The Identification, Analysis, and Cost of Providing Superior Services in Selected Iowa High Schools

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THE 3D3SNTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AMD COST OF PROVIDING SUPERICE SERVICES IN SELECTED IOWA HIGH SCHOOLS

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R alp h A tk in so n A u s te r m ille r

A d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree o f D o cto r o f P h ilo s o p h y i n th e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n i n th e G rad u ate C o lleg e o f th e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa

A u g u st, 1950

State University of LIBRARY

ProQuest Number: 10902139

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10902139 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Upon th e co m p letio n o f t h i s s tu d y , i t i s a p le a s u r e t o have th e o p p o r tu n ity o f acknow ledging in d e b te d n e s s t o th e many in d i v id u a l s whose c o o p e ra tio n has b een so g r a c io u s ly given* F o r th e p e r s o n a l g u id an ce and a s s i s t a n c e o f Dean Elm er T . P e te r s o n , ny sp o n so r and c o n s ta n t so u rce o f en couragem ent, I am d e e p ly a p p r e c ia tiv e * F o r t h e i r c o n s tr u c tiv e c r i t i c i s m and s u g g e s tio n s d u rin g th e e a r l y s ta g e s o f th e stu d y , I e x te n d th a n k s to D r. L . A. Van Dyke and D r. R alph E . E llsw o rth * F i n a l l y , acknowledgement i s due t o th e members o f th e Iowa D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , and t o th e te a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r in te n d e n ts o f th e s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls f o r t h e i r c o o p e ra tio n i n p ro v id in g in fo rm a tio n in d is p e n s a b le

^ -d a(L

t o th e study*

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page C h ap ter I

The P urpose and S o c ia l S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e I n v e s t i g a t i o n ..................................................................

1

C h ap ter I I

H is to r y o f th e P r o b le m ..........................................................

6

C h ap ter I I I

The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , A n a ly s is , and Cost o f S u p e rio r High S chool S t a f f s i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s ...................................................... . . «

2l|

The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , A n a ly s is , and C ost o f S u p e rio r High S chool L ib ra ry F a c i l i ­ t i e s i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s *.....................

99

C h ap ter IV

C hap ter V

C h ap ter VI A ppendix A

I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , A n a ly s is , and Cost o f P ro v id in g S u p e rio r Programs o f S tu d y i n S e le c te d Iowa High S chools . . .

lUl;

Summary and C o n c lu s io n s ..............................

171

............... ...........................

185

A ppendix B ...............................

192

A ppendix C .............. ................................................................................................

256

B i b l i o g r a p h y .................................................................................................. ...... ♦.

26i|

iii

TABLE OF TABLES T ab le I II III IV V

VI V II V III

IX

X

XI X II X II I

Page T each in g S t a f f and P u p il E n ro llm e n ts i n P u b lic H igh S ch o o ls i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s ..................

25

S o u rces o f U n d erg rad u ate T ra in in g f o r High S ch o o l T e a c h e rs .................................. . . . . .........................................................

29

G rad u ate T r a in in g R ep o rted by High S ch o o l T ea ch ers i n N in ety High S ch o o ls

29

R ecency o f T ra in in g a s R ep o rted b y T ea ch ers i n N in e ty High S ch o o ls ...........................................................................

31

Y ears P r i o r T eaching E x p e rie n c e i n P r e s e n t System R ep o rted by 1323 T ea ch ers i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C ity High S c h o o l s ...........

32

T each er A ssignm ents i n N in ety High S ch o o ls a s R e la te d t o A reas o f U n d erg rad u ate T r a i n i n g ............................

3k

War Emergency C e r t i f i c a t e s Is s u e d T ea ch ers i n N in e ty High S ch o o ls i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s

36

S e le c te d S ch o o ls E n r o llin g £00 o r More P u p ils Compared "with N in ety High S ch o o ls and S ch o o ls o f S im ila r S iz e . . . . . . . . . . . ..............................................................«

k0

S e le c te d S ch o o ls E n r o llin g More Than 275 and L ess th a n 500 P u p ils Compared W ith A ll High S ch o o ls and S ch o o ls o f S im ila r S iz e ...........................................

Ul

S e le c te d S ch o o ls E n r o llin g More th a n 150 and L ess th a n 275 P u p ils Compared w ith A ll High S ch o o ls o f S im ila r S iz e .............

U2

Age o f T each ers i n Ten S e le c te d High S ch o o ls .......................

i*6

Sex and M a r ita l S ta tu s o f T each ers in S e le c te d High S ch o o ls ...........

US

Y ears P r i o r T eaching E x p erien ce i n P r e s e n t System R ep o rted by 17U T each ers in S e le c te d High S ch o o ls ..........

50

±v

T ab le XIV

Page R ecency o f U n d erg rad u ate T ra in in g o f T ea ch ers i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls ............................... . • • . ....................

51

M aster D eg rees R ep o rted b y T each ers in S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o ls ............................................................

52

Number o f S u b je c ts T aught by T e a c h e rs i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls ..........................................................................

53

T each in g A ssignm ents a s R e la te d to A reas o f U n d erg rad u ate P r e p a r a tio n i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls ................................................................................. *......................

5U

Summary o f Q u a li f i c a t io n s o f S u p e rio r S t a f f s Based on 17ii T ea ch ers i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o ls ..............................................................

57

U sual P r a c ti c e s in S e le c tin g T each ers R ep o rte d try S u p e rin te n d e n ts i n S e le c te d S c h o o l s ....................

63

H ealth S e r v ic e s P ro v id ed i n Ten S e le c te d S ch o o l System s ......................

73

Amount o f S ic k Leave , P r o p o r tio n o f S a la r y , and F requency o f C um ulative S ick Leave P r o v is io n s ............. i n Ten S e le c te d S c h o o l s

75

XXII

A tti tu d e s Toward T each in g a s a C a r e e r .......................................

89

XXIII

A tti tu d e s Toward Enjoym ent o f T each in g

..........................

91

XXIV

High S chool T each er S a l a r i e s I n Ames and Boone High S ch o o ls t y Sex f o r T ea rs 19UU-U7 .........................

95

High S ch o o l T ea ch er S a l a r i e s i n Cedar F a l l s , C herokee, C h a rle s C ity , and Storm Lake t y Sex f o r y e a r s 19UU-U? ...................................

96

High S ch o o l T each er S a l a r i e s i n E ag le G rove, In d ep en d en ce, Grundy C e n te r, and S heldon by Sex f o r y e a r s 19UU-U7 ................ *.....................................................

97

XV XVI XVII

X V III

XIX XX XXI

XXV

XXVI

v

T ab le XXVII

XXVIII

XXIX XXX XXXI XXXII

Page C o lle g e P r e p a r a tio n and S eco n d ary S ch o o l E x p e rie n c e o f L i b r a r ia n s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o ls . . . ...................... ................

10U

C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f L ib r a r y S t a f f Members and H e lp e rs in Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s ............... .............................. .....................................

109

L ib ra ry Equipm ent Found i n Ten S e le c te d L i b r a r ie s • • . . .....................................................................

112

Number o f " F i r s t P urchase" Books Found in Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r ie s

.................

116

Number o f D i f f e r e n t T i t l e s i n Ten S e le c te d L i b r a r i e s i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s ................................... •

119

B alance i n Book C o lle c tio n i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r ie s ...............................................................

121

XXXIH

Q u a lity S co re A ssig n ed t o th e Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L ib r a r y C u rre n t M agazine C o lle c tio n s ......... .................................................... 12 5

XXXIV

P e r io d i c a ls Found i n F iv e o r More o f th e Ten S e le c te d L i b r a r ie s ...............................

127

E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l T e a r ±9kl-b2 ........................

131

E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S chool L i b r a r ie s f o r th e SQhool T ea r 19U6-H7 ...................................

135

XXXV XXXVI

XXXVII P e r P u p il E x p e n d itu re s f o r Books and P e r io d i c a ls i n Ten S u p e rio r High S ch o o l L i b r a r ie s f o r S chool T e a rs 1 9 hl-i|2 and 19U6-U7 .................................................................

139

XXXVIII S u g g ested L ib ra ry E x p e n d itu re s f o r S u p e rio r High S ch o o l L ib ra ry F a c i l i t i e s .................................................................

Iij2

XXXIX

Program o f S tu d ie s (C arn eg ie U n its o f f e r e d ) .....................

1U8

XL

C arn eg ie U n its R eq u ired f o r G rad u a tio n from S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o ls ............................... .......................... ..

1k9

vi

T a b le XLI

Page Program o f S tu d ie s - Ames H igh S c h o o l ......................................*

X LII

Program o f

X LH I

Program o f S tu d ie s - A lb ia H igh S c h o o l .....................................

152

XLIV

Program o f

S tu d ie s - C edar F a l l s H igh S c h o o l ......................

153

XLV

Program o f

S tu d ie s - C la rio n High S ch o o l

15U

XLVI

Program o f

S tu d ie s - E s t h e r v i l l e High S c h o o l .......................

155

XLVII

Program o f

S tu d ie s - Independence High S c h o o l .....................

156

XLVIII Program o f

S tu d ie s - M an ch ester H igh S ch o o l ..........................

157

Program o f

S tu d ie s - M o n tic e llo High S c h o o l .................................

158

TT.TY

L LI

L II

LHI LIV

S tu d ie s - Boone High S c h o o l .....................

150

........................

151

Program o f S tu d ie s - S heldon High S c h o o l .......................

159

P e r P u p il C osts i n S e le c te d S ch o o l System s Based on G e n e ra l Fund E x p e n d itu re s and A verage D a ily A tten d an ce ................................................

160

P e r t i n e n t D ata from 1 9 k l-k 2 R ep o rt o f N orth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lleg es and Secondary S ch o o ls R e la tin g t o High S chool L i b r a r ie s i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s ......................

200

C arn eg ie U n its R eq u ired f o r G ra d u a tio n from Iowa S eco n d -C lass C ity High S c h o o l s

257

P e r P u p il C o sts in Iowa S eco n d -C lass C ity S ch o o l System s Based on G en eral Fund E xpendi­ t u r e s and Average D a ily A tten d an ce f o r \9kb~k7

vii

C h ap ter I THE PURPOSE AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INVESTIGATION P u rp o se o f th e

The p u rp o se o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o s e l e c t from s e c o n d c l a s s c i t i e s o f Iowa th o s e p u b lic h ig h s c h o o ls t h a t a r e fo u n d t o be p ro v id in g s u p e r io r s e r v ic e s i n one o r more a r e a s , to d e s c r ib e th o s e s e r v ic e s t h a t a r e ad ju d g ed t o be e x c e l l e n t , and t o d eterm in e t h e ex­ p ense in c u r r e d by th e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n p ro v id in g su ch s e r v i c e s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The te rm , " p u b lic h ig h s c h o o ls ," i s u se d t o d e s ig n a te th o s e t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r h ig h s c h o o ls w hich a r e p ro v id e d a t p u b lic e x p en se, and n o t th o s e e s ta b l is h e d by ch u rch es o r by in d iv id u a ls f o r p r i v a t e g a in .

The Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c to r y o f 19U6-U7"*” l i s t s n in e ty p u b lic

h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa c i t i e s whose 19U0 p o p u la tio n cen su s was more th a n 2 ,0 0 0 and l e s s th a n 15>000, and whose h ig h s c h o o ls v a r ie d i n e n r o l l ­ m ent from II42 p u p ils t o 793* Of th e s e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls d e s ig n a te d ones a r e c o n s id e re d t o be p ro v id in g " s u p e r io r s e r v ic e s ," a ran k in g b ased on th e q u a l i f i c a ­ t i o n s o f s t a f f members, th e g e n e r a l adequacy o f th e l i b r a r y , and th e

1 . Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c t o r y , Iovra, S ta t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , Des M oines, Iow a, 19U6-U7*

e x t e n t o f t h e i r program o f s t u d i e s .

Ten h ig h sc h o o ls w ith u n u s u a lly

w e l l - q u a l i f i e d s t a f f s a r e s e le c te d on th e b a s i s o f a r e l a t i v e l y la r g e number o f e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s , a la r g e p r o p o r tio n o f them w ith g ra d u ­ a t e t r a i n i n g co m p leted w ith i n th e te n - y e a r p e r io d p r i o r t o t h i s s tu d y , a h ig h p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s te a c h in g in th e a r e a s o f t h e i r u n d e r­ g ra d u a te m ajor o r m inor p r e p a r a t io n , and few , i f a n y , te a c h e r s em­ p lo y e d who a r e c e r t i f i c a t e d w ith s u b -s ta n d a rd o r emergency te a c h in g c e rtific a te s • Ten s u p e r io r h ig h sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s a r e s e le c te d f o r d e t a i l e d s tu d y on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r o v e r a l l s u p e r i o r i t y i n amount and q u a l i t y o f t r a i n e d s u p e r v is io n p ro v id e d , and number o f books a c q u ire d th e p r e ­ v io u s y e a r , a " q u a lity " sc o re on a l l p e r i o d i c a l s p ro v id e d , and th e t o t a l amount s p e n t f o r books and m agazines th e p re v io u s y e a r . Ten h ig h s c h o o ls a r e s e le c te d from th e n in e ty s e c o n d -c la s s c i t y h ig h s c h o o ls where th e program o f s tu d ie s e q u a ls o r e x c e lls th e co u rse o f f e r in g s i n com parable s c h o o ls , g iv e s ev id en ce o f r e c e n t r e o r g a n i s a tio n by c o o p e ra tiv e s t a f f e f f o r t s , and c o n ta in s g ra d u a tio n re q u ire m e n ts conducive to s tu d y i n a maximum number o f a r e a s . The te rm "expense" i s u sed i n t h i s stu d y to d e s ig n a te t h a t p a r t o f th e sc h o o l d i s t r i c t * s t o t a l an n u a l e x p e n d itu re w hich i s s p e n t f o r t e a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s , th e e q u ip p in g and m aintenance o f th e h ig h sch o o l l i b r a r y , and f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a te r ia ls .

The in c r e a s in g p r e s s u r e o f p r e s e n t s o c i a l and econom ic con­ d i t i o n s g iv e s u rg en cy t o th e need f o r id e n t i f y i n g on a s ta te - w id e b a s is th o s e th r e e o r f o u r y e a r h ig h s c h o o ls t h a t a r e p ro v id in g s u p e r io r s e r ­ v ic e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , f o r p r e s e n tin g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r s e r v ic e s , and f o r a n a ly z in g th e c o s t f o r th o s e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n im proving t h e i r sch o o ls* I n c o m p e titio n w ith more fa v o re d com m unities, a s u p e r in te n ­ d e n t w ith a li m it e d b u d g et who w ish es t o s e c u re th e b e s t p e r s o n n e l a v a i la b l e w i l l re c o g n iz e th e ad v an tag e o f knowing th e te a c h in g q u a l i f ­ i c a t i o n s o f h ig h sc h o o l s t a f f s ad ju d g ed to be e x c e l l e n t .

He w i l l be

co n cern ed w ith su ch q u e s tio n s a s "A re th e r e r e a d i l y d is c e r n a b le d i f f e r ­ en ces i n th e p r e p a r a t io n and e x p e rie n c e o f te a c h e r s i n com parable s iz e d h ig h sc h o o ls?" o r "What a r e th e t r a i n i n g re q u ire m e n ts met by h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s i n re c o g n iz e d s u p e r io r l i b r a r i e s i n high s c h o o ls o f s im i la r en ro llm e n t? " o r " I s th e p rocurem ent o f an e x c e lle n t te a c h in g s t a f f s o le l y d ependent upon a more fa v o r a b le te a c h e r s a la ry s c a l e ?" o r "Does th e manner o f a d m in is te rin g th e te a c h e r p e rs o n n e l make f o r th e u n d e rs ta n d in g c o o p e ra tio n o f one, s te a c h e r s and th u s se rv e to a t t r a c t and r e t a i n th e more ca p a b le te a c h e rs ? " o r "Does our program of s tu d ie s f u r t h e r th e aim o f u n iv e r s a l seco n d ary ed u catio n ?" A b o a rd o f e d u c a tio n i n t e r e s t e d i n p ro v id in g an e x p e rie n c e d , w e l l - t r a i n e d s t a f f w i l l need to re c o g n iz e th e e x te n t o f th e d i f f e r ­ ences i n p r e p a r a tio n and th e y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g t h a t a r e to be found

i n ou r Iowa h ig h s c h o o ls .

E co n o m ically sound p la n n in g o f th e f i s c a l

program w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e e x p e n d itu re s in v o lv e d i n s e c u rin g and r e t a i n i n g a s u p e r io r s t a f f , i n th e e q u ip p in g and s e r v i c ­ in g o f a modern l i b r a r y , and i n o f f e r in g a co u rse d e sig n e d to meet th e n eed s o f y o u th and th e community. A community d e s ir o u s o f im proving i t s te a c h e r s e r v ic e s i n th e seco n d ary s c h o o l w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d t o know th o s e community f a c t o r s l i s t e d b y s e le c te d s t a f f s a s c o n tr ib u tin g t o th e r e t e n t i o n o f an ex­ c e l l e n t s t a f f , and th o s e im provem ents t h a t can be made i n o u r l i b r a r y s e r v ic e s w ith o u t g r e a t l y in c r e a s in g th e c o s t .

What i s th e s iz e o f th e

book c o l l e c t i o n , o r w hat a r e th e m agazines s u b s c rib e d t o by th o s e l i b r a r i e s found to be among th e b e s t i n th e n in e y h ig h s c h o o ls i n second c l a s s c i t i e s i n Iowa?

Any community p la n n in g t o se c u re e x c e l­

l e n t l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s w i l l need t o know th e c o s t o f p ro v id in g su ch l i b r a r y s e r v ic e s f o r i t s h ig h s c h o o l y o u th . An a l e r t community w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n th e e f f o r t s o f o th e r p r o g r e s s iv e com m unities to e n r ic h t h e i r s c h o o l p rogram s, th u s in c r e a s ­ in g th e h o ld in g power o f th e s c h o o l.

The changing p a t t e r n o f g rad u a­

t i o n re q u ire m e n ts d e sig n e d to a c q u a in t th e y o u th w ith many a re a s o f i n t e r e s t w i l l be o f v a lu e t o th e community d e s ir o u s o f g iv in g p u rp o se­ f u l d i r e c t i o n t o i t s s c h o o l program . The la c k o f ev id en ce on w hich to b ase d ep en d ab le answ ers a s t o w hat c o n s itu te s an o u ts ta n d in g te a c h in g s t a f f , l i b r a r y , program o f

s t u d i e s , and th e c o s t o f p ro v id in g such s e r v ic e s to th e community prom pted t h i s in v e s tig a tio n *

C h ap ter I I HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM ^Problem o f

£oheol E ^ e ^ ^ u r e s

I n i t s e a r l i e s t a s p e c t s , p u b lic s c h o o l a c c o u n tin g was m erely a r e c o r d o f r e c e i p t s and e x p e n d itu r e s , and was d ev elo p ed f o r th e p u r­ p o se o f p ro v id in g an h i s t o r i c a l re c o r d o f a l l b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . At th e b e g in n in g o f th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry , p u b lic s c h o o l a c c o u n tin g assum ed a new r o l e , nam ely t h a t o f e n a b lin g s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s t o secu re th e d a ta e s s e n t i a l t o th e improvement and g r e a t e s t p o s s ib le developm ent o f th e e d u c a tio n a l program .

The co n cep t t h a t good a c c o u n tin g sh o u ld

a s s i s t i n th e f o rm u la tio n o f th e e d u c a tio n a l program was b ein g a dvanced i n c r e a s in g ly by th o s e w r itin g i n th e f i e l d o f p u b lic s c h o o l b u s in e s s a d m in is tr a t i o n . P r in c i p le s w hich sh o u ld c o n t r o l th e a rra n g in g o f r e - a r r a n g in g o f any s t a t e ap p o rtio n m en t p la n o f sch o o l funds w ere o u tlin e d by Cubberly.-*-

E l l i o t t p ro p o sed t h a t " th e fin a n c e s o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n co u ld

n o t be s tu d ie d a p a r t from th e fin a n c e s o f o th e r m u n ic ip a l a c t i v i t i e s any more th a n th e p u b lic sch o o l a s an i n s t i t u t i o n can be s tu d ie d i n o i s o l a t i o n from i t s s o c i a l en v ironm ent." 1 . C u b b erly , Elwood P . , S ch o o l Funds and T h e ir A p portionm ent, T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , No. 2 , Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1905. 2 . E l l i o t t , Edward C. , Some F i s c a l A sp ects o f P u b lic E d u c a tio n , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 6 , Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New York, 1905, P . 99-

*7 F o r th e p u rp o se o f d e te rm in in g th e p e rc e n ta g e a llo tm e n ts o f s c h o o l fu n d s f o r te a c h in g , s u p e r v is io n , j a n i t o r s e r v i c e s , te x tb o o k s and s u p p lie s , f u e l , and r e p a i r s , S tr a y e r ^ made an e x h a u s tiv e s tu d y o f f i f t y e i g h t c i t y s c h o o l e x p e n d itu re s i n com m unities ra n g in g i n p o p u la tio n from t e n to f i f t y - t h o u s a n d lo c a te d i n M a s sa c h u s e tts , Rhode I s l a n d , C o n n ecti­ c u t , New Y ork, an d New J e rs e y * U p d eg raff i n a s i m i la r s tu d y p ro p o sed ” t o p ro v id e th o s e ch arg ed w ith a d m in is tr a tio n o f p u b lic s c h o o ls i n th e l a r g e s t c i t i e s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s t h e means o f m aking e x a c t com parisons o f c o s t betw een an y two o r more c i t i e s , w ith a minimum e f f o r t , and t o e s t a b l i s h c e r t a i n s ta n d a r d s by w hich any ite m may be m easured and by means o f w hich some com parison o f expense o f t h i s and f u tu r e y e a r s may be made*” ^ The n e c e s s i t y f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a u n ifo rm a c c o u n tin g system a s a n a i d i n th e stu d y o f r e g io n a l o r n a t i o n a l s c h o o l ex p en d i­ t u r e s was re c o g n iz e d e a rly *

As one a u th o r commented, ” Item s g iv e n i n

one r e p o r t a r e o m itte d from a n o th e r .

Item s o f income o r outgo a r e

grouped d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t r e p o r t s , and th e s ta te m e n t i s made i n such a way t h a t i t i s im p o ss ib le to s e p a r a te th e ite m s f o r th e p u rp o se o f r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ” ^

1* S tr a y e r , George 13., C ity S ch o o l E x p e n d itu re s , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 5 , B ureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1905. 2 . U p d eg raff, H a rla n , A S tu dy o f E xpenses o f C ity S ch o o l S y stem s, U n ite d S t a t e s Bureau o f E d u c a tio n , B u ll e ti n No. 5 , 1912, p* 7« 3 . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , R ep o rt o f Committee on U niform F in a n c ia l R e p o r ts , J o u r n a l of P ro ceed in g s and A d d re s se s , v o l . 3 8 , 1899, P . 355*

The f i r s t p u b li c a ti o n o f a u n ifo rm f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t l i s t i n g f o r t y - f o u r ite m s was r e le a s e d t y th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n i n 18919 •

1

I n 1932., th e D epartm ent o f S u p e rin te n d e n c e o f th e N a tio n a l o E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n recommended r e v is i o n s i n th e e a r l i e r form* An e a r l y d e s c r ip t io n o f th e u se o f s c h o o l a c c o u n tin g form s i n l a r g e r c i t i e s was r e p o r te d t y H utchinson^ and l a t e r t y E n g e lh a rd t and von B o rg ersro d e R efin em en ts i n T ech n iq u es o f Com parative S tu d ie s o f S ch o o l C o sts

Accompanying th e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f te rm in o lo g y and th e a g re e ­ ment upon a u n ifo rm method o f r e p o r ti n g f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s was th e re fin e m e n t o f te c h n iq u e s o f co m p arativ e s tu d ie s o f s c h o o l c o s ts * C rib b le

d e v is e d a c o s t u n i t com parable fro m y e a r t o y e a r among c i t i e s

w hich w ould p e rm it c o n t r o l o f c e r t a i n v a r ia b le s *

Dawson

s e le c te d th e

1* N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , R ep o rt o f Committee on U niform F in a n c ia l R e p o rts , J o u r n a l o f P ro c e e d in g s and A d d re sse s, v o l* 3 8 , 1899, pp* 3UU-352. 2 . R ep o rt o f th e Committee on U niform R ecords and R e p o rts , U n ite d S ta t e s B ureau o f E d u c a tio n , Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e , B u l l e t i n No. 3 , 1912. 3• H u tch in so n , Howard J *, S ch o o l C osts and S chool A cco u n tin g , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. £2 , Bureau o f P u b lic a ­ t i o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 19lU . U. E n g e lh a rd t, F . , and von B o rg e rs ro d e , F . , A ccounting P ro ced u re f o r S ch o o l S y stem s, T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1927* 5* G rib b le , S te p h e n C ., A T echnique f o r th e D e te rm in a tio n o f U n it S ch o o l C o s ts , U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa S tu d ie s i n E d u c a tio n , v o l* 3 , No* 1 , f i r s t s e r i e s , No. 9 7 , 192

9 m ost e f f i c i e n t s c h o o ls i n c i t i e s r a n g in g i n p o p u la tio n fro m 10,000 to 3 0 ,0 0 0 by u se o f a fo rm u la b a s e d upon c l a s s lo a d , a tte n d a n c e , and h o ld ­ in g power o f t h e sch o o l#

Dawson1 d ete rm in e d th e p r o p o r tio n o f s c h o o l

fu n d s t o b e s p e n t f o r e a c h o f s e v e r a l s c h o o l f u n c tio n s and e n te r p r is e s * O

N orton6, d ev elo p ed a n in d e x r e p r e s e n tin g th e p u rc h a s in g power o f s c h o o l e x p e n d itu re s p e r u n i t o f s c h o o l s e r v ic e re n d e re d , d e sig n e d to re c o g ­ n iz e th e f l u c t u a t i o n i n th e p u rc h a s in g power o f th e d o l l a r and th e s iz e o f th e e d u c a tio n a l jo b t o b e done* Bain1 w arned t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n e n ro llm e n t and i n th e p u r­ c h a s in g power o f t h e d o l l a r , i f n o t c a r e f u l l y a n a ly z e d , m ig h t have a c c u m u la tin g , a n n u llin g , o r o th e r s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon c o s ts * E n g e lh a rd t and E n g e lh a rd t^ s u g g e s t ways t o h a n d le c o s t ite m s n o t n o r­ m a lly in c lu d e d i n a t o t a l c o s t a n a l y s i s , w h ile Chambers^ l i s t s f a c t o r s w hich sh o u ld be in c lu d e d i n com paring u n i t s c h o o l c o s ts and i n i n t e r ­ p r e ti n g t h e i r com parisons* 1* Dawson, Howard A*, S ta n d a rd s o f E x p e n d itu re s f o r th e P r in c i p a l Ite m s o f C ity S ch o o l C o s ts * George Peabody C o lleg e f o r T e a c h e rs , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No* 3 1 , N a s h v ille , T en n essee, 1927* 2* N orton, Jo h n K ., 11S ta n d a rd s o f L iv in g and S ta n d a rd s o f E d u catio n ” , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h * v o l* 13, Ja n u a ry 1926, p p . 22-35* 3* B ain , L* C*, M easuring th e C u rre n t E x p e n d itu re s o f t h e C lev elan d P u b lic S ch o o ls * D iv is io n o f R e fe re n c e and R e se a rc h , C lev elan d P u b lic S c h o o ls , C le v e la n d , O hio, 1923* U* E n g e lh a rd t, N.L*, and E n g e lh a r d t, F r e d , P u b lic School B u sin ess A d m in is tra tio n * T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New Y ork, lf e w lo r k , 1927, PP. 7 5 9 -793. 5* Cham bers, F re d e ric k D ., nSome Problem s i n Computing Comparable U n it S ch o o l C osts” , American S ch o o l Board J o u r n a l* v o l* 8 1 , A ugust 1930, pp* U 3 -K .

G race and Moe^* have d ete rm in e d th e u n i t c o s ts o f s e le c te d p u b lic s c h o o ls f o r th e s t a t e o f New f o r k .

D avis^ and R ick s e e k e r^ i n ­

v e s t i g a t e d h ig h s c h o o l c o s ts i n Iowa and O hio, w h ile M c ln tire ^ - s tu d ie d th e s ta n d a r d u n i t s o f c o s t f o r la r g e e le m e n ta ry C a l if o r n ia s c h o o ls . Problem o f I n v e s ti g a tin g E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e s

As e a r l y as 1912, a com prehensive r a t i n g o f s t a t e s c h o o l system s was a c h ie v e d by A y res.

d

T h is l i t t l e known p io n e e r in v e s t i g a ­

t i o n was fo llo w e d e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r b y "An In d ex Number f o r S ta te S ch o o l z S ystem s." I n h is in d e x , w hich im m ed iately re c e iv e d w ide a c c e p ta n c e , A yres dev elo p ed f i v e f i n a n c i a l and f iv e n o n - f in a n c ia l f a c t o r s a s s o c ia t e d

1 . G race, A .G .. and Moe, G .A ., S t a t e A id and S ch o o l C o s ts , The R egents* I n q u ir y , McGraw H i l l , New York and London, 1939. 2 . D a v is , Harvey H .,"A T echnique f o r Computing C o sts o f S u b je c ts T aught i n Iowa High S c h o o ls ," u n p u b lish e d D o c to r’s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 1928. 3 . R ic k s e c k e r, C.W ., High S ch o o l S ]ib je c t C osts i n O hio, U n iv e r s ity o f P itt s b u r g B u l l e t i n , v o l . 3 1 , No. 1 , P i t t s b u r g , P e n n ., 19 3U* U. M e I n tire , George R ., " U n it C o sts o f S e rv ic e s and S u p p lie s i n th e E lem en tary S ch o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia having an A verage D a ily A tte n d ­ ance o f Tw o-thousand t o S ix -th o u s a n d and f o r th e S chool Y ear o f 1930-31," u n p u b lish e d D o c to r’s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th ern C a l if o r n ia , 1932. 9 . A y res, Leonard P . , A C om parative S tudy o f th e P u b lic S chool System s i n th e F o r ty - E ig h t S t a t e s , R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , Nev/ Y ork, 1912. 6 . A y res, Leonard P . , An In d ex Number f o r S ta te S ch o o l System s, R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , New Y ork, 1920•

■with e v a lu a tio n i n a l l s t a t e s f o r each d ecad e from 1890 t o 1910, and f o r th e y e a r 1918.

P h i l l i p s 1 m o d ifie d th e A yres In d e x t o a llo w f o r th e

d e c re a s e d o r in c r e a s e d p u rc h a s in g power o f th e d o l l a r , and t o c l a s s i f y s t a t e s i n t o u rb a n , m ixed, and r u r a l ty p e s , t o make p o s s i b le th e su b se ­ q u e n t com parison o f ra n k s among s t a t e s o f s i m i l a r p o p u la tio n c h a r a c t­ e ris tic s . A m o d ifie d in d e x b a s e d on th e A y r e s - P h i lli p s In d e x d ev elo p ed p t y Schrammel r e v e a le d v e r y c lo s e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een h is ra n k in g o f th e s t a t e s and t h a t c a l c u la te d by th e u se o f th e e a r l i e r A yres " In d e x Numbers f o r S t a t e S ch o o l S y stem s"• S im ila r a tte m p ts w ere made to f i n d a q u a n t i t a t i v e b a s i s f o r e v a lu a tin g c i t y and co u n ty sc h o o l e f f i c i e n c y b y F r a s i e r , ^ H a r r e l l ,k Thompson,

5

and Dawson.

6

1 . P h i l l i p s , F rank M ., " E d u c a tio n a l R anking o f S t a t e s t y Two M ethods", A m erican S ch o o l Board J o u r n a l, v o l . 69, December 192U, PP» h i —li9 • 2 . Schram m el, Henry E . , The O rg a n iz a tio n o f S ta t e D ep artm en ts o f E d u c a tio n , Ohio S t a t e U n iv e r s ity S tu d ie s , B ureau o f E d u c a tio n a l M onographs, No. 6 , 1926. 3* F r a s i e r , G.W ., The C o n tro l o f C ity S ch o o l F in a n c e s , Bruce P u b lis h in g Company, M ilw aukee, W isco n sin , 1922. It. E n g e lh a r d t, N .L. and A lex an d e r, C a r te r , S ch o o l F in an ce an d B u sin ess Management P ro b lem s, T ea ch ers C o lle g e , C olum bia, 1928, p p . 7-9* £ • C o n n e c tic u t S t a t e Board o f E d u c a tio n , D iv is io n o f R esearc h and S u rv e y s, T e n ta tiv e In d ex Number f o r th e S ch o o ls o f C o n n e c tic u t C i t i e s and Towns, H a rtfo rd C o n n e c tic u t, 1929* 6 . Dawson, Howard A ., S ta n d a rd s o f E x p e n d itu re s f o r th e P r i n c i p a l Item s o f C ity S ch o o l C o s ts , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , n o . 3 1 , G eorge Peabocfcr C o lleg e f o r T e a c h e rs, N a s h v ille , T en n e ssee , 1927•

12 I n c o n t r a s t t o th e s e e la b o r a te m ethods o f in d e x e s an d ran k s* tw o a tte m p ts w ere made to e s tim a te th e e f f i c i e n c y o f a s c h o o l sy stem s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n te rm s o f a s in g le f a c to r *

Witham^

p ro p o sed a mea­

s u re o f e f f i c i e n c y b a se d upon th e p e rc e n ta g e o f p u p il s fo u n d i n e a c h g rad e a s compared w ith th e t o t a l c h i ld p o p u la tio n a s shown by th e p census* S ia s s e le c te d a s in g le ite m , th e a v e ra g e number o f days a tte n d a n c e f o r eac h c h i l d o f s c h o o l a g e , a s th e ite m w hich co u ld be found w ith some d e g ree o f e x a c tn e s s , and w h ich would b e , w ith o u t q u e s tio n , a m easure o f sc h o o l e f f ic ie n c y * About 1930 th e le a d e r s i n p u b lic s c h o o l e d u c a tio n b eg an to g iv e in c r e a s in g a t t e n t i o n t o th e method o f d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e e d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s w hich w ere b ein g p ro v id e d i n t h e i r own s c h o o l system *

A r a t i n g s c a le f o r e v a lu a tin g e lem en tary s c h o o l o r g a n iz a tio n s

was d e v is e d by M ort and H ille b o e s*

The s c a l e , d e sig n e d t o m easure

b o th th e good and bad f e a t u r e s , in c lu d e d th e p r o g r e s s and a d ju stm e n t o f th e p u p i l s , e d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s , s c h o o l enviroiam ent and m o ra le , and s e r v i c e s .

1* Witham, E r n e s t G*, ’’P u b lic -S c h o o l P ro g re s s o f th e S ta t e s ’1, Am erican S ch o o l Board J o u r n a l, v o l* 7 £ , O ctober 1927, pp* 37-39* 2 . S i a s , A.B*, The F in a n c in g o f a S ta t e S ch o o l System , P u b lis h e d d o c t o r 1s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta n f o r d U n iv e r s ity , 1926. 3* M o rt, P a u l R* and H ille b o e , G .L*, "A R a tin g S c a le f o r E lem en tary S ch o o l O rg a n iz a tio n s ” , T ea ch ers C o lleg e R eco rd , v o l . 3 2 , O cto b er, 1930, p p . 3U-U9*

13 S c a le s t o m easure th e adequacy o f s c h o o l b u il d in g s w ere d e v is e d by S tr a y e r and E n g e lh a r d t.^

On t h e assu m p tio n t h a t th e

seco n d ary s c h o o l i s a f a c t o r i n th e en v iro n m en t o f each o f th e p u p i l s 2 a tte n d in g i t , Wade p re p a re d a s c a le f o r m easu rin g th e s e c o n d a iy sc h o o l a s a p a r t o f a p u p i l ’ s en v iro n m en t. I n 1933, th e C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S eco n d ary S ch o o l S ta n d ­ a r d s , u n d er j o i n t s p o n so rs h ip o f th e s i x r e g io n a l a c c r e d iti n g agen­ c i e s , p ro p o sed a th o ro u g h s tu d y o f a l l seco n d ary s c h o o l s ta n d a r d s and an ex am in atio n and p o s s ib le r e v is i o n o f a c c r e d iti n g p r o c e d u r e s .

T h is

s tu d y , in v o lv in g th e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f h u n d red o f e d u c a to rs th ro u g h o u t th e U n ited S t a t e s , so u g h t an sw ers to th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s : (1 )

What a r e th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a good seco n d ary sc h o o l?

(2)

What p r a c t i c a l means and m ethods may b e employed t o e v a lu a te th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f a s c h o o l i n term s o f i t s o b je c tiv e s ?

(3)

3y w hat means and p ro c e s s e s does a good sch o o l d ev elo p i n t o a b e t t e r one?

(li)

How can r e g io n a l a s s o c ia t io n s s tim u la te seco n d ary s c h o o ls t o c o n tin u o u s grow th?

1 . S tr a y e r , George D . and E n g e lh a rd t, N .L ., S ta n d a rd s f o r H igh S chool B u ild in g s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1921;. 2 . Wade, J • Thomas, A M easurement o f th e S econdary S ch o o l a s a P a r t o f th e P u p i l ’s E n v iro n m en t, C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , WoT & kl, Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New Y ork, 1935.

T here i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t th e C o o p e ra tiv e S tu d y w ith i t s p u b lic a tio n s

h a s had and w i l l c o n tin u e t o have c o n s id e r a b le i n ­

f lu e n c e on th e im provement o f seco n d ary e d u c a tio n th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try . S in c e I 9I4.O, v a r io u s la r g e s c h o o l system s i n c lo s e p ro x im ity i n th e l a r g e r m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s o f t h i s c o u n try have jo in e d i n a c o o p e ra tiv e s tu d y o f t h e i r common a d m in is tr a tiv e and c u r r i c u l a r p rob­ le m s.

The g e n e r a l ad v an tag es a c c ru in g from such j o i n t e f f o r t s a r e th e

p o o lin g o f fu n d s and human r e s o u r c e s , th e e lim in a tio n o f n e e d le s s r e ­ p e t i t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , th e b r in g in g o f an a t t i t u d e o f c o o p e ra tio n i n t o a s i t u a t i o n where elem en ts o f c o m p e titio n a r e p r e s e n t, th e p ro v id in g f o r c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f id e a s t h a t te n d t o c r e a tiv e n e s s i n educa­ t i o n , and th e w id er d i f f u s i o n o f th e em erging p r a c t i c e s .

A few o f

th e s e l a r g e r c o o p e ra tiv e s c h o o l dudy g ro u p s a r e th e M e tro p o lita n S cho o l S tudy C o u n c il, th e C e n tra l New York S ch o o l S tu d y C o u n c il, th e New England S ch o o l Developm ent C o u n c il, th e P e n n sy lv a n ia C o o p erativ e S ch o o l S tudy C o u n c il, th e M e tro p o lita n D e t r o i t B ureau o f C o o p erativ e

1 . E v a lu a tio n o f S econdary S c h o o ls , G e n eral R ep o rt on th e M ethods, A c t i v i t i e s , an d R e s u lts o f th e C o o p erativ e S tudy o f S econdary S ch o o l S ta n d a rd s ; E v a lu a tio n o f Secondary S c h o o ls , D e a lin g w ith S p e c ia l P h ases o f th e Work and R e s u lt s ; How to E v a lu a te a Secondary S c h o o l, A M anual t o Accompany th e 19U0 E d itio n o f E v a lu a te C r i t e r i a and E d u c a tio n a l T em p eratu re s: C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S ch o o l S ta n d a rd s , W ashington, D .C ., 1939*

15 S ch o o l S tu d ie s , and th e Los A ngeles County E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h C o u n c il, I n m ost c a s e s , th e e a r l y im p etu s f o r th e s e c o o p e ra tiv e s tu d ie s a p p e a rs t o have d ev elo p ed from th e i n t e r e s t o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n th e c o s t - q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n ed u c a tio n #

One o f th e e a r l i e s t and

b e s t known c o o p e r a tiv e e f f o r t s i s th e M e tro p o lita n S ch o o l S tu d y C o u n c il, o rg a n iz e d i n 19U l, w hich in c lu d e s se v e n ty member s c h o o l system s o f ,

th e New York m e tr o p o lita n a r e a and re a c h e s o u t t o a s s o c ia t e members a c r o s s th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

T h is o r g a n iz a tio n h as p ro d u ced o r a id e d i n

th e p r o d u c tio n o f su ch m a te r ia ls a s "A G uide f o r S e lf - A p p r a is a l o f S cho o l System s”

MA G uide f o r th e A n a ly s is and D e s c r ip tio n o f P u b lic

S chool S e r v ic e s ” ,^ ” New C h allen g es t o E d u ca tio n ” ,^ '•‘What Makes Good S c h o o ls ? " ,^ ” The Growing Edge” ,'* and ’‘What E d u c a tio n Our Money B u y s ^ 1« M o rt, P a u l R# and C o r n e ll, F r a n c is G ., A Guide f o r S e lf - A p p r a is a l o f S ch o o l S y stem s» Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Colum bia U n iv e r s ity , 1937* 2* M o rt, P a u l R .,r B u r k e , A rv id J # , and F is k , R o b e rt S . , A G uide f o r th e A n a ly s is and D e s c r ip tio n o f P u b lic S ch o o l S e r v ic e s , I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , D iv is io n o f S tr u c tu r e and O rg a n iz a tio n , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 19l|2. 3 . M e tro p o lita n S ch o o l S tu d y C o u n cil, New C h allen g es t o E d u c a tio n , New Y ork, November, 19 h* M e tro p o lita n S chool S tudy C o u n c il, What Makes Good S c h o o ls : The Community F a c t o r s , A p r i l , 19k!i>* 5# H o rt, P a u l R . , V in c e n t, W illiam S ., and N ew ell, C laren ce A ., The Growing E dge: An In s tru m e n t f o r M easuring th e A d a p ta b ility o f S ch o o l S y stem s, M e tro p o lita n S chool S tudy C o u n c il, New Y ork, 19116 • 6 . New York S ta t e E d u c a tio n a l C onference B o ard , What E d u c a tio n Our Money Buys, A lbany, 19U3*

I n a r e c e n t s tu d y o f th e e d u c a tio n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f te a c h e r s i n S o u th C a r o lin a , Brewton^* sum m arized th o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e x c e lle n t s c h o o ls b ased upon th e d e s ir e s o f p a r e n ts - a n d e d u c a tio n a l .o b s e rv e rs .

O b se rv a tio n s w ere made i n a s e l ­

e c te d number o f s c h o o ls named by e d u c a to rs a s p o s s e s s in g e x c e p tio n a l f e a tu r e s #

No a tte m p t, how ever, was made t o r e p o r t upon th e o b se rv a ­

t i o n s i n d e t a i l o r to a n a ly z e th e c o s t o f p ro v id in g su ch s e r v ic e s i n t h a t community. Problem o f Comparing S ch o o l E x p e n d itu re s W ith E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e s P ro v id e d

A ll e a r l y s tu d ie s d e sig n e d t o e s tim a te e d u c a tio n a l r e tu r n s f o r money s p e n t stem from Ayres* In d e x .

T h is in d e x num ber, b a se d

upon f i v e f i n a n c i a l and f i v e n o n - f in a n c ia l f a c t o r s , a s r e p o r te d t y th e U n ite d S t a t e s Bureau o f E d u ca tio n s t a t i s t i c s , i n d i c a t e s how th e s e f a c t o r s te n d to b e a s s o c ia t e d .

nWe c a n ,” say s A y re s, " s e c u re from

th e d a ta p r e s e n te d i n t h i s volume co n v in cin g ev id en ce t h a t th e r e i s a r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een e x p e n d itu re s and r e s u l t s i n e d u c a tio n .” The e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t im p lie d a s th e s tu d y c o n tin u e s :

2

”We

can n o t pro v e t h a t th e h ig h e r p a id te a c h e r i s in d i v id u a l ly more s k i l l e d th a n th e low er p a id o ne, b u t i t can be shown t h a t a s s a l a r i e s in c r e a s e ,

1 . B rew ton, Jo h n E . , E x c e lle n t S c h o o ls , T h e ir C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , R ep o rt o f th e I n v e s ti g a tio n o f E d u c a tio n a l Q u a lif ic a tio n s o f T eachers i n S o u th C a r o lin a , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th C a r o lin a , 19UU* 2 . A y re s, Leonard P . , An In d ex f o r S ta te S chool S y stem s, R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , New Y ork, 1920, p . 2 3 .

a tte n d a n c e im p ro v es, and more p u p ils a r e found i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls . I t can f u r t h e r be shown t h a t a s a l a r i e s i n c r e a s e , e x p e n d itu re s f o r p u rp o se s o th e r th a n s a l a r i e s a ls o in c r e a s e and t h i s r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r b u il d in g s and equ ip m en t.

