THE ’INDEX RHETORICUS’ OF THOMAS FARNABY

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by Raymond A r n e s t N adeau

a d i s s e r t a t i o n su b m itte d in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e degree of D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y in th e U n i v e r s i t y o f M ichigan

1950

C o m m ittee i n c h a r g e : A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r < d llia m S a t t l e r , C h airm an P r o f e s s o r G a i l S . Dsnsmore A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r L o u i s M. Each A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r 3runo Meinecke

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aCiQmQ.i

Lo

as in a l l u n d e r t a k i n g s o f t h i s k i n d ,

the w r i t e r

ov.'Ss much t o o r o o e r g u i d a n c e j x am i n d e b t e d t o v r o i e s s c r 3a.il Ii. a e u s m o r e f o r f i r s t

s u g g e s t i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n on

r h e to r ic a l th eo ry as a f i e l d ,

to P ro fe sso rs

.d llia m

ii.

S a t t i e r a n a Bruno M einec k e f o r g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d i n g t h e a d v i c e r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , and t o P r o ­ f e s s o r L o u i s II. iSich f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h g e n e r a l p roblem s. C o m p le ti o n o f t h e t h e s i s d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y on t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f l i b r a r i a n s a n a c u s t o d i a n s o f r a r e book c o lle c tio n s ,

among t h o s e who t o o k fin a c t i v e i n t e r e s t

i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ere M is s L i l a k , Hymans, i>5rs« -H T, T h o r n t o n , M rs . Oda B. H a n se n , and k i s s M a r g a r e t I . Cm ith o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n L i b r a r y , J a m e s 13, i/lcilanaway o f t h e J o l g e r S h a k e s p e a r e L i b r a r y , V i n c e n t L . i i a t o n o f t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , P h i l l i p s Tem ple o f G eo rgetow n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , Herman F u s s i e r o f t h e L ib ra r y o f th e U n i v e r s it y o f C h icago, J.

a

. H. k a t t l i n , S .

o f t h e L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , C h i c a g o , S r . Mary

Aurelius o f t h e M u n d e le in C o l l e g e L i b r a r y ,

C h i c a g o , M rs .

ii

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G e r t r u d e L . Yi'oodward o f d e w b e r r y L i b r a r y , C h i c a g o , h i s s C a r o l y n B. Jak e m a n o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , and L . A. B a t t y o f t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y a n d V.yndham H u s e u u , Y e o v i l , G o iaersat, B n g lan d . 3 'in a lly ,

I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e m embers o f my

ov/n f a m i l y and t o t h e many f r i e n d s an d a s s o c i a t e s v.hose h e l p and e n c o u r a g e m e n t w e re i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e c o m p letio n o f th e s tu d y .

iii

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

u n ap ter I.

II-iTBOiJUCTIOE P e t e r Ramus, R h e t o r i c i a n a ad r e f o r m e r R ev iv al o f C l a s s i c a l R h e to ric E d itio n s of th e Index r h a t o r i c u s S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e Index ru e t o r ic u e P u rp o s e s o f th e S tu d y P la n o f O rg a n iz a tio n

II.

LATIN TEXT AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION CF Tim 1633 EDITION CF THE INDEX RKETCRICUs OF THC1AS Fn.R iLi.B Y...............................................................................................

12

In tro d u c tio n L a t i n T e x t an d E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n T ex tu a l o te s III.

SOURCES CF THE INDEX RllETCRlGUS

. . . . . . . .

114

In tro d u c to ry O u tlin e The C o n s t i t u e n t s o f R h e t o r i c The P ed ag o g y o f R h e t o r i c Sunnis r y IV .

CCKPa RISON Cl THE Ii'HA-X r h e t o r i o u s v.t t h CONTEMPORARY LATIN TEXTBOCAS IN USE IN ^ G L - ^ D .

159

S t y l i s t i c H a eto rics C la s s ic a l R h eto rics D eclam ato ry R h e to ric Summary V.

INFLUENCE OF THE INDEX R H B T O R IC U S .................................... 185 S p e c i f i c I n f l u e n c e on T e x t b o o k s G eneral In flu e n c e Summary

V I.

CONCLUSION S..........................................................................

. .

201

STXTmMHuT OF COPYRIGHT IN THE INDEX nHETCRICUS .

205

APPENDICES I.

C om mentary L a tin Text and r n ir lis h T r a n s la tio n

iv

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

iisC ICnTION v F T-ii i.-t J-iiA

r.T'^Lo • » . . • • •

210

Commentary

L a t i n Tent and En glish T r a n s l a t i o n III.

INTRODUCTION TO TH2 INDEX hHLETORIGL’S ............................... 213 Commentary L a t i n T e x t and E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n The L a n g u a g e o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n

IV .

THU ir.HOJLiuS CRA.TORI.iii: CF THOLAS iAHNnBY . . . .

232

Commentary L a t i n T e x t and E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n . T e x tu a l N o tes V.

TriOILiS IA.'W.LT -.--..ij ‘. r i r ^L .iC dG nL iirLiJJlTICN « ■« «

30 2

S c h o o lm aste r C la s s ic a l S c h o la r Summary BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................

375

v

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CHAPTER x

INTROUUCTION

The p r i m a r y a im o f E n g l i s h gram m ar s c h o o l s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was a m a s t e r y o f L atin a*"

The gram m ar o f t h e l a n g u a g e w as s t r e s s e d i n

t h e f o u r f o r m s o f t h e l o w e r s c h o o l , a n d r h e t o r i c was e m p h a s iz e d i n t h e f o u r f o r m s o f t h e u p p e r s c h o o l ; o n l y en oug h l o g i c was t a u g h t t o make t h e r h e t o r i c i n t e l l i g i ­ b le ,2

S i n c e t h e end r e s u l t o f a gram m ar s c h o o l e d u c a ­

t i o n was s u o p o s e d t o b e t h e f i n i s h e d L a t i n r h e t o r i c i a n , i t i s n o t s u r p r is in g t h a t th e te x tb o o k s used i n th e s c h o o l s w e re m o s t l y i n t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e . W. B a l d w i n p o i n t s o u t ,

As Thomas

" t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y gramm ar

s c h o o l . . # s t r o v e a s much a s p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d t h e c o n ­ ta m in a tin g to u ch o f th e v e r n a c u l a r ." 3

U n ti l C h arles

•i

F o s t e r W a ts o n , The E n g l i s h Grammar S c h o o l s t o 1 6 6 0 : t h e i r C u r r i c u l u m a n d P r a c t i c e (C a m b r i d g e : U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1 9 08), p p . 5 -6 . ^Thomas W. B a l d w i n , W i l l i a m S h a k s p e r e ’ s S m a l l L a t i n e & L e s s e C reeke (U rb an a, I l l i n o i s : U n iv e rsity o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1944), I I , 1. s I b i d . , I I , 3 8-59.

1

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without permission.

2 B u t l e r ' s R h e t o r i d a e l i b r i duo a p p e a r e d i n London, i n I5 S E , t h e L n g l i s n v e r n a c u l a r r h e t o r i c s c a l mold,"* a s w e l l a s t h e s t y l i s t i c

in th e c l a s s i ­

E n g lish r h e to r ic s C*

o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s i x t e e n t h ce n ttT ry ,* ' H e re o u t of s te p w ith th e c u r r e n t lan g u a g e em p h asis i n th e sch o o ls.

P e t e r Ramus, R h e t o r i c i a n and R e f o r m e r

Much o f t h e i m p e t u s f o r t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s t r i c t i o n o f r a e t o r i c t o s t y l e had come f r o m P a t e r Ramus ( 1 5 1 5 - 7 2 ) , a n i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e

in th e F rench

R e n a i s s a n c e , who i n s i s t e d t h a t i n v e n t i o n an d d i s p o s i ­ t i o n w e re f u n c t i o n s o f l o g i c .

R u d o lp h A g r i c o l a , i n

h i s lie i n v e a t i o n e d i a l e c t i e a ( L o u v a i n , 1 5 1 5 ) ,

5

h a d co n ­

t e n d e d t h a t i n v e n t i o n g re w up a s a p a r t o f r h e t o r i c , b e c a u s e t h e o t h e r a r t s w e re n o t y e t m a t u r e i n t h e G re cian s t a t e .

Ramus t o o k up t h e b a t o n w i t h h i s

argum ent t h a t l o g i c i s

t h e w h o le a r t o f r e a s o n , t h a t

^L eonard C os, The A r t e o r G g a fte o f R h eto ry k e (L o n d o n , 1 5 2 4 ) , a n d Thomas W i l s o n , The A r t e o f fihetoj>i q u e . . . . (L o n d o n . 1 5 5 3 ) . ^D o n a ld R e n a i s s a n c e (New p p . 53 f f . T h is rh e to ric s of th e

Leman C l a r k , R h e t o r i c an d P o e t r y i n t h e Y o r k : C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 2 ) , p assag e i s a b r i e f su rv ey of th e L n g lish l a t e s ix te e n th c e n tu ry .

The e a r l i e s t e d i t i o n w h i c h I h a v e s e e n i s t h e F o l g e r S h a k e s p e a r e co p y ( P a r i s , 1 5 5 8 ) . A g r i c o l a ’ s o p p o s itio n t o in v e n tio n a s a p a r t o f r h e t o r i c i s found in i i . 18.

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s C i c e r o h a d reads ona a r t o f t w o , and t h a t * u i n t i l i a n had c o n f u s e d r h e t o r i c w i t h t h e o t h e r f i e l d s *

7

O n ly

s t y l e and d e l i v e r y , a c c o r d i n g t o Ramus, w ere l e f t t o g r h e t o r i c , an d a u t h o r s on t h i s s u b j e c t i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d him .

9

A lthough th e p u r i s t r h e t o r i c i a n w i l l n o t a g r e e - w i t h t h e Ram ian r e s t r i c t i o n o f r h e t o r i c t o s t y l e an d d e l i v e r y , he s e e s i n Ramus a n o t h e r l e s s c o n t r o ­ v e r s ia l in flu e n c e :

"The e s s e n t i a l m e r i t o f R a m u s . . .

i s t h a t he fo r m s t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e fro m t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f c o m p o sitio n t o m ain ly c l a s s i c a l s u b j e c t s t o t h e w i d e n i n g o f R h e t o r i c t o i n c l u d e c o m p o s i t i o n on a l l k i n d s o f s u b j e c t s , a movement w h ic h l e d t o t h e

7

P e t e r Ramus, S c h o l a e i n l i b e r a l e s a r t e s . . . . ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o co p y ; B a s l e , 1 5 6 9 ) . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f tw en ty books d e a l s w ith r h e t o r i c , Ramus alw a y s i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e b o u n d a r ie s b etw een th e a r t s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y m a r k e d : "Dmnes a r t e s , omnes a r t i f i c e s ex r9 b u s s i b i p ro p r ie s u b j e c t i s e x p o n a n tu r n e c e s s e e s t , no n e x a l i e n i s , n o n e x communibus a d u m b r e n t u r " ( c o l . 2 3 7 ) . F u r t h e r on ( c o l . 2 5 5 ) , Ramus u s e s C i c e r o n i a n p h r a s e o ­ l o g y i n a t t a c k i n g C i c e r o f o r f a i l i n g t o make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n l o g i c a n d r h e t o r i c : "Q uo usq ue t a n ­ dem c o n f u s i o n e m a r t i u m t a n t a m p e r f e r e m u s ? " F o r a n a n a l y s i s o f R am us' p r i n c i p l e s o f e d u c a ­ t i o n , s e e F r a n k P . G -raves, P e t e r Ramus a n d t h e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l R e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y (Mew f o r k : M acm illan C o ., 1 9 1 2 ), p p . 1 0 8 -1 9 . 3

Ramus, i b i d . : " Q u id R h e t o r i c a e r e l i n q u e t u r ? Aon e l o c u t i o s o lu m i n t r o p i s e t f i g u r i s . . « s e d a c t i o " ( c o l . 238). 9

B aldw in, o p . c i t . , l l ,

59.

R e p ro d u c e d with permission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

4 i n c l u s i o n o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s fr o m t l i e v e r n a c u l a r a n d e v e n m odern l a n g u a g e s . a n

u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i&mus fr o m

t h e s e two p o i n t s o f v i e w ( r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r i s t and e d u c a ­ t i o n a l reform er)

i s b a s ic to th e p ro p e r e v a lu a tio n o f

th e r h e t o r i c a l te x tb o o k s o f th e f i r s t h a l f o f th e seven­ t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e p e r i o d w i t h w h ic h t h i s s t u d y i s p rim a rily concerned.

The R e v i v a l o f C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c

The s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y o p e n e d w i t h L a t i n s t i l l i n t h e d o m in a n t p o s i t i o n , b u t , b y t h i s t i m e , a num ber o f f o r c e s w ere b e i n g e x e r t e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e co m p lete c l a s s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r h e t o r i c ,

among

t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s w ere t h e g r o w i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e c l a s s i c a l s p i r i t in th e u n i v e r s i t i e s , th e in c re a s e d i m p o r t a t i o n an d p u b l i c a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l t e x t s , t h e i d e a s o f c o n t i n e n t a l r h e t o r i c i a n s , and t h e p r o t e s t s o f men l i k e F r a n c i s Bacon a g a i n s t s t y l i s t i c

em p h asis.

11

T h i s r e n e w a l o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n was f o l l o w e d by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a num ber o f p r a c t i c a l L a t i n r h e t o r i c s w h ic h d i d n o t l i m i t t h e a r t t o s t y l e a n d d e l i v e r y ; o n e o f t h e s e was Thomas F a r n a b y ’ s

Wat s o n , o p . e i t . , p . 4 4 9 . 11

w illia m P h i l l i p s S a n d fo rd , E n g lis h T h e o r ie s o f P u b l i c A d d r e s s (C o lu m b u s, O h i o : H . L . i f e d r i c k , 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . 90-99.

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

5 I n d e x r h e t o r i o u s (L o n d o n , 1 6 2 5 ) .

TP

L ik e th e o t h e r con­

d e n s e d and s y s t e m a t i z e d r h e t o r i c a l com oeads o f i t s d a y , i t was r e g a r d e d a s a b e t t e r p e d a g o g i c a l w ork t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l s o f C ic e ro and ^ u i n t i l i a n . i n t e r e s t i n g o a r a d o x o f a w ork t h a t

13

T h u s , v/e h a v e t h e

i s Ram ian i n i t s

e d u c a tio n a l ap p ro ach and a a ti- R a m ia n in i t s

c la ssic a l

i n t e r p r e t a t io n o f th e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f r h e t o r i c .

E d itio n s o f th e Index r h e to r ie u s

At l e a s t e l e v e n e d i t i o n s o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i c u 3 w ere p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l a n d f r o m 1 6 2 5 t o 1 7 0 4 .

14

They a r e

l i s t e d b e lo w w i t h c i t a t i o n s f o r t h o s e e d i t i o n s t o be fo u n d i n t h e 1.

U n ited S t a t e s :

Thomas F a r n a b y , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s , s c h o l i s e t i n s t i t u t i o n i t e n e r i o r i s a e t a t i s a c c o m m o d a tu s ( P e r s o n a l m i c r o f i l m o f u n iq u e copy i n th e B o d le ia n L i b r a r y , O x fo rd ; London, 1 6 2 5 ).

O t h e r c l a s s i c a l w o rk s o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e se v e n te e n th ce n tu ry w ere: Thomas V i c a r s , M a n u d u c ti o a d a r t e m r h e t o r i c a m (L o n d o n , 1 6 1 9 ) ; C h a r l e s B u t l e r , O r a t o r i a e l i b r i du o (L o n d o n , 1 6 2 9 ; w i l l i a m P e m b l e , E n c h i r i d i o n O r a t o r i u m ( O x f o r d , 1 6 3 3 ) ; a n d Thomas H o b b e s , The w h o le A r t o f B h e t o r i c k ( L o n d o n , 1 6 3 7 ) . 13

B aldw in, o p . c i t . ,

II,

363.

