The history of telos and teleō in Ancient Greek

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The history of telos and teleō in Ancient Greek

Table of contents :
Title page
Copyright page
Dedication page
Table of contents
VOORWOORD
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I. SCHOLARSHIP ON MEANINGS AND ETYMOLOGY OF τέλος AND Γελέω/τελείω
CHAPTER II. A TENTATIVE SEMANTIC FRAMEWORK
CHAPTER III. Τέλος AND τελέω IN HOMER AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS
CHAPTER IV. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN HESIOD
CHAPTER V. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN LYRIC POETRY (I)
CHAPTER VI. Τελέω, έκτελέω ÄND τέλος IN LYRIC POETRY; II (PINDAR AND BACCHYLIDES)
CHAPTER VII. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN TRAGEDY
CHAPTER VIII. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN OLD COMEDY
CHAPTER IX. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN HERODOTUS AND THUCYDIDES
CHAPTER X. Τελέω, έκτελέω AND τέλος IN XENOPHON, PLATO, AND THE ORATORS A selection
CHAPTER XI. COMPOUNDS AND DERIVATIVES. I; BASE τελέω
CHAPTER XII. COMPOUNDS AND DERIVATIVES II; BASE τέλος
CHAPTER XIII. GENERAL CONCLUSION
APPENDIX. Τελευτή AND τελευτάω
NOTES
Introduction
Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V
Chapter VI
Chapter VII
Chapter VIII
Chapter IX
Chapter X
Chapter XI
Chapter XII
Chapter XIII
Appendix
BIBLIOGRAPHY
I. Editions, commentaries, scholia
(a) Authors, works
(b) Inscriptions
(c) Papyri
II. Books, articles
INDICES
Index locorum
Index verborum

Citation preview

THE HISTOR Y O F T E A 0 2 AN D TEAEÍ2 IN ANCIEN T GREE K

by F.M.J.WAANDERS

B. R. GRÜNER PUBLISHING CO., AMSTERDAM 1983

No par t of thi s book ma y b e translated or reproduced i n any form b y print , photoprint, microfilm , o r any othe r means, without writte n permission fro m the publisher. © 1983 , by F.M.J . Waanders ISBN 9 0 6032 24 7 9 Printed in The Netherland s

To my son Neil To my daughters Manika and Shahbanou

PI. Crat. 399 a

- v CONTENTS VOORWOORD x

i

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS x v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I. Scholarship on meanings and etvmoloqy of 3 and . - §1: the issue; §§2-3: meanings attributed b y the ancients; §4: ancient etymologies; §5: modern lexica; §6: etymological dictionaries; § § 7 — 11: modern studies; §§12-14: statement of main thesis, and some special points. CHAPTER II . A tentative semantic framework . - §15: the 2 1 corpus; §16: meaning and intention; §17: appropriateness; §18: Leech (seve n types of meaning); §19 : Lyons (reference, denotation, sense); §20 : language and extralinguistic reality ; §21: word-semantics; componential analysis; basic meaning, derived meaning, original meaning; §§22-23: historical semantics. CHAPTER III . an d i n Homer and the Homeric 3 Hymns. - A. .§§24-34 : i n Homer; §§35-37: i n Homer; §38: an d i n the Homeric Hymns; - B. . §39: - ; §40: ; §41: §42: ; §43: ; §44: §45: - - tive; §48: (tripods)

1

; §§46-47 : wit h adjec; §49 : §50:

(h. Merc. ) . CHAPTER IV. an d i n Hesiod. - A. 6 and . §§51-53: ; §54: ; - B. : §55. CHAPTER V. an d i n Lyric Poetry: I. 6 - A. an d . §56: Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesichorus; §57 : Mimnermus, Solon; §58: Theognis; §59: Simoni-

1

7

-vides, Diagoras; - B.

. §60: Alemán, Archilochus ,

Alcaeus, Semonides, Stesichorus, Ibycus ; §61: Mimnermus, Solon; §62 : Theognis; §63: Simonides, Adesp. 946 Page. CHAPTER VI. an d i n Lyric Poetry : 7 II. - A. §§64-66 : i n Pindar; §67: i n Pindar; §68 : Bacchylides; - B. §§69-72: Pindar; §73 : Bacchylides. CHAPTER VII. an d i n Tragedy. - A. 8 and §§74-79 : Aeschylus; §§80-82 : Sophocles; §§83-86 : Euripides; - B. §§87-92 : Aeschylus; §§93-97 : Sophocles; §§98-100 : Euripides. CHAPTER VIII. an d i n Old Comedy. - 10 A. an d " §§101-102 : Aristophanes; §103 : further poet s of Old Comedy; - B. §10 4 (Aristo phanes) . CHAPTER IX . an d i n Herodotus an d 11 Thucydides. - A. an d §§105-106 : Herodotus; §107 : Thucydides. - B. §§108-112 : Herodotus; §§113-116 : Thucydides. CHAPTER X. an d i n Xenophon, Plato, 12 and th e Orators (selection) . - A. an d §§117-119: Xenophon; §§120-122 : Plato; §§123-124 : Orators; - B. §§125-127 : Xenophon; §§128-139 : Plato; §140 : Antiphon, Lysias ; §141 : Andocides; §142 : Isocrates; §143 : Aeschines, Demades; §§144-145 : Demosthenes; §146 : Isaeus, Hyperides, Lycurgus, Dinarchus. CHAPTER XI. Compounds an d derivatives. I : Base , - 14 A. Compounds i n §147 : Survey o f forms; §148: ; §149 : §150: ; §151: - B. Compounds with : §152; C. §§153-155 ; - D. §156 ; E. §157 : §158 :

6

5

7

1

1

8

- vii -

CHAPTER XII. Compounds and derivatives. II: Base 17 - A. Compounds in §166 : Survey of forms; §§167168: ; §§169-171: prep. ; §172: noun + ; §§173-175: adj. + ; §176: verb + , adverb + ; §177: some additional forms; - B. Derivatives in , §178: noun + ; §179: adj. + n , verb + C. Derivatives i n (f.). §180 : Survey of forms; §181: , §182: §183 :

- D. (substantivize ter of adj. : §§185-186; - E. , etc. §§187-190 : §§191-192 : ~*"? § 1 9 3 :- F .

0

d neu-

with derivv.: §194 ; - G. §§195-197; - H. wit h derivv. §198 : the forms; §§199-211 : (comprising , intev alia: th e §206; the §207 ; adverbial forms: §210; conclusion: §211) ; §212 : -xé§213: §214 : §§215-217 : §218: §219 : ; - J. §220 ; - K. §221 . CHAPTER XIII. General conclusion. - A. §§222-226 : 22 5 constructions and meanings of §227 : semantic development of §228 : wit h preverbs; §229:

- viii old derivative s §230: etymology o f -

B . §§231-233

structions an d meanings o f §234

: con-

:

§235: §236

: §237: semanti c develop -

ment o f -

concluding remar k (investiganda) .

APPENDIX. an

d -

A. §1*

: Ho- 24

1

m e r ; §2*; Hesiod; §3* : Theognis, Pindar; §4* : Drama (selection); §5* : Historical pros e (selection) ; §6*: Plato (selection) ; §7*: Orators (selection) ; §8*: Later pros e (selection) ; §9*: Conclusion; - B . §10*: Home r (data) ; §11* : Position o f i

n th e

Homeric hexameter ; §12* : Pindar, Drama (selection) ; §13*: Historica l pros e (selection) ; §14*: Plato (se lection); §15* : Conclusion. NOTES 26

0

BIBLIOGRAPHY. I . Editions , commentaries, scholia . 30

3

(a) Authors, works 30

5

(b) Inscription s 31

3

(c) Papyri 31 II. Books , articles 31

4 6

INDICES Index locoru m 32 Index verboru m 34 SAMENVATTING

1 5 351

- xi -

VOORWOORD Het voorwoord van een dissertatie is , der traditie getrouw, een dankwoord. Van ganser harte houd ik hier deze traditie in ere. Hooggeleerde Kamerbeek, U heeft voor mij het begrip filologie leven en aantrekkingskracht ingeblazen ; wat er ook aan de orde was op college, Uw onderricht was er steeds een bevestiging van dat ik de goede studie had gekozen. Hooggeleerde Ruijgh, U weet als geen ander dat ik, beslist ook dank zij Uw inspirerende presentatie van de Griekse taalkunde, mijn hart verpand heb aan de Historische Grammatica en de Mycenologie. Uw grote, stimulerende inzet heeft mij de weg getoond waarop ik tot op heden met veel enthousiasme heb gereisd. Uw persoonlijke inze t heeft mij ook een jaar studie in Cambridge mogelijk gemaakt. This is also an excellent opportunity t o express my gratitude towards Dr John Chadwick; those were good and instructiv e days in Room 16. Further, I should lik e to thank Prof. W.S. Allen, and Betty and Peter Black. The hospitality I met with in Cambridge I shall not lightly forget. Hooggeleerde Leeman, Uw specifieke benadering van de Latijnse literatuur, nu eens gericht op de opbouw van een prooemium, dan weer op antieke literaire kritiek, heeft mij aspecten getoond van het literaire bedrijf waar i k voordien niet van wist; zonder dat zou mijn opleiding ee n waardevolle component minder hebben omvat. Hooggeleerde Bremer, pas laat bent U in mijn studie-leve n gestapt, eerst als mijn mentor, later als collega, en de laatste paar jare n als mee-lezer bij het schrijven van mijn dissertatie. Uw bijdrage i s van onschatbare waarde geweest. Hooggeleerde Pinkster, U wil ik hier met name dank zeggen voor Uw zeer terechte kritiek op een eerdere versie van dit proefschrift - ik hoop dat ik mij in staat getoond heb Uw opmerkingen zö te verwerken dat een beter geschrift het re-

- xii sultaat is. Hooggeleerde Te Riele, Uw colleges Epigrafiek heb ik, zoals U zelf zeer goed weet, een aantal cursussen met veel enthousiasme gevolgd; graag za l ik, als de tijd het toelaat, weer eens samen met U estampages bekijken om me weer epigrafisch ontdekkingsreiziger t e kunnen voelen. Pia, jij hebt de niet eenvoudige taak op je genomen het typewerk te verrichten; een goed getypt proefschrift oogt zoveel beter! Ik wil deze gelegenheid niet onbenut laten om terugblikkend mijn leraren op het gymnasium, dat ik gelukkig nog vóór het Mammoet-geweld he b mogen doorlopen, te bedanken, en nog verder terug de Heer Tanke. Tot slot, maar niet in de laatste plaats, dank i k hier mijn ouders, en speciaal ook mijn gezin: mijn kinderen, die veel vaderlijke aandacht hebben moeten missen, en mijn vrouw, die het zwaar te verduren heeft gehad door mijn veelvuldig e aanvallen van onredelijkheid e n irritatie. Amsterdam, zomer 1983

- xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS For epigraphic an d papyrological abbreviations , see Bibliography l b , c. A. ! = Argonautica AB = Anécdota Bekker Ach. = A c h a r n e n s e s Act. Ay. = Acta Apostolorum Adesp. = adespoton (-a ) Ael. = Aelian Ael. Dion. = Aelius Dionysius Aeol. = Aeolic Aesch. = Aeschylus Aeschin. = Aeschines Ag. = Agamemnon Ages.= Agesilaus AJ = Ant. Jud. (q.v. ) Aj. = Ajax AJA = American Journal of Archaeology a.I. = ad locum Al. = "AAA.OL (i n Origenes' Hexapla) Al. = Alexipharmaca Ale.= Alcestis Ale. I , II = Alcibiades I , II Alcin. = Alcinous Alciphr. = Alciphron Aid. = Aldus (Aldina ) Alex. Aphr. = Alexander of Aphrodisias An. = Anabasis An. Bachm. = Anécdota Bachmann And. = Andocides Andr. = Andromache Anon. = Anonymus Ant.= Antigone Ant. Jud. = Antiquitates Judaicae AP = Anthologia Palatina Ap. = Apologia Ap. Dysc. = Apollonius Dyscolus App. = Appian Ap. Soph. = Apollonius Sophista A Pr. - Analytica priora A.R. = Apollonius Rhodius Ar. = Aristophanes Archil. = Archilochus Aret. = Aretaeus Arist. = Aristotle Aristid. = Aristides Arist. Quint. = Aristides Quintilianus Artem. = Artemidorus

- xvi Ascl. = Asclepiodotus Ath. = Athenaeus Av.= Aves Ax, = Axiochus Ba. = Bacchae Bacchyl. = Bacchylides BC = Bella Civilia BCH = Bulletin de Correspondence Bel. = Belopoeica Brut. = Brutus

Hellénique

CAF = Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta Call. = Callimachus Cant. = Canticum CGFP = Comicorum Graecorum Fragmenta in Papyris Reperta Cho. = Choephori Chrysipp. = Chrysippus CIAG = Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca, 23 vols, Berlin 1882 sqq. CMG = Corpus Medicorum Graecorum , Leipzig 1908Cod. Just. = Codex Justinianus Comp. Verb. = De Compositione Verborum CP - De Causis Plantarum CQ = Classical Quarterly CR = Classical Review Crat. = Cratylus Cratin. = Cratinus Criti. = Critias Cyr. = Cyropaedia D. = Dionysiaca De. = Deuteronomium Def. = Def'initio (nes ) Dem. = Demosthenes Demetr. = Demetrius D.H. = Dionysius of Halicarnassu s Din. = Dinarchus Dom. = De Domo Dosith. = Dositheus D.S. = Diodorus Siculus Dsc. = Dioscorides El. = Electra eleg. = elegiac (-urn , -a) Eloc. = De Elocutione EU = Et. Magn. (q.v. ) EN = Ethica Nicomachea Epich. = Epicharmus Epicr. = Epicrates Epin. = Epinomis Ep(ist). = Epistula(e) Eq. = Equités Eq. Mag. = De Equitum Magistro Esdr. = Esdras (LXX )

- xvii

-

Et. Gud. = Etyitiologicu m Gudianu m E t . Magn . = Etyitiologicu m Magnu m Eue. = Euclid. Eum. = Eumenides Eup. = Eupolis Eup. - Euporista Euphron. = Euphronius Eur. = Euripides Eust. = Eustathius Euthd. = Euthydemus Ev . = Ev ange Hum Ex, = Exodus FUG = Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum f.l. = falsa lectio fr(r). = fragmentum (-a) GA = De Generatione Animalium Gal. = Galen GCS = Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der drei Jahrhunderte, Leipzi g 189 7 sqq. Gen. = Genesis Gk. = Greek Gloss. = Glossaria (Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum) Gorg. = Gorgias Grg. = Gorgias H. = Hymni (Orph. ) HA = Historia Animalium h. Ap. = Hymnus in Apollinem (Callimachus ) h. Apoll. = Hymnus in Apollinem (Homeri c hymn ) h. Bacch. = Hymnus in Bacchum h. Cer. = Hymnus in Cererem h. Del. = Hymnus in Delum Hdt. = Herodotus Hec. = Hecuba Hel. = Helena Hell. = Hellenica Her. - Heroicus Heraclid. = Heraclidae Herm. = Hermias Hes. = Hesiod h. Horn. - Hymni Homerici Hier. - Hiero Hipp. = Hippolytus Hippocr. = Hippocrates h. Merc. = Hymnus in Mercurium Horn. = Homer h. Pan = Hymnus in Panem Hsch. = Hesychius h. Ven. = Hymnus in Venerem h. Vulc. = Hymnus -in Vulcanum Hyp. = Hyperides Hyps.= Hypsipyle

ersten

- xviii IA = Iphigenia Aulidensis Iambl. = Iamblichus IE = Indo-European Inst. = Institutio Theologica Intr. = Introduotio in Platonem Ir. -De Iva Isae. = Isaeus Isoc. = Isocrates Isth. = Isthmia IT = Iphigenia Táurica Je. = Jeremias Jos. = Josephus J. Tr . = Juppiter Tragoedus Jud. = Judices K.-G. = Kühner-Gerth Lac. = De República Lacedaemoniorum Lach. = Laches Lat. = Latin Leg. = Leges KI) . = line (s) L-P = Lobel-Page LSJ = Liddell-Scott-Jones Luc. = Lucian LXX = Septuaginta (Vetus Test amentum) Lyc. = Lycurgus Lyc. = Vita Lycurgi Lyd. = Lydus Lyr. Alex. Adesp. - Lyrica Alexandrina Adespota Lys. = Lysias Lys. = Lysistrata Mag. = De Magistratibus Mar. = Vita Marii Max. Tyr. = Maximus Tyrius Med. = Medea Melanipp. Capt. = Melanippe Captiva Mem. = Memorabilia Men. = Menander Menex. = Menexenus Mere. Cond. - De Mercede Conductis Metaph. = Metaphysica Mete. = Meteorológica Mimn. = Mimnermus Mosch. = Moschus MS(S) = manuscript(s) Musae. = Musaeus M-W = Merkelbach-West Myc. = Mycenaean n. = note N 2 = Nauck2 NA = De Natura Animalium

- xix Neo. = Necyomantia Nem. - Nemea NFE = Nova Fragmenta Euripidea Nic. = Nicander Nob. = Pro Nobilitate Nonn. = Nonnus NT = Novum Testamentum Nub. = Nubes OC = Oedipus Coloneus OCT = Oxford Classical Texts Oeo. - Oeconomicus 01. = Olympia Olymp. = Olympiodorus Op. = Opera et Dies Opp. = Oppianus Or. = Orestes (Eur. ) Or. = Oratio(nes) Orph. = Orphica OT = Oedipus Tyrannus P = papyrus PA = De Partibus Animalium Pae. = Paeanes par. Jo. = Paraphrasis Evangelii Johannis Parm. = Parmenides Parth. = Parthenia Paul. Al. = Paulus Alexandrinus Paus. = Pausanias Paus. Gr. = Pausanias Grammaticus PdP = La Parola del Passato Pers. = Persae P.-H. = Preisendanz-Henrichs Ph. = Philo Ph. = Phoenissae (Euripides ) Ph. = Physica (Aristotle ) Phdr.= Phaedrus Phgn. - Physiognomonica Phil. = Philebus (Plato ) Phil. Philoctetes (Sophocles ) Phil. Hist. = De Historia Philosophica Philostr. = Philostratus Phld. = Philodemus Phot. = Photius Phryn. = Phrynichus (grammarian ) Pi. = Pindar PI. = Plato Plaut. Trin.= Plautus Trinummus Plb. = Polybius PI. Com. = Plato Comicus Plu. = Plutarch PMG =Poetae Melici Graeci Pol. Politicus Poll. = Pollux

- xx Pomp. = Epistula ad Pompeium Pr. = Prometheus (Aeschylus ) Pr.

