The Idea of State in pre-Islamic Turkish Thought 9781463225858

Ayhan Biçak’s study of Turkic thought is constructed around understanding their pre-Islamic notions of the state.

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The Idea of State in pre-Islamic Turkish Thought
 9781463225858

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The Idea of State in pre-Islamic Turkish Thought

Analecta Isisiana: Ottoman and Turkish Studies

A co-publication with The Isis Press, Istanbul, the series consists of collections of thematic essays focused on specific themes of Ottoman and Turkish studies. These scholarly volumes address important issues throughout Turkish history, offering in a single volume the accumulated insights of a single author over a career of research on the subject.

The Idea of State in pre-Islamic Turkish Thought

Ayhan BÌ9ak

•sTs*

1

gorgia* press

The Isis Press, Istanbul 2010

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2010 by The Isis Press, Istanbul Originally published in 2004 All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of The Isis Press, Istanbul. 2010

ISBN 978-1-61719-131-2

Printed in the United States of America

Ayhan Bi^ak was born in 1956 in Erzincan. He received the philosophy degree from the University of Istanbul in 1982, Philosophy, M.A in 1986 and philosophy Ph.D. in 1992 in Istanbul University. He is an associate professor in the Department of Philosophy in Istanbul University. His field of research includes studies on philosophy of history and political philosophy.

CONTENTS

PREFACE

7

INTRODUCTION

9

CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEMS OF TURKISH THOUGHT 1-Method 2- Fundamentals of the State Idea 2.1 - Existence 2.2- Order 2.3-The Ruler 2.3.1-War 2.3.2- Wisdom

16 18 25 25 28 31 31 33

CHAPTER II: THE CONCEPTION OF THE UNIVERSE 1-God 2- The Heavens and the Earth 3-Human Being 4-The Soul 5-The State 6- The Structure of Religion

37 38 40 42 45 48 53

CHAPTER III: THE MODEL OF A WORLD STATE: The Myth of OguzKhan CHAPTER IV: THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE STATE: The Orhon Inscriptions 1- Order 2- Address to the People

67 68 71

CHAPTER V: THE WISE RULER: Kutadgu Bilig 1- Wisdom 2- The State and the Ruler 2.1-Order 2.2- The State 2.3- The Ruler 3- Critiques of Zahit 4-The Commander 5-The People

77 78 82 82 84 87 94 97 98

CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

61

101 109 113

PREFACE

The real concern of this study named The Idea of State in the PreIslamic Turkish Thoughts is to comment on the understanding of the state in the Pre-Islamic period of Turkish history using a philosophical approach. The concepts and values on which the comments are based are the elements that appear and are used in the period mentioned. The bases of the thoughts developed in the study are the following three Turkish texts, which are among the most significant works of Turkish culture, and in which the idea of statehood is made clear: The Myth o/Oguz Khan, The Orhon Inscriptions, and Kutadgu Bilig. Some conclusions are drawn about the general structure of the Turkish system of thought by means of an evaluation of the ideas developed using these three texts, within the framework of the Turkish conception of the universe. The term "Turk" is used as the general name of the people speaking Turkish in this study. In addition, the statements about the Turks put forward in this study are related to Turkic people becoming a state. Particularly, the Gok-Turks, as a representative of the Pre-Islamic period, are taken into consideration. I would like to express my special thanks to all of the friends who have made contributions to this study.

INTRODUCTION

Culture, revealed together with the attempt to humanize is a formation that is under obligation both to make human beings continue their existence humanly, and to meet the demands of societies. The idea of a society presents itself in the main characteristics of culture that comes out of a society. The pillars carrying culture as a building are the institutions. Institutions, formed in order to meet the basic needs of people, contain the building blocks of culture. The principal institutions that come to designate the main characteristics of culture are language, religion, family, ethics, history, economics, education, and the state. Through an account of the main structure of institutions, traditions and values of those institutions make both the structure clear, and also show on what the thoughts of a society are based. Thus, the institutions themselves, the traditions that these give birth to, and the values coming out of traditions determine not only the way of thinking of a society, but also the identity of a society. These components can briefly be clarified as follows: Language: besides being a system of communication among people, and a main channel for all kinds of thoughts, it is the most determinative element of social identity. Religion: it lays down a conception of the universe (cosmogony), explains the consequence of death, and is another major determinant of social identity. History: besides explaining the past of society on the basis of an conception of the universe, it brings light into the integrity, continuance, and values of society. Economics: developments with regard to the solutions to the problem of nutrition have given birth to the institution of economics. Strong connections between the way of living and economic affairs in a particular society makes economics a determinant of the idea of society. Education: it is important due to the fact that it causes the individual to meet his needs, and the society to teach its values to the individual. Family: its function is to make the generations continue, and to tcach the characteristics of all other institutions and the social values. Ethics: it has a crucial function which is to arrange relationships between people, and therefore to provide social order. State: it is responsible for the work and coordination of the institutions in society, and the security of the individual and society. It is a strong force to guide other institutions, and to make necessary changes.

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Institutions that are under the obligation to solve the problems of society make different changes in their structures according to recent needs, and in order to solve the problems. There are changes in cultures depending on the quality and quantity of changes in institutions. Relations between societies are one of the main reasons for such changes. Social or cultural changes transform the thoughts of society. In spite of all these changes, the basic values, institutions, and traditions of culture let culture keep its own identity. Moreover the continuity of cultural identity guarantees the presence of culture. Culture, as required by itself, has the quality of continuance. The necessity to live and use the values provided by culture in order for people to survive in a cultural environment is the primary basis of this continuance. The elements that make culture continue are the following: 1. Functionality is one of the main concepts that can be used to explain all the elements of a culture because each element performs a function, and during the process in which the function is performed, the element fulfils its function. Therefore, function is the real basis of cultural continuity. 2. Traditions are of great importance to cultural continuity since they teach how to live according to values, and make people show loyalty to traditions that are dependent upon values. 3. Institutions are the basis of cultural continuity since they born out of inevitable needs, are vested with power to impose sanctions, and have function to perform. Culture, due to these three elements, is able to keep its identity while it changes. In addition to these, the historical consciousness of a society is another element that supports continuity. Any value, institution, or tradition appearing or used at a particular time in society has met the needs, or has lasted for a short or long time. Thus, a study of this process indicates the date of element subject to the process. In order to understand the idea in a culture, first of all, the functions and continuity of values, each of which is an element produced by the society, should be considered. The function and continuity of an element clearly put down the society's approach to that matter. The elements having the most prominent functions and continuity at the same time are, in order, institutions, traditions, and values. Studies on these elements indicate the properties of a social idea in a much better way. The success of society in the field of idea is dependent upon the continuity of society. If the society keeps its existence, or until it keeps its existence, it can be said that it has succeeded in solving its problems, or will succeed. And the solutions to the problems are closely related to the production of idea. In accordance with the subject, the state and the values relevant to the state will be mentioned here.

INTRODUCTION

11

It is a philosophical method to examine the origin of something in order to understand what the thing is. Following this method, some questions about how the state has been formed should be handled. There are many different points of view on how the state has been formed. They have nothing in common except their subject. Many of the theories on state are not likely to agree on what the state is, how it works, why and how it has developed, and what the benefits brought by its organs, if any, are. This leads to an academic cacophony, so that the researchers following diverse traditions accuse each other of "religious devotion", and compete against each other to follow their own ideological ways of persuasion (Cohen 1978, 31). This points out clearly that there is no common understanding on the origin of the state. The major reasons for the problem are also closely related to the presence of so many different traditions of state. The indicators denoting that a community is being put under state m a n a g e m e n t have usually been the following: a sufficient population, properties of being a citizen, a military and political force to maintain the law and provide social order, the protection of social unity and independence, the imposition of taxes to make state organization work, formation of classes, and the principles on which political legality is based (Claessen and Skalnik 1978, 21). These properties, besides setting down whether the community is a state or not, indicate the provisions of being a state. However, since each state defines these properties by itself, states turn out differently f r o m each other. There have been various models of states in history depending on the phase the societies was in the settings in which they have existed the historical period, economic conditions, and the conception of the universe. The state of any particular society is different f r o m other states just as each society has a language and the languages are different f r o m each other. Even though states have similarity in terms of their functions, they are dissimilar in terms of the manner of performing these functions. Since the Turks, who suggested the idea of state which is the theme of this study, have roots in Asia, it will be useful to compare briefly an Asian type state to a Western type state. In Western thought, state classification has been made depending on the historical process, and taking into account the ways of administration. Since the nineteenth century, Eastern and Western type of states have also been included in this classification. The thinkers Hegel and Marx, having examined the structure of states, particularly within the limits of understanding of progress in the nineteenth century, illustrated Eastern societies negatively because they evaluated these societies and their institutions on the basis of

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this understanding. The provisions and properties of progress were defined using radical changes in Western societies. Societies not having the same provisions and changes were accepted as underdeveloped and without a history (Hegel 1956, 105-106). Therefore, underdevelopment and lack of a history have been used as a means to prove that exploitation of such a community is right (Blaut 1993, 14-17). The values produced and kept by non-European societies handled from this point of view have been mostly despised, and their states and social structures have been judged to be unimportant by modern values. Great importance has been attached to possessions, especially private property in the history of Western civilizations (Locke 1958, B, IX; P, 124). Private property and the class society based on possession have been influential in the definition of state. The definition of Asian Society put down by Marx, taking the stability of the mentioned countries into consideration, led to the conclusion that these societies were undeveloped, backward, and despotic besides showing that there was a difference in the East. The problem can also be dealt with as follows: the absence of private property is the most important indicator of the absence of class-based society. If there is no class, it is impossible for people to exploit each other. In connection with this, members of societies without possessions and class are more free than those of societies with possessions and class. Marx, defending the freedom of proletariat and a society without classes, preferred to look down on Asian communities rather than exalt them. One of the major reasons that led him to this conclusion is the concept of progress which is one of the main understandings of the system, and his handling of the problem according to his own social setting. Furthermore, the viewpoint that Asian societies were despotic should be discussed. Definition of the despotic state is based on the prejudice that the ruler is the only one who decides. On the other hand, the situation is not as it is thought because there are forces that control the ruler and law and traditions that he has to obey in the above mentioned understanding of state. As seen above, the Turkish state structure at least is not in accordance with these prejudices at this point. The concept of Freedom has been determinative for the evaluation of non-Western societies (Hegel 1954, 23). It is clear that freedom is the major problem of societies with classes based on possessions. Individual are inevitably dependent on others since possessions are gathered by a limited number of people. To be dependent on others in regard to the most

INTRODUCTION

13

compulsory needs, that is nutrition and accommodation, has made freedom a value to seek. Freedom has also been the key term to become a member of the high classes of the hierarchy born out of the class system in society. Of course, the term "freedom", used for the solution of problems appearing due to the particular structure of Western societies, will not be used in the societies having no such problems. That existence is dependent upon possessions, and possessions lead to class distinction has made possessions a value that cannot be given up, and caused long struggles between classes. Since one of the missions of the state controlled by the rich and noble class is to keep the lower classes in order, it has had a crucial role in the conflicts of interest between classes. As the state in Western societies takes sides in struggles inside society, it has worked as a device of exploitation inside society. The Western type model supporting one side has made rebellions against the state legitimate. In such circumstances, that rights and freedom are the most demanding value is in accordance with the nature of the objections (Bicak 2004, 71). While the rights are the main thing in Western societies because of their particular circumstances, duties have taken the most important place in Eastern societies. The following opinion of Lao Tzu is significant since it shows the difference: " while the virtuous are concerned with their duties, the wicked fight for their rights" (quoted by Wu 1967, 227). Sincc the Chinese legal system reflects the viewpoint that duty is more important than right, it has a structure in which duties are paid the most attention (Wu 1967, 219). As a result of these differences, civilizations getting their own identities have differed from each other. Therefore, to judge a civilization by means of the conceptual framework, and canon of values of another civilization does not lead into right conclusions, as is thought. In societies without possessions, the sense of existence is explained by using values such as state, religion, war, or family. While possessions are seen as the guarantee of life, and the state as an enemy in societies dependent upon possessions, the state has been the guarantee of life in societies without possessions. It would be better to define the state by presenting its functions in society instead of taking these differences into consideration. The main criteria of being a state is independence. So, independence is the essence of being a state. Society is an identifiable structure based on the cultural regime it has within the limits of the values it produces. Identity is the main principle that lets society keep its existence, and that differentiates it from the others. A society must protect its identity in order to keep its

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existence. Thus, the question of identity forces society to be self-sufficient because when society is not self-sufficient, it either breaks up, or is destroyed by other nations. Having an identity and being self-sufficient result in the concept of independence. In order for a society to be self-sufficient, it must have institutions to meet its own needs, and arrange links between the institutions. The state inevitably comes to designate relations between the institutions, to keep social order, and to get rid of dangers coming from outside, and becomes the symbol of society's independence. The conditions for the independence of the state are as follows: 1. the state's having the power to make decisions about the society it is responsible for, 2. the administrators being chosen according to social values, of their society not that of the other states or powers, 3. the state's not paying any taxes or fees to another state, 4. boundaries being definite and safe, 5. the state's being self-sufficient. A state having these properties is regarded as independent. The main function of the state is to provide social order. The three major problems of social order are the following: 1. The protection rights, 2. providing security, 3. co-ordination between institutions. The state uses three principal institutions - the law, the military, and bureaucracy - in order to solve these three problems. And these three institutions form the backbone of the state. Law is the totality of rules making it possible to provide order inside a society, to protect rights, to designate the conditions for the administrators to be chosen. Law, which is necessary to make people live together, has performed this function with diverse properties in societies ranging from the smallest ones to the biggest ones. The state, by means of law, prevents different ethnic groups, creeds, and interest groups from fighting against each other, and society from breaking up because the law is under obligation to determine the rights of any person, group, or class. The presence of the military, which is the armed forces, is compulsory to allow the law to be applied. The military provides the external security of a society, deterring other states from attacking, and repulsing them by fighting against them besides giving a guarantee to apply the law, and thus providing internal security. Bureaucracy lets the connections be carried out regularly both between the state and public, and among the institutions. Therefore, the state guarantees to preserve the form in which a society exists.

INTRODUCTION

15

The state, being the most determinative element for the existence of society, has been formed within the limits of the cultural values each society has. Cultural identity is the union of institutions, traditions, and values. After the identity has been formed, all the elements of culture are dealt with by taking into account this identity. The principles and values on which the state, an effective institution in forming the cultural identity, is dependent are also designated by culture. Since each state is formed according to the values of the culture it belongs to, different cultures lead to different states. This study, taking all of these into consideration, is focused on what the Turkish point of view and the idea of state is based upon.

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEMS OF TURKISH THOUGHT

Among the still existing civilizations such as Chinese, Indian, Jewish and Persian, we have to mention the Turks, too 1 . Although the Turkish civilization is not so old as the civilizations mentioned above, it is accepted that Turks have a long history of about 3.000 years. Nevertheless, there is a remarkable difference between these civilizations. Whereas the Chinese, Indian and Persian civilizations have remained in the same area where they arose, the Turks and Jews abandoned their home and continued their existence in different geographical areas. The difference between the Turks and the Jews is that after leaving their home, the Jews lived in groups and failed to establish a state, but the Turks managed to establish a new state wherever they settled, and kept their existence as a state in those places. It is almost impossible to find a similar society in the world which has continued its existence by establishing its own state wherever it settled and had relationships with all other superior civilizations 2 . Even though Turks have had their civilization for about 3.000 years, they have not been able to establish a culture of philosophy similar to Chinese, Indian or Greek and could not bring up philosophers like Buddha, Confucius, Zarathustra or Plato. Owing to the fact that they wrote in Arabic in their most productive periods, their thought and ideas have been considered within the framework of Islamic civilization.

* Turks speaking Turkish entered into history with government. According to Chinese sources, T u r k s appear to be one of the first ethnic components which f o r m e d the Chou state. S o m e sources claim that this state was governed by Turks. (Eberhard 1987, 35 ) Some of the Turkish tribes which departed f r o m the Chou state, founded their o w n state in today's Mongolia ( B C 210-230 ) under the name ' Hun ' ( i t is named Hiung-nu in Chinese s o u r c e s ) ( Roux 2001, 90; Rasonyi 1971, 65-66; about Turkish to be the language of Hun , see Gumilev 2002 a, 63-64; Roux 2001, 89 ). T h e l s t G o k t i i r k State established in the 6 t h century is the first tribe or state which used the name Turk calling themselves ' Kok- Turk The first Turkish writings belong to the times of the 2 n d Gokturk State, established in the 7 t h century. 2 T h e states which founded colonies and spread all over the world do not belong to this understanding.

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The following items can be mentioned as reasons why Turks could not start a creative and effective civilization: 1- Geographical reasons : They had to change their environment continuously because of geographical features and changes in geographical conditions. We can count the changes of climate and pressures of other societies among other reasons why they had to change their environment. Owing to the fact that grass cannot survive without water, nor a herd without grass and the people without a herd cannot survive, drought caused by climate changes is one of the main reasons of these migrations (Gumilev 2002 b,43; Durah 1998, 106). Changes in population related to continuous movement of the people always disabled them from founding financial, political or religious institutions which are noticeable in settled societies. Considering the effects of a settled life and its institutions on the life of the mind, it is understandable that nomadic societies can hardly produce great theoretical thought. Regarding the areas which they spread and their relationship with other civilizations, we can say that across Turks were searching for suitable places to live. According to historians, the reasons for their spread over a large area are; their economy depended on animal husbandry (Rasonyi 1971, 48-52 ), climate (Gumilev 2002 b, 30-40 ) and their tendency towards plundering and destruction. These reasons seem to be highly important, but we have to leave out their tendency towards plundering and destruction as they did not aim to do this. 2- Lifestyle : There are different viewpoints about the reasons why Turks had a semi-nomadic and semi-settled life style. These reasons, besides the geography and the pressures of other societies, are based on their economy depending on animal husbandry, that made them migrate across the land. Their animal - husbandry - based economic structure pushed them apart to live in small groups far away from each other. This way of living consisted of simple elements providing the basic needs for survival. Owing to the fact that they did not have the advantages of an urban life which is a determinant for producing concepts, Turks fell back into producing theoretical ideas. 3- The problem of the conception of the universe : Looking through the periods, in which superior civilizations gave their important theoretical studies away, it can be noticed that important changes appeared in the society's conception of the universe. Regarding the effects of theoretical studies on the conception of the universe, the explanation about the reasons

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for the change in the conception of the universe became, at the same time, a great motivator for the production of theoretical thought. But the Turks never changed their system of thoughts (Roux 1994, 237 ). As they felt no need for changing their conception of the universe, there was no necessity for developing theoretical ideas. Trust in the conception of the universe brought trust in their own life values. Wherever they had trust, they did not need discoveries or new ideas. Taking into account these facts, it is understandable why the Turks did not produce any striking ideas that would lead to a precedent. It can be stated easily that they did not need such ideas because of their living conditions and values. When they had problems in the society in which they lived, they tried to solve them using their own methods of traditional values and by trying to be self-sufficient. Having a conception of the universe without any problems became a reason preventing theoretical thoughts from being developed in their lives.

1- Method The common opinion of the experts who deal with Turkish history is that it is rather difficult to explain the Turkish system of thought. This difficulty has two basic reasons which are related to each other : The first of them is that they spread over a large geographical area. Consequently, it was hard to gather the remains that they had left in those areas. The second is, that Turks had close relationships with the great civilizations of world history in the areas over which they spread. In other cultures, it is almost impossible to notice this characteristic of Turkish culture. It is a culture which spread throughout the largest continent, Asia, affected Europe a great deal, and made important changes in the basic values of the civilizations it had relationships with. The difficulty here is that, because of the extent of the geographical area and for political reasons, scientific researches relevant to the Turks could not be done sufficiently. What is more important is that because of the abundance of the civilizations they were in cultural touch with, the connection with these civilizations' history and, in particular their language, and the cultural features they brought with them, Turkish culture could not be examined properly. As there is very little writing from Turks about themselves, we get the most important information about them f r o m the other civilizations with which they were in touch. In addition, another difficulty in understanding the

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conceptual system of the Turks is that their intellectuals accepted and produced their works in the languages of the dominant civilizations. There are two ways to overcome the above mentioned difficulties and lay down the structure of Turkish thought: 1. T o sketch the f r a m e w o r k of Turkish thought considering the structure, institutions, values and written sources of the civilizations they were engaged with. In this method, the three most effective civilizations Chinese, Islamic and Modern Western Civilizations- can be helpful in understanding the system of Turkish thought. The relationship between the appearance of Turks in history and the foundation of Chinese civilization shows us that both of these societies deeply affected each other. The Chinese Turkish relationship that lasted nearly 2,000 years (1000 BC-1000 A D ) had an influence on the formation of Turkish institutions and beliefs. It can be said that Turks' relationships with the Islamic civilization were closer when compared with those of the Chinese civilization. The most important reasons for this is that they did not need to make big changes in the Turkish conception of the universe that have been formed before Islam and that the logic behind the ideas of the state and war preserved its position in this conception of the universe. However, they interpreted Islam according to their own understanding and achieved a different understanding f r o m Arabs and Persians. As a result, they transformed Islam to make it suitable for their own beliefs. The Turks' relationship with Modern Western civilizations has been in progress for the last three hundred years ( 1700-2004 A D ). In this period, war has mostly determined this relationship. Nevertheless, the foundations on which the Modern Western Civilizations are built and the values they produce do not generally suit the Turkish conception of the universe and its understanding of state. The Modern Western understanding of state, working on the reality of the society with classes based on possessions, and colonialism laid on a capitalist foundation, contrasts with the Turkish understanding of state and humanity. When the contrasts are synthesized and dealt with in a new structure, these difficulties confronted with nowadays will be overcome. Regarding the values of these three civilizations which define the structure of Turkish thought a great deal, their institutions and their conception of the universe are available to sketch the framework of the history of Turkish thoughts. W e have to consider the fact that there had been many wars in the Turks' relationships with all these three civilizations. In both their

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military and cultural wars, they did not surrender, on the contrary they challenged. They accepted those civilizations' values as far as they could synthesize them, but if not, they rejected them. As synthesis, due to its structure, means to put various elements together and to redefine and reshape them, when the values within Turkish thought, which are believed to have been taken f r o m the afore mentioned civilizations, and their structures, their way of usage and the places in which they are used are examined, important conclusions related to the system of Turkish thoughts are reached. 2 .One of the most effective methods of discovering the structure of Turkish thought is to look at the institutions, traditions and values. An examination of institutions like the Turkish language, the state, the conception of the universe (religion), traditions like animal husbandry, war and death, and values like justice, order, state and responsibility will bring out the features of the Turkish system of thoughts. The relationships between the above mentioned elements, and their importance and continuity in society have great importance because they express how the society in question thinks, and show the main things included in this system of thoughts. The researchers, that use methods which are focused on institutions,, traditions and values, should consider the defining elements of the first method, namely, the influence and effects of other civilizations. Using both of these methods together will bring us to the expected conclusion. A method is useful only if there is accumulative information about a certain subject. If there is not enough information, the problem cannot be solved with any method. In order to gather enough information about Turkish thought, we first have to solve these problems above. However , the second method has fewer difficulties. The reason for this is that mainly in Turkey, and also in other Turkic communities, there is an opportunity to take into account the still existent institutions, traditions and values. T o examine these still existent elements within an enlightened explanation of the historical data will be a good starting point f r o m which to set down the Turkish system of thought. It's a striking mistake to think that there are no foreign elements in the structure of the thoughts of a society which became a state and had relationships with definite civilizations in the world. Likewise, it is a similar mistake to claim that the whole structure of thoughts in a society consists of the values of other societies. A correct approach will be to search to see whether the given elements have been synthesized successfully or not. If an

