The historical development of the problem-solving method in education

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THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM-SOLVING- METHOD IN EDUCATION

A D is s e rta tio n P re s e n te d to t h e F a c u lty o f th e

S c h o o l o f E d u c a ti o n )

T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

I n P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g re e D o c to r o f E d u c a tio n

by L a w re n c e L e r o y P e t e r s o n A u g u s t, 1950

UMI Number: DP25809

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F il i^

'boo Y.O . \

•r.r

e ^ . o .

'* * /

TA/j dissertation, written under the direction of the Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Committee and ap proved by all members of the Committee, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements fo r the degree of D octor of Education. D ate

August A, 1950

....... ........ ,............................

Dean Guidance Committee

tan

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PACE

' THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED T he p r o b le m

. .

1

...................................................................

2

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ....................................

2

I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b le m

3

/

D e f in itio n s o f te rm s u se d F o re w o rd S itu a tio n P r o b le m

............................... . . . . . . . .

* .............................................. .

.

* .........................................................

. . . . . . . .

P ro b le m -s o lv in g

. * .

M e th o d

8 9

....................................

11

.........................................

13

...................................

T he s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y

...............................

14 16

H i s t o r i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s ..........................

16

P h ilo s o p h ic a l lim ita tio n s

18

In te rp re ta tiv e

.........................

lim ita tio n s

O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e

s tu d y

In tro d u c to ry c h a p te rs B ack g ro u n d c h a p t e r s C e n tra l c h a p te rs

. . . . . . . .

19

..........................

20

....................................

20

. . . . . . . . . .

.........................................................

C o n c lu d in g c h a p t e r s II.

8

...............................................

21 21 21

PROCEDURE AMD REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE P ro c e d u re

........................................................................ . . .

...............................

. . . . . .

23 23

iii CHAPTER

PAGE The d a t a f o r t h e

s t u d y .........................................

C ritic is m

o f th e d a ta

R e p o rtin g

th e r e s e a r c h

2k

..........................

25

.....................

26

Sum m ary o f t h e o v e r a l l p u r p o s e o f t h e p ro c e d u re

.

........................................................

R e v ie w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e

27

. . . . . . . . .

29

...............................................

29

O rig in a l so u rc e s

.........................

29

The e a r l y G r e e k s

....................................

29

In tro d u c tio n

L ite ra ry d iv is io n s

. . . .

.........................

30

.....................

30

.

...................................

30

A r i s t o t l e 's P ro b le m a ta

....................................

31

E a r ly a n d m e d ie v a l w r i t i n g s A r i s t o t l e 1s C a t e g o r i e s a n d De I n t e r p r e t a t lo n e

O a t e s 's S t o i c an d E p ic u r e a n P h i l o s o p h e r s ........................................

33

P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c ........................................

Jk

A q u i n a s ' The Summa T h e o l o g l o a

35

E a r l y m o d e rn t r e a t i s e s

.

. . . .

...............................

B a c o n 's T he A d v a n c e m e n t o f L e a r n i n g

36

.

36

C o m e n iu s ' T he G r e a t

D i d a c t i c ...................

37

F r o e b e l ' s E d u c a tio n

o f Man

38

. . . . . . .

H e rb a rt* s L e t t e r s a n d L e c tu r e s on E d u c a tio n

.............................................

39

lv CHAPTER

PA&E L ocke* s An E s s a y C o n c e r n in g Human U nder s t and 1ng

....................................................

40

R o u s s e a u * s E m i l e ...................................................

42

M o d e rn s o u r c e s ............................................. .

.

. .

43

Dewey *s How We T h i n k .........................................

43

Jam es* E s s a y s i n R a d i c a l E n r p lr lc la r a

44

. .

P a r k e r * s G -e n e ra l M e th o d s o f T e a c h in g i n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls

. . . . . . .

45

T h o r n d ik e * s The P s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g .

47

K i l p a t r i c k * s F o u n d a t i o n o f M e th o d

. .

48

i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ..........................

49

R e l a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .........................................

50

M o r r is o n * s T he P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h in g

In tro d u c tio n

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

W in c h 1 s 11A c c u r a c y i n S c h o o l C h i l d r e n ” •

50

D u n c k e r’ s su rv e y o f 1926

51

W a s h b u rn e * s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

o f 1927

C la rk and V in c e n t’ s r e s e a r c h :

. .

53

”A

C o m p a ris o n o f Two M e th o d s o f A r i t h m e t i c P r o b le m A n a l y s i s ”

. . . .

55

B u r t o n * s s u r v e y o f 1 9 3 ^ -1 9 3 5 Sum m ary III.

.

56

........................................................................

ASSUMPTIONS AND HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY A s s u m p tio n s o f t h e

.

59

.

60

s t u d y ..........................................

60

V

CHAPTER

PACE ..........................................

H y p o th e s e s o f t h e s tu d y Sum m ary IV .

60

. . . . . .

EARLY AND MEDIEVAL BACKCROTJND T he r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s

.

63

..........................................

63

D e d u c tio n

............................... * ....................................

63

In d u c tio n

.............................................

65

The C r e e k e r a S o c ra te s

.

.

.

6l

...................................................................

66

♦ ..................................................................

66

S y l l o g i s t ic re a s o n in g

.

S e a r c h f o r k n o w le d g e

. . . . . . . . . .

P la to * s th e o ry o f e d u c a tio n

A ris to tle

. . . .

A ris to tle * s

n o tio n o f e d u c a tio n

A ris to tle O u tlin e

.

70

. .

* .............................................

73 7^

....................................................

75

.

.

o f C r e e k c o n t r i b u t i o n s .....................



76 77

. . . . . . . . . . . .

S c h o la s tic is m .

71

. . . .

on I n d u c tio n a n d d e d u c tio n

S c h o la s tic th o u g h t

T hom ism

*

6? 69

. . . . . .

D e d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g f o r c h i l d r e n

T he O rg a n o n

.

73 •

?3

* ..................................

79

The t i m e s I n f l u e n c e p h i l o s o p h y .....................

79

A q u in a s a n d

d e d u c tio n

60

In q u iry and

fa ith

......................................

..................................................

The S c h o l a s t i c m e th o d i n e d u c a t i o n

. . .

81 81

vi CHAPTER

PAGE The d e d u c t i v e m e th o d t o d a y ...............................

82

.............................................................................

83

MODEM HISTORICAL BACKGROUND....................................

8^

Sum m ary V.

The r i s e

t h i n k i n g ..........................

Qk

.....................

85

t h i n k e r s ..............................................

87

o f in d u c tiv e

T he R e n a i s s a n c e T he i n d u c t i v e

R ene D e s c a r te s

(1 5 9 6 -1 6 5 0 )

87

M in d -b o d y d ile m m a

...............................................

89

D e s c a r t e s 1 d u a lis m

...............................................

89

Im p lic a tio n s

o f D e s c a r te s 1 th in k in g

.

.

F r a n c i s B acon (1 5 6 1 -1 6 2 6 )

91 ...............................

T he m e th o d o f i n d u c t i o n M e th o d o f i n q u i r y

P re ro g a tiv e

The B r i t i s h

.........................................

93

....................................

9^

in d u c tio n

95

to

e m p iric is ts

Jo h n L ocke (1 6 3 2 -1 7 0 ^ ) T a b u la r a s a

$2

in s ta n c e s

B a c o n 1s c o n t r i b u t i o n

.

.

. . . . . . . . .

96

. . . . . . . . .

96

..............................

L o c k e ’ s e m p iric is m

91

.

........................................

M a tu r e o f e x p e r i e n c e

90

96

...............................................

I n d u c tio n an d d e d u c tio n

97

...............................

98

T he k n o w in g p r o c e s s

....................................

10 0

P e r c e p t i o n a n d m em ory

. . . . . . . .

101

U n i v e r s a l s ...................................................................

101

v ii CHAPTER

PAGE The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f L o c k e G e o rg e B e r k e le y

..............................

(1 6 8 ^ -1 7 5 3 )

B e rk e le y * s e p is te m o lo g y E x is te n c e an d r e a l i t y

'

10^

.........................................

105

.

.

D a v id Hume ( 1 7 1 1 - 1 7 6 6 ) .............................................. F act and b e l i e f

I m p lic a tio n s

p o s itio n

.

.

106 107

.

108

.

10 9

o f Hume*s w o rk f o r

p r o b le m -s o lv in g

. .

.........................................

Ill

P o s i t i v i s m ..................................................................................

112

T hom as H o b b e s ( 1 5 3 8 - 1 6 7 9 ) S c ie n tific

In q u iry

N a t u r a l la w s

*

.....................

...................................................

.........................................................

T he c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Thom as H o b b e s

11^ 115 116

T he t h e o r y o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ...............................

11 7

(1 7 2 4 -1 8 0 ^ )

. .

.........................

Im m a n u e l K a n t a n d h i s C r i t i q u e s K n o w led g e

.

113

.

Im m a n u e l K a n t

.

. .

.......................................................................

I n d u c tio n an d d e d u c tio n

...............................

A p r io r i v e rs u s ta b u la r a s a

. . . . .

I m p lic a tio n s o f K a n t’ s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n Sum m ary V I.

103

....................................

I m p lic a tio n s o f B e rk e le y * s t h e o r i e s

Hume a n d th e r e a l i s t i c

102

.

. . .

117 118 119 120

.

............................................................................

MODERN CONCEPTS IN INDUCTIVE REASONING

117

122 123 125

v iii CHAPTER

PACE F o re w o rd :

I n d u c t i v e m e th o d a n d t e c h n o ­

lo g ic a l advance The r i s e

......................................... .....

of p o s itiv is tic

th in k in g

Jo h n S t u a r t M i l l (1 8 0 6 -1 8 7 3 ) In d u c tio n and u t i l i t y

.

* .

* .

.

. . . . . .

.

.

.

H e rb e rt S p e n c e r (1 8 2 0 -1 9 0 3 )

The k n o w in g p r o c e s s

127 129 130

K n o w le d g e o r t h e h i g h e s t g e n e r a l i t y R e fle c tio n and in fe re n c e

126 126

................................... .

I m p lic a tio n s f o r p ro b le m -s o lv in g

125

.

. . . . . . .

133

.........................................

S p e n c e r 's u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n

* .

.

131

.

134 135

W illia m Jam es (1 8 4 2 -1 9 1 0 ) R a d ic a l e m p iric is m

136

........................................................

137

...................................................

138

P e rc e p t and co n cep t S e n s a tio n a n d th in k in g

. . . . . . . . .

How t h i n k i n g b e c o m e s o r d e r e d W il l i a m J a m e s '

.

.

. .

140

i n f l u e n c e o n p r o b le m ­ .............................................

s o lv in g

Jo h an n F r ie d r ic h H e rb a rt (1 7 ? 6 -I8 4 l)

142

T he d o c t r i n e o f a p p e r c e p t i o n ..........................

143

C o m p le x e s a n d b l e n d i n g s M a th e m a tic s

.

'd o c t r i n e o f

..........................

a p p e rc e p tio n '

.

.

l4 l . .

F u rth e r a n a ly s is o f th e

* s»-

.

13 9

. . . . . . .........................

.............................................

144 146 147

ix CHAPTER

;

PAG-E

I m p lic a tio n s o f a p p e rc e p tio n f o r p ro b le m -s o lv in g J o h n Dewey ( 1 8 5 9 R e fle c tiv e

. . . . . . . . . . . ) a-s e p i s t e m o l o g i s t

th in k in g

A c ts o f r e f l e c t i o n

.

............................................... . . . . . . . . . . .

C 1A9 ) 150 152

P r a g m a tis m i n e p i s t e m o l o g y ...............................

15 3

The t h e o r y o f c o n t i n u i t y

15*f

. . . . . . . .

F u n c t i o n .............................................................................

155

Dewey* s e f f e c t o n s c i e n t i f i c

.

156

.

157

in q u iry

P ro b le m -s o lv in g a n d s c i e n t i f i c Sum m ary V II.

1^8

.

in q u iry

....................................

159

THE STATUS OF MODERN PROBLEM—SOLVINGT he e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s Jo h an n F r ie d r ic h H e rb a rt

160

.........................................

161

. . . . . . .

T he d o c t r i n e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s

162

....................................

163

..............................................................

16^

P re s e n ta tio n

..........................

A s s o c ia tio n

* ..............................................................

S y s te m a tiz a tio n A p p lic a tio n

. . . . . . . .

166 16?

..........................................

I 69

...................................................................

1?0

P ro b le m -s o lv in g an d a p p e r c e p tio n The H e r b a r t i a n s

161

.....................

in le a rn in g

P re p a ra tio n

160

..........................

H e rb a rt* s l e a r n in g th e o r y

N a tu ra lis m

. . . .

. . . .

.........................................

171 172

X

CHAPTER

PACE H e rb a rtia n is m

i n A m e ric a

. ...................................

173

New m e th o d s

* * .............................................................

174

E d w a rd L e e T h o r n d i k e .......................................................

176

........................................

P s y c h o lo g ic a l b a s is

T h o r n d ik e *s t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g N a tu ra lis m

in

177

. . . . .

177

l e a r n i n g ..............................................

The bond t h e o r y a n d p r o b le m - s o lv in g The e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l

.

.

.

180

........................................

Sam uel C h e s te r P a r k e r

182

..............................................

The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o b l e m s P a r k e r 1s e f f e c t

.

179

. . . . . . .

183 184

.............................................................

The s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls

. . . . . . . . . .

P r o j e c t a n d p ro b le m H e n ry C. M o r r i s o n

185 186

..............................

I 87

........................................................

188

U n ity o f le a r n in g

......................... .

18 9

T h in k in g a s p r o b le m - s o lv in g

. . . . . .

190

P ro b le m -s o lv in g a n d th e h ig h s c h o o l P ro b le m -s o lv in g

in h ig h e r le a r n in g 1

P ro b le m -s o lv in g a n d t r a d i t i o n a l i s m

.

.

192

. . . .

192

.

193

. .

J o h n Dewey a n d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .......................... ( 1 9 5 j T he b e g i n n i n g

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. The n a t u r e o f l i f e ........................................................ T he w h o l e n e s s o f t h i n k i n g T he i d e a l c l a s s r o o m

196 198

....................................

199

...................................................

200

xi CHAPTER

PACE T he m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

V III.

202

.

20L

..............................................

20 6

..........................

20?

.........................

R e c a p itu la tio n Sum m ary

.....................

.............................. .

CRITIQUE OF PROBLEM-SOLVING In tro d u c tio n

.

. .

.......................................................................

T h e m e th o d o f s c i e n t i f i c

i n q u i r y .........................

207

.........................................

209

T he n a t u r e o f i n d u c t i o n

The d e f e n s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m e th o d V a r i o u s m e a n in g s o f i n d u c t i o n I n d e fe n s e o f d e d u c tio n In r e f u ta tio n

20?

o f Dewey

.

.

.

.



211

.

213

. . . . . . . . • * * * .....................

The w e a k n e ss o f in d u c tio n

....................................

215 ^ -

216

A d v a n ta g e s o f d e d u c tio n

....................................

D e w e y 's r e f u t a t i o n

.......................................... "(2 2 ^

.

. .

.........................

T he s t a t u s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y M o d e rn t h e o r i e s o f

le a rn in g . . . . . . .

The F o r t y - F i r s t Y e a rb o o k

.........................................

The m o d e rn p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i e w V a rio u s o p in io n s

. . . . .

.............................................................

R e fle x e s an d r e f l e c t i o n

...............................

T he w e a k n e s s e s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

.

. .

218

22k 225 225 226 227 229 23 0

T he w h o l e n e s s o f

le a rn in g . . . . . . .

232

R a m if i c a t i o n s

in

l e a r n i n g * ............................

233

T he d ile m m a

.

.........................

23 5

.

►*.• • •

x ii CHAPTER

PAGE D ew ey’ s p o s i t i o n The s u b j e c t i v e

a n a ly z e d

n a tu r e o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g *

R e se a rc h in th e f i e l d

........................................

.

.

236 238 240

.........................................

243

..................................................................

244

L a2 e r t e * s i n v e s ti g a t i o n T he r e s e a r c h

....................................

K i g h t a n d M ic k e ls o n * s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

.

.

246

The r e s e a r c h ............................................................... I m p lic a tio n s fro m th e s tu d y

.

...........................

J o s e p h T. Jo h n so n * s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

* .

.........................

T he r e s e a r c h

246

.

250

.

250

C r i t i q u e o f J o h n s o n ’ s s t u d y ....................................... Joseph J .

G o ld s te in and o th e rs *

rese a rch .

The r e s e a r c h ....................................................................... C o n c lu s io n s fro m t h i s ty p e o f s tu d y

249

251 252 253

.

.

254

a n d H e le n M u ir B is h o p * s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

.

254

H e r b e r t T. O l a n d e r , M. J .

V an W agenen

The r e s e a r c h ........................................................

254

Im p lic a tio n s

256

.

.............................................

C a r l W. H a n s o n ’ s i n v e s t i g a t i o n C o n trib u tio n s

. . . . . .

. . . . .

...................................

H a r r y C. J o h n s o n ’ s i n v e s t i g a t i o n P ro c e d u re o f th e e x p e rim e n t

257

. . . .

258

. . . . . .

258

I n s t r u m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s .............................................. Im p lic a tio n s o f t h i s

258

in v e s tig a tio n

. ‘.

.

260 26l

x iii CHAPTER

PAGE Sum m ary o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n

262

. . . . . . . .

P h i l o so p h i o a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f p r o b l e m -

s o lv in g Sum m ary IX .

» • ♦ • » • • ♦ . ♦ » •

» • •



263 265

THE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESES

..........................

26 6

A s tu d y o f th e e a r l i e s t b e g in n in g s o f th e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d h e l p e d i n c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s .............................................................................

266

An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e o f s c i e n ­ tific

i n q u i r y w as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e

d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n

.

.

.

.

26?

The p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d w e re r e v e a l e d a s a r e s u l t o f a n a ly s is o f th e d a ta g a th e re d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n

..........................................

268

An a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e p h i l o s o ­ p h e r s a n d e d u c a to r s g u id e d th e p ro c e d u re a n d w e re im p o r ta n t in t h e p r o p e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h i s s tu d y T he v a l i d i t y

. . . . . . .

o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w as

e s ta b lis h e d th ro u g h r e s e a r c h in to a v a ila b le

268

e v id e n c e

th e

..........................

269

T he p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d h a s i n f l u e n c e d m o d e rn A m e ric a n e d u c a t i o n

. . . . . . .

269

x iv CHAPTER

-PAGE I n t e r e s t i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s a m e th o d o f le a rn in g i s

s t i l l g r e a t .......................... .

270

The w o rk a n d i n s i g h t s o f t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g c o n tr ib u te d to th is

s t u d y ........................................................................

C la rific a tio n

271

o f th e h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l ­

o s o p h i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g Sum m ary X.

as

a m e th o d f o r e d u c a t i o n

...............................................■ .

.....................

SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Sum m ary

271

.

.

272 .

......................................... . . . . . . . .

S ta te m e n t

o fth e

P ro c e d u re

.

T e r m in o lo g y T he l i t e r a t u r e

274

p ro b le m . . . . . . . .

I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b le m

274-

274 *

275

...................................................................

27 5

.

276

.

....................................................

f o r th e

E a r ly a n d m e d ie v a l

s tu d y . . . . . .

so u rc es.

T he p r e - m o d e r n t r e a t i s e s M odem s o u r c e s

........................

. . . . . . . .

27 6 277 280

...............................................

283

..........................

285

R e se a rc h in th e f i e l d

P h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f p r o b le m ­ s o lv in g A re v ie w

.......................... .....

.......................... , 288

.............................................

294

XV

CHAPTER

PAG-E C o n c lu s io n s fro m T he h y p o t h e s e s R e c o m m e n d a tio n s

t h e s t u d y .......................................

29A

o f th e s tu d y

29 5

................................

..............................................* .

C o n c l u s i o n ........................................................ BIBLIOGRAPHY

...............................................................................

.

.

297 299 300

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED One of* t h e I m p o r t a n t I s s u e s w i t h w h i c h e d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e rn e d to d a y i s

th a t o f th e r e l a t i v e m e rits o f v a rio u s

m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g *

M e th o d o lo g y h a s b e e n a s o u r c e o f c o n ­

t r o v e r s y am ong e d u c a t o r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n * T h ere h av e b e e n d e f e n d e r s o f ,

a s w e ll a s d e t r a c t o r s fro m ,

t h i s o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r m e th o d .

T h ere h av e b e e n c r i t i c i s m s

a s a r e s u l t o f m e re o b s e r v a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f som e w r i t e r s , and th e re have been d e f i n i te m e th o d f r o m o t h e r s h o w e v e r,

s u g g e s t i o n s f o r Im p ro v e m e n t o f

engaged in e m p iric a l v a lid a tio n .

h as b e en done in

L ittle ,

t h e w ay o f c a r e f u l a p p r a i s a l o f

t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a n y o n e m e th o d so a s t o o f f e r some c l e a r b a s i s f o r c o m p a r is o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n .

An h i s t o r i c a l a n d

p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a n y g i v e n m e th o d seem s one d e f i n i t e m eans f o r t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n od.

In d e fe n se o f su ch a p o s itio n

o f t h a t m e th ­

F in n e y s t a t e s :

♦ . * t h e m o re t h e f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e v a r i ­ o u s f i e l d s o f s c ie n c e , th e g r e a t e r becom es th e n e e d o f p i e c i n g t h o s e f i n d i n g s t o g e t h e r i n t o a new m odus v i v e n d l fo r p ra c tic a l a f f a irs . R e se a rc h i s in c re a s in g r a th e r th a n d e c r e a s in g th e n e e d f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o rk . T h is c a n n o t be to o e m p h a tic a lly o r i n s i s t e n t l y a s s e r t e d . The m ore s c i e n c e we h a v e , t h e m o re we n e e d p h i l o s o p h y . . • . P h i l o s o p h i c a l w o rk i s t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a s u c c e s s fu l r e - a lig n m e n t.1

1

tio n

R o ss L. F in n e y , A S o c io lo g ic a l P h ilo s o o h v o f E d u ca­ (New Y o rk : T he M a c m illa n C om pany, 1 9 2 9 )» p«

2 H is to r ic a l and p h ilo s o p h ic a l a n a ly s is a p p e a rs n e ce s­ s a r y f o r c l e a r i n g u p some o f t h e c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g s p e ­ c i f i c m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g ro o m .

It

and le a r n in g

i n t h e A m e ric a n c l a s s ­

i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t t r u e p r o g r e s s i n a n y

e d u c a t i o n a l m e th o d o lo g y i s

h in d e r e d by l a c k o f i n s i g h t i n t o

t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h a t m e th o d .

C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f th e

a s s u m p t i o n s o f a n y i m p l i e d m e th o d o lo g y s h o u l d p r o v e h e l p f u l . F in n e y w r i t e s : T h e re i s s t i l l a n o t h e r n e e d f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o rk , an d one t h a t a r i s e s o u t o f th e v e ry n a tu re o f s c ie n ­ t i f i c r e s e a r c h i t s e l f , n a m e ly , t o s c r u t i n i z e a n d r e c t i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s i n v o l v e d *2 I .

THE PROBLEM

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m . ( T he p u r p o s e o f t h i s w a s t o e x a m in e c r i t i c a l l y is

s tu d y

th e h i s t o r i c a l e v o lu tio n o f w hat

com m only know n t o d a y i n A m e ric a n e d u c a t i o n a s t h e p r o b le m ­

s o l v i n g m e t h o d . j ^ T h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s w as d o n e t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l " ”r e s e a r c h - a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e n ­ tire

d e v e l o p m e n t . J T he i n v e s t i g a t i o n t r i e d

to

f i n d a n sw e rs

to th e fo llo w in g p e r t i n e n t q u e s tio n s : 1.

F rom w h a t o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s d i d t h e p r o b le m ­

s o l v i n g m e th o d a s s u c h a r i s e ? 2.

2

To w h a t e x t e n t d i d t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d

F in n e y , l o c > c i t .

e m e rg e f r o m t h e

s c ie n tific

p ro c e d u re,

l.e * ,

th e in d u c tiv e

a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p u r e l y d e d u c t i v e m e th o d o f r e a s o n i n g ? 3*

W hat a r e t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o r

a s s u m p tio n s u n d e rly in g 4.

W hat e a r l y

t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d ? t h i n k e r s , w r i t e r s o r e d u c a t o r s w e re

m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d ? A p p r o x i m a t e l y how g r e a t w a s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h o f th e s e ?

W hat h a v e b e e n t h e

c h a n g i n g c o n c e p t s o f t h e p r o b le m ­

s o l v i n g m e th o d ? 5* re se a rc h , 6*

How m uch v a l i d i t y ,

a s e v id e n c e d by s c i e n t i f i c

d o e s t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d h a v e ? How w id e a n i n f l u e n c e h a s i t

e x e r t e d o n A m e ric a n

e d u c a tio n ? 7*

W hat i s t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s a s r e g a r d s t h i s p a r ­

t i c u l a r m e th o d o lo g y ? 8.

Who a r e i t s

9*

W hat i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e o f f e r e d

a s h a v in g now a n d i n

l e a d i n g p r o t a g o n i s t s to d a y ?

s i g n i f ic a n c e f o r e d u c a tio n i n th e U n ite d S t a te s th e fu tu re ?

Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m * f o r th e fo llo w in g re a s o n s :

(l)

T h e p r o b le m i s

m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g a r e t h e

v e ry b a s e s o f o u r e n t i r e e d u c a tio n a l p ro c e d u re * m e th o d s s h o u l d b e ,

o r s h o u ld n o t b e ,

is

c a tio n a l c i r c l e s a t th e p r e s e n t tim e . tio n

im p o rta n t

i s fro m a r e c e n t a u t h o r i t a t i v e

W hat t h e s e

a v i t a l is s u e in edu­ The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a ­

so u rc e:

k T he g o a l s o f t e a c h i n g i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y h a v e been f a i r l y w e ll c la r if ie d # T h e r e i s a n e e d now f o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s w h ic h w i l l a tte m p t to i d e n t i f y t h e ty p e s o r p a t t e r n s o f te a c h in g w h ic h a r e m o st c o m p a tib le w ith th e a tta in m e n t o f th e s e g o a ls * 3 T h u s,

a lo n g w ith t h e v a s t i n c r e a s e i n

th e

scope o f

e d u c a t i o n t h e r e g o e s t h e n e e d f o r a d j u s t i n g m e th o d s t o new c o n d itio n s *

T h e re seem s t o be a f u r t h e r n e e d , n o t o n ly f o r

e x a m in in g m e th o d s t o f i t

p r e s e n t- d a y e d u c a ti o n a l d em an d s,

b u t a l s o f o r e x a m in i n g p a s t m e th o d s i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e w ay s o f t e a c h i n g m o re n e a r l y c a l c u l a t e d t o f i t o u r e v e r-c h a n g in g c o n d itio n s *

P ro b le m -s o lv in g

m o re I m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l m e th o d s * g e n e r a l te rm s r e g a r d in g

th e p a tte r n s o f i s one o f th e

K ilp a tric k ,

w ritin g

in

th e p ro b le m -s o lv in g te c h n iq u e ,

s ta te s : We h a v e f o u n d t h e u s e o f p r o b le m w o rk i n c r e a s i n g i n e d u c a tio n a l p ro c e d u re p a r tly b e c a u se i t u t i l i z e s b e t t e r th e c o n d itio n s fa v o r a b le to le a r n in g , p a r t l y b eca u se i t b e t t e r s e r v e s to o r g a n iz e f o r th e l e a r n e r th e f i e l d o f a tte n tio n * A f a v o r a b l e s e t a n d r e a d i n e s s m ay b e e x ­ p e c t e d f r o m t h e i n i t i a l i m p u l s e , a n d t h i s , b y w e ll- k n o w n p s y c h o l o g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s , i s l i k e l y to b e e n h a n c e d by t h e th w a r tin g w h ic h s e t s t h e p ro b le m . B e s id e s b o th t h e s e , a p r o b le m i t s e l f h a s a c h a l l e n g e w h i c h a r o u s e s t h e a l e r t m in d t o a p a r t i c u l a r e n d e a v o u r . F rom t h e s e th re e f a c to r s d i s t i n c t l y fa v o ra b le c o n d itio n s f o r le a r n ­ i n g a r e m o re l i k e l y . ^

3

L i n d l e y J* S t i l e s , S t e p h e n M* C o r e y , a n d W a l t e r S . M o n ro e , " M e th o d s o f T e a c h i n g , " E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h ( W a l t e r S . M o n ro e , e d i t o r ; Hew Y o rk : T he M a c m illa n C om pany, 1 9 5 0 ) , p* 751*

k

W i l l i a m H e a rd . K i l p a t r i c k , F o u n d a t i o n s o f M e th o d (Hew Y o rk : T he M a c m illa n C om pany, 1 9 ^ 5 ) , P* 2^9*

( 2 ) T h e re i s

s till

a g r e a t am ount o f d o u b t a s to

th e s p e c if ­

i c e m p h a s i s t o b e p l a c e d e i t h e r u p o n m e th o d o lo g y o r u p o n c o n te n t* c le a rly is

T he r e l a t i v e s e ttle d .

im p o rta n c e o f e a c h h a s n o t b e e n

A c c o r d i n g t o D ew ey,

fo r in s ta n c e ,

m e th o d

" b u t a n e f f e c t i v e w ay o f e m p lo y in g som e m a t e r i a l f o r som e

end.M ethod, c o n te n t.

f o r D ew ey, i s n o t t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m

I n u p h o l d i n g t h i s v i e w , Dewey s t r e s s e s t h e p r o b le m ­

s o l v i n g m e th o d i n h o w e v er, th e re

th e l e a r n in g p r o c e s s .

a r e n o t so c o n v in c e d ,

O th e r e d u c a to r s ,

and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a lo n e

s e e m s t o b e som e n e e d f o r a c l e a r e r r e a l i z a t i o n

p rin c ip le s

o f th e

i n v o l v e d i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d o lo g y .

( 3 ) The v a l u e a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d h a v e b e e n e s p o u s e d b y m any l e a d i n g e d u c a t o r s i n t h i s c o u n try .

One o f th e m w r i t e s ,

" M a s te ry o f th e p r i n c i p l e s a n d

g e n e r a liz e d te c h n iq u e s in v o lv e d i n p ro b le m -s o lv in g th in k in g is

o n e o f t h e d e s i r e d o u tc o m e s o f e d u c a t i o n . " ^

p ro b le m -s o lv in g te c h n iq u e p re h e n s io n o f w hat i t f o r p re s e n t-d a y

is

i n w id e v o g u e ,

S in c e th e

a c l e a r e r com­

I m p l i e s w o u ld seem t o h o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e

te a c h e rs .

A c c o rd in g t o R is k :

P u p il e x p e r ie n c e i s th e e s s e n t i a l l y Im p o rta n t p a r t o f a n y c l a s s w o rk . L e a rn in g i s a m a t t e r o f s e l f - a c t i v i t y

J o h n D ew ey, D e m o c ra c y a n d E d u c a t i o n T h e M a c m illa n C om pany, 1 9 2 5 ) , p* 11*

(New Y o rk :

^ W i l l i a m H. B u r t o n , "T h e P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g T e c h n i q u e , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d , 1 ^ : 1 8 9 , J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , M a rc h , 1935*

6 on th e p a r t o f th e l e a r n e r to a c q u ir e d e s i r e d a d ju s t ­ m e n ts o r t h e a b i l i t y t o m ake s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t s to l i f e p ro b le m s . . . . T e a c h e rs m u st r e c o g n iz e th e f a c t t h a t i n l i f e p e o p l e do n o t r u n a r o u n d w i t h t e x t ­ b o o k s u n d e r t h e i r a rm s r e c i t i n g a b o u t f a c t s t h e y f i n d th e re * T hey d e a l w i t h f a c t s a s t h e y a p p ly to l i f e p r o b le m s * The s c h o o l m u s t g i v e p u p i l s t r a i n i n g i n such e x p e r ie n c e s .' F rom t h e f o r e g o i n g in g t o e s t a b l i s h

q u o ta tio n s

th e Im p o rta n c e o f t r y ­

th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r v a l i d i t y

o f so im ­

p o r t a n t a te c h n iq u e a s p ro b le m -s o lv in g c an b e s e e n . (^ )

T h e re i s a n e e d ,

i n v ie w o f t h e p r e s e n t a n d e v e r-g ro w in g

c o n f l i c t i n e d u c a tio n ,

f o r m o re d a t a c o n c e r n i n g o n e o f t h e

m o re p r o m i n e n t d e v i c e s e m p lo y e d a s a t e a c h i n g m e th o d o lo g y i n t h e A m e ric a n s c h o o l r o o m . te a c h e r can b e s t u t i l i z e s h o u ld f i n d i t

I t s e e m s l o g i c a l t o a s k how t h e

m e th o d o f a n y k i n d .

v a lu a b le to

e x a m in e c r i t i c a l l y

e v o l u t i o n o f a t e c h n i q u e w h ic h i s u sag e.

in

T ea ch e rs th e h i s t o r i c a l

s u c h w id e a n d c u r r e n t

B u rto n s t a t e s :

T he m ode o f p r o c e d u r e c a l l e d ” p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ” r e ­ g a r d e d e i t h e r a s a m e th o d o f t e a c h i n g o r a m e th o d o f l e a r n in g , h a s b e en p r e s e n t in v a r io u s fo rm s a n d g u is e s u n d e r v a r i o u s nam es s in c e e a r l i e s t tim e s . T he m e th o d u se d b y S o c r a te s in h i s a t t a c k upon v a r io u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s h a s m any e l e m e n t s i n common w i t h w h a t we now c a l l p ro b le m -s o lv in g . The m e th o d w as i n a l l p r o b a b i l ­ i t y f o r m a liz e d f o r s c h o o l p u r p o s e s i n m a th e m a tic s b u t i n m o d e rn t i m e s h a s u n d e r g o n e g r e a t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b een a p p lie d in a l l f i e l d s . y

7

T hom as M. R i s k , P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f T e a c h ­ i n g i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s (New Y o rk : A m e ric a n B ook C om pany, 1 9 ^ 7 )» p* ^ 8 . 8 W i l l i a m H. B u r t o n , o p . c l t . , p . 1 9 0 .

7 M e l v i n , a r e c e n t w o r k e r I n m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g , s t r e s s e s t h e n e e d f o r k n o w le d g e I n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s * He w r i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s a d v i e e t o

te a c h e rs :

C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s o f m a j o r I m p o r ta n c e t h a t t h e s t u d y o f m e th o d s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t c a r e ­ f u l m e d ita tio n . T e a c h e r s m u st s e e t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s a w h o le b e f o r e t h e y c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t s p a r t s * 9 ( 5 ) I t w o u ld a p p e a r ,

i n v ie w o f th e w id e - s p r e a d u s a g e a n d

p r o m in e n c e o f th e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g te a c h in g

s itu a tio n s ,

u a tio n o f i t s ta n c e .

It

te c h n iq u e i n l e a r n in g an d

t h a t a c r i t i c a l a n d c o m p r e h e n s iv e e v a l ­

g e n e s i s a n d s u b s t r u c t u r e w o u ld a s s u m e im p o r ­

I s p ro b a b le

t h a t n o t e c h n i q u e o r m e th o d m ay b e

f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d o r a p p r e c i a t e d w i t h o u t som e i n s i g h t i n t o its

b a c k g ro u n d *

M o rris o n s t a t e s : C -... 7' So i t i s w i t h u s s c h o o l m a s t e r s . W h e th e r we r e a l i z e i t o r n o t , o u r c r a f t a s e x e r c i s e d an d o u r p ro b le m s a r e s t a t e d c h i e f l y i n c t e r m s o f t h e s y s te m o f t h e J e s u i t se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls o f th e s e v e n te e n th c e n tu ry . . . . M ore t h a n t h a t , e v e r y t i m e we d e v i s e a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t , a n d m o s t t i m e s w hen we c a r r y t h r o u g h a p e d a g o g ­ i c a l e x p e r i m e n t , we a r e t r y i n g t o l e a r n how b e t t e r t o c a r r y I n t o e f f e c t t h e s y s te m o f t h e J e s u i t s , who a f t e r a l l w e re s u p r e m e l y g o o d s c h o o l m a s t e r s , w h a t e v e r we may t h i n k o f t h e i r t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n . E ven s o , i t i s f a r b e t t e r t h a t we s h o u l d c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w t h a t s y s te m t h a n t o l a p s e i n t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a o s o f n o s y s te m a t a l l . 3 *0 B ecau se o f th e s e o b s e r v a tio n s ,

Y o rk :

th e re fo re *

a s to th e

9 A . G o rd o n M e l v i n , M e th o d s f o r Hew S c h o o l s (Hew T he J o h n B ay C om pany, 1 9 ^ 1 )> p* 5*

^ H e n r y C. M o rris o n , B a s ic P r i n c i p l e s o f E d u c a tio n (N ew Y o rk : H o u g h to n M i f f l i n C om pany, 193**) * P* 5*

8 v a lu e an d n e c e s s ity o f an h i s t o r i c a l an d p h ilo s o p h ic a l p e r­ s p e c tiv e ,

i t m ay b e c o n t e n d e d t h a t a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s

p r o b le m c a n m ake a c o n t r i b u t i o n c ritic is m

to e d u c a tio n .

and e v a lu a tio n th a t th e v a li d i ty

i s by

and p ra g m a tic

w o r t h o f a n y t e a c h i n g m e th o d may b e p r o p e r l y T h is p a r t i c u l a r s tu d y i s

It

s u b s ta n tia te d .

an a tte m p t a t an h i s t o r i c a l an d

p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d . II. F o re w o rd . fo rm a l lo g ic ,

DEFIN ITION S OF TERMS USED In o p p o s itio n to

a p ro c e d u r e w o rk e d o u t b y

t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y w o u ld r a t h e r u s e t h a t

ty p e o f lo g ic p e c u l i a r to

p r a g m a ti s m .

I t is

hoped t h a t

l o g i c a l fo rm s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l a c c ru e fro m th e s u b je c t m a tte r (o r d is c u s s io n )

as i t p ro g re sse s,

p re su p p o se d a s in fo rm a l lo g ic . • i n d u c t i o n 1 a n d 1s c i e n t i f i c

I n s t e a d o f b e in g

T he m e a n in g s o f t h e

in q u iry *

te rm s

w i l l d e v e lo p a s a r e ­

s u l t o f th e a n a ly s is o f th e d a ta o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n . B e c a u se o f t h e s e m a n tic d i f f i c u l t y w h ic h o b t a i n s i n th e f i e l d m o lo g y , a ll,

fro m w h ic h p r o b le m - s o lv in g d e r i v e s ,

c e rta in

te rm s m u st b e c a r e f u l l y d e f in e d .

a lth o u g h i t

p ro b le m -s o lv in g

a te a c h in g ,

seem s o b v io u s , is

fo c u s e d upon i t s is

i.e .,

c o m p le x .

e p is te -

F irs t o f

i t m u st be s a i d t h a t

The e m p h a s i s i n

th is

e p is te m o lo g le a l Im p lic a tio n s ,

s tu d y i s

a lth o u g h i t

a n d e v e n p e r h a p s a c u r r ic u lu m , p ro b le m .

I t w as n e c e s s a r y t o b r e a k u p t h e s u b j e c t I n t o v a r i o u s

9 s e c tio n s f o r I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y # f r o m tim e t o

t i m e w hen i t

O th e r d e f i n i t i o n s - w e re ad d ed

w as c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y *

w h ic h e v e r c o n te x t th e te rm p r o b le m - s o lv in g w as u s e d , When i t

In an e f ­

f o r t w a s m ade t o a c k n o w le d g e i t

so.

i s a ls o b ro u g h t

t o m in d t h a t m any p h i l o s o p h i e s ,

s o m e tim e s d i v e r g e n t o n e s ,

c o n tr i b u te d to p r o b le m - s o lv in g ,

th e n e c e s s ity f o r c a u tio u s

w o r d in g i s a p p a r e n t . F o r th e

d e f i n i t i o n s o f 11p r o b l e m ” a n d “ p r o b l e m ­

s o l v i n g , ” D ew ey*s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r t e r m s w e r e e m p lo y e d .

J o h n D ew ey*s nam e i s p e r h a p s m o re c l o s e l y a s s o ­

c ia te d w ith th e f i e l d it

is

o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g th a n any o t h e r ,

o n ly r i g h t t h a t h i s d e f i n i t i o n s be u s e d .

d ire c tly

f ro m h i s p r a g m a t i c

and

T h e y s te m

p h i l o s o p h y w h ic h p r o f e s s e s a

m o n is tic e p is te m o lo g y g ro u n d e d i n e x p e r ie n c e .

To d e r i v e t h e

b e n e f i t o f D ew ey*s e a r l i e r a s w e l l a s h i s l a t e r t h o u g h t , b o t h e d i t i o n s o f h i s g r e a t w o rk , How We T h i n k , w e r e u s e d . I f Dewey* s m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w e r e u s e d i n t h e s c h o o lr o o m a s he s u g g e s t s , t h e n i n s t r u c t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m a n d l e a r n i n g w o u ld b e c e n t e r e d u p o n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . p ro ac h i s

H is a p ­

a u n i q u e o n e , f o r Dewey h o l d s t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

e m e r g e s fro m s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h p r o v o k e i t l o g i c a l to p ro v id e

and hence i t

is

s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m w h i c h w o u ld

a c t a s s t i m u l i f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g , a p h r a s e w h ic h h e e q u a te s w ith p ro b le m -s o lv in g . S itu a tio n *

P ro b le m -s o lv in g ,

a c c o r d i n g t o D ew ey, m u s t

10 be lo g ic a l

(in h is

sen se)

a n d m u st a r i s e fro m a s i t u a t i o n

w h ic h dem ands r e s o l u t i o n .

A i m le s s d i s p e r s i v e t h i n k i n g i s

n o t p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f

th o u g h t s p r i n g s fro m a s i t u a t i o n ity .

of d iffic u lty

o r p e rp le x ­

He w r i t e s : T h i n k i n g b e g i n s i n w h a t may f a i r l y e n o u g h b e c a l l e d -•* a f o r k e d - r o a d s i t u a t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s a m b ig u o u s , w h ic h p r e s e n t s a d ile m m a , w h i c h p r o p o s e s a l t e r n a t i v e s . As l o n g a s o u r a c t i v i t y g l i d e s s m o o t h ly a l o n g fro m one t h i n g t o a n o t h e r . . . t h e r e i s no c a l l f o r r e f l e c t i o n . D i f f i c u l t y o r o b s t r u c t i o n i n t h e w ay o f r e a c h i n g a b e ­ l i e f b r i n g s u s , h o w e v e r , t o a p a u s e . 11 H e re,

th e n ,

s o l v i n g m e th o d *

is

If

s e e n t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m ­

t h e r e i s no s i t u a t i o n

of d iffic u lty

or

p e rp le x ity ,

t h o u g h t b e c o m e s a i m l e s s , b u t , a s Dewey w r i t e s

fu rth e r,

.

w.

be re s o lv e d , to a d e f in ite

. a q u e s tio n to b e a n sw e red , s e t s up an e n d an d h o ld s th e c h a n n e l.”

s o l v i n g f o r Dewey i s

12

an a m b ig u ity to c u rre n t o f id e a s

T hus th e b e g in n in g

o f p r o b le m ­

a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h may b e d e f i n e d a s

one o f d oubt o r p e r p le x ity o r a s t a te

o f c o n f u s i o n w h ic h d e ­

m an d s r e s o l u t i o n ,

t h e w h o le I s a n i n ­

a n d , a s he s e e s I t ,

t e r r e l a t e d p r o c e s s w h ic h c a n n o t b e a r b i t r a r i l y e x p e rie n c e .

Of t h i s e x p e r im e n ta l s i t u a t i o n

s e p a r a t e d fro m

he w r i t e s :

T he c o n c e p t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n a r e i n ­ s e p a r a b le fro m e a c h o t h e r . An e x p e r i e n c e i s a lw a y s w h a t i t I s b e c a u s e o f a t r a n s a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e b e tw e e n

J o h n D ew ey, How We T h in k (New Y o rk : a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 3 )* P* 1^*

12

L oc. c i t .

D. C. H e a th

11 th e i n d i v i d u a l a n d w h a t, a t t h e tim e , c o n s t i t u t e s h i s e n v iro n m e n t. * . . T he e n v i r o n m e n t . . . i s w h a t e v e r c o n d itio n s i n te r a c t w ith p e rs o n a l n e e d s, d e s i r e s , p u r­ p o s e s , a n d c a p a c i t i e s t o c r e a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e w h ic h i s h a d . 3*3 T h is c o n c e p t o f s i t u a t i o n h i s own l o g i c

i s a d i r e c t i n f e r e n c e fro m

i n w h ic h he h o ld s t h a t a l l l o g i c a l th o u g h t

e m e rg e s fro m e x p e r ie n c e a n d t h a t e x p e rie n c e b r i n g s to i t l o g i c a l fo rm s an d s ta n d a rd s *

T he s i t u a t i o n ,

th e n , i s

th e

i n c e p t i o n o f D ew ey1s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c o n c e p t a n d w i l l b e so c o n s tru e d . P ro b le m * c ific th e

s itu a tio n

s itu a tio n .

To D ew ey a p r o b le m

i n d i v i d u a l l y g ro u n d e d an d i s d e p e n d e n t upon F or in s ta n c e , ra in

t e r e d hum an b e i n g i s a s i t u a t i o n m a in in g d r y , w h ic h c a n b e

s itu a tio n

upon a n u n s h e l­

e v o k in g t h e p r o b l e m o f r e ­

s o lu tio n s .

A n o th e r i n s t a n c e o f

i s t h a t o f a man l o s t

I n b o th c a s e s th e p e rso n in tio n

fa llin g

s o lv e d b y e r e c tin g a s h e l t e r ,

s e e k in g o n e , o r o th e r l i k e a p ro b le m a tic

i s o c c a s io n e d by a sp e ­

i n t h e w oods.

q u e s tio n m u st s e e k f o r a s o lu ­

t o t h e p r o b l e m w h ic h i s p o s e d b y h i s s i t u a t i o n .

d e fin e s

'p r o b le m *

Dewey

a s fo llo w s :

. . . i f we a r e w i l l i n g t o e x t e n d t h e m e a n in g o f t h e w o r d p r o b le m t o w h a t e v e r — n o m a t t e r how s l i g h t a n d c o m m o n p la c e i n c h a r a c t e r — p e r p l e x e s a n d c h a l l e n g e s t h e m in d s o t h a t i t m a k e s b e l i e f a t a l l u n c e r t a i n , t h e r e

J o s e p h R a t n e r , e d i t o r , I n t e l l i g e n c e i n th e M o d ern W o rld — J o h n Dewey * s P h i l o s o n h v (Hew Y o rk : T he M o d e m L i ­ b r a r y , 1 9 3 9 )* P* 66$*

12 i s a g e n u i n e p r o b le m o r q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d i n p e r i e n c e o f su d d e n change* ^

th is ex­

I t m u st b e m e n tio n e d o v e r a n d o v e r a g a in t h a t f o r Dewey a p r o b l e m g r o w s o u t o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d i s p a rt of i t .

an in te g r a l

T h e r e c a n b e n o d ic h o t o m o u s t h i n k i n g

v i t a l is s u e , f o r i t t h is p o in t f u r th e r :

is

th e c ru x o f h i s th e o ry .

a s itu a tio n

e x p e r ie n c e w h ic h l i t e r a l l y (th e le a r n e r in

on t h i s

To e l u c i d a t e

o c c u rs In an I n d iv id u a l^

f o r c e s th e e x p e rie n c in g a g e n t

th e e d u c a tio n a l s e n s e )

to

s e e k a n a n sw e r.

11The p r o b l e m f i x e s t h e e n d o f t h o u g h t a n d t h e e n d c o n t r o l s th e p ro c e ss o f th in k in g . “ I n t h i s , l i g h t a n d f r o m D ew ey f s d e f i n i t i o n , may b e f u r t h e r

th o u g h t o f a s a s t a t e

g ro w s o u t o f a s i t u a t i o n th e o ry i s

o f u n c e r t a i n t y w h ic h

in d iv id u a lly e x p e rie n c e d .

so m e w h at a n a l o g o u s t o t h e

T h is

1f i e l d t h e o r y 1 o f t h e

G - e s t a l t i s t w h ic h h o ld s t h a t t h e r e a r e l i v i n g w h ic h m u s t i n

a p r o b le m

te n s io n s c au se d by

som e w a y , r e f l e c t i v e l y

o r o th e rw is e , be

r e d u c e d , s o t h a t t h e hum an o r g a n is m c a n a c h i e v e t h e lib r iu m , w h ic h , b e c a u s e o f I t s v e r y n a tu r e ,

e q u i­

i t m u s t a lw a y s

seek. T he p r o b l e m b e i n g f a c e d t h e n d e m a n d s a s o l u t i o n a n d t h e a c c o m p lis h m e n t o f t h i s d em an d b e c o m e s t h e n e x t s t e p i n

J o h n D ew ey, How We T h i n k , o p . c l t . , p .

15 I b ia . , p. 15-

13*

13 th e

re fle c tiv e

p ro c e ss.

P ro b le m -s o lv in g .

It

has been seen th a t a s itu a t io n

f o r Dewey w as p a r t o f a h o l i s t i c u a l e x p e rie n c e *

P rom t h i s

w h ic h dem anded r e s o l u t i o n . in g e n su e d ,

p ro c e ss lin k e d to

s itu a tio n

th e re

B ecau se o f t h i s

a n d , a s D ew ey w r i t e s ,

e m e rg e d a p r o b le m p ro b le m ,

th e p r o c e s s o f t h i n k i n g . 9

i n m in d i f

any c o g en t d e f i n i t i o n

th in k ­

th e l e i t m o t i f w as th e

ri p r o b le m ” w h ic h 9f i x e s t h e e n d o f t h o u g h t a n d t h e tro ls

in d iv id ­

end co n -

I h l s p o in t m ust b e h e ld o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g i s d e ­

s ire d . A c c o r d i n g t o D ew ey, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g jLs t h i n k i n g , o r a s he c a l l s

it,

re fle c tio n ,

and i t

I s p a r t o f th e

sam e c o n ­

tin u u m w h i c h c o m p r i s e d b o t h s i t u a t i o n a n d p r o b le m a s a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f D ew eyf s p h i l o s o p h y , o r m o re s p e c i f i ­ c a lly ,

h i s e p is te m o lo g y . D ewey u s e s t h e

te rm r e f l e c t i v e

th in k in g

s y n o n y m o u s ly

w i t h p r o b le m - s o lv in g , w h ic h h e d e f i n e s a s f o l lo w s : . . . r e f l e c t i v e th in k in g , in d i s t i n c t i o n fro m o th e r o p e r a t i o n s t o w h i c h w e a p p l y t h e nam e o f t h o u g h t , i n ­ v o lv e s ( l ) a s t a t e o f d o u b t, h e s i t a t i o n , p e r p l e x i t y , m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t y , i n w h ic h t h i n k i n g o r i g i n a t e s , a n d ( 2 ) an a c t o f s e a r c h in g , h u n tin g , i n q u ir in g , to f i n d m a te r ia l t h a t w i l l r e s o l v e th e d o u b t, s e t t l e an d d i s ­ p o se o f th e p e r p l e x i t y . 17 I n v ie w o f t h e f o r e g o i n g d e f i n i t i o n ,

16 17

J o h n D ew ey, l o c * c l £ . I b i d * , p* 1 2 .

p ro b le m -s o lv in g

w i l l be e q u a te d w ith r e f l e c t i v e th o u g h t. tio n in i t s

A b s tra c t r e f le c ­

t r a d i t i o n a l c o n n o ta tio n i s c a te g o r ic a lly rep u ­

d i a t e d b y Dewey*

R e f le c tio n i s p ro b le m -so lv in g and i s

th a t

p h a se o f a c o n ti n u a l p r o c e s s u n d erg o n e b y e a c h i n d i v i d u a l in a life -tim e

o f e x p erien c e*

S p e c ific a lly a p p lie d to

th e

s c h o o l room ,

situ a tio n s

w o u ld b e so d e v i s e d fro m e a c h l e a r n e r ' s

e x p e rie n c e th a t

p r o b l e m s w o u l d b e s e t b e f o r e e a c h o ne*

T h e n , w hen f i n d i n g

some a n s w e r t o be u n d e rg o in g

t h e p r o b le m s t h u s p o s e d , t h e l e a r n e r w o u ld th e p ro cess of r e f le c tiv e

way, p r o b le m - s o lv in g becom es and w ith i t ,

In th is

b o th i n s t r u c t i o n and le a r n in g ,

c u r r i c u lu m a s w e ll*

M e th o d * fic a tio n *

th o u g h t*

One l a s t

te rm i s d e f in e d f o r f u r t h e r c l a r i ­

To p o i n t o u t a c o n t r a s t t o D e w e y 's c o n c e p t i o n o f

m eth o d a n o t h e r t y p i c a l d e f i n i t i o n

is

in c lu d e d .

R isk d e f in e s

m eth o d a s : A way o f r e a c h i n g a g i v e n e n d b y a s e r i e s o f a c t s w h ic h te n d t o s e c u r e i t * M e th o d i m p l i e s a r r a n g e m e n t * C o n se q u e n tly i t s u se h a s b een a p p l i e d t o a n o r d e r l y p ro ced u re. The t e r m s h o u l d b e , a n d h a s b e e n , a p p l i e d to o r d e r ly p ro c e d u re s t h a t have b een a d o p te d o r d e­ v ise d fo r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f som e e n d . 1** D ew ey,

how ever, w ages a d i r e c t p o lem ic

he c a l l s np r o f e s s e d l y

R isk ,

19

'lo g ic a l*

m e th o d s .ttl9

He a d v o c a t e s a

op* c l t * , p . 45*

D ew ey , How We T h i n k , o p .

a g a in s t w hat

c i t . , p. 82.

15 m eth o d w h ic h w i l l r e a l i z e

and g e a r i t s e l f

e x p e rie n c e s o f each le a rn e r*

to

th e n a t u r a l

E ach t e a c h e r m ust b e aw are:

T h a t w h ic h i s s t r i c t l y l o g i c a l fro m t h e s t a n d p o in t o f s u b je c t m a tte r r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t s th e c o n c lu s io n s o f a n e x p e r t t r a i n e d m in d* T he d e f i n i t i o n s ! d i v i s i o n s , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f th e c o n v e n tio n a l te x t r e p r e s e n t t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s b o i l e d down* The o n l y w ay i n w h i c h a p e r s o n c a n r e a c h a b i l i t y t o m ake a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s , p e n e t r a t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , a n d c o m p re h e n s iv e g e n e r a l i ­ z a t i o n s , i s by t h i n k i n g a l e r t l y a n d c a r e f u l l y on h i s own p r e s e n t l e v e l . 20 M e t h o d , f o r D ew ey,

i s p a r t o f t h e w h o le p r o c e s s o f

p ro b le m -so lv in g o r r e f l e c t i v e

th in k in g , b u t in t h i s phase

th e te a c h e r i s

co n ce rn e d w ith th e in c e p tio n and g u id a n c e o f

th e r e f l e c t i v e

th o u g h t.

By J u d i c i o u s l y s e l e c t i n g

situ a tio n s

b u i l t aro u n d in d iv id u a l e x p e rie n c e and by a p r o g r e s s iv e p ro ­ m o tio n o f th e s e

situ a tio n s,

a b o d y o f k n o w le d g e c a n b e d e ­

r i v e d b e n e f i c i a l to e d u c a to r and educand

a lik e .

M e th o d i s

a w ise c o m b in a tio n o f th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l and t h e l o g i c a l . It

is

th is

th e

te a c h e r* s p a r t in p ro b le m -so lv in g .

Dewey a r g u e s

case f u rth e r: . T he a im o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d b e t o s e c u r e a b a l a n c e d I n t e r a c t i o n * • . h a v in g s u f f i c i e n t r e g a r d to th e d i s ­ p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l n o t to ham per a n d c r i p p l e w h a t e v e r p o w e r s s ire n a t u r a l l y s t r o n g i n h i m . E very o p p o rtu n ity th a t o c cu rs w ith in p r a c t ic a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r d e v e lo p in g c u r i o s i t y and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to i n t e l l e c t u a l p ro b le m s s h o u l d b e s e i z e d . 21 To sum i t u p , m ethod, i s

D ew ey,

lo o * c l t *

22T b l d . , p .

229.

t h e d o m a in o f t h e t e a c h e r a s

16 p ro b le m -s o lv in g I s t h a t o f th e le a rn e r*

B o th , how ever, a r e

e n g a g e d i n a common p u r s u i t o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g g e a r e d t o e a c h m a t u r a t i o n l e v e l so t h a t f r o m r e f l e c t i v e

th in k in g th e re

w i l l o c c u r g e n u in e e d u c a t i o n a l g ro w th . Ill*

THE SCOPE OF THE STUDX

H isto ric a l lim ita tio n s * b a sic a lly

T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n was

c o n ce rn e d w ith th e o v e r - a l l p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e

e v o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s e m p lo y ed i n t h e p rocess*

te a c h in g and le a rn in g

The f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e b y w h i c h t h i s

g u id e d , a n d fro m w h ic h i t

d rew i t s

s t u d y w as

b a sic p o s tu la te s ,

a r o u n d t h e g e n e s i s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d * e r a r e c e iv e d undue e m p h a sis u n le s s n e c e s s a r y , one f i g u r e

re c e iv e

to o m uch p ro m in e n c e i n

th is

re v o lv e d

No o n e

n o r d id any stu d y .

A ll

serv ed , r a th e r ,

a s a b a ck g ro u n d in a c o n tin u o u s p r o c e s s ,

d a tin g fro m th e

e a rlie s t

c o n c e p ts o f th e p ro b le m -s o lv in g

te c h n iq u e to th e p r e s e n t tim e . T h a t t h e r e w o u ld b e g a p s i n o b v io u s,

s u c h a t r e a t m e n t seem s

but th e ta s k of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a rc h i s to p roceed

i n an o r d e r l y m e th o d .

C o n c e rn in g t h e h i s t o r i c a l m eth o d

W h itn e y s t a t e s : P e r t i n e n t e v id e n c e i s so u g h t on t h e v a l u e o f l i k e l y s o l u t i o n s , w h ic h becom e c o n c lu d in g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f m o re o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t v a l u e f o r p r o g n o s i s . The s c i e n ­ t i f i c h i s t o r i a n , h ow ever, k e e p s t h e s e o p e n -m in d e d ly

17 te n ta ti v e f o r m o d ific a tio n In th e d isc o v e ry o f a d d i­ t i o n a l a n d b e t t e r s o u r c e s . 22 S in c e m ost h i s t o r i a n s a g re e is

t h a t m an * s d e v e l o p m e n t

i n th e n a t u r e o f a c o n tin u u m , a n d t h a t no e v e n t o c c u r s

i n a vacuum #

t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r m ust a r b i t r a r i l y d e ­

l i m i t one f i e l d ,

p e rh a p s a t th e expense o f o th e r s .

so i n o r d e r t o p u r s u e one p a t h l o g i c a l l y w ith th e hope o f a d d in g ,

to i t s

i n sm a ll m easu re, to

t i o n s o f k n o w le d g e on t h e

su b je c t.

He d o e s

c o n c lu sio n

th e a c c r e ­

G o od, B a r r a n d S c a t e s

d e fe n d t h i s v ie w p o in t: H is to ry d e n o te s any e f f o r t to r e c o u n t any a s p e c t o f th e p a s t l i f e o f m an k in d , s u c h a s w a r, d ip lo m a c y , a r t , i n s t i t u t i o n s , t r a v e l , s c ie n c e , In d u s try , b io g rap h y , o r th o u g h t. T h e re fo re , th e p o s s ib le f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s a s b r o a d a s l i f e i t s e l f . 23 W ith t h e

i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l m eth o d o f

r e s e a r c h i n m in d ,

th is in v e s tig a to r a r b itr a r ily

m a rc a tio n as fo llo w s : t i o n o f p ro b le m -so lv in g S o c ra te s, w rite rs;

th e in v e s tig a tio n tr a c e d th e th r o u g h (1 )

P la to and A r i s t o t l e ; (3 )

s c ie n tific

s e t up a de­ e v o lu ­

th e e a r ly G re ek s, v i z . ,

( 2 ) th e im p o rta n t m e d ie v a l

th e e r a o f th e R e n a is s a n c e a n d th e em ergence o f

in q u iry ; and f i n a l l y ,

(4)

t h e m odern e r a .

W h ile

p e r h a p s som e p h a s e s w e r e o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d a n d o t h e r s n e g l e c t e d ,

(New Y o r k : 23

F r e d e r i c k L am so n W h i t n e y , The E l e m e n t s o f R e s e a r c h P r e n t l c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 3 7 / 7 p* 309*

C a r t e r V. G o o d , A l e x a n d e r S. B a r r , a n d D o u g l a s E . S c a t e s , T h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 3 6 ) , P* 2&L.

18 th e p u rp o se re m a in e d to f i n d

th e c l e a r e s t p o s s ib le

a n a ly sis

o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d * P h i l o so p h i o a l l i m i t a t i o n s *

T h is

stu d y c o n f in e d i t ­

s e l f t o e x a m in in g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v in g te c h n iq u e .

The a t t e m p t w a s m ade t o p r e s e n t t h e u n d e r l y i n g

a s s u m p tio n s a s g a t h e r e d fro m th e p rim a ry e x p o n e n ts o f th e sc ie n tific

m e th o d a s a t e c h n i q u e o f t h e l e a r n i n g

p ro cess.

P ro m t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s a c o n c e n s u s o f t h e b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s w as draw n an d i n t e r p r e t e d w h e n e v e r i t f o r e x p o sitio n .

w a s. d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y

No o n e p h i l o s o p h y w a s p r o p o u n d e d , t h e i n ­

t e n t i o n b e in g

t o t r a c e down t h e a g r e e d - u p o n a n d m o s t i m p o r ­

ta n t te n e ts .

T he e m p h a s i s w a s t o w a r d s c o n t r i b u t i n g c l a r i t y

and p re c is io n . T he p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s a l l i e d to

th a t o f th e s c i e n t i f i c

c lo se ly

o r i n d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a ­

s o n in g w h ic h s e e k s e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n f o r i t s

p o stu la te s*

T h e r e w e r e many e x p o n e n t s a n d many d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e tific

m e th o d *

proved i t s

W h ile p r a g m a t i c a l l y t h i s m e th o d seem s to h a v e

w o r t h , t h e r e a r e s t i l l t h o s e who a t t a c k i t

c o n c lu s iv e m eans f o r s e e k in g an d e s t a b l i s h i n g The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e tra d ic tio n

as a

tru th .

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d i n con­

to th e d e d u c tiv e te c h n iq u e a s a so u rc e o f se e k in g

k n o w le d g e d i d n o t e n t e r i n t o p ro b lem .

sc ie n ­

th is

i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s a p rim a ry

T he a b s o l u t e p o s i t i o n o r v a l u e o f e a c h h a s y e t t o

19 be d e te rm in e d .

T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n l i m i t e d i t s e l f

to ex­

p l o r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e m e t a p h y s ic a l p r i n c i p l e s from w h ic h th e p r o b le m - s o lv in g te c h n iq u e c o n c e p t a r i s e s . T here i s n e ed f o r r e s e a r c h i n

th is area.

F in n e y

d e s c r ib e s th e v a lu e o f su c h r e s e a r c h a s fo llo w s : T here i s s t i l l a n o t h e r n eed f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l w ork, and one t h a t a r i s e s o u t o f th e v e ry n a tu r e o f s c ie n ­ t i f i c r e s e a r c h i t s e l f , n a m e ly , t o s c r u t i n i z e a n d r e c t i f y t h e a s s u m p tio n s I n v o l v e d . . . . A l l s c i e n t i f i c w ork i s u n a v o id a b ly s h o t th ro u g h w i t h a ssu m p tio n s . I n M ath e­ m a tic s th o s e a ssu m p tio n s a re o v e r tly re c o g n iz e d a s a x io m s. I n t h e f i e l d s o f t h e new h u m a n i t i e s t h i s e l e ­ m ent r e q u i r e s v e r y s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , b e c a u s e th e a s ­ s u m p t i o n s a r e s o v e r y l i k e l y t o e s c a p e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r 1s n o tic e . ^ P h ilo so p h ic a l re s e a rc h is its

ta sk .

T h a t t h e r e a r e many o p p o s i n g v i e w p o i n t s i n t h e

p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n search .

l i m i t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f

seem s I n h e r e n t i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e ­

T he t a s k o f t h i s

in v e s tig a tio n c e n te re d i t s e l f in

s e e k i n g some p a t t e r n w h i c h w o u l d b e o f h e l p f o r e d u c a t i o n to d a y by th e tiv e

c o n so lid a tio n of c e r ta in

b a s ic c o n c e p ts r e l a ­

t o t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d . In te rp re ta tiv e

lim ita tio n s.

S in c e t h i s i n v e s t i g a ­

t i o n was p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s w e l l a s h i s t o r i c a l i n n a t u r e ,

cer­

t a i n w e l l- d e f in e d l i m i t s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w ere s e t up.

In

th is

stu d y as l i t t l e

s i b l e was d o n e .

in te rp o la tio n

o r e x tra p o la tio n

T h e e f f o r t w as m ade t o l i m i t

24 F in n e y , op. c i t . ,

p p . 14-15*

th e

as pos­

in te rp re -

20 ta tlo n

to a s r i g i d a consonance w ith th e id e a s of th e le a d ­

in g p h ilo s o p h e rs as p o s s ib le , in o rd e r to e f f e c t a c o n s o li­ d a tio n o f c o n c e p ts . ta tiv e

fu n c tio n ,

re se a rc h in to In lin e

Some s p a c e w a s d e v o t e d t o t h e i n t e r p r e ­

b u t t h e b u l k o f t h e w o rk was c o n f i n e d t o

b a sic m a te ria ls . w i t h C r a w f o r d 1s c o n c e p t i o n o f r e s e a r c h ,

t e r p r e t a t i o n a s s u c h was l i m i t e d .

in ­

C raw ford s a y s :

R e s e a r c h i s sim p ly a s y s te m a tic a n d r e f i n e d t e c h n ic o f t h i n k i n g , e m p lo y in g s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s , in s tr u m e n ts a n d p r o c e d u r e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a m o re a d e q u a t e s o l u ­ t i o n o f a p ro b le m t h a n w o u ld b e p o s s i b l e u n d e r o r d i n a r y m eans. I t s t a r t s w i t h a p ro b le m , c o l l e c t s d a t a o r f a c t s , a n a ly z e s th e se c r i t i c a l l y , and re a c h e s d e c is io n s b a s e d on th e a c t u a l e v id e n c e . I t in v o lv e s o r ig in a l w ork i n s t e a d o f m ere e x e r c i s e o f p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n . It e v o l v e s f r o m a g e n u i n e d e s i r e t o know — r a t h e r t h a n a d e s i r e to p ro v e so m e th in g . * T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n

lim ite d i t s e l f to an e x p o s itio n o f

th e d a t a t h a t w ere g a t h e r e d . sid e ra tio n ,

O b j e c t i v i t y was a p r im a r y con­

w ith th e r e a l i z a t i o n

in v o lv e d ,

how ever,

th a t

some s u b j e c t i v i t y w a s u n a v o i d a b l e . IV .

ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

In tro d u c to ry c h a p te rs . cern s o rg a n iz a tio n ,

T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

i s lo g ic a lly d iv id e d in to

a s con­

fo u r p a rts .

P a r t I i n c l u d e s t h e f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s w h ic h s e r v e a s g e n ­ e r a l b ack g ro u n d and in tr o d u c tio n

25

to t h i s

stu d y :

C h a p te r I ,

Q u o t e d b y C l a u d e C. C r a w f o r d , i n F r a n k L . W h i t n e y and o t h e r s , “i n i t i a t i o n a n d P r a c t i c e s o f P h i D e lta K appa, 9 P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , 1 2 : 1 2 3 - 1 2 6 , D e c e m b e r , 1929*

21 T he P r o b l e m a n d D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e rm s U s e d ; C h a p t e r I I , c e d u r e a n d R e v ie w o f t h e R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e ; III,

P ro ­

an d C h a p te r

A s s u m p t i o n s a n d H y p o t h e s e s o f t h e S tu d y * B ackground c h a p t e r s *

t e r s w h e re in t h e e m p h a sis i s S p e c ific a lly ,

th is

background f o r

T hese

th e chap­

a lm o st e n t i r e l y h i s t o r i c a l .

second p a r t in c lu d e s :

a n d M e d ie v a l B ackground; c a l B ackground.

C h a p t e r s IV a n d V a r e

C h a p te r IV , E a r l y

a n d C h a p t e r V, M o d e rn a n d H i s t o r i ­

tw o c h a p t e r s f o r m t h e h i s t o r i c a l

th e fo llo w in g

C e n tra l c h a p te r s .

c h a p te rs.

C h a p te rs V I, V II,

and V III a re th e

m ost Im p o rta n t c h a p t e r s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

They a r e

m a i n l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n n a t u r e a n d l e n d s u b s t a n c e a n d m ean ­ in g to th e stu d y o f p ro b le m -so lv in g . in c lu d e : in g ;

C h a p t e r V I , M o d e rn C o n c e p t s i n I n d u c t i v e R e a s o n ­

C h a p te r V II,

C h a p te r V I I I , e v a lu a te

S t a t u s o f t h e M odern P r o b l e m - S o lv i n g ;

C r itiq u e o f P ro b le m -S o lv in g .

and

C h a p te r VI w i l l

th e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o r a s s u m p tio n s o f t h e p ro b lem ­

s o l v i n g m eth o d . of

The c e n t r a l c h a p t e r s

C h a p te r V II w i l l g iv e a b r o a d p r e s e n t a t i o n

th e s t a t u s o f th e p ro b le m to d a y .

sent a c ritiq u e

o r e v a lu a tio n o f th e

C o n c lu d in g c h a p t e r s .

C h a p te r V III w i l l p re ­ e n t i r e p ro b lem .

T he c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r s a r e

com posed o f C h a p te r IX , E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e H y p o th e s e s , a n d C h a p t e r X, F i n d i n g s ,

Sum m ary a n d R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s *

C h a p te r

22 IX w i l l a t t e m p t a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s s e t u p f o r th e e x e c u tio n o f t h i s

in v e stig a tio n *

C h a p te r X i s

th e f i n a l

c h a p te r o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and, a s su ch , w i l l p r e s e n t a sum m ary o f t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d , o f f e r a c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t and l i s t

some p r a g m a t i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s *

T h is c h a p te r w i l l

f u r n is h c e r t a i n p r in c ip le s o r g e n e ra l e x p re s s io n s o f th e d a ta b ro u g h t o u t by th e r e s e a rc h , b o th h i s t o r i c a l and p h ilo ­ so p h ic a l* e d u c a tio n

It

i s an e f f o r t to b rin g

to th e f i e l d

o f m o d e rn

some s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s w h i c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e o f

e d u c a tio n a l v a lu e *

F in a lly ,

it is

th e p u rp o se o f th e chap­

t e r to o f f e r d e f i n i t e rec o m m e n d atio n s fro m t h e c o n c lu s io n s w h ic h em erge fro m t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

T hese rec o m m e n d atio n s

a r e m ade i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t e d u c a ­ tio n a l r e s e a r c h o f any ty p e has a s i t s

d e f i n i t e a im t h e

m e a n in g fu l and r e l e v a n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l I t s

e v id e n c e *

U n l e s s some p r e s e n t - d a y v a l u e a n d u s e c a n b e a t t a c h e d t o a n e d u c a tio n a l p ie c e o f re s e a rc h ,

it

does not f u l f i l l

Its

o b lig a tio n . T h e sum m ary a g a i n s t a t e s t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e stu d y :

( 1 ) t h e c a r e f u l a p p r a i s a l o f th e h i s t o r i c a l a n d

p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d ; (2 ) a c r i t i c a l a n a ly s is of i t s b a sic p o s tu la te s ;

and ( 3 ) a

p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a o f u s e f o r m odern e d u c a t i o n . C h a p te r I I w i l l

s e t f o r t h th e

p r o c e d u r e e m p lo y ed by t h i s

s o u rc e s an d th e ty p e o f

in v e s tig a to r to

se cu re th e d a ta .

CHAPTER I I PROCEDURE AND REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE In tro d u c tio n * tio n

The f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s

s t a t e d t h e p ro b le m i n

ta n c e ,

its

e n tire ty ,

in v e s tig a ­

gave i t s

im p o r­

a n d p r e s e n t e d some d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e m o re b a s i c

te rm s n e c e s s a ry to

th e

stu d y .

A lso p r e s e n t e d w ere th e h i s ­

to r ic a l and p h ilo s o p h ic a l lim ita tio n s , o f th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f t h e s tu d y . p ro c e d u re fo llo w e d b y th e o f th e r e l a t e d

a n d a b r i e f sum m ary

C h a p te r I I

e x p la in s th e

I n v e s t ig a to r and g iv e s a re v ie w

lite ra tu re . I.

PROCEDURE

The h i s t o r i c a l m eth o d o f r e s e a r c h h a s t h r e e w e l l d e fin e d d iv is io n s a lre a d y e s ta b lis h e d .

T h is s tu d y ,

in ac­

c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a s o u t l i n e d b y ( fo o d , B a r r a n d S c a t e s , ”^ f i r s t

c o lle c te d th e so u rce m a te ria ls n e c e ssa ry f o r

its

second,

e v o lu tio n ;

c ritic a lly

and f i n a l l y ,

a tte m p te d to

In te llig ib le

fo rm .

a n a ly z e d th e m a te r ia ls ;

p re s e n t th e

d a ta w h ic h e n su e d i n

The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e h a s b e e n

s t a t e d by R e is n e r : I t may b e s a i d t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f e d u c a ­ t i o n d o es n o t p r e s e n t u s w i t h read y -m ad e a n d p e r f e c t

C a r t e r V. (fo o d , A l e x a n d e r S . B a r r a n d D o u g l a s E. S c a t e s , T h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 3 & ) , p . 2 4 l .

24 c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h may e n t e r w i t h o u t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t o o u r e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t • • * I n so f a r a s e d u c a t i o n i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s , c o m p re h e n sio n an d r e a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g a b o u t e d u c a t i o n m u st d e p e n d u p o n a k n o w le d g e o f t h e o r i g i n s w h ic h i n f lu e n c e i t s p r e s e n t s ta te * I t i s sub­ m i t t e d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e s e r i a l a p p r o a c h m akes e a s i e r th e r e c o g n itio n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t f a c ­ t o r s i n t h e b a f f l i n g l y c o m p lic a te d p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . 2 In i t s

pro ced u re t h i s

in v e s tig a tio n a tte m p te d a

c r i t i c a l e s t im a t e o f th e i n s i g h t s o f f i e l d o f p ro b le m -so lv in g and i t s fro m t h e i r p a r t i a l w r i t i n g s . c e d u r e w o u ld r e v e a l t h e i r m e a n in g s. in to

th e t h in k e r s i n

a n te c e d e n ts as g a th e re d

I t was h o p ed t h a t t h i s p r o ­

c o m p re h e n siv e a n d d e v e lo p m e n ta l

One o f t h e n e e d s i n e d u c a t i o n t o d a y i s

c u r r e n t p ro b le m s.

th e

in sig h t

H usk s t a t e s :

R e s e a rc h in th e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n , i f p r o p e r ly d i r e c t e d , may r e i n f o r c e p r o g r e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s a n d sh o u ld c o n s e q u e n tly n o t b e ig n o re d i n , o r e x c lu d e d fro m , program m es o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . 3 The d a t a f o r t h e s t u d y .

The d a t a f o r t h i s

s tu d y w ere

f i r s t c o l l e c t e d and th e n e v a lu a te d a s to t h e i r b e in g o f a p rim a ry o r a se co n d a ry n a tu r e . ly bro ad , v ie w e d .

o n ly th o s e w o rk s c o n s i d e r e d m ost a p ro p o s w ere r e ­ T h e se w ere l i s t e d

tig a tio n .

S i n c e t h e f i e l d w a s im m e n se ­

in th e b ib lio g ra p h y o f th e in v e s ­

T he d a t a w e r e t h e n s e p a r a t e d i n t o

c h ro n o lo g ic a l

2

E d w a r d H. R e i s n e r , MThe H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n a s a S o u r c e o f F u n d a m e n t a l A s s u m p t i o n s , 11 E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a ­ t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , 1 4 :3 7 8 , S e p te m b e r, 1928. 3

R o b e r t R . R u sk , R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a tio n (L ondon: U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n P r e s s , L t d . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 38*

25 and lo g ic a l o rd e r,

T he g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e w a s g i v e n

p rim a ry d a ta , b e c a u s e ,

a s G ood, B a r r ,

to th e

and S c a te s a s s e r t:

In a tte m p tin g to s o lv e a d e f i n i t e , a n sw e ra b le and s i g n i f i c a n t p ro b le m i n t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n , i t m u st b e rem em b ered t h a t p r im a r y s o u r c e s a r e th e o n ly s o l i d b a s e s o f h i s t o r i c a l w o rk . P rim a ry s o u r c e s a r e th e o r l g i n g l d o c u m e n ts o r r e m a in s , th e f i r s t w i t n e s s e s to a f a c t. The d a t a w e r e e i t h e r q u o t e d v e r b a t i m o r u s e d i n e l u c i d a t i n g a m e a n in g so a s t o b r i n g t o l i g h t t h e re la tio n s

and to c l a r i f y

th in k in g In th e f i e l d .

t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f som e o f t h e O v e r-a ll c o n trib u tio n

to

w as u s e d a s a y a r d s t i c k f o r em p lo y in g th e d a t a , i n g to m ake t h e

o rg a n ic

th e stu d y th e id e a be­

i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e l e v a n t a n d m e a n in g fu l f o r

to d ay . C ritic is m

of th e d a ta .

th e p rim a ry t a s k f o r t h i s t h e n t o e v a l u a t e th em .

A fte r c o lle c tin g th e d a ta ,

s tu d y was t o a n a l y s e c a r e f u l l y a n d

T he c o m p a r a t i v e a n d g e n e t i c m e t h o d s

o f r e s e a r c h w ere u s e d f o r t h i s t a s k ;

H isto ric a l resea rch

g iv e s an a c c o u n t o f e v e n ts a f t e r th e e v e n ts o r c o n d itio n s have ta k e n p la c e . try

I t w as n o t th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

to e s t a b l i s h c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s to o

stu d y to

stric tly ,

but ra­

t h e r to g iv e a f a c t u a l a c c o u n t o f th e c o n d i t i o n s b a s i c to th e p ro b le m a s I t e x i s t e d i n th e p a s t . to

c ritic iz e

T h is s tu d y a tte m p te d

th e so u rce m a te r ia l w ith re le v a n c e to i t s

G-ood, B a r r a n d S c a t e s ,

op. c l t . , p.

250.

26 p u rp o s e i n s t e a d o f su m m arizin g i s o l a t e d f a c t s

to th e ex­

c lu s io n o f any in te r p r e ta tio n o f th e fin d in g s -

A c co rd in g

t o S m ith :



H is to ry a s i t i s g e n e r a lly w r i t te n se e k s to g iv e a riG h e r a p p r e c ia tio n o f th e p a s t and th e p r e s e n t and to p ro v id e g u id a n c e f o r and to a ro u s e a k e e n e r i n t e r e s t in th e fu tu r e I t sh o u ld t e l l n o t o n ly w hat happened, b u t a l s o why men o f t h e t i m e a l l o w e d i t t o h a p p e n . 5 In i t s

c r itic a l aspect th is

s tu d y a tte m p te d to p ie c e

t o g e t h e r s c a t t e r e d f r a g m e n ts t o fo rm a u n i f i e d w h o le .

Many

o f th e f a c t s needed In

its

th is In v e s tig a tio n

and b a s ic to

s o l u t i o n w e r e s p r e a d o v e r a w i d e a r e a a n d t h r o u g h o u t many c e n tu rie s.

In

c ritic iz in g

th e so u rce m a te ria ls th e e f f o r t

w a s m ade t o m ake th e m c o h e r e n t a n d r e l e v a n t f o r t o d a y . R e p o rtin g th e r e s e a r c h c o lle c te d and e v a lu a te d , so t h a t

A f te r th e d a t a had been

i t b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t th e m

th e y w ere c l e a r a n d r e a d a b l e .

ceeded w ith th e

hope t h a t

th e r e s u l t s

T he i n v e s t i g a t o r p r o ­ o f th e

in v e s tig a tio n

w o u l d b e m ade a v a i l a b l e a n d w o u l d b e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o o th e rs In th e f i e l d in g to a d e f i n i t e

o f e d u c a tio n .

I t w as o r g a n iz e d a c c o rd ­

c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n d t o p i c a l p l a n , w h ic h was

p u rsu e d th ro u g h o u t th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e a i m r e m a i n e d t o s e e k u n i f i e d a n d c o h e s i v e know­ l e d g e f r o m t h e p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s a n d co m m en ts g a t h e r e d .

-’H e n r y L e s t e r S m i t h , E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P r i n c i p l e s an d P r a c t i c e s (B lo o m in g to n : E d u c a tio n a l P u b lic a tio n s , 1 9 ^ ) , P- 1 1 7 -

27 T he i n v e s t i g a t o r t r i e d and in te r p r e ta tio n

to b e a c c u r a te i n h i s d o c u m e n ta tio n

o f im p o rta n t s ta te m e n ts and s o u rc e s .