14

A c o l l a t i o n o f e n t r i e s fr o m t h e f o l l o w i n g s ta n d a r d w orks: 1 A l f r e d W. P o l l a r d , G. R. R e d g r a v e , e t a l . , A S i l o r t - T i t l e C a t a l o g u e o f B ook s P r i n t e d i n E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d , and I r e l a n d . 1 4 7 5 - 1 6 4 0 ( O x f o r d : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 5 ), p p . 233-234. D o n a ld G. W ing, S h o r t - T i t l e C a t a l o g u e o f Books P r i n t e d i n E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d , I r e l a n d , w a l e s . a n d B r i t i s h A m e r ic a , a n d o f n n g l i s h B o o k s P r i n t e d i n O t h e r C o u n t r i e s ( P u b l i c a t i o n i n p r o g r e s s ; Hew f o r k : C olum b ia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , v o l . I — 1 9 4 5 , v o l . I I — 1948, v o l . I l l t o a p p e a r ) , I I , 4 0 .

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

6 2.

_______ , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s , s e h o l i s e t i n s t i t u ­ t i o n ! t e n e r i o r i s a e t a t i s a c c o m m o d a tu s . Cuj a d .H c iu n tu r fo rm u lae o r a t o r i a e ( F o lg e r S h a k e s p e a r e co p y ; 2nd e d . : L o n d o n , 1 6 3 3 ) .

3.

_______ , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s e t o r a t o r i u s . s e h o l i s e t i n s t l t u t i o n i t e n e r i o r l s a e t a t i s a c c o m m o d a tu s . Gui a d j i c i u n t u r form ulae' o r a t o r i a e ec in d e x p o s t i c u s (H arvard copy; 3 rd e d . : London, 1 6 4 0 ).

4.

15 _______ , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s . . . . (Y a le c o p y ; London, 1 6 4 6 ).

5.

, Index r h e t o r i e u s . . . . ( U n iv e rs ity copy; 5 th e d . : London, 1 6 5 4 ).

16

,r

4 th e d .:

o f O h ica g o

6 . _________ , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s . . . . IY a le c o o y ; 1659).

London,

7.

of I l l i n o is

, In d e x r h e t o r i e u s . . . . ( U n iv e r s ity co p y ; London, 1 6 7 2 ).

8.

_______ , I n d e x r h e t o r i c u s . . . . (No copy l i s t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum c a t a l o g u e ; London, 1 6 8 2 ).

9.

_______ , I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s . . . . ( U n i v e r s i t y copy; London, 1 6 8 9 ).

o f C h ic a g o

C am b rid g e B i b l i o g r a p h y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , e d . F r e d e r i c k u«. B a l e s o n (C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ), I , 374, 376. The B r i t i s h Museum. C a t a l o g u e o f P r i n t e d B o o k s, 1 8 8 1 -1 9 0 0 (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : J . V«. L d w a r d s , 1 9 4 5 ) , 2 7 1 1 1 , 197 f f . F o r o th e r b i b l io g r a p h i e s and c a ta lo g u e s u se d in t h i s s tu d y , see th e B ib lio g ra p h y o f t h i s t h e s i s .

The e d i t i o n o f 1 6 4 6 , an d a l l s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s , c a r r i e d t h e same t i t l e a s t h e e d i t i o n o f 1 6 4 0 . 16

The e d i t i o n o f 1 6 5 9 , a n d a l l s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s , c a r r i e d no e d i t i o n n u m b er.

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7 10o

_______, I n d e x r h s t c r i c u s . . . . ( U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s c o p y ; L o n d o n , 1 6 9 6 )»

11,

_______, I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s . . . . ( B o s t o n L th e n a e u m copy; London, 1 7 0 4 ), H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y h a s an e d i t i o n w h ic h was p u b ­

l i s h e d a t Lyons i n 1 6 4 3 . T h e r e W9ra a l s o t h r e e e d i t i o n s p u b l i s h e d a t Amsterdam i n t h e y e a r s 1 6 4 8 , 1 6 5 9 , and 1 6 7 2 ,

17

In a d d i t i o n to th e E n g lis h e d i t i o n s p re v io u s ly c i t e d , t h e F o l g e r S h a k e s p e a r e L i b r a r y h a s a co p y f o r w h ic h t h e e s t i m a t e d d a t e i s 16S0, an d t h e B r i t i s h laaseum h a s a cop y f o r w h ic h t h e e s t i m a t e d d a t e i s 1 6 3 4 , In 1648, t h a t p a r t o f th e In d ex r h e to r ie u s w h ic h d e a l t w i t h f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h (pp« 3 7 - 5 6 , 1633 e d i t i o n ) was e d i t e d by Thomas S t e p h e n s an d p u b l i s h e d i n London u n d e r t h e t i t l e ,

T ro p o se h e m a to lo sia ;

max­

imum p a r t e m e x i n d i c e r h e t o r i c s F a r n a b i i d e o r o m p t a : a d d i t i s in s u p e r a n g lic a n is ex e m p liso

3.8

The B r i t i s h

17

C a t a l o g u e G e n e r a l d e s l l v r e s im n rim e s d e l a B ib lio th e q u e n a tio n a l e { P a ris : Im p rim e rie n a t i o n a l s , 1924-1949, — ) , 2 L I2 , c o l s . 9 4 7 -8 . 18

E a r l R. W a l l a c e , F r a n c i s B aco n on Coimiunica­ t i o n and R h e to r ic (C h ap el H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f H o rth C a ro lin a P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 ), p . 238.

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D w Museum h a s t h e e d i t i o n s o f 1 5 6 0 , 1683 ( 7 t h e d i t i o n ) , 1639 ( 8 t h e d i t i o n ) , (1 5 th e d i t i o n ) .

1724 ( 1 2 t h e d i t i o n ) , a n a 1767

The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o h a s a s i x t h .

e d i t i o n p u b lis h e d i n O u b lin i n 1735.

19

T h i s t h e s i s i s b a s e d on t h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f 1635 f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s :

(i)

I t i s t h e f i r s t an d

o n ly m ajo r r e v i s i o n o f th e o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n o f 1625; (2 ) i t

20

i s t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e s e c t i o n on

o r a t o r i c a l f o r m u l a s (1 0 4 p a g e s ) ; e d itio n to in clu d e a c o p y r ig h t.

pi

(5) i t

i s th e f i r s t

22

S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e In d ex r h e t o r i e u s

T h a t t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s was a p o p u l a r t e x t ­ b o o k o f r h e t o r i c i s o b v i o u s fr o m t h e n u m b e r o f i t s e d itio n s.

The i n t e r e s t o f r h e t o r i c i a n s i s f u r t h e r

aroused by th e f a c t t h a t e s tim a te s of i t s v a lu e v ary fr o m i u o r h o f ’ s low o p i n i o n ^ t o S a n d f o r d ’ s b e l i e f th a t i t

i s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t w ork b e tw e e n

s i x t h e d i t i o n o f 1735 i n d i c a t e s a second s e r i e s p u b lish ed in Ir e la n d . Of)

The o n l y e d i t i o n w h ic h I h a v e n o t s e e n , o r u p o n w hich I have b e e n u n a b le t o g a t a n y i n f o r m a t i o n , i s t h a t ofj 1 6 8 2 . S i n c e t h e e d i t i o n s o f 1 6 7 2 an d 1689 a r e e x a c t l y alfL ke, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e 16 8 2 e d i t i o n v a r i e d fr o m e i / t h e r o f th e m .

21

S e e A p p e n d i c e s , IY .

22

A p p e n d i c e s , I*

255B a n i e l M o r h o f , P o l y h i s t o r . . . l i t e r a r i u m . p h ilo s o p h ic u m s t p r a c tic u m . . . . (L ubeck. 1 7 0 8 ), I , 254.

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W ils o n ( 1 5 5 3 ) an d C a m p b e ll ( 1 7 7 6 ) .

24

iia lla c e lin k s

F arnaby w ith B u t l e r a s th e f i r s t E n g lis h r h e t o r i c i a n s a f t e r d i l s o n t o " e x h i b i t c o m p a r a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e and b a la n c e ."

25

G i b e r t d i s a g r e e s w i t h h o r h o f and c o m p l i ­

m e n ts F arn a b y f o r g i v i n g so b ro a d a v iew o f th e f i e l d in a r e la tiv e ly

s h o rt book.

26

In g e n e r a l,

t h e c r i t i c , t h e m ore f a v o r a b l e a n a t t i t u d e

th e l a t e r he t a k e s

to w ard F a rn a b y ’ s c o n t r i b u t i o n to r h e t o r i c .

P urposes o f th e stu d y

The p u r p o s e s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e : I.

To make a v a i l a b l e a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s o f Thomas F a r n a b y .

II.

To d e t e r m i n e t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y an d p r a c t i c e a s p r e s e n t e d t h e r e i n .

Ill,

To co m p a re t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s w i t h co n tem p o rary t e x t s .

24

W illia m P . S a n d fo r d , " E n g lis h R h e to r ic R e v e r ts t o C la s s ic is m , 1 6 0 0 -1 6 5 0 ," Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f S p eec h . XV ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 5 1 8 . Ha i s r e f e r r i n g t o G e o rge C a m p b e l l , The P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c (L o n d o n , 1 7 7 6 ) . S e e n o t e 4 , above, f o r - ils o n c i t a t i o n . 25

W a lla c e, op, e i t . . above, f o r B u tle r c ita tio n .

p. 188.

See n o te 12,

26B. G i b e r t , J u g e m e n s d e s s a v a n s s u r l e s a u t e u r s q u i o n t t r a i t e de l a r h e t o r i q u e ( P a r i s , 1 7 1 6 ), I I , 462-63.

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IY„

To e v a l u a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s , w ith r e fe re n c e to

(1} i t s

e f f e c t on s p e c i f i c t e x t b o o k s a n d (2 ) i t s general in flu e n c e .

P l a n o f O r g a n i z a t i on.

F o llo w in g t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , C h ap ter I I b eg in s w i t h a b r i e f s t a t e m e n t on t e x t u a l v a r i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s o f th e In d ex r h e t o r i e u s .

The body

o f t h e c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f t h e L a t i n t e x t o f t h e 1533 e d i t i o n and i t s E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n . c o n c lu d e t h i s p a r t o f th e

T ex tu a l n o te s

stu d y .

w i t h t h e t e x t and i t s

tra n s la tio n e sta b lish e d

a s a f o u n d a tio n , th e o b j e c t i v e i n C h ap ter I I I i s to d e t e r m i n e t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s by com­ p a r i s o n w i t h t h e w o rk s o f o t h e r w r i t e r s a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l t e x t s o f t h e G r e e k s a n d t h e Homans* A f t e r t h e above s tu d y o f P a r n a b y 's d e b t t o th e p a s t , C h a p t e r IV i s a c o m p a r i s o n o f h i s r h e t o r i c w i t h t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r w r i t e r s o f h i s own d a y .

An e v a l u a ­

t i o n o f t h e s e t e x t s i s ineludedo C h a p te r V i s a s tu d y (1) o f th e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s on l a t e r w o rk s a n d ( 2 ) o f i t s g e n e r a l i n f l u e n c e , a s d e te rm in e d th ro u g h i t s p o p u l a r i t y and th e o p in io n o f a u t h o r i t i e s .

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11 l a sum m ary, t h e t e x t a n d t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s a r e u sed a s a b a s i s f o r co m p ariso n o f t h i s work w i t h e a r l i e r , c o n t e m p o r a r y , a n d l a t e r w orks;

The l a s t c h a p t e r ( C h a p t e r V I) i s d e v o t e d t o

c o n c l u s i o n s d ra w n f r o m t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i r s t f o u r s e c t i o n s o f t h e A p p e n d i c e s i n c l u d e p a r t s o f t h e 1533 e d i t i o n w h ic h do n o t b e l o n g to th e r h e to r ic p ro p e r:

c o p y rig h t, d e d ic a tio n ,

d u c t i o n , and o r a t o r i c a l f o r m u l a s .

in tro ­

The l a s t s e c t i o n

i s a b i o g r a p h i c a l and c r i t i c a l e s s a y o n Thomas T a r n a b y and h i s c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p .

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CHAPTER I I

LATIN TEXT -AvD ENGLISH TRANSLATION 01 THE 1 6 3 5 EDITION OF THE INDEX RHEIORICUS OF THOMAS FARNABY

In tro d u c tio n

The L a t i n t e s t o f t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s w ent th ro u g h an e v o lu tio n o f t h r e e s t a g e s . The 1625 e d i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f f o r t y - o n e p ag es o f r h e t o r i c , p r e c e d e d by a f i v e - p a g e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d f o l l o w e d b y f o u r p a g e s o f "com m onplaces.** T he 1533 e d i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a o n e - p a g e c o p y ­ r i g h t , a tw o-page d e d i c a t i o n ,

t h e same i n t r o d u c t i o n a s

t h a t i n 1 6 2 5 , s e v e n t y - s e v e n , p a g e s o f r h e t o r i c , t h e same "co m m o n p la ces," an d o n e - h u n d r e d - a n d - f o u r p a g e s o f th e F orm ulae o r a t o r i a e .

To r h e t o r i c p r o p e r , t h e 1 8 3 5 e d i ­

t i o n a d d s n o t e s and m in o r t e x t u a l c h a n g e s , b u t t h e m a jo r e x p a n s i o n o v e r t h e e a r l i e r e d i t i o n i s i n t h e s e c t i o n on t r o p e s and f i g u r e s

(pp. 3 7 -5 5 ) ; h e r e , F arnaby i n s e r t e d

a d d i t i o n a l e x a m p le s, acco m p an ied by c i t a t i o n s a s t o t h e i r sources. The 1640 e d i t i o n a d d s n o t e s .

T h e r e a r e no

t e x t u a l changes in t h i s o r su cc eed in g e d i t i o n s ;

th e o n ly

m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e f r o m t h e 1633 e d i t i o n i s t h e a p p e n d e d

12

with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

15 In d ex p o e t l c u s . th e sis.

1

w i t h w a ic h we a r e n e t c o n c e r n e d i n t h i s

A f t e r 1 6 4 0 , t h e r e a r e no f u r t h e r c h a n g e s i n a n y

p a r t o f th e In d ex r h a t o r i c u s .

2

Thomas F a r n a b y , I n d e x p o e t i c u s , c o m m o n s tra n s a e s c i p t i o n e s , c o fflo a ra tlo n .e s , a l l u s i o n e s . . . q u a e h a b a n t u r a p u d p o e t a s , v e t e r e s e t r e c e n t i o r a s . . . . (L o n d o n , 1 6 5 4 ) . T h i s work was p r i n t e d w i t h t h e I n d e x r h e t o r i e u s fro m t h i s tim e on. I t c o n s is te d o f an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g o f r e f e r e n c e s fr o m " A b o r i g i n e s , i n d i g a n a e , V i r g . v i i i . 3 1 4 . ” t o " Z o n a e , V i r g . i . G e o rg . 2 3 3 . O v i d . M e t. i . 4 5 . " A G a t a l o g u s P o e t a r u n i . o r s h o r t l i s t o f c l a s s i c a l an d c o n ­ tem p o ra ry p o e ts fo llo w e d th e l a s t e n t r y .

2

S i n c e Thomas F a r n a b y u s e d b o t h m a r g i n a l n o t e s a n d f o o t n o t e s , an d s i n c e he u s e d n u m b e r s , l e t t e r s , an d a s t e r i s k s t o d e s i g n a t e such n o t e s , t h e f o llo w in g sy stem was d e v i s e d t o a v o i d p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l n o t e s a n d t o s o l v e s p a c i n g p r o b l e m s a t t h e same t i m e . T e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e u s e o f a sy m b ol ( # ) ; t h i s i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e L a t i n t e x t t o r e f e r t h e r e a d e r t o t h e s e c t i o n , T e x t u a l n o t e s , w h ic h f o l l o w s t h e l a s t page o f th e body o f th e L a t i n t e x t . The sym bol i s u s e d f o r two p u r p o s e s o n l y : (l) t o i n d i c a t e v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e 1633 e d i t i o n fr o m t h o s e o f 162 5 a n d 1 6 4 0 ; ( 2 ) t o g i v e , c o r r e c t , o r c o m p l e t e c i t a ­ tio n s to c la s s ic a l w rite rs . To a v o i d e r r o r i n i n t e r ­ p r e t i n g p a g e n u m b e r s , t h e T o x t u a l N o t e s h a v e p a g e nu m bers c o rre sp o n d in g to th o s e in th e In d ex r h e to r ie u s o n ly . If a num ber o f s y m b o ls a p p e a r on t h e same p a g e , t h e y a r e t a k e n up i n t h e n o t e s i n t h e e x a c t o r d e r i n w h ich t h e y o c c u r on t h e p a g e , fr o m t o p t o b o t t o m , fr o m l e f t t o r i g h t , w ith m arg in a l n o te s in c lu d e d . I n th e o u t l i n e p o r tio n s o f th e Index r h e t o r i e u s , t h e l e t t e r s "m" a n d " n w w e re s o m e tim e s i n d i c a t e d , i n a c c o r d w i t h M e d i e v a l a n d R e n a i s s a n c e p r a c t i c e , by a b a r o v e r t h e p re c e d in g vowel ( e . g . , " d e m o s tr a tio n e s " f o r " d e m o n s t r a t i o n e s 5' i n l i n e 4 , t o p o f p . 3 ) . S i m i l a r l y , " a " b e f o r e " e " was s o m e tim e s i n d i c a t e d by a s h o r t c u r v e d l i n e below t h e " e . " For in s ta n c e , "quae" in l in e 1 of p. 3 ap p eared a s " q u a ." In acco rd an ce w ith ac cep ted p r a c t i c e , such l e t t e r s have been ty p ed i n t o t h e t e x t .

