henry Harrison, the delegate in Congress, and a law creating Indiana Territory was secured to take effect on the 4th of July, 1800. This territory of Indiana, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the west by the Mississippi and on the north by the Dominion of Canada, included territory that is now within the States of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. William Henry Harrison was appointed by the President, John Adams, to be the first territorial governor and the capital was established at Vincennes. According to the census of 1800 the population of the Territory was 6,550, of whom 929 lived at Clark's Grant on the Ohio, 2,497, mostly French, at Vincennes, and the rest along the Mississippi as far north as Mackinac. Within the next few years considerable progress was made in the formation of stable government, the arranging of



and the opening of lands for setpassed an act of separation, diCongress In 1809 tlement. viding the territories of Indiana and Illinois. This left the town of Vincennes on the western boundary of the new Indiana Territory and a movement was soon started to locate the capital where it would be nearer to the geographical center. After a spirited contest, the little town of Corydon, the county seat of Harrison County, was chosen in 1813 as the new capital. Corydon had been laid out five years before and boasted a court house forty feet square, built of blue limetreaties with the Indians,




that Indiana be

made a

were presented State.


Congress asking

The population had been


creasing rapidly, especially in the territory along the Ohio and lower Wabash Rivers and in the Valley of the Whitewater. Many settlers were crossing from Kentucky and many were entering the territory from the upper waters of the Ohio. New towns were being laid out all the way along the southern border of the State, and a census taken in 1815

showed a population of 63,897, more than the minimum required for statehood by the Ordinance of 1787. On April 19, 1816, the President of the United States approved an enabling act providing for the admission of Indiana to the Union. The duty of naming the new state was left to its inhabitants. Its boundaries were the same as they are now. In accordance with this law, forty-three delegates were elected to the constitutional convention which met in Corydon on June 10th and was in session for eighteen working days. It contained such able men as Jonathan Jennings, the delegate in congress from the territory, who served as president of the convention and afterward as governor James Noble and Robert Hanna, who became United States senators; Benjamin Parke, James Scott and John Johnson, afterward distinguished judges, and many other men of ability, including John Badollet, Dr. David H. Maxwell, John DePauw, Frederick Rapp and Jesse Holman. William Hendricks, the second governor of the State, was secretary of the convention. ;

The crowd

of nearly fifty

modations of the



seriously taxed the accom-

village of Corydon.

many members were



was the har-

anxious to get home and there was every inducement for the convention to complete its vest season



The sessions were first held in stone court house that had become the capital as well, but when the sultry June days became too warm the convention met under the shade of a great tree near by, that became known as the Constitutional Elm, and is now tenderly work


as rapidly as possible.


gave to the founders of the was composed in part of portions of the constitutions of Ohio, Kentucky and the United States, the material differences being in favor of wider democracy. It was a creditable document in every way. Its most notable innovation was the recognition which it contained of the duty of the State to educate all of its citizens, and Indiana was the first State to provide in its fundamental law for a general system of free education culminating in a university. In accordance with the provisions of the new constitution, state and county elections were held in August, Jonathan Jennings being elected governor; Christopher Harrison, lieutenant governor, and William Hendricks, representative to Congress. The first session of the general assembly met at Corydon on November 4, 1816, chose James Noble and Waller Taylor to represent the new State in the United States Senate, elected minor state officers and judges as provided in the new constitution, and began the work of providing for a system of local laws. Indiana was formally admitted into the Union by a joint resolution of Congress approved December 11, 1816, and the life of the State began. cared for because of the shelter State.



constitution as finally adopted

Lee Burns.



Report of the Commission's Activities











— -3

o " c


c c


Organization and Scope of the Commission The Indiana


Commission hereby submits

people of the State a report of


to the


of the origin of the Commission and the scope of its duties as defined in the legislative act creating this body. The act of the legislature creating the Indiana Historical Commission was approved by Governor Ralston on March







proper to speak


provided for the editing and publication of his-

and for an historical and educational celebration of the State's Centennial year the one hundredth anniversary of Indiana's admission to the Union. The Commission v^^as made to consist of nine members The Governor of the State, the Director of the Indiana Historical Survey torical material


James A. Woodburn) and the Director of the Department of Indiana History and Archives of the State Library (Professor Harlow Lindley of Earlham College) were by the act made ex-officio members of the Commission. The Indiana Historical Society was empowered to name a member and Mr. Charles W. Moores of Indianapolis, First Vice-President of that Society, was so designated. The Governor was authorized to appoint five other members. This he proceeded to do by naming the Rev. John Cavanaugh, President of Notre Dame University, Dr. Frank B. Wynn of Indianapolis, Mr. Samuel M. Foster, of Fort Wayne, Mr. Lew M. O'Bannon of Corydon, and Miss Charity Dye of Indianapolis. The creating act laid out work for the Commission on two lines: In the first place it was made the duty of the Commission to collect, edit, and publish documentary and other materials It was provided that the relating to the history of Indiana. published volumes of the Commission to be printed and bound at the expense of the State in such numbers as the Commission might direct, should be distributed free to each public library in the State and to the library of each college and normal school in the State. It was required that two hundred of Indiana University (Professor




copies should be supplied to the State Library and two hundred copies to the Indiana Historical Survey, these copies to be used in making exchanges for similar publications issued by the Historical Commissions, societies, and agencies of

other States. It was further provided that other copies of these historical and documentary volumes might be sold by the Historical Commission at a price to be fixed by that body, and the moneys received therefrom shall be placed in the State Treasury to the credit of the Historical Commission. The second and distinct line of work to which the Commission was required to give its attention was to prepare and execute plans for the Centennial celebration in 1916 of Indiana's admission to statehood.

In the execution of this task

was provided that the Commission might arrange such exhibits, pageants, and celebrations as it might deem proper to it

illustrate the epochs in the

growth of Indiana;

to reveal the

past and ity; to teach the development of industrial, agricultural, and The social life and the conservation of natural resources. Commission was authorized to prepare cuts, photographs, and materials illustrative of the history and development of the State and to cooperate in such manner as the Commission might determine with State and local authorities and agencies in stimulating public interest and activity in the celebration.

present resources of the State in each field of activ-

The members

of the

Commission while being allowed their

when attending the meetings of the Commission or engaged in its work, were allowed no compensation for their services. But the Commission was authorized to employ such clerical and other assistance as might be necessary to carry out its duties. Professor Walter C. Woodward of Earlham College was chosen Director, and Miss Lucy M. Elliott as Assistant Director of the Com-

actual and necessary traveling expenses

mission's activities.

For all of this work there was appropriated for the use of the Commission the sum of $25,000, of which $5,000 might be applied, if the

Commission so ordered, for the publication of

historical materials.

So much for the


act creating the

Commission and

defining the scope of its work.




seek to summarize as briefly as possible what

THE commission's ACTIVITIES


the Commission has done in the performance of its duties and in the execution of the tasks imposed upon it. Of the appropriation allowed ($25,000) the Commission at the outset laid aside $5,000 for the publication of historical

The remaining sum ($20,000) has been the amount Commission for the promotion of the Centennial celebrations throughout the State. It was evident from the small amount at the disposal of the Commission that any extensive and worthy celebrations would have to be financed by the people in the various localities in their own way, and that has been generally done by the people of the several communities in a splendid spirit of state pride and patriotism. The Commission used its small fund apart from the necessary expenses of the Commission in a steady campaign of education, to arouse and cultivate popular interest, to encourage local initiative and activity, and to give information and assistance in every way possible to the counties material.

at the disposal of the



communities in their celebrations.

A Campaign

of Centennial Education

The immediate problem confronting the Commission on its organization was one of publicity in its widest sense. The people of Indiana as a whole knew little and therefore cared little about the Centennial anniversary and its proper celeThere was the usual amount of inertia to overcome, bration. demands of business life to meet, and an unpresent the ever usually active political campaign with which to compete for

was therefore no

little task to unexcomparatively educate and to arouse the State over the observance. citing and unremunerative subject of Centennial Many and various were the means applied toward this end. General bulletins were issued for wide distribution, setting forth comprehensively the purpose of the Commission,

the attention of citizens.


and presenting plans for a state-wide celebration. bulletin

was addressed



to the county school superintendents

and pointing out how it might be given. Special articles were prepared for newspapers and periodicals and various news agencies. Starting in September, 1915, the Commission began the publication of a weekly news-letter, which served as a clearing house of information for the county chairmen and the press of the State. of Indiana, asking their cooperation

was published regularly for a little more than a year. Primarily for the children of Indiana, Miss Dye of the Commission edited a department known as "The Centennial Story Hour," in the Sunday edition of the Indianapolis Star, in which leading facts of Indiana history were entertainingly She also organized the "State-wide Letter Exchange" told. among the school children, wherein pupils from different parts of the State wrote each other of the interesting things in the history and life of their respective neighborhoods. Realizing the prime necessity of arousing the interest of the school population, as a potent means of publicity, to say It

nothing of permanent results, the Commission made an appeal directly to the teachers of Indiana through the county In this it had alinstitutes of the summer and fall of 1915. most the unfailing cooperation of the county superintendents. (26)


TJIE commission's ACTIVITIES

With a volunteer force consisting largely of a half dozen speakers, mostly connected with the Commission, a schedule was arranged by the Director whereby practically all the county institutes were addressed in the interest of the Cenand of a more thorough study of our own

tennial observance State.




commercial and

of addresses were also

made before

civic organizations, historical societies,



organizations and public gatherings of various kinds. The most arduous worker in this respect was Miss Dye, who made one hundred and fifty-two addresses and talks all over Indi-

The Secretary addressed county teachers' institutes in fourteen counties, and literary clubs and local historical societies in six counties. The Vice-President of the Commission made a great number of addresses and similar activity was shown by other members. The Director and Assistant Director naturally visited many sections of the State in the work of agitation and organization. While the majority of its meetings were held at the Capital, the Commission met a few times out in the State for the purpose of arousing interest ana.

different sections and giving encouragement. On such occasions public meetings were generally held, addressed by the members. The Commission met at Corydon in the auin

tumn, at Vincennes in the winter, and at South Bend and Bloomington in the spring. Many patriotic citizens who had no immediate connection with the Commission volunteered their services as speakers and were used effectively. In anticipation of the year's demands for speakers in connection with Centennial organization and celebrations, the Commission organized a volunteer speakers' bureau. Men and women throughout the State were called upon to donate their services in this direction, if needed, and almost no declinations were received. As soon as the work of the organization of the State, to be explained later, was pretty well accomplished, the Director issued a call to the county Centennial chairmen to assemble at the Capital early in December, for the purpose of discussing the practical problems that confronted them in their work.

The response was most hearty and encouraging. Busy men and women from all over the State spent the necessary time and money to be present and consider the best interests of



Indiana in her Centennial year. About fifty chairmen were in attendance and their interchange of ideas and plans was most helpful, exerting a profound influence on the work throughout Indiana. At this problem conference such subjects as county organization, finance, celebrational features, pageantry, home coming, cooperation with the schools, permanent memorials, gathering historical materials, and publicity,

were discussed. For the purpose of giving added impetus to the Centennial preparations, and of calling attention to the industrial resources of the State, the secretaries of the commercial bodies of Indiana, at their State meeting in January, in conjunction with the Director of the Commission, set apart February 22, as a rallying point of Centennial enthusiasm. triotic



this pa-

date Centennial banquets and dinners were held in towns and cities, at which nothing but products grown

or manufactured in the State were served. The Governor issued a proclamation declaring February 22 as "Indiana

Products Day." Attention was thus called in a striking manner to our material resources and an efi'ective means was given whereby, in the after dinner programs, interest and enthusiasm in the Centennial program for the State might be aroused. The Indiana Products Day movement was organized and carried through by the Commission.

