The epistolary novel: its origin, development, decline, and residuary influence.

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The epistolary novel: its origin, development, decline, and residuary influence.

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Table of Contents
Section 1 (Page 1)
Section 2 (Page 20)
Section 3 (Page 27)
Section 4 (Page 40)
Section 5 (Page 60)
Section 6 (Page 99)
Section 7 (Page 156)
Section 8 (Page 181)
Section 9 (Page 195)
Section 10 (Page 215)
Bibliography (Page 250)
Bibliography (Page 251)
Bibliography (Page 252)
Bibliography (Page 253)
Bibliography (Page 254)
Bibliography (Page 255)
Section 11 (Page 257)
Index (Page 258)

Citation preview

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL ITS ORIGIN , DEVELOPMENT , DECLINE , AND

RESIDUARY INFLUENCE

GODFREY FRANK SINGER

NEW

RUSSELL

&

YORK RUSSELL · INC

1963

-

sco

;

3 ?

FIRST PUBLISHED REISSUED

,

IN

1963 , BY RUSSELL

L . C. CATALOG

CARD NO

PRINTED IN THE UNITED

1933 & RUSSELL

: 63 -

, INC.

9508

STATES OF AMERICA

- 300ass

To

J . S . AND

L

. F . S.

with heartfelt thanks

for

18

their

great

generosity and many indulgences

FOREWORD THAT the English

novel first

grew

into

solid

form

in

the

eighteenth is a fact too well established to need more than passing mention . In the course of that century various types of the novel , various schools ” of writing grew century

up , some of which

have been segregated

and described

in

de

various critical works . Of utmost importance among these groups, both in achievement and as a " type ” of fiction , is the novel cast in letter form . It is the purpose of the fol lowing dissertation to present as complete a survey as possi ble of that form of fiction . That it was of great importance

tail

in

of

its

, of

I

,

several hundred novels

constituting

a

to

In

.

examined

quality and both of continuity show the that form and periodical mutations have used

consideration

a

its

from

order take cognizance

and ity

seen

quantity

of

to

its

will be

major ,

the period alone they would

of be

,

,

of

attention

writing

of

the manners

worthy

.

cast upon in

.

,

,

.

It

of

.

in

of

the novels that form now extant This has not been discovering lost masterpieces done with any hope has however revealed many sensible pleasant and workmanlike books which hardly deserve the oblivion into which they have fallen For the vivid flashes which they not infrequently Taken

together

the great mass

with

a

its

of

a

of

to

by

composition

.

to

of of

to

an

a

of

period fully half cen the same form during exceedingly tury they present the thoughtful mind interesting spectacle literary cycle the working out according the laws nature and the materials own a

,

to

of

.

of

in

in

of

vii

to

,

is

It

at

.

of

of

possession Much the survey has been made possible appropriate however the books themselves men palpable the invaluable indebtedness once the tion suggestions found the works Dr Charlotte Morgan and Professor Helen Sard Hughes the history fiction before publication the Pamela with the attention which they have

viii

FOREWORD

the forms and movements of seventeenth -century eighteenth -century prose . Such hints have been and further supplemented by references to the Reviews of the period and have sometimes had additions from the long and given

to

early

curious

lists

of

by the publisher , which his several volumes .

other books on sale

are occasionally

found attached to This work was undertaken at the suggestion of Professor John C . Mendenhall who , patient and analytic critic that he is , has given the friendly guidance and unflagging assistance

necessary to the very existence of this study . To him , to Dr. Ralph B . Allen , for help with proof , to Dr. Beaumont S .

,

for help with

the index ,

to certain members of the Department of English of the University of Pennsylvania who have guided my studies and fostered my appreciation during many years , and to my friends my gratitude can hardly be expressed with adequacy . Without their support this study could never have achieved even such slight merit as it may

Bruestle

possess

. Let this

be in no small measure such praise

due ; the shortcomings are my

own .

Philadelphia , November

1932 .

as may

G 10

,

. F . S.

be

CONTENTS PAGE

Foreword CHAPTER

I

II III IV

The Development of the Literary Epistle

The Letter -Writer The Vitalization

of the Letter

The Fictional Outposts

and the Pre -Richardsonian

Letter Story V

of

and His Development

Samuel Richardson

the

Epistolary Novel

Epistolary

Fiction France and Italy

Epistolary Fiction

Conclusion Bibliography Index

(Particularly

1800

156

99

1800

Novel

181 in

IX

VIII

the

VII The Epistolary Novel in England since

to

in

Richardson

)

VI The Epistolary Novel from

America

195 215

217 256

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LITERARY EPISTLE PRIMITIVE age , the mysterious art of communicating by means of symbols would be regarded by ordinary mortals IN

A

, perhaps even with dislike . Of course , the will tell us that human beings generally dis they trust what do not understand and that this is a pro foundly intrinsic truth to be found in human nature . Let us remember , in addition , that the transmission of a message suspicion

with

psychologists

on a

tablet of bronze or stone ( or, later ,

on a

tablet of wood ,

waxed over ) seemed no less remarkable to the men of Homer 's day than the radio seems to the inhabitants of darkest Africa today .( But by Cicero 's day the letter had be come established as one of the indispensable conveniences of life , and oral communication , once the sole means of de livering a message , remained in abeyance , even through the

Middle

Ages ,

until

telephone revived

the nineteenth -century

it)

invention

of

the

that one 'must return to the dawn of " recorded a letter mentioned for the first time would perhaps be hyperbole . To say that the letter writing impulse is among the oldest in the nature of man is more accurate . We need only turn to a consideration of the cuneiform tab century at Tell Amarna in lets discovered in the nineteenth Egyptian order to find letters that date back as far as the fifteenth century B . C . Most of these letters are concerned with matters of state , such as the Hittite invasion of Damas cus , the Amorite treachery , the war in Phænicia , and the To

time”

say to

find

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL Palestine, so that , although there is to be found in them much local color and movement , the epistle ' is used primarily as a matter of necessary information . Whatever story interest is present is subordinate and incidental . There is, in the sixth book of Homer 's Iliad a letter ( prob ably the first to be mentioned in Greek literature ) which is used purely to convey a message . It is the story of Bel lerophon (in probability not the same Bellerophon we inspiration legend associate with the winged horse

King Proctos

,

and his wife Anteia

,

Anteia tells the king

wherein the said

her husband that Bellerophon

lusts

,

of

and

)

in

of

all

wars in

for her will cause the young man has scorned her illicit advances the queen

be

enraged

heard

yet

to

when

slay

him

he

he

to

Anteia

angry

So

did

it;

King

was the

Then

he

.

is

Actually

,

.

against her

.

a

a

,

,

the young Bellerophon guest token but what

,

he

us

This passage further tells how thought was went carrying what

.1

slain

a

father that he might

be

's

of

to

of

,

of

forbear for his soul did shame such deed Lykia and gave him tokens sent him woe writing upon many deadly things and bade him show these folded tablet



of



in

to

.

of

,

was really his murder warrant and how he thus became the treachery victim The sealed tablets woe which are referred this passage may really have been only devices To

.2

of

to

a

,

in

of

In

.

is

in

.

a

of

hieroglyphic nature what extent writing was known amongst the Greeks Homeric times still not clear King very much the same manner did David behave toward Uriah the Hittite the Second Book Samuel David arose and saw beautiful woman washing herself and having looked upon her and found her fair he went find

to

.

to

.

to

he

for

.

,

out who she was She was Bathsheba the wife Uriah the Then Joab was sent and was commanded send Uriah David This he did and Uriah came Jeru

Hittite

a

letter in

he

Budsley

.

. A .

by

T

Translation

.

of

.

168

69

by

-

lines

the morning that David wrote wrote Uriah And the hand

in

pass

it

to

15 VI , .

Book

11 : 3

Sam

sent

and

.,

'

,

Iliad

came

-

,

Joab

II

1

to

And

it

.

salem

the

THE LITERARY EPISTLE , saying ,

letter

and retire

ye from

of

both

In

Uriah

Set ye

,

him

of the hottest battle may that he be smitten and die .3

these incidents

in

the forefront

, it will

be noted

, the letter

,

is used

means of revenge , or to serve the purpose of lust or jealousy ; but in neither does the letter itself tell any story It is merely a message . The New Testament offers us a surprisingly large portion as

a

of itself in the St. Paul , which

of

form

letters . The distinguished

letters of

contain not only what is information , to be used for the purpose of delivering a message , but are exhorta tions and exegeses as well , are particularly worthy examples of the early art of letter writing . Many of them are like formal essays or theological dissertations , but the one that is least like either is the rather terse Epistle to Philemon . This con

of

able

only twenty - five verses and is a very fine and memor eloquence . In later times , the of restrained

example

lºquen

of

sists

influence of the writing of St. Paul on the ecclesiastical writers , particularly the church letter writers of the Middle

Fly

the

Ages , is as great as that of Cicero on the secular letter writers

of

the Renaissance

.

to consider the purely informative letter , or letter of message , as a first group , we find a second group to be composed of those letters which were originally written

If we are

messages ,

but which have come to tell stories or to “ con struct ” personalities later readers other than their first intended recipients Prime among these are the letters that great Latin epistolarian Marcus Tullius Cicero 106 man who stands almost between the two groups definitely written that his letters were for the most part

43 of

-

an

,

so

us

of

,

a

B

.C .) ,

in

(

,

.

for

as

to

,

,

.

to

.

of

.

15

the advocate the lawyer pleasant surprise turn to

a

is

it



,

the statesman

public man

.

,

the

: 14 -

Sam

11

a

word

.,

8

II

-

in

,

Cicero the senator

,

of

of

as

information but have become invalu original concerning able source material the character the man Of his voluminous correspondence about eight hundred letters are now extant Four hundred these are addressed his friend Atticus To those who know only means

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL at home , ” as it were . If M . France en pantoufles , these letters

to these letters and find Cicero



Bernard knew Anatole us to know Cicero much after the same fashion . Cicero 's letters are , on the other hand , important and pertinent to us for an entirely different reason , and that is because , as they represent the very best tradition of letter writing in Latin ,

allow

are the models upon which the English letter writers days patterned their letters. of the pre - Elizabethan The extant correspondence of Cicero dates from 68 B . C ., they

he was thirty -nine years of age and , as we have already , said is , in every sense of the word , a model. There is much more grace in these letters than in any of the orations , with when

the possible exception of the “ Pro Archia Poeta ,” and more personal philosophy than is in any other Ciceronian work except the " De Amicitia ” and the “ De Senectute .” Indeed , definite appreciation

of the author of the " wine of life " and they reveal that author to us as one who was a gentleman . The depth of his friendship , the tender concern for his family , the dignity of the feeling of the “ antique Roman ,” his connoisseurship of life and of art , the letters

are

show

all here

a

revealed

as

on

the

part

they are nowhere else in his writings

.

The letters of Cicero give us a daily catalogue of his thought and his activity such as has been furnished us in so distin guished a fashion by few men in public life . Nor is it this

of

,

its

in

To

,

its

alone that makes these letters so valuable , but also , as has already been intimated , the graceful style of the prose herein logic expressive contained , gracious in tone firm

of

in

an

of

;

a

as

to in

,

of

,

to

of

a

of

us

.

a

to

is

unfolded the true personality the man such greatness manner that the title of seems adhere him natural appurtenance These are the true Cicero and they lasting picture give the proud yet pathetic man who given has the best himself the service his country only there

>

to

a

is

of

an

.

of

the very thought the man those who know Cicero only apprecia through the orations there may be vouchsafed very definitely tion man who artist his own par ticular field those who know likewise the letters Cicero

THE LITERARY EPISTLE of

his

receive , ultimately , the gift

to

5

exile when

work was

.

done

in

,

,

,

to

.

of

to

,

to

to

a

A

, .D ., in

is

A

.D .,

of

to

.D .

as

A

in

of

,

to

,

of

of

of

.

of

,

if ' s

,

, ef

-

a

to

Directed more frequently semi public audience than Cicero and not without consideration for their literary published are the letters fect Caius Plinius Caecilius Pliny the Younger The letters Pliny written imitation a ctually except the letters Cicero owe much the mat philosophy ter the inspiration the great orator The Pliny the Elder belonged younger Pliny nephew the ranging century latter half the first his dates from period which 61 115 sometimes referred the Silver Age direct contrast the preceding and

of

a

its

of

a

,

,

a

a

and be basic feeling for

gentleman

,

.

a

,

Pliny was statesman scholar yond all else truly literary figure with scenes

of

a

by

it

the same appre aspirations and above all native

less characterized

,

customs

no

,

it

was

,

ciation

its

of

earlier Roman

its

,

if

in

.

,

,

much more famous and glorious Golden Age the Roman Empire Like Cicero he loved his Rome with great inten sity and this love had not the public patriotism the

of

of

a

its

he

ity

.

a

of

to

,

in

the glorious tradition Greek and Roman letters that lay golden sunlight behind him stretched out sort what the author seemed realize were ages greater than his own He was undoubtedly conscious certain lesser qual

,

,

.

be

it

a

in

of

It

in

as

of

.

up

of

in

so

a

of

,

be

of

in

at

is

it

, of

to

of

,

to

,

in

his own age and yet felt had own merits which according his testimony should celebrated The letters Pliny have proved source authentic and fair minded much the history the age which he lived being but not their storehouse historic data that we are this point interested these letters much literary representing their the tradition letter writing growing speedily which was Pliny4 were has been noted by critics that the letters is

.

it

,

, . .p XII .

Pliny Introduction

,

of

Epistles

so

to is

.

to

is

Harper

,

. H .

“ H

is a

it

of

a

to

publication and preservation written with definite eye posterity for the pleasure That this undeniable That be considered detrimental the letters them selves distinct matter for argument These letters are

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL must be confessed , conscious efforts . Furthermore

, the author

of the good qualities

for

of

is

,

of

a

is

is

in

was by both the times which he lived representative Beyond class which he was feeling constant expression the depth of

of .

a

of

,

life influenced and the social

as it of

of

.

its

,

it

of

.

its

himself shows a definite consciousness their writing displayed . On the other hand , the judgment of posterity has proved that Pliny was not wrong in the estima tion of his own work , and it may then be concluded that there is nothing unfortunate in the estimation itself since it is so accurate and , considering the literary culture of the , man so inevitable . What these letters have to offer us, aside from their his torical revelations, is rather wide in embrace We are daily given much knowledge the routine Roman pa knowledge trician life and that the more valuable personal revelation minuteness There likewise given the character the author his particular philosophy

lit ,

Catullus

from

.

and

,

the Odyssey

,

of

,

of

of

a

,

is

this there which the author has for the profession and practice excerpts from erature and the letters themselves are full quotations the classics his day especially from the Iliad of

,

of

of

is

of

,

, of ,

of

of

descriptions the letters are full the Roman landscape scene Roman and Roman architecture and repeated many times during the the scene the bath Thus

is

in

so

by

's

in

re

at

,

of

,

)

of (

,

.

in

of

of

us

,

, if

.

these works One the most not the most dra Pliny given descriptions his letters has which matic frequently cele that the eruption Vesuvius since brated literature Upon the whole the latter the two letters Book VI Letters XVI and XX written the quest Cornelius Tacitus concerning Pliny adventures

course

is

in

is

.

a

it

is

of

of

as

,

he

,

of

of

's

of

a

of

,

a

,

,

Misenum during the eruption and earthquake far the palpitating with notable and describes more vivid and tenseness the author belief that was witnessing with the remainder mankind the end creation these letters revealed the author The philosophy patrician thought that and gentleman noble and bear ing and there the humanist who has much about

THE LITERARY EPISTLE deep appreciation of the foibles of man , the weaknesses and the beauty of life . Nowhere is this better expressed than in the Eighth Book , Letter

XXII , where

Pliny

writes

:

Have you ever observed a sort of people who, though they themselves are under the abject dominion of every vice , shew a kind of jealous resentment against the errors of others . . . . The highest of characters , in my estimation , is his who is ready to pardon the rest of mankind as if he were every day guilty him self ; and at the same time as cautious of committing a fault as if he never forgave one.

Certainly no passage from this author expresses more suc cinctly the breadth of mind and the innate nobility of his nature . The letters are full , as has already been intimated , of Pliny 's appreciation of literature , of his appreciation of what he and his friends have written , and of anxiety concerning his friends ' opinions of his own works , opinions he seemed to be always

the lookout to receive and welcomed with a sort sport of sense of in such a give -and- take of friendly criticism . Additionally , it must be noted that Pliny kept a servant to read his works to him , and he expresses , at least once (Book VIII, Letter I) , extreme anxiety for the well-being of that on

reader who , alone , seemed to have been able to do vocal justice to the writings of the master . This expresses the con

,

be

,

in

,

,

to

an

of

ity

noisseur as well as the compositeur . That the letters of Pliny are like the letters of Cicero is , in many ways , undeniable , but may be unfairly emphasized ; that they are more diverse , more truly literary in their qual having been written with eye the casual reader recipient rather than the definite more vigorous less uneasy and less complaining tone must likewise most definitely .

stated

us

of

,

to

.

)

-

.

(c

.

is

,

in

at

,

When we approach the fourth and fifth centuries we find least three writers among the letter writers Latin who require some attention There first all Quintus Aurelius nine Symmachus There have been left 345 410

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

8

books of epistles and two from a tenth book published by son after the death of the author . These letters are writ ten after the fashion of those of Pliny but do not succeed in capturing the pleasant liveliness , nor the wide range of in

his

terests that the epistles they imitate possess . However , they to carry on toward the Middle Ages the sort of personal

help

letter Cicero wrote and

, Pliny .

Of distinctly

more importance as an epistolarian is Sidonius Apollinaris , a Ro man prefect and Christian bishop , known chiefly for his let ters and poems written between c . 430 -484 . Both poems and letters were used at a later period as models of style .5 The most notable single letter is that addressed to one Domitius , in which is given a long and detailed account and descrip tion of life in a villa , written in carefully balanced and grace after him

ful sentences . The letter of welcome to Constans is an almost equally notable composition touched with the same quality of careful balance . Of somewhat less literary importance as a

letter writer is the monk Cassiodorus (490 -575 ) , but he , as preserve and carry forward as Sidonius , helped the

well

Ciceronian tradition of the epistle. (It must be remembered , of course , that the art of letter writing was of considerable importance in the Middle Ages . Especially is this true of official and ceremonious letters . The art of the letter was developed

in

classical

Latin

,

,

and when an

as

.

its

,

of

law

the Middle Ages , the Latin tongue became the language of diplomacy the Latin letter remained and ideal importance throughout the Renaissance and retained in

,

for

as

of

.6

,

du

,

of

,

of

a

a

,

in

at

The famous school Orleans taught the thirteenth cen tury Rhetoric training learning official correspond carefully trained faculty for letter writ ence and developed ing that rivaled that Italy The center for the teaching Dictamen which was the model for the official correspond ence Western civilization the Papal Chancery was Bo

.

136 148

-

1895

et

H

, .

,

. ;

19 ,

21

;

.pp

,

,

,

,

.,

,

, p p . , 26 ; .

,

of

,

J. C .

,

du

la

du

,

6

Edmond Faral Les Arts Poétiques XIIIè siècle Recherches Docu Technique Littéraire Moyen Age Paris 1924 ments sur 102 also Moyen Age Paris 1923 Edmond Faral La Littérature Latine Mendenhall Aureate Terms Phila 1920 and also Europe During the Middle Ages Oxford Rashdall The Universities

, II,

v

,

THE LITERARY EPISTLE logna ; just as the center for the teaching of Grammatica was Chartres . At Bologna , the stilus Romanus was of chief im portance . There are not only letter collections that have come down to us from this period , but form letters as well , that have stood for centuries as unimpeachable models . In

deed , the prevalence of medieval letter writing and the drill definitely kept the letter a literary , rather in style and form than sense

a

practical , phenomenon

of the word , fictional .

although it was not ,

in

any

Of particular

note is the preservation of actual correspond that of Alcuin , prime among those monks who the Ciceronian ideal of letter writing . Alcuin comes down to us as a man of definite note , Char English -born “ minister of education . ” The letters of Alcuin are divided into three groups : (1 ) those addressed to Charlemagne ; ( 2 ) those addressed to the friends of the writer ; ( 3) those addressed to the pupils of the writer . The correspondence of Alcuin is , in itself , a document of con siderable historical importance as a source of information concerning the age of Charlemagne . This correspondence consists , however , as published , not only of the letters of Alcuin , but also of the replies of such men as Angilbert , Adalhard , Leidrad , Theodulph , Benedict of Aniane , Pau linus , Arno , and the magnificent Charlemagne himself . ence , like continued (735 - 804 ) lemagne's

Therefore , these letters do not reconstruct for us the figure but also of these other notable figures so important to the history of their day , and of their relations with each other . Although Alcuin felt , along with his fellow churchmen , that the classics were not to be studied for them selves , but as an aid to the Scriptures , his letters none the of Alcuin alone ,

betray much that is allied the epistle , the result of Alcuin less

to

's

the Ciceronian ideal of study of the classics

early

and their authors.