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14

E x c e p t f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o a c i n g , :;.ade n e c e s s a r y by t h e u s e o f t h e t y p e w r i t e r ,

th e L a tin te x t

i s a n e x a c t p a g e - b y - p a g e d u o l i e a t e o f t h e 163 3 e d i t i o n in th e F o lg e r E hakespeare L ib ra r y , o f C o lu m b ia .

W a s h in g t o n , d i s t r i c t

Irr o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e

com parison w ith

t a e L a t i n , t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n r e t a i n s t h e same g e n e r a l fo rm .

L a t i n T ext and E n g lis h T r a n s l a t i o n

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la d e s R h eto rieu s

.

S e h o l i s &. i n s t i t u t i o n i t e n e r i o r i s a e t a t i s a c c o m m o d a tu s . cui a d jic iu n tu r iDHMVLAS ORATORIAE

O p e ra & s t u d i o Thomas - ' a r n a b i i .

Senec.

64. E p i s t .

.E ts i omnia a v e t e r i b u s i n v e n t a a s s e n t h o c ta m e n s e m p e r novum e r i t , u s u s & ia v en to ru m ab a l i i s s e i e n t i a & a i s p o s i t i o .

PAX OPULENT IAM SAPIENTIA PACEM.

LONDINI Im p re s s u m , a E e l i c e K y n g s t o n i o , im p e n sis R o b e rti A l l o t . 1633

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15

THE RHETORICAL INDEX S u ite d to th e s c h o o ls and th e t r a i n i n g o f t h o s e o f m o re t e n d e r y e a r s .

To w h ic h i s a d d e d t h e ORATORICAL FORJ/ULAS

A c co m p lish e d th ro u g h t h e w ork a n d i n t e r e s t o f Thomas F a r n a b y

S e n e c a .' L e t t e r s . 64: A lth o u g h a l l t h i n g s have been d i s ­ c o v e r e d by o u r p r e d e c e s s o r s , t h i s , ' f l - Q v e r t h e l e s s , w i l l a l w a y s be- n e w : t h e u s e , t h e m a s t e r y , and t h e c l a s s i ­ f i c a t i o n o f t h e d i s c o v e r i e s made: b y . o th e rs.

'Wisdom b r i n g s P e a c e P e a c e b r i n g s W e a lth

Lond on

The F e l i x - K y n g s t o n P r e s s R obert A l l o t , P u b lis h e r 1633

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I N D E X

1

H H S T 0 R I 0 V S

R h e t o r i c a e s t f a c u l t a s de un.aquaq.ue r e a i c e n d i b e n e , & ad p e r s u a d e n d u m a c co m m o d ate. CO I f-t le n isu av itac o n c ilia D e le o •H ta s, tis, ctare tionem (0 o +5 O’ td a c u ­ ad fid em i-» CQ D ocen ec essi­ © JLj > p 'r~ i

D e m o n s t r a ti v u m , quod i n l a u d e au t v itu p erio v ersa tu r. D e l i b e r a t i v u m , quod i n f u t u r i tem p o ris p ro v isio n e suadet au t d issu ad et. I u d i c i a l a , quod i n p r a e t e r r i t i d isc e p ta tio n e accusat v e l d e fe n d it.

+= p p m cd -p •H CO o Pk o M P. g o 2 a1

Sortesta s, T u rp itu d o , .• D tilita s, In u tilitas. a e q u ita s

D e le c ta tio , aut d e te sta tio . . The m ean s

by w h ic h r h e t o r i c i s a c h i e v e d

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

I N D E X

RHETOR

I C V S

C o r p o r i s , Vex s o n o r a , d i s t i n c t a , suavis; l a t e r a f i r m a ; O r i s totiusque c o r p o r i s venustas & SDectabilitas.

a d a tu ra , eaque

A n im i,

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a b A r t e qu ae t r a d i t praec e p ta

I n g e n iu m , ad e x c o g ita n d u m . a c u tu m & s a g a x , ad e x p l i candurn f a c i l e , ad s tu a ia in c ita tu m & d o c i l e , firm u m a t que d i u t u r n u m ad m em oriam , q u a e a liatu ra & E x e rc ita tio n e p o tiu s e s t quam- a b A r t e . Iu d ic iu m so lid u m & D isc re tio .

I n - v e n tio n is , quae e x c o g i t a t a r g u m en ta a d p e r s u a d e n d u m id o n ea. D i s p o s i t i o n i s , quae r e s in v e n ta s d i s c e r n i t , ap teq u e p er p a r te s a istrib u it. E l e e u t i o n i s , ' quae r e s in v e n ta s d isp o sita sq u e ex o rn at flo re verborum & lu siin e s e n t e n tiaru m . P r o n u n c i a t i o n i s , q u a e cum v o c i s a p ta m o d u latio n e & corpo­ r i s g e s tu o ra tio n e m p r c f e r t .

a b E x e r c i t a t i o n e , qu ae a s s i d u i t a t e L e g e n d i , C om m entandi, S c r i b e n d i , V a r i a n d i , I m i t a n d i , & D i c e n d i , H a tu r a m n r t e m a u e p e r f i c i t .

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17

THE RHETORICAL INDEX

by N a tu r e , b o th t h a t

o f t h e Body, a f i n e - s o u n d i n g V o i c e , b o t h c l e a r a n d sm o o th ; good l u n g s ; c h a r m i n g and im p r e s s iv e i n co u n ten an ce and e v e ry a s p e c t o f th e- b ody.

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3 . The m eans

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I n t e l l i g e n c e , s h a r p and w i s e fo r in v en tin g , adept a t e x p la in in g , e a s i l y le d to f u r t h e r s tu d y ,, s t r o n g and t e n a c i o u s i n memory, a n a t t r i b u t e com ing m ore fro m N a tu r e and P r a c t i c e th a n fro m S tu d y . S ou n d ju d g m en t a n d D isc re tio n .

I n v e n t i o n , w h ic h d i s c o v e r s t h e a r g u m e n t s su ita b le fo r p ersu asio n . D i s p o s i t i o n , w h ic h s t u d i e s t h o s e t h i n g s - i n v e n t e d and, a r r a n g e s th em i n t h e b e s t ord er. S t y l e , w h ic h a d o r n s t h e i n v e n t e d a n d • a r r a n g e d m a t e r i a l w i t h c o l o r f u l w o rd s and b r i l l i a n t i d e a s . D e li v e r y , w h ich p r e s e n t s th e s p e e c h w i t h c a r e f u l m o d u l a t i o n o f t h e v o i c e an d a p t g e s t u r e s o f th e body.

b y P r a c t i c e , w h ic h p e r f e c - t s t h e h a n d i w o r k o f N a t u r e a n d S t u d y by c o n t i n u e d r e a d i n g , c r i t i c i s m , w r i t i n g , p a r a p h r a s i n g , i m i t a t i n g , and s p e a k in g .

R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.

I N D E X

R H X T 0 R I

V S

In v e n tio I n v e n t i o e s t e x c o g i t a t i o arg u m en to ru m , quae ad p e r s u a dendum s u n t i d o n e a . A rgum entum e s t p r o b a b i l e i n ­ vention. a d fid9m f a c i e n d a m .

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Ad Con-, c ilia tio nem, e x M ori b u s

G e r t is , unde f i u n t D e m o n stra tio n ss. R a tio c in a n tib u s a G a u ssis, e f f i c i e n ­ t s , m a t e r i a l i , f o m a l i , & f i n a l i , ab E f f e c t i s , S u b j e c t i s , A d j u n c t i s , De f i n i t i o n e , D iv isio n © ; G en ere, Spe­ c i e , T o to , P a r t i b u s , C o m p aratis, P a r i b u s Sc, S i m i l i b u s , C p p o s i t i s , r e l a t i s , c o n tra riis , p riv a n tib u s & c o n t r a d i c e n t i b u s , &c. quorum d i s c i p l i n a p eten d a a D i a l e c t i c i s . P r o b a b i l i b u s , Sc Y e r i s i m i l i b u s . E x c ita n d is v e l se d a n d is a f f e c t i b u s ; A m ore, o d i o , i r a , . c o n t e m p t u , l e n i t a t e , m et,u, p u d o r e , g r a t i a , m i s e r i c o r d i a , i n d i g n a t i o n e , i n v i d i a , emu­ la tio n s. Summi e r i t a r t i f i c i s , n o s s a ; q u i & e r . g a q u o s , & q u l b u s de c a u s a i s , ho c v e l i l l o a f f . e c t u i s o l e a n t h o m in e s c o m m o v e ri. O ra to ris: i n quo r e q u i r u n t u r , P r u a e n ti a , P r o b i t a s , B e n e v o le n tia , M o d e st ia.N a tio n is, R ep u b lics, lib e rta te m ; au t# C iv ita D e m o c r a t i a , le g u m t i x i n qua d isc ip lin a m . d e g it. EeA risto c ra tia , d iv itia s . s p i c i a t ergo M o n arch ia, cu sto d ia m in P rin cip is*

A u d i-

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18 THK HHETDHICAL INDEX

In v e n tio n . I n v e n ti o n , i's t h e ' c o m p o s i n g o f a r g u m e n t s w h ic h a r e w e l l - s u i t e d t o w i n n i n g a s s e n t . An a r g u m e n t i s a p r o b a b i l i t y i n v e n t e d t o w in b e lie f.

D ir e c te d tow ard w in n in g b e l i e f , t h e y d e p e n d !on m eans o f s h o w in g

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Toward t h e e m o tio n s th ro u g h th e p a th e tic senses

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•H CQ d

T h i n g s c e r t a i n , w hence we h a v e t h e t e r m "d e m o n stra tio n s.” T h in g s re a s o n e d from c a u s e , c o n t r i b u t i n g , m a t e r i a l , f o r m a l , an d f i n a l ; fr o m e f f e c t , su b stan ce , a t t r i b u t e , d e f in itio n , d iv i­ s i o n ; from g e n u s, s p e c i e s , t h e w ho le, th e p a r t s , t h i n g s com pared, e q u a l, s i m i l a r , o p p o s ite , r e l a t e d , opposed, l a c k i n g , a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y , an d so o n , th e . r u l e s f o r w h ic h m u s t be f o u n d i n D ia le c tic s. P r o b a b i l i t i e s and v e r i s i m i l i t u d e s . By a r o u s i n g o r m o l l i f y i n g t h e f e e l i n g s : Love, h a t e , a n g e r, co n tem p t, m ild n e s s , f e a r , sh am e, f a v o r , j i e r c y , i n d i g n a t i o n , envy, em u latio n . It

i s t h e h e i g h t o f s k i l l f o r o ne t o know u n d e r w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s men a r e commonly m oved b y t h i s o r t h a t e m o t i o n .

Of t h e o i* ato r: i n whom m u s t be f o u n d p r u d e n c e , u p r i g h t n e s s , k i n d n e s s , and m o d esty .

•H ■P

X

Pi

a trib u s g en erib u s bon oru m

a

I n s i t a ; i n d o l e s , in g en iu m , ju d ic iu , in d u stria , d o c ilita s , m em oria.

tra riis

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A c q u isita : tu te s

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M o ris: Iu s titia , T em p eran tia, M en tis: P rudent i a . F o rtitu d o .

A tq u e i n h i s e x p l i e a n d i s seq uen du m a u t a e t a t i s a tq u e reru m g e s ta r u m o rd in em : a u t v i r t u t u m d i s t r i b u t i o n e m & c e r t a rerum c a p i t a : H ie A rt i f i c i a l i s , i l l e N a t u r a l i s ordo d i c i t u r . V i r t u s s o l a p e r s e i p s a l a u d a b i l i s e s t , s i n e cu e n i ­ h i l r e c t e l a u d a r i p o t e s t : A u d itu v e ro ju c u n d io ra s u n t , quae a l i i s f r u c t u o s a , s i b i l a b o r i o s a , aut c e rte g ra tu ita . N a t u r a e A F o r t u n a e b o na t r a c t a n t u r , quod i n eor-um u s u a c m o d e r a t i o ­ n s v i r t u s maxime c e r n i t u r , p r o u t q u i s i i s

re cte

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20

THE RHETORICAL INDEX _0n The D e m o n s t r a t i v e Type

A cco rd in g to th e p o s i t i o n and circu m stan ces o f a person

ca a 0 01 u A cco rd in g t o th e (O £4 t h r e e k i n d s o f good a t t r i b u t e s

1 . T h ey e x c e l l e d a s t o m a r v e l o u s s i g n s , s e a t by t h e g o d s and made known t h r o u g h a u g u r i e s o r o r a c l e s . 2 . As t o t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . 3 . As to race or b i r t h . 4 . As t o s e x . 5 . As t o i n s t r u c t i o n f o r e a c h age d i v i s i o n , a s to e d u c a tio n , t r a i n i n g , i n t e r e s t s , a m b itio n s, t h i n g s a c c o m p lish e d . 6 . As t o d e a t h and t h e e v e n t s a f t e r i t , b u r i a l and m o u r n i n g . F o r t u n e s : i f th e y have r i c h e s , h o n o rs , frie n d s , r e la tiv e s , c h ild re n . The B o dy: w h a t q u a l i t i e s i t h a s — good p h y s iq u e , s t r o n g , h e a l t h y , a g i l e , and w e l l - d r e s s e d .

'CS

In n a te q u a l i t i e s ; t a l e n t s , a b i l i t y , g ood ju d g m e n t , e n e r g y , a p t n e s s f o r b e i n g t a u g h t , g ood memory.

* ' I.G a e s .S c a lig .3 .1 . p o e t. 1 0 0 .c. A'. G a u s s , i n 1 0 . 1 . 9 , c . & I G er. V oss iu m 1 . 2 . In stitu ti­ o n . O r C .13.& 1.2. P a rtitio a u m .c .1 7 . V e rn u l.c .5 .1 .2 .

Kup-

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27

THE RHETORICAL BmDEX

12

C o n t r a d i c t o r y l a w s : when on e la w h a s c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n i t s e l f o r tw o l a w s seem t o be- c o n t r a ­ d icto ry . Word a n d m e a n i n g : when t h e wish of- t h e w r i t e r see m s 't o d i f f e r fr o m t h e 7 ? ritte n d o c u m e n t. R e a s o n i n g : when a t h i n g i s f o r b i d d e n b y no p a r t i c u l a r law , i t i s s u b j e c t e d t o o t h e r s . A m b i g u i t y : when a d o cu m en t a d m i t s o f s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , e i t h e r by r e a s o n o f u n ­ r c e r t a i n em p h asis, o r b ec au se of d iv id e d o r C tf, jo in e d w ords. ffl Ju risd ic tio n : p ro se cu to r, changed.

when t h e d e f e n d a n t s a y s t h a t t h e j u d g e , t i m e , o r p l a c e m u s t be

And up t o t h i s p o i n t , c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e t r u e o f a l l t h r e e ty p e s u n i v e r s a l l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y : n e v e rth e le ss, t h e r e a r e o t h e r s p e c i e s w h ich r e q u i r e s p e c i a l co n ­ s i d e r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g : The o l d f e s t i v a l o r a t i o n . I n w h ic h o n e who e x c e l s i n a game i s p r a i s e d . - 2 . A t r i b e o r a c i t y . 3 . On th e o c c a s io n o f th e b e g in n in g o f c o n t e s t s and gam es, by a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s , o r t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e t i m e a nd p l a c e . 4 . R e w a rd s . 5 . You a r e f i r s t i n a c o n t e s t * , . 6» F i n a l l y , i t i s c l o s e d w ith - a p r a y e r . The new p a n e g y r i c , a r i s i n g f r o m t h e o c c a s i o n w h ic h p ro m p ts u s t o s p e a k , p r o c e e d s t o p r a i s e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h com m onplaces o f t h e D e m o n s t r a t i v e T y p e, o r t o a p ro c la m atio n o f p u b lic h a p p in e s s . I t c lo s e s w ith a p r a y e r and w i t h a n e x h o r t a t i o n t o j o y , p e a c e , a n d harm ony.