Another effective means of publicity was that of the State Park movement, launched and carried on under the auspices of the Commission. The park campaign attracted wide notice and directed attention to the Centennial propaganda, of which it was a part. George Ade, Chairman of the State Committee on Home Coming, did a valuable piece of work for the Commission in giving publicity to the Centennial, without as well as within Indiana. He compiled a unique series of Hoosierly greeting and invitation, contributed by Governor Ralston, Vice-President Marshall, Ex-Vice-President Fairbanks, and by a galaxy of Indiana literary celebrities, which was published by the Bobbs-Merrill Company as ''An Invitation to You and Your Folks, from Jim and Some More of the Home Folks." The Commission distributed about five hundred copies of the Ade booklet to newspapers and magazines over the United States and a somewhat less number to the press of Indiana. The



THE commission's



Bobbs-Merrill Company published two editions of the book, aggregating eleven thousand copies. Several counties used it in connection v^ith their own celebrations, as a home coming invitation to former residents.



ment of a


of education

was found

in the


set of lantern slides, illustrating the historical de-

These slides have been circulating and clubs of the State and have been in continuous use. They were provided by the Commission but handled through the Department of History and Archives of velopment of Indiana.



the State Library.

In this connection


should be said that

the State Library has cooperated heartily with the

mission in of




educative activities, particularly in the issue which ably supplemented the Commission's


Under the general head of publicity and education, should be mentioned the promotion of the moving picture, "Indiana." The visualizing of the history of the State by the movie appealed strongly to the Commission as a popular and impressive means of education. But it was evident that the Commission was in no position to handle directly so big a project, and that the enterprise, if it should materialize, would have to be promoted as a business venture by private capital.

A company known as the Inter-State Historical Pictures Corporation was formed by Indiana citizens, which entered into contract with the Commission to operate under its auspices and sanction. The Corporation commissioned the Selig Polyscope Company of Chicago to produce the picture, on the basis of a scenario passed upon by the Commission. Work was begun in the Spring, and a seven reel film was completed by about the first of June. Owing to a combination of a late start and inclement weather, the picture was produced under somewhat unfavorable circumstances, causing some otherwise needless imperfections. On the whole, however, it presents a suitable and commendable picture show, suggestive of incidents in the historical life of Indiana. The picture featured James Whitcomb Riley telling the story of

Indiana to a group of Hoosier children. with many celebrations and

in connection



has been shown great demand

is in



The National Conference of Charities and Correction met IndianapoHs in the centennial year of 1916. On this occasion an extensive exhibit, illustrating the century's development in social work, was displayed on three floors of the State House, and a 156-page pamphlet called "A Century of Progress" was presented each delegate. These led to the following paragraph in the resolutions adopted by the Conference: in

We congratulate the State of Indiana in view of the amazing achievements of the past twenty-five years in the development of a state-wide program of social work. We believe that it is fair to say that no State in the Union has accomplished more in this direction in the same length of time and that no State, with the possible exception of Massachusetts, has come nearer to the development of a universal social program. * * * The splendid accomplishments of Indiana have been due largely to the leadership of the governors and citizens who have devoted themselves to this cause and to the wisdom with which the executive officers of the Board of State Charities and the public institutions have been selected.

In conclusion it must be stated that the newspapers of Indiana were naturally an important factor in whatever success the Commission achieved in carrying its Centennial message to the people. For the most part they manifested a patriotic and progressive interest in the cause, in the aid of

which many were most generous.


in Schools

and Clubs

knowledge of the world and its history in general, his education and culture cannot in anywise be called complete unless he knows his own State and immediate community, the past out of which they have developed, and the present which so vitally affects him and his neighbors. With this fundamental conception the Indiana Historical Commission started out in its propaganda for a statewide Centennial observance. The prime object therefore was to create a greater interest in, and more thorough knowledge of, our State and its local units. The natural place of beginning was found in the schools, since one has only to interest and direct the school children of a Commonwealth to reach almost directly the whole citizenship. The problem was attacked in various ways. It has already been stated how the Commission appealed to the teachers of Indiana through the county institutes. In the first place a great need was felt of giving pupils a knowledge of some of the fundamental facts in the history of their State. As a means and a basis of such, the Commission prepared a rather comprehensive outline or course of study in Indiana history for use throughout the grades, which the State Board For the furof Education placed in its manual for teachers. ther assistance of the latter, the Commission arranged a series of topics for discussion by teachers in their monthly

Whatever an



The extent


which the history of the State was seriously

undertaken in the schools was dependent largely upon the capacity and alertness of the school authorities in the counties It would as well as upon the ability and fitness of teachers.

be idle to claim that such study was nearly universal, but we do confidently assert that such an interest in Indiana and her history has been awakened in all our educational institutions, as has never been known and such as will mean much In fact, the Commission looks upon to our future citizenship. this as one of the most permanent and beneficial phases of its work. An immediate and concrete result in this awakened (33)



interest is found in the fact that the State Board of Education has ah-eady arranged for the inclusion in the United States history text-book of an adequate supplement on In-

This action was taken on the recommendation Chairmen held in December, 1915. Furthermore, the Board adopted an ''Indiana" speller, the words in which have to do with the life and endiana history.

of the conference of County Centennial

vironment of the State. the educational feature has been made effective by encouraging pupils to work up their own local his-

In another


This has put them with their elders to whom they have gone for information. It has been not only instructive and beneficial to them, but in many cases the result has been very desirable in the contribution which has been made to the history of our local communities. In some schools of the State all eighth grade students have been required to prepare their graduating essays on some phase of Indiana history, general or local. In another way the past has been visualized for tory in connection with their school work. in closer touch


in the collection of pioneer relics and mementoes which have been arranged in Centennial exhibits to which the public has been invited. In a more spectacular manner, the schools have done much, and worthily, in the way of dramatizing events in Indiana history. This work, being accomplished almost altogether by local initiative, has resulted in those who participated being able really to live the life of their State and community. Growing out of the study and more intimate knowledge of Indiana history. Centennial exercises were held far and wide. In a large number of counties special days were set apart for such observance throughout the schools. Not only did they have their own programs, but the pupils very generally had a very large part in the general celebrations of city and county. In both secondary and higher institutions of learning, commencement exercises were often featured by Centennial addresses in keeping with our anniversary. The observance of December 11 as Admission Day was largely and properly an observance on the part of the schools of Indiana. Here again a suitable program for the day's exercises was outlined by the Commission and inserted in the Teachers' Manual of the State Board of Education.

THE commission's



educational features of the year's work were by no The Centennial idea was made to the schools. of generally in the club activities in the State, both in


means confined


their regular programs and in their conventions. ganizations shaped their whole year's programs in




with the Centennial, studying various phases of Indiana's development. Others held one or more meetings, which were given special prominence. New "Indiana Study Clubs" were organized which have done effective work. ^S T^ ^V f^ The Indiana Federation of Clubs established regular departments having to do with Centennial interests. To those they have given prominence in State and district meetMiss Dye, who was the leader in the Federated Club ings. activities of the State, addressed ten of the thirteen district conventions, representing in all some seventy-five of the In gauging the eff"ectiveness of club ninety-two counties. activity it must be remembered the very important part which club women have played in the various Centennial celebrations and in other forms of observance. They have invariably been leaders and in many cases have been very largely responsible for the success of the


in the counties.

Pageantry Two

years ago he

an unknown

who spoke

to Hoosiers of pageantry,

The word was vaguely

assospoke in the heraldry, of boast "the worthies, ciated with those old "fanfare trumof spectacle," pomp of power," "magnificent pets," etc., but was popularly synonymous with our old friend, Today we laugh at such crass tried and true, the "Peerade." ignorance, for the Indiana Centennial has made "pageant" one of the commonest of Hoosier household words, the pronunciation of which is the shibboleth, dividing the Centennial elect


from the medievalists. discussion became general as



ways and means


observing our Centennial anniversary, this old but distant acquaintance made its appearance, but in new clothing. In order to give it a proper and somewhat formal introduction, the State University brought William Chauncy Langdon of New York to Bloomington to give a course at the summer term of 1915 on the general subject of pageantry. It should be noted that the University had just issued a comprehensive bulletin on the subject by Dr. Withington of its English Department. Through these and other agencies, the general content, scope and purpose of the pageant became known. It was explained that a pageant is a dramatic portrait of the community, past and present a mirror in which the community sees itself as it has been, is, and as it may be. The possibilities of pageantry appealed very strongly to the Commission as a means of drawing attention to Indiana history and of providing a form of Centennial observance which would draw whole communities together in a better understanding and appreciation of the history of their own neighborhood on the background of that of their State. It, therefore, decided to feature the pageant in such celebrations as should come more directly under its own auspices. But pageantry as a real community effort and expression is a very recent development, and there was felt the need of having some one with experience to set the pattern in Indi-


William Chauncy Langtloii, Pageant Mast it





and with the Mr. Hugh McK. University and financial help of the State Langdon, who was the Landon, secured the services of Mr. first president of the American Pageant Association, as State pageant master. Especial mention should be made of the generous contribution by Mr. Landon of money and time and effort in furthering the pageant movement in the State and of his able service as chairman of the State Pageant Committee. The duties involved on Mr. Langdon's part were primarily the writing and directing of three pageants one at the University, one at the old Capital, Corydon, and one at Indianapolis. At the same time the Commission carried on a campaign of education over the State, through bulletins, its weekly NewsLetter and through lectures, with the purpose of impressing the citizenship generally with the possibilities of the pageant as an agency of Centennial observance. Very effective work in this direction was done over Indiana by Miss Charity Dye of the Commission, who had written the New Harmony pageant two years before. She traveled extensively over the State in the cause and was also the author of a very helpful bulletin, "Pageant Suggestions for the Indiana Statehood Centennial Celebration," published and distributed by the ana.

The Commission,

therefore, in conjunction

Commission. In these ways the leaven was applied and interest in

pageantry over Indiana was soon manfest. The first fruitage of all this propaganda was in the University pageant at Bloomington, or more properly speaking, the Bloomington pageant. In a large sense it was what it was intended to be a laboratory pageant, an object lesson to the people of Indiana in pageantry. After having read and studied about pageantry, interested people went to Bloomington from far and near, to see and study at first hand. One striking and significant development in the work should be noted. In the early stages of preparation, the one great problem which presented itself to the various communities was that of authorship and direction. So serious it was that for a time it seemed probable that relatively few pageants would be attempted. Professional pageant masters were not at hand, and imported ones constituted a luxury that few places could afford, even had they been available. But Hoosiers are nothing if not resourceful and versatile, particu-



larly when a pad and pencil are involved. In short they were quick to "catch on," with the result that pageant writing was soon in progress by the home product route, from the Ohio In all, some forty-five pageants were prenorthward. sented in Indiana in 1916, and aside from those over which Mr. Langdon had control, all but about a half-dozen, were written and directed by home talent. In some cases the results were somewhat crude to be sure, but they were the expression of the community. In others, however, the "made in Indiana" pageants compared very favorably indeed with any given in the State. As an indication of the scope of the movement in Indiana, it is estimated that two hundred and fifty thousand citizens saw at least one pageant during the year, and that from thirty thousand to forty thousand people par-

ticipated therein.

For the most part, these pageants, while presenting the broad outlines of the history of the State as a whole, have at the same time depicted the history of the more immediate neighborhoods in which they were given. In this way the local history of a very considerable part of the Commonwealth was dramatized, since the geographical distribution of the pageants has been rather surprisingly uniform, although the pageant area par excellence was that of the Pocket, or southwestern section of Indiana. The most difficult problem in pageantry but the one in which the possibilities were greatest, was that of the county, participated in by the respective townships. It was a problem in unity and organization, but where successfully solved, the results achieved in bringing the whole county together as an organic community, were in proportion to the difficulties overcome. The county pageants were those of Bartholomew at Columbus, Dubois at Huntingburg, Johnson at Franklin, Henry at New Castle, Montgomery at Crawfordsville, Parke at Rockville, Perry at Cannelton, Posey at Mt. Vernon, Spencer at Rockport, Warrick at Boonville, Shelby at Shelbyville, Grant at Marion and White at Monticello. City or regional pageants, or both, were those of Fort Wayne, New Albany, Vincennes, Michigan City, Bloomington, Peru, South Bend, Purdue University, Evansville and Earlham College; State pageants those of Corydon and Indianapolis.