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element taken from outside has been synthesized, transformed and widely used in society, it is no longer a foreign, but a converted indigenous value. In fact, the development of a culture depends on the ability to synthesize features taken from other cultures. If a society survives and protects its identity, it should be accepted that this society has succeeded somehow in doing this. *

Defining institutions, traditions, and values briefly, we can see how it is possible to set down the basics of Turkish thought. The determining institutions in Turkish culture are the Turkish language, the conception of the universe, the state, and the economy. The Turkish language was the most important support of social existence and continuity. In spite of the fact that Turkish has close links with all other languages in Asia and especially with large civilizations, it continued its existence. As a matter of fact, Turkish tribes which started using other languages lost a great deal of their Turkish identity. The structure of Turkish, its grammatical history, its accent and dialects, its method of signifying verbs, type of naming, construction of verbs, etymology of words, and its durability of existence display how Turks thought using their language. Animal husbandry defining the lifestyle of steppe societies is the basis of the economy. Studying the themes such as their traditions associated with animal husbandry and effect of these on their life style, the relationships between animal husbandry and fighting merits, their knowledge about geography, the understanding of nature, the techniques of breeding animals, understanding of commerce , types of taxes, understanding of wealth, their principles of sharing out property within the family, all bring out the Turks' understanding of economy as well as supporting details of Turkish thought. Because the state and the conception of the universe as institutions are the basis of this study and examined in parts below, they are not mentioned here. Traditions appeared to be a way to solve a certain problem. Within the formation of a tradition, it's defined how society will react to the appropriate problem. The continuity of the problem was essential in the formation of the tradition. For instance, the state of death the human-being is to face, brought with it the tradition of burying the dead. As long as a problem existed, tradition existed, too. The changes in tradition are connected

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with the changes of approach to the problem. As traditions show how societies approach the problems, they play an important role in understanding the structure of thought of society. The state, military, and death are traditions with qualities that can be used in laying the foundation of the Turkish thought. As the tradition of state will be studied further, the traditions of war and death will shortly be mention to say. War: Three mainsprings of Turkish culture, the Turkish language, the conception of the universe and the state, during their history of about 2000 years, continued their existence in spite of life and death encounters with every civilization they confronted. These fights were not only military; in fact, the cultural wars were more important. The Chinese, Indian, Persian , Islamic , Byzantine, Contemporary European and Russian civilizations that the Turks were in relationship with are accepted to be among the most important civilizations in history. The Turks managed to survive, despite these civilizations, by means of military and cultural wars. Whereas military wars occurred on a battlefield, culture wars occurred from within. What we understand by a cultural war is society's effort to keep its identity by protecting its values. If the Turks had surrendered to the civilizations they confronted and accepted all of their values, we could not talk about Turkish existence today. Turks, in order to satisfy their social requirements, accepted the values other civilizations offered. But while doing this, they managed to continue their own existence by protecting their identity. Because of economic reasons and the responsibilities towards the civilizations they belonged to Turks had always been at war in order to continue their existence, to establish their political unity and maintain it. In general, as Turkish history is a history of wars, the tradition of waging war played an important part in both Turkish culture and their world of ideas. The Turks' lifestyle and state structure made the military an important tradition. Either individually or socially, the continuity of existence depended on the ability of self-defence. As it was not certain when and how the attack would happen on the steppes, the people living in small groups always had to be ready to defend themselves. Furthermore, being continuously in warlike conditions made war the most important problem of the society. Consequently, a tradition concerning the waging war was revealed. The tradition of war involved the elements of why war was important, the manner of using and producing the tools of war, tactics, war games, who the enemies were, which situations led to war, strong or weak army definitions, the characteristics of the ruler, and the honor gained after being killed in battle. An

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account of war traditions can reveal the Turks' point of view on life, their understanding of the individual and the state, and their opinions about other societies. Due to the fact that the continuity of social existence depended on the superiority of their skill in waging war, war became one of the most serious concerns that Turks had to occupy themselves with. Consequently, the tradition of waging war was among the leading influences on Turkish thought. Death: Owing to the fact that the understanding of death and its related traditions explained the conception of the universe and the understanding of humanity, this took a striking part in Turkish thought. As we mentioned above, the most important problem of theoretical ideas is the conception of the universe and the method this concept used to deal with humanity. Turks' opinions about these items can be explained by their traditions in dealing with death. To explain death, it's essential to explain the human being's existence on earth. And to explain the human being's existence, primarily, the heavens, the sun, the moon , the stars and the earth should be clarified properly. After constructing these basic elements in the conception of the universe, human being meaning. For the survival of a human being, a regular process of these elements must be guaranteed by God. One of the basic elements to complete the conception of the universe is its explanation of life after death. As the human being is a mortal creature, he has a limited life in the world. Furthermore it was believed that a human creature having a soul would continue his life in a different dimension after his death. The elements of their tradition of ideas about death, determining the conception of the universe and understanding of human being were as follows : The desired death (death in w a r ) and the undesired death (death due to disease), the types of behavior when it is heard that someone had died, the process of burying the dead being and how the dead were buried (with clothes and weapons), the items buried with the dead , the form of the grave, the meaning of the gravestone, and the rituals after burial. The form of the grave, which had an important part in tradition of death, symbolized three basic strata of the universe; the underground, the earth and the heavens. In one respect, the grave formed a small model of the cosmos that was unique for the individual. Human-faced grave stones erected on the graves stood for the eternity of the dead. These two examples show how the human being and the understanding of the cosmos lived in the tradition of death. Considering the tradition of death existing for more than 2.000 years without big changes makes clear how important the understanding of death was in terms of the system of Turkish thought.

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Values ordering social life are among the most important elements to understand the structure of the thoughts of that society. Some of the values affecting Turks were as follows: I n d e p e n d e n c e takes place among the basic values because of their rejection of every kind of authority except that of a legal monarch. The destruction of their state, and living temporarily dependent on other states as a result of being a warrior society had disturbed the Turks, therefore they continuously staged attacks against those states and continued their existence living freely on the steppes in a psychology that excluded the feeling of oppression and the pressure of existing in settled societies. Both as a society and as individuals, they never made concessions about their independence. Besides the difficulties of their geography, due to the threat of powerful states and civilizations, they showed great strength to do anything necessary to enable the continuity of their existence and their identity including in particular, institutions, traditions, and values. Therefore continuity

arose as

being one of the most striking values as it had a close relationship with existence. Justice is important for being a defining factor in the relationship of the state and the ruler with their society. The state, being the basic institution of the society, inclined towards solving the problems within the principles of justice in order to maintain its relationship with all parts of society and to gain the support of the people. Application of the principles of justice can be considered in two ways. The first one is that state administration and decisions take by the state suit the constitution (tore), involving the law in force, and the related traditions. The second one is that the requirements of society are satisfied. For this reason, the ruler, in a festival held every year, accomplished social justice by distributing property and satisfying the needs of the people (Dede Korkut 1 , 245 ). Because the ruler, who was likely to set the values of law and social justice, was important as being the head of the state, the ability to rule the state justly was demanded as one of his the basic characteristics. R e s p e c t : As the society did not have a class structure based on possession, the equality of individuals was one of the basic values of the social structure. In a society where there isn't any superiority other than the superiority of duty, it is natural for people to behave respectfully towards each other.

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Respect, being one of the values, had a sphere of influence on the relationship between the people of different ethnic groups and the people of different religions. Turks spread out over wide geographical areas, respected the variety of both faith and ethnicity, and supported the continuity of their existence. As long as they did not revolt against the state, the Turks did not offend the other tribes but they respected them. The notions set by institutions, traditions and values indicated the basis of the society's thought. If we examine more institutions, traditions, and values, the structure of thought will be clear, and this will contribute towards producing new ideas.

2- Fundamentals of the State Idea

2.1- Existence For the Turks, to make social existence continue was always a basic problem. The geographical areas were full of nations fighting each other to the death in order to rule. In addition, it's clear that by having relationships with all the civilizations in Eurasia, they exposed their existence to danger because a developing society grows by integrating the environmental societies, and thus their cultures, into their own. The Turks were aware of these dangers because that they had many people who had fallen victim to other civilizations. One of the best examples of this awareness is the Orhon Inscriptions. These inscriptions explain the effect of the Chinese on the collapse of the Turkish state. Being aware of the fact that they could be demolished by the civilizations they were in touch with, they gave importance to the values assuring their existence. In old Turkish, the term bodun is used in the meaning of 'society'. The root of this term, 'bod', means body as well as tribe or tribal subdivision. 'Bodun' means a union of tribes which form a society ( Giraud 1999, 217218). Both the root and the general meaning of the word 'bodun' point out social existence. In the inscriptions where 'bodun' is mentioned , the subject ends in 'el' (state, empire) (Giraud 1999, 46). This approach shows the strength of the relationship between 'bodun' and the state.

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A s the society and the state were formed of tribes, social existence necessitated the protection of the rights of all tribes. As the existence of a tribe outside the 'bodun' was in danger, tribes accepted the advantage of living in a 'bodun'. The existence of both a 'bodun' and a tribe were related to the existence of the state. Existence defines something being in progress. Genesis is the transformation of a presence and the presence making itself real using internal principles. Whereas genesis defines transformation, existence defines both something that exists and the genesis itself. A society's existence includes the total number of people, and also the values bringing all these people together to form a society. Consequently, values not only provide society with a way to continue its existence but also determine its identity. The most important values that f o r m the content of social existence are as follows: the type of f a m i l y , the way of bringing up children, the understanding of humanity, the language , the conception of the universe and nature, faith, the understanding of death, prayers, the understanding of ethics, traditions and customs; a source of nourishment and the way of using this by diversifying, providing and sharing products; craft -production techniques; architecture, the shape of houses, types of graves, their understandings of palace, their perception of caravanserai and inn, their social features easily seen in their verbal traditions in elements like fables, stories, legends, quatrains, riddles, lullabies; their written literature; poets, minstrels, troubadours, artists, heroes, sages, philosophers, chiefs; their ways of organizing methods of war, their type of administration, their understanding of law and the state. T h e contents of these listed values express the general features of the cultural structure as well as the society's mentality and social identity. The continuity of social existence is dependent on the continuity of the values constituting social identity. Values are developed through the process of history as well as becoming get weaker and vanishing. Every society in existence comes into existence through its social values, and differs from other societies by means of these values. W e can categorize values into two groups: 1. Values constituting the identity of a society: language, religion and history. 2. Values being used to continue the daily life of the society: economy and architecture. As they determine social existence, we will explain the values in the first group.

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Language, being the first determinant element forming social identity, is the basic foundation of the existence and the identity of a society. As religion includes the conception of the universe, it states the position and duty of the human being in this world. The religion of a society is an effective element to form its identity. However, it's not so determinative as language because many societies may accept the same religion. Societies of different languages but of the same religion cause the religion to acquire a character of its own by interpreting and transforming it for themselves. The history of society is one of the primary elements in determining the identity because history improves and strengthens the basic values by gathering all the values in itself. Although a society cannot change its history, when it starts to see its history as a branch or part of another society's history, it will easily accept the basic values of that society. Changing the basic values either threatens the existence of the society or demolishes it completely. A basic value the society has to accept becomes no more a threat as soon as it is adapted into other particular values of that society. Changes in basic values occur because of the relationships with other societies. Inter-societal relationships can occur in different dimensions. As long-lasting neighborhoods make societies resemble each other, they cause changes in the basic values of societies. Nevertheless, war and a relationship with a powerful society are two of the most important reasons for change. As the result of a large scale war, when the winning side occupies its opponent's territory for a long time, the basic values of the losing side change rapidly. The relationship with a powerful society causes similar results as the complete series of values being demonstrated by a strong civilization can be accepted easily by weak societies. Especially the elements making daily life easier are accepted before all else, and later all the other values of that society after the basic values have been abandoned. The society, having made the alien values its own, becomes a satellite nation first, and then melts into the other society. For these reasons, changes in basic values threaten social existence. Because of their wars and relationships with other civilizations, Turks were under threat throughout their history but never vanished. The reasons for their existence, besides the values included in social existence, were mainly their devotion to their basic values. The Turkish language, being a basic value served as the assurance of social existence throughout Turkish history. Owing to the fact that the understanding of the religion of the Turks had the strength to interpret all of the religions they had accepted according to themselves, changing religion had never been a threatening factor for their existence. Turks

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always succeeded in keeping their social history alive by means of their traditions. The state, being a basic institution for them, became another foundation for the continuity of social existence.

2.2 Order Order, one of the main values of human being, is among the reasons for the state's existence. A human being has always lived and still lives in crowds and societies. Ethical principles, customs, traditions, social principles, laws and religious beliefs, that determine the relationship between people, lead to social order. In circumstances in which the principles, rules, and laws are broken, punishments such as condemning, criticizing, exclusion are applied, and if they are not satisfactory, a higher authority is required. The determining principles of the top officials making the decisions caused the law to arise, and keeping armed forces and the mechanism of getting them under control in order to put the law into practice was one of the reasons for founding the state. In a very long period of human history, the people continued to live in families, clans and tribes. But later, setting a system of law and establishing a state enabled some tribes to form societies. After the human beings started living en masse and owned mixed institutions and regulations, the state became a guarantee for the existence of a society. Besides the social order, the external security of the society made the state a necessity. Order is one of the main concepts of Turkish thought. The reason why this is a basic concept is that the understanding of cosmogony and the state are explained in the framework of the principle of order. In the Inscriptions, the term, tuz-ermi§ is used to mean to unite the scattered Turkish nations and found a state ( Kiil Tigin, D 3 ). As a scattered society is regarded as unsystematic, order become the basis of the state. The Turks had so much confidence in state order that they freely used the following expression : As long as the sky above has not collapsed, and the earth below is not a chasm, who can destroy your state and constitution ? (Kiil Tigin, D 22).

This perception explains another point; the relationship between the state order and the cosmic order. Bilge Kagan expresses 'the disorder between the heavens and the earth 'as the reason for the rebellion of 'Dokuz Oguzlar', one of the Turkish tribes ( Kiil Tigin, K 3 ). This kind of approach indicates the reason why the concept of order was important.

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As social existence depended on the state providing order, order of the state especially was one of the main concepts on which the idea of state was based. The state, undertaking full responsibility for the relationship between values and institutions in the social structure, the ways of acting of each institution according to the principles, and solutions to the problems of the people in their relations with institutions, appeared to be an organization of the arrangements in the institutions in a general structure. Consequently, the state was an order in itself. The relationship between state and order can also be noticed in the term, El, which is used to mean the state. El means the people, the country, and the state (Tekin 1988, 138 ). This term is used in writings both as bodun (the people, tribes gathered under the government of a khan ) and also as related to khan. In addition, since El also means political authority, it includes such meanings as the political power, the administration, and the organized state. Moreover, the term 'el' is used in the meaning of empire (Giraud 1999, 107 ). The meanings of 'el' -the people, the country, the state, the khan and the empire- besides expressing the basic factors forming the state, also denotes down the type of state. The Turkish understanding of the state was provided by the association between the social order and the cosmic order. The elements forming the social order were principles of ethics, the structure of the economy, the lifestyles, the system of beliefs, and the constitution. As the state was founded in harmony with the principles of all these elements, it includes the order and the principles involved in the above mentioned elements themselves. Turks didn't have a class-based society, so the state did not act for the benefits of a certain class. Consequently, every element providing social order was effective for the entire society and the state provided suitable motivation to live with these principles. The ruler and the other administrators had to conform to the principles procuring social order and they especially had to comply with the constitution that was the system of laws. When the administrators broke the rules of the social order, they were replaced as they had lost their legitimacy. The state had to comply with social order as well as with the cosmic order. That's because of the necessity that the person had to be given kut by God to be the ruler representing the state. According to Turkic beliefs, the state was a donation from God to the khan (Giraud 1999, 108 ). However, if the ruler did not fulfil his duties, and therefore didn't eliminate the sorrows of the people, lkuf was taken f r o m him. Taking back the ' k u f meant the ruler

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lost the right to govern and was removed from his throne. One of the main reasons for taking back the right to govern was the failure of the ruler to prevent the decay of the social order. Due to the fact that each of the elements enabling social order depended on the culture of ancestors and the ancestors had divine qualities, the above mentioned elements was considered holy. Disrespect towards them was accepted as disrespect towards the order. And the ruler was responsible for the protection of the order. The basic element used in procuring state order was the constitution. The constitution was the unity of obligatory values within the traditions (Orkun 1987, 117; Caferoglu 1968, 250); in some respects, it was the law. As every institution and social action constituted its own tradition, the principles that supported these traditions formed the constitution. Besides, decisions taken urgently by the ruler and decisions of the general assembly which met twice a year were added to the constitution. The decisions and actions of the individuals and institutions had to comply with the constitution. As the actions which did not conform to the constitution were punished, the constitution itself had a power of sanction. The constitution, without regard to the social position of an individual, whether he was an ordinary man or a ruler, was put into practice without any discrimination. The ruler was aware of the fact that unless he obeyed the constitution, he would lose his 'kut'. As the constitution was supported by traditions and the people knew the constitution as well as the traditions, the people could easily see if the administrators complied with the law or not. Because of the importance of the constitution in the state administration, wherever the foundation of the state is mentioned in the inscriptions, the description "that is regulated by the constitution" (KM Tigin, D 13, D 16) is used. The support of the constitution and its being carried out cause procure the state to operate according to the principles of justice by assuring the individual rights and duties of the people. In this way, everyone feels confidence. The feeling of confidence makes the people devoted to the constitution and to the person, namely to the state, who carries it out. This feeling increases the consciousness of social unity. Social consciousness provides for the continuity of social existence. Taking the rights of the individuals under guarantee enables the continuity of social existence to be carried out within the framework of the constitution and the state. The constitution and the reasons for the state's existence depend on the social order. Because of these factors, order has become the most fundamental principle of every kind of human existence.

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An incompetent ruler, lack of awareness among the people and the attacks of other states threaten the state order. To prevent these, a good ruler and people who were aware were sufficient. These problems will be discussed below.

2.3- The Ruler As the ruler was one of the basic elements of the thought of the state, his qualifications determined the qualities of the state. The ruler was a symbol representing the state, and in some respect, was a symbol that was replaceable by state. Considering the duties and qualities of the ruler who represented the state in himself, it can be understood why he was the basic element. The two chief qualifications a ruler had to maintain were being a warrior and having political wisdom (Giraud 1999, 114-115 ). These qualifications were primary for both the existence of the state itself and also for the solution to the problems of society.

2.3.1-War The Turks lived in environments where there had been continuous wars. Due to the conflicts among societies and tribes, and also the aggressive attitude of China, the most important state in the area, war became one of the basic features of that environment. It's natural that the leaders of fighting societies were warriors. The only basic command of God that was perceived as divine was to make war. If someone did not fight but surrendered and obeyed, he was considered to have betrayed God. God expected the divine people to reign on the whole surface of the earth below the heavens, and to make the earth unique just like the heavens by forsaking unsuitable places. This opinion is written in the Inscription of Tonyokuk, the west, line 3. "You dethroned the khan, and you submitted. Because he submitted, Tengri said 'die'. The Turkic people died, vanished, and became nothing at all ' (Roux 1999,84). If the ruler did not obey the commands, and the people did not fulfil the ruler's desires, the result was clear; the only direct punishment of God was the death of the ruler, the state, and the people. In order not to face such a severe punishment, first the ruler and then the people had to perform all of their duties in the best way.

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In spite of the fact that Turks never imagined a religious war, their eminent God was a warrior who gave their wars a religious feature ( Roux 1994, 93 ). There were some reasons for this attitude. The rebellions and crimes committed against the khan were regarded as rebellions and sins committed against God. The holy war of God and of his khan was not purely dogmatic. This war was only against the anarchy of the steppes, against the small systems of beys, against totemism, and more importantly, against the abundance of the authorities made obligatory by the belief in polytheism. In fact, it was to fulfil the deep desire for unity and cosmic peace. As the general target of the Turks was a cosmic-centered world order, Turkish states intended to dominate over the whole world (Roux 1994, 93 ). The best type of death for Turks was dying in war. As they considered dying of a disease shameful, they did not miss the opportunity of the honor of dying in war ( Roux 1994,207 ). The reason why it was an honor to die in war was that war was essential for the continuity of social existence. As social existence is a part of the cosmic order, it was thought that if they did not make war, the cosmic order would be harmed, and consequently the people would not do their duties. A person with this kind of attitude would be sentenced to death by God. War was the most important means of protecting order and was the command of God. Every Turk had the responsibility to perform this duty. To die while doing this duty meant both gaining honor and being rewarded by God by being taken to the heavens. The state was founded as a result of rebellions and wars. Naturally, fighting ability was among the basic qualities of a ruler who established the state. Wisdom arose in a ruler by means of 'kuf given by God (Miibahat Turker-Kiiyel 1994,461). To own the kut, which also meant owning political dominance ( Divit§ioglu 2000, 52 ), was not accepted as sufficient to take the political power. If 'kut' was lost, political power was also lost. In order not to lose the power, it was necessary to have the following qualities involved in the meaning of ' k u f : "Kut is kept by means of reason and knowledge, is required to do favors, and also the one with "kuf' should be virtuous, morally upright, and well behaved." (Ogel 1982,206-208). The ruler, by working hard and with the help of 'kuf organized the society and provided justice. Justice, as one of the basic concepts of wisdom in the Orhon Inscriptions, was noticeable in the ruler's concerns and actions.