I t i s f u r t h e r e v id e n t t h a t i n g e n e r a l, th e

p u r e ly e d u c a tio n a l item s o f th e in d e x te n d to in c r e a s e a s th e f in a n ­ c i a l ite m s grow l a r g e r even when th e r e i s no f u n c ti o n a l c o n n e c tio n b etw een th e two s e t s o f d a t a . ” A nother e a r l y a tte m p t t o d eterm in e th e e f f e c t o f v a ry in g ex­ p e n d itu r e l e v e l s upon th e c h a r a c te r o f e d u c a tio n was u n d e rta k e n i n 1933 by P o w ell who s tu d ie d s e v e n ty o n e -te a c h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n c e n t r a l New York S t a t e .

The s tu d e n ts i n two gro u p s o f t h i r t y - f i v e sc h o o ls each

w ere e q u a te d as to m e n ta l a b i l i t y an d , as n e a r ly a s p o s s i b l e , t o s u p e r­ v is o r y and e n v iro n m e n ta l d i f f e r e n c e s .

The sc h o o ls i n Group A s p e n t

a p p ro x im a te ly 2£ p r e c e n t more th a n d id th e sc h o o ls i n Group B.

A

com parison was made o f s c o re s on (1) an ach iev em en t t e s t b a t t e r y , and (2) a ” H appiness T e s t 1 d e sig n e d t o m easure th e s tu d e n t* s a l l- r o u n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s c h o o l, and h is en th u siasm f o r th e s c h o o l he a t t e n d s . P ow ell fo u n d t h a t ” t h e r e a r e a l i t t l e o v er 93 chances o u t o f ev ery 100 • • • t h a t th e s c h o o ls su ch a s Group A, r e p r e s e n t a tiv e o f th e o n e -te a c h e r s c h o o ls w ith e x p e n d itu re s a v e ra g in g above th e median f o r th e w hole s t a t e , a r e s e c u rin g g r e a t e r a v era g e achievem ent i n th e sc h o o l work o f t h e i r p u p il s th a n a r e th e sc h o o ls i n w hich th e av erag e e x p e n d itu re s

1 . A y re s , Leonard P . , An In d ex f o r S ta t e S ch o o l S ystem s, R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , New YorFJ 1920, p . 2 3 .

a r e below th e m edian f o r th e s t a t e p F e r r e l l r e p o r te d a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e t o t a l c u r r e n t e x p e n d itu re s and s i x m easures o f e d u c a tio n a l e f f i c i e n c y b ased upon a tte n d a n c e , h o ld in g pow er, t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e r s , e x p e rie n c e o f t e a c h e r s , p u p il - te a c h e r r a t i o , and le n g th o f s c h o o l te rm .

In h is

s tu d y o f K entucky co u n ty and g ra d e d s c h o o l sy ste m s, how ever, many e x c e p tio n s were found i n p a r t i c u l a r sc h o o ls and sc h o o l sy stem s. The consequences o f red u ced e x p e n d itu re s on th e amount and q u a l i t y o f e d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s a f f e c t e d b y l i n e s o f re tre n c h m e n t d u rin g th e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 's was re p o r te d by D u f f e y . ^

The e f f e c t s o f

s a la r y r e d u c t io n , red u ced p e r s o n n e l, d is c o n tin u e d ty p e s o f s e r v ic e , s u b je c t e l im i n a tio n , and red u ce d e x p e n d itu re s f o r s u p p lie s and r e ­ p a i r s w ere a n a ly z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o th e e f f e c t upon th e e d u c a tio n a l o ffe rin g s . An e a r l y su rv ey conducted f o r th e p u rp o se o f e v a lu a tin g th e s t a t e e d u c a tio n a l program s i n term s o f e x p e n d itu re s was co nducted by M ort a s a p a r t o f h i s s t u d i e s i n th e fin a n c in g o f e d u c a tio n i n M aine,

1 . P o w e ll, O rrin E . , E d u c a tio n a l R e tu rn s a t V arying E x p en d itu re L e v e ls , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 5/3* B ureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1933, p p . 2 0 -2 1 . 2 . F e r r e l l , D .T . , R e la tio n Between C u rre n t E x p e n d itu re s and C e r ta in M easures o f E d u c a tio n a l E f f ic ie n c y i n Kencucky County and Graded S chool S y stem s, C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 216, George Pea­ body C o lleg e f o r T e a c h e rs , N a s h v ille , T en n essee, 1936. 3 . D u ffe y , Hugh S . , The E f f e c t o f Reduced E x p e n d itu re s on Amount and Q u a lity o f E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e s , u n p u b lish e d M a s te r 's t h e s i s , George W ashington U n iv e r s ity , W ashington, D .C ., 1933,

19 New J e r s e y , an d Rhode Is la n d # a re:

The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f h is method

f i r s t , s e l e c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a tiv e s c h o o ls on th e b a s i s o f l e v e l

o f e x p e n d itu re (lo w , m id d le , o r h ig h ) ; and seco n d , an in t e n s iv e com­ p a r a t i v e s tu d y o f t h e program o f s c h o o ls o f v a ry in g e x p e n d itu re l e v e l s , u s in g o b je c tiv e m easurem ents w h erev er p o s s i b l e . Mort,**" i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e f in a n c in g o f e d u c a tio n i n M aine, s e le c te d t h i r t y towns and c i t i e s , te n o f w hich w ere sp en d in g $30 p e r p u p i l , t e n system s sp en d in g ab o u t $57 p e r p u p il and te n spend­ in g $78 o r more p e r p u p il#

E ach system was s tu d ie d from th e s ta n d ­

p o in t o f e d u c a tio n a l p o li c y , s c h o o l p l a n t , j a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e , e x p e r i­ ence and t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e r s , a d m in is tr a tio n and s u p e r v is io n , c u r r i ­ culum , p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n and h e a l th s e r v i c e s , a d ju stm e n t t o in d i v id u a l n e e d s , en rich m en t o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s c h o o l m o ra le , and community r e l a ­ tio n s #

As th e e x p e n d itu re l e v e l r o s e from $30 p e r p u p il t o $78 p e r

p u p i l , t h e r e was a c l e a r c u t u n fo ld in g o f th e e d u c a tio n a l program# p I n th e Rhode I s la n d s u rv e y , M ort u t i l i z e d a s ta n d a rd ob­ s e r v a tio n d e v ic e an d an in te r v ie w ty p e o f q u e s tio n n a ire *

W ith a

p o s s ib le s c o re o f 1 0 18, s c o re s o f 38 o f th e 39 Rhode I s la n d s c h o o l system s ran g ed fro m 100 t o a lm o st 900#

T h is w ide ran g e o f s c o re s

1# Maine S ch o o l F in an c e Commission, The F in a n c in g o f P u b lic S ch o o ls o f M aine, C h ap ter I I I , 193U* 2# Commission on th e L eg al S tr u c tu r e o f Rhode I s la n d P u b lic E d u c a tio n , S ch o o ls f o r Our C h ild r e n , R ep o rt o f a Survey o f th e S tr u c tu r e and O p e ra tio n o f th e Rhode I s la n d P u b lic S chool System , v o l . 1 , F e b ru a ry , 19^1*

prom pted th e o b s e r v a tio n :

“ Those s c o r in g aro u n d 100 had been l i t t l e

a f f e c t e d by th e v a s t changes t h a t have been in tr o d u c e d i n e d u c a tio n i n th e p a s t i+0 y e a r s , w h ile th o s e s c o rin g aro u n d 900 had been a f f e c t e d i n some d e g re e b y n e a r ly a l l th e s e c h a n g e s.” ^

The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f

ad e q u a te f in a n c e t o e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n ity i s f o r c i b l y d em o n strated i n h i s summaiy.

“ Wo sc h o o l d i s t r i c t sp en d in g more th a n $90 was s c o re d

below th e a v e r a g e .

S ch o o l d i s t r i c t s sp en d in g b etw een $60 and $90

ra n g e d above and below th e a v e ra g e , b u t no h ig h s c o re s w ere a t t a i n e d u n t i l an e x p e n d itu re l e v e l o f $75 was re a c h e d .11^ What may be e x p e c te d on le v e ls o f e x p e n d itu re tw ic e a s h ig h m ust rem ain a m a tte r o f c o n je c tu r e f o r th e sim p le f a c t t h a t so few o b s e rv a tio n s a r e a v a i la b l e i n th e h ig h e r e x p e n d itu re l e v e l .

M ort

does p r e d i c t t h a t a t t h a t l e v e l “ sm a ll c l a s s e s , te a c h e r s o f e x c e p t­ i o n a l a b i l i t y and t r a i n i n g , s p e c ia l w o rk ers t o a s s i s t i n stu d y in g th e n eed s o f th e p u p il s and community and i n a d m in is te rin g t o th o s e n e e d s , a w e a lth o f m a te r ia ls o f i n s t r u c t i o n , books a s p l e n t i f u l a s n eed ed , f a i l u r e s and m i s f i t s e lim in a te d b ecau se th e s c h o o l knows where e v e iy c h i l d i s and how t o s tim u la te h i s developm ent from w herever he i s w ith o u t re c o u rs e t o b a rb a ro u s methods*113 1 . M ort, P a u l R ., E d u c a tio n a l R e tu rn s f o r Money S p en t on P u b lic S c h o o ls , T each ers C o lleg e R ecord, v o l . h 3 , J a n . , 19H2, p . 2 8 8 . 2 . Ib id . , p . 289. 3# M ort, P a u l R ., F e d e r a l S u p p o rt f o r P u b lic E d u c a tio n , B ureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1 9 36,p . 22}+.

21 The f in d i n g s o f t h e R eg en ts I n q u ir y a s t o t h e c h a r a c te r and c o s t o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n i n th e s t a t e o f New York a l l o t a b r i e f chap­ t e r to a d is c u s s io n o f th e r e t u r n f o r money sp eh t*

F o r ty - th r e e s c h o o ls

w ere ra n k e d on v a r io u s ite m s o f sc h o o l c o s t a c c o rd in g t o a f i v e - p o i n t s c a le b a s e d on e d u c a tio n a l t e s t r e s u l t s *

The c o n c lu sio n iSf t h a t 11h ig h

e d u c a tio n a l e f f i c i e n c y i s n o t a c h ie v e d w ith o u t h ig h e x p e n d itu r e s , b u t many d i s t r i c t s have h ig h c o s ts and d i s t i n c t l y i n f e r i o r r e t u r n s .

The

group o f s c h o o ls w ith s u p e r io r e d u c a tio n a l r e s u l t s s p re a d th e g r e a t e r e x p e n d itu re s o v e r a l l ite m s o f expense and a l s o d ev o te a l a r g e r p ro ­ p o r tio n o f th e e n t i r e b u d g et t o d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n .

The b e s t s c h o o ls

do n o t have an e x c e p tio n a lly sm a ll number o f p u p ils p e r te a c h e r , b u t th e y p ay a h ig h av era g e s a la r y to i n s t r u c t o r s . ” ^ The r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een e x p e n d itu re l e v e l and th e o r i g i n a l i n t r o d u c ti o n o f an e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e o f w id esp read a c c e p ta n c e i n 2 a s t a t e was d eterm in e d by Mort i n a r e c e n t s tu d y made i n P e n n s y lv a n ia . The speed o f d i f f u s i o n o f e i g h t r e c e n t a d a p t a ti o n s - k in d e r g a r te n s , re o rg a n iz e d h ig h s c h o o ls , homemaking f o r b o y s, s p e c ia l c l a s s e s , a d u l t e d u c a tio n , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , su p p lem en tary r e a d in g , and f i n a l e le m e n ta ry ex am in atio n s was c a r e f u l ly c h a r te d i n v a r io u s com­ m u n itie s*

I n a d d i tio n , s ix ty - s e v e n s t a t i s t i c a l m easures o f s o c i a l ,

1 . G race, A .G ., and Moe, G .A ., S ta t e A id and S ch o o l C o sts, The Re­ g e n ts 1 I n q u ir y , McGramr H i l l , New X ork, 1938, p . 321;. 2 . M o it, P a u l R. and C o rn e ll, F r a n c is G ., A m erican S ch o o ls i n T ra n s i­ t i o n , Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e rs i­ t y , New Y ork, 1938.

24

econom ic, and ed u c a tio n a l f a c t o r s are presented*

Of a l l th e s t a t i s ­

t i c a l m easures, th e l e v e l o f exp enditure was found t o be most c l o s e l y r e la te d t o th e c r i t e r i a fo r u p -to -d a te n e s s , or l i v e l i n e s s , a s measured by a new instrum ent o f a p p ra isa l *-*■ Other f a c t o r s w hich appeared c l o s e ­ l y r e la t e d t o th e l i v e l i n e s s or a d a p ta b ility o f a sch o o l were such f a c t o r s a s community p r o g r e s s iv e n e s s , s iz e o f sch o o l system , ta x leew ay, and w ealth* Two r e c e n t C a lifo r n ia s tu d ie s fu r th e r emphasize th e c lo s e r e la t io n s h ip between t h e l e v e l o f expenditure and th e ed u ca tio n a l s e r v ic e provided*

The e x te n t to which reduced or in cr ea se d sch o o l

exp en d itu res were accompanied b y a measurable e f f e c t upon th e amount and q u a lity o f ed u ca tio n a l s e r v ic e s was stu d ied by M erideth Sexson 3 and M erideth analyzed th e d iffe r e n c e s in budget apportionm ent p a tte r n and th e v a r ie t y and e x te n t o f s e r v ic e s in c i t i e s o f d if f e r e n t expend­ it u r e le v e ls * In an attem pt to emphasize th e c o s t - q u a lit y r e la tio n s h ip ! • Mort, P aul R* and C o rn ell, F rancis G*, A Guide f o r S e lf-A p p r a is a l o f S ch o o l System s, Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s , Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New York, 1937* 2* M e rid e th , George H*, 11The E f f e c t o f Reduced o r In c re a s e d S chool E x p e n d itu re s Upon th e Amount and Q u a lity o f E d u c a tio n a l S e rv ic e ’*, u n p u b lish e d d o c to r* s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a li­ f o r n i a , Los A n g eles, 19373* Sexson, John A. and M e rid e th , George H ., ”A S tu d y o f th e R e la tio n ­ s h ip o f S ch o o l E x p e n d itu re s t o E d u c a tio n a l S e rv ic e s P ro v id ed ” , un­ p u b lis h e d d o c to r* s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a l if o r n ia , Los A n g eles, 1938*

23 i n e d u c a tio n i n v a r io u s s t a t e s , s c o r e s made b y serv icem en on th e Army-Navy Q u a lify in g T e s ts have b een u sed t o d em o n stra te th e r e l a ­ t i o n s h i p betw een a v e ra g e s c o r e s made by exam inees from a s t a t e and t h a t s t a t e * s ra n k among o th e r s t a t e s i n th e av erag e amount s p e n t f o r e d u c a tio n .

The number o f a p p l ic a n t s who q u a l i f i e d i n th e t e s t ran g ed

from .3 3 p e r 1 ,0 0 0 i n a s t a t e w ith th e av e ra g e te a c h e r s a la x y o f $517*00, a s compared w ith 2 .0 2 p e r 1,0 0 0 i n a s t a t e whose av e ra g e te a d h e r s a l a r y was $2 , 6 l 8 .0 0 .

1« D a v en p o rt, K .S ., and Remmers, H .H ., " E d u c a tio n a l Achievem ent a s Compared w ith Money S p e n t on S c h o o ls " , S ch o o l and S o c ie ty , v o l . 6 l , May 19h$, p p . 333-335*

24 C hapter I I I THE IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AND COST OF SUPERIOR HIGH SCHOOL STAFFS IN IOWA SECOND-CLASS CITIES The f i r s t p o r ti o n o f t h i s c h a p te r 119111 be d ev o ted t o th e p e r s o n a l d a t a , d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o f e s s io n a l p r e p a r a t io n , p re v io u s te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e , and p r e s e n t a ssig n m e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s o f Iowa*

A g a in s t t h i s back g ro u n d , th e

p ro c e d u re s u se d i n i d e n t i f y i n g te n s u p e r io r h ig h s c h o o l s t a f f s and an a n a l y s i s o f p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s common i n each w i l l be made*

In

c o n c lu s io n , th e l e v e l o f s a la r y e x p e n d itu re s n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u re and m a in ta in a s t a f f i n th e s e l e c t e d h ig h s c h o o ls w i l l be d e te rm in e d . T r a in in g , E x p e rie n c e , an d T each er A ssignm ent P r a c ti c e s i n N in e ty H igh S ch o o ls i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s

The 19U6-1|7 Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c to r y 1 l i s t s n in e ty p u b lic h ig h s c h o o ls i n s e c o n d -c la s s Iowa c i t i e s t h a t a r e o f f e r in g work a t th e n in t h g ra d e l e v e l o r h ig h e r .

These h ig h s c h o o ls , em ploying 1323

te a c h e r s , vaxy i n e n ro llm e n t from lij2 t o 793 p u p i l s , w ith ap p ro x im ate­ l y h a l f o f th e h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 300 p u p i l s . The e n ro llm e n ts o f th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls and th e d i s t r i ­ b u tio n o f th e h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s r e l a t i v e t o th e s iz e o f th e sc h o o ls i n w hich th e y a r e te a c h in g I s g iv e n i n T able I*

Four o u t

1* Iowa D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c to r y , Des M oines, Iow a, 19U6-li7, P* 163*

25 Table I Teaching S t a f f and P u p il E nrollm ents in P u b lic High S ch ools i n Iowa Second-C lass C it ie s

E n ro llm e n t

150-199* 200-21*9 250-299 300-31*9 350-399 1*00—ljlj.9 1*50-1*99 500-51*9 550-599 600-61*9 650-O ver T o ta l

Number o f S ch o o ls

Ik 17 19 10 12 6 5 1 2 2 2

C um ulative %

1 5 .5 3l*.l* 5 5 .5 66*6 7 9 .9 86*6 92 *2 93.3 9 5 .5 9 7 .7 1 0 0.0 90

Number o f T each ers

132 180 267 161* 202 110 107 18 1*1 58 1*1*

C um ulative %

1 0 .0 2 3 .6 1*3.7 5 6 .1 71.1* 7 9 .7 8 7.8 8 9.2 9 2 .3 9 6 .7 1 0 0 .0 1,323

■a- In clu d es one h igh s c h o o l w ith 11*2 p u p ils e n r o lle d

26 o f f i v e te a c h e r s i n t h i s s tu d y w ere te a c h in g i n h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n U50 p u p i l s , w h ile a p p ro x im a te ly tw o - th ir d s o f th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s e n r o ll e d l e s s th a n 350 p u p ils * To d e te rm in e th e amount and re c e n c y o f t r a i n i n g , te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e , c e r t i f i c a t i o n and te a c h in g assig n m e n t o f each o f th e 1323 h ig h s c h o o l classro o m te a c h e r s i n th o s e Iowa c i t i e s r a n g in g i n popu­ l a t i o n fro m 2 ,0 0 0 t o 1 5 ,0 0 0 , a c a rd was p re p a re d l i s t i n g each i n s t r u c t ­ o r ^ name and th e te a c h in g a ssig n m e n t a s g iv e n i n th e 19h^>-h7 Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ire c to ry *

An ex am in atio n o f th e f i r s t se m e ste r te a c h in g

a ssig n m e n ts on f i l e w ith th e Iowa S ta t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t t i o n was made f o r a l l n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls , and te a c h e r s te a c h in g l e s s th a n h a l f tim e w ere ex clu d ed from f u r t h e r s tu d y .

D r. Wayla n d W. O sburn,

S e c r e ta r y and D ir e c to r o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f th e Iowa Board o f Educa­ t i o n a l E xam iners made a v a i la b l e t o th e a u th o r a l l t r a n s c r i p t s and c e r t i f i c a t i o n s ta te m e n ts on f i l e w ith th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n ­ s t r u c t i o n , Des M oines, Iowa*

Qni t h e b a s i s o f th e s e r e c o r d s , a d d i t ­

i o n a l in f o r m a tio n r e g a rd in g th e i n s t i t u t i o n a tte n d e d f o r u n d e rg ra d u a te t r a i n i n g , th e m ajor and m inor f i e l d s o f p r e p a r a t io n , d eg ree o r d e g re e s a t t a i n e d , amount and re c e n c y o f g ra d u a te t r a i n i n g , and th e ty p e o f te a c h in g c e r t i f i c a t e was e n te r e d on th e c a rd s p r e v io u s ly p re p a re d f o r ea c h te a c h e r . T h is method o f s e c u rin g in fo rm a tio n r e l a t i v e t o th e t r a i n i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f te a c h e r s has c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s .

I n many c a s e s

o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r i o r t o I 9I4.O, th e d e te rm in a tio n o f m ajo rs and m in o rs

27 i n th e undergraduate tr a in in g could o n ly be determ ined by in s p e c tio n o f th e c o lle g e tr a n s c r ip t subm itted i n support o f th e a p p lic a tio n fo r a te a c h in g c e r t i f i c a t e .

Many o f th e o ld e r tr a n s c r ip ts make no mention

o f th e a rea s o f major and minor p rep a ra tio n .

U nless th e rea d ers fo r

th e Iowa Board o f E d u cation al Examiners had p r e v io u sly ev a lu a ted the tr a n s c r ip t , th e author found i t n ecessa ry to determ ine the academic majors and m inors by in s p e c t io n .

S in ce 19U0, the statem en ts o f major

and minor f i e l d s o f undergraduate p rep aration appear on th e record of c e r tific a tio n . A second lim it a t io n i n determ ining th e a c tu a l amount o f graduate work or advanced d egrees ob tain ed on th e b a s is o f th e c e r t i ­ f i c a t i o n record must be n o ted .

Under th e method employed by mary

su p e rin ten d en ts, a tea ch er in th e system th e p reviou s year need n ot f i l e a statem en t a n n u a lly in d ic a tin g a d d itio n a l c o lle g e tr a in in g or advanced d e g r e e s.

Such in form ation ob tained by u se o f records on

f i l e w ith th e ^owa Board o f E ducational Examiners i s accu rate o n ly i f r e c e n t a p p lic a tio n has been made fo r an advanced c e r t i f i c a t e , th e tea ch er has en tered another system and i s req u ested t o f i l e a new statem ent o f t r a in in g and ex p erien ce, or i f in th e unusual case in w hich th e su p erin ten d en t req u ires a l l tea ch ers to f i l e an n ually a statem ent o f a d d itio n a l tr a in in g which i s forwarded to th e lo r n Board o f E d u cation al Examiners. Because o f th e la r g e turnover in th e sm aller high s c h o o ls , and th e requirem ent th a t a l l su perin ten d en ts f i l e each year a statem ent

o f th e t r a i n i n g and e x p e rie n c e o f a l l new t e a c h e r s , such s ta te m e n ts made h e r in p e r ta in in g to th e e x p e rie n c e and t r a i n i n g o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 275 p u p il s may be a c c e p te d a s re a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te .

C o n v ersely , b ecau se o f th e s m a lle r

tu r n o v e r and th e p r a c t i c e o f ex cu sin g fo rm er s t a f f members from making an a n n u a l s ta te m e n t o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r ie n c e , th e e x te n t o f g ra d u a te t r a i n i n g and e x p e rie n c e i n th e l a r g e r s c h o o ls i s l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e r th a n r e p o r te d h e r e . Source o f T ra in in g An ex am in a tio n o f th e c e r t i f i c a t i o n re c o rd s i n th e o f f ic e o f th e Iowa Board o f E d u c a tio n a l Exam iners i n d i c a t e s th e c o n t r ib u tio n o f th e v a r io u s s t a t e and o u t - o f - s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n th e t r a i n i n g o f th e s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .

T able I I r e v e a ls t h a t a p p ro x i­

m a te ly hO p e r c e n t o f te a c h e r s i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y a r e t r a i n e d i n th e th r e e s t a t e , i n s t i t u t i o n s j Iowa S t a t e , Iowa S t a t e T e a c h e r1s C o lle g e , and S ta t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a.

A nother J4O p e r c e n t

a r e t r a i n e d i n in d e p e n d e n t c o lle g e s w ith in th e s t a t e , and 20 p e r c e n t have re c e iv e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n o u t - o f - s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s i t u a t i o n 1 o l i t t l e changed from t h a t e a r l i e r r e p o r te d b y P e te rs o n x and by E an cer.

1 . P e te r s o n , E .T ., L i n q u is t, S . F . , J e e p , H .A ., P r i c e , M .P ., T eacher S upply and Demand i n Iowa, S tu d ie s i n E d u c a tio n , New S e r ie s No. S z9 , Iowa C ity , Iow a, 1932, p . 2 1 6 . 2 . H ancer, K erm it T . , 11In e x p e rie n c e d T eachers i n Iowa High Schools,'* u n p u b lish e d M a s te r 's t h e s i s , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 19U l, p . 9 6 .

29 T able H S o u rces o f U n d erg rad u ate T ra in in g f o r High S ch o o l T e a c h e rs

T ra in in g In s titu tio n

P e rc e n t 1927-291

P e rc e n t 19U6-U7

19.0 1 5 .5 liu U 1 1 .0

20*9 1 9 .9 1 1 .3 12.2 3 5 .7

O u t- o f - s ta te Iowa S t a t e T e a c h e rs C o lleg e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa Iowa S ta t e C o lleg e In d ep en d e n t C o lle g e s

U o.i

E x te n t o f G rad u ate T ra in in g P re v io u s f in d in g s t h a t th e l a r g e r h ig h s c h o o ls te n d t o a t t r a c t and h o ld th o s e te a c h e r s w ith more g ra d u a te work to a l a r g e r d eg ree th a n do t h e s m a lle r s c h o o ls i s s u b s t a n ti a te d i n T able I I I .

Ten and t h r e e -

te n th s p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e s m a lle r h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 275 p u p il s had m a ste r d e g re e s , a s compared w ith 1 8 .7 p e r c e n t w ith m a ste r d e g re e s i n s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g more th a n 500 s tu d e n ts . T ab le I I I G rad u ate T r a in in g R ep o rted by High S ch o o l T ea ch ers i n N in e ty H igh S ch o o ls High S ch o o l E n ro llm e n t

150-27U 275-1+99 500-o v e r

Number o f T each ers

U55 707 161

1* P e te r s o n , E .T ., e t . a l.> 0g« c i t . , p . 216.

G rad u ate Work No D egree % D egree % 18.2 19.8 2 5 .0

1 0 .3 17.3 18.7

30 As m ig h t be e x p e c te d w ith a n o ld e r s t a f f , 25 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g more th a n 500 p u p ils had comp­ l e t e d some g ra d u a te work a s compared w ith 18,2 p e r c e n t r e p o r tin g th e same advance t r a i n i n g in th o s e h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g l e s s th a n 275 p u p ils • The e x te n t t o w hich th e s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s a r e c o n tin u in g t o g a in added p r o f e s s io n a l com petence by f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i s en co u rag in g *

Peterson-*- r e p o r te d h*3 p e r c e n t o f th e h ig h s c h o o l

classro o m te a c h e r s had advanced d e g re e s i n 1927-28, a f i g u r e c o r r o b p o r a te d by th e 1932 N a tio n a l S urvey o f S econdary E d u c a tio n b ased on 50U r e p r e s e n t a tiv e f o u r - y e a r h ig h s c h o o ls . Recency o f T ra in in g T ra in in g i s d e f in e d h e r e in t o mean th e s u c c e s s f u l comple­ t i o n o f u n d e rg ra d u a te w ork, advanced work on th e g ra d u a te l e v e l , o r th e a tta in m e n t o f an advanced degree*

Based on th e re c o rd s a v a i la b l e

i n th e o f f i c e o f th e Iowa B oard o f E d u c a tio n a l E xam in ers, s ix o u t o f te n te a c h e r s i n t h e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n th e s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s o f Iowa r e p o r te d having had p r o f e s s io n a l t r a i n i n g i n a c o lle g e o r

1 . P e te rs o n , E .T ., e t . a l . , Op. c i t . , p . 1U5* 2 . N a tio n a l S urvey o f S econdary E d u c a tio n , The S m a lle r S econdary S c h o o ls . B u l l e t i n , 1932, No. 17y Government P r in ti n g O ffic e , 1933, p . 7 1 .

31 u n i v e r s i t y i n 1937 o r l a t e r .

As shown i n T ab le IV , a p p ro x im a te ly

65 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 500 s tu d e n ts had p r o f e s s io n a l t r a i n i n g in th e l a s t d eca d e, a s compared ■with a p p ro x im a te ly 58 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s r e p o r tin g th e same t r a i n i n g i n h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g more th a n 500 p u p i l s .

I n th e

s m a lle r h ig h s c h o o ls , th e h ig h e r p e rc e n ta g e o f re c e n c y o f t r a i n i n g i s l a r g e l y due t o th e predom inance of y o u n g er and more r e c e n t l y t r a i n e d te a c h e r s who a r e b e g in n in g t h e i r te a c h in g c a r e e r s . T ab le IV Recency o f T r a in in g a s R ep o rted by T ea ch ers i n N in ety High S ch o o ls

High S ch o o l E n ro llm e n t

Number o f T ea ch ers

Number R e p o rtin g T ra in in g S in ce 1937

P e rc e n t w ith T ra in in g S in ce 1937

150 - 271* 275 - 1*99 500 - Over

1*55 707 161

291 1*56 93

6 3 .9 6U.5 5 7 .7

T o ta l

1323

8U0

6 3 .5

Teaching E x p erien ce i n P r e s e n t System As shown i n T ab le V, a p p ro x im a te ly 1*0 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n t h i s stu d y who a r e te a c h in g i n sc h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 275 p u p ils a r e new t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n t h i s y e a r .

However, th e la r g e number

o f new te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s each f a l l i s n o t li m it e d t o th e s m a lle r h ig h sc h o o ls a s 3 1 .1 p e r c e n t

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33 o f a l l te a c h e r s i n t h i s s tu d y w ere new. . A p p ro x im ately h a l f o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls w ere new t h i s y e a r o r l a s t .

The

te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e l e v e l i s h ig h e r i n t h e l a r g e r h ig h s c h o o ls th a n i t i s i n th e s m a lle r h ig h s c h o o ls .

S ch o o ls e n r o l l i n g o v er 500 p u p ils

p ro v id e d te a c h e r s w ith a m edian e x p e rie n c e o f th r e e y e a r s i n th e p r e s e n t sy stem a s compared w ith one y e a r i n s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g l e s s th a n 275 p u p i l s .

F i f t y and s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e 1323 classro o m

te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty p u b lic h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s had one y e a r o r l e s s te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e i n th e p r e s e n t sy stem p r i o r t o t h e 19U6-U7 s c h o o l y e a r . T eachin g A ssignm ent A h ig h sc h o o l s t a f f may be u n u s u a lly w e l l - q u a l i f i e d , b u t h ap h azard te a c h in g a ssig n m e n ts may n u l l i f y , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , th e g r e a t e s t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r p re v io u s t r a i n i n g .

To d eterm in e th e

e x te n t t o w hich th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h sc h o o ls w ere a s s ig n e d te a c h in g p o s i t i o n s i n th e a r e a s o f t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te m ajor o r m inor p r e p a r a t io n , th e 19U6-U7 Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c to r y and th e s c h e d u le s on f i l e w ith th e s t a t e h ig h sc h o o l s u p e r v is o r s were exam ined f o r a r e c o r d o f a l l te a c h in g a s s ig n m e n ts .

The a r e a o f te a c h ­

in g a ssig n m e n t was compared w ith th e re c o rd o f th e te a c h e r* s u n d er­ g ra d u a te m ajo r o r m inors a s re c o rd e d by th e Iowa Board o f E d u c a tio n a l E xam in ers. F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y , te a c h in g assig n m e n ts made i n

t h r e e a r e a s w i l l b e c o n s id e re d ; nam ely, assig n m e n t i n th e a r e a o f u n d e rg ra d u a te m a jo r, a ssig n m e n t i n th e a r e a o f u n d e rg ra d u a te m in o r, o r a ssig n m e n t i n b o th u n d e rg ra d u a te m ajo r and m in o rs.

As shown i n

T ab le V, 6 3 .2 p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls w ere te a c h in g s u b je c t s r e l a t e d t o th e a r e a o f t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te m a jo r. S e v e n ty -s ix and f o u r - t e n t h s p e r c e n t w ere te a c h in g i n th e s u b je c t m a tte r a r e a o f b o th m a jo r and m inor u n d e rg ra d u a te p r e p a r a t io n , w h ile 91«3 p e r c e n t w ere te a c h in g s u b je c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te m a jo r, u n d e rg ra d u a te m ajo r and m in o r, o r t o t h e i r m inor a lo n e . T ab le VX. T ea ch er A ssignm ents i n N in ety High S ch o o ls a s R e la te d t o A reas o f U n dergraduate T ra in in g

T eaching A reas

P e rc e n t

M ajor Only M ajor and M inor M inor Only O th ers

6 3.2 13.2 lii.9 8 .7

C um ulative P e rc e n t 63.2 7 6 .ii 9 1 .3 100.0

War Emergency C e r t i f i c a t e s War Emergency c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e s p e c i a l te a c h in g c e r t i f i c a t e s is s u e d on lo w er s ta n d a r d s th a n r e g u la r c e r t i f i c a t e s and a r e v a l i d f o r o n ly th e s u b je c ts o r g ra d e s s p e c if i e d i n th e c e r t i f i c a t e .

T hat th e

is s u a n c e o f su ch s u b -s ta n d a rd c e r t i f i c a t e s i n la r g e numbers i s n o t d e s ir a b l e h as been emphasiMtf b y th o s e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n im proving

^

35 th e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f Iowa te a c h e r s The number o f em ergency c e r t i f i c a t e s is s u e d f o r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s f o r 19U5-U6 was l , U l |. .

A p p ro x im ately 2 2 ,9 p e r c e n t o f a l l

h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s f o r t h a t p e r io d were te a c h in g on t h e b a s i s o f such c e r t i f i c a t e s .

Fewer em ergency c e r t i f i c a t e s w ere is s u e d on th e

se c o n d a ry l e v e l f o r th e y e a r 19U6-U7, b u t th e y p ro v id e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n p f o r 1 6 .9 p e r c e n t o f a l l Iowa h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s . Few te a c h e r s w ith s u b -s ta n d a rd c e r t i f i c a t e s w ere te a c h in g i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls i n s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s o f Iowa d u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a r o f 19U6-U7*

Out o f a t o t a l o f 1323 te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h

s c h o o ls , o n ly f o r ty - o n e te a c h e r s o r 3*1$ o f th e e n t i r e number w ere te a c h in g on th e l e g a l b a s is o f th e s e tem p o rary c e r t i f i c a t e s .

As

se e n i n T ab le V I I , a l l sc h o o ls w ere f o r c e d t o a c c e p t a few such c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s , and th e s m a lle r s c h o o ls d id n o t have an u n d u ly la r g e p r o p o r tio n .

1 . Department o f P u b lic I n s tr u c tio n , War Emergency Changes in Minimum Requirements f o r Teachers in Approved and C onsolidated S ch ools and Normal T rain in g S c h o o ls, 19U5-U6, 19U5 C ircu la r, No. 21 - E R e v is e d ) Des M oines, Iowa, p . 1 . 2 . O sborn, Wayland W ., In te r v ie w betw een a u th o r an d , Des M oines, Iow a, J a n u a ry 1 5 , 19U7*

Table V II War Emergency C e r t i f i c a t e s Is s u e d T ea ch ers i n N in ety H igh S ch o o ls i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C i t i e s

Number War Emergency C e rtific a te s

% War Emergency C e rtific a te s

P u p il E n ro llm e n t

T e a c h e rs

150 - 27J4. 275 - U99 500 - o v er

U55 707 161

17 19

3 .7 2 .7 3 .1

9 6 .3 9 7 .3 9 6 .9

1323

hi

3 .1

9 6 .9

T o ta l

% R e g u la r C e rtific a te s

I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f S u p e rio r S t a f f s

Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an e x c e lle n t s c h o o l s t a f f can be l i s t e d i f th e d e s i r e s o f p a r e n ts and e d u c a to rs a r e t o be r e a l i z e d . In a r e c e n t s tu d y , a s u p e r io r te a c h in g s t a f f was d e fin e d a s one i n w hich uth e te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r th e te a c h in g lo a d and t o t a l w orking lo a d . c u rric u la r o ffe rin g s .

The p e r s o n n e l i s ad eq u ate f o r many and v a r i e d I t i s q u a l i f i e d to th e e x te n t t h a t i t h as

b ro a d f u n c ti o n a l s c h o la r s h ip w ith p r e - s e r v ic e t r a i n i n g e x p e rie n c e and p o s s e s s e s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s conducive t o su c c e ss i n th e p o s i t i o n a c c e p te d .

The p e rs o n n e l i s p r o f i c i e n t i n s u b je c t m a tte r f i e l d s be­

yond th e l e v e l ta u g h t and h a s had p r e - s e r v ic e t r a i n i n g w hich in c lu d e s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f sound p r i n c i p l e s o f te a c h in g and le a rn in g .* 1^

! • Brew ton, Jo h n E . , I s Y ours an E x c e lle n t S ch o o l? , D iv is io n o f S u rv ey s and F i e l d S e r v ic e s , George Peabody C o lleg e f o r T e a c h e rs , N a s h v ille , T en n e ssee , 19h8, p* 29*

C r ite r ia D eterm ining S e le c t io n o f Superior S t a f f s W ith th e data o f th e 1323 te a c h e r s arranged by h igh s c h o o ls , i t was apparent th a t a l l h igh sc h o o ls were n ot provided w ith e q u a lly w e ll-t r a in e d and exp erien ced s t a f f s .

As an a id in th e s e le c t io n o f

te n su p erio r s t a f f s , th e author lim ite d h is s e le c t io n o f sc h o o ls to o n ly th o se whose s t a f f met the requirem ents o f each of f i v e standards s e le c t e d f o r t h e ir co n tr ib u tio n t o the t r a in in g , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , and assignm ent o f a su p erio r f a c u lt y .

No attem pt was made t o w eigh t each

c r it e r io n

a s t o i t s r e l a t iv e v a lu e i n i t s co n tr ib u tio n to an outstand­

in g s t a f f .

For the purpose o f t h i s stu d y , a su p erio r high s c h o o l s t a f f

w i l l be d efin ed as one having th e fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s : (1 ) A h ig h p ercentage o f tea ch er s w ith advanced d eg rees; (2) A la r g e p rop ortion o f tea ch ers w ith undergraduate or graduate tr a in in g taken during th e l a s t te n y ea rs; (3) A r e l a t i v e l y la r g e number o f tea ch er s w ith p r io r ex ­ p erien ce in p resen t system; (ll) A h igh p ercentage o f tea ch er s tea ch in g i n th e area o f t h e ir undergraduate major or minor; (5 ) Few, i f any, tea ch ers c e r t i f i e d w ith sub-standard or emergency tea ch in g c e r t i f i c a t e s . On the b a s is o f th e above c r i t e r i a , th e author s e le c t e d tw enty w e ll- q u a lif ie d high sch o o l s t a f f s from th e n in e ty p u b lic high sch o o ls in Iowa s e c o n d -c la ss c i t i e s .

The names o f th e se tw enty h igh

sc h o o ls were subm itted t o th e fo u r s t a t e r e g io n a l high sch o o l super­ v is o r s w ith in s t r u c t io n s to s e l e c t te n h igh s c h o o ls , which i n t h e ir o p in io n , were ou tstan d in g in tea ch er competency.

The su p erv iso rs were

i n s t r u c t e d t o c o n s id e r su ch f a c t o r s a s te a c h e r m o ra le , an e f f e c t i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program , and a f u n c tio n in g program o f c u rric u lu m re v is io n .

On th e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a tio n , th e h ig h s c h o o l

s u p e r v is o r s ap p ro v ed th e a u t h o r ’s e a r l i e r t e n t a t i v e ch o ice o f th e fo llo w in g s c h o o ls : Ames, Boone, Cedar F a l l s , C herokee, C h arles C ity , E ag le G rove, G rundy C e n te r, In d ep en d en ce, S h eld o n , and Storm L ake. S u p e rio r S t a f f s S e l e c t e d . The Ames and Boone h ig h sc h o o ls each e n r o ll in g $00 o r more p u p ils and h av in g a t o t a l te a c h in g s t a f f o f h7 w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d to a s C la ss I s c h o o ls .

Cedar F a l l s , C herokee, C h arles C ity ,

and E ag le Grove h ig h s c h o o ls , e n r o llin g more th a n 275 and l e s s th a n 500 p u p ils w ith a t o t a l te a c h in g s t a f f o f 78 w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s C la ss I I sch o o ls*

Those h ig h sc h o o ls e n r o llin g more th a n 150 p u p il s

and l e s s th a n 275 p u p ils w ith a t o t a l te a c h in g s t a f f o f h9 te a c h e r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s C la ss I I I s c h o o ls .

S ch o o ls so d e s ig n a te d a r e Grun­

dy C e n te r, In d ep en d en ce, S h e ld o n , and Storm L ake. F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s stucty', i t i s im p o rta n t t h a t o n ly s u p e r io r h ig h s c h o o l s t a f f s be s e le c te d f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y .

The ex­

t e n t to w hich t h i s has been acco m p lish ed may be o b serv ed i n T a b le s V I I I , IX , and X, w hich p ro v id e a com parison o f th e s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls w ith o th e r Iowa h ig h s c h o o ls o f s im i la r e n r o llm e n ts . The e x te n t t o which Ames and Boone h ig h s c h o o ls exceeded h ig h sc h o o ls o f s im i la r e n ro llm e n t a s w e ll as a l l n in e ty h ig h sc h o o ls

i n s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s on th e f i v e p o in t c r i t e r i a i s shown i n T ab le V I I I . The number o f y e a r s o f l o c a l te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e p r i o r t o t h i s y e a r was low i n Ames High S ch o o l w ith a m edian o f two y e a r s , a s compared w ith a m edian o f t h r e e y e a r s f o r a l l h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o l l i n g $00 o r more p u p ils i n Iowa s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s .

A r e l a t i v e l y low p e rc e n ta g e (6 6 .2 $ ) o f

th e te a c h e r s on th e Boone High S ch o o l s t a f f r e p o r te d t r a i n i n g s in c e 1937, b u t wqs h ig h e r th a n t h a t r e p o r te d f o r th e 1323 h ig h s c h o o l te a c h ­ e r s , o r f o r th o s e te a c h e r s l i s t e d i n t h e sev en h ig h s c h o o ls w ith a p u p il e n ro llm e n t o f $00 o r more*

B oth Ames and Boone r e p o r te d some

te a c h e r s w ith w ar em ergency c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r th e s c h o o l y e a r 19ii-6-U7* The te a c h e r s in th e s e two h ig h s c h o o ls w ere w e ll a s s ig n e d w ith in t h e i r a r e a o f u n d e rg ra d u a te m ajo r o r m inor p r e p a r a t io n , w ith Ames r e p o r ti n g 88.U p e r c e n t and Boone 90 .U p e r c e n t o f t h e i r te a c h e r s so a s s ig n e d . A p p rx tm ately h a l f (14.6 . 2$) o f th e te a c h e r s on th e Ames High S ch o o l s t a f f re p o r te d th e a tta in m e n t o f advanced d eg ree a s compared w ith o n e - f o u r th (2 8 .6 $ ) o f th e Boone High S ch o o l s t a f f r e p o r tin g th e same ac h ie v e m e n t. The C la ss I I h ig h s c h o o ls (C edar F a l l s , C h a rle s C ity , C herokee, and E ag le Grove) e x c e lle d on a l l f i v e p o in ts o f th e c r i t e r i a .

As shown

i n T ab le V I I I , C edar F a l l s and C h arles C ity r e p o r te d a m edian o f f o u r y e a r s te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e i n th e l o c a l system p r i o r to th e p r e s e n t y e a r , a s compared w ith two y e a r s r e p o r te d by f o r t y - f o u r h ig h s c h o o ls i n th e same e n ro llm e n t g ro u p .