- Problemata

(Alex. Aphr .)

praef. = praefatio Proel. = Proclus Prom. = Prometheus prooem. = prooemium Prorrh. Prorrheticus Prot. = Protagoras Ps.- = PseudoPsell. = Psellus Ptol. = Ptolemy Pyth. Pythia Q.S. = Quintus Smyrnaeus Ran. = Ranae REG = Revue des études grecs I-IV Reg. = I-IV Regum (LXX ) Rep. = Respublica Rh. = Volumina Rhetorica Rhes. = Rhesus Rh(et). = Rhetorica Rh. Pr. - Rhetorum Praeceptor Rom. - Romulus S (. . . ad ...) = Scholion (scholia) Sam. = Samuel Sammelb. - Sammelbuch Sap. = Sapientia Sat. - Saturnalia Sc. = Scutum Herculis schol. = scholion (-a) Schw. = Schwyzer SD = De causis et signis diuturnorum morborum Sept.= Septem contra Thebas Septim. = De Septimestri Partu Sext. Emp. = Sextus Empiricus Sim. = Simonides Simp. = Simplicius Skt. = Sanskrit S-M = Snell-Maehler SMEA =Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici Sol. - Vita Solonis Soph. = Sophocles Soph. - Sophista Sor. = Soranus Stob. = Stobaeus Stoic. = Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta {SVF) Supp. = Supplices SVF = Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta s.v(v). = sub voce (vocibus) Symp. = Symposium Synt.= De Syntaxi

- xxi Tact. = Táctica Tetr. = Tetrabiblos Th. = Theogonia (Hesiod ) Th. = Thesmophoriazusae (Aristophanes ) Them. = Themistius Theocr. = Theocritus Theogn. = Theognis Theol. Ar. - Theologumena Arithmetica Theo Sm. = Theo Smyrnaeus Thorn. Mag. = Thomas Magister Thphr. = Theophrastus Tht. = Theaetetus Thuc. = Thucydides Tim. = Timaeus (Pi. ) Tim. Timon (Luc. ) Timoth. = Timotheus TLG = Thesaurus Linguae Graecae Top. = Tópica Tr. - Trachiniae TrGF = Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta (Snel l e.a.) Troad. = Troades Tyrt. = Tyrtaeus UP = De Usu Partium Us.-Rad. = Usener-Radermacher Vect. = De Vectigalibus Vesp. = Vespae Vett. Val. = V e t t i u s Valen s VH = Varia Historia Vit. = De Vitiis v.l(l). = varia lectio (-ae .. -es) V Pyth. - De Vita Pythagorica vs.= versus Xen. = Xenophon Zos. Alch. = Zosimus Alchemista ZPE = Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik

INTRODUCTION The aim of the present study is to determin e the different meanings1 o f T¿XOQ and an d of their compounds and derivatives, to trace the semantic interrelations , synchronically and diachronically, and thus, hopefully, to discover th e most likely etymology (or : etymologies, if in historical etc . two or more originally distinct roots should have merged). I have examined th e occurrence of simple an d i n detail, whereas the compounds and derivatives will for the greater part be treated les s extensively, especially when they do little more than confirm what we already expect after the examination of the simple words. The period from which the data have been collected run s roughly from Homer down to the end of the 5th century B.C., but in the chapters on compounds and derivatives I have often been led to take later sources into consideration a s well, since many a compound or derivative lack s early attestation. There has also been occasion to adduce Mycenaean evidence, in spite of uncertainties due to Mycenaean spellin g convention s and the terseness of expression, combined with a limited range of contents. As will be seen, the outcome of my investigation i s the view that all occurrences of an d ca n be explained i n a plausible way, directly or indirectly, from the basic meaning 'performance, realization' for the noun, and 't o carry out, perform, achieve, realize' for the verb; further that these basic meanings can most easily and satisfactorily b e accounted for by deriving an d fro m the Indo-European root *tel- 't o lift, bear, carry' (mor e precisely an extended rootform *'tel-d\-, cp . infra §13) . Hardly any attention will be given to the words an d TeÀeuTT4! (semantically related t o i n the sense 'ful l per- 1 -

Introduction formance, completion'); an Appendix i s devoted t o the latter, as it is possible that this word i s etymologically related to

A survey of scholarship on r etc. will be given in Ch. I; in Ch. II, I shall adumbrate a semantic framework . Ch. III-X will be devoted t o a discussion of • (which occurs from Homer onwards), and i n the corpus ( ; Homer, Hesiod, Early Lyric Poetry, Tragedy, Old Comedy, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Orators), Ch. XI and XII to compounds and derivatives of an XIII I shall present my conclusions.

- 2 -

d I

n Ch.

CHAPTER I SCHOLARSHIP O N MEANING S AN D ETYMOLOG Y O F τ έ λ ο ς AND

τελέω/τελείω

§1 I n t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r , I s h a l l revie w thos e opinion s o n τέλος and τ ε λ έ ω , b o t h a n c i e n t an d modern , whic h e n j o y e d an d e n j o y t h e b r o a d e s t a c c e p t a n c e . A s i n a n c i e n t t i m e s etymolog y wa s n o t y e t b a s e d o n s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h e t e s t i m o n i e s fro m a n t i q u i t y are r e l e v a n t mainl y fo r t h e l e x i c o l o g i c a l informatio n the y g i v e : which meaning s d i d t h e a n c i e n t s a t t r i b u t e t o t h e word s u n d e r c o n sideration? As f o r moder n s c h o l a r s h i p o n t h e s u b j e c t , o p i n i o n s a r e d i v i d e d b e t w e e n a s i n g l e d e r i v a t i o n o f τ έ λ ο ς e t c . , o r a t w o f o l d (o r eve n t r i p l e ) o r i g i n w i t h a p h o n o l o g i c a l m e r g e r , fro m e i t h e r -*k el' t o t u r n 1 , o r *tel- *t o l i f t , b e a r 1 , o r b o t h (sometime s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a n o t h e r r o o t *k el-: ' g r o u p 1 ) ; t h e man y d i f f e r e n t u s e s o f τ έ λ ο ς e t c . a r e someho w o r o t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r b y p o s i t i n g o n e , o r t w o , o r t h r e e o r i g i n a l meaning s ( f o r t h e t e r m , s e e §21), dependin g o n th e etymologie s advocated . A numbe r o f q u e s t i o n s a r i s e i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n : ho w muc h w e i g h t s h o u l d b e l a i d o n t h e Mycenaea n forms te-re-ta, te-re-ja, te-re-ja-e , w i t h t, n o t q {k -) ; wha t a r e w e t o mak e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n th e Aeoli c d i a l e c t s onl y τ-forms are a t t e s t e d , bu t n o τι-forms, f o r τ έ λ ο ς , τελέω , e t c . , wherea s w e d o f i n d Aeol . π έ λ ο μαι v s . Wes t Gree k τ έ λ ο μ α ι ? I f Mycenaea n te-re-ta i s t o b e in t e r p r e t e d a s τ ε λ έ σ τ α ς (as i s commonl y done ) o r τ ε λ έ τ ά ς , and i f A e o l i c τ έ λ ο ς , τ ε λ έ ω ( τ έ λ η μ ι ) , α τ έ λ ε ι α and s o o n a r e n o t l o a n s from o t h e r d i a l e c t s , t h e o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n w i l l b e t h a t t h e r e a r e n o f o r m a l i n d i c a t i o n s f o r a n o r i g i n a l *k elos e t c . W e s h o u l d n o t , however , a priori e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e Myce n a e a n form s m e n t i o n e d abov e h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h τ έ λ ο ς / τ ε λ έ ω , o r t h a t t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o on e τ έ λ ο ς / τ ε λ έ ω o n l y ( i f a m u l t i p l e -3 -

Ch. I , § 1 origin i s assumed) ; tha t i

n Lesbia n poetr y ar e

epicisms, a s fa r a s th e i (or i

s concerned , an d tha t words suc h a s

n Aeolic inscription s (Aeoli c i n it s w i-

der sense ) hav e bee n borrowe d from , e.g. , Atti c Thi

s ac -

cumulation o f supposition s i s not , however, ver y convincing . I shall retur n t o thi s matter i n §14 . §2 Since

, a s a rule , i

s treate d a s th e pivota l ter m o f th e

whole lexica l grou p (

wit

h compound s an d deriva -

tives) , by th e ancient s a s well a s b y moder n scholars , i t i s o n remarks o n tha

t I shal l concentrat e first . Traditionally ,

is accorde d si x differen t meaning s i n ancien t source s ; this numbe r o f si x meanings seem s t o hav e bee n well-establishe d in ancien t lexicography , an d ma y g o a s fa r bac k a s th e earlies t scholiastic activitie s o n th e tex t o f Homer . Th e scholi a a d K 5 6 tel l u s tha t xèXoç

could mean : (1 ) (2

)

Suda

Later on , th e Gree k etymologica and, ou t o f context , th e (282) stat e o f tha are give n i n th e Et.

t i t thes Gud. a s follows : (1 ) (2

e si x meaning s )

(3) (4) (5

) (6

The Et. Magn,,

though statin g tha t ha

s si x meanings ,

gives th e followin g seven : (1 ) (2 (3) (a

)

) >

s i n i 5: ..., se e §47 ) , (4 ) "

"

(5

)

(6) (7

) *

In thi s entry , a s ca n be seen , the meaning o has bee n dropped , an d an reason fo r addin g ma - 4 -

d hav

r

e bee n added . Th e

y firs t o f al l hav e bee n misconcep -

Ch. I, §2 tions concerning xa TipoxéAeia, which did in fact denote the rites performed before any importan t moment, and not only those before a wedding1. The expression ( u 74, see §42 ) , if taken as a periphrasis fo r yciuoe (wit h explicative genitive 'th e whic h is ) , may have been a second factor. The Suda in 282 merely statin g that ha d six meanings, does offer them in the preceding entry (281 ) : (1) (2

)

... This is exactly the same text as is found in Photius' Lexicon. Possibly, instead of the MS reading shoul d be read (thu s in An. Bachm. I 383.25), but note that agrees with i n the Et. Magn . it seems that eventually totall y superseded i n the lexicographical tradition. Finally, Eustathius ad K 56 (789. 8 ff.) remarks: , and proceeds to give the six meanings we find in the Homeric scholia on the same line; elsewhere (ad S 378, = 1148.46 ff.), he further tells us that in other words: Eustathius considers 'end ' to be the basic meaning of Fiv e mean) ings are mentioned a d A 730 (881.2 5 ff.) : (1 ) (2 and ad M 59 (892.3 7 ff.), we further find an d All in all, it seems clear that the ancient lexicographica l tradition (scholi a included) distinguished th e following meanings: (1 ) 'bod y of soldiers 1 , (2) 'achievement'. or in Aelius Dionysius, (3) 'tax, tribute, revenue' in Aelius Dionysius, - 5 -

Ch. I, §2

office' (5

», (4) 'magistracy, public ) 'expense' i n Ae-

lius Dionysius, 'I.e., \) , (6 ) '(ritual ) feast' (èopTT^, öuaía), (7 ) 'marriage , wedding' §3 I n search of remarks on w e find a scrutiny of ancient sources hardly les s rewarding than in the case oi I n Photius we find the entries xeAeadfivai •T Ô ávaAcodfívaí (cp . TéXoe , and TexcxYUevo v 'assigne d to, belonging to'2 ; resembling the latter entry in Photius is i n the SKcfo , where TeAeouvxa is certainly a misspelling for xeXoövTOL. 3 The Suda further has an d ; moreover a syntactic note: " (' I a m initiated', + dat. of god) . Next, we have Eustathius' note ad 3 270 ff. (1444.3 6 ff.) , viz. that mean s wherea s is . (We must be aware, however, that ca n also be used fo r the contents of an utterance, and that ca n then mean 't o execute, perform' an action which has been projected by word, instead of denoting the completion of the speech-act itself; in every instance of a choice between these two possibilities has to be made.) To conclude, we can gather from these data that in ancient scholarship at least the following meanings were accepted for (1) 't o accomplish, make' (cp . the Suda entry ) , (2) 'to spend' , pass.; , act.), (3 ) 'to belong to' , (4) 't o initiate' (indirectl y evidenced i n §4 A survey of ancient etymologies of an d ca n be kept brief: i s derived froi r (cp . Eustath. ad A 730, = - 6 -

Ch. I , §4 881.25 ff.; and ad E 378, = 1148.46 ff.), or from Eustath. ad E 378, = 1148.46 ff.), or from Et. Magn. ; = Et. Gud. ) , or fro m Et. Magn. , Et. Gud. ) • + "" , These etymologies account fo r = 'achievement 1 , and possibly fo r = 'tax , tribute1, 'expense ' These etymologies are , of course, incorrect, with the exception of the association with whic h may indee d be etymologically related. As for an d " , these are usually derived fro m see, e.g., Et. Magn., s.v. ( : 'E x ; Eustath. ad M 59 ( = 892.37 ff.): ...; etc. Fro m the sacral sense ar e derived an d {e.g. Eustath . ad K 56, = 789.8 ff.; id. ad A 730, = 881.25 ff.) . §5 Turnin g now to modern scholarshi p on r etc., I shall first review the entry i n a few of the principal dictionaries. In LSJ, the meanings of ar e divided int o three groups (apparently arranged accordin g t o the English renderings of : (1 ) 'comin g to pass, performance, consummation' (includin g such specialized meanings as 'magistracy' , 'decision' , 'service' , 'dues', 'expenditure' , 'militar y post') ; (2 ) 'degree/stat e of completion, attainment, or maturity' (henc e 'completion , end, finish'); (3 ) 'achievement , attainment' (includin g such meanings as 'winning-post' , 'prize' , 'ideal' , 'chie f good'). A s for etymology, the entry opens with " ; looking up , we find that this verb in its turn is connected with , and it is further assumed that the active ma y have been formed, as a causal (sic) pendant , from . Again, the element in , e.g., etc., i s derived by LSJ from this secondary activ e - 7 -

Ch. I, §5 It is, therefore, clear that LSJ accepts only a *k we I-related but without assuming an original meaning 'turning-point ' for this word (cp . the etymological dictionaries, below, §6). Bailly, s.v. , gives the following meanings: I. 'achèvement, accomplissement, réalisation'; hence: II. 'résultat, suite, conséquence'; hence: III. 'fin, terme'; hence: IV. 'point culminant, sommet, but'; further V. 'achèvement, formation complète, plein développement'; VI. 'prix dans les luttes'¡ VII. 'la plus haute puissance, plénitude de puissance, jurisdiction souveraine'; VIII. 'ce qui doit être accompli': (1) 'but', (2) 'résolution', (3) 'acquittement, paiement', 'taxe', 'offrande', 'fête' ; IX. 'ce qui est complet en soi': 'troupe, corps, compagnie', hesitantly adding: "cf. ? " In Bailly's list, no. I gives the impression of being somehow basic with respect to the other meanings. In view of the Mycenaean evidence, Magnien & Lacroix (s . v. q.v.) thin k is feasible to start from *tel- 'porter , assumer une tâche'; they leave open, however, the possibility that two words, originally distinct, have merged. As to , which is considered t o have derived fro m , the main senses given in the lexica are: (1 ) 't o fulfil, accomplish, execute, perform', etc., (2 ) 't o pay, spend', (3 ) 'to initiate', (4 ) intrans. 't o come to fulfilment'. (Thi s is roughly LSJ's classification. i s commonly thought of as coming from * , which, however, only accounts for In my opinion, replace s a primary for m (se e below, §13). 6 §6 A s to the etymological dictionaries, it has been customary for them to describe historical a s the outcome of a conflation of two or three originally distinct words. Thus, Boisacq distinguishes I . 'but , terme, fin; résultat, conséquence', from IE *k eles- , prob . "*endroit où l'on fai t demi- 8 -

Ch. I , §6 tour dans la course ou le labour", with 'accomplir, exécuter, réaliser, achever', , and (I E *kWel'to turn'); II . 'troupe, corps, compagnie', from IE *k Weles- 'group ' (wit h kindred forms in Skt.: kûlam 'troupeau , essaim, famille'; further in Celtic, Baltic, Slavonic); III. 'paiement, taxe, droit de douane, impôt, charge, frais', from IE *t e l e s - , wit h \f\Ç 'qu i coûte peu, simple, frugal; commun, vulgaire', 'coûteux; dépensier", 'exemp t d'impôts ou de charges', 'exemptio n d'impôts' (IE *pel(â)'to lift', etc.), for the sense compared with 'tax , tribute': (pépœ. Similarly Hofmann, who often appears merely to translate and abridge Boisacq. Frisk, on the other hand, does not accept a special derivation for 'militar y post (etc.)' : "Es lâsst sich aber als militárischer Fachausdruck 'Aushebung ' gleichfalls [lik e 'tax'] an die Sippe von xaAaoocxi ziehen." For him a twofold derivation suffices: (1 ) *'Wendepunkt (der Rennbahn, der Ackerarbeit)', i.e. fro m IE *k el-, coul d account for 'Ende, Ziel' (though a different semanti c approach i s judged equally possible, in view of the rich semantic content of IE *k Wel-, cp. Lat. coló and Skt. cávati , which can also mean 'betreib,en , vollführen usw.'); (2) 'Abgabe , Steuer', from *tel- , lik e The meaning 'Amt , Behörde', we are told, is liable to different explanations: 'Höhepunkt, Vollziehung, Entscheidung', or 'Auftrag , Beauftragung'? Chantraine derives the meaning 'terme, but' from a basic meaning 'achèvement', there being no need to posit an original meaning 'turning-point' ; further adducing Mycenaean te-ve-ta an d the Lesbian forms of h e comes to the conclusion (1 ) tha all senses of ; can be connected with *tel-d x~ r which offers an easy explanation for the meanings 'paiement' (cp . (popoç), 'charge', and 'charg e magistrature', though a less easy one for - 9 -

Ch. I, §6 'achèvement', and (2 ) that "l'existence d'un *k el-os rest e douteuse". He further connects the following words with TéAoç.: compounds with fo r their first members, compounds ir furthe r f etc., Myc (with afte

. te-re-ja(-e)1 r ) .

He expresses some doubts about the connection (s.v. ) t bien apparenté à , ce f but "Si es mot désignant l e point où l'on tourn e la charrue appuierait l'hypothèse d'u n iss u de *k et-", §7 Leavin g now the lexicographical field , I shall discuss some approaches to an d foun d in works of amore or less general scope; notes in commentaries on particular works will be treated in their proper contexts, as occasion arises. Wachsmuth (1846 ) still adhered t o the only feasible ancient derivation for viz. fro m » (vol. I, pp. 813-816); in view of this derivation ( 'zu m Daseyn kommen, hervorwachsen, reifen'), the original meaning of i s not "die des Endes, als der eintretenden Nichtigkeit von etwas Bestandenem, des Aufhörens von etwas Vorhandenem, des Eintritts einer Leere statt der frühern Fülle..., sondern vielmehr ... der Begrif f, das etwas sich verwirkliche, zu dem Stande der Reife und Vollendung komme, sein Ziel erreiche, seinen Zweck erfülle..." From the thus established original meaning 'realization , fulfil ment', etc., anew sense 'powe r to fulfil, authority' developed On the semantic development of the verb, , Wachsmuth remarks: "so wie in di e Kraft des Vollbringens neben dem Vollbringen selbst, so ist hier das Handeln als Analogon des Vollendens aufgestellt". As an d ofte n refer t o fulfilment in relation to a preceding promise, wish, etc., so is also used i n the sense 't o give, present', according to an obligation, promise, and the like (: 'to fulfil a promise - 10 -

Ch. I, §7 •+• 'to give, according to a promise1 ). In the main (leavin g the derivation fro m apar t fo r the moment), I agree with this description of the use of an d ; it will nevertheless be useful to consider before proceeding any further the possibility that in , or in , 'I have power over (th e realization, fulfilment of) x' , itself does not mean 'power 1 ('authority') , but rather preserves it s basic meaning 'realization , fulfilment 1 (o r 'perform ance'), since 'power ' may be part of the denotation of 'I hold, I have power (control ) over...', e*g» A 270-1: 'controlling the keen throes of childbirth', Dem. 47.45: 'th e arbitrators who have control over lega l proceedings', likewise 'the power over .. . is in me (m y hands), the .. . is in my power', e.g. Soph . 01' 314: 'w e are in your power, we are dependent on you'. For an explanation of ot an d 'th e magistrates', other ways than assuming = 'power ' are open, as will be argued below (§14) . In Curtius 1879 , we find the following derivations of : (1) (no . 236, p. 220) from 'heben , aufheben, tragen' "Zu gehort in der Bedeutung Abgabe (vgl . < ) und Amt, Auftrag, das von Ende (No. 238) durchaus verschiewith intrans. etc . den ist ... " ; further , ('sich erheben'), and trans. ('auf tragen'); (2) (no . 238, p. 222) from Tep I , etc.) - "Mit X statt p erscheint dieselbe W(urzel) ['überschreiten'J in , das lautlich dem skt. târ-as Vordringen, (durchdringende ) Kraft .. . entspricht, offenbar also das erreichte Zie l bezeichnet, dazu , aber nicht die unter No. 236 erwáhnten Wörter". This Sanskrit-based etymologica l work has, of course, become obsolete, and IE *ter- = Gk " i s impossible , whereas IE *l > Skt. r (a t least in Western Old Indie) ; however, in its day, it exercized considerabl e influence . - 11 -