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2. 3. 2- Wisdom The ruler's quality of being a wise man becomes important as his power of comprehension and his ability to find solutions. Wisdom is a kind of thought focused on the totality of values, mainly ethical, religious, political, economic and social values, that affect all kinds of thoughts and actions iin the society. Since wisdom based thoughts make reference to the origin of values besides being centred on the values considered its own by the society, origin attaches great importance as one of the basic concepts of wisdom. According to wisdom based thought, everything is better or more perfect in its origin. Therefore, when there is a problem related to values, solution is found in accordance with its approach the origin. A s this attitude continuously revitalizes the connection between the past and now, it shows itself as historical consciousness. Since solutions arc found by means of the origins and values, their legitimacy is not a matter for debate. The ruler's quality of wisdom means that he knows the society very well. The ruler's knowledge of the society's traditions, institutions, values, and customs, together with his administration dependent on these elements, make him wise. What should be paid attention here is that just knowledge is not enough, what is essential is putting the knowledge into practice. In other words, the ruler needs the quality of wisdom when he makes his decisions and applications in a way that is relevant to the values included in the contents of wisdom. Wisdom is looked for in two basic subjects which are of great concern to the people: first, improvement in the living conditions of the people. The improvement in the living conditions of people is the most reliable indicator of a good ruler. When the period which we are emphasizing is taken into account, the continuity of the sources and security of life takes the most important place. Moreover, the ruler is accepted to as having made his mark if the officials, although they are very few in number, do their work according to the principles designating the order. The system of justice is the second field in which the wisdom of the ruler is looked for. The concept of justice has a wide content. One of the main peculiarities of the afore mentioned "content" is the good work of the system of judgement. The people are generally pleased to see that the criminals are judged and punished since they cause uneasiness in society. The use of customs and traditions in the system of judgement relieves the people since this shows the values of people are in force. In addition, the good work of institutions, the arrangement of social life, meeting the needs of

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the needy people, helping the people who need help are also evaluated in terms of the concept of justice. The ruler who succeeds in solving the problems that are of concern to all people can be given the title of 'ruler'. These expectations show how difficult it is to be a wise ruler. God's giving kut, one of the conditions for being a ruler, is one of the bases of his wisdom because the ruler being given kut must please the people. When he cannot do this duty, kut is taken back. The ruler having kut must be wise to meet both the necessities of kut and the needs of the people. The ruler must know the principles of order and act according to them since he is responsible for the work and protection of the social order. Knowledge of the principles of the cosmic order is required because of the close relationship between the social order and the cosmic order, and the connection of being a ruler to kut. Due to his central position in the relationship between the cosmos and the society, the ruler must act with the consciousness of the principles on which both the cosmos and the social order are based. Knowing and practising the principles of both fields guarantees the social existence by providing for the continuity of the order. *

The Turkish system of thought has been shaped within the framework of the problem of social existence. The continuity of the social existence is the basic problem which causes the institutions, traditions and values, that directly affect this existence, to become most important. Therefore, the concept of order is the basis of social existence. The deep-rooted links between the social existence and order require the complete determination of the principles and provisions of the order. The principle of the cosmos is based on laying the foundation of every element in the cosmos in terms of its own natural structure and place. Similarly, the foundation of every element that is intrinsic in a society is built terms of its meaning gained within the framework of its relations with other elements. For these reasons, the principle of the order is to make the elements involved in the order perform their functions in accordance with their structures. This both forms the order and also makes it continue. Since the customs and traditions determine the positions of the social elements in the society, they, as the concrete form of order, guide the ruler.

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Whereas order becomes most important as the basis of social existence, the ruler is the basis of order. The ruler, having his attention centred on the customs and traditions, makes order work by performing his duties. As far as order works, the social existence is safe. The ruler's success of making the order continue depends on his qualities of being wise and being a warrior. W h i l e w i s d o m shows itself as k n o w i n g the principles of order and administrating according to these principles, the goal of being a warrior is realized when the attacks on order are repulsed. Taking the problem of social existence into consideration, the order, the constitution, justice, war, wisdom, God, the heavens, the earth, and the human being are seen to take the most important places as the basic concepts of the Turkish system of thought. A study of institutions, traditions, and values within the framework of these elements will denote the structure of Turkish system of thought. Since the foundation of the concept of social order is built according to the cosmic model, Turkish conception of the universe should be dealt with in order to understand the position of the human being, the main element of order, in the Turkish system of thought.

CHAPTER II THE CONCEPTION OF THE UNIVERSE

It has been accepted that the main elements of Turkish cosmogony in the Pre-Islamic period started to occur in the Chou Period (1050-247 B.C.). The State of Chou was established by Turks and tribes that were later to be called Chinese; it has been speculated that their government was Turkic. (Eberhand 1987, 33) When the State of Chou collapsed in the third century B.C., the dynasty of Ch that would name the country, China appeared (B.C. 229). And the Turks established a new state called The Hun State. The similarities between Turkish and Chinese cosmogonies originate from this background . The cultural exchanges became greater due to the war between the Turks and the Chinese in the years between 1000 B.C. and 1000 A.D.; trade and marriages and these contacts increased the similarities in cosmogony. Because the similarities which were the main elements of cosmogony such as God, the heavens, and the earth, originated from the times of the Chous, it would be wrong to define them as the products of Chinese culture only. The conception of the universe involves the existence of the heavens and the elements of the heavens, the creation of the earth and its becoming inhabitable, the creation of the human being, the determination of the principles of life for human being and life after death. Apart from the scientific model of the universe that has appeared in the Modern European Civilisation, almost all the conceptions of the universe regard God as the source of cosmogony. Therefore, God, or Gods, is accepted as one of the major elements of cosmogony. The other major element of cosmogony is the human being. In all beliefs, it is possible to get the impression that the cosmos has been created or ordered for human beings. The reason for that is the necessity of the cosmos for the foundation of the existence of the human being because the issue of human origin is closely linked to the issue of how the cosmos was created. If the major elements of the conception of the universe such as God, the heavens, the earth, the human being, and the state are scrutinised in terms of their places in the cosmos and the linkage between them, the intellectual structure of the Turks appears clearly.

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1- G o d

The word tengri (God) that has existed for 2000 years is known to be one of the oldest words in Turkish. It is known to have existed in all the religious forms the Turks accepted (Roux 1994, 90). The qualities that the word tengri has gained clearly show the Turks' perception of religion and their conception of the universe. In the Pre-Islamic period, the Turks seemed to have attained the idea of monotheism. Tengri was also used to mean anything divine. The Huns are known to have used this form in 200 B.C. Tengri is described as the one that is eternal, infinite, great and powerful. It is the creator of the heavens, the earth and human beings (Eliade 1985, 13). The clearest example of this perception is the belief of Gok-Turks related to the creation of the heavens, the earth, and the human being. In the Orhon Inscriptions, the statement below clearly shows the belief that the two major elements of the cosmos, the heavens and the earth, as well as human beings were created by God: between the blue sky above and the swarthy earth below, humankind was created (Kul Tigin, Dl). In the same text, the statement "(I), like God (and), Turkish Bilge Khan coming from God" (Kul Tigin, 61), is another way of expressing humankind being created. According to the beliefs of Turks, the cosmic order, the organisation of the world and society and the destiny of mankind were all up to God (Eliade 1985, 13). Furthermore, God is infinite (Roux 1994, 238). This kind of belief proves that Monotheist religions were the same in their perception of God. It is clear that the idea of God as the sole creator existed. According to the beliefs of Turks, whether the thought of creation here meant creating something from nothing or giving shape to something is not clear. By taking the knowledge of merchants into consideration, it can be said that the Turks had the idea of monotheism and this equalled the idea of Allah in Islam (Roux 1994, 102). Roux believes that the term 'creation' could be used to mean "giving shape to something or organising" (Roux 1994, 87). It has been observed that God's creativity did not arouse so much interest. Ka§garli Mahmud accepted God's power of raising plants at most. However, God put

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his pressure on people when necessary; for example, onto the ones who had been defeated in order to encourage them and to provide the courage for enterprise (Tonyokuk, line 38; Roux 1994, 97). When the Turks had a state, the idea of monotheism was obvious. But, when the states collapsed and the tribes became independent, local Gods increased and there appeared to be a kind of polytheism. Tengri, the heavens or God, had a very important position in the Gok-Turk and Uighur Inscriptions; in another way these terms had an important place in the empires that left written texts behind. Because He was less likely to be seen in the writings inscribed after the empires collapsed, or in the ones that were not involved in an empire, we get the impression that God was a "God of Empires" (Roux 1994, 90). God was unique, and at the same time, was the God of all mankind. He consisted of the whole earth and the enemies all over the world. God had made all man dependent upon himself (Roux 1994, 93). God was closely concerned about the human being in direct ways. The thing that was believed to influence human acts was kut (a blessing) coming from God. Especially the person that became the ruler thanks to the kut he received from God had to be harmonious with him (Roux 1994, 96-97). There is no information about how God gives his orders, his yarliks. There are documents showing that the term yarlik, whose initial meanings were "principle", "command", "order", meant God's commandments (Roux 1994, 97). But there is a lack of information about how the ruler got these commandments. The Turkish conception of the universe was God-centred. God created the cosmos in such a way that the human being could exist on it. That the issues related to human beings corresponded with the cosmic order was one of the major principles of the conception of the universe. The position of the human being in the cosmos, how the human being was created, how he would exist and where he would go after death were some of the main issues were included in this conception of the universe. But the creation of the cosmos in a way for the human being to exist was the first topic that the conception of the universe dealt with. The Turks thought of the cosmos as three layers called the heavens, the earth and the underground. These three basic layers had their own features peculiar to themselves. But, they were strictly tied to each other with a cosmic axis moving from the "centre of the earth" reaching towards the "centre of the

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heavens", and towards the centre of the underground when necessary. Besides the tree, the mountain, the flame and the smoke served as the axes between the heavens and the earth (Roux 1994,86).

2- The Heavens and the Earth According to what the Turks believed, the heavens were a domed circle parallel to the earth (Roux 1994, 84). The heavens were multi-layered. The number of layers differed according to the tribes' perception and were as 3,7, 9 and 17 respectively according to the beliefs of clans and tribes. On every layer there sat a different God, or different souls shared these layers. As stated above, as long as there was a state, monotheism appeared and little Gods who were believed to live on the layers of the heavens were not mentioned. In the centre of the heavens existed The North Star which was known as The Iron Stake. It was believed that the North Star was the palace of the ruler and the Big Dipper was the monarch's court. The seasons were completed in accordance with the revolutions of the Big Dipper in a year, and then a calendar was prepared (Esin 1979, 14). The Sky-Dome was believed to revolve around the Iron Stake (Esin 1979, 15). The heavens were one of the most important symbols in Turkish mythology. Their importance stemmed from their identification with God and the belief that God lived up in the heavens (Roux 1994, 90). The influence of God on governing the state was really obvious. In The Orhon Inscriptions especially, the idea that the ruler was appointed by God was often mentioned (Kiil Tigin, D l ; Bilge Kagan D2, D3). Because the domed structure of the heavens was considered a model for the ruler's pavilion and the tents which the people lived in, these elements were made domed. The big graves called Kurgan were also made domed. The places and the graves which were dome structured were sacred. The world which was the other most important element of the cosmos, was named The Earth. The world was a square island floating on the water and there was no doubt that it was created to be habitable for human beings, (Esin 1979, 14). The earth, which was the middle layer of the cosmic order, had a central position, that is it was the area where human beings existed. Although the world was claimed to consist of three layers in some of the Turkic tribes'

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myths, it was generally considered to be two, that is the earth and the underground. The layer where human beings lived Was regarded as the earth and the layer where the dead were buried, the trees grew and where water appeared was accepted as the underground. The world was not an independent clement on its own. The earth was tied to the heavens via the holy mountains, the tree of the earth, and the rain. Previously, it was believed that the heavens and the earth had equal values, but, in time, the heavens' superiority was accepted (Roux 1994, 110). As in so many cultures, the world symbolised the cultural geography and there was a belief that the people who experienced that culture existed at the centre of the earth. A similar perception also existed with the Gok-Turks. The Gok-Turks held the belief that they existed at some privileged point right under the peak of the heavens, at the centre of the earth. For the Gok-Turks, this holy centre was Mount Otiiken. This mountain was believed to be both the foundation stone of the heavens and the axis of the world. Texts from Gok-Turks emphasised the advantages of Mount Otiiken and the fact that Mount Otiiken should never be abandoned. The expression "the people of the south, the west, the north and the east came to surrender" when Gok- Turks settled in Mount Otiiken shows the value of Mount Otiiken (Roux 1994, 84). This holy place that attracted all the tribes was also where the four corners of the world came together (Esin 1978, 46). The state established in that holy place influenced the people in the neighbourhood and was also used as a source of power for the earth's organisation as well. If this place, that was accepted as the centre of the world, was abandoned, this would lead to the start of disasters. Time and the formations related to time are the issues connected to the human being. The fact that the human being himself is a creature dependent on time entered to the highest level of consciousness of the Turks about time. The fact that Turks regarded time as God or as an element coming from God also proves that they were conscious of time. Examples such as "Time and God act however they wish, all human beings were born mortal" (Kill Tigin, K10). "People coming to this world do not live forever" (Roux 1994, 236) were utilised to address the position of the human being in the cosmos. Moreover, it could be inferred from this use that the time concept had a prominent role in the thoughts about the cosmos. Besides this, infinity is a common concept in the context of time. That people called the gravestones bengil ta§, which means infinite stone, can be considered as the clearest proof of this (Roux 1994, 88). The infinity of stone stems from God, like all types of infinity, not from the stone itself. The thought of infinity was influential

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on both the understanding of the qualities of God and in seeing the structure of the cosmos as well as espousing the view of the mortality of human beings.

3- Human Being The aim of all the conceptions of the universe is to show the position of human beings in the cosmos. The position of human beings is firstly the emphasising of how they appeared, how they should exist and what will happen after death. We are going to try to consider the perception of human beings by taking all these issues into account. According to the Turkish belief, human beings were created. The clearest knowledge about the creation of human beings is found in The Orhon Inscriptions. between the blue sky above and the swarthy earth below, the human being was created (Kill Tigin, Dl; Bilge Kagan, D2). (I), like God (and), Turkish Bilge Khan coming from God (Kiil Tigin, G l ; Bilge Kagan, Kl). The thoughts that are in both Kill Tigin and Bilge Kagan Inscriptions clearly state that human beings were created after the creation of the heavens and the earth. Although there is no information about how the creation process worked, human beings believed that they were created. As can be seen below, an impression is aroused that human beings were created f r o m water if the relation between human beings and water was taken into consideration. The root va.v of the word ya§am, which means 'life' in Turkish is used to mean wet (tslak) or humid (nemli) (Divan-1 Kurumu

Sozlugu).

Liigatit

Turk1: Turk

Dil

Each one of these terms yaj, islak, and nemli is directly

related to water. Thus, it is obvious that life is water-originated. Ya§ is also used to refer to the life span calculated as the year f r o m the moment when someone is born (age). The word y a s , meaning the life process of an individual may also mean life or liveliness. Ya.s is used to express that a human being is a living thing and the act of feeding its liveliness with water (wet and humid) as well is utilised to emphasis the time of the individual's limited life.

^Divan-i Liigatit Türk is the first dictionary written by Kasgarli Mahmud in 1072.

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The word dliim in Turkish is relevant to water. The word oliim was made from the root ol. The root 61 means wet, humid (Ka§garli Mahmud 1999, volume IV, 456; Caferoglu 1968, 150; Yudahin 1998, 608). Each one of these meanings is water-originated; they are obtained via water. The fact that the verb to die (olmek) etymologically meant water, that water meant life, the meaning of death can be expressed as to live, to come to life. Therefore, to die means to pass to another life for Turks. That both life and death come from the same root water shows how important water is in Turk's perception of human beings. In old Turkish, the root of ki§ioglu, Kis, (mankind) meaning man was also used to mean 'sable' and 'quiver' (Tekin 1988, 147; Ka§garli Mafamut 1999, volume IV, 334). The Siberia sable in might have been influential in the appearance of the term kigioglu (mankind). It seems possible to establish a connection between the word ki$ that refers to the swamp sable and the one that means mankind, ki§i. Therefore, the life area was made to become the origin of the term mankind. Furthermore, the fact that the myths of origin were directly or indirectly related to water strengthens the idea of mankind being water originated. Derivation from wolves, which is one of the myths of origin of the Gok-Turks, gives important clues about this issue. The A-shih-na (Aseena) tribe which held the Gok-Turk nobility was badly defeated around Lake Etsin Swamp and the whole tribe was killed. One ten-year-old boy was thrown onto the moor alive but only after his hands and feet had been cut off. The soldiers were returning when they heard the child being rescued by a female wolf. When the wolf saw the soldiers returning, she left the child and ran away. Even though this isn't mentioned in the myth, the child was killed. However, a female wolf had had a sexual relationship with this boy, it had become pregnant and given birth to ten children in a cave located on a mountain in the region ; the Gok-Turks are the descendants of this child (Tasagil 1995, 10-11; Ogel 1971, 20-21, 22-23). This legend makes it possible to relate the term ki§ioglu (mankind) with the word ki§ meaning 'sable'. For an ancestor originated society, the fact that the ancestors were living on the swamp, their being related to an animal was appropriate both for the perception of that time in terms of naming but also for the explanation of origins based on myths. The origin of the term mankind and the tribe's being related to water, and also the belief that the world stood on water shows that water had a prominent role in the creation of the Turks. Eliade explains the position of

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water in cosmogony as the following: Water symbolises all the potential and productive forces and is the source of existence. At the beginning and at the end of every historical or cosmic cycle, water exists. Water never exists on its own, it is a life resource that potentially accommodates all forms in its undivided structure. No matter what kind of cultural structures, water always serves the same in cosmogony, myths, rituals, iconography, it is the premise of every form and the support for every creation (Eliade 1987, 188). When the importance of water in cosmogony is taken into consideration, it can be said that there is important knowledge about the fact that it was used in a similar way of perception in Turkish cosmogony. For Turks, water is one of the four fundamental elements (fire, earth, water, air) in the cosmos. It is the opposite of fire and also the complementary element for fire. Its role in terms of providing fertility is well-known. Due to its relationship to fertility, it takes prominent position among the sources of life. Although not often mentioned, it was a mother like Mother Earth. The fact that it comes to earth via the rain from the sky and was accepted as the symbol of innocence are two of its prominent features (Roux 1994, 114). Besides Turks prayed to holy places and water under the name of land-water and they made wishes at these places. One of the leading reasons for that was the fact that their origin was based on water. Another reason which should be looked at is the properties of water. "Since water is the origin of life, it is alive, active, the source of inspiration, it heals and it guides. The source of water or rivers are the symbols of power, life and continuity" (Eliade 1987, 200). The fact that water was regarded as the mother, that sources of water were accepted as holy, and to contaminate water was considered to be a sin prove that Turks strongly believe in water. In the daily lives of Turks holy land-water (yer-su) had an important role. The spirit of land-water owned most of the things in the world. The support of land-water was needed for life to go on regularly and routinely. Like the stars of the sky, the holy land-water, which was the privileged part of the world (alone or joined), acted together with God when it was necessary to get people worked up or to form national unity, and they never intervened without God (Roux 1994, 111). The belief in land-water appears as an influential element in terms of regularizing social life. Moreover, the mass of water, kol irkin, like the mass of all other types of objects, symbolises a stronger power. This perception leads to the fact that the size and power of a society was expressed by a lake or sea (Roux 1994, 116).

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The fact that water is changeable, can penetrate by the soil, evaporates and is liquid were important in terms of reflecting the idea that the soul walked through different layers of the cosmos. The fact that water changes its direction when it encounters difficulties, it erodes the difficulties over time, it overcomes all obstacles by evaporating upwards into the holy sky, and it is stronger when it floods, show a similarity between water and human life. When humans encounter a difficulty in their lives, they gradually try to overcome it, but if they can not solve the problem, they make changes in their lives. Water comes together and forms a lake; the term 'sea' was used for the superfluity or power of a society. Moreover, water in the form of a flood can be linked to the idea of states going to war.

4- The Soul As can be seen in so many conceptions about the universe, in the conception of the universe of the Turks, the two basic elements were also substance and soul. The substance was something whose existence could be addressed via perception. The power that symbolised the liveliness, life, soul or values such as owner-dominant came to exist in individuals one by one and also became a big force by unifying the whole form. This perception can be exemplified as the following: On the cosmic level, the heavens were both single and multiple. In the realm of plants, every tree was an individual as well as being part of a forest which was considered to be the combination of plant spirits. Every stone had a soul and all the stones' souls came together in the soul of a pile of stones which was unique. In a similar way, every person had many spirits. A human being was connected to his personal spirit as well as to the combined spirits of his family, clan, tribe and even his empire (Roux 1994, 83). As Turks lived in places that were distant from each other, the terms addressing to the same things showed a difference. This enriched the Turkish language and also stopped the continuity of terms or helped terms gain new meanings. It was the same for the term soul as well. The terms that used to mean soul were as follows: Tin exactly meant soul and anima (Caferoglu 1968, 237). Kasgarli Mahmud accepted tin as the soul, breath, breathing and exemplified it as "its breath was completely extinguished" (Kasgarli Mahmud 1999, volume IV, 616; Roux 1999, 112). The word sun was used to mean the soul, the one which was separated from the bodies of the dead, the one which walked around (Roux 1999, 113). In eastern Turkey siir/sur meant soul or

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animal life in Kirghiz Turkish (Yudahin 1998 II, 668). Furthermore, the word stir also meant appearance, meaning, beauty, honour, the power to live for animals or human beings, dream, ghost, idol, holy picture (Roux 1999, 124). Oz meant self, one's desire, life and soul (Ka§garli Mahmut 1999, volume, IV, 470). The term oz was often used as the equivalent of soul or spirit in old Turkish too (Roux 1999, 114-115). Even though the word kut was used as "good luck, state, destiny, fortune, bliss" (Ka§garh Mahmud 1999, volume IV, 388), one of the most striking terms for soul or was kut according to Roux (Roux 1999, 35-36). The impression of the existence of a soul in several elements of the flesh arises when the use of the terms used to mean soul are looked into deeply. However, the idea that all these organic souls were the parts of a unique soul should not be neglected. The appearances of human souls that Roux mentioned can be evaluated as in the following (Roux 1999, 144-145): 1- The main thing was the kut from God that meant the power to live. 2- Different parts of the body such as the placenta, the blood, the skull, the hair, the skeleton, and the face had their own souls. The two features of kut that meant soul appeared: the first one was to be active all the time which was the most important proof of life and it also qualified as a flame symbolising innocence. The fact that kut was considered as breathing made the explanation of the activity of the soul and death easier. If the human being does not live according to the principles of kut and makes God angry, the kut will be taken back. The person whose kut is taken back will be exposed to diseases and his social life will decline. The devastation of the human being depended on the loss of kut (Roux 1994, 207). All these features showed that kut meant the soul. The second thing was the fact that kut also symbolised personality which brought the concept of individual identity into being. In that way, it can be seen that individual identity was revealed via kut. The souls that could be found in several elements of the flesh were closely linked to the value of these elements. Because blood was the symbol of holy water as much as it was an important element of liveliness, it was considered to have a soul. The skull and the face were linked to the identity of a person. Moreover, the belief that reason is in the head might have resulted in the idea that the head had its own soul. Since the skeleton was guarantee of the human being's continuity on earth, the belief that the skeleton had a soul was strong. As the continuity of an individual in the world was via the grave where the skeleton was kept, the skeleton had a very important position. Furthermore, the fact that the face was carved onto the gravestone supported the belief that a part of the soul which would be gone with death continued to exist in this world.

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The Gok-Turks developed two basic ideas that were linked to human beings such as being water-originated and being created. These two thoughts seem to have been used in harmony. In public, being water-originated might have been accepted more. Together with this, it was obvious that God was in control somehow in every single level of being water-originated. The thought of the human b e i n g ' s being created by God was closely linked to the development of the conception of the universe and the appearance of the powerful state. The soul and the liveliness of an individual were possible in the cosmic order. As God determined the cosmic order, immortality which was gained via the soul was a quality given by God to human beings. The existence of human beings depended upon God, but the ability of human beings to continue to exist afterwards depended on the social order. Another feature of the soul was its being social. Every individual, as well as having a personal soul, also had family, clan, tribal and state souls (Roux 1994, 83). Every one of all of these social elements was closely linked to the individual. The family brought the individual into the world and raised him. Moreover, due to the culture of ancestors, the individual possessed a family soul. As the identity of the individual was based on the clan and the tribe, it carried their souls as well. Since the ruler, symbolising the state, was a connection point between God and the people, devotion to the ruler meant having a share in the soul of the state. Furthermore, the state saved the soul of the individual due to the fact that it provided security. Each one of these social elements was a basic foundation of the individual's existence. Therefore, the individual believed that he possessed the soul of the social elements as well as his own soul. T h a t ' s why the individual defined himself in this social structure and acted according to the conscience that he had responsibilities for these social elements. The individual had to obey the principles of the souls coming f r o m the social elements as much as he had to obey the principles of the main soul. Not to act according to the necessities of both the individual and social soul were described as being reasons for some unpleasant events such as loss of social status, diseases, or death. W h e n the position of the human being in the conception of the universe is considered it can be seen that the human being was interpreted via su (water) which is one of the four elements and the source of life. The belief that the human being was created by God brought another dimension into being. T h e soul that was given by God both made the existence of the individual real and also proved that it had common features with the other elements in nature having souls. Moreover, that the individual had a share of

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the souls of the basic units of society determined the obligatory contacts of the individual with the society. The position of human beings in the conception of the universe in terms of state links can be understood in a much better way. The position of state in the conception of the universe shows how valuable human beings were.