THE commission's



County pageants, but put on largely by the county seats, were those of Decatur at Greensburg, prepared but not given, Elkhart at Goshen, Fayette at Connersville, Marshall at Plymouth, Owen at Spencer, Pike at Petersburg, Porter at Valparaiso, and Washington at Salem. Local community pageants were given at Syracuse in Kosciusko, Irvington in Marion, Troy in Perry, Owensville and Oakland City in Gibson, Roann in Wabash, Richmond in Wayne, That given by the Boys' School at Plainfield was in a sense local, but dealt with Those of Cass and Clinton counties were school state history. pageants.

The Commission considers


an excellent showing for

one year's work, the merits of which are evident. By thus visualizing the past, its chapters have been made more intelligible and strikingly interesting. As nothing else has done, the pageant has brought all classes of a community together with a common purpose. Indeed whole counties have thus been brought together, old rivalries being forgotten in a closer acquaintanceship and a better understanding. And all has been done in the name of Indiana, for which a deeper devotion has been inspired.

Permanent Memorials So long as gratitude and reverence and patriotism shall endure among people, so long will they give expression to these sentiments through the erection of memorials. The latter are the concrete evidences of the fact that a people is still worthy of a glorious past. They are also silent harbingers of a future of continued achievement. It would thus be strange and a source of some inquietude, had the year 1916 seen no Centennial markers and memorials placed here and there throughout Indiana. The Commission early called attention to the subject of permanent memorials, giving all encouragement possible toward their erection. As is shown elsewhere in this general report, one of the most far-reaching results of its activity has been the promotion of a system of State parks as a great popular Centennial memorial. Thus encouraged, many places over the State have done good work in marking historic spots, and in thus memoralizing men and events in our history. It is too early yet to give a complete report of what has been accomplished in this respect, but the nature and trend of the work may be indicated. The results will by no means be limited to 1916. Such an interest has been aroused that we believe that the permanent memorials put up during the past year will serve as a great impetus to further efforts. In fact, certain worthy projects have been launched this year in the hope of future fulfillment. In honor of prominent characters in our history, may be Fort Wayne erected a monument in memory of Johnny Appleseed, "St. Francis of the Orchards." South Bend placed a tablet on the home of Schuyler Colfax. Tipton placed a stone in honor of General John Tipton, for whom the county was named. Washington county placed a beautiful marker in the yard of the old John Hay home in Salem. At Delphi a massive stone was placed in memory of the old Milroy family, prominent in the early history of the State. In Spencer cgunty memorials have been placed on the sites of the Lincolns' home and of their landing in Indiana. cited the following:


THE commission's




state-wide movement has been undertaken for the erection at the Capital of a suitable monument commemorating

the heroic virtues of the Pioneer Mother, Several markers have been placed on historic highways

as in Marion county on the National Road; in Marion, Jefferson and Decatur counties on the Old Michigan Road; in Parke, on the William Henry Harrison Trail to



Tippecanoe; in Dubois on the Freeman boundary survey line; in Porter on the Old Sac Trail; in Wabash at the Treaty Spring; and in Jackson at the intersection of the Ten o'clock and Grouseland Indian Treaty boundary lines. The Daughters of the American Revolution, who have done good work in this direction



at the

and who placed some of the above, also placed Van Buren Elm on the National Road as it

goes through Plainfield. In north Indianapolis a stone was placed with due ceremony, marking the site of Camp Morton. In Hancock county an Indiana Centennial memorial stone was placed at the public library in Greenfield. In Boone county, tablets were placed on the site of the first schoolhouse in Lebanon and on that of the first church in Jefferson township. In Montgomery a marker was placed at Crawfordsville, in honor of the founding of Wabash College. In Porter the site of the first schoolhouse was appropriately marked, and in Spencer that of the first settler.

Some permanent memorials have been erected with the human betterment in view. Fayette

philanthropic motive of

is building a Centennial memorial hospital and has dedicated a public drinking fountain at Connersville. Jay county raised funds for a hospital at Portland. Owen county contributed generously toward the purchase of McCormick's


Creek Canyon as the first public park. Tipton county raised a Centennial memorial fund for the purpose of erecting an auditorium at the Tipton city park. A new Moose Lodge home was dedicated as a part of the Centennial exercises at Fort Wayne. In Jay and Carroll counties new court houses will stand as Centennial projects, and in Parke a new Carnegie Library.

There is one possibility in permanent memorials, for which a desire has been expressed in different sections, which appeals strongly to the Commission and toward which it 3— 15'n changed from Tiptona to Columbus. b. Sale of Lots—June 15, 1821. a. William Chapman and other settlers and neighborhood people gather for sale. b. County Agent States Terms of Sale and Sells Lots.

Episode Pioneer Life Scene Scene




— Religious,


Educational, Social, Industrial.

The Circuit Rider, 1821. The School Master: Singing of Geography Lessons, Speeches, Passing of Water-bucket and Gourd. The Singing School.



84 Scene Scene


Scene Scene Scene



7. 8.

The Coming of the Mail. Corn Husking and Frolic (Clay Township). Wool Picking. The State Eoad, 1823. The Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, 1843-44. Old Time Political Rally.

Episode IV




Period, 1861.



Scene Scene


The "Underground Railroad," 1840-1861. (The Quakers of Sand Creek Township). News of Fort Sumter (Street Scene).



a. b.



Sound of Bugle, Fife and Drum. Departure of Soldiers Good-byes.

Episode Finale


Scene Scene


2. 3.

The Modern


— Centennial.


Songs, Folk Dances, Etc, Flag Salute Reviewed by Old Soldiers. Grand Ensemble of Players Reviewed Hymn to Indiana.

All unite with the

The other feature




band and sing "America."

of the

Bartholomew observance was a

week's exhibit of historical relics, enthusiastically collected from over the county. The county was represented at Indianapolis on October 6th by Miss Jane McEwan, who rode in the Cavalcade. Chas. F. Remy, of Indianapolis, formerly of Bartholomew County, rode in the parade as General Bartholomew. Mayor H. K. Volland carried the county's banner, followed by a half dozen autos of Bartholomew citizens.

Admission Day was very generally observed by the schools on December 11th throughout the county.

BENTON As a county, Benton had no part in the observance of the Indiana Centennial. It had two or three county chairmen at different times and in reality no chairman at all. Chas. H. Dodson, County School Superintendent, was looked upon as a natural leader in the movement but so far as reported he did not even organize the work in the schools.



The only observance reported was that made by the Fowler schools on


26th, under the direction of Superintendent

It was a daytime, outdoor performance, Chas W. Steele. viewed by an audience of about one thousand people. The first number was an allegorical representation of the admission of Indiana into the Union, followed by a scene from Hia-

watha. The third exorcise was a series of beautiful drills representing the introduction of Young Indiana by Father Time. Friday afternoon in a pioneer school was a reminiscent feature, appropriately followed by such pioneer pasttimes as the quilting and husking bees and the minuet. The pioneer school motif was further carried out in the presentation of a part of "The Hoosier Schoolmaster." A Riley pageant was given, in which well known Riley characters were impersonated by school children in costume. The exercises closed with a Centennial finale comprising the ensemble of all the participants grouped around Indiana.

BLACKFORD The Blackford County Centennial effort and observance were confined almost wholly to a parade which occurred on Centennial day of the Hartford City Fall Festival. A sustained, well organized movement, on a real educational basis, was wanting. Apart from the one day's showing there was

recognition of the year throughout the county not even excepting the schools. The showing made on the day in question was evidently very good. The various townships took part and sixty-one floats were reported arranged by schools, and various fraternal and literary organizations. To the credit of those in charge, the parade was largely historical, manifesting an appreciation of the significance of the anniversary. All phases of the early life of Indiana were clearly depicted, and in a way to give the desirable local color and sidelights. In addition definite historical and patriotic events were portrayed, national as well as state and county. Effective symbolic floats little

were also in evidence. The day was planned by M. C. Townsend, Superintendent of the Hartford City Schools, who acted as County Chairman.



BOONE In comparing the Centennial showing made in Indiana, a very high rating must be given Boone as one of the model counties, befitting the home of Indiana's Centennial Governor. The encouraging results achieved were due, first, to the se-

curing of an excellent Chairman in the person of Mr. Ben F. Lebanon Pioneer. To him the responsibility imposed was a sacred trust, in the fulfillment of which he gave himself most conscientiously and generously. Given a good chairman, who commanded loyal support, the Centen]\IcKey, editor of the

on a high, patriand were carried out accordingly. Boone had a highly successful -county celebration, along with the m,ajor-

nial plans for the county v/ere early outlined otic plane,

her sister counties, but, unlike many of the latter, much more. Through the systematic work in the schools, in clubs and in the townships, there v^as from the first of the year on a steady progress in Centennial observance vvhich prepared the v/ay for, and led easily and logically up to the county celebration held in the middle of September. From the very first step in organization, an encouraging interest was manifested. In January, the Director of the Commission spoke to a very representative gathering of Lebanon citizens at the court house, and found them alive and eager. In the following month, the Secretary of the Commission spoke to a company including representatives from the townships. In April Miss Charity Dye addressed an audience of about one hundred women who came in from over the ity of

she had


As a central organization, Mr. McKey appointed a local executive committee, composed of C. F. S. Neal, Phil Adler, H. G. Brown, superintendent of the Lebanon schools, W. E. Callane, Mrs. W. H. Williams, Miss Lydia Bell, school principal, J. L. Wade, A. E. Witt and County School Superintendent, E. M. Servies. Supplementary committees were later appointed, having to do especially with arrangements for the county celebration. From the time of organization in January, regular weekly meetings of the Executive Committee were held, which indicates the determination and seriousness of purpose with which the work was undertaken. At the same time the Chairman began effecting a county organization, through the appointment of committees of



three in the various townships. The result was that, including Central, eight of the twelve townships held celebrations: The Chairmen of these were Marion, B. F. Wheeler Washington, Mrs. Harry Ryan; Sugar Creek, Professor S. A. Long; ;


Jefferson, C. O.

Brown; Union, Rolla


Gates; Eagle, Profes-

Worth, J. T. Laughner. The schools cooperated most heartily and effectively

sor T. H. Stonecipher


in the

Indeed, there was little differentiation between them and the county organization, with the city and county school authorities active in the latter. February 22d was made Centennial day in the schools throughout the

Centennial cause.

county, thus early bringing the subject before the whole citizenship. Some attention was also given Indiana history in

connection with the regular work in history classes and in general opening exercises. In most of the townships the The graduating exerfacts of local history were presented. cises of both the midyear and year end Eighth grade classes of Lebanon were of a purely Centennial nature, their arrange-





upon Miss Lydia

Bell, principal,

a member of the Executive Comjiiitteo. Papers were prepared and read by the midyear class, presenting important phases of Indiana history. The May class enacted a more dramatic presentation, the first part being taken from Miss Dye's pageant of New Harmony; the second part, the announcement of epochs in Indiana history by pages; and the Adthird, an adaptation of McKnight's ''Drama of Indiana." mission Day was very generally observed by the schools of the county.

Lebanon, under the direction of Miss in placing, with appropriate Bell, bronze tablet marking the site of dedicatory exercises, a Lebanon's first school. The tablet bears the inscription, "Site of First School Building, 1834, Erected by School Children, 1916." The unveiling exercises were held May 12, honor guests of the occasion being several pioneer residents who had been pupils in the charter school of the city. A history of the Lebanon schools was prepared and read by ]\Irs. Julia N. Harvey, she having been connected with them as teacher for more than forty years. As a part of the educational propaganda, the effective work of Mrs. Cora Bynum, head of the public library, was an


city schools of

did a very worthy thing



important feature. Having a conception of the true function of the library in a community, she made it serve as an organ of education and publicity in furthering the Centennial idea. Clubs, church and fraternal organizations were zealous in observing the year. The city clubs of the women emphasized The Civic the Centennial in one or more of their programs. Club beautified and maintained a lot in the heart of the city in recognition of the anniversary.