A

c o m p le te a n d c a r e f u l r e c o r d o f a l l t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l was m ade p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a n d a p p e n d e d a s a b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h is r e c o r d w o u ld p e r m it t h e c h a n c e f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e In te rp re ta tio n

and d o c u m e n ta tio n o f th e d a ta to o t h e r s .

The a t t e m p t w a s m ad e t o w r i t e to

th e s tu d y a c c o rd in g

t h e t e n e t s o f h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d t o a v o i d a s m uch

as p o ss ib le

th e f i l l i n g

in

e v id e n c e to

s u p p o r t th em .

o f gaps th a t had l i t t l e In je c tio n

o r no

o f o p in io n o r b i a s in to

t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a w a s r e d u c e d t o a m inim um . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was i n s e r t e d i n l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e , m ake t h e

stu d y m e a n in g fu l,

Some

in o rd e r to

f o r in th e f i n a l a n a l y s i s a stu d y

m u s t p r o d u c e f a c t s a p p l i c a b l e t o m o d e rn e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b ­ le m s.

A b eIso n e x p la in s :

K n o w le d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n a n y o f I t s p h a ses i s v a lu a b le as g iv in g d ir e c tio n an d e f­ fe c tiv e n e s s to a c tio n . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t I f we c a n d e te r m i n e t h e 'c a u s e o r t h e e f f e c t o f a c o n d i t i o n , i f we a r e a b l e t o p r e d i c t i t o r t o d e t e r m i n e m e a n s f o r m o d i f y i n g i t , we a r e t h e n i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o c o n — t r o l th a t c o n d itio n . . . . A k n o w le d g e o f h i s t o r y c a n ­ n o t i t s e l f y i e l d th e b a s i s f o r c o n tr o l, i t p la y s th e r o l e o f o f f e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h may b e i n v e s t i g a t e d m o re t h o r o u g h l y b y o t h e r m e t h o d s . ^ Sum m ary o f t h e o v e r a l l p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o c e d u r e .

6

The

H a r o l d H. A b e l s o n , T he A r t o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h (X o n k e rs-o n -H u d so n : W o r l d B o o k C om pany, 1 9 3 3 ) *

28 d a t a w ere a l l c o l l e c t e d f i r s t *

A f te r th e l i k e l y

w ere d e te r m in e d a n d t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y lis h e d ,

th e c r i t i c a l

re a so n a b ly e s ta b ­

e v a l u a t i o n was b eg u n , f i r s t w i t h th e

p rim a ry an d th e n w ith th e se c o n d a ry m a t e r i a ls . w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n

T hese so u rc e s

th is c h a p te r.

The d a t a w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o ic ism ,

so u rces

in te r n a l and e x te rn a l c r i t ­

th e p u rp o s e o f th e f i r s t m eth o d b e in g t o d e te r m in e

t h e g e n u i n e n e s s o f t h e d o c u m e n ts t h e m s e l v e s ,

and th e se co n d

b e i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m e a n in g a n d t h e t r u t h o f t h e m e n ts.

G-ood, B a r r a n d S c a t e s s t a t e

sta te ­

th e p u rp o se o f h i s t o r i r

c a l re s e a rc h a s fo llo w s: T he p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , d i s c u s ­ s i o n s , an d e x p e r ie n c e r e l a t i n g t o th e p ro b le m u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may a c c o m p l i s h f i v e p u r p o s e s : ( 1 ) show w h e th e r t h e e v id e n c e a lr e a d y a v a i l a b l e s o lv e s th e p ro b ­ lem a d e q u a t e l y w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; ( 2 ) p r o ­ v id e id e a s,' t h e o r i e s , e x p la n a tio n s , o r h y p o th e s e s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e p ro b le m ; ( 3 ) s u g g e s t m eth ­ ods o f re s e a rc h a p p ro p ria te to th e s o lu tio n o f th e p ro b le m ; (4 ) l o c a t e c o m p a ra tiv e d a t a u s e f u l t o t h e i n ­ t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s ; and ( 5 ) c o n tr ib u te t o th e g e n e ra l s c h o la rs h ip o f th e in v e s tig a tio n .? T he f i n a l t a s k o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

a f t e r th e d a ta

h ad been c o l l e c t e d and s u b je c te d to

c r i t i c i s m , was t o

f o r t h th e r e s u l t s

It

in l o g i c a l form .

set

i s th e b e l i e f of th e

I n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t o th e r s w i l l a v a i l th e m se lv e s o f th e r e ­ su lts.

(ro o d ,

B a rr and S c a te s , p p .

c i t . , p. 100.

29 X I.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A.

O rig in a l so u rc es.

INTRODUCTION Two t y p e s o f p r i m a r y s o u r c e ma­

t e r i a l s w ere a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s

stu d y .

F i r s t t h e r e w e r e t h e r e c o r d s w r i t t e n b y t h e m en who a c t u a l l y c o n trib u te d o r i g in a l th in k in g o r e x p e rim e n ta tio n to th e p ro b le m ,

and se c o n d ly ,

t h e r e w ere t h e w r i t i n g s o f o t h e r s

who d i d n o t m ake o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . d i v i d e d i n t o tw o c l a s s e s :

(l)

T h e l a t t e r w e re

c r i t i c s o f th e p ro b lem ­

s o lv in g m eth o d , an d ( 2 ) t r a n s l a t o r s o r i n t e r p r e t e r s o f th o s e m en who d i d m ake o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g # T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e rn e d i t s e l f m a in ly w i t h th e so u rce m a te ria l,

o rig in a l

th e p o s s ib le fla w in t h i s so u rc e b e in g in

t r a n s l a t i o n fro m th e o r i g i n a l la n g u a g e . The e a r l y C r e e k s . m odern c o n t r i b u t o r s to T h is i n v e s t i g a t o r ,

in

P o s s ib ly th e g r e a t e s t o f a l l p re ­

t h e re a lm o f th o u g h t w ere a tte m p tin g to tr a c e

th e C re e k s.

th e g e n e s is o f

th e p r o b le m - s o lv in g m eth o d , fo u n d t h a t a n e x a m in a tio n o f th e i n d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g was b a s i c t o t h i s p u r p o s e . I t w a s t h e C r e e k s who m o s t i n f l u e n c e d t h e e a r l y r i s e d u c tiv e th in k in g .

of in ­

R o b in so n s t a t e s :

W h il e t h e t e r m i n d u c t i o n w a s u s e d b y A r i s t o t l e , a n d a c e r t a i n fo rm o f i n d u c t i v e p r o c e d u r e was r e c o g n i z e d by t h e m e d i e v a l s c h o o lm e n , i n d u c t i v e l o g i c i n t h e m odern se n se o f t h e w ord r e a l l y b eg an a s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f th e

t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s e m p lo y e d i n m ak in g t h e th e e x a c t e x p e rim e n ta l s c ie n c e s .° L ite ra ry d iv is io n s . s e c tio n o f th e

d isc o v e rie s of

The t r e a t i s e s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s

s tu d y w ere d i v i d e d i n t o

th re e phases.

f i r s t d e a ls w i t h th e e a r l y and m e d ie v a l t h i n k e r s ,

The

th e second

w ith th e e a r l y m oderns, a n d th e l a s t w ith r e c e n t w o rk e rs i n th e fie ld *

The t h i r d p h a s e c o v e r s m a t e r i a l n o t o n ly fro m

b o o k s, b u t a l s o fro m a r t i c l e s a n d t h e s e s a s w e ll. B.

EARLY AND MEDIEVAL WHITINGS

A r i s t o t l e 1s C a t e g o r i e s a n d De I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .

9

T h is

p a r t i c u l a r v o l u m e o f A r i s t o t l e 1s im m e n se w o r k d e a l s w i t h t h e c a te g o r ie s o f th o u g h t. su b s ta n c e ,

q u a n tity ,

In i t

r e la tio n and q u a lity .

c u s s e s th e f o u r c l a s s e s o f in

th in k in g .

he d e a ls w ith th e c o n c e p ts o f He a l s o d i s ­

‘o p p o s ite s 1 and th e ir c o r r e la tiv e s

The e n t i r e w o rk i s d i d a c t i c i n n a t u r e ,

ta k in g

t h e fo rm o f g i v e n h y p o th e s e s w h ic h h e t h e n a t t e m p t s t o p ro v e by m eans o f r e a s o n . v o te d to

W h ile a g o o d d e a l o f th e w ork i s d e ­

e s ta b lis h in g th e v a li d i ty

some o f i t v a lid a tio n *

o f d e d u c tiv e re a so n in g ,

t r e a t s w ith d e m o n s tra b le o r r a t h e r e m p ir ic a l I n t h i s e a r l y w ork c a n b e s e e n t h e g erm s o f

0 in g

D a n i e l Som m ers R o b i n s o n , T he P r i n c i p l e s o f R e a s o n ­ (New Y o r k : D- A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 9 3 6 T 7 p* 203* 9

E d g a r M. E d g h i l l , W o rk s o f A r i s t o t l e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 2 6 ) , 1 0 5 pp*

(O xford;

The

31 I n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g a s we know i t up and so lu tio n s r a tio n a lly

to d a y .

su g g e ste d .

P ro b le m s a r e s e t I n Book X I, A r i s ­

t o t l e w ro te : T he k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n we a s k a r e a s m any a s t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s w h i c h we k n o w . . . . T hus when o u r q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s a c o m p l e x o f t h i n g s a n d a t t r i b u t e s a n d we a s k w h e t h e r t h e t h i n g i s t h u s o r o t h e r w i s e q u a l i f i e d — whe­ t h e r , e . g . , t h e s u n s u f f e r s e c l i p s e o r n o t — t h e n we a r e a s k in g a s t o th e f a c t o f a c o n n e x io n . T hat o u r in q u iry c e a s e s x D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 0 .

I b i d . , p. 559*

51 in v o lv e d i n t h e e x p e r im e n t was g i v e n p r a c t i c e sum s o f r u l e ,

w h ile

h is to ry and lik e

i n w o rk in g

th e o t h e r g r o u p was g iv e n d ra w in g ,

su b je c t m a tte r.

of p ra c tic e days, f u r th e r

A f t e r a c e r t a i n num ber

s e t s o f p r o b le m s w e re e m p lo y ed t o

t e s t b o th g ro u p s in a r ith m e tic a l re a s o n in g .

In th e f i r s t

s c h o o l t e s t e d t h e r e was no e v id e n c e o f t r a n s f e r , 1 b u t in th e

second,

th ird

show ed d e f i n i t e

and f o u r th sc h o o ls,

im p ro v e m e n ts o v e r t h e

o u t p ro b le m s i n a r i t h m e t i c . n u m e ric a l c o m p u ta tio n i s

If

th e p r a c t i c e d s e c t i o n o th e r in re a so n in g

im p ro v e m e n t i n a c c u r a c y o f

not tra n sfe rre d ,

how c a n t h e

im­

p ro v em en t i n r e a s o n i n g i n t h e p r a c t i c e d g ro u p s b e a c c o u n te d fo r?

The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e l i e v e d t h a t g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y

n u m e ric a l c o m p u ta tio n s e t f r e e ,

as i t

in

w e r e , m o re m e n t a l

e n e rg y to d e a l w ith th e r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n o f p ro b le m s. The r e s e a r c h w as c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e o p i n i o n t h a t m o re e x p e r i m e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e d e f i n i t e

c o n c lu sio n s

can be d raw n .

F ro m t h e d a t a o f f e r e d b y W inch* s i n v e s t i g a ­

tio n ,

it

h o w ev er,

s e e m e d t h a t som e s o r t o f c o n n e c t i o n may

e x i s t b e tw e e n im p ro v em en t i n n u m e r i c a l c o m p u ta tio n a n d m a th e m a tic a l r e a s o n in g . D u n e k e r 1s S u r v e y o f 1 9 2 6 .

D uncker

48

a tte m p te d an

a n a ly s is o f th e p ro c e ss o f s o - c a lle d p ro d u c tiv e th in k in g hO

K a r l D u n c k e r , 11A Q u a l i t a t i v e ( E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d T h e o r e t i c a l ) S tu d y o f P r o d u c tiv e T h in k in g ( S o lv in g o f C o m p le x P r o b l e m s ) , H P e d a g o g i c a l S e m i n a r y , 3 3 * 6 4 2 - 7 0 8 , 1 9 2 6 .

52 i n te rm s o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

D u n c k e r e x a m in e d c r i t i c a l l y

t h o s e t h e o r i e s w h ic h a c t u a l l y l a i d c la im , m ig h t have c la im e d ,

an d th o s e w h ic h

t o s o lv e p ro b le m s a d e q u a te ly , w i t h a

v ie w to e s t a b l i s h i n g

th e v a l i d i t y

of each.

He r e v i e w e d t h e

t h e o r i e s o f J a m e s , Dewey a n d t h e G - e s t a l t i s t s a l o n g w i t h C a r r , W atso n a n d T h o r n d ik e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p r o b l e m so lv in g as such.

D uncker a ls o

p e r i m e n t a l m eth o d s i n

th e f i e l d

e v a lu a te d s e v e r a l o f th e ex­ by a n a ly z in g t h e i r r e s u l t s .

He g a v e s t u d e n t s s u c h p r o b l e m s a s t h e u s e o f th in k in g a lo u d , T w a in p r o b l e m , its

use o f

th e X -ra y ,

t h e p e n d u lu m i n a c l o c k ,

and f i n a l l y

v a rio u s a sp e c ts a s i t

o t h e r p l a n e ts a ro u n d th e

t h e M a rk

a p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g t h e moon i n re v o lv e d in i t s

sun.

o r b i t w ith th e

He summed u p h i s

stu d y by

sta tin g : I n n o t a s i n g l e o n e o f o u r c a s e s c o u l d we f i n d p o s i t i v e e v id e n c e f o r t r a n s f e r fro m s i m i l a r c a s e s ( w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f c o u rs e , o f w hat c o n ce rn e d th e second ty p e o f p r o c e s s o f r e a l i z a t i o n . ) M ost o f t h e s i m i l a r ­ i t i e s o c c u r r e d p l a i n l y a f t e r , o r so m e tim e s, a lo n g w i t h t h e s o l u t i o n . *9 In c o n c lu sio n , o f th e

th e

f u n c t i o n a l v a lu e *

in v e s tig a tio n s tr e s s e d th e n a tu re of a b stra c t

th in k in g by m a in ta in ­

i n g t h a t f u n c t i o n i s n o t an a b s t r a c t i o n ,

p er se,

but ra th e r

a v e ry n e c e s s a ry p ro c e s s in th in k in g and p ro b le m -so lv in g .

I b i d . , p. 707.

53 W a s h b u r n e 1s I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f 1 9 2 ? ♦ a rtic le

d e s c rib e s a p ie c e

W ashburne1

o f r e s e a r c h w h ic h g rew o u t o f t h e

n e e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g why s t u d e n t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e m ec h an ics o f a r i t h m e t i c le m s.

H is p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n w as:

g re a te r a b ility m e tic to a re

a s a p p li e d to

th e

th e s o lv in g o f p ro b ­ W ill c h il d r e n

a c q u ire

to a p p ly th e fu n d a m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s i n a r i t h ­

s o l u t i o n o f v e r b a l p ro b lem s i f

th e p ro cesses

in tro d u c e d th ro u g h s i t u a t i o n s w ith in th e c h il d r e n ’ s

e x p e rie n c e and a re a p p lie d th ro u g h o u t th e p e rio d o f p r a c t ic e d ire c tly

to

th e

s o lu tio n

o f p ro b le m s,

th a n i f

a re le a r n e d and p r a c tic e d w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e situ a tio n s

an d l a t e r a p p l i e d to t h e

s o lu tio n

th e p ro c e s s e s

to c o n c re te o f p ro b lem s.

The s t u d y w as h a n d l e d b y a c o m m itte e s e l e c t e d t o t r e a t o f th e p ro b lem fro m a l l p h a s e s . o r d e r to

e x e c u te th e e x p e rim e n t,

six te e n c i t i e s

o f n o rth e rn

T he c o m m i t t e e e x p e r i m e n t e d a t t h r e e l e v e l s .

f i r s t le v e l, stitu tio n

in

s e c u re d th e c o o p e ra tio n o f

s u p e rin te n d e n ts and p r i n c ip a l s in Illin o is.

T h is c o m m itte e ,

o r s e c o n d g r a d e , was t o b e t a u g h t f i f t y

fa c ts;

th e second le v e l,

sub­

o r f o u r t h g r a d e , was t o

be g iv e n th e p ro c e s s o f lo n g d i v is io n ; se v e n th g ra d e s ,

T he

th e s i x t h and

w h ic h c o m p ris e d t h e t h i r d l e v e l ,

w ere to

G a r l e t o n W a s h b u r n e , 11C o m p a r i s o n o f Two M e t h o d s o f T e a c h in g P u p i l s t o A p p ly t h e M e c h a n ic s o f A r i t h m e t i c t o t h e S o l u t i o n o f P r o b l e m s , 11 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 7 : 7 5 8 - 6 7 , J u n e , 19 2 7 *

54 l e a r n th e p r i n c i p le o f p e r c e n t-

I n each g rad e th e

c h ild re n

w ere g iv e n : An i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ( t h e H a g g e r t y I n t e l l i g e n c e E x a m in a tio n , D e l t a 1 ; i n G rade I I , t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i ­ g e n c e T e s t , S c a l e A, F o rm 2 , i n t h e o t h e r g r a d e s . ) A p ro b le m -so lv in g t e s t in th e n e a r e s t r e l a t e d p ro c e s s w h ic h th e y h ad s t u d i e d ( a d d i t i o n f a c t s , s h o r t d i v i s i o n , a n d C ase I o f p e r c e n t a g e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , a n d a t e s t i n th e m e c h a n ic s o f th e p r o c e s s . A f t e r t h e r e s u l t s w ere t a b u l a t e d ,

t h e c o m m itte e

c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e r e was no i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e r e s u l t s o f t e a c h i n g b y t h e tw o m e t h o d s . o f a r i t h m e t i c a l m ec h a n ic s,

i.e .,

T he t e a c h i n g

f a c t s an d p r o c e s s e s m e re ly

by th e m se lv e s, d o es n o t l e a d to d i f f i c u l t y

i n m ak in g p r a c ­

t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e m ec h an ics to t h e s o l u t i o n o f p ro b le m s.

The c o m m i t t e e

sta te d ,

in

c o n c lu sio n :

A c o m b in a tio n o f th o r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n th e m ec h an ics o f a r ith m e tic and th o ro u g h t r a i n i n g in th e u se o f th e s e m e c h a n ic s i n s o l v i n g p r a c t i c a l p ro b le m s p ro d u c e s good re s u lts . . . . T he m e c h a n i c s o f a r i t h m e t i c may b e ta u g h t th o ro u g h ly and th e n a p p lie d to p r a c t i c a l pro b ­ l e m s o r t h e tw o t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g may b e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d th ro u g h o u t th e te a c h in g p ro c e s s w ith e q u a l e f ­ fic ie n c y .^ T h is r e s e a r c h , w h ile one o f t h e sc ie n tific

enough in i t s

e a r l ie r ones,

is

m e t h o d s o t h a t t h e r e s u l t s may b e

a c c e p te d In d e fe n se o f t r a n s f e r of tr a in in g

in

c o n tro lle d

e x p e rim e n ta tio n .. C l a r k a n d V i n c e n t *s R e s e a r c h :

51 I b i d . , p .

759-

52 I b i d . , p .

?67-

A C o m p a r i s o n o f Two

55 M eth o d s o f A r i t h m e t i c P r o b le m A n a l y s i s #

C l a r k a n d V in ­

c e n t - ^ a tt e m p t e d to com pare th e r e l a t i v e

m e r i t s o f tw o d i f ­

f e r e n t m eth o d s o f p ro b le m a n a l y s i s , v i z . , t i o n a l m e th o d a n d ( 2 ) t h e g a to rs h e ld th e b e lie f

(l)

1g r a p h i c a l 1 m e t h o d .

th a t te a c h e rs

p ro b le m -so lv in g te c h n iq u e .

th e conven­ T he i n v e s t i ­

sh o u ld u se th e

The c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d wa.s

d e fin e d as a p ro c e ss fo llo w in g fo u r q u e s tio n s : 1 . W hat i s a s k e d f o r i n t h e p r o b l e m ? 2 . W hat f a c t s a r e g i v e n i n t h e p r o b l e m ? 3 - How s h o u l d t h e s e f a c t s b e u s e d t o s e c u r e an sw er? . k . W hat i s t h e a n s w e r t o t h e p r o b l e m ? * ^

th e

T he 1g r a p h i c a l 1 m e t h o d d i r e c t e d t h e p u p i l t o d e t e r ­ m in e w h a t i s

to be fo u n d i n th e p ro b lem , w hat i t d e p en d s

on, w hat e a c h o f th e s e d e p e n d e n ts i n tu r n depend upon, and so on u n t i l t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s

in th e

p ro b le m h ave b e e n u n r a v e le d . F or s u b je c ts in

t h i s e x p e r i m e n t som e e i g h t y o r m o re

p u p i l s o f th e L in c o ln E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l w ere d i v id e d i n t o tw o e q u i v a l e n t g r o u p s .

T h e d i v i s i o n w a s made on t h e b a s i s

o f a r ith m e tic a l re a so n in g a b i l i t y q u o tie n ts.

and g e n e ra l in te llig e n c e

The m a t e r i a l s u s e d a s a m eans o f c o m p a rin g th e

tw o m e t h o d s o f p r o b l e m a n a l y s i s c o m p r i s e d a l i s t

53

of fifty

J o h n H. C l a r k a n d E . L e o n a V i n c e n t , BA C o m p a r i s o n o f Two M e t h o d s o f A r i t h m e t i c P r o b l e m A n a l y s i s , w M a t h e m a t i c s T e a c h e r , 1 7 : 2 2 6 - 3 3 > A p r i l , 19^5 *

5k J I b id . , p. 227.

56 p ro b le m s c h o sen by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o r e p r e s e n t a s n e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e p ro b le m s u s u a l l y fo u n d i n t e x t - b o o k s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h ,

th e se in v e s tig a to r s

c o n c lu d e d t h a t s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e p u p i l s seem t o h av e little

d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o g n i z i n g w hat i s w a n te d i n th e p ro b ­

lem a n d i n

se le c tin g

e n c o u n te r q u ite

th e r e l e v a n t d a ta *

som e d i f f i c u l t y

th e v a rio u s r e la tio n s h ip s p ro b lem *

T hey d i d ,

in c h o o sin g an d o rg a n iz in g

in v o lv e d in

th e s o lu tio n

T h e f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f m any p r o b l e m s i s

i m p o s s i b l e h o w e v e r s i m p l e t h e s o l u t i o n may b e * p o rta n t,

th e re fo re ,

o r so s t a t e

th a t te a c h e rs f in d o u t th e se

how ever,

th e se

It

of th e a lm o st is

im ­

tw o i n v e s t i g a t o r s ,

ty p e s o f p ro b lem s b e fo re h a n d .

The a u t h o r s a d v i s e d t h e u s e o f f o r m a l a n a l y s i s a s an a d j u n c t f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f a p r o b le m o n ly when a s o l u t i o n o th e rw ise p o s s ib le .

P u p i l s who p r a c t i c e d t h e

is not

‘g r a p h i c a l *

m e t h o d I m p r o v e d m o re t h a n d i d t h o s e who p r a c t i c e d t h e c o n ­ v e n t i o n a l m eth o d . B u r t o n 1s S u rv e y o f 1 9 3 ^ -1 9 3 5 * sc h o la rly

a n a ly sis,

in th re e p a rts ,

m eth o d i n

t h e A m e ric an c la s s r o o m .

g e n eral in tro d u c tio n to ,

*5

b u t th e re

w e r e g l i m m e r i n g s o f i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g among t h e th in k e rs,

and t h i s

first

c h a p te r w i l l p r e s e n t e v id e n c e o f th e s e

e a r ly b e g in n in g s . I. It of th is

THE REASONING PROCESS

h as a lr e a d y b e en s t a t e d t h a t th e p rim a ry p u rp o se

s t u d y was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f th e

d e v e lo p m e n t o f sp e a k in g , p ro cess,

th e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d .

t h i s m eth o d ,

a s a s t a t e d a d ju n c t to

i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y new .

o ld a s re a so n in g i t s e l f . c a tio n ,

it

A c tu a lly i t s

As a s p e c i f i c

d e r i v e s from t h e

w h ic h h a s i t s

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te c h n iq u e

as

in edu­

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g

ro o ts c e n tu rie s back.

D e d u c tio n .

The d e d u c t i v e m e t h o d o f r e a s o n i n g , w h i c h

e x i s t s by d e f i n i t i o n

o n ly ,

e x is te d b e fo re in d u c tio n .

th e p u rp o ses o f th is c h a p te r,

For

a b ro a d c o n n o ta tio n o f th e s e

t e r m s w i l l be g i v e n , a l t h o u g h m odern p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e lo n g sin c e

a g re e d t h a t any c le a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n

re fle c tiv e

p ro cess is

im p o ssib le *

s e p a r a tio n h o ld s tr u e p a r t i c u l a r l y H lb b en s t a t e s :

in th e

T h is i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n th e p h y s i c a l sc ie n c e s*

wT he i n d u e t o - d e d u c t i v e m e t h o d ,

th e re fo re ,

b e co m es e s p e c i a l l y e f f i c i e n t i n e x t e n d i n g t h e d o m ain o f p h y sic a l sc ie n c e .

.

.

.

| B u t t h e r e d o e s e x i s t now , b y d e f i n i t i o n ,

a d lstin c -

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t i o n b e tw e e n d e d u c t i o n a n d i n d u c t i o n a s a p r o c e s s o f t h i n k ­ in g .

The i n d u c t i v e m e t h o d w h i c h b e g i n s x-zith ' p a r t i c u l a r s *

and p ro c e e d s to draw u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r a p p li c a t io n

is

som ew hat d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e d e d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h w h ic h b e g i n s th e

t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s fro m - s t a t e d u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s ,

th e n p ro ceed s w ith th e s e p a rtic u la rs.

and

a s a fram e o f r e f e r e n c e b ack to

^

H ib b en d e f i n e s d e d u c t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r:. I t i s d e d u c t i v e w h e n t h e p r o c e s s sh o w s t h a t f r o m a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e o r l a w t h e r e m u s t f o l l o w som e s p e ­ c i a l c a s e , o r som e m o r e s p e c i a l p h a s e o f t h a t p r i n c i p l e o r la w .2 A n o th e r l o g i c i a n d e f i n e s d e d u c tio n a lo n g t h e l i n e s w hen h e w r i t e s :

".

.

same

. d e d u c tio n p r o c e e d s fro m a

Jo h n G r i e r H ib b e n , L o g ic - I n d u c t i v e a n d D e d u c tiv e (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 1 0 ) , p - 375 *

2

I b i d . , p. 96*

65 u n iv e rsa l

to a n o th e r u n i v e r s a l o r t o a p a r t i c u l a r . “

3

T hese

tw o d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l a p p l y f o r t h e c h a p t e r a n d t h e s t u d y . D e d u c tiv e r e a s o n i n g a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e w h o le p r o c e s s o f th in k in g h a s p la y e d an im p o rta n t p a r t in th e e d u c a tiv e pro cess,

and s t i l l

In d u c tio n . in g m anner:

“I t

does. H ib b en d e f i n e s

is

in d u c tio n in

i n d u c t i v e when t h e p r o c e s s

g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e o r la w m u st r e s u l t from t h e it o f sp e c ia l c a s e s . n S e e m in g ly , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n th e d e f i n i t i o n

th e fo llo w ­ show s t h a t a in v e s tig a tio n

s ta n d s in o p p o s itio n to

o f t h e d e d u c tiv e m eth o d , b u t t h e r e

an d f a s t d ic h o to m y ,

a s e v id e n c e d by th e fo llo w in g

i s no h a rd p e rtin e n t

q u o ta tio n : Ho . . . b o u n d a r y l i n e s a r e t o b e d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t s ta g e s o f th e r e a s o n in g p r o c e s s , b u t i t m ust b e sh o w n t h a t t h e w h o l e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s i n ­ v o l v e d m ore o r l e s s e x p l i c i t l y a t e a c h s t e p . So, f o r e x a m p le , t h e m odern c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t d e d u c t i o n a n d i n d u c t i o n a r e tw o i n s e p a r a b l e , t h o u g h d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a s p e c ts o f s c i e n t i f i c re a s o n in g .* ^ T h e p r o b le m - s o lv in g m eth o d , th is

stu d y , i s

3 (B o sto n : A 5

a s has been d e fin e d in

a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h o f t h e i n d u c t i v e m eth o d

A l b e r t C. C o t t e r , S . J . , L o g i c a n d E - p l s t e m o l o g y T he S t r a t f o r d C om pany, 1 9 3 0 7 , p . ^ 7 ^ H ib b e n , p p .

c i t . , p . 97*

J a m e s E . C r e i g h t o n a n d H a r o l d R* S m a r t , An I n t r o ­ d u c t o r y L o g i c (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C om pany, 1 9 2 6 ) ,

p. 39.

66 o f re a so n in g . its

essence.

Q u e stio n s,

d iffic u ltie s ,

In o th e r w ords, p a r t i c u l a r

in g doubt and u n c e r ta in ty

fu rth e r b e lie f

th a t

II.

in v o lv ­ first

and th e n w ith th e

)

THE GREEK ERA

C r i t i c a l re a s o n in g th ro u g h b o th deduc­

a n d i n d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e a c h e d n ew a n d g r e a t h e i g h t s

d u rin g th e heyday o f G re c ia n th o u g h t. n ists

situ a tio n s

are

s o -c a lle d u n iv e rs a ls and a p p lic a b le

p r in c i p le s w i l l a c c ru e th e re fro m .

B e g in n in g s.

e tc .,

a re p re s e n te d to th e p u p il,

w i t h t h e hope o f im m e d ia te s o l u t i o n ,

tiv e

d ile m m a s,

T he c h i e f p r o t a g o ­

o f r e a s o n i t s e l f a s a m eans o f s e e k in g

k n o w le d g e w e re t h r e e lin k e d to g e th e r: A risto tle

and d is c o v e rin g

p h i l o s o p h e r s w hose nam es a r e a lw a y s

S o c ra te s

(364-322 B .C .) .

(A7 O-A3 9 ) , P l a t o P rio r to

(^27- 347),

and

t h e i r t i m e m u ch t h a t

w as c a l l e d r e a s o n w as p r e j u d i c e a n d m ere s p e c u l a t i o n .

In

l a t e r c e n t u r i e s t h e r e was a g r a d u a l c o a l e s c e n c e o f th e re a so n in g

of th e se th re e

stim u lu s to

p h i lo s o p h e r s w h ic h s e r v e d a s a

th in k in g d u rin g th e p e rio d s o f S c h o la s tic is m and

th e R e n a issa n c e . S o c ra te s*

T he f i r s t

o f t h i s g r e a t t r i u m v i r a t e was

t h e p h i l o s o p h e r S o c r a t e s o f t h e f a m o u s *S o c r a t i c M e t h o d . 1 S o c r a t e s u r g e d men t o

se ek u n d e rly in g p r i n c i p le s ,

(to be u n iv e r s a lly a c c e p te d )

by h i s

or ru le s,

in c e s s a n t q u e stio n in g

6? c o n c e r n i n g co m m o n ly u s e d w o r d s a n d t h e i r a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p s a n d s u b s e q u e n t m e a n in g s a s em p lo y ed i n d i s p u t a t i o n . I t w a s S o c r a t e s who b e g a n t h e now u n i v e r s a l l y know n c l a s s i c e x a m p le i n

a c a d e m ic c i r c l e s

sy llo g is m ru n s th u s : m an, h e n c e i t

A l l men a r e m o r t a l ,

S o c ra te s i s

does sta n d a s a le g itim a te

a tte m p t a t

r e a s o n in g th a n t h a t w h ic h had h e r e t o f o r e b e en

a c c e p te d i n t h e tim e o f S o c r a t e s .

H e re was a d e f i n i t e e f f o r t

to u se lo g ic f o r d e m o n s tra tiv e p u rp o ses* e x a m p le o f t h e S o c r a t i c

sy llo g is m ,

F o r,

in th e

i f th e f i r s t

p re m is e s a r e a c c e p te d a s h a v in g v a l i d i t y ,

S y llo g istic

re a so n in g .

c o n c e rn in g m o r ta li t y ,

In th e

t h e a im i s

c la s­

tw o

th e n any r a t i o n a l

b e in g w o u ld b e c o m p e lle d t o a c c e p t th e c o n c lu d in g

tio n

a

o f s y l l o g i s t i c re a s o n in g h a s lo n g s in c e

been re fu te d , b u t i t

sic

H is

f o l l o w s t h a t S o c r a t e s m u st be m o r t a l .

T h is ty p e

m o re c r i t i c a l

o f d e d u c tiv e re a so n in g #

sta te m e n t#

above n o te d i l l u s t r a ­ lo g ic a lly to p resen t

s t e p s fro m u n i v e r s a l s ta te m e n t s to p a r t i c u l a r i n f e r e n c e s . In th e

sy llo g is m ,

I t i s q u i te p o s s ib le t o t e s t any co n seq u en t

c o n c lu s io n d e r i v e d from it

as

t h e p r e c e d i n g p r e m i s e s b y s h o w in g

t h e s o - c a l l e d l o g i c a l r e s u l t o f t h e u n i o n o f tw o a c -

c e p te d ly v a lid g e n e ra l p r in c ip le s ; g en eral p rin c ip le

o r fro m o n e r e l i a b l e

and p a rtic u la r ru le

as sta te d .

T h is f i r s t p o s t u l a t i o n o f se e m in g ly a i r - t i g h t g e n e r a l ­ iz a tio n s

show s a g o o d e x a m p le o f s p e c i o u s r e a s o n i n g .

F or,

68 in th e a c c e p ta n c e o f a p r i n c ip le ,

or p rin c ip le s,

may h e , w i t h o u t a n y a t t e m p t a t i t s l a t e r ensue*

S o c r a te s , h o w ev er,

th e use o f h is i n t e l l e c t .

a n a ly sis,

as th e case

m u ch e r r o r c a n

h a d no o t h e r r e c o u r s e t h a n

C o ffe y d e s c r i b e s t h e m eth o d o f

S o c ra te s a s fo llo w s: S o c r a t e s u s e d t o s e e k fro m o t h e r s t h e k n o w le d g e t h e y i m a g in e d t h e y p o s s e s s e d , a n d w h ic h he h i m s e l f p r e t e n d e d not to possess. H is a rg u m e n ts to o k th e fo rm o f d i a ­ l o g u e s , e a c h i n tw o p a r t s . I n t h e f i r s t , h i s wi r o n y 11 co n fo u n d ed h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r and c o n v in c e d th e l a t t e r o f th e w e a k n e sse s a n d draw b ack s o f h i s p o s i t i o n . In th e s e c o n d , S o c r a t e s g r a d u a l l y d r e w f r o m h im a new a n d t r u e r d e f in itio n , a b e t t e r u n d e rsta n d in g , o f th e m a tte r in d is p u te . A fte r s ile n c in g h is opponent in th e f i r s t o r d e s t r u c t i v e s t a g e , he w o u ld b e g in b y a n o t h e r s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o c o n s t r u c t a n ew s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b ­ lem * . » • H e r e c a n b e d i s c e r n e d som e o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g te c h n iq u e

in d i r e c t

a c tio n *

by a d r o it q u e s tio n in g

S o c ra te s hoped to

su b s titu te

a n e w -fo u n d t r u t h f o r t h e e r r o r w h ic h

had been d is c lo s e d th ro u g h d i a l e c t i c .

T he c o n c l u s i o n s o f

th e d ia lo g u e s th u s en d ed , o r r a t h e r te m p o ra rily c o n c lu d e d , w i t h new s o l u t i o n s t o e x p lo re d .

th e p ro b lem o r p ro b le m s w h ic h had b e e n

T h e s e n ew s o l u t i o n s g a i n e d a d d e d c o n v i c t i o n b y

r e a s o n o f b e i n g p e r s o n a l o u t g r o w t h s o f t h e d i s p u t a n t * s own th in k in g . P la to .

S m ith ,

The s e c o n d o f t h e t r i o

6 P au l C offey, 1 9 3 3 ) , I , 15*

of in te lle c tu a l g ia n ts

The S c i e n c e o f L o g i c

(New Y o r k :

P e te r

69 c a rrie d th e c r i t i c a l h i g h e s t peak*

te n d e n c y in

I n h i s A cadem y* he e x a l t e d t h e p u r s u i t o f

p u re m a th e m a tic s w ith r e l a t i o n u p o n t h e m ind* fe lt

th in k in g to p erh ap s i t s

to i t s

T h is he p o s i t e d in

d isc ip lin a ry

in flu e n c e

t h e o r e t i c a l te rm s a s he

t h e r e w as no n e e d f o r t h e p r a g m a ti c a p p l i c a t i o n o f

th e se p r in c ip le s . W ith h i s p u p i l s o f c la rify

P la to

h e lp e d to

t h e i s s u e s c u r r e n t i n h i s d a y a s r e g a r d s t h e m e a n in g

o f c e r t a i n te rm s* id e a s,

t h e A cadem y P l a t o a l s o

He a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s a im b y c o n s t r u c t i n g

c h a in -fa sh io n ,

in

d eg rees o f d e c re a sin g g e n e r a lity .

su b d iv id e d a t each le v e l,

th u s:

B e in g s a r e c o r p o r e a l a n d i n c o r p o r e a l ; c o r p o r e a l b e ­ in g s a r e a n im a l an d n o n -a n im a l; a n im a l b e in g s a re r a t i o n a l a n d n o n - r a t l o n a l ; a n d so on* By t h i s m e t h o d , w o r k i n g down o n e s i d e o f t h e l a d d e r o f s u b d i v i s i o n s , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o d e f i n e man a s a r a t i o n a l a n i m a l , c o rp o re a l b e in g .7 S e a rc h f o r k n o w le d g e * tr u e w ith th e good.

ra tio Its e lf

to

tru th Its e lf.

7

He m e n t i o n e d t h a t i n

search ­

th e c h a n c e s f o r I t s d is c o v e r y w ere i n d i r e c t

th e d eg ree

of a ll

e q u a te d th e

He s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r t r u t h - s e e k i n g

on e v e ry l e v e l o f r e a s o n i n g . in g f o r t r u t h

P la to c o n s ta n tly

t o w h ic h o u r i n t e l l e c t c o u ld d i v e s t

c o n s id e ra tio n s fo re ig n

to th e c o n ce p t o f

He w r o t e I n t h e R e p u b l i c :

H a r o l d A. L a r r a b e e , R e l i a b l e K n o w le d g e (New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n - M l f f l l n C om pany, 1 9 ^ 5 ) .» PP* 8 6 —87*

70 A nd y o u w o u l d s a y t h e sa m e o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e good? U n til th e p erso n i s a b le to a b s tr a c t and d e fin e r a t i o n a l l y th e id e a o f good, and u n le s s he can ru n th e g a u n tle t o f a l l o b je c tio n , and i s read y to d isp ro v e th e m ,g n o t by a p p e a ls t o o p in io n , b u t t o a b s o l u t e tr u th * •





W h ile P l a t o tio n ,

s e e m in g ly e m p lo y ed t h e m e th o d o f i n d u c ­

h i s w h o le t h e o r y i s b a s e d on t h e d o c t r i n e o f

tio n . 1

But i t

is

in te re s tin g

to n o te th a t in

p o u n d in g o f t h i s n o tio n o f I n n a t e d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g o ccu rs*

R e c o lle c ­

th e v e ry pro ­

id e a s , v ery e v id e n t in ­

H ow ever, t h e e n t i r e

b a s e d on u n i v e r s a l la w , f o r he w r i t e s f u r t h e r ,

th e s is in

is

t h e R e­

p u b lic ; B u t w h e t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e , my o p i n i o n i s t h a t i n t h e w o rld o f k n o w le d g e, t h e i d e a o f goo d a p p e a r s l a s t o f a l l , a n d i s s e e n o n l y w i t h a n e f f o r t , a n d w hen s e e n , i s a l s o i n f e r r e d t o be t h e u n i v e r s a l a u t h o r o f a l l t h i n g s b e a u tif u l an d r i g h t , p u re s t l i g h t , and o f th e lo r d o f' l i g h t i n t h i s v i s i b l e w o rld , a n d t h e im m e d ia te s o u r c e o f rea so n and t r u th in th e i n t e l l e c t u a l ; and th a t t h i s i s t h e p o w e r u p o n w h i c h h e who w o u l d a c t r a t i o n a l l y * . . m ust have h i s e y e fix e d * ° P la to * s th e o r y o f e d u c a tio n * g r e a t m odern c r i t i c s , P la to

G o rn fo rd ,

o n e o f P l a t o *s

h o ld s th a t th e in n a te - id e a th e o ry o f

i s th e k e y n o te o f h i s e n t i r e

e d u c a t i o n a l s y s te m *

T hat

t h e d o c t r i n e o f i n n a t e i d e a s i s d e d u c t i v e i n m e a s u r e sh o w s th a t

e d u c a tio n f o r P la to ,

8

a s i n h i s a n a lo g y o f t h e C ave,

B e n j a m i n J o w e t t , t r a n s l a t o r , The R e p u b l i c o f P l a t o (New Y o r k : W i l l e y B o o k C o m p an y , 1 9 0 1 ) , p . 232*

9 I b i d . , p. 212.

71 ste in s u l t i m a t e l y fro m th e

u n iv e rs a l Id ea.

O o rn fo rd w r ite s :

The Meno h a d a l r e a d y a n n o u n c e d t h e t h e o r y o f ‘A n a m n e s is * t h a t k n o w l e d g e I s a c q u i r e d * n o t t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s o r a s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d f r o m o n e m in d to a n o th e r by te a c h in g , b u t by r e c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s l i f e o f r e a l i t i e s a n d t r u t h s s e e n a n d kn ow n b y t h e s o u l b e f o r e i t s i n c a r n a t i o n .* * - ® P la to * s v ie w s o f e d u c a tio n a r e

so m e w h a t i n o p p o s i t i o n

t o o u r d e m o c r a t i c v i e w p o i n t a s v o i c e d b y o u r m odern p h i l o s ­ o p h ers in e d u c a tio n .

They a r e none

a b le f o r t h e i r c l a r i t y

th e l e s s q u i t e rem ark ­

and b re a d th o f scope.

P l a t o was t h e

f i r s t w r i t e r o n e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e who d e f i ­ n ite ly be tru e

su b sc rib e d to e d u c a tio n ,

th e

th e o ry th a t e d u c a tio n ,

in o rd e r to

m ust co m prehend t h e w h o le o f l i f e .

Jo w e tt d is c u s s e s t h i s

th e o ry a s fo llo w s:

He h a s l o n g g i v e n u p t h e n o t i o n t h a t v i r t u e c a n n o t b e t a u g h t , a n d h e i s d i s p o s e d t o m o d ify t h e t h e s i s o f t h e P r o t a g o r a s , t h a t t h e v i r t u e s a r e o n e a n d n o t m any. He i s n o t u n w i l l i n g t o a d m i t t h e s e n s i b l e w o r l d i n t o h is school of tru th . . . . S t i l l we o b s e r v e i n h im th e re m a in s o f th e o l d S o c r a tic d o c tr in e t h a t t r u e k n o w le d g e m ust b e e l i c i t e d fro m w i t h i n , a n d i s t o b e sought f o r in id e a s , n o t p a r t i c u l a r s o f s e n s e . Educa­ t i o n , a s he s a y s , w i l l im p la n t a p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e l l i ­ g e n ce w h ic h i s b e t t e r th a n a th o u s a n d e y e s . H D e d u c tiv e re a s o n in g f o r c h i l d r e n . w ith d e d u c tio n even in in

in fa n c y .

P l a t o w o u ld b e g in

F o r th e b e g in n in g

e d u c a tio n he a d v is e d f i r s t m u sic an d l i t e r a t u r e

sta g e s and th e n

^ F r a n c i s M a c D o n a l O o r n f o r d , P l a t o 1s T h e o r y o f Know* l e d g e (L o n d o n : K e g an P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r a n d G o . , L t d . , 1 9 3 5 ) , P* ^ B e n j a m i n J o w e t t , T he R e - p u b l i c o f P l a t o T h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 8 8 8 ) , p . CGI.

(O xford:

72 g y m n a stic s*

I n t h e H e p u b l i c , i n h i s d i a l o g u e s on e d u c a ­

tio n ,

h e b e g in s w ith th e ag e a t w h ic h he sa y s th e c h i l d i s

fu lly

a b le to

re c e iv e id e a s ,

a n d t h a t he m u s t t h e n b e

t a u g h t th e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n w h at i s fa lse .

M o d e rn e d u c a t i o n w i t h i t s

sta n d s in

tr u e and w hat i s

p ro b le m -s o lv in g

ap p ro ach

d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s o f P l a t o 1s .

c o rd in g t o

Ac­

P la to :

The a im o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n i s n o t t r u t h a s a m a t t e r of f a c t , b u t t r u t h a s a m a tte r o f p r in c ip le ; th e c h ild i s to be t a u g h t f i r s t sim p le r e l i g i o u s t r u t h s , an d th e n sim p le m o ra l t r u t h s , and i n s e n s i b l y t o l e a r n th e le s s o n o f good m anners and g o o d t a s t e . P la to ’ s th e o r ie s o f re a so n in g p e r s i s t c a tio n

to d a y i n edu­

a s w e l l a s e l s e w h e r e I n o p p o s i t i o n t o many w e l l -

e s ta b lis h e d p s y c h o lo g ic a l f a c t s c o n c e rn in g th e th in k in g p ro cess.

That a c h ild l e a r n s b e t t e r by I n tr o d u c tio n

p ro b lem a r i s i n g

o u t o f a f e l t n e e d seem s o b v i o u s .

to

a

The v e r y

m e th o d o f i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g h a s a c c o u n te d f o r t h e b e s t s c ie n tific

and te c h n o lo g ic a l advancem ent of o u r c i v i l i z a ­

tio n . A p p lie d to b ilitie s

e d u c a tio n ,

it

h o ld s even g r e a te r p o s s i­

th a n w hat h a s a lr e a d y b een a c c o m p lish e d .

c e p ta n c e o f b l in d l y good le a rn in g m ust a r i s e

s ta te d p rin c ip le s

situ a tio n s.

L e a rn in g ,

fro m p ro b lem s e n t e r e d i n t o

Jo w e tt,

lo c .

c it.

M e re a c ­

i s n o t c o n d u c iv e to if

it

is

to e n d u re ,

and s o lv e d by th e

73 stu d e n t* H o w e v e r, i n v i e w o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s , l a c k o f th em , b y w h ic h P l a t o f a i r to

sta te

fo rm u la te d h i s th e o r i e s ,

t h a t he a c c o m p lish e d a g ife a t d e a l .

n o t d isc o u n t th e use o f s e n se -d a ta ; im p o rta n c e .

or ra th e r, it

is

He d i d

he a c k n o w le d g e d t h e i r

P ro b le m s, a s su c h , p la y e d a p ro m in e n t r o l e in

P l a t o 1s t h e o r i e s , b u t h e i n t e n d e d t o s o l v e t h e m f r o m u n i ­ v e rsa l ru le s,

r a th e r th a n by a n a ly s is .

A risto tle *

The t h i r d a n d l a s t o f

s o u g h t t o u n i f y a n d t o m ake c o h e r e n t a l l v e n tu re s o f h is te m p te d t h i s

te a c h e r and frie n d ,

th e se g r e a t th in k e r s th e

P la to .

sp e c u la tiv e A risto tle

a t­

t a s k b y c o l l a t i n g i n t o a c o h e r e n t w ork a l l t h e

k n o w le d g e o f h i s tim e w h ic h h a d b e e n g a i n e d b y o b s e r v a t i o n o f phenom ena.

A risto tle

s c ie n tis t of h is day.

may t r u l y b e s a i d t o b e t h e f i r s t

He l e f t a l e g a c y f o r m o d e r n s c i e n c e

f o r w h i c h man c a n b e g r a t e f u l .

He w r o t e :

The f i r s t o f t h o s e who s t u d i e d s c i e n c e w e r e m i s l e d i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r t r u t h a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s by t h e i r i n e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h , a s i t w e r e , t h r u s t th e m i n t o a n o t h e r p a t h . . . t h e y e x a g g e r a t e d a n d w e n t so f a r a s t o d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p l u r a l i t y o f t h i n g s , m a in ­ t a i n i n g t h a t o n ly B e in g i t s e l f i s . 1^ By a c c e p t i n g

th e v iew e x ta n t in h i s tim e t h a t a l l

k n o w le d g e e m e rg e s fro m p r e - e x i s t e n t k n o w le d g e , A r i s t o t l e

^ (O x fo rd :

W i l l i a m D- R o s s , t r a n s l a t o r , T he C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) >

The W o rk s o f A r i s t o t l e 191a*

7^ w o rk ed to d e m o n s tr a te th e

ju stific a tio n

o f P l a t o 1s t h e o r y

c o n c e rn in g th e p la c in g o f th e v a r io u s c la s s e s such descendency le v e ls *

He f e l t

th a t a ju s tific a tio n

be e f f e c te d by r e l a ti n g

th e

tio n w ith y e t a th ird *

L arrab ee c i t e s th e

tra tio n

of th in g s in c o u ld

tw o c l a s s e s o f o b j e c t s i n q u e s ­ fo llo w in g i l l u s ­

o f t h i s v iew :

A n im a ls a r e o r g a n is m s h a v in g s e n s a t i o n s an d t h e p o w e r o f i n d e p e n d e n t l o c o m o t i o n ; a n d s o a r e m en; t h e r e ­ f o r e , men b e i n g u n d e r t h e w i d e r c l a s s , a n i m a l s . T h is v ie w to o k i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t e v e ry i n d i v i d u a l b e in g i n n a t u r e h a d i t s p r o p e r p l a c e i n som e s p e e i e s , w h i c h w a s i n c l u d e d i n some w i d e r g e n u s , w h i c h w a s i n t u r n i n c l u d e d a s a s p e c i e s i n some s t i l l h i g h e r g e n u s * 1 **' For A ris to tle , m ak e c e r t a i n n ic h e s in

t h e c h i e f jo b o f th e s c i e n t i s t was t o

t h a t a l l t h i n g s w ere p u t i n t o

one g i g a n t i c

t h e i r p ro p er

sy ste m o f “ p ig e o n h o le s w i t h in p ig e o n ­

h o l e s w h i c h n a t u r e w a s a s s u m e d t o b e * M^ A r i s t o t l e 1s n o t i o n

o f e d u c a tio n *

t h a t t h e p u p i l s o f h i s fam ous s c h o o l, ta u g h t by in c u lc a tin g

A r is to tle b e lie v e d

t h e Lyceum , w e re b e s t

e ffe c tiv e h a b its .

He w r o t e :

Why do we s a y t h a t we a c q u i r e a h a b i t a s t h e r e o f p u r s u i n g some s c i e n c e s b u t n o t o t h e r s ? A r e we to a c q u ire a h a b it o n ly by su ch s c ie n c e s a s e n a b le to m a k e .d is c o v e r ie s , s in c e d is c o v e ry i s th e r e s u l t h a b i t * 16

14 ^

16

L arrab ee, Lqc.

op.

su lt sa id us of

c l t . , p . 87 •

c lt*

W i l l i a m D. R o s s , The W o rk s o f A r i s t o t l e The C la re n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) , V I I , 955 b .

(O x fo rd :

75 A risto tle p ro c liv itie s

w rite s a ls o

to n a tu r e ,

t h a t we owe o u r h a b i t - m a k i n g

w h ic h i s t h e f o u n t o f a l l k n o w led g e*

He s t a t e s : F o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i s among t h e t h i n g s i m p l a n t e d i n u s b y n a t u r e , b e in g a s I t w ere an i n s t r u m e n t a n d , w h e r e v e r t h e s c i e n c e s a n d a r t s a r e am ong t h e t h i n g s c re a te d _ b y u s, i n te l li g e n c e i s one o f th e g i f t s o f n a tu re . A risto tle

f u r n i s h e d h i s p u p i l s w ith a w h o le s e r i e s

o f h a n d b o o k s on t h e

a r t o f d is p u ta tio n in p u b lic ,

m o n ly k n o w n a s d i a l e c t i c . w as to t r a i n b a te *

The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e h a n d b o o k s

a l l th e young p u p ils

A risto tle

In th e e x c e lle n c e o f de­

a tte m p te d to p la c e th e a r t o f d i a l e c t i c

o n a m o re s o l i d b a s i s

th an P la to d id .

A risto tle

s t r a t e d how a n y d i s p u t a n t c o u l d , b y v i r t u e b o th th e m is ta k e s o f h i s

The O r g a n o n .

d em on ­

of reaso n ,

a v o id

a d v e r s a r i e s a n d a t t h e sa m e t i m e

f o r c e th em t o a c c e p t t h e v a l i d i t y A risto tle

o f h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s .

and h is l a t e r p u p ils f u r ­

n i s h e d an i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e r a p i d t e s t i n g c o n se q u e n c e s o f any f a l l a c i e s p o n e n ts .

t h e n com­

o f th e d e d u c tiv e

in th e th in k in g

T h is was done a f t e r t h e f i r s t

o f t h e i r op­

p re m ise s had a lre a d y

been s ta te d .

T he O r g a n o n w a s a h a n d b o o k d e s i g n e d p a r t i c u ­

la rly

a rt o f d isp u ta tio n

f o r th e

G reek s in

17

a s i t w as p r a c t i c e d b y t h e

th e a c a d e m ie s a n d p u b lic

R oss,

h a lls.

l o c * c i t * (P ro b le m a ta )

?6 T h is h a n d b o o k o r O rganon w o u ld in f o r m t h e p r o s p e c t i v e d e b a te r o f th e

p o s s ib l e t r a p s and p i t f a l l s

In h e re n t in an

a p p a r e n t l y a im l e s s and in n o c u o u s v e r b a l a d m is s io n . O rganon w as o n e o f t h e f i r s t

o f th e

The

s y l l a b i i n e d u c a tio n *

I t w as b a s e d on l o g i c a l r e a s o n in g a n d o f f e r e d an a i d i n a r ­ g u m e n ta tio n . d isp u ta tio n ,

It

o u t l i n e s w h o le a r g u m e n ts , t h e

and w hat p i t f a l l s

to

a v o id .

It

th e o ry of

re m a in s a s an

o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p le o f a h a n d b o o k f o r e d u c a t i o n an d t h e d e ­ d u c t i v e m eth o d o f l e a r n i n g . A ris to tle h is

s c ie n tific

s i b l y m ore t h a n tiv e

on i n d u c t i o n a n d d e d u c t i o n *

v ie w s,

it

m en tio n ed i t

seem s a p p a r e n t t h a t A r i s t o t l e ,

S o c ra te s and P la to ,

ty p e o f re a so n in g * q u ite o fte n

S u re ly i t

w as aw are o f t h e may b e

pos­

in d u c ­

s a i d t h a t he

and i t a p p e a rs t h a t he r e a l i z e d

o n ly to o w e ll t h e i n a b i l i t y such,

B ecause o f

o f an in c o m p le te e n u m e ra tio n ,

as

to c o n c lu s iv e ly pro v e a g iv e n u n iv e r s a l p r i n c i p l e .

C offey w r i t e s : A r i s t o t l e d i s t i n g u i s h e s c l e a r l y b e tw e e n th e fo rm a ­ t i o n o f a n a c t u a l w h o le fro m i t s p a r t s , a n d t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l n o tio n * 11E v e n i f we s u c ­ c e e d e d i n s h o w i n g s e p a r a t e l y , # h e w r i t e s , nw h e t h e r b y t h e sam e o r b y s e p a r a t e p r o o f s , t h a t e q u i l a t e r a l , i s o s c e l e s , and s c a le n e t r i a n g l e s have e a c h t h e i r in ­ t e r i o r a n g l e s e q u a l t o tw o r i g h t a n g l e s , we s h o u l d n o t y e t have any r i g h t to a s s e r t th e u n iv e r s a l p r o p o s itio n : t h e t r i a n g l e , a s s u c h h a s i t s tw o i n t e r i o r a n g l e s e q u a l t o tw o r i g h t a n g l e s .

^

Coffey, pp. cit., p. 3 0 .

77 A r i s t o t l e b e l i e v e d t h a t s e p a r a t e p r o o f s do n o t n e c e s ­ s a r i l y g i v e u n i v e r s a l k n o w le d g e , b u t a l l he h a d t o w o rk w i t h w as t h e m in d .

I t m ust b e a d m itte d t h a t A r i s t o t l e * s t e s t i n g

in stru m e n t,

sp ite

fic ie n t. in d u c tio n .

in

of its

W ith A r i s t o t l e

l i m i t a t i o n s , was r e m a r k a b ly e f ­

one c a n a t l a s t d i s c e r n

In h is s c ie n tif ic

th e u se o f

a p p ro a c h he c o n s t a n t l y

em pha­

s iz e d th e need f o r o b s e rv a tio n and a n a ly s is . O u tlin e

o f G reek c o n t r i b u t i o n s .

T hough t h e r e w ere

o t h e r G r e e k p h i l o s o p h e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d t o re a so n in g , th is

it

i s p rim a rily th e th re e

th in k e rs

c h a p t e r who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s

c o n s e q u e n t e v o lv e m e n t.

it

rem ove t h e m in d fro m i t s

u p o n a m ore r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n

T h e i r i d e a w a s t o r i d man o f h i s h i s m ag ic,

c o n s o l i d a t i o n and

T hey,

at le a st,

a t­

m any p r e j u d i c e s a n d s e t

1w i t c h - d o c t o r 1 t h i n k i n g ,

and h is in c a n ta tio n s .

d e fin ite

rev ie w e d I n

and to w a rd s a h ig h e r g o a l.

Not t h a t th e y th e m se lv e s

w ere w h o lly d e v o id o f t h i s b u r d e n , first

p ro cess of

W i t h th e m r e a s o n i n g a s a m a j o r p r o ­

c e s s f o r s e e k in g k n o w led g e to o k fo rm . te m p te d .to

th e

b u t t h e i r s was o n e o f t h e

g ro p in g s to w a rd th e f r e e

use of a b s t r a c t

th in k in g . It c o n n e c tin g

w a s t h e s e men w h o ,

th ro u g h d e d u c tio n , v i z . ,

of fix e d c la s s -c o n c e p ts ,

e r e c t e d a sy ste m o f

th o u g h t w h ic h e n d u re d , w i t h o n ly s l i g h t m o d if i c a t io n s , a b o u t tw e n ty c e n t u r i e s .

th e

fo r

T hese i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r s and

/

78 th in k e rs first

sta n d

in a p e c u lia r ly p a ra d o x ic a l p o sitio n *

a s i n n o v a t o r s t h e y m ade a g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n ,

l a t e r t h e i r te a c h in g s, tu a lly

i n p a r t i c u l a r A r i s t o t l e 1s ,

to h in d e r th e advancem ent o f s c ie n c e .

” The c r e a t i o n

of t h is

At but

cam e a c ­

As B ode s a i d ,

t r a n s c e n d e n t a l w o r l d w a s a t t h e sam e

tim e one o f th e m o st b r i l l i a n t

a c h i e v e m e n t s and. o n e o f t h e

m a j o r t r a g e d i e s o f hum an c i v i l i z a t i o n . By i n d u c i n g m a n k i n d t o b e l i e v e

in th e

v e r b a l an d m a th e m a tic a l id e a s to th e p a t t e r n s n a tu re ,

th e se

e a r ly G reek s c r e a te d a s t a t e

c a l to p ro g re s s. in

c h a p te r.

th e e r a o f G reek c u lt u r e III. S c h o la s tic is m . t u r i e s of b a rb a rism ,

a r b i t r a r i l y fro m

t o t h e M id d le A ges. SCHOLASTIC THOUGHT '*

*

B e c a u s e o f t h e m any i n t e r v e n i n g th e

cen­

n e x t I m p o r t a n t m ovem ent i n t h e h i s ­

t o r y o f t h o u g h t a n d r e a s o n i n g w as th e

tia n

o f th in g s in im i­

T he n e x t p i o n e e r s i n

th in k in g w i l l be t r e a t e d by le a p in g

c a lle d

of p h y sic a l

T he e f f e c t o f t h i s p a r a d o x w i l l b e show n

th e next phase of t h i s

e a rly

sim ila rity of

p h i l o s o p h i c a l m o v em en t

s c h o l a s t i c i s m , w h i c h was d o m in a n t i n w e s t e r n C h r i s ­

c i v i l i z a t i o n fro m t h e C a r o li n g i a n e r a of Ren? D e s c a rte s .

( 7 5 2 - 9 8 7 A. D . )

u n til

th e r i s e

Im p o rta n t e x p o n e n ts o f

ro ad s

B oyd H. B o d e , P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n a t t h e C r o s s ­ (New Y o r k : N ew son a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 2 2 .

79 th is

s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t w e re A l b e r t u s M agnus, Buns S c o t u s ,

and g r e a t e s t o f a l l ,

T hom as A q u i n a s *

These C h r i s t ia n

th in k e r s fo rm u la te d p h ilo s o p h ic a l

sy ste m s a n d s p e c u l a t i v e te n d e n c i e s b a s e d upon a b a c k g ro u n d o f f i x e d r e l i g i o u s dogm a.

But in t h e i r

anew t h e p r o b le m s o f p h i l o s o p h y ,

a tte m p t to

th e y d id r e s u l t in

o n c e m ore a p l a c e f o r r e a s o n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n q u e stio n s .

As a r e s u l t ,

T h o m lsm . An e c l e c t i c , o p h ers,

so lv e

of

se c u rin g

re lig io u s

A r i s t o t l e w as o nce a g a in s t u d i e d .

G re a te s t o f a l l th e

sc h o o lm e n w as A q u in a s .

A q u in a s drew f r e e l y fro m a l l th e g r e a t p h i l o s ­

e s p e c i a l l y fro m A r i s t o t l e .

He b e l i e v e d t h a t know ­

le d g e began w ith sen se p e rc e p tio n .

F ro m t h e d a t a o f s e n s e

th e

In te lle c t

a b s tr a c ts th e

u n iv e rsa l,

and on t h i s b a s i s i t

p ro c e e d s th ro u g h d e d u c tio n an d in d u c tio n to

s c i e n c e o f know ­

le d g e o f t h i n g s in t h e i r c a u s e s and th e n c e t o p h ilo s o p h y o r k n o w le d g e o f u l t i m a t e

c a u sa lity .

i The t i m e s i n f l u e n c e and liv e d la n lsm

-p h ilo so p h y .

in th e t h i r t e e n t h c e n tu ry ,

of S t.

m ost o f th e A r i s t o t e l -

T h om as A q u i n a s b e c a m e r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m

A r i s t o t l e * s o r i g i n a l v ie w s. th e

B e c a u s e he w o r k e d

A ris to tle

c a n n o t be b la m e d f o r

i d e a s o f t h o s e who f o l l o w e d h im a n d w h o s e g o a l s a n d

p u r p o s e s w ere so d i f f e r e n t h is lo g ic

f r o m h i s ow n.

a s h e may h a v e w i s h e d .

in f lu e n c e d by t h e i r m il i e u s .

They d i d n o t u s e

M odes o f t h i n k i n g becam e

A lo g ic ia n w rite s ,

c o n c e rn in g

80 th is

te n d e n cy : The m e th o d o f p h i l o s o p h y , t o o , l i k e t h e m e th o d s o f th e s c ie n c e s , i s l a r g e l y in f lu e n c e d by th e p r e v a i li n g g e n e r a l v ie w s and s ta n d p o in ts o f e a c h s u c c e s s iv e p e r i o d ; s y n t h e s i s p r e d o m in a te s i n one s c h o o l; o r i n an ep o ch o f p h ilo s o p h ic d e v e lo p m e n t, a n a l y s i s i n a n o th e r ; th e fo rm e r, f o r in s ta n c e in P la to , and N e o -P la to n ism , i n S t* A u g u s t i n e a n d t h e e a r l y m i d d l e a g e s . * . . * 0 A q u in a s a n d d e d u c t i o n *

of

A n a ly sis as an i n te g r a l p a r t

th e in d u c tiv e p ro c e s s r e a l l y began w ith th e R e n a iss a n c e .

That i s to

say,

t h e e m p h a s is becam e i n d u c t i v e ,

d e d u c tiv e ,

b u t th e sc h o o lm e n and t h e i r c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t ,

A q u in a s, fo u n d e d t h e i r th in k in g

r a t h e r th an

p r im a r ily upon d e d u c tiv e

re a so n in g . The s c h o l a s t i c

th e o lo g ia n s,

le d by S t.

h a d a s t h e i r c h i e f a im s a l v a t i o n f o r m an. le d g e f o r

t h i s p u rp o se a lo n e .

t h a t t h e y h a d m u ch k n o w l e d g e i n s tra c te d a lik e

e x is te d ,

T h e y ' s o u g h t know ­

A lre a d y th e y w ere c o n v in c e d th e g u i s e o f p r e m is e s ab­

fro m t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s ,

B ib le and A r i s t o t l e . tio n

T hom as A q u i n a s ,

F o r t h e S c h o o lm e n ,

or ra th e r

s u b s is te d ,

tr u th s of re v e la ­

w h ic h th e f r a i l

o f man c o u l d n e i t h e r g r a s p n o r e n v i s i o n .

th e

in te lle c t

A q u in a s w r o te :

. . . th e g i f t o f k n o w le d g e, l i k e t h e g i f t o f u n d e r­ s ta n d in g , i s o r d a in e d to th e c e r t i t u d e o f f a i t h . Now f a i t h c o n s i s t s p r im a r ily and p r i n c i p a l l y i n s p e c u la ­ t i o n , in a s m u c h a s i t i s fo u n d e d on t h e F i r s t T r u t h . B ut s in c e th e F i r s t T r u th i s a ls o th e l a s t and f o r th e sak e o f w h ic h o u r w o rk s a r e d o n e , hen ce i t i s t h a t

C o ffe y , op . c l t . , p . 1 0 .

81 f a i t h e x te n d s to w o rks * . . . The c o n s e q u e n c e i s t h a t th e g i f t o f k n o w le d g e, a ls o # p r i m a r i l y an d p r i n c i p a l l y i n d e e d , r e g a r d s s p e c u l a t i o n , i n so f a r a s man k n o w s w h a t h e o u g h t t o h o l d b y f a i t h . 2^ I n q u ir y and f a i t h * it

I n v ie w o f th e above q u o t a tio n ,

can r e a d i l y b e s e e n t h a t A q u in a s a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s b e ­

lie v e d th a t f i n i t e q u e stio n s

m in d s m u s t u l t i m a t e l y l e a v e t h e u n i v e r s a l

to f a i t h .

n a tu re of i t s

F i n i t e m in d i s

lim ita tio n s ,

to a r i g i d

th o s e c o n se q u e n c e s w h ic h a r e senses.

The e n t i r e

c o m p e lle d , by th e v e ry

u n iv e rse ,

d e d u c tio n o f o n ly

c o m p re h e n sib le

to

its

lim ite d \ a c c o rd in g t h T h o m istic re a s o n ­

i n g , f o r m s a u n i f i e d a n d r a t i o n a l o r d e r f o r t h e m i n d o f God to

c o n te m p la te *

A nd m an ,

a s G o d 1s g r e a t e s t c r e a t i o n , w a s

e n d o w e d b y God t o s h a r e i n a l e s s e r m e a s u r e t h % t w is d o m w h ic h i s

t h e c o m p re h e n sio n o f a b s o l u te

T ru th .

The S c h o l a s t i c m e t h o d i n e d u c a t i o n . th e S c h o la s tic s , C a th o lic

w h ic h I s v e r y m uch i n e v i d e n c e t o d a y i n

e d u c a tio n ,

c e n te re d

th e g r e a te s t ta s k i s a m eans o f f i n d i n g b e lie v e r,

2i

its

I t s e l f aro u n d th e t h e s i s th a t

th e a p p lic a tio n

s a lv a tio n f o r th e

a c c o rd in g to

w ith T ru th in

The m e th o d o f

o f hum an l e a r n i n g

as

in d iv id u a l so u l.

The

th e S c h o la s tic s ,

g re a te s t sense,

w as a l r e a d y endow ed

a lth o u g h i t c o u ld n o t be

The Summa T h e o l o g l c a o f S t . T hom as A q u i n a s (L o n ­ don: R . a n d T . W a s h b o u r n e L t d . , 1 9 1 ?)> P* 1 1 6 . (T ran s­ l a t e d by F ra n c is c a n F a th e r s : l i t e r a l l y by F a th e r s o f th e E n g l i s h D o m in ic a n P r o v i n c e . )

82 to o e a s i l y

used o r d isc o v e re d .

w as t o em p lo y h i s f a c u l t i e s c o n c e p ts c o u ld f i t d iv in e

sy ste m ,

in to

For th is

reaso n,

th e p u p il

o f r e a s o n t o d i s c o v e r w h a t hum an

th e d iv in e

o rd e r of th in g s .

In th is

th e p r im a r y t e n e t s w ere a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d

a n d w e l l know n b y men t h r o u g h v i r t u e

of fa ith .

A q u in a s

w rite s: I t seem s t h a t k n o w le d g e i s n o t a g i f t . F or th e g i f t s o f t h e H o ly G h o st s u r p a s s t h e n a t u r a l f a c u l t y . B u t know ­ le d g e im p lie s an e f f e c t o f n a t u r a l re a s o n : f o r th e p h i l o s o p h e r s a y s t h a t a d e m o n s tr a tio n i s a s.v llo g ism w h i c h p r o d u c e s k n o w l e d g e . . . no w A u g u s t i n e s a y s ( D e . T r i n . X IV ) t h a t many o f t h e f a i t h f u l l a c k k n o w l e d g e th o u g h th e y have f a i t h . ^ The d e d u c t i v e m e th o d t o d a y . re a so n in g it

of th is

I n t h e m odern e r a th e

sch o o l o f S c h o la s tic is m

seem s n a iv e .

But

m u st b e k e p t i n m in d t h a t no f i n a l a n s w e r s h a v e y e t b e e n

e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d t h e S c h o l a s t i c s c o u l d n o t show u n d u e i n ­ te r e s t in

sc ie n tific

f a c t s c o n sid e rin g

had not been e s ta b lis h e d . re a d ily

to

th a t sc ie n c e

D e d u c tiv e re a s o n in g le n d s I t s e l f

t h i n k e r s w hen n o o t h e r a p p a r a t u s i s

That th e re seem s a p p a r e n t ,

its e lf

is v a lid ity

read y .

in t h e d e d u c tiv e a p p ro ach

s i n c e we c a n n o t a l w a y s a s c e r t a i n t h e

co g en cy o f e v id e n c e in

a ll

th e s c ie n c e s .

sam e

Even A q u in a s

r e a l i z e d t h a t m any t i m e s u l t i m a t e p r o o f w a s l a c k i n g

in ex­

p e r im e n ta tio n and t h a t one c o u ld go on o n ly by f a i t h .

22

I b i d . , p. 111.

83 S u m m ary *

T h is c h a p te r has t r e a t e d in

th e background o f d e d u c tiv e re a s o n in g .

I t w as h o p ed t h a t by

s u c h a t r e a t m e n t i n s i g h t w o u ld b e g a in e d i n t o p ro b lem o f r e a s o n i n g . d u c tiv e ,

v e rs io n s o f w hat c o n s t i t u t e s th is

b a s i s f o r th e

stu d y ,

th e

re a so n in g .

a t t e m p t w a s m ade t o

T he b a c k g r o u n d i s

o f re a so n in g and th e ro o ts a re

th e re fo re ,

p ro v id e a

a s w id e a s t h e w h o le as deep.

T h is c h a p te r,

s h o w e d t h e e a r l i e s t kn ow n b e g i n n i n g s o f d e d u c t i v e

and in d u c tiv e

re a so n in g .

The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e

e a r l y m odern t h i n k e r s a n d t h e t r u e tific

T h e r e a r e m any

u n d e rs ta n d in g of p ro b le m -so lv in g a s a te c h ­

n iq u e o f le a r n in g . fie ld

t h e w h o le

R e f le c tio n , w h e th e r d e d u c tiv e o r in ­

h a s n o t b e en c o m p le te ly d e f in e d .

In

sum m ary f a s h i o n

mode o f r e a s o n i n g .

b e g in n in g s o f th e s c ie n ­

CHAPTER V MODERN HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The l a s t

c h a p te r p re s e n te d ,

in

su m m arize d fo rm ,

e v id e n c e o f th e o r i g i n s o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g . th a t,

w h ile p ro b le m -s o lv in g

I t w as s e e n

em erges a lm o s t w h o lly fro m th e

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g , omy c a n b e

th e

in r e a l i t y ,

no s h a r p d i c h o t ­

s e t up b e tw e e n d e d u c tio n a n d i n d u c t i o n .

To f u r ­

th e r a m p lify t h i s p o in t th e l a s t c h a p te r a tte m p te d to

sh o w

how e v e n t h e e a r l i e s t o f d e d u c t i v e t h i n k e r s u s e d t h e i n d u c ­ t i v e m eth o d .

C h a p te r V w i l l p r e s e n t

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d a s i t I.

th e b e g in n in g s o f th e

i s know n t o d a y .

THE R ISE OF INDUCTIVE THINKING

W h ile t h e r e

is

no w a y o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x a c t d a t e

o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e i n d u c t i v e w ay o f t h i n k i n g ,

it

is

r a t h e r w e l l a g r e e d am ong h i s t o r i a n s t h a t i t w a s w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e R e n a is s a n c e and th e c o n c o m ita n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l phenom ena t h a t its

in c e p tio n *

in d u c tiv e re a so n in g r e a l l y had

I t was n o t e d w i t h th e

e a r ly G reeks a n d w ith

t h e S c h o o lm e n t h a t s c i e n t i f i c a p p a r a t u s , to d a y , w as m arked m a in ly by I t s

as i t

i s know n

absence.

In a tte m p tin g to s o lv e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p ro b le m s, t h e G r e e k p h i l o s o p h e r s h a d n o r e c o u r s e o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own in te lle c ts .

The m e d ie v a l t h i n k e r s w e re d e t e r m i n e d i n a l l

85 t h e i r re a so n in g

to p ro v e

t h e e x i s t e n c e o f God.

W ith th e

a d v e n t o f th e t r a d e r o u t e s w h ic h w ere o p e n ed up t o w o rld c o m m e r c e , m o re o b j e c t i v e The R e n a i s s a n c e . b irth ,

is

a p p lie d to

s c ie n tific

i n q u ir y w as b eg u n .

The w o r d R e n a i s s a n c e ,

m e a n in g r e ­

c e r ta in c u ltu r a l and s c ie n tif ic

d e v e lo p ­

m e n ts t h a t b eg an in th e f o u r t e e n t h and c o n tin u e d i n t o s ix te e n th c e n tu ry . of tra n s itio n . its

The R e n a is s a n c e

h a s b een c a l l e d a n age

I t was a t r a n s i t i o n fro m m e d ie v a lis m , w i t h

e m p h a sis on S c h o l a s ti c i s m ,

c ism ,

th e

t o m o d ern ism , w i t h i t s

c h u rch a u th o r ity and a s c e ti­

e m p h a sis on s c i e n c e ,

s k e p tic is m

and in d iv id u a lis m . As f a r a s c i v i l i z a t i o n w a s c o n c e r n e d , E u ro p e h ad l a i n c irc u m s ta n c e s ,

d o rm an t f o r c e n t u r i e s . new l i f e

a ro se.

By t h e

th e w est o f

But by a s e r i e s of end of

th e fo u rte e n th

c e n t u r y , E u r o p e w a s a s t i r w i t h m o re a d v a n c e d t h i n k i n g . A g a in t h e r e w as a s t r i v i n g p h y sic s,

a f t e r k n o w le d g e i n

re a so n in g and so on.

a b r e a k d o w n o f m any o f t h e

a stro n o m y ,

T h i s m o m e n to u s c e n t u r y

saw

s h a c k le s w h ic h h ad b e e n f o r g e d

b y th e t r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k e r s a n d w h ic h w ere so o n t o be t o r n a p a rt. T h is c e n tu r y a ls o

sa w t h e a w a k e n i n g o f d o u b t r e g a r d ­

in g th e need f o r c o n s ta n t d e a lin g s in m a tte rs of n a tu ra l.

It

saw a n a t t e m p t a t p r o g r e s s

o f hum an r e a s o n .

th e s u p e r­

th r o u g h t h e pow er

I n c o n tr a s t to th e in c e s s a n t h a ir s p l i t t i n g

86 o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , s u b s titu te

m en o f t h i s

in v e s tig a tio n s

a im e d a t

c e n tu ry a tte m p te d to sc ie n tific

re a so n in g *

L e a d e r s n e c e s s a r y t o a n y f o r w a r d m ovem ent w e re a l s o p r e s e n t d u r in g th e R e n a issa n c e *

A ll th ro u g h th e f o u r te e n th ,

f i f t e e n t h a n d s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y men w e r e p r o b i n g f o r new w ays o f e x p l o r i n g n a t u r a l phenom ena* new a c t i v i t y

F u lle r d e sc rib e s th is

a s fo llo w s:

I n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e D i s c o u r s e on M e th o d , D e s c a r t e s r e m a r k s t h a t , 11a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e s c h o o l o f b ook l e a r n i n g he b e to o k h im s e lf , f o r f u r t h e r i n s t r u c ­ t i o n , t o k n o w le d g e o f h i m s e l f an d o f t h e g r e a t b o o k o f t h e w o rld * I n s o d o i n g he w a s b u t f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e s e t h im b y t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . a ^ Thus i n and in th e in to

th e l a t t e r p a r t of th e f o u r te e n th c e n tu ry

tw o f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s ,

a n ew way o f l i v i n g .

w e s te r n E u ro p e

th e w est fo rg e d ahead

D u rin g t h i s

p e rio d o f a c t iv i t y ,

o n c e a g a i n r e v i v e d t h e G-reek a n d Roman m a s t e r ­

p i e c e s w h ic h h ad b e e n so lo n g f o r g o t t e n . T h e e x p l o r a t i o n s a n d c o n s e q u e n t d i s c o v e r i e s o f new h o r i z o n s o f t h e t h e n u n k n o w n w o r l d o p e n e d u p new v i s t a s o f th o u g h t*

S in c e n a v i g a t i o n was u r g e n t l y n e e d e d ,

o f a stro n o m y ,

g e o g rap h y a n d l i k e

a r e a s w ere r e s u r r e c t e d .

New b o r d e r s c a l l e d f o r n e w m e t h o d s . its

ow n , a n d w i t h i t

th e

th e f i e l d s

sc ie n tific

S c i e n c e w a s c o m in g i n t o m e th o d o f r e a s o n i n g .

1 B e n j a m i n A* G. F u l l e r , A H i s t o r y o f P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 433*

8?

II.

THE INDUCTIVE THINKERS

W h il e m an y men w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e n t i r e m ove­ m ent o f i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g , b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y tim e

o n ly th o s e w hose p ro m in e n c e h a s

a re p re s e n te d in t h i s

stu d y *

No

a t t e m p t i s m ad e t o p r e s e n t t h e e n t i r e p h i l o s o p h y o f a n y o n e m an.

O n ly t h a t p h a s e o f a n y p h i l o s o p h y r e l e v a n t

th e s is of th is

In v e s tig a tio n

i s p re se n te d .

who c o n t r i b u t e d t h e m a j o r e f f o r t s

sib le

in

th e

T he p h i l o s o p h e r s

to th e r i s e

o f t h e i n d u c t i v e m e th o d a r e l i s t e d .

to

and p o p u la rity

T h e s e men a r e r e s p o n ­

som e m e a s u r e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ­

s o l v i n g m eth o d o f t o d a y . A.