Ch. I, §7 Schmidt 1886 , no. 193 (vol . 4, pp. 496 ff.), defines a s "die Vollendung, der Abschluss eine s Dinges, wodurch dieses vollstándig und in sich abgeschlossen wird", as against "der Endpunkt, das Ende, womit das Ding aufhört z u sein", "... der Endpunkt, der âusserste Punkt ..., über den man nicht hinweg kommen kann", and "di e Grenze, die ein Gebiet abschliesst, indem sie bezeichnet wie weit es gent". Although the Curtian etymology of an d t o which Schmidt stil l adheres (roo t TEA/TEP) i s to be rejected, the semantic distinctions drawn between the four mentioned words are not devoid of interest. §8 Bayfiel d 190 1 suggested tha t the meaning of a number of derived adjective s should be re-defined i n the light of the meaning 'authority ' for . The meanings proposed fo r some of the adjectives treated by Bayfield may well be correct, without there being, however, any compulsive reaso n to assume that one of the old meanings of _ was 'authority 1 - see above, §7. Thus, for instance, , which may be paraphrased a s , could all the same {i.e., withou t startin g fro m TéXOQ 'authority' ) mean 'authoritative' , and , as a bahuvrihi-compound, ca n be interpreted a s , 'having all authority'. Positing 'completion ' or 'accomplishment ' as the primary {i.e. basic ) meaning of , Bayfield tentativel y proposes (n . 1) that the sense 'authority ' "aros e from the referring of disputes among the people to the king or head-man, in whose hands would be said to lie the 'conclusion ' or decision of the matter", the next step being it s use to refer to people invested with authority . For my own explanation of 'autho rity' , see §14. Gernet 1928 , after a discussion of, among other things, , proceeds to explain the semantic development of , "une notion plus familière et plus manifestement religieuse" - 12 -

Ch. I, §8 (p. 345). To his mind, in view of "à la fois payer, c'est-à-dire fournir , et accomplir un rite", is to be connected with religious feasts; it denoted th e whole comple x of the collective feas t and the contribution towar d it , the feast being a religious activity. A later development i s seen in the secular meaning 'tax' . Alongside these meanings, and kindred words denoted th e initiation int o mysteries - a special kind of initiation was the sexual initiation, whence, according to Gernet, ofte n denotes the marriage-rite (347). In sum, "dépense collective, don, offrande, hommage, rétribution, tous ces thèmes à la fois humains et divins ont pu sortir du fonds antique où ils étaient entremêlés. Le y était tout ensemble l'apport , l a consommation commun e e t la réalisation des processus naturels - 1'"accomplissement" " (353) . This means that fbut, terme' and 'paiement , taxe' are different meanings of (etymologically ) on e and the same word . It would have been easy to derive , thus explained, fro m *tel'to lift, bear'; nevertheless Gernet assumes a *k el- deriva tion (34 5 n. 4). §9 Bolkestei

n 192 9 ( : 52 ff.) stresses the fact that

do not primarily refer to initiation: the more general meaning performance of / to perform religiou s activities' is demonstrably olde r than the more specialized uses. As a religious performance, an d coul d also mean 'sacri fice' ("di e heilige Handlung , p. 54), and 'feast' . For this sacral meaning 'religiou s performance', the semantic development of (fro m 't o do, to act') may be adduced as a parallel (55) . It is from this more general meaning that other, specific uses are to be derived: 'lustral ceremony', 'mystery (a s a special kind of , including lustra tion) ' . In a later article, Bolkestein unravels the misunderstandings - 13 -

Ch. I, §9 which gave rise to the statement in ancient sources that could mean (Bolkestei n 1933) . In his opinion, a careless interpretation of Aesch. fum. 83 5 + scholion, Soph. Ant. 1241 , and Eur. Iph. Aul. 71 8 is, in the last resort, responsible for this mistaken tradition. As a consequence, the ensuing interpretation of as , inter alia, yáuoe in ancient sources cannot be used as evidence for a supposedly mystic-sacral character of marriage i n Greek antiquity, as has been done by modern scholars of religious history.7 This does not, of course, imply a denial of certain correspondences between marriagerites and mystic rites. The occurrence of an d i n the same context with gods has been described by Keyssner 193 2 ( : 117 ff.) : i t is the gods who complete all things human, who fulfil their desires. We shall come across quite a few instances of this in due course (especially i n Homer). With this aspect of etc. , indicating divine agency, the accomplishing power of the gods, Keyssner connects the occurrence of currence of i

as epithets of gods. Comparable is the ocn similar contexts.8

§10 Holwerd a 196 3 proposes the meaning 'libra' , or 'libra e iugum' for a number of instances of , beside the meaning 'finis' , based on an older meaning 'meta'. The use of fo r 'libra' , he argues, would afford an easy explanation for 'penderé', hence 'solvere ' (339) . (Th e article being written in Latin, the semantic parallel spontaneously presents itself in the Latin translations of , interpreted a s 'scales , balance', and 't o pay'.) At the same time, we are in a better position to see how coul d come to be used in the sense 'decision' (divine , judicial) (34 0 ff.). Very suggestive is the idea that i s Justice holding the balance. We must not lose sight of the fact, though, that " - 14 -

(like

-

Ch. I, §10 wise, ) is also used to refer to other divinities. As a further semantic development, fro m the sense 'decision' , he considers the sense 'confirmation , ratification' for , with 'ratified , valid', and 't o ratify' (35 2 ff J * Yet another meaning, beside 'meta' and 'libra e iugum' ('mo mentum'), is given to , viz. = (especiall y 'heaven') : Soph. OT 198, Eur. Bacch. 860 ; whence 'orbis ' (cp . ôià. ) and similar notions. Attractive though a number of suggestions be, I cannot accept Holwerda's proposals, least of all those which inevitabl y re9 quire a *k Wel-derivdLtlon. §11 Ambrose

, i n his dissertation (1963) , and in a subsequent pa-

per (1965) , analyses the Homeric occurrences of an d . His findings can be summarized a s follows: mean s "to do or make or act in full accord with some plan, command, prayer, promise, or prophecy" (1965 : 44); it does not mea n 't o pay' in Homer.10 Sinc e it is exactly this last meaning which is commonly though t of as originating fro m *tel-, Ambrose , by rejecting it , also rejects th e whole idea of a multiple origi n for (a t least for the epic corpus; he thinks of later attested meanings as semantic developments of that defined by himself for the epic language) : in his opinion, » 'to acw complish, fulfil' derives from *k el- (a s do also , xeXeuTftv). Likewise, the only instance of i n Homer which is commonly supposed to be based on the root *tel-, viz. in $ 450, 'payment (o f the wage)', i s done away with: like the other Homeric occurrences of , it is interpreted a s a terminal point ('th e tim e for payment' and 'th e end of the hire', 1965: 54). The meaning 'termina l point' (ofte n with a connotation 'desire d end, goal') is, again, derived fro m *k w'el- Th e third source for t o be found i n some etymological works - 15 -

Ch. I, §11 {op. above, §6) , viz. *k wel- 'group 1, which is to account for the military , is also rejected by Ambrose: in his opinion, the military i s "the fulfilment of a specifically desired arrangement of troops in a particular place and for a particular purpose" (1965 : 61) . A similar explanation i s offered for ( u 74), "a status fulfilling a desire"; likewise for i n 5 (ofte n interpreted a s meaning 'feast'). Thus, in deriving al l Homeric occurrences of an d from the IE root *k wel- 't o turn', Ambrose reject s them as evidence for the interpretation of Mycenaean te-re-ta. Thi s is, of course, a legitimate procedure; since, moreover, the Mycenaean spelling is not unequivocal, we cannot use te-ve-ta a s a starting-point i n etymological work on xéXog etc. §12 Now

, I believe that it can be shown that all meanings of and kindred words are at least as liable to a plausible explanation i n terms of the IE root *tel- , an d that consequent ly there is a prima faoie ope n choice between either *k el- or *tel-; I also believe, however, that a serious objection to a *kwel- derivatio n can be raised (se e §14, fourth paragraph). As a consequence, the Mycenaean form s te-re-ta, te-re-ja, an d te-re-ja-e, whic h len d themselves to a satisfactory interpreta tion as *tel- derivatives , must also be taken into account. They are in fact used as evidence for a single xéXos in Risch 1974 (p . 78 with n. 61), among other scholars; he does not think it necessary to assume a TéXoe < *k welos besid e
'

'when she had reached th e realization (fullness ) of lovely youth'. 'Maturity ' of crops (a s their 'realization ' or 'ful filment') is found i n Op. 474 : (473 ) of the àôpoouvTi ( B i)?, or of the (B ii)? 'the performance i s in someone's - 65 -

Ch. IV, §55 power1, is found i n Op. 669 : (667 )

for under their control is the performance of good and bad alike'.9 - A i (o r B i ). The completion of a race is referred t o in fr. 76.2 1 M-W: (20) (A i or A iii.) Finally, we have 'i n the end', in Op. 294 : #

- 66 -

11

CHAPTER V IN LYRIC POETRY (I ) A. §56 I

n this chapter, I shall deal with the occurrences of

and i n Lyric Poetry, with the exception of Pindar and Bacchylides - these will be dealt with in ch. VI. 1 In Alcaeus fr. 3 50 L.-P., the poet's actual words can only be guessed at:

- at any rate, he could very well have used a form of with (categor y A i ) . 2 Further3, we have fr. 361 : aC type A ii.4 Sappho uses wit

h similar objects: 17.5 L.-P.: , if correctly restored: A i; 60.3: , with a highly probable restoration, - cp. Alcaeus fr. 36 1 -: A ii; A ii is suggested in 1.26/27: : , and imperat. , create association with 'wish, prayer'-obj.; further i n 5.4: 5 Th e solemnization of a marriage i s referred t o in 112.2 f.: = A i or B i ;6 the context (dpao ) creates association with type A ii (prayer , wish). 7 In Stesichorus P Lille 7 6 + 73 (Parson s ZPE 1977), we find as object of (typ e A ii): 11. 209-10 : - 67 -

Ch. V, §56

§57 I

n Mimnermus 11. 2 and 3 West, we find an

d

,] . The object of xeAéoac (: ) is of the type A i (o r A iii). 8 I t is more difficult t o determine to which category th e object of ( : ) belongs: since the neuter usuall y means 'priz e of contest', in the singular, w e can interpret ? (fut. ) X« a s 'i n order to present i t (th e fleece) as a hardwon prize to Pelias'; but if, as an exception to common practice, i s used here in the sense of 'con test, labour', we can compare ? (pres. ) with the expression i n Homer (§25 : (2) ) - note that the plural , at any rate, denotes both 'prizes ' and 'contests'. 9 One might even consider readin g for " " If = 'prize' , this is an instance of C; if = 'labour' , then A i. Solon uses wit

h a time-object: 27.3 West: , 'whe n the god has "performed " (accomplished , gone through) the second span of seven years', and 27.1 7 West: (sc . A iii. §58 Theogni s (cite d after ed. West) uses quit e a number of times, with the usual range of objects (actions , wishes, etc.). Thus (typ e A i ) : (70), (290 ) (ind.); and, with an autonomous relative, | - 68 -

Ch. V , §56

1

are th e four 'do -verbs i n 953-4: 6 12

' . mt

(690)n . *

Interesting

Compare als o 1075-6 :

'ho w the god will carr y ou t that .

... (th e result

of whic h i s hard fo r us to p e r c e i v e ) 1 . 1 3 The objec t i s ( A ii) in 341. , 'wish , desire' , is objec t ( A ii) in 1160. Compar e als o 142 : , '.. . everything accordin g to their wish' , 350 : . ] , 617 : • ] , wher e an associatio n wit h A ii (wish ) i s created . The objec t i s ( A i or A iii : ch. Ill n. 3) in 691: , ] . Not e 1166 : West: MSS ) 'until you realize (accomplish, reach ) th e end of your journey' 1 4 , an d 1326 : ..., with th e result-object ( : B i) 'full measur e o f youth' . Perhaps tempora l ( A iii) i s the object i n 926: '(if you live accordin g t o your means, , I. 923 ) you won't liv e a life of slavery* ; but 'slav e labour ' ( A i) seems als o possible . The expressio n mus t b e assumed fo r two passages:

" , where make be supplie d twic e a s object o f and i n 1356); 1369-70 :

s i t clear tha t ha s to 6 {viz, bot h i n 1355

. The first exampl e belong s i n category A ii (desire) ; th e second - 69 -

Ch. V, §56 may. x ' Of the three Theognidean instance s of , readily interpretable; these are 71-2: -

two are

.], cp . in I.

691 , and 905-6 : i

... 'ho w long one is going to live before passing t o Hades1.19 The third occurrence is problematic; the passage runs as follows: 915-8

Possibly: 'befor e he achieved his purpose' (suppl. : T Ô V VOÖV or the like) , "befor e he met with success".20 §59 Simonide

s exhibits the following instance s of 'having performed...' (51 9 fr. 92. 3 Page) 2 1 , probably i n praise of a victorious runner, cp. W 373; t .. . (523.4 Page; to be restored t o its proper [ : metrical] form) , 'havin g "performed", lived a .. . life'. - A iii (o r A i ? : A iii. is found in 9.2 West ( = 62.2 Diehl):

22

These lines are perhaps to be understood as follows: "If it comes to honouring th e one who was the bravest (sc . in the battle of Marathon), I, the Athenian people, accomplished alone"21*: A i by implication.

- 70 -

);

Ch. V, §59 In Diagoras 738 (2 ) 2 Page, we find 'everything i s performed, happens according to...•. 2 5 Finally, Adesp. eleg. 27.2 West reads:

'I shall perform (bring ) my speec h to good ' ; indicates the beginning, th e performance, the end. - (speech) : A i.

B. §60 I

n our text of Alemán, we have one instance of : 1. 82-4 Page (PMG ) [...

Sch. A, 83 tells us " "

] .. . , "fulfilmen t and performance". , and Hesych. has cp. ch . Ill n. 3, Theognis

953-4 (§5 8 with n. 1 2 ) . 2 6 In Archilochus, we find : | .] (29 8 West), 'an d he controls the realization himself 1. If Alcaeus I 1,10 L.-P. | [ is to be suppleted t o ("suppl . veri sim." L.-P.), we have an exact parallel for the preceding instance . Likewise i n Semonides 1 . 1-2 West: note also Z . 5: .. .

- 71 -

Ch. V, §6 0 In Stesichorus 20 9 i 12 Page, only guess-work seem s possible27. The situation i s not much better with Suppl. 88 i 16 Page: (15 ) ] ' " " | it is possible that ;8 holds (i i or watches over ( , though other possibilities exist, e.g. , that Zeus decides (xpCvei29 or the like) the o f the mentione d in I. 18 . Whatever suppletion s one might venture i n Ibycus Suppl. 166 Page 30 , I find i t virtually impossibl e t o extract any meaning fro m these fragmentary lines . §61 Mimnermu

s 2 West contains twic

e (11.

6

and 9 ):

The first (I. 6 ) is defined b y an d ; the "hold " those two kinds of s o that we can interpret 11. 6- 7 as follows: "one holding swa y over painful old age, the other over death": the realization (o f the state: B i) of old age is in the hands of one , that of death is in the hands of the other » . The second accompanied b y a demonstrativ e pronoun, i s defined b y ; refers to i n L 7 , and thus denotes the 'realization ' of an age3 1 . In Solon 13.17 West, we come across 'Zeus watches over the performance of all things'; similarly, we find 13.57- 8 West: - 72 -

Ch. V, §61 , 'n o realization (efficacy ) is in their power 1. Both instances may 32 be compared with the cases of . Finally, Solon has one instance of , viz. i n 13.25-8 West: ... •

_, 'whe n it comes to it, eventually', see §5 0 {h. Merc.

462) .

§62 Theogni s contains nine instances of . In l . 768, we find _ , the 'realizatio n of death', well-known from Homer (an d Hesiod). We have already met the , 'performanc e (span ) of life' (905) : §5 8 (wit h n. 14). Next, there are a few cases where come s near to meaning 'result' : 163-4 'but their toils meet with no accomplishment (success)' ; (cp. , 'to accomplish, achiev e a work'; A i) . 591-4

'before you have seen the eventual realization (th e final result)'; or 'th e end of the performance' 33. 639-40 'but their counsels meet with no realization (fulfil ment, success)', cp. 't o carry out a plan' (A ii) . A case of i s found i n I. 660 : '... who control the 3 performance, realization. ' ** - 73 -

Ch. V, §6 2 Furthermore, i 135-6

s found twice:

'in the end, eventually'; cp . Solon 13.28 (§61) . 1083-4 'at (i n respect of) the realization (o f actions inspired by friendship)'? (Not e that nevev means 'unti l the end'.) Finally, occur s in I. 1294 . The passage runs: (1292)

is interpreted a s 'a t last' by L.-S.-J. (s.v . II.2.a); likewis e i n the translations of J. Carrière (Budé) : 'enfin', and A. Garzya: 'alfine'. 35 I n that case, an object to ha s to be supplied fro m th e context ( : ); thi s is a good possibility. I wonder, however, whether xéXoc may not itself be taken as object of : "but she came to know the realization (solemnization ) [o f marriage] i n spite of all her reluctance", i.e. sc . 36 . §63 Simonide

s has an instance of

î7

:

(134 Diehl), '.. . before they saw the prime (? ) of their lovely youth'; just what age is meant precisely by dxpov depends on how we are to interpret , whether as the extreme (hither ) point i n time (beginning) , or as the 'highest' point i n time (approximatel y th e middle between both extreme points of , its 'peak' , or 'acme'). 3 8 The other occurrence i n Simonides i s uncertain: - 74 -

Ch. V, §63 541.5-7 Page ]

] ] (6

possis

Finally, occur 946.2 Page:

7

e.p.) s in lyric adespoton,

ot probably ".. . to the group of men who...1 , with a group metaphor originating i n the abstract use of TÚXOQ as 'task, duty'3 9.

- 75 -

CHAPTER VI AND

IN LYRIC POETRY; II (PINDA R AND

BACCHYLIDES) A. an

d

§64 I

n Pindar, we find the quite straightforward us e of in Pyth. 4 . 230, T. i n Pyth. 6.41 .1 A deed of prowess, , is found i n Nem. 9.6 : . With a predicative adj., i s found i n 01. 13.83 :

. ] , "perform s the deed .. . as light", i.e. ' as a 2 light thing', ' With , we find • ] , Pyth. 4.165 3. Further, we find .] 'when the gods are the performers (agents)' , in Pyth. 10.49 ; - (the ) gods often ave the agent s ( : ch. Ill n. 26). 'Wedlock' is the object in Isth. 8.30 : , cp. the expression , A i or B i (for reff., see ch. V n. 36). Further objects are: i n Nem. 4.43 : . ] , 'th e course of time will realize the allotted t o me, as it has been destined ' **, in other words: 'will realize my shar e of | i n Pae. 8A.1 5 Snell-Maehler (8.2 5 Puech, Sandys); (th e contents of) an oracle, , in 01. 2.40: A ii; i n Pyth. 5.117 : , 'realize s his potency fo r him' ('grant s him his ^positio n of] power'), a situation: B i. With a concrete object, occur s in Pyth. 4.246 : 'realized, produced'.5 - Artefact: B ii. - 76 -

Ch. VI, §65 §65 I n some instances, the object of i s 'offspring' ; these cases are entered by Slater (su b b) under the heading 'bring to birth'. The semantic parallel offered by Germanic languages6 coul d sugges t the possibility tha t in prehistorical times the meaning 't o give birth to' was a direct specialization of *tel- di~j on e would the n expect, however, that the subject coul d only be the mother, originall y - in Greek, there is no such restriction . I t makes more sense, I think, to consider + offspring a s an application of the sense 't o realize'. The relevant Pindaric instance s are: Isth. 6.46 , Pyth. 3 . 9, and Pae. 7B.5 2 S.-M. (11.3 0 Puech). About Isth. 6.46 , there has been some controversy; 11. 44- 6 run as follows: , • • •

Heyne, followed by Bury, reads: ~ , Fennell: ) I think that the reading of B, as given, is sound, and that the passage is to be interpreted thus : ' I pra y thee to realize for this man a son of Eriboea, destined t o be my guest-^friend'; cp. Farnell a. I. the n simply means 'to realize, to grant the fulfilment {i.e. birth ) of ...' 7 In Pyth. 3.9 , the subject is the mother:

in Pae. 7B.52 , it is the father:

§66 'T o pay, present' ('t o fulfi l an obligation, debt to ...' ) is the usual interpretation of in Isth. 1.68 : - 77 -

Ch. VI, §66 ; the same may be the case, as is usually assumed, in Pyth. 1.79 : ] , an d Pyth. 2.13 : ; note the datives, and the presence of i n the last instance. It is nevertheless possible, and perhaps preferable, i n view of the evidence on i n general, to interpret uuvov as 't o realize (compose ) a song of praise1: B ii, this song being at the same time an assignment (task) : association with A ii. A problem i s presented b y 01. 6.15 : Wilam., which ed. Snell (-Maehler) adopts). As Farnell remarks, ca n hardly be correct, since it implies the unlikely phrase ('pil e up', according t o the scholiast, but there is no parallel for this alleged meaning); I am inclined t o accept the alteration of t o , to agree with Ttupav ( : Pauw, Hartung, Wilam., adopted by Puech), so as to yield a clause meaning 'afte r the seven pyres of dead corpses had been realized (made)' , possibly, as Farnell suggests, with the connotation o f hallowing (cp . , Eur. Ba. 485) , but not necessarily so . Note that burning th e dead i s a duty (association with type A ii). The remaining tw o instances of i n Pindar {Parth. 1.5; Pae. 12.17 ) are hard t o interpret, because of the fragmentary stat e of the text.8 §67 i s found twic e in Pindar; in one instance, it has the object : Pyth. 4.10

- 78 -

4

Ch. VI, §67

'after having performed (spent ) twenty years without doing a shameful deed or uttering a shameful word agains t them... 1, in which (supposin g zeugma ) is to be taken as obj. of (rather than as obj. of , with as ace. of duration). The period of 2 0 years ( : A iii) was fixed (b y the gods, or Destiny): association with type A ii (destiny) . In the other instance, fr. 1 7 2.6, the object i s ; cp. the Homeric expression (§25 : (10)-(13) ; cp. §27 : (26), where I considered th e possibility o f supplying TiXóov) . §68 I

n Bacchylides, there are nine occurrences of • ,

but

none of First, we find , 'to carry out (th e contents of) a decision' (typ e A ii), in 3.26: | suppl. Wackernagel).