At least two other men of letters have added to the dis tinction of the epistle by their use of it in the Middle Ages . vas The Renaissance poet , Francesco Petrarcha ( 1304 -1374 ) , was a man of note in the world in which he lived and , as such ,

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

10

was acquainted with most of the notable men of his day . He seems to have been on corresponding terms with all of these and , for that reason , the number of letters he wrote is almost legion . Many of these letters he is said to have burned ,

but

large number have been preserved

a

for us . They

are

di

vided into : ( 1 ) De rebus familiaribus ; ( 2 ) ; ; Seniles (3 ) Variae (4 ) Sine Titulo . From these letters we know the man , his friends , and his times. But Petrarch also

four groups

wrote a long series of imaginary letters to Latin and Greek authors , long dead , which have almost the interest of fiction . Such letters to dead authors are a popular form in the and nineteenth centuries . Petrarch gave the form interest and importance early . The second author , acting as eighteenth

a

link between the humanists of the Latin Renaissance and the

of Greek scholarship , , who represents a vital

men of the later age

mus and

( 1466 -1536 )

is

Desiderius Eras learning in

force

letters. As such he studied the classics because he loved felt in entire harmony with them . It is because of this that he transferred to his letters, a collection of almost 3000 pieces and a correspondence of permanent value , this feeling in

and

kept alive in his own work their thoughts and style of writing . The letters of Erasmus present an admirable picture of the period in which he lived , a full for the classic writers and

or

in

of

in

no of

a

by

. )

us

(

in

of

to

is

It

.

of

for

portrait of himself as man and author after the fashion of Pliny ) , and transmit finally the chief values of the Latin letter writers the perusal another age somewhat earlier than this that we begin find col lections letters the English tongue either largely entirely that construct for people notable group history Early among collections English are the letters as a

of

a

of

of

of

do

,

)

,

To ),

.

(

-

(

of

-

repre Letters 1424 1526 means unique their form the same general period belong the Stonor Letters 1290 1483 collection similar tone importance equal and almost but somewhat less interesting than the Paston Letters because they not contain the rich excitement close connection with the political turbulence the times which the correspondence the Paston family Paston

sentative

THE LITERARY EPISTLE reveals

. The

of Sir John

great interest

11

that the Pastons took in the affairs them in disputes and intrigues

Fastolfe involved

with powerful neighbors and names which history has brought vividly down to our knowledge. The elder John Paston closely followed the political events of the day while his sons went to court, where they concerned

themselves with affairs

and became closely

many of the men

acquainted

with

whom was being made the history of is reflected

in

these

letters

those

times . Thus,

by

there

and activities of

the characters

a

whole host of people . The primary interest , to those who look to the letter col lection as a record of everyday life , that lies in these Paston letters , is not to be found so much in a revelation of political

their revelation of social life . In this respect , in their portrayal of manners , they point forward to the mid just eighteenth century and usage the letter their phrasing and occasional formality the flowing introduc

it

,

in

as

training

in

,

stylistic

"

the

to

tory salutations they look back



in

of

;

of

is in

its

events as

;

,

in

of

.

-

,

in

of

letter writing which was taught the schools Dictamen which instruction turn foreshadows the later formal letter writer The Paston letters were never written for the conveying trivial social news from sole purpose writer

a

be

.

to

of

of

an

.

it

,

the writer which gives that particular letter interest which would not otherwise have The Paston letters are notably full citations

us ,

for

by

a

is

It

.

of

or

of

to

or

expressly convey gossip reader written But occa sional bits such gossip make what might otherwise political events sometimes dry recitation business sprightly and even humorous reading the incidental matter which has almost unconsciously slipped into letter

the

their writing

55

52 ,

of

in

to

of

, of

:

in

of

.

in

on

of

in

of

travel the period and the im robbery the road seven instances which prove the letters themselves All the cases exceptional disorder namely have happened times

dangers

minence are given

of

,

.

;

in

,

,

-

-

common foot addition 1461 and 1471 1454 1451 pads were prevalent long after this period The number

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL robberies does not prove any preëminence of such tendencies in the fifteenth century. Indeed , one might almost imagine he

of

was reading

century

the twentieth

of the

instead

fif

An even more vivid instance of the troubled life of the times is to be found in the narration of the ransacking of the churches by the soldiers of the period , retainers to war ring lords, in Letter 406 (July 18 , 1461) . The incident de scribed curiously reminds me of a similar ransacking of a church and church images in Goethe ' s stormy drama of the Netherlands , Egmont (Act II, Scene I) . We may likewise picture just such action as the cause of Thomas Malory comparisons arrest that same fifteenth century Such rather enhance the vitality the narrative found this par ticular Paston Letter And the same vitality be found the other letters which vigorously tell scenes turbu lence this period

's

.

are stray

which

in

to

,

of

order

passages

realize fully the sort

to

gossip

of in ,

of

We must turn however pieces

of

.

in

in

of

.

is

to

in

of

?

in

Sir

teenth .

charm

at

.

is

"

"

,

of

.”

of

I

a

is

;

is he

of

,

to it

. . .



so

many which these letters possess Thus we note from the younger John Paston Sir James ever chopping unfitting me but when hath most words smile Espe good hearing little and tell him these old tales delightful cially the lover familiar letters the not

,

to

is

it

a

of

in

:

in

,

is

.

,

's

at

a

to

a

to

In

to

.

infrequent revelation family relations one epistle from Margaret Paston message her husband we find the procure the stuff for gown effect that he will be able for their child cheapest one Hay wife amusing present An touch welcome note when Margaret found one the letters from Paston her hus band which she begins

Right

to

a

48

of

for

.pp

,

;

51 .

VIII

-

Chapter

,

,

.

,

18

,

me

. . .8

gown

for to

a

make

Edward Hicks Sir Thomas Malory Letter 80g December 1477

,

, I

,

of

by

to

to

to

ye

,

mustyrdevyllers 8 ?

to

reverend and worshipful husband recommend me desiring heartily your hear welfare thanking you for Perys praying you the token that sent me Edmund weet my my gown cloth that mother sent father London you

THE LITERARY EPISTLE She then proceeds he is not to forget

remind

to to

bring

him

in

13

no uncertain

the cloth with him

terms that

when he comes

of tenderness , too , is present. Margaret Pas ton ' s address to her husband in Letter 183 is , indeed , a model of such display . Much of the family feeling which exists in these letters may be found in those written by Margaret to her husband and by Agnes to her son . It is this feeling , sometimes tenderly , sometimes so naïvely expressed , which gives so much interest to the collection and which makes it , as a whole , the most distinguished monu ment of the early letter -as-communication series in England . home .

It

touch

A

a value as peculiarly their own as that of the Letters , or the Letters of Lord Chesterfield to his Son , or the highly colorful personal recordings of Pepys and Evelyn in their Restoration diaries . All of these writings , of course , are of value chiefly because of the highly informa tive and interesting material contained in them , and not be

gives

them

Montagu

of any stylistic qualities which particularly distinguish them . Even the letters of Chesterfield are notable for their matter rather than their form , despite the fact that some of them claim certain stylistic grace Thus we may say it

not because

of

.

a

,

the Paston Letters that literary qualities not because

is

of

to

lay

cause

their intrinsic on

is ,

It

to

in

a

of

a

of

, ,

;

us .

of

of

of

,

their record the political turmoil their day that they are important the other hand that they represent link the letter writing impulse that out purely collection informative mes they unconsciously construct stories and personalities they represent that the recorded hopes and joys fears and quarrels affections and ambitions of single family

of .

a

,

,

;

,

sages

English the fact that we have such collections writing published letters much later than the date their course still the example Cicero that remains the

, in a

the letter writers has already been said

is

The Latin tradition

,

English

as

upon the earliest

,

influence

.

strongest

of

of

is

it

)

of

(

of

Despite

,

's

continuous one from Cicero day down and was transmitted through the Latin classical schools directly and indirectly

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

14

the long line of medieval scholars , who gave direc English learning . Even in the sixteenth century we

through tion

to

find such stalwart letter writers as Roger Ascham and John Lyly putting some of their correspondence into Latin . Roger Ascham (1515 - 1568 ) , especially , has left a large number of personal letters ; we are able to find at present over 295 let ters ' written in Latin and English which serve as a sort of personal commentary and record of his career . Although many of the letters are in Latin , Ascham seems to have en deavored , according to evidence in Letter CL , to write his

.

letters in English standard

Yet , the Ciceronian ideal long remained

a

English . 10

in

By the time we reach the letters of Edmund Spenser ( 1552 1599) , however , we find a genuine correspondent who wrote all his letters in English . Spenser is the first English letter writer who published his personal epistles as a correspond ence , and the host of literary men who have done that , or had it done for them , in the period of somewhat less than 400 years since

It

his time

is the true literary

imitation of those

,

of

either

in

however

for

in

almost without number .

is

epistle

, the

epistle written two groups

the preceding

"

in



.

of

,

is

of

,

and composed artistic pleasure which forms the third epis group here and which the direct ancestor the tolary novel We have already noted the use the letter to

of

especially

,

of

a

at

.

of

-

, 65 . .p

226 with

,

,

of

,

.

the

since the

a

as

,

as

a

be .,

,

.

10 v

ed

there

famous

fictional one that the verse Epistles Horace

Roger Ascham 1864 English Works Giles Charles Sears Baldwin Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic

ences given

,

the most

of

)

in

a

is

It

remembered

series

The Ovidian use

letter consistent one literature literary quality letter itself has well should

a

gave

the Heroides

Ariadne

us

,

poet Ovid

(

in

verse

the lament

of

is

which

in

fictional letters

the

.

earlier period

,

siderably

of

,

.

,

to

a

us

of

,

in

a

of

work fiction the Iliad but when we turn the classic body purely fictional writers who have given letters intent we find the most important be that late classic au Alciphron thor We must not however forget that con

refer

THE LITERARY EPISTLE

15

but, rather , critical . Of Alciphron 's dates , , and his career , very little is known to us. 11

are not fictional his place of birth

It has been conjectured that he died somewhere about 312 A . D . Alciphron is called the " Atticist ” by Eustathius , and personal writings his indicate his acquaintance with Athens and Attica . He is guessed to be a rhetorician and a slightly younger contemporary of Lucian , whom he sometimes seems to imitate after the fashion in which Pliny imitates Cicero . That the two may well have been friends is indicated by the fact that we have a third author , Aristænetus , representing , in his own letters of imaginary incidents , a correspondence between Alciphron and Lucian . This may, however , be a fic tion based on no possible shred of fact , 12 except that friend ship between the two is a plausible possibility . The letters of Alciphron are divided into two sections - Letters from the Country and Letters from the Town . The first is redivided into “ The Fishermen ” and “ The Farmers ” , while the second is divided into “ The Parasites ” and “ The Courtesans .” It

to find anywhere a more terse , crisp , epistles than are those contained in " The Fish There is beauty in them , there is the tang of the sea

would be difficult varied

of

set

.”

ermen

her father

's

youth

is

to

in

,

.

of

a

a

marry

of

XI

of

ter

all ,

( so meaningful a thing to the later English pen ) , there is a keen knowledge of human nature but, above there humor the sharpest and most direct variety Thus Let girl telling her mother we have her inability choice because she has seen

at

:

someone she prefers

in

to

to

a

;

, .

he

so

,

.

is

on

a

. . .

youth Athens who was carrying the vine branch the procession the day you sent me the city watch the darling festival He beautiful mother beautiful and such

Introduction

.

,

of

of

,

, .p 14 .

Alciphron

,

,

Wright

.

the

of

.

or

I

,

. . .

!

I

. A .

13u F

Ibid

of

a

at

as

. . .

you his eyes gleam looks with dark radiance gleams even the ocean beneath the rays the sun And his marry him whole face Either else like Sappho myself Lesbos will filing not from the cliffs Leucas but from the piers the Piræus into foam

When

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

16

The mother 's answer begins — “ You are mad , ” and works up If your father were to hear of it , he will not hesitate or of

,

we find the method frequently employed

letter

of

13

."

,

,

bluff healthy this quality

so

humor

Peacockian

sort

is

marked

. of In

almost

is

entire series

a

This

no by

.

writers and the epistolary novel

devour letter and answer the later letter

in

so

is

it

used just

course as

Here

throw you into the sea for the

to

; he will

, of

argue

fish

to : "

is

it

as

I

,

.

of

in

a

is

of

."

it,

to

do



:

in

in

its

philosophy and humor obvious combination the nineteenth did not ask for something you possess but for something which you had lost However since you you can keep your losings not wish anyone else have Despite the fact that there joy constant feeling the

to

,

a

is

.

's

it

of

wildness and the capriciousness the sea one concluded from the body these letters that far safer thing wring one livelihood from the soil The third letter opens

of

There more be found

” —

the land than

is

nature

human

from

together

which to

letters

both

of

in

these

waves

sea

. of

I

to



:





the

the vagaries

is

bitterness

to

craft and

study in

to a

offer

sea

.”

to

be

a

is

: it



return

self

letter The Farmers The land makes give my worth my labour and have decided

the fourth

from

no

is



:

is

good and ploughed fields bring with the lines The earth risky business no danger the sea cruel and navigation might place beside the opening lines which well

of

of

to

,

)

,

by

a

be assuaged the the restlessness

of

to is

sea

as

seems not

moving

of

a

to

the always

,

is

people

,

these

(

"

,

"

of

.

in

of ,

presence

an

.

as

in

of

to

in

unrest that

is

is

,

,

to

,

,

in

the previous group but there here the same sort sharp Especially distinctive humor short and shrewd there humor be found such letters those irate husband his wife who has taken herself off the city and the painting the women there concluding with the advice that she wash herself with soap and water Letter VIII and the letter one friend another concerning present however drunken escapade There new note

Letter

XII

.

18

that group which

is

tone

is

Far more bitter

in

.

the fishermen

combined

THE LITERARY EPISTLE

17

woman

that peculiar sort

her

profession

.

women

of of of

a

as

is

fine creation

drawn

of

, .

,

We remember the

to

necessary

so

is

savoir faire which

of

in

of

"

its

,

of

The Courtesans,” is notable character the figure Thaïs She sagacity and considerable charm group

for

under the general title of “ The Parasites ,” which hits off with a painful accuracy that class of people . The fourth

,

I

."

14



-

.

't

fiction

of

of 's in

let

the

the Samuel Richard the form the epistle with

,

toward

.up

?

advance

form

expressed

of

an

As

the

be found the novels

of

,

.

son

If

.

for

and character

that high power which most complete distinction

in

emotion

of



human

telling

to

tion ter

epistolary creation story and the revela

this author

the in is

of

a

The combined whole distinct talent

reveals

as ,

of

,

so As in

do



; I :

If

,

.

to

,

of

,

at

of

at

vexation Thaïs another courtesan who has made mocks her and her elaborate indifference toward this which concludes with her expression intent groups pay her rival out again the other we find Alciphron here the sharp humor characteristic for Why worry yourself with long letters want instance this fifty pounds you love me pay not want words your money you love better don bother Good bye

.

of

in

,

an

to

a

to

is

,

of

Alciphron represent not only the forward step the letters that has already been intimated but also something that writing The letters have charm new and fresh the field greater degree and humor than they have any other ability single characteristic but they likewise reveal

gather together character and several letters dis separate tinct and threads emotion for the painting single group picture Furthermore unlike the epistles

a

of

.

,

of of

of

in

to

sketch

a

in

or

as

to

of

.

,

they represent ordinary people and the manners Ovid daily life Eng When we turn those early writers the letter literary lish who used the epistle art form we come

of

.

.

Letter XIV

,

)

to

of

(

in

a

in

14

(

,

)

-

1574 1656

as

Hall

(

Bishop

)

to

though John Lyly 1553 literary Euphues 1578 1606 used the letter device which the hero writes some twenty pages letters his friends Jules Jusserand has said these letters that Richard

first

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

18

borrows their point of view in the creation of his . 15 Lyly likewise has some literary epistles incorpo rated in his Entertainments ( 1590 ) . But Bishop Hall, the au thor of characters , has made greater use of the epistle as a literary form . In a preface to his letters , dedicatory to Prince

son

Pamela

of

fashion

new

. . . Your Grace shall herein

says : “

discourses

epistles ,

by

perceive

a

to our language ;

new

of

Henry , he

a

in

-

,

(

)

(

.

of

)

-

,

is

a

as

to

,

,

in

of

;

. he

to

to

to

. . ."

all

others His letters were written out de try literary religion sire divertissement inculcate true and virtue and was this sense cousin german Samuel Richardson More important factor the devel opment English letter writing James Howell 1594 Epistolae 1666 whose Ho Elianae 1645 carried the history the English fictional letter one step further An Ox

usual

,

only

business man but some

a

Howell was not

ford graduate

of

,



. of

,

it

of

of

.

at



,

.

of

a

,

to

a

,

a

well

of .

as

journalist

,

a

of

jour The fact that he was being nalist combined with that his Welshman makes his veracity seem tenuous thing but adds the general writing liveliness his The letters James Howell were much like the later familiar letters for he dates them from various places home and abroad Incidentally there are might be said that were one many letters his which thing

is

.

in

of

of

to

be in

to

of

,

of

a

of

in

for

,

to

remove the opening and closing passages the bodies the letters that remain could well pass familiar essays style which The letters themselves are written the sprightliness very embodiment ease and and much the gaiety nature which the author must have possessed seems be incorporated the very manner which he writes inordinately presenting court Howell seems fond

in

a

is

Jonson “

:

,

.

Shakespeare

130

Time

, .

The English Novel

vapor extremely p

the discourse

,

all

to

of

,

in

,

engross

of

Jusserand

Knight

the

to

began

,

1

J. .J B.

that

Hawk

in

thing intervened

the evening with Ben

which he writes One which almost spoiled the relish the rest

.

Tho

of

description Sir

to

's

author letter

.

for

of

a

,

in

large number scandal his letters and their passages play impishly with the notable names the day which fur sport amusing the just Especially nish fertile fields such

THE LITERARY EPISTLE

19

of himself , and by vilifying others to magnify his own muse ."' 18 Again , in his consideration of the fall of Raleigh , proper appreciation Howell shows a of the qualities of that , brilliant courtier . Similarly Howell shows an ability to pre sent, through the means of writing , a full portrait of a char acter of the day , as in his letter to Dr. Prichard which de

tis

die

scribes the last days of Francis Bacon and contains the revela tory passage of: “ . . . it hath been the fortune of all poets commonly to die beggars ; but for an orator , lawyer and

;

as

(

Section

V

Buckingham

,

a

in

VII

the Duke

of

of

the murder

of

as

that Letter

in

to

is

,

17

.”

',

so

of

,

an

as

philosopher as he was to rare That Howell was epistolarian most attentive character shown presentations contemporary figures such those cited that passage he possessed descriptive vigor may be seen such

. to

,

expression

which

was characteristic

,

of

of

be

of

the formal letter

Black

. 8 .

", p

On Two Children

in

. .

,

Roundabout Papers

,

,

of

the epistolary novel and once

mould imitative

VIII VIII



, ,

Letter Letter

.

of

18

is

ideal

this stylistically

,

.

a

the

the letters

.

its

of

Section Section

Senesco non

Howell that he

style

IV IV

19 17 16

and

they later are

cast

in

are

,

wedded

as

wedded just

age

brought home This will anyone who reads the letters Experience and imagination are of

particular clarity Alciphron and Howell

with

that

artless

seem

his

.

letters

it

"

"

letters

consideration

.

such

to

of

,

third group the art

Thackeray

,

from

a

,

seen

to

will be

maxim

remember

in

is

.

interesting

great favorite with

a

It

was

too

by his favorite to

motivated

segnesco

It

He was

,

freedom

,

of

,

,

a

,

of

)

;

be

that he had literary insight may seen from the excellence his style Beyond doubt this author has incorporated into the letter the pristine freshness the inves tigative spirit the desire understand and the almost over

THE LETTER - WRITER ( ALONG with the tendency of literary men and men about the court to write letters , must be noted another tendency , equally important in the development of the use of the letter as a literary (and , ultimately , fictional ) instrument . This is the more or less didactic



letter -writer ,” which

sought

to

in

struct one and all in the way they should go in letter writing The earliest known English letter -writer is The Enimie of Idlenesse : Teaching the maner and stile how to endite , com pose and write all sorts of Epistles and Letters, the work of Fulwood , issued in 1568 . William Fulwood was an author of the mid -sixteenth cen tury, and a member of the Merchant Taylors ' Company . In

William

deed

,

the author has appended

his name

to the Enimie

as " William Fulwood , Marchant,"

of

and the volume the “ Masters , Wardens , and the Company of Marchant Tayllors .” This work became very popular and ran through several editions . It is divided into four parts . The first , part original , part borrowed , contains Idlenesse

itself is dedicated

a

group

of



models , many

in verse to

necessary instructions ” along with

a

group

of

of which are translations from Cicero and the ancients. The second part contains “ the Copies of sundry mens Letters and Epistles ,” derived from the classics ( from Cicero more particularly ) , and from certain Italian scholars . The third part contains a series of familiar letters (“ familiar " almost in the same sense

as

ence to the Richardsonian groups

but

:

letter and answer .

Brian

W

. Downs ,

in

the word is used later with refer are divided into two thought These are to be original ,

letters ) which

his introduction 20

to

Familiar Letters

THE LETTER -WRITER Important Occasions, by Samuel

up

of

prose specimens similar of

instead

those

the preced

this work seven metrical and there are also

love a

be found

to to

letters are

In

.

a

ters and few ing group later editions

metrical love let of

made

is

six

part

The fourth

to

nals .”

origi

French and Italian

few

sometimes “ concocted for almost certainly taken from

,

,

Richardson , considers purposes and ,

exemplary

six

them

again

of

on

21

to

.

a

a

of

, or ,

in

is A

-

A

, ,

.

the prose group purpose and execution second collection similar Panoplie Epistles the Fulwood collection Look ing Glasse for the Unlearned Containing perfecte platt

additions

inditing

in

.

of

.

,

in

. an

,

to

.

of

a

of

)

(

letters

1576

in

of

all sorts This was released The author was one Abraham Fleming antiquary and poet born 15527 1607 London He Cambridge chaplain was student and later became the Nottingham after he had taken holy orders He Countess -

forme London

a

of

a

's

a

transla Epit

an

admittedly

preceded



are

,

since

The letters

by

.

from

it

the Latin

,

lacks originality

,

Idlenesse tion

is ,

.

,

,

of

a

to

as

very distinguished figure not seem have cut being but acquired the reputation considerable antiquarian His epistolary work like Fulwood Enimie does poet

a

as

is

in

of

be

to a

it

to

271

.

, .p

. N . B .,

VII

of

us

,

or

,

to

of

is of

.

by

,

of

a

,

is

,

,

of

.

a

,

a

of

's

,

,

is

,

.

is a

* D

in

or is

.

in

of

,

of

,

as

to

to

It

is

.



