The history of Black Africa. Volume 1 [1]

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The history of Black Africa. Volume 1 [1]

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ENDRE SÍK THE HISTORY OF BLACK AFRICA

E n d re S í k

T H E H IS T O R Y O F B L A C K A F R IC A

Seventh (second English) edition

N o t e v e n u n d e r th e re c e n t c h an g e s o f o u r age h a s in te re s t b e e n m o re fo cu ssed o n a n y o th e r p a r t o f th e glo b e t h a n o n t h e e ffe rv e sc en t c o n tin e n t o f A frica . Y e t, th e g e n e ra l desire p ra c tic a lly e x p re sse d in e v e ry q u a r te r o f th e e a r th fo r re lia b le in fo rm a tio n o n h e r p a s t c o u ld n o t b e sa tis fie d b y th e re le v a n t lite ra tu re w h ich , o n t h e w hole, h a s r a th e r b e e n in v o lv e d in re n d e rin g e v e n ts o f c o lo n iz a tio n in s te a d o f f a c tu a l b a c k g ro u n d s o f th e h isto ric a l e v o lu tio n . T h e e m in e n t sc h o la r o f A fric a n a ffa irs P r o ­ fe sso r E n d re Sík is th e f irs t to u n d e rta k e c o m p re h en siv e in v e s tig a tio n s in to th e tr u e h is to ry o f B lac k A fric a c o v erin g a b o u t fo u r fifth s o f t h e e n tire t e r r ito ry . H is V olum es c o n ta in d e sc rip tio n s o f n a tiv e peo p les, th e ir c e n tu rie s-o ld stru g g le fo r free d o m , a n d fu rn ish u p -to -d a te p o in ts o f a p p ro a c h t o th e ep o ch s o f c o lo n iz a tio n re v e a lin g th e m fo r w h a t th e y w ere, a n d t o t h e p o s t-w a r d e v e lo p m e n ts re s u ltin g in t h e lib e ra tio n o f th e v a rio u s S ta te s . T h is is a n o b je c tiv e h is to ry b o o k a n d a v a lu a b le d o c u m e n t o f su rp risin g h isto ric a l t r u th s .

F r o m re v ie w s o f the p r e v i o u s e d itio n s

“ ... Sik’s book is very readable a n d scientific one, w ritte n w ith b ro ad know ledge o f th e h is­ to ry an d th e civilizations o f th e A frican w orld. I t is a useful an d com prehensive su r­ v ey o f th e h isto ry o f B lack A frica...” B IB L IO T H E C A O R IE N T A L IS , L E ID E N “ ...A n e m i n e n tl y r e a d a b le a n d s u i t a b l y illu s ­ t r a t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A f r ic a n h i s t o r y .. . ”

A SIA AND A FR IC A R E V IE W , LO N D O N “ ...s o b e s te c h e n ...d e g ro s s e K e n n t n is a f r i k a ­ n is c h e r G e s c h ic h te , d a s u m f a n g r e ic h e B ild ­ m a t e r i a l u n d d ie a u s f ü h r lic h e n B ib li o g r a ­ p h ie n z u je d e m A b s c h n i t t ...“

R E G IO B A S IL IE N S IS , B A SE L “ ...Zweifellos ist der vorliegende zw eite B and der G eschichte A frikas eine begrüßensw erte N e u e r s c h e in u n g ... ” E T H N O G R A P H I S C H —A R C H Ä O L O G I ­ S C H E Z E IT S C H R IF T , B E R L IN

E n d r e S ík T H E H I S T O R Y O F B L A C K A F R IC A VOLUME I

ENDRE SÍK

THE HISTORY OF BLACK AFRICA VOLUME I

SKVKNTH KDITIOX

A K A D É M I A I K I A D Ó , B U D A P E S T l«)7()

T ra n s la te d b y S Á N D O R SIM O N

F ir s t''e d itio n (F re n c h ), v o lu m e s

T

19ÍÍ1

11

19(12

S econd e d itio n (H u n g a ria n ), v o lu m e s I — I Г

194

T h ird e d itio n (F re n c h ), v o lu m e

11

19(i4

I

19(>5

F o u r th e d itio n (F re n c h ), v o lu m e F if th e d itio n (E n g lish ), v o lu m e s

I — 11

19(l(i

S ix th e d itio n (F re n c h ), v o lu m es

1— II

19(iS

@

A kadém iai K iadó, B udapest 11)70 P rin te d in H ungary

CONTENTS

L I S T OF P L A T E S A N D M A P S ................................................................................................ IN T R O D U C T IO N

.................................................................................................................

12 15

T h e h is to ry o f B lack A frica a s a special su b je c t of s tu d y . — T ask s a n d significance o f th e p re se n t s tu d y . — T h ree w rong w ays o f a p p ro a c h to A frican h isto ry . — T h e p ro p e r a p p ro a c h . — D ivision in to p e rio d s of A frican h isto ry . — D iv isio n o f B lack A frica in to h isto ric a l regions. — D ivision o f th e c o u n trie s o f B lack A frica. L ite ra ry sources. — B ib lio g ra p h y o f g e n era l w orks on A frican h isto ry .

PA R T ONE B L A C K A F R IC A

P R IO R

TO T H E E U R O P E A N

IN T R U S IO N

( u p to the end of the 15*h c e n tu ry )

T w o sectio n s in th e s tu d y of th is p e rio d ...............................................................................

43

CHAPTER I

T H E P E O P L E S O F B L A C K A F R IC A B E F O R E T H E E N D OF T H E 15T H CENTURY

....................................................................................................................................

45

T h e p rin c ip a l g ro u p s o f A frican peoples. — T h e S u d a n e s e p e o p l e s . — T h e peoples o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n . — T h e p eoples o f th e C e n tra l S u d an . — T h e peoples o f S en eg am b ia. — T h e peoples of U p p e r G uinea. — T h e p eoples o f A d a m a w a a n d o f th e region b etw ee n th e Congo a n d th e N ile. — T h e S u d an ese trib e s of N o rth ­ e a s t A frica. — T h e B a n t u p e o p l e s . A ) T h e E a s t e r n B a n t u . — T h e trib e s of th e W a h u m a S ta te s. — T h e H a m itic iz e d B a n tu . — T h e B a n tu N ilotes. — T h e Sw ahili. — T h e E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s u n a ffe c te d b y th e H a m itic influence. — В ) T h e S o u t h e r n B a n t u . — M o n o m o tap a a n d Z im babw e. — C) T h e Western B a n t u . — T h e Congo S ta te s. — T h e S ta te o f M w ata Y am v o . — T h e B ush o n g o S ta te . —T h e W a rn a S ta te . — T h e H a m i t o - S e m i t ­ ic p e o p l e s o f A f r i c a . — T h e N u b ia n s a n d N u b ia . — T h e S ta te o f A ksum a n d th e b irth of E th io p ia . — T h e orig in o f th e S om alis. — D a ta on th e a n ci e n t a n d m ed ia ev a l h is to ry o f th e Som alis. — T h e B e ja trib e s. — T h e A ra b s of T ro p ic al a n d S o u th A frica. — T h e S e m i-H am ite s. — T h e K h o i - K h o i a n d t h e S a a n p e o p l e s . — T h e “P у g m у” t r i b e s . — T h e p e o p l e s of M a d a g a s ­ c a r . — B ib lio g ra p h y re la tin g to th e p eoples o f B lack A frica. CHAPTER II

R E L A T IO N S

OF PEOPLES OF

W ORLD W IT H B L A C K A F R IC A

THE

A N C IE N T

AND

M E D IA E V A L

..................................................................................



W h a t d id th e a n c ie n t w orld know o f A frica? — T h e first a tte m p ts to e x p lo re A frica. T h e e x p e d itio n s o f P h a ra o h N echo, th e C a rth a g in ia n H a n n o a n d K ing

О

C am byses. — E x p lo ra to ry a c tiv itie s a n d g eo g rap h ica l w orks o f a n c ie n t G reeks a n d R o m an s. — A ra b p e n e tra tio n in to A frica. A ra b tra v e lle rs o f th e M iddle A ges. A w ak en in g o f m e d ia e v a l E u ro p e ’s in te re s t in A frica. — D isco v ery o f B lack A frica b y th e P o rtu g u e se . — T h e q u e stio n o f “ p rio rity ” in th e d isc o v ery o f A frica. — C h a ra c te ristic s o f P o rtu g u e se c o lo n iz atio n in th e 15th c e n tu ry . — B ib lio g ra p h y .

PART BLACK

TW O A F R IC A

IN

THE

ACE

OF P R IM IT IV E

A C C U M U L A T IO N

( T h e epoch of the slave tra d e — 16th to 18th cen tu ries) CHAPTER 1

IN T R O D U C T IO N

....................................................................................................................

Ill

O rigin o f th e slav e tra d e . — T h e slav e tr a d e a s a n e sse n tia l fa c to r in th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica in th e 16th to 18th c en tu rie s. — T h ree p h a se s o f th e slav e tr a d e in A frica. — H o rro rs o f th e slav e tra d e . — C h a ra c te ristic fe a tu re s o f E u ro p e a n colo­ n iz a tio n . — R e la tio n s b e tw ee n th e in tru d e rs a n d th e A frican s. — In te rn e c in e w a rfa re o f th e c o n q u ero rs. — O n th e eve o f a n e w epoch. — G eneral fe a tu re s of th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f A frica n p eoples in th e 16th to 18th c en tu rie s. — B ib lio ­ g ra p h y re la tin g to th e p erio d discussed. CHAPTER I I

W E S T A F R IC A

......................................................................................................................

The p e o p l e s

of

West

A f r i c a

i n t h e 16 t h

to

18 t h

122

centuries. —

T h e c o a s ta l trib e s. — T rib e s o f th e in te rm ed iate regions. —T h e peoples o f th e W e s te rn a n d C e n tra l S u d a n . — T h e r e g i o n s o f E u r o p e a n i n t r u s i o n (U p p er G u in e a C o ast). S ignificance o f th e W est A frican C oast in th e slav e tr a d e p e rio d . — B ritis h a d v e n tu r e r s o n th e W e st C oast a n d th e ir stru g g le w ith th e P o rtu g u e se . — T h e o rig in o f A fric a n C o m p an ie s. — G a m b ia. — Senegal. — G old C oast. — S ierra L eo n e. — T h e r e g i o n s u n a f f e c t e d b y E u r o p e a n i n t r u s i o n . — A ) T h e S u d a n c o u n t r i e s . — T h e W e s te rn S u d a n . — T h e C e n tra l S u d a n c o u n trie s (B o rn u , B a g h irm i, W a d a i a n d D a rfu r). B ) T h e c o u n t r i e s b e ­ tween

the

U p p e r

G u in ea

Coast

and

the

W estern

S u d a n

(A sh an ti. D a h o m ey ). — B ib lio g rap h y . CHAPTER III

T H E P O R T U G U E S E I N T H E CONGO A N D A N G O L A

.....................................

140

T h e peoples o f th e Congo in th e 16th to 18th c en tu rie s. — T h e “ C h ristia n iz a tio n ” o f th e C ongo. — T h e a tt a c k o f th e Ja g g a u p o n th e Congo a n d th e e x p u lsio n o f th e P o rtu g u e se . — T h e P o rtu g u e se co n q u est o f A ngola a n d th e u p risin g o f J in g a B a n d i. — P o rtu g u e se a n d D u tc h riv a lry for A ngola. — A ngola in th e 18th c e n tu ry . — T h e Congo c o u n trie s a fte r th e ex p u lsio n o f th e P o rtu g u e se . — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER IV

T H E E A S T C O A S T ............................................................................................................... T h e p eo p les o f E a s t A frica in th e 1 6th to 18th c en tu rie s. —T h e Ja g g a . — T h e M asai. — T h e W a h u m a S ta te s. — T h e trib e s of th e in te rio r a re a s. — T h e Sw ahili. — T h e M akw a a n d th e M azim ba. — M o n o m o tap a. — T h e T onga. — P o rtu g u e se c o n q u e sts on th e E a s t A frican C oast in th e e a rly 1 6th c e n tu ry . — P o rtu g u e se e x p e d itio n s in to M o n o m o tap a. — W ars o f lib e ra tio n o f th e M azim ba a n d o th e r trib e s o f S o u th e a s t A frica a g a in st th e P o rtu g u e se . P o rtu g u e se -T u rk ish w ar for th e E a s t A frican C oast. — T h e P o rtu g u e se regim e in th e 17th c e n tu ry a n d th e P o rtu g u e se -D u tc h r iv a lry fo r th e S o u th e a s t C oast. — S tru g g le w ith th e A rab s. E x p u lsio n o f th e P o rtu g u e se fro m th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f th e E a s t A frican C oast. — T h e P o rtu g u e se

6

150

co lo n y in S o u th e a s t A frica a n d th e p o w er s tru g g le fo r D elag o a B a y in th e 1 8th c e n ­ tu r y . — E a s t A frica u n d e r th e ru le o f M u scat. — T h e E a s te rn S u d a n in th e 1 6 th to 1 8 th c e n tu rie s. — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER V

E T H I O P I A ..................................................................................................................................

163

E th io p ia in th e e a rly 16th c e n tu ry . — P o rtu g u e se p e n e tra tio n in to E th io p ia . — E th io p ia a t w a r w ith th e a llian c e o f M oslem peoples. A tta c k o f th e G allas. — E th io p ia in th e p o w er o f J e s u its . E x p u ls io n o f J e s u its a n d P o rtu g u e se . — F e u d a l d isin te g ra tio n o f E th io p ia . — T h e first ste p s o f B rita in a n d F ra n c e in E th io p ia . — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER VI

C H A R A C T E R IS T IC S

OF

PO RTU GU ESE

C O L O N IZ A T IO N I N

THE

1 6 T H T O 1 8 T H C E N T U R I E S .........................................................................................

168

B ib lio g ra p h y . C H APTER VII

T H E S O U T H A F R I C A N C O A S T ..................................................................................

172

T h e peoples o f S o u th A frica in th e 1 6 th to 1 8th c e n tu rie s. — T h e first ste p s o f th e E u ro p e a n s a t th e C ape o f G ood H o p e . — O rigin o f C ape C olony. — T h e sy ste m o f t h e C o m p an y . D e v e lo p m e n t o f c o lo n iz atio n . — T h e lo t o f t h e K h o i-K h o i a n d S a a n peoples u n d e r th e ru le o f th e C o m p an y . — S tru g g le o f th e B oer co lo n ists w ith th e a d m in is tra tio n o f th e D u tc h E a s t In d ia C o m p an y . — A n g lo -F re n c h riv a lry for th e Cape. T e m p o ra ry o c c u p a tio n o f C ape C olony b y F ra n c e . — T h e la s t efforts o f t h e C o m p an y . — T h e first e n c o u n te rs w ith th e X h o s a trib e s . S h a rp e n in g c o n ­ flicts b e tw ee n th e C o m p an y a n d th e s e ttle rs. — R e v o lt o f th e s e ttle rs a g a in s t th e C o m p an y a n d th e se izu re o f th e c o lo n y b y B rita in . — C h a ra c te ristic s o f D u tc h c o lo n iz atio n in S o u th A frica. — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER V III

M A D A G A S C A R .........................................................................................................................

185

T h e peoples o f M a d a g asc a r in th e 1 6th to 1 8th c e n tu rie s. — T h e first a tte m p ts of E u ro p e a n s to in v a d e M ad ag ascar. — U nsuccessful a tte m p ts b y F ra n c e t o colonize M ad ag ascar. — T h e a g e of p ira te s in M a d ag ascar. — T h e seco n d p h a se o f F re n c h a tta c k s u p o n M a d a g asc a r a n d th e a d v e n tu re o f C o u n t B e n y o v sz k y . — B ib lio g ra p h y .

P A R T THREE B L A C K A F R IC A (1 7 8 9 -1 8 7 0 )

IN

T H E P E R IO D O F IN D U S T R IA L C A P IT A L IS M

CHAPTER I

IN TR O D U C TIO N

. . . . ..............................................................................................................

191

C h a rac te ristic s o f th e perio d . — C h a ra c te ristic s o f th e “ stru g g le a g a in s t th e sla v e tr a d e ” . — C h a ra c te ristic s o f th e e x p lo rin g e x p e d itio n s. — T h e in te rn e c in e stru g g le o f E u ro p e a n c o n q u ero rs. — R e la tio n s b e tw e e n E u ro p e a n s a n d A fricans. T h e stru g g le of A frica n peoples a g a in st th e in tru d e rs . — B ib lio g ra p h y re la tin g to th is perio d . CHAPTER II

W E ST A F R IC A ..........................................................................................................................

202

T h e p e o p l e s о f W e s t A f r i c a i n t h e 19 t h c e n t u r y ( u p t o 1 8 7 0 ). — T h e c o a sta l trib e s. — P eo p les o f th e in te rm e d ia te regions. — T h e F u la h . —

7

In flu e n c e o f t h e F u la h . M ig r a tio n o f p e o p le s a n d t h e i r s tr u g g le w ith t h e F u l a h . —

T h e peoples of A d a m a wa. — T h e C e n tra l S u d a n S ta te s. B o rn u . B a g h irm i. W ad a i. — In d e p e n d e n t trib e s o f th e C e n tra l S u d an . — A ng lo -F ren ch stru g g le on th e W est C oast d u rin g th e F re n c h R e v o lu tio n . — T h e tra v e ls o f M ungo P a rk . — A ngloF re n c h e x p an sio n in W est A frica from 1815 to 1850. — S ie rra L eone a n d G am bia. — T h e s tr u g g le o f t h e A s h a n ti w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n in t h e f irs t h a l f o f t h e 1 9 th c e n ­ t u r y . — F r a n c e in S e n e g a l f ro m 1815 to 1850. — B r itis h e x p a n s io n f ro m 1850 to 1 870. — F r e n c h e x p a n s io n f ro m 1850 t o 1870. — G e r m a n p e n e t r a t i o n i n to W e s t A fric a . — O rig in o f L ib e ria . — B ib lio g r a p h y . CHAPTER III

W E S T A N D C E N T R A L E Q U A T O R I A L A F R I C A ............................................ 223 T h e p e o p l e 8 o f t h e C o n g o i n t h e 19th c e n t u r y (up to 1870). T h e C o n g o c o u n tr ie s . — T r ib e s o f t h e i n la n d r e g io n s . — T h e M a n y e m a . — T h e W a r u a . — T h e B e m b a . — T rib e s o f t h e in t e r m e d ia t e re g io n s . — T h e K io k o . —

T h e M a n g b a ttu a n d th e A zan d e. — T h e L u n d a c o u n tries. — T h e F a n g trib e s. — P o rtu g u e se possessions in E q u a to ria l A frica a fte r th e a b o litio n o f th e slav e tra d e . — P e n e tra tio n of B rita in , F ra n c e a n d G e rm a n y in to W est a n d C e n tra l E q u a to ria l A frica in th e first h a lf o f th e 19th c e n tu ry . — B ritish a d v e n tu re in F e rn a n d o P o . — T h e B r i t i s h o n t h e C a m e ro o n C o a s t. — T h e F r e n c h in G a b o n . — A G e r m a n e x p e ­ d itio n in to A n g o la . — A n g lo - F r e n c h r i v a l r y in W e s t E q u a t o r i a l A f ric a in t h e fiftie s t o s e v e n tie s a n d t h e in c r e a s in g a c t i v i t y o f G e r m a n y . — B ib lio g r a p h y . CHAPTER IV

S O U T H A F R I C A ....................................................................................................................

234

Seizure of Cape Colony by Great Britain — “ T h e G reat T re k ” a n d th e stru g g le of th e B oers for a n in d e p e n d e n t R e p u b lic of th e ir ow n. — U n ifica tio n o f th e T ra n sv a a l. B oer e x p an sio n a n d B ritish in trig u e s. — B e ginning of th e “ D iam ond R u s h ” . —

A w a k e n i n g of t he i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s of S o u t h A f r i c a and their d e f e n s i v e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the c o n q u e r o r s . T h e X h o sa. T h e Z ulus. T h e trib e s d e ta c h e d from th e Z ulus (T he G aza, th e T o n g a, th e Sw azi, th e A ngoni, th e M atab ele, th e B e ch u a n a, th e B a su to , th e M akololo a n d th e B a ro tse ). T h e life o f th e K h o i-K h o i trib e s. — I n te r n a l d e v e lo p m e n t of th e B ritish colonies u n til 1870. — P o rtu g u e se a n d B ritish a tte m p ts a t e x p an sio n in S o u th e a s t A frica. — G e rm an p e n e tra tio n in to S o u th A frica. — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER V

E A S T A F R I C A ......................................................................................................................... 255 T h e p e o p l e s o f E a s t A f r i c a i n t h e 19th c e n t u r y (up to 1870). O rigin o f th e S u lta n a te o f Z an z ib a r. — M ig ra tio n of E a s t A frica n P eo p les a n d th e ir in te rn e c in e stru g g les. —T h e W anyam w ezi. — T h e W ahehe. — In c re a sin g A ra b p e n e ­ tra tio n . — T he M asai. —T h e W a h u m a S ta te s. —T h e first B ritish a tte m p ts on th e E a s t C oast. — A nglo G erm an riv a lry in E a s t A frica. Secession o f Z an z ib a r from M u scat. — B ib lio g ra p h y . CHAPTER VI

THE EASTERN SUDAN

.................................................................................................

C o n q u e st o f th e S u d a n b y M oham m ed Ali. — T h e S u d a n u n d e r th e ru le o f M oham ­ m ed Ali. — F re n c h e x p ed itio n s in th e tim e of M oham m ed Ali. — P o w er riv a lry in th e S u d a n a fte r th e d e a th o f M oham m ed Ali a n d p re p a ra tio n s fo r th e B ritish c o n q u e s t o f th e S u d a n . — D a rfu r a n d B a h r el G hazal in th e 19th c e n tu ry . — B ib lio g ra p h y .

8

264

CHAPTER VII

E T H I O P I A A N D S O M A L I L A N D .................................................. .........................................

271

E th io p ia in th e first h a lf o f th e 19th c e n tu ry . — T h e N egus T h eo d o re a n d th e u n ifi­ c a tio n of E th io p ia . — In trig u e s of th e E u ro p e a n pow ers a n d th e stru g g le of T h eo d o re a g a in st th e foreign in tru d e rs . — T h e first a tte m p ts to p e n e tra te in to S om aliland. — B ibliography. CHAPTER V i li

M A D A G A S C A R ..................................................................................................... The

M a l a g a s y

p eo p les

i n t h e 19th

277

c e n t u r y ( u p t o 1 8 7 0 ) . — Anglo-

F re n c h riv a lry fo r th e Isla n d in th e y e a rs of th e R e v o lu tio n . — U nificatio n o f th e H o v as. — R a d a m a I a n d his stru g g le w ith F ra n c e . — U nion o f th e A nglo-F rench aggressors a n d th e defensive w a rs o f th e H o v a S ta te (1828-45). — R enew al of A n glo-F rench riv a lry . A n g lo -F re n ch in trig u e s a n d th e c o n sp irac y of 1858. — S h a rp e n in g of A n g lo -F re n ch riv a lry . R a d a m a I I a n d th e coup d ’e ta t of 1863. -R a so h e rin a (1863-68). B eginning o f th e g o v e rn m e n t of R a in ila ia riv o n i. — B ib lio g rap h y .

PART

FOUR

BLACK AFRICA I N TH E PERIOD OF TH E TALISM

TRANSITION

OF C A P I ­

INTO IM P E R IA L IS M (C o n q u e st a n d 'partition of A f r i c a ,

1870-1900).

CHAPTER l

INTRODUCTION

...............................................................................................

285

T h e s t r a g g l e of E u r o p e a n p o w e r s f or the p a r t i t i o n of A f ­ r i c a . — D iffere n t se c to rs of th e stru g g le for th e p a r titio n of A frica, —C h a ra c te r­

istic s a n d fo rm s o f fcfitt stru g g le . — M onopolistic co m p an ies. — T rav e lle rs a n d m issio n aries. - “ A g re e m e n ts” w ith trib a l chiefs. — R e sistan c e a n d stru g g le of th e A frican peoples. — C onsequences of im p e ria lis t o c cu p a tio n . — T w o general q u e stio n s of th e h is to ry o f th is p e rio d . — P r i n c i p a l s t a g e s i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e p a r t i t i o n o f A f r i c a . In te n s ific a tio n of E u ro p e a n E x p a n s io n (1871-1884). B rita in . F ra n c e . I ta ly . B elgium . G e rm an y . — E u ro p e a n c o n q u e s ts b y th e e n d o f 1884. T h e B erlin C onference. — Schem es o f c o n q u e st a fte r th e B e rlin C onference. - F o r m s a n d m eth o d s of th e stru g g le. — T h e stru g g le for th e p a rtitio n of A frica fro m 1885 to 1895. — A frica in 1895. — T h e stru g g le for E th io p ia . — A n g lo -F re n ch conflict in th e E a s te rn S u d a n (F a sh o d a ). — T he A nglo-B oer w a r. C om p letio n o f th e c o n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n of A frica. — L i b e r a ­ t i o n m o v e m e n t o f t he p e o p l e s o f B l a c k A f r i c a i n t h e p e r i o d o f i t в p a r t i t i o n ( 1 8 7 0 -1 9 0 0 ) . F irs t sta g e o f th e c o n q u e s t (1870-1885). —

Second sta g e of th e c o n q u e st (1885-1900). — T h ree big c e n tre s of th e lib e ra tio n stru g g le o f A frican peoples a t th e close o f th e 19th c e n tu ry . — B ib lio g rap h y . CHAPTER II

WEST AFRICA

...................................................................................................

The Eu ro p ea n

powers

in

West

Africa.

311

— G row ing aggression l a t e

in th e se v e n ties a n d e arly in th e eighties. — G e rm an c o n q u ests a n d th e p a rtitio n of W est A frica (1884-85). — T h e a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n of West A f r i c a . — B ritish v e n tu re s. — F re n c h offensive in th e W e ste rn S u d a n . — Sam ory . — F re n c h c o n q u e sts in o th e r regions. — T h e c o n q u e st o f D ahom ey. W’a rs a g a in st G bedasse. — T h e C am eroons a n d T o g o lan d . — P o w e r stru g g le fo r th e reg io n of L ak e C had. — R a b a h ’s stru g g le a g a in st F ra n c e . — A c tio n s o f th e Senus-

L A T E S

I-V III.

Relics of African art from the time before the European invasion 1—4. V estiges o f th e a n c ie n t civ ilizatio n o f Z im b ab w e 5. O belisk in A ksum 6 —15. W o rk s of a r t o f peoples of W e st A frica 6. B ronze h ead , B enin, e a rly 1 6 th c e n tu ry 7. B ronze ta b le t w ith pearls, B en in , 1 7th c e n tu ry 8. Iv o ry fig u re in laid w ith co p p er, B en in , 1 8 th c e n tu ry 9. B ronze fig u re o f h o rsem an , B en in , 1 7th c e n tu ry 10. T h ro n e se t w ith p ea rls, C am eroon 11. D ec o ra tio n o f a b a ttle b o a t, D o u ala (C am eroon) 12. T e rra -c o tta h e a d , Ife (N igeria), 1 3 th c e n tu ry 13. M oulded co p p er h ea d , Ife (N igeria), 1 3th c e n tu ry 14. W ooden s ta tu e , D ah o m ey 15. P olished eb o n y s ta tu e tte , B a k u b a K in g d o m (Congo) 16. C a p ita l c ity o f th e L oango S ta te a b o u t th e m id d le o f th e 1 7 th c e n tu ry (F ro m th e book o f O .D ap p e r, N au h e u rig e B e sch ry v in g e d e r A frikaensche G ew esten, A m ste rd a m , 1671) 17. C ave p a in tin g s o f th e S aan 1 X -X . 18—21. H o rro rs o f th e slav e tr a d e X I. 2 2 —23. S laves freed fro m a slave-sh ip seized b y th e B ritish in th e 6 0 ’s o f th e 19 th c e n tu ry (F ro m th e book o f C a p ta in G. L . S u lliv an , D how C hasing in Z a n z ib a r W a te rs a n d on th e E a s te rn C o ast o f A frica. N a rra tiv e o f F iv e Y e a rs ’ E x p erie n ce s in th e S u p p re ssio n o f th e S lav e T ra d e , 2nd ed. L on d o n , 1873) X II. 24. S la u g h te r’s H ill X III-X IV . 25. B asu to s lig h tin g w ith th e B ritish a n d th e B oers 26. B a su to ch ief M osheu

12

27 — 28. T h e p eoples o f th e E a s te rn S u d an in b a ttle a g a in s t th e B ritish in ­

v ad e rs (th e B a k e r E x p e d itio n ) (F ro m th e book o f S. W . B a k er, Ism ailia, A N a rra tiv e o f th e E x p e d itio n to C e n tra l A frica fo r th e S u p ­ pressio n o f th e S lave T ra d e O rganized b y Ism ail, K h e d iv e o f E g y p t. 2 vols. L on d o n , 1874)

XV. 29. T h e N egus T heodore X V I. 30. T he S u lta n S am o ry 31. Grbedasse, k in g o f D ahom ey

XVII. 32. M utesa, kin g o f U g an d a X V III-X IX . 3 3 —34. A tro cities c o m m itte d in E a s t A frica b y th e G erm a n tra v e lle r P e te rs (F ro m th e book o f C arl P e te rs , D ie D eu tsch e E m in -P a sc h a -E x p ed itio n , L eipzig, 1891) 35a. T he tw o palaces o f th e s u lta n o f Z a n z ib a r on A u g u st 26, 1896, a t 9 a.m . . . . 35b. . . . a n d w h a t th e y looked like 50 m in u te s la te r (F ro m th e b o o k La vie á, M adagascar, o f H e n ri M ager, a F re n c h n e w sp a p erm a n , who o n A u g u st 26, 1896, o n h is w ay to M ad ag ascar, w hile s ta y in g in th e p o r t o f Z an z ib ar, to o k th e se tw o p ic tu re s im m ed ia te ly befo re a n d a f te r th e shelling) X X -X X II. 36. 37. 38. 39.

A w arrio r o f th e M a h d ist tro o p s T h e M ausoleum o f th e M ahdi, w hich w as d e s tro y e d b y K itc h e n e r C alipha A b d u lla h in th e b a ttle C alipha A b d u lla h ly in g d ea d a f te r th e b a ttle o f J e d id

xxni-xxrv. 40. T he N egus M enelik 41. E th io p ia n soldiers XXV.

42. Zulu chief Cetywayo X X V I-X X V II. 43. B ritish tro o p s going to pillage a n d b u rn d o w n a B o e r village (The p ic tu re a p p e a re d in th e L o n d o n I llu s tr a te d N ew s a n d w as re p rin te d in J . S ch reib er, D e r F re ih e itsk a m p f d e r B u re n , vol. ii.)

44. Lobengula, king of the Matabele

xxvra-xxix. 45. R a n a v a lo n a I I I , q u een o f M ad ag ascar 46. R a in ilaia riv o n i, p rim e m in iste r o f M ad ag ascar

ц

M A PS

T E R R IT O R IA L D IV IS IO N O F T H E P R IN C IP A L E T H N IC G R O U P S O F A F R IC A E X P A N S IO N A N D T H E M A IN R O U T E S O F T H E SL A V E T R A D E ( T he hach u res in d ic a te the in ten siven ess of the sla v e tra d e )

T H E M A IN ST A G ES O F T H E E U R O P E A N IN T R U S IO N A N D E X P A N S IO N I N A F R IC A 1885 T H E M A IN ST A G E S O F T H E E U R O P E A N IN T R U S IO N A N D E X P A N S IO N IN A F R IC A 1895 T H E M A IN ST A G E S O F T H E E U R O P E A N IN T R U S IO N A N D E X P A N S IO N IN A F R IC A 1902

14

IN TR O D U C T IO N T H E H IS T O R Y O F B L A C K A F R IC A AS A S P E C IA L S U B JE C T O F STU D Y

T h e p u rp o se o f th is book is to give a n o u tlin e o f th e h isto ry o f B lack A frica, th a t is to say , o f su b -S a h a ra n A frica. T h e n o rth e rn b o rd e r o f th is p a r t ru n s ap p ro x im a te ly alo n g la titu d e 20° N o rth . W h y h as th e h isto ry o f B lac k A frica been chosen as a special su b je c t o f stu d y ? L ite ra tu re o fte n refers to th is p a r t o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t as “ N egro A fric a.” W e re je c t th is te rm as u n sc ien tific a n d in a c c u ra te , a n exp ressio n w ith a d ecid ed ly re a c tio n a ry , im p e ria list bias. F o r th e sam e rea so n , th e use o f th e w o rd “ N eg ro ” b y v ario u s e th n o g ra p h e rs a n d h isto ria n s as a g en e ral te rm fo r th e com m on d en o m in atio n o f th e S u d an ese a n d th e B a n tu peoples as w ell as th e te rm “ S u d an ese N eg ro ” a re e q u a lly in a c c u ra te . T h e w ord “ N eg ro ” is in c o rrec t in b o th th e th e o re tic a l a n d th e p ra c tic a l resp e ct a n d is, in a d d itio n , essen tially a n in su ltin g n ic k n am e . E a c h people h as its ow n n am e, y e t collectively w e m a y sp e ak o f “ S u d an ese p eo p les” a n d “ B a n tu p eo p les.” N o com m on te rm is n ecessary for th e d e n o m in a tio n o f th e se g ro u p s.1 A n o th e r te rm to av o id is th e w ord “ n a tiv e ” w hich also h a s a c e rta in co n n o ta tio n o f c o n te m p t o r d isc rim in a tio n . W h e th e r we refer to all p eoples o f A frica o r to th e peoples o r trib e s o f a c o u n try o r a n a re a , it is m o re co rrec t to use th e w o rd “ A fric an .” T h e te rm “ N egro A fric a” in d ic a te s t h a t th is p a r t o f A frica is in h a b ite d b y d ark co loured people, in c o n tra s t to th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t w here th e p eo p le’s sk in is o f a lig h te r sh a d e. I t is obv io u sly a reflec tio n o f o b sc u ra n tist ra c e p reju d ice, im p ly in g t h a t race, t h a t is, d istin c t biological ch a ra c te ristic s, a n d especially th e colour o f sk in as a m a rk e d p e c u lia rity o f v ario u s ra c e g ro u p s h a v e a n im p o rta n t p a r t to p la y in h isto ry . T h e te rm “ N eg ro ” im plies t h a t th e peoples in h a b itin g B lack A frica c o n s titu te a ra c ia l u n ity w hich se p a ra te s th e m fro m , a n d c o n tra s ts th e m w ith , th e peoples o f N o rth A frica w ho belong to a n o th e r rac e. T h is is ta n ta m o u n t to a n id eo ­ logical w eapon used in science a n d lite ra tu re fo r re a c tio n a ry , im p e rialist p o litician s to w hitew ash im p e ria list co n q u ests a n d th e o ppressio n o f A frican p eoples referred to as th e “ b la ck ra c e ” , w hich in th e v o c a b u la ry o f su c h a u th o rs is sy n o n y m o u s w ith “ low er, in ferio r ra c e ” , a rac e called u p o n a n d d e stin e d o n ly to se rv e th e w h ite race. T his e n tire rac e co n c ep t is u n te n a b le . T h ere a re n o “ su p e rio r” o r “ in fe rio r” races. T h e in te lle c tu a l fac u ltie s a n d m oral q u alitie s o f a n y p a rtic u la r h u m a n being, as well 1 T h e te rm “ B lac k A fric a ” is n o t a fo rtu n a te one e ith e r. I t w o u ld seem m o re a p p ro p ria te to use th e ex p ressio n “ su b -S a h a ra n A frica ” c om m on in th e E n g lish lite ra tu re . Since, h ow ever, th e e q u iv a le n ts o f th is te rm in o th e r lan g u a g es a re p e rip h ra stic a n d ch iefly b ecau se th e A fricans th em se lv es h av e a d o p te d th e d e n o m in a tio n “ B lack A fric a ” a n d do n o t look u p o n it as a n in s u lt­ ing te rm (v ery m u ch lik e th e A m ericans o f A frican o rig in w ho h a v e n o th in g a g a in s t th e te rm “ N eg ro ” ), th e a u th o r sees no o b je c tio n to u sin g it.

15

as th e n a tio n a l ch a ra c te ristic s o f peoples, a re n o t d e te rm in e d b y racial, o r in g en eral biological, q u alitie s b u t are p ro d u c ts o f th e ir social a n d econom ic d ev e lo p m e n t. T h e h isto ric d estin ie s o f peoples a re d e te rm in e d , n o t b y th e p a rtic u la r an th ro p o lo g ica l g ro u p th e y belong to , b u t b y th e ir, social a n d econom ic ex isten ce, w hich in tu r n is d e te rm in e d b y th e degree o f d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e p ro d u c tiv e forces. T h is is w h y i t is u n sc ien tific to d iv id e A frica, fro m th e p o in t o f view o f its h isto ry , in to tw o — “ B la c k ” a n d “ N o rth e r n ” (or “ A ra b ” ) — p a r ts only becau se th e p eo p le’s skin is d a rk e r so u th o f th e E q u a to r th a n along th e M e d ite rran e an co ast. F u rth e rm o re , to sp e ak o f a hom ogeneous “ N eg ro ” or “ b la c k ” rac e in h a b itin g T ro p ­ ical a n d S o u th A frica is a tr a v e s ty o f th e science o f a n th ro p o lo g y . F i r s t , ev en w ith r e g a r d to r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e “ N e g r o e s ” o f A f r i c a belong t o v ario u s g r o u p s . H e re a r e a few fac ts. T h e sk in o f th e K h o i-K h o i (“ H o tte n to ts ” ) a n d th e S a a n (“ B u sh m en ” ),1 w ho live in th e s o u th o f th e c o n tin e n t, is b y no m eans b la ck b u t yellow . T h e n o rth e rn p a r t o f T ro p ical A frica (th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u d an ) is in h a b ite d b y a n u m b e r o f peoples w ho h av e n o th in g in com m on w ith th e “ N eg ro ” rac e b u t, o n th e c o n tra ry , a re closely re la te d to th e p eoples o f N o rth A f r ic a (B erbers, T uaregs). T h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f m a n y r e g io n s o f C e n t r a l a n d E a s t A f r ic a i n ­ c lu d e a r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t A r a b e le m e n t . A p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f M a d a g a s c a r is M a l a y a n .

Second, not unlike all the other continents, Africa over thousands of years was the scene of the migrations and merging of a great number of peoples of different races, as a result of which “pure races” exist also there only in the imagination of reaction­ ary anthropologists.12 All th is is elo q u en t p ro o f o f th e a b s u rd ity o f d iscussing “ B lack A frica” as a special su b je c t o f h isto ry on th e basis o f th e rac ial u n ity a ttr ib u te d to its peoples. A h isto ry o f “ B lack A frica” as such does n o t ex ist. W h a t ex ists a re th e h isto ries o f h u n d red s o f p eoples a n d trib e s living in th is te rr ito r y a n d o f a m u ltitu d e o f trib a l alliances a n d s ta te fo rm a tio n s c re a te d b y th e m in th e course o f h isto ry . T h ere ex ist also th e h istories o f scores o f colonies estab lish ed b y th e E u ro p e a n in v a d ers. F ro m th e an th ro p o lo g ica l a n d eth n o lo g ical p o in ts o f view a g re a t m a n y A frican peoples a re closely in te rre la te d , w hile o th e rs —th o u g h o fte n living in th e im m ed ia te n eig h ­ bou rh o o d o f one a n o th e r o r ev en to g e th e r in one a n d th e sam e re g io n —a re alien to o n e a n o th e r rac ially a n d eth n ica lly . I n one o r a n o th e r p erio d o f th e ir h isto ry several co u n tries o f T ropical a n d S o u th A frica bo re strik in g sim ilarities as to th e ir econom ic s tru c tu re s a n d socio-econom ic d ev elo p m en t, w hile o th e rs show ed m a rk e d d issim ilar­ ities. I t is th e h isto ry o f each people an d each c o u n try ta k e n se p a ra te ly t h a t sh o u ld be a su b je c t o f s tu d y . A lth o u g h “ B lack A frica” as such ( th a t is, as a te rr ito r y in h a b ite d b y peo p les w hich a re bou n d to g e th e r b y th e ir alleged rac ial u n ity ) is a fictitio u s co n cep t, y e t we h av e to s tu d y th e h isto ry o f th e co u n tries a n d peoples o f th is p a r t o f A frica as a w hole because, w ith o r w ith o u t racial rela tio n sh ip , th e d estin ies o f th e se co u n tries an d peoples w ere b o u n d to g e th e r b y h isto ry itself. T he co u n tries a n d peoples o f N o rth A frica w ere m o re o r less k n o w n a lre a d y to th e an c ie n t w orld. T h ey p la y ed a considerab le role in a n c ie n t h isto ry . I n an c ie n t 1 L ite ra tu re g enerally calls th e K h o i-K h o i“ H o tte n to ts ” a n d th e S a a n “ B u sh m e n .” B o th d e n o m ­ in a tio n s a re d e ro g a to ry , a b u siv e n ick n a m es giv en to th o se peoples b y th e ir f irs t “ c iv iliz ed ” a b u se rs, a n d a re th e re fo re inadm issible. 2 Cf. F . L c s c h a n , Völker, R a ssen , S p ra ch en (B erlin, 1922), pp. 9 — 10; F . R a t z e l , A n th ro p o geographie, 2nd ed. (L eipzig, 1899), p. 587; Ch. F i n o t , L e p ré ju g é des races (P a ris, 1921), pp. 88, 500.

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tim es a n d d u rin g th e M iddle A ges th e ir w hole h is to ry w as closely re la te d to th e h is­ to r y o f F u ro p e a n a n d A sia tic co u n tries. I n c o n tra s t to th e la tte r , th e c o u n trie s o f B lack A frica re m a in e d a lm o st co m p letely terra in co g n ita u p till th e en d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . T h e peoples o f E u ro p e a n d A sia h a d b u t fra g m e n ta ry a n d u tte r ly in a c c u ­ r a te k now ledge o f ev en th e ex isten ce o f th e se c o u n tries a n d a c o m p letely fo g g y n o ­ tio n a b o u t th e peoples o f th e se p a r ts o f A frica. T h e p eo p les o f B lac k A frica liv e d in alm o st co m p lete iso latio n fro m th e re s t o f th e w orld. A p a r t fro m a few u n su ccessfu l in d iv id u al a tte m p ts to ex p lo re w h a t th e a n c ie n t a n d m e d iae v al w o rld called th e “ m y ste rio u s” c o n tin e n t, a n d fro m som e com m ercial in te rc o u rse c a rrie d o n b y A ra b s, G reeks a n d o th e rs in c e rta in regions o f C e n tra l A frica a n d p a rtic u la rly alo n g th e e a s t co a st, th e re w as n o c o n ta c t w h a tso e v e r b etw e en th e p eo p les o f th is v a s t te rr ito r y a n d th e o u tsid e w orld. T h e h is to ry o f th e “ civilized ” w o rld to o k its o w n course, a n d th e “ sa v a g e ” p a r t o f A frica w e n t its ow n w ay, to o . A n d , re g a rd in g th o se p eo p le as “ sa v ag e s” , m a n y h isto ria n s even refu se its p eoples t h e h o n o u r o f ra n k in g th e m a m o n g th e su b je c ts o f th e h isto ric al process o f th o se tim e s. I n n in e o u t o f te n g en e ral w orks o n a n c ie n t a n d m e d iae v al h is to ry y o u w ill find th e h is to ry o f E u ro p e a n a n d A siatic peoples, a n d o f th e peoples o f N o rth A frica, b u t n o t a single w o rd a b o u t th e co u n tries a n d p eoples o f B lac k A frica.

Prior to their encounter with Europeans the majority of African peoples still led a primitive, barbaric life, many of them even on the lowest level of barbarism. Some of them lived in complete, or almost complete, isolation; the contacts, if any, of others were but scattered skirmishes with neighbouring peoples. The State, taken in the real sense of the word, was a notion unknown to most African peoples, as classes did not exist there either. Or rather — both existed already, but only in embryo. Therefore it is unrealistic to speak of their “history” — in the scientific sense of the word — before the appearance of the European invaders. More exactly, the study of this early history of the African peoples belongs in the province of ethnography rather than of historical science. I n a d d itio n , th e re a re in T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica also p eo p les w ho, long before th e a p p e a ra n c e o f E u ro p e a n s, h a d th e ir ow n S ta te s w ith slav eh o ld in g o r feu d al sy stem s a t a develo p ed sta g e o r a t a n in itia l sta g e o f d e v e lo p m e n t. T h e h is to ry o f such S ta te s reach es b a c k to a n c ie n t a n d m e d iaev al tim e s. T h e y in c lu d ed E th io p ia , sev eral c o u n tries o f th e W e ste rn , C e n tra l a n d E a s te r n S u d an , a n d som e o th e rs. L ittle o f th e ir h is to ry h as com e do w n to u s, a n d w h a t w e do k n o w a b o u t i t is fa r less a c c u ra te a n d a u th e n tic th a n th e h is to ry o f th e peoples o f E u ro p e o r N o rth A frica. T h is is ev en m o re tr u e o f th e e a rly h is to ry o f th e less d ev elo p ed A frican p eoples w h ich , b eing a so rt o f no m a n ’s la n d b etw e en h is to ry a n d e th n o g ra p h y , is n o n e th e less w o rth s tu d y in g a n d discussing. Tw o g en e ral fe a tu re s a re c h a ra c te ristic o f b o th th e m o re d ev elo p ed a n d th e less d ev elo p ed co u n tries o f B lac k A frica, v iz.: (1) th e ir iso latio n fro m th e o u tsid e w orld in a n c ie n t a n d e a rly m e d iae v al tim e s, a n d (2) th e sc a rc ity a n d q u e stio n a b le re lia ­ b ility o f o u r know ledge o f th e ir a n c ie n t a n d m e d iae v al h isto ry . T h ese tw o fe a tu re s ju s tify us in d iscussing th e a n c ie n t a n d m e d iaev al h is to ry o f all th e c o u n tries a n d p eoples o f B lack A frica to g e th e r, as a com plex o f c o u n tries w hich a t t h a t tim e h a d d efin itely sim ilar h isto ric a l co n d itio n s, d ifferen t fro m th o se o f o th e r co u n tries, in c lu d ­ ing ev en th e c o u n tries o f N o rth A frica, w hich th e re fo re h a v e to b e d e a lt w ith se p ­ a ra te ly . C o nditions in B lac k A frica ch a n g ed as a consequen ce o f th e in tru sio n o f E u ro p e a n s. S om e c o u n trie s a n d p eoples cam e in to c o n ta c t w ith E u ro p e a n s, w hile o th e rs rem a in ed iso la te d a long w hile. A grow ing n u m b e r o f c o u n trie s e n te r e d th e sta g e o f a u th e n - 2 2 E. Sík: B lack A frica I.

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tic h isto ry . F ro m th e 15 th o r th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry o n w ard s, m o re o r less reliab le w ritte n sources a re a v a ila b le o n a n u m b e r o f co u n tries. T h u s, as re g a rd s th e tw o afo re-m en ­ tio n e d g en e ral fe a tu re s, th e co u n tries o f T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica cease to p re se n t a com plex o f c o u n tries living u n d e r sim ila r co n d itio n s. B u t ev en reg ard less o f th e se tw o com m on fe a tu re s, th e re a p p e a rs a new fa c t w hich lin k s th o se p eo p le still closer to g e th e r — th e p e n e tra tio n o f foreign c a p ita l. I n th e b eg in n in g (1 6 th to 1 8 th c e n tu ­ ries) th e E u ro p e a n s la u n c h e d p re d a to ry ra id s in se arch o f slav es a n d gold, a n d m in o r p a r tia l co n q u e sts w ere m a d e. I n th e 19 th c e n tu r y th e re follow ed cam p aig n s o f co n ­ q u e st, s y ste m a tic seizures o f te rrito rie s , a n d w ars b e tw e e n th e co n q u ero rs fo r th e p arcellin g o u t o f th e e n tire te r r ito r y o f T ro p ical a n d B lack A frica. F o re ig n in v a d e rs s u b ju g a te d all c o u n tries a n d p eoples o f th is p a r t o f A frica on e a f te r a n o th e r. T h e h isto ric a l d e stin ie s o f th e se c o u n tries a re th u s e ssen tially th e sa m e; th e e v e n ts o f th e w ars a n d cam p aig n s o f co n q u e st, as w ell as th e e v e n ts in th e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d th e stru g g le o f th e v ario u s A frican peoples, in te rm in g le d in te n s a n d th o u sa n d s o f p laces. A s concerns th e age o f im p erialism , th e h isto ric a l d e stin ie s o f N o rth A frica (as o f a n y colonial c o u n try ) a re a g a in essen tially th e sam e. T h e im p e ria lists’ colonial w ars en v e lo p e d th e w hole w orld. B u t th e specific c h a ra c te r o f th e e a rly h is to ry o f B lack A frica, a n d th e co n d itio n s c re a te d b y th is e a rly h isto ry , le ft th e ir m a rk also o n th e s u b se q u e n t h is to ry o f th e se co u n tries, on th e ir p o sitio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t u n d e r th e im p e ria list yoke. T h e foregoing ju stifies o u r m e th o d a n d ex p lain s th e n ec essity fo r a discussion o f th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica as t h a t of a com plex o f c o u n trie s b o u n d to g e th e r b y th e sa m e h isto ric a l d e s tin y o f th e ir p eo p les — as a g a in s t th e co m p letely g ro u n d ­ less a n d w rong c o n c e p t a b o u t “ B lack A fric a” b ein g a te r r ito r y h eld to g e th e r b y th e alleged ra c ia l u n ity o f its in h a b ita n ts .

T A SK S A N D S IG N IF IC A N C E O F T H E P R E S E N T S T U D Y A s tu d y o f th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica is o f g re a t scien tific a n d p o litic a l im p o r­ ta n c e . 1. I n a n c ie n t tim e s th e h is to ry o f on e p a r t o f h u m a n ity could flow in iso latio n fro m th e o th e r. H o w ev er, w ith th e e n try in to th e h isto ric a re n a o f w o rld ca p ita lism , p a r tic u la rly o f its h ig h e st sta g e — im p e rialism — , th e h is to ry o f m a n k in d b ecam e one single pro cess. F o r long ce n tu rie s a lre a d y p rio r to im p e rialism th e e v e n ts o f th e h isto rie s o f all th e peoples o f th e globe w ere m o re o r less in te rlin k e d . B y th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry n o t a single c o u n try h a d b een le ft o u tsid e th e u n iv e rsa l s tre a m o f h u m a n h is to ry rea ch in g its m o d e rn s ta g e — w orld ca p ita lism . B egin n in g w ith th e g re a t g eo g rap h ical discoveries o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu r y o n w ard s, th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica h as b een a n in te g ra l p a r t o f th e h is to ry o f th e rise a n d g ro w th o f w o rld c a p ita lism . T h e h is to ry o f a w hole c a n n o t be fu lly e lu c id a te d a n d u n d e rsto o d w ith o u t fu lly co m p re h en d in g th e h is to ry o f all its p a r ts . T h e h isto ry , sa y , o f th e rise o f ca p ita lism in E u ro p e , th e h is to ry o f th e p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n o f c a p ita l, c a n n o t b e g rasp e d w ith o u t a full u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e role o f A frica in t h a t p rim itiv e ac cu m u latio n . T h e h is to ry o f th e rise a n d g ro w th o f in d u s tria l c a p ita lism in E u ro p e a n d A m erica c a n n o t b e c o m p re h en d e d w ith o u t a su rv e y o f th e colonial policies a n d colonial a c tiv ­ itie s o f in d u stria l c a p ita l a t t h a t tim e , p a rtic u la rly in A frica. T h erefo re, th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica sh o u ld , first o f all, b e ap p ro a c h e d as p a r t o f g e n e ra l h isto ric a l science. N ev e rth ele ss, as re g a rd s a u th e n tic h isto ric a l science,

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i t is no e x a g g e ra tio n to sa y t h a t th is p a r t o f g en e ral h isto ric a l science is on e o f its m o st n eg lec ted ch a p te rs. T h e re ex ists a r a th e r ric h lite r a tu r e o n A frican h isto ry . B u t th e scientific v a lu e a n d re lia b ility o f th e la rg e m a jo rity o f th e w ork s o n A fric an h is to ry a r e h ig h ly q u estio n a b le, since m o st a u th o rs , in s te a d o f in v e s tig a tin g a n d an a ly z in g th e a c tu a l socio-econom ic forces o f h isto ric a l d e v e lo p m e n t, e n d e a v o u r to d is tra c t a tte n tio n fro m th e s e q u estio n s. O n th e one h a n d , th e y m a in ly d elv e in to o b sc u re a n d u n e x ­ p la in e d (a n d so m etim es e v e n in ex p licab le) q u e stio n s w h ich h a v e h a r d ly a n y th in g to do w ith th e b u rn in g p ro b lem s o f o u r age (e.g., o rig in o f t h e “ N eg ro es” ; th e m y s­ te r y o f th e ru in s o f Z im b ab w e,1 etc.). O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e y in v e stig a te se co n d a ry , su p erficial o ccurrences (such as th e lives a n d d eed s o f c e rta in colonizers, m ilita ry co m m an d e rs, etc.). A n d w hile ex a m in in g th e re a lly e ssen tial fe a tu re s o f th e p a s t econom ic a n d h isto ric a l d e v e lo p m e n t, m a n y a u th o rs re s o rt to co m m o n d isto rtio n . T h e y falsify h isto ric a l fa c ts, p re se n tin g th e m to th e a d v a n ta g e o f ca p ita lism w ith a v iew to ju stify in g p a s t a n d p re se n t policies o f colonial o p p ressio n a n d e x p lo ita tio n . A lm o st th e w hole o f ex istin g lite r a tu r e o n A frican h is to ry is a d ire c t o r in d ire c t ap o lo gia o f im p erialism . T h e o n ly difference b e tw e e n th e v a rio u s a u th o rs o f w orks o n A frican h is to ry is t h a t som e e x o n e ra te B ritis h im p e rialism , o th e rs G e rm a n im ­ p erialism , e t c .; a g a in som e t r y to ju s tify th is m e th o d o f c o n q u e st a n d e x p lo ita tio n , a n d o th e rs t h a t m e th o d . B u t a lm o st a ll h isto ric a l “ s tu d ie s ” o f A frica a re c h a ra c te r­ ized b y a d e lib e ra te p u rp o se , ad v a n c in g th e p o in t o f view o f th e fo reig n o p p resso rs. A fric an h isto ric a l science h as a tw o fo ld ta s k to solve: ( a ) F ir s t o f all, i t h a s to c re a te a w a y o u t o f th e m aze o f im p e ria list falsehood a n d h y p o crisy , in v e stig a te a n d u n c o v e r th e su rre p titio u s lies and, in te n tio n a l d is to r­ tio n s o f re a c tio n a ry h isto ria n s; (b ) a t th e sam e tim e it h as to select th e m orsels o f t r u t h ca refu lly co n cealed in th is m a ze , b rin g th e m to lig h t, assem b le th e m in to a c o h e re n t p ic tu re o f re a lity , a n a ly z e th is re a lity , a n d d ra w th e p ro p e r lessons fro m it. 2. A s tu d y o f th e h is to ry o f B lac k A frica is o f p a rtic u la r im p o rta n c e in v iew o f th e fa c t t h a t i t b rillia n tly s u b s ta n tia te s a n d m o st v iv id ly illu s tra te s a w hole series o f th e se s m a in ta in e d b y M arx, L en in a n d S ta lin in th e field o f h isto ric a l science ( e.g. : th e d o c trin e o f M arx o n p rim itiv e ac c u m u la tio n ; th e L e n in ist te a c h in g a b o u t th e colonial policies o f p re-im p e ria listic a n d im p e rialistic c a p ita lism ; th e te a c h in g o f S ta lin a b o u t th e orig in o f n a tio n s a n d o f th e n a tio n a l p ro b lem s, etc.). 3. I n a d d itio n to th is tw o fo ld scientific significance, a s tu d y o f A frican h is to ry is v ita l fro m th e h isto rio lo g ical a n d p o litica l p o in ts o f view . T h is lies in th e f a c t t h a t th e scientific a s c e rta in m e n t o f h isto ric a l fa c ts la y s a n o b je c tiv e fo u n d a tio n fo r u n m a sk ­ in g th e m o n stro u s h isto ric crim es (th e h o rrib le b ru ta litie s , o u tra g e o u s fra u d s a n d u n p ara lleled p ro v o ca tio n s) c o m m itte d b y w orld c a p ita lism o v e r long c e n tu rie s, from th e tim e w h en i t w as s till in th e w om b o f its m o th e r — feu d alism . C h a ra cteristic ex am p les a re su ch episodes o f A fric an h is to ry as th e P o rtu g u e se m assacre o f th e K h o i-K h o i trib e s a t th e C ape o f G ood H o p e e a rly in th e 1 6 th ce n ­ tu r y ,2 th e e x te rm in a tio n b y G erm a n b u tc h e rs o f te n s o f th o u s a n d s o f H erero s a n d o f m o re t h a n a h u n d re d th o u s a n d ab o rig in es o f E a s t A frica in 1905—073, o r th e sto rie s a b o u t th e falsification o f tr e a tie s concluded b y F ra n c e w ith M ad ag a sca r4 in 1886 a n d b y I ta l y w ith E th io p ia in 1889.5 1 See 2 See 3 See 4 See 5 See 9 *

p . 60 p. 173— 174. vol. ii, eh. 6. p . 396 p . 363

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Г ог th e peoples o f p re s e n t-d a y A frica, w h e th e r still o p p ressed a n d stru g g lin g for lib e ra tio n o r a lre a d y in d e p e n d e n t, as w ell as fo r th e w o rld p r o le ta ria t o f o u r tim e , a n o b je ctiv e, scientific s tu d y o f A frican h is to ry is a p o litical d o cu m en t, a p a r t o f th e bill w hich th e y will in d u e tim e p re se n t to th e ir a d v e rsa ry a n d d e b to r, co n tem p o rary w orld im perialism , successor to th e slave d ealers, th e in v a d ers a n d b u tc h e rs o f th e A frican peoples fro m th e 1 5 th to 1 9 th ce n tu ries. 4. F in a lly , th e s tu d y a n d m a s te ry o f th e h is to ry o f A frica h a s g re a t p o litica l sig­ nificance fro m a n o th e r p o in t o f view as well. I t ca n a n d m u s t en rich th e ex p erien ce o f A frican peoples in th e ir p re se n t a n d fu tu re stru g g le s a g a in st im p erialism , for freedom a n d n a tio n a l in d e p en d en ce. T o fulfil th is ta s k , it is n ecessary , w hile s tu d y in g th e d iffe ren t h isto ric al p eriods o f each A frican c o u n try a n d A frican p eople, to g a th e r a n d an a ly se m o st ca refu lly a n y m a te ria l a n d a n y slig h te st d e ta il, flim sy as th e y m a y be, a b o u t th e h is to ry o f th e re sista n c e a n d lib e ra tio n stru g g le s o f th e A frican peoples, a n d , rely in g o n th e fa c ts verified in th is w ay , to d ed u ce, s e t fo rth a n d an a ly se th e p o sitiv e a n d n e g a tiv e lessons o f th e se stru g g les.

T H R E E W R O N G W A Y S O F A P P R O A C H TO A F R IC A N H IS T O R Y I n th e g en e ral w orks o n A frican h isto ry w e ca n o b se rv e d iffe ren t a p p ro a c h e s to th is to p ic . T h e v ario u s a u th o rs in v e stig a te , s tu d y a n d discuss th e h is to ry o f A frica fro m d iffe ren t asp ec ts. W e c a n n o te th re e w h o lly d is tin c t w ay s o f a p p ro a c h to th e g en e ral h is to ry o f A frica. M ost h isto ria n s tr e a t A frica fro m th e ang le o f th e E u ro p e a n co lo n izers; th e y s tu d y a n d discuss, in fa c t, n o t th e h is to ry o f A fric an c o u n tries a n d peo p les, b u t o n ly th e ch ronicle o f th e co n q u e st a n d colo n izatio n o f A frica b y th e E u ro p e a n pow ers. I n d oing so, som e o f th e m su b d iv id e th is h is to ry acco rd in g to colonial em p ires (“ T he P o rtu g u e se in A frica” , “ H is to ry o f th e B ritish Colonies in A frica” , e tc .).1 H e re b e­ long also all g en e ral w orks o n th e h isto ry o f in te rn e c in e w ars w aged b y th e g re a t p ow ers fo r th e p a r titio n o f A frica. O th ers tr e a t A frican h is to ry acco rd in g to c o n te m ­ p o ra ry colonial e n titie s o r g roups (“ H isto ry o f N ig e ria ” , “ H is to ry o f B ritish W e st A frica” , e tc .).2 A n d , finally, th e re w ere a tte m p ts to d ea l w ith A frican h is to ry b y t a k ­ ing ea ch A frican peo p le a n d S ta te se p a ra te ly .3 A ll th r e e w ay s o f a p p ro a c h a re w rong. 1. F ir s t a n d fo re m o st, A fric a n h isto ry is not id e n tica l w ith the h isto ry of the conquest a n d colonization o f A fric a . ( a ) A s we h a v e a lre a d y seen, som e o f th e A frican c o u n tries h a d th e ir ow n h isto ry

p rio r t o th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e E u ro p e an s. ( b ) E v e n in th e slav e tr a d e p erio d , a t th e b eg in n in g o f E u ro p e a n in tru s io n in to m a n y regions, th e m a jo r ity o f th e A frican p eo p les re m a in e d u n affec ted b y th e in ­ vasions. P rio r to t h a t p e rio d m a n y su ch peoples d id n o t em erge fro m th e ir p rim itiv e co n d itio n s, d id n o t cross th e th re sh o ld o f d ev e lo p m e n t b e tw e e n classless so c iety a n d class so ciety . T h e ir h is to ry in t h a t a n d th e p reced in g p erio d belongs in th e p ro v in ce o f e th n o g ra p h y . B u t d u rin g th o se ce n tu ries th e re w ere also co u n tries w h ere classless so c ie ty h a d a lre a d y g re a tly d isin te g ra te d a n d w h ere a slav eh o ld in g o r feu d a l S ta te 1 See H . H . J o h n s t o n , A H is to r y of C o lo n iza tio n of A f r ic a by A lie n R a c es (C am bridge, 1913). 5 See С. P . L u c a s , H is to r ic a l G eograph y of the B r itis h C olon ies, 4 vols. (O xford, 1894 — 1906; r e v . ed. 1913). s See “ A frik a ,” b y H e in ric h S c h u b t z , in vol. iii o f H e l h o l i ' b W eltgeschichte (L e ip z ig —V ie n ­ n a , 1901).

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w as in full d e v e lo p m e n t(re ta in in g , o f course, lo ts o f v estig e s o f p rim itiv e com m u n ism ). B esides E th io p ia a n d th e c o u n tries o f th e S u d an , th e s e in c lu d ed th e W a h u m a S ta te s , A sh a n ti, e tc . T h e p eoples o f th e s e c o u n tries a lre a d y in t h a t p e rio d h a d th e ir ow n h is to ry , w hich w as co m p letely iso late d fro m th e h is to ry o f th e E u ro p e a n p o w ers a n d colonialism . T h e h is to ry o f th e s e A fric an p eoples is c o m p le te ly o m itte d fro m th e a b o v e -m e n tio n e d first tw o ap p ro a ch es. (c) A s re g a rd s th e h isto ric a l re c o rd o f A fric an p eo p les w ho ca m e in to c o n ta c t w ith E u ro p e a n co n q u ero rs, e ith e r in th e ag e o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n o r in t h a t o f in d u s tria l cap ita lism , it is in ad m issib le to p re s e n t th e ir h is to ry lik e a n e p ito m e o f th e ir su b ju g a tio n . N ev e rth ele ss, th e h is to ry o f colonial em p ires o r colonial e n titie s is w ritte n w ith little o r n o re g a rd to e v e n ts n o t d ire c tly re la te d to th e h is to ry o f th e ir en c o u n te rs w ith th e E u ro p e a n s. F o r th e s e reaso n s alo n e th e first tw o w ays o f a p p ro a c h a re w rong. A h is to ry o f th e c o n q u e st a n d co lo n izatio n o f A frica d oes n o t g iv e u s a c o m p lete p ic tu re o f th e h is­ to r y o f A frican peoples a n d co u n tries. 2. A s re g a rd s w orks w hich discuss ea ch A fric an p eo p le a n d c o u n try s e p a ra te ly , w e com e u p a g a in s t a n o th e r sh o rtco m in g . W h e n tr e a tin g th e h is to ry o f in d iv id u al A frican p eoples a n d c o u n trie s, th o se b o oks d escribe, as a m a tte r o f course, also th e h is to ry o f th e ir co n q u e st. B u t th e c o n q u e st o f th e se v eral p eo p les a n d c o u n trie s w as n o t a n u n re la te d e v e n t. T h e h is to ry o f th is c o n q u e st c a n n o t b e u n d e rsto o d u n less it is p la ce d in th e g en e ral c o n te x t o f th e aggressive a c ts , in a g iv e n p erio d , o f a c e rta in E u ro p e a n p o w er in th e w hole o f A frica a n d , first o f all, in th e reg io n (w est, so u th , e tc .) w h ere th e c o u n try co n cern ed is s itu a te d . W h a t is m o re, th e seizu re o f each c o u n try , th e s u b ju g a tio n o f each people, to o k p la c e a t a tim e w h en th e E u ro p e a n in ­ v a d e rs w ere fig h tin g one a g a in s t th e o th e r. T h e ru le o f a c e rta in E u ro p e a n p o w er o v e r a n A fric an c o u n try w as e v e n tu a lly e sta b lish e d follow ing p ro lo n g ed conflicts, riv alrie s, n e g o tia tio n s, a g re em e n ts, e tc ., b etw e en d iffe ren t im p e ria list p o w ers. T h a t is w h y i t is im possible to s e p a ra te th e h is to ry o f a n y single c o u n try fro m th e g en eral h is to ry o f th e co n q u e st o f A frica, w hich sho u ld em b ra ce th e s tra te g ic a n d d ip lo m atic w arfa re am o n g th e colonial pow ers th e m se lv es. I t is p o ssib le to w rite a m o n o g rap h a b o u t th e h is to ry o f a single peo p le o r c o u n try if th e in te rre la tio n s b e tw e e n th e co n ­ q u e s t o f th e giv en c o u n try a n d u n iv e rsa l h is to ry a r e elu c id a te d , y e t fo r a g en eral s tu d y o f th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica su ch a n a p p ro a c h is in a d e q u a te , as i t in e v ita b ly lead s to in te rm in a b le cross-references a n d re p e titio n s . 3. T h e first tw o w ays o f a p p ro a c h a re ru le d o u t (in a d d itio n to th e a b o v e co n sid ­ e ra tio n s) also b y th e n ecessity o f discussing th e h is to ry o f th e c o n q u e st o f each c o u n try a n d ea ch reg io n in th e g en e ral c o n te x t o f th e p o w er stru g g le s fo r th e co n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g o f A frica a n d th e s u b ju g a tio n o f A fric an p eo p les. H e re a re a few e x ­ am p les. A s to th e first a p p ro a c h (discussion ac co rd in g to co n q u e ro rs), th e p o w er stru g g le fo r th e G old C oast sh o u ld b e d iscussed in a t le a s t fo u r p la ce s (in th e h isto ry o f P o rtu g u e se , D u tc h , B ritish a n d F re n c h colonizatio n ). A s t o th e seco n d ap p ro a ch (discussion acco rd in g to p re s e n t-d a y colonial e n titie s ), th e p o w er stru g g le fo r th e p a r titio n o f W e st A frica o u g h t to b e d e a lt w ith b y p iecem eal, in a t le a s t 16 p laces (in th e h is to ry o f t h e c o n q u e st o f each W e st A fric an colony). I t is o b v io u s t h a t such a discussion, in s te a d o f g iving a n id e a o f th e in te rn e c in e w a rfa re b e tw e e n th e g re a t p o w ers, c re a te s a n im p ressio n o f co m p lete chaos.

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T H E P R O P E R A PPRO A CH W h a t, th e n , is th e p ro p e r w a y o f a p p ro a c h to A frican h isto ry ? I t sh o u ld b e c le a r-c u t a b o u t 1. th e h isto ry o f each A frican people a n d o f each A frican c o u n try ta k e n se p a ra te ly ; 2. th e h isto ry o f ea ch colonial e n tity ta k e n s e p a ra te ly ; 3. th e h is to ry o f th e colonial policies a n d colonial a c tiv itie s p u rsu e d in A frica b y ea ch o f th e E u ro p e a n p o w e rs; 4. th e in te rn e c in e stru g g le b e tw e e n th e g re a t pow ers. S u ch a co m b in atio n can, a n d u n d o u b te d ly will, b e ac h ie v ed o n ly if th e h isto ry o f A frica is stu d ie d a n d discussed p e r io d b y p e rio d , according to those regions which were the actu a l scenes of th at h isto ry.

T o d iv id e th e h is to ry o f A frica o n th e basis o f colonial em p ires, A fric an colonies, peoples a n d c o u n tries re su lts in a n a b s tr a c t div isio n . T h e E u ro p e a n p o w ers co n q u ered th e ir A frican colonies, n o t ea ch in d iv id u ally , n o t in iso latio n fro m o n e a n o th e r, b u t in th e course o f p e rp e tu a l in te rn e c in e strife s. H isto ric al e v e n ts c a n n o t b e re la te d to th e in d iv id u a l colonial c o u n tries o f th e 2 0 th c e n tu ry (m o st o f th e m d id n o t ev en e x ist before th e e n d o f th e 1 9 th ce n tu ry ), n o r to th e ex istin g A frican S ta te s o f t h a t tim e. I t w ould be im possible to sp e ak o f a n y p o w er stru g g le fo r th e se izu re a n d p a r ­ titio n o f “ N ig e ria ” , as th e c o u n try a t p re s e n t k n o w n as N ig eria em erg ed o n ly a f te r th e B ritish h a d seized its e n tire te r r ito r y a n d e sta b lish e d th e m se lv es th e re b y in te r ­ n a tio n a l ag re e m e n ts. T h e pow ers v y in g fo r p o ssession o f th is te r r ito r y d id n o t k now o f a n y “ N ig e ria ” , a n d th e stru g g le w as w aged fo r th e e n tire te r r ito r y o f W e st A frica, n o t fo r w h a t is n o w k n o w n as N igeria. T h e A frican c o n tin e n t w as in ea ch h isto ric a l p erio d d iv id e d in to d is tin c t a n d d iffe ren t regions b y th e course o f h isto ric a l e v e n ts. L e t u s ta k e fo r e x a m p le th e c o u n tries o f W e st a n d C e n tra l E q u a to ria l A frica. ( a ) I n th e p erio d o f th e slav e tr a d e th e P o rtu g u e se in v a sio n o f W e s t E q u a to ria l A frica w as a lre a d y p roceeding, w hile C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica w as still v irg in la n d to foreign co n q u e ro rs; in fa c t, in t h a t p erio d W e st a n d C e n tra l E q u a to ria l A frica belonged to tw o ty p ic a lly d iffe ren t scenes o f th e d ra m a o f h isto ry . ( b) T h eir h is to ry in th e p erio d o f tr a n s itio n fro m in d u stria l ca p ita lism to im p e ria l­ ism w as closely in te rc o n n e c te d , since th e stru g g le o f th e im p e ria list p o w ers h ad m e lte d th e m in to one o b je c t o f c o n te n tio n . A p a rt from th e differences in th e p a s t o f th e se tw o regions a n d th e d iffe ren t degrees o f d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e ir v ario u s d istric ts, th e im p e ria lists fo u g h t fo r th e seizure a n d p a r titio n o f th e “ E q u a to ria l p ro v in c e s.” As to t h a t p erio d , th e s e regions sh o u ld be ta k e n as belonging to th e sa m e h isto rical s e c to r. ( c ) F in a lly , w h en th e ir seizu re a n d p a r titio n h ad b ee n co m p leted , th e v ario u s p o rtio n s o f W e st a n d C e n tra l E q u a to ria l A frica b ecam e p a r ts o f d iffe ren t colonial em p ires. T h e fa te o f th e B elgian (L eopoldian) Congo is on e m a tte r, th e f a te o f th e te rrito rie s seized b y th e F re n c h is a n o th e r; co m p letely d iffe ren t fro m th e m is th e s itu a tio n in th o se te rrito rie s t h a t h a v e re m a in e d in th e h a n d s o f th e P o rtu g u e se , etc. I n th e age o f im p erialism , n o t o n ly is th e re n o lo n g er a single “ W e st a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A fric a” , b u t i t is im possible to re g a rd e ith e r W e st o r C e n tra l E q u a to ria l A frica as a se p a ra te se cto r. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e d e stin ie s o f th e colonies o f each E u ro p e a n po w er in E q u a to ria l A frica a re c o n n e cted w ith th e d estin ie s o f o th e r colo­ nies o f th e g iv e n pow er. L e t u s ta k e a n o th e r ex a m p le : D a rfu r. U n til th e e n d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry i t e v id e n tly belonged, to g e th e r w ith th e o th e r c o u n tries o f th e C e n tral S u d a n , to th e g ro u p o f

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in d e p e n d e n t co u n tries still u n to u c h e d b y E u ro p e a n s. I n th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , u n lik e th e o th e r c o u n tries o f th is group, it sh a re d th e d e stin ie s o f th e E a s te r n S u d an . T h e foregoing lead s to th e follow ing conclusions: 1. I n stu d y in g a n d discussing A frican h is to ry w e h a v e to d iv id e th is h is to ry b y s e ttin g o u t, first o f all, fro m th e d iffe ren t h isto ric a l epochs, n o t fro m th e d ifferen t g eo g ra p h ica l a re a s (w h a te v er th e c rite rio n t h a t d iffe re n tia te s th e m ); 2. w ith re g a rd to ea ch epoch w e h a v e to d e te rm in e h o w th e essen tial c h a ra c te r of t h a t epoch, th e e v e n ts th em selv es, b ro k e u p A frica in to d iffe ren t regions, c re a tin g in th e d iffe ren t p a r ts o f th e c o n tin e n t d iffe ren t co n d itio n s w h ich ex ercised th e ir effect th ro u g h o u t a g iv en p erio d b u t ceased to be effective w h en t h a t epoch cam e to a n en d ; 3. w ith in th e s e h isto ric a l regions, ea ch o f w hich in clu d es a n u m b e r o f co u n tries a n d p eoples, w e h a v e to r e ta in th e d e lim ita tio n s b e tw e e n th e in d iv id u a l co u n tries a n d p eoples as th e y a c tu a lly e x iste d in t h a t epoch. A fte r co n sid erin g th e g en e ral fe a tu re s o f th e h isto ric a l d ev e lo p m e n t o f a giv en reg io n as a w hole in a g iv e n epoch (o r p erio d ), w e m u st p roceed to s tu d y th e h is to ry o f ea ch S ta te (A frican o r colonial) o f t h a t region in th e giv en perio d , o r (in th o se a re a s w h ere n o S ta te s ex iste d a t t h a t tim e ) to rec o rd th e fa c ts a b o u t th e co n d itio n s a n d m o v e m e n ts o f each p eo p le a n d tr ib e t h a t in h a b ite d t h a t region in th e g iv en period.

D IV ISIO N IN T O P E R IO D S O F A F R IC A N H IS T O R Y I . A s h as b ee n sa id a lre a d y , o u r m o re o r less reliab le k n o w led g e o f th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica d a te s o n ly fro m th e la te 1 5 th c e n tu ry , th e tim e o f th e first E u ro p e a n in tru sio n s. A ll t h a t p rec ed ed th is (th e m ou ld in g a n d m ig ra tio n s o f A fric an peoples, th e h is to ry o f th e ir tr ib a l alliances a n d th e like, a tte m p ts b y E u ro p e a n , A ra b a n d o th e r peoples to exp lo re a n d to tr a d e w ith A frica) re p re se n ts th e first g re a t p e rio d in th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica. T h e e n d o f th is p e rio d is m a rk e d b y th e discoveries m ad e b y th e P o rtu g u e se w ho p a v e d th e w ay fo r th e in tru sio n o f o th e r E u ro p e a n n a tio n s. I I . A la n d m a rk t h a t u sh e re d in a n ew e ra w as th e d isc o v ery o f A m erica in 1492, w h ich s u b s ta n tia lly ch an g ed th e c h a ra c te r o f th e E u ro p e a n in v a sio n t h a t h a d a lre a d y b eg u n in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . U n til th e e n d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry th e P o rtu g u e se w ere t h e o n ly E u ro p e a n s o n th e A fric an c o a st, th e ir a c tiv itie s in A frica b ein g confined to o ccasional v isits a n d tra d in g . I n th e 1 6 th c e n tu r y o th e r p o w ers (B rita in , H o llan d , F ra n c e ) also m a d e th e ir a p p e a ra n c e , a n d th e ir stru g g le s b o th w ith th e A frican p eo ­ p le s a n d w ith one a n o th e r com m enced. M eanw hile th e ir v isits to th e co asts o f A frica b ecam e m o re o r less sy ste m a tic . I n th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry P o rtu g u e se tr a d e w ith A frica w as chiefly in spices a n d gold. T h e d isc o v ery o f A m erica a n d th e s e ttin g u p o f E u ro ­ p e a n colonies th e re b ro u g h t th e slav e tr a d e to th e fore. T h e E u ro p e a n co u n tries w ere p assin g th ro u g h th e age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n , a n d fo r t h a t p u rp o se th e y tu r n e d A frica in to “ a w a rre n fo r th e com m ercial h u n tin g fo r b la c k -sk in s” (M arx). D u rin g th r e e ce n tu rie s (from th e 1 6 th to th e 18th) B lack A frica w as th e ta r g e t o f th e slav e tr a d e . A lth o u g h th is tr a d e affe c te d o n ly c e rta in reg io n s o f th e c o n tin e n t d irec tly , t o som e degree o r o th e r it influenced also c o u n tries o f in n e r A frica w h ere no E u ro p e a n h a d e v e r se t fo o t before. T h e age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n , w h ich is fo r A frica th e p e rio d o f th e slav e tr a d e , is th e second g re a t p e rio d in th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica. Ш . I n th e slave tr a d e p erio d (up to th e en d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry ) th e sole p u rp o se o f th e E u ro p e a n in v a sio n o f A frica w as to tr a d e , first in slav es, th e n in gold, iv o ry

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a n d sp ic es. W ith th e rise o f in d u s tria l ca p ita lism in E u ro p e th e colonial p o licy o f th e E u ro p e a n pow ers ch an g ed . T h e y h a d becom e in te re s te d , n o t o n ly in th e o b je cts o f p ro fitab le b u siness, b u t in th e resources o f in d u s tria l ra w m a te ria ls a n d food p ro d u c ts as w ell as in p o te n tia l m a rk e ts fo r th e ir m a n u fa c tu re d goods. I n lin e w ith th is th e ir p u rp o ses a n d a s p ira tio n s in A frica a lte re d . U p to th e la te 1 8 th c e n tu r y th e y h a d c o n te n te d th e m se lv es w ith occu p y in g c e rta in c o a st la n d s w ith a view to s e ttin g u p th e ir tra d in g s ta tio n s , pro v isio n d e p o ts a n d m ilita ry b ases. F ro m th e la te 1 8th ce n ­ t u r y o n w ard s th e y b e g a n to seize la rg e r te rrito rie s also in th e in te rio r to dispose o v er m ore a b u n d a n t ra w m a te ria l sources a n d p o te n tia l m a rk e ts. T h e re b e g a n th e sy ste m a tic seizure o f A frican te rrito rie s w hich, o n th e on e h a n d , g av e rise to th e re sista n c e a n d lib e ra tio n stru g g le s o f th e A frican p eoples, b u t w hich, o n th e o th e r h a n d , le d to conflicts b etw e en E u ro p e a n po w ers, to m o re in te n siv e co m p e titio n fo r bigger a n d b e tte r spoils. B y th e en d o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry th is tw o fo ld stru g g le te rm i­ n a te d in th e seizure a n d p a rtitio n in g o f all th e la n d s o f B lac k A frica, in th e c o n q u e st a n d su b ju g a tio n o f all peoples a n d co u n tries in t h a t p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t. T h e epoch o f co n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g , w hich b eg an a p p ro x im a te ly a t th e tim e o f th e o u t­ b re a k o f th e G re a t F re n c h R e v o lu tio n a n d closed w ith th e en d o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , c o n s titu te s th e th ir d g re a t sta g e in th e h isto ry o f B lack A frica. T h is th ir d sta g e includes th e e n tire p erio d o f in d u s tria l c a p ita lism as w ell as th e p e rio d o f tr a n s itio n fro m in d u s tria l ca p ita lism to m o n o p o ly ca p ita lism , t h a t is, im ­ perialism . W ith in th is sta g e th r e e perio d s can a n d m u s t b e d istin g u ish e d : 1. T h e first one la s te d u n til th e m id d le o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry . I t w as th e p e rio d o f slow ex p a n sio n b y th e E u ro p e a n in v a d e rs, m a in ly b y ad d in g to th e ir possessions along th e co a st, a n d th e p erio d o f p re p a ra tio n fo r g r e a t co n q u e sts in th e in te rio r are a s th ro u g h ex p lo ra tio n s o rg an iz ed d ire c tly b y th e g o v e rn m e n ts o f E u ro p e a n pow ers. 2. F ro m th e m id -c e n tu ry o n w ard s b eg a n th e second p erio d : th e in tru d e rs p e n e tr a t­ ed deep in to th e c o n tin e n t, sw itching fro m th e ex ten sio n o f th e ir ex istin g possessions to th e co n q u e st o f n ew te rrito rie s w hich w ere still o p en to seizu re, a n d h ere clashes w ith o n e a n o th e r b ecam e m o re a n d m ore fre q u e n t. B u t ex p a n sio n w as s till co m ­ p a ra tiv e ly slow, fo r th e in te rio r a re a s w ere o n ly p a r tly ex p lo red . T e rrito ria l e x p a n ­ sion w as ac co m p an ied b y a fev erish ra c e to se n d ex p e d itio n s in to th e y e t u n e x p lo re d p a r ts o f th e c o n tin e n t. E u ro p e a n p e n e tra tio n in to th e d e p th o f th e c o n tin e n t a n d th e te rrito ria l seizures increased, a n d so d id th e resistan c e o f th e A frican peo p les. T h is second p erio d , w hich co n stitu tes- t h a t o f d ire c t p re p a ra tio n fo r th e fin al co n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g o f all A frica, la s te d fro m 1848—50 to a b o u t th e la te se v en ties. 3. T h e th ir d , closing, p erio d o f th e sta g e o f co n q u e st a n d p a r titio n is th e p erio d o f th e co m p letio n o f th e seizure o f all A frica b y th e im p e rialists, t h a t o f d e s p e ra te pow er stru g g le s fo r th e final p a rtitio n in g o f th e c o n tin e n t. I t b eg an in th e la te se v en ­ tie s (for c e rta in regions in th e e a rly eighties) a n d all b u t te rm in a te d b y th e e n d o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry (in d iffe re n t y ea rs fo r th e d ifferen t regions), th u s coinciding w ith th e p erio d o f tr a n s itio n o f w orld ca p ita lism to im p erialism . T h e re a re s till o th e r p h ases w ith in th is p erio d , b u t th e y a lte r n a te d iffe ren tly in th e d iffe ren t regions. T h e re a re regions w here th e seq u en ce is th e follow ing: ( a ) im p e rialists seize on e p a r t o f th e region; ( b ) failing to c o n q u e r th e te rr ito r y d efin itiv ely , th e y a rra n g e to d e lim it it am o n g th e m se lv es, a n d ( c ) b y th is ag re em e n t th e y s t a r t th e fin al c o n q u e st. (The c o u n tries o f F re n c h W e st A frica ca n se rv e as a n ex am p le.) I n o th e r regions th e im ­ p e ria lists com e to a n a g re e m e n t o n ly a f te r th e final co n q u e st (e.g. : th e E a s te rn S u d an ). A g ain in o th e rs, th e im p e rialists d iv id e q u ite in ta c t te rrito rie s am o n g th e m se lv es in a d v a n c e (e.g. : th e in te rio r are a s o f E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica).

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W ith th e im p e ria lists’ sw itch fro m in d iv id u a l seizu res to g en e ral cam p aig n s o f co n q u e st w e n t th e o v er-all u n folding o f th e lib e ra tio n stru g g le o f A frican peo p les. I t is no ex a g g eratio n to sa y t h a t d u rin g th e la s t tw o d ecad es o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry th e w hole o f B lack A frica c o n s titu te d o n e co m p ac t n u cleu s o f th e A frican p eo p les’ d efen sive w ars a n d e m a n c ip a to ry uprisings. W h a t h a s b een sa id a b o u t th e d iffe ren t perio d s o f th e process o f th e c o n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g o f A frica clea rly show s th e groundlessness o f th e g en e rally ac c e p te d view t h a t th e co n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g o f A frica as a w hole to o k p lace in th e la s t q u a r te r o f th e 19 th c e n tu ry .1 A frican h isto ria n s lik e to co m p are th e m a p o f A frica fro m 1875 to t h a t fro m 1900. I n th e first m a p a lm o st th e w hole o f T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica is a b la n k space, w ith a n in fin itesim al s tr ip show ing th e co a st la n d s occu p ied b y E u ro p e a n s ; o n th e o th e r m a p , how ever, all A frica is d iv id e d u p am o n g th e E u ro p e a n pow ers.12 O f course, th e se m a p s a re a c c u ra te a n d v e ry in te re stin g . T h e y do n o t disclose, h o w ev er, th e a c ­ tu a l h isto ric a l process, fo r th e first o f th e m in d ic a te s o n ly th e a lre a d y fin ally occupied te rrito rie s , b u t i t show s n e ith e r th e increasin g ex p an sio n ism a n d th e ev er m o re fre ­ q u e n t aggressive a tte m p ts o f th e E u ro p e a n pow ers in th e first th re e q u a rte rs o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , n o r th e sta g e s o f g ra d u a l p re p a ra tio n fo r final co n q u e sts th ro u g h official ex p ed itio n s, religious m issions, e tc . org an ized b y d iffe ren t g o v ern m e n ts.

