The Homer Encyclopedia (3 vols) 1405177683, 9781405177689

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The Homer Encyclopedia (3 vols)
 1405177683, 9781405177689

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Volume I


om er Encyclopedia Edited by

Margalit Finkelberg

~WILEY-BLACKWELL A John Wiley &. Sons, Ltd., Publication

This edition first published 2011 © 20 I I Blackwell Publishing Ltd Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell's publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.

Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd,_J:tie Atri!Jm,_Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, POl9 SSQ, Uni1ed Kingdom

Editorial Of)ices 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK The Atrium. Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sus.~ex, P019 !ISQ. UK For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information ahoul how to ap1•ly for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our websile al The right of Margalit Finkelberg to be identified a~ the author of the editorial material in 1his work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 19811. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sysliple Direct Speech see Speecltes Divination see Prophecy Divine Apparatus Divine Audience Dmetor L>odona Dogs Dolios Doi on Doloneia Do lops Dorians Dorion Double Motivation Doulichion Dreams Dress Drugs see Magic Dual Duels Dymas Earth see Gaia Echeneos Echephron Echepolos Echetos Echinades Economy Editions Education, Homer in Education, in Homer Eeriboia see Aloads Eetion Egypt and Homer Eidothea 8th-Century Renaissance Eileithyia

ekdosis Ekphrasis



Elates Electronic Homer El eon Elephenor Elis Elision Elene Elpenor Elysium Emathia Embassy to Achilles Emendation Emotions Eneti Enipeus Enjambment Enno mos En ope Enyalios see Ares Enyo Eos Eosphoros see Hesperos Epeians Epeigeus Epeios Ephialtes see Aloads Ephyra Epidauros Epikaste

Epimerismi Homerici Epipolesis Epirus Epistrophos Epithets

epos Eratosthenes of Cyrene Erebos Erechtheus Eremboi Eretria Ereuthalion Erichthonios Erinyes Eriopis Eriphyle Eris Erymanthos Erythinoi Erythrai Eteocretans Eteokles

Eteoneus Eteonos Ethnicity Etymology Euboea Euchenor Eudoros Euenos Eumaios Eumelos Euneos Eupcithes Euphorbos Europa Euros Eur ya des Euryalos Eurybates Eurydama~

Eurydike Eurykleia Eurylochos Eurymachos Eurymedon Eurymedousa Eurynome Eurynomos Eurypylos Eurystheus Eurytion Eurytos Eustathius Eutresis Evans, Arthur Exchange Exempla see Paradigms

exi'ikeanismos Family Fate Feasting Fish Focalization Folktale Food Foreshadowing Formula Friendship Furies see Erinyes Furniture Gaia Ganymedes

Gargaros Gender Genealogies Genre see Songs Geography, the Iliad Geography, the

Odyssey Geometric Period Geraistos

geras Gerenian Giants Gifts see Exchange Gilgamesh Glaukos Glaukos-Diomedes Episode Glisas Glory Glosses Gods Gold Gorgon Gorgythion Gortyn Gouneus Graces see Charites Graia Guest-Friendship Gygaean Lake Gyraean Rock(s) Gyrtone

Volume II Hades Haimon Hair. Haliartos Halios Halitherses Halizones Handicrafts

hapax legomena Harma Harmonides Harpalion Harpies Heart see Mental Organs


-·-··. ·------·



Hebe Hecatomb Hector Hecuba Hekamede Helen Helenos Helike Helikonian Helios Hellas see Hellenes Hellenes Hellespont Helmet see Weapons and Armor Helos Hepharstos Hera Hera cl ids Heraclitus Homeric

Problems Herakles Heralds Hermes Hermione Hermos Hero Hero-Cult Herodian Heroic Age Hesiod Hesperos Hexameter see Meter Hiatus Hiketaon Hippemolgi Hippodameia Hippolochos Hippothoos Hip potion Hira Histiaia Historians and Homer Historicity of Homer Hittites Hodios Homeric Question Homerica Homeridae Homicide Honor

Hoplite Tactics see Warfare Horai Horses Hospitality Household Houses Hunting. l111pomnl!m11t11 Hyades Hyampolis Hybris Hyde Hyle Hyllos Hymns, Homeric Hypereia Hyperenor Hyperesie Hyperion Hypnos Hypothebes Hypsenor Hypsipyle Hyria Hyrmine Ialmenos lalysos lapetos lard an es las ion lasos Jcarian Sea Jchor Iconography, Early

Ida ldaios ldas Idomeneus Ikarios lkmalios Iliad Ilias parva see Little Iliad Ilion Ilioneus lliupersis see Sack of Ilion Ilos lmbrios Im bros Indo-European Background

Ino Inscriptions Interpolations I ntertextual ity Iolkos Ionian Islands Ionians Ionic Diale.ct Iphianassa Iphidamas Iphiklos Iphimedeia !phis Iphitos Iphthime Iris Iron Irony Iros Ischia see Pithekoussai Ismaros Ithaca Ithakos Ithome I ton Itylos Ivory Ixion Jason Judgment of Paris Justice Kadmeians see Thebes, Boeotian Kadmos Kaineus Kale has Kallikolone Kalydnai Kalydon Kalypso Kameiros Kapaneus Kardamyle Karpathos Karystos Kasos Kassandra Kastor Kaukones Kaystrios Kebriones