T hree s c h o o ls , Cedar F a l l s , C h arles

C ity , and C herokee, r e p o r te d t h a t 9$ p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e i r s t a f f s had had c o lle g e t r a i n i n g s in c e 1937*

E ag le Grove and Cedar F a l l s

Table V III S e le c te d Schools E n ro llin g 500 o r More P u p ils Compared ■with N inety High Schools and Schools o f S im ila r S ize

C rite rio n

A ll S ch o o ls (90)

M edian Number o f Y ears E x p erien ce P r io r to P re se n t Y ear i n L o ca l System

1

S ch o o ls 500-o v e r (7)

3

C la ss I S ch o o ls Ames Boone

2

3

% T ra in in g S in c e 1937

6 3 .5

5 7 .7

9 6 .1

66.2

% T each in g i n A rea M ajo r, M inor, o r M ajor and M inor

8 2 .5

7U.3

88.1+

90.1*

% Advanced D egrees

1 5 .0

1 8 .7

1*6.2

2 8 .6

% Absence o f War Emergency C e r t i f i c a t e s

9 6 .9

9 6 .9

9 6 .0

9 6 .0

Table IX S e le c te d Schools E n ro llin g More Than 275 and Less Than 500 P u p ils Compared W ith A H High Schools and Schools o f S im ila r S ize

C r ite r io n

Median Number o f Years Experience P rio r t o P resen t Year in L ocal System % R eporting Train­ in g S in ce 1937

Teaching Major or Minor F ie ld s o f P rep aration

S e le c te d S ch ools Cedar C harles Cherokee Eagle F a l l s C ity Grove

High S ch ools (90)

C lass I I High S ch ools (275 - U99)

1

2

U

6 3 .5

61;. 5

9 5 .0

95.2

9 5.0

6 3 .6

8 2 .5

8U.U

9 5 .0

90 .L

100.0

9 0 .0

1 5 .0

1 7 .3

3 5 .0

2 8 .6

2 6 .7

3 6 .u

9 6 .9

9 7 .3

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

100.0

1 0 0 .0

h

2

2

%

%

Advance D egrees

% Absence o f War Emergency C e r tific a te s

T able X S e le c te d Schools E n ro llin g More Than 1$0 and Less Than 27£ P u p ils Compared W ith A H High Schools and Schools o f S im ila r S ize

C rite rio n

High S ch o o ls (90)

Median Number o f T e a rs E x p erien ce P rio r to P resen t T e a r i n L o ca l System

C la s s I I I High S ch o o ls (150 - 27U)

S e le c te d S ch o o ls In d e p e n - Grundy Storm S heldon dence C e n te r Lake

1

2

2

1

63*5

6 3 .9

8 8 .0

87*5

91.7

1 0 0.0

% T each in g M ajor o r Minor F ie l d s o f P re p a r a tio n

82*5

82.8

100.0

75*0

7U*9

1 0 0 .0

% Advanced D eg rees

15*0

1 7 .3

2 3 .1

37*5

2 5 .0

31*3

% Absence o f War Emergency C e r t i -P-i /-»a+£icf

9 6 .9

9 6 .9

100.0

100.0

% R e p o rtin g T r a in ­ in g S in ce 1937

1

1 0 0 .0

0

1 0 0.0

rep o rted

3 6 mk

p ercen t and

advanced d e g r e e s.

3$

p ercen t o f t h e ir s t a f f s r e s p e c t iv e ly had

No te a c h e r s w ith emergency c e r t i f i c a t e s were found

i n th e s e le c t e d C lass I I h igh s c h o o ls . The C lass I I I h ig h sch o o ls (Independence, Grundy C enter, Storm Lake and Sheldon) d id not eq u al t h e s t a t e or group average on a l l p o in ts o f th e c r i t e r i a .

Sheldon rep o rted a median o f zero y ea rs

o f tea ch in g ex p erien ce in t he p resen t system p r io r t o th e cu rren t year as summarized in Table IX, and be i Grundy Center and Storm Lake were r e l a t i v e l y low in th e percentage o f s t a f f members tea ch in g s t r i c t ­ l y in th e area o f t h e ir major and minor undergraduate p rep a ra tio n .

No

s t a f f members i n th e C lass I I I h ig h sch o o ls were c e r t i f i e d w ith war emergency c e r t i f i c a t e s • A n a ly sis o f S u perior S t a f f s

Each p u b lic sch o o l a d m in istra to r r e sp o n sib le fo r th e s e l ­ e c tio n and appointment o f a high sch o o l s t a f f i s d esiro u s o f secu rin g th e b e s t tr a in e d tea ch er s a v a ila b le .

I t i s o n ly when the most capable

tea ch er s have been s e le c t e d and are advantageously a ssig n ed th a t th e b e s t ed u ca tio n a l r e s u lt s can be o b ta in ed .

A study o f su p erior h igh

sch o o l s t a f f s in th e l i g h t o f p e r tin e n t p erso n a l d a ta , p reviou s tea ch in g e x p e r ie n c e , p r o fe s s io n a l p rep a ra tio n , and tea ch in g assignm ent should prove o f v a lu e to an ad m in istrator i n th e lo c a l s it u a t io n .

Do

tea ch ers in th e s e le c t e d sc h o o ls have a fa v o ra b le a t t it u d e towards tea ch in g a s a l i f e work? Do they en joy teach in g?

Previous resea rch

does n ot p rovid e a ready answer* The a v a ila b le in fo rm a tio n on f i l e w ith th e -^owa S ta te Board o f E d u cation al exam iners i n regard t o p erso n a l d a ta , t r a in in g , and tea ch in g assign m en ts o f th e 17U te a c h e r s in th e te n s e le c t e d h igh sc h o o ls had b een p r e v io u s ly record ed and a n a ly ze d .

To supplement t h i s in f o r ­

mation and to se r v e as a check on th e accuracy o f th e p r e v io u s ly c o l­ le c t e d d a ta , th e a u th o r spent a day in each o f th e te n s e le c t e d h igh sch o o ls examining tea ch in g sc h e d u le s, tea ch er p erso n n el r e c o r d s, and secured from each tea ch er a statem en t o f h is a g e , m a rita l s t a t u s , y ea rs o f tea ch in g ex p e r ie n c e , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , s a la iy , and degree or amount o f graduate work com pleted.

(See Appendix A)

A ll tea ch er s were asked t o

in d ic a te th o se sch o o l and community f a c t o r s op eratin g l o c a l l y which would ten d t o a t t r a c t and hold su p erio r te a c h e r s.

The coop eration o f

su p erin ten d en ts, p r in c ip a ls , and h ig h s c h o o l tea ch ers was most g r a t i­ f y in g . A l l a v a ila b le data on th e s t a f f members o f th e te n s e le c t e d high sch o o ls was coded and p la ced on I.B .M . cards f o r ta b u la tio n .

The

remainder o f t h i s chapter w i l l be devoted to a c r i t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e data o f 17U tea ch er s in th e te n s e le c t e d h ig h sch o o ls i n an e f f o r t t o a s c e r ta in th o se c h a r a c t e r is t ic s th a t are t y p ic a l o f ou tstan d in g high sc h o o l s t a f f s i n varying s iz e high s c h o o ls .

A

d e s c r ip tio n o f e x c e l­

le n t sch o o l s t a f f s based on th e p resen t q u a lif ic a t io n s o f tea ch er s now tea ch in g on su p erio r s t a f f s in th e h igh sch o o ls o f Iowa*s se c o n d -c la ss i i t i e s w i l l be made.

45 Age Maty i n v e s t i g a t o r s have commented upon th e p re v a le n c e o f y o u n g er te a c h e r s i n th e s m a lle r h ig h sch o o ls*

As shown i n T ab le X£,

th e g r e a t e s t number o f young te a c h e r s a r e to be fo u n d i n th e s m a ll C la ss I I I s c h o o ls w hich have 2 2 *U p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s u n d er 26 y e a r s o f age a s compared w ith o n ly U*2 p e r c e n t and 6.U p e r c e n t o f th e s t a f f s u n d er 26 y e a r s o f age i n C la ss I and 1^ s c h o o ls r e s p e c t i v e l y . A pproxim ately o n e - f o u r th o f th e t e a c h e r s i n C la ss I and I I s c h o o ls w ere u n d er 32 y e a r s o f a g e , a s compared w ith 55*1 p e r c e n t u n d er 32 y e a rs o f age i n th e C la ss I I I sch o o ls*

The p a t t e n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n

o f te a c h e r ag es i n C la ss I an d I I sc h o o ls a r e q u ite s i m i l a r , w ith C lass H I s c h o o ls h e a v ily s t a f f e d w ith th e yo u n g er and l e s s e x p e r i­ enced te a c h e r s .

S l i g h t l y more th a n h a l f (£1*1$) o f th e 17li te a c h e r s

w ere u n d er 38 y e a r s o f age*

I n an e a r l i e r s tu d y , Peterson-*- found

th e m edian age o f s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s i n Iowa t o be 2 6 .7 y e a r s , and t h a t 83*9 p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s were u n d er 37 y e a r s o f age*

The m ost r e c e n t a v a i la b l e f ig u r e s r e p o r t th e median age o f 2 a l l seco n d ary te a c h e r s i n th e U n ite d S ta t e s to be 29 y e a r s .

Sex and M arital S ta tu s The t e n s e le c te d s t a f f s compare f a v o r a b ly w ith o th e r

1 . P e te r s o n , E .T . e t . a l * ,

c i t , , p* ll*0.

2 * N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , S t a t u s o f th e T each in g P ro f e s s io n ,. R esearc h B u l l e t i n , v o l . 1 8 , n o . 2 , W ashington, B .C ., 1 9 ^ 0 , p .

Table XI Age o f Teachers in Ten S e le c te d High S ch o o ls

Age

20-22 23-25 26-28 29-31 32-31* 35-37 38-1*0 1*1-1*3 l*l*-l*6 U7-U9 50-52 53-55 56—58 59-61 6 2 -o v er M edian Age

C la ss I (U7) No* C um ulative % 1 1 h 5 9 5 2 6 . 3

U

1 2 3

1 0

2 .1 1*.2 3 2.7 2 3 . 1* 1*2.5 53 .2 5 7 .0 70.2 1 6 .6 8 5 .1 87.2 9 1 .5 97 .8 1 0 0 .0 1 0 0 .0 3 5 .9

C la ss I I (78) No. C um ulative % 0 5 9 6 10 3 8 13 5 5 6 2 3

1 2

0 6.1* 1 7 .9 2 5 .6 38.1* 1*2.3 5 2 .5 69.2 7 5 .6 8 2 .0 89.7 9 2.3 9 6 .1 97.1* 100.0 3 9 .0

C la s s I I I (1*9) No* C um ulative * 2 9 9 7 2 2 3 2 3 0

1 5

1 2 1

l*.o 22 .U 1*0.8 5 5 .1 5 9 .1 63.2 69.3 7 3 .1* 7 9 .5 7 9 .5 8 1 .6 9 1 .8 9 3 .8 9 7 .9 1 0 0 .0 2 9 .8

T o ta l No • Cumulative % 3 15 22 18 21 10 13 21

n

9 8 9 7 3

1 .7 1 0 .3 2 2 .9 1 3 .3 1*5.1* 5 1 .1 5 8 .6 7 0 .6 7 7 .0 8 2 .1 8 6.7 9 1 .9 9 5 .9 9 7 .6 1 0 0 .0 3 6 .1

s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s i n th e p r o p o r tio n o f men on th e te a c h in g s t a f f . A p p ro x im ately 1*0 p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s i n s e c o n d - c la s s c i t y h ig h sc h o o ls a r e men a s compared w ith 38 p e r c e n t f o r th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls . An e x a m in a tio n o f T ab le XI shows l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n o f th e r a t i o o f men t o women r e g a r d le s s o f s i z e o f s c h o o l.

One woman o u t of t e n was

m a rrie d , and th e r a t i o o f m a rrie d women rem ained c o n s ta n t r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e o f s c h o o l.

A p p ro x im ately 1*5 p e r c e n t o f a l l s t a f f s were com­

posed o f s in g le women, a s compared w ith 6 p e r c e n t o f th e s t a f f s made up o f s in g le men. N a tio n a l s tu d ie s o f th e g e n e r a l co m p o sitio n o f th e te a c h in g p o p u la tio n in d i c a t e t h a t ab o u t 20 p e r c e n t o f th e men te a c h e r s i n th e second ary sc h o o ls a r e m a rrie d a s compared t o 15 p e r c e n t of t h e women.'*’ T h i r t y - e i g h t and s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e men te a c h e r s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls were m a rrie d w ith 1 0 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e women so i n d i c a t i n g . The p r o p o r tio n o f d iv o rc e d te a c h e r s o f e i t h e r sex and o f th o s e who a r e widows o r widowers I s n e g l i g i b l e .

The se x and m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f

th e 17l* te a c h e r s i n th e s e l e c t e d s c h o o ls i s shown f o r th e e n t i r e group a s w e ll a s f o r s iz e o f s c h o o l i n T able XH. *

P re v io u s T eaching E x p erien ce i n P r e s e n t System The s m a lle r C la ss I I I s c h o o ls r e p o r t 1 8 .3 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r te a c h e r s new i n th e p r e s e n t system a t th e b eg in n in g o f th e f a l l term a s compared w ith 6 .3 p e r c e n t and 8 .9 p e r c e n t i n C la ss I and I I sc h o o ls 1* N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , S ta tu s o f th e T eaching P r o f e s s io n , , R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 1 8 , n o . 2 , W ashington, D .C ., 191*0, p . 55*

Table X II Sex and M a rita l S ta tu s o f Teachers i n S e le c t e d High S ch ools

■ i i* .j..* .a jB a a B t a B f c e a M M s e a a a s a a a e g « i i ra

Sex and M arita l S ta tu s

Fem ale S in g le M arried Widowed# Male S in g le M a rrie d

C lass I (1*7)

5 9 .6 1*0.1* 1 2 .8 6.1* 1*0.1* 6.1* 3i*.0

^ In c lu d e s d iv o rc e d and s e p a r a te d .

C lass I I (78)

6 2 .8 1*8.7 1 0 .3 3 .8 37 .2 6.1* 3 0 .8

i i

C lass I I I (1*9)

61.2 5 1 .0 12.2 0 .0 3 8 .8 1*^1 3l*.7

i

> r r r a r a - t -t a

T o ta l (17i*)

6l.i* 1*7.1 1 0 .9 3*U 3 8 .6 5*8 3 2 .8

re s p e c tiv e ly .

A p u p il i n a s m a ll C la ss I I I h ig h s c h o o l i s th r e e tim e s

a s l i k e l y t o have a n i n s t r u c t o r te a c h in g h is f i r s t te rm i n th e system a s i s a s tu d e n t i n th e l a r g e r C la s s I and I I h ig h s c h o o ls .

The s e l ­

e c te d s c h o o ls had 1 0 .9 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r s t a f f s te a c h in g t h e i r f i r s t tim e i n th e l o c a l sy stem , a s compared w ith 31*1 p e r c e n t o f th e 1323 te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n d i c a t e d .

The s e l e c t e d h ig h

s c h o o ls l i s t e d a p p ro x im a te ly o n e - th ir d a s many new te a c h e r s to th e system t h a t f a l l a s was r e p o r te d f o r th e s e c o n d - c la s s c i t y h ig h s b h o o ls , i n d i c a ti n g a s m a lle r te a c h e r tu r n o v e r a n n u a lly i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls . As shown i n T ab le X I I J ,th e te a c h e r s i n C la ss I and C la ss I I s c h o o ls r e p o r t a p p ro x im a te ly th e same number o f y e a r s te a c h in g ex p er­ ie n c e i n th e p r e s e n t sy stem , p r i o r t o t h i s te rm , w ith a g r e a t e r p ro ­ p o r tio n o f te a c h e r s r e p o r tin g no p r i o r e x p e rie n c e i n th e C la ss I I I s c h o o ls .

F o r ty - e i g h t and e i g h t - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e

s m a ll h ig h s c h o o ls r e p o r te d th r e e y e a r s o r l e s s o f e x p e r ie n c e , p r i o r t o th e p r e s e n t tim e , i n th e l o c a l s c h o o l, a s compared w ith 11**8 p e r c e n t and 15*3 p e r c e n t r e p o r tin g s i m i la r te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e in C la ss I and I I s c h o o ls r e s p e c t i v e l y . Recency o f U n dergraduate T ra in in g A t h i r d o f a l l te a c h e r s i n th e s e le c te d h ig h sc h o o ls have com pleted t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te t r a i n i n g s in c e 19l*0 and tw o - th ir d s s in c e 1930.

As seen i n T ab le XIV, s l i g h t l y more th an h a l f (5 6 .3 $ ) o f th e

T able X III Years P rio r Teaching E xperience i n P resen t System Reported by 17U Teachers in S e le c te d High S ch ools

P rio r Y ears C la ss I (1+7) E x p e ri­ No.* C um ulative ence %

C la ss I I (78) No. C u p ila tiv e %

0 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 10-11* 15-19 20-21* 2^-29 30-3U 35-39 UO-10;

7 1 2 2 3 3 5 3 1 3 12 12 11 9 1 3 0

Median

3 1 1 2 2. 1 2 0 1 3 107 7 5 1 0 1

6 .3 8 -5 1 0 .6 11+.8 1 9 .1 2 1.2 2 5 .5 2 5 .5 2 7 .6 3U.0 5 5 .3 70.2 8 5 .1 9 5 .7 9 7 .8 9 7 .8 1 0 0 .0 1 3 .7 5

8 .9 10.2 1 2 .8 1 5 .3 1 9.2 2 3 .0 2 9 .lt 3 3 .3 3U.6 38.1+ 5 3 .8 69.2 8 3 .3 91+.8 9 6 .1 1 0 0 .0 10 0 .0 1 3.2

C la ss I I I (19) No. C um ulative *

9 3 5 3 2 1 3 2 u 1 2 2 1+ 2 2 It 0

1 8.3 21+*1+ 3U.6 1+0.8 hh*9 U6 .9 5 3 .0 5 7 .1 6 5.3 67.3 71.1+ 7 5 .5 8 3 .6 8 7 .7 9 1.8 100.0 1 0 0.0 6 .0

T o ta l No,* C um ulative %

19 5 8 7 7 5 10 5 6 7 2l+ 21 22 16 h 7 1. '

1 0 .9 1 3 .7 1 8 .3 22.1+ 26.1+ 2 9 .3 3 5 .0 3 7 .9 1+1.3 1+5.1+ 5 9 .1 7 1.2 8 3 .9 9 3 .1 9 5 .lt 99.1+ 10 0 .0 1 1 .1

te a c h e r s i n th e G lass I I I s c h o o ls had r e c e iv e d t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te t r a i n i n g s in c e 191+0, a s compared w ith a p p ro x im a te ly o n e - f o u r th o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e C la ss I and I I s c h o o ls .

The re c e n c y o f u n d e rg ra d u a te

t r a i n i n g i n th e C la s s I I I s c h o o ls c o r r o b o r a te s th e e a r l i e r f in d in g s t h a t th e s e s c h o o ls a r e h e a v ily s t a f f e d w ith th e yo u n g er te a c h e r s . T ab le XIV Recency o f U n dergraduate T r a in in g o f T e a c h e rs i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls

Y ears 191+0*4*7 1930-39 1920-29

C la ss I (1+7) C la ss I I (78) .C um ulative t . .CmmilatiT.a 1 . 2 7 .7 6 3 .9 87.3

2 2 .7 6 1 .1+ 7U.1

T o ta l C la ss I I I (1+9) C um ulative & ----- . -Cum ulative 5 6 .3 7 3 .0 8 7 .6

_

3 3 .6 6 5 .3 85-9

Advanced D egrees The te a c h e r s i n th e t e n s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls a r e in c r e a s in g t h e i r p r o f e s s io n a l com petence by a d d i t i o n a l stu d y a t th e g ra d u a te l e v e l . T ab le XV sum m arizes th e e x te n t o f advanced d eg ree s a c c o rd in g to s c h o o l e n ro llm e n t.

A p p ro x im ately one te a c h e r i n th r e e i n th e s e l e c t e d

s c h o o ls has a m a s te r f s d eg ree a s compared w ith one i n s i x w ith su ch t r a i n i n g among th e 1323 te a c h e r s i n th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls .

T able XV M aster D egree R ep o rted by T each ers i n S e le c te d Iowa H igh S ch o o ls

M a ste rs D egree

C la ss I

C la ss I I

C la ss I I I

T o ta l

Number G ran ted P e rc e n t

18 3 8 .3

25 3 2 .0

lU 3 8 .6

57 3 2 .8

T ea ch er A ssignm ent P r a c ti c e s i n th e S e le c te d High S ch o o ls

S u b je c ts T aught Each te a c h e r i n th e te n s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls was ask ed to in d i c a t e th e number o f d i f f e r e n t s u b je c ts th e y new ta u g h t , and was ad­ v is e d t o d is r e g a r d s e c ti o n s o f th e same s u b je c t#

As shown i n T able

XVI, 38*3 p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s i n th e C la ss I s c h o o ls were te a c h in g one s u b j e c t , a s compared w ith 2lj.#U p e r c e n t o f t h e te a c h e r s i n th e C la ss H I s c h o o ls so f a v o r a b ly a ssig n e d #

S ix ty - t h r e e and tw o -te n th s

p e rc e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s i n th e s e le c te d sc h o o ls w ere te a c h in g one or two s u b je c ts o n ly . T each ers i n C la ss I s c h o o ls (£00 and o v er) a r e more l i k e l y t o be a s s ig n e d one s u b je c t th a n i s a te a c h e r i n a C la ss I I o r C lass I I I school#

I n s p i t e o f th e s m a ll te a c h in g s t a f f s i n th e C la ss I I I

s c h o o ls , o n e - f o u r th o f th e te a c h e r s (2h*k%) a r e te a c h in g i n one sub­ j e c t a r e a and a n o th e r o n e - th ir d (3h*l%) a r e te a c h in g o n ly i n two s u b je c t a re a s#

The s u b je c t p r e p a r a tio n lo a d I n th e s e le c te d h ig h

5i? sch o o ls does n o t appear excessive* T able XVI Number o f S u b je c ts T aught by T e a c h e rs i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls

No# S u b je c ts T aught 1 2 3 h 5

C la ss I % 3 8 .3 29*7 2 3 .5 6 .3 2 .2

C la ss I t % 3 2 .0 3 0 .8 15 .U 19*2 2 .6

C la ss I I I

... .....1 ___ 2it.lt 31*.7 22*5 lit *3 it.l

T o ta l % 3 1 .6 3 1 .6 1 9 .5 llt.lt 2 .9

T eaching A ssignm ents a s R e la te d to A reas o f U n d erg rad u ate P r e p a r a tio n To d e te rm in e th e te a c h in g a ssig n m e n t o f each te a c h e r i n th e t e n s e le c te d h ig h sch o o ls* a l l sc h e d u le s on f i l e w ith th e Iowa D e p a rt­ ment o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n w ere examined#

The re c o rd e d a r e a o f u n d er­

g ra d u a te m a jo r and m inor p r e p a r a tio n was checked a g a i n s t th e t e a c h e r 's s ta te m e n t o f h e r u n d e rg ra d u a te tr a i n in g *

E xam ination o f th e te a c h in g

assig n m e n ts o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls r e v e a ls a h ig h p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s te a c h in g i n th e a r e a o f t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te p r e p a r a t io n .

As shown i n T able XVII* c a r e f u l c o n s id e r a tio n o f p re v io u s

t r a i n i n g i n a s s ig n in g te a c h e r s i s n o t li m it e d t o th e l a r g e r sch o o ls* S ix ty - n in e and th r e e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n th e C lass I I I s c h o o ls w ere te a c h in g c o u rs e s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te m ajor a s compared w ith hi*.6 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s so a s s ig n e d i n C la ss I

h ig h s c h o o ls .

T able XVII T ea ch in g A ssignm ents a s R e la te d t o A reas o f U n d erg rad u ate P r e p a r a tio n i n S e le c te d High S ch o o ls

T eaching A reas C la ss I C la ss I I C la ss I I I (S t c t cf ___________________________ _____________________________E___________ M ajor o n ly M ajor and M inor M inor o n ly O ther

UU.6 1 7 .1 2 7 .6 1 0 .7

7 0 .5 8 .9 lii.l 6 .5

6 9 .3 1 6 .u U .i 10.2

The h ig h p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s i n C la ss I sc h o o ls r e p o r tin g a ssig n m e n ts i n th e a r e a o f t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te m in o r, o r some o th e r com bin atio n th a n l i s t e d i n T ab le XVII, may mean th e y a r e now te a c h in g i n an a r e a f o r w hich p r e p a r a tio n has been made a t th e g ra d u a te l e v e l . I n an e x c e l l e n t s tu d y o f te a c h e r assig n m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n seco n d ary s c h o o ls , Evans fo u n d 62*5 p e r c e n t o f 1309 Iowa te a c h e r s had te a c h in g a ssig n m e n ts i n one f i e l d , an d 9 2 .1 p e r c e n t had te a c h in g com­ b in a tio n s c o n s is tin g o f n o t more th a n two f ie ld s .'* ” Im p o rta n t a s i t i s t h a t a la r g e number o f te a c h e r s a r e a s s ig n e d t o a li m it e d number o f te a c h in g f i e l d s , i t i s even more im p o rta n t t h a t th e te a c h in g a s s ig n ­ ment be made i n th o s e a r e a s i n w hich th e te a c h e r had th e g r e a t e s t tra in in g . 1 . E v an s, R alp h F . , nA S tudy o f T eacher A ssignm ent P r a c ti c e s i n Secon­ d a ry S ch o o ls o f th e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n ” , u n p u b lish e d d o c to r fs d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa, 19U l, p . 169.

55 Summary o f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f S u p e r io r S t a f f s

I n answ er t o th e q u e s tio n p r e v io u s ly r a i s e d , "TVhat a re th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an o u ts ta n d in g te a c h in g s t a f f ? 11 a p a r t i a l answ er can now be g iv e n b a se d on an a n a ly s is o f t e n s e l e c t e d h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa s e c o n d - c la s s c i t i e s . S tu d ie s o f th e a g e s o f th e h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s i n th e s e l ­ e c te d s c h o o ls a r e s i g n i f i c a n t n o t m erely b eca u se o f th e ev id en ce con­ c e rn in g age l e v e l s , b u t b ecau se su ch age s t u d i e s a r e in d i c a t i v e o f s t a b i l i t y i n te a c h in g .

A h ig h s c h o o l s t a f f w ith a low m edian age de­

n o te s a p rep o n d eran ce o f y o u n g er te a c h e r s w ith li m it e d e x p e rie n c e and whose p r o f e s s io n a l l i v e s a r e o f s h o r t d u r a tio n , w hereas a h ig h m edian age d en o te s th e r e v e r s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

The m edian age (3 6 .1 ) o f

th e te a c h e r s i n t h i s s tu d y i s h ig h e r th a n th e m edian age (25?) o f s e n io r h ig h sch o o l te a c h e r s r e p o r te d i n th e l a t e s t n a t i o n a l s tu d y o f age made i n 1 9 3 1 .1

T here i s some e v id e n c e , how ever, t h a t th e d i f f e r e n t i a l b e­

tw een th e n a t io n a l age median and th e m edian age o f th e s e le c te d te a c h e r s may be d e c re a se d due t o th e f a c t t h a t th e age o f a l l seco n d ary s c h o o l te a c h e r s i s i n c r e a s in g , th o u g h no r e c e n t n a t io n a l s tu d y i s a v a ila b le .

G ra n tin g t h a t cen su s f i g u r e s i n d i c a te th e age l e v e l o f

te a c h e r s may be s u b s t a n t i a l l y h ig h e r th a n re p o r te d e a r l i e r , th e

1 . U .S . O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n , N a tio n a l Survey o f th e E d u catio n o f T e a c h e rs , B u l l e t i n , 1933> No. 1 0 , v o l . I I .

i n v e s t i g a t o r i s r e a s o n a b ly c e r t a i n t h a t a h ig h e r ag e l e v e l i s symp­ to m a tic o f a s u p e r io r s t a f f . The d i f f e r e n c e s betw een th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls i n ite m s r e ­ l a t e d t o s e x and m a r i t a l s t a t u s a r e n e g lig ib le *

F o r ty p e r c e n t o f s t a f f

members i n b o th la r g e an d s m a ll h ig h s c h o o ls w ere men, w ith th e s in g le women outnum bering th e s in g le men by th e r a t i o o f e ig h t t o one*

The

s e le c te d s c h o o ls a r e s t a f f e d w ith te a c h e r s whose se x and m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s com parable w ith a l l seco n d ary s c h o o l te a c h e r s . C o n s is te n t d if f e r e n c e s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls a p p e a r when la r g e and s m a ll sc h o o ls a r e compared a s to th e amount o f g ra d u a te tr a in in g .

The l a r g e r s c h o o ls r e p o r t more te a c h e r s w ith advanced de­

g r e e s , and a l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e o f te a c h e r s w ith t e n o r more y e a r s o f p r i o r e x p e rie n c e i n th e p r e s e n t system* The assig n m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls a r e e q u a lly good, w ith a p p ro x im a te ly 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s te a c h in g s u b je c ts i n th e a r e a o f t h e i r u n d e rg ra d u a te tr a in in g *

The te a c h e r s i n th e

s e le c te d s c h o o ls a r e te a c h in g i n th o s e a r e a s f o r w hich th e y a r e b e s t tr a in e d * A " d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f te a c h e r s now te a c h ­ in g i n s e le c te d Iowa h ig h s c h o o ls sh o u ld prove u s e f u l to th o s e con­ c ern e d w ith th e employment and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e rs * Many sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r s w i l l f i n d s ig n if ic a n c e i n th e summary o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u p e r io r s t a f f s a s r e p o r te d i n T ab le 2CVTH*

Table XVIII Summary o f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f S u p e r io r S t a f f s Based on 17U T each ers i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa H igh S ch o o ls

C la ss I (£ 0 0 -o v er)

C la ss I I (27£-U99)

C la ss I I I (1£0-27U)

M edian Age (T ab le XI)

3 5 .9 *

3 9 .0

2 9 .8

Sex (T ab le X II) Male Female

Uo.U

3 7 .2

£ 9 .6

62.8

3 8 .8 61.2

12.8

1 0 .3

10.2

Item

M a r ita l S ta t u s (T ab le X II) M arried Women M arried Men S in g le Women S in g le Men Widowed Women M edian P r i o r Y ears E x p erien ce i n P re s e n t System (T able X I I l) Recency o f U n d erg rad u ate T ra in in g (T ab le XIV) 19UO-19U7 1930-1939 M aster D eg rees R ep o rted (T ab le XV) T eaching A ssignm ents R e la te d t o A reas o f U n d erg rad u ate P r e p a r a tio n (T ab le XVII) M ajor o n ly M ajor and M inor M inor o n ly

3U.0

30.8

Uo.U

U8.7

6.U 6.U

3 .8

3U.7 £ 1 .0 U .l 0 .0

13.2

13.2

6.0

2 7 .7

36.2

2 2 .7 3 8 .7

£ 6 .3 16.7

3 8 .3

32 .0

2 8 .6

Id; . 6 17.1

7 0 .£ 8 .9 lU .l

16. u u .l

2 7 .6

6.U

* A ll f i g u r e s g iv e n i n p e rc e n ta g e s u n le s s o th e rw ise s t a t e d .

69.3

58 P e r s o n ? ^ A d m in is tr a tio n i n th e S e le c te d S ch o o ls

Good te a c h e r p e rs o n n e l p ro c e d u re s a r e alw ays n eed ed , b u t th e need i s more a p p a re n t i n a tim e when e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s a r e more d i f ­ f i c u l t t o s e c u r e , and many v a c a n c ie s m ust be f i l l e d w ith new and i n ­ e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s .

I n an e f f o r t t o d eterm in e how i t i s p o s s ib le

f o r a community t o a t t r a c t and m a in ta in an o u ts ta n d in g h ig h sc h o o l s t a f f , th e a u th o r examined th o s e p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l p e rs o n n e l a d m in is tr a tio n i n th e s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls d e s c r ib e d e a r l i e r .

An

a n a ly s is o f te a c h e r p e r s o n n e l p ro c e d u re s i n th e t e n s e le c te d s c h o o ls i s p re s e n te d h e re i n an e f f o r t to d e te rm in e th o s e p o l i c i e s and p r a c ­ t i c e s w hich w i l l b e s t p ro c u re and r e t a i n te a c h e r s o f s p le n d id a b i l i t y , f o s t e r t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t and i n i t i a t i v e , and s tim u la te them t o im-. prove c o n tin u o u s ly th e q u a l i t y of t h e i r s e r v ic e . As a n a id i n d e te rm in in g th e p e rs o n n e l p ro c e d u re s i n th e t e n s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls , a q u e s tio n n a ir e b a se d on an e a r l i e r n a tio n -w id e su rv ey o f te a c h e r p e rs o n n e l p ro c e d u re s a s r e l a t e d to s e l e c t i o n and employment,

1

'

and to employment c o n d itio n s i n s e r v ic e ,

2

was fo rm u la te d

to s e rv e a s a d is c u s s io n g u id e i n l a t e r in te r v ie w s w ith th e s u p e rin ­ te n d e n ts and p r i n c i p a l s o f th e s e l e c t e d s c h o o ls .

1 . N a tio n a l R esearch A s s o c ia tio n , "T each er P e rso n n e l P ro c e d u re s, S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent," R esearc h B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 0 , No. 2 , 19U2. 2 . N a tio n a l R esearch A s s o c ia tio n , " T eac h er P e rso n n e l P ro c e d u re s, Employment C o n d itio n s i n S e r v ic e ," R esearch B u lletin , v o l. 2 0 , No. 3) 19142.

The c o n fe re n c e p ro c e d u re was u se d a s a means o f se c u rin g th e fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n s (1) S ta te m e n ts o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts a s t o a d m in is tr a tiv e p o l i c i e s w hich d e te rm in e t h e i r program o f te a c h e r p e r ­ s o n n e l a d m in is tr a t io n . (2) A d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n on te a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a s s ig n ­ m ent, and s a l a r i e s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n . (3) A check on th e a c c u ra c y o f d a ta p r e v io u s ly s e c u re d from o th e r s o u r c e s . (U) R u le s , r e p o r t s , and p r i n t e d form s r e l a t i n g t o p e rs o n n e l p ro c e d u re s r e f e r r e d t o i n th e in te r v ie w w ith th e s u p e r­ in te n d e n ts * At th e b e g in n in g o f th e in te r v ie w , th e s u p e r in te n d e n t was inform ed t h a t h is h ig h s c h o o l s t a f f had b een found u n u s u a lly w e ll q u a l i f i e d , and th e a u th o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n d e te rm in in g th o s e admin­ i s t r a t i v e p ro c e d u re s t h a t made p o s s ib le th e employment and r e t e n t i o n o f an e x c e lle n t s t a f f .

C o o p eratio n and w illin g n e s s t o a id i n e v e ry

p o s s ib le way was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l s u p e r in te n d e n ts and p r i n c i p a l s . The le n g th of tim e s p e n t i n a sc h o o l ran g ed from s i x to e i g h t h o u rs . D uring th e in te r v ie w , th e a u th o r made n o te s f o r l a t e r r e ­ fe re n c e .

The n o te s co n cern in g p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s were re-ex am in ed

l a t e r and supplem ented in view of th o s e p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s found i n c o p ie s o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , r e p o r t s , and form s s u p p lie d by th e s u p e r in te n d e n t.

I n a few I n s ta n c e s , a t th e s u g g e s tio n o f th e su p er­

in t e n d e n t, th e w r i t e r c o n fe rre d w ith b o ard members and te a c h e r s i n a d d i tio n t o t h e r e g u la r in te r v ie w w ith th e s u p e r in te n d e n t.

R e s p o n s ib il ity f o r S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent The p r a c t i c e o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls nom in atin g a l l em ployees and th e bo ard o f e d u c a tio n e l e c ti n g o n ly upon h is n o m in atio n i s a fu n d am en tal p r i n c i p l e t h a t i s founded on b o th e x p e rie n c e and sug­ g e s te d s c h o o l a d m in is tr a tiv e p ro c e d u re .

I t assumes t h a t th e b o ard o f

e d u c a tio n h as chosen th e s u p e r in te n d e n t to s e rv e as i t s p r o f e s s io n a l e x e c u tiv e .

The d e le g a tio n o f th e a u t h o r i t y t o s e l e c t te a c h e r s assumes

t h a t th e s u p e r in te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls i s com petent to s e l e c t p e rs o n n e l, and t h a t he i s in fo rm ed and eq u ip p ed to fo llo w p ro c e d u re s m ost l i k e l y t o s e c u re th e b e s t te a c h e r s t h a t th e l o c a l system can hope to o b ta in . Such p o lic y p re -s u p p o s e s t h a t th e in d iv id u a l members o f th e b o ard have a c c e p te d th e view o f r e f u s in g t o l e t t h e i r p o s iti o n s on th e b o ard o f e d u c a tio n be u sed a s a means o f ad v an tag e to t h e i r f r ie n d s o r f a m i l i e s . I n d is c u s s in g th e r e l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e toa:d of e d u c a tio n and th e s u p e rin te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls i n th e n o m in atio n and e l e c t i o n o f te a c h e r s , a l l s u p e rin te n d e n ts i n th e s e le c te d sch o o ls nom inate in d i v id u a l p e rso n s f o r ap p ointm ent to s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n s . Seven s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d t h e i r s c h o o l b o ard s d id n o t in te r v ie w th e c a n d id a te s b u t r e l i e d s o l e l y upon th e recom m endations o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t.

P r a c ti c e s i n th e rem aining system s were v a r ie d w ith

one b o ard making i t a p r a c t i c e o f in te rv ie w in g o n ly men a p p l ic a n t s , and two b o ard s d e le g a tin g th e m a tte r o f th e b o a rd ’s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n

61 th e in te r v ie w t o th e chairm an o f th e t e a c h e r 's com m ittee. The f a c t t h a t a l l s u p e r in te n d e n ts and b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n w ere fo llo w in g su ch p ro c e d u re s i s s i g n i f i c a n t .

These b o a rd s have

assum ed, an d r i g h t l y s o , th e com petence o f t h e i r s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n o b ta in in g e x c e lle n t t e a c h e r s , and have r e s e r v e d f o r th em selv es no r i g h t o f p a tro n a g e .

T h at t h i s p r a c t i c e i s by no means u n iv e r s a l i s

se e n i n a r e c e n t su rv e y ^ w hich r e p o r ts tw en ty -o n e p e r c e n t o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n c i t i e s ra n g in g from 2 ,5 0 0 t o 10,000 in d i c a t e a l e s s d e s ir a b l e d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y betw een b o a rd o f e d u c a tio n and s u p e rin te n d e n t i n th e n o m in atio n and ap p o in tm en t o f t e a c h e r s . R ecru itm e n t and E v a lu a tio n A ll s u p e r in te n d e n ts in th e t e n s e le c te d s c h o o l system s con­ s id e r a p p l ic a t io n s s e n t v o l u n t a r i l y by th e c a n d id a te s , b u t r e p o r t t h i s p r a c t i c e to p ro d u ce r e l a t i v e l y few t e a c h e r s .

Nine o f th e te n

s u p e rin te n d e n ts in d i c a te d t h a t p lacem en t b u re a u s i n te a c h e rs * c o l le g e s , a r t s c o l le g e s , and u n i v e r s i t i e s p ro v ed t o be m ost e f f e c t i v e in p ro c u r­ in g s u i t a b l e c a n d id a te s .

A l l b u t one s u p e rin te n d e n t r e p o r te d hav in g

u sed com m ercial a g e n c ie s i n s t a f f r e c r u itm e n t w ith in th e l a s t f iv e y e a r s , b u t th e u s u a l p r a c t i c e was to make u se o f such a g e n c ie s o n ly a f t e r th e p lacem en t b u reau s i n th e c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s were

1* N a tio n a l R e se a rc h A s s o c ia tio n , ’’T ea ch er P e rs o n n e l P ro c e d u re s : S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l. 2 0 , n o . 2 , M arch, 19li2, p . 55

u n a b le t o p r o v id e names o f s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s .

O ther s o u rc e s o f

r e c r u itm e n t su ch a s s t a t e d e p a rtm e n t o f e d u c a tio n , s t a t e employment s e r v i c e , s t a t e te a c h e r s a s s o c i a t i o n , and i n q u i r i e s i n o th e r sc h o o l system s w ere l i t t l e u s e d .

One s u p e r in te n d e n t i n a la r g e c i t y makes

i t a r e g u la r p r a c t i c e t o encourage th o s e te a c h e r s a c t i v e i n c o u n ty i n s t i t u t e w ork, th o s e a p p o in te d t o s t a t e c u rric u lu m co m m ittees, o r th o s e who a r e p ro m in en t i n co u n ty and s t a t e o r g a n iz a tio n s t o f i l e an a p p l ic a t io n f o r a te a c h in g p o s i t i o n . The v a ry in g p r a c t i c e s i n th e m ethods o f s e l e c t i o n o f te a c h e r s may be o b serv ed i n T ab le XIX.

S u p e rin te n d e n ts i n th e s e le c te d sc h o o ls

3g re e on two p r a c t i c e s o n ly ; th e y do n o t r e q u ir e w r i t t e n e x am in atio n s o f th e a p p lic a n t and th e y do h o ld a p e r s o n a l in te r v ie w w ith a l l a p p l i ­ c a n ts.

The m a jo r ity o f th e a p p lic a n ts a r e r e q u ir e d t o make fo rm al

a p p l i c a t i o n , u s in g a b la n k form d e sig n e d f o r t h a t p u rp o s e .

R e fe re n c e s

a re u s u a ll y c o n s u lte d t o s e c u re a d d i t i o n a l in fo rm a tio n and an o p in io n a s t o th e te a c h in g a b i l i t y o f th e c a n d id a te .

Few a d m in is tr a to r s v e r i f y

th e e x p e rie n c e r e c o r d s o f th e a p p l ic a n t , w h ile o v er h a l f o f th e su p e r­ in te n d e n ts r e q u ir e a t r a n s c r i p t o f c o lle g e c r e d i t s to be su b m itte d a t th e tim e o f fo rm a l a p p l i c a t i o n .

E x cep t in case o f o u t - o f - s t a t e a p p l i ­

c a n t s , th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts do n o t r e q u ir e p ro o f o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . P ro ced u res f o r A p p r a is a l o f C an d id ates As a te c h n iq u e o f a p p r a i s a l i n a program o f te a c h e r s e l e c t i o n , th e r e can be no s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e p e r s o n a l in te r v ie w .

A ll th e s e le c te d

s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d th e u se o f th e in te r v ie w a s a means o f

Table XIX U su a l P r a c t i c e s i n S e le c tin g T each ers R ep o rted b y S u p e r in te n d e n ts i n S e le c te d S ch o o ls

P r a c ti c e

C la ss I 2 1

C la ss

3

II 6

7

Use fo rm a l a p p l i ­ c a t io n b la n k s

X

Xs

X

X

X

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R eq u ire su b m issio n o f c o lle g e t r a n s c r i p t s xf a* b* c* d* e.

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X Code 1* 2* 3. U.

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f o r s c h o o ls : Ames Boone C edar F a l l s Cherokee C h a rle s C ity

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E ag le Grove Grundy C en ter Independence S heldon Storm Lake

a p p ra is a l* .

The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s in te r v ie w may be s h a re d w ith

th e h ig h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l t o whom t h e te a c h e r may b e r e s p o n s ib le l a t e r * Many p u rp o s e s a r e s e rv e d b y th e in te rv ie w *

A ll s u p e r in te n d e n ts make

u s e o f i t a s a g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f th e c a n d i d a t e s p e r s o n a l i t y , w h ile h a l f o f them i n d i c a t e d t h i s f u n c tio n to be th e c h i e f c o n t r i b u ti o n o f $he in te rv ie w *

E ig h t o f th e te n s u p e r in te n d e n ts re g a rd e d th e in te r v ie w

a s an e x c e lle n t o p p o r tu n ity t o g a in some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c a n d id a te * s e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y and p r o f e s s io n a l o u tlo o k , w h ile th e m a jo r ity in d i c a te d t h a t i t en a b le d them to g e t a d d i t i o n a l in fo rm a tio n on th e c a n d id a te * s t r a i n i n g and p re v io u s te a c h in g e x p erien ce*

The u se o f

th e in te r v ie w a s an o r a l ex am in atio n i n th e s u b je c t m a tte r t h a t th e c a n d id a te p ro p o se s t o t e a c h , and a s an o p p o r tu n ity to e v a lu a te th e v o ic e w ere each m entioned once*

As an a i d i n re c o r d in g th e r e s u l t s

o f th e in te r v ie w , one s u p e r in te n d e n t makes r e g u la r u se o f a check l i s t u n d er such h ead in g s a s p r o f e s s io n a l p r e p a r a t io n , community and e x t r a ­ c u r r i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l h a b i t s , and m embership i n s t a t e and n a t i o n a l e d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a tio n s * Scope o f W r itte n E x am inations None o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts o f th e s e le c te d h ig h sch o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y had made u s e o f t e s t m a t e r i a l s , e i t h e r l o c a l l y p re p a re d b r p re p a re d by an o u ts id e ag en c y , a s a means o f s e le c tin g o r prom oting te a c h e r s o f t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a f f .

6$ M ed ica l E xam in atio n A ll b u t one o f th e s i x s c h o o ls i n C la ss I and I I r e q u ir e a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f a l l p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s .

The u s u a l p r a c t i c e

i s t o r e q u i r e a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n b e f o r e h ir in g an a p p l ic a n t and l a t e r a t two o r th r e e y e a r i n t e r v a l s .

One sy stem r e p o r te d a 11m o d ifie d ’

e x a m in a tio n , and s t i l l a n o th e r u se d no m e d ical form b u t a c c e p te d a s ta te m e n t from th e t e a c h e r 's p h y s ic ia n .

None o f th e f o u r C la ss I I I

s c h o o ls r e q u ir e d a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n .