IV. At the turn of the century Africa entered a new stage of its history — the age of imperialism. This stage has to be divided into three periods: 1. T h e first one w hich la s te d u n til th e en d o f W o rld W a r I is, fo r th e A frican colo­ n ies, th e p e rio d o f th e con so lid atio n o f im p e ria list d o m in a tio n a n d t h a t o f th e final su b ju g a tio n o f th e A frican peoples, th e p erio d in w hich th e E u ro p e a n pow ers o rg an iz­ ed in th e ir possessions th e colonial regim e, p o litica l o p p ressio n a n d econom ic ex ­ p lo ita tio n . I n som e o f th e colonies th e A frican a g ric u ltu ra l p o p u la tio n w as ra p id ly d ispossessed o f its la n d , w hile in o th e rs th e p e a sa n ts w ere su b je c te d to feu d a l ex ­ p lo ita tio n a n d e x p lo ita tio n th ro u g h tr a d e . I n c e rta in colonies (e.g ., N ig eria, th e I v o ry C oast) th e co m p letio n o f th e co n q u e st la u n c h e d in th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry co n tin u ed in th e fo rm o f w ars o f co n q u e st a n d p u n itiv e ex p e d itio n s a g a in st th e A fricans (“ p a ­ cification” ). I n se v eral colonies, w here th e im p e ria list ru le h a d b ee n d efin itiv ely e sta b lish e d a lre a d y in th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , th e stru g g le o f th e A frican p eoples assu m ed a n ew fo rm : th e re to o k place th e first a n ti-im p e ria list u p risin g s a n d th e re a p p e a re d th e first b u d s o f a conscious a n d o rg an iz ed n a tio n a l lib e ra tio n m o v e m en t. 2. W o rld W a r I a n d th e G re a t S ocialist R e v o lu tio n in R u ssia o p en ed a n ew p erio d fo r A frica. T h e gen eral crisis o f w orld c a p ita lism to ld se n sib ly o n th e econom ies o f th e A fric an colonies a n d w ro u g h t b ig ch an g es in th e colonial policies p u rsu e d b y th e im p e ria list pow ers in th e ir A frican possessions, ch an g es w h ich co n sisted essen ti­ a lly in a n u n p re c e d e n te d in te n sific atio n o f th e e x p lo ita tio n a n d n a tio n a l oppression o f th e A frican m asses h eld in sem islav ery . T h e ru in a tio n o f th e colonial p e a s a n t m ass­ es assu m ed u n p a ra lle le d p ro p o rtio n s. T h e influence o f th e G re a t R u ssia n R ev o lu tio n , a n d o f th e n a tio n a l lib e ra tio n m o v e m e n ts in o th e r c o u n tries (C hina, T u rk e y , Ira n ), b ecau se o f th e in c reasin g d e s titu tio n a n d m isery o f th e A frican m asses, p ro v o k e d an d h elp ed to develop in m a n y A frican c o u n tries th e a n ti-im p e ria list n a tio n a l lib e ratio n m o v e m en ts, th e c re a tio n , in a n u m b e r o f co u n tries, o f th e first w o rk e rs’ o rg an iz a­

1 E .g . : A ccording to S c h u r t z th e stru g g le for th e p a r titio n o f A frica b e g an in 1876 (Op. c it., p. 4 6 4 ), a cc o rd in g to H . J o h n s t o n in 1881 (o p . c it., p . 4 4 2 ), a n d a cc o rd in g to N . D . H a r r is in 1880 (see N . D. H a r r i s , In te r v e n tio n a n d C o lo n iza tio n in A fr ic a [N ew Y o rk , 1 9 1 4 ], p . 2). 2 See, fo r ex am p le, th e m a p s in th e a fo re -m e n tio n e d b o o k o f H a r r is (pp. 16 a n d 366).

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tions, and the birth, in one of the South African countries — the Union of South Africa — of an extensive labour movement. 3. D u rin g W o rld W a r П n o consid erab le ch an g es o cc u rre d in th e s ta tu s o f th e c o u n tries o f B lack A frica (ex cep t t h a t E th io p ia reg a in ed h e r in d e p en d e n ce in 1941, a n d th e fo rm e r I ta lia n colonies, S om alilan d a n d E ritre a , w ere p la ce d u n d e r B ritish m ilita ry co n tro l). I n th e w ar y e a rs th e econom ic e x p lo ita tio n o f th e A frican peoples, r a th e r th a n dim in ish in g , w e n t o n in creasing. P o litic al a n d n a tio n a l op p ressio n d id n o t lessen e ith e r, b u t th e colonizers fe lt com pelled to m a k e som e m in o r concessions in th is field (a d m in istra tiv e reform s, e tc .) to stim u la te th e A frican p eo p les’ w ar effo rt, a n d th e y h a d to p ro m ise ex p licitly to in tro d u c e , once th e w ar w as o v er, im p o rta n t p o litic a l refo rm s t h a t w ould en a b le th e A frican p eoples to p re p a re for in d ep en d en ce. T hese refo rm s a n d prom ises, o n th e one h a n d , a n d th e social changes effected b y th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e w ar econom y (th e n u m erical g ro w th o f th e w o rking class a n d , in c e rta in co u n tries, th e rise o f A frican bourgeois s tr a ta ) , o n th e o th e r, g re a tly c o n trib ­ u te d , a lre a d y d u rin g th e w ar, to th e aw ak en in g o f th e n a tio n a l consciousness a n d th e desire fo r in d e p en d e n ce o f th e A frican m asses. T h e w a r y ea rs c o n s titu te d , th e r e ­ fore, a tr a n s itio n p erio d in th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica, p r e p a ra to ry to th e n ew p erio d t h a t w as to follow th e e n d o f th e w ar. A fte r W o rld W a r I I , in th e new p erio d o f th e g en e ral crisis o f cap ita lism , A frican h is to ry also e n te re d a new p erio d : th e sta g e o f th e d isin te g ra tio n a n d final collapse o f th e colonial sy ste m , th e ac h ie v e m e n t o f freed o m a n d in d e p en d e n ce b y th e A frican peoples suffering u n d e r im p e rialist yoke. T h e social ch an g es t h a t su rv iv e d a f te r th e w ar in th e A frican co u n tries, as w ell as th e sh ift in th e b alan c e o f forces o n a w orld scale, aw a k en e d th e consciousness o f m illions o f A frican s a n d b ro u g h t th e m in to ac tio n . T h e n a tio n a l lib e ra tio n m o v e m en ts sp rea d ra p id ly . T h e aim o f th e stru g g le now is n o t m erely to lessen colonial o ppressio n a n d e x p lo ita tio n , b u t to ab o lish co­ lonial d o m in a tio n d efinitively, to achieve freed o m fo r th e A frican peoples, th e in d e ­ p en d en ce a n d so v e re ig n ty o f th e ir co u n tries. T h e im p e ria list colonizers, in c a p a b le o f keeping in check th e m asses aw a k en e d to consciousness, a re com pelled b y th e shift in th e b alan c e o f forces to r e tr e a t to a c e rta in e x te n t. W ith o u t ch an g in g th e su b sta n c e o f th e ir colonial policies, th e y change s tr a te g y a n d ta c tic s. U n d e r p re ssu re o f th e A frican lib e ra tio n m o v e m en ts a n d o f w orld p u b lic op in io n , th e y feel co m pelled to th ro w o v erb o a rd th e ir fo rm er policies o f h old in g th e A frican peoples in colonial su b ­ ju g a tio n . I n view o f th e new co n d itio n s, th e y t r y to rep lace th e b r u ta lity o f o v e rt p o litica l o ppression w ith m ore refined m e th o d s o f p o litica l influence d isg u ised as “ d e m o crac y ” a n d to sw itch from th e obviou s p lu n d e rin g o f th e w ea lth o f th e econom ­ ically less d eveloped colonial co u n tries to m o re in d ire c t m e th o d s o f econom ic ex p lo i­ ta tio n . I n o rd e r to p re se rv e a t le a st th e ir rem a in in g colonies, th e y e n d e a v o u r to stifle th e lib e ra tio n m o v e m en ts o f th e peoples o f th e colonial co u n tries. B u t all th e ir efforts a re in v ain , b ecause th e m a rc h o f h is to ry c a n n o t b e h a lte d . D u rin g th e 20 y ea rs follow ing th e e n d o f W orld W a r I I (u n til th e su m m er o f 1965), 32 o u t o f th e 46 colo­ nies in B lack A frica w on in d e p en d e n ce a n d so v e re ig n ty , a n d am o n g th e rem ain in g 15 colonies th e re is n o t a single one w hose p eoples a re n o t d e te rm in e d to w age to th e en d th e b a ttle fo r th e ir lib e ra tio n from colonial o p pression, fo r th e ir in d e p en ­ dence a n d n a tio n a l so v e re ig n ty . V . T h e new ly in d e p e n d e n t co u n tries o f B lack A frica e n te r a n e n tire ly n ew sta g e o f th e ir h isto ry . A lth o u g h th e y g re a tly differ in th e n a tu re a n d th e deg ree o f in d e­ p en d e n ce , (in a n u m b e r o f A frican co u n tries th e im p e ria list colonizers h a v e te m p o ­ ra rily m o re o r less succeeded in m a in ta in in g v estig es o f th e ir colonial d o m in a tio n ),

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e v e n t h e m o s t im p e rfe c t in d e p e n d e n c e m e a n s g r e a t s tr id e s a h e a d o n t h e r o a d t o ­ w a r d s c o m p l e t e in d e p e n d e n c e .

This new historical stage, when independent and sovereign States emerge in Africa, began at different times for the different countries of Black Africa. The first country to cross the threshold of this new stage was the Republic of the Sudan in 1956; in the meantime up to the latest one, Gambia, in February 1965, altogether 30 countries embarked upon this road; the others will reach only later, at different dates, this most important milestone of their history. It follows from the foregoing that the last chapter of the history of Black Africa, which is the first in the history of the newly independent States, does not include the history of all countries of Black Afri­ ca, but only of those which have already become independent, a history beginning at a different date for each of them.* Therefore the history of Black Africa has to be divided as follows: I. Black Africa prior to the European invasion from ancient times through the Middle Ages until the end of the 15th century. II. T h e slav e tr a d e p erio d (1 6 th to 18th cen tu ries). Ш . T h e epoch o f th e co n q u e st a n d p a rtitio n in g o f B lack A frica (1 9 th c e n tu ry ). ( a ) F ir s t p erio d (a p p ro x im a te ly fro m 1789 to 1850). ( b) S econd p eriod (a p p ro x im a te ly fro m 1850 to th e la te sev en ties). ( c ) T h ird p erio d (a p p ro x im a te ly fro m th e la te se v en ties to 1900). IV. B lac k A frica under th e yoke of im perialism . ( a ) T h e p erio d before a n d d u rin g W orld W a r I (from th e p a rtitio n in g o f A frica u n til th e en d o f th e w ar) (1900 to 1918). (b ) T h e p erio d b etw e en th e tw o w ars (1918 to 1939). ( c ) World War II and the disintegration of the colonial system: 1. the position and role of Black Africa during World War II;

2. th e collapse o f th e colonial sy ste m in B lack A frica. V. T h e first ste p s o f th e new ly in d e p e n d e n t A frican co u n tries. As ca n be seen, a p a r t fro m negligible d ivergences o u r d iv isio n in to p erio d s ro u g h ly coincides w ith t h a t a p p lied to w orld h isto ry . T herefo re, d e s p ite th e fa c t t h a t th e decisive p erio d o f A frican h is to ry la s te d fro m th e la te se v en ties th ro u g h th e ea rly eig h ties (n o t th e e a rly seven ties), w e consider it m o re ex p e d ie n t to r e ta in th e g en eral d iv ision in to perio d s (1789— 1870—1900—1918— 1939— 1945) so as to b rin g o u r su b je c t in lin e w ith o th e r h isto ric al topics.

D IV ISIO N O F B L A C K A F R IC A IN T O H IS T O R IC A L R E G IO N S

I. While studying the history of the peoples of Black Africa p r io r to the E u ro p ea n in va sio n , we have to proceed from the regions settled by those peoples, and thus we sh all d iv id e th e e n tire te r r ito r y in to five p a r t s : 1. T h e W e ste rn a n d C e n tra l S u d a n : te r r ito r y o f th e S u d a n ese peoples. 2. T h e so u th e rn h a lf o f th e c o n tin e n t: te r r ito r y o f th e B a n tu . 3. T h e n o r th e a s t region: te r r ito r y in h a b ite d m a in ly b y H a m itic a n d S em itic peoples. * T h e m o d e rn h isto ry o f th o se c o u n trie s o f B lac k A frica w hich to th is d a y still liv e u n d e r th e y o k e o f co lonialism is tr e a te d in C h a p te r TV (c) 2, in clu d e d in th e a g e o f im p e rialism . T h e histo ry o f tw o c o u n trie s o f B lac k A frica, w h ich h a d b e e n in d e p e n d e n t S ta te s b e fo re t h e age of im p e rialism a n d w hose re la tio n s w ith th e im p e ria list colonizers h a v e re m a in e d u n c h a n g e d since W orld W a r I I (E th io p ia , L ib e ria), is also a su b je c t d iscu ssed in C h a p te r IV (c) 2.

27

4. T h e so u th w e st region: te r r ito r y o f th e K h o i-K h o i a n d th e S a a n . 5. M adagascar: te rr ito r y o ccu p ied b y M a la y o -P o ly n e sia n peoples ( p a rtly m ixed w ith B a n tu s). П . I n the slave tra d e p e r io d th e t u r n o f e v e n ts in B lack A frica clearly o u tlin es tw o m a in zones: ( a ) th e regions in v a d e d b y foreig n ers, t h a t is, m a in ly th e co a sta l zone a n d islan d s, a n d (b ) th e regions t h a t rem a in ed iso late d fro m th e o u tsid e w orld, th a t is, th e in te rio r o f th e c o n tin e n t. (a) In th e zone o f fo reig n in v a sio n we d istin g u ish six d istric ts: 1. The western littoral, w here a lre a d y in th is epo ch th e re w as b itte r riv a lry b etw een th e E u ro p e a n pow ers. 2 —3 —4. T he low er G u in ea coast (th e Congo a n d A ngola), the southeastern a n d eastern litto ra l, a n d E th io p ia , w hich w ere th e scenes o f in tru sio n chiefly o n th e p a r t o f th e P o rtu g u e se a n d o f t h e ir stru g g le s w ith th e A frican p eoples a n d th e riv allin g colo­ n iz ers (th e D u tc h in A ngola a n d o n th e s o u th e a st co ast, th e A rab s on th e e a s te rn litto ­ ra l, th e T u rk s o n th e e a s t c o a st a n d in E th io p ia ). 5. The South African cdtist lands, w hich in th e first h a lf o f t h a t p erio d (u n til 1652) w ere o n ly v isite d b y E u ro p e a n s, b u t w hich in th e la tte r h a lf w ere th e scenes o f D u tc h colonization.

6. M a d a g a s c a r , which in that period was the target of many unsuccessful coloniz­ ing attempts on the part of a number of European powers, first of all, France. (b ) I n th e zone fre e o f E u ro p e a n p e n e tra tio n we h a v e to d istin g u ish fo u r g ro u p s o f c o u n tries a n d regions, ta k in g in to a c c o u n t how f a r th e y re m a in e d u n to u c h e d b y th e E u ro p e a n s a n d how m u c h w e k n o w a b o u t th e ir p a s t h isto ry : 1 . The countries of the Sudan (W estern, C e n tral a n d E a ste rn ), a b o u t w hose h isto ry in th e g iv e n p erio d som e w ritte n d o cu m en ts a re e x ta n t (A rabic chronicles).

As to the history of the other peoples and countries of the continent’s interior, we either have no information at all, or we have only fragmentary and hardly reliable information from African legends and stories. To these belong: 2. T he cou n tries o f W est A fric a situ a te d between the litto ra l a n d the W estern S u d a n (A sh an ti, D ah o m ey , B e n in , etc.). 3. T h e W ah u m a S tates. 4. Other cou n tries a n d p eo p les of the in terio r p a r t of A fric a . i l l . I n the epoch of conquest a n d p a rtitio n in g th e e n tire h is to ry o f B lack A frica w as c h a ra c te riz e d b y foreign in tru sio n s a n d p o w er stru g g le s fo r th e d iv isio n o f th e te rr ito r y . T h e second zone, th e one w hich h a d re m a in e d u n to u c h e d b y E u ro p e a n s, w as g ra d u a lly dw indling. T ru e, m a n y A fric a^ c o u n tries fell p re y to E u ro p e a n in ­ v asio n o n ly in th e th ir d p erio d o f th is epoch. B u t, in m o st cases, p re p a ra tio n s for th e ir seizure w ere m a d e as e a rly as th e first h a lf o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry . B esides, th e v ery ex isten ce o f th o se A frican co u n tries w hich in th e first h a lf — o r ev en a t th e close — o f th e 19 th c e n tu ry s till re m a in e d a c tu a lly b e y o n d th e re a c h o f th e E u ro p e a n s w as n o tic e a b ly influenced b y e v e n ts t h a t to o k p lace in th e n eig h b o u rin g co u n tries in v a d ­ ed b y E u ro p e an s. T herefore, in d ea lin g w ith th e h isto ry o f th is epoch, w e h a v e to se t o u t fro m t h a t d ivision in to regions o f B lack A frica w hich w as c re a te d b y th e in ­ v ad e rs th e m se lv es w hen th e y w aged cam paig n s o f co n q u e st a n d in te rn ecin e stru g g les. I n view o f th is we h a v e to d istin g u ish th e follow ing reg io n s: 1. W est A fric a (including b o th th e w estern litto r a l a n d th e W e ste rn S u d an co u n tries). 2. E a s t A fric a (including th e e a s te rn litto ra l b e tw e e n th e R o w u m a riv e r a n d 4°N . la t., as w ell as th e in te rio r are as o f E q u a to ria l A frica b o rd erin g u p o n th is litto ra l. T h e w estern b o rd e r o f th is region is th e line ru n n in g alo n g la k es N y asa , T a n g a n y ik a , K iv u , E d w a rd a n d A lb ert).

28

3. W est a n d C entral E q u a to ria l A fr ic a (including th e co u n tries o f th e low er G u in ea co a st a n d th e in te rio r co u n tries o f t h e Congo basin). 4. S outh A fric a (including th e w hole p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t ly in g so u th o f 10°S. la t., ex c e p t A ngola).

5.

T h e E a s te r n S u d a n

(including Darfur).

6. E th io p ia (to g e th e r w ith th e S om ali co u n tries). 7. M ada g a sca r. IV . A fte r the p a rtitio n in g of A fric a am o n g th e im p e ria list p o w ers o u r d iv isio n m u st, o f course, conform to th is a c tu a l p a rtitio n , t h a t is, in d iscussing th e m o d e m h isto ry o f A frican c o u n tries w e h a v e to p roceed fro m th e a c tu a lly ex istin g colonial em p ires a n d fro m th e in d iv id u a l colonial e n titie s. (See th e ta b le show ing th e d iv isio n o f th e co u n tries o f B lack A frica a f te r th e p a rtitio n in g o f th e w hole c o n tin e n t: o n p p . 3 0 —32, first colum n.) A fte r W orld W a r I th is div isio n u n d e rw e n t c e rta in chan g es: ( a ) T h e G erm a n colonies w ere e lim in a te d a n d w e n t o v e r to th e co rresp o n d in g co lu m n o f o th e r colonial em pires. (b ) In s te a d o f th e “ B ritish E a s t A frica P ro te c to ra te ” th e re a p p e a re d “ K e n y a ” , a n d th e “ T e rrito ry o f th e B ritish S o u th A frica C o m p an y ” w as rep la ce d b y “ S o u th e rn a n d N o rth e rn R h o d e sia .” ( c) N o rth e rn R h o d esia a n d N y a sa la n d , w hich p rio r to W o rld W a r I w ere re g a rd ­ ed as p a r ts o f B ritish S o u th A frica, a f te r th e w ar w ere co n sid ered b y th e B ritish th e m se lv es to be p a r ts o f B ritish E a s t A frica, a n d th e ir f u rth e r d estin ie s w ere closely co n n e cted w ith G re a t B r ita in ’s o th e r E a s t A frican possessions. (See th e ta b le show ing th e division o f th e c o u n tries o f B lack A frica a f te r W o rld W a r I : on p p . 3 0 —32. second colum n.) A fte r W o rld W a r I I new changes w ere to be ta k e n in to ac co u n t. ( a ) T h e fo rm e r “ m a n d a te d te rr ito r ie s ” (C am eroons, T o g o lan d , T a n g a n y ik a , R u a n d a -U ru n d i, S o u th W e st A frica) as w ell as th e fo rm e r I ta lia n colonies (E ritre a a n d S o m aliland) t h a t b ecam e “ t r u s t te rr ito r ie s ” , a f te r W o rld W a r I I (u n d er th e “ tr u s ­ te e s h ip ” o f th e fo rm e r colonial pow ers resp o n sib le fo r th e ir a d m in istra tio n ) ca n no lo n g er be c o u n te d am o n g th e possessions o f th e colonial p o w ers, becau se th e T ru s ­ te e sh ip S y ste m is o f a s tr ic tly p ro v isio n al n a tu re , th e ac h ie v e m e n t o f th e in d e p e n ­ d en ce o f such c o u n tries being b u t a m a tte r o f tim e , a n d b ecau se th e a c tiv itie s o f th e a d m in iste rin g p o w er a re u n d e r th e p e rm a n e n t su p e rv isio n o f th e U n ite d N atio n s. P ra c tic a lly sp e ak in g , th e “ tr u s t te rr ito r ie s ” a re s till colonies, b u t colonies o f a new , special ty p e . T h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e se te rrito rie s follow ing W o rld W a r П is th u s to b e ex a m in e d a n d discussed se p a ra te ly , w ith d u e re g a rd to th e ir p a rtic u la r p o sitio n . ( b ) A fte r W o rld W a r П w e c a n n o t sp e ak a n y lo n g er a b o u t “ B ritish S o u th A f­ r ic a ” as a g ro u p o f B ritis h colonies. A fte r th e B ritis h C o m m o n w ealth o f N atio n s cam e in to b eing, th e U n io n o f S o u th A frica ceased to b e a B ritis h possession (“ d o m in ­ io n ” ); as a n eq u al m e m b er o f th e C om m o n w ealth , i t b ecam e a so v ereig n S ta te . S o u th w e st A frica, fo rm e rly a m a n d a te d te rr ito r y , b ecam e a t r u s t te rr ito r y .1 T he fa te o f S o u th e rn R h o d e sia , w hich h a d ea rlier b ee n co n sid ered p a r t o f B ritish S o u th A frica, w as lin k e d b y th e B ritish colonizers to th e f a te o f tw o o f th e ir o th e r colonies (N o rth e rn R h o d esia a n d N y a sa la n d ), fo rm e rly p a r ts o f B ritis h E a s t A frica. A ll th a t is le ft o f fo rm e r B ritish S o u th A frica a re th r e e B ritish p ro te c to r a te s (B asu to lan d , 1 A lth o u g h t h e U n io n o f S o u th A frica re g a rd s th is te r r ito ry a s its ow n p ro v in ce , a n d w hile th e In te rn a tio n a l C o u rt o f J u s tic e c o n tin u e s to c o n sid er i t a m a n d a te d te rrito ry , acco rd in g to th e C h a rte r o f th e U n ite d N a tio n s th is te r r ito ry o u g h t to b e re co g n ize d a s t r u s t te rrito ry .

29

B e ch u a n ala n d a n d S w aziland). A t th e sam e tim e a new g ro u p o f B ritish colonies w as c re a te d : “ B ritish C e n tral A frica” (S o u th ern R h o d esia, N o rth e rn R h o d e sia a n d N y asaland). (See th e ta b le show ing th e d ivision o f th e co u n tries o f B lack A frica a f te r W o rld W a r П : o n p p . 3 0 —32, th ir d colum n.)

DIVISION OF THE COUNTRIES OF BLACK AFRICA A FTER TH E A FTER W ORLD W AR I P A R T IT IO N IN G O F A F R IC A

A F T E R W O R L D W A R II

B R IT IS H POSSESSIONS

B r itish W est A fric a

B r itish W est

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4.

G am bia S ierra L eone G old C oast N igeria

A fric a

G am b ia S ierra L eone G old C oast T ogoland m a n d a te d te rr ito r y 5. N ig eria 6. C am eroons

B r itish W est A fric a

1. 2. 3. 4.

G am b ia S ierra L eo n e G old C oast N ig eria

mandated territory B r itish E a st A fric a

B r itish E a st

1. B ritish E a s t A frica P ro te c to ra te 2. U g a n d a 3. Z an z ib ar

1. K e n y a

1. K e n y a

2. U g a n d a 3. T a n g a n y ik a m a n d a te d te rr ito r y 4. Z an z ib ar 5. N y a sa la n d 6. N o rth e rn R h o d esia

2. U g a n d a 3. Z an z ib ar

B r itish S outh A fric a

B r itish S outh A fric a

B r itis h protectorates in S ou th A fric a

1. U n io n o f S o u th A frica 2. P ro te c to ra te s : B a su to la n d S w aziland B e ch u a n ala n d 3. T e rrito ry o f th e B ritish S o u th A frica C om pany 4. B ritish C en tral A frica (N y a salan d )

1. U n io n o f S o u th A frica 2. S o u th w e st A frica m a n d a te d te r r ito r y 3. P ro te c to ra te s : B a su to la n d S w aziland B e c h u a n a la n d

1. B a su to la n d 2. B e c h u a n a la n d 3. S w aziland

A n g lo -E g y p tia n S u d a n B r itish S o m a lila n d

A n g lo -E g y p tia n S u d a n B ritish S o m a lila n d

30

A fric a

4. S o u th e rn R h o d esia

B r itish E a st

A fric a

B r itis h C en tral A fric a

1. S o u th e rn R h o d esia 2. N o rth e rn R h o d esia

3. N y a sa la n d

A n g lo -E g y p tia n S u d a n B r itish S o m a lila n d

FRENCH POSSESSIONS

F rench W est A fric a

French W est A fric a

F ren ch W est A fric a

1. Senegal 2. Upper Senegal and Niger 3. Mauritania 4. French Guinea 5. Ivory Coast 6. Dahomey 7. Upper Volta 8. Niger military territory

1. Senegal 2. French Sudan

1. Senegal 2. French Sudan

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Mauritania French Guinea Ivory Coast Dahomey Upper Volta Niger colony

9.

F rench E q u a to ria l A fric a

1. 2. 3. 4.

Gabon Central Congo Ubangi-Shari Chad

M ad a g a sca r a n d other isla n d s F rench S o m a lila n d

Mauritania French Guinea Ivory Coast Dahomey Upper Volta Niger colony

Togoland mandated territory

F rench E q u a to ria l A fric a

1. Gabon 2. Central Congo 3. Ubangi-Shari 4. Chad 5. Cameroons mandated territory M a d a g a sca r a n d other isla n d s F rench S o m a lila n d

F rench E q u a to ria l

1. 2. 3. 4.

A fric a

Gabon Central Congo Ubangi-Shari Chad

M a d a g a sca r a n d other isla n d s F rench S o m a lila n d

GERM AN POSSESSIONS

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cameroons Togoland South West Africa German East Africa

— — — —

— — — — B EL G IA N POSSESSIONS

S tate of the Congo (or Congo F ree S ta te )

1. Belgian Congo 2. Ruanda-Urundi mandated territory

Belgian Congo

PO RTU G U ESE POSSESSIONS

1. Portuguese Guinea 2. Cape Verde Islands

1. Portuguese Guinea 2. Cape Verde Islands

1. Portuguese Guinea 2. Cape Verde Islands 31

3. Säo T om é a n d P rin c ip e Islan d s 4. A ngola 5. M ozam bique

3. S áo T om é a n d P rin c ip e Isla n d s 4. A ngola 5. M ozam bique

3. Sáo T om é a n d P rin c ip e Isla n d s 4. A ngola 5. M ozam bique

SPA N ISH POSSESSIONS

R io d e Oro S p an ish G uinea

R io d e Oro S p an ish G uinea

R io d e Oro S p an ish G uinea

IT A LIA N PO SSESSIONS

1. I t a l i a n S o m a li l a n d 2. E r itr e a

1. I t a l i a n S o m a li l a n d

2. E ritre a

IN D E P E N D E N T STATES

E th io p ia L ib e r ia

E th io p ia L ib e r ia

E th io p ia L ib e r ia U n i o n o f S o u th A f r i c a TRU ST T E R R IT O R IE S

1. C am eroons (fo rm er F re n c h m a n d a te ) 2. C am eroons (form er B ritish m a n d a te ) 3. T o g o lan d (fo rm er F re n c h m a n d a te ) 4. T o g o lan d (form er B ritish m a n d a te ) 5. T a n g a n y ik a 6. R u a n d a -U ru n d i 7. S o m alilan d (form er I ta lia n colony) 8. E r itr e a (form er I ta lia n colony) 9. S o u th W e st A frica L IT E R A R Y S O U R C E S T h e lite r a r y sources o f th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica ca n b e d iv id e d in to tw o m ain g roups: 1. P r i m a r y s o u r c e s , t h a t is, th o se d a tin g fro m t h a t p e rio d a b o u t w hose h isto ry th e y fu rn ish in fo rm a tio n ; 2. L i t e r a t u r e o n th e h i s t o r y o f B lack A frica in th e fu ll sense o f th e w o rd , th a t is, h isto ric al a n d o th e r w orks o f la te r origin, tr e a tin g q u estio n s o f A frican h is to ry as a su b je c t o f rese arch o r s tu d y .

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1. T he p rim a ry sources in c lu d e th e follow ing: ( a ) Official a n d p riv a te d o c u m e n t s (official p u b lic a tio n s b y th e g o v e rn m e n ts a n d p a rlia m e n ts o f colonial p ow ers; p ea ce tr e a tie s a n d o th e r ag re e m e n ts co n clu d ed b y g re a t pow ers b etw e en one a n o th e r a n d w ith A fric an chiefs; le g isla tiv e a c ts , ed icts, d esp atc h es, e tc . o f th e colonial a d m in is tra tio n ; d o cu m en ts fro m A fric an co m p an ies a n d in d iv id u a l m e rc h a n ts ; le tte rs , e tc ., etc.). ( b ) W r i t t e n c h r o n ic le s (v ery few in n u m b e r). ( c ) A s re g a rd s a n u m b e r o f A fric an co u n tries a n d p eo p les, th e r e a r e o r a l c h r o n ic le s in th e fo rm o f p o p u la r tr a d itio n s ( e .g ., co ncerning th e h is to ry o f U g a n d a , th e X h o sa, Z u lu a n d o th e r trib e s). T h e ir re lia b ility , how ever, is r a th e r p ro b le m a tic fo r tw o r e a ­ so n s: (i) I t is im possible fo r us to ju d g e how m uch o f i t is tr u e h is to ry a n d h o w m u c h o n ly folklore fiction — legends a n d m y th s , (ii) O u r k n o w led g e o f th e s e tr a d itio n s th ro u g h o n e o r a n o th e r colonizer (tra v e lle r, m issio n ary ) d ep e n d s o n t h e co n scien tio u s­ n ess o f t h a t p erso n , o n w h e th e r h e tr a n s m itte d th e m th e w a y h e h a d h e a rd th e m o r h e “ c o rre c te d ” th e m fo r som e p u rp o se o r o th e r. So w e h a v e to m a k e a carefu l “ c h e ck -u p ” o n th e a u th o r w ho re la te s su ch tra d itio n s , a n d sh o u ld h e tu r n o u t to b e u n tr u s tw o r th y (like S t a n l e y in th e case o f U g a n d a ), w e ca n u se his m a te ria l o n ly if d ire c tly o r in d ire c tly confirm ed b y o th e rs. ( d ) O ne o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t sources o f A fric an h is to ry — th e m o st essen tial a n d p rin c ip a l ones fo r th o se w ho in v e stig a te th e e a rly p erio d s o f th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica (p rio r to its seizu re b y th e im p e rialists) — a re th e w o r k s o f c o n te m p o r a r i e s : ac c o u n ts b y tra v e lle rs, m em oirs o f a g e n ts o f A frican co m p an ies, o f colonial officials a n d officers o f th e E u ro p e a n p ow ers, as w ell as o f in d iv id u a l tr a d e rs , a d v e n tu re rs , m issio naries, e tc . A ll su ch a u th o rs h a v e to b e a p p ro a c h e d , o f course, w ith u tm o s t w ariness a n d criticism . N o t o n ly b ecause th e re a re am o n g th e m clev er falsifiers (like S t a n l e y , S l a t in P a s h a , C arl P e t e b s a n d o th e rs), b u t also b ecau se th e sc a n ty k n ow ledge o f g eo g rap h y , e th n o g ra p h y , e tc . in t h a t epo ch o fte n le d th e m in to g ra v e erro rs. S uffice i t to m e n tio n , fo r ex am p le, van R ie b e e c k , w ho in th e m id d le o f th e 1 7 th c e n tu ry to o k th e S a a n a n d th e K h o i-K h o i fo r o n e a n d th e sa m e p eo p le,1 or H o b n e m a n n , a G erm a n tra v e lle r o f th e la te 1 8th c e n tu ry , w ho “ a s c e rta in e d ” th a t th e N ig er flow s in to th e N ile.12 T h e ir w orks c o n ta in , h o w ev er, a lo t o f v a lu a b le d a ta o n th e h is to ry a n d th e socio-econom ic d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e A fric an p eo p les th e y m e t a n d d escrib ed a n d o n th e e v e n ts o f th e E u ro p e a n ag g resso rs’ first clashes w ith th e A frican peoples. T h e w orks o f th e s e first — conscious o r u n co n scio u s — ex p lo rers o f th e A fric an c o u n tries a n d p eoples, d e s p ite sh o rtco m in g s a n d w eak n esses (som e­ tim es n a iv e té a n d ig n o ran ce, to o ), a re , in a c e rta in sense, ev e n m o re v a lu a b le a n d sig­ n ific an t, as f a r as th e ir re lia b ility is co n cern ed , th a n th e w o rk s o f m o re a m b itio u s a n d s y ste m a tic explo rers o f la te r tim e s. T h e y a re m o re im p o r ta n t th a n th e la tte r in tw o resp e cts. F ir s t, th e y e n c o u n te re d th e A frican p eo p les a t a tim e w h en th e s e w ere still liv in g in co m p lete p rim itiv en e ss, u n to u c h e d a n d u n sp o iled y e t b y E u ro p e a n in tru sio n . T h e y saw th e s e p eoples a s th e y h a d b ee n p rio r to th e ir e n c o u n te rs w ith th e E u ro p e a n s. A t th e sam e tim e th e y o b se rv e d w ith th e ir o w n eyes th e ch an g es 1 J o h a n n v a n R ieb eecks T agebu ch , ed. H . С. V. L e i b b r a n d t (“ P ré c is o f th e A rch iv es o f t h e C ape o f G ood H o p e ,” i —iii [C ape T ow n, 1897]). 2 T h e J o u rn a l of F red erick H o rn em a n n 's T ra v e ls fro m C a iro to M o u rzo u k (L o n d o n , 1802). T h a t H o r n e m a n n ’s in fo rm a tio n is e rro n e o u s w as a lre a d y p o in te d o u t b y R e n n e m . in th e “ P ro c e e d in g s” o f th e “ A fric a n A sso c ia tio n ” o f L o n d o n , p u b lis h e d in 1810 ( P ro ceed in g s o f the A s so c ia tio n fo r p ro m o tin g the d isc o very of the in te rio r p a r ts of A fr ic a , 2 vols. [L o n d o n , 1810].) A s to th e m ista k e s m a d e b y H o r n e m a n n , see a lso : E . S c h a u e n b u r g , R e is e n in C e n tra l-A f r ik a von M u n g o P a r k b is a u f D r . H . B a rth u n d D r. E d . Vogel (L a h r, 1859), vol. i, p . 179.

3 E . Sík: B la ck A frica I.

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w ro u g h t in th e life o f th e A fricans b y th is E u ro p e a n in tru sio n . S econd, th e classes th e s e a u th o rs re p re se n te d w ere n o t in te re s te d in d is to rtin g th e re a l s itu a tio n th e y fo u n d in A frica a n d th e re a l e v e n ts th e y w itn e ssed .T h ese a u th o rs belo n g ed to v ario u s s tr a t a o f c o n te m p o ra ry so ciety , b u t m o st o f th e m w ere e ith e r re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f th e rising c a p ita list class, o r déclassé elem ents. T h e fo rm er w ere fu lly aw a re o f th e signif­ icance o f th e ir n ew discoveries, o f th e g re a t im p o rta n c e o f n ew o p p o rtu n itie s of ac c u m u la tin g w e a lth to p ro m o te th e ir class a sp ira tio n s. T h e y p erc eiv e d in th e n a tu ra l reso u rces o f A frica a n d in th e econom ic a n d c u ltu ra l b a c k w ard n ess o f its p eoples th e m eans to in c re ase th e ir ow n m a te ria l w ea lth a n d social w eig h t. T h erefo re, th e y w ere in te r e s te d in disclosing th e fa c ts o f A frican re a lity . T h e d éclassé elem e n ts a n d a d ­ v e n tu re rs d id n o t g ra sp th e tre m e n d o u s h isto ric sig n ifican ce o f e v e n ts. T h e y saw in th e A frican peoples a n d in th e en c o u n te rs w ith th e m so m e th in g cu rio u s, “ a d v e n tu r ­ o u s” , r a th e r t h a n so m e th in g p o litic a lly a n d eco n o m ically im p o rta n t. T h e y d e ­ scrib ed th e “ in te r e s tin g ” , “ c u rio u s” n ew p eo p les th e y m e t as th e y fo u n d th e m in r e a lity (d isto rtin g th e fa c ts o n ly now a n d th e n , in so fa r as th e se co n cern ed th e ir p e r ­ so n a l ro le in th e ev e n ts), b ein g c o m p letely u n a w a re t h a t th e ir tr u th f u l d escrip tio n o f th e fa c ts w ould c o n s titu te a h isto ric a l bill o f in d ic tm e n t a g a in s t c e rta in n a tio n s a n d classes. A n e x tre m e ly c ritic a l a p p ro a c h to all th e se w orks is n ee d ed in o n e re sp e c t o n ly : w e h a v e in each case to ex a m in e ca refu lly th e c o n c re te co n d itio n s o f th e in te rn e c in e stru g g le w aged, in th e giv en p erio d in th e g iv en se c to r o f th e A frican field, b etw e en com panies, m e rc h a n ts , th e a g e n ts o f th e E u ro p e a n n a tio n to w hich th e a u th o r b e ­ longed (or in w hose serv ice h e w as), as w ell as o th e r fac to rs. I n o rd e r to a s c e rta in th e h isto ric a l t r u t h w e h a v e to m a k e a c o m p a ra tiv e s tu d y o f th e w ritin g s o f r e p re s e n ta ­ tiv e s w hose c o u n trie s p a r tic ip a te d in t h a t stru g g le a n d o f th o se w ho w ere m e re ly sp e c ta to rs. ( e ) F in a lly , w e h a v e to re g a rd as p rim a ry so u rces th e g e o g r a p h i c a l, e th n o g r a p h ic a l w o r k s , e tc . tr e a tin g B lac k A frica o r its in d iv id u a l c o u n trie s a n d p eo p les w i t h r e f e r e n c e to th e p e r i o d i n w h ic h t h e y w e r e w r i t t e n . I f th e y a re b a se d o n p erso n a l o b se rv a tio n , th e y a re o n a p a r w ith th e ac c o u n ts o f tra v e lle rs. B u t ev en if th e y a re b ased o n so m e b o d y else’s m a te ria l, th e y a re a t a n y r a te reflectin g th e a t titu d e ta k e n to w a rd th e A frican colonies b y c e rta in class s tr a t a o f one o r a n o th e r colonizing c o u n try in t h a t p erio d , a n d th u s th e y fu rn ish d ire c t o r in d ire c t in fo rm a tio n a b o u t its colonial policy. 2. T h e h i s t o r i c a l li t e r a t u r e concern in g th e v ario u s c o u n trie s a n d p eo p les o f B lac k A frica (especially w ith re g a rd to th e 19 th c e n tu ry , t h a t is, th e ep o ch o f seizu re a n d su b ju g a tio n ) is p le n tifu l, b u t i t is to be a p p ro a c h e d w ith p a r tic u la r care a n d criticism . T h e la rg e m a jo r ity o f th e a u th o rs o f su ch w o rk s a re re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f th e ru lin g classes o f th e ir tim e (th e age o f in d u s tria l cap ita lism o r im p erialism ), a n d o th e rs — a n in sig n ifican t m in o rity — re p re se n t th e p e tty -b o u rg e o is classes. T h erefo re, w h ile m a k in g u se o f th e ir w o rk s, w e h a v e in ea ch case to ta k e fu lly in to a c c o u n t th e class a n d n a tio n a l in te re s ts a n d a sp ira tio n s, in th e p erio d d iscu ssed b y th e a u th o r, o f t h a t class o r n a tio n to w hich th e a u th o r belonged (or w ith w h ich h e sy m p a th iz e d ) a n d th e co n c re te a c tu a l cláss a n d n a tio n a l p u rp o se th e a u th o r se rv e d w ith h is b o o k . T h e b est m e an s o f checking u p o n th e w orks o f b ourgeo is h isto ria n s o n th e h is to ry o f th e A fri­ ca n colonies is to m a k e co m parisons b e tw e e n th e w orks o f a u th o rs fro m th e v a rio u s n a tio n s w hich fo u g h t in th e p a s t, o r riv a l s till to d a y , w ith o n e a n o th e r fo r th e A fri­ ca n colonies, o r w hich, a t a n y r a te , je alo u sly w a tc h on e a n o th e r ’s e v e ry m o v e in th e colonial a re n a a n d alw ay s e n d e a v o u r t o p o in t o u t on e a n o th e r ’s h isto ric a l lies. A nd, o f course, all th e se w orks, e v e n th o u g h th e y w ere th e b e s t in th e ir k in d , can se rv e o n ly as s u p p le m e n ta ry , su b sid ia ry sources. I n o u r s tu d y th e y ca n o n ly su p p le -

34

m e n t, n o t s u b s titu te for, th e p rim a ry sources, t h a t is, in th e first p la ce (if possible), th e d o c u m e n ta ry m a te ria ls a n d , in th e second place (necessarily), th e la rg e st p ossible n u m b e r o f w orks b y th e a u th o rs o f e v e ry giv en p erio d . T h e la tte r , c o n s titu tin g m o re reliab le sources th e m se lv es, ca n b e u tiliz e d also to ch eck u p o n th e re lia b ility o f th e h isto rio g ra p h ers o f la te r tim es. N o ne o f th e h isto ric al w orks o f bourgeois a u th o rs ca n b e fu lly ac c e p te d w ith o u t criticism a n d checking, even if th e y a re fu n d a m e n ta l classical w orks, n o ta b le fo r th e scientific o b je c tiv ity in h isto ric a l an a ly sis, su ch as th e w orks b y T h e a l o n S o u th A frica,1 b y G r a n d i d i e r o n M a d ag ascar,2 a n d o th e rs. W e ca n ta k e n o t o n ly expressly h isto ric a l w orks as sources o f A frican h isto ry . V ery o fte n , sy ste m a tic ac c o u n ts o f th e h is to ry o f d iffe ren t A frican c o u n tries a n d peoples, o r references to th e ir h isto ry , a re in clu d ed as in d iv id u a l c h a p te rs in g e n e r­ al w orks on A frica o r in special geographical, e th n o g ra p h ic a l w orks, e tc.

'S e e p p . 87 a n d 183. 2 See p. 94.

3*

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B IB L IO G R A P H Y O F G E N E R A L W O R K S O N A F R IC A N H IS T O R Y

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F A F R IC A K e l i d o r i í , H ia to ire a fric a in e , recueiU ie et p u b liée p a r M . le baron R oger (P a ris, 1828). H . S c h u r t z , “ A frik a ” (in H e lm o lt’s W eltgesch ich te, v o l. I I I . [L e ip z ig —V ie n n a, 1 9 0 1 ]). G e o r o e H a r d y , V ue generate de V h istoire d ’A /r iq u e (P a ris, 1 922; n ew e d .: 1948). H . F r o b e n i u s , K u ltu rg esch ich te A f r ik a s (V ienna, 1933). С н. A . J u l i e n , H isto ir e de V A friq u e (P a ris, 1941). J . W e u l e r s s e , L 'A friq u e N o ire (P a ris, 1943). L o w e l l J . R a g a t z (e d .), B ib lio g r a p h y fo r the S tu d y o f A fr ic a n H is to r y in the N in eteen th a n d T w e n tie th C e n tu ries (W ash in g to n , 1943). A. T. S h a w , T h e S tu d y of A f r ic a 's P a s t (L o n d o n , 1946). D . P . D e P é d r a l s , M a n u e l sc ie n tifiq u e de l ’A fr iq u e N o ire (P a ris, 1949). — A rch éologie d e V A friq u e N o ir e (P a ris, 1950). G. E s q u e r , H isto ir e de V A friq u e (P a ris, 1950). D . W e s t e r m a n n , G eschichte A f r ik a s : S ta a ten b ild u n g en sü d lich d e r S a h a ra (Cologne, 1952). I. I. P o t e k h i n , G eschichte A f r ik a s . T ra n s la te d f ro m th e R u ss ia n (fro m G reat S o v ie t E n cy clo ­ p a e d ia ) b y W olfgang M öller (B erlin , 1953?). S. C o l e , “ T h e P re h is to ry o f E a s t A fric a ” (in A m e ric a n A n th ro p o lo g ist, 56, p p . 1026 — 1050;

M e n a sh a, 1954). — — T h e P re h isto r y of E a s t A fr ic a (L o n d o n , 1954). H . A l i m é n , P ré h isto ir e de V A friq u e (P a ris, 1955). o b e r t C o r n e v in , H is to ir e de V A friq u e d es o rig in es á n os jo u r s (P a ris, 1956). — H ia to ire d es p e u p le s de V A friq u e N o ire (P a ris, 1960). E . G u e r n i e r , L 'a p p o r t de V A friq u e ä la p en sé e h u m a in e (P a ris, 1952). J . D . F a g e , A n A tla s of A fr ic a n H is to r y (L o n d o n , 1958). E . L o f t u s , A V is u a l H is to r y of A fr ic a (L o n d o n , n . d.). O t t o Z i e r e r , Geschichte A fr ik a s , 2 vols. (M unich, 1959).

R

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F T H E C O L O N IZ A T IO N , P A R T IT IO N A N D C O N Q U E S T O F A F R IC A E d w . J . P a y n e , H is to r y of E u ro p e a n C olon ies ( L o n d o n , 1877). A l f r e d Z im m e r m a n n , D ie eu ropäisch en K o lo n ie n , 5 vols. (B erlin, 1896 et seq.). H e n r y C. M o r r i s , T h e H is to r y of C o lo n iza tio n fro m the E a r lie st T im e s to the P re se n t D a y

(N ew Y o rk , 1900). C. L a n n o y a n d H . V a n D e r L i n d e n , H isto ir e de l ’e x p a n sio n colon iale d es p e u p le s e u ro p ie n s, 2 vols. (B russels, 1907 —11). P a u l L e r o y B e a u l i e u , D e la co lo n isa tio n chez les p e u p le s m odernes, 2 vols. (6 th ed. P a ris , 1908).

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o h n s t o n , A H is to r y of the C o lo n iza tio n of A fr ic a by A lie n R a ces (C am bridge, 1913). — (G erm an e d itio n :) G eschichte d er K o lo n is a tio n A f r ik a s du rch frem d e R a sse n . T ra n s la te d b y M. v a n H a lfe rn (H eidelberg, 1913). D. S c h ä f e r , K o lo n ia lg esch ich te (4 th ed. G ösehen: B erlin —L eipzig, 1921).

H arry И . J

P a u l D a r m s t a e d t e r , G eschichte d er A u fte ilu n g u n d K o lo n isa tio n A f r ik a s se it d em Z e ita lte r d er E n td eck u n g en , 2 v o ls. V ic t o r A u g a g n e u r , E r re u r s et b ru ta litá s colon iales (P aris, 1927).

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F T H E C O L O N IA L E X P A N S IO N A N D C O L O ­ N IA L P O L IC IE S O F T H E E U R O P E A N P O W E R S I. Great B r ita in R . M. M a r t i n , H is to r y o f the B r itis h C olon ies , 5 vols. (L ondon, 1834 —35). A . Z im m e r m a n n , D ie K o lo n ia lp o litik G ro ß b rita n n ie n s , 2 vols. (vol. i: B erlin , 1889; vol. ii: B erlin , 1899). G. C h e v il l a r d , L e s colon ies an g la ises (P aris, 1899). H . H . J o h n s t o n , B r ita in A c ro ss the S ea s: A fric a : A H is to r y a n d D e s c rip tio n o f the B r itis h E m p ir e in A fr ic a (L ondon, 1910). W y a t t T i l b y , B r ita in in the T ro p ic s: 1527 —1910.

С. P . L u c a s , H isto r ic a l G eograph y of the B r itis h C o lo n ies , 12 vols. (O xford, 1905 —25). (F o u r vo lu m es on A frica.) G. M o n d a i n i , L a co lo n isa tio n a n g la ise, 2 vols. (P a ris, 1920). J . A . W il l ia m s o n , A S h ort H is to r y of B r itis h E x p a n s io n (L ondon, 1922). H . E g e r t o n , A S h o rt H is to r y of B r itis h C olon ial P o lic y (L ondon, 1924). H . L . J o n e s a n d C. S h e r r a t t , A H is to r y of the B r itis h C olon ies (2nd ed. L o n d o n , 1928). I. L e s l i e E v a n s , T he B r itis h in T r o p ic a l A fr ic a : A H isto r ic a l O u tlin e (C am bridge, 1929). Е . C a n e v a r i , L a co n q u ista in glese delV A frica (R om e, 1935). J . K a m u r , A fr ic a n C hallenge: T h e S to ry of the B r itis h i n T ro p ic a l A fr ic a (L o n d o n , 1946). C. G i g l i o , L a p o litic a a fric a n a d elV In g h ilterra n el X I X secolo (P a d u a , 1950).

2. F ra n ce A . Z im m e r m a n n , D ie K o lo n ia lp o litik F ra n k reich s. H e n r i M a r io l , L a C h r o n o lo g ie c o lo n i a l e (P a ris, 1921). W . M. S l o a n e , G reater F ra n ce in A f r ic a (L o n d o n , 1924). G. H a r d y , H isto ir e de la co lo n isa tio n fra n y a ise (P a ris, 1928; 4 th e d .: 1943). A l b e r t D u c h é n e , L a p o litiq u e colon iale de la F ran ce: L e m in istá re d es colon ies d e p u is R ich elieu

(P a ris, 1928). G. H a n o t a u x a n d A. M a r t in e a u , H is to ir e d es colon ies fra n y a ise s et de Гe x p a n sio n de la F ran ce d a n s le m o n d ey 6 vols. (P a ris, 1929 —33). M. A b a d i e , L a défense d es colonies: R é su m é h istoriqu e (P a ris, 1937). R . D e l a v i g n e t t e , P e tite h istoire des colonies fra n g a ises (P a ris, 1941). A . G r i a u l t , P r in c ip e s de co lo n isa tio n et de lég isla tio n colon iale: L es colon ies fra n p a ises a v a n t et d e p u is 1815 (N o tio n s h isto riq u e s, a d m in is tra tiv e s , ju rid iq u e s, écon o m iq u es e t financiéres), 6 th ed. b y M aurice B esson; g en eral in tro d u c tio n b y R e n é M aunier (P a ris, 1943).

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F T H E D IS C O V E R Y O F A F R IC A J . L e y d e n , H is to r ic a l A c co u n t of the D isc o veries a n d T ra v e ls in A f r ic a , 4 vols. (L o n d o n , 1817). — (F re n c h e d itio n :) L e y d e n a n d M u r r a y , H isto ir e com plete des voyages et décou vertes en A fr i-

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que d e p u is les s ihcl es les p lu s r e c u lis ju s q u ’á n os jo u r s . T r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e E n g lis h b y C u v illie r. 4 v o ls. ( P a ris , 1821). Ch . Waikekaee , Becherches g io g ra p h iq u es su r V in tirie u r de V A friq u e se p ten trio n a le etc., comp re n a n t V h istoire des voyages en tre p ris ou exécutés ju s q u 'a ce jo u r p o u r p én étrer d a n s Г i n t i rie u r d u S o u d a n , etc. (P a ris, 1821). V i v i e n D e S a i n t -M a r t i n , H isto ir e dee décou vertes g io g ra p h iq u es dee n a tio n s e u ro p ie n n es d a n s les d iv e rse s p a r tie s d u m on de (P a ris, 1846 et s e q .). ( P a r t I I I o n A frica co n sists o f 10 v o l­

um es.) L a B a r r e -D u p a r u (ed.), L 'A friq u e d e p u is qu atre sikcles, d ép ein te a u m o yen de h ű it croqu is su cc essifs, avec u n texte d e s c rip tif (P a ris, 1873). J o n e s , H is to r y of E x p lo r a tio n in A fr ic a (N e w Y o r k , 1875). P h . P a u l it s c h k e , D ie geographische E rfo rsch u n g d es a frik a n isc h e n K o n tin e n ts von den ältesten Z e ite n b is a u f u n sere T age: E in B e itra g zu r Geschichte der E rd k u n d e (2nd ed. V ienna,

1880). F. R. H. —

U m l a u f t , A f r ik a in kartograph isch er D a rstellu n g von H erodot b is heute (V ienna, 1887). B r o w n , T h e S to ry o f A f r ic a a n d i ts E x p lo r e rs , 4 vols. (L o n d o n , 1893 —95). H . J o h n s t o n , T h e O p en in g U p of A f r ic a (N ew Y o rk , 1911). T he N ile Q uest (L ondon, 1904). Y u s u f K a m a l , M o n u m en ta ca rto g ra p h ica A fric a e et A e g y p ti, 4 vols. (C airo, 1 9 2 6 —38). B . W il l ia m s a n d M . M a ü k , S ü d a fr ik a : E n td eck u n g u n d B e sied lu n g des sch w arzen K o n tin e n ts d u rch d ie E u ro p ä e r, 2 vols. (B erlin, 1939). P e r e a m a n d J a c k S im m o n s , A fr ic a n D isc o v e ry (L o n d o n , 1942; new e d .: 1948).

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F T H E D IS C O V E R IE S V a u g o n d y , H isto ir e de la geographic. D e s b o r o u g h -C o o l y , H isto ir e générale d es voyages. T ra n s la te d b y F o rg u e s a n d Jo a n n e . 3 vols.

(P a ris). O s c a r P e s c h e l , G eschichte d es Z e ita lte rs d er E n tdecku n gen . V i v i e n D e S a i n t -M a r t i n , H isto ir e de la géographie et des décou vertes géograph iqu es (P aris,

1873). S. R ü g e , Geschichte des Z e ita lte rs d er E n td eck u n g en (L eipzig, 1881 — 83). — A b h a n d lu n g en u n d Vorträge zu r Geschichte der E rd k u n d e (D resd en , 1888). G r i a u l t , L es g ra n d s ex p lo ra te u rs (P a ris, 1946). J . N . L . B a k e r , A H isto r y of G eograph ical E x p lo r a tio n a n d D isc o v e ry (L o n d o n , 1848 ed.). — (F re n c h e d itio n :) H isto ir e d es découvertes géograph iqu es (P a ris, 1946).

C O L L E C T IO N O F T R A V E L S I N A F R IC A (U P TO T H E E A R L Y 19T H C E N T U R Y ) C h . W a l k e n a e r , C ollection s de re la tio n s de voyages p a r m er et p a r terre en différen tes p a r tie s de V A friq u e d e p u is 1400 ju sq u 'á n os jo u r s , 21 vols. (P a ris, 1826 —31).

G E N E R A L C O L L E C T IO N S O F T R A V E L S (U P T O T H E E A R L Y 19T H C E N T U R Y ) R a m u s io , I tin e r a rio d i v a r ii r in o m a ti v ia g g ia to ri n elle p a r ti d e ll'A fric a , A s ia ed A m e ric a (V enice,

1550). —

N e lle N a v ig a z io n i e V ia g g i (1613). H a k l u y t , P r in c ip a l N a v ig a tio n s, V oyages a n d D isc o veries of the E n g lis h N a tio n m ade by sea o r over la n d . . . w ith in th e co m p a ss of these 1500 y e a r s (L ondon). — D iv e r s V oyages T o u ch in g the D isc o v e ry of A m e r ic a (L o ndon). P u r c h a s , H a c k lu y tu s P o sth u m u s. C h u r c h i l l , C ollection of V oyages a n d T ra vels.

39

P r é v o s t , H isto ir e générale des voyages.

(G erm an e d itio n :) A llg em ein e H isto r ic der R e ise n zu W asser u n d L a n d e: oder S a m m lu n g a ller R eieebesch reibu n gen etc. (L eipzig, 1748). M. R e i c h a b d , A n n a le s d es voyages. C h a e t o n (ed.), V oyages a n cien s et m odernes, 4 vols. (P a ris, 1853). —

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E G E O G R A P H Y O F A F R IC A E . H e a w o o d , G eograph y o f A fr ic a . B a i n i e r , L ’A friq u e : Q io g ra p h ie a p p liq u é e á la m a rin e , a u com m erce, ö V industrie, el a la sta tis tiq u e (P a ris, 1878). E . R kcltts , N o u velle q io g ra p h ie u n iverselle (P a ris, 1885 — 88), vols. x to xiv. W i l h e l m S i e v e r s , A f r ik a : E in e allgem ein e L a n d e sk u n d e (L eip zig —V ien n a, 1891). W . S i e v e b s a n d F r i e d r i c h H a h n , A f r ik a , 2 n d ed. re v ise d a n d re n e w e d b y F . H a h n , o n t h e b a sis o f t h e 1st ed. co m p iled b y P ro f. W . S i e v e r s (L e ip z ig —V ie n n a, 1901). (In A llg e ­ m ein e L ä n d e rk u n d e, ed. b y W . S ievers.)

J ohnston K e it h , A f r ic a (in S ta n fo rd ’s “ C om p en d iu m o f G e o g ra p h y ” [L o n d o n ]). A. H . K e a n e , A f r ic a (in S ta n fo rd ’s “ C o m p en d iu m ” ), 2 vols. (2nd ed. L o n d o n , 1 9 0 4 —07). K . D o v e , W irtsch aftsgeograph ie vo n A f r ik a (Je n a, 1917). A. H ettner, G run dzü ge d er L ä n d e rk u n d e, vol. i i : “ A sien u n d A frik a ’’ (B erlin, 1924). F . J a e g e r , “ A frik a ” (in S i e v e r s —M eyer’s A llg em ein e L ä n d e rk u n d e [2nd ed. 1928]). O ne o f th e m o st v a lu a b le w o rk s o n th e h is to ry o f b o th th e d isc o v ery a n d th e c o n q u e s t a n d c o lo n iz atio n o f A frica is th e 4-volum e h isto ric a l a n d g eo g rap h ica l collectio n L ' U n ivers p itto resq u e, p u b lish e d in P a ris in th e fo rtie s o f th e 19th c e n tu ry :

L ’Univers pittoresque: Histoire et description de tons les peuples, de leurs religions, moeurs, industrie, coutumes, etc., ed. b y F irm in -D id o t fréres (P aris). —

— — —

V ol. ii: M. D ’A v e z a c , J . Y a n o s k i , L o u is L a c r o ix , D u r e a u D e L a M a l l e , “ A f riq u e a n c ie n n e ” (E sq u isse gén érale de l ’A friq u e. A 'W que a n cien n e . N u m id ie ot M a u rita n ie. L ’A friq u e c h ré tie n n e e t d o m in a tio n des V a n d ale s en A friq u e) (1844). V ol. iii: “ S énégam bie e t G uinée, N u b ie , A b y ssin ie ” (1847). C o n te n ts: A m é d é e T a r d ie t j , “ S énégam bie e t G uinée” ; S. C h e r u b i n i , “ N u b ie ” ; N o e l D e s v e r g e s , “ A b y ssin ie .” V ol. iv : M . D ’A v e z a o (in c o lla b o ra tio n w i t h D e F r o b e r v i l l e , F r é d é r i c L a c r o ix , F . H o e f e r , M a c C a r t h y , V ic t o r C h a r l i e r ), “ l i e s d e l ’A friq u e ” (1848). V ol. v : F . H o e f f e r , “ A friq u e a u s tra le , A friq u e o rie n ta le , A friq u e c e n tra le , E m p ire d u M aro c” (1848).

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H IS T O R Y O F R E L IG IO U S M ISSIO N S I N A F R IC A F. J. C. J.

P . N o b l e , T h e R e d e m p tio n of A fr ic a , 2 v o ls . (N e w Y o rk , 1899). D u P l e s s i s , A H is to r y of C h ristia n M is s io n s i n S o u th A f r ic a (N ew Y o rk , 1911). P . G r o v e s , T he P la n tin g of C h r is tia n ity i n A fr ic a , 3 vols. (L ondon, 1 9 4 8 —55). M. S é d é s , H isto ir e s d es m iss io n s f r a n fa is e s (P a ris, 1950).

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E P E N E T R A T IO N O F ISL A M IN T O A F R IC A A n s o n P . A t t e r b u r y , I s la m in A fr ic a (N ew Y o rk , 1899). C a r l B r o c k e l m a n n , G eschichte der isla m isch en V ölker u n d S ta a te n (2nd ed. M unich, 1943). (E n g lish e d itio n :) H is to r y of the I s la m ic P e o p le s (L o n d o n , 1952). J . S. T r im in g h a m , I s la m i n the S u d a n (L ondon, 1949). M. D . W . J e f f r e y s , “ T h e N ig e r a n d t h e A ra b s ” (in M u s lim D ig e s t, 5, p p . 3 —8 [D u rb a n , 1955]). See also th e w o rk s o f C a r d o n n e a n d o th e rs on A ra b p e n e tra tio n in to A frica : o n p . 92.

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PART ONE B L A C K A F R IC A P R IO R T O T H E E U R O P E A N IN T R U S IO N (U p to th e E n d o f th e 1 5th C e n tu ry )

T w o S ections in the S tu d y of T h is P erio d

T h e h is to ry o f th e c o u n tries a n d p eoples o f B lack A frica u p to th e en d o f th e 15th c e n tu ry is to b e stu d ie d in tw o sections. As is w ell k n o w n , in t h a t epoch th e re w as n o c o n ta c t w h a te v e r b etw e en th e peoples o f th is p a r t o f A frica a n d th e peoples o f E u ro p e . T h e life o f th e A frican p eoples flowed in co m p lete iso latio n fro m E u ro p e a n d , g en erally sp eak in g , in a lm o st co m p lete iso­ la tio n fro m th e o u tsid e w orld. A lrea d y in a n c ie n t tim e s, h o w ev er, se v eral p erso n s fro m o th e r p a r ts o f th e w o rld m a d e a tte m p ts fro m tim e to tim e to d isco v er a n d ex p lo re, first o f all, th e c o a sta l are a s a n d la te r ev en th e in te rio r o f th e A frican co n ­ tin e n t. I n a n c ie n t tim e s th e re h a d been also som e com m ercial in te rc o u rse b e tw e e n th e m o st ad v a n c e d peoples o f th e a n c ie n t w orld (P hoen ician s, C a rth a g in ia n s A rab s, G reeks) a n d c e rta in A fric an co a sta l a re a s, especially th e e a ste rn litto ra l. I n th e M iddle A ges such voyages o f ex p lo ra tio n a n d a tte m p ts to e sta b lish com m ercial co n ­ ta c ts w ere co n tin u ed a n d e x p a n d e d m a in ly b y th e A ra b s. I n c e rta in regions o f T ro p ­ ical A frica th e A ra b s ev e n a c te d as colonizers. F in a lly , in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry P o r tu ­ guese n a v ig a to rs disco v ered a n d ex p lo red th e e n tire w estern a n d e a ste rn litto r a l o f B lack A frica. As a consequence m o re o r less sy ste m a tic tr a d e rela tio n s develo p ed w ith c e rta in places o n th e w est co a st a lre a d y in th e 15 th c e n tu ry . W ith th e ex c ep tio n o f th e se few places, how ever, th e e n tire hu g e te r r ito r y o f T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica re m a in e d c u t off fro m th e o u tsid e w orld. O nly a t th e close o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry (in c e rta in p a r ts o f A frica even as la te as th e 16th c e n tu ry ) d id th e in tru sio n o f E u ro p e a n s in to A frica begin to assu m e g re a te r p ro p o rtio n s ow ing to th e d isco v ery o f A m erica a n d th e slav e tr a d e w ith th e N ew W o rld . T h e h isto ric a l d e stin ie s o f th e A frican p eoples b ecam e in c re asin g ly b o u n d u p w ith th e h is to ry o f th e E u ro p e a n peoples in g en e ral a n d th e ir colonizing a c tiv itie s in p a rtic u la r. T h erefo re, w hen ex a m in in g th e h is to ry o f B lack A frica p rio r to th e en d o f th e 1 5th c e n tu ry , w e h a v e to d istin g u ish tw o a lm o st u n re la te d sections: 1. So fa r as possible we h a v e to s tu d y th e h is to ry o f th e A frican p eoples th em selv es from th e ea rliest tim e s u p till th e begin n in g o f th e E u ro p e a n in v a sio n o f A frica, th a t is, u n til th e e n d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . 2. W e h a v e to s tu d y th e h is to ry o f th e g eo g ra p h ica l disco v eries, th e h isto ry o f th e a tte m p ts b y peoples fro m o th e r c o n tin e n ts to exp lo re a n d colonize T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica fro m a n c ie n t tim e s u p to th e end o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry .

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CHAPTER 1

T H E P E O P L E S O F B L A C K A F R IC A B E F O R E T H E E N D O F T H E 15TH C E N T U R Y

W e h a v e a lre a d y e x p o u n d e d in w h a t sense a n d to w h a t e x te n t we ca n sp e ak in g en e ral a b o u t a h isto ry o f th e peoples a n d co u n tries o f B lack A frica p rio r to th e en d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu r y .1 W ith re g a rd to a la rg e n u m b e r o f th e A frican c o u n tries an d peoples, th e p o in t in q u estio n is n o t h isto ry in th e u su a l sense o f th e w ord, b u t r a th e r a n elu cid a tio n o f th e ir socio-econom ic, p o litica l a n d c u ltu ra l ev o lu tio n u p to th e tim e o f th e E u ro p e a n invasion. To ex a m in e th e se q u estio n s, i t is n ecessary fo r us to h av e , first o f all, a clear idea a b o u t th e follow ing: J u s t w h a t k in d o f peoples h a v e w e to do w ith ? W h a t eth n ic g ro u p s do th e y belong to ? H ow a re th e y d is trib u te d g eo g rap h ically : w h a t te rrito rie s d id th e y h o ld a t th e beginning of, a n d p rio r to , th e in tru sio n o f th e E u ro p ean s? W h a t do w e kn o w a b o u t th e ir m ig ra tio n s, th e ir m u tu a l rela tio n s, p eacefu l c o n ta c ts an d h o stilities, th e ir m ixings, e tc . in th e course o f th e ir e a rly h isto ry ? M an y a u th o rs , w h en w ritin g a b o u t th e A frican p eoples a n d th e ir classification, a n d especially w h en discussing th e ir h is to ry b efore th e in tru sio n o f th e E u ro p ean s, a re in te re s te d first a n d fo rem o st in th e origin o f th e A frican races, th e racial affini­ tie s a n d ra c ia l differences o f th o se peoples. T h is q u estio n is o f h a rd ly a n y in te re s t to us. W h a t we ta k e in te re s t in a re th e circu m stan ces d ecisive fo r th e orig in o f n a ­ tio n s, t h a t is, m a in ly such asp ec ts as th e te rrito ria l d istrib u tio n o f th e v ario u s peoples a n d trib e s, th e ir socio-econom ic developm en t, th e ir affin ities a n d differences in culture a n d language. I n div id in g th e peoples o f A frica in to g ro u p s, w e pro ceed , n o t from rac ial sta n d a rd s , b u t fro m th e se fo u r c rite ria w hich a re o f decisive consequence to th e fo rm a tio n o f n atio n s. A n d it is fro m th is angle t h a t we h a v e to look in to th e fac ts w e k n o w a b o u t th e life a n d d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e A frican peoples a n d trib e s before th e in tru sio n o f th e E u ro p e an s.

T he P r in c ip a l G roups of A fric a n P eo p les у

T h e overw helm ing m a jo rity o f th e peoples in h a b itin g th e A frican C o n tin en t b e­ lo n g to th r e e g re a t fam ilies o f peoples: 1. L iv in g th ro u g h o u t th e te rr ito r y o f th e S u d a n (i.e ., in a n ex ten siv e zone b etw een th e S a h a ra a n d th e E q u a to r, th e n o rth e rn b o rd e r o f w hich is th e im a g in a ry line ru n n in g w ith som e cu rv es fro m th e m o u th o f th e S enegal R iv e r th ro u g h T im b u k tu to K h a r to u m a n d K assala , w hile th e so u th e rn b o rd e r is th e u p p e r G uinea co ast a n d } See p. 16 ff.

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its im a g in a ry c o n tin u a tio n alo n g a p p ro x im a te ly 5 °N . la t. r ig h t t o th e E th io p ia n fro n tie r) a re h u n d re d s o f trib e s a n d peoples sp eak in g S u d a n ic languages. 2. T h e p a r t o f A frica ly in g so u th o f th e S u d an , t h a t is, n e a rly th e e n tire so u th e rn h a lf o f t h e c o n tin e n t, is, o n th e w hole, th e te rr ito r y o f trib e s a n d p eo p les sp eak in g B a n tu languages.

3. T h e regions o f A frica ly in g n o r th a n d e a st o f th e S u d an ( i.e ., th e M e d ite rra n e a n co u n tries o f A frica a n d th e S a h a ra o n th e n o rth , a n d th e n o r th e a s t c o rn e r o f th e co n ­ tin e n t, in clu d in g E th io p ia , E ritre a , th e S om ali co u n tries a n d a p a r t o f K e n y a , o n th e e a st) a re in h a b ite d b y peoples sp eak in g S em itic a n d H a m itic lan g u ag es. E v e ry one o f th e se th re e g ro u p s is a p rin cip al g ro u p o f p o p u la tio n o f th e g iv en te rr ito r y , in a sm u c h as th e peoples of th e resp e ctiv e g ro u p h a v e in h a b ite d th e w hole o r alm o st th e w hole o f th e given te r r ito r y since a n c ie n t tim e s, a n d a re n u m e rically su p e rio r to th e o th e r peoples living in each g iv en te rrito ry . O ver a n d ab o v e th e s e th r e e la rg e p rin cip al g ro u p s, th e re a re a n a d d itio n a l th re e m in o r g ro u p s o f A frican peoples: 1. T h e K h o i-K h o i a n d th e S a a n trib e s, in th e so u th w e st co rn er o f th e c o n tin e n t; 2. th e g ro u p o f th e “ p y g m y ” trib e s d istrib u te d , so to sa y , in sm all islan d s in th e tro p ic a l fo re sts o f C e n tral A frica; 3. th e trib e s o f M adagascar speak in g an In d o n esia n lan g u ag e.

T H E SUDANESE PE O P L E S1

T he e n tire p o p u la tio n o f W e st A frica a n d th e C e n tral S u d an (i.e ., th e v a s t te rr ito r y b o u n d ed b y th e S a h a ra a n d th e u p p e r G uinea co a st w ith its im a g in a ry c o n tin u a tio n alo n g 5°N . la t. fro m th e A tla n tic to th e N ile), a p a r t fro m a m in o r s tr a tu m o f A rab a n d B e rb e r elem en ts, re p re se n ts one g re a t fam ily o f th e S u d a n ese p eo p les. T hese peoples a re re la te d b y language a n d , to a co n sid erab le degree, b y cu ltu re. A la rg e m a ­ jo r ity o f th e m a re re la te d to one a n o th e r also b y o rig in . A m ong th e S u d an ese trib e s, how ever, th e re a re v a rio u s n a tio n a litie s o f d ifferen t origin (e.g.: th e F u la h o f B e rb e r origin). N o r h av e th e S u d an ese peoples p ro p e r p rese rv e d th e ir o rig in al ra c ia l an d e th n ic c h a ra c te r to th e sam e e x te n t; beside m o re o r less p u re re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e S udanese, th e re a re m ix e d peoples am o n g th e m w ith m a rk s o f som e p h y sic al a n d c u ltu ra l a d m ix tu re o f H a m itic a n d S em itic elem en ts o v er m a n y ce n tu rie s (th e H au sa , th e N ilo tes etc.). T h e peoples o f th e S u d an a re fa r fro m h a v in g a tta in e d a n equal degree o f econom ic d ev e lo p m e n t. T h eir h isto ric al d estin ie s follow ed u tte r ly d ifferen t p a tte r n s also in th e p a s t: som e o f th e m h a d S ta te s o f th e ir ow n a n d a n a d v a n c e d hom e in d u s try a lre a d y in a n c ie n t tim e s o r in th e M iddle A ges (e.g ., th e H au sa ), 1 1 sp e a k o f S u d a n ese p e o p le s, n o t o f “ N eg ro es” n o r o f “ S u d an ese N e g ro es” . T h e w o rd “ N e g ro ” is e sse n tia lly a c o n te m p tu o u s n ick n a m e, h u m ilia tin g a n d offensive to a n y conscious so n o f th e S udanese peoples. A n d since th is te rm does n e ith e r th e o re tic a lly n o r p ra c tic a lly e x p ress a n y ­ th in g p o sitiv e a n d c a n th u s b e re p la ce d , w ith o u t d e trim e n t to a n y sc ien tific s tu d y , b y th e te rm “ S u d an ese p eo p les” , th e re fo re i t m u s t b e ignored. F o r th e sam e re a so n s I re je c t th e te rm “ Negritic ” once p ro p o se d b y R o b e rt H a r t m a n n , as w ell a s th e n a m e “ E th io p ia n ” a s w as u se d b y L eo F r o b e N i u s for S udanese. T h is la t t e r te rm m a y b e u se d a s a s y n o n y m for “ A b y s sin ia n ” , since th e in h a b ita n ts o f E th io p ia th em se lv es p re fe r t h a t d e sig n atio n . T h e w o rd “ N e g ro ” m ay be u se d o n ly w ith re g a rd to A m e ric an N egroes. I n A m erica th e w o rd “ N e g ro ” h a s c eased t o be a c o n te m p tu o u s n ic k n a m e , a s th is p a r t o f th e A m e ric an n a tio n calls its e lf “ N e g ro ” o n its ow n accord. B u t i t sh o u ld b e n o te d t h a t th is o p in io n is n o t g en era lly a c c e p te d : w hile c e rta in A m e ­ ric a n N egroes p ro u d ly call th em se lv es N egroes (th e y sp e a k o f “ N egro a r t ” , “ N egro m u sic ” , “ N egro h is to r y ” , e tc .), o th e rs do th e ir u tm o s t to g e t rid o f th is n a m e , re p la c in g it b y d iffere n t n a m e s, su c h a s “ A fro -A m erican s” o r “ A m erican s o f A frican d e sc e n t” , etc.

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o th e rs re ta in e d th e ir p rim itiv e sy stem s a n d econom ies ( e.g., th e “ p a g a n ” trib e s of n o r th e r n N igeria) as la te as th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry . T h e S u d an ese peoples h a v e fo r ages b een s e ttle d p e a sa n ts. I n o ld e n tim es, how ever, th e ir la n d s w ere th e ta r g e ts o f co n tin u o u s a tta c k s a n d cam p aig n s o f co n q u est b y th e p a s to ra l (nom adic) peoples living n o r th o f th e S u d an , in th e v a s t d e s e rt a n d b e­ y o n d , o n th e M e d ite rra n e a n co a st. I n a d d itio n to th is in h isto ric a l tim e s especially a fte r th e a p p e a ra n c e o f Islam , A ra b trib e s p e n e tra te d in to th e e a s te rn a n d c e n tra l d istric ts o f th e S u d an . I n th e ir stru g g le w ith th e aliens th e S u d an ese trib e s b eg a n concluding tr ib a l alliances. T h e m a jo rity o f th e s e w eak tr ib a l alliances w ere v a n q u ish e d b y th e stro n g e r alien s w ho b ro u g h t to life a n u m b e r o f s ta te fo rm a tio n s, each u n itin g u n d e r its ju risd ic tio n a few su ch alliances o f A frican trib e s. T h e su b ju g a to rs th em selv es, s e ttlin g do w n in th e te rrito rie s conq u ered , a b a n d o n e d n o m ad ic life a n d b eg a n to m ix w ith th e v a n q u ish e d A fricans. T h e y p assed o n to th e m elem e n ts o f th e ir cu ltu re, a n d a d o p te d th e la n g u ag e a n d cu sto m s o f th e su b d u e d m a jo rity . I n c e rta in places su ch S ta te s w ere b o rn in a n o th e r w ay : A frican trib e s u n ite d in a bigger alliance h e a d e d b y a su p rem e ch ief (“ k in g ” o r “ s u lta n ” ) w ere su b ju g a te d b y th e alien s com ­ in g fro m th e n o r th o r th e ea st. T h is w as how la rg e a n c ie n t S ta te s aro se in th e W e ste rn S u d a n : G hana (a b o u t A. D. 300), S o n rh a i a n d M elle. T h e first tw o w ere fo u n d ed b y B e rb e r trib e s : G h an a w est o f T im b u k tu , n o rth w e s t o f th e u p p e r course o f th e N ig er R iv e r, a n d S o n rh a i so u th o f T im b u k tu , in sid e th e g re a t b e n d o f th e N ig er R iv er. T h e S ta te o f M elle, w hich o ccu p ied a la rg e te r r ito r y s o u th a n d e a s t o f th e N ig er b e n d , w as c re a te d b y th e S u ­ d an e se people o f th e M andingo b u t w as s h o rtly a fte rw a rd s s u b ju g a te d b y T uaregs. I n th e sa m e w a y em erged, n o r th o f L ak e C had, th e S ta te o f K an e m , w hich w as es­ ta b lish e d b y th e T eb u (T ibbu) trib e s b u t w as soon a fte rw a rd s co n q u e red b y th e A ra b s ; fu rth e r , in th e e a s te rn p a r t o f th e C e n tra l S u d an , D a rfu r, w h ich w as c re a te d b y A rab trib e s ; a n d a t a la te r tim e B o rn u (founded b y th e S u d an ese p eo p les o f th e K a n e m b u a n d T eb u w ho h a d com e fro m K an e m ), B a g h irm i a n d W a d a i (c re a te d b y th e A rabs). I n th e 1 0 th a n d 11 th c e n tu rie s th e th r e e la rg e S ta te s o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n a n d th e S ta te o f K a n e m em b ra c e d Islam . T h is s tre n g th e n e d th e S ta te a u th o rity , in c re as­ ed th e influ x o f A ra b s a n d , co n seq u e n tly , th e ex p a n sio n o f tr a d e w ith o th e r c o u n t­ ries, in c lu d in g slave tr a d e . T h e clan sy ste m b eg an to d isin te g ra te s te p b y ste p , a n d ele­ m e n ts o f th e slav e-h o ld in g a n d , in p a r t, o f th e feu d a l sy ste m , g ra d u a lly a p p e ared . B eside th e A ra b a n d B e rb e r conq u ero rs, a role o f in c reasin g h isto ric a l significance for th e S u d a n S ta te s w as p la y e d b y th e g re a t S u d an ese p eo p les o f A n tiq u ity , th e M a n d in ­ go, th e S o n rh a i, th e Н а ш а a n d th e F u la h , w ho h a d becom e S u d an ese in la n g u ag e a n d c u ltu re , as w ell as b y th e n ew g re a t, unified S u d an ese p eoples w hich h a d em erged o n th e soil o f th e C e n tra l S u d a n S ta te s — th e K a n e m b u , th e K a n u r i, th e B a g h irm i, th e W a d a ia n s a n d th e D a rfu ria n s. I n th e W e s te rn S u d a n a g re a t n u m b e r o f m in o r a n d m a jo r trib e s g ra d u a lly m erg ed w ith th e la rg e r ones, a n d in th e C e n tra l S u d an m a n y o f th e m w ere a b s o rb e d b y th e p rin cip al peoples o f th e se c o u n tries. Som e o f th e m su cceed ed in h o ld in g o u t o n th e ir la n d s, s u b m ittin g to th e su p rem e p o w er o f th e d o m in a tin g p eo p le o f th e la rg e S ta te t h a t em erg ed o n th e ir te rrito rie s , o r w ere ab le to p re se rv e th e ir in d e p e n d e n c e th ro u g h self-isolatio n in o n e o r a n o th e r region o f th a t S ta te . F in a lly , a la rg e n u m b e r o f S u d an ese trib e s , u n a b le to s ta n d firm a g a in st th e c o n q u e ro rs a n d unw illin g to s u b m it to th e ir pow er, so u g h t refu g e in escape. O v er m a n y ce n tu rie s th e S u d an ese tr ib e s g ra d u a lly m ig ra te d fro m th e in te rio r o f th e W e ste rn (an d fro m th e w e st o f th e C e n tral) S u d a n in fo u r p rin c ip a l d irec tio n s: ( a ) w estw a rd — to th e b asin s o f th e S enegal a n d G am b ia R iv ers; ( b ) s o u th w a rd — to th e sh o re o f th e G u lf o f G uinea ;

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(c ) so u th e a stw a rd — to A d a m a w a a n d b ey o n d , to th e reg io n b etw e en th e Congo a n d th e N ile; ( d ) ea stw a rd — to th e E a s te r n S u d a n a n d , fa rth e r, to E th io p ia .