9

Likewis e

(A ii) in 8.27-8: With '

a life' ( A iii), i

s found i n 3.82: " , 'that you will live a life of great wealth for fifty years'. 10 Similarl y in /r.20A.9: tx[e] | , where i s the period of time to be accomplished b y the father {I. 6J. 11 An instance of type B i is 'renown ' (stat e of being famous) in 17.78-80: ... The object of i n fr. 20C. 5 is , a song; one can compare th e Pindaric expression 't o present (? ; or: 't o create, compose') a song of praise' (eithe r C.or B ii): §66. - 79 -

Ch. VI, §68 The passive is found i n 18.30: ] , 'how it is going to be carried out' ('which course it will take'), and i n 18.45: . ] , 12 'everything i s carried out, takes its course'. Association with the type ( A ii; cp. §29: (35) (39); cp. §30: (56)-(69)) is created by i n 5.164: ] . Th e subject of is a suppressed (th e - unexpressed - subject of ). Not e + inf. fut., which is often used to-denote 't o be destined' - association with type A ii.

B. §69 Ther e are 22 occurrences of i n Pindar ( + one delendumi Isth. 4.33 , vid. infra, §7 1 n. 19). To begin with, ha s the meaning 'burde n (fig.) , task, office' in Nem. 11.9 ; the poem was composed b y Pindar on the occasion of the installation of a certain Aristagoras as prytanis. Ll. 9-1 0 read : his year's office ...' ; i 13 as

] , '(grant ) that he may execute s explained by the scholiast

ll+ The expression „ _. is found i n Nem. 10 . 29-30: Zeu , 'every performance of actions is in your hands', 'you have control over every action'; i s an instance of type A i. Further instance s of this type are the following two : 01.

the performance of battles' (how , with which results, the - 80 -

Ch. VI, §69 the battles are performed). Next, we have Isth. 1.6 : TOL . In my opinion, this must be interpreted as 'I shall yoke together the composition of both poems1 ( : in order that Delian Apollo gets his shar e of praise in this Theban poem, too). This interpretation, which is the likeliest in the semantic picture of whic h I defend i n this thesis, favours the second alternative which I proposed for the interpretation of i n §66, viz. 't o compose a song of praise'. Note that the 'songs ' are composed on request: there is, thus, association with type A ii (assignment), whereas i s a case of B ii (artefact ) on the primary level. In 1sth. 4. 5 we e n c o u n t e r p e r f o r m a n ce o f life' ('cours e of life') 1 6 : .. . | . In our view, this is a case of A iii. A different interpretation i s offered by Bury {a.I. ): ".. . pass through life to the mortal end", taking a s an acousativus termini (s o Mezger and Rumpel), and construing wit h < . In his opinion, " , 'mortal end', that is « death », i s the Homeric phrase trans formed" ; he further remarks: "Other editors make mean « the span of mortal life », an d construct with an accusative. But woul d naturally mean the end or accomplishment of life, not life itself". I do not believe this last statement to be correct: would not "naturally " mean 'th e end of life', even though it had come to mean that in due course.17 §70 Somewha

t problematic i s Nem. 3.25 :

- 81 -

Ch. VI, §70 In on e is naturally incline d t o hear an echo of the Homeric phrase , 'the performance (realiz 1 ation) of homecoming ( x 323: §44); even so, need no t be an adnominal genitive; actually most commentators make dependent on , and explain as 'th e end (farthes t point) which sends on the way home1 (th e point beyond which none sail) . i s believed to mean 't o the point where' (bu t this is rather ad hoc), an d 'was landing', with a s ace. of direction. Since 'end ' (i n a spatial sense) can hardly be vindicated fo r Pindar, and i n view of the strained interpretatio n of , I propose to take together , after all, as 'th e performance of homecoming', : a s 'wa s returning to his country'18, an d i n a more congenial sens e 'o n the way along which'; i s not easy to interpret, but perhaps we may understand i t as 'unde r (divine ) guidance', as Heracles enjoyed th e special favour of Zeus. If this proposal is accepted, i s a cognate accusative with ; the tense of ca n be accounted fo r quite simply: approximatel y equal s

straightforward cas e of A ii is Nem. 8.45 : , 'th e realization (fulfilment ) of idle hopes is void' ('ther e is no fulfilment of idle hopes'). The context supplie s the necessary informatio n i n the following instances : Isth. 4.3 2 (3/4.50) : where the is the end of the action expressed b y in I. 3 1 (48). 19 Thi s is, therefore, an instance of category A i, cp. i n 01. 13.5 7 (§69) . - Nem. 7 .

§71 A

- 82 -

Ch. VI, §71 . ] , wher e i s the , •the realization of absolute happiness 1 b y .

20

The context i s rather unspecific i n six other instances: 01. 13.104 : ê v e 'under the control of the god i s the performance (issue ) '; fo r , cp. Nem. 10.29-3 0 (§6 9 with n. 14). -lath. 4.1 1 (3/4 . 'with every performance (enterprise)• , cp. i n Nem. 10.29-30 (§69). 21 -Nem. 3.70 : é\ , 'th e realization of that in which one excels, the realization of outstanding qualities'. - Pyth. 4.286 : | , 'nor delaying any performance ( ^ the execution of any task)' . Pyth. 9*44 : , 'the realization (fulfilment) of everything (whic h is fated)'. 22 - Pyth. 10 . 10: 'sweet grows a human performance (enterprise) , and it s beginning (i.e. righ t from the start), when a god i s the instigator'. 23 Note i n the sequel. §72 i s used t o refer t o a 'prize ' in at least two Pindaric instances which deal with contests: 01. 10.67 : , and 18th. 1.27 : < , This use seems to be exclusively Pindaric; we must therefor e recognize the probability tha t we are facing a poetic application of the sense 'execution , achievement': note the combination s - -

- •-

2h

Even more ingenious is Pyth. 9.118 : [so.

lik e Danaus)

6' - 83 -

Ch. VI, §72

. Here, xéAoç Axpov may be •the'en d of the performance1 (finis h of a contest), or 'th e most excellent prize' which the winner i s allowed t o take away with him ( in I. 119) . Probably, Pindar intende d bot h simultaneously. 25 Drawing th e distinction between meaning an d intention (§16), we must probably decide that _ means 'performance , execution' (o f a contest) in these instances, but that Pindar intends thi s word to be understood a s the tangible result of a successful performance. Finally26, Pindar has the expression 'finally' , in fr. 111. 3 Snell-Maehler. - Cp. ch. V n. 35. §73 I n Bacchylides, there are two instances of . occurs in 5.45 Snel^-Maehler: |

The first

It is clear from the context tha t here i s the completion of a race ( : i n I. 44). , a case of A i. The other occurrence i s in 11.6 Snell-Maehler: . The _ _ has a certain affinity with expressions lik e (Pi. 01. 13.57 : §691 . The Bacchylidean phrase means 'th e execution of prowess', a case of A ii ( bein g a concept 27 which implies that brave deeds are projected)..

- 84 -

CHAPTER VII IN TRAGEDY A. an

d

%%74-79: Aeschylus

§74 I n Aeschylus, there are a number of quite straightforwar d cases of wit h an object denoting a n action, or the announcement of an action, or the request (prayer ) that an action be performed (typ e A ): {Sept. 693 ) ( A i ). {Pers.

217)

(A i ). {Sept. 791

)

(A ii). _ {Prom.

1033 ) ( A ii). [Ag. 973-4)

1

IA 11 J .

___^_ ]

{Sept.

724 ) ( A ii) .

- ]

i - ^ _ _ _ __ {Cho.

{Sept. 627 ) ( A ii). {Ag. 806 ) ( A i ). 872 ) 2 ( A i) .

{Cho. 283-4 ) ( A i ). Further {Cho. 1066-7) , the being an activity of the weather-god Zeu s ( A i ). The action is specified by means of a (substantivized ) adjective in Sept. 782 : . ] (A i ). The action is expressed pronominally i n the following cases: {Ag. 1107) ; - 85 -

Ch. VII, §74 ;] (Ag.

1487) 3 ;.

]

(Eum. 899); . ] (Prom. 929) . No object (subj . of pass.) is expressed i n Ag. 68: • ] \ an d Ag. 1253: • . ] ; however , the context is clear enough. In Cho. 385 : . ] , the subject of pass. ma y be 'revenge' , , to be taken from i n I. 38 3 ( A i), or the axa as a whole ( B i ). §75 A result-object (typ e B) is found i n Ag. 752 : (751)

The image is one of bein g brought to full stature (like a living creature which in the process of growing gradually acquires it s definite size) , until it is, in a figurative sense , "mature"; Paley, a.I. , compares Sept. 771 : is commonly take n as predicative (with proleptic force) . " i s 'personified" ("animalized" ) subj. of pass.5 To be sure, wit h animate object elsewhere means 't o bring forth , bring t o birth' (typ e B iii), the object being a child, offspring (cp . §65), not 't o bring t o maturity'; I therefore hesitate to take the latter as the denotative meaning of here , but we are certainly allowed t o accept it as associative meaning, suggested by u¿Y 't

o belon g

to a community , group' . §228 I

n varying degree s prominen t i n th e ver b i

minative Aktionsart

1

; thi

s it s

ter—

s may b e underline d b y a preverb :

already i n Homer , we fin d besid

e wit

h virtual -

ly th e sam e meaning, th e type s o f objec t bein g th e same : 'contests', 'labours ' (Homer : § 3 5 ) ; 'threats - 23 0 -

'

Ch. XIII, §228 (Homer: §36); 'wish ' (Homer : §36); {h. Mero. 1 10: §38 ; Hes. Th. 1002: §54); 'promise (Homer : §36; Herodotus: §106) ; etc. Because of its early occurrence, and it s partial equivalence t o ( : neve r means 'to pay', nor 't o initiate'), I have dealt with fro m chapter II I onward, whereas other, similar compounds ( , etc.) were reserved fo r chapter XI. ' differ s from i n that i t also takes objects of category C (payments); it is possible that i n this case has the same value as in 't o pay what is due as tribute'; with A or B objects, ano- certainly underlines terminativ e Aktionsart; see §148 . Likewise, i s found with objects of types A i, A ii, and C, those of type A ii being especially frequent ; - see §149 . in " sometime s seems to underline terminative Aktionsart, bu t apparently most often expresses 'together , jointly'; the meanings of are: 't o complete'; 't o pay (togethe r with other people)', 't o contribute' (financially ; also in a metaphorical sense, outside the financial sphere) ; 't o belong t o a class' (lik e ; ) ; - see §150. It is rather the process or action which is prominent i n , but this need not always cancel the terminativity: see §148 ; usually, however, seem s to be nonterminative, on account of , especially i n combination with a present participle. 2 Exclusively financia l sense is exhibited b y the compounds almost exclusively financia l sens e is found for see §§150 , 151. All of these compounds occur from the 5th/4th century B.C. onwards. §229 Ol d derivatives of are , e.g. , 'religiou s performance', often applied t o mystic rites and initiatio n - 23 1 -

Ch. XIII, §229 rites; . is found from Pindar onwards 3; 'unaccomplished1 (Hom. , etc.), 'uninitiated ' (Eur. , etc.), 'free from tax, tribute' (Dem. , etc.); - ; 'halffinished' (Thuc , etc.); - 'accomplishe d (ful filled) late' (Horn. , etc.). The element - seem s to be related t o • , in its special, denominative sens e 'to provide with ' , rather than with primary , and is therefore , in a sense, to be connected more directly with the noun e.g., = 'no t provided with ', etc. For ,

see §§153-155 ; for - ,

see

§163. §230 Th e data discussed i n §§222-22 9 have led me to propose the following etymology for : proto-meaning (prehistorical) : *'to carry ( a burden, of a certain weight, and/or over a certain distance)', from *tel-e\- 't o carry, bear', with - a p in view of the derivative TeAex^ { -

Further, we find 'fina

l part' in Rh. 142 0 2: " ] , 'th e end of a

speech'. b. Tw

o "linguistic" applications

Demetr. Eloc. 257 : 'endin (a phrase) with conjunctions' (a s in

g [B 497]) .

Jos. A.J.

i.e., ther

1.6. 1 (1.129) : (

: the Hebrew names)

e are no case-endings i n Hebrew.

- 24 9 -

App., §9* §9*

Conclusion The basic meaning of i s 'end' , the "extreme part" of an action, event, or process. Secondarily, als o applies to the extreme part ('end , extremity1} o f concrete things. The opposite is , and an d together constitute a In poetry, however, als o occurs as an equivalent of 'performance , execution; realization' (withou t contrast with o r the like) - a use of whic h may b e old, but which could also be taken as catachrestic, as a poetic licence , mainly for metrical convenience. As to the form, one is confronted with a number of problems. If xeAeuxn. is to be analysed as a derivativ e(• + ), on e is faced with an exceptional formation 12, based on 13 a probably denominative verbal stem ; i f such be the case, influence of ca n be assumed, albeit that such influence i s only feasible if the original meaning of was 'performance , execution', rather than 'end' . If the meaning 'end ' is original, we might analyze a s a femine adjective, substantivized a s a consequence of customary ellipsis of an I E feminin e noun for 'day' ll+: *"day which completes th e year" -> *'end of the year' -> 'end' (in general), (fo r -wt-, cp. 'year') , or: "day which turns the year" (cp . German Jahreswende) , i.e. *flast day of the year' + *'end of the year' -*- 'end' (i n general), . These explanations are of course highly speculative.

- 250

App., §10* §10* Homer

Whilst i n Homer often means 't o carry out, perform, accomplish, fulfill' , it can also mean 't o complete, finish (off)' , taking th e same types of A- and B-objects as . The following (complete ) lis t will make this clear. (i) A-type objects - e 9: - N 375: "

" cp . N 377:

]. - S 280 = 3 378 = x 346 = h. Apoll. 89: | . . .] ; with pi. 304, o 438, [ a 59] . - 0 74: - E 328: - T 90: . . . ] , lik e 't e.g., Eur . Heraolid. 434 (a)). - a 293: | note the association - 3 171:

o bring quite to an end' in, , Xen. Hell. 7.3. 4 (§14 8 (2 ) ôia-

- 3 275: - 3 280: ~ above. - 3 306: - Y 56:

. . .] ;

cp . G 9,

- Y 62 :i.e. Athena performed al l of her 'task' . - 25 1 -

App., §10* - 6 5 8 5 : ( a) '

- n 331: I

- d 510: - L 511:

- X 80 : fo r the combination cp . a 293, above. - p 148: (Telemachus tells his mother how he has gone to Menelaus to make inquiries about his father) .. . ] ; cp . ö 585, above. - cp 200: ; cp. 0 74. - co 126: , in the light of the other Homeric instance s of prob ably to be interpreted a s 'sh e did not accomplish (carr y out) the marriage (wedding) ; cp. i n a 249250, n 126-12 7 (§1* ) . (ii) B-type objects . ., | - N 100 : ... . are to be classified as a situation ( B i ), tha t is. - e 253: , 'h e completed it , finished i t off with ... , - o 524: .. . | ] ; cp . the day-making activities of Eos (§33: (88)). §11* Positio

n of i

n the Homeric hexameter

In the majority of Homeric instances , occupie - 252 -

s the

App., § 11 * position immediately after the trochaic caesura (2 2 times, + h. Apoll. 89) . In five instances, the verb is the last word i n the line: in E 3 28 and n 90 we find f filling the line after the bucolic diaeresis; likewise Y 62: and a) 126: . In e 253, < fill s the second half of the line, after the troch. caes. The remaining tw o instances are 6 585 and p 148: , filling th e line up to the hephthemimeral caesura. It will be interesting t o compare these data with those relative to . Immediately after the troch. caes., we only find , for which a substitution would be impossible. Line-final position is frequent for ( A 82) , ( A 108) , < ( A 523) , ( B 330, S 48) , (A 160, H 69, 457) , ( I 598) , K 303) , ( M 59) , ' c ( N 377), (inf. , S 262), (0 228) , ( Z 74), ( S 362) , ( T 22) , W 543), ( W (W 149), ( 559); to this complete lis t from the Iliad, I add a small selection from the Odyssey: otj ( 6 664,. TI 347), (6 776) , ( £ 234, \\) 161) , (n 325), ( p 51, 60), (a 134); in h. Cer. 369 , we find It will be clear that parallel forms from canno t be substituted fo r the majority of the above line-final forms: etc. Only ( £ 234, \\> 161 ) is metrically equivalent to ( S 328, n 90). Apart from the forms in line-final position, all forms of - 25 3 -

App., §11* in Homer are o f a pattern , u--(-) (cp . and ) , so that complementary distributio n seems to account for over 99 % of the cases. This may b e an indication that it is unnecessary to force semantical distinctions on the verbs , any more than on J5 the formally distinct pair . §12* Selecte

d examples from Pindar and Drama

a. Pindar - 01. 2.33 : | 1

..., nor when we will finish a peaceful day, sun's child, without damage'; i.e., = 'we shall complete, finish' a measure of time (obj. of type A iii). - 01. 7.68 : | P ] , 'wer e fulfilled, accomplished'; BY G YP ABLEGHC. The reading implie s an absolute use o f , 'to be fulfilled, come true', a use which is different from 't o die', where can be supplied (whe n not actually present: 't o complete one's life' •* 'to die'); at best, the coul d be taken to 'complete (effectuate) ' their contents, a distinction between announcement an d fulfilment bein g ob served. The matter is not quite clear, but cp. §76, and below sub b: Aesch. Cho. 528 . b. Aeschylus - Ag.

635: 'how did you say did the tem -

- 254 -

App., §12* pest come and subside? ' , with prob . = 't o come to an end, pass away, die', as a metaphor fro m the biological process ( : sc . ) . - Ag. 929 : ... | , a very common use of , also frequent without a word fo r 'life ' as object. - Cho. 528 : ; ] 01. 7.68 , above sub a. - Sept. 617 : , die' . - Sept. 930 : , 'thu s they died' {i.e. cp. ) .

; cp . Pi. 'to

'wer

e killed', ;

c. Sophocles - Ant. 261 : _, 'i f there would have been a fray to finish with', the common predicative use of the participle, 'endin g (one' s action, the process)' -+• 'at the end, at last'. - OC 476: _ , 't o what conclusion am I to bring th e rite?' (Jebb) . - Fr. 646. 3 Radt: | alii alia proposuerunt); if i s right, this is a metaphor from running-contests; cp. (§25 : (4)). d. Euripides - Alo. - Ba.

