The Family in Old English Literature

862 72 12MB

English Pages 215

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

The Family in Old English Literature

Citation preview

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

June

jc) 42

This dissertation prepared under my direction by A n to n B • S e r o t a

entitled

F a m ily i n O ld E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e

has been accepted in partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the

Degree o f

d o c t o r ° ? P h ilo s o p h y

(Faculty A dviser)

THE FAMILY IE OIL ENGLISH LITERATURE

BY ANTON B. SEROTA B*S# , U n iv e r s it y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia , F . A . , U n iv e r s it y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia ,

*23 *25

LISSERTAT1 OH SUBMITTED IB PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AT FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK 1942

ProQuest N um ber: 10992546

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10992546 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

iii r

“i

TABLE OP CGFTEHTS C h a p te r

Page

PREFACE_______ I.

IETRODTJCTIOH............................. B ackground o f th e S tu d y

iv 1

X I.

THE FAMILY TIMBER PAGA¥ COHDITIOMS........................ T he K in d r e d G e n e r a l l y H u sb an d a n d W i f e F a t h e r a n d S on F a t h e r a n d D a u g h te r M o th e r a n d Son M o th e r a n d D a u g h te r B r o th e r and S i s t e r B r o th e r and B r o th e r

51

III.

THE COMITAT ITS AMD THE. FAMILY. ............................. The C o m it a t u s Bond T he P ow er o f t h e C o m it a t u s I d e a l T h e Comi t a t u s a n d the^ i D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e K in Bond T he Comi t a t u s an d t h e M a r r ia g e Bond

99

THE CO¥VERSIO¥ AMD THE FAMILY....................................... D i f f i c u l t i e s M et b y t h e E a r l y M i s s i o n a r i e s P a t i e n c e a n d T o l e r a n c e o f t h e C h u rch Im p ro v e m en t o f F a m ily L i f e T h e I m p o r t a n t R o le o f t h e E a r l y P o e t s

137

IV .

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................

L

.

200

r

"1

PREFACE

The im portance o f th e fa m ily in Old Germanic l i f e has lo n g been r e c o g n iz e d and a cc ep ted in a g e n e r a l way.

Standard works such a s

Hoopsf Rea 11 ex ik on d er germ an isch en A lt e r t imskunde and P a u l’ s G rundriss d e r germ anischen p h i l o l o g i e have fu r n is h e d a u t h o r it a t iv e s t u d ie s s e t ­ t i n g th e broad o u t l i n e s o f know ledge con cern in g t h e h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c ts o f th e s u b j e c t .

O ther w orks, n o ta b ly Kemble’ s

The Saxons in England, Seebohm’ s T r ib a l Custom in A nglo-Saxon Law, Gummere’ s Pounders o f England, and Ohadwick’ s The O r ig in o f th e Eng­ l i s h N a tio n , have t r e a t e d t h e s u b je c t w ith s p e c i f i c a t t e n t io n to th e A n glo-Saxon s i t u a t i o n .

More s p e c ia l i z e d s t u d ie s l i k e R oed er’ s D ie

F a m in e b e i den A n gelaaoh sen and Aron’ s T races o f M atriarch y in G erm anie Hero Lore have u n d ertaken n o t ic e o f more d e t a il e d b u t more circ u m scr ib ed p h ases o f t h e s u b j e e t .

A l l th e s e works a r e e it h e r v e r y

broad o r v e r y lim it e d in sc o p e , and t h e y t r e a t th e fa m ily o n ly from a s o c i o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c a l v ie w p o in t. V a rio u s s c h o la r s and s tu d e n ts h a v e , from tim e t o t im e , shown p a r t ic u la r i n t e r e s t in t h e E n g lish fa m ily ; bu t none has y e t d e a lt w ith t h e Old E n g lis h a s p e c t s o f t h e s u b j e e t f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . Kem ble, in 1876, announced h is in t e n t io n o f la y in g b e fo r e h is co u n try ­ men a work embracing t h e fa m ily r e l a t i o n s ; bu t no such work app eared. R oed er, i n 1 8 99, t r e a t e d o n ly A nglo-Saxon m arriage cu stom s, a lth o u g h he c a l l e d h is stu d y D ie F a m ilie .

He prom ised f u r th e r work; b u t,

e x c e p t f o r a stu d y e n t i t l e d D ie E rziehung d er vornehmen a g s . Jugend i n Fremden Hausern ( 1 9 1 0 ), he has o f f e r e d n o th in g f u r t h e r . L

S eh iiek in g,

iv r *i i n 1 9 2 4 , p u b lish e d a stu d y e n t i t l e d Zu dem Anfang d e s F a m ilie n le b e n s in England, but i t b e g in s a f t e r t h e end o f th e A nglo-Saxon p e r io d .

Thus,

a lth o u g h th e need f o r a stu d y o f th e A n glo-Saxon fa m ily has b een appar­ e n t f o r some tim e , none h a s y e t appeared. No a t t e n t i o n has b een g iv e n t o th e trea tm en t o f t h e them es o f fa m ily and k in s h ip i n Old E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e .

No n o t ic e has been ta k en

o f th e r o l e o f th e e a r l y p o e tr y in th e developm ent o f C h r is tia n con­ c e p t s and i d e a l s b e a r in g upon t h e l i f e o f th e A nglo-Saxon fa m ily .

The

p r e s e n t s tu d y has two main o b j e c t s : t o g iv e a c le a r v iew o f t h e b a s ic f e a t u r e s o f th e A n glo-Saxon fa m ily in i t s developm ent from 449 to 1066; and t o n o te th e l i t e r a r y trea tm en t o f them es p e r t a in in g t o t h e fa m ily . The f i r s t c h a p te r , a background e h a p te r b ased m a in ly on Hoops • R e a lle x ik o n , P a u l’ s G r u n d riss, The P o e t ic Edda, The Saga o f t h e V o ls u n g s , The H e im sk rin g la , and r e p r e s e n t a t iv e I c e la n d ic s a g a s , exam ines th e c h a r a c te r o f t h e Germanic fa m ily g e n e r a lly in e a r ly tim e s and th e S ca n d in a v ia n fa m ily s p e c i f i c a l l y in e a r ly and l a t e r t im e s .

The secon d

e h a p te r , b a sed upon th e im p ortan t A nglo-Saxon r e c o r d s , n o te s th e s i g n i ­ f ic a n c e o f k in sh ip among t h e A nglo-Saxons and s t u d ie s t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e bond o f m a rriage and th e t i e s o f b lo o d .

The t h ir d

ch a p ter n o te s th e c o m ita tu s bond a s a r i v a l o f t h e fa m ily bond, ana­ l y z e s i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s , s t u d ie s i t s s t r e n g t h , and s e e s i t s harm­ f u l e f f e c t on th e developm ent o f fa m ily l i f e *

The fo u r th ch a p ter ex­

am ines th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o n v e r sio n in t h e developm ent o f th e Old E n g lish fa m ily .

I t n o te s t h e h arsh c o n d itio n s found by th e e a r ly

m is s io n a r ie s , and t h e t o le r a n c e and wisdom o f th e Church in d e a lin g w ith th e A nglo-Saxons*

I t exam ines th e a t t e n t io n g iv e n by th e m is s io n ­

a r i e s and th e Church t o t h e s t a t e o f th e fa m ily , L

n o te s th e r o l e o f -J

V

^ l d E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e in th e developm ent o f C h r is tia n co n cep ts o f f a m ily l i f e , and a n a ly z e s th e a r t i s t i c s k i l l o f t h e p o e ts in t h e i r tr ea tm en t o f them es co n n ected w it h t h e f a m ily .

L

THE FAMILY IN OLD ENGLISH LITERATURE

"i

r CQ3APTEH I

awm miG backghotjkd o f t h e a n g lo -s a x o n fa m ily

To e s t a b l i s h a b road, g e n e r a l v ie w o f th e fa m ily in e a r ly Germanic c u lt u r e , t h e f in d in g s o f a c c e p te d a u t h o r it i e s have been depended upon; b u t, i n o r d er to o b ta in a more s p e c i f i c background f o r th e stu d y o f th e A nglo-Saxon fa m ily , o r i g i n a l S can d in avian m a te r ia l has been n oted in d e t a il*

The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f S can d in avian c o n d itio n s does n ot c o n ta in

an ex a m in a tio n o f a l l N orse and I c e la n d ic s o u r c e s , but p r e s e n ts a stu d y o f th e m ost r e p r e s e n t a t iv e monuments.

The ev id e n c e u sed i s found

c h i e f l y in The P o e t ic Edda, The Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, H elm sk rin g la . The E a r l i e s t Norwegian Law, and in th e sa g a s o f B g i l , G r e t t i r , and Burnt

The S ca n d in a v ia n m a te r ia l i s v a lu a b le b eca u se i t p r e s e n ts w e l l p r e s e r v e d a n c ie n t c o n d it io n s .

Much i s f i c t i o n , bu t even th e f i c t i o n has

some v a lu e ; and th e f i c t i o n o f ©Id Norway and I c e la n d i s c l o s e to f a c t . The s a g a s , much o f t h e i r m a te r ia l b ased on th e p o e tr y o f th e s k a ld ie p o e t - h i s t o r i a n s , sta n d b etw een h i s t o r y and f i c t i o n ; th e H eim skringla i s , o r p u rp o r ts t o b e , h is t o r y ; and th e o ld law s o f f e r s o l i d f a c t .

T o g eth er,

t h e s e so u r c e s throw l i g h t on Norse c u lt u r e from th e e a r l i e s t p e r io d t o th e t h ir t e e n t h c e n tu r y . The P o e t ic Edda and The Saga o f t h e Volsun/a;s sta n d ap art from th e r e s t o f th e m a te r ia l in p o in t o f tim e . [_

They r e f l e c t an o ld e r p e r io d . -j

B a s i c a l l y , th e them es a r e o ld South German o f th e f i f t h c e n tu r y , but th e y w ere d evelop ed among t h e Norse a t home and abroad* Many o f th e c h a r a c te r s a r e h i s t o r i c a l p erso n a g es o f t h e age o f th e T eu to n ic m ig r a tio n s; p r in c e s and lea d ers,w h o in r e a l i t y w ere se p a r a te d by e e n t u r ie s , m eet h ere a s contem poraries* King A t l i i s A t t i l a th e Hun, who in ­ vaded Europe in th e f i r s t h a l f o f th e f i f t h century* K ing G juki and h i s s o n s Gunnar and Gutthorra, who appear in th e M iddle H igh German N ibelungen Not a s G ib ie h , G unther, G ernot, and a t h ir d son G is e lh e r , a re t o be r e c o g n iz e d a s th e Burgundian p r in c e s G ib ic a , Gundahari, Godomar, and G is la h a r i, whose names a re record ed in ‘ th e Lex Burgund io num*I The murder o f Gunnar and h i s h a lf- b r o t h e r Hogni i s a s u r v iv a l o f th e h i s t o r i c a l d e s tr u c t io n o f th e Burgundian kingdom o f Worms a t t h e hands o f th e Buns in 4 3 7 . The P o e t ic Edda i s th e o ld e r , o b v io u s ly more o r i g i n a l work.

The

Saga o f th e V o lsu n gs i s a p r o se work which sums up about h a l f o f th e P o e t ic Edda, r e l a t i n g in a more u n if ie d and exten d ed manner th e common Germanic s t o r i e s a t th e b a s i s o f t h e Lays o f t h e H eroes i n th e Eddie c o lle c tio n .

The S aga, a lth o u g h composed by an I c e la n d e r in t h e t h i r t -

een th c e n tu r y , i s t h e e a r l i e s t com plete v e r s io n , and supplem ents in an im portant way th e fragm entary trea tm en t o f t h e s t o r y in th e Edda. How much o f th e m a te r ia l i n th e Edda and The Saga may be c o n s id e r ­ ed p r o p e r ly and e x c l u s i v e l y S can d in avian i s n ot c le a r *

The t a l e s un­

d e r - ly in g t h e h e r o ic l a y s a r e m a in ly o f d i s t i n c t f o r e ig n o r i g i n , b u t t h e H e lg i s t o r y comes from Denmark.

M oreover, th e developm ent and

p r e s e n t form o f th e s t o r i e s i s a product o f Denmark, Norway, and I c e ­ la n d .

The m a t e r ia l, t h e r e f o r e , c o n ta in s s u b s t a n t ia l r e v e la t io n s o f

S ca n d in a v ia n l i f e and c u lt u r e .

I t i s e v id e n t t h a t in th e e a r l i e s t

I* The Saga o f t h e V o lsu n gs fljba'lS.Margaret S c h la u c h ), New York, N orton, 1 9 3 0 , p . x v i . R efe r e n c e s t o t h i s saga w i l l b e t o t h i s e d it io n . 2 . I b id . , p . v i i i .

3

Qlays S ca n d in a v ia n c u ltu r e was p a rt o f tlie common Germanic c u ltu r e . The l a t e r Sagas o f E g i l , G r e t t ir , and N j a l, c l e a r l y r e v e a l Norwe­ g ia n and I c e la n d ic l i f e and custom m a in ly a s i t was b e fo r e th e coming o f C h r is t ia n it y .

The s t o r i e s a re r e a l l y fa m ily h i s t o r i e s , b ased upon

f a c t , d e a lin g w ith th e l i v e s and e x p l o i t s o f a c t u a l p e o p le . I t cannot be d en ied t h a t th e s a g a s c o n ta in a g r e a t many h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . I t may o f t e n be d i f f i c u l t , som etim es im p o s s ib le , t o cu t through th e web o f t r a d i t i o n and a s c e r t a in th e f a c t s behind* « . y e t , a f t e r t h e p u rg a to ry o f c r i t i c a l ex a m in a tio n , th e sum o f f a c t s r e t a in e d by th e sa g a s i s s t i l l so la r g e th a t th e y a lo n e perm it u s t o w r it e th e h i s ­ to r y o f c e n t u r ie s The H eim sk rin g la , a h i s t o r i c a l work by th e t h ir t e e n t h cen tu ry I c e la n d e r , Snorre S tu r la s o n , p r e s e n ts a con tin u ou s n a r r a t iv e o f th e l i v e s o f th e S ca n d in avian k in g s , m a in ly N orse, from m y th o lo g ic a l a n t iq u i t y t o th e l a s t p a r t o f th e t w e lf t h c e n tu r y .

I t p r e s e n ts a

r i c h p ic t u r e o f S can d in a v ia n l i f e and c u ltu r e g e n e r a lly , r e v e a lin g th e c l o s e c u lt u r a l and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s o f Benmark, Sweden, Norway, and Ieela n d * The A nglo-Saxon e p i c , B eow u lf, has been depended upon t o some e x t e n t in t h i s stu d y o f Germanic background b e c a u se , a lth o u g h I t I s d e f i n i t e l y E n g lis h in l i t e r a r y form and tr e a tm e n t, i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y S ca n d in a v ia n in s u b s ta n c e . The a u t h o r it a t iv e works depended upon m ain ly f o r t h e broader v ie w o f th e Germanic fa m ily in c lu d e K arl Von Amira’s G ru nd riss d es german­ is c h e n R e c h ts , V ilh elm P e t e r G ronbeck's C u ltu re o f t h e T eu to n s, Fran­ c i s B . Gummerefs Founders o f E ngland, Johannes L* Hoops♦ R e a lle x ik o n d er germ an isch en A ltertu m sk u n d e, and F r e d e r ic Seebohm 's T r ib a l Custom i n A n g lo -S a x o n law* 1* H alvdah Koht~ The^Gid N orse S a g a s * New York, H orton, 1931, p p. 129 and 139* . ,



4

For a n c ie n t S ca n d in a v ia n la w , t h i s stu d y has depended upon The E a r l i e s t Norwegian Laws^, t r a n s la t e d from th e Old Horwegian hy Lawrence M a r c e llu s Larson*

The work d e a ls w ith th e two a n c ie n t f o lk la w s , th e

G u la th in g la w , and t h e F r o sta th in g law*

The la w o f t h e G ulathing i s

th e o ld e r , d a tin g in m anuscript form from about 1 150.

According t o

t h e in tr o d u c tio n , " I t i s q u it e e v id e n t t h a t b o th law s have gone through a lo n g p r o c e ss o f change and d evelop m ent.

In b o th , th e r e are l e g a l

form u las and cerem on ies w hich have t h e appearance o f g r e a t ag e." ^ In t h i s c h a p te r, and throughout th e e n t ir e s tu d y , th e fa m ily r e l a ­ t io n s h i p s n oted a r e o f t h e lan ded a r is t o c r a c y , f o r i t i s o f them e x ­ c l u s i v e l y , a lm o s t, t h a t th e r e c o r d s t e l l .

Furtherm ore, o n ly im m ediate

f a m ily r e la t io n s h ip s w i l l be s tu d ie d c l o s e ly ; secon d ary r e la t io n s h ip s w i l l be n o tic e d when th e y have a d ir e c t b e a r in g . The G eneral C h aracter o f th e Germanic F am ily in E a rly Times A u t h o r it ie s a g r e e on c e r t a in fundam entals co n cern in g th e f a m ily in e a r l i e s t Germanic s o c ie t y *

A ll a c c e p t th e Im portance o f th e k in d red a s

a prim ary f a c t o r in s o c i a l o r g a n iz a t io n .

Guramere, f o r exam ple, de­

c la r e d t h a t th e t i e o f b lood was "the m ost sa cred known t© th e an­ c i e n t s , t h e one band o f s o c ie ty " ^ and s t a t e d fu r th e r : "In e a r ly Ger­ m anic tim e s th e f a m ily , o r r a th e r th e k in , i s by f a r t h e most power­ f u l f a c t o r in p u b lic a s in p r iv a t e l i f e . " 3

Amira n oted th e profound

o b l i g a t i o n b in d in g k in d re d : "Die S ip p en gen ossen waren in A ltertum 1* Lawrence M a r ce llu s L arson, The E a r l i e s t Norwegian Laws, Hew York, Columbia U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1935, " In tr o d u c tio n ," p . 2 6 . F u rth er r e f e r e n c e to t h e s e la w s w i l l be t o t h i s e d itio n * 2 . F r a n e is B arton Gummere, Founders o f E ngland* Hew York, S t e c h e r t, 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 7 1 . F u rth er r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t o t h i s e d it i o n . 3 . I b id .* p . 176 L

5

*” v e r p f l i c h t e t , ein a n d er i n a l i e n Noten d es Lebens zu h e lf e n . * • f**^ T h is f e a tu r e was p o in te d o u t by Gununere, to o : The German*s house was n ot o n ly h is c a s t l e , but i t was v e r y o f t e n a b e le a g u e r e d c a s t l e , th e r e fu g e o f h i s clan* F or he was th e p r o t e c t o r and head o f h i s house; a l l i t s q u a r r e ls w ere h i s q u a r r e ls; and when th e f a m ily , o r th e m eanest member o f i t was wronged, he was i t s avenger* In th e same way, he was r e s p o n s ib le f o r wrongs done by h i s fa m ily ; and th u s a l l h is r e l a t i v e s were bound w ith him in a common bond o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y * ^ In su ch a s t a t e o f s o c i e t y , o b v io u s ly , s e c u r it y depended upon p h y s ic a l s u p e r io r it y ; and in flu e n c e depended s o l e l y upon s u c e e ss* Only th e v i c t o r co u ld be fr e e *

Amira n oted two fu n d am en tally d i s ­

t i n c t c l a s s e s in e a r ly Germanic s o c ie t y : s la v e and fr e e * Zwei H au p tk lassen s in d vom Beg in n d er g e s c h ic h t l i c h e n Z e it an b i s t i e f in s H i t t e l a l t e r h in e in in d er B evolkerung a l l e r germ anischen Lander zu u n te r sc h e id e n ; d i e F r e ie n und d ie TTnfreien*3 Thrown upon each o th e r f o r sup p ort by th e need f o r s u r v iv a l, under such h arsh c o n d it io n s , b lo o d r e l a t i o n s w ere bound by an o b lig a t io n so fundam ental th a t i t made a l l o th e r r e la t io n s h ip s secondary*

T h is i s

e l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d in th e s t o r i e s o f th e P o e t ic Edda and The Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s*

S ig n y , d a u g h ter o f V olsung and tw in s i s t e r o f Sigmund,

brought down a h o r r ib le ven gean ce on h er husband, S ig g e i r , f o r h is tr e a e h e r y t o h er f a t h e r and b ro th ers*

S ig g e ir had e n t ic e d h i s w i f e ’ s

kinsm en in t o h i s power and had to r tu r e d them so t h a t , one by o n e , a l l had d ie d e x c e p t h er b r o th e r Sigmund*

She had h elp ed him t o esca p e

and, l a t e r , had borne him a so n , S in f j o t l i , to a id in overcom ing 1* K arl Von Amira , "G rundriss d es Germanischen H ech ts," in Hermann P a u l’ s G ru n d riss d er G erm anischen P h i l o l o g i e , D r it t e A u fla g e , S tr a ss b u r g , Triibner, 1 9 1 3 , Vol* 5 , p . 171* F u rth er r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t o t h i s e d itio n * 2* Gummere, op* c i t *, pp* 1 6 7 -8 . 3 . Am ira, lo c * c i t * , V ol* 5 , p . 1 2 5 . L.

6 r

S ig g e ir ,

*1 When S i n f j o t l i had grown s tr o n g enough t o h e lp , th e th r e e —

a l l Y o lsu n g s — murdered S ig g e ir *

Thus b lood k in d red had avenged b lo o d

k in d red * ^ Murderous enm ity betw een a w if e *s b lo o d k in and h er husband was e v id e n t ly n o t rare* h i s w i f e ’ s b ro th ers* ^

S ig n y ’s g r e a t-g r a n d fa th e r , S i g i , had been s l a i n by In t h e s e c o n f l i c t s , sons appear t o have s id e d

w ith t h e i r fa th e r r a th e r than w ith t h e i r mother*

S ig n y had n ot been

a b le t o in d u ce h er so n s by S ig g e ir t o tu r n a g a in s t t h e i r f a t h e r . S i g i ’ s s o n , R e r ir — S ig n y * s g r a n d fa th e r — f e l l upon h i s m oth er’ s b r o t h e r s , k i l l i n g them a l l f o r s la y in g h i s fa th e r * 3

Such h o s t i l i t y

betw een a so n and h i s m o th er’s b r o th e r s , how ever, was tr u e ap p aren t­ l y o n ly in c a s e s o f c o n f l i c t betw een h i s f a th e r and h i s m other’ s kin* Under f r ie n d ly c o n d it io n s , th e r e was p l a i n l y a v e r y c lo s e t i e b etw een a s i s t e r ’s so n and h i s m atern al u n c le s . has b een n o ted o fte n *

T h is r e la t io n s h ip

T a c itu s n oted i t :

Sororem f i l i i s idem apud avunculum q u i apud patrem honor* Onidam sa n ctio rem a rtio ria m q u e hunc nexum sa n g u in is a r b itr a n t u r e t in a c c ip ie n d ls o b sid ib u s mag i s e r ig u n t, tamquam e t animum fir m iu s e t domum l a t i u s t e n e a n t.^ In h i s s tu d y o f t r a c e s o f m a tria rch y , Aron a tta c h e d g r e a t im portance t o t h e bond* The bond betw een s i s t e r and b r o th e r w as. * *very in tim a te , b u t i t s d iv e r g e n c e from m odem c o n d itio n s i s one o f d e g r ee only* The d if f e r e n c e betw een th e a vu n cu lar r e la t io n s h ip th en and now i s , how ever, so g r e a t a s t o b e c a ll e d one o f kind*3 1* 2* 3. 4.

The Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, p p . 4 8 f f . I b i d * , p* 4 5 . I b id ., T a c it u s , D ia lo g u e .A g r ic o la ;Geriaaniaf t t o a i S i r W illiam P e t e r s o n ) , New Y ork, Putnam, 1 9 2 0 , C.2X. F a rth er r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 5* A lb e r t W illiam A ron ," T races o f M atriarch y in Gegnrnnlc Jtero Tare,11 M adison, U n iv e r s it y o f W iscon sin S t u d ie s in Language and L it e r a t u r e . L Number 9 , 1920, p* 1 7 . -*

7

^That "this c l o s e r e la t io n s h ip o f s i s t e r ’ s so n and m other’ s b r o th e r s w as, how ever, n o t a s e p a r a te and d i s t i n c t phenomenon, b u t r a th e r a p h a se o f t h e ex tre m e ly c l o s e u n ion o f members o f t h e b lo o d k in d red , may b e s e e n in a s c r u t in y o f th e d if f e r e n c e betw een th e m arriage bond and t h e b lo o d bond i n th e e a r ly days* A u t h o r itie s a g r e e on th e main s t a g e s o f developm ent w hich marked th e e v o lu t io n o f h u sb a n d -w ife r e la t io n s h ip from p r e - h is t o r i c t im e s . The e a r l i e s t foim i s r e c o g n iz e d a s cap tu re-m arriage#

T h is was n ot

p e c u lia r t o th e G erm anic p e o p le s ; but i t co n tin u ed among them u n t i l t h e M iddle Ages#

Amira s t a t e d : "Die Baubehe h a t d ie Vdlkerwanderung

und s o g a r das F r u h m it t e la lt e r iib e r d a u e r t." !

And R ie t s c h e l d ecla red :

B ass d ie germ an isch en V o lk er v o r a l t e r s neben d er Kaufehe e in e E h e sc h lie ssu n g durch Raub Oder E n tfuhrung d e r B raut gekaxmt haben, und d a ss s ta r k e Spuren d i e s e r Raubehe nock in d ie h i s t o r i s c h e Z e it h in e in r e ic h e n , u n t e r li e g t n ie h t dern. g e r in g s t e n Z w e if e l .2 The seco n d s ta g e in t h e developm ent was p u rch a se-m a rrla g e, K aufehe. a s H ie t s c h e l p o in te d o u t .

T h is ty p e o f u n ion — and th e o ld e r form

a s w e l l — in v o lv e d a j o in in g o f k in d red s r a th e r th an o f se p a r a te in d iv id u a ls # A n d e r s e its 1 s t schon in v o r g e s c h ic h tlie h e n Z e i t , zu ihrem E r s a tz d i e V ertra g se h e e in g e fu h r t worden# D ie se i s t in d er h e id n ise h e n Z e it s t e t s nur e in G esch a ft zw isch en den Yerwandeten d er B raut und dem Braut igam . • #s In t h i s form o f w edding, a c co r d in g t o B i e t s e h e l , th e b r id e was handed o v e r by h e r k in to th e groom a s a s o r t o f p a s s iv e human property# 1 . Amira, " G ru n driss," l o e . c i t . . V o l. Y , p . 178# 2# S i e g f r ie d H ie t s c h e l, "Raubehe," in R e a lle x ik o n der Germ anischen A ltertu m sk u n d e, Johannes Hoops (HRSG.), S tr a ss b u r g , Trubner, 19 1 1 1 9 , V o l. 3 , p . 460# F u rth er r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t o t h i s e d itio n # 3# A m ira, " G ru n driss," l o c . c i t #, Vol# Y, p . 1 7 8 . L

8

E n tsp r echend d er abhangigen S t e llu n g d er Frau 1 s t d ie E h e s c h lie ss u n g d er german i s chen V o id er urspriin gl i c h k e in V e r tr a g d er b e id e n k iin ftig e n E h egatten u n te r e in a n d e r , sondern e in V e rtra g zw iseh en dem F r e ie r und dem b is h e r ig e n G ew althaber d e r Braut , b e i dam l e z t e r e nur e in e p a s s iv e R o lls s p i e l t . Der G ew alt­ h ab er u b e r tr a g t d ie Gewalt iiber d i e Braut dem Braut igam in genau d e r s e lb e n W eise, w ie d er V era u ss e r e r dem Erwerber das Eigentum e in e r Sache u b er­ t r a g t, * •1 Seebohm n o te d t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f th e p o s i t i o n o f th e A nglo-Saxon w if e and t h e Cymric and c o n t in e n t a l Germanic w i f e , d e c la r in g : "The m arriage was a f a i r c o n tr a c t betw een two kindreds.®**

Gronbeck p o in te d o u t t h a t

th e p r o p e r ty o f th e husband and o f th e w if e was c o n sid e r e d s e p a r a te and d i s t i n c t , and b e lo n g in g r e a l l y t o t h e i r r e s p e c t iv e k in d r e d s . F u r th e r , he saw t h i s p r o p e r ty c h a r a c te r iz e d b y a m y s t ic a l s o r t o f "luck" o r good fo r tu n e , w h ich was th e s u b t l e , bu t fundam ental, p ro­ p e r ty o f ea ch c la n . From o ld tim es th e p r o p e r t ie s o f th e husband and th e w if e were c h a r a c te r iz e d by th e lu c k o f t h e ir e la n s and b elo n g t o them , and in t h e e a s e o f th e d is s o l u t i o n o f th e m a r ria g e, th e y n a t u r a lly retu rn ed to th e c la n s.® I t i s n o ta b le t h a t t h e w if e , under t h e s e e a r ly c o n d itio n s , was bound t o h er k in d red v e r y much more th a n t o h er husband,

n e v e r th e ­

l e s s , sh e was t i e d t o h e r husband b y a s tr o n g t r a d i t i o n a l , o r l e g a l , o b lig a tio n .

A t l i ’ s d y in g rep roach t o h i s v e n g e fu l w i f e , in The Saga

o f t h e V o lsu n g s, i n d i c a t e s t h i s : I t was n o t f i t t i n g f o r th e e t o do t h i s . • * Thou w ert wed t o me b y th y kinsm enf s w i l l , and I p a id down th y d o w r y . 4 1 . R i e t s c h e l , " E h esch lieszu n g ,® i n A ltertu m sk u n d e, l o c . c i t . , V o l. 2 ; F r e d e r ic Seebohm, T r ib a l Custom mans G reen, 1 9 0 2 , p . 46 6 . 3 . V ilhelm * P e t e r Gronbeck, C u ltu re London, Humphrey M ilfo r d , 1 9 3 1 , 1^4. V olsu n g S a g a , p . 1 7 3 .

R e a lle x ik o n d e r Germanischen 1 , p . 508. in A nglo-Saxon Law, London, Long­ o f th e T eutons ( t r . W. W o r ste r ), V o l. I l l , p . 5 1 . j

9

Ebw c l e a r l y th e w if e was bound to h er own k in d red i s s e e n in th e s t o r i e s o f S ig n y and Guthrun in th e Edda*

The s t r u g g le o f S ig n y , S i n f -

j o t l i , and Sigmund a g a in s t S i g g e ir i s a s t r i k i n g e x p r e s s io n o f th e con­ f l i c t betw een th e b lood -b on d and th e m arriage-b on d .

The Guthrun s t o r y

i s a l i k e e x p r e s s io n o f th e c o n f l i c t ; f o r in h er ven gean ce upon h er husband, Guthrun had th e h e lp o f h er b r o th e r * s s o n .

In b o th e a s e s ,

t h e women s t r o n g ly m a in ta in ed th e t r a d it i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y o f th e b lo o d kinship.^* The p o s i t i o n o f m arried women under such c o n d itio n s o f s o c ie t y was d i f f i c u l t and p r e c a r io u s .

Bound t o t h e i r husbands by str o n g

o b l i g a t i o n s , y e t s t i l l more c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e i r b lo o d r e l a t i v e s , th e y were — when s t r i f e came — caught i n a c o n f l i c t o f d u t ie s and lo y a ltie s .

Guthrun*s b i t t e r w ords, in th e Edda, e x p r e ss th e h e lp ­

l e s s n e s s o f th e w if e caught i n a predicam ent betw een h e r husband and h e r kinsm en: "The f i e r c e n e s s o f men r u le s th e f a t e o f

w o m e n . **2

I t i s p la in t h a t t h e fem a le was i n no e n v ia b le p o s i t i o n , b ein g dependent alw ays upon th e m o tiv e s and a c t io n s o f m a le s.

F urther­

m ore, h e r p o s i t i o n depended upon t h e power o f h e r k in d r e d .

If

t h e y w ere weak, she was a t th e m ercy o f s tr o n g e r o r more in f lu e n ­ t i a l men.

When h er kinsm en were s tr o n g and had p r e s t i g e , s h e , t o o ,

had in f lu e n c e and was a t tim e s s u p e r io r to h er husband.

Marckwardt

r e c o g n iz e d t h i s in a comment on W oolf *s c o n c lu s io n t h a t lan gob ard

;

p r a c t i c e o f n am e-givin g showed c a s e s where a p p a r e n tly th e f a t h e r had no s a y i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f h is c h ild r e n 9s nam es.

A d m ittin g

1* The P o e t i c Edda ( t r . Henry Adams B e llo w s ) , Oxford U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1923, p . 84. 2 . I b id . , p . 5 2 4 . L

_J

r t h a t th e rank o f th e m other’ s fa m ily was a f a c t o r o f g r e a t in f lu e n c e , n sh e ta k e s is s u e o n ly w ith W oolf’ s s u g g e s t io n t h a t th e names were s e l e c t e d above th e p r o t e s t s o f t h e fa th e r * Must one c o n clu d e th a t a name theme drawn from th e m other’ s f a m ily i s n e c e s s a r i l y chosen o v e r and above th e p r o t e s t s o f th e fa th e r ? I s i t n o t c o n c e iv a b le , p a r t ic u l a r l y in a s i t u a t io n where th e m atern al fa m ily i s o f h ig h e r rank th an t h a t o f th e f a t h e r , t h a t th e f a t h e r m ight b e proud and even e a g er t o s e l e c t a name theme from th e m oth er’ s fa m ily ? 1 F am ily p o s i t i o n , th e power and in f lu e n c e o f t h e b lo o d -k in d r e d , was o f paramount im p ortan ce; and fa m ily s o l i d a r i t y was r e c o g n iz e d a s a c o n s id e r a tio n o f t h e g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e .

Thus, a woman’ s c h i l d ­

r e n w ere lo o k ed upon a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h er f a t h e r ’ s and b r o t h e r s ’ body o f k in d red .

One phase o f t h i s was th e c l o s e r e la t io n s h ip b e­

tw een h er so n s and h e r b r o th e r s , a lr e a d y n oted *2

A nother phase ap­

p e a r s i n th e r e la t io n s h ip betw een h er son3 and h er f a t h e r .

The

n o t a b le example i s t h e bond b etw een th e young B eow ulf and h is g r a n d fa th e r H r e th e l, who lo v e d him no l e s s th an he lo v e d h is own sons* Hre&el cy n in g , g e a f me s in e ond sym bol, s ib b e gemunde; n a es i c him t o l i f e la d r a o w ih te , b e o m in burgum, J»onne h i s b earaa h w ylc, H ereb eald ond Haedcyn o&$e Hygel a c min.® B e o w u lf’ s having b een brought up in th e h ou seh old o f h i s m atern al g r a n d fa th e r was se e n by Seebohm a s a S ca n d in a v ia n exam ple o f a Greek t r i b a l custom . I f we m ight t e n t a t i v e l y u s e th e c lu e g iv e n by a n c ie n t G reek t r i b a l custom t o e lu c id a t e a 1 . A*H. Marckwardt, B eview o f H .B. W oolf’ s Germanic P r in c ip le s o f NameG iv in g , in MLN. T o l . LVI, 1 9 4 1 , p p . 5 9 1 -2 . 2* S e e p . 6 , su p ra . 3 . B eow u lf (e d . F r e d e r ic k K la e b e r ), New York, H eath, 1928, 1 1 . 2430-34^

11

r

S ca n d in a v ia n c a s e , we sh o u ld s a y t h a t on f a i l u r e o f m ale s u c c e s s io n , t h e ’ s i s t e r ’ s s o n ’ o f H ygelac had b een c a l l e d back in t o h is m oth er’ s k in d red t o become i t s ch ieftah v# • . .S u ch a s u g g e s tio n would a t l e a s t b e c o n s is t e n t w ith t h e f a c t o f B eow u lf’ s having b een brought up from se v e n y e a r s o ld in t h e h ou seh old o f h i s m a tern a l g r a n d fa th e r , and t r e a t e d by him a s a son.**Malone s e e s in t h i s n o t so up in t o

"!

mueh a ca se o f B eo w u lf’ s h avin g b een ta k en

th e k in d red o f h i s m oth er’ s p e o p le a s a e a s e o f h i s havin g been

g iv e n t o K ing H r e th e l to f o s t e r . From t h i s p a ssa g e i t appears t h a t when B eow ulf was se v e n y e a r s o ld Ecgtheow took him t o t h e G e a tis h co u rt and g a v e him t o King H r e th e l t o f o s t e r . P re­ sumably i t was th o u g h t p rop er th a t t h e grandson o f t h e G e a tis h k in g b e brought up a s one o f th e G e a tish r o y a l fa m ily , in th e r o y a l co u rt i t s e l f , and i f we f o llo w B eo w u lf’s own words t h i s was t h e u p b rin gin g w hich he in f a c t r e c e iv e d .2 A s im ila r in s t a n c e , p r e s e n te d in th e H eim sk rin gla a s h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , would seem t o show, how ever, t h a t th e m a tte r was more l i k e l y a e a s e o f ta k in g up in t o th e k in d red th a n mere f o s t e r a g e . Halvdan th e B lack now to o k a w if e who was c a l le d R agn h ild ; sh e was t h e d au gh ter o f H arald Goldbeard who was k in g in S o g n . They had a son t o whom King H arald gave h is own name, and he was brought up in Sogn w ith h i s m o th er’ s f a t h e r , King H arald . When H arald became in fir m and he had no s o n , he g a v e h is kingdom t o h is d a u g h te r ’ s so n , H arald , and made him k in g . . , s Over h i s own s o n s , a s in d eed o v e r h i s e n t ir e fa m ily , th e Germanic f a t h e r ’s power was g r e a t .

In th e e a r l i e s t tim e s th e e n t ir e h ou seh old

was under t h e a b s o lu te c o n t r o l o f th e head o f t h e fa m ily . D ie w e s tg e m a n is c h e B ezeichnung f u r d i e s e f a m ilie n r e c h t l i e h e G ewalt u b er E h efrau , K in d er, und Mundel 1 . Seebohm, o p . c i t . , p p . 6 7 ,6 8 . 2 . Kemp M alone, "E egtheow ,» KE£, V o l. I , 1 940, p . 3 8 . 3 . Sn orre S t u r la s o n , H eim sk rin gla (e d . E . M onsen), Cambridge, H e f fe r , 1932, p . 3 7 . t

L

12

i s t *Muntw { a g s . mund). « • . d i e Hand, sym boli s i e r t e G ew alt b e d e u te t.^ C e r ta in ly o v e r b i s n ew ly-b orn c h ild r e n th e Germanic f a t h e r had th e power o f l i f e and d e a th , a s th e e x is t e n c e o f th e pagan custom o f i n fa n t-e x p o s u r e up u n t i l th e e le v e n th c e n tu r y c l e a r l y show s. C h r is tia n c u ltu r e f ir m ly opposed i t .

Homan

The code o f T a le n t in ia n X con­

t a i n s e v id e n c e t h a t exp osu re e x is t e d on th e c o n tin e n t i n th e fo u r th century^ f o r i t c o n ta in s a p r o v is io n p r o h ib it in g t h e p r a c t i c e .

When

i n 9 9 8 , Ic e la n d ad op ted C h r is t ia n it y , open exp osure o f in fa n t s t h e r e was p r o h ib ite d by la w .^ H ie t s c h e l t r a c e s t h e p r a c t ic e t o th e n a tu r e o f th e e a r l i e s t form o f Germanic m arriage i n w hich th e w if e was th e c h a t t e l o f h er husband. A cco rd in g to R i e t s c h e l , th e f a t h e r e x e r c is e d t h e r ig h t to d e c id e w hether o r n o t he would a c c e p t th e new-born c h ild a s h i s own.