Keladon Kephallenes Kephisian Like Kephisos Kerberos Kerinthos Kerkopes see Apocrypha

Keteioi Kikones Kill a Kingship Kinship Kinyras Kirke Kisses Kithara see l'horminx Kleitos Kleonai Kleopatre

kleos Klonios Klymene Klytaimnestra Klytios Klytoneos Knossos Koiranos Kokytos see Underworld Kolos Mache KocTOR in 11.56-60. In the Battle at the Ships, the wall painting in the Cnidian Lesche at Delphi, avenging the death of Archelochos, Akamas kills Polygnotus depicted Ajax as a shipwrecked sailor, PRoMACKos the Boeotian, but retreats before with brine on his skin (Paus. 10.31.2). PENELEOS (14.476-489). Killed by MERIONES in The anger of Athene, mentioned in Odyssey 16.342-344. 4.502, stems from the infamous role played by (2) Thracian, son of Eiissoros (Il. 6.8). The Ajax in the capture of Troy: the Cyclic Sack of leader (with PEIROOS) of the TKRACIANS from Ilion tells of Ajax dragging .KASSANDRA from her across the HELLESPONT (Il. 2.844-845; see also refuge at the wooden statue (xoanon) of Athene TROJAN CATALOGUE). In DIOMEDES' ARISTEIA, and physically violating her (arg. 3 West; cf. ARES, having taken the form of Akamas, encourApoHod. ,Epi!. ?_,22). The subj~ct ()f Ajax's rape of ages the sons of .PRIAM- to rescue .the wounded Kassandra was popular in ancient art (LIMC 1.1, Aeneas (5.461-470). Soon afterwards Akamas 336-351, nos. 16-l!O): painting by Panaenus on was killed by AJAX THE GREATER (6.5-11). the side screen under the throne of Zeus Olympius MARGALIT FINKELBBRG. in his temple at Olympia (Paus. S. l l .6); the chest of Cypselus in the Heraion at Olympia (Paus. 5.19.5) (see also ICONOGRAPHY, EARLY). Ajax's actions were perceived as "not at aU pru- · Akrisios King of ARGOS, son of Abas, brother of dent or just" (oil TL vo~µovec; oullt ll!Ka10L Od. PROITOS ([Hes.] Cat. frs. 129.8; 135.2 M-W), 3.133, tr. R. Lattimore) in the words of Nestor, and grandfather of the hero PERSEUS, A.krisios is in reference to aU the Greeks who sacked Troy but mentioned in Homer as father of DANAB (Akrisioni failed in their nostoi as they were punished by Il. 14.319). According to later sources, such as



Pherecydes (fr. 26 FGrHist =fr. 12. Fowler) and Apollodorus' library {2.4.4). Akrisios asked the oracle at DELPHI whether he would have a son. The oracle responded that Danae would have a son who would kill Akrisios. Akrisios then imprisoned Danae in an underground chamber to prevent her from having children, and after she gave _birth to Perseµs, he encl()~ed them in a chest and set it adrift at sea. Both survived, and later Perseus accidentally killed Akrisios by hitting him with a discus while competing in athletic games. MARY F.RROTT

Aktor ("AKTwp «Leader") (I) EPEIAN, son of Phorbas and Hyrmine, brother of AUGEIAS (Apollod. 2.7.2). father of the twins EURYTOS (2) and KTEATOS. See further AKTORIONE (I). (2) Father of MENOITIOS (IL 11.785; Apollod. l.9.16), grandfather of PATROKLOS. (3) King of the M1NYAN 0RCHOMENOS (I). son of Azeos, father of AsTYOCHE whose sons by ARES, AsKALAPHOS and IALMENOS, lead the Orchomenos contingent in the CATALOGUE OF SHIPS (Il. 2.511-515). ( 4) Father of Echekles, one of the leaders of the MYRMIDONS (Il. 16.189).

(2) "The two grandsons of Aktor." The patronymic is applied to the cousins AM PH IMACHOS ( l) and THAl.PIOS, sons of AKTORIONE (I), who are mentioned among the leaders of the Epeians in the CATALOGUE Of SHIPS (IL 2.620-621 ). MARGALIT FINKl!LBERG

Alastor (iUaoTwp) (1) TROJAN, father of TRos (2) (Il. 20.463): a patronymic only. (2) A LYCIAN whose name appears, side by side with that of CH1tOMIOS (4), in the list of the Lycian warriors killed by OoYSSF.US in the first battle of the lLIA.D (5.677; see CAl'ALOGUES). (3) A PYLIAN, one ofNESToR's men in the Iliad. As with Alastor (2), Alastor's name appears side by side with that of a CHROMIOS (this time Chromios [l) is meant) in the description of the first battle of the Iliad (4.295). He is referred to as "godlike" (dios) at 8.333 = 13.422. See further Kirk 191!5, 360. MARGALIT FINKl!LBERG

Aleian Plain (iU~iov ntt'l1ov) The Aleian plain in Lycia about which BELLEROPHON wandered alone, "eating his heart and avoiding the path of men," after he had become hateful to all the Goos (Ii. 6.200-202). A real plain in Cilicia seems to be meant (see Hdt. 6.95; Strab. 14.5.21): the name was apparently chosen because of the wordplay AMion!alato ("wandered") in I. 20 I (see also ASSONANC!!).