T here i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r

th e s m a lle r s c h o o ls to s a fe g u a rd t h e i r p u p ils from p o s s ib le d an g er by i n s i s t i n g on a th o ro u g h p h y s ic a l ex am in atio n o f th e te a c h e r a t re g u ­ l a r i n t e r v a l s u n d er c o n d itio n s t h a t w i l l g u a ra n te e an a c c u r a te r e p o r t t o th e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s . E lig ib ility L ists A f te r a l l t h e f a c t s have been g a th e re d ab o u t th e c a n d id a te , th e s u p e r in te n d e n t m ust s t i l l d e c id e w h eth er o r n o t t o recommend h i s ap p o in tm e n t.

The s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n t h i s s tu d y fo llo w no fo rm u la te d

p la n f o r f i n a l a p p r a i s a l such a s combining n u m e ric a l r a t i n g s on d i f ­ f e r e n t m easures o f a b i l i t y .

No s u p e r in te n d e n t r e p o r te d th e p re p a ra ­

t i o n o f a r a t e d l i s t o f c a n d id a te s f o r p r e s e n ta tio n t o th e b o a rd . u s u a l p r a c t i c e i s t o nom inate one c a n d id a te f o r each p o s i t i o n t o be fille d .

One s u p e r in te n d e n t s t a t e d th e p r a c t i c e o f n o m in atin g two

c a n d id a te s o n ly i f th e y w ere e q u a lly w e l l - q u a l i f i e d , o r i n c a se of th e e l e c t i o n o f a p r i n c i p a l o r head coach.

The

The s e le c te d s u p e r in te n d e n ts have u n d o u b te d ly d ev elo p ed a h ig h d eg ree o f s k i l l i n s e l e c t i n g th o s e te a c h e r s who have th e q u a l i f i ­ c a tio n s f o r a s u c c e s s f u l p r o f e s s io n a l c a r r e e r .

They seem to s e n s e th o s e

q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n a c a n d id a te t h a t make f o r an o u ts ta n d in g te a c h e r a s r e a d i l y as th o s e who may u se a more fo rm a liz e d m ethod.

W ithout ex­

c e p tio n , th e y make an i n t u i t i v e judgem ent o f th e c a n d id a te by m ethods t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r ib e t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .

S in c e p u b lic e d u c a tio n i s e x c lu s iv e ly a s t a t e f u n c ti o n , th e s t a t e h as p r e s c r ib e d c e r t a i n s ta n d a rd s f o r h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .

An

a p p l ic a n t must be a g ra d u a te from a f o u r - y e a r te a c h e r t r a i n i n g co u rse i n seco n d ary e d u c a tio n approved by th e Board o f E d u c a tio n a l E xam iners. R efere n ce i s made t o th e f a c t t h a t h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s sh o u ld be s e le c te d and a s s ig n e d to te a c h i n th e f i e l d s o f t h e i r m ajor t r a i n i n g . P ro v is io n s a r e made f o r te a c h e r s to be te m p o ra rily a s s ig n e d to sub­ j e c t s o u ts id e t h e i r m ajor and m inor f i e l d p ro v id e d a com plete s ta te m e n t o f f a c t s i n each c a se has been f i l e d w ith th e d ep artm en t and i t s a p p ro v a l s e c u re d p r i o r to th e s ig n in g of th e c o n t r a c t.

Laws in r e g a r d

t o r e g i s t r a t i o n o f c e r t i f i c a t e , u n c e r t i f i c a t e d te a c h in g , and circum ­ s ta n c e s le a d in g t o re v o c a tio n o f a c e r t i f i c a t e have been e n a c te d . P re v io u s T eaching E x p erien ce The amount o f p re v io u s te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e r e q u ir e d b e fo re

e le c tio n v a r ie s .

The u s u a l e x p e rie n c e re q u ire m e n ts o f th e s e le c te d

C la ss I and I I s c h o o ls a r e two y e a r s o f s u c c e s s f u l te a c h in g , a s com­ p a re d w ith no p re v io u s te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e r e q u ir e d i n th e C la ss I I I s c h o o ls .

A ll s u p e r in te n d e n ts , how ever, had a c c e p te d in e x p e rie n c e d

te a c h e r s f o r th e 191*6- 1;7 s c h o o l y e a r and e x p e c te d to do so f o r th e 19U7-U8 sc h o o l y e a r . Age L im its o f New T each ers W ith o u t e x c e p tio n , t h e s u p e r in te n d e n ts th o u g h t i t p r e f e r a b le t o c o n s id e r th e age l i m i t o f each te a c h e r a s one o f th e f a c t o r s to be c o n s id e re d in h ir i n g te a c h e r s , and e x p re s s e d a d e s ir e to c o n s id e r each c a se in d i v i d u a l l y unham pered by b o ard r u l i n g .

A t th e p r e s e n t tim e ,

two o f th e te n s e le c te d sc h o o l system s have r e g u la tio n s s e t t i n g th e maximum age l i m i t f o r t e a c h e r s ' e l e c t i o n a t t h i r t y - f i v e and f o r t y y e a r s o f age r e s p e c t i v e l y .

The C la ss I I I sc h o o ls r e p o r t no b o a rd

a c t io n r e l a t i v e t o an a r b i t r a r y age l i m i t .

The p r e s e n t re q u ire m e n t

f o r f o u r y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g beyond h ig h s c h o o l f o r a s ta n d a rd c e r t i f i ­ c a te makes u n n e c e ssa ry a r u li n g a s t o th e minimum age a t w hich a te a c h e r may b e em ployed. M arriag e a s R e la te d t o E l i g i b i l i t y Few m a rrie d women a r e te a c h in g i n th e s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o ls , o u t o f 107 women t e a c h e r s , 19 te a c h e r s were m a rrie d and an a d d i tio n a l s ix in d ic a te d th e y w ere widowed, s e p a r a te d , o r d iv o rc e d .

Ten and

n in e - te n th s p e r c e n t o f a l l s e le c te d women te a c h e r s were m arried*

Two s c h o o ls r e p o r te d no m a rrie d women on t h e i r h ig h sc h o o l s t a f f s , w h ile th e l a r g e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f m a rrie d women (2 3 . 1$) was r e p o r te d by a C la ss I I I s c h o o l. E ig h t s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d th e y r a r e l y h ir e d m a rrie d women a s te a c h e r s and two r e p o r te d th e y n e v e r d id .

To d e te rm in e th e

e x te n t t o w hich n o n -ap p o in tm en t o f m a rrie d women was b ased on b o ard a c t i o n , o n ly th r e e s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d such a r u l i n g , b u t i n each c a s e , th e r e s t r i c t i o n was n o t o b se rv e d .

S u p e rin te n d e n ts who d id

n o t a p p o in t m a rrie d women a s new te a c h e r s a ls o made no e x c e p tio n f o r th e m a rrie d women who a r e r e s p o n s ib le f o r d e p e n d e n ts .

The sev en

s u p e rin te n d e n ts who w ere n o t bound by b o ard a c t i o n i n r e g a r d to em­ ploym ent o f m a rrie d women te a c h e r s , s t a t e s a d e f i n i t e p re f e r e n c e f o r s in g le women, e x p e rie n c e and t r a i n i n g b e in g eq ual* L o cal R esid en ce a s R e la te d t o E l i g i b i l i t y The s u p e r in te n d e n ts to lo c a l te a c h e rs .

unanim ously p r e f e r r e d o u ts id e te a c h e r s

No sy stem makes i t a p r a c t i c e o f a p p o in tin g l o c a l

te a c h e r s o n ly , o r g iv e s p re f e r e n c e t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , i f a l l o th e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e e q u a l.

The m a jo r ity o f th e s e le c te d s u p e r in te n ­

d e n ts r e p o r t t h a t re s id e n c e i s n o t a d e c id in g f a c t o r i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f te a c h e rs . S a l a r i e s and R e la te d F a c to rs S a la r y Di f f e r e n t i a l s A d m in is tr a to r s and c lassro o m te a c h e r s a l i k e have lo n g

63

a d v o c a te d s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b a se d on e x p e rie n c e and p r e p a r a t io n . T h at su ch d if f e r e n c e s sh o u ld be o u tl in e d i n a c a r e f u l l y p re p a re d s a la r y s c h e d u le i s now a c c e p te d a s an e s s e n t i a l p r a c t i c e i n d e s ir a b l e te a c h e r p e r s o n n e l a d m in is tr a t io n .

The w e ig h t o f e x p e r t o p in io n i s now

opposed to s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b a se d on s e x , m a r i ta l s t a t u s , r a c e , c o l o r , r e s id e n c e , o r g rad e ta u g h t. D uring th e sc h o o l y e a r 19U6-U7* th e s e n io r h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s i n sev en o f th e t e n s e le c te d system s w ere p a id h ig h e r s a l a r i e s th a n w ere th e e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s i n th e same system w ith e q u a l t r a i n ­ in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

The s i t u a t i o n i n re g a r d t o g rad e d i f f e r e n t i a l s w i l l

be changed somewhat n e x t y e a r w ith one C la ss I I sc h o o l e lim in a tin g t h e i r g ra d e d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n s a l a r y , and one C la ss I I I sc h o o l in d i c a ti n g t h a t th e y a r e c o n tin u in g a program w hich w i l l d e c re a se g r a d u a lly t h e s a la r y d i f f e r e n t i a l b etw een e le m e n ta ry and seco n d ary s c h o o ls .

The rem a in in g

t h r e e system s have a d o p te d a u n ifo rm s a l a r y s c a le on th e th e o r y t h a t th e e le m e n ta ry and s e n io r h ig h p o s iti o n s a r e o f eq u a l v a lu e , b o th demanding a h ig h d e g re e o f s k i l l , and t h e r e f o r e sh o u ld b e com pensated a lik e .

There a p p e a rs t o be no r e l a t i o n betw een s iz e o f s c h o o l and i t s

r e a d in e s s to a d o p t a s in g le s c a l e , a s b o th la r g e and sm a ll sc h o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y have a c c e p te d th e p r i n c i p l e . I n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls , th e men te a c h e r s a r e c o n s is te n tly p a id h ig h e r s a l a r i e s th a n a r e women o f e q u a l tr a i n in g and e x p e rie n c e . The te a c h in g c o n t r a c ts f o r men u s u a lly p ro v id e f o r a s a l a r y d i f f e r e n ­ t i a l o f fUOO t o $ 600.

T each ers whose p r e p a r a t io n g r e a t l y ex ceed s th e minimum r e ­ q u ir e d f o r t h e i r p o s iti o n s a r e u s u a ll y p a id h ig h e r s a l a r i e s th a n te a c h e r s who b a r e l y m eet th e minimum r e q u ire m e n ts .

An in c re m e n t i n

s a l a r y on t h e b a s i s o f advanced t r a i n i n g i s u s u a lly made a t th e com­ p l e t i o n o f th e h ig h e r d e g re e . A d d itio n a l t r a i n i n g i s u s u a ll y r e q u ir e d o f th e te a c h e r ev e ry fo u rth or f i f t h y e a r.

To s a t i s f y t h i s r e q u ire m e n t, a few s c h o o l b o a rd s

r e q u ir e th e a d d i t i o n a l work to be ta k e n in th e a s s ig n e d te a c h in g f i e l d , o r t o a p p ly tow ards an advanced d e g r e e .

The l a r g e r s c h o o ls do n o t p ay

f o r summer s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e , a s su c h , p r e f e r r i n g t o make th e a d j u s t­ ment when a d eg ree i s g r a n te d , o r i n p e r m ittin g th e te a c h e r to p ro g re s s n o rm a lly on th e s a l a r y s c a l e .

S e v e r a l o f th e s m a lle r s c h o o ls r e q u i r ­

in g summer a tte n d a n c e , pay v a ry in g am ounts m ohthly d u rin g th e fo llo w ­ in g s c h o o l y e a r , a s a p a r t i a l reim bursem ent f o r expense in c u r r e d . I n a p p ro x im a te ly h a l f o f th e sy stem s, a te a c h e r i s r e q u ir e d t o ta k e a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n a re c o g n iz e d i n s t i t u t i o n fro m tim e to tim e i n o r d e r t o p r o g r e s s n o rm a lly on th e s a l a r y s c h e d u le . c e p tio n s a r e made where t h i s i s th e ru le *

Few ex ­

" E d u c a tiv e tr a v e l" i n l i e u

o f summer sc h o o l work was n o t p e r m itte d i n any o f th e s e le c te d sy stem s. One C la s s I system would a c c e p t th e p u b li c a ti o n o f books o r a r t i c l e s i n l i e u o f summer s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e , th u s p e r m ittin g th e te a c h e r t o p ro g re s s r e g u l a r l y on th e s a la r y s c h e d u le .

71

P e rio d an d F req u en cy o f Paym ents A ll te a c h e r s i n th e t e n s e le c te d s c h o o ls a r e p a id m o n th ly , and ■with th e e x c e p tio n o f one la r g e s c h o o l, a r e p a id on a tw elv e month b a s is *

I n th e m a jo r ity o f s c h o o ls p ay in g on th e m onthly b a s i s ,

th e te a c h e r s had th e o p tio n o f c o n tin u in g t h e i r m o nthly s a l a r y d u rin g th e summer m onths, o r a c c e p tin g th e b a la n c e o f th e y e a r * s c o n tr a c t a t th e c lo s e o f th e sc h o o l y e a r . O u tsid e P a id A c t i v i t i e s The b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n o f th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls seldom ta k e o f f i c i a l co g n izan ce o f th e p a r t- t im e employment o r p a id p r o f e s s io n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f s c h o o l te a c h e r s o u ts id e o f s c h o o l h o u rs .

The m a jo r ity

o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r t t h a t te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o u ts id e p a id a c t i v i t i e s had n o t b een a s e r io u s problem i n t h e i r s c h o o l, and such c a s e s w ere u s u a ll y l e f t to th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t w ith o u t o f f i c i a l b o ard a c t i o n .

The " r u l e o f thumb” p ro ced u re i s t h a t

a te a c h e r may a c c e p t p a r t- tim e employment o r engage i n p a id p r o f e s s ­ io n a l a c t i v i t i e s i f i t does n o t i n t e r f e r e w ith h is o r h e r sc h o o l w ork. Two c a s e s i n w hich th e te a c h e r was d e n ie d o u t- o f - s c h o o l employment in v o lv e d n ig h t te a c h in g i n a c o l le g e , and an e x c e s s iv e amount o f r e fe re e in g .

The custom ary p r a c t i c e f o r a te a c h e r who d e s ir e s p a r t -

tim e work i n a d d i tio n t o a r e g u la r te a c h in g a ssig n m e n t, i s t o a rra n g e i n advance w ith th e s u p e r in te n d e n t f o r such employment.

Work w hich

does n o t r e q u ir e an e x c e ss iv e amount on th e p a r t o f th e te a c h e r i s

■usually ap p ro v ed b y th e s u p e r in te n d e n t. D ed u ctio n d u rin g B r i e f A bsences I f an ab sen ce i s such t h a t a te a c h e r m ust f o r f e i t p a y , th e u s u a l p r a c t i c e i s t o d e d u c t o n e - tw e n tie th o f a m onth’ s s a l a r y f o r each d a y ’s absence*

One C la ss I H

sc h o o l r e p o r te d th e p r a c t i c e o f b a s in g

th e d e d u c tio n on a t h i r t y day c a le n d a r month i n s t e a d o f th e u s u a l tw e n ty day s c h o o l month*

The assu m p tio n f o r d e d u c tio n a c c o rd in g t o

th e c a le n d a r month i s b ased on th e f a c t t h a t a te a c h e r o f te n i s r e ­ q u ire d t o spend more th a n th e a c c e p te d tw en ty days a month to com plete th e r e g u l a r te a c h in g assig n m en t* The w r i t e r found th e b o a rd r e g u la tio n s i n re g a r d to b r i e f ab sen ces w ith o u t lo s s o f p ay e x c e e d in g ly l i b e r a l *

No d e d u c tio n was

made f o r a tte n d a n c e a t s t a t e e d u c a tio n a l m e e tin g s , o r f o r absence i n v i s i t i n g o th e r s c h o o ls a t th e b o a r d ’ s d i r e c t i o n .

A ll s c h o o l b o a rd s

would a c c e p t w r i t t e n r e q u e s ts f o r a c o n tin u a tio n o f a te a c h e r ’ s s a la r y in c a s e s n o t c l e a r l y covered by th e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s .

S e v e ra l

s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d th e b o a rd ’ s r e g u la tio n s were ex tre m e ly f l e x i ­ b le i n p ro v id in g s h o r t le a v e s o f ab sen ce w ith o u t lo s s o f p ay f o r th o s e t e a c h e r s w ith a lo n g te rm o f s e r v ic e and r e l a t i v e l y few days l o s t .

S ic k Leave and R e la te d Problem s

Each o f th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls o f f e r e d some h e a l th b e n e f i t s to t h e i r te a c h e rs .

As summarized i n T ab le XX, th e m ost ad eq u ate

Table XX H e a lth S e r v ic e s P ro v id ed i n Ten S e le c te d S ch o o l System s

C la ss I 2 1

S e rv ic e

Thorough P h y s ic a l E xam in atio n A n n u ally

X

S e rv ic e s o f a S ch o o l Nurse

X

A dviso ry S e rv ic e o f S chool P h y s ic ia n

X

O f f i c i a l C o o p eratio n i n M a in ta in in g Group H o s p ita liz a tio n o r Group H e a lth In s u ra n c e

X

xa xb

a - Group H o s p ita liz a tio n b - Group H e a lth In su ra n c e Code f o r s c h o o ls ; 1 2 3 U 5 6 7 8 9 10

-

Ames Boone Cedar F a l l s Cherokee C h arles C ity E ag le Grove Grundy C e n te r Independence Sheldon Storm Lake

3

C la ss I I S £ 6

7

C la ss I I I 8 9 10

X

X

X

X

X

X Xs

Xs

xa

Xb

Xa

program o f h e a l t h s e r v ic e was fo u n d i n a C la ss I s c h o o l w hich r e q u ir e d an a n n u a l p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n and p ro v id e d f o r a d v is o r y s e r v ic e s o f th e s c h o o l p h y s ic ia n , s e r v ic e s o f a s c h o o l n u r s e , and made a v a i la b l e group h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n in s u r a n c e .

Seven o f th e te n s c h o o ls a r e p r o ­

v id in g th e s e r v ic e s o f a sc h o o l n u r s e , two o f w hich a ls o make a v a i la b l e th e a d v is o ry s e r v ic e s o f th e sc h o o l p h y s ic ia n .

F iv e s c h o o ls w ere p a r ­

t i c i p a n t s i n th e "B lu e C ross" group h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n p la n , t h i s b e in g th e o n ly h e a l th b e n e f i t p ro v id e d i n th r e e sy ste m s.

Two o f th e sev en

sc h o o ls r e p o r ti n g c o o p e ra tio n i n m a in ta in in g a group h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n p la n r e p o r te d program s o th e r th a n th e " Blue C ro s s " •

The b o a rd re g u ­

l a t i o n s o f one C la ss I I s c h o o l p ro v id e f o r th e t e a c h e r fs c o n t r a c t t o be v a l i d o n ly i f he can p r e s e n t ev id en ce o f im m unity from s e v e r a l c o n ta g io u s d i s e a s e s , th e s e b e in g s m a ll pox, d i p t h e r i a , ty p h o id , and tu b e r c u l o s i s . Amount and N atu re o f S ic k Leave A r e a s o n a b le s ic k - le a v e p o li c y , p r o p e r ly s a fe -g u a rd e d a g a i n s t a b u s e , p la c e s th e sc h o o l b o ard i n th e p o s i t i o n o f a f a i r em ployer who i s re s p o n s iv e t o th e human e le m e n t.

The s e le c te d sc h o o ls p ro v id e from

t h r e e t o te n days s ic k le a v e a n n u a lly , w ith o u t l o s s o f p ay , w ith th e m a jo r ity o f s c h o o ls o f f e r in g f i v e d a y s .

As seen i n T ab le XXI, two

sc h o o ls p ro v id e f o r te n d ays s ic k - le a v e y e a r l y , sev en s c h o o ls make p ro v is io n s f o r f i v e d a y s , and one s c h o o l g r a n ts th r e e days s ic k le a v e f o r each c a le n d a r y e a r .

T each ers a r e sa fe g u a rd e d i n n in e o f

75 T able XXI Amount o f S ic k L eav e, P r o p o r tio n o f S a la r y , and F req u en cy o f C um ulative S ic k Leave P r o v is io n s i n Ten S e le c te d S ch o o ls

C o n d itio n

Number days s ic k le a v e a t f u l l s a la r y p e r y e a r I s s ic k le a v e cu m u lativ e? Maximum number o f days s ic k le a v e may accum ulate

C la ss I 2 1

3

10

5

$

Yes Yes 30

30

C la ss I I fi 5

5

5

7

$

10

3

5

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

U0 No 20 R e p o rt

10

Yes Yes Yes Yes 20

30a 20

.C lass I I I 10 8 9

6

20

a - T ea ch er may have an a d d i t i o n a l 30 days a t f u l l p a y , l e s s s a la ry of s u b s titu te . Code f o r s c h o o ls : 1 2 3 U $ 6 7 8 9 10

-

Ames Boone Cedar F a l l s Cherokee C h a rle s C ity E ag le Grove Grundy C en ter Independence S h eld o n S torm Lake

5

th e t e n s e le c t e d sc h o o ls a g a in s t p ro tra cted i l l n e s s e s by p r o v isio n s f o r th e unused days o f s ic k le a v e to accum ulate, th e amount v a ryin g from te n t o f o r t y d a y s.

One C lass I I sch o o l gen ero u sly p ro v id es fo r

t h ir t y days s ic k le a v e a t f u l l pay, w ith an a d d itio n a l t h ir t y days a t f u l l s a la r y l e s s s u b s t it u t e ’ s p ay. As compared w ith p r a c t i c e s in r e g a r d to s ic k le a v e p o l i c i e s shown i n a r e c e n t s u rv e y , th e r e g u la tio n s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls a re q u ite l i b e r a l .

A r e c e n t n a tio n -w id e su rv ey ’*' shows a p p ro x im a te ly 85

p e rc e n t o f s c h o o ls i n com parable s iz e d c i t i e s g r a n tin g s ic k le a v e on f u l l s a l a r y , a s compared w ith 100 p e r c e n t o f th e s c h o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y making a s i m i l a r p r o v is io n .

T h is s u rv e y shows 27 p e r c e n t o f 789 com­

p a ra b le sc h o o ls w ere o f f e r in g some form o f cu m u lativ e s ic k le a v e a s a f i n a n c i a l p r o te c tio n a g a i n s t lo n g a t ta c k s o f i l l n e s s when th e t e a c h e r ’s economic s e c u r i t y i s m ost d is tu r b e d b y l o s s o f incom e, a s compared w ith 90 p e r c e n t o f th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls . R ecent S ta te L e g is la tio n S in c e t h i s s tu d y was begun, th e 52nd Iowa G en eral Assem bly has e n a c te d a le a v e o f ab sen ce m easure f o r re a s o n s o f p e r s o n a l i l l n e s s o r i n j u r y w hich i s more l i b e r a l I n th e amount o f s ic k le a v e and days le a v e p e r m itte d to accu m u late th a n was found by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n

1* N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , "T eac h er P e rso n n e l P ro c e d u re s : Employment C o n d itio n s i n S e r v ic e ," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 0 , no. 3 , 1 p . 102.

th e m a jo r ity o f th e s e l e c t e d sch o o ls*

The p r e s e n t Iowa lair*- p ro v id e s

f i v e days s ic k le a v e f o r th e f i r s t y e a r o f employment w hich in c r e a s e s by one day f o r eac h a d d i t i o n a l y e a r o f employment u n t i l a maximum o f n in e d ay s p e r y e a r i s p ro v id e d f o r th e f i f t h and su b se q u en t y e a r s o f employment*

The above am ounts a p p ly o n ly t o c o n s e c u tiv e y e a r s o f

employment i n th e same d i s t r i c t and u n u sed p o r tio n s s h a l l b e cumula­ t i v e to a maximum o f 35 days* T e rm in a tio n of S e rv ic e

B ate o f N o tif i c a ti o n O pinions v a r i e d a s t o th e l a t e s t d a te a t w hich a te a c h e r sh o u ld make known t o th e s u p e r in te n d e n t t h a t she does n o t e x p e c t to re tu rn .

T y p ic a l a n s w e rs, grouped a c c o rd in g t o s iz e o f sc h o o ls a r e

g iv en b elo w : C la ss I

Our s c h o o l system ought to b e b ig g e r th a n any one t e a c h e r . We a c c e p t th e r e s ig n a t io n s a t an y tim e , p ro v id e d t h a t we have a re p la c e m e n t. The b o ard i s a p t t o be c o n te n tio u s ab o u t t h i s a t tim e s , b u t th e r e i s no o th e r answer* J u ly 1 .

C lass I I T each er may b e r e le a s e d any tim e u n t i l J u ly 1* Between J u ly 1 and O ctober 1 , no te a c h e r I s r e ­ le a s e d . D u rin g th e rem ain d er o f y e a r , a te a c h e r may b e r e le a s e d upon t h i r t y day n o tic e i n w r i t i n g . No p e n a l t i e s a r e a tta c h e d f o r r e le a s e from con­ tra c ts •

1* S ch o o l Laws o f Iow a, Compiled from th e Code o f I 9I4.6 and th e A cts o f th e 52nd G e n e ra l A ssem bly,-D es M oines, 19U8.

7B C la ss XI o o n t'd . March o r e a r l i e r . May go a t any tim e i f re p la c e m e n t i s a v a i l a b l e . C la ss I I I T each er sh o u ld r e p o r t to th e s u p e r in te n d e n t a s soon a s i t i s known she w iH n o t r e t u r n . March o r e a r l i e r . March o r e a r l i e r . c o n tra c ts .

We a llo w te a c h e r s two weeks t o s ig n

They m ust be back by A p r il 3»

A p r il 15>. I n f o u r o f th e t e n s e l e c t e d sy stem s, d e f i n i t e p r o v is io n s a re made i n th e t e a c h e r ’s c o n tr a c t f o r r e s ig n a t io n o f th e te a c h e r a f t e r th e c o n tr a c t h a s been s ig n e d .

Two system s w ith such p r o v is io n s i n th e

t e a c h e r ’s c o n tr a c t w i l l p e rm it a te a c h e r t o r e s ig n p ro v id e d n o tic e i s g iv e n i n w r iti n g and a re p la c e m e n t can be s e c u re d .

The o th e r two

system s p ro v id e c o n tr a c ts w ith r e s ig n a t io n p r i v i l e g e s w ith p e n a l tie s v a ry in g from $50 t o $100 f o r r e l e a s e . S in ce t h i s s tu d y h as begun, th e Iowa l e g i s l a t u r e h as en a c te d a low p ro v id in g f o r a u to m a tic c o n tin u a tio n o f c o n tr a c ts w ith t e a c h e r s . I t p ro v id e s t h a t ’’ s a id c o n tr a c t s h a l l rem ain i n f o r c e and e f f e c t o f th e p e r io d s t a t e d i n c o n tr a c t and t h e r e a f t e r s h a l l be a u to m a tic a lly c o n tin u e d i n f o r c e and e f f e c t f o r e q u iv a le n t p e r io d s , e x ce p ted as m o d ified o r te rm in a te d by m u tu al agreem ent of th e b o ard o f d i r e c t o r s and th e t e a c h e r s ^ 1 . S chool Laws o f Iow a, S e c tio n 2 7 9 .1 3 , Compiled from th e Code o f I 9I46 and th e A cts o f th e 52nd G en eral Assem bly, Des M oines, I 9I4.8 .

P ro ced u re i n D is m is s a l The s u p e r in te n d e n ts o f th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls seldom f i n d i t n e c e s s a ry to d is m is s (o r deny re-em ploym ent to ) a t e a c h e r .

Only two

s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n th e te n s c h o o ls r e p o r te d such an in s ta n c e i n th e l a s t th r e e y e a r s .

I n b o th in s t a n c e s , th e p ro c e d u re was th e same.

The

te a c h e r was w arned a t l e a s t one y e a r i n advance t h a t d is m is s a l was l i k e l y t o o ccu r i f s e r v ic e was n o t im proved.

I n one c a s e , th e te a c h e r

was n o t i f i e d a g a in one month p r i o r t o b o a rd a c t i o n t h a t d is m is s a l was fo rth c o m in g .

I n b o th c a s e s o f d is m i s s a l , no fo rm a l h e a rin g was h e ld

b e fo re t h e s c h o o l b o a rd , b u t arran g em en ts would have been made f o r such a h e a rin g i f th e te a c h e r had re q u e s te d t h a t o p p o r tu n ity .

The

l e g a l p ro c e d u re s a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d by s c h o o l law f o r su ch a c t i o n . The s u p e r in te n d e n ts w ere o f v a r ie d o p in io n a s t o t h e a d v is a ­ b i l i t y o f f i r s t t r a n s f e r r i n g a te a c h e r to a n o th e r p o s i t i o n i n th e sys­ tem i n a n e f f o r t t o e f f e c t a b e t t e r a d ju s tm e n t.

The m a jo r ity f e l t

t h a t su ch a t r a n s f e r m ight b e b e n e f i c i a l in th e elem en tary s c h o o l, b u t doubted th e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f a rra n g in g f o r a t r a n s f e r on th e secon­ d a ry l e v e l .

The re a so n most commonly g iv e n was th e la c k o f s u i t a b l e

t r a n s f e r o p p o r tu n itie s on th e seco n d ary s c h o o l l e v e l , s in c e te a c h e r s a re r e q u ir e d to te a c h i n t h e i r f i e l d s o f e d u c a tio n a l p r e p a ra tio n * D is m is s a l f o r M arriag e The p o lic y o f th e b o ard s o f e d u c a tio n i n th e s e l e c t e d sch o o ls was much more l i b e r a l tow ard th e m id -y ear b r id e th a n was r e p o r te d by

th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n i n 1 9 li2 ,l

T h is s tu d y found t h a t i n

tw e n ty - e ig h t p e r c e n t o f th e c i t i e s th e employment o f th e woman te a c h e r who m a rrie s i s te rm in a te d a t o n ce; i n 33 p e r c e n t th e b r id e may c o n tin u e te a c h in g o n ly u n t i l th e end o f th e s c h o o l y e a r .

I n 30 p e r c e n t o f th e

c a s e s , m a rria g e does n o t a f f e c t th e employment s t a t u s o f women, and in 8 p e r c e n t, in d i v id u a l c a s e s a r e d e c id e d by th e b o a rd . Not one o f th e b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n o f th e s e le c te d sc h o o ls would te rm in a te im m ed iately th e employment o f a woman te a c h e r who m a rrie s d u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a r , a s c o n tr a s te d w ith o n e - f o u r th o f s im i la r s iz e d s c h o o ls i n th e su rv ey r e p o r tin g th e p r a c t i c e o f immedia­ t e l y te rm in a tin g th e employment o f th e m id -y ear b r i d e .

T hree s u p e r in ­

te n d e n ts i n d i c a te d t h a t i t was th e p o lic y o f t h e i r b o a rd s o f e d u c a tio n t o p e rm it a woman te a c h e r who m a rrie s to c o n tin u e in s e r v ic e u n t i l th e end o f th e y e a r , a t w hich tim e th e employment s t a t u s w ould be te rm in a te d .

However, two o f th e s e th r e e s u p e rin te n d e n ts i n d i c a te d

t h a t such a p ro c e d u re wqs t r a d i t i o n a l w ith th e l o c a l b o a rd , and th e b o a rd ’s f i n a l a c t io n now would be l a r g e l y d eterm in ed by th e s c a r c i t y o f te a c h e r s . D is m is s a l f o r Age Iowa h as r e c e n t l y ad o p ted a s t a t e p la n o f r e tir e m e n t bene­ f i t s f o r o ld e r te a c h e r s , and a l l te a c h e r s in th e s e le c te d sc h o o ls 1 . N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , ‘'T e a c h e rs P e rs o n n e l P ro c e d u re s : Employment C o n d itio n s in S e r v ic e ," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l 2 0 , n o . 3> 19b£9 p* 107♦

w ould be e n t i t l e d t o i t s b e n e f i t s .

None o f th e te n s e l e c t e d s c h o o ls

had made p r o v is io n s f o r l o c a l r e ti r e m e n t o r d i s a b i l i t y p a y . P r i o r to th e s t a t e en actm en t o f a r e tir e m e n t la w , f o u r sc h o o l system s had s e t s i x t y - f i v e a s an u p p e r age l i m i t a t w hich a l l te a c h e r s a r e a u to m a tic a lly r e t i r e d , w ith one C la ss I I I s c h o o l system s e t t i n g th e r e tir e m e n t age a t s i x t y .

I n th e re m a in in g s i x s c h o o ls , th e age

o f r e tir e m e n t o r w ith d ra w a l was l e f t to a j o i n t d e c is io n o f th e te a c h e r and th e s c h o o l b o a rd .

The u s u a l p r a c t i c e i n th o s e s c h o o ls w ith o u t a

d e f i n i t e r e tir e m e n t age was a f t e r th e age o f s i x t y was re a c h e d , th e te a c h e r and s u p e rin te n d e n t sh o u ld a n n u a lly d is c u s s t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f h i s te a c h in g a n o th e r y e a r . A d m in is tr a tio n o f P e rs o n n e l Program

F iv e o f th e te n s u p e r in te n d e n ts a rra n g e f o r a new te a c h e r to r e p o r t s e v e r a l days p r i o r to th e opening of th e new te rm f o r s p e c i a l m eetin g s and d is c u s s io n s w ith th e s u p e rin te n d e n t and p r i n c i p a l .

I t is

th e p r a c t i c e o f one C la ss I I I s c h o o l to a sk th e new te a c h e r t o r e p o r t f o r a t l e a s t one day d u rin g th e e a r l y p a r t o f th e summer to p e rm it him o r h e r t o g e t a c q u a in te d w ith th e p o s i t i o n , an d to en ab le th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s t o d is c u s s w ith him th e y e a r ’ s program .

In

a l l s c h o o l system s b u t o n e, th e s u p e r in te n d e n t’ s o f f i c e i s u sed a s a c le a r in g house t o a s s i s t th e new te a c h e r s i n lo c a tin g l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . I n a l l c a s e s w ith one e x c e p tio n , th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts r e p o r te d s o c ia l f u n c tio n s h e ld e a r l y i n th e y e a r a s a p a r t o f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n program .

I n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , th e s e m e e tin g s w ere ev en in g a f f a i r s sp o n so re d b y c i v i c o r g a n iz a ti o n s , c h u rc h , and s e r v ic e g ro u p s . T eacher P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P o lic y Making W ith o u t e x c e p tio n , a l l s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls make d e f i n i t e p r o v is io n s f o r s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n form ing p e r s o n n e l p o lic ie s .

A common method o f te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s th e e s t a b l i s h ­

ment o f o f f i c i a l l y a p p o in te d com m ittees to s tu d y and make recommenda­ t i o n s on s p e c i f i c p e r s o n n e l p ro b lem s.

D uring th e s c h o o l y e a r o f 19U&-

ll7* a l l s u p e r in te n d e n ts had d e s ig n a te d te a c h e r com m ittees t o stu d y and p r e s e n t recom m endations f o r s a la r y a d ju s tm e n t.

S e v e r a l s c h o o ls

r e p o r te d th e ap p o in tm en t o f com m ittees t o s tu d y th e problem s o f te a c h e r w e lfa r e i n su ch a r e a s a s s ic k le a v e b e n e f i t s , and p r o v is io n s f o r m e n tal h e a lth .

The f a c t t h a t a l l th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n th e s e le c te d sc h o o ls

made u s e o f t h e i r s t a f f members in s tu d y in g problem s r e l a t e d to t e a ­ c h e r p e rs o n n e l i s in d i c a t i v e o f th e s p le n d id c o o p e ra tio n on th e p a r t o f te a c h e r s and a d m in is tr a t o r s . P r o f e s s io n a l Growth i n S e r v ic e The te a c h e r s i n th e te n s e le c te d sc h o o ls a r e p ro v id e d oppor­ t u n i t i e s f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s io n a l grow th.

The ty p e

o f o n - th e - jo b t r a i n i n g m ost f r e q u e n t ly r e p o r te d was t h a t o f c u r r ic u ­ lum com m ittee a s s ig n m e n ts , th e im p etu s f o r such s tu d ie s b ein g p ro v id e d by th e s t a t e c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n program .

I n th r e e o f th e te n s c h o o ls ,

s t a f f members w ere a b le to se c u re a maximum o f th r e e hours c o lle g e

c r e d i t ea c h s e m e s te r by ev en in g a tte n d a n c e i n c o lle g e o r u n i v e r s i t y e x te n s io n c o u r s e s , made a v a i l a b l e to them l o c a l l y .

One la r g e h ig h

sc h o o l had f i v e ev en in g m e etin g s s c h e d u le d d u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a r f o r an in t e n s i v e s tu d y o f a s u i t a b l e g u id an ce program f o r t h e i r s c h o o l. The le a d e r s h ip i n th e program was p ro v id e d by n in e f a c u l t y members who were a tte n d in g r e g u la r g u id an ce c l a s s e s a t th e l o c a l c o lle g e . One s u p e r in te n d e n t ah a s m a ll s c h o o l had d ev o te d a s e r i e s o f te a c h e rs * m eetin g s t o a d is c u s s io n o f sc h o o l p ro b lem s, an a c t w hich le a d t o th e f o rm u la tio n o f a p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n .

P r o f e s s io n a l

l i b r a r i e s a r e a v a i la b l e i n e i t h e r th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e o r i n l i b r a r i e s i n a l l s c h o o ls .

Many o f th e sc h o o ls a r e e x c e e d in g ly l i b e r a l

i n f u r n is h in g p r o f e s s io n a l m agazines f o r te a c h e r s . A f te r c a r e f u l s tu d y o f th e p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s r e p o r te d by s u p e rin te n d e n ts and classro o m te a c h e r s i n r e g a r d t o employment co n d i­ t i o n s i n s e r v ic e , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r re c o g n iz e s a c lim a te o f p r o f e s s io n a l s tim u la tio n common to a l l s e le c te d s c h o o ls .

T his s tim u la tio n g iv e s

te a c h e r s p r id e i n t h e i r own p r o f e s s io n a l ach iev em en t, and by an ex­ change o f id e a s i n group e f f o r t p ro v id e s an in c e n tiv e f o r each to s u rp a s s h is own p re v io u s e f f o r t s . T ea ch er R a tin g o f P e rs o n n e l P ro ced u res

I n an e f f o r t t o d e te rm in e th o s e p e rs o n n e l p ro c e d u re s w hich make i t p o s s ib le f o r a community to s e c u re and m a in ta in a w e l l - q u a l i ­ f i e d h ig h s c h o o l s t a f f , th e te a c h e r s i n th e te n s e le c te d h ig h sc h o o ls

w ere a sk e d t o in d i c a t e th o s e f a c t o r s t h a t w ere o p e r a tin g i n t h e i r sy stem w hich e n a b le d t h e i r sc h o o l t o a t t r a c t and h o ld te a c h e r s w ith s u p e r io r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .

No a d d i t i o n a l s u g g e s tio n s w ere made to th e

p a r t i c i p a t i n g te a c h e r s by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r o th e r th a n t o encourage them to answ er th e q u e s tio n i n d e t a i l .

O ne-hundred and f i f t y - e i g h t

te a c h e r s r e p o r te d f a c t o r s w hich th e y c o n s id e re d o p e r a tin g i n th e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n e n a b lin g th e community to s e c u re and m a in ta in an ab o v e-a v erag e s ta ff.

T hese answ ers co u ld be c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r sev en g e n e r a l h e a d in g s;

nam ely, s a l a r i e s , a g re e a b le w orking r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith f e llo w te a c h e r s and p eo p le i n t h e community, freedom i n te a c h in g , f a v o r a b le ad m in is­ t r a t i v e p e rs o n n e l p o l i c i e s , eq u ip m en t, c o n t r i b u ti o n o f s tu d e n t body, and a p r o g r e s s iv e s c h o o l sy ste m . The s in g le f a c t o r m entioned m ost f r e q u e n t ly a s c o n tr ib u tin g t o th e a tta in m e n t of n s u p e r io r s t a f f was th e e x is te n c e o f an a g re e a b le w orking r e l a t i o n s h i p b a se d upon m u tu al r e s p e c t and sy m p ath etic u n d er­ s ta n d in g on th e p a r t o f l o c a l b o a rd , s u p e r in te n d e n t, p r i n c i p a l , and te a c h e rs *

The fo llo w in g a r e t y p i c a l o f th o s e s ta te m e n ts made by

te a c h e r s who i n d i c a te d th e im p o rtan ce o f p le a s a n t p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Board and s u p e rin te n d e n t re c o g n iz e and e x p re s s a p p r e c i­ a t i o n o f good w ork. S u p e rin te n d e n t, d e a n , and p r i n c i p a l a r e c o n s id e r a te and h e lp fu l. F in e f a c u l t y s p i r i t , v e r y l i t t l e back b i t i n g , no c l iq u e s . T here i s a h ig h r e g a r d o f te a c h e r s f o r each o th e r .

85 Everybody- i s w orking to w ard s th e b e tte rm e n t o f th e sc h o o l and te a c h in g c o n d itio n s . S ch o o l i s l a r g e enough to b e i n t e r e s t i n g , b u t s m a ll enough t o en ab le one t o become w e ll a c q u a in te d w ith th e s tu d e n ts and p a r e n t s . S a l a r i e s ra n k e d second i n im p o rtan ce a s a f a c t o r te n d in g to h o ld s u p e r io r t e a c h e r s . t h a t th e y w ere ‘’good11.

The t y p i c a l comment i n r e g a r d t o s a l a r i e s was A few te a c h e r s e l a b o r a te d on th e f a c t o r of

te a c h e r s a l a r i e s by su ch comments a s : Our s a l a r i e s compare fa v o r a b ly w ith s a l a r i e s i n o th e r s c h o o ls . T here i s in d i v id u a l a d ju stm e n t o f s a l a r i e s a t tim e s . We have a d e f i n i t e s a l a r y s c a l e . The b o ard ta k e s a r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e to w ard s a l a r i e s . The te a c h e r s ran k ed t h i r d i n im p o rtan ce th e s c h o o l p r o v is io n s en a b lin g a c o n s id e ra b le amount o f freedom i n th e te a c h in g p ro c e d u re . T his was in d ic a te d by such, comments a s : We have a d e q u a te freedom t o work o u t o u r own p ro b lem s. We a r e a llo w ed a f r e e hand i n o u r m ethod o f te a c h in g , a s lo n g a s work i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . O p p o rtu n ity f o r c o o p e ra tiv e p o lic y m aking, and f o r i n i t i ­ a t i v e in i n d i v id u a l d e p a rtm e n ts. We have a h ig h d e g re e o f academ ic freedom . Not to o much s u p e r v is io n . We have g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , b u t n o t r i g i d s u p e r v is io n . Given a f o u r t h p la c e r a t i n g a s a c o n trib u tin g f a c t o r was

th e c o n t r i b u ti o n o f th e s tu d e n t b o d y .

Those te a c h e r s l i s t i n g a n a l e r t

c o o p e ra tiv e s tu d e n t body a s an im p o rta n t f a c t o r i n th e r e t e n t i o n o f a ca p a b le s t a f f commented a s f o llo w s : F in e t r a d i t i o n f o r work among s tu d e n t s . E x c e lle n t s tu d e n t body - f i n e c h i ld r e n . L ik e a b le p u p il s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t tin g th e w ork. S p le n d id s tu d e n t c o o p e r a tio n . S tu d e n ts m a in ta in h ig h s ta n d a rd s o f c o n d u c t. F in e a t t i t u d e o f p u p ils

to w ard s c h o o ls .

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few and f a r

b etw een.

Good equipm ent was r a t e d f i f t h i n im p o rtan ce by t h e te a c h e r s M entioned u n d e r t h i s h ead in g w ere sc h o o l and classro o m s u p p lie s .

p la n t, lib r a r y ,v is u a la id s ,

T y p ic a l o f th e comments w ere:

The p o lic y o f t h e s c h o o l b o ard i s l i b e r a l i n p ro v id in g su p p lem en tary te x tb o o k s . We have good equipm ent and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s . S u p p lie s a r e f u r n is h e d when need ed . A c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s t o r y books t h a t would b e found i n onHy a few s c h o o ls . An a t t r a c t i v e , f u n c ti o n a l b u ild in g . I n s i x t h p la c e , th e s e l e c t e d te a c h e r s in d ic a te d a d m in is tra ­ t i v e p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o th e w orking c o n d itio n s to be a c o n tr ib u tin g f a c t o r to th e p ro cu rem en t and r e t e n t i o n o f an e x c e lle n t s t a f f .

The

lew ran k o f t h i s ite m may be due t o th e te n d e n c y t o c o n s id e r such

f a c t o r s a s d is m is s a l p r o c e d u r e s , employment o f m a rrie d women, s ic k le a v e , p r o h i b i t i o n o f p a id o u ts id e p r o f e s s io n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and o th e r p e rs o n n e l p o l i c i e s a s b e in g a p a r t o f t h e a g r e e a b le p e r s o n a l w orking r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een s c h o o l b o a rd s , s u p e r in te n d e n ts , p r i n c i p a l s , and te a c h e r .