979: (Ananke , 'Zeu s accomplishes ...' . 908 : _ _

)

- 25 5 -

App., §12* I . . .] , 'some come true', cp. Pi. 01. 7.68 , above sub a. - Hec. 419 : ; J . - Hipp. 370 : 'wil l be brought about, will come to pass'. - Or. 1218 : ] , 'before the murder i s accomplished, carried out'. - Ph. 1581 : , 'accomplishes'. e. Comed

y

- Ar. Eq. 524 : • 'a cp. Soph. Ant. 261 , above sub c. - PI. Com. 173.6: , ' I shall close my meal with ...' . §13* Som

t last',

e examples from historical prose

a. Herodotus - 1.32.5: (sc

.

cp. Aesch. Ag. 92 9 (§12 * sub b ). - 1.39.2: - 1.139: i: 'end in the same letter'; this (quasi- ) spatial absolute use seems to differ again from the absolute use in Aesch. Cho. 52 8 (§12 * sub b ) . 1 6 - 1.174.3 : ; for the spatial sense in a - 25 6 -

App., §13* geographic description, cp. also, e.g., IG

1 2.900.2:

- 2.32.4 : . . . with a partitive genitive. b. Thuoydides - 1.51.3 : " ] night-fall'. - 1.110.5 :

, 'came to an end by

'ended thus'. - 1.138.4 : 'dies' . - 3.59.3: 't o die by starvation'. - 2.4.2 : ... ...] 'a t the end of the (lunar ) month' ( : new moon, therefore ) . - 2.47.4 : ] , 'at last'. - 2.51.1: (an y ordinary illness ) (: the plague) ] , 'ended i n ...' . - 3.59.3: ] , 'to close our account'; the genitive can most easily be explained as analogical after the genitive with - 3.104.5: ~ lik e the preceding example. c. Xenophon - Mem. 4.8.1 :

- An. 1.1.3 : . - An. 1.9.1 : " - An. 4.5^.16 : ^

cp. Thuc. 3.59.3, 3.104.5, above sub b. . .] , 'had died'. , 'died'. , ptc . 'a t last'. - 25 7 -

App., §14* §14* Som

e examples from Plato

- Leg. I 630b: . . . ; ] 'what is the issue (conclusion ) of . ..?' - Leg. I X 870e: ; Aesch. Sept. 93 0 (§12 * b). .

, cp.

Leg. IX 877b: ] , 'if he died'. - Men. 75e : vai], sai d after it has been asked: ; ...] (§6*) . and thu s appear to be near-equivalent here. - Phdr. 228b : ] , 'a t last he took the book and ...' . - Prot. 351b : - Rep. V I 510d: •they end at . . . ' , i.e. 'the y finally arrive at ...' . - Rep. VII I 552c: " 'b y old age, they end up by being beggars' (Adam , a.I. : - Theaet. 173b : , 'they finally become men instead of boys', reminiscent of Eur. Ba. 822 : ] , but different if is explained as a metaphor fro m 't o pay (tax) (towards...) ' (- • 'to belong to a class').: never means 't o pay'. For Eur. Ba. 822 , see §85. §15* Conclusio

n

In prose, invariabl - 258 -

y means either 't o bring to an

App., §15* end, finish 1 (whic h can be regarded as the basic meaning), or 't o come to an end, to end (up)' . Special usages are 'to die1 an d 'finally' . This is in keeping with my findings concerning , from which plainly derives. The absolute use of , 'to come to an end', is possibly based on the elliptic use, 't o die' ( , sc. , like , sc. : 'death'). Also in keeping with my findings i n respect of i s the use of i n poetry with the meaning 't o carry out, perform, accomplish, fulfil' , possibly a case of poetic licence - cp. §§10*, 11*, with n. 15. Note that neve r means 't o pay', or 't o initiate', or 't o bring t o birth' (cp . , §227); and mean s 'tax, tribute, toll; expense'; nor 'post , garrison, division; group'; nor 'publi c office'; nor 'maturity ' (cp . , §237). The overall impressio n must be that the meaning 'end ' ( ) , 'to end' (transitive/intransitive ) ( i is basic, maybe prehistorically a s well as historically. The frequent opposition ÔLQXA -xeXeuTT^ may be an important indic ation; a further indication , perhaps, is the meaning of xe: 'last' .

- 25 9 -

NOTES Introduction 1. For semantic terms (meaning , basic meaning, original meaning, etc.), se e ch. II.

Chapter I 1. Much earlier, Aelius Dionysius ( x 7 E = 306 Schwabe) offers as one of the meanings of : TÔ , i.e., a special form of ; a similar explanation i s given for b y Athenaeus (2.40d) : It is, however, quite uncertain that " • " in the later tradition goes back to this explanation, in spite of Eustathius' remark ad A 730 (881.2 5 f f. ): ' is not the same as vau-oç. For more sources on alleged uoç, cp. Bolkestein 1933: 22 f. 2. Similarly i n Hesych., who also has 3. In his edition of Hesychius, Schmidt remarks {s.v. ' ) that indicate s the meaning 'obtineba t ordinem'; presumably, 't o belong to ' is the meaning which Schmidt, too, had in mind. 4. Cp. Athen. 2.40d, above, n. 1. 5. % i s probably based on the Homeric for m i n T 402: (subjunctive of root aorist, from , cp. : Aco ' to satiate; to take one's fill' can be paraphrased b y 6. Lacôte (1925) explains a s an analogical refection of (the regular development of ) , under th e in- 26 0 -

Notes to ch. I fluence of the great many contracted verbs i n < . There are, however, reasons to consider a s an old form , morphologically distinct fro m : see §13. 7. As an example of this approach, cp. the almost simultaneou s article of Gernet, §8. 8. For the association , cp. Waanders 1976: 476 n. 4. 9. In fact, H. could easily have derived 'balance ' from *tel- (cp . ) ; even so, I would rathe r star t from one basic meaning '(full ) performance'. 10. It might be asked whether ther e is any convincing objectio n to including th e sense 't o pay' in the semantic range of in A.'s presentation, for to pay can also be to fulfil a promise or command. For my own standpoint, se e §14. 11. For this type of future, cp. Hauri 1975. H., by the way, does not consider t o be built on a disyllabic ste m (81 ff.). As a parallel to a s I have explained it , one can mention {/) pres. fut. with loss of ; cp. Skt. vâmi-ti (set-root). 12. For this morphological type , see Waanders 1974. 13. Latin tolero, presupposing a n (extinct ) *tolus ( < *telos) , is ambiguous: it is found i n the senses 't o perform (one' s duties).' (Plaut . Trin. 687) , 'to support', but also 't o endure'; the -e- öf tolero could as well go back to a s be original. It is true that Latin preserves no traces of t neither are these to neuter stem s in -as- {*-d 2-es-); bu be expected, as neutralization of vowel distinctions i n medial syllables was to lead to merger of possibly pre-existin g types of neuter s-stems i n *-es-, *-as- (an d *-os-7) anyway . Therefore, Latin tolero cannot be safely used as counterevidence. 14. Cp., e.g., Englis h authority (—íes), Latin magistratus. 15. Cp. also Lat. luo, solvo < *se-luo. also seems old, - 26 1 -

Notes to ch, I cp. the archaic (epic ) words of the type

Chapter II 1. See Lyons 1977: 1-5. 2. For the present exposition, I shall confine myself t o descriptive meaning , though there is much more to semantics than that alone. On descriptive meaning, see Lyons 1977: 50 f.; on the social an d expressive function s of language, which do not immediately concern us here, see ibid. 3. On decontextualization, see Lyons 1977: 588. I prefer this so-called micro-linguistic approach , all the more since I am dealing with written sources, not with speakers and directly observable situations. 4. See Lyons 1977: 211. 5. I shall use the term denotative (an d denotation) i n the wider sense, including "secondar y denotation" so as to have it apply to, e.g., mythologica l creatures such as sphinxes and the bird Phoenix as well; see Lyons 1977: 210 f. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13.

See, e.g., Lyon s 1977: 250 ff.; (1 ) Palmer 1976: 71-73. See, e.g., Lyon s 1977: 78, 83 f. See Lyons 1977: 333 ff. We are often told that the meaning of a sentence (o r utterance, in speech) is not equal to the sum o f the component words; indeed, I would rather say , retaining th e arithmetical metaphor, that it is a matter of product. On morphosyntactic functions , see Lyons 1977: 73 f., 377. On criteria for distinguishing pre-theoretically betwee n homonymy and polysemy, see Lyons 1977: 550-569. Not to be confounded with relatedness o f meaning ( : synonymy). See (1 ) Palmer 1976: 11 ff.; Lyons 1977: 265 f.

- 26 2 -

Notes to ch. Ill Chapter II I 1. Cp. 0 228, where the struggle i s implicit. 2. This shows that ha s nothing t o do with an alleged 'turning-point * (§14) . ApóuoQ has an abstract sens e and a concrete sense ; hence the ambiguity a s to whether thi s is a case of A i or A iii. 3. Note i n I. 326 : 't o achieve' belongs in the same semantic fiel d as . Note further that ca n be either abstract or concrete, 'journey ' or 'way ' ('road') , which causes ambiguity whether we are facing cases of A i or of A iii; cp. n. 2. 4. LSJ does not mention the construction of wit iple, to be sure, but one may compare M 221-2: ,

h a partic-

.J, "he did not succeed i n taking i t (al l the way home), i n order to give it to .. . (or : so as [t o be able] to give it .. . ) "{pace LSJ , s.v. 1.2 : "rarely c. inf. ... . 12.222"; but cp., e.g., Capell e s.v. 1) , where the use of the present participl e • may have been occasioned by the negative , which implies tha t the action of wa s not completed . 5. = p 163, T 309. We can interpret thes e cases thus: (a ) 'may (in the future) the situation exist that your word has been realized', or {b) 'ma y your word (alread y now) have been realized'; th e use of the perfect participle may, however, also suggest (o) tha t the situation i n question had already been realized before, and has therefore proved t o be realizable, cp. S 196: ,]. W e may even suppose (d) that , prehistorically, and as a relic i n Homer, (fro m denominative ) meant 'provide d with ' , here 'containin g ' : 'liable to ' ('realizable'), cp. 'provide d with a i

- 26 3 -

Notes to ch. Ill 6. LSJ's second alternative (s.v. I I a ): "will administer good laws" , is to be preferred t o "pay what one owes, what is due": 'tribute ' would be exceptional (onl y I 156 and 298, as against 'customar y (uncodified ) law, usage', 'justice', 'decree , ordinance', 'judgement' , etc. in all the other cited passages, s.v. ) . I think, therefore, that Vos wrongly assumes the sense 'tribute ' in I 156 and 298 , on account of the customary right of rulers to receive gifts of honour (1956 : 5 - "Geschenke und Abgaben", "Gebühren"). E A has ] , but E D E 3 E 4 T have

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14.

, drawing i n the semantic spher e of Se e also the discussion i n Ambrose 1965: 48-50. Cp. also o 195, 203. = th e perfect suggests certainty of the fulfilment. = = For instea d of , cp the alternatives (Horn. = Note the contamination: one expects either (a ) (dat. of t o be supplied with the second member of the antithetic disjunction), or (b) Note the exceptional use of a s future: one would expect either (fro m ) , which is metrically im possible, or (fro m ) , but is totally absent in Homer. £a n be explained as analogical: presen t & future = present & future; or i s a case of metrical lengthening: befor e vowel = '(wit h = /e:/, not /ey/) . - 26 4 -

Notes to ch. Ill 15. = E 426-7, e 89-90; for " 'realizable' 5. See also Snell 1977: 58 f.

16. ' :

'by Zeus', or 'Iovis auotoritate

1

, cp. n.

.

17. " 1 : either 'lon g days' {i.e. summe r days), or 'a long stretch of days' ( = ) ; the choice between these alternative interpretation s does not, however, affect the assignment to A iii. 18. No hendiadys, here, for if wer e assumed t o be the announcement of the (cp . §25: (7)), the disjunction would be illogical. 19. Cp. 'solemnizatio n of marriage', §42. 20. Cp., 21. Cp. 22. Cp. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Cp. Cp. Cp. An examination of the Homeric instance s of reveal s that in 25 cases out of a total of 137 ( = 18,25 %) the agent is explicitly divine . We may therefore suspect divine agency to be implicit in a number of passive instances {e.g. , see §30) . For , the figure is 7 out of 31 ( = 22,58 % ) . 27. LSJ considers this a case of metaphorical use of 'to be initiated'; in my opinion a most unlikely explanation. 28. It seems that here, we are dealing with a passage on account of which , the related nominal expression, could receive the interpretation , cp. Eustath. ad u 74: , on account of which wa s then explained as 'goal , perfection, consummation (o f marriage)'. But see §42. 29. For this term, see Goodwin 1894: 229 f. - 26 5 -

Notes to ch. Ill 30. an d (partly ) belong t o the same semantic field : the class of objects of comprise s action nouns and process nouns (e.g. an d , Ü) 476; , 0 70; 'wedding' , a 277; subj. of pass.: , B 155), further state nouns and artefact nouns {e.g. , A 110; , a 244; , X 409; , A 77; , E 446; further etc.) . The main distinction between i s that alway s denotes 't o cause to come into existence' ( + artefact noun: 't o make'; + action noun: 't o cause to take place', without it being necessary tha t one takes part in the action oneself; etc.), so that all objects of ca n be labeled 'result-objects' , whereas + action noun or "project " noun denotes 't o carry out a (projected ) action oneself' (excep t in cases of 'divine agent', where the verb is put to intermediary use , the executing party being a tool in the hands of a god usually Zeus) . This distinction i s due to a difference in basic meaning - TETJXGU: 'to make ( a thing)1 ; 't o carry out (a n action)'. 31. See Ruijgh - Van Krimpen 1969. 32. I agree with Ambrose (1965 : 51 n. 4) that "i t is possible to agree with Holwerda .. . that (Hes. E. 166) and (XII.116 ) convey a very similar general sense, without having t o suppose as a result that i s an exact equivalent of " , even though we differ on the meaning of xéXog. 33. On i n Pi. Isth. 4.5 , see §6 9 with n. 12. 34. Cp. Ambrose, who, in opting for 'termina l point' as the meaning of , expresses the view that " a connotation 'victo ry' is only implied throug h the context" (1965 : 52). 35. Originally, I think, 'whic h cannot be crossed', 'th e far side of which cannot be reached', cp. Homeric ixpiioao) 'to pass through, traverse', Ion. , etc. 'o n the other - 26 6 -

Notes to ch. Ill side1, Latin per 'through* : IE *per(e 2)~ 't 36. E A:

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

o cross, traverse'.

The verbs ( X A) and (E B) make the sense of the Homeric expression clear, but the expression (E A) is ambiguous i n the same manner as Holwerda (1963 : 358 n. 1) actually think s we should read which i s in agreement with the paraphrase given i n E B: , where i n Horn.) is opposed t o an d( : i n Horn.) to Inaccurate: in IT 630, the expression i s ; there is only one occurrenc e of , and one occurrenc e of , see text. Cp. also Ambrose 1965: 61; in his view, however, "th e is a state of being consisting i n marriage", whereas in my opinion i t may be the activity leadin g up to this state of being. Likewise Merry a.I. ; LSJ : 'marriag e rite', but the ritual character of a wedding i s part of the connotation of , not of its denotation. Cp. also Beekes' criticism (1969 : 143) of Ambrose's view : "After all, wages are always promised onl y until they are paid. .. . It is quite conceivable t o say 'bu t when time was bringing th e fulfilment o f wages, Laomedon refused it'. " mean s (se e LSJ): (1) far away, in a far-off country ; (2) long ago. In x 323, (2 ) is impossible; therefore, we must decide on (1 ) -either i n the figurative sens e offered i n the text, or in the literal sense, assuming a n oxymoron: 'yo u are likely to have often prayed tha t my swee t home-coming might - 26 7 -

Notes to ch. Ill take place far away (i n a far-off country)', which would not be a i n the ordinary sense , t.e. no a t all. 43. For cp

. (

a 2; place), but also 681; people), ; people).Leaf, ad K 56, propounds the following view on the semantic filiation of "Th e various senses of the word often correspond closely to our post, b y which it can be translated in both these passages £ : K 56 and 470] , as well as in the phrase A 730, etc. . Th e con-

nexion seems to be end - final decision

-

authority -

office

- post (occupie d by soldiers) - post (th e soldiers occupying it)" . He thinks that "th e Homeric use seems to have stopped at the last stage but one". But 'end 1 i s a false start, as I argue in this thesis. 44. Z A: . Cp. also E A on A 451:

in A 451 is, of course, an unnecessary alteration of the generally accepted reading 45. Cp., e.g., A 191, 206: _ , 0 495: I ] , for the contrast. 46. Thus, we find ôoupl " i n A 321, i n A 424-5, .. . ' ' i n N 529; in A 349, i n E 579; etc. 47. E.g. S 402-3: .. . ] , then, in I. 407 , , and Y 281-2: , then, in I. 283 , . Note that an d , as names for weapons, are also interchangeable; cp., e.g., 447 :. _ J * then, in 11. 456-7 , | ] , and N 159 ff.: . J .. . - 26 8 -

Notes to ch. Ill 162: "

.. . 164:

. Cp. Trümpy 1950: 52 ff., 67. 48. Stanford, a.t., interprets a s 'achievement' . AmeisHentze give 'Verwirklichun g eines Wunsches, errungenes Ziel'. Merry & Riddell say that implie s 'realisation ' or 'con summation* ("rathe r the 'highes t perfection' of a thing than the 'end'") . Van Leeuwen sees a "rerum status " in here , Ambrose (1965 : 60). describes it as the state which results from the fulfilment o f a desire; "th e fulfilled desire .. . is a fine banquet". None of these interpretations corresponds to mine: 'performanc e '. 49. For the temporal interpretation, cp. y 138: 'at sunset'; for the relational interpretation , compare Batrachomyomachia 32 : 'altogethe r different in regard t o nature', and LSJ s.v. IV.2 .

Chapter IV 1. For the semantic affinity between and , cp. §25: (13). 2. West, a.I., als o assigns this expression to the same type of expression as etc . 3. West, a.I,, takin g a s a compound, explains it as a combination of the idea of 'revolving ' ( , )_., wit h that of fulfilment ( > ... ; Th. 79 5 ) . 4. Mazon (Budé): "un jour entièrement consacré aux dieux", probably inspired by 't o initiate a person', - but see §101 ; Evelyn White (Loeb) : "a day very fraught with fate" (supposing 'fate' , among other things? - cp. Holwerda's suggestion : §39, last but one paragraph). Compare further comm. West, a.1. : " : the best I can - 26 9 -

Notes to ch. IV

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

suggest is that this means something lik e 'i t has received special divine approval'. Cf. perhaps h. Merc. 572 , where it is granted t o Hermes to be the sole to Hades." Cp. X 291-2; for the story, X 287 ff. and o 226 ff. For the Homeric parallels, see §39. Cp. Y 101 (§40) . Cp. the expression , §33: (87). Cp. Homeric (§25 : (1)), " (§26 : (19)) , etc. Se e also the discussion on i n §14. Cp. Homeric ( W 373, 768: §25 - (4)). Cp. h. Merc. 46 2 (§50 ) .

Chapter V 1. Archil. 91.7 W is badly mutilated, so that no inferences about the meaning can be safely drawn (bu t note . . . o] ) :11. 7/8 : ] 2. Cp. Y 262 (§25 : (2)), Hes. Th. 951 etc. (§51 : (5)). 3. Alcaeus fr. 256. 6 is badly mutilated: ] . Q . 4. Bekker , cod . A, LP . Compare K 104-5: (§36: (12) ) , and (§29 : (47) 'plan', (48 ) 'wish') . 5. Cp., e.g. , 34: ... . ] , §25 : (1); also o 112, §26: (21). 6. Cp. Hes. fr. 204.8 5 M.-W., fr. 211. 5 M.-W. (§51 : (6)), and ) . the Homeric (§42 7. The further instances, at 9.4 an d 76.2, do not allow of an interpretation, as the text is too badly mutilated: (a) 9.3-5: ] (b) 76.2 : [

- 27 0 -

Notes to ch. V - L. 3: suggest celebration.

s a

8. Cp. i n Homer (§25 : (10)-(13)) . 9. See LSJ s.vv. an d ; cp. also Sappho 17.5 L.-P. (§56). 10. Personification o f "night-and-day" ; we may therefore suppos e an action-object: "nobod y knows what actions day and night will perform fo r man" ( A i) - but ".. . what situatio n day and night will create" is also possible ( B i ). 11. Note the association 'to do, to set one's hand to' , {aor. complish, t o have accomplished' .