T he P eoples of the W estern S u d a n

A v a s t m a jo rity o f th e p o p u la tio n o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n co n sists o f fo u r larg e n a tio n a litie s: th re e g re a t S u d an ese peoples w h ich h a d sto o d th e ir g ro u n d in th e stru g g le s a g a in s t th e con q u ero rs: th e M a n d in g o , th e S o n rh a i a n d th e H a m a , a n d o n e o f th e co n q u erin g peoples: th e n o m a d ic, p a s to ra l F u la h o f B e rb e r origin, w hich becam e g en u in e S u danese in la n g u ag e a n d , to a co n sid erab le d egree, in c u ltu re as well. T h e M a n d in g o (M ande, M ende) c o n s titu te th e p re d o m in a n t p o p u la tio n in th e r e ­ gions a d ja c e n t to th e u p p e r reach es o f th e th re e p rin cip al riv e rs o f W e st A frica — th e S enegal, th e G am bia a n d th e N ig er; besides, th e y a re sp re a d th ro u g h o u t all regions o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n so u th o f th e S enegal a n d th e u p p e r N ig er, fro m th e A tla n tic co a st to th e h e a r t o f N igeria. T h e y b re a k u p in to m a n y trib e s , th e m o st im p o r ta n t o f w hich a re th e B a m b a ra , th e M a lin k e s, th e J a llo n k es, th e S a m a n k e s, e tc . T h e M an ­ dingo w ere th e p rin c ip a l people o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n S ta te s o f G h a n a a n d M elle; th e la tte r w as even fo u n d ed b y th e m . T his S ta te ac h iev ed th e h e ig h t o f its p o w er in th e 13 th to 15th c e n tu rie s, a fte r its ru lers h a d em b ra ce d Isla m (1200). T h e su lta n s o f M elle co n q u ered a consid erab le p o rtio n o f G h an a a n d S o n rh ai, as w ell as T im b u k tu . T h e m ig h t o f M elle w as b ro k en p a r tly b y th e T u areg s, p a r tly b y th e S o n rh a i, in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . I n 1501 i t becam e a tr ib u ta r y to th e la tte r , a n d a f te r th is g ra d u a lly b ro k e u p in to a m u ltitu d e o f sm all S ta te s. T he S o n rh a i o r S on gh ai o ccu p y th e regions so u th o f T im b u k tu a n d o f th e g re a t b e n d o f th e N iger. T h e S o n rh ai em p ire t h a t h a d a rise n in th e first ce n tu rie s o f o u r era m a in ta in e d com m ercial a n d c u ltu ra l c o n ta c ts w ith E g y p t a n d th e c o u n tries o f th e u p p e r N ile. E g y p t tr a n s m itte d to S onrh ai n ew cu sto m s (e.g ., th e em b alm in g o f kings), th e E a s te r n S u d a n — th e M oslem religion. T h e S o n rh a i em p ire re a c h e d its h ig h e st p ro sp e rity in th e 16 th c e n tu ry , u n d e r local ru lers (a fte r th e B e rb e r c o n q u e r­ ors, its fo u n d ers), w h en all o th e r W e ste rn S u d a n S ta te s (G h an a, M elle, M ossi, etc.) e ith e r w ere su b d u e d b y S on rh ai o r b ecam e tr ib u ta rie s to it. T im b u k tu , o ccu p ied b y S o n rh ai in 1469, w as tu r n e d in to a c u ltu ra l c e n tre o f th e w hole W e ste rn S u d an . T he Н а ш а , w ho in o u r d a y s o ccu p y a g re a t p o rtio n o f n o r th e r n N ig eria, o n ce lived in th e c e n tra l p a r t o f th e so u th e rn S ah ara , e a s t o f th e N ig er R iv e r. O u ste d fro m th e re b y th e T uaregs, th e y g ra d u a lly m ig ra te d to w a rd s t h e so u th , a n d in th e 9 th o r 1 0 th c e n tu ry se t u p seven “ p rim a ry ” a n d seven “ se c o n d a ry ” S ta te s t h a t o ccu p ied th e te r r i­ to r y b etw e en th e N ig er on th e w est a n d B o m u o n th e so u th , t h a t is, a lm o st th e e n tire so u th e rn h a lf o f p re s e n t-d a y N igeria. Since o lden tim e s th e H a u sa h a v e differed fro m th e re s t o f th e S udanese peoples b y th e ir h ig h ly develo p ed h a n d ic ra ft in d u s try , es­ pecially th e m a n u fa c tu re a n d th e d y ein g o f te x tile s. T h ey c a rrie d o n a v e ry p ro sp e r­ ing com m erce b o th a t ho m e a n d w ith o th e r peoples. O w ing to th e ir co m m ercial in te r ­ course, th e ir c u ltu ra l influence w as felt fa r b ey o n d th e ir possessions, a n d th e ir la n g ­ u ag e co n seq u e n tly b ecam e w h a t could be called a lin g u a fra n ca o f W e s t A frica. T his la nguage w as u n d e rsto o d on all m a rk e ts o f A frica since o ld en tim e s; it w as u sed even b y th e ru lers o f th e S u d a n S ta te s in th e ir d ip lo m atic in te rco u rse. I n th e ir h o m e in d u s try th e H a u sa em ployed slave la b o u r, secu red in special sla v e-raid in g cam p aig n s a g a in st alien trib e s. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t am o n g th e “ p r im a ry ” S ta te s o f t h e H a u s a

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Peuples soudanais - Sudanese peoples Banlous - Bantus Chamites et Sémites - Hamites and Semites

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V \

Khoi-Khoi et Saan - Khoi-Khoi and Saan Distribution des„Pygmées‘- Distribution ofthe, Pygmies1 Ptalgaches - Malgash

TER RITO R IA L D IV ISIO N OF TH E PR IN C IPA L ETHNIC GROUPS OF AFRICA

w ere K a n o a n d K a tse n a , a n d am o n g th e “ se c o n d a ry ” ones — КеЬЫ , N u p e a n d Y oru ba. U n til th e en d o f th e 15th c e n tu ry th e peoples o f th e H a u sa S ta te s h a d n o t a d o p te d Islam . T h e F u la h (F e lla ta h , F u la n i, F ü lb e , P eu lh ) a re a la rg e g ro u p o f n o m a d ic, c a ttle b reed ing trib e s o f B e rb e r origin b u t S u d an ese in lan g u ag e, w hich in th e co u rse o f th e ir h is to ry becam e one o f th e p rin cip al n a tio n a litie s o f th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tra l S u d an . I n old en tim e s th e F u lah liv ed on th e ste p p e s n o r th o f Senegal, in p re se n td a y M a u rita n ia . Som e sa y t h a t th e ir a n c e sto rs h a d m ig ra te d th e r e fro m th e n o r th ­ e a s t, fro m M orocco, a n d o th e rs claim t h a t th e y h a d com e fro m th e e a st, fro m th e r e ­ gions o f th e T uaregs. T h e ir trib e s b eg a n to sp re a d v e ry e a rly o v e r th e e n tire S u d an , first in th e W e ste rn a n d la te r in th e C e n tra l S u d an . T h e y first occu p ied th e reg io n o f C e n tral S enegal, w here th e y s e t u p a sm all S ta te o f th e ir ow n. I t w as fro m th e re t h a t th e y s ta r te d p e n e tra tin g to w a rd s th e e a s t a n d th e so u th . A t th e close o f th e 1 3 th c e n tu ry th e y w ere a lre a d y in M elle, a n d in th e second h a lf o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry (1482) S u n n i A l i , th e s u lta n o f th e S o n rh a i co u n tries, re so rte d to w a r a g a in st th e F u la h trib e s t h a t h a d in tru d e d u p o n his te rr ito r y . T h e y d id n o t su cceed h ow ever, in o u stin g th e F u la h trib e s fro m th e W e ste rn S u d a n co u n tries, b ecau se b y t h a t tim e som e o f th o se trib e s a lre a d y liv e d in th e H a u sa S ta te s w h ere th e y h a d g one to s e ttle d ow n p eacefully, as sh ep h erd s in se arch o f new p a s tu re s. B eside th e s e th re e g re a t W e ste rn S u d a n peoples, th e in te rio r o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n is in h a b ite d b y se v eral sm all a n d la rg e trib e s w hich e ith e r su rre n d e re d to th e ru h n g peo p le o f o n e o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n S ta te s , o r w ere a b le to iso la te th e m ­ selves a n d av o id bein g s u b ju g a te d e ith e r b y a lie n c o n q u e ro rs o r b y o th e r S u d an ese p eoples w ho, th o u g h a k in to th e m in la n g u ag e a n d c u ltu re , w ere stro n g e r a n d m o re p ow erful. S uch trib e s a re fo u n d , ab o v e all, in th r e e g eo g rap h ical regions: ( a ) I n th e reg io n o f th e u p p e r a n d th e m id d le course o f th e N ig er liv e th e in d e ­ p e n d e n t K u ra n k o , K i s s i, S a n g a ra , W asu lu , e tc . trib e s. (b) I n th e region o f th e u p p e r reach es o f th e V o lta R iv e r liv e a n u m b e r o f trib e s (th e M o ssi, G u rm a i, Q u ru n si, B o rg u , M o n sh i, e tc .) w ho, th o u g h u n a b le to keep a w a y fro m th e influence o f th e S o n rh a i, th e H a u s a a n d th e F u la h , d id n o t a d o p t Isla m e ith e r a n d p re se rv e d th e ir sm all, in d e p e n d e n t S ta te s . T h e m o st im p o r ta n t role am o n g th e m fell to th e M o s s i trib e s w ho o ccupied (a n d still o cc u p y to th is d a y ) th e n o r th e r n slopes o f th e K o n g M o u n tain s w ith in th e b e n d o f th e N ig er R iv e r, th e regions a ro u n d th e to w n o f O u agadougou a n d th e n o rth w e s te rn regions o f th e G old C oast (G hana). T h e y w ere u n ite d in a la rg e tr ib a l allia n ce (“ th e M ossi S ta te ” ) th a t re p re se n te d a c o n fe d eratio n o f five self-governing p ro v in ce s u n d e r th e su p re m e po w er o f a “ k in g ” . T he h ea d s o f th e se p ro v in ce s w ere a p p o in te d b y th e k in g a n d p a id t r i b ­ u te to h im . T h e k in g h a d a s ta f f o f officials a p p o in te d b y h im w hose p o sts w ere h e re d ita ry . T h e M ossi S ta te re a c h e d th e h e ig h t o f its d e v e lo p m e n t in th e m id d le o f th e 1 4th c e n tu ry w h en i t u n ite d u n d e r its ru le a ra n g e o f n eig h b o u rin g co u n tries (D ogom ba, etc.) a n d occupied ev en T im b u k tu fo r a w hile. A fte rw a rd s (in th e la te 1 5 th a n d in th e e a rly 1 6 th c e n tu ry ) th e M ossi c a rrie d o n o b s tin a te stru g g le s a g a in st th e S o n rh a i w hose su lta n s tr ie d to s u b ju g a te th e m b y fo rcib ly co n v e rtin g th e m to Islam . T h e larg e m a jo rity o f th e M ossi, how ever, h a v e re m a in e d p a g a n s u p to th e p re se n t d a y , a n d o n ly tow n-dw ellers h a v e em b ra c e d Islam . ( c ) I n th e n o r th e r n te r r ito r y o f p re se n t-d a y N ig eria — in th e region o f th e M oslem H a u sa a n d F u la h S ta te s — a few sm all p a g a n trib e s — th e A n g a , B erom , G u ri, J a raw a, J u k u n , K a ta b , e tc . — h a v e re m a in e d u n to u c h e d b y a lie n influence. T h e y h a d no k in d o f S ta te fo rm a tio n ; th e ir social s tr u c tu re co n siste d o f th e allian ce o f a few villages h e a d e d b y a tr ib a l chief. 4 E. Sík: Black Africa I.

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I n a d d itio n to th e W e ste rn S u d a n peoples p ro p er, th e p o p u la tio n o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n includ es a la rg e n u m b e r o f B erbers a n d T u a reg s a n d a sm a lle r n u m b e r o f A r a b s a n d M o o rs.1 T h e P eo p les of the C entral S u d a n

T h e fo rm a tio n o f la rg e S ta te s in th e C e n tra l S u d a n (K a n em , B o rn u , B ag h irm i, W a d ai, D arfu r) le d to th e b ir th o f g re a t p eo p les — p rim itiv e n a tio n s (trib a l alli­ ances) — com prising d iv erse e th n ic elem en ts. O ne o f th e m a in fe rm en tin g fa c to rs w as th e a d o p tio n o f Isla m w hich u n ite d A rab , B e rb e r a n d S u d an ese trib e s : th e K a n e m b u , K a n u r i, B a g h irm i, W a d a ia n s, D a rfu ria n s. O n th e w hole, all th e se p eoples b e a r a S u d an ese c h a ra c te r, th o u g h w ith a m a rk e d A ra b o -B erb er e th n ic to u c h a n d A rab o B e rb e r c u ltu re . T h e u n ific atio n o f th e trib e s d id n o t m e an th e ir assim ilatio n , alth o u g h c e rta in trib e s bore, o f course, m o re o r less o b v io u s m a rk s o f th e A ra b o -B e rb e r in flu ­ ence. F in a lly , i t sh o u ld be n o te d t h a t all th e trib e s living in on e o r a n o th e r C e n tral S u d a n c o u n try w ere n o t a b so rb e d in th e n ew ly fo rm ed peoples. I n ea ch o f th e se c o u n tries th e re re m a in e d v ario u s S u d an ese trib e s w ho d id n o t form p a r t o f th e g re a t basic people o f th e g iv e n S ta te , h a d n o t y ie ld e d —o r h a d y ie ld ed o n ly to a n in sig n if­ ic a n t e x t e n t—to th e A ra b o -B e rb e r influence a n d , w h a t is m ore, h a d n o t a d o p te d Islam . S om e o f th e m succeeded in p rese rv in g th e ir co m p lete in d e p en d e n ce , w hile o th e rs, s u b m ittin g to th e su p rem e p o litical a u th o rity (th e “ s u lta n ” ) o f th e ru lin g people o f o n e o r a n o th e r C e n tral S u d an S ta te , w ere ab le a t th e sam e tim e to re ta in th e ir S u d an ese n a tio n a l c h a ra c te r, th e ir ow n m o d e o f life a n d cu ltu re. T h e K a n em b u (“ in h a b ita n ts o f K a n e m ” ), th e b asic n a tio n a lity o f th e S ta te o f K a n e m w hich aro se n o rth e a s t o f L ak e C had in th e ea rly M iddle A ges, co n sisted o f vario u s trib e s o f th e D ana (Tibbu) w ho, m ix ed w ith sm all S u d an ese trib e s, h a d com e fro m th e n o r th (th e w ord “ K a n e m ” m ean s “ so u th e rn reg io n ” ). E a r ly in th e 1 0th c e n tu ry th e M oslem p e n e tr a tio n in to K a n e m b eg an , a n d w ith it w e n t th e A ra b influ­ ence. Isla m w as officially a d o p te d in 1130, u p o n w hich K a n e m b eg an e x p a n d in g to th e n o r th a n d th e s o u th (occupying th e te rr ito r y o f th e la te r B o rn u ), th e n a ro u n d 1500 w as co n q u e red b y th e B u lala (T ibbu) trib e com ing fro m th e n o rth , a n d afte rw a rd s b ecam e su b je c t a lte r n a te ly to B ag h irm i, to th e A rab s a n d to W a d ai. I n th e 14th a n d 15 th c e n tu rie s a p a r t o f th e K a n e m b u , fleeing th e co n q u ero rs, w e n t to B o rn u , w here th e y b ecam e th e n ucleus o f th e new K a n u ri p eople, w hile a n o th e r p a r t o f th e m in th e course o f s u b se q u e n t ce n tu ries g ra d u a lly in filtra te d in to th e sam e region a s in d iv id u a l e m ig ran ts a n d s e ttle rs , av o id in g to m ix w ith th e K a n u ri. T h e K a n e m ­ b u w ere p o o r in a rm a m e n t: all th e y h ad w ere sp ears, w ooden shields a n d long k n iv es; th e y u se d n e ith e r bow s a n d arro w s n o r m issile iro n w eapons. T h e B o rn u S ta te em erged w est a n d so u th w e st o f L ak e C h ad in th e 1 3th a n d 14th c e n tu ries a n d w as defin itiv ely esta b lish e d as a la rg e hom ogeneous S ta te a t th e en d o f th e 15 th c e n tu ry , a f te r K an e m h ad lost its in d ep en d en ce. T h e basic n a tio n a lity o f B o rn u , th e K a n u r i (B ornuese), d eveloped m a in ly from th e d iffe ren t K a n e m b u an d D aza (Tibbu) trib e s t h a t h a d fled fro m K an e m . O ne o f th e se trib e s, th e M a g o m i, w as a s o rt o f a risto c ra c y in B o rn u , since its m em b ers w ere co n sid ered offspring o f th e a n ­ c ie n t su lta n s o f K a n e m . T he n a m e “ K a n u r i” m ean s “ peo p le fro m K a n e m ” (in th e in te r p re ta tio n o f th e K a n u ri th e m se lv es: “ peo p le o f th e lig h t” , b u t acco rd in g to th e ir enem ies: “ peo p le o f th e fire” [i.e ., o f hell]). T h e K a n u ri sp e a k a S u d an ic la n g u ag e 1 See p p . 66 —67.

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a k in to t h a t o f th e T eb u , b u t it has n o t m u c h resem b lan ce to th e to n g u e o f e ith e r th e H a u sa o r th e B ag h irm i. A t th e h e a d o f t h e K a n u r i sto o d th e s u lta n ; th e fo rm of g o v ern m e n t w as a p a tria rc h a l one: th e s u lta n ru le d w ith th e p a rtic ip a tio n o f a co u n ­ cil, h u t b y a n d b y th e su lta n s g ain ed a b so lu te pow er. H e ir to th e s u lta n w as th e son o f his elder sister. T h e s u lta n ’s re la tiv e s w ere p a id p rin ce ly h o n o u rs. I n th e c o u rt o f th e s u lta n a n im p o rta n t p a r t fell to th e eun u ch s. T h e B o rn u S ta te m a in ta in e d a big a rm y . T h e m o u n te d w arrio rs w ore e ith e r ch ain a rm o u rs o r b re a s tp la te s m a d e o f iro n . T h e horses w ore th ic k b la n k e ts, th e ir h ead s being co v ered in fro n t a n d on b o th sides w ith b rass p la te s . T h e soldiers w ere n o t p a id b u t w ere g iv en la n d a llo tm e n ts. T h e D a r ju r S ta te w as fo u n d ed b y th e A ra b tr ib e o f th e D ad io w ho h a d su b ju g a te d th e local S u d an ese trib e s. U n d e r th e ru le o f th e D ad io th e se trib e s cam e to h old t o ­ g e th e r a n d , in th e 15th a n d 16th ce n tu ries, in th e stru g g le a g a in s t a n o th e r (pagan) A rab trib e , th e T u n ju r, w ho h a d fo r a s h o rt w hile c o n q u e red D a rfu r, m erg ed in to a h om ogeneous people called th e F u r (“ D a rfu ria n s” ). T h e le ad in g ro le am o n g th e trib e s c o n s titu tin g th e F u r people w as p la y e d b y th e K u n ja r (or G o n jar) w hose la n g ­ u ag e w as a d o p te d ev en b y th e F u r. T his lan g u ag e is also sp o k en b y o th e r trib e s o f D a rfu r. I n th e ea rliest d a y s o f th e ir fo rm a tio n , th e F u r peo p le a ssim ila te d c e rta in A rab elem en ts; la te r th e y increasin g ly m ix ed w ith A rab s a n d th e A rab influence grew stro n g er. B y th e en d o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry a g re a t m a n y A rab ic w o rd s h a d forced th e ir w a y in to th e F u r (K u n ja r) language, a n d in th e to w n s o f D a rfu r th e A rab ic, a s o rt o f second, “ civilized” lan g u ag e, w as a lre a d y in g en e ral use. T h e sy ste m o f g o v ­ e rn m e n t in D a rfu r h a d m a n y p a tria rc h a l fe a tu re s (e.g ., th e s u lta n ’s p erso n al p a r tic ­ ip a tio n in th e cerem onial opening o f th e p lo u g h in g season) a n d th e fam ily rela tio n s h a d re ta in e d m a n y re m n a n ts o f m a tria rc h y a n d p rim itiv e co m m u n ism (no b a r to m a rriag e b etw e en b ro th e r a n d siste r, th e privilege o f th e s u lta n ’s d a u g h te rs to choose lovers, etc.). A t th e e n d o f th e 15 th c e n tu ry g re a t hom ogeneous peoples (th e W a d aian s a n d th e B ag h irm i) s ta r te d to develop in th e te rrito rie s o f W a d a i a n d B a g h irm i, th e tw o S ta te s t h a t aro se la te r in th e C e n tral S u d an . T h e W a d a ia n s becam e a hom ogeneous people a ro u n d th e tu r n o f th e 1 5th a n d 16th ce n tu ries, in th e com m on stru g g le o f several A ra b a n d S u d an ese trib es a g a in st th e T u n ju r a n d th e aggressive efforts o f th e D a rfu r su lta n s. T h e W a d aian s a re th e m o st A rab ized o f all th e C e n tral S u d an peoples, b u t, d e sp ite th e s tro n g A rab influence, th e lead ing ro le in th e allian ce o f th e trib e s c o n s titu tin g th e W a d a i peo p le is p la y e d , n o t b y A ra b s, b u t b y th e S u d an ese trib e s o f th e M a b a t h a t m a k e u p th e u p p e r s tr a tu m . T h e la n g u ag e o f th e M abas is w idely sp re a d am o n g all W a d a i trib e s , b ein g th e co m ­ m on lan g u ag e u sed in tr a d e a n d o th e r in te r trib a l c o n ta c ts. In re sp e c t o f c u ltu re , th e W a d aian s a re lagging b eh in d th e re s t o f th e g re a t C e n tral S u d an peoples. T h e B a g h irm i (B agirm i, B ag u irm i) people aro se in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , as a re su lt o f th e in te g ra tio n o f a n u m b e r o f C e n tral S u d a n trib e s (th e M a k a r i, th e S o a n d o th e rs) w ith som e A ra b a n d F u la h trib e s a n d w ith som e fra g m e n te d S u d an ese trib e s t h a t h a d r e tu r n e d p a r tly fro m th e region b etw e en th e Congo a n d th e N ile R iv e rs (th e D in k a ), p a r tly fro m th e E a s te r n S u d a n (th e B o n g o ). T h e n a m e “ B a g h irm i” (m ea n ­ ing “ a h u n d re d cow s” ) th e y ow e to th e circ u m sta n ce t h a t th e first m a ste rs o f th e c o u n try u se d to d e m a n d o f th e peoples s u b ju g a te d b y th e m a tr ib u te o f a h u n d re d h ea d o f c a ttle each. I n a d d itio n to th e s e p rin cip al ru lin g peoples o f th e five C e n tra l S u d a n S ta te s , w e h av e to list am ong th e m a jo r peoples o f th e C e n tra l S u d a n th e T ib b u (Tebu) w hose trib e s c o n s titu te d c e rta in basic elem en ts t h a t d evelo p ed in to th e g re a t C e n tral S u d an peoples — th e K a n e m b u , th e K a n u ri a n d th e W a d aian s. O th e r trib e s o f th e T ib b u , 4*

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keeping a w a y fro m th e new C e n tral S u d an peoples, lived in th e te rr ito r y o f th e C en­ tr a l S u d a n S ta te s as in d e p e n d e n t, in d iv id u a l trib e s. T h e T ib b u (or m o re e x a c tly : T u b u — “ rock -d w ellers” — b ecause m a n y o f th e m dw ell in cav es o r am o n g rocks) d iv id e in to tw o la rg e g ro u p s: th e n o rth e rn T e d a a n d th e so u th e rn B a z a . T h eir s e t­ tle m e n ts in th e e a s te rn h a lf o f th e c e n tra l p a r t o f th e S ah ara , from F ezz an to L ak e C had w ith T ib e sti in th e ce n tre, a re sp rea d o v er a n a re a o f m o re th a n h a lf a m illion sq u a re k ilo m etres. T h e T ib b u h av e m a n y c u ltu ra l lin k s w ith o th e r A ra b peoples: (alm ost) com m on la n g u ag e w ith th e K a n u ri, com m on religion w ith th e A ra b s, com ­ m o n cu sto m s w ith th e T u areg s (veil w orn b y th e m en) a n d w ith th e S hilluks (scar ta tto o in g ), b u t th e y h a v e m ix ed w ith no n e o f th e se peoples. T h e ir so c iety is d iv id ed in to “ ch ief” ( d a r d a i) , “ n o b ility ’ (m a in a ) a n d “ co m m o n ers” . N e ith e r p e rm a n e n t w ars n o r ta x a tio n w ere ev er k n o w n to th e m . Q u arrels w ere s e ttle d , n o t b y trib u n a ls, b u t b y duels. S m ith s w ere re g a rd e d as a desp ised caste. T h ey p ra c tise d m o n ogam y. T h ere w ere am o n g th e T ib b u b o th s e ttle d a n d n o m ad ic g ro u p s, b u t th e ir m a jo rity w ere sem inom ads ch an g in g th e ir residence fre q u e n tly . W h e n circu m stan ces m ad e it possible, th e y p ra c tise d b o th a g ric u ltu re a n d ca ttle-ra isin g . O f th e s u b o rd in a te d o r in d e p e n d e n t trib e s o f th e C e n tral S u d an , th e K otoko o cc u p y th e n o rth e a s te rn region o f B o rn u , w here th e y h a d m ig ra te d fro m th e ea st. T h e y lived in to w n s su rro u n d e d b y ea rth w o rk ; each o f th e se to w n s w as a n in d iv id u al S ta te w ith a “ s u lta n ” o f its ow n, w ho h a d a “ co u n cil” o f five d ig n itaries. V ery close­ ly re la te d in la n g u ag e a n d c u ltu re to th e K o t око, th e M a n d a ra o r V an dala in h a b it th e region o f th e m o u n ta in s o f th e sam e n am e in th e s o u th e a st o f B o rn u a n d th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f A d a m a w a. T h e М ш д и , liv in g s o u th o f th e K o to k o a n d re la te d to th e m , used m issile iro n s (w hich se rv e d also to c u t o ff th e legs o f th e en em y in w ar a n d o f g am e in h u n tin g ) a n d w ore arm o u rs m ad e o f b u ff o r th ic k s tra w m a t. T h e K e reb in a , w ho live s o u th o f L a k e C had, a re d esc e n d a n ts o f th e m o st pow erful people o f A n tiq u ity , th e S o, w ho la te r, in th e 13th a n d 1 4th cen tu ries, w ere m a ste rs o f th e w hole a re a ly in g so u th o f L a k e C had. O th e r d isp ersed peoples o f th e C e n tral S u d a n are : th e M a n g a , M a rg i, G am ergu, Y e d in a o r B u d d u m a (in h ab itin g th e islan d s o f L ak e C had), B a b ir, Q un rei, S o n rei, etc.

T he P eo p les of S en egam bia

T h e S u d an ese trib e s t h a t h a d m ig ra te d to th e w est, in to th e b asin s o f th e Senegal a n d G am b ia R iv ers (“ S en eg a m b ia” ), concluded m o re o r less stro n g tr ib a l alliances a n d e stab lish ed p rim itiv e S ta te s . T hese b o rd ered o n th e co u n tries o f th e M andingo a n d , la te r , o f th e F u la h , a n d for c e n tu rie s th e y fo u g h t fo r th e ir in d e p en d e n ce a g a in st th e M andingo, th e F u la h , a g a in st a tta c k s b y M oorish trib e s com ing fro m th e n o r th a n d a g a in s t th e E u ro p e a n s in v a d in g fro m th e co ast. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t peo p le o f th is gro u p , th e W olof (Jolof), o cc u p y m u c h o f th e te r r ito r y b etw e en th e S enegal a n d G am bia R iv ers. I n ea rlier tim e s th e y possessed also th e reg io n n o r th o f th e low er course o f th e S enegal, b u t w ere d riv e n off b y th e M oorish T ra rza . T h e y h a d six S ta te fo rm a tio n s (W alo, B aol, C ay o r, Sine, S alu m a n d W olof). E a c h o f th e m w as h ea d ed b y a n elected chief. E v e ry ch ief w as d e p e n d e n t on th e p a ra m o u n t ch ief o f all W olofs, w ho bo re th e title o f “ B ig W o lo f” . T h e W olof p eo p le d iv id e d in to fo u r c a ste s (1. a risto c ra c y , 2. cra ftsm en , 3. sin g ers a n d m usicians, 4. slaves). T h e slaves w ere allow ed to ow n im m o v ab le p ro p e rty . All th e o th e r peoples o f S eneg am b ia w ere m o re o r less ex p o sed to th e influence o f th e W o lo f (in a d d itio n to t h a t o f th e M andingo a n d th e F u la h ). M ost closely re la te d

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in la n g u ag e a n d cu sto m s to th e W olof a re th e ir s o u th e rn n eig h b o u rs, th e S erer, who o ccu p y th e co a st la n d s a n d th e a d ja c e n t regions b e tw e e n D a k a r an d th e G am biaR iv er. T h e y su b d iv id e in to th e S erer-N o n s (a m in o r g ro u p o n th e n o rth w e s t, b o rd e r­ ing u p o n C ayor) a n d th e S ere r-S in e (several sm all trib e s). E v e ry w h e re in th e S erer co u n tries th e official la n g u ag e w as th e W olof. T h ese trib e s m ix ed w ith th e W olof a n d th e M andingo as w ell. (M any o f th e S erer trib e s h a d chiefs o f M andingo d esce n t.) T h e th ir d la rg e people o f S enegam bia, th e T u k u lo r (Torobe), a re re la te d in lan g u ag e to th e F u la h . B efore th e F u la h co n q u e sts th e T u k u lo r h a d a ra n g e o f S ta te s o f th e ir ow n in S enegam bia (F u ta -T o ro , F u ta -J a llo n , B o n d u , etc.). V ario u s s c a tte re d g ro u p s o f th e T u k u lo r a re in d iffe ren t regions o f th e W e ste rn S u d an , in th e H a u sa S ta te s, e tc. T h e w ea k er S u danese trib e s , w an d e rin g to th e w est, s e ttle d d o w n in th e te rr ito r y o f th e S en eg am b ian S ta te s o f k in d re d trib e s (an d o f th e M andingo a n d th e F u la h ), in th e region o f th e u p p e r S enegal a n d its trib u ta rie s , a n d , d isp e rsed in sm all g ro u p s, m ore o r less su b m itte d to th e influence o f th e ru lin g peo p les o f th e s e c o u n tries an d m ix ed w ith th e m . T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e se trib e s a re th e S a ra k o le a n d th e K a s ­ sánké. T h e Sarakole (or, as th e y call th e m se lv es, S o n in k e ) a re th e basic p o p u la tio n on th e le ft b a n k o f th e m id d le course o f th e S enegal R iv e r, w h ere th e y h a d th e ir ow n S ta te (N galam ). T h ey also live in s c a tte re d g ro u p s all o v er S en eg am b ia a n d in th e region o f th e u p p e r N iger, in th e m id s t o f o th e r peop les. T h e K a sso n k e liv e in d isp e rs­ ed com m u n a l alliances in th e region o f M édina. T h e ir la n g u ag e is a k in to t h a t o f th e M an d ingo; th e y a re m ix e d , b esides th e M andingo, w ith th e F u la h a n d th e S arak o le. T h ey su p p lied th e ru lers o f th e S en eg am b ian S ta te s w ith c o u rt je ste rs (g rio ts).

T he P eo p les of U p p er G uinea

I n re sp e c t o f p o p u la tio n , th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f u p p e r G u in ea (ap p r. fro m th e G am b ia R iv e r to th e c e n tre o f th e p re se n t-d a y R ep u b lic o f th e Iv o ry C oast) is to b e d istin g ­ u ish ed fro m th e s o u th e rn p a r t. T h e co a st regions o f th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f u p p e r G uinea a re in h a b ite d b y a m u ltitu d e o f sp arse S u d an ese peo p les, w hich ca n h a rd ly b e su b d iv id ed in to trib e s closely re la te d in la n g u ag e to on e a n o th e r; th e in te rio r are as o f th is p a r t o f u p p e r G uinea a re in h a b ite d m a in ly b y M andingo a n d F u la h , and sp o rad ically b y in d e p e n d e n t (or s u b ju g a te d ) trib e s o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n (K u ra n k o . W asu lu, e tc .); only in S ierra L eone a n d in L ib e ria ca n w e find th e p red o m in an ce o f G u in ean trib e s in th e in te rio r regions. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t am o n g th e trib e s o f th e co ast regions a re (from n o r th to so u th ): th e F e lu p , B a la n ti, P a p e l, B issa g o , B ia fa r i. N a lu , B oga, S u su , T em n e, K r u , B u la m a , B a ssa , Grebo; a n d am o n g th e in la n d trib e s o f S ierra L eone a n d L ib e ria : th e G a llin a , S o lim a , V ei, Gola, D eh , B u ssi, P e ss i, etc. T h e tr ib e s in h a b itin g th e so u th e rn se cto r o f th e u p p e r G u in ea co a st a n d th e a d ja ­ c e n t in te rio r regions (th e e a ste rn p a r t o f th e I v o ry C o ast, G h an a , T o g o lan d , D a h o ­ m ey , so u th e rn N igeria) belong, o n th e w hole, to th r e e la n g u ag e g ro u p s: ( a ) th e trib e s speak in g th e T w i ( T s h i o r C h i) a n d Ga la n g u ag es in h a b it th e s o u th ­ e a ste rn regions o f th e Iv o ry C oast a n d th e w e ste rn p a r t o f T o g o lan d ; th e m o st im p o rta n t o f th e m a re th e A s h a n ti in th e in te rio r regions o f G h an a a n d th e F a n ti on th e co a st; (b ) th e -Ewe-speaking trib e s five in th e e a s te rn h a lf o f T o g o lan d a n d D ah o m e y ; th e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th is gro u p a re th e F o n (“ D a h o m i” ); ( c) th e F o ra h a-sp ea k in g trib e s in h a b it s o u th e rn N ig eria; th e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e m , fo r b o th th e ir n u m b e rs a n d th e ir h isto ric role, a re th e trib e s o f th e Y oru ba

g ro u p w hich h a d giv en th e ir n a m e to th is la n g u ag e g ro u p , a n d th e E io o r I bo trib e s w hich a re re la te d to th e m in la n g u ag e a n d cu ltu re. B efore th e a p p e a ra n c e o f E u ro p e a n s o n th e G uinea co a st all o f th e s e trib e s (w ith a few ex cep tio n s) liv e d th e ir ow n p rim itiv e life in iso latio n fro m ev en o ne a n o th e r, so t h a t w e c a n n o t sp e ak o f th e ir h isto ry p rio r to th e e n d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . E v e n such trib e s as th e A s h a n ti a n d th e F o n , w hich p la y e d so p ro m in e n t a ro le in th e la te r h isto ry o f W e st A frica, h a d n o t d o n e a n y th in g to d istin g u ish th e m se lv es am o n g th e m a n y su rro u n d in g sm all trib e s. E x c e p tio n s to th is ru le a re th e S u su peo p le in th e te r r ito r y o f th e p re s e n t-d a y R e p u b lic of G u in ea a n d som e Y o ru b a trib e s in th e s o u th ­ e rn p a r t o f N ig eria. T h e S u su , w ho a t p re s e n t in h a b it th e c o a st reg io n o f G uinea b e tw e e n th e R io -P ongo a n d L ittle Scarcie R iv ers, in th e p a s t p la y e d a n im p o rta n t role in th e in te rio r regions o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n ; in th e 1 3 th c e n tu ry th e y co n q u ered e v e n T im b u k tu a n d w ere its m a ste rs for a h u n d re d y ea rs, b u t a fte rw a rd s th e y w ere forced b y th e M andingo a n d th e F u la h to w ith d ra w to th e litto ra l. T h e y h eld slaves th e m se lv es, ca rrie d o n traffic in slaves a n d c o n d u c te d sla v e-raid in g ex p ed itio n s. L ong b efore th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e E u ro p e a n s som e o f th e Y o ru b a trib e s on th e sh o res o f th e B ig h t o f B e n in a n d in th e a d ja c e n t regions h a d re la tiv e ly stro n g S ta te fo rm a ­ tio n s o f th e ir ow n w ith in itia l signs o f a slave-h o ld in g sy ste m . A m o st im p o r ta n t one o f th e m w as B e n in .

T h e P eo p les of A d a m a w a a n d of the R egion between the Congo a n d the N ile

M any S u danese trib e s , being d riv e n o u t o f th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u d an , sp rea d to th e so u th e a st, to th e te r r ito r y o f to d a y ’s A d am a w a (C am eroons), w h ere th e y liv ed d isp e rsed o v er a v a s t a re a , a n d som e o f th e m , as a re s u lt o f cen tu ries-lo n g w anderings, rea ch ed th e v e ry h e a r t o f E q u a to ria l A frica a n d s e ttle d do w n in th e regions b etw een th e Congo, U ele a n d N ile R iv ers as w ell as n o rth w e s t o f th e U ele, o ccu p y in g m u ch o f th e b asin o f th e U bangi-U ele. I t is im possible to a sc e rta in th e tim e o f th e se w a n d e r­ ings, a n d we also kn o w little o f th e life o f th e se p eoples u n til th e en d o f th e 1 5 th cen ­ tu r y . T h e S u d an ese trib e s o f A d am aw a a p p e a re d o n th e sta g e o f h isto ry o n ly m uch la te r, in th e 19 th c e n tu ry , d istin g u ish in g th e m se lv es b y th e ir stru g g le a g a in st th e F u la h co n q u e ro rs1 a n d th e W e ste rn B a n tu trib e s a d v a n c in g from so u th to n o rth . O u r first in fo rm a tio n o f th e trib e s o f th e reg io n b etw e en th e Congo a n d th e N ile d a te s fro m th e second h a lf o f th e 19th c e n tu ry .12T h e trib e s o f A d am aw a h a v e p re se rv ­ ed th e ir S u d an ese c h a ra c te r u n til th e la te s t tim e s. T h e trib e s o f th e region b etw een th e riv ers m erged w ith N ilo tic a n d B a n tu trib e s, p rese rv in g th e ir S u d an ic languages a n d th e ir c h a ra c te r as p e a sa n ts a n d h u n te rs. I n c o n tra s t to th e ir N ilo tic a n d B a n tu n eig h b o u rs, th e y d id n o t keep c a ttle a t all a n d raise d o n ly p o u ltry , som e o f th e m k eeping g o ats. T h e m o st im p o rta n t am ong th e trib e s o f A d am aw a a re : th e T ik á r, W ute, B a y a , F a lli, B a li, e tc ., a n d am o n g th e trib e s o f th e reg io n b etw e en th e riv ers: th e A za n d e , M a n g b a ttu (M o n b u ttu ) a n d Bongo.

1 See p. 206. 2 See p. 226.

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The Sudanese Tribes of Northeast Africa O w ing to th e e a stw a rd m ig ra tio n o f th e S u d an ese peo p les, som e trib e s w h ich h a d s e ttle d do w n in t h e reg io n o f th e u p p e r N ile a n d its tr ib u ta rie s m ix e d w ith th e H am itic trib e s living in th e n o r th e a s t c o rn e r o f A frica. T h e cen tu ries-lo n g m ingling re su lte d in p eoples o f a n ew ty p e , new in blood a n d c u ltu re , w ith n ew , m ix e d la n g ­ u ag es. T hese peoples w ere called th e N ilo te s. T h e ir la n g u ag e is a s o rt o f tr a n s itio n b e­ tw een th e S u d an ic a n d th e H am itic lan g u ag es. I n a d d itio n to w h a t th e y in h e rite d from th e S u d an ese a n d w h a t th e y b o rro w ed fro m th e H a m ite s (an d se m i-H a m ites), th e ir cu sto m s a n d c u ltu re show m a n y p ec u lia ritie s. A ll N ilo te s p ra c tis e a g ric u ltu re a n d c a ttle -b re e d in g , a g ric u ltu re bein g p re d o m in a n t w ith som e (th e M adi, S h uli), a n d ca ttle -b re e d in g w ith o th e rs (th e D in k a). C h a ra c te ristic o f all th e N ilo te s is th e ir fo n d n ess o f h o rn e d c a ttle , p e rv e rte d in som e places (am ong th e D in k a in p a rtic u la r) in to a s o rt o f c u lt o f th e bull. P o ly g a m y is c u s to m a ry : th e y g e t w ives fo r c a ttle . W e a r­ in g clo thes is considered u n w o rth y o f th e m e n ; th e w o m en p u t o n a p ro n s m a d e o f m e ta l chains o r le a th e r s tra p s , a n d , in som e places, th e y w ear also calfskins a n d th e like. T h e y a d o rn th e m se lv es w ith m e ta l a n d glass o b je cts. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e N ilotic trib e s a re th e S h illu k s, D in k a , N u e r, S h u li, B a r i a n d M a d i. S c a tte re d th ro u g h o u t th e E a s te r n S u d a n beside th e N ilo tic p eo p les a re a n u m b e r o f m in o r a n d m a jo r S u d an ese trib e s w hich h a v e m ig ra te d th e re fro m th e in te rio r o f th e S u d an , b u t w hich h a v e p re se rv e d ev e n h ere, in th e m id s t o f H a m itic a n d A rab (a n d N ilotic) peoples, th e ir orig in al S u d an ese c h a ra c te r. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e m a re th e N u b a (in t h e s o u th e rn region o f K o rd o fan ), th e F u n j (in th e reg io n o f S en n ar) a n d th e B e rta (in th e v alley s o f th e T u m a t a n d J a b u s R iv e rs, tr ib u ta rie s o f th e B lue N ile). Som e o f th e im m ig ra n t S u d an ese trib e s o n th e ea st re a c h e d th e te r r ito r y o f E th io ­ p ia in o ld en tim e s a n d s e ttle d dow n am o n g H a m itic a n d S em itic p eoples b u t, ju s t like th e ir congeners in th e E a s te r n S u d an , p re se rv e u th e ir o rig in al S u d an ese c h a ra c te r. I n E th io p ia all th e se tr ib e s —as a ll in d iv id u als fro m th e o rig in al S u d an ese peoples in g e n e ra l—a re called “ S h an g alla” , w hich co rresp o n d s to th e E u ro p e a n te rm “ N eg ro e” . T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e se trib e s a re th e K u n a m a , o r B a ze n i, in h a b itin g th e v alley s o f th e M areb a n d T ak k a ze R iv ers a n d th e ad jo in in g ta b le la n d s , a n d th e B a ra o ccupying th e m o u n ta in o u s regions b etw een th e M areb a n d B a rk a R iv e rs in th e n o rth w e st co rn er o f E th io p ia . A lrea d y in th e ea rliest tim e s th e S u d an ese trib e s o f N o rth e a s t A frica w ere co n ­ s ta n tly ra id e d a n d e x p lo ite d b y th e ru lin g peoples of E g y p t a n d b y th e slave-hold in g S ta te s in th e te rrito rie s o f th e E a s te r n S u d a n a n d E th io p ia (N a p a ta , M eroe N u b ia, A ksum , E th io p ia )1 as w ell as b y th e A rab s. T h e slav es w hose la b o u r c o n trib ­ u te d to th e co n s tru c tio n a n d p ro s p e rity o f th e a n c ie n t E g y p tia n a n d o th e r (N u b ian , A x u m ite ) civilizations w ere for th e m o st p a r t S u dan ese. D u rin g m a n y c e n tu rie s all th e s e trib e s h a d to stru g g le for th e ir ex isten ce a n d freed o m . Som e o f th e m fo u g h t a c tiv e fights, w hile o th e rs (in fa c t, th e g re a t m a jo rity ) ab o d e b y p assiv e resistan c e. T h o se a c tiv e ly fighting g ra d u a lly c re a te d tr ib a l allian ces a n d co n fe d eratio n s, h ead ed b y w ar le ad ers (e.g., th e m elik o f th e B e rta ), a n d ev e n b y p a ra m o u n t chiefs (e.g., th e “ k in g ” o f th e S hilluks), w ho ru le d a w hole g ro u p o f trib e s . B u t th e m a jo r ity o f th e trib e s chose to h id e th e m se lv es from th e a tta c k s o f th e stro n g e r a ssa ila n ts r a th e r th a n to offer arm e d resistan c e, a n d th u s h a d to chan g e th e ir resid en ce fre q u e n tly . A s a re su lt, m o st o f th e m (like th e y o u n g e st sto c k o f th e S o u th e rn B a n tu ) becam e 1 See p p . 68 —70.

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essen tially ca ttle -ra isin g trib e s 1. W ith th e fre q u e n t m ig ra tio n s w en t also conflicts a n d w ars even b etw e en trib e s a k in to o n e a n o th e r. T h e m o st a c tiv e am o n g th e N ilo tic trib e s w ere th e S h illu k , a n d am o n g th e S u d a ­ nese, th e F u n j. A t th e close o f th e 15th c e n tu ry th e y e n te re d in to allia n ce w ith each o th e r a n d co n q u e red S en n ar, w here th e F u n j fo u n d ed th e ir S ta te ea rly in th e 16th c e n tu ry .12 C h a ra c te ristic o f all th e S u d an ese peoples o f N o rth e a s t A frica is th e ir in su sc e p ti­ b ility to c u ltu ra l influence com ing fro m o u tsid e. N ev e rth ele ss, th e life o f som e S u ­ d a n e se trib e s b y a n d b y b ecam e p e rv a d e d b y elem en ts o f th e su rro u n d in g h ig h er, slav e-h o ld in g c u ltu re s. (E .g ., th e B e rta p ra c tise d m a n y old E g y p tia n cu sto m s; th e F u n j h ad , ev en before th e y fo u n d ed th e S en n ar S ta te , a d o p te d m a n y A rab cu sto m s, e tc .) T h is influence o f h ig h e r c u ltu re s m a d e its e lf felt am o n g th e N ilo te s a n d th e S u d an ese trib e s o f E th io p ia o n ly to a lesser e x te n t.

T H E BAN TU P E O P L E S

All th e peoples in th e s o u th o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t, w ith th e e x c ep tio n o f c e rta in trib e s o f th e K h o i-S a an gro u p a n d th e P yg m ies, belong to o n e la rg e lan g u ag e fam ily , th e g ro u p o f th e B a n tu peoples. E a c h o f th e se p eo p les sp e ak s a to n g u e w hich is e ith e r a d ia le c t o r a n offshoot o f th e m a in language, th e B a n tu . B u t it is n o t th e ir lan g u ag e alo n e t h a t holds th e B a n tu peoples to g e th e r in on e la rg e e th n ic fam ily . U n lik e th e S u d an ese peoples, a ll th e B a n tu a re re la te d to on e a n o th e r also b y o rig in . I n th e course o f th e ir h isto ry , th o u g h , th e v ario u s g ro u p s o f th e B a n tu p eoples follow ed d iffe ren t h isto ric a l ro a d s; th e com m on fam ily o f th e B a n tu , as w e sh a ll see below , e v e n tu a lly b ro k e u p in to d iffe ren t historico -g eo g rap h ical su b g ro u p s, each o f w hich a c q u ire d o r d eveloped p a rtic u la r c u ltu ra l fea tu re s. D esp ite th e e x tre m e ly g re a t v a rie ty a n d stro n g d iffe re n tia tio n o f th e ir p o litical sy stem s a n d social ev o lu tio n o r th e d i­ v e rs ity o f th e ir econom ic stru c tu re s , religions, cu sto m s, e tc., h o w ev er, th e socio-eco­ n om ic s tr u c tu re , th e c u ltu re a n d th e m ode o f life o f all th e B a n tu p eoples a re b u ilt u p o n th e sam e fo u n d atio n s. A l l B a n tu p eo p les are more or less closely related to one another both b y language a n d b y culture.

T h e o rig in a l h o m e lan d o f th e B a n tu from w here th e y sp re a d o u t to s e ttle d ow n in o th e r p a r ts o f S o u th A frica is su p p o sed to h a v e been th e in te rio r are as o f E a s t E q u a ­ to ria l A frica, th e reg io n o f th e G re a t L akes. A lre a d y in a n c ie n t tim e s th e B a n tu in E a s t A frica cam e in to c o n ta c t w ith th e w ave o f H a m itic p eoples a d v a n c in g fro m th e n o r th e a s t. T h ro u g h o u t m a n y c e n tu rie s E a s t A frica w as a n a re n a o f th e stru g g le o f B a n tu trib e s w ith H a m itic peo p les. T h e ce n tu ries-lo n g w ars, econom ic a n d c u ltu ra l c o n ta c ts a n d th e m ix tu re w ith H a m ite s a c te d u p o n th e d iffe ren t B a n tu trib e s in d iffe re n t w ays. I n th e en d , each B a n tu trib e to o k one o f th e follow ing th r e e courses o f d ev e lo p m e n t: 1. A s a re s u lt o f secu lar c o n ta c ts w ith H a m itic peo p les, som e o f th e B a n tu trib e s m o re o r less s u b m itte d to H a m itic influence o r w ere ev en s u b ju g a te d b y H a m ite s, w hile m a n y B a n tu trib e s , h av in g s u b m itte d to H a m itic influence, in th e course o f tim e , m erg ed w ith th e H a m itic p eoples to a c e rta in e x te n t. 2. O th e r trib e s succeeded, a t th e p rice o f p e rp e tu a l w ars, in re sistin g th e p o w er a n d influence o f th e H a m itic co n q u ero rs a n d h o ld in g o u t o n th e ir te rrito rie s o r (and 1 See p . 59. 2 See p . 160.

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t h i s w a s a c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) i n e s c a p i n g t h e p o w e r a n d in f lu e n c e o f t h e H a m i t e s b y c h a n g i n g ( s o m e ti m e s e v e n m o r e t h a n o n c e ) t h e i r r e s i d e n c e .

3. A gain o th e r trib e s , in o rd e r to escape th e po w er a n d in fluence o f th e H a m ite s , n o t o n ly w ere forced to a b a n d o n th e ir original resid en ce, b u t w e n t ev en b e y o n d th e fro n tie rs o f th e ir te rrito rie s exposed to th e in cursion s a n d o n sla u g h ts o f th e H a m itic new com ers, th u s le av in g E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica, som e o f th e m so u th w a rd a n d o th e rs w estw a rd . T h u s it h a p p e n e d t h a t th e th re e g re a t b ran c h es o f th e B a n tu p eoples, th e E a stern , th e South ern a n d th e W estern B a n tu , em erg ed w hile th e E a s te rn B a n tu , w ho h a d re m a in e d in E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica, d iv id ed in to tw o d is tin c t g ro u p s: th o se w ho cam e u n d e r H a m itic influence a n d th o se w ho d id n o t.

A)

THE EASTERN BANTU

T h e g ro u p o f th e E a s te r n B a n tu trib e s t h a t s u b m itte d to th e H a m itic influence is a r a th e r h etero g en eo u s one. I n i t w e h a v e to d istin g u ish tw o m ain su b g ro u p s: th e trib e s o f th e W ah um a S ta tes a n d th o se o f th e H a m itic ize d B a n tu .

T he T rib e s of the W ah u m a S ta tes

I n th e n o rth w e ste rn te r r ito r y o f th e B a n tu (in th e reg io n o f L ak e V icto ria) th e in ­ v ad in g n om ad ic, p a s to ra l H a m itic peoples o f th e W ah u m a (W ah im a) a n d th e W ah in da s u b ju g a te d th e se d e n ta ry , a g ric u ltu ra l trib e s o f th e B a n tu a n d u n ite d th e m in big tr ib a l fe d e ra tio n s u n d e r th e ir ow n rule. T his g av e rise to w h a t w e call th e “ W ah u m a S ta te s ” (first: K ita r a , Ih a n g iro , K arag w e , a n d la te r : B u g a n d a, B u n v o ro , A nkole, T oro). T hese w ere tr ib a l fed e ra tio n s o f th e B a n tu peo p les, h ea d ed b y W a h u m a a n d W a h in d a ru lers o f H a m itic d esce n t. B u t th e se ru lers a n d th e ir w arrio rs, a f te r se ttlin g d o w n , m ix e d w ith th e su b ju g a te d trib e s a n d a d o p te d th e ir lan g u ag es. As a resu lt, m ix ed peoples sp e ak in g B a n tu lang u ag es in te g ra te d in th e se co u n tries. B u t, ev en to th e p re se n t d a y , so c ie ty h as re m a in e d d iv id e d in to a n o v erw helm ing m a jo rity (90 to 95 p e r ce n t) o f th e p o p u la tio n , th e su b je c te d E a s te r n B a n tu called collectively th e W ahutu, a n d a n in fin itesim al m in o rity o f th e ru lin g W a h u m a o f H a m itic origin called collectively th e W a tu ssi. T h e W a h u tu a re a g ric u ltu ra l la b o u re rs, a n d th e W a tu ssi a re m o stly c a ttle -ra ise rs. T h e peoples o f th e W a h u m a S ta te s d iv id e in to tw o m a in su b g ro u p s o f la n g u ag e s: th e trib e s speak in g th e K in y o r o la n g u ag e in h a b it th e te rrito rie s o f th e fo rm e r A frican S ta te s o f B u g a n d a, B u n y o ro , A nkole a n d T oro, th a t is, th e e n tire te r r ito r y o f p re s e n t-d a y U g a n d a ; a n d th e K ir u n d i- sp eak in g trib e s o ccu p y th e te r r ito r y o f R u a n d a a n d U ru n d i. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e fo rm e r a re th e p rin c ip a l trib e s o f th e sa id fo u r co u n tries: th e W agan da, W an yoro, W a n yan kole an d W atoro. T h e K iru n d i la n g u ag e is sp o k e n b y th e p rin c ip a l p eoples o f R u a n d a an d U ru n d i, th e W a n ya ru a n d a a n d th e W a ru n d i.

T he H a m itic ize d B a n tu

Som e B a n tu trib e s t h a t fo u n d ed stro n g tr ib a l alliances in th e p a s t, th o u g h living in th e im m e d ia te n eig h b o u rh o o d o f H a m itic o r se m i-H a m itic peoples o r ev en in th e ir m id st, h a v e held o u t o n th e ir te rrito rie s , b u t h a v e ab so rb e d con sid erab le elem ents o f th e H a m itic im m ig ra n ts s e ttlin g dow n am o n g th e m . L ite ra tu r e u su a lly calls th e se

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tr ib e s th e “ H am itic ize d B a n tu ” o r “ B a n tu -H a m ite s ” . T h e m o st im p o rta n t am o n g th e m a re th e W agogo, th e W ajagga, th e W ateita , th e K ik u y u a n d th e A k a m b a . T hese tr ib e s e n te re d th e sta g e o f h is to ry as la te as th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry .

T h e B a n tu -N Hot es

I n a d d itio n to being H am itic ize d in a hig h degree, th e E a s te r n B a n tu a re a little affected also b y a process o f N ilo tiza tio n . T h e e a s te rn sh o re o f L ak e V icto ria a n d th e ad jo in in g e a st c o m e r o f U g an d a, as w ell as th e so u th w e st c o m e r o f K e n y a , a re occu­ p ie d b y a n u m b e r o f peoples, E a s te rn B a n tu b y origin, b u t v e ry m u ch m ix ed , p h y si­ cally a n d c u ltu ra lly a n d in language, w ith th e n eig h b o u rin g N ilo tic trib e s a n d to a c e rta in e x te n t even w ith th e H a m ite s. T his is w h y th e y a re called “ B a n tu -N ilo te s” . T h e m o st im p o rta n t o f th e se trib e s a re th e W a k aviron do. T h is n a m e is b o rn e b y tw o differen t trib e s, since th e fo rm er hom ogeneous W a k av iro n d o peo p le h as b ro k e n u p in to tw o p a r ts : th e K a v iro n d o w ho live in th e v ic in ity o f th e K ik u y u , w est o f th e m , sp e a k a B a n tu to n g u e closely a k in to th e K isw ah ili a n d h a rd ly differ fro m th e H a m ­ iticiz ed B a n tu in re sp e c t o f econom ic s tr u c tu re a n d cu sto m s; w hile th e K a v iro n d o in h a b itin g th e region n e a r th e n o rth e a s te rn sh o re o f L ak e V icto ria sp e ak th e N ilo tic la nguage a n d , as re g a rd s th e ir c h a ra c te r a n d cu sto m s, a re closer to th e N ilo te s th a n to th e B a n tu s. A lth o u g h th e y h a v e a su p rem e ch ief (“ k in g ” ) o f th e ir ow n, th e ir villages a re in d e p en d e n t.

T h e S w a h ili

I n a la te r p erio d th e E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s liv in g along th e c o a st a n d in th e a d ja c e n t regions ceded to a stro n g A rab influence a n d in p a r t m ix ed w ith A rab s. T h is led to th e d ecom position o f trib a lism an d g av e rise to th e S w a h ili p eo p le.1

T h e E astern B a n tu T rib e s U naffected b y the H a m itic In flu en ce

T h e E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s t h a t escaped H a m itic influence w ere th o se w ho liv ed a n d s till live su rro u n d e d b y o th e r B a n tu (or H am itic ize d B a n tu ) trib e s w ith o u t en terin g in to d ire c t c o n ta c t w ith th e H a m ite s. T h ey a re d iv id e d in to tw o g re a t h isto rico g eographical g roups: 1. T he E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s w hich o ccu p y th e in te rio r (w estern a n d ce n tral) regions o f T an g a n y ik a (ab o u t h a lf its e n tire te rrito ry ) a n d live su rro u n d e d b y o th e r E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s. T he m o st im p o rta n t am o n g th e m a re th e W a n ya m w ezi a n d th e Wahehe trib e s, w hich p la y ed a n o u tsta n d in g p a r t in th e m o d ern h isto ry o f E a st E q u a to ria l A frica. 2. T h e E a s te rn B a n tu trib e s w hich, d isp ersed am o n g th o se S o u th e rn B a n tu who h a v e m ig ra te d b ack to th e n o rth , live in th e so u th e rn regions o f T a n g a n y ik a co n tig ­ uous to P o rtu g u e se E a s t A frica, s o u th o f th e R u a h a a n d R u fiji R iv ers. T his gro u p includes th e W a m a w ia , W am akonde, W a m a n g a n ja , W amawerriba, W a n ya ssa , W an in d i, W apogoro trib e s, etc. Som e o f th e se trib e s, like a few o f th e first g ro u p , p lay ed a p ro m in e n t role in th e m o d ern h isto ry o f (form er “ G e rm a n ” ) E a s t A frica. 1 See p. 153.

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В) THE SOUTHERN BAN TU

T h e m ig ra tio n o f th e B a n tu trib e s from E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica to S o u th A frica to o k p lace in a succession o f th re e w aves. T he first w av e ca rrie d th e W am aku a a n d W ayao trib e s, n o t to S o u th A frica y e t, b u t on ly to th e so u th e rn m o st regions o f E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica, b etw e en th e R o w u m a a n d Z am bezi R iv ers. (L a te r, in th e 1 9th c e n tu ry , b o th trib e s p a r tly r e tu r n e d to th e so u th e rn reg io n o f p re se n t-d a y T a n g a ­ n y ik a .)1 T h e second w av e o f m ig ra tio n ca rrie d to S o u th A fric a —v ia th e te r r ito r y o f th e W a m a k u a a n d th e W a y a o —th e S hona (M a sh o n a , M a k a la n g a , B a n y a i, M akorekore, e tc .) trib e s. T h e y occupied th e te rr ito r y b etw e en th e Z am b ezi a n d L im popo R iv ers. O f th is gro u p th e m o st im p o r ta n t p a r t w as p la y e d b y th e M a k a la n g a or M a k a ra k a trib e s w hich b ro u g h t in to ex isten ce a big s ta te fo rm a tio n : M o n o m o ta p a (see below ). T h e th ir d a n d la s t w av e c a rrie d to S o u th A frica th re e g ro u p s o f th e B a n tu trib e s: th e B echuana a n d tw o closely re la te d g roups, th e X h o sa a n d th e Z u lu . All th re e o f th e s e g roups tra v e rs e d th e te rrito rie s o f th e tw o o ld er s tr a t a o f th e S o u th e rn B a n tu , u p o n w hich each o f th e th re e g ro u p s follow ed a d iffe ren t d ire c tio n : th e B e c h u ­ a n a ad v a n c e d so u th w e stw a rd a n d th e n so u th w a rd , th e X h o sa to o k th e so u th e rly d irec tio n , a n d th e Z u lu m ig ra te d first so u th w a rd a n d th e n so u th e a stw a rd . L a te r, w hen th e se th re e g roups d efin itely s e ttle d do w n in th e n ew te rrito rie s , th e ir co n d itio n s o f life a n d stru g g le b ecam e differen t, so t h a t th e ir econom ic a n d p o litical d ev e lo p m e n t to o k d iffe ren t courses, a n d a t p re se n t th e th re e g ro u p s b e a r m a n y su b ­ s ta n tia l dissim ilarities, especially as reg a rd s th e ir social sy stem s a n d p o litica l s tr u c ­ tu re s .2 B u t a t th e tim e o f th e ir m ig ra tio n th e y u n d e rw e n t b y a n d la rg e th e sam e chan g es. T h ese ca n b e sum m ed u p in th e follow ing fo u r m a in p o in ts : ( a ) A s a re s u lt o f fre q u e n t m ig ra tio n s, ag ric u ltu re b ecam e a se co n d a ry o c c u p a ­ tio n , w hile c a ttle -b re e d in g , as th e o n ly s te a d y a n d reliab le basis o f su b sisten ce, g a in ­ ed ex c ep tio n al im p o rta n ce . ( b ) T rib alism ch a n g ed in to a s o rt o f m ilita ry o rg a n iz a tio n : th e ch ief o f th e trib e w as, first a n d fo rem o st, a m ilita ry o rg an iz er a n d w ar lead er. ( c ) I n th e course o f th e m ig ra tio n s a n d w ars th e y o fte n c re a te d tr ib a l alliances w hich, how ever, w ere o f a n exclusively m ilita ry n a tu re (w ith o u t th e ir b ein g u n ite d o rg an iz atio n ally ) a n d m o st o f th e m d isin te g ra te d a n d d isa p p e a re d as q u ick ly as th e y h a d b een form ed. ( d ) As a consequen ce o f th e p e rp e tu a l w ars, th e w om en o f th e trib e s b eg an to o u tn u m b e r th e m en to a co n sid erab le e x te n t, a n d th is o f n ec essity le d to p o ly g am y o n a large scale. M o n o m o ta p a a n d Z im babw e

E a rly P o rtu g u e se sources, a n d in th e ir w ak e m a n y h isto ria n s o f la te r tim e s a n d ev en o f o u r d a y s, sp e a k a b o u t th e " g r e a t a n d p o w erfu l” S ta te o f M o n o m o tap a, fo u n d ed b y c e rta in B a n tu trib e s in th e te rr ito r y o f p re se n t-d a y S o u th e rn R h o d esia, a b o u t its fab u lo u s rich es, e tc . T h is “ S ta te ” e x iste d in fa c t, a n d w as in d eed fo u n d ed b y S o u th e rn B a n tu trib e s, th e g re a te s t o f w hich w as th e M ak alan g a tr ib e .3 B u t b y no 1 See p. 255. 2 See p. 239 a n d ff. 3 W h e n M o n o m o tap a w as c o n s titu te d is n o t k now n. I n his ch ro n icle th e A ra b ia n h isto ria n M a s u d i re fe rs to a c e rta in “ Z enj e m p ire ” t h a t em erg ed in a c o u n try b e y o n d Sofala in th e 10th c e n tu ry , a n d w hich c e rta in a u th o rs a re in clin ed to id e n tify w ith th e M o n o m o tap a o f la te r tim es. I co n sid er th is a s su m p tio n erro n e o u s. T h e sto ries a b o u t Z enj a re t h a t its “ k in g s” e x p o rte d besides gold a n d iv o ry , also slaves; b u t sla v e ry d id n o t e x ist a t a l am o n g th e M akalanga.

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m eans d id it possess such q u alitie s as w ere a ttr ib u te d to it b y th e P o rtu g u e se w ho, as we sh all see, h ad n ev e r p e n e tr a te d in to th o se regions. M o n o m o tap a differed from th e o th e r tr ib a l alliances o f th e B a n tu o n ly in t h a t (1) its co m p o sitio n w as a little m ore com plex, fo r it in clu d ed a series o f trib e s u n d e r th e su p rem e ru le o f th e M akala n g a, a n d (2) th e trib e s t h a t m a d e u p M o n o m o tap a, a f te r h av in g occu p ied a v a s t fe rtile te rr ito r y w hich w as eq u a lly su ita b le fo r a g ric u ltu re a n d c a ttle-b re ed in g an d w as rich in gold d ep o sits a n d , w h a t is m ore, h ad a stro n g defence o f n a tu ra l b arriers a g a in st a tta c k s from th e o u tsid e, s e ttle d do w n d efin itely , u n lik e o th e r B a n tu trib e s, in one place a n d — m o st p ro b a b ly th ro u g h th e m e d ia tio n o f o th e r trib e s — e s ta b lish ­ ed tr a d e c o n ta c ts w ith th e co a st la n d s to sell th e ir gold. T h a t th e false o p in io n fo rm ­ ed on M onom otapa could w idely circ u late w as d u e, besid e th e m a te ria l w ell-being o f its trib e s, to th e “ m y ste rio u sn e ss” th e c o u n try h a d ac q u ired in th e eyes o f th e A ra b , P o rtu g u e se a n d o th e r m e rc h a n ts w ho b o u g h t its gold b u t n ev e r saw th e c o u n try itself, a n d to th e fac t th a t M on o m o tap a w as s itu a te d in th e region o f th e ru in s o f a n c ie n t Z im babw e a n d t h a t its trib e s ere cte d , a f te r th e m odel o f th e ru in s th e y h a d fo u n d th e re , stone w alls a ro u n d th e ir villages. T h ese sto n e w alls d id n o t rem ain u n k n o w n to th e A ra b s a n d P o rtu g u e se e ith e r, w ho saw in th e m signs o f a h ig h er d e ­ gree o f d ev e lo p m e n t. I n M ash o n alan d , in th e S o u th ern R h o d esia o f to d a y , is a v a s t a re a w ith ru in s o f m a n y sto n ew o rk s, d o u b tle ss vestiges o f a n a n c ie n t civ ilizatio n . T h ese a re m ilita ry fo rtificatio n s. T he rem ain s o f sm elting fu rn aces a n d u te n sils o f a n c ie n t orig in fo u n d ev ery w h ere n e a rb y te s tify th a t th e b uilders o f th o se s tru c tu re s w ere engag ed in th e e x p lo ita tio n o f th e c o u n try ’s gold d ep o sits long before th e fo rm a tio n o f M ono­ m o ta p a (or Z enj). T h e q u estio n o f w hich people is supposed to h av e c re a te d th is civ ilizatio n in th e d e p th s o f S o u th A frica h as n o t y e t been clarified. W e h av e p le n ty o f lite r a tu r e a b o u t it, as w ell as vario u s “ th e o rie s” a n d h y p o th e ses. Som e m e n tio n ea rly A ra b co loniza­ tio n , o th e rs sp eak o f Je w s, E g y p tia n s, P h o en ician s, H in d u s, e tc . A gain o th e rs hold th e view t h a t th o se stru c tu re s a re th e w o rk o f th e S aan (“ B u s h m e n ” ). T h e o nly opinion w hich no n e o f th e a u th o rs o f th e se th e o ries is w illing to a d m it is t h a t th e b u ild ­ ers m ig h t h av e been B a n tu s. W e h av e no w a rra n t fo r m a in ta in in g th is view y e t a n y one o f th e ex istin g th e o ries o r h y p o th e ses in v o lv es so g re a t a n u m b e r o f u n c e r­ ta in p o in ts t h a t it can be supposed w ith eq u a lly good rea so n t h a t th e b u ild ers o f th e se fo rtificatio n s, th e first ow ners o f th e se gold fields, th e fo u n d ers o f t h a t civili­ z a tio n (as a m a tte r o f course, u n d e r th e influence a n d g u id a n ce o f som e new com ers fro m o n e o r a n o th e r o f th e ab o v e -m en tio n ed civilized peoples), w ere th e B a n tu th e m selv es, som e p recu rso rs o f th e M akalan g a, w ho la te r, o v e rta k e n b y som e d isa s­ te r o f u n k n o w n origin (it m a y h av e been, fo r ex am p le, th e a s s a u lt fro m a n o th e r B a n tu tr ib e w hich h a d n o t a d o p te d t h a t civ ilizatio n ), w ere d e s tro y e d to g e th e r w ith th e ir civilization.

C) T H E

WESTERN BANTU

T h e B a n tu trib e s m ig ra tin g w estw ard fo u n d th e m se lv es in v e ry d iffe ren t co n d i­ tio n s. T h e te rr ito r y o f W e st a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica occu p ied b y th e W e ste rn B a n tu com prises tw o d is tin c t p a r ts : a n a re a o f d en se tro p ic a l fo re sts o n th e n o rth a n d a n o p en s a v a n n a h o n th e so u th , s tre tc h in g rig h t to th e e s tu a r y o f th e Congo a n d to th e u p p e r reach es o f th e C unene, Z am bezi, C u bango, K w ito , Chobo, S a n k u ru a n d K a sa i R iv ers, a n d ev en to th e sources o f th e Congo. T h e co n d itio n s o f econom ic

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a c tiv ity a n d econom ic d ev e lo p m e n t in th e s e tw o are a s w ere d iffe ren t, a n d conse­ q u e n tly th e ir peoples follow ed d iffe ren t courses o f politico-econom ic d ev elo p m en t. I n th e a re a o f tro p ic a l fo re sts g re a t im p o rta n c e a tta c h e s , besides p rim itiv e ag ric u l­ tu re , to p la n t-g a th e rin g econom y a n d to h u n tin g ; th e o p en sa v a n n a h s in tu r n are su itab le fo r h o e-cu ltu re. I n th e fo re st regions th e peoples liv ed m o stly d isp ersed in sm all a n d still sm aller trib e s ; th e o p en region a n d th e regions on th e v erg e o f th e fo rests w ere fa v o u ra b le fo r th e fo rm a tio n o f large tr ib a l allian ces a n d ev en S ta te s. T h u s th e h isto ric al fa te o f th e W e ste rn B a n tu living in th e n o rth e rn (forest) region w as fro m th e o u ts e t d ifferen t fro m th e d estin ie s o f th e ir congeners w ho s e ttle d dow n in th e so u th e rn (steppe) region. T h e d is trib u tio n o f th e trib e s t h a t fo u n d th e ir hom es in th e d iffe ren t regions o f W e st a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica w as o f tre m e n d o u s conseq u en ce to th e ir f u rth e r fa te from a n o th e r p o in t o f view , to o : som e trib e s s e ttle d dow n in th e in te rio r regions ad jo in in g th e lin e o f t h e G re a t L akes from th e w est to w a rd th e u p p e r course o f th e Congo R iv e r; o th e rs w e n t ev en f a r th e r a n d rea ch ed th e in te rm e d ia te regions ly in g b etw e en th e in te rio r are a s a n d th e c o a s t; finally c e rta in trib e s a d v a n c e d r ig h t to th e co ast la n d s. T h e circ u m sta n ce t h a t th e te r r ito r y o f on e o r a n o th e r tr ib e w as n e a r or fa r aw a y fro m th e co a st w as o f g re a t im p o rta n c e fro m th e o u ts e t as to th e co n d itio n s a n d chances o f econom ic d ev e lo p m e n t, a n d th e geog rap h ical s itu a tio n o f th e trib e s w ith re g a rd to th e co ast b ecam e especially significan t la te r, a f te r th e b eg in n in g o f E u ro p e a n in v asio n , w h en d iffe ren t g eographical s itu a tio n s m e a n t to th e A frican peoples d ifferen t strategic p o sitio n s in th e stru g g le a g a in st th e alien in v a d ers. A s a re su lt, th e d estin ie s o f th e vario u s trib e s d eveloped differen tly , d ep e n d in g on w h e th e r th e y liv e d along th e co ast, o r in th e in te rm e d ia te regions b e tw e e n th e co ast a n d th e in te rio r are as, o r ju s t in th e in te rio r o f th e c o n tin e n t. I n som e fo rm a n d degree o r o th e r, th e trib e s o f th e co a st g ra d u a lly su b m itte d to th e p o w er a n d in fluence o f th e E u ro p e a n s; in th e h in te rla n d o f th e co a st th e re d ev elo p ed a s tr ip in h a b ite d b y trib e s w hich offered resistan c e to th e slav e-raid in g cam p aig n s o f th e E u ro p e a n s (an d o f th e co a st trib e s in th e service o f th e E u ro p e an s) o r b ecam e th e ir g o -b e tw e e n s; th e trib e s in h a b itin g th e in te rio r are a s u p to th e la te s t tim e s (u n til th e in c re ase d A rab p e n e tra tio n fro m th e e a s t in th e 19th c e n tu ry ) c o n tin u e d to le ad th e ir old m o d e o f life, w ith o u t yield in g to foreign influence. T his is how th e v e ry course o f th e ir h isto ry d iv id e d th e W e ste rn B a n tu in to tw o larg e g roups, a n o rth e rn a n d a so u th e rn gro u p (trib es o f th e fo re sts a n d trib e s o f th e sa v an n a h s), w hile each o f th e se g ro u p s d iv id e d in to th r e e su b g ro u p s: co a sta l, in te r ­ m e d iate a n d in la n d trib e s. W e c a n n o t ev en a p p ro x im a te ly a s c e rta in th e tim e o f th e m ig ra tio n s o f th e W e ste rn B a n tu . T h e o n ly th in g w e ca n sa y fo r su re is t h a t th e W e ste rn B a n tu trib e s living in th e closest p ro x im ity o f th e orig in al E a s t A frican h o m e lan d (b etw een th e Congo R iv e r a n d L ak e T a n g a n y ik a )—th e W a rn a , W aregga, M a n y e m a a n d o th e rs —in c o n tra d istin c tio n to w h a t we could see in th e case o f th e S o u th e rn B a n tu , belong to th e m o st re c e n t im m ig ra n ts, n o t to th e o ld est ones. W e h a v e n o reliab le in fo rm a tio n o f th e co n c rete h isto ry o f th e W e ste rn B a n tu p rio r to th e beginning o f th e E u ro p e a n in v asio n . W h a t w e k n o w o f i t is a few d a ta a b o u t c e rta in fac ts a n d o u r sources a re o f a m o re re c e n t d a te . T h u s, fo r exam ple, a s reg ard s th e trib e s o f th e B a k u n d u g ro u p in h a b itin g th e co a st la n d s o f th e C am eroons, w e know th a t since th e ea rliest tim e s th e y m a in ta in e d c o n ta c ts w ith S u d an ese trib e s an d , th ro u g h th e m , w ith th e F u la h a n d th e A rab s. T h e y h eld slav es w ho liv ed w ith th e m in villages o f th e ir ow n, giving th e ir “ p ro p rie to rs ” o n ly p a r t o f th e ir p ro d u ctio n . P o litically , th e se slav e com m u n ities w ere in d e p e n d e n t in a h igh degree, som e o f th e m 61

c o n stitu tin g even au to n o m o u s p o litical o rg an izatio n s h e a d e d b y elected chiefs a n d b y re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e co m m u n ity . L a te r o n , m a n y o f th e se co m m u n ities g rad u a lly ceased p ay in g tr ib u te to th e B a k u n d u a n d b ecam e co m p letely in d e p e n d e n t. T h e F ang (Pangw e) trib e s in h a b itin g to d a y th e n o rth w e ste rn region o f G ab o n (betw een th e Ogowe R iv e r a n d th e so u th e rn fro n tie r o f S p an ish G uinea) a n d th e so u th w e st corner o f th e C am eroons,1 a re k now n to h av e liv ed a w hile in th e course o f th e ir w a n ­ derings in th e neigh b o u rh o o d o f th e A za n d e w ith w hom th e y m a in ta in e d co n ta c ts. T he M a n ye m a trib e s occupying th e b asin o f th e u p p e r Congo b etw e en th e ju n c tio n o f th e L u a la b a a n d L u a p u la R iv ers a n d th e E q u a to r, a re k n o w n to h a v e p ra c tise d can n ib alism in th e p a s t, b u t alm o st exclusively in w ar, e a tin g th e d e fe a te d en em y . T h e m o st im p o rta n t fa c t w e a u th e n tic a lly k n o w from th e h is to ry o f th e W e ste rn B a n tu is th a t a n u m b e r o f th e se trib e s c re a te d g re a t S ta te fo rm a tio n s long before th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e E u ro p e an s. T h e m o st sig n ifican t w ere th e Congo S ta tes a n d th e L u n d a em pire in th e so u th e rn are a s o f W e st a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica, th e B u sk ­ ongo cou n try a n d th e W aru a co u n try in th e in te rio r o f th e fo re st region. I n th e la te r a n d m o d e rn h isto ry o f W est a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica m a n y W e st­ e rn B a n tu trib e s p la y e d a p ro m in e n t role, v iz.: A m ong th e c o a sta l trib e s o f th e fo re st reg io n s—b esides th e a b o v e -m en tio n ed B a k u n d u a n d F a n g —th e B akoko, M p o n g w e, B en ga, e tc .; am o n g th e in te rm e d ia te trib e s o f th e fo re st region, th e B a tek e, B u b a n g i, A p fu ru , B a y a , W abom a, e tc .; am o n g th e in la n d trib e s o f th e fo re st re g io n —in a d d itio n to th e afo re-m en tio n ed B a k u b a (B u sh o n g o ), W a ru a a n d M a n y e m a —th e B a lu b a , B a n g a la , B alolo, B asson g o -M in o , W aregga, W a v in za , e tc .; am o n g th e co a sta l trib e s o f th e sa v a n n a h s —besides th e B a k o n g o — th e B u n d a tr ib e s ; am o n g th e in te rm e d ia te trib e s o f th e sa v a n n a h s, th e K io k o (Chiokw e), H erero an d O vam bo trib e s ; an d am ong th e in la n d trib e s o f th e sa v a n n a h s —besides th e B a lu n d a —th e Bohém ba, B arotse, B ato k a , etc.

The Congo S tates

T h e B akongo o r B a fio te trib e s, in h a b itin g th e e n tire co a st reg io n o f A ngola fro m th e e s tu a ry o f th e Congo to th e m o u th o f th e D an d e R iv e r (n o rth o f L u a n d a ) a n d a sm all te rr ito r y d ire c tly ad jo in in g th e Congo e s tu a ry o n th e n o rth (K a b in d a ), as w ell as th e regions contiguous to th e co ast, a lre a d y in a n c ie n t tim es b ro u g h t in to ex isten ce a series o f S ta te fo rm a tio n s w hich, b y th e tim e th e P o rtu g u e se m a d e th e ir ap p e aran c e th e re (end o f th e 15 th c e n tu ry ), w ere u n ite d in a g re a t S ta te , a s o rt o f fe d e ra tio n o f sm all S ta te s u n d e r th e sole a u th o rity o f a p a ra m o u n t chief, th e “ G re a t F a th e r ” ( M fu m a ) or, as th e P o rtu g u e se called him , th e “ K in g o f K o n g o ” . T h is fed e ra tio n inclu d ed , am ong o th e rs, th e L oango, K ak o n g o , N goye a n d Congo S ta te s . E a c h S ta te w as ru led b y a viceg eren t o f th e “ K in g o f K o n g o ” (M u e n e o r M a n i-fu m a ). T hese co u n tries p ra c tise d sla v e ry a n d h a d a lre a d y develo p ed even a r u d im e n ta ry sta g e o f feudalism (p ractically ev e ry b o d y w as consid ered to be a slav e o f th e k in g ; th e k in g disposed o f all lan d s, h e received tr ib u te s fro m th e p ro v in cial chiefs, etc.). H o w ev er, we c a n n o t ta k e th e ir sy stem to h a v e been a n accom plished slav e-h o ld in g o r feu d al sy ste m fo r th e follow ing reaso n s: 1 A b o u t th e ir m ig ra tio n s in m o d e rn tim e s, see p. 227.

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1. T h e p o w er o f th e m o n a rc h w as n o t h e re d ita ry , b u t th e k in g w as elected from am o n g a s o rt o f a risto c ra c y o f th e ro y a l fa m ilie s; 2. D esp ite th e a lm o st d iv in e h o n o u r a n d c e rta in so v ereig n rig h ts h e en jo y ed , th e k in g w as n o t a n a b s o lu te a n d exclusive m o n a rc h o f th e c o u n try , because p o p u la r assem blies also p la y e d a n im p o rta n t p a r t; 3. S lav e ry am o n g th e m w as r a th e r w ide-spread, b u t th e y d id n o t engage in slav era id s: th e ir slaves w ere ( a ) p riso n ers o f w ar, ( b ) crim in als a n d ( c ) in so lv en t perso n s. T h e slaves w ere tr e a te d as m em b ers o f th e fam ily ; th e p ro p rie to r called his slav e “ so n ” o r “ d a u g h te r ” ; th e slav e w as allow ed to p o ssess a n d in h e rit p ro p e rty , a n d he w as v irtu a lly free to chan g e his m a ste r: all he h a d to, do to th is end w as to cau se d am ag e to th e free m a n w hom he w a n te d to be his o w ner, a n d th u s h e becam e a n “ in so lv en t d e b to r ” o f t h a t perso n , that is, his p ro p e rty .

T he S tate of M w a ta Y a m vo

T h e B a lu n d a (K a lu n d a , K a r u n d a , B a lu a , M o lu a ) a re a p o p u lo u s W e ste rn B a n tu p eople, c o n s titu tin g th e b u lk o f th e p o p u la tio n in E a s te r n A ngola a n d in th e so u th ­ w est p o rtio n o f th e Congo ly in g (ap p ro x im a tely ) b etw e en 6° a n d 11° S. la t., b etw e en th e u p p e r course o f th e K w an g o R iv e r a n d th e sources o f th e Z am b ezi a n d Congo (L u a la b a) R iv ers. I n th is v a s t te rr ito r y , w hose sm aller — w e ste rn — h a lf lies in th e sa v a n n a h b e lt, its la rg e r — e a s te rn — h a lf belongs to th e fo re st region, th e B a lu n d a peo p le c re a te d a n im m en se S ta te fo rm a tio n (th e “ L u n d a em p ire” ) w hich h eld u n d e r its in fluence m a n y o th e r W e ste rn B a n tu peoples. A ccording to tr a d itio n th is S ta te w as fo u n d e d b y a p o w erfu l chief, a h u n te r from th e B a lu b a tr ib e , w ho h a d com e fro m th e n o r th e a s t a n d s e ttle d do w n w ith th is k in s­ fo lk am o n g th e B a lu n d a . T h e S ta te w as called th e “ L u n d a e m p ire ” o r th e “ S ta te o f M w ata Y a m v o ” . “ M w ata Y a m v o ” w as th e t it le o f th e h e a d o f S ta te , th e “ k in g ” (p a ra m o u n t chief). T h e w o rd M w a ta m ean s “ m a s te r ” , a n d Y a m v o — w hich la te r b ecam e a com m on n o u n (like th e n a m e C aesar) — w as th e n a m e o f th e son o f th e fo u n d er o f th e L u n d a em pire. A p e c u lia rity o f th e L u n d a em p ire t h a t sh a rp ly d istin g u ish e d i t fro m th e o th e r S ta te s w as d u a lity in th e pow er, w hich clea rly reflected su rv iv in g tr a d itio n s o f th e fo rm e r m a tria rc h a l sy ste m : besides M w ata Y am v o th e S ta te h a d a n o th e r ru le r, th e “ L u k o k e sh a ” (“ m o th e r o f a ll” ). T h e c o u n try w as d iv id e d in to tw o p a rts : in one o f th e m th e su p rem e p o w er w as exercised b y M w ata Y am v o , in th e o th e r b y th e L u k o ­ k esh a, th e p u b lic affairs o f g en e ral co n cern bein g a d m in iste re d in com m on. F ó rm a lly , th e L u k o k esh a w as n o t allow ed to g e t m a rrie d , b u t in fa c t sh e could h a v e sev eral h u sb a n d s o f h e r ow n choice: a n y m a le she chose fo r h e rse lf fo rm a lly b ecam e h e r slave, in fa c t h e r h u sb a n d , a n d th e p rin c ip a l h u sb a n d o f th e L u k o k esh a , called “ th e fa v o u rite sla v e ” , en jo y ed g re a t privileges (even th o u g h h e h a d b een selected from am o n g th e slaves). B eing a virgin officially, th e L u k o k esh a w as n o t su p p o sed to h a v e ch ild ren ; th e re fo re , if sh e g av e b ir th to a child, i t h a d to b e k illed . A n o th e r c h a ra c te ristic t r a i t o f th e L u n d a em p ire, m a k in g it sim ilar to th e Congo (B afiote) S ta te s a n d o th e rs, w as th e co m b in a tio n — so ty p ic a l o f th e S ta te s o f th e W e ste rn B a n tu — o f a n a b so lu te ru le r a n d a p riv ile g ed a risto c ra c y w ith a g o v ern m e n t o f essen tially d em o cratic n a tu re . M w ata Y a m v o w as a so v ereig n m o n a rc h w ith re g a rd to his su b je c ts, a n d h e a p p o in te d a ll d ig n ita rie s h im self, b u t th e n a tio n a l affairs o f m a jo r im p o rta n c e w ere s e ttle d b y th e g ra n d p o p u la r assem b ly w hich h a d th e rig h t to criticize h is a c tio n a n d ev e n to d e th ro n e him .

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O ne o f th e m ain sovereign rig h ts o f M w ata Y am v o (an d acco rd in g ly o f th e L u k o k esh a in h er province) w as t h a t o f im posing ta x e s on th e d e p e n d e n t trib e s a n d chiefs. T h e sum a n d te rm o f th e ta x e s w ere n o t s e t b efo reh an d b u t w ere fix e d b y th e k in g occasionally. B o th M w ata Y am v o a n d th e L u k o k esh a h a d th e ir staffs o f c o u rt m in ­ iste rs a n d o th e r d ig n itaries, a n d all th e p rin ces, m in iste rs, d ig n itaries, c e n tra l a n d local chiefs to g e th e r m ad e u p a priv ileg ed h ig h n o b ility , th e kilolo. O ne o f th e m ain fu n ctio n s o f th e k in g w as to organize tr a d e a n d m ilita ry ex p e d itio n s w ith a view to s u b ju g a tin g (or p lu n d erin g ) th e re fra c to ry trib e s. M w ata Y am v o possessed a n d w ore a n e n tire a rse n a l o f th e to k e n s o f ro y a l d ig n ity : a sickle-shaped iro n sc e p tre in his h a n d ; a b u n d le o f re d p a r r o t’s fe a th e rs o n his h ea d ; a m e ta l b rac ele t a b o u t his w rist; a m e ta l o rn a m e n t like a n o rd e r o n his b re a s t; a p e a rl necklace a ro u n d his n eck ; a n d a ru g u n d e r his fe e t. T h e k in g w as elec ted b y fo u r m in iste rs fro m am ong th e sons o f one o f th e p rin cip al w ives o f th e d e a d k in g , b u t th e election w as su b je c t to th e co n sen t o f th e L u k o k esh a ; th e L u k o k esh a in tu r n w as chosen b y th e sam e fo u r m in iste rs fro m am o n g th e d a u g h te rs o f on e o f th e sam e tw o p rin cip al w ives o f th e d e a d kin g , a n d th e choice w as to b e confirm ed b y M w ata Y am vo. T h e k in g ’s accession to th e th ro n e to o k p lace u n d e r s tr ic tly p resc rib ed fo r­ m alities. O ne o f th e m o st im p o rta n t fe a tu re s in th e se fe stiv itie s w as th e k in d lin g o f th e new fire b y th e kin g , w hich th e n se t lig h t to all th e fires. C erem onies a n d s tr ic t e tiq u e tte w ere h ig h ly sig n ifican t am o n g th e B a lu n d a . T h ere w ere s tr ic t in stru c tio n s as to th e co n d u c t o f a com m on m e m b er o f th e tr ib e : how to bow before th e king, how to p a y ho n o u rs to th e v ario u s chiefs, e tc . N o less s tr ic t ru les g o v ern ed th e co n d u c t o f M w ata Y am v o h im self: h e h a d to a b s ta in fro m sm oking a n d g e ttin g d ru n k , n o r w as he allow ed to e a t in th e p resen ce o f h is su b je c ts a n d a p ­ p e a r b e fo re th e m o th e rw ise th a n s ittin g on a s tr e tc h e r o r o n th e sh o u ld ers o f a slave, e tc. (Special s tre tc h e rs called tip o y a in th e L u n d a co u n tries, as in th e Congo S ta te s, w ere co n v e n tio n a l m ean s o f tra n s p o r ta tio n o f th e n o b ility .) A fte r th e d e a th o f e v ery k in g th e residence o f M w ata Y am v o (M ussam ba) w as ch an g ed , b u t alw a y s w ith in th e region b etw e en th e K a la n ja a n d L u isa R iv ers (e a ste rn afflu en ts o f th e L u lu a), n o t fa r fro m th e h o ly place ( E n ta i) w here, acco rd in g to tr a d itio n , th e first M w ata Y am v o h a d lived a n d th e first 14 k in g s o f th e em p ire h a d b een b u ried . D u rin g th e ex iste n ce o f th e S ta te o f M w ata Y am v o th e B a lu n d a m ix e d w ith o th e r trib e s as th e S ta te po w er w as g ra d u a lly e x te n d e d o v e r o th e r peo p les, a n d to o k o v er m a n y foreign elem en ts (especially fro m th e K io k o , B a b isa a n d L o b ala trib e s), w hich in th e course o f tim e becam e co m p letely assim ilate d . I n th e n eig h b o u rh o o d o f th e S ta te o f M w ata Y am v o ex iste d several sim ilar S ta te s w hich w ere fo u n d ed b y m em b ers o f th e ro y a l fam ily reig n in g in th e S ta te o f M w ata Y am v o . I n th e course o f th e ir h is­ to rie s th e se S ta te s w ere som etim es trib u ta rie s to M w ata Y am v o a n d so m etim es in ­ d e p e n d e n t o f him . L e t us m e n tio n am ong th e m : th e K in g d o m o f K a zem b e, to th e e a st o f M w ata Y am v o , b etw een th e u p p e r L u a la b a a n d L ak e B angw eolo; th e M a i M u n en e c o u n try , to th e n o r th o f M w ata Y a m v o ; th e K in g d o m o f K a so n g o , f a r th e r n o rth w a rd , on th e L u a la b a R iv er. T he Bushongo S tate

T he B aku b a (or, as th e y called th e m se lv es, Bushongo, t h a t is, “ peo p le o f th e th ro w n k n ife ” , a f te r th e ir n a tio n a l w eap o n th e y g en e rally u sed in th e p a s t) o ccu p y th e r e ­ gion b etw e en th e S a n k u ru a n d L u lu a R iv ers (B elgian Congo). T h e y d iv id e in to scores o f trib e s am ong w hich th e m o st im p o r ta n t a re th e B a m b a la . T h eir tr a d itio n say s t h a t th e y h av e m ig ra te d fro m th e n o r th e a s t to th e ir p re se n t place o f residence. T he

64

I,

Relics of African art from the time before the european in ­ vasion ( I — V I I I .)