5- The State In Turkish culture, the state plays an important role. As the main reason for this, the f a c t that Turks appeared on the historical stage as a state (The State of Hun), which had contacts with all other civilisations and their contacts were war-based. Their motive, to enlarge where they lived, made war inevitable. War basically was an issue of existence. Since war was the basic principle for social existence, the state became the m a j o r value of the principle. As well as this, the position of the ruler in the conception of the universe and the effect of the conception of the universe on shaping the culture of the universe forced the Turkish culture to be state-centred. There is a lot of data showing that the Turkish perception of state was shaped in accordance with their conception of the universe. As the state was represented in the ruler's personality, the ruler's contacts with God were the state's concern too. A very obvious expression of this can be found in The Orhon Inscriptions. In the inscriptions, it was clearly stated that rulers were created by God to rule human beings. Like God (and), Turkish Bilge Khan coming from God (Kill Tigin, G l ) . This expression is clear evidence of this belief. According to the Turkish belief, Between the blue sky above and the swarthy earth below, human beings were created. And then for human beings, Bumin Khan and Istemi Khan were sent as rulers. The first duty of the ruler in charge was to regulate the law of the state of the Turks and to rule them accordingly. (Kill Tigin, Dl; Bilge Kagan, D2, D3) This perception that links the establishment of the state to the creation of the cosmos shows the importance that was attached to the state. A s the state was established by the fact that the ruler was appointed by God, the qualities of the ruler gain importance in order to understand the structure of the state because the qualities of the ruler show what kind of principles both the state and the culture were based on.

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The most striking feature of the ruler was the fact that he was sent by God or he was given kut to become the ruler, 'l'he ruler's close contacts with God led to a definition such as " G o d ' s presenter" or " G o d ' s shadow". That's why the ruler held the belief that he was under G o d ' s protection and God confided in him (Roux 1994, 91). Indeed, there could be no rulers without divine volition. In fact, all rulers "looked like Him", "they came f r o m H i m " and "they were promoted as rulers by Him" (Kill Tigin, D10-11; Roux 1994, 92). The kut that was given by God to the person to enable him to become ruler meant the act of giving him the duty of being the monarch. The ruler w h o did his j o b s u c c e s s f u l l y could possess the kut, but if he was unsuccessful, the to would be taken back. People who obtained important positions in the state (the sons of sultans or princes) and also viziers showed that they had gained the appreciation of divine volition. Even though Kiil Tigin was not a ruler, he interpreted this as stopping the wickedness that his people would be to gain G o d ' s appreciation. Vizier Tonyokuk had a symbol of a two-headed eagle which was a really sacred sign (Roux 1994, 92). In relation to this power, it was mentioned that Bilge Kagan's monarchy was approved (Tonyokuk, line 6). Promotions were made by political authorities and those who had been promoted were able to say that they had been sent directly by God (Roux 1994, 92). As long as everything went smoothly in the state and society , God would not intervene. The ruler was responsible for solving all the problems (Roux 1994, 92). It is obvious f r o m the inscriptions that God helped people in the stages of the establishment of the states and in vitally important wars. The perception of God by the Turkish people showed a difference between the times when there was a state and times when there was not. As Roux said, "history confirms philosophy". During the periods when empires collapsed and the tribes stayed alone, 'Tengri', who used to be a very powerful figure, almost disappeared and the position passed to inferior holy beings or he would fall apart, and polytheism would appear (Roux 1994, 92; Eliade 1985, 3-4). God in the empire period, naturally gained a national identity in a way that He could never have done in any other period. The relationship between God and the ruler spread until direct contacts could be established. God was described as the God of all people as well as being named the God of the Turks when necessary. The ruler of the Gok-Turks held the belief that the state was at the centre of the earth and it was under G o d ' s supervision. The ruler knew that God was ready to intervene for the benefit of the people and the following saying confirms this belief:

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For the reputation and the name of the Turkic people not to get lost, God gave the empire, and the same 'Tengri' (God) chose me as the Khan (Bilge Kagan, D 21; Roux 1994, 92-93).

Even though the Turks did not dream of a religious war, their combative perception of God qualified their wars as religious (Roux 1994, 93). Since regularity was the source of social existence, and related tribes or rebellious people under the sovereign ruler threatened the system, rebellion was considered to be a crime committed against God, and therefore it was punished severely on behalf of God. The holy war of God and his ruler was not basically dogmatic. This war only turned towards steppe anarchy, small possessions of the state, totemism, and more importantly towards the multiplicity of authorities which was an inevitable result of polytheism. Together with this, acting in accordance with the deep desire for unity and cosmic peace came first as one of the major reasons for wars (Roux 1994, 93). Turkish states aimed to rule over all the states in the world as a cosmic-centred world system was the general intention of Turks (Roux 1994, 93). These reasons made wars unavoidable. According to the beliefs of the Turks, the clearest commandment of God was to make war. If people did not make war against their enemies, if they surrendered and obeyed them, they thought the biggest sin had been committed. God expected Turks to dominate everywhere on earth and combine the earth under a single authority like the heavens (Roux 1994, 84). War was the main means of forming a system all over the world. But the results of not acting according to God's commandment and yielding or surrendering to other states are clearly stated in the Tonyokuk Inscriptions : You made your Khan leave his throne, you yielded. Because you yielded, Tengri said, "die". The Turkish people all died, they vanished, they were annihilated. (Tonyokuk, line 3)

When the ruler did not obey God's commandments or people did not obey the wishes of the ruler, the result was clear; the only direct punishment God gave would be the death of the ruler, the state and the people. In order not to encounter such a severe punishment as this, firstly the ruler, then the people were supposed to fulfil their duties in the best possible way. Death, the only punishment which God gave, would be applied to the ones who endangered universal regularity, the ones who did not obey God's commandments, the ones who rebelled against the ruler, the ones who obeyed

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the enemies, and the ones who harmed the people by co-operating with the enemies. Because Gok-Turks obeyed the Chinese, God passed judgement on them: "Die! The Turkish people died, were exterminated, became extinct" ('Tonyokuk, line 23). It should be stated that death punished the people as a whole and they had to accept this responsibility collectively. Defeat occurred as a result of the loss of God's love. The ones who were defeated would say, "We are not loved by the heavens" (Roux 1994, 98). This view was closely related to the perception of responsibility and consciousness. The relationship of the ruler with God was his concern as well as society's. In The Orhon Inscriptions, the ruler and the rulers died because of their ignorance and the conditions that the people were in (Ktil Tigin, D19, 24). In The Tonyokuk Inscriptions, the following thought is one of the clearest examples of this: "A society that has an unskilful Khan in charge can never be far away from disaster" (Tonyokuk, line 57). An unskilled ruler is the one who possessed no wisdom. The punishment coming from the heavens not only affected the bad ruler, but also the society which he represented (Roux 1994, 99). The fact that the ruler was punished would also affect the people, the people controlled the acts of the ruler. The people's sanctions against supervision would be in the form of acting unpleasantly, separating from the state as a tribe or rebelling. According to the belief held by Turkish people, a sin was definitely the violation of a taboo or a crime that had been committed against an institutional system. Breaking a law, rebelling against the existing system were reasons for death (Roux 1999, 83). The ruler who was not capable of meeting the needs of his people or the one who was not able to protect them would be considered to have disobeyed God's commandment and caused the cosmic system to degenerate. The punishment for this crime was obvious: Death. Bad rulers would lose the support of God since they treated their people badly, they caused the relationship between the heavens and the earth to worsen and they were not able to protect world order. The disasters that appeared as a result of the loss of God's support would destroy both the ruler and the people. All these processes showed how important the ruler was for society. It becomes obvious why the ruler governing the state was supposed to have qualities such as being wise and combatant.

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For Gok Turks, Mount Ot Liken and the Otiiken Forest were the holy centre of the state. This mountain was the centre of the world, that is why it was where the heavens and the earth met. The consequences of people going far away from the holy land were stated in The Orhon Inscriptions (Ktil Tigin D 23-24; Bilge Kagan, D18-20). The people acted unconsciously causing both the society to become enslaved and the state to collapse. Bilge Khan stated this issue in a very clear way. He had his thoughts, the history of the state and the society written on immortal stone so that the same sad consequences would not be experienced again (Bilge Kagan, K 89). The position of the ruler in the conception of the universe was influential in the way that the society worshipped. Ancient sources and travellers' evidence declared that there was an official way of worship which differed from the worship that was common in public and this official way of worship had an important role in the system of beliefs. The ruler who was at the centre of this official worship had an official value because the ruler was a little cosmos; the bliss reaching him would reach the people as a whole; the disaster that hit the ruler would hit the people as a whole. Ancient sources clearly prove that the Turkish people died when the ruler died, they also stated how the ruler took people's lives under the protection of his name and he tried to stop them dying (Roux 1999, 52). The ruler's importance in the system of beliefs stemmed from the fact that he was first chosen by God. His position in the conception of the universe also came from the act of being chosen. Therefore, as the ruler's relationship with God was the concern of all of society, this would emphasise the ruler's responsibilities to society as well as being the reason why the relationship between God and the people would have had to be healthy. The relationship between God and the ruler was also something to do with the ruler's family. The first member of the family or the ruler was appointed by God. Thus, the ruler was responsible to God and if he could not act according to his responsibilities, he knew that he would have been punished for .this. The fact that the ruler did not obey God's commandments, he did not work in accordance with 'kuf, and he did not follow the traditions and customs were stated as the reasons for the negativity in society. If the ruler made these mistakes, if he was not capable of ruling the people well or meeting their needs, his throne would be taken back from him, and the most appropriate person from the family would be chosen instead of him (Roux 1999, 88). Apart from this sensible reason have stated, since removing the ruler from his throne was regarded as a grave crime, the one who committed or

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even attempted to commit it would be punished by being put to death (Roux 1999, 86). The ruler, who represented both God and the people, was the major source of social existence. He was responsible for making the society live in peace and security as well as helping the society to have a good position through G o d ' s eyes. This belief is one of the clearest pieces of evidence that the state had such a vital importance for Turks.

6- The Structure of Religion The qualities that the conception of the universe brought into being also show the kind of belief that Turks held. Although the Turkish system of beliefs in the Pre-Islamic Period was generally defined as shamanism, this definition is debatable. The ones who think that Turks had a shamanist system of beliefs state the following: 1- They held the belief that shamanism was in fact Siberian-originated and the term shaman stemmed f r o m the Tunghuz language which was the language of one of the Northern Siberian tribes, the Tunghuz (Eliade 1974, 4; Roux 1994, 238). 2-That Shamanism was a tribal religion confirmed that there were many Turkish tribes. 3- The features of Shaman people. Since the structure of this study is not appropriate to discuss all these elements in detail, one by one, we will address the fact that it is difficult to describe Turks as Shamanistic. Roux stated that, "Shamanism was not able to define the religion of the Turks as a whole but it drew the framework perfectly" (Roux 1994, 238). This approach proves that the Turkish system of beliefs could not be described as Shamanism only. Furthermore, Eliade stated that to obtain shamanist principles did not necessarily mean that the Turkic peoples lived according to this system of beliefs (Eliade 1974, 5). Both of the philosophers admitted that the system of beliefs called shamanism had different qualities. That the origin of shamanism was Siberia where Turks often lived made it possible to evaluate many Turkic tribes (such as Yakutlar) by taking this system of belief into consideration. However, the fact that Turks had a society with a state starting f r o m 1000 B.C., caused many changes in their tribal beliefs. That this made the Turkish system of beliefs different from the others can be seen in the following: 1-There was an understanding of monotheism. 2-Because the Turks had a state, they went far beyond their tribal beliefs. 3-They explained the position of mankind in the cosmos in a consistent way. 4-Their daily acts of

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worship were at the least and the simplest level. 5-They always respected other systems of belief. Stemming from these differences, the Turkish system of belief gained qualities peculiar to itself. There is data showing that Turks had two ways of worship: The first was an informal way that was the concern of the ruler and state, also based on the heavens God. We have mentioned this informal way of worship above. The second one was the special kind that was based on other Gods as well as the tribe or family. In both of these ways of worship, there were sacrifices and some prayers too. In the second kind of worship, shamans gained importance. Shamans served to predict the future, treat the sick, accompany the dead or the victim travelling to the other world. Besides, things such as explaining the relationship between mankind and animals as well as plants; making sure that hunting was successful, the herd increased and products were plentiful were some of the shamans' duties. Prayers, presentations, and sacrifices were all means for making life longer, winning victories and for getting the favours of the earth. According to Roux, there was a metaphysical attitude beyond all these religion-based behaviours (Roux 1994, 237). This metaphysical attitude stemmed from the fact that mankind would be evaluated within the framework of cultural, natural, and cosmic relationships. The individual would learn all these relationships through customs and traditions and survive by sticking to the principles of the elements that the concept of the cosmos consisted of. The individual acted according to his duties and responsibilities to the major forces of the cosmos by presenting his respects, and praying to God which were the daily practices applications of belief. Moreover, the individual was considered to have completed his duty for society and the state when he had performed his daily duties. In that way, the individual would complete his own duties to make the system continue to exist by doing what he was supposed to do for each one of the major elements that were in the conception of the universe. One of the most important qualities of the Turkish system of beliefs was the fact that there were no temples. If there is a temple in a society's system of beliefs, there is also a powerful group of clerics and some formal ways of worship. As well as this, many reasons to make people gather in temples appear and the clerics have the opportunity of controlling the people and the administration. That Turks did not have temples prevented the shamans from forming a class and becoming a dominant force on society.

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As for the reason why Turks did not have temples, this is connccted to their lifestyles and the conception of the universe. Because Turks lived seminomadically, they did not have a temple, which was the centre of the settlement areas in settled cultures. Again in accordance with their lifestyles, natural elements such as mountains, rocks, water sources, and large trees were accepted as holy centres. These natural holy centres would not have the qualities of temples, but they would have a function which was appropriate for individual worship and lifestyle. When we look at the act of worship within the framework of the conception of the universe, the freedom that every individual had in terms of acts of worship or praying and the right to be able to pray at anytime or anywhere could be mentioned as one of the most important elements which impeded the formation of a temple tradition. In the Turkish system of beliefs, what abolished the need for having temples was the fact that most of the religious rituals took place within the family, and the tent where the family lived was a special mini-model of the cosmos especially for the family (Eliade 1985, 7). The qualities of the area where the family lived (tent) made this possible. The home had a domed roof which had a hole in the middle. The smoke from the fire burning in the middle of the tent went out through the hole in the centre of the dome. This structure of the tent meant that the cosmos was special for the family. And the area of the tent symbolised the world. The dome of the tent represented the sky. The burning fire in the middle was one of the four main elements of the cosmos and the smoke leaving this element helped the prayers to reach God (Roux 1994, 86). The tent that had these qualities was a holy place made according to the cosmic model. The head of the family, who owned this place, could get involved in a direct relationship with God like the ruler too. This perception prevented the formation of temples and a class of clerics and it increased the freedom of the individual. Turkish religion was based upon a couple of basic principles. One of them was to obey God's commandments which were not many. Knowing that they would be punished if they did not obey these commandments, people showed sensitivity in terms of obeying these commandments. The second principle appeared within the framework of relationships with several souls. They especially showed respect and prayed to every kind of soul that were believed to exist in the world. The third principle appeared in funerals. In a funeral, sending the soul of the dead person to another place in the universe through the help of graves and graveyards would help it come true.

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As Roux stated, "Turks investigated all religions with passion and curiosity and accepted the appropriate ones without hesitation. Although they accepted different religions, they managed to maintain their old beliefs. People spent most of their time in the field of war. Even though they made war an almost all other societies, they respected their religions and did not interfere with the ways of their lifestyle in terms of religion. As well as not showing hostility to other religions, they managed to combine all religions in harmony, in a peaceful atmosphere" (Roux 1994, 237). The idea underlying this attitude was the trust in their own conception of the universe, because the Turkish conception of the universe was based on very plain principles and it gave people the opportunity to live freely. As they were to stick to the plain principles, they did not about the change in the details very much. Within the framework of the principles of the conception of the universe, they interpreted the world and the people. Again, within this framework, they did not interfere with anything to do with the values forming other societies' identity. Turkish history is an extraordinary adventure lasting for 3000 years. This adventure has affected all the cultures and civilisations on the Eurasian continent. As Roux rightly mentioned, the most important support for maintaining the cultural identity and surviving this adventure was their perception of religion (Roux 1994,237). In the foundation of the success they showed during the historical period, there lay the existence of something metaphysical related to universality in their structure of conscience and in their hearts. "In fact, despite all indecisions and differences in ceremonies and customs, within this framework presented by this religion proves that there is a universality" (Roux 1994, 237-238). In relation to this universal principle which existed in the foundation of the Turkish system of beliefs, a mystical basis was formed. This mysticism abolished the differences in terms of beliefs among the tribes even though it was not as developed as in religions such as Christianity or Islam. Traditionalism formed by mysticism determined the Turkish way of thinking and life to a great extent (Roux 1994, 239). We should admit that there was a metaphysical side in the structure of the conception of the universe where God, the heavens and the earth, and the state were the major elements. This metaphysical side shaped the Turkish way of thinking, thus contributing to the continuity of social existence. The harmony between the social system and the cosmic system was one of the major pieces of evidence for the perception of religion. Kam (Shamans) got involved in the relationship with friendly souls as well as the enemy ones and got on well with them in order to achieve the result they

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aimed for in all ceremonies. This harmony could be seen in many fields of daily life. Respect for God, the trees, water, animals, relationships with the principles hidden in these elements show that Turkic people knew that they were a part of the cosmos. This perception shows that they accepted nature as a friend rather than as a rival or enemy. It was an obligation to respect the fact that others live after getting as much as they needed from nature. Respect for nature was considered the guarantee of life. Due to the desire to be in harmony with the cosmos, all rituals were made around a holy centre -a tree, a mountain, a tent or a graveyard. The rituals that were made by revolving around a holy centre referred to the cycle of the universe (Roux 1994, 238). The reason for people to see themselves as a part of the cosmos was related to the origin of mankind. They regarded being in harmony with the cosmos as the major principle of life because they were aware of the fact that mankind consisted of the major values of the cosmos and also nature such as the heavens, the earth, caves, water, light, trees, women, men, animals and plants (Roux 1994, 239). *

The qualities that the conception of the universe had give important clues to the structure of the Turkish way of thinking. God the first member in the conception of the universe, was responsible for the regularity of the cosmos and he controlled the whole cosmos. Although God was sometimes described as "The God of Turks", He was clearly mentioned as being the God of all mankind. To the Turkish way of thinking, God appeared as the symbol of absolute order, power and justice. All these qualities of God would be seen in the ruler's duties also. Since the heavens possessed the quality of divinity and symbolised innocence, it was regarded as holy and used as a model. The earth, as the field where people lived, was the most common figure. The natural structure of the earth was determined by God. The real issue was how mankind would determine its relationships with God, with nature, and with each other. The fact that mankind was mortal could be inferred from the consciousness of time. As well as this, mankind possessing a soul would gain the quality of eternity with the help of this soul. Whereas mortality was used to mean the end of life on earth, eternity would take place in the other world. An important feature of the Turkish way of thought would appear within the

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framework of the perception of the soul. The term soul was used in five different fields: 1- The souls possessed by living and inanimate elements. 2The ones who survived in the layers of the heavens. 3- The ones who lived in the holy places of the world. 4- The ones who were in several organs of the body. 5- The souls of the society, the state, ancestors, clans and the family. The reasons why the soul was used this much has not been mentioned in the texts. However, it seems possible to reach these conclusions by interpreting the data we have: the first one is that they might have thought and believed that way in accordance with the animist way of perception which they senden?probably experienced before they had a state system. The existence of a creative and authoritarian God as well as the fact that they were a society with a state proves that they receded from the animist perception. That's why this belief cannot be explained with this animist approach. The second one is that the use of souls to surround the major elements of the cosmos, which were the heavens, the earth and mankind, shows that mankind, which was a creature with a soul, was closely related to the cosmos as a whole. This relationship was one of the important reasons why all the other elements in the universe should be respected. Thirdly, the belief that everything was created by God aroused the idea that all creatures and all elements possessed a soul. Fourth of all, the thought that God materialised himself by means of the universe would appear in their minds. Taking the position of the state in the conception of the universe and the aim of establishing world order into account, it can be claimed that one approach referred to the perception that Hegel's Geist materialised itself in nature. Even though each one of these evaluations is open to discussion, we hold the belief that they should be taken into consideration in order to understand the Turks' perception of the soul and to bring their structure of thought into being. It would be wrong to claim that they explained everything by the means of the concept of soul because qualities such as conceptualisation, setting limits, and abstraction which were included in philosophical thought did not develop in the Turkish way of thought during the period we mentioned. The use of the soul that was closely linked to the interpretation of the universe as an organic integrity (Roux 1994, 83). It could be claimed that the integrity of the cosmos became possible within the frameworks of the perception of God and the soul. One of the main reasons why they accepted different elements with souls was social integrity and the social order.

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Social existence and the links between the continuity of this existence clearly show the structure of the Turkish way of thinking by means of the conception of the universe. As the relationship between the conception of the universe and social existence was connected to the continuity of the conception of the universe, they would avoid changing their conception of the universe. With the conscience that the social order would totally change when the conception of the universe changed, they were sticking to the conception of the universe. Loyalty to the conception of the universe can be explained within the framework of the relationships between God, the state and the individual. Whereas the existence of the state was up to God, the existence of the individual was up to both God and the state. The individual was loyal to the conception of the universe because it provided the individual with the feeling of security and freedom to a greater extent than other religions did. All these relationships took the continuity of social existence as guaranteed. The reality that God punished the Turks with death when they obeyed their enemies or that disasters occurred when they did not have a state, made the state the major element of social existence. The perception which resulted in the glorification of the state led the state into making efforts in terms of the continuity of the cosmos. Considering the issue of continuity of social existence, the conception of the universe and the perception of the state form the axis of the Turkish way of thinking.