Social functions



quently given a decided Centennial flavor. All this activity was preparatory and preliminary to that In his issue of formal celebration, though equally important. McKey made this plain Chairman of May of the Pioneer 11,

and commendable declaration of faith: "The Centennial celebration and home coming to be held in Lebanon September 14, 15 and 16, is in nowise a carnival or commercial enterprise, but strictly what its name implies a celebration of the admission of Indiana into the Union of States, and a review of the part Boone County has taken in the development While this high purpose was announced priof the State." marily for the central county celebration, its spirit permeated the whole county, excluding those undesirable features which in some places prostituted the Centennial ideal. With the exception of Sugar Creek, all the township celebrations were held in August. Worth came first on the second near Whitestown, in connection with the Red Men's picnic. Papers were read covering the history of the township, politically, religiously, educationally, industrially and from a military point of view. The Jefferson observance took place on two separate dates, Sunday, August 10, and on the following Thursday. The exercises on Sunday had to do with the placing of a memorial marking Pleasant View Church as the oldest in the township. The address, following the recital of the history of the church, was given by Hon. A. M. Hall of Indianapolis. The general celebration was held at Routh's Grove, the program

consisting of old-time music, flag drill, appropriate readings, reminiscences, short addresses and a demonstration of the

process of converting wool into yarn on an old spinning-wheel, given by Mrs. Thomas Lawson. Many old relics were exhibited.

Marion township celebrated August 12 at Mayfield grove.

COUNTY CELEBRATIONS with a review of


history and a general address by Dr. Washington township began its observ-


Horace ElHs. The ance with a basket dinner in the W. C. Smith grove on the An excellent program, prepared by the Sunday schools 16th. of Bethel, New Salem and Mechanicsburg, the two churches of Mechanicsburg and the public school children, was given, followed by an address by H. E. Van Nuys, comparing the The conditions of pioneer life with those of the present. Union celebration occurred at Cutts' grove on the 17th. Talks were given on the early settlers, the Michigan road, and on Eagle township celebration and home local development. coming was held in connection with the Zion Park Assembly The program emphasized the at Zionsville on August 18th. development of the various phases of community life since Pioneer life was re-pictured the coming of the first settlers. the pupils of the Zionsville and in evening re-lived the and high school presented the spectacle, "Pocahontas." The Thorntown or Sugar Creek township celebration was Occuthe only one to follow that of the county at Lebanon. pying two days, September 29 and 30, it was given on a bigger scale than any of the other local celebrations, as was to be expected in a place of Thorntown's size and enterprise, together with its historic associations, located in the limits of the old Indian reservation. A pageant or spectacle, of a general nature, picturing important scenes in National history, but including phases of state and local history as well, was given on each day and a

community Centennial parade took place on Saturday. The moving picture, "Indiana," was given before an immense outdoor throng. A fine exhibit of pioneer relics was made in the windows of the business houses. But the activities of the county naturally culminated in the central celebration held at Lebanon, the middle of Sep-

tember. As a feature of its publicity, the Committee issued a poster of novel design, picturing a large frog sitting at the edge of the swamp, indicative of the swampy Boone county

We Forget," and an announcement of the celebration and home coming. The celebration opened September 14, with Lebanon beautifully decorated. The 4th was desig-nated as Woman's Day and was under the auspices of the Woman's Clubs. In the

of old, with the words, "Lest



afternoon, the members, in Colonial costume, received the Centennial guests in rooms specially fitted up in the fine new court house, entertaining them after the manner of the In the evening the latter were further stately days of old. portrayed in a public Colonial ball, in which the old-time

dances and recreations were presented. Friday was School and Patriotic Day, thirty-two hundred and eighty school children of the county participating in the program, every township being represented in the parade. The latter presented an inspiring, patriotic spectacle, with every teacher and student bearing the American flag. Follovv'ing the parade, flag raising exercises were held in the court house yard, a new flag pole being dedicated and a handsome flag, presented to the G. A. R. by the W. R. C, flung to the breeze. In the afternoon various phases of the county's history

and development were graphically shown by the township Among them an Indian episode, "The White Man's schools. Foot," by Thorntown and Sugar Creek township; "The Country Doctor," Washington; "An Old Time Church Service," Clinton; "Colonial Minuet," primary department Lebanon schools; "The Husking Bee," Perry; "The Quilting Bee," Union; "An Apple Paring," Marion; "Boone County To-day," Lebanon. Saturday's program opened with a civic and industrial parade, containing some very artistic features. This was known as Governor's Day, Governors Bilbo and Pleasants, of Mississippi and Louisiana, respectively, to be the visiting executives, with Governor Ralston as host. At a late date, however, the Southern governors v/ired their inability to be present, when Professor James A. Woodburn and Dr. Frank B. Wynn, members of the Commission, were secured, who, vv'ith the Governor, gave informal and appropriate addresses, bringing the celebration to a fitting and impressive close. ^

Throughout the observance, a surprisingly fine collection of relics and antiques was on display in the show windows, which attracted much favorable comment. The historical picture, "Indiana," was shown on each day. Chairman McKey, in editorially announcing the celebration as an unqualified success, said: "The program was clean, entertaining and educational, entirely devoid of the street fair



There was absolutely nothing for which the public was charged a fee, and the expense, amounting to nearly a thousand dollars, was borne by subscriptions In referring to the local celeof the citizens of Lebanon." brations, he pointed out that with each township emphasizing its own history, much material had been gathered for the or



And in concluding, "If these celebrations result in future. the formation of a County Historical Society, as a nucleus for the collection of historical data and relics, they will have all the time, energy and money spent in bringing

been worth

them about." Having acquitted itself so well at home, it was regrettable that Boone County did not participate in County Day of the State Celebration and thus come through the Centennial year with a perfect score.


the record stands, however, the

Boone may be proud of the part which their county the making of Centennial history.

citizens of

took in

BROWN Brown county folks did not surge with Centennial enthusiasm. No celebration was held within the county. W. C. Coble, head of the Nashville schools, accepted the chairmanship, started a few things and tried to start more, but found little or no response. He had members of the High School graduating class prepare papers upon "A Century of Indiana History," the graduates of the previous year having written upon "Institutional Plistory of Brown County." Indiana history was taught in the Nashville schools during the year. On February 22, the High School Domestic Science class gave a Brown County Products Dinner. At the local Chautauqua, one day was given over to a Brown County home coming.

CARROLL Given, a resourceful, energetic, public spirited citizen, living on an Indiana farm which has been in the family since 1832 and cherishing, among other pioneer heirlooms, the old saddle-bags in which the money was carried to the frontier to pay for it whose uncle was the first white child to be born in what was to be known as Carroll County; required, to find an ideal county Centennial chairman. This was the self;



evident problem presented to interested citizens of Carroll and the answer was Mrs. Chas. Buckley of Delphi. Both Mr. and Mrs. Buckley were keenly alive to the meaning and possibilities of the Centennial, and while the latter assumed the responsibility of organization and leadership, the zealous and of the former was a big factor in her success. was one county chairman who was literally Buckley Mrs. and out. Filled with unquenchable enseason instant in the full confidence of her people, she enjoying and thusiasm, have been done in every county in might what demonstrated Mrs. Buckleys to go around. enough been Indiana had there the Commission and rarely, with touch She kept in constant present a problem or an appeal to if ever, did the Director did not promptly respond she the county chairmen to which efficient



With a grasp of the

situation that boded success, Mrs.

Buckley proceeded at once to enlist the active cooperation of the school forces of the county and appealed directly to the trustees of the thirteen townships, appearing at their monthly meetings, and with remarkable success. Each trustee was made chairman of his township committee, and was to cooperate generally, in looking after the historical and educational interests of the celebration. She interviewed the teachers personally, arousing their enthusiasm in the Cen-

She had March 17 designated as "Historical Day" which was very generally observed. The grade schools of Delphi presented a pageant prepared by the Misses Emma and Josephine Shealey, with so great success that it had to be repeated. In nearly every locality, competitive essays on local history were prepared by pupils. Despite an obstructive county superintendent, therefore, Indiana's tennial. in




was made


mean something


the Carroll



editors of the five representative papers of the county

were appointed a publicity committee, and did good service in acquainting their readers with Centennial plans and ideals. Mrs. Buckley took the pains to edit a column of her own, however, in which she set forth interesting facts of local history, presented suggestive questionnaires

and kept the Cen-

tennial pot boiling generally. The Citizen-Times of Delphi was especially generous and effective in its cooperation. The



Chairman did not rely solely upon the schools and the newspapers to carry the Centennial message. She attended the farmers' institutes, urging the cause upon those in attcr.'' ance. She saw to it that Indiana Products Day was observed by the Delphi Business Men's Association, thus calling to their attention the anniversary and its significance. The day was also observed at Flora. The Sunday Carroll county was organized May 1, 1828. falling nearest that date was April 30, which was made "Observance Day," on which all the churches held appropriate pioneer services. In the spring some local celebrations were held in connecWashington township held a big Cention with the schools. tennial rally on March 17th, with a big township parade in the forenoon, a community picnic dinner enjoyed by four or five hundred people, and a good program in the afternoon. The county celebration, on which all preparations focused, was fixed for August 10 to 13. The financial responsibility was assumed by the business men of Delphi. August 10 was designated "Pioneer Day." The program was furnished by Washington, Carrollton, Burlington, Rock Creek, Jackson and Monroe townships of the eastern part of the county, with Professor J. C. Trent of Flora as Chairman. The townships put on a very creditable parade in the forenoon, commendably historical in character. The program for the afternoon, as in fact for the entire celebration, was permeated with pioneer atmosphere. Prizes were offered for the best old-time recitation, the best dressed pioneer couple, best pioneer outfit, the best township glee club, to the couple bringing in the Features of pioneer life generally largest family of children. were exploited. The address of the day was given by Attorney P. H. O'Donnell of Chicago, formerly of Washington township, and Irish dances were put on by his daughters, accompanied by an Irish piper. Friday was "Carroll Day," the program being furnished by Clay, Madison, Tippecanoe, Jeflferson and Adams townships, and was similar to that of the previous day. Geo. E. Sites of Yeoman was chairman. A new feature was an oldfashioned spelling match. The circuit rider made his appearance as a center of interest, as did the country doctor the day before.



Saturday was known as ''Old Settlers' and Home Coming Day," and for it Deer Creek township and Delphi were responsible, with city school superintendent C. F. Bradshaw, chairman. Probably one of the most important features oi the week, if not of the year, took place in the forenoon in the formal dedication of a huge memorial stone, marking the spot where, ninety years before, Gen. Samuel Milroy, the first The Milroys were not settler, raised his cabin on arrival. only very early pioneers,' but prominently identified with the The address was delivered by history of State and county. Anof the old General. grandson Chicago, of Milroy Chas. other member of the family, H. C. Milroy, artist-farmer, v/as largely responsible for the realization of this cherished projThe monument bears the legend "Site ect of Mrs. Buckley. :

of Cabin Home, Gen. Samuel Milroy, 1826, on the Banks o' Deer Crick," and set apart from this, "1816-1916, Hoosier The afterState Centennial Pioneers of Carroll County." program. Settlers' Old an to given over noon was A Centennial vesper service was held Sunday evening, the address being given by Rev. Chester W. Wharton of Kentland. A popular feature of the celebration was the public, out-

door showing of the history film, "Indiana." An exhibition of relics was made during the observance, in charge of the Charles Carroll Chapter D. A. R. of Delphi. In fine, probably no county celebration in the State was more thoroughly historical in character than that of Carroll.