1— 4. Vestiges of the ancient civiliza tio n of Zim babwe (see p . 60)

2

II.

i

I ll

IV.

6. Bronze head, Benin, early 16th century

7.

8. Ivory figure inlaid with copper, Benin, 18th century

9. Bronze figure of horseman, Benin, 17th century

Bronze tablet with pearls, Benin, 17th century

V.

6—15. Works of art of peoples of West Africa

10. Throne set with pearls, Cam,eroons

11. Decoration of a battle boat, Douala (Cameroons)

VI.

12. Terra-cotta head, I je (Nigeria), 13th century

14. Wooden statue, Dahomey

13. Moulded copper head, I je (Nigeria), 13th century

15. Polished ebony statuette, Bakiiba Kingdom (Congo)

VII,

16. Capital city of the Loango State about the middle of the 17th century (see p. 62)

V III.

17. Cave paintings of the Saan (see pp. 78— 79)

B ushongo h a d th e ir ow n S ta te o rg an iz atio n long before th e rise o f th e L u n d a em pire. I t w as a large-scale tr ib a l fe d e ra tio n in w hich th e B a m b a la p la y e d th e lead in g role. T h e ch ief o f th is tr ib e w as a t th e sam e tim e th e k in g ( n y im i) o f th e co u n try . F o r his ow n trib e he w as also th e te m p o ra l a n d sp iritu a l le ad e r, b eing a d e sc e n d a n t o f his idolized a n c e sto r w ho h a d fou n d ed th e trib e , B ú m b a , w ho in th e b elief o f th e B u ­ shongo h a d m a ste re d th e sunshine a n d th e ra in . I t w as u n b eco m in g to th e k in g to to u c h th e g ro u n d w ith h is fe e t, b u t he w as ca rrie d o n m e n ’s sh o u ld ers, a n d w h en h e s a t dow n i t w as o n th e b ac k o f a slave. T he kin g h a d six m ale m in iste rs: th e “ p rim e m in is te r” (k im i k a m b u ), th e m in iste r o f w ar (n y ib ita ) a n d re p re se n ta tiv e s o f ev ery one o f th e chiefs o f th e fo u r p rovinces in to w hich th e c o u n try w as d iv id ed (th ese p ro v ­ inces w ere g o v ern ed b y th e k in g ’s sons o r nephew s), a n d tw o fem ale m in iste rs, one o f w hom decided th e q u estio n o f w ar a n d peace. B esides, th e k in g h a d a larg e sta ff o f c o u rt d ig n itaries, re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e tra d e s , a n d th e tr ib a l g ro u p s (including ev en th e P ygm ies). T h e re w as am ong th e c o u rtie rs a “ ro y a l h is to ria n ” , th e k ee p er o f tra d itio n s a n d legends, w ho h a d to be a d e sc e n d a n t o f th e ro y a l fam ily. T h e k in g ’s m o th e r, w ho w as co nsidered h ig h e r ra n k in g th a n th e k in g him self, a tte n d e d th e k in g ’s m eetin g s w ith h is m in iste rs, occupying th e re a p lace o f h o n o u r. F o rm a lly , th e k in g w as a n ab so lu te m o n arch , b u t in re a lity he h a d little sa y in th e affairs, since th e re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e provinces, tr ib a l g roups a n d tra d e s w ere chosen b y elec­ tio n , a n d all m a tte rs w ere decided u p o n b y p ublic opinion, ev en in o p p o sitio n to th e k in g ’s w ishes. W h e n acceding to th e th ro n e , th e k in g o f th e B ushongo h a d to re c ite th e lis t of h is pred ecessors, w hich a m o u n te d to a b o u t 120 nam es. T h e m a jo rity o f th o se a n ­ cesto rs w ere on ly m y th o lo g ical figures, b u t th e re a re am o n g th e m h isto ric persons, to o , su ch as th e n a tio n a l hero o f th e B ushongo, S ham ba B alo ngong o , w hose n am e is asso ciated w ith th e c re a tio n o f th e ir p re se n t-d a y sy ste m o f g o v ern m e n t, th e ab o l­ ish m e n t o f w a r (he fo rb a d e th e use o f th e bow a n d arro w a n d o f th e th ro w n knife), th e a d v a n c e m e n t o f a g ric u ltu re (he in tro d u c e d th e c u ltu re o f o il-palm s, cassav a, to ­ b ac co , e tc .) a n d o f th e vario u s tra d e s. T h e W arn a S tate

T h e W arn a a re a la rg e people in h a b itin g th e s o u th e a st regions o f th e fo re st are a in th e Congo (L u a la b a, L u ap u la). T h e W a ru a a re th e la rg e st o f th e in te rm e d ia te peoples b etw e en th e W e ste rn a n d th e E a s te rn B a n tu . A t p re se n t th e y a re (to g eth er w ith th e W am an yem a a n d th e W aregga) th e m a in in te rm e d ia rie s in th e tr a d e b etw een th e p eo ples o f th e Congo B asin a n d th e peoples o f E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica (T an g a­ n y ik a ). L ong before th e ap p e aran c e o f th e E u ro p e a n s all th e R u a trib e s w ere u n ite d in a la rg e tr ib a l allian ce, th e “ K in g d o m o f R u a ” o r “ K in g d o m o f K aso n g o ” , w hich w as d iv id e d in to d istric ts. E v e ry d is tric t w as h e a d e d b y a ch ief a p p o in te d b y th e k in g for a te rm o f fo u r years. T h e R u a k in g en jo y ed c e rta in privileges u n k n o w n in th e o th e r W e ste rn B a n tu S ta te s : h e w as reg a rd e d as d iv in ity a n d as h u sb a n d o f all t h e w om en o f h is c o u n try (w ith th e e x c ep tio n o f his m o th e r). As a god, h e w as su p ­ p o sed to n eed n e ith e r food n o r d rin k , a n d th e re fo re he a te a n d d ra n k in se cret, w ith o u t a n y b o d y seeing him . T h e k in g ’s sons h a d th e r ig h t to m a k e use as th e y p leased o f th e food a n d a n y o th e r p ro p e rty o f th e ir f a th e r ’s su b je cts. A p a rtic u la r p la ce am ong th e R u a w as held b y th e k in g ’s sister, w ho w as consid ered to b e th e w ife o f th e chief god, th e fo u n d e r o f th e S ta te , w hose idol — a n o m n ip o te n t fe tish — sto o d in a w ood w hich o n ly th e k in g a n d his sis te r w ere free to e n te r. T h e first w ife o f th e k in g h a d th e r ig h t to go v ern th e c o u n try in th e k in g ’s absence, a n d in th e e v e n t o f h e r d e a th

5 E. Sík: Black Africa I.

65

th e king' h a d to lie for a few d a y s beside th e d ea d b o d y in th e com m o n bed . W h en th e king died, his w ives w ere b u rie d aliv e to g e th e r w ith th e ir d e a d h u sb a n d . T h e W a ru a people w ere c o n s ta n tly exposed to p lu n d erin g s, first, o n th e p a r t o f th e ir ow n king, his sons a n d th e v arious chiefs an d , la te r, on th e p a r t o f A ra b a n d o th e r slav edealers.

T H E HAMITO-SEMITIC P E O P L E S OF AFRICA

T he gen eral p o p u la tio n o f N o rth a n d N o rth e a s t A frica co n sists o f H a m itic peoples. A t p re s e n t, H a m itic languages a re sp o k e n b y a p p ro x im a te ly 30 m illion people o n a b o u t one-fifth o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t. B e rn h a rd S t r u c k ’s classification assigns to th e gro u p o f H a m itic languages 47 m a in to n g u e s a n d 71 d ia le c ts.1 S cien tists could n o t as y e t agree o n th e m a tte r o f th e orig in o f th e H a m ite s . Som e consider th e m to h a v e im m ig rate d fro m A sia. O th ers in t u r n c o u n t th e m am o n g th e abo rig in al A fricans like th e S udanese. A gain o th e rs th in k th e ir trib e s issu ed fro m th e m ix tu re o f S udanese a n d Sem itic peoples. B u t, b e th is as i t m a y , th e f a c t rem ain s t h a t fro m tim e im m em o ria l—before th e d aw n o f h is to ry —a la rg e n u m b e r o f H a m ­ itic n a tio n a litie s in h a b ite d n o t on ly N o rth A frica (th e A tla s co u n tries, th e S ah ara , E g y p t) from w here th e y long ago p e n e tra te d e v e n in to th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u ­ d a n co u n tries, b u t also th e n o r th e a s t corner o f th e c o n tin e n t (a p a r t o f th e E a s te rn S u d an , E th io p ia , th e Som ali countries). T he second m a in elem ent o f th e p o p u la tio n o f N o rth a n d N o rth e a s t A frica is c o n s titu te d b y S em ites. A lrea d y in an c ie n t tim es, th e n o rth e rn a n d n o rth e a s t regions o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t w ere n o t on ly u n d e r S em itic (P h o e n ician a n d A ra b ) in flu ­ ence, b u t also w ere th e o b je ct o f S em itic colonization. N am ely , th e w av e o f m ig ra­ tio n s from th e A ra b ia n p en in su la in to N o rth e a s t A frica h as ad v a n c e d a lm o st u n in ­ te rru p te d ly since a n c ie n t tim es. A rab m ig ra tio n in to A frica in creased especially from t h e 7 th c e n tu ry onw ards, a f te r th e rise o f Islam . N o rth e a s t A frica becam e a t e r ­ r ito ry w ith a m ix ed p o p u la tio n o f H a m itic a n d S em itic trib e s . (The th ir d elem en t o f th e p o p u la tio n w ere — as a lre a d y s ta te d — th e S u d an ese trib e s w hich m ig ra te d th e re fro m th e w est a n d s e ttle d dow n am ong H a m itic a n d S em itic n o m ad s.) I n resp e ct o f b o th th e ir lan g u ag e a n d th e ir h isto ric fa te th e H a m ite s su b d iv id e in to N orth ern a n d E a stern H a m ites. To th e N o rth e rn H a m ite s belong th e se d e n ta ry Berber peo p les o f th e co u n tries o f th e A tla s M ou n tain s (M orocco, A lgeria, T ripoli) a n d th e n o m ad ic T u a reg s o f th e w estern S ahara. I n old en tim e s th e B erbers w ere a lre a d y in c o n ta c t w ith th e S em itic new com ers a n d p a r tly even m ix ed w ith th e m a n d a d o p te d th e ir lan g u ag e a n d c u ltu re . I n th e h isto ry o f T ropical A frica th e se peoples a re b u t in d ire c tly in v o lv ed , so fa r as th e y have m a in ta in e d tr a d e c o n ta c ts w ith th e peoples o f th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u d an from a n c ie n t tim es. R e la te d b y origin to th e B e rb e r peoples a re th e so-called M oors, a n e x tre m e ly m ixed people. M oreover, we m u st s tr ic tly d istin g u ish tw o d ifferen t g ro u p s o f B e rb e rs b y th e sam e n am e. T h e M oors o f th e A tla s c o u n tries (M orocco, A lgeria, T u n isia) are se d e n ta ry people; th e y a re m o stly civilized to w n -d w ellers a n d , d e sp ite th e ir M oslem religion, sh a rp ly differ in cu sto m s fro m th e n o m ad ic A rab s a n d ev en fro m th e se d en ­ t a r y A ra b villagers o f th e se countries. T h e M oors o f S enegal, w ho p la y e d a n im p o rta n t 1 See C. G. S e l ig m a n , Races of Africa (3rd ed. L o ndon, 1959), p. 85.

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p a r t in th e la te r a n d m o d e rn h is to ry o f th e ir c o u n try , h ow ever, h a v e n o th in g in com ­ m o n w ith th e M oors o f th e B e rb e r to w n s, ex c e p t th e ir n am e, la n g u ag e a n d religion. T h ey a re n o t civilized to w nspeople, th e ir m a jo rity le a d n o m ad ic life; th e y a re stro n g ly m ix e d w ith th e A ra b s (to w hom th e y a re closely re la te d b o th in cu sto m s a n d in a p p e aran c e), as w ell as w ith th e S u d an ese trib e s (of S en eg am b ia in p a rtic u la r).1 T h e T u aregs, a lth o u g h fo r th e ir n o m ad ic m ode o f life th e y s ta n d closer to th e A rab s t h a n d o th e B erb ers, d id n o t m ix w ith th e A ra b s a n d d id n o t s u b m it to A ra b in flu ­ ence, ex c e p t t h a t th e y a d o p te d Islam . T he o u tsta n d in g ro le th e y p la y e d in th e h isto ry o f th e W e ste rn S u d an S ta te s h a s a lre a d y been m e n tio n e d elsew here in th is b ook.12 W ith in th e fam ily o f th e E a s te r n H a m ite s ag a in w e h a v e to d istin g u ish tw o g ro u p s : th e G u sh itic trib e s a n d th e gro u p o f th e H a m ito -S e m ite s. I n th e m o st a n c ie n t tim e s th e n a m e “ C u sh ites” belo n g ed to o ne c e rta in trib e , th e fo re b ea r o f th e N u b ia n o r B a ra b ra people o f o u r d a y ;3 th e d esig n atio n “ C u sh ites” as a g en e ral te rm is now u sed to d e n o te th o se E a s te rn H a m itic tr ib e s w hich, d e sp ite th e ir secular c o n ta c ts w ith th e S em ites, h av e p re se rv e d th e ir H a m itic c h a ra c te r u p to th e p re se n t d a y . Som e o f th e se peoples to o k o v er v ario u s elem en ts o f th e S em itic cu ltu re, in p a rtic u la r, th e S em itic religion (th e m a jo rity o f th e Som alis a n d th e D a n a ­ id is b ecam e M oham m edans, th e F a la sh a s a re Je w s), b u t th e y h a v e all re ta in e d th e ir H a m itic lang u ag es a n d h a v e n o t m ixed w ith th e A ra b s p h y sically . A t th e sam e tim e, as a lre a d y m e n tio n e d , c e rta in H a m itic (C ushitic) trib e s long ago e n te re d in to c o n ta c t w ith th e peoples o f th e S u d an , o th e rs in tu r n w ith th e E a s te r n B a n tu , th e re su lt b eing t h a t , o n th e one h a n d , th e se H a m itic trib e s th e m se lv es b ecam e stro n g ly m ixed an d , o n th e o th e r, th e re em erged th o se m ix ed peoples — “ N ilo te s” a n d “ H am iticized B a n tu ” — o f w hich we h a v e a lre a d y sp o k en ab o v e (as w ell as th e “ se m i-H a m ite s” o f w hom we a re still going to sp e a k 4), a n d th e W a h u m a S ta te s w ere fo rm ed in E a s t A frica. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th is g ro u p a re th e S o m a lis, G allas, D analcils, N u b ia n s (B a r a b r a ), A g a u , B ogo, F a la sb a , e tc . T h e N u b ia n s a n d th e S om alis am o n g th e m a p ­ p e a re d o n th e sta g e o f h is to ry in a n c ie n t tim es a n d in th e e a rly M iddle A ges. To th is g ro u p belong th e W ah u m a a n d th e W a h in d a trib e s w hich, w an d e rin g in to th e region o f th e G re a t L akes, fo u n d ed th e W a h u m a S ta te s. T h e fam ily o f th e E a s te rn H a m ite s g av e h ir th to tw o g re a t h isto ric al peoples who, u n lik e th e C ushites, in th e ea rliest tim e s becam e fu lly H am itic ize d n o t o n ly in la n ­ guage b u t, to a co nsiderable e x te n t, also in c u ltu re a n d c re a te d th e ir p ec u lia r H am ito S em itic civilizations. W e refer to th e E g y p tia n peop le w hose civ ilizatio n flo u rish ed th o u sa n d s o f y ears before o u r e ra ,5 a n d to th e E th io p ia n s w ho c re a te d th e ir own 1 See th e d e sc rip tio n o f th e M oors of th e M e d ite rra n e a n c o u n trie s in R kci . uh , N o u velle geo­ g ra p h ic u n iverselle, vol. xi, p. 196, a n d t h a t o f th e M oors o f Senegal, ib id ., vol. x ii, p. 262 a n d ff. 2 See p. 50 a n d ff. 3 A s to th e h isto ry o f th e N u b ia n s, see below , p. 68. ff. T h e B a ra b ra or N u b ia n s to d a y a re th e m a in n a tio n a lity liv in g a lo n g th e b a n k s o f th e m id d le course o f th e N ile, a p p ro x im a te ly b e tw ee n K h a rto u m a n d W ad i H a ifa. T h e o th e r n a m e s g iv en to th is p eople b y th e E u ro p e a n s (B erberine, etc.) a re m ere ly d is to rte d fo rm s o f th e w o rd “ B a r a b r a ” , w h ic h h a s n o th in g to d o w ith th e n o tio n o f “ b a rb a ris m ” b u t is o n ly a v a r ia n t o f th e a n c ie n t n a m e o f th is p eople, “ B arab e r a ta ” , a s th e E g y p tia n s called th e m th o u sa n d s o f y e a rs ago. 4 See p. 78. 5 F ro m th e ric h lite ra tu re o n E g y p t a n d th e E g y p tia n s th e follow ing w orks m a y b e re c o m ­ m en d e d to b e g in w ith : A. B . C l o t -B e y , L 'E g y p te , 2 vols. (P a ris, 1842); E . A b a tjt , L e F ella h (P a ris, 1869; 3rd e d .: 1873); G. E b e k s , L 'E g y p te , T ra n s la te d b y M aspéro. 2 vols. (P a ris, 1881); Meyes (ed.), QeschicMe des alten A e g y p te n s (B erlin, 1887); E . W . L a n e , M a n n ers a n d C u stom s of the M o d ern E g y p tia n s , 2 vols. (L ondon, 1 8 7 1 —75); D ’H a r cottrt , L 'E g y p te el les E g y p tie n s (P aris, 1889); G. E lio t S m it h , The A n c ie n t E g y p tia n s a n d the O rig in of C iv iliz a tio n (L ondon, 1923).

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sin g u lar civilization a ro u n d th e d aw n o f o u r era . B o th in a n c ie n t tim e s a n d d u rin g th e M iddle A ges E g y p tia n civilization, as m e n tio n e d sev eral tim es, a c te d n o tic ea b ly upon th e ex isten ce a n d destin ies o f th e p eoples o f th e S u d an co u n tries. T h e ir c o n ta c ts w ith E g y p t, as w e a re going to see below, p la y ed a n ex tre m e ly im p o r ta n t p a r t in th e a n c ie n t a n d m ed iaev al h is to ry o f th e E a s te rn S u d an a n d E th io p ia . B u t th e h isto ry o f E g y p t a n d o f th e E g y p tia n people, w hich is th e m o st sig n ifican t c h a p te r in th e h is­ to r y o f N o rth A frica, does n o t belong to th e p ro v in ce o f o u r research . H o w ev er, we a re v e ry m u c h in te re s te d in th e a n c ie n t a n d m ed iaev al h is to ry o f E th io p ia . F ro m am o n g th e E a s te r n H a m itic peoples w e h a v e to p o in t o u t th e special, t r a n ­ sitio n al situ a tio n o f th e B e ja trib e s.

The N u b ia n s a n d N u b ia

T h e m ix tu re o f a H a m itic tr ib e o f th e C ushites, w ho in th e ea rliest tim e s liv ed in th e region o f th e low er course o f th e N ile so u th o f E g y p t, w ith a n u m b e r o f o th e r H a m itic trib e s g av e b ir th to a new g re a t people, th e N u b ia n s ( B a r a b r a ) . T h e y occu­ pied, in com m on w ith som e S u d an ese trib e s, a g re a t p o rtio n o f w h a t w as la te r k n o w n as th e A n g lo -E g y p tian S u d an , a n d in tim e a ssim ilate d d iv e rse S u d an ese elem en ts. I n th e ea rliest tim e s (ab o u t 2,000 y ea rs befo re o u r era) E g y p t su b d u e d th is en tire te rrito ry . F o r m a n y ce n tu ries, i t w as fro m th is “ L a n d o f C u sh ” t h a t E g y p t acq u ired slaves (from am ong b o th th e N u b ia n a n d th e S u d an ese trib e s), iv o ry , gold a n d tim ­ b er fo r sh ip b u ild in g . I n a b o u t 1000 B . C. a d y n a s ty t h a t h a d lo st its p o w er in E g y p t s e ttle d dow n in th e L a n d o f C ush a n d e stab lish ed a new in d e p e n d e n t S ta te , N a p a ta , w hich in th e 9 th a n d 8 th c e n tu ries B. C. ex te n d e d its ru le also o v er E g y p t. I n 668 B. C. th e “ E th io p ia n tr o o p s ” o f N a p a ta (w hich also co n sisted o f N u b ian s a n d S u d a ­ nese) w ere d riv e n o u t o f E g y p t b y th e A ssyrian s. Follow ing th is , th e p o w er in N a p a ta cam e in to th e h a n d s o f E g y p tia n p riests, a n d th e sovereigns o f N a p a ta tra n sfe rre d th e ir c a p ita l c ity to w a rd th e so u th , to M eroe. A n d w hen a t th e en d o f th e 6 th c e n tu ry th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f th e c o u n try w as in v a d ed b y th e P ersian s w ho h a d co n q u ered E g y p t, th e s o u th e rn p a r t co n tin u ed to ex ist as th e “ M eroe S ta te .” I t la ste d u n til a b o u t th e beginning o f o u r era , b u t w e know n o th in g a b o u t its h isto ry d u rin g th o se five h u n d re d years. A t th e begin n in g o f o u r era th is S ta te b ro k e u p in to tw o p a r t s : th e n o rth e rn p a r t ag a in a p p e a re d o n th e scene o f h is to ry as N a p a ta , o r N u b ia, a n d th e so u th e rn p a r t w as called A k su m (as to th is la tte r , see below). I n th e 4 th c e n tu ry A .D . th e em perors o f N u b ia em b ra ce d C h ristia n ity , a n d a f te r E g y p t’s con v ersio n to Isla m (639) N ubia becam e a refu g e fo r th e E g y p tia n C h ristian s. B u t a t th e sam e tim e (7 th c e n tu ry ) N u b ia b e g a n to be a tta c k e d fro m th e e a st b y A rab s, p a g a n trib e s first, w hich h ad escaped Islam , a n d M oslem trib e s la te r , w hich soon sp rea d o u t o v e r th e e n tire n o r th ­ e rn a n d c e n tra l region o f th e la te r A n g lo -E g y p tian S u d an , c u ttin g off N u b ia com ­ p le te ly fro m th e o th e r C h ristian c o u n try , A k su m , a n d fro m th e te r r ito r y o f th e S u ­ d an ese trib e s in th e s o u th w hich w as N u b ia ’s econom ic basis. A t t h a t tim e th e S ta te ’s c a p ita l c ity w as a lre a d y D ongola. I n 651 th e A ra b co n q u ero rs o f E g y p t besieged D ongola b u t could n o t ta k e it. F o r se v eral ce n tu ries a fte rw a rd s N u b ia held o u t a g a in st th e rec u rrin g a tte m p ts o f th e E g y p tia n su lta n s to ta k e possession o f th e c o u n try or a t le a s t to c o n v e rt i t to Islam . D ongola su rre n d e re d a t la st in 1275. N u b ia becam e a tr ib u ta r y to E g y p t, a n d its em p ero rs a d o p te d Islam . A fte r th is th e A ra b in v asio n o f th e c o u n try in creased , a n d N u b ia g ra d u a lly fell to sm all pieces, ev e ry one o f th e m b ein g u n d e r th e co n tro l o f on e o r a n o th e r A ra b trib e .

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I n th e d is tric t b o rd erin g u p o n E th io p ia th e A rabs fo u n d ed th e S ta te o f S e n n a r w hich, la te r o n , in 1500, w as co n q u e red b y th e F u n j trib e . I n view o f th e u tm o s t sc a rc ity o f th e in fo rm a tio n we h a v e o f th e s e N u b ia n S ta te s , i t is difficult to ju d g e th e ir c h a ra c te r. I t is h a rd ly p ro b a b le t h a t th e elem en ts o f E g y p tia n c u ltu re a n d o f th e slave-holding sy ste m b ro u g h t in b y th e ru n a w a y ru lers a n d p rie sts (or, la te r on, th e elem en ts o f G reco-R om an cu ltu re w hich p e n e tra te d in to N u b ia th ro u g h th e sam e E g y p t o r also th ro u g h A ksu m a t a still la te r d a te ) could te m p o ra rily — to a m o re o r less co nsiderable e x te n t — s trik e ro o t in a c o u n try w hose g en e ral p o p u la tio n co n sisted o f n om adic sh ep h erd s (th e N u b ian s) a n d p rim itiv e a g ri­ c u ltu ra l p e a sa n ts (th e S udanese) w ho, as we know , p rese rv e d th e ir trib a l m a n n ers a n d o rg an iz atio n w ith o u t a n y s u b s ta n tia l changes u n til th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry . T h e S ta te o rg an s se t u p b y th e E g y p tia n s, a n d la te r b y th e A ra b trib e s, w ere r a th e r alien in ­ s titu tio n s w hich e x h a u ste d th e A frican p o p u la tio n o v er m a n y c e n tu ries (e x to rtin g from i t tr ib u te s , slaves, soldiers, forced la b o u r), b u t d id n o t ch an g e th e su b sta n c e o f th e ir social o rganization. T h e m a in in h a b ita n ts o f th e se co u n tries, th e B a ra b ra , w ere th e suffering p a r tic i­ p a n ts o f all th e se h isto ric tra n sfo rm a tio n s: th e y h a d to p a y ta x e s , th e y w ere sold in to sla v ery , th e y w ere re c ru ite d fo r th e a rm y , th e y w ere p u t to fo rced la b o u r. N e v e rth e ­ less, th e conq u ero rs tr a n s m itte d to th e m , o f course, also m a n y elem en ts o f th e ir h ig h er cu ltu re. A nd w hile th e a n c ie n t E g y p tia n a n d th e C h ristia n c u ltu re , being co m p letely alien to th e m , could n o t in a n y consid erab le degree, o r m o re o r less s ta b ly , s trik e ro o t am o n g th e m , th e ce n tu ries-o ld effect o f th e A rab influence (lastin g even u p to th e p re se n t d ay ) h as le ft v e ry n o tic ea b le m a rk s on th e m . T h e m a in re su lt o f th is A ra b influence w as th e ir conversion to th e M oslem religion, o f w hich th e y are zealous follow ers. B esides, a lm o st all B a ra b ra h a v e le a rn e d to re a d a n d w rite in A ra ­ bic. T h e y h av e b orrow ed a little fro m th e m a te ria l c u ltu re a n d cu sto m s o f th e A rab trib e s. I n sp ite o f all, th e y could o v er th o u sa n d s o f y e a rs p rese rv e th e ir p a rtic u la r n a tio n a l c h a ra c te r d istin g u ish in g th e m b o th fro m th e A ra b s a n d fro m th e o th e r H a m itic trib e s o f th e E a s te r n S u d an . U nlike th e o th e r H a m itic peoples a n d A rab trib e s o f th e S u d an , th e B a ra b ra a re a lm o st exclusively la n d -tillin g p e a sa n ts, m ost o f th e ir trib e s k eeping o n ly p o u ltry a n d go ats.

The S ta le o f A k s u m a n d the B irth of E th io p ia

A d ifferen t course o f d ev e lo p m e n t la y a h e a d o f th e o th e r g re a t c o u n try in th e e a st c o m e r o f A frica — E th io p ia . W hile th e N u b ia n S ta te s w ere fo u n d e d b y foreign im m ig ran ts, th e E th io p ia n S ta te sp ra n g fro m th e A frican soil. T h e te rrito rie s o f p re s e n t-d a y E th io p ia a n d th e S om ali c o u n tries w ere fro m old en tim es in h a b ite d b y tw o g re a t peoples: H a m itic (C ush, G alla, Som ali) a n d S u d an ese trib e s. L ike o th e r regions o f E a s t A frica, t h a t a re a w as th e scene o f th e “ H a m itiz a tio n o f th e N egroes” a n d o f th e b ir th o f new “ N ilo tic ” peoples. I n a d d itio n , som e o f th e H a m itic trib e s o f th is a re a stro n g ly m ix ed w ith th e A rab s w ho, in th e ea rliest tim es, h a d m ig ra te d th e re in la rg e m asses across th e R e d S ea fro m S o u th e rn A rab ia (chiefly fro m th e kin g d o m o f S ab a). T his m ix tu re o f H a m ite s w ith A ra b s, w hich to o k place, how ever, n o t w ith o u t ab so rb in g a co nsiderable a m o u n t o f S u d an ese blood, g av e rise to th o se peoples (th e A m h a ra s, e tc .) w hich la te r o n fo u n d ed th e E th io p ia n S ta te a n d c o n s titu te to th is d a y th e p re d o m in a n t elem e n t o f th e p o p u la tio n o f E th io p ia . T h e n o r th e r n p a r t o f E th io p ia (Tigré) in th e la s t c e n tu rie s b efo re o u r e ra belonged to th e N u b ia n S ta te o f M eroe, a n d a t th e v e ry b eg in n in g o f o u r e r a —ow ing m a in ly

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to th e a lre a d y p rev a ilin g A ra b in fluence—c o n s titu te d a se p a ra te S ta te : “ A k su m ” . T h e S ta te o f A ksum h a d E th io p ia n ru lers b u t w as u n d e r stro n g A ra b influence. T h is w as th e o n ly c o u n try o f all B lack A frica in w hich sla v e ry as a n econom ic s tr u c ­ tu r e re a c h e d th e h e ig h t o f its d ev e lo p m e n t in a n c ie n t tim es. D u rin g sev eral c e n tu rie s th e S ta te o f A ksu m w ith its se a p o rt A d u m a w as th e m o st im p o r ta n t tra d in g c e n tre o f E a s t A frica a n d to o k p a r t in th e tr a n s it tr a d e carried o n b etw e en E g y p t, G reece a n d S y ria , on th e one h a n d , a n d In d ia , o n th e o th e r. I t e x p o rte d fro m A frica chiefly iv o ry , gold d u s t, ra w h id es a n d “ p erfu m es” . I t m a in ­ ta in e d close com m ercial a n d c u ltu ra l c o n ta c ts w ith th e G reco -R o m an w orld. T hese c o n ta c ts s u b s ta n tia te th e c o u n try ’s e a rly con v ersio n to C h ristia n ity (4 th c e n tu ry ), w hich rea ch ed E th io p ia in th e fo rm o f M o n ophysitism . A fte r conversion th e S ta te o f A k su m e n te re d in to alliance w ith th e E a s te r n R o m a n E m p ire a n d in th e 6 th c e n tu ry , in alliance w ith it, su b ju g a te d Y em en . L a te r i t su p p o rte d Y em en in its w ar a g a in st I ra n , b u t Y em en w as soon v a n q u ish e d b y I ra n , u p o n w hich A ksum its e lf also fell u n d e r I ra n ia n influence. T h e decline o f tr a d e b etw e en th e M e d ite rra n e a n co u n tries a n d In d ia , as w ell as th e ch a n g e in tr a d e ro u te s, in th e 7 th c e n tu ry led to th e decline o f A k su m . I t w as defini­ tiv e ly d e s tro y e d as a consequence o f th e rise o f Isla m a n d th e c re a tio n o f th e C a lip h a te in A rab ia. M oslem A ra b ia to o k possession o f th e A frican co a st o f th e R e d Sea, to o , a n d A k su m w as com p letely s h u t o if fro m th e sea. A s a re su lt, A ksum forced its ex p an sio n (w hich h a d b eg u n in th e 4 th c e n tu ry ) to w a rd s th e s o u th a n d co n q u e red m ore a n d m o re la n d s o f th e C u sh ite a n d S ud an ese (N ilotic) trib e s a n d th e G allas. T h is ex p a n sio n o f th e sm all S ta te o f A k su m in to th e pow erful E th io p ia (reaching ap p ro x im a te ly its a c tu a l size) la ste d fo r sev eral c e n tu ­ ries a n d re su lte d in b o th q u a n tita tiv e a n d q u a lita tiv e ch an g es: th e w a r lead ers o f th e cam paigns o f co n q u e st ch anged in to feu d a listic p rin ces, th e fo rm e r slave-holding S ta te g av e w ay to feu d a l co n d itio n s — feudalism w as in th e m a k in g . T h e feu d a l r u l­ ers fo u g h t fo r th e th ro n e , a n d th e stru g g le en d ed in th e 1 3th c e n tu ry , w h en th e feu­ d a l ru le r o f th e S hoa p rovince, u n d e r th e p r e te x t o f “ re sto rin g th e d y n a s ty o f Solo­ m o n ” ,1 seized th e po w er o v er a ll o th e r feu d a l lo rd s. F o r a few c e n tu rie s th e h is to ry o f n ew -b o rn feu d al E th io p ia flowed u n d e r th e sign o f th e “ stru g g le w ith th e M oslem s” . T h e e n tire R e d S ea co a st a n d th e E a s t A frican co a sta l sectio n w hich la te r cam e u n d e r I ta lia n co n tro l as I ta lia n So­ m a lila n d , t h a t is, all th e o u tle ts o f E th io p ia to th e sea, w ere in th e h a n d s o f th e “ M oslem s” . I n o th e r places th e re ex iste d sm all p rin cip alities o f v ario u s H a m itic trib e s (Som alis, D an a k ils, etc.) t h a t h a d a d o p te d Islam . T h ese p rin cip alities w ere m ili­ t a r y trib a l alliances e stab lish ed in th e stru g g le fo r in d ep en d en ce a g a in st th e E th i­ o p ia n con q u ero rs. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t o f th e m w as A del (in th e p lace o f to d a y ’s O gaden). T h e y w ere all u n d e r stro n g A rab influence, a n d A ra b tr a d e c a p ita l, seeking c o n tro l o v er E th io p ia , s u p p o rte d th e ir lib e ra tio n stru g g le in its ow n in te re s t. T h e stru g g le becam e v e ry a c u te e a rly in th e 1 4 th c e n tu ry , d u rin g th e reig n o f A m d a S i o n in E th io p ia (1312—1342). F ro m t h a t tim e o n th e stru g g le c o n tin u e d w ith som e in te rru p tio n s to becom e p e rm a n e n t in th e second h a lf o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . T h e h is­ to r y o f th e reig n o f th re e E th io p ia n ru lers o f w hom we h a v e d o c u m e n ta ry evidence (Z a b a J a c o b , 1434— 1468; B e d a M a r ia m , 1468— 1478; I s k a n d e r , 1478— 1495) is p r e g m n t w ith w ars a g a in s t th e “ kin g d o m o f A d el” a n d th e o th e r “ M o h am m ed an p ro v in c e s” . 1 E th io p ia n legends id e n tify th e b ib lic al “ k in g d o m o f S h e b a ” (w hose q u e en is sa id to h a v e v isite d K in g Solom on) w ith E th io p ia a n d sa y t h a t th e a n c ie n t E th io p ia n kings w ere offspring o f th e so n o f t h e “ Q ueen o f S h e b a ” b o rn o f h e r m a rria g e w ith Solom on.

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The Origin of the Somalis T he q u e stio n o f th e origin o f th e SomaUs a n d o f th e ir ea rly h isto ry is n o t clarified scientifically. I n th is resp e ct eth n o g ra p h e rs a n d h isto ria n s h old o p p o site view s v a ry in g b etw e en tw o ex trem es. A ccording to th e first one, i t sh o u ld b e ta k e n for g ra n te d t h a t th e a n c e sto rs o f th e S om alis lived in th e n o r th e a s t co rn er o f A frica, p a rtic u la rly o n th e Som ali co ast, as e a rly as tw o to th re e th o u s a n d y ea rs before o u r e ra a n d sto o d on th e h ig h e st level o f b a rb a rism . A ccording to th e o th e r view th e Som alis a p p e a re d in A frica re la tiv e ly la te (some sa y in th e 7 th c e n tu ry , o th e rs th in k in th e 12 th o r th e 13 th c e n tu ry ), e ith e r as im m ig ra n ts fro m A rab ia, o r as a m ix tu re o f som e peoples o f E a s t A frica w ith th e A ra b im m ig ran ts. T h e first view is b u ilt o n th e evidence g ain ed fro m th e frescoes o f a n E g y p tia n te m p le a n d n u m e ro u s o th e r archaeological finds. I n th e epoch o f p ro sp e rity u n d e r th e 18th D y n a s ty (1 6 th c e n tu ry B . C.) Q ueen H a t sh e psu t o f E g y p t s e n t a tr a d e ex p e d itio n to “ th e la n d o f m y rrh a n d in cen se” — P u n t. T h e ex p e d itio n o f eig h t vessels re tu rn e d from th is “ la n d o f in cen se” w ith heaps o f tre a su re s, p a r tly p a id in tr ib u te to E g y p t b y th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t, p a r tly o b ­ ta in e d b y th e E g y p tia n s in exchange for m e ta l w ares, m a in ly arm r T h e s to ry o f th is e x p e d itio n is d e p ic te d o n a series o f frescoes in a T h e b a n te m p le a t D eir el B ah ri. O ne o f th e s e w all-p ain tin g s re p re se n ts a scene in w hich th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t h a n d o v e r to th e E g y p tia n s th e ir tr ib u te o f g um , incense a n d m y rrh , a n d , am o n g o th e rs, th e sovereign o f P u n t —a n elderly, p lu m p , f a t w o m an —g ree ts th e E g y p tia n s. W e c a n see o n th e fresco c e d a r tre e s b ro u g h t fro m P u n t a n d v ario u s an im als, tw o species o f b aboons am ong th e m . A n o th e r fresco re p re se n ts th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t a t hom e. T hese w all-p a in tin g s w ere d iscovered b y D ü m ic h en a n d b ecam e k n o w n th ro u g h his b o o k .1 R ely in g o n th is, arch aeo lo g ists, g eographers a n d h isto ria n s s ta r te d to discuss on th e lo c a tio n o f P u n t. T h ere a re th re e differing view s: 1. I n th e op in io n o f th e F re n c h arc h aeo lo g ist L e R o u g e t , th e G erm a n E g y p to l­ o g ist B ru g sch a n d o th e rs, P u n t w as s itu a te d in S o u th e rn A rab ia. 2. H il d e b r a n t , M a r ie t t e , S c h w e in f u r t h a n d o th e rs h o ld th e v iew t h a t th e P u n t o f th e E g y p to lo g ists m u st h a v e been id e n tic a l w ith th e a ro m a tria regio know n t o th e a n c ie n t R o m an s, t h a t is, w ith th e n o r th e r n p a r t o f th e Som ali co a st ad jo in ­ in g th e G u lf o f A d en .12 3. F in a lly , th e F re n c h m a n R é v o il , on th e b asis o f h is rese arch in th e Som ali co u n tries, h as com e to th e conclusion t h a t P u n t m u s t h a v e b een s itu a te d o n th e s o u th ­ e rn p a r t o f th e S om ali co a st, o n th e shores o f th e I n d ia n O cean, in th e region o f th e to w n o f B a ra w a a n d th e W ebi R iv e r.3 R e ly in g o n one o r th e o th e r o f th e s e la tte r tw o o p in io n s, th e m a jo rity o f th e sci­ e n tis ts th in k t h a t P u n t e x iste d in th e te r r ito r y in h a b ite d n o w b y th e SomaU trib e s. A n d , since th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t as re p re se n te d o n th e frescoes v e ry m u ch resem ble th e S om alis o f o u r d a y fo r th e ir clo th es a n d a p p e a ra n c e , th is p e rm its o f th e conclu­ sio n t h a t th e Som alis liv ed in th e s e regions a lre a d y a t th e tim e o f th e ab o v e-m en ­ tio n e d E g y p tia n ex p e d itio n , t h a t is, 1,500 y ea rs befo re o u r era , a n d t h a t P u n t w as 1 D ü m i c h e n , D ie F lo tte ein er äg yp tisc h e n K ö n ig in (L eipzig, 1868). P u n t is also m en tio n ed in o th e r E g y p tia n in sc rip tio n s t h a t b e cam e know n before D iim ic h en ’s d iscovery. See also H . K . B r u q s c h , G eographie d er N a ch b a rlä n d er A e g y p te n s (L eipzig, 1858). 2 See M a r i e t t e -B e y , Itin é r a ir e de la H a itte -E g y p te avec u n e d e sc rip tio n des m on u m en ts a n ti­ q u es, situ é s su r les riv e s d u N i l (P a ris, n . d.). 3 “ L a V allée d u D a rro r” , ch. x ii in A rchäologie et eth n ograph ic.

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th e ir c o u n try . F u rth e r, considering t h a t th e se a n c ie n t in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t u sed m e t­ als, w e m a y d ra w th e conclusion t h a t th e flin t im p lem en ts fo u n d in m a n y places in th e S om ali regions belong to a still re m o te r epoch, a n d t h a t, co n seq u e n tly , th e So­ m alis h av e liv ed in th e se p a r ts fo r a t le a s t 3,500 to 3,600 y e a rs.1 T hose w ho a d h e re to th is view refer, in a d d itio n to th e frescoes, to a larg e n u m b e r o f o th e r, m ore co n crete, archaeological finds. G d tll a t n h as d isco v ered th e ru in s o f a n a n c ie n t c ity n e a r V arshek. H etjglin h as v isite d a n o ld Som ali s e ttle m e n t 20 kilom etres from B e rb e ra, w here h e h a s fo u n d th e ru in s o f fo rtificatio n s, to m b s , ir r i­ g atio n sy stem s, e tc . I n th e sam e place, H i l d e b k a n t h as co llected fra g m e n ts o f glass u te n sils, v a rn ish e d bow ls, sto n e a n d a la b a s te r v ases, en am elled a n d glass b ra c e le ts, precious sto n e s a n d pearls. I n th e sam e region R é v o i l h as d isco v ered n u m e ro u s ro u n d tu m u li w ith hu g e sto n e h eap s in th e ir ce n tres a n d s c a tte re d all o v er w ith shells, fishbones a n d b ro k en sto n e , b ro n ze a n d iro n im p lem en ts a n d uten sils. T he su p p o rte rs o f th e o p p o site view , w ho co n sid er th e S om alis to b e re la tiv e ly re ­ c e n t im m ig ra n ts fro m across th e sea,12 h av e th e follow ing tw o m a in a rg u m e n ts to s e t f o r th : 1. th e evidence o f th e ex c av a tio n s ca rrie d o n in th e co a st reg io n allow s u s to ta k e fo r g ra n te d t h a t th e G allas once lived a ro u n d Zeila a n d in c e rta in regions o f th e Som ali co ast o f th e I n d ia n O cean, a n d 2. th e S om alis d isp lay a s u b s ta n tia lly closer resem blance to a n d k in sh ip w ith th e A rab s th a n w ith th e G allas, e tc .3 T h is v ie w is confirm ed, am o n g o th e r th in g s, b y leg en d s o f th e S o m a lis th e m se lv e s a b o u t th e ir a n c e sto r s’ im m ig ra tio n from A rab ia.

B b e n n e e h as p u b lish ed th e follow ing legend, w hich is w id esp read am o n g th e n o rth e rn Som alis a n d w hich h e h e a rd fro m th e le a rn e d S heik A b Dio E nntjr in 1866: I n th e tim e o f th e p ro p h e t M oham m ed th e fo reb ears o f th e S om alis o f o u r d a y — an A rab tr ib e — lived in M ecca. W h e n th e y cam e in to conflict w ith on e o f th e ch ief M os­ lem trib e s o f M ecca — th e B en i-K u ra ish — th e p ro p h e t o rd ered th e a n c e sto rs o f th e Som alis to flee u n d e r th e guid an ce o f a k in sm a n .o f on e o f th e p r o p h e t’s close frien d s, A b u -B e k r . T h ey com plied w ith th e o rd e r o f th e p ro p h e t, sailed across th e B e d Sea a n d a lig h te d on th e S om ali co a st som ew here n e a r C ape G u ard afu i. O ne g ro u p o f th e m fou n d ed a se ttle m e n t in th e sam e region a n d e n te re d in to tr a d e c o n ta c ts w ith H a besh (E th io p ia ) a n d th e H a d h ra m a u t coast. T h ey m a rrie d A ra b w om en a n d becam e th e fo re fa th ers o f th e “ tr u e ” S om alis (th e S om ali trib e s liv in g on th e n o rth ). U n til th e ir a rriv a l th e c o u n try as a w hole w as in th e h a n d s o f a few G alla trib e s. A n o th e r gro u p o f th e se A rab im m ig ra n ts ad v a n c e d f a r th e r w est. T h is p a r t o f th e new com ers m a rrie d G alla girls a n d becam e th e a n c e sto rs o f th e so u th e rn Som alis. A n o th e r v a r ia n t o f th is legend a b o u t th e A ra b orig in o f th e S om alis is sp rea d , as w itnessed b y P a u i .it s c h k e , also am o n g th e n o r th e r n trib e s . A ccording to i t th e case h ap p e n ed som ew hat differently. A m e m b er o f th e K o re ish ite clan o f th e H a sh im ite s living in A rab ia, a w a rrio r b y th e n a m e o f A b a b , w an d e re d in to A frica to w a rd s th e en d o f th e 12 th c e n tu ry , t h a t is, a lm o st 600 y ea rs a fte r th e h eg ira, a n d fo u n d ed a pow erful S ta te w hose c a p ita l w as a t Zeila o r in its environs. T h e n o rth e rn S om ali 1 See R e c l u s , o p. o il., v o l. x iii, p . 736. 2 S ee S e l ig m a n , o p . c it., p . 111. 3 A ccording to P ro f. H a h n , “ T he Som ali peoples, or a t le a st p a r t o f th e m u n d o u b te d ly m i­ g ra te d in to A frica fro m so u th e rn a n d so u th w e st A ra b ia a n d d ro v e th e G alla peoples —w ho in th e 16th c e n tu ry liv e d o n th e shores o f th e In d ia n O cean — ev er fa rth e r w est a n d so u th w e st. O u t o f th e se tw o e th n ic elem en ts, th e G allas a n d th e S om alis, th e l a t t e r a t a n y r a te m a d e th e ir a p p e a ra n c e in A frica a t a la te r d a te . R e m in isc e n t o f th e G allas a re th e to m b s a n d th e p e c u lia r sto n e s tru c tu re s w hich, acco rd in g to R o b e c c h i -B r ic h e t t i a n d D o n a l d s o n -S k i t h , a re fo u n d in th e n o rth e a s t region t h a t is no longer in h a b ite d b y th e G allas.’’ (O p. c it., p. 294.)

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trib e s (H a sh iy a) issued fro m A r a b ' s fam ily. L a te r on, th e se trib e s d iv id ed in to tw o su b g ro u p s, because A rab h a d tw o g rea t-g ran d so n s, D arot (or T a r u d ) a n d I s h a k . D arot becam e th e fo re fa th e r o f th e M ijertin , W arsan g eli, D o lb o h an ti trib e s , e tc., w hile I sh a k ’s offspring w ere th e E isa , G adibursi a n d all th o se trib e s w hose n am e is p rec ed ed b y th e w o rd “ H a b r ” , such as th e H ab r-T o l, H a b r-G h a r-H a ji, H a b rA w al, e tc . A ccording to th e legend, S heik I sh a k d ie d in M aiét (M ehed), th e se a p o rt to w n o f th e H a b r-G h a r-H a ji trib e . I n th e d a y s o f y o re th e ag ed Som alis fro m th e n eig h b o u rh o o d used to g a th e r a t th e h o ly to m b o f I sh a k to b e b u ried beside th e e a r th ly rem a in s o f t h a t ho ly m an . T h e to w n ’s h u ts w ere g ro u p ed a ro u n d th e to m b , a n d o n ly la te r w as th e to w n tra n s fe rre d to th e w est, n e a r th e m o u th o f a stre a m . R I svoil gives a th ir d v a r ia n t o f th is sam e legend sa y in g t h a t D a r o t , th e fo re b ea r o f a ll th e S om alis, w as a sav ag e A rab w a rrio r living in th e ra v in e s o f th e A d d e M oun­ ta in s (according to a sub v a r ia n t: in th e d eserts) a n d h e w as m iracu lo u sly fed o u t o f th e h a n d s o f G od. H e w as a follow er a n d fe rv e n t p ro p a g a to r o f Islam . A p p ro x i­ m a te ly 80 to 90 y e a rs a f te r th e flight o f M oham m ed h e a rriv e d o n th e A frican co ast, m a rrie d a shepherdess a n d beg an p ro p a g a tin g in A frica th e te a c h in g o f M oham m ed. T h e M ijertin , W arsan g eli a n d o th e r trib e s a re his d esce n d an ts. B esides th e s e p rin cip al v a r ia n ts th e re a re se v eral legends a b o u t se ttle m e n ts es­ ta b lish e d b y sh ipw recked A ra b s (who b y m a rry in g local girls o rig in a te d on e o r a n ­ o th e r S om ali trib e ) in th e regions o f N o rth e a s t A frica now occupied b y th e Som alis. All th e se legends, how ever, p ro v e b u t one th in g : T h e m a jo r ity o f th e S om alis, w ho k n o w n o th in g o f th e ir re a l orig in a n d — as becom es to fe rv e n t M oslem s — are an x io u s to h av e h oly m en am o n g th e ir a n c e sto rs, claim to b e d e sc e n d a n ts o f th e A rab K o re ish ite fam ily. A ccording to R é v o il , m a n y o f th e m claim to b e closely re la te d to th e p ro p h e t, a n d in d ic a te houses a t M ecca as h a v in g been b u ilt b y th e a n c e s to rs o f th e S om alis.1 I t is n o t b y ch ance t h a t all th e se legends h a v e sp rea d , ab o v e all, am o n g th e n o r th e r n S om alis w ho a re m o st o f all m ix e d w ith th e A rabs. F in a lly , th e view t h a t th e S om alis d eriv e fro m th e m ix tu re o f G allas w ith A ra b s is b ased o n th e (real o r im a g in a ry ) evidence o f c o m p a ra tiv e a n th ro p o lo g y , o r m ore p rec isely o n th e close k in sh ip o f th e Som alis w ith th e G allas a n d on th e ir u n q u e s­ tio n a b le m ix in g w ith A rab s. P a u l it sc h k e claim s t h a t th e S om alis, like th e D an ak ils, in resp e ct o f th e ir orig in a r e o n ly a b ra n c h o f th e G allas, t h a t th e y c o n s titu te sim p ly th e n o r th e a s te rn G alla trib e s w hich, ow ing to th e ir stro n g m ix tu re w ith th e A rab s, “ tu r n e d ” in to Som alis a n d D an a k ils12 a p p ro x im a te ly in th e 7 th c e n tu ry o f o u r era. I n th e op in io n o f R a t z e l , th e Som alis a re “ a b ra n c h o f th e G alla peo p les m o st o f a ll affected b y alien influence a n d m ix e d w ith alien e le m e n ts” . H e th in k s t h a t th e Som alis first lived f a r th e r w est o f th e ir p re se n t te rrito rie s , b u t la te r, d riv e n b y o th e r “ G alla p eo p les” , w a n d e re d e a stw a rd , to th e co a st regions, a n d th e r e s u lt w as t h a t “ b y rea so n o f th e ir s itu a tio n th e y h a d to m a in ta in fre q u e n t c o n ta c ts w ith A ra b ia ” a n d m ix e d w ith th e A rab s to a consid erab le e x te n t. T h is is h o w th e S o m ali people w as b o rn w hich, th e re fo re , is a n A ra b iz ed G alla peop le o r, in th e w ords o f R a t z e l , “ a n A ra b b ra n c h o n th e G alla t r u n k ” .3 I t is in te re s tin g to n o te t h a t th e sa m e H a h n , w ho, as we h a v e seen, seem s to be co n v in ced t h a t th e Som alis “ d o u b tle ss im m ig ra te d in to A frica fro m A ra b ia ” , tu r n s o u t to be fa r fro m su re in h is belief, since in a n o th e r place h e w rite s th e follow ing: 1 V oyage a u C a p des A ro m a tes, p. 257. 2 See B e iträ g e . . ., o n p . 90. below . 3 O p. c it. vol. ii, p p . 185, 182.

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“ I t will be m o st p ro p e r to consider th e G allas, th e M asai a n d th e Som alis m ix ed p eoples w ho ho ld a n in te rm e d ia te place b e tw e e n th e N egroes a n d th e H am ito -S e m ­ itic g roups. T h e la tte r p ro b a b ly cam e fro m th e e a st, from S o u th ern A ra b ia , o r from th e n o r th , fro m E g y p t, to w a rd s th e w est o r th e so u th , a n d la te r, in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , w ith d re w fro m th e in te rio r p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t ag a in to w a rd s th e n o rth e a s t. T h ere th e trib e s w hich h a d gone f a r th e r e a s t m ix e d w ith th e A ra b s w ho h a d s e ttle d on th e se a c o a st, a n d th is w as th e o rig in o f th e m ix e d S om ali p eo p le.” 1 I t a p p e a rs t h a t th e S om alis as such d id n o t com e from A ra b ia b u t o rig in a te d from t h e A frican soil, fro m th e m ix tu re o f c e rta in H a m itic peoples w ith A rab s, as la te as th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry a t t h a t! I t is h ig h ly p ro b a b le t h a t th e P u n t c o u n try w as s itu a te d som ew here in th e p re s e n t-d a y te r r ito r y o f th e S om alis. T his assu m p tio n is d efin itely confirm ed b y th e f a c t t h a t th e a b o v e -m en tio n ed E g y p tia n frescoes d isp lay p ro d u c ts o f ju s t th o se regions, to g e th e r w ith c e rta in p ro d u c ts a n d an im als o f E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica (ivory, b ab o o n s, giraffes). B u t e v e n if w e could a s c e rta in th e id e n tity o f P u n t w ith a ro m a tria regio, th is w o u ld n o t p ro v e b y a n y m eans t h a t th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t w ere also id e n tic a l w ith th e a n c e sto rs o f th e S om alis o f o u r d ay . T h e a rg u m e n t o f th e ir clo th in g (th e alleged rese m b la n ce o f th e g a rm e n ts o f th e P u n t in h a b ita n ts to th o se o f th e S om alis o f o u r tim e) is in conclusive if we ta k e in to a c c o u n t t h a t th e p re se n t-d a y clo th in g o f th e Som alis is a m a n ife st p ro d u c t p a r tly o f th e E th io p ia n a n d p a r tly o f th e A rab in ­ fluence. T h e reference to th e ir “ a p p e a ra n c e ” w e c a n n o t re g a rd as serious evidence e ith e r, fo r th e an th ro p o lo g ists w ho t r y to solve th e p ro b lem o n th e b asis o f e x te rio r m a rk s a re grop in g a b o u t in th e d a rk .2 F u r th e r e x c av a tio n s in th e a n c ie n t cities o f th e S om ali co a st m a y convey us som e id e a a b o u t th e c h a ra c te r o f t h a t b orrow ed c u ltu re w hich flourished h ere in a n c ie n t tim e s, a n d a b o u t th e e x te n t to w hich th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t assim ilate d t h a t cu ltu re (for th e tim e b eing g re a t u n c e rta in ty p rev a ils in th is resp e ct), b u t such fra g m e n ts c a n n o t an sw er th e q u estio n o f w h a t k in d o f people th e in h a b ita n ts o f P u n t w ere, w h e th e r th e y w ere in d eed S om alis o r G allas o r w h e th e r th e y le ft th o se regions o r th e y b ecam e e x tin c t long before th e a rriv a l o f th e S om alis. M oreover, ow ing to ab sen ce am o n g th e Som alis o f th e h ig h c u ltu re w hich, as is ev id en ced b y th e e x c av a tio n s, w as th e p ro p e r ty o f th e in h a b ita n ts o f th e se re ­ gions, such fu tu re ex c av a tio n s m a y arg u e rather a g a in st th an for th e su p p o sitio n th a t th e Som alis h a v e liv ed in th e s e regions from tim e im m em o rial. W e sh all see la te r th a t th e p rim itiv e p la te s a n d bow ls o f th e Som alis do n o t resem b le th e precious u te n sils o f th e a n c ie n t P u n t in h a b ita n ts . T ru e, th is gives u s n o rea so n to co n sid er th e q u estio n o f th e a n c ie n t A frican h is to ry o f th e S om alis e x h a u ste d ( th a t is, s e ttle d in a n eg a tiv e sense), y e t th e e x c a v a tio n s c a n n o t b e looked u p o n as a n a rg u m e n t in th e affirm ativ e. T h e second o p in io n (in w hich th e Som alis im m ig ra te d fro m A ra b ia a f te r th e rise o f Isla m a n d d ro v e off th e G allas) also lacks evidence. T h ere is no p ro o f to claim t h a t th e c o a st regions w ere in th e p a s t in h a b ite d b y G alla trib e s . T h e G alla to m b s, e tc ., fo u n d th e re d o n o t p ro v e a n y th in g , fo r G allas a n d S om alis m ig h t h a v e liv ed pellm ell in one a n d th e sam e region o r ch a n g ed resid en ce se v eral tim e s. T h e fa c t th a t th e Som alis a re stro n g ly m ix ed w ith A rab s does n o t te ll u s where t h a t m ix in g to o k 1 Op. ей., p. 292. 1 1. M. H ildebra nt w rites a b o u t th e peoples in h a b itin g N o rth e a s t A frica, “ A lth o u g h I h a v e d e a lt w ith th is c o m p le x o f peoples fo r a n u m b e r o f y e a rs, i t h a s a lw a y s b e e n d iffic u lt fo r m e to find o u t a t first sig h t w h e th e r a c e rta in in d iv id u a l belongs to th e d a rk -s k in n e d H a d ra A ra b s, th e S om alis, th e G allas, th e D a n ak ils, th e B eja, th e M asai, th e lk a m b a o r th e M ’ja g g a .” (Q u o te d fro m R atzel , o p . c it., vol. ii, p . 170.)

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p lace. I t m ig h t h a v e b een in A rab ia, or in A frica w here A rab im m ig ra tio n u n d o u b t­ e d ly b eg a n lo n g before th e rise o f Isla m . F in a lly , a s far a s th e fo lk lo re o f th e S o m a lis th e m se lv e s is con cern ed , i t is u tt e r ly im p o ssib le t o b e lie v e in it or to find o u t h ow m uch o f it is tr u th an d h o w m u ch o n ly fa n ta sy . T h e m ig ra tio n s, m arriages, e tc . n a r­ ra te d in th e m m ig h t h a v e ta k e n place p a r tly in re a lity , p a r tly so m ew h at d iffe ren tly —

n o t a t th e tim e s a n d n o t in ju s t th e co n d itio n s re fe rre d to in th e legends. H ow ev er it m a y h a v e been, o n e th in g is b e y o n d d o u b t: a t le a s t p a r t o f th e S om alis, if a t all th e y cam e fro m A ra b ia , im m ig ra te d p rio r to Isla m o r a t a n y r a te in th e y e a rs o f its ap p earan ce, ru n n in g a w a y fro m Isla m or so m e o f it s fo llo w ers, b u t n o t la te r th a n th e 7 th an d 8 th cen tu ries. O b viou s p r o o f o f th is is th e e x is te n c e o f S om ali tr ib e s w h ich h a v e n ev er a d o p ted Isla m b u t fo u g h t a g a in st it.

F in ally , th o se w ho claim t h a t c e rta in G alla trib e s tu r n e d in to S om alis b y m ix in g w ith A rab s p u t in a co m p letely w eak a rg u m e n t. I f th e re ex iste d no S om alis (an d D an ak ils) y e t, h u t o n ly one people w hich th e y call th e “ G allas” , th e n th e y o b v io u sly sp e ak o f a tim e w hen th e a c tu a l k in d re d peoples o f com m on o rig in —th e G allas, th e Som alis a n d th e D a n a k ils—h a d n o t y e t d evelop ed in to s e p a ra te peoples o f co m ­ m o n origin b u t s till c o n s titu te d one single people (w hich th e a u th o rs o f th is th e o ry , lacking d a ta o f a n y k in d a b o u t th e ir re a l nam e, lik e to d esig n ate b y th e n a m e o f th e G allas o f o u r tim e !). W h e n a n d w here th e se peoples s e p a ra te d is n o t k n o w n . T his m ig h t h a v e h a p p e n e d e ith e r in A frica o r in A ra b ia . I n all p ro b a b ility i t w as still before o u r e ra ,1 b u t u n d o u b te d ly before Islam , a n d b y no m ean s in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry as is m a in ta in e d b y H a h n . T h erefore, th e q u estio n o f th e origin o f th e S om alis, o r r a th e r o f th e ir h isto ric al fa te in th e e a rlie st tim e s, is n o t clear. T h e fa c ts w e kn o w fo r c e rta in , how ever, a re sa tis fa c to ry en o u g h to a c c o u n t for th e s itu a tio n th e y w ere in , th e role th e y p la y ed a n d th e socio-econom ic a n d c u ltu ra l ev o lu tio n th e y u n d e rw e n t a lre a d y in th e lig h t o f h isto ry .

D a ta on the A n cien t a n d M e d ia ev a l H is to ry of the S o m a lis

T h e re is no d o u b t t h a t th e Som ali coast w as k n o w n to t h e a n c ie n t w orld. T h e E g y p ­ tia n s m a in ta in e d tr a d e c o n ta c ts w ith th e A frican litto r a l o f th e R e d S ea a n d w ith th e S o m ali co a st o f th e I n d ia n O cean long before o u r e ra . T h is co a st w as n o t u n k n o w n to th e G reeks a n d th e R o m a n s e ith e r a n d w as v isite d b y n a v ig a to rs w ho g av e i t th e n am e “ a ro m a tic reg io n ” (a ro m a tria re g io ). I n c e rta in g eo g rap h ical w orks o f th e R o ­ m an s th e re a re even references to its in h a b ita n ts . F o r ex am p le, S trabo in h is tre a tis e o f A frica d escribes in d e ta il th e b u ria l cerem onies am o n g th e in h a b ita n ts o f th o se are a s, th e se rite s bein g v e ry sim ila r to th e cu sto m s p ra c tise d b y th e S om alis u p to th is d a y (th ro w in g p eb b les a t th e d ea d b o d y , etc.). A r i e n u s , a R o m a n m e rc h a n t o f E g y p tia n d esce n t, re la tin g his jo u rn e y along th e shores o f th e R e d S ea a n d th e I n ­ d ia n O cean, in h is w ork (w ritte n in a b o u t 85 o f o u r e ra t h a t is, in th e tim e b etw e en P l in y a n d P t o l e m y ) d escribes th e indigenous tr ib e “ A v a lita e ” , w hich n a m e ev i­ d e n tly covers th e H ab r-A w al trib e . H e re la te s also t h a t th e in h a b ita n ts o f th e islan d o f S o co tra w ere su b je c te d to th e “ K in g o f th e L a n d o f In c e n se ” . T h e to w n o f B e rb e ra u n d o u b te d ly ex iste d a lre a d y in th e e a rlie st tim e s. I t s n am e h a s in fa c t p re se rv e d th e n am e “ B a rb a ria ” giv en b y th e a n c ie n t G reeks to th e so u th c o a st o f th e G u lf o f A den. N ev e rth ele ss, th e to w n o f B e rb e ra, as i t w as a t th e tim e o f 1 S ee t h e e v id e n c e o f S t r a b o a n d o th e r s b e lo w

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its seizure b y th e B ritish in th e eig h ties o f th e 1 9th c e n tu ry , w as o n ly a w re tc h ed resid u e o f w h a t it h a d once been. T h e h eap s o f sp lin te re d glass a n d clay d isp ersed th ro u g h o u t th e en v iro n s o f th e to w n o ver a long d ista n c e w itn ess t h a t th e to w n w as in th e p a s t several tim e s its p re se n t size. N o t fa r a w a y from it, to w a rd s th e n o r th ­ w est, a re th e ru in s o f a n o th e r, m o re a n c ie n t, to w n o f th e S om alis: B e n d er A bbas. I n th e first few c e n tu rie s o f o u r era th e S om ali co a st o f th e R e d Sea belonged to th e pow erful S ta te o f A ksum a n d p a rto o k o f its flo u rish in g tr a d e . I t is b ey o n d d o u b t t h a t th e re w ere som e tr a d e a n d o th e r c o n ta c ts b etw e en th e p o p u la tio n s o f th e S om ali c o a st (especially o f th e so u th e rn region o f th e G u lf o f A d en ) a n d o th e r co u n tries (first o f all, th e A ra b ia n co a st lan d s) a lre a d y in th e first c e n tu rie s o f o u r era , b u t we h a v e no e x a c t a n d reliab le know ledge o f su ch e x te rn a l re la tio n s o f th e peo p les in ­ h a b itin g th e Som ali co a st p rio r to th e rise o f Islam . T h e first reliab le in fo rm atio n o f th e ap p e a ra n c e o f A rab s o n th e S om ali c o a st d a te s fro m th e y ea r 704. F ollow ing t h a t d a te th e A ra b im m ig ratio n w en t o n ste ad ily . O w ing to th e ir influence, a series o f com m ercial to w n s em erg ed : M ogadishu, fo u n d ed b y th e A ra b s in 908; B a ra w a, e sta b lish e d a t a b o u t th e sam e tim e , som e th in k , also b y A ra b s o r, as o th e rs believe, b y th e S om alis u n d e r A ra b influence. A long w ith th e A ra b s a p p e a re d also th e M oslem P ersian s. (O n th e co a st n e a r B a ra w a ru in s o f to w ers w ith P e rsia n in sc rip tio n s h av e rem a in ed fro m t h a t p erio d .) I n th e course o f th e 8 th to 1 2 th ce n tu ries (th e p erio d o f " u n r e s t” in E th io p ia ), u n d e r th e in fluence o f th e M oham m edan colonizers a n u m b e r o f m in o r a n d m a jo r in d e p e n d e n t M o h am m ed an s u lta n a te s (in la te r tim e s P o rtu g u e se a n d o th e r E u ro p e a n sources u su a lly refer to th e m as “ k in g d o m s” ): A del, D a ra , Z eila, e tc . a p p e a re d b etw e en E th io p ia a n d th e co ast region. T he e n tire R e d S ea co ast, t h a t is, E th io p ia ’s all o u tle ts to th e R e d S ea w hich h a d b een in th e h a n d s o f th e S ta te o f A k su m , as w ell as th e S om ali co a st o f th e I n d ia n O cean, w ere in c o rp o ra te d b y th e se M o h am m ed an S ta te s w hich s ta r te d a cen tu ries-lo n g stru g g le a g a in st E th io p ia , fo r in d ep en d en ce. E d r is i , a n A ra b ia n g eo g rap h er o f th e 12th c e n tu ry , w as a lre a d y fam iliar n o t o n ly w ith th e co a st b u t w ith c e rta in in te rio r regions, a n d g av e a d escrip tio n o f th e m ain riv e r o f th o se co u n tries, th e W ebi, w hich he called “ th e N ile o f M o g ad ish u ” . A fa ­ m ous A rab tra v e lle r, I b n -B a t u t a , v isite d M ogadishu in 1337. H e d escrib es it as a p ro sp erin g c ity a n d sa y s t h a t th e in te rio r reg io n ad jo in in g th e c ity w as u n d e r th e co n tro l o f A ra b im m ig ra n ts a n d o f th e nom ad ic A d ju r trib e s. I n th e 13 th c e n tu ry a lm o st th e e n tire n o rth e a s t c o m e r o f A frica w as held b y th e “ M oslem s” . C e rtain co a st regions w ere th e possessions o f A rab “ s u lta n s ” a n d “ sh e ik s” w ith a p re d o m in a n t p o p u la tio n o f Som ali, D an a k il a n d o th e r H a m itic trib e s t h a t h a d em b raced Islam . I n o th e r c o a sta l regions a n d in th e in te rio r are as th e se trib e s th em selv es fou n d ed sm all M oh am m ed an S ta te s g o v ern ed b y “ s u lta n s ” o r “ sh e ik s” . R eference to th e stro n g A rab influence in th e s e S ta te s a n d to th e ir stra g g le s w ith E th io p ia h a s a lre a d y been m a d e ab o v e. F o r th e M o ham m edan S ta te s t h a t ex iste d b etw e en E th io p ia a n d th e seaco ast, an d fo r th e w ars a g a in st E th io p ia , b o th A rabic a n d E th io p ic sources a re a v a ila b le .1 T h ey u n d o u b te d ly te s tif y t h a t m a n y o f th e se co u n tries w ere p rim itiv e S ta te fo rm a­ tio n s (trib a l alliances) o f th e S o m a lis w ho yield ed to th e stro n g A rab influence a n d in c e rta in cases even to th e pow er o f th e A rab “ s u lta n s ” . B u t to find o u t a n d d elim it th e role p la y e d in th e se co u n tries a n d w ars b y th e S om alis th em selv es, in c o n tra s t w ith th e o th e r k in d re d trib e s t h a t h a d been c o n v e rte d to Islam , is im possible becau se w h a t th e A rabic a n d E th io p ic chronicles refer to a re n o t th e A m h ara s, th e S om alis, 1 See, in p a r t i c u l a r , R i n c k , M a c r iz i H isto r ia regn oru m isla m ü ic o r u m in A b y s s in ia (1790).

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th e D a n a k ils, e tc ., b u t th e “ C h ristia n s” or “ A b y ssin ia n s” o n th e o n e h a n d a n d th e “ M oslem s” on th e o th er.

T he B e ja T ribes

T h e B e ja n a tio n a lity includes four g roups o f trib e s. T h e n o rth e rn m o s t g ro u p — th e A b abda — a n d th e s o u th e rn m o st g ro u p —th e B e n i A m e r — belong to th e H a m ito -

S em ites (th e A b a b d a show a close a ffin ity w ith th e E g y p tia n s a n d h av e a d o p te d th e A rab ic la n g u a g e ; th e B en i A m er a re u n d e r s tro n g E th io p ia n influence a n d sp e ak th e lan g u ag e o f T igré), w hile th e c e n tra l g ro u p s—th e B ish a rin a n d th e H a d e n d o a — h av e p re se rv e d th e ir H a m itic language, t h a t is, th e ir C u sh itic c h a ra c te r. U n lik e th e E g y p tia n s a n d th e E th io p ia n s, how ever, th e lin g u istic differences b e tw e e n th e A b a b d a a n d th e B en i A m er a re b u t slig h tly reflected on th e u n ifo rm n a tio n a l c h a ra c ­ te r o f th e B eja, because S e m itiz a tio n d id n o t go b ey o n d th e field o f lan g u ag e. A ll four o f th e se g roups — n o t o n ly th e C ushitic B ish arin a n d H a d e n d o a , b u t also th e E g y p tia n iz e d A b a b d a a n d th e E th io p ia n iz e d B eni A m er — eq u a lly s u b m itte d to th e A ra b influence in religion (all o f th e m a re fe rv e n t M oham m ed an s) a n d a d o p te d A rab c lo th ­ ing, b u t in th e socio-econom ic field—lik e th e S om alis, D an a k ils a n d th e o th e r C ush­ ite s —th e y h a v e a lm o st com p letely p rese rv e d th e ir o ld m a n n ers: n e ith e r th e E g y p tia n influence o n th e n o r th n o r th e E th io p ia n influence on th e s o u th p ro m p te d th e n o m a d ­ ic, p a s to ra l B e ja trib e s to se ttle dow n a n d even th e m o st a r d e n t d ev o tio n to Isla m could n o t ind u ce th e m to g e t rid o f th e vigorous re m n a n ts o f th e ir fo rm e r m a tr i­ a rc h a l sy stem . (F o r in sta n c e , m arria g e am o n g th e H a d e n d o a is m a trilo ca l: th e n ew ly m a rrie d couple h a v e to sp e n d th e first th re e y ea rs o f m a rria g e in th e fam ily o f th e b rid e, a n d d u rin g t h a t tim e th e y o u n g h u sb a n d h as to h elp his w ife’s f a th e r in all m a tte rs as a son.) H ow ever, th e a d o p tio n o f Isla m a n d th e tr a n s itio n fro m th e m a tr i­ a rc h a l to th e p a tria rc h a l sy ste m am o n g th e B e ja to o k p lace o n ly to w a rd th e en d o f th e p erio d u n d e r d iscussion (in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry ), as i t a p p e a rs fro m th e ev idence o f M a c r iz i w ho e a rly in th e 15 th c e n tu ry w ro te o f th e ir liv in g still in m a tria rc h y , w ith o u t a n y religion, a n d w earing a lm o st n o th in g fo r clothing. “T h e y a re n o m a d s” , w rite s M a c r iz i , “ living in sk in te n ts w hich th e y c a rry w h er­ ev er th e y find p a s tu re s. T h eir genealogies a re co u n ted in th e fem ale line. E a c h trib e h as a chief b u t th e y recognize n o p a ra m o u n t. T h e y h a v e no religion. P ro p e rty passes to th e sons o f s is te r a n d d a u g h te r to th e p reju d ice o f th e sons o f th e d eceased. To ju s tify th is cu sto m th e y sa y t h a t th e re can be no d o u b t as to th e p a re n ta g e o f th e son a n d d a u g h te r o f a sis te r a n d th e s e m u s t belong to th e fam ily , w h e th e r th e ir m o th e r h a d g o tte n th e m b y h e r h u sb a n d o r b y a n o th e r m a n . T h e y fo rm e rly h a d a p a ra m o u n t ch ief to w hom all th e o th e r chiefs w ere s u b o rd in a te ” . I n a n o th e r place M a c r iz i say s t h a t b o th m en a n d w om en go n a k e d , h av in g no o th e r covering th a n a loin clo th , w hile th e m a jo rity o f th e m la ck ev en th is .1

The A ra b s of T ro p ic a l a n d S outh A fric a

A n im p o rta n t p a r t in th e m e d iae v al h is to ry o f B lack A frica w as p la y ed , besides th e S em iticized H a m ite s , also b y th e A ra b s. M en tio n h as se v eral tim es b een m ad e ab o v e o f th e ir p e n e tra tio n in to th e co u n tries o f th e S u d an a n d th e e a s t co ast. M ore 1 Q u o te d f ro m S e m q m a n , o p . c i t ., p p . 9 2 —93.

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d e ta ils concerning th e A rab p e n e tra tio n o f B lack A frica, th e A rab co lo n izatio n o f A frica a n d th e A ra b tra v e lle rs o f th e m iddle ages w ill b e fo u n d in th e n e x t c h a p te r tr e a tin g th e c o n ta c ts o f B lack A frica w ith th e no n -A frican peoples o f th e a n c ie n t a n d m ed iae v al w orld.

T h e S e m i-H a m ite s

A n o u ts ta n d in g role in th e h is to ry o f E a s t A frica fell to th e M a s a i trib e s a n d th e trib e s a k in to th e m : th e W a k u a zi, N a n d i, S u k , K a ra m o y o , T u rk a n a , e tc. I n resp e ct o f la n g u ag e th e se trib e s belong to th e g ro u p o f th e H a m itic peoples. A s to c u ltu re a n d custo m s, th e y h a v e m u ch in com m on w ith th e N ilo tic trib e s. T h is is w h y th e y a re u su a lly called “ se m i-H a m ite s” o r “ N ilo -H a m ite s” . N ev erth eless, th e ir h isto rical d estin ie s d u rin g th e p a s t c e n tu ries w ere closely co n n ected w ith th e f a te o f th e E a s t­ e rn B a n tu : m a n y trib e s o f th e la tte r w ere stro n g ly influenced b y th e se m i-H am ites w ho, in tu r n , also borro w ed m u ch from th e m , so t h a t a t p re s e n t th e sem i-H a m ites h a v e m u ch resem b lan ce also to th e E a s te rn B a n tu g ro u p . T h u s th e se m i-H am ites a re a tr a n s itio n a l g ro u p h av in g com m on fe a tu re s w ith all th re e g re a t fam ilies o f A fri­ ca n peoples. Since th e y a p p e a re d on th e scene o f h is to ry o n ly in a la te r p erio d , we sh all d ea l w ith th e m elsew here.1

T H E K H O I-K H O I A N D T H E SA A N P E O P L E S

T h e so u th w e st co rn e r o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t h as from tim e im m em o rial belong­ ed to th e K h o i-K h o i a n d th e S a a n peoples. As reg a rd s th e orig in o f th e se tw o peoples, th e re a re v e ry d iffe ren t th e o ries a n d con jectu res, b u t all th e se a re n o th in g else th a n h y p o th e se s co n tain in g m o re o r less (ra th e r less th a n m ore) g rain s o f p ro b a b ility . T h u s, fo r in sta n c e , th e re is a h y p o th e sis say in g t h a t th e S aan a re p ristin e in h a b ita n ts o f A frica. A ccording to a n o th e r th e o ry th e y a re th e p ro d u c t o f th e m ix in g o f th e “p y g m y ” trib e s o f A frica w ith H a m ite s , e tc . T h e m o st w id ely h eld v iew concerning th e K h o i-K h o i is t h a t th e y w ere b o rn o f th e m ix tu re o f th e S aan w ith th e H am ites. B u t w hile, w ith re sp e c t to th e ra c ia l orig in o f th e se peoples, science is g ro p in g in co m p lete d a rk n e ss, in re sp e c t o f th e ir p re h isto ric m ig ra tio n s it is possible to bu ild m ore w ell-grounded h y p o th e ses on co n crete d a ta fu rn ish ed b y arch aeo lo g y a n d lin g ­ u istics. T h e follow ing ca n be ta k e n fo r scientifically e stab lish ed fa c ts: ( a ) in th e S o u th A frican te rrito rie s w here th e E u ro p e a n s fo u n d th e m in th e 1 6th c e n tu ry , th e y h a d b een living fo r m a n y h u n d re d s (if n o t th o u sa n d s) o f y e a rs before th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th e E u ro p e a n s a n d long before th e a rriv a l o f th e B a n tu ; (b ) th e S aan a re m o re a n c ie n t in h a b ita n ts o f th e se regions th a n a re th e K h o i-K h o i; ( c ) th e S a a n cam e in to S o u th A frica from th e n o r th , a n d th e K h o i-K h o i fro m th e n o r th e a s t, in all p ro b a b ility fro m th e region o f th e G re a t L ak e s; ( d ) in a n ea rlier p erio d o f th e ir h is to ry th e K h o i-K h o i m a in ta in e d som e c o n ta c ts w ith th e H a m ite s . I t is u su a l in eth n o g ra p h ic a l lite ra tu re , in th e classification o f th e A frican peoples, to ta k e th e s e tw o n a tio n a litie s to g e th e r in to o ne g ro u p o f th e “ K h o i-S aan (K hoisan) p e o p le s” . T his classification is b ased u p o n th e resem b lan ce o f th e ir rac ial c h a ra c te r­ istics a n d languages. I t is u su a l to assign th e trib e s o f th e B e rg -D a m a ra to th is sam e 1 See p p . 151— 152 a n d 257 a n d ff.

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grou p on th e g rou n d th a t t h e y sp ea k th e la n g u a g e o f th e K h o i-K h o i (th e N a m a q u a ), a lth o u g h th e o rig in o f th e s e trib es h a s n o th in g in co m m o n w ith th e K h o i-K h o i or th e S aan.

T ru e , th e m ode o f life o f th e B e rg -D am ara h as affin ities w ith th e S aan , b u t in r e ­ sp e c t o f th e ir p h y sic al a p p e a ra n c e th e y resem ble n e ith e r th e S a a n n o r th e K h o i-K h o i. I n th e o p in io n o f W e u x e , th e B erg -D am ara “ long ago g av e u p th e ir v e rn a c u la r in fa v o u r o f th e H o tte n to t,1 fo r th e ir p rim itiv e m ode o f life th e y resem b le th e B u s h ­ m en , a n d fo r th e ir ex te rio r th e y a re N egroes” .12 O th e r ex p lo rers p o in t o u t t h a t , a lth o u g h th e D a m a ra sp e ak th e lan g u ag e o f th e K h o i-K h o i, th e ir la n g u ag e co n tain s also som e elem en ts o f th e S u d an ic lan g u ag es. R e ly in g o n th is o b se rv a tio n , c e rta in sc ien tists assu m e t h a t th e B e rg -D am ara a re offshoot o f th e S u d an ese trib e s w hich h a p p e n e d to h a v e w an d ered , n o b o d y know s w h a t w ay, in to th e so u th w e st p a r t o f th e co n tin e n t a lre a d y in th e ea rliest tim es. S uch a one-sided classification s e t u p b y th e lin g u ists o r th e an th ro p o lo g ists on th e b asis o f a superficial o b se rv a tio n (n o t o n th e g ro u n d o f th e rela tio n sh ip o f la n g ­ uag es, b u t first o n th e g ro u n d o f lin g u istic resem blances a n d th e n o f th e a d o p tio n o f a language) o r o n th e b asis o f c e rta in affinities o f p h y sic al a p p e a ra n c e (of th e K h o iK h o i a n d th e S aan) o r o f th e m ode o f life (of th e S a a n a n d th e D a m a ra ) w o u ld b e co m p letely inad m issib le fro m th e p o in t o f view o f th e e th n o g ra p h e r. I f h e is to b e co n siste n t, th e eth n o g ra p h e r, in s e ttin g u p a classification o f th e A frican p eo p les, o u g h t to ta k e each o f th e s e th re e g roups o f peoples se p a ra te ly , a n d sh o u ld n o t sp eak o f a n y “ K h o isa n ” g ro u p . B u t if, fo r all t h a t , w e r e ta in a n d a d o p t th is classification, w e do so w ith o u t ac ce p tin g th e u n w a rra n te d m o tiv a tio n g iven b y its a u th o rs , b u t b y rely ing on a n o th e r, h istorical, g ro u n d , so fa r as m o d e rn h is to ry h a s b o u n d to g e th e r th e d estin ies o f th e s e th r e e p eoples reg ard less o f th e ir o rig in , ra c e s a n d lan g u ag es. T h e S a a n trib e s (to g e th e r w ith th e “ P y g m ie s” ) a re th e m o st b a c k w a rd n a tio n a li­ tie s o f A frica. A t th e tim e o f th e ir firs t e n c o u n te rs w ith E u ro p e a n s (17th c e n tu ry ) th e y w ere still p rim itiv e h u n te rs. L iv in g in fo re sts b y h u n tin g , th e y also g a th e re d ed ib le ro o ts, fru its, etc. T h e y w ere in a sta g e o f sa v ag e ry , b u t a lre a d y a t its h ig h e st lev el: n o t o n ly d id th e y k n o w th e bow a n d arro w , b u t th e y h a d se v eral m o re com pli­ c a te d h u n tin g w eapons a n d p ra c tise d ev en a r ts o f th e ir o w n -(ro ck -p ain tin g s, etc.). A t th e tim e o f th e E u ro p e a n in v a sio n (m id-17th c e n tu ry ) th e y d id n o t y ie ld to e n ­ sla v e m e n t. T h e m a jo rity o f th e S aan w ere e x te rm in a te d b y th e D u tc h , th e ir su rv iv in g p a r ts b eing d riv e n across th e O range R iv e r b ey o n d th e fro n tie rs o f th e C ape Colony. T h e K h o i-K h o i w ere also b a c k w a rd trib e s in co m p ariso n w ith th e B a n tu , b u t co n sid erab ly su p erio r to th e S aan o n th e c u ltu ra l side. H a v in g a tta in e d th e sta g e o f b a rb a rism , th e y w ere fam iliar w ith th e a r t o f m a k in g p o tte r y a n d ra ise d c a ttle . T h e y w a n d e re d w ith th e ir h e rd s fro m p a s tu re to p a s tu re . F o rm e rly th e y o ccupied th e e n tire so u th e rn p a r t o f A frica. B eing o u ste d fro m th e n o r th e a s t b y th e B a n tu peoples, th e y d ro v e to w a rd s th e w est th e S a a n trib e s w ith w hich th e y in h a b ite d one a n d th e sam e te r r ito r y in com m on. W h e n in th e 17 th c e n tu ry th e D u tc h in tru d e d u p o n th e ir c o u n try , th e y re sis te d th e m , b u t a fte rw a rd s p a r t o f th e ir trib e s w ere d riv e n deep in to th e c o u n try , w hile th e r e s t o f th e m w ere su b ju g a te d . O f th e B erg-D am ara, w ho liv e a t p re s e n t in th e n o r th e r n h a lf o f S o u th w e st A frica, d isp ersed in groups am o n g H erero a n d K h o i-K h o i trib e s w e k n o w fo r c e rta in o n ly t h a t b y th e tim e o f th e E u ro p e a n p e n e tra tio n o f th o se reg io n s th e y a lre a d y liv ed th e re , in th e te r r ito r y o f th e H erero s a n d th e K h o i-K h o i, p a r tly in th e m o u n ta in s, 1 A s to th e d e sig n atio n s “ H o t t e n t o t ” , “ B u sh m a n ” , “ N eg ro ” , see fo o t-n o te s o n p p . 16, 46. 2 See K . Wetjle, L e itfa d e n d er V ölkerku n de (L e ip z ig —V ien n a, 1912), p. 79.

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h id in g fro m b o th o f th e la tte r , p a r tly in th e b o n d ag e o f th e K h o i-K h o i trib e s. B o th th e H erero s a n d th e K h o i-K h o i in th e p a s t reg a rd e d th e m as in ferio r b eings, killing a n d enslav in g th e m cruelly.