RENE DESCARTES ( 1 5 9 6 - 1 6 5 0 )

A lth o u g h he i s

rig h tly

exponent of ra tio n a lis m a r e e le m e n ts in

th e

d u c tiv e in n a tu re .

c l a s s i f i e d a s an o u ts ta n d in g

and m a th e m a tic a l d e d u c tio n ,

th in k in g One o f

th e re

o f Rene D e s c a r t e s w h ic h a r e i n ­

t h e f i r s t a t t a c k s u p o n t h e mode

o f d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g w a s m ade b y t h i s F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e r m a th em a t 1c l a n . . . . th e fo u n d e r o f F re n ch p h ilo s o p h y , th o u g h a r a t i o n a l i s t and s p i r i t u a l i s t in p r in c ip le , r e a l l y ap­ p ro x im a te s e m p iric ism an d m a te r ia lis m . H is a n im a lm a c h i n e a n t i c i p a t e s t h e M an, A M a c h i n e o f L a M e t t r i e . Though d o g m a tic in h i s b e l i e f t h a t e x t e n s i o n i s a r e a l i t y , h e i s t h e p r e c u r s o r o f L o c k e , Hume, a n d K a n t , I n t h a t he m akes a c l e a r and a b s o l u t e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n o u r i d e a s o f m a t e r i a l q u a l i t i e s a n d t h e i r

88 e x te rn a l causes*2 To D e s c a r t e s t h e

I d e a o f d e d u c t i o n f e l l down b e c a u s e o f I t s

d e p e n d e n c e on t h e u s u a l u n w a r r a n t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f u n l v e r s a l s . To h im u n i v e r s a l e

h a d no r e a l e x i s t e n c e o f

t h e i r own*

For

e x a m p le , F u l l e r w r i t e s o f D e s c a r t e s 1 r e a s o n i n g : T h in g s l i k e d u r a t i o n , o r d e r , a n d n um ber, e i t h e r a r e m o d es o f p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e , o r , w h e n a b s t r a c t e d b y t h e m in d a n d e m p t i e d o f t h e i r c o n t e n t , a r e m o d e s o f t h i n k ­ in g ; g e n e r a l id e a s a r e fo unded on re se m b la n c e s, and a re sim p ly s i g n s s ta n d in g f o r g r o u p s o f s i m i l a r p a r t i c u l a r s , n o t f o r a common n a t u r e p e r v a d i n g t h e m . 3 F u r th e r e v id e n c e o f in d u c tiv e th o u g h t in D e s c a r t e s ’ re a so n in g

i s p r e s e n t e d b y W in d e b a n d :

To t h o s e m e t h o d i c a l t h o u g h t s w h i c h a r e common t o Bacon an d G r a lile o , D e s c a r t e s a d d e d a p o s t u l a t e o f t h e g r e a t e s t im p o rta n c e : he dem anded t h a t t h e m e th o d o f in d u c tio n o r r e s o l u t i o n sh o u ld l e a d to a s in g le p r i n ­ c i p l e o f h i g h e s t a n d a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y , fro m w h ic h a f t e r w a r d s , b y t h e m e t h o d o f c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e w h o le com pass o f e x p e r i e n c e m ust f i n d i t s e x p l a n a t i o n . T h is dem and was e n t i r e l y o r i g i n a l a n d h a d i t s r o o t s i n th e f e l t n e e d f o r a s y s t e m a t i c , c o n n e c te d w h o le o f a l l hum an k n o w l e d g e ; i t r e s t e d u l t i m a t e l y u p o n h i s s u r f e i t o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l r e c e p tio n o f h i s t o r i c a l l y c o lle c te d k n o w l e d g e , a n d u p o n h i s l o n g i n g f o r a n ew p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r e a t i o n fro m one m o u ld . D e s c a r te s w i l l , th e n , b y an in d u c tiv e e n u m e ra tio n and a c r i t i c a l s i f t i n g o f a l l id e a s , p re s s fo rw ard to a s in g le , c e r ta in p o in t, in o r d e r fro m t h i s p o i n t to d e d u c e a l l f u r t h e r t r u t h s . The f i r s t t a s k o f p h i l o s o p h y i s a n a l y t i c , t h e s e c o n d sy n th e tic .

^ A l f r e d W eb er, H i s t o r y o f P h i l o s o p h y C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 3 0 /* P* 253* o F u l l e r , o p . c i t * , p . 6k.

(Hew Y o r k :

^ W. W i n d e b a n d , A H i s t o r y o f P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : The M a c m illa n C o .,

19267,

p p . 3S9-90*

89 M i h d - b o d v d ile m m a * ta tio n

D e s c a r t e s m akes a f o r m a l p r e s e n ­

o f t h e c o n c e p t t h a t o u r m in d s a r e

th e o b je c ts o f sen se p e rc e p tio n se, is

as co n cern s th e o b je c ts ,

and th e n w ith t h e i r q u a l i t i e s . aw are o f e t e r n a l

c a rte s b e lie v e d , he s a id ,

tru th s .

H e a l k n o w le d g e,

c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o

per

O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e m in d

a lw a y s b e g i n s w i t h t h e

t h i n g s and t h a t w h ic h i s

in c o n ta c t w ith

h o w e v e r, D es­

senses.

tw o c l a s s e s , v i z . ,

th o u g h t upon,

O b je c ts, th in k in g

e x te n d e d o r p h y s ic a l

b o d ie s.

*

T h o s e a t t r i b u t e s o r q u a l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e m in d endow s t h e o b j e c t s o f o u r t h in k i n g a m in d -b o d y a c t i o n p r o c e s s . c a r te s d isc u sse d ,

a r e b u t th e

T h is p o s t u l a t i o n w h ic h D es­

h a s re m a in e d u n t i l

e p ls te m o lo g ic a l th in k e r s .

re s u lta n t of

t h i s day to p la g u e

T h e w ay i n w h i c h t h e m i n d c o m e s

to know th e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s

is

s till

e v id e n c e seem s t o d i s p u t e D e s c a r te s *

in c o n te n tio n . d u a listic

L a te r

e p is te m o lo -

g i c a l ap p ro ach . D e s c a r te s 1 d u a lism .

D e sc a rte s b e lie v e d th a t th e e s­

s e n c e o f m a n ’ s m in d i n t h e a b s t r a c t s e n s e i s ‘th in k .1

T he b o d y ,

sim p ly t o

as th e p h y s ic a l o b je c t h as f o r i t s d u ty

t h e f a c t o f b e i n g e x te n d e d i n tim e a n d s p a c e . h o w ever,

is

th e r e a s o n in g

g i n s th o u g h t by d o u b tin g . done je

s u i s . 11

I th in k ,

aspect of th is

d u a lity and i t

As D e s c a r t e s w r o t e : th e re fo re ,

I am.

T he m in d , be­

11J e p e n s e ,

90 P u t in te rm s o f d o u b t, "If I

d id n o t d o u b t, I w o u ld n o t e x i s t . "

in a p o sitio n th in k in g . d o u b t,

to deduce th e n a tu re

F irst,

t h e m in d s t a r t s

and s p e c u la tio n ,

its e lf. to

h e -w ould p o s s i b l y h a v e s a i d ,

o f th e c o u rse

in d u c tiv e ly by p r o je c tin g

th in k in g can b rin g us d e d u c tiv e ly

t h e a n s w e r t o o u r d ile m m a s a n d f i n a l l y of co u rse,

to

th e f i n a l

i s God*

Im p llc a tio n s of D e s c a rte s * th in k in g * th e d e d u c tio n o f an e x t e r n a l , b e g in s f i r s t

of a ll

F o r D e sc a rte s

p h y s ic a l a n d s e n s a te w o rld

i n h i s own i n t e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e .

se n se s a re w itn e s s to th e e x is te n c e

B u t G od, who w o u l d n o t d e c e i v e m an,

o f im m e d ia te s e n s a t i o n

s i n c e G od h a s l o n g

v e a l e d a s an I n c o r p o r e a l m in d o r s p i r i t . r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g t h e m in d a n d b o d y ,

The

of e x te rn a l o b je c ts and

c a u s e s w h e th e r o r n o t th e w o rld r e a l l y e x i s t s it.

of our

e v en upon th e f a c t o f e x is te n c e

L a te r i n te l li g e n t

a n sw e r w h ic h ,

F u r t h e r , we a r e

is

a s man s e e s

n o t th e cause

s i n c e been-, r e ­ B ut by c l e a r an d

th ro u g h u n iq u e i n t e r ­

a c t i o n , d o e s com e t o k n o w t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d i t

in h a b its

and u ltim a te ly

o f G od.

com es t o a c l o s e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

In t h a t he d e f i n i t e l y m eth o d f o r f i n d i n g b u t i o n to so lv in g

in d u c tiv e

k n o w l e d g e , R e n £ D e s c a r t e s made a c o n t r i ­ th in k in g .

te c h n iq u e can be

h is re a so n in g

a tt a c k e d d e d u c tio n a s th e o n ly

in d o u b t.

E v id e n c e of a l a t e r

seen in th e

p ro b lem ­

f a c t o f h i s b e g in n in g

91 B.

FRANCIS BACON ( 1 5 6 1 - 1 6 2 6 )

T h is E n g lish m a n o f t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was c o n s i d e r e d a p r o d u c t o f t h e R e n a is s a n c e * in g h i s c a r e e r he e m p h a size d th e u se o f re a s o n to to d is c o v e r th e e n tir e

tru th

D ur­

seek and

c o n c e rn in g ou r u n iv e rs e *

T he

g r e a t m o d a lity f o r u n d e rs ta n d in g o u r w o rld , a c c o rd in g to B acon,

is

in v e n tiv e n e ss.

He a b a n d o n e d t h e t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r

te c h n iq u e f o r d e li b e r a t e m is s a p p ro a c h t o

research .

th in k in g

R a th e r th a n a h i t - o r -

o u t p ro b le m s , B acon a d v o c a te d an

o r d e r ly and p la n n e d p ro c e d u re in v o lv in g l o g i c a l s te p s in th e re a so n in g p ro c e ss. R e s e a r c h f o r B acon w as e x t r e m e l y p r a c t i c a l i n t h a t it

d i d a tte m p t to d o m in a te n a tu re *

l e d g e was p o w e r. p re ta tio n r is e s to

is

K n o w le d g e o f n a t u r e a n d i t s

th e in e x o ra b le

p ro p er in te r ­

c o n d itio n o f in v e n tio n *

Man

h i s ascen d an cy th ro u g h th e v a n q u is h in g o f n a tu r e .

Bacon s t r e s s e d t h e p o i n t , o b e d ie n c e

He b e l i e v e d t h a t know ­

how ever,

t h a t to c o n q u e r n a tu r e

t o h e r p r i n c i p l e s was b o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d o b l i g a ­

to ry . T he m e t h o d o f i n d u c t i o n .

F r a n c i s B a c o n 1s m e t h o d f o r

e d u c a ti o n w as i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o w h ic h he o p p o se d in a l l s o lv e any p ro b le m ,

its

fa c e ts.

Bacon a s s e r t e d ,

c a r e f u l c o m p a ris o n o f th e

th e d e d u c t i v e m eth o d , In o rd er to r ig h tf u lly

t h e r e m ust f i r s t be a

‘in sta n c e s*

i n w h ic h a c e r t a i n

92

phenom enon d o e s ,

o r does n o t,

ap p ear*

th e r e can th en b e e x t r a c t e d c e r t a i n a n d a s p e c t s w h ic h a r e

F ro m t h o s e

in sta n c e s

n ece ssa ry c o n d itio n s

e s s e n t i a l f o r an y r e a l c o m p re h e n s io n *

B acon w ro te : A g ain by t h e k n o w le d g e o f p h y s i c a l c a u s e s t h e r e c a n ­ n o t f a i l t o f o l l o w m an y i n d i c a t i o n s , a n d i n d i c a t i o n s o f new p a r t i c u l a r s , i f m en i n t h e i r u s e a n d p r a c t i c e w i l l k eep one eye o p e n .5 B a c o n 's u s e o f i n d u c t i o n i s q u o ta tio n *

i l l u s t r a t e d b y th e above

R a th e r th a n b e g in n in g w ith th e u n i v e r s a l ap­

p r o a c h , w h ic h w as so p o w e r f u l u p u n t i l t h a t d a t e , g e s te d th e use o f p a r t i c u l a r rea so n in g *

P a rtic u la rs ,

of fu rth e r p a rtic u la rs ,

p e c ts , b u t a ls o

In sta n c e s as a ta k e -o ff fo r

he a s s e r t e d , w i l l g i v e k n o w le d g e an d even u l ti m a t e l y o f u n iv e rs a ls *

M eth o d o f i n q u i r y * t h a t , w hen t r e a t i n g

B acon a l s o p ro p o u n d e d th e th e o r y

o f i n s t a n c e s , n o t o n ly t h e p o s i t i v e a s ­

t h e n e g a t i v e , m ust b e c o n s i d e r e d .

i n s t a n c e s w ere q u i t e a s i m p o r ta n t t o th e p o s itiv e .

T hat i s

to

say,

h im i n

such.

He f e l t t h a t i n

N e g a tiv e

in d u c tio n

as

t h a t i n any g iv e n e x p e rim e n t,

t h e i n s t a n c e s w h ic h re m a in e d u n d is tu r b e d a r e as

he s u g ­

t o b e m arked

any e x p e rim e n t undue a c t i v i t y w as

a sig n o f n e g a tiv e in f lu e n c e

a t w o rk a n d he b e l i e v e d t h a t

a c o g n iz a n c e o f n e g a tio n w as j u s t a s im p o rta n t a s th e

F r a n c i s B aco n , The A dvancem ent o f L e a r n in g T h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 8 6 8 ) , p* 1 2 3 *

(O x fo rd :

93 p o sitiv e

a sp e c ts.

No c o n c l u s i o n s ,

he s ta te d ,

u n t i l th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x p lo re d .

c o u ld r e a l l y be a c c e p te d

o f a l l th e n e g a tiv e in s ta n c e s a re

C o n c e r n in g h i s m eth o d f o r r e a s o n i n g on a p r o b ­

lem , B acon w r o te : T h e re i s so g r e a t a num ber o f p a r t i c u l a r s a n d t h a t a rm y s o s c a t t e r e d a n d d i s p e r s e d a s t o d i s t r a c t a n d c o n ­ fo u n d th e u n d e rs ta n d in g , l i t t l e i s to be hoped f o r , from t h e s k ir m is h in g s a n d s l i g h t a t t a c k s a n d d e s u l t o r y m o v e m e n ts o f t h e i n t e l l e c t , u n l e s s a l l t h e p a r t i c u l a r s w h ic h p e r t a i n to t h e s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y s h a l l b e m eans o f T a b le s o f D is c o v e ry , a p t, w e ll- a r ra n g e d , and as i t w e r e a n i m a t e , b e d r a w n u p a n d m a r s h a l d , a n d t h e m in d b e s e t to w ork upon th e h e lp s d u ly p r e p a r e d a n d d i ­ g e s t e d w h ic h t h e s e t a b l e s s u p p ly .o N a tu re o f e x p e r ie n c e .

B acon b e l i e v e d t h a t e x p e r ie n c e

i s a lw a y s a t f i r s t a d e r i v a t i v e o f o u r f i v e e x p e rie n c e b e g in s w ith th e p ro c e s s o f d o u b tin g

That

we a s c e r t a i n t h r o u g h t h e

e v en o u r e x p e r i e n c e , w h ic h m akes u s

c r i t i c a l a t ev ery s te p in sp irit is

senses,

senses.

our th in k in g .

som ehow a b s e n t a n d i n i t s

If th is

c ritic a l

ste a d th e re i s

an un­

to w a rd u rg e t o l e a p a t

c o n c lu s io n s , th e n o n ly c r e d u l i t y and

p re ju d ic e

O n ly by a c a u t i o u s a n d c r i t i c a l p r o ­

can r e s u l t .

c e s s o f i n d u c t i o n from i n s t a n c e s t o fo rm s i s s ib ility

of v e rify in g

th e re

any p o s­

th e e f f e c t s o b ta in e d b y c o n tin u e d

o b s e rv a tio n th ro u g h e x p e rie n c e .

B acon w r o te :

F r a n c i s B a c o n , Novum O r g a n u m , i n T h e E n g l i s h P h i l o g o p h e r s f r o m B a c o n t o H i l l (New Y o r k : T h e M o d e rn L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 9 ) » P* 7 0 .

94 F o r th e v i c e o r d i s e a s e o f l e a r n in g w h ic h c o n c e iv e th d e c e i t o r u n t r u t h , i t i s o f a l l th e r e s t th e f o u l e s t . . * a s t h a t w h ic h d o th d e s t r o y th e e s s e n t i a l fo rm s o f k n o w le d g e, w h ic h i s n o t h in g h u t a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r u t h ; f o r t h e t r u t h o f b e i n g a n d t h e t r u t h o f k n o w in g a r e o n e , d i f f e r i n g no m ore t h a n t h e d i r e c t beam a n d t h e b e am r e f l e c t e d . T h is v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , b r a n c h e th i t s e l f i n t o tw o s o r t s o f d e l i g h t i n d e c e i v i n g a n d a p t n e s s t o be d e c e iv e d ; im p o s tu re a n d c r e d u l i t y * . . . So i n n a tu ra l h is to - n Ch o i c e a n d ju d g m e n t T h erefo re, sta rtin g

c a r e f u l and a n a ly tic a l e x p e rie n c e

p o i n t an d g u id e f o r r e a s o n in g w h ic h i s

w ith lo g ic *

To B a c o n ,

u n c ritic a l re fle c tio n

is th e

consonant

w as a v i c e

w h ic h p ro d u c e d n o th in g b u t c o n fu s io n an d d e c e p ti o n . re fle c tio n

e m e rg in g fro m c a r e f u l l y

O n ly

s c r u tin iz e d e x p e rie n c e

p o s s e s s e s any v a l i d i t y . d e ro g a tiv e

in sta n c e s.

D e a lin g w ith n a tu r e a s a

c o m p le te e n t i t y , B acon e m p h a siz e d th e f a c t t h a t m ust be c r i t i c a l even d u r in g

in d u c tio n ,

f a c t o r in any g iv e n e x p e rim e n t. be a id e d ,

t h e m in d

n e v e r o m ittin g any

The c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e

he s a i d , b y o u r s e l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n

In s ta n c e s f o r o b s e rv a tio n and e x p e rim e n ta tio n .

can

p re ro g a tiv e T hese

i n s t a n c e s a r e p h e n o m e n a w h i c h a l w a y s p r e s e n t u n i q u e exam­ p l e s o f ty p e and w h ic h a r e f r e e fro m a d u l t e r a t i v e

in flu ­

ences. He c l a s s i f i e d

7 35*

tw e n ty -s e v e n v a r i e t i e s o f s u c h i n s t a n c e s .

B acon, A dvancem ent o f L e a rn in g , op.

c i t . , pp. 34-

95 F or c le a rn e s s concept of ty p e*

In In d u c tiv e re a s o n in g ,

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he p o s t u l a t e d t h e

a lo n g w ith th e p r e r o g a tiv e

T hese s in g u la r in s ta n c e s h ad v e ry l i t t l e

e x c e p t a s c o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e phenom enon b e in g

i n common in v e s tig a te d *

B acon a l s o f a v o r e d th e u s e o f a rg u m e n ta tio n b y a n a lo g u e , b u t he r e i t e r a t e d

th e need f o r c r i t i c a l research *

m ust s e rv e a s a b e g in n in g , b u t a n a l y s i s i s T h is te c h n iq u e i s so lv in g :

a q u e stio n o r d i f f i c u l t y

som e s o l u t i o n i s

th ro u g h i d e n t i t y , son,

i.e .,

sin g u la r In sta n c e s,

t h e k e y n o te *

m a rk e d ly s i m i l a r to p ro b le m ­ is

posed,

u se d a s an e x p e rim e n ta l r e f e r e n c e p o in t, a n a ly sis

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to

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to I n d u c tio n .

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F r a n c i s B aco n f u r n i s h e d an im p e tu s to i n d u c t i o n a s a m eth o d f o r re a so n in g

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in q u iry .

th e fo u r o u tsta n d in g

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o f th e T rib e ,

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t h e G ave, t h e M a rk e t

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te c h n iq u e

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96 a c c e p ta n c e o f th e o l d la w s and p r i n c i p l e s , w h en t h e s e

p a rtic u la rly

a r e n e i t h e r u n d e rs to o d n o r a n a ly z e d *

l i e v e d t h a t i n d u c t i o n t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e w as t h e m eth o d o f l e a r n i n g *

B acon b e ­ o n ly

P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p o s t u l a t e s m uch th e

sam e n o t i o n . Ill* A* John L ocke, th in k in g

in a l l

THE BRITISH EM PIRICISTS JOHN LOCKE ( 1 6 3 2 - 1 7 0 4 )

th e p ro ta g o n ist of fre e

sp h eres,

a l s o h a d a tr e m e n d o u s e f f e c t on

t h e i n d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g . ophy by f i r s t

speech and fre e

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a n a l y z i n g c e r t a i n w e l l - f o u n d e d d o u b ts on t h e

u n l im i te d p ow ers o f r e a s o n w ith r e f e r e n c e I n C h a p t e r IV o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n R e c o lle c tio n has been d e fin e d .

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t h a t t h e m in d w a s e n d o w e d a t b i r t h x ^ i t h c e r t a i n p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t io n s o r i d e a s w h ic h i f to r e a l i t y .

r i g h t l y d e v e lo p e d w o u ld c o r r e s p o n d

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f a c e t s o f one i d e a o r i d e a s . th e se

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i d e a s w o u ld c o n c e iv e t h e r e a l e s s e n c e o f an y m a t e r i a l

o b je c t. T a b u la r a s a * o f P la to n ic

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l o g i c a l o r m a th e m a tic a l la w s I n h e r e n t

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in ­

p o s t u l a t e d t h e t h e s i s t h a t man i s b o r n

w i t h a m in d w h ic h a t b i r t h r a s a 11 a s h e c a l l e d i t ,

i s a b la n k s l a t e ,

o r a 11t a b u l a

a n d a l l o f. o u r i d e a s a n d n o t i o n s o f

t h i s w o rld a re w r i t te n upon i t

in th e

o u r v a rio u s in d iv id u a l e x p e rie n c e s.

c o u rs e o f tim e by He d e s c r i b e d t h e

th e o ry as fo llo w s; . . . t h e m a t e r i a l s o f a l l o u r k n o w le d g e a r e s u g ­ g e s t e d a n d f u r n i s h e d t o t h e m i n d o n l y b y t h o s e tw o w ays . . . s e n s a t io n a n d r e f l e c t i o n * When t h e u n d e r ­ s ta n d in g i s once s t o r e d w i t h t h e s e sim p le i d e a s , i t h a s t h e -power t o r e p e a t , c o m p a r e a n d u n i t e t h e m , e v e n t o a n a l m o s t i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y , a n d s o c a n m ak e a t p l e a s u r e n ew c o m p l e x i d e a s . B ut i t i s n o t in th e pow er o f th e m ost e x a l t e d w i t o r e n l a r g e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , by any q u ic k n e s s o r v a r i e t y o f th o u g h t t o i n v e n t o r fram e one new s i n g l e i d e a i n . t h e m in d , n o t t a k e n i n by t h e w ays b e f o r e m e n t i o n e d .y T h a t Locke a tte m p te d t o ra tio n a lism

seem s o b v io u s .

s u b s titu te

He d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y d e n y

t h e d e d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g , to

e m p iric ism f o r

but ra th e r,

e m p h a siz e t h e p rim a c y o f i n d u c t i o n .

he w ish e d

A c c o rd in g to

o n ly t h e s e n s e s c o u ld b r i n g k n o w led g e i n i t s

L ocke,

In itia l

sta g e s. L o c k e 1s e m p i r i c i s m * o f e m p iric ism ,

sta te d

J o h n L o c k e , know n a s t h e f a t h e r

t h a t i d e a s c a n em erge f i r s t fro m s e n ­

s a t i o n and a f te r w a r d s from r e f l e c t i o n .

S

P rim a rily ,

we e m p l o y

J o h n L o c k e , C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r s t a n d l n g i n The E n g l i s h P h i l o s o p h e r s f r o m B a c o n t o M i l l 1E d w in A* B u r t t , e d i t o r ; New Y o r k : T h e M o d e rn L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 9 ) > P* 2 5*

98 o u r s e n s e s to th e se

p e rc e iv e and f e e l ,

t h e n we r e f l e c t a b o u t

sam e p e r c e p t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s .

P ro m p e r c e p t i o n s , a c ­

c o r d i n g t o L o c k e , we d e r i v e

sim p le q u a l i t i e s ,

o r fro m a m u lt i p le

The p e r c e p t i o n s t h u s e t c h e d

so u rce.

u p o n t h e m in d do n o t e v e r v a n i s h i n t o t o . e x p u n g e d b y o u r m in d s i n r a p i d f a s h i o n .

e ith e r sin g ly

N e ith e r a re

th ey

And w h i l e m any o f

o u r s e n s a tio n s d e r iv e d fro m e x p e rie n c e f a d e im p e rc e p tib ly , t h e y l e a v e a n i n d e l i b l e m a rk by w h ic h t h e m in d c a n o n ce a g a i n r e - g r o u p th em . P e rc e p tio n s a re r e ta in e d , th a t la te r

th e f a c u lty

w o r k in g s o f t h e m in d .

a s h as been s t a t e d ,

o f rem em b ran ce c a n e n t e r i n t o It

is

th is p e rsiste n c e

w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e hum an m i n d t o The c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f l i n g e r i n g

s im ila ritie s

g iv e n i t by th e

of p e rc e p tio n s

p e r c e p t i o n s w a s a i d e d I n no

and d if f e r e n c e s

f e r e n t i a t e b e tw e e n t h e s e .

L a te r,

a b ility

t h r o u g h c o m p o sin g a b i l i t y

l f a c u l t l e s t o f fa n c y and im a g e ry ,

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to

and to co m p are a n d d i f ­

c a n a r r a n g e p e r c e p t i o n s w h ic h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y se n sa tio n .

th e

c o n te m p la te and r e - o r g a n iz e .

s m a ll m e a s u re , L ocke b e l i e v e d , by th e m in d 's d isc e rn

so

t h e m in d

d e r i v e d fro m

arran g em en t g e n e r a l id e a s can l a t e r

be a b stra c te d . In d u c tio n and d e d u c tio n . t h a t i n Jo h n L o c k e 's e r a tie s '

I t m u st be rem em b ered

such e n t i t i e s a s

'm i n d '

and 'f a c u l­

w e r e a c c e p t e d a s c o m p l e t e a n d s u f f i c i e n t u n t o th e m ­

se lv e s.

M odern p s y c h o l o g i c a l d a t a w h ic h p o s t u l a t e s t h i n k i n g

a s a n i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s w a s un k n o w n t o L o c k e * d i d r e c o g n i z e som e f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e d u c t i v e m eth o d i s

still

In d isc u ssin g th a t th e se

v a lid

B u t Locke

to d ay *

H is in ­

s ig n ific a n t.

s o -c a lle d g e n e ra l id e a s,

Locke h e ld

i d e a s w ere m e r e ly p a r t i c u l a r f a c s i m i l l e s o f t h e

c l a s s u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n an d w ere r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

of a ll

t h e o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s w h ic h a d h e re t o t h a t c l a s s .

T h is i s

i n l i n e w i t h m any o f o u r m o d e r n c o n c e p t s * O n ly m an, t h r o u g h h i s m in d , stra c t,

s a id L ocke.

h a s th e a b i l i t y

He d e c l a r e d :

S in c e i t i s th e u n d e r s ta n d in g th e r e s t o f th e s e n s i b l e b e in g s , a d v a n ta g e a n d d o m in io n w h ic h h e c e r ta in ly a su b je c t ev er fo r i t s lab o u r to in q u ire in to .° Locke b e l i e v e d p o in t o f In d u c tio n , sim p le Id e a s*

t h a t th e

he s a id ,

t io n s o f one k in d o r a n o th e r .

sary

t h a t s e t s man a b o v e a n d g i v e s h im a l l t h e h a s o v e r th em , i t i s n o b le n e ss, w o rth ou r

senses,

u su a lly

endow c e r t a i n

th re e k in d s:

t h i n g s w h ic h a r e

v iz .,

o c c u r i n c o m b in a ­

o f o u r id e a s w ith n eces­

(l)

He d i v i d e d c o m p l e x

d is tin c t p a rtic u la r

s u b s ta n c e s In th e m se lv e s;

w h ic h e n t a i l d ep en d en cy upon o t h e r I d e a s ; tio n s '

s ta rtin g

By t h e p o w e r o f r e - a r r a n g i n g ,

and v a r i o u s s h a d in g s a n d n u a n c e s .

Id ea s In to

as th e

c a n f u r n i s h u s w i t h c o m p lex a s w e l l a s

Id eas,

t h e m in d I s a b l e t o

to ab­

(2 )

1m o d e s 1

and (3 )

i n w h ic h I d e a s s t a n d in c o n ju n c tio n w ith ,

° I b id . , p. 229.

'r e l a ­ o r in

100 o p p o sitio n a g a in s t,

one a n o th e r*

Locke t a u g h t t h a t a l l

i d e a s e m a n ate fro m o u r s e n s e s *

T hese se n se s p r e s e n t u s w i t h d a ta , th e form o f i d e a s a n d f e e l i n g s .

th ro u g h e x p e rie n c e ,

These id e a s a r e

in

sto re d

aw ay i n t h e m in d , l a t e r r e - a r r a n g e d a n d b r o u g h t f o r t h when­ ev er n ecessary . and u n ite tio n . It

is

th e se

It

is

th e a b il i ty

o f t h e m in d to

so rt out

i d e a s w h i c h g i v e s man t h e p o w e r o f a b s t r a c ­

A b s tra c t th in k in g a p rim a ry p ro c e s s ,

d e fin ite ly

depends upon se n se d a ta .

n o t a l a t e r o n e , a s m any o f t h e

r a t i o n a l i s t s o f h is day h e ld . T h e know ing: p r o c e s s . in h e re s in

our id e a s,

a r e w h o lly i n

K n o w le d g e I s a

a c c o r d i n g to L o c k e .

ag reem en t o r d is a g re e m e n t,

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th en th e re

s u b s ta n c e w h ic h If

th e s e

th a t is

is c la rity .

id e a s

a s co n cern s Locke p o s­

t u l a t e d f o u r c o n c e p ts f o r ag reem en t a n d d is a g re e m e n t. w ere a s f o llo w s : e x is te n c e , ence.

i d e n t i ty an d d iv e rg e n c e ,

n e c e s s a ry c o n n e c tio n s,

re la tiv e

and f i n a l l y ,

T hese

co­

re a l e x is t­

T he e x t e n t o f o u r k n o w le d g e d e p e n d s u p o n t h e s e f o u r . L o c k e 1s p o s t u l a t i o n

p ro cess*

fo r I t

i m p l i e s som e

i n t h i n k i n g w h ic h a n t e d a t e s m odern f i n d i n g s .

i d e a s m u s t som ehow s t a n d w as f u l l y

I s In g e n io u s,

aw are.

In co n so n an ce w ith o t h e r s ,

T h in k in g i s

do n o t em erge a s s t i l l - l i f e

a c o n tin u o u s p ro c e s s ;

p ic tu re s.

T hat

Locke id e a s

T h a t i s why L o c k e

e m p h a siz e d th e a g re e m e n t a n d d is a g r e e m e n t c o n c e p t w i t h i t s fo u r

su b -p o s tu la te s.

1GX P e r c e p t i o n a n d m e m o ry * a c tu a l,

W h eth er t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a r e

im m e d ia te o r h a b i t u a l i n i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g ,

t h e m in d w h ic h i n t h e f i n a l v a lid ity *

P e rc e p tio n s ,

m a te ria l f o r id e a s. m em o ry .

i s g iv e n in th e

a s h as b een se e n , l a t e r f u r n i s h th e th e n p re s e rv e d ,

th ro u g h

o f id e a s w h ic h have d e m o n s tra te d id e a s

f a c t t h a t w hat h a s b e en p ro v e d a s

t h e m in d r e m a i n s u n t i l t h e m e m o ry .

is

a n a ly sis e s ta b lis h e s th e ir

The i d e a s a r e

T he v a l i d i t y

it

tru e to

s u b je c t h a s been b ro u g h t up by

K n o w le d g e i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n p e r c e p t i o n a n d m em ory.

O n ly t h o s e p r i m a r y i d e a s v a l i d b y L o c k e * s c r i t e r i a c a n a c t u a l l y b e known. Locke, th a t i t

is

When t h i s tio n

h ow ever,

co n cern ed w ith e x p e rie n c e d , c rite rio n

is a p p lie d ,

c e rta in ty .

t r u s t s k n o w led g e o n ly t o t h e

e x te n t

d e m o n stra b le th in g s .

o f v a l i d e x p e rie n c e and sen se p e rc ep ­

i t b rin g s

fo r th th e concept of a b so lu te

T h ro u g h o u t o u r e x p e r ie n c e ,

th e i d e n t i t y and d i f ­

fe re n c e s o f o u r id e a s a re p e rc e iv e d and f e l t . U n iv e rsa ls.

L o c k e h e l d t h a t m any g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s

t h a t a r e m ad e may b e u n t r u e .

Man c a n m ake c e r t a i n U n i v e r ­

s a l p r i n c i p l e s a n d p o s s i b l y c a n d e r i v e r e a l k n o w l e d g e w h en it

can be d e te rm in e d t h a t p r o p o s itio n s ,

m e a n in g s c a n b e v a l i d a t e d can be a c e r t a i n t y b e lie v e d

e m p iric a lly .

d e fin itio n s

F o r e x a m p le t h e r e

a s r e g a r d s m a th e m a tic a l th e o re m s.

t h a t t h e c o m p a r a tiv e m eth o d i s

and

Locke

th e essen ce f o r

e sta b lis h in g

tru th .

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u n iv e rs a l p r in c ip le s h o ld tr u e a t a l l

tim e s a n d in

a ll

p la c e s. L ocke h e l d t h a t k n o w le d g e m ust b e v a l i d a t e d e m p ir i­ c a lly .

A nd e v e n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e

th e p r o b a b ility

sta g e *

o f re a so n in g and th e m ent o f tio n

He a t t a c k e d t h e s y l l o g i s t i c

in o rd in a te use of lo g ic

th e i n t e l l e c t .

fa ile d

t e c h n i q u e l e a v e s man i n m eth o d

a s an i n s t r u ­

The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t m e th o d o f d e d u c ­

i n m any r e s p e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o L o c k e .

F u rth e r,

he d e c la r e d t h a t g e n e r a l i t i e s n e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d p r o b a b i l i ­ t i e s n o r w id e n e d th e b o u n d a r ie s o f r e a s o n . The l a c u n a e i n r e a s o n a r e n o t d u e c o m p l e t e l y t o a fa ilu re

in

s y llo g is tic

o f o b sc u ra n tism

re a so n in g ;

in o u r id e a s .

w h ic h a c c o u n ts f o r f a u l t y k n o w le d g e t h a t any re a s o n in g .

i s p o ss ib le

It

p o s s ib le to

sitio n

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re fle c tio n .

th is la c k of c la r ity T he m o s t p o s i t i v e

t o t h e hum an m in d i s p r i o r t o

O n ly b y s o u n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n f r o m i d e a t o

i d e a a n d b y f o r g i n g n ew l i n k s i n it

t h e y a r e m ore t h e r e s u l t

th e nexus of th in k in g

d e r i v e t r u e k n o w le d g e .

It

is

i s by a ju x ta p o ­

o f p e r c e p t s a n d c o n c e p t s t h a t k n o w in g b e c o m e s a

s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t pro cess* The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f L o c k e .

J o h n L o ck e * s p o s t u l a t i o n

o f d e m o n stra b le t r u t h s a n d th e i d e a o f p r o b a b i l i t y

a s op­

posed to u n iv e rs a l c e r t a i n t y l a i d a s o lid fo u n d a tio n f o r

sc ie n tific

in q u iry .

It

Is

th ro u g h i n t e l l i g e n t

sk e p tic is m

t h a t t h e f r o n t i e r s o f k n o w le d g e c a n be e n la r g e d #

D o u b ts

th e m se lv e s m ust be s t r u c t u r e d and so p r e s e n te d a s to la te

stim u ­

and a b e t s o lu tio n s # The t o o q u i c k a c c e p t a n c e o f u n i v e r s a l 3.aws ( r u l e s o r

p rin c ip le s)

o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f th e m b e c a u s e o f i n e r t i a ,

c a u s e s t r u e k n o w le d g e to v a n i s h .

T he s c i e n t i f i c

b e e x e c u te d o n ly th ro u g h c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . h is c o lle a g u e s in tie r

th in k e rs#

in d u c tio n sc ie n tific

m e th o d c a n

J o h n L ocke a n d

th e e m p iric a l R e n a issa n c e s e rv e d a s f r o n ­

T h r o u g h t h e m a n d t h r o u g h t h o s e who f o l l o w e d ,

cam e t o

th e f o r e a s th e s c i e n t i f i c

m eth o d i n

m eth o d .

tu r n gave im p e tu s to th e

T h is

te c h n iq u e o f

p ro b le m -so lv in g . B#

GEORGE BERKELEY ( 1 6 8 4 - 1 7 5 3 )

T he s e c o n d o f m an , L o r d B e r k e l e y .

th e B r i t i s h E m p i r i c i s t s w as th e I r i s h ­ A l o n g w i t h t h e S c o t s m a n Hume a n d t h e

E n g lish m a n L o ck e , he t a k e s h i s p l a c e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f in d u c tiv e th in k in g . n o th in g e x i s t s

"E sse e s t p e rc ip i,"

o r 11p e r c i p e r e , "

e x c e p t p e rc e iv in g o r b e in g p e rc e iv e d ,

k e y n o t e o f G -eorge B e r k e l e y ^ p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n . c o i n e d t h i s now c l a s s i c m is sio n to a u t h o r i t a t i v e

p h ra se in o p p o sitio n u n iv e rs a l s ta te m e n ts

to

th e

is

th e

He sub­

c la im e d by

t h e S c h o o lm e n . B e rk e le y m a in ta in e d t h a t a b s t r a c t a n d g e n e r a l term s

do n o t a d d a n y th in g to t h e T hese g e n e r a l te rm s,

sum t o t a l o f k n o w l e d g e ,

p o sin g a s a b s tr a c tio n s ,

b o ls a rra n g ed c o n v e n ie n tly .

a r e m e r e sym­

T h is c o n v e n ie n t a lig n m e n t i s

f o r th e p u rp o se o f re p re s e n tin g m in d im a g e s o f t h i n g s ,

a s such.

a n d c o m m u n ic a tin g t o

r a t h e r th a n

th e

th e th in g s th e m s e lv e s .

T h ese im a g e s o f o b j e c t s em erge fro m e x p e r i e n c e and f i n is h in

e x p e rie n c e .

T hey have no i n t r i n s i c

v a lu e a s con­

v e y o r s o f k n o w le d g e e x c e p t a s s e n s e r e f e r e n t s . d e s c r i b e d t h e k n o w in g p r o c e s s i n

B e rk e le y

th e s e te rm s:

I t i s e v i d e n t t o a n y o n e who t a k e s a s u r v e y o f t h e o b j e c t s o f hum an k n o w l e d g e , t h a t t h e y a r e e i t h e r i d e a s a c tu a lly im p rin te d in th e se n se s; o r e ls e su ch a s a re p e rc e iv e d by a tte n d in g to th e p a s s io n s an d o p e ra tio n s o f t h e m i n d ; o r l a s t l y , i d e a s f o r m e d b y h e l p o f memory a n d i m a g i n a t i o n — e i t h e r c o m p o u n d in g , d i v i d i n g , o r b a r e ­ ly r e p r e s e n tin g th o se o r i g i n a l l y p e rc e iv e d in th e a f o r e s a i d w a y s . 10 B e r k e l e y 1s e p i s t e m o l o g y .

B e rk e le y c a r r i e d

j e c t i v e v ie w p o in t in p h ilo s o p h y to I t s in

so lip sism .

It

i s tru e

th e sub­

e x tre m e a n d f i n i s h e d

t h a t l a t e r he am ended h i s p o s i t i o n

i n t h a t he b e ca m e som ew hat l e s s n o m i n a l i s t i c a n d e m p l r l c l s t i e H is l a t e r d i a l o g u e s , te n d e n c y .

n a m e ly B i r l s a n d A l c i p h r p n ,

show t h i s

B u t h i s e m p h a s is r e m a in e d on t h e d o c t r i n e t h a t

u n i v e r s a l I d e a s and a b s t r a c t c o n c e p ts a r e m e re ly im ag es o f p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s g a t h e r e d fro m e x p e r i e n c e .

10

le d g e

G e o r g e B e r k e l e y , T h e P r i n c i p l e s o f Human Know­ (L e ip z ig : F e l i x M e i n e r , 1913)> P * 2 9 .

105 W h ile k n o w le d g e , p e r s e , f o r B e r k e le y t h a n m ere f a c t s sen se by in d u c tio n ,

l a t e r becam e m ore i m p o r t a n t

as g a th e re d by th e o rg an s o f

he s t i l l c lu n g to

h is p rim a ry th e o ry :

P e rc e p tio n s b e g in n in g w ith an d th ro u g h th e th e o n ly f o u n d a tio n s o f t r u e

k n o w le d g e.

u n d e r s t a n d i n g fro m s e n s a t i o n

in

th is

In d iv id u a l are

He d i f f e r e n t i a t e d

re a so n in g p ro c e s s .

He

sa id : . . . a l l k n o w le d g e a n d d e m o n s tr a ti o n a r e a b o u t u n i v e r s a l n o t i o n s , t o w h ic h I f u l l y a g r e e ; b u t th e n i t d o t h a p p e a r t o me t h a t t h e s e n o t i o n s a r e f o r m e d b y a b ­ s t r a c t i o n i n t h e m a n n e r p r e m i s e d —- u n i v e r s a l i t y , s o f a r a s I c a n co m p rehend, n o t c o n s i s t i n g i n th e a b s o l u te , p o s i t iv e n a tu r e o r c o n c e p tio n o f a n y th in g , b u t th e r e ­ l a t i o n i t b e a rs to th e p a r t i c u l a r s s i g n i f i e d o r r e p r e ­ s e n te d by i t ; by v i r t u e w hereof i t i s t h a t t h in g s , n a m e s , o r n o t i o n s b e i n g i n t h e i r own v i r t u e , p a r t i c u ­ l a r s , are re n d e re d u n iv e r s a l. E x ls te n o e a n d r e a l i t y . th e o ry of th e r e a l i t y E x is te n c e ,

o f e x is te n c e p la y e d a m a jo r r o l e .

he s a i d , w as f i r s t c o m p ris e d o f

c a lle d c ru d e se n se im p re ss io n s , R e a lity i s

In B e r k e le y ’s p h ilo s o p h y th e

’s p irits ,'

a s he

an d th e n l a t e r becam e i d e a s .

i n t u r n m ade u p o f i m m a t e r i a l

1t h l n k l n g -

s u b s ta n c e s 1 w h ic h m a n if e s t th e m s e lv e s in th o u g h ts d e r iv e d from e x p e rie n c e . su b s ta n c e ' It

The g r e a t e s t a n d u l t i m a t e

’th in k in g -

o f c o u r s e i s G od, who i s e t e r n a l a n d i n f i n i t e . i s G o d who c r e a t e d t h e o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e ,

in d is tin c tio n ,

fin ite

11 I b i d . , p . 17*

and te m p o ra l.

F in ite e x p e rie n c e s

lo 6 and id e a s k in d s.

e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s c o n s i s t o f tw o

One o f t h e s e i s p r o d u c e d b y i t s

p e rc e p tu a l a c tiv ity , a s th e

a n d t h e o t h e r b e c o m e s k now n t o

e x te r n a l w o rld .

c lo s e d to

th e f i n i t e

own t h i n k i n g a n d

T h is r e a l i t y

t h e m in d

o f th e w o rld i s d i s ­

m in d b y t h e i n f i n i t e m i n d ,

i.e .,

G od,

t h r o u g h t h e k n o w led g e p r o c e s s . The r e a l i t y in g

to B e rk e le y .

sta n c e .

o f m a tte r c an n o t be a s c e r ta in e d ,

acco rd ­

I t d o e s n o t e x i s t a s a n in d e p e n d e n t sub­

M a tte r i s a t b e s t a c o n v e n ie n t te rm f o r th o s e

ra m ifie d id e a s o r p e rc e p tio n s o f p h y sic a l o b je c ts . o b je c ts a re e x te rn a l to

th e

a l l p h y s ic a l o b je c ts have Im o lio a tio n s

fin ite

q u iry .

T h e re i s no

p h i lo s o p h y h a s b e e n m is c o n ­ It

som e q u a r t e r s a s a n I n d e f e n s i b l e is

i s G od i n whom

o f B e r k e l e y 1s t h e o r i e s .

s t r u e d , a n d so m e tim e s m is q u o te d .

But i t

It

th e ir essence.

d o u b t t h a t m u ch o f B e r k e l e y 1^

in

m in d .

T hese

is

s t i l l under a tta c k

so lip sistic

n o n e th e le ss a p r o tr a c te d e f f o r t in

p o sitio n .

sc ie n tific

in ­

B e r k e le y h a s b e e n a c c u s e d o f h a v in g f a s h i o n e d an

e p is te m o lo g y w h ic h c o n t r a d i c t s When M s p o s i t i o n t h a t he d i d n o t r e f u t e

is

th e e v id e n c e o f th e

c a re fu lly d e fin e d ,

sense d a ta .

is

o b v io u s

He d i d n o t p r o p o u n d a n

h y p o t h e s i s so a t o d d s w i t h e m p i r i c a l d a t a . he c o n fin e d h im s e lf a lm o st e x c lu s iv e ly e m e rg e s fro m t h e s e n s e a p p a r a t u s .

it

senses.

On t h e c o n t r a r y ,

to th e

e v id e n c e w h ic h

He b e l i e v e d o n l y w h a t

c o n sc io u sn e ss,

a s h e knew i t ,

g a v e him*

I f a n y man t h i n k s we d e t r a c t f r o m t h e r e a l i t y o f e x ­ is te n c e o f th in g s , he i s f a r fro m u n d e rs ta n d in g w hat h a s b e e n p re m is e d i n th e p l a i n e s t te rm s I c o u ld t h in k o f. . . . I t w i l l b e u r g e d t h i s m u ch a t l e a s t i s t r u e , v i z . , t h a t we t a k e a w ay a l l c o r p o r e a l s u b s t a n c e s * . . . T hat w hat I s e e , h e a r an d f e e l d o th e x i s t , i . e . , i s p e r ­ c e i v e d - b y m e. I n o m o r e d o u b t t h a n I d o my own b e i n g ; b u t I d o n o t s e e how t h e t e s t i m o n y o f s e n s e c a n b e a l l e g e d a s a p r o o f o f a n y th in g w h ic h i s n o t p e r c e i v e d by s e n s e . 12 I t w a s B e r k e l e y who a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e f o u n d a ­ tio n s o f th e u n p e rc e iv e d m a tte r o r p r o d u c e s k n o w le d g e. to

s u b s ta n c e o r c a u s e w h ic h

He h e l d t h a t s i n c e k n o w l e d g e i s

th e id e a s p ro d u c e d ,

it

m u st becom e s p e c u l a t i v e .

lim ite d B e rk e ley

r e - s t a t e d t h e p ro b le m by e m p h a siz in g t h e q u e s t i o n s f i r s t be ra ise d *

He a s k e d how r e s u l t s c a n b e d e d u c e d f r o m a b s t r a c t

m a tte r s su c h a s c au se and su b s ta n c e w ith o u t f i r s t th e r e a l i t y In

sh o rt,

B e r k e l e y w a n te d t o know t h e

th e p rim a c y o f th e

any g iv e n te rm .

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d i n

s o l v e t h i s g r e a t d ile m m a o f r e a s o n i n g t r i b u t e d m u ch t o

its e lf,

a c tu a l c o n sc io u s By s e t t i n g a tte m p tin g to B e rk e le y con­

th e fo u n d a tio n s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g . G.

DAVID HUME ( 1 7 1 1 - 1 7 6 6 )

The n e x t i n l i n e i n and p o s s ib ly

k n o w in g

o f t h a t w h ic h th e y im p ly .

c o n te n t w h ic h c o rr e s p o n d s t o fo rth

to

e m p i r i c a l th o u g h t w as t h e t h i r d

th e g r e a te s t o f th e th re e

^ I b ld * , pp. 48-^9*

B r itis h E m p iric ists—

108 D a v i d Hume, t h e

S c o tsm a n .

I n Hume, t h e

a new h i g h i n d e v e l o p m e n t . in v io la te

In q u iry s ta g e reach ed

Hume d o u b t e d e v e n t h e s e e m i n g l y

law s o f c a u s a l i t y ,

m a in ta in in g

th a t

h a b itu a tio n

is

m any t i m e s w r o n g l y c o n s t r u e d a s a s e q u e n c e o f c a u s e a n d e f ­ fe c t.

He a s s e r t e d t h a t

e x p e rie n c e t h a t

it

i s fro m t h e law o f o u r c o n s c io u s

c a u se and e f f e c t em erge.

He d i v i d e d c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a r b i t r a r i l y k in d s o f th in g s o r o b je c ts .

In h is d iv is io n

c e p tio n s he h e ld th a t th e re

tw o

of sense p er­

re m a in s a d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n

b e tw e e n w h at he te rm e d im p r e s s io n s o f t h i n g s , and id e a s of th e s e v e ry

in to

sam e t h i n g s .

and o u r th o u g h ts

He a n t e d a t e d som e o f

o u r m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g i s t s b y p o s t u l a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t t h a t m o re to n e and f o r c e accom pany im p r e s s io n s , w h ile i d e a s , t h e y a r e t h e w o r k o f m em o ry a n d i m a g i n a t i o n ,

because

a re c o ld and

c o lo rle s s . F a c t and b e l i e f .

S i n c e f o r D a v i d Hume a l l

k n o w le d g e w e re d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i e t i e s , re so lv e d i t s e l f

in to

th e im p o rta n t is s u e

th e p ro b le m o f a s c e r t a i n i n g

tio n

o f th e id e a s c o n c e rn in g

te rs

of fa c t.

th e s e o b je c ts t o

th e

re la ­

c e r t a i n m at­

He a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h o b ­

t a i n b e tw e e n c e r t a i n

id e a s a r e e v o lv e d i n a c c o rd w ith th e

p r i n c i p l e s im p lie d in th e la w s o f l o g i c . can e s ta b lis h th e v a l i d i t y fa c t,

o b je c ts of

on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

L o g ic a l re a so n in g

of c e rta in re la tio n s .

M a tte rs of

a re n o t in a lo g ic a l nexus, because

109 th e o p p o s ite o f any f a c t p o s itiv e

c o n c e iv a b le ,

and th e n b o t h th e

a n d n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n w o u ld b e p r o v e d .

lo g ic a l c o n tra d ic tio n i s A risto tle , th e

is

e v id e n t,

in

th a t,

a c c o rd in g to

a th in g c an n o t be and n o t be a t th e

sam e p l a c e .

T h is

sam e t i m e i n

T h u s i m t t e r s o f f a c t a r e c o n n e c t e d b y som e

k in d o f cause and e f f e c t ,

n o t n e c e s s a ry , b u t r a t h e r p la c e d

t h e r e b y t h e m in d f r o m c u s t o m o r h a b i t .

Hume w r o t e :

A l l t h e o b j e c t s o f hum an r e a s o n o r e n q u i r y may n a t u r ­ a l l y b e d i v i d e d i n t o tw o k i n d s , t o w i t : R e la tio n s o f Id e a s and M a tte rs of F a c t. . . . P re p o sitio n s o f th is k i n d a r e d i s c o v e r a b l e b y t h e m ere o p e r a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , w i t h o u t d e p e n d e n c e on w h a t i s a n y w h e re e x i s t e n t i n t h e u n iv e rse . Though t h e r e n e v e r w ere a c i r c l e o r a t r i ­ a n g le i n n a tu r e , th e t r u t h s d e m o n s tra te d b y E u c lid w o u l d f o r e v e r r e t a i n t h e i r c e r t a i n t y a n d e v i d e n c e . 3-3 In o rd e r to d is tin g u is h f a c ts

fro m f a n c i e s ,

i n s i s t e d on a d e f i n i t e m e n ta l a t t i t u d e as he c a lle d i t ,

f o r som e i d e a s .

on ' b e l i e f

But n o t a l l

s p i r e d a n d a c c o m p a n ie d b y b e l i e f .

B e lie f i s

Hume in f a c t s , 1

id e a s a re in ­ fo u n d e d upon

i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t h i n g b u t s e n s a t i o n s w h i c h we c a n ­ n o t escape*

H ence t h e y a n d

th e m r e m a i n a l i v e

th e m e m o rie s c o n n e c t e d w i t h

i n t h e m in d .

T h e y a r e m o re v i v i d a n d

f r e s h t h a n i d e a s a b o u t th e m o r p i c t u r e s w h ic h t h e

im a g in a ­

tio n has fa b ric a te d . Hume a n d t h e r e a l i s t i c

13 sta n d in g

p o sitio n .

Hume p o s i t e d t h e

D a v i d Hume, E n q u i r i e s C o n c e r n i n g t h e Human U n d e r ­ (O xford: The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 2 ) , p* 25*

th e s is th a t b e lie f

in th e

e x is te n c e o f an e x te r n a l w o rld

can n o t be a c c e p te d w ith o u t c a v il. by sound in d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g .

It

He a v e r r e d t h a t t h i s b e l i e f

need not be co n fu sed w ith th e b e l i e f i m p r e s s i o n s w h ic h , f o r h im ,

m ust be i n v e s t i g a t e d

in th e r e a l i t y

of our

w as t h e r e a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e

d i s t i n c t i o n o b t a i n i n g b e tw e e n a n y g iv e n num ber o f f a c t s c o n c e rn in g

some p r o b l e m .

T h is b e l i e f c o m p a ra tiv e in

in

th e e x is te n c e

n a tu re .

o f an e x t e r n a l w o rld i s

Hume m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e b e l i e f w a s

c o m p o sed o f tw o p h a s e s .

One f a c e t o f t h e b e l i e f

a fa ith

som ehow ,

th a t o b je c ts do,

c e i v e d b y t h e m in d . in e p is te m o lo g y . re a litie s

is

is

re a lly

e x i s t e v e n w hen n o t p e r ­

T h is p o s itio n

is

t h a t o f th e

re a lis ts

The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f b e l i e f i n e x t e r n a l

t h a t o b j e c t s m ust c o n tin u e to e x i s t d i s t i n c t l y

a p a r t fro m e a c h o t h e r . T h e s e two b e l i e f s , do d i f f e r .

w h ile p a r t s

F o r w h ile f a i t h

th e e x te r n a l e x is te n c e

in th e

c o rre sp o n d in g

th is p ro je c tio n

re a lity

of

th e re

fo llo w th e b e l i e f t h a t t h i s e x i s t ­

e n c e m u s t c o n t i n u e w hen t h e r e i s

s o l e l y fro m e x p e r ie n c e

sam e c o n c e p t ,

o f any o b je c t i s p o s s ib le ,

d o es n o t th e n n e c e s s a r ily

Hume a l l

o f th e

no e x p e r i e n c in g

c o n c e rn in g

th e

and in d u c tio n .

a g e n t.

For

o u ts id e w o rld a r i s e s He d e s c r i b e d w h a t w o u l d

to d a y be c a l l e d p ro b le m -so lv in g : E a c h s o l u t i o n s t i l l g i v e s r i s e t o a new q u e s t i o n a s d i f f i c u l t . . . and l e a d s u s to f a r t h e r e n q u ir i e s . When i t i s a s k e d , W hat i s t h e n a t u r e o f a l l r e a s o n i n g s c o n ­ c e r n in g m a t t e r o f f a c t , th e p r o p e r an sw er seem s to b e

Ill

t h a t th e y a r e fo u n d e d on th e r e l a t i o n o f c a u s e and e f ­ fe c t* When a g a i n i t i s a s k e d , W hat i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l o u r re a s o n in g s and c o n c lu s io n s c o n c e rn in g th a t r e l a t i o n i t may b e r e p l i e d i n o n e w o r d : e x p e rie n c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f H um e1s w o r k f o r p r o b l e m - s o I v i n g . d u c tio n ,

a s a m eth o d ,

a llie s*

Hume b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e t a s k o f e x p e r i e n c e

d e riv e

a b stra c t

but la te r

f o u n d i n Hume o n e o f i t s

i d e a s a s w o u ld seem f i r s t

to h e lp it*

In ­

stro n g e st is

to

to tra n s c e n d i t ,

T h e r e w e r e no i d e a s o f

in fin ity *

A ll

i d e a s t h e m in d h a s a r e d r a w n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e a n d a r e s u f f i ­ c ie n t as re p re s e n ta tiv e s

o f e x p e rie n c e .

S p ace a n d tim e i n

e x p e rie n c e n e v e r p r e s e n t th e m se lv e s a s i n f i n i t e In fin ite ly d iv is ib le . fin ite

T h ere i s no i n f i n i t e

tim e , a c c o rd in g to

e q u iv a le n t to

Hume.

o b je c ts o r

space o r i n ­

A g a in , t h e r e

e x i s t s n o th in g

a b s o l u t e m a th e m a tic a l s p a c e o r a b s o l u t e m o tio n

and tim e .

T h e r e e x i s t s no e x a c t s c i e n c e ,

g e o m e try .

T h is l a s t

concept is

n o t even in c lu d in g

som ew hat a n a lo g o u s t o Jo h n

D e w e y 's i d e a o f a " w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s . 11

Even c o m p a r a tiv e

sp e ed s and w e ig h ts can n e v e r b e c o m p le te ly an d p r e c is e ly m ea su re d a n d w e ig h ed f o r t h e r e can n e v e r be s u c h a p p a r a t u s - th a t is ,

f o r H u m e 's t i m e .

Hume b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l

s t a n d a r d s o f m easurem ent

w e re , a n d h a d to b e , m ere a p p r o x im a tio n s . he a n t e d a t e d

14

some o f t h e

Ibid. , p*

32 .

In

th is b e lie f

t e n e t s o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

112 C o n c e rn in g t h e m a t t e r o f e x a c t i t u d e i n m easu rem en t o r th e w e ig h in g o f e v id e n c e th r o u g h I n d u c t i v e m e th o d s,

he s ta te d :

W hat t h e n , i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e w h o l e m a t t e r ? A sim p le o n e; th o u g h , i t m ust b e c o n f e s s e d , p r e t t y r e ­ m o te f r o m t h e common t h e o r i e s o f p h i l o s o p h y . A ll b e l i e f o f m a t t e r - o f - f a c t o r r e a l e x is te n c e i s d e r i v e d m e re ly f r o m some o b j e c t p r e s e n t i n t h e m e a n i n g o r s e n s e s , a n d a c u s t o m a r y c o n j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h a t a n d som e o t h e r o b j e c t . . . .1 5 D a v i d Hume s t r e s s e d a n a l y t i c

re a so n in g *

The r e l a ­

t i o n s d i s c o v e r e d b y t h e s e n s e s c o n c e rn in g i d e a s w ere j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t o r m o re s o t h a n t h e

id e a s*

T he r e l a t i o n s h i p s

w ere in v o lv e d i n t h e i d e a s com pared a n d c o u ld n o t b e a l t e r e d w ith o u t a su b seq u en t change.

E x p e rie n c e , above a l l ,

sta rtin g

a n d t h a t was t h e k e y s t o n e o f

p o in t

in r e f l e c t i o n ,

is

th e

Hume1s p h i l o s o p h y . IV .

POSITIVISM

T he e r a o f p o s i t i v e t h i n k i n g A ges.

T h is e r a

to su p ersed e th e

f o llo w e d t h e M id d le

s tre s s e d th e p o s itiv e

e x p lo ra tio n

of fa c ts

th e o lo g ic a l and m e ta p h y sic a l e x p la n a tio n s .

The su p re m ac y o f m e t a p h y s i c s a n d t h e d e d u c t i v e m e th o d , g re a tly

in flu e n c e d by th e

th e o lo g ic a l s p ir it,

d e n t a l l th ro u g h th e m e d ie v a l e ra .

The g r e a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l

d e b a t e s b e tw e e n th e n o m i n a l i s t s a n d r e a l i s t s A ges1 o f re a so n in g .

^

had been e v i­

ended th e

T h e se d e b a t e s w ere th e f i r s t

I b id * , p* 4 6 .

real

* D a rk

113 a tte m p t to

d iv e s t th in k in g A.

of v e rb a l a b s tra c tio n s .

THOMAS HOBBES {1 5 8 8 - I 6 7 9 )

T hom as H o b b e s , a n a d v o c a t e o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c a ls o

s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h e p r o b le m o f k n o w le d g e*

w as i n

some w a y s a r a t i o n a l i s t ,

p o sitio n re g a rd ii^

m e th o d *

A lth o u g h he

he a r r i v e d a t a n o m ln a lis tic

d e m o n s t r a t e d k n o w le d g e*

s u c h k n o w led g e w as a r b i t r a r y a n d t h a t i t s

He s t a t e d

th a t

p rim a ry p r i n c i p l e s

w ere b u t a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n s r e f e r r i n g n o t t o

th in g s as

th e y e x i s t b u t m e r e ly t o t h e nam es s u p p o s e d ly r e p r e s e n t i n g th e s e th in g s . H obbes w as a c t u a l l y

first

in re s p e c t

to

sc ie n tific

I n q u i r y am ong t h e B r i t i s h n o m i n a l i s t s a n d e m p i r i c i s t s . 'u n iv e r s a ls *

w e r e u n i v e r s a l i n nam e o n l y a n d n o t b y v i r t u e

o f any in h e re n t u n iv e r s a lity

as th e r a t i o n a l i s t s

sta te d *

F o r H obbes b e l i e v e d t h a t

a nam e o f a n o b j e c t i s m e r e l y a

sym bol g iv e n

to

w h ic h ,

a rb itra rily

B acon,

th e l a s t a n a ly s is ,

In

th e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t th e to o

p o sitio n * a lre a d y

is

t h e m in d

d e s i g n a t e s t h e nam es o f o b j e c t s .

The w o r k o f H o b b e s ,

c o m p la c e n t a c c e p ta n c e

a n d b e f o r e h im o f

tr e a te d in t h i s c h a p te r,

had i n g r e a t m easure

i n q u i r y fro m th e t r a d i t i o n

W ith H obbes a l l

by th e sen ses*

It

T ho m as H o b b e s t o o k a p r o m i n e n t a n d a p o s i t l v -

freed s c ie n tific ages.

re p re se n t it*

in

of u n iv e rsa ls, is tic

H is

o f th e m id d le

t h e o r e t i c a l t h i n k i n g w as d e te r m in e d

He s u c c e e d e d i n u n r a v e l i n g

r e a s o n fro m i t s

m e d ie v a l en ta n g lem en t* S c ie n tific

in q u iry *

Hobbes a s s e r t e d

m o re c o r p o r e a l t h a n i n d i v i d u a l .

th a t r e a lity

He p o s t u l a t e d t h i s

is

asser­

t i o n b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l w h ic h e x i s t s i s body* a n d a ll

t h a t happens to

s p iritu a l

e x i s t i n g b o d ie s i s m o tio n .

s u b s t a n c e b e c o n c e i v e d i n t h e m in d , f o r i t

n o t e x i s t a s an e n t i t y . su p ersed e

Nor can

sense.

does

No e l e m e n t i n hum an k n o w l e d g e c a n

He d e f e n d e d t h i s

v iew a s f o l l o w s :

B ut e f f e c t s and th e ap p earan ce of th in g s to se n s e , a r e f a c u l t i e s o f p o w e r s o f b o d i e s , w h i c h m ak e u s d i s ­ t i n g u i s h th em fro m o n e a n o t h e r ; t h a t i s t o s a y , c o n ­ c e i v e one b o d y t o b e e q u a l o r u n e q u a l., l i k e o r u n l i k e t o a n o th e r body . . . m o tio n o f g o in g i s t h e p r o p e r t y t h e r e o f , a s b e in g p r o p e r to l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , and a

In d e v e lo p in g h i s p e rc e p tio n l i e s d e riv a tio n s.

under a l l

H obbes a s s e r t e d t h a t s e n s e

id e a s a n d c o n c e p tio n s , w h ic h a r e

He h e l d w h a t c o u l d b e t e r m e d a n e x t r e m e l y s u b ­

je c tiv e p o sitio n

in re a so n in g .

suprem acy o f u n i v e r s a l s , d a ta .

th e s is ,

He d e n i e d t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n

and a s s e rte d

th e p rim a cy o f se n se

He e x p l a i n e d t h i s n o v e l d e p a r t u r e f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l

th in k in g

i n h i s fam ous t r e a t i s e ,

th e L e v ia th a n .

. . . c o n c e r n i n g t h e t h o u g h t s o f m an , I s h a l l c o n ­ s i d e r th e m f i r s t s i n g l y , a n d a f t e r w a r d s i n t r a i n , o r d e p en d en ce upon one a n o th e r . S in g ly th e y a re ev ery o n e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r a p p e a r a n c e o f some q u a l i t y o r "|

F r e d e r i c k J . E . W o o d b r i d g e , The P h i l o s o p h y o f H obbes (M in n e a p o lis : T he H. W. W i l s o n C om pany , 1 9 0 3 ) * P* 6 .

U5 o t h e r a c c i d e n t o f a b o d y w i t h o u t u s , w h i c h I s com m only c a lle d an o b je c t- . - T he o r i g i n a l o f th e m a l l I s t h a t w h i c h we c a l l s e n s e . N a tu ra l la w s.

H o ld in g a s he d i d a m a t e r i a l i s t i c

p h i l o s o p h y , H o b b es h a d no p l a c e i n stra c t,

a n d to h im ,

as a stro lo g y ,

fa lla c io u s

a lc h e m y ,

k in d re d f i e l d s

sy ste m s.

t h e d o m in io n o f

th e s e f a ls e

th e u n iv e rs e had a u n ify in g p r in c ip le th ro u g h o u t by th e is

’sp irit*

sc ie n c e s,

he p ro v e d t h e i r a b s u r d i t y .

th e ab­

Such p se u d o -sc ie n c e

w ere u n d e r a t t a c k b y H obbes.

n a t u r a l phenom ena i n f in d th e se ,

h is th in k in g f o r

life

and

He s e a r c h e d f o r and f a i l i n g

to

H obbes b e l i e v e d t h a t in th a t i t

sam e n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s .

was g o v e rn e d

T h is h y p o th e s is

a l s o a m odern o n e . N a t u r a l la w ,

th e la w o f c a u s e an d e f f e c t ,

n a t u r a l t o h im , w as t h e g o v e r n in g f e a t u r e The u n i v e r s e w a s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g th e s e n a t u r a l la w s.

th e u n iv e r s e .

s y s te m a tiz e d by v i r t u e

H obbes e x te n d e d t h i s r e a s o n in g

p h a ses of th o u g h t in a l l a law o f n a t u r e

of

b e in g m ost

s p h e r e s o f m an’ s l i f e .

of

to a l l

He d e f i n e d

th u s:

A Law o f N a t u r e , ’ l e x n a t u r a l ! s * i s a p r e c e p t o r g e n e r a l r u l e , f o u n d o u t b y r e a s o n , b y w h i c h a man i s f o r b i d d e n t o do t h a t , w h ic h i s d e s t r u c t i v e o f h i s l i f e , o r t a k e t h aw ay t h e m ea n s o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e sam e; a n d t o o m i t t h a t b y w h i c h h e t h i n k e t h i t m ay b e b e s t p e r c e i v e d . 3-°

17 I b i d . , p .

84.

18 I b i d . , p .

251.

The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f T hom as H o b b e s * b e s t w o rk d u r i n g t h e

age o f r a tio n a lis m .

H obbes d i d h i s C h ie fly ,

p o s i t e d th e m a th e m a tic a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n a tu r e s e s s in g th e m ost v a l i d i t y .

He f o l l o w e d i n

th e

he a s pos­

tra d itio n

of

B aco n a n d p r o v i d e d one m ean s w h e re b y t h e s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d w as h e l p f u l i n

its

d e v e lo p m e n t*

T h is s t e p w as one w h ic h

c o n ce rn e d i t s e l f w ith th e a p p li c a t io n o f m a th e m a tic a l a n a l­ y sis

to th e th in k in g

fin ite ly

o f h um an b e i n g s .

T h is e f f o r t was d e ­

a s te p to w ard s a m a t e r i a l i s t i c

m e ta p h y s ic s an d

e p is te m o lo g y .

He a c c e p t e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t s i n c e m a t h e m a t i c s

can be a p p lie d

to m e c h a n ic a l f i e l d s ,

t h a t w hen u s e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o b ta in .

In h is e f f o r t to

a c tiv ity

w h ic h em erg es fro m I t

tio n s ,

it

h en ce m ust f o llo w

o f men i t m u s t a l s o

so

a n a l y z e hum an e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e in

te rm s o f m a th e m a tic a l no­

h e m ade t h e e r r o r o f o v e r l o o k i n g t h e p e r s o n a l e q u a ­

tio n . H ow ever, to

fo llo w ,

he s u c c e e d e d I n s e t t i n g

fo r o th e rs

and h i s w o rk s p re s a g e d th e g r e a t e r u se o f th e

m eth o d o f i n d u c t i o n . th in k e rs.

a p a tte rn

He s e t a n e x a m p l e f o r l a t e r

in d u c tiv e ,

S in c e p ro b le m -s o lv in g n e c e s s a r ily b e g in s in ex­

p e rie n c e th ro u g h In d u c tio n , c o n trib u tin g

H o b b es* w o r k i s d e f i n i t e l y

f a c to r in t h a t i t b o l s t e r s t h i s

p o sitio n .

a

117 v.

THE THEORY OF RECONCILIATION A.

IMMANUEL KANT ( 1 7 2 4 - 1 8 0 4 )

Im m anuel K ant a n d h i s

C ritiq u e s .

T he g r e a t p h i l o s o ­

p h e r K a n t s t a n d s m id w ay b e t w e e n d e d u c t i o n a n d i n d u c t i o n . He a t t e m p t e d t o h im ,

re c o n c ile

th e d ich o to m y w h ic h ,

e x i s t e d b e tw e e n e x tre m e r a t i o n a l i s m

c ism .

" C r itiq u e ,” in

tic ism .

It

Is

sense,

seem ed t o

a n d e x tre m e e m p ir i­ is

n o t m e re ly c r i ­

p erh ap s r a t h e r a c a r e f u l a p p r a is a l o f re a so n

in o rd e r to d e sc rib e h e ld th a t

th e K a n tia n

it

I t s b o u n d a rie s i f

su c h do e x i s t .

K ant

o u r s e n s e s , w h ic h a re a c k n o w le d g e d i m p e r f e c t ,

d is­

t o r t m u ch o f t h e d a t a t h e y t r a n s m i t t o t h e m in d . K a n t ! s " d i e r e l n e n v e r n u n f t ," c a lle d i t ,

is

m ean t t o b e k n o w le d g e i n d e p e n d e n t o f s e n s a ­

t i o n a n d a p a r t fro m e x p e r ie n c e . an u n iq u e ly in h e re n t s tr u c tu r e k n o w le d g e i t s e l f .

i.e .,

The m in d i s so t h a t i t

is

endow ed w ith a b le

to p r e s e n t

I t b r i n g s c e r t a i n k n o w led g e to

se n sa tio n .

K ant w ro te t h a t slu m b e rs,

h i s p u re re a s o n a s he

he w a s a w a k e n e d f r o m h i s d o g m a t i c

d e d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g , by th e

sh a rp o n sla u g h t

o f Hume a n d t h e o t h e r E m p i r i c i s t s a g a i n s t t h e m e t h o d o f d e d u c tio n . a b le

to

K a n t Vs r e b u t t a l m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t

is

u n reaso n ­

assu m e t h a t a l l k n o w le d g e I s d e r i v e d c o m p le te ly

th ro u g h th e o rg an s o f s e n s e . t h e r e w as no r e a l s c i e n c e

He o p p o s e d Hume1s i d e a s t h a t

n o r any r e a l s o u l.

T hat th e se

118 w ere m e re ly te rm s t o w h a t man c a l l e d b ilitie s . la y

Hume i s

now c e r t a i n .

Hume h e l d t h a t

c e r t a i n t i e s c o u l d n e v e r h e m o re t h a n p r o b a ­

K a n tf s r e f u t a t i o n

o f* th is n o m in a l!s tie

i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t Hume h a d i n i t i a t e d

h is

th in k in g

i n q u i r y from

a f a l s e p re m ise an d h en ce h ad a r r i v e d a t i n v a l i d c o n c lu s io n s . K n o w le d g e. fro m d i f f e r e n t is

To a s s u m e m e r e l y t h a t k n o w l e d g e a r i s e s

s e n s a t i o n s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m ean t h a t i t

t h e t r u e k n o w le d g e o r t h a t any o t h e r k n o w le d g e n e e d c e r ­

ta in ly

fo llo w .

K ant h e l d t h a t a b s o l u t e k n o w led g e c a n n o t be

d e riv e d in d u c tiv e ly , b u t r a th e r th a t

th e re

is

c e rta in

’a

p r i o r i 1 k n o w le d g e i n d e p e n d e n t o f s e n s e - e x p e r i e n c e .

K ant

b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l k n o w le d g e a c t u a l l y d o e s b e g i n i n

sensa­

tio n , to

b u t t h a t t h e m in d b r i n g s c e r t a i n

it.

He m ade a g e n u i n e

c a te g o rie s

a tte m p t to r e c o n c ile th e

d i v e r g e n t m e th o d s o f r e a s o n i n g , v i z . , a lism ,

a p rio ri

o r in d u c tio n v e rs u s d e d u c tio n .

o r in stru m e n ts in h e re n t in th e

se e m in g ly

e m p iric ism a n d r a t i o n ­ T hrou gh th e m o d a litie s

s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m in d , e x ­

p e r i e n c e i s s o a r r a n g e d a s t o becom e u n i f i e d a n d c o h e r e n t* T hese m o d a l i t i e s o f q u a n t i t y , s h i p a s s i s t t h e m in d t o it

stru c tu re

e x p e r i e n t i a l d a ta so t h a t

becom es k n o w le d g e a n d n o t c h a o s .

in g ,

k n o w le d g e i s

e n tire

im p o ssib le .

q u a lity and r e l a ti o n ­

W ith o u t t h i s

In h is In tro d u c tio n

s tru c tu r­ to th e

s u b j e c t o f k n o w le d g e, K ant w r i t e s :

E x p e rie n c e i s no d o u b t th e f i r s t p r o d u c t o f o u r un­ d e r s t a n d i n g , w h i l e em p lo y ed i n f a s h i o n i n g t h e raw

m a te ria l of our s e n s a tio n s . I t i s th e re fo re our f i r s t in stru c tio n * . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s b y no m eans th e o n ly f i e l d t o w h ic h o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n b e c o n fin e d . E x p e rie n c e t e l l s u s w hat i s , b u t n o t t h a t i t m u st b e n e c e s s a r i l y - a s i t i s a n d n o t o t h e r w i s e .^9 In d u c tio n and d e d u c tio n *

F o r K a n t,

in d u c tio n

t h e o n ly c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h ic h k n o w led g e f l o w s . may i n f o r m

t h e m in d o f t h e f a c t s o f t h e c a s e ,

f a c ts are p e c u lia rly

so i s

s till

its

v ery n a tu r e ,

sists

in r a is in g

fo r a c e rta in d o u b t.

t r u t h s , 1 sta m p e d w ith t h e

E x p e rie n c e

b u t why t h e s e

a m oot q u e s tio n *

w h ic h K ant th o u g h t o f a s a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y ,

R eason,

i s c u r io u s , by

ty p e o f k n o w le d g e ,

T rue k n o w le d g e ,

is not

I.e .,

and p e r­

'g e n e r a l

in h e re n t c h a ra c te r o f n e c e s s ity ,

and in d e p e n d e n t o f e x p e rie n c e ,

com es a p r i o r i

th ro u g h th e

u n iq u e endow m ent o f th e m in d . 0 - e n e r a l t r u t h s , w h i c h a t t h e sa m e t i m e b e a r t h e c h a r ­ a c t e r o f an In w ard n e c e s s i t y m ust b e in d e p e n d e n t o f ex­ p e rie n c e — c l e a r and c e r t a i n by th e m se lv e s. They a r e t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d k n o w l e d g e a p r i o r i . . . e v e n i f we r e ­ move f r o m e x p e r i e n c e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t b e l o n g s t o t h e s e n s e s , t h e r e re m a in s n e v e r t h e l e s s c e r t a i n o r i g i n a l co n ­ c e p t s , a n d c e r t a i n Ju d g m e n ts d e r i v e d fro m th em , w h ic h m ust have h ad t h e i r o r i g i n e n t i r e l y a p r i o r i and in d e ­ p e n d e n t o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e . . . .2 0 T h a t we c a n m a k e p r o g r e s s a p a r t f r o m a l l e x p e r i e n c e in re fle c tio n , m a th e m a tic s ,

i s d e m o n s tra te d c l e a r l y

K ant s a id .

in th e f i e l d o f

He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e

19 I m m a n u a l K a n t , C r i t i q u e o f P u r e R e a s o n (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 5 ) ,

^

Ibid., pp. 1-2.

P* ! •

(T r.

b y F . Max M u l l e r . )

d e riv e d m a th e m a tic a lly i s

d e fin ite ly

su re and n ecessary

k n o w le d g e i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e o f r e a s o n in g *

T here e x i s t

m any s u c h e x a m p l e s o f n e c e s s i t y a n d c e r t a i n t y , B u t we c a n n o t d e r i v e

he in s is te d *

th e se n s e o f a b s o lu te n e s s an d

v e r i t y fro m e x p e r ie n c e a lo n e , f o r e x p e rie n c e i s u a l m a tte r,

fu rn ish in g

o n ly e x p e rie n c e p e c u l ia r to

d iv id u a l and th u s in c a p a b le o f u n iv e r s a l t e s t i n g c a tio n *

an in d iv id ­ each in ­

and a p p l i ­

F o r K ant b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e w ere a p r i o r i

c rite ria

f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e a l k n o w le d g e , v i z * , k n o w le d g e w h i c h a l l m i n d s c a n com e t o kno w a n d kn ow a s r e a l * th e c ru x o f h i s e p is te m o lo g y . has a u n iv e rsa l sp e c ie s.

s tru c tu re

The m in d o f e a c h hum an b e i n g

p e c u lia r to

T h is i n h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e

know a n d d i s c o v e r t r u e P la to

homo s a p i e n s a s a

g i v e s m in d t h e a b i l i t y

D o c trin e o f R e c o l le c t i o n w here­

b y t h e m in d w a s e n d o w e d a t b i r t h w i t h c e r t a i n w h ic h t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n c o u l d b e aw akened* co rresp o n d ed to r e a l i t y .

in h e re n t s tru c tu re . p sy c h o lo g y in is

to

a n d i n e v i t a b l e k n o w le d g e .

has p o s ite d th e

tw e n ty c e n t u r i e s l a t e r ,

T h is i s

It

is

in n a te

id e a s

T hese id e a s

s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t K a n t,

some

p o s tu la te d n o t in h e re n t id e a s b u t

T h is h y p o t h e s is i s c l o s e r t o m odem

t h a t t h e m in d e x i s t s s o m e w h a t a s a p r o c e s s ,

not p a ssiv e but a c tiv e ,

b rin g in g

t o k n o w le d g e c e r t a i n

s tru c tu ra l p rin c ip le s. A p r io r i v ersu s ta b u la r a s a *

In o p p o sitio n

i d e a o f t h e m i n d a s a 1t a b u l a r a s a , * K a n t s t a t e d

to Locke*s

th a t th e

m in d i s n o t a b l a n k i n a n i m a t e s l a t e

upon w h ic h i s

c e r t a i n d a ta by th e

s ty lu s o f e x p e rie n c e .

an a b s tr a c tio n .

is

It

a d isc re te

c a te g o rie s,

re m o ld s th e

lin e s s and co h eren ce. p r io r i in

T he m i n d i s

not

an d a c t i v e e n t i t y w h ic h

fa sh io n s and a rra n g e s sense m a te ria l in to its

w ritte n

id e a s,

and th ro u g h

chaos o f e x p e rie n c e in to

o rd er­

He d e s c r i b e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a

th e re a so n in g p ro c e ss th u s ;

I c a l l a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n w h ic h t h e r e i s n o th in g th a t b e lo n g s to s e n s a tio n , p u re (in a tra n s c e n d e n ta l sen se). T he p u r e f o r m , t h e r e f o r e , o f a l l s e n s u o u s i n ­ t u i t i o n s , t h a t fo rm i n w h ic h t h e m a n if o ld e le m e n ts o f th e phenom ena a r e se e n i n c e r t a i n o r d e r , m ust be fo u n d i n t h e m in d a p r i o r i . T h e c r u x o f K a n t 1s a p r i o r i

th in k in g l i e s

t h a t n o t o n ly d o es re a s o n f u n c tio n in d u c tiv e ly , th ro u g h i t s

u n iq u e s t r u c t u r e

led g e c e r ta in

ta b lish e d .

but

o r c o m p o s itio n , b r in g s

u n iv e rsa l p rin c ip le s .

common h e r i t a g e

in th e f a c t th e m in d , t o know ­

T hese p r i n c i p l e s a r e a

o f a l l m in d s a n d a r e c a p a b l e o f b e i n g

K ant w ro te f u r t h e r ,

so e s ­

in h i s C r itiq u e o f P u re

R eason: The k n o w le d g e , t h e r e f o r e , o f e v e r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o r a t l e a s t o f t h e hum an u n d e r s t a n d i n g , m u s t b e b y m e a n s o f c o n c e p ts n o t i n t u i t i v e , b u t d is c u r s iv e , a l l i n t u i ­ t io n s b e in g se n su o u s, depend on a f f e c t i o n s , c o n c e p ts o r fu n c tio n s. By t h i s f u n c t i o n I m ean t h e u n i t y o f t h e a c t o f a rra n g in g d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n ta tio n s u n d er one common r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o n c e p ts a r e b a s e d t h e r e f o r e , on t h e s p o n t a n e i t y o f th o u g h t. . . . The o n l y u s e w h i c h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n m ake o f t h o s e c o n c e p t s i s t o fo rm ju d g m e n ts o f th e m . . . 21

I b i d ., p. 16.

22 I b i d . , p . 5 6 .

122 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f K a n t 1s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n *

Im m an u el

K a n t 's a tt e m p t a t c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e v e r y m eth o d o f re a so n in g in g .

its e lf

is

U n t i l K a n t 's

o f th o u g h t.

a lan d m ark in tim e ,

t h e onw ard m a rc h o f t h i n k ­

no one q u e s t i o n e d t h e modus o p e r a n d !