See D io n y s iu s of H a lic a rn a ssu s, •R u l e s f o r P a n e g y ric Speeches: M e n a n d e r; R h e to r, C las­ sific a tio n of E p id e ic tic B irth d ay Speeches I . C aesar S c a lig e r , A rt o f P o e t r y .B k .3 . c h a p .100, N. C a u s s i n u s i n Bk. 10, c h a p .9 ; and I.G e ra rd V o ssiu s, I n s t i ­ t u t e s of O rato ry B k .2 , c h a p .13, ana D i v is io n s . B k .2 , ch a p . 17; V e rn u laeu s B k .2 , c h a p . 5 .

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13

I N D 3 X

R H i T C

HI

N u p tia le m , u t & U pithalam ium a u sp icam u r a D iis G -en ialib u s, n a tu r a e & leg um i n s t i t u t o , c o n j u g i i mox enum er a n t u r commoda, p r i v a t a , p u b l i c a : la u a a t i o s e q u i t u r s p o n s i , 3c s p o n s a e : co a sp ic i u n t u r v o t a u t r i u s q u e n o m in e , u t f e l i c i t e r c e d a n t n u p t i a e m utuo a m o rs e o n s ta n tiq u e ju n c tis , u t v id ean t lib e r o s , n e p o ta s , & qui n a s c e n tu r ab i l l i s . super q u i b u s e t i a m omen, o r a e s a g i u m & v o tu m . In N a t a l i t i a , s iv e a u is s i t p ro le, r e c e n s a u c t u s , s i v e p r o v e c t u s a e t a t s , mac te tu r o ra tio n s a n n iv e rs a ria , r e s p ic itu r te m p u s n a t i v i t a t i s , a n n u s , m e n s i s , d i e s , hora: lo c u s ; v i r t u s paren tu m ; fa m ilia . S u b seq u itu r sp e s, g r a tu l a ti o , p re c a t i o ic v o tu m . F u n e b ris o r a i t u r a q u erim o n ia, ex­ c la m a tio n s, a u t in te r r o g a tio n s , r a t i o d e i n d e p e r s o n a e a d quam d o l o r p e r v e n i t , h a b e t u r , l a u s d e f e n c t i e x l o c i s Dem o n st. g e n e r i s , m o r tis g en u s; d e s i d e r i - . urn, c u j u s t e s t e s d o l o r & l u c t u s . b is s u b jic itu r co n so la tio . 4

T

G ra tia ru m a c t i o b e n e fic iu m a c c e p tum l a e t a a g n o s c i t , a m p l i t u d i n e m & c o m m o d ita te m e j u s p r a e d i c a t a t q u e a m p lific a t: sp o n d et v icem r e f e r e n d i parern g r a t i a m : a u t i d s i m i n u s s u p p e t a t , a n i m i g r a t i m e m o ris q u e . o f f i c i u m : adeoque ad v o ta c o n f u g it. B x o p e m p t i c a , A p o p e m p t i c a , H odoep o r i c a , I k m i t o r i a , S u a s o ria , A d b o rta to ria ,

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28

TftD K riE T G h lC A L E 0 E X

I n t h s w e d d in g c e re m o n y , t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r w h ich we r e c e i v e l i k e t h e w e d d in g s o n g f r o m t h e g e n i a l g o d s , in a c c o rd a n c e w ith t h s p la n o f m atu re and o f th e la w s , t h e p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c p r i v i l e g e s o f wedded l i f e a r e e n u m erated . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by t e s t i m o n y t o t h e .c h a r­ a c t e r o f t h e b r i d e g r o o m a n d b r i d e ; t h e s o le m n p r o m i s e s o f e a c h a r e e m p h a s i z e d by nam e, s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t j o y ­ f u l l y m eet t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f m a rr ia g e , i n m u tu a l lo y e , a n d so t h a t t h e y m i g h t l i v e t o s e e c h i l d r e n , g r a n d ­ c h i l d r e n , and even d e s c e n d a n ts o f . t h e t l a t t e r . To a l l t h e s e t h i n g s a r e a d d e d a n omep., a p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h e . f u t u r e , and a p r a y e r . , . On b i r t h d a y s , w h e t h e r one h a s j u s t r e c e n t l y come i n t o th e w orld o r i s a l r e a d y adv an ced i n y e a r s , t h s a n n i v e r s a r y i s c e le b ra te d w ith a speech. The t o p i c s a r e t h e t i m e o f b i r t h , t h e y e a r , m o n th , d a y , a n d h o u r , t h e p l a c e , a n d t h e good c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p a r e n t s , and t h e o t h e r m embers of th e fa m ily . T h is i s fo llo w e d by h o p es f o r th e f u t u r e , c o n g r a tu la tio n s ,, and a v o tiv e o f f e r i n g , S 'u n s r a l s p e e c h e s b e g i n w i t h w a i l i n g , e x c l a m a t i o n s , and r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s ; t h e n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f th e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n t o whom h i s m i s f o r t u n e h a s com e, p r a i s e -of t h e d e c e a s e d fr o m co m m o n p lace s o f ; t h e JJem ons.trat.ive T y p e , t h e k i n d o f d e a t h , s a d n e s s a t t h e d e p a r t u r e o f a l o v e d o n e , w i t n e s s e s t o w h ic h a r e s o r r o w and g r i e f . To t h e s e a r e a d d e d “a c o n s o l i n g c o n c l u s i o n , A happy e x p r e s s i o n o f g r a t i t u d e acknow ledges t h e r e c e i p t o f a g ift-, c o v e rs i t s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and u s e ­ f u l n e s s , . and. a m p l i f i e s t h e s e i d e a s . Then f o l l o w s a pro m ise soon to . r e t u r n an e q u a l f a v o r ; o r , i f th e ! s i t u a t i o n c a l l s f o r l e s s , th e re is s t i l l th e d u ty o f a g r a t e f u l m ind, an d -m e m o ry , f i n a l l y , t h i s k in d of s p e e c h t u r n s - t o good w i s h e s . More f r e q u e n t l y c e l e b r a t e d i n s o n g an d l e t t e r t h a n in speech a r e th e fo llo w in g ty p e s : poems o f f a r e w e l l an d w e lc o m e , a c c o u n t s o f t r a v e l , a n d i d e a s l i k e t h o s e o f re m o n stra n ce, a d v ic e , e x h o r ta tio n .

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t o r i a , C o n so la to ria , C o n s u lta to ria , Per i t o r i a , &c c a r m i n e f r e q u e n t i u s & e p i s t o l i s quam O r a t - i o n i b u s e e l e b r a n t u r . jiorum i t a q u e p r a e c e p t a cum e x e m p l i s e x p re s s is au t c i t a t i s v ia e b it qui v o le t, a p u a Ivlenandrum R h e t . D io n y s iu m H a lic a rn e ss. Erasmum, l i b e l l o u t i l i s sim o de c o n s c r i b e a d i s E p i s t o l i s : Iu liu m C a e s . S e a l i g e r u n u S . l . P o e t i c e s c . 1 0 3 . 3c 104, I . L i p s i u m . de r e E p i s t o l i c a , B ar. K e c k e r m a n . l . l . R h e t . S p e c i a l . c . 1 4 , &c. I . G e r . V o ssiu m 1 . 2 . I a s t i t u t . O r a t , c . 1 3 . & P a rtitio n . I ,2 .c .l9 .

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40

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m£S - ^ ° l i * - ' i c a t i o n and i t s Types i n L o n g i n u s , On t h e H u b lim e ; h e r m o g e n e s , On P r o p e r m e t h o d ; C i c e r o , £ n t h e O ra ­ t o r , t r e a t s .am pli­ f ic a tio n under S ty l e ; ^ u i n t i l i a n . Bk. 8 , chap. 4 ; 3 o a r e z , B k .l i n c h a p s . 34 t o 41 ; S tr e b a e u s , 3 k . 2, chap, 21; C a u l s r i u s . Bk, 3 . c h a p . 2; C h y t r ­ aeus adds H ypothe­ s i s under th e term . T h e s is ; S tu rm iu s, On An O u t l i n e o f S t y l e , c h a p s . 30 a n d 35; K e ck erm a n n , System o f R h e t o r i c B k . l , c h a p . 7 ; Vos­ siu s, I n s t i t u t e s B k .3 , c h a p . 5 ; Gau— s s i n u s , a l l o f Bk. 5, Yhiere e i g h t t y p e s a p p e a r ; t h e boo k o f E ra s m u s , A S u p p ly o f T h in g s, a ls o h as th e s e .

S im p lific a tio n is a fo n t oi a s s e r tio n t h a t i s a u i t e s t r o n g a: .d e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to a ro u s in g th e em o tio n s. By word f o r m s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n s , e x a g g e r a ­ t i o n s , asy n d e to n , r e p e t i t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e s , g r a d u a l l y w o r k i n g up t o more d i s t i n g u i s h e d t e r m s , and. sy n o n y m s. C l im a x : s t e p s p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s i n g i n im p o rta n c e , and even r i s i n g to th e su b lim e ; a s i n t h i s e x a m p le : Lfc _is a_ c r im e t o im­ p r i s o n a_ Roman c i t i z e n , e v e n a_ more s e r i o u s a n o f f e n s e ■t o b e a t h i m , and a l m o s t t n e same a s t h e m u r d e r o f a _ p a r e n t t o k i l l h im . How a, i t map b e r i v e ; : cuiniassus, Cn a t o n e o f r e t a r d e d n i r n i t y by l o n g o n e s , a na a s p e e c h Li t e r a r y _bomt h a t i s m o d e r a t e i n t o n e may he r a r i a v v;itie b o t h l o n g oos i t i o a ; fubius and s h o r t s y l l a b l e s . The - f o l l o w i n g f o r m s a r e a n o r o v e d f o r t h e o e r i n n i n c The u i o l o s s u s [ a m e t r i c a l f o o t c o n s i s t i n g 5k. v ; c n a o . 4; of s e n t e n c e s : a . J v m l l a bk . o f t h r e e l o n g v o w e l s j , a i a u i s j u a i e s s ; t h e c r e t i c u s fa l o n g v o w e l osi’o r e and a f t e r a s n o r t s/uod o r ? c a t u s a o 5 t) i l t3 V c I ' ciO X ox' -.uJi’x i* * u s j u i i s i m m o r t u l i b u s sum; a p a e o n o f cue f i r s t o r d e r jTone l o n g and t h r e e s h o r t s j ?3uc£ s f i p ^ r hac r s ; t h e d o c h n i u s ■Jtu.lerius, 3k. 5, c h a o . 14; { s h o r t - l o a g - s h o r t c o m b i a a t i o n s j , n&vae c r i m i n a t i o n e s ; o tr e b a e u s , ok. the a ic h o ra e u s ^double tr o c h e e , l o a g - s a o r t , l o n g - s d o r t j , 2, c n a p s . 12 & o i a u i s a n t 3 a P . 0 . ; an d o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e a na r e s t [ r e ­ 15; ^oarszj l i e « v e r s e d d a c t y l , two s n o r t s a a d a l o n g j , a n i m a d v e r t i 3, c a m s . 35 T a l i s amor Japan, ini ( q u a l i s cum f s s s a uavencam P e r aemorn a t q u e a l c o s q u a e r e n d o b u c u l a l u c o s , & c . ) T a l i s a m o r t e n e a t , u s e s i t m i n i c u r a m e d e r i .i^ .d ests, a d e s t e , s e e l e r i s u l t r i c e s J e a e . oen. uedsa.jT x c i t a t s , e x c i t a t e sum, _si oo t e s t i s , a b i n f e r i s . ..'ic* p i o . . . i l . y d r u x , . c r u x , i u q u a m , i a f e l i e i & a eruir.nos o como a r a b a t u r . 7. i n V e r r . £ “ Totrna hoc quantuxncuaq ue e s t ,(quod c e r t e maximum. e s t ) t o t u m s s t , j a g u a r s , t u u m . T i c . p r o . i.m rcello.// list a . u i a d i p l o s i s q u o t i e s ex T ine p r i o r i s mainbbi, p r i n c i p i u m s i t d i c t i o p r i m a s e g u e n t i s : i ^ i e r i d s s , tros h a e c f a c i e t i s , maxima b a l l o : d a l l o , c u j u s amor t a n t u m m i n i c r e s c i t i n h o r a s »# H i c t am en v i v i t . V i v i t ? • inio v e r o in. s a n a t u m v e n it. 1 . O atilin .# Sed p a t e r o m n i p o t s n s a a i g a t me x’u l m l n e a d umbras; P a l l e n t e s umbras T r i o i , noetemque proi'unaam. V i r g . 4 .-len.if. P r i n c i p u m a i g n i t a s e r a t oene o a r : non o a r f o r t a s s e eoruia q u i s e q u e b a n t u r . p r o L i g a r i o . - p

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nnat. a o c r a s K&hKOlTd&PjV' d i a e r e s i s i: .-Idas a s y l l a b l e i n t o two p a r t e : h v o l n l s s o t s i m p l y made o f o r * j v o l v i s s e i , h a d r e s u l t e d ; ah c rxous f o r a o n o u s , a l a s ; b r o n z e , n o t Ja s p iir o evoke i 'o r v a c , wcs : m a t e r i a l ‘ ,"!V «-a t e r i a o . o f m a t t e r . of bronze b e ­ cause of i t s dipure s R e s u ltin g ir o n D efects sw iftness, i n S;,nrta:-: c o n t e nd s J oseph i l l i p o i s , l a c k i n g any w o r d , w i l l s u p p l y i t : I t i s not o c . ' - l i g e r . To by r e l e a s i n g £ t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d ? } . The-' say_ Auson-j u s , bk. £ i t j * . Vihat more- £ s h a l l I s a y ' r j . What [ s h a l l I s a y j Ci La !>, 10 , a b o u t those_ msn.? V.hen a word s e r v i n g many -words i s a t t a c h e d t o one o f t h em , t h e f i g u r e i s c a l l e d Zeugma: H e r a , t h e a rms o f t h a t w a r r i o r : h e r e wa s h i a c h a r i o t . The g oa t v i 11 be o f some h e l p t o y o u , and a l s o t h e k i d s . £The v e r b s I n both s e n t e n c e s are s i n g u l a r , t o ag ree w i t h t h e c l o s e s t

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E u e s i s i s t c 3 p l a c s m s a t o f a word b e t w e e n t u e comp on en t p a rts of an o th er; T h e s e t o l u g s a r s y e " v o le a e ia ™ t o us [aus b et v/ ee n com- a n d n l a c e n t ] , L y in g u r d s r t h e con­ s t e l l a t i o n o f t o e G-rant B e a r f s e p t G i n - t r i o n i ] . Haiiciiadys d i v i d e s o ne t n i a g i n t o t w o , p e r m i t t i n g g r e a t e r v a r i e t y ; He champed s t e e l b i t s on g o l d e n o l a t s s [ L i t e r ­ a l l y ; Ke champed b i t s and s t e e l on g o l d an d e l a t e s .1 • ° a a a lla g e c h an g es t h e p e r s o n , num ber, t e n s e , o r e v e n th e ^'AIso c a l l e d g e n d e r o f a w o rd : T h a t w h ic h i s d e a r e r t_o vie i s l o s t H e t e r o s i s an d [ f i r s t p e r s o n v e r b i n s t e a d o f t h i r d ] , U n l e s s he d o e s i llc e c th e ta . i t , _I s h a l l w in [ p e r f e c t t e n s e i n s t e a d o f f u t u r e ] . JE am h e r e f t h i r d o e r s o n o f s e c o n d e l e m e n t i n s t e a d o f first]o H e re t h e v o i c e s b r e a k i n [ p r e s e n t f o r o a s t ten se]» s y n th e s is i s a f ig u r e congruous in se n se b u t not in form : The crowd r u s h [ c o l l e c t i v e n o u n w i t h p l u r a l v erb], Open., e v e r y o n e [ s i n g u l a r p r o n o u n , p l u r a l im­ p e r a t i v e ] . The g r e a t e s t p a r t h a v i n g b e e n c u t f s i n ­ g u l a r f e m i n i n e noun m o d i f i e d by m a s c u l i n e p l u r a l p a rtic ip le ]A n a s t r o p h e i s a c c u s t o m e d t o p o s t p o n e w ords w o r t h y o f e a r l i e r p o s i t i o n : A c r o s s t h e c r o s s - b e a m s , ---gainst I t a l y , around a l l th e s e a s . [ L a tin p r e p o s itio n s p l a c e d a f t e r t h e w o rd s t h e y g overn,]} H y p e rb a to n i s a t r a n s p o s e d o r d e r o f w o r d s : The w i n e , w hich t h e good . a e e s t e s had s t o w e d i n t h e c a s k s , on t h e D i c i l i a n s h o r e , a n d w h ic h t h e h e r o h ad g i v e n t o those d e p a r t i n g , he d i v i d e d . [ I » e . , He d i v i d e d t h e wine on t h e b i c i i i a n s n o r e . ] H y p a lla g e c h a n g e s w ords by a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f f o r m s : A sh ip w ith o u t r e v e re n c e [ a d j e c t i v e o f f e e l i n g a p p lie d to in a n im a te o b j e c t ] . He s e e s th e m r i s e n f n o m i n a t i v e sin g u lar p a r t i c i p l e in s te a d o f a c c u s a tiv e p l u r a l ] . d iv e t h e w in d s t o t h e s n i p s [ i . e . , d i v e t h e s h i o s t o th e w i n d ] ,