T H E “ P Y G M Y ” T R IB E S

S c a tte re d am ong B a n tu (an d p a r tly H am itic ) trib e s in c e rta in reg io n s o f E q u a to ­ ria l A fric a —in a b e lt of tro p ic a l fo re sts b etw e en 6°N . la t. a n d 6°S. la t. a n d in som e regions o f so u th e rn A n g o la—th e re live se v eral g ro u p s o f p rim itiv e h u n te rs w ho in th e eth n o g ra p h ica l a n d geographical lite r a tu r e w ere g iv en th e g en e ral n am e o f “ P y g m ie s” , “ d w a rfs” , “ N e g rito s” o r “ N egrillos” . T h e m o st im p o r ta n t am o n g th e m a re th e A k k a trib e s in th e region o f th e u p p e r reach es o f th e U ele a n d N ile R iv e rs ; th e B a tw a (B a m b u tu ) trib e s in th e region b etw e en th e K a sa i R iv e r a n d th e m id d le course o f th e Congo; th e Obongo trib e s , e tc . in th e n o rth w e s te rn se ctio n of G ab o n , s o u th of th e O gowe R iv er, a n d th e D oko tr ib e in th e b a s in of th e O m o R iv e r in E th io p ia . T he ra c ia l origin o f th e se e th n ic g roups h as n o t y e t b ee n clarified scientifically. Som e sc ie n tists consider th e m to be p h y sically d e g e n e ra te d a n d c u ltu ra lly b a c k ­ w ard offshoot o f o th e r A frican races a n d peoples (B a n tu , S u d an ese); o th e rs reg a rd th e m as bein g a k in to th e S a a n ; according to a view m o st w id ely sp re a d in th e l i t ­ e ra tu re , th e y a re a p ec u lia r ty p e o f th e p rim itiv e in h a b ita n ts o f A frica; c e rta in sc ie n tists a re inclin ed even to see in th e m th e m o st a n c ie n t re p re se n ta tiv e s o f p rim i­ tiv e h u m a n ity .1 T he d a ta on th e m av ailab le so fa r to science d o n o t fu rn ish sufficient b asis to solve th e p ro b lem o f th e ir origin, o r to recognize, in th e ir d iffe ren t groups, re p re se n ta tiv e s o f one o r a n o th e r p a rtic u la r ra c ia l o r e th n ic g ro u p . T h e a n th ro p o lo g ­ ical m e asu rem en ts o f re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e d ifferen t “ p y g m y ” g ro u p s a re f a r from co in cid e n t; th e colour o f som e o f th e se groups is d escrib ed as “ v e ry d a r k ” , o th e rs as “ yellow ish b ro w n ” , a g a in o th e rs as “ b row nish ” ; th e o n ly fe a tu re com m o n w ith all o f th e m is th e ir low s ta tu r e , w hich, how ever, does n o t ju s tify u s in calling th e m “ P y g ­ m ies” , t h a t is, “ d w a rfs” , since th e ir m e d iu m h e ig h t is 140 c e n tim e tre s . T h is m eans t h a t th e y a re n o t dw arfs, b u t on ly lo w -sta tu re d people. W h a t th e y h a v e in com m on, in th e ir m odes o f life, econom ic a c tiv itie s a n d c u ltu ra l s ta n d a rd s , h o w ev er, en ab les us to give a socio-econom ic d escrip tio n o f th e m ; th e y liv e in sm all g ro u p s, in co n ­ g lo m e ratio n s o f h u ts o f th e ir ow n, b u ilt o f b ran c h es a n d grass in th e d e p th s o f fo re sts a n d n u m b e rin g n o t m ore th a n a few h u n d r e d ; all th e se g ro u p s d istin g u ish th e m se lv es w ith th e absence o f b o th ag ric u ltu re a n d c a ttle -b re e d in g ; th e y liv e b y h u n tin g (m ak ­ ing use o f poisoned arro w s an d s e ttin g tra p s) a n d g ath e rin g w ild-grow ing fru its, a n d are engaged in b a rte rin g tr a d e w ith th e trib e s in w hose te r r ito r y th e y live, ex changing gam e fo r a g ric u ltu ra l produce. T hese fea tu re s rev e al t h a t th e se peoples a re o n som e low level o f d ev e lo p m e n t, b u t fail to convince u s t h a t th e y a re o f com m on orig in a n d belong to one single rac ial o r e th n ic group, th e m o re so since w e k n o w n o th in g o f th e in te rn a l o rg an iz atio n o f th e ir so c iety a n d since w e c a n n o t k n o w w h e th e r it is th e sam e in all th e ir g roups. I n v ain do w e re so rt, in try in g to solve th is p ro b lem , to th e help o f lin g u istic c rite ria , since w h a t th e tra v e lle rs re la te a b o u t th e la n g u ag e o f th e “ P y g m ies” is on ly t h a t th e y sp eak th e lang u ag es o f th e ir B a n tu n eig h b o u rs o r t h a t 1 See P . W . S c h m i d t , D ie S tellu n g d er P yg m ä en vö lk er in d er E n tw icklu n gsgesch ich te des M e n ­ schen (S tu ttg a rt, 1910); id em , U rsp ru n g der G ottesidee, vol. iv : “ D ie R e lig io n en d e r U rv ö lk e r A frik a s” (M ünster i. W ., 1933); P . S c h e b e s t a , B a m b u ti (L eipzig, 1932); id em , V ollblutneger u n d H a lb zw erge (S a lzb u rg —L eipzig, 1934); P . S c h e b e s t a a n d W . L e b z e l t e r , A n th ro p o lo g y of C e n tra l A fric a n P y g m ie s in the B e lg ia n Congo (P ra g u e, 1933).

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th e ir lan g u ag es “ a re co m p letely u n id e n tifie d ” . Som e o f th e se trib e s h a v e a n id ea of a c e rta in su p re m e being, b u t i t a p p e a re d in m a n y cases t h a t th e y borro w ed th is id e a fro m o th e r n eig h b o u rin g (B a n tu a n d H am itic ) peoples.

T H E P E O P L E S O F M A DAG ASCA R

T h e p o p u la tio n o f M ad ag ascar co n sists o f tw o elem e n ts: th e trib e s o f M alay an o rig in t h a t im m ig ra te d in to M adagascar in se v eral w aves, a n d th e B a n tu w ho cam e th e re fro m th e E a s t A fric an co a st. B u t th e process o f m ix in g b e tw e e n th e se tw o ele­ m e n ts (an d also b etw e en th e M a lay a n trib e s w hich h a d com e in to th e islan d in v ario u s w av es o f m ig ra tio n s) w as so s te a d y a n d deep t h a t i t is no lo n g er p ossible to d istin g u ish th e m in th e p re s e n t-d a y p o p u la tio n o f M ad ag ascar, b ecau se a t p re s e n t th e e n tire p o p u la tio n o f th e isla n d (ex cep t th e im m ig ra n ts o f m o d e rn tim es) sp eak s d ifferen t d ia lec ts o f th e sam e In d o n e sia n language. (E v e n th e A n tim e rin a , th e lan g u ag e th a t is m o st d iffe ren t fro m th e o th e rs, is o n ly a d ia lec t o f th is com m on lan g u ag e.) T h e only d ifference p e rm ittin g a div isio n o f th e M alagasy trib e s in to tw o g ro u p s is t h a t th e trib e s in th e w e ste rn h a lf o f th e islan d a re r a th e r m ix e d a n d a k in in c h a ra c te r to th e A frican s, w hile th e e a s te rn a n d c e n tra l p a r ts o f th e isla n d a re in h a b ite d b y less m ix e d trib e s, consistin g o f m o re re c e n t im m ig ra n ts w ho h a v e p re se rv e d a h ig h er deg ree o f th e ir M a lay an c h a ra c te r. T h e q u e s tio n is w hich o f th e s e tw o elem e n ts — th e M alay an s o r th e B a n tu — co n ­ s ti tu te d th e m a in p rim itiv e p o p u la tio n o f M adagascar, t h a t is, w hich o ne o f th e tw o g ro u p s im m ig ra te d in to th e isla n d before th e o th e r. T his q u e stio n is n o t y e t clarified scien tifically. Som e rese arch e rs t r y to p ro v e t h a t th e re w as a n d th e re co uld b e no B a n tu im m ig ra tio n in to th e islan d , ex p lain in g th e ex isten ce o f th e “ N egro e le m e n t” in M ad agascar b y a sse rtin g t h a t som e in d iv id u a l “ N eg ro es” h a p p e n e d to com e th e re as slaves. O th e rs in t u r n t r y to d is p u te th e M a lay a n im m ig ra tio n a n d d ev elo p th e th e o ry 1 t h a t elem en ts o f th e M a lay a n c u ltu re (chiefly o f th e lan g u ag e) w ere fo u n d am o n g th e B a n tu im m ig ra n ts as a re s u lt o f th e a rriv a l o f sh ip w reck ed M a lay a n p i­ ra te s , etc. All th e s e view s a re u n fo u n d e d . W h a t is b ey o n d d o u b t is th e M a lay a n orig in o f th e p o p u la tio n o f M ad ag ascar a n d a s tro n g influx o f B a n tu s . I t is h ig h ly p ro b a b le th a t th e B a n tu im m ig ra n ts m ix e d w ith t h e M alayans w ho h a d com e th e re p rio r to th e m o r cam e a f te r th e m (w hich w e c a n n o t know ), a n d t h a t a fte rw a rd s th e se peo p les, ow ing to a n ew influx o f M a lay a n trib e s fro m th e e a s t, w ere com pelled to w ith d ra w in to th e w e ste rn h a lf o f th e islan d , ceding th e e a s te rn h a lf to th e new com ers w ho d id n o t m ix w ith th e m b u t p rese rv e d th e ir M alay an c h a ra c te r. H o w ever t h a t m a y h a v e been, th e f a c t is t h a t b y th e d aw n o f h is to ry b o th o f th e se g ro u p s liv e d th e re , th e e a s te rn trib e s b ein g en g ag ed in ag ric u ltu re (grow ing rice, su g a r can e, ta ro ), w hile th e w estern trib e s w ere ch iefly c a ttle -ra ise rs. B efore th e ap p e a ra n c e o f E u ro p e a n s th e trib e s liv e d se p a ra te ly , a n d th e re w as n o k in d o f p e rm a n e n t tr ib a l allian ces. T he a n c e s tra l sy ste m w as p re se rv e d o n th e w hole, b u t th e m a jo rity o f th e trib e s , especially in th e w est, s till liv ed u n d e r m a tria rc h a l law a n d p ra c tise d exogam y. B etw een th e trib e s (in p a rtic u la r b etw e en th o se o f th e w est, o n th e o n e h a n d , a n d th o s e o f th e e a s t, on th e o th e r) h o stilitie s a n d w ars w ere p e rm a n e n t fro m tim e im m e1 F o r ex am p le, C r a w f t j r d , a n d also W a k e . A s to th e d is p u te o v e r th e orig in o f th e p o p u la ­ tio n o f M ad ag ascar, see th e m o n o g rap h b y S i b r e e (in d ic a te d o n p. 208), eh. v , a n d th e b o o k of

H artmann , M a d a g a s k a r , etc . (Leipzig, 1886), pp. 4 2 —45. Ö E. Sík: Black Africa I.

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m orial. T h e cause o f w ars la y , am o n g o th e rs , in th e fa c t t h a t som e o f th e w estern trib e s , m a in ly th e A n tim e rin a , h a d h eld slav es fro m o ld en tim e s. T h e m a in m asses o f th e slaves w ere offspring o f th e M alagasy tr ib e s c a p tu re d in w ar.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y R E L A T IN G T O T H E P E O P L E S O F B L A C K A F R IC A 1 G E N E R A L W O R K S O F A F R IC A N P E O P L E S

R.

H a b t m a n n , “ Einiges über Ursachen und Wirkungen der im älteren und neueren Afrika

stattgehaltenen und noch gegenwärtig stattfindenden Völkerbewegung” (Oes. z. E rd ­ kunde zu Berlin, vol. vii [1872]). D ie Völker A frika s (“ I n te r n a t. W isse n sc h aftl. B ib i.” , vol x x x v iii, L eipzig).

— — (F re n c h e d itio n :) L e s p e u p le s de l’A friq u e (P a ris, 1879). A . B a s t ia n , “ V ö lk erk reise in A frik a ” (Z eitschrift fü r Ethnologie, vol. vii, 1875, p p . 137 — 162). G ib a b d D e R ia l l e , Lee peuples de l’Afrique et de l’Amérique (P a ris, 1880). J . D e Cbo za ls , “ D es ra ce s p rim itiv e s d e l ’A friq u e ” (R evue de géographie, 1881). E . R e CLUS, Nouvelle géographie universelle, vols. x —x iv (P a ris, 1885 —88). F . H e l l w a l d , D ie Erde und ihre Völker, 2 vols. (S tu ttg a rt, 1877 — 78). — N a tu rg esch ich te d es M ensch en , 2 vols. (S tu ttg a rt,, 1882). F . R a t z e l , Völkerkunde, 3 vols. (L eipzig, 1885). O. P e s c h e l , Völkerkunde (4 th e d . L eipzig, 1877). J . D e n ik e b , Lee races et les peuples de la terre (P a ris, 1900). F . L u s c h a n , “ A frik a ” (in L u s c h a n , Illustrierte Völkerkunde [ S tu ttg a r t, 1910]). M a u r i c e D e l a e o s s e , Les N oirs de l'A frique (P a ris, 1922). — Les civilisations Négro-africaines (P a ris, 1925). M. H e b s k o v it s , “ A P re lim in a ry C o n sid e ratio n o f th e C u ltu re A reas o f A frica ” ( American Anthropologist, 1924, vo l. x x v i, N o. 1). — “ T h e C u ltu re A reas of A frica ” (A frica , 1930, vo l. iii, N o. 1). C. G. S e l ig m a n , Races of A frica (L o n d o n , 1930; new e d .: 1957). L . S. B . L e a k e y , Stone Age A frica (L ondon, 1936). — The Outline of Prehistory in A frica (L ondon, 1936). D . W e s t e r m a n n , N oire et Blancs en Afrique (P a ris, 1937). — Autobiographies africaines. T ra n s la tio n (P a ris, 1943). J . G. F r a z e r , Anthologia Anthropologica: Native Races of A frica and Madagascar (L ondon, 1938). H . B a u m a n n , R . T h u r n w a l d , D . W e s t e r m a n n , Völkerkunde von A frik a (E ssen, 1940). H . A . B e b n a t z ik , A frika : Handbuch der angewandten Völkerkunde, 2 vols. (In n sb ru c k , 1947). F o r t e s , M e y e r a n d E v a n s -P r it c h a b d (ed.), A frican Political System s (L o n d o n , 1948). H . B a u m a n n a n d D . W e s t e b m a n n , Peuples et civilisations de l’Afrique. T ra n s la tio n (P aris, 1948). P . B e n s c h , Die Entw icklung des NomaderUums in A frik a (1949). A s s i r e l l i , L ’Afrique polyglotte. T ra n s la tio n (P a ris, 1950). L a b o u r e t , Histoire des N oirs d ’A frique (P a ris, 1950). D . P a u l m e , Civilisations africaines (P aris, 1953). Д . А . О Л Ь Д Е Р О Г Г Е и И . И . П О Т Е Х И Н (ред.), Народы Африки (M oscow , 1954). B a s il D a v id s o n , The Lost Cities of A frica (B o sto n , 1959). — Old A frica Rediscovered (L o n d o n , 1959). 1 I n d ic a te d in th is lis t a re : ( a ) sp e c ia l w orks o n th e origin o f th e A frican peoples a n d th e ir h is to ry p rio r to th e e n d o f th e 1 5th c e n tu ry ; (b) g e n era l w orks tr e a tin g of, or a t le a st to u ch in g u p o n , th e se q u e stio n s, o r c o n ta in in g ev en in d ire c t m a te ria ls c o n ce rn in g th e su b je c t. T h e lis t does n o t in clu d e : (a ) w orks o f p u re ly e th n o g ra p h ic a l, a n th ro p o lo g ic a l or lin g u istic c h a ra c te r; ( b ) h isto ric a l w orks d e alin g w ith th e h is to ry o f A frica n peoples in re sp e c t o f la te r periods.

82

SU D AN ESE PEOPLES G eneral w o rk s

H orton A fricanu s , W est A fr ic a n C o u n tries a n d P e o p le s (1862). R . H artmann , D ie N ig r itie r , 2 vols. (B erlin, 1876). P h . P aulitsch ke , D ie A frik a n isc h e n N eger: D ie S u d a n lä n d e r, 2 vols. (1879 —85). A. H ovelaque , L es N ig r e s de V A friq u e S u s-E q u a to ria le (S énégam bie, G uinée, S o u d a n , H a u tN il) (P a ris, 1889). D . W e s t e r m a n n , D ie S u d a n sp ra ch en (H a m b u rg , 1911). (M . D e l a f o s s e ), H isto ir e de V A friq u e O ccidentale F r a n fa is e d ’apr&s des tra v a u x et les in d ic a tio n s de M . D ela fo sse (P a ris, 1926). W . S ch il d e , O st-w estlich e K u ltu rb e zieh u n g en im S u d a n (L eipzig, 1929). Y . U rvoy , P e tit a tla s eth n o-dém ograph iqu e d u S o u d a n (P a ris, 1942). J . S u r e t -Canale , A friq u e N o ire , O ccidentale et C entrale: Q éo g ra p h ie—C iv ilis a tio n s —H i s ­ to ire (P a ris, 1958).

P e o p le s of the W estern S u d a n

I. G eneral w o rk s

P ie t r i , R a c es d u S o u d a n O ccidental. E.

W . B o v i l l , C a ra va n s o f the O ld S a h a ra :

A n In tro d u c tio n to the H is to r y of the W estern Sudan. P . K . M e y e r , E rforschu n gsgesch ich te u n d S ta a ten b ild u n g en d es W e stsu d a n (G o th a, 1897). (S up­

p le m e n t N o. 121 to “ P e te rm . M itt.” ) L a d y F . L . L u g a r d , A T ro p ic a l D ep en d en cy : A n O u tlin e o f th e A n c ie n t H is to r y of the W estern S u d a n , w ith a n A cco u n t of the M o d ern S ettlem en t of N o rth ern N ig e r ia (L ondon, 1905). M. D e l a f o s s e , H a u t-S é n ig a l-N ig e r (S oudan fram jais) (P a ris, 1912). T a u x i e r , L ee N o ire d u S o u d a n (P a ris, 1912). J . M a r q u a r t , B e n in sa m m lu n g d es R e ic h sm u seu m s f ü r V ölkerku n de in L e id e n u n d P rolegom en a zu r G eschichte d er H an delsw ege u n d V ölkerbew egungen in N o r d a fr ik a ( L e id e n , 1913). C h . L. T e m p l e ( e d .), N o te s on the T rib es, P ro v in c e s, E m ir a te s a n d S ta te s of the N o rth ern P r o v ­ in ces of N ig e r ia (C apetow n, 1919). C. K . M e e k , T h e N o rth ern T rib e s of N ig e r ia : A n E th n ological A ccou n t of the N o rth ern P ro v in c e s o f N ig e r ia T ogether w ith a R e p o rt on th e 1921 D e c e n n ia l C en su s, 2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1925). D . P . B a r r o w s , B erb ers a n d B la ck s: I m p r e ss io n s of M orocco, T im b u c tu a n d the W estern S u d a n

(N ew Y o r k —L o n d o n , 1927). D . W e s t e r m a n n , D ie w estlich en S u d a n sp ra ch en u n d ih re B ezieh u n gen zu m B a n tu (B erlin, 1927). G. P a r r i n d e r , W est A fr ic a n R e lig io n (L o n d o n , 1949). — W est A fric a n P sych o lo g y (L ondon, 1951). J . G. F a g e , A n In tro d u ctio n to the H is to r y of W est A fr ic a (C am bridge, 1955).

2.

M on o g ra p h s

(i) T he M a n d in g o J . H e n r y , L 'ä m e d 'u n p e u p le a frica in : L es B a m b a ra (M ü n ster, 191 0 ). C h . M o n t e l l , L es B a m b a ra d u S ig o u et d u K a a r ta (P a ris, 1924). H . L a b o u b e t , L ee M a n d in g ( P a ris , 1934). T a u x i e r , H isto ir e des B a m b a ra (P aris, 1942).

6*

83

(ii) The Sonrhai F.

D u b o is , T om bou ctou la m ysté rieu se (Paris, 1897).

A. H a c q u a r d , M o n o g ra p h ie de T om bou ctou (P a ris, 1900). C h . M o n t é it ,, M o n o g ra p h ie de D jen n e (Tulle, 1903). J e a n R o u c h , C o n trib u tio n ä V h istoire de S on gh a y (D a k a r, 1953).

(iii) T h e H a u sa P . Sta u d in g er , I m H erzen d er H a u ssa -L ä n d e r (1889). A d a m M i s c h l ic h , B e iträ g e zu r Geschichte d er H a u ssa -S ta a ten . I n tro d u c tio n b y J u liu s L ip p e rt

(“ M itt. d. Sem . f. O rie n t. S p ra c h e n ” : A frik an isch e S tu d ie n , N o. 6) (1903). A . J . N . T r e m e a r n e , H a u sa S u p e rs titio n s a n d C u stom s (L ondon, 1913). H . R . P a l m e r , “ H is to ry o f K a ts in a ” (J o u rn . A f r . S o c ., 1927, A pr.). D. W e s t e r m a n n , D ie V olkw erdu n g d er H a u sa (“ S itz u n g sb e ric h te d e r D e u tsc h e n A k ad em ie d e r W is se n sc h a fte n z u B e rlin , P h il.-h ist. K la sse ” , 1949, N o. 2) (B erlin, 1949).

(iv) T he F u la h C r o z a l s , L e s P e u h ls : E tu d e d 'ethnologic a fric a in e (P a ris, 1883). G u s t a v e E i c h t a l , H isto ir e et o rig in e des F ou lah ou F ellan s. T a u x i e r , M o e u rs et h isto ire d es P e u ls (P a ris, 1937).

See also th e b o o k o f H ő d b e n (p. 321).

(v)

T rib e s of the u p p e r S en egal a n d u p p e r N ig e r

M. D ela fosse , H aut-Sénégal-Niger (S oudan franyais) (P a ris, 1912). C h . M o n t e i l , “ L e s e m p ir e s d u M a li” ( B ulletin d u Comité d 'Etudes

de ГA frique Occidentale

Frangaise, v o l. x ii, 1929). “ L ’o e u v re des é tra n g e rs d a n s l ’em p ire so u d a n a is d u M ali” (Revue des études islamiques, 1929, N o. 2). — L e s e m p ire s d u M a li (P a ris, 1930). J . B é r a u d -Villars , L ’em p ire de Gao (P a ris, 1942). — L 'em p ire de Gao: U n E ta t so u d a n a is a u x X V е et X V I е sibcles (P a ris, 1943). J . P é r ié a n d M. Se l l ie r , “ H isto ire des p o p u la tio n s d u cercle d e D osso (N ig er)” ( B u lle tin de l ’I n s titu t F r a n fa is d 'A friq u e n oire, 12, p p . 1015 — 1074) (D a k a r, 1950). —

(vi)

T rib e s o f U p p e r V olta

M. D e l a f o s s e , L e s fro n tik res de la C6te d 'Iv o ir e , de la C6te d ’O r et d u S o u d a n (P a ris, 1907). A . A . D i m . D e l o b s o m , V E m p i r e d u M ogh o-N aba: C ou tu m es d es M o s s i de la H a u te -V o lta . P re fa c e b y R o b e rt R a n d a u (In st, d e d ro it c o m p a ré : “ É tu d e s d e sociologie e t d ’ethnologie ju rid iq u e s p u b lié e s sous la d ire c tio n d e R e n é M a u n ier” , xi) (P a ris, 1932). A . W . C a r d i n a l i ,, T h e N a tiv e s o f th e N o rth ern T e rrito r ie s of th e G old C oast (L ondon, 1920). R . S. R a t t r a y , T h e T rib e s of the A s h a n ti H in te rla n d (O xford, 1932). E . L . R . M e y e r o w i t z , T h e S a cred S ta te of the A lcan (L ondon, 1951). — A lcan T ra d itio n s of O rig in (L ondon, 1952).

(vii)

P a g a n trib es of n orth ern N ig e r ia

E . B e r r y , “ H ill P a g a n s o f N ig e ria ” ( A s i a , 1930, A pr.). C. K . Me e k , T r ib a l S tu d ie s in N o rth ern N ig e r ia , 2 vole. (L o n d o n , 1931).

84

PEO PLES OF T H E C E N T R A L S U D A N A b o u -D i g u e n , M o n voyage a u S o u d a n T ch a d ie n (P a ris, n. d.). P . A. B en to n , T he S u lta n a te of B o rn u . T ra n s la tio n fro m th e G e rm an of D r. A. S c h u ltz e . W ith

a d d itio n s a n d a p p en d ice s (L o n d o n , 1913). R . P a l m e r , T h e B o rn u S a h a ra a n d S u d a n (L ondon, 1936). J . L u c a s , Z en tra lsu d a n esisch e S tu d ie n (H a m b u rg , 1937). Y . U kvoy , H isto ir e des p o p u la tio n s d u S o u d a n C entral (Colonie d u N iger) (P a ris, 1936). — “ C hronologie d u B o rn o u ” ( J o u r n a l de la S ociété d es A /r ic a n is te s , vol. x i, p p . 2 1 —32 [P a ris, 1941]). — H isto ir e d e l ’E m p ir e d u B orn ou (“ M ém oires de l ’l n s t . K runrais d ’A frique n o ire ” , N o. 7) (P aris, 1949). J .- P . L e b e u f a n d A. M a s s o n -D e t o u r b e t , L a c iv ilisa tio n d u T ch ad (P a ris, 1950). Д . А . О Л Ь Д Е Р О Г Г Е , “ П роисхож дение народов Ц ентран ьного С удана” (С овет ская эт н ог­ ра ф и я, 1952, N o . 2) (M oscow , 1952). P le n ty o f in fo rm a tio n o n th e peoples of th e W e s te rn a n d C e n tra l S u d a n , a n d even on th e ir a n c ie n t h isto ry , is su p p lied b y w orks o f th e tra v e lle rs o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , in p a r ­ tic u la r: O a i l l é , D e n h a m , C l a p p e r t o n a n d L a n d e r (see p. 220); B a r t h , V o g e l , R o h l f s , N a c h t ig a l a n d M a g e (see p. 221); S o l e i l l e t a n d L e n z (see p. 325).

P E O P L E S O F S E N E G A M B IA

R . G . V . (G e o f f r o y D e V i l l e n e u v e ), L 'A fr iq u e ou h isto ire, m oeu rs, u sages et cou tu m es des A fric a in s : L e S én égal, 3 vols. (P a ris, 1814). BoiLAT, E sq u isse e sén ég a laises (P a ris, 1853). L . J . B . B é r e n g e r - F é r a u d , “ É t u d e s u r le s O u o lo fs” (R e v u e d 'A n th r ., 1875). — “ É tu d e s u r les S o n in k é s” (R e v u e d 'A n th r., 1878). — L es p e u p la d e s de la S én égam bie (P a ris, 1879). L . T a u t a i n e , “ É tu d e s c ritiq u e s su r l ’e th n o lo g ie e t l ’e th n o g ra p h ie des p eu p les d u bassin du Sénégal (R e v u e d 'E th n o g r., iv). — E th n o lo g ie et eth n ograph ie d u S én égal (P aris, 1885). J . C a r l u s , “ L es Séréres de S é n é g am b ie ” (R e v u e de G éogr., 1882). Сн. M o n t e i l , L es K h a s so n k é s (P a ris, 1915). J . G. Sa in t -P e r e , L es S a ra co llé d u O u id i-m a k h a (Paris, 1925).

P E O P L E S O F U P P E R G U IN E A G u il l a u m e B o s m a n , V oyage de G uinée etc. (U tre c h t, 1705). — (G erm an e d itio n :) R e ise nach G u in ea (H a m b u rg , 1707). R o e m e r - H a n d l , V erschiedenes V olk a u f der K ü s te von G u in ea. T. WiNTERBOTTOM, A n A ccou n t of the N a tiv e A fr ic a n s in the N eigh bou rh ood o f S ie r r a Leone,

2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1803). F r a n c is c o V a l d e z , S ix Y e a rs of a T ra v e lle r’s L ife i n W estern A fr ic a , 2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1861). A . B. E l l i s , T h e T sh i-s p e a k in g P e o p le s (L ondon, 1887). — T he E w e -sp e a k in g P e o p le s of the S la v e C oast (L o n d o n , 1890). — T h e Y o ru b a -s p e a k in g P e o p le s (L o n d o n , 1894). S p i e t h , D ie E w estä m m e (B erlin, 1906). L e o n a r d A. G l y n , T he L o w er N ig e r a n d I t s T rib e s (L o n d o n , 1906). H . M a r q u a r d s e n , D e r N ig e r-B e n u e : E in e h istorisch -geograph isch e B esch reibu n g (B erlin,

1909) . R . E . D e n n e t t , N ig e r ia n S tu d ie s or the R e lig io u s a n d P o litic a l S y s te m of the Y o ru b a (L ondon, 1910) . L o u is T a u x i e r , “ Le ty p e social d u N o ir de G u in ée” (S c ie n c e S o cia le, 1911).

85

N . W . T h o m a s , A n th ro p o lo g ica l R e p o rt on the E d o -a p ea k in g P e o p le s, 2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1910). — Anthropological Report on Sierra Leone, 3 vols. (L ondon, 1916). F . L u s c h a n , D ie A lterth ü m er vo n B e n in (B e rlin —L eipzig, 1919).

The Peoples of Southern Nigeria: A Sketch of Their H istory, Ethnology and Languages with an Abstract of the 1921 Census, 4 vols. (L ondon, 1926). (Vol. i:

A m abby P . Talbot,

“ H isto ric a l N o te s” ; vols. ii a n d iii: “ E th n o lo g y ” ; vol. iv : “ L in g u istics a n d S ta tis tic s ” .)

The History of the Yorubas from the Earliest Tim es to the Beginning of the British Protectorates (L ondon, 1921).

Sam uel J o h nso n,

P. L. G. D.

G e r m a n , D ie V ölkerstäm m e im N o rd e n vo n L ib e r ia (L eipzig, 1933). Si moe s , B a bel N eg ra : E tn o g rá fia , arte e cu ltu ra d o s in d ig e n a s d a O u in é (O p o rto , 1935). T . B a s b e n , N ig e r Ib o s (L ondon, 1938). F o r d e a n d G. I . J o n e s , “ T h e Ib o a n d Ib ib io -sp e a k in g P e o p les o f S o u th -E a s te rn N ig e ria ” (Ethnographic Survey of Africa: W e ste rn A frica. P a r t iii) (L o n d o n , 1950). D . F o r d e , “ T h e Y o ru b a -sp e a k in g P e o p les o f S o u th -W e s te rn N ig e ria ” (Ethnographic Survey of Africa: W e ste rn A frica. P a r t iv) (L ondon, 1951). M . M a n o u k i a n , “ A k a n a n d G a-A d an g m e P e o p les o f th e G old C o a st” (Ethnographic Survey of Africa: W e ste rn A frica. P a r t i) (L ondon, I960). — “ T h e E w e-sp eak in g P eople o f T o g o la n d a n d th e G old C o a st” (E th n o g ra p h ic S u rv e y of A fric a : W e s te rn A frica. P a r t v i) (L ondon, 1952). J . U . E gharevba, A S h ort H isto r y of B e n in (2nd ed. L agos, 1953).

T H E S U D A N E S E T R I B E S OF A D A M A W A A dam aua (B erlin, 1895). “ K a m e ru n ” (in M e y e r , D a s deutsche K o lo n ia lre ic h , v o l. i [L e ip z ig —V ien n a, 1 9 0 9 ]). G. T e s z m a n , D ie B a fia (S tu ttg a rt, 1934). — D ie B a ja , 2 v o ls. (S tu ttg a rt, 1934 —37). A. H . M. K i r k -G r e e n e , A d a m a w a , P a s t a n d P re se n t ( L o n d o n , 1958).

S.

P a ssarg e,



T R I B E S O F T H E R E G IO N B E T W E E N T H E CONGO A N D N I L E R I V E R S V a n O v e r b e r g h , Les Mangbetu (B russels, 1907). J . C z e k a n o w s k i , Beiträge zur Anthropologie von Zentralafrika (“ B u lle tin d e l ’A cadém ie des

Sciences d e C racovie” , 1910).



Forschungen im N i l —Kongo Zwischengebiet, 5 vols. (L eipzig, 1911—27 ). Les Azande ou N ia m -N ia m (B russels, 1926). H . A. B e r n a t z ik , Zwischen Weissem N il und Belgisch-Kongo (V ienna, 1929). Lagal,

A m ong th e w orks o f tra v e lle rs see S c h w e in f u r t h (p. 232) a n d J

unker

S U D A N E S E T R I B E S OF N O R T H E A S T A F R IC A 1. General works a r t m a n n , Die Nigritier (B erlin, 1876).

R. H



D ie N illä n d e r (L eipzig, 1884).

P h . P a u l it s c h k e , E th n o g ra p h ie N o r d o st-A frik a s ( 1 8 9 3 —96).

H e r m a n F r o b e n i u s , D ie H eid en -N eg er (B e rlin , 1893). 2. The Nilotes

(In a d d itio n to th e w orks o f S c h w e in f u r t h a n d J u n k e r re fe rre d to a bove.) D. W e s t e r m a n n , The Shilluk-people (B erlin, 1912). W . H o f m a y r , D ie S h illu k (V ienna, 1925).

86

(p. 360).

C.

G. Seligm an , “ D inka” (in H a stin g s E n cy cl. of R e lig . a n d E th ic s ). “ Shilluk” ( i b i d . ) . G. S elig max an d B. Z. Seligm an , P a g a n T rib es of the N ilo tic S u d a n (London, 1932). E . E vans -P ritchard , T he N u e r (Oxford, 1940). K öh ler , D ie A u sb re itu n g d er N ilo te n (Berlin, И ,0). В итт, “ The Nilotes of th e A nglo-E gyptian Sudan a n d U g an d a” (E th n o g ra p h ic S u rv e y of A fric a : E a st C entral Africa. P a rt iv) (London, 1952).

C. E. O. А.

3. T h e E a ste rn S u d a n trib es H.

M ao Micha el , T h e T rib e s of N orth ern a n d C en tral K ^ rd o fa n (Cambridge, 1912). T h e S u d a n (London, 1954). “ Some Tribes of th e S outh ern S u d an ” ( N e a r E a st a n d I n d ia , N N. 957, 964, 967,1929 Sept. —Nov.) —

4. S u d a n ese trib e s of E th io p ia A . J . P ollera , B a r ia e i C u n a m a (Rome, 1913). W . MÜNZINGER, O sta frik a n isch e S tu d ien (Schaffhausen, 1864).

TH E B A N T U PEOPLES

1.

G EN E R A L W O RK S ON T H E BAN TU A N D T H E EA ST E R N BAN TU

K . B ar th e l , V ölkerbew egungen a u f d er S ü d h ä lfte des a frik a n isch en K o n tin e n ts (Leipzig, 1894). F. Stuhlm ann , “ B eiträge zur K ulturgeschichte von O stafrika” (D e u tsc h o s ta fr ik a , vol. x) (Berlin, 1909). S H artland , “ B a n tu ” (in H a stin g s E n cy cl. of R e lig . a n d E th ic s ). A . W e r n e r , M y th s a n d L egen ds of th e B a n tu (London, 1934). L. S. B. L e a k e y , T h e S to n e A g e R a ces of K e n y a (London, 1935). A . M o e ller , L e s g ra n d es lign es de m ig ra tio n dee B a n tu s (Brussels, 1936). R . Coupland , E a s t A fr ic a a n d I ts In v a d e rs : F ro m the ea rlie st tim e s to the death of S e y y id S a id (Oxford, 1938). H . C. D e c k e r , “ Die Jagazüge u n d das K önigtum im m ittleren B an tu g eb iet” ( Z eitsch rift fü r E th n o lo g ie, 1939, vol. Lxxi, 4/6). T. P . O’B r ie n , T he P re h isto r y of U gan da P rotectorate (Cambridge, 1939). К . W e h l e , N egerleben i n O sta frik a (Leipzig, 1909). See also th e w ork o f B ouvat (p. 263).

2.

T H E SO U T H E R N BANTU

B. J . H aarhoff , D ie B a n tu stä m m e S ü d a fr ik a s (Leipzig, 1890). Gustav F ritsch , D ie E in geboren en S ü d a fr ik a s, ethnologisch u n d a n a to m isch beschrieben (Breslau, 1872). George M. C. T heal , T he B eg in n in g of Sou th A fric a n H isto r y (London, 1902). —

E th n o lo g y a n d C o n d itio n s of S o u th A fr ic a before 1905. T h e Y e llo w a n d D a r k S k in n e d P e o p le of A fr ic a , S o u th of th e Z a m b e si (1910). G eorge W. Stow , T he N a tiv e R a ces o f S ou th A fr ic a : A h isto ry o f the in tr u s io n of the H o tten ­ to ts a n d B a n tu in to the h u n tin g -g ro u n d o f the B u sh m e n , the a b o rig in es of the co u n try (Lon­ —

don, 1905). C. B ullock , T h e M a sh o n a (Capetown, 1927). M. L. B u r k it t , S o u th A fr ic a 's P a s t i n S ton e a n d P a in t (Cambridge, 1928). J . S oga, T h e S o u th E a ste rn B a n tu (Johannesburg, 1930). V. L e b zelte r , D ie V orgeschichte vo n S ü d - u n d S ü d w e s ta fr ik a (Leipzig, 1930). — E in g eb o ren en k u ltu ren von S ü d w est- u n d S ü d a fr ik a (Leipzig, 1934).

87

N. J . W a r m e l o , A P r e lim in a r y S u r v e y o f the B a n tu T rib es of S ou th A fr ic a (P retoria, 1935). E. R o s e n t h a l , O ld T im e s S u r v iv a ls i n S o u th A f r ic a (P retoria, 1936). L. S c h a p e r a , T h e B a n tu -sp e a k in g T rib e s o f S o u th A f r ic a (London, 1937; new ed.: Capetow n, 1950). L. Marquard and T. G. Standing , The Southern B antu (London, 1939). A. M. D uggan-Cronin , The B antu Tribes of South A frica (Cambridge, 1949). A. T. B r y a n t , T he Z u lu P eo p le A s T h e y W ere B efore th e W h ite M e n G am e (P ieterm aritzb u rg , 1949). Oi.of P etterson, C h iefs a n d Gods (Religious an d Social E lem ents in th e South E astern B an tu K ingship) (Lund, 1953). I. P o t e k h i n , S o c ia l a n d E con om ic S y ste m of the S ou th ern B a n tu at the B e g in n in g of the 19th C e n tu ry (Moscow, 1954).

See also the works of Gibson and B ryant (p. 252).

T H E A N C IE N T C IV IL IZ A T IO N O F Z IM B A B W E T h . B e n t , T he R u in e d C itie s of M a sh o n a la n d (London, 1892). A. H . K e a n e , T he Gold of O p h ir (London, 1901). C a r l P e t e r s , I m G oldlan d des A lte rtu m s: F orsch u n gen zw isch en S a m b e si u n d S a m i (Munich,

R. R. P. G. L. N.

1902). N. H a l l , G reat Z im b a b w e, M a sh o n a la n d , R h o d esia (London, 1905). M a c iv e r , M e d ia e v a l R h o d esia (London, 1906). S c h e b e s t a , “ Die Z im babw e-K ultur in A frika” (A n th ro p o s , 1926). C a t o n -T h o m p s o n , T he Z im b a b w e C u ltu re, R u in s a n d R e a ctio n s (Oxford, 1931). F o u c h e , M abin gu bw e: A n c ie n t B a n tu C iv ilis a tio n of th e L im p o p o (Cambridge, 1937). J o n e s , T h e P re h isto r y of S ou th ern R h odesia (Cambridge, 1949).

3. T H E W E S T E R N BANTU (i) G eneral w o rks R. C. P h il l ip s , “ The Lower Congo: A Sociological S tu d y ” ( J o u r n . A n th r. I n s t., 1888). H . W ard , F iv e Y e a rs w ith the Congo C a n n ib a ls (1890). — “ E thnographical N otes R elating to th e Congo T ribes” ( J o u r n . A n th r. I n s t., 1895). A. L. C c r e a u , L es sociétés p r im itiv e s de V A friqu e équ atoriale: E tu d e p sych ologiqu e et sociologique d es p e u p le s d u b a ss in d u C ongo (Paris, 1912). — (English edition:) S a va g e M e n in C en tral A fric a : A S tu d y o f P r im itiv e R a ces in the F ren ch Congo (London, 1915). P o u trin , E sq u isse ethnologique des p r in c ip a le s p o p u la tio n s de V A friq u e équ atoriale fra n g a ise (Paris, 1914). J ohn H . W e e k s , A m o n g Congo C a n n ib a ls (n. d.). E. T orday an d J oyce , N o te s eth n ograph iqu es su r des p o p u la tio n s h a b ita n t les b a ss in s d u K a s a i et d u K w a n g o o rie n ta l (Brussels, 1922). G. C. Cla ridg e , W ild B u sh T rib es of T ro p ic a l A fric a : A d v en tu re a n d T ra v e l in T r o p ic a l A fric a w ith D e s c rip tio n s of the T rib es, C u sto m s, R ig h ts, C erem on ies, S ecret S o c ie tie s, S p o rt a n d W a rfa re (London, 1922). R. Gl e n n ie , T he C ongo a n d I t s P e o p le (London, 1925). D. Cam pbell , I n the H ea rt of B a n tu la n d (A R ecord of 29 Y ears’ Pioneering in C entral Africa,

w ith D escriptions of th e N ativ e H ab its, Custom s, Secret, Societies, etc.) (London, n. d.). E mil T orday , T he Congo (in R ussian). T ranslation from th e F rench of E . G alati; intro d u ctio n by M. K osven (Moscow —L eningrad, 1931). J . M a e s , V o lken ku n de va n B elg isch -K o n g o (A ntw erp, 1935). — (French edition:) J . M a e s a n d O. B o o n e , L es p e u p la d e s d u Congo B eige (Brussels, 1935)

88

(ii) T h e B akongo and the Congo States P echuei ,-L ösche , V o lk sku n de von L o a n yo (S tu ttg a rt, 1907). R. P . Van W in o , E tu d es B akon go: H isto ir e et sociologie (“ B ibliotheque Congo,” No. 3) (B rus­ sels, 1922). E . T obday , “ The Influence of th e K ingdom of Kongo on C entral A frica” ( A f r ic a , 1928, Apr.) A. I hle, D a s alte K ö n ig reich K o n g o (Leipzig, 1929). R. H . Carson Gkaham , U n d er S even C ongo K i n g s (London, 1933). (iii) T he B a lu n d a and the b u n d a em pire W. P e t e r s , “ D er M uata Cazembe u n d die V ölkerstäm m e der M aravis, Muizas, M uembas, L undas und andere von S ü d afrik a” ( Z e itse h r. f . álig. E rd k u n d e, Berlin, 1856). P . P ogge , I m R eiche des M u a ta Y a m w o (Berlin, 1880). B üc h n er , D a s R eich d es M u a lia m w o (Brem en, 1883). H . B aumann , L u n d a (Berlin, 1935). Merran M ccuxlogh, T he S o u th e rn L u a n d a a n d R elated P e o p le s (London, 1951). (iv)

T he B a lu b a

R . P . СоЫлЕ, L es B a lu b a (Brussels, 1913). E. V e r h u x pen , B a lu b a et B a lu b a ise s d u K a ta n g a (A ntw erp, 1936). (v)

T he B a k u b a ( B u sh on go)

E.

T orday an d J oyce , N o te s eth n ograph iqu es su r les p e u p le s com m u n ém en t a p p e lé s B a lu b a , a in s i que su r les p e u p la d e s a p p a re n lé es. L es B u sh ongo (Brussels, 1910). E . T orday , O n the T r a il of the B u sh ongo (1925). (vi) M. D.

T he B arotse

R ic h t e r , K u ltu r u n d R eich der B a ro tse (Leipzig, 1908). W. St ir k e , B a ro tsela n d : E ig h t Y e a rs am on g the B a ro tse (London, 1922).

(vii) T h e H erero I . I r l e , D ie H erero (G ütersloh, 1906). See also th e works of H ahn a n d V e d d e r (p. 94) a n d th e w ork of J . H ahn (p. 254). (viii) M iscella n eo u s trib es S chnitz an d Ov erbergh , L ee B ason ge (Brussels, 1907). C. V an Ov e rbergh , L e s M a y o m b e (Brussels, 1908). — L ee B a so n g e (Brussels, 1908). — L ee B a n g a la (Brussels, 1909). Ch . D ex h a ise , “ Chez les W abem ba” ( B u l l , de la S oc. B eige de G éogr., 1908, N N . 3, pp. 173 — 227; N o. 4, pp. 2 6 1 —283). — L e s W arega (Brussels, 1909). E . W. S mith and A. M. D axe , T he Ila -s p e a k in g P e o p le s o f N o rth ern R h o d esia , 2 vols. (1920). R . P . P xancquaert , L e s J a g a et les B a y a k a d u K w a n g o (Brussels, 1932). G. L. H a v ea ux , L a tr a d itio n h isto riq u e d es B a p e n d e o rie n ta u x (Brussels, 1954). Many d a ta on W estern B an tu trib es (in p a rt also on th e ir ancien t history) are given in th e w orks of travellers (see pp. 232—335).

89

H A M IT O -S E M I T I C PEO PLES OF AF RICA

1. G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E H A M IT E S

Me in h o f , D ie S p ra ch en d er H a m ite n (H a m b u rg , 1912). G. S eligm an , “ Som e A sp ects o f th e H a m itic P ro b le m in th e A n g lo -E g y p tia n S u d a n ” ( J o u r n . R o y . A n th r. I n s t., 1913, vol. sx iii), W . Sch il d e , “ B e iträ g e z u r H a m ite n fra g e ” (T a g u n g sb erich te zu r D eu tsch en A n th ropologisch en G esellschaft, p. 61 a n d ff. [A ugsburg, 1926]). R . P . P ages , U n ro y a u m e h am ite a u centre de V A friq u e : L e R o u a n d a (B russels, 1933). W . H irschberg , “ A ra b is c h —p e rs is c h —ind isch e K u ltu r a n d e r O s tk ü ste A frik a s” ( M itt. d. A n th ro p o l. G es., vol. Lxi [V ienna]). E gon E ickstedt , “ D a s H a m ite n p ro b le m ” (H o m o , vol. 1) (S tu ttg a rt, 1949).

K. C.

Д. ОЛЬДЕРОГГЕ, “Хамитская проблема в африканистике”

(Советская этнография,

1949, N o. 3) (M oscow, 1949).

2. G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E P E O P L E S O F T H E E A S T E R N S U D A N , E T H IO P IA A N D E R IT R E A (In a d d itio n to th e w orks o f H artmann , P aulitschke a n d H . F ro b en iu s , in d ic a te d o n p. 86.) R . H artmann , A b y s s in ie n u n d d ie ü brigen Gebiete d er O stkü ste A f r ik a s (L eipzig, 1883).

Conti R ossin i , S tu d i su ite p o p o la zio n i d elV E tio p ia . — P o p o li d e lV E tio p ia occiden tale (R om e, 1920). E . L ittm ann , “ A b y ssin ia ” (in H a s tin g s E n cy cl. of R e lig io n a n d E th ic s ). E . Certjxli, E tió p ia occiden tale, 2 vols. (R om e, 1 9 3 3 —34). — R e la zio n e su lla colon ia E r itre a , 4 vols. (M inistero delle colonie) (R om e, 1913). A. P ollera , L e p o p o la zio n i in d ig en e d e ll’E r itre a (B ologna, 1935). Д. ОЛЬДЕРГГЕ, “Население и социальный сторой” (in th e tre a tis e of A b y ssin ia [ E th i­ o p ia] p u b lish e d b y th e I n s t i tu t e fo r A n th ro p o lo g y , A rchaeology a n d E th n o g ra p h y o f th e A cad em y o f Sciences o f th e U . S. S. R .) (M oscow, 1936).

3.

T H E C U S H IT IC P E O P L E S

P h . P atjlitschke . B eiträge zu r E th n ograph ie u n d A n th ropologie d er S o m a i, G alla u n d H a r ä r (L eipzig, 1886). (i) The S o m a lis A. E . P ea se , S o m a lila n d , 3 vols. (L ondon, 1902). F erran d , L es S o m a lis (P a ris, 1903). E . D u c h en et , H isto ir e s S o m a lie s (P a ris, 1936). See also th e w orks o f tra v e lle rs (pp. 269 —270).

(ii) T he G alla s a n d the S id o m o F . B ie b e r , K a f f a , vol. i (M ü n ster, 1920), vol. ii (V ienna, 1923). A . E . J e n s e n , I m L a n d e d es G ada (S tu ttg a rt, 1936). G. W . В . HUNTINGFORD, “ T h e G alla o f E th io p ia , th e K in g d o m s o f K a fa a n d J a n je r o ” ( E th n o ­ g ra p h ic S u r v e y of A fric a : N o rth E a s te rn A frica. P a r t ii) (L o n d o n , 1955). See also th e w o rk s o f G u m i a n d S chleicher (p. 167).

90

4. T H E B E J A

Ты. H euglin, U eber d a s L a n d d er B e n i A m e r (“ P e te rm . M itt.” 1867, N o. 5). R . H a r t m a n n , “ D ie B e d ja h ” (Z e itsc h r. f . E th n ., vol. xi, 1879). G . W . M u r r a y , “ T h e N o r t h e r n B e ja ” (Jo u rn . Roy. A nihr. In st., v o l. x L v ii, 1927). А. Р а ш ,, A H istory of the Beja Tribes in the Sudan (C am bridge, 1954).

5.

A N C IE N T H IS T O R Y O F T H E E A S T E R N SU D A N (N U B IA )

S. Ch e r u b in i , “ N u b ie ” (in vol. iii o f L 'V n iv e r s p itto resq u e [P a ris, 1847]). E . A. W allis B ud g e , T he E g y p tia n S u d a n : I t s H is to r y a n d M o n u m en ts, 2 vols. (L o n d o n 1907). — A H is to r y of E th io p ia , N u b ia a n d A b y s s in ia , 2 vols. (L ondon, 1928). C. G. Seligm an , E g y p t a n d N egro A fr ic a (L ondon, 1934). G. D . L am pen , “ H is to ry of D a rfu r” ( S u d a n N o te s a n d R ecords, x x x i [K h a rto u m , 1950]). A. J . Ar k e l l , “ T h e H is to ry o f D a rfu r, 1200 — 1700” ( S u d a n N o te s a n d R ecords, x x x ii, pp. 37 —70, 2 0 7 —238 [K h a rto u m , 1951]; x x x iii, p. 129 —155, 244 —275 [K h a rto u m , 1 9 5 1 -5 2 ]). See also B alfour (p. 162). J ohannes L ukas , Ä g y p te n u n d der S u d a n im L a u fe der J a h rta u sen d e (H a m b u rg , 1954). P . L . S h in n ie , M e d ie v a l N u b ia (“ S u d a n A n tiq u itie s S erv ice” , M useum P a m p h le t 2 [K h a rto u m , 1954]). R olf H erzog , D ie N u b ie r (U n te rsu c h u n g e n u n d B e o b a c h tu n g e n z u r G ru p p e n g lie d eru n g , G e­ sellsch aftsfo rm u n d W irtsc h aftsw eise ) (B erlin, 1957).

6.

H IS T O R IC A L W O R K S ON A N C IE N T A N D M E D IA E V A L E T H IO P IA

(In a d d itio n to th e g e n era l w o rk s o n th e h isto ry o f E th io p ia in d ic a te d on p p . 166 — 167 a n d th e a b o v e -m e n tio n e d b o o k b y B u d g e ) Dillmann, U eber d ie A n fä n g e des a k su m itisc h e n R eich es (“ A bh. d. B e rlin e r A k ad em ie f. 1878” ) (B erlin, 1879). J . T . B e n t , T h e S a cre d C ity of the E th io p ia n s (L ondon, 1893). E nno L ittm ann , D eu tsche A k s u m -E x p e d itio n , 5 vols. (B erlin, 1913). A. K äm m erer , E s s a y su r V h istoire a n tiq u e d ’A b y s s in ie (P a ris, 1926).

7.

E T H IO P IA IN T H E 10T H TO 13TH C E N T U R IE S

Conti R o s sin i , A p p u n ti ed o sserva zio n i s u i R e Z agu e e T a k la H a y m a n o t (R om e, 1895). —

8.

Sulla, d in a s tia Z a gu e (R om e, 1897).

T H E M O SLEM ST A T E S O F E T H IO P IA

R inck , H isto r ia regnoru m isla m itic o ru m in A b y s s in ia .

9.

E T H IO P IC C H R O N IC L E S

T h ere a re m a n y d o c u m e n ts in E th io p ic re g ard in g th e h isto ry o f E th io p ia (m ainly ro y a l chroni cles a n d religious lite ra tu re ), b u t so fa r a s th e a n c ie n t tim e s a n d th e e a rly m id d le ages a re con.oerned th e y a re h a rd ly reliab le, because th e h isto ric a l n a rra tiv e s in th e m m ingle w ith legends.

91

Som e o f th e n u m ero u s E th io p ic m a n u s c rip ts w ere p u b lish ed in E u ro p e in L a tin or o th e r E u ro ­ p e a n la n g u a g e s.1 W e m e n tio n h e re o nly th e m o st im p o rta n t am o n g th e m : K . B asset , L es a p o cryp h es éth io p ien s, 10 vols. (P a ris, 1893 —1900). C. R o s sin i , D o cu m en ti a d illu stra n d a m h isto r ia m , I , L ib e r A x u m a e (C orpus sc rip to ru m C h rist. o rie n ta l. S c rip to re s a e th jo p ic i versio , Ser. I I , t. V III) (P a ris, 1910).

J . P erruchon , V ie de L a lib a la (Paris, 1892). —

L e s ch ron iqu es de Z a ra Ja'eqdb et de B éda M a r y a m , ro is d 'E th io p ie de 1434 a 1478 (P aris,

1893). —

H isto ir e d ’E sk en d er, d 'A m d a -S a y o n I I et de N a o d (P a ris, 1894). I g n . G u m i, II F eth a N a g a st: “ L e g isla tio n e d e i R e ” . (A concise e d itio n o f th e sam e w ork:) D r . L in c o l n D e Ca st r o , C o m p en d io delle “ L eggi d e i R e ” (F e th a N a g a s t) , d a lia t r a d . ita l. d el P ro f. G uidi (L eghorn, 1912).

10.

H IS T O R Y O F T H E A R A B S I N T H E E A S T E R N S U D A N A N D T H E I R R E L A T IO N S

W IT H H A M IT E S A N D S U D A N E S E T R IB E S

Ca bdo nn e , H isto ire de V A /riq u e so u s la d o m in a tio n d es A rabes. P r u e n , T h e A ra b a n d the A fric a n . Desborough-Coo iey , N egroland o f th e A ra b s. H. A . Mac Мгснаеп, A H is to r y o f th e A r a b s i n the S u d a n a n d S o m e A c c o u n t o f the P eople W ho

P reced ed T h e m a n d the T rib e s I n h a b itin g D a r fu r , 2 v o ls. (C a m b rid g e , 1922).

11.

TH E B ER B ER PEOPLES

Tb n K haldoun , H isto ir e des B erbéres. T ran sl. b y Slane (A lgiers, 1852). F a id h e r b e , “ L es B e rb ére s e t les A ra b es des b o rd s d u S énégal” ( B u ti. S oc. de Oéogr. de P a r is , 1864). — “ C o n sid e ratio n s s u r les p o p u la tio n s de l ’A frique s e p te n trio n a le ” ( A n n a le s des voyages, 1859). — “ L es B erb éres d u S énégal” ( B u ll. S oc. A n th r. [P a ris, 1864]). C. D ev a u x , L es K e b a ile s d u D je rd je ra (M arseille, 1859). H . A u c apita in e , E tu d e s su r le p a ss é et l ’a v e n ir d es K a b y le s (P a ris, 1864). L . C. F é r a u d , H isto ire des villes et des trib u s de la. pro v in c e de C o n sta n tin e, 3 vols. (P a ris, 1864 — 70). D u ll ot: s s e t , “ Les ra ce s alg érien n es, les K a b y le s d u D ju r ju r a ” (R e v u e des cou rs scien t if iqu es, A p r. 11, 1868). D . K a l tbrvnn er , R echerche su r V origin e d es K a b y le s (G énévé, 1871). H anoteau a n d L eto ü r n eü x , L a K a b y lie et les cou tu m es kabyles, 3 vols. (P a ris, 1872 —76). E . R e n a n , “ L a so ciété b e rb e re en A lgérie” (R e v u e d es deu x m on des, 1873). E . G r] м кт, A ra b es et K a b y le s , p a ste u rs et a g ricu ltu ers (L yon, 1873). J . D ogas , L a K a b y lie et le p e u p le k a b yle (P a ris, 1878). H . F oo rn el , L es B erbéres: E tu d e su r la con qu tte de V A friqu e p a r les A ra b es, 2 vols. (P aris, 1881). G astu , L e p e u p le a lg írié n (P aris, 1883). D u v e y r ie r , L e R i f f (P a ris, 1887). E . L aoust , N o te s et choses berbéres (P a ris, 1920).

J ules S icard , L e m on de m u su lm a n d a n s les p o sse ssio n s fran gaises:

A lg érie,

T u n is , M aróé,

A friq u e O ccidentale F ra n g a ise (P a ris, 1928).

1 I n his b ib lio g ra p h ic al w ork ( M a n o s c ritti ed opere a b issin e in E u ro p a . R e n d ic o n ti (5) 8 [1899]) C onti R ossini e n u m e ra te s o v e r 1,200 volum es o f E th io p ie m a n u s c rip ts fo u n d in E u ro p e .

92

12. T H E M O O R S

P . D . B o il a t , E sq u ia ses sén ég a ta ises (eh. viii: “ Les M aures d u S énégal” ) (P a ris, 1853). B o u r r e l , “ V oyage d a n s le p a y s des M aures B ra k n a ” (R e v u e m a r it., 1861). C. D ours , “ C inq m ois chez les M aures d u S a h a ra ” (“ T o u r d u m o n d e, 1888” ; B u ll. S oc. Q éogr., 1888). E . F a l l o t , “ N o te su r les M aures d u S énégal” ( B u ll. S oc. Q éogr.) (M arseille, 1888). R . C o l l ig n o n a n d D e n i k e r , “ L es M aures d u S énégal” ( V A n th ro p o lo g ie, 1895). E . R i c h e t , L a M a u ré ta n ie (P a ris, 1920).

D uboc , M a u réta n ie (Paris, 1935).

13. T H E T U A R E G S J . C h a v a n n e , D ie S a h a ra , p p . 109 — 161 (eh. iv : “ I m L an d e d e r Im o sc h ag h o d e r T u a re g ” ) (V ie n n a —P e s t —L eipzig, 1879). C h e r b o n n e a u , “ L es p e u p la d e s voilées d e l ’A friq u e: R o u te de T o u g g o u rt ä T o m b o u c to u ” (R e v u e de géogr., 1880 —81). B i s s u e l , Lea T o u a reg d e l'O u eet (A lgiers, 1888). F o u r e a u , “ U n e m ission chez les T o u a re g ” ( B u ll. S oc. Qéogr., 1 8 9 3 —95). R . C h u d e a u , M is s io n a u S a h a ra , 2 vols. ÍP a ris, 1909). C a p t . A y m a r d , L es T o u areg (P a ris, 1911). A . R i c h e r , L es T ou a reg d u N ig e r (P a ris, 1924). F . R . R o d d , P e o p le o f the V e il (L o n d o n , 1926). — “ A Second J o u rn e y A m o n g th e S o u th e rn T u a re g ” ( T h e Qeogr. J o u r n ., i.xxxiii [L ondon. 1929]). M. A r a d i é , L a colonie d u N ig e r (P a ris, 1927).

14. T H E SE M I -H A M IT E S M. M e r k e r , D ie M a s a i:

E th n ograph isch e

M o n o g ra p h ie ein es osta frik a n isch en S em iten volkes

(B erlin , 1904). C. M e i n h o f , “ Ü b e r M erkers ‘M asai’ ” (Z e its c h r. f . E th n ., 1904, p p . 735 —744). H . F u c h s , S a g en , M y th e n u n d S itte n d e r M a s a i (Je n a , 1910). W . S c h m id t , “ Sind d ie M asai S em iten ?” ( M itt. d. A n th r. Qes. W ie n , vo I . l x , 1930, N o. 4 —5, pp. 3 3 1 -3 4 9 ). A. C. H o l l is , T h e M a s a i (O xford, 1905). — T he N a n d i (O xford, 1909). M. W . H . B e e c h , T h e S u k (O xford, 1911). J . H . D r i b e r g , T he L a n g o (L o n d o n , 1923). See also th e w o rk s o f tra v e lle rs : T h o m s o n (1874, 1885) a n d B a u m a n n (1894), in d ic a te d o n p. 347.

T H E K H O I-S A A N P E O P L E S

T h e o ph il H a h n , “ D ie N a m a - H o tte n to tte n ” (Q lo b u s, vol. xii, 1867). — “ B e iträ g e z u r K u n d e d e r H o t t e n t o t te n ” ( M i t t . d. geogr. Qes. D resd en , vol. vi). G e n t z , “ E in ig e B e iträ g e z u r K e n n tn is d e r sü d w e s ta frik a n isc h e n V ö lk e rsc h a fte n ” (Q lobu s, vo l. Lxxxiii, 1903, N o. 19, p . 297 a n d if.). S. P assarge , “ Die G rundlinien im ethnographischen Bilde der K alahariregion” (Z e its c h r. d . —

Qes. f . E rd k u n d e zu B e rlin , 1905). “ D ie B u sc h m ä n n e r d e r K a la h a ri” ( M itt. a u s d . deu tschen S ch u tzgebieten , vol. xviii1905, N o. 3).

93

S t . V e d d e r , D ie B e rg d a m a (H a m b u rg , 1923). S. D obnan , ' P y g m ie e a n d B u sh m en of the K a la h a r i (London, 1925). J . W . Zelisk o , F elsg ra vieru n g en d er sü d a frik a n isch en B u sch m ä n n er (L eipzig, 1925). S. P . I mpey, O rig in of the B u sh m e n a n d the R ock P a in tin g s of S ou th A fr ic a (C apetow n, 1926). D . J . B l e e k , T he N a r o n — A B u sh m a n T rib e of C e n tra l K a la h a r i (C am bridge, 1928). H a h n , The Native Tribes of South West A frica (L o n d o n , 1929).

J. S chapera , The K oisan Peoples of South Africa (London, 1930). H . Ve d d e r , South West A frica in E arly Tim es (Oxford, 1938). A. M. D uggan -Cro nin a n d D. F . B l e e k , T h e B u sh m a n T rib e s of S ou th ern A fr ic a (K im b erley , 1942). S. J .

H alford, T he G riqu as of O riqu alan d:

A H isto r ic a l N a r r a tiv e o f the G riqu a P eo p le (C ape­

to w n , 1950). See also th e w o rk s o f B ubkitt a n d L ebzelter (p. 87).

TH E “ P Y G M IE S ”

P. W. S c h m id t , D ie S tellu n g d er P yg m ä en vö lk er i n d er E n tw icklu n gsgesch ich te des M enschen (S tu ttg a r t, 1910). R . P . Trilles, L es P y g m é e s de la fó rét equ atoriale (P a ris, 1932). P . S c h e b e s t a , “ P rä h isto ris c h e V ölker in B e lgisch-K ongo” ( A n th ro p o s, vol. x x v u . 1932, N o.

5 -6 ). — —

B a m b u ti (Leipzig, 1932).

“ D ie z en tra la frik a n is c h e n P y g m ä e n : Ih re B ezieh u n g en z u r U m w e lt u n d d e n a n d ere n R a sse n ” ( M itt. d . A n th r. Oes. in W ie n , vol. Lxii, 1932, N o. 6).

P. W. S c h m id t , U rsp ru n g d er Q ottesidee, vol. iv: “ Die Religionen der U rvölker A frikas” (Mün­ ster i. W ., 1933). P. S c h e b e s t a und W. L e b z e l t e r , A n th ro p o lo g y of C en tra l A fric a n P y g m ie e in the B e lg ia n Congo (Prague, 1933). W. H i r s c h b e r g , “ G ibt es eine B uschm annkultur?” (Z e its c h r. f. E th n ologie vol. lxv, 1933, No. 1 —3; M itt. d . A n th r. G es. in W ie n , Lxiii, 1933, No. 5 —6). P. S c h e b e s t a , V ollblu tn eger u n d H albzw erge (Salzburg —Leipzig, 1934). — D ie B a m b u ti-P y g m ä e n von I t u r i (Brussels, 1938). M. G u s i n d e , D ie K o n g o -P y g m ä e n in G eschichte u n d G egenw art (H alle, 1942). P. S c h u m a c h e r , D ie p h y sisc h e u n d so zia le U m w elt d er K iv u - P y g m ä e n (Brussels, 1949). As to th e different pygm y tribes (Akka, B atw a, Obongo) see th e w orks of th e following travellers: Cha illu (p. 232). L e n z , “ Ü ber Zwergvölker im Ogowe-Gebiet” (in W ien er M itte ilu n g e n , 1878). S c h w e in f u r t h (p. 346), v o l. ii, c h a r t x i. W is s m a n an d others (1888) (see p. 335), pp. 255 —262. WisSMAN (1891) (see p. 335), pp. 1 2 8 -1 3 2 . J u N k e r (see p. 360), vol. iii, pp. 85 —92.

TH E PEO PLES OF M AD AG ASCAR

F ro ber ville , “ R e ch e rch e s su r les ra ce s de M adagascar e t les d é co u v e rte s g é o g rap h iq u es d a n s l ’ile ( B u ll. S oc. Géogr., 1839 a n d 1844). N o e l , “ R ech erch es su r les S a k a la v a ” ( B u t i . S oc. G éogr., 1843—44). W a k e , “ L a ra ce des M ad écasses” ( J o u r n . A n th r. I n s t., 1869 —81). Gr a n d id ie r , H isto ir e p h y siq u e , n atu relle et p o litiq u e de M a d a g a sca r, 16 vole. (P a ris, 1876—84). J ames Sib r e e , T he G reat A fric a n I s la n d . . . M a d a g a sca r (L ondon, 1880). — (G erm an e d itio n :) M ad a g a sca r: G eographie, N atu rgesch ich te, E th n o g ra p h ie d er I n s e l, S p ra ch e, S itte n u . Gebräuche ih rer B ew oh n er (L eipzig, 1881). — (F re n c h e d itio n :) M a d a g a sca r et ses h a b ita n ts. T ra n s la te d b y H . M onod (P a ris, 1883).

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M . L e c l e r c , “ L e s p e u p la d e s d e M a d a g a s c a r ” ( R e v u e d 'E th n o g r ., v o l. v , 1886; v o l. v i, 1887). G b a n d i d i e r , “ L e s H o v a s ” ( R e v u e gén. dee sciences, P a r i s , J u n e 1895). E . F ag ereng , “ H isto ire des M aro se ran a d u M én an é” ( B u l l e t i n de V A c a d é m ie m a lg a ch e, 28,

[T a n a n a riv e , 1 9 4 7 —48] pp. 113 — 135). К . D ecary , M o eu rs et cou tu m ee des M a lg a ch es (P a ris, 1951).

See also the general works on the history of Madagascar (pp.187 —188); the work of A ckermann (p. 281); the works of travellers: Cauche , D ubois and R ochon (p. 188), L eg uev el D e Combe and B a r b ié D u B ocage (p. 282), Qatat and Carol (p. 399); th e memoirs of V a issier e and S ib r e e (p. 399).

CHAPTER I I

R E L A T IO N S O F P E O P L E S O F T H E A N C IE N T A N D M E D IA E V A L W O R L D W IT H B L A C K A F R IC A

I n th e h is to ry o f th e re la tio n s o f peoples o f A n tiq u ity a n d th e M iddle A ges w ith T ro p ical a n d S o u th A frica w e h a v e to d istin g u ish th r e e sta g e s: 1. A tte m p ts b y p eoples o f A n tiq u ity to d isco v er a n d ex p lo re A frica. 2. A ra b p e n e tr a tio n in to A frica a n d th e v o y ag es o f A ra b s a n d E u ro p e a n s in th e e a rly M iddle A ges. 3. D isco v ery o f B lack A frica b y th e P o rtu g u e se in th e ag e o f th e g re a t d iscoveries.

What Did the Ancient World Know of Africa? T h e p a r t o f A frica u n d e r discussion w as a lm o st co m p letely u n k n o w n to th e a n c ie n t w orld. W h a t th e y k n e w o f in t h a t tim e w ere E g y p t a n d th e M e d ite rra n e a n co u n tries o f th e n o r th co a st a n d th e v a s t d e s e rt s tre tc h in g so u th o f th e se co u n tries. B u t th e c o u n tries ly in g b ey o n d it, w ith a few insig n ifican t ex c ep tio n s, w ere a n d rem a in ed to th e a n c ie n t w orld a m y sterio u s a n d te rrib le , f a n ta s tic em p ire in h a b ite d b y m o n ­ stro u s h u m a n beings a n d b ru te s, a n d possessing im m en se riches. O f a ll th e c o u n tries a n d regions o f A frica ly in g s o u th o f 20°N . th e o n ly on e w hich is k n o w n to h a v e p la y e d a p a r t in a n c ie n t h is to ry w as E th io p ia (“ A b y ssin ia” ) alo n g w ith a few c o u n trie s in th e te r r ito r y o f th e E a s te r n S u d a n : N u b ia , N a p a ta a n d M eroe. W ith th e se c o u n trie s th e E g y p tia n s a n d P h o en ic ian s, th e G reeks a n d R o m a n s alik e h a d tr a d e c o n ta c ts a n d w ar conflicts. T h e p eoples o f th e a n c ie n t w orld tra d e d also w ith som e p a r ts o f th e w e st a n d especially th e e a s t c o a st o f A frica. O n th e w est c o a st, th o u g h , th e se tr a d e c o n ta c ts, th e le ad in g p a r t o f w hich fell to P h o en ician s a n d C a rth a g in ia n s, d id n o t go f a r b e y o n d G ib ra lta r, a n d a t a n y r a te n o t f a r th e r th a n th e p re s e n t-d a y S p an ish colony o f R io de O ro. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e A ra b s a lre a d y in a n c ie n t tim e s e sta b lish e d a series o f tra d in g s ta tio n s a n d s e ttle m e n ts o n th e e a st co a st, fro m th e S om ali co ast to as fa r as M ozam bique a n d Q uelim ane, w h ich w ere m ore o r less re g u la rly v isite d b y A ra b a n d e v e n G reek m e rc h a n ts . T h e w hole o f S o u th a n d C e n tral A frica a n d th e c o u n tries o f th e G u in ea c o a st, how ever, w ere co m p letely u n k n o w n to th e a n c ie n t w orld. T h e peoples o f A n tiq u ity knew o n ly t h a t so u th o f th e g re a t d e s e rt th e re stre tc h e d co u n tries o f b la c k people w hom th e G reeks a n d R o m an s called b y th e sam e n a m e as th e in h a b ita n ts o^ A b y ssin ia — “ E th io p ia n s ” . B u t th e a n c ie n t w o rld h a d n o reliab le k n ow ledge o f th e se c o u n trie s a n d peoples a lth o u g h th e C a rth a g in ia n s long b efo re o u r era h a d re g u la r c o n ta c ts w ith th e m , a n d th e R o m a n s a t tim e s o rg an iz ed m ilita ry ex p e d itio n s in to th o se c o u n tries in th e first ce n tu ries o f o u r era . T h e C a rth a g in ia n s e x p o rte d th e ir

96

p ro d u c ts, m a in ly sa lt, in to th e W e ste rn S u d a n c o u n trie s as fa r a s th e N ig er R iv e r, a n d im p o rte d fro m th e re slaves, gold, precio u s sto n e s a n d d a te s. B u t th is tr a d e w as on th e w hole c a rrie d o n th ro u g h m e d ia to rs o f n o m a d ic trib e s o f th e d e se rts. T h e C a rth a g in ia n s th e m se lv es o n ly r a re ly v e n tu re d in to th e c o u n tries o f th e “ E th io ­ p ia n s ” . A ccording to tra d itio n s , a C a rth a g in ia n m e rc h a n t tra v e lle d th re e tim e s w ith tr a d e c a ra v a n s th ro u g h th e d e s e rt in to th e b la c k co u n tries. B u t ev en th o u g h th e C a rth a g in ia n s a c q u ire d som e know ledge o f th e s e c o u n trie s a n d th e ir in h a b ita n ts , th e y p re fe rre d to k ee p i t for th e m se lv es in th e ir ow n co m m ercial in te re s t. A s to th e R o m a n s, th o u g h , th e y d id n o t k ee p b a c k th e ir know ledge, b u t w h a t th e y k n ew o f th e s e c o u n trie s a n d p eoples fro m th e ir occasional conflicts w ith th e m w as r a th e r d eficien t a n d superficial.

T h e F ir s t A tte m p ts to E x p lo re A fric a . The E x p e d itio n s of P h a ra o h N echo, the C a rth a ­ g in ia n H a n n o a n d K in g C am byses

T h e first a tte m p ts to ex p lo re th e “ d a rk c o n tin e n t” w ere m a d e to w a rd s th e en d o f th e 7 th a n d in th e 6 th c e n tu ry before o u r era. W e k n o w o f th r e e su ch ex p e d itio n s: tw o o f th e m w ere u n d e r ta k e n to exp lo re th e A fric an co a st (N ech o a n d H a n n o ) a n d th e th ir d (Ca m b y se s ) w en t in to th e in te rio r o f A frica. I n 603 b efore o u r era , P h a ra o h N ec h o (or N i k u ) I I o f E g y p t s e n t fro m th e G u lf o f Suez a n e x p e d itio n o f P h o en ic ian n a v ig a to rs w ith th e ta s k o f cru isin g th ro u g h th e R e d S ea a n d th e n f a r th e r along th e c o a st o f A frica to sail ro u n d its so u th e rn e x tre m ity a n d th ro u g h th e P illa rs o f H ercu les (G ib ra lta r) a n d th e M e d ite rran e an b a c k to E g y p t. T h e v o y ag e o f th e P h o en ic ian s la s te d th r e e y ea rs a n d w as su ccess­ fu lly te rm in a te d . O f w h a t th e y le a rn e d a b o u t th e c o u n tries a n d p eoples th e y saw w e k n o w n o th in g , b ecause no w ritte n d o c u m e n t h as re m a in e d fro m th e v o y ag ers th e m se lv es. B u t th a n k s to th e n a rra tiv e s o f H e r o d o t u s th e fa c t o f th is e x p e d itio n h as b een fu lly confirm ed. T h e G reek h is to ria n re la te s tw o in te re s tin g d e ta ils: 1. th e P h o en ician s m a d e tw o la n d in g s a n d s ta y e d for a long tim e on th e co a st, sow ed g ra in a n d sailed off a fte r h a r v e s t; a n d 2. d u rin g th e ir v o yage ro u n d A frica, ac co rd in g to th e ir s ta te m e n t, “ th e y h a d th e su n o n th e ir rig h t h a n d ” . H e r o d o t u s n a r r a te d th is la tte r in c id e n t as a c u rio sity in v e n te d b y th e v o y ag ers, fo r h e d id n o t believe i t him self. N ev erth eless, e x a c tly w h a t seem ed to h im a n in v e n te d s to ry is to u s p ro o f o f th e fa c t t h a t th e e x p e­ d itio n d id c irc u m n av ig ate A frica, sp e n d in g a long tim e o n th e s o u th e rn h em isp h ere, b e y o n d th e E q u a to r, w h ere th e s u n a t m id d a y is in th e n o r th o f t h e sk y , n o t in th e s o u th e rn sk y , t h a t is, to th e s p e c ta to r facing th e w est, it a p p e a rs o n th e r ig h t side, n o t on th e le ft. W e can th u s a s c e rta in th e fa c t t h a t th e first v o y ag e ro u n d A frica w as ca rrie d o u t b y P h o en ic ian m a rin e rs a t le a s t a th o u s a n d y e a rs in a d v a n c e o f th e P o rtu g u e se. T h e second m a ritim e e x p e d itio n alo n g th e A frican co a st w as s e n t o u t b y th e C a rth a g in ia n s u n d e r th e co m m an d o f H a n n o , th e so n o f H a m il ca r , in th e o p p o site d ire c tio n , fro m C a rth ag e v ia G ib ra lta r alo n g th e w e st co a st, in th e 6 th o r e a rly in th e 5 th c e n tu ry before o u r era . T h e tim e o f th is ex p e d itio n is n o t q u ite c e rta in . Some rese a rc h e rs th in k it to o k place a s e a rly as 570. T h e ta s k o f th is ex p e d itio n w as a less p re te n tio u s one: it h a d to explore th e w est co a st o n ly , its e q u ip m e n t w as, ho w ­ ev er, v e ry stro n g . I t co n siste d o f 60 vessels w ith fifty o ars each. T h e crew w ere a lto ­ g e th e r 30,000 stro n g . T h is la rg e n u m b e r finds its e x p la n a tio n in th e f a c t t h a t , in a d d itio n to e x p lo ra tio n , th e ex p e d itio n h a d a p ra c tic a l m ission: a sig n ifican t p a r t 7

E. Si

k: Black

A frica

I.

97

o f its crew w as m a d e u p o f fam ilies o f colo n ists d e s tin e d to s e ttle d o w n in th e C a r­ th a g in ia n tra d in g c e n tre s t h a t e x iste d o n th e n o rth w e s t co a st o f A frica. O n th e w ay th e se colonists little b y little d ise m b a rk e d o n th e co ast. H a v in g fulfilled th is p a r t o f th e ir ta s k b y e stab lish in g a series o f n ew C a rth a g in ia n se ttle m e n ts , am o n g o th e rs K e rn e in th e te r r ito r y o f to d a y ’s R io de Ого, th e vessels sailed s o u th w a rd an d , p a ss­ in g th e S enegal a n d G am b ia R iv e rs a n d C ape V erde, re a c h e d th e c o a st o f p re se n td a y S ierra L eone a n d S h erb ro Is la n d (7° 3 0 ' N .). T h e la c k o f su p p lies fo rced th e m to r e tu r n fro m th e re . T h e s to r y o f th is e x p e d itio n w as c o m m itte d to p a p e r in P u n ic b y H a nn o h im self, b u t w e k n o w o f i t o n ly th ro u g h a su rv iv in g G reek tra n s la tio n . T h e m o st in te re s tin g passag e in H a n n o ’s n a r r a tiv e is h is d e sc rip tio n o f th e e x p e d itio n ’s m e etin g w ith in d ig e n o u s people. I n th e reg io n o f th e S en eg al R iv e r th e y h a d a clash w ith “ w ild m e n w earin g th e sk in s o f b e a s ts ” w ho w ou ld n o t le t th e m la n d , th ro w in g sto n e s a t th o se w ho w a n te d to d ise m b a rk o n th e co ast. S ailing f a r th e r so u th w a rd th e y la n d e d in th e c o u n try o f th e “ E th io p ia n s ” w ho sp o k e a la n g u ag e co m p letely u n k n o w n t o th e e x p e d itio n ’s A fric an in te r p r e te r a n d w ho r a n a w a y fro m th e m . A n o th e r tim e th e v o y ag e rs s to p p e d b y a fo re st-c la d islan d w h ere in d a y lig h t th e y d id n o t sp o t a n y h u m a n being, b u t b y n ig h t th e y saw m a n y fires a n d h e a rd “ th e so u n d s o f flu te s, cy m b als a n d ty m p a n i a n d lo u d s h o u ts ” , w h ereu p o n th e y w ere “ seized b y f rig h t” , a n d “ th e oracles o rd e re d ” th e m to le av e th e islan d . A t th e v e ry en d o f th e ir vo y ag e, o n S h erb ro Isla n d , th e y jo in e d “ b a t tle ” w ith th e sav ag e in h a b ita n ts o f th is islan d — “ c h im p an z ee s” w hich th e y to o k fo r sav ag e p eo p le a n d called “ g o rillas” .1 T h e y could n o t c a p tu re “ m e n ” , t h a t is m ales, b ecau se th e s e “ r a n aw a y , g ra p p lin g ro ck s a n d d efen d in g th e m se lv es w ith s to n e s ” . B u t th e y c a p tu re d a n d k illed th r e e fem ales, p u lle d off th e ir sk in s, c a rrie d th e m a s tro p h ie s to C a rth a g e a n d d isp lay e d th e m in a te m p le as skins o f th e “ sa v ag e w o m en ” th e y h a d k illed. T h e first a t te m p t to explore th e in te rio r o f A frica w as m ad e, acco rd in g to tr a d itio n re la te d b y a n c ie n t G reek a u th o rs, b y K in g Ca m b y ses o f P e rsia a t th e en d o f th e 6 th c e n tu ry before o u r e ra . A s th is tr a d itio n s ta te s , Cam by ses a f te r h is co n q u e st o f E g y p t (525) a n d his u n successful cam p aig n a g a in st E th io p ia d ecid ed to ex p lo re th e u p p e r rea ch es o f th e N ile, a n d a t th e h e a d o f a n e n tire a rm y h e h im self s e t o u t v ia N u b ia in to th e v alley o f th e W h ite N ile a n d d isa p p e a re d w ith h is tro o p s in th e d e se rts o f t h e u p p e r N ile w ith o u t leaving a tra c e .

E x p lo ra to ry A c tiv itie s a n d G eograph ical W orks of A n c ie n t G reeks a n d R o m a n s

T h e p eoples o f classical A n tiq u ity — th e G reeks a n d R o m a n s — th e m se lv es d id a lm o st n o th in g t o ex p lo re B lack A frica. T h e y ca rrie d o n tr a d e a n d w ars w ith th e c o u n trie s o f N o rth A frica. A p a rt fro m m e rc h a n ts a n d g en erals, som e sc h o larly m en o f G reece a n d R o m e w ere also s e n t to th e s e co u n tries a n d d id som e e x p lo ra to ry w ork. T h e G reeks h a d c e rta in tr a d e c o n ta c ts also w ith th e e a s t co a st o f A frica a n d th e a d ja c e n t islan d s. B u t i t w as o n ly a ra re e x cep tio n t h a t a G reek o r R o m a n crossed th e m y ste rio u s th re s h o ld o f th e u n k n o w n la n d s o f in te rio r A frica. 1 T h is is how , a c c o rd in g to H a n n o , his in te rp re te r called th e se “ sa v a g e p e o p le ” . T hese w e re , in a ll p ro b a b ility , ch im p a n ze es, n o t gorillas, b eca u se go rillas a re n o t fo u n d in th is reg io n o f A frica, th e ir ho m e b e in g fa rth e r to th e so u th , in low er G uinea. W h en la te r on, in th e fifties o f th e 1 9th c e n tu ry , P a u l C h a il l u first saw th e m in G abon, h e also called th e m “ g o rilla s” , b o r­ ro w in g th is n a m e fro m w h a t H a n n o h a d to ld a b o u t his a d v e n tu ro u s e x p e d itio n .