The p r im a r y q u e s t i o n s r e v o l v e d a ro u n d th e

o f w hat w as th o u g h t.

H ere f o r t h e f i r s t

tru th

tim e a p h ilo s o p h e r

d a r e d a s k how we t h i n k . K a n t 's c r i t i c a l p h ilo s o p h y , c e n d e n ta l p h ilo s o p h y ,

d e s c r i b e d b y h im a s t r a n s ­

was a d i r e c t a n d p r o t r a c t e d e f f o r t t o

a n a ly z e th e v e ry s t r u c t u r e t h e m in d w a s s t r u c t u r e d .

o f t h e m in d i t s e l f ,

a llo w in g t h a t

T h a t t h e r e w as a m in d o r i n t e l l e c t

w as ta k e n f o r g r a n t e d b y K a n t.

He t r i e d

c a l l e d i n n a t e la w s o f t h o u g h t.

K a n t was t h e g r e a t c o n c i l i ­

a to r. c is ts

to p ro b e th e s o -

The i n d u c t i v e m e th o d e s p o u s e d b y t h e B r i t i s h E m p iri­ seem ed t o be l a c k i n g

i n so m e th in g .

p eared a g ro ss o v e rs im p lific a tio n In o rd e r to p o s tu la te d th e

re fu te

To K a n t i t

o f a v e r y co m p lex p ro b le m .

th e E m p iric is ts lo g ic a lly ,

th e o ry o f th e

ap­

a p rio ri.

K ant

H is a t t e m p t s w ere

a i m e d a t e x p l a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r some u n i v e r s a l p r i n ­ c ip le s in

c o n ju n c tio n w ith s e n s a tio n .

As h e s a i d ,

p e rc e p ts

m u st d e p e n d on c o n c e p ts a n d v i c e v e r s a i n an i n t e r a c t i n g p ro cess.

As y e t h i s t h e o r y r e m a i n s a s v a l i d a s a n y o t h e r s

p ro m u lg a te d ,

i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f t h e m odern p s y c h o l o g i s t s .

In th e f i e l d

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

a p p lic a b le .

The p r o b le m w h ic h a r i s e s fr o m s e n s e d a t a i s

K a n t 's m id d le w ay seem s

123 answ ered b e t t e r i f is

c e rta in

tr u e and a p r i o r i in fo rm a tio n

p re se n t* V I.

SUMMARY

T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d t h e w o r k o f some o f t h e f i r s t l e a d e r s an d e x p o n e n ts o f

t h e i n d u c t i v e mode o f r e a s o n i n g .

W h i l e m any men w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e n t i r e m o v e m e n t o f in d u c tiv e

th in k in g ,

o n ly t h o s e w hose p ro m in e n c e h a s b e e n

e s t a b l i s h e d b y tim e w ere i n v e s t i g a t e d . to p re s e n t th e e n t i r e

No a t t e m p t w a s m ade

p h i lo s o p h y o f a n y one m an.

t h a t p h ase o f any p h ilo s o p h y r e le v a n t to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d . c o n t r i b u t e d th e m a jo r e f f o r t s

in

th e p u rp o se o f

T h o s e p h i l o s o p h e r s who

to th e r i s e

o f t h e i n d u c t i v e m eth o d w ere l i s t e d . fo u n d to be r e s p o n s ib le

O n ly

and p o p u la r ity

T h e s e m en w e r e

so m e m e a s u r e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t

o f th e p r o b le m - s o lv in g m eth o d o f to d a y . Rene D e s c a r t e s , exponent o f ra tio n a lis m

a lth o u g h r i g h t l y

c l a s s i f i e d a s an

a n d m a th e m a tic a l d e d u c tio n ,

v e a l e d e le m e n ts of. i n d u c t i o n

in h is th in k in g .

F r a n c i s B acon f u r n i s h e d a s t r o n g im p e tu s t o m e th o d f o r r e a s o n i n g o u t p r o b le m s .

re­

T he w o r k o f

in d u c tio n as a

T h rou g h h i s

on o p e n -m in d e d n e ss w ith o u t p r e j u d i c e

or fear,

t h e w ay f o r a m o r e c l e a r a p p r o a c h t o

s c ie n tific

in siste n c e

he opened in q u iry

w h ic h i n t u r n b ecam e t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r o o t o f t h e m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d .

The B r i t i s h e m p i r i c i s t s ,

p a rtic u la rly

John Locke,

h a d a t r e m e n d o u s e f f e c t o n em­

p i r i c a l m e th o d s o f t h i n k i n g .

In K a n t* s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s

o f t h e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g i t s e l f first

a tte m p ts

to d e te rm in e

i s fo u n d one of th e

how man t h i n k s .

T he n e x t c h a p '

t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e t h o u g h t o f so m e o f t h e m o r e m o d e rn p h i l o s o p h e r s who d e a l t , p ro b le m -so lv in g

o r are

te c h n iq u e .

still

d e a lin g , w ith th e

CHAPTER VI MODERN CONCEPTS IN INDUCTIVE REASONINGThe p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d , a te d fa sh io n , re a so n in g . to

th e

th e r i s e

som ex^hat a b b r e v i ­

an d e a r l y d e v e lo p m e n t o f i n d u c t i v e

That phase in

su b je c t o f th is

in

e a c h p h i l o s o p h e r * s w o rk r e l e v a n t

i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as b r o u g h t o u t f o r t h e

p u rp o se o f co h eren ce and c o n tin u ity .

I t was t h e

in itia l

w o rk o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s w h ic h b r o u g h t i n d u c t i o n l a t e r p ro m in e n c e .

S c ie n tific

t h e mode o f i n d u c t i v e

in q u iry ,

re a so n in g ,

is

t h e f o u n d a tio n fro m

s e n t c h a p te r w i l l a tte m p t t o p o r tr a y th e

te e n th c e n tu ry

c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p ­

from t h e b e g in n in g o f th e n i n e ­

I n d u c t i v e m e th o d a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d ­

The a d v e n t o f t h e

tu rn in g p o in t

The p r e ­

t o t h e m odern e r a .

F o rew o rd : vance.

such

a s an o u tg r o w th o f

w h ic h th e m e th o d c a l l e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g e m e rg e d .

m ent o f in d u c tiv e re a s o n in g

In to

i n d u s t r i a l re v o lu tio n p ro v ed a

in th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c

R e n a issa n c e had s tim u la te d in q u ir y in

in q u iry .

a ll fie ld s

The

o f en d eav o r.

The n e e d f o r a l l k i n d s o f I n s t r u m e n t s t o k e e p p a c e w i t h d i s ­ c o v e ry a n d e x p l o r a t i o n w as i m p e r a tiv e . dem anded f o r n a v ig a ti o n ,

a g ric u ltu re

New t e c h n i q u e s w e r e

and th e

lik e .

g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l c h a n g e s a d d e d e v e r m ore i m p e t u s to tific

i n q u ir y a n d m eth o d o lo g y .

T he sc ie n ­

126 From an almost completely agrarian civilization the whole of the western world was now more or less transformed, into a technological culture*

Again there was the impera­

tive need for scientific aids to march along with and aid the rising technology.

For these purposes also the new

technique in theoretical thinking was further developed. Deductive reasoning with its universal postulates to particular instances was of little help.

For these stirring

times a method of reasoning which could investigate and analyze all the particulars* and formulate general prin­ ciples for immediate application was required* was

The keynote

u t i l i t y , and for this philosophy of utilitarianism, men

arose to formulate a positivistic reasoning. I.

THE RISE OF POSITIVISTIC THINKING A..

JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873)

John Stuart Mill may rightfully be designated as the philosopher par excellence of the system of utilitarianism. He was perhaps more a social philosopher than a worker in that particular branch of philosophy called epistemology, but in his task of proving the justice of his contentions concerning utilitarianism and social reform, he demonstrated clearly the value of inductive reasoning. subject of knowledge, he wrote:

Regarding the

12? • . . q u e s tio n s o f u ltim a te en d s do n o t a d m it o f p ro o f, in th e o r d in a r y a c c e p ta n c e o f th e te rm . To b e i n c a p a b l e o f p r o o f b y r e a s o n i n g i s common t o a l l f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s ; t o t h e f i r s t p r e m is e s o f o u r k n o w le d g e, a s w e ll a s t o th o s e o f o u r c o n d u c t. B u t th e fo rm e r, b e ­ i n g m a t t e r s o f f a c t , may b e s u b j e c t o f d i r e c t a p p e a l t o t h e f a c u l t i e s w h ic h ju d g e o f f a c t ; n a m e ly ,, o u r s e n 's e s , a n d o u r i n t e r n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 1 In d u c tio n and u t i l i t y *

I t w a s M i l l who m ade a p r o ­

t r a c t e d e f f o r t t o c o n s t r u c t a m ore a d e q u a t e a n d c o h e r e n t p h ilo s o p h y o f u t i l i t a r i a n i s m .

He s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e h a p p i ­

n e s s was th e

a l l e x is te n c e

s o l e a im o f l i f e ,

and th in k in g

m ust b e g e a r e d to w a rd s a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h i s g o a l. ta s k ,

k n o w led g e w as t o p l a y a g r e a t p a r t ,

lig h te n e d can

seek and f i n d tru e

th a t in d u c tiv e

re a so n in g

Is

In th is

f o r o n ly th e e n ­

h a p p in e ss .

M ill reaso n ed

t h e o n l y a d e q u a te m eth o d f o r

t h i s k n o w le d g e. In

some m e a s u r e t h i s

p ra g m a tism , w h ic h a ls o e d u c a tio n .

e m p h a siz e s th e u t i l i t y

P ra g m a tism ,

t i o n a l p h ilo so p h y ,

concept in

p o s s i b l y m o re t h a n a n y o t h e r e d u c a ­

e m p lo y s t h e t e c h n iq u e o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g *

John S tu a rt M i l l's th e s is be u t i l i t a r i a n ,

p h i l o s o p h y f o r e s h a d o w e d m odern

i.e .,

th a t

th e a im o f an y s o c i e t y m u st

h a p p in e ss ,

w ork f o r o u r c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s , w h o le , b u t a l s o f o r i t s

l a i d m u ch o f t h e g r o u n d ­

n o t o n ly f o r s o c ie ty a s a

e d u c a tio n a l f a c e t.

^ John S tu a r t M ill, D is s e r ta tio n s and D is c u s s io n s : P o l i t i c a l i P h ilo s o -p h ic a l an d H i s t o r i c a l (B o sto n : W illia m S p e n c e r , 1 8 6 4 ) , I I I , 3^8*

128 He c o n t r a s t e d , e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n w i t h d e d u c t i v e re a so n in g

i n h i s e s s a y on U t i l i t a r i a n i s m .

He s t a t e d :

Q u e s tio n s o f u l t i m a t e ends a r e n o t a m e n a b le to d i r e c t p ro o f. W h a t e v e r c a n b e p r o v e d t o b e g o o d , m u s t b e so b y b e i n g show n t o b e a m e a n s o f s o m e t h i n g a d m i t t e d t o b e good w ith o u t p ro o f. . . . T h e r e i s a l a r g e m e a n in g o f t h e w o r d “ p r o o f 11 i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n i s a s a m e n a b l e t o i t a s any o t h e r o f th e d i s p u t e d q u e s tio n s o f p h ilo s o p h y . The s u b j e c t i s w i t h i n t h e c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e r a t i o n a l fa c u lty . M ill h e ld t h a t th e te n tio n and d ire c tio n

to

‘ f a c u l t i e s ’ o f t h e m in d g a v e i n ­ th in k in g .

s i d e r a t i o n s a c c o m p a n y in g q u e s t i o n s l e c t d id o r d id n o t a s s e n t to p r e s e n t e d by t h e m in d . so t h a t i t e x p e rie n c e *

In

th e fo llo w in g

o r p ro b le m s,

th e a c c e p ta n c e

T h e m in d i s

can d is c rim in a te

B ecause o f c e r t a i n co n ­ th e

o f th e

in h e re n tly

in te l­ s o lu tio n

c o n stru c te d

in th e d a ta p re s e n te d to

i t by

w r i t i n g o f M i l l ’ s e p i s t e m o l o g y , Dewey g i v e s

c o n n o ta tio n :

No h a r d a n d f a s t r u l e s f o r t h i s o p e r a t i o n o f s e l e c t ­ in g a n d r e j e c t i n g , o r f i x i n g upon s i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n t i a l f a c t s , can be g iv e n . I t a l l c o m e s b a c k , a s we s a y , t o th e good ju d g m e n t, t h e g o o d s e n s e , o f th e one ju d g in g . To b e a g o o d j u d g e i s t o h a v e a s e n s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e in d ic a tiv e o r s ig n ify in g v a lu e s o f th e v a rio u s f e a tu r e s o f th e p e rp le x in g s i t u a t i o n . 3 M i l l ’ s p h i l o s o p h y h e l d t h a t k n o w le d g e w as n o t p a s s i v e . S i n c e m in d h a d a l l and r e je c tio n ,

t h i s d i s c r im i n a t o r y pow er o f s e l e c t i o n

th o u g h t w as d e f i n i t e l y

an o n g o in g a c t i v i t y .

2 I h i d . , p. 304. J o h n D ew ey , How We T h i n k ( B o s t o n : C om pany, 1 9 3 3 ) > P* 123 *

D* C.

H e ath a n d

129 I t w as a p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n an e n t i t y , a c tiv ity

t h e v e r y m e a n in g o f l i f e .

It

g ra sp in g

in i t s

i s by fa c in g th e

p ro b le m s i n h e r e n t i n a h o s t i l e e n v iro n m e n t t h a t th e com es t o know a n y t h i n g a t

a ll.

I m p li c a t io n s f o r -p ro b le m -so lv in g . tio n th a t u tilita r ia n is m ,

m in d

In h is

o r I t s e q u a l te rm ,

th e e n d to be m ost so u g h t a f t e r ,

h a p p in e ss ,

M ill a r b i t r a r i l y

th in k in g on an e x p e r i e n t i a l l e v e l .

stip u la ­ is

p la c e d

He w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h

t h e q u e s t i o n o f why man s h o u l d o v e r c o m e t h e m any o b s t a c l e s p l a c e d i n h i s p a t h b y an a d v e r s e e n v iro n m e n t. A l o n g w i t h A u g u s t Q o m te, p o s itiv is tic

p h ilo s o p h e r,

a n o t h e r a n d p e r h a p s m ore

M ill d e n ie d th e th e o ry t h a t a

s p e c i a l c o n t e n t o r m eth o d o b t a i n e d i n p h i lo s o p h y . m en , a n d t h o s e who p r e a c h e d t h e d o c t r i n e

T hese

of p o sitiv is m ,

h e ld

t h a t p h ilo s o p h y i s

a d i s c i p l i n e w h ic h s h o u ld b e i n t e r e s t e d

o n ly i n

and u n ify in g th e

c la rify in g

s c ie n c e s w h ic h c o n t r i b u t e

to p h ilo s o p h y . The d e s i r e d g o a l o f u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , fo llo w e rs,

was t h e u n i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s

h e re n t p h ilo s o p h y .

S c ie n c e m ust be

f o r M ill and h is

sc ie n c e s in to

su b o rd in a te to p h ilo s ­

o p h y , a l t h o u g h p h ilo s o p h y m ust a l s o b e s c i e n t i f i c * K a n t* s p h r a s e , o f a l l th e re a lis tic so lv in g .

M ill b e lie v e d

s c i e n c e s . 1*

In

and i s r e f le c te d

a co­

t h a t p h ilo s o p h y w as th e

th is re s p e c t M ill's

To u s e nq u e e n

th in k in g

is

i n m u ch o f t h e m e t h o d o f p r o b l e m ­

130 B.

HERBERT SPENCER ( 1 8 2 0 - 1 9 0 3 )

H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , who may a l s o p o sitiv is tic good l i f e

in

h is th in k in g ,

a s t h e a im o f a l l

le g itim a te ly be c a lle d

p o s i t e d th e th e o r y o f th e

e d u c a tio n .

In h is

S p e n c e r r e s p o n d e d som ew hat i n t h e m an n er o f , doubt in flu e n c e d by, c e r n s k n o w le d g e* Id e a s ,*

c o n tra ry

th e

te rm ,

’D o c t r i n e o f

of th in g s .

p ro b a b ly )

T h is

a p p lie s

to

’ su b s ta n c e * th a t re a l­

o u tw a rd a p p e a ra n c e .

had s ta te d t h a t u n d e rn e a th a l l o f w hat i s

p reh en d ed th e r e

s u b s is ts

t h e m in d t h r o u g h i t s c o n tra s t to

u ltim a te r e a l i t y

th is p o s itio n ,

I n n a te id e a s*

K ant had d e c l a r e d t h a t th e

lim ita tio n s .

M e t a p h y s ic s was

re a lm o f re a s o n f o r S p e n c er a l s o .

p r i m a r y t a s k o f a l l k n o w i n g w as t o o f th e g a la x y o f th e

ap­

c o m p re h e n s ib le to

endow m ent o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g

m in d c a n n o t s t e p b e y o n d i t s beyond th e

and h is

As c o n ­

I m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e v e r k n o w in g

w h ic h p re s u m a b ly u n d e r l i e s a l l P la to

a n d w a s no

p h i lo s o p h e r K a n t.

to P la to

’ su b sta n c e *

( f o r la c k o f a b e tt e r

In

c ritic a l

Spencer a s s e rte d th e

w h at he c a l l e d

ity

th e

e p is te m o lo g y ,

sc ie n c e s in

e f f e c t th e

To S p e n c e r t h e Ju x ta p o sitio n

an i n t e l l i g i b l e

p h ilo s o p h ­

ic a l u n iv e rse . Spencer c a lle d th e th e p h y s ic a l se n se s, c lo s e ly

u n k n o w la b le ,

o r t h a t d o m ain b e y o n d

b e c a u s e h e w i s h e d m o re

to d e f in e th e b o u n d a rie s o f r e f l e c t i o n .

t h a t th e r e a l su b s ta n c e um i n

su b s ta n c e ,

s u c h a w ay t h a t

He f e l t

s tim u la te d th e e x p e r ie n tia l c o n tin u ­

t h e d a t a o f s e n s e w ere b u t r e f l e c t i o n s .

131 F or S p en cer,

any e x p e rie n c e i s

c o n stitu tiv e

o f,

in c id e n ta l to ,

r e a l k n o w le d g e*

r a t h e r th a n

He w r o t e :

The u tm o s t t h a t a n y a n a l y s i s o f r e a s o n c an e f f e c t i s to d e s c r i b e th e a c t o f c o n s c io u s n e s s th r o u g h w h ic h th e s e a n d a l l o t h e r m o d e r a t e l y know n t r u t h s a r e . d i s c e r n e d ; a n d t h i s we h a v e i n t h e i n w a r d p e r c e p t i o n o f l i k e n e s s o r u n ­ lik e n e s s of r e la tio n s . But a t r u t h of t h i s k in d d o es n o t a d m it o f a x io m a tic e x p r e s s io n s b e c a u s e th e u n i v e r s a l p o w e rs o f r a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n n o t becom e s o l i d i f i e d in to any s in g le p ro d u c t o f r a t i o n a l i n te l li g e n c e .^ R e l a t i o n s h ip s becam e th e p aram o u n t i s s u e The s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o n e o n ly

tru th

i n k n o w in g *

to a n o th e r i s

t h i n g t h e m in d c a n a n a l y z e a n d p r e s e n t t o

th e

t h e m in d .

K n o w le d g e t h e n , b e c o m e s a s t u d y n o t o f t h e o b j e c t s g i v e n t o c o n sc io u s n e ss b u t o f th e d isc e rn m e n t of th o s e one o b je c t to is

th a t o f th e

a n o th e r and to n e o -re a lists

t h e m in d . in th a t

t i e s w h ic h u n i t e

In a sense th is

sta n d

t h e m in d f o r t h e m i s

a l­

s o t h e m e d i a t i n g a g e n t a n d o b j e c t s o f s e n s e a r e n o t know n im m e d ia te ly . K n o w le d g e o r t h e h i g h e s t g e n e r a l i t y *

Spencer a s s e rte d

t h a t n o t o n ly e p is te m o lo g y b u t a l l o f p h i lo s o p h y w as b u t k n o w le d g e o f t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f g e n e r a l i t y e ls e *

I n h i s now f a m o u s a n a l o g y o f t h e r i v e r ,

th a t th e flo w of i t s

he s t a t e d

w a te rs se rv e s b u t as an in sta n c e

g e n e r a l la w o f th e d y n a m ics o f f l u i d s .

Y o rk:

a n d n o th in g

F u rth e r,

of th e

th e law o f

^ H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , The P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o lo g y D. A p p l e t o n C om pany,. 1 8 8 3 ) , I I , 95*

(Hew

132 d y n a m ics i s

i t s e l f b u t a n o th e r and l e s s e r in s ta n c e

g e n e r a l la w , fie ld

i.e .,

g e n e r a l d y n a m ics i n r e l a t i o n

o f m ovem ent i n

to

o f a m o re t h e w h o le

s o lid s and f lu id s .

H e r b e r t S p e n c e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t k n o w le d g e c a n n o t e x i s t in

d is c re te phases o r a t

p h ilo s o p h y ,

p a rtic u la rly

d iffe re n t le v e ls .

The t a s k o f

e p is te m o lo g y , i s

to c o r r e l a t e a l l

t h e know n f a c t e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e its

h ig h e s t g e n e ra l sta g e .

senses in to

k n o w led g e a t

D e d u c tiv e r e a s o n in g ,

p er se,

was

a n a iv e m eth o d u s e d o n ly b y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s b e c a u s e th e y h a d no o t h e r . fo llo w in g

S p en cer,

d e sc rip tio n

of

in h is F i r s t P r in c ip le s , g iv e s

th e

se n se -d a ta :

E v e r y t h o u g h t i n v o l v e s a w h o le s y s te m o f t h o u g h t , a n d c e a s e s to e x i s t i f s e v e r e d fro m i t s v a r i o u s c o r r e l a t i v e s . A s we c a n n o t i s o l a t e a s i m p l e o r g a n o f t h e l i v i n g b o d y , and d e a l w ith i t a s th o u g h i t . h a d a l i f e in d e p e n d e n t o f th e r e s t ; so , fro m t h e o r g a n iz e d s t r u c t u r e o f o u r cog­ n i t i o n s , we c a n n o t c u t o u t o n e , a n d p r o c e e d a s t h o u g h i t had su rv iv e d t h i s s e p a ra tio n . He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t w h i l e t h e t a s k o f p h i l o s o p h y w a s m a in ly to

c o rr e la te and re -a rra n g e

p h i l o s o p h y w a s y e t m o re t h a n p h ilo s o p h y b e a r th e tru th s

th e o f f e r in g s o f s c ie n c e ,

sc ie n c e ,

sam e r e l a t i o n

to

fo r th e

tru th s of

th e h ig h e s t s c i e n t i f i c

t h a t e a c h o f t h e m b e a r s to. l o w e r s c i e n t i f i c In th e

hegem ony o f t r u t h s ,

tru th s .0

k n o w le d g e a s t h e h i g h e s t

^ H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p any, 1 9 3 0 ) ,

6 I b i d . , p . 37-

p.

121.

D.

133 g e n e ra lity

ta k e s p re c e d e n c e o v er o th e rs*

g e n e ra lity

has i t s

s e n s e s fro m t h e

in c e p tio n in th e

is

u se le ss

to

h ig h e st

d a ta , d e r i v e d b y t h e

e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n tin u u m c a l l e d

R e fle c tio n and in fe re n c e * it

A nd t h i s

In

life *

S p e n c e r 1s e p is te m o lo g y

s e e k a l l e g e d o r r e a l k n o w le d g e i n m etap h y ­

s ic a l s p e c u la tio n .

T he p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g k n o w l e d g e a r e

to b e i n f e r r e d fro m

t h e sam e p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g p h y s i c s ,

m o tio n ,

and even th e f i e l d o f s o c ia l a c tio n .

c ip le s a re g a in e d i n f e r e n t i a l l y fle c tio n

A ll

fro m e x p e r ie n c e .

such p rin ­ F ro m r e ­

on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t h e h i g h e s t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s

w i l l em erge. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s g a t h e r e d fro m s c i e n t i f i c f u r n i s h one o f th e m ost s u b s t a n t i a l fo u n d a tio n s d ic tio n

of c e rta in

o n ly fro m i n d u c t i v e

n a tu ra l fa c ts . re a so n in g .

a l l i e d p h a ses o f p h ilo s o p h y :

T hese f a c t s

c o sm o lo g y ,

o f r e a s o n in g w as an a p p ro x im a tio n . S p e n c e r w as m e re ly i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , to d e te rm in e

o n to lo g y , e t c . , but th is

can ty p e

m e th o d t o

la c k in g any o th e r capa­

tru th . In d u c tio n i s

F or p h ilo so p h y i s

n a tu re th a n th e n a tu r a l s c ie n c e s . th e g e n e r a liz a tio n s

c an be d e r i v e d

The d e d u c t i v e

H ow ever, f o r H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , sim p lifie d p ro c e ss.

fo r th e p re ­

M e ta p h y sic s and p e rh a p s

b r i n g f o r t h c o n c e p t s from d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g ,

c itie s

in q u iry

o f th o se

It

not a

m o re g e n e r a l i n i t s p ro ceed s f u r t h e r w ith

f a c t s w h ic h a r e m u tu a lly d e a l t

13 k w ith by b o th d is c ip lin e s .

T he g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s

s c ie n c e d e te rm in e th e t r u t h o f th e th e f a c ts p lin e , In

th is

th e

sense

sc ie n c e s.

th e n a tu r a l d e fin ite

f a c t s o n ly i n

it

is

I s n o t,

In i t s

sc ie n c e s,

su b d iv id e d in to n o r can i t b e ,

In te g ra tiv e

so f a r a s

l e t as a d is c i­

th e m se lv e s can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d ,

p h ilo s o p h y to o

fu rn ish e d by

p re sc rib e d a re a s. m ore g e n e r a l t h a n

fu n c tio n

it

may s u r p a s s

b u t i n m ere g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I t

has v ery

lim ita tio n s .

T h e know ing: - p r o c e s s *

P h ilo so p h y ,

as does

sc ie n c e ,

t r e a t s o f p ro b le m s w h ic h a r e e i t h e r s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l . P h ilo so p h y a s k s q u e s tio n s d i f f e r e n t from th o s e o f s c ie n c e , or

so S p e n c e r a s s e r t e d .

h im ,

i s d iv id e d in to

T he k n o w i n g p r o c e s s ,

two p h a s e s ,

g o in g -p ro ce ss o f k n o w in g ,

th e f i r s t ,

and th e

second,

a c c o rd in g to

th e a c t u a l on­

th e

a n a ly sis of

t h o s e f a c t s w h i c h a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e m in d b y t h e k n o w i n g p ro cess. W hereas t h e v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s a r e w h a t he d e sc rib e d as c la s s lf ic a t in g

d is c ip lin e s ,

e p is te m o lo g y i s n o t

o n ly a d i s c i p l i n e b u t a p ro c e s s a s w e ll.

T h ro u g h I n d u c tio n ,

t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s t u d i e s t h e w h o le k n o w in g p r o c e s s th e f a c t s

a lr e a d y a c c u m u la te d .

T he m ain p u r p o s e o f t h e

p h ilo s o p h e r qua e p ls te m o lo g is t i s g a th e r th e f a c t s p re s e n te d .

as w e ll as

t o u n if y a n d n o t m e re ly to

Spencer d e sc rib e s t h i s fu n c tio n

w h e n h e d e f i n e s t h e know n t r u t h s o f p h i l o s o p h y a s f o l l o w s :

135 . . . a k n o w le d g e o f t h e e x tr e m e o p p o s i t e i n k i n d t o t h a t w h ic h e x p e r ie n c e f i r s t a c c u m u la te s . I t i s th e f i n a l p r o d u c t o f t h a t p r o c e s s w h i c h b e g a n w i t h a m e re c o l l e g a t i o n o f c ru d e o b s e r v a t i o n s , g o e s on e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e b r o a d e r a n d m o re s e p a r a t e d f r o m p a r t i c u l a r c a se s, and ends in u n iv e rs a l p ro p o s itio n s . Or t o b r i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n t o i t s s i m p l e s t a n d c l e a r e s t f o r m : — K n o w le d g e o f t h e l o w e s t k i n d i s u n - u n i f i e d know ­ le d g e ; S c ie n c e i s • p a r t i a l l y - u n i f i e d k n o w le d g e; P h ilo s o p h y I s c o m p l e t e l y - u n i f i e d k n o w le d g e . V T h i s t h e o r y o f u n i f i e d k n o x v le d g e i s

In ag reem en t w ith

t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e m o re m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g i s t s , O e sta ltis ts.

K n o w le d g e ,

s is t of d isc re te

phases,

f o r c e f u l and m e a n in g fu l, a se rie s of d isc re te and c o h e siv e ,

w h ile i t

may i n t h e b e g i n n i n g c o n ­

m u s t so m e h o w , i n o r d e r t o b e c l e a r , assum e u n i f i c a t i o n .

a c ts;

a c c o rd in g to

it

is

K n o w in g i s n o t

a p r o c e s s w h ic h i s

t h e s i s t h a t p h ilo so p h y an d a l l i t s

I n p r e s e n t i n g th e

phases i s

c o m p le te ly u n i­

Spencer l e f t a d i s t in c t iv e h e rita g e to

th e w h o le f i e l d

o f re a so n in g .

K n o w le d g e e m e r g e s ,

a c c o rd in g to

h im ,

u n i f i e d w h o le fro m t h e v a r i o u s n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . h is

u n ifie d

S p en cer.

S pencer* s u n iq u e c o n t r i b u t i o n .

fie d ,

n o ta b ly th e

e p is te m o lo g y on t h e

as a

He b a s e d

s c i e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n on s p e c u l a t i o n .

I n t h i s way h e l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r m o re s c i e n t i f i c

th in k ­

in g . Too e a s y a c c e p t a n c e o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e ­ come h y p o s t a s i z e d d o e s n o t l e a d t o g e n u i n e p r o g r e s s .

^ I b i d . , p . 119-

B e lie f

136 I k u n q u e stio n e d u n lv e r s a ls

s ta te d d e d u c tiv e ly

c o rd w ith th e canons o f s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry *

is

no t in ac­

S p e n c e r em p h a­

s i z e d th e v ie w t h a t t h e f i e l d o f m e ta p h y s ic s c a n n o t p o s s i b l y be o f any h e lp in s c ie n tific

sc ie n tific

re a so n in g ,

i.e .,

in q u iry . in d u c tio n ,

It is

o n ly th ro u g h

t h a t k n o w le d g e i s t o

be fo u n d . K n o w in g i s p r o c e d u r a l , p e rie n c e m in d ,

is

in a u n ifie d

fa sh io n .

t o know, w as S p e n c e r * s f i r s t d i c t u m .

t h r o u g h c e r t a i n en doitfed f a c u l t i e s ,

h a rm o n ize a n d u n i f y

th e

and a s an o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r , p o rta n t r o le

But th e

h e lp s c o n s tru e ,

se n se -d a ta in to f a c ts

As a p r e d e c e s s o r o f J a m e s a n d Dewey i n

To e x ­

th e

o f k n o w le d g e .

sc ie n tific fie ld ,

H e r b e r t S p e n c e r a s s u m e s a n im ­

i n f u r n i s h i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r m odern

p ro b le m -so lv in g . II.

WILLIAM JAMES ( 1 8 4 2 - 1 9 1 0 )

T he g e n i u s o f W i l l i a m J a m e s , n o v a to r,

was m a n y -s id e d ,

but i t

is

g re a t th in k e r and in ­ p e rh a p s w ith th e p h ilo s ­

o p h y o f p r a g m a t i s m t h a t h i s name h a s b e e n m o s t c l o s e l y a s ­ so c ia te d ,

T h is p h ilo s o p h y w h ic h h a s so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d

t h e m o d ern A m e ric a n e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e ow es m uch o f i t s p ro m in e n c e t o W illia m Ja m e s , its e lf

had i t s

*r a i s o n d ' e t r e *

A c c o rd in g t o h im , p h i lo s o p h y in

t h e f a c t t h a t men a r e

m o v ed t o p h i l o s o p h i z e b y t h e v e r y f a c t o f t h e i r b e i n g m en. T h is m o tiv a tin g

in flu e n c e

f a s c i n a t e d Jam es a n d I s

th e cru x

137 o f h i s e p is te m o lo g y . tric a b ly

He b e l i e v e d t h a t k n o w i n g w a s i n e x ­

l i n k e d w ith e m o tio n .

R a d ic a l e m p iric ism . im p lie s t a c i t

a c c e p ta n c e

The e n t i r e

of

B u t f o r h im ,

a ll

b e g in and end w ith e x p e rie n c e .

It

tio n ,

by c a r e f u l l y

e ra l a p p lic a tio n , and r e a l i t y m o lo g y i n

t h e w arp a n d woof o f

th in k in g m ust n e c e s s a r il y is

o n ly th ro u g h in d u c ­

p r o c e e d in g fro m s i n g l e

in sta n c e s

to g en ­

t h a t t h e m in d c a n e v e r g r a s p t h e t r u t h

o f any f a c t .

th e

o f Jam es

th e p r a c t i c a l a s w e ll a s th e

e m o tio n a l t h r e a d s w oven t o g e t h e r i n t o hu m an k n o w l e d g e .

th in k in g

He d e f i n e d h i s t h e o r y o f e p i s t e ­

f o llo w in g m anner:

I g i v e t h e name o f ‘ r a d i c a l e m p i r i c i s m 1 t o my W eite n sc h a u u n g . E m p i r i c i s m i s know n a s t h e o p p o s i t e o f ra tio n a lism . R a t i o n a l i s m te n d s t o e m p h a size u n i v e r s a l s a n d t o m ak e w h o l e s p r i o r t o p a r t s i n t h e o r d e r o f l o g i c as w e ll a s th a t o f b e in g . E m p iric is m , on t h e c o n t r a r y , la y s th e e x p la n a to r y s t r e s s upon th e p a r t , th e e le m e n t, th e in d iv id u a l, and t r e a t s th e w h o le ^ s a c o l l e c t i o n , and th e u n i v e r s a l as an a b s t r a c t i o n . S in c e H e rb e rt S p e n c e r p la y e d a g r e a t p a r t in Ja m e s’ p h ilo s o p h ic a l nonage an d th e n in h i s l a t e r is

n o t to o d i f f i c u l t

to

p h a s is upon e m p iric ism . a p o stle

o f th e

th in k in g o f h is

see

e v o lv e m e n t,

it

t h e i n f l u e n c e b e h i n d h i s em­

S p en cer,

a s h a s b e e n s e e n , w as an

th e o ry o f e v o lu tio n and h i s

i n f l u e n c e on th e

d a y a n d u p o n t h o s e who f o l l o w e d h i m w a s

g re a t.

Y ork:

W illia m Jam es, E s s a y s in R a d ic a l E m p iric ism L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C om pany, 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 5TI

(New

138 The m eth o d s a d v o c a te d b y S p e n c e r a r e e s s e n t i a l l y th o s e in u se to d a y In s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry .

By t h e u s e o f t h e

tw o t e c h n i q u e s o f . c o n t r a s t a n d t h e g e n e t i c a p p r o a c h ,

Spencer

a n t e d a t e d m u ch o f t h e

S c ie n ­

tific

sc ie n tific

th in k in g

in q u ir y m ust have y a r d s t i c k s .

d a t a T ir ith o u t a n y I d e a a s t o i t s o r a s to

its

rise

i n k n o w le d g e. knew t h a t

T he i n s p e c t i o n o f s e n s e

c o m p a riso n w i t h o t h e r d a t a ,

an d d e v e lo p m e n t,

Jam es,

o f to d a y .

p r e s e n ts n o th in g o f v a lu e

a s w e ll as h i s p re d e c e s s o r S p en cer,

su b s ta n tia tio n

r e q u ir e d c o m p a ra tiv e t e s t i n g

and

a n a l y s i s o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f o b j e c t s . P e r c e p t and c o n c e p t.

E d u c a tio n , a s a le a r n in g p ro ­

c e s s , w as t h e m eans w h e re b y t h e m in d c o u l d l e a r n fr o m p r a c ­ t i c a l e x p e rie n c e .

T h is l e a r n i n g w as l a t e r

to have p r a c t i c a l

a p p lic a tio n . L e a rn in g , p e rc e p tio n ,

In th e b e g in n in g ,

Jam es s a i d ,

a lw a y s o c c u r r e d th r o u g h

b u t th a t p e r c e p tio n w as i n t e r r e l a t e d

w i t h c o n c e p t i o n w as o b v i o u s to h im . t h i n g s * a r e known to u s b y o u r s e n s e s , a n d a r e c a l l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s * b y som e a u t h o r s , t o d i s t i n g u i s h th e m f r o m t h e i d e a o r 1r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s 1 w h i c h we may h a v e w hen o u r s e n s e s a r e c l o s e d . I m y s e l f h a v e grow n a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e w o r d s 1p e r c e p t * a n d ‘ c o n c e p t 1 i n t r e a t i n g o f th e c o n tr a s t, b u t c o n c e p ts flo w o u t o f p e r c e p t s a n d i n t o th e m a g a i n , t h e y a r e so i n t e r l a c e d , a n d o u r l i f e r e s t s on th e m so i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , t h a t i t i s o f te n d i f f i c u l t to im p a rt q u ic k lv t o b e g in n e r s a c l e a r n a tu r e o f th e d i f f e r e n c e m e t.^ Q Y o rk :

W i l l i a m J a m e s , Bome P r o b l e m s o f P h i l o s o p h y L o n g m a n s G r e e n a n d C om pany, 1 91 17> p* ^7*

(New

139 Jam es w as on s a f e in v e s tig a tio n

had a ls o

g ro u n d h e r e ,

advanced th e

b e tw e e n p e r c e p t a n d c o n c e p t*

in th a t

p sy c h o lo g ic a l

th e o ry o f in te r a c tio n

In a sense th is

p o sitio n i s

K a n tia n , f o r K ant h e ld t h a t a p e r c e p t w ith o u t a c o n c e p t w as b l in d and c o n v e rs e ly t h a t e m p ty * tio n

a c o n c e p t w i t h o u t a p e r c e p t was

J a m e s w e n t b e y o n d K a n t i n t h a t he p i c t u r e d i n t e r a c ­

in th e n a tu re

o f an o n g o in g p r o c e s s an d n o t a s d i s c r e t e

phases of a p e c u lia r p ro cess c a lle d S e n sa tio n an d th in k in g .

’k n o w in g .1

W illia m Jam es a d v an c ed th e

th e o ry t h a t s e n s a tio n and th o u g h t a re g e th e r.

in e x tr ic a b ly bound t o ­

T h in k in g w i t h o u t t h e a c c o m p a n im e n t o f f e e l i n g

im p o ssib le ;

som e e m o t i o n w a s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o

was

re fle c tio n .

Jam es c o u ld n o t r e a s o n a b ly d ic h o to m iz e p e r c e p t i o n an d con­ c e p tio n ,

a l t h o u g h he

sta te d

t h a t 11t h e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e b e ­

tw een p e r c e p t s a n d c o n c e p ts i s

t h a t p e rc e p ts a re c o n tin u o u s

and c o n c e p ts a re d i s c r e t e . ”

It

p la in s,

th a t

feren ce l i e s

is

n o t, a s he l a t e r ex­

th e y a re a p a r t In t h e i r

’b e i n g ’ b u t t h e d i f ­

in

t h e i r s e v e r a l m e a n in g s .

When h e s t a t e d was v o i c i n g h i s ness. ’

th a t p e rc e p ts a re c o n tin u o u s,

s trik in g

th e o ry o f th e

Jam es b e li e v e d t h a t th in k in g

e v e ry hour of th e day.

^

Ibid*, p. ^6.

In

sle e p ,

Jam es

’ stre a m o f c o n s c io u s ­

o f som e k i n d w e n t o n

t h i n k i n g becam e sub m erg ed

140 and su b c o n sc io u s. in g ,

S p e e c h was c a l l e d

o r ra th e r a rtic u la te In

th is

a rb itra rily .

1s u b c o n s c i o u s 1 t h i n k ­

th o u g h t.

stre a m o f c o n s c io u s n e s s ,

c o n c e p tio n i s d iv id e d

E a c h c o n c e p t h a s a d i s t i n c t m e a n in g w h ic h t h e i n

t e l l e c t m ust a n a ly z e .

The r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n i n g b e tw e e n a l l

t h e v a r i o u s h u e s a n d s h a d e s o f m e a n in g i s

th e g r e a t ta s k in

t h e k n o w in g p r o c e s s .

Jam es lik e n e d th in k ­

As h a s b e e n s t a t e d ,

i n g t o a s tr e a m w h ereb y t h e c o n s c io u s n e s s f lo w s on a n d o n , v o lu n ta r ily th ro u g h th e pow er o f th e w i l l,

o r in v o lu n ta rily

d u rin g s le e p in g and s o - c a l le d n o n -c o n s c io u sly How t h i n k i n g b e c o m e s o r d e r e d ^

th in k in g h o u rs.

To W i l l i a m J a m e s e x i s t ­

e n c e w as a c o n f u s i o n o u t o f w h ic h k n o w le d g e h a d f i r s t a n a ly z e d >

th e n

p e r f orm ed a l l

s o rte d and f i n a l l y th e s e u n i q u e 'd u t i e s

c la ss ifie d *

of life *

A g a in , i t

was t h i s

p e r m i t t e d h im t o l e a d t h e

The I n t e l l e c t

i n m an , a n d i t

sam e I n t e l l e c t w h i c h s e p a r a t e d man f r o m t h e

to be

w as th e

*l o w e r *

fo rm s

c r e a t i o n p e c u l i a r t o man w h i c h

’b e t t e r l i f e *

th ro u g h re a so n .

W illia m Jam es b e l i e v e d t h a t c o n c e p tio n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m an’ s p r o g r e s s , from p e r c e p t i o n ,

and w h ile he n e v e r a d m itte d i t s he a l w a y s a c c o r d e d i t

s e p a ra tio n

th e m a jo r e m p h a sis.

T h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f m an c o n s i s t s a l m o s t w h o l l y in h is s u b s ti t u t io n o f a c o n c e p tu a l o rd e r f o r th e p e r c e p t u a l o r d e r in w h ic h h i s e x p e r ie n c e o r i g i n a l l y

came?-^

^

I b id . , p. T 1 .1

.3

51*

141 C o n c e p t i o n i s p e r h a p s m o re i m p o r t a n t t h a n p e r c e p ­ tio n term s.

he a s s e r t e d ,

b u t a s a p r o c e s s he e q u a t e d t h e

A l l k n o w le d g e b e g a n i n p e r c e p t i o n .

c o n c e rn in g

p e rc e p tio n

day and s t i l l

serv e

two

Jam es'

th e o rie s

an d c o n c e p tio n w ere la n d m a rk s i n t h e i r

as g u id e s in

t h e w h o l e p r o b l e m o f how

man t h i n k s . T h in k in g

is

th e

'o r d e r in g '

fu se d s e n s e -d a ta a re p la c e d in to Jam es s a i d .

T he m i n d ,

c r im in a to r y p o w ers.

p r o c e s s w hereby th e con­ th e ir r ig h tf u l c a te g o rie s,

as an a c tiv e a g e n t,

has d is tin c t d is ­

F ro m t h e j u m b l e o f d a t a ,

c o h e r e n t a n d u n i f i e d c o r p u s o f k n o w le d g e. e x p e r i e n c e a n d u se w ere

m in d m a k e s a

He b e l i e v e d t h a t

t h e tw o c r i t e r i a f o r

th e o r d e r ly

sequence o f th e c o lle c te d d a ta . W illia m Jam es'

i n f l u e n c e o n o r o b i era- s o 1 v l n g ♦

A m e ric an c l a s s r o o m , w i t h i t s is

g re a tly

in d e b te d to

p ra g m a tism a n d i t s

th is

The

e m p h a sis on p r a g m a tic l e a r n i n g , p io n e e r th in k e r.

H is w o rk on

c o n s e q u e n t i n f l u e n c e i n A m e ric an e d u c a ­

t i o n p l a c e s h im d e f i n i t e l y

in

th e f o r e p a r t o f a l l

th e con­

trib u to rs . H is i n s i g h t

in to

t h e p r o b le m o f k n o w in g a n d h i s

a r d e n t a d v o c a c y o f t h e p r i m a c y o f e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n m ake h im o n e o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . and u t i l i t y ,

th e l e i t m o t i f o f Jam es'

For e m p iric ism

e p is te m o lo g y ,

v e r y t e n e t s o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

are

th e

T h in k in g b e g in s w i t h

ik z

a p r o b l e m a n d m u s t l a t e r h a v e som e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . P ro b le m -so lv in g a s

a te c h n iq u e

in le a rn in g

fo llo w s

Ja m e s1 e p is te m o lo g ic a l t h e o r i e s a lm o st r e l i g i o u s l y , s t a r t s w ith d i f f i c u l t i e s

of p a rtic u la r

■ in sta n c e s*

an d th e n

g o e s to p r i n c i p l e s c a p a b le o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . te c h n iq u e to

is

th e essen ce o f s c ie n tif ic

a b s tr a c t th in k in g .

Jam es*

v iz .,

* s t r a w men* o f

le a rn in g

T h is

in q u ir y a s opposed

many p o l e m i c s w e r e d i r e c t e d

a g a in s t d e d u c tiv e and a b s tr a c t re a so n in g . t a c k s on t h e

fo r i t

’u n iv e rsa ls*

fo r le a rn in g ’ s sake,

T h ro u g h th e a t ­ and

*a b s t r a c t i o n s *

J a m e s a d v o c a t e d h i s own

t h e o r i e s o f p ra g m a tism a n d e m p iric is m . The n a t u r e o f a l l e v o lu tio n and s c ie n c e . in

o f Jam es*

t h i n k i n g w as g ro u n d e d i n

O th e rs w ere a s g r e a t l y

in flu e n tia l

th e adv an cem en t o f s c ie n c e , b u t W illia m Jam es,

p erh ap s

m ore t h a n a n y o t h e r t h i n k e r , b r o u g h t p r a g m a tis m i n t o nence. in g

A l o n g w i t h t h e p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y cam e t h e l e a r n ­

te c h n iq u e III.

c a lle d p ro b le m -so lv in g . JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART ( 1 7 7 6 - 1 8 4 1 )

H e r b a r t ’ s g e n iu s w as e x p r e s s e d in fie ld s,

c h ie fly ,

p h ilo s o p h y .

h o w ever,

in

th e f i e l d s

H is e d u c a ti o n a l t h e o r i e s ,

d iv o rc e d from h i s p h ilo s o p h y , tu re s .

p ro m i­

In c lu d e

sev eral d iffe re n t o f e d u c a tio n and

w h ile th e y c a n n o t be some d i s t i n c t i v e

fea­

H is p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t in g s p ro v e d a s tim u lu s to

sc ie n tific

stu d y and e x p e rim e n ta tio n ,

n o t o n ly in p h ilo s o p h y

14-3 b u t a ls o

i n t h e r e a lm o f e m p i r i c a l th o u g h t*

H is e d u c a t i o n ­

a l v ie w s w i l l be p r e s e n te d i n th e n e x t c h a p te r* c h a p te r,

H e rb a rt* s e p is te m o lo g y w i l l be d is c u s s e d .

The d o c t r i n e ic a l

o f a rrp e rc e o tio n *

H e rb a rt* s e p ie te m o lo g -

sy ste m c e n t e r e d a ro u n d th e c o n c e p t o f

He d e f i n e d a p p e r c e p t i o n a s t h e j e c t s g iv e n to ‘fa c u lty *

a b ility

us by o u r senses*

o f b e in g a b le to

th em w i t h l i k e

to

A p p e rc e p tio n .1 sin g le

ou t th e ob­

A p p e rc e p tio n a ls o

had th e

d e te rm in e th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e ­

c u l i a r to any o b je c t i d e n t i f i e d tra s tin g

In th is

th ro u g h th e s e n s e s by con­

o b j e c t s 3mown t o t h e m in d p r e v i o u s l y .

T hro u g h th e a p p e r c e p t iv e p r o c e s s ,

th e

in te lle c t,

t e r h a v in g i d e n t i f i e d t h e

o b je c t g iv e n i t

a tte m p ts to e x p la in

te rm s o f p r e v io u s k n o w le d g e.

th is

it

in

m a n n e r t h e l e a p f r o m t h e k now n t o

p o ss ib le .

In

fa c t,

b u i ld s a c o n n e c tin g

by e x p e r ie n c e ,

f o r th e

m in d

l i n k b y m e a n s o f t h e s e know n f a c t s . in e f f e c t s i m il a r ,

h a s a t o o l b y w h ic h i t

a ll

T h ro u g h t h i s t o o l t h e o b je c t o f

it.

k n o w led g e i s

a ls o

c la s s if ie d and p u t in to

k n o w le d g e i s

added in

*s t o r a g e . 1

t h e m in d n o t i c e s t h e

f e a t u r e s a p a r t fro m th e b a s i c

sense d a ta .

c o m e s t o kn o w

New

th e p ro c e s s o f c o n tr a s tin g w ith p re ­

v io u s k n o w le d g e, b e c a u s e tin c tiv e

In ­

t h e m in d

th ro u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t com es to

In

t h e unknown b eco m es

no l e a p i s n e c e s s a r y ,

asm uch a s a l l k n o w led g e i s

af­

T he m i n d s t o r e s

new a n d d i s ­

sim ila rity

away a l l i t s

d a ta to

of a ll be c a l l e d

144 upon l a t e r f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The l o c a t i o n a c c o rd in g

o f th e

sto ra g e

to H e rb a rt,

m o re [k n o w le d g e t h a t i s

space

is

p u rp o ses*

so m e w h a t v a g u e , b u t ,

th e b ra in a c ts as a re p o s ito r y . c o lle c te d ,

s t r e n g t h e n n ew p e r c e p t i o n

The

t h e m o re t h e m i n d c a n

a n d i n tim e

come t o

k now a l l t h e

c u l t u r a l a c c r e t i o n s h a n d e d down f r o m t h e p a s t . F u rth e r a n a ly sis o f t io n .'l^

th e

*d o c t r i n e o f a p p e r c e p -

The c o n c e p t o f a p p e r c e p t i o n

th em e a n d t h e r e f o r e

d eserv ed fu rth e r

is

H e r b a r t 1s c e n t r a l

a m p lific a tio n .

U pon

t h is co n cep t H erb art b ased h is e n tir e

e p is te m o lo g y a s w e ll

a s h i s p h ilo s o p h y .

s t a r t s w ith sense

d a ta , b u t th e se fa sh io n ,

K n o w in g , h e s a i d ,

s e n s e d a t a a r e s t o r e d aw ay i n

m y ste rio u s

re m a in in g e v e r l a t e n t and w a itin g f o r a c a l l to

h e lp r e - in f o r c e

new p e r c e p t i o n s .

te m o lo g y ,

ap p aren t th a t id e a s a re l e f t

it

is

m in d fro m e a c h e x p e r i e n c e ,

I n th e H e rb a rtia n e p is ­

and t h i s

o v e r in th e

accru ed gro u p of id e a s

a lw a y s e m e rg e s fro m c o n s c i o u s n e s s d u r in g p e r c e p t i o n s w h ich r e q u i r e th em . M o dern p s y c h o lo g y h a s d e r i v e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e 1t h r e s h o l d o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s * p e rc e p tio n .

fro m H e r b a r t* s t h e o r y o f a p ­

He p r e s e n t e d t h e t h e o r y t h a t i d e a s a r i s e

th a t th r e s h o ld o f u n c o n scio u sn e ss in to

above

c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h en

J o h a n F r i e d r i c h H e r b a r t, A T ex t-B o o k i n P s y c h o lo g y (Hew Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C om pany, 1 9 0 1 ) , pp* 1 3 6 - 5 2 1 ( T r a n s l a t e d b y M a r g a r e t K. S m i t h . )

3A5 a llie d

id e a s

dorm ant in

s tim u la te

th e b r a in

th em .

The m ass o f

sto re d id e a s l i e s

a n d a p e r c e p t u a l s t i m u l u s im p e ls one

o r m any t o t h e s u r f a c e w h e n n e e d e d .

H e rb a rt d e s c rib e d th e

p ro c e ss a s fo llo w s: The f i r s t c h a o s o f c o n c e p t s , w h i l e i t c o n s t a n t l y r e ­ c e i v e s new a d d i t i o n s , i s a t t h e sam e t i m e s u b j e c t e d t o a c o n tin u o u s s e p a r a tio n . M ot t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n s o n c e c o m p le te d w o u ld e v e r be b ro k e n u p ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e num ber o f c o n c e p ts i s c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s e d an d t h e i r i n n e r c o n t e n t s a u g m e n te d . . . . The o b j e c t s m o v e , a n d c h i e f l y b e c a u s e o f th em , t h e e n v ir o n m e n t i s b r o k e n up in to d i s t i n c t i o n s ; in t h i s m anner a p l u r a l i t y o f th in g s o r i g i n a t e s f r o m m a n * s p o w e r o f c o n c e p t i o n . -**3 F ro m t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n a n d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t r e a t ­ m ent o f r t h i s

c h a p te r,

th e D o c trin e

o f A p p e r c e p t i o n may b e

su m m arize d .

H e r b a r t b e l i e v e d t h a t k n o w le d g e, w h ic h a t f i r s t

c o n s i s t s o f som ew hat v a g u e a n d d i s c r e t e t h e m in d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e .

T h ere,

s t o r e d aw ay f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , and c la s s if ie d f o r f u r th e r use. in

o b je c ts ,

com es t o

because o f o th e r id e a s t h e new d a t a a r e

A f t e r b e in g

some u n d e s c r i b e d r e c e s s o f t h e b r a i n ,

th e

th u s p ig e o n h o le d id e a s l i e

m ant u n t i l c a l l e d upon f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . k n o w le d g e t h u s i s e s s e n t i a l l y c h a o tic fo rm .

H ow ever,

th ro u g h t h i s

U

add to

th e re a re n ovel id e a s

A ll

and d i s t i n c t

T hese d i s t i n c t c h a r­

t h e sum t o t a l o f k n o w l e d g e .

p ro cess,

d o r­

s i m i l a r w hen d i v e s t e d o f i t s

f e a t u r e s a b o u t o b j e c t s o f k n o w le d g e . a c te ristic s

so rte d

I n tim e ,

H e r b a r t b e l i e v e s t h a t m en w o u l d come

I b i d . , pp. 1 5 0 - 5 1 .

146 to

th e

t r u e w is d o m o f t h e

ages.

C o m o le x e s a n d b l e n d i n g s . in g s*

H e r b a r t 1s n o t i o n

of

‘b l e n d ­

and ‘ c o m p le x e s ,1 p r e s e n ts th e th e o ry t h a t id e a s a re

c o n tig u o u s a s r e g a r d s t h e i r t h a t o p p o site

id e a s c o u ld u n ite

t o m ake o n e c o h e r e n t i d e a . c o m p le x ity o f id e a s on t h e

or

He a l s o b e l i e v e d

'b le n d '

a s he c a lle d i t

He b a s e d h i s t h e o r i e s o f t h e

and t h e i r p o s s i b l e b l e n d i n g s

concept of th e

S in c e th e

‘p r o p e r t i e s . 1

to g e th e r

s im p lic ity and u n ity o f th e

s o u l i s a. s i m p l i f i e d a n d u n i f i e d w h o l e ,

a s a n e x a m p le f o r t h e p e r f e c t

'e s s e n c e '

so u l. it

serv es

b e h in d a l l b le n d in g s

a n d c o m p le x e s. H e r b a r t p o s t u l a t e d t h i s a w k w a rd a n d r a m i f i e d t h e o r y o f c o m p l e x i t y a n d b l e n d i n g b e c a u s e he r e a l i z e d o fte n appear in

c l u s t e r s a n d i n m any r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

th e s e m ix tu re s an d r e l a tio n s h ip s i n tim e j u s t a s d i d th e a d e fin ite

t h a t id e a s

so u l in

d riv e fo r p e rp e tu ity

stra ig h te n som e d i s t a n t

But

th e m se lv e s o u t era.

T here i s

in th e a c tio n and r e a c tio n

o f i d e a s upon one a n o th e r . F or H erb art

'id e a *

He u s e d t h e Grerman t e r m

w as u s e d i n i t s

" V o r s t e l l u n g , " w h ic h b r o a d ly t r a n s ­

l a t e d b e co m es “m e n t a l im ag e" tio n ."

T h is p r e s e n t a t i o n

o r m o re l i t e r a l l y ,

first

o ccu rs a f te r

have been p re s e n te d w ith an o b je c t. o b je c t,

th e

h ig h e st sense.

id e a b e h in d i t ,

" re p re s e n ta ­

our senses

The 'e s s e n c e *

of th is

r e a c ts w ith th e o th e r id e a s

1M7 t h e m in d p o s s e s s e s * sen ces and th e

T he i n t e r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e

re la tio n

g iv e s us id e a s ,

es­

i n w h ic h one a c t s upon a n o t h e r

som ew hat i n t h e

fa sh io n of th e o ld k in e ­

scope* M a th e m a tic s.

Johann F r ie d r ic h H erb art

because o f h is e f f o r ts

to red u ce th e f a c t s o f

m a th e m a tic a l s ta te m e n ts . risin g

and sin k in g

He c o n s i d e r e d t h e

fact

t h e m in d t o

id e a th a t

o f id e a s in c o n sc io u sn e ss

p l i e d m a th e m a tic a l r e l a t i o n s .

i s n o te d a ls o

some hot* im ­

T h is im p lic a tio n l i e s

t h a t i d e a s m any t i m e s o c c u r r e d s e r i a l l y .

th e

in th e

S i n c e one

i d e a b r i n g s u p one o r m ore d i f f e r e n t i d e a s b l e n d e d w i t h i t , it

m ust th e n l o g i c a l l y f o llo w t h a t

some s e r i e s .

T he sam e i d e a w i l l u s u a l l y f o r m o n e o f a

c h a i n i n o n e o r m o re s e r i e s . sh ip ,

H erb art arg u ed ,

w as show n.

id e a s a re but u n its in

By t h i s m a t h e m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n ­

th e c o m p le x ity o f a s s o c i a t io n o f id e a s

He w r o t e :

T h e c o n c e p t o f a s e r i e s i s sh o w n m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e ­ l y i n th e n o t i o n s o f i n t e g r a l p o s i t i v e n u m b ers . . . b e t w e e n w h o l e n u m b e r s c o n t i n u o u s t r a n s i t i o n s a r e made by m eans o f f r a c t i o n s ; a l s o a b ackw ard, p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e s e r i e s may b e m ad e b y m e a n s o f m i n u s n u m b e r s . . . . B rie fly , f o r p s y c h o lo g is ts , a rith m e tic fu rn is h e s a r e ­ m a r k a b le e x a m p le o f a c o n c e p t o f a s e r i e s c o n s t a n t l y b e c o m i n g m o r e a b s t r a c t e d , w h i c h may b e t r a v e r s e d i n b o th d i r e c t i o n s a n d b y i n f i n i t e l y m in u te s t e p s . ^ M a th e m a tic a l fo rm u la e p la y e d an im p o rta n t p a r t in

1^

I b id . , p. 56.

148 th e th e o ry of a p p e rc e p tio n .

H e r b a r t, by m eans o f v e r b a l

sc a ffo ld in g ,

th e o ry aro u n d m a th e m a tic s,

c o n stru c te d h is

w h ic h s e rv e d a s th e s k e l e t a l

stru c tu re *

p e rc e p tio n has not been e n tir e ly

The t h e o r y o f a p ­

e x p lo d e d ,

a l t h o u g h some

o f H e r b a r t 's o th e r c o n c e p ts have b e e n , n o ta b ly t h a t o f th e in tro d u c tio n of w ill in reaso n . co re,

W ith m a th e m a tic s a s a

t h e t h e o r y o f a p p e r c e p t i o n t a k e s on l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . Im p lic a tio n s o f a p p e rc e p tio n f o r p ro b le m -so lv in g .

H e r b a r t 1s p o s t u l a t i o n w ith p ro b le m -so lv in g .

of s c ie n tific A ll

th in k in g b e g in s

w o rld b e c a u se o f d i f f i c u l t i e s It

is

th o u g h t i s

h a rm o n y

in th e o u te r

e n c o u n te re d by

th e

th ro u g h th e s e n s e s t h a t th in k in g b e g in s .

c a te g o ric a lly

in

senses. H erb art

sta te d :

The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l o f e x p e r i e n c e i s p r i n c i p a l l y th e w ork o f t h e o u t e r s e n s e s , o f to u c h , t a s t e , sm e ll, h e a rin g an d s e e in g . The f i v e s e n s e s m e n tio n e d a r e e n u m e r a te d a c c o r d i n g to th e o rg an s o f se n se . T h ere i s a l a r g e r num ber o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f s e n s u o u s i m p r e s s i o n s . ' M o re ­ o v e r, th e o rg a n s th e m se lv e s c o n ta in s e n s i t i v e s u r f a c e s , h e n c e i n n u m e r a b l e s e n s i t i v e p l a c e s . 3-5 T here i s

one a p p a r e n t f la w i n H e rb art* s t h i n k i n g

w h ic h m u st be m e n tio n e d a t o f th e

th e o ry

th is

tim e .

T h ere I s e v id e n c e

s e t up by Rene D e s c a r t e s w h ic h h a s p la g u e d

e p is te m o lo g y f o r c e n t u r i e s .

15 I b i d . , p . 5^

T he m i n d - b o d y c o n t r o v e r s y i s

s till

u n se ttle d ,

b u t d u a lism

is

som ew hat i n

d isre p u te .

H e r b a r t b e l i e v e d t h e r e w as a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e tw e e n m in d a n d bod y w h ic h m u st b e i n c l u d e d i n h i s m a th e m a tic a l c a l c u l a ­ tio n s .

T h i s p h a s e o f H e r b a r t 1 s e p i s t e m o l o g i e a l sc h e m e i s

a n ta g o n is tic to H ere a g a i n i s 'f a c u l t i e s ' s p ite

t h a t upon w h ic h p r o b le m - s o lv in g

seen th e o ld th e o ry o f

o f t h e m in d a s d i s t i n c t

of th is

e n titie s .

H e rb a rt,

r e a l l y m ade a n e f f o r t

sy ste m i s r a t h e r h eav y and p e d a n t ic ,

i s n o n e - th e - le s s an in g e n io u s e p is te m o lo g y .

th a t th in k in g

is

t u l a t e d th e fo u r p h a se s o f th o u g h t:

i s u n iq u e .

re c o g n itio n ,

h a rm o n iz a tio n an d u n i f i c a t i o n ,

lo g ic a l.

T hese fo u r s te p s

com es t o k n o x ^ le d g e. so lv in g ,

IV .

n o t to o u n l i k e p ro b lem ­

a l l liv in g th e o ry of

p h ilo s o p h e rs . sc ie n tific

c la ss ifie d ,

sought a f t e r .

JOHN DEWEY ( 1 8 5 9 -

J o h n Dewey r a n k s

c la s s ifi­

a r e t h e p a t h b y w h i c h t h e m in d

The s y s t e m i s

so lu tio n s

He p o s ­

w h ic h a r e n o t i l ­

i n t h a t p ro b le m s a r e to b e r e c o g n iz e d ,

an d h a rm o n io u s

H is i d e a

a p r o c e s s b a s e d on p r e v i o u s a n d s t o r e d -

a w ay k n o w l e d g e , m a t h e m a t i c a l l y g u i d e d ,

c a tio n ,

in

th in k in g .

W h ile H e r b a r t ' s it

'm e n ta l phenom ena1 an d

ap p aren t c o n tra d ic tio n ,

to w a rd s c i e n t i f i c

i s based.

) AS EPISTEMOLOGIST

i n m any c i r c l e s

as th e g re a te s t of

As a f o r c e f u l e x p o n e n t o f t h e

in q u iry ,

f e c t on e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n ,

he h a s few e q u a ls .

and s t i l l

is,

H is e f ­

tre m e n d o u s.

H is

150 im p a c t i s f e l t le a rn in g ,

i n t h e A m e ric an c la s s r o o m .

i.e .,

n ex t c h a p te r.

H is t h e o r i e s on

p ro b le m -s o lv in g , w i l l be p r e s e n te d in th e T h is p h a se o f th e s tu d y w i l l a tte m p t to

a n a l y z e h i s v ie w s on s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry a s a fo u n d a tio n f o r

p ro b le m -so lv in g . R e fle c tiv e th in k in g .

Dewey s t a t e s :

. . . r e f l e c t i v e t h in k i n g , i n d i s t i n c t i o n fro m o th e r o p e r a t i o n s t o w h i c h w e a p p l y t h e nam e o f t h o u g h t , i n ­ v o lv e s ( l ) a s t a t e o f d o u b t, h e s i t a t i o n , p e r p le x ity , m e n ta l d i f f i c u l t y , i n w h ic h t h in k in g o r i g i n a t e s , and (2) a n a c t o f s e a r c h in g , h u n tin g , i n q u i r y , to f i n d and d is p o s e o f th e p e r p l e x i t y . 1° T h is s ta te m e n t i s a s re g a rd s th e

p erh ap s th e c le a r e s t

e p is te m o lo g y b a s ic t o

to b e found

p ro b le m -so lv in g .

T h is

k n o w in g p r o c e s s o f D ew ey*s i s b a s e d u pon t h e t h e o r y o f in stru m e n ta lis m . in te lle c t, le ss

th an

w eapon i s

T h is

th e o ry h o ld s t h a t th e

o r m a n 's a b i l i t y an i n s t r u m e n t .

F u rth e r,

f o r use in a d ju s tin g

M in d a s w e l l a s b o d y i s r e s u lt o f th e .c o n s ta n t h is

to t h in k ,

to

‘m in d ,*

o r th e

i s n o t h i n g m o re o r

th is in stru m e n t o r an h o s t i l e

e n v iro n m e n t.

a n o rg a n w h ic h h a s e v o lv e d a s th e s t r u g g l e o f man f o r e q u i l i b r i u m

in

ev er je a lo u s m ilie u . R e fle c tiv e

th in k in g ,

in g m ust b e r e f l e c t i v e ,

is

a n d f o r Dewey a l l

r e a l th in k ­

e x p la in e d not as a r e s u l ta n t o f

J o h n D ew ey , How We T h i n k ( B o s t o n : a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 ) > P* 1 2 .

D. C. H e a t h

151 any m e ta p h y s ic a l o r s u p e r n a t u r a l phenom ena.

It

Is ra th e r

a t o o l w i t h w h i c h n a t u r e h a s e n d o w e d man f o r h i s

s u rv iv a l.

By i t

in a d is -

he can a c h ie v e

som e m e a s u r e o f e q u i l i b r i u m

e q u i l i b r a t e d w o rld * D e w e y 1s p h i l o s o p h y h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y

n a tu ra listic .

T h i n k i n g a r i s e s b e c a u s e a n d o n l y b e c a u s e man*

in

o rd e r to

su rv iv e ,

h a s t h i s w eapon b e q u e a th e d b y a n o th e r w is e h a r s h

n a tu re .

M in d i s a n a t u r a l e n d o w m e n t n o t t o b e s e p a r a t e d

fro m body i n i t s tity ;

it

is

essen ce in tic

d e v e lo p m e n t.

a h ig h e r ty p e

M in d i s n o t a d i s c r e t e

o f n e u r a l p r o c e s s h a v in g

th e body a s a t o t a l i t y .

i n e p is te m o lo g y a s o p p o sed to

as ex p ressed in

are

a ttrib u te s

th e d u a lism

its

v ery

i s m o n is­

o f D e sc a rte s

C h a p te r IV .

Dewey m a i n t a i n s of life

T h is p o s i t i o n

en­

t h a t th e o t h e r s o - c a l l e d lo w e r fo rm s

e a c h endow ed, of siz e ,

a g a in b y n a t u r e , w i t h th e

speed,

b r a i n w h i c h he u s e s t o

stre n g th ,

e tc .

sev eral

Man a l o n e h a s a

com bat an e n v iro n m e n t w h ic h a p p e a rs

in im ic a l to h i s i^ e lfa re .

In th is

u se d f o r re a s o n in g and i s

not lik e

s e n s e , m an’ s b r a i n t h a t o f th e

is

o th e r

a n im a ls w h ic h seem s t o a c t t h r o u g h random a c t i v i t y

and so-

c a lle d in s tin c t. M an’ s u n iq u e a b i l i t y t h i n k i n g h a s h e l p e d h im t o w o rld . th is

to

s u rv iv e and to r u l e

O th e r fo rm s o f l i f e ,

a b ility ,

p e r is h e d from

use h i s b r a in f o r r e f l e c t i v e t h e know n

se e m in g ly b e c a u s e th e y la c k e d th e f a c e o f

th e e a r t h .

Of a l l

152 th e c o n ta in e d fo rm s o f l i f e th e a b i l i t y su rv iv a l l i e

of re fle c tiv e in

on t h i s

p la n e t,

th in k in g *

o n l y m an h a s

H is s t r e n g t h a n d M s

th is a b ility .

B e ca u se o f m an’ s a b i l i t y m any o f h i s w e a k n e s s e s . t o o w o u ld b e l o s t ,

t o r e a s o n he h a s o v erco m e

W ith o u t t h i s u n iq u e a b i l i t y

a c c o rd in g

t o J o h n D ew ey.

And t h i s

i n g w h i c h h a s s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d homo s a p i e n s i s and o r ig in a te s p ro b lem . tin c tly

in and te m p o ra rily

T h is p ro b lem i s u n frie n d ly

in d u c tio n is ts . d is tin c tiv e

c a u se d by

c o n c lu d e s a g a in w ith a

su rro u n d in g s. Dewey i s

ex p ressed th e

th e g r e a t c o l l a t o r .

th in k in g

But h is a b i l i t y

and o rig in a l.

fo r

o f m any o f t h e g r e a t

sta tin g

In th e fo llo w in g

th e cru x o f h i s e p is te m o lo g y . in g can r e s u l t

th in k ­

e v e r p r e s e n t i n th e fo rm o f d i s ­

A c ts o f r e f l e c t i o n . T h ro u g h h im i s

he

th e

th e s is is

s ta te m e n t l i e s

A c c o r d i n g t o D ewey,

i n o n ly t e n t a t i v e

c o n c lu sio n s,

th in k ­

sin c e th e re

a r e no u l t i m a t e a n s w e r s : The p o s i t i o n t h a t I t a k e , n a m e ly , t h a t a l l k n o w le d g e o r w a rra n te d a s s e r ti o n depends upon in q u ir y an d t h a t in q u ir y i s t r u i s t l e a l l y c o n n e c te d w ith w hat i s q u e s­ t i o n a b l e (a n d q u e s tio n e d ) in v o lv e s a s c e p t i c a l e le m e n t o f w h a t P e i r c e c a l l e d 1f a l l i b i l i s m . 1 Dewey s e e m s t o b e l i e v e

17

th a t

t h e o n l y w ay t o

J o h n D e w e y , P r o b l e m s o f Men (New Y o r k : s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 19 ^ 6 ) , p . 3 3 5 •

The P h i l o -

com p reh en d t h i n k i n g sta n c e s*

is

to w a tc h i t

sp e c ific

in ­

R e f le c tio n d o e s n o t b e g in w ith u n iv e r s a l p re m ise s,

b u t a lw a y s r a t h e r w i t h d o u b t in g . em erg es a h y p o th e s is w h ic h becom es th e

sk e p tic ism th e re

c o n c lu s io n f o r w h ic h i t a g a in s e e k s an p re m ise .

th e h y p o th e s is i s

p e rim e n ta tio n

F ro m t h i s

( b y Dewey c a l l e d a w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s )

a d e q u a te b u t t e n t a t i v e th in k in g

em erge i n

In

th e f i n a l

s u b je c te d to

or a p p lic a tio n .

sta g e of

th e c r i t e r i o n

of ex­

F o r in p ra g m a tic th o u g h t th e

t r u t h o f any c o n ce p t o r h y p o th e s is

is

d e te rm in e d by i t s

consequences in a p p lic a tio n . P ra g m a tism i n e -p is te m o lo g y . a p o s t l e o f p ra g m a tism , i s g e a re d to t h i s

it

S i n c e D ew ey i s

m ust f o llo w

ty p e o f t h in k in g .

th a t h is A b s tra c t

D ew ey i n v a c u u o i s o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . p r a c tic a l a p p lic a tio n , sin c e th in k in g

is fo r use,

and h ig h ly te n ta tiv e e p is te m o lo g y in

does re fle c tiv e

sta g e .

it

th e

e p is te m o lo g y th in k in g f o r

W hat v a l u e , th in k in g

i.e .,

have?

And

i s a lw a y s i n a p r o b le m a tic Dewey r e f l e c t s

on h i s

own

th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n :

I n e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w in g , t h e a n t e c e d e n t i s a lw a y s t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f som e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h h a s i t s o r i g i n i n n a t u r a l c a u s e s , b u t w h ic h , n o t h a v in g b een c o n tr o lle d in i t s o c c u rre n c e , i s u n c e r ta in and p ro b ­ le m a tic . O rig in a l o b je c ts o f e x p e rie n c e a re produced by th e n a t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f o rg a n ism a n d e n v ir o n ­ m ent a n d i n th e m s e lv e s a r e n e i t h e r s e n s i b l e , co n ­ c e p t u a l n o r a m i x t u r e o f t h e tw o . . . . T he d i s t i n c ­ t i o n b e tw e e n s e n s e - d a t a a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i v e i d e a s i s d e l i b e r a t i v e , i n s t i t u t e d by th e p ro c e s s o f in q u ir y f o r th e sak e o f c a r r y i n g i t fo rw a rd to an a d e q u a te ly

15^

*| o te s te d c o n c lu sio n .

D e w e y 's t h e o r y o f k n o w l e d g e p r e s u p p o s e s a n e m p i r i c a l a n d p r a g m a t i c t h e o r y o f m in d .* th in k in g a t i t s

Dex^ey p r e s e n t s n a t u r a l i s t i c

h ig h e st le v e l in t h i s

i d e a t h a t k n o w le d g e i s

a p r o c e s s w h ic h em erg es fro m d i f f i c u l t y

t h r o u g h t h e m in d ,

w h ic h i s b u t an i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y e f f e c t i v e tio n .

o n ly in r e f l e c ­

T h e re seem s to b e no p la c e h e r e f o r th e

'a -p rio ri1

o r u n iv e r s a l g e n e r a liz a tio n s c o n v e n ie n tly a c c e p te d . in g in t h i s e p is te m o lo g y i s be c a r e f u l l y

e q u a te d w ith in q u ir y w h ic h m ust

c o n tro lle d and o rd ered .

T he t h e o r y o f c o n t i n u i t y . th in k in g

m ust a lw a y s a r i s e

in g p ro c e ss i s

in

The t h i n k ­

In th is p o stu la tio n Dewey r e - a f f i r m s

o f th e

h is d o c trin e

c o n t i n u i t y o f b o d y a n d m in d a s o n e d y n a m i c o r g a n i s m

a so c ie ty

h o s tile

to

its

h e t e a r s dow n t h e d u a l i s m p ro v ed a h in d ra n c e to

in

su rv iv a l.

Ab h a s b e e n s t a / t e d ,

o f D e s c a r t e s w h ic h h a s

so ~ o fte n

a c l e a r c o n c e p t o f e p is te m o lo g y .

D e w e y 's p r o c e s s o f t h i n k i n g m in d i s

th a t

th e n a t u r e o f a c o n tin u u m b e c a u s e o f th e

m in d a s a n o n - g o i n g p r o c e s s ,

in

J o h n Dewey s t a t e s

f r o m som e d i f f i c u l t y .

c o n s t a n t p r o b l e m s man f a c e s .

o f th e

Know­

is

s te e p e d in p h y sio lo g y .

som e way d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e b r a i n ,

T he

and n o t o n ly

upon th e b r a i n b u t upon a l l th e o th e r p a r t s o f th e body a s

^ J o h n D ew ey, T h e Q u e s t f o r C e r t a i n t y M i n t o n B a l c h a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 2 9)* P* 173*

(New Y o r k :

155 w e ll.

A ll th in k in g T here i s

i s done

in

'c o n t i n u u m .1

no c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l

a n d p s y c h i c a l i n D e w e y 's p h i l o s o p h y .

T h i n k i n g f o r Dewey i s

a u n i q u e l y b l e n d e d c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h m in d a n d b o d y w h i c h are

d iv id e d a r b i t r a r i l y

ju n c tio n w ith n a tu re . tio n .

o n ly .

T h u s we h a v e t h e t h e o r y o f i n t e r a c - ^

T h in k in g in t h i s

c o o rd in a te d e f f o r t , U ltim a te

T he m i n d - b o d y w o r k s i n c o n ­

th re e -w a y p ro c e s s ,

in r e a l i t y

m ust have a p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t a lw a y s.

a im s h a v e no p l a c e

in t h i s

e p is te m o lo g y .

I t is

c o n tin u o u s p r o c e s s w h ic h b e g in s and m erg es in d o u b t. is

one

a fo rm o f s o c i a l b e h a v io r a s i t

a

It

e v o lv e s fro m a s o c i a l

m ilie u . F u n c tio n .

F u n c t i o n i s a c o n c e p t w h i c h Dewey h a s m ade

fam o u s n o t o n ly in h i s w o rld a s w e ll.

e p is te m o lo g y > b u t in th e e d u c a tio n a l

A c c o rd in g t o Mm,

th in k i n g m ust n e c e s s a r i l y

h a v e some s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n w M c h m u s t b e a p p l i e d i n t h e s o c ia l su rro u n d in g s.

The i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s h i m s e l f i n

s o r t o f c o n jo in e d s o c ia l a d ju s t to

th is

so c ie ty

He i s f o r c e d t o d o t h i s

g ro u p in

he

some

t h e m odern c u l t u r e .

is fo rc e d to

To

use h i s i n t e l l e c t .

th in k in g by th e v e ry p ro b le m s s e t

u p b y t h e s o c i a l g r o u p o f w h i c h he f o r m s a u n i t .

In d if ­

f e r e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s a n d i n d i f f e r e n t e r a s t h e p ro b le m s w ere d i f f e r e n t ,

b u t th e re

was an d a lw a y s w i l l b e p ro b le m s

f a . c i n g man s o l o n g a s h e e x i s t s .

In o rd er to

face and

156 o v erco m e t h e s e o b s t a c l e s , ta lity .

t h e hum an o r g a n i s m a c t s a s a t o ­

T h is t o t a l a p p ro a c h o r u n i ty o f t h in k in g

o f t h e w ay i n w h i c h a l l

p a rts of

th e body f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r

a s one i n t e g r a t e d w h o le .

A con seq u en t e q u ilib riu m

t a i n e d w h ic h i s v i t a l f o r

s u rv iv a l.

p o s itio n

c o n sists

i s m ain ­

Dewey s u m m a r i z e s t h i s

a s fo llo w s:

We may r e c a p i t u l a t e b y s a y i n g t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h i n k i n g i s some p e r p l e x i t y , c o n f u s i o n , o r d o u b t . T h in k in g i s n o t a c a s e o f s p o n ta n e o u s c o m b u s tio n ; i t d o e s n o t o c c u r J u s t i n * g e n e ra l p r i n c i p l e . 1 T h ere i s so m e th in g t h a t o c c a s i o n s a n d e v o k e s i t . . * . To t h i n k , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e i n h i s own e x ­ p e r i e n c e o f som e d i f f i c u l t y t h a t t r o u b l e s a n d d i s ­ t u r b s h i s e q u i l i b r i u m , i s f u t i l e . . . .1 9 To c a r r y h i s v i e w f u r t h e r i s

to

s a y t h a t D ew ey i s

th e p h i lo s o p h e r o f p ra g m a tism p a r e x c e ll e n c e .

T h in k in g

m u st em erg e a s a * f e l t need*

t o u s e h i s own p h r a s e *

fin d

p ro b le m ,

stim u lu s

in

some a c t i v e

I t m ust

doubt o r d if f ic u lty

and th en a r i s e

a s som e 1w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n *

h y p o th e s is f o r

s till

or te n ta tiv e

a n o th e r p ro b le m .

Dewev* s e f f e c t on s c i e n t i f i c in te lle c tu a l

^

th in k in g ,

in q u iry *

C o n c ern in g

Dewey w r i t e s :

T h is f u n c t i o n w hereby one t h i n g s i g n i f i e s o r I n d i ­ c a t e s a n o t h e r , t h u s l e a d i n g u s t o c o n s i d e r how f a r t h e o n e may b e r e g a r d e d a s w a r r a n t f o r b e l i e f i n t h e o t h e r , i s , th e n , th e c e n tr a l f a c to r in a l l r e f l e c t i v e o r d i s ­ tin c tiv e ly i n te l le c t u a l th in k in g . By c a l l i n g u p v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s to w h ic h s u c h te rm s a s s i g n i f i e s an d

^

John Dewey, How We T h in k , p . 1 1 .

157 in d ic a t e s a p p ly , th e s tu d e n t w i l l r e a l i z e th e a c tu a l f a c t s d e n o te d . Dew ey1s g r e a t e s t e f f o r t , d efen se of s c i e n t i f i c m eans o f

in q u iry .