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How h e l p f u l , o r r a t h e r hew e s s e n t i a l , t o t h e f u t u r e o r a t o r i s th e i m i t a t i o n o f th e p o e ts i s a t t e s t e d by t h e c h i e f o f t h e o r a t o r s an a o t h e r s i a t h e f i r s t r a n k o f th e a r t . T h o se p o s t s m u s t b e r e a d , °men s a y , t h e r e a d i n g o f vinom w i l l do t h e o r a t o r t h e m ost g o o d . F o r fr o m t h e s e i s ’ s o u g h t t h e f a c u l t y o f h a v i n g a n im a ­ t i o n i n i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s , l o f t i n e s s i n word c h o i c e , an d c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o v e r e l e g a n c e i n c h a r a c t e r i z a ­ tio n s. I n d e e d , i n s p i r e d by ,a c e r t a i n e t h e r e a l b r e a t h o f a d S i t y , t h e y b r e a t h e f o r t h s o m e t h i n g u n d y i n g and h e a v e n ly ,_ som eth in g a d m ira b le f o r i t s s k i l l f u l j o i n ­ ing" o f i d e a s , o u t s t a n d i n g f o r b r i l l i a n c e in t h e u se of w o r d s , a n d w o n d e r f u l l y sm oo th i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f rh y t h m . H o w e v e r, we do n o t o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o e t s s h o u l d , n o t be f o l l o w e d b y t h e o r a t o r i n e v e r y d e t a i l , i n t h e i r f r e e d o m w i t h w o rd s and " p o e t i c lic e n s e ." F u r t h e r m o r e , n e i t h e r P w hole v e r s e s n o r h a l f v e r s e s sh o u ld be s t u f f e d i n t o t h e f r e e s t y l e o f a . speech. I n o r d e r t h a t t h e mind may n o t be t a x e d , m o r e o v e r , b y t h e m a n i f o l d and. c o n f u s e d r e a d i n g o f s o many s u c h t h i n g s , and i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e e s c a p e o f s o m e t h i n g v a l u a b l e t h a t we h a v e r e a d , h e a r d , o r d isc o v e re d th ro u g h th e p ro c e s s o f th in k in g i t s e l f , i t w i l l be fo u n d _ v e ry u s e f u l t o e n t r u s t t o n o te b o o k s, a s th o u g h to a s t o r e - r o o m f o r p r o v i s i o n s and a s a n a i d s u b s t i t u t e d f o r memory, t h o s e t h i n g s w h ic h seam n o t e ­ w o r t h y an d s t r i k i n g . On t h e one n a n d , l e t n o t e be t a k e n o f u n u s u a l w o r d s , new o r w i t h new m e a n i n g s , c e r t a i n f r a g m e n t a r y p h r a s e s , t h e m ore o u t s t a n d i n g b e r c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n s , an d t h e m ore e l e g a n t r u l e s f o r co h eren ce and s u b j e c t m a tt e r , a t a b l e o f w h ic h w i l l be g i v e n b e l o w , f o l l o w e d by e x a m p l e s f o r e a c h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l b e n o t e d : e m b e l l i s h m e n t s a n d l i n e s o f r e a s o n i n g , s i m i l e s an d m e t a p h o r s , w h ic h a r e s i m i l e s c o n t r a c t e d t o o ne w o rd , a l l e g o r i e s , c o m p a r i s o n s , e x a m p l e s , m ore a c c u r a t e w ords, id e a s ,, p l a y i n g on w o rd s, o r t h i n g s c a p a b le o f b e in g so h a n d led o r i n v e r t e d .

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d i v e l i n v e r t i p o s s u n t ; e a q u e d i g e s t a cmn i a & p s r o rdinein a lp h a b e t! c u m s u i s t i t u l i s a t q u e c a p i t i b u s ta n q u a m f a r i s c e l i i s a u e ■ su fc ja c ta . .-iuoniani v e r o , u t a i t ^ - i l l e , n e ­ mo- p e r c i p e r e t o t r e c o n d i t a s a u t ta m - v a r i e s r e s ' p o t e s t , n i s i u t s e i e n t i a e * m e d i t a t i o , m ed it a t i o n i f a c u l t a s , f a c u l t a t i v i s e l o q u e n t i a e ac« ee d at: p e r q u a e c o l l i g i t u r eandem e s s e r a t i o n e m Sc p e r c i p i s n d i q u ae p r o f e r a s , Sc p r o ; • f e r s n d i quae p e r c e p e r i s : ne co n d i m ag is a i ie - < uorum e f f a t o r u m quam a o s t r o r u m e o n e e p tuum p rom i s i m u s ; i n t i n g a n d u s ta n d e m i n n o s t r a m a n i m i m entem e r i t c a l a m u s , s e n a t u s convocandus i n co rd e c o n s i l i a r i u s ; s t y l u s q u e i n d e a c u e n d u s . # N e e , q u ae l e g e r i s , i n c o d ic u m a u t e t i a m m e m o ria e a d v e r s a r i a ta m r e f e r e n d a e r u n t , quam m e n t i s : curand u m q u e 'u t e a n t i n i n g e n i u m . q u ip p e c u ju s in v a sc u lo l i b e r i u s ac fr e q u e n tiu s t i n g a - > t u r s t y l u s , quam m e m o r i a e . T o t tarnquev a r i a r u m - u n d e c u n q u e c o n g e s t a r u m opum, quo p r o p r i a e f i u n t n o s t r i q u e j u r i s , im m u ta n da e s t q u a l i t a s & p r o p r i e t a s , u t v u l g o l o q u u n t u r . Ne p a t i a m u r i t a q u a i l i a q u a s h a u s im u s m a n e r e I n t e g r a & q u a s i s o l i d a i n n a t a r e s to m a c h o , quem a e g ru m a t q u e i n f i r mum a r g u u n t q u o t i e s eadem s p e c i e < r e d d u n tu r c i b i qua su m p ti s u n t : sed ea n a t u r a e b e n e f i e i o eoncoquam us i n c h y lu m , u t h i n e i n s a n g u in e m & a l i m e n t u m t r a n s e a n t . Non tam memori v o m i t u c r u d a r e g a r a m u s , quam i n g e n i i f e r m e n t o t o t g ra n o ru m m i s ­ c e lla n e a i n panenr co n v e rtam u s. Tot r o r i s gammas, t o t f l o r u m s u c c o s ' i t a s p i r i t u s n o a t r i r '

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A ll th e s e w i l l be c o n s id e r e d and t a k e n up i n th e a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r o f t h e i r nam es a n d h e a d i n g s , a s th o u g h s t o r e d i n h o n ey c o m b s o r s t o r e - h o u s e s . o in ce i t is i n d e e d t r u e , a s th a t E x p e r t has p o in te d o u t, t h a t no one i s a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e so many i n v o l v e d m a t t e r s , v/hich a r e a l s o s o d i f f e r e n t , 9 x c e p t a s t h i n k i n g i s a d d e d t o t h i s s c i e n c e , a b i l i t y i s h d d ed t o su c h t h i n k i n g , a n d t h e p ow er o f e l o q u e n c e i s added t o s u c h a b i l i t y , Prom a l l o f v /h ic h , i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d . b e t h e same c a r e b o t h f o r p e r c e i v i n g w h a t y o u p r e s e n t an d f o r p r e s e n t i n g what you p e r c e i v e . L e t u s n o t b e a m o n g ' t a o s e who l a y up p r o v i s i o n s m o re o f t h e a x io m s o f o t h e r s r a t h e r t h a n b e d i s t r i b u t o r s o f o u r own i d e a s . T h en t h e pen m ust be d i p p e d i n o u r m e n t a l p o w e rs a n d a n a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l m u s t b e c a l l e d i n t h e h e a r t ; i n t h a t w ay, o u r mode o f e x p r e s s i o n i s t o b e s h a r p e n e d . And t h o s e t h i n g s you r e a d s h o u l d n o t o n l y be e n t e r e d on t h e l e a v e s o f b o o k s o r e v e n i n t h e f r a i l memory a s i f on l e a v e s o f t h e m in d ; c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t h a t t h e y become a p a r t o f n a t u r e i t s e l f . In d eed , l e t th e w r i t i n g i n s t r u m e n t be m o re f r e e l y and m o re o f t e n d ip p e d i n t h e v e s s e l o f n a t u r a l a b i l i t y t h a n i a t h a t o f memory. I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e n a t u r e . and q u a l i t y o f s o many a n d so v a r i e d p o w e r s , g a t h e r e d from e v e r y w h e r e , m u s t b e a d j u s t e d t o a g r e e w i t h p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s an d r u l e s . 'And we s h o u l d n o t a l l o w t h o s e t h i n g s we h a v e consum ed t o r e m a i n w n o le a n d t o f l o a t a s i f u n d i g e s t e d i n t h e s t o m a c h , ' w h i c h t h e y shew t o be weak a n d i n f i r m a s o f t e n a s t h e s e f o o d s a r e r e j e c t e d i n t h e same fo rm a £ t h a t i a w h ic h t h e y w e re o rig in a lly "ta k e n in . But w i t h N a t u r e 's h e l p , l e t u s r d i g e s t them i n t h e g a s t r i c j u i c e s , so t h a t t h e y may pass i n t o th e b lo o d a s n o u rish m e n t. L et us not b rin g up c r u d e p h r a s e s , a s i f b y a t h r o w i n g up f r o m memory, b u t r a t h e r by a n a t u r a l f e r m e n t a t i o n o f p o w e r s , l e t u s t u r n so many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f g r a i n s i n t o f o o d . L e t t h e p o w e r o f o u r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s s o c h a n g e t h e s e many j e w e l s o f dew a n d f l o w e r s o f a d o r n m e n t ,

^ l e s a l l a in th e., d ia lo g u e w h ic h some c re d it to T a c itu s, o th e rs to Q u in tilia n . S . S tu d y and P rep a ratio n .

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p r o p r i e t a t e m utem us, u t d i v e r s a l i b a m i n a oc s a p o r e i s i n unum inel c o a l e s c a n t . I ta in unum c o n s p i r s n t v o c e s v a r i a e '1 i n s t r u m e a t a d i v e r s a u t s i n g u l o r u m l a t e a n t v o c e s , om­ nium a p p a r e a n i ; u t e x t o t a i s s o n i s f i a t c h o ­ ru s u n u s, co n cen tu s u n u s. /'-E rud itum i t a q u e hune p u lv erem p r o r s u s ' i n t s n t i s t u d i i r a d io e x a r a m u s a e re m i n g e n i i r o t a m q u a s i f i g l i nam v a r s e m u s a d j u d i c i i s t a t e r a m omnia perpendam us. ex i n g a n i i p y x id e p e r in v e n tio n em p ro p ria m , v e l ex a e r a r i o m e n tis p e r r e c o r d a t i o n e m promamus q u ae ad rem n o l strain f a c i a n t . quod f i e ' t , s i m e n t i s d e x t e r i t a t s , e l i c i o s t u d i i a tq u e an im i c o a f l i c t u , 5 quasi o b s te tr ic ia m e d ita tio n is opera, re s var i e m i s t a s i t a te m p e re m u s a t q u e i n unum corpus re d ig a m u s:’ u t e tia m s i ap p a ren t un­ de sumptum s i t , a l i u d tam en quam u nd e sumptum s i t , a p p a r e n t . L e c t a h a e c sem in a n o v a l i s u b a c to c r e d i t a prem ent a lic u a n d o t e r r a m s e g e t e , ru m p e n t m e s s e h o r r s a ; s i a c ce d a t aeque d i s e r t a p e r i t i c u l t o r i s s o l e r t i a . P r a e c e p t o r i g i t u r & i p s e m inim e r u d i s & maxime e x e r c i t a t u 3 e x h o c n o s t r o a u t a l i o R h e t o r i e e s eo ra p e a d io a r t i s p r u a c e p l n v'.vs.:'r a b i t ; lo c o s in v e n tio n is , d e f in itio n e s eorum , M axim as, t r a c t a t i o n e s j a d j e c t i s exemp lis illu s tra b it. ilon tam en om nia a c c u r a t e & a a t e n u e : v e l ob h o c , quod r a a g i s t r u m f e r e a r t i s r a p e r i a s nem inem , t e s t e C i c e r o ­ n e , q u i ip s e elo q u en s f u e r i t : n u d a e en im i l l a e a r t e s h im ia o le ru n q u e s u b t i l i t a t i s a f f e ­ c t a t i o n s fr a n g u n t a tq u e eo n e id u n t q u ic q u i a e s t i n o r a t i o n e " ip s o q u e s p i r i t u g e n e ro siu s,

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so t h a t t a e d i f f e r e n t o f f e r i n g s a n a . s a v o r s may f u s s i n t o one kincL o f h o n e y . L e t t h e v a r i o u s sounds^ an d •d if f e r e n t e m b e llis h m e n ts become so ..arm cnized t n a t , w ith th e i n d i v i d u a l so u n d s hidden., .th e so u n d s o f a l l m a y b e in . . a c c o r d . Jro m so m uch v a r i e t y , l e t t h e r e ca one c h o r u s and one sym phony. L e t us p e n e t r a t e th e sands of le a r n in g w ith th e ray s o f e a rn e st stu n y ; l e t u s, lik e o o tta r s , tu rn th e sw ift wheel o f ta l e n t ; .le t u s p la c e , a l l t h i n g s on t h e s c a l e s o f good ju d g m e n t. Through i n t e l l i g e n t u se of th e f a c u l t y of in v e n tio n , l e t us draw f o r t h , a s i f from o u r t r e a s u r y o f t a l e n t s , tn o s e th in g s w hich a r e p e r t i n e n t to th e c a se ; o r l e t u s do t h e same t h r o u g h m em ory, a s i f f ro m t h e t r e a s u r y o f th e m ind. T h is may be a c c o m p lis h e d by c l e v e r n e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n , jfche d r a w i n g o u t o f t a l e n t , t h e a r o u s i n g o f f e e lin g , an d , as i f by th e o b s t e t r i c a l p a in s of g i v i n g b i r t h t o . a n i d e a , i f we s o c o m b i n e t h i n g s f r o m 30 mapy s o u r c e s an d make o f them one u n i f i e d b o d y , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e s o u r c e o f some i t e m i s o b v io u s ,- .n e v e r th e le s s i t seems to a p p e a r i a a d i f f e r e n t guise. T hese s e l e c t e d s e e d s , once, e n t r u s t e d to . v i r g i n l a n d , .som etim es b u r d e n t h e e a r t h w i t h t h e i r o r o d u c e a n d b u r s t s t o r e h o u s e s w Ii t h t h e a b u n d a n c e oCf th e ir h arv e st, e s p e c ia lly i f . th ere is a lso an eq u a lly s k i l l f u l ca re by an e f f i c i e n t husbandm an. T herefore, t h e t e a c h e r , a m an who s h o u l d b e v e ry , w e l l t r a i n e d , a n d q u a l if ie d , w ill_expound th e r u le s of the a r t o f rh e ­ t o r i c fro m t h i s com pendium o f m in e , o r fro m t h a t o f som eone e ls e .. He w i l l d e m o n s tra te , by m eans of s p e c i ­ f i c exam ples th e d i v i s i o n s ; o f in v e n tio n and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s ., t h e r u l e s , and th e ways o f h a n d lin g su b ­ jects. B u t.h e d o e s .n o t have t o be a b l e to do a l l th e se th in g s e x a c tly and su p erb ly h i m s e l f f o r the r e a s o n t h a t y o u f i n d a lm o s t no .te a c h e r o f th e "-a rt's, a s C i c e r o h i m s e l f p o i n t s o u t , who i s e l o q u e n t ; b u t r u l e s a l o n e , b e c a u s e o f an e x c e s s i v e e m p h a s is on a d o r n m e n t , o f t e n b r e a k down, a n d d e s t r o y w h a t e v e r t h e r e i s in a speech th a t is su p e rio r f o r q u a litie s of i t s own a n d