{pres. stem): stem) : 't o ac-

12. Note the parallelism have terminative Aktionsart, whereas . . and opaco have not. 13. " ' a hopeless task'; cp. ch. Ill n. 35. 14. The idea 'end ' in 1166 is expressed b y , not by xer th e end of the journey, is the situation of being at one's destination ( B i ). 15. : 'in full vigour' ('physicall y mature', properly of the person wh o loves) ; or 'complete , unimpaired'. For a detailed discussion of , see §§199-211. 16. A subject ha s to be understood wit h (twice) . 17. Ll. 1369-7 0 can be interpreted thus : 'lov e for a boy (ob jective genitive) is good t o have, but (also ) good (or : still better) to put aside; for it is much easier t o conceive that affection tha n it is to fulfil it', with a s the concept which implie s that certain actions are projected. 18. 'performanc e ( : span) of life' (no t ' end of life'); this can be deduced fro m xi (se . ) in the sequel. 19. {pres. instead of fut. or aor.) with 't o be fated' is striking - must b e interpreted, then , as - 27 1 -

Notes to ch. V '(after how much of life) one would be on the verge of ...' ? - I think this is not impossible. 20. Van Groningen, a.t., objects to this interpretation, since, vel. sim. to be supto his mind, it is harsh for pressed; he prefers to take i n a sense the simple verb can have, viz. 't o pay, spend': "L'idée serait qu e l'avare meurt avant d'avoir fai t la moindre dépense", cp. beside , besid e _ , etc. - To my knowledge, this would be the only instance of with a C-type object (t o be supplied). On the other hand, it seems quite acceptable to assume an ellipsis of an abstract noun: (pace Va n Groningen), as + A ii-type object is not unusual at all; or, more explicitly, the action of : after all, the thrifty man is saving up money in order to enjoy his life at some later date. 21. ma y also be an optative, instead of a participle. 22. Type A i , if we take t o mean 'running-contest ' (metonymy) . 23. "Corruptu m vel lacunosum u.v." (West). ; I. 1 Rader macher apud Diehl; I. 2 Dindorf . The reading , I think, should not b e altered unnecessarily. - : sc . ? 24. Cp. Werner (Tusculu m edition), no. 65a . 25. Association with type A ii (destiny). 26. The difference may b e that denotes the (full) performance, the achievement (withou t regard to the earlier part of the performance). If so, i s a case of hysteron proteron. 27. L. 10

- 27 2 -

Notes to ch. V (12 fort.

, e.p.)

28. For " , cp. Solon 13.17 West, see §61. 29. Cp. Bacchylides 11.6 Snell-Maehler (§73) . 30. S 166.8-10 Page:

(10 , supra u scr. -o«) 31. Cp. i n ty 286 (§33 : (87) ) . 32. Cp. also Hes. Op. 669 : J : §55. 33. i s very much lik e Lat. supremus ; i n this instance i t denotes the farthest point: ||.. . ||. The o f probabl y denotes the 'highest point' (acme , prime), see Simonides 134 Diehl (§63) . - The same thought as in Theogn. 591-4 is expressed i n Hdt. 1.32, where, however, i s used. It is probable that the match i s 34. Cp. Solon 13.58 West (§61) ; Hes. Op. 669: (§55); Eur. Hel. 887: t§99) . See §14. 35. The adverbial use of (usuall y , at the head of a sentence). , frequent i n historical prose, can be explained as a case of 'completio n (o f a series of actions and events)' in sentence apposition: "a s a conclusion .. . {x did so-and-so, or so-and-so happened)", i.e. 'finally' . 36. Cp. (§35 : (91 ; §38: (1) ; §51: (6) ; §54; §56 : Sappho!; i n Homer (§42) . 37. Cp. Mimn. 2.9 West (§6 1 with n. 31). 38. Compare also n. 33 above; LSJ s.v. II . 39. The Homeric instance s of this use occur i n military contexts, see §45 . Cp. further Aesch. fr. 15 1 Nauck2: (§9Q); possibly Hdt. 2.64.2: {v.I. ) (§111)..

- 27 3 -

Notes to ch. VI Chapter VI 1. Note that the i n Pyth. 4.23 0 is an imposed task, an d the i n Pyth, 6.4 1 a moral duty. Thi s is in perfect agreement with the proposed etymology , see §§13 , 14. - Type A i. 2. her e = ; cp. _ approximatel y = 4-6 i n LSJ). - Type A i. 3. This instance is listed by Slater sub a{3, 'fulfil (prophe cies) * . The (toil ) is nonetheless an instance of category A i; the 'prophecy ' (o r perhaps rather a demand, cp. in I. 164 ) is merely associative: association wit h type A ii. 4. i s a quality whic h is realized (typ e B i ); vav creates association wit h type A ii (destiny) . Likewise the next instance, Pae. 8A.1 5 Snell-Maehler: Tiddav (situa tion: B i) , (associatio n with destiny - A ii). 5. For wit sententiam (

h pi. subj., we must assume a constructio ad : "th e smiting iron" , the hammer).

6. From *bher- 't o bear1 : English to bear, born, birth; Dutc h baren 'to give birth to', geboren worde n 'to be born', etc.; Swedish barn 'child' ; etc. 7. One might wonder whether + 'livin g creature(s)'-object may still be classified a s type B iii when the one who is a god who is not at the same time the father; but compare other instances of divine agency (wit h A i-type objects, A ii-type objects, B i-type objects). create s association with type A ii (prayer) . As it is, what the gods TSXOVOIV, whethe r i t be " A i", or "B i", or " B iii", usually betrays association with type A ii - they fulfil prayers, or achieve their own plans and schemes. 8. Parth. 1. 3 ff. : ... _ _ _ _ | Note the association - 27 4 -

Notes to ch. VI Pae.

12.16 ff.: ... ,

~ Snell : G.-H. : Lobel : Puech; the last reading, with [i] , is palaeographically impossible, ace. to Snell. Note the association (if correct). 9. Note the association of wit h , which Bacchylides has in common with Pindar; the Pindaric instance s are to be found i n §64 . This association i s reminiscent o f the realization of predictions an d divine counsels, familiar fro m Homer onwards. 10. There is association with type A ii again (predestination); moreover, there is the aspect of a definite "task" : the ace. of duration 11. Note that the Ace. cum Inf . is complement o f : association with type A ii (prayer) . 12. Apparently case s of predestination (associatio n with type A ii) . 13. Perhaps, Pindar used t o elicit an association with the epic expression (se e §187); compare als o i n Pi. Pyth. 4.10 4 (§67) . It is hardly practicable to assign this use of t o one of the categories lai d down in §24 ; there is, however, association with type A ii: (1 ) = 'duty 1; (2). the Ace. cum Inf . is the contents of a prayer. 14. Cp. Hes. Op. 66 9 (§55) , and Theogn. 660 (§62 , with ) , where more parallels are given (n . 34). - For , cp. i n Pindar (§64 ) . 15. Note the association . Note also the use of the perfect participl e : this describes a state which i s the result of preceding action . 16. Cp. i n Theogn. 905 (§5 8 with n. 18); in Simonides 523. 4 (§59) ; i n Bacchyl. 3.82 (§68) ; - 27 5 -

Notes to ch. VI etc. 17. Fo r epic , cp. §39 . There is a slight enallage in . Note that fit s "life " better than it does "death" . Slater's 'brin g their live s to an end' fails to make clear his interpretation of the single words of mean s 'en d of life' for the first time: (a ) in poetry: Aesch. Sept. 36 7 ( withou t £LO U vel sim.), Soph. OC 1530 ( ; (b) in prose: from Herodotus onwards. Chronologically speak ing, Pinda r might hav e used ÉSIÓTOU in the sense 'en d (conclusion) of life'. 18. Cp . , epithet of Apollo, as invoked by those who prayed for a return to their country ( £ ad Eur. Ph. 1408) . Cp. als o 't o return home' (o f exiles, among other things) . 19. Fo r _ . . , cp. Theogn. 594 (§6 2 with n. 33); Simonides 134 (§63) . - i n the next line: , found i n B and D, is contrary to metre, and was deleted by Tricl. Bury comments: "In the scholia there is no trace pointing t o , which was clearly brought in from the preceding lin e with the idea of supplying a construction to the partitive genitive " . For the partitive genitive with (subj . "Fate", cp. i n I. 49), cp . K-G I 345, Schwyzer-Debrunner 102 . : 'something of this and something of that', 'a little of good luck and a little of bad luck'. By supplying , the misinterpreters made int o an objective genitiv e ('realization of . . . ' ) . 20. LS J take a s 'prize ' (metaph.) , which may have been suggested by i n I. 56 , cp., e.g. , Hdt. 6.70 and 103, wher e we find wit h xf)v ' An association wit h 'prize ' (§72 ) may be intended , but , I think, no more than that. - 27 6 -

Notes to ch. VI Bury seems to be over-interpreting thi s expression by rendering it with 'accordin g unto all perfection', "suggesting the it

For ,

cp. Aesch. Eum. 544 , and ,

Aesch. Cho. 874 , Supp. 603 . Gildersleeve {a.1.) comments : " : The whole, from beginning to end... There were two an d two i n the . The first i s the second , and is needed for both". This implies a spatial (? ) 'end1, opp. ; but for 'end ' we rather find (where denote s the extremity, not b y itself), as in Isth. 4.3 2 (above , same section); cp. ch. V n. 33. xai may also tell against 'end' , whereas is an acceptable expression i f my interpretation is accepted. Note the zeugma (i t is the 'enterprise ' which 'thrives') - or hendiadys? ('the enterprise , once started, . . . ' ) . As to i n Isth. 1.27 , note that this verb is standard for prizes being offered, from Homer onwards: E 507, X 163, W 273; Hdt. 8.26.2, 93.2; 9.101.3 ; Dem. 4.5; etc. The ambiguity i s brought forward i n LSJ, s.v. III.2b : 1 "pern, 't o be the winning post and prize ". In the two remaining occurrences, Pae. 7C. 6 = fr. 52 h SnellMaehler, and Pae. 14.3 8 = fr. 5 2 ôSnell-Maehler, the text is too much damaged to allow of an interpretation of : Pae. 7C.6 :

(Note i

n I. 8. )

Pae. 14.3 8

- 27 7 -

Notes to ch. VI ? (L. 38 cf. Bacchyl. fr. 14 et 33" [SnellMaehler, app. crit.]; i n Bacchylides we find: ] , fr. 14 S-M, and fr. 33 S-M. But even if we accept i n Pindar's text, we are still no wiser as to the interpretation of 27. Note i n the context. Cp. i n Solon 13.17 West (§61 ) .

Chapter VII 1. Note the epithet , "provided with " , i.e. 'author itative'; in this sense, i s synonymous with , cp. Aesch. Ag. 9 7 2 'th e master'. See further §§199-211. Cp. also ch. VI n. 22. 2. In l'. 87 1 we read: ;"] , - see n. 3. (M) in I. 875 : ] does not make sense and has undoubtedly crept in from I. 872 . Schütz conjectured , which is printed in Page's text (no t in Murray's). 3. The next line reads: ; ] - note the association of with , for which see also §9 {fin.). Hsch . has the entries . ] , and . ] . Correspondin g with Homeric ] ( A 41, etc.), we find •] in [Hes.] Scutum 3 6 (§52) . - The semantic explanation of i s not unequivocal: (A ) 'to provide with a head' •*• 't o complete, fulfil'? (customar y explanation), or (B ) 'to nod assent' -> 'to fulfil'? - cp. in Hsch. 4. Note the association ; see also ch. VI n. 9. 5. Cp. Fraenkel, a.1.: "Her e , denoting rnaturi- 27 8 -

Notes to ch. VII ty ( ) and full growth, serves to make appea r as a living creature, a notion which is carried on and elaborated in the subsequent words." ( , etc.). 6. Cp. the personification i n Soph . El. Ill : , and the personification of i n I 502 ff., of " . in T 90 ff.; cp. also Eur. Ba. 10 0 ( ) : §85. 7. Note 't o exact' and 't o pay a debt' (i n one type of context), both being primarily 'do'-verbs . 8. Probably, we must also include El. 947 , viz. i f we accept the reading {v.I. . ] . Kamerbeek prefers noeiv, though not without misgivings. I think that mus t be viewed as lectio diffioiliov, whic h might help to settle the question. Pearson (OCT) and Dawe (Teubner ) print i n the text. 9. mus t be taken as transitive - some scholars don't; the subj. is (1. 825 ) or {I. 822 ) (thu s Kamerbeek, a.1.) , or "th e god" (cp . i n I. 822) . 10. The contents of the see

m to be given in

11. Cp. Tr. 1187 : ] , with a combination of words and action in the expression - type A i , with association with type A ii 12. The MSS reading i s _ , but all modern editors adopt Billerbeck's ' . - * i s to be closely connected with the following , see Kamerbeek a.I. 13. There may be a deliberate association with {OT 316, §95 ) - cp. 'profitable ' -, a feeling which is still strengthened b y the following words 14. For 'burial' , cp. fi 660 (§26 : (23)) . 15. Lobeck proposed .. . , because of the improbability of elided .

Dawe follows - 27 9 -

Notes to ch. VII Dindorf in athetizing I. 1436 . Pearson reads: (Burges) (Pearson) .J , thus making ' an accusative. 16. Supply wit h (se e Kamerbeek a.1.) . 17. Note the association 18. The preposition (on e would a priori expec t , 'to pay tax [an d be countedj amongst . . . ') can be explained b y considering t o be a shortened expressio n for original , 'int o the treasury of . . . * . Given the polysemy of ('treasury' , 'league', 'state', . . . ) , the expression ... " could easily be interpreted as 'th e community of ...' , and as easily be replaced by .. . " ,whence .. . - The expression Táoou> ... 't o assign a person to a class of people with a certain duty' may also have played a part. 19. Note ; also wit h obj. gen., 'means/ way of achieving ... ' 20. L. 5 Nauck : Orion : Stob . Orion: Stob. : Wordsworth : Meineke. 21. For (typ e A ii), cp. Bacchyl. 11.6 Snell-Maehle r (§73); for a s a quality which is created (result-ob ject: B i ), cp. Pi. Nem. 4.4 3 (§64) . 22. Dindorf : L - Wecklein : L -. Because of , the conjecture i s to be preferred t o the reading of L , which latter can easily have crept in from the preceding line : Sylburg: L ) . 23. For the latter view, cp. Grégoire ('lorsqu e le terme vint, fixé par les Destinées'), Arrowsmith ('whe n the weaving Fates fulfilled th e time'), Dodds ("Th e supernatura l pregnancy completes its term . . . " ) . Fo r the former, cp. LSJ s.v. - 28 0 -

Notes to ch. VII I.5.a ('brin g a child t o maturity, bring i t to the birth 1 ). See further note Dodds a. I. 24. Fraenkel, a. I. Fo r a thorough treatment of this passage, see Fraenkel's commentary; he is right in accepting Auratus' reading , as against the manuscript reading 25. The scholiast explains a s r in which case could be taken either as adjective ( = ) , or as noun, if stand s asyndetically fo r . It may, however, be the case that the scholiast means to say " etc.", i.e. . together, = UGixa, interpretable as 'sacre d performances accompanied by an oath'. There remain a number of problems of interpretation: we might, for instance, want to read fo r (thus Rose, a.I.), o r (Meineke ) for the scholiast's ánQ (: ~ ] M, which may have crept

26.

27.

28. 29. 30.

in from a gloss on ) . However, the question still remains how 11. 122- 3 harmonize with context and situation. Omitting befor e , with Haupt (followe d by Page in the OCT); for the construction of wit h a s ace . of direction, see comm. Tucker {I. 889 ) . Another possibility would be to take a s obj. gen. with , 'the quarrel about . . . ' ) , an d a s subj. of - With an d ar e jointly subj . of Note , which also occurs in Supp. 603 : 6 ' , 'tel l us which decision has been taken on the course of action'. Cp. also Eum. 544 : , 'th e decisive conclusion (outcome) , the final (judicial) decision', and Pi. Pyth. 9.4 4 (§71) . Cp. Dem. 47.45: ôianrnTcov Cp. Soph. Ant. 124 1 (§94) , Eur. Andr. 52 8 (§100) , for similar cases of + adj. Cp.. §9; also ch. VII n. 3. could also be gen. pi. of ; but as - 28 3 -

Notes to ch. VII

that shoul

is a supreme kind of , I am not sure d not, after all, be taken as gen. pi. of

32. LSJ s.v. TèXoQ I.5. 33. Note ; cp. ch. Ill n. 3, ch. V n. 26. 34. The ambiguity in kg. 110 9 ('issue of events' - 'completion, end of life') is of course caused by the situation; it is surely intentional. 35. See ch. V n. 35. 36. For a s an action noun ('makin g plans'), see Fraenkel ad Aesch. kg. 88 4 (p. 399) . 37. See Kamerbeek a.l. - Note the adv. , which brings out the aspect "action " of 38. I take it that stand s for , with enallage of the demonstrative pronoun; cp. OT 108-9: ' ... . .. , for - See further Kamerbeek a.l. (h e seems to over-estimate the force of proper) . 39. Note the difference between 'realizatio n of death' ( B i; §39), and 'completio n of life' (A iii). But cp. also i n Pi. Isth. 4. 5 (A iii; §69 with nn. 16 and 17). 40. On the assumption of intransitive , see §76. '41. See §§10, 13, 14 . 42. For other interpretations of , as well as proposed alterations of the text, see coram. Dodds, a.l., an d comm. Roux, a.l. 43. See, e.g., Campbel l 1954. 44. pap. : cod. ; accordingly, ~ i s to be taken either as passive or as middle. 45. The Rhesus i s by many scholars thought to be, not from the hand of Euripides, but of later date (4t h c. B.C.); see Björck 1957. Cp., however, Ritchie 1964. - 282 -

Notes to ch. VII 46. The line runs as follows: \oç

.] which differs from Andr. 128 3 only in having £ç T ¿ instead of

Chapter VIII 1. Cp. Pi. 01. 2.4 0 ( > ; §64). 2. For , cp. , parallel with > ; or • (etc.), cp. , etc.), and . We have to reckon, therefore, with adjj . an d . -, side by side. coul d well have been corrupted t o un der the influence of the preceding Note also " ~ i n its ritual sense in the sequel: ] , '.. . must perform rites...'.

13. Cp. the legal term 'fo r desertion'. 14. The (Attic ) -a is irregular: one would expect forms in note that the Ionic forms are regular: ' . 15. The Cretan form i n I Cret. Ill , III.4.23, mentioned in LSJ s.v. ( = GDI 5040.22), appears to be neuter plural of 16. Cp. , 'body of ' . 17. In LXX De. 11.12: ] (Hebr . 1 , from *aha r 'behind , after ), in Ev. Matth. : {f\) J (13.39 , 40, 49; 24.3; 28.20), in Hebr. 9.26: ] . 18. The text of 1 Reg. ( 1 Sam. i n the Hebrew text) 8.3 runs :3 - 29

Notes to ch. XII ] (Hebr. besac'cut-off piece', hence '(unjust ) gain', from basac 'to cut, break; to be greedy for gain' , pi cel 't

o cu t off ; t o execute, accomplish')

.

19. Lys. 30.21 belongs here, sub (3) , not sub (2) , as LSJ would have it : ... J - Nicomachus says that in revising th e laws and setting them down on , he has written "piety" , and not "parsimony " (cp. also the Loeb and Budé translations, Albini 1955: 273). 20. From , not fro m (fo r , which goes back on , see §198 ) . The suffix -to- in (proparox. on account of Vendryes' Law) is remarkable, being unusual after -e(o) - ( : the usual type is , etc.); i t is, however, to be found in, e.g. ,

21. The sentence is intentionally ambiguou s (tragi c irony) : Clyt. means to say 'o n behalf of your daughter' , but the audience, and Agamemnon, cannot have failed to appreciate the other possibility, viz. tha t TKXIÔOQ is the victim implie d in the 22. There is association with her e ( : N.B. ) . 23. give s the impression of being an old compound, cp. , as against such later forms as (beside ) , (already in Horn.), {v. I. ) . An original (IE , or Proto-Greek) meaning 'carryin g a burden (carrying burdens)' is therefore conceivable, and may account for the senses 'bein g in charge' (Aesch . Cho . 663: §189, end), 'havin g a (ritual ) task' {CIG 5l45al, Cyrene; LXX De. 23.17 (18 ) : §190) , etc. 24. Note (cp . ch. VII n. 3) and (cp . ch. VI nn. 4 and 9 ). 25. The quotations are from Alcidamas, and are reproached fo r their 'frigidit y of style', on account of the poetic - 29 4 -

Notes to ch. XII compound - perhaps, this favours the second alternative, viz. that ar e cases similar to those in §188 , rather tha n instances of the sense 'fertile' , the former being more poetic; however, the actual meaning o f the compound does not appea r to be decisive i n lending the quality of t o Alcidamas' style. 26. Not a proper name, properly speakin g (thi s would require recessive accentuation ) , but a cult-name (wit h accentuation of appellative). 27. Note the word-play 28. For , see §164. 29. Cp. 'holy' . 30. The verb, intransitive in its original use, is also used transitivally (implyin g the possibility fo r passive forms to be employed, too): SGDI 4837. 4 (act. , with obj.: §192); Jul. Or. 7.220 c (pass. : §191); etc. Cp. , which behave in the same way. 31. Cp. 't o build a temple', Hdt. 1.21.1, where is used for (th e latter being comparatively 32. 33.