He i s

c o n tro lle d in q u iry . a u n ity

as

i n o r d e r t o m ore i n t e l l i g e n t l y

th in k in g

th e o n ly

su c c e ss fu ll in itia tio n Man r e v o l v e s i n

a so c ia l

to use h is i n t e l l e c t .

Now

surm ount h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s ,

sh o u ld be o rd e re d and c o h e siv e .

i s n ecessary .

th e

re g a rd s th e p h y s ic a l and p s y c h ic a l,

m oved by t h e p r o b le m s o f s o c i e t y

h is th in k in g

has been in

He b e l i e v e s t h a t

s e c u r i n g k n o w le d g e i s t h e

of lo g ic a lly scene.

p erh ap s,

f o r h im se lf ^

N a tu ra lis tic

D ew ey p u t s a w a y a n y a t t e m p t a t

re a s o n in g by d e d u c tiv e ly

d e riv e d u n iv e rs a l p rin c ip le s *

^

K n o w le d g e m u s t b e g i n i n e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e m e a n s d o u b t, p e r p le x ity a th in k in g

and d i f f i c u l t y .

p ro cess.

The w h o le b o d y r e a c t s i n

K n o w in g i s a w h o l e p r o c e s s .

in g m ust b e l o g i c a l k n o w in g .

And f r o m t h i s

k n o w in g com es w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n s t o s t o n e s f o r f u r t h e r k n o w in g i n

o rd ered ,

s e v e ra l tim e s,

th e th in k in g

se rie s. As h a s b e e n

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d e r i v e s a l m o s t com­

p l e t e l y fro m i n d u c t i o n . c o rn e rs to n e o f th e

lo g ic a l

se rv e a s s te p p in g

P ro b le m - so lv in g : an d s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . s ta te d

T r u e know ­

S c ie n tific

in q u iry

is

th e v ery

te c h n iq u e c a lle d p ro b le m -so lv in g .

i m p l i e s t h e e q u a tio n o f i n q u i r y w i t h p ro b le m .

20 Dewey, l o c . c i t .

Dewey

An i n q u i r y

158 m ust be o c c a s io n e d b y d o u b t and c o n fu sio n * a s a d v o c a t e d b y m any, a l s o ly fa sh io n .

P ro b le m -so lv in g ,

a tte m p ts to p ro ce ed in

an o r d e r ­

T h is to p ic w i l l be d is c u s s e d in a l a t e r

chap­

te r. D e w e y 1s e p i s t e m o l o g y I s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , o f sp e a k in g . scene.

It

is

S c ie n tific

a ls o

in a m anner

a d i s t i n c t p r o d u c t o f t h e A m e ric an

in q u iry

r e c e iv e d im p e tu s fro m th e g r e a t

t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e i n A m e ric a.

The p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r o s e

fro m t h e f o r w a r d m arch o f i n d u s t r y

d em anded new t e c h n i q u e s

of th in k in g .

T he A m e r i c a n c l a s s r o o m

A m e ric a n l i f e . tifid

in q u iry

As s u c h I t

i s a m in ia tu re of

p a rta k e s o f th e e sse n ce o f s c ie n -

in le a rn in g .

D ew ey*s i d e a t h a t t h i n k i n g i n w h ic h t h e I n t e l l e c t

is

i s a c o n tin u o u s p ro c e s s

a sp e c ia l in stru m e n ta lity fo r

su rv iv a l i s

i n d i r e c t a g re e m e n t w i t h th e t h e o r y o f e v o lu ­

tio n

so -c a lle d s c ie n tif ic

in

o r th e

chaos and p e r p le x ity ,

u n iq u e ly endow ed w eapon, c u ltie s.

ap p ro ach .

T h in k in g b e g in s

and th ro u g h th e m o d a lity o f a t h e m in d c a n o v e r c o m e I t s

d iffi­

The m i n d c a n a n a l y z e , c l a s s i f y a n d e a / t e g o r i z e

th e d a ta g a th e r e d by th e

s e n s e s fro m e x p e r ie n c e .

T h e m i n d c o m e s t o know b e c a u s e f o r t h e hum an i n d i v i d u a l s o l v e d on e p e r p l e x i t y ,

to

e x is t.

When t h e m in d h a s r e ­

a n o th e r a r i s e s

o f p e r p l e x i t i e s w h ic h i s

life .

i t m u st know i n o r d e r

in an u n b ro k e n c h a in

T h is s ta te m e n t i s

in a

s e n s e th e e p ito m e o f I n d u c t i v e t h in k i n g a n d h en ce o f

159 p ro b le m -so lv in g .

D e w e y 1s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s g r e a t .

t h e m odern f o u n d a t i o n f o r

p ro b le m -so lv in g

He l a i d

th ro u g h h is

e p is te m o lo g y . V.

SUMMARY

T h is c h a p te r h a s p r e s e n te d t h a t p h ase o f th e e p is ­ t e m o l o g y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s f r o m B a c o n t o D ew ey w h i c h i s r e la te d to

th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p ro b le m s o l v i n g .

Each

t h i n k e r * s w o r k i n t h e k n o x ^ le d g e p r o c e s s w a s p r e s e n t e d , h a rm o n y -w ith th e c e n t r a l

them e o f t h i s

a s t o m ake a u n i f i e d p a t t e r n . se n t th e

so

The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l p r e ­

s t a t u s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d t o d a y a s

re p r e s e n te d by th e le a r n in g m en i n

in v e s tig a tio n ,

in

th e f i e l d .

th e o r ie s o f th e o u tsta n d in g

v

CHAPTER VTI THE STATUS OF MODERN PROBLEM-SOLVING The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p o r t r a y e d t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l th o u g h t o f th e Dewey*

i n d u c t i o n i s t s fro m F r a n c is B acon to

The m e th o d o f s c i e n t i f i c

to have begun w ith B acon. e x p re ss io n in th e f i e l d D ew ey.

It

i n q u i r y may w e l l h e s a i d

has fo u n d i t s

f u l l e s t m odern

o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e w ork o f J o h n

The t a s k o f t h i s p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i l l b e t o

and p r e s e n t th e v a rio u s f a c e t s a s w e ll a s th e o f p ro b le m -so lv in g in th e tw e n tie th

d e fin ite

to ta l p a tte rn

c e n tu ry .

t h e A m e ric a n p u b l i c

and tra c e a b le

M o d e rn p r o b l e m ­

s c h o o l ro o m i s b a s e d u p o n

fo u n d a tio n s.

S p e c ific a lly ,

A m e r i c a n s c h o o l ro o m ,

t h e s e b e g in n in g s em erge fro m

p h ilo s o p h ic a l e f f o r ts

o f Johann F r ie d r ic h H e rb a rt.

G erm an p h i l o s o p h e r a n d p e d a g o g u e i n s t i t u t e d s y s t e m w h i c h cam e t o . t h i s b ro th e rs,

a n a ly z e

t h e A m e ric an e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e o f

The e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s * so lv in g in

John

th e T h is

an e d u c a tio n a l

c o u n t r y t h r o u g h t h e M cM urry

C h a r l e s De Garmo a n d o t h e r s .

c a to r s in tro d u c e d th e

f o r th e

d o c trin e

founded a H e rb a rtia n s o c ie ty .

in to th e

T h ese A m erican e d u ­ sc h o o ls and a ls o

Rugg w r i t e s :

On t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e t h e H e r b a r t i a n s w e r e m o s t a c tiv e and i n f lu e n ti a l. De G a rm o * s E s s e n t i a l s o f M e t h o d a p p e a r e d i n I 8 8 9 , C h a r l e s M cM urry * s 1 s p e c i a l m e th o d * b o o k s a p p e a r e d i n t h e l a t e 9 0 ‘ s a n d t h e tw o

161 M c M u r r y s 1 T he M e t h o d i n t h e R e c i t a t i o n i n 1 9 0 3 . In I 8 9 2 t h e s e men a n d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e R a tio n a l H e r b a r t S o c i e t y , w h ic h a f t e r th e t u r n o f th e c e n tu r y becam e t h e N a t i o n a l S o c ie ty f o r t h e S c i e n t i f i c S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n . The H e r b a r t i a n honor in 1892.

s o c i e t y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n H e r b a r t 1s

T en y e a r s

N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r

th e

la te r,

h o w ev er,

it

becam e th e

S c i e n t i f i c S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n .

The H e r b a r t i a n p h i l o s o p h y w as c h a n g e d and new f e a t u r e s a d d e d in

c o n f o r m ity w i t h t h e n e e d s o f th e A m e ric an s c h o o l .

ev er,

even w ith th e s e m o d if ic a tio n s an d a d a p ta tio n s *

H e r b a r tia n sy s te m o f l e a r n in g c a tio n a l p ra c tic e s ap p eared w ith h is

In th e

th e

c o n tin u e d to d e te rm in e edu­

U n i t e d S t a t e s u n t i l J o h n Dewey

i n d i g e n o u s A m eric an p h i l o s o p h y .

I.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART

H e r b a r t may w e l l s t a n d a s h ie ra rc h y

How­

th e f i r s t

nam e i n t h a t

r e s p o n s ib le f o r p ro b le m -so lv in g in

th e U n ite d S ta te s .

It

is

ra th e r

stra n g e

e d u c a tio n in

t h a t a f o r m a l G er­

man p h i l o s o p h e r c o u l d s o c h a n g e e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t a n d p ra c tic e

i n a d e m o c rac y s o d i f f e r e n t fro m th e m onarchy un­

d e r w h ic h he w r o te . H e r b a r t 1s l e a r n i n g

th e o ry .

H e rb a rt w as,

in a sen se,

H a r o ld R ugg, F o u n d a tio n s f o r A m e ric an E d u c a tio n (New Y o r k : W o r l d B o o k C o m p a n y , 1 9 ^ 7 ) > p* 5 ^ 2 .

162 a p h ilo s o p h e r o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l, b u t h is th e o r y w as h a i l e d a s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e . 'P e d a g o g i k o f 1 8 0 6 ,

In

le a rn in g

h i s A llg e m ein

h i s m ain e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t i s e ,

he p r e ­

s e n t e d a schem e f o r l e a r n i n g

w h ic h was a m a s t e r p i e c e o f

c o n stru c tio n .

la te r

H is f o l l o w e r s

o f le a rn in g and p re se n te d

it

as

fo rm a liz e d h is

* fiv e

ste p s*

th e o ry

in th e le a rn ­

in g p r o c e s s . H e rb a rt* s le a rn in g m o lo g y w h i c h ,

th e o ry r e s t s upon h i s e p i s t e -

a s has been

seen,

H is s y s te m w as f o r m a l in t h a t i t

is

in d u c tiv e in n a tu re .

e m p l o y e d m u ch s u b j e c t m a t ­

t e r a n d d e p e n d e d a g r e a t d e a l upon th e w as a s t e p in

a l sy ste m r e s t s

upon th e

p ro p o sitio n

th e e s s e n c e o f m e n ta l

p e n d upon th em .

It

is

th e

a c tiv ity

H e rb a rt* s e d u c a tio n ­ th a t

re sp o n sib le

*p r e s e n t a t i o n s *

a n d a n y k n o w in g m u s t d e ­

i n t e r a c t i o n s and c o m b in a tio n s

o f t h e s e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h ic h h e lp r e f i n e w h ic h a r e

but it

th e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n .

The d o c t r i n e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s *

are

in stru c to r,

k n o w le d g e a n d

f o r t h e fo rm s i n w h ic h c o n s c io u s n e s s

re a c ts . T hese v o r s te llu n g e n t h i n k i n g a s do t h e

h o ld th e

e le m e n ts in th e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s .

p e rie n c e b rin g s th e s e p r e s e n ta tio n s , p re te d ,

sam e i m p o r t a n c e i n

c o m p lex i d e a s ,

to

o r m o re f u l l y

Ex­

in te r­

t h e m in d f r o m t h e a p p e r c e p t i v e

m ass an d t h u s b e g in s t h e p r o c e s s o f k n o w le d g e.

T hrough

163 a p p e rc e p tio n

t h e k n o w in g p r o c e s s b e c o m e s p o s s i b l e *

s e n t a t i o n s fo rm t h e a p p e r c e p t iv e m a ss, tio n s

are g a th e re d a re

P re­

hence w hat p re s e n ta ­

im p o rta n t;

T h e re a r e no i n b o r n i d e a s i n t h e a p p e r c e p t i v e m a ss, H e rb a rt sa id *

W ith L o c k e ,

H e r b a r t h e l d t h a t t h e m in d i s a

t a b u l a r a s a upon w h ic h e x p e rie n c e w r ite s m ass o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h ic h a r e a lr e a d y as th e b a s is f o r le a r n in g . scene,

fo r i f

e r m ust u s e

th e re i s

n a tu ra listic led g e *

in

sto ry *

to be p r a c tic a l le a r n in g ,

in le a rn in g :*

th e

th e

te a c h ­

e l i c i t k n o w le d g e .

H erb art in s is t e d

c o n c e p t o f e x p e rie n c e

The

t h e m in d s e r v e

How t h e t e a c h e r e n t e r s

th e se p r e s e n ta tio n s to

N a tu ra lis m

its

as

upon th e

t h e b a s i s o f know ­

He d e c l a r e d :

I d e a s s p r i n g f r o m tw o m a i n s o u r c e s , e x p e r i e n c e a n d so c ia l in te rc o u rs e . K n o w le d g e o f n a t u r e — i n c o m p l e t e a n d c ru d e — i s d e riv e d fro m th e fo rm e r, th e l a t t e r f u r n is h e s th e s e n tim e n ts e n t e r t a i n e d to w a rd o u r f o l l o w e r s , w h ic h , f a r fro m b e i n g p r a i s e w o r t h y , a r e on t h e c o n t r a r y o f t e n v ery re p re h e n s ib le * T o ^ i m p r o v e t h e s e i s a m o re u r g e n t t a s k ; b u t n e i t h e r o u g h t we t o n e g l e c t t h e k n o x v le d g e o f n a tu re . I f we d o , we may e x p e c t e r r o r , f a n t a s t i c a l n o ­ tio n s , and e c c e n t r i c i t i e s o f ev ery d e s c r i p t io n .2 S in c e n a tu r e se n ta tio n , and th e n

is

t o p r o v i d e t h e m ain b o d y o f r e p r e ­

t h e p u rp o s e m u st re m a in t o s tu d y f i r s t

so c ie ty .

T he p r i m a r y t a s k o f e d u c a t i o n ,

p r e p a r a t i o n , w h ic h i s

th e g r e a t t a s k o f th e

n a tu re th en ,

is

in stru c to r.

John F r i e d r i c h H e rb a rt, O u tlin e s o f E d u c a tio n a l D o c t r i n e (New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C om pany , 1 9 0 1 ) > p . 25*

164 The i n s t r u c t o r m u st a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r b y p r o v i d i n g q u a te p r e p a r a tio n ,

w h i c h i s m ade p o s s i b l e i n

u a l th ro u g h an i n t r i c a t e

ade­

each in d iv id ­

sy s te m o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n

la tio n

a c c o m p lis h e d by m eans o f a p p e r c e p tio n .

sta te s

th a t th e

and c o r r e ­

H erb art

s tu d e n t m ust be in tr o d u c e d to :

. . . tw o m a i n b r a n c h e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n — t h e h i s ­ t o r i c a l and th e s c i e n t i f i c . T he f o r m e r e m b r a c e s n o t o n ly h i s t o r y p r o p e r , b u t la n g u a g e stu d y a s w e ll; th e l a t t e r i n c l u d e s b e s i d e s n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , m a th e ­ m a tic s. 3 The e m p h a s i s u p o n n a t u r a l i s m p r o a c h was a d e p a r t u r e rie s.

tio n ,

th e H e rb a rtia n p ro ced u re

Bf i v e f o r m a l s t e p s . 11

n a m e ly , p r e p a r a t i o n ,

p re s e n ta tio n ,

s y s te m a tiz a tio n and a p p lic a tio n ,

T hese s te p s a sso c ia ­

fu rn is h e d th e b a s is

f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m eth o d t h r o u g h o u t A m e ric a a t n in g o f th e

th e o ­

C h a r l e s De G-armo, a n d C h a r l e s

am ong o t h e r s ,

becam e s y s te m a t i z e d i n t o of le a rn in g ,

th e s o c ia l ap­

fro m th e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g

T hrough th e A m e ric a n s,

a n d F r a n k M c M u rry ,

even in

th e b e g in ­

tw e n tie th c e n tu ry .

P re p a ra tio n .

H e r b a r t 1s f i v e

sta g e s of le a rn in g

are

i n one se n se a v e r s io n o f e x tre m e ly fo rm a liz e d le a r n in g . H o w e v e r,

th e y a r e a b r e a k fro m f o r m a l l e a r n i n g

in

t h a t th e

i n d iv id u a l becom es th e c e n te r o f g r a v i t y .

th e sense How­

e v e r , b o th te a c h e r and s u b je c t m a tte r p la y a ra ,th e r heavy

^

H e r b a r t, l o c .

c lt.

165 ro le .

But H e rb a rt f e l t

th a t p re p a rin g th e

r i g h t t h o u g h t s w o u ld l o g i c a l l y in g .

s tu d e n t w ith th e

i n s u r e m o re e f f e c t i v e

le a rn ­

He d i s c u s s e d t h i s v i e w p o i n t a s f o l l o w s : . . . o u t o f t h o u g h t s come f e e l i n g s , a n d f r o m th e m p r i n c i p l e s o f m odes o f a c t i o n . To t h a t e n d i n r e l a ­ t i o n t o th e c h a in o f d e v e lo p m e n t, e a c h and e v e r y th in g th a t can be o f f e r e d to th e p u p il and f i n d a p la c e in h i s m i n d ; t o e n q u i r e how e a c h i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e w h o l e , how o n e p a r t m u s t f o l l o w a n o t h e r a n d a g a i n b e ­ come a l i n k t o t h a t w h i c h s u c c e e d s — t h i s a p p l i e d t o th e tr e a tm e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s o f f e r s an i n f i n i t e num ber o f p r o b le m s .^ He i n s i s t e d

come t h e t a s k

th a t f i r s t

of p re p a rin g

in

th e

th e

le a rn in g

stu d e n t.

p r o c e s s m ust

T h is s t e p was b e s t

a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p r e p a r i n g h i s m in d w i t h t h e p r o p e r i d e a s * fro m th e a p p e r c e p t iv e m a ss. i n r e c e i v i n g new ite m s i n f o u n d .e d t h i s

T hese i d e a s w ere l a t e r

t h e k n o w in g p r o c e s s .

H erb art

t h e o r y on p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h s t a t e

t h a t d a t a a r e d e r i v e d from th e e x p e r ie n c e o f th e P r e p a r a t i o n d e p e n d s upon i n t e l l e c t u a l t o p r e p a r e t h e m in d f o r i t s m a n y -sid e d i n t e r e s t i s

u ltim a te p u rp o se,

th e o b lig a tio n

th e i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y tio n

to a id

race.

a c tiv ity .

Thus

a b a la n c e d ,.

o f e d u c a tio n .

T hrough

o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m in d ,

in stru c ­

l e a d s t o w a r d t h e c o g n i z a n c e o f m any o b j e c t s .

To p r o ­

d u c e a b a la n c e d m ass o f i d e a s , be a llo w e d to

(L o n d o n :

no o b j e c t o r e f f o r t

assum e to o g r e a t I m p o rta n c e ,

sh o u ld

f o r a l l are

J o h a n n B’r i e d r i c h H e r b a r t , T h e S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n (G eorge R o u t l e d g e a n d S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 2 4 / 7 p* 85*

166

e q u a te d .

In te re st

is

th e k e y n o te o f p r e p a r a t i o n .

T he t if o c o n d i t i o n s n o te

of a tte n tio n

th e c o n c e p t o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n

and e x p e c ta tio n key­

th e H e rb a rtia n

th e o ry .

F irst

in te re s t

s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r

t h e m i n d m u s t b e m ade a t t e n t i v e b y p e r s o n a l

c e p tiv e m ass m ust b e p u t i n t o

and th e n th e a p p e r­

a p o s itio n of re a d in e ss or

e x p e c ta n c y f o r th e n o v e l p r e s e n t a t i o n . sta g e

is

set fo r

and i t

to be re c e p tiv e

no e f f e c t i v e

l e a r n i n g may

behooves b o th th e i n s t r u c t o r and th e le a r n e r to th e

P re se n ta tio n .

s te p s to fo llo w . As h i s n e x t s t e p i n l e a r n i n g ,

d e v e lo p e d th e c o n c e p t o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . re fle c tio n

I n t h i s w ay t h e

th e o t h e r p h a s e s w h ic h l e a d t o t h e g o a l.

W ith o u t a d e q u a te p r e p a r a t i o n fo llo w ,

le a rn in g

H erb art

C o n c e n tra tio n and

are n e c e ssa ry f o r t h is phase in

le a rn in g .

He

w ro te : S in c e i n s t r u c t i o n b u i l d s on t h e p u p i l * s e x p e r i e n c e , we s h a l l d e a l w i t h t h a t f o r m o f s y n t h e s i s w h i c h i n i ­ t i a t e s o r c o p ie s e x p e rie n c e * We may nam e I t p u r e l y p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n : The te r m s y n t h e t i c , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b e r e s e r v e d f o r t h a t form o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h ic h p e r c e i v e s c l e a r l y th e " p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g a w h o le o u t o f p a r t s p r e s e n t e d s i n g l y b e f o r e ­ h a n d .^ H erb art s a id th a t p re s e n ta tio n m eans o f o u r s e n s e s . by th e f i v e

The o b j e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e w e r e c u l l e d

se n se s and b ro u g h t to th e

^ H e rb a rt,

o c c u rre d th ro u g h th e

a p p e r c e p tiv e m ass,

O u tlin e s o f E d u c a tio n a l D o c trin e , p. 101.

167 th e re

to w a it u n t i l n e e d e d .

te r.

For H erb art i t

L e a rn in g i s

a n i n d i v i d u a l m at­

w a s b o t h an a n a l y t i c a l a n d a s y n t h e t i c

process* T h e m i n d m o v es a n a l y t i c a l l y and c l a s s i f i e s

th e p r e s e n ta tio n s .

v e rs im ilitu d e ,

is

The s y n t h e t i c a l

H e rb a rt,

d ep en d s upon th e

th ro u g h

e x p e rie n c e *

in g a re

p a rts

is

th en

to

P re se n ta tio n s

t h e m in d t h r o u g h t h i s

been p ro p e rly b r ie f e d ,

m ust fo llo w .

W ith o u t i t w h ic h ,

i.e .,

a rb itra ry

is

le a rn in g doc­

A f t e r t h e m in d h a s

senses,

some j u x t a p o s i t i o n

T h is p ro p e r a s s o c i a t i o n o f th e

th e re

d u a lity ,

p re p a re d and th e n p re s e n te d

o b je c ts of th e

a p p e r c e p tiv e m ass i s

a re co r­

r e a d y f o r th e n e x t ste p *

th e concept o f a s s o c ia tio n .

w ith th e r i g h t

a c c o rd in g to

e le m e n ts o f se n se d a t a g iv e n

A s s o c ia tio n * T h ird in t h i s trin e

th e a n a l y t i c a l

asp ect o f le a rn in g ,

o f t h e sam e p r o c e s s .

m in d i s

of

a s w e ll a s

B o th a n a l y t i c a l and s y n t h e t i c a l l e a r n ­

fo rm ed a n d g iv e n

and th e

se p a ra te s

C o m p le te n e ss,

an in h e r e n t f e a t u r e

p ro cess.

re c tly

In th a t i t

id e a s in th e

n e c e s s a r y f o r c l e a r c o n c e p tio n s* . o n ly

chaos.

A s so c ia tio n i s

a p ro cess,

as H e rb a rt p o in te d o u t:

. . . c o n s i s t s i n p o i n t i n g o u t t h e m ain fa„ cts o f a g iv e n w h o le , th e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e p a r t s , t h e i r c o n n e c tio n s and t h e i r m o v a b ility . . . . B e g in n in g f i r s t w i t h t h e o b j e c t s , we d e r i v e f r o m th e m t h e p r e d i c a t e b y s e a r c h i n g o u t t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s ; t h i s d o n e , we m u s t i n t u r n m ak e t h e p r e d i c a t e o u r s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , a n d

168

c la ss ify

th e

o b je c ts u n d e r th e h ead s th u s o b ta in e d . ^

T h is a s s o c ia tio n i s b o th an i n t e r n a l and an e x te r n a l fu n c tio n .

Id eas are

p e rc e p tiv e m ass, o f th e p a tte r n

to be c le a r ly

and in

th e id e a s

In h eren t in

a s s o c ia te d In th e ap­ th e m se lv e s

th e t o t a l i t y

e a c h m ust be seen and d e te rm in e d .

The a s s o c i a t i v e

f u n c t i o n f u r t h e r d e p e n d s a g r e a t d e a l upon

th e

o ffered .

in stru c tio n

The i n s t r u c t o r p r e s e n t s t h e th e

stu d e n t g ra s p s

i d e a s fro m w ith o u t and

th e m f r o m w i t h i n

in

B ecause he h as been p ro p e rly p re p a re d , sim ila te

th e p r e s e n ta tio n s an d see

tio n s h ip . in g .

th e le a r n e r can a s­

th e m i n a c a u s a l r e l a ­

P r e s e n ta tio n a lo n e does n o t

I t m ust be p la c e d i n a s t a t e

a to ta l re a c tio n .

su ffic e

fo r le a rn ­

o f b a la n c e .

Im b a la n c e

o r im p ro p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s m e re ly c a u s e s co n ­ fu sio n

in

th in k in g .

A c c o rd in g to H e r b a r t, m a te ria ls fo r

in stru c tio n ,

th e

b u t sc ie n c e le a rn e d

sc ie n c e , v i z . , c la s s if ic a tio n

o f o b je c ts ,

f o r le a rn in g .

The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s

b ro u g h t to

a tte n tio n

th e

s c ie n c e s c o n ta in th e b a s ic

of a ll

is

ju s t as

in su ffic ie n t

s c ie n c e s m ust be

o f th e le a r n e r .

That i s

m ust b e e m p h a s iz e d .

to

say,

u n ity ,

not d iv e rs ity ,

o f th e

s c ie n c e s can be p r e s e n te d to th e l e a r n e r th ro u g h th e

use of

su ch te rm s as

1F o r m s , '

6 I b i d . , p. 11*K

'S y m b o ls '

T h is h o m o g e n e ity

and 'T h in g s .1

169 The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e te r m s i s c ia tiv e fu n c tio n . sense o b je c ts

Form ,

in h e re n t p ro p e rty of a l l

F ro m t h e

’ fo rm *

se n t,

a sso c ia tio n .

in h e re n t,

a n d fro m

a s so c ia tio n is

a b le

From t h e 't h i n g s '

and a s id e a s th e y

' f o i ’m1 o f o b j e c t s

x v h ich a r e v i s i b l y p r e ­

to fu n c tio n p ro p e rly .

W ith o u t c o g n iz a n c e o f o b j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n tu re

o r w ith o u t c o n tr a s t

c o u ld n o t be p o s s i b l e . p ro p er c o g n itio n .

id e a of

T h in g s th e m s e lv e s

a r e th e o u tw a rd m a n i f e s ta t io n o f o b j e c t s , g i v e m e a n in g t o

le n d s

concept th e

and o p p o s ite s o f th in g s a r i s e s .

w h ic h i s

th e a s s o ­

and d e te rm in e d th ro u g h a b s tr a c tio n ,

o rd e r to a s s o c ia tio n . id e n tity

b e in g th e

to a s s i s t

of in h e re n t p r o p e r tie s ,

to

stru c ­

k n o w le d g e

T hus sy m b o ls a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r

S y m b o ls p r e s e n t ,

an in s tr u m e n t w h ereby a s s o c i a t i o n

i n th e fo rm o f la n g u a g e ,

o f id e a s can

ta k e p la c e .

I n t h e H e r b a r t i a n c o n c e p t t h e m ain p u r p o s e o f l a n g u a g e i s to

a ssist

ju n c ts of

th e a s s o c ia tiv e 'F o r m s , *

ta k e s p la c e in f o r th e

fu n c tio n .

'T h i n g s ,'

th e le a rn in g

s y s te m a tiz in g

a n d 'S y m b o ls ,'

th re e ad­

a sso c ia tio n

p r o c e s s a n d p r e p a r e s t h e way

o fid e a s.

B y ste m a t1z a t i o n . p ro ced u re o f le a rn in g

Bo, w i t h t h e

is

The f o u r t h s t e p i n

th is

th a t o f s y s te m a tiz a tio n .

fo rm al F irst

t h e m in d w a s p r e p a r e d b y a f a v o r a b l e g r o u p o f a p p e r c e p t i v e id e a s,

th e n ,

b y t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m ore i d e a s .

T he t h i r d

s t e p was t h e c o g n iz a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e a s ,

th e ir

in h e re n t p r o p e r tie s and t h e i r n ic h e schem e.

The f o u r t h s t e p ,

in th e H e r b a r tia n

th e s y s te m a tic

k n o w le d g e , r e l i e s upon r e p e t i t i o n .

arra n g em e n t o f

H erb art sa id :

Now i t b e c o m e s t h e b u s i n e s s o f r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t o g a t h e r t o g e t h e r i n t o a s m a l l e r com pass w hat h as b een ex p an d ed , a rra n g e d , and l a s t l y , i s o f te n o f u s e f o r m a k i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n m o re c o m p l e t e a n d f o r o r d e r in g th e d i f f i c u l t and th e c o m p a ra tiv e ly e asy . H ere t h e m odes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i t s e l f c h a n g e t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a m o re a d v a n c e d g r a d e o f w o r k . 7 R e p e t it i o n i s a k e y n o te o f id e a s a re

sy s te m a tiz a tio n .

c o r r e l a t e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d m o re e a s i l y

p r e s e n t e d i n s e q u e n c e tim e a f t e r t im e . d ire c tly

if

R e p e titio n

a f t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n m ust a lw a y s be p r e s e n t .

T he th e y a re even T he ma­

t e r i a l o f i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t b e s y s t e m a t i z e d so a s t o g i v e c o h e r e n c e a n d m e a n in g . A rra n g e d in s e r i a l fo rm a n d a c c o r d in g to c l a s s i f i c a ­ tio n ,

t h e i d e a s i n t h e a p p e r c e p t i v e m a s s a r e now a c o n ­

trib u tin g

f a c t o r in

te m a tiz a tio n , p la c e .

p ro cess.

th e n e x t sta g e o f le a rn in g

W ith o u t s y s ­ c o u ld n o t ta k e

B u t w i t h i d e a s now s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d a n d

p ig e o n h o le d ,

th e n ex t ste p i s

A p p lic a tio n . le a rn in g trin e

th e l e a r n in g

in o rd e r.

The c o n c l u d in g

p r o c e s s w as a p p l i c a t i o n .

s te p in th e a c tu a l In th e H e rb a rtia n doc­

t h i s was t h e c ro w n in g a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n i n g

7 I b i d . , p. 2 1 .

1?1 p ro cess.

H erb art b e lie v e d th a t a l l le a rn in g

p u rp o se o f m o ra lity .

The i n f l u e n c e

sc h o o l o f p h ilo so p h y i s

e v id e n t

w as f o r t h e

o f th e n e o -K a n tia n

in t h i s b e l i e f .

T h r o u g h a b a l a n c e d a n d m a n y - s i d e d a p p e r c e p t i v e m ass th e le a r n e r i s b e h a v io r. th e

read y f o r

c h a r a c t e r fo rm a tio n an d h ig h m o ral

The s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,

stu d e n t,

m u st s t a n d on i t s

a fte r

it

h as been le a r n e d by

own i n h e r e n t v a l u e s .

If

th e

i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e l e a r n e r w e r e p r o p e r l y g e a r e d f o r m ora.1ity ,

i t w ill not f a il.

H erb art s ta te s :

The p r i n c i p l e s b e c o m e d e f l e c t e d j u s t i n t h e y e a r s w hen t h e p h y s i c a l s i d e o f t h e m an a n d t h e s o c i a l r e l a ­ t i o n s come t o t h e f o r e w i t h i r r e s i s t a b l e c l a i m s . W hat w i l l now p r o t e c t t h e t o i l s o m e w o r k o f e d u c a t i o n ? W hat o u g h t to p r o t e c t i t ? W hat i f n o t i t s i n n e r r i g h t n e s s , th e t r u t h o f c o n v ic tio n s , th e c le a r n e s s and b r e a d th o f th e i n t e l l e c t u a l g a z e , i f n o t th e f e e l i n g of m a ste ry o v e r men a n d o p i n i o n , a n d t h e r e s p o n s i v e I n w a r d g r a t i ­ tu d e f o r t h a t one w h ic h h as r e n d e r e d s u c h an a s c e n d ­ ency p o s s ib le .® P ro b le m - s o I v 1ng a n d a iy p e r c e p tl o n . it

m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t H e r b a r t 1s

b itra rily

In re c a p itu la tio n ,

'f i v e

f o r m a l i z e d b y t h e A m erican H e r b a r t i a n s ,

M cM urry s , ' C h a r l e s De G-armo a n d o t h e r s .

in

ju s t due,

its fu lle s t

he p r e s e n te d i t

sense,

w ere a r ­ th e

H e rb art h im se lf d id

n o t so d e s i g n a t e o r d e m a r c a te h i s l e a r n i n g h im h i s

ste p s'

th e o ry .

as a p ro cess,

b u t a s an i n t e r a c t i o n ,

p erh ap s n ot

n o n e th e le ss .

g H e rb a rt,

To g i v e

The S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n , p .

286.

172 H o w ev er,

In H e rb a rt* s

th eo ry

o f le a rn in g

t o o m u ch

d e p e n d e d on t h e t e a c h e r .

I t w a s a n o v e r - e l a b o r a t e and.

a w k w a rd s y s t e m , b u t s t i l l

i t was a n a d v a n c e o v e r t h e t h i n k ­

in g o f h is

tim e .

The w h o le f u n c t i o n

o f l e a r n i n g w as w rap p ed

up i n m o r a l i t y a s Im posed fro m w ith o u t* w as a r b i t r a r y

an d su p e rim p o se d .

s o l v i n g a im s a t a c t i v i t y

In

As s u c h t h e

c o n tra s t,

th eo ry

p ro b le m ­

fro m w i t h i n .

T he w h o l e a im o f H e r b a r t 1s d o c t r i n e w a s s u b m e r g e d i n m o ra lity .

T he m a n y - s i d e d I n t e r e s t w a s f a l s e l y

th a t

i t .w a s n o t b a s e d o n t h e

ty p e

ju d g e d b e s t by th e t e a c h e r .

p o s ite d in

l e a r n e r ’ s i n t e r e s t b u t on t h a t As s u c h i t

is

a t odds

w ith p r o b le m - s o lv in g fro m th e lo w e s t th ro u g h t h e h i g h e s t le v e ls o f e d u c a tio n . E ven w i t h I t s

o b v io u s

tem o f l e a r n i n g w as a c r u d e so lv in g

in

th a t

im p e rfe c tio n s, p ro to ty p e

o f m odern p ro b le m ­

i t beg an w ith th e raw d a ta o f e x p e rie n c e

d e r iv e d fro m th e n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s a n d th e th en tr a n s m itte d th e s e te a c h e r,

in to

H e r b a r t 1s s y s ­

d a ta ,

s o c ia l scene.

It

under th e rig id , a e g is o f th e

a s y s te m a tiz e d g roup o f id e a s f o r a p p lic a tio n

to w a rd s m o r a l it y . th e p ro b le m -so lv in g

It

d id

serv e a s

th e ro u g h b e g in n in g s o f

t e c h n i q u e i n A m e ric an e d u c a t i o n . II.

THE HERBARTIANS

The d o c t r i n e o f l e a r n i n g f o r m u la te d an d e s p o u s e d by Jo h a n n F r i e d r i c h H e r b a r t w as i n t r o d u c e d to t h i s c o u n tr y by

173 som e n o t a b l e A m e r i c a n e d u c a t o r s *

T h e M cM urry b r o t h e r s *

F r a n k N . , a n d C h a r l e s A. M cM urry* a n d C h a r l e s De Grarmo b r o u g h t t h e H e r b a r t i a n d o c t r i n e b a c k to A m e ric a a f t e r s tu d ie s a t th e U n iv e rs ity g o g i c a l sy s te m

o f J e n a i n G-ermany.

th e ir

T he p e d a ­

a d v o c a te d b y H e r b a r t h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d by

T u i s k o n Z i l l e r a n d W i l l i a m R e in *

tw o o f H e r b a r t 1s d i s c i p l e s .

The men who d e v e l o p e d H e r b a r t i a n ! s m

in

th e U n ite d

S t a t e s x-fere n o t p s y c h o l o g i s t s b u t t e a c h e r s who p r a c t i c e d t h e i r p ro fe s s io n and w ro te a b o u t it* p e l th ro u g h o u t th e m o v em en t*

c o u n t r y a n d sw ayed t h e w h o le e d u c a t i o n a l

The n ew m e t h o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n

th e p u b lic a tio n o f y earb o o k s* p lic a tio n

T hey s p r e a d t h e g o s ­

in

and p r a c t i c a l ap­

th e c la ss ro o m .

H e rb a rtla n lsm d e v e lo p th e

te x tb o o k s,

g a in e d im p e tu s by

i n A m e ric a *

id e a th a t le a rn in g

E ach w r i t e r

a tte m p te d to

o c c u rs m ost e f f e c t i v e l y

th r o u g h t h e f a c i n g o f a c t u a l p ro b lem s i n

th e

c la ss ro o m ,

b y o v e rc o m in g th e m t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y *

and

The A m e ri­

can e n th u s ia s ts gave H e rb a rtf s th e o r ie s a f la v o r o f t h e i r own b y i n j e c t i n g a c tiv ity . m o ra lity

in to

t h e A m e ric a n s c h o o l s a new c o n c e p t o f

They d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y g e a r t h i s as such.

a c tiv ity

H e r b a r t h a d sh o w n t h e m a m o re

to

s c ie n tific

w ay t o l e a r n .

T he H e r b a r t i a n s w e r e n o t s c i e n t i s t s ;

w ere p r a c t i c a l

te a c h e rs.

th e y

T h e y r e c o g n i z e d i n H e r b a r t 1s t h e o r y a b e t t e r m e t h o d

17^ of le a rn in g .

The o l d t r a d i t i o n a l m eth o d , I n t h a t i t w as a t

m ost tim e s s u p e r im p o s itio n , T hey d e s i r e d m o re a c t i v i t y th e le a rn in g

p ro cess.

l a c k e d s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e s e m en. on th e p a r t o f

th e i n d i v i d u a l i n

One o f t h e m w r o t e :

T h ro u g h o u t c h i l d l i f e e a c h h o p e fu l s h o u ld be g a in in g in th e pow er o f i n t e l l i g e n t s e lf - d e te r m in a tio n w ith f r e q u e n t o p p o r tu n ity and en co u rag em en t to s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . T h is b o l d th e o r y o f s e l f - a c t i v i t y a n d s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i n th e le a r n in g p ro c e s s o f c h ild r e n has been v ig o ro u s ly a d v o c a te d fro m age t o a g e . ' Hew m e t h o d s . s id e re d by h is to r ia n s

The H e r b a r t i a n s i n A m e ric a a r e as re sp o n sib le fo r

new m e th o d s f o r t e a c h i n g

h isto ry

con­

th e in tr o d u c tio n o f

and l i t e r a t u r e .

These i n ­

n o v a tio n s m o d ifie d th e th e n e x i s t e n t p ro c e d u re and s e rv e still

a s a b a s i s o f m odern m e th o d .

th eo ry as a r a lly in g

p o in t,

W ith th e

H e rb a rtia n

t h e A m e ric a n s s p r e a d t h e doc­

t r i n e w h ic h a n te d a t e s p ro b le m -s o lv in g . Now t h e i n d i v i d u a l , in to

p ro m in e n c e , w i t h th e

as th e f i r s t

p re re q u is ite

a s a th in k in g

u n i t , w as b ro u g h t

d o c trin e o f i n t e r e s t b ro u g h t out to good in s tr u c tio n .

H i s t o r y w as

in tro d u c e d in to

th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls ,

w ere i n s t i t u t e d

i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l t h r o u g h t h i s new m e t h o d

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g f o r i t s It

an d new er c u r r i c u l a

day.

seem s a p p a r e n t t h a t an y c h a n g e i n t h e c o n tin u u m

9 C h a r l e s A. M c M u rry , C o n f l i c t i n g P r i n c i p l e s i n T e a c h ­ i n g (B o sto n :

H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m p an y , 191*0 > p* 8 2 .

175 o f t e a c h i n g w o u ld c h a n g e t h e w h o le o f i t . be d is tu r b e d w ith th e r e s t

re m a in in g a s th e y w e re .

m e th o d s c h a n g e d th e a im s a n d c u r r i c u l u m s . p ro b le m -so lv in g i s ual is

No o n e f a c e t c a n

in d iv id u a l a c tiv ity

The new

The e s s e n c e o f

i n w h ic h th e i n d i v i d ­

f a c e d w i t h t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f h i s own d i f f i c u l t i e s .

Thus f o r th e f i r s t

tim e i n A m e ric an h i s t o r y ,

s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l was n o t e d . gan i t s

th e

t r e n d fro m

T he s c h o o l b e ­

move t o w a r d s c h i l d - c e n t e r e d n e s s . The H e r b a r t i a n s l a i d

th e fo u n d a tio n s f o r

s u c h m odern

v ie w s a s th e f o llo w in g a s v o ic e d by a v ig o r o u s a d v o c a te o f p ro b le m -so lv in g : One g o o d way t o f o r m u l a t e v a l u a b l e s c h o o l p r o b l e m s i s to f a c e th e p ro b le m s w h ic h p e o p le f o r m u l a t e f o r th e m se lv e s* T he p u p i l s 1 m i n d s a r e b r i s t l i n g w i t h i n ­ te lle c tu a l d iffic u ltie s .. T h in k in g on t h e t e a c h e r ^ p ro b le m i s o f t e n s u p e r f i c i a l a n d a r t i f i c i a l . T h in k in g o n t h e p u p i l 1s own u r g e n t p r o b l e m i s r e a l , g e n u i n e , s i n c e r e , a n d l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n a c t i o n when t h e s o l u ­ t i o n i s r e a c h e d . 10 It

was t h e m e th o d o f H e r b a r t i a n i s m ,

m o d ifie d to f i t w h ic h i s it

a d a p te d and

th e d y n a m ic c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n i n g

i n A m e ric a,

in p a r t r e s p o n s ib le f o r p ro b le m -so lv in g .

H ow ever,

w a s n o t u n t i l m any y e a r s a f t e r H e r b a r t 1s d e a t h t h a t a n y

g r e a t d e v elo p m e n t o c c u r r e d .

E m p ir ic a l p sy c h o lo g y and th e

th o u g h t o f e d u c a tio n a s a s c ie n c e p ra c tic a l

cam e t o A m e r i c a t h r o u g h

t e a c h e r s who h a d g o n e t o Grermany t o

le a rn

th e

^ C l a u d e C. C r a w f o r d , How To T e a c h ( L o s A n g e l e s : S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l B o o k D e p o s i t o r y , 1 9 3 8 )> P* 2 0 1 .

176 d e e p e r i m p l i c a ti o n s o f p sy c h o lo g y f o r te a c h in g . th e s e p io n e e rs th e g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c w as in tr o d u c e d ,

T hrough

stu d y o f e d u c a tio n

d u r i n g a p e r i o d betx*reen 1 8 8 0 a n d 1 9 0 1 , i n ­

to th e U n ite d S ta te s . III.

EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE

B e c a u s e t h e new m e t h o d i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e H e r b a r t i a n s w as e m p i r i c a l l y b a s e d and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y g ro u n d e d ,

it

needed a s c ie n tif ic

T he man

w as on th e

a d v o c a te

scene fo r t h is

to advance

d u ty .

th e

cause.

A c co rd in g to

w o r k o f E d w a r d L ee T h o r n d i k e w a s g r e a t l y d ire c tin g

its

B u rto n ^ l th e

in stru m e n ta l in

s tr e a m o f e d u c a t i o n a l th o u g h t fo llo x tfin g th e

i n i t i a l H e r b a r tia n im p e tu s. The w o r k o f t h e H e r b a r t i a n s b e g a n a p p e a r i n g i n I 8 8 9 a n d o f f e r e d e x p e r im e n ta l v a l i d a t i o n f o r t h e n ew er m eth o d s. T h o rn d ik e ,

th ro u g h Jam es'

r e n t o f h i s th o u g h t in to so lv in g r e l a te d flu e n c e

to

in flu e n c e ,

d ire c te d

t h e m ain c u r ­

p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f p ro b le m ­

'p u r e l y 1 p s y c h o lo g ic a l p h a se s .

o f T h o r n d ik e 's p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p ro a c h i s i n

to d a y a s w i t n e s s e d by th e

The i n ­ e v id e n c e

fo llo x tfin g q u o t a t i o n : *

. . . h i s c o n tr ib u tio n to p ro b le m -so lv in g i s o f th e g r e a t e s t v a lu e and h a s a f f e c t e d fu n d a m e n ta lly th e th in k in g and w r itin g o f ev ery p e d a g o g ic a l a u th o r . . . . c u r r e n t l y t h e i s s u a n c e o f p ro b le m m a n u a ls o r e x e r c i s e

11

W i l l i a m B u r t o n , “ T he P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g T e c h n i q u e — I t s A p p e a ra n c e a n d D e v e lo p m e n t i n A m e ric a n T e x t s on G -eneral M e t h o d , ” E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , XIV: P a r t I I , 248-53 *

177 b o o k s t o a c c o m p a n y t e x t s may b e t r a c e d t o P sy c h o lo g ic a l b a s i s . T h o rn d ik e

s tr e s s e d th e

w ith th e a r t i f i c i a l i t y

I n a n o t h e r p i o n e e r w o rk x

le a rn in g

in te rm s o f r e f l e c t i v e

a c tiv ity

and th e l ik e .

th in k in g ,

show s t h i s b i a s :

an a c tiv e

it

p r o c e s s a n d on t h e

he d i s c u s s e d

in stin c t,

m o to r

H is t r e a t m e n t o f

d e fin ite ly

p o s its le a rn in g as

sam e l e v e l w i t h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

T h o r n d i k e * s t h o u g h t t h u s p a r a l l e l s Dewey* s . th e o rie s o f le a rn in g

of tra -

L e a r n in g was b a s e d f i r s t a n d l a s t

on s i m i l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . th in k in g

e a r l i e s t te x ts-^ 3

im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m -s o lv in g

a p p ro a c h and c o n t r a s t e d i t d itio n a l te a c h in g .

In one o f h i s

T h o r n d i k e . * 1-^

are

d is tin c tiv e

H o w ev er, h i s

enough to be f a m i l i a r

la n d m a rk s to a l l e d u c a t o r s a s t y p i c a l o f T h o rn d ik e and none o th e r.

H is w ork s e r v e d a s b a s i c t e x t m a t e r i a l i n n o rm al

sc h o o ls

a n d t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s i n A m e ric a , f o r t h e f i r s t

decad es o f th e

tw e n tie th c e n tu ry .

T h o r n d i k e *s t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g . e a rly

in h is w ritin g s

12

Y ork: Y ork: PP*

two

I b id . , p.

th a t le a rn in g

T h o rn d ik e d e c l a r e d

ta k e s p la c e th ro u g h a

250.

E d w a r d L e e T h o r n d i k e , P r i n c i p l e s o f T e a c h i n g (New A. C . S e i l e r , 1 9 0 6 ) , 293 PP* ili , E d w a r d L e e T h o r n d i k e , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y (New T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 1 0 ) , 2A8

178

p ro cess of th e o ry .

s tim u lu s a n d re s p o n se w h ic h he c a l l e d

T h is c o n c e p t h o ld s t h a t e x p e rie n c e

is

t h e S -R

a stim u lu s

a n d t h a t t h r o u g h m an’ s n e u r a l m ec h an ism c e r t a i n r e s p o n s e s a r e m ade i n r e p l y . th e

He h e l d t h a t m an c o m e s t o "know t h r o u g h

c o n n e c tio n s fo rm ed by th e f u n c tio n in g

in tro d u c e s t h is

concept in

o f t h e m in d .

He

t h e f o l l o w i n g m an n er:

. . . t h e o r i g i n a l t e n d e n c i e s o f man a s a s p e c i e s w ere l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d . I t w a s sh o w n t h a t t h e s e c o n s t i t u t e a n en o rm o u s f u n d o f c o n n e c t i o n s o r b o n d s o f v a r y in g d e g r e e s o f d i r e c t n e s s a n d s t r e n g t h b e tw e e n th e s i t u a t i o n s f u r n is h e d by p h y s ic a l f o r c e s , p l a n t s , a n i­ m a l s a n d t h e b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r men a n d t h e r e s p o n s e s o f w h i c h t h e human c r e a t u r e i s c a p a b l e . 3-5 F o r T h o rn d ik e l e a r n i n g

is

im p lic a tio n s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g The e s s e n c e o f

th e

in a n a tu r a lis tic s tim u li from th e d iv id u a l,

if

c o n n e c tin g . c a n be se e n i n

T h o rn d ik e a n l e a r n i n g m e ta p h y s ic s.

th is

situ a tio n

e x t e r n a l w o rld a n d r e s p o n s e fro m

T h is th e o r y o f l e a r n i n g

in h e re s

is

th e i n ­

b r i n g s f o r t h k n o w le d g e . g rounded in

th a t th e n e u ra l phase

th e f o c a l p o in t o f le a r n in g .

th e o ry .

The i n t e r a c t i o n b e tw e e n

p ro p e rly c o n tro lle d ,

e p is te m o lo g y i n

Many o f t h e

a m e c h a n istic

of th e b r a i n

becom es

T h o rn d ik e d e m o n s tr a te s t h i s

m e c h a n i s t i c v i e w p o in t by h i s b o n d t h e o r y .

He s t a t e s :

The b o n d s l e a d n o t o n l y fro m e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s - f a , c t s o u t s i d e , t h e m an— t o r e s p o n s e i n h i m , a n d f r o m s i t u a t i o n s i n h im t o a c t s b y w h i c h he c h a n g e s o u t s i d e n a t u r e , b u t a l s o fro m one c o n d i t i o n o r f a c t o r e v e n t

15 (New Y o r k :

E dw ard L ee T h o r n d ik e , The P s y c h o lo g y o f L e a r n in g C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1913)> I I , 1 .

179 I n h im t o a n o t h e r a n d s o on i n a l o n g s e r i e s . Of t h e c o n n e c t i o n s t o b e s t u d i e d i n men* s l e a r n i n g a n e n o r m o u s m a j o r i t y b e g i n a n d e n d w i t h some s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w i t h t h e m a n ' s own b r a i n — a r e b o n d s b e t w e e n o n e m e n t a l f a c t and a n o th e r. N a tu ra lis m p la n a tio n

in le a rn in g ..

of le a rn in g ,

w h ile

T h o r n d ik e 's m e c h a n i s t i c e x ­

I n some d i s r e p u t e

to d a y ,

is

s till

d isc e rn ib le

i n many o f t h e t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g l e a r n ­

in g .

T h o r n d i k e h a s e m e n d e d m uch o f h i s e a r l i e r t h e o r y .

T h e s e e m e n d a tio n s a r e n o t I n t h e d o m ain o f t h i s tio n .

in v e s tig a ­

O n ly t h e p h a s e r e l e v a n t t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

H ow ever,

i t w as p r i m a r i l y

t h e o u tw o rn b e l i e f s

Is

tre a te d .

t h r o u g h T h o r n d ik e 's e f f o r t s

o f m e n ta l d is c ip lin e

t r a i n i n g w ere d i s m i s s e d fro m

th a t

and tr a n s f e r of

e d u c a tio n a l th in k in g .

I t was

h i s v ig o ro u s ad v o cacy o f p sy c h o lo g y a s a b a s i s f o r l e a r n in g t h a t h e lp e d b r in g p ro b le m -s o lv in g

i n t o w id e a c c e p t a n c e .

T h o r n d i k e 's e m p h a s is on t h e n a t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f le a rn in g

le ft

so lv in g a ls o

a g r e a t i m p r e s s on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . is

d e p en d e n t upon th e n a t u r a l i s t i c

P ro b le m ­

ap p ro ach .

T h o r n d i k e 's p r i n c i p l e s h a v e w id e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r g o o d sc h o o lro o m m eth o d to d a y .

H is p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s r e g a r d ­

in g

s tre n g th e n e d by v a s t e x p e rim e n ta ­

th e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ,

tio n ,

h a v e a u g m e n te d , t h e Out o f h i s

s t a t u s o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

e m p i r i c a l p s y c h o l o g y h a v e come m e t h o d s

I b i d . , p. 55

180

b a s e d on n a t u r a l i s t i c le a rn in g

v ie w s*

T h ese d e v i c e s a n d m eth o d s i n

h a v e becom e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

n o tio n o f e n c o u rag in g le a r n in g by s c i e n t i f i c ro u n d in g l i f e p sy c h o lo g y .

p ro b lem s h a s a l s o

The

endeavour su r­

r e c e i v e d im p e tu s fro m h i s

T h ro u g h o u t T h o r n d ik e * s w ork t h e

e m p h a sis i s

on so u n d t h i n k i n g a n d r e f l e c t i o n b a s e d on h i s b o n d th e o ry * He s t a t e d : . I n m u c h o f hum an b e h a v i o r e s p e c i a l l y i n p u r p o s i v e th in k in g and p ro b le m -so lv in g , th e re i s c o o p e ra tiv e ac­ t i o n o f m any c o n n e c t i o n s . U n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f some m e n t a l s e t , many t e n d e n c i e s s t a r t w o r k i n g ; some o f t h e r e s p o n s e s p r o d u c e d a r e d i s c a r d e d a l t o g e t h e r ; some a r e p u t a s i d e t o g i v e i n f l u e n c e l a t e r ; some a r e u s e d t o ­ g e t h e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e x t s t e p . ^-7 T h is e q u a tio n o f p u rp o s iv e so lv in g g iv e s a c le a r in d ic a tio n m o lo g y .

o f T h o rn d ik e ’ s e p i s t e -

F o r T h o r n d i k e a s f o r D ew ey,

so lv in g . in

t h in k in g a n d p ro b lem ­

le a rn in g

is

p ro b lem ­

D ew ey’ s t h e o r y o f th e p r o c e s s i n v o lv e d d i f f e r s

some r e s p e c t s f r o m t h e

but e s s e n tia lly

T h o rn d ik e a n ad v o cacy o f b o n d s,

p ro b le m -so lv in g

i s b a s ic to b o t h l e a r n in g

th e o rie s. T h e b o n d t h e o r y a n d -p ro b le m - s o l v i n g *

E d w a r d L ee

T h o r n d i k e ’ s i n g e n i o u s S -R t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g m a r k s a n re p o c h i n

th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l d ev elo p m e n t o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g .

H e rb a rt had a tte m p te d to

17

ground i t

s c ie n tific a lly ,

but i t

E d w a r d L e e T h o r n d i k e , Human L e a r n i n g : (Hew Y o r k : T h e C e n t u r y C o m p an y, 1933-)* P* 1 ^ 7 *

181

w a s T h o r n d i k e who a c t u a l l y n o t p sy c h o lo g is ts .

d i d so*

As t e a c h e r s

s o lv in g w as p r a g m a tic .

its

c rite rio n .

th e ir in te re s t

in p ro b le m -

W o u ld i t w o r k i n t h e c l a s s - r o o m

was th e p rim a ry q u e s t i o n . p ir ic a l v a lid a tio n .

The H e r b a r t i a n s w ere

When i t

d id ,

t h e y s o u g h t no em­

T he c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e

They j u s t i f i e d

its

c o n c e p t was

c o n tin u in g

usage in i t s

p ra c tic a l re s u lts . T h o rn d ik e h e lp e d to it

on a f i r m

a ls o

p ro b le m -so lv in g and p u t

p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n b y h i s m o n u m e n tal i n ­

v e stig a tio n s . in g .

s ta b iliz e

He p o s t u l a t e d t h e c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f a l l l e a r n ­

T he n o t i o n t h a t l e a r n i n g w a s a f u n c t i o n s tre n g th e n e d th e

u n le ss

p r i n c i p le s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g .

t h e m in d d o e s f u n c t i o n fro m p r o b le m t o

w h o le c o n c e p t f a l l s

o f t h e m in d

so lu tio n ,

p r o b l e m - s o l v in g m eth o d i n t h e

s ta le d th a t le a rn in g

is

th e

b a s e d upon th e fo rm a tio n

sc h o o ls.

stru c tu rin g

p rin c ip le

use o f

H is th e o r y

o f hum an a c t i v i t y

P ro b le m -s o lv in g le n d s i t s e l f

a d m ira b ly to t h i s p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e . fo r th is

th e

o f e f f e c t i v e bonds o r c o n n e c tio n s

between s ti m u l u s and r e s p o n s e .

tu la te

th e

do w n.

T h o r n d i k e 1s t h e o r i e s p r o v i d e d i m p e t u s t o th e

For

of le a rn in g

is

The l a r g e r p o s ­

t h a t le a rn in g

oc­

c u r s m o st e f f e c t i v e l y w hen t h e n e u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s a r e c o n ­ tro lle d . so lv in g

T he d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r e s e n t s t a t u s is

d e te rm in e d .

i n d e b t e d to a n y t h e o r i e s w h ic h a r e

o f p ro b lem ­ e m p iric a lly

182

A fu n d a m e n ta l f a c t , is

th a t le a rn in g

a lm o st u n i v e r s a l l y

a g re ed upon,

t a k e s p l a c e b e s t w hen c e r t a i n b a s i c n e e d s

a r e m et.

T h is p o i n t

is

a p p lic a b le

d o c trin e s

on l e a r n i n g a n d t o t h e m e t h o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

T he b o n d s b e t w e e n o n e f a c t s a tis fa c to ry

re sp o n se s to

need e q u ilib ra tio n . seen.

The p a r a l l e l

of

of le a rn in g .

lik e

P ro b le m s a lw a y s

is ra th e r p la in

and p ro b le m -so lv in g

is

to be

r e s t upon

It

a te c h n iq u e w h ic h a p p l i e s on a l l

in v o lv e s,

at a ll

ages.

a ll i e d w ith v a rio u s

T h o r n d i k e o r D ew ey,

th e f i e l d .

s tr e n g th e n e d by

a s Dewey w o u l d h a v e i t ,

arra n g em e n t o f s u b je c t m a tte r to

th e le a r n e r

or le ss

T h o rn d ik e ’ s

THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL

P ro b le m -s o lv in g

a p ro g re ssiv e

to

sam e f o u n d a t i o n s . IV .

le v e ls

and a n o th e r a re o v ert stim u li.

T h o rn d ik e ’ s th e o ry

v e r y m uch t h e

d ire c tly

fit

th e n eed s

C e r t a i n m en, h o w e v e r , l e v e ls o f th e

sc h o o l;

a r e m o re o th e rs,

w r o t e m o re o r l e s s g e n e r a l l y

in

H o w e v e r, w h i l e h i s i n f l u e n c e w a s g r e a t e s t a s a

p h ilo s o p h e r o f e d u c a tio n ,

Dewey a l s o

founded an e x p e rim e n ta l

sc h o o l. T he man who d i d m o s t t o m ake p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p ro m in e n t te c h n iq u e C h e ste r P a rk e r. use in

in

th e

e le m e n ta ry

a

s c h o o l s was Sam uel

H e n r y C. M o r r i s o n p a v e d t h e way f o r i t s

t h e h i g h s c h o o l w i t h h i s w o rk i n m eth o d f o r th e

second ary

/■"

sc h o o l.

T h o r n d i k e , Dew ey, K i l p a t r i c k ,

B ode a n d

o t h e r s e x p o u n d e d t h e n ew i d e a s i n t h e

te a c h e rs c o lle g e s

and u n iv e r s itie s ,

th o u sa n d s o f p ro s ­

p e c tiv e

th e re b y

in flu e n c in g

e d u c a to rs . The n ew t e c h n i q u e p r o j e c t e d a n d d e f e n d e d b y t h e s e

m en f o u n d r e a d y a c c e p t a n c e b y m any o n a l l l e v e l s a n d s o o n cam e i n t o g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y . a tt a c k s upon i t ,

Today, i n

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s m uch i n

s tro n g ly d efen d ed a g a in s t i t s Sam uel C h e s te r P a r k e r . w ork i s p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t

o f t h e many e v id e n c e and

c ritic s . T h is A m e ric an p e d a g o g u e * s

to d is c u s s a d e q u a te ly th e

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d a s a s p e c i f i c a d ju n c t.

sp ite

te a c h in g

P a rk e r d e v e lo p e d v e ry th o ro u g h ly th e

e m p iric a l th in k in g .

T h is t h e s i s i s

and le a rn in g th e o ry of

p ro m in e n t i n

h is te x ts .

He w r o t e : . . * t h e p u p i l l e a r n s t h r o u g h h i s own r e s p o n s e , r e c i t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v io r. T he f i r s t f a c t r e ­ f e r r e d t o i s t h a t a p u p i l l e a r n s t h r o u g h h i s own r e ­ sp o n ses, r e a c tio n s o r b e h a v io r. O n ly b y m a k i n g t h e s e re sp o n se s h im s e lf can th e p u p il a c q u ire s k i l l . . . and h a b its o f e x e r c is in g s e l f - e o n t r o l and c a r e f u l j u d g m e n t . 3*8 P ark er se p a ra te d h is phases.

The f i r s t

o f th e a b i l i t y

th e o ry o f le a r n in g

a n d m o st i m p o r t a n t was t h e

to f in d

so lu tio n s to

w h ic h he s u b o r d in a te d to

th e f i r s t ,

p ro b le m s; w as t h e

in to

tw o

im p ro v e m e n t th e

second,

s tre n g th e n in g

S am uel C h e s t e r P a r k e r , G e n e r a l M eth o d s o f T each ­ i n g i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s (Hew Y o r k : G-inn a n d C o . , 1 9 1 9 ) > p . 116.

184 of th e a b i l i t y of sense.

t o a b s t r a c t g e n e r a l m e a n in g s fro m t h e

o b je c ts

P a r k e r was a w are t h a t t h i n k i n g i s a n o n - g o in g

p ro cess and n o t a s ta tic

c o n d itio n a c c o m p lish e d i n v a c u o *

T h is p o in t i s b ro u g h t o u t in th e fo llo w in g e x p o s itio n : A d i s t i n c t c o n t r i b u t i o n i s m ade i n t h e c o m p l e t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f th e te r m s I n d u c tio n an d d e d u c tio n * . . . T h u s t h e e r r o n e o u s s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e tw o w a s e n d e d * and, a s P a rk e r h im s e lf p o in te d o u t, t h i s opens up th e w ay f o r e l i m i n a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s e r r o n e o u s I n t e r p r e t a ­ t io n s o f e ac h , w h e th e r re g a rd e d s e p a r a te ly o r t o g e t h e r .1 ' When h e f i r s t

d is c u s s e d th e

su b je c t,

P a rk e r d e v e l­

oped th e c o n c e p t o f p ro b le m -so lv in g a s a t o t a l p ro c e s s , som e o f h i s w o r k s h o w s t h e v ie w s on th e tio n ,

it

an e ra ,

su b je c t.

e f f e c t o f th e o ld t r a d i t i o n a l

He w a s w o r k i n g i n a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i ­

m ust b e rem em b ered , a n d ,

as is

th e case

e v e r y t h i n g show ed t r a c e s o f change*

em erge fro m t h e o l d a n d , in by o th e r s ,

first

but

u n til a d a p ta tio n s

in

such

New t h e o r i e s are

in tu rn

set

c h a n g e s re m a in p e rm e a te d w ith th e o ld

in flu e n c e s* The Im p o r ta n c e o f p r o b le m s *

P a rk e r w ro te :

When t h e p u p i l s a r e g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n p l a n ­ n in g and su c h p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . We h a v e w h a t may b e c a l l e d p r o j e c t t e a c h i n g . Such p la n n in g f r e ­ q u e n tly in v o lv e s c o n s id e ra b le I n v e s tig a tio n and d is c u s ­ s i o n b y t h e p u p i l s a n d th e d e v i s i n g o f w ays a n d m eans o f s o lv in g th e p r a c t i c a l p ro b le m s w h ic h t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t . 20

19

B u rto n ,

op.

c i t . , p . 249*

20 P a r k e r ,

op.

c it.,

p. 121.

185 Sam uel P a r k e r e m p h a siz e d th e im p o rta n c e o f p ro b le m s w h e th e r t h e y assum e l a r g e t i c a l o r p u re ly o f hum an l i f e

s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n s .

s p e c u l a t i v e p r o b l e m may f a l l

or le a rn in g .

le a rn in g m a te ria l. lem s.

or

T he p r a c ­

in to

any sp h ere

T hey com pose t h e b u l k o f t h e

The l e a r n e r b e g in s w i t h p r a c t i c a l p ro b ­

They a r e c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d b y t h e l e a r n e r i n

school

and in l i f e . S o l u t i o n s may b e f o u n d t o a l l near or fa r.

B u t i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h Dew ey*s t e n t a t i v e

p o th e tic a l in sta n c e s, in a d e q u a te .

p ro b le m s, l a r g e ,

P ark er f e l t

I n any c a s e ,

th a t o fte n

a te n ta tiv e

b e t t e r th a n n o n e , o r one a r b i t r a r i l y sa l g e n e ra litie s. th e p rim a ry f o r c e

sm a ll, hy­

s o l u t i o n s w ere

answ er to a d o u b t i s d e te rm in e d by u n iv e r­

P a r k e r b e l i e v e d t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v in g w as in r e f le c tio n .

He m a i n t a i n e d :

. . . a s t u d e n t who i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h c e r t a i n p r o b ­ le m s c o n c e r n i n g v e n t i l a t i o n o r f o o d s u p p l y , f o r e x a m p le , and h a s to s e a rc h f o r r e le v a n t m a te r ia l fro m v a rio u s s o u r c e s , may b e d o i n g t h e h i g h e s t g r a d e o f l o g i c a l r e ­ f le c tiv e th e o riz in g . I f he k e e p s h i s p ro b le m c l e a r l y I n m in d , i f he s e a r c h e s f o r e v i d e n c e , i f he e v a l u a t e s t h i s I n a n u n b ia s e d m an n e r, i f he r e j e c t s i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l , i f he a r r a n g e s and o r g a n iz e s h i s i d e a s , i f he f o r m u la te s and v e r i f i e s h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , he i s b e in g l o g i c a l i n t h e h i g h e s t s e n s e . 2 *1P a r k e r 1s e f f e c t . lo g ic

is q u ite

The i d e a o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

a n ew d e p a r t u r e .

as

P a r k e r w as i n f l u e n c e d by

S am u el C h e s t e r P a r k e r , M e th o d o f T e a c h i n g i n H i g h S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : & in n a n d C om pan y, 1 9 1 5 ; , P* 7 1 •

th e r i s e

o f t h e new d i s c i p l i n e

o f p sy c h o lo g y an d p a r t i c u l a r

l y b y t h e w o rk o f E dw ard T h o rn d ik e *

P a r k e r seem s t o

e q u a te

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w i t h t h o u g h t , a n d f o r h im a l l m e r e f a c t i s m ad e i n c i d e n t a l t o

th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g .

A cco rd in g to

th e P a rk e r th e o ry ,

" n o t sim p ly t h e r e c e n c y o f i d e a s n e c tio n s ,

re fle c tio n

in o l d - e s ta b li s h e d con­

b u t th e

se a rc h in g f o r and te s tin g op d e a lin g w ith p e rp le x in g s i t u a t i o n s . ” P a r k e r 1s t h e o r y ,

d e v e lo p th e id e a o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

s c h o o l ro o m .

sch o o l le v e l and e q u a l in

up a w h o le new t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g

in th e

He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e b e s t w ay o f l e a r n i n g o n

a l l l e v e l s was th r o u g h t h e in g fro m s o c i a l ity .

on t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l

p ro b le m -so lv in g and r e f l e c t i o n

b ecam e a c c e p t e d on t h e g r a d e He s e t

h e lp e d to

o f th e th e o ry th ro u g h h is t e x t s ,

and th ro u g h h i s in flu e n c e

w e ig h t.

o f m eans o f

a s m uch a s a n y o n e e l s e ' s

He f o u n d w i d e a c c e p t a n c e

In v o lv e s

j u d i c i o u s u s e o f p ro b le m s em erg­

s itu a tio n s and so lv e d by in d iv id u a l a c tiv ­

The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w a s h i s p a r t i c u l a r d o m a i n a n d

he sh ap ed th e c o u rs e o f i t s

p a tte rn

of le a r n in g w ith h is

c o n c e p t o f p ro b lem s o l v i n g .

/

,V .

THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS

T he s e c o n d a r y l e v e l w a s i n i t i a t e d

22 ibia. , p. 40.

in to

p ro b le m -

so lv in g

th ro u g h

*u n i t s * *

th e u s e o f

‘p r o j e c t s , 1 ‘a c t i v i t i e s , 1 and

T hese a c t i v i t i e s

use in th e

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

cu rren t p ra c tic e

of th e in c e p tio n of th e se

o f te a c h in g .

te rm s,

are

B u rto n ,

still

in

te llin g

says:

In 1900 t h e r e a p p e a re d th e te rm “ p r o j e c t ” d e s i g n a t ­ in g a c o n ce p t d e s tin e d t o have c o n s id e r a b le in f lu e n c e on t h e f u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g . The b e s t and m ost c l e a r l y j u s t i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n of a p r o j e c t i s a “ p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m . ” T he f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t i s p l a n n i n g , d e v i s i n g , s c h e m i n g how t o c a r r y o u t a p r a c ­ tic a l e n te rp ris e . I t i s a p ro b lem e x e r c i s e o f a p r a c ­ t i c a l n a tu re . B u rto n a m p l i f i e s t h e

id e a th a t th e p ro je c t

concept

i s m e re ly an e x te n s i o n o f th e i d e a t h a t p r o b le m - s o lv in g i s c o n ce rn e d w ith f a c t s o th e r th a n th o s e p r e s e n te d by t r a d i ­ t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l p ro b le m s.

T ra d itio n a c c e p te d

a b s t r a c t p ro b le m s w ith o u t b o th e r in g im p o rta n c e

c o m p lish t h i s to f a l l in to

fle c tio n g iv e n .

th e ir

m uch:

it

The u s e o f t h e p r o j e c t d i d a c ­

c a u s e d t h e p u r e l y d e d u c t i v e m eth o d

d isre p u te g e n e ra lly .

T h ere had e x i s t e d f o r

u n q u e s tio n e d a n d u n d is tu rb e d ., t h e i d e a t h a t r e ­ i s a s s o c ia te d w ith g e n e ra liz a tio n s

T he p r o j e c t s , v i z . ,

in d iv id u a l a c tiv ity

d e d u c tiv e ly

a c tiv itie s and u n its ,

in le a rn in g

o f c o n te m p o ra ry p r o b le m - s o lv in g .

23

as to

f o r m odern a p p l i c a t i o n .

P r o je c t and p ro b le m .

to o lo n g ,

to in q u ire

so -c a lle d

b ro u g h t

in to p la y th ro u g h th e use B u rto n d e c l a r e s t h a t th e

B u rto n , o p . c i t . , I I , 253*

188 p r o j e c t m e th o d g a v e r i s e He d e s c r i b e s

to

tw o f i r s t - r a t e

c o n trib u tio n s *

th e m a s f o l l o w s :

* . . f i r s t , b r i n g t o t h e f o r e m o to r a c t i v i t y o r d o ­ i n g a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e new i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . T he i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o v e r t m o t o r a c ­ t i v i t y t o t h i n k i n g , a n d h e n c e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w a s m o re c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y im p ro v e d p r a c t i c e . S e c o n d , f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t m ade c l e a r to a l l th e u n if ie d , i n te g r a t e d n a tu re o f a le a r n in g situ a tio n . L e a rn in g a s an e x e r c i s e s h o u ld n o t be f r a g ­ m e n ta ry an d c o m p a rtm e n ta liz e d . ^ Thus th e tie s

in

p r o j e c t s 1 re v o lu tio n iz e d le a rn in g

a c tiv i­

th e h ig h sc h o o l. M uch o f t h e o l d m e t h o d w a s b r u s h e d a w a y b y t h e new

m eth o d o f p r e s e n t i n g a u n i f i e d a p p r o a c h t o and. b y t r e a t i n g

th e w h o le a s p r o b l e m - s o l v in g .

cam e a l a r g e p r o b l e m w i t h a l l i t s •p ro je c t*

su b je c t m a tte r A p ro je c t be­

im p lic a tio n s *

As s u c h

was a n o t h e r s t e p i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f p ro b le m ­

so lv in g . H e n r y G. M o r r i s o n .

The t e r m

m a in ly t h r o u g h M o rriso n * s P r a c t i c e

*u n i t *

o f T e a c h in g i n

S econ dary S c h o o l, an e x h a u s tiv e t r e a t i s e . t h i s book fo llo w s H erb art in c e n te re d , riso n ,

th a t th e

th e

The t h e s i s o f

u n it is

su b je c t-

a lth o u g h th e l e a r n e r t a k e s p re c e d e n c e h ere*

m ore t h a n d i d o t h e r e x p o n e n t s o f t h e

s iz e d b o th th e

2k

w as p o p u l a r i z e d

s y s te m ,

em pha­

te a c h e r and th e m a te ria l f o r le a rn in g .

I b i d . , p. 2 5 2 .

M or­

189 M o rriso n fo llo w e d H e rb a rt in in g *

h is v e rsio n of s te p s

H is g r e a t e s t e m p h a s is i s upon t h e n o t i o n

in le a r n ­

th a t le a rn in g

o u tco m es s h o u ld be o f a u n i f i e d a n d c o h e r e n t n a tu r e *

He

sta te s: When a s t u d e n t h a s f u l l y a c q u i r e d a p i e c e o f l e a r n ­ in g , he h a s m a s te re d it* H a lf l e a r n in g o r l e a r n in g r a ­ t h e r w e l l , o r b e i n g o n t h e w ay t o l e a r n i n g , a r e n o n e o f th e m m a s t e r y . M a ste ry im p lie s c o m p le te n e s s; th e th in g i s done; th e stu d e n t has a rriv e d , as f a r a s th a t p a r t i ­ c u l a r p ro b lem i s c o n c e rn e d . T h e re i s no q u e s t i o n o f how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t h a s m a s t e r e d o r he h a s n o t m a s ­ te re d i t * 25 M o rris o n s concept o f le a rn in g p ro ach i s

c o n ta in e d in th e

ab so rb ed ,

o r in c o m p le te ly a p p re c ia te d ,

I n M o r r is o n 's l e x i c o n , p lie s

th ro u g h th e

w o rd ‘m a s t e r y . 1

u n i t ap­

A u n it h a lf

i s a u n i t w a ste d .

m a s te r y m eans e n t i r e l y w h at i t

in th e th in k in g p ro c e ss .

im ­

No h a l f - w a y m e a s u r e s c a n b e

a c c e p te d . U n ity o f le a r n in g * m a s te ry , M o rriso n im p lie d , c o m p le te a s s i m i l a t i o n i s m a n d a to ry . th is

id e a of

in th e v e ry w ord ' u n i t , * t h a t

of a l l th e f a c t s

of any g iv e n o b je c t

P ro b le m -s o lv in g o p e r a te s e f f e c t i v e l y v i a

u n it ap p ro ach .

U n le s s t h e w h o le p a t t e r n

com p reh en d ed o r m a s te r e d , m ust o f a n e c e s s i t y

25

In a cco rd an ce w ith th e

any s o lu tio n

is

th o ro u g h ly

to a s t a t e d p ro b le m

re m a in v ag u e a n d s e m i- f o r m u la te d .

H e n r y C. M o r r i s o n , The P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h i n g i n t h e S eco n d ary S cho ol (C h ic a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 ) , P* 3 6 .

190 F u r t h e r , m a s t e r y o f a u n i t i m p l i e s t h e w h o le i d e a o f p ro b le m -so lv in g . d ik e an v ie w .

In th is

*

i d e a M o rris o n r e s e m b le s t h e T h o rn ­

He s t a t e s :

T h in k in g i s e s s e n t i a l l y p r o b le m - s o lv in g , t h e i n t e r ­ p re ta tio n of novel s itu a tio n s . I t i s hu m an n a t u r e t o t h i n k , c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s t h i s s t a t e m e n t may s e e m t o t h e f a c t s o f common e x p e r i e n c e . . . . We c a n s a y w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n fid e n c e th a t g iv e n : (a) m a te r ia l to t h i n k a b o u t; (b ) a m eth o d o f t h i n k i n g ; a n d ( c ) a m o tiv e f o r th in k in g , any n orm al i n d iv i d u a l w i l l th in k w ith in t h e l i m i t a t i o n s w h ic h h i s o r g a n i c a l l y i n h e r e n t m e n ta l s t r u c t u r e s d e te rm in e . . . . T hese a re th e c o n d itio n s u n d e r w h ic h t h i n k i n g t a k e s p l a c e . 26 T h in k in g a s p r o b le m - s o lv in g .

M o rriso n a c c e p t s , th e n ,

th a t th in k in g

is

p ro b le m -so lv in g .

T h is th e o r y , a c c o rd in g

to W a h lq u is t,

is

“u n q u e s tio n a b ly th e m ost w id e ly a c c e p te d

i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e l a s t tw e n ty y e a r s i n A m e ric an s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I n

h is

s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d e q u a te p ro b lem ­

s o lv in g te c h n iq u e s , M o rriso n d e p lo r e d th e

id e a o f d a y -to -

day te a c h in g an d in tro d u c e d th e co n ce p t o f s u b je c t m a tte r in

c o m p le te a n d i n t e g r a t e d u n i t s .

sig n ific a n t, of a sc ie n c e ,

He d e f i n e d a u n i t a s “ a

c o m p re h e n s iv e , a rt,

a s p e c t o f th e e n v iro n m e n t, o r 28 o r of c o n d u c t.”

M o r r i s o n ’ s u n i t s w e r e d i v i d e d b y h im i n t o f i v e f o r m a l

^

I b id ., p.

27 c a tio n

53*

J o h n T . W a h l q u i s t , T he P h i l o s o p h y o f A m e r i c a n E d u ­ (New Y o r k : T he R o n a l d P r e s s C o m p an y , 1 9 ^*2 ) , p . 1 73*

^

L o c. c i t .

1 9*1 ste p s f o r m a tte rs of d e f in itio n

o n ly .

He b e l i e v e d t h a t

l e a r n i n g w as a p r o c e s s a n d n o t a s e r i e s o f d i s c r e t e W hereas H e r b a r t 's l e a r n i n g A m e ric an H e r b a r t i a n s , trin e

h im se lf.

or u n it,

p lo ra tio n ,

(2)

z a t i o n a n d (5)

t h e o r y was f o r m a l i z e d b y t h e

M o rriso n a r b i t r a r i l y

To b e t t e r e x p e d i t e

he su g g e ste d th e

fo llo w in g

p re s e n ta tio n , re c ita tio n .

(3 )

d iv id e d h is doc­

th e le a rn in g fiv e

ste p s:

a ss im ila tio n ,

o f a c o u rse (1 ) (4 )

ex­

o rg a n i­

T hese s t e p s w ere t o b e u t i l i z e d

c h ro n o lo g ic a lly a s w e ll a s lo g ic a l l y . th e re i s

a c ts.

an e x c e lle n t tre a tm e n t of

In W a h lq u is t* s book

th e se f iv e

ste p s:

1* E x p l o r a t i o n - c o n s i s t i n g o f a p r e - t e s t q u i z o r I n fo r m a l d i s c u s s i o n , d e s ig n e d to a s c e r t a i n th e a p p e r­ c e p tiv e m ass, to a r r i v e a t a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and to e lim in a te r e p e t i t i o n an d w a ste o f e f f o r t . 2. P re s e n ta tio n - c o n s is tin g o f a s h o r t o r a l o v er­ v i e w b y t h e t e a c h e r , p r e s e n t i n g a * r o a d map* o f t h e t e r r i t o r y to b e in c lu d e d , to m o tiv a te and a ro u se in ­ t e r e s t and to e s t a b l i s h g o a ls . T he s t u d e n t s w e r e t o b e t e s t e d f o r ‘m a s t e r y * o f t h i s s t e p . 3* A s s i m i l a t i o n - s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y b a s e d u p o n a g u id e -s h e e t p re p a re d in advance by th e te a c h e r . An­ o t h e r 1m a s t e r y * t e s t i s h e r e i n v o l v e d . 4. O rg a n iz a tio n - c o n s is tin g o f th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f s tu d e n t o u tlin e s o f th e u n it w ith o u t re c o u rs e to n o te s. 5. R e c ita tio n - c o n s is tin g o f a s e r ie s of stu d e n t f l o o r - t a l k s , e x h i b i t i n g a c t u a l m a s t e r y o f t h e u n i t . 29 T hese f i v e s t e p s

seem f o r m a l ' i f

a p p ro a c h e d m e re ly

a s s t e p s a n d w i t h o u t a t o t a l O e s t a l t i n m in d b y b o t h

29 I b i d . , pp. 1 7 3 - 7 ^ .

192

in s tr u c to r and le a r n e r . M o rriso n d e v is e d ,

th e

B ut in a le a rn in g th e o ry

ste p s lo g ic a lly

fo llo w

P ro b le m - s o l v i n g a n d th e h ig h s c h o o l. o f te a c h in g s t i l l c a t i o n on t h e

s till

t h i s u n iq u e fo rm o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g i s th e U n ite d S ta te s .

p o p u l a r i t y h a s d im m ed i n t h e

th e co n cep t o f th e u n it, so lv in g te c h n iq u e ,

T h is p a tt e r n

M o d ifie d an d a d a p te d to

a p a r t o f many h i g h s c h o o l s i n

Some o f i t s

one a n o th e r.

h o l d s a n i m p o r ta n t p l a c e i n A m e ric an e d u ­

seco n d ary le v e l.

lo c a l c o n d itio n s,

such as

c o u rs e o f tim e , b u t

w h i c h may b e c o n s i d e r e d a p r o b l e m ­

i s w id e ly

a c c e p t e d i n t h e m odern h i g h

sc h o o l. V I.