CHAPTER III THE MODEL OF A WORLD STATE: The Myth of Oguz Khan

Throughout history, the establishment of states has been laid on a legendary foundation. The myths of Three Emperors, the founders of China, and of Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome can be taken into consideration as examples. However, whether the things explained in the myth are in accordance with historical facts is always a matter of debate. Furthermore, legends have always been influential in making institutions and administrators legitimate. The cosmogonic state model illustrated in the Myth of Oguz Khan was effective, both as a point of view and as an application, in the understanding of the statehood of the Turks until the beginning of the 20 t h century. 1 The Myth of Oguz Khan was written in the twelfth century A D in Uighur (a Turkish state that appeared in the 8 t h and 9 t h centuries AD) letters, and is now talked of as the Uygur version of the myth. It is known that there was no Islamic influence in the Uygur version. (Ogel 1971, 128) In the other version, the translation of which called Cami'iit Tevarih, is included in the work of Rejidedden Fazlullah (1248-1318), the traveller and historian, the effects of Islam are seen (translated by Togan 1972, 17-20). Both versions put down the main qualities and purposes of Oguz Khan. Although the Myth of Oguz Khan was put into written form very late, It is thought, that the oral form dates back to ancient times (the Huns, 3 r d century BC). Guesses are made depending on the language of the myth, and the terms and the names of the clans included in the myth (Arsal 1947, 129). The validity of these guesses is also made possible in terms of the logic of the myths. Because of their structures, the myths arise and develop in the depth of social thought. They present a model to be obeyed by society keeping the archetypes on various subjects alive. According to the thoughts of society before modernism, it is necessary to obey the model following the archetype. ^The rulers of the Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299 and continued until the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, regarded themselves as the shadow of God on earth. The idea of " the state lasting forever" (devlet-i ebed miiddet) based on a cosmogonic understanding was considered their own both by the administrators and the people.

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Since the qualities of the hero of the myth, Oguz Khan, are similar to the qualities of Mete, the ruler of the Huns, who is a historical character, there are also some who accept Oguz Khan as Mete who has become a legend. The similarities mentioned are the following: they both fought against their fathers who were the rulers, and their fathers died in these fights, they both established world states, and shared the state out as provinces amongst their children. The Myth of Oguz Khan lays down a model of the state related very closely to the conception of the universe. This model was the archetype for the Turkish state. In addition, the determinative quality that having the right to be the ruler was involved with pedigree started with Oguz Khan and was continued by his sons. Namely, the condition for being a ruler was that one must be the descendant of Oguz Khan. In this respect, the myth has been used as a medium for making the ruler legitimate. According to the myth, Oguz Khan was born with extraordinary abilities. His face was as blue as the sky, and his mouth was as red as fire. His feet were like the feet of an ox, his back was like the back of a wolf, his shoulders were like the shoulders of a sable, and his breast was like the breast of a bear. He had suckled his mother once but he never suckled her again; when he was forty days old, he started to speak, and then he wanted the nourishment of meat and soup. The extraordinary abilities seen during his birth and infancy continued during his youth. His killing a rhinoceros living in the region brought to light his character as a warrior. His physical power and abilities in the years of his youthfulness proved that he deserved to be a leader (Arat 1987, 614-616).

Among the indicators that he would be a leader, his two marriages were both important. The first girl he married came from the heavens in a shower of light. He and his first wife had three sons; Day, Moon, and Star (Ogel 1971, 117; Arat 1987, 616-618). Light is sacred for the Turks as in many other cultures. Since light coming from the sky is the representative of God, the first wife was a gift presented by God in order to enable Oguz to achieve his goals. He found his second wife in a hollow tree on an island in a lake. He gave the names of Sky, Mountain and Sea to his three sons from his second wife (Ogel 1971, 117; Arat 1987, 618). Lakes, islands and trees establish a cosmic model. According to Turkish cosmogony, the earth is an island swimming in water. One of the elements that connect the earth and the heavens is the tree of the world (Roux 1994, 123). Water (the lake), islands

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and trees that symbolize the world model are all sacred due to their roles in cosmogony. Fire, water, earth, and tree are four main elements (arches) according to Turkish beliefs. Three of the four main elements formed the social setting of the second wife. Water, like the earth, was accepted as the mother, and people prayed to souls of land-water. 1 Both women were endowed with all the elements of cosmogony in terms of the surroundings and qualities they had. Moreover, the names of the children, which were Day, Moon, Star, Sky, Mountain, and Sea, represented the main elements of cosmogony. All of these cosmic properties are seen as elements helping that enable Oguz Khan to achieve his goals. Oguz Khan says the following when he declares his position of being khan: Let Let Let Let

my the the the

country be full with rivers and seas sun be the flag of the fatherland sky be the tent (state) of our settlement world be my state, and my people be many (Ogel 1971, 118).

When he declares his position, the main elements of cosmogony take the most important place again. The homeland's becoming full of water and seas, namely the desire to rule all the rivers and seas, makes water the most important element. In the myth, the sun is clearly defined as a flag. T he flag represents the state. This, in accordance with the creed of that term, is an expression of the belief that a flag has the power to revolve around the world just as the sun revolves around the world, namely the wish to bring the world together under one single flag. Regarding the sky as the pavilion (otag) is another pointer to the concern for the establishment of a world state. The pavilion (otag) was the main shelter of the ruler and families. The sky's being seen as a pavilion (otag) makes clear the aim to rule over the whole world. This puts forward the idea that the state should rule the whole world just as the sky covers the whole world. Within the limits of this understanding, the world and state become equal. Oguz Khan pointed out the extent of the state he wanted to bring into existence by means of the value he attributed to the symbols. The image of being a world state did not remain only as an idea. Oguz Khan, as the myth

' Land-water is used as the sacred places and waters that the Turks talked of together with the Sky God before Islam. ( Roux 1994, 109-111; Giraud 1999, 137).

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tells, realized this imagined state. First of all, he demanded all of the states obey him by sending messengers. He expresses his ideas as follows:

"Since I am the great khan of Uygurs, Then I am respected as khan of the world The world is devoted to me from all parts I want you to obey me, To keep following me, I present a gift to anybody who submits I regard him as friend, let him come to me If somebody doesn't follow me, and rebels against me, I get my army, and act towards as an enemy him I say let's attack suddenly, suppress, and defeat him, Let's destroy and have him hanged" (Ogel 1971, 118).

Taking these words into account, it is clearly seen that the Uighurs had a powerful state, and they believed in the idea that the other states had to submit to them. When the understanding of the state is analyzed, power (erk) comes first as the most important minor concept. Power had two main supports, the first of which was God giving kut. Oguz Khan proved that he was endowed by God with extraordinary abilities during his birth and development. Moreover, he got the support of the main elements of cosmogony by means of the women he married. Second, the ruler had to have the ability to meet the needs of society by preparing himself in accordance with the necessities of kut. Oguz Khan proved to society his personal power and abilities by means of the work he had done. The society agreed on his leadership, and gathered around him. The society did not raise any objections to the beginning of the period of gathering the world under one flag under the leadership of Oguz Khan because they were aware that there were cosmogonic values behind the personal abilities of Oguz Khan. The guidance of the Wolf, which was a totem during the war, proved the Tightness of the actions of Oguz Khan. In the myth, Oguz Khan achieves his goal of establishing a world state. In the last part of the legend, the dream of the wise vizier Ulug Turk takes the most important place. A golden bow and three silver arrows, which are the theme of the dream, lie down from west to east. Oguz Khan orders his elder sons to find the golden bow, and his younger sons to find the three silver arrows. When the golden bow and the silver arrows are brought to him, he divides the golden bow into three parts between his elder sons, and shares out

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the arrows among his younger sons (Arat 1987, 632, 634). The most prominent elements in the dream pattern are the bow with arrows and the eastwest axis. That the bow and the east of the state are given to the elder sons, and the arrows with the west of the state are given to the younger sons is in accordance with Turkish understanding. That gold is more valuable than silver, that the bow shoots arrows, and the east is superior to the west lead to the conclusion that younger sons were to obey the older ones. Just as the earth is dependent upon the heavens, the children from his second wife were to be devoted to the children from his first wife. Twenty-four Turkish clans founded by these boys spread across Eurasia. In the Myth of Oguz Khan, the wish to dominate the world thus establishing a world state is mentioned very clearly. The text seems to draw a picture of the general history of the Turks. Historical events involve many examples of the Turks' wish to dominate the world by means of their state. Every time they became more powerful, they continued to spread out. They appeared all over Eurasia, from the Sea of Japan to the centre of Europe. This attitude can be interpreted as putting into action the relationship in the Myth of Oguz Khan between the sun, the flag, the heavens, the tent, the earth , and the state. Oguz Khan led military expeditions all over the world in order to subdue those who did not obey him. This seems to clarify the general state of affairs in Turkish history. Oguz Khan had full confidence in himself and his power. He demanded the orders he sent by means of messengers be obeyed. He clearly stated that, even if his orders were not obeyed, he would get what he wanted by means of his army. Oguz Khan accepted gifts as an appreciation of his power (Arat 1987, 624). This can be seen as a sign of how the state economy worked. It is generally accepted by scholars that myths affect the subconscious, and create archetypes. The Myth of Oguz Khan is the archetype of the Turkish idea of the state. It can also be said that Turkish understanding of the state was transformed into a historical fact from an archetype. With regard to the idea of the state as mentioned in this legend, it is seen that the ruler's having clivine qualities was an effort to put the world into order. Oguz Khan's territory under domination mentioned in the myth is the same as the geographical places that the Turkish states dominated. It can be said that the ideas put forward in the Myth of Oguz Khan were realized.

CHAPTER IV THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE STATE: The Orhon Inscriptions1

The Gok-Turks, a Turkish clan descending from the Huns, settled down south of the Altay Mountains, and founded their states there in the fifth century BC (Ta§agil 1995, 9-10). Two Gok-Turk states were founded. The first one had been founded by Bumin Khan in 552 BC, and was separated into two states, one of which was the Eastern Gok-Turk State, and the other was the Western Gok-Turk State. The Eastern Gok-Turk State collapsed in 634 AD, and the Western Gok-Turk State collapsed in 649 AD. All the parts of the territory were taken under the control of China, and the Turks lived under Chinese domination for 50 years. They rebelled against China, and gained their independence under the leadership of Kutlug Bey, and founded the second Gok-Turk State. The founder of the state, Kutlug Bey, gained the title of llterig (the founder of the state, the organizer of the state) after he had been made Khan. This state was also ruined by another Turkish clan the Uighurs in 745 AD (Rasonyi 1971, 98). The Orhon Inscriptions, the theme of this part of the study, are the gravestones erected in the era of Bilge Khan, during which the Second Gok-Turk State experienced its most magnificent time (716-734, AD), as well as his brother Kiil Tigin, his vizier Tonyokuk, and himself. The Orhon Inscriptions question the reasons for the collapse of the 1st Gok-Turk State, and emphasize what must be done and not done in order not to make the same mistakes. The Turkish understanding of the state was founded on the plan for a world state devised in the Myth of Oguz Khan. The states established by the Huns and the Gok-Turks were both in accordance with the basic principles in the myth. Following the Orhon Inscriptions, we will study the foundations on which the consciousness of the state was laid. The texts in the inscriptions mentioned deal with the social problems in a realistic and critical way. The people, as well as the administrators, arc held responsible for the social problems and criticized. The conditions for the continuity of the state and society are put forward, and the reasons for the social collapse are explained.

The Orhon Inscriptions are 200 kms to the north of Ulan Batur, the capital city of Mongolia. They are given the name Orhon because they are located near the Orhon River. The Orhon Inscriptions are one of the first written works in Turkish.

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1- Order In the Orhon Inscriptions, it is clearly stated that the rulers were created by God to rule the people. The expression that Bilge the Turkish Khan who is Godlike, and coming from God (Kill Tigin, G I)' is a sign of this belief. According to the Gok-Turk beliefs, When the blue sky above and the swarthy earth below were created, human beings were created between them. And Bumin Khan and t§temi Khan were enthroned as the rulers of human beings. The first mission of the rulers starting work was to organize the state and the law of the public, and to rule the people according to the law {Kill Tigin, Dl; Bilge Kagan, D2, D3). The khan founding the state and his family believed that they were entitled by God to rule. This point of view was also held by society. The primary mission of the state was to govern society in order. The social order was provided by means of the customs (tore) based on a godly origin. In order for the custom to be in force, there had to be a state. The khan representing the state was the one who put the customs (tore) into practice. The first mission of the khan charged by God was to apply the customs, and to create a powerful state for a perfect application. The state had to be formed according to the model of the cosmos because in order to be khan, a person, even if he was a member of the dynasty, had to be given kut by God. The indicators of having kut were being able to solve the problems of society, having a powerful society, and winning wars. When these were not realized, kut was taken back. Order falling into ruin causes the state to collapse or to be broken up. When the state was broken up, the people were taken captive by gave way states. Giving historical events as examples, the situation of the people, after order went to ruin, is explained. The thoughts of the people expressed in the inscriptions are as follows: I was a nation with a state; now, where is my nation? For whom am I conquering the countries? I was a nation with a khan; where is my khan? To which khan am I serving?". Speaking in this way, the Turkish nation acted as an enemy to the Chinese khan. They acted as an enemy (but) they could not put themselves in order and become organized, thus they remained dependent upon the Chinese (Kill Tigin, D 10, 11; Bilge Kagan , D 8, 9). ^In this study, when references to the inscriptions are made, after the name of one of the inscriptions such as Kiil Tigin, Bilge Kagan, and Tonyokuk are written, since the number of the line is designated by the direction of the inscription, the initial letter of the direction and the number of the line are written in this order. For example, (Kill Tigin, D15 ) makes reference to the 15th line on the east side of the inscription. The letters used are the following: D: east, K: north, G: south, B: west.

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The complaints of people about captivity paved the way for a newstate. They rebelled against the Chinese Empire, and having established a new state, regained order. The God of the Turks together with the holy souls of land-water helped the founders of the new state to allow the Turkish nation to keep its existence and not disappear (Kiil Tigin, D 11). God made the founders of the state stronger (Kiil Tigin, D 12; Bilge Kagan, D10); and thus, they reached their goals, having revived the Turkish customs and traditions once more, educated the people (Bilge Kagan, D 11, 12), and put the people into order again. They fed people giving them enough food, and put the public into order again, having made the poor rich (Bilge Kagan, D 14). The good order of the nation and the state was seen as one of the main conditions for the two elements (the state and the people) to keep their existence. The constitution (tôrii) was the basis of social order provided via the state. The constitution (tôrii) represented order and tradition. While El meant political power and state, the constitution (tôrii) was used to express the law and the institutions applying the law (Giraud 1999, 109). The value of the constitution (tôrii) was as high as the value of the state. That the state had a crucial importance for the existence of society to be questioned. Furthermore, the structure of the state had to be in accordance with the Turkish constitution (tôrii). Otherwise, the state could not be accepted as legal. This deep connection between the state and the constitution is explained in different ways in the texts; "they regulated the constitution (tôrii) having established the state" (Kiil Tigin, D 3, Bilge Kagan, D 4), "Who can destroy the state and constitution tôrii)? " (Bilge Kagan, D 19), " M y father, the khan got the state and constitution himself' (Kiil Tigin, D 13; Giraud 1999, 109-110). Knowing consciously that there cannot be a state without law, they pointed out the relation between the state and the constitution (torii) that means the law. Social existence was dependent upon the state, and the state was dependent upon the constitution (torii). To govern according to the constitution was the primary duty of the khan. If the khan did not follow the constitution and acted against the rules of the constitution, he was faced with the realities that the clans would rebel, and God would take hut back, since he would be thought to have lost his quality of being a wise man. The continuity of the order of the state and society was related to the idea that the administrators, mainly the khan, were to be wise and brave persons. The advisor and commander, Tonyokuk, who did excellent duty during the foundation of the Second Gôk-Turk State presents a good model of what kind of qualities an administrator should have. Tonyokuk appeared to be

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a reasonable, wise, brave, combatant, experienced, and self-confident man who knew their most important rival, China, very well. (the Inscription of Tonyokuk, Giraud 1999, 114-116) To administer the state with a staff having these qualities guarantees success. The qualities of the beys are depicted in the Inscription ofKul Tigin as follows: They were wise (learned) rulers, they were brave rulers. Their commanders were surely wise, and were surely brave. Both their beys and people, certainly, lived in peace and harmony. So they administered the state, certainly, just in that way; they administered the state and regulated the law (tore-customs) (Kill Tigin, D 3 ). Reason becomes most important in establishing and keeping order, and in deciding on and putting into force the principles. Bravery is a necessary quality to start military actions, and make political decisions in order to prevent chaos inside, to avoid attacks coming from outside, and to save economic interests. Wisdom is one of the inevitable qualities of the administrator since knowledge of the constitution (tore) and understanding of society's problems broaden horizons. These specialities enable the public to live in peace, comfort, and harmony, and the state to keep its existence. The Turks started spreading out and taking the neighbouring nations under their control according to the Turkish understanding of the state, due to God's command, after they had put the public in order (Kill Tigin, D 15). The concern to expand the boundaries of the state as much as possible is clearly stated. It is pointed out, at any appropriate moment, over how large an area they had established their order (Bilge Kagan, K 2). It can be figured out from the meanings related to the term El that the established state had the features of an empire (Giraud 1999,107, 108). How great the confidence in the established order was stated in the following: Hey, the Turks, the beys and the people of Oguz, listen! Hey, Turkish people, who would have destroyed your state and customs as soon as the sky above had not collapsed, and the earth below had not been holed? {Kill Tigin, D 22; Bilge Kagan, D 18). Besides the connection between the state and the two main elements of the cosmos which are the heavens and the earth, these statements put forward clearly, the connection between the state and social existence. As the basic problem is the continuity of social existence, the ruler brought the conditions for the continuity of existence in front of the people.

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Since the state and khan were regarded as identical, the collapse of the state, just like the foundation of the state, came via the khan. While good khans founded the state and caused the order to continue, the bad ones destroyed the order and became the reason for the collapse of the state. Sincc brothers arc not created like their elder brothers, and sons are not created like their fathers, there have been foolish khans who chose also foolish commanders as assistants and caused order to be destroyed (Bilge Kagan, D 5, 6).

It is seen that external powers also took an important place in the collapse of order (Bilge Kagan D 7; Ktil Tigin, D 5). The worst results of the collapse of order were the interior chaos and the slavery that resulted from it. Since they wanted order, what they longed for in their society, as well as for other societies, they went on military expeditions to put the neighbouring societies in order. (Giraud 1999, 46) Among the main reasons for wars made because of the concern to put the other nations into order were the effects of the disorder there on their own society, the necessity of an economic structure, and the aim of being a world state. Factual problems are seen as the basis of the concern for order. Order appears to be one of the major concepts to the understanding of the state since it provides for the future, thus the continuity, of the society and the state. In addition, the good run of order indicates that the understanding of justice, a value that cannot be given up by the state, is fundamental. Justice, within the logic of the cosmic order, takes a determinative role in making the administration legitimate, and allowing to duties be carried out. The idea of justice also attaches importance to meeting the needs of society, and to the application of the law. The concerns related to the people are dealt with below.

2- Addressing to the People One of the significant subjects handled in the Orhon Inscriptions is the criticism of the people. It is clearly mentioned that the behaviour of the people played a part in the collapse of the state. The fatal effects of the collapse of the state on the people are mentioned and comparisons made between societies with statehood and those without. The inscriptions is said to have been made to tell the society how effective the behaviours of the society are on the state, and what happens when there is no state (Ktil Tigin, G 1011).

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The ruler's expressing his responsibilities to the people and his opinions about the behaviour of the people is really an advanced stage for that era. The inscriptions try to warn the people about two main reasons for the collapse of the state: 1. the external danger, China's divisive propaganda, 2. the character of the people. The Chinese gave out gold, silver, and silk cloth in order to alienate the people from the state. Bilge Khan points out this fact as follows: It was easy to be entrapped by the Chinese since their words were sweet, and their silk clothes were soft. After they had settled down in the region they wanted, they made people fight against each other having plotted mischiefs, and destroyed the public having made them weaker (Kiil Tigin, G

5, 6). One of Chinese strategies, to make the Turkish state weaker and destroy it, was that Chinese authorities gave valuable presents to people living in the region nearer to China, and less valuable presents to people living in faraway places. Since the Chinese saw that the close contact with the Turks had resulted in the assimilation of the Turks, they made use of presents. The ignorant people were entrapped, and thus were assimilated or destroyed by means of the sword by the Chinese (Kiil Tigin, G 7, D 6-7; Bilge Kagan, K 35). To neutralize these Chinese tactics, which were one of the reasons for the collapse of the former state of the Gok-Turks, Bilge Khan gives the following advice to the people: In order not to be entrapped by the Chinese, we must not go away from the centre of the state, which is Otiigen. We can live in Otiigen, and send caravans to China and other countries, and so we can get what we need. When the people do not go away from the centre, the order continues. Therefore, the people will have a state forever. Having a state prevents the people from being destroyed (Kiil Tigin, G 8; Bilge Kagan, G 6). Moreover, the people must be loyal to the state and must follow the orders of the ruler.

Since the attitude of the people was seen as one of the reasons for the collapse of the first state of the Gok-Turks, Bilge Khan criticizes the public severely: Hey! Turkish people, you are generous but peevish: You do not think about being hungry or being satiated. That is why you did not follow the words of khans who nourished and satisfied you, and went everywhere without their approval, so you were always destroyed, and you came to an end in those parts. How exhausted and weak were the ones who survived there somehow (Kiil Tigin G 8-9, Bilge Kagan, K 6-7). Hey! Turkish people, give up your bad habits and be repentant. Because of your disobedience, you made a

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mistake yourself against, your khan who nourished and satisfied you and against your independent and prosperous state, and you brought discord. Where did the armed enemy come from who routed and made you broken up? Where did the enemy with spears come from who banished you and made you flee? The people of the holy Otiiken Mountains, you left your native country. Your reward at those places was the following, of course: Your blood was shed like the rivers, your bones were heaped up like the mountains; your sons who would be masters became slaves, your daughters who would be wives became concubines (Kul Tigin D 23-24, Bilge Kagan , D 18-20). The explicit criticism of the people made in this way by the ruler denotes an advanced level of consciousness. Not only the enemies but also the administration and the people are held responsible for the bad consequences such as the collapse of the state and suffering of the people. This understanding points out the high level of political consciousness. As is understood f r o m the inscriptions, to raise the living standards of public came first among the duties of the state. The reason for this is made clear in the above paragraph. The continuity of the state was dependent on the support of the people, and the support of the people was dependent on the state's power and meeting the people's needs. These connections are explained as follows: I did not become the ruler of a wealthy and prosperous public. On the contrary, I became the ruler of a hungry, naked, poor, and miserable people. I did not sleep at night, and sit down in the morning in case the advantages my fathers and my uncles had gained would disappear, and my people would lose their names and reputation. 1 made efforts so as not to make the people be enemies against each other, like the fire and the water (Kul Tigin, D 26, Bilge Kagan, D 21-22). When I became the ruler myself, the people having gone everywhere returned on foot with death and losses. I made war to nourish and satisfy the people (Kill Tigin, D 28) God saved us. Since it is my holy privilege and my destiny, I brought the dying people to life, and nourished them. I had the naked dressed, the poor became rich; I increased the number of people, who were few, and made them better than those who had a powerful khan and a state (Kul Tigin, D 29; Bilge Kagan, K 7, D 2324). I always made the people all around be loyal to me and the Turks become a nation without an enemy. All these people became dependent on me, and now serve to me (Kul Tigin, D 30). In that era, even the slaves had slaves, and the concubines had maidservants (Kul Tigin, D 21). B i l g e K h a n explains in a n o t h e r way that he e r e c t e d t h e gravestones called the Orhon Inscriptions to point out that the people and the

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administration must take lessons from historical events, and to show on what principles the continuity of social existence is based: I always gathered poor and needy people together: I made the poor rich, and the few became many. Is there anything untrue in my words'? Hey, Turkish beys and people, listen to this! 1 had engraved here on this stone that the Turkish people lived and had a state; I also had engraved that they will make mistakes and die. I had engraved whatever words I had to say on the eternal stone. Learn these words by looking at it (Kul Tigin, G 10-11; Bilge Kagan, K 8).