The c h ild was

p la c e d on th e ground b e fo r e him, and he th e n had t o choose w hether i t was t o b e b rought up in k in d red o r exposed and abandoned. Bas Kind wurde v o r ihm a u f den Boden g e l e g t , und nun h a t t e e r zu e n ts e h e id e n , ob e s au fg ezo g en werden s o l l t e Oder n i c h t . Im l e t z t e r e n H a lle wurde das Kind entw eder e r tr a n k t Oder im Walde a u s g e s e t z t (aw estnord u tb e r a , u t k a s t a ) ; a n d e m f a lls nahm e s d er T a te r in s e in e Arme und gab ihm den Namen, w obei im Norden schon in h e id n is c h e r Z e i t e in B e g ie s s e n m it W asser u b lic h w ar.4 T h is v ie w o f th e Germanic fa m ily and i t s custom s has b een , so f a r , broad and g e n e r a l.

The purpose has been t o p r o v id e th e fundam ental

Germanic background f o r t h e stu d y o f A nglo-Saxon fa m ily l i f e .

In

o r d e r t o p ro v id e a more d e f i n i t e background, th e r e s t o f t h i s e h a p te r 3L* H ie t s c h e l, " F a m ilie ," l o c . c i t . . V o l. I J , p . 1 1 . 2 . Edward Gibbon, D e c lin e and H a ll o f t h e Roman JSnpire. B o sto n , P h i l ­ lips, Sampson, 1 8 5 2 , V o l. I I , p . 5 4 1 . 3 . H eim sk rin g la . p . 171; The S to r y o f Burnt H ja l ( t r . S i r George Webbe D a s e n t), London, D en t, 1 9 3 1 , p . 185. H i e t s c h e l, " E lter n und K in d e r ,* l o c . c i t . . V o l. I , p . 55 4 .

13

r w i l l b e d ev o ted t o an ex a m in a tion o f s p e c i f i c S can d in avian c o n d itio n s * Old S ca n d in a v ia n c u ltu r e h as been chosen f o r p a r t ic u la r stu d y b eca u se i t s reco rd s p ro v id e r i c h m a t e r ia l, and b ecau se Old E n g lish c u lt u r e was s o c l o s e l y r e la t e d t o th e Scandinavian*

The F am ily i n Old H orse and I c e la n d ic Records F a th er - Son

The g r e a t im portance o f fa m ily in S ca n d in a v ia n s o c ie t y i s s t r i k i n g l y c l e a r in t h e e a r l i e r r e c o r d s: The Edda* and The Saga o f t h e T o ls u n g s *

I t i s e q u a lly s o in th e l a t e r r e c o r d s: The E g il S a g a *

G r e t t ir S a g a * The Saga o f Burnt N jal* and The H eim skringla*

As has

a lr e a d y b een n o te d , The Edda and The Saga o f th e V olsungs r e la t e d s t o r i e s o f f i e r c e and r e l e n t l e s s vengeance ta k en f o r in ju r y t o b lo o d k in . son*

The s t o r i e s r e v e a l a v e r y c l o s e t i e betw een f a th e r and

I t has been s e e n , f o r exam ple, th a t in th e c o n f l i c t s betw een

t h e fa th e r and t h e m o th er 's k in d red , so n s s id e d w ith th e fa th er* F u rth er l i g h t on th e m eaning o f th e f a t h e r - s o n bond i s sh ed by th e Edda a cco u n t o f t h e k i l l i n g o f A t l i * s so n s by h i s v e n g e fu l w if e , Guthrun*

Though th o s e so n s were a ls o t h e o f f s p r in g o f Guthrun,

t h e i r d e a th c l e a r l y meant much more t o A t l l : Guthrun spake: Of th y s o n s now th ou know est; few s u f f e r more sorrow* A t l l spake: Grim was th o u , Guthrun, in so g r ie v o u s a d eed , My draught w ith t h e b lood o f th y boys to m in g le; Thou h a s t s l a i n t h in e own k in , m ost i l l i t b eseem eth t h e e , And l i t t l e f o r me t w ix t my sorrow s th ou l e a v e s t . 2 1 . S e e p . 6 , su p ra * ^2* £dd&) p* 328*

14 r

"i The s t o r y o f R e r ir , in The Saga o f t h e V olsu n gs , d em on strates th e f i e r c e l o y a l t y o f a so n who, t o avenge h i s f a t h e r , k i l l s a l l h i s ma­ t e r n a l u n c l e s .1

The same so u r c e p r o v id e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f

t h e lo v in g l o y a l t y o f a f a t h e r , in t h e accou nt o f Sigmund*s v a in a t ­ tem p ts t o s a v e th e l i f e o f h i s s o n , S i n f j o t l i , a f t e r S i n f j o t l i had k i l l e d h i s step m o th er* s b r o th e r .

F i r s t Sigmund o f f e r e d * to make good

h er wrong w ith much g o ld and g o o d s, though he had n ev er b e fo r e o f f e r e d amends f o r any m an.0 eo n .

L a te r , he t w ic e drank p o is o n in ten d ed f o r h i s

The step m o th er, how ever, su cceed ed in p o iso n in g h er v ic t im , and

when Sigmund knew i t he " ro se up, and h is woe was n ear t o b r in g in g him t o h i s d e a th . The Edda s t o r y o f Bag fu r th e r i l l u s t r a t e s th e c lo s e t i e b etw een f a t h e r and s o n .

H e lg i had k i l l e d H ogni.

Dag, H ogni*s so n , knew

t h a t h i s s i s t e r lo v e d H e lg i, and f o r th a t rea so n he m ight have sp a red h i s f a th e r * s s la y e r .

However, th e t i e betw een fa th e r and

so n was e v i d e n t l y s tr o n g e r th a n t h a t betw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r , f o r Bag braved h i s s i s t e r * s an ger t o k i l l H e l g i .3 The l a t e r sa g a s show, s im i l a r l y , a s tr o n g and c l o s e bond e x i s t ­ in g b etw een f a t h e r and s o n .

E g i l , when Bodvar was drowned, lo c k e d

h im s e lf in h i s room, r e f u s in g food ; and l a t e r composed an e le g y t o t, e x p r e s s h is g r e a t g r i e f . 4

K v e ld u lf , when T h o r o lf l e f t him t o s e r v e

H arald , k i s s e d h is so n l o v i n g l y and bade him a s a f e r e t u r n .3

B r y n io lf ,

th ou gh s t e r n l y d is p le a s e d w ith h is s o n , B io m , f o r h is a b d u ction o f 1. 2. 3. 4.

Saga o f t h e V o lsu n g s, p . 4 5 . I b id ., p . 73. Edda, p . 3 1 9 . E g ils s a g a S k a lla g r im so n n a r (tow & E.R . E d d iso n ), Cambridge U n iv e r s it y P ressj. 1 9 3 0 ,p p . I 8 8 f f . 5 . I b id .i p . 9 .

15

r

“•

Thora, a g a in s t th e w ish e s o f T h o ra 's b r o th e r , y e t " se t a l l h i s m ind. . . t o b id atonem ent" f o r him when he lea rn ed t h a t men were s e e k in g t o b r in g about a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w ith Thora *s b roth er* ^ There i s ev id e n c e son ; b a t i t s e s s e n t i a l

o f a lo o s e n in g o f t h i s bond betw een f a t h e r and power rem ained s tr o n g .

S n o r r i th e Godi was on

bad term s w ith h i s so n b u t h e w as, n e v e r t h e le s s , © b vion sly g la d th a t G r e t t i r had spared h i s s o n 's l i f e .

S a id S n o r r i: "He was w is e n ot to

k i l l yom, f o r i t w oald n ot have been my pu rpose t o le a v e you un­ a v en g ed .

I w i l l now r a th e r u se my in flu e n c e on h i s s id e ."

Starkad

had fo r b id d e n h i s so n s to t r i c k Gunnar in th e h o r s e - f ig h t in g . d iso b e y e d him and f ig h t i n g broke o u t .

They

He was an gry, b u t rem ained

l o y a l t o h i s so n s and sup p orted th em .2 N j a l 's s o n s , t o o , d iso b ey ed t h e i r f a t h e r , s e l , th e y k i l l e d h i s f o s t e r s o n , H auskuld.

f o llo w in g e v i l coun­

N ja l had' lo v e d Hauskuld

a s much a s h i s own s o n s , and he was h ea rtb ro k en .

T et in th e feu d

t h a t broke o u t , he su p p o rted h is own s o n s , and when th e tim e came t o r id e t o t h e Thing t o answ er th e s u i t f o r murder, he a ssu r e d them o f h is lo y a lty : I s h a l l r id e honor n o t t o as I liv e . I s t e a d , and do

t o th e T hin g, f o r i t b e lo n g s t o my b e se v e r e d from you r s u i t so lo n g w een. • . 1 s h a l l sta n d you in good you no haira.3

Old H orse la w c o n ta in s a p r o v is io n t h a t r e v e a ls th e deep s i g ­ n i f i c a n c e o f t h e bond betw een f a th e r and son: I f a f a t h e r becom es demented t o sueh a d egree th a t he k i l l s h i s s o n , o r i f a son h i s f a t h e r . • .h e 1 . E & ilssa g a S k a lla g rim so n n a r. p . 7 . 2 * Ib id .

S to r y o f H Jal, p . 211. L

16

s h a l l le a v e t h e la n d a s an o u tla w and s h a l l n ev er re tu r n t o t h e realm.^T h is la w a p p lie d , how ever, o n ly t o grown s o n s , f o r i t i s f u l l y c le a r t h a t b e fo r e C h r is t ia n it y came, th e Norwegians p r a c t ic e d in fa n t expo­ s u r e .2

A lortec 3?he l e g a l p r o v is io n a g a in s t k i l l i n g a so n in c lu d e d in f a n t s —

o b v io u s ly , a f t e r t h e C o n v ersion . I f a man e x p o s e s a c h ild . • .an d a llo w s I t t o p e r is h . • .h© h as f o r f e i t e d p e a c e and p r o p e r ty , f o r w© c a l l t h a t murder in th e h ig h e s t d e g r e e

B ro th er — B ro th er

♦♦Bare i s h i s back who h as no b r o th e r , * d e c la r e d G -rettlrj^and K a ri u se d th e same p h ra se in th e N ja l s a g a , ech o in g a sen tim en t ob­ v i o u s l y r o o te d deep in t h e e x p e r ie n c e and t r a d i t i o n o f t h e p a s t . 5 The bond o f b roth erh ood was one o f t h e d e e p e st s i g n i f i c a n c e , th e r e c o r d s show .

The w arning o f th e n u t-h a te h e s t o S ig u rd in th e Edda

i s r e v e a lin g : L ess w is e m ust b e th e t r e e o f b a t t l e Than t o me w ould seem th e le a d e r o f men, I f f o r t h he l e t s one b r o th e r f a r e , When he o f t h e o th e r t h e s la y e r i s . In The Saga o f t h e Y o lsu n g s th e id e a i s more l i t e r a l l y s ta t e d : "Trust n ot a man whose* « .b r o th e r . . .th o u h a s t s l a i n . " 7 1* 2. 3. 4.

L arson, The E a r l i e s t Norwegian Law, 1 935, p . 2 7 1 . S e e p . 11 » su p ra . L arson , o p . c i t . , p . 5 0 . The Saga o f G r e t t ir th e S tro n g ( t r . G.A. H ig h t) , London, D en t, 1 929, p . 21 1 . 5 . The S to r y o f N j a l , p . 3 1 3 . 6* Edda, p p . 3 8 1 -2 . 7 . Saga o f th e V o ls u n g s , p . 1 0 9 .

L.

_]

17

r

That tr e a c h e r y o f a b r o th e r t o a b r o th e r , o r even a h a lf - b r o t h e r a s in th e e a s e o f S i m f j o t l i and th e so n s o f S ig g e ir — was lo o k ed tipon w ith horrow i s s e e n i n t h e loath som e i n s u l t thrown a t S i n f j o t l i by one o f h i s en em ies j u s t b e fo r e th e f ig h t w ith th e so n s o f Granmar in th e H elg a k v ith a Hundlagsbana I : Thou h a s t e a te n t h e e n t r a i l s o f w o lv e s , And o f th y b r o th e r s th e s la y e r been; O ft wounds t o suck th y c o ld mouth so u g h t, And lo a th e d in ro ck y dens d id s t lurk.-*The t e n so n s o f Y olsun g dem onstrated t h e l o y a l t y c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f b r o th e r s ; and Sigmund’ s h e r o ic e f f o r t s t o avenge h is s l a i n b r o th e r s i s t h e c l a s s i c example o f b r o t h e r ly l o y a l t y ou t o f th e p a s t * 2

The

l a t e r r e c o r d s , t o o , c o n ta in dram atic in s t a n c e s o f b r o th e r ly l o y a l t y . I l l u g i , G r e t t ir * s b r o th e r , though o n ly f i f t e e n , showed a s p i r i t o f lo v in g s e l f - s a c r i f i c e t h a t makes m ost e f f e c t i v e drama.

G r e t t ir ,

o u tla w ed and surrounded by en em ies, was a l l a lo n e and m is e r a b le in h i s l o n e lin e s s *

During a s e c r e t v i s i t t o h i s home he asked I l l u g i

t o J o in him in h i s r e fu g e on t h e I s l e o f Drangey*

I l l u g i *s answ er

shows deep b r o th e r ly d e v o tio n : I w i l l go w it h y o u , b r o th e r . I know n o t w hether I s h a l l be a su p p ort t o you , bu t I w i l l b e f a i t h ­ fu l* • .and I s h a l l know th e b e t t e r how i t f a r e s w ith you i f I am w ith you*3 When G r e t t ir * s enem ies a tta c k e d , I l l u g i th rew h i s s h ie l d b e fo r e h i s b r o th e r — who had become v e r y weak throu gh i l l n e s s — and defen ded him f i e r c e l y *

But G r e t t i r was k i l l e d and I l l u g i ta k en p r iso n e r *

However, he r e c e iv e d an o f f e r o f h is l i f e i f he would prom ise to ta k e no ven gean ce f o r h i s b r o th e r .

H is s c o r n fu l and d e f ia n t answer

1* J}dda, ? • 301* 2 . Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, pp. 5 3 f f . 3* G r e t t i r S a g a , pp. 181-2* L_

-J

18 r

was q u ick : "Ye need n o t hope t h a t in g a p o ltr o o n

I w illtry

to save

my l i f e by becom­

*

l i k e yotu**^

Eg 11 S k a llg r im so n p r o v id e s a fu r th e r example in t h e l a t e r l i t e r a t u r e *

o f b r o th e r ly lo y a lt y *

A lth ough th e r i v a l a t t r a c t i o n o f co m ita tu s

f r ie n d s h ip s was a p p a r e n tly making i t s in f lu e n c e on t h e b ro th er bond f e l t a t th e tim e , E g i l was drawn back to h i s b r o th e r , T h o r o lf, and t h e y became l o y a l companions i n t h e s e r v ic e o f K ing A th e ls ta n in Eng­ la n d *

T h o r o lf was s l a i n in b a t t l e and E g i l , i n b i t t e r sorrow , k i l l e d

e v e r y man he co u ld l a y h i s hands on*2 The d ram atic and t r a g i c s t o r y o f th e A rnesen b r o th e r s i n th e H eim sk rin g la shows th e s tr e n g t h o f th e b r o th e r bond a t a tim e when i t was b e in g t o r n a p a r t by t h e c o n f li c t i n g o b li g a t io n s demanded by th e c o m ita tu s system *

T orberg A rnesen d e f ie d King O lav; and, a lth o u g h

h i s b r o th e r s had n o t b een a n x iou s t o do s o , th e y came t o h is a id and s to o d s o l i d l y w ith him a g a in s t th e king*

The k in g y ie ld e d on co n d i­

t i o n s w h ich s p l i t t h e b r o th e r s , f o r a l l e x c e p t K alv agreed t o sw ear o a th s b in d in g them t o him .

L a ter K alv l e d an amay o f Bonders a g a in s t

th e k in g , and i n t h a t b a t t l e he was opposed b y h i s b ro th ers*

K alv

was v i c t o r i o u s ; a n d , when, a f t e r th e b a t t l e , he sea rch ed among th e wounded f o r h is b r o t h e r s , one o f them , F in n , threw a sword a t him in a n g er ; but K alv p a id no a t t e n t io n t o t h a t and h e lp e d h i s f a l l e n b r o th e r s from th e f i e l d *

A t K alv*s home th e b ro th ers* wounds mended, and t h e

bond betw een them mended, to o ; f o r , t h e r e a f t e r t h e y were more l o y a l 1* G r e t t i r S a g a , p* 211* 2# E & ilssa g a , p . 109: **He was f i r s t in th e b a t t l e f r o n t . He had th e sword Nadder in h i s hand* He s e t on th e r e and hewed on e it h e r and f e l l e d many men* . . . E g i l and h i s h o s t s le w a l l th e y ca u g h t, f o r no need was t h e r e to b id f o r quarter.**

L

19

n

rt o each o th e r th a n t o any k in g * 1

B ro th er — S i s t e r

That th e bond b etw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r in t h e e a r l i e s t tim e s was much s tr o n g e r and more im p ortan t than t h e bond betw een husband and w if e has b een s e e n in th e e a s e s o f S ig ru n and S i g n y .

A ccord in g t o The Saga

o f t h e V o lsu n g s and The Edda, t h e s e w iv e s k i l l e d t h e i r husbands t o a v en g e t h e i r b ro th ers*

The Edda s t o r y o f S ig ru n , H e lg i, and Bag r e ­

v e a l s a m o d if ic a t io n o f th e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s but i t r e - a f f i m s th e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e bond b etw een th e b r o th e r and s i s t e r * B ag, t o avenge h i s f a t h e r , k i l l e d H e lg i, h i s s i s t e r f s husband. S ig r u n , who lo v e d h e r husband, a cco rd in g t o t h e Edda c h r o n ic le r , b e­ r a te d h er b r o th e r in a fr e n z y o f anger: V engeance w ere m ine f o r H e lg i* s murder, Wert th o u a w o lf in t h e woods w ith o u t, P o s s e s s in g nought and knowing no j o y , Having no fo o d s a v e c o r p se s t o f e e d o n . Bag rebuked h e r s e v e r e ly , however: Mad a r t th o u s i s t e r , and w ild o f m ind, Such a c u r s e th y b r o th e r t o c a s t ; O thin i s r u le r o f e v ery i l l Who sunders k in w ith ru n es o f s p i t e The o u t li n e s o f t h e Edda s t o r y o f Guthrun, S ig u r th , and Bogni a r e e x a c t ly th e sam e.

Hogni k i l l e d S ig u r th , h is s i s t e r * s lo v e d one*

Eor t h i s a c t , Guthrun tu rn ed upon h e r b r o th e r w ith a b i t t e r c u r se : Why d o st th o u , B b g n i, sueh a horror L et me h e a r , a l l j o y le s s l e f t ? Ravens y e t th y h e a r t s h a l l rend In a la n d t h a t n ev er thou h a st known* H e im sk rin g la , p p . 5 7 1 f f . 2 . Edda, p* 3 2 4 . L

20 p

M ogu l's r e p ly p r o v id e s an elo q u en t r e v e la t io n o f t h e meaning o f th© b r o t h e r - s i s t e r bond in a n c ie n t tim e s : Jew t h e w ords of B it t e r h is heart G r e a te r , Guthrun, I f ra v en s so my

Hogni w ere, from heavy sorrow ; th y g r i e f s h a l l b e h e a r t s h a l l r e n d .1

Guthrun l a t e r fo r g o t h er b i t t e r n e s s a g a in s t h er b r o th e r when dan­ g e r th r e a te n e d .

She fo u g h t f i e r c e l y b e s id e h er b r o th e r s in t h e i r

b a t t l e w ith A t l i , t o whom sh e had b een m arried . In f ie r c e n e s s o f h e a r t sh e flu n g o f f h e r m antle; Her naked sword g rasp ed sh e h er k i n ' s l i v e s t o g u ard .^ Her b r o th e r s w ere s l a i n , how ever, and H o g n i's prophecy was f u l f i l l e d ; f o r sh e remembered w it h r e g r e t h er h arsh words t o h er b ro th er: Onee grim d id I seem , bu t now g r e a t e r my grim ness; There was nought seemed to o hard w h ile Hogni was li v in g .® In a s tr a n g e t w i s t o f t h e s t o r y , The N ib e lu n g e n lie d , l a t e r , had K riem h ild (Guthrun) k i l l h e r b r o th e r s r a th e r th a n h er husband.4 The N orse v e r s io n , how ever, v e r y d e f i n i t e l y p r e s e n ts e a r l i e r co n d i­ t i o n s , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t g r e a t s t r e s s i s p la c e d in t h e Edda upon th e str o n g em o tio n a l t i e betw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r . In th e e a s e o f Guthrun, f o r exam ple, th e happy ch ild h o o d o f th e s i s t e r w ith h er b r o th e r s i s p r e s e n te d th rough th e e y e s o f th e so r r o w fu l woman a s sh e lo o k s backward to th e d ays th e y p la y ed t o ­ g e t h e r in c l o s e com panionship: Our ch ild h o o d d id we have in a s i n g l e house; We p la y e d many a game; in th e gro v e d id we grow; Then d id G rim hild g i v e u s g o ld and n e c k la c e s . • 1. 2. 3. 4.

Edda, p . 4 5 3 . I b id ., p . 510. I b id . , p . 523. The N ie b e lu n g e n lie d ( t r . W illiam L e ttso m ), New York. C o lo n ia l P r e s s , 1901. 5 . Edda, p . 5 2 4 . L.

21

rF i e r e e l y sh e r e f u s e s h er husband’ s o f f e r o f atonem ent:

n

Thou s h a lt n ev er make amends f o r my b r o th e r ’ s m urder, Nor e v e r s h a l t w in me t o t h in k i t was w e ll *3The N ib e lu n g e n lie d , w it h i t s change o f l o y a l t y from b r o th e r s t o husband, e v id e n t ly i l l u s t r a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t change in t h e r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip s o f b lo o d k in d red among Germanic p e o p le s g e n e r a lly *

That t h e r e was

su ch an a l t e r a t i o n in th e N orse b r o t h e r - s i s t e r bond seems c le a r from th e f a c t t h a t t h e l a t e r N orse r e c o r d s la e k d ir e e t e v id en ce o f a c l o s e t i e b etw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r *

F a th e r — Daughter

The f a t h er-d a u g h ter bond in th e o l d e s t r e e o r d s i s shown a t i t s c l o s e s t in The Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s. rem arkably c lo s e *

S ig n y * s t i e t o h er f a t h e r i s

She ob eys him i m p l i c i t l y even when he g i v e s h e r in

m a rria g e t o t h e u n lo v e ly and u n lo v ed S ig g e ir *

She ’•bade h er f a t h e r

r u le in t h i s m a tte r a s in a l l e l s e t h a t con cern ed her***^

That t h i s

was n o t an i s o l a t e d c a s e o f o b ed ie n c e t o p a r e n ta l c o n tr o l i s elea3f from a u t h o r it a t iv e know ledge co n cern in g th e Germanic fa th e r -d a u g h te r r e l a t i o n s h i p in g en er a l* N ie h ts a n d eres a l s e in e A rt d es V e r k a u fsr e e h te s war das R echt d es V a t e r s , s e in e T och ter aueh gegen ih r en W ille n zu v e r lo b e n .^ H owever, th e s t o r y o f S ig n y d em on strates a more e m o tio n a lly r ic h r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een f a t h e r and d au gh ter than i s in h e r e n t in a mere t r a d i t i o n o f p a te r n a l c o n t r o l .

Not o n ly d id S ig n y marry th e man o f

1* Edda, p . 5 2 4 . o f th e V o lsu n g s, p . 48* 3 . R i e t s c h e l , " E lte ra und K in d e r ,* lo c * e i t . , V o l. I , p . 55 5 . L

22

r h e r f a t h e r ’ s c h o ic e , and r e tu r n t© him a t h er fa th e r * s b id d in g —

even

"1

when sh e knew t h a t he was p la n n in g th e d ea th o f h e r kinsm en; b u t,

a fte r

th e d eath o f h er f a t h e r (and b r o th e r s) sh e d id n o t r e s t u n t i l sh e had e x a c te d b lo o d y ven g ea n ee.-1Though by custom th e fa th e r * s word was law con cern in g a d a u g h ter’s m a rria g e i n th e e a r l i e s t t im e s , th e r e i s ev id e n c e t h a t , a t t im e s , t h e d a u g h ter was g iv e n a c h o ic e in t h e m a tte r .

A ccording t o The Saga o f

th e V o ls u n g s , when b o th Sigmund and ly n g i asked K ing E y lim i f o r th e hand o f h i s d a u g h ter, H jo r d is , th e k in g ask ed h is d au gh ter t o ch oose: Thou a r t a w is e woman and 1 have s a id t h a t th o u s h a lt ch oose th in e own husband; ch o o se now b etw een t h e two k in g s , and my c o u n c il s h a l l b e a s t h i n e . ^ The s p i r i t o f m utual re g a rd dem onstrated in t h e s e e a r ly exam ples o f t h e r e la t io n s h ip betw een f a t h e r and d au gh ter rem ains tr u e o f th e bond in th e l a t e r r e c o r d s .

I t i s c le a r , t o o , t h a t p a te r n a l power and in ­

f lu e n c e co n tin u e d , p a r t ic u l a r l y w ith reg a rd to e h o ie e o f husband* In th e F tell S a g a . S i g r i d , wooed by T h o r o lf, d e c la r e d t h a t sh e w ould marry him o n ly " i f t h a t were n o t a g a in s t h er f a t h e r ’ s lik in g ,* * 5 a lth o u g h I t was o b v io u s t h a t s h e fa v o red h er s u i t o r .

L a te r , a f t e r

h e r husband’ s d ea th , when sh e was wooed by E g i l , sh e a g a in " l e f t i t t o t h e r u lin g o f h er f a t h e r . The f a t h e r ’ s i n t e r e s t in h is d aughter rem ained a c t i v e even a f t e r h e r m a rr ia g e , and h er dependence upon h er f a th e r rem ained s tr o n g , a s th e r e c o r d s show .

In th e N ja l Saga, F id d le Mord su p p orted h i s d au gh ter

in h er d if f e r e n c e w it h h e r husband, and a d v ise d h er sh rew d ly in h e r 1. 2. 3. 4. L.

Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, p a ssim . I b id . , p . 76. E g ils s a g a , p . 16. I b id ., p . 115.

r a ttem p t t o g a in a s e p a r a t io n .1 t r i e d hard t o r e g a in

L a ter

h er dow ry.2

a t th e s u i t a g a in s t H rut, Mord

The H eim sk rin gla r e l a t e s t h a t A s ta ,

Gudbrand*s d a u g h ter, b e r e f t o f a f a i t h l e s s husband, ’’went t o th e Up­ la n d s t o h er f a t h e r . ”® The H eim sk rln gla t e l l s , t o o , o f R a g n h ild ’ s a p p e a l t o h e r f a t h e r , E r lin g , f o r h e lp a g a in s t t h e k in g .

T h is tim e

t h e h e lp was needed f o r t h e husband, t o o , f o r he was d e fy in g t h e k in g fo r h is w if e ’s sak e.

E r lin g s e n t two so n s and a number o f armed men

t o a id h i s d au gh ter and h er husband.^ The H orse d a u g h ter, i n th e m a tte r o f in h e r it a n c e , sto o d seco n d t o th e so n .

The O lder Law o f t h e G u lath in g p ro v id ed :

The secon d ( in h e r it a n c e ) i s t h a t w h ich i s tak en by a d au gh ter and a s o n ’ s s o n , each [ t a k in g ] o n e - h a lf . • • She s h a l l i n h e r i t th e m ovables and he t h e o d a l lan d .® The m a tte r o f t h e la n d g o in g t o m ales and t h e m ovable goods t o f e ­ m a le s , n o ted by Gummere, ^ a p p a r e n tly borne ou t in t h i s p r o v is io n , an d , fu r th e r in th e H eim sk rin gla7 and N ja l S a g a . 8 was n ot in v a r ia b ly so.

There i s enough e v id e n c e t o show t h a t t h e la n d — in f a c t th e

w h o le h e r it a g e — d id a t

tim e s go t o a d a u g h ter.

p r o v id e s two su ch c a s e s .

S i g r id , an o n ly c h i l d ,

t o ta k e a f t e r S ig u r d , h er f a t h e r . ”9 d a u g h ter o f Yngvar o f t h e F i r t h s , h im .”*1.

Such women w ere

TheB g il Saga ”had th e h e r it a g e

B er a , a n o th e r o n ly c h ild , ”s to o d t o ta k e

t h e h e r it a g e a f t e r

known by t h e term bau grygr.

! • S t o r y o f H ja l. p . 1 4 . 2 . I b id ., p. 16. H eim sk r in g la , p . 1 5 1 . 4 . I b id . . p . 371. 5 . L arson , E a r l i e s t Norwegian Law$, p . 1 0 8 . 6 . Gummere, o p . c i t . . p p . 1 3 1 ,2 . H eim sk rin g la . p . 37 j "When King H arald became in fir m , and he had no s o n , he g a v e h i s kingdom t o h is d a u g h ter’ s s o n .” 8 * The S to r y o f H j a l, p . 33: ”H o w ...M o r d ...b r e a th e d h i s l a s t . H is d a u g h ter , Anna, to o k a l l t h e good s he l e f t b eh in d h im .” *-9. E g ils a a g a , p . 1 1 . 10. I b id . , p . 36.

r*

/ The O lder Law o f th e G-ulath in g d e f in e s baugrygr a s ••a woman [whoJ

i s t h e h e i r e s s to b o th th e o d a l and m o v a b les. s t a t e s : "No man can d e p r iv e h er by redem ption#

A p r o v is io n o f th e law How t h e s e a r e t h e wo­

men who a r e o d a l women. . #: a d a o g h ter, a s i s t e r , a f a t h e r ' s s i s t e r , a b r o t h e r 's d a u g h te r , and a s o n 's d a u g h te r .n2 That m ales w ere fa v o r e d in t h e m a tte r o f la n d in h e r ita n c e I s ■undeniable in th e f a c e o f th e e v id e n c e , b u t a d e f i n i t e r ig h t o f woman t o own la n d i s a l s o u n d e n ia b le .

The law i s e x p l i c i t on t h i s p o in t#

For th r e e g e n e r a tio n s t i t l e t o t h e la n d went t o m ales o f th e l i n e in p r e fe r e n c e t o women, th e p r o p erty w eaving back and f o r t h betw een c o u s in s i f th e r e w ere no s o n s , u n t i l t h e la n d had come " th ree tim es tinder t h e s p o o l and sp in d le.** A f te r t h a t i t was t o rem ain " in q u ie t . O b v io u sly , t h e r e a f t e r , i f th e r e w ere no s o n s , th e in h e r ita n c e went to t h e d a u g h ter s.

M other — Son

On su c h l i t t l e e v id e n c e a s th e o ld e r m a te r ia l p r o v id e s , i t i s a lm o st im p o s sib le t o draw s u b s t a n t ia l c o n c lu s io n s about th e m otherso n bond.

To i n f e r from th e c r u e lt y o f th e s o n - k i l l i n g S ig n y , and

G uthrun, th a t t h e m oth ers o f th e o ld e r days were la c k in g in n a tu r a l p i t y and a f f e c t i o n w ou ld , o f c o u r s e , n o t be v a l i d .

Both th e em bit­

t e r e d women k i l l e d t h e i r s o n s , but b o th were moved by deep h a tred o f t h e i r husbands f o r h a m t o t h e i r b lo o d kindred#

They o b v io u sly

k i l l e d t h e i r c h ild r e n t o make th e rev e n g e more h o r r ib ly com p lete. 1 . L arson, o p . c i t # , p . 1 8 0 . 2 . I b id . 3 . I b id .

j

I

25

^ h e i r b lo o d k in had b een k i l l e d ; t h e r e f o r e , b lo o d k in had t o b e s a c r i ­ f i c e d f o r atonem ent, even though t h e v ic t im s were so n s o f t h e aven ger a s w e l l a s o f th e v i c t im s .

The dram atic i n t e n s i t y t h a t marks th e

s t o r i e s o f t h e s e u n n a tu ra l k i l l i n g s shows th e n a tu r a l h orror w ith w h ich such d eed s must have b een reg a rd ed . N e v e r t h e le s s , i t i s hard t o o v e r lo o k th e o b v io u s c o n tr a s t b etw een t h e m oth er-son r e l a t io n s h ip s i n th e o ld e r re c o r d s and th o s e in t h e la t e r record s.

G r e t t ir d e c la r e d : "True i s th e sa y in g : t h e m other i s

h e s t . ”l W ith few e x c e p t io n s , th e e v id e n c e o f t h e sa g a s shows t h a t th e l a t e r l o r s e and I c e la n d ic m other was a s h ie ld and p r o t e c t r e s s son .

G r e t t i r ’s m other to o k h i s p a r t a g a in s t h i s f a t h e r ,

you n g.

f o r h er

whenhe was

She p ro v id ed him w ith a fa m ily sword f o r h i s d e fe n s e when he

was o u tla w e d ,2 and s h e lt e r e d him when, an o u t c a s t , he came t o h er s e e r e tly .^

When he d ep a rted sh e s e n t w ith him h er l a s t rem aining

s o n , I l l u g i , to b e h i s

com fort and a id in h is

th ou gh i t meant b i t t e r

l o n e l i n e s s f o r her*

fr ie n d le s s s ta t e , a l ­

I t i s hard f o r me t o l o s e I l l u g i . • . I t i s much f o r one t o b id f a r e w e ll t o b o th o f you , y e t I w i l l c o n se n t to i t i f G r e t t ir * s l o t i s b e t te r e d t h e r e b y .4 The attach m en t o f t h e m other f o r h er so n s i s s t r i k i n g in th e sa g a lite r a tu r e . w it h h er

G r e t t ir * s m other was n ot t h e o n ly one to ta k e s id e s

so n a g a in s t h i s f a t h e r .

S a g a ,a id ed him when

The m other o f B io r n , in t h e E g il

he was d iso b e y in g h is f a t h e r .

B iorn lo v e d

Thor a , but h i s f a t h e r had s t e r n l y fo rb id d en th e m a r r ia g e .

H is

m other h elp ed t h e p a ir e sc a p e so t h a t th e y co u ld marry.® E g il* s 1. 2 .. 5. 4# 5.

L

G r e t t ir S a g a , p . 58W I b i d . , pp. I b i d . , p . lad .. TlbjtcU, p . 1 8 2 . g g ils s a g a , p . 64.

26

r m other to o k h i s p a r t , and rebuked h er husband f o r h is a t t it u d e toward"1 h is so n .

She was proud o f E g i l ' s f i e r c e co u ra g e, and demanded t h a t

h i s f a t h e r , S k a lla g r im , p ro v id e him w ith s h ip s so t h a t he co u ld go o u t a s a v ik in g .

l a t e r , when E g il m arried and was h im s e lf a f a t h e r ,

h i s w if e to o k t h e i r so n * s p a r t a g a in s t him .

R egarding T h o r s te in ,

t h e i r s o n , th e s a g a - t e l l e r s ta t e d : " E g il lo v e d him l i t t l e .

• .b u t

A sgerd lo v e d him g r e a t l y . Beep s o l i c i t u d e o f m others fo r t h e i r so n s i s dem onstrated by ample e v id e n c e .

S ig n y , Q ndott Crow's w i f e , a f t e r h er husband had

b ee n s l a i n , escap ed w it h h er young so n s and w atched o v e r them w ith te n d e r c a r e .2

R an n veig, Gunnar's m oth er, sto o d s t e a d f a s t l y by him

when he was b e s ie g e d by h i s en em ies, u p b ra id in g b i t t e r l y th e h e a r t l e s s w if e who mocked him in h is n eed .

3

T horgerda, when sh e

g a v e Hauskuld t o K e t t l e a s a f o s t e r - s o n , made K e t t le sw ear t h a t he w ould g iv e him a l l t h e h e lp i n h i s p ow er.4

R o lf th e G anger's

m o th er, when h e r s o n was b a n ish ed a s an o u tla w b y H arald H a irf a i r , went in p erso n b e fo r e t h e angry k in g t o in te r c e d e f o r h er son*®

I t i s c l e a r t h a t th e H orse so n meant a g r e a t d e a l t o h i s

m oth er. The reco rd s show t h a t t h e m oth er' 3 lo v e was r e tu rn ed w ith deep a ffe c tio n .

T h o r s te in , E g i l ' s s o n , lo v e d h is m other a s d e a r ly a s

sh e lo v e d him.®

G r e t t i r was e x tr e m e ly fond o f h i s m oth er.

I t was

t o sp a r e h er t h e d an ger and tr o u b le o f h arb orin g him , a hunted o u tla w , 3-* 2. 3. 4. 5.

L

B g ils s a g a . p . 2 0 2 . G r e t t i r S aga, p . 1 2 . S to r y o f H ja l, p . 1 3 6 . I b id . . p . 1 7 3 . H eim sk rin g la . p p . 5 9 ,6 0 . S g ils s a g a . p . 202. _J

r t h a t lie g a v e up t h e s h e lt e r and com fort o f home t o l i v e on t h e l o n e ly i s la n d o f Drangey.-1-

Orre E y s t e in s id e d w it h h i s m other when h i s f a ­

t h e r r e fu s e d h er r e q u e st f o r h e lp t o an o ld f r ie n d , and th r e a te n e d t o go away w it h h er u n le s s th e f a t h e r gave th e a id sh e a s k e d .2 When tr a g e d y eame, and s o n s w ere k i l l e d , a s so o f t e n happened, le a v in g h u sb a n d less m others b eh in d , m o th e r -lo v e , e m b itte r e d , c o u ld tu r n t o f i e r c e h a tre d and d e s ir e f o r v en g ea n ce.

R annveig, a f t e r

Gunnar, s d e a th , o f f e r e d h i s v a lu a b le sword t o anyone who w ould avenge h i s d e a t h .3

T horgerda, when Hauskuld was s l a i n , f i e r c e l y demanded

o f K e t t l e th e ven gean ce w hich h e , a s f o s t e r - f a t h e r , had sworn t o t a k e .4 One o f th e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s o f a m other*s d e te r m in a tio n t h a t h e r s o n 's d ea th be avenged i s t o l d i n th e H ja l Saga. 3

Rodny,

m other o f H ja l* s i l l e g i t i m a t e s o n , H auskuld, le a r n in g t h a t he had b een s l a i n , managed by d e s p e r a te c le v e r n e s s t o g e t H ja l and h i s h o u seh o ld t o a r i s e from bed b e fo r e dawn on a p r e t e x t t h a t Hauskuld was s t i l l a l i v e ? b u t in n eed o f h e lp .

She brou ght them t o s e e th e

body which:?she had propped u p r ig h t a g a in s t th e w a ll o f t h e sh e e p co te . Then sh e l i t a t o r c h . • .and s a id , "Here, H ja l, i s th y so n H auskuld. • .and now he w i l l need l e e c h - c r a f t ." " I s e e d ea th marks on him ," s a id N j a l. • .b u t why h a st th ou n o t c lo s e d h i s e y e s and n o s t r i l s : " • • ."That d u ty I meant f o r Skarphedinn," sh e s a y s . • ." I n to th y hands, Skarphedinn, I le a v e i t t o ta k e ven gean ce f o r th y ib r o t h e r , and I ween th a t th ou w i l t ta k e i t w e l l , though he be n o t la w f u lly b e g o t te n ." 6 2. 3* 4* 5. t§.