PROBLEM-SOLVING* IN HIG-HER LEARNING

The m e th o d o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o n a l l is

i n f l u e n c e d b y J o h n D ew ey.

a ls o

sp read t h e i r d o c trin e

tic u la rly

le v e ls

He a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s h a v e

th ro u g h th e h ig h e r l e v e ls ,

th e n o rm al s c h o o ls and te a c h e r s c o ll e g e s .

p a tte r n o f c o lle g e s v a rie s

so g r e a t ly

p ar­ The

th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d

,rf&m

^J

S t a t e s t h a t i t w o u ld b e a lm o s t im p o s s ib le t o

a sc e rta in

d e g re e o f a c c e p ta n c e an d u sag e o f p ro b le m -so lv in g c o lle g e and u n iv e r s ity a‘

D ew ey1s t e x t s

on th e

le v e l.

a n d t h e many s p e e c h e s o f W i l l i a m H e a r d

K ilp a tr ic k have p ro p a g a te d th e am ong e d u c a t o r s .

th e

id e a of p ro b le m -so lv in g

B o t h o f t h e s e men h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d

193 w i t h C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h i s m uch i n f l u e n c e

in th e f i e l d

in stitu tio n

e x e rc ise s

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

th e o ry .

S t u d e n t s fro m C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y h a v e gone o u t t o s p r e a d t h e g o s p e l on a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . are

s till

Many c o l l e g e

t a u g h t th r o u g h t h i s m eth o d .

o n 11S c i e n t i f i c

Bode,

c la ss e s

in h is c h a p te r

M e th o d a n d H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 0 w r i t e s :

The o n e t h i n g t h a t r e a l l y m a t t e r s i n e d u c a t i o n i s a r e a l i z i n g s e n s e t h a t we m u s t g o o n c o n t i n u o u s l y t o n ew i n s i g h t s in a l l our fu n d a m e n ta l b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s . . . . The c e n t r a l p ro b le m i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s t o c l a r i f y t h i s new o u t l o o k so a s t o s e t i n t e l l i g e n c e f r e e f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f hum an l i f e . 30 P ro b le m - s o lv in g a n d t r a d i t i o n a l i s m . D exvey^ t h i n k i n g , a p p ro ach .

In lin e w ith

some p r o f e s s o r s f o l l o w t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

O th e rs in

th e u n i v e r s it i e s

a d v o c a te a r e t u r n

s o - c a l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f te a c h in g .

to

S ev eral u n iv e r s itie s

h a v e c h a m p io n e d a r e n e w a l o f t h e h u m a n i t i e s a n d h a v e sp o n ­ s o r e d a ”b a e k t o

t h e G r e e k s ” m o v e m e n t.

Bode r e m a r k s : The A r i s t o t e l i a n i d e a l o f t h e ” c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e m i n d ” h a s come t o m e a n a n a r r o w n e s s t h a t i s u n a b l e t o s e e t h e w oods on a c c o u n t o f t h e t r e e s . I f we a c c e p t s u c h a s t a n d p o i n t t h e r e I s l i t t l e m o re to be s a id . T he o n l y t h i n g t o d o i s t o g o o n a s we h a v e been d o in g , f o r th e p u rp o se of r e s e r v in g a c h o ic e so u l h e r e a n d t h e r e f r o m t h e mob o f m i s f i t s t h a t p o p u l a t e o u r c o l l e g e s . 31

Y ork:

B o y d H. B o d e , M o d e r n E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r i e s T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 7 )* ' p* 285*

31 I b i d . , p.

28k.

(Hew

19^ I t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be t h e d o m ain o f la r

in v e s tig a tio n

to d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i v e m e r its o f th e

m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v in g i n w ith ,

c o n tra st to ,

o th e r th e o r ie s o f le a rn in g *

th e

lim ite d i t s e l f

o r i n c o m p a riso n

O th e r i n v e s tig a tio n s

a r e n e e d e d on e v e r y l e v e l o f e d u c a tio n t o p o ss ib le ,

tills p a rtic u ­

a sc e rta in ,

e x a c t s t a t u s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g .

if

T h is stu d y

t o a g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h a n d i n m any c a s e s w a s

r e q u ir e d t o u se a p p ro x im a tio n r a t h e r th a n e n u m e ra tio n . R.

F reem an B u t t s h a s w r i t t e n

w h ic h he d e v o t e s a n e n t i r e te lle c tu a lis m

a te x t-^

on c o lle g e s in

c h a p t e r t o t h e p r o b l e m o f **In-

v ersu s In te llig e n c e ."

H is b ook i s

a n e x a m p le

o f th e d ich o to m y w h ic h e x i s t s to d a y i n h ig h e r l e a r n i n g . h as been s ta te d ,

t h i s d ich o to m y i s

no c o n c e r n o f t h i s

H ow ever, w h at he w r i t e s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

p ro g re ssiv e

stu d y .

re la te s d ire c tly

t o a d is c u s s io n o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g on th e c o lle g e I n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e

As

le v e l.

p h ilo s o p h y o f e x p e r l-

m e n ta lism he w r i t e s t h a t : . . . P r e s id e n t B u tle r h as te rm ed i t p s e u d o -p h ilo s ­ ophy, P r e s i d e n t H u tc h in s h a s condem ned a s a n t i - i n t e l ­ l e c t u a l a n d P r e s i d e n t A n g e l l h a s f o u n d 1f e e b l e a n d u n p r o m i s i n g . * T h e p o s i t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l am h a s c o n ­ s t a n t l y grow n i n I n f l u e n c e a n d i n a b i l i t y t o co m b at t h e c o n s e rv a tiv e p h ilo s o p h y o f r a tio n a lis m , l a r g e ly th ro u g h t h e g r o w i n g a d h e r e n c e o f m o re a n d m o re e d u c a t o r s t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f s u c h men a s J o h n D ew ey, W i l l i a m H. K i l ­ p a t r i c k , J o h n L . C h i l d s , a n d B o y d H. B o d e . 3 3 12 (New Y o r k :

33

R. F reem an B u t t s , The C o lle g e C h a r ts I t s C o u rse M c G -r a w - H ill B o o k C o m p any , 1 9 3 9 ) > 5 6 4 p p .

I b id . , p. 2 9 3 .

195 F r a s e r 's

sta te m e n t i s

a ls o

in d ic a tiv e

of

th e

sta tu s

o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g : T h e p l a n o f t e a c h i n g p r o b l e m s w a s am ong t h e f i r s t d e p a r t u r e s i n t h e A m e ric an c o l l e g e c u r r i c u lu m fro m t h e t r a d i t i o n o f te a c h in g o n ly bo o k s and a r b i t r a r i l y o r d e p a rtm e n ta lly o rg a n iz e d s u b je c t m a tte r. P ro b le m s w h ic h i l l u s t r a t e o r t e s t t h e a b i l i t y to a p p ly k n o w le d g e , to be s u r e h a v e a lw a y s b e e n t a u g h t i n c i d e n t a l l y i n p r a c ­ t i c a l l y ev ery c o lle g e c o u rse. But a g e n e r a tio n ago sp e­ c i a l c o u r s e s b eg an to b e g iv e n w h ic h c o n c e rn e d . . • p ro b le m s p r i m a r i l y . 3^ In

th e n e x t c h a p te r a c r i t i q u e

w i l l be p re se n te d * th e s is of

th is

th e w h o le i s s u e

I n o r d e r t o m ore f u l l y

In v e s tig a tio n ,

illu s tra te

o f J o h n Dewey* s v i e w s

i d e a l o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s c o n c e i v e d b y h im . V II.

JOHN DEWEY AND PROBLEM-SOLVING*

The m odern m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n g e a r e d on e v e r y l e v e l t o

th e

e x e m p l i f i e d b y D e w e y 's v i e w s . am ong e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s

so lv in g

T h e re seem s t o

to t h i s

e ffe c t,

f o r c e f u l p r o p o n e n t i n J o h n Dewey* th e l a s t

fiv e

be a c o n c e n s u s

a lth o u g h in

th is

H ow ever, p r o b le m ­

in th e U n ite d S t a te s f in d s i t s

w h ic h i n

th e c la ssro o m

l e a r n e r 's m a tu rity i s b e s t

s t u d y a c o m p a r is o n c a n n o t b e m ade.

Y ork:

th e

th e n e x t s e c tio n o f t h i s

c h a p te r w i l l p re s e n t an e x p o s itio n and th e

of

m ost o r i g i n a l an d

H is t h e o r i e s a r e

d e c a d e s o r so h a v e s e t t h e

th o se

sta n d a rd s

^ Mowat Or. F r a s e r , T h e C o l l e g e o f t h e F u t u r e C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 )> p* 3 1 9 *

(New

196: and g iv e n th e b a s ic i n g r e a t m easure# it

p o stu la te s.

O th e rs have c o n tr ib u te d

a n d H e r b a r t * s w ork w as f u n d a m e n ta l, b u t

i s o u t o f J o h n Dewey* s t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e r e

r u b r i c fro m w h ic h t h e p r o b le m - s o lv in g An e x a c t p i c t u r e th e

o f th e s ta tu s

em erges th e

of to d ay d e riv e s . o f p ro b le m -so lv in g in

s c h o o l s to d a y w o u ld dem and n u m ero u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .

T h is i n v e s t i g a t o r p o s i t s fie ld .

t h e n e e d f o r 'm o r e r e s e a r c h i n th e

B ut th e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i l l g iv e a b r o a d o v e rv ie w

o f th e id e a l c o n d itio n s a s a p p lie d g e n e r a lly

to

th e

cu rren t

e d u c a tio n a l scene. The b e g i n n i n g . p e rim e n ta l sch o o l a t

In

1 8 9 7 J o h n Dewey f o u n d e d h i s e x ­

th e U n iv e r s ity o f C h ic a g o .

h i s t h e o r i e s g rew u n t i l to d a y th e y m ost f u l l y d e te rm in e

t h e m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

a l t h e o r i e s r e s t upon h i s

e x p la in and

Dewey* s e d u c a t i o n ­

e p is te m o lo g y a n d upon th e g r e a t e r

im p lic a tio n s o f h i s p ra g m a tic p h ilo s o p h y . th e in c e p tio n

F ro m t h e r e

B u rto n d e s c r ib e s

o f Dewey* s t h e o r y o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

in

th e

sc h o o lro o m : I n 1 8 9 5 Dewey r e a d a p a p e r b e f o r e t h e H e r b e r t S o c i ­ e t y in w h ic h he p o i n te d o u t th e in a d e q u a c y o f th e H erb a r t i a n th e o r y o f i n t e r e s t in t h a t i t d id n o t In c lu d e th e i n s t i n c t s an d e m o tio n s o f th e c h i l d . . . . I n 1899 t h e r e a p p e a r e d t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f D e w e y * s no w f a m o u s book, School and S o c ie ty * . . . H ere f o r t h e f i r s t tim e we f i n d m e n t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t l e a r n i n g may p r o d u c e a . t e c h n i q u e , a p o w e r t o o v erco m e o b s t a c l e s a n d t o a t t a c k new s i t u a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s s u p p l y k n o w l e d g e . 35

35 B u rto n , o p . c i t . , I I , 2 4 8 .

197 T h e s e r a t h e r h u m b le b e g i n n i n g s m a r k t h e o n s e t o f o n e of

th e g r e a t e s t

sin g le

i n f l u e n c e s i n A m e ric an s c h o o l s .

t h i n k i n g o f J o h n Dewey, m ore t h a n

t h a t o f a n y o t h e r m an ,

is

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g in

re sp o n sib le

f o r th e a p p lic a tio n

th e c la ss ro o m . w ife A lic e ,

H is f i r s t

s c h o o l w as c r e a t e d b y Dewey, h i s

a n d s e v e r a l n e i g h b o r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i­

cag o i n 189^*

T here th e

i n s t i g a t e d a c c o rd in g to D ew ey.

The

d o c t r i n e o f p r o b l e m - s o l v in g was th e th e o r ie s of le a rn in g

o f John

T he s c h o o l e n d u r e d f r o m 1 8 9 ^ t o 1 9 0 ^ a n d w i l l b e

r e m e m b e r e d a s A m e r i c a 1s f i r s e Rugg d e s c r i b e s

e le m e n ta ry la b o r a to r y

sc h o o l.

it:

The e s s e n c e o f th e t h e o r y t e s t e d i n t h e S c h o o l was t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e a c t w h i c h we h a v e now a n a l y z e d in g re a t d e t a i l . . . . T h is i s th e e sse n c e o f th e o p e ra tio n a l th e o ry in a c tio n in a sc h o o l: a school a t l a s t b a se d on th e n a t u r a l p h ilo s o p h y o f e x p e r ie n c e and a sound p sy ­ c h o lo g y o f th e a c t .7 b Dewey* s e p i s t e m o l o g y i s p ro b le m -so lv in g . w e ll as

It

s u b s ta n c e .

answ er i s

th e

i s an o p e ra tio n a l concept in s p i r i t as

use o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

so lu tio n

to th e f o r e by r e f l e c t io n

J36

th e a c t of

The e s s e n c e o f m e t h o d I n a n y s c h o o l I s

to b e fo u n d e d on th e th e

c e n tr a liz e d in

(te n ta tiv e ) its e lf,

R e f l e c t i o n on

o f p ro b le m s b ro u g h t

in a n e v e r-e n d in g p ro c e s s .

R ugg, o p . c i t . , pp. 5 ^ 6 -^ 7 •

198 The n a t u r e o f l i f e . in g ,

a b stra c tio n ,

as

I n D ew eyf s I d e a l

such,

t i n u a l p ro b le m s and t h e

cannot e x is t.

th e o ry o f le a r n ­

L ife p ro d u ces con­

i n d i v i d u a l m u st o v erco m e th e m .

th e p rim a ry ta s k of e d u c a tio n i s to

e q u ip i t s

Thus

c lie n te le ,

th r o u g h t h e m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v in g t o f a c e

th e p ro b le m s

of lif e

T h i s know ­

(so c ie ty )

le d g e i s

w i t h a p p l i c a b l e k n o w le d g e.

t o be o f a k i n d w h ic h can

p re s e n t, b u t in

th e f u t u r e

as w e ll.

a s s i s t not o n ly i n th e I n E x p e r i e n c e an d Edu­

c a t i o n , w h e r e J o h n Dewey a s s u m e s t h e r o l e h is d o c trin e ,

he d e f in e s

of a p o lo g is t fo r

t h e d y n a m ics o f s o c i e t y :

A l l s o c i a l m o v em e n ts i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t s w h ic h a r e r e ­ f le c te d I n te lle c tu a lly in c o n tro v e rsie s . I t w o u ld n o t be a s ig n o f h e a l th i f su c h an Im p o rta n t s o c i a l I n t e r e s t a s e d u c a t i o n w ere n o t a l s o an a r e a o f s t r u g g l e , p r a c ­ t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l . . . . I t i s th e b u s in e s s o f an i n t e l l i g e n t th e o ry o f e d u c a tio n to a s c e r ta in th e cause f o r th e c o n f l i c t w h ic h e x i s t s an d th e n , i n s t e a d o f t a k ­ in g one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r , to i n d i c a t e a p l a n o f o p e ra ­ t i o n s p r o c e e d i n g f r o m a l e v e l d e e p e r a n d m ore I n c l u s i v e th a n I s r e p r e s e n t e d b y th e id e a s and p r a c t i c e s o f th e c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s . 37 I n Dewey *s w r i t i n g s o n e may s e e f o r t h e f i r s t th e

to ta lity

so lv in g .

of th e p a tte r n

T here

rid e s th e p ra c tic e o f in fo rm a tio n .

37

of l e a r n i n g c a l l e d p ro b le m ­

i s a te n d e n c y h e re

o l d e r p sy c h o lo g y w ith i t s

a to m istic

o f d iv id in g

D isc re te

tim e

t o c h a n g e m uch o f t h e ap p ro ach .

Dewey d e ­

th o u g h t in to u n r e la te d b i t s

f a c t s a r e o f no v a l u e u n l e s s

J o h n Dewey, E x p e r i e n c e a n d E d u c a ti o n T h e M a c m i l l a n C om pany , 1 9 3 8 ), p . v .

(Hew Y o r k :

199 m e a n in g fu lly r e l a t e d and a p p lic a b le The w h o le n e s s o f t h i n k i n g * is

to l i f e

situ a tio n s*

D ew ey’ s h o l i s t i c

an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

ap p ro ach

He d e s c r i b e s t h i s

p h ase o f h i s p h ilo s o p h y a s fo llo w s : I t a k e i t t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t y o f t h e new p h ilo s o p h y i s f o u n d i n t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s an i n ­ tim a te a n d n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n th e p r o c e s s o f a c tu a l e x p e rie n c e in e d u c a tio n . I f t h i s b e t r u e , th e n a p o s i t i v e a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i t s own b a s i c i d e a d ep en d s upon h a v in g a c o r r e c t id e a o f ex­ p e r i e n c e . 38 Dewey d e p a r t s f r o m

tra d itio n a l

o f th e u n i t y o f e x p e r ie n c e a n d th e is

a c o n tin u u m .

a llty *

th in k in g in

a ssu m p tio n t h a t

th is

Idea

e x p e rie n c e

He f o l l o w s Hume’ s t h i n k i n g a s r e g a r d s c a u s - ^

D ew ey’ s t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g

th a t re la tio n sh ip s e x is t

in

a ls o c o n ta in s th e b e li e f

e x p e r ie n c e w h ic h c a n n o t be s e t

down d e f i n i t e l y

in a o n e-fo r-o n e

a c t o f th in k in g

i s u n if ie d and I n te g r a te d w ith c a u se s and

e f f e c t s b le n d in g in to

c o rre la tio n .

a t o ta l p a tte rn .

has had g r e a t re p e rc u s s io n s .

T he w h o l e

The t o t a l

K n ig h t b e l i e v e s

th a t

ap p ro ach t h i s k in d

o f t h i n k i n g b y Dewey 11p o s s i b l y h a d w i d e r e f f e c t u p o n e d u c a ­ t i o n a l t h e o r y t h a n a n y o n e o t h e r I n f l u e n c e . **39 Dewey e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n n e c t i n g t h e p ro b le m s o f l i f e

o u tsid e th e

sc h o o lro o m w i t h t h o s e o f th e

38 I b i d . , p . 12.

39 E d g a r ¥ . K n i g h t . E d u c a t i o n I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (New Y o r k :

G-inn a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 9 ) ,

p* 571*

CS

200 le a rn in g p ro c e ss in th e

sc h o o lro o m .

when a c t u a l a n d r e l e v a n t l i f e le a rn e r fo r h is

re s o lu tio n .

m e a n in g i n p r o b le m s ,

L e a rn in g ta k e s p la c e

p ro b le m s a r e p r e s e n t e d to

th e

I f th e le a rn e r cannot fin d

th e te c h n iq u e

fa ils

of i t s e l f .

G -enuine e d u c a t i o n m u s t b e g r o u n d e d u p o n t h e n a t u r e o f th e c h ild . is

K n o w le d g e w h i c h i s

an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e

le a rn e rs.

It

is

T h e m in d i s

I n te lle c tu a l h e rita g e

a reso u rce

com es an e f f e c t i v e

t o be g a i n e d i n

th e

school

of a ll

common t o a l l m i n d s a n d i t b e ­

m eans o f c o n t r o l l i n g th e e n v iro n m e n t.

a p ro cess,

g r o w th h in g e s upon t h e

a d e v e lo p m e n ta l a f f a i r , am ount o f f u n c t i o n in g

it

and i t s is

com­

p e lle d to do. The i d e a l c l a s s r o o m . room i s It

is

one w here d o in g

as

sim p le a s t h a t .

is

A c c o r d i n g t o D ew ey t h e p a ram o u n t a n d l e a r n i n g

A k n o w led g e o f h u r d l i n g

s e ttin g up h u rd le s an d a tte m p tin g to tim e s.

L e a rn in g can ta k e p la c e i n

c o n d itio n s a re e rc ise

id e a l o r n o t,

id e a l

i s d o in g . com es b y

l e a p o v e r th em e n o u g h \

a c la ss ro o m , w h e th e r th e

th ro u g h p ro b le m -so lv in g .

Ex- ^

th ro u g h m e a n in g le ss a b s t r a c t i o n s d o es n o t p roduce

k n o w le d g e . K n i g h t ' s h i s t o r i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f Dewey g i v e s t h e o p in io n th a t tic

th in k in g .

le a rn in g

th is

th e o ry o f th e a c t has a lte r e d a l l

sc h o la s­

He d e s c r i b e s t h e e f f e c t o f D e w e y 's i d e a l o f

a s fo llo w s:

201 T h is a n d o th e r p r i n c i p l e s w h ic h he s e t f o r t h s e rv e d t o m o d ify a n d im p ro v e s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s n o t o n ly i n t h i s c o u n t r y , b u t i n m any o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a s w e l l * . * • S p e a k in g i n g e n e r a l t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e : T h at th e p rim a ry b u s in e s s o f th e sc h o o l i s to t r a i n c h ild r e n in c o o p e ra tiv e and m u tu a lly h e lp f u l l i v i n g . . . • That th e p rim a ry r o o t o f a l l e d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t y i s in th e i n s t i n c t i v e , im p u ls iv e a t t i t u d e of th e c h i l d , and n o t i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l ma­ te ria ls .^ 0 Thus a p ic tu r e

of th e id e a l

o f e d u c a t i o n w o u l d b e o n e where t h e and g e a re d to

in d iv id u a l th in k in g .

em erge fro m e x p e r i e n c e ,

c la s s ro o m on any l e v e l p ro b lem s a r e m e a n in g fu l T h ese p ro b le m s w o u ld

w o u ld b e r e l e v a n t

to t h e l e a r n e r ,

a n d w o u l d p r e s e n t a c h a l l e n g e t o h im t h a t w o u l d c o m p e l th in k in g .

D ew ey w r i t e s :

I t i s a c a r d i n a l p r e c e p t o f th e new er sc h o o l o f edu­ c a t i o n t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l b e m ade w ith th e e x p e rie n c e le a r n e r s a lre a d y have; t h a t t h i s e x p e rie n c e an d th e c a p a c i t i e s t h a t have b e e n d e v e lo p e d s th e s t a r ti n g p o in t fo r a l l W hat o f t h e p l a c e m a tte r in

th e

c la ss ro o m ?

Dewey i s c l e a r . te n t is

but i t

th e g ro w th o f

g re a te r p o sitio n d o x ic a lly ,

ho

te a c h e r and th e s u b je c t

T h is p o i n t i s

T here i s

im p o rta n t,

w h ic h i s

o f th e

a p la c e f o r s u b je c t m a tte r. is

s u b o rd in a te to

th e c h i l d .

in th e

Con-

t h e g r e a t e r a im

The t e a c h e r h o l d s a

id e a l s itu a tio n

m ore d e p e n d s u p o n h e r i n

I b id . , p.

one upon w h ic h

th a n b e fo re .

P ara­

a c h ild -c e n te re d school

523-

Dewey, How We T h in k , o p . c i t . , p . 8 8 .

202 th a n in th e t r a d i t i o n a l

sc h o o l.

R a tn e r s t a t e s t h i s

i n h i s f o r e w o r d t o Dewey* s I n t e l l i g e n c e

p o in t

i n t h e M odern W o rld :

To m ake a n d m a i n t a i n t h e s c h o o l a s a g e n u i n e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l e n v iro n m e n t r e q u i r e s a l l th e s k i l l , a l l t h e a r t a n d k n o w le d g e t h a t a d u l t s p o s s e s s . T he D e w e y a n e d u c a ­ t i o n r e q u i r e s i n f i n i t e l y more: t h o u g h t a n d e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f te a c h e r s th a n t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a tio n e v e r d id . A nd i t r e q u i r e s t e a c h e r s who h a v e . a l e r t , I n f o r m e d , s e n s i t i v e a n d d i s c i p l i n e d m in d s. 2 T he m e t h o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g *

In a r e c e n t te x t^ 3

D ew ey r e - e m p h a s i z e s h i s t h e s i s on how l e a r n i n g b e s t t a k e s p la c e .

T h e m in d i s

an In stru m e n t u n iq u e ly f i t t e d by n a tu re

t o a s s i s t man i n a d j u s t i n g i.e .,

so c ie ty .

c e n tra liz e d in in a d d itio n c o n c e p t.

t o h i s u n f r ie n d ly e n v iro n m e n t,

T he m e t h o d o f t h e m o d e m s c h o o l I s t h i s th e m e .

t o m eth o d o lo g y ,

to be

The a i m s a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m , m ust b e a d j u s t e d t o

t h is b a sic

Dewey s t a t e s :

The q u e s t i o n o f m e th o d i s u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c i b l e to th e q u e s tio n o f t h e o r d e r o f d e v elo p m e n t o f th e c h ild * s pow ers a n d i n t e r e s t s . The la w f o r p r e s e n t i n g an d t r e a t i n g m a t e r i a l , i s t h e law I m p l i c i t w i t h t h e c h ild * s own n a t u r e . . . . ^ R eal le a rn in g

re q u ire s a n a tu r a lis tic

p ro c e e d in g fro m a n a t u r a l i s t i c

ap p ro ach

m e ta p h y s ic s , a n d w o rk in g

^ J o s e p h R a t n e r , e d i t o r , I n t e l l i g e n c e I n t h e M o d e rn W o r l d , J o h n D ew ey * s P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : The" M o d e rn . L i ­ b r a r y , 1 9 3 9 )> P* 1 0 *

A3 hh,

Dewey, E x p e r ie n c e in E d u c a tio n , o p . c i t . , ,

i b i a - > p.

56.

116 pp.

th ro u g h t e n t a t i v e

h y p o t h e s e s t o m o re t e n t a t i v e

Ho ’ u l t i m a t e 1 t r u t h s

are

sought o r p o s tu la te d *

h y p o th e se s* S o c ia l

p ro b le m s e x i s t a n d t h e l e a r n e r m u st f a c e th em ; t h u s , e d u c a te th e

stu d e n t i s

A c tiv ity

t h e k e y n o te o f m e th o d w h e re b y I n d i v i d u a l s

is

to

t e a c h h im t o f a c e

th e s e

to

p ro b le m s. sh are

e x p e rie n c e . A w e l l - o r d e r e d c la s s r o o m on a n y l e v e l f a c e s p ro b le m s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e n e e d 's o f t h o s e c o m p r i s i n g t h a t c l a s s * T hese p ro b le m s w o u ld h a v e t o be r e a l l i f e

p ro b le m s*

t e a c h e r w o u ld b e a f o r c e f u l a n d c l e v e r g u i d e , her w ill a r b itr a r ily .

The

n e v e r im p o s in g

A l l o f th e l e a r n e r s w o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e

in th e fin d in g o f s o lu tio n s

to p ro b le m s.

T hese s o lu tio n s

w o u ld s e r v e a s p r e m is e s f o r f u r t h e r p ro b le m s .

The p r o c e d u r e

i s d e v e lo p m e n ta l and g e a r e d to th e m a tu ra tio n l e v e l of e a c h c la ss .

K ilp a tric k a s s e r ts ;

We may t h e n r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t o f i t e m p h a s i s on s u c h a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i t s own a c t i v i t i e s a s w i l l b rin g th e stu d e n t to a c o n sc io u sn e ss o f th e c h a ra c te r o f h i s p r e s e n t w o r l d w i t h a n a l l e g i a n c e t o a m ode o f a c t i o n w h ic h a t t a c k s th e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l v a l u e s i n a n I n t e l l i g e n t a n d s i n c e r e m a n n e r . ^5 I t m ay b e s t a t e d t h e n , ers,

t h a t f o r Dewey a n d h i s f o l l o w ­

m e th o d m ean s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

w h i c h h a s a im a n d d i r e c t i o n .

It

is

p ro b le m -so lv in g

P ro b le m s a r i s e

fro m th e s o c i a l

m a tr ix an d , w ith th e I n t e l l i g e n t g u id a n c e an d p a r t i c i p a t i o n v/

A5 F ro n tie r

W i l l i a m H. K i l p a t r i c k a n d o t h e r s , T h e E d u c a t i o n a l (Hew Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C om pany , 1 9 3 2 ) , P* 1 6 2 .

of th e te a c h e r,

s o lu tio n s a r e fo u n d by th e le a r n e r s

in a

^

c o o p e ra tiv e e f f o r t . The s c h o o l s o f t o d a y a n d to m o rro w m u st b e a w are o f th e

concept o f e x p e rie n c e .

p ro b le m s e x p e r ie n c e d i n ence.

l i f e — fro m th e p ro b le m s i n e x p e r i ­

W ith m eth o d w i l l a l s o

th e re are ta in

som e f l a w s i n

c ritic s.

t h i s re a so n in g i s

In a tte m p tin g

s ta tu s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

a sse rte d by cer­

t o p r e s e n t t h e m odern

i t w as n o t e d t h a t p r o b le m - s o lv in g

some m e a s u r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d o n

a ll le v e ls

of le a rn in g .

I t was f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t t h e e x ­

s t a t u s c a n n o t b e m easu red in

one o f t h i s k in d .

h o w ev er,

any one s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y

F o r t h i s p u r p o s e m any i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e

needed and a d v is e d . so lv in g ,

That

stu d y .

H e c a o itu la tio n *

e x is ts in

com e g o a l s a n d c o n t e x t .

T hese v ie w s w i l l b e t r e a t e d l a t e r i n th e

c ritiq u e o f th is

act

M e th o d w i l l a r i s e f r o m t h e

A p i c t u r e o f th e i d e a l i n p ro b le m ­

has been p re se n te d .

In g re a te r or le s s e r

d e g r e e t h i s m e t h o d i s p r a c t i c e d i n m any A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s . D ew ey a n d ‘ p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g * i n A m e ric a .

h a v e b eco m e synonym ous

R a tn e r sa y s:

J o h n D ew ey i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f o r c e i n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n m o v e m e n t. B u i l d i n g on v a r i o u s s p o r a d i c r e f o r m s t h a t h a d b e en i n i t i a t e d , he d e v e l o p e d a new p s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g a n d l o g i c o f t h i n k i n g a n d l a i d dow n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s t h a t m ade i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e new e d u c a t i o n

205 to d e v e lo p and p r o s p e r . P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o w e s m u ch t o D e w e y . m ad e I t

a te rm f a m i l i a r t o a l l e d u c a to rs #

It

w a s h e who

In I t s

m eth o d s

a n d a im s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s b a s e d up o n a n a t u r a l i s t i c a n d

^

p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y w i t h w h i c h m any m o d e r n e d u c a t o r s do n o t ag ree.

They f e e l t h a t

in

its

in

tra d itio n .

its

th e ap p ro ach i s

to o n arro w and

a d h e r e n c e t o e m p i r i c i s m o v e r l o o k s m u ch t h a t i s g o o d B u t a c c o r d i n g t o Dewey, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g I n

r i c h e s t c o n n o ta tio n i s

‘ P e d a g o g u e ’ s C reed*

t h e w ay t o l e a r n .

In h is

he s ta te s :

. • . Id eas ( in te lle c tu a l and r a tio n a l p ro cesses) a ls o r e s u l t fro m a c t i o n and e v o lv e f o r th e sak e o f th e b e t t e r c o n tr o l o f a c tio n * W hat we t e r m r e a s o n i s p r i ­ m a r ily th e la w o f o r d e r l y o r e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n , To a t ­ te m p t to d e v e lo p t h e r e a s o n in g p o w e rs, t h e p o w e r o f ju d g m e n t w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o th e s e l e c t i o n a n d a r ­ ran g em en t o f m eans in a c tio n , I s th e fu n d a m e n ta l f a l . l a c y I n o u r p r e s e n t m eth o d s o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m a t t e r . 7 hope o f th e f u tu r e r e s t s to h is

so c ie ty .

in a d ju s tin g

th e le a rn e r

T h ere I s hope t h a t c l e a r e r i n s i g h t g a in e d

b y m e a n i n g f u l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w i l l a i d t h e e d u c a t e d man t o b e t t e r h im se lf and h is

so c ie ty *

D ew ey b e l i e v e s t h a t im­

pro vem en t r e s u l t s fro m e d u c a tio n , b u t t h a t t h i s m ust be s c i e n t i f i c in q u iry in to

life

is

a fo reg o n e c o n c lu sio n .

p ro b le m s sh o u ld be th e b a s i s

e d u c a tio n

S c ie n tific fo r a ll

R a t n e r , f o r e w o r d i n D ew ey’ s I n t e l l i g e n c e M odem W o rld , o p . c i t * , p . 1 6 .

Dewey, E d u c a tio n Today, o p . c i t . , p . 31*

in th e

206 sound t h e o r i e s o f le a r n in g . V III.

SUMMARY

T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w e d t h e c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h m ade u p t h e m odern s c e n e i n e d u c a t i o n . trib u to ry

fa c e ts in to

By p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r t h e c o n ­

one b ro a d p a t t e r n ,

m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v in g w as d raw n . w as p o s s i b l e .

Ho c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e

The p u r p o s e o f t h e c h a p t e r w a s t o d r a w u p a

g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , to

a p ic t u r e of th e

su g g est th e needs in

and, i f

p o ss ib le ,

th is area fo r fu rth e r p u rsu it.

n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a c r i t i q u e o f p ro b le m -so lv in g *

T he

CHAPTER V I I I CRITIQUE OF PROBLEM-SOLVINO In tro d u c tio n *

The p r e c e d i n g

p i e c e t o g e t h e r fro m th e o f th e scene.

c o m p o s ite f a c t o r s a c o h e r e n t v iew

s t a t u s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g T h is c h a p te r ,

c h a p te r a tte m p te d to

in

in

th e m od ern A m e ric an

ag reem en t w ith th e c o n c e p t o f con­

t i n u i t y , w i l l a tte m p t an e v a lu a tio n o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g . c h a p te r i s d iv id e d in to

th re e d is tin c t

T he

s e c tio n s f o r th e p u r­

pose of t h is e v a lu a tio n . The f i r s t

se c tio n

of

th e

c h a p te r w i l l a n a ly z e th e

f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v in g m eth o d , n a m e ly , o f of s c ie n tific p o stu la te s;

in q u iry ,

t h e m e th -

in o r d e r to d e te rm in e th e b a s ic

p a r t tw o w i l l p r e s e n t a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e con­

c e p t s o f t h e l e a d i n g m od ern p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n d i r e c t ence to p ro b le m -so lv in g ;

th e t h i r d p a r t w i l l d e a l w ith th e

e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a c t u a l l y m ade i n t h e f i e l d . w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e r e s e a rc h In t h i s

refer­

is

It

an u n f o r tu n a te d e a r t h o f r e ­

s p e c i f i c a r e a a n d m u ch f u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n

a p p ears n e c e ssa ry . I. It

THE METHOD OF S C IE N T IF IC INQUIRY

h a s b e e n e m p h a s iz e d t h a t no r e a l d ic h o to m y o b t a i n s

b e tw e e n I n d u c t i o n a n d d e d u c t io n a n d t h a t t h e s e d i v i s i o n s have been s e t up a r b i t r a r i l y .

H ow ever, t h e f i e l d o f

208 re a so n in g

a s a w h o le i s

d e sc rib e s

th is

n o t c le a r ly d e fin e d .

M o n ro e

in d e c is io n :

W h a te v e r s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s t h e n a t u r e o f “ m e n t a l ” a n d ” P s y c h o l o g i c a l 11 v a r i e s w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s o f 11m i n d ” a n d “ p s y c h o l o g y . ” F u n d a m e n t a l ­ l y , m i n d h a s b e e n c o n c e i v e d o f a s 9 s u b s t a n c e , 11 a s “ p r o c e s s ,” a s ”r e l a t i o n , ” a s 9i n t e n t i o n a l a c t , ” a s “ s u b s t a n t i v e , 1* a n d a s nf u n c t i o n . M ost p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e a g r e e d t h a t t h i n k i n g , c a l l e d h ig h e r m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s , i s

a to ta l p a tte rn

o f an o n -g o in g a c t i v i t y

th a n a s t a t i c

n a tu re of r e f le c tio n

u n d e c id e d an d th e

is

in c o n tro v e rsy .

N e v e rth e le ss,

an d to e x p e d ite th e tific

in q u iry

a n d m o re

The r e a l

i s s u e a s a w h o le

f o r p u rposes of d isc u ssio n

p ro g ress of th is in v e s tig a tio n ,

i s d e fin e d

g a th e re d by th e su b je c ts

is

e n tity .

o r so-

a s a m eth o d w h ic h u t i l i z e s

sc ie n ­ th e d a ta

s e n s e a p p a r a t u s fro m e x p e r ie n c e a n d th e n

th e se to

e m p iric a l J u s tif ic a tio n *

The p r o c e s s i s

o n e o f i n d u c t i o n w hereb y one I n v e s t i g a t e s p a r t i c u l a r i n ­ s t a n c e s f o r th e p u rp o se o f d ra w in g g e n e r a l b u t t e n t a t i v e ru le s fo r a p p lic a tio n . That i t

is

by th e fo llo w in g

p a r t o f a c o m p lex p r o c e s s i s

a tte s te d

to

s ta te m e n t:

H ig h e r m e n ta l p r o c e s s e s : T h e m e a n i n g o f “ m e n t a l 11 a n d “ h i g h e r ” m u st b e c l a r i f i e d a s a m eans o f d e l i m i t ­ in g t h i s to p ic . “ M e n t a l 11 r e f e r s t o a p r o c e s s o f a p s y c h o lo g ic a l n a tu r e — s e n s in g , p e r c e iv in g , im a g in in g ,

*** W a l t e r S . M o n r o e , e d i t o r , T he E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h (New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p any, 19*KU , p . 5 7 1 .

209 re m e m b e rin g , t h in k i n g * ju d g in g , w i l l i n g a n d th e l i k e . 2 W ith t h e f i e l d o f t h i n k i n g d e a rth o f e m p iric a l l i t e r a t u r e f a c e s o b v io u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . s u b s ta n tia te

a p o s itio n ,

If

It,

a c ritiq u e

th e r e i s a la c k o f d a ta to

th a t p o s itio n

a s D ew ey s t a t e s

fe e lin g ,

in c o n te n tio n and a

on t h e s u b j e c t ,

The n a t u r e o f i n d u c t i o n . re a so n in g ,

re a so n in g ,

is

none to o s e c u re .

The s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o f Is

co n cern ed w ith :

. . . a s c e r ta in in g th e c o n ju n c tio n s o f c h a r a c te r is ­ t i c t r a i t s w h ic h d e s c r i p t i v e l y d e te r m in e k i n d s I n r e ­ l a t i o n to one a n o th e r, and w ith th e I n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r s c o n s t i t u t i n g a b s t r a c t c o n d i t i o n s o f w id e a p p l i c a b i 1 i t y .3 In o th e r w ords, c ism ,

is

sc ie n tific

In q u iry ,

a m e th o d w h ic h r e s t s upon d o u b t a n d q u e s t i o n i n g .

Q u e stio n s a re a sk e d c o n c e rn in g c e r t a i n are

te s te d e m p iric a lly .

‘g e n e ra l p r in c ip le s ,*

S c ie n tific s o le ly upon th e

phenom ena an d th e s e

T h e r e c a n b e no m ere a c c e p t a n c e o f

o r lo g ic in

th e A r i s t o t e l i a n

u n i v e r s a l law s p r e c e d in g p a r t i c u l a r In q u iry i s

sense o f

in sta n c e s.

e m p iric a lly gro u n d ed , r e ly in g

s e n s e s a n d w hat e v id e n c e th e y c an b r i n g un­

a id e d o r w ith th e h e lp o f s c i e n t i f i c

2

b o rn o f s k e p ti­

a p p a ra tu s.

In d u c tio n

M onroe, l o c > c l t .

^ J o h n D ew ey, I n t e l l i g e n c e ( J o s e p h R a t n e r , e d i t o r ; New Y o r k : p . 913-

i n t h e M odern W o rld The M odem L i b r a r y ,

1939)>

u s e s m e c h a n ic a l a s s i s t a n c e w henever p o s s ib le t o a i d in d isc lo s in g f a c ts .

In

e d u c a tio n t h i s u se o f in d u c tio n has

m eant e m p h a sis upon t e s t i n g , n a ire

in r e s e a r c h and a l l

tific

e d u c a tio n .

c o n tr o l g ro u p s,

th e

q u e stio n ­

th e o t h e r a c c o u tre m e n ts o f s c ie n ­

A g a i n D ew ey s t a t e s :

“In d u c tio n ® . . . i s a p sy c h o lo g ic a l p ro c e ss , a l ­ th o u g h n o t i n t h e s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e o f p s y c h o lo g ic a l w h i c h h a s c o n t r o l l e d s o m uch o f m o d e r n s p e c u l a t i o n . T he p r o c e s s i n q u e s t i o n i s r a t h e r b i o l o g i c a l a n d t h e b i o l o g i c a l i s an a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f th e c o s m o lo g ic a l. I t i s , a c c o rd in g ly , p erh ap s b e t t e r to th in k o f i t as a p e d a g o g ic a l p r o c e s s i n w h ic h c e r t a i n s e l e c t p e r s o n s I n whom t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f r e a s o n i s b r o u g h t t o a c t u a l ­ ity . . . I n Dewey* s t h e o r y o f i n d u c t i o n ,

t h e s e “ s e l e c t 11 p e o ­

p l e i n whom p o t e n t i a l r e a s o n h a s b e c o m e a c t u a l t h r o u g h com­ p re h e n s io n o f th e fo rm s In h e r e n t in are

th e o b je c ts o f e x p e rie n c e

“l e d up t o o r in d u c e d to a p p re h e n d u n i v e r s a l e w h ic h have

been n e c e s s a rily

In v o lv e d ,

a ll

th e tim e ,

in

sense q u a litie s

and o b je c ts o f e m p iric a l p e rc e p tio n . H ere i s

th e v e ry essen ce o f s c i e n t if i c

i n t h e m e a n in g i s

q u ite lu c id .

I n q u i r y w here­

T h o u g h t , f o r D ew ey,

is a •

p r o c e s s i n h e r e n t i n t h e m i n d , r e a d y w h e r e v e r ana. w h e n e v e r a ro u sed by th e p ro p e r s tim u li. to

a r e a l i z a t i o n o f th o se

n a tu re .

I b id ., p.

918

In

t h i s w ay t h e m i n d i s l e d

g en eral p rin c ip le s

In trin s ic

in

211 In d e fe n s e o f th e

e x p e r im e n ta l m eth o d .

e r s have i n s i s t e d t h a t a s c a t i o n a l a d v an c em en t,

Many t h i n k ­

a p r e r e q u is ite f o r g e n e r a l edu­

nth e e d u c a to r u n d e rs ta n d f u l l y

th e

c o n d i t i o n s a n d m e t h o d s o f hum an e x p e r i e n c e a s a s p e c i a l f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h . 11^

T h is q u o t a t i o n i s fro m

l o g i c i a n s who h a v e t r e a t e d tiv e ly *

T hese w r i t e r s

fu n c tio n s

th e p ro b lem o f th in k in g

fe lt

is

In c lu d in g th e p h ilo s o p h y o f

wt h e e p i s t e m o i o g l c a l p r o b l e m o f d i s c o v e r i n g ,

e v a lu a tin g and h a rm o n iz in g th e v a r io u s t e s t s They s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s fe c tiv e ly

exhaus­

t h a t o n e o f th e m o st I m p o r ta n t

o f a l l p h ilo s o p h y ,

e d u c a tio n ,

t h e w o rk o f tw o

fu n c tio n

of tru th .

I s a c c o m p lish e d m ost e f ­

t h r o u g h t h e m eth o d o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t io n .

In a d d itio n

to th e s e w o rk e rs,

d e fe n d e rs of th e s c i e n t i f i c n o t doubt to d a y ,

in

sp ite

t h e r e h a v e b e e n m any

m eth o d o f i n q u i r y .

of an y .c ritic is m ,

T h ere i s

t h a t t h i s m eth ­

od h as m a t e r i a ll y a s s i s t e d th e advance of te c h n o lo g y in th is

and o th e r c o u n trie s .

safe

to sa y ,

In f a c t,

I t w o u ld b e

m uch o f t h e p r o g r e s s w o u ld n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d .

As h a s b e e n n o t e d ,

i n d u c t i o n i s a h i g h l y a m b ig u o u s

t e r m w hen l o o k e d a t b y I t s e l f . fo r d iffe re n t

w ith o u t i t ,

a reas.

6

It

h a s d i f f e r e n t m e a n in g s

To a p s y c h o l o g i s t ,

fo r In sta n c e ,

it

D. L u t h e r E v a n s a n d W a l t e r S . G - a m e r t s f e l d e r , L o g i c , T h e o r e t i c a l a n d A p p l i e d (N ew Y o r k : D o u b le d ay D o ra n a n d G om pany, 1 9 3 7 ) 7 p* ^ 1 6 . 7

L oc. c i t .

212 m eans one t h i n g , R o b in so n ,

to

h o w ev er,

an e c o n o m ist a n o t h e r ,

a n d s o on*

s ta te s:

W h ile t h e t e r m i n d u c t i o n w as u s e d b y A r i s t o t l e , a n d a c e r t a i n fo rm o f i n d u c t i v e p r o c e d u r e w as r e c o g n iz e d b y t h e m e d ie v a l sc h o o lm e n , i n d u c t i v e l o g i c i n th e m odern s e n s e o f t h e w o rd r e a l l y b e g a n a s a n e x p l a n a ­ t i o n o f t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s e m p lo y e d i n m ak in g t h e d is c o v e ry o f th e e x a c t e x p e rim e n ta l sc ie n c e s* T h is p h ilo s o p h e r i n s i s t s does n o t e x is t a lo n e .

It

is

th a t

p art o f

in d u c tio n can n o t and th e

sam e p r o c e s s a l o n g

w ith d e d u c tio n b o t h o f w h ic h e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e le a rn in g .

R o b in so n

says,

ttT h e tw o w a y s o f p r o c e e d i n g a r e

n o t a n t a g o n i s t i c b u t s u p p l e m e n t a r y . 119 o f m ost t h i n k e r s t h a t d e d u c tio n i s

It

is

th e concensus

p re s e n t in

f o r t h i n k i n g m u s t b e g i n w i t h some a s s u m p t i o n s , im p lie d .

a ll

th in k in g ,

s ta te d or

B ut t h a t a l l k n o w le d g e b e g i n s i n e x p e r i e n c e i s

v i g o r o u s l y d e f e n d e d b y D ew ey who a s s e r t s , tre a tis e

to

I n h i s fam ous

on l o g i c a s a m e th o d o f i n q u i r y :

N o th in g so f a t a l t o s c i e n c e can be im a g in e d a s e lim ­ in a tio n o f e x p e rim e n ta tio n , and e x p e rim e n ta tio n i s a fo rm o f d o in g a n d m ak in g . A p p lic a tio n o f c o n c e p tio n s a n d h y p o th e s e s t o e x i s t e n t i a l m a t t e r s th r o u g h th e m ed iu m o f d o i n g a n d m a k i n g i s a n i n t r i n s i c c o n s t i t u e n t o f s c i e n t if i c m e th o d .^

D a n i e l S . R o b i n s o n , T he P r i n c i p l e s o f R e a s o n in g : (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C om pany, 19365"* P* 203* ^ I b i d . , p* 205 *

Y ork:

10 J o h n D e w e y , L o g i c : T h e T h e o r y o f I n q u i r y H e n ry H o l t a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . ^39*

(New

In f u r th e r d efen se

o f h is t h e s is th a t e x p e rie n c e i s

th e m a tr ix o u t o f w h ic h s c i e n t i f i c

in q u ir y m ust e v o lv e ,

Dewey m a i n t a i n s t h a t t o t a k e a n y o t h e r c o u r s e k n o w le d g e w o u ld b e i n i m i c a l t o sc ie n tific

in q u iry .

In te llig e n tly ca t io n .

in se e k in g

sc ie n c e and a n ta g o n is tic to

He b a s e s h i s p h i l o s o p h y o n e x p e r i e n c e

c o n t r o l l e d a n d u s e d f o r som e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i -

I n m any d i f f e r e n t w a y s t h e r e

ap p ears

w r i t i n g s t h i s p o lem ic a g a i n s t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h i s own s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s .

i n 'Dewey* s as opposed to

In e x p lic a tio n o f th is b ia s

Dewey c o n t i n u e s : D o g m a tic r e s t r i c t i o n o f s c i e n c e to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o m p e ls d e n i a l o f s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h s a n d v a lu e t o e v e r y fo rm o f p r a c t i c e . I t o b lite r a te s , lo g ic a lly , th e en o rm o u s d i f f e r e n c e t h a t e x i s t s b e tw e e n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e r o u t i n e a n d th o s e t h a t a r e i n t e l l i g e n t ; b e tw e e n a c tio n d i c t a t e d by c a p r ic e , an d th e c o n d u ct o f a c t s t h a t em body t e c h n o l o g i e s , a n d t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f e x p r e s ­ s i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t e s t e d i d e a s . 11 H ere t h e n ,

c a n b e sum m ed u p t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e b a s e s

o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g . d e fin e d ,

It

a s opposed to

d eal of i t

i s o b v io u s.

a s e x p r e s s e d by I t s

is

th e

i n d u c t i v e m eth o d , a r b i t r a r i l y

d e d u c tio n .

T he v a l u e

A r e v i e w o f som e o f

of a g reat th e w e a k n e sse s,

o p p o n e n ts , w i l l f o llo w a f t e r a d i s c u s ­

sio n o f th e a re a s o f in d u c tio n .

A r e b u t t a l d raw n fro m

Dewey* s w r i t i n g s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d l a t e r i n V a r io u s m e a n in g s o f I n d u c t i o n .

th e c h a p te r .

The t e r m

‘ in d u c tio n *

21k h as been d iv id e d in to

t h r e e o r m ore w e l l - d e f i n e d a r e a s b y

c e r t a i n w r i t e r s who f e e l t h a t t h e t e r m b y I t s e l f e n u m e ra tio n , e lim in a tio n and s c i e n t i f i c

i s vague:

a n a ly sis.

T hese

t h r e e f a c e t s o f t h e I n d u c t i v e m eth o d h a v e b e e n so l i m i t e d and d e sig n a te d because of th e n a tu re of th e f i e l d s th e y a re u sed .

I n d u c t i o n b y s i m p l e e n u m e r a t i o n Mi s

p ro c e ss o f fo rm u la tin g p o sitiv e

i n w h ic h

a g e n e ra liz a tio n

th e

on t h e b a s i s o f

i n s t a n c e s . 11*^

In d u c tio n by e lim in a tio n i s

a m eth o d w h ic h a t t e m p t s

to r e d u c e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f a n y g iv e n phenom enon t o f r o m am ong m a n y .

In d u c tio n by s c i e n t i f i c

one la w

a n a ly sis Is a

m eth o d w h ereb y a n i n v e s t i g a t o r In a c h o s e n f i e l d

su b je c ts:

. . . a v a rie ty o f In sta n c e s to c a re fu l a n a ly s is or e v en t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , a n d b y c o m p a rin g a n d s t u d y i n g th e r e s u l t s , u n t i l th e u n d e rly in g sy s te m , o f w h ic h th e in s ta n c e s and t h e i r e le m e n ts a r e a l l fra g m e n ts , i s f i n a l l y b r o u g h t to l i g h t a n d f o r m u la te d a s a la w . ^ T h ese t h r e e m eth o d s o f i n d u c t i o n h av e b e e n e x t e n s i v e ­ ly used in a l l

th e

sc ie n c e s.

c e n t l y becom e on e o f i t s

E d u c a tio n ,

p erh ap s,

g r e a te s t a d h e re n ts.

has re ­

E n u m e ra tio n

a s a m eth o d o f i n d u c t i o n h a s b e e n u s e d f o r s t a t i s t i c s ;

in ­

d u c tio n by e lim in a tio n h as been u sed In th e s o c i a l f i e l d , p a rtic u la rly is

e d u c a tio n ,

and f o r th e p h y sic a l sc ie n c e s th e re

t h e m eth o d o f s c i e n t i f i c

12

a n a ly sis.

H o b in so n , p p . c i t . , p . Ib id . , p. 211.

210.

H ow ever, a l l t h r e e

215 f i e l d s o f I n d u c t i o n m erge i n t o one a n o t h e r a n d a n y o n e o r a l l may b e u s e d i n a n y o n e d i s c i p l i n e . in sta n c e ,

S ta tis tic s ,

fo r

i s u s e d In p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry f i e l d .

In d efen se o f d e d u c tio n . a l sch o o l of th in k in g d u c t i v e m eth o d .

A d h e re n ts o f

th e t r a d i t i o n ­

s e e so m e o b v i o u s w e a k n e s s e s i n

They s a y t h a t a l l

in d u c tiv e

th e in ­

in fe re n c e s

h a v e some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s

d e riv e d d e d u c tiv e ly

o r n o t.

o u t t h is p u rp o rte d gap a s fo llo w s:

R o b in so n s i n g l e s

w h e th e r s t a t e d

. . . e v e r y s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n m akes a d e f i n i t e a ssu m p tio n a s to th e w o rld o f f a c t s . T h is a ssu m p tio n I s a t th e b ack g ro u n d o f a l l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , even t h o u g h t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t o r may n o t b e c o n s c i o u s o f i t s p r e s e n c e i n h i s own t h i n k i n g . T hus, t h e r e

seem s to

be an a ssu m p tio n on th e p a r t

o f t h e i n d u c t i o n i s t w h i c h l e a d s h im t o b e l i e v e b a sic p o s tu la te s o f h is th e o rie s are v a lid . t a k e s th e m f o r g r a n t e d , n o t c o n s i d e r th em .

t h a t th e

He e i t h e r

o r e v e n a s t h e c a s e m ay b e , d o e s

But to

Ig n o re th e s e a ssu m p tio n s d o es

n o t t h e n m ake t h e m v a n i s h I n t o t h i n a i r .

The i n d u e t i o n l s t

h a s no s u c h m a g ic w o r d s . In re fu ta tio n a ssu m in g t h a t

o f Dew ey.

a l l l e a r n in g m ust b e g in w ith e x p e r ie n c e ,

seem s t o b e b e g g in g th e its e lf

q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e re t h e m eth o d

had g o t su c h k n o w le d g e.

1^

The s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d , b y

I b i d . , p. 216.

D ew ey h a s i n s i s t e d

upon

216 th is p o in t,

a s q u o t e d m an y t i m e s i n

th is

in v e s tig a tio n .

R o b in so n a t t a c k s t h e l o o p h o l e i n D ew ey’ s i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t l c le a rn in g

th e o ry .

He s t a t e s

th a t th is

th e o r y a d v o c a te d by

Dewey s o u n d s w e l l , b u t c a n n o t s t a n d u p t o c r i t i c i s m .

In ­

s tr u m e n ta lis m , R o b in so n w r i t e s : . . . i n v o l v e s s u e h s t a t e m e n t s a s t h e s e ( l ) t h a t we c a n v e r i f y a l l th o s e o f o u r I d e a s , w h ic h a r e t r u e ; ( 2 ) ' t h a t a l l t h o s e am ong o u r I d e a s w h i c h we c a n v e r i f y a r e t r u e ; (3 ) t h a t a l l o u r t r u e i d e a s a r e u s e f u l ; (k) t h a t a l l th o s e o f o u r i d e a s , w h ic h a r e u s e f u l , a r e t r u e ; ( 5 ) t h a t b e l i e f s may b e t r u e a t o n e t i m e , a n d n o t t r u e a t a n o t h e r ; ( 6 ) t h a t h u m a n b e i n g s n o t o n l y m ake t h e i r b e l i e f s , b u t t h a t t h e y m ak e t h e m t r u e . I t i s v ery easy t o show t h a t a l l o f t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s a r e f a l s e ; a n d y e t th e I n s tr u m e n ta l th e o ry o f t r u t h c o u n ts i t s a d v a n ta g e t o m a s t e r i n g t h e m . 3-5 D ew ey’ s t h e o r y o f

t h e m in d a s I n s t r u m e n t h a s l e d t o

h i s p h ilo s o p h y o f p ra g m a tism .

T h is p h ilo s o p h y i s

i n a l l h i s w o r k o n how hum an b e i n g s t h i n k . h i s a s s u m p t i o n s may n o t h o l d u p i n f a c t u a l e v id e n c e to

th e c o n tra ry I s

m a in ta in e d by R o b in so n stric tly

e m p iris tic

V ie w s o f t h e s e o p p o n e n ts a r e n e x t p r e s e n t e d . The w e a k n e s s e s o f i n d u c t i o n .

Q u ite a few t h in k e r s

In e d u c a tio n a s w e ll a s i n

o th e r f ie ld s ,

m e th o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ,

by i t s e l f ,

tio n .

T h a t som e o f

th e l i g h t o f stro n g

a s w e ll a s by o t h e r o p p o n e n ts o f t h e sc h o o l.

im p lic it

If

h o ld t h a t th e

is g u ilty

u s e d w h o lly In t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i t

I b i d ., p. 217.

o f presum p* n e g le c ts

217 to to o

acco u n t f o r th e

o b v io u s g e n e r a l i z a t io n

s ta n d s a n d o u t o f w h ic h i t d e v e lo p s .

upon w h ic h i t It

may e v e n a s s u m e

t h i n g s w h ic h a r e n o t t r u e . F u rth e r,

it

is

h e ld ,

th e re a re

some a r e a s o f t h o u g h t

i n w h ic h t h e r e

o b t a i n s su c h c o m p le x ity t h a t

by d e f i n i t i o n ,

i s n e ith e r fe a sib le

o f hum an r e l a t i o n s

th e re a re

s e p a r a tio n even

nor v a lid .

In th e a re a s

s o m any f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d t h a t

p u re i n d u c tio n m ust o f a n e c e s s i t y

fa ll.

H ib b e n s t a t e s :

The f o r c e s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v i t a l g ro w th a re e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to d e te rm in e by e x p e r i­ m en t, f o r t h e y o n ly o p e r a t e a n d p ro d u c e c e r t a i n o t h e r e f f e c t s in a p ro c e s s o f c o n tin u o u s c o n s tr u c tio n . . . . M o re o v er, t h e la w s o f d e v e lo p m e n t a r e f u r t h e r q u a l i ­ fie d by e x te rn a l th in g s . The r e s u l t o f t h e I n n e r f o r c e s a n d o u t e r i n f l u e n c e s w o rk in g t o g e t h e r c o m p lic a te s t h e p r o b le m to s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t p u r e I n d u c t i v e m eth ­ o d s a r e w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e o f a p p l i c a t i o n . 3-6 T h is q u o ta tio n e x e m p lif ie s th e b e l i e f d is a g re e w ith th e in d u c tiv e

o f m any who

and e x p e r i m e n t a l m eth o d .

m e th o d , when a p p l i e d t o c h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y , ig n o re

th e f a c t t h a t

T he

seem s t o

such I n d iv id u a ls a re in a c o n sta n t

p r o c e s s o f d e v e lo p m e n t.

The p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e p t o f l i f e

is

m ore o b v i o u s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d b e c a u s e o f t h e m a n i f e s t c h a n g e s o c c u rrin g .

T he p r o b l e m o f l e a r n i n g h e r e

p le x and i s n o t

so lv e d ,

a c c o rd in g

is

e x t r e m e l y com­

to th e c r i t i c s ,

m e re ly by

e x p e r im e n ta l m eth o d s.

l6

J o h n d r i e r ,H i b b e n , L o g i c — I n d u c t i v e a n d D e d u c t i v e (New Y o r k : C h a rle s S c r ib n e r s Sons, 1 9 1 0 ), p . 376.

218 T he f i e l d a p ro b le m i n

o f e d u c a tio n in p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n ts

t h a t th e l e a r n e r a n d th e

m ake u p a n i n e x t r i c a b l e

p a tte rn .

It

such

o b je c ts of le a rn in g is

ra th e r d if f ic u lt

t o p i n down t h e

exact s ta rtin g

cess.

su c h a h ig h d e g re e o f c o m p le x ity and su c h

T h ere i s

p o in t f o r th e le a r n in g pro ­

w id e r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h a t a n y a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n tin u u m i n te rm s o f in d u c tio n

seem s to

B o lste rin g th is

i n v a l i d a t e t h e w h o le a t t e m p t .

i d e a o f th e w h o le n e ss o f le a rn in g *

t h e G e s t a l t t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t l e a r n i n g i s n o t m ade u p o f d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s i n f e r e n t i a l l y g ra sp e d by th e

senses.

t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t l e a r n i n g com es t h r o u g h i n s i g h t , f o r w h ic h th e y g i v e no c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n ,

T h is

a p ro cess

b u t w h ic h g r a s p s

th e Im p o rt o f a g iv e n num ber o f phenom ena a n d m akes i t an i n t e l l i g i b l e

w h o le .

In in d u c tio n t h i s c o n n o ta tio n i s

la b o rio u s:

th a t of s ta rtin g

c o n tro llin g

th e m s c i e n t i f i c a l l y .

le a rn in g

in to

c a r e f u l l y w ith in sta n c e s -. and W ith th e G e s t a l t i s t s ,

o c c u r s s u d d e n l y b y some s t r a n g e p o w e r o f i n s i g h t .

A d v a n ta g e s o f d e d u c tio n .

In

c o n tra s t to

in g d i s c r e t e n e s s o f t h e i n d u c t i v e m eth o d ,

th e

G a rm ic h ae l

se em ­ says:

Among t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f a d e d u c t i v e e x p o s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e b a s e d on a s y s te m o f p o s t u l a t e s i s an i m p o r t a n t o n e t o w h i c h we m u s t g i v e some a t t e n t i o n . I t e n a b le s u s to l o c a l i z e t h e d o u b t i n c a s e t h e su p p o s e d la w s o f phenom ena l e a d to c o n t r a d i c t i o n w ith e m p ir ic a l f a c t o r m e re ly to c o n c l u s i o n s w h ic h a r e m u tu a lly c o n t r a d i c t o r y among t h e m s e l v e s . 17

R i c h a r d D. C a r m i c h a e l , T h e L o g i c o f D i s c o v e r y (C h ic a g o : T he O pen C o u r t P u b l i s h i n g C om pany, 1 9 3 ° ) * P* ®7*

219 The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s w h ic h o b t a i n i n an y p a r t i c u l a r in s ta n c e ,

it

seem s upon i n s p e c t i o n ,

in d u c tiv e ly * are

c an n o t be d e te rm in e d

T h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e p a r t o f a. l a r g e r , w h o l e

in th e m se lv e s p a r t s o f o th e r t o t a l i t i e s — an i n f i n i t e

s e r i e s o f m i c r o c o s m s w i t h i n m ic r o c o s m s *

The i n h e r e n t

stru c ­

tu re

o f in d u c tio n p r e c lu d e s th e p o s s i b i l i t y

o f an e x p la n a ­

tio n

o f t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s Ttfhich a r e t h e v e r y s u b s t a n c e o f

any p a r t i c u l a r in s ta n c e . On t h e c o n t r a r y * d e d u c t i v e d e fin itio n f o r m s th em *

th e o ry p re su p p o se s th e

o f th o s e p r i n c i p l e s and o f th e

1s t u f f

w h ic h

A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f any phenom ena,

th e re : . * . re m a in s th e p ro b lem , n o t to be o v e rlo o k e d , o f e x p l a i n i n g t h a t w h i c h i s common t o a l l t h e i n s t a n c e s , and fro m w hence t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u c t i o n d re w i t s g en ­ e ra liz a tio n s* B u t i n so d o in g t h e r e i s a t a c i t assu m p ­ t i o n t h a t t h e r e d o e s e x i s t a c o m m o n a lity , a c o n n e c tin g l i n k to a l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s . ^ T hrough t h i s p e rfo rc e b ro u g h t in . p rio ri fa c to rs

a s s u m p t i o n m any d i f f e r e n t

p ro b le m s a re

T h i s p o i n t i s m ade b y K a n t*

are b ro u g h t to

th e th in k in g p r o c e s s ,

W hat a g ra n te d

t h a t a l l th in k in g b e g in s in e x p e rie n c e ?

T h e re a lw a y s r e ­

m a i n s t h e g a p o f a s s u m i n g how e x p e r i e n c e

i s known t o b e so

a ll-in c lu s iv e ,

a n d fro m w hence i t

a n d i n f e r e n t i a l pow ers.

18 I b i d . , p . 89-

draw s i t s

d is c rim in a tin g

220 P erh ap s a l l s ta te

th a t

s t r u c t u r e s o r s y s te m s o f l e a r n i n g w h ic h

th o u g h t can be e q u a te d w ith s c i e n t i f i c

r e s t on p r e c a r i o u s g ro u n d . a im o f

sc ie n tific

To s a y ,

c o rd in g to h is

a s Dewey d o e s ,

in q u iry o r in d u c tio n i s

su m in g a g r e a t d e a l w h ic h r e s t s

in q u iry t h a t th e

p ra g m a tic i s a s ­

upon u n te n a b le g ro u n d s, a c ­

c ritic s .

One c r i t i c

re p lie s

in t h is fa sh io n :

To g r a n t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e common p r a g m a t i c f o r m u l a f o r t h e a im o f s c i e n c e — n a m e ly p r e d i c t i o n a n d c o n t r o l , a n d a c c o r d i n g l y t o a c c e p t P r o f e s s o r D e w e y 1s t h e o r i e s . . . i s i n p r i n c i p l e t o d en y t o k n o w le d g e , e s p e c i a l l y t o s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e , a n y m e a n i n g o n i t s own a c c o u n t , i . e . , a s a s p e c if ic c o n tr ib u tio n to o u r u n d e rsta n d in g o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s i n c l u d i n g o u r s e l v e s . **-9 In

sc ie n tific

in q u iry th e re

is

p e r h a p s t o o m u c h em­

p h a s is p la c e d upon i t s

fu n c tio n a s in q u iry .

th a t

c o n cern ed w ith th e

th e m eth o d i s

v e stig a tio n ,

to o

to

say,

te c h n iq u e o f in ­

th e re b y p a s s in g over th e r e a l l y

of g e n e ra liz in g .

That is

im p o rta n t f a c e t s

T h ere d o e s n o t seem to be en o u g h a t t e n t i o n

p a i d to w h a t m ig h t b e c a l l e d th e

r a tio n a l b a s is o f th e f a c ts

under in v e s tig a tio n . It

i s p o ssib le

th a t th e re

is

to o c lo s e

to th e se e k in g o u t o f fa G ts to th e d e trim e n t th e m se lv e s. c e rta in

T h ere

i s a ls o

of th e

an o b l i g a t i o n i n i n q u i r y

th e b a s is o f th o se f a c t s ,

19

an a d h e re n c e fa c te to

as­

n o t o n l y t o d i s c o v e r th e m .

/ H a r o l d H. S m a r t , T h e L o g i c o f S c i e n c e (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 1 )> P* 2 .

221 I n i n d u c t i o n t h e c h i e f a im i e sense d a ta .

T here i s

little

o t h e r f a c t o r s m ak in g u p t h e th e o th e r hand, a t l e a s t

to d e s c rib e th e

o b je c ts of

o r n o c o n c e r n w i t h some o f t h e to ta l p a tte rn .

D e d u c tio n ,

t r i e s w henever p o s s ib le

on

t o m ake

th e d a ta o f e x p e rie n c e i n t e l l i g i b l e . The m e th o d o f i n d u c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y d e l i m i t s to

th e f a c t s

a n o th e r.

th e m s e lv e s a n d t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one

One o f t h e o b v i o u s w e a k n e s s e s i n

q u iry i s

in q u iry

in i t s

s c ie n tific

i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t no h i g h e r k n o w l e d g e c a n

t r a n s c e n d t h a t k n o w le d g e d e r i v e d fro m e x p e r i e n c e .

R o b in so n

s u g g e s t s t h a t a n y k n o w le d g e i s b u t p a r t o f a g r e a t e r , th a t

so lu tio n s

in ­

to p ro b le m s a r e in

c o n tin u u m .

and

He s t a t e s :

W h ile , how ever I n v e s t i g a t i o n s t a r t s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p ro b le m , th o u g h t o f s e r i a l l y a n d n o t c o n c e iv e d a s p a r t s o f a w h o le , th e s o l u t i o n o f one p ro b lem w i l l y e t l e a d t o a n o t h e r , so m e tim e s a s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t o t h e r , f o r I t s own s o l u t i o n , o r s o m e t i m e s b e c a u s e I t n e e d s t h a t o t h e r f o r i t s own s o l u t i o n . ^ T hrough t h i s

i m p e r c e p t i b l e b l e n d i n g a n d e v e n som e­

t i m e s c o - a c t i o n o f two o r m o r e p r o b l e m s , t h e r e d e v e l o p s a r a t h e r s y s t e m a t i c bod y o f k n o w le d g e.

As o n e s o l u t i o n l e a d s

t o a n o t h e r t h e o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s becom e m a n i f e s t . tim e ,

I f t h i s c o n n e c tio n i s

c a rrie d

sio n th e re a r i s e s th e q u e stio n : c ip le ?

If

20

th e re i s ,

th en

it

is

is

In

to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c lu ­ th e re a g e n e ra l p rin ­

th e p rem ise o f d e d u c tio n

R i c h a r d R o b i n s o n , T he P r o v i n c e o f L o g i c 0 e o r g e R o u t l e d g e a n d S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 3 1 )» p* 2*

(L o n d o n :

222 a s t h e m in d e n t e r s

in to

T h is p o i n t i s in d u c tio n . sc ie n c e s,

th e

th e

s o l u t i o n o f a n o th e r p ro b le m .

cru x o f th e c r i t ic i s m

le v e le d a t

C o n c e rn in g th e u s e o f I n d u c tio n i n

any o f th e

R o b in so n s t a t e s :

Now t h a t i s a q u e s t i o n w h i c h d o e s n o t c o n d i t i o n o r o r ig in a te th e a c t i v i t y o f th e s c ie n c e , and, a c c u ra te ly s p e a k i n g , d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o t h a t a c t i v i t y a t a l l ; on th e c o n tr a r y , i t p re s u p p o se s th e p ro c e d u re o f th e s c ie n c e a s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g a n d a r r i v e s fro m a new k i n d o f t h i n k ­ i n g , i . e . , n o t t h e t h i n k i n g w h ic h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e m eth ­ o d . . . b u t r e f l e c t i o n on t h a t m e th o d I t s e l f . 21 It

may b e s e e n h e r e t h a t w h i l e Dewey a n d h i s d i s ­

c i p l e s have c a s t m e ta p h y s ic s o u t, in to

it

h a s n o n e t h e l e s s im p e r­

c e p tib ly i n f i l t e r e d

its e lf

th e f ib r e s o f

p i r i c a l re a so n in g .

Even t h e s e n s e s c a n n o t d en y th e in c o n ­

t r o v e r t i b l e f a c t o f w hat fo rm s l i e

t h e i r em­

u n d e r any s t r u c t u r a l

p a tte r n o f th o u g h t. D e w e y 1s r e f u t a t i o n . th e c ase .

B u t Dewey h o l d s t h a t

such i s n o t

T he d e d u c t i o n l s t s h a v e o v e r s h o t t h e i r m a r k .

Dewey i n s i s t s

t h a t no m a t t e r w hat one a s s e r t s ,

le d g e m ust p e r f o r c e

a l l know ­

s t a r t w ith e x p e rie n c e and th e t r a d i ­

t i o n a l i s t s w ith t h e i r d e d u c tio n s a re

sp e a k in g c la p tr a p .

He

b e lie v e s t h a t th e d e d u c tio n ls ts have m is c o n s tru e d h i s th e o ry and in d e fen se o f i t

he i n s i s t s

th e d e f i n i t i o n g iv e n

to e x p e rim e n ta tio n .

R o b in so n , l o o , c i t .

th a t

i t m ust d e p e n d upon

223 Dewey s t r e s s e s

th e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n e x p e r i e n c e

w h ic h i s ran d o m a n d u n c o n t r o l l e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e w h ic h i s sc ie n tific a lly p ra c tic e d

re g u la te d .

He e m p h a s i z e s * t h a t

in d u c tio n

in d is c r im in a te ly w ith o u t p u rp o se o r g u id a n c e i s

v a l u e l e s s f o r a c q u i r in g k n o w le d g e . th e v ery c o rn e rsto n e o f sc ie n c e .

B ut e x p e rim e n ta tio n i s A nd c o n t r o l l e d a n d p u r ­

p o s e fu l e x p e rim e n ta tio n c a r r i e s w ith i t

its

own m e t a p h y s i c s .

He d i s c u s s e s t h i s w i t h m u c h i n s i g h t : T h e H a t u r e o f I n d u c t i o n o n t h e G-round o f P r i o r A n a l ­ y sis. I s h a l l g iv e a b r i e f fo rm a l s ta te m e n t o f i t s n a tu re in th e l i g h t o f p re v io u s d is c u s s io n . ( l) P ar­ t i c u l a r s a r e s e l e c t i v e l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d so a s t o d e t e r ­ m in e a p r o b l e m w h o s e n a t u r e i s s u c h a s t o i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e m odes o f s o l u t i o n . T h is s e l e c t i v e p r e d e t e r ­ m in a tio n o f p e rc e iv e d o b je c ts and t h e i r q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r ily in v o lv e s e x p e rim e n ta l tra n s fo rm a tio n o f o b j e c t s a n d q u a l i t i e s i n t h e i r g i v e n “ n a t u r a l 11 s t a t e , w h e re a s i n t h e c l a s s i c l o g i c th e y w ere ta k e n “ a s i s . T h i s q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e p o r t i o n o f L o g i c , t h e M eth o d o f In q u iry

c o n ta in e d in th e

c o m p e n d iu m o f h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t

w orks a g a in e m p h a siz e d h i s e p ls te m o l o g i c a l s t a n d . b e lie v e s th a t

th e

sen se d a ta o f e x p e rie n c e a re

h e r e n t p a r t s o f th e p ro b lem , b u t th e y a r e a l s o fo r th e ir v e rific a tio n .

S c ie n tific

D ew ey

n o t o n ly i n ­ in d ic a to rs

In q u iry a d e q u a te ly con­

t r o l l e d w i l l p r o d u c e new d a t a w h i c h f u r n i s h t h e g e n e r a l i z a ­ tio n s fo r

th e n e x t.

D ew ey’ s t h e s i s l i e s

c o n tin u ity o f a l l lif e

pp.

in

a n d o f a l l k n o w le d g e.

D ew ey , I n t e l l i g e n c e 918 -19*

t h e d y n am ic These a re

i n t h e M odern W o r ld , o p . c l t . ,

in d is o lu b le and any d ic h o to m ie s a r e f a l s e Dewey h o l d s t h a t m eth o d o f

s c ie n tific

grounded*

and i t

g e n e ra liz a tio n s

is

and a r b itr a r y .

th e b a s ic a ssu m p tio n s in h e re

I n q u i r y . , K n o w le d g e i s

in th e

e m p iric a lly

o n ly fro m t h i s e x p e r im e n ta l m i l i e u t h a t

can e n su e .

It

is fu tile

to

sp e ak o f gen­

e r a l i z a t i o n s p r i o r to e x p e rie n c e , b e c a u s e o n ly e x p e rie n c e can p ro d u c e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f any k in d , c a l l s th em ,

1w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n s . *

t i o n can b e g a th e r e d fro m

o r,

a s Dewey

H is m e ta p h y s ic a l p o s i ­

th e fo llo w in g q u o t a t i o n ,

Dewey d i s c o u n t s m e t a p h y s i c s .

a lth o u g h

He s a y s :

The p r i m a r y m e a n in g s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s o f i d e a s a n d h y p o t h e s e s a r e d e r i v e d from t h e i r p o s i t i o n a n d f o r c e i n com m on-sense s i t u a t i o n o f u s e - e n j o y m e n t . They a r e e x p e r i e n c e d i n sy m b o ls d e v e lo p e d o r i g i n a l l y f o r t h e sa k e o f s o c i a l c o m m u n ic a tio n r a t h e r th a n to s e r v e th e c o n d itio n s o f c o n tro lle d Inquiry. 3 The s t a t u s o f t h e of th is issu e

c o n tro v e rsy .

can d e te rm in e

g a t o r l e a n s to w a rd th e

c o n c lu siv e ly .

sy ste m o f s c i e n t i f i c

th a t c e rta in d e fic ie n c ie s ca n n o t be o v e rlo o k e d .

it

O n ly f u t u r e o u t c o m e s T h is i n v e s t i ­ in q u iry , b u t

e x is t In th is le a rn in g

At p r e s e n t th e

c o n tro v e rsy

e x i s t s a s to t h e b e s t m eth o d o f l e a r n i n g ,

sy ste m still

a lth o u g h e m p iric a l

s tu d ie s b e a r o u t th e v a lu e o f th e in d u c tiv e p ro c e s s . n ex t phase o f th is

The

c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t som e o f t h e p r o s

and cons a s c o n c e rn s s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry .

T he w o r k o f t h e

225 l e a d i n g m odern p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i l l he r e v ie w e d fro m t h e F o rt.v - F l r s t Y e a rb o o k o f t h e i f a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S c ie n ­ tific

S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n . II.

MODERN THEORIES OF LEARNING-

T h i s p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r m oves fro m p h i l o s o p h i c a l c ritic is m

to p s y c h o lo g ic a l a n a ly s is .

T he s t e p

i s m ade p r i ­

m a r i ly b y m eans o f p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f th e v ie w ­ p o i n t s o f th e l e a d e r s i n A m e ric an p s y c h o lo g y a s r e g a r d s le a rn in g

in g e n e r a l and p ro b le m -so lv in g

in p a r tic u la r .

W h ile

t h e F o r t y - F i r s t Y e a r b o o k 2 *** o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n fo rm s t h e b u lk o f th e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , o t h e r w r i t e r s a r e draw n up o n f o r c o m p re h e n s io n . The F o r t y - F i r s t Y e a r b o o k . a n a ly z e d a re a s fo llo w s :

T he t h e o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g

A T h eo ry o f L e a rn in g

i n T erm s o f

S tim u lu s -R e s p o n s e a n d A s s o c i a t i o n ; 2^ C o n n e c tio n !sm ,

Its

O r i g i n a n d M a jo r F e a t u r e s ; 2^ C o n n e c tio n is m , P r e s e n t C o n c e p ts a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; 2 ? The F i e l d T h e o ry o f L e a r n in g a n d I t s

F o r t y - F i r s t Y earb o o k o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n , P a r t I I (C h ic a g o : N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 ^ 2 ) , ^ 6 3 pp* 25 I b i d . , E . R . G u t h r i e ,

pp.

2^ I b i d . , P e te r S a n d ifo rd ,

^

1 7 -5 8 .

pp*

9 7 -1 3 5 .

I b i d . , A rthu r I . G a te s, pp. 1^1-63*

226 E d u c a t i o n a l C o n s e q u e n c e s ; ^ ® The F i e l d T h e o r y o f R e c o n c ilia tio n o f L e a r n i n g a n d T h e re .a re

fin a lly ,

P ro b le m -S o lv in g .

a ls o c h a p t e r s in t h e Y earb o o k d e v o te d .to

th e r o le o f m o tiv a tio n in le a r n in g , b e h a v io u r upon th e l e a r n e r , a n d m e a n in g , a n d a t o p i c sequence in r e l a ti o n

th e e f f e c t o f e m o tio n a l

p ra c tic e

in le a rn in g ,

la n g u a g e

w h ic h d i s c u s s e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d

to th e c u r r ic u la r phase o f le a rn in g .

I h i s Y e a r b o o k , e d i t e d b y N e l s o n B. o f C h ic a g o , i s

Learning;2^

H enry o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y

re c o g n iz e d as a u th o r i ta t iv e

in

th e f i e l d s o f

e d u c a tio n and p sy c h o lo g y . W h ile t h e c o m p le te o f f e r i n g w as i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d e v a lu a te d , in

t h e m a jo r e m p h a s is was p l a c e d upon p r o b l e m - s o l v in g

t e r m s o f t h e p u r p o s e s o r i g i n a l l y l a i d dow n b y

tig a tio n .

The f i e l d

in c o n te n tio n .

th is in v e s­

o f th e p sy c h o lo g y o f l e a r n i n g

P o i n t s o f a g r e e m e n t do e x i s t ,

g a rd in g p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

is

as y et

ho w ev er, r e ­

a n d t h e s e p o i n t s o f a g re e m e n t w ere

sought f o r . The m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i e w .