The eternal stone was put to give information about the past to the beys and the people. Those who learned these facts were expected not to make the same mistakes again because it was through ignorance people fell into the trap of the Chinese (Kul Tigin, G 12-13). It is understood from the texts that reading inscriptions again and again would prevent people from making the same mistakes. Moreover, written documents are seen as one of the guarantees of social existence since they refresh the social memory (Bi§ak 2003, 136, 142-143) Ignorance, seen as one of the major reasons for political mistakes, was a determinant in the relationships between people devoted to the Turkish state (Kul Tigin, D 19, 24). They point out there must be dependence on the principles of social existence, and the kind of results are led when there is no independence, addressing both the administration staff and the people, so the Orhon Inscriptions can be examined as works in which historical consciousness is concretized. The evaluation of the problems and principles on which social existence is founded within the framework of the understanding of threedimensional time indicates a historical consciousness (Bicak 1996, 54-55). The Orhon Inscriptions are completely in accordance with this definition of historical consciousness. The continuous emphasis on the collapse of the state destroyed by the Chinese because of the mistakes made in the past, points out the past dimension of the understanding of time on which historical consciousness is based. The necessity of dependence on the determined principles to allow the prosperous era of Bilge Khan continue makes clear the concern to be able to guarantee the future of the state and the society. To bridge the gap between the past and future presents itself as historical consciousness. The gravestones, that explain how the state, the khan, beys, and the people must behave by being conscious of historical mistakes, put forward the awareness of the relationship between the state and history. Since they clarify the responsibility for bad consequences of both the state and the

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people and give reasons, the Orhon Inscriptions can be accepted as one of the best examples of critical thought in the field of politics. Political consciousness presents itself in the Orhon Inscriptions very clearly. Political consciousness was so developed that it was to be defined through the concept of nationalism. Taking into account the fact that Europe was very far away from the idea of nationalism in that era, this appearance of nationalism is surprising (Giraud 1999, 190). Such development of political consciousness was closely related to the problem of social existence. To keep the existence of the state and society, what conditions are necessary, and in what ways khans and the people must behave are among the main subject matters of the Inscriptions. The elements seen in the text in terms of political consciousness are the following: 1. The source of the right to administer and of legitimacy. 2. The required conditions for the continuity of the state's existence. 3. Meeting the needs of the people. 4. Stating the mistakes of the people. Discussions on these elements are a clear evidence of the high level of political consciousness. When we consider that these problems are still valid in the twentieth century, the true value of the political consciousness of the Gok-Turks is better understood. The Orhon Inscriptions explain the relationship between the state and the people very clearly. It is mentioned that people suffered when there was no state, and finally they disappeared. This relation is the clear proof of why for Turks the state became the most important institution.

CHAPTER V THE WISE RULER: Kutadgu Bilig

Kutadgu

Bilig is a book ol" politics written in Turkish by Yusuf Has

Hacib in the mid-eleventh century. The book was attributed to Tavgag Bugra Khan, the ruler of one of Muslim Turkish peoples called Karakhanids. Yusuf Has H a c i b is said to have been a f f e c t e d by the Indian and Chinese civilizations. However, there is no historical person, event, or institution in Kutadgu Bilig that attracts attention. Using Islamic terminology Yusuf Has Hacib puts forward the Turkish understanding of ethics, the law, and the state. Even though the mentioned work was written just after the Turks had accepted Islam, the ideas included belong completely to the era before Islam (Arsal 1947, 98). Taking the partnership of the ruler and vizier into account, state administration is explained on the basis of wisdom. This book mentioned can be simply defined as a theoretical work on the state and politics. 'Kutadgu Bilig' means the knowledge giving bliss, but, when the content of book is considered, it can be translated as the state administration founded on wisdom. The word kut included in the name of the book has many meanings. Kut is used to mean bliss, the state, luck, good fortune, and spirit (Kaggarh Mahmut 1999, volume IV, 388; Roux 1999, 35-36). All meanings of kut present themselves as the characteristics given by God to people. Taking into consideration also the use of kut in the Orhon Inscriptions, and because the content of the book is the state, kut is seen to be used as "the state and the art of state administration" in this chapter. Kutadgu

Bilig

is mainly a theoretical study on the state. At the

beginning of the book, the aim of the study is presented: The words of this book help and guide any person; organize the works in both of the worlds" (B 17).1 "... this book is useful to everybody, but it is much more useful to the ruler for the administration of the country and ^The numbers in parenthesis in the text refer to the lines of the book. The numbers starting with B refer to the lines in the introduction of the book.

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towns. It is focused on " the ones administering the state, and what they need", " the things necessary for the protection of rulers, and requirements and conditions for monarchy", " the reasons for the collapse or for the eternal existence of the state, how the monarchy survives, and how it is lost" (B 34- 37). " How must the ruler behave to make the public obey him?" (B 46). " How must rulers be tolerant, learned, courageous and heroic, and how must they fill up the treasure, and empty it again? (B 50-51).

Yusuf Has Hacib deals with the fundamental problems of the state in his study. The study is a kind of dialectic involving conversations. Four persons speaking in the book are the following: Kiin Togdi: the khan, representing truth and justice; and the law. Ay Toldi: the vizier, representing bliss and prosperity. Ôgdiïlmiiç: the son of the vizier; he becomes vizier following his father and represents reason and magnificence. Odgurmu§: a relative of the vizier, the ascetic, he represents conviction. (B 65-71) The role of these four concepts, truth, bliss, reason, and conviction, is discussed clearly. The characteristics of the ruler which are regarded as the same as the state indicate on what the administration was founded. The primary duty of the ruler was to have power, to establish the social order, and to do justice. The characteristics that the ruler must have while he is performing these duties are mentioned. Knowledge comes first among these qualities.

1- W i s d o m

Yusuf Has Hacip thinks knowledge is the main characteristic of the human being. The abilities to get and use knowledge is given to the human being when he is created. It is especially indicated that knowledge changes both the character and the social status of the human. The abilities the human has by birth are knowledge, reason, and understanding (147-148). God gave the human " knowledge, and he was raised. God gave understanding, and knots were untied" (51). Goodness of the human and his being useful to society are related to his use of these abilities. One of the abilities given by birth is reason that is the condition for being a human (300). Moreover, reason is depicted as the light illuminating darkness (288). Reason is the palace of knowledge (310). The reason mentioned here, instead of being defined as something critical that changes and transforms, is defined and used according to the understanding of wisdom that puts forward the principles of truth, and how people must live in accordance with these principles.

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The knowledge mentioned by Yusuf Has Hacip Is based on wisdom. Knowledge based on wisdom is essential to live according to the principles of ethics. The following statement that, " human rises by means of wisdom, and grows up by means of knowledge; he is respected because of these both" (289) emphasizes wisdom. The value of knowledge for human being is expressed as follows: Regard knowledge as great and exalted (152, 154). The one who knows and understands fulfils his wish at any time (155). All kinds of goodness are the rewards of knowledge; it is possible to find the way even to the sky by means of knowledge (208). Understanding and knowledge are something great; if you find them, use them and fly to the sky. Everybody becomes great with knowledge (209).

All these qualities cause the person to live according to the Godlike truth, have inner peace, and have a respected status in society. Knowledge based on wisdom had a determinative role in organizing daily life, and solving problems (314). The learned people were thought not to do anything wrong (314). Most people had enemies because of the things they had done due to their ignorance (318). While ignorance leaves the person in a bad condition, knowledge means being useful to both yourself and the others (972-975).1 Knowledge is essential to solve problems. " Illness goes far away from the person who has knowledge. An ignorant person is always ill; if the illness is not treated, he dies quickly" ( 156-158 ). To get rid of trouble caused by ignorance, one is advised to behave wisely, to have knowledge, and to live according to the advices of the wise men. It is also suggested that the well-informed person not talk every time, and not speak about everything. " The learned person should also control his tongue" (971). The various reasons for this are explained using concise words. " The tongue is the lion lying in bed. If you are not careful, it eats your head" (164). " Hold your tongue, do not let tour teeth be broken. Hey, the one who has a tongue, take care of your head" (167-168). The well-informed are to express their knowledge in an appropriate environment because if the environment is not appropriate, and the listeners misunderstand, this will lead to bad results. In giving this advice, he considers the reactions of people, who live lives based on suppositions, when they come across realities. The learned ^These ideas are among the subject matters Plato deals with when he lays the foundation for his state. Plato, in the fourth chapter of his book called the State, lists the merits that the state must have as being erudition, courage, moderation, and truth. Furthermore, Plato thinks wickedness comes out of ignorance. These ideas of Plato are thought to have affected Yusuf Has Hacip by way of the Philosophy of Islam.

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person can be damaged in his relationship with the political power because of his knowledge. According to Yusuf Has Hacip the conception which was held by the person must give up manifesting his knowledge and be silent when he notices that his life in danger. Immortality is accepted as one of the features of wisdom. Immortality, to a great extent, is also seen as dependent on having and using knowledge. If you say your words well, you will become immortal" (180). "The human being is not eternal, what is eternal is his name; that is why the names of the good have been immortal. You are not eternal yourself, your name is eternal; if your name becomes eternal, you will also become eternal yourself' (229). " People have two kinds of name: the good and the bad. One of these remains in the world (238).

According to Yusuf Has Hacib, eternity is one of the goals of the human in this world. One of the ways to achieve this is to be a good person. Good means to be a human being, to do favours to others, and to be helpful. In order to be helpful to others, first of all the person must be good himself. Although knowledge and wisdom are exalted in this way, it is pointed out that reaching knowledge is not easy at all. The heart of the human is like a sea without a bottom; knowledge is like the pearl lying on the bottom of it (213).

A person who wants to achieve so many different things follows his desires which prevents him from thinking a lot about the value of knowledge. Since he goes after his desires, he cannot take the risk of going a long and difficult way to reach knowledge. Moreover, as soon as you reach knowledge, to live a simple life as wisdom requires is inevitable. Since people usually prefer living a wealthy and entertaining life inclined to the satisfaction of their desires, they do not warm to the pure and simple life needed by wisdom. The real concern of Yusuf Has Hacib is to make the state administration regain a structure based on knowledge. Just as the wellinformed live their own lives in a peaceful way, administrators who have knowledge make both their own lives and the society's life easier. To make society's life easy, it is necessary to establish an order based on knowledge. In Yusuf Has Hacip's opinion, from Adam onwards wise men had advised a good order. Both the structure and application of order was put forward by very well-informed sages. In connection with this, two elements of good order are

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understanding and knowledge. For problem solving, the bad were hanged by means of understanding; disorder among people was suppressed by means of knowledge. If the problems had not been solved using these, the sword would have been used as a last resort (219-222). Understanding is to reach the conclusion after all the aspects of the problem have been evaluated in order to arrive at the right decision. Understanding, that allows the one doing harm to the society to be hanged, also involves fair judgement. Appealing to knowledge for the solution of such problems as discord and trouble in a society has two meanings: firstly, having a society informed enough on the subject impedes discord. Secondly, administrators must have enough knowledge about both the people and the problems to have the ability of to solve the problem. The sword, representing the power of the state, is seen as a last resort for the problems that cannot be solved by knowledge and understanding. In society's administration, knowledge is seen as an important tool. First, the problems must be handled within the framework of knowledge and understanding. However, the ignorant are blind (179). Therefore, they cannot grasp the situation. Since very few people had knowledge at the level of wisdom (199), most of the people were in the group of the uninformed. Furthermore, the uninformed always acted hostilely towards the well-informed (200). For these reasons, the judge and well-informed administrators finished the uninformed people off with the sword. In addition, it is required that the ruler must be understanding to take the world in hand, and must be learned to demand obedience from the public. If someone has both of these, he becomes a whole person; and the whole person has all the blessings of the world (223225 ). The rulers who want to control the world must have, first of all, virtue, reason, and knowledge ( 281 ). The rulers with these qualities control the country and the people by means of law. ( 285-286 ) The qualities the ruler must have, which are virtue, reason, and knowledge, make no sense if they are not reflected by means of law to the public. If the laws are deprived of these qualities, it can be concluded that the rulers were not sages. To take the world in hand, the person must be understanding; but to rule the people necessitates both reason and courage. The one who took the world in hand achieved this with understanding; the one who ruled the people achieved this with knowledge (217-18). Reason and courage are thought to be among the merits that administrators are required to have. When it is considered that courageous people untie tight and difficult knots, the importance of courage in society's

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problems and international relations is made clear. Moreover, it is necessary that the ruler must be courageous since courage determines the result in war conditions. Yusuf Has Hacip points out, without giving an example, that the learned rulers were successful: If you take notice of the ones who died before us, those who found out the information dominated his time and the world" (251). " Those beys of the world who were learned were the ones who established the order, and who were the first in goodness" (252). The learned and dominant beys attracted the learned people to themselves. They did all the work carefully, and, following the way shown by knowledge, they ruled the people. They organized their country, and their people became wealthy; they made the wealth of people a shield for themselves (254-256).

According to Yusuf Has Hacip, rulers and the scholars were the heads of the people ( 265 ). Rest of them are regarded as a herd ( 266 ). In society's administration, the ruler dominates the public by the sword; and the scholar shows the right way by the pen ( 268 ). Good order comes out of the cooperation between the ruler and the scholar ( 269 ). If the values included in wisdom are the principles of the administration, the possibility of society's living a comfortable life will be higher. Personal greed, ambition, passions, and fondness for amusement will be removed when the ruler has the values of wisdom. Since the ruler, therefore, will abstain from unconsciously charging unnecessary taxes to fill up his treasure, and from attacking both the public and the neighbouring countries because of his ambitions and passions, the people will not have extra troubles due to the greed and ambitions of the ruler. For these reasons, the application of the art of administration leading to the best consequences is one based on wisdom. 2- The State and the Ruler 2.1 Order Until the understanding of the state based on social contract 1 became established, nearly all the states in the world had made connections between

The establishment of the model of the state based on social contract was dealt with as an idea by philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and J. J. Rousseau. The application of the understanding of the state based on social contract started with the revolutions in 1648 and 1679 in England, and become established with the developments after industrialization.

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the cosmic order and the state order. They believed that the rulers controlled the state just like God controlled the cosmos. To put the world in order, taking the cosmic order as its model, was the function of the state. World order involves main categories including how the rulers start work, the designation of their duties, administration of law to the people, and meeting their needs. One of the major foundations of the Turkish idea of the state was that the world and people needed to be administered. In Kutadgu Bilig, the necessity for the administration of the world is clarified as follows: The world looked at itself; being pleased and proud, it scrutinized its treasure. It said the following about the khan: If you were asleep, wake up now, open your eyes; if you did not hear, listen to my speech now. 1 was a widow for thousands of years. My face paled; then I took off the garment of widowhood and wore a wedding dress of white ermine. I dressed up because the khan became my husband; this is my wish; if he wants, 1 will sacrifice my life. It thundered, the sentry beat his drum; the lightning flashed, the khan hoisted his pennant (81-86). Pointing out the world needs to be administered explains why the ruler must be competent enough to rule the world. In the opinion mentioned in the paragraph, the relationship between the ruler, representing the state, and the world is a sort of ontological relation. If there is a world, there must also be a state, and so there must be a ruler for the administration of the world. This idea puts forward both the necessity of the existence of the world and the need for the domination of the state over the whole world. In addition, the expression "I was a widow for years", means that the rulers which had lived could not dominate the world. For the state to come to power over the whole world, the ruler must be equipped with warlike qualities and the values of wisdom. These ideas are the expression of the idea of a state world by means of different terms. The source of the ruler's legitimacy, and what kind of qualities the ruler had are emphasized: The ruler is the power of religion, the sharecropper of the state, the crown of the nation, the servant of the religious law, the adornment of the world, the ornament of greatness, the light of the sultanate, and the one holding the fickle kut in his hands. God gave the position of sovereignty (90, 1933, 5947), a destiny (fortune), the country, and the throne. As soon as the ruler came to the throne, the world regained order (89-93).

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The qualities and duties of the ruler permeate throughout the whole society. These qualities are given by God. In fact, they are bound to happen by God's giving Kut. Another thing to be considered is that the order of the world is related to the ruler's accession to the throne. This understanding is the expression of the idea that there cannot be a society without a state, and that world order is also dependent on state order. The statement that "since the world was created, there has been law and justice" (5705) points out the age and the power of the state as being the source of the state's legitimacy to God. To place emphasis on the success of the ruler and the vizier, the following idea is frequently expressed, "the world attained security, and order was established; he exalted his name by means of the law" (103). Moreover, to emphasize order and security, it is said that "the wolf and the lamb began drinking water in the same place" (449, 461). As seen in the understanding of the state of the Turks, and in the Myth of Oguz Khan, the idea of dominating the whole world is clarified. The idea of domination over the whole world also presents itself in Kutadgu Bilig.

2.2- The State In the Turkish understanding of the state, kut took an important role. According to the Orhon Inscriptions, to become the ruler, the person had to be given kut. In Kutadgu Bilig, kut is used as the political dominance, the authority, and the ruler's power. (Arsal 1947, 121) However, in the book mentioned, the vizier combines the meanings of kut which are bliss and political authority when he defines himself as kut. In Kutadgu Bilig, the vizier, who is one of the main characters of the book, describes himself as kut. At the same time, he identifies kut with the state. The vizier, representing the qualities of the state in his character, criticizes both the state and the ruler, representing the state, on the basis of the characteristics of being a vizier. The vizier Ay Toldi, sitting on a ball in the presence of the ruler, gives the following message to him: it is difficult to sit on a ball since it is continually rolling along. Similarly, the bliss of being a ruler is not continual. Bliss leaves its place easily just like the ball rolls along. As the state has a changeable nature, the ones coming close to the state may be ruined (657-667). The changeable nature of the state, unexpected events, and continually emerging the problems bring the ruler to a difficult situation. The administration staff has the same difficulty, too. Therefore, being in the state administration leads to a continual restlessness. Restlessness removes the bliss caused by the state administration.

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Flowing water, fine words, and the state travel the world without stopping to a rest. Kut (bliss) is unbelievable, it is unfaithful and fickle; it flies away immediately when you walk; it is slippery (668-682). Ay Toldi warns the ruler through his statements, in which he uses two meanings of kut together, i.e. the state and bliss. When the quarrels between the ones taking the state in their hands and the ones who want to have this power are taken into account, the statements put forward are true. Even though the ruler does not welcome the vizier's thoughts, he wants him to go on expressing his thoughts. The state is the fortune of people, it is the way to the monarchy, and everything people would wish for. It brings peace, it subdues the one who has opposed, and gives the one who has submitted whatever he wants. The one who wants to strike at the state strikes at himself. If you arc opposed to the state, you will fight with sorrow (673-682). As is seen here, kut has positive as well as negative qualities. The true side of kut is displayed by its positive qualities. If they perform actions in accordance with the principles of kut in spite of all of its slippery and changeable features, the wishes will come true. That something negative may lead to positive consequences is closely related to the content of the concept of the state. Although the state has negative features, it is necessary for people to live in security. Fickleness put forward as a negative feature of the state is not a proper definition because the state was not fickle, it was accused of being fickle if it looked for something new. Since the state gets bored when the old things are used up, it seeks new and fresh things. Is the old thing needed while there is the new thing? Seeking the new is defined as its nature. Do not believe in the state, it goes as it comes; do not put your trust in the state, it takes as it gives. Prosperity would be fine if the state was not fickle (684-696). For an understanding founded on wisdom, to look for the new is a problematic attitude because the main features of wisdom are formed within the framework of traditional values. N o reform is welcome because it means a separation f r o m traditions. However, when considering the state, the situation changes because the state, under obligation to solve the society's problems, has to make new decisions, and carry out new applications to meet the society's continually changing needs. When solutions are not found for new problems, the people lose confidence in both the ruler and the state. Change in

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the usual state of things annoys some people in the society. What is necessary for the majority is disturbing for some others. The ones who experience harm judge the situation to be bad, and accuse decision makers of being fickle. The ruler and the vizier who have to take new decisions are thrown out of office, and sentenced to death as well, if they do not succeed in their decisions. Because of those who lost the state due to their failures, the state is defined as fickle. To make the state continual, a person must be modest, say honeyed words, be moderate, not have a tendency to do wrong, give out his property to the needy people, have an organized job and life, and always have respect and affection. He must avoid arrogance and pride, stay away from drink, and not spend uselessly. The ones who consider these qualities as their own may always take the state in their hands (702-713).

These qualities put forward the idea that to administer a state within the limits of understanding based on wisdom, it was necessary to live in accordance with the principles of ethics. The meaning of Ay Toldi, the name of the vizier, involves the features mentioned by him above. While the sun rises, it is small at first. It grows day by day and waxes. When it becomes larger and is a full moon, its light increases, and the people of the world make use of its illumination. Then, it begins to wane and lose its beauty. This process is repeated. When I, like the moon, come closer to anyone and help him, his status becomes better; when I keep away from him, his statute becomes worse (730-41).

The comparison drawn between the state and the moon is a warning, to the ruler mainly, but to all the administrators. Almost all rulers have the same changes as those of the moon. A person must not behave as if he would hold his high position forever. In so far as he holds the position, he must have a personality good enough to work for the well-being of the people. This kind of personality improves the life of the one who is holding a high position as well. To continue their positions in the state administration successfully, the administrators' thoughts, behaviour, and actions must be in accordance with the principles of ethics, and a judicious administration must become a principle to them. The negative and positive features of the state put forward by the vizier are laid on a realistic foundation. Both for the criticisms and for the rules to be obeyed, what is determinative are the principles of ethics. The ruler lists the

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qualities of the vizier who is the second most important person in the state administration: He must be distinguished, learned, proficient, faithful, genuine, sincere, and skilled. He must be helpful to the ruler in internal and external affairs. The rank of being a vizier must be given to experienced, aged, charitable, and reasonable people who know all the state affairs, and are aware of the public's problems (423-429; 2184-2191). The requests of the ruler from the vizier arc the following: Do not come closer to the things the ruler is not fond of. Be clean, do not tell a lie, do not behave cruelly. Let the people stay away from you who are mean, immature, impatient and greedy, and who do violence against everything, are addicted to drink, and steal things (847-850). The qualities the vizier must have are the elements that prevent the administration f r o m degenerating. A safe and successful state is founded on an administration including experienced people who have stable personalities, know the state affairs, know the people, are aware of the people's problems, and behave judiciously. Administration by people deprived of these qualities would be a disaster both for themselves and for the state and the people.

2.3 The Ruler First of all, the ruler has to be legitimate. Legitimacy is defined as being descended f r o m the members of the lineage of the monarchy. However, the foundation of legitimacy is laid only if the ruler does his duties completely. If he cannot do his duties, he will lose grounds for legitimacy. Even if he is a descendent of the lineage of monarchy, he will be rebelled against. Since legitimacy is founded on duty, what the duties of the ruler are and what kind of qualities the ruler must have are the major problem of Kutadgu Bilig. The name of the ruler who is the leading character in Kutadgu Bilig is Kiin Togdi. The description of the term, Klin Togdi, is as follows: 1. As the character of the ruler resembles the sun, this name has been given. The sun always keeps its superiority, it does not become small. Sunshine is always the same. The ruler's character is also full of honesty, and he never makes any concessions on honesty. 2. The sun rises, and this world is illuminated; it brings illumination to all the people, but it does not grow less. The ruler's command is just like this;

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it does not disappear; his actions and words are the same for all the people. 3. The heat due to the sunrise cause thousands of flowers to bloom; and the ruler's law brings order under any conditions, in any country. 4. The sun illuminates anything whether it is clean or dirty. The ruler is also like this. Everyone gets his portion from him. 5. The sun's sign of the zodiac is fixed; this means it has a solid foundation. The sun's sign of the zodiac is Leo; and this constellation never moves. As it does not move, its house is not ruined. And the ruler resembles it (824-835).