The county was represented by Miss Minnie Snocbcrger


the Centennial Cavalcade at the state celebration on October Mrs. Buckley had all plans made for a float for the pro6.

was disappointed in not being able on which she had depended. Mr. and Mrs. Buckley made some very material contributions to the state exhibit of relics of household arts, given by the John Herron Art Institute during the month of October.

cession, but at the last to secure the material

CASS Despite the fact that there



of historic interest in

Cass County, conservatism or inertia, and a reluctance to assume responsibility, operated to prevent a real Centennial movement within its limits. It has a long established his-



but the latter lacked the virility necessary for leadership and constructive work, and made too little use of the opportunity at hand to arouse an interest in local hisThis seems all the more regrettable from torical matters. the fact that the society has long wished to secure the funds necessary for the erection of a building, for which a site has been bequeathed. However, the society hopes to be able to erect in 1917 its permanent home for the housing of its materials, now scattered throughout the county. After many ineffectual efforts, a chairman was finally secured in January, in the person of A. H. Douglass, superintendent of the Logansport schools. He restricted his activities to the schools, however, with the result that the movement did not reach the citizenship as a whole. And, even thus, they were focused principally upon one day of celebration rather than upon the more permanent and effective work which might have been done in the more routine work of the pupils. No attempt was made to coordinate the work of the county with that of the State in the wider Centennial intertorical society


With these implied criticisms of what w^as not done, hearty commendation is offered for the successful accomplishment of that which was attempted. The annual field day exercises, featuring the closing days of the Logansport schools, was turned into a County School Centennial celebration. June 2 was chosen as the day, in which twenty-two hundred Cass County pupils participated in a school pageant at Spencer Park, before a crowd of probably ten thousand people. Large credit for the success of the day belongs to Miss Sue Blassingham, supervisor of the city schools, who was largely responsible for the arrangement and direction of the pageant. The first episode was a beautiful symbolic representation of the Wilderness, the coming of the spirit of Civilization and the ensuing conflict between the latter and the spirit of the Wilderness in which Civilization overcomes. Hundreds of children appeared in this gorgeous and attractive spectacle, depicting almost every conceivable phase of wild life, from the moth and gay butterfly and the modest wild flower to the bear and the buffalo. Episode two was devoted to Indian Life, portraying the life in the village, the hunt, games and recreations, prepara6—15997



war and the- war dance and the march against the enemy, interrupted by the arrival of the missionaries. The third episode dealt with the period of the dominance of the white man, from the arrival of LaSalle and the fur The coming of the pioneers and the reproduction of traders. phases of pioneer life were very effective, as was the passing The Civil of the Indians as shown in "The Trail of Death." War period was given in "The Call of '61," followed by the march of the States, each being represented through a well tions for

Last, came "Glorious Incharacteristic or tradition. diana," attended by the notables who had figured in the "Wilderness history" of the State, from LaSalle to Jonathan Jennings, followed by an escort of Indiana's famous sons and


daughters. In the finale, all the participants in the pageant joined in singing "Indiana" and "On the Banks of the Wabash."

While nothing was actually accomplished in that direction markers are proposed for locating historic

in 1916, several spots.

CLARK Claiming as it does the oldest English settlement in the State in Clarksville, the home of Indiana's first Governor in Charlestown, the home and domain of George Rogers Clark himself, whose honored name it bears, it would seem that Clark County would have been most keenly alive to the spirit of 1916.

In addition to

its historic possibilities it

enthusiastic leader in Capt. L. C. Baird, active

had a most


of affairs


attended the conference of County Centennial Chairmen at the State Capitol in December and lent much to its discussions and general inas well as historian of his county.


and value.

An admirably planned week of observance was announced, incorporating in its scheme the participation of the whole county. But the county furnished one of the few exceptions to the rule that enthusiastic and capable leadership was equal to any emergency in putting the thing across. In the face of the zeal of its next door neighbor, Floyd County, Clark yawned and languished, and in June Capt. Baird resigned in despair and disgust. Apparently the cause was to go entirely by




But there were a few women

in Jefferson vi lie of the in-

trepid spirit of George Rogers Clark himself, members of the Ann Rogers Clark chapter of the D. A. R. The Regent, Mrs.

Nathan Sparks, was determined that the county should not be lost to honor altogether, and rallied her forces to the resThe result was a day of observance at Jeffersonville on cue. September 30, under the auspices of the Chapter. It was primarily a children's day or rally. In the forenoon a parade occurred and in the afternoon an appropriate program of exercises, drills

and folk dances was given, some of those be-

ing reproduced which had been so effectively presented by the Jeffersonville school children under the direction of Miss Lena Board, at the Corydon celebration in June. Clark County also elected a young lady in the person of


Mary Dubel

to represent


in the Centennial


at the state celebration at Indianapolis.

Furthermore, as ting Admission


if to

make up

for earlier remissness,


exercises were held in Jeffersonville on

December 11, presided over by Mayor E. W. Rauth. Following a patriotic orchestral and choral musical program, an address on "Early Days in Indiana" was delivered by Capt. L. C. Baird. the evening of

CLAY In this instance it proved to be a case A decade ago the coal mining industry of too much clay. was paramount in Brazil and the county. When the mines began to fail, a new industry was developed in the manufacThis is ture of clay products, with ten plants in operation.

What's in a name?

the prologue.

Early in the season there was nothing to indicate that Clay County would not take its place with its colleagues in The educathe proper observance of the State's Centennial. In December tional work began propitiously in the schools. 1915, Mr. Dick Miller of Indianapolis gave an inspirational address before the high school students of Brazil. In February, Miss Dye of the Commission made a visit to the county



seat during which she made four talks and addresses, and reported encouraging interest. Mr. John G. H. Klingler was made county chairman. Iminersed in business, he seemed unable to give the prompt and



adequate attention to the work which would have been for However, tentative plans were finally laid for a the best. to be held the last of September, featured celebration county

by a pageant. In July, a general strike on the part of the workers tied up the clay industries of the county and likewise cut the sinews of celebration. Business was to a degree paralyzed and had no heart for patriotic observance. As a result, apart

from the work done in the schools, in accordance with the plan furnished by the Commission, Clay county had little or no part in the year's Centennial program.



brave array of committees, fully manned, failed to put "We thought across the Centennial idea in Clinton County. work," laconically reit was well organized but it didn't ported County Chairman 0. M. Pittinger, superintendent of the Frankfort schools. Outside of Frankfort, the only activity manifested was in the adjoining communities of Scircleville and Hillisburg in the eastern part of the county, in which were held admirable

and community celebrations in the spring. The Frankfort public schools gave a splendid all-day celebration on May 25, opened by a flag drill participated in by A pageant play was given by the pupils of the 1,500 pupils. Central Building, the synopsis of which follows: school

The Spirit of the Wilderness summons The Powers of the Forest, The Powers of the River and The Mist Maidens v>'ho dance together with the untrammeled joy of untamed creatures. A shot is heard. The Powers flee. The Spirit of The Wilderness pauses for a moment, a look of anger on her face as if she would see who dared to break into her kingdom. The Pioneer Man and The Pioneer Woman enter the clearing. The Spirit of the Wilderness, followed by all the Powers of the Forest bear down upon them. The Pioneer Man and The Pioneer Woman repulse them. The Powers of the River lash out at them. After the Powers are driven away, The Pioneer Man and The Pioneer Woman meet and conquer Fever, Famine and Death. When the victory is won, The Spirit of the Wilderness approaches and calls upon all the other Powers to pay tribute to the Pioneers and they follow them into the forest, indicating their humility and willingness to serve.

Pupils of the same building presented the Battle of Tippecanoe. An Abraham Lincoln episode was given by High



School pupils; scenes from the lives of early missionaries in Indiana by the Woodside school and a representation of an arly church by first ward pupils. Eggleston's "The Hoosier School Master" was dramatized by pupils of the second ward. The afternoon was given over to games and athletic sports. A county celebration was planned to take place in the fall, but interest seemed to have spent itself in the Frankfort In a word, the school people of the county school observance. seat held high the Centennial banner while its citizens generally allowed it to trail in the dust. Miss Goldine Grove of Frankfort, seated on a prancing thoroughbred, represented Clinton in the Centennial Cavalcade at Indianapolis. Admission Day was observed by the High School and one or two of the grade schools of Frankfort and by the Michigan(



CRAWFORD For a county which claims to have furnished more soldiers Union in the Civil War than any other in the State, for population, Crawford might have been expected to make a better showing of state patriotism. It did for the defense of the

practically nothing in recognition of the Indiana Centenary.

Numerous representative jority of



did not so


were appealed


as deign a reply.

the maInterest

seemed almost wholly lacking.

Some recognition was given in the schools of the county under the leadership of the county superintendent, S. A. Beals. He set apart February 11 as Centennial Day, on which nearly all the schools held appropriate exercises. In some instances two or three of those of smallest enrollment united in the giving of programs. It was Mr. Beals' plan to bring teacher, pupil and patron together, each to have a part, by recitation or reminiscence in the review of state or local history.

Finally, in April, the Commission got in touch with ]\Iiss Lucy Thornbury of English, who evinced an active and patriotic interest in the cause, and accepted the chairmanship. She began at once to perfect plans and July 4th was fixed as the date of a county celebration. A long and serious illness compelled her to relinquish the leadership, however, which no one else would assume. Hence these short and simple annals.



DAVIESS "Our Centennial Celebration on Monday, October 13, 1916, was the biggest and best demonstration in our city within its The people of the city were simply dumbfounded as history. they witnessed the immense procession. Over 3,000 school children, floats, wagons, vehicles of all kinds, log cabins on wagons and all, more than two miles in length, witnessed by



lined the streets on all sides."

Thus came the first returns of the Daviess celebration from the enthusiastic pen of the chairman, Hamlet Allen, Superintendent of the Washington schools. A fine gentleman of the old school, Mr. Allen was not too thoroughly engrossed with the stress of latter day education to take time to


vate his soul and those of the young people entrusted to his He care, through an appreciative recognition of the past. took his Centennial responsibilities seriously but enthusiastically in the spirit of true patriotism.

Early in the year he began by appointing a committee in each township and outlining the general scope of the work which the committees should undertake. In thorough keeping with the spirit of the year, in April there was held in Washington a four days' celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of Methodism in Daviess county. Commemorative addresses, informational and inspirational, were given, together with an interesting exhibition of old records and relics associated with the early history of


in the

community, which attracted much



One week previous to the Daviess county celebration at Washington, an appropriate and successful local celebration was held at Elnora, under the efficient leadership of Mr. Clifford Farris, chairman and tov/nship trustee. A general pro-


of events, including a parade, picnic dinner, music,

and folk games, and talks on local history, was enjoyed. The scope of the county's one-day observance is indicated the opening paragraph above. Following the large parade



in the forenoon, the school children

presented a series of beauscenes emblematic of early history. Dressed in the quaint garb of their forefathers, the children gave a realistic presentation of pioneer life. tiful



A very large and excellent exhibition of relics was on display throughout the week, deserving much commendation and On in which the county at large manifested much interest. a railroad side track was exhibited the old "Atlantic," an engine built in 1832 and said to be the second engine used on With it was displayed an oldthe Baltimore and Ohio road. fashioned railroad coach, with a seating capacity of about a dozen passengers. In connection with the celebration the historical film "Indiana" was shown. Daviess County was represented at the state capitol on County Day by the presence of its county chairman and by Miss Bernice Sims of Elnora, who rode in the Centennial Cavalcade as Miss Daviess.

DEARBORN Although a Centennial Chairman was selected in Dearborn summer of 1915, it was not until in August of 1916 that committees were appointed to take the matter in hand. The sequel was that no county celebration was held, although one day, October 7, was set apart for Aurora, and another, October 14, for Lawrenceburg, in connection with annual fall festivals. On the occasion at Aurora, Governor Ralston dein the

livered a Centennial address.


recognition of the anniversary year

was given by

the schools of the county, in the courses of study, in exhibits in plays depicting state history. The high school graduating class of Aurora, in place of the annual class play, presented a well arranged dramatic portrayal of Hoosier history.


The Aurora Woman's Research Club, gave a Centennial program on Admission Day, following which an anniversary elm was planted in the city library yard. W. H. O'Brien acted as County Chairman.