,

of

dialogue between Precepts presented ome which master and scholar noticed that these two collections letters look backward the classic letter writers not only for their spiration but for their material well When we turn the next manual letters extant we find that there originality not present note either Fulwood Flem ing This work which does not definitely owe anything Angel Day translation The English Secretorie wherein perfect method for inditing contayned all manner Epistles and familiar letters Angel Day writer the latter century chiefly half the sixteenth known for his pastoral romance Daphnis and Chloe translation Eliza through the French Jacques Amyot bethan version Greek romance one Longus The English Secretorie

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

22

distinctly

less

was reprinted

well known . It was first published in in 1587 , 1592 , 1599 , 1607 , perhaps

1586 and in

1610

,

contents of this work are rather ingeni ously arranged and depend chiefly on the use of a single class of adjectives , as follows :

and

in

1614

. The

.

1

Of

epistles meerly Descriptory .

Of

epistles Laudatory and vituperatory epistles deliberative .

Of

Of epistles Of

responsory

.

epistles Dehortatory and disswasory epistles conciliatory .

Of Of

epistles Reconciliatory

Of

.

.

.

epistles petitory .

Of

epistles commendatory

Of

Monetorie and Reprehensorie . epistles Amatorie .

Of

epistles

Of epistles

.

Iudiciall . (accusatorie , excusatorie , Purgatorie , Of epistles expostulatorie . Of epistles invective .

Of epistles Of Of

Defensorie )

.

Comemoratorie .

epistles Deprecatorie . epistles familiar .

Of epistles

remuneratorie . Iocatorie and Gratulatorie . Of obiurgatorie Of epistles . epistles

Of

It

epistles Mandatorie

.

to peruse the above list of contents to rather comprehensive idea of how considerable a variety of subjects was treated in these letters of Angel Day . Indeed , we do not find a more elastic gamut of subject -mat ter in the Familiar Letters on Important Occasions of Samuel is only necessary

gather

a

THE LETTER -WRITER

28

Richardson , himself the dean and apex of all letter -writers . In Angel Day 's work the familiar letters show a large majority over those

of a more formal bent , but all

of

are couched

them

on

be

.

us ,

for

in a cold and unyielding style . The illustrations are accom panied by much theory , and Day still follows the earlier cus tom of indicating the figures of rhetoric in the margin ready recognition The titles themselves tell the other

,

,

-

in

to

be

,

of

.

in



so

on ,

,

,

"

,

to

in

in

,

of

hand that the sort letter found here does not change much substance the later English letter writers and epistles descriptive conciliatory commendatorie amatorie pre invective mandatorie and are still found vailing numbers even the most modern letter manuals

,

In

of

.

a

in

We are able

to

. .

of

a

of

,

to

or

likewise

of

discussed and are

,

in

, of

of

a

,

on

of ,

's

is

at

is

it

landmark

in

a

,

so

many respects that be reserved for more elaborate discussion another point This Nicholas Breton Poste with Packet Mad Letters There are the other hand considerable number col lections letters after the time Breton but they add noth ing variety the way distinction the types already tioned

definitely

to

,

-

far

,

-

so

,

a

a

,

The habit the letter writer once established continued until late date even indeed recent one 1603 ap peared letter writer advance those already men

less historical significance

than

by

"

fa I.

,

,

.

:

,

; of

)

by

,

,

to

,

.

A

(?

as :

., "

W

find

,

however before 1700 such titles Speedie Post With Certaine New Letters Or The First Fruits New Conceits never get discovered 1629 The Secretaries Studie Containing new those

(

)

(

)

of ;

,

a

"

. P .,

“ W

by

,

of

; or ,

;

,

of

,

:

in

’d

indicates

a

these

the exclusion

of

toward

as

.

such works

definite direction

:

a

Charles Gildon

of

by

-b

,

)

(

1692

consideration in

sion

a

:

of

of

,

's

,

of

A

open

A

;

)

1652

(

S

"

,

of of

. S ., "

Flying Post With Complements containing Packet Choice new Letters and delightful Variety Examples witty and Letters upon all Occasions both Love and Business 1678 Being Secretary The Lover Four Parts Collection Billets Doux Letters Amorous Letters Tender and Letters Praise Collected from the Greatest Wits France 1692 and The Post oy Robb his Mail the Pacquet broke

miliar Epistles

progres

the more

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

24

formal miliar "

letter in favor of the development of the true " fa letter . We do not find in any of these later letter

subject as the King of Pouille 's decision to erect castles and forts throughout his dominions ( v . Ful wood ' s Enimie of Idlenesse ) , but rather matters that would be more closely allied to the interests of the the read readers of the ws of day. None the less , the range subject range of of -matter is of con , andhe siderable breadth the author of The Secretaries Studie breadth (1652 ) divides his letters into those amorous, civil , house hold , politic , chiding , excusing , requesting , gratulatory , and newsy . Probably the “ requesting " form of letter is re sponsible for the growth of all the other groups and it , along with the love letters and letters of chiding , forms the most important body of compositions to be found in these writers

so

remote

a

.

.

works . There is little necessity for comment upon the pre dominance of the love letter in the letter-writer ; in this form the genre has extended to the early part of the twentieth cen tury , at least . Eighteenth , nineteenth , and early twentieth -cen tury type love letters all reveal the same unrestrained , yet highly artificial , protestations of love , along with records of the despair of the lover, the joy of the lover, the warning of a friend , and so on . In The Secretary 's Guide of 1753 there is printed a type letter for the use of love- smitten Quak even impor ers . The chiding letters are , likewise , of considerable tance cate a

the great majority of these letter -writers and indi certain tendency toward the inclusion of story interest

in

because of the dramatic nuance which many of them betray. Chief among these are letters of warning from a married

man to an unmarried friend who is contemplating matri mony , the former extending some advice on the matter ; let ters of chiding from father to son , from father to daughter , from neighbor to neighbor . It will be noticed that all of these types survive in that most important of letter -writers , Richardson 's Familiar Letters on Important Occasions, and are carried

down

own day . It might be

said

complete work even

from

that

,

, that the chief function of the earlier

then

very

to

our

THE LETTER -WRITER

25

letter -writers , at least from

Fulwood to Breton , is to give , in stilted and rhetorical fashion , examples of various sorts of letters — verse , prose , love letters , exemplary models from learned men (such as the classic Cicero ) , familiar let ters , and so on . The existence of such a compendium is of a precarious nature and few have survived the period in and for which they were published . They have little , if any, real value as literary productions . Historically alone they are more worthy of preservation , but it is in the light of further de velopment that they are chiefly memorable . They are but formal ,

leading steps. They give

definite impulse

and direction to of the familiar letter as a form of literature . Even the earliest letter -writers do not entirely escape some slight intimation of familiarity , some slight indication of what might be called , for want of a better phrase , story interest. It is due to the further development of the familiar letter itself , in the fiction of the eighteenth century , that these stiffly formal early letter -writers may seem to have con tributed their share to the outburst of epistolary fiction that was to come under the influence of the vigorous and deter mined guidance of Samuel Richardson in that century . Even in the mere matter of title , it may be noted that Angel Day ' s The English Secretorie has not only undoubtedly suggested a

the creation

, a letter-writer largely devoted to type published love letters and in 1692 , but likewise the title of the later The Lover 's Secretary ; or , the Adventures of Lin damira , a Lady of Quality , a Story in Letters , of which a sec ond edition , revised by Thomas Brown and published in 1713 , is the earliest extant . In continuance of the series of these compilations , side by side with developing fiction , may be noted : The Academy of Complements ; or , A New Way of Wooing . Wherein is a Variety of Love - Letters, very read all young men learn

by

be

the true ways

of

to

and maids that desire

to

Secretary

fit

The Lover 's

complements

,

of

by

)

;

of

,

in

in

;

(

1685 reappearing somewhat varying forms 1705 1713 and 1715 Familiar Letters Love and Gallantry for sev eral occasions wits the last and present age from the

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

26

originals , together with T . Brown ' s remains, being letters and dialogues not printed in his works , 1719 . Finally we are able to record three letter -writers that date later than the publi cation of Pamela . They are : The Complete Letter -Writer

, however , that

of

remembered

this while the Chapter were

by

. It must be

( 1759)

all

( 1755 ) ; Select Collections of Original Letters ( 1755 ) ; and Epistolary Correspondence made Familiar and Pleasant

I

's

,

ad

,

in

; of

,

,

to

byin

,

.

to

of

to M

. T .

M

of

(

as

in

,

no

in

the classic writers discussed means submerged but appeared constantly new trans Conyers Middleton lations and new editions such The Epistles Cicero Brutus and Brutus Cicero published Latin with English translation 1743 and followed Letters Atticus 1752 and Epistolae Fa

letters

of

in

so

.

of

of

of

in

of

)

by ,

,

miliares 1753 that we find the two streams material running side publications day side the the the epis running pace and pace tles the aforementioned classics the favor the reading public with the rapidly increasing contemporary writers new material letters

III

THE VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER IF in

recall , for a moment, the letter-writers discussed the preceding chapter , it will be seen that these are but

WE are to

skeletal works at their best. It is to two or three distinct and separate works that we must turn in order to find what it was that animated a

lively

the letter

verisimilitude to

a

, what

vitalized

degree

that

it , what

gave

it

it became the sub

definite form of literature . As has already been intimated , it is to Nicholas Breton and his Poste with a Packet of Mad Letters that we must look for the true beginning of such vitalizing of the letter - writer and , beyond that , of the stance of

a

addition to this , Breton is directly responsible for the popularizing of the let ter itself , even if he did not quite succeed in making it en sort of letter that appeared

therein

.

In

familiar . The first edition of the Packet of Mad Letters , an edition consisting of the first part only , is without date . The earliest tirely

, and

this again refers to the first bearing is 1603 . Yet the collection this date was , in all , , probability preceded by other editions since it is described as being “ newly inlarged .” It is the text of 1637 that is largely date attached to these letters

part,

adopted as the least erroneous representative of both parts of the Mad Letters , although it contains certain errors not to be found in the text of 1603 . The dedication to the reader , which Nicholas Breton has placed at the beginning of the first part of the Packet of Mad Letters , warrants recording , since it gives a clear impression of the air of mystery with which the author surrounded his 27

-

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

28

and the care he took that they should not be thought entirely compositions of his own .

" packet ”

,

,

I

. . . .

to

,

in

to

it,

to

no

I

,

in

, of on or it,

whom

to

being my fortune him that finds open greater style the direction fell the enclosure which found divers Letters written from whom could not learne

whereof being only light seeing ing

of

a

let

Gentle if you be , be you so , gentle Reader ; you shall under stand , that I know not when , there came a Poste , I know not whence , was going I know not whither, and carried I know not what: But in this way , I know not how , it was his hap with lack of heed , to fall Packet idle papers the superscription

an

of

a

In

.

at

of of

,

to

he

to

does Breton

of

attempt throw aura romance about taking his letters care add that has ventured second part because the happy fate experienced by the first part the hands the public his preceding dedication Thus

for

"

in

of

so

.

to

,

in

to

,

,

is



,

of

to

the letters the Right Worshipfull Maximilian Dallison Hawlin the author intimates that his own inspiration this work be found similar epistles from the Latin Spanish French Italian and Here again we are able find long many times that continuous classical influence that has already been touched upon the consideration the epis impulse

.

tolary

a

on

of

,

is

in a

of

a

,

of

is

in

of

The entire series letters this Packet marked by gracious air courtesy and politeness consciousness the part the author that letter not the blunt hasty thing

of

a

a

to

as

me strain

an

helpe

land make

,

,

Creditors

by

and

for

my

Sea

ill

by

is

so

my

it :

:

unto you for more necessity then will have money you well able discharge not much

earnestly to

write thus urged me

I

,

not unkindly that

:

of

“ A

it



I

,

Sir

pray you take

it :

,

,

, ,

, .

is

speech that Thus the letter creditor asking for incidentally money called Creditor for kinde Letter money we have the following courtesy request

my

losses

courtesie

with

Letter

I

be

I

, ,

to

,

I

of

.

43 . 1

to

kindness 2

as

;

,

their

in

extremitie yet doe desire nothing but my due but glad was ready lend would good wil that may continue our receive with that fulnesse Friends

VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER The answer gentlemanly

29

, forwarding the money ,

is couched in the same terms, assuring the creditor of the extreme re gret of the debtor , and urging the hope that the relationship between the creditor and debtor may be in no way impaired .

Similar expressions of graciousness and patience under stress are to be found in Letter 51 to “ an unthankful friend ” and in that tender Letter 66 to a lovely lady who is being some what less than responsive . There are exceptions, of course , to this tone , and one or two of the letters descend to the prac tice on the part of the correspondents of calling each other names . It is to be noticed , however , that this descent is to be chiefly between

found

, of previous amorous

man and woman

attachment , who have some sort of quarrel other . The result , however , adds distinctly

pick with

to

each

to the variety

of

the letters .

by

The epistles of Nicholas Breton are likewise characterized an elaborateness of expression and an opulent usage of

words which are , basically, rather a characteristic of the times than of the letters themselves . None the less , they assume this quality of the period with a naturalness which makes it their

of epithet to be young discerned in the letters of lovers to their ladies. The Breton letters seek , in a large measure , to give advice in the ordinary cruxes of life , both to those who such

very

. Especially

is this elaborateness

for

is

,

.

.

to

a

fall

is

he

a

,

if

it

to

.

4

is

it

,

I,

2

Letter

to

a

glasse man hath brittle sub great price and value very

it

, of

for

begins

chary and heedfull thereof because impossible repaired broken have Part

the particular gentlewoman

of

sagely

which

the worth

admonitory

this advice more

:

the letter



the general than

observable that when and

formulae makes

a

"

London

in

is

It

stance

is

such mettle

of

a

so

Of

living

to

presentation

easy

too

definitely applicable

this reason that tone Wherever they solemn dignity but the It

ask

it .

not

the letters are didactic tender advice they are marked by

. by . . .2

many

in

do

those who

of

advice and

to

ask

own

should

bee

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

30

— and then proceeds to apply this to the virtue of his cousin which may easily be assailed in the city of London , a place full of " provocatives to Sinne.” Perhaps a more unusual use is made of the letter of advice in the epistle to a friend who has lost his mistress . This betrays a deep tenderness which the author seldom shows , for he prefers , in most instances , to hold in check any revealing emotion and , certainly , to re frain at all times from dwelling upon it at any length . The letter of advice from father to son , so prevalent in all letter writers , finds several single instances , especially notable being that thirty - third Letter which , along with warnings of the

,

its

in

in

is

so

.

of

an

a

is

It

."

,

so

few

usual sort , includes the amusing admonition — " I have heard you are much given to Alchymistry , it is a great charge to many , and profiteth imploy your time that you lose bargaine not the advisory almost inevitable that much that nature should likewise unearth turn for the philosophic the author Among the several letters advice from elder

a

to

of

,

,

and

be

,

toile

,

,

and play little pleasure

:

no

a

,

in

a to a

it

,

,

lightnesse

beggar thy state make

not con

a

,

,

not much use exercise but but dull not thy braine

read much

favour

conceale

of :

,

lavish expence lest

it

gay

thou hast

discretion argue lest

, it

but not

,

:

,

. , . . let if it

:

goe neate

of

:

and lose

, ,

of

in

and discreet the placing proud thy fortune but thinke take heed

it

,

is

:

,

,

them

them

tentment

at

to

and your credit charily your your and honor carefully for your friends use them for your enemies feare them not but your for love bee secret the bestowing

valiantly

:

looke

to

as

you find

follows

your purse warily

keepe

reputation

as

.

of

. . .

,

courtier and proceeds

in

a

in

,

is

a

to

younger man we find philosophic and advisory passage which notable not only itself but also the fact that shows itself directly related least two other well known young passages the period The letter one advice

conferre but with the

,

is

is a

of

,

. :

.

neither side

. . . .

fall

on

a

a

is

,

so

coynesse thou shalt get understanding Pride kind little too womanish and common familiarity too neere the Clown for Courtier But carry thyself even that thou

wise which

VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER

31

is

.

,

son

It is, of course , impossible to read this text without making mental comment on the similarity it bears to that famous Exactly speech of Polonius in his advice to his Laertes what the relationship may be between these two passages

to

;

a

Poste with

's

Breton

of )

(

05

-

.

)

fourth quarto

(

1613

)

(

;

;

let

.

It

has been largely determined by critics that Ham was written about the year 1600 the quartos belong 1603 first quarto 1604 second and third quartos and

doubtful

Packet

Mad

it

in

;

at

of

.

two

Ham

the other either addition critics have determined that the Polonius speech advicet based earlier passage from Lyly Euphues which contains such thy tongue Every one that bits not lavish by joined shaketh thee the hand not thee heart every light occasion not quarrelous shall they speak thrice better hear what than what thou thinkest None the less the passages from Shakespeare and phrasing Breton are closer each other than either Lyly that the two are not related least the similarity

be

It

to

to

is

.

at

.

,

If

of

in

to

.”

,

,

to

say

. . . . .

. . . .

in

to

. . . .

is

on

,

In

, of

's

of

for

is

Be

as "

Be

Polonius

from

,

.

almost impossible

an

is

,

, if

the Packet

,

To say which the Mad Letters was borrower

some time before 1603

or

let

of

print

,

in

,

in

Letters was written 1603 the latest undoubtedly was may composed year appeared some earlier and have

.

;

in ,

.

, ' d

,

,

'd

.

,

borrower nor

not gaudy

;

,

rich

be ;

,

oft loses both

Edition

Act

Scene

III .

Hamlet

,

Variorum

, . 66 .

New

p

,

.

• v

Hamlet

I,

.

to

be

as

, ,

to

,

it

:

of

loan

a

a

lender itself and friend husbandry And borrowing dulls the edge This above all thine own self be true And must follow the night the day any man Thou canst not then false For

.

Neither

fancy

;

'd

But not express

in as

's

,

,

; .

't

to a

do

to

of

,

.

no

,

Be

'

d , by

,

no

Give thy thoughts tongue thought his act Nor any unproportion thou familiar but means vulgar Those friends thou hast and their adoption tried Grapple them thy soul with hoops steel But not dull thy palm with entertainment unfledg Of each new hatch comrade Beware quarrel but being Of entrance Bear that the opposed may beware of thee Give every man thine ear but few thy voice Take each man censure but reserve thy judgment thy purse can buy Costly thy habit

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

32

single tissue with his age and philosophy Incidentally may likewise be some of noted that Samuel Richardson his Familiar Letters Important Occasions presents any one dozen letters that Breton was of

, it

a

on

a

,

of

in

, of -

is

;

,



)

is

,

in

,

be

,

of

this philosophy

The

.

)

16

Letter

II,

is (

Part

"

wealth

to

way

assured

of

it

,

(

I,

27



as :

"

a

,

it

,

is

. .

in

is

the

's

even

in

to

similar the Breton passage not only tone but phrasing Such advice may concluded scarcely temporal Breton native philosophy revealed again such pass ing phrases The craft one woman the confusion many man Part Letter and follow my counsell study all the Arts superficially chiefly but Arithmetick for advice

in

,

its

a

of

,

to

,

of

to

or

It

an

.

, of

, of

a

of

)

?

-

(

is

,

of of

experience

is

,

of

of

in

,

of

a

by

its

worldliness which borne out consideration most the letters this packet since most them bear the stamp man who has pitfalls and known his way about the world beheld perhaps fallen into one two them the furtherance his personal wisdom be remembered that Nicholas Breton 15457 1626 was descended from ancient family poet worldly good education Essex and was himself characteristic

is

of

,

an

a

so

.

a

a

are full

of

I)

Part

vinegared

of

more

(

and

24

, of 23

,

,

phases and Letters gay capriciousness and

22

21 ,

of

of

of ,

,

of

all ,

in

.

as

us

,

,

it

.

,

a

as

,

of

,

and true refinement The letters are taken whole rather brief and because this brevity coupled with smoothness com position that they flow with considerable ease and being composed graceful though somewhat impress darkling humor con they are tenuous prose All cerning themselves with the more serious problems life light they Yet are not devoid the more and humorous

it

.

II )

(

of

is

it

as

in

in

,

19

in

,

is

II )

,

a

(

7

,

.

I)

of (

if

,

44

45 is

turn wit the waggish letter absent from this packet and Letters Part and Letter Part are admirable exam ples this type None the less the more dignified and sober subject which claims chief place this epistolary work pathetic story and the revealed Letter Part tendency should be autobiographical sometimes thought then the reason for the deadly seriousness many

Nor

even



in

,

,

.

its

indicates

VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER of the problems of life

treating

of these letters when plainly apparent .

33

is

in

a

he , is in

his

As has already been stated , it was the popular estimation of this Poste with a Packet of Mad Letters which helped largely to forward the general popularity of the letter -writer . Breton dispensed with the stilted quality of expression so prevalent in letter -writers up to the time of his work and employed dignified but instead the language of own day

,

.

in



"

,

be

to

of

.

)

-

,

successful and envied author Letters how the personal letter has been vitalized

exactly the way those

of

.

a

these show

of

such

a

of

rich experience as

of

to

(

.

is

Breton

of

-

of

the sixteenth century correspondence Nicholas perhaps best exemplified by the letters This the correspond Pope celebrated Alexander 1688 1744 This period forty years full ence extends from 1704 1744 in

ally

to

,

is

of

is

-

in

It is

of

.

formal style this respect that the direct precursor Richardson and the familiar letter writer There found likewise the eighteenth century private letter imbued with the personal and that type friendly touch that analogous that which exists fiction

of , of

as

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

to

of

.

-

in

Breton vitalized the letters the letter writer The Pope correspondence consists not only Wycherley the letters from Pope such people note Congreve Atterbury G ay Addison Steele Dr the Duke Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Swift along Buckingham

,

fa

a

an

.

in

of

Pliny

was one

of

In



.

the statement

:

of

in

in

, of

which recalls the classic examples Latin literature his own twelfth letter Pope implies familiarity with Buckingham

and

the Duke Pliny the letters to

to

of

,

of

a

Dr .