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r o s i u s , omnem succum e b i b u n t Sc o s s a ciete g u n t, N ovissim e d o e e b i t p r o p r i o s A f f e c tu u m m o t u s & c o n c i t a t i c n s s . S t jam t a n ­ dem p r o p o n e t r h e t o r c u l o s u o a r g u m e n t a , e f a b u l i s p o e t d c i s , t r a g i c i s u t p lu r im u m , h i s t o r i e i s , E t h i c i s , d e c la m a o d a , a tq u e ea quana'oque i n p a r t e s e o n t r a r i a s ; verurn b a e c v e r i t a t i quammaxime1 c o n s o n a , & quo­ rum- s i t u s u s a l i q u i s i n v i t a d e i n c i o e f u t u r u a . l ic e b itq u e aliq u an d o e x p e rie n d i e x e re e n a iq u e in g e n ii g r a t i a p roponere paradoxa & a b s u r d a :. P r a e f o n n a b i t i l l i prinm m d e ciam an d i m ateria m & s u p e l l e c t i l e m , d e l i n e a b i t v e s t i g i a , d ig itu m ad f o n t e s l e c t i o n i s - i n t e n d e t , com m onstrabit a rg u m e n ta , s u p p e - < d i t a b i t e o l o r e s . mox eum s i b i p e r m i t t e d , s u i s u t v i r i b u s absque a d m in icu lo p o s s i t p ro g r e d i , t P r o g r e s s u s a u t e m f a c i e t no n s i n e sum5 » S ty lu s ma s p e a d l a u d a s a m p l i s s i m & s , s i s e t o t u m & r i t e t r a d i d e r i t S t y l o , op tim o & p r a e s t a n t i s s i - c mo d i c e n d i m a g i s t r o , a u t o r i , e f f e c t o r i . H i e e n im v i r e s i n g e n i i e x p e r i t u r , m entem e x a - c u i t , memoriam e x c i t a t , j u d i c i u m f o r m a t , a r t i s p ra e c e p ta i l l u s t r a t , l e c t i o n i s fru etu m ^ e x i g i t ; s t u d i i p r a c t i c a , c o g i t a t i o n u m H er­ m e s , m a n d a to ru m n u n e i u s ; s e i e n t i a r u m m onim entum . quem cum m u l t i p e r i g n a v i t am f u g i u n t q u i a m agni e s t l a b o r i s , turn, p l u r i m i p e r i n s c i t i a m a v e r s a n t u r , e o quod r a tio n e m e j u s n e s c i a n t p r o f a n i , & i l l o t i s , p e d i b u s , a u t m a n ib u s p o t i u s , t a n t a e < a r t i s pene*t r a l i a a g g re ssi. H is autem m y s t e r i i s i n i t i a t u s bo c a g a t t, rem c u r a e ta m s e r i a e , c o n s i l i i ta m s a c r i e t i a m a t q u e e t i a m r e c t a r e p u t e t v ia .

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t h e y v ; i l l s a p i t s s t r e n g t h an d l a y b a r e t h e b o n e s . F i n a l l y , he w i l l t e a c h t h e p r o p e r m o v in g a n d a r o u s i n g o f t h e e m o t i o n s . And a t t h e v e r y l a s t , he v/111 p r o p o s e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o 'r t h e b u d d i n g r h e t o r i c i a n t o b e d e ­ c l a i m e d fro m t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e p o e t 's an d t r a g e d i a n s , h i s t o r i a n s , " w r i t e r s on E t h i c s , an d t h o s e t h i n g s t o be s a i d on b o t h sides* o f a q u e s t i o n . Indeed, th e se th in g s sh o u ld conform a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e to th e t r u t h , s i n c e t h e r e may" b e some f u t u r e u s e f o r s u c h arg u m en ts i n l a t e r l i f e . O c c a s io n a lly ,' f o r th e sake o f t e s t i n g a n d g i v i n g w i d e r s c o p e t o t a l e n t , ' i t may' be p e r m i t t e d t o p r o p o s e p a r a d o x e s alid o t h e r a b s u r d . s u b j e c t s . The t e a c h e r w i l l i n s t r u c t t h e s t u d e n t b e f o r e ­ hand on d e s i r a b l e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r d e c l a i m i n g ; he w ill tr a c e th e n e c e ssa ry s te p s , in d ic a te th e p roper' r e a d i n g s o u r c e s , d e m o n s t r a t e p o i n t s 'of d e v e l o p m e n t , ' an d a d d o r n a m e n t a t i o n . S oon he w i l l p e r m i t t h e s t u d e n t t o do t h e s e t h i n g s f o r h i a i s e l f , s o t h a t hfe may b y h i s o?;n p o w e rs p r o c e e d b e y o n d t h e n e e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e . M o r e o v e r , w i t h h i g h h one he w i l l ' m a k e p r o g r e s s to w a r d t h e ' f u l l e s t p r a i s e s , ' i f he s h a l l h a v e s u r r e n d e r e d h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y ' a n d p r o p e r l y t o S t y l e , 1' 5. S ty le t h e b e s t and f o r e m o s t t e a c h e r , a u t h o r , an d p r o d u c e r o f good s p e a k i n g ! F o r S t y l e t e s t s s t r e n g t h o f t a l e n t , ' s h a r p e n s "the m in d , a r o u s e s ' t h e memory, s h a p e s j u d g m e n t , m ak es u s e o f t h e r u l e s o f t h e a r t , and d r a w s o n t h s f r u i t s o f re ad in g ; i t i s th e p r a c t i t i o n e r o f th in g s le a r n e d , th e ffie rc u ry -lik e m essen g er o f o u r th o u g h ts , t h e b e a r e r o f commands, t h e p r e s e r v e r o f t h e s c i e n c e s . ' J u s t a s many f l e e fro m S t y l e t h r o u g h l a z i n e s s , b e ­ c a u s e i t r e q u i r e s much 'w o rk , so e v e n m o re t u r n away fr o m i t t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e , ' e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e u n l e a r n e d ' men do n o t r e a l f z e i t s i m p o r t a n c e , a n d t h e y t r y t o g a i n t h e i n n e r s a n c tu m o f s u c h a h a r t w i t h o u t dub p r e p a r a t i o n . Once a d m i t t e d t o t h e s e m y s t e r i e s , howe v e r , f t _is i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t c o n t i n u e t o t h i n k o v e r i n t h e r i g h t way a m a t t e r o f s u c h s e r i o u s c o n c e r n an d g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

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v i a . ‘ P r i u s i g i t u r quam calamum in. m anum s u m a t , operam. d e t p e n i t u s i a t a l l i g e r e q u a e s t i o n e s & r e 'i de qua dieendum. s i t , n a t u ra m , g e n u s , s t a t u m . D e in d e s i b i a u re m p e r v e l l e t e x i g e t q u e a m em oria s u a , s i q u i d u s piam a u d i v e r i t s u p e r e a r e l e g e r i t v e . e e n tu r i a t a h a b e b i t a u t o r u m c a p i t a , s e n t e a t ia s .q u e eorum q u a s i p e r f a t u r a m a n q u i r e t ; s u a e r a e d i t a t i o n i s a d v o c a b i t o b s t e t r i c i a n , m anum, s o l e r t i s i n g e n i i a c i e m i n t e n d e t , om nia d ilig e n ts r v e rsa b it. q u a e stio n e m s i f i n i t a s i t , ad i n f i n i t a m a v o c a b i t , c i r c u m s ta n ti a s p e r p e n d e t h i n c l a t i b u l a a r g u m e n to r u m l u s t r a b i t , e r u e t quaecunque ad c o a c i l ia ti o n e m , £ i dem, motum f a c i a n t . D e le c t u m b a b e b i t e o p i a r u m . l e v i a q u a e s u n t 8c f u t i l i a , r e j i c i e t p la n e , e s a u to r a b it, c a s sa b itq u e , u t i s t i lo q u u n tu r: quae v i r t u t e v a l e n t & p o n d e r s , d i s t in g u e t etiam ; u t v e l i t e s e x p e d ia n tu r, in a c ie s te n t H a s ta ti, P ria c ip e s c o lio c e n tu r m e d ii, su b sid e a n t in p o stre m is T r i a r i i . «i’a a s omne3 a r g u m e n to ru m , ex e m p lo ru m , s i m i l i tu ain u m , s e n te n tia r u m c o p ia s u b i s x p l i c U e rit in una t a b e l l a e f a c i e , u t i b i in p r o c in e t u 8c s t a t i o n s a p p a r e a n t , e v o c a n d a e p r o u t f u e r i t opus: c o g itan d u m e r i t non ta n tu m quo o r d i n e , s e d & quo a p p a r a t u , quam v a l i do , q u a m .sp le n d id o i n s t r u c t a e p r o c e d a n t: u t o r a t i o verb o ru m s t e l l i s , s i d e r i b u s p h ra siu m , s e n te n tia iu m lu m in ib u s d i s t i n c t a , n i t e a t E l e g a n t i a , C o m p o sitio n s f l u a t , O ra tu s p l e n d e a t . E t turn d e n i q u e a b i n d a g a t i o n i s i n d u s t r i a , & s o l e r t i a c o m m en tatio n is se a d s c r i b e n d u m c o n f e r e t . -ad commodiorem ' a u t e m . ''

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THE -RHETORICAL INDEX

B e f o r e h e - t a k e s p e n i n H an d , t h e r e f o r e , ; l e t h im f i r s t ta k e c a re t h a t .h e u n d e r s ta n d s .th e s u b je c ts u n d er con­ s i d e r a ti o n , and w hat h as to he s a id a b p u t th e n a tu r e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s an d s t a t u s o f th e , c a s e . T h en , l e t h im r e m i n d h i m s e l f o f , a n d d r a w f r o m h i s . m e m o ry , w h a t e v e r he h a s e v e r h e a r d o r r e a d on t h i s s u b j e c t . He w i l l h a v e t h e d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f t h e L-. a u t h o r s a n d t h e i r i d e a s , a s i f h e s o u g h t a d i s h o f m ijc e d i n g r e d i e n t s . He w i l l summon t h e o b s t e t r i c a l h a n d o f t h o u g h } ; , a r r a n g e h i s b a t t l e l i n e o f c l e v e r - t a l e n t s ^ an d he w i l l c a r e ­ f u l l y r e f l e c t u p o n ; e v e r y t h i n g . t a s one- q u e s t i o n i s f i n i s h?e d ,* h e w i l lc t u r n t o a n o t h e r :* h e w i*l l e v a l u a t e t h e c irc u m s ta n c e s , se e k o u t th e h id in g p la c e s o f a rg u m e n ts, an d b r i n g o u t w h a te v e r c o n t r i b u t e s tow ard-. w in n in g g o o d ­ w i l l , i n s t i l l i n g t r u s t , a n a ..a ro u s in g e m o tio n s. He w i l l h a v e .a t hand a n a b u n d a n c e o f r h e t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s . He w i l l o p e n ly r e j e c t , p u t a s i d e , an d b r i n g t o n o u g h t, a s m en s a y , t h o s e t n i n g s t h a t a r e f r i v o l o u s a n d u s e ­ le ss. He w i l l d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h o s e . t h i n g s w h i c h h ave s t r e n g t h o f f i b r e and t r u e w e ig h t, so t h a t th e l i g h t i n f a n t r y m ay s k i r m i s h i n a d v a n c e , t h e - s p e a r m e n m ay s t a n d i n t h e f i r s t l i n e , t h e n t h e " P r i n c i p e s ” i n t h e s e c o n d l i .n. e. ,7 w i t h t h o s e i n t h e t h? i r d l?i n e a c t i n gw as reserv es, w hen h e w i l l . h a v e l i s t e d o n o n e p a g e o f a t a b l e t a l l th e r e s o u r c e s o f a r g u m e n ts , ex a m p le s, s i m i l e s , _ a n d , i d e a s , s o t h a t they-.-..pp&ear a s i f i n b a t t l e o r d e r t h e . n e x t b a s k w i l l b e t h a t o f m a k in g .a c h o ic e . He m u s t c o n s i d e r n o t . . o n l y f r o m w h a t r a n k t h e y s t e p f o r t h , J b u t a l s o i n w h a t e q u i p m e n t , how s t r o n g t h e y a r e a n d how h a n d s o m e , s o t h a t a, s n e e c h :o f w o r d s - a d o r n e d ■ •■* t . ■■ ' ■ ■■* t w ith s t a r s , p f p h ra s e s s h in in g l i k e th e c o n s t e l la t io n s , o f i d e a s , d e c k e d w i t h o r n a m e n t s "of s t y l e , n a y g l i t t e r w ith e le g a n c e , flo w s m o q th ly i n i t s c o m p o s itio n , and gleam w i t h a d o rn m e n t. # A f t e r - a l l t h i s - i n d u s t r i o u s i n ­ v e s t i g a t i o n and c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n , l e t th e s tu d e n t tu rn to th e a c tu a l w ritin g . M o reo ver, i t w i l l be con­ d u c iv e

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au tem m e d lta n d i cu ram s e r i b e n d i q u e l a b o rem e o n d u c e t p l u r i m u m , s i i n a u i e t u m a l i quem. lo c u m , s e c r e t u m a t q u e a r b i t r i s l i b e ­ rum, s e r e c - i p i a t , eundem que o b s c u r u m . se cessu- q u ip p e , s i l e n t i o , te n a b r ie q u e a l i t u r m e n s; s - i b i v a c u a , a l t i u s q u e o p e r i i n t e n t a , q u o tie s i n t r i n s e e i s av o c am en tis d i s t r a c t a n o n i m p e d i t u r . H ie ta n d e m s t r i n g e t c a l a - , mum, a c u a t s t y l u m ; i n e x e r s i t a t i o n i s h u j u s i n c u n a b u i i s , t a r d u m ; i a p r o g r e s s u te m p o r i s Sc f a c u l t a t i s , >v e l o e i o r e m ; s e m p e r d i l i g e n t e m . # i t a : ta m e n d i l i g e n t e m , u t v i d e a t , ne q u a n d o p e n n a a d i n g e n i u m suum r e d e a t , p r a e c ip iti a c ta fe s tin a tio n e : n e q u e e n im v e r e n d u m e s t , ne manum d e t a b u l a n e s e i a t < to lle re , At ne quando a p r o p o s i t o e x t r a o l e a s , quod a i u n t v a g e t u r ; s u s p i c i e n d u m e r i t su b in d e them a; n e m a e e r ia e e x t r u a n t u r & aren a sin e o a l s e , re p eten d a s a e p iu s *l e r u n t p r o x i m e s e r i p t a ; turn a d s t y l i com- ■ m i s s u r a m , quo m e l i u s c o n n e e t a n t u r p r a e c e d e n t i b u s s e q u e n t i a ; turn a d e o g i t a t i o n i s ea lo re m , q u i, s i s c r ib e n d i i n t e r c a p e d i n e r e - • f r i x e r i t , e x i n t e g r o r e c i p i e t v i r e s , &, q u o d i n te e rta m in e - s a lt u s f i e r i s o l e t , v e l u t r e p e t i t o s p a t i o su m e t im p e tu m . S e q u i t u r u t e x a m i - = n e t p r a e c e p t o r & em en d e t,1 quae i l l e s c r i p s e r i t , im p ro b a & o c i o s a £ i o e o s a ? J e x p t i n g a t , p r o b a & g r a v i a p o n a t , i n lo c u m f o r t u i t o r u m s u f f i c i - » a t l e e t a , pro in su a v ib u s d u lc ia , p r o c o u fu sis co m p o sita s u g g e r a t, a n t i q u i t a t i s h o rro rem e x c o l a t , f l o r i d a e n o v i t a t i s am b itio n e m c o e r c e a t . A l i q u a n t u l u m v e n i a e ta m e n i- n d u lg e b i t u b e r t a t i & e l e g a n t i a e , • q u i n i ’mo a l e t n o tiu s