S g e t t l r S aga, p . 1 8 1 . H elm sk rin g la . p . 3 7 1 . Story of Nial. p. 138. I b id ., p . 203. I b id . , p p . 1 9 1 -1 9 2 . I b id ., p . 192.

28

r S t r i k i n g l y , B erg th o ra , N j a l 's w i f e , who m ight n a t u r a lly have f e l t no n g r e a t lo v e f o r Rodny, ex p r e sse d e a g e r n e ss

t h a t Hauskuld be avenged ,

and urged h e r s o n s t o w a ste no tim e d oin g i t *

She seems t o have

sh a r ed t h e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e b ereaved m other, im p a tie n t f o r a to n e ­ m ent; a r e v e la t io n , i n d i r e c t l y , o f t h e power o f t h e m oth er-son t i e * "W onderfully do y e men b eh a v e. • *when y e . . * bu t t a lk and t a r r y . • . u n t i l no vengeance a t a l l i s ta k e n . • .How i s t h e tim e t o s e t ab ou t i t , i f y e se e k f o r v e n g e a n ce.

M other — D aughter

C oncerning th e r e la t io n s h ip o f m other and d a u g h ter , t h e r e ­ co rd s o f b o th p e r io d s s a y l i t t l e .

One b i t o f e v id e n c e , how ever,

co n c er n in g th e e a r ly d a y s, i s p rovid ed by The Saga o f t h e V o lsu n g s. Guthrun and h e r m other G rim h ild w ere, in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and r e l a ­ t i o n s h i p s , v e r y much l i k e f a t h e r and s o n .

The m other e v id e n t ly

h e ld a p o s i t i o n o f power and in flu e n c e o v e r th e d a u g h ter, and lo o k ed a f t e r h er i n t e r e s t s , p a r t ic u l a r ly w ith regard t© m a rria g e. A f t e r t h e t r a g i c end o f Guthrunt s f i r s t m a rria g e, and d u rin g h er v o lu n ta r y e x i l e , sh e was v i s i t e d by h er m oth er, who to o k s t e p s t o m o d ify h e r d a u g h ter#s b i t t e r n e s s . G rim hild found o u t where Gudrun was harbored; sh e summoned h er s o n s t o h er and asked them w hether th e y w ould g iv e Gudrun recom pense. • . G rim hild s e t o u t on t h e jou rn ey w ith them, f o r sh e s a id t h a t sh e cou ld n ot s i t a t home when i t was s o n e e d fu l f o r them t o w in t h e i r d e s ir e .3 S to r y o f N .ial. p . 1 9 2 . 2 . Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s. pp. 1 5 1 -1 5 2 . L.

Having won h er d a u g h ter’ s good w i l l , G rim hild urged mar­ r ia g e * Thom w i l t n o t n o u r ish th y h a tr e d lo n g e r , o r fa n c y S ig u rd and Sigmund a r e l i v i n g i f th o u h a s t sons* When h e r d au gh ter h e ld h ack , th e m other i n s is t e d : Do a s we h id t h e e , and thou s h a l t have g r e a t honor t h e r e f o r , and our l o v e . • F i n a l l y th e d au gh ter y ie ld e d . And h e r words had such w eig h t t h a t th e th in g was done* Gudrun s a id , "Then i t s h a l l he s o , h u t i t i s a g a in s t my w i l l . » s I n t h e l a t e r m a t e r ia l, th e H ja l Saga o f f e r s a g lim p s e o f th e motherd a u g h ter r e l a t i o n s h i p .

The m other appears i n t h e r o l e o f a g i v e r - i n ­

m arriage*

The f a t h e r was dead and H a llg e r d a , th e m other, was b e in g

rem a rried .

At th e wedding f e a s t , T horgerda, h e r fo u r te e n y e a r o ld

d a u g h ter , a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a m arried man, Thrain S i g fu sso n .

T h ra in , an gered hy h i s w i f e ’ s n a g g in g , d iv o r c e d h er pub­

l i c l y r ig h t th e r e and th e n and f in is h e d th e b u s in e s s w ith an im­ p etu o u s p r o p o sa l t o marry Thorgerda*

He announced h is d e s ir e f i r s t

t o t h e bridegroom , h i s kinsman Gunnar, who was n o t q u it e y e t Thor­ g e rd a ’s parent*

Gunnar pu t t h e m a tte r up t o t h e m other and d a u g h ter . Then Gunnar sta n d s up and T h rain , t o o , and t h e y go t o t h e c r o s s b ench . Gunnar a sked t h a t m other and d au gh ter w h ether th e y w ould sa y y e s t o t h i s b a r g a in . They s a id t h e y would f in d no f a u l t w it h i t , and H a llg erd a b e tr o th e d her daughter**

T h is r o l e o f t h e m other i s m entioned in th e O lder Law o f t h e F r o s ta th in g , w hich r e p r e s e n ts a g e n e r a lly l a t e r p erio d : "The 1* Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, p . 1 5 4 . 2 . Ibid * 3* S to r y o f N.1al. p . 5 8 .

rf a t h e r and t h e m other s h a l l arrange f o r th e m arriage o f t h e i r daugh­ te r s ^ 0

B e s id e s th e r i g h t t o g iv e h er d au gh ter in m a rria g e, t h e N orse mo­ t h e r ap p ears t o have had a n o th e r r i g h t , o r , a t l e a s t , p r i v i l e g e .

T his

may b e deduced from th e in c id e n t in th e H ja l S a g a , when Thorgerda gave h e r m other th e r ig h t and honor o f c h o o sin g t h e name t o b e g iv e n h er newborn s o n , born a few n ig h ts a f t e r th e d eath o f h er g r a n d fa th e r , H auskuld. She s e n t a man t o h e r m other, and bade h e r ehoose w h eth er i t sh o u ld b e c a l le d Glum [H allgerda* s de­ c e a se d husband, Thorgerda*s f a t h e r 3 o r Hauskuld* She bade c a l l i t H au sk u ld .2 I t w ould seem from th e m eager m a te r ia l a v a ila b le t h a t m other and d a u g h ter , b e fo r e th e d a u g h ter’ s m a rria g e, w ere h ou seh old com­ p a n io n s, t h e m other te a c h in g th e d au gh ter th e d o m estic a r t s and g a in in g h er h e lp and com panionship u n t i l th e tim e o f th e m arriage w h ich sh e a t tim e s h elp e d t o a r r a n g e .

The r e la t io n s h ip a s a bond

b etw een m other and d a u g h ter seem s t o p a r a l l e l , on th e s p in d le s i d e , t h e bond betw een f a th e r and so n n o tic e d on t h e sp e a r s i d e . E vid en ce p o in tin g toward a d i s t i n c t i v e d o m estic m other-daugh­ t e r t i e , a p a rt from th e m ale r e la t io n s h ip s and b ased c l e a r l y on a d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e x e s , i s found in th e d e t a i l s o f th e in h e r ita n c e p r o v is io n s o f th e o ld e r law o f th e E r o s ta th in g .

A ccording t o t h e s e

p r o v is io n s , a d au gh ter in h e r it e d s p e c if i e d a r t i c l e s from th e m oth er. T h is a p p ears p a r t ic u l a r l y tr u e o f bed c l o t h e s . 1 . L arson , o p . e i t », p . 3 6 2 . p . 185. 2* S to r y o f H ja l, p . 8 0 .

L

S ee a ls o Am ira, **Grundriss,** l o c . c i t . .

51 r

"i * « . t h e d au gh ter s h a l l have th e hed c o v e r s , i f th e y b elo n g ed to h er m other; i f th e y b elo n g ed t o th e f a t h e r , t h e son s h a l l have them .1 T h is was a p p a re n tly t r u e a l s o o f c lo t h e s g e n e r a lly . The dau gh ter s h a l l have th e wardrobe i f i t b elo n g ed to h e r m o th er.2 O ther t h in g s t h a t th e d au gh ter in h e r it e d from t h e m other in clu d ed un­ woven m a te r ia l s t i l l in t h e loom , f i v e sh e e p , f i v e f l e e c e s , a l l th e f l a x and t h e y a rn , and t h e g e e s e , her m other’ s c r o s s , o r brooch , o r b r e a s t je w e l ( i f n ot made o f g o l d ) , a l l th e d r e s s f a s t e n in g s ( i f th e y w eighed an ounce o r l e s s and were made o f s i l v e r ) , a l l th e cups from which th e women drank t o each o th e r a c r o s s th e f l o o r a t home in t h e h o u se , a l s o th e d e c o r a te d cu p s, and one hand b o w l.3 T here w ere, on th e o th e r hand, t h in g s th e d au gh ter co u ld n o t h a v e.

T hese went t o t h e s o n .

The d au gh ter co u ld not have v e l v e t

c lo a k s , c lo t h t h a t was u n c u t, g o ld l a c e from c lo t h in g , woven ma­ t e r i a l s t i l l in t h e loom , a l l c o v ers and cu sh io n s u sed on th e s e a t s and b e n c h e s, a l l th e ru gs and t a p e s t r i e s , a l l l i v e - s t o c k e x c e p t t h a t a lr e a d y p rovid ed h e r , g o ld e n je w e lr y and s i l v e r v e s s e l s

S is te r — S is te r

The r e la t io n s h ip o f s i s t e r t o s i s t e r i s even l e s s n oted by th e r e c o r d s th a n th e m o th er-d a u g h ter bond. c e r ta in . 1. 2. 3. 4. L

The r e a so n i s n o t a lt o g e t h e r

N orse f a m i l i e s o f t e n had a s many d a u gh ters a s s o n s .

L arson, Norwegian la w s p . 5 3 5 . I b id .,, ' I b id . I b id .

O feig

32

G r e t t ir had two son s and t h r e e d au gh ters

H ja l had th r e e l e g i t i ­

m ate so n s and th r e e d a u g h te r s;2 y e t e v id e n c e con cern in g im portant s i s t e r - s i s t e r r e l a t i o n s i s a lm o st c o m p le te ly la c k in g .

Perhaps th e

u n d e r ly in g rea so n i s t h a t th e r e c o r d s , w r it t e n from a m a scu lin e v iew ­ p o i n t , d isr e g a r d p u r e ly fem a le m a tte r s .

T h is can he se e n in th e

trea tm en t o f t h e accou n t o f U j a l ' s c h ild r e n in th e N ja l S aga,

Chap­

t e r Twenty, e n t i t l e d Of N ja l and H is C h ild ren m erely m en tion s h i s d au gh ters b r i e f l y , b u t d oes not name them .

The s o n s , on t h e o th e r

hand, a re a l l named, d e s c r ib e d , and c h a r a c t e r iz e d .3 A nother r e a s o n , p erh a p s, f o r th e ab sen ce o f e v id e n c e con cern in g th e s i s t e r - s i s t e r r e la t io n s h ip i s th e f a c t t h a t th e y were m arried o f f ea rly *

Thorgerda, i t h as b een n o te d , was o n ly fo u r te e n when

sh e m arried T h ra in .^

O fe ig G r e t t ir * s d au gh ter A esa w as, a s th e

G r e t t ir Saga p u ts i t , " q u ite a C h ild w5 when sh e was b e tr o th e d t o Onund T r e e fo o t .

I f su ch e a r ly m arriages w ere a t a l l common, s i s t e r

r e l a t i o n s h i p s would have been lim it e d , in la r g e p a r t , t o t h e you th ­ f u l years* D e s p ite t h e g e n e r a l a b sen ce o f e v id e n c e reg a rd in g s i s t e r s , how ever, th e r e a r e a few in c id e n t s w hich p r o v id e Inform ation o f an illu m in a t in g nature*

One o f t h e s e i s th e accoun t o f t h e s i s t e r s

In g eg erd and A s t r id in th e H elm sk rin g la *

D aughters o f th e Sw edish

K ing O lav, th e y d is p la y a str o n g bond o f m utual sympathy and h e lp fu ln e s s * 1* 2* 3* 4* 5. L

C e r t a in ly , th e bond betw een them was much s tr o n g e r

G r e t t ir S a g a , p . 5* S to r y o f N j a l, p* 3 4 . I b id *. PP* 5 4 ff* I b id . . p* 5 7 . G r e t t i r S aga, p* 6 .

33

th a n th e t i e t h a t bound them t o t h e i r f a t h e r .

The k in g had f i r s t

b e tr o th e d Ingegerd t o th e N orse k in g , Q lav D ig r e , and had th e n b ro­ ken h i s agreem ent b eea n se o f h i s j e a lo u s y o f D ig re* s r i s i n g power — a j e a lo u s y w hich In gegerd d id n ot s h a r e . t h e R u ssia n King J a r i s l e i v .

Ingegerd was prom ised t o

S e c r e t l y , w ith t h e h e lp o f J a r l Ragn­

v a ld , Ingegerd managed t o have h er s i s t e r A s tr id b e tr o th e d t o D ig r e , w ith o u t t h e i r f a t h e r ’s p erm issio n *

O lav was enraged a t J a r l Ragn­

v a ld b u t b ein g a n x io u s t o wed Ingegerd t o th e R u ssia n k in g , he

ac­

ced ed t o h er r e q u e s t t h a t th e J a r l b e spared punishm ent when sh e d e c la r e d sh e would le a v e Sweden and g o t o R u ssia o n ly on c o n d itio n t h a t sh e b e a llo w ed t o ta k e Ragnvald w ith h e r . The k in g answ ered: **I have th o u g h t t h a t Ragnvald t h e J a r l sh o u ld pay o th e r w is e f o r h i s tr e a c h e r y t o h i s k in g in t h a t h e w ent t o Norway w ith my d au gh ter and gave h er a s m is t r e s s t o th e proud man whom he knew to b e ou r w o r st f o e ; and f o r th a t t h in g he s h a l l be hanged in th e summer.•* In gegerd bade h e r f a t h e r keep t h e prom ise he had g iv e n h e r , and b y h er p ra y ers i t came a bout t h a t th e k in g s a id t h a t Ragnvald t h e J a r l sh o u ld go away in p e a c e . . That S ca n d in a v ia n s i s t e r s had b a s ic e q u a lit y w ith in th e f a m ily — a s i t u a t i o n e v id e n t in th e I n g e g e r d -A str id r e la t io n s h ip , i s con firm ed by d e f i n i t e e v id e n c e in th e O lder Law o f t h e ffr o s ta t h in g t h a t unm arried d a u g h te r s, when i t came tim e t o sh a r e an i n ­ h e r it a n c e , f i r s t r e c e iv e d a sh a r e eq u a l to th e p o r tio n g iv e n t o t h o s e who were m a rried when th e y l e f t home, th e n t h e in h e r ita n c e was a p p o r tio n e d . I f d a u g h ter s come t o in h e r it * • .an d some a re m a rried , i .t h e unm arried o n es s h a l l f i r s t r e ­ c e iv e a s la r g e a sh a r e o f th e u n d iv id ed in h e r i1* Heimskr i n g l a %p . 305 L

34

ta n c e a s t h e m arried ones r e c e iv e d on le a v in g t h e horned Husband — W ife

The t i e t h a t bound husband and w if e w as, i t has b een n o te d , n ot a t a l l a s s tr o n g a s th e t i e o f b lo o d i n t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s.

N everth e­

l e s s , th e e v id e n c e p o in t s t o a stro n g s e n s e o f o b lig a t i o n and, a t t im e s , even m utual a f f e e t i o n , e n te r in g t h e bond in c o u r se o f tim e . The s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n b ased upon th e m arriage c o n tr a c t ap­ p e a rs t o have been v e r y s t r o n g .

E s s e n t i a l l y , o f c o u r se , i t was a

m a tte r o f s o c i a l c o n v e n tio n ,

ind epend ent o f em otion .

^

S ig n y * s

c a s e i s th e b e s t exam ple, f o r in a s tr a n g e f i n a l a c t o f s a c r i f i c e when hs? vengeance a g a in s t S i g g e i r was co m p le te , sh e w alked in to t h e fla m es to d i e w it h th e husband sh e had n ev er l o v e d .2

F u lfill­

ment o f a stro n g s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n ap pears t o be th e o n ly ex p la n a ­ t i o n h e r e , and a l s o in th e aceou n t o f Guthrun*s d ram atic in c o n s is ­ te n c y in p rom isin g h e r husband, A t l i , an h on orab le b u r ia l, a lth o u g h sh e had brought about h i s d ea th a s an a c t o f v en gean ce.^ That su ch o b lig a t io n was ro o ted d e e p ly in t r a d it i o n and s o c i a l la w i s e v id e n t from th e m arriage p r o v is io n s in th e Law o f th e G ulat h i n g , w hich made b rea ch o f th e b e t r o t h a l arrangem ents p u n ish a b le by outlaw ry*

The p e n a lty was p r e s c r ib e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r any f a t h e r

who b e tr o th e d h is d a u g h ter and su b s e q u e n tly t r i e d t o i n t e r f e r e w ith t h e m a rr ia g e .^ 1. 2. 3. 4.

L

The m aiden had no more r i g h t t o d e c id e w hether sh e

L arson , Norwegian Laws p* 3 6 2 . Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, ip . 1 6 6 . Edda. p . 5 3 5 . L arson , op. c i t . , p . 7 3 .

w ould f u l f i l l th e o b l i g a t i o n , th an h er fa th e r h a d .1 A t l i , s dying rebuke t o Guthrun i s e l e a r l y b ased upon h er b reach o f a str o n g t r a d i t i o n a l o b lig a t io n : To t h e famed one a s b r i d e - g i f t I But a l l t o th e e was a s i f nought T h is may

g a v e je w e ls f a i r . i t w ere w orth . 2

♦•

seem t o c o n ta in an em o tio n a l ap p eal t o a fo im e r s t a t e

s e n tim e n ta l a tta ch m en t, w ith th e je w e ls a s a g i f t s were c o n v e n tio n a l.

of

sym bol o f lo v e ; b u t su ch

They w ere p a r t o f t h e payment in h eren t in

t h e custom ary m arriage arrangem ent.

3

A payment was e s s e n t i a l to b ind t h e u nion o f man and w if e . E v e n tu a lly t h i s payment became a d e f i n i t e sum o f money.

A ccording

t o H orse la w , th e mund — o r payment — had to be a t l e a s t tw e lv e o r a s .4

Once t h e payment was made, t h e w if e was bound t o th e h u s­

band by s tr o n g , c o n v e n tio n a l o b l i g a t i o n s .

I t i s c l e a r , however,

t h a t t h e m aid "dowered w ith gold " 5 and g iv e n i n m a r r ia g e , rem ained fu n d a m en ta lly in d ep en d en t w it h in th e m arriage t i e .

In a r e a l s e n s e ,

s h e was s t i l l t h e d au gh ter o f h er f a t h e r , th e s i s t e r o f her bro­ th e r s.

She c o u ld , i f sh e w ish e d , g iv e h er l o y a l t y t o h er husband;

b u t sh e m igh t b r in g him d e s t r u c t io n , a s th e S ig n y and Guthrun s t o r i e s show .

\ The N orse w i f e s t i l l r e t a in e d su eh f i e r c e independence in th e

e a r l y p a rt o f th e n in th e e n tu r y , i t app ears from an in c id e n t in t h e H eim sk rin g la .^

A sa, grandm other o f H arald B a i r f a i r , ta k en in

m a rria g e by King Gudr&d who had s l a i n h e r f a t h e r and b r o th e r , 1 . L arson , op . c i t . , p . 7 3 . 2 . Edda, p . 5 3 2 . The Saga o f th e V olsu n gs p u ts i t ; " It was n ot f i t ­ t i n g f o r th e e t o do t h i s . • .Thou w ert wed t o me by th y kinsm en1s w i l l , and I p a id down th y dowry. w 3 . Gummere, o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 . 4 . L arson , op . c i t . . p . 7 3 . L 5 . Edda. p . 451. 6. Helmskringla, p. 34.

36

w a ite d h er ch a n ce, and had Gudrod k i l l e d .

A lthough t h i s s t o r y i s

a lm o st a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e S ig n y , Guthrun v e n g ea n ces, th e r e a r e two im portant d iff e r e n c e s *

A sa had been ta k e n by f o r c e ; and y e t sh e d id

n o t k i l l Gudr8d’ s so n ; t h a t i s , she d id n ot seem t o f e e l i t n e c e s sa r y t o k i l l b lo o d k in t o make th e vengeance com plete* H ja l Saga r e l a t e s an even l a t e r s t o r y o f w i f e l y f ie r c e n e s s and r e v e n g e .

The tim e was l a t e in t h e t e n t h c e n tu r y .

sla p p ed h i s w i f e ’s f a c e . chance to g e t rev e n g e.

Gunnar had

S h e n e v e r fo r g a v e him and w a ite d f o r a F i n a l l y i t came when Gunnar, d efen d in g him­

s e l f i n h i s home where he had b een trap p ed by en em ies, broke th e s t r i n g o f h i s bow. Then Gunnar s a id t o H a llg e r d a , "Give me two lo c k s o f th y h a ir , and y e tw o, my m other and th o u , t w i s t them t o g e th e r in t o a b o w strin g f o r m e." wDoes aught l i e on i t ? * sh e s a y s . **My l i f e l i e s on i t , " he s a id , **for th e y w i l l n e v e r come t o c l o s e q u a r te r s w ith me i f I can keep them o f f w ith my bow.* ♦’W ell!*1 sh e s a y s , "now w i l l I c a l l t o th y mind t h a t s la p on th e f a c e w hich th ou g a v e s t me; and I c a r e n ev er a w h it w h ether th ou b o ld e s t ou t a lo n g w h ile o r a s h o r t .**1 T h is , how ever, was n ot t y p i c a l o f th e h u sb an d -w ife r e la t io n s h ip o f t h e tim e . b u t much keep

There a re many o th e r e p iso d e s o f w i f e l y s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , l e s s d r a s tic .

B jorn th e B o a s t e r ’ s w if e th r e a te n e d t o

him o u t o f h er bed i f he r e fu se d to sta n d by K a r i, N j a l’ s

a v e n g e r .^

Mord’ s w if e , T h o r k a tla , th r e a te n e d t o le a v e him i f he

d id n ot h e lp K a r i.

R a g n h ild , Torberg A m e se n ’ s w if e , d e c la r e d sh e

***• o f H ja l. p . 1 3 6 . 2 . I b id . , p . 3 0 ? . 3 . I b id . , p . 25 5 .

L

57

r would le a v e h er husband i f he r e fu s e d t o p r o t e c t S t e in , h er bene­ fa c to r * 1

Even N j a l’ s w i f e cau sed him t r o u b le w ith h er high-m inded

a c t io n s in h er feu d w ith t h e f i e r c e H allgerd a*^

H ild igu n n a d ic t a t e d

term s even b e fo r e sh e would c o n s id e r Hauskuld a s a husband,3 Such f i e r c e in d ep en d en ce was not t h e p r iv ile g e d p o s s e s s io n o f w iv e s a lo n e ; husbands, t o o , cou ld b e , and w ere, h a rsh in t h e ir t r e a t ­ ment o f t h e i r w ives*

The Saga o f t h e Tolsun&s^ r e l a t e s th a t Sigmund

d ro v e G-ranmar o u t t o h er d ea th f o r p o iso n in g h i s son*

Gunnar*s s la p ­

p in g o f H a llg e r d a 1s f a c e i s a f a r c r y from such an a c t , but i t demon­ s t r a t e s , n e v e r t h e le s s , th e h arsh independence o f t h e H orse husband, i n c e r t a in s it u a t io n s *

I t i s amply c l e a r th a t husband and w if e w ere

e q u a lly f r e e , w it h in t h e m arriage bond, t o f o llo w n a tu r a l im p u lse and tem peram ent.

In th e c a s e o f th e w i f e ’ s s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , i t was g en er­

a l l y when sh e was t h e d au gh ter o f a p ow erfu l f a t h e r , o r s i s t e r o f a p o w erfu l b roth er* The law s o f t h e G u la th in g and F r o s ta th in g , and c e r t a in e p is o d e s i n t h e H ja l Saga and H eim sk rin g la * p r o v id e e v id e n c e o f th e b a s ic e q u a l i t y o f husband and w i f e .

The e v id e n c e shows t h a t th e w if e h e ld

p r o p e r ty in common w ith h e r hu sb and .5

She a ls o had p r iv a t e p r o p e r ty ,

s e t a s id e f o r h er a t th e b e t r o t h a l o r n u p t ia ls ,^

She "took t h e h o u se­

k e ep in g under her** and " sto o d up f o r h er r i g h t s in word and d e e d .”7 1* 2* 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

L_

H eim sk rin g la . p . 3 7 . S to r y o f H ja l, p p . 5 9 -7 4 . I b id . , p . 1 4 8 . The Saga o f th e V o lsu n g s, P* 7 4 . L arson, op* c i t *, p . 7 4 . I b id *, p . 5 6 3 . S to r y o f H ja l, p . 59,.

58 r She sh ared th e k ey s t o th e h o u seh old w ith h er husband,^ and had wa s o much to say" t o th e h o u se fo lk a s h e . She d id p r e t t y much a s sh e p le a s e d i n th e h o u se ,

and, a s a m arried woman, had what one husband

e a lle d : "most t o sa y ." ^ In m a tte r s o f d iv o r c e and e x t r a -m a r ita l r e l a t i o n s , t o o , w if e and husband seem t o have b een c o m p a ra tiv ely equal*.

For a T hrain S i g -

fu s s o n who co u ld s p e e d ily d iv o r c e h i s w if e ,^ th e r e was Unna, who d id lik e w i s e t o h er u n s a t is f a c t o r y husband.** .

For a King O lav who had

open r e l a t i o n s w it h M s s e r v in g m a id ,7 th e r e was G nnahilda whose r e l a t i o n s w ith men were n o to r io u s .® The bond o f m arriage was perhaps n ot alw ays a l o v e l e s s u n io n o f two f i e r c e l y independent b e in g s .

I t seem s o n ly l o g i c a l t o a c c e p t

m utual lo v e a s an o c c a s io n a l c o n d it io n .

C e r ta in ly th e s t o r i e s o f

H e lg i and S ig ru n ,® and o f S ig u r th and G uthrun,^0 a r e lo v e s t o r i e s . The S e a fa r e r c o n ta in s a to u c h s u g g e s tin g rom an tic lo v e : He ne ne ae

bij> him t o hearpan hyge ne t o h rin g b eg e, t o w if e wyn ne to w orulde h y h t, ymbe ow ih t e l l e s , n efn e ymb y3a g e w e a lc . a h a fa 5 lo n gu n ge s e Jae on la g u funda^T.^

Gummere, how ever, would E xclude w i f e l y lo v e from pagan Germanic m a rria g e g e n e r a lly 1. 2* S. 4. 5. 6*

L arson , o p . c i t . . p . 4 0 1 . S to r y o f H ja l. p . 4 4 . I b id . . p . 9 . H eim sk rin g la , p . 3 7 1 . S to r y o f H ja l. p . 5 9 . I b id . , p . 1 5 . H e im sk rin g la , p . 3 4 7 . 8# S t o r y o f H ja l. p p . 5 f f . 9 . Edda, p . 3 2 4 . 1 0 . I b id . , p . 4 5 3 . 1 1 . "The .S e a fa r e r ,w in E x e te r Book (e d . G .P. K rapp), Hew York, Columbia U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1936, p . 14 3 , 1 1 . 4 4 -4 7 . F u rth er r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s poem w i l l be t o t h i s e d it io n . ^12. Gummere, op . c i t . , p . 1 5 3 .

59

B e llo w s s a y s: C e r ta in ly in one poem, The R ig s th u la , and p robab ly in s e v e r a l o t h e r s , th e r e a r e marks o f C e lt i c i n f l u ­ e n c e . D uring a c o n s id e r a b le p a rt o f t h e n in th and t e n th c e n t u r ie s , S ca n d in a v ia n s were a c t i v e in I r e ­ la n d and in m ost o f t h e w este r n is la n d s in h a b ite d by b ran ch es o f th e C e l t i c *•*■ I t may w e ll be t h a t C h r is tia n in flu e n c e may a ccou n t f o r th e p r e s e n c e o f te n d er a f f e c t i o n , but w h atever th e c a u s e , lo v e i s p r e s e n t in t h e Edda poems*

In H e lg a k v ith a Hundingsbana I I S ig r u n was f i l l e d

w ith lo v e f o r t h e h e r o , H e lg i; bu t h er kinsm en b e tr o th e d h er t o H rothbrodd.

She t o l d H e lg i o f h er p l i g h t .

S ig ru n t h e j o y f u l e h ie f t d n sought F o rth w ith H e lg i* s hand sh e took; She g r e e te d th e h ero helmed and k is s e d him, The w a r r io r ’ s h e a r t to th e woman tu r n e d . From h er h e a r t th e d au gh ter o f Hogni sp a k e, Dear was H e lg i, sh e s a id , t o h er; **Long w ith a l l my h e a r t I lo v e d Sigmund’ s son e r e e v e r I saw him. **At t h e m eetin g t o Hrothbodd mated I w as, But a n o th e r h ero I f a in would have; Though, K in g, th e w rath o f my k in I f e a r , S in c e I b rok e ray f a t h e r ’ s f a i r e s t w ish * ” H e lg i spake: "Fear n o t e v e r H ogni’ s a n g er, Nor y e t th y kinsm en’ s e r u e l wrath; Maiden th o u w ith me s h a lt l i v e , Thy k in d r e d , f a i r o n e , I s h a l l n o t fear.**2 L a t e r , i n a f i g h t , H e lg i k i l l e d S ig ru n * s f a t h e r and b r o th e r , and in form ed h er o f i t . Maid, n o t The Noras T h is morn B r e g i and

fa ir i s a l l th y fo r tu n e , I blame t h a t t h i s sh o u ld b e; th e r e f e l l a t F T ek astein Hogni b en ea th my hand*®

1* B e llo w s , Edda, p* x i x . 2* I b id *. p p . 5 1 6 ,3 1 7 . 3• I b id ,, p . 319. L-

-J

40

r

“i S ig r u n , caught in th e t r a g i c p red icam en t, w ep t.

H e lg i com forted h er

a s sh e came b i t t e r l y to th e r e a l i z a t i o n th a t sh e lo v e d b oth h er b lo o d k in and Hefajiu:. V -.v: e q u a lly . Then S ig ru n w ep t. H e lg i s a id : "G rieve n o t S ig r u n , th e b a t t l e i s g a in e d . The f i g h t e r can shun n ot h is f a t e ." S ig ru n spak e: "TO l i f e would I c a l l I f s a f e on th y b r e a s t

them who s la u g h te r e d I m ight b e . 3-

lie ,

H e lg i to o k S ig ru n t o w ife ; b u t Dag, S ig ru n * s b r o th e r , th r u s t a sp e a r th rou gh h i s b r o t h e r - in - la w ’ s body. h e r o f h is d eed .

He rode t o h i s s i s t e r and t o l d

S ig ru n tu rn ed upon him:

Now may e v e r y o a th t h e e b i t e That w ith H e lg i sworn th o u h a s t . 2 In l i k e manner, a s h as a lr e a d y been n o t e d ,5 Guthrun b i t t e r l y d e­ nounced h er b r o th e r f o r t h e s la y in g o f h er b e lo v e d S ig u r th . Whether o r n o t th e s t o r i e s o f S igru n and Guthrun a r e v a l i d e v id e n c e o f lo v e i n th e e a r l i e s t m a r r ia g e s, th e r e i s ample e v id e n c e o f m utual l o y a l t y and a f f e c t i o n betw een husband and w if e in th e l a t e r sa g a l i t e r a t u r e . th e b u rn in g .^

B ergth ora w i l l i n g l y sh ared N j a l’ s f a t e a t

S i g r i d , B ard’ s w i f e , th ough t i t " g rea t s c a th e sh e

had t o l o s e h er man."®

S ig n y , Ondott Crow’ s w if e , was "most an­

x io u s t o p u n ish Grim" f o r th e d eath o f h er husban d.6 was in c o n s o la b le o v e r th e l o s s o f H au sk uld .7

H ild igun n a

And T h o r h a lla , w if e

o f N j a l ’ s so n H e lg i, w ith g r e a t sorrow a t th e l o s s o f h er husband, 1. 2. 3. 4.

Edda, p . 3 2 0 . I b id . , p . 3 2 3 . S e e p . jq , su p ra . S to r y o f N j a l. p . 237. E & ilssa g a . p # 1 6 . 6 . G r e t t i r S aga, p . 1 2 . 7 . S to r y o f H ja l, p . 208.

L

41

u rged h er fa th e r and b r o th e r s t o avenge him .^

There can b e no d ou bt,

no m a tte r what th e t r u t h may be about lo v e a s a f a e t o r in m arriage in t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s, t h a t lo v e d id p la y a d e f i n i t e p a rt in t h e m a r ita l l i f e o f th e n in th and t e n t h c e n tu r ie s in Norway and I c e la n d . That t h i s was tr u e g e n e r a lly among th e Germanic p e o p le s ; and, what i s more s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t th e m arriage bond, in t im e , r i v a l l e d t h e bond o f b lo o d a s a d eterm in in g in f lu e n c e upon in d iv id u a l a c t io n ap p ea rs p rob ab ly from th e s tr a n g e s h i f t o f l o y a l t y from b ro th e r s t o husband p r e se n te d in th e N ib e lu n g e n lie d v e r s io n o f th e o ld Guthrun sto r y . 2

In th e German s t o r y th e b r o th e r s a re s l a i n , n ot th e hus­

band, who r e t a in s h i s w i f e ' s l o y a l t y .

T h is r e p r e s e n ts a com plete

r e v e r s a l l o f v a lu e s , f o r in t h e N orse v e r s io n , w hich i s i n f i n i t e l y ♦♦older in i t s w hole c o n c e p tio n , and much marre n e a r ly approaches o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s ,1,3 th e w if e k i l l e d th e husband f o r h i s s la y in g o f h er b r o t h e r s .

Breakdown o f th e B lood Bond

There i s c le a r e v id e n c e t h a t th e r e was a le s s e n in g o f th e s t r e n g t h o f th e bond o f b lo o d k in sh ip a s tim e w ent o n .

In th e

l a t e r m a t e r ia l, d i s t i n c t l y l e s s im portance i s a tta c h e d t o th e b lo o d t i e , though i t s power rem ained g r e a t . T h is lo o s e n in g o f th e bonds i s p a r t ic u la r ly n o t ic e a b le in t h e c a se o f th e f a t h e r - s o n r e la t i o n s h ip .

D isagreem en ts and e s ­

tran gem en ts betw een f a t h e r and son appear f r e q u e n tly in th e s a g a s . S t ° r y o f N j a l, p . 2 8 8 f f . 2. S e e p * 2 f , su p ra . l 3 . L ettsom , The N ie b e lu n g e n lie d , p . v i .

42

r

E g i l ’ s f a t h e r , in a ra g e o f a n g e r , rushed a t him t o k i l l him. v a n t came betw een them and t h e f a t h e r k i l l e d h e r . k i l l e d h i s f a th e r * s o v e r s e e r # 1

A ser­

In rev e n g e , E g il

T h is a c t o f a son e x a c tin g s e r v a n t-

f o r - s e r v a n t ven gean ce on h i s fa th e r i s a s t r i k in g r e v e la t io n o f a b rea ch o f th e a n c ie n t bond. m ity , t o o .

G r e t t ir and h is f a t h e r were s p l i t by en­

The s t r a g g le betw een them i s g iv e n in g r e a t d e t a i l in th e

G r e t t ir S a g a .^

In th e en d , t h e f a t h e r had to su b m it: w ,Let n e it h e r

speak o f i t t o th e o t h e r , * s a id G r e t t ir , and so i t remained.**3

G ret­

t i r ’ s f a t h e r had p r e v io u s ly been a t enm ity w ith h i s own f a t h e r . O u tsid e in f lu e n c e s , i t i s c le a r , had been a t work underm ining th e c l o s e r e la t io n s h ip betw een f a t h e r and son# had been s tr o n g p e r so n a l o u t s id e f r ie n d s h ip s .

One d is r u p t iv e f a c t o r In th e E g il S a g a , f o r

exam ple, A r in b io m , drawn to E g i l , demanded t h a t h i s f a t h e r g a in th e N orse k in g ’ s p e r m issio n f o r th e I c e la n d e r , unwelcome in Norway, t o s t a y in th e land# HE g il and I w i l l have but one and th e same w in te r q u a r te r s , b o th o f u s , ” d e c la r e d h e , and h is f a th e r saw th a t A rin b io rn would have h i s way in t h i s . ^ L ess adm irable was t h e f r ie n d s h ip in to w hich Mord, in th e N ja l g a g a . t r ic k e d th e so n s o f N ja l#

Worming h is way in to t h e i r c o n fid e n c e , so

t h a t th e y d id n ot th in k th e y **had ta k en any good c o u n s e l u n le s s t h e o t h e r had a sh a r e in i t , ”5 he i n c i t e d them t o k i l l H auskuld, t h e ir f o s t e r b r o th e r .

N ja l was d i s t r e s s e d t h a t h is so n s had l e f t him ou t

o f t h e i r c o u n s e ls , b u t he was h e lp le ss.* * E g ils s a g a . p . 16# 2# G r e t t ir S aga, p . 2 7 f f . 5 . I b i d . , p# S I . E g lls s a g a . P* 93# 5 . S to r y o f N j a l. p . 200 6* I b id # , p . 201#

“i

43

A nother f a c t o r working a g a in s t th e bond o f f a t h e r and son was 'tlie QOfflitatns r e l a t i o n s h i p .

C lo se m il i t a r y a l le g ia n c e to a p ow erfu l

le a d e r o f t e n ra n co u n te r to th e b lo o d t ie *

In th e c a s e o f T h o r o lf

and h i s f a t h e r K v e ld u lf, f o r in s t a n c e , t h e so n c l e a r l y went a g a in s t th e a d v ic e and w ish e s o f h is f a t h e r , when he went from h i s p a ren t t o j o i n th e k in g ’ s men*

King H arald had s e n t word t h a t K v e ld u lf o r one

o f h i s so n s was t o come t o him and b e h is man*

K v e ld u lf, who had no

l i k i n g f o r th e k in g , had r e f u s e d , and had a d v ise d h is so n s t o r e f u s e , too*

T h o r o lf, how ever, announced h is in t e n t io n o f j o in in g th e

eo m ita tu s o f th e king* Then sh a p e th i t a l l a n o th er way than my mind s a it h o f i t ; b ec a u se m ethink s th e r e s h a l l b e t id e me from t h i s t h e g r e a t e s t fu r th e r a n c e . And on t h i s I am f a s t r e s o lv e d , t o go s e e th e K ing and become h is m a n .l T h o r o lf ’s b r o th e r , Grim, on th e o th e r hand, r e fu se d t o le a v e h i s f a t h e r f o r th e king*

He d e c la r e d , ”1 w i l l n o t be made a lan ded

man w h ile my f a t h e r l i v e t h * E v e n in h i s c a s e , i t a p p ea rs, th e c a l l o f th e eo m ita tu s was s tr o n g , f o r he announced h i s in t e n t io n o f r e s i s t i n g i t o n ly d u rin g h i s f a t h e r ’s l i f e t i m e . A nother f a c t o r w orking a g a in s t th e f a th e r - s o n bond was th e S ca n d in a v ia n p r a c t ic e o f f o s t e r a g e . o f t h e power o f th e f o s t e r bond.