34.

35.

rare, esp. in the present stem) . I follow Thiel 1922 in reading (Nitsche : MSS) and (Leuncl. : MSS) . Ace. pi. of , not (Galian o 1976-1980: 605). Cp. Call . h. Del. 24 2 (agai n from , not [LSj] ), ] e 493 (themati c " i n Soph. Ant. 1276 ) . - Alternatively, the adjective i s (: i n Hom.), and the MSS reading i s to be kept unchanged. .. . suppl. Lobel , comparing h. Ap. 77-78 ; not that the supplement is absolutely certain, one might for instance expect a word ending i n t o have filled part of the lacuna. The elements an d ar e productive i n governmental - 29 5 -

Notes to ch. XII and military nomenclature: , etc. 36. ('splendid' , as a free rendering of the interpretation of a s 'expensive' ? ) is the interpretation of E ad A 315: .] Eustath. ad A 315 (108.42 ) equates wit h , which latter he takes to mean 'full-grown * (a d A 66: 49.36 ff.) . Cp. also Ap. Soph.: and Hsch.:

]• 37. See Ruijgh 1980: 421 with n. 6; Ruijgh 1983: 405. 38. Attic shows that i s a borrowing fro m poetry: the fem. form is in , with un-Attic , as against in words like 'honey-cake' . 39. See also Lejeune 1971 : 11-33 (esp. 14-18) [ = Les adjectifs mycéniens à suffixe *-went. REA 60 (1958 ) 5-26]; Risch 1974: 151 ff. 40. In its turn, ma y have led to the creation of , Archil.: metrically necessary correction), see Ruijgh 1980: 422 with n. 7. 41. The ratio i n Plato is approximately 1 : 10 (adv. included); comp. and sup. are formed from onl y in Plato . Thucydides uses once (5.47.8 , quotation, cp. IG 2.86 ; further the verb for m in 6.3 2.2); in Attic drama, an d are equally frequent (approximately) , but for the adverb we find only (Aesch. , Aristoph.); for Xen., I have only been able to trace (bu t adv. ) ; Isocrates has (5 x ), with sup. ( 1 x ), and adv. ( 2 x ), an d two instances of adv. ; Demosth. has only (4 x ), bu t adv. ( 2 x ); Isaeu s has the adv. (1 x ) . - 29 6 -

Notes to ch. XII 42. According t o Threatte 1980 : 317, i s not found in Attic inscription s before the Hellenistic Period. I am not so sure that "Th e Attic form was clearly , later replaced by , probably due to analogy with other adjectives in . " At best we can say that the spelling i n literary prose, on account of the long MS-tradition, is undecisive, whereas in poetry allowance must be made for metrical considerations. 43. See Ruijgh 1967: 201 with n. 511. The figures for Hdt. are: 3 x, 2 x, and adv. l x . 44. Ruijgh's suggestion that the e in wa s shortened under the influence of _ 'young', antonym of 'full grown' (1967 : 201 with n. 511), is very attractive. - A problem is the suffix -/o- itself, which is rare in Greek and seems to be restricted t o primary derivation fog, 'full' , etc.l; see Schw. I 472. There is, however, semantic affinity between 'complete ; full-grown' and 'whole', 'sound' , 'alive' . 45. Cp. Hsch.: . J . 46. 'Full-grown ' is the meaning assumed by Eustath. ad A 66 (49.36 ff.) , cp. n. 36 above. Cp. also i n Hsch. (n. 45, above). 47. Note tha t 'burden , cost, expense', though an old meaning of the word, is also absent in Homer. 48. The use of a s fern, is remarkable; cp. also Aesch. Eum. 832 : TéXeioi, of the Eóueviöec. 49. And possibly also 'maturity' . 50. For , see §212 . i s half of the (endocentri c compound) , whereas means 'half-finished ' (exocentri c compound), see §174. 51. : the dactyl. The long element of dactyls is said to be shorter than a complete one; this passage, dealing - 29 7 -

Notes to ch. XII with the tonga irrationalis an d with cyclic anapests i s still controversial; see the discussion i n Koster 1966: 82 ff., Korzeniewski 1968: 40 ff., Rossi 1963. 52. The form of the second figur e is: if B applies to (1 ) all A / (2) no A, and if B applies to (3 ) no C / (4 ) not every C / (5) all C / (6 ) some C, then it is necessary fo r A to apply to ( 1 + 3) no C / ( 1 + 4) not every C / ( 2 + 5 ) n o C / ( 2 + 6) not every C (th e syllogisms Camestres, Baroco, Cesare, Festino). 53. The form of the third figure is: if A applies to all/no/some/ not every B, and i f C applies to all/some B, then it is necessary for A to apply to some C (tw o positive premisses) / not every C (on e premiss negative). 54. See especially Patzig 1969 : ch. Ill (pp . 51-93). 55. Probably 'mont h of ' , cp. the Epidaurian month 'month of Apollo ' . 56. This may be due to the value of the suffix -foç, if , were the model for cp . n. 44 above. 57. It is possible that an wa s an ex-magistrate who, after his term of office, exercised certai n tasks on account of his experience; in that case, the word i s a prepositional hypostasis: from (cp . ), o r from 58. The form ca (1) (cp

n be explained i n two different ways: . , §200) , after ; (2 ) i s a prepositional hypostasis, from 'presidin g over ("tha t which is [destine d to be] fulfilled")' (§205) . 59. i s a prepositional hypostasis , e.g. i n the case of a , a number which is , 'surpassin g a number ' (viz. b y the sum of its divisors). 60. If one takes the liberty of changing th e accent, and writing - 29 8 -

Notes to ch. XII , the compound can be analysed eithe r as possessive ("having a " ) , o r as having TeXeo- as a (second arily) verbal firs t member ( = ) , cp. , , etc. In all probability a loan-translation, as , 'torn, tam, are rendered by {e.g. Gen. 6.9 , for ; II E'sdr. 2.63, torn; Cant. 5.2 ; 6.8 (9) , ) , and (i n qal an d _ ) corresponds to {e.g. Ill Reg. 7.22) . occurs in Aristid., in the sense "t o bring to physical completeness", 't o bring to maturity'; the pass, in Arist. HA 576 7, 't o come to maturity'; the action noun 'bringing to completion' is found i n Plu. Nob. 7 . - Note especially the religious application of 'to complete ( a sacrifice)' (Lycurg . fr. VI. 2 (2 9 El.);Plu. Mar. 22). Problematic i s the noun i n PI. Leg. V I 784d: ... • (sc . , who has been accused of being incorrigible ) , ... ] ; - concerning a n incorrigible woman we read: : , . . .] Burnet LOA2: in marg. L 0 ); i t looks as if correspond s more or less to , according t o LSJ 'after-offering , esp. in thanksgiving fo r the birth of a child' - which, to my mind, is dubious ( : means 't o complete' [esp. a sacrifice], not 't o sacrifice, offer' [afte r some event]); I would rather interpret a s a celebration of a birth, which celebration takes its name from the event of birth itself, in other words: ma y mean 'th e completion {i.e. bringin g to birth) of a child'. - - Note also the grammatical application of : 'completion (o f an action/event) ' , as the value of pf. and aorist, opp. 'duration', as value of pres.-stem. - 29 9 -

Notes to ch. XII 63. Originally, words in derive

d fro m agent nouns ( • etc.), but later on those in regularl y derive from verbal stems (withou t the intervention of agent nouns), whereas those in deriv e from action nouns (i n a broad sense) : (§165 ) is associated with wit h 64. Cp., e.g. , 't o make ready', from 'ready , prepared'.

Chapter XIII 1. In the secondary indicative , in the subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive, and the participles, the terminativity brings about a preference for use of the aorist stem above use of the present stem. 2. itsel f shows preference for the present stem. 3. The morphological structur e of (§13 ) proves its high antiquity; it is certainly accidental that ha s not been attested earlier than Pindar. 4. E.g. *'tas k consisting i n warfare' •*- 'performance of warfare, waging war'. 5. The contextual associations have been noted, though {passim, especially i n the notes) .

Appendix 1. Cp. the frequent absolute use of wit h the meaning 'to die', whereas i s not so used. 2. Either by refusing, or by consenting: the two members ... .. . may be quasi-synonymous (cp . Homeric u^xe .. . • ...]: « 288) , or antithetic; in the latter case, allow s of the two interpretations 'so lemnization' and 'end' . - 30 0 -

Notes to app. 3. Words of the metical structure usuall y occur at lineend (example s abound), but the rhythm coul d also be used between troch. caesura and buc. diaer., albeit that i s certainly favourite when that particular portion of the line is filled by one word. In A 1-100, we find that the part of the line between tr. caes, and buc. diaer. is filled by a word of the metrical structure i n five instances (2: ; 44: ; 71, 91: ' ; 89: ) , as against twelve examples of (4 : ; 14: V; 18: ' ; 22: ; 32: ; 50: ; 54: ; 62: ; 64: ; 78: ; 96: ; 97: ) . 4. The antithesis doe s not impose th e interpretation • end, outcome' for the latter: cp. in Pyth. 10.10 , §7 1 with n. 23; nevertheless, polarity of meaning i s customary fo r the pair , at least in prose. 5. 01. 5 may be spurious; see Bowra 1964: 414-420. 6. There is no opposition , as mean s 'rule' here. Note, on the other hand, 7. Note the strictly local sens e of xeXeuxT 1!, which is quite unique; the closest parallel is found in the application of to the extremities of, e.g. ,

limbs (LSJ , s.v. ,

II.

1). 8. This passage shows that a significant distinction between and Tiépaç is situated i n the fact that 'end ' can refer to either extreme, both an d , which are here opposed again. 9. Note 10. Note Further instance s of this quite frequent antithesis will not be noted. 11. For the triad cp. , e.g. PI . Pavm. 137d (§6* ) . - 301 -

Notes to app. 12. The normal /xcx-derivatives are based on a verbal o-grad e (type etc.), beside which there are the derivatives , based on a verbal zero-grade (typ e , see §13). 13. We might assume a verb , derived fro m a noun (cp. Myc. ze-u-ke-u ) , like fro m , and assume the same for ( : from ) ; we might further assume an antithesis : 'to order' 'to carry out'. Of course, this means that mus t derive from 't o carry out'. 14. The identity of this word fo r 'day ' cannot be recovered from the attested I E languages. 15. It must however be realized tha t the equivalence of and coul d be a metrically motivated licenc e of the cp. the metrical complementarity o f , ethnic designations which were not originally synonymous . The problem of seems insoluble. 16. As the absolute use of (1 ) 't o die', (2) 'to fulfil its contents' (? ) : 'to come true', elliptic i n origin, is so common that coul d easily be reinterpreted a s approx. = (vel sim. ) , it is futile to keep trying to explain 't o come to an end' as elliptic throughout the history of Greek.

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B I B L I O G R A P H Y

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- 30 4 -

I. Editions, commentaries, scholi a (a) Authors, works Aelian, De Natura Animalium . Ed. A.F. Scholfield, 3 vols, London (Loeb ) 1958-59. , Varia Historia. Ed. M.R. Dilts, Leipzig (Teubner ) 1974. Aelianus Tacticus, Táctica. Ed. H. Köchly-W. Rüstow, Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller, Leipzig 1855. Aelius Dionysius. Ed. H. Erbse, Untersuchungen zu den attizistischen Lexica, Berlin 1950, p. 95. . Ed. E. Schwabe, Aelii Dionysii et Pausaniae Atticistarum Fragmenta, Leipzi g 1890. Aeschines. Ed. G. de Budé-V. Martin, 2 vols, Paris (Budé ) 19522. . Ed. C D. Adams. London (Loeb ) 1919. Aeschylus. Ed. D.L. Page, Oxford (OCT) 1972. . Comm. P. Groeneboom (except Suppl.), Groningen 1930-52. . Comm. H.J. Rose, 2 vols, Amsterdam 1957-58. , Oresteia. Comm . G. Thomson, new éd., 2 vols, Amsterdam 1966. , Agamemnon. Comm. E. Fraenkel, 3 vols, Oxford 1950. Agathocles: FHG iv p. 288. Alcaeus: see Sappho. Alcinous, Introductio in Platonem . Ed. C F. Hermann, Plato VI p. 147, Leipzig (Teubner ) 1853. Alciphron. Ed. M.A. Schepers, Leipzig (Teubner ) 1905. Alemán: PMG.

Alexander Aphrodisiensis, Problemata. Ed . J.L. Ideler, Physici et Medici Graeci Minores, Berli n 1841. Al.: " (LXX), in: F. Field, Origenis Hexapla, Oxfor d 1875. Andocides. Ed. G. Dalmeyda, Paris (Budé ) 1930. - . Ed. K.J. Maidment, London (Loeb ) 1941. An. Bachm. : Anécdota graeca e cod. MSS. Bibl. Reg. Parisin., éd. L. Bachmann, Leipzig 1829. AB: Anécdota graeca, éd. I. Bekker, 3 vols, Berlin 1814-21. Anthologia Palatina. Ed. H. Beckby, Munich {s.a.). Antiphon. Ed. T. Thalheim , Leipzig (Teubner ) 1914. - . Ed. L. Gernet, Paris (Budé ) 1954 2. - 30 5 -

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(b) Inscriptions CIG: A. Boeckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum , Berlin 182877. FD lili E . Bourguet e.a., Fouilles de Delphes, tom e III. Epigraphie, fase. 1-6, Paris 1909-76. Inscr. Cos: W.R. Paton-E.L. Hicks, The Inscriptions of Cos, Oxford 1891. I. Cret, : M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae opera et consilio Friederici Halbherr collectae , 4 vols, Rome 193550. IG: Inscriptiones Graecae , Berlin. I 2 : F. Hiller von Gaertringen, Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno anteriores, éd. min., 1924. I 3 : Inscr. Att. Eucl. anno anteriores. Editio tertia, fase. 1, Decreta et Tabulae magistratuum , éd. D. Lewis, Berlin (d e Gruyer) 1981. IG Rom. : R. Cagnat e.a., Inscriptiones -Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes, vol. 4, Paris 1927. IPE: B . Latyschev, Inscriptiones antiquae orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, Petrograd , I 2 1916 , II-IV 1890-1901. IvOi W . Dittenberger-K. Purgold, Olympia . . . , V , Die Inschriften, Berlin 1896. Inscr. Prien. : F. Hiller von Gaertringen, Die Inschriften von Priene, Berlin 1906. Milet: Th . Wiegand, Milet. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, Berlin 1906-35.

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Bibliography OGI: W . Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Leipzig 1903-05.

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Bibliography Sammelb.z Sammelbuoh grieohisoher Urkunden aus Aegypten, I, II F. Preisigke, Strassburg (late r Berlin & Leipzig) 1913-22; III F. Bilabel, Berlin & Leipzig 1926-27 ; IV, V F. Bilabel, Heidelberg 1931 , 1934-55; VI ff. E. Kiessling (-H.A . von Ruprecht), Wiesbaden 1958-... Stud. Pal. : C . Wessely, Studiën zur Paláographie und Papyruskunde, 23 vols, Leipzig 1901-24. UPZz U. Wilcken, Urkunden der Ptolemâerzeit, I . Papyri aus Unteragypten, Berli n & Leipzig 1927 ; II. Papyri aus Oberàgypten, Berlin 1957.

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Bibliography CHANTRAINE 1977 : P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque IV, 1 (P-Y), Paris 1977. COCK 1981 : A.J.C.M. Cock, ' . Sur le s critères déterminant l e choix entre l'actif noieiv e t le moyen ', Mnemosyne I V 34 (1981 ) 1-62. CURTIUS 1879: G. Curtius, Grundzüge der griechischen Etymologie*, Leipzig 1879. FRISK (GEW) : H. Frisk, Gr iechis ches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Heidelber g 1960-72 . GALIANO 1976-80 : E. Fernández-Galiano, Léxico de los himnos de Calimaco, Madri d 1976-80. GERNET 1928: L. Gernet, 'Frairie s antiques', REG 41 (1928 ) 313-59 [esp. pp. 345-8] . GOODWIN 1894 : W.W. Goodwin, A Greek Grammer. New Edition, London 1894. HATCH-REDPATH 1897 : E. Hatch & H.A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint and the other Greek Versions of the Old Testament including the Apocrypha, Oxfor d 189 7 (repr. Graz 1954) . HAURI 1975: H.W. Hauri, Kontrahiertes und sigmatisches Futur, Göttingen [l975 ] . HOFMANN 1949-50 : J.B. Hofmann, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, Munic h 1949-50. HOLWERDA 1963: D. Holwerda, • ' , Mnemosyne I V 16 (1963 ) 337-63. KEYSSNER 1932: K. Keyssner, 'Gottesvorstellun g un d Lebensauffassung i m griechischen Hymnus' , Würzburger Studiën zur Altertumswissenschaft , 2 . Heft, Stuttgart 1932. KORZENIEWSKI 1968: D. Korzeniewski, Griechische Metrik, Darm stadt 1968. KOSTER 1966: W.J.W. Koster, Traité de métrique grecque suivi 1 d'un précis de métrique latine *, Leiden 1966. KRETSCHMER-LOCKER 1944: P. Kretschmer-E. Locker, Rücklaufiges Wörterbuch der griechischen Sprache , Göttingen 1944. KÜHNER-GERTH 1898-1904: R. Kühner-B. Gerth, Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, II: Satzlehre, 2 vols, Hannover 1898-1904. LACOTE 1925: F. Lacôte, ' Remar ques sur la phonétique de ', Mélanges Vendry es , Paris 1925, 217-227. LEECH 1974: G. Leech, Semantics, Harmondswort h 1974.

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Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford 1940 9 . LYONS 1977: J. Lyons, Semantics , Cambridg e 1977. MAGNIEN-LACROIX: V. Magnien-M. Lacroix, Dictionnaire grecfrançais, Paris [l969 ] . OLIVIER-GODART-SEYDEL-SOURVINOU 1973 : J.-P. Olivier-L. GodartC. Seydel-C. Sourvinou, Index Généraux du Linéaire B, Rome 1973 .

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PATZIG 1969 : G. Patzig, Die aristotelische Syllogistik3, Göttingen 1969. POWELL: J.E. Powell, A Lexicon to Herodotus, Cambridg e 1938. REDARD 1949: G. Redard, Les noms grecs en et principalement en . Etude philologique et linguistique, Pari s 1949. RISCH 1974: E. Risen, Wortbildung der homerischen Sprache2, De Gruyter , Berli n 1974, p. 78 + n. 61.

RITCHIE 1964: W. Ritchie, The Authenticity of the Rhesus of Euripides, Cambridg e 1964. RUIJGH 1967: C.J. Ruijgh, Etudes sur la grammaire et le vocabulaire du grec mycénien , Amsterdam 1967. RUIJGH 1979: C.J. Ruijgh , 'Review o f Ch.H . Kahn , The ver b 'be' i n Ancient Greek 1 , in : Lingua 4 8 (1979 ) 43-83 . RUIJGH 1980 : C.J. Ruijgh , 'De ontwikkeling van de lyrisch e kunsttaal, met nam e va n het litterair e dialect va n de koorlyriek', Lampas 13 (1980 ) 416-435 . RUIJGH 1983 : C.J. Ruijgh , 'Observation s sur le s neutre s e n -s/h-.' In: A. Heubeck-G . Neuman n (edd.) , RES MYCENAEAE.

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Bibliography the Athenian WHITEHEAD .1977: D. Whitehead, The Ideology of Me tic , Cambridg e 1977. ZIJDERVELD 1934 : C. Zijderveld Jr., . Bijdrage tot de kennis der religieuze terminologie in het Grieksch , Diss. Utrecht 193 4 (publ. Muusses, Purmerend).