DECATUR In view of the many celebrations and pageants in Indiana during the year, it is remarkable how few of them encountered inclement weather. Of the whole number of pageants given, two score and more, not more than a half dozen suffered any considerable inconvenience, and of these latter, one



was prohibited altogether of presentation by rain. This observation except to the is a very comforting and felicitous one in question. That one was the Decatur County Pageant. The incident of misfortune was ill-deserved and unhappy in view of the Centennial spirit and enthusiasm manifested by Decatur county. County chairman Walter W. Bonner and his central committee, composed of Roy C. Kanouse, John F. Russell, Elmer C. Jerman and Norman C. Schlemmer, were loyally supported in their plans by the citizenship of the county, the schools cooperated most heartily, and the newspapers proved generous and alert in behalf of the movement. only



the energetic efforts expended


—but why


our tale of woe before absolutely necessary? ball rolling early in the year observance of Indiana Products Day on February 22. A banquet, largely and enthusiastically attended, was given at Greensburg, when several addresses were heard, the principal one by Hon. Philip Zoercher of Indianapolis. In March historical sentiment crystallized in the organization of the Decatur County Historical Society, County School Superintendent F. C. Fields declared March 17th "Indiana Day," issuing instructions and recommendaThe day tions to all the teachers concerning its observance. county distinctive among similar in Decatur was days in other counties, in the fact that with it was incorporated the home-coming idea. As a result, messages were delivered by ex-pupils and teachers, in person or by letter, from all over the country. Each school presented a brief history of the town or township in which it was located, as well as of its

The Committee started the

in the



Another distinctive feature of the day was the effective way in which it was used by the County Centennial Commit-

The latter organized a volunteer speakers' squadron, with the result that simultaneous addresses were made in tee.

the schools


tion evident

over the county.

Nowhere was

closer coopera-

between the school authorities and the County

Centennial organization.


pupils studied the history of the State

and wrote the

stories of intimate interest concerning its people, institutions, industries, etc. Certificates of honor were issued to all school


who read

the history of Indiana.



Various organizations were active in observing the year. The D. A. R. gave an exhibit of relics. The Woman's Department Club exhibited paintings of Indiana artists, and Fraclubs generally gave attention to Centennial subjects. supporting ternal organizations and churches were zealous in the plans of the county committee. The third week in October was chosen as the time for holding the county celebration, the date of their annual corn fair. Great stress was placed upon the home-coming feature. A large order was placed for the Geo. Ade home-coming booklets, gotten out by the State Commission, to which the Decatur committee added its own invitation, which was distributed broadcast.

The county was well organized and a cash prize offered making the best showing in the county parade. The latter was scheduled for October 18, and despite unfavorMuch interest was maniable weather, proved a big success. the township

fested in the historical exhibit of relics,


in the display

windows of business houses.


the evening of the nineteenth. Governor Ralston braved the elements to speak at the exercises dedicating the memorial furnished by the D. A. R. to mark the old Michigan road.

But Mrs.

interest centered largely in the pageant, written

J. C.

Meek and Mrs.

as director,


0. G. Miller, with N. C.

of Greensburg.



was arranged

in nine epi-

— Natural resources. 2 —Indian and relations two — Pioneer — Campaign of 1840 War. —Underground railroad. —

1. general as follows: 3. Spirits of the forest primeval. with the whites, in four scenes. 5. Indiana state house. scenes.










8. Civil Decatur county. 7. 9. Indiana of today. A beautiful pageant book was published and the cast was all in readiness for the presentation, which was to be made on each of the last three days, October The weather was so impossible, however, that 19, 20 and 21. the project had to be given up altogether, including practically the whole celebration, for which nearly $4,000 had been subscribed. On the following Sunday the churches conducted

appropriate Centennial services. The one thing for which the Committee is to be criticised was the bringing in of carnival attractions, under the misguided conception that such would contribute to the success



But in view of all its troubles, the mantle of charity should for once be draped over this inconsistency. Decatur county made an excellent showing on County Day of the celebration.

of the state celebration, in a float consisting of a reproduction,

famous tree-grown court house tower. Although, .in a sense, the Centennial preparations of Decatur ended in disaster, they were by no means profitless. The Chairman, Mr. Bonner, reports a thorough arousing of a fine patriotic spirit in all the citizenship, and a better cooperation on the part of people of each tov/nship in the county. in miniature, of its

DEKALB a spirit of patriotic interest and coopDekalb county which assured a general eration prevailed in observance of the Centennial. Attorney Walter D. Stump of Auburn proved an energetic Chairman and he effected a thoroughly representative county organization through which


the very


came hearty support. Happily, through the cooperation of Mrs. Lida Leasure, County School Superintendent, the Centennial propaganda began early in the schools of the county. February 18 was observed as Centennial Day, every school having public exercises in which recitations, papers and talks on Indiana history were given, interspersed with Indiana songs and other patriotic music. Many Centennial school exhibits were

arranged. In the regular school work of the year emphasis was placed upon state history of Indiana. In connection with the graduating exercises in the spring, both town and rural schools required papers on subjects pertaining to the history of Indiana. As will be noted later, the schools of the county took a prominent part in the county celebration in October. In her report following the latter event, Mrs. Leasure said, "We feel that our schools have read, sung, talked and dreamed Centennial for a year, almost." With more women school superintendents in the State, a similar report would doubtless have been made from many more counties.


celebration in Dekalb county was held at Garrett There was first a pageant parade in which historical features were introduced, such as the evolution of the Circuit Rider, portrayed by the Garrett Ministerial Associa-



first .5.



The minister in the lead rode horseback, followed in tion. turn by others in a cart, in an old buggy, in a surrey and last Floats were in line representing facts of in an automobile. Indiana history. A good program was later given in which addresses were made by County Chairman W. D. Stump of Auburn, and J. D. Brinkerhoff. The high school freshmen presented "Indiana's Admission into the Union;" and a playlet, "Garrett's Stepping Stones," was given by representatives of all departments of the city's activities. Music for the day was furnished by four bands of the county representing Garrett, Auburn, Waterloo and Laotto. The chairman of the successful Garrett celebration was M. D. Renkenberger, In the latter part of July the town of Butler named one day of a street fair "Centennial Day" on which a parade took place and two addresses were given of a semi-Centennial flavor. The home coming feature was emphasized. The county celebration was held in Auburn, October 4, 5 and 6. October 4th was Old Settlers' Day, with appropriate The 5th was Organization Day, talks and reminiscences. on which organization and fraternal parades were given. October 6th was Public School Day, on v/hich the big feature was a processional pageant participated in by the schools of the county and portraying definite events and phases of history. On each evening the school children of Auburn and vicinity presented a series of folk dances and drills. The regrettable feature of the celebration was the introduction of a discordant array of carnival concessions which represented indeed a concession to the vaudeville taste which could not but mar the otherwise commendable observance.

DELAWARE Delaware county had one day of very appropriate and It was given, however, in creditable Centennial observance. connection with the Muncie Industrial Exposition, and not

as an independent Centennial enterprise.

The educational

and preparative work in the county was very limited, no permanent memorials were erected and no contribution was


to the state celebration.


therefore places itself in

the second rank as having acquitted itself fairly well in the

observance of the State's Centennial Anniversary.



Frederick F. McClellan, a Muncie attorney, acted as Delaware's chairman. He had a county organization in which the township trustees were appointed as chairmen of the township committees. Despite this fact, however, the celebration was pretty largely a Muncie affair, the leadership and large activity being assumed by Muncie people, although the townships were represented in the pageant parade.

Early in the spring, the business interests of Muncie began promoting an industrial exposition for the "Magic City," the time for holding which was fixed at June 5-10. Up to that time, owing to civic and political turmoil in Muncie, nothing had been done looking toward a Centennial celebration in Delaware County. Little or no public sentiment toward that end had been created. With this situation existing, and with the business interests behind a dollars-and-cents enterprise of their own, incorporation with the latter was probably about the only hope of expression left to the Centennial idea. June 6 was set apart as Centennial Day, in charge of Mr. McClellan and his helpers. Plans were laid for a pageant parade, which should be historical, showing the history of the county from the time of its aboriginal inhabitants down to the present.

The week of the industrial exposition was marred by rain, and the Centennial parade had to be postponed until June 8, Vv^hen it was given very successfully. About fifteen hundred persons participated before crowds estimated at from forty to fifty thousand people. The parade was divided into the Indian, Colonial, Pioneer, Civil War and modern or county periods, for graphic historical portrayal.

In the



were depicted, and a representation of the signing of Wm. Penn's famous treaty with the Red Men, was given, along with other historical and semihistorical scenes. This part of the procession was put on by the local tribes of Red Men and the Camp Fire Girls. The D. A. R. handled the colonial period, featured with "The Birth of the Flag," George and Martha Washington, Minute Men, colonial dames and belles, "The spirit of '76," etc. A yoke of oxen fittingly headed the pioneer division, followed by the pioneer cabin with its frontier equipment, the log schoolhouse, and of course the pioneers themselves, conspicuous among them being Drs. G. W. H. Kemper and T. acteristic phases of Indian life



doctors, J. Bowles, on horseback, representing the pioneer which they themselves were in the days gone by. In the Civil War period were representations of Lee surrendering to Grant, Gov. Morton and Staff, Lincoln and his Cabinet and The ima very realistic portrayal of Sherman's "bummers." pressive part, however, was that taken by the real "boys of '61" as they marched in the procession. Prominent in the modern period were the twelve floats of the


schools, illustrating the twelve years of educa-

Other townships participated here, and very effectively. Along with the educational were portrayed the industrial, social, fraternal, and various developments of the modern period. The whole thing v/as well planned and v/ell executed and was one of the very worthy Centennial parades of the


year. in the schools of Delaware county was not very Naturally, the preparations for participation in the above observance, directed attention to the Centennial and

The work


significance, but comparatively little real work was done Indiana history and the schools gave little attention to the annivei'sary apart from the general observance. Some work in English compositions was directed toward research in local history and biography, the best of the results of which was published, and the historical committee of Mr. McClellan's organization had prepared and published in the newspapers a series of articles pertaining to the early history of the county. The clubs cooperated in the arrangement of work in harmony with the Centennial year and its interests. In summary it may be stated that the county rallied well to the one day of celebration, apart from v/hich little perits


manent or constructive work was done and after which further interest was taken in the Centennial movement.


DUBOIS One day early Corydon, a

in September, 1915,


joui'neyed to

Lew M. O'Bannon


of the Indiana Historical Commission,



make an address on

the subject

Immediately on his return home he wrote in to the odlce of the Commission urging with insistence and enthusiasm that Miss Genevieve Williams be appointed Chairman of Dubois County. In slang

of the approaching Centennial.



parlance, this put the office in a hole, for the appointment would violate two rules of procedure which had been followed. Up to that time county chairmanships had been restricted to mere man, and they had been assigned as a rule to county Naturally, the office hestitated. But Mr. O'Bannon seats. wished it and he wrote with the fervor of a major league



discovers, out in the "bushes," the sensation of the

Miss Williams was appointed. In looking back over the year 1916, a review of the achievements of the Dubois Chairman, together with those of the women chairmen of other counties, leads one to the wish that Mr. O'Bannon could have extended his Huntingburg trip into a tour of the State! Once upon a time a great commander contemplated a strategic but difficult stroke. "Impossible," declared a number of his staff. "Impossible? I know no such word." To Miss Genevieve McDonald Williams, we accord the title of "The Little Corporal" of the Indiana Centennial. With her nothing was impossible. No bigger than a minute, but quick as a second and as persevering as the hours, she matched unquenchable enthusiasm with matchless tact and ability, forcing her county into the very first rank in the observance of the Centennial anniversary of the State. Her generalship was unsurpassed by any chairman in the State and equalled by very few. A toast to "The Little Corporal" of 1916 To begin with, a county celebration for Dubois seemed out of the question. There were the rivalries and jealousies almost inevitably incident to a situation in which the county seat town has a "runner up" in another part of the county. But with the diplomacy of a statesman as well as with the strategy of a general. Miss Williams soon had the situation so well in hand that Jasper fairly outdid itself in behalf of a county celebration held at Huntingburg. A thoroughgoing county organization was effected, composed of a central executive committee made up of members from Jasper and Huntingburg and one from each township who was chairman of his own township. The superintendent of the county schools lacked vision or initiative or both, and after vainly trying to get action through his leadership, the chairman went in person before the teachers, enlisting their support and conveying to them some-




thing of her enthusiasm. She did have the active support of the City Superintendent of Huntingburg, N. F. Hutchinson. A number of schools held Centennial exercises at the close of the school year, when attention was given to Indiana songs and readings from Indiana authors, to themes in state and local history,

and to exhibits of

Patrons and pupils community observance. Birdseye and Jasper, had


often gathered for the day in patriotic

The schools of Holland,


In splendid graduating exercises in keeping with the year. a week of exercises, June 11 to 18, the Catholic academy at Ferdinand emphasized the Centennial idea. As was often true over the State, people were inert and

apathetic as regards observing the birthday of their commonwealth. It was a condition of indifference born of ignorance.