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90

TEE HHSTORIC.-iL INDEX

74

t o b e t t e r c a r e i n t h i n k i n g an d m ore e f f i c i e n t v r r i t i n g , i f t h e s t u d e n t g o e s t o some q u i e t s p o t t h a t i s s e c l u d e d , f r e e o f o n l o o k e r s , an d a t t h e ( same t i m e n o t g e n e r a l l y f r e ­ q u e n t e d . 1 The m ind i s i n d e e d a i d e d by t h i s w i t h d r a w a l , s i l e n c e , an d s o l i t u d e ; t h e r e by i t s e l f , i n t e n t on m ore I m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s , a s o f t e n a s i t i s p e r p l e x e d by i n ­ t r i n s i c p r o b l e m s , i t i s n o t im peded i n s o l v i n g them ; - , ■ . H e re l e t h i m t r i m h i s pen and s h a r p e n - h i s s t y l e — s l o w l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r a c t i c e , m ore s w i f t l y a s he p r o g ­ r e s s e s i n t i m e an d d e v e l o p m e n t , a l w a y s < c a r e f u l l y . Let him b e s o c a r e f u l , l e s t t h e p e n r e t u r n t o i t s n a t u r a l b e n t an d s e e m - d r i v e n by p r e c i p i t o u s h a s t e ; n o r i s i t a t h i n g t o be f e a r e d t h a t h e d o e s n o t know h o w -to t a k e h i s hand fr o m t h e t a b l e t . But i t i s - t o t b e f e a r e d l e s t , a s men s a y , he w a n d e r s fr o m t h e s u b j e c t b e y o n d t h e o l i v e t r e e s ; f o r t h e n 1 t h e them e w i l l b e l o o k e d u p o n w ith s u s p ic io n . L e s t t h e r e be n o b o u n d s o r a c o u r s e w i t h o u t a g o a l , t h e s e t h i n g s j u s t - w r i t t e n s h o u l d be s c r u t i n i z e d - v e r y o f t e n , f i r s t f o r ■c o h e r e n c e i n s t y l e , 30 t h a t t h o s e t h i n g s which- f o l l o w may b e ' b e t t e r c o ­ o r d i n a t e d - w i t h w hat h as gone b e f o r e , and s e c o n d ly f o r ard o r- i n th in k in g -, w hich, if- i t h a s 'b e e n r e f r e s h e d b y -a pause i n w r i t i n g j - w i l l re n e w -its o r i g i n a l s tre n g th a n d , b e c a u s e i t i s aecu sto m ed to l e a p i n g i n t o th e f r a y a s i f a f t e r a b r i e f r e s t , i t - :w i l l a g a i n t a k e - u p t h e a tta c k . I t i s a s s u m e d - t h a t c t h e - t e a c h e r r e a d s and c o r r e c t s - w h a t 't h e s tu d e n t w i l l 'h a v e y j r i t te n ; he c r o s s e s o u t f o r m s ;t h a t a r e u n s u i t a b l e and f r i v o l o u s an d r e ­ p l a c e s th e m w i t h s u i t a b l e a n d ' s e r i o u s f o r m s ; h e s u p ­ p l i e s - c h o i c e w o r d s f o r t h o s e 1 l e f t - t o c h a n c e , 1p l e a s i n g w ord s f o r t h o s e l e s s p l e a s a n t ; h e s u g g e s t s 1o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n to re p la c e co nfused p a s s a g e s ; c u l t i v a t e s an a v e r s i o n f o r t r i t e s a y i n g s , and k e e p s w i t h i n bounds t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d - f lo w e r y new e x p r e s s i o n s . How­ e v e r , he w i l l -be. r a t h e r t o l e r a n t o f r i c h ' a n d e l e g a n t e x p ressio n .

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p o t i u s in d o le m la e ta m , g e n e ro s o s c o n a tu s & v e l p lu r a j u s t o e o n c ip ie n te m s p ir itu m f o v e b i t , k s a t i a r i v e l u t i quodam j u c u n d i p p i s d i s c i p l i n a e c ib o la c te q u e p a t i e t u r . V olo, i n q u it O ra to r, se e f f e r a t in a d p le sc e a te fo e_ c u a d i t a s . Nam f a c i l i u s s i c u t i n v i t i b u s . r e v o c a n t u r , e a q u a e s e s e uim iu m p r o f u d e r u n t , • quam s i , n i h i l v a l e n t e , m a t e r i a , n o v a s a r m e n ta c u l t u r a e x c i t e n t u r ; I t a v o l o e s s e i n a d o l e s c e n t e u n d e a l i q u i d am putem . Lux ur i e m q u i p p e d e p a s c e t i n c r e s c e n s cum a e t a t e s t y l u s , m ulturn i n d e a p n i d e c o q u e n t , m u l - . turn r a t i o l i m a b i t , a l i q u i d i p s o u s u ( d e t e r e tu r. Non a u t e m p o t e s t i n e o e s s e ©uceus d i u t u r n u s , quod n i m i s c e l e r i t e r . e s t m a t u r i t a t e m a s s e c u t u m . Nee p l a c e t mu^tuza quod i n la c u s ta tim e s t austp ru m , id f i a t a n n is : sic k a n n o s f e r e t , .k eum a e t a t e p r o f i c i e t . Den i q u e n e p e r e a t g r a t i a M u s i e a e o c c u i t a e , ne . v i r t u t i e e la ta e i n u r a tu r n o ta s e p u lta e i n e r t i a e ; s u p e r e s t , u t m a te r^ a e i t a fo rm a ta e h a ­ b i t u s p r o d u e a t u r i n a c tu m : u t a r t e s tu d io q u e d e c u r a t a & domi e l a b o r a t e - o r a t i o i n s o le m & p u l v e r e m p r o d e a t , i n c a s t r a & a c ie m p ro e e d a t. c u e r e i a M em oria maximum e s t su b sid iu m . iiuam u t f i x a m , f i r m a m , : f id a m que h a b e a s , d e v o ra n d u m e s t t a e d i u m i l l u d s c r i p t s a l i e n a k t u a a d v e rb u m e d i s e e n d i . qu ae p e n i t u s e o g n i t a a t q u e i n t e l l e c t s , r i t e a t q u e e x a r t i s m e th o d o d i s p o s i t a d i l i g e n t e r l e g e s , ad v .e rte sq u e r e s p rim o , d e in d e v e r b a : eaque p e r . i n t e r v a l l a k c e r t a s p arte © d i v i s a , e d i s c e s e x iisd e m t a b e l l i s q u ib u s s c r i p s e r i s . t e n a c i u s q u i p p e I 'e m o r i a ( q u a e n o n e s t q u ia

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I n d e e d , he H i l l p r e f e r a b l y f o s t e r a h a p p y n a t u r a l q u a l i t y ; he H ill f a v o r h o n e s t a tte m o ts and even a c o u r a g e i n u n d e r t a k i n g m ore t h a n i s r i g h t , a n d he w i l l p e rm it t h e s tu d e n t t o he f i l l e d , a s i t w ere, w i t h t h e f o o d an d d r i n k o f a c e r t a i n m ore u n d e r ­ sta n d in g d i s c ip l in e . I p r e f e r , says th e O ra to r, t o have l u x u r i a n c e o f s t y l e r i s e i n y o u th . For t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h grow t o o p r o f u s e l y may be m ore e a s i l y c u t aw ay f r o m t h e v i n e s t h a n , w i t h no m a t e r i a l a t h a n d , new g r o w t h s , c a n be e n c o u r a g e d by c u l t i v a t i o n ; an d s o . I p r e f e r t h a t t h e r e b e a m ore t h a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f v e r b i a g e i n y o u t h , fro m w h ic h I may w i t h d r a w t h e s u r p l u s . In d e ed , a _ s t y l e g r o w i n g w i t h ag d l e s s e n s i t s e x c e s s e s i n e x p r e s s i o n ; s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s ' k e e p i t 'w i t h i n s t r i c t e r b o u n d s , common s e n s e r e f i n e s i t , an d i t l o s e s some o f i t s f o r c e by i t s v e r y U s e . N o r, m o reover, can th e r e be a l o n g - l a s t i n g f l a v o r in t h a t w h ic h t o o q u i c k l y ' r e a c h e s i t s m a t u r i t y . N or i s a n u n f e r m e n t e d w in e p l d a s i n g t h a t i s ' s t i l l ' s o u r i n t h e v a t . , L e t i t ' t a k e y e a r s f o r m ak in g 'g o o d ‘w i n e ; s i m i l a r l y , t h e o r a t o r , ' w i i l im p ro v e S t e a d i l y t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s and ? / i l l r e a c h ' h i s p rim e a t t h e p r o p e r t i m e . F in a lly , l e t not th e f a v o r o f t h e m dse o f d e l i v e r y b e o v e r l o o k e d , l e s t th e s ig n s o f a h i t h e r t o c o n c ealed want o f s k i l l b e b r a n d e d on a n o t h e r w i s e u n b l e m i s h e d _ r e p u t a t ‘i o n ; a l l t h a t r e m a i n s i s t h a t t h e c o n ­ d i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l so p r e p a r e d s h o u l d b e b r o u g n t i n t o .b e i n g ,' s o t h a t t h e s p e e d h a d o r n e d b y s k i l l a n d a t t e n t i o n a n d p o l i s h e d a t home may s e e t h e d u s t a n d heat" o f t h e d a y , may p r o c e e d fr o m camp to b a t t l e . F or t h i s a c t i v i t y , th e g r e a t e s t h elp conies fro m Memory. I n p r o p ' o r t i o n a s you may h a v e a s t r o n g , f i r m , a n d r e l i a b l e memory, t h e w e a r i n e s s o f m e m o r i z i n g y o u r own w r i t i n g s a n d t h o s e o f o th e rs is eased, fou w i l l read th in g s t h a t a re t h o r o u g h l y know n, u n d e r s t o o d , a n d c a r e f u l l y and d i l i g e n t l y o rg a n iz e d a c c o r d in g t o th e sy stem o f t h e a r t , an d you w i l l f i r s t p a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l i d e a s , and th e n t o s p e c i f i c w o rd s. These w o r d s , s e p a r a t e d by p a u s e s an d c e r t a i n d i v i s i o n s , y o u w i l l l e a r n f r o m t h e same s h e e t s on w h ich you w r o t e th e m . I n d e e d , Memory (w h ic h h a s n o t n i n g

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q u i d ab I n t e l l e c t u , n i s i r a t i o n e d i s t i n c t u m ) a p p r e h e n a i t e o ru m v e s t i g i a , q u ae s i o i f a m i l i a r i a non i n c u r i o s i t r a d i d e r u n t o c u l i . quae i t a q u e im p rim e n d a aaim o c u r a v e r i s a p u d t e t a c i t e s u b somni t e m p u s , quo p l u s f i r m i t a t i s a d fe ra t n o c tis in ta r p o s ita e au ies & s ile n t i u m ; r e p o s c e s e x i g e s q u e a m em o ria p o s t e r o m ane, d e f o e c a te a c i b i d e c o c tio n e & ' c u r a r u m a e s t u , a n im o . D e i n c e p s o r o b e med i t a t e & c o m p re h e n s a i n s o l i t a r i o a l i q u o l o c o r e c i t a b i s , Voce c l a r a , d i s t i n e t a , non s t r i b u l a a u t i n t e n t a ( i n X x o rd io m i n i m e ) non u n i u s t o n i , s e d m o d u l a t a p r o v a r i a m at e r i a e , a r g u m e n to r u m , s e n t e n t i a r u m , a f f e ctuum r a t i o n e . cu i V u ltu s c o n s e n tia t, su b s e r v i a t q u e G -e s tu s, r e b u s q u a e a g u n t u r c o n g r u u s ; non, v a s t u s , n e q u e h i s t r i o n i c u s t a ­ men, s e d d e c o r u s ,& t e m p e r a t u s . Guae omnia u t cum g r a t i a , v e n u s t a t e & j u d i c i o p r a e s t a r e v a l e a s , o p e r a e p r e c i u m , . imo n e c e s sariu m e r i t , u t i p s e a u d ia s a l i o s , t e a l i i , iiq u e a r t i f i c e s , q u i e x e m p lo f e l x c i t e r p r a e e e a n t , c o n s i l i o f i d e l i t e r m qde'a n t, qu ae s e q u a r i s , qu ae f u g i a s ; a t q u e i d c s r t a d i s e r t i u s quam v e l . e b u r n e a G r a c e i i i f i s t u l a , v e l D e m o s th e n i s s p e c u lu m t i b i vocem m o d u l a n t u r , g e s tu m f i g u r e n t . Turn demum b o na cum t u i f i d u c i a p r o d i r e i n p u b licu m . l i c e b i t . A c tio a u t e m u s u r e p e t i t a r e l e g a b i t 'met'um, s o l i c i t u d i n e m , i r a m , r u s t i c u m p u d o re m , c a e t e r o s q u e a f f e c t u s q u i m em o riae a c l i b e r i o r i g e s tu i p ra eju d ican t k o ff ic iu n t. A r t i s p r a e c e p t a l e v i d e a s i quodam f i l o . k so lo c i p e rte x u i. quae co m p en d ii " s tu d io

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THii BHETORICAL IiffiSX

t o do vvith u n d e r s t a n d i n g , e x c e p t . i n s o f a r a s ju d g m e n t i s i n v o l v e d ) m ore t e n a c i o u s l y g r a s p s t h e p a t t e r n s o f t h o s e w o rd s w h ic h c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y m akes f a m i l i a r . A c c o r d i n g l y , you w i l l hav e t a k e n c a r e , t o hav e t h o s e t h i n g s im p ressed upon y o u r m in d ,in s i l e n c e ; u n t i l i t i s t i m e t o r e t i r e , s o t h a t t h e q u i e t and r e p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v e n i n g n i g h t w i l l s t r e n g t h e n . y o u r , memory s t i l l m o re 4 on t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g , . y o u w i l l r e c a l l an d demand t h e s e t h i n g s o f memory ^ i t h ; a m ind u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e d i g e s t i o n o f f o o d a n a t h e t u r m o i l o f t h e d a y . T n e a , i n some s e c l u d e d s p o t , you w i l l r e c i t e : t h e s e t h i n g s , w h ich h a v e b e e n so c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t , o u t and a p p r e h e n d e d ; y o u w i l l do s o i n a c l e a r v o i c e t h a t i s d i s t i n c t , not s t r i d e n t , o r te n s e ( l e a s t . o f a l l in th e i n t r o d u c t i o n ) , n o t i n a m o n o to n e , b u t : a d a p t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t k in d s o f s u b je c t m a t t e r , arg u m en ts, i d e a s , a n d e m o t i o n s . The f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n m u s t a g r e e w i t h t h e v o i c e ; g e s t u r e s m u s t r e i n f o r c e i t , a n d be s u i t e d t o t h e . m a t t e r s a t h a n d ; .t h e y t s h o u l d n o t b§ b r o a d , n o r l i k e t h o s e o f . a n a c t o r ; t h e y . s h o u l d be d i g n i f i e d a nd r e s t r a i n e d . I n o r d e r t h a t y ou may a c h i e v e e x c e l ­ l e n c e i n a l l t h e s e t h i n g s w i t h g r a c e , c h a rm , an d d i s ­ c r i m i n a t i o n , y ou w i l l p a y t h e p r i c e , and a v e r y n e c e s s a ry ' o n e , o f l i s t e n i n g to ' o th e rs " a n d 'h a v i n g o t h e r s l i s t e n t o y o u , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e e x p e r t s who h a p p i l y e x c e l b y e x a m p le a n d who, by c o u n s e l i n g , s h r e w d l y a d v i s e when you s h o u l d do and w h a t you s h o u l d a v o i d . And l e t them do t h i s m o re d i s c e r n i n g l y t h a n e i t h e r t h e " i v o r y t h r o a t o f a 3-race h u s o r t h e i m i ­ t a t i o n o f a D e m o s th e n e s c o u l d s h a o e y o u r v o i c e an d m odel y o u r g e s t u r e s . T h en , a t l a s t , y ou w i l l b e o r e p a re d t o sp e a k i n p u b l i c w ith co m p lete c o n f id e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c t i o n b a s e d on p r a c t i c e w i l l a l l a y f e a r , a n x i e t y , a n g 8r , awkward e m b a r r a s s m e n t , an d t h e o t h e r e m o t i o n s w h ic h i n j u r e a n d o b s t r u c t memory an d f r e e r g e stu re . I h a v e woven t h e r u l e s o f t h e a r t t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h r e a d t h a t i s somewhat s l e n d e r an d n o t a l w a y s s m o o th . T hose t h i n g s w a ic h I s h a l l h a v e o m i t t e d i n t h e c o u r s e of th is

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77

t

INDEX

R H E T O R I C

V S

o m is e rim * e x i i s i p s i s q u o s i n a i c a v i f o n t i b u s fa c ile lic e b it p e te re . P ra e c e p tis n is s i f e l i c i s i n g e n i i v e s t r i (O p t. Iu y e n e s ) f a c u l t a t e m e x e o l e r e , s i nab i turn & d i s e r t a m d i c e n d i f a c i l i t a t s m usu a c q u i r e r s non p i g e b i t ; ib u n t i n d o l i s y e s t r a e f l o r e s < ( q u o s N a tu ra e p ro d u x it t e l l u s , A r tis fin n a t s o l, E x e re ita t i o n i s a d u c a t im b er) i n E l o q u e n t i a e & P r u d e n tia e f r u c tu s . Suraraus i l l s N a t u r a e p a ­ r e n s f r u c t u s h o s c e , qu o ru m i p s e s p a r s i t s e m in a, i t a b e n ig n o f o y e a t n u m in e: ita ra d ii s s u is i l l u s t r e t an im etq u e a e te r n u s I u s t i t i a e & S a p ie n tia s S o l; i t a g r a ti a e s u a e ;a u ra s m u l c e a t , im b re f i g a t S a c r o s a n c t u s F a v o n i u s : u t c a n e s c e n te s i l l i i n d i e s ad m a t u r i t a tezn i n a n i m i s y e s t r i s ' , v o s i p s o s a d consum m a t i s s i m a e V i r t u t i s a r e e m e v e h a n t ,- a d f a s t i g a t i s s i m i H o n o r i s a p i c e m p r o m o y e a n t ; -.in R e i p . em olum entum , D i v i n i n o m i n i s g l o r i am, y e s t r a m s a l u t e m a e t e r n a m .