.

,

to

the author letter writing in

.

in

is

a

,

's

to

,

to

,

the letters these people sent Pope letters The keynote

wise

a

an

additional host

of

famous figures but comprises like reply Pope conviviality and miliarity combined with brilliant vitality which all serves animate even the simplest epistle with almost trenchant Certainly correspondence liveliness the with Dr Atterbury and with Cromwell shows more severe dignity than most the letters yet even these may we find that con expression which seems summate ease be never failing with

those

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL house over his head

warm

by

a

authors who had

,

few

34

nay two

,

's

,

to

is

it

,

,

.

love with

in

:

man

a

As



)

1705

a

,

26

.

(

as

to

a

,

be

a

of

of

, us

by

,

of

.”

of

,

as

Pliny appears houses two his epistles And among the classic letter writers that the style Pope letters most definitely refers their grace their vivacity their keenness observation their sharp wit Pope show distinctly philosophical That the letters moralizing may tendency even seen from such quota Wycherley eighth tions that from the letter Oct desires no conver

mistress

."

,

as

(

in

a

,

I

: “ . . .

)

(

,

30

)

be

so

sation but hers man love with himself most men Again may pleased are best with his own he writes December 1710 those that are my friends laugh

,

is

(

.

a

is

in

am

.

W

.”

I

so

;

byat

it

to

is

, I

am

I

.,

:

.

,

"

:

,

to

in

-

,

, of

:



)

,

16

in

,

if

,

merry laugh with and those that are not company and myself ever wise There brilliant sally the seventh letter Sir Trumbull Dec 1715 When rumours increase and when there abundance noise and clamour believe the second report finally and the fifth letter Edw Blount Esq we find graceful consideration this penetrating and

is

it ,

beats about the breast for

company we receive here from fluttering unquiet motion but that a

the best

few

,

which

is

at

The highest gratification mirth

,

anxious what

can

,

a

,

we

.

little later find

in

a

needless

than

to

that we are able

these letters

observation and advice may be added such

,

the letter writer itself and

,

seen

-

that exists

is

of

to

,

we shall know

Pope much the same material

but

sooner

it

be

may

,

be

a

this solicitude

in

of

,

Thus

it

without

future being knowing

of

all

concerns and uncertain haste

to

important

in

in

:

; of

. . . .

a

moments and after leaves void and empty What we here call science and study are little better the greater number arts which we apply ourselves groping are mere the dark and even the search our most

,

-

fa

of

an

XXVII

.

.

Letter

to

us

,

.

of

.

H

To

o

Cromwell

.

if

as

in

,

is

is

in

no less conscious here than the letter writer Pope nothing since himself not conscious The letters has already been stąted are definitely composition miliar This familiarity enables see the por personality the author with absolute clearness observation

VITALIZATION

OF THE LETTER

35

traiture . They are graceful and elaborate ; they are conscious even to the point of being sometimes rhetorically so ; they are

witty and sprightly , full of a cleverness given to the creation of maxims and aphoris .ns ; they contain a frequent asperity of speech and an occasional arrogance . All these qualities serve to reveal to us the man behind the letters . As a familiar

document of a human being the epistles of Alexander Pope are invaluably alive. Moreover , Pope 's rearranging and re ascribing of the letters proves that he consciously regarded

as literature , not simply as actual correspondence . It has been said above that Samuel Richardson represents the very apex of the literary letter -writer with his Familiar Letters on Important Occasions ( 1741) . It is old news that them

Richardson was commissioned

compose

to

a

letter -writer

,

in

the course of composing which he became so absorbed that the subject developed beyond him into a work which resulted

the creation of Pamela . Having finished this novel, this constantly serious and , unfailing conscientious worker re turned to his original letter -writer and completed that , a work we now know as Familiar Letters on Important in

Occasions . Samuel Richardson

be

said

is

of whom it may mystify his readers ;

among those writers

that he never made any attempt

to

on the contrary , he made every conscious effort to clarify his purposes for those who might read the results . Thus it is that we are told , in the Preface actly what the author purposes

to

to

the Familiar do.

Letters

, ex

Nature , propriety

of character , plain sense , and general use , have been the chief objects of the author 's attention in penning these letters ; and as he everywhere aimed to write to the judg

ment, rather

than to the imagination , he would choose , that generally be found more useful than diverting . . . . He has endeavoured then , in general , throughout the great va riety of his subjects , to inculcate the principles of virtue and they should

benevolence ; to describe properly , and recommend strongly , the social and relative duties ; and to place them in such practical

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

36

lights , that the letters may serve for rules

think and act by,

to

as

as forms to write after .

well

may justly be said that , with some enlargement, what Richardson has written here is applicable to his entire artistic purpose. In consideration of the Familiar Letters alone , he

It

has accomplished all he set out to accomplish , and that so perfectly that he seems to have succeeded in doing even more .

be

.

of

but

,

,

We need

well

Richard they are

turn only

to

an

of

,

of

morality

.

by intent models

item

.

,

therein

as

's

said that they gave moralizing any and that may

was but incidental only letters are here not models form

have appeared son

form

,

models

of

their letters

may

it

letter writers

earlier

-

thors

as

of

its

Behind the entire creation of these letters is that high morality which the author possessed working out to the last lofty letter , with worldly virtue Of the au conception

of

, of

is

)

to

or

,

a

)

(

a

is

it

as

(

a

a

to

young man who guilty that letter from friend reprehensible conduct toward his father Letter LXIV filled with stern and dignified indignation stinging young woman that more letter CXXXVII from

.

to

In

so

in

of



,

of

a

is

color

to

is

.

It

the moral tone which often lends the sober that be found these letters Letter LXV Against too great Singing Love and Music we have

work “

in

in

is

to

",

as a

"

he

to

little fortune the man who has proposed that she be his mistress and that live with her Gallant order gather how strictly the moral purpose adhered this

of

a

an

epistle that warns against the acceptance life with too lightness and warns likewise against the case with which the graver things life are pushed aside when lighter

definite

LXX

)

(

in

or

of

in

warning

which

uncle

writes

to ),

in

of

is

gay

an

of )

a

,

?

(

.

Letter LXV

letter

com

much too his de the insularity Richardson

lover who

in

a

!”

a

Page XXVII

.

" *

French

we have

slight revelation delightful epistle XC

meanor and

Again

(a

a

against

an

a



.

to

,

tellectual nature

girl

is

matters are by For whenever chearful singer pany adieu improving all conversation much

VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER

37

at her new riding habit which is made so “ one cannot easily distinguish your sex by it . For you neither look like a modest girl in it , nor an agreeable boy .” O temporal O mores !

his niece of his

offense

peculiarly that

omes much of the that comes philosophy sound advice and wholesome that is to be found in these epistles . Thus such almost separate pieces , one might call them , are revealed ,

moral

purpose

is

full early

young

to

,

life

,

periods

be

.'

to

a

those

a

for

as

of

into

undone himself prudent mariner which may

still more important one than that

,

marriage widows

is

Pope

Richardson blends with his philos the soul the individual being doubt these letters indicate defi Any part the the writer number usually story and although the story

.

of

a

is

.

of

a

,

on of

,

a

us

for

a

of

tell

letters presented

for

,

and asperity

kindly concern Beyond the shadow nite bias narrative ophy

like aphorisms and maximsbut unlike whose maxims are characterized by

,

given

,

,

brilliance

as

It such

such quotations that Richardson

from

,

man

may

most

to

of

be seen his age

a

.

11

. . .

maids often mend their circumstances very rarely

by

it .

10

for

use

a

right

indiscretions

landmark example follow

is

.8

by

up

than

proper entrances behind

his own

us

make

a

. . .

,

shun his courses

set

an

who has

fitter

to

much

be

. . .

he

to

be

Twenty -one or twenty -two years of age his own master

man

a

this

for

out of

is

of

It

in

of

of , of

by

is

to

is

,

in

is

LXV CXLVII

.

Letter

.

11 10

.

II .

8

Letter Letter VII Letter

or

two these letters which there subjected the beautiful servant girl who

one

of

in

Pamela

the story

of

.

it

.

is

in

an

,

to

,

,

if

the moral lesson not always for the sake perceive volved none the less we are able that the author himself has undeniable interest the story means presenting his moral Perhaps this which he unconscious but none the less exists Inevitably we notice the germ

told

the

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

,

on

for

moral dangers of the city in which she attempts to make a livelihood . One of the most notable of these is Letter LXII , “ A Young Woman in Town to Her Sister in the Country , re counting her narrow Escape from a Snare laid her her

Arrival by wicked Procuress The story moves with absorbing rapidity and we even find our fears enlisted with the girl that she may not escape and our hopes that she will The letter indicates with positive clarity the fact that .

,

,

an

.”

a

,

first

an

,

so

,

in

,

is to

of

a

of

of

a

as

.

its

a

to

,

in

of

at

Richardson was all times possessed with the narrative im pulse even this collection familiar epistles and ability story well even when he was not telling that tell story for very own sake There be found likewise story different that contained Letter XLVI which tells the ruin trader because his persistent indolence and

, of

,

"

of



,

full score

narra

of

such

Letters CLXI reveal not only the

to

,

-

of

,

in

)

to

CLXV are series and all serve story telling power Richardson but likewise the variety

of

at

least

such

(

which

life

as a

slice

There are

of

the volume some

,

in

.

tive interest and character

letters

of

of

very human

"

of

contained

a

of

is

there

“ A

in

,

of

.

-

Again self indulgence Letter LXXVI humorous Epistle neighborly Occurences and News which tells many the fates the friends both writer and reader

in

of

a

.

-

is

of

in

so

A

to

in

.

as

his material well development be found these letters which does nearly any preceding let perfected not exist form Although ter writer that character we meet most the

to

a

.

in

-

all

,

,

:

in

,

,

less

there

,

None the

are

them

,

among

.

an

,

be

,

to

,

,

,

.

,

is

of

be

to

of

in

or

or

a

of

a

,

of

single letter only yet we remem characters for the space ber character here and there because the sheer liveliness and vividness with which he she made reveal himself writing Certainly herself the course the there are types number found these letters the irate father the justly censorious friend the contrite son the unhappy lover the outraged lady the innocent servant girl the un certain widow and the wise neighbor these and more They are sure portrayed different letters with little variation and with unmistakable family resemblance aside from

the

domi

VITALIZATION OF THE LETTER

39

nant types , some of whom do impress us with their indi viduality , occasional characters we remember more vividly . The facetious young lady remains with us from Letter LXXXIII as a possible prototype of the lighter moments of the later Miss Byron in Sir Charles Grandison ( 1753 -54 ) . Again , that poor tenant of Letters CVI, CVIII is memorable . Others occur . Many of Richardson 's heroes and heroines, if they may be so called , are of the lowest classes ; but an equally

of the merchant classes , and some few of a higher rank . So far as the style of these letters is concerned , it is char acterized by that breadth of flow as of a broad river , proceed ing with a steady dignity between banks and ruffled only imperfections persistent near those banks where the the

of

its

large number are

of

,

a

of

,

in

,

of

knowledge

,

in

,

;

in

.

of

is

is

. no

in

to

shore cause the water bubble and foam concentric circles that have entire effect upon the unshattered breadth expression that midstream The dignity and fullness really found which characterizes the style the substance the letters themselves As has been said again and again they are moral their purpose but they are likewise with exceptions temperate grave few their outlook full

is

no

literature

.

indeed

be

to

a

is

it

. If

this

is



not

be

may

it

reason why

to

,

of

,

be of

to

a

in

of

,

of

the world deeply concerned with the true seri things and with the sense life with the worth guide always values that must the life that culminate personal worthiness possible for peak letter palpable writer literature and there seems ousness

IV

THE FICTIONAL OUTPOSTS AND THE PRE - RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER STORY IN THE consideration of the letter -writer we have already seen , even in those early letter -writers produced long before the ap

pearance of Samuel Richardson , the tendency to yield to the narrative impulse in order that some sort of human in terest may be developed in the letters presented for the en

tertainment or for the instruction of the reader . It is not at be wondered at , then , that this narrative impulse in the form of the letter took upon itself a particular development

all to

of

of

travel

which scandal

Fiction before College desig

of

by

1

",

of



,

,

all

is

,

In

story

,

called the letter narrating the letter used for the purpose politics and above else the story love English Epistolary her admirable essay Wellesley Pamela Helen Sard Hughes

, in,

what might

into

.

own

be

its

of

.

,

of

;



(3 )

com

century

,

.

earlier period

that such collections

Language and

Literature

of

from

,

of1

The Manly Anniversary Studies Chicago Press 1923

extend most

the eighteenth an

a

as

earlier century

correspondence

are undoubtedly present

survival

in

an

of

is

, it

Thus

but lightly felt

is

,

into the epistolary fiction although all four tendencies

the first

of

the last three devices which

pletely and

the





(4 )

;

"

;

-



( 2 )

and

of

.”

lovers

correspondence is

friendly

It

"



.

(1 )

nates certain stock situations means which English epis tolary fiction before Pamela was developed There are post bag the rifled the letters travel the

the

University

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

literature as Nicholas Breton 's

" rifled ” post -bag a

Packet

LETTER STORY

of Mad Letters

Poste , with Certaine New

A

41

Poste with

,

already discussed ; A Speedie Letters. By “ I. W . Gent .” ( 1625 ) ;

( 1603 )

II

and The Post- Boy Robb ’d of His Mail ( vol. 1 - 1692 ? ; vol. — 1693 ) , are actually part . Even those works , derived from such an impulse , which extend over into the eighteenth cen tury are more of the seventeenth in spirit . Thus we have, as late as 1719 ,

work attributed to Charles Gildon , which is entitled and described as The Post-Man Robb ’ d of His Mail : or , the Packet Broke Open . Being a Collection of Miscellane a

ous Letters , Serious and Comical , Amorous and Gallant. Amongst which are , The Lover's Sighs : or Amours of the Beautiful Stremunia and Alphonso the Wise , King of Castile and Aragon

,

Earl of Provence ; with her

and

King on

Let

Passionate

another Mistress . In Five Books. By the best wits of the present Age .8 None the less , we see even here that the chief glory of the collection is the story of Stremunia and Alphonso , a love story in letters. Of the four epistolary stock situations indicated by Miss Hughes in her essay , two are representative not only of situa tions but of uses of the letter in fiction as well . These are , of course , the letter of travel and the letter between lovers for the purpose of telling the story of their love . The episto ters

the

to

have developed until the very close of the seventeenth century , and the first notable work of kind The Ladies Travels into Spain 1692 Madam Daunois author Memoirs the Court France according entirety which former title The In genious and Diverting Letters the Lady Travels into Spain Describing the Devotions Nunneries Humours Cus toms Laws Militia Trade Diet and Recreations that People Intermixt with Great Variety Modern Adventures to

of (

of ,

,

1226

.

, .p

,

of

,

,

,

,



of

,

in

its

of

of

to

, ,

is

,

, .

.

. B .,

N

* In D .

VII

by

seem

,

not

)

does

is

its

lary story

of travel

his chusing

.

to

of

,

in a

de

,

by

.

of

of

,

of

.

of

of

a

,

of

,

or

of

,

's

,

this work called new edition the same year 1719 there appeared Sighs The Lover the Letters the most beautiful Stremunia Al phonso the Wise King Aragon and Earl Castile Provence Translated out the Provencial tongue into Latin Gonsalvo Mendoza version which further betrays the influence the prevalent story love letters that particular period

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

42

and Surprising Accidents : being the Truest and Best Re marks Extant on that Court and Country . It is interesting to note that the “ remarks " extend over a space of some two hun dred and eighty -eight closely printed pages . The letters are addressed

by the writer to



his ”



dear cousin "

and

,

when

they are signed at all, are signed rather bafflingly , “ yours. ” As the letters proceed , not only does the signature drop , but

the “ dear cousin ” retires to a minor place and , in Letter XII , is not mentioned until the twenty -third line. These are, then , letters in little more than name . As in most works of this sort it is difficult to say whether the author knew the land of which she wrote with any intimacy . Although she writes lively appreciation of her scene , she seems to be com fancy with fact. Such descriptions as that of the Caval leros riding horseback “ like the Turks and Moors, that is ,

with

a

bining

call it, taken in Spain

Genita ” ( Letter XII) and of the measures ward off the “ evil eye ” (Letter VII ) betray a certain knowledge of the land , undoubtedly . There is pres ent , on the other hand , that degree of fancy , aside from the author 's writing as if she were a man , that even in the most pedestrian of these travel -works in letters , allies them to the type of the voyage imaginaire . Mrs . Mary de la Rivière Manley has likewise contributed as

they

a

to

, Letters written by , by the Honourable Colonel Supposed Nun in Portugal to a Gentle

to the travel

letters in her work of 1696

Mrs . Manley .

To which

Pack

, a Letter from

a

is added

in France : in Imitation of the Nun 's Five Letters . In 1725 this was reprinted as A Stage - Coach Journey to Exeter , Describing the Humours of the Road , with the Characters and Adventures of the Company . In eight letters to a Friend . The chief interest in the work lies in the lively picture it

man

the inns, the customs of travel and the characters themselves . In the presentation of the love-ridden captain bumptious the author her and even sea and the beau gives

of

the journey

,

self , there is a definite step toward the creation of character in the story told in letters . To Mrs . Manley is likewise as signed The Bath Intrigues . In Four Letters to a Friend in

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER STORY

43

( 1724 ) ,

London a book which is a distinct contribution to the large number of literary works which concern them selves with Bath . Whicher , however , attributes the book to Mrs . Eliza Haywood ,4 a writer of considerable power and versatility

.

Amongst other notable collections of travel letters that be long to the early part of the eighteenth century is the Mem oirs of the Adventures of a French Lady of Quality , during her late Residence at Venice , sent by her to an English Lady in London ; containing a great Variety of Fortune , with many excellent moral reflections . Recommended to the perusal of the Fair Sex (1705 ) . We are able to see here the influence of the didactic and philosophic trend of the earlier letter writers which carried on so definitely into the great flowering

of

the epistolary novel itself. Again , to the year 1717 belongs

a similar work described Lady at Paris to a Lady at Avignon . Con taining a Particular Account of the City , the Politiks, In trigues , Gallantry , and Secret History of Persons of the First Quality in France . It is of particular interest to note the fact

as: Letters from

a

that a commentator , in the Preface to the book , writes : There is not , perhaps , any kind of Writing so difficult as that of Familiar Letters , nor anything so pleasing when it is well perform ’ d .” Undoubtedly , the author has attempted a sort of lively verisimilitude in her work and succeeds rather well in reporting the scandals about a long series of Dukes and Duchesses , Lords and Ladies , and many another of noble designation . The portrait of Madame de Maintenon (her



self , like

de Sevigné , a prolific letter writer ) pre by sented here the author is by no means a superficial one and in the sixth letter, at least , we are given considerable

Madame

insight into the subtle practices of that celebrated woman . It is not until the tenth letter, however , that a complete his tory of this king' s favorite is given , in a lively revelation of her rise through

extremest difficulties

•George F . Whicher , The Life and Romances York , 1915, pp . 111- 112.

to

a

place

of

power

in

of Mrs . Eliza Haywood , New

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

44

she was enabled to mould to her own capricious monarch . The point to be made

which

will

great and

a

is , however , that

of letters , along with the two previously men tioned , very definitely further the growing practice of tell ing life stories , or histories , by means of the letter , and both

this collection

French Lady of Quality and the Letters from a Lady at Paris indicate clearly the in fluence of the scandal romance and the secret history so popu

of

lar

the Memoirs

the Adventures

of

a

.

of

of

at

the conclusion the seventeenth century and the be ginning the eighteenth Both the scandal romance and the

English

largely

in

and imitated

,

and were translated

the French and Span in

ish

secret history were brought over from

of

is

of

a

to

of

.

.

of

.

,

of

the work female authors among the ranks whom Mrs Manley and Mrs Haywood were particularly notable That the familiar letter was distinct aid the repetition personal histories scandal and obvious because the lively verisimilitude and the revelatory qualities which that to

.

to

by

a

is

,

of

, or

for

a

of

is

It

.

of

find thus that we are able letter possesses growing among here fictional interest collections letters which were made some other primary reason than that the story stories they may have happened tell pamphlet Of particular interest among the travel letters type

an .

;

,

of

;

In

.

all

.

of

of

:

of

is

of of

in

letter form

in

Daniel Defoe and published 1719 King being The title this work The the Pirates Captain Avery the Account the Famous Enterprises King Madagascar mock With his Rambles and Piracies where the sham accounts formerly published him are detected Two Letters from himself one during his stay written

of

,

an

,

to

,

The author here picaresque hero

make

a

.

the times a

to

of

a

to

eye

of

used

the tendencies the device the letter an

have

.

in

a

in

,

in

at

,

)

(

of

.

at

Madagascar and one since his escape from thence Defoe departs from the form earlier work The King the epistolary Pirates 1709 least that he makes his work fact which may probably be indicative that the work popularity Certainly this letters was steadily increasing by would be observed man like Defoe who always seems

LETTER STORY

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

creature of immediate probability by means of actual correspondence . 1730 we have the translation of Montesquieu de 's Persian Letters by In

C

.

a

45

seemingly

de Sécondat

Mr. Ozell ,

,

Baron

and in

this

nitely the authors

epistolary

impulse

the trans indicate how defi

to

sufficient

century

were interested

Of the growing

for

.

of

the eighteenth epistolary nature

an

of

in

things

the English

of

a

part

the French work

is

lation

, .

of

,

of

not strictly

,

its

work we have the formula of an Englishman or Frenchman who visits some foreign country interestingly reversed . The Persian Letters present the correspondence of several Per sians, among whom Usbek and Rica are the most important , who have left their Persian habitat to visit Europe , and their philosophic comments upon that continent , manners cus personalities toms and form the bulk the letters Although

,

of

is

In

on

of

a

5

.”

as

"

les

of

as

to

for

in

so

,

.

a

to

in

of

in

.

fictional epistles 1668 was published French the first edition those Portuguese Let profound impression ters which were shortly make English fiction Indeed great was their success France that they proved directly responsible new kind Portugaises They ap literature referred that follow

English

is

is

French work which the story

to

the translations and imitations that precursor the direct much that

lovers are

of

between

of

.

of

,

at

if

or ,

a

of

, of

of

for

its

of

the letter fictional purposes that story the presentation lovers by all means the most important not least the most prevalent Of chief importance among collections letters use

employment

, p .

a

.