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N ev erth eless, th e a n c ie n t G reeks a n d R o m a n s h a v e g re a t m e rits in ad d in g to th e know ledge m a n k in d h a d o f th e A frican co n tin e n t. T h e G reek s (from th e 5 th ce n tu ry ) a n d th e R o m an s (from th e 2 n d c e n tu ry ) show ed k ee n in te r e s t in a n y th in g t h a t co n ­ cern ed th e m y sterio u s “ b lack c o n tin e n t” . G enerals w ere in te r e s te d in th e co u n tries o f T ro p ical A frica as th e h in te rla n d o f E g y p t a n d N u b ia . M e rc h an ts d re a m t o f b ro a d ­ en in g com m ercial re la tio n s b y discovering new c o u n tries o f w hose fab u lo u s w ea lth legends circ u lated . P a ssio n a te se arch ers o f know ledge d r e a m t o f finding o u t th e s tr u c tu re o f th e u n iverse. F o r w a n t o f m ore o r less sig n ifican t e x p lo ra tio n o n th e ir ow n ac c o u n t, th e y follow ed w ith th e k e e n e st in te r e s t th e ex p e d itio n s u n d e rta k e n b y o th e r peoples. T h eir scholars a n d w rite rs p a in sta k in g ly co llected a n y in fo rm atio n av a ila b le o n A frica. E a rly in th e 5 th c e n tu ry before o u r e ra th e G reek H e k a t a e u s o f M il e t u s , a n d in th e m id -c e n tu ry th e fam o u s G reek h isto ria n , H e r o d o t u s , tr a v e lle d th r o u g h o u t E g y p t a n d d escribed it. As fa r as o th e r p a r ts o f A frica a r e co n cern ed , th e y n a r r a te d in th e ir w orks o n ly w h a t th e y could g a th e r fro m th e tr a d itio n s o f th e E g y p tia n s an d th e sto ries o f c o n te m p o ra ry tra v e lle rs. T h e case w as th e sam e, in th e m id d le o f th e 3 rd c e n tu ry , w ith th e G reek E r a t o st h e n e s (276— 196), th e lib ra ria n o f th e P to le ­ m ies a t A lex an d ria. I n th e m iddle o f th e 2 nd c e n tu ry th e G reek m ilita ry h isto ria n P o l y b iu s , w ho w as in R o m a n service, ex p lo red a n d d escrib ed th e n o r th co a st a n d th e litto r a l o f (p re sen t-d a y ) M a u ritan ia . T h e o n ly G reek to u n d e r ta k e a serio u s e x p lo ra tio n o f A frica so u th o f 20° N . w as E u d o x u s o f C y zicu s w ho, a t th e e n d o f th e 2 n d c e n tu ry before o u r era , v e n tu re d u p o n a v o y ag e alo n g th e w e st c o a st, s t a r t ­ ing from G ib ra lta r, w ith th e in te n tio n o f sailing ro u n d A frica. H o w fa r h e g o t is im possible to asc e rta in , b u t he m ig h t h a v e rea ch ed w h a t is now k n o w n as th e Cam ero o n s, since — according to h im — h e m e t w ith “ E th io p ia n s ” sp e ak in g th e sam e la n g u ag e as th e in h a b ita n ts o f th e e a s t co a st, t h a t is, a p p a r e n tly w ith B a n tu n a tio n a l­ ities. A b o u t 50 o f o u r era a G reek m e rc h a n t, a c e rta in D io g e n e s , to o k a long tr ip in to th e in te rio r are as o f E a s t A frica. I n th e 1 st a n d 2 nd ce n tu ries R o m an s sailed ro u n d th e co a sts o f th e R e d Sea (A e l iu s G allu s in A. D . 24), co n d u c te d a few m ilita ry e x p e d itio n s a g a in st th e “ co u n ­ t r y o f th e E th io p ia n s ” , b y w hich w e h av e p ro b a b ly to u n d e rs ta n d th e C e n tral S u d an co u n tries o f B o rn u a n d K a n e m (G a iu s P e t r o n iu s in th e first h a lf o f th e 1 st c e n tu ry , S e pt im u s F laccus a n d J u l iu s M a t e r n u s in th e 2 n d c e n tu ry ), a n d E m p e ro r N ero in 66 s e n t th e first scientific e x p e d itio n in to th e h e a r t o f A frica u n d e r th e co m m an d o f tw o ce n tu rio n s to exp lo re th e course o f th e N ile. T h is e x p e d itio n ex p lo red in d eed th e W h ite N ile as fa r as th e m o u th o f th e B a h r el G h azal a n d S o b a t R iv ers (9° N .) a n d g av e a d e ta ile d d e sc rip tio n o f th e grass b a rra g e s fo u n d o n t h a t p a r t o f th e N ile. I t w as o n th e b asis o f th e se a n d sim ila r ex p e d itio n s a n d o f th e in fo rm a tio n c o n ta in ­ ed in G reek, E g y p tia n a n d o th e r sources t h a t R o m a n sch o lars, a u th o rs o f g eo g ra p h i­ cal collections, com piled th o se p a r ts o f th e ir w orks t h a t d escrib ed A frica. W e h av e know ledge o f fo u r such co llections: th o se o f S t r a b o , P o m po n iu s M e l a a n d P l in y fro m th e 1 st c e n tu ry , a n d o f Cl a u d iu s P t o lem a eu s (P t o l e m y ) fro m th e 2 n d c e n tu ry . O f th e m S trabo a n d P to lem y th e m se lv es jo u rn e y e d alo n g th e N ile, th e la tte r also o n th e R e d Sea. T he m o st v a lu a b le o f th e s e w orks is th e b o o k o f P t o l e m y . I n a d d itio n to th e s e w orks o f R o m a n a u th o rs, in a b o u t 80 o f o u r e ra tw o g eo g ra­ p h ic al collections a p p e a re d in A lex a n d ria giving a n a c c o u n t o f w h a t th e G reco -R o m an w o rld k n ew a b o u t A frica. O ne o f th e m w as com piled b y a n u n k n o w n G reek m e rc h a n t (P e r ip lu s of the R ed S e a ) , th e o th e r b y th e S y ria n M a r in u s o f T y r e . T h e l a t t e r ’s b o o k p erish e d in th e d e s tru c tio n o f th e lib ra ry a t A lex a n d ria, b u t t h a t p a r t o f it w hich d eals w ith th e sources o f th e N ile is q u o te d b y P t o lem y a lm o st w o rd fo r w ord. 7*

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E a rly in th e 1 st c e n tu ry a n excellent tr e a tis e o f T he Sources of the N ile w as w ritte n b y J u b a , k in g o f N u m id ia (27 before o u r e ra to 23 o f o u r era). T h is w o rk is also lo st, b u t P l in y m a d e a m p le use o f it. T h e a n c ie n t peoples u n d e rto o k e x p lo ra to ry w o rk o n ly o n a sm all scale a n d u n sy s­ te m a tic a lly a t th a t. D esp ite th e scrup u lo u s efforts o f G reek a n d R o m a n a u th o rs to find o u t th e tr u th , th e ir co n cep tio n s o f A frica a n d especially o f its in te rio r are as rem a in ed ex tre m e ly n eb u lo u s a n d w ere fa r fro m co rresp o n d in g to re a lity . F o r exam ple, H er o d o t u s describ ed th e N ile as a single riv e r ta k in g its source in W est A frica a n d flow ing fro m th e re in a n a lm o st s tr a ig h t lin e in to th e region o f M eroe in N u b ia w here it tu r n e d n o rth . H e r o d o t u s a n d la te r S trabo b o th believ ed t h a t A frica d id n o t s tr e tc h v e ry far to th e s o u th . T h e y im a g in e d t h a t th e w hole o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t w as o n ly slig h tly la rg e r th a n th e A ra b ia n p en in su la . K in g J u b a th o u g h t t h a t th e N ile w as co n n ected w ith th e N ig er a n d , ta k in g its source in W e ste rn M a u rita n ia , tra v e rs e d som e lak es in a n u n d e rg ro u n d course. P l in y m ix e d u p th e N ig er w ith th e D r a ’a riv e r (so u th o f M orocco) a n d th e N ile w ith th e N iger. E v e n th e fam o u s P to lem y h a d a n u tte r ly cu rio u s co n c ep tio n o f th e riv e r sy ste m o f A frica, co m b in in g re a l fa c ts w ith fa n ta sy . H e k n ew o f all th re e g re a t riv ers o f in te rio r A frica. A ccording to him , th e N ile rises fro m tw o d iffe re n t g re a t lak es in th e so u th , a t th e fo o t o f th e M o u n ta in s o f th e M oon, from w here th e tw o b ran c h es com b in ed flow s tr a ig h t to th e n o r th . I n his view th e re a re tw o g re a t riv e rs in th e in te rio r a re a s — th e N ig er a n d th e G ir; b o th o f th e m ta k e th e ir sources som ew here in th e h e a r t o f A frica, o ne flow ing w est, th e o th e r e a st, a n d b o th falling in to a g re a t lak e. T h u s h e su pposes t h a t in th e h e a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t, a t a b o u t th e sam e d ista n c e fro m th e M e d ite rra n e a n a n d th e E q u a to r, th e re a re tw o g re a t la k es — “ L ak e N ig ritis ” n e a r th e w est co ast, a n d “ L a k e H elo n id a” n o t fa r fro m th e e a s t co a st. T his e n tire co n cep tio n seem s to reflect th e v ag u e allu sio n o f A ra b tra v e lle rs to th e G re a t L ak e s o f E a s t A frica, o n th e on e h a n d , a n d to L ak e C had, o n th e o th e r. As a consequence, in th e e a rly M iddle A ges th e peo p les o f E u ro p e a n d A sia h a d e x tre m e ly s c a n ty know ledge o f ev en th e g eo g rap h ical c h a ra c te r o f A frica, th e ir con cep tio n o f th is c o n tin e n t being n eb u lo u s a n d w rong. O ur in te re s t in th e h is to ry o f th e a n c ie n t p e o p les’ ex p e d itio n s a n d ex p lo ra tio n s in B lack A frica a n d in th e ir know ledge o f t h a t c o n tin e n t is m a in ly h isto ric a l alth o u g h , o f course, it also has a b ea rin g o n th e a n c ie n t p eoples th e m selv es. T h ese voyages h a d no effect a t a ll o n th e f a te o f A frica itself, a n d th e re fo re th e y a re u n im p o rta n t fro m th e p o in t o f view o f th e su b se q u e n t h is to ry o f A frica. A ra b P en etra tio n in to A fric a . A ra b T ra vellers of the M id d le A g es. A w a k en in g of M e d ia e ­ va l E u ro p e's In terest in A fric a

A t th e b eg in n in g o f th e M iddle A ges th e ex p lo ra tio n o f A frica w as in a s ta te o f co m p lete sta g n a tio n . C h ristia n E u ro p e w as n o t in te re s te d in A frica (ex cep t th e few C h ristian co u n tries o f N o rth e a s t A frica w h ich w ill b e discussed below ). T h e w orks o f th e g re a t g eo g rap h ers o f A n tiq u ity w ere b u rie d in d a rk oblivion. M ediaeval m aps con v ey ed u tte r n on sen se a b o u t A frica; fo r in sta n c e , t h a t th e N ile d iv id es A frica a n d A sia. E v e n th e slig h t a n d ra n d o m tr a d e c o n ta c ts th e a n c ie n t G reeks a n d R o m an s h a d e sta b lish e d w ith v ario u s p o in ts o f T ropical A frica w ere d isc o n tin u e d in m e d iae v al E u ro p e . W hile C h ristia n E u ro p e w as n o t in te re s te d in th e A frican c o n tin e n t, th e A ra b s to o k u p th e ta s k o f th e f u rth e r d isco v ery a n d e x p lo ra tio n o f A frica. T h is ta s k w as p r a t o f th e ir p la n s o f c o n q u e st to tu r n th e c o n tin e n t in to a colonial m a rk e t.

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T h e first A rab se ttle m e n ts on th e e a s t c o a st w ere estab lish ed a lre a d y in th e p reIsla m p erio d . I n th e 7 th c e n tu ry som e A rab se ttle m e n ts ex iste d also in th e n o rth e rn reg io n s o f th e N iger R iv e r a n d in th e n o r th e r n p a r t o f S enegal. A fte r th e ap p e a ra n c e o f Isla m , ow ing to th e em ergence o f la rg e a n d p ow erfu l A rab S ta te s in A sia a n d in N o rth A frica, th e re arose, in c e rta in co u n tries o f C e n tral A frica a n d p a rtic u la rly on th e e a st co a st, m a n y A rab cities a n d ev en S ta te s (“ s u lta n a te s ” ), u su a lly v asal co u n ­ tr ie s d e p e n d e n t on th e g re a t s u lta n a te s o f A rabia itself. T h ese A rab cities a n d s u lta n a te s ex iste d th ro u g h o u t th e M iddle A ges. T h e y tr a d e d w ith o th e r A rab co u n tries, In d ia , e tc .; th e ir chief e x p o rt w as gold. O f th e h is to ry o f th e s e A rab cities a n d S ta te s , as w ell as o f th e ir c o n ta c ts w itli o th e r c o u n tries o f A frica (in th e w e ste rn an d c e n tra l areas), we h a v e v e ry slig h t know ledge. I t is bey o n d d o u b t, how ever, t h a t , in som e deg ree a n d form , th e A rab in fluence le ft n o tic ea b le m a rk s u p o n th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f m a n y A frican p eoples an d also on a n u m b e r o f peoples o f th e w est a n d th e in te rio r o f C e n tral A frica. T h e re la tio n s o f A frican peoples w ith A rab m e rc h a n ts p ro m o te d th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e traffic in slaves a n d sla v ery as w ell as tr a d e in general. S im u lta n eo u sly w ith th e ir com m ercial a n d colonizing a c tiv itie s, th e A ra b s carried o n a n im p o r ta n t w ork o f ex p lo ra tio n . In th e 10th c e n tu ry th e A rab tra v e lle rs M a su d i a n d I b n -H aw qal v isite d c e rta in p o in ts o f th e co ast a n d d escrib ed th e m . I n th e 12th c e n tu ry , a n ew m a p o f A frica w as d ra fte d a n d p u b lish e d b y th e A ra b ia n g eo g rap h er E d r is i o n th e basis of d a t a fu rn ish ed b y vario u s A ra b tra v e lle rs. I n th e m id d le o f th e 1 4 th c e n tu ry , th e A rab I b n -B a tu ta w e n t on a jo u rn e y in th e S u d an , reached th e N ig er R iv e r a n d v isite d T im b u k tu . B u t th e b its o f in fo rm a tio n su p p lied b y th e A ra b tra v e lle rs w ere d e s u lto ry a n d in a c c u ra te . T h e m a p m a d e b y E d r is i w as b u t little d iffe ren t from th e in co n g ru o u s m a p s o f th e a n c ie n t w orld. T h e first ex p lo re r to h a v e a scientific a u th o r ity w as e v id e n tly I b n -B a t u t a . B u t o f his w orks o n his tra v e ls in th e W e ste rn S u d a n th e re h a v e rem a in ed , u n fo rtu n a te ly , o n ly d iv e rs s h o rt n a rra tiv e s w hich, fo r exam ple, do n o t c o n ta in th e d escrip tio n o f T im b u k tu . H e could n o t g e t rid e ith e r o f th e m a n y erro n eo u s id eas conceived by a u th o rs o f a n c ie n t tim e s a n d th e e a rly M iddle A ges. F o r in sta n c e , h e also confused th e N ig er R iv e r w ith th e N ile, h e th o u g h t t h a t T im b u k tu w as fo u r m iles aw ay fro m th e N ile, a n d describ ed his d e p a r tu re “ f a r th e r o n th e N ile in a b o a t m ad e o f th e b a r k o f a single tr e e ” . F ro m th e 12 th c e n tu ry onw ard s, in te r e s t in A frica a ro se a g a in in m e d iae v al E u ro p e. B e n ja m in o f T u d e la in th e 12 th c e n tu ry tra v e rs e d th e R e d S ea, v isite d th e islan d o f S o co tra a n d even E th io p ia , fro m w here he r e tu r n e d to C airo o n th e Nile. I n th e 1 3th c e n tu ry M arco P o lo , re tu rn in g fro m his fam o u s v o y ag e to C hina, w e n t to th e islan d s o f M adagascar, Z an z ib ar a n d S o co tra a n d b ro u g h t w ith h im c e rta in in fo rm a­ tio n o n th e in te rio r o f A frica, p a rtic u la rly o n E th io p ia . B u t th e in fo rm a tio n g iven b y th e se tra v e lle rs o n th e u n k n o w n in te rio r p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t w as ev en m ore n eb u lo u s th a n th e A rab s ta te m e n ts . L a te r th e P o rtu g u e se h a d to “ red isc o v er” E th io p ia ev en a f te r th e tw o ab o v e -m en tio n ed E u ro p e a n tra v e lle rs h a d v isite d it. O n th e m a p s p u b lish ed in I ta ly in th e 14th a n d in th e m id d le o f th e 1 5 th cen tu ries th e o u tlin e s o f th e A frican co asts b eg an to a p p ro x im a te r e a lity fo r th e first tim e b u t th e re p re se n ta tio n o f th e in te rio r are a s o f th e c o n tin e n t show ed th e sam e a b s u rd itie s as th e a n c ie n t m aps. T h e first serious discoveries a n d e x p lo ra tio n s o n th e co asts o f A frica w ere p u rsu ed b y th e P o rtu g u e se in th e 15th c e n tu ry .

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Discovery of Black Africa by the Portuguese I n 1415 th e P o rtu g u e se to o k th e stro n g h o ld o f th e M oors, C eu ta, o n th e M oroccan c o a st. P rin c e E n r iq u e (H e n r y ), son o f K in g J o h n I o f P o rtu g a l, to o k p a r t in th e siege a n d c a p tu re o f th e fo rtre ss. D u rin g his s ta y in M orocco h e n o t o n ly becam e a c q u a in te d w ith th is c o u n try , b u t he h e a rd m u ch a b o u t th e in te rio r regions o f A frica ly in g so u th o f M orocco, in p a rtic u la r T im b u k tu . H is in te r e s t in th is n ew , u n k n o w n w orld b ein g a ro u se d , h e decided to organize th e ex p lo ra tio n o f th e A frican co n tin e n t a f te r h is r e tu r n to P o rtu g a l. T h e first s te p to th e d isc o v ery o f th e coasts o f B lack A frica w as th e ex p e d itio n ro u n d C ape B o ja d o r se n t b y P rin c e E n r iq u e a n d ca rrie d o u t b y G il E a n e s in 1434. I n 1441—42 A n to n io G onsalv ez a n d N u n o T r ista m sailed p a s t C ape B lanco a n d o n th e w a y b a c k fro m R io d e Oro b ro u g h t w ith th e m som e gold d u s t a n d te n “ N eg ro ” slaves. S till in 1442 P o rtu g a l o b ta in e d from th e P o p e a b u ll g ra n tin g h e r exclusive rig h ts to all la n d s t h a t m ig h t be d iscovered b etw een C ape B o jad o r a n d In d ia . A fte r th is follow ed d isc o v ery u p o n d isco v ery fo r m o re th a n a h a lf c e n tu ry . I n 1445 JoÄ o F e r n a n d e s c a rrie d o u t th e first tra v e l in to th e d e p th s o f th e c o n tin e n t, s e ttin g o u t fro m R io d e O ro a n d exp lo rin g a p a r t o f th e S a h a ra fo r sev en m o n th s. F ollow ing th is , in 1446, D in iz D iaz re a c h e d th e m o u th o f th e S enegal R iv e r a n d d isco v ered Cape V erde. I n 1448, L a n c e r o t ex p lo red th e coast as fa r as th e G am b ia R iv er. I n 1445—56, th e I ta lia n s L u ig i D a Cadam osto a n d U so ш M a re u n d e r P o rtu g u e se com m ission d isco v ered th e C ape V erde Isla n d s, explored th e region o f th e S enegal a n d G am bia R iv e rs a n d b ro u g h t b a c k m u ch in fo rm a tio n o n T im b u k tu . I n 1460, D io go G omez disco v ered th e riv e r a n d m o u n ta in p en in su la o f S ierra L eone. I n 1462, P ed r o d e S in t r a ex p lo re d th e c o a st as fa r as C ape P alm a s (in m o d e m L ib eria). T h u s i t w as t h a t b y th e six tie s o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry th e m a jo r p a r t o f th e u p p e r G u in ea co a st w as ex ­ p lo red a n d in c lu d ed in th e “ possessions” o f th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l. I n 1469 K in g A lfo n so (“ th e A fric an ” ) o f P o rtu g a l g ra n te d exclusive r ig h ts to A fri­ c a n tr a d e to F e r n a n d o G omez fo r five y ea rs w ith th e stip u la tio n t h a t e v e ry y e a r a n a d d itio n a l 300 m iles o f c o a st lin e in W e st A frica so u th o f S ierra L eo n e w ould be ex p lo re d . F o llow ing th is , th e P o rtu g u e se fo rced th e ir ad v a n ce . D u rin g th e tw elv e su b se q u e n t y e a rs (1469— 1481) th e a g e n ts o f G omez ex p lo red th e e n tire co a st from (to d a y ’s) L ib e ria to th e C ape o f S t. C a th a rin e . A lrea d y in 1471 his a g e n ts a p p e a re d o n th e G old C oast a n d b eg an tr a d in g in gold. I t w as his a g e n ts w ho in 1470—71 d is­ co v ered th e islan d s o f Sáo T om é a n d P rin cip e, F ern a n d o P o a n d A n nobón. T h e P o rtu g u e se successes aro u se d covetou s d esires in th e B ritish . E n g la n d w as a l­ re a d y p re p a re d to se n d a n e x p e d itio n to G u in ea b u t a p r o te s t fro m P o rtu g a l com ­ pelled h e r th is tim e to ren o u n c e h e r p la n s (1481). I n 1482, th e P o rtu g u e se e x p e d itio n o f D io go Cam crossed th e m o u th o f th e Ogowe R iv e r, d isc o v ered th e Congo riv e r a n d , sailing u p stre a m , re a c h e d B o m a. I n 1485 th e sa m e Cam w ith a stro n g e r ex p e d itio n once ag ain sailed u p th e Congo as fa r as th e m o u th o f th e M pozo, n e a r Y ellala falls. On his w ay b a c k fro m th is e x p e d itio n Cam b ro u g h t w ith h im som e a b o rig in es to P o rtu g a l. I n 1486, Jo Ä o A lfo n so D ’avaro disco v ered B en in . I n 1487, P e r o D ’E v o ra a n d G o nzalez E a n n e s c o n d u c te d a n e x p e d itio n w ith a view to ex p lo rin g th e in te rio r o f A frica. T h ey s ta r t e d fro m (p re sen t-d a y ) Senegal to v isit T im b u k tu . T h e P o rtu g u e s e claim to h a v e re a c h e d T im b u k tu in re a lity . C o n sid erab ly m o re sig n ifican t w ere tw o s u b se q u e n t ex p e d itio n s — th o se o f B a r th o l o m e u Dia z a n d P e d r o d e C o v ilh a m , s e n t o u t in 1486— 87 in tw o d ire c tio n s: th e

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fo rm e r h a d to c irc u m n av ig ate A frica fro m th e w est, a n d th e l a tte r h a d to sail th ro u g h th e R e d S ea. T h e goal s e t to b o th o f th e m w as th e sam e: to re a c h I n d ia , g a th e r ac c u ­ r a te in fo rm atio n o n th e A ra b s e ttle m e n ts alo n g th e e a s t co a st a n d verify; th e ru m o u rs o f “ th e C h ristia n S ta te o f P re s te r J o h n ” ex istin g in th e in te rio r o f A frica. F ro m th e en d o f th e 1 3 th c e n tu ry th e legend o f “ th e la n d o f P re s te r J o h n ” sp re a d th r o u g h o u t E u ro p e . I t sa id t h a t a f te r th e O tto m a n em p ire h a d co n q u ered “ th e H o ly L a n d ” — P a le stin e — a n d a n u m b e r o f C h ristian co u n tries, a c e rta in C h ristian p rie s t, “ P re s te r J o h n ” , w ith th o u sa n d s o f believers, escaping th e M oslem y o k e, w an ­ d e re d fa r off e ith e r in to A frica or in to A sia a n d c re a te d th e re a C h ristian S ta te t h a t ex iste d as a secluded C h ristia n islan d in a sea o f M oslem S ta te s a n d “ sa v a g e ” p ag a n peo p les. T h e m o st w idely sp re a d h y p o th e sis a t first w as t h a t th is m y sterio u s C h ristian em p ire w as in C hina o r th e re a b o u ts . B u t w h en a f te r th e v o y ag e o f M arco P olo it a p p e a re d t h a t it w as n e ith e r in C hina n o r in In d ia , a n d t h a t th e p eoples o f A sia k n ew n o th in g o f i t a t all, th e n th e legend s ta y e d w ith A frica. T h e leg en d w as confirm ed b y t h e fa c t t h a t fro m tim e to tim e vag u e ru m o u rs o f E th io p ia sp re a d in E u ro p e . A n d w h en A fricans, w hom D io go Cam b ro u g h t w ith h im fro m th e G u in ea c o a st in I486, co n v in ced th e P o rtu g u e se t h a t fa r to th e n o r th e a s t o f th e ir c o u n try in th e d e p th s o f A frica w as a g re a t em p ire w hose sovereign u se d a co p p er cross as a n em b lem o f h is p ow er, th e n th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l, seeing in th is th e co n firm atio n o f th e ru m o u r o f “ th e la n d o f P re s te r J o h n ” , decided to clarify th is p ro b lem a n d s e n t tw o ex p ed itio n s a t once to se arch a f te r th is m y sterio u s em pire. B artholometj D laz sailed alo n g th e w e st co a st, ro u n d e d th e so u th e rn tip o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t (w ith o u t seeing th e C ape b ecau se o f th e sto rm ) a n d re a c h e d th e m o u th o f th e G re a t F ish R iv e r. C om pelled b y his crew to tu r n b a c k , h e w as th e first E u ro p e a n to sig h t th e C ape o f G ood H o p e, w hich h e n a m e d “ C ape o f S to rm s ” . L a te r o n th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l ren a m ed it “ C ape o f G ood H o p e ” , sin ce h e co n clu d ed fro m w h a t D ia z re la te d t h a t th e ho p e fo r th e P o rtu g u e se to d isco v er a t la s t th e long so u g h t-fo r sea ro u te to In d ia w as justified . C ovilham a n d P a y v a w e n t to E g y p t to g e th e r. F ro m th e re P a yv a tr ie d to g e t in to E th io p ia , b u t h e w as slain o n th e S u d an c o a st (n ea r to d a y ’s S u ak in ). Covilham sailed v ia th e R e d S ea to In d ia , a n d o n his w a y b a c k h e w as th e first E u ro p e a n to v isit th e n o r th co a st o f M adagascar a n d se v eral p o in ts o f th e e a s t co a st o f A frica, S ofala am o n g th e m , w hich a t t h a t tim e w as a flourishing A ra b colony, c e n tre o f th e tr a d e in th e gold o b ta in e d fro m M on o m o tap a. R e a c h in g E g y p t, C ovilham s e n t w ord o f his v o y ag e to th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l a n d , e m b a rk in g o n th e S o m ali co a st (a t p re se n td a y Z eila), se t o u t fo r E th io p ia w here he a rriv e d in 1491. T h e in fo rm a tio n g a th e re d b y D ia z a n d C ovilham p ro m p te d th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l t o sen d a big ex p e d itio n w ith th e ta s k o f sailing to I n d ia ro u n d th e C ape o f G ood H o p e a n d v isitin g o n its w ay th e A ra b colonies o f th e e a st c o a st to becom e a c q u a in t­ e d w ith th e m m o re th o ro u g h ly . L e d b y Vasco de Gama, th is e x p e d itio n s e t off w ith fo u r vessels a n d 169 m e n o n J u ly 8, 1497. On N o v em b e r 18 i t ro u n d e d th e C ape a n d , tu r n in g to th e n o r th , la n d e d in a b a y o f th e s o u th e a s t c o a st o n C h ristm as D a y . V asco d e G ama g av e th e la n d in g place th e n am e “ C h ristm as H a r b o u r ” (P o rt N a ta l). T h en , v isitin g S ofala, M ozam bique a n d M alindi, h e sailed o n to I n d ia . O n his w a y b a c k , in 1498, h e s to p p e d b y M ozam bique a n d ex p lo red th e reg io n o f Q u elim an e fo r a m o n th . A rriv in g hom e, he re p o rte d to h is sovereign o n th e flourishing A ra b cities, p o rts an d colonies o f t h e E a s t A fric an co ast a n d th e a d ja c e n t islan d s, o n th e ir tr a d e c o n ta c ts w ith th e in te rio r o f A frica a n d o n th e difficulties h e h a d h a d in c e rta in p laces o f th e e a s t c o a st b ecause o f th e h o stile a t titu d e o f th e A rab s. T h e re su lts o f th e P o rtu g u e se discoveries can b e su m m ed u p as follow s:

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1. T h ey discovered th e e n tire w estern litto ra l, as a re su lt o f w hich th e y s ta r te d tra d in g sy stem a tic ally w ith th e co ast peoples a n d (by th e v e ry en d o f th e 15th cen ­ tu r y ) p e n e tra te d in to th e Congo co u n tries (D io go Ca m ). 2. T h e y ro u n d e d th e C ape o f G ood H ope (B a btholom eu D ia z , V asco D e G a m a ) a n d th u s d iscovered th e sea ro u te to In d ia , p e n e tra te d in to th e e a st co ast, finding o u t th e p o ssibilities o f sy ste m a tic tra d in g w ith th e A rab colonies o f th e c o a st a n d o th e r co u n tries o f th e in la n d regions. 3. B y th e e n d o f th e c e n tu ry th e y p e n e tra te d as fa r as E th io p ia (Co v ilh a m ). 4. I n 1470—71 th e y d iscovered a n d seized th e islan d s o f th e G u lf o f G u in ea (Sáo T om é, P rin c ip e , A nnobón a n d F ern a n d o Po). A ll th e se a c h ie v e m e n ts p a v e d th e w a y for th e tr a n sitio n t o an o v er-a ll in v a sio n o f A frica, ch iefly for th e p u rp o se o f th e sla v e tr a d e . T h is tr a n sitio n to o k p la ce a t th e tu r n o f th e 15th an d 1 6th cen tu ries a n d u sh ered in a n ew ep och o f th e h isto r y o f A frica.

T he Q uestion of “ P r io r ity ” in the D iscovery of A fric a T h e P o rtu g u e se w ere th e first am o n g th e E u ro p ea n n a tio n s to en g a g e in th e geo g ra p h ica l d isc o v e r y an d ex p lo ra tio n o f A frica. A tte m p ts w ere sev era l tim e s m a d e, e sp e c ia lly o n th e p a rt o f th e F ren ch an d Ita lia n s, to ch allen ge th is p rio rity .

T h e F re n c h claim t h a t a d v e n tu ro u s N o rm a n n a v ig a to rs, s ta rtin g fro m D iep p e, a lre a d y in th e 1 4th c e n tu ry , i.e. a h u n d re d y ea rs in a d v a n c e o f th e P o rtu g u e se , sailed p a s t th e co asts o f W e st A frica as fa r as th e G old C oast, t h a t th e y e stab lish ed s e ttle ­ m e n ts o n th e S enegal R iv er, b u ilt se v eral fo rtre sses (“ L ittle P a r is ” , “ L ittle D ie p p e ” ) on th e L ib e ria n co a st a n d se t u p th re e tr a d in g s ta tio n s on th e G old C oast (E lm in a , A ccra a n d C o rm a n ty n e). T h ey allege t h a t th e se F re n c h colonies ex iste d for f o rty o d d y e a rs a n d w ere th e n a b a n d o n e d b ecause th e w a r situ a tio n in F ra n c e d is tra c te d a t ­ te n tio n fro m overseas co n q u ests. T h e I ta lia n s claim th e G enoese vessels a lre a d y in th e 1 4 th c e n tu ry v isite d th e lit to ­ r a l o f W e st A frica as fa r as th e G u lf o f G uin ea. S uch a ssertio n s a re n o t confirm ed b y a n y d ire c t d o c u m e n ta ry evidence, how ever sp u rio u s it m a y be. T h eir o n ly a rg u m e n t is t h a t th e first m a p show ing th e A frican c o n tin e n t w ith m o re o r less a c c u ra te ly d ra w n o u tlin es o f its w estern , s o u th e rn a n d n o th e a ste rn e x tre m itie s w as m a d e in G enoa as e a rly as 1351 (th e fam o u s “ P o rtu la n o ” a tla s w hich is co n serv ed in th e B iblio teca L a u re n z ia n a a t F lorence). S uch a m a p , how ever, m ig h t h a v e b een — a n d p ro b a b ly w as — m a d e b y th e G enoese w ith o u t a n y ex p lo ra tio n o n th e ir sid e, on th e b asis o f d a ta fu rn ish ed b y A rab sources, ju s t as th e fam o u s g eo g rap h ical b o o k s w ere w ritte n in a n c ie n t R om e. O n th e basis o f e x ta n t d o cu m en ts i t is im p o ssib le to find o u t w ith a n y c e r ta in ty w h e th e r N o rm an colonies in r e a lity ex iste d in th e 1 4th c e n tu ry or th e y h a v e b een in v e n te d la te r b y F re n c h p a trio ts , su p p o rte rs o f co lonization (such as th e D o m in ican fria r L abat w ho in 1728 p u b lish ed a five-volum e w o rk on th e h is to ry o f F re n c h colonies in Senegal) to d efen d th e r ig h t o f F ra n c e to h e r A frican colonies e stab lish ed in th e 17th c e n tu ry . B u t even if new d o c u m e n ta ry evidence w ere d isco v ered to p ro v e b ey o n d d o u b t th e t r u t h o f F re n c h colonies a n d G enoese ex p lo ra tio n s in th e 1 4th c e n tu ry , th is w ould n o t a lte r th e fa c t th a t th e g lo ry o f p rio rity in th e d isco v ery a n d e x p lo ra tio n o f A frica is d u e to th e P o rtu g u e se. T h e N o rm an colonists a n d G enoese v o y ag ers, ev en if th e y ex isted in re a lity , m ad e n o c o n trib u tio n to th e scientific k n o w l­ edge E u ro p e a n n a tio n s h a d o f A frica. T h eir ch ance a d v e n tu re s, w hich b en efited

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n e ith e r m a n k in d n o r science, c a n n o t in th e le a st dim in ish th e h isto ric significance o f th e P o rtu g u e se discoveries, a n y m o re th a n , say , th e h isto ric significance o f Colu m ­ b u s ’ a c h ie v em e n t can be o b scu red o r dim in ish ed b y th e fa c t t h a t th e w ind b y ch an ce ca rrie d a few N o rm an s to th e N ew fo u n d lan d co a st 500 y ea rs before th e d isco v ery o f A m erica.

C h aracteristics of P ortuguese C olonization in the 15th C en tu ry

T h e p rim a ry m o tiv e force o f P o rtu g u e se e x p lo ra tio n w as th e d esire to discover new resources o f gold a n d la te r o f spices. B esides, th e P o rtu g u e se se t th em selv es th e ta s k o f tra ilin g a new , m ore co n v e n ie n t, sea ro u te to In d ia . B u t, w ith th e ir ad v a n ce alo n g th e w estern litto ra l, th is la tte r ta s k g rad u a lly becam e self-sufficient: th e m ore th e y cam e n e a r to th e fulfilm ent o f th e second ta s k , th e m o re it eclipsed th e first goal. A t th e beginning P o rtu g u e se tr a d e in A frica d evelo p ed in th e fo rm o f p riv a te u n ­ d e rta k in g s, en jo y in g o n ly m o ral s u p p o rt o f th e P o rtu g u e se S ta te , b u t th e f u rth e r e x p lo ra tio n o f th e litto r a l w as considered a cause o f n a tio n a l im p o rta n ce a n d was o rg an iz ed b y th e S ta te itself. T o safeg u ard th e ir traffic in gold, th e P o rtu g u e se t r a d ­ ers (an d la te r th e ir com panies) b eg an to bu ild fortified sta tio n s. T h e first such fo rt w as b u ilt o n th e A rguin co a st in 1461 (according to o th e r so u rces as ea rly as 1448), a n d th e second o n th e G old C oast in 1481—82, b y G o m ez ’ co m p an y u n d e r th e n am e “ Säo Jo rg e d a M in a” (afterw ard s E lm in a). A fte r th e ap p e a ra n c e o f G o m ez ’ co m p an y (1469) th e traffic in gold w as follow ed b y th e slav e tr a d e . T h e first special ex p e d itio n in se arch o f th e “ living m erc h an d ise” w as c o n d u c te d b y a g e n ts o f G o m ez ’ in 1470. I t ca rrie d 200 slav es to P o rtu g a l. A fter th is , slav e-raid in g ex p e d itio n s becam e m ore o r less sy ste m a tic , b u t u n til th e en d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry th is n ew com m ercial b ra n c h d id n o t grow to a n y co nsiderable p ro ­ p o rtio n s. J u s t as m onopolistic rig h ts to tr a d e o n th e litto r a l w ere g ra n te d to G om ez , th e k ing o f P o rtu g a l g av e c e rta in m em bers o f th e P o rtu g u e se n o b ility “ concessions” for se v eral o f th e islan d s d iscovered in th e G u lf o f G uinea in 1470— 71 (for S äo T om é Is la n d a lre a d y in 1485, P rin c ip e Is la n d in 1500 a n d A n n o b ó n in 1503). T h ese “ concessio n n a ires” , en jo y in g exclusive rig h ts to th e ex p lo ita tio n o f th e islan d s, w ere also g ra n te d th e r ig h t o f p ublic a d m in istra tio n . T h e e x p lo ita tio n o f th e islan d s consisted m a in ly in th e ex ten sio n o f th e su g a r cane p la n ta tio n s. Y e t th e P o rtu g u e se could n o t ta k e full possession o f th e islan d o f F e rn a n d o P o , w h ere th e y fo u n d stro n g in d ig e n ­ o u s trib e s. T h ere th e y c o n te n te d th em selv es w ith se ttin g u p a tra d in g sta tio n . To s tu d y th e h is to ry o f A ra b p e n e tra tio n in to A frica in th e M iddle A ges a n d th e first sta g e o f P o rtu g u e se in tru sio n is v e ry im p o rta n t also in o rd er to u n d e rs ta n d th e su b se q u e n t h is to ry o f A frica, because th e A ra b s a n d th e P o rtu g u e se co n tin u ed to p la y a p ro m in e n t role in th is h is to ry ev en in th e su b se q u e n t ce n tu ries. B u t, fro m th e p o in t o f view o f th e h is to ry o f th e A frican peoples th e m selv es, i t h as alm o st n o th in g to te ll u s. A ra b a n d P o rtu g u e se b usiness in A frica in th is e a rly epoch e ith e r d id n o t co n cern th e dom estic life o f th e peoples o f A frica o r w as so superficial a n d d esu lto ry t h a t i t could n o t h av e a n y e ssen tial effect u p o n th e t r e n d o f d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e A fri­ ca n peoples.

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B IB L IO G R A P H Y (In a d d itio n to th e g e n era l w orks on th e h isto ry of th e d isco v ery of A frica, in d ic a te d o n p . 39.) E X P L O R A T IO N O F A F R IC A B Y P E O P L E S O F A N T IQ U IT Y A r n o l d H e e r e n , Id e en über d ie P o litik , den V erkehr u n d d en H a n d e l der vorn eh m sten V ölker der a lten W elt (G ö ttin g en , 1815). — (F re n c h e d itio n :) I dees su r les re la tio n s p o litiq u e s et com m erciales d es a n cien s p e u p le s en A /r iq u e . T ra n s la tio n fro m th e G erm an b y D ésangier. 2 vols. (P a ris, 1800). R e n n e l , G eography o f H erodotos (1800). C a r l M u l l e r , G eographi graeci m in o re s. K n o b e l , D e N ig e r de A lte n . L a t r e i l l e , D iss e r ta tio n su r Г e x p ed itio n d u con su l S u éton e P a u lin e en A /r iq u e , et su r le fleu ve N ig e r de P lin e , et le N ig ir de P tolém ée (1807). F . R o b iu , “ P é rip le s de l ’A friq u e d a n s l ’a n tiq u ité ” (R e v u e A rch éol., 1861). A n t o n io R i b e i r o D os S a n t o s , M e m o ria sobre d o is a n tig o s m a p p a s geographicos. V i v i e n S a i n t -M a r t in , L e N o r d de Г A /r iq u e d a n s V a n tiq u ité (P a ris, 1863). P . G a f f a r e l , E u d o x e de C y ziq u e et le p é r ip le de Г A /r iq u e (P aris, 1873). M. B e r l i o u x , D o c tr in a P to le m a e i ab i n i u r i a re c e n tio ru m v in d ic a ta , siv e N i l u s s u p e r io r et N ig e r ve ru s, h o d ie r n u s E g h ir r e n , ab a n tiq u is e x p lo r a ti (P aris, 1874). E . H . B u n b u r y , A H is to r y o f A n c ie n t G eography , 2 vols. (2nd ed. L o n d o n , 1883). M. G o s s e l i n , R echerches su r la geographic system a tiq u e et p o s itiv e des a n cien s (P a ris, n. d.).

A R A B C O L O N IZ A T IO N A N D A R A B E X P L O R E R S O F A F R IC A I N T H E M ID D L E A G ES

( a ) H isto rica l w orks C a r d o n n e , D e s b o r o u g h -C o o l e y a n d P r u e n , in d i c a t e d o n p . 92.

(b ) W orks of A ra b travellers a n d geographers I b n H a u k a l , D e s c rip tio n de V A fr iq ú e . F re n c h tra n s la tio n b y M. de S lane (P a ris, 1842). E l E d r i s i , L a géographie. T ra n s la tio n b y J o u b e r t (P a ris, 1836).

( c ) W orks on A ra b travellers a n d geographers A. C h e r b o n n e a u , “ L es géographes a ra b e s a u m o y en á g é ” ( R e v u e de géogr., 1881). H

artm ann,

E d r is i A fr ic a (1796)

J . G. D . K o s e g a r t e n , D e M o h a m m e d e -Ib n B a tu ta arabe T in g ita n o e ju sq u e itin e r ib u s (Je n a 1818).

E X P L O R A T IO N O F A F R IC A B Y E U R O P E A N S IN T H E E A R L Y M ID D L E A G ES D ’A v e z a c , N o tic e s s u r des découvertes a u m o y e n ágé d a n s Г ocean A tla n tiq u e (P a ris, 1845). D e S a n t a r e n e , E s s a i s u r V h isto ire de la co sm o g ra p h ie et de la carto g ra p h ie p e n d a n t le m o y e n ágé etc., 3 vols. (P aris, 1849 —52). G . G r a v i e r , “ R e c h e rc h e s s u r le s n a v ig a tio n s e u r o p é e n n e s f a ite s a u m o y e n á g é a u x c o te s o c c i­ d e n ta le s d ’A f r iq u e ” ( E x p lo r a tio n , 1878, N N . 89 —90). C. D e L a R o n c i é r e , L a découverte de V A friq u e a u m o yen äge, 3 vols. (Cairo, 1 9 2 4 —27).

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P O R T U G U E S E D IS C O V E R IE S I N A F R IC A I N T H E 15 T H C E N T U R Y

G. D e A z u r a r a , T h e C h ron icle of the D isc o v e ry a n d C on qu est of G u in ea. T ra n sl. fro m t h e P o r t u ­ guese b y C. R . B e az le y a n d E . P re sta g e . 2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1899). (T he m a n u s c rip t, w r it­ t e n a s e a rly as th e 1 6th c e n tu ry , w as fo u n d a t th e R o y a l L ib ra ry in P a ris in 1837 a n d w as first p u b lish e d in P o rtu g u e se in P a ris in 1841). M o n i n , “ P re m ie res d é c o u v e rte s p o rtu g a ise s; l ’in fa n t H e n ri” (R e v u e de géogr., 1778, D ec.). C. R a y m o n d B e a z l e y , P r in c e H e n r y the N a v ig a to r (L o n d o n , 1895). — T h e D a w n of M o d e rn G eograph y, 3 vols. (L o n d o n , 1897 —1906). — “ P rin c e H e n ry o f P o rtu g a l, e tc .” (in A m e r ic a n H isto r ic a l R e v ie w , vol. x v ii, 1912). G e o r g e M c c a l l T h e a l , T h e B e g in n in g of S o u th A f r ic a n H is to r y (L o n d o n , 1902). C h . D e L a n n o y a n d H . V a n L i n d e n , H isto ir e de V e x p a n sio n colon iale dee p e u p le s e u ro p ie n s, v o l. i: “ P o rtu g a l e t E sp a g n e (ju sq u ’a u d é b u t d u 19' sió cie)” (B ru ss e ls—P a ris , 1907). L e o W e i n e r , A fr ic a a n d the D isc o v e ry o f A m e ric a , 3 vols. (P h ila d e lp h ia , 1 9 2 0 —2 5 ). J . T . M u n d a y , T he P o rtu g u ese D isc o ver C en tral A fr ic a 1 4 8 2 —1580 (L o n d o n , 1951).

F R A N C O -P O R T U G U E S E D IS P U T E O V E R T H E P R IO R IT Y I N T H E D IS C O V E R Y O F A F R IC A V il l a u d D e B e l l e f o n d , R e la tio n des costes d 'A friq u e , a p p ellee G u in ée, avec la d e s c rip tio n du p a y s , m oeu rs et fa g on s de v iv r e des h a b ita n ts, des p ro d u ctio n s de la terre et des m a rch a n d ises q u ’o n en a p p o rté , avec les rem arqu es h istoriqu es su r ces costes (Le to u t re m a rq u é p a r le

sieu r V. E sc u y e r, sie u r de B ellefond, d a n s le v o y a g e q u ’il у a fa it e n 1666 e t 1667) (P a ris, 1669). A n d r é B r u e a n d P . L a b a t , N o u velle re la tio n de V A friq u e O cciden tale, con ten an t u n e d e s c r ip ­

L o u is

tio n exacte d u S én égal et d es p a y s situ é s entre le C a p B la n c et la r iv iir e S ie r r a L eone ju s q u 'ä p liis de 300 lieu es en a v a n t d a n s les terree, etc. d 'a p r is les M é m o ires d 'A n d re B ru e, avec l'éta t a n cien et p re sen t des C o m p a g n ies, 5 vols. (P a ris, 1728—29). E s t a n q e l in , R echerches su r les voyages et découvertes d es n a vig a teu rs n o rm a n d s en A friq u e

(P a ris, 1823). D e S a n t a r e n b , R echerches su r la p r io r ité de la d ico u verte des p a y s situ é s su r la cóte occiden tale d 'A friq u e , au -d elá d u C a p B o y a d o r, et su r les p r o g r is de la scien ce géographiqu e, a p ré s les n a v ig a tio n s des P o rtu g a ls a u X V * s ü c le (P a ris, 1842). M a r c e l , “ L es prem ieres n a v ig a tio n s franijaises ä la c ó te d ’A friq u e ” (R e v u e S c ien tifiq u e,

1883).

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PART TWO B L A C K A F R IC A I N T H E A G E O F P R IM IT IV E A CC U M U LA TIO N (The E p o ch o f th e S lave T ra d e — 16th to 1 8 th C enturies)

CHAPTER 1

IN T R O D U C T IO N

O rigin o f the S lave T ra d e

As h a s b een m e n tio n e d above, th e P o rtu g u e se a lre a d y in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry began, th o u g h on a sm all scale, to traffic in slaves, c a p tu rin g A frican ab o rig in es a n d c a rry ­ in g th e m to P o rtu g a l. V a st horizons o p en ed fo r th e slav e tr a d e in th e w ake o f th e discoveries a n d te rr ito r ia l seizures along th e e n tire c o a st o f A frica, w h en th e P o r tu ­ g uese b u ilt first a series o f p o sts, p ro v isio n d e p o ts a n d tra d in g sta tio n s, a n d la te r m ilita ry fo rts . T h e d isc o v ery o f A m erica a n d th e e s ta b lish m e n t o f E u ro p e a n p la n ta ­ tio n s th e re in c re ase d th e d e m a n d fo r th e “ liv in g m e rc h a n d ise ” . T h e traffic in slaves ch a n g ed fro m a n accessory o c c u p atio n o f gold a n d spice tr a d e rs , a d v e n tu re rs a n d p ira te s , in to a p rim a ry in c e n tiv e o f th e e n tire A frican colonial a c tiv ity first o f P o r ­ tu g a l a n d th e n o f a n u m b e r o f o th e r E u ro p e a n pow ers. T h u s th e t u r n o f th e 15th a n d 1 6 th ce n tu rie s m e a n t to A frica th e tr a n s itio n fro m th e “ ag e o f th e g re a t d isco v ­ eries” in to th e age o f th e g re a te s t ev er a b u se o f m a n b y m a n , in to th o se th r e e ce n tu ries d u rin g w hich a g e n ts o f th e w e a lth y classes o f th e m o st d ev elo p ed , m o st “ civilized” a n d “ e n lig h te n e d ” n a tio n s o f m a n k in d p u rsu e d a v a s t h u n t fo r th e ir b ac k w ard a n d defenceless “ b la ck -sk in n e d ” fellow beings, e x te rm in a tin g h u n d re d s o f th o u sa n d s o f peo p le w ho re sis te d , o r w ho could n o t b e a r to be tr a n s p o r te d o r p u t to h a rd la b o u r o n p la n ta tio n s , a n d tra n sfo rm in g m illions o f “ b lack p eo p le” in to b e a sts o f d ra u g h t.

T h e S la ve T ra d e a s a n E sse n tia l F a cto r in the H is to r y o f B la ck A fric a in the 16th to 1 8 th C enturies

T h e slav e tr a d e becam e a n e ssen tial a n d decisive fa c to r in th e e n tire h is to ry o f A frica a n d o f its in h a b ita n ts rig h t fro m th e beginning o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , a n d so it re m a in e d th ro u g h o u t th e w hole age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n . T h is is tr u e n o t o nly o f th o se A frican peoples w ho d u rin g t h a t p e rio d cam e in to d ire c t c o n ta c t w ith th e E u ro p e a n slav e m e rc h a n ts as a c tiv e o r p assiv e p a rtic ip a n ts o f t h e slav e tr a d e . I t is tr u e also o f th e peoples w hose co u n tries, a lth o u g h v isite d b y t h e E u ro p e a n s, fo r som e rea so n o r o th e r re m a in e d u n to u c h e d b y th e sla v e-raid in g e x p e d itio n s o f E u ro p e a n m e rc h a n ts a n d th e ir A frican a g e n ts (e.g ., th e p eoples o f S o u th A frica), a n d i t is tr u e ev en o f th o se peoples o f th e in te rio r o f th e c o n tin e n t w ho n e v e r u n til th e en d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry h a d seen a single w h ite m a n . T o s a y n o th in g o f th o s e w hose sons a n d d a u g h te rs fell in to sla v e ry as a re s u lt o f th e a c tiv itie s o f A fric an a n d A ra b slav e d ealers, ev en th o se few peoples w ho w ere sp a re d (w ith th e ex c e p tio n o f som e o f th e m o st b a c k w a rd peoples o f th e e q u a to ria l fo rests) h a d to ex p e rien c e th e fa ta l conse-

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quences o f th e slave tr a d e (forced m ig ra tio n s, ru p tu re o f tr a d e a n d o th e r co n ta c ts w ith n eig h b o u rin g A frican peoples, etc.).

Three P h ases of the S la ve T ra d e in A fric a

I n th e h isto ry o f th e A frican slave tr a d e th r e e p h ases ca n a n d sh o u ld b e d istin g ­ u ish ed : 1. T h e first is th e p ira tic slave tra d e . In d iv id u a l E u ro p e a n m e rc h a n ts, a d v e n tu re rs, n a v ig a to rs o r com m on sea ro b b e rs engaged in th e h u n tin g fo r b lack -sk in s on th e ir ow n ac c o u n t, a t th e ir ow n expense a n d risk (a t ra n d o m o r sy ste m a tic a lly ), w hile th e official g o v e rn m e n t org an s o f th e ir E u ro p e a n m o th e r co u n tries h a d n o th in g to do w ith th e ir business o r le n t th e m ta c it, p assiv e su p p o rt. T h is is how th e slav e tr a d e b eg an in th e 15 th c e n tu ry , a n d th is is how it co n tin u ed o n th e w hole th ro u g h o u t th e first sta g e o f its p ro sp e rity , t h a t is, u n til th e eig h ties o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry . 2. F ro m th e eig h ties o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry b eg an , w ith th e fo u n d in g o f m o n o p o listic sla v e -tra d in g com panies, th e second p hase, th e h e y d a y o f slav e tr a d e . T h e sem ilegal, non-official c h a ra c te r o f th e slav e tr a d e g av e w a y to th e “ re sp e c ta b le ” sla v e -tra d in g busin ess (officially sa n c tio n e d b y g o v ern m e n ts a n d kings) o f th e se com panies co n ­ sistin g o f th e “ b e s t” b u sinessm en o f th e risin g ca p ita list classes o f th e civilized co u n ­ trie s. P rim itiv e m e th o d s em ployed b y p ira te s a n d a d v e n tu re rs o f th e crim in al or sem icrim in al ty p e (like H a w k i n s a n d o th e rs) g av e w ay to a h ig h ly o rg an ized sy stem o f b a n d itr y , o p e ra tin g w ith re g u la r arm e d forces m a rsh a llin g a w hole n e tw o rk o f sla v e -tra d in g sta tio n s , m ilita ry fo rts, e tc ., to en su re th e h a n d lin g o f th e affairs a n d d efe n d m o nopolistic rig h ts. T h e sla v e-h u n tin g g ro u n d w as w id en in g : ex p ed itio n s n o t o nly cov ered th e e n tire u p p e r a n d low er G uinea co a st b u t b eg an to p e n e tra te deep in to th e c o n tin e n t a n d seized c e rta in te rrito rie s as fa r as th e e a st co a st, c o m p e t­ in g w ith th e A rab slav e dealers th e re . T h e volum e o f tr a d e ( th a t is, th e n u m b e r o f th e A fricans c a p tu re d a n d ex p o rte d ) rose to fa n ta s tic h eig h ts. T h e B ritish colonies o f th e W e st In d ie s alo n e im p o rte d 2,130,000 A fricans fro m 1680 to 1786. T he islan d o f J a m a ic a alo n e a b so rb e d as m uch as 610,000 slaves from 1700 to 1786.1 M e rc h an ts a n d a d v e n tu re rs m a d e enorm o u s p ro fits. T h e p rice o f a slav e “ f.o .b .” in A frica w as 70, 100 to 200 fra n cs, w hile th e m a rk e t p rice in A m erica w as 1,000 to 2,000 fran cs.12 O ne o f th e reaso n s fo r th e e x tra o rd in a rily h ig h n u m b e rs o f e x p o rte d A frican s w as t h a t, ow ing to th e m ass tra n sa c tio n s o f th e se com panies, th e co n d itio n s o f th e tra n s p o r ta tio n o f slaves fro m A frica o n to th e A m erican m a rk e t h a d co n sid erab ly w orsened in co m parison w ith “ th e good old tim e s ” o f p irac y . F o r th e sam e reaso n n o m ore th a n h a lf th e ir n u m b e r rea lly a rriv e d in th e W e st In d ie s.3 3. I n th e 17th c e n tu ry th e slav e tr a d e w as ca rrie d on a lm o st exclusively b y A fri­ ca n com panies. B u t E n g la n d a lre a d y in 1689 in s titu te d “ free tr a d e ” fo r all su b je cts o f h e r em pire, th e re su lt being t h a t in th e first h a lf o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry th e pow er o f th e com panies began to decline. T h e com panies co n tin u ed to e x ist, o r m o re ex a ctly , som e w ound u p a n d o th e rs w ere form ed. T h ey still en jo y ed g re a t privileges in slav e tr a d e . B u t th is d id n o t h in d e r th e unfolding o f a fierce riv a lry b etw een com panies a n d 1 See J . K . I n g r a m , A H isto r y of S la v e ry a n d S erfd o m (L ondon, 1895). 2 Ib id . 3 Ib id .

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E X P A N S I O N A N D T H E M A IN R O U T E S O F T H E S L A V E T R A D E

(The harhures indicate the intensiveness of the slave trade)

IX .

I S —21. Horrors о/ the slave trade (see p. 113)

IS

19

X .

20

21

in d iv id u a l tra d e rs . W h a t th e y c o m p ete d fo r w ere n o t th e m a rk e ts (A m erica g lad ly a c c e p te d ev e ry sh ip m e n t) b u t th e sources o f th e “ liv in g m e rc h a n d ise ” , so th e b a ttle w as fo u g h t on th e coasts o f A frica. W hile th e v o lu m e o f th e “ N eg ro e x p o r t” in c re a s ­ ed y e a r b y y e a r, th e s itu a tio n o f th e A fricans c a p tu re d b y th e slav e tr a d e rs d id n o t ch a n g e su b sta n tia lly . T h e decline o f th e sla v e tr a d e first b ecam e m a n ife st in th e seco n d h a lf o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry . W ith th e fo rm a tio n o f in d u s tria l ca p ita lism in G re a t B rita in a n d in th e n o r th e r n S ta te s o f A m erica, th e id e a o f d oing a w a y w ith th e sla v e tr a d e a n d sla v e ry a s a w hole b e g a n to m a tu re . T h e fam o u s decision in th e S o m erset case (on e m a n c ip a ­ tio n o f e v e ry slav e la n d in g in E n g la n d ) a n d th e first m o tio n in th e B ritis h P a r lia ­ m e n t fo r th e p ro h ib itio n o f th e slav e tr a d e (1776) la id th e fo u n d a tio n s fo r th e abo­ litio n ist m ovem ent. G re a t B rita in c o n te m p la te d esta b lish in g a s e ttle m e n t in A frica fo r th e lib e ra te d slaves (Sierra L eone). T h e im p ro d u c tiv ity o f slav e la b o u r, w hich h in d e re d th e c a p ita listic d e v e lo p m e n t in A m erica, p ro m p te d se v e ra l S ta te s to a d o p t leg isla tiv e m e asu res to p r o h ib it th e im p o rt o f slav es o r ev en to ab o lish s la v e ry (V er­ m o n t in 1777; V irginia in 1782; follow ed la te r b y M a ry la n d , N ew Y o rk , N ew Je rs e y , P e n n sy lv a n ia , M a ssac h u setts, N ew H am p sh ire ). T h e co n seq u en ces o f th is n o tic e a b le ch an g e fo r th e ab o lish m e n t o f th e sla v e tr a d e , how ev er, w ere n o t v isib le in p ra c tic e u n til th e en d o f th e th ir d h isto ric a l p erio d (1789). T h e F re n c h R e v o lu tio n a n d th e ra p id g ro w th o f ca p ita lism in A m erica g a v e th e a b o litio n ist m o v e m e n t a n ew p o w erfu l im p u lse, b u t th e in tro d u c tio n o f th e c o tto n g in in th e s o u th e rn S ta te s o f A m erica a g a in m a d e th e A fric an sla v e tr a d e th r iv e a n d d e la y e d its m a n ife st declin e fo r a w hile.

H o rro rs of the S la ve T ra d e

T h e u n fo rtu n a te v ic tim s o f th e sla v e tr a d e w e n t th ro u g h m a n y sta g e s o f to r tu r e . F ir s t, th e y w ere c a p tu re d lik e w ild b e a s ts . O n ly th o s e w ere sp a re d th e h o rro rs o f c a p tu rin g w ho w ere sold in to sla v e ry b y a n o th e r tr ib e w h ich h a d c a p tu re d th e m in w a r, o r b y th e chiefs o f th e ir ow n trib e s . T h e n th e y h a d to u n d erg o th e to r tu r e s o f th e jo u rn e y fro m th e in te rio r to th e c o a st. T h e n follow ed th e s ta g e o f “ w a itin g fo r th e c u s to m e r” a t a collecting s ta tio n o f th e a g e n t, o r w a itin g fo r th e a rriv a l o f th e sla v e -tra d in g ships a t th e fa c to ry o f a E u ro p e a n sla v e d e a le r. T h e y h a d to w a it for se v eral w eeks, so m etim es ev en for m o n th s on en d . T h e m o st h o rrib le w as th e n e x t sta g e — th e p assag e a b o a rd th e sla v e -tra d in g vessel to th e ir d e s tin a tio n (A m erica, J a m a ic a , e tc .). A fte r a rriv a l, as a ru le , th e y h a d to w a it fo r th e d a y o f m a rk e t, th e n fo r th e ir b ein g sold, w hich in m a n y cases m e a n t s e p a ra tio n o f m o th e r a n d child, h u sb a n d a n d w ife, e tc . F in a lly , u p o n a rriv in g a t th e p la n ta tio n o r th e h o m e ste a d o f th e ir “ p r o p rie to r ” th e u n fo rtu n a te slav es s ta r te d th e ho p eless life o f th e b e a sts o f d r a u g h t — b a c k -b re a k in g la b o u r, e te r n a l h u n g e r, h u m ilia tio n , en d less fe a r o f th e m o rro w , e tc . H a b k y J o h n s t o n , one of th e “ e n lig h te n e d ” B ritis h colonizers a n d co lo n ial h is­ to ria n s , d escrib in g th e in itia l sta g e o f th is ro a d o f h o rro rs, w ro te am o n g o th e r th in g s: “ . . . a slav e gan g o n its m a rc h to th e c o a st w as lo a d ed w ith u n n e c e ssa rity h e a v y co llars o r sla v e-stick s, w ith ch ain s a n d iro n s t h a t ch a fed a n d c u t in to th e flesh, a n d cau sed v iru le n t ulcers. T h e slaves w ere h a lf s ta rv e d , o v e r-d riv e n , in su fficien tly p r o ­ v id e d w ith d rin k in g w a te r, a n d reck lessly ex p o sed to d e a th fro m su n stro k e . I f th e y th re w th e m se lv es dow n fo r a b rie f r e s t o r collapsed fro m e x h a u stio n th e y w ere sh o t o r sp e a re d o r h a d th e ir th r o a ts c u t w ith fiendish b r u ta lity . . . C h ild ren w h o m th e ir 8 E. Sik: B lack A frica I .

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m o th e rs co u ld n o t c a rry , a n d w ho could n o t keep u p w ith th e c a ra v a n , h a d th e ir b ra in s d a s h e d o u t. M an y s la v e s . . . c o m m itte d su icid e b ecau se th e y co uld n o t b e a r t o be s e p a ra te d fro m th e ir ho m es a n d child ren . T h e y w ere b ra n d e d a n d flogged, a n d , needless to sa y , rec eiv ed n o t th e slig h te st m ed ical tr e a tm e n t fo r th e in ju rie s r e s u lt­ ing fro m th is usage.

“So m u ch fo r th e o v e r la n d jo u r n e y w h ic h b ro u g h t th e m to th e d e p ó t or fa c to r y o f th e E u ro p ea n sla v e tra d er o n th e c o a s t ; th e n b eg a n th e horrors o f th e se a p a ssa g e , th e d e sc r ip tio n o f w h ich , it m u s t b e a d m itte d , refers a lm o st e n tir e ly to th e sh ip s o f c iv iliz e d n a tio n s, lik e th e E n g lish , D u tc h , S p a n ish , P o r tu g u e se , a n d A m erica n and n o t to th e A ra b s or In d ia n s, w h o carried sla v e s across fro m th e E a s t c o a st o f A frica to A rab ia or In d ia . I n th e la t te r c a se th e sa ilin g v e ss e ls w ere n o t o fte n o v e r c r o w d e d , an d th e s la v e s w ere a llo w e d a fa ir d egree o f lib e r ty ” .1 J o h n s t o n ’s d e sc r ip tio n is th e m o re illu s tr a tiv e b e ca u se i t co n cern s a la te r p e r io d , w h en th e sla v e tr a d e w a s a lr e a d y o n th e d e c lin e a s a c o n seq u en ce o f th e a n ti-sla v e r y m o v e m e n ts in G rea t B r ita in a n d o th e r c a p ita list c o u n tr ie s. A t th e sig h t o f t h is p ictu re o f th e 1 9 th -c e n tu r y sla v e tr a d e i t is e a s y to fo rm a n id e a o f w h a t it m u st h a v e b een lik e tw o or th r e e h u n d red y e a r s ea rlier, w h e n th e sla v e tra d ers w e r e a b s o lu te ly free in th e ir p r o ceed in g s a n d w ere n o t p erse c u te d .

D e ta ile d d e sc rip tio n s o f th e s e in itia l sta g e s — th e c a p tu re o f slav es a n d th e ir jo u rn e y to th e c o a st — a re fo u n d in w orks o f m a n y tra v e lle rs , su ch as M u n g o P a r k , L i v i n g s t o n e , B a k e r a n d o th e rs . O f th e f u r th e r f a te o f A frican s in e n sla v e m e n t, o f th e ir life o n p la n ta tio n s in A m erica, e tc ., clea r p ic tu re s a re d ra w n in th e classic w o rk s o f B e e c h e r S t o w e .2

C h aracteristic F e a tu res of E u ro p e a n C o lo n iza tio n

C h a ra c te ristic o f th is p e rio d o f A frican h is to ry is th e fa c t t h a t fo r th r e e c e n tu rie s th e E u ro p e a n in v a d e rs o f A frica d id n o t s e t th e m se lv e s th e ta s k o f o rg an izin g p r o ­ d u c tio n b y ex p lo itin g th e la b o u r o f A frican m asses on th e sp o t. T h ey w ere co n cern ed o n ly w ith ac c u m u la tio n , lo o tin g a n d th e e x p o rt o f p ro d u c ts a n d m an p o w e r. D u rin g th re e ce n tu rie s th e a lm o st exclusive “ econom ic” co n cern o f E u ro p e a n (an d A m erican ) c a p ita lists in A frica w as traffick in g , a n d esp ecially tr a d in g in slav es. T h e ex p lo ita tio n o f th e A frican s c a rrie d in to s la v e ry to o k place, n o t in A frica, b u t o n colonial p la n ta ­ tio n s o n o th e r c o n tin e n ts, m a in ly in N o rth , C e n tral a n d S o u th A m erica. T h e o n ly e x c e p tio n to th is ru le w as t h a t p a r t o f S o u th A frica (th e c o a st reg io n a t th e C ape o f G ood H o p e) w h ere th e D u tc h E a s t In d ia C o m p an y h a d , a lre a d y in th e second h a lf o f th e 17 th c e n tu ry , d isp la y e d som e econom ic a c tiv ity b y in tro d u c in g E u ro p e a n farm in g m e th o d s. T h e “ A frican t r a d e ” in th e 1 6 th to 18 th ce n tu rie s w as c h a ra c te riz e d b y d ire c t o r in d ire c t ro b b e ry . E u ro p e a n tr a d e r s a n d th e ir a g e n ts to o k possessio n o f th e en o rm o u s riches o f th e n ew ly d isco v ered c o u n trie s e ith e r th ro u g h u n d isg u ised b rig an d a g e o r th ro u g h “ b a r t e r ” . T h e l a tte r c o n siste d in com pelling th e A frican s to h a n d o v e r th e ir p ro d u c ts in ex c h an g e fo r w o rth less ru b b ish (like glass b e a d s, b u tto n s , e tc .) o r fo r s p irits w hich th e A fricans w ere ta u g h t to in d u lg e in. W ith th e ex c e p tio n o f S o u th A fric a, th e se izu re o f A fric an te rr ito r ie s b y E u ro p e a n pow ers in th e p e rio d u n d e r d iscu ssio n w as a lm o st c o m p letely u n a c co m p an ie d b y 1 See J o h n s t o n , o p. c it., p p . 155 — 156. 2 B esides h e r co m m o n ly kn o w n b o o k , U n cle T o m 's C a b in , it is w o rth w hile re a d in g a n o th e r not less v a lu a b le a n d e la b o ra te , n ovel o f h e rs, D r e d .

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E u ro p e a n colon izatio n . I n th e co n q u e red te rrito rie s th e r e a p p e a re d th e m ilita ry a n d th e fo rtu n e -see k ers, a n d alo n g w ith th e m o r in th e ir w ak e w e n t m e rc h a n ts a n d m is­ sio n aries. B u t v ir tu a lly th e re e x iste d n o t one E u ro p e a n co lo n ist w ho w o u ld h a v e gone to A frica to s e ttle do w n p e rm a n e n tly . T h ere w ere a tte m p ts a t co lo n izatio n b y th e P o rtu g u e se b o th in A ngola a n d in M ozam bique, b u t w ith o u t success. T h e E u ro p e a n colonizers in th is p e rio d m a d e o n ly feeble effo rts to e x p a n d th e ir p ossessions in to th e d e p th s o f th e A frican c o n tin e n t. T h e y en d e a v o u re d o n ly to e sta b lish th e m se lv es stro n g ly on th e c o a st to o rg an ize fro m th e re , th ro u g h th e ir w h ite a n d b la ck a g e n ts, th e p lu n d e rin g o f th e A frican m asses in th e in te rio r regions a d jo in in g th e giv en c o a st se cto r, to p ro c u re fo r re sa le th e la rg e st p o ssib le q u a n tity o f gold, iv o ry , spices a n d slaves. U n til th e en d o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry , as fa r as te r r ito r ia l seizures a re co ncerned, th e y h a d n o t gone b ey o n d o ccu p y in g som e sm all s trip s o f th e c o a st la n d s w ith a view to s e ttin g u p th e ir fac to ries, p ro v isio n d e p o ts a n d m ilita ry b ases. (As w e a re going to see, a n e x c ep tio n also in th is re sp e c t w as S o u th A frica.) T his ac c o u n ts fo r th e e x tre m e ly p o o r w ork o f e x p lo ra tio n d o n e in th e in te rio r a re a s o f th e c o n tin e n t in th is p erio d . T ra v els in to th e in la n d c o u n trie s o f A frica seldom o cc u rre d u n til th e en d o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry , a n d w ere b u t ra n d o m ex cu rsio n s u n d e r­ ta k e n b y a d v e n tu re rs o r m e rc h a n ts in se arch o f n ew goldfields a n d new so u rces o f th e “ liv ing m e rc h a n d ise ” .

R ela tio n s between the In tru d e rs a n d the A fric a n s

W h en d u rin g th e seizu re o f th e c o a st la n d s th e first in v a d e rs m e t w ith A frican s, th e y e ith e r k illed th e m , o r c a p tu re d a n d sold th e m in to sla v e ry o r else d ro v e th e m fa r in la n d . S o m etim es th e y tr ie d to disguise th e ir co n q u e sts b y co n clu d in g “ p ea ce tr e a ­ tie s ” w ith tr ib a l chiefs, offering th e m v alueless g ifts o r b y a c tin g u p o n th e A frican s w ith th e h elp o f m issionaries. A ty p ic a l ex a m p le o f how th e e a rly E u ro p e a n c o n q u e ro rs tr ie d b y “ p ea ce t r e a tie s ” to ta k e possession o f A frican te rrito rie s is th e case o f th e “ p u rc h a s e ” o f C ape Colony b y th e D u tc h E a s t In d ia C om pany. B y v ir tu e o f tw o c o n tra c ts co n clu d ed w ith A fri­ ca n c h ie fta in s th e C o m pany a c tu a lly b o u g h t C ape C olony fo r £9 12s 9d — n o t in cu rre n c y , b u t in goods. T h e B o e r h isto ria n , S i d w e l l , re la te s 1 t h a t in 1672 a h ig h official o f th e C o m p an y . V a n O v e r b e c k , calling a t th e C ape on his w ay b ac k to H o lla n d , m a d e a b a rg a in w ith a “ H o t te n to t” ch ief o f th e C ape P e n in su la . B y th is “ p ea ce t r e a t y ” th e e n tire C ape reg io n , in c lu d in g T able, S a ld a n h a a n d H o u t B a y s, w e n t in to th e h a n d s o f th e C om ­ p a n y fo r a su m eq u a l to a b o u t £800 in p re se n t-d a y c u rre n c y . B u t th e “ b a r b a ria n ” , w ho h a d n o t th e slig h te st id e a o f w h a t t h a t m o n e y w as w o rth , w as v e ry satisfied w ith w h a t th e C o m p an y ’s sto re h o u se le t him h a v e in goods w o rth less th a n £ 3 . A few d a y s la te r a sim ila r d e a l w as m a d e w ith a n o th e r tr ib e to th e effect t h a t th e E u ro p e a n s receiv ed “ H o tte n to ts - H o lla n d ” a n d F a lse B a y a t th e n o m in a l p ric e o f £800. I n th is case th e a c tu a l p rice w as less th a n £7 in goods. I t is ea sy to u n d e rs ta n d t h a t su ch “ j u s t ” prices could n o t ac h ie v e g re a t a n d la stin g success fo r th e “ p ea ce fu l p o lic y ” o f th e E u ro p e a n s ev en am o n g th e m o st “ ig n o ra n t b a rb a ria n s ” . N o w o n d er if, in t h a t v e ry y e a r, 1672, in t h a t v e ry C ape C olony, d e s p ite th e goods p a id to th e “ H o tte n to t” chiefs in th e v a lu e o f £9, th e sa m e “ H o tte n to ts ” ’ See H . B. S i d w e l l , T h e S to ry of S ou th A fr ic a (C ap eto w n , 1899), pp. 19 - 2 0 ; a n d E. A. W a l k e r , A H isto ry of S o u th A fric a (L o n d o n , 1928), p. 48.

8'

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killed eig h t E u ro p e a n s n e a r R ieb e eck ’s C astle a n d fo u r officials o f th e C o m p an y a t S a ld a n h a B a y . T his re su lte d in th e o u tb re a k o f a w ar w hich la ste d fu ll five y e a rs.1 T h e p lu n d e rin g o f th e p o p u la tio n a n d th e fra u d s p ra c tise d b y th e E u ro p e a n s for th r e e c e n tu rie s aw a k e n e d in th e p o p u la r m asses o f A frica a feeling o f p ro fo u n d h a tre d for th e foreign aggressors, sow ed in th e m stro n g seeds o f a reb ellio u s rev o lu tio n a ry sp irit, o f p e rs is te n t e n d e av o u rs to b re a k ev e ry c o n ta c t w ith th e alien colonizers. T h is to o k co n c rete sh a p e in heroic d efensiv e w ars a n d v ario u s elem e n ta l o u tb u rs ts o f p r o te s t a n d resistan c e.

In tern ecin e W arfare o f the Conquerors

D u rin g th e th r e e h u n d re d y e a rs o f th e slav e tr a d e th e c a p ita list ro b b e rs h a d e n d ­ less conflicts a n d skirm ish es w ith one a n o th e r a ro u n d th e spoil. As a lre a d y s ta te d , th e stru g g le in th o se tim e s w as n o t w aged fo r m a rk e ts . S lav es, gold a n d iv o ry alw ay s fo u n d cu sto m e rs. A lth o u g h th e re w ere v a s t te rrito rie s w h ich n o n e o f th e E u ro p e a n u su rp ers h a d c o n q u e red y e t a n d th e r e w as n o a s p ira tio n fo r ex p a n sio n in to th e in ­ te rio r o f th e c o n tin e n t, conflicts a n d skirm ish es w ere t h e o rd e r o f th e d a y . T h e b a ttle s w ere fo u g h t fo r th e sources o f th e “ A frican m e rc h a n d ise ” a n d for th e m erch an d ise itself. A frican tr a d e rs n ee d ed slaves, gold, iv o ry , a n d b ases fro m w here to se t o u t to p ro c u re th e m . I n q u e s t o f quick a n d big fo rtu n e s, th e y w o u ld n o t u n d e rta k e p ro ­ longed a n d risk y ex p e d itio n s o r th e bu ild in g o f tra d in g s ta tio n s a n d fo rts , b u t p r e ­ ferre d to ro b o th e rs o f th e m e rc h an d ise o r to c a p tu re th e s ta tio n s a n d fo rts o f th e ir riv a ls. A fte r th e P o rtu g u e se cam e th e E n g lish , a f te r th e m th e D u tc h , follow ed b y th e D an es a n d Sw edes, la te r th e F re n c h — a n d th e y a ll b e g a n to ta k e a n d r e -ta k e o ne a n o th e r ’s fo rts a n d fac to ries a n d d ep o ts, to c a p tu re o ne a n o th e r ’s vessels lo ad ed w ith cargoes o f slaves o r o th e r m e rc h an d ise, e tc .12

O n the E ve of a N e w E poch

T h e re su lts o f th e in d u stria l re v o lu tio n acco m p lish ed in g re a t B rita in a n d rip en in g in a n u m b e r o f o th e r c o u n tries (A m erica, F ra n c e ) b eg a n to m a k e th e m se lv es felt in th e A frican colonies in th e 18 th c e n tu ry , p a rtic u la rly in its second h alf. T h ere a p ­ p e a re d th e first signs o f a change in th e E u ro p e a n p o w ers’ colonial policies a n d a c tiv i­ tie s in A frica. T h e co m p lete chan g e o cc u rre d o n ly in th e su b se q u e n t p erio d , a f te r th e G re a t F re n c h R e v o lu tio n . T h e risin g c a p ita lis t bourgeoisie b eg a n show ing in te r e s t in A frica, w h ich th e y looked u p o n n o t o n ly as a reso u rce o f gold a n d a s to re o f th e h u m a n m e rc h an d ise, b u t also a s a reso u rce o f in d u s tria l ra w m a te ria ls a n d foodstuffs a n d as a p o te n tia l m a rk e t fo r m a n u fa c tu re d goods. I n som e o f th e colonial possessions th e E u ro p e a n pow ers a l­ re a d y e n d e a v o u re d to in tro d u c e E u ro p e a n co lo n izatio n , a f te r th e m o d el o f S o u th A frica, in o rd e r to e sta b lish colonial farm s a n d p la n ta tio n s (th e B ritish in S ierra L eone, th e P o rtu g u e se in M o 9 am b iq u e). T h e first serio u s ste p s to w a r d s c o lo n ia l ex p a n sio n , to w a r d s n ew c o n q u e sts, h a d b een ta k e n . E u ro p ea n p o w ers a n d tra d in g co m p a n ies ev er m ore o fte n co n clu d ed w ith tr ib 1 See S id w e l l , o p . c it., p. 22. 2 A s fo r th e m ain fe a tu re s o f th e in te rn e c in e w a rfa re b e tw ee n E u ro p e a n s in th is p e riod, see th e re le v a n t p a ssa g e in t h e I n tro d u c tio n (pp. 2 6 —27).

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»1 ch iefs “ p e a c e ” tr e a tie s a n d a g r e e m e n ts o n te r r ito r ia l c o n c e ssio n s. S lo w b u t s y s te m ­ a tic ex p a n sio n in to th e in la n d c o u n tries o f A frica b eg a n . T h e tr a n s itio n from ran d om a d v e n tu r o u s tr a v e ls t o th e s y s te m a tic e x p lo r a tio n o f t h e in terio r reg io n s b eca m e

n o tic ea b le . T h e a p p ro a c h o f n ew tim e s w as visible, as a lre a d y m e n tio n e d , also in th e sla v e tr a d e . A ll th e s e changes, a n d esp ecially th e in c re asin g a s p ira tio n s fo r e x p a n sio n a n d new co n q u e sts, re s u lte d in th e in te n sific atio n o f stru g g le s b e tw e e n E u ro p e a n p o w ers. T h e o ccasional skirm ish es o f in d iv id u a l m e rc h a n ts a n d a d v e n tu re rs , th e fig h ts fo r o n e o r a n o th e r ’s sh ip a n d its v a lu a b le cargo g av e w a y to a s y ste m a tic p o w er stru g g le fo r th e colonial te rrito rie s . T h is ch a n g e w as p ro v o k e d b y th e a p p e a ra n c e a n d a s p ira tio n s o f th e risin g in d u s tr i­ a l bourgeoisie o f th e m o st a d v a n c e d c o u n trie s o f E u ro p e — G re a t B r ita in a n d F ra n c e . I t is b u t n a tu r a l t h a t th e le ad in g role in th is stru g g le w as g ra d u a lly ta k e n o v e r b y th e s e tw o p ow ers, w hich re le g a te d to th e b ac k g ro u n d th e colonial p o w ers t h a t in th e p rec ed in g c e n tu rie s p la y e d th e le a d in g ro le in th e A fric an co m m erce — P o rtu g a l S p a in , H o lla n d . C h a ra c te ristic ex am p les o f th is in te n sify in g stru g g le a im e d a t n ew co n q u e sts an d th e o u stin g o f th e riv a ls w ere: th e clash b e tw e e n B ritis h a n d S p a n ia rd s a t F e rn a n d o P o (1779), th e A n g lo -D u tch w ar o n th e G old C o ast (1781—83), th e F ra n c o -P o rtu g uese collision in C ab in d a (1784), th e stru g g le o f G re a t B r ita in a n d F ra n c e a ro u n d D u tc h C ape C olony, w ith its s u b se q u e n t seizures — first (1781) te m p o ra rily b y F ra n c e , a n d th e n (1795) finally b y G re a t B rita in . B esid e a rm e d stru g g le s to p re se rv e th e ex istin g colonies b e g a n also th e p o w er r i ­ v a lry in th e e x p lo ra tio n o f new te rr ito r ie s (tra v e ls o f th e F re n c h L evaxllant in S o u th A frica, D e g r a n d pr é in E q u a to ria l a n d S o u th A frica, o f th e B ritis h P a t t e r so x in S o u th A frica, B r u c e in E th io p ia , e tc .)

G eneral F ea tu res o f the D evelopm en t of A fr ic a n P eo p le s in the 1 6 th to 1 8 th C en tu ries

T h e e n d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu r y m a rk s th e e n d o f a h isto ric a l ep o ch — th e ag e o f th e p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n o f c a p ita l, w hich w as fo r B lac k A frica th e ep o ch o f th e slav etr a d e . T h e A frican slav e tr a d e signified, in th e w ords o f M a r x , th o s e “ id y llic p ro c e e d ­ in g s” w hich w ere “ th e ch ie f m o m e n ta o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n ” .1 E u ro p e a n a n d A m erican c a p ita lists, B ritish , F re n c h , P o rtu g u e se , D u tc h a n d o th e r sla v e tr a d e r s a n d slav e-h o lding farm e rs o f A m eric an c o u n trie s a c c u m u la te d im m en se rich e s b y p lu n ­ d erin g th e A frican p eoples, c a p tu rin g a n d ex p lo itin g a s slav es m illions o f A frican s. T h e sto le n reso u rce s o f A frica, th e sw e a t a n d blood o f its sons a n d d a u g h te rs w ere on e o f th e m a in sources o f th e p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n o f c a p ita l. B u t th e A frican colonies in th is p erio d p la y e d no p a r t as su p p liers o f food p ro d u c ts a n d in d u s tria l ra w m a te ­ ria l. T h e y su p p lied n o th in g b u t lu x u ry a rtic le s (ivory , spices) a n d m e an s o f e n ric h ­ m e n t (gold, slaves). D u rin g th e th re e h u n d re d y e a rs o f th is epoch th e E u ro p e a n p lu n d e re rs su cceed ed in ta k in g possession o f a lm o st th e e n tire w est, so u th a n d s o u th e a s t c o a st o f A frica. B u t n o w here, e x c e p t th e so u th e rn m o s t tip o f th e c o n tin e n t, d id th e y p e n e tr a te in to th e in te rio r regions. T h e y n o t o n ly d id n o t g e t a fo o th o ld in th o s e a re a s, b u t u n til th e en d o f th is p erio d th e y re m a in e d in co m p lete ig n o ran c e o f th e n a tu r a l reso u rce s 1 K. M a r x , Capital, v o l. i, c h . x x i v , 6.

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a n d th e p o p u la tio n s o f th o se te rrito rie s . T h e d aw n in g ag e o f in d u s tria l ca p ita lism fo u n d th e w hole o f B lack A frica, w ith th e ex c e p tio n o f its c o a st reg io n s, a n “ u n ­ k n o w n la n d ” . T h e ta s k o f its d isco v ery , ex p lo ra tio n a n d su b je c tio n to c a p ita l w as in c u m b e n t u p o n th e risin g n ew class — th e in d u s tria l bourgeoisie. D u rin g th e th r e e h u n d re d y e a rs o f th e h u n t fo r p ro fit, g old a n d sla v es th e E u ro ­ p e a n p lu n d e re rs fo u g h t a b itt e r c o m p e titio n w ith o n e a n o th e r. B y th e close o f th is p e rio d , a t th e b eg in n in g o f a new epoch, as a co n seq u en ce o f th e rip e n in g new a s p i­ ra tio n s o f w orld c a p ita l, th is stru g g le w e n t on in te n sify in g . T h e g u id in g ro le in th is e v e r in te n sify in g stru g g le fo r th e A frican colonies w as little b y little ta k e n o v e r b y th e tw o b ig g e st, econom ically m o st dev elo p ed pow ers in E u ro p e — G re a t B rita in a n d F ra n c e . T h e lesser colonial pow ers g ra d u a lly to o k th e second place. W h a t th e sla v e tr a d e b ro u g h t to th e A frican p eo p les w as: to so m e — e x te rm in a ­ tio n ; to o th e rs — ex pulsion fro m th e ir te rrito rie s ; a g a in to o th e rs — loss o f th e ir sons a n d d a u g h te rs ; a n d to th e r e s t o f th e m — d e s tru c tio n o f th e ir econom ies, r e ­ ta r d a tio n o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p ro d u c tiv e forces. T ru e , th e e n c o u n te r w ith th e E u ro p e a n s le d to a n in crease in th e e x tra c tio n (or g a th e rin g p ro d u c tio n ) o f su ch goods as th e c a p ita lis t spoilers m o stly n ee d ed (gold, iv o ry , spices). B u t th e d ev e lo p ­ m e n t o f th e s e b ra n c h e s o f p ro d u c tio n in th e serv ice o f th e “ A fric an t r a d e ” a n d th e sim u lta n e o u s d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e slave tr a d e b ro u g h t to th e to ilin g m asses o f th e A fric an peoples n e ith e r econom ic pro g ress n o r b e t te r liv in g . T h e d r a in o f m asses o f m a n p o w e r a n d th e d ire c t o r in d ire c t com pulsion to p ro d u ce goods re q u ire d b y fo r­ e ig n tr a d e rs la rg e ly p re v e n te d th e lab o u rin g m asses o f A frica fro m p ro d u cin g w h a t t h e y th e m se lv e s need ed . I n c e rta in A fric an a re a s w hose chiefs p a r tic ip a te d in th e sla v e tra ffic as a g e n ts o f th e E u ro p e a n sla v e d ea le rs, th e slav e tr a d e ac c e le ra te d th e rise o f n ew classes. A t th e sam e tim e th e n ecessity o f p e rm a n e n t self-defence c o n trib u te d to th e co n so lid a­ tio n o f tr ib a l fe d e ra tio n s a n d o f th e ir m ilita ry o rg an iz atio n . T h e th r e e h u n d re d y e a rs o f c o n tin u o u s suffering a n d in c e ssa n t d efen siv e w ars o f th e c o a st trib e s o f B lack A frica a g a in s t th e a lie n u su rp ers d ev elo p ed in th e A fricans a fighting sp irit a n d c e rta in p ra c tic a l ex p erien ce in w arfare. P a ra lle l to th e grow ing ag g ressiv e a s p ira tio n s o f th e E u ro p e a n s b y th e close o f th is p erio d w e n t th e grow ing in d ig n a tio n o f th e A fric an peoples, th e ir h a tre d for th e u su rp ers a n d th e in te n sific a­ tio n o f th e ir a rm e d resistan c e. I n th e cou rse o f th r e e a n d a h a lf ce n tu rie s th e A frican p eo p les e n c o u n te re d th e “ w h ite s ” o n ly as th e m o st a b o m in ab le spoilers, k id n a p p e rs, a n d p lu n d e re rs o f th e p ro d u c t o f th e ir la b o u r. D u rin g all th is tim e th e to ilers o f th e o v erw h elm in g m a jo rity o f th e A frican p eoples n ev e r saw a single “ w h ite ” m a n w ho, like th e y , liv ed b y his ow n la b o u r. W ith th e e x c ep tio n o f a n insig n ifican t s tr a tu m o f th e risin g class o f ex ­ p lo iters o f c e rta in A frican societies, no one from am o n g th e A frican “ b la c k ” peoples e v e r ex p erien ced on th e p a r t o f th e “ w h ite ” n ew co m ers a n y th in g else t h a n killing, b e a tin g , m isery a n d com pulsion to h a rd la b o u r. O w ing to th e econom ic a n d c u ltu ra l b ac k w ard n ess o f th o se p eoples, to th e ir igno ran ce o f th e re a l m e an in g a n d significance o f th e h a p p e n in g s a n d th e re su ltin g s itu a tio n , th e ir a s p ira tio n s for lib e ra tio n from alien o p p ressio n w en t alo n g ra c ia l ch a n n els: th e y b ecam e m o re a n d m o re h o stile to w a rd s, a n d full o f h a tre d for, everyth in g w h ite. T h e y b eg a n to see th e cau se o f all th e ir tro u b le s, m isery a n d suffering in th e “ w h ite m a n ” w ho p re se n te d h im self to th e m .a s a n in v e te r a te en e m y o f th e “ black m a n ” . N o sm all p a r t in th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f th*is ra c ia l bias o f th e A frican peoples w as p la y ed b y th e c irc u m sta n c e t h a t th e “ w h ite ” new com ers a n d oppresso rs tr e a te d th e su b ju g a te d o r c a p tu re d “ b la c k ” m en as in fe rio r beings w ho w ere “ b o rn for s la v e ry ” .

ns

All th e h eroic a tte m p ts o f th e A frican p eoples to r e s is t th e c a p ita lis t co n q u e ro rs, a ll th e ir d efen siv e w ars a n d in su rre c tio n s in th is e a rly p erio d to o k p la ce u n d e r th e co v e r a n d slogan o f th e “ stru g g le a g a in s t th e w h ite s” . T h is id eo lo g y to o k d eep ro o ts in th e m inds o f th e A frican m asses a n d h a d a g r e a t in flu en ce u p o n th e su b se q u e n t d e v e lo p m e n t o f m ass m o v e m en ts in A frica in la te r p erio d s o f th e ir h is to ry . A fte r ­ w ard s, in th e epoch o f th e risin g n a tio n a l a n d class m o v e m e n ts, th is ideology o fte n a c te d as a h a rm fu l b ra k e o n th e s e m o v e m e n ts. B u t in th e e a rly sta g e s o f th e a w a k e n ­ ing o f th e A frican peoples th is ra c ia l ideology w as o n ly a n erro n eo u s ex p re ssio n (re ­ a c tio n a ry in form ) o f th e ir j u s t progressiv e a s p ira tio n s , o f th e ir d esire fo r freed o m an d in d ep en d en ce. As such, how ever, it w as a n im p o rta n t im p e tu s to th e n a tio n a l lib e ra ­ tio n m o v e m en ts. T h erefore, d e s p ite th e ir ra c ia l ideology a n d slogan s, all th e “ a n ti- E u r o p e a n ” w ars a n d m o v e m en ts o f th e A frican p eoples in t h a t p e rio d (an d in th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry ), u n fit th o u g h th e ir m e th o d s o f w a rfa re w ere, p la y e d a p o sitiv e ro le. B eing d ire c te d a g a in s t th e f e tte r s o f a free econom ic a n d p o litic a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e A frican peoples, th o se w ars a n d m o v e m en ts th e m se lv es p re p a re d a n d tra in e d th e p o p u la r m asses o f A frica fo r th e n a tio n a l lib e ra tio n a n d class stru g g le s to com e. B elow w e sh all d e a l b riefly w ith th e h is to ry o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t reg io n s o f E u ro ­ p e a n in tru sio n in th e 1 6 th to 18 th ce n tu rie s (1. th e w e st c o a st; 2. A ngola a n d th e Congo; 3. th e e a s t c o a st; 4. E th io p ia ; 5. th e s o u th A frican c o a st; 6. M ad ag ascar). T h e h is to ry of regions u n affec ted b y th e E u ro p e a n in tru s io n y e t k n o w n fro m m o re or less reliab le sources, such as th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u d a n c o u n tries a n d th e c o u n ­ tr ie s o f u p p e r G uinea b etw e en th e c o a st a n d th e W e ste rn S u d a n (A sh an ti, D ah o m ey ), will be discussed to g e th e r w ith th e w est c o a st in th e c h a p te r on W e st A frica.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y R E L A T IN G T O T H E P E R IO D D ISC U SSE D (in a d d itio n to th e g en eral w orks on th e h isto ry a n d c o lo n iz atio n o f A frica in d ic a te d o n pp. 3 7 - 3 8 .)