F I N I S

)

i j [ i i ;

I

J

| i i

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77

T HE H H ETG B IC EL IN D EX

w ork may e a s i l y be f o u n d i n t h o s e v a r y s o u r c e s which. I have in d i c a t e d . .Vita t h e s e r u l e s i t w i l l n o t be t o o d i f f i c u l t ( f o r you s u p e r i o r y o u th s ) t o d ev e lo p th e l a t e n t a b i l i t y o f y o u r f o r t u n a t e t a l e n t , n o r w i l l i t be t o o h a r d t o a c q u i r e by p r a c t i c e t h e a p p e a r a n c e and e l o q u e n t e a s e o f good s p e a k i n g . The b l o s s o m s o f y o u r n a t u r a l a b i l i t y ( b l o s s o m s p r o d u c e d by t h e e a r t h o f N a t u r e , s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e s u n o f t h e A r t , an d b r o u g h t f o r t h by t h e r a i n o? P r a c t i c e ) w i l l d e v e l o p i n t o t h e f r u i t o f e lo q u e n c e and p r u d e n c e . L e t t h a t fond p a r e n t , N a tu r e , n o u r i s h w ith i t s k i n d l y power t h e s e f r u i t s , th e s e e d s o f w h ic h i t h a s s p r e a d ; l e t t h e e t e r n a l Sun o f j u s t i c e a n d w isd o m s h e d i t s ' r a y s u p o n th e m an d g i v e th e m l i f e ; a n d may t h e v e n e r a b l e « e s t f i n d "mix h i s f a v o r s w ith t h e 'b r e e z e s and a d d 'h i s r a i n s ; l e t th e s e t h i n g s s® h a p p e n t h a t ' t h e s e f r u i t s ; a s t h e y grow fro m d a y t o d a y t o m a t u r i t y i n y o u r ' h e a r t s , may c a r r y you a l o n g t o t h e v e r y - p i n n a c l e o f - a c h i e v e m e n t , may b e a r you t o t h e - a p e x o f t h e m ost e x a l t e d h o n e r ; a l l f o r th e a d v a n t a g e - o f t h e S t a t e , t h e g l o r y o f t h e D i v i n e Name, and y o u r e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n .

THE

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E t q u i a i l l o r u m . m e n t i o f a c t a e a t s u p r a , p a g . 69 a d j i c i e n d a c u r a v irn u s c o p c e n t u r i a t a Coumuniuia Ecccrum c a p i t a ; i n ec-rum g r a t i a m q u i b u s e u r a p r i t s t u d i u m que c o n f i c i a n d i m e m o r i a l i a v o l u m i n a . ^

A b s t i n e n t i a . A b u s u s . A c a d e m ia , . a c t i o * A c c u s a tio . A d o le s c e n tia , A dversae r e s . A d u l a t i o . A q lu lte riu m , A e d i f i c i a ^ A e m u latio , A e q u a b ilita s a n i m i . . A e q u a lita s , A e t a s . , A ffe c tu s... A f f i a i t a s . A g ric u ltu re . A l i e n a . A m b i t i o . A n l c i t i a . amior. Amor s u i . A n g e l i . A n i o n . A n i i q a n t i a , A n im u s , tA r r o g a n t i a . A r s . A r t a s l i b e ^ a l e s . A rte s. A s p e r i t a s , A v a r i t i a . A ud& oia. A q d i t u s . A u l a . Aurum. A u s p i c i a . A u t o r i t a s . A u z i liu m .

B B e llu m . B e n e f i c e n t i a . Bona n a t u r a e , f o r tu n a e , a n im i. B on i. B o n ita s . Bonum. B r e v i t a s .

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And b e c a u s e m e n t i p n o f c o m m o n rp la c e s i s mads on p a g e 5 9 , I h av e he,re made a p o i n t o f a d d i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d h e a d i n g s ; t h i s i s d o n e oup o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h o s e who w i s h , an d a r e e a g e r , t o c o m p i l e n o t e s i n memo­ rand um b o e k g . . . .

A A b s t i n e n c e , a b u s e , acad em y * . a c t i o n . A c c u s a t i o n , -a d o le sc e n c e . A d v e r s i ty . A d u l a tio n . A d u lte r y . E d i­ fic e . E m u la tio n ._ P eace o f.m in d . E q u a l i t y . A ge. E m o t io n . . R e l a t i o n s h i p , A g ric u ltu re . .F o re ig n th in g s . A m b itio n . F r i e n d s h i p , lo v e . S e l f i s h n e s s . A n g e ls. S o u l. A n im a te .th in g s .. B re a th . A rro g an ce. S k ill, L ib eral a r t s . The a r t s . B i t t e r n e s s . . A v a r i c e . D a r i n g . H e arin g . P a la c e . G o ld . A u s p i c e s , a u t h o r i t y . A id .

B A ar. K in d n e ss. The go o d t h i n g s . o f n a t u r e , , f o r t u n e , sp irit. Good men. I n t e g r i t y . Any good t h i n g . . . B r e y i t y .

k R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

0 C aadss. G a lu m n ia . O a stita s. C ausae. C erem o n iae. G ib u s. G iv is. G iv iliu m rerum u s u s . C lem en tia. G a a lib a tu s. C aelum . C o m itas. Comraunio r e r u m . C o n co rd ia-; C o n f e s s i O e Conjugium . G o a ju g a lis f i d e s , C o n s e ie n tia bona. G o a s c ie n tia m ala. C o n siliu m . G o n s o la tio . C onsta rrtia . C o a s u e t u d o . C o 'a t e n t u s a n i m u s . Con­ tra c tu s. C o av ersatio . C o aviv iu m . C o rp u s. C o rre ctio . C o rru p tio . G re d u lita s. G ru d e lita s. G u r a e . C ura p r a e p o s t e r a . G u rio sita s.

-

D*

Damnum. Decorum . D e b it u m . D e f o r m i - ta B . i)e g e n e ra tio . -D e lie i& e . D e s p e r a t i o . D a- * t r a c t o r e B . D eus. D ie s . D is c ip u .lu s , D i s c i • p lia a e . D isc e rd is, B ie sim u la tio .* D iv es. Di~ ritia . D i v i n a t i o . -D o c trin a . D o lo r. D o lu s. Bos» Duxi • . . .

E ( E b r i'e ta s .: E d u c a tio . E lem en ts. >t i a . E r r s t . E v e n t u s . Exemplum. ta tio . E x iliu m . E x p e rie n tia .

E lo q u en S x e re i-

F F a c ilita s. Fam a. Fam es. F a m i l i a . Datum . D avor. F e l i c i t a s . F id e s. F in is. F o rm a. F o r t itu d o . F o rtu a a . F orum , F r a t r e s . F raus. F ru g a lita s. F ruges. Fuga. F u r o r . F u rtu m .

R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

c S la u g h te r. C alum ny. C h a stity . C ause. C erem o n ies, Food. C itiz e n . E x ercise of c iv il rig h ts. C le m e n c y . C e l i b a c y . H e a v e n . C o u r t e o u a n e s s . Communion o f t h i n g s . C oncord. C o n fessio n . C a rr ia g e . C on ju g al t r u s t . Good c o n sc ie n c e . Bad c o n s c i e n c e . C o u n sel. C onso­ la tio n . C o n s t a n c y . . C ustom . Z ealo u s s p i r i t . C o n tr a c t. _ C o n v ersio n . Coon f e l l o w s h i p . Body. C o rre c tio n . C o rru p tio n . C re d u lity . C ru elty . C a r e s . A b s u rd c a r e . C u rio sity .

Damage. D ecorum .. D e b t . . D e f o r m i t y . D e g e n e ra tio n . D e lig h ts . D esp eratio n . D e tra c t­ o r s . „_Crod. .Dayt S t u d e n t . : D i s c i p l i n e . D i s ­ cord. D issim u la tio n . R ich m e n .. R ic h e s . D i v i n a t i o n . D o c t r i n e . _S o r r o w , D e c e i t . Dowry. L e a d e r . .

E D ru n k en n ess. E d u c a tio n . E lem en ts. E lo ­ q u e n c e . E r r o r . E v e n t . E x a m p le . E x e r c i s e . E x ile . E x p e rie n c e .

t

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.

*

F



.

«

F a c ility . Rumor. H u n g e r . F a m i l y . F a te . F avor. F e lic ity . F a i t h . F i n i s h . F orm . F o rtitu d e . F o rtu n e. Forum . B r o t h e r s . F raud. F ru g a lity . F ru its. F lig h t. F u ry . R obbery,

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\z G a rru lita s". G auditan. G e s t u s ' c o r p o r i s . ' G lo ria. G ra titu d e . G u lai

H H a e r s d s s . H i s t o r i a . H i s t r i o n e s ; ■ Homo. H o n e s t a s . H o n o r. H o r t i . H c s p l t e s ; - Huma- * n ita s. H u M litas.

I Ja c ta n tia . Ig u a v ia . Ig n o ra n tia . Im i» ta tio . Im p e r iu m . Im p iatas; Im p u d en tia. In d o les. In d u stria . In fa m ia ; In fa n tia ; In fe ri. In firm ita s. In g e n iu m . In g ra titu d e . • In - * h u m an itas. In im ic itia e . In ju ria . In ju stitia . In n o c e n tia .' I n s t i t u t i o . 'I n s a n i a . In te ritu s. In v e n ts. In v id ia . Ip se. Irai Irrisio . Ju d iciu m . Ju ris sc ie n tia . Jus. Ju sju ra n dum. J u s t i t i a .

L •

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• *

r *

• ’

L a b o r . L a c ry m a e . L a e t i t i a . L e g e s, ju ra^ c o n s u e tu d in e s g en tiu m . L e g a tu s . L e v i t a s . L ib e ra lita s. L ib e ri. L ib e rta s. L iB id o . L i c e n tia . L ic ita . L in g u a. L i s . L o c u s . L u cru m . L udu s. Luxus.

*



M a g istra tu s,

*

■■ ■' M “ M a g n ific e n tia .

*' M a je sta s.

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95

G G a rru lity . J o y i G e s t u r e s o f t iie b o d y . G ra titu d e .- G lu tto n y .•

G lo ry .

H H e irs. G ardens.

H isto ry , a c to r s . G a n . - H o n e s t y . * H o n o r. G u e sts. H u m an ity . H u m i l it y .

I B o a stin g . Id le n e ss. Ig n o ran ce. Im itatio n . P ow er. I m p i e t y . ‘ Im m o d e s ty . In b o rn -q u a lity . In d u stry . Infam y. I n f a n c y . The d e a d . In firm ity . T a le n t. In g ra titu d e . In h u m an ity . H n m itie s. In ju ry , In ju stic e . Innocence. In s titu tio n . In sa n ity . R u i n . T h i n g s f o u n d . H n vy. O n e’ s s e l f . A nger. D e r is io n . J u d g m e n t . S c i e n c e o f l a w . D u ty . O a th . Ju stic e .*

L L abor. T ea rs. H a o p in e s s . Law s, c o u r t s , cu sto m s of trib e s. L eg ate. L e v ity . L ib e ra lity . C h ild re n . L ib e rty ; l u s t . - L ic e n s e .- T h in g s la w f u l.- L anguage, L a w su it.* L o c a tio n .* L o v e -o f g a i n . P la y . L uxury,



-

M a g istra te .

II • ’M a g n i f i c e n c e . • M a j e s t y . *

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M ala, l i a l e d i c s u t i a . i i a l i . a a a l i t i a . Med ^ c ia a . M ed iccrit-as. M e d ita tio . M sm o ria. M endacium . M e n s . M e r c & tu r a . ^ M e r e t r i x . _ i / ie ta l la . M e ts o ra . M etu s. M i l i t i a , M irae u i a . M i s e r i a . M i s e r i c o r d i a . M o d e s t i a . isor a . Moz'bi. M o r e s . Morion g r a v i t a s . M ores g en tiu m v a r i i . M ors & s e p u l t u r a . M u l i a r . M uad us. M u n e ra . M u t a t i o n e s . Mutuum,

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Q,t V n a e s ti o n e s c u r i o s a e .

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I n d e x , p . 13: i n n o t e s c a t . # The f o l l o w i n g m a r g i n a l n o t e i s a d d e d t o i n n o t e s c a t o ( a ) i n t h e 15 40 e d i t i o n : ( a ) S i a d v e r s a r i u s p r i o r n a r r a v e r i t , non i t a u t qu ae a c t a s u n t n u d e , s e d rem e x a s a s r a v i t , a d j e c i tq u e in v id ia m : n o s s ad e m , s e d non eodem modo ex g o n e m u s, a l i a s c a u s a s , a l i a s c i r c u m s t a n t i a s refsrem u a. V e r b i s e l e v a r e quaedam lic e b it. id o n e u m ,# 1525 e d i t i o n h a s a p e r i o d h e r e . The c l a u s e fr o m s e d t o s a t i e m u s i s i n t h 9 1633 e d i t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t tim e . q u a e st.1 0 .# 1540 e d i t i o n c o n t i n u e s t h i s n o t e : fflep<.p>iS e s t a l i e n a e r e i , s e d a d u t i l i t a t e m c a u sa e p e r t i n e n t i s , e x t r a o rd in em e x c u r r s n s t r a c t a tio . d u in til. I.4 .C .3 . In d e x , p . 19: P r o p 0 3 i t i O / r 1640 e d i t i o n a d d s t h i s u n l e t t e r e d m ar­ g i n a l n o te o p p o s ite th e h e a d in g , P r o p o s i ti o : F a c illim e a u d i t o r d i s e i t , & q u id a g a tu r i n t e l l i g i t , s i neque p ru d e n tia m e j u s im o ed iu s c o n f u s io n e p a r tiu m n e q u e mem oriam m u l t i t u d i n e . C i c . P a r t i t . I n d e x , p . 20 : M o tu s# 1640 e d i t i o n a d d s m a r g i n a l n o t e t o »• • • «

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I n d e x , p . 24: C a u s s i n . l i b . 4 . c . 5 5 . ^ 1340 e d i t i o n c o n t i n u e s n o t e : E xem ola i l l u s t r a n t . o o t i u s auam p r o b a n t . I n d e x , p . 25 : //F a c in u s.. . .

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