R

by

,

.

a

New

York

,

,

Manners

to

(

a

-

the Novel

of

Rise

the five Love Letters written of

The

to a

a

.

-

Morgan

to

in

answer

,

.

E

Charlotte

73 n .



)

Chevalier Del 1911

In

-

in

,

tle

,

to

;

in

,

L

.

in

.

of

in

a

to

'

Nun

English

in

1678 Five Love Letters from Cavalier Done out French into English Estrange These were reprinted 1693 but 1683 there being the already appeared Portuguese had Seven Letters part second the Five Love Letters from Nun Cavalier This too was reprinted 1693 1694 was published lit work called Five Love Letters written by Cavalier the

peared first

'THE EPISTOLARY him

by

in

1716 .

NOVEL

Nun . All

three works were then reprinted together divergent interest is the existence of six metrical versions of these Portuguese Letters , published in 1701 , 1713 , 1716 , and 1716 , 1718 and 1731 . The question of the genuine

ness

of

a

Of

these letters has caused considerable controversy

,

and

it is now believed that only those of the first series possess any semblance of recorded actuality . Whatever the degree of actuality of these letters may have been originally , they must be looked upon now as a definite step forward toward the fulfilling of epistolary fiction and toward the method of Richardson . Of their timeliness Dr. Morgan writes :

. . . the Letters came at the high tide of the revulsion of feel ing against the visionary ideals and poetic language of the Hotel de Rambouillet on the one hand , and against the high thinking and plain living of the Puritans on the other , in favor of life in worst immoral

in

license

,

- robustness, passion , and at

its

the raw

.?

word and deed

be

may

that the for what Ariadne my said

the Nun

, of

a

of

,

it

Concerning the letters themselves long complaint five letters are

first

."

,

a

of

is

of

of

.

a

is

of

,

of

.

a

of

of

in

,

,

,

of



after the fashion the abandoned Inconsiderate Improvident and most unfortunate Love Incidentally the woman berates her lover good round writing occasionally terms that are reminiscent the present any man rather than woman Not that there suggestion indelicacy but rather that the tone much possessed the writing masculine vigor Perhaps this she calls

,

a

in

be

to

, :as

in

is

a

,

.

'

L

is

to

is

due the fact that the translation the work man Estrange Certainly comparison indicates Sir Roger more graceful touch the French than found the Eng me But must

last forever

?

this absence

!

Bless

An Absence

express that Sorrow itself wants words laquelle ma douleur toute Quoi cette absence ., cit ., p . .p

?

it

,

assez

funeste

.

nom

2nd

of

Done out

Ed , )..

Cavalier (

-28 a

,

.ppto

.

72

a

'

L

. .

Sir -

,

,

by

8 ? •

Hughes 163 Morgan cit Five Love Letters from Nun Roger Estrange English

ingenieuse

.8

un

a

,

elle est

ne peut donner op op

'qu

!

,

,

to

Hellish

so

lish

French

into

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER STORY

47

It is difficult to say with any degree of finality whether the difference between the English and the French versions is that of the writing of man and woman or the natural differ ence between the more masculine English timbre and the less masculine French . The letters as a whole are full of at tack , recrimination , and regrets , but it must likewise be re membered that they present a narrative of love that has cooled only in the person to whom the letters are addressed and , as such , preserve a certain dignity of sorrow , coupled with a just indignation that renders them singularly sus tained in composition . The Seven Portuguese Letters , de scribed as “ one

of the most

Passionate Pieces that possibly has ever been seem to be considerably less passionate in , nothing They tone as a matter of fact . record at all new that

extant, "

has not already been touched upon in the previous letters , with the possible exception of a vein of malice which lends the work a touch of unbecoming littleness . We might wish to avoid the original Nun as a dangerous individual in her just anger , but there is about her nothing of the spiteful viciousness which expresses itself in the writing of the second group

.

Both

characters

that point that vein

tolarians ,

groups of letters , however , attempt to make the involved real flesh -and -blood people and , from

of

view

,

add to the growing epistolary

literature

of verisimilitude which , in the work of later epis and especially of Samuel Richardson , becomes so

a characteristic . interesting It is to note that , as late as 1726 , Mrs. Jane produced Barker a work , called The Lining of the Patch

all -pervading

Work

,

which

she tells , in

themost approved hectic tragedy , the further ad ventures of the Nun and her escape from the nunnery . It is undoubtedly as a result of these Letters from a Nun to a Cavalier that a French paraphrase of the letters of Abe lard and Heloise , published in Latin at Paris in 1616 , was published in London in 1693 . The London publication of the Latin version (1708 ) was itself translated into English by John Hughes , about 1722 . Before the English version of Screen

in

fashion after the manner of Spanish

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL these sentimental letters was produced a number of love letters produced in 1671 ,

Mrs . Aphra

Behn

,

, however , there were England . As early as

that " admirable Astrea " who may

better have been called the amazing Astrea , composed a work called the Love - Letters to a Gentleman which seems to have fallen under the influence of the French Portuguese Letters . The letters themselves present the spectacle of a woman at tempting to retain the love of an indifferent gallant by means of the revelation of her own passion . It is scarcely necessary to point out the similarity of this device to the theme of the Letters from a Nun . The date of Mrs . Behn 's work is not certain , but the year 1671 is held probable because of a refer ence to “ my new play ." 9 “ New ,” however , may not necessarily mean

" first , ” since the record

Mrs .

Behn was in the vanguard

of the first is 1670 . 10 of the new impulse .

At

least ,

The influence of the Five Love Letters from a Nun may be seen not only in the subject-matter but in the titles them selves of numerous other works , such as : Love Letters be ; tween a Nobleman and his Sister with the History of their Adventures ( 1683 ) , sometimes referred to as The Amours of Philander and Sylvia ; Love Letters between Polydorus and Messalina ( 1689) ; Letters of Love and Gallantry and several other subjects. With the Adventures of a Young Lady , writ ten by Herself in several Letters to a Gentleman in the Coun try . All written by Ladies . Translated the French from ; King Henry ( 1693 ) Love Letters from VIII to Anne Boleyn .

Some in French and Some in English . To which are added , Translations of those written in French . With an Appendix , containing Two Letters from Anne Boleyn to Cardinal Wolsey ; with her last to Henry VIII (1714 ) ; Love Letters be

Beau

( 1723 )

lately passed between

Occasions

.

)

(

Astrea

New

York

,

,

,

-

.

the Incomparable

,

77

Aphra Behn

.

cit .

West

, .p

,

Sackville 171

, .

p

.

10 • V

Morgan

1928

and Love Letters on

persons

distinction 1730 special interest here are that rather tender story told .op

Of

;

of

deur of that

all

tween a certain Nobleman and the famous Mr. Wilson . Dis covering the true History of the Rise and Surprising Gran

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER

STORY

49

Sister ,

the Love Letters between a Nobleman and his the historical romance revealed in the Love Letters

in

King Henry

VIII to

Anne

Boleyn

. The

first story

is

and

from

almost

an

epistolary novel in proportions and tells , in three parts , the love story of a young nobleman and his adopted sister set against a background of French history of the time of Cather ine de Medici and the Huguenot Protestants under the

Prince of Condé . The nobleman is the handsome Philander ; the heroine of this sentimental tale is Sylvia , the sister to Philander ' s wife , Myrtilla . Myrtilla herself is in love with the Prince of Condé and , as the story progresses , another young gentleman , friend to Philander , one Octavio , falls in love with Sylvia . The tale itself becomes extremely involved , after the fashion of the romance . Of particular importance is the fact that the letters are not confined to those between Philander and Sylvia ters from

, but

that there are given

Sylvia

,

likewise , let to Sylvia , as

to Octavio and from Octavio as the letters exchanged by Philander and Octavio . The letters themselves reveal a somewhat excessive sentimentality ,

well

in a fashion which borders upon pre Among ciousness . these epistolary efforts The Love Letters between a Nobleman and his Sister is scarcely one of the most distinguished works , but it presents none the less a definite step forward toward the epistolary novel itself. Incidentally , the Love Letters are supposed to present the story of two actual people and , from this point of view , have much in

and the story proceeds

with the scandal romance. The Love -Letters from King Henry

common

VIII

to

Anne Boleyn

make no attempt to disguise the personages presented but, after the manner of fiction , present the story of the love of these two celebrated figures with all possible verisimilitude . That they are in two languages is notable and it may be sur mised that this is done to indicate the learning of the mon presented

. The letters of the King are

open revelations of his brusque , breezy nature and , although they are love let ters , are brief and direct . This is especially noticeable in arch

contrast to the diffuse and circumlocutory nature of most of

50

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

the love letters

to

be found

this group

in

. The

letter of

last

is , rightly , marked by

Anne Boleyn to her lord a distinct and commendable dignity and by no little pathos . Most of the " love - letters ” recorded here indicate the influ ence of the Five Love -Letters from a Nun to a Cavalier , and in such a work as Letters of Love and Gallantry we have a nun 's letter to a monk which recalls the more famous letters

nun . The story of love is told in epistolary form , how ever in many other works of the day which do not bear the title of “ love - letters ." Thus , we have the following works which are likewise stories of love in letters : A New Version of the Lady Gras (i.e ., of Mary , Lady Grey of Werke ) concern

of

a

,

in

of

a

:

or ,

a

in

;

in

:

's

,

)

.

of

of

of

A

); .

P

(

is

To

,

of

,

. of a

added an

a

which

the ladies and

the execu

introductory a

an

to

of

;

a

of

);

Lady

;

(

. : E . or,

of

);

(

,

Letters

)

24

of -

(

tory

preface

Quality Chevalier entertaining his The Constant Lovers being Solenus and Perri the Amours and Adventures Pylades and Corinna 1731 Alexis and Sylvia 1718

1721

gonia

with

,

tion dream

novel

Newgate

in

Preston prisoners

to

;

or ,

a

to

(

of

)

(

);

1694

the Emperor

;

Historic Account the Amours Being The Perfidious Morocco 1702 Letters from Nobleman Two Ladies 1702 The Double Captive Chains upon chains containing the young gentleman one amorous poems and letters the a

Letter

An

In

.

(

. );

a

-

and twenty

or ,

Love Poesie collection seven love letters both verse and prose that lately passed betwixt gentleman and very young lady France 1686 The Unhappy Lovers the Timorous Fair Being One novel the loves Alexander and Mellecinda 1685

;

Cabinet

(

Misses

.

;

of

ter

ing her sister , the lady Berkeley. In a Letter to Madame Fan ( 1682 ) , which is an earlier version of the story pre sented in the Love - Letters between a Nobleman and his Sis The Familiar Epistles Col Henry Martin found his

. . .

.

R

of

from

of

the Marchioness

de

Letters

or

,

1732

);

Corinna

(

and

);

(

. . . .

. . .

.,

. . .

of

Memoirs the lives Gwinnett and Mrs containing the Letters Thomas Jun which passed be tween them Published from their original manuscripts Pylades 2nd Volume The Honourable Lovers 1731

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

. . . , to

M

inal

French

the

, by

This group

, ing

LETTER

Count de R . . . . Translated Mr. Humphreys ( 1784 ).

of love tales in letters is much

STORY from

like

51 the

Orig

the preced

tone and material . They narrate romantic stories of usually separated by the misfortune of some unhappy chance . They are sentimental and verbose ; they owe much in spirit to the original Letters from a Portuguese Nun . It is interesting to note that on the title -page of the Letters from the Marchioness de M . . . there is reprinted a “ blurb " from in

lovers ,

Journal of Literature of

the

1734

which runs as follows:

' the celebrated ones of and Eloisa ; those of a Religious Portuguese Lady , and those of the Chevalier de Her – ; They are These of the Marchion ess de M , to the Count de R - . They have the Fire , the Turn , the Spirit , and easy Air of those we have mention 'd : They fur If

any Love Letters may be rank d with

Abelard

nish

this useful lesson , That Guilty unhappy Consequences . meet with

us besides

expect

to

with

Love must

Particularly notable in this criticism , aside from the lofty comparison to the classic love letters of the day, is the indica tion that here we have a love story in letters behind which there is to be found a moral impulse , something of that same moral impulse later to be found , indeed , in the art of Sam uel Richardson . The final letters of this volume are marked by a passionate outpouring of tragic writing which not only tells us of the separation of the lovers forever , the despair of the Marchioness and her weariness of life , but also makes clear the feeling that such are just punishments of illicit love . A distinct departure from the story of love in letters is to

, however, in Pylades themselves are not used as the

be

found

and

Corinna. Here

sole means

the letters

of telling the story .

Life of Corinna . Written by which is a sort of memoir ; in this first part are to be found letters as a part of the narrative . The second part con sists of the “ Letters to Corinna from Pylades , " themselves interspersed with considerable verse and , startlingly enough , There is

Herself ,”

a

first part called the



An Abstract of Sir Isaac Newton 's Opticks .” A third part consists of “Miscellanies by Corinna ." In so far as the with



THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

52

letters dominate the work , the book belongs with this par ticular group : None the less , it definitely indicates a relation ship to that group of works in which use is slowly being made of the letter as one of the natural adjuncts of narrative .

of epistolary fiction , the letter used as a means of portraying manners , characters , and contemporary politics and , in another vein , as a means of reporting contemporary scandal. A rather large number of the publications of the day may be found to belong here . Among them are : - Philosophical Letters : or , Modest Reflec tions upon some Opinions in Natural Philosophy , Main

We likewise

have , among the outposts

several Famous and Learned Authors of this Age , Expressed by way of Letters : by the Thrice Noble , Illustri

tained

by

, and Excellent Princess , the Lady Marchioness of New castle ( 1664 ) ; The Gentleman Apothecary ; Being a Late

ous

and True Story turned out of the French ( 1670 ) ; Account of the Secret Services of

they passed by the way of Letters , etc . Translated out of the French (1683) ; Comical Description

to

Count

Teckeley

, as

J. de Villiers ) . de Vernay . . .

(of M

of a Nunnery ( 1700 ) ; The Country Gentleman ' s Companion for the Town : In eighteen Letters from a Gentleman in Lon don to his Friend in the Country ; representing the Advan tages of a Country Life in opposition to the Follies of the Town ; discovering most of the Humours , Tricks, and Cheats of the Town , which Gentlemen , when Strangers

to

(1702)

Written

,

are exposed

; Adventures of Lindamira ,

with her own hand

to

;

)

.

-

,

of

(

,

to

;

)

(

of

1713, titled

(

in

.

(2nd

By



etc

The Lover ' s Secretary ) ; original a collection of Letters from the Island of New Atalantis , etc . By the author of Those Me moirs . By Mary de la Rivière Manley (1711) ; Memoirs of the Dutchess Mazarine , written in her Name by the Abbot of St. Réal, with a Letter containing the true Character of her Person and Conversation , 1713 Secret History the Quality Most Famous Beauties Ladies from fair Rosa Captain Alexander Smith mund down this Time Spy upon the Conjurer revised by Mrs Eliza 1724 1715 ( 1702 )

.

Ed., , in Intrigues Court

A Lady of Quality . her friend in the Country

PRE-RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER STORY

53

Haywood ) ; Letters from the Palace of Fame . Written by the First Minister of the Region of the Air, to an Inhabitant of this World . By Mrs . Eliza Haywood (1727) ; The Perplex ' d Duchess ( 1727) ; Friendship in Death ; in Twenty Letters

to the Living ( 1728 ) ; and Letters Moral and , Entertaining In Prose and Verse ( 1729 -33 ) , both of which are the work of Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe. Of these volumes , The Gentleman Apothecary ; The Ac count of the Secret Services of M . de Vernay ; Court In trigues ; and The Letters from the Palace of Fame, incline

from

the Dead

toward

the scandal fiction

of

the period , while the portrayal

of manners and of character is more definitely to be found in The Country Gentleman ' s Companion ; The Adventures of Lindamira ; Friendship in Death ; and Letters Moral and Entertaining . There is, however , no hard and fast line of demarcation between that work which concerns marily with the retelling of scandal and that which to

manners

as they are exemplified

in

itself

devoted

is

. The

this group

of the Duchess of Newcastle are placed here because the fact that they are intended by their title to be

pri

letters

, despite

a

sort

of

philosophic dissertation in letters, they are none the less rep resentative of the foibles and inclinations of mankind by means of the correspondence of two ladies who are friends . The relation of episodes and the presentation of characters in this work are somewhat too brief , and the general tone of the letters as a whole suffers from too insistent moralizing . are completely

extended discussion

Letter

in

lacking at times

XXXIX ,

verisimil

there is an

vapour , clouds , wind believe the actuality of

of the physics of by

and rain ,” it is very difficult to having been written one woman applies

in

I,

Section

XLI

another

The same

III

a

,

a

It

.

an

,

of . as

in

to

is

,

to

,

Section

,

itself with

of

concerns

criticism

to

which very large the gout and indeed general As number these letters result the entire work too heavy for the purposes entertainment and too definitely derivative original product rank high adverse

Letter

"

its

itude and when , as

.

, the letters

to

Again

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

54

has, none the less , an excellent basis to which it adheres with continuous optimism . It is fitting that the two books by Mrs . Elizabeth Rowe, Friendship in Death and Letters Moral and Entertaining , be placed here . Although Friendship in Death is supposed to be a collection of letters written by the dead to their living friends , there is very little that is spiritual or unearthly about them , and most of the letters are filled with advice which , however moral it may be , is none the less imbued with a con siderable worldly interest . In almost any one of the twenty letters

, whether

reclaim

him

(Letter IV ) ;

"

be “ To my Lord . . . , from Ethelinda From Cleander to his brother , endeavoring it

his

from

,”

Extravagancies

XII ) ;

( Letter

,”

to

or

Varrius , dissuading him from the Pur suit of an Amour with the beautiful Cleora , ” (Letter XX ) , we are able to find a revelation of close human relationship , of passion , ambition , love and , even beyond that , a very earthly interest of the dead in the living . Such a letter as the “

Theodosius

From

to

to Emilia , in which is given , with such phrases as : regions of the celestial

seventh

But

, from Delia

how

song , in

shall

I make

all the pomp

a

description

of what an angel 's flowing harmony, would not fully de

you sensible

of heavenly

what figures of celestial eloquence shall I relate the loves of immortal spirits ; or tell you the height , the extent , the

scribel

In

of

fullness

their bliss !

. Incidentally , such a passage as this reveals a distinct talent in Mrs. Rowe for rhetoric of the flowing sort . It is the story interest as revealed by the rela among

these

so

from too

are

languishing lovers reformed

many

that appear

in

rakes

None

,

.

a

of

-s

,

and self acrificing friends and the characters single pattern these stories are too much

a

.

is

it

in

suffer

There

,

the story

body

,

single considered story and characterization in

when

of of

,

letters

monotony retellings

to one another that seems to be much that letters just Entertaining All these Moral and Letters

these

as

dominant in larger collection

beings

.

, all

tionship of human

epistles

,

rarity

a

a

of

is

the less

PRE-RICHARDSONIAN all definite

they are

narrative . Among

examples

epistolary

these

LETTER of the

outposts

STORY

55

impulse

epistolary

in

two notable

are at least

in letters which are romantic satires . These are the eight volumes of Letters writ by a Turkish Spy , who liv 'd

works

Five and Forty Years undiscover 'd at Paris :

Giving

an

Impar

tial account to the Divan at Constantinople of the most re markable Transactions of Europe : and discovering several Intrigues and Secrets of the Christian Courts , (especially of that of France ) continued from the Year 1637 , to the Year 1682 ( 1687 ) ; and The London Spy Compleat . By Edward Ward (1703) . It will be seen from the very title of the first of these works , how much of the secret history , the court scandal romance, and the letter of travel is to be found in the inspirational background of the eight volumes . Since the Turkish Spy is of so early date it may well be considered re

of

in

vogue of the pseudo -letter in fic important cog own way the in

is

of the

a

thus ,

,

and

machinery

part

a

as

tion

for

its

sponsible

,

,

six

by is

by

.

of

as

,

as

its

a

is

a

to

a

is

as

be

It

11

to

, of .

themovement the Letters from Nun Cavalier must remembered that the Turkish Spy satire the long romance with discursive histories and politics and adds along such with The London Spy the impulse use the letter means satiric expression That the former was extraordinarily popular indicated the

is

,

of to

in

, of

is

.

.

in

of

for

as

to

of

,

as

,

to of

a

by

in

is

.

a

in

is

it at

of

-

fact that there were twenty editions 1770 and 1718 Daniel Defoe wrote Continuation Letters Written important beyond Turkish Spy Paris The London Spy only partly itself that work written letters Such works indicate further development the epistle Important also the present history the development the letter one the natural adjuncts narrative used being story add verisimilitude the told almost the dialogue same manner made use add liveliness and

, .p 74 .

cit .