Those te a c h e r s l i s t i n g s p e c i f i c p e r s o n n e l p ro c e d u re s a s con­

t r i b u t o r y t o a good s t a f f in c lu d e d su ch ite m s a s t e n u r e , gen ero u s s ic k le a v e , and p e rm is sio n t o a t te n d d i s t r i c t e d u c a tio n a l m eetin g s w ith o u t lo s s o f p a y . P r o g r e s s iv e n e s s o f s c h o o ls was ran k ed s e v e n th by th e te a c h e r s who commented a s f o llo w s : A good e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y r e f l e c t e d i n th e c u rric u lu m . A fo rw ard lo o k in g p o lic y w ith o u t b ein g u l t r a - p r o g r e s s i v e . You have a f e e l i n g t h a t th e s c h o o l i s t r y i n g t o p r o g r e s s . You f e e l you a r e r e p r e s e n tin g a good s c h o o l sy stem . The r e p u ta tio n o f t h i s s c h o o l i s known th ro u g h o u t n o r th ­ w e s te rn Iow a. A p p ro x im ately £ p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s 1 r e p l i e s w ere c r i t i ­ c a l o f th e community and s c h o o l sy stem .

A t y p i c a l comment w as:

I c a n * t im agine a n y th in g h ere t h a t would h o ld a s u p e r io r te a c h e r . T e a c h e rs 1 A tti tu d e s

B ecause o f t h e i r known d is c r im in a tiv e v a lu e i n s e le c tin g in d iv id u a ls w ith f a v o r a b le o r u n fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e s tow ard te a c h in g , two q u e s tio n s w ere in c lu d e d i n p e r s o n a l d a ta re q u e s te d from th e I 7I4.

s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s .^

I n re s p o n s e to th e s e q u e s tio n s , th e te a c h e r s i n

th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls w ere compared w ith th o s e on a n a tio n -w id e su rv ey t o d e te rm in e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r f a v o r a b le o r u n fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e tow ard te a c h in g , and th e e x t e n t t o w hich th e y e n jo y te a c h in g * I n re sp o n s e t o th e q u e s tio n ^designed t o i n d i c a t e w h eth er o r n o t th e te a c h e r s i n t h i s s tu d y would a g a in choose te a c h in g a s a l i f e w ork, t h e s e l e c t e d te a c h e r s r e p o r te d l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y th a n d id th o s e on th e r e c e n t s u rv e y on a n a tio n -w id e b a s is * I n answ er t o th e q u e s tio n , "Suppose you co u ld go back to your c o lle g e days and s t a r t o v e r a g a in ; i n v iew o f y o u r p r e s e n t know­ le d g e , w ould you become a t e a c h e r ? " , th o s e who s a id t h a t g iv e n a chance t o s t a r t o v e r th e y c e r t a i n l y would become te a c h e r s make up th e " f a v o r a b l e - a t t i t u d e " g ro u p . lb 32 28 23 25 37

T h is group in c lu d e d :

p e r c e n t of th e s e le c te d men te a c h e r s p e r c e n t o f th e s e le c te d women te a c h e r s p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n C la ss I sc h o o ls p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n C la ss I I s c h o o ls p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s i n C l a s s . I l l sc h o o ls p e r c e n t o f th e 3731 u rb an te a c h e r s Those who s a id t h a t th e chances w ere ab o u t even f o r and

a g a i n s t , and th o s e who p ro b a b ly o r c e r t a i n l y w ould n o t become te a c h e r s a g a in made up th e " u n fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e " group* U8 p e r c e n t bO p e r c e n t 36 p e r c e n t

T h is group in c lu d e d :

o f t h e s e le c te d men te a c h e r s o f th e s e le c te d women te a c h e r s o f th e te a c h e r s i n C la ss I sch o o ls

1# N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , "The T each er Looks a t P e rso n n e l A d m in is tr a tio n ," R esearc h B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 3 , n o . b* 19b5>, P* 99*

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f a v o r a b le o r u n fa v o ra b le g ro u p . I n an a tte m p t t o d eterm in e th e e x te n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n d e riv e d from te a c h in g , th o s e te a c h e r s (T ab le X X III) who i n d i c a te d th e y en jo y ed te a c h in g s u f f i c i e n t l y to p r e f e r i t t o o th e r work o r who c o n s id e re d i t th e "m o st t h r i l l i n g o f a l l p r o f e s s io n s " made up th e " f a v o r a b le a t t i tu d e" group*

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e x p e r ie n c e , e x c e l l e n t a ssig n m e n ts i n l i g h t o f p a s t t r a i n i n g , and s ta n d ­ a rd c e r t if ic a ti o n .

As h a s b een shown i n t h i s c h a p te r , th e te a c h e r

p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s i n th e s e s c h o o ls , a r e f o r th e m ost p a r t , e x c e l l e n t . The e x t e n t o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith te a c h in g a s a p r o f e s s io n h e ld byte a c h e r s on s u p e r io r s t a f f s i s a to p i c t h a t s h o u ld b e o f g rav e co n cern t o a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u rin g and m a in ta in in g com petent and w e ll a d ju s te d te a c h e r s i n o u r h ig h s c h o o ls . The f a c t t h a t th e s e le c te d te a c h e r s i n d i c a te d a “ f a v o r a b le a t t i t u d e " com parable to a s u rv e y group i n th e e x te n t t o w hich th e y en jo y ed te a c h in g , b u t ran k ed low compared w ith th e same group i n th e e x te n t t o w hich th e y would now t r a i n a s t e a c h e r s , w ould i n d i c a te t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith s a l a r i e s , r a t h e r th a n la c k o f enjoym ent i n te a c h ­ in g ,w o u ld cau se th e s e te a c h e r s t o s e l e c t some o th e r l i f e w ork. A s tu d y o f te a c h e r m o ra le , a s su c h , i s n o t w ith in th e scope o f t h i s s tu d y .

The a u th o r , how ever, would recommend o th e r s tu d ie s

d esig n e d to d is c o v e r th o s e h ig h s c h o o ls w ith u n u s u a lly f i n e te a c h e r m o ra le .

Once lo c a t e d , a com plete a n a ly s is sh o u ld be made to d e te rm in e

th o s e p e rs o n n e l p r a c t i c e s t h a t a re conducive t o c r e a tin g and m a in ta in ­ in g h ig h te a c h e r m o ra le .

Such s tu d ie s sh o u ld p ro v e an in v a lu a b le

c o n t r ib u tio n t o o u r p r e s e n t knowledge o f e f f e c t i v e te a c h e r p e rs o n n e l p ra c tic e s .

C ost of S u p e rio r High School S ta f f s

S c h o o l o f f i c i a l s d e s i r i n g t o se c u re e q u a lly com petent s t a f f s f o r t h e i r h ig h s c h o o ls -w ill ask th e s e q u e s tio n s :

Are th o s e s c h o o ls

w ith u n u s u a lly w e l l - q u a l i f i e d s t a f f s p ro v id in g inducem ent i n th e way o f h ig h e r s a l a r i e s i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t and h o ld s u p e r io r te a c h e r s ? How do th e s a l a r i e s p a id th e s e s u p e r io r s t a f f s compare w ith s a l a r i e s p a id t o te a c h e r s i n com parable s i z e h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa? The s u p e r in te n d e n ts o f th e te n s e le c te d s c h o o ls p ro v id e d th e a u th o r w ith a r e c o rd o f a n n u a l s a l a r i e s p a id h ig h sc h o o l i n s t r u c t o r s f o r th e s c h o o l y e a r s o f 19Uh-U5> 19U£-U6, and 19U6-U7•

The Iowa Edu­

c a t i o n a l D ir e c to r y f o r ea c h y e a r o f th e th r e e - y e a r p e r io d m entioned p ro v id e s a s e p a r a te s a l a r y s tu d y f o r h ig h sc h o o l men and women b ased on t h r e e p o p u la tio n g ro u p in g s , sc h o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y .

bom parable to com m unities w ith h ig h

In a s much a s th e Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c to r y

p r e s e n ts s a l a r y d a ta i n te rm s o f q u a r t i l e s , t h a t b a s i s w i l l be u sed i n th e a n a l y s i s o f s a l a r i e s o f th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls . A com parison o f th e s a l a r i e s p a id th e te a c h e r s i n th e Ames and Boone High S ch o o ls w ith a l l o th e r h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa com m unities ra n g in g from 10,000 t o Du,999 d u rin g th e s c h o o l years o f 19kk-k$9 19k£-U6, and I 9I46-U7 i s p r e s e n te d i n T ab le XXIV.

Out o f e ig h te e n

co m p arativ e s a l a r i e s l i s t e d i n T ab le XXIV, in s ix te e n in s ta n c e s th e s a l a r i e s p a id th e te a c h e r s ran g ed from $38 to $lt38 below th o s e r e ­ p o r te d f o r th e s t a t e d u rin g th e same p e r io d .

94 In Table XXV, th e s a la r ie s p a id tea ch er s i n Cedar F a l l s , Cherokee, C harles C ity and Storm Lake a s a group surpassed th o se being p aid in o th er high sc h o o ls in comparable communities in each o f th e eig h tee n comparisons made* In Table XXVI, th e s a la r i e s p aid high sch o o l tea ch ers in E agle Grove, Independence, Grundy C en ter, and Sheldon r e v e a ls th a t in eig h tee n com parative s a l a r i e s , th e s e le c t e d sch o o ls were above the s ta t e f ig u r e s in tw elv e in s t a n c e s , and below in six * From a t o t a l o f f i f t y - f o u r com parative s a la r ie s l i s t e d in Tables XXTV, XXV, and XXVI, th e s e le c t e d high sch o o l s t a f f s were paid more than th e s t a t e f ig u r e s in tw en ty-n ine c a s e s , p aid l e s s in tw en ty four in s t a n c e s , and th e same i n one in sta n ce* The a v a ila b le evidence does not in d ic a te th a t th e ten commun­ i t i e s w ith u n u su a lly w e ll- q u a lif ie d s t a f f s have made any con sciou s attem pt t o secu re them by o ffe r in g la r g e r s a la r ie s than th o se being paid c u rre n tly t o te a c h e r s in comparable s i z e high sch ools*

T his

s u b s ta n tia te s the statem en ts made by th e su p erin ten d en ts th a t th ey study s a la r y tren d s o f sim ila r s iz e high sch o o ls and to t h e ir know­ ledge t h e ir s a la r ie s were comparable w ith s a la r ie s p aid in other high sch ools*

The s a la r ie s p aid t o th e tea ch ers in the ten s e le c t e d sch o o ls

approximate rath er c lo s e ly th o se p aid t o other high sch o o l teach ers in high sch o o ls having th e same p u p il en rollm en t. As shown e a r l i e r , the s e le c t e d tea ch ers in the ten high sch o o ls in d ic a te d th e sch o o l f a c t o r which th ey con sid ered most

T able XXIV High S ch o o l T ea ch er S a l a r i e s i n Ames and Boone High S ch o o ls Efcr S ex , F o r Y ears 19Uli-19li7

S e le c te d S ch o o l S a la rie s

S a la rie s in Comparable High S ch o o ls

I n Com parison S e le c te d S ch o o ls are

Y ear

Sex

19UU-U5

Men

Q3* Q2 Qi

12330 2300 2130

$2600 2350 2200

Lower Lower Lower

Women

Q3 $2 *1

$1830 1730 1630

$1871 1786 1700

Lower Lower Lower

Men

q3 05 Qi

$2600 2J4.OO 2200

$2725 2U95 2275

Lower Lower Lower

Women

q3

$1950 1900 1850

$2815 2330 2080

Lower Lower Lower

Men

q3

$2850 2625 2375

$2960 2700 2550

Lower Lower Lower

Women

%

$2100 2050 2000

211*5 2050 19U5

19U5-U6

19U6-U7

Q2

Lower Same H igher

# The median - th e m iddle p o in t th e f i r s t q u a r t i l e - m arking a p o in t i n ra n k w ith one q u a r te r below i t (Q ^), and th e t h i r d q u a r t i l e ( Q J have b een d e te rm in e d . One h a l f o f th e numbers ranked i n betw een t h e f i r s t q u a r t i l e and th e t h i r d q u a r t i l e .

Table XXV High S ch o o l T ea ch er S a l a r i e s i n Cedar F a l l s , C herokee, C h a rle s C ity , and S torm Lake b y Sex f o r T e a rs 19hh~19h7

Y ear

Sex

19UU-U5

Men

Women

19k5-h6

Men

Women

19U6-U7

S e le c te d S ch o o l S a la rie s*

I n Comparison S e le c te d S ch o o ls a re

$2670 21*70 2288

$2 £00 2300 2066

H igher H igher H igher

$1890 1800 1728

$1829 17i|2 1611

H igher H igher H ig h er

*3 %

$2800 2620 2UU0

$2689 21436 2210

H igher H igher H igher

*3 %

$2060 1982 i 860

$1988 1888 1810

H igher H igher H igher

$3080 2872 27^0

$2885 2685 21*85

H igher H igher H igher

$2266 2182 2000

$2200 2065 1950

H igher H igher H igher

Q3* Q?

Q3

Men % Cr Women

S a la rie s in Comparable High S ch o o ls

Q3 §2

* The m edian - th e m iddle p o in t (Q2 ) , th e f i r s t q u a r t i l e (Qj) m arking a p o in t i n rank w ith one q u a r te r below i t , and th e t h i r d q u a r t i l e (Q~) have b een determ ined* One h a l f o f th e numbers ran k ed i n betw een th e f i r s t q u a r t i l e and th e t h i r d q u a r ti le *

T able XXVT High S ch o o l T each er S a l a r i e s i n E ag le G ro v e, In d ep en d en ce, Grundy C e n te r, and S h eld o n by Sex f o r Y ears 19l*l*-h7

S e le c te d S ch o o l S a la rie s

S a la rie s in Comparable High S ch o o ls

I n Comparison S e le c te d S ch o o ls are

Y ear

Sex

I9bh-h5

Men

Q3

|2 5 0 0 21*00 2050

$2 5U1 231*2 2063

Lower H igher Lower

Women

Q3 Qg %

11776 1700 1650

$ 181*0 1739 1630

Lower Lower H igher

Men

Q3 02 %.

$2782 2537 2297

$2700 21*50 2150

H igher H igher H igher

$1950 1866 1800

$1988 1821* 1897

Lower H igher Lower

12915 2670 2325

$2800 25U0 2305

H igher H igher H igher

12057 1975 1950

$2050 1800 1700

H igher H igher H igher

19U5-U6

Women $2 Q1 I9k6-k7

Men

Q3 Qg *1

Women

03 %

The median - th e m iddle p o in t (Qg) , th e f i r s t q u a r t i l e (Q^) m arking a p o in t i n ra n k w ith one q u a r te r below i t , and th e t h i r d q u a r t i l e (Qo) have been determ ined* One h a l f o f th e numbers ranked i n betw een th e f i r s t q u a r t i l e and th e t h i r d q u a r tile *

98 im p o rta n t i n th e s e c u rin g and r e t e n t i o n o f an e x c e lle n t h ig h sch o o l te a c h in g s t a f f -was th e e x is te n c e o f a n a g re e a b le w orking r e l a t i o n s h i p b ased on m u tu al r e s p e c t and a sy m p a th e tic u n d e rs ta n d in g on th e p a r t o f th e community, s u p e r in te n d e n t, p r i n c i p a l , and f e llo w te a c h e rs *

The

te a c h e r s i n th e s e l e c t e d s c h o o ls ran k ed s a l a r i e s a s second i n im p o rt­ ance among th o s e s c h o o l and community f a c t o r s te n d in g to a t t r a c t and m a in ta in s u p e r io r te a c h in g s t a f f s .

90 C hapter 1ST THE IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AND COST OF SUPERIOR HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY FACILITIES IN ICOTA SECOND-CLASS CITIES The f o a r f o ld purposes o f t h i s ch ap ter ares (1) To d e sc r ib e th o se procedures used i n t h i s stud y t o id e n t if y te n su p erio r h igh sc h o o l li b r a r ie s (2 ) To p resen t data regardin g th e t r a in in g and tea ch in g ex p erien ce o f th e lib r a r y s t a f f , housing o f th e lib r a r y , equipm ent, adequacy o f book and p e r io d ic a l c o l l e c t i o n , as found i n th e s e le c t e d h igh sc h o o ls (3 ) To determ ine th e c o s t o f p rovid in g ou tstan d in g lib r a r y s e r v ic e i n th e s e le c t e d h igh sc h o o ls (U) To propose l e v e l s o f exp enditure th a t w i l l enable comparable h ig h sc h o o ls t o a t t a in a su p erio r lib r a r y c o lle c t io n * I d e n t if ic a t io n o f Superior High S ch ool L ib r a r ie s

For th e purpose o f t h i s stu d y , i t was n ecessa ry t o id e n t if y ou tstan d in g h ig h sc h o o l li b r a r ie s i n th e n in e ty se c o n d -c la ss c i t i e s i n Iowa*

The North C en tral A sso c ia tio n o f C o lle g es and Secondary

Sch ools req u ired a l l member h ig h sc h o o ls t o f i l e a d e t a ile d rep o rt on a l l a s p e c ts o f t h e ir sc h o o l li b r a r ie s f o r th e sc h o o l y ea r o f 19hl-lj2*

S e v e n ty -fiv e o f th e n in e ty h igh sc h o o ls in Iowa s e c o n d -c la s s

c i t i e s (2 ,0 0 0 - 1 5 ,000) f i l e d th e s e r e p o r ts w ith th e Chairman o f th e S ta te Committee w hich were made a v a ila b le t o the author*

On th e b a s is

o f th e s e r e p o r ts , te n l i b r a r i e s were t e n t a t iv e ly s e le c t e d by th e author i n v iew o f t h e ir o v e r a ll s u p e r io r ity in amount and q u a lity o f

1

{}

t r a i n e d s u p e r v is io n p r o v id e d , th e number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s i n t h e i r book c o l l e c t i o n , th e number o f books added d u rin g th e p re v io u s y e a r , th e am ount s p e n t p e r p u p il f o r books and m agazines th e p re v io u s y e a r , a E q u a lity ” s c o re on a l l p e r i o d i c a l s c u r r e n t l y s u b s c rib e d t o , and th e amount s p e n t f o r a l l books th e p r e v io u s y e a r* The a u th o r* s s e l e c t i o n o f te n s u p e r io r l i b r a r i e s and th e p e r t i n e n t d a ta (s e e A ppendix B) on a l l s e v e n ty - f iv e r e p o r tin g l i b r a r i e s a s g iv e n i n th e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n r e p o r t f o r 19U1-U2 "was p re ­ s e n te d t o Dr* R alp h E . E lls w o r th , D ir e c to r o f L i b r a r i e s , S ta t e U n iv er­ s i t y o f Iowa f o r h i s a p p ro v a l o r f u r t h e r recom m endations.

E ig h t o f

th e te n p r e v io u s ly s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s w ere ap p ro v ed by D r. E lls w o r th , and upon h is s u g g e s tio n , two l i b r a r i e s w ere added t o th e a u th o r *s l i s t f o r a t o t a l o f tw e lv e l i b r a r i e s . The Iowa D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n m a in ta in s f o u r r e g io n a l h ig h s c h o o l s u p e r v is o r s , who d eterm in e by p e r s o n a l in s p e c tio n a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s th e adequacy o f th e h ig h s c h o o ls i n t h e i r a s s ig n e d a r e a s o f th e s t a t e .

T hese s u p e r v is o r s w ere c o g n iz a n t o f th e a c t u a l

c o n d itio n s i n a l l l i b r a r i e s in th e n in e ty s e c o n d -c la s s c i t y h ig h s c h o o ls .

To th e s e s u p e r v is o r s w ere p r e s e n te d th e names o f th e tw elv e

p re v io u s ly s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s t o add th o s e l i b r a r i e s , w hich i n t h e i r o p in io n , e x c e lle d th o s e a lr e a d y l i s t e d , and t o l i m i t th e l i s t t o th e te n l i b r a r i e s t h a t p ro v id e d th e m ost ad eq u a te number and k in d o f l i b r a r y and r e f e r e n c e b o o k s, p e r i o d i c a l s , new sp ap ers, pam­ p h l e t s , and v e r t i c a l f i l e m a te r ia ls f o r th e number o f p u p ils e n r o ll e d ,

and t h a t m et th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p il s and th e n eed s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l c o u rs e s o f f e r e d .

(S ee A ppendix B )

The s u p e r v is o r s 1 f i n a l recom m endation o f t e n o u ts ta n d in g h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s in c lu d e d sev en o f t h e p r e v io u s ly s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s based on th e f in d i n g s o f th e I 9I4I-I42 N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n L ib r a r y R e p o rt.

Two l i b r a r i e s t h a t had undergone a c a r e f u l s t a f f s tu d y and a

c o n s id e ra b le im provem ent s in c e th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t w ere recommended by th e s u p e r v is o r s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n th e f i n a l l i s t o f t e n o u ts ta n d in g h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The Iowa p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s s e le c te d f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y w ere th o s e o f Ames, Boone, A lg o n a, C la r io n , E s t h e r v i l l e , P e r r y , Indep en d en ce, R ockw ell C ity , Sac C ity , and S h eld o n .

F o r p u rp o se s o f

com p ariso n , th o s e h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o llin g 500 t o 750 p u p il s w i l l h e re ­ a f t e r b e r e f e r r e d t o a s C la ss I s c h o o ls ; h ig h sc h o o ls e n r o ll in g 275 t o h99 p u p il s w i l l be d e s ig n a te d a s C la ss I I s c h o o ls ; and th o s e en­ r o l l i n g 175 t o 27lj. p u p il s w i l l be known a s C la ss I I I s c h o o ls .

The t e n

s e le c te d h ig h sc h o o ls w i l l b e grouped a s fo llo w s t y e n ro llm e n ts C la ss I , Ames, Boone; C la ss I I , A lg o n a, C la r io n , E s t h e r v i l l e , P e r r y ; and C la ss I H , In d ep en d e n ce, R ockw ell C ity , Sac C ity , S h eld o n .

Each

o f th e th r e e c l a s s e s c o n ta in s one sc h o o l r e p o r ti n g a j u n i o r c o lle g e ; nam ely, Boone, E s t h e r v i l l e , and S h e ld o n .

I n each o f th e s e le c te d

c i t i e s , a p u b lic l i b r a r y augm ented th e s e r v ic e s a s p ro v id e d by th e h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r y .

302, Method o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n

P e rm is s io n t o make a d e t a i l e d s tu d y o f ea c h o f th e te n s e le c te d h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s was r e a d i l y g ra n te d by th e s u p e r in te n ­ d e n ts .

(S ee A ppendix B )

The su b se q u en t c o o p e ra tio n o f b o th s u p e rin ­

te n d e n ts and l i b r a r i a n s i n th e c o m p letio n o f f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s , book and m agazine i n v e n t o r i e s , and le n g th y in te r v ie w s on p o l i c i e s and p ro ­ c e d u re s was e x c e l l e n t . D u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a r o f 19U6-U7> th e a u th o r s p e n t a day o r more i n each o f th e t e n h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s .

As an a i d i n co n d u ctin g

th e in te r v ie w s w ith p r i n c i p a l s and l i b r a r i a n s , p r e v io u s ly p re p a re d check l i s t s , b ased on th e e a r l i e r 191+1-142 N orth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n L ib r a r y R e p o rt, w ere u se d t o s e c u re p e r t i n e n t in fo rm a tio n r e g a r d in g th e t r a i n ­ in g and te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e o f th e l i b r a r y s t a f f , th e s t a t u s o f th e l i b r a r i a n o r t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n a s r e l a t e d t o th e f a c u l t y , ho u sin g o f th e l i b r a r y , eq u ip m en t, o r g a n iz a tio n , s e l e c t i o n o f books and m ag azin es, and ways u sed b y th e l i b r a r i a n s t o e x te n d e f f e c t i v e l y th e l i b r a r y s e r v ic e .

(See A ppendix B ) Each s u p e r in te n d e n t o f th e t e n l i b r a r i e s was ask ed t o make

a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t (s e e A ppendix B ) on th e s o u rc e and amount o f a n n u a l incom e, and th e n a tu re and amount o f a n n u a l e x p e n d itu re s f o r th e s c h o o l y e a r 19U6-U7*

To d e te rm in e th e e x p e n d itu re l e v e l f o r eac h o f

th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s , th e above f i n a n c i a l d a ta was p a tte r n e d a f t e r th e f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t a s made t o th e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S ch o o ls i n i t s com prehensive l i b r a r y r e p o r t o f 19U1-142.

^

S u p e rv is io n P ro v id e d L ib r a r y

Any s c h o o l w ish in g t o have a n e f f i c i e n t l i b r a r y m ust have a w e l l - t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n who i s allo w e d s u f f i c i e n t tim e t o g iv e th e l i b r a r y th e a t t e n t i o n w hich i t r e q u i r e s .

The r e g u la tio n s o f th e N orth

C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S ch o o ls s p e c if y th e amount o f s u p e r v is io n r e q u ir e d by th e l i b r a r y and th e l i b r a r i a n 's p ro ­ f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t io n a c c o rd in g t o th e s iz e o f th e school.*** I n s c h o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f $00 o r more p u p i l s , th e l i b r a r i a n i s a f u l l - t i m e l i b r a r i a n . I n s c h o o ls w ith a n e n ro llm e n t o f 200-U99 p u p i l s , th e l i b r a r i a n may be a f u l l ­ tim e l i b r a r i a n , o r a t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n j a t l e a s t h a l f th e tim e o f th e t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n i s d ev o ted t o th e l i b r a r y . I n s c h o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f l e s s th a n 200 p u p i l s , a t l e a s t two p e r io d s a day o f th e t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n 1s tim e a r e d e v o te d t o th e l i b r a r y . I n a s c h o o l w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f $00 o r more p u p i l s , th e l i b r a r i a n h as com pleted a minimum o f 2U se m e ste r h o u rs o f l i b r a r y s c ie n c e . I n a s c h o o l w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f 2 0 0 1x99 p u p i l s , th e l i b r a r i a n has com pleted a minimum o f 16 se m e s te r h o u rs . I n a sc h o o l w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f l e s s th a n 200 p u p i l s , th e l i b r a r i a n has com pleted a minimum o f s i x s e m e s te r h o u rs i n l i b r a r y s c ie n c e . The work i n l i b r ­ a r y s c ie n c e in c lu d e s su ch c o u rs e s a s th e fo llo w in g : sc h o o l l i b r a r y o r g a n iz a tio n an d a d m in is tr a t io n , c a ta lo g in g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , book s e l e c t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a te r ia ls w ith em phasis on t h e re a d in g an d n eed s o f a d o le s c e n ts , r e f e r e n c e m a te r ia l and g e n e r a l b ib lio g r a p h y . As shown i n T ab le XXTOII, ’A ll. l i b r a r ia n s - i n - t h e s e l e c t e d ' sc h o o ls had th e b a c h e lo r o f a r t s d e g re e , w ith one l i b r a r i a n h av in g th e b a c h e lo r 1

1 . N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls , " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f Secon­ d a ry S c h o o ls , P a r t I I I , " The North C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l . 2 8 , 19U8, p p . 8 0 -8 1 .

Table XXVII C o lle g e P r e p a r a tio n and S econdary S ch o o l E x p erien ce o f L i b r a r ia n s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o ls C la ss I S ch o o ls (o v e r £00)

P r e p a r a tio n an d E x p e rie n c e

Ames

Boone

H ig h est D egree

B JU

B»A« y B*L*S«

M ajor F i e l d o f S u b je c t M a tte r P r e p a r a tio n

Speech E n g lis h

H is to ry

S em ester Hours o f E d u c a tio n

0

20

Humber Y ears T each in g E x p erien ce i n t h i s S ch o o l

3

0

Number Y ears T each in g E x p erien ce i n O th er S ch o o ls

15

0

L ib ra ry S cie n ce D egree o r C e rtific a te

None

B,L.S#

Hours o f L ib r a r y S c ie n c e to w ard D egree

0

D egree

Y ears L ib r a r y E x p erien ce i n t h i s S chool

1

2

Y ears L ib r a r y E x p e rie n c e i n O ther S ch o o ls o r P u b lic L i b r a r ie s

0

h

C ollege P re p a ra tio n and Secondary School Experience o f L ib ra r ia n s in Ten S e le c te d Iowa High Schools Cla s s I I S ch o o ls (250-U99)

P r e p a r a tio n and E x p e rie n c e

A lgona

C la rio n

E s th e r ­ v ille

P e rry

H ig h e st D egree

B«A*

B.A.

B.A.

BJl#

M ajor F ie l d o f S u b je c t M atter P r e p a r a tio n

P rim ary E d u c a tio n

Home Economics

P sychology S o c io lo g y

E d u c a tio n

S em ester Hours o f E d u c a tio n

0

0

0

35

Number Y ears T eaching E x p erien ce i n t h i s S chool

19

10

0

3

Number Y ears T eaching E x p erien ce i n o th e r S ch o o ls

9

10

10

18

L ib ra ry S c ie n c e D egree or C e rtific a te

No

No

No

No

Hours o f L ib r a r y S cie n ce Toward D egree

0

D egree

2

0

Y ears L ib r a r y E x p e ri­ ence i n t h i s S ch o o l

k

6

9

3

Y ears L ib r a r y E x p e ri­ ence i n o th e r S ch o o ls

0

0

0

0

C ollege P re p a ra tio n and Secondary School E xperience o f L ib ra r ia n s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High Schools C lass I I I S ch ools (175-21+9)

P reparation and Experience

Indepen­ dence

Rockwell C ity

Sac C ity

Sheldon

H ighest Degree

B.A.

BJU

B*A •

B.A.

Major F ie ld o f S u b ject M atter P rep aration

E arth S cien ce

L a tin

P o litic a l S cien ce

B io lo g y

Sem ester Hours o f Education

0

2 k

2

16

Number Years Teaching E xperience in t h i s School

5

26

1

0

Humber Years Teaching Experience in oth er S ch ools

8

3

1

5

Library S cien ce Degree or C e r t if ic a t e

No

No

No

C e r tific a te

Hours o f L ibrary S cien ce toward Degree

0

0

0

10

Years L ibrary E xp eri­ ence i n t h i s S ch ool

5

5

1

1

Years Library E xperi­ ence in o th er S ch o o ls or P u b lic L ib ra r ies

0

0

2

2

10*? o f l i b r a r y s c ie n c e ’.degree V The m a jo r . f i e l d s o f s u b je c t m a tte r p r e p a r ­ a t i o n v a r i e d w ith no two a l ik e *

O n e -h a lf o f th e l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r te d

no fo rm a l work done i n th e f i e l d o f e d u c a tio n , an d th r e e l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r te d tw en ty o r more hours*

A l l th e l i b r a r i a n s i n th e s e le c te d

s c h o o ls , w ith one e x c e p tio n , h ad ta u g h t p r i o r t o e n te r in g l i b r a r y w ork, w h ile sev en o f th e l i b r a r i a n s had ta u g h t i n th e same sy stem i n w hich th e y w ere now w orking b e f o r e assum ing th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e li b r a r y *

The t e n l i b r a r i a n s had sjhent a n a v era g e o f lU*6 y e a r s i n th e

c lassro o m b e f o r e t h e i r e n tra n c e i n t o th e l i b r a r y f i e l d *

I n th e m ajor­

i t y o f i n s t a n c e s , th e l i b r a r i a n s were s t i l l employed i n th e same System w here th e y had o b ta in e d t h e i r f i r s t l i b r a r y e x p e r ie n c e , a s e i g h t o f th e te n l i b r a r i a n s i n d i c a te d no o th e r l i b r a r y e x p e rie n c e o th e r th a n t h a t g a in e d i n th e p r e s e n t system* The m a jo r ity o f th e l i b r a r i a n s i n th e t e n s e le c te d sc h o o ls do n o t , a t p r e s e n t , m eet th e t r a i n i n g re q u ire m e n ts a s o u tlin e d by th e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls,^ - t o be met by J u n e , 1956, w ith s i x o f th e t e n l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r tin g no fo rm al t r a i n i n g i n l i b r a r y sc ie n c e *

Two o f th e t e n l i b r a r i a n s now m eet th e

t r a i n i n g re q u ire m e n ts a s r e q u ir e d a t t h i s tim e .

The s e r io u s n e s s o f

th e la c k o f p r o f e s s io n a l l i b r a r y t r a i n i n g i s e v id e n t when we c o n s id e r

1* N o rth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lleg es and Secondary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f Secon­ d a ry S c h o o ls " , s e c ti o n 3B ( 2 ) , p* 1 0 , 19U9-50*

t h a t f i v e o f th e t e n l i b r a r i a n s i n t h e s e le c te d s c h o o ls have had n e i t h e r fo rm a l l i b r a r y t r a i n i n g o r a c t u a l l i b r a r y e x p e rie n c e i n sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s o th e r th a n th e one i n w hich th e y a r e p r e s e n tl y em ployed. F iv e o f t h e t e n l i b r a r i a n s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls d ev o te f u l l tim e t o th e l i b r a r y .

As s e e n i n T ab le XXyiTI^ Bpozie^EsthffiSftFp^-6 *

and S h e ld o n , a l l o rg a n iz e d w ith a ju n i o r c o l le g e , have f u l l tim e lib ra ria n s .

B oth E s t h e r v i l l e and S h eld o n have exceeded th e r e q u i r e ­

m ents o f t h e N o rth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n a s r e g a r d s th e amount o f tim e th e l i b r a r i a n s h a l l spend i n th e l i b r a r y .

The p re s e n c e o f a j u n i o r

c o lle g e i n each o f th e ab o v e m en tio n ed s c h o o ls may b e a p a r t i a l ex­ p la n a tio n .

O ffic e o r s e c r e t a r i a l a s s is ta n c e i s n o t p ro v id e d i n an y

o f th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s , a lth o u g h e ig h t l i b r a r i e s make ex ten d ed u se o f p u p il a s s i s t a n t s .

The number o f clo ck h o u rs s p e n t i n th e l i b r a r y

ra n g e s from two h o u rs r e p o r te d by t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n s , b o th p a r t tim e and f u l l tim e , t o e i g h t and o n e - h a lf h o u rs g iv e n by f u l l tim e l i b r a r i a n s . I n t h e s e le c te d s c h o o ls , th e l i b r a r i a n , w ith one e x c e p tio n , r e g u l a r l y a tte n d s and ta k e s p a r t i n f a c u l t y m e e tin g s .

Seven o f th e

te n l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r t th e y r e c e iv e th e same s a la r y a s a te a c h e r em­ p lo y e d i n th e same system w ith a com parable amount o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e rie n c e .

Four o f th e te n l i b r a r i a n s in d i c a t e th e y a r e d i r e c t l y

re s p o n s ib le t o th e s u p e r in te n d e n t f o r th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e l i b r a r y , w ith th e re m a in d e r in d i c a t i n g t h e i r f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o th e p r i n c i p a l .

109 T ab le XXVIII C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f L ib r a r y S t a f f Members and H elp ers i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa H igh S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s #

C la ss I 1 2

L i b r a r ia n P u l l Time

X

3

C la s s I I U 5 6

7

X

X

X

C la ss I I I 8 9 10

X

L ib r a r ia n P a r t Time T eacher L ib r a r ia n P u l l Time

X

X

X

X

T each er L i b r a r ia n P a r t Time

X

O ffic e C le rk o r S e c r e ta r y High S ch o o l P u p ils

X

X

8

7i

X

X

X

X

X

X

C ity L i b r a r ia n P a r t Time Clock Hours S p en t i n L ib r a r y

•^Schools a r e coded a s f o llo w s : C la s s I S ch o o ls

C la ss I I S ch o o ls

1 Ames 2 Boone

3 ii 5 6

A lgona C la rio n E s th e rv ille P e r iy

C la ss I I I S ch o o ls T 8 9 10

Independence R ockw ell C ity Sac C ity S h eld o n

The N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n r e g u la tio n s s t a t e " th e l i b r a r y room, o r c o m b in a tio n l i b r a r y - s t u d y h a l l , sh o u ld be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , sh o u ld accom odate a p p ro x im a te ly t e n p e r c e n t o f th e e n r o llm e n t, sh o u ld be a t t r a c t i v e i n a p p e a ra n c e , an d sh o u ld c o n ta in s ta n d a r d l i b r a r y e q u ip ­ m ent, su ch a s : r e a d in g t a b l e s , d esk s o r desk c h a i r s , l i b r a r i a n ^ d e s k , c a b in e ts f o r c a rd c a t a lo g s , m agazines and new spaper r a c k s , d ic t i o n a r y I

s ta n d s , and f i l i n g c a b in e ts *" ■*• S ix o f th e te n s e l e c t e d l i b r a r i e s have a co m b in atio n l i b r a r y s tu d y h a l l arran g em en t*

The s e a tin g c a p a c ity o f each ap p ro x im a te s th e

recommended 10 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l h ig h sc h o o l e n ro llm en t*

2

The N orth

C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n h a s , how ever, e s tim a te d t h a t th e l i b r a r y sh o u ld have a s much sp ace a s any d ep artm en t s e rv in g n o t l e s s th a n $0 p e rc e n t o f th e sch o o l* ^

The a u th o r fo u n d a l l th e l i b r a r i e s e a s i l y a c c e s s ib le

from o th e r p a r t s o f th e b u il d in g , and th e m a jo r ity w ere a t t r a c t i v e i n a p p e a ra n c e •

1* N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls , " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f S econdary S c h o o ls , P a r t I I I " , The N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l* 2 8 , 19U8, p* 8 8 * 2* N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls , " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f S econdary S c h o o ls " , C r i t e r i o n $3 ( 2 ) , 19U9-5>0> P* 20* 3* N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls , " High S ch o o l L ib r a r y S tu d y , 1928" , N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l* 3> S ep tem b er, 1928, p p . 2l&-25?i»

The s e l e c t e d l i b r a r i e s v a r i e d w id e ly i n equipm ent when com­ p a re d on a check l i s t o f se v e n te e n ite m s g e n e r a lly re c o g n iz e d a s de­ s i r a b l e i n a m odern, e f f i c i e n t l i b r a r y A s shown i n T ab le XXUJ f o u r p ie c e s o f l i b r a r y equipm ent w ere common t o a l l ; nam ely, ch a rg in g t r a y s , m agazine r a c k s , c a r d c a b in e t c a t a l o g s , and t y p e w r i t e r s .

Two l i b r a r i e s

r e p o r te d a la c k o f c h a rg in g d e s k s ; th r e e r e p o r te d a need f o r d i c tio n a r y s ta n d s , su p p ly c u p b o ard s, ad eq u a te b u l l e t i n b o a rd s p a c e , and ad eq u a te number o f c h a i r s and re a d in g t a b l e s .

I n th e te n l i b r a r i e s s tu d ie d ,

o n ly f o u r had e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s and th r e e had s in k f a c i l i t i e s i n th e work room.

T hree l i b r a r i e s housed i n r e c e n t l y c o n s tr u c te d b u ild in g s

w ere p ro v id e d w ith w orkroom s, w h ile two r e p o r te d co n fe re n c e and l i b r a r y classro o m s a v a i l a b l e i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e l i b r a r y .

Four

l i b r a r i e s r e p o r te d in a d e q u a te l i g h t i n g , c a b in e ts f o r v e r t i c a l f i l i n g , and new spaper r a c k s .

None o f th e l i b r a r i a n s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls

had b een a s s ig n e d o r h ad assum ed any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s to r a g e o f f i l m s , s l i d e s , and phonograph r e c o r d s .

The m a jo r ity o f th e s e le c te d

l i b r a r i e s w ere p ro v id in g s e r v ic e i n rooms s e r v in g th e d u a l f u n c tio n o f l i b r a r y and s tu d y h a l l .

The m ost s e r io u s h o u sin g problem a s r e ­

v e a le d by th e l i b r a r i a n s was ad eq u a te s to r a g e sp a c e , and p r o p e r ly equip p ed workrooms w ith w a te r an d e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s p ro v id e d .

The

need f o r c o n fe re n c e room s, and l i b r a r y classro o m s was a l s o m entioned by th e m a jo r ity o f l i b r a r i a n s . 1 . F a rg o , L u c i ll e F . , The L ib r a r y i n th e S c h o o l, Am erican L ib ra ry A s s o c ia tio n , C hicago, 1933, p p . 2 2 9 -2 8]?T

T able XXIX L ib ra ry Equipment Found i n Ten S e le c te d L ib ra r ie s *

C la ss I Ite m

1

C onference Rooms

X

Work Room

X

W ater a n d /o r E le c ­ t r i c a l O u tle ts

X

Card C atalo g

2

3

C la s s I I h $

6

7

C la ss I I I 8 9

10

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Magazine Rack

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Newspaper Rack

X

X

X

X

X

Supply Cupboard

X

X

X

T y p e w rite r

X

X

X

B u ll e ti n Board

X

X

X

X

F i l i n g C a b in e ts C lip p in g s , e tc *

X

X

X

Charging Desk

X

X

X

A dequate L ig h tin g

X

X

X

A t t r a c t i v e L ib ra ry

X

X

X

A dequate C h airs and T a b le s

X

X

X

Charging T ray

X

X

X

*

Coded same a s T able XXVIII

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

L ib r a r y Book C o lle c tio n A p p r& isal

A q u a n t i t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s c h o o l l i b r a r y book c o l l e c t i o n conveys l i t t l e s ig n if i c a n c e u n le s s i t i s accom panied by q u a l i t a t i v e m easures a s w e l l .

A v a l i d a p p r a i s a l o f th e h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r y i s

concern ed n o t o n ly w ith t h e number o f books on i t s s h e lv e s , taut a l s o w ith t h e re c e n c y o f s e l e c t i o n .

I t w i l l t e l l w h eth er th e s e l e c t i o n h a s

b een a h ap h azard an d w a s te f u l p r o c e s s , o r w h eth er u s e h a s b een made o f p u rc h a se l i s t s t o o f f e r g u id an ce t o th e l i b r a r i a n so t h a t she may supplem ent h e r p r o f e s s io n a l know ledge i n o r d e r t o a c h ie v e th e i d e a l o f a ’’b e s t11 book f o r th e l i b r a r y . A id s a v a i la b l e a r e o f many k in d s .

The A m erican L ib r a r y

A s s o c ia tio n , w ith th e a s s i s t a n c e o f many com petent s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s , has p re p a re d s e v e r a l b a s ic book c o l l e c t i o n a i d s , among w hich a r e 11One-Thousand Books f o r th e S e n io r High S ch o o l L ib ra ry ” ^ and a l a t e r 2 r e v i s i o n , ftA B asic Book C o lle c tio n f o r High S ch o o l^1 • F o r t h e p u rp o ses o f t h i s s tu d y , i t was d e s ir a b l e t o know th e e x te n t o f p u rc h a se i n th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s o f r e c e n t l y copy­ r ig h t e d books a s w e ll a s th e o ld e r e d i tio n s t h a t have been recommended

1# J o i n t Committee o f th e A m erican L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , n a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n and N a tio n a l C o u n cil o f T ea ch ers o f E n g lis h , 11One-Thousand Books f o r th e S e n io r High S chool L ib r a r y , A m erican L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , 1935> • 2* J o i n t Committee o f th e Am erican L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n and N a tio n a l C ouncil o f T ea ch ers o f E n g lis h , A B asic Book C o lle c tio n f o r High S c h o o ls , American L ib r a r y A sso c i­ a t i o n ^ 19142.

114 by co m petent l i b r a r y a u t h o r i t i e s a s w o rth y o f Mf i r s t p u rch ase” •

The

19l|2 e d i t i o n o f th e S ta n d a rd C atalo g f o r High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s ^ and i t s 19U3-U6 supplem ent l i s t UU8 d i f f e r e n t book t i t l e s recommended by com petent a u t h o r i t i e s a s h av in g h ig h p r i o r i t y i n a b a s ic jhigh s c h o o l l i b r a r y book c o lle c tio n #

A m a s te r l i s t (s e e A ppendix B) was com piled

o f th e I4I1.8 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s so d e sig n a te d #

The c a rd c a ta lo g s i n each

o f th e te n s e l e c t e d h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s w ere checked a g a i n s t th e m a ste r l i s t t o d e te rm in e th e e x te n t t o w hich l i b r a r i a n s had p u rc h a se d th o s e books w hich had been d e s ig n a te d a s o f s u f f i c i e n t v a lu e t o w a rra n t e a r l y p u rch ase#

I t was found t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly h a l f o f th e books on

th e d e riv e d m a s te r l i s t a p p e a re d e a r l i e r i n th e A m erican L ib r a r y A s s o c i a ti o n 's recommended s e l e c t i o n s o r ”A B a s ic Book C o lle c tio n f o r High S ch o o ls” , and 11One-Thousand Books f o r th e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l.” The f a c t t h a t o n ly h a l f o f th e books i n th e two above m entioned l i s t s ap p ear i n th e m a s te r l i s t u sed i n t h i s s tu d y may be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o th e re c e n c y o f th e books l i s t e d i n th e s ta n d a rd c a ta lo g # L e s t th e u se o f p re p a re d book l i s t s i n e v a lu a tin g th e book c o l l e c t i o n sh o u ld c au se some t o r e l y s o le l y upon such a i d s , i t m ust be em phasized t h a t to o much dependence upon l i s t s p re p a re d by o u ts id e a g e n c ie s f a i l s t o c o n s id e r l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e i r u s e f u lln e s s #

P e rs o n a l

and p r o f e s s io n a l knowledge and b ack g ro u n d , and keen judgem ent o f th e

1# Monroe, I s a b e l S . and J e r v i s , R u th , S tan d a rd C atalo g f o r High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s , W ilson P u b lis h in g Co#, C hicago, 19U2-G6.

l i b r a r i a n m ust r e in f o r c e such s u g g e s tio n s . The a u th o r and h is a s s i s t a n t checked th e c a rd c a ta lo g s i n each o f t h e t e n s e l e c t e d h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s a g a in s t th e m a ste r l i s t t o d e te rm in e th e e x te n t t o w hich each l i b r a r y had p u rc h a se d th o s e books w hich had b een d e s ig n a te d a s o f s u f f i c i e n t v a lu e t o w a rra n t e a r l y p u r­ ch ase.