The symbolization of the ruler based on the resemblance of him to the sun points out the relationship between the ruler and the society. It is clear beyond discussion that the ruler has superiority. Nevertheless, the qualities he must have for this superiority are mentioned. The ruler must be honest, and never make any concessions on honesty. Furthermore, he has the responsibility to establish an order in which people live in security. When the ruler has a personality centred on truth, and establishes an order in which the people live in security, he will be able to illuminate the public like the sun; otherwise, it is impossible for him to bear a resemblance to the sun. For this resemblance, it is imperative for the ruler to be a wise man because people illuminated by knowledge are among the basic features of the understanding of the state founded on wisdom. On the other hand, the ruler's judicious approach, and administration centered on justice prove his resemblance to the sun. The ruler makes use of symbolization to tell his vizier what his duties are. He sits on a three-legged silver throne (771) with a knife in his hand, putting down a candy on his right, and some bitter grass on his left (772), and calls the vizier. In the case of the vizier, Ay Toldi, the ruler explains the meanings of the symbols. The three-legged throne indicates his position. Three legs require a perfect balance. When one of the legs is crooked or broken, this will be recognized immediately. Each of the three legs must be strong enough. If one of them is broken and falls off, this will mean Doomsday for the public. In connection with this understanding, what is crooked will fall down, and what is straight keeps its existence. The state must be founded on truth so that it will be long-standing or eternal. The knife is used as a symbol to prevent the affairs of the state from being subject to delay. Any work must be done in the right way in a short time. Work not done in a short time makes problems bigger. The candy is used as another symbol to point out that justice will be done for the ones who have suffered tyranny and want justice. People seeing justice done without any discrimination between the master and the servant will leave the place of the ruler happily. Another symbol, bitter grass, indicates that the ones who are despotic, and who stay away from the truth will be sentenced (801-816).

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These symbols are used as equivalents of order, truth, justice, and punishment. The three-legged throne represents order. The three legs of the throne are the knife representing truth, the candy representing justice, and the bitter grass representing punishment. Thus, the state order was founded on values such as truth, justice, and punishment. Since any defect in one of these will do harm to the order, these must work in harmony, and in accordance with the principles. The basic qualities of the ruler were honesty and goodness. These two moral concepts also determined the qualities of the administration. H o n e s t y : The ruler defines himself as honesty and the law (800). Therefore, the foundation of the state is built on truth and the law. (812) The ruler, Kiin-Togdi, describes truth (konilik) as follows: The one whose ideas and words are the same is an honest person. His heart is like his appearance, and his appearance is like his heart. He may pull his heart out, take it in his hands, and walk around without any embarrassment in front of others. To keep his bliss, the person needs honesty; humanity is the name of honesty. The human (person) is not rare; the humanity (personality) is rare; there are not a few people, there is little honesty (862866). Honesty is described in terms of its moral meaning. The deeds of the one who lives a life centred on honesty based on ethics will also be true. If these kind of people are included in the state administration, there will be a judicious structure, and the appearance of new problems will be impeded. The ruler indicates that he operated within the law in his j u d g e m e n t s , not discriminating against people f r o m other families or societies (818). This behaviour is possible only if he defines himself as honesty and the law. The ruler's understanding of honesty and his attitude indicate that the state must be founded within the framework of the principles of ethics Good: The ruler defines good, which is another moral concept. Good is the one who is helpful. He is the one who is of help to the people. He is the one who helps the people, and who does not taunt them over what he has done. The one who has done a favour does not think about his reward, he has been helpful to somebody, and does not expect any compensation in return (856-858).

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This definition of good is presented as a principle for the administrators. It appears that the administrator must not expect any compensation for the services he has done, and must be aware that the things he has done are his duty, and that he is bound to behave in this way because of his character. In spite of this, the ones who have been helped want to make all the wishes of the one who has done them a favour come true (2305). All free and independent people are the servants of goodness; if favours are done, and the right way is followed (2307), very talented people will want to have a duty in the state administration. Goodness is the basis of human behaviour (2308). Goodness and humanitarian behaviour are required to be one of the primary virtues of the administration staff since they are among the main reasons for public confidence in the administration. Even though the question 'How is good acquired?' is very significant, the ruler's explanation does not make the answer to the question clear. As an answer it is only said that it is difficult to acquire the good, and it is easy to act maliciously. (899-906) However, being peaceful, showing restraint in desires, being respectful to the meaning, providing security, comfort, joy, and gladness result in goodness (937). In addition, living in a good environment, and working hard lead to goodness as well.

Goodness and honesty, which are among the basic qualities of the ruler, appear most clearly in his relations with the people. People assume an attitude according to the ruler. If the bey is good, the people will always obey him, they will have good and fine attitudes and behaviour. If the bey makes good people stand by his side, the bad will have to do some favours. If the good become dominant, the bad will disappear, and if the bad become dominant, the good will disappear. If the beys are, fortunately, good, their people will certainly be good as well. In so far as the masters are not bad, the expressions of the bad will not brighten with pleasure (887-892).

That the goodness or badness of the people is dependent upon the goodness or badness of the ruler increases the ruler's responsibility. On the other hand, this prevents the people from making complaints about the ruler. The people are like a mirror in front of the ruler. Anything negative seen in public shows that the ruler is bad. This makes the ruler have an auto-control system. If the people are bad, and are expected to be good, the ruler will have to see his own mistakes, and correct them because any malice in the people results in the end of the ruler. To prevent this problem, the ruler had to have a personality based first on wisdom.

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The punishment of the bad is thought to be a m o n g the indicators showing that the ruler is virtuous and good. If the bad and criminals are not punished, the goodness of the ruler will become questionable (893). The qualities f r o m which the rulers must stay away are hastiness, stinginess, anger, stubbornness, telling lies (2061-2062), and drinking (2093). These are the negativities making the state administration collapse. The rulers who want to extend the state must give property out to people with their left hands while they hold swords in their right hands. Moreover, speaking in a pleasant way and with a smiling face are also effective (2068-2073). Among the signs of the ruler's goodness, is established order, and the people becoming wealthy (895). Lying, cruelty, greed, hastiness, anger, drunkenness, and theft are qualities the ruler does not like (846-853). His severe expression, his angry face with a frown which are accepted as among the ruler's characteristics are only for those cruel people acting maliciously (816). While the qualities the ruler must have are listed, the actions that must not be performed by the people are put forward as well. The qualities Ktin-Togdi has as a ruler also f o r m a model for the qualities the administrators must have. Kun Togdi was dominant, had an honest nature and sociable manner; his words were true, his eyes and heart were satisfied. He was learned, wise, and shrewd; he was a fire for the bad, and was a disaster for the enemy (404408). Besides these qualities, he shows himself as a good ruler appointing wise men as officials and well-informed men to high positions (416). The recommendations of the vizier to the ruler includes how the ruler must live, and how he must administer the state: Do not be involved in wrong, or cruelty, or shedding human blood, mischief, or holding grudges. Do not drink wine, and be stay from intrigue. If you want a continuous and eternal principality, do not abandon justice, but stop cruelty to the public. Protect the people, be sober-minded and shrewd. Do not act negligently, and be prudent (1432-1437). To allow your monarchy to continue for a long time, do justice; never do cruelty, worship God, demean yourself at his door. Do not be inattentive, be careful; do not be found guilty by reason of another man. Do not do anything in desire and anger (1450-1461). Respect the good, and exalt them; do not be indulgent to the bad, and do not even let them come close to your door. Do not practice bad customs, put good laws into force; then you will live a good life, and bliss will be your beloved (1455-1456). As a law-maker, make good laws. The one having made bad laws is thought to be dead when he is

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still alive. Hey, leading statesmen, do not practice evil; it is impossible to have authority over the world by means of bad laws. The ones having made good laws will be well-known as good, and those having made bad laws will be well-known as bad by their descendants. The ones having made good laws make their names live even after they die (1458-1461). If to m a k e the state continue, and to leave an eternal n a m e as a ruler is desired, there is no other w a y besides ruling in a c c o r d a n c e with the principles of j u s t i c e . Eternity by m e a n s of j u s t i c e is, d u e to t h e n a t u r e of eternity, t o m a k e G o d involved in y o u r w o r k s . It is u n d e r s t o o d that j u s t i c e is d o n e in as f a r as the c o m m a n d s of God are obeyed. M o r e o v e r , a personality centred on the principles of ethics is o n e of the supports of a j u d i c i o u s administration. L a w s w e r e the best c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the ruler and t h e p e o p l e . A g o o d ruler d o e s not m a k e a bad law. T h e bad l a w is t h e o n e h a r m f u l t o t h e p e o p l e . L a w s h a r m f u l to t h e p e o p l e h a r m t h e ruler e v e n t u a l l y . S i n c e t h e p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of t h e ruler is to m e e t the n e e d s of the people, and to m a k e t h e m live in peace, one of the w a y s to a c h i e v e this goal is to m a k e good l a w s as well. T h e goodness of the law s h o w s w i s d o m of t h e ruler. P e o p l e h a v e s o m a n y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s that they m a y b e l e a r n e d , u n i n f o r m e d , poor, rich, reasonable, foolish, i m p u d e n t , m o d e s t , g o o d , or bad. T h e question w h a t qualities the ruler must h a v e in a s s u m i n g responsibility f o r controlling all these people with different characters brings u p the idea of w h a t the relationship between the ruler and the people m u s t be. The ruler has to do works that will make him become reputed throughout the world, put the country in order, let the treasure always be filled, and make the people public wealthy. He must recruit men, subdue enemies, and get rid of confusion. He must control the country by means of knowledge, his name must become reputed all over the world, and he must be a ruler for a long time (1923-1929). The ruler must take a distinguished place in people, be fully honest and good-tempered, be wise, behave well to the public, be generous, and not be greedy. He must do all kinds of favours, be restrained by modesty, and be noble by nature. Such a ruler deserves the people and becomes a great ruler, and such rulers form good dynasties (1962-1966). The ruler takes the people under his control by means of knowledge; if he does not have knowledge, his wisdom is of no use. If a ruler is mistaken in his works, it can be said his monarchy is ill, and needs to be treated. The remedy for the illness of the monarch is reason and knowledge. The bey must be well-informed, reasonable, and intelligent; it is possible to solve the problems of the state and society by means of these. The ruler having these qualities has high positions in both worlds (1968-1973). The unjust rulers cannot control the country for a long time due to the fact that the people cannot put up with tyranny for long (2030). Tyranny is fire, burns the one coming close to it; the law is water, stops the fire, and brings productivity

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(2032). The one who wants to be an administrator for a long time must apply the laws truly, and protect the people. The country is enlarged by law, and the world regains order (2033-2034). The worst thing for a ruler is to be known as a liar (2037). The ruler must be a warrior (2052). Generosity was one of the most important qualities of the ruler. Generosity pleases the people, and makes recruitment easy. Military service creates new treasure (2053). In order to dominate the world, treasure was collected. T o protect the country necessitates having lots of soldiers; to nourish soldiers necessitates having property and wealth. In order to get this property, the people must be wealthy; and for the wealth of the people, true laws must be made (2056-2059). If one of these is missing, everything goes wrong, and the state collapses. Although the ruler assumes responsibility for meeting the needs of the people, he must not have a close relationship with them because close relationships causes the master to lose his credit. Like the contrast b e t w e e n black and white, the master and p e o p l e must be distinguishable from each other (2079-2080). One of the significant reasons why Yusuf Has Hacip puts forwards the ruler's qualities is mentioned in the following: Confusion among the people is stopped by the ruler; if the bey does mischief, who would stop him? The person washes and cleans the things that are not clean in water; if the water is dirty, how and by what can it be cleaned? (2107-2108). If the ruler has formed bad habits and become ill, treatment is impossible. The only remedy is to dethrone the ruler, and replace him. Since this is not done by election, the change of ruler causes civil war. This situation is a disaster for both the ruler and the people. In addition, since people take the ruler as their model, if he does not do his duties and acts maliciously, they also behave similarly (2127-2131). The foundation and strength of the state was dependent upon two things: the law, which is the right of the people, and silver

given to those

rendering service. Under the protection of the law, the people must live happily. And the employees earning money must be very pleased (21322134). If the ruler does not make laws, protect people, and riches are grabbed f r o m the people, then this means the people are sacrificed; the country is destroyed, and of course the beylik is ruined in itself (2136-2137). If the members of the military, the fundamental institution of the state, are not paid

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enough, their desire to make war disappears. Soldiers'avoidance of war brings the state to an end (2138-2143). "As long as the sword moves, the enemy cannot move; if the sword is put into its sheath, this makes the ruler uneasy" (2144). To be the head of the people is an honourable, great, but heavy task. A monarch is always bothered and tormented. His pleasure is very little, but his anxiety is very great; there are very few who praise, but many who swear at the ruler. There are a lot of people who do not like him, and there are few who like him; his endeavours are many, but his comfort is very little. His heart does feel comfortable in any place; and feeling uncomfortable is a great sorrow for the person. The ruler's neck is like a hair, and his head is like a tower; a wise person does not believe him very much (2154-2155). For these reasons, the one who has the qualities of a ruler must reach the highest position (2165).

3- Critiques of Zahit1 At the end of the book, (the lines between 4700-5830) a discussion starts at the feast held for Zahit's (Odgurmu§) taking part in the administration, and this expresses a very important problem of the state. In this section, the position of administrators vis-a-vis religion is questioned. Due to their positions in the state, the ruler and the vizier were unable to carry out their religious duties, therefore they were scared of the fact that they could be found guilty by divine judgement in the next world where they would go after their death. This fear leads to the discussion on state administration and on the importance of the state for individuals. Zahit rejects the summons made to serve the state, for the reason that it would hinder his worship; life in this world is temporary and one should strive for eternity in the other world. He declares that lords, the rich and the poor in this world would be all equal in the state of death, and nothing, neither property, glory, nor fame, could be taken to the next world and only their merits, gained by means of their worship, would be useful in the other world. For this reason, he reports that he would rather pass his life worshipping (4708-4722). He points out that the ruler could act greedily (5356-5387). The ruler had both to keep the treasury full, and to spend. He says that there are big ambitions in administration, and these ambitions lead to bad behaviour.

^Zahit (ascetic) : Someone who leads his entire life worshipping.

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Consequently, he says staying away from administration is useful for the next world (4729). Zahit compares the temporary world and the eternal world. The blessings of this world always cause negative results. By staying away f r o m these, he believes that he will approach divinity (4731-4732). He survives by eating wheat bread and wearing a woollen dress (4766-4767). H e points out that someone of this understanding and living in that way would not understand state administration, and consequently wouldn't be beneficial for the administrator (4852). Zahit's opinions lead the ruler and vizier to think about their own conditions. With regard to death, they agree with Zahit's opinions. (48744931). While speaking with the ruler, Zahit tells him that the previous rulers left the world behind and felt regret in their last breath. He advises him to prepare for death (5133-5143). Furthermore, Zahit regards the administrators' duties, including solving the problems of the people and being obliged to procure an equitable administration, as a kind of worship to God. The ruler, having obligations to solve the problems of the people indicates how difficult his duty is. The fact that if even one person is left hungry, the ruler will be asked about for this by God makes the situation worse. The ruler, being useful for others, could be harmful to himself when religion is considered. The only way out is good behaviour. If he performs his actions in accordance with the principles of good behaviour, there is hope for redemption (5163-5173). The following recommendation that, God gave you the opportunity to be a ruler, and you had the chance to govern the people, but be kind and behave mercifully towards them (51925194). relaxes the ruler. He has to get rid of the feeling that the world belongs to him because the previous people were also the owners of this world, but when they faded away, the world remained for the present people. When the present people die, they will be replaced by the newcomers (5341-5344). When the world and the monarchy are regarded within this framework, as long as the ruler does not give up his right to govern, he has no choice other than to be equitable.

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The ruler being obliged to regulate the social order and solve the problems of the people, did not have the opportunity to solve the problems related to his personality. There was no person or occupation to solve the problems related to his personality (5200-5203). For this reason, the ruler had to live according to the principles of ethics and provide a judicious administration so as not to find himself in an ethically bad situation. To solve the problems that arose among the people and make them disappear, those who were appointed to three important positions had to be skilful, honest and reliable. These three positions were the judge (kadi), the representative of the ruler, and the vizier (5328-5333). Under the control of these people, the wealth and treasure of the country should be used to meet the needs of the people. If not, the ruler could act greedily (5356-5387). The ruler had both to keep the treasury full, and spend the loot he obtained for the people. If he could bring this into balance, he had nothing to be afraid of in terms of religion (56085609). The base of Z a h i t ' s critiques are Buddhist beliefs. This influence, that appeared after Uighur Turks had accepted Buddhism, is noticeable in Zahit's approach to the state. As Buddhist ideas have an opposite structure to Turkish ideas, although they were accepted by Uighur administrators, the people continued to fallow a great number of their traditional beliefs. The war between these two philosophies lasted for centuries. For the Turks, aiming to conquer the world and to put it in order, it was an (ami liar to retreat and spend their whole time worshipping. The idea of the responsibility of the state and the people which was set forth against Zahit's opinions expresses the basic structure of Turkish philosophy (Arsal 1947, 94). Traditional Turkish belief won the war against Buddhism, and strove for world order by means of Islam. The opinions about the state that come out of the recommendations of Zahit are as follows: 1) There is a contradiction between religious values and political values. Someone who wants to have a good life in heaven should stay away from the works of this world.. 2) The state, being founded on real circumstances of this world, is under obligation to protect the social order. Its primary duty is to create world order. 3) While dealing with the affairs of the state, taking religious worries into account is considered positively whereas retreating from the state administration because of personal worries is never accepted. 4) If a statesman acts according to the principles of ethics, from the religious point of view, there is nothing to be afraid of. 5) Zahit's influence as a wise man on the administrators. That administrators and sages should frequently see each other becomes clear in this discussion with Zahit.

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4- The Commander The state, the military, and war are concepts, all of which are related to each other. In Kutadgu Bilig, the qualities of a military commander are examined. A commander had to have all the qualities required for war, and in addition he should perform his actions according to ethical principles. A commander must be nimble, tough, experienced, full- and hardhearted. His duty is very important. H e has to be cautious, watchful, generous, brave, humble, cold-blooded, and share his food with others. He gathers people around himself due to his generosity, and gains friends and partners by distributing his property (2269-2276). He has to be courageous, clever, and at the same time, trustworthy and broad-minded (2282). He must have self-esteem (2290). He should not be afraid of death (2286). If he is conceited, he could be defeated by the enemy. A conceited man neglects to do things; a neglectful man decays or dies too early (2295-2297). H e should be awesome for the evil ones and soft-hearted for the good (2299). For the commander, horses, clothing and weapons are sufficient. He aims to be famous and to acquire a world-wide reputation. He does not expect to gather belongings for his family or to have lots of silver to gain property. His main concern should be relevant to war. H e should distribute the loot gathered in wars to his friends or to people who need them. People who admire his generosity gather around him in war, and they become more effective (2277-2282). The elements a commander has to keep are; food, clothing, horses and weapons. If he shares his belongings with others, the respect and trust felt for him will increase (2317-2323). The commander, being a warrior, should be lion-hearted and while fighting, he should possess the paw of a tiger. He should be stubborn like a pig, strong like a wolf, dangerous like a bear, and hateful like a buffalo. He should be as cunning as a wolf and should bear a grudge against his enemies and take revenge like a stallion. He should be more cautious than a magpie, and always stare into the distance like a raven. H e should have a high patriotism like a lion, and be sleepless at nights like an owl. A person can be a competent warrior if he has these qualities. The commander of an army has to know well the tactics and strategies he would apply for internal and external affairs. This is the key to his success. The army should not be left without a commander because in such cases soldiers fall into conflict, and the discipline gets ruined. It is impossible for an undisciplined army to win a war (2300-2302).

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According to Yusuf Has Hacip, two functions in the state are of importance; viziership and commandership. One of them holds a pen, the other uses a sword. The order of the state is in the hands of these two. If they keep hand in hand, nobody can do any harm to the state. They must be very distinguished; if they rebel against the bey, they lose their heads, if they work with good intentions, the state gets lots of benefits; but if they revolt, the country gets destroyed (2417-2420). A country is conquered by the sword, and it is kept by the pen; if the sword is not supported by the pen, the country can be lost easily (2425-2428).

5- The People In order to understand the idea of the state, we need to take into account the way the people were considered. That the duty of the state was to supply a good living for the people can be inferred from the qualities and duties of the ruler, the perception of justice, and the emphasis on regulations. Together with this, the rights, the duties, the attitudes of the people and also the positive and negative qualities they had are stated in Kutadgu Bilig. At the beginning of the book, the fact that the ruler's and the people's rights were mutual is mentioned: As much as the ruler had rights over the people, the people had rights over the ruler equally (B42; 5948).

The people had three rights from the ruler; these were: keeping the silver clean, just laws, and safe travel (5574-5577). To fulfil these were the ruler's duties. After the ruler had performed these duties, he could ask the people to fulfil their duties to the state (5578). The ruler had three rights over the people: obeying the commands, the right to obtain treasure (tax), being friends with the ruler's friends, and being enemies of the ruler's enemies (5580-5583). All these were the people's duties at the same time. It is also emphasized that the people had some negative qualities. "The language of the people is bad, they gossip about you, human nature is jealous" (194). "If they were full, they would sleep like an ox; the common people would spend their time talking in vain and feeding their bodies" (988). "The common people are animals only eating, getting full and sleeping. What I call animal is in their nature" (989). "The goodness of the people is for themselves whereas the goodness of the bey is for the country "(5224-5226).