There a r e i n t e r e s t i n g in s ta n c e s

N ja l so lo v e d h is f o s t e r so n , th a t

he was b ro k en -h e a rted a t h i s d ea th — p a r t ic u l a r l y b eca u se i t had been cau sed by h is own s o n s .

He d e c la r e d t o h is o l d e s t son: w,f h is

g r i e f to u c h e s me so n e a r ly th a t m ethinks i t were b e t t e r t o have l o s t 1* E g ils s a g a . p* 8* .2* I b i d . , p . 9* 3* L.

44 r two o f my so n s dad t h a t Bauskuld l i v e d ."

"i H is son answ ered, w ith some

f e e l i n g : "Thou a r t an o ld man, and i t i s t o be lo o k ed f o r th a t t h i s to u c h e s th e e nearly."^N j a l f s grandson, l i t t l e Thord, was a l s o h is f o s t e r so n ; and th e bond b etw een them p r o v id e s a n oth er exam ple o f th e s tr e n g th o f th e t i e . When N j a l f s home was surrounded by enem ies and s e t a f i r e , th e women and m inors were g iv e n a chance t o e s c a p e .

N ja l* s w if e o f f e r e d t o

le a d Thord o u t o f th e b u rn in g b u ild in g ; but he r e f u s e d , p r e fe r r in g t o s t a y and d ie w ith h er and N j a l. Then sh e s a id t o th e boy Thord, K a r i's s o n , "Thee w i l l I ta k e o u t , and th ou s h a l t not burn in h e r e ." "Thou h a s t prom ised me t h i s , grandm other," sa y s th e b oy, " th a t we sh ou ld n ev er p a rt so lo n g a s I w ished t o b e w ith th e e ; but m ethin ks i t i s much b e t t e r t o d i e w ith th e e and N ja l than t o l i v e a f t e r y o u . "2 The t i e o f b ro th erh o o d , l i k e th e f a th e r - s o n t i e , was lo o se n e d in l a t e r t im e s .

I t was h e re t h a t th e bond o f m arriage p la y ed an

im p ortan t p a r t .

When a man m arried , he to o k on a new o b lig a t io n o f

l o y a l t y w h ich a t tim e s came in to c o n f l i c t w ith t h e o b lig a t io n o f l o y a l t y t o b lo o d k i n .

The dilemma in w hich K e t t le o f th e Mark found

h im s e lf i s an exam ple o f su ch a p red ica m en t.

M arried t o one o f N j a l’ s

d a u g h te r s, he was fa c e d w ith a hard c h o ie e when N j a l’ s son s q u a rreled w ith h i s b r o th e r , T h ra in .

When he t r i e d t o make p e a c e , h is b r o th e r

a c cu sed him o f d i s l o y a l t y and p a r t i a l i t y .

T h is i s c le a r from h is

r e p o r t o f th e c o n v e r s a tio n t o N ja l and h i s s o n s , when th e y asked him 1 . S to r y o f N j a l. p . 2 0 2 . 2 . I b id . « p . 237.

L

45 r

about t h e m a tter: wI t was p r e t t y p la in t h a t T hrain th ou gh t I s e t to o g r e a t s t o r e on b e in g you r b r o t h e r -in - la w . w o rse; and N j a l’ s s o n s k i l l e d T h rain . p a r t a g a in s t h is w i f e ’s k in d red .

L a te r , t h e q u a rrel grew

S t i l l K e t t le h e s it a t e d t o ta k e

He w as, how ever, fo r c e d in th e end

to h e lp k i l l h i s b r o t h e r ’s s l a y e r s . 2 The b r o th e r bond, l i k e th e f a t h e r - s o n t i e , was weakened, t o o , by th e p u l l o f str o n g o u t s id e p e r s o n a l f r ie n d s h ip s .

I g i l , f o r in s t a n c e ,

was f o r a tim e c l o s e r t o h i s f r ie n d A rih b iorn th a n he was t o h is own b r o th e r , T h o r o lf. E g il made g r e a t f r ie n d s w ith A rih b io rn , and was ev e r in company w ith him , but th e r e was somewhat o f a c o ld n e ss b e tw ix t t h o s e . • .b r e th r e n .^ That th e c a l l o f t h e eo m ita tu s w hich had se p a r a te d f a th e r and so n a l s o p a rted b r o th e r sh a s a lr e a d y been n oted in th e c a s e o f K v e ld u lf and G-rim.

T here a r e o th e r in s t a n c e s o f th e ren d in g o f th e

bond b etw een b r o th e r s by th e o b lig a t io n imposed by m il i t a r y a l l e g i ­ a n c e , b u t th e m ost d ram atic in th e S can d in avian r e c o r d s i s th e a cco u n t o f th e i l l - f a t e d A m eson b r o th e r s in th e H eim sk rin gla. The b eg in n in g o f t h e t r a g i c e v e n ts came when Torberg Arne so n , a t h i s w i f e ’ s r e q u e s t s , d ecid ed t o d e fy King O lav in o rd er t o a id h i s w i f e ’ s b e n e fa c to r .^

He asked h i s b r o th e r s f o r h e lp but th e y

r e f u s e d him, p le a d in g a lle g ia n c e t o th e k in g a s th e c a u se .

Torberg

a n g r ily a eeu sed them o f co w a rd ice, s a y in g t o one: ”1 b e l i e v e , how­ e v e r , t h a t thou l e a v e s t t h i s m a tter a lo n e more th rou gh f e a r th an th ro u g h a lle g ia n c e to th e k i n g .”® F i n a l l y , one b r o th e r , K alv, who 1 . S to r y o f H Jal. p . 1 6 4 . 2 . I b id . . p . 2 2 5 ff• B g ils s a g a , p . 7 9 . 4 . H eim sk rin g la , p . 3 7 0 f f . 5 . I b id . . p . 372. L

46

1

r d i s l i k e d th e k in g , o f f e r e d t o h e lp Torberg a g a in s t him .

T h is a c t

b rou gh t o u t th e b r o th e r ly sen tim en t o f l o y a l t y i n th e o t h e r s , so t h a t th e y a l l -united and fa c e d th e k in g w ith Torberg*s demands.

The k in g ,

fo r c e d t o com promise, agreed to make term s i f th e b r o th e r s would sw ear o a th s b in d in g them t o him .

K alv r e fu s e d , b u t th e o th e r s a g r e e d .

"No o a th w i l l I sw ear t o th e king,** d e c la r e d Kalv.^-

So th e b r o th e r s

w ere s p l i t . K alv drew away from K ing O lav and became C anute’s man in E ngland. L a te r h e l e d an army a g a in s t O lav i n Norway. When t h e two arm ies sto o d s t i l l . • .t h e k in g s a id , "Why a r t th o u t h e r e , K a lv ? . . .H ere a r e t h y . . . b r o th e r s ." K alv answered: "Many t h in g s now go o th e r w ise th a n b e s t b e s e e m s ."2 K a lv ’ s

b r o th e r s in

G la v ’ s army f e l l wounded in th e

b a t t l e , in w hich

K alv*s

s id e g a in e d

th e v i c t o r y .

K alv search ed f o r

A f te r th e b a t t l e ,

h is b r o th e r s so t h a t he m ight h elp them , but th e y were b i t t e r a g a in s t him . He found Torberg and F in n , and i t i s t h e t a l e o f men th a t F in n e a s t a sword a f t e r him and would s la y him; he sp ok e hard words t o him and c a lle d him a p eace d a sta r d and a k in g ’s b e t r a y e r .3 But K alv p a id no a t t e n t i o n and h elp ed h i s b r o th e r s from th e f i e l d . At K a lv ’s home, F in n was s t i l l b i t t e r .

K alv rem ained p a t ie n t and

b r o t h e r ly , how ever. Finn was a lw a y s sp eak in g hard words t o K a lv . Tor­ b erg A m eso n r e in e d h im s e lf in much b e t t e r th an Finn; but T orberg w ish ed t o go home t o h i s own g a r t h . K alv gave h i s b r o th e r s a good lo n g s h ip . • .an d a good f o l ­ lo w in g . 4 H eim sk rin g la . p p . 3 7 3 -7 4 . 2 . I b id ., p . 452. 3 . I b id . . p . 4 5 8 . 4 . I b id . . p . 4 6 6 ff. L

r A f t e r t h i s th e b r o th e r s w ere u n ite d in t h e i r f e e l i n g f o r each o th e r so t h a t t h e i r bond o f b lo o d was s tr o n g e r than th e eo m ita tu s bond. Iffhen C anute’ s s o n , S w ein , c a l le d upon K alv f o r s e r v i c e , K alv r e f u s e d , s a y in g , "I have done enough, i f n ot to o much f ig h t i n g a g a in s t my countrym en."

L a te r , h is b r o th e r s dem onstrated t h e i r l o y a l t y t o him .

A change o f k in g s i n Norway brought them back t o power. e v e r , was e x i l e d .

K alv, how­

F in n p lea d ed w ith t h e k in g f o r p e r m issio n t o be

g iv e n K a lv t o r e tu r n t o Norway.

K alv was p erm itted t o r e tu r n , bu t

t h e tr e a c h e r o u s k in g , fe a r in g him, s e n t him to h is d ea th f ig h t in g a g a in s t im p o ssib le o d d s.

For t h i s , F inn d e s e r te d th e k in g and went

o v e r t o h is en em ies. T h is dram atic e p is o d e show s, o f c o u r s e , th e t e n a c io u s s tr e n g th o f t h e a n c ie n t bond o f b ro th erh ood , b u t i t r e v e a ls , t o o , v e r y c l e a r s l y , j u s t how s tr o n g and a c t i v e th e eo m ita tu s sy stem was in w earin g down th e s tr e n g t h o f th e b lo o d t i e . D e t e r io r a t io n i s a p p a r en t, t o o , in th e bond o f s i s t e r and b r o th e r .

H ild ig u n n a , in th e E g il S a g a , showed none o f S ig n y ’ s

in t e n s e l o y a l t y f o r h er b r o t h e r s .

I n s t e a d , sh e s id e d w ith one o f

t h e i r r i v a l s , and ta u n te d them w ith i n s u l t s . "G-unnar has a brown h o r s e ," s h e s a y s , "and he w i l l d are t o f i g h t h i s h o r se a g a in s t you , and a g a in s t any one e l s e . • .Y e w i l l fa r e much w o rse," sh e s a y s . • . And s o th e r e a r o s e ou t o f t h i s th e g r e a t e s t s t r i f e betw een thesa.3. Her ta u n ts goaded th e b r o th e r s in to p ic k in g a f i g h t w ith G-unnar, in w hich a l l b u t one w ere k i l l e d .

Only th e n d id th e s i s t e r show any

sympathy; but even a s sh e was d r e s s in g th e s u r v iv o r ’ s wounds, sh e rep roach ed him, sa y in g : "Ye w ould have g iv e n a g r e a t d e a l n ot t o

L1# BgHssaga. p. 104.

r have f a l l e n o u t w ith Guimar. A nother in d ic a t io n o f t h e w eakening o f th e bond betw een b r o th e r

anc\ s i s t e r l i e s in th e l a x i t y w ith w hich th e o ld custom o f b e tr o th in g a s i s t e r came t o b e o b se r v e d .

"Thy f o r e f a t h e r s would not have s u f ­

f e r e d such a t h in g ," 2 c r ie d S ig r i d t o h er husband Sw ein Forkbeard when he l e t h i s s i s t e r , T y r i, marry w ith o u t h i s c o n s e n t.

T h o rir

H ro a ld so n ’s s i s t e r , Thora, d e f ie d h er b r o th e r when he r e fu s e d t o g iv e h i s co n sen t to h er m arriage w ith B iorn B r y n io lfs o n . e lo p e d .

She and B io rn

l a t e r T h o rir was r e c o n c ile d . And now T h o rir p a id ou t o f hand th a t f e e w hich Thora owned in h i s g a r th ; and now th e y to o k up, T h o rir and B io r n , fr ie n d s h ip b e s id e s t h e i r t i e s o f a f fin ity .3

The f a t h e r ’ s c o n t r o l o v e r h i s d au gh ter was weakened, t o o . B a llg e r d a rebuked h e r f a t h e r f o r b e tr o th in g h e r t o Thorwald w ith ­ o u t f i r s t c o n s u lt in g h e r . "Now th a t has been p ut t o th e p r o o f w hich I a l l a lo n g have b een a f r a i d o f , t h a t thou l o v e s t me n ot so much. • .when th ou h a st n ot th ou gh t i t w orth w h ile to t e l l me a word o f a l l th e m a t t e r . " ^ A lth ou gh s h e m arried Thorwald f i n a l l y , sh e d id so o n ly a f t e r h er f o s t e r - f a t h e r had a ssu r e d h e r m e a n in g fu lly t h a t sh e would b e mar­ r i e d a secon d tim e .

He a ssu r e d h er: "Then w i l l t h e y a sk th e e what

th o u t h in k e s t o f th e m atch."3

The f a c t th a t i t tu rn ed ou t a s he

s a id 3 i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d em o n stra tio n o f th e d e t e r io r a t io n o f th e a n c ie n t power o f th e p a ren t o v e r h is d a u g h ter .

A s t r id ’ s s u c c e s s f u l

d is o b e d ie n c e o f h er f a t h e r , a g a in s t whose w is h e s sh e m arried O lav 1 . B g ils s a g a . p . 1 0 7 . 2 . H e im sk rin g la . p . 2 0 4 . 3 * E g ils s a g a . p . 6 8 . S to r y o f N j a l. p . 1 8 . 5 . I b id . l 6 . I b id . . p . 2 0 f f .

49 r

D ig r e , a s a lr e a d y n o te d ,

*|

n

i s a n o th e r c a s e in p o in t .

The weakening o f th e f a t h e r ’ s a b s o lu te c o n t r o l o v er h is d au gh ter i s reco rd ed in t h e la w o f th e F r o st a t h in g , w hich r e p r e s e n ts a l a t e r p e r io d : I f a man w ish e s t o g iv e in m arriage h i s d au gh ter, • • he s h a l l ta k e two w it n e s s e s on b e h a lf . • . [ o f her s u i t o r 3. • .and go t o in q u ir e w h ether sh e i s w i l ­ l i n g t o a c c e p t th e arrangem ent. . . i f sh e a g r e e s o r rem ains s i l e n t . • .t h e woman i s a f f ia n c e d . • . b u t, i f sh e r e f u s e s sh e i s n ot a f f i a n c e d . ^

C on clu sion

The Germanic fa m ily was th e dominant f a c t o r in th e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e o ld d a y s.

K in s o l i d a r i t y was marked by a l o y a l t y t h a t

su p ersed ed a l l o th e r t i e s . weak.

The bond o f m arriage was co m p a ra tiv ely

Women w ere more c l o s e l y bound t o t h e i r b lo o d k in d r e d .

so n s w ere c o n sid e re d c l o s e l y r e la t e d t o t h e i r b r o th e r s .

T h eir

Fam ily

p o s i t i o n and in f lu e n c e d eterm in ed th e t i e s betw een g r a n d ch ild ren and t h e i r p a te r n a l o r m a tern a l g ra n d p a ren ts. W ith t h e p a ssa g e o f tim e , fa m ily s o l i d a r i t y d e t e r io r a t e d . C h ie f c o n tr ib u tin g f a c t o r s were m arriage and th e eo m ita tu s r e l a t i o n ­ s h ip .

As th e m arriage bond g a in ed in s tr e n g t h and riv a lled th e bond

o f b lo o d , th e r e r e s u lt e d a breakdown o f p a r e n ta l and b r o th e r ly con­ t r o l o v e r women; and a s th e eo m ita tu s bond became more and more p o w e r fu l, th e l o y a l r e la t io n s h ip o f f a t h e r and s o n , and o f b r o th e r s , d e t e r io r a t e d .

In tim e , an a lm ost a n a rch ic s t a t e o f in d iv id u a l

1 . S e e p .3 3 , su p ra . 2 * L arson , op . ~crbV, p . 254. L

_i

50

r

-i freedom s e t in , w ith members o f th e fa m ily f o llo w in g s t r o n g ly in d e­ pendent i n t e r e s t s .

N e v e r t h e le s s , th e bonds o f k in were n ev er com­

p l e t e l y broken; and th e fa m ily co n tin u ed to e x e r t an im portant i n f l u ­ en ce o v er s o c i e t y . The c o n d itio n s h ere n o te d w ere, f o r th e m ost p a r t, p u r e ly pagan. C h r i s t i a n i t y was n ot adopted by th e S ca n d in a v ia n s u n t i l th e end o f t h e t e n t h c e n tu r y .

S in c e th e A n glo-Saxon r e c o r d s a r e alm ost e n t i r e l y

C h r is tia n , l a r g e l y r e f l e c t i n g a changing s i t u a t i o n when th e new f a i t h grew in t h e shadow o f th e o l d , th e S ca n d in a v ia n re c o r d s p ro v id e p a r t ic u l a r l y v a lu a b le background m a t e r ia l.

L_

_J

CHAPTER I I

THE FAMILY UMBER PAGAN ANGLO-SAXON CONDITIONS

S in c e th e Old E n g lis h r e c o r d s a r e C h r is tia n f o r t h e m ost p a r t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d eterm in e from them w ith any e x a c tn e s s what th e a c t u a l c o n d itio n s co n cern in g th e E n g lis h fa m ily were p r io r t o th e C o n v ersio n ,

In th e l i g h t o f S ca n d in a v ia n e v id e n c e , how ever, i t i s

p o s s i b l e t o p ie c e t o g e t h e r , i n th e m ain, a p a tte r n o f h eath en con­ d i t i o n s from r e co r d s s e t down c lo s e t o th e tim e o f th e change o f f a it h *

The law s o f A e th e lb e r h t, about 602 A .D ,, and o f I n e , 6 8 8 -

695 A *B ., c o n ta in v a lu a b le e v id e n c e . H is to r y i s s i m i l a r l y v a lu a b le * some v a lu e .

S t* Bede*s E e c l e s i a s t i c a l

The p e n i t e n t i a l l i t e r a t u r e has

The C h ro n icle h as s u b s t a n t ia l w orth , and th e c r e a t iv e

l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t ic u l a r l y B eo w u lf, o f f e r s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t ­ in g and in fo r m a tiv e m a t e r ia l. A l l t h e e v id e n c e p o in t s t o th e f a c t t h a t among t h e A n glo-S axon s, a s among t h e S ca n d in a v ia n s and Germanic p e o p le s g e n e r a lly , fa m ily was o f t h e h ig h e s t im portance in th e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . o f k in s h ip

The s ig n i f ic a n c e

appears in l i n e a f t e r l i n e o f th e e a r ly r e c o r d s .

In

B eo w u lf, th e r e appears a s u c c in c t l i n e w hich e x p r e s s e s , f o r c e f u l l y , th e code men l i v e d by: " sib b * a e f r e ne maeg w ih t onwendan pam &e w el p en ce£. 1* B eow ulf F u rth er L

(e d . F r a n c is K la e b e r ), New York, H eath, 1 9 2 8 , 1 1 . r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be t o t h i s e d itio n *

2 6 0 0 -1 .

_l

52

r

“i The K indred G e n e r a lly

The Im portance o f k in s h ip t o t h e A nglo-Saxon i s r e v e a le d th rou gh­ o u t th e reco r d s i n t h e trea tm en t o f b a t t l e a cc o u n ts; when th e dead a r e m en tion ed , th e n a r r a to r i s c a r e f u l t o i d e n t i f y th e f a l l e n ac­ c o r d in g to t h e i r k in .

In B eow ulf ap p ears a t y p i c a l example: "Dead

i s A esc h e r e , Y rm enlafes y ld r a brojbor.**1 That l o s s o f k in was d e e p ly f e l t i s o b v io u s from th e elo q u en t tr ea tm e n t o f t h e theme in t h e e a r ly p o e tr y .

In t h e Wanderer, f o r

exam ple, th e h e l p l e s s n e s s o f a k i n l e s s man in h i s t r a g i c l o n e l i ­ n e s s i s p o ig n a n tly e x p r e sse d w ith o b v io u s ly e f f e c t i v e ap p eal: swa i c m odesfan o f t e a m c e a r ig , freomaegum f e o r

minne s c e o ld e , e&Le b id a e le d , feteru m s a e l e n , .

. .2

The S e a fa r e r p r e s e n ts a s im ila r p ic t u r e o f s o li t u d e and m isery: p a e t s e mon ne wat J>e him on fo ld a n f a e g r o s t limped*, hu i c earm eearig is c e a ld n e sa e w in te r wunade w raeccan l a s turn, winemaegum b id r o r e n , bihongen hrim gelicum ; h a e g l' scurum f l a e g . 3 In B eo w u lf, t o o , t h e r e i s an e l e g a i c e x p r e s s io n o f sa d n ess a t l o s s o f k in , in th e e p is o d e d e p ic tin g th e g r i e f o f t h e l a s t su r v iv o r : fe e r h b e a lo f r e c n e le o d a m in ra . • .

w. • .guddeact fornam , fy r a gehw ylcne

In B eo w u lf’ s sa d w ords, spoken, a s h i s d ea th was app roach ing, t o h i s kinsman W ig la f, th e p o et e f f e c t i v e l y e x p r e sse d th e em p tin ess B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 1 3 2 3 -4 . g.^W anderer" in E x e te r Book (e d . G .P . K rapp), New York, Columbia U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 19 3 6 , p . 13 4 , 1 1 . 1 9 -2 1 . F u rth er r e fe r e n c e s t o t h i s poem w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n . in E x e te r Book, p . 1 4 3 , 1 1 . 1 2 -1 7 . 4 . B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 2 2 4 9 -5 1 .

r t h a t men f e l t o v er t h e l o s s and ab sen ee o f k in d red : »J)u e a r t e n d e la f u s s e s ey n n es, Waegraundinga; e a l l e wyrd forsw eop m ine magas t o m e to d s c e a fte . • *1 L ess t r a g i c e v id e n c e o f th e s ig n i f i c a n c e o f k in sh ip l i e s in th e e x p r e s s io n s o f

k in s h ip u sed t o i d e n t i f y p erso n s named under circum ­

s ta n c e s o th e r th an b a t t l e o r death*

I t was e v id e n t ly t h e custom

s t a t e p erson s* i d e n t i t i e s a c c o r d in g t o t h e i r t i e s o f k in s h ip .

to H roth-

g a r , f o r i n s t a n c e , knew and announced B eo w u lf’ s k in sh ip : "HroSgar m apelode, helm S e y ld in g a : *Ie h in e cu&e cn ih tw esen d e; waes h i s e a ld fa e d e r Ecg^eo h a te n , &aem t o ham f o r g e a f HreJ>el G eata angan d o h to r ;. ♦ . 2 C o n v en tio n a l term s and p h r a se s e x p r e s sin g k in s h ip are everyw here in th e r e e o r d s .

They a r e f o r th e most p a rt m erely l i t e r a l term s u sed

m a in ly f o r p u rp oses o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .

Commonest a re p h ra se s s t a ­

t i n g t h a t a p erso n i s th e f a t h e r , s o n , d au gh ter, nephew, u n c le , o f a n o th e r .

In B eow u lf* f o r exam ple, app ear Bearn Ecgjreowes.^ sunu

H r a e d le s .4 H ig e la e H r e ^ lin g . 5 Hemminges a a e g ,6 Haerefres d o h to r*7 n e fa Gaxmundes.^ u se d , to o *

D i s t i n c t i v e term s o f s p e c i f i c r e la t io n s h ip were

These in c lu d e earn, 9 m a tern a l u n c le , faed eren m aege*10

s u h te r g e fa e d r a n . H p a te r n a l u n c le and b r o th e r ’ s s o n , sw u ster

s ^Pti, ^

s i s t e r ’ s s o n , and apumsweoran. 13 s o n - in -la w and f a t h e r - in - la w . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6* 7. 8. 9. 10*

B eow u lf, 1 1 . 2 8 1 3 f f . I b id .* 1 1 . 3 7 1 -5 . I b id . . 1 . 1 3 8 3 . I b id . . 1 . 1 4 8 5 . I b id . . 1 . 1 9 2 3 . I b i d . , 1* 1 9 4 4 . I b id . . 1 . 1 9 2 9 . I b i d . , 1 . 1 9 62. I b id . . 1 . 8 8 1 . I b id *. 1 . 1 2 6 3 .

-;’ -L

ElgD. *Laborde, B yrh tn oth and Maldon, London, Heineman. 1936. n . 104. 1 .1 1 5 * ----------------------------------1 3 . B eo w u lf, 1 . 8 4 .

I-

54

r

There w e re , o f c o u r s e , t h e terras d e n o tin g members o f t h e immediate

n

fa m ily : fae& er, modor, brofror, sw u ste r , b y r e , b e a m , sunu, d o h to r. F a c tu a l p h r a s e s , i n t h e n atu re o f e p i t h e t s , b u t e x p r e s s iv e o f em p h asis, were u sed in th e l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s io n o f k in s h ip , i t appears from c e r t a i n e x p r e s s io n s i n B eow u lf: angan brefrer,^ angan e a fe r a n , 2 and angan d o h to r.

E p it h e t i c compounds w ere common: freomaegum,^ e 6 f r e e kinsm an, w ine-m aeg, f r ie n d kinsm an, heafod-m aega, head (o r

v e r y c l o s e ) r e l a t i v e , cneo-raaeg.^ knee kinsman ( "knees” were d e g rees o f r e la t io n s h ip — g r a n d c h ild r e n were in t h e f i r s t k n e e )8 and neh-m aeg,

q

n ear kinsm an.

There a re i n t e r e s t i n g e p it h e t s f o r so n ,

d a u g h ter and w if e in B eow u lf and o th e r poems: y rfew ea rd ,* 8 l i t e r a l l y h e r ita g e -g u a r d ia n , was a w ell-kn ow n k enn in g f o r so n , Freo^uwebbe, ^ * l i t e r a l l y p eacew eaver, was a k enning f o r la d y , and haraweorffunge^ (fou n d o n ly in B eo w u lf) , l i t e r a l l y ornament o f th e home, was a f in e and s i g n i f i c a n t e p it h e t f o r d a u g h ter.

Husband and W ife

Among th e A n g lo -S a x o n s, a s among th e e a r ly S ca n d in a v ia n s and o t h e r Germanic p e o p le s , m arriage under pagan c o n d itio n s was a m a tte r 1 , B eow u lf, 1 , 1 2 6 2 , 2 , I b id , . 1 . 1 5 4 7 . 5 . I b i d . , 1 . 375; 1 . 2997. W id s lth , in E x e te r Book, p . 1 4 9 , 1 , 53; Wanderer, 1 . 2 1 , S e a f a r e r , 1* 16; B eow u lf, 1 , 6 5 . 6 . B eo w u lf, 1 .2 1 5 1 . 7 . A n glo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , A .D . 937, B a t t le o f Brunanburh, p . 106, 1 . 8 . 8 . Gummere, Founders o f E n glan d , p . 1 4 4 . 9 . B l i e k l i n g H o m ilies o f th e 1 0 th Century ( t r . R ichard M o r r is ), London, E a r ly E n g lis h T ext S o c i e t y , 1880, p . 1 1 3 . 1 0 . B e o w u lf, 1 1 . 2 7 31, 2453; P h o en ix , i n E x e te r Book, p . 9 4 , 1 . 3 7 6 . B e o w u lf, 1 . 1942; W id s ith , 1 . 1 6 . 1 2 . I b i d . , 1 . 2998. l_

"

-

55 r

o f c o n tr a c t b ased upon th e id e a o f purchase*

Bow v e r y d e f i n i t e l y



w iv e s were c o n sid e r e d c h a t t e l t h a t co u ld be b o u g h t, s o ld and r e ­ p la c e d , ap p ears in a la w o f A e th e lb e r h t: G if frim an wi^T f r i e s mannes w if e g e lig e p , h is w erg eld a b ic g e , 7 o&er w if h i s agenum s c a e t t e b e g e te 7 3aem odrum a e t ham g e b r e n g e .1 The o r d in a r y id e a o f th e m arriage c o n tr a c t appears in th e law w hich p r o v id e s sim p ly t h a t i f a man buys a m aiden, th e b a r g a in s h a l l sta n d i f t h e r e i s no d ish o n e sty * G if mom maegp g e b ig e # , ce a p i geceapod s y , g i f h i t u n facn e i s *2 A nother p r o v is io n o f th e same law shows t h a t th e husband co u ld r e tu r n h i s w if e i f he f e l t he had been ch ea ted ; and he was en­ t i t l e d t o h i s money back. G if h i t ponne fa e n e i s e f t p a e r a e t ham g eb ren g e, 7 him man h i s s c a e t a g e f e .3 A la w o f In e p ro v id ed t h a t on ce t h e w if e was p u rch ased , th e m a rria g e had to ta k e p la c e , o r e l s e th e b r i d e s g u ard ian had to r e tu r n th e b r id a l p r ic e and pay th e bridegroom a s much a g a in . The t r u s t e e o f th e m arriage was e n t i t l e d t o com pensation f o r th e i n f r a c t i o n o f h i s su r ety * G if mon w i f g e b y c c g e , 7 s i o g^rft f o r $ ne cume, a g i f e p a e t fe o h 7 f o r g ie ld e / g e b e t te Jaam byrgean swa h i s b orgb ryce s i e . d There i s l i t t l e room t o doubt th a t pagan A nglo-Saxon m arriage was a b u s in e s s arrangem ent, w ith th e t i e made b in d in g by th e payment o f money. 1* F e l i x Liebermann, D ie G e se tz e d er A n g elsa ch sen * H a lle , Max N iem eyer, 1 9 0 3 , A e th e lb e r h t, Law 5 1 , 4 v o l s • , V o l. I , p . 5 . 2 . I b id *, A e th e lb e r h t, # 7 7 , V o l. I , p . 7 . 3* I b id * , A e th e lb e r h t, # 7 7 , 1 , V o l. 1 , p . 8 . I b id * , I n e , [6 8 9 -9 4 A .B .J , #31E, V o l. I , p . 1 0 2 . L4 . ——— -i

56

However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e w if e , a t tim e s , was f a r from lo w ly .

“I

The e x a lt e d s t a t i o n o f Wealhtheow, in B eow ulf,

. i s f i e t i o h , in a l i t e r a r y s e n s e ; and m oreover th e cou rt o f H rothgar was p ic tu r e d a s S ca n d in a v ia n ; n e v e r t h e le s s th e r e i s e v id e n c e to show t h a t th e p ic t u r e o f w i f e l y freedom and h ig h p o s i t i o n w hich th e p o et . p r e s e n te d i n th e c h a r a c t e r iz a t io n o f W ealhtheow w as, in a way, a r e f l e c t i o n o f a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s .i n E ngland.

Sexburga, w if e o f King

Cenwalh, f o r exam ple, was o b v io u s ly th e eq u a l o f h er husband, f o r sh e co n tin u ed t o r u le a f t e r h e r husband’ s d e a th . Her forj) fe r d e Genwalh 7 Seaxburg an g e a r r ie s o d e h i s cuen a e f t e r hlm^T h is reco rd i s o f a C h r is tia n

queen, but t h e ^ l ^ - w a s so c l o s e t o th e

p r e - C h r is t ia n tim e s t h a t i t i s o b v io u s ly

a s u r v iv a l o f pagan custom

r a th e r than an in n o v a tio n brought by th e new f a i t h . B eow u lf seem s t o be d e p ic t in g

The p o et o f

e a r ly E n g lis h c o n d itio n s in t h e p ic tu r e

o f H ro th g a r’ s queen among th e c o u r tie r s * Eode Wealhpeow f o r S , ewen HrocJgares cynna gem ydig, g r e t t e g o ld h rod en guman on h e a l l e , ond p a f r e o l i c w i f f u l g e s e a ld e . • • •



«













"Xiabeode p a id e s Helminga dugupe ond geogop e d a e l aegk w ylen e, s in c f a t o s e a ld e op p a e t s a e l alam p, p a e t h io B eo w u lfe, beaghroden cwen mode gepungen m edoful a e tb a e r ; g r e t t e G eata le o d , Gode pancode w is f a e s t wordum p a e s , faederinm aga f i o h agan 7 m o rgen gyfe.5 The o rd in a ry w if e had l i t t l e

r ig h t.

c o n tr o l o v er p r o p e r ty in h er own

In th e e a r l i e s t days sh e had no r ig h t t o lan d ed p ro p erty a t

a l l ; and t h e r e c o r d s show t h a t when sh e d id g a in g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e .



I ■ -

^ .....................................

— .............I

I

-

n — * '- i

I.

I.

.............................. — -

■ I.

II m

.

.1

...-,....1 .1 .1

1 . B eo w u lf, 11* 6 1 2 f f . 2 . T h is was tr u e l a t e r o f K ing A lf r e d ’ s s i s t e r , A e th e lfle d * S ee A nglo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , A .D . 9 190. 3 . Thomas P . O ak ley, E n g lis h P e n i t e n t i a l D i s c i p l i n e , and A nglo-Saxon Law, New York, Columbia U n iv e r s it y , 1 9 2 3 , p . 192, f o o t n o t e 2 . 4* B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is to r y (Baedae Opera H i s t o r i e s , t r . John E . K in g ), 2 v o l s . , New York, Putnam, 1 930, V o l. I , I I I , v i i i . L5. Lieberm ann, A e th e lb e r h t, # 7 9 , 8 0 , 8 1 , V o l. I , p . 8 .

r

i n t h i s r e s p e c t i t was o n ly a f t e r y e a r s o f C h r is tia n in flu e n c e on t r a d i t i o n and law ; and even th en h er c o n tr o l o v e r th e lan ded e s t a t e was l i m i t e d .

The p r o p e r ty accorded h e r i n th e law s j u s t quoted was

e v i d e n t l y r a th e r a p r o v is io n f o r th e c h ild r e n th a n h e r .

That arran ge

m ent seems to have rem ained an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f p r o p erty s e ttle m e n t on w iv e s even in t h e l a t e r , C h r is tia n y ea rs*

A w i l l o f th e l a t t e r

p a r t o f th e t e n th c e n tu r y , f o r exam ple, g r a n ts d e f i n i t e e s t a t e s to t h e w if e , hut p r o v id e s t h a t a t h er d ea th th e p r o p e r ty i s to p a ss in to !

t h e p o s s e s s io n o f t h e i r son ; and i f th e so n i s n o t th en a l i v e , th e husbandf s b r o th e r s a r e t o su c ceed t o p o s s e s s io n . ponnae an i c A e lf s ip a e minon w ifa e g y f heo lo n g beoc? ponne i c and i t swa g e h y lt swa i c h ir a e truwan t o haebbe e a lr a p a ra oSaera la n d a p a e i c l a e f a e . And heo panne g a e o r n lie a e o f pam god gep aen eae and f o r u n ere sa w le g e o r n lic a e beo and b ru cae heo p a e s la n d a es a e t Batancurabae hyrae daeg and a e f t e r h ir e daege ga h i t an A elfw a erd es hand u n cres suna g i f hae l i f a e s beo g y f h ae nae beo g y f-h a e -n a e b ee f o r m ine brodorn t o p a h w ila e p a e h i b eon . « .*■ A nother w i l l , o f about th e same tim e , lik e w is e g r a n ts e s t a t e s t o t h e w if e o n ly f o r a s lo n g a s sh e may l i v e ; a f t e r h er d ea th , th e w i l l p r o v id e s , th e la n d i s t o r e v e r t t o th e husband’ s n e a r e s t k in ­ dred* 7 he ann h i s w if e b a e s la n d e s a e t C y lle s h a le 7 a e t Eow ninglde 7 a e t Hrodene p a h w ile h ir e daeg beo 7 o f e r h i r e daeg ga la n d e f t in min cynn p a dfaer n e h s te s y n .2 I t i s c le a r th a t pagan A nglo-Saxon custom regard ed th e w if e a s th e husband’ s d i s t i n e t i n f e r i o r in m a tte r s o f property*

Whatever

1 . D orothy W h itelock ( e d . ) , A nglo-Saxon W i l l s . Cambridge U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1930, Ix A e lfh e a h T968 A .D .J , p p . 2 2 -2 4 . » XIX, W ill o f W u lfgeat [1006 A .D .] , p . 5 4 .

59

r

r i g h t s sh e g a in ed o v e r la n d became h ers th rough th e fa v o r o f h er hus­ band o r o f some m ale r e l a t i v e .

O b v io u sly sh e co u ld n o t , as a r u l e ,

d is p o s e o f t h e p ro p erty ; and sh e en joyed i t s u se d uring h er l i f e tim e o n ly i f h er husband o r m ale r e l a t i v e g r a n te d , g u a ra n teed , and pro­ t e c t e d h e r r ig h t t o do s o .

In any c a s e , p r o p e r ty sh e o b ta in e d from

h e r husband was o n ly a lo a n ; i t b elo n g ed fu n d am en tally t o h er hus­ band’ s k in d red and retu rn ed t o them a t h er d eath i f no son s s u r v iv e d . A p p a ren tly th e m a rriage bond, even in pagan tim e s , imposed c e r t a in o b lig a t io n s upon th e husband w ith regard t o th e w i f e ’ s r ig h ts .

She was not e n t i r e l y h is c h a t t e l .

E v id e n tly t h e s e r ig h t s

w ere p r o p o r t io n a t e ly g r e a t e r w ith th e d eg ree o f rank o r im portance o f t h e w i f e ’ s b lo o d k in d r e d .

P r e s t ig e was an im portant f a c t o r .

It

seem s p r e t t y c l e a r , how ever, t h a t a w i f e ’ s r ig h t depended upon a m ale kinsm an’ s s u p p o r t.

When King Oenwalh p ut away K ing Penda’ s

s i s t e r , fo r exam ple, Penda d e c la r e d war on Oenwalh and drove him from h i s kingdom. h a efd e h in e Penda a d r if enae 7 r i c e s benumenne fo i^ o n he h i s sw o ste r an f o r l e t . 1 One v e r y p ro b a b le e x p la n a tio n o f t h i s m il i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l pun­ ishm ent o f Oenwalh i s t h e f a c t t h a t A nglo-Saxon r o y a l m arriages w ere, a s o f t e n a s n o t, a l l i a n c e m a r r ia g e s, in su r in g p ea ee o n ly so lo n g a s t h e m arriage l a s t e d . i s p le n tifu l.

C lea r e v id e n c e o f a l l i a n c e m arriages

Edwin a l l i e d h im s e lf t o th e k in g s o f Kent when he to o k

t h e d a u g h ter o f A e th e lb e r h t f o r h is w i f e .

The m arriage had been

1 . A n glo-Saxon C h r o n ic le . V o l. I , p . 3 2 , A .D. 658A.

L

60 r

arranged by am bassadors s e n t by Edwin t o t h e b r id e ’ s b r o th e r , Eadb a ld .i

E ad b ald ’ s so n s i m i l a r l y wed th e d aughter o f Anna, K ing o f th e

E a st A n g le s .

A so n o f K ing Oswy lik e w is e m arried a d aughter o f Penda.

L a te r , P end a’ s son came t o Oswy, r e q u e s tin g to have h is d aughter E lf le d a .^ Oswy*

A nother so n o f Penda m arried O s t r it h a , a ls o a d au gh ter o f

Many o f th e s e w ere u n io n s o f pagan and C h r is tia n ; but th e cus­

tom stemmed c l e a r l y from e a r l i e r d a y s.