Aktorione (:.\.KToplwve; a DUAL form) ( l) the twins KTEATOS and EuRYTos (2), EPP.IANS, nominally sons of AKTOR (1). actually of PSEIDON (Il. 11.751). The patronymic "Aktorione" emerges twice in NESTOR'S REMINISCl!NCl!S in Books 11 and 23 of the lLIA.D (ll.750, 23.638). On two occasions they are also called "Molione" ( 11.709) Alexander the Great and Homer In the many or "Aktorione Molione" (l l.750). "Molione" has ancient sources on the life and career of Alexander been interpreted since antiquity as deriving either the Great (356-323 eel!), however they may be from the _name _of.the twins' mother or (which . crnb!:IJishec:l by his la_t~r-~iographers, one .consistseems more plausible) from that of their maternal ent theme is Alexander's passionate attachment grandfather; according to the suggestion made by to Homer, from boyhood on. (Evaluation of the C. J. Ruijgh, "Molione" should be taken as a nick- historical accuracy of the sources about Alexander name of the pair (for the discussion see Willcock is beyond the limits of this entry.) A copy of the 1978, 310; Hainsworth 1993, 304). However that lLIA.D, reputedly edited by ARISTOTLE, accompamay be, employing two names in such a manner is nied Alexander in his campaigns as a vademecum highly irregular, so that it may be suggested that of military strategy. He kept it under his pillow, the second name was introduced in order to dis- together with his dagger, later to be deposited in tinguish the twins from their sons AKTORIONE (2). the famous gem-encrusted chest taken from the The Aktorione were imagined in later tradition as Persian king, Darius (Plut. Alex. 8.2, 26.1; cf. Siamese twins (see further KTBATos). Moralia 327F-328A; Strab.13.1.27), so that "the


most precious work of the hu111an mind might be placed in the keeping of the richest work of art" (Pliny HN 7.29.108). On one occasion, when responding to the arrival of unexpected good news, he queried the jubilant messenger, "What can you possibly tell 111e that deserves such excitement except perhaps that Homer has come back to life?" (Plut. De pro(. virt. 85C. l-5). Barring such a miracle, the next best was the claim of a nocturnal vision of the bard, whose allusion to some lines from the 0IJl'SSEY ( 4.354-355) prompted Alexander's choice of site for the future city of Alexandria, his namesake. "Homer:' he declared, "was not only admirable in other ways, but also a very wise an:hitect" ( Plut. Alex. 26.3-5). Although the organization of Macedonian society fostered Ho111eric VAl.UF.S and heroic aspirations in its politkal and cultural life, particularly in respect of its hereditary KINGSHIP and valorization of military ARETE, Alexander went much further in his philhomeric ways (cf. Strab. 13.1.27) to deliberately fashion an image of himself that sustained his own grandiose ambitions and sealed his claims to a genuine Hellenic pedigree. His obsession with Homer manifested itself especially in his innovative taste for reenactment of Iliadic scenes (e.g., his expedition to Asia against the Persians in 334 sci; as a second TROJAN WAR) and for role-pla)'ing, particularly in regard to ACHILLES, whom he seems to have consciously chosen as his heroic PARADIGM and from whom he claimed descent on his mother's side (see NEOPTOLEMOS). One of his tutors, Lysimachus, "was esteemed, not for his refinement, but because he called himself PH01N1x, Alexander Achilles, and Philip PE1.Et1s" (Plut. Alex. 5.5). On numerous occasions, in fact, Alexander virtually impersonated Achilles in gesture and costume and manipulated his official portraits to conform to a likeness of his favorite HE1t0, whose expl()its, excellence, and fame (KLEos) he yearned to rivaland surpass (Arr. Anab. 1.12.1; Died. 17.17.3; Plut. Alex 15.7). (His other favorite models, HERAKLES and P1msws, were also reputed ancestors; later, he added the god D10NYsos to his repertory.) Crossing the HELLESPONT on his way to the conquest of Asia (334 ecE). he stopped at the TROAD where, among other symbolic gestures, he honored Achilles' tomb, and "ran a race by it with his companions, naked, as is the custom, and then crowned it with garlands, pronouncing the hero


happy in having, while he lived, a faithful friend, and after death, a great herald of his fame" (Plut. Alex. 15.4.5). At the same time, he did penance at an altar of ZEus for the death of PRIAM on the grounds of his descendance from Neoptolemos, Achilles' son, who murdered the aged king. Consecrating his own armor in Athene's temple, he took in exchang~ !he ~_ciei.t_! Wea.£