G E N E R A L W O R K S O N T H E E U R O P E A N C O L O N IZ A T IO N O F A F R IC A A N D T H E C O L O ­ N IA L P O L IC IE S O F T H E G R E A T P O W E R S I N T H E 16T H to 18T H C E N T U R IE S G. T h . R a y s a l , H isto ire p h ilo so p h iq u e el p o litiq u e d es éta b lissem en ts et d u com m erce d es E u r o ­ péerbe d a n s les d eu x I n d e s , 10 vols. (G eneva, 1780) vol. vi, p p . 82 —282: “ A frica. Slave T ra d e .” H e n r y B r o u g h a m , A n In q u ir y in to the C olon ial P o lic y o f the E u ro p ea n P o w e r s, 2 vols. ( E d in ­ b u rg h , 1803). A. K e i t h (ed.), Selected S peech es a n d D ocu m en ts on B r itis h C o lo n ia l P o lic y 1763 — 1917, 2 vols. (L ondon). C u r r e y , B r itis h C o lo n ia l P o lic y 1783 — 1915 (L o n d o n , 1924). J . C. A. K n o w l e s , T he E con om ic D evelo p m en t of the B r itis h O verseas E m p ir e , 1763 — 1914 (L o n ­ d on, 1924). C. L . L o k k e , F ra n ce a n d the C o lo n ia l Q u estion : A

S tu d y of C o n tem p o ra ry F ren ch O p in io n , 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 0 1 (N ew Y o rk , 1932). .1. S a n t o y a n t , L a co lo n isation fra n q a ise so u s V ancien régim e ( d u X V е siécle á 1 7 8 9 ), 2 vols.

(P a ris, 1929).

119

THE AFRICAN COMPANIES G e o r g e Ca w sto n

and A . H . K e a n e , T h e E a r ly C h artered C o m p a n ie s (London, 1896).

H IS T O R Y O F T H E A F R IC A N SL A V E T R A D E

J ames R amsay , E s s a y s on T rea tm en t of A fr ic a n S la v e s (1784). T . F owell B uxton , A fr ic a n S la v e T ra d e (2nd ed. L o n d o n , 1838).

J ames B audinel , S o m e A cco u n t of the T ra d e in S la v e s, a s C onnected w ith E u ro p e a n d A m e ric a (London, 1842). W . O. B l a k e , T h e H is to r y of S la v e r y a n d the S la v e T ra d e (C olum bus, O ., 1861). F . B e r l i o u x , L a tra ite orien tale: H isto ir e d es ch asses á l'h om m e organ isée en A fr iq u e (P aris,

1870). A . T ourmagne, H isto ir e de V esclavage, a n cien et m oderne (P a ris, 1880). J . К . I ngram, A H is to r y o f S la v e r y a n d S erfd o m (L o n d o n , 1895). Ch . L etourneau , L 'ív o lu tio n de Vesclavage (P a ris, 1897). E . D . Morel , T h e B la c k M a n 's B u rd e n (L ondon, 1920); ch. iii: “ T h e S to ry o f th e S lave T ra d e .” W . D . W e a t h e r f o r d , T h e N egro fro m A fr ic a to A m erica ; ch. iv : “ S la v e ry a n d th e Slave T ra d e ” . G. F . D o w , S la v e S h ip s a n d S la v in g (Salem , M ass., 1927). H . A . W in d h a m , T h e A tla n tic a n d S la v e r y (O xford, 1933). M. D . W . J e f f r e y s , “ A lt-K a la b a r u n d d e r S k la v e n h a n d e l” (in P a id e n m a , 6, p p . 14 —24) (F ra n k fu rt a. M., 1954).

D E C L IN E O F T H E SL A V E T R A D E A N D T H E IN IT IA L S T A G E O F IT S A B O L IS H M E N T T h o m a s C l a r k s o n , H is to r y of the R ise, P ro g re ss a n d A c co m p lish m en t of th e A b o litio n o f the A fric a n S la v e T ra d e by the B r itis h P a r lia m e n t, 2 vols. (L o n d o n , 1808). W . E . D u b o is a n d B u r g h a r d t , S u p p re s sio n o f the A fric a n S la v e -T r a d e (N ew Y o rk , 1896).

E X P L O R A T IO N O F A F R IC A B Y E U R O P E A N S I N T H E 16T H T O 18T H C E N T U R IE S ( I n a d d itio n to th e g e n era l w orks o n th e e x p lo ra tio n o f A frica a n d to th e a c c o u n ts b y trav e lle rs, in d ic a te d o n p p . 39 —40) C u h n , S a m m lu n g en vo n m erk w ü rd ig en R e ise n in d a s In n e re von A f r ik a , 3 vols. (L eipzig, 1790). P ro ceed in g s of the A s so c ia tio n fo r P ro m o tin g the D isc o v e ry of the I n te r io r P a r ts of A f r ic a (L ondon, 1790). E dw . H

eaw ood,

A H is to r y of G eograph ical D isc o v e ry in the S even teen th a n d E igh teen th C en tu ries

(C am bridge, 1912).

G E N E R A L M O N O G R A P H S O F A F R IC A R E L A T IN G T O T H E P E R IO D D IS C U SS E D (a )

W o rk s o f the fo u n d ers of the m odern geography of A fr ic a

J . L e o n i A f r i c a n i , T o tiu s A fric a e D e s c rip tio (A n tw e rp , 1556). L e o A f r ic a n u s , D e lla d escrizio n e d e ll’A fr ic a (in th e collectio n o f R a m u sio , 1550). — D e s c rip tio n de V A friq u e. T ra n s la tio n b y J e a n T em p o ra l (1556). — T h e H is to r y a n d D e s c rip tio n o f A fr ic a : D o n e in to E n g lish in th e Y e a r 1600 b y J o h n Р о гу , E d ite d w ith a n In tro d u c tio n a n d N o te s b y D r. R o b e rt B row n. L o r d s b a c h , J o h a n n L eo 's d es A frik a n e r s B esch reibun g von A f r ik a (H e rb o rn , 1805).

Marmol , D e s c rip tio n de V A friq u e. L rv io S a n u t o , G eográfia d ell’A fr ic a (Venice, 1588).

120

( b ) Other w o rk s

D a p p e r , D e s c rip tio n de V A /riq u e (A m ste rd am , 1686).

R oemer -H andl , V erschiedenes V olk a u f der K ü s te von G u in ea (1705). L 'A /r iq u e et le p e u p le a fric a in (P a ris, 1789). M. D ureau D e L a Malle , F ils , Q éographie p h y siq u e de la m er N o ire et de l'in lé rie u r de V A t r i que et d e la M id ite rra n é e .

CHAPTER II

W E ST A FR IC A

T H E P E O P L E S O F W E S T A F R IC A IN T H E 16TH TO I8 T H C E N T U R IE S

W h e n th e E u ro p e a n in tru sio n b eg a n , th e p eo p les o f W e st A frica (th e S u d an ese peoples) liv e d in th re e la rg e geograp h ical g ro u p s: 1. th e trib e s o n th e ocean co a st; 2. th e trib e s s e ttle d in th e te rrito rie s b etw e en th e co a sta l regions a n d th e in la n d c o u n trie s ; 3. th e W e ste rn a n d C e n tral S u d a n trib e s a n d p eoples s c a tte re d in a m u ltitu d e o f large a n d sm all p rim itiv e S ta te s . T h e d e stin ie s o f th e s e th re e g roups in th e sla v e tr a d e p erio d follow ed d ifferen t ro ad s. I n th is e a rly p erio d o f E u ro p e a n p e n e tra tio n th e g eo g rap h ical d is trib u tio n o f th e v ario u s W e st A frican peoples w as o f a d ecisive co nsequence, b ecau se i t larg ely d e te rm in e d also th e ir stra te g ic p o sitio n in face o f th e E u ro p e a n aggressors. Owing to th e v a s t dim ensions o f W e st A frican te rrito rie s a n d to th e ir being co m p letely u n ex p lo re d b y th e E u ro p e a n s, a n d considering th e ad v e rse clim atic co n d itio n s an d th e sc a rc ity o f m ean s o f tr a n s p o r ta tio n a v a ila b le b o th to th e E u ro p e a n s a n d , even m o re, to th e W e st A frican peoples — a n e ssen tial fa c to r in th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f each c o u n try , peo p le o r tr ib e th ro u g h o u t th e 16th to 1 8th c e n tu rie s w as its d is ta n c e from th e co a st. T he C oastal T rib es

T h e sm all d isp e rsed c o a sta l trib e s , o f course, could n o t offer serio u s re sista n c e to th e E u ro p e a n new com ers w ho possessed firearm s. Som e o f th e m tr ie d to re s is t, b u t th e y w ere sm a sh ed . O th ers, u n aw a re o f th e significance o f th e E u ro p e a n in tru sio n , le t th e in tru d e rs in to th e co a sta l regions w ith o u t resistan c e. T h is w as g re a tly f a c ilita t­ ed b y th e E u ro p e a n “ g ifts ” p re se n te d to th e chiefs, a n d b y th e b a rte rin g tr a d e . B y b rib in g th e chiefs o r o verpow ering th e trib e s o f th e co a sta l regions w here th e E u ro p e a n colonizers h a d e sta b lish e d th e m se lv es, th e s e a tta in e d t h a t th e c o a st trib e s soon beg an to su b m it to th e ir influence a n d a c c e p t th e ir new o rd er. A n d since th e essence o f th e new o rd e r w as slav e tr a d e , th e m a jo rity o f th e tr ib a l chiefs o f th e c o a st g ra d u ­ a lly becam e a g e n ts o f th e E u ro p e a n slave d ea le rs b y su p p ly in g th e m w ith living m erc h an d ise fro m th e in la n d are a s. S uch a c tiv e h elp ers o f th e E u ro p e a n slav e m e rc h a n ts w ere th e S a ra k o le1 ch ieftain s a n d th e ir trib e s in S en eg am b ia, th e F a n ti on th e G old C o ast, th e B in i in B en in , 1 F or th e active particip atio n of th e Sarakole in th e slave traffic a t th e end of th e 17th cen­ tu ry , see, for instance, B r u e -L a b a t , o p . c it. (on p . 107), p . 320.

122

e tc .1 T h is sla v e -tra d in g a c tiv ity o f th e A frican trib e s in m o st cases w as o f a p ira tic n a tu re . B u t in c e rta in A frican trib e s i t h elp ed d ev elo p tr a d e in g en e ral, a n d in som e cases th e in c re asin g com m erce led to th e p ro s p e rity o f th e tr a d e s . T h e S a ra k o le th e m ­ selves, fo r ex a m p le , b esides tr a d in g in slaves, h a d fro m th e e a rlie s t tim e s o rg an ized tra d in g ex p e d itio n s to o th e r trib e s (th is is w hy th e E u ro p e a n s called th e m th e “Je w s o f th e S u d a n ” ). T h e Y o ru b a tr ib e s (on th e S lav e C o ast) a lre a d y in th is p e rio d p o s­ sessed d ev elo p ed m a n u fa c to rie s fo r w eav in g a n d d y ein g te x tile s ; th e ca n v a s w oven b y th e m w as in g re a t d e m a n d am o n g P o rtu g u e se m e rc h a n ts w ho e x p o rte d it to B razil. S p ecial a tte n tio n sh o u ld be p a id to th e a t titu d e ta k e n to w a rd s sla v e ry a n d th e traffic in sla v es b y th e K r u tr ib e liv in g o n th e c o a st o f to d a y ’s L ib e ria . T h e y o b s ti­ n a te ly re sis te d th e sla v e h u n te rs ; a n d a K ru , w h en c a p tu re d , fre q u e n tly c o m m itte d su icid e le st h e sh o u ld becom e a slave. T h e y h eld a n d b o u g h t slav es th e m se lv es, b u t d id n o t resell th e m , a n d th e ir slaves w ere fa irly tr e a te d . T h e E u ro p e a n influence w as reflected also b y th e m u tu a l re la tio n s o f th e co a sta l trib e s th e m se lv es. W hile fo rm e rly th e y liv ed in a lm o st co m p lete iso latio n fro m one a n o th e r, th e r e being on ly occasional m in o r sk irm ish es b ecau se o f d is p u te d la n d s, h u n tin g g ro u n d s, fisheries, e tc ., now th e re aro se a new m o tiv e in d u c in g th e m to m ak e w ar for ta k in g p riso n ers to sell th e m as slaves to th e E u ro p e a n s . T h e n o r th e r n p o r ­ tio n o f th e u p p e r G uinea c o a st (th e te rrito rie s o f th e p re s e n t-d a y R e p u b lic o f G uinea a n d P o rtu g u e se G u in ea), w hose p o p u la tio n s show a m o tle y co n g lo m erate o f a g re a t m a n y d iffe re n t trib e s , w as th e th e a tr e o f a lm o st u n in te r ru p te d in te rn e c in e w ars am o n g A frican s w hose o v e r t o r u n a d m itte d goal w as to c a p tu re slav es. A nd alth o u g h th e E u ro p e a n (B ritish , F re n c h , P o rtu g u e se ) w itn esses o f th e s e w ars, w ho possessed firearm s, could w ith o u t d ifficu lty a n d risk h a v e p re v e n te d th e se fra tric id e w ars am o n g A frican s, th e y d id n o t do so; o n th e c o n tra ry , th e y in s tig a te d su ch w ars, w hich p ro v id e d th e ir sla v e -tra d in g fac to ries w ith th e liv in g m erc h an d ise. T h u s it w as th a t, u n d e r th e influence o f th e “ civ ilized ” E u ro p e a n s, m a n y o f th e tr ib e s o f th is c o a st (th e P a p e l , B a la n te , N a lu , B ia fa r , e tc .), w ho h a d so fa r b ee n p ea ce ab le a g ric u ltu ra l w o rk ers, h u n te rs a n d fisherm en, s ta r te d to engage in b a n d itr y — as a “ su b sid iary o c c u p a tio n ” . S om e o f th e m , ju d g in g t h a t it w as e a sie r to le a d th e free life o f b r i­ g an d s th a n to w ork, to ta lly g av e u p th e ir fo rm e r o c c u p atio n s a n d b eg an to p ro cu re th e ir m ean s o f su b siste n c e b y organ izin g p ira tic ex p e d itio n s a g a in s t o th e r trib e s. F o r ex am p le, th e B issa g o trib e , living on B issagos Isla n d s a n d in th e c o a st regions in th e v ic in ity o f th e s e islan d s, b ecam e a tr ib e o f sea ro b b ers. T h e y b u ilt long p i­ ro g u es a d o rn e d in f ro n t w ith a m o n s te r’s h e a d w ith a re d -p a in te d o p en m o u th , a n d lau n ch e d ra id s u p o n th e co a st la n d s. T h e y u sed arro w s w ith h e a d s m a d e o f poisoned fish b o n es. F ro m th e E u ro p e a n s th e y soon le a rn e d th e u se o f sails a n d a lre a d y in th e 1 8th c e n tu ry em p lo y ed sw ords o n e m e tre in le n g th w hich b o re th e tr a d e m a rk s o f S olingen fac to ries. T rib es of the In term ed ia te R egion s

T h e trib e s living b e tw e e n th e u p p e r G u in ea c o a st a n d th e W e ste rn S u d a n h ad no d ire c t c o n ta c ts w ith E u ro p e a n s u n til th e e n d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry . B u t th ro u g h th e m e d ia tio n o f th e co a sta l trib e s , p a r t o f w hich w ere t r ib u ta r y to th e m , th e y carried 1 F o r th e c o m p licity o f th e K anti a n d th e ir p a rtic ip a tio n in th e A n g lo -D u tc h in trig u e s in C o rm a n ty n e in th e 17th c e n tu ry , see V il l a u d d e B e l l e f o n d , op. cit. (on p . 107), p. 120 ff. T h e first in fo rm a tio n o f B e n in ’s p a rtic ip a tio n in th e sla v e tr a d e o f th e E u ro p e a n s is giv en in W in d h a m ’s a c c o u n t o f h is second tra v e l in to G uinea, q u o te d w ith c e rta in c o m m e n ts in E d e n a n d W i i .i.k s . H isto r y of T ra v e ls in the W est a n d E a st In d ie s etc. (L o n d o n , 1577).

123

o n som e com m erce w ith th e E u ro p e a n s , m a in ly b y p a rtic ip a tin g in th e sla v e tra d e . A n d since th e y h a d m o re p o ssib ilities th a n th e c o a sta l trib e s to go sla v e-raid in g in to th e in la n d c o u n trie s, sla v e ry a n d th e slav e tr a d e b ecam e m o re d ev elo p ed am o n g th e m th a n o n th e co a st. S u ch a tr ib e w as, fo r in sta n c e , t h a t o f th e G a llin a , a n in la n d tr ib e o f S ierra L eone, w hich fro m o ld en tim e s h a d b ee n considered o n e o f th e m o s t w arlik e trib e s . N o t o n ly d id i t c o n s ta n tly w ar a g a in st its n eig h b o u rs to c a p tu re p riso n ers, b u t fo r th e sam e p u rp o se i t g la d ly a ssiste d o th e r trib e s in th e ir w ars. I n th e e v e n t o f a w ar co n flict th e c o a sta l tr ib e s h a d th e cu sto m to sen d m essengers w ith g ifts to th e G allin a ch ief “ to b u y w a r” , t h a t is, to in v ite th e G allin a in to allian ce. E u ro p e a n sla v e d e a l­ ers also m a d e use o f th e services o f th e G allin a in sla v e-raid in g ex p e d itio n s. I n th e long w ars th e G allina d ev elo p ed th e ir ow n ta c tic s a n d le a rn e d to b u ild f o rti­ fications. T h e m o st im p o r ta n t am ong th e s e in te rm e d ia te trib e s (especially in th e 1 8 th c e n ­ tu r y ) w ere th e A s h a n ti a n d th e F o n (D ahom i), w ho h a d s tro n g slav e-h o ld in g S ta te s o f th e ir o w n .1

T h e P eo p les of the W estern a n d C en tra l S u d a n

U n til th e 19 th c e n tu ry th e v a s t te r r ito r y o f th e S u d a n w as fo r th e E u ro p e a n s a n im m en se w h ite sp o t o n th e m a p . O f th e larg e a n d sm all S ta te fo rm a tio n s t h a t e x iste d in th is te rr ito r y , a n d o f th e p eoples in h a b itin g th e se c o u n trie s, E u ro p e h a d u tte r ly h a z y id eas. D u rin g th e age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n a n d th e slav e tr a d e , rap a cio u s E u ro p e a n c a p ita l g ree d y o f a lie n p ro p e r ty (p a rtic u la rly o f th e w e a lth o f w eak er, b a c k w a rd peoples) w as w ith h e ld fro m m a k in g c o n ta c ts w ith th e s e p eo p les b y th e geograp h ical s itu a tio n o f th e se co u n tries, th e im m en se d e s e rts o n th e n o r th , th e h uge fo re sts o n th e so u th a n d th e fa irly g re a t d ista n c e from th e sea c o a st, w h ere th e E u ro ­ p e a n in v a sio n h a d a lre a d y b egun. T h e h is to ry o f th e S u d an ese p eo p les, th e ir co u n tries a n d S ta te s before th e en d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry h a d n o p o in ts o f c o n ta c t w ith th e h is­ to r y o f E u ro p e a n n a tio n s, th e ir colonizing a d v e n tu re s a n d u n d e rta k in g s .2

T H E R EG IO N S O F E U R O P E A N IN T R U SIO N

(U p p e r G u in ea C oast)

S ig n ifica n ce of the W est A fric a n C oast in the S la v e T ra d e P erio d

i n th e slav e tr a d e p erio d th e reg io n m o st ty p ic a l o f E u ro p e a n co lo n izatio n a n d th e th e a tr e o f th e E u ro p e a n s ’ fiercest in te rn e c in e stru g g le s w as th e W e s t A frican (u p p er G uinea) c o a st. T h is is a c c o u n te d fo r ch iefly b y th re e circ u m sta n c e s: 1. T h e w est c o a st w as th e n e a re s t a n d th e re fo re th e m o st easily accessible to th e A frican

1 See p p . 133 —135. ! See p p . 130 —133.

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slav e tr a d e . 2. T he co u n tries o f th e u p p e r G uinea c o a st w ere rich su p p liers o f th e A frican tr a d e (gold, iv o ry , spices). 3. T h e y w ere in h a b ite d b y s c a tte re d sm all trib e s w hich s till h a d n o stro n g tr ib a l alliances. T he resistan c e o f th e sm all trib e s w as re la ­ tiv e ly e a sy fo r th e E u ro p e a n s to b re a k dow n. T h e W e st A frican c o a st w as th e m a in field o f a c tio n o f th e b ig (chiefly B ritis h a n d F ren ch ) A frican com panies, fro m w here m o st slaves le ft fo r A m erica, a n d w h ere th e lio n ’s sh a re o f A frican gold a n d o th e r reso u rces w as secu red . I n s tu d y in g th e h isto ry o f A frica in th e age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n , th e re fo re , w e h a v e to p a y p a rtic u la r a tte n tio n to th is region. T his is n e c essary also b ecause th e W e st A frican c o a st is th e o n ly reg io n o f A frica to h a v e b een th e th e a tr e o f large-scale in te rn ecin e stru g g le s b e tw e e n E u ro p e a n p o w ­ ers a lre a d y in t h a t epoch. S c a tte re d skirm ishes a n d e v e n m o re o r less significant a rm e d conflicts, as w e a re going to see below , to o k p la ce fro m tim e to tim e in o th e r regions, to o . B u t o n ly o n th e w est co a st w as th is w arfa re carried o n a lm o st w ith o u t in te rru p tio n s d u rin g th e e n tire epoch. W hile in o th e r regions th e conflicts w ere som e­ th in g like casu al clashes b e tw e e n tw o pow ers in som e p h ase o f th e in v asio n , th e stru g g le h ere fro m th e 16 th c e n tu ry o n , a n d especially fro m th e e a rly 17 th , to o k on a c h a ra c te r o f s y ste m a tic riv a lry in w hich all o f th e econom ically m o st d ev elo p ed E u ro p e a n co u n tries o f t h a t tim e p a rtic ip a te d . A t th e sam e tim e W e st A frica w as th e o n ly reg io n to b ecom e th e scene o f th e fu ll d ev elo p m en t o f th e B ritis h a n d F re n c h slave tr a d e a n d , co n seq u e n tly , o f th e u n fo ld ing o f th e colonial policies a n d riv a lrie s o f th e tw o c o u n tries. F in a lly , o n ly a s tu d y o f th e h is to ry o f th is region c a n g iv e a co m p lete p ic tu re o f th e p h en o m en a re la te d to th e decline o f th e slave tr a d e a n d B r ita in ’s p re p a ra tio n for its ab o litio n , in so fa r as u n til th e l a tte r p a r t o f t h e 1 8 th c e n tu ry G re a t B rita in h a d n o t y e t p la y e d th e le ad in g role in a n y region o f A frica o th e r t h a n t h e w e st co ast. P a rtic u la rly in te re stin g in th is re sp e c t is th e h is to ry o f th e first a tte m p ts a t coloni­ z a tio n in S ierra L eone. I n th e age o f p rim itiv e a c c u m u la tio n ( i.e ., u p to th e e n d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry ) E u ro p e a n pow ers fo u g h t m a in ly in fo u r se cto rs: 1. in G am bia, w here first th e A n g lo -P o rtu g u ese c o m p e titio n a n d la te r th e A ngloF re n c h riv a lrie s to o k place; 2. in Senegal, w here th e stru g g le w as fo u g h t ch iefly b e tw e e n th e F re n c h a n d th e D u tc h , a n d la te r w ith p a rtic u la r b itte rn e s s b e tw e e n th e F re n c h a n d th e B ritish ; 3. o n th e Gold C oast, w here th e stru g g le involved, in a d d itio n to th e p rin cip al col­ onizing pow ers (G reat B rita in , F ra n c e , P o rtu g a l, H o lla n d ), e v e n su ch n a tio n s on th e w hole less a c tiv e in th e colonial field in t h a t p erio d as G erm a n y , D e n m a rk and S w e d en ; a fte rw a rd s B rita in a n d H o lla n d rem a in ed t h e m a in riv als o n th e G old C o a s t; 4. in S ie rra Leone, w here th e B ritish h a d to w age w ars a lte r n a te ly w ith th e P o r tu ­ guese, th e D u tc h a n d th e F re n ch . W e p ossess th e la rg e st a m o u n t o f d o cu m en ts concern in g th e w e ste rn litto r a l o f A frica (of th e m o st v a rie d k in d s a t t h a t ) en ab lin g us to ex am in e th o ro u g h ly th e co n ­ d itio n s in th e giv en p erio d . T his refers b o th to th e p rim a ry sources (d o cu m en ts, m em oirs a n d tr a v e l ac c o u n ts o f co n tem p o raries) a n d to h isto ric a l w orks. T h e h ig h ly in te n se a c tiv ity o f th e E u ro p e a n p ow ers in th is region p ro d u ce d a v e ry g re a t a m o u n t o f d o c u m e n ta ry m a te ria l. I n line o f th e e x p lo ra tio n o f th e A frican c o u n tries an d p eoples th e m o st o f w h a t w as d o n e b y E u ro p e a n s in t h a t p e rio d concerns ju s t th is p a r t o f A frica. I n view o f th e g re a t ro leit p la y e d in th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f cap ita lism in E u ro p e a n d A m erica, bourgeois h isto ria n s h a v e alw ay s p a id th is p a r t o f A frica k een a tte n tio n . 125

B r itish A d ven tu rers on the W est C oast an d T h e ir S truggle w ith the P ortu guese

D u rin g th e first h a lf o f th e 1 6th c e n tu ry th e P o rtu g u e se co n tin u ed to b e th e ex ­ clusive m a ste rs o f “ A frican tr a d e ” on th e w e ste rn litto r a l; th e ir tra d in g p o sts w ere m u ltip lie d , th e slav e tr a d e assu m ed grow ing p ro p o rtio n s, se v eral new fo rts w ere b u ilt. B u t in th is p erio d th e P o rtu g u e se c o n c e n tra te d m a in ly o n o th e r secto rs o f th e A frican c o a s t: on th e Congo w hich o pened u p m u ch b e tte r p o ssib ilities fo r th e ir tr a f ­ fic in slaves, a n d o n th e e a st co a st w here a t th e tim e th e y w ere c a rry in g o n th e ir ca m ­ paig n s o f co n q u e st. T h e first riv als o f th e P o rtu g u e se a p p e a re d o n th e w e st c o a st a ro u n d th e m iddle o f th e 1 6th c e n tu ry . E n g lish m e rc h a n ts in p u rs u it o f spices, gold a n d iv o ry v isited th e s e shores ev en in fo rm er tim e s — on b o a rd P o rtu g u e se vessels. B u t, o n a c c o u n t o f th e com m ercial c o m p e titio n , th e re la tio n s b etw e en P o rtu g u e se a n d B ritish by th e m iddle o f th e 16th c e n tu ry h a d becom e s tra in e d , a n d th e B ritish b eg an sen d in g o u t ex p e d itio n s o f th e ir ow n. W in d h a m ’s ex p e d itio n in 1553 v isited B e n in a n d th e G old C oast. A fte r th is th e G old C oast becam e a re g u la r place o f call fo r B ritish tra d in g ex p e d itio n s. T h e sam e place w as v isite d b y th e e x p e d itio n o f J ohn L o ck e in 1554 a n d b y th e first e x p e d i­ tio n (in q u e s t o f gold a n d iv o ry ) o f T o w erso n in 1555. T h e T o w erso n ex p e d itio n a lre a d y h a d a clash w ith th e P o rtu g u e se . I n 1556 T o w erso n c o n d u c te d his second ex p e d itio n to th e G old C oast, a n d th e n he h a d to fig h t re g u la r b a ttle s w ith th e P o r ­ tu g u e se. I n 1558 tw o B ritish m e rc h a n ts, B y r d a n d N e w t o n , a g a in v isite d B en in . T he E n g lish a d v e n tu re r H a w k in s m ad e his first a p p e a ra n c e o n th e w est c o a st in 1562. W ith h im b egan a new p h ase in th e h is to ry o f th e A frican tr a d e o f th e B ritish . F ro m th e E n g lish A frican tr a d e rs o f fo rm e r tim e s H a w k i n s d iffered in tw o r e ­ sp e c ts: 1. B efore him , his fellow c o u n try m e n w ere an x io u s to av o id conflicting w ith th e P o rtu g u e se a n d w ere c o n te n t w ith d efen d in g th e m se lv es. H a w k in s h im self s ta r te d a tta c k s u p o n th e P o rtu g u e se . 2. B efore H a w k in s , th e A frican tr a d e rs w ere o u t m a in ly fo r spices, gold a n d iv ory, a n d on ly occasionally d id th e y k id n a p a few slav es. H a w k in s w as en g ag ed chiefly in th e slav e tra d e . P a r t o f his “ living m e rc h an d ise” h e p ro c u re d b y p ira tic a lly a t ta c k ­ ing th e vessels o f P o rtu g u e se slav e d ealers a n d b y p lu n d e rin g th e ir cargoes, th e rest o f his b o o ty , b y k id n a p p in g on th e co a st o r, m o st ra re ly o f all, b y b a rte rin g . U p o n re tu rn in g fro m his first successful p lu n d e rin g c am p aig n w ith a cargo o f slaves in 1562, he m e t w ith com p lete a p p ro v a l o n th e p a r t o f th e so v ereig n o f E n g la n d , Q ueen E l iz a b e t h . On to p o f th is , to en courag e th e sla v e -tra d in g b u sin ess “ p leasing to G o d ” (an d p ro fitab le to th e B ritish w e a lth y ), th e Q ueen p re s e n te d h im w ith a w ell-equipped vessel fo r f u rth e r slav e-raid in g ex p e d itio n s. C h a ra c te ristic a lly en ough, th e sh ip w as n a m e d J e su s. H a w k in s c o n d u c te d tw o m o re ex p e d itio n s (in 1564 a n d 1567), a n d , follow ing th is , th e p ira tic slav e tr a d e o f B ritish m e rc h a n ts a n d a d v e n tu re rs assu m ed h uge p ro p o r­ tio n s. T h e conflicts w ith th e P o rtu g u e se , o f course, co n tin u ed .

T he O rigin of A fric a n C o m p a n ies

T o im p ro v e th e ir chances in th is stru g g le a n d th e ir p o ssib ilities o f d ev elo p in g slave tr a d e (an d also — in th e second place — th e traffic in gold a n d spices), th e B ritish m e rc h a n ts in th e eig h ties o f th e 16th c e n tu ry b eg a n to fo rm co m p an ies fo r A frican

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tr a d e . T hese com panies s tro v e to o b ta in a n d d id o b ta in fro m th e q u een official re c ­ o g n itio n in o rd e r to secure g o v e rn m e n t subsidies. T h e first tw o p a te n ts (“ c h a rte rs ” ) w ere g ra n te d b y Q ueen E l i z a b e t h in 1588 a n d 1592. T h e first co m p an y receiv ed an exclusive p a te n t for tr a d in g w ith th e A frican c o a st b etw e en th e “ S e n a g a ” (Senegal) a n d G am bia R iv ers, a n d th e second, fro m th e G am b ia R iv e r to S ierra L eone. A fter th e s e com panies h a d b ee n e sta b lish e d th e A frican tr a d e to o k on a m o re re g ­ u la r a n d o rganized c h a ra c te r a n d in c re ase d in vo lu m e. A b ig e x p e d itio n u n d e r R e y n o l d s a n d D a s s e l v isite d S enegal a n d G am bia as e a rly a s 1591. T h is g av e rise to h o stile a c tio n s on th e p a r t o f th e P o rtu g u e se a n d s tim u la te d also o th e r g re a t co m ­ m ercial n a tio n s o f E u ro p e , first o f all, th e D u tc h a n d th e F re n c h . F ollow ing R e y ­ n o l d s a n d D a s s e l , a big D u tc h e x p e d itio n u n d e r E r i k s M e d e n b l i k v isite d t h e G old C o ast in 1595. T h e first big co m p an y to receive th e m o nopolistic r ig h t to th e e n tire A frican tr a d e (“ th e C om pany o f A d v e n tu re rs o f L o n d o n tra d in g in to A fric a” ) w as fo u n d ed in L o n d o n in 1618. T his co m p an y b eg a n to b u ild fo rtified s ta tio n s o n th e A frican co a st o n a la rg e scale to d efe n d th e B ritish tr a d e b y a rm s. (The first B ritish fo rts on th e G old C oast h a d b ee n b u ilt in 1616, before th e a p p e a ra n c e o f th is co m p an y .) U p o n th is H o lla n d a n d F ra n c e also decided to ta k e a c tio n . I n 1621 th e D u tc h W e st In d ia C o m pany w as g ra n te d th e m o nopoly fo r tra d in g w ith th e w e st c o a st o f A frica, a n d th e F re n c h W e st A frica C o m pany w as fo u n d ed in 1626. T h e b ir th o f th e se riv allin g big com panies o f th e th re e s tro n g e s t co m m ercial n a ­ tio n s o f th o se tim e s m a rk e d th e b eginning o f a fierce a n d o b s tin a te , a t tim e s e x tre m e ­ ly e m b itte re d , stru g g le o f E u ro p e a n c a p ita l fo r th e possession o f th e n a tu ra l r e ­ sources o f A frica a n d fo r th e fru its o f th e la b o u r o f A frican peo p les. I n tw o a n d a h a lf ce n tu ries th is stru g g le — o n a n o th e r, h ig h er, sta g e o f d ev e lo p m e n t o f w orld c a p ita l­ ism —re su lte d in th e im p e ria list co n q u e st a n d p a r titio n o f th e w hole A frican c o n tin e n t.

O am bia

T h e first a g e n ts o f th e B ritish co m p an y w ho a p p e a re d o n th e G am b ia R iv e r in 1619 (th e Thompson ex p e d itio n ) w ere k illed b y th e P o rtu g u e se . T h e co m p an y im m e­ d ia te ly s e n t o u t a s tro n g e x p e d itio n u n d e r J obson (1620—21) w h ich , a f te r com ing to a n ag re em e n t w ith se v eral chiefs o f local trib e s , la id th e fo u n d a tio n s fo r a ra n g e o f B ritish tra d in g s e ttle m e n ts. T h e sm all B ritish colony su b sisted fo r six ty -o d d y ea rs w ith o u t bein g a tta c k e d b y an y o n e . I n 1663 o n a n islan d o f th e G am bia R iv e r th e B ritish b u ilt a f o rt fo r th e d efen ce o f th e ir tr a d e a n d n a m e d i t “ F o r t J a m e s ” a f te r th e lo rd h ig h a d m ira l o f E n g la n d . In 1695 F o r t J a m e s w as c a p tu re d b y th e F re n c h . T ru e, it w as re c a p tu re d w ith in a y e a r, b u t th e F re n c h b u ilt a fa c to ry o f th e ir ow n in its v ic in ity , a t A lb red a. F ro m t h a t tim e o n b e g a n th e stru g g le o f B rita in a n d F ra n c e fo r th e G am b ian co a st, w hich, in te r m itte n tly , la s te d u n til 1783. F o r in sta n c e , in th e s h o rt in te rv a l from 1697 to 1713, F o r t J a m e s w as tw ic e ta k e n a n d tw ice r e ta k e n b y th e B ritish a n d th e F re n ch , resp ectiv ely . B y th e V ersailles p ea ce o f 1783 F ra n c e , in ex ch an g e fo r h e r possessions in Senegal, d efin itely recognized G re a t B rita in ’s tr a d in g rig h ts o n th e G am b ia R iv er, w hile B r it­ ain c o n sen te d t h a t F ra n c e ag ain o ccu p y h e r fo rm e r fa c to ry a t A lb red a, w hich F ra n c e d id a t la s t in 1787. 127

Senegal T h e first to a p p e a r in S enegal w ere th e D u tc h (1617). T h ey e s ta b lish e d se ttle m e n ts a n d fo rts one a f te r a n o th e r (G oree Isla n d , R u fisq u e, J o a l, etc.). I n 1637 th e y to o k F o r t A rguim fro m th e P o rtu g u e se. F ollow ing th e D u tc h , a g e n ts o f th e F re n c h co m p an y fro m 1626 o n also s ta r te d fo u n d in g se ttle m e n ts a n d fo rts. I n 1669 th e y h a d a fa c to ry o f th e ir ow n also in th e p la ce o f to d a y ’s S t. L ouis. I n 1677, a f te r long q u arrels a n d m in o r strife s, th e F re n ch c a p tu re d b y force th e m o st im p o rta n t D u tc h s ta tio n s (G oree, R u fisq u e, P o rtu d a l, J o a l, e tc .), a n d in 1678 H o lla n d officially ced ed th e m to F ra n c e . Soon a fte rw a rd s a p p e a re d o n th e S enegal c o a st a new , stro n g e r riv a l o f th e F re n c h : in 1692 th e B ritish to o k fro m th e m G oree a n d S t. L ouis. T h e stru g g le b eg a n , a n d w ith in a y e a r b o th places w ere ag a in in th e h a n d s o f th e F re n c h . B rita in a n d F ra n c e th e n c o n tin u e d th e fighting a lm o st u n in te rru p te d ly fo r 90 y e a rs (1692— 1783). I n 1687 a g re a t F re n c h colonizer m ad e his ap p e a ra n c e o n th e S enegal C o a s t: A n d r é B r u e , d ire c to r o f th e F re n c h co m p an y . H e a tte n d e d th e affairs o f th e colony fro m 1697 to 1723; h e sp e n t tw elv e o u t o f th e 26 y e a rs in th e colony. B r u e w as fev erish ly a c tiv e in ex p a n d in g a n d consolidating th e colony. P a r tly p erso n a lly , p a r tly th ro u g h his a g e n ts, he ex p lo re d th e a d ja c e n t co u n tries (B am b u k , C ay o r, G allam , e tc .), co n ­ clu d ed c o n tra c ts w ith th e local chiefs w ho m a d e h im te rrito ria l concessions; h e e s ta b ­ lish ed a n u m b e r o f n ew se ttle m e n ts, fac to ries a n d fo rts. T h e D u tc h in 1717 lo s t P o rte n d ik a n d in 1727 A rg u in to F ra n ce . T h e A nglo -F ren ch stru g g le in S enegal b ecam e especially e m b itte re d d u rin g th e S ev en Y e a rs’ W ar. I n 1758 G oree a n d S t. L ouis w ere a g a in seized b y th e B ritish . B y th e P a ris peace o f 1763 G oree w as re tu r n e d to F ra n ce , b u t th e r e s t o f h e r possessions in S enegal rem a in ed in th e h a n d s o f G re a t B rita in . B eing th u s d e p riv e d o f S t. L ouis a n d o f o th e r te rrito rie s , th e F re n c h in 1765 a c q u ire d fro m th e “ k in g ” o f . C ayor a n ew te r r ito r y b etw e en S t. L ouis a n d p re se n t-d a y D a k a r. T h e y re c a p tu re d S t. L ouis in 1779. T h e w ar w as te rm in a te d b y th e V ersailles p ea ce o f 1783. B y th is tr e a t y F ra n c e reg a in ed all o f h e r possessions in S enegal as w ell as h e r fo rm e r tr a d in g s ta tio n a t A lb red a , in G am b ia. F ra n ce , fo r h e r p a r t, d efin itely reco g n ized G re a t B r ita in ’s rig h ts to G am b ia, a n d th e B ritish re ta in e d also th e exclusive r ig h t to tr a d e a t P o rte n ­ d ik fo r gum . Soon a f te r th e tr e a ty o f V ersailles F ra n c e e x p a n d e d h e r colonies b y ac q u irin g new te rrito rie s , C ape V erde a n d D a k a r, fro m local A frican chiefs.

G old Coast

O n th e G old C oast th e B ritish (who h a d b u ilt th e ir first fo rtificatio n , C o rm a n ty n e, as e a rly as 1616) w ere im m e d ia te ly follow ed b y th e D u tc h 1 (1624). T h e l a tte r c re a te d six te e n fo rts in quick succession (E lm in a , N assau , e tc .), p a r tly b y seizing th e e x is t­ in g P o rtu g u e se fo rts. I n stro n g c o m p e titio n w ith th e B ritish , th e y en g ag ed larg ely

1 A s for th e D u tc h colonies o n th e G uinea c o ast, see: C. A. J e e k e l , O nze bezittin gen of de ku8t v a n G u in ea (A m ste rd am , 1869); C. M . K a n , N e d e rla n d eai de k u st v a n G u in ea (U tre c h t, 1871); R . v a n d e r A a , A frik a a n sc h e S tu d ie n (th e H a g u e, 1871); D e R o e v e r , “ T w e con cu rren te n v a n d e e erste w estin d isch e C o m p ag n ie” (in O u d H o lla n d , vol. v ii [1889]); H . M u l l e r , D e a fsta n d d er k u st v a n G u in ea a a n E n glan d.

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in th e sla v e tr a d e . A fte r th e m cam e also S w edes w ho, h o w ev er, w ere soon d isp lac ed b y th e D a n e s (1657—60). T h e long r iv a lry a n d e n m ity ö f th e B ritis h a n d D u tc h tr a d e r s in 1664 re s u lte d in th e o u tb r e a k o f a n o p e n w a r b e tw e e n th e ir co m p an ies, t h a t is, b e tw e e n th e tro o p s w h ich d efe n d ed th e m . T h e w ar la s te d th r e e y e a rs. T h is tim e th e D u tc h tu r n e d o u t t o b e stro n g e r. T h e y n o t o n ly p re se rv e d th e ir ow n p o ssessio n s b u t seized p a r t o f th o s e h eld b y th e B ritis h w ho could r e ta in o n ly one o f th e ir f o rts , C ape C o ast C astle. A fte r th e “ R o y a l A frican C o m p a n y ” h a d b ee n fo u n d e d in L o n d o n (1672), i t b e g a n to b u ild n ew fo rts on th e G old C oast. O ne o f th e m w as b u ilt a s f a r as D a h o m e y (W h y d a h ). L a te in th e 17 th c e n tu r y (1682 a n d a fte rw a rd s ) a G erm a n co lony w as e s ta b lish e d b y B ra n d e n b u rg b e tw e e n E lm in a a n d A x im . S ev era l fo rts w ere e re c te d , a n d a tte m p ts w ere m a d e to e x p a n d tr a d e , b u t th e colony p ro v e d a fa ilu re a n d w as so ld to th e D u tc h c o m p a n y in 1717.1 I n th e m id d le o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry (1757) th e F re n c h a g a in a tte m p te d to c a p tu re th e p rin c ip a l B ritis h f o rt, C ape C oast C a stle , b u t w ith n o success. T h e riv a lry b e tw e e n th e B ritis h a n d th e D u tc h grew e v e r fiercer. I n th e eig h tie s o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu r y i t le d to a m ilita ry conflict. T h e w a r w e n t o n fo r a b o u t tw o y e a rs (1781—83). N e ith e r o f th e b ellig e re n ts su cceeded in k n o ck in g o u t its a d v e rsa ry . T h e D u tc h seized F o r t E lm in a fro m th e B ritis h , w ho in tu r n c a p tu re d th e D u tc h s ta tio n s a t K o m m e n d a a n d A ccra, b u t o n th e w hole b o th sid es p re se rv e d th e ir fo rm e r p o sitio n s. S ie r r a L eone

A fte r th e d isc o v ery o f S ierra L eone b y th e P o rtu g u e se P e d r o d e S i n t r a (1461), its c o a st w as fro m tim e to tim e a p la c e o f call fo r th e P o rtu g u e se w ho w ere, first o f a ll, sla v e tr a d e rs , in se arch o f th e “ liv in g m e rc h a n d ise ” . F ro m th e e a rly 1 6 th ce n ­ t u r y th e s e v isits becam e m o re fre q u e n t as th e sla v e tr a d e w ith A m erica cam e to th riv e . T h e P o rtu g u e se , how ever, a t t h a t tim e d id n o t e s ta b lish p e rm a n e n t se ttle m e n ts o n th is p a r t o f th e c o a st. T h e B ritish a p p e a re d in S ie rra L eone in th e second h a lf o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry . T h e firs t to v is it th is c o u n try w as, in 1562, th e fo u n d e r o f th e B ritis h slav e tr a d e , th e a d v e n tu r e r H a w k i n s , w ho, h a v in g o rg an iz ed th e b la c k h u n t o n th e c o a st o f S ierra L eo n e, tr a n s p o r te d fro m th e re a big cargo o f slav es. A fte r th is B ritis h sla v e d ea le rs b ecam e fre q u e n t v isito rs to S ie rra L eone, lik e th e P o rtu g u e se w ith w h o m th e y h a d m a n y a clash o n th is a c c o u n t. I n th e defen ce o f its tr a d e a n d o f P o rtu g a l’s m ono p o listic r ig h t to th e slav e tr a d e , th e P o rtu g u e se g o v e rn m e n t s ta r te d to se n d its w arsh ip s to th e se c o a sts to k eep a w a y a ll fo reig n vessels. A s a re s u lt, fo r m a n y d ec ad e s B ritis h sla v e m e rc h a n ts w ere ab le to s te p o n th e soil o f S ie rra L eone o n ly o n th e ra re occasions w h en th e y co uld escape th e a tte n tio n o f th e ir je a lo u s a n d — ow ing to g o v e rn m e n t s u p p o r t — stro n g e r co m ­ p e tito rs . T h is is w h y fo r a long tim e th e y failed to beg in e sta b lish in g p e rm a n e n t f a c to ­ ries a n d b u ild in g fo rtificatio n s. 1 C oncerning a tte m p te d G e rm a n c o lo n iz a tio n o n th e G old C oast, see: B ra n d e n b u rg -P re u ß e n a u f d er W e stk ü ste vo n A f r ik a (“ K rie g sg esch ic h tlich e A b te ilu n g des G ro ß en G e n e ra lsta b s” ) (B erlin, 1885); S c h u c k , B ra n d e n b u rg -P re u ß e n s K o lo n ia lp o litik u n te r d em G roßen K u r fü r s te n u n d se in e n N a ch fo lg ern , 2 vols. (L eipzig, 1889); H . D i e d e r i c h s , H erzo g J a k o b s von K u r la n d K o lo n ie n a n d er W estk ü ste A f r ik a s (M iteu, 1890). See also th e w o rk o f K o s c h it z k y , in d ic a te d o n p. 466.

9 Е. Sík: Black Africa I.

129

I t w as n o t b efore th e c re a tio n a n d co n so lid a tio n o f th e B ritish A fric an co m p an ie s — t h a t is, a b o u t th e m id d le o f th e 17th c e n tu ry — t h a t th e B ritis h sla v e tr a d e on th e c o a st o f S ierra L eone b ecam e m o re sy s te m a tic . A n d th e first B ritis h f a c to ry in S ierra L eone w as e sta b lish e d a s la te as 1660, t h a t is, n e a rly a h u n d re d y e a rs a f te r H a w k i n s ’ v isit. T h e P o rtu g u e se h a d fo rm e rly c re a te d se v e ra l sm all s e ttle m e n ts w hich how ev er, w ere in sig n ifican t in size a n d w ere n o t fo rtified . T o begin w ith , a B ritis h fa c to ry w as b u ilt o n th e sm a ll T asso Is la n d , in th e m o u th o f th e S ie rra L eone R iv e r, b u t a lre a d y in 1664 i t w as lo o te d a n d d e s tro y e d b y th e D u tc h . T h e n th e B ritis h b u ilt o n e u p o n R o d i Is la n d . T h is second f o r t w as d e s tro y e d b y th e A fricans. T h e th ir d tim e th e B ritis h e re c te d th e ir f o rt o n B en z Is la n d . I n 1704 th is w as c a p tu re d a n d p lu n d e re d b y th e F re n c h (w ho seized th e r e 7,000 tu s k s o f e le p h a n ts). I n 1720 th e f o r t w as fo r th e seco n d tim e p lu n d e re d b y a g an g o f B ritish p ira te s ( R o b e r t s ). I n 1728 th e “ R o y a l A fric an C o m p an y ” re n o u n c e d th is co lony a n d g a v e i t to p r i­ v a te tr a d e rs . I n th is fo rm i t e x iste d u n til 1787 w h en i t w as a c q u ire d b y th e “ St.. G eorge B a y ’s C o m p a n y ” . T h is co m p an y h a d b ee n fo rm e d b y B ritish p h ila n th ro p is ts (W i l b e r f o r c e , S h a r p , e tc .) w ith th e ta s k o f h a v in g th e e m a n c ip a te d A m erican N egroes re s e ttle d as free colonists in A frica. I n th e sa m e y e a r th e first co lo n ists a r r iv ­ ed in S ierra L eo n e: 400 ex-slav es a n d 60 L o n d o n p r o s titu te s re c ru ite d b y th e co m ­ p a n y to “ m a r r y ” th e n ew s e ttle rs . A few y e a rs a f te r th e ir a rriv a l, h o w ev er, n e a rly a ll th e s e im m ig ra n ts d ie d o f tro p ic a l diseases. B u t th e p h ila n th ro p is ts w ere n o t d ish e a rte n e d . T h e B ritis h P a rlia m e n t p assed a decision to fo rm th e “ S ierra L eone C o m p an y ” to c o n tin u e th e e x p e rim e n t o n a la rg e r scale a n d w ith g o v e rn m e n t aid .

T H E R E G IO N S U N A F F E C T E D B Y E U R O P E A N IN T R U S IO N A ) T H E S U D A N C O U N T R IE S

T h e W estern S u d a n

I n th e course o f th e e n tire 1 6th c e n tu ry th e W e ste rn S u d a n w as u n d e r th e ru le o f S o n rh ai, w hich as a r e s u lt o f th e co n q u e sts b y S u n n i -A l i h a d b ecom e a flourishing a n d p ow erful S ta te b y th e e n d o f t h e 1 5 th c e n tu ry . T h e g r e a t S ta te s o f G h a n a an d M elle b ecam e its v assals, w hile all th e o th e r, m in o r a n d sm all, S ta te s o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n p eoples w ere in som e deg ree d e p e n d e n t o n it. O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e decline o f M elle s ta r t e d a p ro cess o f ex p a n sio n o f th e M a n din g o trib e s all o v e r th e W e ste rn S u d an , som e o f th e m m o v in g w e stw a rd (in to S eneg am b ia) a n d o th e rs s o u th w a rd (in to th e reg io n s b e tw e e n th e u p p e r G u in ea c o a st a n d th e in la n d a re a s o f th e W e ste rn S u d an ). W h ile m o v in g o n, th e y clash ed w ith o th e r tr ib e s w hose la n d th e y occupied. I n th e face o f th e ir a d v a n c e , a n u m b e r o f trib e s — th e once p o w erfu l S u su am o n g th e m — w ere ob lig ed to c h a n g e th e ir p laces o f resid en ce a n d go f a r th e r w est o r so u th . T h is o fte n ca u se d m in o r strife s am o n g th e tr ib e s a n d ev en m a jo r in te rn e c in e w ars. T h e m a n y w ars g av e rise to th e in s titu tio n o f sla v e ry in c e rta in trib e s . S om e o f th e tr ib e s — as a m a tte r o f fa c t, m a in ly th o se w hich liv ed re la tiv e ly n e a r th e c o a st — becam e p a rtic ip a n ts o f th e sla v e tr a d e , e n g a g ­ in g in th e slav e h u n t. T h is, in tu r n , re s u lte d in n ew w ars, in th e fo rm o f sla v e -ra id in g ca m p aig n s. F o r ex a m p le , th e ab o v e -m en tio n ed S u su n o t o n ly h eld sla v es th em selv es,, b u t to o k a n a c tiv e p a r t in th e sla v e traffic a n d o rg an ized sla v e -h u n tin g e x p e d itio n s-

130

T h e m ig h t o f S o n rh a i d id n o t la s t long. L a te in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , in co n seq u en ce o f a p ro lo n g ed w a r w ith M orocco, i t fell u n d e r th e y o k e o f th e M oroccan s u lta n a n d b ec am e a p ro v in c e o f M orocco. T h e W e ste rn S u d a n S ta te s d e p e n d e n t on S o n rh a i n o w b ecam e tr ib u ta r y to M orocco. T h e follow ing tw o ce n tu rie s w ere th e epoch o f in c e ssa n t lib e ra tio n stru g g le s o f th e W e ste rn S u d a n peoples a g a in s t th e M oroccan opp resso rs. T h e p rin cip al p a r tn e rs in th e s e stru g g le s w ere th e n o m a d ic T u areg s, th e m in o r Н а ш а S ta te s t h a t fo u g h t a n u n in te r ru p te d fight fo r th e ir in d e p en d e n ce , a n d th e F u la h p eo p les, w hich in th e 1 6 th to 1 8 th ce n tu rie s w ere e x p a n d in g o v e r a ll th e c o u n trie s o f th e W e ste rn (an d p a r tl y o f t h e C e n tral) S u d a n a n d b eg an to exercise a g re a t influence h ere a n d th e re in th o se c o u n trie s, b u t d id n o t e s ta b lish a n y S ta te o f th e ir ow n in a n y p la ce u n til th e en d o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry .

T he C entral S u d a n C ou n tries B o rn u

A fte r its c re a tio n as a hom ogeneous S ta te a t th e e n d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry , B o rn u w as grow ing in pow er fo r a b o u t one h u n d re d y e a rs. H a v in g c ru sh e d th e B u la la tr ib e in 1500, th e su lta n s o f B o rn u c a rrie d o n co n q u erin g c a m p a ig n s o n e a f te r a n o th e r, su b je c tin g a n d s u b ju g a tin g a m u ltitu d e o f sm all c o u n trie s a n d tr ib e s , e x te n d in g a t th e sam e tim e th e b o u n d a rie s o f th e ir S ta te . B y th e e n d o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry B o rn u b ecam e th e s tro n g e s t m ilita ry S ta te in all th e S u d a n , ow ing, first o f all, to th e in tro d u c tio n o f firearm s. A n im p o r ta n t m o m e n t in th e 1 5 th -c e n tu ry h is to ry o f B o rn u w as also th e im m ig ra tio n o f a n u m b e r o f F u la h trib e s in th e m id d le o f th e c e n tu ry . T h e first h a lf o f t h e 1 7th c e n tu r y w as fo r B o rn u a p e rio d o f p e a c e fu l p ro sp erin g . B u t fro m th e m id -1 7 th c e n tu ry , d u rin g th e reig n o f S u lta n A l i b e n e l -h a d j - o m a k (1645—84), th e c o u n try suffered th e co nsequences o f se v eral g r e a t w ars (w ith th e S u lta n o f A ir, th e T u areg s, e tc .), a n d o th e r u n fo rtu n a te e v e n ts su c h as ( a ) th re e successive pilg rim ag es o f th e s u lta n to M ecca (1648, 1656, 1667); ( b ) a b ig u p risin g o f m a n y p eoples o f th e c o u n try a t th e tim e o f th e s u lta n ’s r e tu r n fro m his th ir d p il­ g rim ag e, a n d (c) th e fam in e t h a t h a d becom e p e rm a n e n t d u rin g h is reig n . A fte r th e d e a th o f th is s u lta n th e re w ere n o w ars fo r a lm o st o n e h u n d re d y ears, b u t s ta rv a tio n w as p e rm a n e n t am o n g th e B o rn u ese peo p le, re s u ltin g in a c a ta stro p h ic w eak en in g o f th e c o u n try . W h e n A l i b e n e l - H a d j - D ctnama (1755—93) ag a in c o n d u c te d se v eral unsuccessful ca m p aig n s in w hich his a r m y w as cru sh e d , th e o n e ­ tim e m ig h t o f B o rn u d w in d le d to n o th in g , a n d b y th e e n d o f th e I 8 th c e n tu r y th e c o u n try b ecam e a n ea sy p re y to a n y co n q u ero r.

B a g h irm i

A t th e begin n in g o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , a n ew S ta te , B a g h irm i, w as fo u n d e d s o u th ­ e a s t o f L a k e C h ad , b e tw e e n B o rn u a n d W a d ai, b y a p a g a n A ra b tr ib e com ing fro m th e e a s t, w h ich u n d e r th e co m m an d o f its chief, Birni-Besse (1522—30), o v e rth re w th e ru le o f th e B u lala , co n q u e red th e m in o r k in g d o m s o f th e reg io n , a n d u n ite d th e m — to g e th e r w ith th e n o m a d ic tr ib e s liv in g th e re — in a hom og en eo u s S ta te . 9*

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T h e th ir d ru le r o f B a g h irm i a f te r B i b n i - B e s s e , a n ep h ew o f h is, M a l o (1548— 58), w as overcom e b y h is b r o th e r, A b d -A l l a n (1568— 1608), w ho h a d fo rm e rly a d o p te d Islam . S eizing th e po w er, h e in tro d u c e d M o h am m ed an ism in th e c o u n try . T h e c o u n try re a c h e d th e h e ig h t o f its p ro s p e rity i n th e reig n o f S u it, t M u h a m e d E l -A m in (1751—85), w hose m ilita ry ca m p aig n s co n sid erab ly e x te n d e d th e b o u n d a ­ ries o f th e c o u n try to th e n o r th a n d th e so u th e a st. T h e s u lta n o f B a g h irm i w as a n a b s o lu te m o n a rc h , b u t in s te a d o f h im th e g o v e rn m e n t w as in th e h a n d s o f c o u rt d ig n ita rie s, w hose ju risd ic tio n e x te n d e d o v e r w hole d is tric ts a n d trib e s . E u n u c h s p la y e d a n im p o r ta n t p a r t in th e c o u rt a n d th e a rm y . A rig id c o u rtly e tiq u e tte w as e s ta b lish e d . I n th e p e rio d u n d e r d is­ cussion th e B a g h irm i a ssim ila te d m a n y o f th e local n o m a d ic tr ib e s a n d m in g led also w ith o th e rs.

W a d a i a n d D a rfu r

L a te in th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry a n d e a rly in th e 1 6 th , th e e a s te rn p a r t o f th e C e n tral S u d a n (W ad ai a n d D arfu r) w as c o n q u e red b y a n o m ad ic A ra b peo p le, th e T u n je r, w ho h a d m ig ra te d in to A frica fro m A ra b ia befo re th e a p p e a ra n c e o f Isla m a n d h a d fo r c e n tu rie s b e e n liv in g in N u b ia . T h e pow er o f th e T u n je r w as s h o rt-liv e d b u t h a d a p o sitiv e influence u p o n th e f u rth e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f b o th c o u n tries in tw o re sp e c ts: 1. T he trib e s o f D a rfu r, w ho h a d so fa r liv e d in iso la tio n fro m o n e a n o th e r a n d w ere b o u n d to g e th e r o n ly b y th e ir being d e p e n d e n t o n th e D ad io p eo p le w ho ru led o v e r th e m , w ere u n ite d in one S ta te b y th e T u n je r; in W a d a i th e T u n je r d o m in a tio n w as th e first S ta te fo rm a tio n o f th e trib e s liv in g d isp e rsed in th e c o u n try . 2. A lth o u g h th e T u n je r ru le w as o v e rth ro w n in b o th c o u n trie s, th e r e p re v a ile d y e t th e elem e n ts o f A rabic c u ltu re w hich th e T u n je r ha d b ro u g h t in to th e s e c o u n trie s a n d w hich h a d a fa v o u ra b le influence on th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e A fric an p eo p les w ho liv ed th e re . T h e po w er o f th e T u n je r in D a rfu r collapsed in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry , as a co n seq u en ce o f th e re v o lt o f th e in d ig en o u s p o p u la tio n le d b y D e l i l B a h a h o f th e K e ra tr ib e (a m ix tu re o f th e fo rm e r ru lin g clan w ith th e ab o rig in es), w ho fo u n d ed a new d y n a s ty . D u rin g th e reig n o f h is g re a t-g ra n d so n , S ö l e i m a n S o l o n (1596— 1635), w ho a d o p te d Is la m , D a rfu r b ecam e a g re a t m ilita ry p o w er, co n q u e rin g S e n n a r a n d K o rd o fa n on th e e a s t a n d m a k in g th e T u n je r ru le rs o f W a d a i h is tr ib u ta r ie s on th e w est. I n 1635 (th e y e a r o f th e d e a th o f S o l e im a n S o l o n ) th e T u n je r in W a d a i w ere o v e r­ th ro w n b y th e in d ig en o u s p eoples h e a d e d b y th e M o h am m ed an A ra b A b d -E l K e k i m , w ho n o w b ec am e s u lta n o f W a d a i (1635—55). H e a n d h is so n , H a r u s h (1655— 79), w ere s till tr ib u ta rie s to D a rfu r (an d to B o rn u ), b u t th e c o u n try w as risin g in po w er, a n d S u lta n J a k o b A b u s (1681 — 1707) a lre a d y refu sed to o b ey to D a rfu r a n d in a w a r u p o n i t a tta in e d h is c o u n try ’s in d e p en d en ce. I n th e m id -1 8 th c e n tu r y th e D a rfu ria n s u lta n s m a d e tw o m o re a tte m p ts to s u b ­ ju g a te W a d a i (O m a r L e l e in 1739 a n d A b u - E l - K a s i m in 1752), b u t b o th w ere d e ­ fe a te d . I t is in te re s tin g to n o te t h a t p a r t o f th e ir tro o p s d e s e rte d th e D a rfu ria n su l­ ta n s in b o th c a m p a ig n s. (As a consequence, O m a r L e l e b ecam e a c a p tiv e h im se lf a n d d ied in W a d a i in 1750). I n th e seco n d h a lf o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry a t la s t D a rfu r b ecam e resig n e d to th e loss o f W a d a i, a n d S u lta n T i r a b (1752—85) s ta r t e d ca m p a ig n s on th e w e st a g a in s t th e

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F u n j, w ho ru le d S e n n a r,1 w ith a view to re c a p tu rin g K o rd o fa n t h a t h a d b een seized b y th e F u n j. H e d ied in K o rd o fa n d u rin g his la s t ca m p a ig n in 1785. H is b r o th e r, A b d - b b - R a h m a n (1785—99), re n o u n c e d th e p la n s o f c o n q u e st. F o r 300 y e a rs h e w as th e first a n d only s u lta n o f D a rfu r to reig n w ith o u t m a k in g w ar. S u lta n Djod o f W a d a i (1747—95), a f te r d efin itely rep ellin g th e D a rfu ria n s ’ a tte m p te d co n q u e sts (1752), w as h im se lf en gaged in co n q u erin g cam p aig n s. H e co n ­ d u c te d a lto g e th e r eig h t cam p aig n s to th e so u th a g a in st th e p a g a n trib e s a n d co n sid ­ e ra b ly e x te n d e d th e b o u n d arie s o f his c o u n try . I n a d d itio n , h e co n q u e red p a r t o f K a n e m o n th e w est.

B)

T H E C O U N T R IE S B E T W E E N T H E U P P E R G U IN E A C O A S T A N D T H E W E S T ­

ERN SUDAN

A sh a n ti

I n th e 1 6 th a n d 17th c e n tu rie s th e D e n k e ra S ta te ric h in g old o ccu p ied th e in te rio r reg io n s ad jo in in g th e G old C oast a n d h eld m a n y n a tio n a litie s o f th e Oa g ro u p in su b je ctio n . T h e “ k in g ” o f D e n k e ra c a rrie d o n traffic in slav es a n d w as in c o n ta c t w ith th e D u tc h . O ne o f th e d e p e n d e n t peoples, th e A sh a n ti trib e , to w a rd s th e en d o f th e 1 7 th cen ­ t u r y refu sed to p a y tr ib u te a n d , w hen th e D e n k e ra ru le r tr ie d to c a p tu re slav es from th e trib e , th e A sh a n ti u n d e r th e co m m an d o f th e ir chief, Osai T utu, rose in a rm s a g a in s t h im . T h e k in g o f D e n k e ra s e n t a g a in s t th e m h is tro o p s e q u ip p e d w ith a n u m ­ b e r o f ca n n o n s w hich h e h a d receiv ed fro m th e D u tc h in ex c h an g e fo r slav es. D e­ s p ite th is , th e A sh a n ti d e fe a te d th e ir su b ju g a to rs, seized th e ir ca n n o n s (w hich a re to th is d a y d isp la y e d in K u m a si) a n d b ec am e a n in d e p e n d e n t n a tio n . A cco rd in g to Bosman,12 th e D en k e ra tro o p s lo st a b o u t 100,000 m en in tw o d ecisiv e b a ttle s o f th is w ar, w hile th e ir allies, th e A xim , lo st a b o u t 30,000, a n d th e su rv iv o rs w ere ta k e n in to sla v e ry b y th e A sh a n ti. A fte r th is v ic to ry , in th e 18 th c e n tu ry , th e m ig h t o f A sh a n ti rose s te a d ily . I t w as b a s e d u p o n th e traffic in gold a n d slav es a n d u p o n th e tr ib u te s p a id b y th e trib e s th e y su b ju g a te d b o th o n th e c o a st a n d in th e in la n d are a s. O n a c c o u n t o f th e slav e tr a d e th e y w ere fre q u e n tly a t w a r w ith th e c o a sta l trib e s w hose chiefs w ere th e m a in m e d ia to rs b e tw e e n th e A sh a n ti a n d th e E u ro p e a n s , in c e ssa n tly h u n tin g fo r slav es in th e n eig h b o u rin g in te rio r c o u n tries. T h e k in g o f A sh a n ti h a d a b so lu te p o w er o v er th e p erso n s a n d p ro p e rtie s o f his trib e sm e n , b u t 1. h e w as resp o n sib le fo r th e se c u rity a n d w ell-being o f h is p eo p le; 2. h e w as o bliged to o b se rv e s tr ic tly th e law s a n d cu sto m s o f th e c o u n try ; 3. w ith o u t th e co n sen t o f th e S ta te council (A sh a n ti-K a to k o ) co n sistin g o f h is m o th e r a n d o f th e chiefs o f th e p rin cip al p rovinces a n d a rm y u n its , th e k in g h im se lf co uld n o t d ecide m a tte rs o f n a tio n a l concern, a n d th e council could ev en d e th ro n e h im . T h e p ro v in cial chiefs w ere a p p o in te d b y th e k in g , th e y w ere u n d e r h is ju risd ic tio n a n d p a id him tr ib u te ; th e y , in tu r n , h a d full po w er o v e r th e d is tric t a n d villag e h e a d m e n . T h e em b lem o f th e ro y a l po w er w as a golden sto o l. T h e A sh a n ti so c ie ty w as d iv id e d in to th r e e e s ta te s : a risto c ra c y (princes, d ig n ita rie s, chiefs), freem en a n d slav es. 1 See p. 161. 2 B o sm an , a n official o f th e D u tc h E a s t In d ia c o m p a n y , s p e n t 14 y e a rs o n th e G old C o a st la te in th e 1 7th c e n tu ry a n d , a fte r m a k in g e x p lo ra tio n s in to th o se reg io n s, w ro te h is b o o k p u b ­ lish ed u n d e r th e title V oyage de O uinée in H o lla n d in 1704.

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M ilita ry service w as com p u lso ry a n d th e a rm y w as re c ru ite d on a te rrito ria l basis. T h e tro o p s w ere u n d e r th e co m m an d o f h e re d ita ry chiefs. I n w a r th e A sh a n ti w ere d istin g u ish e d fo r th e ir d e a th -d e fy in g b ra v e ry . T h e m ilita ry chiefs h a d to s ta y close b eh in d o f th e ir tro o p s a n d , in th e case o f d e fe a t, w ere obliged to c o m m it suicide. T h e k in g h a d his ow n life-guard o f a b o u t on e th o u s a n d m en (k ra o r o kra, “ th e k in g ’s so u l” ) w ho a c te d also as b o d y -g u ard s a n d sc o u ts o f th e k in g a n d , acco rd in g to old tra d itio n s , if t h e k in g d ied , h a d to follow h im in to his g rav e . T h e A sh a n ti p ra c tise d h u m a n sacrifices: ( a ) a t th e b u ria l o f th e k in g a n d n o ta b ilitie s, (b ) e v e ry y e a r a t th e tr a d itio n a l fe a st o f “ p u rific a tio n ” (w hich a t th e sam e tim e w as th e h a rv e s t fe s ti­ val a n d th e d a y ce le b ra tin g th e m e m o ry o f th e an c esto rs), w hich w as o f g re a t p o litic a l im p o rta n c e , because a ll chiefs d e p e n d e n t o n th e k in g a n d all tr ib u ta rie s o f th e S ta te h a d to a tte n d it in perso n .

D ah om ey

D ah o m ey , a n o th e r significant slave-holdin g S ta te , aro se in th e re a r o f th e so-called S lav e C o ast, so m e w h at n e a re r th e c o a st th a n A sh a n ti. I t w as fo rm ed e a rly in th e 17th c e n tu ry b y th e F o n tr ib e o f th e E w e g ro u p u n d e r th e le ad e rsh ip o f th e chief, T a c o d o n u , w ho b ecam e th e first “ k in g ” , t h a t is, th e p a ra m o u n t ch ie f o f D ah o m ey ( 1 6 2 5 -5 0 ) . T h e ru le rs o f D ah o m ey , like th o se o f A sh a n ti, ca rrie d on a g re a t com m erce in slaves w ith th e n eig h b o u rin g peoples a n d , th ro u g h th e m e d ia tio n o f th e co astal trib e s, w ith th e E u ro p e a n s as well. E a rly in th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry , in th e reig n o f Guaja Trudo (1708—30), th e y b eg an to c o n q u e r a n d tu r n in to th e ir vassals th e sm all “ k in g d o m s” ( th a t is, tr ib a l alliances) o f th e c o a sta l regions (A d rah in 1723—24, W h y d a h in 1727—28). T h u s th e y clash ed also w ith th e E u ro p e a n s w ho h a d th e ir fac to ries on th e c o a st a n d m a n ag e d to keep th e ir h a n d s o n th e local princelings. A s th e re s u lt o f fo reig n , m a in ly B ritish , in te r ­ v e n tio n in th e in te rn e c in e stru g g le b etw e en th e D ah o m i a n d th e c o a sta l trib e s , m a n y fac to ries w ere d e s tro y e d b y th e D ah o m i a n d m a n y foreigners w ere ta k e n in to c a p tiv ­ ity , b u t a fte rw a rd th e y all w ere s e t a t lib e rty , e x c e p t th e B ritish g o v ern o r o f W h y ­ d a h w ho w as killed. T h e c o n q u e st o f th e co a st g av e a new im p u lse to th e p ro s p e rity o f D ah o m e y , es­ p ecially in th e field o f th e slav e tr a d e . I n th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry D a h o m e y s u b ju g a te d also a n u m b e r o f trib e s in th e in te rio r regions. I n 1763 th e c o a st trib e s m a d e a n a tte m p t to w in in d e p en d e n ce , b u t th e ir re v o lt w as cru sh e d . I n 1784 D ah o m e y o ccu p ied also B a d a g ry (in th e p la ce o f p re se n t-d a y C o to n u ). A s to social o rg an iz atio n , cu sto m s a n d usag es, th e D ah o m i h a d m u c h in com m on w ith th e A sh a n ti. T h e k in g ’s pow er o v e r th e p erso n s, liv es a n d p ro p e rtie s o f h is su b ­ je c ts in D ah o m e y w as still m o re a b s o lu te th a n in A sh a n ti (foreign tr a d e w as his p e r ­ so n a l m o n o p o ly ; he h a d th e r ig h t to give th e d a u g h te rs o f his su b je c ts in m a rriag e, k ee p in g th e p u rc h a se p rice fo r h im self; in old en tim e s th e ch ild ren in e a rly b o y h o o d w ere ta k e n fro m th e ir p a re n ts a n d g iv en to o th e r fam ilies in o rd e r to rid th e m o f th e fa m ily b o n d s w hich w ould im p e d e th e ir bein g e d u c a te d in a sp irit o f a b s o lu te lo y a lty t o th e k in g , e tc .). B u t in re sp e c t o f S ta te affairs h is p o w er w as lim ite d . A lth o u g h u n d e r less se v ere law s th a n in A sh a n ti, th e k in g w as ob lig ed to ru le in ac co rd an ce w ith th e cu sto m s a n d tr a d itio n s o f his peo p le. H e re th e re w as no “ S ta te co u n cil” , b u t th e k in g ’s e v e ry a c tio n w as u n d e r th e c o n tro l o f tw o h ig h d ig n ita rie s, on e o f w hom w as resp o n sib le for th e hom e affairs, th e o th e r b ein g e n tru s te d w ith th e foreign

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affairs (including tra d in g ac tiv itie s). T h e kin g w as p a id m o re h o n o u rs th a n in A sh a n ti; h e w as considered a dem igod (nobody w as p e r m itte d to see h im e a tin g ; w hile giving au d ien c e to his su b je c ts, he w as se a te d b eh in d a c u rta in , e tc .). I n D ah o m ey , lik e in A sh an ti, th e s tr ic te s t e tiq u e tte w as o f g re a t im p o rta n c e . T h e em blem o f th e p o w er h ere w as a cane. T h e k in g w as succeeded o n th e th ro n e b y h is eld est son. B e tw ee n th e d e a th o f th e k in g a n d th e e n th ro n e m e n t o f his successor th e re w as a long p erio d o f in te rre g n u m d u rin g w hich crim in al offences re m a in e d u n p u n ish e d , b ecau se in th e th in k in g o f th e D ah o m i th e a d m in is tra tio n o f th e law w as n o t possible w ith o u t th e k in g w ho w as th e source o f law a n d o rd er. T h e w ay th e a rm y w as re c ru ite d in D ah o m ey , in c o n tra s t to A sh a n ti, w as t h a t th e v iceg eren t o f ev e ry p ro v in ce raised a c e rta in n u m b e r o f soldiers. A sin g u lar in s titu ­ tio n in th e D ah o m e y a n a rm y w as th e fem ale gu ard o f th e D ah o m i k in g . T h e “ D ah o m i A m azo n s” (as th e E u ro p e a n s called th e m ) could n o t h a v e h u sb a n d s, b u t th e k in g h a d th e rig h t to live w ith a n y one o f th e m , a n d th e y a ll h a d th e s ta tu s o f ro y a l w ives (w hoever sed u ced a fem ale w arrio r, ju s t as th e se d u ce r o f a ro y a l w ife, w as p u t to d e a th ) ; th e y w ere n o t allow ed to look a t m en, ex c e p t d u rin g p a ra d e s a n d in w ar, b u t ev en in such cases th e y w ere s tr ic tly s e p a ra te d fro m th e m ale w arrio rs. T h e y w ore v a rie g a te d tr im uniform s, b u t w e n t b a re fo o t. T h e ir a rm a m e n t co n siste d o f m u sk e ts a n d sh a rp k n iv e s. I n tim e o f p ea ce th e y w ere th e p erso n a l g u a rd o f th e k in g a n d o f his w ives. T h e y to o k a n a c tiv e p a r t in all fe stiv itie s, p a ra d in g a n d d an cin g . M ar­ sh a lle d in reg im en ts, th e y a c te d as shock tro o p s in m ilita ry cam p aig n s. I n b a ttle s th e y excelled in b ra v e ry a n d c ru e lty . A special place in th e S ta te o f D ah o m ey w as h eld b y th e k in g ’s first wife w ho b ore th e title o f queen, being responsible, as such, fo r th e m a n a g e m e n t o f th e e n tire ro y a l h a re m a n d h av in g po w er o v e r life a n d d e a th in th is p re c in c t. T h e sons o f th e “ q u ee n ” alo n e w ere co nsidered ro y a l princes. T h e sons b o m o f th e o th e r ro y a l w ives c o n s tit­ u te d a p riv ileg ed g ro u p (a k o v i) , fro m am ong w hom cam e th e h ig h d ig n ita rie s, b u t allu d in g to th e ir d esce n t w as b y tr a d itio n fo rb id d e n on p a in o f d e a th . I n D ah o m ey , lik e in A sh a n ti, h u m a n sacrifices w ere p ra c tise d a t th e fu n e ra l cere­ m o n y o f th e k in g o r th e n o b ility a n d a t th e “ fe stiv a l o f p u rific a tio n ” ; a sin g u lar a s ­ p e c t o f th e h u m a n sacrifices w as “ th e sen d in g o f a m essen g er b y th e k in g in to th e o th e r w o rld ” (w ith th e k in g ’s r e p o rt on his d eeds to th e an c esto rs).

B IB L IO G R A P H Y G E N E R A L W O R K S ON E U R O P E A N C O L O N IZ A T IO N I N W E S T A F R IC A IN T H E 16TH TO 18TH C E N T U R IE S

Abthtjs, D e s c rip tio n h isto riqu e et veritable de la G6te d 'o r (A m sterdam , 1605). —

(O riginal e d itio n in L a tin :) “ D e sc rip tio h isto ric a e tc .” (in B r y , I n d ia O rie n ta lis [1600], p a r t vi). B a r b o t , D e s c rip tio n of the C oast of N o rth a n d S o u th G u in ea (in C h u rc h ill’s C ollection, v o l. v). C. B. W a i d s t r o m , A n E s s a y on C o lo n iza tio n P a r tic u la r ly A p p lie d to the W estern C oast of A fric a : Also B rief D e sc rip tio n o f th e C olonies in A frica (L o n d o n , 1794). H . J o h n s t o n , P io n e e rs in W est A fr ic a (L o n d o n , 1911). J . B l a k e , E u ro p e a n B e g in n in g s i n W est A fr ic a (1 4 5 4 —1 5 7 8 ) (L o n d o n , 1937). C. H o w a r d (ed.), W est A fr ic a n E x p lo re rs (L o n d o n , 1951). See also th e w o rk o f Cawston (p. 120).

135

BRITISH COLONIZATION 1.

G eneral w orks

W i l s o n , W estern A f r ic a , I t s H is to r y , C o n d itio n a n d P ro sp e c ts ( L o n d o n , 1866). M. K i n g s l e y , T h e S to ry of W est A fric a . J o h n L a n g , T he L a n d of the Golden T ra d e W est A fr ic a ( L o n d o n , n . d .). C. P . L u c a s , H isto r ic a l G eograph y of W est A fr ic a to the E n d of 1912 (O xford, 1913). G. F . Z ook , T h e C o m p a n y of R o y a l A d v en tu rers T ra d in g in to A fr ic a (N ew Y o rk , 1919). E v e l i n e C. M a r t i n , T he B r itish W est A fric a n S ettlem en ts 1 7 5 0 —1821 (L o n d o n , 1927). (R o y a l

J.

Colon. I n s t., Im p e ria l S tu d ies, N o. 2). D . F a g e , H is to r y of W est A fr ic a (C am bridge, 1959). See a ls o th e w o r k o f M o c k l e r - F e r r y m a n (p . 3 21).

2.

G a m bia

H e n r y F e n w i c k R e e v e , T he G am bia, I ts H isto r y , A n c ie n t, M e d ia eva l a n d M o d ern T ogether

w ith I t s G eograph ical, G eological a n d E th n o g ra p h ica l C o n d itio n s (L o n d o n , 1912). J . M. Gr a y , A H is to r y of the G am bia (L ondon, 1940). See also th e w o rk s o f tra v e lle rs (J obson . L em arre , F roger a n d M oore ) below .

3.

S ie rr a Leone

B r a it h w a it e C. W a l l is , T he R is e of O u r W est A fric a n E m p ir e (S ie r r a L eo n e) ( L o n d o n , 190 3 ).

J . J . C r o o k s , A S h o rt H is to r y of S ie rr a L eone. —

H.

A H is to r y of th e C olon y of S ie rr a L eone, W estern A fr ic a (L ondon, 1903). C h . J . L u k e , A B ib lio g r a p h y of S ie rr a L eone, p re ce d ed b y a n essay on th e origin, c h a ra c te r

a n d peoples o f th e colony a n d p ro te c to ra te (2nd e n la rg ed e d ., L o n d o n , 1925). W . F . B u t t —T h o m p s o n , S ie rr a L eone in H is to r y a n d T ra d itio n (L ondon, 1926). F . A . J . U t t i n g , T h e S to ry of S ie rr a L eone (L ondon, 1931). See also th e b o o k of th e tra v e lle r A t k i n s below a n d th e w o rk o f V. D e B e l l e f o n d (p. 107).

4.

T he Gold C oast

( I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e w o r k o f B o s m a n , in d ic a te d o n p . 85.) H e n r y M e r e d i t h , A ccou n t of the Gold C oast, w ith a B r ie f H is to r y of the A fr ic a n C o m p a n y

(L ondon , 1812). E l l i s , H is to r y of the G old C oast of W est A fr ic a (L ondon, 1893). G e o r g e M a c d o n a l d , T h e Gold C oast, P a s t a n d P re se n t (L ondon, 1898). W . W a l t o n C l a r id g e , A H isto r y of the G old C oast a n d A s h a n ti fro m the E a r lie st T im e s to the C om m en cem en t o f the T w en tieth C e n tu ry, 2 vols. (L ondon, 1915). W . E . F . W a r d , A H is to r y of the Gold C oast (L ondon, 1948). C. R e i n d o r f , A H is to r y of the Gold C oast a n d A s h a n ti (A ccra, 1950). W . E . F . W a r d , A H is to r y o f G h an a (L ondon, 1958). J . D . F a g e , G hana: A H isto r ic a l In te rp re ta tio n (M adison, 1959). See also th e book o f th e tra v e lle r L o y e r below a n d th e w o rk s o f B o w d ic h a n d R o b e r t ­ so n

136

(p. 194).

FRENCH COLONIZATION 1.

G eneral w o rk s on the h isto ry o f F ren ch W est A fr ic a

(In addition to th e works of F a id h e r b e [1889] a n d G a f f a r e l [1890], in dicated on pp. 321—322.) B a b t h é l e m y , N o tic e h istoriqu e su r les éta b lissem en ts fra n g a is d es c ite s occiden tales de V A friqu e

(n. d.). M o n o d , H isto ir e de V A friqu e occiden tale fra n c a ise (Paris, 1924). M . D e l a f o s s e , H isto ir e de Г A friq u e occiden tale fra n g a ise d 'a p r is d es tra v a u x et les in d ic a tio n s de M . D ela fo sse (Paris, 1926). D u b o c , L ’épopée colon iale en A friq u e occiden tale fra n g a ise (Paris, 1938).

2.

W o rk s on the h isto ry of S en egal C olon y

(In a d d i t i o n t o t h e w o r k s o f V. D e B e l l e f o n d a n d B k u e -L a b a t , i n d i c a t e d o n p . 107) D e m a n e t , N o u velle h isto ire de V A friq u e fra n g a ise, 2 vols. (1767). X , V o ya g es et e x p é d itio n s a u S én égal (“ T our du M onde” , 1860). E . F . B e r l i o u x , A n d ré B ru e (Lyon, 1874). E r n e s t F a l l o t , H isto ire de la colon ie fra n g a ise d u S én égal (“ Bull, de la Soc. de géogr. de M ar­ seille” , 1 8 8 2 -8 3 ). J.

A n c e l l e , L e s F ra n g a is a u S én égal (“ R evue de géogr.” March 1883). — L e s ex p lo ra tio n s a u S én égal, d e p u is l'a n tiq u ité ju s q u ’á n os jo u r s (Paris, 1886). M a c h a t , D o cu m en ts su r les établissem en ts fra n g a is de V A friq u e occiden tale a u 18е siécle (P aris,

1905). C u l t r u , H isto ir e d u S én égal d u 15‘ siécle á 1870 (Paris, 1910). P . M a r t y , E tu d e s sén ég a laises ( 1 7 8 5 —1 8 2 6 ) (Paris, 1925). C h . S c h e f e r (e d .), In s tru c tio n s générales données de 1763 á 1870 a u x gou verneurs et ordon n aleu rs des éta b lissem en ts fra n g a is en A friq u e occiden tale (Paris, 1921), vol. i (1763 —1831). J . L a d r e i t D e L a c h a r r ie r e , “ Les établissem ents de la cóte occidentale de l’Afrique, 1763 — 1870, d ’aprés lee In stru ctio n s au x gouverneurs” (R e v u e d es S cien ces P o litiq u e s , P aris,

April 1928, pp. 2 4 4 -2 6 3 ). R o t js s ie r , L ’éta b lissem en t d 'I s s in y (Paris, 1935). A. V i l l a r d , H isto ir e d u S én égal (D akar, 1943). A. D e l c o u r t , L a F ra n ce et les établissem en ts fra n g a is a u S én égal entre 1713 et 1763 (“ Mémoires

de l’In st. frangais d ’A frique Noire, 17” ) (D akar, 1952). See also t h e works of travellers (L e m a i r e , L a b a r t h e a n d D u r a n d ) a n d t h e book o f V i l l e neu v e

(p . 2 1 8 ).