That i t c o n tin u e d a f t e r th e

C on version i s e v id e n c e o f i t s d e e p -r o o te d s t r e n g t h .

Furtherm ore,

th e r e i s no doubt t h a t one o f t h e m ain pu rp oses o f su ch m arriages was t o in su r e m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e , th u s:

p y fultum ode B e o r h tr ic O ffan y>y he h a efd e h i s d o h to r him t o cu en e.^ The p a r t p la y ed by t h e w if e in su ch m arriages has a p p a r e n tly n ot a lw a y s been c l e a r l y u n d ersto o d .

Gummere, d is c u s s in g t h e e x p r e s s iv e

e p i t h e t freocSuwebbe, o r w eaver o f p e a c e , adm its t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t r e f e r s t o t h e m arriage a s b r in g in g t o g e th e r two f a m ilie s and th u s te n d in g t o s e t a s id e h o s t i l i t y ; but he p o in t s ou t th a t Grimm saw th e term a s a r e fe r e n c e t o t h e h ou seh old u n io n .5

Lawrence

and Chambers saw o n ly a g e n e r a l o r d o m estic s ig n i f i c a n c e in th e term . The e v id e n c e , how ever, seem s to fa v o r th e broad er in t e r p r e t a t io n o f ”p e a c e -w e a v e r .” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

There e x i s t e d in pagan A nglo-Saxon l i f e a phenomenon

B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , V o l. I , p . 246, I I , IX. I b i d . . I I I , XXI, V o l. I , p . 4 3 0 . I b i d . (P o stu la n s f i l i a m e iu s A leh fled am s i b i coniugem d a r i .) A n glo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , A .B . 836A, V o l. I , p . 6 2 . Gummere. o p . c i t . , p . 1 5 4 . R obert W* Chambers, W id sith , a Study in Old E n g lis h H eroic Legend. Cambridge U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1912, p . 189; and W illiam W. Lawrence, **Structure and I n t e r p r e t a tio n o f W id s it h ,” MP, V o l. 4 , 1 9 0 7 , p . 3 5 0 .

o

61

t h a t p la y ed a m ost p o w erfu l p a r t in th e a f f a i r s o f men, o rd erin g t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , sw aying t h e i r em o tio n s, and c o lo r in g t h e i r th o u g h ts ; and t h i s phenomenon seems t o have been o v e r lo o k ed by some o f th o s e who s e e k t h e tr u e m eaning o f freoSuw ebbe.

B lo o d -fe u d , th e pagan

sy stem o f murderous j u s t i c e , was th e m ost p o w erfu l instrum ent o f s o c i a l c o n tr o l known*

P o llo c k and M aitlan d saw i t a s th e e a r l i e s t

form o f r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e in England: A man’s k in d red a r e h is a v en g ers; and a s i t i s t h e i r r ig h t and honor t o avenge him , so i t i s t h e i r d u ty to make amends f o r h is m isd eed s, o r e l s e m a in ta in h i s cau se in f ig h t * Gummere saw i t s in t e n s e and tremendous power: But i t was a f a r in t e n s e r f e e l i n g f i l l e d t h e aven ger o f b lo o d , than s e v e r i t i e s o f ou r modern j u s t i c e ; no e x te n u a tin g c ir c u m sta n c e s, and sunder one m o tiv e from a n oth er*2

t h a t th en any a b s tr a c t f o r i t knew i t d id not

One n eed s o n ly t o n o te t h e dram atic c o n t r a s t betw een t h e bru­ t a l i t y o f pagan th ou gh t r o o te d in sueh a v e n g e fu l t r a d it io n and th e p e a c e f u l s p i r i t o f th e C h r is tia n i d e a ls a s p r e s e n te d in St# B ed e’ s s t o r y o f th e d ea th o f S ig e b e r t t o r e a l i z e what a h o ld th e p r a c t ic e o f b lo o d -fe u d had on th e pagan A nglo-Saxon m ind. A ccord in g t o th e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , S ig e b e r t , King o f th e E a st S a x o n s, Im pressed w ith t h e id e a ls o f C h r is t ia n it y , became con­ v e r t e d and in flu e n c e d a number o f h is p e o p le t o a c c e p t th e new f a it h * At h i s r e q u e s t , Oswy s e n t th e man o f God, Gedd, to preach t o E a st Saxons#

th e

As a r e s u l t many were c o n v e r te d , but even w h ile C h r is tia n

1 . S i r F r ed e r ic k P o lla c k and F r ed erick W# M a itla n d , The H isto r y o f E n g lis h Law /b e fo r e th e tim e o f Edward It . 2 v o l s . , Cambridge U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 2 3 , Y ol# I I , p . 31# 2# Gummere, op. c i t *» pp# 168-9# L.

_l

62

rd o c t r in e was making su ch p r o g r e s s , th e k in g was murdered by h is own k in d red : two b r o th e r s who w ere angered by th e k in g f s m ercy t o h is e n e m ie s. I g it u r r e x S ig b e r e t a e t e r n i r e g n i iam e i u i s e f ­ f e c t s te m p o r a lis s u i r e g n i sedem r e p e t i i t , Osuiu r e g e u t a liq u o s s i b i d o c to r e s d a r e t, q u i gentom suam ad fid em C h r is t i c o n v e r te r e n t ac f o n t e s a lu t a r i abl u e r e n t . At i l l e m itte n s ad p rovin eiam M ed iterra neorum Anglorum e la m a v it ad s e virum D ei Cedd, e t d ato i l l i s o c io a l t e r o quodam p r e s b y te r o , m is i t p r a e d ic a r e verbum g e n t i O rien taliu m Saxonum. . . cum omnia peram bulantes multam Domino e c c le sia r a e o n g r e g a s se n t. . . e o n t i g i t ipsum regem i n s t ig a n t e omnitim bo no rum in im ic o , prop inquorum suorum manu i n t e r f i c i . E rant autem duo gen n an i f r a t r e s q u i hoc fa c in u s p a tr a r u n t. . . n i l a liu d resp on d ere p o tu eru n t, n i s i ob hoc s e ir a t o s f u i s s e e t in im ic o s r e g i , quod i l l e nimium s u i s p a r cere s o le r a t i n i m i c i s , e t f a e t a s ab e i s i n i u r i a s mox o b se c r a n tib u s p la e id a . m ente d im itt e r e t* 3* There a r e d e f i n i t e e p iso d e s in B eow ulf w hich r e v e a l C h r is tia n p r e o c c u p a tio n w ith t h e e v i l o f pagan s t r i f e .

Aaong t h e s e e p is o d e s

a r e c e r t a in ones w hich d e a l w ith t h e r e la t io n s h ip o f m arriage t o th e r e s tr a in t o f h o s t i l i t y .

In them may, p erh a p s, be found th e c lu e t o

t h e tr u e s i g n i f i c a n c e ©f th e term freoouw ebbe, w h ich i s a s l i k e l y a s n o t , a C h r is tia n l i t e r a r y c r e a t io n .

One o f th e m ost s t r ik in g o f

t h e s e e p is o d e s t e l l s th e t r a g i e s t o r y o f th e m arriage o f Freawaru t o I n g e ld , and r e v e a ls d i r e c t l y t h e te n a c io u s power o f t h e b lo o d -fe u d * The b r id e was prom ised t o h er husband t o s e t t l e a f i e r c e feu d . S io g e h a te n ( i s ) , geong gold h rod en gladum suna Frodan; (h)afa& £>aes geworden wine Seyldinga, rices hyrde, ond )paet raed talaS, joaet he mid 6y wife waelfaehSa dael saecea gesette.2 1 . B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . I l l , x x i i , Y o l. I , pp. 436, 43 8 . 2 . B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 2 0 2 4 -9 . L_

1

63

r

The p eace d id n o t l a s t lo n g , however*

Through no f a u l t o f t h e

b r id e , nor o f th e husband, s t r i f e broke ou t a g a in when a f i e r c e war­ r i o r eou ld n o t f o r g e t h i s form er en m ity. a e f t e r le o d h y r e bongar b uged,

O ft s e ld a n hwaer h w ile J?eah seo bryd d u g e.1 ly t le

The b reach o f p e a c e , in t h i s c a s e , was caused by an o ld w a rrio r in th e husband’s e o m ita tu s : ponne cw id a e t b e o re s e Se beah gesyhJT, e a ld a e sc w ig a , s e S e e a l l gem (an ), garcweala gumena — him bi& grim sefa , onginned geomormod geong(um) cempan purh hre&ra gehygd higes cunnian, wigbealu weccean. . .2 In a n o th er e p is o d e , th e c a se o f T hryth, how ever, t h e p o e t c l e a r l y p o in t s to th e w if e a s th e d is t u r b e r o f t h e p ea ce; and, a lth o u g h no h o s t i l i t y betw een k in d re d s i s s p e c i f i e d , he seem s to be p o in tin g ou t t h e dangerous p o s s i b i l i t y o f such h o s t i l i t y . Me bid swyle ewenlic peaw idese to efnanne; peah Se hio aenlicu sy, paette freoduwebbe feores onsaece aefter ligetorne leofne mannan. Huru paet onhohsnode Ce3 Hemminges maeg: ealodrincende oiler saedan, paet M o leodbealewa laes gefremede, inwitni&a, sySdan aerest wearS gyfen goldhroden geongum cempan, ae^felum diore, sySdan hio Offan flet ofer fealone flod be faeder lare side gesohte;^ I t seem s overw h elm in gly c l e a r th a t th e B eow ulf p o e t in ten d ed th e term freoduwebbe t o mean a w eaver^ d f-p eace in th e se n se o f a p r e ­ v e n t e r o f a m e d h o s t i l i t y , p a r t ic u la r ly betw een h er own p e o p le and B e o w u lf, 1 1 . 2029-31 2 . I b id . , 1 1 . 2 0 4 1 -4 6 . 3 . I b id . , 1 1 . 1 9 4 0 -5 1 . L

64 r

h e r husband’s p eop le* A s im ila r term h e lp s shed l i g h t on th e in ten d ed m eaning.

The

p o e t , r e f e r r in g t o Wealhjpeow, e a l l s th e w if e o f HroSgar a bond o f p ea c e to th e n a tio n s : f r i£ u s ib b f o l c a .^ T h is w eaving o f p ea ce was a t tim e s an in h e r e n t v a lu e in a d i f ­ f e r e n t s o r t o f m a rriage bond#

The dau gh ter g iv e n in m arriage a s a

reward f o r o u tsta n d in g m il i t a r y s e r v i c e , w as, t o o , a p eace-w eaver in a c e r t a in s e n s e .

H y g e la c ’s g i f t o f h is d au gh ter t o B>for

s c p ic u o u s m il i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e , was such

f o r co n -

an arrangem ent.

He $(am) fraetwum fe n g ond him fa e g r e g e h e t le a n a (mid) leodum , ond g e l a e s t e swa; g e a ld p o n e gmoraes G eata d ryh ten , H reS les e a fo r a , p a he t o ham becom, I o fo r e ond W ulfe mid ofermaSmum s e a ld d e h io r a gehwaeSrum hund p usend a la n d e s ond lo c e n r a b ea g a , — ne 5 b r f t e him Sa le a n oS w itan mon on m iddangearde, sy

72

w a ere, ne on ]paes w if e s nydmagan, J>e he s y l f a e r h a e fd e , ne on h i s g e fa ed era n ; ne on geh a lg o d re nunnan ne on a e la e t a n a e n ig c r i s t e n man ne g e w i f i g e a e f r e ne na ma w ifa jponne an haebbe, ac beo be p a e r e anre ]oa h w ile , ]pe heo ly b b e , s e J)e w y lle g od es la g e giman mid r i h t e and wifr h e l l e bryne beorgan h i s sawle.^I t i s more th an c l e a r , t h a t th e bond o f m a rria g e, under pagan c o n d it io n s , had been lo o s e and d ev o id o f sen tim e n t o r s p i r i t u a l ten d er n e ss*

E s s e n t i a l l y a p r a c t i c a l arrangem ent, in w hich t h e u nion

o f man and w if e was made b in d in g by a payment o f some s o r t , pagan .Anglo-Saxon m arriage was s u s c e p t ib le t o d e g e n e r a tin g p r a c t ic e s in ­ c lu d in g a d u lte r y , i n c e s t , e a s y d iv o r c e and polygamy* The t i e s o f b lo o d , on th e o th e r hand, were e s s e n t i a l l y str o n g and la s t in g *

F a th e r and Son

In th e e a r l i e s t A nglo-Saxon d a y s, th e r e was th e c l o s e s t o f t i e s b in d in g f a t h e r and son*

The so n was th e y rfew ea rd , 2 o r in h e r it o r afid

g u a rd ia n o f th e a n c e s t r a l p o s s e s s io n s *

He su cceed ed t o h i s f a th e r * s

p r o p er ty r i g h t s and power; and t h i s , a s P o llo c k and M aitlan d n o te , by no g i f t , b e q u e st, in h e r it a n c e , o r any t i t l e known to our modern law *3 The e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s o f th e C h ro n icle show f a t h e r s and so n s in c l o s e u n ity : f i g h t i n g , d e fe n d in g , g a in in g power and r u lin g .

H engest

i s u s u a lly cou p led w ith h i s b r o th e r H orsa, b u t th e reco rd shows t h a t he 1* OTulfstan» Sammlung d er ihm Z u gesch rieb en en H orailien, von A rthur N a p ie r , B e r lin , Weidman, 1883 (Saramlung E n g lisc h e n Denkmaler in K r it is e h e n Ausgaben, V o l. 4 ) , p . 2 7 1 . 2 . B eo w u lf, 1* 2731. ^3* P o llo c k and M a itla n d , E n g lis h Law, V o l. I I , p . 248.

^

73

and h i s so n A esc were c l o s e and l o y a l com panions, f ig h t in g t o g e th e r a g a in s t t h e B r i t i s h , ! o f Kent*

4g8 A .D . A esc su cceed ed h i s f a t h e r a s King

S im ila r ly th e r e was c l o s e com panionship "between E lla and h is

t h r e e s o n s , and betw een O erdic and h is so n G yn ric.^ M a n ife s t ly , t h e fundam ental o rd er o f s u c c e s s io n was from f a t h e r t o so n ; b u t t h a t in clu d e d a l l t h e s o n s , f o r u n t i l a l l th e son s had had an o p p o r tu n ity to su c c e e d to t h e g u a rd ia n sh ip o f th e a n c e s t r a l power, a p p a r e n tly , no g r a n d ch ild r en w ere e n t i t l e d t o s u c c e s s io n *

T h is seems

to have r e s u lt e d in an ap p aren t s u c c e s s io n by b r o th e r s; t h a t i s , b r o th e r s seem t o have b een s u c c e e d in g each o t h e r , when a c t u a lly th e y w er e, each in tu r n , s u c c e e d in g t h e i r fa th e r *

The p o et o f B eow ulf

r e f e r s d e f i n i t e l y to t h e r i g h t s o f a l l so n s t o i n h e r i t , in th e s t a t e ­ ment o f H r e t h e l’s le g a c y , f o r h e s t a t e s t h a t H r e th e l l e f t la n d and th e c h i e f c i t y t o h i s s o n s , a s a w ea lth y man does when he d ep a rts from l i f e : Godes le o h t g e c e a s ; eaferum l a e f d e , swa deS e a d ig mon, le n d ond le o d b y r ig , J>a he o f l i f e g ew a t. 3 There was a s tr o n g em o tio n a l t i e betw een f a t h e r and son*

T h is

i s r e f l e c t e d by B eo w u lf, i n t h e e f f e c t i v e p ic t u r e o f a f a t h e r ’ s g r i e f o v e r th e d ea th o f h i s s o n .

I t i s a s t r i k i n g comment on th e n a tu re o f

th e pagan f a t h e r - s o n bond t h a t t h e bereaved o ld man’s sorrow was made h e a v ie r by th e though t t h a t he co u ld in no way avenge h i s s o n ’ s d ea th , f o r i t was by a c c id e n t a t th e hands o f a b roth er* 1 . A nglo-Saxon C h r o n ic le . A.D* 456E and A.D. 465E. 2 . I b id *, A .D . 477E and A.D. 495E. 3.

L_

B e o w u lf,

11.

2 4 6 9 -7 1 .

•J

Swa wedra helm a e f t e r H erehealde h eo rta n so r g e w e a llin d e waeg; w ih te ne m eahte on 5am feorhbonan fa eg h 3 e geb eta n ; no 3y a e r he |>one heacforinc h a tia n ne meahte laSum daedum, p e a h him l e o f ne w a e s .! A nother i n t e r e s t i n g p o e t ic e x p r e s sio n o f th e em otion al n a tu re o f t h e f a th e r - s o n t i e i s p ro v id ed by B eow u lf’ s sad words as h is l i f e n ea red i t s end,$ and he fa c e d d ea th a c h i l d l e s s man.

In th e words o f

p en t-u p lo n g in g f o r a son t h a t e sca p e from th e h e r o ’s l i p s may be s e e n , p erh a p s, th e m eaning o f fa th erh o o d to th e A nglo-Saxon in th e e a r l i e s t days:

Beowulf m apelode — h e o f e r benne s p r a e c , wunde w a e lb le a te ; w isse he gearw e, p a e t he d aeg h w ila gedrogen h a e fd e , eorSan w ynn(e); 5a waes e a l l sc e a c e n d o g o rg erim es, dea5 ungem ete neah — : ’Hu i c suna minum s y ll a n w olde guSgewaedu, p a e r me g i f e 5 e swa a e n ig y rfew ea rd a e f t e r wurde l i c e g e le n g e . 2 F u rth er l i g h t on t h e n a tu r e o f t h e f a th e r - s o n bond i s shed by th e p o e t o f B eow u lf in H fo th g a r ’ s im petuous words t o t h e hero who had d e liv e r e d him and h i s p e o p le from th e m o n ster’s t e r r o r .

O b viou sly

w is h in g t o reward B eow u lf a s r i c h l y a s p o s s i b l e , th e k in g o f fe r e d him t h e p r e e io u s bond o f f a t h e r ly attach m en t: Hu i c , B eow u lf, p e c , secgC a] b e t s t a , me f o r sunu w y lle fr eo g a n on fe r h p e ; h e a ld fo r 5 t e l a niwe s ib b e . He b i 5 p e [n ]a e n ig r a gad w orold e w iln a , p e i c gew eald h a e b b e U n d ou b ted ly, th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een f a t h e r and son in th e e a r l i e s t A n glo-Saxon days was c l o s e and e m o tio n a lly s tr o n g . !•

B e o w u lf. 1 1 .

2 4 6 2 -2 4 6 7 .

2 . I b id . , 1 1 . 2 7 2 4 -2 7 3 2 . 3 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 9 4 6 -9 5 0 .

The l a t e r e v i -

75

r

n d ea ce shows a d e t e r io r a t io n , s im ila r to t h a t found in t h e S can d in avian e v id e n c e .

The l o y a l t y and m utual regard o f t h e p aren t and son le s s e n e d ,

i t a p p ea rs, b u t th e t i e rem ained c o m p a ra tiv ely str o n g among th e A n gloS a x o n s, a s i t d id among th e Horse and I c e la n d ic p e o p le s .

S in c e th e

co m ita tu s was th e m ost p o w erfu l f a c t o r in t h e d is r u p t io n o f th e f a t h e r - s o n bond, d e t a il e d n o t ic e o f i t s r o le in t h e d e t e r io r a t io n o f th e t i e w i l l b e ta k en up in t h e n e x t c h a p te r . There a re in d ic a t io n s o f an u n lo v in g a t t i t u d e on th e p a rt o f p a r e n ts tow ards t h e i r c h ild r e n , p a r t ic u la r ly tow ard in f a n t s ; but m ost o f th e e v id e n c e in t h i s reg a rd p o in t s t o a b o r tio n o r c h i ld s la y in g by women.

The m o tiv e s a p p a r e n tly ranged from d e s ir e t o

c o n c e a l a d u lte r y to e v id e n t i n a b i l i t y t o ca re f o r a c h i l d b eca u se o f p o v e r ty *1 I t would seem o n ly r e a s o n a b le t o assum e t h a t t r a d it i o n a l Germanic e h ild -e x p o s u r e had e x is t e d among th e pagan A nglo-Saxons a s i t d id among th e S ca n d in a v ia n pagans — w ith th e f a t h e r ch oosin g w h eth er th e c h ild was t o l i v e o r b e exp osed ; b u t, s t r a n g e ly , c l e a r and u n q u e stio n a b le e v id e n c e i s la c k in g .

Gummere and o th e r s saw

a l l u s i o n s t o t h e p r a c t ic e o f exp osu re in t h e S c y ld S c e f in g m a tter in B eo w u lf. ^

Thus th e in f a n t S c y ld * s b e in g s e t a d r i f t was an a c t

o f in fa n t-e x p o s u r e .

However, O lr ik , Bjorkman, Chadwick, and o t h e r s ,

in te r p r e te d th e m a tte r a s an a l l u s i o n t o a n c ie n t r i t u a l con n ected w ith t h e w orship o f a god o f f e r t i l i t y .

A ccording t o t h i s v ie w ,

S c e f , o r S h e a f, and S c y ld , o r S h ie ld , r e p r e s e n t th e id e a s o f 1 . S e e p . 2 7 , in f r a . 2 . Gummere, o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 0 . L

p f r u i t f u ln e s s and p r o t e c t io n . 1

In th e r i t u a l , a s h e a f o f wheat was

s e t a d r i f t on a s h i e l d . In any c a s e , no c le a r - c u t r e f e r e n c e t o th e p r a c t ic e o f exp osure in th e c r e a t iv e l i t e r a t u r e o r f a c t u a l reco rd s a p p ea rs.

There i s no

d e f i n i t e m ention o f i t in th e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , nor in th e C h r o n ic le .

Even t h e p e n ite n t i a l s , which would ap p ear to be th e b e s t

s o u r c e o f e v id e n c e co n cern in g su ch m a tte r s , a r e i n d e f i n i t e on th e su b je c t.

There d o es appear one in d ic a t io n , how ever, th a t th e t r a ­

d i t i o n a l p r a c t ic e d id e x i s t in some form .

Among th e numerous p ro­

v i s i o n s in th e P o e n i t e n t ia l e T h eodori d e a lin g w ith c h ild d e s tr u c t io n ap p ea rs one r e f e r e n c e to c h ild s la y in g which may be co n stru ed a s ap­ p ly in g to m ales a s t h e o f f e n d e r s . Q,ui n e c a t f iliu m suum s i n e b ap tism o, X an n o s, s e d p er c o n s iliu m T i l annos

in canone p o e n it e a t . 2

T here i s th e f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l l t h e condem nations f o r l e t t i n g a c h i l d d ie w ith o u t b ap tism w hich appear in th e reco rd s a re aim ed

a t a c o n t in u a t io n o f a pagan p r a c t ic e o f abandoning c h ild r e n

to t h e ir

d e a th .

T hus, two p e n i t e n t i a l s s t r i c t l y p u n ish such

n e g le c t : In fa n s in fim iu s e t paganus eommendatus p r e s b y te r o , s i m o r itu r , d ep on atu r p r e s b y te r . S i n e g l i g e n t i a s i t parentum, I annum p o e n it e a t , e t s i m o r itu r in fa n s trium anno rum s in e b ap tism o, I I I annos p a te r e t m ater p o e n ite a n t . Hoc quodam tem pore quo c o n t i g i t ad eum delatum s i c j u d ie a v it . 3 Furtherm ore, a law o f In e s e t a d r a s t i c p e n a lty f o r p e r m ittin g a c h ild t o d ie u n b a p tiz ed . 1 . A x e l O lr ik , The H ero ic Legends o f Denmark (tibcjL ee M. H o lla n d e r ), New York, American S ca n d in a v ia n F ou n d ation , 1919, p . 3 9 8 . 2* W a sserseh leb en , " P o e n it e n t ia le T h eo d o ri, w I , x i v , 3 0 , B u ssord L nungen, p . 20 0 . I b i d . , I , x i v , 2 8 , 29, p . 200.

77

G ild b in n an S ritegum n ih ta si© gefu lw ad ; g i f h i t swa ne s i e x o c s c i l l . g e b e t e . 1 . G if h i t Sonne s i e dead b u tan f u lw ih t e , g e b e te he h i t mid eallu m Sam Se he a g e . 1

g a th e r and D aughter

D e t a ile d e v id e n c e co n cern in g th e r e la t io n s h ip o f f a th e r and d au gh ter i n pagan tim e s i s la c k in g .

I t i s c l e a r , how ever, t h a t th e

pagan d au gh ter had been under t h e s t r i c t c o n t r o l o f h er f a t h e r .

That

sh e was g iv e n in m arriage t o s u i t h er p a ren t* s p u rp oses i s c le a r from t h e H y g e la c -I o fo r e m a tte r i n B eo w u lf. 2

S im ila r ly K ing Edwin w h ile

s t i l l a pagan had prom ised h is d au gh ter t o t h e Church.

The Church

l a t e r lim it e d th e f a t h e r ’s power o v e r h is d a u g h ter (and s o n ) , b u t t h e v e r y p r o v is io n s o f t h e r u lin g s show th a t t h e pagan f a t h e r ’ s power had been g r e a t . Puer usq u e ad XV annum s i t in p o t e s t a t e p a t r is s u i , tu n c s e ipsum p o t e s t monachum f a c e r e ; p u e lla v er o XVT v e l XVII annorum, quae a n te in p o t e s t a t e parentum s u n t, p o s t hane aeta tem p a t r i f i l i a m suam co n tr a e ju s volu n tatem non l i c e t in matrimonium d a r e. P u ellam disp on satam non l i c e t p a r e n tib u s dare a l t e r i v i r o , n i s i i l i a omnino r e s i s t a t , tamen ad m onasterium l i c e t i r e , s i v o l u e r i t . I l i a autem d is p o n s a ta , s i non v u lt h a b ita r e cum eo v i r o , c u i e s t d is p o n s a ta , red d a tu r e i p ecu n ia , quam pro ip s a d e d it , e t t e r t i a pars a d d itu r , s i autem i l l e n o l u e r i t , p erd a t pecuniam , quam pro f i l a d e d it. P u e lla autem XIV annorum s u i c o r p o r is p o te sta te m h a b e t. 1 . Liebeim ann, I n e , #2E , V o l. 1 , p . 9 0 . 2 . See p . su p r a . 5 . W a sserseh leb en , ”P o e n i t e n t ia le T h e o d o r i,” I I , x i i , 3 6 , 3 3 , 3 4 , 3 5 , Bussordnungen. pp. 2 1 6 , 2 1 7 .

I f th e p ic t u r e o f Freawaru in h er f a t h e r ’ s co u rt i s any r e v e ­ l a t i o n o f A nglo-Saxon c o n d it io n s , i t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e d aughter had a c e r t a in m easure o f independence w ith in th e h o u seh o ld .

Freawaru

sh a red h er m oth er’ s l o f t y p o s i t i o n a t th e c o u r t, b ea rin g th e a le - c u p t o th e e a r l s , and d e a lin g o u t t r e a s u r e t o th e r e t a in e r s : Hwilum f o r (d )u gu 5e d o h to r Hf&gares eorlum on ende ealuw aege b a er, J>a i c Freaware f le ts itt e n d e nemnan h y rd e, p a e r h io (n a e )g le d s in e haeledbm sealde.-** A p p a ren tly , how ever, th e d au gh ter in h er f a t h e r ’ s home was c o n sid e r e d a home adornm ent, hamweorSunga, 2 a s th e p o et o f B eow ulf d e s c r ib e d t h e d a u g h ter o f H y g ela c.

In t h e l i g h t o f th e S can d in avian

e v id e n c e i t seems s a f e t o con clu d e t h a t th e A nglo-Saxon daughter was e s s e n t i a l l y a ward o f h er f a t h e r , l i v i n g a t home under h i s pro­ t e c t i o n u n t i l sh e was m a rried .

S u it a b ly m arried , sh e brought h er

husband’ s s tr e n g t h and in flu e n c e t o add t o t h e power and p r e s t ig e o f h e r f a t h e r ’ s h o u se h o ld .

When m otherhood came, sh e added sons t o

th e m ale power o f h e r f a t h e r ’ s k in d r e d .

Her s o n s , bound c l o s e l y to

h e r own k in d red , w ere a t tim e s brought up in h er f a t h e r ’ s home. B eo w u lf, f o r exam ple, was brought up in th e h o u seh o ld o f H r e th e l, h i s m oth er’ s f a t h e r , who to o k him up a t th e a g e o f s e v e n , remember­ in g h i s r e la t io n s h ip : s ib b e gemunde. 5 f a t h e r and d au gh ter were c l o s e l y t i e d .

1 . B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 2 0 2 0 -2 4 . 2 . I b id . , 1 . 29 9 8 . 3 . I b id . , 1 . 2431.

I t seems c le a r th a t th e

M other and Son

The bond betw een m other and son was s t r i k i n g l y c lo s e * th e A nglo-Saxon e v id e n c e p a r a l l e l s th e S ca n d in a v ia n . Saxon so n meant a g r e a t d e a l to h is m oth er. was bound up w ith h i s .

In t h i s ,

The A n glo-

A p p aren tly h er d e s t in y

I f sh e b ore no c h ild , h er fu tu r e was b a r e ,

f o r , a cco rd in g to t h e e a r l i e s t la w s ,

sh e was e n t i t l e d t o a sh are o f

h er husbandh goods o n ly i f sh e had a l i v i n g c h ild ; G if h io cw ic bearn gebyrej?, h e a lfn e s c a e t a g e , g i f e e o r l a e r s w y lt e £ .d C o n tro l o f th e la n d ed p r o p e rty in th e e a r ly days was n ot g iv e n to th e widow, but rem ained w ith h er husband’ s k in d red . from law s o f H lo th h ere and E a d rie, and o f I n e .

That i s c le a r

However, h er

c h ild was p em n itted t o rem ain w ith h e r , and a t m a tu r ity , he to o k c o n t r o l o f th e f a t h e r ’ s p o s s e s s io n s .

A law o f H loth h ere and E ad rie

p ro v id ed t h a t i f a man d ie d le a v in g a w if e and c h i l d , i t was r ig h t t h a t t h e c h ild sh o u ld accompany th e m oth er, bu t th a t one o f th e f a t h e r ’ s r e l a t i v e s was to become gu ard ian in o rd er th e p r o p er ty u n t i l th e c h ild was te n

t o ta k e care o f

y e a r s o ld .

G if c e o r l acw yle be libbendum w if e 7 b e a r a e , r i h t i s ]oaet h i t , J>aet bearn medder f o l g i g e , 7 him mon an h i s faederingmagum wilsum ne b e r ig e a n g e f e l l e , h i s fe o h t o h e a ld e n e , oJ> J>aet k® x w in tra s ie . 2 A la w o f In e made a s im i l a r p r o v is io n : G if c e o r l 7 h i s w i f b e a m haebben gem aene, 7 f e r e s e e e o r l forcP, haebbe s i o modor h ir e bearn 7 f e d e : a g i f e h ir e mon VI s c i l l . to 1 . Lieberm ann, A e th e lb e r h t, Law 78, V o l. I , p .. 8 . 2# I b id « ? H lo th ere and E a d rie [685-6 A .D .] , # 6 , V o l. I , p . 1 0 .

80

f o s t r e , eu on sum era, oxan on w in tr a ; h ea ld en ]oa maegas ]pone fr u m s to l, oS cfaet h i t g ew in tred s ie .^ Under such c o n d it io n s , i t i s more than p rob ab le t h a t th e A n gloSaxon m other had a p r u d e n tia l i n t e r e s t in h er s o n , f o r i t was th e m ale c h ild th a t was im portant* co n c er n .

There w&s a b a s is f o r p r a c t ic a l

I f a woman had s o n s , sh e had a t l e a s t a m oth er’ s oppor­

t u n i t y t o en jo y th e u s e o f t h e ir p r o p e r ty and in f lu e n c e .

I f sh e had

no s o n s , o r th e y w ere to o young, o r to o weak, sh e was i n danger o f b e in g d ep riv ed o f th e u se o f lan d ed p ro p erty and in f lu e n c e .

In th e

l i g h t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , c e r t a in m a tte r s in B eow ulf ta k e on added s ig n if ic a n c e . W ealhtheow’ s co n cern f o r h er s o n s , p o rtra y ed w ith such e f f e c t ­ iv e f o r c e by t h e p o e t o f B eo w u lf, r e f l e c t s deep m o th erly con cern . The s i t u a t i o n in w hieh sh e f in d s h e r s e l f p rom ises l i t t l e good f o r th e f u t u r e .

In th e th ron ged co u rt o f h er husband — r e c e n t ly de­

l i v e r e d from t h e r a v a g es o f th e m o n ster, G rendel — t h e r e i s f e a s t i n g , m errim ent, and em o tio n a l d is p la y o f g r a t i t u d e . i s t h e hero o f th e h ou r.

B eow ulf

King H rothgar has heaped p r a is e and

tr e a s u r e on him, and h as ta k en him t o h i s h ea rt as a s o n .

The

k in g ’ s nephew, H r o th u lf, d e s tin e d to become a t r a i t o r t o h i s k in , s i t s a t c o u r t, s t i l l a t p ea ce w ith H rothgar. r e s o u n d in g ly .

The r e t a in e r s ca ro u se

However, no one seems t o be g iv in g any th ough t t o

H r e th r ic and Btrothmund, th e k in g ’s so n s — u n t i l th e queen, t h e i r m oth er, comes f o r t h .^ 1 , Lieberm ann, I n e , #38E, V o l. I , pp. 104&6. 2 . B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 1 1 6 2 f f •

L_

_i

81

r

i There i s r i c h s i g n i f i c a n c e in th e words and a c t io n s th e p o et a s c r ib e s to her in a lo n g and s t r ik in g passage*

The m ystery o f t h e

e n t ir e poem has y e t to be s o lv e d ; and, when i t i s ,

i t may be found

t h a t th e au thor was more concerned w ith a c t u a l, contem porary con­ d i t i o n s which c a l l e d f o r s u b t le trea tm en t by a C h r is tia n p o e t, th a n w ith b ro a d er, cosm ic m a tte r s .

At a l l e v e n t s , in th e Wealhtheow

p a s s a g e , th e p o et d is p la y s k een in s ig h t and e x c e lle n t a r t in th e p r e s e n ta t io n o f a m other o f' th o s e tim e s who, in th e m id st o f s tr o n g e r o s s - c u r r e n t s o f em o tio n , co m ita tu s en th u siasm , and s e l f - i n t e r e s t , f in d s t h a t no one th in k s o f h er s o n s . Going to th e

bench where h er husband and h is nephew a r e s i t ­

t i n g , sh e o f f e r s H rothgar a cup o f w in e , and adds t o i t words o f p r a is e and e a r n e s t a d v ic e .

In t h o s e words appear th e p o e t fs r e a l i z ­

a t i o n o f th e s i t u a t i o n , f o r he p r e s e n ts th e m other a s knowing th e in f lu e n c e s and f o r c e s t h a t a r e th r e a te n in g th e good fo r tu n e o f h e r so n s.

W ealhtheow,r e f e r r in g t o th e f a c t t h a t

B eow u lf a s a so n ,

H rothgar has h a ile d

p o in t s o u t t h a t someone has t o l d h e r th e

would have th e h ero f o r a s o n .

k in g

*TMe man sa e g d e , p a e t J>u Se f o r

sunu w old h e r e r i [n ]c h a b b a n . S h e rem inds H rothgar t h a t h is kingdom has been p r e se r v e d ; sh e t e l l s him t o b e gen erou s in g r a n tin g rewards w h ile he may; but sh e u rg es him t o le a v e h is f o lR and kingdom to h i s b lo o d k in .

The meaning i s u n m istak ab le h ere;

s h e i s rem inding h e r husband o f h is o b lig a t io n t o t h e i r s o n s . H eorot i s g e f a e ls o d , b e a h s e le b eo rh ta ; bruc penden pu m ote m anigra medo, ond pinum magum l a e f 1. L

B e o w u lf,

11.

1 1 7 5 -6 .

82

f o l c ond r i c e , p on n e &u f o r # s c y l e , m e to d sc e a ft seon*^ Her v e r y n ex t words a r e p o in te d a t H r o th u lf; f o r a lth o u g h sh e d o es not a d d ress him d i r e c t l y , sh e d e c la r e s t h a t sh e knows t h a t he w i l l be h on orab le in

h is r e s p e c t f o r H r o th g a r ^ h e ir i f th e k in g

d ep a r ts from t h e w orld b e fo r e h i s nephew; and sh e e x p r e s se s th e o p in io n th a t H r o th u lf w i l l rep a y t h e i r c h ild r e n w it h good f o r th e k in d n e ss H rothgar and W ealhtheow showed him in h i s youth: I c minne can g la e d n e H ro p u lf, p a e t he p a geogo#e w ile arum h ea ld a n , g y f p u a e r ponne h e , w ine S e ild in g a , w orold o f l a e t e s t ; wene i c p a e t he mid gode gy ld a n w ill© uneran e a fe r a n , g i f h e p a e t e a l gemon, hwaet w it t o w i l l a n ond t o wor?5myndum umborwesendum a e r arna gefram edon.2 Im m ediately a f t e r t h e s e w ords, W ealhtheow tu r n s t o t h e bench where h e r sons s i t t o g e t h e r w ith Beow ulf*

She o f f e r s r ic h g i f t s and a cup

o f w ine t o t h e h ero; and, making a g r e a t show o f h er fr ie n d s h ip tow ard him , p r a is e s him and th ank s him most a r d e n tly ; th e n , w ith o b v io u s m eaning, sh e e a r n e s t ly a sk s h i s f r ie n d s h ip f o r h er so n s: Hwearf p a b i b e n c e , p a e r hyre b yre waeron, H reS ric ond HrodmunS, ond h a e le p a b e a m , g io g o # a e tg a e d e r e ; p a e r s e goda s a e t , B eow ulf G eata be paem gebro#rum twaem*3 Wealh$eo m apelode, heo f o r e paem werede sp r a ec: fBrue h i s s e s b e a g e s , B eow ulf l e o f a , h y s e , mid h a e le , ond p i s s e s h r a e g le s n e o t, p e o [d 3 g e s tr e o n a , ond gepeoh t e l a , cen p e c mid c r a e f t e , ond pyssum cnyhtum wes la r a l i # e j I c Joe p a e s le a n geman* H a fa st p u g e f e r e o , p a e t on he h is sw o ste r an f o r l e t . ”^ An exam ple o f b r o t h e r ly p r o t e c t io n in th e e a r l i e s t C h r is tia n tim e s i s p ro v id ed by th e account o f E th elb u rg a ’ s f in d in g sa n ctu a ry w ith h er b r o th e r E adbald, a f t e r h er husband, King Edwin, had b een s l a i n in b a t t l e by Cadwalla and Penda. 2 In th e s t o r y o f th e Abbess A e l f f l a e d , s i s t e r o f King E c g f r it h , c o n ta in e d in an anonymous L if e o f S t . G uthbert, l a t e se v e n th c e n tu r y , 1 . C h r o n ic le , V o l. I , p . 3 2 , A.D. 658A; and B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . V o l. I , p . 3 5 6 , I I I , v i i . S . A nglo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , A.D. 633E. L

90

r

i ap p ears e v id e n c e o f a r i c h e m o tio n a l bond o f a f f e c t i o n betw een th e A nglo-Saxon s i s t e r and h er b roth er*

The in c id e n t b e lo n g s to th e e a r ly

days o f th e C on version , and may r e f l e c t C h r is tia n id e a s , but pagan c o n d itio n s may e a s i l y be in f e r r e d , p erh ap s, b e c a u se th e s i s t e r l y i n t e r e s t h er e in v o lv e d tem p oral a s w e ll a s s p i r i t u a l m a tte r s . The a b b ess w o rried about h e r b r o th e r ’s w e ll- b e in g and th e fu tu r e o f h is kingdom, and so sh e so u g h t com fort and a d v ic e from B ishop C u th berh t.