W i l l i a m A. B r o w n e l l ,

P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y a t D uke U n i v e r s i t y ,

I b i d . , C -eo rg e W. H a r t m a n n , p p . 1 6 5 - 2 0 3 * ^

I b i d . , K u r t L e w in , p p . 2 1 5-37* I b i d . , T. R. M c C o n n e ll, p p .

^

2^3-7^*

I b i d . , W illia m B r o w n e ll, p p . 4l5-*K>.

227 gave th e e x p o s itio n o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

in th e Y earbo ok *

He

b e lie v e s

t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 11n e e d s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d s e ­

p a ra te ly

fro m o t h e r k i n d s o f le a r n in g *

an unu su al one,

is

The s e p a r a t i o n ,

a c c o m p a n ie d b y d e f i n i t i o n .

not

32

B r o w n e l l h o l d s t h a t f o r h im t h e r e i s n o d i c h o t o m o u s p ro b le m ,

a lth o u g h c e r ta in

o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t s 11g o s o f a r a s

t o m ake a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d l e a r n i n g o n t h e o t h e r * *33 V a rio u s o p in io n s * d e fin ite ly

B ro w n e ll a s a p s y c h o lo g is t i s

a s u p p o rte r o f th e p ro b le m -so lv in g

he e q u a te s i t w ith le a rn in g * o th e r in v e s tig a to rs in o f p ro b le m -so lv in g * Y earb o o k t h e r e so lv in g .

H ow ever, h e i s

th e f i e l d

In f a c t,

are

fo r

aw are t h a t

do n o t t a k e t h i s

sam e v i e w

f o r a n o th e r c o n tr ib u to r to

a r e m an y f a c t o r s

A ll f a c to r s

th e o ry ,

a s im p o r ta n t a s p ro b le m ­

subsum ed u n d e r t h e one h e a d ,

le a rn in g * (ra te s s a y s : c re a tiv ity ,

"In re a so n in g ,

p ro b le m -so lv in g

in g o f a c t s a n d s k i l l s ,

and In

in sig h t

in v e n tio n ,

s im p le r fo rm s o f l e a r n ­

. . .

I s o f co u rse in ­

v o lv e d *

32

B ro w n e ll, o p .

33 I b i d . , G a te s,

p.

c i t * , p p . 415 -16*

415-

op* c i t . , p . 156.

a rtistic

228 S a n d lfo rd ,

now d e c e a s e d b u t f o r m e r l y P r o f e s s o r o f

E d u c a tio n a l P sy c h o lo g y a t

th e U n iv e r s ity o f T o ro n to ,

C anada,

who d e a l s w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f c o n n e c t i o n i s m , h a s a n o t h e r d e fin itio n

o f le a rn in g *

i n g n o t s o m u ch i n

H is c l e a r e x p o s itio n

term s o f f in d in g

so lu tio n s

e x p la in s le a rn ­ to p ro b le m s,

b u t r a t h e r in te rm s o f c o n n e c tin g a to m is tic f a c t s

to g e th e r

i n a n i n t e l l i g i b l e w ay. He d o e s n o t , le a rn in g .

h ow ever,

ig n o r e t h e p ro b le m ty p e

of

He t o o a g r e e s t h a t som e e l e m e n t s o f p r o b l e m ­

s o l v i n g a r e e m b o d ied i n h i s t h e o r y . T h o r n d lk e a n v ie w w h ic h he i s

He q u o t e s a f a m o u s

e x p la in in g .

T he

sta te m e n t i s

a s fo llo w s: A m an’ s l i f e w o u ld b e d e s c r i b e d b y a l i s t o f a l l th e s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h he e n c o u n te r s an d t h e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h h e m ad e t o t h e m , i n c l u d i n g am ong t h e l a t t e r e v e r y d e t a i l o f h i s s e n s a t i o n s , p r e c e p t s , m e m o rie s, m e n ta l Im ag e s, ju d g m e n ts, e m o tio n s , d e s i r e s , c h o ic e s a n d o t h e r s o - c a l l e d m e n ta l f a c t s . 35 T h is

1h o l i s t i c 1 v i e w o f T h o r n d i k e 1s c o n n e c t i n g o r

bond th e o ry i s

r a th e r p a ra d o x ic a l.

It

b e in g b o th m e c h a n is tic and a to m is tic . above q u o ta tio n th e r e a re im p lic a tio n s in le a rn in g . w h ic h o b t a i n i n t h e o r i e s t io n o f d eg ree

^ p. 99.

has been accused o f Y et a c c o rd in g to th e

c e r t a i n l y d y n a m ic a n d o r g a n ! s m i c Many t i m e s t h e d i v e r g e n c i e s a re a m a tte r o f e m p h a sis,

a ques­

r a th e r th a n o f k in d .

E. L* T h o rn d ik e, q u o te d b y S a n d ifo r d , p p . c i t . ,

229 R e fle x e s and r e f l e c t i o n * ty p e o f le a r n in g to r s are at

it

in v o lv e d ,

th is th e o ry .

seem s c e r t a i n as is

In

th is

s i tu a tio n -re sp o u se

t h a t m o re t h a n tw o f a c ­

im p lie d by th e a c c u s a tio n s le v e le d

T h e r e m u s t so m e w h e r e o c c u r a d i s t i n c t i o n ,

h o w e v e r , b e t w e e n S -R a s a p p l i e d t o t h e p u r e l y r e f l e x i v e a c t i o n o f T h o rn d ik e * s a n im a ls i n t h e i r v a r i o u s m azes and boxes and th e

t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s o f h u m an b e i n g s .

T h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s on th e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f c o g n i t i o n are

c e r t a i n l y m o re c o m p l e x t h a n t h a t s e e m i n g l y s i m p l e t a s k

o f p r o c e e d in g fro m p ro b le m t o th e se c o g n itiv e p ro c e sse s

s o lu tio n .

B urt

sta te s

th a t

are:

• . . summed u p u n d e r t h e n a m e s o f ‘ T h o u g h t* a n d *U n d e r s t a n d i n g . 1 On t h i s l e v e l t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e tw o m a i n g r o u p s o f f a c t o r s . They a r e m a n i f e s t e d m ost ty p ic a lly in X l ) s c i e n t i f i c o r l o g i c a l th in k in g , and (2; a r t i s t i c and a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c ia tio n r e s p e c tiv e ly . B o t h g r o u p s a p p e a r e s s e n t i a l l y t o d e p e n d o n t h e com­ p re h e n sio n , e x p l i c i t o r I m p lic it, o f a b s tr a c t r e l a ­ tio n s .^ It

is

th is

i g n o r i n g o f a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ic h

a p p e a rs to be one o f th e g la r in g w eaknesses of so lv in g te c h n iq u e . tio n

It

th e p ro b lem ­

seem s r a t h e r a g r o s s o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a ­

to Ig n o re th e a b s tr a c tiv e im p lic a tio n .

It

is

tru e

t h a t n o t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g o r o f m in d h a s b e e n p r o v e d w h o lly J u s t i f i e d ,

b u t e v id e n c e fro m c a r e f u l

s c ie n tific

^ S i r C y r i l B u r t , HT he S t r u c t u r e o f t h e M in d — A R e v i e w o f t h e R e s u l t s o f F a c t o r A n a l y s i s , 11 T h e B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , X IX : P a r t I I I , 1 9 0 , N ovem ber, 19^9*

230 r e s e a r c h su c h a s t h a t done b y one o f fig u re s in

p s y c h o l o g y may n o t l i g h t l y

th e w o r ld ’ s le a d in g be Ig n o re d .

E v e n B r o w n e l l , who i s e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t p r o b l e m ­ so lv in g ,

p re se n ts

tw o f a u l t s

o f t h e m eth o d :

* . . t h e m eth o d o f s t e p - a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s a l o g i c a l p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g w h i c h may o r may n o t c h a r ­ a c t e r i z e e x p e r t t h i n k i n g on t h e p a r t o f a d u l t s , b u t w h ic h c e r t a i n l y h a s n o t y e t b e e n show n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e go o d t h i n k i n g on t h e p a r t o f c h i l d r e n . 37 A nd s e c o n d l y ,

he g o e s o n t o s a y i n r e f e r e n c e

n e s s e s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

”. . .

t h i s m e t h o d p u t s t o o m u ch

t r u s t i n te c h n iq u e a lo n e an d d is r e g a r d s e ffe c tiv e

p ro b le m -so lv ln g ♦

o g i s t su c h a s B ro w n e ll i s c ritic iz e

to

and l a t e r

som e o f t h e d e f e c t s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , i t

any s t r o n g l y

in th e d e fe n se

I t may n o t b e ,

sc io u sly .

It

In

X b ia ., p.

43 2 .

seem to

o f a s tr o n g ly h e ld th e o ry ,

c e rta in

so m e tim e s o v e r l o o k e d b y t h e a d ­

in f a c t o fte n

In th e

B ro w n e ll, p p .

is

th e e x p o s itio n

is

n o t,

done con­

c o u ld be s a i d t h a t c l e a r th in k in g

enough a t any tim e .

^

W eaknesses, h ow ever,

a d v o c a te d sy s te m .

b i a s e s c r e e p in w h ic h a r e h e re n t.

When a p s y c h o l ­

p u rp o rte d to be does n o t h e s ita te

o b v io u s t h a t th e y do e x i s t . in h e re

o th e r e s s e n tia ls in

p ro b le m -so lv in g .

The w e a k n e s s e s o f

to

t o th e w eak­

is

d iffic u lt

e s ta b lis h m e n t o f one th e o ry

c i t . , p.

am ong m any s i m i l a r t h e o r i e s known t h a t o f t e n c o n stru e f a c t s

i t b e c o m e s a p ro b lem *

th e p r o ta g o n is ts o f a c e r t a i n

to f i t

th e ir b e lie fs

The a d h e r e n t s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g th is

fa u lt.

fa ils

is

sy ste m w i l l

r a t h e r th a n v ic e v e r s a .

have n o t,

it

seem s, e sc a p e d

N o r th r o p d i s c u s s e s t h e w ork o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s

who s u b s t i t u t e when i t

It

e n th u s ia sm in p a tie n c e

fo r p re c isio n ,

fo r

and e x a c titu d e .

sc ie n c e f a i l s

N o rth ro p s t a t e s :

A g a in a n d a g a in i n v e s t i g a t o r s h av e p lu n g e d i n t o a s u b j e c t . . * g a th e r in g a trem en d o u s am ount o f d a ta , e v e n p e r f o r m i n g e x p e r i m e n t s , o n l y t o com e o u t a t t h e e n d w o n d e rin g w hat I t a l l p r o v e s , a n d r e a l i z i n g a f t e r y e a rs of In d u stry and e f f o r t th a t th e re a l d i f f ic u lt y h a s s l i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e i r f i n g e r s . 39 T h e r e c a n b e no s u b s t i t u t e f o r c r i t i c a l a tte n tio n

to

a ll d e ta ils

o f a p ro b lem .

a n a ly s is and

To p l a c e m e t h o d a t

th e to p o f th e h ie r a r c h y w eakens th e p o s i t io n . W ith r e l a t i o n

to

t h e m eth o d o f i n q u i r y ,

N o rth ro p

says: O th e rs , n o tin g th e su c c e s s o f a g iv e n s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d I n o n e f i e l d , h a v e c a r r i e d t h e m e th o d h a s t i l y a n d u n c r i t i c a l l y i n t o t h e i r own, o n ly t o e n d l a t e r on in a s im u la r d is illu s io n m e n t. A ll such e x p e rie n c e s a re a sig n th a t th e i n i t i a t i o n o f in q u iry has been g l o s s e d o v e r to o h a s t i l y , w ith o u t any a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s Im p o rta n c e o r i t s d i f f i c u l t y . ^ T he a b o v e q u o t a t i o n i s c ritic ism

of sc ie n tific

th e

In q u iry ,

h e a rt o f one e x c e lle n t or its

o u tg ro w th in

F r e d e r i c h Q. S . N o r t h r o p , The L o g i c o f t h e S c i e n c e s a n d t h e H u m a n i t i e s (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n G om pany , 1 9 ^ 8 ) , P-

7-

232 e d u c a tio n a l p ro b le m -so lv in g . se,

and th e ir

sid e d *

T he e m p h a s i s u p o n p r o b l e m s p e r

s o l u t i o n s a p p e a r s t o m ake t h e p i c t u r e

T h is d i s t o r t i o n

is

b o u n d t o o c c u r w h e n t o o m uch em­

p h a s i s i s p la c e d upon one p h ase o f a l e a r n i n g expense o f a n o th e r.

th e o ry a t th e

H a rtm a n n , i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e

e d u c a tio n a l consequences o f th e f i e l d th e p ro b le m -so lv e rs to

th e o ry ,

t a k e s some o f

ta sk .

The w h o le n e s s o f l e a r n i n g * a d m its t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t lem s a n d t h e i r

lo p ­

s o lu tio n s ,

W h i l e H a r tm a n n r e a d i l y

le a r n in g c e n t e r s a ro u n d p ro b ­

he o b s e rv e s ,

som ew hat i r o n i c a l l y

th a t: I n many o f t h e m o r e e l a b o r a t e a n i m a l e x p e r i m e n t s th e Jo k e was o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r b e c a u s e th e p ro b le m he th o u g h t h e w as s e t t i n g f o r t h e l e a r n e r w as n o t th e one a c t u a l l y a c c e p te d by th e a n im a ls a s a r e s u l t o f h i s c o n f r o n ta tio n w ith th e ta sk -c o m p le x . * . s i m il a r ly w h a t t h e c h i l d s e e s a s i t s m o s t i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m may n o t b e t h a t u p o n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r i s i n s i s t i n g . **1 F o r H a r tm a n n a n y s e p a r a t i o n o f l e a r n e r f r o m l e a r n e d I s o u t o f th e q u e s tio n .

T he l e a r n e r d o e s n o t g r a s p t h e

s o l u t i o n o f a n y p ro b le m w ith o u t w h a t t h e G -e s ta lt, s c h o o l o f p sy c h o lo g y c a l l s

1i n s i g h t 1 w h i c h H a r t m a n n d e f i n e s a n d e x ­

p la in s as fo llo w s:

”I n i t s

s im p le s t fo rm i t

c o n n o te s ap­

p r o p r i a t e b e h a v io r in th e p re s e n c e o f any l i f e • .

* re a lly

a k in d o f s i g h t ,

H a rtm a n n , Loo,

c it*

op.

i.e .,

c i t . , p.

situ a tio n

a m ode o f p e r c e p t i o n . n^

191•

233 Thus I n s i g h t f o r th e G - e s t a l t l s t s d o e s n o t o p e ra te , on th e h ig h c o g n itiv e p ro cesses* In

th e G -e sta lt ty p e o f t h in k i n g , p ro b le m -s o lv in g i s

n o t w h o lly a s sim p le a te c h n iq u e fo r,

as re p re se n te d by o th e rs ,

a s H a rtm a n n p o i n t s o u t , * . . th e f i e l d s o f th e le a r n e r and of th e e x te rn a l o b s e r v e r , w h ile u s u a l ly o v e rla p p in g , a r e f a r fro m id e n ­ t i c a l — a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f som e I m p o r t a n c e I n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p ro b le m s a n d i n th e a p p r a i s a l o f th e ir so lu tio n s. ^ But in

som e c o n t r a s t t o

H a r tm a n n 's , B r o w n e ll s t a t e s

th is

h o lis tic *

d e fin ite ly

th e o ry of

th a t:

. . . t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f th e p ro b le m fro m o t h e r s o r t s o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s I s m o re o r l e s s a r t i f i c i a l , a n d I t s d iffe re n c e s a re la rg e ly m a tte rs o f d eg ree. . . . T he p ro b le m s o f f e r e d by t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld d e p e n d f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n , n o t on g u e s s i n g on th e h a b i t u a t i o n o f c h a n c e s u c c e s s , b u t on p r o g r e s s i v e g r o w t h in . u n d e r s t a n d i n g * ^ T here a p p e a rs to be l e s s o f a h o l i s t i c

ap p ro ach h e re

t h a n i n t h e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y o f H a r tm a n n 's w h ic h , o f c o u r s e , is

p ro fe s se d ly

so.

B o th t h e o r i e s o f l e a r n in g

are as y et

a s s u m p t iv e a n d do n o t b e a r t h e m ark o f g e n u i n e a p p r o v a l* B u t H a r tm a n n 's f i e l d in

Its

a n a lo g u e s*

th e o ry fo llo w s

P ro b le m -s o lv in g

th e a d v a n c e o f p h y s ic s is

m o re n a t u r a l i s t i c

m o re s u b j e c t i v e . R am i f i c a t i o n s i n

k3 LIl

H a rtm a n n ,

le a rn in g ? .

T h ere i s

lo c * c it *

B ro w n e ll, p p .

c it.,

,

p . 417*

no c o m p le te

or

ag reem en t a s to w hat c o n s t i t u t e s l e a r n i n g , s o lv in g e q u a te d w i t h l e a r n i n g by a l l th e Y earbook.

T hese i n v e s t i g a t o r s

m an y d i f f i c u l t i e s

ahead f o r any th e o ry .

is

te st

th e o r y m ust b e la u n c h e d ,

no e x c e p tio n to t h i s

aw are o f t h e

Many s c i e n t i f i c a l l y th e

su b s tru c tu re o f

an d p ro b le m -s o lv in g

need.

The p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h e o r y a s s u m e s t h a t , le a rn , come i f

p ro b lem ­

c o n tr ib u to r s o f th e

se em t a c i t l y

c o n t r o l l e d e x p e rim e n ts d e s ig n e d to any s p e c if ic

nor is

in o rd er to

th e p ro b le m s w h ic h do e x i s t m ust b e f a c e d and o v e r­ th e ir so lu tio n s a re to

f u r n i s h k n o w le d g e*

s u m p t i o n m ay b e a g r o s s o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , n o t p u rp o rt to

e x p l a i n how t h i s f a c t i t s e l f

a p r i o r i e le m e n ts in

le a rn in g a re n o t to

T h is a s ­

fo r it is

know*

be l i g h t l y

does T he passed

o v er. N o rth ro p f e e l s

t h a t t h e v e r y p r o b l e m s w h i c h f a c e man­

k i n d a r e d i v e r s e a n d co m p lex a n d t h a t p ro b le m s t o s o lv e i s

n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n d u c iv e to

T h ere m ust b e a p r i o r i se lv e s,

and i t

t h i s po w er.

t h e m ere a c c e p t a n c e o f

in v e s tig a tio n

k n o w le d g e.

o f t h e p r o b le m s th em ­

may b e t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d o e s n o t h a v e

He s t a t e s :

. . . b e f o r e e x a m in in g th e te c h n iq u e f o r t h e a n a l ­ y s i s o f o u r p ro b le m w h ic h i n i t i a t e s i n q u i r y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c l a s s i f y th e m a jo r k in d s o f p ro b le m s. . . f a i l u r e to do t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n th e h a s ty and e r ­ r o n e o u s l y draw n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s b u t one s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d .

4*5

N o rth ro p , p p . p i t . , p* 9*

235 T he d i l e m m a * m eth o d , i s

I f p ro b le m -so lv in g p ro d u ce s I t s

t h i s m eth o d t h e n f i t t e d

to d e te rm in e th e

own ty p e

a n d k in d o f p ro b le m deem ed t o b e a d e q u a te f o r l e a r n in g ? seem s to th e

in v e s tig a to r th a t th is

is

one o f t h e m ajo r

d ile m m a s i n w h ic h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f i n d s i t s e l f , p ro b le m -so lv in g i s

ta k e n

P ro b le m s a r i s e w h ic h y e t f u r t h e r , tio n s ,

i.e .,

If

th e

u n c r itic a l sta g e s.

and th e y in

t u r n p ro d u c e m eth o d ,

In an in e x p lic a b le

k n o w le d g e .

m y ste rio u s p ro c e ss to

In i t s

It

W h ere a r e

c h a in ,

p ro d u ce s o lu ­

th e c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s

so n e a t l y e v o lv e d .

T h is q u e s tio n a p p e a rs

th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o p o se a t a u t o l o g i c a l a rg u m e n t, a n d i t

m ust be a d m itte d f a i r l y

t h a t redundancy d o es n o t answ er

m e ta p h y s ic a l p ro b lem s w h ic h a ls o n e e d r e s o l u t i o n

f o r an

a d e q u a te th e o r y o f l e a r n in g . T h is c o n n o ta tio n o f d e v e lo p m e n ta l th in k in g d o e s n o t b e g in t o a n sw e r th e fu n d a m e n ta l p ro b le m o f i t s as to re sts.

th e r e a l i t y A c ritic a l

upon w h ic h th e

th e o ry o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

a n a l y s i s o f t h e m e ta p h y s ic a l p ro b le m s

m u st p r e c e d e t h e w h o le m eth o d i f N o rth ro p s t a t e s

own c l a i m s

th a t th is

it

is

to be lo g ic a l.

s u b s tr u c tu r a l se e k in g

. . . i s a p a r t o f I n q u ir y t h a t m ust p re c e d e th e a c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e m eth o d . It i s w h a t com es a t t h e b e g in n i n g w h ic h i s t h e k e y t o s u c ­ c e s s , s i n c e i t i s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h we i n i t i a t e In q u iry t h a t d i r e c t s one to th e key f a c t s and d e s i g n a t e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m ethod.^*®

I b i d . , p. 2

T h i s p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o b e o n e o f t h e g r e a t w e ak ­ nesses of

th e p ro b le m -s o lv in g th e o ry *

p ro b le m -so lv in g c a p a b le o f s o lv in g lem ? it

Is

its

t h e m eth o d o f

own m e t a p h y s i c a l p r o b ­

The t h e o r y i m p l i e s l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e a p r i o r i i n t h a t

p u r p o s e s t o g i v e s u b s t a n c e a n d m e a n in g t o t h e

k n o w le d g e w h ic h i t d e r i v e s *

In th is

resp ect i t

se lf-sa m e may b e

c a l l e d d e d u c tiv e * D e d u c t i o n , m o v in g a s i t in sta n c e s,

d o es fro m g e n e r a l to s p e c i f i c

i m p l i e s fo rm a n d s ta n d a r d *

I n t h i s way t h e p a r ­

t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s d raw t h e i r l o g i c a l fo rm s fro m t h e l a r g e r g e n e ra liz a tio n . c o n s titu tiv e in sta n c e s

in

D e d u c tio n i s th a t i t

and d i c t a t e s

g e n e ra liz a tio n

th u s b o th l e g i s l a t i v e

g iv e s s tru c tu re its

fo rm *

I s m ad e t h a t

to i t s

For in sta n c e ,

and

p a rtic u la r if

th e

1a l l t a b l e s a r e s q u a r e , 1 t h e n

t h e t a b l e s w h ic h a r e o b s e r v e d h a v a a fo rm

‘s q u a re n e s s ,1 and

m ust be ju d g e d a s s u c h . A man b r o u g h t u p a p a r t f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e ru d im e n ts o f le a r n in g

c o u ld th e n h av e one fo rm ,

t o c o n s i d e r t a b l e s by* sy llo g is tic

Of c o u rse th e fla w s in

sq u aren ess, th is

ty p e o f

re a s o n in g have been lo n g exposed.

Dewey* s p o s i t i o n a n a l y z e d * a c c e p t th e absence o f th e h is th e o ry o f le a r n in g .

Dewey, h o w e v e r, d o e s n o t

a p r i o r i a s a w eakness in th is He s a y s :

The p r o b le m r e d u c e d t o i t s l o w e s t t e r m I s w h e t h e r i n q u i r y c a n d e v e l o p i n i t s own o n g o i n g c o u r s e t h e

237 l o g i c a l s ta n d a r d s an d form s to w h ic h f u r t h e r in q u ir y s h a l l su b m it. One m i g h t r e p l y b y s a y i n g t h a t i t c a n b e c a u s e i t h a s .^ 7 B ew ey h o l d s t h a t l o g i c a l f o r m s a c c r u e i n n a tu re th e re

o f su b je c t m a tte r.

w h ic h dem and h arm o n y i n h e r e

v ery

T h is r e a s o n in g th e n a ssu m e s t h a t

a re r a t i o n a l p a tte r n s in th e u n iv e rse ;

t y p e o f h arm o n y m u st e x i s t .

th e

How e l s e to

th a t

some

c o u ld l o g i c a l fo rm s

s u b je c t m a tte r?

B u t Bew ey

a g a in r e p l i e s : I n f e r e n c e fro m one t o a l l i s c o m p le te ly a n d e x c l u s i v e ­ l y d e te rm in e d by p r i o r e x p e rim e n ta l o p e r a tio n s th ro u g h w h ic h t h e on e h a s b e e n d e te r m in e d to be an e x e m p la ry sp e cim en o f an o r d e r o f i n t e r a c t i o n s o r o f f u n c t i o n a l c o rre la tio n s of v a ria tio n s . T h i s o r d e r , when i t i s a s ­ c e r t a i n e d i s th e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . But t h i s

c a te g o r ic a l sta te m e n t th a t p a r t i c u l a r s can

by i n f e r e n c e becom e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s For i t its

som ew hat s p e c i o u s .

s t i l l b e g s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how I n q u i r y c a n i n s t i t u t e

own l o g i c a l f o r m s .

p e rie n c e A p erfect ists,

is

To s a y t h a t t h e y e m e r g e f r o m e x ­

i s n o t to say a n y th in g .

It

is

e x a m p le o f a n y o n e i n s t a n c e ,

s till if

d o es n o t h o ld tr u e o f a l l in s ta n c e s .'

g e n e ra liz a tio n s bespeak a f a lla c io u s

an a s s u m p tio n .

su ch a th in g

ex­

Bew ey s a y s t h a t

lo g ic , b u t h is in f e r ­

e n t i a l p r o c e s s f r o m s p e c i f i c t o g e n e r a l may a l s o b e s u b j e c t e d t o h i s own c r i t i c i s m .

Y ork:

J o h n B e w e y , L o g i c . T he T h e o r y o f I n q u i r y H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 5* lq

I b i d . , p. WO.

(New

238 Dewey f a l l s th e

In to

d e d u c tlo n ists .

th e

sam e p i t f a l l t h a t h e d u g f o r

To s a y t h a t i n s t a n c e s l e a d u n i v e r s a l e

o r v ic e v e rs a p ro v es n e ith e r tr u e ,

and i t

seem s p o s s i b l e

t h a t Dewey may h a v e h o i s t e d h i m s e l f o n h i s own p e t a r d . L e w in s a y s o f c o n c e p t s : As a n y s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y i s i n a d i l e m m a w h en I t t r i e s to d e v e lo p ’g e n e r a l* c o n c e p ts a n d la w s . I f one a b s t r a c t s f r o m i n d i v i d . u a ! d i f f e r e n c e s ; t h e r e i s no l o g i c a l w ay b a c k f r o m t h e s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o t h e in d iv id u a l case. . . . W hat i s t h e v a l u e o f g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s i f t h e y do n o t p e r m i t p r e d i c t i o n f o r t h e I n ­ d iv id u a l case?^9 D ew ey*s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e any o th e r . h is

P e r h a p s e v e n m o re s o ,

‘ e x e m p la ry in s t a n c e s *

J u s t as v u ln e ra b le as if

he s t a r t s

and le a p s to

g e n e ra liz a tio n s .

ho w t h e n d o e s h e m ak e t h e

lo n g t r e k b a c k a g a in ?

gum ent I s

su re,

c irc u la r,

do es n o t a v o id i t by d e f in itio n

to be

q u ite

f i r s t w ith

T h is a r ­

a n d i t may b e t h a t Dewey

a s w e ll as he s t a t e s .

To p r o c e e d

d o e s n o t m ean t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e i s

s a r i ly th e r i g h t one,

For

neces­

a s N o rth ro p s a i d .

T he s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f o r o b l e m - s o 1 v i n g . w r ite s t h a t p ro b le m -so lv in g i s

B ro w n e ll

e x tre m e ly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c :

T he c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h p r o b l e m s a r e s e t o f f f r o m o t h e r l e a r n i n g t a s k s a r e . . . w h o lly o r l a r g e l y sub­ je c tiv e . To som e t h i s f a c t w i l l m ak e t h e d e f i n i t i o n u n p a la ta b le * Y e t, th e c r i t e r i a c o u ld s c a r c e ly be o th e r th a n s u b j e c t i v e , f o r th e c r u x o f th e d i s t i n c t i o n b e ­ tw een p ro b le m s a n d o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s l i e s i n t h e p e c u l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w h ic h e x i s t s b e tw e e n th e l e a r n e r and h i s

'

L ew in, p p . c i t * , p . 215*

239 t a s k .'*0 T h a t t h e r e m ay h e th is

su b je c tiv e

b e lie v e s th a t

som e d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n a s t o

c rite rio n

is

a d m itte d b y B ro w n e ll, h u t he

th e

- . . d i f f e r e n c e i s I n h e r e n t i n t h e s y s t e m s th e m ­ se lv e s: t h a t i s to say th e y a r e g e n e r a l i n c h a r a c te r an d h o l d f o r a l l b e h a v i o r phenom ena and n o t p ro b le m ­ s o lv in g a lo n e * T h a t h e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r e c t i n h i s v ie w seem s re a so n a b le , lie v e s ,

i n l i g h t o f p r e s e n t e v id e n c e *

h ow ever, t h a t th e

s u b je c tiv ity

B ro w n e ll b e ­

in v o lv e d in

p ro b le m -so lv in g p o s itio n d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r ily any o f i t* and s in c e

He b e l i e v e s l e a r n i n g th is

i s th e case,

m u s t b e so a s w e l l *

its

in v a lid a te

p rim a rily e g o -c e n te re d ,

i t fo llo w s t h a t p ro b le m -so lv in g

T h is arg u m en t s tr e n g th e n s th e th e o r y

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g r a t h e r B ro w n e ll*

is

th e

B ro w n e ll a l s o

th a n w eakens i t ,

a c c o rd in g to

h o ld s t h a t p ro b le m -so lv in g p ro d u ces

own f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e *

A g r e e i n g w i t h D ew ey, h e w r o t e :

The m e a n in g s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e s s e n t i a l - t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l s o l u t i o n o f e d u c a ti o n a l p ro b le m s can n o t b e g iv e n to c h ild r e n . L ik e th e te c h n iq u e s o f p ro b le m ­ s o lv in g , th e y , to o , m ust be c a r e f u l l y d e v e lo p e d th ro u g h a w id e v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e . T here i s re a s o n t o b e ­ l i e v e t h a t m e a n in g s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e m o st u s e f u l i n p r o b l e m - s o l v in g when th e y h a v e th e m s e lv e s b e e n a c ­ q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e s o l v i n g o f p r o b l e m s . -52

50 ^

B ro w n e ll, o p . hoc, c lt .

52 I b i a . » P-

^ 39 •

c l t * , p . 4 l6 «

240 H ere a g a i n I s

se en th e i m p l i c i t b e l i e f s tru c tu re

th a t

some pow­

e r w h ic h i n h e r e s t o

th e

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g i s

c a p a b le o f b r in g in g

m e a n in g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e i n d i ­

v id u a l le a rn e r. B ro w n e ll

su m m arize s h i s v ie w on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

as

fo llo w s: The c o n t e n t o f t h e c h a p t e r h a s b e e n b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p e d a g o g ic a l, b o th t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l . P rob' le m s h a v e b e e n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d fro m o t h e r t y p e s o f l e a r n ­ in g s i t u a t i o n s w h ic h ev o k e b e h a v io r . S t r e s s h as been c o n t i n u a l l y g iv e n th e f a c t t h a t th e s u b j e c t s b e h a v io r i s a fu n c tio n o f h i s a p p re h e n sio n o f th e s tim u la tin g situ a tio n . T h is m ean s, a s f a r a s th e s c h o o l i s c o n c e rn e d , th a t c h ild r e n engage in tr u e p ro b le m -so lv in g b e h a v io r o n l y w hen t h e y e n v i s i o n t h e i r l e a r n i n g t a s k s a s p r o b ­ l e m s . 53 T h i s su m m ary s t a t e s so lv in g in

s t r e s s e d b y B ro w n e ll.

T h e n e e d f o r m o re r e s e a r c h w a s The r e s e a r c h s u r v e y e d w i l l b e t r e a t e d

th e n e x t and f i n a l s e c tio n o f t h i s

III. In

o f p ro b le m ­

so f a r a s t h e m odem p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e c o n c e rn e d

i n c la ss ro o m p ro c e d u re .

in

th e p r e s e n t s t a t u s

c h a p te r.

RESEARCH IN THE FIELD

so f a r a s t h e

w ere c o n s id e r a b le g a p s .

a c tu a l re s e a rc h i s

co n cern ed ,

T h e re w ere r e s e a r c h

th e re

s t u d i e s w h ic h

w e re p a r t l y r e l e v a n t a n d t h e s e w ere c a r e f u l l y r e v ie w e d . th e g e n u in e

53

s tu d ie s in p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

I b id ., p. 440.

i t w as th o u g h t

Of

2kl a d v isa b le

to

s e le c t fiv e

i m p o r t a n t ones*

o f t h e m o re r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d

C o m p le te c o v e r a g e w as n o t n e c e s s a r y a n d a

tr u e p ic t u r e c o u ld be had in m a te ria l is

an u n f o r tu n a te

t h i s way*

T hat t h i s d e a r th o f

s i t u a t i o n B ro w n e ll a d m its , an d

says of i t : T he e x t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s s u r p r is in g ly lim ite d * C om pared w i t h t h e a b u n d a n c e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g , on d i s a b i l i t y , d i a g n o s i s , a n d r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s , on t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g , and th e l i k e , t h e num ber o f r e ­ s e a r c h s t u d i e s on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s s m a l l . A nd t h i s i s m o st u n f o r t u n a t e , f o r b o t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a n d th e p r a c tic a l need f o r sound r e s e a rc h in t h i s f i e l d a re . c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e c la ssro o m * In

th is

in v e s tig a tio n

choose fro m a f t e r th e fie ld *

t h e r e w a s n o t t o o m u ch t o

a c a r e f u l p e r u s a l o f th e l i t e r a t u r e

T h is l i t e r a t u r e

in c lu d e d th e

in

Jo u rn a ls, b u lle tin s ,

and e x t r a c t s o f th e l e a d in g p s y c h o lo g ic a l and e d u c a ti o n a l b o d i e s h e r e a n d a b r o a d f o r t h e p a s t d e c a d e o r so* W h a t e m e r g e d s h o w e d o n c e a g a i n a s i n B r o w n e l l 1s d a y (1 9 ^2 )

t h e d i r e n e e d f o r m ore a n d g r e a t e r e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s .

T h e re was s u c h a v a r i a t i o n

of d e fin itio n s ,

a im s,

and p u r-,

p o se s in th e r e s e a r c h re v ie w e d t h a t co h eren c e f o r t h i s

in ­

v e s t i g a t i o n w as h am p ered in

some m e a s u r e .

o f co u rse o b ta in s n a tu r a lly

In so c o n t r o v e r s i a l an a r e a .

When i t v ery b a s is

5^

i s rem em bered t h a t th e

of le a rn in g ,

. I b i d *, p . 419*

is

T h is s i t u a t i o n

V m ind'

a s y e t u n d e fin e d ,

its e lf,

th e

th e p ro b lem

2k2 m a n ife s ts i t s e l f g la r in g ly . in g ?

How i s

le a r n in g .b e s t e f f e c te d ?

to be f u l l y an sw ered . t h e E n g lish m a n B u r t , tio n

W hat i s m in d ?

W h at i s l e a r n ­

T h ese q u e s t i o n s re m a in

One o f t h e g r e a t e s t o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s , g iv e s

o f m in d , w h ic h w i l l

th e fo llo w in g t e n t a t i v e

su ffic e

fo r th is

stu d y .

d e fin i­ He s t a t e s :

T a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e f a c t s * . . s u g g e s t a f a r m o re c o m p lex a n d s y s t e m a t i c t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e , a n d go f a r t o c o n f i r m t h e n o t i o n t h a t m in d i s o r g a n i z e d o n w h a t may b e c a l l e d a h i e r a r e h a 1 b a s i s . 55 T h u s , w hen a g r e e m e n t i s n o t r e a c h e d , fic u ltie s

o b ta in ,

th e re

is

d iffic u lty

a n d se m a n tic d i f ­

in a rriv in g

c o n c lu sio n s f o r th e in v e s tig a tio n s e n te re d i n to .

a t d e fin ite Some o f

th e r e s e a r c h w as n o t to o c l e a r a n d o t h e r p o r t i o n s w ere un­ d e c id e d a s to

te rm in o lo g y .

B u t som e t e n t a t i v e

w ere r e a c h e d by m ost o f th e r e s e a r c h e r s .

c o n c lu sio n s

T hey m ore o r l e s s

a g re e d t h a t t r a i n i n g f o r p ro b le m -so lv in g a b i l i t y

w as p o s ­

sib le . F u rth e r, titio n

in

m o st o f th e m e m p h a s iz e d t h e n e e d f o r r e p e ­

p ro b le m -so lv in g .

succeed a t f i r s t , a ls o

seem ed t o

ual in te re s t,

try ,

try

T he o l d s a w t h a t i f a g a in ,

seem s a p p r o p r i a t e .

T here

b e c o n c u rre n c e a s to th e p rim a c y o f in d iv i d ­ and th e f a c t t h a t th e re

t i o n b e tw e e n a g e a n d a b i l i t y

55

you d o n * t

a lw a y s w as a c o r r e l a ­

in p ro b le m -so lv in g .

A ll of

S i r C y r i l B u r t , "T h e S t r u c t u r e o f t h e M in d — A R e v i e w o f t h e R e s u l t s o f F a c t o r A n a l y s i s , " T he B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9*17 9> N o v e m b e r , 1 9 ^ 9 *

2^3 th e c o n c lu s io n s o f th e p o in ts ,

stu d ie s,

seem ed a g r e e d a s to

w h i l e v a r y i n g o n m any

th e r e a l v a lu e o f p ro b le m ­

so lv in g a s a te c h n iq u e f o r le a r n in g . L a z e r t e 1s I n v e s t i g a t i o n *

L a z e rte ^

d id a stu d y in

C anada on th e g ro w th o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g a b i l i t y tic .

B ecause o f i t s

in h e re n t n a tu re ,

a rith m e tic

e n t i r e f i e l d o f m a th e m a tic s le n d s i t s e l f in p ro b le m -so lv in g .

in a rith m e ­

su ita b ly

and th e to re se a rc h

But L a z e rte d is a g r e e s t h a t any tr u e con­

c l u s i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e a n d so s t a t e s i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o h is te x t: When t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o f a d u l t s he e n u m e r a te s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n a l y s e s th e fra m in g an d t e s t i n g o f h y p o th e s is and o th e r f a c t o r s a s th e no rm al s te p s i n th e p r o c e s s . In th e sc h o o l t r a i n ­ in g o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l p u p i l s any c o m p le te d e v e lo p ­ m en t o f a s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d o f t h i n k i n g a n d r e a s o n i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e . 57 Then he

su m m arize d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s

in th e f i e l d

a n d c o n c l u d e d fro m th e m t h a t h a r d l y a n y s t u d e n t s o n t h e e le m e n ta r y l e v e l em erge fro m i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h an y ty p e o f s y s te m a tic

th in k in g a s such.

Even p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a n n o t

p ro d u ce any s y s te m a tiz a tio n o f th o u g h t. v e stig a tio n

is

The f o l l o t ^ r l n g i n ­

ty p ic a l.

56

M i c h a e l M. L a z e r t e , T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f P r o b l e m S o l v i n g A b i l i t y I n A r i t h m e t i c — A Sum m ary o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k , I r w i n a n d C om pan y, L t d . , 1 9 3 3 T 7 3 o 5 p p *

^

I b i d . , p . 1*

zkk The r e s e a r c h *

T w e n ty -th re e p u p ils from th e t h i r d to

th e f i f t h g ra d e s w ere chosen a t random by t h e i r te a c h e r s i n th e town o f Edmonton, Canada.

These p u p ils had a l l been

somewhat backw ard in g ra s p in g th e s u b je c t m a tte r .

However,

la c k o f a b i l i t y was n o t g iv e n a s th e cause f o r r e ta r d a tio n * I n o rd e r to a t t a i n th e maximum o f d ia g n o s tic e f f i c i e n c y , th e p u p ils w ere b ro u g h t i n t o a q u ie t room one a t a tim e f o r an I n te r v ie w by an ex am in er. form o f a q u iz p e r io d .

T h is in te r v ie w was in th e

W ith ea ch I n d iv id u a l s tu d e n t th e

p e r io d : . . . was a p p ro x im a te ly t h i r t y m in u tes in l e n g t h and was d e v o te d to th e , s tu d y o f a s in g le problem* There were s e v e r a l s i t t i n g s w ith e a c h p u p i l . A com­ p l e t e r e c o rd was k e p t o f a l l o r a l and w r i t t e n r e ­ sp o n se s. A p re lim in a ry p r a c t i c e p e r io d was g iv e n * ----- - f a m i l i a r i z e h im -w ith th e ro u The d a y 1s problem was g iv en to e a c h s u b je c t in th e form o f a s m a ll ty p e w r itte n in d e x c a rd .

The s tu d e n t re a d

th e problem a lo u d and t h i s re a d in g was re c o rd e d by th e ex­ am in er, t h e f i r s t tim e by se c o n d s.

I n th e e v e n t th e re a d ­

in g seemed u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , th e s tu d e n t was ask e d to re a d th e problem once a g a in .

T h is r e - r e a d in g was done o f te n

enough to in s u r e com prehension* A f te r re a d in g f o r com prehension, e a c h s tu d e n t was ch eck ed a s to h i s r e p l i e s to a g iv e n s e t o f q u e s tio n s . 56 Ibid*, p. 5*

A

245 w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t a c c o m p a n ie d t h e s e l e c t e d fro m

th e i n i t i a l

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w o rd s w ere p r e s e n t e d one a t p u p i l w as th e n i n s t r u c t e d

i n t e r v i e w w i t h w ords serv e a s c u es.

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a tim e on s m a ll c a r d s .

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in f o r m a tio n r e l e v a n t t o t h e p ro b le m , so lu tio n .

fro m t h i s

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i n d iv id u a l e x p e rim e n t:

T he e v i d e n c e . . . i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e m any a b i l i t i e s w h ic h c o n t r i b u t e d t o e f f i c i e n c y i n p ro b lem ­ so lv in g . When a l l t h e d a t a w e r e a n a l y z e d i t w a s f o u n d t h a t s e p a r a t e s c o r e s had b een o b ta in e d f o r e a c h o f th e fo llo w in g : ( l ) r a t e o f o r a l r e a d in g ; (2) e s tim a tin g a n sw e rs; (3 ) a n a ly z in g p ro b le m s i n t o know ns a n d un­ k n o w n s; I 4 ; s e l e c t i n g c u r r e n t s o l u t i o n s ; (5 ) d ra w in g sim p le s t r a i g h t l i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e m a g n itu d e s in v o lv e d i n t h e p ro b le m ; (6 ) c h o o s in g a p p r o p r i a t e m eth o d s a n d (? ) g e n e r a l i z i n g th e s o l u t i o n c a l l e d f o r b y t h e g i v e n p r o b l e m . 59 F ro m t h i s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e e n t h a t m any f a c t o r s a r e m any f a c t o r s e n t e r i n t o

in c lu d e d .

In

sta te

is

som ew hat p r e s u m p tu o u s .

c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t p ro b le m -so lv in g

59 Ib id * * P* 10

can be

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L a z e rte fo u n d t h a t p ro b le m -

246 s o l v i n g h a d h e lp e d t h e s e p u p i l s com prehend a r i t h m e t i c little tio n

b e tte r,

b u t h e d i d n o t make a n y d e f i n i t e g e n e r a l i z e

as to i t s

o v e ra ll e ffe c tiv e n e s s fo r le a rn in g

K i g h t a n d M i c k e l s o n 1s i n v e s t i g a t i o n * e x p e rim e n t in

a

a rith -

A sig n ific a n t

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g on th e h l g h - s e h o o l l e v e l was

m ad e b y tw o i n v e s t i g a t o r s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a lifo rn ia , c a lly

c o n tr o lle d stu d y ,

d e v elo p e d * tio n s

K ig h t an d M ic k e lso n .

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i n i t i a t e d and c r i t i c a l l y

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a n d t h e recom m enda­

s tr o n g ly in fa v o r o f p ro b le m -so lv in g . T he r e s e a r c h *

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lis h e d d o c to ra l d is s e r ta tio n C le a r in g H ouse*

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fo rm ed an unpub­

a n d w a s w e l l s u m m a r i z e d i n T he says th a t

th e se r e s e a r c h e r s

w ish e d : . . . t o d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s on l e a r n in g o f p ro b le m -c e n te re d a n d s u b je c t c e n te re d u n its o f in ­ stru c tio n . C o o p e ra tin g in t h e i r e x p e rim e n t w ere tw e n ty -fo u r te a c h e r s in e le v e n sc h o o ls. D r. K ig h t and D r. M ic k e ls o n c o n s t r u c t e d e i g h t p r o b le m - c e n te r e d u n i t s and. e i g h t s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d u n i t s , w h i c h w e r e t a u g h t t o 1 ,1 4 5 p u p i l s i n 96 c l a s s e s * ° 1 T hese i n v e s t i g a t o r s

fe lt

t h a t t h e r e w e r e m any

S t a n f o r d S . K i g h t a n d J o h n M. M i c k e l s o n , MP r o b ­ l e m VS S u b j e c t , 11 T he C l e a r i n g H o u s e , 2 4 : 3 - 7 > S e p t e m b e r ,

19 ^ 9 * ^

I b i d . , E d it o r * s n ote*

247 v a ry in g o p in io n s a s to in s t r u c t i o n u n it*

th e r e l a t i v e

I t w o u ld be v a l u a b l e f o r e d u c a ti o n to

d e te rm in e e m p i r i c a l l y w h ic h ty p e i s They f e l t

m e r its o f each ty p e o f

th a t a lre a d y i t

th e b e t t e r o f th e

h a d becom e e v i d e n t

th ro u g h th e

t e a c h in g o f m eth o d s t h a t a p ro b le m - s o lv in g a t t i t u d e c e s s a r y f o r g ro w th i n e d u c a tio n * to th e fo llo w in g

H ence t h e y

two*

i s ne­

so u g h t an sw ers

s p e c if ic q u e stio n s :

1* W h at a r e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e tw o t y p e s o f p re s e n ta tio n in : a* L e a rn in g o f r u l e s o f a c tio n ? b* L e a rn in g o f f a c t u a l In fo rm a tio n ? e. The r a t i o o f r u l e s o f a c t i o n l e a r n e d t o f a c t u a l in fo rm a tio n le a rn e d ? d* T he c o n n e c t i n g o f s p e c i f i c f a c t s w i t h t h e i r c o rre sp o n d in g r u le s o f a c tio n ? 2. To w h a t e x t e n t i s t h i s l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e I .Q . o f th e l e a r n e r ? 62 To e x p e d i t e t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

th e a u th o r s con­

s t r u c t e d Me i g h t p r o b l e m - c e n t e r e d a n d e i g h t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c e n te r e d u n i t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n in E n g lis h c o m p o s itio n , sc ie n c e ,

so c ia l

s t u d i e s a n d E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . 11^

life

These

u n i t s w e r e t h e n g i v e n a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t o $6 c la s s e s in e le v e n d i f f e r e n t w ith th e m en t.

s c h o o ls i n t h e Los A n g e le s a r e a

su p p o rt o f th e te a c h e rs

ta k in g p a r t in th e e x p e ri­

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te a c h e rs c o n trib u te d to th e

62 ^

I b id *, p. Lo g . c i t .

,

4.

in v e s tig a tio n .

p u p i l s a n d 21 F or each u n it,

tru e -fa lse

t e s t s w ere f a b r i c a t e d t o a t t e m p t e x a c t m e a su re ­

m ent o f t h e in f o r m a tio n d e r i v e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s * The a t t e m p t w as m ade t o p r e s e n t b o t h s i d e s f a i r l y a n d w i t h a m inim u m o f b i a s f o r e i t h e r , m ost v a l i d r e s u l t s .

so a s t o g e t th e

F ro m t h e r e s u l t s g a t h e r e d ,

th e a u th o rs

f i r s t d e te r m in e d to w hat e x t e n t f a c t u a l i n f o r m a tio n fro m th e u n its

ta u g h t had been le a rn e d .

S e c o n d ly ,

t h e r e was an

a tt e m p t to m ea su re to w h at e x t e n t t h e p u p i l s l e a r n e d b o t h th e r u le s o f a c tio n an d th e f a c tu a l in fo rm a tio n .

F in a lly ,

t o w h at e x t e n t d i d th e p u p i l s c o n n e c t, s p e c i f i c r u l e s o f a c tio n and s p e c if ic fin d in g s fo llo w s:

fa c ts?

T he su m m ary o f t h e

Im p o rta n t

They h a v e s u c h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p ro b le m ­

so lv in g th a t a l l a re l is t e d : 1. P u p i l s l e a r n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore r u l e s o f a c ­ t i o n , r e g a r d le s s o f s u b j e c t - m a t te r f i e l d w ith th e p ro b le m ty p e * 2. P u p i l s in th e I .Q . ra n g e o f 6 2 -8 5 le a r n e d s ig ­ n i f i c a n t l y m o re r u l e s o f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o b l e m t y p e * 3* T he f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e , b u t d o n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y p ro v e , t h a t p u p ils in th e I .Q . ra n g e o f 115-1 ^3 le a r n e d m o re r u l e s o f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o b l e m t y p e . 4. I n te r m s o f t h e t o t a l co m b in ed r e s u l t s , p u p i l s l e a r n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore f a c t u a l I n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e p ro b lem ty p e ; b u t i n te rm s o f th e r e s u l t s by s u b j e c t m a t t e r f i e l d s a n d I . Q . l e v e l s , t h e s e f i n d i n g s w ere i n a ll cases s ta tis tic a lly s ig n ific a n t. 5* P u p i l s m ade s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o re c o n n e c t i o n s o f s p e c if ic r u l e s o f a c tio n w ith t h e i r c o rre sp o n d in g f a c t s w i t h t h e p ro b lem ty p e , r e g a r d l e s s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f i e l d o r I.Q . le v e l* 6* When f a c t s l e a r n e d w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h r u l e s o f a c t i o n l e a r n e d w i t h i n th e p ro b le m ty p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e w as no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e ­ tw e en t h e am ount o f r u l e s o f a c t i o n a n d f a c t u a l i n f o r ­ m a tio n l e a r n e d r e g a r d l e s s o f s u b j e c t m a tte r f i e l d o r

2^9 I.Q . l e v e l . 7* When f a c t s l e a r n e d w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h r u l e s o f a c tio n le a r n e d w ith in th e s u b je c t m a tte r ty p e o f p re ­ s e n t a t i o n , p u p i l s l e a r n e d s i g n l f i c a n t l y m ore f a c t u a l in fo rm a tio n th a n th e y le a rn e d r u l e s o f a c tio n , re g a rd ­ l e s s o f s u b je c t- m a tte r f i e l d s o r I.Q . l e v e l s . ^ The i n v e s t i g a t o r s

th e n c o n c lu d e d w ith d e f i n i t e

sug­

g e s t i o n s t h a t a l l o r g a n i z e d u n i t s on t h e h i g h - s c h o o l l e v e l b e “b u i l t a r o u n d a c l e a r l y

s t a t e d g e n u in e p u p i l p ro b lem .

The e n t i r e c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e i n h i g h s c h o o l s , to K ig h t and M ic k e lso n , t h e r th a n m e re ly to

sh o u ld be s u b o r d in a te d to d o in g r a ­

a c q u irin g f a c t s .

a c q u i r e d m u s t b e m ade s u b o r d i n a t e t o le m s.

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a c c o rd in g

A nd t h e s e f a c t s w hen th e

so lu tio n

o f pro b ­

th e n m ust h av e f u r t h e r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i ­

c a tio n . Im p lic a tio n s

fro m th e s t u d y .

t i o n w h ic h e m p lo y ed a l l t h e tio n a l p ro ced u re. o rd e rly and th e

H ere w as an i n v e s t i g a ­

te c h n iq u e s o f

sc ie n tific

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re s u lts

sta tis tic a lly

th e p ro ced u re

s ig n ific a n t.

p a r t i c u l a r e x p e rim e n t s e r v e s a s a c r i t e r i o n th en p ro b le m -so lv in g i s school le v e l. e ffe c tiv e n e ss.

educa­

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th is

f o r o th e rs,

t h e m e t h o d t o b e u s e d on t h e h i g h -

T h e s e men a t t e m p t e d f a i r l y T h e ir r e s u l t s a re

to d e te rm in e I t s

s i g n i f ic a n t f o r e d u c a tio n .

250 J o s e p h T. J o h n s o n 1s i n v e s t i g a t i o n * th e th e s is

of h is

Johnson in d ic a te s

s t u d y w hen he w r i t e s :

T h e re seem s t o b e a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t r e s e a r c h in th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f re a d in g and p ro b le m -so lv in g in a r it h m e tic s h o u ld b e in te rm s o f s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g . s k i l l s r a t h e r th a n i n te rm s o f g e n e r a l re a d in g a b i l i t y . T h is i n v e s t i g a t o r assum ed a t t h e o u t s e t o f h i s r e ­ se a rc h th a t th e f a c to r s o f g e n e ra l in te llig e n c e

are b e s t ♦

e x p re s s e d i n T h u rs to n e ’ s th e o r y o f th e s i x p rim a ry m e n ta l a b i l i t i e s w h ic h he p o s t u l a t e d . i n t o w h ic h i n t e l l i g e n c e

is

T hese s i x a s s e r t e d f a c t o r s

d i v i d e d a r e “N u m b e r, V o c a b u l a r y ,

S p a c e P r i n c i p l e , W ord F l u e n c y , R e a s o n i n g a n d M em ory. R e a s o n i n g a n d m em ory a r e

tw o o f t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s

a s s o c ia te d w ith p ro b le m -s o lv in g . T he r e s e a r c h .

Johnson se n t

e ig h th g rad es o f six d if f e r e n t o f C h icag o t o g i v e

th e s e p u b lic

an a s s i s t a n t to th e

sc h o o ls in v a rio u s t e s t s and to

se c tio n s

c o lle c t:

A l l t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a i n I . Q . r s , M . A . * 8 , t h e Hew S ta n f o r d A rith m e tic T e s t (T e st I , A rith m e tic R eason­ i n g ) , t h e C h ica g o S u rv e y T e s ts ( S e c t i o n on R e a s o n in g ) and th e r e s u l t s o f th e t e s t s , a l l o f w h ic h w ere i n t h e s t u d e n t 1s f o l d e r . P ro b le m s n u m b erin g

66

s e v e ra l h u n dred,

som e o f w h i c h

J o s e p h T . J o h n s o n , "On t h e N a t u r e o f P r o b l e m S o lv in g in A r ith m e tic ,u J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , O c t o b e r , 19^9 > PP* 1 1 0 - 1 5 * 7 Ib id .,

p.

68 T ., Loc. c l t ♦

111.

251 e n t a i l e d n u m e ric a l f ig u r in g it,

w ere g i v e n t o

and o t h e r p ro b le m s w h ic h o m itte d

th e s e l e c te d p u p ils *

T he f i r s t

p a rt in ­

c l u d e d s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s MR i c h a r d r e c e i v e s 5 c e n t s f o r p a p e r s he s e l l s *

He p a i d 3 c e n t s a p i e c e f o r th em *

w i l l he have to

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le m s w h ic h o m it t e d nu m b ers p o s e d s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s :. Tom h a d some m o n ey i n h i s p o c k e t a n d J i m a l s o m o n ey i n h i s p o c k e t , t o t a l am ount i s

11I f

h a d some

how w o u l d y o u f i n d o u t how m u c h t h e

t h a t b o t h h av e?* 1^

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s e v e r a l h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s c h o s e n a t ran d o m f r o m t h e

e ig h th g rad e in th e s e A fte r s t a t i s t i c a l n iq u e ,

sc h o o ls jo in in g in th e

t r e a t m e n t em p lo y in g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n

th e w r i t e r c o n c lu d e d t h a t v o c a b u la ry ,

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a l l c lo s e ly r e la te d p ro b le m s.

te c h ­

g e n e ra l in ­ to th e a b i l i t y

I n h i s su m m a ry J o h n s o n ’

s c h o o l s 11n e e d t h e h e l p o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s

h e r e i n d e f i n i n g m em ory a n d r e a s o n i n g a n d t h e h e l p o f e d u ­ c a to rs in

d e fin in g p ro b le m -s o lv in g

C ritiq u e

o f Johnson*s stu d y .

6 9 I b i d . ■ P* 1 1 2 . 70 I b i d . . p - 1137^ I b i d . i

p . 115*

i n a r i t h m e t i c . 1*'^3' T h is ty p e o f s tu d y

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p ro b le m -so lv in g . Jo seo h J . G o ld ste in and o th e r s 1 r e s e a r c h . s tu d y was a n o t h e r g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h to

Th i s

th e p ro b le m .

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sc ie n tific .

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c e r t a i n t h e b e s t m eth o d o f u t i l i z i n g

th e te c h n iq u e o f p ro b ­

l e m - s o l v i n g on th e e le m e n ta r y l e v e l i n w as an e f f o r t t o h e lp t h i n k m ore c l e a r l y

a ll su b je c ts.

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to

f a c e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p ro b le m s

m ore i n t e l l i g e n t l y . The r e s e a r c h e r s w e r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n w h a t w as c a l l e d t h e 11O p e n -M in d ed n e ss* * c ity

o f P h ila d e lp h ia .

d re n i n an e f f o r t

s tu d y in th e p u b lic s c h o o ls in th e T hese w r i t e r s w ork ed w i t h th e c h i l ­

to d e v e lo p th e

f i c i e n t p ro b le m -so lv in g .

s k i l l s n ecessary

T hey s t a t e

to e f­

t h e i r c ase as fo llo w s:

T e a c h e rs i n t h e S tu d y b e l i e v e t h a t a d i r e c t a p ­ p r o a c h m u s t b e m ade b y s c h o o l s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y a b o u t t h e many p r o b l e m s w h ic h c o n f r o n t th em . I t is f e l t th a t th is is best d o n e t h r o u g h h e l p i n g p e o p le t o know an d to v a l u e t h e u s e o f s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s o f s o l u t i o n s o f hum an r e l a t i o n p ro b le m s a s w e ll a s o f th o s e I n v o lv in g

253 p h y s i c a l phenom ena**^ T he r e s e a r c h * stu d y by c i t i n g

T he i n v e s t i g a t o r s i l l u s t r a t e d

a c tu a l c a se s in v o lv in g te a c h e r - p u p il r e la ­

t i o n s h i p s i n p ro b lem s i t u a t i o n s . h e r p u p ils to r a is e in te r e s t in d a ily tr a v e l and c iv ic

th e ir

T he t e a c h e r e n c o u r a g e d

q u e s t i o n s a c t u a l l y e m e rg in g fro m t h e i r

life * life ,

The p r o b le m s o f w a r a n d p e a c e , e tc .,

th e m se lv e s and d is c u s s e d in

w ere b r o u g h t u p b y t h e p u p i l s th e c la s s ro o m s .

T he r e p o r t d i d n o t d i s c l o s e o r th e am ount o f p u p i l s

t h e num ber o f s c h o o ls

in v o lv e d on any g rad e

r e p o r t w as g e n e r a l a n d d i f f u s e *

le v e l.

The

T h e re seem ed t o b e no e f ­

f o r t a t any s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e la tio n o r c o n tr o lle d i n v e s ti­ g a tio n .

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c h i l d r e n on a l l l e v e l s i n

th e

s c h o o ls in v o lv e d w ere g iv e n

p ro b le m s o r a s k e d to e n t e r i n t o t h e i r own o r c u r r e n t a f f a i r s * m ade a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e

th a t

s i t u a t i o n s e m e rg in g fro m A ll p o ss ib le

s o u r c e s w ere

s o l u t io n o f th e s e p ro b le m s.

G o ld ste in and h is

c o -w o rk e rs c o n c lu d e t h a t :

P a r t i c i p a n t s i n th e S tu d y r e c o g n i z e th e n e e d f o r m any t y p e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . It i s o n ly th r o u g h s u c h an e x p a n d e d p rogram o f e x p e rim e n ­ t a t i o n i n m any s c h o o l s i n m an y p l a c e s t h a t t h e g o a l o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b y th e g r e a t m ass o f o u r p e o p le can b e r e a l i z e d . *3

72

J o s e p h J . G o l d s t e i n a n d o t h e r s , “ T h i n k i n g Gan Be L e a r n e d ,” E d u c a ti o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 6 : 2 , J a n u a r y , 19?9*

73 I b i d . , p . 2 5 3 .

2 5^ C o n c lu s io n s fro m t h i s of th is in v e s tig a tio n

ty p e o f s tu d y .

a re e x c e lle n t,

from th e r e p o r t i s u n s c i e n t i f i c . p h ilo s o p h ic a l in ap p ro ach . p ro b le m -so lv in g i s q u ite p ro cesses,

It

W h ile t h e

its

m eth o d a s d e r i v e d

is

a c a d e m ic o r r a t h e r

A rm -c h a ir p h ilo s o p h iz in g a b o u t

a c c e p ta b le

in th e

h ig h e r th o u g h t

p e rh a p s , b u t on th e e le m e n ta ry l e v e l s

s tu d ie s are needed,

a im s

e m p iric a l

a s even th e a u th o r s c o n c lu d e .

H e r b e r t T. 0 l a n d e r , M. £ . V an W ag en en a n d H e l e n M u i r B ish o p * s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

P erh ap s

am ount o f w ork done i n a r i t h m e t i c lie s

th e re a so n f o r th e g r e a t e r s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h i s one

in th e f a c t th a t: . . . o f a l l s p e c ia l c a p a c itie s p e rh ap s th e b e s t e s t a b l i s h e d i s t h a t u n d e rly in g e f f i c ie n c y in n u m e ric a l c o m p u ta tio n . A r ith m e tic a l o r m a th e m a tic a l a b i l i t y has a lm o st, a lw a y s b e e n r e g a r d e d a s a d i s t i n c t a b i l i t y o r g i f t . 7^ T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n

i s p e r h a p s m o re s c i e n t i f i c

th e p re c e d in g one J u s t r e p o r t e d . fic ie n c ie s

in i t

d iffic u lty

h e re , p lu s th e

th an

But th e re a r e c e r ta in de­

w h ic h a r e o b v io u s .

T h ere i s a se m a n tic

f a c t t h a t t h e a im s a n d p u r p o s e s

are n o t c le a r - c u t The r e s e a r c h .

In

t h i s p a r t i c u l a r in v e s ti g a t i o n to

d e te rm in e a p r e d i c t i o n b a s i s f o r a r i t h m e t i c a l a c h ie v e m e n t, a t e s t was g i v e n t o

74.

th e

c h ild re n a t

B u r t, p p . c i t . ,

p . 253*

th e f i r s t g ra d e le v e l

255 o f th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.

T h is t e s t f o r p r e d i c t i n g

a rith ­

m e t i c a c h ie v e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ’ s p e r f o r m a n c e s was c o n s t r u c t e d in to

tw o d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s : One s c a l e , S c a l e A c o n s i s t i n g o f tw o f o r m s , A - l a n d A ~2, w a s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p o s s e s s e d by young c h ild r e n . . . . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c o n d s c a l e , S c a le B, w as t o m e a su re c h i l d r e n ’ s a b i l i t y to p e rc e iv e n u m e ric a l r e la tio n s h ip s .7 5 B o th o f t h e s e t e s t i n g s w ere i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d

by tr a in e d t e r e d to

e x a m in e rs.

T e n ta tiv e t e s t s w ere f i r s t

te n p u p ils f o r a p re lim in a ry

R e s u lts o f f i r s t

A r e v i s e d t e s t w as t h e n draw n u p a n d

g iv e n to 19^ f i r s t - g r a d e S t.

p u p i l s fro m a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

sehool

P a u l, M in n e so ta . The f i r s t

s c a le w as d e s ig n a te d s p e c i f i c a l l y

su re q u a n tita tiv e Q u e stio n s

s u c h a s ’’W hat i s

a c l o c k f o r ? ” ’’How m any l e g s

w ere a s k e d .

The s e c o n d s c a l e w as s e t

te rm s o f f a m i l i a r a n a lo g ie s .

I t was c o u c h e d i n

l a n g u a g e w h i c h i n c l u d e d s u c h i t e m s a s ’’p i n t : s m a l l : (la rg e , b ig ).

.

t o mea­

in fo rm a tio n th ro u g h th e q u e s tio n s p o sed .

d o e s a d o g h a v e ? 11^ up in

s u rv e y a s to o u tco m es.

t e s t d a t a w e r e g a t h e r e d a n d so m e o f t h e m

p ro v ed u n j u s t if i a b le .

in

a d m in is­

: q u a rt;

.

75

H e r b e r t T. O l a n d e r , M. J . V a n W agenen a n d H e l e n M u i r B i s h o p , ’’P r e d i c t i n g A r i t h m e t i c A c h i e v e m e n t , ” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , S e p t e m b e r , 19^9> P* 6 8 . ^

I b i d ., p.

^

Loc* c l t .

66.

256 A f te r t h i s f i r s t r e v i s i o n had been a d m in is te r e d and th e r e s u l ts tu te d *

ta b u la te d ,

In t h is

s t i l l a n o t h e r r e v i s i o n was i n s t i ­

second an d f i n a l r e v i s io n th e

tw o a r i t h ­

m e tic s c a l e s w ere t r a n s f o r m e d a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d t o d itio n a l firs t-g ra d e c a lly

p u p ils*

The tw o t e s t s w e r e

c o n s tr u c te d and ch eck ed f o r r e l i a b i l i t y

510 ad­ s c ie n tifi­

and v a lid ity *

A c c o rd in g to t h e a u t h o r s t h e t e s t s w ere f o u n d b o t h r e l i a b l e and v a lid . T he c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d s t a t e d t h a t p r e d i c ­ t i o n o f a c h ie v e m e n t s u c c e s s in a r i t h m e t i c w as h i g h e s t in p ro b le m -s o lv in g an d fu n d a m e n ta l o p e r a tin g n e x t h i g h e s t w as p r o b le m - s o lv in g a lo n e ;

a rra n g e m e n ts ;

th e

a n d t h e l o w e s t was

fu n d a m e n ta l o p e r a t i o n s . I m p ll c a t io n s ♦

T he p r e c e d i n g

stu d y i s

th e a v e ra g e a r i t h m e t ic a l e x p e rim e n t and i s

a n e x a m p le o f

illu s tra tiv e

th e d i f f i c u l t i e s

e n c o u n te re d in any su ch i n v e s ti g a t i o n .

P ro b le m -so lv in g ,

u n q u e stio n a b ly ,

m a th e m a tic s ,

a rid m o re s o i n

has been a s s o c ia te d w ith

a r i t h m e t i c th a n an y o t h e r area*

T he b i b l i o g r a p h i e s r e v i e w e d b y t h i s some f i f t y

p u b lis h e d e x p e rim e n ta l

so lv in g in a rith m e tic * to f u r n i s h a p a t t e r n . d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e

in v e s tig a to r

sh o w e d

s t u d i e s on p ro b le m ­

T h ese w ere so d i s c r e t e a s h a r d l y They c e n t e r e d th e m s e lv e s a ro u n d th e

stu d e n t,

o f d i f f e r e n t m eth o d s,

of

t h e i r w ork h a b i t s ,

a c o m p a riso n

and th e v a rio u s f a c to r s in v o lv e d in

257 th e

s o l u t i o n o f f e l t p ro b lem s*

v ie w e d a r e

in d ic a tiv e

T h e n e x t tw o s t u d i e s r e ­

o f m o s t o f th em .

C a r l W. H a n s o n 1 s i n v e s t l g a t i o n . in v e s ti g a t o r a tte m p te d to

In t h i s stu d y

th e

a sc e rta in ;

. . . w h e th e r c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w ith s u p e r i o r a c h ie v e m e n t in s o lv in g v e r b a l a r i t h m e t i c p ro b ­ le m s * T e s ts In p r o b le m -s o lv in g w ere a d m in is te r e d to 681 s i x t h g r a d e p u p i l s i n 10 c o m m u n itie s r a n g i n g I n s i z e f r o m a n a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e o f k-00 I n h a b i t a n t s t o an i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e rc ia l c i t y o f 25 >000. A fte r th e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e te n c o m m u n itie s w ere f o u n d to b e hom ogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t to v a r i a b l e a n d m ean a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e y w e re g r o u p e d i n o n e c o m p a ra ­ t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n w h ic h i n c lu d e d t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . 7° H anson d e r i v e d c e r t a i n f a c t s fro m h i s s t u d y w h ic h s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n s in c o n n e c tio n w i t h p ro b le m ­ so lv in g .

H is fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e

of in te llig e n c e

a s com posed o f f a c t o r s s u c h a s th o s e T h u r-

s to n e h ad e n u m e ra te d .

T h i s c o n c e p t o f I n t e l l i g e n c e was t h e

f o c u s o f h i s s tu d y and fro m i t c e rn s th e

concept

h i s o r i g i n a l b i a s a s con­

f a c t o r i a l t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e was c o r r o b o r a t e d *

He c o n c l u d e d h i s r e s e a r c h b y a s s e r t i n g t h a t : F u r t h e r s t u d y on t h e s e f a c t o r s w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e d e sira b le . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s u r g e n t l y n e e d e d on th e r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n v a r i o u s r e a d in g s h i l l s a n d s u c c e s s in s o lv in g v e r b a l a r i t h m e t ic p ro b le m s. E x p e rim e n ta tio n i n p r a c t i c a l c la s s ro o m s i t u a t i o n s a p p e a rs n e c e s s a r y to r e c o n c i l e t h e f i n d i n g s b a s e d on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s

C a r l W. H a n s o n , 11F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h S u c c e s s ­ f u l A c h i e v e m e n t i n P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g i n S i x t h C-rade A r i t h ­ m e t i c ^ J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , O c t o b e r , 19^4> p . 111.

258 and a c t u a l p e rfo rm a n c e o f th e p u p ils * C o n trib u tio n s*

T h is ty p e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n

m e n tary i n n a t u r e and i t sitio n * th e

stre n g th e n th e o r ig in a l b e li e f s ,

a u th o r p e rh a p s n e g le c t e d th e s c i e n t i f i c

tio n

to

m e th o d o f s e e k ­

But H ansons resea rch i s

th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

c e rta in re le v a n t d a ta .

p ro b le m -so lv in g # b u t i t

is frag ­

p ro c e e d e d fro m a s t a t e d p re s u p p o ­

I n h i s e f f o r t to

in g th e f a c t s p e r s e .

it

79

stu d y i n

th a t th e re

The n e x t s t u d y i s

a c o n trib u ­ em erg ed fro m

r e l a t e d to

d e a ls w ith in s tr u c tio n

and vocabu­

la ry . H a r r y C . J o h n s o n 1s i n v e s t i g a t i o n * su m m arize d i n search lim ite d

t h i s r e p o r t i n t h e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e­ its e lf

to

a n arro w p h a se o f th e g e n e r a l d i f ­

f i c u l t y t h a t p ro b le m -so lv in g p r e s e n ts . q u e s t i o n t h a t w as c o n s i d e r e d w as, le a rn in g

T he e x p e r i m e n t

S p e c ific a lly ,

th e

"W hat e f f e c t d o e s t h e

o f m a th e m a tic a l v o c a b u la ry have upon th e

s o lu tio n

o f n u m e r ic a l p ro b le m s I n w h ic h t h e s e w o rd s p la y an im Q a

p o rta n t p a rt? " P ro ced u re o f th e

79 I b i d . , p .

00

e x p e rim e n t.

T h is e x p e r im e n t w as

118.

H a r r y C. J o h n s o n , " T h e E f f e c t o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n M a t h e m a t i c a l V o c a b u l a r y u p o n P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g I n A r i t h m e t i c , 11 T he J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , O c t o b e r , 1 9 ^ , p* 98*

259 p a r t o f a d o c to r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n done by H arry Jo h n so n a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f M in n e so ta . in

I n th e e x p e rim e n t 898 p u p i ls

28? J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s w ere t e s t e d .

h ig h s c h o o ls w ere l o c a t e d In th e c i t y Y ork, and th e

o f N i a g a r a F a l l s , New

e x p e r im e n t w as c o n d u c te d d u r in g t h e

o f 19^1 and 1 9 ^ 2 . by a tte m p tin g

T hese ju n io r

tw o y e a r s

An a t t e m p t w a s m ade a t s c i e n t i f i c

to e q u a te th e s u b je c ts .

c o n tro l

The i n v e s t i g a t o r

w rite s; I n o r d e r to j u s t i f y t h e co m b in in g o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s fro m t h e s e s c h o o l s i n t o one l a r g e g r o u p , i t w as n e c e s ­ s a r y t o d e m o n s tr a te t h a t th o s e s c h o o ls w ere s t a t i s t i c a l ­ l y hom ogeneous. T he f o l l o w i n g t e s t s w e r e u s e d ; th e W elch -N a y e r t e s t f o r t h e h o m o g e n e ity o f v a r i a b i l i t y , a n d " y s i s o f v a r i o u s t e s t s f o r th e h o m o g e n e ity o f F ro m t h e s e d a t a I t w a s g a t h e r e d t h a t t h e hom ogeneous. g ro u p s,

its

h a b ita n ts .

N ia g a ra F a l l s

is a c ity

of d iv e rse n a tio n a lity

p ro x im ity to C anada a f f e c t i n g Thus in o r d e r f o r

s c h o o l s w ere

Its

m ores a n d i n ­

th e s tu d y t o be s c i e n t i f i c

It

w as n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d an a p p ro x im a te h o m o g e n e ity so t h a t th e r e s u l t s w o u ld b e v a l i d . tw o r e s p e c t s , id e n tity

show ed t h a t I n t h e s e

on e a c h o f t h e f o llo w in g m e a s u re s ,

som e common

o b ta in e d ;

1 ., 2. 3*

81

T he t e s t s

C h ro n o lo g ic a l ag e. M e n t a l Age ( H e n m a n - N e ls o n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t ) R e a d in g A b i l i t y ( C a te s R e a d in g T e x t - a b i l i t y to r e a c t to n o te d e t a i l s )

I b i d . , p. 99*

26o

5*

A rith m e tic p ro b le m -so lv in g and a r ith m e tic vo­ c a b u la r y ( A n a ly tic S c a le o f A tta in m e n t) K n o w le d g e o f a r i t h m e t i c v o c a b u l a r y s t u d i e d p r i o r to th e b e g in n in g o f th e e x p e rim e n t* (B a s e d upon r e s u l t s f r o m a 40 p o i n t o b j e c t t e s t o f t h e m u ltip le c h o ic e ty p e * )°^

In stru m e n ta l m a te r ia ls *

The t e s t w as e x e c u te d p r i ­

m a r i l y th r o u g h f u r n i s h e d m a t e r i a l s e m p lo y ed i n

a fu n c tio n a l

sense.

T he e x p e r i m e n t w a s g i v e n s e r i a l l y

in th re e d is tin c t

ste p s*

I t w as f e l t b y t h e I n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t m o st o f t h e ex ­

p e r i m e n t s h a d b e e n to o f a r rem oved fro m t h e o f th e c la ss ro o m a n d c a r r i e d th u s in v a lid a tin g a im e d a t r e a l i t y

on i n t o o

th e r e s u l t s .

a c tu a l e x p e rie n c e

a b s t r a c t a m anner,

J o h n s o n s in v e stig a tio n

and a c t u a l c la ss ro o m s i t u a t i o n s .

fo u n d sim p le to s e p a r a t e t h e

stu d y in to

th re e

o f w h ic h w as p r e c e d e d and f o llo w e d b y t e s t s

I t was

sta g e s ,

“e a c h

in v o c a b u la ry

a n d p r o b le m - s o lv in g , b a s e d upon th e m a t e r i a l t a u g h t d u r in g th e re s p e c tiv e

p e r i o d s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . **^3

I t was f e l t t h a t f ro m t h e p r o c e d u r e o f p o s i n g s im p le q u e s t io n s i n a p ro b lem s i t u a t i o n , and tre a te d .

m o re d a t a c o u l d b e d e r i v e d

S u c h sa m p le q u e s t i o n s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g w ere

used: V o c a b u la ry t e s t : P e r i m e te r m eans: ( a ) th e am ount o f s u r f a c e , (b ) v o lu m e , (c ) d i s t a n c e a ro u n d , (d ) d i s ­ tan ce a c ro s s .

82

Johnson, I b i d ., p.

lo c . c l t . 100-

261 P ro b le m t e s t : F in d th e p e rim e te r o f th e r e c ta n g le w hose l e n g t h i s 12 I n c h e s a n d w hose w id th i s 8 i n c h e s . T h is t e s t was f o r m u l a t e d so t h a t f o r e a c h w o rd w h ic h w as t e s t e d

in th e v o c a b u la ry ,

t h e r e w as g iv e n a p ro b le m in

th e p ro b le m t e s t w h ic h u t i l i z e d a n d r e q u i r e d c o m p re h e n sio n o f t h a t w ord.

Johnson say s:

The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s , d e s i g n e d f o r u s e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s , w a s t o d e v e l o p a m ean ­ i n g f u l u n d e r s ta n d in g o f v o c a b u la r y beyond t h a t w h ic h was p r o v id e d by th e t e x t b o o k i t s e l f . ^ * T h is i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d o ral d r ills

u s in g s e l e c t e d w o rd s.

th e d ic tio n a r y

in d a ily

The i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i z e d

to d e r i v e w ord m e a n in g s , a n d t h e

in d iv id u a l

s t u d e n t s r e c o r d e d m e a n in g s o f g i v e n w o rd s i n t h e i r n o t e ­ books.

To s u p p l e m e n t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n ,

t e r i a l s and d r i l l s

w ere o f f e r e d .

c o m p r e h e n s i o n ma­

T he a u t h o r s u m m a r i z e d t h e

use o f m a te r ia ls th u s : T he w r i t e r h a s sh o w n t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s h e u s e d t o b r i n g a b o u t g r e a t e r g r o w t h i n v o c a b u l a r y an d concom ­ i t a n t l y in p r o b le m - s o lv in g , w ere e q u a lly v a lu a b le to p u p ils of a l l le v e ls of a b i l i t y . L ik e w is e t h e y seem ed to b e e q u a lly u s e f u l in th e h an d s o f b o th in e x p e r ie n c e d and e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s . T h e s e f a c t s s h o u l d re c o m m e n d a g e n e ra l u se o f s im ila r v o c a b u la ry b u ild in g e x e rc is e s to a l l te a c h e r s o f a r i t h m e t i c - ^ Im p lic a tio n s tio n had f o r i t s

of th is

in v e s tig a tio n .

The i n v e s t i g a ­

fu n d a m e n ta l p u rp o se th e d e m o n s tr a tio n o f

Qh

Johnson,

lo c - c l t .

85 Z M 4 - » P- 1 0 1 • 86 I b i d . , p .

109.

262 s p e c if ic v o c a b u la ry

in stru c tio n

s o lv in g f o r m a th e m a tic s In th e

in

th e u se o f p ro b lem ­

se v e n th g ra d e .

The i n v e s t i ­

g a t o r e m e r g e d w i t h m o r e d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d re c o m m e n d a ­ t io n s th a n u s u a l.

He c o n c l u d e d t h a t v o c a b u l a r y i n s t r u c t i o n

a n d c o m p re h e n sio n w ere e s s e n t i a l t o p r o b le m - s o lv in g and t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v in g was t h e m o st e f f e c t i v e m eans to w a rd l e a r n i n g a rith m e tic . S tu d ie s so lv in g in

th e

su c h a s t h e s e b o l s t e r th e u se o f p ro b le m ­ sc h o o ls. IV .

SUMMARY OP THE EVALUATION

Fro m t h e t h r e e c h a p te r, th e f i r s t

c e rta in

a s p e c ts o f th e e v a lu a tio n

f a c t s c o n tin g e n t to

phase o f th e c r i t i q u e ,

th e

in th is

s tu d y em erged.

i t w as s e e n t h a t

d u c t i v e m eth o d o f r e a s o n i n g h a s b e e n e m p i r i c a l l y in

sc ie n tific

in q u iry .

In

th e in ­ Ju s tifie d

T he a d v a n c e m e n t o f t e c h n o l o g y

s ta n d s w itn e s s to th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s o f in d u c tiv e th o u g h t. P ro m a p e r u s a l o f t h e m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e a r n i n g th e o rie s, o f th e

e v id e n c e w as d e r i v e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e

th e v a li d i ty

te c h n iq u e o f p ro b le m -so lv in g b o th p s y c h o lo g ic a lly

and e d u c a tio n a lly . p lie d th e b e li e f

The p s y c h o l o g i s t s e i t h e r

s t a t e d o r im ­

in e x p e rie n c e and in p ro b le m s.

In d u c tio n

is

th e b a s i s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g and to b e g in in e x p e rie n c e

is

to b e g in le a r n in g

a d e q u a te ly .

As c o n c e r n s t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ,

n o t m any g e n e r a l

263 p a t t e r n s o f b e l i e f c o u l d b e d e r i v e d f r o m them * w ere c a r r i e d o u t m o s tly i n t h e f i e l d a p a r t in p u rp o se and p ro c e d u re .