.op

Morgan

,

1

in

.

is

in

of

a

to

to

narrative which might otherwise be nature presentation faithfulness We have just noted Spy the fact that The London not written entirely let closeness

lacking

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

56

.

of

its

ters , but contains letters in the natural course of narrative prose There have already been mentioned the Memoirs the

of

of

,

to

)

(

;

.

of

's

)

; or ,

;

;

of

A

,

In

or ,

.

in

(

of . A . B .

byof

.

in

by

of

,

of

of

to

France

.

of

Relating the Amours the Duke Marriages Illegitimate and the the other Children the French King with the Princes and the Princesses the Blood Written French Madam Daunois the Famous Author the Letters Travels into Spain and done into English Mr 1697 The Lover Secretary the Lady Quality Written Adventures Lindamira her Friend the Country XXVI Letters 1713 and Pylades

Court Maine

them

,

,

courtship

in

which

above

of

.

and Verse

,

,

Prose

in

Pieces

during

a

tween

of

;

. .

;

,

Miscellaneous

of

:

of

ings

of

Memoirs the Lives Amours and Writ Richard Gwinnett Esq Great Shurdington Gloucestershire and Mrs Elizabeth Thomas Jun Great Russel Street Bloomsbury Containing the Letters and other and Corinna

be

passed

Sixteen

Years

;

.

on

and

letters

the Countess The Lov but there are

so

Olida

is

a

many interlying ters explaining

and from

,

letter from the Baroness Secretary composed chiefly

;

s

er '

to

letters

,

Du Maine

of

Brigid

;

that lady

to

to

de

in

to

of

of

. ).

(

in

of

All three these works are only partly written The Memoirs the Court France contain letters written from various characters the story each other letters from Du Maine Mademoiselle Condé and from 1731

letters

is

,

same growing tendency

: by

.

as a

itself but

,

fiction

end

in

end

in

an

,

This

some desired

as

the letter not

,

use

means

to

to

,

.

to

by

,

of

of

.

,

,

,

of

narrative prose between the let intervening action and particularly the Pylades and emotions with which the letters were received Corinna contains not only the love letters the two charac ters chiefly concerned but likewise presents the memoirs Corinna supposed have been written herself and ad ditionally interspersed with much verse From these three books already mentioned we may see the growing tendency passages

,

or

.

of

;

)

(

of

is

as :

such

of

of

further indicated the The Spanish Politician works Cardinal Alberoni the Management Some Account The Fatal Amour between 1718 French Done out

publication

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

LETTER

STORY

57

Young Nobleman (pub . 1719 , as an addition to The Secret History of the Prince of the Naza renes and the Two Turks ) ; Love in Excess ; or the Fatal In quiry : A Novel . In Three Parts . By Mrs . Eliza Haywood (1721 ) ; The Reform ’ d Coquet ; or , Memoirs of Amoranda . A Novel . By Mrs. Mary Davys , author of The Humours of York ( 1724 ) ; The Amorous History of the Gauls , containing the Intrigues and Gallantries of the Court of France , during the Reign of Louis XIV . Written in French by Roger de Rabu Bussy and now Count Translated into English 1727 The Secret History the Present Intrigues the By Haywood Court Caramania Mrs Eliza 1727 and de

; of

)

.

of

by

)

(

of

(

. of

,

a

;

,

tin

de

Beautiful Lady and

a

.

,

its

's

de

,

of

48 )

at .

's

,

an

,

the letter

circumstance

.

to

in

or

,

vidual letters order indicate the mood writer receiver and any chance intervening highly passionate The letters themselves are

of

a

of

.

,

is

it

,

71 )

.

(p

,

of

in

or

.

in

or

.

,

few

.

(p

By

. La

.

to

, )

(

.

P

-

. in

The Life the Countess Gondez Written her own Hand French and Dedicated the Princess De Roche faithfully English Sur Yon And now translated into Mrs Aubin 1729 largely but not These seven works are likewise partly completely composed letters The Spanish Politician has more than five six epistles entire one hundred and twenty pages the most notable these being the Pope Letter and the Letter the Marquis Grimaldo compositions both admirable and sound Where the letters are used with obvious attempt verisimili tude The Fatal Amour like The Lover Secretary pursues running prose commentary between the indi the device

,

a





,

.

of

is

the use increases rather than

in

in

, .

of

and

Mrs as

the work generous

,

is

the letter

is

of

again

the

diminishes

.

ceeds

use

, .

wood

Its

,

itself but because

it

is

of

.

of

an

is

.

to

is

in

to

,

,

a

of

in

vein marked tone sentimental despair Of especial beauty and dignity however that letter the beautiful lady which she confesses the lord that she unable resist any longer and that his love has triumphed over hers him sincerity and simplicity Love Here oasis Excess probably the most distinguished this group not only chiefly by

Hay novel pro

Eliza

The novel

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

58

itself definitely reflects the growth of sentiment and of the appreciation of tragic situation . Mrs . Haywood indulges , al most

to

lemmas

,

excess

and

,

in the confused situations , the amorous di the ethical problems in love that were so

full

of of

little story

a

is

It

.

it

its

as

popular at this time but , as usual, she writes with that un failing liveliness which adds a degree of interest to her most pedestrian passages . The Reform 'd Coquet , by Mrs . Davys , makes considerable use of the letter between pairs and among groups of proceeds various characters

,

it

of

of

,

of of

.

of

a

at

in

,

the letter

to

. .

as

almost

P S

of

is

,

)

.

(p

56

, of

least one case

It

long

.

it

of

's

in

. .

is

,

although

as

type

,

tempered with more English Haywood History sense ethics Mrs Eliza Secret the something Court Caramania This has both the scandal romance and the voyage imaginaire makes pro notably tracted use the letter and the which

of of

this general

al

,

of

a

,

it

of

,

in

in

of

.

is

of

by

a

,

of

,

of

of

.

of is, is

of

,

of

,

,

of

in

,

it

resembles the work sents the figure

in

sentinient and didacticism which Richardson and furthermore pre Lord Lofty one the first almost too gentlemen ideal his kind whom Sir Charles Grandison the standard example The Amorous History the Gauls like the Secret Memoirs the Court France very much scandal romance and makes large use the letter most half the book being occupied the bulk the letters presented Like the Secret Memoirs this book full keyhole portraits the great and near great the court France and even this English version retains French quality distinctly palatable Of piquancy which makes brisk

which

be

to

de

,

of is is

a

is

in

in

of

pseudo history

a

.

,

as

of

is

or

a

to

.

is

it

The extended use the postscript these letters seems be distinct innovation fiction that more less strictly epistolary and natural advance to actuality that wards representation not over looked The work taken whole rather definitely attached

,

a

in

of

.

,

,

an

,

to

a

of

.

,

-

none the less The Life the Countess highly moral young Gondez presents the affecting story girl who married young old count falls love with man She retains her virtue even after the death her hus band and finally when she discovers that the young man she

LETTER STORY

PRE -RICHARDSONIAN

59

of

of

ity

loves is not worthy of her , marries another and nobler man . This may give some indication of the basically didactic qual

of

is

,

it

the

lat

century and the early part

the seventeenth

of

the fictional epistle

in

of

.

decade

the growth

seen

of

We have est

is

an

.

of ,

,

the novel There moderate use made here the let part epistle occurs ter and whenever the warp and woof the story itself

,

a

, ,

a

, ,

,

as

.

of

-

a

,

,

a

, all a

,

a

as

of

among the various uses

of

of

of

an

century

story

.

a

as

important means presenting Chief the letter have been presenting story indicated the use means travel history history politics psuedo scandal manners and story above else lovers Beyond this we have seen

the eighteenth

so

early works

of

in

of

.

in

or

is

of

perfect

to

what

was already

given

him

,

was

so

in

,

to

much

ultimate use the hands the Richardson who was not innovate

Samuel

as

,

master

he

these

its , in

for

,

,

in

by

is

in

in

to

it

its

a

of

however the growth the letter fictional device that might find proper place the general narrative accomplished order add that naturalness that alone by presenting the characters the story means their own dialogue epistle words either spoken recorded Above all this however the preparation the letter

of

on

,

it

-

,

.

true literary distinction

.

a

in

,

it

an

of

early

,

so is

,

in

as

be

,

.

between early letter writers

these

no

the distinction

lies

is

the novice and the fiction there truly great artist unless be Daniel Defoe and he may not early epistolarian claimed the grounds one many brief work letters But there were admirable and sincere technicians many thoroughgoing story tellers and the developmental work these that gave the letter even wherein

artist Among

AND HIS

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL BEFORE any discussion of the great Richardson — not only the man who chiefly developed the epistolary novel, but the fa

ther largely of the modern English novel — is attempted , it is well to say a few summarizing words concerning prose fiction English

in

as

it

stood at the

write . Not until the

to

time Samuel Richardson

began

century was well started had English cultivated for own sake Utopia Philip authors The More the Arcadia Sir Sid ney Barclay Argenis Bacon New Atlantis and the Eng longue haleine were lish imitations the French roman really prose all fiction sort but Defoe who made its

; of

;

,

is

it

,

a

of

of

de

's

;

's

;

-

the popular and artistically self supporting form

not

which we know today and may have written prose

of

prose fiction

by

eighteenth

been

of

fiction

.

prose

1931

of at

of

60

Haleine

English

.

Mrs veri

,

Longue

from

of

to

The Roman

The strain

pretended on

,

Haviland

.

? v

Philadelphia

development de

,

Defoe along with

and Spanish novelle run straight through

its

found

more realistic stories

.

the French be

from

may

. T . P ,.

Behn

to

of

developed

by

in

to

and the romances were superseded realism

,

.

as

ism

as

,

.

in

,

one the earlier men who The tendency toward the novel and away from the romance was however already work early 166o At this time the desire for some sort real began become strong the fictional output the day

Soil

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

61

similitude , loose morality , and forced gaiety and vivacity . There had begun to be developed , likewise , the scandal novel which , in the capable hands of such women as Mrs . Manley and Mrs . Haywood , had a considerable influence on the period . Beyond this, there was the group of “ Portuguese letters ” which definitely lent the tone of sentiment and senti mentality to the writing of the day and , even more impor tantly , suggested

the high value of personal, psychological to the writers of fiction . There were , in addition to this the eighteenth century dawned and began fold the narratives Defoe and Swift Defoe intensified pretended verisimilitude Swift like the authors the scan un

to

of

well known

presented

figures and events under

-

,

dal romances

.

of

,

;

,

of

,

as

all

analysis

thereto

in

The Guardian

.

It

,

a

in

Sir

the Lizard family

in

of

the experiences

de so

,

as ,

, ,

of

,

a

of

a

,

and added

.

a

stinging and entirely conscious satire But there was also distinct development the character the letter and the dialogue the growing fiction the period exemplified remarkable collec Roger Coverley Papers tion for instance the and disguise

thin

was in

,

,

in

of

in

.

of

it

completeness was not done with any real sense developmental finality Whether any these works were

.

or

chapter

of

, of of

,

a

of

for combination all these elements however that litera ture was waiting and although this was tended toward some the semi-domestic works Mrs Haywood and anonymous some the novels mentioned the preceding

no

of

is

,

Richardson

and

call

it of

.

or

to

be

work before the novels English novel may

of

to

is

it

in

its

of

.

to

is

or

impossible say Indeed actual novels not there hard and fast line demarcation between the romance the day and the realistic novel earliest forms For that rea point impossible son this that piece fictional the first

less

,

,

of

decade

the eighteenth

century

,

last

of

the

,

of

a

to

,

of

of of

it in

none the

as

.

It

that the emer gence the novel the favored form dates from the appear ance the works Defoe and Richardson and that there height popularity from which after the novel attains reigns supreme until the advent the romance resurrected said

with the work

62

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

of Mrs . Radcliffe ,

Gregory ("Monk” ) of followers and imitators .

Matthew

their countless train

Lewis

,

and

definitely stated that Samuel Richard the great developer the epistolary form the novel necessary comprehend exactly what there then epistolary and non epistolary that goes into the warp and woof the thiee great novels Richardson works almost mammoth proportions First all the novel itself was the b eginning time Richardson started write chief out pent up emotions The dignity and worth the aver put him age man once recognized readiness take is

, .

in

,

at

of

of

a

to

be

,

,

,

,

a

to

in

,

,

.

-

of

let

to

.

of

of

of

-

,

,

to

is

of

been

is

It

son

It has already

all

an

to

,

reorganized

that the theatre

ex its

or is

broad

,

be

importance by

.

,

fact

to

ideas then current had

and envisioned

of

;

changed

ened

A

be

to

of

.

:

to

stand for what he conceived himself be individual with many rights not heretofore clearly denoted Before this coming pass the social order had had the possibility

a

to

,

,

.

.

to

though weakened

.

,

,

the drama none the less persisted

's ,

As

ence

of

to

of or

.

,

on

,

was losing ground rapidly until 1750 thereabouts English large former hold life and thought was tent gone People were no longer completely satisfied either see read the then existing dramas Naturally new literary expression would be welcomed forms The influ of

he

.

's

,

it

an

to

of

,

as

late 1764 Horace Walpole Castle Otranto followed the rules the drama extent that made even more play dramatic than the same author The Mysterious Mother Richardson himself called Clarissa dramatic narra

a

.

,

.

p

,

of

the appearance

of

to

Novel

. . .

,

Walter Raleigh The English London 1894 142 ,

ley

Sir

, a

in

all

hold upon the novelists because public taste demanded and the homiletic habit present almost the novels

its

continued

it,

the dramatists

of

developed moralizing attitude

of

.

.

, , of

to

a

so

if

as as

.

a

,

of

,

they were the dra his characters play Thus Professor Raleigh judiciously points out the novel seemed play with elabo stage expanded rate directions written out and consid thereby added erable length The framework course made matters easier for the reader Furthermore the highly arranged tive and matis personae

Waver

SAMUEL RICHARDSON the eighteenth century was largely due to a pressure exerted upon the writers , for the most part , from the outside. There is no doubt , however, that in the case of Richardson , the moral impulse springs from within ; it is of the very fibre of the man . Richardson had the good sense , in the Steeleian phrase , to " make even virtue fashionable. " And since the dramas then being written and produced were extremely slow in action , slow in plot development , and full of analysis , to assume that they were really essays in dramatic or already sentimental novels . But novels could portray more advanced ideals of life because they themselves were

it

is safe

form

newer and not encumbered with a set of hackneyed conven tions such as those that hampered the drama of the day, and could , at the same time , reach a much wider reading public than that public which was accustomed to go to the theatre . Again , the consciousness of the individual, the theory soon to be given such force by Rousseau , that “ all men are free and equal ,” these things that the drama was not giving ex pression to because it was largely concerned with heroic greatness and with superficial social comedy , were definitely given expression

the Richardsonian novel . clear that the eighteenth century was to

in

It is therefore a cen tury of beginnings , literary , social , scientific . Amongst these certainly not the least interesting is Richardson 's discovery that the letter -writers and guidebooks of an earlier literature might be made into narratives. Just as the Italians strung to gether

their

novelle

with

a

link

story

or character

,

and , by

very old

so

did

giving

,

of

.

to

his

Richardson take a form of literature to it his particular brand of genius , make the exemplary com pilation into the novel . He made use, in one way and an other, of all the literary material that was ready for him at the time he began to write . That the popularity of Richardson is in inverse ratio to literary reputation few will today be able the greatness of deny Everyone knows the names Pamela Andrews Cla in

in

,

,

rissa Harlowe and Sir Charles Grandison but the volumes which they are described remain for the most part undis

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL turbed repose , among those books which , in Charles Lamb ' s phrase , “ no gentleman ' s library should be without.” Leslie Stephen says that “ a certain soporific aroma exhales from the endless files of fictitious correspondence . ” g And this is not the only paradox involved in the reputation and influence of this

of paradoxes . But

man

enough

of

. It

has been the habit printer of some to call Richardson “ the little .” Suffice it to say that , were these same people just in their estimation of the author , they would call him instead the great printer . He is , after Caxton , the greatest " printer ” in English literature . Aside from the vast folds of his personal and avowed cor such

respondence , Richardson has given us three tremendous novels upon which any consideration of the novelist must necessarily be based . They are , according to their full titles :

. Pamela ; or, Virtue Rewarded . In a Series of Fa miliar Letters from a Beautiful Young Damsel to Her Parents: Published in Order to Cultivate Principles of Virtue and Religion in the Youth of Both Sexes. A Nar rative which has Its Foundation in Truth ; and at the same Time that it agreeably Entertains , by a Variety of Curious and Affecting Incidents , is Entirely divested of All Those Images which , in Too Many Pieces Calculated for Amusement only , tend to inflame the Minds they ( 1)

should Instruct . (2 ) . Clarissa , or, the History of a Young Lady : compre hending the Most Important Concerns of Private Life . And particularly shewing , the Distresses that may attend Both of Parents and Children , in Rela Marriage tion to . Published by the Editor of Pamela . History (3 ) . of Sir Charles Grandison , In a Series of Let ters , Published from the Originals by the Editor of Pa the Misconduct

mela and Clarissa .

It

that , as we proceed through the titles of they grow constantly shorter as if , in the the author wished to explain everything by his title to

is

to

be

noted

the three novels , first ,

• Hours

in a Library

, “ Richardson 's

Novels,"

I, p. 48, London , 1892.

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

65

, having felt his way into the mind of his , reader with Pamela proceeded to shorten his titles with fol lowing books , leaving the works themselves to explain what the reader and then

the titles did not.

It

seems almost imperative , along

with

the full titles of

three works , to present a brief recital or plots , of the three Richardson novels , in these

of

the contents

order

to

,

make

, the distinct similarities existent in , indubitably mark all three of them similarities which the novelist 's insistence on presenting a definite sort of moral ity and particular type of moral issue in the stories he is writ ing , not for their own sake , but for the sake of that moral clear at the very outset

issue itself . It must first be noted , concerning Pamela , that, although it begins with Letter I, it is , at the outset of the story , not so much a series of letters as a series of recordings in the journal of the heroine , a combination of letter and journal which is later which

to

be found in several novels of the epistolary group , of Scott 's Redgauntlet is by no means the least , although

that later novel makes use of narrative in addition to letter and journal , and Pamela does not. Many of the letters are here written by Pamela with something like a conviction that they will never reach their destination . And yet she writes ! The result , then , is the production of something more nearly a diary than a letter or group of letters . Again , many of the letters written by the heroine with an intended destination fall into the hands

of Mrs . Jewkes or Mr. B - , for whom they , a device whereby Richardson adds to the

were not intended dramatic suspense of the story . Pamela

tells us ,

in

these

letters and the diary

, her own

story of resistance to the unvirtuous advances of her master . She is a serving -girl in the home of a good and elderly lady ,

who has one son , Mr. B , the hero of the novel, in the broader sense of the word . At the beginning of the girl 's story , her mistress has just died . In the first letter to her parents , Elizabeth and John Andrews , Pamela tells of this death and of the kindness of her master . In an answering

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

66

letter , the parents wicked advances on ent that the parents their daughter , and fact she records

in

of the girl warn her against possible the part of that master. It is soon appar were not amiss in giving such advice to it becomes apparent to Pamela herself , a Letter X , that Mr. B — desires her . Pa

mela , however, still feels safe from all harm because of the presence of Mr. B ~ 's virtuous and kindly housekeeper, Mrs . Jervis , who indicates with considerable clarity that she would not permit anything untoward to happen to the girl at the hands of her master . Mr. B - , none the less , pursues his ad vantages , to the increasing distress of Pamela . The girl finally decides to leave Mr. B — 's services entirely , but is persuaded by Mrs . Jervis , who has in the meantime been intimidated by her master , to stay somewhat longer and ultimately to leave

Mr. B - meanwhile Mrs . Jervis ' room ( with the

the house with her . Pamela

's

At the

conclusion

gains entrance

to

knowledge of the housekeeper ) and Pamela , upon seeing him , falls into the first of a long series of fainting fits which persist , not only through the entire length of this book but even through the entire range of the literature of sentiment of the day . Mr. B — then offers to make Pamela his mistress at a handsome consideration , but the girl courageously refuses him and pre pares to leave his house . She leaves for the home of her father and mother in a carriage along with John , another servant of Mr. B - , who treacherously carries her to his master's coun try seat in Lincolnshire . She is met there by a dragonous old woman , one Mrs . Jewkes , who is to be her keeper , Pamela thereby becoming the literal prisoner of her master , Mr. B - . and

of Letter XXXII ,

in which Pamela tells of Lincolnshire , the heroine begins her Journal. It must be remembered , however , that the Journal itself is full of letters , some of which , as has already been intimated ,

her arrival

in

are written

with the intent that they be delivered . The

Jour

nal begins a long recital of the indignities heaped upon the girl by Mrs. Jewkes , who even proceeds so far as to steal her small savings from her . In addition , a certain Mr. Williams , a young parson , offers her marriage as a means of

SAMUEL RICHARDSON escape

67

her predicament , but Pamela

from

refuses this ,

fear

she might

ing that thereby involve Williams in the distress that has fallen upon her . Her fears are borne out by the fact that Williams is attacked and finally arrested for debt at the instigation of Mr. B Pamela 's case proceeds from bad to

, and she is finally tempted to drown herself in a garden pond . She resists the temptation , however , and this is the dramatic high point of the story ) but , on being discovered , is subjected to worse cruelty on the part of Mrs. Jewkes than

worse

before . Mr. B — himself then comes to the Lin colnshire estate , which step further terrifies Pamela . He dis covers her Journal, with record suicidal intent and permit the persecuted girl relents his severity deciding

,

of

to

off

,

of

its

she suffered

leave He sends her road they are overtaken

on

,

a

a

,

. to

.

Pamela

by is

of

as

to

father with the utmost kindness tenderly solicitous Pamela and

he was heretofore brutally desirous his

as

her be

,

-

B

.

who receives and proves himself

her affairs

to -

is

.

Mr

B

's

is

at

to

.

in

.

,

,

in

-

B

.

.

to

with trusted servant but the by another servant who bears mes sage from Mr which the master declares that he can not live without his Pamela Pamela who has all this while been falling love with the undisciplined Mr now appeal finds herself unable resist his and decides return overjoyed Her master the girl return and offers her honorable marriage Pamela accepts and later married

is

a

's

,

B —

.