She e n tr e a te d th e h o ly man to t e l l h e r how lo n g h er

b r o th e r m ight l i v e . Gui a n c i l l a D ei f l e e t e n s gen u a, m u lta i n t e r ro g a re c e p i t . Postrem o autem p er nomen Domini n o s t r i I e s u C h r is t! e t p er nouem o r d in e s an geloru m , e t omnium sanctorum p e r so n a s, f id u c i a l i t e r a d iu r a u it in te r r o g a n s de lo n g itu d in e w ita e f r a t r i s s u i s E g f r id i.^ When he in tim a te d t h a t h er b r o th e r m ight n o t e n jo y l i f e more th a n one y e a r , sh e wept s a d ly and showed h er con cern . I l i a v ero s ta tim a r r ip ie n s m ente de r e g e e s s e d ictu m , amaro f l e t u la c r im a w it. S ic u t e i e t m u lt is a l i i s p o st an n i spatium ca su s regaliu m a m align a manu h o s t i l i s g l a d i i omnem am aritudinem r e n o u a v it.^ She showed p a r t ic u la r con cern about t h e fu tu r e o f t h e kingdom. Adhue a d iu n x it d ic e n s , P er eandem u n ita te m e t t r in it a t e m supradictam a d iu ro t e u t d ic a s quem heredem h a b e b it. 3 B ed e’ s v e r s io n , l i k e w i s e , i l l u s t r a t e s th e em o tio n a l i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s i s t e r ’s con cern f o r h er b r o th e r and h is kingdom. Cuius p o t i t a c o llo q u is eum m ulta ab eo quae s e i s c i t a b a t u r a u d ir e t , e c c e r e p e n te in medio 1 . Bertram C o lg ra v e, Two L iv e s o f S t . C uthbert; a l i f e by an anony­ mous monk o f L in d is fa r n e and B ede’ s p ro se l i f e . Cambridge, The U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 , p . 1 0 2 . S. I b id ., p . 104. L 3 , I b id .

91

r

"i

sermone aduolm ta p ed ib u s e i u s , a d iu ra w it eum p er nomen i l l u d t e r r i b l e ac v e n e r a b ile su p e r n i r e g is e t angelorum e i u s , u t d ie e r e t i l l i quam long© tem pore v ic t u r u s e s s e t E c g fr id u s f r a t e r i l l i u s e t regnum gu b ern aturus Angelorum. • .a u d a c ia fem in ea a d iu ra irit p er m aiestatem summae d i v i n i t a t i s , u t d ie e r e t quem h a b itu r u s e s s e t heredem r e g n i, cum f i l i i s e a r e r e t e t f r a t r i b u s .* The c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r w as, among th e A n g lo -S a x o n s, a s among th e S ca n d in a v ia n s and Germanic p e o p le s g e n e r ­ a l l y , e v id e n t ly exten d ed to th e r e la t io n s h ip b etw een a woman, s b r o th e r s and h er sons*

Seebohm p o in te d o u t t h a t in B eow u lf, when

a man’ s f a t h e r i s no lo n g e r l i v i n g , th e p o e t som etim es seems t o d e s c r ib e him a s h i s m atern al u n c le * s newphew in s t e a d o f h is f a t h e r ’s son* Heard'Sd, th e young son o f H y g ela c, a f t e r h is f a t h e r ’ s d ea th i s spoken o f no lo n g e r a s Eyg e l a c ’s s o n , but a s th e nephew o f H e r e r lc **nefan B e r e n ic e s ’* (2 2 0 7 ), Now h i s p a te r n a l u n c le s w ere H erebeald and H aethcyn, and i t becomes alm o st a n e e e s sa r y in fe r e n c e t h a t H e r e r ic was a M aternal u n c l e .2 He show s, a l s o , th e p a r a l l e l c a s e o f **nefa Swertinges** r e f e r r in g to B y g e la c (1203a) and s u g g e s t s , "Here a g a in i t seem s l i k e l y t h a t S w ertin g was th e m a tern a l u n c le .**3 W oolf^ a c c e p ts th e in t e r p r e t a t io n Seebohm p u ts upon th e u se o f t h e term n e fa 3 in t h e s e in s t a n c e s .

Furtherm ore, h i s t o r i c a l r eeo rd

b e a r s o u t th e f a c t t h a t th e r e was a c l o s e t i e betw een a b r o th e r and 1* 2. 3. 4.

C o lg ra v e, op* c i t *, pp. 2 3 4 -2 3 6 . Seebohm, T r ib a l Custom, p p . 6 8 - 9 . I b id . , Henry B . W oolf, The Germanic P r in c ip le s o f Nam e-G iving, B a ltim o r e , The Johns H opkins P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 , p . 1 5 3 , f o o t n o t e 21. 5 . I f maeg i s a c c e p te d a s m eaning nephew (G r ein , A n g e ls. S n rach s c h a t z ) , exam ples a r e numerous: B eow ulf i s th u s H y g ela e’s nephew (H y g e la e ’ s m aeg). L_

92

r

h i s s i s t e r ’ s son*

For in s t a n c e , S a eb erh t, son o f H ic o la , t h e s i s t e r

o f A e th e lb e r h t, was g iv e n a s k in g t o th e E ast Saxons b y h is m other’ s b r o th e r . HercAugust in n s g e h algod e i i b is c o p a s M ellitu m Iustum . M ellitu m he sende t o bod ian ne E a st Seaxum f u l l u h t . J>aer wes s e c in g g e h a ten S a e b e r h t. R ic o la n sunn A e d elb erh tes s n s t e r pone A ed elb erh t g e s e t t e p a e r t o c in in g a . 1 Two o th e r A nglo-Saxon term s b ea r w it n e s s t o th e c lo s e bond betw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r and th e e x te n s io n o f t h i s t i e t o th e s i s t e r ’s c h ild r e n .

One o f t h e s e , earn, was u sed t© d en o te a m ater­

n a l u n c le ; th e term f o r th e p a te r n a l u n c le was f a e d e r a .

o

f o r in s t a n c e , was c a l l e d F i t e l a ’ s earn

Sigemund,

by t h e au th or o f B eow u lf;

and Edwin was termed O sw ald’s earn by A e lf r ie .®

Concerning th e

o th e r o f t h e s e two term s, th e r e ean be no doubt a s t o th e m eaning: sw u ste r sun u . o f c o u rse meant a s i s t e r ’ s s o n .

Wulftaaer, f o r exam ple,

was c a l l e d B y rth n o th ’ s sw u ste r sunu.^ The b r o t h e r - s i s t e r bond, i t seems c l e a r , was v e r y c l o s e among th e pagan A n glo-S axon s.

I t r e ta in e d i t s e s s e n t i a l s tr e n g t h under

th e new c o n d itio n s brought by th e change o f f a i t h .

B ro th ers

l a r g e l y c o n tin u ed t o a c t a s s i s t e r s ’ g u ard ian s in th e m a tter o f m a rria g e, f o r in s t a n c e .

For exam ple, A t h e is t an m arried o f f two

s i s t e r s : one t o Otho, a p r in c e o f th e Old S a x o n s, and a n o th e r t o S i h t r i c , King o f th e N orthum brians. 1. 2. 3. 4.

L_

C h r o n ic le . A.D. 604E. p . 2 1 . B eo w u lf. 1 . 8 8 1 . A e l f r i e , L iv e s o f S a i n t s . V o l. I I , p . 1 2 6 . la b o r d e , Maldon. 1 . 115 (and s e e p . 5 3 , su p ra . )

n

93

A e p e lsta n waes g ec o ren to cynge o f Myrcum. Gynges tu n e geh algod / lie g e a f h i s sw e o sto r O fsae E ald Seaxna cynge s s u n a ,, Her AeJ>elstan cy n in g 7 S i h t r i c Nordhymbra eyng heo gesanmodon a e t Tame weor$J>ige i i i Februa r iu s A e p e ls ta n b is sw eo sto r him f o r g e a f . l

7 aet

7

B ro th er and B ro th er

The bond betw een b r o th e r s was p l a i n l y one o f th e c l o s e s t o f th e A nglo-Saxon fa m ily t i e s , and c l o s e l y r e la t e d t o th e fa th e r - s o n bond o u t o f w hich i t n a t u r a lly grew .

B ro th ers who were a l l so n s o f th e

same f a t h e r and m other were stro n g sin e w s b in d in g th e b lo o d k in d red in t o a s tr o n g ly u n ite d grou p .

T h eir r e la t io n s h ip toward one a n o th er

was marked by a fundam ental © q u a lity , f o r th e y were a l l so n s o f th e same f a th e r ; h i s h e i r s and l o y a l com panions.

Under t h e le a d e r s h ip

Of t h e i r f a t h e r , th e y were th e g u a rd ia n s o f t h e fa m ily p o s s e s s io n s , and sh ared t o g e th e r t h e ea d , o r p r o s p e r it y , o f th e k in d r e d . In th e c o n tin u a l s t r u g g le f o r s a f e t y and s e c u r it y under pagan c o n d itio n s , b r o th e r s were a s p r e e io u s t o each o th e r a s th e y were t o t h e i r fa th e r . The C h ro n icle shows c l e a r l y th a t b r o th e r s were l o y a l w a r r io r companions in th e f ig h t i n g th a t marked th e e a r l i e s t h is t o r y o f th e A n glo-Saxon s in B r i t a i n ,

J u s t a s th e reco rd shows f a t h e r and son

m u tu a lly a s s i s t i n g each o t h e r , s o , t o o , th e accou n t t e l l s o f b r o th e r s a id in g each o t h e r in b a t t l e . H engest and B orsa;^

b u t t h e r e were o t h e r s ,

1 . C h r o n ic le , A.D. 9 2 4 , 9 2 5 D ,, p . 10 5 , 2 , I b i d , , (.449 A,D. ] , L

B e st known, o f c o u r se , a re C eaw lin and Outha were

94

o u tsta n d in g b r o th e r -w a r r io r s in th e s i x t h c e n tu r y . 1

L a ter th e son s

o f E t h e lf r it h ^ and, l a t e r s t i l l , Ceadw all and Mull^ were b r o th e r w a r r io r s . S in c e in th e s t r i f e - f i l l e d e a r ly days o f th e A nglo-Saxons in B r it a in th e fa m ily was e s s e n t i a l l y a m il i t a r y u n i t , s i n g l e c o n t r o l was a n e c e s s i t y . c h ie f.

When t h e f a t h e r was a l i v e , he n a t u r a lly was th e

Under him, t h e son s ranked in o rd er a cco rd in g t o a g e .

At

tim e s th e b r o th e r s su cceed ed t o j o in t power, a s in th e ca se o f S a e b e rh t* s so n s in E a s se x . 4

A d e f i n i t e custom o f s u c c e s s io n to

r u lin g power by b r o t h e r s , how ever, i s e s t a b lis h e d by ample e v i ­ dence. The f i r s t th r e e so n s o f E t h e l f r it h su cceed ed one a n o th er a f t e r t h e i r k in d red re tu rn ed t o power f o llo w in g th e d eath o f t h e i r de­ c e a se d f a t h e r ’ s enemy. eorumf

E a n fr ith , th e e ld e s t o f them, primus

became k in g o f th e B e m ic ia n s .

G adw alla, a B r i t i s h k in g ,

overcam e and k i l l e d E a n fr id ; but Oswald, th e secon d o l d e s t b r o th e r , g d e f e a te d Gadwalla and became th e r u le r o f th e Northumbrians • When Oswald was s l a i n by P enda, Oswy, t h e t h ir d b r o th e r , succed ed him and r e ig n e d f o r a lm o st t h i r t y y e a r s . Penda*s so n s su cced ed one a n oth er in l i k e manner. P ead a, th e n W u lfh ere, th en E th e lr e d .

F i r s t came

A nother s e r i e s o f b r o th e r s who

su cced ed one a n o th er in c lu d e Gwichelm, Cenwalh, and C entw in. A lfr e d th e G reat was one o f su ch a s e r i e s o f b r o th e r s . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. L

A nglo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , [577 A .B .3. I b id , , L6X7 A .D .J . I b id . , 686 A .D . I b id . , 617 A .D . B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , I I I , 1 , p . 3 2 6 . A nglo-Saxon C h r o n ic le , 642 A .D.

H is

K ing

95

p r e d e c e s s o r s in c lu d e d E th e lb a ld , E t h e lb e r t , and E th ered . T h is mode o f s u c c e s s io n by b r o th e r s was c l e a r l y an e s t a b lis h e d p r a c t i c e , b u t so n s d id t r y a t tim e s t o break in to th e s u c c e s s io n . T h is i s c l e a r from th e a cco u n t o f O swald’ s s o n ’ s h o s t i l i t y to h is u n c le Oswy.*^

.Another s i g n i f i c a n t i n d ic a t io n o f th e p r a c t ic e appears

in B eo w u lf where th e p o e t , r e f e r r in g t o H aethcyn’ s o ld e r b r o th e r , s a y s t h a t Haethcyn p ie r c e d h i s lo r d , ’’h i s fr e a w in e , ’*2 w ith an arrow . T h is apparent su b o r d in a tio n o f a l l b r o th e r s t o t h e e l d e s t , e v id e n t ly a eo m ita tu s arrangem ent, i s d is c u s s e d more f u l l y in th e n ext e h a p te r . I t i s o b v io u s t h a t broth erh ood was a m ost im portant bond.

S t.

B ed e’ s s t o r y o f lama r e f l e c t s th e in t e n s e l o y a l t y and deep s i g n i f i ­ ca n ce a tta c h e d to th e bond, f o r i t r e l a t e s th a t t h e e a r l was tem pted t o k i l l an enemy c a p t iv e a f t e r th e b a t t l e in w hich h i s b r o th e r s had b een s l a i n a lth o u g h he had prom ised th e you th immunity in o rd er t o le a r n h i s i d e n t i t y . I t i s a p p a r en tly w ith g r e a t r e s t r a i n t th a t th e e a r l p erm its th e c a p t iv e Irama to l i v e , f o r he t e l l s him t h a t he d e s e r v e s t o d ie b e ­ ca u se a l l h i s k in d red w ere k i l l e d in t h a t b a t t l e .

It is s ig n ifi­

ca n t t h a t he m en tion s h i s s l a i n b r o th e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y : • . . e t nunc d ig n u s quidem e s m o rte, q u ia omnes f r a t r e s e t c o g n a ti m ei in i l i a sun t pugna in te r e m p ti. • .3 There i s in B eow u lf a r e f l e c t i o n o f th e m utual reg a rd and a f f e c t i o n o f A n glo-Saxon b r o th e r s .

A lthough th e c o n te n t o f th e poem

1 . B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , I I I , x i v , V o l. I , p . 3 9 2 . 2 . B eo w u lf, 1 . 2438 ( ’’waes oam y ld e s t a n u n ged efe m aeges daedum mor— oorb ed s t r e d , syooan hyne haeoeyn o f hornbogan, h i s frea w in e f la n e g e sw e n c te . ” ) . 3 . B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , IV, x x i i , V o l. I I , p . 1 2 2 . -j

96

r

“i i s m a tte r g o in g "back t o S ca n d in a v ia n tim e s and p la c e s , i t i s a lm ost a n e c e s s a r y c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e trea tm en t i s n a t iv e t o England and a r e f l e c t i o n o f E n g lis h th o u g h t.

I t i s , f o r exam ple, m ost prob ab le

t h a t th e p o e t was r e f e r r in g t o n a t iv e b r o th e r ly f e e l i n g when he added such a to u ch a s th e sp e ech o f H rothgar r e c a l l i n g h is dead b r o th e r w ith fo n d n ess and deep r e s p e c t:

8a waes H eregar d ead , min y ld r a maeg u n lif ig e n d e , b e a m H e a lfd e n e s; s e waes b e te r a Sonne ic J 1 One o f th e m ost e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s io n s o f b r o t h e r ly lo y a l t y and p r id e in th e accom plishm ents o f b lo o d k in d red eomes from th e r e c o r d s o f th e l a t e r C h r is tia n d a y s, bu t i t r e v e a ls th e n a tu re o f a bond th a t had co n tin u ed from e a r l i e r pagan d a y s.

The poem on t h e B a t t le o f

Brunahburh i s a s p i r i t e d e x p r e s s io n o f p r id e i n th e e x p l o it s o f b r o th e r s — in t h i s c a s e th e two famous b r o t h e r s , A e th e ls ta n and Edmund. Her A e S e ls ta n c y n in g , e o r la d ry h ten , beorna beah g i f a , and h is bropor e a c , Eadmund a e p e lin g , e a ld o r la n g n e t i r g e s lo g o n a e t s a e c c e sweorda ecgura yrabe Brunanburk; bord w e a ll c lu f a n , heowon hea}>olinde hamora la f a n , e a fa r a n Eadweardes, swa him geaej>ele waes fram eneomaegum, -p h i a e t campe o f t wip la S r a gehwaene la n d ealgod on , hord and hamas. 2 That a l l was n o t e n t i r e l y w e l l , how ever, w ith th e bond o f b roth erh ood among t h e A n g lo -S a x o n s, p a r t ic u la r ly in th e days j u s t p r io r t o th e C on version , i s r a th e r c le a r from th e r e c o r d s .

B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 4 6 7 -9 , 2 . C h r o n ic le , Brunanburh, A .D . 937A 1 1 . 1 -1 0 , p . 1 0 6 .

L

The i n -

97

f lu e n c e o f th e co m ita tu s bond on th e bond o f broth erh ood was c l e a r l y h a m f u l ; 1 and th e p r e se n e e o f Gain and A b el elem en ts in th e e a r l i e s t A n glo-Saxon C h r is tia n p o e tr y , t o g e th e r w ith su ch a f ig u r e a s t h a t o f U n fe r th , 2 th e b r o t h e r - k i l l e r in B eow u lf, in d ic a t e s t h a t c o n d itio n s 17 e x i s t e d w h ich c a l l e d f o r C h r is tia n r e m e d ie s. However, th e bond b etw een b r o th e r s rem ained e s s e n t i a l l y str o n g and b in d in g , i f th e a n a lo g y o f th e S ca n d in a v ia n s i t u a t io n c a r r ie s any w e ig h t, 4 d e s p it e th e g e n e r a l p ic tu r e o f u n b r o th e r ly a c t s in th e r e c o r d s .

C on clu sion

Under pagan A nglo-Saxon c o n d it io n s , th e s ig n i f i c a n c e o f k in s h ip , o b v io u s ly , was g r e a t and fu nd am en tal. p r im a r ily o f th e bond o f b lo o d .

T h is was t r u e , how ever,

The m arriage bond was g e n e r a lly

l o o s e and u n s a t is f a c t o r y from t h e sta n d p o in t o f s p i r i t u a l d ev elo p ­ ment o f fa m ily l i f e .

W ith t h e u n ion b a sed e s s e n t i a l l y on a b u s in e s s ­

l i k e arrangem ent in w hich th e husband bought and p a id f o r h is w i f e , and w ith th e m a r ita l arrangem ent o f t e n a m a tter s e r v in g th e p u rp oses o f t h e b r i d e ' s f a t h e r o r b r o t h e r s , th e m arriage t i e la c k e d th e te n d e r se n tim e n t n e c e s sa r y t o u n i t e husband and w if e in s p i r i t u a l a f f i n i t y . As a co n seq u en ce, th e r ec o rd shows th e m arriage t i e m arred by a d u lte r y , e a sy d iv o r e e and d e s e r t io n , i n c e s t , con cub inage and p o ly ­ gamy.

1 . S ee p . iz8 , i n f r a . 2 . "UnferS*, 499 , 53 0 , 11 6 5 , 1488 ( h is name i s alw ays 'H unferS, * in th e M S., b u t a l l i t e r a t e s w ith v o w e ls )," B eow ulf w ith th e F innsburg Fragment (e d . A .J . W y a tt), Cambridge U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1914, p . 17 7 . 3 . S e e p p ./f f / and in fr a . 4 . S e e p > ? .< f7 ff, su p ra . L *

98

r

“i

The t i e s o f b lo o d , how ever, a re c l e a r l y marked by m utual l o y a l t y and a f f e c t io n *

E ath er and s o n , b r o th e r and s i s t e r , and b r o th e r and

b r o th e r were c l e a r l y bound by str o n g t i e s , p a r t ic u l a r ly in th e e a r l i e r days*

M other and so n were c l o s e l y bound by a t i e w hich r e ­

v e a l s a p o s s ib le p r u d e n tia l m o tiv e on th e p a rt o f th e mother*

M other

and d a u g h ter , and s i s t e r s , w ere e v id e n t ly bound i n a c l o s e and m u tu a lly in ter d e p e n d en t way* Even in t h e e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s , th ou gh , th e r e appear glim m erings o f d is s e n s io n and a lo o s e n in g o f th e fa m ily bonds*

L_

CHAPTER I I I

THE COMITATES AMD THE FAMILY

The bond o f th e co m .ita tu s, th e t i e o f lo r d and man, w as, even i n th e e a r l i e s t days o f Geim anie l i f e on th e c o n t in e n t , th e c h i e f r i v a l o f th e fa m ily bond a s a fo rm a tiv e f a c t o r in s o c i e t y , a cco rd ­ in g t o th e testim o n y o f T a c itu s*

U n t il th e young German r e c e iv e d

h i s s h i e l d and j a v e l in i n t h e p u b lic ceremony w hich marked h is q u a l i f i c a t i o n a s one p r i v i l e g e d t o b ea r arm s, he was co n sid e r e d a p art o f

t h e household* A f te r t h a t r i t u a l , he became p a r t o f th e

s t a t e and c o u ld ch o o se t o e n te r th e m il i t a r y band o f some p ow erfu l e h ie f t a n , o r o r g a n iz e h i s own band o f r e t a in e r s i f he had th e power and in flu e n c e * N i h i l autem neque p u b lic a e neque p r i v i t a e r e i n i s i arm ati agunt* s e d arma sumere non a n te cuiquam m o r is, quam c i v i t a s su ffectu ru m p r o b a v e r it. turn in ip so e o n c i l i o v e l p r in cipilum a l i q u i s . v e l p a te r v e l p ro p in q u i sc u to frameaque iuvenum o rn a n t: haec apud i l l o s t o g a , h ie primus in v e n ta e honos; a n te hoe domus p a rs v id e n tu r , mox r e i p u b lic a e in s i g ­ n i s n o b i l i t a s a u t magna patrum m e r it s p r in ­ c i p l e d ign ation em etia m a d u le s c e n t u lis a d s ig n a n t: c e t e r i s r o b u s tio r ib u s ac iam pridem. p r o b a tis a d g reg a n tu r, n ec rubor i n t e r co m ites a d s p i c i . gradus q uin etia m ip s e co m ita tu s h a b e t, iu d ic© £ i u s quern s e c ta n tu r ; magnaque e t comitum a e m u la tio , quibus primus apud p rin eip em suum l o c u s , e t p rin eip um , c u i p lu r im i e t a e c e r im i c o m ite s , h aec d i g n i t a s , hae v i r e s , magno sem per electo ru m iuvenum g lo b o circu m d a ri, in p ace d e c u s , in b e l l o p ra esid iu m . • *1 1 . T a c it u s , Germania, C*XIII*

100

Apparently th e r e la tio n s h ip was entered in to fo r l i f e ; and alth ou gh th e a c t o f s e le c t in g a c h i e f was e n t ir e ly v o lu n ta ry , once th e ch o ice was made, th e r e ta in e r was bound by th e str o n g e st o f t i e s from which th e re was no r e le a s e excep t by death or d is g r a c e .

The

men were bound to se r v e t h e ir lo r d w ith complete obedience and w ith utm ost lo y a lt y .

To su rv iv e th e le a d e r on th e f i e l d o f b a t t le was

con sid ered a d is g r a c e .

Fot h is p a r t, th e lo r d was o b lig e d to show

th e g r e a te s t v a lo r on th e b a t t l e - f i e l d , and th e g r e a te s t g e n e r o s ity a f t e r th e b a t t l e .

L ib e r a lity in d isp en sin g r ic h g i f t s o f horse and

weapon, food and d rin k , was, according to T a c itu s, th e ch iefta in ’ s e s s e n t i a l duty toward h is men. Cum ventum in aciem , turpe p r in c ip i v ir t u t e v i n c i , turpe eom itatu i virtu tem p r in c ip is non adaequare. iam vero infame in omnen vitam ac probrosum su p erstitem p r in c ip i suo ex a c ie r e c e s s is s e ; iliu m d efen d ers, t u e r i , sua quoque f o r t i a f a c t a g lo r ia e e iu s ad sign are praecipdum sacramentum e s t : p r in e ip e s pro v i c t o r ia pugnant, com ites pro p r in c ip e . • .e x ig u n t enim a p r in c ip is s u i l i b e r a l i t a t e iliu m b e l l a t o rem equum, illa m cruentam victricem q u e frame am; narn epulae e t quamquam ineom pti, la r g i tamen apparatus pro stip e n d io cedunt.^T his r e la tio n s h ip o f lo r d and man was th e b a s is o f the S ta te when k in g s and r o y a l r u le superseded th e e a r l ie r , and lo o s e r , form o f m ilit a r y and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n iz a tio n .

Throughout th e growth and

development o f th e k in g sh ip , th e b a s ic bond o f th e com itatus remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged.

Thus, even in th e te n th century

in England under A e th e lsta n , when th e k in gsh ip had developed in to s in g le r o y a l le a d e r sh ip o f a u n ited n a tio n , th e fundamental 1 . T a c itu s, Germania, C.X3Y. L

101

r e la t io n s h ip o f lo r d and man was recogn ized as th e u n it in n a tio n a l o r g a n iz a tio n .

L ord less men were req u ired by law to a tta c h them­

s e lv e s to some lo r d or e l s e be con sid ered o u tla w s.

I t i s in t e r e s t in g

and s ig n if ic a n t to t h i s stu d y th a t th e kindred o f a lo r d le s s man were ordered by ro y a l d ecree t o s e t t l e him in a fix e d r e sid e n c e and fin d him a lo r d a t a fo lk -m e e tin g . Ond we cwaedon be pam h la fo r d lea sa n mamrnm, aes gew in nes w eorc £row ade, le o d b e a lo lon gsu m .3 S t . B ede*s s t o r y o f th e c o n v e r sio n o f Edwin shows t h e dem oral­ iz e d c h a r a c te r o f th e t im e s , f o r i t i s o b v io u s t h a t t h e C h r is tia n m is s io n a r ie s brought a weleom e m essage o f hope t o a dazed and b e­ w ild e r e d p e o p le who f e l t t h a t l i f e was b r i e f and u n c e r ta in , and jo y fle e tin g . " T a ils , ** in q u ie n s , "m ihi v id e t u r , r e x , i t a hominum p r a e se n s in t e r r i s , ad comparationem B eo w u lf, 1 1 . 1 7 3 9 f f . , a sermon w arning o f t h e danger o f p r id e . 2 . S e e C h ro n icle a n n a ls f o r t h e s e d a t e s . 3 . B eo w u lf. 1 1 . 1 7 0 9 -2 2 .

156

e iu s quod n o b is in eertu m e s t te m p o r is , q u ale cum t e re sid e n t© ad coenam cum d u eib u s ad m i n i s t r i s t u i s tem pore b r o m a li, a ecen so quidem fo c o in medio e t c a lid o e f f e c t o c o e n a c u lo , fu r e n tib u s autem f o r i s p e r omnia tu r b in ib u s biem alium pluviarum v e l n iviu m , ad ven ien sq u e unus passerum domum c i t i s s i m e p e r v o la v e r it q u i cum p e r unum o stiu m in g r e d ie n s , mox per a liu d e x i e r i t . Ip so quidem tem pore quo in tu s e s t , h ie m is te m p e s ta te non t a n g it u r , s e d tamen p a r v issim o s p a t io s e r e n i t a t i s ad momentum e x c u r s o , mox de hiem e in hiemem r e g r e d ie n s , t u i s o c u l i s e la b itu r * I t a haec v i t a hominum ad modicum a p p a ret; q u id autem s e q u a tu r , quidve p r a e c e s s e r i t , p r o rsu s ignoramus* Unde s i haec nova d o c tr in a c e r t i u s a liq u id a t t u l i t , m erito e s s e sequenda videtur.**^

C o n clu sio n

From t h e f i r s t , th e c o m ita tu s bond in England was a p ow erfu l r i v a l o f t h e fa m ily bond*

W ith t h e developm ent o f n a t io n a l l i f e ,

th e s t r e n g t h o f th e co m ita tu s bond in c r e a s e d w ith harm ful e f f e c t on t h e bonds o f kindred*

The e s s e n t i a l im portance o f t h e fa m ily

in t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f England rem ained e s s e n t i a l l y s tr o n g , however; b u t t h e lo o s e n in g o f t i e s ca u sed a m oral d e t e r io r a t io n w hich brought m ise r y and s u f f e r in g to t h e A nglo-Saxon p eop le*

! • B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , I I , x i i i , Vol* I , p . 282*

"I

CHAPTER 1 7

THE CONVERSION AND THE ANGLO-SAXON FAMILY

The m is s io n a r ie s who brought t h e m essage o f t h e new F a ith t o t h e A nglo-Saxons found c o n d itio n s harsh enough t o d isc o u r a g e o r ­ d in a r y men*

A lth ough S t* A u g u stin e was f o r t i f i e d tem p o ra lly a s

w e l l a s s p i r i t u a l l y , th e v e r y law s o f A e th e lb e r h t w hich r e v e a l t h e k in g * s p r o t e c t io n o f t h e work o f t h e Church in d ic a t e r a th e r c l e a r l y t h a t t h e r e was a r e a l need f o r su c h p r o te c tio n * ^

Some­

what l a t e r , M e l l i t u s , J u s tu s , and L au ren tiu s found th e temper o f th e pagan minds s u e h , t h a t t h e y agreed i t would b e b e t t e r t o r e tu r n t o t h e c o n tin e n t th a n to c o n tin u e among t h e " b arb arian s•" Q,ui [M e llit u s ] e x p u lsu s in d e , v e n i t Cantiam, t r a c ta t u r u s cum Laurent io e t I u s to c o e p is e o p is , q u id in h i s e s s e t agendum* Deeretum que e s t coramuni c o n s i l i o , q u ia s a t iu s e s s e t u t omnes p atriam r e d e u n te s , l i b e r a i b i m ente Domino d e s e r v ir e n t , quam i n t e r r e b e l l e s f i d e i b arbaros s i n e f r u c tu r e s id e r e n t . 2 The C e l t i c m is s io n a r ie s who brought t h e m essage o f th e new •F aith t o Northum bria found t h e i r t a s k v e r y d e l i c a t e and d i f f i c u l t * S tr o n g ly a d v e r s e c o n d itio n s a r e r e f l e c t e d in S t* B edef s s t o r y o f A idan; f o r t h e m is s io n a r y f i r s t s e n t t o O sw ald 's p e o p le a t th e k in g 's r e q u e s t l e f t England d isc o u r a g e d .

He r e p o r te d t o h i s c o l ­

le a g u e s t h a t i t had b een Im p o ssib le t o a cco m p lish a n y th in g b eca u se 1 . Liebermann, A e th e lb e r h t, V o l. I , p p. 3 - 8 . 2 . B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y * Ca .D . 6 1 6 ] , V o l. I ,

L

p . 230, I I , v .

138

r

ho had found t h e p e o p le u n c i v i l i z e d , stu b b orn and barbarous* Eerunt autem q u ia cum de p r o v in c ia Seottorum r e x O suald p o s t u la s s e t a n t is t it e m , q u i s i b i suaeque g e n t i verbua f i d e i m in is t r a r e t , m issu s f u e r i t primo a l u i s a u s t e r io r e s anim i v i r , q u i cum a liq u a n d iu g e n t i Anglorum p ra ed ic a n s n i h i l p r o f i c e r e t , n ee lib e n t u r a populo a u d ir e tu r , r e d i e r i t p a tria m , atq u e in con ven ta seniorum r e t u l e r i t ,p q u i a n i l p r o d e sse doeendo g e n t i ad quam m is s u s e r a t , p o t u i s s e t , eo quod © ssent hom ines in d o m a b ile s, e t durae ac b arbarae m e n tis . 1 R igorou s c o n d itio n s c o n tin u ed t o hamper th e p r o g r e s s o f C h r is t­ ia n l i f e in England f o r a lo n g t im e .

C om p licatin g m a tte r s , th e r e

was an o b v io u s m oral breakdown brough t by th e d e t e r io r a t io n o f t h e f a m ily a s a power in s o c i e t y and by th e d e g e n e r a tio n o f th e c o m ita tu s a s an e t h i c a l f o r c e .

S o c i a l d eca y and s p i r i t u a l m ise r y c l e a r ly

marked th e l i f e o f th e t im e s . A p p a ren tly one o f t h e m ost a c t i v e l y d e s t r u c t iv e f a c t o r s in th e c o l l a p s e o f E n g lis h s o c i e t y was th e pagan i n s t i t u t i o n o f b lo o d fe u d .^

O r ig in a lly a r e t r i b u t iv e form o f j u s t i c e , in w hich th e k in ­

dred had b een o b lig a t e d to s e e k o r g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r a wrong in v o lv in g any member o f t h e grou p , t h e p r o c e s s had d eg en erated in t o t h e g e n e r a l u se o f p h y s ic a l f o r c e t o g a in power o r p o l i t i c a l e n d s.

The anarchy o f t h e s e v e n th and e ig h t h c e n t u r ie s in N orth­

um bria i s a m a tte r o f h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d .

In t h e s e v e n th cen tu r y

t h e r e w ere b i t t e r and b lo o d y s t r u g g l e s , in v o lv in g c o n f l i c t betw een k in sm en .

That was th e tim e when Oswy’ s own so n and h i s b r o t h e r ’ s

so n tu rn ed a g a in s t him. 3

In th e c o u rse o f t h e e ig h th c e n tu r y ,

1 . B ede, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . V o l. I , p . 3 4 8 , I I I , v . 2 . S ee p . 5 f f . , su p ra . 3 . S e e p . / z 3 , su p r a .

L

Hodgkin p o in t s o u t , " F if te e n k in g s swayed th e s c e p t r e , and o f t h e s e f i v e w ere d ep o sed , f i v e m urdered, two v o l u n t a r il y a b d ic a te d th e th r o n e • n l That t h e C on v ersio n made any p r o g r e s s a t a l l i n t h e f a c e o f su ch c o n d itio n s i s c l e a r l y due t o t h e p a t ie n c e and wisdom o f t h e Roman and C e l t i c m is s io n a r i e s .

U n derstand ing t o le r a n c e o f d e e p ly -

r o o te d pagan ways was s u c c e s s f u l , where im p a tien ce and s t e r n mea­ s u r e s would u n d ou b ted ly have f a i l e d .

I t was t h e p a t ie n t A ldan, f o r

exam ple, n o t t h e im p a tie n t m is s io n a r y t h a t had f i r s t gon e t o Oswald p e o p le in Northum bria, who f i n a l l y brought C h r is t ia n it y t o th e N orthum brians.

A ld an ’ s w is e words t o t h e u n s u c c e s s fu l m is s io n a r y

who had r e tu r n e d e m b itte r e d s u g g e ste d t h a t he had been to o s e v e r e w ith u n tau gh t l i s t e n e r s , and t h a t i t w ould have b een w is e r t o n o u r ish them w ith t h e m ilk o f e a s ie r d o e tr in e u n t i l t h e y had b e ­ come s tr o n g enough t o p r a c t i c e God’s su b lim er p r e c e p ts : V id e tu r m lh l, f r a t e r , q u ia d u r io r iu s t o in d o c t is a u d ito r ib u s f u i s t i , e t non e i s iu x ta a p o sto lic a m d is c ip lin a m primo l a c d o c tr in a e m o ll i o r i s p o r r e x i s t i , donee p a u la tim e n u t r i t i verb o B e i , ad ca p le n d a p e r f e e t o r ia e t ad fa c le n d a su b lim io r a B e i p ra e ce p ta s u f f i e e r e n t . 2 E a r l i e r , in a m essage t o S t . A u g u stin e , G regory t h e G reat had a d v is e d c a u tio n .

A nswering t h e q u e s tio n about c l o s e in te r m a r r ia g e

among t h e c o n v e r t s , he had e x p la in e d t h a t a t t h a t tim e t h e Holy Church c h a s t is e d some th in g s th rou gh z e a l , but t o le r a t e d some th ro u g h m eek n ess, and p e r m itte d some t h in g s though d i s c r e t i o n , so th a t e v i l m ight be overcam e: 1 . Thomas Hodgkin, The H is to r y o f E ngland, New York, Longmans, G reen, 1 9 0 6 , p . 2 4 5 . 2 . B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , V o l. I , I I I , v , p p . 3 4 8 -5 0 .

In hoc enim tem pore s a n c ta e c e l e s i a quaedam p e r ferworem c o r r i g i t , quaedam p e r m ansuetudinem t o l e r a t , quaedam p er con sid eration © !! d is s im u la t , atq ue i t a p o r ta t e t d is s im u la t , u t sa ep e malum _ quod a d v e r sa tu r portando e t d isim u lando compes c a t • As Hodgkin p o in t s o u t , 2 no com pulsion was u se d in sp rea d in g t h e C o n v e rsio n i n England*

A f te r th e new f a i t h had b een o f f i c i a l l y

ad op ted b y k in g and a ssem b ly , each in d iv id u a l was l e f t f r e e t o ch oose w h eth er o r n ot he would eome and ask f o r baptism *

The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l

H is to r y p r o v id e s a d i r e c t v ie w o f t h i s f e a tu r e o f t h e e a r l i e s t days o f t h e C o n v ersio n , in t h e accou n t o f t h e grow th o f t h e - fa it h among t h e s u b j e c t s o f A e th e lb e r h t.

The k in g , h aving b een c o n v erted , a l ­

low ed t h e m is s io n a r ie s t o p reach o p e n ly , and encou raged , r a th e r th a n co m p elled , h i s p e o p le t o f o llo w h is exam ple; f o r he had le a r n e d , a s S t* Bede s a y s , t h a t t h e s e r v ic e o f G h rist ought t o be v o lu n ta r y , n o t by com p u lsion . Quorum f i d e i e t c o n v e r s io n i i t a c o n g r a tu la tu s e s s e r e x p e r h ib e tu r , u t nullum tamen c o g e r e t ad C hristianism um ; se d tantummodo c r e d e n te s a r c t i o r i d i l e c t i o n e , q u a si e o n e iv e s s i b i r e g n i c a e l e s t i s , a m p leeteretu r* D id ic e r a t enim a d o c to r ib u s a u e to rib u sq u e suae s a l u t i s , s e r v i tium C h r is t i v o lu n ta riu m , non e o a c titiu m e s s e d e b e r e .3 I t i s amply c l e a r t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t C h r is tia n le a d e r s in England to o k p a in s to overcom e th e stu b b orn o b s t a c le o f pagan r e s is t a n c e * E f f o r t s w ere made t o m eet t h e pagans on common ground* n e v e r t h e le s s , t h e Chureh l o s t no tim e in t r y in g t o s o lv e impor­ t a n t s p r it u a l p rob lem s.