T he s t u d i e s

o f a r i t h m e t i c an d w ere

R e p re se n ta tiv e in v e s tig a ­

t i o n s w ere p r e s e n t e d an d t h e s e a t t e s t e d t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v in g a s a m eth o d f o r l e a r n i n g . c o n c lu sio n o f th e r e s e a rc h e rs t h a t th e re

I t was t h e

i s a g r e a t need

f o r m o re s t a b i l i z e d a n d o r d e r l y r e s e a r c h i n

th is fie ld .

P h ilo s o o h le a l fo u n d a tio n s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g . g a rd s th e

fo u n d a tio n s u n d e rly in g

As r e ­

t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v in g m eth o d ,

s e v e r a l p o in ts o f a g reem en t a re r e v e a le d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a ly tic a l

stu d y o f th e w o rk s o f e d u c a to r s , p h ilo s o p h e r s ,

and th e v a r io u s p h ilo s o p h ie s . ag reem en t a r e l i s t e d .

Some t e n p r i m a r y p o i n t s o f

T h e s e t e n p o i n t s may b e c o n s i d e r e d

b y som e e d u c a t o r s a s t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w h i c h p r o b l e m ­ so lv in g r e s t s .

As p r i n c i p l e s ,

b y D ewey’ s d e f i n i t i o n ,

th e y

have e v o lv e d a s a r e s u l t o f th e d a t a d i s c l o s e d by t h i s stu d y .

By o t h e r e d u c a t o r s o r o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s ,

th e se

p o i n t s o f a g r e e m e n t may b e l o o k e d u p o n a s a s s u m p t i o n s u p o n w h ic h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d m u st s t a n d . p o i n t o f v iew o f t h i s

In v e s tig a to r,

s ta n d o r f a l l upon th e s e

F ro m t h e

p r o b le m - s o lv in g m ust

fu n d a m e n ta l a ssu m p tio n s w h ic h can

n e ith e r be p ro v ed n o r d isp ro v e d ,

a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s t h e hy­

p o t h e s e s e m e rg in g fro m th e m c a n b e J u s t i f i e d b y t h e

fa c ts.

T hese fu n d a m e n ta l p o i n ts o f a g reem en t a r e a ls o b a s i c to

264 sc ie n tific

in q u iry as i t

e m e r g e s f r o m t h e i n d u c t i v e mode

o f re a so n in g * P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d o f s e e k i n g k n o w le d g e s ta rts

in e x p e rie n c e and th ro u g h th e

e ra liz a tio n s.

I n Dewey* s p h i l o s o p h y t h e s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s

m ust have p ra g m a tic v a l u e . w ith le a rn in g a c c o rd in g to te rn .

It

sen ses a r r iv e s a t gen­

P ro b le m -s o lv in g I s

sy n o n y m o u s

w h ic h o c c u r s o n ly th r o u g h s c i e n t i f i c its

a d h e re n ts.

T h is l e a r n i n g i s

I s d y n am ic a n d o r g a n ! s m i c ,

c e s s w hereby t h e kn o w er com es to

in q u iry ,

a to ta l p a t­

in v o lv in g

a ’ w h o le * p r o ­

t h e known.

The f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t s o f a g r e e m e n t a r e : 1.

That le a rn in g

b e g in s i n e x p e r ie n c e and d raw s I t s

p re m is e s fro m i t . 2.

That th e ap p ro a ch to le a r n in g

3.

T hat th e e p is te m o lo g y i s m o n is tic .

4*

T hat th e re

5*

That le a rn in g

c a n b e no d i s c r e t e

is n a tu ra listic *

ap p ro ach to le a r n ­

in g . is

a p r o c e s s w h ic h i s

a t once

d y n a m ic a n d o r g a n i s m i c . 6.

That th e sen se d a ta a re

th e o n ly m eans f o r a c ­

q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e . 7*

T h a t t h e m in d i s

ju stm e n t and i s

u n a b le to

an In stru m e n t d e sig n e d f o r ad­

f u n c t i o n a p a r t fro m th e b i o l o g i c a l

o r g a n i sm. 8.

T hat le a rn in g

i s d o in g and t h a t t h i s d o in g b e g in s

2 65 w i t h a p ro b le m a n d c o n c lu d e s w i t h t e n t a t i v e 9. 10.

so lu tio n s.

T hat s o lu tio n s a re w a rra n te d a s s e r tio n s . That

‘u n i v e r s a l e 1 a r e

sy m b o ls an d d o n o t e x i s t

in r e a l i t y . I n o n e w ay o r a n o t h e r t h e s e

te n p o in ts have been d i s ­

c u sse d and a n a ly z e d th ro u g h o u t th e body of t h i s i n v e s tig a ­ tio n .

T h e ir p ro o f i s n o t y e t p o s s ib le .

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g r e s t s

upon th em .

B ut th e te c h n iq u e

T here i s

s t i l l d isa g re e ­

m e n t i n m any q u a r t e r s w i t h t h e s e b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g .

Tim e a n d e v i d e n c e m u s t b e t h e c r i t e r i a . V.

SUMMARY

T h is c h a p te r p r e s e n te d an e v a lu a tio n and c r i t i q u e th e

e n t i r e m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

w ere c r i t i c a l l y upon w h ic h th e

The p r o s a n d c o n s

e x a m in e d i n o r d e r t o d ra w o u t t h e stru c tu re

of

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g r e s t s .

fo u n d a tio n s T he n e x t

c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t an e v a l u a t i o n o f th e h y p o th e s e s w h ic h w ere p o s t u l a t e d i n C h a p te r I I I .

CHAPTER IX THE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESES The l a s t c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d a c r i t i q u e o f t h e e n t i r e a r e a o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g so t h a t

som e c o n c e p t i o n s o f i t s

so u n d n e ss c o u ld be d e te rm in e d *

T h is c h a p te r w i l l a tte m p t an

e v a lu a tio n o f th e n in e h y p o th e se s g iv e n i n th e t h i r d c h a p te r a s a s t r u c tu r e f o r th e e x e c u tio n o f t h i s a tte m p t to

a n s w e r s u m m a r ily t h e m ore b a s i c

a l s o b e i n c l u d e d I n C h a p t e r IX . m ore o r l e s s

An

q u e stio n s w ill

A l l o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s w ere

s u b s t a n t l a t e d by th e f in d in g s ,

m ust be l e f t i n 1.

in v e s tig a tio n .

a l t h o u g h tw o

a b e y a n c e u n t i l m o re e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e .

A s tu d y o f th e e a r l i e s t b e g in n i n g s o f t h e p ro b lem ­

s o l v i n g m eth o d h e l p e d i n

c r itic a l a n a ly sis*

b a s ic t e x ts o f th e G reek s, A r i s t o t le ,

A re v ie w o f th e

P la to and o th e r s ,

and

o f t h e m e d i e v a l S c h o o lm e n , r e v e a l e d t h e g erm o f i n d u c t i v e re a so n in g . p re c ia tio n

W i t h o u t t h e c o n t r a s t o f d e d u c t i o n a n d som e a p ­ of th e g e n e sis of a l l re a so n ,

a c le a r p ic tu re of

t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a n n o t b e had* th e s e e a rly p h ilo s o p h e rs a re r i g h t f u l l y d u c tiv e th in k e r s ,

W h il e

c l a s s i f i e d a s de­

t h e i r w ork g av e e v id e n c e o f i n d u c t i o n .

T h is e a r l y g lim m e rin g o f i n d u c t i o n w as n o te d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n A r i s t o t l e ’ s cru d e usage o f

sc ie n tific

in q u iry .

D ia lo g u e s, w ith S o c ra te s a s in te r lo c u to r ,

P la to ’s

d i s c l o s e d e le m e n ts

26? o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

in t h a t S o c ra te s , by a d r o it q u e s tio n in g ,

s e t up p ro b lem s f o r p o s s i b l e

so lu tio n *

In one p a r t i c u l a r

s e c t i o n o f th e H e p u b lic d e v o te d to d i a l e c t i c , s o lv in g te c h n iq u e i s m a n if e s t.

th e p ro b lem ­

W ith A q u in a s t h e r e a p p e a r e d

som e I n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . p o stu la te d

A q u in a s

th e t h e o r y t h a t t r u e k n o w led g e m u st b e so u g h t i n

s p i t e o f t h e m any p r o b l e m s t o b e o v e r c o m e b e f o r e

th e d i s ­

cov ery . 2*

An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c

in ­

q u i r y w as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d e v elo p m e n t o f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t w as se e n t h a t , tific

in e sse n c e ,

i n q u ir y fo rm ed t h e

s u b s tr u c tu r e f o r p ro b le m -so lv in g

i n t h e A m e ric an c la s s r o o m . fo u n d a tio n s,

th e a c c e p te d th e o ry o f s c ie n ­

W ith o u t a n e x a m in a tio n o f t h e s e

a c l e a r c o m p re h e n s io n o f th e t e c h n iq u e w as n o t

q u ite p o s s ib le .

A t o t a l p a t t e r n m ust b e p r e s e n t e d f o r a

t r u e p e r s p e c t i v e o f any p ro b le m , c o m p le te .

By p r o b i n g

and by s e ttin g it

e ls e

it

Is in ­

th e s e fo u n d a tio n s o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g

f o r t h a c r i t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e f in d in g s ,

w a s p o s s i b l e t o m ake c l a r i f i c a t i o n

m ore n e a r l y p o s s i b l e . re sts

in s ig h t In to

It

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

w as fo u n d t h a t

sc ie n tific

In q u iry

upon e x p e rim e n ta l d a t a d e r iv e d by th e s e n s e s and a n a l­

yzed and c l a s s i f i e d by th e in d iv id u a l in to z a tio n s .

T he r i s e

te n ta tiv e

g e n e ra li­

a n d g r o w t h o f m od ern t e c h n o lo g y w as i n

g r e a t m easure f a c i l i t a t e d by t h i s

te c h n iq u e an d an a n a lo g y

268 w as draw n fro m t h i s d e v e lo p m e n t to a p p l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ress. 3.

The p h l l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m ­

s o l v i n g m eth o d w ere r e v e a l e d a s a r e s u l t o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a ta g a th e re d by t h i s had been d is c lo s e d ,

in v e s tig a tio n .

F ro m t h e d a t a w h i c h

t e n b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s w e r e l a i d dow n.

T hese fu n d a m e n ta l p o i n t s o f a g re e m e n t, l i s t e d c lu s io n o f C h a p te r V I I I , q u ir y and hence o f i t s

a t th e con­

fo rm th e b a s i s o f s c i e n t i f i c

d e riv a te ,

p ro b le m -so lv in g .

in ­

W h il e

t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s may s u f f e r t h e f a t e

o f su c h p ro b le m s i n

m e ta p h y sic s,

a s a fram e o f r e f e r ­

ence f o r

th e y none th e l e s s

th e te c h n iq u e .

serv e

W ith o u t th em i t

i s d i f f i c u l t to

c o n c e iv e o f a n y g e n u i n e .a d v a n c e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g . p ro b le m -so lv in g a c h ie v e s a se n se o f d i r e c t i o n .

W ith th e m , I n C h a p te r

X a m ore c o m p l e t e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a ­ t io n s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g w i l l be p r e s e n te d .

k.

An a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d

e d u c a t o r s g u id e d t h e p r o c e d u r e a n d w ere i m p o r t a n t i n th e p ro p e r d e v elo p m e n t o f t h i s

stu d y .

No p r o b l e m may b e d e s i g ­

n a te d a s c o m p le te d w ith o u t a c r i t i q u e trib u te d

to i t

a n d m ad e i t s

of

t h o s e men who c o n ­

g e n e sis p o ss ib le -

The w o rk s o f

t h e men who t r e a t e d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w e r e c a r e f u l l y r e a d and a n a ly z e d . d a ta fo r th is

F rom t h e s e a n a l y s e s t h e r e stu d y .

e m e r g e d m u ch o f t h e

A re v ie w o f th e v a rio u s p o s itio n s o f

269 t h e s e men p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e i n l i n e w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f th e

in v e s tig a tio n *

F ro m t h e e a r l i e s t G r e e k t h i n k e r s o n

t h r o u g h t h e w o r k s o f Dewey a n a r b i t r a r i l y w as w ro u g h t,

a n d i t was t h e l i n k s o f t h i s c h a i n w h ic h l e d

fro m p ro b le m t o 5*

c o n c lu sio n *

T he v a l i d i t y o f t>rob 1 e m - s o I v l n g w a s e s t a b l i s h e d

th ro u g h r e s e a r c h in to

th e

a v a ila b le e v id e n c e *

e v id e n c e o f th e r e s e a r c h a j u s t i f i c a t i o n w as,

fa s h io n e d c h a in

in a se n s e , p o ssib le *

F ro m t h e

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

But in th e la r g e r se n se ,

f i c a t i o n w as n o t q u i t e p o s s i b l e .

ju sti­

C o m p le t e v a l i d a t i o n w a s

n o t s e c u r e d b e c a u s e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d was found to be d e f i n i t e l y lim ite d *

B u t en o u g h d a t a w ere fo u n d

w h ic h w ere c o n fir m a to r y i n n a tu re *

The r e s e a r c h e r s

se e m e d

p r e t t y w e l l a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e w a s m u ch m e r i t i n p r o b l e m ­ s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d o f l e a r n i n g ; te c h n iq u e

and th a t i t

i s an e f f e c tiv e

i n t h e c l a s s r o o m w as a m p ly d e m o n s t r a t e d b y a r e ­

v ie w o f th e c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r im e n ta tio n .

H o w e v e r , m uch r e ­

m a in s t o b e done b e f o r e t h i s m eth o d i s

th o ro u g h ly j u s t i f i e d .

In

a ll,

th e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c lu d e d w ith p o s i t i v e

a s to th e 6*

sta te m e n ts

e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r t h i s m eth o d o f le a r n in g * The p r o b l e m - s o I v l n g m e t h o d h a s i n f l u e n c e d m o d e r n

A m erican e d u c a t i o n *

T he s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l

a u t h o r i t i e s b e a r w i t n e s s t h a t t h e m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g h a s been i n f l u e n t i a l in th e f i e l d o f te a c h in g p ro c e d u re s.

2?0 The u s e o f

th e te c h n iq u e

ro o m t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s .

h a s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e A m e ric an c l a s s ­ J o h n D e w e y 1s e p i s t e m o l o g y a n d p h i l ­

o so p h y d o m in a te t h e A m e ric a n p u b l i c p erh ap s tru e

th a t th e

th e o ry

school scen e.

of p ro b le m -so lv in g has been

m o re w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h a n t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . b r o u g h t o u t t h a t Dewey e q u a t e s t h e w ith p ro b le m -so lv in g . M o rriso n ,

P a rk er and o th e rs ,

in th e ir t r e a ti s e s .

t h a t th e e f f e c t o f p ro b le m -so lv in g

7•

a s s o c ia tio n s

e m p h a siz e d

T here i s

little

doubt

i s v e r y m uch w i t h u s .

in

The J o u r n a l s o f t h e l e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l

c o n trib u te a r t i c l e

a fte r a rtic le

need fo r f u r th e r re se a rc h .

on t h i s

i s d is c u s s e d pro and con.

r e s e a r c h in th e f i e l d , w h ile lim ite d ,

tech rA c tu a l

a lw a y s s t r e s s e d t h e

The t e x t s o f D e w e y , M o r r i s o n ,

a n d t h e r e s e a r c h o f th e m odern i n v e s t i g a t o r s

c o n c e rn w ith t h e p ro b lem . ev er,

a ll

M uch o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e

E v ery a s p e c t o f i t

P ark er,

v iz .,

o f m e th o d c o n c e r n s I t s e l f w i t h v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f

p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

n iq u e .

th e f i e l d ,

I n t e r e s t i n o r o b i em- s o l v i n g a s a me t h o d o f l e a r n ­

in g i s s t i l l g r e a t . th e f i e l d

has been

B o d e a n d t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , De Q-armo,

t h e M cM urry b r o t h e r s , p ro b le m -so lv in g

It

e n tir e p ro ce ss of le a rn in g

M odern a u t h o r i t i e s i n

K ilp a tric k ,

I t is

T he e f f o r t s

in th is

se em m o r e d i s p e r s i v e t h a n o t h e r w i s e .

area,

show how­

Some c e n t r a l i z e d

f u n c t i o n in g o f r e s e a r c h seem s a d v is a b l e i n v ie w o f th e con­ c e r n w i t h t h i s m eth o d , te a c h in g .

a s w e l l a s i^ ith o t h e r m eth o d s o f

271 8*

T he w o r k a n d i n s i g h t s o f t h e l e a d e r s i n

o f -p ro b le m -so lv in g c o n t r i b u t e d to e sis

stu d y .

T h is h y p o th ­

i s a c o n c o m ita n t o f num ber t h r e e , b u t i t

d o e s g o so m e ­

w hat f u r t h e r . to in d u c tiv e

T he o t h e r ,

th is

or e a rlie r,

It

in q u iry ,

p ro b le m ­

w a s s e e n t h a t B a c o n , Hume, M i l l ,

a n d m any o t h e r s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , sc ie n tific

th in k e rs c o n trib u te d

re a s o n in g r a t h e r th an d i r e c t l y to

so lv in g in e d u c a tio n .

d e v e lo p e d th e th e o ry o f

put of sc ie n tific

g ro w s th e m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

in q u iry ,

J o h n Dewey.

W ith t h i s

hoped,

to o

stro n g

th e

and s t i l l

t h o u g h t i n m in d , B e w e y * s m a j o r

t e x t s w ere c a r e f u l l y e x a m in e d t o d i s c e r n and c o n trib u tio n .

h o w ev er,

W ith o u t a d o u b t,

fo re m o st p ro p o n e n t o f p ro b le m -so lv in g h as b e e n , is,

th e f i e l d

h i s u n iq u e i n s i g h t

H is v ie w s w ere p r e s e n t e d , w i t h o u t , a b i a s o n e w ay o r a n o t h e r .

o u t J o h n Dewey*s v a s t c o n t r i b u t i o n ,

it

Is

H o w ev er, w ith r-

t h i s p a r t i c u l a r in v e s­

t i g a t i o n w o u ld h a r d l y h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . 9.

C la rific a tio n

o f th e h i s t o r ic a l an d p h ilo s o p h ic a l

d ev elo p m e n t o f p r o b le m -s o lv in g c o n t r i b u t e d to th e

com prehen­

s i o n o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d f o r e d u c a t i o n *

A c o m p lex

m e t h o d w i t h m any r a m i f i c a t i o n s I s n o t c l e a r e d u p t h r o u g h a n y one in v e s tig a tio n . t h e r e re m a in s , In th e e n t i r e

A dded t o

th e d i f f i c u l t y o f c o m p le x ity ,

f o r th e p r e s e n t, a re a o f le a rn in g .

m a in s u n j u s t i f i e d i n a c o m p le te

a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n tro v e rsy T h is h y p o th e s is , sense*

It

is

th e n , r e ­

hoped,

how ever,

2?2 th a t

som e c l a r i t y w a s m ade p o s s i b l e

tio n

so t h a t n e w i n s i g h t

A ny c o n t r i b u t i o n a t

th ro u g h th e in v e s tig a ­

i n t o th e p ro b le m c o u ld r e s u l t .

a l l to th e c la r if ic a tio n

o f t h e p ro b lem ­

s o l v i n g m e t h o d s h o u l d b e o f some v a l u e . S um m ary.

T h is c h a p te r h as o f f e r e d an e x p la n a tio n and

e v a lu a tio n o f t h e fu n d a m e n ta l h y p o th e s e s o f th e s tu d y . Seven h y p o th e s e s w ere f o u n d t o b e J u s t i f i e d ; d a te d o n ly in p a r t .

tw o w e r e v a l i ­

T he f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t o b e p r o v e d i n ­

c o m p le te ly J u s t i f i e d w as t h a t r e s e a r c h c o v e r e d by t h i s s tu d y c o u ld e s t a b l i s h th e v a l i d i t y

o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d .

I t w as fo u n d t h a t a d e a r t h o f s c i e n t i f i c

i n v e s t i g a t i o n ob­

t a in e d and n o t enough c o n c lu s iv e e v id e n c e c o u ld be d is c o v e re d . The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s t o b e f o u n d u n j u s t i f i e d w a s t h a t t h e w h o le f i e l d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

c o u ld be c l a r i f i e d .

T h is h y p o th e s is c o u ld n o t b e p ro v ed tr u e b ecau se o f th e v a s t am ount o f d a t a i n t h e f i e l d

and th e num ber o f c o n f l i c t i n g

th e o r ie s and o p in io n s . The o t h e r s e v e n h y p o t h e s e s w e r e c o n f i r m e d , o r l e s s e r d e g re e , b y th e d a t a o f th e s tu d y .

In g re a te r

The o r i g i n s o f

p r o b le m - s o lv in g w ere t r a c e d b a c k to t h e G re e k s .

I t was t h e y

who f u r n i s h e d t h e i m p e t u s , f o r f u r t h e r I n q u i r y i n t o o f th o u g h t.

th e re a lm

E x a m in a tio n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d fro m I t s

b e g in n in g s w as h e l p f u l f o r t h i s

stu d y and r e v e a le d

te n b a s ic

p o i n ts o f ag reem en t u t i l i z e d a s a n e c e s s a r y fram e o f

273 referen ce.

An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e a n c i e n t ,

m e d i e v a l a n d m o d e rn t h i n k e r s d i d m u c h t o ced u re.

e n lig h te n

th e pro ­

T h r o u g h t h e m I t w a s show n how t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g

m e th o d h a s i n f l u e n c e d A m e ric an e d u c a t i o n a n d h a s p r o d u c e d i n t e r e s t in i t su m m a ry ,

to d a y .

The n e x t c h a p te r w i l l p r e s e n t th e

c o n c l u s i o n s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s o f t h e e n t i r e

stu d y .

CHAPTER X SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h is c h a p t e r i s

th e f i n a l one o f th e in v e s tig a tio n

and, as such, d e a ls w ith (2 )

( 1 ) a sum m ary o f t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d ,

th e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c o n c lu d in g s ta te m e n t,

som e p r a g m a t i c

rec o m m e n d a tio n s*

th e c h a p te r i s

d iv id e d in to

p a r t , A,

p ro c e d u re and fin d in g s *

th e l i t e r a t u r e

In th e f i r s t p a r t ,

is

sake o f c le a r n e s s ,

se c tio n s:

su m m arize s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

im p o rta n c e , so,

th re e

F o r th e

and (3 )

T he f i r s t

v iz .,

its

p u rp o se,

I n th e f i r s t p a r t ,

a l­

re v ie w e d and t h e te rm in o lo g y e x p la in e d *

B, a n e x p o s i t i o n

of th e p h ilo s o p h ic a l

fo u n d a tio n s o f p ro b le m -so lv in g i s p r e s e n te d .

The s e c o n d

p a r t c o n ta in s a s ta te m e n t o f th e m a jo r c o n c lu s io n s o f th e s t u d y a n d a n e x p o s i t i o n o f th em .

P a rt th re e

i s d e v o te d to

some p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s t o b e a p p l i e d I n t h e f i e l d o f m odern e d u c a t i o n . PART I A.

SUMMARY

S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m * of th is

stu d y to

e x a m in e a n d t o c r i t i c a l l y

v e lo p m e n t an d f o u n d a t i o n s it

is

I t w as th e o r i g i n a l p u rp o se e v a lu a te

th e de­

o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d a s

com m only e m p l o y e d t o d a y I n t h e A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s .

The

275 in v e s tig a tio n

sought to f in d

a G -e s ta lt w h ic h w o u ld c l a r i f y

t h e m e t h o d a n d a d d n ew i n s i g h t i n t o

i t s v a l u e a s a m eth o d

o f le a rn in g . Im p o rta n c e o f t h e p ro b le m . p ro b lem I s p ro ced u re.

An i n v e s t i g a t i o n

im p o rta n t b e ca u se a l l le a r n in g In

of th is

i s c e n te r e d aro u n d

o u r A m e ric an s c h o o ls o f to d a y m e th o d s o f

t e a c h i n g a n d m e t h o d s o f l e a r n i n g m ay b e s a i d t o b e e q u a t e d in a t o t a l p ro c e ss c a lle d e d u c a tio n . m eth o d i s

T he w h o l e i s s u e

In c o n te n tio n an d th e le a d e r s in th e f i e l d

t e m p t i n g t o s e e k som e k i n d o f a g r e e m e n t . c o n fu sio n a s to

T h ere I s

of are a t­

s till

t h e p ro b le m o f c o n t e n t v e r s u s m eth o d .

re la tiv e

im p o rta n c e o f e a c h i s a m a tte r o f c o n tro v e rs y .

w as f e l t

th a t an in v e s tig a tio n

n iq u e s o f le a rn in g

som e

T he It

o f one o f th e fo rem o st te c h ­

( p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ) c o u l d d i s p e l som e o f

th e doubt su rro u n d in g

it.

I t w as h o p e d , f u r t h e r ,

e x p o s i t i o n w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l

t h a t by an

and p h ilo s o p h ic a l p e r s p e c tiv e ,

some u s e f u l a d j u n c t c o u l d b e g i v e n t o e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d . P ro ced u re.

T h is s tu d y ,

c o n c e rn in g i t s e l f

w ith th e p ro b lem o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y , as c lo s e ly as p o s s ib le to sib le ,

its

te n e ts .

th e g e n e r a liz a tio n s o f t h i s

as i t does

a tte m p te d to ad h ere I n so f a r a s w as p o s ­

s t u d y w ere d e r i v e d fro m

th e p a r tic u la r in s ta n c e s .

O b je c tiv ity

in th e re p re s e n ta tio n

w as a c o n s t a n t g u l d e p o s t .

The p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e u s e o f

t h e h i s t o r i c a l m eth o d o f r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s

In v e s tig a tio n

276 w as p r a g m a tic . and f i n a l l y u se fu ln e ss

The d a t a ,

first

c o lle c te d ,

th en c r i t ic i z e d

r e p o r t e d , w ere a l l s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r to th e p u rp o se s o f t h i s

stu d y .

F u rth e r,

w ere c h o se n s o t h a t th e s tu d y i t s e l f c o u ld o f f e r t i c a l re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r m odern e d u c a t i o n i f

th e d a ta

som e p r a c ­

th e f in d in g s

p ro v e d th e m se lv e s w a rra n te d * T e rm in o lo g y . f in e d in th e f i r s t

The b a s i c te r m s o f t h i s c h a p te r.

s t u d y w ere d e ­

O th e r d e f i n i t i o n s w ere ad d ed

w h en ev er i t w as b e lie v e d a d v is a b le f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n e v o lv e m e n t o f th e

stu d y *

o b ta in s in t h i s f i e l d , s e l e c t e d fro m th o s e

in th e

B e c a u se o f t h e i n d e c i s i o n w h ic h

c e rta in a rb itra ry

d e f i n i t i o n s w ere

s o u r c e s c o n s id e r e d m ost a u t h o r i t a t i v e .

T he p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d w a s s e e n a s a p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g w h ereb y th e l e a r n e r p r o c e e d s fro m a s p e c i f i c v o lv in g doubt and p e r p le x ity to e m p iric a lly v a lid a te d .

a te n ta tiv e

s itu a tio n in ­ so lu tio n

T h i s m eth o d i s d e f i n e d a s a n o r g a n -

i s m i c a n d d y n a m ic p r o c e s s c o n c l u d i n g , w a rra n ta b le a s s e r tio n s .

as h as been n o te d ,

T hese t e n t a t i v e

its

a d h e re n ts,

in

p re m ise s a re th en

e m p lo y ed f o r f u r t h e r r e s o l u t i o n o f l i k e s i t u a t i o n s . s h o r t, a c c o rd in g to

to be

p ro b le m -so lv in g i s

In le a rn ­

in g . The l i t e r a t u r e research ,

f o r th e

th e l i t e r a t u r e

e x e c u tio n o f th e stu d y .

stu d y .

As i n a l l h i s t o r i c a l

se rv e d as th e fo u n d a tio n s to th e I t was fo u n d t h a t a g r e a t am ount o f

277 s c a t t e r e d w ork e x i s t e d i n a lth o u g h l o g i c a l ,

th is area,

nexus had to be

co h eren ce an d c o n tin u ity .

and th a t

som e a r b i t r a r y ,

s e t up so a s to f u r n i s h

The a c t u a l r e s e a r c h i n

th e f i e l d

l a c k e d a common p u r p o s e a n d p r o c e d u r e a n d a l s o w a s l i m i t e d . M o re r e s e a r c h , w i t h common g o a l s ,

i s d e f in ite ly needed.

E a rly and m e d ie v a l s o u r c e s . s t u d y was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m e d ie v a l s o u r c e s f a l l i n g

The l i t e r a t u r e

o f th e

s e c t i o n s , w ith th e e a r l y and

c h ro n o lo g ic a lly in to f i r s t p la c e .

T h ese s o u r c e s w ere m a in ly t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e G re e k s a n d th e S ch o o lm en o f t h e M id d le A g e s . a n d Be I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w as d i s c e r n e d .

In

F ro m A r i s t o t l e ’ s C a t e ^ o r l a e

a f a i n t h in t o f in d u c tiv e re a so n in g

t h i s e a r l y w ork w h e re in p ro b le m s a r e

up a n d s o l u t i o n s r a t i o n a l l y

s u g g e s te d can b e seen th e g e r ­

m in a l s e e d s f o r l a t e r s c i e n t i f i c n o t w h o lly e x p l i c i t , in g o f ttlm e s i t to

is a

i s m o re

u n iv e r s a ls th a n v ic e

in q u iry .

The m e t h o d , i f

t a c i t u n d e rsta n d in g t h a t in le a r n ­

e f f e c t i v e t o p r o c e e d from p a r t i c u l a r s v ersa.

A r i s t o t l e ’ s P r o b l e m a ta was i n c l u d e d i n t h e re le v a n c e ,

tic ity

th e m a s te r h a s n e v e r b een a d e q u a te ly

pro v ed .

It

w ork, b u t i f

c o m p le te a u th e n ­

i s know n t h a t A r i s t o t l e d i d p r o d u c e som e s u c h it

are not c e r ta in e x is t is

a lth o u g h i t s

in v e s tig a ­

tio n because o f i t s a s a w ork o f

set

ever e x is te d of i t .

in i t s

But th a t

p r e s e n t fo rm ,

such a t r e a t i s e

e v id e n c e d by A r i s t o t l e ’ s a l l u s i o n s to

it

sc h o la rs d i d once in

h is

o t h e r w o r k s , a n d b y t h e f a c t t h a t o t h e r w r i t e r s h a v e men­ tio n e d i t s

e x is te n c e *

The P r o b l e m a t a , a s i t s p le te ly

nam e I m p l i e s *

to p ro b lem s a n d a n s w e rs.

D e d u c tiv e re a s o n in g

is

b u t th e v e ry u s e o f p ro b lem s i s p ro b le m -so lv in g i s

d e v o t e d com­

Each c h a p te r i s

c h a p te r and s o lu tio n s a re g iv e n to tio n s .

is

each o f th e

a p ro b lem

s ta te d ques­

o f c o u r s e p r i m a r i l y e m p lo y e d * in d ic a tiv e o f th e f a c t th a t

an o ld te c h n iq u e o f le a rn in g *

I t may

h o n e s t l y b e a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e m eth o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g h a s n o t a l w a y s b e e n i n u s e * f o r how c o u l d som e f o r m o f i t b e a v o id e d ?

The p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g t h e

d e a ls not w ith i t a s

such,

te c h n iq u e

h o w e v e r, b u t r a t h e r w i t h m an’ s

a w a r e n e s s o f h i s own p r o c e s s e s . In

a d d i t i o n t o A r i s t o t l e ’ s w o r k , P l a t o ’ s f a m o u s R e­

p u b l i c w as a n a ly z e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o p r o b le m - s o lv in g . R e p u b lic * one o f th e l e a d i n g t r e a t i s e s i n w e s te r n can a ls o be seen tr a c e s o f n a rra to r, te x t.

sc ie n tific

in q u iry .

In th e

c u ltu re ,

S o c ra te s,

as

e m p lo y s t h e m eth o d o f q u e s t i o n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e

T im e a n d a g a i n he b r i n g s t h e d i s c u s s i o n

g e n e ra liz a tio n s to

sp e c ific

fro m sw e e p in g

I n s t a n c e s i n o r d e r t o m ake h i s

p o in t. S o c r a t e s a lw a y s dem anded to know t h e r e a s o n f o r c e r ­ ta in

phenom ena and t h e p o s s i b l e

"fcke R e p u b l i c d e v o t e d t o d isc e rn e d .

s o lu tio n s .

e d u c a tio n ,

The s t u d e n t s a r e

In

th e phase o f

a m o d e rn a p p r o a c h may b e

to f a c e r e a l p ro b le m s p o se d by

279 life

and th r o u g h t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p ro b lem s a c q u ir e

r e a l k n o w le d g e *

T h i s p r o c e s s i s r o u g h l y a n a l o g o u s to m odern

p ro b le m -so lv in g • A l s o r e v i e w e d w e r e some o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e S t o i c a n d E p ic u re a n p h ilo s o p h e r s .

I t was n o t e d t h a t

t h e y t o o h a d som e

a w a r e n e s s o f w h a t l a t e r becam e m odern s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry .

Many t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r w r i t i n g s t h e s e e a r l y

th in k e rs

posed s p e c ific

p ro b le m s a n d s o u g h t f o r

E p ic u re a n s in p a r t i c u l a r to

th e ir so lu tio n s .

sought to re d u c e l i f e ^

a m inim um a n d a s s e r t e d

th a t t h e i r so lu tio n

The

p ro b lem s

la y in p le a ­

s u r e s ta k e n m o d e ra te ly . F ro m t h e G r e e k s t h e t r a n s i t i o n w a s a r b i t r a r i l y d r a w n t o t h e S ch o o lm e n o f t h e m e d i e v a l a g e s . w ork c o u ld be r e v ie w e d , chosen.

S in c e n o t a l l o f t h e i r

t h e m o st r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w r i t e r was

T h e Summa T h e o l o g i c a o f S t . T hom as A q u i n a s w a s r e ­

v ie w e d b e c a u s e i t C a th o lic

i s o n e o f t h e m o re i m p o r t a n t t e x t s

c u ltu re *

It

is

r a th e r w e ll ag reed t h a t th e

in C a th ­

o l i c c h u rc h k e p t th e l i g h t o f le a rn in g a liv e d u rin g th e D ark A g e s. The Summa T h e o l o g l c a h a s p l a y e d a g r e a t r o l e o lic

th o u g h t, b o th e d u c a tio n a l and o th e rw is e ,

and in th e p r e s e n t.

i n C a th ­

in th e p a s t

I n t h i s w ork A q u in a s i m p l i e s u s e o f t h e

p r o b le m - s o lv in g m eth o d .

In p a rts o f h is t r e a tis e ,

he p o sed

t h e p ro b le m o f k n o w le d g e a n d th e g r e a t n e e d f o r s e c u r i n g an sw ers.

T he w h o l e a p p r o a c h , h o w e v e r , w a s f r o m t h e

280 d e d u c tiv e

a n d n o t t h e i n d u c t i v e p o i n t o f v ie w #

The p r e - m o d e rn t r e a t i s e s # on p ro b le m -so lv in g

tre a te d

The n e x t b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e

i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w as d e r iv e d

f r o m t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k s o f t h o s e men who w r o t e tu rie s#

in th e

six te e n th ,

s e v e n te e n th and e ig h te e n th cen­

B aco n ’ s A dvancem ent o f L e a rn in g i s

t e x t on t h e u s e o f i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n in g # th o u g h t,

and i t

by th e te rm em p h asized *

i s assum ed t h a t

’th o u g h t.1

an o u tsta n d in g

It is

s c ie n tific

i n q u ir y i s m eant

T h ro u g h o u t t h e w ork,

In d e fin ite

a h isto ry of

in d u c tio n i s

o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S c h o o lm e n , B acon

a d v o c a te d th e use o f t r a i n e d

s k e p tic is m in le a rn in g #

B acon’ s a n t a g o n is ti c v ie w p o in t as r e g a r d s d e d u c tio n o p e n e d u p a new t r a i n o f r e a s o n i n g . tio n

H is e a r l i e s t

of th e th e o ry o f in d u c tiv e re a so n in g

fo rm u la ­

stre sse d p a rtic u la r

In s ta n c e s as opposed to b lin d ly a c c e p te d g e n e r a liz a tio n s . B a c o n ’ s p o le m ic was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a l s e k n o w le d g e, w h ic h he m a in ta in e d m ust a r i s e fro m in c o m p le te ly a n a ly z e d u n lv e rs a ls# C o m e n i u s , a G e rm a n e d u c a t o r o f t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , c o n ­ trib u te d

t o t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m eth o d t h r o u g h h i s e d u c a ­

tio n a l. refo rm s.

T h ro u g h h i s G re a t D i d a c t i c , one o f th e

e a r l i e s t o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e x t s d e v o te d t o m eth o d , he s t r e s s e d in q u iry by th e le a r n e r , le d g e ,

r a th e r th a n le a rn in g by ro te #

C o m e n iu s b e l i e v e d ,

Know­

w as a c q u i r e d th r o u g h q u e s tio n in g #

H is m e th o d o f t e a c h i n g w as g r o u n d e d i n e m p i r ic i s m . H is e n t i r e w o rk i s

s p e c ific a lly

I n s tr u c ti o n o f a rt* to be i n s t il l e d

d e v o te d t o m eth o d s f o r t h e

la n g u a g e s , m o ra ls and p i e t y .

T hese w ere

th ro u g h t h e c h ild * s g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y .

He

h e l d t h a t l e a r n i n g o c c u r s m o st e f f e c t i v e l y w hen t h e l e a r n e r i s p r e s e n te d w ith m e a n in g fu l p ro b le m s. d id not s ta te

h is b e lie f

A l t h o u g h C o m e n iu s

t h u s , m uch o f h i s w o rk c o n f i r m s

t h i s v ie w . A n o th e r c o n t r i b u t o r t o s i b l y one o f t h e g r e a t e s t ,

s c ie n tific

and pos­

w a s J o h n L o c k e i n h i s An E s s a y

C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g . th e

in q u iry ,

T h a t t h i s g r e a t w o rk m ark s

i n c e p t i o n o f m o d e r n e m p i r i c a l t h o u g h t i s co m m o n ly a c ­

k n o w le d g ed by h i s t o r i a n s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g . g iv e s h ere a s tr ik in g re a so n in g . e ra liz a tio n .

Locke

e x a m p le o f t h e m eth o d o f I n d u c t i v e

He sh o w e d t h e f a l l a c y He s u g g e s t e d ,

o f a c c e p tin g u n te s te d gen­

in ste a d ,

t h a t k n o w le d g e i s

c u re d o n ly th ro u g h th e u s e o f th e f i v e

se­

s e n s e s w ith w h ic h

n a t u r e h a s e n d o w e d m an. The 1t a b u l a r a s a * is

o r b la n k s l a t e

p re s e n te d h e re f o r th e f i r s t tim e ,

t h e o r y o f t h e m in d

in c o n tra s t

P la to n ic th e o ry o f th e in n a te n e ss o f id e a s . a t b i r t h e a c h 1so u l* are

i s g iv e n an in n a te

th e e s s e n c e o f a l l m a t e r i a l m a t t e r .

to th e

P la to h e ld th a t

s e t o f i d e a s w h ic h T hese id e a s a re

l a t e r b ro u g h t to c o n s c io u s n e s s by e d u c a tio n a n d e x p e rie n c e . B u t w h ere P l a t o p r o j e c t e d t h i s r a c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e t h e o r y ,

to

u s e a m odern t e r m ,

Locke h e l d t o p r e c i s e l y t h e r e v e r s e *

H is

c o n c e p t e m p h a s i z e d t h e p r i m a c y o f e x p e r i e n c e a s t h e know­ led g e fa c to r* T h i s w o r k by L o c k e may b e s a i d t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p ro m in e n c e o f t h e m eth o d o f s c i e n t i f i c h im t h e f i e l d is

in q u iry *

r e c e i v e d n ew i m p e t u s a n d v i g o r .

t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f m odern p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ,

com e i n t o p r o m i n e n c e , been such l a t e r

it

is

in te re s t.

T hro u g h

As s u c h , f o r had i t

it not

h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t h e r e w o u ld h av e W i t h o u t men l i k e L o c k e , p r o b l e m ­

s o l v i n g a s a m eth o d c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d o r d e ­ v e lo p e d .

Any s y s t e m a t i c b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e s a s u b ­

stru c tu re .

T h is re q u ir e m e n t i s a p h y s i c a l law w h ic h even

S' l e a r n i n g sy ste m s c a n n o t v i o l a t e w i t h im p u n ity . E m ile o f R o u sse a u i s a n o th e r t e x t o f th e e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y w h ic h g ro u n d s a l l to

e d u c a tio n in a c t i v i t y .

In c o n tra st

th e w h o lly d e d u c t i v e m e th o d s o f h i s d a y , J e a n J a c q u e s

R ousseau c o n tr iv e d a u n iq u e

sc h em e o f e d u c a t i o n w h e r e b y t h e

c h i l d I s r a i s e d th ro u g h n a t u r e an d l e a r n s fro m h i s e x p e rie n c e th e re in .

He r e m o v e d h i s h e r o , E m i l e , f r o m t h e a r t i f i c i a l

and s t i l t e d tu re

a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h e n g u l f e d h im ,

o f f e r e d b o t h th e p ro b le m s and t h e i r

m e th o d o f e d u c a t i o n , tio n of

t o o n e w here n a ­

so lu tio n s .

h o w ever, m is s e s t h e c r i t i c a l

1p l a n n i n g , 1 a n d i s

im p lic a ­

a r a t h e r random p r o b l e m - s o l v in g

t e c h n i q u e n o t a d v o c a te d b y t h e m odern p r o t a g o n i s t s * w as a s t e p

in th e d i r e c t i o n

T h is

o f p ro b le m -so lv in g ,

It

ho w ev er, a n d .

283 a s su ch assu m es im p o rta n c e f o r t i l l s M o d e rn s o u r c e s *

stu d y .

T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n re v ie w e d o n ly

t h o s e b o o k s w h ic h w ere m o st r e l e v a n t t o

th e s u b j e c t a n d w h ic h

have b e e n a ck n o w le d g ed a s m ost a u t h o r i t a t i v e

in th e f i e l d .

The m o d e r n e x p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e t h o d a r e know n and stu d ie d in S ta te s .

te a c h e r s c o lle g e s th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d

In t h is h ie ra rc h y o f w r ite r s ,

Beiirey m u s t n o d o u b t b e p l a c e d f i r s t .

t h e n am e o f J o h n H i s L o g ic * —T h e T h e o r y

o f I n q u i r y f u r n i s h e d m uch o f t h e d a t a f o r t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f th is

stu d y * In

th is

tre a tis e ,

over a g a in w ith fo rc e w h o le d i s c i p l i n e itia te d

and c l a r i t y .

of lo g ic

A c c o r d i n g t o h im ,

I s b u t in q u iry ,

canons.

in ­

B ecause

an d t e n t a t i v e l y c o n c lu d e s w ith p h y s ic a l r e f e r ­

he a d v an ces th e th e o r y t h a t e x p e rie n c e can and does

p ro d u ce l o g i c a l fo rm s and s ta n d a r d s . e x p e rie n c e th e r e w ill ensue

He h o l d s t h a t f r o m

‘w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n s *

a p h r a s e he h a s em p lo y ed i n h i s w o rk . e n tire

th e

s c ie n tific a lly

i n e x p e r i e n c e an d c o n t r o l l e d by i t s

Dewey s t a r t s e n ts ,

Dewey p r o p o u n d s h i s t h e s i s o v e r a n d

w h ic h I s

Dewey h o l d s t h a t t h e

p ro b le m o f m e ta p h y s ic s i s a p se u d o -d ile m m a p o s e d by

th e r a t i o n a l i s t i c

p h ilo s o p h e rs .

L o g ic , by h i s d e f i n i t i o n ,

I s no l o n g e r t r o u b l e d w i t h s u c h n e e d l e s s q u e s t i o n s , b e c a u s e It

c a rrie s i t s It

is

own b r a n d o f m e t a p h y s i c s .

p o s s ib le to

d e r i v e D e w e y 1s e p i s t e m o l o g l c a l

p o s i t i o n fro m t h i s

tre a tis e *

He d e f e n d s h i s m o n i s t i c e p l s -

t e m o lo g y w i t h v i g o r a n d f r o m h i s e p l s t e m o l o g y e m e r g e s t h e m o d e rn m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g * ‘e te rn a l v e ritie s * fere n ce .

‘U ltim a te t r u t h s '

a r e u n n e c e s s a r y i n D e w e y 's f r a m e o f r e ­

P ro b le m -s o lv in g n e i t h e r s e e k s n o r d e s i r e s

e te rn a lity .

and

Dewey b e l i e v e s t h a t l i f e

is

su ch

an e v o lu tio n a r y

e p is o d e a n d o n e w h ic h m u s t b e m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y c e n te r e d * P r o b le m - s o lv in g , w h ic h e m e rg e s fro m a p r a g m a tic p h ilo s o p h y ,

is

s h o t th ro u g h w ith th e u t i l i t a r i a n

S o lv in g f o r w h at p u rp o s e , asked.

T he r e s o l u t i o n

is

c o n c e p t*

th e e s s e n c e o f th e q u e s t io n

I s g i v e n i n D e w e y 's How We T h in k .

The p u rp o s e o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g i s to p o th e s is to be u sed as s te p s

In

hy­

i n t h e e n r i c h m e n t o f m a n k in d .

D ew ey d o e s n o t o m it e t h i c s , b u t i t g ro u n d e d in m a te r ia lis m .

p ro d u c e t e n t a t i v e

a p p e a rs t h a t h i s e th o s i s

t h e t e x t J u s t m e n t i o n e d , Dewey

r e p e a t s h i s one d o g m a tic a s s e r t i o n :

a l l k n o w le d g e s te m s

f r o m e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h i s k n o w le d g e m u s t b e p r a g m a t i c t o h o ld v a l i d i t y . s o lv in g

is

I n t e r m s o f D e w e y 's t h i n k i n g ,

p ro b le m ­

a p r o c e s s w h e reb y th e g r e a t e s t g o o d i s d e r i v e d

in te llig e n tly

f o r t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r.

One o f t h e

c o n t r i b u t o r s t o J o h n D e w e y 's t h o u g h t w as

W i l l i a m J a m e s , w ho, i n h i s E s s a y s o n R a d i c a l E m p i r i c i s m , la id

t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r m o d e rn p r a g m a t i s m .

of u tility

is

T he p h i l o s o p h y

p a r t a n d p a r c e l o f D e w e y 's c o n n o t a t i o n o f

p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

J a m e s ' p r im a r y e m p h a s is o f t h e c o n c e p t o f

u s e b e g a n a m o v em en t d e s t i n e d t o

change th e e d u c a tio n a l

th o u g h t o f one e n t i r e n a t i o n a n d to A c c o rd in g t o J a m e s , t h e c r i t e r i o n t i o n a n d e ls e w h e re w as i n

its

I n f l u e n c e m any o t h e r s *

o f any co n cep t in

p ra c tic a l e ffe c ts .

educa­

T h e m o d e rn

p r o g r e s s i v e m o v em en t s t a n d s a s a v o c a l m onum ent t o

th e p ra g ­

m a tis m e x p o u n d e d b y J a m e s a n d c o n t i n u e d b y D ew ey. A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e m o d e rn s e c t i o n w e r e r e v i e w s o f T h o r n d i k e 1s P r i n c i p l e s o £ L e a r n i n g , K i l p a t r i c k ^ o f M e th o d , a n d o t h e r s o f t h i s c l a s s . augm ent th e th e o r y b ro u g h t o v e r t o

F o u n d a tio n

T h e se a r e w o rk s w h ic h

t h i s c o u n t r y b y De Crarmo

a n d t h e M cM urry b r o t h e r s f r o m t h e i r s t u d i e s i n G e rm a n y . cause o f t h is

In flu e n c e ,

B e­

H e r b a r t ’ s w o rk w as r e v ie x ^ e d a s a

b a s i s f o r th e e a r l i e r b e g in n in g s o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

T hese,

a n d m any o t h e r t e x t s , f u r n i s h e d t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e

s tu d y .

Be s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d .

The n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s

o n p r o b le m - s o lv in g w as fo u n d t o b e s m a ll. r e v ie w e d I n c l u d e d th e th e

T he l i t e r a t u r e

jo u r n a ls , b u l l e t i n s and e x tr a c t s o f

le a d in g p s y c h o lo g ic a l an d e d u c a tio n a l b o d ie s h e re and

a b ro a d .

T hose

th o ro u g h ly

s t u d i e s w h i c h s e e m e d m o s t r e l e v a n t w e re

in v e s tig a te d .

L a z e r te d i d a s tu d y i n C a n ad a on t h e g ro w th o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g a b i l i t y im p o s s ib ility

in

a rith m e tic .

o f re a c h in g tru e

s o l v i n g o r a n y m e th o d .

He e m p h a s i z e d t h e

c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t p r o b le m ­

He b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s own r e s e a r c h

Z86 w as f u r t h e r e v id e n c e t h a t

s t u d e n t s on t h e e le m e n ta r y l e v e l

do n o t d e v e lo p s y s te m a tic

th in k in g

a b ility .

s o lv in g c a n n o t p ro d u c e an y s y s te m a tiz a tio n

E v e n p r o b le m ­ o f th o u g h t.

The b i b l i o g r a p h i e s r e v i e w e d b y t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r sh o w e d som e f i f t y s o lv in g

p u b l i s h e d e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s o n p r o b le m ­

in a rith m e tic *

fu rn is h a p a tte rn . fic u ltie s

T h e s e w e re so d i s c r e t e

a s h a rd ly to

T hey c e n t e r e d th e m s e lv e s a ro u n d t h e d i f ­

o f th e s tu d e n t,

t h e w o rk h a b i t s , a c o m p a r is o n o f

d i f f e r e n t m e th o d s , a n d th e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o lv e d i n th e s o l u t io n o f f e l t p ro b le m s . A s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e rim e n t i n p r o b le m - s o lv in g on th e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l w a s m ade b y K i g h t a n d M i c k e l s o n .

T h ey a t ­

te m p te d t o d e te r m in e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s on l e a r n i n g

of

p ro b le m -c e n te re d a n d s u b je c t- c e n te r e d u n i t s o f in s tr u c tio n * T hey c o n s t r u c t e d e i g h t p r o b le m - c e n te r e d an d e i g h t s u b j e c t c e n te re d u n its o f in s tr u c tio n lis h

c o m p o s itio n , l i f e

in e ac h o f th e f i e l d s

s c ie n c e ,

s o c ia l

o f E ng­

s tu d ie s an d E n g lis h

lite ra tu re . T h ese u n i t s w e re g iv e n a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , fo r each u n it tr u e - f a ls e

t e s t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d so a s t o a t ­

te m p t a s c l o s e a m e a su re m e n t a s w as p o s s ib le * in d ic a te d t h a t p ro b le m -c e n te re d m a te r ia l in o f r e f e r e n c e w a s f a r m o re e f f e c t i v e t h a n c e n te r e d ty p e

of u n it.

th e p u rp o se o f t h i s

and

th e

T he r e s e a r c h

its

own f r a m e

s u b je c t-

T h is - in v e s tig a tio n c o n tr ib u te d to

s tu d y .

I t w as s c i e n t i f i c a l l y

c o n d u c te d

a n d th e r e s u l t s

e m p iric a lly v a lid a te d .

Jo h n so n ’ s in v e s tig a tio n

t e s t e d e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l pu­

p i l s a s to th e e f f e c t o f v o c a b u la ry a s a f a c t o r in a rith m e ­ tic .

T h i s r e s e a r c h w as r a t h e r a g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h t o

p ro b le m , a n d i n

its

th e

w ay w a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m o s t o f t h e

o t h e r s c a r e f u l l y re v ie w e d .

W h ile t h e a t t e m p t w as s c i e n t i f i c

e n o u g h , t h e w h o le o p e r a t i o n w as m o re e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e th a n a n y th in g e l s e .

Jo h n so n s ta te d ,

th a t v o c a b u la ry , g e n e r a l i n te l li g e n c e c lo s e ly r e la te d

to p ro b le m -s o lv in g

Jo sep h J .

in M s c o n c lu s io n s , a n d m em ory a r e a l l

a b ility .

G - o l d s t e in a n d o t h e r s d i d som e r e s e a r c h i n t o

p ro b le m -s o lv in g th ro u g h th e b ro a d

s o c ia l a p p ro a c h .

p o r t i n g w a s n o t t o o c l e a r a s t o a im s o r p r o c e d u r e .

The r e ­ T h is r e ­

s e a r c h p ro v e d t o b e a r a t h e r in c o n c lu s iv e a tte m p t to d e t e r ­ m in e t h e b e s t m e th o d o f u t i l i z i n g i n t h e e le m e n ta ry te r. ic a lly

t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d

s c h o o ls , u s in g a l l

t y p e s o f s u b j e c t m a t­

I t w a s a n e f f o r t t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o g ro w d e m o c r a t ­ by d e v e lo p in g an a b i l i t y d a n d e r,

tig a tio n

in

to

s o lv e p ro b le m s .

Van W ag en en a n d B i s h o p c a r r i e d o u t a n . i n v e s ­

th e f i e l d

o f a r i t h m e t i c , w h ic h c o n s i s t e d o f a t ­

te m p tin g a p r e d i c t i o n b a s i s f o r a r i t h m e t i c a l a c h ie v e m e n t. T he r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t w a s a t e s t g i v e n t o c h ild re n o f th e f i r s t g ra d e . th e s e r e s u l t s ,

s e v e r a l h u n d red

A f te r ta b u la tin g an d a n a ly z in g

th e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c lu d e d t h a t p r e d i c t i o n o f

a c h i e v e m e n t s u c c e s s i n a r i t h m e t i c w a s h i g h e s t i n p r o b le m ­

288 s o lv in g an d th e b a s ic o p e ra tio n a l p ro c e d u re . In

a ll,

re v ie w e d .

som e s i x t y

o f th e s e s t u d i e s w e re c a r e f u l l y

T h o s e s u m m a r iz e d i n t h i s

s tu d y p r e s e n te d a good

i n d i c a t i o n o f th e ty p e o f r e s e a r c h m o st a tte m p te d i n th e fie ld

o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a n d w e re t y p i c a l a s t o t h e r e s u l t s

m ost o f te n

a c h ie v e d .

th e g o a ls a re a ls o

No c l e a r r a t i o n a l e

s o m e w h a t' ra n d o m .

It

se e m s a p p a r e n t , a n d h a s a g a i n b e e n em­

p h a s i z e d t h a t m uch m o re r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d . B.

PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PROBLEM-SOLVINO

F ro m t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y , t e n f u n d a m e n t a l p o s ­ tu la te s

a re p re s e n te d .

T h e s e b a s i c p o i n t s a r e d e r i v e d fro m

th e e v id e n c e d i s c lo s e d by th e I n v e s t i g a t i o n in f e r e n c e s th e re fro m .

It

and a re lo g ic a l

i s th e s e te n c o n d en se d p o s tu la te s

w h i c h f u r n i s h t h e r u b r i c f r o m w h ic h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d ra w s its

essen ce.

T h a t t h e r e may b e m o re i s e n t i r e l y

b u t th e p h ilo s o p h ic a l lis te d

p o s s ib le ,

an d fu n d a m e n ta l p o i n t s o f a g re e m e n t

h e re a r e a d i r e c t o u tg ro w th o f th e d a t a o f t h i s

in ­

v e s tig a tio n . 1*

L e a r n in g ; b e g i n s i n a n d d r a w s i t s

e x p e rie n c e . a s s u m p tio n

I n v ie w

o f m o d e rn p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h ,

seem s w e l l g ro u n d e d .

p a rtic u la rly

p r e m i s e s fro m

E v id e n c e fro m

th e

s tu d y ,

fro m th e m odem p s y c h o lo g ic a l l e a r n in g

p o in ts d e f in ite ly

to

th e o rie s ,

t h e e m p i r i c a l b a s i s o f k n o w le d g e *

t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d e t e r m i n e s a l l o f k n o w le d g e i s

th is

s till

Whe­

con­

289 b u t e v e n t h e g r e a t German p h i l o s o p h e r K a n t

tro v e rs ia l,

s t a t e d t h a t k n o w le d g e m u s t b e g i n i n e x p e r i e n c e * s e a rc h e rs a p p e a r to have r a t h e r u n iv e r s a lly

M o d ern r e ­

a c c e p te d t h i s

p r e m is e * 2*

T he a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g

is n a tu r a lis tic »

who h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g h a v e , s tr e s s e d th e n a t u r a l i s t i c fo rts

o f men l i k e

a p p ro a c h .

on t h e w h o le ,

The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f ­

C annon, L a s h le y , T h o rn d ik e , a n d o t h e r s ,

p r e s e n t c o n c r e te e v id e n c e to o f le a rn in g ,

Men

show t h a t t h e b r a i n

a lth o u g h le a r n in g

is

is

th e s e a t

an o rg a n is m ic p r o c e s s .

E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o n a n i m a l s o n a w id e s c a l e h a s s u b s t a n t i a l ­ l y v a lid a te d t h i s th e o ry .

In a d d itio n , b ra in

tu m o rs c a u s e d

i n h u m an s b y a c c i d e n t s h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d a n d s t u d i e d * T hese in s ta n c e s le n d a s tr o n g b a s i s f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c in g .

re a so n ­

D a rw in * s t h e o r y o f t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f man f o r s u r v i v a l

p u rp o se s i s b a se d upon n a tu r a lis m .

It

is tru e th a t a l l

f a c e t s o f p h y s i o l o g ic a l r e a c t i o n s c o n c e rn in g th e b r a i n a s th e c e n t e r o f l e a r n in g h av e n o t b e e n c o m p le te ly e x p lo r e d . H o w e v e r, t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e b r a i n e ffo rt,

in

any c o g n itiv e

a n d a lo n g w ith t h a t t h e im p o rta n c e o f th e n a t u r a l

e n d o w m en t o f t h e l e a r n e r , 3*

c a n n o t b e d e n ie d .

L e a rn in g i s m o n is ti c .

W illia m J a m e s , A le x a n d e r

B a i n , E d w a rd L e e T h o r n d i k e , J o h n D ew ey, am ong o t h e r t h i n k e r s , a re a l l m o n is tic

in t h e i r e p is te m o lo g ie s *

T h ere e x i s t s f o r

2 90 th e m n o m in d - b o d y c o n t r o v e r s y .

The w h o le t h e o r y o f c o n n e c ­

t i o n ! sm a s e x p o u n d e d b y S a n d l f o r d i n t h e F o r t y - F i r s t Y e a r ­ b o o k d e f e n d s t h e t h e s i s o f m onism i n l e a r n i n g . th a t o th e r le a rn in g

t h e o r ie s a ls o

s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t t h i s v ie w .

T h e re i s no d i s c r e t e a p p ro a c h t o seem s t h a t th e

id e a s o f

‘ fa c u lty *

c i p l i n e 1 h av e lo n g s in c e

I t w as s e e n

le a rn in g .

It

l e a r n i n g a n d ‘m e n t a l d i s ­

b e en e x p lo d e d .

The c o n c e p t o f w e l l -

d e f in e d s t e p s i n th e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s no l o n g e r t e n a b le . T he t h e o r y o f m a s s a c t i o n

and m u ltip o te n tia lity o f b ra in

f u n c t i o n h a s s u p p la n te d th e o ld th e o r y o f l e a r n i n g b y w e l l d e fin e d s ta g e s .

A c tu a l e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith th e c o r t i c a l

a r e a s i n a n i m a l s sh o w s t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e c o g n i z a b l e s t e p s in th e le a rn in g ily

h o ld tr u e

p ro c e ss.

W h ile t h i s f a c t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r ­

i n hum an l e a r n i n g ,

c o r d e d I n m e d ic a l a n n a l s t o

th e r e a re

s u b s ta n tia te

enough f a c t s r e ­

th e th e o r y o f l e a r n ­

in g a s b e in g an h ig h ly In v o lv e d p r o c e s s .

5* la te

L e a r n i n g i s d y n a m ic a n d o r g a n ! s m i c .

i s a c o ro lla ry

p a rtic u la rly

o f num ber f o u r .

T h is p o s tu ­

H ecent le a rn in g th e o r ie s ,

t h e G e s t a l t t h e o r y , e m p h a s iz e t h e d y n a m ic a n d

o rg a n is m ic a s p e c ts o f l e a r n i n g .

In

o th e r w o rd s, le a r n in g i s

a h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d a n d c o n t i n u a l l y m o v in g p r o c e s s I n v o l v ­ i n g t h e w h o le o r g a n i s m . e p is te m o lo g y .

T h is t h e o r y i s

In a d d itio n to

d u la r e x p e rim e n ts ,

th is

am ong o t h e r s ,

p a r t o f D ew ey*s

th e o r e tic a l s u p p o rt, g la n ­

have p ro v e d t h a t th e r e i s

m uch m ore i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t h a n J u s t C e re b ra tio n in d riv e s ,

its e lf

i s n o t q u ite

'm e n t a l*

enough.

a c tio n .

P s y c h o lo g ic a l

im p u ls e s a n d i n h i b i t i o n s w h ic h a f f e c t th e e n t i r e

b o d y a r e c o n c o m ita n t p a r t s

o f th e le a r n in g

p ro c e ss.

A s tu ­

d e n t le a r n s w ith h is e n ti r e

e n d o w m e n t, b o t h m e n t a l a n d p h y ­

s i c a l , w h e th e r th e y be o n e ,

tw o o r a p r o c e s s - o f b o t h .

6*

Ifre s e n s e - d a t a a r e

t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s o f k n o w le d g e .

T h is a s s u m p tio n seem s s e l f - e v i d e n t , n e s s i s n o t com m only a c c e p t e d * b e d e n ie d , no m a tte r w h at e l s e sp eak s th e f iv e le a rn

if

sen ses.

T he f a c t o f e x i s t e n c e c a n n o t i s d e n ie d .

How e l s e ,

T h is e x is te n c e b e ­

th e n , d o e s th e

in d iv id u a l

n o t t h r o u g h t h e s e c h a n n e l s t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r ld ?

P u t i n a n o th e r w ay, i t any c o g n itio n le a rn in g

a lth o u g h t h i s o b v io u s ­

is

th e q u e s tio n o f th e p o s s i b i l i t y

w h a ts o e v e r w ith o u t t h e s e a id s *

p ro c e s s en su e i f

m an i s e n d o w e d ?

T h is i s

s o p h is tic o e titlo

n o t fro m

th e f i v e

it

How d o e s t h e s e n s e s w i t h w h ic h

no b e g g in g o f th e q u e s t io n ,

no

p r i n c i p i i a s r e g a r d s a - p r i o r i k n o w le d g e *

T h i s k n o w le d g e may e x i s t f o r e v e r , b u t i t assu m e t h a t

of

is n o t lo g ic a l to

t o o h a s b e e n g a t h e r e d fro m p r e v i o u s e x p e r ­

ie n c e s a n d once a g a in re p ro d u c e d th ro u g h th e s e n s e s . The I n s t r u m e n t a l l t v b a s ic

to o r o b le m - s o lv ln g .

o f t h e m in d i s

T h is p o s t u l a t i o n

is

b u l w a r k s o f J o h n D e w e y 's p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y . sc h e m e o f D ew ey, man i s p i c t u r e d a s s t r u g g l i n g

a n a s s u m p tio n one o f th e In th e u p w a rd s i n

292 an e v e r h o s t i l e

e n v ir o n m e n t #

Dewey h a s c o n c e i v e d t h e m in d

a s a n i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h a s s i s t s man t o s u r v i v e

and to ad v an ce

i n h i s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t c o n tin u o u s p ro b le m s .

T h is c o n c e p ­

tio n

i s a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h o f D a r w in 1 s t h e o r y o f t h e

v iv a l o f th e f i t t e s t . th a t i t to

It

fits

in w ith p r o b le m -s o lv in g in

p r e d ic a te s th e th e o ry o f o p e ra tio n a l!s m

s o lu tio n .

T h is t h e o r y o f in s t r u m e n t a l is m

l e n g e d m any t i m e s .

T he c r i t i c s

su r­

fro m p r o b le m

h a s b e en c h a l­

o f th e c o n c e p t h o ld t h a t

t o c o n s i d e r t h e m in d a s a t o o l j u s t f o r s u r v i v a l p u r p o s e s is

a g r o s s o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e w h o le m in d - b o d y i s s u e .

M any h o l d w i t h A r i s t o t l e w h i c h man i s

t h a t r e a s o n i s a d i v in e g i f t by

s e p a r a te d fro m

th e r th is

a lle g a tio n be

p h y s ic s .

So f a r i t r e m a i n s

th e lo w e r fo rm s o f a n im a ls .

so o r n o t,

v a rie ty ,

i s a p r o b l e m f o r m e ta ­

ju s t th a t.

m u ch e v i d e n c e , b o t h s c i e n t i f i c

H o w e v e r, t h e r e i s

a n d o f t h e c o m m o n -s e n s e

to h o ld w ith th e o p e r a tio n a l c o n c e p t.

p r e s e n t m a n if o ld p ro b le m s a n d r e a s o n in g com e th e m .

Whe­

L ife does

i a e m p lo y e d t o o v e r ­

T h is f a c t seem s t o b o l s t e r th e th e o r y

of in s tru ­

m e n ta lity . 8.

L e a rn in g i s d o in g .

fo llo w e rs , a c t i v i t y

is

A c c o r d i n g t o D ew ey a n d h i s

th e le itm o tif o f le a rn in g .

a s s im ila tio n o f f a c tu a l d a ta i s f a ls e b e som e i n t e r a c t i o n * is m ! c p r o c e s s ,

S in c e l e a r n in g

le a rn in g .

P a s s iv e T h e re m u st

i s a d y n a m ic a n d o r g a n ­

k n o w le d g e m u s t c o m e , i t

seem s,

as a r e s u lt

293 of some action on the part of the learner.

Of course there

must be intrinsic interest along with the doing, but the fo­ cus of interest hinges on doing, viz., accomplishment from problem to solution.

Hence the value of solving real life

problems as advocated by the exponents of progressive edu­ cation. 9*

S o lu tio n s a re w a rra n te d a s s e r t i o n s .

l o g i c o n ly su e fro m

‘w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n s *

s c ie n tific

in q u iry .

w ays o n ly t e n t a t i v e l y s to n e s to

and n o t e te r n a l tr u th s en­

S o l u t i o n s t o p ro b le m s a r e a l ­

ju s tifia b le

o th e r s o lu tio n s .

I n D ew ey1 s

and a re u se d a s s te p p in g

T hese a r e th e g e n e r a l in f e r e n c e s

w h i c h e m e rg e a s a r e s u l t o f c o n t r o l l e d i n q u i r y . t i n g u i s h e s b e tw e e n e x p e r i e n c e a n d e m p i r i c i s m .

Dewey d i s ­ R andom e x ­

p e r i e n c e may o r may n o t p r o d u c e d a t a o f p r a g m a t i c v a l u e . E x p e rie n c e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y

in itia te d

d o e s b r i n g f o r t h f a c t s w h ic h i n te s te d .

tu rn

m e ta p h y s ic s . a s s e rtio n .

P ro b le m -s o lv in g

I n p ra g m a tic p h ilo s o p h y , th e u n d e rly in g

a re so u g h t n o r

c a r r ie s w ith i t

The n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y

h o w e v e r,

c a n be e m p i r i c a l l y

No u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d g e n e r a l i t i e s

a r e th e y d e s ir e d .

d e te rm in e

and c o n tro lle d ,

its e lf is it

is

its

own

a w a rra n te d

u n im p o rta n t to

e s s e n c e o f a n y th in g a s lo n g a s i t

can be u se d f o r p r a c t i c a l p u rp o s e s .

10.

Universale are nominallstic in nature*

The evi­

dence has disclosed that generalizations are Inferred from

in s ta n c e s *

T h i s v i e w i s Dewey* s*

s e r tio n s t o b e p ro v e d tr u e

o r u n tru e , o r to b e p ro v e d u s e f u l

o r n o t u s e f u l th ro u g h s c i e n t i f i c lo o m so l a r g e

T hese u n i v e r s a l e a r e a s ­

te s ts .

U n i v e r s a l s w h ic h

in t r a d i t i o n a l th in k in g a r e , a c c o rd in g to

D e w e y , o n l y a s s e r t i o n s w h i c h m u st s t a n d t h e g a g e o f e m p i r i c a l v e rific a tio n . p ro c e d u re , m any l i k e

to

U n i v e r s a l s a r e s y m b o ls , i n p r o b le m - s o lv in g be u se d i f

in s ta n c e s ,

A re v ie w .

n e c e s s a r y f o r th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

a n d a lw a y s s u b j e c t t o c h a n g e '.

A lis t

o f t h e t e n m o re o r l e s s m o s t f u n d a ­

m e n ta l a s s u m p tio n s b a s i c s e n te d .

of

to p ro b le m -s o lv in g h a s b e e n p re ­

T hey c a n b e n e i t h e r w h o lly p ro v e d n o r d is p r o v e d an d

m u st w a it upon th e

s o lu tio n

p o se.

s c ie n tif ic c irc le s ,

E v id e n c e i n

c o rro b o ra te

th e m .

to

th e p a r t i c u l a r p ro b le m th e y

S u b s ta n tia tio n

is

h o w e v er, g o e s f a r to

a ls o o f f e r e d by th e

d a t a fro m t h e r e s e a r c h o f t h e p s y c h o lo g ie s o f l e a r n i n g r e ­ v ie w e d e a r l i e r i n

th is d is s e rta tio n .

T hese le a r n in g

a re s te e p e d i n e x p e rim e n ta l!s m and n a tu r a lis m . n e s s i t m u st b e a d m itte d , b y an y m eans c o n c l u s i v e , le d g e c a n n o t be l i g h t l y II.

h o w e v e r,

th a t

th e o rie s

In a l l f a i r ­

th e e v id e n c e i s n o t

a n d t h a t o t h e r t h e o r i e s o f know ­ d is c a rd e d .

CONCLUSIONS FROM THE STUDY

T he c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t b y t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r h a v e a lr e a d y b een s t a t e d o r im p lie d . s i o n s i s now p r e s e n t e d .

A sum m ary o f t h e s e c o n c l u ­

295 T he h y p o t h e s e s o f h y p o th e s e s , i t tifia b le #

th e

s tu d y .

C o n c e rn in g t h e

o rig in a l

i s a s s e r t e d t h a t o n l y s e v e n o f th e m w e re j u s ­

Two o t h e r s w e r e p a r t i a l l y

ju s tifie d ,

b u t becau se

o f th e l a c k o f e v id e n c e on h a n d , th e s e , m u st r e m a in o p e n i n one c a se and te n ta tiv e (1 )

in

th e o th e r .

S a r i l e s t in c e p tio n o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g .

e a r l y G -reek w r i t e r s d o sh o w d e f i n i t e o f in d u c tiv e th in k in g , ris e

to

s c ie n tific (2 )

a n d A r i s t o t l e , f o r one h e lp e d g iv e

in q u iry .

t h e m e th o d o f s c i e n t i f i c

in to

e v i d e n c e o f som e t y p e

S c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e e x a m in e d .

f o r th e e n t i r e

T he

In q u iry f u rn is h e d

The a n a l y s i s o f th e a s s u m p tio n s

p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f i e l d a n d g a v e som e i n s i g h t

t h e m e th o d .

W it h o u t t h e b a s i s o f s c i e n t i f i c

in q u iry ,

p ro b le m -s o lv in g h a s no f o u n d a tio n . (3 )

P h ilo s o p h ic a l fo u n d a tio n s o r a s s u m p tio n s .

T he

p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w e re d e r i v e d fro m th e e n t i r e

f in d in g s o f th e

stu d y a n d a re l o g i c a l i n f e r ­

e n c e s d ra w n f r o m t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

(b ) in c lu d e d i n

The c o n t r i b u t o r s *

T he w o r k s o f a l l o f t h e men

t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n f u r n i s h e d t h e d a t a w h i c h m ade

p o s s ib le th e e x e c u tio n o f th e

s tu d y .

W it h o u t t h e i r c o n t r i ­

b u t i o n s t h e r e w o u ld h a v e b e e n a n i n c o m p l e t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (5 )

R e se arch and j u s t i f i c a t i o n .

B ecau se o f th e

29 6 l i m i t e d am ount o f r e s e a r c h In th e f i e l d ,

no d e f i n i t e

c o n c lu ­

s io n a s t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g w as p o s s i b l e . F ro m t h e r a t h e r l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e x a m in e d ,

som e a f f i r m a t i o n

o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s w a s d e r i v e d , b u t m uch m o re i s n e e d e d f o r g e n u in e c o n f ir m a tio n . (6 )

The I n f l u e n c e o f p r o b le m - s o lv in g .

A l l A m e ric a n

e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n t o u c h e d i n som e m e a s u r e b y t h e m e th o d o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g o r b y i t s

im p lic a tio n s .

T h ere I s

h a rd ly a

m od.ern c l a s s r o o m o n a n y l e v e l w h i c h h a s n o t f e l t i t s

in flu ­

en ce to a g r e a te r o r l e s s e r d e g re e . (7 )

I n t e r e s t to d a y .

i c a ls and re s e a rc h r e p o r ts ,

From t h e l e a d i n g it is

te x ts ,

p e rio d ­

o b v io u s t h a t t h e r e

i s con­

c e r n e v i n c e d o v e r t h e m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . c o n c e r n i n g l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e o r m e th o d o lo g y i s a n d t h e m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s T h ere i s a dem and, a c c o rd in g t o

n e c e s s a rily

th e l i t e r a t u r e ,

Thought in fe rm e n t, in v o lv e d . fo r c la rifi­

c a tio n o f t h i s v i t a l is s u e . (8 )

In s ig h t o f th e

c o n trib u to rs .

W ith o u t t h e i n ­

s i g h t s a s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e w o r k s o f L o c k e , Hume, l a m e s , H e r b a r t a n d m any o t h e r s ,

th is

s t u d y w o u ld n o t b e p o s s i b l e .

U n d o u b t e d ly t h e s t u d y o w e s m o s t t o D ew ey. c o n trib u tio n s

in

re a liz in g

a im s .

its

e n tire f ie ld

t h i s a r e a h e lp e d t h i s

H i s m o n u m e n ta l

in v e s tig a tio n

in

H is u n iq u e g e n iu s h a s i l l u m i n a t e d th e

o f le a rn in g .

297 (9 )

T he w h o le m e th o d c l a r i f i e d .

th e d a ta o f t h is

I s hoped th a t

s t u d y p r o v e s u s e f u l t o o t h e r s i n c o m p re h e n d ­

i n g a n d a p p l y i n g t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d . to o b ro a d ,

It

The f i e l d

th e r e s e a r c h to o l im i te d an d th e a r e a

s till

c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p r e s e n t a num ber o f d e f i n i t e a n s w e r s . te n ta tiv e

o n e s h av e a r i s e n fro m t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e I ll.

is to o Some

s tu d y .

RECOMMENDATIONS

A n a ly s is and c r i t i c a l e v a lu a tio n o f p ro b le m -s o lv in g a s a m e th o d o f l e a r n i n g m ent o f e d u c a tio n .

It

i s n e ce ssa ry is

tru e th a t

to th e g e n u in e a d v a n c e ­ s c h o o ls o u g h t t o b e f ir m ­

l y g ro u n d e d upon p ro v e d m e th o d o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s . c o rd w ith th e p ra g m a tic p h ilo s o p h y , re c o m m e n d a tio n s c o n c e r n in g is

hoped th a t th e s e

th is

In ac­

s t u d y p r e s e n t s som e

t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d .

It

s u g g e s tio n s , e n g e n d e re d b y th e p h ilo ­

s o p h i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o b le m ­ s o lv in g , w i l l b e a c c e p te d f o r w hat th e y a r e .

T h ey a r e a s

fo llo w s : 1.

T h a t m uch n e e d e d r e s e a r c h b e l a u n c h e d a s q u ic f e ly

a s p o s s ib le in

t h e w h o le a r e a o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .

f i e l d b e d iv id e d f o r p u rp o se s o f e x p e d itio n , be c a re fu lly

T hat th e

t h a t e a c h p h ase

I n v e s tig a te d and t h a t th e r e p o r ts be p u b lis h e d

f o r s tu d y . 2. p ro c e d u re .

T h a t t h e r e s e a r c h b e i n t e g r a t e d a s t o a im s a n d T h is i n t e g r a t i o n

s h o u ld b e done b e f o r e

th e

298 re s e a rc h b e g in s , to 3*

a v o id c o n fu s io n *

T h at a t t e n t i o n b e g iv e n to

th e e n ti r e f i e l d

of

m e th o d s o a s t o o f f e r b a c k g r o u n d a n d c o n t r a s t f o r p r o b le m ­ s o lv in g .

It

i s b y e x a m i n a t i o n a n d c o m p a r is o n o f a l l t h e

m e th o d s t h a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a n y o n e c a n b e d e t e r ­ m in e d .

k.

That some agreement be arrived at by educators

as to a general meaning for problem-solving.

Most educators

are pretty clear as to Dewey's definitions, but a restate­ ment would be beneficial. 5* ly in g

T h at th e b a s ic

p r i n c i p l e s o r a s s u m p tio n s u n d e r­

t h e m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e e x a m in e d a n d c o m p re ­

h e n d e d b y t h o s e who u s e i t .

W ith o u t a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g

o f w h at p r o b le m - s o lv in g m ea n s, a t e a c h e r i s h a n d ic a p p e d .

This method in particular demands insightful handling. 6.

T h a t t h e a im s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e m o re w i d e l y

d is s e m in a te d .

The n a t u r e o f i t s

s c i e n t if i c , p ro c e d u re and

p r a g m a tic g o a l s n e e d t o b e e m p h a s iz e d . 7.

T h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e m ade p a r t o f t h e c u r ­

r i c u l a o f a l l te a c h e r s c o lle g e s In one fo rm o r a n o th e r ,

e i­

t h e r i n a c o u rs e f o r th e b e g in n in g te a c h e r o r to b e u se d a s a m e th o d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s

th e m s e lv e s .

w i d e s p r e a d u s a g e o f t h e m e th o d , fo rm a tio n 8.

is

e a s ily

I n v ie w o f t h e

th e n e c e s s ity

f o r m o re i n ­

seen .

T h at te a c h e r s in th e f i e l d

th e m s e lv e s s tu d y th e

m e th o d o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 9. be tr ie d

if

T h a t som e d e g r e e o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g m e th o d in a l l o f th e p u b lic

10.

so n e ed e d .

T h at e d u c a tio n i n

s c h o o l s o f A m e r ic a . t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a w h o le

c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h i s m e th o d . od o f le a rn in g

I s h e re

to

P r o b le m - s o lv in g a s a m e th ­

s t a y a n d e d u c a to r s d a r e n o t a v o id

it. C o n c lu s io n . tig a to r th a t c la r ity s o lv in g

I n c o n c lu s io n # as to

to

th e in v e s ­

a im s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f . p r o b le m ­

a s a m e th o d o f l e a r n i n g

e d u c a tio n i s

I t a p p e a rs to

I s n e c e s s a r y I f A m e ric a n

h a v e a p r o p e r m e th o d o lo g y i n

its

sch o o l sy s-

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

A b e ls o n , H a ro ld H ., The A r t o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h . Y o n k e r s - o n - H u d s o n , New Y o rk : W o rld B o o k C om pany, 1933* 332 p p . B a c o n , F r a n c i s , T he A d v a n c e m e n t o f L e a r n i n g . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 18£>8. 37§ p p .

O x fo rd :

B e r k e l e y , G e o r g e , T he P r i n c i p l e s o f Human K n o w le d g e . z ig : F e l i x M e in e r, 1913* 13^"”pp* B o d e , B oyd H . , M o d ern E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r i e s . M a c m illa n C om pany, 1927* 351 p p .

L e ip ­

New Y o rk :

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_________, How t o T e a c h * L o s A n g e l e s : S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l B ook D e p o s i t o r y , 1938* 5 1 1 pp* . C r e i g h t o n , J a m e s E * , a n d H a r o l d R . S m a r t, An I n t r o d u c t o r y L o g ic . Hew Y o rk : T h e M a c m illa n C om pany, 1 9 2 6 . ¥96 PP*

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E b y , F r e d e r i c k , a n d C h a r l e s F l l n n A rro w o o d , T h e D e v e lo p m e n t o f M o d ern E d u c a t i o n . Hew Y o r k : P re n tic e -H a ll, I n c ., 193^ 922 p p . E d g e h i l l , E d g a r M . , W o rk s o f A r i s t o t l e . endon P r e s s , 1 9 2 6 . 1 0 5 pp*

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Hume, D a v i d , E n q u i r i e s C o n c e r n i n g t h e Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g * O x fo rd : T he C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 2 . 3 7 ^ PP* J a m e s , W i l l i a m , E s s a y s i n R a d i c a l E m p i r i c i s m . New Y o rk : New Y o rk : L o n g m a n s, G r e e n a n d C om pany, 1 9 1 2 . 2 8 3 pp* ________ , Some P r o b le m s o f P h i l o s o p h y . G r e e n a n d C om pany, 1911* 2 3 7 PP*

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19^*

2^9 PP*

30 6 /£ S p e n c e r, H e r b e r t, F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s # t o n a n d C om pany, 1930#

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550 pp#

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