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It should not be ignored that there are some true sides to these negative approaches towards the people. But the consequenccs produced out of some realities are severe. The negative qualities of the people are related to the responsibility zones. If they do not perform their daily chores, they will not be able to fill their stomachs and sleep. The responsibility of the people is to first fulfil their responsibilities to themselves. There are some people and institutions in charge that perform routine chores for society. Considering the qualities stated above, it could be said that the ruler is responsible in everything for the people. Besides, considering the weakness of the rulers, we could say that the ones who lived their lives according to their weaknesses are no different from the people. The qualities put forward for the people are also valid for the general qualities of mankind. It could be inferred from the inscriptions that the ones who did not choose wisdom, whether they were rulers or the people, did not act differently. But the ones who chose wisdom would differ from the others. Thus the critique Yusuf Has Hacip makes of the people would be valid for all mankind. In order to overcome these issues, there is no other way but for the ruler to be a wise man. *

The points of view that appear in Kutadgu Bilig show according to which principles the administration would materialize. The fact that politics should be performed according to moral values and the principles of law becomes most important (Arsal 1947, 95). Because the ruler, who was symbolized by the sun, was at the centre of the state and politics, the state, politics, the institutions and the people would be shaped according to the ruler. However, there were some rules that the ruler was supposed to obey. These rules were the law, ethical values, religious principles, customs and traditions as well as the values of the society. The determination of these rules was to direct and shape the ruler. In spite of this, to overcome all the obstacles and to establish a successful administration was believed to depend on the ruler's personal skills and the qualities he might have The leading duty of the administration was to allow the people to be in peace and comfort depending on the foundation of legitimacy. The foundation of legitimacy included the model of the holy state stemming from God. The model of the holy state was based upon the belief that the ruler was sent by God to administer over the people. This belief was a principle for the ruler to treat the people equally. Two things would appear unless he did this: first of all, the people would not stand against unfairness and rebel, or they might

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remove the ruler from his throne. The second thing was the issue of being judged by God after death. Both of them were meant to control the ruler's method of administration. The peacc and comfort of the people was the most important target of the state, because there was an argument supporting the idea that the state was for the people. The suggestion of acts and the existence of the ruler according to ethical values could be seen on every page of Kutadgu Bilig. The aim of ethics is to help people in solving their problems by doing favours for them. The fact that the ruler was equal to the state, and the administrators were shaped in accordance with the principles of ethics, show that the state was for the people. In the customs and traditions of the Turkish state, it can be said that the main reason why the people trusted the state and accepted the ruler's command without questioning them is the determination of the principles of ethics in the relationship between the ruler and the people. The state or the administrator that was not capable of solving the problems of the people or the one that was not capable of making sure that the people lived in peace and comfort would be regarded as unsuccessful. The main reason why the state administration was unsuccessful was because it had receded from the principles of ethics and acted greedily. Administrators who had qualities such as greed, ambition, selfishness, and cruelty did not have much chance to succeed and this is showed by the history of the states. Therefore, the major kind of administration to apply was one that was determined by the principles of ethics, especially by justice, Kutadgu Bilig, moving from the idea of what a justice-based administration should be like, describes the characters of the administrators.

CONCLUSION

Taking into account the conclusions drawn from the texts we have used in order to let the origin of Turkish idea of statehood idea become known, we can sec the main properties of the state. The Legend ofOguz Khan presents the theoretical structure of the state since it explains on what kind of origin the state and order is based. The Orhon Inscriptions make clear the principles of foundation of the state, the conditions the people were in, and the problems seen through the eyes of the president and counsellors of the state. Kutadgu Bilig makes suggestions about the tasks of the state, and about how it should be run, taking the characteristics of the ruler and vizier into consideration. It is possible to present the aim and principles of the state, and the condition of the individual using these three texts mentioned. The aim of the state is to enable the continuance of social existence. The gathering of clans under a single administration results in a society. Thus, becoming a society means becoming a state. The administration of a clan generally fights against other clans, and gathers them together under their administration in order to extend their territory, and to take the other clans threatening them under their control. This is the process of becoming a state, and therefore becoming a society. The process of becoming a society, which also leads to the formation of the state, turns into the aim of the state because, when a society is broken up, the state is also destroyed. Since the state and society are each the reason for the existence of the other, the continuity of social existence, regarded as the aim of the state, also includes the continuity of the state's own existence. In some respects, the aim of the state is to guarantee the existence of society in order to guarantee the existence of itself. Besides the state, the institutions, traditions, and values of the society, make society an integrated formation. Since the members of the society define themselves in accordance with the elements involved in this integration, they assume an attitude in favour of the continuity of society, and make the state responsible for this continuity. Since a society with no state results in big problems, the society wants the state to keep its existence. The other institutions, traditions, and values have a common consciousness since they teach the individuals the necessity of the state.

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The conditions for the existence of a state and society have clearly been explained in the Orhon Inscriptions. That the continuity of social existence is dependent upon the existence of a state has been clarified. The opinion that, "if there is a state, there is a society", has been underlined. The characteristics of the ruler and other prominent administrators have been made clear. An administration with these characteristics guarantees the existence of both society and state. The Turks, because of the connection between the social existence and state, exalt the state. To achieve its goal, the state materializes itself as order. Order is the path to a state's existence. Namely, the state presents itself as order. Order is provided in two ways, one of which is order as form, and the other is order as content. Form is the divine model. The manner of God in controlling the universe, and the relationship between the God and universe lays down the form of the state. In the state formed according to the divine model, the ruler should maintain his relationship with society taking these secret values into account. Just as God has created the universe, the ruler creates the state and society, and controls them. The ruler controls by means of custom (tore) based on a divine origin. Thus, the state is included in the conception of the universe. The content of order consists of institutions, traditions, and values. All these elements not only include order in terms of their structure, but also are the basis of social order. The state provides its own order, taking into account the contributions to the social order of institutions, traditions, and values. Therefore, the order of a state is not alienated from social values, and it is also given the legitimacy of order by society. The order of a state comes into being due to the unity of its form and content, and shows itself as a legitimate and strong formation. The state, accepted as an important element in the conception of the universe, is also determinative in the explanation of the individual existence. Each element included in the conception of the universe has an unchangeable position because of its location in the cosmos. Due to the positions of the state, the society, and the individual in the conception of the universe, and the tight connections between them, the existence of each is dependent upon one another. For the continuity of social existence, each of the elements has to perform its function very well.

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Each element in good order must be faithful to its own principles. Each unit in the hierarchical order such as the individual, the family, the clan, the state, the earth, the heavens, and the cosmos that involves all of these, not only has particular principles, but also relationships with others. While the lower units are dependent on the higher ones, the universe, which is the highest unit, namely God, determines the lower ones. Mutual determinations are seen in the relationships between the lower ones. While the family determines the individual, the individual having formed a new family, comes to be the determiner of the family. Although the state is the union of clans, gathering the clans under a state is one of the functions of the state. These relations indicate the relationship between the heavens and the earth in the imagine of universe. While the heavens dominate the earth, the earth has its own rules, and these rules are determined by the earth itself. In connection with this, the relative freedom of the earth is a matter of importance. All of the determinations are related to God. In a similar way, all the determinations with regard to the society and state are related to the ruler. The ruler, just like the north star, stands steady at the centre of the order of world. The state represents the order of universe, and the ruler represents the order of state (Kiiyel 1991,737). Since the order of state is formalized according to the order of universe, the idea that there must be one state and one ruler, just as God is the only dominator of the world without discussion, can easily be drawn f r o m the interpretations of The Legend of Oguz Khan, and Kutadgu Bilig. When war, the only explicit command of God to the Turks, is put into practice by the ruler, all the units of the state obey him. Just as the commands of God to the people are very few, so the commands of the ruler are very few too. The ruler wants obedience, and expects his citizens to obey his rules, and to reply positively to his invitation to make war. It is possible to imagine a world state f o u n d e d in terms of the principles of order. If the ruler and state are responsible for the whole world, one of the major tasks of the ruler should be extended to providing order throughout the world. War is the only way to do this. T o establish order in the world, there must be a powerful army, and a large population who believe in this purpose. The will to establish a world state necessitates including foreign societies into your structure. Nevertheless, while the Turks were striving to achieve this, they did not express concern about transforming the foreigners according to their canon of values. They expected foreign societies under their administration to pay their taxes and not to rebel. As long as the foreign societies met these two conditions, they had the right to live according to the values that constituted their identity as freely as they liked.

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Another reason for the concept of a world state is to get rid of the external powers threatening the state, make them dependent, and thus extend the boundaries of the country. In some respects, since the wars made for reasons of security extended the state, they made it difficult to control new territories. Any minor weaknesses in the centre made collapse unavoidable. The state extended its boundaries in order to take steps for its security; however it put its security at risk by expanding. Another significant reason for expanding is for economic concerns. The booty and taxes, an important branch of economics, increased due to expansion. On the other hand, these sources of income disappeared in time because of problems connected with expansion. The legitimacy of the administration of order also includes the problem of the administration's performing its functions. When the rules of legitimacy are disobeyed, the idea of disorder presents itself. When the administrators cannot solve the problems of the people, order break down under the uneasiness of the people. In such conditions, the best way to establish order again is to change the ruler. The problem in established order only appears when the ruler is not good enough, and the people are ignorant. The origin of both problems have been examined both in Kutadgu Bilig and in the Orhon Inscriptions, and necessary precautions have been suggested. The principle of order is justice. Due to the principle of justice, the state gains continuity. Even though the order in a state is built on solid foundations in terms of form and content, order runs the risk of breaking down as soon as it does not work within the framework of the principle of justice. Justice is to keep the private or general rights that everyone has, and to let the administration make decisions, and perform actions taking into account rights as the main thing. Justice, since it determines the relationship between the state and the people, is the principle that formalizes the structure of the state which is the dominant part in this relationship. If the state acts outside of the principles of justice, in other words, takes away the rights of the individual or the people, and therefore disobeys the customs (tore), it loses its legitimacy. To rebel against an illegitimate administration is accepted as legitimate. In Kutadgu Bilig, it has been stated that the treatment of foul-tempered rulers is not possible, and the remedy is to remove the ruler. Right is used with connection to the individual, the clan, the society, and the state. The rights of these units mentioned are determined by the customs (tore) and traditions. Violating the rights of one of these units, that means, breaking the customs (tore) or traditions, is reacted against severely

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bccause since the customs (tore) and traditions are accepted as sacred, the rights are seen as sacred as well. The punishment of disrespecting what is sacred is death. As it is believed that this punishment is given quickly by God, what is sacred is to be shown respect. In addition, since the content of order is designated by the customs (tore) and traditions, disobeying the customs (tore) and traditions means challenging the order. The punishment for disobedience to order is the society being sentenced to death by God. The death sentence here shows itself as the breakdown of order in the state, and the enslavement of the people. The sensitive relationships between rights, justice, and state are subject matters to which delicate attention is paid both by the administrators and by the ones being administered. The continuity of social existence is dependent upon the principle of justice. The state protecting the rights, arid the society performing its functions indicate that the principle of justice is in force. For Turks, the principle of justice is a principle beyond and outside the human. This principle presents itself in the parallelism between the order of the universe and the order of the state (Kiiyel 1991, 742). For the administration of the state, the principle of justice is to meet the needs of a society, protect the rights of the people, and be loyal to the principles of the administration. Whether the administration is legitimate, is in accordance with the principles of holiness, and the administration assumes its responsibility for the people or not is evaluated in terms of justice. Because of the belief that there will be no mistake in order seen as the basis, duty is the main concept for the individual's expression of himself. Since the individual sees himself as an unchangeable element of order, he is aware that he should perform his duties perfectly for order to work efficiently. This awareness results in complete loyalty to the state. As the rights of the individual are designated through the imagine of the universe, the customs (tore) and traditions, they cannot be touched by anyone. The individual is so glad about his rights that he does not seem to have a problem in changing, or increasing the number of them. Since the security of life and property is guaranteed by means of his rights, he pays all his attention to his duties. The prior duty is to be a man (er). Manhood (erlik) starts with the boy's giving up his childhood, and participating in the adult group. The way for the boy to prove that he is a man (er) is to give a performance of strength that will win the approval of the others. After this accomplishment, he is given a name according to his skill, and gets the

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quality of being a man (er). Manhood (erlik) starts off two periods. Being married and being a warrior. Marriage is also defined as to "set a hearth" (peak kurmak). A hearth (•ocak) has the meaning of family and posterity, besides being the place where the fire is lit, and the meal is cooked. The hearth (ocak) is at the centre of the domed tent, pitched according to the model of the sky. Right over the hearth, there is a hole in the tent for fumes to escape and for ventilation. The tent pitched after marriage is the specialized form of the cosmos for the family. The person having set his hearth (ocak) takes his place in the order of universe. The second quality of being a man (er) is to have warlike abilities. Due to his warlike quality, the person as one of the soldiers of the state, and by means of the state, also participates in the order of the state in another way. Therefore, he is accepted as part of the order of both the state and the universe. The existence of the individual is expressed within the limits of these orders by himself, and also guaranteed by these orders. The highest stage of expressing himself as an individual is realized in war conditions. Besides being one of the major supports of the existence of the state and society, war is very effective in the formation of the personal character of the individual, and in the determination of his position in society. Being a warrior starts with gaining the qualities of a man (er), and comes to an end with death in battle which is the most exalted way of dying. The person lives by his principles due to the discipline he gains from the military profession. The outbreak of war which allow the individual to gain these qualities is dependent upon the presence of a state. The state is based on the army, and the army is based on the man (er). The person seeing war as one of his major purposes in life, is devoted through this psychology to the ruler who represents the state, and is commander-inchief at the same time. *

The fact that the human exists in an order is one of the principles that the Turkish way of life is based on. The presence of three main orders (the orders of universe, state, and society) are accepted, and the way of living is organized according to these orders. God is responsible for order in the universe, and the ruler is responsible for order in the state. Since the social order determines the processes of the individual's daily life, it is focused on the individual. As the orders of state and society are put into form according to the

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order of the universe, they lay the foundation for the forming of ideas. In addition, sinec order in the state determines the society in the most effective way, and it is generally possible to understand the conception of the universe by means of an understanding of the state, order in the state becomes most important. The Turks attach so much importance to the state that it is possible to give the definition that a human is a being within the state. This is because the state takes an important place in individual and social existence. Just like people participate in the order of universe by means of the state, the security of their lives is also dependent upon the state. Furthermore, the feeling of security, the needs that are met, and the position of the state in the system of belief cause the state to be the most important element of life. The state has a crucial role in the individual's expression of himself. Turkish people enjoy their freedom in the most extensive way within the f r a m e w o r k of the principles of responsibility and respect. T h e main foundations for freedom are provided by the way of life, and the understanding of the state and religion. Neither the state nor religion makes any effort to bring the individual under strict control. The state does not interfere in any body's work as long as he does not rebel, and takes his place in the army during war. Since it is not a class society based on property, the state is not controlled by the rich. Therefore, the state is not a device for taking other classes under strict control in order to protect the interests of the rich. As there are no temples, and there is no class of clergy in the Turkish system of belief, religion does not have the quality of taking control. Since there is no compulsory daily or weekly worship, every individual prays in the place where he is to in his daily life, and thus meets the requirements of his religious belief. T o live according to religion on the basis of its principles, and not having any detailed type of worship lets the individual have much greater freedom when contrasted to with other societies' religions. The economic structure also makes it easy for the individual to behave freely. Since the state has exiled the enemies threatening their freedom, the individual lives a free life. A comfortable life has been the desire of the individual and society in any time and in any place. Peace, which is the spiritual part of comfort, is provided by devotion to God and the state. With regard to the needs which are the material part of comfort, they are met by means of individual skills and state assistance.

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That the established states were short-lived shows the difference between understanding and application. Those states based on such a strong understanding should have existed longer. The states were not long-standing, three reasons for which can be stated as follows: 1. They lived as a dispersed population because of the economic structure, and did not live for a long time in the same geographical place. 2. They existed in clans, and each clan had the idea of establishing a state and administrating it. 3. The influence of external powers. With regard to the period we have examined, the best defence system China developed against its neighbours was to make them fight against each other. This prevented the Turkish states from having a long existence. It is a fact that although the states were not long-lived, Turkish societies never lived without a state. The idea of the state is the most influential element in the definition of Turkish culture. The reason for this appreciation of the state is that war takes a very important place in the life of this society. The reasons for war can be listed as follows: economics, the state's wish to extend its boundaries, independence, the desire to be a world state, the desire of societies for war in the geographical places in which they live, their neighbours being great states, and the influence of religion. In order to win wars, first of all, societies should be organized according to warlike conditions, and be administered well. The quality of manhood (erlik) of the individual, the society's employing themselves mostly in cattle breeding, and confidence in the ruler are the characteristics that make a society always ready for war. In a culture founded on the state, the other institutions are put into form by the state. The influence of culture on identity is designated by the properties of the institutions. In Turkish culture it is the state that has these properties.

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INDEX absence of private property 12 archetypes 61, 62, 65 ascetic 78, 94 assimilation 72 Asia 11, 12, 18, 21 authority 24, 28, 29, 50, 72, 84, 92 Ay Toldi 78, 84, 85, 86, 88 belief 19, 28, 29, 32, 37, 38, 4044, 46-56, 58, 63, 68, 96, 99, 105, 107 Bilge Kagan 28, 42, 49, bliss 46, 52, 77, 78, 84, 85, 89,91 bodun 25, 26, 29 Buddhist 96 China 31, 37, 61, 67, 70, 72, 108 Chinese 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 37, 51, 60, 68, 72, 74 Chinese Civilazation The 19, 77 Chous 37 Civilization of Islamic, the 16, 19, 22 civilizations 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 77 Class / es 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 24, 29, 54, 55, 107 clerics 54, 55 conception of the universe 9, 11, 17-23, 26, 27, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 45, 47, 48, 52-59, 61, 102, 107 consciousness 10, 30, 33, 34, 41, 51, 57, 67, 73, 74, 75, 101 constitution 24, 28, 29, 30, 35, 69,70 continuity 10, 20, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 44, 67, 69, 71, 73, 104, 105 continuity of exictence 22-25, 34, 56, 59, 70, 74, 101, 102 cosmic order 28, 29, 32, 34, 38, 39, 40, 47, 71, 83

cosmos 23, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 68, 70, 83, 102, 106 courage 39, 78, 81, 97 cultural war 20, 22 culture 9, 10, 15, 18, 21, 22, 25, 37, 41, 47, 48, 56, 62, 108 duty 13, 24, 27, 32, 34, 48, 49, 54, 69, 78, 87, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 105 death 9, 20-23, 25, 26, 31, 32, 37, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 59, 73, 86, 94, 95, 97, 100, 105, 106 economy 17, 21, 26, 29, 65 education 9 El (State) 25, 29, 69, 70 Eliade 43, 53 empire 25, 29, 39, 45, 49, 50, 69, 70 eternal 38, 74, 78, 80, 88, 91, 92, 95 eternity 23, 57, 80, 92, 94 ethics 9, 26, 29, 77, 79, 86, 89, 92, 96, 100 Eurasia 25, 56, 65 Europe /an 18, 22, 37, 65, 75 existence 9, 10, 13, 15-24, 25-28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 53, 56, 59, 63, 69, 70, 74, 75, 78, 83, 88, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108 family 9, 13, 21, 26, 45, 47, 52, 54, 55, 58, 68, 97, 103, 106 freedom 12, 13, 55, 59, 103, 107 function

9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 34, 55,

83, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105 geist 58 geography 17, 21, 24, 41 generosity 93, 97 God 29, 31, 32, 37, 38-42, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57, 59, 62, 68, 78, 95, 102 good 80, 89, 90, 97

114

PRE-ISLAMIC

goodness 78, 79, 90, 91 Gôk-Turk / 1er 38, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49, 51, 52, 67, 68, 69, 72, 75 grave 23, 26, 40, 46, 52, 55 gravestone 23, 41, 46, 67, 73, 74 graveyard 55, 57 hearth ( Ocafc) 106 heaven 23, 28, 31, 32, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 50, 65, 103 Hegel 11,58 history 9, 11, 18, 27 honesty 87, 88, 89, 90 human being 9, 23, 24, 27, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 45, 48, 68, 78, 80 humanity J 9, 23, 26, 89 Huns 38, 61, 62

37, 38, 51, 57,

28, 35, 46, 47,

identity 9, 10, 13, 15, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 46, 47, 49, 56, 103, 108 ignorant 72, 79, 81, 104 independence 11, 13, 14, 24, 67, 74, 108 Indian 16, 22, 77 infinite stone(Bengii tag) 41 infinity 41 individual / s 9, 22, 23, 24, 30, 42, 45, 46, 47, 54, 55, 59, 94, 101108 institutions 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 61, 69, 99, 101, 102, 108 Islam 16, 19, 22, 38, 56, 61, 77, 96 Jewish 16 justice 20, 24, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 57, 71, 78, 84, 88, 91, 92, 98, 100, 104, 105 kam (shaman) 56 Karakhanids 77

TURKISH

THOUGHT

Ki§ 43 Kut 32, 34, 39, 46, 49, 68, 69, 83, 84, 85 Kutadgu Bilig 77, 83, 84, 87, 97, 100, 101, 104 KulTigin 6 7 , 7 0 KiinTogdi 78 land-water 44, 63, 69 language 9, 11, 26, 27 LaoTzu 13 law 11, 12, 14, 28, 48, 68, 69, 81, 83, 84, 89, 92, 99 legitimacy 29, 33, 75, 84, 87, 102, 104

77, 98,

70, 99,

Marx 11, 12 metaphysical 54, 56 Mete 62 method 10, 18, 20, 21, 23, modern 12, 19 model of state 62, 99 monarchy 49, 78, 85, 87, 91, 92, 95 mystical 56 myths 41, 43, 44, 61, 62, 63, 65 nationalism nomad 17

75

Odgurmug 78 Oguz Kagan 61-65 order 28, 29, 34, 35, 68, 69, 70, 71, 82, 83, 84, 98, 102, 103, 104 Orhon Inscription 25, 32, 38, 40, 42, 48, 51, 67, 68, 71, 73, 75, 77, 84, 101, 102, 104 origin 10, 11, 33, 37, 43, 44, 101 Otag (Royal Tabtation) 65 Ogdulmii§ 78 oliim 43 Otuken 41, 52, 73

INDEX

115

Persian 16, 19, 22 Platon 16 power 14, 32, 45, 57, 64 principles 11, 13, 15, 24, 26, 29, 34, 39, 55, 79, 82, 85, 86, 89, 92 progress 11, 12, 19 property 12, 21, 24, 86, 91, 93, 94, 97, 105, 107

state ( El ) 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 40, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 56, 61, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 86, 88, 93, 99, 101-108 steppes 22, 24, 32 sun 63, 86, 87, 88 synthesis 70 taboo 51

religion 9, 13, 25, 26, 27, 38, 5356, 59, 83, 94, 95, 96, 107, 108 respect 23, 24, 30, 55, 57, 91, 97, 101, 105, 107 rituals 23, 44, 55, 57 Roux 38, 46, 49, 53, 54, 56 ruler, the 12, 24, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 64, 73, 77, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108

temple / s 54, 55, 107 tent 55, 57, 63, 106 Tengri ( God) 31, 38, 39, 49, 50 time 41 Tonyokuk 31, 49, 50, 51, 67, 69 tradition 10, 21, 22, 23 transformation 26 Turkish language 21, 27 Turkish thought 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 34, 35 tyranny 88, 92

security 9, 14, 28, 33, 47, 53, 59, 84, 85, 88, 90, 104, 105, 107 semi-nomadic 17, 55 shamanism 53, 54, 56 Siberia 43, 53 social consciousness 30 social excistence 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 48, 50, 53, 56, 59, 69, 70, 74, 75, 101, 102, 105, 107 social order 11, 13, 14, 28, 29, 34, 47, 58, 68, 78, 96, 102, 106 soldier 43, 93, 94, 97, 106 soul 23, 40, 45, 46, 47, 55, 57, 58, spirit 44, 45, 46, 77 State of Chou The 37

16, 31, 59, 72, 84-

Uighur 39, 61, 64, 67, 96 underground, 23, 40, 41 unjust 92 war

19, 20, 22, 23, 31, 32, 48, 50, 73, 82, 94, 97, 103, 106, 108 water 17, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 55, 62, 63, 93 Western Civilization 12, 19 wisdom 31, 32, 33, 51, 70, 77, 7882, 85, 90 wolf 43, 62, 64 world, the 16, 38, 40, 41, 50, 62, 63, 64, 65, 81, 83, 95, 103 world state, The 63, 65, 67, 103, 104 Yer-su ruhlari (souls of land-water) 44 Yusuf Has Hacip 77, 78, 80, 82, 93, 98, 99