A newspaper is a born "publicity man." wrote and edited columns of gingery "publicity" which found its way into the newspapers of the county. And it was not the frothy, misleading variety which so often masquerades under the name. The clubs of Dubois aided effectively in this direction. The Twentieth Century Club of Jasper devoted the whole year to the study of Indiana history. The Music club of Huntingburg incorporated in its program topics and discussions on Indiana and gave an Indiana musical program. The Huntingburg Camp Fire girls studied local and county history, while the Acirema Club of young men made the interests of the Centennial in Dubois its But Miss Williams


herself, she

special order of business.

This club put on an Indiana Products Day Dinner, and it the occasion of arousing interest in the historic Freeman boundary line run by the United States surveyor, Thomas Freeman, in 1802, when he surveyed the famous Vincennes tract. The old line runs through Dubois, and the Acirema Club undertook the project of marking it with suitable memorials. The guest of the evening was Geo. R. Wilson, of Indianapolis, author of a history of Dubois, who gave an address on the subject. The sequel was that Governor Ralston issued a commission to the club to erect suitable markers, three of which were later placed with fitting ceremonies as a part of the county celebration. Miss Williams realized that she had her own problem to work out for her own county, yet she took every occasion for




observation of the progress of the work elsewhere. Busy as she was as associate editor of a newspaper, it is safe to as-

sume that no county chairman was in attendance at more celebrations, pageants in particular, and in all probability her record was equalled, if at all, by but one other chairman, that of Perry County.

The Dubois observance really began on Sunday, September Special services were held in the morning and a big 17th. union service in the afternoon. At the latter, Congressman W. E. Cox delivered an excellent Centennial address, and a good program of patriotic music, including the "Hymn to Indiana" was given by orchestra and chorus. On Thursday, September 21, occurred the dedication of the Freeman line markers and monument, with addresses by Geo. The film "Indiana" was shown, and a compreR. Wilson. hensive exhibit made of pioneer relics. Early in the season a clean-up and beautification campaign and contest was launched, the prizes in which were now awarded. On Friday forenoon occurred one of the most extensive and impressive historical and industrial parades seen in

southern Indiana or even in the whole State. It was most ably managed by the Acirema Club, led by its president, F. A. Stinson. The parade, two miles in length, moved on the minute and v/ithout a hitch. And then the pageant! Miss Williams wrote it herself and directed it in person. The faithfulness with which the V/'ork was done may be inferred from the following statement made by Geo. R. Wilson, the county historian It

was a source

of most exquisite pleasure to


to witness the Cen-

Huntingburg last Friday. It would be so to almost any man who knows the history of his State and county, and saw it so beautifully presented within the oval at the fair grounds. The entire celebration from the first bugle call in the morning until the finale is worthy of the most unlimited praise. The military precision with which the entire affair was conducted showed the hand of a master and tennial Celebration at

the obedience of a soldier.

The little dynamo behind the flags in the band stand and her corps of efficient assistants were equal to every emergency. The one great feature was the historical accuracy of the pageant. History was followed to the smallest detail. On this one point it surpassed any pageant I have ever seen, or any moving picture of one, even v/hen produced by expert pageant masters. The affair demonstrated this one thing: know your subject, get the spirit




and the production


be natural.




thought, the audience must know what is intended by the act before it can appreciate it. It was Dubois County is full of important historical incidents. the pioneer cradle of Indiana and all its pioneers, forests, rivers and To know your county's trails contributed in the makinj? of Indiana. history is an asset when you attend a county pageant, so let all got

ready for Jasper's celebration in 1917. The parade was a credit and an honor to Huntingburg and the county at large. The thanks of the entire county are due to each and every one from Columbia to the tiniest fairy that participated in the day's program.

Miss Williams and her local corps of efficient assistants are entitled a vote of thanks from the city of Huntingburg and a resolution to that effect should be passed by the city council and made a matter of oflicial record. The entire program was an honor to Southern Indiana. There is glory enough in it for everybody. to

Dr. James A. Woodburn and Mr. Lew M. O'Bannon of the The latter was amply State Commission were in attendance. justified in his "I told you so," while the former wrote in to the office as follows Miss "Williams' pageant v/as a decided success, perhaps 1,000 in the I enjoyed all of it (with Mr. O'Bannon) and v/e pronounced it a I sat by Mr. Wilson the hisgreat credit to the county of Dubois. torian of Dubois, and he says it represented the county history true to life. The fmale was a splendid scene. I am to see Miss Williams soon and I shall tell her of the universal approval vdth which her efforts have been received. They say there were ten thousand people on the pageant



All were greatly pleased.

Miss Williams herself was particularly generous in her praise of the realistic and impressive manner in which Jasper handled the Civil War scene, maintaining that this almost universally included episode was not better done in any pageant in the State.


by children, representing manifestations of nature wood nymphs (young ladies for water sprites) flov%'ers, fairies, gnomes, insects, butterflies. They usher in the spirit of Nature, attended by her handmaidens Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Interpretive





The Indians and French at Vincennes. Scene



Granting of Indian Tract to French (Patoka Tribe of Red Men and Daughters of Pocahontas representing the Indians, and the Y. M. I. taking the part of the French.)


112 Scene


Father Gibault raises first American flag on Indiana soil at (By the Red Men, Daughters of Pocahontas on Vincennes. the one side, and the Y. M. I. and men of the Epworth League on the other.) Episode

The Pioneer Scene








Dubois County.

The McDonald settlement on the "Buffalo Trace." McDonald adopted by Red Men. (Boone and Madison Township people and Patoka Tribe of Red Men.) Social gathering at Ft. McDonald. (Same tov/nships to furnish cast.) (1) George Rogers Clark and American Soldiers go over Trace from Louisville to Vincennes. (By people from all parts of the county.) Henry Harrison repairs (2) William Trace and leaves Rangers and Guides. Same Cast. (3) The Early Surveyors Freeman, Buckingham, Rictor. (4) Material for "Western Sun," first paper at Vincennes carried over Trace. (5) First United States Mail carried on foot. (6) The Lincoln family moves to Illinois.

Episode III Captain Dubois Episode. Scene Scene



Scene Scene





Capt. Dubois receives patent for land in Dubois County. Council at Vincennes between Harrison and Tecumseh. (Patoka Tribe of Red Men). Indians steal horses from the McDonalds. Battle of Tippecanoe. (Patoka Tribe of Red Men and Wood-


of the World.) Dubois leaves Vincennes on business trip. (It was on this that Dubois was drowned in the Little Wabash.)


Episode IV

Events Scene Scene




Early History of County.

Formation of County. Father Kundeck's Works at Jasper; his arrival from Vincennes, and his work at Ferdinand; and the arrival of Benedictine Sisters from Covington, Ky. (By citizens of Jasper and Ferdinand.) Episode Civil




Leaving of Company K from Jasper to join the 27th regiment at Indianapolis. Dinner and presentation of Flag by ladies. (Jasper citizens.)

FINALE Tableaux of "Columbia and Uncle Sam," of the "Famous Northwest Territory Group," and five or six others.




The whole celebration was in harmony with the ideals •of the Commission which were also those of the County Chairman. It was educational, historical and patriotic, with nothing to detract from the real Centennial spirit. Dubois county took a worthy part on County Day of the Mrs. H. C. Knapp of Huntingburg rode a State Celebration. black charger in the Cavalcade, while in the procession which followed, Dubois was represented by an immense American Flag, carried flat by two score men. It was the property of the Knights of Columbus of Jasper and had appeared in the Dubois County parade. But occupying a scat of honor among the county Chairmen, close behind Ex-President Taft and Governor Ralston, rode the little woman who more than all was the embodiment of the Indiana Centennial.

ELKHART Twenty years ago the Elkhart County Historical Society In the two decades it has gathered and placed Vv^as organized. in its archives much material on local history and has made a collection of historical relics which

it claims to be one of tjie the State. One of the organizers of the Society, its secretary for four years and its president the remaining years of its existence, H. S. K. Bartholomew, was appointed Centennial Chairman for the county.

finest in

If any county had a right to be discouraged and disheartened by a succession of untoward events, Elkhart county could well lay claim to it, as a brief chronicle of its Centennial efforts will demonstrate. Yet to the credit of the chairman and his indefatigable assistants, the plans were not abandoned, and while the celebration was not all that had been

hoped for, it ivas, nevertheless, in spite of obstacles, human and superhuman. In the first place it was planned to hold a celebration in connection with the county commencement at Goshen on June 3, with Governor Samuel M. Ralston as the speaker. It was learned, however, that the Governor could not be present at that time, but could speak at Goshen on August 5. The latter date was accordingly advertised as that of the county observance. One week before that time however, the committee received word that owing to a conflict of dates, Gov. Ralston



could not






was therefore

indefinitely postponed.

In the meantime, the center of interest, or of publicity at had shifted to the city of Elkhart, from ^yhich suddenly emanated in the forepart of July, glowing and fulsom.e stories of a week's celebration and pageant to be given there in the least,

After a few weeks of celebration mayor, who had taken the lead in the enterprise, issued a statement calling off the project on account of general lack of interest. Thus, exit Elkhart. The County Committee however had never entirely given up the idea of having a pageant, and in this idea persevered. Mrs. George B. Slate wrote a pageant, dedicated to "All Good Hoosiers," portraying state history; several committees were appointed to arrange the details, and the Misses Grace Galentine and Luella Barlow, together with the author, undertook October 19 was the date set for the presentaits direction. It v/as to be given at tion, the first dsiy of the fall festival. Rogers Bend Park, capable of accommodating several thousaid people. And "it rained all day." This v/as the ungarnished report of the Chairman, virtuous in its stoic last


in the

of September.




Did the Elkhart County Centennial enthusiasts yield to the elements? Not they. Tv/o days later, on Saturday forenoon, the pageant Vv^as presented in the theatre, v/ith such changes as v\^ere necessary. The house was packed and hundreds were turned away. Elkhart county celebrated, and the indomitable spirit shov/n v/as the stuff of Vv^hich the pioneers it honored were made. A neat little pageant book was issued, giving the setting of the scenes, and the names of the people involved therein. The arrangement v/as unique in this, in that instead of naming the episode, each v/as suggested by appropriate quotations, as follows: Episode


Nature here

Wantoned as in her prime, and played Her virgin fancies. Milton.

There followed a series of symbolic dances by the wood spirits of nature, interrupted by the Indians. note quoted this justification of interpretive dancing: as

nymphs and


at will



"sauce piquante of a human festival, relieving the grave historical groundwork of a community pageant, like a delicate pattern of embroidery upon the edge of a garment." Episode


Lo, the poor Indian! Whose untutor'd mind Sees God in clouds, or hears Him in the wind.



impressive and sympathetic treatment of the Indians and misfortunes.

their lives



When dames wore hoops and powdered hair, And very strict was etiquette, When men were brave and ladies fair, They danced the minuet.



Miniature by children. Episode IV


star for every state, and a state for every star.