- 320 -

INDICES Legenda:

6 VI.6 6* A.6

= = = =

§6 Ch. VI n. 6 §6* App. n. 6

Index locorum ADESPOTA Adespota Page (PMG ) 946.2 PMG: 63 Lyrica Alexandrina Ades(Powell) pota 36.14: 200 Adespota West 27.2: 59, 223 AELIAN De Natura Animalium 2.42: 165 Varia Historia 12.1: 162 13.1: 149 (4) , 199 14.49: 221 AELIANUS TACTICUS Táctica 9.7: 194 AELIUS DIONYSIUS T 5 E: 201, 217 T 6 E: 153 T 7 E: 2, 1.1 T 25 E: 208 AESCHINES 1.119: 143 1.120: 143 2.46:' 143 3.9: 123 3.72: 143 3.95: 150 (11b) 3.113: 143 3.119: 143 3.124: 143

AESCHYLUS Agamemnon 65: 185 68: 74 227: 185 286: 171 359: 151 (12) , 171 532: 171 635: 12* 700: 152 (2 ) 720: 186 745: 4* 752: 75 806: 74 908: 87 929: 12*, 13* 934: 87 972: 200, VII.1 973: 200 973 f. : 74 995: 188 1107: 74 1109: 91 1202: 87 1253: 74 1487: 74 1504: 199 Choephori 212: 188 250: 170 283-4: 74 309-13: 77 385: 74 528: 12*, 13* 541: 188 560: 175 663: 189, XII.23 760: 87 321

Index locorum 872: 74 874: 88, 91, VI.22 965: 175 1021: 76 1066 f.: 74 Eumenides 28: 200 64: 92 214: 201 243: 88, 123 320: 210 361: 181 381 ff.: 200 434: 88 544: VI.22, VII.27 729: 88 743: 87 832: XII.48 835: 89 899: 74 953: 210 Persae 47: 90 204: 87 217: 74 218: 170 225: 76 228: 79 462: 92 726: 91 740: 4* Prometheus Vinctus 13: 92, 116, 140, X.32 275: 92 511: 187, 236 663: 92 821 f.: 90 929: 74 1033: 74 Septem contra Thebas 35: 76 118: 175 157: 91 163: 89 167: 200 251: 182 260: 90 367: 91, VI.17 491: 174 617: 12* 627: 74 - 322

655: 188 659: 76 693: 74 695: 78 724: 74 768: 78 771: 75 782: 74 791: 74 832: 205 905: 88 930: 12*, 14* 936: 4* 1025: 90 Supplices 19: 75 122: 87 138: 4* 475: 38 525: 90 526: 200 601: 175 603: VI.22, VII. 27 688: 172 739: 201 1051: 4* Fragmenta 151 N2 : 90, 111, 182, V.39 383 N2 : 201 387 N2 : 87 AGATHOCLES . 2: 171, 181 ALCAEUS I 1.10 L-P : 60 Fragmenta 256.6 L-P: V.3 350 L-P: 56 361 L-P: 56 ALCINOUS Introductio in Platonem 10: 176 ALCIPHRON 2.4: 15 0 (9 ) ALCMAN 1.82-4 PMG: 60

Index locorum ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS Problemata 1.34: 148 (1 ) ANDOCIDES 1.9: 141 1.93: 141 1.97: 199 1.111: 153 1.125: 179 3.41: 141 4.8: 141 4.9: 167 4.24: 7* ANÉCDOTA An. Bachmann I 383.20: 190 An. Bekker 230: 178 309.13: 193 ANTHOLOGIA PALATIN A 5.203: 213 9.524.14: 178 9.525.20: 161 ANTIPHON 1.19: 123 4.1.2: 7* 5.42: 140 5.50: 140 5.51: 140 5.77: 140 6.6: 140 Fragmenta 56 Blass: 171, 182 APOLLONIUS DYSCOLUS De Syntaxi 3.5: 173, 183 5.20: 183 12.4: 183 38.9: 181 70.9: XI.25 186.15: 181 205.14: 182 252.9: 171, 182, XI.25 265.27: 165 APOLLONIUS RHODIUS 1.917: 193

APPIANUS Bella Civilia 1.8§34: 210 ARCHILOCHUS 91.7 West: V.l 298 West: 60 ARETAEUS De causis et signis norum morborum 1.16.6: 191 ARISTEAS JUDAEUS 18: 181 55: 150 (11 ) 77: 15 0 (11 ) 272: 181 ARISTIDES (RHETOR) 1.442 J: 149 (4 ) 2.226 J: 182 ARISTIDES QUINTILIANUS 3.27: 153, 186 ARISTOPHANES Acharnenses 615 (Schol.): 157 896: 104 Aves 686 (Schol.): 221 Equités 248: 194 307: 104 524: 12* 1050: 101 1367: 170 Lysistrata 104: 205 294: 4* Nubes 258: 101 Pax 413: 153 419: 153 Ranae 173: 101 342: 153 357: 101 406: 183 1032: 153, 154

diutur-

- 32 3 -

Index locorum Thesmophoriazusae 329: 210 352 f.: 20 5 973: 201 Vespae 121: 153 658: 104 1024: 102 Fragmenta 29.2 K: 101 526 K: 208 902b K: 102 ARISTOTLE Analytica Priora 24al3: 206 24b22: 206 25b35: 206 26a20: 206 26a28: 206 26b29: 206 27al: 206 27al6: 206 28al5: 206 29al6: 216 29a30: 216 42a35: 219 Ethica Nicomachea 1129b26, 30, 31: 204 H53al2: 219 1156b34: 204 1174al5 ff.: 204 1174al6: 216 H74b4: 204 H74b23: 216 De Generatione Animalium 7l5al2: 150 (11b) 720bl8: 8* 748b7: 213 770a33: 213 774bl7: 213 776a31: 217 Historia Animalium 509a29: 150 (11b) 543al9: 219 561a5: 219 583b24: 219 585al8: 213 585a20: 213 Metaphysica 994b9: X.25 324

1021bl2: 203 I021b20: 219 102lb26, 27: 210 Meteorológica 379M8-19: 216 379b20: 216 379b23: 149 (6 ) 380al3: 204 De Partibus Animalium 654b24: 8* 685al: 8* Physica 207a21: 214 246al3: 219 246al7 ff . : 218 246a20: 216 261a36: 214 Physiognomonica 8l3a4: 165 8l3b21: 165 Poética I450b29: 8* Rhetorica I401al4 f. : 153 I406a3: 189 I420b2: 8* Tópica 102bl3: 173 ARTEMIDORUS 1.16: 191 ASCLEPIODOTUS Táctica 2.10: 194 ATHENAEUS 2.40d: 1.1 2.40d/e: 153 BACCHYLIDES 3.26: 68 3.82: 68 , VI.16 5.45: 73 5.164: 68 8.27-8: 68 11.6: 73, VII.21 17.78-80: 68 18.30: 68 18.45: 68 Fragmenta 14: VI.26

Index locorum 20 A.9: 68 20 C.5: 68 33: VI.26 BATRACHOMYOMACHIA 32: III.49 303: 154 BRUTUS Epistula praef.: 159 CALLIMACHUS Hymnus in Appolinem 11 f.: XII.34 78: 193 Hymnus in Cevevem 129: 193 Hymnus in Delum 242: XII.33 Fragmenta 85.13 Pf: 193 PSEUDO-CALLISTHENES 1.4: 156 CHRYSIPPUS STOICUS 2.17: 154 3.61 (It. 3 6 ff.) : 214 CRATINUS 180: 221 DEMADES 35: 143 DEMETRIUS De Elocutione 257: 8* DEMOCRITUS 187: 214 DEMOSTHENES 3.2: 7* 4.5: VI.24 4.43: 7* 6.30: 145, IX.15 13.19: 38, 226 14.20: 150 (11a ) 15.26: 171 18.97: 144 18.104: 171 18.105: 182 18.140: 144, 7*

18.179: 7* 18.193: X.36 18.237: 182 18.259: 101, 123 18.265: 123 19.59: 144 19.125: 144 19.150: 144 20.13: 176 20.19: 145 20.23: 182 20.27: 168 20.28: 150 (lib ) 20.29: 174 20.80: 7* 20.128: 145 21.22: 150 (11a ) 21.155: 168, 171 21.166: 194 23.177: 145 , VIII.5 23.213: 150 (lie ) 24.122: 145 24.144: 123 , 145 24.146: 145 25.11: 154 27.9: 168 32.18: 145 34.36: 168 38.18: 123, 226 39.18: 123 40.39: X.15 42.18: 168 43.66: 178 43.75: 145, 146 47.45: 7, VII.28 57.27: 144 57.34: 145, VIII.6 58.46: 144 59.39: 181 59.60: 199 59.104: 154 [61.38] : 148 (2 ) Epistulae III 14: 7* Prooem. 52: 144 55: 163 55.3: 123, 234

- 325

Index locorum DIAGORAS 738(2)2 PMG: 59 DINARCHUS 1.94: 124 2.17: 124 2.17: 146 DIODORUS SICULUS 1.36: 184 1.89.6: 158 2.36.4: 192 14.102.3: 179 29.19: 157 34.2.31: 170, 181 DIOGENES LAERTIUS 5.54: 184 DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS De Compositione Verborum p. 71.10 ff. Us.-Rad.: 205 Epistula ad Pompeium 2.6: 161 DIOSCORIDES Euporista 2.97: 191 DOSITHEUS p. 434 Keil: 164 EPICHARMUS 83.14 A u s t i n ( 9 9 . 7 K a i b e l ) : 10 3 [ 8 9 ] . 4 A u s t i n (29 7 K a i b e l ) : 103 EPICRATES 9.1: 210 ETYMOLOGICUM GUDIANUM s . v . TÚXOQ:

2

ETYMOLOGICUM MAGNUM 198.11 { s . v . : 17 2 289.33 {s.v. 220 750.36 ff. { s . v . : 4 750.38 ff. {s.v. : 2 EUCLID Elementa 1 Def. 23: 207 EUPHRONIUS 1 : 161 - 326 -

EUPOLIS Fragmenta 4 Kock: 103 EURIPIDES Aloestis 132: 84 413: 98 979: 12* 1160-2: 84 Andromache 528: 100 998: 84 1283: VII.46 1285-7: 84 Bacchae 22: 154 73: 154 100: 85, VII.6 388: 98 485: 66, 83, 225 822: 85, 225, 14* 860: 96, 98 908: 12* 1389-91: 84 Electra 863: 83 956: 98 Hecuba 413: 98 419: 12* He lena 534: 98 887: 99, V.34, X.31 1689-91: 84 Heraclidae 434: 10* 820: 83 899: 152 (fin.) Hippolytus 25: 98 87: 98 370: 12* Hypsipyle fr. 3 2.4 Bond: 86 Ion 780: 170 1549: 171 Iphigenia Aulidensis 433: 221 718: 185

Index locorum 990: 99 Iphigenia Táurica 83: 98 464: 83 959: 154 Medea 920: 98 1382: 98 1416-8: 84 Melanippe Captiva 19: 83 Orestes 414 (Schol.): 221 834: 83 1218: 12* 1545: 99 1670: 84 Phaethon 95 Diggle (fr . 773.51 N2): 98 Phoenissae 69: 188 641: 188 1408 (Schol.): VI.18 1581: 12* Rhesus 311: 100 735: 98 Supplices 1137: 98 Troades 602: 98 Fragmenta NFE 149.14: 100 32 N 2 : 99 100.1 f. N2 : 85 148 N 2 : 208 150.2 N 2 : 85 176.1 N 2 : 98 327.6 N 2 : 99 472.12 N 2 : 83 492.5 N 2 : 85 639 N 2 : 99 800.2 N 2 : 84 909.8 N 2 : 84 948 N 2 : 99 1029.5 N 2 : 84 EUSTATHIUS ad A 66 (49.3 6 ff .) : XII.36

ad A 315 (108.42 ) : XII.36 ad I 411 ff . (760.25 ff.): 39 ad K 56 (789. 8 ff.): 2, 4 ad A 730 (881.2 5 ff.) : 2, 4, 132, 185, 1.1 ad M 59 (892.3 7 ff.): 2, 4 ad n 502 (1073. 5 ff.): 39 ad n 630 (1078.5 4 ff.): 40 ad S 378(1148.46 ff.): 2 , 4 ad (3 270 ff. (1444.36 ff.): 3 ad u 74 (1883.4 9 ff.): 42, III.28 GALEN 1.315: 214 6.162: 217 6.169: 204 6.208: 204 6.286: 204 6.531: 217 15.26: 219 15.60: 203 16.500: 204 16.639: 210 18(1) .822: 149 (6 ) 18(2) .59: 210 18(2) .79: 210 De Historia Philosophica 16: 186 De Usu Partium 17.1: 154 GLOSSARIA II 200.26: 160 GORGIAS Helena 18: 210 HERMIAS in Phaedrum p. 84 Ast: 208 p. 159 Ast: 174 HERODOTUS 1.13.2: 149 (6 ) 1.21.1: XII.31 1.30.4: 5* 1.31.3: 5* 1.31.5: 110 1.32: V.33 1.32.5: 13* - 32 7 -

Index locoru m 1 .32.6: 10 6 1.32.9: 5 * 1.33: 5 * 1.39.2: 13 * 1.54.2: 18 1 1.86.2: 14 9 (6 ) 1.97.1: 17 9 1.103.1: 11 1 1.115.3: 14 9 (6 ) 1.117.4: 17 0 1.120.2: 21 5 1.120.3: 21 0 1.121: 20 5 1.124.1: 17 0 1.126.2: 14 9 (6 ) 1.139: 13 * 1.155.1: 10 9 1.157.2: 14 9 (6 ) 1.171.2: 15 1 (13 ) 1.174.3: 13 * 1.183.2: 19 9 1.192.4: 16 8 1.206.1: 10 5 1.214.5: 5 * 2.32.4: 13 * 2.51.2: 10 5 2.63.1: 14 9 (6 ) 2.64.2: 11 1 2.64.2: V.39 2.86: 17 4 2.87.1: 18 4 2.92.1: 18 3 2.109.1: 14 9 (6 ) 2.109.2: 10 5 2.121.a2: 5* 2.125.6: 10 5 2.139.1: 10 9 2.168.1: 16 8 2.171.2: 15 4 3.18: 11 1 3.34.4: 10 5 3.40.3: 10 8 3.65.7: 11 0 3.67.3: 18 1 3.86.2: 21 7 3.91.1: 16 8 3.134.4: 10 5 3.137.5: 10 5 3.141: 17 0 4.79.1: 105 , 119 4.79.1/2: 15 4 4.79.2: 17 5 4.79.4: 105 , 11 9 - 32 8 -

4.88.2: 10 6 4.186.2: 22 1 5.11.2: 21 5 5.35.1: 10 6 5.49.6: 14 9 (6 ) 6.46.3: 16 8 6.53.1: 10 5 6.57.1: 17 2 6.69.5: 10 6 6.70: VI.2 0 6.103: VI.2 0 6.108.5: 10 5 6.117.2: 14 8 (2 ) 7.51.3: 10 9 7.81: 11 1 7.87: 11 1 7.118: 10 5 7.157.3: 5 * 7.187.2: 10 5 7.211.3: 11 1 7.223.3: 11 1 8.13: 11 0 8.26.2: VI.2 4 8.93.2: VI.2 4 9.7.31: 10 9 9.8.1: 10 9 9.20: 11 1 9.22.1: 10 9 9.22.1: 11 1 9.23.1: 11 1 9.33.1: 11 1 9.37.4: 10 8 9.42.1: 11 1 9.59.2: 11 1 9.93.4: 10 5 9.101.3: VI.2 4 9.106.3: 11 1 HERONDAS 7.20: 19 8 HESIOD

Opera et

Dies

83: 54 166: 39 , 55 , III.3 2 218: 5 5 294: 5 5 333: 2 * 466: 17 0 474: 5 5 554: 5 1 (1 ) 561: 5 2 (11 ) 565: 5 4 664: 5 5 669: 55 , V . 3 2, V . 3 4, X.36

Index locoru m 799: 5 3 7 9 9 : 23 4 [j5 cu turn Herculis~] 22: 54 36: 52 (9) , VII.3 38: 54 357: 2* Theogonia 59: 52 (10) , 150 (8 ) 89: 51 (3 ) 170: 51 (4 ) 242: 196 403: 54 552: 51 (7 ) 637: 2* 638: 55 740: 187 795: 5 2 (11 ) 795: IV.3 799: 5 1 (8 ) 881: 54 951: 51 (5 ) 954: 51 (2 ) 959: 196 994: 51 (5 ) 997: 51 (5 ) 1002: 54 , 228 Fragmenta 25.24 M-W: 55 30.31 M-W: 55, 130 37.3 M-W: 54 76.21 M-W: 55 76.21 M-W: X.24 204.85 M-W: 51 (6 ) 211.5 M-W: 51 (6 ) 211.9 M-W: 54 278.6 M-W: 55 HIPPIATRICA praefatio 2: 171 HIPPOCRATES Epistulae 23 (Democr.): 17 3 Prorrheticus 2.30: 20 4 De Septimestr-ù Partu 1: 219

HOMER Iliad A 5 : 29 (33 ) A 41: VII.3 A 66: 198 A 66: 199 A 82: 29 (43) , 11 * A 108 : 27 (24) , 11* A 110: III.30 A 204: 30 (56 ) A 212: 30 (58 ) A 315: 195 A 315 (Schol.): XII.36 A 388: 29 (46 ) A 523: 31 (77) , 11 * B 36: 31 (76 ) B 122: 40 B 155: III.30 B 257: 30 (57 ) B 286: 36 (14 ) B 306: 195 B 325: 163 B 330: 30 (62) , 11 * B 350 (Schol.): 210 B 551: 32 B 701: 174, 236 r 291 : 40 r 309 : 39 A 160: 29 (52) , 11 * A 161: 36 (13 ) A 178: 29 (44 ) E 68: 39 E 446: III.30 E 553: 39 E 579: III.46 H 69: 29 (51) , 11 * H 104: 39, 1* H 353: 37 (22 ) H 380: 45 H 465: 25 (5 ) e 9: 10* G 247: 197, 198, 199, 200 0 286 : 30 (61 ) G 401 : III.9 0 415 : 29 (40 ) 0 454 : 30 (60 ) 0 548 : 195 1 56 : 41 I 156 : 29 (42 ) I 157 : 30 (70 ) - 32 9 -

Index locoru m I I I I I I I I I I I K K K K K K A A A A A A A A A A A A M M M M M N N N N N N H S H S S H H O O O O

245: 36 (10 ) 298: 29 (42 ) 299: 30 (70' ) 310: 31 (75 ) 411: 39 416: 39 456: 29 (34) , 49 493: 37 (25 ) 502 ff.: VII.6 598: 34 (101) , 11* 625: 1* 56: 45, 46 56 (Schol.): 2 104 f.: V.4 105: 36 (12 ) 303: 25 (9 ) , 51 (4 ) , 11' 470: 45, 100 77: III.30 191 : III.45 206: III.45 270 f.: 7 321 : III.46 349: III.46 424 f .: III.46 439: 46 441: 39 447 ff.: III.47 451: 39 730: 45 59: 27 (27) , 11* 116: 39, III.32 217: 36 (17 ) 221 f.: III. 4 436: 40 100: 10* 159 ff.: III.47 375: 10* 377: 29 (54) , 10*, 11* 529: III.46 602: 39 44: 29 (39) , 49 48: 11*, III.12 195-6: 31 (73 ) 196: III.5 262: 25 (3) , 11 * 280: 10* 402 ff. : III.47 70: III.30 74: 10* 228: 11*, III.l 413: 40

330 -

O 495: III.45 O 593: 29 (41 ) O 741: 40 n 83: 41, 49, 1* II 90: 11* n 502: 39 n 630: 40, 41 n 787: 39, 1* II 855: 39 2 4: 31 (76 ) 2 8: 33 (92 ) S 74: 31 (74) , 11 * 2 79: 36 (16 ) 2 116 : 33 (93 ) 2 298 : 45 2 328 : 10*, 11* 2 362: 28 (31) , 11 * 2 378 : 48 2 42 6 f.: III.1 5 2 507 : VI.24 T 22 : 34 (97) , 11 * T 32: 187 T 90 : 10* T 9 0 ff.: VII.6 T 107 : 49 T 165 : 39 T 242 : 25 (6 ) T 402 : 1.5 Y 101 : 40 Y 281 ff. : III.47 Y 369: 49 $ 288 : A.2