Immediate rem ed ies w ere needed to h e a l

s o c i a l i l l s and t o mend t h e l i v e s o f a d i s t r e s s e d people* 1 . B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . V o l.

I,

x x v ii,

p.

Prom th e

126*

2* R obert Howard H odgkin, A H is to r y o f th e A n g lo -S a x o n s, 2 v o ls * , O xford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 , V o l. I , p . 2 7 ? . 3 . B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , T o l. I , I , x x v i , p* 1 4 4 .

141

r

“i f i r s t , th e Church tu rn ed h er a t t e n t i o n t o th e s t a t e o f th e f a m ily . S t . A u g u stin e ’ s q u e s t io n a sk in g f o r gu id a n ce in d e a lin g w ith i n c e s t , re co r d ed in t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y , shows how soon th e m is s io n ­ a r i e s began to a tte n d t o t h e m a tte r .

The q u e s tio n asked t o what

d eg r ee th e f a i t h f u l m ight b e p e r m itte d t o marry w it h in t h e i r k in ­ d r e d , and w hether men were t o b e p e r m itte d to marry w ith t h e i r s t e p ­ m oth ers: V . I n t e r r o g a t io A ugust i n i . "Usque ad quotam gen era tio n em f i d e l e s debeant cum p ro p in q u is s i b i c o n iu g io c o p u la r i? e t n o v e r e is e t c o g n a t is s i l i c e a t c o p u la r i c o n iu g io ? wl G regory t h e G rea t’ s answ er s e t th e l i m i t s on in te r m a r r ia g e w ith in t h e k in d red a t th e t h ir d g e n e r a tio n and a b s o lu t e ly p r o h ib ite d mar­ r ia g e w ith one& ste p -m o th e r o r s i s t e r - i n - l a w .

At th e same tim e i t

l a i d down an im portant pronouncement o f deep s ig n i f i c a n c e t o t h e developm ent o f f a m ily l i f e in England:

husband and w if e were de­

c la r e d t o be*tw o in one f l e s h , * a c o n c e p tio n f a m ilia r enough t o C h r is t ia n s , b u t new and r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r th e A nglo-Saxon con­ v erts. E esp o n d it G r e g o r iu s, ‘’Quaedam te r r e n a l e x in Eomana r e p u b lic s p e r m i t t i t , u t s i v e f r a t e r e t s o r o r , se u duorum fratrura germane rum v e l duarum sororum f i l i u s e t f i l i a m is e e a n tu r . Sed e x p e r i­ m ents d id ic im u s , ex t a l i coniugo sobolem non p o s s e s u c e r e s c e r e : e t sa c r a l e x p r o h ib it eogn at i o n i s tu rp itu d in a m r e v e la r e . Unde n e c e s s e e s t u t iam t e r t i a v e l q u arta g e n e r a t io fid e liu m l i c e n t e r s i b i iu n g i d eb ea t; nam secu n da quam p r a ed lx im u s, a s e omni modo d eb et a b s t in e r e . Gum n o v erca autem m is c e r e g ra v e e s t f a c in u s , q u ia e t i s Lege scrip tu m e s t : ’T urpitudinem

1 . B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . V o l. I , I , x x v i i , p . 122

L

p a t r is t u i non r e v e l a b i s . T Neque enim p a t r is tu rp itu d in em f i l i u s r e v e la r e p o t e s t . Sad q u ia scrip tu m e s t : ’Erunt duo in c a m e una; * q u i tu rp itu d in em n o v erca e quae una earo cum p a tr e f u i t r e v e la r e p r a e su m p se r it, p r o fe c to p a t r i s tu rp itu d in em r e v e l a v i t . Gum cogn ata quoqu© m isc e r e p ro h ib itu m e s t , q u ia p er con iun ction am priorem caro f r a t r i s f u e r a t f a c t a ." 1 A t th e f i r s t im p ortan t synod o f t h e Church in E ngland, under A rchbishop Theodore a t H ertfo rd (670 A .D .) , s t r e s s was l a i d upon t h e p r o h ib it io n o f u n la w fu l m a rria g e.

I n c e s t was condemned, and

l o o s e d iv o r c e was p r o h ib ite d * "Decimum ca p itu lu m pro c o n i u g i i s , *TJt n u l l i l i c e a t n i s i leg itlm u m h abere connubium* N u llu s in cestu m f a c e a t , n u llu s coniugem propriam , n i s i , u t sanctum, evan gelicu m d o c e t , f o r n i c a t i o n i s ca u sa , r e lin q u a t . Quod s i quisquam propriam e x p u le r it coniugem l e g i t imo s i b i a a trim o n io coniunetam , s i C h r is tia n u s e s s e r e c t e v o l u e r i t , n u l l i a l t e r i c o p u le tu r ; sed itscperm aneat, au t p r o p r ia e r e c o n c i l i e t u r c o n iu g i. *"2 A ccording t o t h e e v id e n c e o f t h e p e n it e n t ia ls ,® th e Church co n tin u ed to m eet th e problem s a r i s i n g o u t o f a b u ses p e r t a in in g t o t h e fa m ily *

O akley n o ted th e c o n n e c tio n o f Church d i s c i p l i n e w ith

s o c i a l l i f e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e a s p e c ts r e la t e d t o th e fa m ily . P o e n i t e n t ia l d i s c i p l i n e had c l o s e c o n n e c tio n s w ith many more a s p e c t s o f m ed ia ev a l l i f e than has u s u a lly b een r e c o g n iz e d by h is t o r ia n s d e a lin g w ith p en an ce. I t p o s s e s s e d many r a m if ic a t io n s w hich p e n e tr a te d d e e p ly in t o numerous p h ases o f m ed ia e v a l s o c i e t y , s e c u la r a s w e l l a s e c e l e s a i s t i e a l * S o c i a l l i f e was p ro fo u n d ly a f f e c t e d by numerous p e n i t e n t i a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s , w hich r e g u la te d sueh v a r ie d m a tters a s fo o d and d r in k , m a rria g e, s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s , c h a r it y , th e tre a tm en t o f c h ild r e n , t h e emanci­ p a tio n o f bondmen, and t h e s a c r e d n e ss o f oath s.® 1* 2* 5. 4.

B ed e, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y . V o l. I , I , x x v i i , p . 1 2 4 . I b id *, V o l. I I , 1 7 , v , p . 4 0 . S e e pp. 4 7 , ££ , , 7o ,7 7 , 37 , , su p r a ; Thomas P . O akley, "The C oop eration o f M ed ieval P e n it e n t ia lS and S e c u la r Law," Speculum , V o l. V I I , 1 932, p p . 5 1 5 -5 2 4 .

145

i

In a n o th er s tu d y , O akley p o in te d o u t a f e a t u r e o f t h e e f f e c t o f p e n i t e n t i a l d i s c i p l i n e w hich shows th e deep and fa r -r e a c h in g s i g n i ­ f ic a n c e o f t h i s p h ase o f t h e Church*s work.

" P enance,* he d e c la r e d ,

"was th e o r d in a r y means o f E c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e , and in c o n s ta n t u se*

C o n seq u en tly , penance v i t a l l y a f f e c t e d m il l i o n s o f p e o p le who

would n e v er be s u b je c te d t o i n t e r d i c t nor th e ban o f excom m un ication .wl Im portant p r o v is io n s in th e p e n i t e n t i a l s b e a r in g upon th e fa m ily w i l l be n o ted l a t e r in t h i s c h a p te r . The s t a t e o f t h e A nglo-Saxon fa m ily co n tin u ed t o occupy th e th o u g h ts o f le a d e r s o f C h r is tia n th ou gh t lo n g a f t e r th e e a r l i e s t y e a r s o f th e C o n v ersio n .

A e l f r i c ' s l u c id h o m ilie s and W u lfstan *s

s p i r i t e d e x h o r ta tio n s r e v e a l t h a t C h r is tia n t e a c h in g in th e t e n t h ana e le v e n t h c e n t u r ie s fa c e d fu n d am en tally t h e same problems w hich had co n fro n ted th e e a r l y m is s io n a r ie s .

W ulfstan* s h o m ily , "Be

haeSendome," r e v e a ls th e p e r s is t e n t str e n g th o f pagan c o n d itio n s in E ngland, and c a l l s upon men t o remember C h r is tia n t e a c h in g .

In

t h i s serm on, W u lfsta n p o in ts ou t s p e c i f i c ab u ses and h i t s d i r e c t l y

a t c a llo u s d isreg a rd o f th e bond o f k in sh ip . Nemo c r istia n o r u m paganas s u p e r s t it io n e s in te n d a t , s e d g e n t iliu m inquinam enta omnia omnino contem nat. e a la , m ycel i s n y jloearf manna gewhyleum,J?aet he w ic T d e o fle s la r s w ic e w a m ig e syflile, and > a e t he h aeoen scyp e g eo rn e a e f r e fo r b u g e, £ a e s ]pe he gedon m aege. • .h e r syndan on earde god cu nd n essae w iS e r sa ca n and g od es la g e o ferh o g a n , mans la g a n and rnaegs la g a n , e y r ie h a ta n and sacerdbanan, hadbreean and aew breean, myl t e s t ran and bearnmyirSran, ^ e o fa s and joeodscaoan, ry p eras and r e a f e r a s , le o g e r a s and 1 . Thomas P . O akley, "Some N e g le c te d A sp e c ts i n t h e H is to r y o f P en an ce," C a th o lic H i s t o r ic a l R eview , V o l. XXIV, No. 3 , 1938, p . 293.

L

_i

l i c e t e r a s and le o d h a ta n h e t e l e e a l l e s t o m anege, )>e 3urh m an sylen e b a r ja 5 J>as b e o d e , and w edlogan and w aerlogan and l y t l e getr^jpa t o w id e mid mannum. and ny byrh& s e g e s ib b a h w ilan g e sib b a n ~pe ma, J>e )3am frem dan, ne broSor b i s brew er oJ>re b w ile ne b e a m f o r o f t b is fa e d e r n e m eder. ne na f e l a manna ne b e a lt b is getryw&a swa w e l, swa be s e o ld e , f o r god e and f o r w o r o ld e . ac do man, swa b i t jpearf i s , g e b e te b i t g eo r a e and c la e n s ig e J>as Joeode, g y f man god es m i l t s e g eea rn ja n w y lle .^ In a n o th e r sermon, L a r s p e ll XLVI, W u lfstan p o in te d ly condemned t h e u n h o ly e v i l w hich had caused men t o fo r sa k e t h e i r bonds o f k in and become s la y e r s o f r e l a t i v e s . O f e r f y ll b iS $ a e r e sa w le feon d and jpaes lieham an unha e l , s e h i s t o f e l a nymdT, he b iS wodum men g e l i c ; and h i t bicf maogbana and m orS slaga, and h i t ne murneS f o r nanum men ne f o r fa e d e r ne f o r meder ne f o r b rok er ne f o r sw u ster ne f o r uianum g e sib b a n men; e a l l e u n sib b a h i t vryrcS, and h i t aluce he m odcearig geond la g u la d e lo n g e s c e o ld e h reran mid hondum h rim eeald e s a e , wadan w r a e c la s t a s . Wyrd bia gem yndig, wra]pra w a e ls le a h t a , winemaega h ryre: ♦•Oft i c s c e o ld e ana uhtvjeu gehw ylce m ine c e a r e cwij>an. M s nu cw icra nan £ e i e him raodsefan minne durre sw e o tu le a se c g a n . 2 There f o llo w p a ssa g e s p r e s e n tin g t h e f u t i l i t y o f lo n g in g f o r t h e v a n ish e d g lo r y and jo y s o f t h e p ast*

V is io n s o f co m ita tu s l i f e

a t th e c o u rt o f th e t r e a s u r e - d e a lin g lo r d and p r o t e c to r d isa p p e a r , and t h e lo n e l y man f e e l s o n ly t h e more d e e p ly th e wounds o f h i s sorrow , a s th o u g h ts o f v a n ish e d kinsm en come. Ponme b eoS py h e fig r a n h e o r ta a b en n e, s a r e a e f t e r sw aesn e. Sorg b io geniw ad, ponne maga gemynd mod geondbweorfe&, g r e te S g liw sta fu m , georn e geondseeawa& se c g a g e s e ld a n . SwimmafS e f t on w egl F le o te n d r a f e r $ no ]>aer f e l a b rin g eS eu&ra cw idegiedda* Gearo bi& geniwad Joam > e sendan s c e a l swi]oe geneahhe o f e r wapema g e b in d w erig n e s e f a n .3 Thoughts o f deeay and d e s o la t io n and th e t r a n s it o r in e s s o f e a r t h ly th in g s crowd in : F a l l i s e a r fo & lic eorjoan r i c e , onwendeS wyrda g e s c e a f t w eoruld under heofonum. Her b iS fe o h la e n e , h er b iS freo n d la e n e , h er bi& mon la e n e , h er b iS maeg la e n e , e a l £ i s eorJ>an g e s t e a l i d e l wedjbeS’.^

1. 2* 3* 4* L

The W anderer, 11* 1-5* I b id * , 1 1 . 6 - 1 1 . I b id . , 1 1 . 4 9 -5 7 . I b id . . 1 1 . 1 0 6 -1 1 0 .

171

r

Then comes th e l i g h t , p o in tin g t h e way t o s p i r i t u a l com fort: Wei blS Pam p e him a re sece& , f r o f r e t o fa e d e r on heofonum, p a e r u s e a l se o f a e s t nung stondeS.l In The S e a f a r e r , th e trea tm en t i s s t r i k i n g l y s im il a r , a lth o u g h t h e c o n t r a s t i s n ot so c le a n - c u t a s in The Wanderer.

In an gu ish o f

s p i r i t a l o n e l y v o y a g er t e l l s a " tr u t h -t a le " o f a n x io u s n ig h t-w a tc h on h i s s t o m - t o s s e d s h ip in i c y w a ters d a n g ero u sly n ea r roek y c l i f f s , w h ile h i s h e a rt i s f i l l e d w ith h i t t e r c a r e . Maeg i c b e me sylfu m so& gied w recan, s ip a s s e c g a n , hu i c geswincdagum ea r fo S h w ile o f t p ro wade, b i t r e b r e o s tc e a r e g eb id en haebbe, geeunnad i n c e o le c e a r s e ld a f e l a , a t o l ypa g ew e a le p a e r mec o f t b ig e a t nearo n ih tw aco a e t nacan s t e f n a n , ponne he be e lifu m cnossaft . . . .2 H e, t o o , i s b e r e f t o f f r ie n d s and kinsm en: "winemaegum b id ro ren ” ;^ and he r e f l e c t s som b erly t h a t how proud, o r g en e r o u s, o r b o ld ,

no man i s s e c u r e from sorrow , no m a tter o r l o y a l he mayhave

b een .

Ibrpn n i s p a e s modwlone mon o f e r eorpan, ne h i s g if e n a p a e s g od , ne in geogupe t o p a e s hw aet, ne in h i s daedum to p a es d e o r , ne him h i s d ryh ten t o p a e s h o ld , p a e t he a h i s s a e f o r e s o r g e naebbe to hwon h in e d ryh ten gedon w i l l e *4 Then, a t t h e en d , a s i n The Wanderer, a ray o f s p i r i t u a l ra d ia n ce illu m in a t e s th e l i n e s a s t h e p o et t e l l s o f th e H eavenly m ercy th a t i s in s t o r e f o r t h e humble o f h e a r t, and o f t h e d iv in e sup port t h a t i s t h e due o f th o s e who t r u s t in t h e s tr e n g t h o f t h e Lord: ,fE adig

The W anderer, U . 1 1 4 -1 5 .

Zm The S e a f a r e r . 1 1 . 1 - 8 . 3 . I b id ., 1 . 16. 4 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 3 9 -4 3 . L

“i

172

r

"i b i § s e J>e ea]>mod leofaJ>; cymeS him s e o a r o f heofonum, meotod him J>aet mod gesta$>ela&, forf>on he in h i s m eahte g e ly f e S .**1 The e l e g a i c mood ap p ears in B eo w u lf, to o ; b u t t h e r e th e gloom i s u n r e lie v e d , f o r t h e d e s ig n o f th e poem i s d i f f e r e n t •

In th e

e p is o d e o f t h e lo n e s u r v iv o r who b u r ie d t h e t r e a s u r e w hich th e dragon l a t e r guarded, th e s p i r i t u a l m isery o f t h e lo n e ly man i s ex p ressed i n term s so s im ila r t o th o s e found in The Wanderer and The S e a fa r e r t h a t i t i s an alm o st in e v i t a b le c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e trea tm en t rep ­ r e s e n t s an a cc ep ted p o e t ic symbol e x p r e s s in g th e h o p e le s s n e s s o f th e pagan way o f l i f e .

In B eo w u lf, a s i n t h e s h o r t e r poems, th e t r a n s i ­

t o r i n e s s o f m o rta l jo y s and th e v a n it y o f human r ic h e s and g lo r y a re p r e s e n te d a s i n e v i t a b l e in th e G o d less way o f pagan l i f e .

W ar-death

h as d ep r iv ed th e s o r r o w fu l s u r v iv o r o f h i s kinsm en; th e h a l l - j o y has gon e;

th e b e a r e r o f t h e sword and th e g u ard ian o f t h e cup o f

b e a te n

g o ld ,

and th e C h ie fs have gone; th e p o lis h e r s o f t h e je w e le d h elm ets

s le e p ; th e harp i s s t i l l ; and t h e hawk f l i e s no more through th e h a ll;

nor does th e s w i f t s t e e d tr e a d th e c o u r ty a r d . B a le f u l d ea th

h as s e n t motpfealumen on t h e i r way. gu&deao fornam, fe o r h b e a lo fr e c n e f y r a gehw ylene le o d a m inra }>ara Se ]o is [ l i f ] o f g e a f , se c g a se le d r ea m . Nah, hwa sweord wege o5cyn e p is o d e , a l l p o in t t o th e f r a i l t y o f human f l e s h and t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e human s p i r i t .

They form a p a tte r n o b v io u s ly in ten d ed to le a d

B e o w u lf. 1 1 . 2 2 4 9 -6 6 . 2 . I b i d . , 1 . 2738. L_

174

r

"i t o s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t , n o t t o in c ite m e n t. T h is e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c te r o f t h e poem was u n d ersto o d by a few s c h o la r s e a r l i e r , b u t i t i s o n ly now g a in in g accep tan ce."

M alone,

i n an a r t i c l e on G ru n d tv ig , h a i l s th e e a r ly D anish c r i t i c a s "the f i r s t and g r e a t e s t o f B eow u lf s c h o la r s ,"

and shows in an a n a ly s is

o f s t u d i e s p u b lish e d by G rundtvig b etw een t h e y e a r s 1817 and 1861 t h a t he saw th e u n d e r ly in g u n ity o f B eo w u lf.

The n a tu r e o f G rundt-

v ig » s c r i t i c a l th e o r y and h i s k een n ess o f p e r c e p tio n appear in a q u o ta tio n from h is s t u d i e s , p r e se n te d by Malone i n t r a n s la t io n : " F in a lly we come t o t h e p r e s e n t poem [B eow u lf] , and a s t h e f i r s t attem p t in Christendom t o r a i s e s e c u la r h i s t o r y t o an e p i c , i t d e s e r v e s ou r sp e ­ c i a l n o t i c e . Such an a ttem p t in r e a l i t y had no chance o f s u c c e s s , s i n c e i t c a l l e d f o r a know­ le d g e o f h i s t o r y f a r from b elo n g in g t o th o s e d a y s, c a l l e d f o r an in s ig h t in t o t h e war betw een t r u th and fa ls e h o o d n o t t o e a s i l y t o b e found (th ou gh p r e s e n t w e ll enough) in th e e v e n ts o f h ea th en t im e s . When, t h e r e f o r e , th e p o et under­ to o k t o p u t to g e th e r h ea th en e v e n ts in t o an e p ic , w ith o u t tu r n in g h im s e lf in t o a h ea th en , he saw no o th e r way th an t o f a l l back on t a l e s o f m o n ste r s, and th e r e b y t o s e t t h e e v e n ts in to a k in d o f r e l a t i o n t o C h r is tia n t r u t h . "3.Another s c h o la r who e a r ly saw t h e u n ity o f B eow u lf was Dr. Hornbug.

In 1884, he d e c la r e d t h a t th e poem was n o t a lo o s e s t r in g

o f v a r io u s poems, a l t e r e d and put t o g e t h e r by a l a t e r a u th o r , b u t a u n i f i e d work. Das G ed ich t g i e b t s i c h so m it a l s e in e e i n h e i t l i c h e A r b e it , n ie h t a l s e in e l o s e A n ein an d erreih u n g e in z e ln e r L ie d e r , d ie von sp a te r e n

i . Kemp M alone, "G rundtvig a s B eow u lf C r i t i c RES. V o l. XVII. 1 9 4 1 , p . 129. I b id .,

L

------

p.

2 7 7 ff.

-J

175

V e r fa ss e r n noeli Z u sa tz e, UmSnderongen und V erbindungen e r h a lte n haben, zu erkennen.-*P iz z o saw th e purpose o f t h e pagan elem en ts in t h e poem. Wohl fin d e n s i eh im B eow u lf aueh se h ild e r u n g e n von hafskam pfen• Aber s i e s o l l e n uns nur z e i gen was n ie h t r e e h t i s t . S i e l a s s e n uns E r st den w ert d er neuen e h r i s t l i e h e n ara erkennen, d ie B eow u lf und auch andere f S r s t e n e r S f f n e t haben. Wie a u f etw as Uberwundenes sch a u t d er d ie h t e r a u f d ie nahe V ergan gen h eit zuruck. Aus )arySos gesehiehte ersehen wir wie Hygd nicht war; die sehilderung von Hygelacs Kampfen wirft ein grelles lieht auf ein leben das Beowulfs starke hand seinem Volke erspart hat, das aber noch seinem tode wiederkehren kann; und Ehnliche aufgaben erfhllen aueh die anderen Episoden, wenn man sie in ihrem zusammenhange ansieht.2 He saw , t o o , t h a t t h e poem was an o r g a n ic w h o le. T ro tz s e in e r m&ngel. • . i s t so das B e o w u lflie d n ie h t e in s in n lo s e s konglom erat v e r s e h ie d n e r w eltanshauungen und g e s ln g e , sondern e in k o n k r etes g e is t e r z u e g n is s e in e r Z e i t , d er e i n h e i t l i e h e ausdruck d es frS h en a n g e l- s a e h s is c h c h r is tlie h e n id e a ls .3 K la e b e r r e c o g n iz e d t h e c l o s e r e l a t io n s h ip betw een th e s p i r i t u a l p u rp ose o f th e p o e t and th e n a r r a t iv e c o n te n ts o f t h e poem, a lth o u g h he s t i l l view ed th e C h r is tia n c o n c e p ts as e le m e n ts, alth o u g h in­ g r a in e d in th e f a b r ic o f th e poem,

n e v e r t h e le s s he adm its t h a t th e

m ain s t o r y has b een th o ro u g h ly imbued w ith t h e s p i r i t o f C h r is tia n ­ ity . The C h r is tia n elem en ts a r e alm ost w ith o u t e x c e p tio n so d e e p ly in g r a in e d in t h e v e r y f a b r ic o f th e poem t h a t t h e y cann ot b e e x ­ p la in e d away a s th e work o f a r e v i s e r o r 1 . Hornburg, "Die K om p osition d es B e o v u lf," A rch iv f&r das Studium d er Heuren Spraehen und L it t e r a t u r e n , 72 Band, 1 8 8 4 , p . 4 0 3 . 2 . E n rico P iz z o , wZur Erage d er A s th e tis c h e n E in h e it d es B eow u lf," A n g lia . V o l. 3 9 , 1 9 1 5 -1 6 , pp . 9 - 1 0 . 3 . I b id . , p . 15. L

l a t e r in t e r p o la t o r . In a d d it io n , i t i s in s t r u c t ­ iv e t o n o te t h a t w h ils t th e e p is o d e s a r e a l l bu t f r e e from th o s e modern in f lu e n c e s , t h e main s to r y has b een th o ro u g h ly imbued w ith t h e s p i r i t o f C h r is tia n ity . 1 B lo m fie ld ta k e s th e u n it y o f B eow ulf f o r g ra n ted and n o te s f u r t h e r th e s u r e c o n s tr u c tio n o f t h e poem.

A ccordin g to B lo m fie ld ,

th e poem i s rem arkable f o r d ep th and v ib r a n c y , e f f e c t e d by s k i l l f u l co n tra st. The g e n e r a l im p re ssio n t h a t B eow u lf. • . i s rem ark ab le. • . f o r d ep th and v ib r a n c y needs e x p la n a tio n in term s o f s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e . T hese e f f e c t s a re p a r t ly due t o a method o f e v o c a tio n and c r o s s r e f e r e n c e in w hich c o n tr a s t i s an Im portant elem en t. 2 B lo m fie ld s e e s , t o o , th e d e e p e r s ig n if i c a n c e o f t h e s ig n s and sym bols u sed by t h e p o e t, and warns a g a in s t th in k in g them mere a c c id e n t s . The s tr u c t u r e i s n ot a p r o g r e s s io n , and f o llo w s no d i r e c t l i n e . The w r it e r o f B eow u lf i s i n f a c t a tr u e p o e t; he has c r e a te d a t r a g i c u n ity ; he s e e s w ith t h e p o e t ’ s eye which s p l i t s and recom bines th e elem en ts o f everyday p ercep ­ t i o n s . The s ig n s and sym bols th a t he u se s a re now u n fa m ilia r r e p r e s e n t a t io n s w hich need t o be in te r p r e te d ; we sh o u ld n ot be m is le a d in to th in k in g them a c c id e n ts .® What th e s e s c h o la r s have n o t ic e d about B eow u lf i s r a th e r ap­ p a r e n t ly but one f a c e t o f t h e a r t o f e a r ly C h r is tia n A nglo-Saxon p o e t r y a s a w h o le.

The im portant works o f th e e a r ly p e r io d show

s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s in m o tive and tech n iq u e ; t h e y e x h ib it a u n a n i­ m ity o f em p h asis, a s in g le n e s s o f in s p ir a t io n , and a common funda­ m e n ta l p u rp o se. 1 . K la eb er , B eo w u lf. I n tr o d u c tio n , p . i . 2 . Joan B lo m fie ld , "The S t y l e and S tr u c tu r e o f B eow u lf," RES, V o l. XIV, 1938, p . 3 9 7 . 3 . I b id . , p . 4 0 2 .

177

T h is s in g l e n e s s o f i n s p ir a t io n and em phasis i s c l e a r ly v i s i b l e in t h e p o e t ic tre a tm en t o f them es p e r ta in in g t o th e fa m ily .

Ju st as

th e e a r ly m is s io n a r ie s were con cern ed w ith t h e p rop er developm ent o f fa m ily l i f e a lo n g C h r is tia n l i n e s , s o th e e a r ly p o e ts were o b v io u s ly d e s ir o u s o f im p la n tin g c o n c ep ts o f v a lu e t o t h e improvement and s p i r i t u a l grow th o f t h e A nglo-Saxon f a m ily .

The l i t e r a r y trea tm en t

o f id e a s concerned w ith k in d h ip shows an e v id e n t s e e k in g f o r e f f e c t s d e sig n e d t o in c u lc a t e C h r is tia n d o c t r in e . F a m ilia r e p i t h e t s w ere endowed w ith new m eaning.

The con cep t o f

God th e F a th er ap p ears in e x p r e s s io n s in terw oven w ith th e more custom ary t e r n s o f k in s h ip and co m ita tu s r e l a t i o n s h i p .

In B eow ulf

appears " fa ed er alwalda**;^ in The Wanderer, " fa e d e r on heofonumw; 2 i n The p h o e n ix . " fa e d e r a elm ih tig * , ;3 and in G e n e s is , " b ilw it

fe e ­

der. W ith d e l i c a t e ir o n y , th e p o e t a t tim es p r e s e n te d t e l l i n g h in t s o f broken o b l i g a t i o n s and t h e i r e v i l e f f e c t on k in s h ip .

The ir o n ic

p ic t u r e o f H rothgar and H r o th u lf s id e by s i d e , in B eow u lf, n o ted by M alone, seems c l e a r l y p lan n ed in t h e l i g h t o f t h e A nglo-Saxon G e n e sis p a ssa g e e x p r e s s in g Godfs condem nation o f s t r i f e betw een su h t e r g e fa e d e r a n . The l i n e s o f B eow u lf a r e : p a e r p a godan tw egen s a e to n su h t e r g e f aederan; p a g y t waes h ie r a s ib a e tg a e d e r e , aeghw yle ou min s u h te r g a . He s c e o lo n unc betweonan teonan weaxan, wroht w r i^ ia n — ne ]paet w ill© god! Ac w it s y n t gemagas; unc gemaene ne s c e a l e l l e s a w ih t, nymj>e e a l l t e l a lu f u langsum u. 2 H ere can be s e e n e l e a r l y one o f th e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f th e e a r l y p o e tr y .

Each poem w as, in i t s own way, p o in tin g ou t a

contem porary e v i l .

The e f f e c t sou gh t in t h e c a s e s j u s t noted

was a condem nation o f s t r i f e betw een kinsm en and a sym p ath etic a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e s p i r i t u a l v a lu e o f lo v in g f r ie n d s h ip betw een r e la tio n s .

Each poem u sed i t s own te c h n iq u e , f i t t e d t o th e s u b j e c t

m a tte r ; b u t th e i n t e n t was i d e n t i c a l in ea ch c a s e s th e in c lu l e a t io n o f t h e C h r is tia n v ie w p o in t. The p o e ts gave s p e c i f i c a t t e n t io n t o t h e bonds o f k in s h ip . The r e la t io n s h ip o f f a t h e r and dau ghter was t r e a t e d w ith e x c e lle n t e f f e c t in Cynewulf*s J u lia n a .

With t e l l i n g c r i t i c i s m o f t h e pagan

custom o f su b m ittin g a d a u g h ter t o th e a b s o lu t e c o n tr o l o f h er f a t h e r , th e s t o r y t e l l s o f th e s a in t e d v i r g in m artyr who l i v e d in th e days o f th e Roman em peror Maximian.

The p l ig h t o f t h e daughter

1 . Kemp M alone, » H r e th r ic ,« B&LA, V o l. X L II, p . 26 8 . 2 . G e n e s is . 1 1 . 1 8 9 9 -1 9 0 6 .

L

179

a t t h e m erey o f h er s e l f i s h f a th e r had o b v io u s ly s tr o n g contempo­ r a r y im p lic a t io n s .

W ith f i n e ir o n y , t h e p o et r e v e a le d th e h y p o c r isy

o f f a t h e r s who p r o f e s s lo v e fo r t h e ir d a u g h ter s, y e t urge them t o subm it to h a m fu l m a r r ia g e s.

There i s t r a g i c f o r c e in th e s im p li­

c i t y o f sta te m e n t r e v e a lin g t h e m aiden’ s h e lp le s s n e s s under th e pagan t r a d i t i o n o f a b s o lu t e p a r e n ta l c o n t r o l.

The p o et m erely s t a t e s

t h a t t h e daughter was b e tr o th e d t o a r i c h n ob le w ith h er f a t h e r ’ s c o n se n t: ’’fea w aes s i o faemme m id hyre fa e d e r w i l l a n welegum b e wedded.*^

Then he shows th a t when, d e s p it e h er f a t h e r ’ s ap p roval

o f t h e r i c h b u t w ick ed H e lis e u s , th e v i r g i n r e s i s t e d t h e u n io n , th e an gered p a ren t p lea d ed c r a f t i l y w ith h i s d a u g h ter, t e l l i n g h er t h a t sh e was h i s d e a r e s t and s w e e t e s t , h is o n ly one on e a r th , and t h e l i g h t o f h i s e y e s; and f i n a l l y u pb raided h er f o r h avin g tak en a h o s t i l e and f r u i t l e s s c o u r se . Eode p a fr o m lic e faemnan t o s p r a e c e , anraed ond yrep w eorg, y r r e g e b o lg e n , p a e r he glaedm ode geonge w is t e w ie w eard ian . He J>a worde cwaeS: ’’Bu e a r t d oh tor m ln se o d y r e s te ond se o s w e te s te in s e fa n minum ange f o r eo ip a n m inra eagna l e o h t , I u lia n a ! pu on geap e h a f a s t purh p i n o r le g u u n b ip y r fe o f e r w ite n a dam w isa n g e fo n g e n . 2 In t h e v i r g i n ’ s s t e a d f a s t r e f u s a l t o y i e l d to h er f a t h e r ’ s e v i l c o u n s e l, th e r e l a y a s u b t l e , y e t c l e a r l y d is c e r n i b le , a p p ea l t o young A nglo-Saxon women o f th e tim e t o h o ld t o c h a s t i t y , r a th e r th an g i v e th e m se lv e s t o unworthy m a r r ia g e . The r e la t io n s h ip betw een b r o th e r and s i s t e r w ith i t s s p i r i t u ­ a l enrichm ent under C h r is tia n c o n d itio n s was p r e se n te d in th e p o e t ic 1 . J u lia n a , 1 1 . 3 2 -3 3 2 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 8 9 -9 8 . L

180

r

"i s t o r y o f S t , G u th la e .

T h is s t o r y , w hich u sed trea tm en t in d ir e c t

c o n tr a s t w ith t h e s t o r y o f S a in t J u lia n a , p o r tr a y s th e u n s e l f i s h C h r is tia n lo v e o f a b r o th e r f o r h is s i s t e r .

S a in t G u th la e, d y in g ,

sen d s a m essen g er to t e l l h i s s i s t e r o f h i s r e a so n f o r denying him­ s e l f h er p r e s e n c e .

He a sk s t h a t h is s i s t e r be inform ed o f h is

p a s s in g and t h a t sh e b e t o l d t h a t he k ep t h im s e lf from s e e in g h er on e a r th in o rd er t h a t th e y m ight s e e one a n o th e r a g a in in t h e g lo r y o f Heaven b e fo r e t h e e t e r n a l Ju dge, v o id o f a l l s i n , where t h e i r lo v e w i l l c o n tin u e c o n s ta n t , , , Pys a e f t e r > on J>aet fcu g e s e c g e sw e o ste r m in re, p aere le o fe s ta n on lo n g n e weg t o pam fa eg r a n g e fe a n forSsiS* minne on ecn e ea r d , ond h yre ea c geeyaet i c me w am ade h yre onsyne e a l l e p>rage in w o r u ld lif e , f o r ^34, 1 2 8 6 , 1594, 1 6 3 1 , 2974. 4 . I b id . , 1 . 485; and s e e p . |g 2 . » su p ra . L

_i

184

p

b e in g o f f guard seems more th an p rob ab le from h is u se o f t h e same

n

verb i n l i n e 1741 w here, in H rothgar’ s sermon, th e e x p r e s s io n wJ>onne s e weard swefeS"^ a p p e a r s. That s e c t io n o f H roth gar’ s sermon warns a g a in s t p r id e . d e l i v e r i n g a v e r y C h r is tia n sermon, adm onishes B eow u lf.

The k in g ,

He p ic t u r e s

a h y p o t h e t ic a l man, s u c c e s s f u l and p o w e r fu l, who a llo w s p r id e t o grow w it h in him w h ile t h e guard and k eep er o f h i s s o u l s l e e p s . s l e e p , H rothgar d e c la r e s , i s to o firm ly bound

That

w ith d i s t r e s s , f o r

v e r y c l o s e i s th e s la y e r who w ic k e d ly s h o o ts w ith h is arrow-bow. he ]>aet w yrse ne con — , od b a e t him on innan oferh ygd a d a e l weax&S ond w ridaS; J>onne s e weard sw efeS , sa w ele hyrde; b iS s e s la e p to f a e s t , bisgum gebunden, bona sw iS e neah, s e J>e o f fla n b o g a n fyrenum sceo te# .^ The p o e t u sed v i r t u a l l y th e same f ig u r a t i v e c o n c e p tio n in p r e ­ s e n t in g th e coming o f G ren d el f o r t h e f i r s t tim e .

H aving p rese n te d

a p ic t u r e o f w a r r io r s l i v i n g v ery h a p p ily in H eorot, he in trod u ced th e m on ster as a f ie n d o f h e l l and had him come t o t h e h a l l where he found t h e band o f n o b le s a s le e p a f t e r a b an q u et.

The p o e t , a t t h i s

p o in t , commented t h a t th e y knew n ot sorrow and m isery o f men; th e n , im m ed ia tely a f t e r , d e c la r e d t h a t th e grim and greed y demon o f d eath soo n was read y and, in t h e i r r e s t , to o k t h i r t y th a n e s . Swa cfa drihtgum an dreamum 1 i f don, e a d ig lic e , o&an n ih t be com, hean h u s e s , hu h i t H ring-D ene a e f t e r beor£>ege gebun h a efd o n .

2.

L

B e o w u lf, 1 . 1 7 4 1 . I b id . , 1 1 . 1 7 3 9 -4 4 .

185

r

”i

Fand pa d aer inn© aej> elin ga g e d r ih t sw efan a e f t e r sym ble; so r g e ne cuSon, w o n scea ft w era. Wiht u n h a e lo , grim ond g r a e d ig , gearo son a w aes, re o c and rej>e, ond on r a e s t e genam J > ritig oegna;JThe id e a in h e r e n t in sw efa n , t h u s , seems t o be d u llin g o f t h e m oral sen se* W ith su ch apparent c lu e s t o th e r id d le o f t h e m on ster, i t seems p l a u s i b l e t o in t e r p r e t th e p a ssa g e d e s c r ib in g G rendel*s a t ta c k a s a d e s c r ip t io n o f an o u tb reak o f h o s t i l i t y among armed men o f a eo m ita tu s a f t e r th e y had b een d r in k in g .

The m on ster*s q u ick and e a sy en tra n ce

th rou gh t h e fa s te n e d door may s i g n i f y th e in t e r n a l n atu re o f t h e eo n b©

f l i c t : a lo c k e d door would^no guard a g a in s t an outbreak o f s la u g h t e r w it h in th e h a l l ,

G ren d el*s d e sc e n t upon s le e p in g men can s i g n i f y a

f i g h t b rea k in g ou t among men whose s e n s e s w ere s o d u lle d w it h d rin k t h a t th e y d id not r e a l i z e what th e y were d o in g .

The m o n ster’ s ey e

g leam in g w ith a f la m e - lik e l i g h t can e a s i l y b e a f ig u r a t iv e tou ch s i g n i f y i n g th e gleam o f l i g h t r e f l e c t e d from a sword b la d e .

The a c t

o f t h e m on ster in t e a r in g , o r s l i t t i n g a man; and b i t i n g , o r c u t t in g , in to h is j o i n t s can v e r y r e a d ily s u g g e st a h o s t i l e sword c u t t in g in t o a human b od y.

The m onsterb d rin k in g o f th e b lo o d from th e v ic t im ’ s

v e i n s , and f i n a l l y d evou rin g him, can th en be tak en to mean th e s p i l ­ l i n g o f th e v i c t im ’ s b lo o d and th e co m p lete d e s t r u c t io n o f h i s l i f e . T h is s e c t i o n o f B eow u lf has been a n a ly z e d in some d e t a i l to show t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s p r e s e n t in much o f t h e e a r ly A nglo-Saxon p o e tr y from t h e p o in t o f v ie w o f th e a u th o r ’ s in ten d ed e f f e c t s . There

1 . B e o w u lf, 1 1 .