R. C. Winthrop.

Symbolic representation of admission of Indiana into the Union. Episode


want plain facts, and I want plain words, Of the good old-fashioned w^ays. When speech was free as the song of birds, 'Way back in the airly days. J. Whitcomb





of 1840, characters and recreations. Episode VI




finds his fellow guilty of a skin,

Not colour'd like his own, and having power T' enforce the wrong, for such a worthy cause

Dooms and


Underground Railroad

him as

his lawful prey.



Episode VII

Onward they marched,

embattled, to the sound

Of martial harmony, fifes, cornets, drums. That rouse the sleepy soul to arms, and bold Heroic deeds. Civil



enlistment scene.



Episode VIII

Bring the good old bugle, boys, we'll sing another song. Sing it with a spirit that will start the world along. Sing it as we used to sing it fifty thousand strong While we were marching through Georgia.

G. A. R. Reunion and reminiscences. Episode IX




of thee

Sweet land of liberty. Of thee I sing.— S. F. Smith.


Uncle Sam, Indiana and the Nations.

Apart from this formal celebration, the schools of the county took some notice of the Centennial. On May 12, the Emma R. Chandler school of Goshen gave a Centennial entertainment in pageant form, "Scenes from Indiana History." Special Centennial programs were given before teachers and guests at the Elkhart City Teachers' Institute in March and Subjects treated were "Early Indiana History," cenApril. tering in Corydon, M. G. Davis; "Reminiscences from the Early Practice of Medicine in Indiana," Dr. J. A. Work; "Early Arms and Weapons of Pioneers," Dr. A. L. Fisher; "Circuit Riders in Law and Ministry," Rev. F. A. Dressel; "New Harmony Community," Miss Clara Van Nuys; "Early Methods of Transportation," J. S. Fischer; "The Underground Railroad in Indiana," Miss Margaret Wilson; "Early Educational Facilities in Elkhart County," Miss Rosemary Wilkerson "Plans for Indiana Centennial Celebration," J. W. Holderman. Old-time popular airs were sung, such as "The Last Rose of Summer," "Ben Bolt," "Kathleen Mavourneen," and a couple of jubilee melodies to the accompaniment of an accordeon. No organized, thoroughgoing vv^ork in the schools of the county is reported. It is the hope of the faithful Centennial Committee that an interest has been awakened in things historical that will bring to success the movement which has been started for securing a permanent home for the Elkhart County Historical Society. If the committee perseveres in the latter enterprise as it did in its celebration, there is no doubt of its fruition. ;



FAYETTE of the early counties in the State to effect Centennial organization and perfect its plans, was Fayette. This came partly from having a thorough business man as leader in E.


Hawkins, president of the Connersville Commercial Club, and a dominant figure in city and county affairs. Supported by a corps of enthusiastic workers, he had the work well outlined and preparations under way before the first of the year. P.

a comparatively small county, and that, having no other towns, it centers peculiarly in Connersville, had much to do in shaping the organization and plan Mr. Hawkins extended his organization to of celebration. the townships, but none of the latter held separate celebrations with the exception of Orange, which had a worthy high


fact that Fayette


The school celebration on the evening of Admission Day. whole county observance was centralized in the county seat. In this the townships participated actively to some extent, In the main however, it largely in the Centennial parade. celebration was put on at ConFayette that the said may be by Connersville people. Other phases than that of the formal celebration early and continuously occupied the attention of the Committee. PromThere inent among these was that of permanent memorials. was considerable discussion as to the form the memorial should take, in which philanthropy and service won the day, the result being the erection of the Fayette County Memorial Hospital. The Clio Club furthermore presented the city with a public drinking fountain, the dedication of which was a The literary clubs part of the county celebration program. of the county gave Centennial programs along through the



The Fayette County Centennial Association appointed a committee on county history, the chairman of which, Miss Katherine Heron, prepared a history of Fayette County. The Association observed Indiana Products Day with a community which Chairman Hawkins acted as toastmaster. Nothing was served except products grown or manufactured dinner, at in the

Hoosier State.

The schools of city and county were alive to Centennial interests. County Superintendent Claude Trusler reports one day set apart in the schools of Fayette in which exercises



were held

in accordance with suggestions


Also, that Indiana history


made by



studied, in accord-

ance with the course outlined and that every child read Heineman's "Indian Trail," of special local interest. At the Commencement exercises, a Centennial address, "One Hundred Years of Hoosier History," was delivered by the Rev. L. E. Brown. In Connersville a Centennial play was presented by Thorough work is reported the grade and high school pupils. and students in colpart of teachers the chairman on the by lecting data and facts of local history. The county celebration was held July 2 to 5. The principal events of the program as outlined, follow, particularly those of an especial Centennial nature: July


Sunday Evening Sacred Concert, followed by the Rev. "One Hundred Years of Hoosier History."


E. Brown's Address,

July 3, Morning, Centennial parade. Afternoon, Children's Chorus; Address, Judge Marshall Williams. Evening, Address, Hon. James E.

Watson. July 4, Home Coming Day. Morning Reception to Visitors and Reunion of Former Residents. Afternoon Home Coming Addresses. July 5, Morning, Presentation of Public Fountain to City by Clio Club. Afternoon, Centennial Address, Gov. Samuel M. Ralston.* Evening, Pageant ©f Connersville and Fayette County.

— —

Concerts were furnished throughout the celebration by News Newsboys' Band. On every afternoon and evening the historical moving picture, "Indiana," was shown at a local theatre. One of the best features of the whole observance was the splendid display of all kinds of relics in the show windows of the main street. Indeed there were many commendable features of the celebration. The parade historical, civic, fraternal, industrial and automobile was unprecedented in size and attractiveness. Local history was graphically and truly portrayed in the pageant. The whole was a real community celebration. However, one grave criticism must be made of the Fayette the Indianapolis

celebration. The management made the mistake of opening up the main streets to carnival attractions and concessions, the noisome confusion and tav/driness of which detracted very


from the Centennial observance. The whole enterwas thus unavoidably cheapened and an otherwise al-


ideal celebration



The Pageant, which •For Governor Ralston's address

closed the observance, in full,

see Appendix p. 395.

was prepared



and directed by Miss Harriet Williams and dedicated by her It was presented at to the school children of Connersville. night before a very large audience. On a hillside appeared the interior of a cabin, wherein the settlers' scenes were made The effective through the playing of flood and spot light. mass scenes took place immediately before the audience on a

While this made impossible the unity and freedom of movement essential to real pageantry, the historical scenes were given convincingly and impressively. The committee is to be commended for the publication of an attractive pageant book, containing, in addition to the text, the program of the whole celebration and the membership of the various Centennial Committees. large platform.



Episode (1788)

— Capture of John



Conner by the Indians.

Escape of Jonas Williams' Family. Episode

John Conner's Post


Arrival of Indian Ti-aders. Emigrants.

plat of the Post.




Episode Pioneer Life in 1820

A member

of the


— Claypool's Inn.


Capital Committee. The Pi.jr.cor Preacl.or Indian Captures and IMurilor of Bcr.

The Masonic Lodge.




in 1813.

Fiddlers' Contest.

Episode IV Wedding Scene in 1834. An Indianapolis-Connersville wedding. Twin McCormick Sisters married Twin Mart Brothers. Episode



School of the Forties.

Episode VI

The Singing


Episode VII Life in the Forties and Fifties.

Apple Peelings,

Husking Bees.

Harrison-Tyler Parade.

Episode VIII Civil

War Period— Band


Boys' Drill.

Episode IX


Centennial Committee Meeting in 1916.

Girls' Drill.







Pageant of Old Fashioned Games.

Memorial Party Commercial Club Banquet. Song "Indiana."

As a feature

of the closing scene, the banquet of the


mercial Club, a huge birthday cake was brought in, lighted with one hundred candles. The subjects of the toasts were: "Our Forefathers," "Our Schools and Churches," "Our Noted Men," "Our Industries," "Our Gifts," "Our Centennial," and "Our Flag." It was with much appropriateness, that in relast, D, W. McKee known poem, "Old Glory:"

sponse to the well

of Connersville, recited his


W. McKee.)

All hail to the flag of the brave and free

Far famed in song and in story. waves o'er the land, it floats o'er the



And no

other banner ever can be So dear to us as "Old Glory."


hail to the flag, the red, blue

Its stars

and stripes


and white,

the story

Of the fathers' fight for freedom and right Through seven long years of war's lurid night That gave to the world "Old Glory."

Though we have no turreted castles With moss and with lichens hoary,


We've a heritage richer far than gold 'Tis a birthright which has never been Our freedom under "Old Glory."

From From


the North and South, the East and the West, fields of battle once gory,

now at rest, as one nation blest the ocean's strand to the mountain's crest, We've only one flag, "Old Glory." All strife


Then fresh garlands bring to our God and king. unborn the story. Let loud anthems ring as His praise we sing Tell millions

And proudly While over


heaven our banners, "Old Glory."


all floats


Then hark to the song as it rolls along, Its theme is our country's story, Cheer! Cheer! the old flag, till from hill and from crag The echoes ring back, "Old Glory."



FLOYD In 1913 New Albany celebrated its own Centennial anniversary with an abandon of enthusiasm and public spirit that Behind the celebration was a small left little to be desired. group of men whose pride was in putting across any worthy enterprise attempted


clear across.

Floyd county was

fortunate and the State Commission happy in securing one of these men, T. E. Crawford, to serve as county chairman in 1916.


rallied together the old

1913 group and the thing the time "Ed" Craw-


was already as good as done.

him to assume the was never a doubt as to the

ford said "yes" to the invitation offered leadership in his county, there

course of events in historic

On February



under the direction of Glenn V. Scott, county superintendent, the Centennial was observed in the schools of the five townships of the county. At different time^ Chairman Crav/ford visited the townships in person, enlisting support in a county movement. In New Albany itself frequent Centennial meetings were held at the Chamber of Commerce, when stirring talks were given by local speakers and by those brought from outside. The Centennial idea was thus promulgated throughout the county and kept well 25,

before the public.

The Floyd County celebration was packed into one day, September 21, and a full day it was. It began with a band concert in the City Plaza at nine o'clock, followed by a parade. The Centennial spirit par excellence, however, hovered over beautiful Glenwood Park throughout the day. Shortly after noon addresses were delivered by U. Z. Wiley of Indianapolis, and Lew M. O'Bannon of Corydon, member of the State Commission. The speaking was followed by an old-time concert, given by fifty people, directed by Mrs. Bertha Schuler



In very truth, however, the crowning event of the day


and Masque of Indiana given in the evening, written and directed by Professor Chas. B. McLinn of the New Albany schools. It was presented on the banks of Silver Creek, and quoting from the Foreword, "upon a natural stage framed with trees, with a background of creek and steep the Pageant

banks beyond, covered with dense foliage. From the stage in gradual incline, slopes a natural ampitheatre where the



audience is seated. The effect is that of a primeval forest." Seats had been provided for 8,500 which did not accommodate half the audience, estimated to have been one of the largest Centennial pageant audiences of the State. The production opened with the following beautiful prologue


The mists that hide the years

dissolve tonight

And from them

rise the half forgotten deeds,

The simple

and simple faith of those



here on Southern Indiana soil Laid the beginning of a mighty State. Where purple hills and fertile valleys smile

Wabash and Ohio A sturdy race was bred. They Upon



left to




heritage of law and liberty, And from their toil, your peaceful homes arise. You well may feel the Southern Hoosier's pride

In this Centennial.

You live upon historic ground. These falls Have borne the Empire builders' craft. These hills Have flashed the signal fires of savage men. And here from Vevay to Vincennes extend The neighbor counties that first made the State. Within the circle of these trees shall pass A pageant of the early days. Come back Awhile, and tread with us the forest's paths. Feel the explorer's thrill, the settler's hope, And may there come to you a deeper pride That you are sons of this great Commonwealth. The hour-glass turns, the sands now backward run. Approach ye spirits of the place the pageant has begun.