F o r t h e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y , i t was assumed t h a t a l l books

i n th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s f o r w hich a c a rd was on f i l e w ere on th e s h e lv e s and a v a i la b l e f o r s tu d e n t u s e .

Due to th e f a c t t h a t some

books w ere a t th e b in d e ry and some w ere m isp la c e d o r l o s t , th e a c t u a l number o f " f i r s t p u rc h a se ” books a v a i la b l e f o r s tu d e n t and f a c u l t y u se would be s l i g h t l y l e s s th a n r e p o r te d h e r e . From th e l i s t o f UU8 t i t l e s , * f i v e were found i n a l l t e n l i b r a r i e s 5 nam ely, The B ib le , D av id C o p p e rfie ld , Iv an h o e, T re a su re I s la n d , and The V ir g in ia n .

A p p ro x im ately o n e - th ir d o f th e t i t l e s

were t o be found i n o n ly one o f th e t e n l i b r a r i e s o r n o t a t a l l *

The

d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i t l e s i n th e v a r io u s s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s i s shown i n Table XXX. The s c h o o l w ith th e g r e a t e s t number o f " f i r s t p u rch ase” t i t l e s had a p p ro x im a te ly tw ic e a s many a s d id th e two l i b r a r i e s w ith th e l e a s t number o f recommended t i t l e s . The li m it e d number o f " f i r s t p u rch ase” t i t l e s i n th e s e le c ­ te d l i b r a r i e s can n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o th e e x c e s s iv e c o s t o f th e books so d e s ig n a te d .

Two-hundred and sev en books on th e l i s t o f U ;8 w ere

c o p y rig h te d betw een 1936 and 19U6.

The average p r ic e f o r th e 207

118

T able m Humber o f 11F i r s t P u rch ase” Books Found i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r ie s

C la ss

I I II II

n ii h i h i

in in

S ch o o ls

” F i r s t P u rch ase” T i t l e s

Ames Boone

135 15U

A lgona C la rio n E s th e rv ille P e rry

162

Independence R ockw ell C ity Sac C ity Sheldon

88

137 92 I8it

92 88

129

books (w ith o u t d is c o u n t and s h ip p in g c h a rg e s) a s l i s t e d i n th e S ta n d a rd C a ta lo g f o r High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s i s $ 2 ,0 6 ,

D u rin g th e t e n y e a r p e r io d

(1936- 19U6 ) , a l i b r a r y c o u ld have p u rc h a se d a l l th e new ly p u b lis h e d books d e s ig n a te d f o r " f i r s t p u rc h a se ” f o r an av era g e y e a r l y c o s t o f $ii2 , 6U.

The p u rc h a se p r i c e o f a l l I4JL4.8 recommended t i t l e s co u ld be

made to d a y a t an ap p ro x im ate c o s t o f $1100 •0 0 * A com plete l i s t o f th e 1(24.8 t i t l e s u sed b y th e a u th o r to d eterm in e th e re c e n c y and q u a l i t y o f th e book c o l l e c t i o n i n th e t e n s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s , c o p y rig h t d a t e s , l i s t p r i c e , Dewey c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and l i b r a r i e s c a ta lo g in g each book w i l l be fo u n d i n A ppendix B. A ll l i b r a r i a n s i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls su b m itte d a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on eac h book c o l l e c t i o n s i m i la r to t h a t ask ed f o r b y th e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S ch o o ls i n i t s 19ltf.-l£ * r e p o r t on s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . T h is r e p o r t i n t u r n 7*as a d a p te d from S e c tio n F o f th e E v a lu a tiv e C riteria,**-

Each l i b r a r i a n r e p o r te d th e

number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s i n th e l i b r a r y , c o u n tin g e a c h t i t l e o n ly once, r e g a r d le s s o f th e number o f c o p ie s by th e same t i t l e .

As an

a i d i n l a t e r d e te rm in in g th e b a la n c e among th e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a ­ t i o n s , th e l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r te d th e number o f t i t l e s l i s t e d u n d e r each o f th e su b -h ead s o f th e Dewey c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s f o llo w s :

g e n e ra l

r e f e r e n c e , 0 0 0 -0 9 9 ; p h ilo s o p h y , 100 -1 9 9 ; r e l i g i o n , 200- 2 9 9 ; s o c i a l s c ie n c e (e x c lu d in g h i s t o r y ) , 300 -3 9 9 ; p h ilo lo g y , UOO-U99; n a t u r a l 1 , C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S ch o o l S ta n d a rd s Com m ittee, E v alu a t iv e C r i t e r i a « S e c tio n F , The Committee, W ashington D ,C«,

s c ie n c e , 5 0 0 -5 9 9 ; u s e f u l a r t s , 600 -6 9 9 ; f i n e a r t s , 700-799; l i t e r a t u r e , 800-899; h i s t o r y and t r a v e l , 900-999; b io g ra p h y , 920; and f i c t i o n and s h o rt s to ry c o lle c tio n s . The l a r g e s t and s m a lle s t c o l l e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s "was r e p o r te d b y two C la ss I I s c h o o ls w ith iv e ly ,

and 1 ,7 9 7 t i t l e s r e s p e c t­

T h ree l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r te d s y s te m a tic p ro c e d u re s f o r th e d i s ­

p o s a l o f o b s o le te m a te r ia l i n th e book c o l l e c t i o n , w h ile a i d l i b r a r i a n s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r book c o l l e c t i o n had been exam ined c a r e f u l l y w ith in th e l a s t f i v e y e a r s , and d is p o s a l made o f t h e o b s o le te and w orn m a ter­ ia ls ,

One s c h o o l had r e c e n t l y red u ce d i t s book c o l l e c t i o n by d is c a r d ­

in g a l l t e x t s and r e f e r e n c e m a te r ia l p e r ta in in g t o a d is c o n tin u e d n o r­ mal t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .

No a tte m p t was made t o e v a lu a te th e l i b r a r y

h o ld in g s o f eac h sc h o o l t o d eterm in e th e a v era g e age o f th e book h o ld in g s , o th e r th a n to d e te rm in e th e e x te n t o f th e recommended " f i r s t purch ase" h o ld in g s .

The a u th o r h as no re a so n t o b e l ie v e , how ever, t h a t

any o f th e l i b r a r i e s i n T ab le ODE had g r e a t l y in c r e a s e d t h e i r book c o l l e c t i o n by th e r e t e n t i o n o f o b s o le te m a t e r i a l , L ib ra x y a u t h o r i t i e s a r e i n g e n e ra l agreem ent a s t o th e p ro p e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books among th e v a r io u s f i e l d s t o com prise a b a la n c e d h ig h sc h o o l c o l l e c t i o n ,

D ouglass r e p o r t s " th e d i s t r i b u t i o n

o f books i n th e S ta n d a rd C atalo g f o r High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s form s a good p e rc e n ta g e b a s i s f o r e v a lu a tin g th e v a r i e t y i n a h ig h s c h o o l book c o l l e c t i o n ," 1,

1

One s t a t e recommends a p e rc e n ta g e b a s i s f o r

D o u g las, Mary P eaco ck , T e a c h e r - L ib r a r ia n Handbook, A m erican L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , C hicago^ p . 19U1.

Table XXXI Number o f D i f f e r e n t T i t l e s i n Ten S e le c te d L i b r a r i e s i n Iowa S eco n d -C lass C it ie s

C la ss

I I II II II II III III III III

C ity

Number o f D if f e r e n t T i t l e s

Ames Boone

2131 3US9

A lgona C la rio n E s th e rv ille P e rry

1992 1797 U377 2300

Independence R ockw ell C ity Sac C ity S h eld o n

311*7 1950 2630 2595

e v a lu a tin g th e l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n b a se d on th e la r g e s u b - d iv is io n s o f th e Dewey c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .'* '

U sing t h i s s u g g e ste d d i s t r i b u t i o n as a

s ta n d a rd , i t w i l l be seen i n T able XXXII t h a t th e b alan ce i n each l i b r a r y v a r i e s betw een c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n each s c h o o l, b u t i n g e n e r a l fo llo w s r a t h e r c l o s e l y th e a c c e p te d r a t i o s .

I t sh o u ld be n o te d , how­

e v e r, t h a t th e s o c i a l s c ie n c e c o l l e c t i o n i n a l l s c h o o ls s tu d ie d e a s i l y exceeds th e a c c e o p te d f ig u r e o f e i g h t p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n devoted t o t h a t a r e a .

T h is may be due to th e r e c e n t em phasis and

acknowledgement o f th e im p o rtan ce o f c o l l a t e r a l re a d in g i n th e s o c i a l stu d y a r e a .

I n c o n t r a s t , each o f th e te n l i b r a r i e s f e l l below th e

a c c e p te d f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l c o l le c t io n d ev o ted to f in e a r t s . 2 I f we a r e to a c c e p t D o u g la s1 recom m endation t h a t o n e -fo u rth o f th e book c o l l e c t i o n sh o u ld be d e v o te d to f i c t i o n and s h o r t s to r y c o lle c ­ t i o n s , a l l th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s sh o u ld in c r e a s e t h e i r p u rc h a se s i n th is a re a . C u rre n t Magazine A p p ra is a l

From 1936 t o 19U l, a t l e a s t seven p o l l s were ta k e n among groups o f l i b r a r i a n s , te a c h e r s , and p u p ils to d eterm in e p r e f e r e n c e s of v a r io u s groups and to e s t a b l i s h a b a s is f o r i n t e l l i g e n t s e le c tio n

1 . D o u g las, Mary P eaco ck , T e a c h e r-L ib ra ria n Handbook, p . 6 7 .

121 T able XXXH B alan ce i n Book C o lle c tio n i n Ten S e le c te d Io-wa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s C la ss I S ch o o ls

A rea

Recommended ft

Ames

Boone

G e n e ra l R efere n ce 000-099

2ft

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P h ilo so p h y 100-199

1$

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2.2 ft

R e lig io n 200-299

2ft

•h%

1.1ft

S o c ia l S c ie n c e 300-399

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1 6 . 3ft

P h ilo lo g y U00-U99

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l.£ f t

N a tu ra l S c ie n c e £00-£99

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U se fu l A r ts 600-699

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18.7%

21.9ft

H is to r y , T r a v e l, B iography 900-999

26%

21.5ft

26.0ft

F i c t i o n , S h o rt S to r y

20%

8.2ft

11.6ft

F in e A r ts 700-799

B alance i n Book C o lle c tio n i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High School L ib ra r ie s C la s s I I S ch o o ls

A rea

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A lgona

G e n e ra l R e fe re n c e 000-099

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P h ilo so p h y 100-199

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.9%

.6%

2.0%

2.1%

2.8%

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13.3%

19.0%

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H isto ry * T ra v e l B iography 900-999

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T*. CO •

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S h eld o n

•'24 o f p e r i o d i c a l s f o r h ig h s c h o o l use*

These p o l l s w ere R e a d e rs 1 Guide

to P e r i o d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , E e l l ' s L i s t , The C a l if o r n ia L i s t , The Ohio L i s t , N a tio n a l C o u n cil o f T ea ch ers o f E n g lis h , New York C ity P u p il P o l l , and th e W ashington S t a t e Poll*'*'

F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y ,

th e s c o rin g te c h n iq u e a s o u tl in e d i n th e E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a o f th e C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary E d u c a tio n was adopted* To d e te rm in e th e adequacy o f th e p e r i o d i c a l and new spaper c o l l e c t i o n , th e a u th o r s e c u re d th e t i t l e s o f a l l c u r r e n t m agazines sub­ s c r ib e d t o t y each o f th e te n s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s *

F o r convenience i n

ch e c k in g , th e m ost p o p u la r p e r i o d i c a l s were l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and each l i b r a r i a n was ask ed t o check th o s e s u b s c rib e d t o c u rre n tly *

To

d eterm in e o b je c tiv e ly th e v a lu e o f th e p e r i o d i c a l c o l l e c t i o n , a E qual­ i t y sco re" u sed i n th e S e c tio n F o f th e E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a o f th e C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S ch o o l S tan d a rd s^ was a s s ig n e d each p u b lic a tio n and th e t o t a l sc o re d ete rm in e d .

T h is q u a l i t y s c o re r e ­

p r e s e n ts th e com posite judgem ent o f a la r g e group o f seco n d ary sch o o l l i b r a r i a n s a s t o th e v a lu e o f each p e r i o d i c a l f o r a seco n d ary s c h o o l li b r a r y *

The t o t a l s c o re made b y ea c h s c h o o l l i b r a r y on th e b a s i s o f

a l l i t s p e r io d i c a l s i s shown i n T ab le XXXIII*

1* M a rtin , L au ra K a th e r in e , M agazines f o r High S c h o o ls , H* W. W ilson Company, New Y ork, 19U l, pp* 22-39* 2 . C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S ch o o l S ta n d a rd s Committee, E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a S e c tio n F , The Comm ittee, W ashington D .C *,1938.

Table XXXEII Q u a lity S co re A ssig n ed to th e Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L ib r a r y C u rre n t M agazine C o lle c tio n s

Q u a lity S core

P e r c e n t ile Rank (by C o o p erativ e Study)***

Ames Boone

283 292

91 93

A lgona C la rio n E s th e rv ille P e rry

2k9 239 132 30U

19 83 33 9U

Independence R ockw ell C ity Sac C ity S h eld o n

291 195 206 208

93 62 70 70

S ch o o l

C la ss I C lass I I

C lass I I I

14' C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S chool S ta n d a rd s Committee, E d u c a tio n a l T e m p e ra tu re s, W ashington, B. C. , 19^0, p . 9*

126 The a v e ra g e q u a l i t y sc o re o f a l l t e n l i b r a r i e s was 2\\0 p o i n t s , w ith in d i v i d u a l l i b r a r i e s ra n g in g from 132 t o 30U p o in ts * An a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t o f th o s e p e r i o d i c a l s found i n f i v e tor more o f th e t e n s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s i s g iv e n i n T a b le XXXIV. A reas o f Needed Improvement

E ach l i b r a r i a n was ask ed t o name th r e e a r e a s m ost i n need o f im provem ent, assum ing an u n lim ite d b u d g et and no a d m in is tr a tiv e r e s t r i c ­ tio n s *

The m ost f r e q u e n t ly m entioned im provement su g g e ste d was th e

s e p a r a tio n o f th e s tu d y h a l l from th e l i b r a r y , w ith a c o u s t i c a l l y t r e a t ­ ed c o n fe re n c e rooms and w e ll-e q u ip p e d work rooms lo c a te d im m ed iately a d ja c e n t t o th e li b r a r y *

The second m ost f r e q u e n tly m entioned n eed

was f o r an in c r e a s e i n th e f i c t i o n , t r a v e l , and b io g rap h y c o lle c tio n * As s t a t e d p r e v io u s ly , none o f th e t e n l i b r a r i e s i n th e s tu d y had a s much a s 2$ p e r c e n t o f t h e i r book c o l le c t io n s d ev o ted t o th e s e c l a s s i f i ­ c a tio n s *

Four l i b r a r i a n s m en tio n ed th e need f o r b e t t e r book s e le c ­

t i o n on th e p a r t o f th e classro o m t e a c h e r , w ith s e v e r a l em phasizing th e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f th e classro o m te a c h e r making a c a r e f u l e v a lu a tio n of th e p r e s e n t l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s b e f o r e r e q u is i tio n i n g a d d i t i o n a l m a te ria l*

The need f o r b e t t e r b u d g e ta ry p r a c t i c e s was th o u g h t im ­

p o r ta n t by two l i b r a r i a n s *

Im provem ents m entioned o n ly once w ere more

s h e lv in g , f i l i n g s p a c e , in c r e a s e d tim e i n th e l i b r a r y b y th e l i b r a r i a n , and a more a t t r a c t i v e l i b r a r y atm osphere*

127 Table XXXIV P e r i o d i c a l s Found i n F iv e o r More o f th e Ten S e le c te d L i b r a r ie s

P e rio d ic a l

Number o f S ch o o ls S u b s c rib in g

A m erican G i r l A m erican M agazine A th le tic Jo u rn a l B e tte r Homes and G ardens B u sin ess Week: C le a r in g House C o llie rs C u rre n t H is to r y M agazine D es M oines R e g is te r E n g lis h J o u r n a l F ie ld an d S tream F o re c a st Good H ousekeeping Gregg W r ite r H a rp e rf s M agazine H oard*s Dairyman Hy-giea I n d u s t r i a l A r ts and V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n L if e McCall* s M agazine N a tio n s S ch o o ls N ature M agazine News-Week P a r e n ts M agazine P o p u la r M echanics P o p u la r S cien ce P r a c t i c a l Home Economics R ead ers D ig e s t R ead ers Guide S a tu rd a y Evening P o s t S c h o la s tic S ch o o l A r ts Magazine S ch o o l M u sicia n S c ie n c e News L e t t e r Time U n ite d S t a t e s News V i t a l S peeches W ilso n B u ll e ti n f o r L i b r a r i e s

9 6 7 10 5 5 5 6 6 5 6 8 7 6 5 9 6 7 10 £ 7 10 5 9 7 6 10 5 6 7 5 5 8 8 6 5 5

Sessss sea

l i b r a r y S e rv ic e

A H s c h o o ls whose l i b r a r i e s a r e in c lu d e d i n t h i s s tu d y o f s u p e r io r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s a r e members o f th e N orth C e n tr a l A sso cia­ t i o n o f C o lle g e s and S eco n d ary S chools#

E l i g i b i l i t y f o r a school* s

membership i s d ep en d en t upon th e o b serv an ce o f c e r t a i n m inim a, below w hich i t i s ag re e d t h a t s c h o o ls may n o t f a l l and s t i l l be c o n s id e re d a c c e p ta b le a c c o rd in g t o th e A s s o c ia tio n ’ s " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r A p p ro v al o f S eco n d ary S ch o o ls” •

As a f l o o r below w hich

i t i s a g re e d t h a t no member s c h o o ls may f a l l a r e d e f i n i t e s ta te m e n ts p e r ta in in g t o th e l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu r e s . (a) T h a t p a r t o f t h e a n n u a l seco n d ary s c h o o l b u d g et d ev o ted t o l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu re s v a r i e s a c c o rd in g to th e s iz e o f th e s c h o o l, th e g r e a t e r th e p u p il p e r c a p i t a ex p e n d itu re # A minimum amount o f $ 2 0 0 .0 0 i s expended a n n u a lly i n each seco n d ary s c h o o l f o r th e p u rc h a se o f l i b r a r y b o o k s, p e r io d i­ c a l s , n ew sp ap ers, p a m p h le ts, v e r t i c a l f i l e m a t e r i a l s , and s u p p lie s . (b) The b u d g et i s p la n n ed i n acco rd an ce w ith l i b r a r y needs a s shown b y th e a n n u a l l i b r a r y in v e n to r y and i n acco rd an ce w ith th e s c h o o l’s o b je c tiv e s f o r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . The fo llo w in g s c a le o f a n n u a l e x p e n d itu re s i s recommended a s a guide# S ch o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f 1000 o r more p u p il s expend a p p ro x im a te ly $0$ p e r p u p il# S c h o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f 3>00 t o 999 p u p ils expend ap p ro x im a te ly 7$$ p e r p u p i l .

1# N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S eco n d ary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f Secondary S c h o o ls , P a r t I I P 1, The N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly 3 v o l# 2 8 , 1 9 ltf, p . 8 3 .

S c h o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f 200 t o h99 p u p ils expend a p p ro x im a te ly $ 1 .0 0 p e r p u p i l . S c h o o ls w ith an e n ro llm e n t o f l e s s th a n 200 p u p ils expend n o t l e s s th a n $ 2 0 0 .0 0 a n n u a lly . A community i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u rin g a more f u n c ti o n a l l i b r a r y i n i t s h ig h s c h o o l m ust n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s id e r th e c o s t o f su ch a program . As an a i d t o l i b r a r i a n s and a d m in is tr a to r s i n p la n n in g th e l i b r a r y b u d g e t, th e c o s t o f p ro v id in g s u p e r io r l i b r a r y s e r v ic e i n com parable s iz e d h ig h s c h o o ls sh o u ld p ro v e in v a lu a b le .

What i s th e p e r p u p il

c o s t o f e x p e n d itu r e s f o r l i b r a r y s e r v ic e i n v a ry in g s iz e h ig h s c h o o ls ? Does s u p e r io r s e r v ic e i n th e s m a ll s c h o o l l i b r a r y e n t a i l a g r e a t e r e x p e n d itu re p e r p u p il th a n i n th e l a r g e r sc h o o l?

What i s th e a n n u a l

p e r p u p i l c o s t f o r b o o k s, m a g azin e s, and new spapers i n v a r io u s s iz e d h ig h s c h o o ls ?

Does t h i s p e r p u p il c o s t f o r b o o k s, m ag azin es, and

new spapers lik e w is e in c r e a s e i n th e s m a lle r sc h o o ls a s compared w ith sc h o o ls w ith g r e a t e r e n ro llm e n ts ? The m ost a c c u r a te e x p e n d itu re re c o rd s a v a i la b l e f o r th e s e le c te d s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , p r i o r to th e p r e s e n t s tu d y , a r e th o s e p ro ­ v id e d b y th e s u p e r in te n d e n ts i n t h e i r "R ep o rt on th e S ch o o l L ib r a r y f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear 19U1-U2", upon r e q u e s t o f th e N orth C e n tr a l A sso c i­ a t i o n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls .

T h is r e p o r t r e q u ir e d a com­

p l e t e l i s t i n g o f a l l l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu re s u n d er th e su b -h ead in g s o f s a l a r i e s and w ages, g e n e r a l e n c y c lo p e d ia s , s u p p lie s and eq u ip m en t, books, b in d in g and r e p a i r , m agazines and n ew sp ap ers, f i l m s , and o th e r e x p e n d itu r e s .

Due t o th e f a c t t h a t f i l m s e r v ic e i s n o t a f u n c tio n

e i t h e r d e le g a te d t o o r assum ed by any o f th e s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s and t h a t f i l m c o s ts a r e u s u a lly in c lu d e d i n th e s u p e r in te n d e n t’ s b u d g et a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l expense r a t h e r th a n l i s t e d a s l i b r a r y e x p en se, t h i s e x p e n d itu re w i l l be d is r e g a r d e d i n t h e c o s t s tu d y o f t h e s e le c te d lib ra rie s • S a l a r i e s an d wages p a id t o th e l i b r a r i a n s and h e lp e r s s titu te a

con­

l a r g e p a r t o f t he 19U1-U2 e x p e n d itu re s i n eac h o f th e t e n

s u p e r io r l i b r a r i e s a s shown i n T able XXXV* I n two i n s ta n c e s , how ever, a n o m in al f i g u r e , o r none was l i s t e d f o r t h i s ite m , th u s re d u c in g th e t o t a l amount s p e n t, and th u s c a u sin g th o s e l i b r a r i e s t o r e p o r t a r e l ­ a t i v e l y low p u p il co st*

S ix l i b r a r i e s r e p o r te d e x p e n d itu re s f o r gen­

e r a l e x c y c lo p e d ia s d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r w ith Boone r e p o r tin g th e l a r g e s t e x p e n d itu re o f $1;62 *00.

A ll t e n l i b r a r i e s s p e n t a p p ro x im a te ly

th e same amount f o r books w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f Boone w hich r e p o r te d $ 1 ,6 3 9 * 6 3 .

The l a r g e s t t o t a l amount s p e n t f o r any one o f th e te n

s e le c te d l i b r a r i e s was $3,392*32 r e p o r te d by a C la s s I s c h o o l, and th e s m a lle s t amount was r e p o r te d b y a C la ss I I s c h o o l w ith $ 6 6 l . 5 l . In 19U1-U2, th e two C la ss I sc h o o ls r e p o r te d a p e r p u p i l e x p e n d itu re o f $1|.3U and $ £ .5 8 f o r an a v era g e p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re o f $U*96*

The

C lass I I s c h o o ls r e p o r te d p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s ra n g in g from $ 1 .3 1 to $ 6 .3 1 f o r an av e ra g e o f $3 *f>6.

F o r th e same p e r io d , th e C la ss I I I

sc h o o ls l i s t e d p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s ra n g in g from a low o f $ 2 .1 5 to a h ig h o f

$ 6 .8 2 f o r an a v e ra g e p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re o f $U .6 9 * At th e c lo s e o f th e 19l*6-U7 s c h o o l y e a r , eac h o f th e su p e r-

r Table XXXV E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear 19Ul-h2 C la ss I S ch o o ls

E x p e n d itu re s

S a l a r i e s and Wages

Ames

Boone

$1,915*00

$ 750.00 U62.00

G en eral E n c y c lo p e d ia s 3U0.00

1 ,6 3 9 .6 3

Binding and R e p a ir

3 5 .0 0

135.79

M agazines and Newspapers

9 0 .0 0

l*0iw90

S u p p lie s and Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e )

7 5 .00

Books

O ther E x p e n d itu re s T o ta l Amount S p en t Amount S p en t p e r P u p il

2 ,U 5 5 . oo

3 ,3 9 2 .3 2

U.3U

5 .5 8

131

E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear 19hl-k£ C la ss I I S ch o o ls

E x p e n d itu re

Algona

C la rio n

E s th e r v ille

$80 0 .0 0

$U5 0 .0 0

99.50

9 9 .5 0

£30.00

1*96.72

£33.67

B inding an d R e p a ir

£ 0 .0 0

68.68

M agazines and Newspapers

8£.00

1*1*.1*5

6 8 .0 0

S u p p lie s and Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e )

1*1.3 9

20.32

O ther E x p e n d itu re s

1 5 .0 0

S a l a r i e s and Wages

$ 1 ,3 5 0 .0 0

G en eral E n c y c lo p e d ia s Books

T o ta l Amount S p en t Amount S p en t p e r P u p il

P e rry

$ 2 7 .1 5

398.53 11*8.68 8 7 .1 5

2 ,0 l£ .0 0

1,565.71*

1 ,1 7 1 .2 9

6 61 .5 1

3 .8 8

6 .3 1

2 .7 5

1 .3 1

E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear I 9I+I-I42 C la ss I I I S ch o o ls

E x p e n d itu re

In d ep en ­ dence

S a l a r i e s and Wages

$ 780*00

G e n e ra l E n cy c lo p e d ia s Books

U19.97

R ockw ell C ity

$ 1 , 230.00

$ 51+0 .0 0

$ 6 0 .3 3

7U.27

70.00

3 6 0 *3U

355.77

1+50.00

3 1 .1 6

60.00

75.00

135.90

6 6 . U0

25*00

11.32

B inding and R e p a ir M agazines an d Newspapers

100*00

S u p p lie s a n d Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e )

S heldon

Sac C ity

3 7 .08 O ther E x p e n d itu re s T o ta l Amount S pent Amount S p en t p e r P u p il

1 ,2 9 9 .9 7

520*67

1 ,8 7 5 .3 0

1,186.1+0

5.72

2 .1 5

6.82

1+.06

in te n d e n ts f i l e d a n e x p e n d itu re r e p o r t o f t h e i r h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r y f o r th e y e a r -with th e a u th o r , u s in g a s a b a s is th e same f i n a n c i a l form a s was u se d i n th e e a r l i e r 191+1-1+2 r e p o r t*

Each s u p e r in te n d e n t was ask ed

t o a l l o c a t e a p o r ti o n o f th e te a c h e r* s s a l a r y , i n c a se o o f a t e a c h e r l i b r a r i a n c o m b in a tio n , t o s a l a r i e s and wages* was n o t done i n th e 19U1-1+2 r e p o r t*

I n a few in s ta n c e s t h i s

I n each i n s ta n c e , th e s u p e r in te n ­

d e n t e a r l i e r i n th e s c h o o l y e a r co n sen te d t o re c o r d in g a l l l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu re s i n su ch a manner a s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s f i n a l e x p e n d itu re r e p o rt.

The r e s u l t i n g l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu re s a s r e p o r te d h e re a r e a s

a c c u r a te , i n th e o p in io n o f th e a u t h o r , a s may re a s o n a b ly be ex p e c te d a llo w in g f o r th e d if f e r e n c e s i n method o f b u d g e tin g and bookkeeping i n th e v a r io u s s c h o o ls . TableXXXVT shows t h a t f i v e s c h o o ls p u rc h a se d g e n e r a l e n cy c lo ­ p e d ia s d u rin g t h e sc h o o l y e a r , a t a ra n g e i n c o s t t o each s c h o o l from $75 t o $127*50.

The t o t a l e x p e n d itu re s f o r books ran g ed from $207.1+6

i n a C la ss H I s c h o o l t o $2,017.1+7 i n a C la ss I s c h o o l.

B ig h t sc h o o ls

re p o r te d b in d in g and r e p a i r expense a s compared w ith seven l i s t i n g t h a t expense i n an e a r l i e r r e p o r t .

There was c o n s id e ra b le v a r i a t i o n

among s c h o o ls i n t h e same e n ro llm e n t g roup a s t o e x p e n d itu re s f o r p e r i o d i c a l s , some l i b r a r i e s a llo w in g tw ic e a s much f o r p e r i o d i c a l s a s d id o th e r l i b r a r i e s s e rv in g a p p ro x im a te ly th e same number o f s tu d e n ts . The minimum e x p e n d itu re r e p o r te d f o r p e r i o d i c a l s was $50 f o r a h ig h s c h o o l e n r o ll in g 203 p u p il s i n c o n t r a s t w ith $283.70 allo w ed i n a h ig h s c h o o l o f 706 p u p i l s .

T hree l i b r a r i a n s r e p o r te d no e x p e n d itu re s

Table XXXVI E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear 191+6-1+7 C la ss I S ch o o ls

E x p e n d itu re

S a l a r i e s an d Wages

Ames

Boone

$ 2 ,3 0 5 .0 0

$ 1 ,8 0 0 .0 0

Books

1+25.00

2,017.1+7

B inding and R e p a ir

5 8 .00

M agazines an d Newspapers

195*00

283*70

321+ .8 9

103.1+8

3,107*89

l+,20l+.65

1+.9U

5*95

G en eral E n c y c lo p e d ia s

S u p p lie s and Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e ) O ther E x p e n d itu re s T o ta l Amount S p en t Amount S p en t P e r P u p il

E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear 19U6-U7 C la ss I I S ch o o ls

G en eral E n cy c lo p e d ia s Books B indin g and R e p a ir M agazines and Newspapers S u p p lie s an d Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e )

Amount S p en t P e r P u p il

0

0

0

0

»

VH . ro

P e rry

1 2 , 0 55 .0 0 111.00

1 2 7 .5 0 793.00

569.27

759.1*7

370.00

9U.00

8 6 .87

li5.00

9h.h9

170.00

112.37

75 .0 0

22U.O O

1*6.00

39.214

O ther E x p e n d itu re s T o ta l Amount S p en t

E s th e r v ille 8

$ 6U5 .oo



S a l a r i e s and Wages

C la rio n

0

A lgona

8

E x p e n d itu re

2 3 .0 0

2 7 .8 5 1,7148.00

1 ,9 6 3 .0 0

2,079.1*7

2,877.14?

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E x p e n d itu re s i n Ten S e le c te d Iowa High S chool L i b r a r i e s f o r th e S ch o o l T e a r 191*6-1*7 C la ss I I I S ch o o ls

E x p e n d itu re

R ockw ell C ity

Sac C ity

S heldon

$ 1 ,1*97.00

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807.08

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207.1*6

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1 03.23

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S a l a r i e s and Wages G en eral E n c y c lo p e d ia s

S u p p lie s a n d Equipm ent (e x c lu d in g f u r n i t u r e )

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f o r s u p p lie s and equipm ent an d two l i s t e d s m a ll amounts u n d e r " o t h e r expenditures?* w hich w ere n o t i d e n t i f i e d . The p e r p u p i l e x p e n d itu re s f o r s a l a r i e s , e n c y c lo p e d ia s , b o o k s, b in d in g and r e p a i r , p e r i o d i c a l s , s u p p lie s and o th e r e x p e n d itu re s i n th e C lass I s c h o o ls was $l*.9l* and $5*95 f o r an a v e ra g e p e r p u p i l expense i n th e two s c h o o ls o f $ 5 *1*5 * A ran g e from $ 5*08 t o $ 8 .5 6 was fo u n d i n th e f o u r C la ss H s c h o o ls f o r a n a v era g e p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re o f $6*33.

The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n expense p e r p u p il was r e p o r te d i n

th e f o u r C la ss I I I s c h o o ls , t h e i r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s r a n g in g from a low o f $ 3 .9 9 t o a h ig h o f $ 1 0 .9 5 f o r an a v era g e e x p e n d itu re o f $ 6.52 per p u p il. The p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s f o r b o o k s, m ag azin es, and news­ p a p e rs , r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o d e te rm in e , i s o f te n r e q u ir e d o f ad m in is­ t r a t o r s and l i b r a r i a n s i n r e p o r ti n g l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu re s t o t h e i r r e g io n a l a c c r e d itin g , a g e n c ie s .

D uring th e 191*1-1*2 s c h o o l y e a r , th e

s u p e r in te n d e n ts r e p o r te d an a v era g e p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re f o r books and p e r i o d i c a l s o f $1.X3 f o r th e C la ss I s c h o o ls , $1.1*5 f o r th e C la ss I I s c h o o ls , and $ 1 .6 9 f o r t h e C la ss III s c h o o ls .

The r i s e i n

book and p e r i o d i c a l c o s ts i s p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n th e p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s f o r th e s e ite m s f o r th e sch o o l y e a r o f 191*6- 1*7 , a s shown i n TableiXXXVTI. The two C la ss I s c h o o ls r e p o r ti n g 980 and $ 3 .2 5 r e s p e c t iv e l y g iv e an a v era g e o f $ 2 .1 1 .

The f o u r C la ss I I s c h o o ls

ran g ed i n p e r p u p i l e x p e n d itu re s from $ 1 .8 0 to $ 3*31 f o r a n av erag e o f $2*28 a s c o n tr a s te d w ith th e f o u r C lass HI l i b r a r i e s r e p o r tin g

13;3 T able XOTTI P e r P u p il E x p en d itu res f o r Books and P e rio d ic a ls i n Ten S u p e rio r High School L ib r a r ie s f o r School Y ears 19bX-b2 and 19U6-U7

S ch o o ls

19 h l“hZ

19U6-U7

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C la ss I Ames Boone A verage

$ 2 .1 1

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C la ss I I A lgona C la rio n E s th e rv iile Perry-

$ 1 .2 1 2.0U 1.U7 1 .0 8

$ 3 .3 1 1 .9 6 2.0U 1 .8 0 $ 2 .2 8

A verage C la ss I I I Independence R ockw ell C ity Sac C ity S h eld o n A verage

$3 .S3 1.U7 1 .U0 2 .2 5

$ 1 .8 7 1 .6 1 1 .2 7 2 .0 1 $ 1 .6 9

$2 .1 6

feajpenditures ra n g in g from $ 1 . 1*6 t o $ 3 .5 3 f o r a n a v e ra g e o f $ 2 . 1 6 . The N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S ch o o ls e x p e c ts a l l member s c h o o ls t o m a in ta in th o s e s ta n d a r d s o f e x c e lle n c e a s d ev elo p ed b y th e C o o p e ra tiv e S tu d y o f S econdary S ch o o l S ta n d a rd s a s o u tl in e d i n th e E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a . A dequate p r o v is io n s f o r th e s c h o o l l i b r a r y sh o u ld in c lu d e th e f o llo w in g : (1 ) A w e ll- e d u c a te d , e f f i c i e n t l i b r a r i a n ; (2 ) books and p e r i o d i c a l s t o su p p ly th e needs f o r r e f e r e n c e , r e s e a r c h , and c u l t u r a l and i n s p i r a t i o n a l r e a d in g ; ( 3 ) fa rc v is io n s f o r k e e p in g a l l m a te r ia ls f u l l y c a ta lo g u e d and w e ll o rg a n iz e d ; 0 0 a b u d g et w hich p ro v id e d a d e q u a te ly f o r th e m aintenance and improvement o f th e l i b r a r y . P rop o sed E x p e n d itu re s

To ap p ro x im ate th e l i b r a r y s e r v ic e s a s fo u n d i n th e s e s u p e r­ i o r Iowa h ig h sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s , w hat l e v e l o f e x p e n d itu re sh o u ld b e p ro v id e d p e r p u p il f o r b o o k s, m ag azin es, and new spapers?

Not allo w in g

f o r h e a t , w a te r , e l e c t r i c i t y and J a n i t o r s e r v ic e , w hat amount sh o u ld be b u d g eted f o r s a l a r i e s , b o o k s, p e r i o d i c a l s , b in d in g , and s u p p lie s fo r th e lib ra ry ? R ecognizing th e d an g ers in h e r e n t i n e s ta b l is h in g any q u a n ti­ t a t i v e s ta n d a r d , th e e x p e n d itu re s o f th e s e t e n s u p e r io r Iowa h ig h sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s may be u se d a s a uy a r d s tic k " t o a i d th e a d m in is tr a to r and 1 . N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s an d S econdary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f Secondary S c h o o ls , P a r t I I I " , N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l . 2 8 , 1?1|8, p . 81*.

l i b r a r i a n i n d e te rm in in g s u f f i c i e n t fu n d s t o a l l o c a t e t o th e l i b r a r y budget#

Having d e te rm in e d p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re s i n te n s u p e r io r h ig h

s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , s ta n d a r d s o f p e r p u p i l e x p e n d itu re s f o r s i m i l a r s iz e d s c h o o ls may b e recommended*

I n u s in g th e s e c o s t f i g u r e s i n a r r i v i n g a t

b u d g e ta ry e s tim a te s f o r a h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a r y , th e a d m in is tr a t o r sh o u ld b e a r i n mind t h a t th e s e p e r p u p i l e x p e n d itu re s a r e b a s e d on c o s t s tu ­ d ie s a s d e te rm in e d by f i n a n c i a l su rv e y s o f s u p e r io r h ig h s c h o o l l i b r a ­ r i e s , each h av in g an a d eq u a te b a s i c book c o l l e c t i o n , and each having s e r v ic e s supplem ented by o th e r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s i n th e community. For an a d m in is tr a to r t o a r r i v e a t a s u i t a b l e b u d g e ta ry a p p r o p r ia tio n f o r th e l i b r a r y , t h e u s e o f t h e l i b r a r y u n d er v a ry in g p la n s o f sch o o l o rg a n iz a tio n a nd c u rric u lu m developm ent sh o u ld a l s o be c o n s id e re d . R e g io n a l a c c r e d iti n g a g e n c ie s , s t a t e l i b r a r y co d es, and l i b r a r y a u t h o r i t i e s - 1- have lo n g re c o g n iz e d t h a t th o s e s c h o o ls -with th e l a r g e r e n ro llm e n ts r e q u ir e l e s s p e r d a p ita c o s t t o s e rv e e f f e c t i v e l y . As s u g g e s te d i n T ab le 532HT, s m a ll h ig h s c h o o ls w ith e n ro llm e n ts o f 150 t o 27I4. p u p ils sh o u ld a llo w a p p ro x im a te ly $2 .£ 0 p e r p u p il f o r a n n u al book and p e r i o d i c a l e x p e n d itu re s o r a p p ro x im a te ly $ 6 .£ 0 p e r p u p il to p ro v id e f o r a l l l i b r a r y ex p en se, ex c e p t h e a t , w a te r , l i g h t , and ja n i t o r i a l s e rv ic e .

Those h ig h sc h o o ls e n r o llJ n g 27^ to H?9 p u p ils

1# The S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s Committee o f th e A m erican L ib ra ry A s s o c ia tio n , S ch o o l L ib r a r y Y earbook, Ho* S i American L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , 1932, PP*

Table XXXVTII S u g g ested L ib r a r y E x p e n d itu re s f o r S u p e rio r H igh S ch o o l L ib r a r y F a c i l i t i e s

S u g g ested E x p e n d itu re

S ch o o ls E n r o llin g 500-750

S ch o o ls E n r o llin g 275-1i 99

S ch o o ls E n r o llin g 150-27k

P er P u p il E x p e n d itu re ^ f o r Books and P e r io d i c a ls

8 1 .5 0

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P e r P u p il E x p en d itu re^ f o r a l l L ib r a r y C o sts

8 5 .5 0

$ 6 .0 0

$ 6*50

! • Based on I 9I4.6-U 7 book and p e r i o d i c a l c o s t s . 2* E x c lu d in g h e a t , w a te r , l i g h t and j a n i t o r i a l c o s ts *

Should m a in ta in s u p e r io r l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s by a p e r p u p il e x p e n d itu re o f $ 2 .0 0 f o r books and p e r i o d i c a l s and $ 6 .0 0 p e r p u p il t o p ro v id e f o r a l l l i b r a r y e x p e n d itu r e s .

Those l a r g e r h ig h s c h o o ls e n r o ll in g $00 to

75>0 p u p ils may s a f e l y a llo w $ 1*50 and $ £ .£ 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r p e r p u p il c o s ts f o r books and p e r i o d i c a l s and t o t a l p e r p u p i l l i b r a r y e x p en se.

144 C hapter V IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AND COST OF PROVIDING SUPERIOR PROGRAMS OF STUDIES IN SELECTED IOWA HIGH SCHOOLS The t h r e e - f o l d p u rp o se s o f t h i s c h a p te r a r e : (X)

To d e s c r ib e th o s e p ro c e d u re s u se d i n t h i s s tu d y t o i m e n t i f y t e n s u p e r io r h ig h sch o o l program s o f s tu d y i n th e n in e ty pub­ l i c h ig h s c h o o ls i n Iowa s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s .

(2 )

To p r e s e n t d a ta re g a r d in g c o u rse o f f e r i n g s , g ra d u a tio n r e ­ q u ire m e n ts , and problem s co n cern in g th e o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e program s o f s tu d y i n th e s e le c te d s c h o o ls .

(3)

To d eterm in e th e c o s t o f p ro v id in g o u ts ta n d in g program s o f s tu d y i n the s e le c te d s c h o o ls . The 19U3-UU program o f s tu d ie s i n th e l o r n h ig h s c h o o ls was

a s u b je c t o f s e v e r a l in d e p e n d e n t s tu d ie s by Shuey, Jo h an n sen .

1

Noneman,

2

and

Shuey was concerned w ith th e program o f s tu d ie s a s o f f e r e d

i n th e h ig h s c h o o ls o f th e f i r s t and s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s , an a r e a com­ p a ra b le t o t h i s s tu d y .

The f i r s t - c l a s s c i t i e s r e p o r te d on by Shuey,

how ever, w i l l n o t be w ith in th e scope o f t h i s s tu d y .

The th r e e in v e s­

t i g a t o r s m en tio n ed above endeavored t o d eterm in e th e com parative p u p il e n ro llm e n t i n each o f th e m ajor s u b je c t- m a tte r f i e l d s , th e s u b je c ts 1* Shuey, R o b ert K ., 11High S chool Program s o f S tu d y i n th e Large In d ep en d e n t S ch o o l D i s t r i c t s from 19ii-3—UUjtf u n p u b lish e d m a s te r 's t h e s i s , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa, 19U6. 2 . Nonneman, R .F ., "H igh S ch o o l Program s o f S tu d y ," u n p u b lish e d m a s t e r 's t h e s i s , S ta t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 19U6. 3 . Jo h a n n se n , M .J ., "H igh School Program s o f S tu d y i n Iowa In d ep en d en t S ch o o l D i s t r i c t s , " u n p u b lish e d m a s t e r 's t h e s i s , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 19U5.

b e in g o f f e r e d i n each f i e l d , and th e fre q u e n c y w ith w hich c o u rs e s a re o f f e r e d on s e m e s te r and y e a r l y b a s e s i n t h e h ig h s c h o o ls o f Iowa# S e le c tio n o f S ch o o ls w ith O u tsta n d in g Program s o f S tudy

Each f a l l th e S t a t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n r e q u ir e s a l l h ig h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s t o f i l e a f i r s t - s e m e s t e r sc h e d u le o f c l a s s e s o f f e r e d and th e names o f i n s t r u c t o r s .