PO R T U G U ESE COLONIZATION IN W EST A FRICA (In addition to the general works on P ortuguese colonization, indicated on p. 171.) A n d r é A l v a r e z D ’A l m a d a , T ra ta d o breve d ó s r io s de G u in é (1594). A. B r a s io , M o n u m en ta m iss io n a ria a frica n a : A fr ic a occiden tal ( 1 5 3 2 —1 5 6 9 ) (Lisbon, 1953)

M AJOR W ORKS OF T RA V ELLER S (In addition to th e work of B o s m a n , indicated on p. 85, a n d th e works of V il l a u d D e B e l l e n f o n d an d B r u e - L a b a t , in dicated on p. 107.) J o h n H a w k i n s , H isto r y of a V oyage to the C oast of A fr ic a (Philadelphia, 1797). R. J obson , T h e G olden T ra d e, etc. (London, 1623).

137

Cl a u d e J a n n e q u in

R o c h e f o r t , V oyage de L ib y e a u ro y a u m e de S en ega, le long d u N ig e r

(P aris, 1643). L e m a ib e , V oyages a u x ile s C a n a ries, C a p -V e rt, S én égal et в а т Ы е en 1682 (P a ris, 1695). J a c q u e s B a k b o t a n d J e a n G r a z i l h i e b , Voyage a u N o u vea u -C alebar, á B a n d y et ä D on o

(P a ris, 1699). F r o g e r , R e la tio n d 'u n voyage f a it en 1695, 1696 et 1697 a u x cőtes d ’A friq u e , détro it de M agellan et ile s A n tille s p a r u n e escadre de v a isse a u x oom m andée p a r M . de O ennes (P aris, 1699). G o d e f r o y L o v e r , R e la tio n d u voyage d u ro y a u m e d ' l s s i n y ( P a ris , 1704). D e s m a r c h a i s , V oyage en O u in ie (1 7 2 5 — 2 7 ) , 2 v o ls . ( A m s te r d a m , 1731). G u i l l a u m e S n e l g r a v e , N ou velle re la tio n de quelques en droits de Q u in ée et d u com m erce d ’esclaves q u ’on у f a it (A m ste rd am , 1735). A t k i n s , A V oyage to G u in ea, B r a z il a n d the W est I n d ie s (2nd e d ., L o n d o n , 1737). F r a n c is M o o r e , T ra v e ls in to the I n la n d P a r ts of A fr ic a etc. by F r a n c is M oore, fa cto r several y e a r s to the R o y a l A fric a n Co. of E n g la n d (L ondon, 1738). P . E . I s e r t , R e ise nach G u in ea (C openhague, 1788). C a p t . H o r s e l e y , L agos a n d I t s C h an n els ( L o n d o n , 1789). L a b a r t h e , V oyages a u S én égal p e n d a n t les an n ées 1784/85 ( P a ris , 1802). J . B . L . D u r a n d , V oyage a u S én égal ou m ém oires h istoriqu es, p h ilo so p h iq u es et p o litiq u e s su r les découvertes, les établissem en ts et le com m erce d es E u ro p éen s d a n s les m ere de Vocean A tla n ­ tiq u e, d e p u is le ca p B la n c ju s q u ’á la r iv iir e de S ierre-L io n n e in clu sivem en t, s u iv is de la rela tio n d 'u n voyage p a r terre de Vile S a in t-L o u is á G álám , et d u texte arabe de tro is tra ite s de com m erce f a its p a r V au teu r avec les p rin c e s d u p a y s , avec fig u re s et a lia s (P a ris, 1802). (L a n d o l p h e ), M é m o ires d u c a p ita in e L a n d o lp h e, con ten an t l'h isto ire de ses voyages p e n d a n t tre n te-six a n s a u x cőtes de V A friqu e etc., rédigé su r son m a n u scrit p a r J . S . L u esn e (P aris,

1823).

L IT E R A T U R E R E L A T IN G TO T H E H IS T O R Y O F W E S T A F R IC A N P E O P L E S IN T H E 16T H TO 18TH C E N T U R IE S (In a d d i t i o n t o t h e w o r k o f H a r t m a n n [1876], i n d i c a t e d o n p . 83.) 1. P e o p le s of the W estern a n d C en tral S u d a n See th e w orks o f S c h i l d e , B o v il l , M e y e b , L u g a b d , M o n t e il (1929), D u b o is (1897), M o n t e il (1903), H a c q u a b d , M i s c h l ic h , F ic h t a l , B e n t o n (S c h u l t z e ), P a l m e r (1939), U r v o y (pp. 83 —85), a n d th e w orks o f tra v e lle rs (B a r t h , V o g e l , R o h l f s a n d N a c h t ig a l ), in d ic a te d o n p. 221.

2. P e o p le s o f S en egam bia See th e w orks o f R . G. V. a n d B o il a t (pp. 85).

3 . T rib e s o f th e G u in ea coast

See t h e w o rk s o f B o s m a n , R o e m e r - H a n d l a n d W in t e r b o t t o m (p. 85).

4. D a h o m ey P . P o m m e g o r g e , D e s c rip tio n de la N ig r itie ( A m s te r d a m , 1789). R . N o r r i s , M e m o ir s o f the R e ig n of B o ssa A h a d ie , K i n g o f D a h o m y , a n d I n la n d C o u n try o f G u in ey, to w h ich are add ed the au th or's jo u r n e y to A b o m ey , the C a p ita l, etc. ( L o n d o n , 1 7 8 9 ).

138

A . D a l z e l , T h e H is to r y o f D a h o m y ( L o n d o n , 1793). A . L e H é r i s s é , L 'a n c ie n R o y a u m e d u D a h o m e y ( P a ris , 1911). M . J . H e r s h o v i t s , D a h o m e y , 2 v o ls . (N e w Y o r k , 1938).

6. A s h a n ti (In a d d itio n to th e w o rk o f C l a r id g e , in d ic a te d o n p. 136.) F . C. F u l l e r , A V a n ish ed D y n a s ty — A s h a n ti (L ondon, 1920). R . S. R a t t r a y , A s h a n ti (L ondon, 1923). — A s h a n ti L a w a n d C o n stitu tio n (O xford, 1929). W El m a n , T h e N a tiv e S ta te s of the Gold C oast (L ondon, 1940). See also B o w d ic h (1819), in d ic a te d on p. 198.

6. T he Y o ru b a a n d B e n in (In a d d itio n to th e w orks o f L u s c h a n , T a l b o t a n d J o h n s o n , in d ic a te d o n p . 186.) V a n N y e n d a a l , “ D e sc rip tio n d e la riv ié re F o rm o sa e t d e celle de B e n in ” (L e tte r o f O cto b er 1, 1701, to B o s m a n , p u b lish ed in th e l a t t e r ’s b o o k V oyage de O u in ée). P a l i s o t — B e a u v o is , “ N o tice su r le p e u p le d u B enin, lue á la séance p u b liq u e de l T n s titu t du 16 n iv o se a n I X ” ( D ic a d e p h ilo so p h iq u e, litté ra ire et p o litiq u e , p a r u n e société de gens de lettres ; [1801] vol. x x v iii, p. 141 ff). D ’A vezac , N o tice su r le p a y s et le p e u p le des Y a b o u s en A friq u e (“ M ém oires de la Société e th n o lo g iq u e ,” vol. ii, p a r t 2) (P a ris, 1845). J . U . E g h a r e v b a , A S h o rt H is to r y of B e n in (2nd e d ., L agos, 1953).

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CHAPTER II I

T H E P O R T U G U E S E IN T H E CONGO A N D A N G O LA

T h e P e o p l e s o f th e C o n g o i n th e 1 6 th to 7 6 th C e n tu r i e s

W e h a v e seen t h a t th e peoples o f W e st a n d C e n tral E q u a to ria l A frica — th e W e ste rn B a n tu trib e s — h a d in old en tim e s b een d iv id e d in to tw o la rg e g ro u p s: in th e n o r th v ario u s d ispersed sm all trib e s liv e d in th e reg io n o f th e m id d le course o f th e Congo, w hile in th e s o u th , in th e regio n s o f th e u p p e r reach es o f th e Congo, K a sa i, S a n k u m , K w an g o a n d K w an za R iv ers, th e re aro se sm a lle r a n d la rg e r trib a l fed e ra tio n s (“ S ta te s ” ) w hich in th e w estern a re a s ad jo in in g th e co a st w ere g ro u p in g a ro u n d th e “ K in g d o m o f K o n g o ” a n d in th e e a s t, a ro u n d th e “ S ta te o f M w ata Y am v o ” (th e L u n d a em pire). T h e P o rtu g u e se a p p e a re d , as th e first re p re se n ta tiv e s o f th e E u ro p e a n s, in th e co a sta l are a s o f th e Congo k in g d o m in th e la s t few y e a rs o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry , a n d , as w e a re going to see below , soon su b je c te d th o se te rrito rie s to th e ir influence. O w ing to p e rm a n e n t c o n ta c ts w ith a n ad v a n c e d E u ro p e a n p o w er in th e form of e ith e r p eacefu l in te rco u rse o r m ilita ry conflicts, th e peoples o f th is p a r t o f E q u a to ria l A frica w ere d rag g e d in to th e o rb it o f th e w o rld ’s h isto ric a l pro cess e a rly in th e 16th c e n tu ry . I n th e course o f th e 1 6th to 18 th c e n tu rie s E u ro p e a n s d id n o t y e t p e n e tr a te in to t h e in la n d area s of the Congo along th e E q u a to r. T h e y e sta b lish e d th e ir facto ries a n d se ttle m e n ts on th e co ast b u t d id n o t v e n tu re f a r th e r th a n a couple o f k ilo m etres fro m th e sea. T h e im p e n e tra b le fo re sts a n d tro p ic a l fev e r k e p t th e m fro m in tru d in g in to th e h e a r t o f A frica. T h e re su lt w as t h a t , u n lik e th e Congo c o u n tries, th e cou n tries of the L u n d a em p ire rem a in ed a lm o st co m p letely u n to u c h e d b y th e in tru sio n o f E u ro p e a n colonizers d u rin g th e e n tire p erio d o f th e 1 6 th to 1 8th ce n tu ries. W h e th e r th e P o rtu g u e se m a d e a n y a tte m p ts , a n d how , to p e n e tr a te in to th e se co u n tries is so fa r im possible to a s c e rta in . O ne v a ria n t sa y s t h a t th e P o rtu g u e se , w hen th e slaves b ro u g h t from th e in te rio r a re a s le t th e m k n o w a b o u t th e ex isten ce o f th e se co u n tries, f itte d o u t se v eral ex p e d itio n s to ex p lo re th e m , b u t th e s e ex p e d i­ tio n s n e v e r cam e b ack . A ccording to a n o th e r v ersio n , th e P o rtu g u e se m u s t h a v e h a d som e com m ercial in te rc o u rse w ith th e L u n d a co u n tries, a n d c e rta in P o rtu g u e se m e rc h a n ts even v isite d th e m in p erso n .1 T h e re is, h ow ever, ev e ry rea so n fo r d o u b t in th is re sp e c t. B u t, if such c o n ta c ts d id re a lly ex ist, th e y could h a v e been v ery

1 See B o w d ic h , A n A c co u n t of the D isc o veries of the I n te r io r of A n g o la a n d M ozam biqu e from the o rig in a l m a n u sc r ip ts (L ondon, 1824).

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in sig n ifican t a n d ra re a n d w ere k e p t se c re t fro m th e o u tsid e w o rld , since th e r e is n o d o c u m e n ta ry evidence o f th e m . A t a n y r a te , th e y could n o t h a v e b een o f a n y e sse n tia l consequence to th e in te rio r d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e L u n d a co u n tries. F o r la c k o f d o c u m e n ta ry d a ta a b o u t th e h is to ry o f th e L u n d a c o u n trie s o f th is ep o ch , w e do n o t k n o w w h e th e r th e slav e-raid in g cam p aig n s o rg an iz ed b y th e A frican a g e n ts o f th e E u ro p e a n s re a c h e d th e se c o u n trie s, w h e th e r th e y secu red slav es fro m th e se are as, w h e th e r th e “ k in g s” a n d th e tr ib a l chiefs o f th e L u n d a co u n tries p a r tic i­ p a te d in th e slav e tr a d e , w h e th e r th e re w ere m ilita ry co n flicts o n th is a c c o u n t b etw een th e L u n d a c o u n tries a n d o th e r trib e s o f th e Congo, e tc . O f th e d o m e stic h is to ry o f th e L u n d a c o u n tries fo r th is epo ch w e h a v e no k n o w l­ edge e ith e r, since th e first tr u s tw o r th y in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e m d a te s fro m th e v e ry la s t y ea rs o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry . E v e n th e q u estio n w h e th e r sla v e ry ex iste d in th e L u n d a co u n tries h a s n o t as y e t been clarified. T ru e , la te r o n E u ro p e a n tra v e lle rs re la te d t h a t th e y h a d seen slaves am o n g c e rta in p eo p les o f th e L u n d a em p ire. B u t fro m th e ir sto rie s w e ca n a lm o st safely conclude t h a t sla v e ry h ere w as n o t a n e s ta b ­ lish ed social in s titu tio n b u t o n ly a superficial p h en o m en o n o f a re la tiv e ly la te p erio d (a fte r th e ap p e a ra n c e o f th e P o rtu g u e se o n th e co a st in co n n ex io n w ith th e slav e tra d e ), a n d i t w as n e v e r a w id e-sp read p ra c tic e ; re la tio n s b e tw e e n slav eh o ld ers a n d slav es w ere o f a n ex tre m e ly m ild a n d p a tria rc h a l n a tu r e .1 T h e com ing o f th e P o rtu g u e se a n d th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f th e sla v e tr a d e h a d e n tire ly d ifferen t reflections u p o n th e p eo p les of the in la n d regions of the northern Congo. T h e L u n d a S ta te s w hich w ere r a th e r s tro n g a n d w ell eq u ip p ed w ith a rm s m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e ta k e n p a r t in th e slav e tr a d e ; if th e re w ere a tta c k s o f sla v e -h u n tin g ex p e d itio n s u p o n th e ir te rrito rie s , th e y could d efe n d th e m se lv es a n d rep el such a tta c k s . O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e sm all a n d d isp e rsed trib e s on th e n o r th , w hich w ere ac cu sto m ed a n d p re p a re d o n ly t o fighting w ith th e w ild b e a s ts o f th e fo re sts a n d w ith p rim itiv e societies o f th e ir ow n k in d , p ro v e d e n tire ly d efenceless a n d h elp less in f ro n t o f a tta c k s fro m p ow erful h u n tin g ex p e d itio n s o rg an ized b y h u m a n b e a sts o f p rey . A s soon as th e slav e tr a d e b eg a n , th e in te rio r a re a s alo n g th e E q u a to r b ecam e one o f th e p rin c ip a l regions affec ted b y th is te rrib le p la g u e, a n d th e p eo p les h ere suffered m o st o f all. T h e E u ro p e a n s th e m se lv es w ere n o t a b le to p e n e tr a te in to th e d e p th s o f th e e q u a to ria l a re a s, b u t th e y su b ju g a te d th e c o a sta l trib e s , o p p resse d a n d p lu n ­ d e re d th e m , a n d com pelled a n d ta u g h t th e m to h u n t th e ir n e ig h b o u rs a n d to c a p tu re slav es fo r th e E u ro p e a n s, w ho e v e n su p p lied th e m w ith th e n ec essary im p lem e n ts a n d w eapons. T h u s i t w as t h a t th e curse o f th e sla v e tr a d e w e n t d e e p e r a n d d ee p er in to th e h e a r t o f A frica. Som e trib e s m e n b ecam e slav e tr a d e rs th e m se lv es, a n d o th e rs fell p re y to th e slav e tra d e . W h e n th e trib e s living in th e h e a r t o f A frica b ecam e aw a re o f th e c o n s ta n t th r e a t com ing fro m th e w est, th e y b e g a n to m ig ra te e a stw a rd . B u t th e y fell o u t o f th e f r y ­ ing p a n in to th e fire. S im u lta n e o u sly w ith th e e x p a n sio n o f th e sla v e h u n t fro m th e w est o rganized b y th e E u ro p e a n s, a n o th e r w av e o f h o rro rs s ta r t e d fro m th e e a s t: t h a t o f th e A ra b slav e tr a d e rs . L ik e th e E u ro p e a n s, th e A ra b m e rc h a n ts , w ho fo rm e rly b a d c a rrie d o n th e ir tr a d e in th e “ liv in g m e rc h a n d ise ” o n ly in th e v ic in ity o f th e c o a st , b e g a n in tru d in g in to th e in te rio r o f A frica, w ith th e o n ly difference t h a t th e y d id n o t fe a r risk in g th e ir ow n lives in th e in te r e s t o f good p ro fits. U n lik e th e E u ro p e a n s ,

1 See W i s s m a n n , U n ter deu tscher F lagge

quer u n d

du rch A f r ik a vo n W est nach O st (B erlin,

188 9 ), p . 93.

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th e y d id n o t e n tr u s t th e A fricans w ith organ izin g th e m a n h u n t, b u t th e y co n d u c te d th e ir ex p e d itio n s th e m selv es. T h e peoples o f th e in te rio r o f A frica fo u n d th e m se lv es b e tw e e n tw o fires. T h e y b ecam e h u n te d b e a sts. T h e y h a d to h id e, b eing c o n s ta n tly o n th e m o v e, in o rd e r to escape th e m a n h u n te rs w ho cam e ev er n e a re r fro m b o th sides. A n d th e o th erw ise w eak sm all tr ib e s w ere d isp e rsed a n d w ea k en e d fu rth e r.

T he “ C h ristia n iza tio n ” of the Congo

W h e n D i e g o C a m r e tu r n e d fro m his seco n d v o y ag e to th e e s tu a r y o f th e Congo, h e b ro u g h t w ith h im se v eral A fricans to P o rtu g a l. T h e re th e y w ere b a p tiz e d a n d

educated accordingly. After that, in 1491, Diego Cam set out for the Congo for the third time. This time th e e x p e d itio n , w h ich in clu d ed th o s e b a p tiz e d A frica n s a n d a gro u p o f m issio n a ries, h a d th e ta s k o f su b je c tin g th e co u n tries o f th e C ongo to P o r tu g u e se in flu en ce b y co n v e r tin g th e m t o C h ristia n ity .

P o rtu g u e se a n d o th e r E u ro p e a n sources a re e n th u sia stic a b o u t th e b rillia n t a n d sp e ed y re su lts ac h ie v ed b y th e C h ristian relig io n in th e Congo. T o te ll th e tr u th , th e ch ief o f th e c o a sta l p ro v in ce o f Songo, s u b o rd in a te to th e p a ra m o u n t ch ie f o f th e Congo tr ib a l allian ce, im m ed ia te ly e m b ra ce d C h ristia n ity to g e th e r w ith m a n y o f his trib e sm e n a n d led th e P o rtu g u e se in to th e in te rio r o f th e c o u n try , r ig h t in to th e c a p ita l c ity o f th e p a ra m o u n t. T his la tte r , to g e th e r w ith h is c o u rt, also a d o p te d C h ristia n ity a n d ev en re n a m e d his c a p ita l “ S áo S a lv a d o r.” I n th e first th re e d ecades o f t h e 16 th c e n tu ry th e m issio n aries, w ho w ere g ra n te d b y th e ch ief full freedom o f p ro p a g a n d a , succeeded in c o n v e rtin g th o u sa n d s o f A fri­ cans to C h ristia n ity . P o rtu g u e se a u th o rs a s s e rt t h a t th e n u m b e r o f th e co n v e rts re a c h e d 100,000. F ro m 1534 th e Congo h a d ev en its ow n A frican b ish o p . T h e m issio n ­ aries w ere follow ed b y th e slav e tra d e rs . F a c to rie s w ere s e t u p o n th e co a sts, a n d th e slav e tr a d e b eg an to p ro sp er. T h e so v e ry “ b r illia n t” success o f th e C h ristian slav e d ea le rs in secu rin g th e s u b ­ je c tio n o f a w hole g ro u p o f A frican c o u n tries to th e P o rtu g u e se influence is ac c o u n te d fo r b y th e p o litica l s itu a tio n w hich th e P o rtu g u e se fo u n d in th e Congo in th e la te 15 th a n d e a rly 16th ce n tu ries. T his s itu a tio n w as d e te rm in e d m a in ly b y tw o fa c to rs: 1. th e re la tio n s t h a t e x iste d b etw e en th e p a ra m o u n t o f th e Congo a n d th e d e p e n d e n t local chiefs, t h a t o f Songo in p a rtic u la r, a n d 2. th e th r e a t o f o u tsid e a tta c k s u p o n th e Congo, w hich b y th e en d o f th e 15th c e n tu ry , as a re s u lt o f th e p eo p les’ m ig ra ­ tio n in to th e in te rio r o f A frica, becam e p e rm a n e n t. T h e ch ief o f Songo w as d rea m in g o f seizing th e su p rem e p o w er o v e r th e e n tire Congo o r, a t le a s t, p u ttin g a n e n d to h is d ep e n d en c e u p o n th e p a ra m o u n t chief. T his la tte r , o n th e o th e r h a n d , w as aw a re o f th e n ec essity o f stre n g th e n in g th e c e n tra l pow er a n d tig h te n in g th e su b je ctio n o f th e d e p e n d e n t c o u n trie s a n d chiefs. T h e a lie n new com ers possessed su p e rio r w eapons a n d lo ts o f “ w o nder-w orking th in g s ” o f ev e ry k in d (crosses, rosaries, e tc .) w hich in t h e eyes o f th e fetish -w o rsh ip ­ p in g A fricans seem ed n o less effective m a rtia l im p lem e n ts th a n th e fire a rm s, th e m ore so because th e m issionaries, m a k in g th e b e s t th e y co uld o f th e A frican m a sse s’ p red isp o sitio n to su p e rstitio n o f a n y k in d , w ere p rea ch in g th e C h ristia n religion m a in ly b y sp rea d in g religious su p e rstitio n s. A t th e sam e tim e th e alien s fro m b ey o n d th e seas, d e sp ite th e obviousness o f th e ir su p e rio r s tr e n g th , u n lik e all th e o th e r

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fo reig n (A frican) peoples w hom th e Congo peoples h a d so fa r e n c o u n te re d , cam e n o t a s enem ies b u t offered frie n d sh ip . I t is b u t n a tu ra l t h a t b o th chiefs — th e p a ra m o u n t a n d th e d e p e n d e n t one — fo u n d i t rea so n ab le a n d d esira b le to a c c e p t th e offer o f frie n d sh ip (th e m o re so b ecause re sista n c e w ould h a v e b ee n o b v io u sly useless) a n d to m a k e th e b e s t th e y could o f th e new a lly to p u rsu e th e ir o w n p o licy . T h is w as as w ell one o f th e m a in rea so n s w h y in th e first p erio d o f th e P o rtu g u e se e ra b o th chiefs (th o se o f Songo a n d th e Congo) w ere riv allin g , as i t w as, w ith ea ch o th e r in d oing serv ices a n d p la y in g u p to th e P o rtu g u e se . A n o th e r, s till m ore im p o r ta n t, co n sid eratio n in fa v o u r o f th e allian ce w ith th e P o rtu g u e se w as th e d esire to h a v e a stro n g a lly in th e fo rth c o m in g stru g g le s w ith o th e r peoples. I n th e sam e y e a r w hen D i e g o C a m a p p e a re d in th e Congo w ith h is b ig th ir d e x p e d itio n (1491), a n u p risin g a g a in st th e Congo w as s ta r te d b y th e d e p e n d e n t M u n d ek w ete people. T h e w a r w as a lre a d y going o n w h en th e P o rtu g u e se m a d e th e ir a p p e a ra n c e , a n d th e o d d s w ere ju s t in fa v o u r o f th e M u n d ek w ete. W h e n a f te r th is , w ith P o rtu g u e se h elp , th e w ar w as easily w o n a n d th e u p risin g cru sh ed , th e ab o rig in es b eg an to re g a rd th e P o rtu g u e se w ith th e ir gon falo n s a n d crosses, w h ich th e y ca rrie d w ith th e m in w ar, a s p r e te rn a tu r a l beings. T h e chiefs o f th e Congo, k n o w in g fro m th e ir ow n ex p erien ce t h a t f u rth e r a tta c k s u p o n th e ir c o u n try , p a r tic ­ u la rly fro m p eoples o f th e in te rio r c o n tin e n t, w ould in th e fu tu re b e in e v ita b le , w elcom ed th e allia n ce w ith th e p ow erful aliens. T h e sla v e -tra d in g a c tiv itie s o f th e P o rtu g u e se t h a t b eg in n in g fro m th e e a rly 1 6 th c e n tu ry d id n o t h a m p e r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p eaceful a n d frie n d ly re la tio n s b etw een th e P o rtu g u e se a n d th e A frican ru lin g circles, b u t r a th e r p ro m o te d th is tr e n d . S la v e ry a s su ch w as n o n o v e lty to th e Congo, a n d th e d e s p a tc h o f slav es in to d is ta n t c o u n tries d id n o t b o th e r th e ru le rs. T h e m a jo rity o f su ch slav es cam e fro m o th e r c o u n tries a n d peoples, a n d w ere c a p tu re d in w ar o r in sp ecial sla v e-raid in g cam p aig n s. B u t e v e n i f slaves fro m th e v e ry Congo w ere s e n t o v erseas, la rg e n u m b e rs o f th e m b ein g a t th e d isp o sal o f th e Congo ru le rs, th is m e a n t to th e m o n ly a new lu c ra tiv e b u sin ess w ith o u t p re ju d ic e to th e ir econom ic a n d o th e r n eeds. T h e a t titu d e o f th e P o rtu g u e se new com ers to w a rd th e p o p u la r m asses o f th e Congo w as a d iffe ren t m a tte r . A s th e sla v e tr a d e w as develo p in g a n d th e peo p les g ra d u a lly b ecam e aw a re o f th e h y p o c ritic a l a c tiv itie s o f th e m issio n aries a n d could see th e ir d ire c t c o n ta c t w ith th e sla v e tr a d e , th e re w as rising d is c o n te n t a n d in d ig n a tio n a g a in st th e alien sla v e h u n te rs . T h is a t first w as ex p ressed in a s o rt o f “ religious d is tu rb a n c e s ” , t h a t is, clashes b e tw e e n C h ristia n a n d n o n -C h ristia n A frican s, a n d ev en b etw e en v ario u s g ro u p s o f C h ristia n A fricans. B u t th e o u tb u r s t o f p o p u la r in d ig n a tio n a g a in s t th e P o rtu g u e se w as d elay e d fo r a tim e b y g re a t e v e n ts: T h e Congo w as u n d e r th r e a t fro m th e o u tsid e , o n th e p a r t o f th e J a g g a a rm y , w hich te m p o ra rily m a d e i t im p e ra tiv e fo r th e Congo p eo p les to m a in ta in good re la tio n s w ith th e P o rtu g u e se fo r th e d efence o f th e ir c o u n trie s a g a in s t th e im m in e n t a tta c k .

T h e A tta ck of the J a g g a u p o n the Congo a n d the E x p u lsio n of the P ortu guese

O f th e J a g g a peo p le w e k n o w v e ry little , o f th e ir fo rm e r h is to ry — n o th in g . T o ju d g e fro m th e n a rr a tiv e s o f co n tem p o rarie s, th e m o st p ro b a b le su p p o sitio n is t h a t th e y w ere a people a k in to th e Z ulu a n d t h a t th e y h a d m ig ra te d to th e w est fro m th e reg io n s a ro u n d th e sources o f th e Z am bezi a n d Congo R iv ers. P o rtu g u e se w ho fo u g h t a g a in s t th e m d escrib ed th e m a s ca n n ib a ls. B u t q u ite a n u m b e r o f fa c ts w e k now

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fo r c e rta in , th a n k s to th e E n g lish fish erm an B a t t e l , w ho liv e d as a p riso n e r am o n g th e Ja g g a for a b o u t 18 y ea rs, evidence t h a t th e ir m a n e a tin g h a b its w ere o n ly in v e n te d b y th e P o rtu g u e se . T h e J a g g a a p p e a re d fo r th e first tim e o n th e b o rd ers o f th e Congo u n d e r th e co m ­ m a n d o f th e ir chief, S im b o , in 1542. T h e Congo tro o p s, a id e d b y th e ir P o rtu g u e se allies, o ffered th e m s tu b b o rn re sista n c e , b u t “ th is tim e th e cross a n d th e h o ly w a te r p ro v ed pow erless.” T h e Congo tro o p s w ere co m p le te ly d e fe a te d , S äo S alv a d o r w as ta k e n a n d b u r n t dow n w ith all its C h ristia n ch u rc h es. T h e p a ra m o u n t ch ie f o f th e Congo, A l v a r o I , h a d to flee a n d h id e on a n isla n d o f th e Congo riv e r in th e p ro x im ity o f p re se n t-d a y B om a. F ro m th e re he a sk e d for th e h elp o f th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l, w ho 0 ? r s e n t to h is re lie f 600 P o rtu g u e se soldiers u n d e r th e co m m an d o f F ä a ^ j i s c o D e T o v a . A fter fo u r y e a r s ’ stru g g le th e u n ite d forces o f th e Congo a n d P o rtu g a l d ro v e th e Ja g g a b ey o n d th e Congo fro n tie rs. B u t th e J a g g a , m o v in g no w n o rth w a rd a n d n o w s o u th ­ w ard , c o n tin u e d th e ir cam p aig n s a g a in st th e c o u n trie s s itu a te d in th e reg io n o f th e Congo e s tu a ry . F o r a n u m b e r o f y e a rs th e y ru le d A ngola, th e c ity o f L o a n d a b eing in th e ir h a n d s fo r full seven y e a rs, a n d a t th e en d o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry (1590— 1600) th e y w ere a c tiv e in th e so u th , a t B e nguela. I n th is la s t p e rio d o f th e ir a tta c k s th e ir w arrio rs n u m b e re d a ro u n d 16,000. E a rly in th e 1 7 th c e n tu r y th e y s to p p e d th e ir ca m p a ig n s a n d s e ttle d dow n in th e region o f th e u p p e r K w an g o . A fte r th e o u stin g o f th e J a g g a th e P o rtu g u e se in fluence in th e Congo in creased co n sid erab ly . As “ rescu ers o f th e c o u n try fro m th e J a g g a ,” th e y d id n o t h e s ita te to p re se n t th e ir bill, ac q u irin g m ore a n d m o re p riv ileg es. T h e y w e n t e v e n a s f a r as to d e m a n d fro m th e p a ra m o u n t o f th e Congo in fo rm a tio n o n all m in es o f p recio u s m e ta ls in th e c o u n try . T ru e, th e p a ra m o u n t chief, as th e r e s u lt o f a n o u tb u r s t o f g en e ral in d ig n a tio n , refu sed to o b ey in th is re sp e c t, b u t o th e rw ise h e a n d h is “ m in is­ te r s ” re m a in e d co -o p erativ e. I n th e m e a n tim e th e slav e tr a d e a ssu m ed e v e r la rg e r p ro p o rtio n s w ith th e in c re a s­ in g ly a c tiv e p a rtic ip a tio n o f th e m issionaries as a g e n ts o f th e slav e d ealers. T h e o u tra g e s d o n e b y th e slav e d ea le rs a n d th e m issio n aries, a n d th e serv ile p o licy o f th e chiefs, re s u lte d n o t o n ly in th e d e te rio ra tio n o f re la tio n s w ith th e n eig h b o u rin g p eoples (B ushongo, e tc .), b u t also in grow ing p o p u la r d is c o n te n t w ith in th e c o u n try a n d in a g ita tio n am o n g th e la rg e m asses o f th e p o p u la tio n . T h e p o p u la r m o v e m en t w as d ire c te d , first o f all, a g a in st th e m issionaries a n d all P o rtu g u e se , b u t a t th e sam e tim e also a g a in s t th e po licy o f th e A frican chiefs. A fterw a rd s th is d is c o n te n t grew in to o p en reb ellio n . T h e reb e ls w ere h e a d e d b y a m e m b er o f th e Congo “ ro y a l fa m ily .” H e assu m ed th e n a m e B u l a M a t a d i (“ th e B re a k e r o f S to n e s” ).1 A civil w ar b roke o u t, b rin g in g d e a th n o t o n ly to th e m a jo rity o f th e P o rtu g u e se liv in g in th e c o u n try , b u t to a lm o st e v e ry m e m b er o f th e “ ru lin g fa m ily .” A l v a r o I I (who reig n ed fro m 1574 to 1614) b eg an a co m p letely n ew course o f p olicy. S eem ingly m a in ta in in g frie n d ly re la tio n s w ith th e P o rtu g u e se , in fa c t he began g ra d u a lly to c u rta il th e ir privileges a n d liq u id a te his d ep e n d en c e u p o n th e m . A s a r e s u lt o f h is clever policy, b y th e e n d o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry th e P o rtu g u e se v ir tu ­ a lly lo st all th e ir p o w er o v e r th e Congo a n d in th e first h a lf o f th e 1 7th c e n tu ry (a b o u t 1630) w ere d e fin ite ly expelled to g e th e r w ith all th e ir m issio n aries. T h e n th e y m o v e d in to A ngola w here by t h a t tim e th e y h a d m o re o r less firm p o sitio n s.

1S t a n l e y , h a v in g l e a r n e d a b o u t t h i s le g e n d a r y h e r o o f t h e C o n g o p e o p le s , l a t e r a p p r o p r i a t e d t h i s n a m e f o r h im s e lf in o r d e r t o r a is e h is a u t h o r i t y in t h e e y e s o f t h e A f ric a n s .

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The Portuguese Conquest of Angola and the Uprising of Jinga Bandi W h en th e P o rtu g u e se b ecam e aw a re t h a t th e y co u ld n o t su b ju g a te th e Congo c o u n tries o r ev e n im pose a n y la stin g influence, th e y tra n s fe rre d th e c e n tre o f th e ir in trig u e s to A ngola. A ngola w as d isc o v ered b y th e P o rtu g u e se as e a rly as 1490. T h e c o u n try w as h eld in su b je c tio n b y th e Congo. P rio r to th e se v en ties o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu r y th e P o rtu g u e se m a d e no a t te m p t w h a te v e r to c o n q u e r it. I n 1574 a P o r tu ­ g uese ex p e d itio n c o n d u c te d b y P a u l o D ia z (g ran d so n o f B a r t h o l o m e u D i a z ) w e n t to A ngola. A ccording to P o rtu g u e se sources, th is ex p e d itio n h a d b ee n s e n t o u t a t th e re q u e s t o f th e A frican “ k in g ” o f A ngola. B u t b y th e tim e i t a rriv e d th e r e th e “ k in g ” w as d e a d , a n d h is successor co n sid ered th e P o rtu g u e se h is p riso n ers, a n d , b efo re allow ing th e m to r e tu r n to P o rtu g a l, com pelled th e m to ta k e p a r t in a n u m b e r o f local w ars a g a in st n eig h b o u rin g trib e s . T h u s D ia z a n d h is e x p e d itio n w ere ab le to g e t a c q u a in te d w ith th e in te rio r o f th e c o u n try . A rriv in g in P o rtu g a l, D ia z re p o rte d o n e v e ry th in g h e h a d seen to th e k in g o f P o rtu g a l. T h e k in g im m e d ia te ly se n t h im b a c k to A ngola as “ C o n q u ero r, C olonizer a n d G o v ern o r o f A n g o la” w ith th e ta s k o f co n q u erin g th e w hole c o u n try fo r P o rtu g a l. T o th is e n d h e g av e h im seven ships w ith 700 m en. U p o n a rriv in g a t th e B a y o f L o an d a , D ia z to o k possessio n o f a n islan d in fro n t o f th e b a y (w hich is to d a y th e h a rb o u r o f Säo P a u lo d e L o a n d a ) a n d th e n , la n d in g a t L o an d a , e re c te d th e re a fo rt (F o rt Sao M iguel) a n d fo u n d ed th e c ity o f Säo P a u lo (w hich b ecam e th e c a p ita l o f th e P o rtu g u e se possessions in A ngola). T h e aborig in es, o b v io u sly aw a re o f th e uselessness o f o fferin g re sis ta n c e to a m uch stro n g e r en e m y , w ere a t first m a rk in g tim e . T h e y to o k n o a c tio n a t all fo r se v eral y ea rs. T h e n (a b o u t 1580) th e y u n e x p e c te d ly la u n c h e d a w ar o f lib e ra tio n a g a in st th e in tru d e rs . T a k e n u n a w a re s b y th e first a tta c k , th e P o rtu g u e se tro o p s o f a p p ro x i­ m a te ly 500 s ta tio n e d in th e in te rio r o f th e c o u n try w ere c o m p letely a n n ih ila te d . D ia z h a d o n ly 150 soldiers le ft, b u t th e y w ere e q u ip p e d w ith m u sk e ts, w h ich th e A frican s w ere n o t, a n d h a d ev en ca n n o n s. O w ing to th e ir te c h n ic a l su p e rio rity , th e y in flicted se v eral g ra v e blow s on th e aborig in es. T h e la tte r , h o w ev er, in s p ite o f th e ir h e a v y losses, d id n o t la y do w n th e ir p rim itiv e w eapons fo r a lo n g tim e , a n d th is w ar o f u n e q u a l forces la s te d m a n y y ea rs. O nly in 1597 d id th e P o rtu g u e se succeed in d efin itely cru sh in g th e re sista n c e o f th e A fricans a n d co n so lid atin g th e ir p o w er on b o th b a n k s o f th e K w a n z a riv er. I n th e sam e y e a r, 1597, A ngola receiv ed fro m P o rtu g a l a n d S p a in a b o u t 200 F le m ­ ish co lo nists. Soon, how ever, th e y w ere all d e a d fro m tro p ic a l fev er. B u t th e in flu x o f m e rc h a n ts a n d m issionaries co n tin u ed , a n d th e h u m a n tra ffic w e n t o n flourishing. A tte m p ts w ere m a d e to p e n e tr a te in to th e in te rio r o f th e c o n tin e n t, b u t n o n e o f th e a d v e n tu re rs , soldiers a n d m issionaries s e n t w ith th e s e ex p e d itio n s w ere ev er h e a rd o f ag ain . T h e “ p e a c e fu l” flourishing o f th e slav e tr a d e in A ngola, w h ich h a d b e g a n in 1597, d id n o t la s t long. T h e q u ie t o f th e A fricans w as b u t a p p a r e n t. T h e A frican m asses a n d m a n y o f th e ir chiefs d id n o t su b m it to fo reign o p p ressio n a n d d id n o t ren o u n c e th e ir stru g g le . B u t a f te r th e g ra v e d e fe a ts s u sta in e d in p rev io u s y e a rs, th e su b m issiv e elem e n ts h e a d e d b y th e p a ra m o u n t ch ief o f A ngola g ain ed th e u p p e r h a n d am o n g th e ru lin g q u a rte rs o f th e c o u n try . T h e p o p u la r m asses, h o w ev er, e x a sp e ra te d a t th e P o rtu g u e se o u tra g e s a n d th e m eekness o f th e ir chiefs, so o n fo u n d a ch ief o f th e ir ow n in th e perso n o f a le g e n d a ry h ero in e — a v e rita b le J o a n o f A rc in A frican h is to ry — “ Q u ee n ” J in g a B an d i. 10 E. Sík: Black Africa I.

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A ccording to P o rtu g u e se chroniclers, in 1621 th e re a p p e a re d in L o a n d a , o n th e c o a st, a n in d ig en o u s “ p rin c e ss” , “ sis te r o f t h e n a tiv e k in g o f A n g o la” , J in g a B a n d i. S he p re te n d e d to b e frie n d ly w ith th e P o rtu g u e se a n d ev en receiv ed b a p tism . A fte r t h a t , r e tu rn in g in to th e in te rio r o f th e c o u n try , sh e ro u se d th e p eo p le to re v o lt, rem o v e d h e r b ro th e r fro m pow er (th e P o rtu g u e se a s s e rt t h a t she p o iso n ed h im h e r­ self), o ccupied his p la ce a n d d ec la re d w ar o n th e P o rtu g u e se w ith a v iew to expelling th e a lie n in tru d e rs fo r good a n d all. T h e w ar o f lib e ra tio n u n d e r h e r co m m an d la s te d 30 y e a rs. F o r th e s e th r e e d ecad es, acco rd in g to a P o rtu g u e se h isto ria n , she w a rre d a g a in s t th e P o rtu g u e se “ w ith o u t seriously sh a k in g th e ir p o w er” , b u t in th is w a r a g a in s t h e r th e P o rtu g u e se “ could do little m o re th a n h o ld th e ir o w n ” .

P ortu gu ese a n d D u tch R iv a lr y for A n g o la

T h e u p risin g o f J in g a B a n d i w as s till going on w h en th e re a p p e a re d in A ngola a new , m u c h m o re serious th r e a t to P o rtu g u e se d o m in a tio n . I n th e first h a lf o f th e 17 th c e n tu ry th e D u tc h m a d e re p e a te d a tte m p ts to seize th e P o rtu g u e se possessions in A n g o la , a n d in 1641 t h e y d id n o t fa il to c a p tu re th e m a in c ita d e l a n d tr a d in g c e n tr e o f th e P o r tu g u e se — S ä o P a u lo d e L o a n d a . T h e P o r tu g u e se w ere co m p elled t o w ith d r a w a lo n g th e K w a n z a , b u t th e y h eld o u t in th e fo rtress t h e y h a d b u ilt o n th e riv er.

A p ro lo n g ed stru g g le b eg a n along th e b a n k s o f th e K w a n z a : th e D u tc h besieged th e fo rts o f th e P o rtu g u e se w ho m a n ag e d w ith d iffic u lty to h o ld o u t u n til 1648, w h en th e g o v e rn m e n t o f P o rtu g a l s e n t rein fo rcem en ts fro m B raz il to A ngola to th e re lie f o f th e colony. T h e y la id siege to F o r t S äo M iguel t h a t w as in th e h a n d s o f th e D u tc h , a n d th e D u tc h g a rriso n o f 1,100 m en w ere fo rced to s u rre n d e r d e s p ite th e ir su p e rio r n u m b e rs (th e P o rtu g u e se forces w ere o n ly 750 m en , o f w hom 163 w ere k illed d u rin g th e siege). U p o n th is th e P o rtu g u e se b e g a n s y ste m a tic a lly to dislodge th e D u tc h fro m all th e ir b ases o n th e low er G u in ea co a st. I n th is p u rs u it th e P o rtu g u e se in th e fifties o f th e 17 th c e n tu ry fo u n d co nsiderable help in tw o circ u m sta n ce s w hich h a d d iv e rte d th e a tte n tio n a n d th e forces o f th e D u tc h : th e w a r b e tw e e n H o lla n d a n d B rita in (1652— 54), a n d th e fo u n d a tio n o f C ape C olony (1652). A s a re s u lt, th e P o rtu g u e se succeeded in g e ttin g rid o f th e ir D u tc h riv als a n d co n clu d in g w ith th e m tr e a tie s o f p ea ce (1662,1669) b y w hich th e exclusive P o rtu g u e se ru le o v e r A ngola w as d e fin ite ly recognized.

A n g o la in the 18th C e n tu ry

A fte r g e ttin g rid o f th e ir D u tc h riv a ls, th e P o rtu g u e se re m a in e d th e m o n o p o listic p ro p rie to rs o f A ngola colony. B u t n e ith e r in th e l a tte r p a r t o f th e 1 7 th c e n tu ry n o r d u rin g th e e n tire 1 8 th c e n tu r y d id th e y m a k e a n y a t te m p t a t co lo n izatio n w ith E u ro p e a n im m ig ra n ts o r a t develo p in g a n y s o r t o f co lonial h u s b a n d ry o f th e ir ow n. A p a rt fro m a few tr a d in g (chiefly sla v e -tra d in g ) fac to ries, sto reh o u ses a n d fo rts b u ilt to d efe n d th e m , th e r e w as n o th in g in t h a t colony. T e rrito ria l ch anges w ere n o t m a d e e ith e r u n til th e m id d le o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry . O nly th e sla v e -tra d in g s ta tio n s a t B en g u ela, w h ich h a d b eg u n o p e ra tin g as e a rly as 1617, w ere e x p a n d e d b y esta b lish in g in 1685 a big m a in s ta tio n , K a k o n d a , in th e m o u n ta in region s o u th o f B enguela.

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F ro m th e m id d le o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry th e colony b eg an to e x p a n d b o th to th e n o rth a n d to th e so u th . I n 1758 th e P o rtu g u e se e x te n d e d th e b o u n d a rie s o f th e ir possessions o n th e n o r th as fa r as th e L oje R iv e r, in clu d in g th e reg io n o f A m briz, a n d in 1785 fo u n d ed a n ew se a p o rt, M ossam edes, so u th o f B enguela. T h e P o rtu g u e se m ad e a n o th e r a tte m p t a t ex p a n sio n o n th e n o r th , b u t h ere th e y m e t w ith u n e x p e c te d resistan c e. W h e n in 1784 — o b v io u sly to m a k e u p fo r th e d efin i­ tiv e loss o f th e ir influence o v er th e Congo — th e y d ecid ed to o ccu p y C a b in d a (th e c o a sta l reg io n n o r th o f th e Congo e s tu a ry ) a n d w ith th is e n d in view b eg a n to bu ild a f o rt o f th e ir ow n in th e h a rb o u r o f C ab in d a, a F re n c h la n d in g p a r ty a p p e a re d th e re a n d fo rced th e P o rtu g u e se to p u ll d o w n w h a t th e y h a d b u ilt a n d to le a v e C ab in d a. T h is F re n c h in te rv e n tio n w as n o m e re a c c id e n t. I n th e y e a rs im m e d ia te ly befo re th e re v o lu tio n , F ra n c e c a rrie d o n a lively com m erce ju s t w ith th is c o a sta l reg io n , m a k in g use o f th re e p o in ts o n th e c o a st: C ab in d a, L o an g o a n d M alem be. T h e re is e v e ry rea so n fo r assu m in g t h a t th e F re n c h g o v e rn m e n t a t t h a t tim e ch e rish ed th e id e a o f e sta b lish in g a n ew F re n c h colony in th is p a r t o f E q u a to ria l A frica. T h is is confirm ed, fo r exam ple, b y th e f a c t t h a t , a f te r th e sa id in c id e n t w ith th e P o rtu g u e se , F ra n c e se n t to E q u a to ria l A frica a n a v a l officer, D e o r a n d p r é , to m a k e a th o ro u g h s tu d y o f th e co u n tries belonging to th e “ k in g d o m ” o f th e Congo. D e o r a n d p r é a c tu a lly fulfilled th is ta s k in 1786—87 a n d g av e a d e ta ile d a c c o u n t o f his e x p lo ra ­ tio n s, g iving special co n sid eratio n to th e q u estio n s concern in g th e p ro d u c ts, com m erce a n d p o rts o f th e s e c o u n tries. T h e f u rth e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e a c tiv itie s o f th e F re n c h g o v e rn m e n t in th is field, o f course, w as sto p p e d b y th e re v o lu tio n . D e g r a n d p r é ’s re p o rt on h is e x p lo ra tio n s w as p u b lish ed in a book a s la te a s 1801, in all p ro b a b ility w ith co n sid erab le a b rid g m e n ts, in th e fo rm o f a scientific w o rk “ free o f p o litic s” on th e A frican c o u n tries, th e ir p o p u la tio n a n d eco n o m y .1

T he Congo C ou ntries a fter the E x p u lsio n of the P ortu gu ese

L ib e ra tio n fro m th e P o rtu g u e se d id n o t b rin g p ea ce to th e Congo c o u n trie s. A fte r th e d e p a rtu re o f th e P o rtu g u e se a n ew in te m e ó in e stru g g le b ro k e o u t am o n g th e local ru lers a n d p a rtic u la rly b e tw e e n th e p a ra m o u n t o f t h e Congo a n d th e ch ief o f Songo. A lrea d y in 1631 Songo con q u ered K ak o n g o a n d N goye p ro v in ces a n d d e ­ clared his in d e p en d e n ce fro m th e Congo. T h ere follow ed a series o f in te rn e c in e w ars b etw e en th e Congo a n d S ongo (1636,1641,1667), in w hich th e ch ief o f Songo su cceeded in sa fe g u ard in g h is in d e p en d en ce, w hile th e c e n tra l p o w er o f th e Congo slack en ed co n sid erably. N o in sig n ifica n t p a r t in th is w as p la y e d b y th e fa c t t h a t th e p a ra m o u n t chiefs o f th e Congo, finding th e m se lv es in a g ra v e s itu a tio n , a g a in m a d e re p e a te d ad v a n ce s to th e P o rtu g u e se , th e re su lt being t h a t th e y b ecam e a lie n a te d fro m th e p o p u la r m asses, a n d th e chiefs o f Songo could la u n c h ca m p a ig n s a g a in s t th e Congo u n d e r slogans o f th e a n ti-P o rtu g u e s e lib e ra tio n stru g g le . I n 1687 th e p a ra m o u n t ch ief o f th e Congo h a d to m a k e w a r u p o n a n o th e r reb ellio u s p ro v in ce, B a m b a , w hich in th e en d b ecam e in d e p e n d e n t. A lrea d y d u rin g th e decline o f P o rtu g u e se influence in th e Congo, in 1580, K in g P h i l i p П o f S p ain , w ho w as th e n in possession o f P o rtu g a l as w ell, s e n t h is a g e n t, D u a r t e L o p e s , in to th e Congo to r e p o rt o n th o se c o u n trie s a n d th e s itu a tio n in th e P o rtu g u e se possessions. L o p e s fulfilled h is ta s k b u t b y th e tim e h e re a c h e d hom e. P h i l i p a lre a d y h a d o th e r th in g s to do (he w as b u sy p re p a rin g th e “ G re a t A rm a d a ” 1 L . D eo ran dpré , V oyage ä la c6te occiden tale d ’A friq u e (P a ris, 1801), 2 vols. 10 *

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a g a in st B rita in !). L o p e s th e n w e n t to R o m e, m ad e th e p o n tifical c o u rt in te re s te d in th e affairs o f th e P o rtu g u e se colonies a n d h a n d e d o v er to it his a c c o u n t o f th e Congo kin g d o m . A n official o f th e p a p a l c o u rt, F il ip p o P i g a f e t t a , p u b lish e d th is a c c o u n t in R o m e in 1591.1 A fterw a rd s th e popes m a d e se v eral a tte m p ts to sp u r th e m issio n ary a c tiv ity in th e Congo ( P a u l V in 1621, U r b a n V i l i in 1644, I n n o c e n t X in 1652), b u t all th o se m issio n ary s ta tio n s w ere sh o rt-liv e d : th e m issionaries fe lt com pelled to m ove g ra d u ­ a lly in to A ngola. I n th e 18 th c e n tu r y m issio n a ries a n d C h ristian A frican s v irtu a lly d id n o t ex ist in th e Congo a n y longer. T h e P o rtu g u e se s ittin g in A ngola, a lth o u g h th e y d id n o t se v er th e ir com m ercial a n d o th e r c o n ta c ts w ith th e Congo c o u n tries, m a d e no m o re a t te m p t to s u b ju g a te th e m in th e 18th c e n tu ry . (In 1781 th e P o rtu g u e s e ag a in a t te m p t­ e d to in sta ll th e ir m issionaries in Säo S alv ad o r, h u t i t w as a co m p lete failu re.) B e in g le ft to th e ir o w n d e v ic e s, th e C ongo co u n tries b eca m e a g a in u n ite d s te p b y ste p , a n d b y th e en d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu r y th e c en tra l p o w er o f th e p a ra m o u n t c h ie f o f th e C ongo w as stro n g e r th a n ev er b efore.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y (In a d d itio n to th e g e n era l w orks on P o rtu g u e se co lo n izatio n , in d ic a te d o n p. 171.)

Cavazzi A. D a M ontecuccolo , l^ to rica d escrizio n e de tre regn i Congo, M a ia m b a et A n g o la (B ologna, 1687).

D uarte L opes , H is to r y of the K in g d o m of Congo, rendered in to I ta lia n by F ilip p o P ig a fetta . E n g lish tra n s la tio n (L ondon, 1881). G. A zurara , T he C h ron icle of the D isc o v e ry a n d C onquest of G u in ea. T ran sl. fro m th e P o r t u ­ guese b y C. R . B eazley a n d E . P re sta g e . 2 vole. (L ondon, 1899). A. B e n e z e t , S om e H isto r ic a l A cco u n ts of G u in ea w ith an I n q u ir y in to the R is e a n d P ro g re ss of the S la ve T ra d e (P h ilad e lp h ia , 1771). A nd rew B attel (A n o tic e in P u rc h a s' P ilg r im a g e [L o n d o n , 1625]). L . D eg ra n d pré , V oyage á la c6te occidentale d ’A friq u e , f a it d a n s les annéea 1786 et 1787 ; con ten an t la d e sc rip tio n des m oeu rs, usages, lo is, gou vernem en t et com m erce des É ta ts du Congo, fréqu en tés p a r les E u ro p éen s, et u n p re c is de la tra ite des N o ir s , a in s i qu'elle a v a il Heu a v a n t la R e vo lu tio n fra n g a ise ; s u iv i d 'u n V oyage f a it a u ca p de B o n n e-E sp éra n ce, con ten an t la d e sc rip tio n m ilita ir e de cette colonie, 2 vols. (P a ris, 1801). B ow dich , A n A c co u n t of the D isc o veries of the In te r io r of A n g o la a n d M o za m b iq u e fro m the o rig in a l m a n u sc r ip ts (L ondon, 1824). F . H o e f e r , “ A friq u e A u s tra le , A friq u e O rie n ta le , A friq u e C e n tra le ” , e tc. (in L ’ U n ivers p itto resque [P a ris, 1848]). A. B astia n , E i n B esu ch in S a n S a lv a d o r, der H a u p ts ta d t d es K ö n ig re ic h s K o n g o (B rem en, 1859). P royart , H isto ir e de L oan go (P a ris, 1876). G. M. T h e a l , T h e P ortu gu ese i n S o u th A fr ic a (L o n d o n , 1896). E . G. R a v en stein (ed.), T he S tra n g e A d v e n tu re s of A n d re w B a ttell in A n g o la (L ondon, 1901). E . P echuei . -L ö s c h e , V olksku n de von L oango (S tu ttg a rt, 1907). E . T orday , “ T h e In flu en c e o f th e K in g d o m o f K ongo on C e n tra l A frica ” (in A fric a , A p ril 1928). A . I h l e , D a s a lte K ön igreich K on go (L eipzig, 1929). P . D ie u d o n n é , R in ch o n , L a tra ite et Vesclavage d es C on golais p a r les E u ro p éen s (P a ris, 1929). G. L e f e v r e , L ' A n g o la , son h isto ire, so n économ ie (Liége, 1947).

1

D uarte L o pes , H is to r y of the K in g d o m of Congo, rendered in to I ta lia n b y F ilip p o P ig a fe tta .

E n g lish tr a n s la tio n (L o n d o n , 1881).

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J . B oüchaud , “ N o te s d ’h isto ire d u C am eroun: les H o lla n d a is” (B sec , 1, 19/20, S e p t.—D ee. 1947, pp. 1 0 5 -1 4 0 ). — “ N o te s d ’h isto ire d u C am ero u n : le C am ero u n d a n s la c a rto g ra p h ie n é e rla n d a ise ” (B sec , 1. 21/22, J u n e - S e p t . 1948, p p . 1 3 9 - 1 5 0 ) . C. R . B o x e r , S a lv a d o r de S a a n d the S tru g g le fo r B r a z il a n d A n g o la , 1602 —1686 (L o n d o n , 1952). J . Ctjvelier a n d L. J a d in , L ’a n c ie n C ongo d ' a p r i s lee arch ives ro m a in es ( 1 5 1 8 —1 6 4 0 ) (B russels, 1954). J . Ctjvelier , “ L ’a n c ie n Congo d ’a p ré s P ie rre v a n d e n B ro e ck e ” (1608 — 1612)” (A cadém ie R . des sciences coloniales: B u lle tin d es S éan ces, 1, p p . 169 —192) (B russels, 1955). E . A. Cliva Correa , H is to r ia de A n g o la , 2 vole. (n. d.). See also th e w o rk o f V an W ing (p. 89), th e b o o k o f th e tra v e lle r Magyar (p. 232), th e w orks o f Statham (ch. xiii, p p . 169 —189) a n d Marquardsen (p. 85).

CHAPTER IV

T H E E A ST COAST

T h e P eo p les of E a st A fric a in the 16th to 18th C enturies

L ittle is k n o w n o f th e h is to ry o f th e E a s te r n B a n tu trib e s w hich in th e 1 6th to 1 8 th c e n tu rie s in h a b ite d th e e n tire v a s t te r r ito r y o f E a s t E q u a to ria l a n d S o u th e a st A frica, b e tw e e n th e o cean a n d th e G re a t L ak e s. O r, m o re e x a c tly , if b y h is to ry we m e an n o t sim p ly a c h a in o f successive e v e n ts b ea rin g u p o n th e d e stin ie s o f v ario u s h u m a n g ro u p s, b u t a process o f g re a t u n iv e rsa l in te r e s t w hich “ is p recisely th e re su l­ t a n t o f th e se m a n y w ills o p e ra tin g in d ifffe re n t d irec tio n s a n d o f th e ir m an ifo ld effects u p o n th e o u te r w orld t h a t c o n s titu te d h is to ry ” 1 — th e n su ch h is to ry in th e p e rio d o f th e 1 6 th to 18 th c e n tu rie s d id n o t y e t e x ist fo r th e E a s t A frican trib e s. T h o se g re a t processes o f m ig ra tio n a n d m ix tu re o f th e p eo p les o f E a s t A frica t h a t b e g a n long before t h a t p erio d (p e rm a n e n t stru g g le s a n d p a r tia l m ix tu re s o f th e B a n tu w ith H a m itic trib e s o n th e n o r th e a s t, th e m erging o f H a m ite s a n d B a n tu s in th e W a h u m a S ta te s , th e slow m ig ra tio n o f th e E a s te r n B a n tu to th e so u th ) co n tin u ed d u rin g th e 1 6 th to 18 th c e n tu rie s a n d w as closed o n th e w hole b y th e e n d o f t h a t epoch. M ig ratio n to th e s o u th s to p p e d in th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry becau se th e g re a t w ave o f peoples h a d re a c h e d th e regions ad jo in in g th e s o u th e rn e x tre m ity o f th e c o n tin e n t, w here it m e t w ith th e o p p o sitio n o f th e co m p a ra tiv e ly w ea k in d ig en o u s p o p u la tio n (th e K h o i-K h o i a n d S a a n trib e s ) a n d w ith th e w ave o f th e E u ro p e a n s e ttle rs o f Cape C olony d riftin g to th e o p p o site d ire c tio n (from th e C ape o f G ood H o p e to th e e a s t a n d n o r th e a s t) .12 N e ith e r th e stru g g le n o r th e m ix tu re o f th e E a s te r n B a n tu w ith th e H a m ite s sto p p e d , o f course, in th e n o rth . B u t th e p ro cess o f fo rm a tio n o f n ew m ix e d trib e s a n d peoples d u e to ce n tu ries-lo n g stru g g le s a n d c o n s ta n t m ix tu re s c a n b e considered co m p leted b y th e e n d o f th e 18 th c e n tu ry . D u rin g th is epo ch (1 6 th to 18th ce n tu rie s) se v eral o f th e s e “ se m i-H a m itic ” a n d “ H a m itic iz e d B a n tu ” trib e s w ere a lre a d y a b le to c re a te m o re o r less s tro n g tr ib a l allian ces in th e fo rm o f p rim itiv e “ m ilita ry S ta te s .” S u ch w ere, fo r ex am p le, th e sm all “ Ja g g a k in g d o m s” o n th e slopes o f M o u n t K ilim a n ja ro , w hose good (econom ic a n d m ilita ry ) o rg an iz atio n la te r a ro u se d th e a d m ira tio n o f m a n y E u ro p e a n s .3

1 F . E n g e l s , “ L u d w ig F e u e rb a c h . . . ” (in M a b x a n d E n g e l s , Selected W orks, vol. ii [Moscow, 1949], p. 364). 2 See p . 172. 3 A m ong th e m B a ro n von d e r D e c k e n , w ho d e sc rib e d in d e ta il th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f th ese sm a ll J a g g a S ta te s . See O. K e r st e n , B a ro n K a r l K la u s v o n d er D eck e n 'в T ra v e l in E a s t A fr ic a i n 1 8 5 9 —61. I n R u ss ia n (M oscow, 1870), pp. 2 9 7 —336.

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The Joggá Som e a u th o rs 1 a d v a n c e d th e co n je c tu re t h a t th e W a ja g g a w ere d e s c e n d a n ts o f th e Ja g g a peo p le w ho in th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry h a d ra id e d th e Congo c o u n trie s (on th e te r r ito r y o f to d a y ’s A ngola). T h ere is n o th in g , how ev er, to su p p o rt th is a s su m p tio n . A ccording to th e tr a d itio n o f c e rta in W a ja g g a trib e s , th e y a re d e sce n d ed fro m th e W a k a m b a trib e s , a n d acco rd in g to o th e rs, fro m th e W a te ita . (B o th th e se trib e s live n o r th e a s t o f M o u n t K ilim a n ja ro , in K e n y a .) A t a n y r a te it is b e y o n d d o u b t t h a t th e W a jag g a cam e to th e ir a c tu a l resid en ce n o t fro m th e f a r s o u th w e st b u t fro m th e n eig h b o u rin g fla t c o u n try ly in g n o r th e a s t o f M o u n t K ilim a n ja ro , fro m w h ere th e y h a d b ee n o u ste d b y H a m itic in v a d e rs w ith w hom th e y h a d n o t o n ly b ee n stru g g lin g a n d m ixing fo r c e n tu rie s b u t fro m w hom th e y h a d also le a rn e d a g re a t d ea l. I n p a rtic u la r, th e m ilita ry o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e ir trib e s a n d th e ir w eap o n s e v id e n tly sp e a k o f th e influence o f th e M asai, W a k u az i, e tc .T h e tim e o f m ig ra tio n o f th e W a jag g a trib e s to th e ir p re s e n t te r r ito r y c a m io t be a s c e rta in e d p recisely , b u t i t c e rta in ly to o k place w ith in th e epoch u n d e r d iscussion a n d w as closed b y th e e n d o f th e 1 8 th c e n tu ry . T h e y w ere d iv id e d in to dozens o f trib e s , ev e ry one o f th e m h a v in g its o w n sm all tr ib a l “ S ta te ” h e a d e d b y a “ k in g ” (m a n k i ) . I n tim e o f p ea ce th e k in g reig n e d to g e th e r w ith a n assem b ly o f re p re s e n ta tiv e s o f a ll th e w arrio rs o f h is trib e . L a n d a n d c a ttle w ere co n sid ered p ro p e r ty o f th e chief, w ho a c co rd ed th e m t o h is trib e s m e n w ith o u t co m p en sa tio n . T h e y h a d n e ith e r to w n s n o r villages, a n d ev e ry fam ily liv e d b y its e lf o n its fa rm s te a d t h a t c o n siste d o f a n u m b e r o f h u ts s e t u p u su a lly in a b a n a n a g ro v e a n d su rro u n d e d b y a h ig h w a ttle . T h e ch ief’s fa rm s te a d w as th e fo rtifie d c e n tre o f th e w hole te r r ito r y o f th e trib e . T h e W a ja g g a w ere sk ilfu l a g ric u ltu rists , p o ssessed v a s t irrig a tio n sy ste m s, a n d w ere d istin g u ish e d a rm o u re rs (th e y w ere th e m a in su p p liers o f jav elin s to th e M asai a n d o th e r w arlik e trib e s). F ie ld w o rk a n d tr a d e w ere th e business o f th e w om en, w hile irrig a tio n , a n im a l h u s b a n d ry a n d w ea p o n -m ak in g w ere th e m e n ’s concern.

The M a sa i

O f g re a t consequence to th e f a te o f E a s t A frican p eo p les w ere th o s e changes — tr ib a l m ig ra tio n s a n d stru g g le s — w hich in th is epo ch to o k p la ce in th e n o r th e a s t p a r t o f E a s t E q u a to ria l A frica (in th e e a s te rn h a lf o f to d a y ’s K e n y a ). T h ese changes w ere c o n n e cted w ith th e com ing o n th e scene o f h is to ry o f th e M asai trib e s. T h e M a s a i a re p a s to ra l trib e s o f H a m itic d e sc e n t (sem i-H am ites).12 T h e ir o rig in al h o m e lan d — like t h a t o f th e ir congeners, th e W a k u az i a n d th e W an d o ro b o — w as in N o rth e a s t A frica, from w here th e y little b y little m o v e d f a r th e r s o u th . T h is w a n d e r­ ing to o k p la ce in th r e e g re a t successive w aves o f m ig ra tio n a t co n sid erab le in te rv a ls. T h e first to go w as th e W an d o ro b o g ro u p . T h e y w ere n o m a d ic sh e p h erd s u n til th e n ew m ig ra to ry w av e o f th e W a k u az i g ro u p d ro v e th e m o u t o f th e ir E a s t A frican p a s tu re s a n d p u sh e d th e m so u th w a rd . F ro m th e ir good p a s tu re la n d s th e W an d o ro b o cam e in to a region o f b u sh v e ld s a n d , as a re s u lt, fro m ric h sh e p h e rd s th e y ch a n g ed in to p o o r h u n te rs . O ccupying th e fo rm e r W an d o ro b o te rr ito r ie s la te r , th e W a k u az i 1 See, for e x am p le, fo r F e b ru a ry 1873. 2 See p. 78.

D uveyrier ’s

a rtic le in

the B u lle tin de la S o ciété de géograph ie de P a r ie

151

— as th e r e s u lt o f fre q u e n t c a ttle p lag u es a n d p e rm a n e n t w ars w ith o th e r trib e s — b ecam e so w ea k t h a t , b y th e tim e th e th ir d w av e o f m ig ra tio n (th e M asai p ro p er) cam e, th e ir s tr e n g th o f re sista n c e w as co n sid erab ly u n d e rm in e d . N ev erth eless, th e y c o m b a te d th e M asai fo r a v e ry long tim e a n d w ere n o t d riv e n a w a y till th e m id d le o f th e 19th c e n tu ry .1

T he W ah um a S ta tes

O f th e h isto ry o f th e W ah u m a S ta tes 12 p rio r to th e en d o f th e 1 8th c e n tu ry w e h a v e no reliab le know ledge, since no k in d o f w ritte n chronicle w as k e p t in th e s e co u n tries. (The peoples o f th e W a h u m a co u n tries le a rn e d to re a d a n d w rite fro m th e A rab s as la te as th e 19 th c e n tu ry .) T h e peoples o f U g an d a , i t is tr u e , h a v e m a n y in te re stin g h isto ric a l legends a n d a ric h folklore. B u t i t is im possible to te ll th e g rain s o f h is to ­ ric a l t r u t h fro m th e m .3 T h ese legends c a rry a co m p lete g en ealo g y o f ru le rs: th e y m e n tio n tw e n ty -six “ k in g s” p receding Ch a b a g u w ho reig n ed a t th e b eg in n in g o f th e 19 th c e n tu ry , b u t do n o t in d ic a te th e tim e s o f th e ir reig n s. T h e legends c o n ta in th e m o st f a n ta s tic th in g s a b o u t th e d e e d s o f th e U g an d a k in g s. F o r in s ta n c e ,'o n e o f th e s e b e a u tifu l legends, as to ld b y S t a n l e y , sp eak s o f a n e x tra o rd in a ry w arrio r, K ib a g a , w ho liv ed in th e re ig n o f K in g N a k iv in g i a n d w ho possessed th e p o w er o f fly in g a n d in N a k i v i n g i ’b w ars a g a in st th e W a n y o ro w e n t in to th e a ir to a sc e rta in th e w h e rea b o u ts o f th e en em y a n d show ered g re a t ro ck s u p o n th e m .4 T h e o n ly f a c t w e ca n s ta te fo r c e rta in , o n th e b asis o f legends a n d tra d itio n s , is t h a t K ita ra , a g re a t W a h u m a S ta te , b y a n d b y b ro k e u p in to a n u m b e r o f sm all chiefdom s a n d t h a t th e chiefs o f th e stro n g e s t o f th e m , B u g a n d a, ca rrie d on cam p aig n s in o rd e r to re -u n ite th e m , in w hich th e y so m etim es (p a rtia lly a n d te m p o ra rily ) su c­ ceeded. A n o th e r re a l h isto ric a l f a c t is th e ex iste n ce o f th e W a h u m a S ta te s th e m se lv es, w ith th e ir socio-econom ic sy ste m w hich assu m ed its final sh a p e ju s t in th e p erio d u n d e r discussion. T h e h e a d o f each W a h u m a S ta te — th e k a baka, t h a t is, th e k in g — w as re g a rd e d as p ro p rie to r o f all la n d s in th e c o u n try . T o h is m ilita ry chiefs th e k a b a k a g av e o u t large e s ta te s , w hole d is tric ts , fo r u se d u rin g th e ir lifetim e. I n r e tu r n , th e y w ere obliged to p a y h im tr ib u te a n d , in case o f em erg en cy , to go to w ar w ith th e ir tro o p s.5 E v e ry m ilita ry chief, in tu r n , h a d th e r ig h t to m a k e a ll p e a sa n ts w o rk fo r h im a n d se rv e in his tro o p s. T h u s, th e p o litic a l s tr u c tu re o f th e W a h u m a S ta te s , as we ca n see, c o n ta in e d in its e lf th e b asic elem en ts o f th e feu d a l sy stem . T h e m asses o f th e p o p u la tio n in th e W a h u m a S ta te s w ere m a d e u p chiefly o f free p e a sa n ts b u t th e re w ere also slaves. T hese cam e fro m su b ju g a te d a lie n trib e s a s p riso n ers o f w ar. T h e re w ere am o n g th e m p a rtic u la rly m a n y w om en a n d y o u n g p eople, since th e a d u lt m en o f th e v a n q u ish e d trib e s w ere u su a lly k illed , a n d o n ly th e w om en a n d ch ild ren w ere c a p tu re d a n d ta k e n in to slav ery . 1 See p . 257. ff. 3 See p . 57. 3 M any o f th e h isto ric a l legends o f U g a n d a w ere ta k e n do w n a n d p u b lish e d b y th e tra v e lle r Stanley in h is w ork e n title d T hrou gh the D a r k C on tin en t. * O p . ext. (L o n d o n e d itio n , 1890), p p . 2 2 1 —222. 5 I n th e U ru n d i S ta te , in c o n tra s t to o th e r W a h u m a S ta te s, th e k in g (th e c h ie f o f th e t r ib a l a llian c e) w as n o t a ru le r b u t o n ly th e “ first c h ie F ’ o n a n e q u a l fo o tin g w ith th e o th ers.

152

T h e T rib e s o f the In te rio r A re a s

T h e p eo p les of the in terio r areas o f E a s t A frica, d e s p ite in c essa n t in te r trib a l w ars a n d m ixing, c o n tin u e d to live, o n th e w hole, in se p a ra tio n fro m on e a n o th e r. T h ere w as no s y ste m a tic b a rte rin g n o r o th e r p e rm a n e n t in te rco u rse am o n g th e m . Clashes o cc u rre d fro m tim e to tim e , re su ltin g , o f course, in s u b s ta n tia l changes fo r th o se w ho to o k p a r t in th e w ars: som e p erish e d , o th e rs flo u rish ed ; som e lo st th e ir la n d s a n d h e rd s, o th e rs c a p tu re d th e m , e tc . B u t th e ir “ w ills o p e ra tin g in d iffe ren t d irec­ tio n s ” d id n o t y e t h a v e “ th e ir m anifold effects u p o n th e o u te r w o rld ” w hich c o n s tit­ u te h isto ry . T h is is w h y o n ly a few o f th e E a s t A frican trib e s (th e co a sta l trib e s in th e first p lace) w ere d rag g e d , to som e e x te n t, in to th e w o rld ’s h isto ric al process in th is perio d . T h is w as d u e to th e ir en c o u n te rs w ith m o re a d v a n c e d in tru d e rs (A rabs, P o rtu g u e se ) w ho h a d long before re a c h e d th a t h ig h e r sta g e o f d ev e lo p m e n t o n w hich p eoples a re n o t o n ly a c tiv e o r p assive p a rtic ip a n ts o f th e e v e n ts, b u t a re also m a k ers o f h isto ry . T h e S w a h ili

O n th e c e n tra l p a r t o f th e E a s t A frican litto ra l, b etw e en M om basa a n d th e m o u th o f th e R u v u m a R iv er, d u rin g th e epoch u n d e r discussion th e re em erg ed a n d d e v e l­ o p ed , as a p a rtic u la rly m ix e d e th n ic g ro u p , th e p re se n t-d a y p eo p le o f th e W aaw ah ilis.

A n a rro w c o a st s trip o n th e sh o re o f th e In d ia n O cean b e tw e e n M om basa a n d C ape D elgado (only a few k ilo m etres w ide o n th e n o r th a n d so m e w h at w id er o n th e so u th ), as w ell as th e islan d s o f Z an z ib ar, P e m b a a n d M afia, no w h a v e a stro n g ly m ix e d p o p u la tio n . B u t, d e s p ite th e m a n y alien elem e n ts (A rabs, P ersian s, B alu ch is, In d ia n s a n d E u ro p e an s) a n d th e cen tu ries-lo n g m an ifo ld m ix in g o f p eoples in th is reg io n, th e p rin cip al p o p u la tio n is m a d e u p of th e W asw ahilis. O rig in ally th is n am e b elo n ged to one d is tin c t E a s te r n B a n tu tr ib e o f th e co a st w hich, h o w ev er, called th e m se lv es S h ira s i, n o t W asw ahili. F ro m th e m ix tu re o f th is tr ib e w ith m a n y n eig h ­ b o u rin g k in d re d trib e s a n d also in p a r t w ith A ra b s cam e a new m ix ed sto c k w hich a d o p te d th e lan g u ag e o f t h a t trib e , th e K isw ahili, w hich la te r b ecam e th e com m on lan g u ag e — lin g u a fra n c a — o f all E a s t A frica.1

T h e M a k w a a n d the M a zim b a

I n th e n o rth e rn h a lf o f p re se n t-d a y M ozam bique (in th e te r r ito r y b o u n d e d n o r th b y th e R u v u m a R iv er, w est b y L ak e N y a sa a n d th e S h ire R iv e r, so u th b y th e Z a m ­ bezi R iv e r a n d e a s t b y th e ocean), th e m a in p a r t in th e conflicts t h a t to o k p lace w ith th e P o rtu g u e se a n d A ra b s in th e 16 th c e n tu ry w as p la y e d b y tw o trib e s: th e M a k w a a n d th e M a zim b a . T h e M akw a, w ho occupied th e e a s te rn p a r t o f th is te r r ito r y , w ere th e m o st a c tiv e p a rtic ip a n ts o f th e defensive stru g g le s o f th e trib e s liv in g in th is p a r t o f th e c o n tin e n t 1 A t p re s e n t th e n a m e W asw ah ili is a p p lie d in a w id er sense to th is e n tire m ix e d c o a s ta l p eo p le (th a t is, to a ll th e in h a b ita n ts o f th is c o a st s trip w ho belo n g to th e E a s te rn B a n tu g ro u p ), a n d in th e s tr ic t sense o f th e w ord to th e p u re offspring o f th e S h irasi trib e . I t is u su a l to d is­ tin g u ish a m o n g th e W asw ah ili (in th e w id er sense o f th e w ord) also th e W a tu w a m rim a o r Warnr im a (“ c o a sta l in h a b ita n ts ” w ho d id n o t m ix w ith A rab s) a n d th e W a n g w a n a (in h a b ita n ts o f th e big c ities o f Z an z ib a r w ho a re m ix e d w ith A rabs).

153

a n d fo r c e n tu rie s h e ld th e ir g ro u n d a g a in st b o th th e A ra b s a n d th e P o rtu g u e se a n d p la y e d also a n o u ts ta n d in g ro le in th e la te r h is to ry o f E a s t A frica. T h e M azim ba (w hose te r r ito r y w as ly in g w e st o f th e M akw a a n d w ho in th e 1 6 th c e n tu r y to o k th e le a d in th e stru g g le a g a in st th e A rab s a n d P o rtu g u e se a n d in m a n y in te rn e c in e w ars o f A frican trib e s), how ever, co m p letely v an ish ed b y th e en d o f th e 16 th c e n tu ry . H isto ria n s u su a lly m e n tio n th e m as h av in g “ d isa p p e a re d from h is to ry .” 1 All th e se ex p la n a tio n s a re co m p letely a r b itra ry . T h ere is no ev id en ce w h a te v e r to s u p p o rt th e m , w h a t is m ore, th e re a re tw o fa c ts sp e ak in g a g a in s t all th re e a s su m p ­ tio n s . 1. O n a m ap o f A frica m a d e in A m ste rd a m in 1719, o n th e basis o f d a ta su p p lied b y P o rtu g u e se tra v e lle rs o f th e 1 6 th a n d 17th ce n tu rie s, a “ Z im b a S ta te ” is in d ic a te d inside th e so u th e a s t p a r t o f A frica, as a n in d e p e n d e n t c o u n try ru le d b y a “ k in g ” to w a rd s th e en d o f th e 17 th c e n tu ry . T h e m a p ev en show s m ilita ry fo rtificatio n s o n th e e a s te rn b o rd er o f th e c o u n try , as w ell as a m a in ro a d u sed b y th e M azim ba in th e ir tra d in g ex p e d itio n s.12 2. A b o u t one h u n d re d k ilo m etres so u th o f th e m o u th o f th e R u v u m a R iv e r th e re is a b a y called “ M azim b u a” w here a village o f th e sam e n am e is s itu a te d . I t a p p e a rs m o st p ro b a b le t h a t th e “ M azim ba S ta te ” , a big tr ib a l allia n ce in th e 1 6 th to 18 th c e n tu rie s (in tim e o f b o th w ar a n d peace), la te r , in th e first h a lf o f th e 1 9 th c e n tu ry , (w hen th e S o u th e rn B a n tu w ere m ig ra tin g b ac k ) fell a p a r t u n d e r th e p re ssu re o f stro n g e r bellicose trib e s a tta c k in g fro m th e so u th (w hich h a d b e t te r w eapons a n d a finer m ilita ry o rg an iz atio n b o rro w ed fro m th e Z ulus). T h e v ario u s trib e s o f th e S ta te , re ta in in g th e ir ow n trib a l n am es, s e ttle d dow n in d iffe ren t regions a n d h a v e su rv iv ed to th e p re se n t d a y .

M o n o m o ta p a

I n th e so u th e rn h a lf o f to d a y ’s M ozam bique, b etw e en th e L im p o p o a n d Z am bezi R iv ers, lived c e rta in trib e s o f th e Shon a g ro u p (th e M ak alan g a). T hese sam e trib e s in ­ h a b ite d also th e in la n d a re a s b e tw e e n th e L im p o p o a n d Z am b ezi (th e te r r ito r y o f p re s e n t-d a y S o u th e rn R h o d e sia ), a n d , as fa r as w e k n o w , a lre a d y b efo re th e p erio d u n d e r discussion fo u n d ed th e re a p ow erful tr ib a l fed e ra tio n , M o n o m o tap a . B y th e e n d o f th e 1 5 th c e n tu ry th e p a ra m o u n t ch ief (“ e m p e ro r” , as th e P o rtu g u e se called h im ) o f M o n o m o tap a exercised his pow er o v er a lm o st all th e trib e s liv in g o n th e v a s t te r r ito r y b etw e en th e L im popo a n d Z am bezi as fa r as th e o cean co a st. B u t r ig h t a t th e beginning o f th e 16th c e n tu ry ce n trifu g al te n d en c ies cam e to th e fo re in th e S ta te o f M onom otapa. A b o u t 1500 th e tr ib e o f th e ch ief C h i k a n g a seceded fro m M on o m o tap a a n d fo u n d ed a S ta te o f its ow n, M an ik a, s o u th o f M o n o m o tap a. I n th e m id d le o f th e 1 6 th c e n tu ry tw o m ore in d e p e n d e n t tr ib a l allian ces w ere fo rm ed in th e sam e w ay : S ab ia, e stab lish ed e a s t o f M o n o m o tap a, b e tw e e n S ofala a n d th e S abi R iv e r, b y th e tr ib e o f th e ch ief S e d a n d a , a n d K ite w e , fo u n d ed b y a ch ief o f th e sam e n a m e in th e c o a sta l reg io n ad jo in in g Sofala. B etw een th e se n ew S ta te s , as w ell as b etw e en each o f th e m a n d M o n o m o tap a th e r e w ere fre q u e n t strife s a n d in te rn ecin e w ars w hich th e P o rtu g u e se la te r e n d e a v ­ o u re d to ex p lo it in th e in te r e s t o f th e ir p la n s o f co n q u e st. 1 S chubtz , o p . c it ., p. 241. 2 See th e m ap in Сань P eters , I m G oldlan d des A lte rtu m s (M unich, 1902).

154

T he T onga

B esides th e s e m ore or less s tro n g tr ib a l alliances in th e se p a r ts o f S o u th e a st A frica — o n th e n o r th e a s t in th e regions b o rd erin g u p o n th e so u th b a n k o f th e low er course o f th e Z am bezi, a n d o n th e so u th e a s t b e tw e e n th e S ab i a n d L im p o p o R iv ers (in to d a y ’s In h a m b a n e a n d G azalan d ) — th e re also liv e d se v eral sm all S o u th e rn B a n tu trib e s , a k in to th e Z ulus w ho h a d gone f a r th e r so u th w a rd . T h e m o st sig n ifican t am o n g th e m w ere th e T o n g a trib e s.

P ortu guese C onquests on the E a s t A frica n C oast in the E a r ly 16th C en tu ry

On th e b asis o f w h a t V a s c o D e G a m a h a d re p o rte d , th e P o rtu g u e se g o v e rn m e n t d ecid ed to e s ta b lish p o rts a n d tra d in g s ta tio n s o n th e e a s te rn litto ra l. T h ese w ere in te n d e d to en su re th e u n h a m p e re d passag e o f th e sh ip s b o u n d fo r In d ia v ia th e C ape o f G ood H o p e (calling a t th e E a s t A frican p o rts) a n d to tr a d e w ith th e in te rio r o f S o u th e a s t A frica (M onom otapa). A fleet u n d e r th e co m m an d o f P e d r o Á l v a r e s C a b r a l w as s e n t o u t as e a rly as 1500, b u t i t d id n o t ach iev e a n y th in g . I n 1502 V a s c o D e G a m a o ccu p ied K ilw a a n d m a d e its A ra b ru le r tr ib u ta r y to th e P o rtu g u e se. I n 1503 th e P o rtu g u e se e s ta b ­ lish ed th e ir first tra d in g p o s t in M ozam bique (on th e m a in la n d ). I n th e sam e y e a r th e y to o k possession o f th e isla n d o f Z an zib ar. I n 1505 th e P o rtu g u e se g o v e rn m e n t ch a n g ed its m o d e st p la n o f fo u n d in g a few fo rts a n d tr a d in g ce n tre s in to a n o v er-all a t ta c k u p o n th e A ra b possessions in E a s t A frica. I t d ec id e d to seize b y force all A ra b p o rts a n d citie s a n d to e s ta b lish a la rg e P o rtu g u e se colony. S te p s w ere ta k e n im m e d ia te ly to c a rry o u t th is p la n . I t w as s till in th e sam e y e a r 1505 t h a t P e d r o D e A n h a y a d efin itely seized S ofala, w hich w as a t o nce m a d e in to th e fortified c e n tre o f th e P o rtu g u e se colony, a n d a n o th e r P o rtu g u e se a g e n t, A n t o n i o D a C a m p o , d isco v ered D elag o a B a y . I n 1506 th e tro o p s o f F r a n c is c o D e A l m e i d a c a p tu re d K ilw a a n d th e su rro u n d in g A ra b se ttle m e n ts a n d d em olished M om basa. I n 1507 T r i s t a n D a C u n h a o ccu p ied a n d fo rtified M ozam ­ b iq u e Isla n d . T h e P o rtu g u e se co n q u e sts p ro v o k e d d e s p e ra te re sis ta n c e o n th e p a r t o f th e A rab colonists. A w ar o f m a n y y e a rs w as c a rrie d o n w ith v a ry in g success (for ex am p le, K ilw a w as r e c a p tu re d b y th e A ra b s in 1512), b u t te c h n ic a l su p e rio rity secu red th e P o rtu g u e se th e final v ic to ry . B y 1520 th e P o rtu g u e se firm ly h eld e v e ry m a jo r p o r t a n d s e ttle m e n t o n th e s o u th e a s t c o a st (so u th o f th e R u v u m a R iv e r: D elag o a B a y , S ofala, Q uelim ane, S ena, M ozam bique), a n d th e y e v e n o ccu p ied th e e n tire e a s t co a st (K ilw a, Z an z ib ar, P e m b a , M om basa, M alindi, L am u , B ra v a , M ogadishu). T h u s b ein g in possession o f th e e n tire s o u th e a s t a n d e a s t c o a st, th e P o rtu g u e se s ta r t e d a large-scale colonial traffic, m a in ly , in gold o n th e s o u th a n d in slav es on th e n o rth . S ofala a n d M ozam bique w ere th e ce n tre s o f th e g o ld en tr a d e . O v er a m illion m e tk a ls1 o f gold w as e x p o rte d a y e a r. I n 1544 a n o th e r b ig tr a d in g p o s t w as s e t u p a t Q uelim ane. T h e c e n tre s o f th e slave tr a d e w ere a t K ilw a a n d Z an z ib ar. T h e P o r tu ­ g u ese m a d e la rg e p ro fits b y lev y in g ta x e s u p o n th e o ccu p ied A ra b s e ttle m e n ts a n d tra d in g sta tio n s . B esides th e ir com m ercial a c tiv itie s, th e P o rtu g u e se d id n o t n eg lec t th e f u rth e r e x p lo ra tio n o f th e c o a sta l reg io n e ith e r. T h u s, th e P o rtu g u e se m e rc h a n t L o u r e n