.

of

.

so

be

to

,

,

.

to

of

by

by

,

a

a

to

is

,

is be

let

-

,

any continuance

that affair

are

by

is

.

it

graciously and when she meets chance she the child that the two have had Pamela has this definitely intrenched herself her husband affec

's

time

her fears

alarmed

in

kind

so to

allayed

but

finally won

reconciliation Pamela the intelligence that previous intrigue with one Miss Sally

said

somewhat of

, ,

Godfrey

B

,

is

.

has had

B —

.

Mr

Mrs

, it ' s

to

Davers now

of

by

all

is

's ,

,

at

to

,

surveyed friends and although she curiosity prize them first with all the directed toward accepted mare most them Mr sister Lady Davers who has this while highly disapproved her easily brother conduct not however reconciled her brother marriage servant girl Yet even Lady presented

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

68

tions that he receives both her mother and father into his Bedfordshire mansion " with great goodness and com plaisance .”

At this point in the story , the second part of Pamela is , and this again turns the course of the narrative from journal form that letters 103 letters almost In

of ,

totally devoid

.

of

a

to

as

its

begun

of

,

unlike

on

children

.

,

The letters here

of

and the story

,

of

her first

so

son

,

the birth

the social

of

's

her during this rise her considerations world her attitude concerning the rearing face

after

,

is

.

B —

Mr

on

of

as

,

of

any action whatsoever the rise Pamela presented into complete power the wife along with Pamela thoughts the ethical problems that

, of

they

concern

Pamela

,

.

a

as

is

question

a

do

Senti

own sake

.

its

for

is

it

in

to

a

so

of

,

it

in

,

in

with

the public letter any other form and here we find could Pamela which caught the interest vast

as

,

as

to

so

or

,

obtrude itself has had something with which the reader interested mentality however could be purveyed form well the quality majority

to

,

a

to

,

,

to

It

at .

to

is

is

to

,

its

,

letters

of

which teach propriety and morals attraction still further be wondered Galsworthy has true that English fiction from Richardson purpose but either the had for the most part do with carefully woven into the plot thesis has been not ries

the purpose

tremendously

realize that this novel

se

have been once

we further

is

should

so

a

and when

,

popular

of

in

.

it

Pamela

form

is

, , as us

a

as

in

its

of

to

her This course indicates the ex the epistolary method which Richardson indulged pos when he became more thoroughly acquainted with sibilities narrative medium today To seems peculiar that novel put letter

pansion

or

are neither from

although

,

letters which

,

a

present

few

,

begin those which Pamela and which exchanged largely are between Pamela and her parents are exchanged between several correspondents and there are

of

,

of

up

-

-

as

a

of

a

,

,

.

its

of

readers Into the microcosmic circle Rich where he was little god came Pamela and Pamela fitted into her surroundings and into the events which she brought young just lady was victim the well the ardson

'

1740 s should

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

69

have done . In addition , Mr.

- , Lady Davers,

B

Jewkes , are likewise realistic creations and are consistent in what they do in their own little worlds . Pamela herself

Mrs .

may assume , when we think of her more the role of an ideal of virtue , advocated

women

in

in

as

retrospect, more and that quality was then

.

a distinct modernity in Pamela and much of this be found in the character of the heroine herself. There no better instance of this modernity , however , than is to

There is

is to is

in the fact that the girl falls in love with her would -be seducer . Perhaps there are some who might feel that this is too close to the questionable technique of our modern " movies " to ring true , and that Pamela 's seeming

be found

volte face bespeaks

inconsistency

in character

delineation

. It

is more truthfully to be said that this very volte face is an indication of the fact that the author was drawing consis tently the picture of a girl who , although she may not have

full control over the

emotion of love (and there seems to patent why be no reason a servant girl of Pamela 's type would not have fallen in love with the dashing Mr. B - ) is deter mined , none the less , to preserve her virtue no matter what the cost , thereby showing herself as wise as she is virtuous. But, again , we do not receive any sensation of the wrenching of circumstances , nor is there really anything basically melo had

dramatic

in

the fact that Pamela

falls in love with

Mr.

B—

.

Pamela one of those - one is fortunate - books of which the heroine was so popular that the author had to accede to popular demand and write a sequel. While Pamela ' s reactions to high life , devoid as they is

almost tempted

to say un

any conflict whatsoever , may not be of as much interest as are her early struggles with their carefully handled element of suspense , the tremendous popularity of the work is hereby unmistakably proven in the very existence of a

are

of almost

sequel .

, the tremendous and tragic novel that followed , tells the story of an innocent and virtuous , but obsti , young girl, Clarissa Harlowe , the beautiful daughter of

Clarissa Pamela nate

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

no

family of some social degree , and the persecution of that and lover . The Harlowe family is motivated , with the sole exception of Clarissa , by avarice and , although Clarissa has turned over her fortune to her father and brother for management, the father , the brother James, the sister Arabella , and even the mother of the girl desire her marriage with one Mr. Solmes , an alliance that is distinctly to the advantage of the entire family but repugnant to the a

girl by family

girl herself . Arabella has a suitor who is called Robert Love lace , a handsome and debonair and dissipated young man of

exceedingly doubtful morals ; but this suitor finds himself in Clarissa than in her sister . The Harlowe

more interested

is disturbed by Clarissa 's aversion to Solmes and as a result treats her with the utmost cruelty . In the meantime , Lovelace has transferred his suit to Clarissa , a fact which fur ther enrages her sister against the girl. Lovelace himself has likewise been offended at thehands of the Harlowe family and is tempted by a desire to humiliate these people . He has a se cret agent in the family in the person of one of their servants

family

and is thereby able to carry on his work , though in their very midst. He surprises Clarissa in

absent a

,

even

woodhouse gaining her

,

of

,

a

in

,

,

a

.

's

.

of

of

a

of

a

to

;

all

by

and , after her fright has worn off, succeeds in confidence to a considerable degree , and some of her confi dence as suitor which he had not heretofore gained . Clarissa now learns that a day has been arranged for her marriage to Mr. Solmes , and her brother and sister declare that they wish the handling of their sister left to them . Poor Clarissa is at tacked on sides aunts uncles cousins and even more distant relations while she stands state vacillation be tween desire look upon Lovelace with the utmost favor feeling uncertainty concerning his intentions For and considerable period the unkindnesses her family continue along with the persistences Mr Solmes and Clarissa own or

by

.

to

of

.

.

formulate

his character Clarissa begins plan whereby she may leave her family The

the looseness a

cation

of

to

firm resistance him She meets Lovelace once twice and her inclinations toward him are again turned further indi

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

71

mother of Miss Howe, Clarissa 's dearest friend , to whom she writes most of her letters , refuses to take Clarissa into her own home against the wishes of the Harlowe family and that avenue of escape is thus closed to the girl . In desperation , she writes to Lovelace that she will meet him and go with him to except from seek , even though she knows nothing of them stray report , the protection of the ladies of his family. Im mediately , she repents this step and attempts to retrace it by

writing another letter , this time one of negation , to Lovelace . The young roué , however , pretends not to have received the second letter

, and

Clarissa is forced

to

meet

him

outside her

During the meeting , Leman ( the father ' s Lovelace in the Harlowe household ) sets up a cry rissa , thinking herself discovered , rushes off with gates .

agent and

of

Cla

Lovelace

.

The man now no longer holds honorable intentions concern ing Clarissa because his vanity and pride have been piqued by her many refusals of him . Yet he loves the girl. His con

duct toward her , however , as soon as he has her with him alone , changes so that she herself is aware of the change . He installs her in lodgings in St . Albans and , although she pleads with him to leave her , he none the less stays by her side so that she is convinced that she must ultimately marry him . She refuses his proposal because of the offensive manner in which it is offered . Clarissa , seeing a greater possibility of es cape

, proposes that they

go

to London

, and Lovelace pretends

rooms there , but

to allow her to choose those she chooses prove to be kept by a woman who is actually in the employ of Lovelace . Together , they go up to London , where the story is continued . The man still continues to delude the girl with offers of marriage and prospective plans of the house they are is somewhat alarmed to occupy after their marriage . Clarissa

,

at, although by the fact that although riage , he never once sets a

Lovelace talks constantly of mar possible day for the ceremony. Yet recible day

for

muitable that she innocent that it seems inevitable that ultimately evening should meet disaster . An she spends with her lover ' s friends disgusts her with them and makes her even less ready to marry Lovelace than she was before. The Clarissa

is

so

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

72

man , however , has certain marriage settlements drawn up in seeming preparation for a wedding . Yet Clarissa will not begins to devise , with her friend Miss . She hasten matters , escape Howe a means of from London , but Lovelace suc preventing by introducing ceeds in this to Clarissa one Cap tain Tomlinson , who pretends to be a close friend of Cla rissa 's Uncle John , from whom he brings news that the girl's family

will be

reconciled

to

her

if

they are certain

she has

married Lovelace . Clarissa relents of her hardness and shows a distinct favor toward Lovelace ; he attempts , however , to take so gross an advantage of this that she turns from him and decides definitely that her only possible course is one of es cape . She goes to Hampstead , to which place Lovelace fol lows her along with the Captain and again offers her marriage . Meanwhile , he has intercepted a letter from Miss

at

,

is

It

of

, he

.

,

in

.

to

is

off to

Howe to Clarissa and substitutes for it one of his own inven tion , which so impresses the girl that she again changes her mind and decides to accept him . Lovelace produces a license and urges Clarissa to go with his aunt, Lady Betty , and his cousin , Charlotte Montague , to the house of his uncle where the marriage will take place . Lovelace then procures two women to impersonate his relations and bears the girl Montague House but actually carries what she believes length suc her back London here that Lovelace ruining ceeds her against her will and the horrified and distracted girl lapses into delirium Lovelace becomes vio

is

.

is

;

is

.

by

in

a

to

of

to

re

,

to

is

,

.

,

of

in

on

of

all

,

lently conscious really loves Clarissa and the fact that again when she has somewhat recovered offers her marriage rejects which she with the unyielding pride which she capable Her body violated her will not From this point the story the heroine remains absolutely adamant and Lovelace although he retires the estate his uncle from which he bombards the girl with letters begging that she marry him absolutely unable break her unflagging sistance The girl retires the house mercer Covent of

of

,

in

,

correspondence with Garden where she succeeds means several people further unearthing the villainous plans

RICHARDSON

SAMUEL

73

of

.

.

's

.

to

,

,

on

,

for

her lover. Here she is discovered by a woman with whom she once lived , who has her arrested debt Lovelace learns this and appoints his friend Belford save Clarissa From this point Belford becomes the girl friend and guardian growing

by

,

of

,

,

is

is

of

.

an

in

is

of

of ,

. of

in

as

.

of

,

of

in

be

to

in

is

,

is

of

.

on

is



"

,

,

in

a

in

.

,

to

,

. of

,

,

by

of

.

to

,

to

.

,

,

from

largely

is

an

is ,

the meantime

in

weaker and weaker illness that induced intense mental dis turbances and the continuance these renders her condi tion dangerous Meantime her cousin Morden also her guar dian returns from abroad and hurries her assistance but discovers that she has not long live Lovelace informed agony despair of what has come about and he equalled Clarissa dies however and the horror Lovelace only that the Harlowe family which now blames itself for the tragedy Lovelace retires the continent whither Morden follows him The two eventually meet and engage mortally wounded and dies duel which Lovelace with the words Let this expiate his lips undoubtedly the younger sister and imitator Clarissa Pamela but the tiresome and sometimes forced quality that prevails Pamela not found the writings Clarissa perhaps because she writes out the potent anxiety her distress The style and sentiments the writing rise proportion catastrophe approaches the Likewise since Clarissa

of

ing

,

in

,

of to

a

,

of

an

of

,

to

in

of

the chief people this book are almost all persons some distinction who may be claimed have received greater struction than the innocent country girl Pamela the au intersperse thor has had additional opportunity the greater number course the work reflections concern

,

of

to

of a

so

,

to

express the tendencies life and human nature and opinions polite according these the dicta and cultivated society that the opinions may thereby be rendered more

,

of

a

of

,

a

of

to

be

to

a

by

a

a

is

of of

of

by

.

,

,

in

a

,

of

at

the sametime more useful Instead statue lover who never speaks but the organs another we have Clarissa lover who himself one the chief cor respondents and who writes great number letters marked expression and fervor careless humorous gaiety not thought fitting correspondence lady the the elegant and

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

74

an

is

to

.

,

of

in

.

a

of

in

,

is or

of , ,

for

period without some suggestion of indecency . Thus , by hav ing Lovelace write himself , much is given the reader that morality had needs must have been omitted the sake Clarissa others the ladies done all the letter writing There likewise Clarissa more description than be found Pamela and we have almost uninterrupted graphic reality Our curiosity series scenes described with

,

is

it

,

a

in

in

ro

,

of

,

advance which

.

,

,

an

Richardson made steadily and his feelings concerning romance we may con deliberately We should remember that the

natural the light clude

is

,

, or

,

.

is

thus not only aroused but likewise gratified All the de scription contained here however whether character by scene action marked distinct advance toward the

of

nothing but representations the illustrious pos nearly ideal actions illustrious persons All was pre universally sible Above the emotion love predominant one sented take precedence over all especially true other emotions the French writings the type that the authors appeared be ignorant all the loving except constancy virtues that with ardor and as

so

is as

. .

of

to

of

of

of

to

of

as

is

.

It

a

as

.

all ,

.

of

mances we had

a

It

of

,

,

Such however was not the aim Richardson here has already been intimated that Clarissa represents great step

,

.

,

.

of

be

,

is

.

of

,

to

of

or

in

Pamela

from

it

the technique which shows Here group the letters are sent from more than one person persons and we are inevitably made feel that hereby more characters sweep into the circle our vital concern But important more than that there the increased purpose and more accurate aim this novel which must taken into consideration We cannot help feeling that the moral forward

,

of

a

is

'

so

Dr .

As

.

‘a

of

by

in

is ,

.

,

.

,

p

gentlewoman

the face the fact that family any sense the

Samuel Richardson Introductions 1902 XXXIII New York

.

,

*

Clarissa in

the more remarkable

vol

is

here sustained with Phelps has pure woman faithfully

's,

in

,

is

is

Tess

feel that her boorish

The Works Phelps Clarissa ,

certainly

Unlike poor

of

we cannot

Clarissa

. I,

and this

is

.”

4

presented

(

said

:

well



it

,

aim which was always Richardson greater distinction than Pamela

William

Lyon

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

75

word ,

a group of gentlefolk .) Plainly indicating his aim here, the author himself says in volume IV of Clarissa — “ 'Much more lively and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height of a present distress ; the mind tortured by the pangs of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb of fate ) ; than the dry , narrative , unanimated style of a person relating dangers and difficulties surmounted , can be ; the re later perfectly at ease ; and if himself unmoved by his own story, not likely greatly to affect the reader .' ” How different is this from the doctrine that great art is produced only when the event is concluded and the mind is once more in a state of tranquillity !

It is at an ultimate naturalism that Richardson is most definitely aiming in Clarissa . Already this had been at tempted in France . It was Marivaux that endeavored to bring back his countrymen to nature . His Marianne and Paysan paintings Parvenu are after life ; in these the author speaks less and his characters more ; but even Marivaux did not dare to entertain his readers with private and domestic oc currences . True it is that his Marianne speaks like a girl of wit , who loves a kind of general virtue , which consists in pre ferring her honor to the gratification of her tenderest wishes . But the particulars which constitute a virtuous life are not exhibited ; there is no representation of the minutiae of Vir tue ; no example of her conduct to those by whom she is sur rounded as equals , superiors , or inferiors . Marianne is a kind

of chronicle in which

some memorable

adventures

are

well

. The flow of naturalism was a one, but nowhere in France or England did it reach so domi nant a peak , not even in Pamela , as it does in Clarissa . Cla rissa is not a mere chronicle of memorable adventures . It is a history in which the events of the heroine 's life . follow each other in an uninterrupted succession . Her letters are un doubtedly full of reflections and remarks which seem to be the result of great knowledge of mankind , yet the whole is described

steadily

increasing

reach of every capacity and is calculated to make every reader wiser and better . None the less , we do not feel

within the

76

THE EPISTOLARY

any wrenching

of

naturalness

NOVEL displayed

the wisdom

in

by

this girl, for it is a natural wisdom inspired by her personal virtue combined with her present circumstance, rather than the development of a wide and all - embracing knowledge of mankind . What Marivaux perhaps did not dare to do , Rich ardson did in Clarissa . There are strong intimations of this approaching ideal of naturalness in Pamela , and even what there is of high romance in that novel is logically explicable through

which

in

finds herself. But Clarissa is the novel and for all, the necessity of veri

she

Clarissa herself the paragon

.

the day

all great fiction . it succeeds in printing upon the literature of own leading characters infallible models Just

to

this ,

its

Beyond

of

similitude

is

and the situa

establishes , once

which

as

the leading character

as

tion

of

the medium

and touchstone

highest

is

to

in

of

of

it

a

.

,

of

of

.

.

,

is

of

to

is

is

of

as

of

,

in

a

is

.

,

of

.

so

,

”;

an

,

so

;

so

of

-

of

,

so

virtue tragically assaulted just Lovelace the prototype eighteenth century the roué much that Napoleon English when he heard the name Lovelace attached officer remarked that that was the name the man Cla rissa are Miss Howe and Mr Belford the models upon every heroine and which the confidante and the confidant Beyond may hero are made these four be said that there single character not the novel the characteristics whom are not impressed upon all his letters the bust king upon the coin every letter his country The style admirably adapted the character the writer Here again the triumph verisimilitude

,

,

,

's

is

in

Addresses

Augustine

Birrell

New

York

,

and

,

Essays

of

,

.

p .

, 1,

219

,

:

an

,

by o

The Collected

1928

Sir

in a

as

.

is

of

's

,

.

its

of as

,

of

,

The two Richardson novels now considered are essen tially the stories women The third novel Sir Charles Grandison has chief protagonist man the most per society gentleman fect prototype all English fiction possible George exception with the Meredith Wil loughby Patterne The story follows Miss Harriet Byron who has been for many years orphan reared grandparents her who have conducted her the paths

SAMUEL RICHARDSON of virtue. Her

is now dead and she is living Although with her . she is the possessor of , Byron but a small fortune Miss is the recipient of the atten tions of many of the young men who live in her vicinage . The girl goes up to London , however, and there continues to attract the attention of young men . Chief among these are young Mr. Fowler , nephew of a Welsh baronet , and Sir Har grave Pollexfen , a handsome and wealthy roué , distinctly

grandfather

uncle , Mr.

Selby

reminiscent of Lovelace . Harriet will, however , have nothing to do with either of them , despite the fact that Sir Hargrave is both confident and persistent and Mr. Fowler persistent but pathetic through the medium of his uncle . Sir Hargrave resorts to foul means to capture the favor of the girl and , by

a

,

,

course given

is

.

,

the home his sisters The gentleman thereby be Sir Charles Grandison who

to

to

takes her proves

of

of

Sir

by

means of engaging one of his henchmen in her service (a device already used in Clarissa ) has her carried off from a masquerade ball to a house in Paddington . She struggles to escape and , in so doing , receives a slight injury which frightens her abductor so that he decides to remove her to his country house . On the road they are met by an unknown gentleman in a coach . Harriet manages to scream for help , Hargrave and she is rescued from the gentleman who

at

of

be

as

,

of

.

is

late and dramatic entrance into the story Richardson ex may tremely fond these late entrances noted also from the fact that Colonel Morden enters the story Clarissa

,

by

;

a

of

as a

to

is

In

.

,

's

by

is

will not commit himself

.

but

Charles

of

his procedure through the Harriet charms the subject the mean

impressed

story

he

a

,

characteristic

entire

on

Sir

this situation

is

.

of

of

on

by

.

in

to

is

:

Sir

.

of

to

the very conclusion act sudden and dramatic instrument retribution The rescue Harriet has two fight duel although he results Charles called upon duelling and Harriet finds herself fall opposed himself ing love with him Sir Charles avoids fighting the duel disarming his adversary and then delivering him homily duelling which completely convinces Sir Har the evils grave his wrong The grace with which Sir Charles handles almost

,

-

the Earl

D

presents her

D —

of

of

Countess

,

time, the

son

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

78

for

,

's

to

.

.

In

.

,

in

is

,

no

.

to

to to

.

a

as

The girl has desire grandmother his attentions Her letters her Mrs Selby clearly reveal her that Harriet love with Charles expedite the romance between them Mrs Selby order indicates Harriet true interest the Countess hoping that possible husband for Harriet

.

,

,

,

up

.

's

A

on

of

to

is

it

.

to

.

to

the word will eventually travel back the Grandisons The heroine now pays another visit the Grandison sisters Sir Charles chooses be absent business and Harriet sus pects because her presence that he has done this friendship grows close however between Harriet and the hero two sisters Sir Charles returns and although he the utmost kindness toward Harriet makes no advances takes her into his confidence Italy Some years before when first abroad became deeply attached the della Poretta family because his res

,

conducts himself with

.

to

of

he

,

in

, .

,

Finally he

assassins He was teach English to

.

of to

a

,

,

of

the son Jeronymo from band received into their house and allowed

cue

in

,

.

to

to

. of

by

.

of

an

in

Sir

,

of

is

,

,

.

to

to

a

of

-

to

.

of

,

,

it

.

,

their only daughter Clementina The two fell love with each other and the family when discovered the mutual attachment proposed terms upon which the two might marry Sir Charles rejected the terms because their impos England Meanwhile sible one sidedness and returned Clementina fell into sort madness upon losing him and family Italy the has now written him asking him come discuss new terms At the close his narrative Sir Charles leaves Harriet himself uncertain state emotion Har riet course much distressed this She begins

,

in

.

the della

Poretta

.