These sc h e d u le s s u b m itte d b y th e

n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n th e s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s w ere made a v a i la b l e to th e a u th o r who ta b u la te d a l l c o u rs e s o f f e r e d i n eac h h ig h sc h o o l f o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y . To d e te rm in e th e b re a d th o f o f f e r in g o f e a c h h ig h sc h o o l p ro ­ gram o f s t u d i e s , th e number o f C arn eg ie u n i t s r e q u ir e d f o r g ra d u a tio n from each h ig h s c h o o l i n sev en m ajor s u b je c t a r e a s (E n g lis h , s c ie n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , m a th em a tic s, f o r e ig n la n g u a g e , p r a c t i c a l a r t s , and f in e a r t s ) was d eterm in ed by means o f a p o s t a l c a rd s u rv e y .

E ig h ty -

f i v e o f th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls made t h e i r g r a d u a tio n re q u ire m e n ts a v a ila b le .

A summary o f th e g r a d u a tio n re q u ire m e n ts o f th e r e p o r tin g

h ig h s c h o o ls I n Iowa s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s i s g iv en in Appendix C. C r i t e r i a f o r S e le c tio n o f O u tstan d in g High S chool Program s o f S tu d y

F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h is s tu d y , a h ig h sch o o l was c o n s id e re d to have a s u p e r io r program o f s tu d ie s i f i t e q u a lle d o r e x c e lle d each o f th e f i v e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d on th e n e x t pages

(1 ) The c o u rs e o f f e r in g s m ust e q u a l o r e x c e l, th e m edian o f f e r in g s o f th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n f i v e o f seven s u b je c t- m a tte r a r e a s , o f th o s e s c h o o ls com parable i n s iz e * (2 ) The program o f s tu d ie s m ust show some e v id en ce o f r e o r g a n iz a ­ t i o n o f th e c o u rse o f stu d y alo n g su ch l i n e s a s : a ) An in c r e a s e d Em phasis on th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Such c o u rse s a s a n c ie n t h i s t o r y , and m e d iev al h i s t o r y b ein g r e p la c e d b y w o rld h i s t o r y , modem p ro b lem s, o r s o c i a l p ro b lem s. b) I n c r e a s e d o f f e r in g s i n g e n e r a l c o u r s e s , su ch a s g e n e r a l s c ie n c e , g e n e r a l b io lo g y , g e n e ra l b u s in e s s , and g e n e r a l m a th e m a tic s. c) E x te n s iv e o f f e r in g s in th e p r a c t i c a l a r t s . (3) An aw aren ess o f th e need f o r c u rric u lu m e v a lu a tio n and a n a c t ­ iv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o th a d m in is tr a to r and te a c h e r s i n i t s c o n tin u o u s r e v i s i o n . (U) The program sh o u ld p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y and b re a d th o f o f f e r i n g s . G ra d u a tio n re q u ire m e n ts sh o u ld make m andatory s tu d e n t p a r t i c i ­ p a tio n i n a l a r g e number o f f i e l d s . (£) Each s e le c te d s c h o o l must have th e a p p ro v a l o f th e Iowa h ig h s c h o o l a r e a s u p e r v is o r a s p ro v id in g an o u ts ta n d in g program of s tu d ie s . On th e b a s i s o f th e s e c r i t e r i a , th e a u th o r made a t e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f t en h ig h s c h o o ls having e x c e lle n t program s o f s tu d y f o r f u rth e r a n a ly s is .

The Iowa h ig h sch o o l s u p e rv is o rs r e a d i l y approved a l l

s c h o o ls b u t o n e, s u g g e s tin g i n i t s p la c e a h ig h s c h o o l t h a t had been engaged a c t i v e l y i n c u rric u lu m r e s e a r c h f o r th e two p re c e d in g y e a r s . The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n s , b a se d upon e x c e lle n c e i n th e s t a t e d c r i t e r i a and upon hav in g met th e a p p ro v a l o f th e a r e a s u p e r v is o r were a s fo llo w s : C la ss I (£00 p u p il s o r m ore, Ames, Boone; C la ss I I (275-U 99), A lb ia , Cedar F a l l s , C la r io n , E s t h e r v i l l e ; G lass I I I (l£ 0 -2 7 U ), In d ep en d en ce, M an ch este r, M o n tic e llo , S h e ld o n .

The a u th o r s p e n t one day i n each o f th e s e l e c t e d s c h o o ls checkang c la ssro o m s c h e d u le s f o r b o th se m e s te rs a g a i n s t th e sc h e d u le m a te r ia l e a r l i e r re c o rd e d i n th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n . A ll b u l l e t i n s and o f f i c e announcem ents i n r e g a r d t o s e l e c t i o n o f c o u rs e s , re q u ir e m e n ts , a s w e ll a s any p r i n t e d m a te r ia l f o r s tu d e n t o r p a r e n t i n c o n n e c tio n w ith co u rse s e l e c t i o n o r o f a d e s c r ip t iv e n a t u r e , w ere c o l­ le c t e d f o r l a t e r e x a m in a tio n .

A c o n fe re n c e was a rra n g e d w ith eac h p r i n ­

c i p a l c e n te r in g ab o u t th e m ajor r e v is i o n s i n th e program o f s tu d ie s accom p lish ed i n th e t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r to t h i s s tu d y , and a d is c u s s io n o f t h e a r e a s now in need o f s tu d y and p o s s i b le r e v i s i o n .

Each p r i n c i ­

p a l was ask ed t o s t a t e w hat he f e l t was o u t-s ta n d in g a b o u t th e p r e s e n t co u rse o f s tu d y , and t o w hat e x te n t a more e f f e c t i v e program o f s t u d i e s was d ep en d en t upon o th e r f a c t o r s such a s s t a f f , l i b r a r y , b u ild in g de­ s ig n , an d c la ssro o m equ ip m en t. An ex am in atio n o f th e c lassro o m s c h e d u le s f i l e d by th e n in e ty h ig h s c h o o ls i n s e c o n d -c la s s c i t i e s w ith th e S ta te D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n r e v e a ls a w ide v a r i a t i o n i n th e program s o f f e r e d even i n com inunities o f com parable s i z e .

The e x te n t o f t h i s ran g e may be se e n

i n T ab le XXXIX, w h ich shows t h a t i n th e f o r t y - f o u r C lass I I h ig h sc h o o ls th e r e was a ran g e from f o u r t o sev en C arn eg ie u n i t s o f f e r e d i n E n g lis h , w ith a median o f f iv e u n i t s .

I n th e C la ss I I I s c h o o ls ,

th e o f f e r in g s i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s ran g ed from f iv e t o s ix te e n C arnegie u n i t s w ith a m edian o f t e n u n it s o ffe re d *

T a b le XXXIX Program o f S tu d ie s (C arn eg ie U n its O ffered )

S u b je c t

C la ss I (500-750) 7 s c h o o ls M edian Range

C la ss I I (275-h99) IlU s c h o o ls M edian Range

C la ss I I I (150-2 7W 39 sc h o o ls Median Range

E n g lis h

8

5-10

5

U-7

5

3 -6

S cien ce

5

3-6

k

3 -6

3

2 -5

S o c ia l S tu d ie s

5

3-9

h

2 -8

h

2 -6

M athem atics

3

2 .5 - 3 - 5

3

1-U

3

2-1*

F o re ig n Language

3

2-4*

2

o -5

2

0 -3

16

12-20

13

7-19

10

5 -1 6

P r a c t i c a l A rts

V\

3-p o e-t

vqvq

H H

so so 1AU\

ia v o x a ia

H r | rl H

rH i—I rH rH

OO

OOOO

OOOO

O O

O O O O

O O O O

o *H 03 s

O O

O O O O

O O O O

jk-0

CSICVJ

CM - X O O

CM O

O CM

o o

OOOO

O O

H O

XA

"LA

CA k , 7 F a th e rs o f Hew E n g lan d : A C h ro n ic le o f th e P u r ita n Commonwealths 1919 f H ? 0 973.2 1 ,0 0 0 3 , 7 , 10

A rn e, S ig r id

U n ite d N atio n s P rim e r

19H5

2 A rn o ld , E l l i o t t

HT25

F in la n d ia i9 io ~ “ $2 .5 0 BBC 1,000 1, 2, 3

3Ui.i 92

214 A tk in s , W illa r d E a r l

A u s la n d e r, Jo se p h and H i l l , F ran k E r n e s t

Our Economic W orld 193^ ““ $ 1 .5 0 1,0 0 0 k9 1 Winged H orse T & f^ T g S .S Q BBC 1 ,0 0 0

330

8 0 9 .1

1 , 2 , 8 , 9 , 10

Winged Horse A nthology 1,000

2 B ak er, R o b e rt H orace

In tro d u c in g th e C o n s te lla tio n s

1937

|2T?0

BBC

1,000

§20

When th e S ta r s Come Out

— K3To

5S5

1 ,000

2 Banning, K endall

B arnes, Ruth A.

A n n ap o lis Today 1933 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

359

I H ear America S in g in g

1937

|2T00

811.08

BBC 1 ,000 1 , h, 5, 6 , 7, 8 B a r r i e , S i r James

R e p r e s e n ta tiv e P la y s 1926 $i.1>0 822 BBC 1,000 3 10

,

B arton, Clara Harlowe

S to r y o f th e Red C ross

~ - f l.o o BBC 8

B arton, W illiam Henry and Josep h , Maron

35i

1,000

S ta rc ra ft 1938 1 2 .5 0 BBC 1,000 3

5 2 3 .8

215 B a s s e tt, John Spencer

Makers o f a New N ation W 8 f£ 7 5 o 9 7 3 .8 1,000 1

Bauer, Marion and P e y s e r , E th e l Rose

How Music Grew; From P r e h is to r ic Times t o th e P re se n t Day 1 9 3 ~ T E . 5 J --------7B K 9 BBC 1,000

Beard, A nnie E . S .

Our F oreign Born C it iz e n s : They Have Done f o r America 1939 PTOO 920 1,000 5 , 10

Beard, C harles A u stin

American Government and P o l i t i c s 1939 “ 1377? 3U2.73 1 ,0 0 0 1» 2 , 3 , 7 , 9 , 10

What

R ise o f American C iv iliz a t io n 1933 * 3 .7 * 973 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 10 Beard, Mrs. Mary R it t e r

Short H istory o f the American Labor Movement 192U i l T f o 331 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

Becker, C arl Lotus

Eve o f th e R ev o lu tio n : A C hronicle o f th e Breach w ith England 1918 973.3 1,000 1 , 3 , 7 , 10

B eck er, Mrs. May

In trodu cin g Charles D ickens 19E[0 1 3 .0 0 ~9S BBC 1,0 0 0

Beebe, W illiam

E xploring w ith Beebe 1932 p T 5 o 590 BBC 1,0 0 0 2 , U, 6 , 8 , 9

216 B e n e t, L au ra

B e n e t, S te p h e n V in c e n t

Boy S h e lle y i£ J 7 — ¥2 ,5 0 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1 A m erica I 9U 9

92

$ 1 .5 0

973

W estern S t a r 3513 “ 1 2 *00 h

831

B e n n e tt, J o a n

How To Be A t t r a c t i v e 19C3 |2 T 0 0 6U6,7

B ia n c o , Mrs* M argery

O th er P e o p le 1s Houses 1939 ¥ 2 .0 0 F ic tio n 2 , U, 5 , 7 The B ib le BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

B u rto n , M rs, K a th a rin e

B oas, R alp h P h i l i p and Hahn, B arb ara M.

S o c ia l Backgrounds o f American L ite ra tu re 1933 $ 1 .^ 0 810.9 S o c ia l Backgrounds o f E n g lis h L ite ra tu re 1923 ¥1*65 82 0 .9 BBC 1,000

B o g a rt, E r n e s t Ludlow

Economic H is to r y o f th e A m erican P eo p le 1935 ¥ 3 .5 0 330.973 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 7 > 9

B o lto n , H e rb e rt Eugene

S p a n ish B oderlands 1921 fl.5o 975 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10

B o tk in , Benjamin A lb ert

T re a su ry o f A m erican F o lk lo r e $ 3 .0 0 398 6 2 , U, , 7 , 8

Boyd, James

Drums $2 *50 1928 1,000 BBC l , u , 7 , 10

F ic tio n

Boykin, E leanor

T his Way P le a s e : 19C0 fl.7 5 1 ,0 0 0 BBC 2 , 6, 7 , 9

B rea sted , James Henry

Conquest o f C iv iliz a t io n

1955 ' "TfU.oo BBC Z, 6 Brenner, R ica

A Book o f M anners 35T

930

1,000

P o ets o f Our Time

lL9m Ten Modem P o ets 1930 $27%0~ BBC 1,000

920 920

2 , 3, 6 Twelve American P o e ts B efore 1900 1933 $2.£o 920 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 Brimm, D a n ie l and B ogess, Harry Brockman, Mary

Brooks, C harles F ran k lin

A ir c r a ft Maintenance 355o" $ 2 .5 0 629.13U What I s She Lake? Bode fo r G ir ls 1935" U I 3 S 1 , 5> 7 , 8

A P e r so n a lity

170

Why The Weather?

1935 ~ P 3 o

551-5

BBC 1,000 2 ,6 , 8, 9 Brown, Z aidee Mabel

L ibrary Key 19l}0 '“ $‘0 .7 0 BBC 1,000

020*7

Brown and S harpe

Brown an d Sharpe Handbook: f o r Young M a c h in is ts W7f% 621.9

Buck, S o lo n J u s tu s

A g ra ria n C ru sa d e : A C h ro n ic le o f th e Farm er i n P o l i t i c s 1921 $ 1 .^ 5 9 7 3 .8 1,000 7

A m erican C o rp o ra tio n

B u ild in g Am erica 193S-U1 #3 .95 30U 1 , h , 5 , 6, 7 , 9 , 10

B u lf in c h , Thomas

B ulfin ch * s M ythology 291 1,000 1 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 10

B urlin g am e, R oger

March o f th e I r o n Men: A S o c ia l H is to r y o f Union Through In v e n tio n T938 $3775 S0 8 ” BBC 1,000 h9 6 , 9

B yrd, R ic h a rd E velyn

L i t t l e America W 0 13775 BBC 1 ,000

A G uide ""

9 1 9 .9

5 Cannon, Le Grande

Look t o th e M ountain 19 l£ ^ 2 7 7 3 ^ F ic tio n 1, 7

C a r l i s l e , Norman V.

Your C aree r i n C hem istiy

19U3

$2l?o

55o

1, 2, 7, 8 C a r r o l l , Lewis

Complete Worics o f Lewis Car r o l l 1936 F ic t io n

3 C a th e r, W illa S i b e r t

My A n to n ia 1918 ~ $ 2 ,5 0 BBC 1,000

F ic tio n

Chapman, Frank M ichler

C hase, Maiy E l le n

C hase, S t u a r t

B ir d - L if e 1901 1 5 .0 0 BBC 1 ,000 2, 6, 7, 9 Mary P e te r s 19% $ 2 .5 0 BBC 1,0 0 0 9

598.2

F ic tio n

P rim e r o f Economics 1 9 S l $1355 3 3 0 .1 BBC 1,000 7, 9 R ich Land; P oor Land 1 9 W ~ $2755 333 BBC 1,000 1 , 3 , U, 9 , 10

Cheney, S h eld o n W arren

The T h e a tre 1929 $ 2 .5 0 BBC 1,000 2 C h ild re n * s C atalo g 19lJl 6

C lem ens, Sam uel Langhorne

792

0 2 8 .5

A d v en tu res o f H u c k le b e riy F in n f l.0 0 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1> 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 A d v en tu res o f Tom Sawyer $ 1 .0 0 F ic t io n BBC 1,000 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 C o n n e c tic u t Yankee i n King A rth u r* s C ourt F ic t io n $2725 1 ,000 BBC 5, 7 P rin c e and th e P auper $1*00 F ic tio n BBC 1 ,000 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 10

2SC C o a tsw o rth , E l iz a b e th

Here I S ta y 1958 $ 2 .0 0 BBC 1,0 0 0 3* 6

F ic tio n

Colum bia U n iv e r s ity

S cie n ce o f P r e - F lig h t A e ro n a u tic s f o r ljjg h ~ 5 ch o o ls 1952 1 1 .3 2 629.13

C o n s tic k , Jo h n Henry

M anual f o r th e S tu d y o f I n s e c t s ~ W — ‘ *55. 7---------1,000 1, 6, ?

Conn, H e rb e rt W illia m

B a c t e r ia , Y e a s ts , and Molds i n th e Home 1935“ $ 2 .0 0 £89 .9 5 BBC 1 ,000 2, h

C onrad, J o se p h

L ord Jim $ 2 .0 0 BBC 1,000 1* 3 , 5 , 7 , 9

F ic t io n

C ooper, A lic e C e c i li a and P alm er, C h a rle s A.

Twenty Modern A m ericans W fe 11732 920

C opland, A aron

Vfr.at t o L is te n f o r i n M usic 1939 " 1 2 .5 0 78O BBC 1,000

C orw in, Edward Samuel

Jo h n M a rs h a ll and th e C o n s titu tio n 1919 fI7£o~~ 973TU 1,000 5 , 7 , K>

C o t t i e r , J o s e p h and B re c h t, H aro ld

C a re e rs Ahead 1933 ~“|2 7 5 0 BBC 1 ,000 2, 7

C raven, Thomas

Men o f A rt 1931 &3.75 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

1, 2 , 6 , 7, 8, 9

371.52

759

21 C u r ie , Eve

Madame C u rie 11.1(9 92 BBC 1,000 1> U, 6, 7, 8, 1C C u rre n t B iography (W ilson and Company) 920 BBC 1 ,000 6

C u r t i s , Mary I s a b e l

E ngland o f Song and S to r y 1931 $T3o 9lTu2 BBC 1,000 9

D a le , E d g ar

How t o Read a Newspaper 1 9 E r^ lT )4 0 070 2 , 6, 7, 9

D a lg l ie s h , A lic e

S i l v e r P e n c il 19CU W “*S0 8

F ic t io n

Darrow, F loyd Lavern

M asters o f S cie n ce and in v e n tio n 1923 $139 920 1 ,0 0 0 6

D augherty, James Henry

Abraham. L in c o ln 19H3 8 3 .0 0 2 , 3 , 8 , 9 , ID

92

D a v is , J u l i a

No O ther W hite Men 1937 ~W 7oo 9 1 7 .8 BBC 1,000 2 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 10

D a v is , W illia m S te a rn s

Day i n Old A thens 191Il $ T . 6 o 913. 38 BBC 1 ,000 2 , 3, 5, 7, 8 Day i n Old Rome 1925 |O o 913.37 BBC 1,000 1, 2 , 3 , U> 5 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 10

% zz D a v is , W illia m S te a r n s (C o n t’d)

F r ie n d o f C aesar 1900 12750~ BBC 1 ,000 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5

F ic tio n

L if e i n E liz a b e th a n Days ~ 9 3 o ~ i 3 3 o ------ [email protected] T BBC 1 ,0 0 0 3 , 10 L if e on a M ed iaev al Barony 1925 ~ f 3 £ 6 9U0.1 BBC 1,000 3, 7 D ay, C la re n c e S h ep ard

L if e W ith F a th e r 1935“ iS T o e 818 BBC 1,000 !•» 3 , ii, 6 , 7 , 9

D e fo e , D a n ie l

R obinson Crusoe $2*00 1,0 0 0 3> U, 6 , 7

F ic tio n

D e K ru if, P a u l Henry

M icrobe H u n ters 192S " '“#1.159 920 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , U, 7 , 9 , 10

D e la n o , J a n e Arminda

A m erican Red C ro ss Textbook on Home Hygiene and Care o f S ic k 1933 li.U o Sud.7 1,000 2, b, 6

Dewey, D av is R ich

F in a n c ia l H is to r y o f th e U n ite d S ta te s 193U # 3 .0 0 336 1 ,000 2

Dewey, M elvin

A bridged D ecim al C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and R e la tio n In d ex 1936 # 2 .5 0 025.U BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , H, 6 , 7 , 9 , 10

D ic k e n s, C harles

Da v id C op p erfield # 2 ,0 0 F ic t io n BBC 1,000 1» 2 , 3 , h , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

D itm ars, Raymond Lee

Strange Animals I Have Kncrwn T l 3 9 ~ " ~ 5 9 l7 5 BBC 1,000 8 T h r ills o f a N a tu r a lis t* s Quest ^ 1932 # 3 .3 0 59175 BBC 1,000 9

Dodd, W illiam Edward

Dow, Arthur W esley

C otton Kingdom 1919 #lT 50 1 ,000 3 , 7 , 10 Composition 1913 1 5 .0 0 BBC 1 ,000

975

7U0

D o y le , S ir Arthur Conan

Complete Sherlock Holmes $i* 9 $ F ic t io n BBC 1,000 2 , U, 5 , I f 9 , 10

Dririkwater, John

Abraham L in coln 1919 # 1 .5 0 3 , 9 , 10

D u ll, C harles Elwood

822

Fundamentals o f E le c tr ic ity ;

19G3

^.oo

537

U, 9 , io Dyke, Andrew Lee

Dyke*s Automobile and G asolin e Engine Encycloped ia I 9I4O f e t S o 629.2 BBC 1,000 1

E a d ie, Thomas

I Like D ivin g ~ -l5 ? 9 ~ H S :5 0 BBC 1,000

627

224 E a r l e , Mrs# A lic e

Home L if e i n C o lo n ia l Days — im ~ -------- 5 1 7 7 T BBC 1,0 0 0 2, 3, 7

E a to n , J e a n e t t e

B ehind th e Show Window 339.1* BBC 1 ,0 0 0 L ead er by D e s tin y : George Washin g to n , Man and P a t r i o t 1938 ““ $ 3 .0 0 92 BBC 1,000 2, 8

E l i o t t , G eorge

E lls b e r g , Edward

E l s o n , Henry W illiam s

M ill on th e F lo s s —~J2#00 BBC 1 ,000 1 , 2 , k , 9 , 10 Men Under th e Sea 1W ~ ~ 13700 BBC 1,000 9

F ic t io n

267

Modern Times and th e L iv in g P a s t

— 3352

1 ? .® ------- 9%)

------

1 ,0 0 0 5 , 9 , 10 Enibree, Edwin R ogers

A g a in s t th e Odds

^ 5 5 P arm er, F an n ie

F a r ra n d , Max

$20.

2 BostQn C ooking-Sch o o l Cook Book 19Hl $2750 BBC 1 ,000 2 , 10 F a th e rs o f th e C o n s titu tio n 1921 $ 1 3 0 973.3 1,000

3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 10

F a u lk n e r, H aro ld Underwood

Am erican Economic H is to ry

3353“ ' 1 3 .5 0 “ 1 ,0 0 0

1» 2 . 5, 9

330.973

F e n to n , C a r r o l l Lane

Our Amazing E a r th — i£ '3 F fUTFS BBC 1,000 2, 3, 6

551

F e r b e r , Edna

Show Boat 1926 $2 .^O F ic t io n BBC 1,000 1, 2 , 3, 5, It 8, 9

F e r r i s , H elen Jo se p h in e

A dventure A w aits 1928 "" #2.#f BBC 1,000 1, 2

F is h , Carl R u ssel

P a th o f Em pire 1919 I 1 .5 0 1 ,0 0 0 3 , 7 , 10

S. C.

9 7 3 .8

F i s h e r , M rs. D orothy (C a n fie ld )

Bent Twig 1915 $1.00 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1 , 3 , h , 5 , 8 , 9 , 10

F i s h e r s , Sydney George

Quaker C o lo n ies 1921 11750 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10

973.2

F it c h , F loren ce May

One Gods The Ways We W orship Him — I9 l£ I 2T00 SSi — 2 , 3, 5, 7

Flem ing, W alter Lynwood

S eq u el o f Appomattox 1921 $ l T 5 5 973. 8 1 ,0 0 0 3* 7 , 10

F lik k e , J u l i a

N urses i n A c tio n 1953 I 2T5 0 " U. 6

F lo h e r ty , John Joseph

610.7

I n s id e th e FBI 19U3 $ 2 .0 0 351.7U 2 , U, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 Men W ithout F e a r 19H5 | 2 .00 6lU . 8 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 7

F lo h e rty , John Joseph ( c o n t'd )

Money-G o-Round 19W $5700 3, 8

332 »k

Sons oi* th e H u rrican e 193$ ~“ f2 7 o o SlU .8 BBC 1,0 0 0 3, 5, 8 The Courage and th e G lo ry 1 9 liT *2 ^ 5 ----- 9 5 o ^ 1, 3, 5 , 7, 8 Youth a t th e Wheel 1937 "$I.7!> 6292 F o l l e t t , H elen F o rb e s , E s th e r

Ocean O u tp o sts I T l O o Johnny Trem ain 19u3 |2 T ? 0 8 , 9 , 10 P a u l R evere 19W 5 3 .7 5 1, 9

F o rd , Henry Jo n e s

C le v elan d E ra 1919 fTT50 1,000 7 , 10

919 F ic t io n

92

9 7 3 .8

W ashington and H is C o lleag u es 1918 $ 1 .5 0 9 7 3 .h 1,000 7 , 10 F o s t e r , W illia m

Romance o f C hem istry 1935 $ 3 .00 5U0 1,000 2, 9

F r a s e r , C h else a C u r tis

H eroes o f th e A ir I5H2 1,000 3

F r ie n d , Mata Roman

629.1309

E arn in g and Spending th e F am ily Income ^2 *00 6ljO 1935 1,0 0 0

F r o s t , R o b e rt

Come I n and O ther Poems 1953 “ |2 T 3 o 5H BBC 1,000 2 , U, 5

F u lle r , Io la

Loon F e a th e r I 9I4O $ 2 .5 0 BBC 1 ,000 3, 7

F u rn a s , J o se p h in e C. G a b r ie l, R alp h H enry

How Am erica L iv es 19 UI $3755““

F ic tio n

309. I

Lure o f th e F r o n t i e r 1929 ^ £ 3 5 ^ 978 1 ,000 1 T o i le r s o f Land and Sea 5sZ5 $ 3 3 o 3 3 0 .9 1,000

G a e r, Jo se p h

Consumers A ll 19U0 |? 7 0 0 BBC 1,000

339.it

G ard n er, H elen

A r t Through th e Ages 1936 $U.oo 709 BBC 1,000 2 , 6, 9 U n d erstan d in g th e A rts 1 932 | 2T3 0 “ 701 BBC 1,000 3, 9

G a t t i , E lle n Morgan

Here i s A f r ic a 1953 1 2 .5 0 2, 8 ,9

916

G ay ley , C h a rle s M ills

C la s s ic Myths i n E n g lis h L ite ra tu re 1893 $ 2 .5 0 291 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , U, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 9 10

G lo v e r, K a th a rin e

A m erica B egins A gain

U3U

f c . 7 5 ^ 333

22a G oetz* D e lia

N eighbors t o th e S o u th - w " & .w ~ w BBC 1 ,0 0 0 2, 5, 6

G o ls te i n , H a r r ie t

A r t i n E veryday L if e 19ll0— 1 3 . 7 5 -------700 1,000 1> 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9

Goodwin, M rs. Maud (W ild er)

D utch and E n g lis h on th e Hudson 1921 friT^O ' 973.2 1,000 7 , 10

G ould, K enneth M ill e r

Windows on th e W orld 19C0 1 3 .0 0 909 BBC 1 ,000 3

Graham, S h ir le y

D r. George W ashington C arv er 19Ut |2.5>0 92 2 , 7, 8, 9

G ray , Asa

Gray*s New Manual o f Botany 1908 $ 3 .7 5 5 & .1 3 1, 9

G ray, E liz a b e th J a n e t

Adam o f th e Eoad I 9U2 $ 2 .0 0 7, 8 Young W a lte r S c o tt 193? 1 2 .0 0 1,000 2 , 3 i U, 6 , 8

F ic tio n

92

G u n th er, John

I n s id e A sia I 9H2 f 3 .5 0 950 EEC 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 2 , It, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

H acker, L o u is M orton and K e n d rick , Benjamin

The U n ited S ta t e s 1937 &077!T~ 330.973 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , k , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

223 H ack er, L o u is M orton and K e n d ric k , B enjam in c o n t* d .

U n ite d S t a t e s S in ce l86f> 5539 I f . 00 9 7 3 .8 1,000 9 , 10

H a ll, J e n n ie

B u rie d C i t i e s 1922 12T00 BBC 1,000

930

2 , 3 , 6 , 7 , 10

H am ilto n , Edwin Tim othy

H a n d ic ra ft f o r G i r l s 1932 $ 3 .0 0 680 BBC 1 ,000 8 P o p u la r C r a f ts f o r Boys “ 193? $ 3.00 680 BBC 1,000 9 , 10

Ham lin .,

T a lb o t F a u lk n e r

Am erican S p i r i t i n A r c h ite c tu r e 5553” f c . 'f o 720.973 1 ,000

H a rtw e ll, D ick so n

Does A g a in s t D ark n ess I 9 l ^ % 3 . 0 0 ------- 6 3 6 .7

H a sk in , F r e d e r ic J e n n in g s

A m erican Government 1 9 5 T $ 3 .0 0 3f>3 1 ,000 1, 2

Hawes, C h a rle s Boardman

M u tin eers $ 2 .0 0 BBC 1,000 1, 3, 7

H ayes, C a rlto n J . H.

F ic tio n

P o l i t i c a l and C u ltu r a l H is to ry o f Modem Europe 1932-39 fU.OO 91*0.2 BBC 1,000 2 , 3 , 6 , 7 , 10 W orld H is to r y 19U1 P T f S

1,

k,

909

1,000 5 , 6 , 9 , 10

3'G Hegner, R obert W illiam

Parade o f th e Animal Kingdom iftc ©— BBC 1. 2 , 3 , 5, 6, 7, 9



H eid e, D irk Van der

mr~

Be S is t e r and I

1 9 5 1 fTToo 1> 3 H endrick, Burton J e s s e

9UO.^U8

Age o f B ig B usiness 1919 $ 1 .5 0 338 1 ,000

T, 10

Henry Ford Trade S ch ool

Auto Mechanics fO ^ O 9 Shop Theory $ 1 .2 5

629.2

621.9

H e r tz le r , Arthur Emanuel

Horse and Buggy D octor 1931T- W *75 92 • BBC 1,000 1 , U, 7

Hewes, Mrs. Agnes Danforth

S p ice and th e D e v il's Cave 1930 12750 F ic tio n BBC 1 ,0 0 0 3, 7

H aydrick, Benjamin Alexander

Types o f th e Essay 1921 " 11.12 82U.08 BBC 1,000 1, 3, 6, 9

H illy e r , V i r g i l Mores and Huey, Edward Greene

C h ild 's H isto ry o f Art 1933 |3 . £ o 709

H ilto n , James

Good-bye3 Mr. Chips 193U $ 1 . 25 F ic t io n BBC 1,000 3 , U, 5 , 7 , 9 , 10

H isco x , Gardner D ex ter

H enley1s Tw entieth Century Book o f Formulas 193U $ 1 .2 5 603 BBC 1 ,000 1, 7

231 H jo r th , Herman

P r i n c i p l e s o f Woodworking

1930

$1.7 9 H ooper, A lf r e d

M athem atics R e f r e s h e r 19E2 $ 2.5 0 5io

2, 7 Hough, Emerson

Covered Wagon 1922 |2 T 0 0 BBC 1,000

1, 2 , 3 ,

i, 1,

F ic tio n

8

P a s sin g o f th e F r o n t i e r 1318 $TT5o 97S 1 .000 7 , 10 Howland, H arold Jaco b s

Theodore R o o se v e lt and His Times I9 5 T * l . S ) 973.9 1 .0 0 0

1» 7, 9, 10 Hugo, V ic to r M arie

Les M is e ra b le s f2 7 ? 0 BBC 1,000

F ic t io n

2 , 3 , U, 5 , 6 , 7, 8, 10 H h lb e r t, A rch er B u tle r

P a th s o f I n la n d Commerce 1920 “ 3SE5> 380 1.0 0 0 7 , 10

H u n tin g to n , E lls w o r th

Red ManTs C o n tin en t 1921 fl7 ? 0 970 1.000

3* 7, 10 I n g le s , May and McCague, Anna C a th a rin e

T eaching th e Use o f Books and L i b r a r ie s 1 9 l0 “ $ 1 .8 0 020.7 BBC 1 ,000

9

l i v i n g , W ashington

A lham bra: P a la c e o f M y stery and S p le n d o r 1 & £ ' $ 1 .0 0 91i4.6 BBC 1 ,000

2, 3,

J a c k s o n , H elen Hunt

7

Ramona BBC

1> 2 , Jam es, W ill

6,

$l«j?0 1,000

3* Uj

F ic tio n

6, 7 , 8,

Lone Cowboy 1930$2.75 BBC 1 ,000 1

9

92

Smoky, The Coiflhorse 1926 $ 1 .0 0 F ic t io n BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , 7 , 9 , 10 Jo h n so n , A lle n

J e f f e r s o n and H is C o lleag u es

— ipZi ~ *17*5------- 9 7 3 3 " " 1,000 3 , 7 , 10 Jo h n so n , M a rtin Elm er

Jo h n so n , M rs. Osa

S a fa ri W b

$ 5 .0 0 1,0 0 0

I M arried A dventure 19l|0 |3 7 ? 0 1 , 2 , 3 * li, 7 , 9

916.7

92

J o h n s to n , H arold Whets one

P r iv a te L if e o f th e Romans 1932 " W 2 .2 E 913.37 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 2 , 3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 10

J o h n s to n , Mary

P io n e e rs o f th e Old S outh — i 9 i r - | i 3 5 — 973^ 1,0 0 0 3> 7 , 10

J o r d a n o f f , As se n

I l l u s t r a t e d A v ia tio n D ic tio n a ry I 9G3 f 3 l5 o 62975

233 K e ir , R obert Malcolm

K e ith , Mrs* Agnes

K e lih e r , A lic e V ir g in ia

E pic o f In d u stry 1923 1,000

338

March o f Commerce 1927 380 1 ,0 0 0 Land Below th e Wind 1939 ITTSo 9 1 9 .n BBC 1 ,000 1, 3 , 7, 9 L ibrary Workers O T ) $ 1 .6 6 6, 7

020

K in e r t, Reed

America *3 F ig h tin g P lan es in A ctio n i5C3 $2 .3 0 629.13

K ip lin g , Rudyard

Captain*s Courageous IS97 W 3 0 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 2 , 3, 9 Ju n gle Book F ic tio n BBC 1 ,0 0 0 2 , 3 , 8, 9

K itso n , Harry D exter and L in g e n fe lte r , Mary

V ocation s f o r Boys 19U2 127^0 2, 8

371.i|2

V ocations fo r G ir ls 1939 p T 3o 371 .I12 K l in e f e l t e r , Lee M ille r

E le c t r ic a l Occupations 2957 SSToo 5 2 i.3

K nickerbocker, Edwin

Notable Short S t o r ie s o f Today

1929 “ 11720 1,000

3

SC

234 K n ig h t, E r i c Mowbray

L a s s ie Come-Home I 9I4O f 2 .0 0 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 X, 2 , h , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9

K ro u t, Jo h n A lle n

A nnals o f A m erican S p o r t 1929 f£ 7 ? 0 lW 1,000

K u n its , S ta n le y and Hay c r a f t , Howard

J u n io r Book o f A uthors 1931T~$3"25-------9?0 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

5, 6, 7, 8,

K uns, Ray F o r r e s t

9

A utom otive E s s e n t i a l s 5 JE I $2732 529.2 BBC 1,000

5, 9 L ane, J a n e t

Your C a r r ia g e , MadamI 193U 613 BBC 1,000 7

L ane, Rose W ild er

L et th e H u rric a n e R oar 1933 $ 1 .£ 0 F ic t io n BBC 1 ,0 0 0 3 , U, 7

Langdon, W illia m

E veryday T hings i n A m erican L if e (’1607-1776) 1937 1 3 .0 0 917.3 1 ,0 0 0

2 , 3, It, 5 , 7 Everyday T hings i n Am erican L ife (1776-1876) 191tl $ 3 .0 0 917.3 1 , 2 , U, 3 , 7 L angdon-D avies, Jo h n

I n s id e th e Atom

1933

$2.00

530

1 ,0 0 0

3, 9 Leem ing, Jo se p h

Costume Book

1935

2

15.50

391

Lemos, P ed ro Jo se p h

L e n s k i, L o is

A p p lie d A rt 1933 ~ 1 & .0 0 6, 9

707

I n d ia n C ap tiv e 19Hl $ 2 .0 0

92

7 L e s t e r , K a th e rin e M o rris

H is to r ic Costume

1933 EEC

391 1 ,0 0 0

L ew is, M rs. E l iz a b e th

Young Fu o f t h e Upper Y angtze 1932 "f2 •00 F ic tio n 2 , 5 , 6, 7 , 8

L in d b e rg h , Anne

L is te n ! The Wind ^938 1 9 1 BBC 1, U, 9

0

N orth t o th e O rie n t 193F H .E 9 915 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , I4, 5 , 8 London, Ja c k

C a ll o f th e W ild 1912 “~ f 2 .0 0 BBC 1,000

F ic tio n

2 , U, 5 , 7, 8 , 9 Loom is, F r e d e r ic B rew ster

F ie l d Book o f Common Rocks and M in e ra ls

WT

BBC

$3.50

5U9

1,000

2 , 3 , 7, 9 L o rd , C li f f o r d Lee

H i s t o r i c a l A tl a s of th e U n ite d S ta te s 195u $ 3 .0 0 911 2, 5

L u ca s, F r e d e r ic A ugustus

Anim ajs o f th e P a s t 1929 $o73o 560

L u h r, O verton

P h y s ic s T e l l Why

' w "~$3.j>o 1 , 3 , U, 8

530

L u tz, Frank Eugene

F ie ld Book o f I n s e c t s o f th e U n ited S ta te s and Canada 193f> 15730 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1, 2, 7

McCasUn, H erbert John

Wood Patternmak ing 19Ul f 2 2 |T 6 2 1 .7 5

McLean, Donald

Knowing Y o u rself and Others 1938 $ 2 .0 0 1§5 BBC 1 ,000 6, 7

Macy, J e s s e

A n ti-S la v ery Crusade I 9S I I .50 9 7 3 .6 1 ,000 3, 7

Macy, John A lb ert

S to ry o f th e World rs L ite ra tu r e — m r ~ f i . 9S— 809------------1 .0 0 0 3 ,1 0

Magruder, Frank Abbott

American Government 19U2 ' 'fl.S 'O 3 i|2.73 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

1, 2 ,

h, 6 , 7, 8 , 9 ,

10

N a tio n a l Government and I n te r n a tio n a l R e la tio n s 19U2 § 1 .8 0 3L2 1.0 0 0 1 , 2 , 3, L, 6 , 7 , 8, 9 Manly, John M atthes and R ic k e r t, E d ith

Contemporary B r it is h L ite ra tu r e 1535 1 2 .5 0 8 2 0 .9 BBC 1 ,000

M artin, Laura

Magazines fo r School L ib ra r ies 1 9 W “ f l l 9 0 -------0*55-----------BBC 1,000

M a se fie ld , John

Jim D avis $ 2 .5 0 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 3 , 7 , 9 , 10

F ic t io n

?37 Mather, Morey and Henderson, W illiam

American S p ir it i n Arb

WT

$?.?o

709*73

1 ,0 0 0 M atthews, Ferdinand

F ie ld Book o f American T rees and Shrubs

191?

$3.50

BBC

1 ,000

582

3, 9 Maul, Frances

Careers f o r th e Home Economist 1953 !>2.00 650 She S t r iv e s t o Conquer 1937 $ 2 .0 0 371.1)2 1 , 3 , 7 , 9 , 10

Means, Mrs* F loren ce

Moved Outers 195? f ? *00

1 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 10

M eigs, C orn elia Iynde

M ersereau, Samuel F o ste r

I n v in c ib le L ouisa 1933 $ £ .0 0 “ BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1, 2, 3, 5 , 9

F ic tio n

92

M a teria ls o f In du stry 19ET" $ 2 .0 0 600 BBC 1,000

1, 9 M e tc a lfe , June M*

Copper, th e Red Metal “ l ^ l i ~ W . 00 -------569.3

M ik els, Mrs* Rosa Mary

Short S t o r ie s f o r E n g lish Courses 1 9 3 ? '‘ ¥ 1 .1 2 SC BBC 1 ,0 0 0 2, 5, 6

M i l l i s , W alter

Why Europe F ig h ts 9UO.S3 BBC 3

M i n s , Dorothy

1 ,0 0 0

Book o f the. A ncien t World fo r Younger Readers 19S3 “ ¥£.00 930 1 ,0 0 0

S38 M i l s , D orothy c o n t!d

M i l l s , W in ifre d and D unn, L o u ise

M iddle Ages 193^$2*50 BBC 1 ,000 2, 3, 6

M a r io n e tte s , M asks, an d Shadows 1927 $ 2 .5 5 BBC 1 ,000 Model P la n A nnual $ 2 .0 0

Moody, John

629.133

M asters o f C a p ita l 1921 $ l3 o 332 1 ,000 3 , 7 , 10 R a ilr o a d B u ild e rs 1921 “ £ U 5 0 ~ 1,000 7 , 10

M organ, A lf r e d P o w ell

9U0*1

385

F i r s t E l e c t r i c a l Book f o r Boys

1935

12755

537

2 G e ttin g A cq u ain ted w ith C hem istry W f 2 .5 o 5Eo 1, 8 G e ttin g A cq u ain ted w ith E l e c t r i c i t y

$3.00

537

7 T h in g s a Boy Can Do w ith E l e c t r i c i t y 1958“ “ iT.OO 32173 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 3 M o rley , C h ris to p h e r

P a rn a ssu s on W heels 1917 fl.3 0 F ic tio n BBC 1 ,000 3 , 7 9 10

239 M orris, Mrs, Ann (A x te ll)

D iggin g in Yucatan

1931

$2750

BBC

1 ,0 0 0

913.72

3 , 7 , 10 Mower, Edgar A n sel and Rajchman, Marthe

G lobal War 19U2 1 1 .0 0

950.53

9 Munro, W illiam Bennett

Crusaders o f New Rrance 19^1 f i . 5 5 T 971 1,0 0 0 7 , 10

Murphy, Edgar Gardner

B eginner1s S ta r Book

1937

$3%0

523.8

1 ,0 0 0 Nado, John M, and G elm ine, B ert J*

I n d u s tr ia l E le c t r ic it y 1939 $3300 f f il .3 BBC

N atio n a l Geographic S o c ie ty

Book o f F ish e s

1939 " ~ iJ 3 o BBC

597

1 ,0 0 0

Our I n s e c t F rien d s and Foes and S p id ers 1935 $ 2 .5 0 595.7 1,000 N azaroff , Alexander I

Land o f th e R ussian People

19131 ~1?2 .00

915*7

2, 8 Nebraska U n iv e r s ity

Elem ents o f P r e -F lig h t A eronautics f o r High S chools

195?" $2.75 N xcolay, Helen

629.13

Boy’ s L ife o f Abraham L incoln 1906 S l.7'5 92 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

?AQ

N orcro ss, C arl

G ettin g a Job in A v ia tio n “W h " S ? 9 7 l3 BBC

7 A v ia tio n Mechanic

1955" 13.^0 9

629.135

How t o Do A ir c r a ft S h eetm etal Work 19& P720 629*131; Nordhoff and H a ll

Mutiny on th e Bounty 19U0 f3T00 F ic tio n BBC 1 ,0 0 0

1 , 2 , 3 , U, 9 , 30 Men A g a in st th e Sea 19H0 ^3*00 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 3 , 8 , 10 P it c a ir n 1s Isla n d 19^9 $£.^ 0 BBC

F ic tio n

3 Falcons o f France 1 1929 $2*5$ BBC

F ic t io n

3, 7 Norway, N e v il Shut©

P ied P ip er 19l;2 $ 2 .£ 0

F ic tio n

1, 7 0*C on n ell, C harles

V ic to r Book o f th e Symphony 19El 53T50 7© BBC 1,0 0 0 5, 8

Ogg, F red eric A u stin

B u ild ers o f th e R epublic 1927 $5 -5 0 973 1 ,0 0 0 1 Old Northwest 1921 HT 50

3 , 7, 10

977

?A i

Ogg, F re d e ric A u stin c o n tfd .