L

9 9 -1 0 2 ;

1 1 5 -2 3 .

186

can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e p o et had a d e f i n i t e pu rp ose in mind b e ­ yond t h e mere t e l l i n g o f a r a th e r gruesom e h o rro r t a l e .

In f a c t , when

s t i l l more e v id e n c e i s exam ined, th e c o n v ie t io n grows t h a t a s p e c i f i c e v i l i s aimed a t . The poem c o n ta in s a number o f i n t e r e s t in g and r a th e r s i g n i f i ­ ca n t r e f e r e n c e s to th e u n c e r ta in em otion s o f men under t h e in flu e n c e o f d r in k .

The r e t a in e r s o f H rothgar w ere flu s h e d w ith d r in k , wdrunc-

n e , w when Wealhtheow a d d ressed them;-*- and i f we ta k e h e r remarks as a b i t o f iro n y on th e p a r t o f th e p o e t , a s Malone has s u g g e s te d , th e d e s c r ip t io n o f t h e m en's c o n d itio n has an u l t e r i o r m eaning.

B eow ulf

rebuked B n ferth w ith t h e remark t h a t he was t a lk in g t o o much b e­ ca u se he was drunken w ith b e e r : "Hwaet, f>u worn f e l a , w ine min Unfer&, b e o re druneen ymb Breean s p r a e c e , s a e g d e st from h is sicTel**2 E a r l i e r , th e p o e t a s s e r t e d th a t men b o a ste d l o o s e l y when drunk w ith b e e r : MF u l o f t g eb eo ted o n b e o re druncne o f e r ealow aege o retm a eeg a s." 3 L a te r , t h e p o et d e c la r e d t h a t TFnferth d id n ot remember what he had sp ok en drunkenly: "Huru ne gemunde mago E c g la fe s eafojbes c r a e f t i g , J>aet he a e r g e sp r a e c w ine d r u n e e n . A l s o , th e p o et m o tiv a ted th e o u tb rea k o f f i g h t i n g in t h e I n g e ld in t e r p o la t io n b y h avin g th e o ld w a r r io r i n c i t e men to h o s t i l i t y w h ile under t h e in f lu e n c e o f d r in k , f o r i t i s a t a b e e r -d r in k in g th a t th e o ld f ig h t e r becomes angered and sp ea k s out b i t t e r l y . That th e r e w ere m o tiv e s which m ight le a d f r ie n d s and kinsm en t o a t ta c k ea ch o th e r w ith swords i s f a r from a mere p r o b a b ilit y . 1* 2. 3. 4. L.

B eo w u lf. 1 . 1 * 3 1 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 5 3 0 -3 2 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 4 8 0 -8 1 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 1 4 6 5 -6 7 . _

j

187

The Y n glin ga S a g a , a s r e la t e d in t h e H elm sk rin g la ,

1

t e l l s o f two

b r o th e r s k i l l i n g each o th e r l a t e one even in g a f t e r th e r e had been d r in k in g .

One o f t h e men was K ing A l f , th e o th e r h is b ro th er Y n gvi.

A l f had r e s e n te d Yngvi* s a t t e n t io n s t o h is w i f e .

In B eow ulf th e r e

ap p ears an abupt and sharp c r i t i c i s m o f tr e a c h e r y to c lo s e compan­ io n s .

The p o et adm onishes men t o do a s B eow u lf d o e s , not weave

d e a th s n a r e s f o r a n o th e r o r p rep are d eath w ith s e c r e t c r a f t f o r a handeompanion •

n e a l l e s in w itn e t dyrnum e r a e f t e , h o n d g e s te a lla n . 2

Swa s e e a l raaeg don, ocfrum bregdon deaS r e n ( ia n )

L a te r , p r a is in g B eow ulf f o r h is b r a v e r y , t h e p o et s t r e s s e s th e go o d n ess o f h i s d eeds and em p hasizes th e f a c t t h a t he d id n ot a t a l l s l a y h i s hearth -com p an ion s flu s h e d w ith d rin k : **Swa b eald od e b e a m Ecgcfeowes. . .godura daedum. • . n e a l l e s druncne s lo g h e o rS g en ea ta s• Armed men would b e l i k e l y t o q u a r r e l a f t e r a q u a n tity o f b eer had b een drunk.

They w ere rough men who lo v e d a f i g h t ; and when s e n s e s

w ere b lu r r e d and tem pers sh o r t i t cou ld n ot have ta k en much t o ca u se a f la r e - u p , even among comrades and kinsm en.

Once f ig h t i n g s t a r t e d ,

i t would be p r e t t y hard t o c o n t r o l and, s in c e t h e men w ere a ra ed , sudden d ea th w ould n o t be u n u su a l, nor s u r p r is in g . E a r ly A nglo-Saxon law s c o n ta in e d p r o v is io n s aimed a t c o n t r o llin g dangerous o u tb u r s ts where men were d r in k in g (a lth o u g h Thorpe c o u ld n o t u n derstand why i t was made an o f f e n s e f o r a man to tak e a n o th e r ’ s 1 . H eim sk rin g la . p . 1 4 . 2# B eo w u lf. 1 1 . 2 1 6 6 -6 9 . 3 . I b id . . 1 1 . 2 1 7 7 -7 9 .

L

-j

188

cup where men were p e a c e a b ly im b ib in g . )*^ A law o f H lo th ere and E a d r ic , 685-686 A .B ., p ro v id ed th a t i f a man removed t h e cup o f a n o th e r he had to pay a f i n e t o th e man he had o ffe n d e d , to th e man who owned t h e p la c e , and t o th e k in g . G if man o}>rum s te o p a s e t t e S a er maen d r in c e n , buton s e y ld e , an e a ld r i h t s e l l * a g e ld e >am |>e )oaet f l e t a g e , 7 VI s e l l * ]oam )oe man }x>ne s te a p a s e t , 7 cynge X II s e l l * . 2 Two o th e r law s o f H lo th e re and E a d ric, and one o f In e , p ro v id e fu r ­ t h e r in fo r m a tio n .

Law 13 o f H lo th ere and E a d ric c o n ta in s a s t r i e t

p r o h ib it io n a g a in s t draw ing a weapon where men a re d r in k in g . G if man waepen abregde J>aer maen d rin c e n 7 S a e r man nan y f e l ne de£, s e i l l i n g fcan jje J ta e t f l e t a g e , 7 cyninge X II s e l l ’ .® And la w 14 c o n ta in s a p r o v is io n con cern in g t h e s p i l l i n g o f b lo o d : G if ]paet f l e t geb lod gad wyr}>e, f o r g y ld e Jjem maen h i s mundbyrd 7 cyn in ge L s c l l ’ .^ The la w o f In e (6 8 8 -6 9 5 A .D .) p r o v id e s t h a t i f two men q u a r r e l o v e r t h e i r cups and one endures i t p a t i e n t l y , th e o th e r s h a l l pay a fin e .

G if Sonne on g e b e o rs c ip e h ie g e c id e n , 7 oeah ]pin w it ctu ge.f F a th e r -so n r e l a t i o n s h i p r e c e iv e d in t e r e s t i n g p o e t ic tr e a tm e n t. The G en e sis Abraham -Isaac s t o r y p la c e d em phasis on th e human r e l a ­ t io n s h ip o f p aren t and s o n , and s p i r i t u a l r e la t io n s h ip o f Abraham and t h e e t e r n a l F a th e r . w ith d ra m a tic e f f e c t .

T h ese two p ow erfu l them es were in te r tw in e d In c o n t r a s t in g th e bond betw een man and God

w ith t h e bond betw een f a t h e r and s o n , The A nglo-Saxon t r a n s la t o r added t o th e o r i g i n a l i n t e n s if y in g to u c h e s , a com parison o f th e A n glo-Saxon and Douay v e r s io n s sh ow s. Where th e Douay v e r s io n h a s: wHe b u i l t an a l t a r and l a i d t h e wood.

• .upon i t ; and when he had bound I sa a c h i s s o n , he l a i d him

on t h e a l t a r upon t h e p i l e o f wood; and he put f o r t h h i s hand,

and

to o k t h e sword, t o s a c r i f i c e h is s o n , w^ th e A nglo-Saxon v e r s io n d e c la r e s th a t th e f a t h e r would have s l a i n h is so n w ith h is own hand, and would have m in g led th e flam e w ith th e b lo o d o f h i s son: Ongan £ a ad h la d a n , a e le d w eccan, and g e f e te r o d e f e t and honda b earn e sinum , and )>a on b a e l a h o f Isa a c g eo n g n e, and £ a a ed re gegrap sweord b e g eh iltu m : w old e h is sunu c w e lla n folmum sinum , f y r e scen ca n maeges d r e o r e .3 Where th e Douay v e r s io n s t a t e s sim p ly : "Abraham l i f t e d up h i s e y e s , and saw b ehind h is back a ram amongst th e b r ie r s s t ic k in g f a s t B e o w u lf, 1 1 . 5 8 7 -8 9 .

2# Donay B i b l e , XXII, i x , x . 3 . G e n e s is , 1 1 . 2 9 0 2 -0 8 . L

by t h e h o r n s, w hich he to o k and o f f e r e d f o r a h o lo c a u s t in s t e a d o f h i s s o n ,1*^ th e A nglo-Saxon v e r s io n d e c la r e s t h a t The Lord had g la d ­ dened th e h e a r t o f Abraham when h e r e s to r e d t o him h i s s o n , a l i v e ; t and e n la r g e s t h e p a ssa g e w ith i n t e n s if y in g d e t a i l : Ad s to d o n a e le d . H aefde Abrahame metod m oncynnes, maege L o th e s, b reo st g e b lis s a d , p a he him h is b e a m f o r g e a f, I s a a c ew icn e. ©a s e eadega b ew lat r in c o f e r e x l e , and him Jpaer rom g e se a h u n fe o r panon, aenne stan d an , b roS or A ron es, brembrum f a e s t n e . p o n e Abraham genam, and h in e on ad a h o f o festu m m iclum , f o r h is agen b e a r n . 2 Even more s t r i k i n g and in t e n s e a re t h e l i n e s i n th e CaedmonExodus m an uscrip t co n cern in g t h i s d ram atic e p iso d e : To pam m ecfelstede magan g ela ed d e Abraham I s a a c . A dfyr onbran; f y r s t fe r h & a n a no p y fa eg en ra w a es. Wolde p o n e la stw e a r d l i g e g e s y lla n , in b a e lb ly s e beom a s e lo s t , h i s sw aesn e sunu to s ig e tib r e , angan o f e r eox&an y r fe la fe , feo res fr o fr e , da he swa forS* geb ad , leodum to l a f e , langsum ne h i h t . 3 In t h e Ish m ael s t o r y , p a te r n a l lo v e , even f o r an i l l e g i t i m a t e s o n , i s e x p r e sse d w ith h e ig h te n e d e f f e c t .

The Douay v e r s io n has

sim p ly : "Abraham to o k t h i s g r ie v o u s ly f o r h i s s o n ." 4 Saxon t r a n s l a t io n rea d s: • • ♦ p a waes Abrahame w eorce on mode p a e t he on wraec d r i f e h i s s e l f e s sunu, p a com soS* metod freom on fu ltu m , w is t e fe r h $ guman cearum on clommum3 1 . Douay B i b l e . X XII, x i i i . 2# 1 1 . 2923-31* 3# -Exo^QS. 11* 3 9 7 -4 0 5 . Do^ay B i b l e . XXI, x i - x i v . 5 * G e n e s is , 1 1 . 2 7 9 1 -9 5 .

The A n glo-

193

r

i In th e A ndreas, t o o , th e bond o f f a t h e r and so n i s p resen ted w ith em o tio n a l e f f e c t , f o r even th e fie r c e -m in d e d man ( c o lle n fe r h ff) who o f f e r e d h is so n t o th e c a n n ib a ls d id so w ith sad sp eech ( cea reg a n r e o r d e ) .1 Furtherm ore th e poem e x p r e s s e s deep C h r is tia n f e e l i n g in th e l i n e s g iv in g St.* Andrew’s r e a c t io n to t h e b o y ’ s p lig h t : Da ]paet Andrea e a rm lie J u h te , p eo d b e a lo ]p e a r lic to g e'S o lia n n e, p a e t he swa n n s c y ld ig e a ld r e s c e o ld e lu n g r e l i n n a n .2 In t h e much l e s s em o tio n a l poem w hich Krapp c a l l s P r e c e p ts , b u t w hich i s a l s o known a s A F a th e r ’ s I n s t r u c t io n , th e theme o f th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een f a t h e r and so n i s tr e a te d w ith o b v io u s ly d id a c t ic in te n t.

There a p p ea r, n e v e r t h e le s s , to u c h e s e x p r e s s iv e o f t h e em o tio n a l

n a tu r e o f th e bond.

The f a t h e r , w is e o f th ought (j>oncsnottor guma)5

in s t r u c t s h is c h i l d w ith h i s bosom’s th o u g h ts ( breostgehygdum . j ^ so n i s h i s f a t h e r ’s b e lo v e d c h ild (m od leofn e magan) i s a l s o b elo v e d ( sw a e s)

The

and t h e f a t h e r

When t h e f a t h e r adm onishes h is son i t i s n

w ith k in d ly words (mildum wordum) .

The C h r is tia n id e a l o f r e s p e c t

f o r o ld age i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e p i t h e t s f o r t h e f a th e r : fr o d fa e d e r 2 ( fr o d « w is e , p r u d e n t), e a ld f a e d e r ,^ gomola^Q (gom ol.= o l d ) , e a ld ju ^ w ita ll (u S w ita - w is e man, p h ilo s o p h e r ) . One s e c t i o n o f th e P r e c e p ts adm onishes c h ild r e n to honor f a t h e r and m other: 1. 2* 3* 4. 3. 6. 7. 8. L 9* 10. 11.

A n d reas, V e r c e l l i Book (e d . G .P. K rap p), 1 1 . 1 1 0 8 -0 9 . I b id *, 1 1 . 1 1 3 5 -3 8 . 2^* I b id . . 1 . 2 2 . I b id ., 1 . 28. I b id . , 1 . 43 . I b id ., 1 . 60. I b id . , 1 . 1 . i * 59* I b id . , I . 65 . I b id ., 1 . 66.

194

r

Bus fr o d fa e d e r freo b ea rn la e r d e , m od sn ottor mon, maga cystum © aid, wor&um w isfa e stu m , }oaet he w el frange: «Bo a p a e t t e dug©, deag p i n gew yrhtu; god p e b ip syrale goda gehw ylces fr© a ond fu ltu m , feond pam oprum w yrsan g e w y rh ta . Wen© p©c p y b e tr a n , e fn ©In© p i s a p en d ea p u l if g e * F a e d e r ond modor f r e o p u mid h e o rta n , maga gehw ylene, g i f him. s y m eotud on T ufan. Wos p u pinum yldrura a r f a o s t sym le, fa e rg e rw y rd e , ond p© i n fercfe l a e t p in e lare o w as l e o f e i n mode, p a p e c g e o rn a s t 1 to god© trymmen . "1 The o b v io u s purpose o f t h e p o e t in such p o e tr y a s t h i s p r o v id e s a c l e a r c lu e t o t h e p o e t ic i n t e n t io n o f t h e o th e r p o e ts who c r e a te d more e f f e c t i v e c o m p o s itio n s , f o r l i k e th e h o m ilie s o f A e l f r i c ,

2

th e

P r e c e p ts r e v e a lj S ^ ie h r e c e iv e d more l i t e r a r y , p o e t ic tr e a tm e n t. The exam ple,

poems d e a lin g w ith t h e bond betw een man and w if e , f o r c o n ta in many c o n c e p ts found in A e lf r ic * A e lf r ic * s

sermons

s t r e s s e d t h e e v i l o f a d u lte r y and d iv o r c e ; t h e y urged C h r is tia n women to b e su b m issiv e t o t h e i r husbands; and th e y a p p ea led bo b o th husband and w if e t o t r e a t each o th e r w ith te n d e r n e ss and m utual a ffe c tio n * ®

S t r e s s on t h e s e m a tters, i s found in t h e p o e t ic t r e a t ­

m ent o f t h e m arriage r e la t io n s h ip * In The N a t i v i t y , th e r e appears a s u b t le sermon a g a in s t i n f i ­ d e lity .

S t* J o sep h and S t* Mary a re p r e se n te d a s v ery human p e o p le ,

and S t* Josep h * s bew ilderm ent and s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r in g when he f i r s t le a r n s o f t h e C h ild * s com ing, and f e e l s t h a t h i s w if e has b een un­ f a i t h f u l , a r e e f f e c t i v e l y p o r tr a y e d .

With e f f e c t i v e s k i l l th e p oet

s u b t ly a p p ea led t o t h o s e who m igh t through tem p ta tio n commit m a r ita l in d is c r e tio n s : 1* P r e c e p t s . 1 1 . 1 - 1 4 . 2 . S e e . p p . / t / f - ' v ? , su p ra * 3 . S e e pp*/52L supra*

195

Hu maeg i e la d ig a n laj^an sp r a e c e oppe ondsware a e n ig e fin d a n wrapum to w ip ere? I s p a e t w ide cuo p a e t i e o f J>am to r h ta n tem p le d ryh tn es o n fen g f r e o l i c e faemnan c la e n e , womma l e a s e , ond nu gebw yrfed i s purh n a th w y lc e s • Me nawper d eag, se c g e ne s w ig e .1 W ife ly h u m ility was s t r e s s e d in The W ife ’ s Lament and in e e r t a in p a r t s o f G e n e s is .

In th e W ife ’s Lament, th e w if e a d d resses h er h u s­

band a s "min h la fo r d " and "min leod frum a."^

In t h e Adam and E v e

s t o r y o f G e n e s is , Adam i s p r e s e n te d a s E ve’s lo r d ; "pa heo t o h ir e h ea rra n s p r a e c , ’Adam, f r e a m in, p i s o f e t i s

swa s w e te .

• .®s

S arah ,

in G e n e s is , c a l l s Abraham "beaga weard" and "swaes f r e a ."

p a ewaeS d r ih t le e u maeg, bryd to b eorn e; " E o r g if me, b eaga w eard, min sw aes f r e a , h a t s iS ia n Agar e l l o r and Ism ael la e d a n mid h ie j" ^ That th e s e form s o f a d d r e s se s were d i s t i n c t i v e to u ch es added by t h e A nglo-Saxon t r a n s la t o r i s apparent from t h e Douay v e r s io n : "She s a id t o Abraham: C ast ou t t h i s bondwoman and h er so n ." 5 E x p r essio n s o f te n d e r n e ss and lo v e betw een husband and w i f e , m ost d i s t i n c t i v e o f th e f e a t u r e s o f C h r is tia n p o e tr y , appear o f t e n . S c h o la r s have doubted th a t lo v e p la y ed any p a r t in th e pagan m arriage r e la tio n s h ip .

Gummere, f o r exam ple, exelu d ed i t . g e n e r a l l y from a l l

h eath en Germanic m arriage u n io n s.^ o f l i n e 2065 in B eow u lf

Malone even t r a n s la t e d th e w& flufu

a s " se x u a l f ir e s ." * 7 K la eb er d e fin e d w if lu f u

1 . " C h r ist," B x te r Book, 11* 1 8 3 -9 0 . 2* The W ifet s Lament, 1 1 . 6 , 8* 5222^1®» 6 5 4 -5 5 . 4 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 2 7 8 2 -8 6 . 5* B i b l e , XXI, i x , x . 6 . Gummere, o p . e i t . , p . 1 5 3 . 7 . Kemp M alone, " In g e ld ," MP, V o l. 2 7 , 1 9 2 9 -3 0 , p . 25 8 . L_

196

m e re ly as lo v e * f o r a woman (o r w ife);** b u t he d e fin e d h e a h -lu fu — a s c r ib e d t o Thryth — a s "high lo v e ." ^ From th e sta n d p o in t o f t h e e f f e c t so-ught by t h e p o e t , how ever, i t ap p ears p e r f e c t l y v a l i d to d e f in e " w iflu fu " a s m a r ita l lo v e r a th e r th a n s e x u a l d e s i r e , o r lo v e f o r a woman* term h e a h -lu fu . fo r c e #

T h is i s c l e a r from th e

B oth t e r n s a r e c l e a r l y C h r is tia n in t h e i r in t e n t and

The p a ssa g e d e p ic t in g th e m a r ita l r e la t io n s h ip o f th e i l l u s ­

t r i o u s G ffa and h i s w i f e , T h ryth, a f t e r h er tr a n sfo r m a tio n , c e r t a in ly was in ten d ed t o p r e s e n t an e x a lt e d p ic t u r e , n ot an ir o n ic o n e .

The

p o e t d e c la r e s th a t s h e , a fte r w a r d s , en joyed r o y a l g lo r y and h e ld h ig h lo v e f o r h er husband, th e p r in c e o f h ero es and t h e b e s t o f a l l men#

d a e r h io sy 6 $an w e ll in g u m sto le , gode m aere, lifg e s c e a fta l i f i g e n d e b re a c , h io ld h e a h lu fa n wiS h a e le p a brego e a l l e s moncynnes m ine g e fra e g e pone s e l e s t a n b i saem tweonum, eorm encynnes• • . 2 C e r ta in ly th e p o e t h e re meant t o ex p ress l o f t y l o v e .

The

H ild eb u rh m a tte r i n B eow u lf c o n ta in s an e v id e n t p ic t u r e o f w if e ly

l o v e , though s a d .

I f t h e em endation he to heo (1 . 1079) be

a c c e p te d , i t i s d e a r t h a t sh e had lo v e d F in n , a t l e a s t b e fo r e th e tr a g e d y t h a t cau sed th e d e a th o f h er k in .

Thus t h e r e e x i s t two

sources o f g r ie f .

Ne h u ru H ild e b u rh h e r ia n p o r f t e E otena tre o w e ; unsynnum wearS b e lo re n leofum a e t para lin d p le g a n

2.

L

B e o w u lf, G lo s s a r y . I b id . , 1 1 . 1 9 5 1 -5 7 .

197

bearnum ond broSrum ; h ie on geb y rd h ru ro n g a re wunde; p a e t waes geomuru id e s ! N a lle s h o llin g a Hoces d oh tor raeoto& sceaft bem earn, sypoan morgen com, 5a heo under swegXe g eseo n meahte moa$>orbealo maga, Jaaer he [ o ] a e r m aeste h eo ld w orold e wynne.-*In th e W aldere fragm ent th e r e a r e r a th e r c le a r t r a c e s o f p o e t ic in t e n t io n t o e x p r e ss rom antic lo v e*

The to n e and manner o f H ild e -

gund’ s e x h o r ta tio n t o th e h ero to c o n tin u e h is f ig h t b r a v e ly , s t r o n g ly s u g g e s t c l o s e p e r s o n a l atta ch m en t, and t h e im p re ssio n o f a lo v e -m a tc h and runaway honeymoon i s r a th e r s tr o n g .

(Nu) i s s e daeg eumen, p a e t 5u s c e a l t aninga oSer twega, l i f fo r le o s a n , o$5e la n g [n ]e dom agan mid eldum, A elfh eres sunu! N a lle s i c 8 e , w ine m in, wordum e id e , 5y i c Se gesawe a e t Sam sw eordplegan Sxirh ed w itsey p e a e n ig e s monnes wig fo rb u g a n , 088 e on w eal f le o n , l i c e b e o rg a n , cfeah p e la S r a f e l a S in n e byrnhomon b iliu m heowum; ac Su syrale f u r S o r fe o h ta n s o h t e s t , m ael o f e r m earee; Sy i e Se m etod o n d red , p a e t Su to f y r e n l i e e f e o h ta n s o h t e s t a e t Sam a e t s t e a l l e ^ o S re s monnes w ig raed en n e. We$rSa de s e l f n e godum daedum, Senden S in God r e c c e 12 Two poems w hich v e r y d e f i n i t e l y p r e s e n t t h e id e a o f te n d e r a f f e c t i o n betw een man and w if e a r e The W ife f s Lament and The Husband*s M essa g e*

The f i r s t o f t h e s e p r e s e n ts th e p ic t u r e o f a w if e p a rted

from h e r husband and remembering in sorrow t h e ir h a p p ier days o f lo v in g companionship*

She remembers p le d g e s th a t o n ly d eath sh o u ld

p a r t them, and mourns t h e f a t e t h a t has p a rted h er from h er lo r d .

She

im a g in es him w retch ed , t o o , remembering t h e i r h a p p ier days and lo n g in g B e o w u lf, 1 1 . 1 0 7 1 -8 0 . 2 • W a ld e r e , 1 1 . 8 - 2 3 .

L

-J

X 98

r

f o r M s lo v e d o n e. B lip e geb aero f u l o f t w it b eoted an p a e t unc ne g e d a e ld e nemme dea$ ana ow ih t e X le s ; e f t i s p a e t onhw orfen, i s nu* • • swa h i t no waere fr e o n d s c ip e uncer* SeeaX i c f e o r g e neah m ines fe la X e o fa n faeh&u dreogan. •





#







D reoge$ s e min w in e micXe m odceare; he gemon t o o f t w y n licra n w ic . Wa b i8 pam Joe s c e a l o f la n g o p e l e o f e s abidan.-*The o th e r poem, The Husbandf s M essage, p r e s e n ts a s im ila r p ic t u r e o f lo n g in g f o r v a n ish ed h ap p in ess*

The work i s a r u n ic

r id d le

in which th e l i n e s speak a m essage t o

th e w if e from h er

a b se n t

husband*

e n jo y in g m utual hap­

p in e s s .

They have been p a rted a f t e r

The husband lo n g s t o be w ith h er a g a in , and he prom ises t o

b e f a i t h f u l to th e vows th e y made in form er days* Ne maeg him w orulde w i l l a gelim pan mara on gemyndum, p a e s p e he me sa e g d e , Joonne in e geunne alw alden d god I. * * [ aetsom ne s lip p a n motam secgum ond gesipum sC . * • *32 • • • • • • • ♦ ♦ * Nu s e mon hafaS wean oferw unnen; n i s him w iln a gad , ne meara ne maSma ne meododreama, aenges o f e r eorpan e o r lg e s tr e o n a , p eod n es d o h to r , g i f he p in beneah o f e r e a ld g e b e o t in e e r tw ega. Gecyre i c aetsom ne . kl « R. * gead or • !> • ond | # I ape benemnan, p a e t he p a w aere ond p a w inetreow e be him lifg en d u m la e s t a n w old e, p e g i t on aerdagum o f t g e sp r a e c o n n .3

X. The W lfe*s Lament* 1 1 . 2 1 -26 , 5 0 -5 3 . 2 . The Husband*s M essage, 1 1 . 3 0 - 3 5 . 3 . I b id .* 1 1 . 4 3 -5 3 .

L

199

C on clu sion

A lth ough th e e a r l i e s t m is s io n a r ie s t o th e A nglo-Saxons found h a r sh and d isc o u r a g in g c o n d it io n s , th e y g a in e d s u c c e s s by wisdom, t o le r a n c e , and p e r s is t e n c e .

The Church gave im m ediate a t t e n t io n

t o t h e s p i r i t u a l rem ed ies needed f o r th e p rop er developm ent o f fa m ily l i f e .

E n rich in g s p i r i t u a l c o n cep ts w ere p a t i e n t l y in c u lc a t e d .

A d u lte r y , i n c e s t , d iv o r c e , and polygamy were p u t under c o n t r o l.

The

p o s i t i o n o f women was g r e a t l y im proved.

The

M arriage was en n ob led .

t i e s o f b lo o d w ere s p i r i t u a l l y e x a lt e d . The r o l e o f A nglo-Saxon p o e tr y in th e ta s k o f im p lan tin g im­ p o r ta n t s p i r i t u a l co n c ep ts was fu n d a m en ta lly g r e a t e r and more im­ p o r ta n t th a n has b een g e n e r a lly r e c o g n iz e d .

There can be l i t t l e

doubt th a t th e e a r ly p o e ts p la y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t in advancing and s tr e n g th e n in g th e C on version .

C e r ta in ly th e y t r e a t e d th e

them es o f t h e fa m ily w ith h ig h purpose and a r t i s t i c s k i l l .

L

200

BIBLIOGRAPHY

L

Aelfric ,

L iv e s o f th e S a in t s ( ed. W.W. S k e a t ) , 2 v o l s . , L o n d o n , B a r ly E n g lis h T e x t S o c i e t y , 1 8 8 1 -1 9 0 0 .

A m ir a , K a r l Y o n ,

" G r u n d r is s d e s G e r m a n !sc h e n R e c h t s ," G r u n d r is s d e r G erm anis c h e n P h i l o l p g i e , V o l. 5 , S lir a s s b u r g , ’I f r u B n e r , 1 9 1 3 .

A r o n , A l b e r t W .,

" T r a c e s o f M a t r ia r c h y i n G e r ­ man H ero L o r e , * U n i v e r s i t y o f W is c o n s in S t u d ie s i n L an gu age a n d L i t e r a t u r e , M a d is o n , Humb er 9 , (1 9 1 0 ).

B ed a V e n e r a b i l i s ,

" E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H is t o r y ," B a e d a e O p era H i s t o r i c a ( t r a n s . John E . K i n g ) , 2 v o l s T , Hew Y o r k , P u tn a m , 1 9 3 0 .

B e l l o w s , H e n r y A* ( t r a n s .) ,

T h e P o e t i c E d d a , O x fo r d U n i­ v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923*

B lo m f i e l d ,

"T he S t y l e a n d S t r u c t u r e o f B e o w u l f ," RES, V o l . XIV ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 3 9 6 -4 0 3 .

To a n ,

C h a d w ic k , H e c t o r M,

The O r ig in o f th e E n g lis h n a ­ t i o n , C a m b rid g e U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1907.

C h a d w ic k , R . K . ,

" E a r ly n a t i o n a l P o e t r y ," Cam­ b r id g e H is to r y o f E n g lis h L i t ­ e r a t u r e . Hew Y o r k , M a c m illa n , 1 9 3 2 , V o l. I , p p .2 1 -4 4 .

C h a m b ers, R o b e r t W,

B e o w u lf , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Study of the Poem, Camb r id g e U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 2 1 .

C h a m b e rs, R .

W i d s i t h , a S tu d y i n O ld E n g ­ l i s h H ero i c L e g e n d . C a m b rid g e tJ h iv e r s z ty p r e s s , 1 9 1 2 .

,

201

r

C la r ic e , B . C o lg r a v e ,

W a r tin ,

Em

B e r tr a m ,

" T h e T h y l e i n B e o w u l f , 11 R E S . V o l. 12 ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p p . 6 1 -6 6 7 ~ Two L i v e s o f S t . C u t h b e r t : a l i f e b y a n a n o n y m o u s m onk o f ’ B in d is fa m e and B ed ef s p r o se l i f e . C a m b r id g e u n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1940.

B a s e n t , S i r G e o r g e W. ( t r a n s .),

The S to r y o f B u rn t U j a l , L on­ d on , B e n t, 1 9 3 1 .

E a r l e , John, a n d , P lu m m e r , C h a r i e s ,.

A n g l o - S a x o n C h r o n i c l e , Two o f t h e A n g lo -S a x o n C h r o n ic le s F a r a l l e l , O x fo r d , C la r e n d o n P r e s s ,

T5I57 E d d is o n , E . R .

( t r a n s .) ,

G ib b o n f E d w a r d ,

G r/rfn b eck , V i l h e l m

B g ils s a g a S k a lla g r im s o n n a r , C a m b r id g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930. B e e l i n e a n d F a l l o f t h e Roman E m p ir e , B o s t o n , P h i l l i p s , Sam pson , 1852.

P. ,

C u ltu r e o f th e T e u to n s , ( t r a n s . W. W o r s t e r ) , L o n d o n , H u m p h rey M ilfo r d , 1 9 3 1 .

G um m ere, F r a n c i s B . ,

F o u n d e r s o f E n g l a n d , Hew Y o r k , S te c h e r t, 1930.

E ig h t, G.

The Saga o f G r e t t ir L ondon, B e n t, 1 9 2 9 .

Am

( t r a n s .) ,

th e S tr o n g ,

H o d g k in , R o b e r t H ow ard ,

A H is t o r y o f t h e A n g lo -S a x o n s , 2 v o l s . , O x fo r d , C la r e n d o n P ress, 1935.

H o d g k i n , T h o m a s,

T h e H i s t o r y o f E n g la n d , Hew Y o r k , L o n g m a n s, G r e e n 1 9 0 6 .

H o lth a u s e n ,

Al t e n g l l s c h e s E t y m o l o g i s c h e s W o r te r b u c h , H e i d e l b e r g , W in­ te r , 1934.

F e r d in a n d ,

H ornburg, B r .,

L

*»Bie K o m p o b it io n d e s B e o v u l f , w A r c h iv f u r d a s s tu d iu m d e r H euren IS p ra ch en und L i t t e r a t u r e n , 72 B and, ( 1 8 8 4 ), p p . 3 3 3 -4 0 4 .

202

rJ a ffe ,

P h ilip ,

E la e b e r ,

"M onuraenta A l c u i n a , H B i b l i o t h e c a R erom G e r m a n ic a r u m . B ook V I , B e r l i n , 1 8 7 3 .

F r e d e r ic k

( e d .),

K o h t, H a lv d a n , ( e d .) ,

E x e t e r B o o k , Hew Y o r k , C o lu ra b ia U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1936•

K i a p p ,

W u l f s t a n , Sam m lung d e r ihra. Z uges c h r ie b e n e n H o m ilie n , B e r lin , W e id m a n ,1 8 8 3 , ‘ ~

O a k le y ,

Thom as P . ,

E n g lis h P e n i t e n t ia l D i s c ip l i n e a n d A n g l o - S a x o n L aw s New Y o r k , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 2 3 *

O a k le y ,

T . P*

"T he C o o p e r a t i o n o f M e d i e v a l P e n i t e n t i a l s a n d S e c u l a r L a w ," S p e c u lu m , V o l . V l l ( 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 5 1 o -5 2 4 •

O a k le y ,

T.

"Som e N e g l e c t e d A s p e c t s i n t h e H i s t o r y o f P e n a n c e ," C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . XXIV T 1 9 3 8 “) , "pp .' 2 9 3 - 3 0 9 .

O lr ik ,

P.

Oman, S i r

C h a r le s ,

P h illp o tts ,

P iz z o ,

T he H e r o i c L e g e n d s o f D e n m a r k , ( t r a i n s . L e e M. H o lla n d e r 7 ~ i New Y o r k , A m e r ic a n S c a n d i n a v i a n F o u n d a tio n , 1 9 1 9 .

A x e l,

B e r th a ,

E n r ic o ,

E n g la n d b e f o r e t h e N orm an C on­ q u e s t , L o n d o n , M eth u en , 1 9 3 8 . K in d r e d a n d C la n i n t h e M id d le A g e s a n d A f t e r , C a m b r id g e U n i ­ v e r s it y P ress • "Zur F r a g e d e r A s t h e t i s c h e n E in h e it d e s B e o w u lf ,” A n g lia , V o l . XXXIX ( 1 9 1 5 - 1 6 ) , p p . 1 - 1 5

P o l l o c k , S i r F r e d e r i c k a n d T h e H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L aw , b e f o r e t h e t i m e o f E dw ard 1 . M a i t l a n d , F r e d e r i c k W ., 2 V o l s . , C a m b r id g e U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1923.

L

-J

Rietschel, Siegfried,

“Sheschlieszung’* (Vol. 1); " E l t e r n u n d K in d e r ^ ( V o l . 1 ) ; nF a m i l i e , ,f ' ( V o l . l l ) ; " R au b eh ^ (V o l. I l l ) in R e a l l e x i k o n d e r G -e r m a n is c h e n A lt e r t u m s 'k u r id e , 4 v o l s . f e d . ’ Joh an n es H o o p s), S tr a s s b u r g , T r ilb n e r , 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 1 9 .

R o b e r ts o n , A gnes J .

A n g l o - S a x o n C h a r t e r s , Cam­ b r id g e U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 .

S c h la u c h ,

M argaret

(ed.), (ed.),

T r i b a l C u sto m i n A n g l o - S a x o n L aw , L o n d o n , L o n g m a n s~ G reen , 1902.

Seebohm , F r e d e r ic ,

S t e v e n s o n , W illia m (@d.) , S tu r la s o n ,

H enry

D i a l o g u e , A g r i c o l a 9 G e r m a n ia » ( t r a h s . 'S ir W illia m P e t e r s o n ) , New Y o r k , P u tn a m , 1 9 2 0 . B e n j a m in

T horpe, B.

T h rupp,

A s s e r t L i f e o f A l f r e d , O x fo r d , C l a r e n d o n ~Pr e s s , 1 9 0 4 . H e lm s k r in g la ( e d . E . M o n se n ), C a m b r id g e , H e f f e r , 1 9 3 2 .

Snorre,

T a c itu s ,

T horpe,

The S aga o f t h e V o ls u n g s » New Y o r k , N o r t o n , 1 9 3 0 .

(ed.),

^ A e l f r i c ’ s H o m i l i e s , !t H o m i l i e s o f t h e A n g lo -S a x o n C h u rch , 2 v o l s - , L ondon, A e lf r ic S o c ie t y , 1 8 4 4 —4 6 * G rea t B r i t a i n S t a t u t e s . A n c ie n t L aw s a n d I n s t i t u t e s o f E n g l i s h L aw s e n a c t e d u n d e r A n g l o - S a x o n K in g s — A e t h e lb e r h t t o C n u t. L on­ d o n , B y re and S p o ttis w o o d e , 1 8 4 0 .

(ed.) ,

T he A n g l o - S a x o n H om e. A H i s t o r y o f t h e D o m e s tic I n s t i t u t i o n s and C u s to m s o f E n g la n d f r o m t h e 5 t h t o th e 1 1 th C en tu ry , L ondon, L o n g m a n , G r e e n , L on gm an a n d R o b e r ts, 1862.

John,

W a s s e r s c h l e b e n , F . W. H . ,

D i e B u s s o r d n u n g e n d e r A b e n d la n d i s c K e n K i r c h e , H a l l e 7 O h. G r a e g e r ,

xerrn---------W h ite lo c k ,

D o ro th y

(ed.),

A n g l o - S a x o n W i l l s , C a m b r id g e U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 .

205

W illia m

L_

o f M a lm e s b u r y ,

De, G e s t i s P o n t i f i c u m A n g lo r u m ( e d . N . El S . A . H a m i l t o n ) , Bo o k V . ,L o n d o n , L ongm an a n d T r u b n e r , 1 8 7 0 , (R o lls S e r i e s ) .

W o o lf, H enry B. ,

T he G e r m a n ic P r i n c i p l e s o f NameG i v i n g , B a l t i m o r e , The J o h n s H o p k in s P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 .

W y a t t , A* J .

B e o w u lf , w it h t h e F in n s b u r g F r a g m e n t^ ( in t r o " - R . W. C h a m b e r s ) , C a m b r id g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 4 .

(ed.),

_!

r

"i

VITA

A n to n B. S e r o t a

Name P a te o f

B ir th

1900

E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l G r a d u a te d

H u n te r S c h o o l, 1914

H ig h S c h o o l

N o r t h e a s t H ig h S c h o o l , p h ia , P a , 1918

G r a d u a te d

L

A p r il 6 ,

P h ila d e lp h ia ,

Pa.

P h ila d e l­

B a c c a la u r e a te D e g r e e C o lle g e D a te

B. S . U n iv e r s it y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia 1925

O th e r D e g r e e s C o lle g e D a te

M. A. U n iv e r s it y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia 1925