RM eign otrnm fm Andrew Jackson iM aRM m iimiw 1919

$ 1 .5 0 1 ,0 0 0 1, 3, 7

O lliv a n t A lfr e d

O rczy, Emnmska

Orth, Samuel P e te r

Bob, Son o f B a t t le 1898" T 2 .00 BBC 1 ,000 3> 7 , 10 S c a r le t Pim pernel 3$0% ' $ 2 .g o - ' BBC 3 Armies o f Labor 1919 5135 1,000 3 , 7 , 10

9 7 3 .5

F ic t io n

F ic t io n

331

Boss and th e Machine 1921 "TflJSG~ 329 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10 Our F oreign ers 1921 $ l 7?0 1 ,0 0 0 7 > 10 O stey ee, George

325.73

Mathematics i n A v ia tio n

35G2

foTSU

5533

3, 6, 7 Oxford Book o f E n g lish Verse 1939“ H £ 3 .0 0 821.08 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 2 , 7, 9 Packard, S in n o tt, and Overton, Bruce

N ations a t Work 1933 $ 1 .92 1,000 3 , it, 7

P a in e , Ralph Be Lahaye

F ig h t f o r a Free Sea 1921 J i S o " 9 7 3.5 1,000 1 , 7 , 10

380

P a in e , Ralph c o n t’d .

Old M erchant M arine 1 H .S iT 387 1,000 7 , 10

P a lg r a v e , F r a n c is T u rn e r

G olden T re a su re

WB

flToo

BBC 1 , 2 , 3 , U, Parkraan, F r a n c is

Oregon T r a i l 1^£ $ 2 .0 0 BBC 1,000

821.08 8 91 7 .8

1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 10

P a t t e e , A lid a F ra n c e s

V itam in s an d M in e ra ls f o r Everyone 19l2r 1E2.0CT 513.2 9

P ax so n , F r e d e r ic k Logan

New N atio n 1W 7 ’$ 2 .0 0 5, 6

973.8

R ece n t H is to ry o f U n ited S ta t e s 1937 &3.25 973.8

1.000 2 , 6, 9 , 10 P eck , Anne M erriman

Young Mexico 1935 BBC 2

917.2

P e r r y , B li s s

A m erican S p i r i t i n L i t e r a t u r e I W T “IT 3 6 816.9 1 .0 0 0 7 , 10

P h i l l i p s , Mary C a th a rin e

S k in Deep 19lu $ 2 .0 0

P ie r c e , B e a tr ic e

P o e, E dgar A lla n

6U6.7

Young H o stess 1938 $1775 BBC

6ii2

T a le s 1901 BBC

F ic t io n

$ 1 .7 5 1,000

243 P o s t, Mrs. Em ily

E tiq u e tte 1937 IU .0 0 BBC 1,000

395

P r a t t , Waldo S eld en

Mew E ncyclopedia o f Music and M usicians 1929 $ 3 .5 0 780.3 1 ,000 7

Purcfor, C la ir e Lee

He Heard America Sing 1553“ |2 . £ o " 92 BBC 3 , U, 6 , 7 Stormy V icto ry T9U2 $2^0

l y i e , E rn est T aylor

Brave Men 19WT“ 5 3 .0 0 1 , H, 7 , 9 Here i s Tour War

1913 “ t j . 0 0

92 9U0.5U8

9h0.$)£

1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 i y i e , Howard

Q u in n e ll, M arjorie

Men o f Iron 1591 $2 .00 BBC 1 ,000

F ic t io n

Everyday L ife in Anglo-Saxony 1927 “ |2T 50 913.1*2 1,000 Everyday L ife in Homeric Greece 1930 913.38 BBC 1,000 Everyday L if e i n Roman B r ita in 1925 913T142 BBC 1,000 10 Everyday L ife i n Mew S ton e, Bronze, and E arly Iron Ages 1923 P7?o 571 BBC 1 ,0 0 0

Q u in n e ll, M a rjo rie cont*d.

Every d ay L if e i n th e Old S to n e Age 1922 H i2 7 $ (r frT BBC 1,000 H is to ry o f E veryday T hings i n E ngland 1955 $?Too 92K 2 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 2, 8

Rama R an , S an th a R aw lin g s, Mrs* M a rjo rie

Home t o I n d ia 19H3 " T 2 V50

915 .U

The Y e a rlin g 193*5 T l . 0 0 F ic tio n BBC 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 R e a d e r1s Guide to P e r io d i c a l L i t e r a t u r e S e rv ic e B asis 0?0 1,000 1. 2 , 3 , u, 5 , 6 , 7 , 10

R eck, F r a n k lin M ering

R adio from S t a r t t o F in is h 19l£ $S7oo“ &TJ3SU 8

Red C ross

Am erican Red d ro s s F i r s t A id Text-Book 1937 $1.00 61U.8 6, 7, 9

R eed, W illia m and B ronsoh, W ilf r e d

S ea f o r Sam

195? " 1 2 .7 ^

551.U

BBC 2, 6 Richm an, I r v in g E erd in e

S p an ish C onquerors 1921 ' $1*50 973.1 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10

R ic h te r , H e rb a rt P*

W irin g S im p lif ie d 19U1 $2.00

R ic k e h b a c k e r, Edward Vernon

621.32

Seven Came Through

— m 3— S IS T l» 7 , 8

950.58

245 R itte n h o u s e , J e s s i e B e lle

L i t t l e Book o f Modern Ve r s e 1913 .00 # 1 1 . o&'

R o b e r t, Henry M artyn

R u le s o f Order 1 9 l T IflT S O

R o b e r ts , K en aeth Lewis

A ru n d el 1933 BBC 2, k

1 2 .5 0 1,000

3 2 8 .1 F ic tio n

N orthw est P assag e 1937 $ 2 .15 F ic tio n BBC 2 , 3, h, 5 , 6y 7 R o b in so n , E t h e l

Houses i n A m erica 1936 $ 2 .0 0

728

R unner o f t h e M ountain Tops 1939 fJlO O 92 R o sta n d , Edmond

S a b a tin i, R a fa e l

Cyrano de B erg erac 1923 $ 2 .0 0 BBC 2 , 5 , 10 Scaramouche I 927 $ 0 .9 6 BBC 1,000 3, h, 5, 9

81±2

F ic tio n

S a b in , F ra n c e s E l l i s

C la s s ic a l Myths T h at L ive Today 19U0 " 292 BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 10

S a i n t E x u p ery , A n to in e de

N ight F l i g h t I 93I T l.7 5

F ic tio n

Salom on, J u l i a n H a r r is

Book o f I n d ia n C r a f ts and In d ia n Lore 1

S a lt e n , F e li x

Bambi $ 0 .7 5 BBC 1,000 3, 7, 8, 9

F ic t io n

S an d b u rg , C a r l

A m erican Songbag 1927 “$ 2 m6 f BBC

78U

S c a c h e r i, M ario and S a c h e r i , M abel

Fun o f P h o tography 1938 1 3 .7 5 770

S c h a p iro , Ja c o b and M o rris , R ic h a rd B.

C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe 1937 W .2 0 9C0 1 ,0 0 0 1> 2 , 3 , 7j 9 , 10

S c o t t , S i r W a lte r

Ivanhoe $ 2 .0 0 F ic t io n 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , b j 5* 6 , 7* 8 , 9 , 10

S c o tt P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c .

S c o t t 's S ta n d a rd P o stag e Stamp C atalo g u e $ 3 .0 0 383 1,000

S c o g g in , M arg aret C la ra

C hucklebait: Funny S to r ie s fo r Everyone 19ET* $ 2 .5 0 SC U, 6

S e re d y , K ate

White Stag 1937 $ 2 .0 0 BBC 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 10

F ic tio n

Seym our, C h a rle s

Woodrow W ilso n and ■the W orld War |l . £ o 973.9 1 , 3 , 7 , 9 , IX)

S h ep h erd , W illiam . R o b ert

H ispanic N ations o f th e New World 1921 $ 1 .5 0 980

3 , 10

Sherwood, Malcolm H.

From F o r e s t to F u r n itu r e 193^ $ 3 .00 S tT BBC

Sherw ood, R o b e rt E .

Abe L incoln i n I l l i n o i s 1939 $ 2 .0 0 532 There S h a ll Be No Night T 9I4O $2 .0 0 512

S h i r e r , W illia m Lawrence

B e r lin D ia ry l? lil

1 3 .0 0

9hO.S3h

1 , 3 , U, 7 , 8 , 9 Showerman, G ran t

Rome and th e Romans 1931 "12*50 937 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 2 , 3 , 6 , 10

S k e lto n , O scar D ouglas

C anadian Dominion 1919 ~ U ^ 0 " 971 1,000 10

S k in n e r , C onstance L in d sey

A dventures i n Oregon 1921 $ 1 .# )9 7 9 .5 1 ,000

3 , 7 , 10

P io n e e rs o f th e Old S outhw est 1919 T l . 5 0 976 1,000 3 7 10

, ,

S lo s s o n , Edwin Emery

A m erican S p i r i t i n E d u c a tio n 1921 il.5 6 3 7 0.9 1,000 7 , 10

Sm edley, D uree and R o b in so n , L ura

C a re e rs i n B u sin ess f o r Women ifn ? $2T7T 371.1S2 9

S n ed ek er, C a ro lin e D ale

U ncharted Ways 1935 ^ $2 .00 1, 3

Snow, E dgar

F ic t io n

P eo p le on Our S id e 1 9 S , 13T50 9HO.5I48 3*

U ,

S i



8

S p e r r y , A rm strong

S torm Canvas I 9I4H P . 5 0 2, 3 , 7, 8

S ta n le y Works

How to Work w ith T ools and Wood T!9ll2 $ 1 .0 0

5

F ic tio n

S tephenson, N. W.

Abraham L in c o ln an d t h e U nion 1921 9 7 3.7 1,000 3 , 7 , 10 Day o f t h e C onfederacy 1920 $ 1 .5 0 9 7 3.7 1,000

3 , 7 , 10

Texas and th e M exican War 1921 11750 97373 1 ,0 0 0 3 , 7 , 10 S te f a n s s o n , E v ely n

S te in b e c k , Jo h n

Here i s A lask a 1913 ' 52 . 5I0 2 , 5, 7 , 8

917.98

Bonibs Away 1 9 l i T $ 2 .50 2

629.13

8x

S t e r n , Renee B em d

C lu b s: Making and Management 1925 “ $ 1 .3 2 "W T E

S te v e n s , James

P a u l Bunyan $ 1 .0 0 BBC 9

S te v e n so n , B u rto n E g b e rt

398.2

Home Book o f Modern V erse 1937 l 7 . 5 0 ~ ' 821.08 BBC 1,000

2, 6

S te v e n so n , R o b e rt L ouis

Black Arrow $ 1 .5 0 BBS 1,000

1, 2 , 3,

F ic t io n

k, 6 , 7 , 8 , 10

Kidnapped $ 1 .5 0 BBC 1 ,000 1, 2, 6, 7, 8

F ic t io n

T re a su re I s la n d f l .50 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

M9 S to c k to n , Frank R ichard

B uccaneers and P i r a t e s o f Our C oast lBfB $27oo 910 BBC 1 ,000

S to k le y , Jam es

S cie n ce Remakes Our W orld 2S&2 13 .^0 666

S to n e , I r v in g

Im m ortal W ife 19liE f e .0 0 3* U* 5> 6 , 9

S tr o n g , Anna L o u ise

F ic tio n

P e o p le s o f th e USSR

19iS

91U.7

2* $9 ^9 7 S ugim o to , E tsu

D au g h ter o f th e Sam uri 1 & T ”1 2 7 5 0 -------- 92 BBC

1, 3 , 7, 8 S u rv ey G rap h ic

C a llin g A m erica 1939 11*00

3 2 1.8

S m f t , J o n a th a n

G uT H ver, s T ra v e ls $ £ .0 0 ’ F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , k , 7 , 9$ 10

S ynge, M arg aret B e rth a

Book o f D isc o v e ry 1922 $ 5 .0 0 BBC 1,000 3

T a i n to r , S a ra h and Monro, K ate

910

S e c r e t a r i e s Handbook

3551

J2750

BBC

1,000

651.3

1, 6, 7 , 8, 9 T an n a h d l, S a l l i e B e lle

P fs and Q 's

T appan, Eva March

When K n ig h ts Were Bold 1911 $ 3 .0 0 ”~ 9 E 0 .1 BBC 1,000 2 , 3 , 5j 9

193? 2, 7

$ 2 .5 0

7U5

T a rk in g to n , Booth

A lic e Adams 5 o .7 5 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1* 3 , h , 7 , 9 , 10 Penrod 1931 $2*50 2, 3, 7, 8, 9

F ic tio n

S ev en teen 1932 #1*00 F ic tio n BBC 1 ,000 x, 2 , 3, 5, 7, 8j 9 , 10 T a u s s ig , F rank W illia m

T a r i f f H is to r r o f U n ite d S t a t e s 1931 ¥3*00 337 BBC 1 ,000

2 T a y lo r , Deems

Thomas, G e rtru d e Id a

,6

Of Men an d Music 1937 $2T50~ BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1

78O.it

Foods o f ou r F o r e f a th e r s — B U T “ P . 5 5 --------

6 Thompson, H o llan d

Age o f I n v e n tio n iW l 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10 New S o u th 1919 1 1 .5 0 1 ,0 0 0 7 , 10

608

975

T h o rn d ik e , A sh ley Horace

S h a k e sp e a re 1s T h e a tre I 91S 15750 792 BBC 1,000 3, 5 , 9

T im b ie , W illia m Henry

E s s e n tia ls o f E l e c tr i c it y 1931 5 2 .00 6 2 1 .3

251 T u n is, John R oberts

A ll A m erica I 9IJ2 f 2 .0 0 1, 2 , 7, 9

F ic tio n

C hoosing a C o lleg e

m r i^T ^ o BBC

378

6, 8

I r o n Duke 1918“ “ |2 . 0 0 F ic tio n BBC 1 , 2 , 3 , U, 5 , 8 , 9 , 10 K eystone K ids ^ 19U3 $ 2 .0 0 2 , U, 5* 7* 8

F ic tio n

S p o rt f o r th e Fun o f I t -------- 790 19U0 me Yeal W ild c a ts t T u r n b u ll, Agnes (S lig h )

Day Must Dawn 19lj2 |2 7 7 5 F ic t io n 1* 2 , 3 , 5> 7 , 8 O f f i c i a l C o n g re ssio n a l D ir e c to r y li:2 5 328 BBC

2, 6

U nterm ey er, L o u is

Forms o f P o e try 1921T $ 1 .5 0 BBC 3

8 0 8 .1

Modem A m erican P o e try I 9I42 | 2 .5 0 lll.0 8 BBC 1 , 2 , k , 3 , 8 , 9 , 10 T h is S in g in g W orld 1923 1 3 .0 0 821.08 BBC l j 3> 6, 8

Van Loon, H enrik W illem

The A rts " 1937 $ 3 .9 5 BBC

i» 2 , 5 ,

709

7

Van M etre, Thurman

T ra in s, 231920 , and T ravel 1959 b 53T 1.0 0 0

V e in o t t , C y r il George

F r a c tio n a l Horsepower E le c t r ic Motors 1939 $ £ .0 0 321 .3 1

Wagenknecht, Edward C.

F ir e s id e Book o f Christmas S t o r ie s 19IS" TST^o" sc 2 , 8, 9

W alker, M ildred

W inter Wheat 19Hlt $ £ .5 0 1, 2

W ain, Nora

House o f E x ile 1933 ~WIOO BBC 1,0 0 0 3, 8

F ic tio n

9 1 5 .1

W ashington, Booker T .

Up From S la v ery 1928 ' ” ¥5796 92 BBC 1 ,0 0 0 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 10

Watson, Herbert M* and Eby, George S .

Understanding Radio 19U0 $ 2 .8 0 621.38U

W ebster, Noah

W ebster*s B io g ra p h ica l D ic tio n a ry 55G3- 1 6 .5 0 R920 1 2 8 9

6, 9

, , ,

W ebster1s D ictio n a ry o f Synonyms — n & .w m 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 10 W eig le, Luther A lla n

American Id ea lism

~Ti£o~~ 1 .0 0 0

917.3

1 W e lle s , Sumner

Time f o r D e c isio n 19W t o . 00

327.73

253 W harto n , M rs. E d ith W h ite , S te w a rt Edward

E ath an Frome 1958 f l . 7 5 B lazed T r a i l 1902 $2*00 BBC

F ic tio n F ic tio n

2 , 3 , 10

W h ite , W illia m Lindsay-

D a n ie l Boone $ 1 .0 0 BBC 3 , U, 7

92

F o rty -N in e rs 1918 f i .5 0 3 , ? , 10

979. 1*

Queens D ie P ro u d ly 191*3 $ 2 .30 91*0.51*1* 1, 2 They Were E xpendable 1 9 W ~ | 2 .o6 91*0.51*2 2 , 1*, 7 , 8 , 9

W ild e r, L au ra I n g a l l s

T hese Happy G olden Y ears 19U3 #2 *00 F ic tio n 1 , 8 , 10

W ild e r, T h o rn to n Niven

Our Town 1935"

$ 2 .0 0

812

6 W illia m s , S ta n le y Thomas

American S p i r i t i n L e t t e r s 192T* 4 5 .5 6 810.9 1 ,000 1

W in te r, W illia m Jo h n

Model A i r c r a f t Handbook 19hl $ 2 .0 0 §29.133

W is s le r , C la rk ; S k in n e r, C o n stan ce; and Wood, W illia m C h arles

A d v en tu res in th e W ild ern ess 9 7 3 .1

W is te r , Owen

The V ir g in ia n 52750 F ic tio n BBC 1,000 1 , 2 , 3 , 1*, 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10

254 Wood, L au ra Newbold

Raymond L» P i t mars 19I1U “ 157?5 1, 3, 6, 7, 8

92

W a lte r R eed, D o cto r i n Uniform 1953 f2 .JjO 92 1, 2 , h, 5, 8 Wood, W illia m C h a rle s

C a p ta in s o f th e C iv i l War 1921 l £ i 7 ? 9 9 7 3 .7 7 , 10 E liz a b e th a n Sea-Dogs — 973*1 3 , 7 , 10

Wood, C h a rle s Henry and G a b r ie l, R alp h Henry

I n D efen se^ o f L ib e r ty 1 W inning o f Freedom 1927 973 1

Woodward, D onald B osley and R o se, M arcus A.

P rim er o f Money 193?“ 1S7?0 BBC

332 .!i

W orld Almanac and Book o f F a c ts 51700 3 1 7 .3 BBC 1 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7, 9 , 10 Wrong, George McKinnon

C onquest o f New F ran ce 1921 1 1 . S 0 971 1,000 3 , 7 , 10 W ashington and H is Comrades i n Arms 1921 $ l3 0 973.3 1,000 3 , 7 , 10

Y aukey, G race

Made i n China 19E3 - f J I o o 8

913.1

355 Y a te s , Raymond F r a n c is

E x p lo rin g w ith t h e Micro sco p e 193U oo ^78 BBC 3, 9

Zim, H e rb e rt S p en cer

P a ra c h u te s X952 $ 2 .5 0

629.13

S u b m arin es: The S to ry o f U ndersea B oats 19142 13-00 623.8

T o t a l c o s t o f a l l books on l i s t • • . .

$ 1 , 070. 51*

C ost o f books c o p y rig h te d s in c e 19i|2

2 16.73

Books c o p y rig h te d p r i o r t o 19l|2

853 .8 1

[email protected] Appendix C P o s ta l Card Q u estion n aire Used t o Determine High S chool Graduation Requirements Dear S ir : As one phase o f a d o c to r a l d is s e r t a t io n under th e d ir e c t io n o f D r. E .T . P eterso n , S ta te U n iv e r sity o f Iowa, I am making a survey o f high sc h o o l graduation requirem ents fo r th e yea r 19U6Ii-7* Your co o p era tio n i n supplying the n ecessa ry in fo rm a tio n i s d e s ir e d . A u n it on t h i s form r e fe r s to f iv e m eetings a week fo r two sem esters or one y ea r. One o r two m e etin g s p e r week i s c o n sid e re d .25 u n i t , th r e e m eetin g s p e r week a s .5 u n i t , and f o u r m e e tin g s p e r week a s .75 u n i t . On th e a tta c h e d c a r d , p le a s e check th e t o t a l number o f u n i t s r e ­ q u ir e d a s w e ll a s checking any s p e c i f i c r e q u ir e ­ m ents w ith in l^haE f i e l d . W rite i n a d d i tio n a l r e q u ir e d s u b je c ts o r f i e l d s w ith u n i t s r e q u ir e d . I am i n t e r e s t e d o n ly i n th o s e s u b je c ts w hich a re r e q u ir e d o f a l l g ra d u a te s , r e g a r d l e s s o f th e c o u rse p u rs u e d . Thank you f o r y o u r c o o p e ra tio n . Ralph A. A u sterm iller UNTTS REQUIRED FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION SOCIAL STUDIES ( ) : Amer. G ov*t. ( ) V ocation s ( ) World H isto ry ( ) Amer. H isto ry ( ) C itize n sh ip ( MATHEMATICS ( SCIENCE (

) s General Math (

) : Gen. S cien ce (

FOREIGN LANG. (

) : L a tin (

)

Algebra (

) B io lo g y ( )

French (

) )

)

) Geom. ( P h y sics (

Spanish (

) )

)

ENGLISH ( ) : Ninth ( ) Tenth ( ) American L it . ( ) E n g lish L ite r a tu r e ( ) Speech ( ) APPLIED ARTS (

) : G eneral Shop (

)

Home Economics

(

)

PHYSICAL EDUCATION ( ) MUSIC ( ) ART ( ) AGRI. ( ) T o ta l number o f u n it s req u ired fo r grad u ation , e x c lu siv e o f P h y sic a l E ducation ( ) Thank you.

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C ity

G e n e ra l Fund* E x p e n d itu re s

T o ta l A.D .A .

R a tio o f G e n e ra l E x p e n d itu re s t o A.D .A.

Rank W ith in C la ss

C la s s I (o v e r 500) Ames*HjBoone** C e n t e r v ill e F a irfie ld F o r t M adison O skaloosa Newton

2 6 5, 811. 1*0 21*5,712.31 150,827.21* 159,612.01* 177, 870 .2 6 1 90 ,9 6 3 .2 3 2 5 3 , 0 26 .6 6

1990.9 . \2li*9*5 11*2 9 .0 1328.0 1608. 1* 1866.1 2 2 2 8 .0

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99,721*.90 1 0 0 ,0 5 6 .6 3 121*,1*96.12 77,081*.0l* 88,1*28.00 87,11*9.73 l6 0 ,8 0 l* J* l 112,359.32 169,803.82 107,31*9.11* 1 1 8 ,0 5 3 .7 5 9 5 ,1 2 6 .5 5 7 2 ,5 7 5 .5 1 1 6 6 ,2 0 3 .2 1 108,991.1*5 89,63l*.98 1 0 7 ,8 7 8 .3 1 11*1*,795.99 79,1*05.1*9

1011.3 801*8 1QU1.U 529.8 61*9.5 60 2 .5 1360.7 1086.2 11*69.3 881*.7 889.7 71*8 . 1* 5U8.9 1212.1* 963.5 708.6 78U.3 1109.7 661*.0

9 8 .6 1 12U.78 U 9 .5 5 31*5.50 136. 11* ll*l*.6U 118.71 103.U* 115.57 321.33 132.86 127.10 132 .22 137.08 113.12 126.U9 137.75 130.1*8 119.59

la 19 23 3 9 1* 21*. 1*0 30 21 10 16 32 8 31* 17 7 33 22

C la ss I I (275-1*99) A lb ia * * A lgona A tla n tic Audubon B lo o m field C a r r o ll Gfedar F a lls * * C h a rito n C h a rle s C ity C herokee C la rin d a C la rio n * * C om ing C re sto n D ecorah D enison E ag le Grove E s th e r v i ll e * * F o r e s t C ity

C ity

G e n e ra l Fund* E x p e n d itu re s

G r in n e ll lt*l+,l57.ll* Hampton 9 5 ,0 3 0 .3 $ H a rla n 88,1*01.20 Humboldt 70,233*55 I n d ia n o la 97,981*78 Iowa F a l l s l50 ,0 3 i* .0 8 K n o x v ille 121,136*51 LeMars 101,883*1+1 M aquoketa 8 9, 688.63 M arion 93,125*67 M is s o u ri V a lle y 78,507*38 Mount P le a s a n t 81,783*35 New Hampton 71,510*79 O elw ein 153,602*20 O sceo la 7 5 ,9 5 2 .9 6 P e rry 121^,922,13 Red Oak 111,1+1+6.3+3 Shenandoah 129,1*33.00 S p en cer 3l*8,3lU *39 V in to n 9U,1*60.17 W ashington 123,11*3*31 W averly 100,855*38 W eb ster C ity 13*8,787*31 W est Des M oines 1 0 2 ,0 7 6 .9 5 W in te r s e t 90,680*61

T o ta l A.D.A.

R a tio o f G e n e ra l E x p e n d itu re s t o A •A•

Rank W ith in C la ss

101+1.5 8 0 5 .0 756.8 621+.3 863*0 8 3 6 .3 1110*7, 81 8 .7 778.1+ 995*5 752 .U 851+.9 1+83.0 1067*9 61+8.8 9 6 8 .0 982.3 111*5 *6 1259*5 887*2 928*0 783*1 1270*1 892*6 718.7

$138.1+1 118*05 116.80 132 .5 0 113*5U 179*1*0 109 .0 6 121+.U+ 115*22 93.81+ 10l*.12 95*66 11+8.05 ll+3*83 117*07 129*05 113*1+5 312.98 117*76 106.1*7 132*69 128.78 117*15 lll* .3 5 126.17

6 25 29 36 32 1 37 20 31 1+3 39 1*2 2 5 28 1h 33 35 26 38 11 15 27 31 1*8

51+0*5 1*0.1+*0 5 7 6 .1 1+91+.9 710.1+ 1+38.7 539*8 361**2 515*8 579*1+ 1*16.3

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28 ll+ 23 31* 25 13 5 12 1 30 10

C la ss I I I (150-271*) Anamosa B ed fo rd B e lle P lain© Belmond C le a r Lake C o lfa x C resco D eW itt Emmetsburg Glenwood Grundy C e n te r

6 7 ,5 3 2 .7 2 52,03*7*95 6 8 ,9 2 3 .6 7 52,1*1*6.92 83,115*1*5 56,91*1*27 7 8 ,2 0 3 .0 8 3*8,261.82 85,131*09 65,200 *1+1+ 55,1+99*23

263

C ity

G u th rie C e n te r Hawarden Hamburg I d a Grove Independence** Jefferso n Lake C ity Leon M anchester** M adrid Marengo M o n tic e llo * * Nevada Onawa Osage P e lla Rock R ap id s R ockw ell C ity S ac C ity S heldon** S ib le y S ig o u rn ey S torm Lake Tama T oledo V illis c a Waukon W est Union

G e n e ra l Fund* E x p e n d itu re s

T o ta l A*D .A *

R a tio o f G en eral E x p e n d itu re s t o A *A•

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Rank W ith in C la ss

27 29 17 2 8 33 2U 11 32 20 31 22 38 6 35 h 3 9 18 16 21 7 26 37 15 19 36

* Less t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p u p i l s , f ix e d c h a rg e s , c a p i t a l o u tla y , d e b t s e r v i c e , r e v o lv in g a c c o u n ts , and t r a n s f e r s t o schoolhouse fund* ■** S e le c te d sch o o ls*

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books

! • A y re s , Leonard P . , A Com parative S tudy o f th e P u b lic S chool System s i n th e F o r ty - E ig h t S t a t e s , R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , New Y ork, 1912. 2 . A y res, Leonard P . , An In d ex Number f o r S ta te S chool S ystem s, R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , New Y ork, 1920. 3* B a in , L . C . , M easuring th e C u rren t E x p en d itu res o f th e C lev elan d Pub­ l i c S c h o o ls , D iv is io n o f R eferen ce and R esearc h , C lev elan d P u b lic S c h o o ls , C le v e la n d , O hio, 1923* U. B rew ton, John E . , E x c e lle n t S c h o o ls, T h e ir C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , R ep o rt o f th e I n v e s ti g a tio n o f E d u c a tio n a l Q u a lif ic a tio n s o f T each ers i n S o u th C a r o lin a , U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th C a ro lin a , 19W*. 5* B rew ton, John E . , I s Yours an E x c e lle n t S ch o o l? , D iv is io n o f Surveys and F i e l d S e r v ic e s , George Peabody C ollege f o r T e a c h e rs, N a s h v ille , T en n e ssee , 19U8, p . 2 9 . 6 . C u b b erley , Elwood P . , S chool Funds and T h e ir A pportionm ent, T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , No. 2 , Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1905* 7 . Dawson, Howard A ., S ta n d a rd s o f E x p en d itu res f o r th e P r i n c i p a l Item s C ity S ch o o l C o sts7 George Peabody C ollege f o r T e a c h e rs, C o n trib u ti o n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 31* N ash v ille* T en n essee, 1927* V 8 . D o u g las, Mary P eacock, T e a c h e r-L ib ra ria n Handbook, American L ib ra ry A s s o c ia tio n , C hicago, 19U1, P» 6 6 , 9 . E l l i o t t , Edward C ., Some F i s c a l A sp ects o f P u b lic E d u c a tio n , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 6 , Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1905, p . 99* 1 0 .E n g e lh a rd t, and von B o rg ersro d e, F . , A ccountihg P ro ced u re f o r S chool S ystem s, T each ers C o lleg e, Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1927~T l l .E n g e l h a r d t , N .L ., and E n g e lh a rd t, F . , P u b lic S chool B usiness Admini s t r a t i o n , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New Y ork, 1927, p p . 7 5 9 -793.

265 1 2 . E n g e lh a r d t, >N .L., and A lex an d e r, C a r te r , S ch o o l F in an ce and B u sin e ss Management P ro b lem s, T each ers C o lle g e , Colum bia, 1928, p p . 7-9* 13* F a rg o , L u c i ll e F . , The L ib ra ry i n th e S c h o o l, Am erican L ib ra ry A sso­ c i a t i o n , C h icago, 1933, p p . 229-28^7“ lU* F e r r e l l , D . T . , R e la tio n Between C u rren t E x p e n d itu re s and C e r ta in M easures o f E d u c a tio n a l E f f ic ie n c y i n Kentucky County and G raded S ch o o l S y stem s, C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n . No. 2 1 6 , George P ea­ body C o lleg e f o r T e a c h e rs, N a s h v ille , T en n essee, 1936. 1 5 . F r a s i e r , G.W., The C o n tro l o f C ity S chool F in a n c e s , Bruce P u b lis h in g Company, M ilw aukee, W isco n sin , 1922. 1 6 . G race, A. G. , and Moe, G. A. , S ta t e A id and S chool C o sts, The R e g e n ts' I n q u ir y , McGraw H i l l , New York and London, 1939. 1 7 . G r ib b le , S tep h en C ., A Technique f o r t h e D e te rm in a tio n o f U n it S ch o o l C o s ts , U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa S tu d ie s i n E d u c a tio n , v o l . 3 , n o . 1 , f i r s t s e r i e s , No. 97, 1925* 1 8 . H u tch in so n , Howard J . , S chool C osts and School A cco u n tin g , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s t o E d u c a tio n , No. 6 2 , Bureau o f P u b lic a ­ t i o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 19lU . 1 9 . J o i n t Committee o f th e American L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , N a tio n a l Edu­ c a t io n A s s o c ia tio n and N a tio n a l C o u n cil o f T each ers o f E n g lis h , A B a sic Book C o lle c tio n f o r High S c h o o ls . American L ib ra ry A sso c ia ­ t i o n , 19527" 2 0 . J o i n t Committee o f th e Am erican L ib ra ry A s s o c ia tio n , N a tio n a l Edu­ c a t io n A s s o c ia tio n and N a tio n a l C o u n cil o f T each ers o f E n g lis h , One Thousand Books f o r th e S e n io r High S chool L ib r a r y , American L ib r a r y A s s o c ia tio n , 1935• 2 1 . M a rtin , L aura K a th e rin e , M agazines f o r High S c h o o ls, H.W. W ilson Company, New Y ork, 1 9 h l, p p . 22-39* 2 2 . Monroe, I s a b e l S . and J a r v i s , R u th , S tan d a rd C atalo g f o r High S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s , W ilson P u b lis h in g Company, C hicago, 19ii2-56. 2 3 . M ort, P a u l R ., F e d e r a l S u p p o rt f o r P u b lic E d u c a tio n , Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1936, p . 22U. 2U. M brt, P a u l R ., B u rk e, A rv id J . , and F is k , R o b ert S . , A Guide f o r th e A n a ly sis and D e s c r ip tio n o f P u b lic School S e r v ic e s , I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , D iv is io n o f S tr u c tu r e and O rg a n iz a tio n , T eafihers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 19i|2.

2 5 . M o rt, P $ u l R ., and C o r n e ll, F r a n c is G ., American S ch o o ls i n T r a n s i­ t i o n , B ureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New Y ork, 1938. 2 6 . P e te r s o n , E .T ., L i n q u is t, E . F ., J e e p , H .A ., P r i c e , M .P ., T each er S u p p ly and Demand i n Iow a, S tu d ie s i n E d u c a tio n , New S e r ie s No* 2 29, Iowa C ity , Iow a, 1932, p . 2 l 6 . 2 7 . P o w e ll, O rrin E . , E d u c a tio n a l R etu rn s a t V arying E x p en d itu re L e v e ls , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n trib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , No, 5 73, B ureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1933, pp* 2 0 -2 1 . 2 8 . Schramm el, Henry S . , The O rg a n iz a tio n o f S ta t e D epartm ents o f Edu­ c a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n iv e r s ity S tu d ie s , B ureau o f E d u c a tio n a l Mono­ g ra p h s , No. 6 , 1926. 29* S i a s , A .B ., The F in a n c in g o f a S ta t e S chool S ystem , P u b lis h e d d o c t o r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity , 1926. 3 0 . S t r a y e r , George D ., C ity S chool E x p e n d itu re s , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , C o n tr ib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , No. 5 , Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , New Y ork, 1905* 31* S t r a y e r , George D ., and E n g e lh a rd t, N .L ., S ta n d a rd s f o r High S ch o o l B u ild in g s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 19257 3 2 . Wade, J • Thomas, A M easurement o f t h e S econdary S chool a s a P a r t o f th e P u p i l 's E n vironm ent, C o n trib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , No. 657, Bureau o f P u b lic a ti o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , New Y ork, 1935. S e r i a l s and P am phlets 3 3 . Chambers, F re d e ric k D ., "Some Problem s i n Computing Comparable U n it S ch o o l C o s ts ," Am erican S chool Board Jo u rn a l., v o l . 81, A ugust 1930, p p . 53-55• 35* C o o p erativ e S tudy o f Secondary S chool S ta n d a rd s Comm ittee, E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a , S e c tio n F , The Com m ittee, Y /ashington, D .C. 35* D av en p o rt, K . S . , and Remmers, H .H ., " E d u c a tio n a l Achievement a s Compared w ith Money S p en t on S c h o o ls," S chool and S o c ie ty , v o l . 6 l , May 1955, p p . 3 3 3 -3 3 5 .

367 3 6 . E v a lu a tio n o f S econdary S c h o o ls , D e a lin g w ith S p e c ia l P h ases o f th e Work an d R e s u lt s , C o o p erativ e £>tudy o f S econdary S chool S ta n d a rd s , W ash in g to n , D . C . , 1939* 37• How t o E v a lu a te a S econdary S c h o o l, A Manual t o Accompany th e 191*0 'E d itio n " o f E v a lu a te C r i t e r i a and E d u c a tio n a l T em p eratu re s, C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary S chool S ta n d a rd s , W ashington, D. C. , 19393 8 . M e tr o p o lita n S ch o o l S tudy C o u n c il, New C h allen g es t o E d u c a tio n , New Y ork, November, 191*6. 39 • M e tr o p o lita n S ch o o l S tu d y C o u n cil, What Makes Good S c h o o ls: Community F a c t o r s , A p r i l , 191*5*

The

1+0. M ort, P a u l R*, E d u c a tio n a l R etu rn s f o r Money S p en t on P u b lic S c h o o ls , T e a c h e rs C o lleg e R eco rd , v o l . 1*33 J a n u a ry , 191*2, p . 2 8 8 . 1*1. M o rt, P a u l R . , and C o r n e ll, F ra n c is G ., A Guide f o r S e lf - A p p r a is a l o f S ch o o l S y stem s, B ureau o f P u b lic a tio n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s it y , 1937* 1*2. M o rt, P a u l R ., and H ille b o e , G .L ., "A R a tin g S c a le f o r E lem en tary S ch o o l O r g a n iz a tio n s ," T each ers C o lleg e R ecord, v o l . 3 2 , O ctober 1930, p p . 3U-U9. i*3« M ort, P a u l R ., V in c e n t, W illiam S . , and N ew ell, C laren ce A ., The Growing E dge: An In s tru m e n t f o r M easuring th e A d a p ta b ility o f S ch o o l S ystem s, M e tro p o lita n S chool S tudy C o u n cil, New Y ork, 191*6. 1*1*. N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , Members of th e T eaching P r o f e s s io n , R e se a rc h B u l l e t i n , v o l . 18, n o . 2 , W ashington D .C ., M arch, p . 55* 1+5. N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , R ep o rt o f Committee on Uniform F in a n c i a l R e p o r ts , J o u r n a l o f P ro ceed in g s and A d d re sse s, v o l . 3 8 , 1 8 9 9 ,p p .3 1 U t-3 5 2 . 1*6. N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , S ta tu s o f th e Teaching P r o f e s s io n , R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 18, n o . 2 , W ashington D. C. , 19l*0, p . 55* 1*7. N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , "The T each er Looks a t P e rs o n n e l A d m in is tra tio n ," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 3 , No. 1** 19U5* P- 99* 1*8. N a tio n a l R esearc h A s s o c ia tio n , "T each er P e rs o n n e l P ro c e d u re s; S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 0 , n o . 2 , M arch, 191*2.

1+9* N a tio n a l R esearc h A s s o c ia tio n , "T eac h er P e rs o n n e l P ro c e d u re s i Em­ ploym ent C o n d itio n s i n S e r v ic e ," R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 2 0 , n o. 3 , 19l|2. 50* New York S ta t e E d u c a tio n a l C onference B oard, What E d u c a tio n Our Money Buys, A lbany, 191*3. 51 • N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lleg es and S econdary S c h o o ls , "H igh S ch o o l L ib r a r y S tu d y , 1928," N orth C e n tra l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l . 3 , S ep tem b er, 1928, p p . 21+6-2 5^1. " 5 2 . N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , an d C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f S econdary S c h o o ls , P a r t I I I , " The N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n Q u a r te r ly , v o l . 2 8 , 19U8, p p . 8 0 -8 8 . 53* N o rth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lleg es and S econdary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval o f Secondary S c h o o ls," s e c ti o n 3B (2) 191*9-50, p . 10* 51+* N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n o f C o lle g e s and Secondary S c h o o ls, " P o l i c i e s , R e g u la tio n s , and C r i t e r i a f o r th e A pproval of Secondary S c h o o ls ," s e c ti o n 5B ( 2 ) , 191+9-5°, P* 2 0 .

55* N o rto n , Jo h n K ., " S ta n d a rd s o f L iv in g and S ta n d a rd s o f E d u c a tio n ," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , v o l . 1 3 , J a n u a ry , 1926, p p . 22-35* 5 6 . P h i l l i p s , F rank M ., " E d u c a tio n a l R anking o f S ta t e s by Two M ethods," Am erican S chool Board J o u r n a l, v o l. 69, December 1921+, pp. 1+7-1+9* 57* R ic k s e c k e r, C.W., High S chool S u b je c t C osts i n O hio, U n iv e r s ity o f P i t t s b u r g B u l l e t i n , v o l . 3 1 , no. 1 , P i t t s b u r g , P e n n ., 1931+* 5 8 . S ch o o l L i b r a r i e s Committee o f th e American L ib ra ry A s s o c ia tio n , S chool Library Yearbook, No. 5 , American Library A s s o c ia tio n , 1932. 59* W itham, E r n e s t G ., " P u b lic S chool P ro g re s s o f th e S t a t e s ," American S chool Board J o u r n a l, v o l . 75, O cto b er, 1927, pp* 37-39*

Government Documents

6 0 . Commission on th e L eg al S tr u c tu r e o f Rhode I s la n d P u b lic E d u c a tio n , S ch o o ls f o r Our C h ild re n , R ep o rt o f a Survey o f th e S tr u c tu r e and O p e ra tio n o f th e Rhode I s la n d P u b lic S ch o o l S ystem , v o l . 1 , F eb r u a r y , 191+1. 6l * C o n n e c tic u t S t a t e Board o f E d u c a tio n , D iv is io n o f R esearch and S u rv e y s , T e n ta tiv e In d ex Number f o r th e S ch o o ls o f C o n n e c tic u t C it ie s and Towns, H a r tf o r d , C o n n e c tic u t, 1929* 62 • D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , War Emergency Changes i n Minimum R equirem ents f o r T each ers i n Approved and C o n so lid a te d S ch o o ls and Normal T ra in in g S c h o o ls , 19H5-Uo, 191+5 C ir c u la r , No. 21-2 (R ev ised ) Des M oines, Iow a, p . 1 . 6 3 . Iowa E d u c a tio n a l D ir e c t o r y , Iowa S ta t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n ­ s t r u c t i o n , Des M oines, Iow a, 191*6-1+7, p . 163* 61+# Maine S ch o o l F in an c e Commission, The F in a n c in g o f P u b lic S ch o o ls o f M aine, C h ap ter I I I , 1931+. 65* National Survey of Secondary Education, The Smaller Secondary Schools Bulletin, 1932, No. 1 7 , Government Printing Office. 6 6 . R ep o rt o f th e Committee on U niform R ecords and R e p o r ts , U n ite d S t a t e s Bureau o f E d u c a tio n , Government P r in ti n g O f f ic e , B u ll e ti n No. 3 , 1912 67* S ch o o l Laws o f Iow a, Compiled from th e Code o f 191+6 and t h e A cts o f th e 52nd G e n eral A ssem bly, Des M oines, 191+8. 68. Updegi*aff, H a rla n , A. S tu d y o f E xpenses o f C ity S ch o o l S ystem s, U n ite d S t a t e s B ureau o f ,E d u c a tio n , B u l l e t i n No. 5 , 1912, p . 7* 6 9 . U .S. O ffic e o f E d u c a tio n , N a tio n a l Survey o f th e E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e rs , B u l l e t i n 1933, No. 1 0 , 'Vol. I I . M an u scrip ts

7 0 . D a v is , H arvey H*, "A T echnique f o r Computing C osts o f S u b je c ts Taught i n Iowa H igh S c h o o ls," u n p u b lish e d d o c t o r ’s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 1928.

71* D u ffe y , Hugh S . , "The E f f e c t o f Reduced E x p e n d itu re s on Amount and Q u a lity o f E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e s ," u n p u b lish e d m a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , G eorge W ashington .U n iv e rsity , V fashington D . C . , 1933* 72* E v an s, R alph F . , "A S tu d y o f T each er A ssignm ent P r a c ti c e s i n Secon­ d a ry S ch o o ls o f t h e N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia tio n ," u n p u b lish e d d o c t o r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 191+1, p* 1 6 9 . 73* B an cer, H erm it T . , " In e x p e rie n c e d T each ers i n Iowa H igh S c h o o ls," u n p u b lish e d m a s te r ’ s t h e s i s , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 19U l, P* 9 6 . 7l+. Jo h an n sen , M*J*, "H igh S ch o o l Program s o f S tu d y i n Iowa In d ep en d e n t S ch o o l D i s t r i c t s , ’1 u n p u b lish e d m a s te r ’s t h e s i s , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 19U5*

75* M c ln tir e , George F . , " U n it C o sts o f S e rv ic e s and S u p p lie s i n th e E lem en tary S c h o o ls o f C a l if o r n ia hav in g an Average D a ily A tten d an ce o f T w o-thousand t o S ix -th o u s a n d and f o r th e S ch o o l Y ear o f 1930-31," u n p u b lish e d d o c to r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern C a l if o r n ia , 1932. 7 6 . M e rid e th , George H ., "The E f f e c t o f Reduced o r I n c r e a s e d S ch o o l Ex­ p e n d itu r e s Upon th e Amount and Q u a lity o f E d u c a tio n a l S e r v ic e ," u n p u b lish e d d o c t o r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l if o r n ia , Los A n g eles, 1937* 77* Nonneman, R .F ., "H igh S ch o o l Programs o f S tu d y ," u n p u b lish e d m a s te r ’s t h e s i s , S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 191+6. 7 8 . S ex so n , Jo h n A*, and M e rid e th , George H ., "A S tudy o f th e R e la tio n ­ s h ip o f S chool E x p e n d itu re s t o E d u c a tio n a l S e rv ic e s P ro v id e d ," u n p u b lish e d d o c t o r ’s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l if o r n ia , Los A n g eles, 1937* 79* Shuey, R o b ert K ., "H igh S chool Program s o f Study i n th e Large I n ­ dep en d en t S ch o o l D i s t r i c t s from 19U3-UU," u n p u b lish e d m a s te r ’s t h e s i s , S ta t e U n iv e r s ity o f Iow a, 191+6. In te rv ie w 80 . O sborn, Wayla n d W ., I n te rv ie w betw een a u th o r an d , Des M oines, Iowa, J a n u a ry 1 5 , 191+7*