,

,

interviews with

which prove ultimately satisfactory and matters look exceedingly hopeless for the English girl At

all

to

begin

a

in

,

-

Charles has several

of

Sir

family

.

to

'

is

realize that Charles problem the conflict between his affection for her and his duty Clementina The young departs Italy leaving very desperate man for Harriet but Italy none the less self controlled state When he arrives

.

is

,

,

of ,

a

the last moment however Clementina herself suddenly suf change fers heart and decides that though her love

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

marry a heretic , and England advises Charles that return and marry English woman Although he indicates profound regret the young man relinquishes his rights Clementina and returns England begins pay court haste where Harriet he

for her

to

an

impossible

Sir

it would be

He

.

to

to

he

,

in

to

to

.

,

to

great ,

79

as

on

he

,

,

's

as

of

,

in

.

.

",

field

meet one

of

to

is

of



Harriet suitors Greville the dexterously honor but disarms him for merly did Sir Hargrave Harriet and Sir Charles are happily and formally engaged and married At the last moment England having run from the atten Clementina appears forced

by

to

will

Count

accept the suit

Sir

consent

's

that she

gains Clementina

finesse

of ,

with his usual

,

Charles

.

is

.

.

former

is

of

an

unwelcome suitor seek the protection her generously received lover She Sir Charles and Lady Grandison and taken under their protection The della Poretta family follows and likewise graciously received tions

the heretofore unwelcome

of

of

to

,

in

a

of

on

,

a

of

be

be

comprised

of

. of ?

equally interesting the juvenile years

.

in

some the letters have been omitted There Sir

spared

of

an

be

could

it

,

by

might

but would they that account narratively given

, :

,

,

as

is

It

As many however not one episode

excuse

and characters

much smaller compass happens fortunately the principal person

Grandi

written were the hopes and fears events for the bulk collection

,

an is

must plead

this kind Mere facts

letters agitated

as

he

familiar heart

,

undecided

the of

. , ,

The nature moment while

Charles

us :

excuses the length has given

the longest novel

Sir

.

Thus Richardson ,

of

Sir Charles

matchless son

in

,

of

,

of

of

on

Belvedere and the story closes the departure the Italian guests for Italy the complete happiness all concerned and the joy the heroine the possession the

,

Preface

XXXIX

.

,

Charles Grandison

Charles

.8

Sir

of

interwoven with that

, .

closely

p

is

,

of

as

,

on

be

,

.

Sir



whom

of to ,

to

in

is

,

is is it

the whole nor after Charles Grandison one letter inserted but what tends illustrate the principal design Those which precede his introduction will not hoped judged unnecessary they tend the whole make the reader acquainted with persons the history most introduced

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

80

And although there are moments when we may feel the in clination to quarrel with the author 's obvious intimation that verbosity is a virtue , with his sincerity we can ever quarrel . The sort of all-consuming passion that virtue becomes in the

in

of

of

fi ,

its

its

us

of

,

;

is ,

A

of

.

fidelity

true dig sprightliness

all three are characterizations the utmost somewhat too perfect conception detracts from the despite this one Sir Charles himself but he

respectively

delity

human nature tantalizing and

;

,

,

its

Charlotte Grandison show devious villainy

nity

,

Sir

hands of Richardson renders Sir Charles an endurable crea tion , if not quite human and alive . In Sir Charles Grandison are displayed that profound knowledge of men and things, that masterly skill in narrative and description for which Richardson is so justly admired . Hargrave Pollexfen The characters of Miss Byron , of

reader

by

.

,

engaged

Those who desire only

)

is

of it

in

continually

never

Clarissa

, ,

the

equally continually gratified

more fre

a

curiosity

is it

the

of

(

,

events are much more numerous the heart although quently and more deeply touched wrung by the pathos that affects the reading

is

,

;

in

of if

is

In

us .

the two most notable and memorable figures Richardson has judi given Sir Charles Grandison the narrative ciously conducted the events and adventures are fewer than other works this nature the interesting scenes and moving affecting and situations centered about these fewer

and

story

.

of

a

it

in

a

of

multiplicity ingenious events and are delighted only may find that there are too many places which this novel pauses for too long time and that suffers from too many interruptions and from the reproduction unnecessary de scriptions and tedious conversations But these descriptions

,

,

.

,

of

,

of

,

,

,

and conversations and not the story itself are the most valu able instructive and distinctive part the work The min descriptions ute and exact the air the attitude the manner

,

.

of

be

to

.

,

of

on

every person every occasion animates the every motion and enlives the work and sets the persons concerned unmis takably before our eyes We faithfully believe that we see them and imagine ourselves their company Besides

81

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

there is here such an energy of expression , such a complete delicacy of sentiment , such justness of observation of human conduct , such animated quickness of repartee , such sudden turns and strokes of wit , all properly divided and appropri ated according to the divergent characters of the persons involved , as to diversify charmingly these conversations and events narrated in letters and render them both entertaining and useful . Horace ' s rule of utile dulci was never more hap pily followed than in Sir Charles Grandison . In this book , the author has completed his plan , of which

and Clarissa are parts . In Pamela he intended to the beauty and superiority of virtue in an unpolished mind , with the temporal rewards which it frequently ob tains, and to render the character of the libertine contempti ble . His chief design in Clarissa was to show the excellence of virtue in a delicate and finely sensitive being , though it was not to be rewarded in this life , and to represent the life of a libertine with every adventitious advantage , as an object not only of contempt but even of horror . In Charles present yet another aspect proposed Grandison the superiority exhibiting the character and virtue and Pamela

of

by

to

,

of

of

of he

Sir

show

,

,

by

to

,

of



a

;

.

,

.

's

in

,

of

is

It

of

,

a

of

,

,

is

a

actions man true honor show that every natural advantage improved and accidental virtue and piety dignity and produce elegance heighten that these polish universal love esteem and veneration The three novels pre trilogy b eyond present trilogy they sent virtue that triumphant virtue but not that alone these are the pano rama virtue triumphant through infinite struggle imperative necessity approaching Richardson he

,

to

,

of

,

of .

,

It

of of of

to

of the epistolary mode consider what else goes into making the his novels from what exactly has gathered his material and what compositional forms certain phases his novels might be paralleled has already been stated

use

.

Section

3

,

Chapter

IV

,

Downs Richardson

,

is

,

a

,

of

.?

is

's

,

.

W

?

Brian

it

that the atmosphere the closet drama and that strikingly similar Certainly Richardson novels true that his novels grew out small circle mostly ladies course

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

82

Richardson was himself the guiding spirit and mentor . As a result , a sort of sentimental idealism was bound to arise . This is undoubtedly suggestive of the closet drama . of which

But

those who delve beneath

as

the first lines and outward

of his work will find no lack of realistic treatment in Richardson . This , essentially , is not of the closet drama but of a more realistic variety of writing. the novel influence The essay of the day , too , had pointing and too well known fact need out here that the narrative element Richardson and Field ing first novels very closely resembles that the essay happens essay But the even closer Richardson any mere question allowed one point than abstract influence Sir Charles Grandison Grandma Shirley says present age greatly obligated The the

,

on

to

.

of

to

,

,

this however

,

has been

of

Rich Pamela herself recurred the Spectator when the Familiar Letters to

mind from begun

.”

ardson

Beyond

it

is

"

:

of

the Spectator argued that the very story

authors

's

to

by

In is

.

at

to

be

's

of

's

in

a

it

is

its

pects

.

.

to

of

.”

a

in

intercepts

by

manor

one

of

the girl

's

of

.

of

the

her and her

par

distress

letters and

these

he is .

,

is

by



,

of

in

The lord

,

,

in

of

a

It

A

she rejects Letters pass between which the parents are informed

her which ents

10

-

,

,

his

in

.

H

in

. C .

.

to

be

were Mr Huffman dissertation Theory and Practise The 18th Century Novel indicates that Richardson got his first clue from the essay narrative which appeared the Spectator for Saturday May 1712 marriage story tells intended seduction ending servant girl Amanda desired the lord the manor because her great beauty He makes immoral advances

to

of

,

so

impressed the virtue these good people that changes his intentions offers marriage the girl and pro

's

.

-

55

's

London

1900

,

Study

,

Critical

,

.

Richardson

A

Samuel

-

-

.

15

13

.pp

,

,

L

Clara 153

Virginia Thomson

. ,

Dayton

.pp•

*

a

of

of

of

of

to

of it .

it

,

.

a

This story was then many years and he told

of

.

to

is

her parents Virtue rewarded and all ends hap part Richardson material for Aaron Hill that he had recom many mended his friends but that none them would hear Three the Familiar Letters further re minded Richardson true story Since the author only tection

pily

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

83

boyhood ,

literary

essay since even in that period when he write love letters secretly for a circle of girls , had been the letter , it is not to be wondered at , that he employed the letter form to present the stories he told in his novels , and that he should have gone to his own letter collection , if this story in the Spectator is not the suggestive source of Pamela , for the basis of his own first novel . It has , of course , already been established that letter writ ing was at this time an art , and that peripatetic pilgrimage

used

as

to its

to

to

reference

to

the age much

,

by

to

a

,

be

by

to

a

's

to

,

to

.

it

stand with

,

the our own To Richardson then and those imbued with the Richardsonian spirit largely one basic qualities were measured the young lady finesse with which one could write letter and able write letters with the magnificent indifference time enabled

newspaper stands with reference

ability

a

,

a

a

in

the composition

major

a

the crea

,

to

letter novels but also

characters who were themselves endowed with

-

to

tion

of

only

of

,

.

,

a

,

or

,

and space that was possessed Pamela Clarissa Har lowe Harriet Byron was creature far beyond the unin spiring average Thus the long practice and proficiency letter writing which Richardson himself had led him not

it

.

,

.

of

,

of

.

to

write letters And must be stated that not only the heroines the three novels are proficient epistolarians but many their supporting characters are also Thus Mr

letters has long been

,

,

a

,

lieu

of

the epistles

in

it

of

a

letters served

in

.

The

literature

long

character

All

the letter Richardson

this quality

of

he

experience

of

own

.

his in

from

"



gleaned

a

of

to

of

to

of a

,

subjective sort that often prove extraneous means the letters the reader was able define the personality compare the writer for himself and that might have person which with similar pictures such and

by

descriptions

find strong indications

century

English

of

the eighteenth

part

of

to

and we are able

of

,

,

,

character

"

The

"

plished writers

.

of

's

of

,

,

Andrews Miss Howe Lovelace Belford Miss Selby Sir Charles Grandison Charlotte Grandison and half dozen copious others Richardson characters are and accom

the

carefully adopted and

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

84 adapted Clarissa

. In his postscript to The letters and conversation ,

to his own novelistic purposes

, Richardson writes :



the story makes the slowest progress , are presumed to be characteristic .” Thus, introspectively , the character sketches are rendered individual at the same time they are made to become part of the whole , and the mere fact that we are able , as readers , to wander at will among the characters , even when important decisions are being made , and are able to watch the processes of determination at moments of crisis adds to the poignancy and verisimilitude of the work . The thought caught on the wing, one of the basic principles of when

Richardson ' s writing, is thus presented to us with greater clarity and immediacy than would be otherwise possible . The necessity for the author 's stepping down from his platform is thus obviated to a large degree .

of composition , in poetry or prose , admits of than the epistolary , since there are few sub jects that may not be discussed through the medium of the letter . But the epistolary form has advantages peculiar to

No

form

greater variety

. It places the reader in the position of a confidential friend , thus creating a connecting contact between writer and reader , a contact Richardson always strove to preserve itself

to direct address . The animated and dra matic nature of the letter likewise enables it to make a more forcible and lasting impression upon the mind of the reader , purely narra than could be expected from a composition

without resorting

tive or didactic . Of these advantages , no writer of the epis tolary novel has made greater or more effective use than has

,

of

inti

.

religious and

the form

of ,

,

,

subjects

greater extent

writing Of man

social

was

It

.

,

political the novel was already full

a

to

of ,

in

be

subjects personal domestic

,

ners and

of

to

,

of

,

these things the great range presentation mate discussions and ease any other form than was found day

in

of his

all

Richardson , and he has lost no opportunity of appealing , when it could be judiciously done , to the feelings and senti ments of those to whom he is supposed to be immediately addressing himself . Richardson seemed to find in the letter

the

SAMUEL RICHARDSON letter , however , that conception

85

aspect , so all-important

the moral

of Richardson , was most unconsciously

and

to

the

natu

, ,

,

,

as

. If

in

an

to ,

be

its

a

in

by

rally set forth , because moral implications and discussions were natural to the letter as a distinct eighteenth -century mode . Thus, it was already a literary device for one intimate friend or relative to write to another , who was usually in some sort of ethical difficulty , in order to give moral instruc tions or advice . When we remember , then , that the drama was a decaying art , but that it had been vastly popular , it place should seems most just that taken the letter highly which was itself dramatic device the soliloquy grant that written out rather than spoken we are gesture vocal actor has many advantages his favor such it

, ,

,

novels

he

as

of

and

as

told

believed

.

they should be presented Perhaps most important

of

to

himself felt they should

,

be

to

,

in

of

.

of

in

be

to

of

is

is

of

,

,

emphasis inflection and facial expression we must also grant that the greater art presents that the letter since all that found the soliloquy through the medium the intimations the written word alone All that Richard awaiting son found him the form the letter he seemed then find admirably fitted the telling stories he

in

of

, is

an

of

of

of of

,

so

,

in

for

,

it

to

's

to

of

of

to

as

.

's

novel

of

epistolary

to

remember Samuel Richard that since he has been the habit writing love letters for young ladies acquaintance his since his early youth that since he was himself inveterate letter writer was the most natural thing the world him write letters and thus we find his novels not much novels put into the form letters for the sake convenience letters expanded naturally the length novels The genius naturalness the form the letter Richardson son

of

a

,

a

the novel from letters His method

basic

,

a

as

collection

.

conception

his

of of

,

,

;

an

of to , it

conception

up

worked

,

some

,

To

of

.

several times indicated

stressed

in

too often

it

but cannot be other authors who used this form correspond imitation Richardson the shape ence proved but awkward expedient but Richardson unlike these for the most part later and imitative writers

has already been

there

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

86

fore

,

came spontaneously

. He

to him

started

,

,

then

the

from

plan of writing letters to illustrate a given point of morality and , in order to make the letters more attractive and more convincing , fell upon the device of attributing them to a fictitious character . The result was , in the first instance , the huge huge tract called Pamela , in most respects the least good of than his works , the the most most distinctive feature of which is that it disus in an especially feminine art . an shows an amazing fertility in of

at

espec

few

,

to

communication and has that place But the art

,

of

secondary means

, of

of

,

an

a

to

has paled

us

to

is

be

it

;

of

so

to

it

us ;

a

,

or

who have not one time another suffered from the lengthy outpourings that only feminine correspondent may send seldom attractive now perusal when we have little time devote the mere letters but must remembered that since the days Richardson that which was art the art letter writing us

There are

of

In

.

,

.

of

.

,

sat ,

by

-

a

.

in

,

a

to

certain extent remained the eighteenth century letter was serious business medie val days the chatelaine surrounded her handmaidens making gorgeous tapestries This was the pride her life

,

of

of

no

,

a

to

,

is

.

of

,

In

great extent took the eighteenth century the letter greater col the place the tapestry That there then epistolary tapestries than the three novels lection Rich

of

is

It

.

a

of

is

of

beyond the shadow ardson doubt out very overflow letter writing that comes the charge characters any incident

could

or

's

through

even

pass not have had time episode because all their time to

Richardson

this that

is

,

fic of

by a

of

of

,

it

be

.

in

writing letters That this charge not patently was spent may supported true although some consideration the overwhelming fertility Miss Byron the heroine

of

let

are

is

, us to

us it

into the finite thoughts advantage almost impos

it

an

the characters

is

;

he

so

of

if

a

the fact that we

,

and secrets

of

pensated for

by

.

it

is

,

to

.

a

is

of

,

in

Sir Charles Grandison lies the obvious fact that no titious personage ever bound by the actual limits nar row human capacity The great novelist does not want believe even the subtitle his story may state genuine narrative nor does that his novel want reality mistake for one Since any apparent lack com

SAMUEL RICHARDSON real life , we cannot blame Richardson be cause his characters indicate a power of writing which no mortal could ever attain to . After all , fiction usually proves to be a higher reality . sible to obtain

in

It must be remembered , however, that the epistolary form as we find it at the close is a far more fully developed impulse than it is in Richardson 's earliest work , no matter how rapid that development may be and how elaborate the previous apprenticeship at letter writing . Richardson is the great ex

,

the figure that looms large on the horizon of the epistolarians. But he, too , had a period of beginning . Thus in Pamela we may say that the author was still feeling his way about , not necessarily in the same stumbling fashion in which the young novice feels for a method , but rather as the painstaking and experienced very careful, conscientiously doing cautiously man sets about a thing . Thus , we have in emplar

this novel

a

of letters and journal , to be given the later novels , which consequently took

combination

reformulation in entirely epistolary a form

. Again ,

even though

we might wish

for a in the authorship of the letters here and even though we might feel that Pamela herself is too persistently at the helm of her own ship , yet the diary -journal effect of this undoubtedly lends the autobiographic tone to the narrative which has so often been achieved later by the use of the first person . Dr. Ernest A . Baker says of Richardson that he is the novelist of personality. 10 This is true , and in no author do we get to know the processes of thought of the char acters better than we do in these novels of Richardson . The fact that Pamela writes out her own part brings her even closer to us. It is a most intimate sort of autobiography . Yet it was toward epistolary biography , not toward journal biog raphy, that the novelist was always striving .

As for

variety

the letters

themselves

in

Pamela

,

they are

for

greater

the

of

.p 71 .

Novel

,

English

IV ,

the

of

in

10

History

to

is

,

.

of

,

most part natural absorbing and admirably fitted the parts away from the story they tell The fact that Pamela home order that she may write home the story her dis

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

88

part of epistolary inevitability . We, who must always make allowances for reality in any work , can surely make that small grant here when the result achieved is viewed and enjoyed . If any fault is to be found with them , it is that Richardson has not yet learned to wield the novel in letters with all the flexibility that he later acquired . Richardson 's great care in the writing of his letters , and his great knowledge of the fact that letters are the best medium for the revelation of the soul , is nowhere better shown than in Clarissa , his second novel, which consists of letters written not only from the heroine , as is almost exclusively the case in Pamela , but likewise from the other characters . No novel in the English language presents a more penetrating study of the secret places of the soul and the deep anguish of tresses

is

all

a

the greatest steps forward

in

One

.

son

of

Sir

that soul when it is violated than does this . Here , the epis tolary mastery of Richardson is seen rising to the peak which it maintains throughout the entirety of Charles Grandi these last two novels

,

.

,

of

in

,

to

of

is

to

the fact that we are allowed learn all that everyone con cerned with the central story the two chief characters has say the form letters about the matter Clarissa Love Belford and Anna Howe are almost all epistolary nov elists their own rights are Sir Charles Grandison Har riet Byron Miss Selby and Charlotte Grandison And the correspondent faithfully reproduced style distinct each singular vivacity There something with fault this very perfection since the author himself never appears and thus obliged trust his characters with the trumpeting qualities good their own Yet the final analysis this criti

,

.

,

a

in

of

is

of

,

in

,

.

is

to

,

.

a

is

of

,

.

So

,

in

,

lace

.

is

it

,

of

of

an

,

its

,

in

,

The historical estimate

and

valuation

of

judges

.

able

,

of

of

,

in

to

in

at

at

be

cism need not directed more wholly the epistolary method than the narrative the first person Before we proceed estimation the work Samuel entirety however cautiously made Richardson not only well but eminently fitting that we indicate some record the estimation put upon that work by the contem poraries the author who some respects are the most

the

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

89

,

.

of its

in

by

it ,

work of any given author sometimes has a degree of finality about it that a contemporary estimate cannot attain to . Lord Byron is not a greater poet because of the burning enthusi asm of most of his contemporaries for his work , but rather a less because of the colder estimate set upon it by later great critics who have judged it historically . On the other hand , if the work of Shakespeare had been looked upon for several centuries since his death with indifferent eye , we could not well afford to discard the facts of the unprecedented accept contemporaries ance which it received at the hands of Therefore our attempted judgment Richardson col

,

at

be

who tells

pre

likewise

is

.

,

of

There

of

be

Pamela and the Bible must saved served the story Sir John Herschel

11 to

all

if

,

.

of

his

,

is

as

the realization that there have been sound critics who have belittled him we must likewise take into consideration the emotions with which his contemporaries received work and the opinions they expressed concern ing these three great novels One enthusiastic admirer the period said that books were burned least ored

black

the

Young

all

B

So

.

.

12

.

Tom

in

Jones Edward

.

than

of

Richardson13

of

one letter

in

of

of

son

to

its

in

,

,

so

.

of

to

smith who was accustomed collect his neighbors around his anvil and there read them the story Pamela tense was great their concern that when Mr their interest and procuring the keys married Pamela these people succeeded village joyfully rang the church and bells Dr John humanity says that there was more real knowledge

Night Thoughts

,

14

the Eighteenth

,

as

a

in

,

of

:

to

,

I

.

a

The Novels and Novelists

Century

215

.

54

I, p .

Novels

”,

Richardson

's

,

Library

"

Hours

in a

,

Ibid 219 Leslie Stephen

and

,

,

him

most scandalous being Clarissa touched me

214

., ., p p . . .

2 . 13 13

Ibid

heartily despise

of

Forsyth

fellow

,

The two first tomes

William

, p .

VII

strange

nay sob over his works

. .

u

.

manner

him

is

a

read

,

This Richardson eagerly

."

to

a

,

,

in

of

an

"

,

author considered Richardson instrument Providence Even Lady Mary Wortley Montagu letter her daughter admits reluctant ad always flattering miration tribute worth

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

90

my

of

I

15

father

But perhaps

of

seen

.

and

,

mother

of

,

Sir

very resembling to my maiden days ; and I find in the pictures of my Thomas Grandison and his lady what have heard

:

I

!)

,

I

,

's ,

-

.

16

of

the history

more You must write

an !

. .

of

write

can

.

no

to

it

,

am

I

;

I

,

Now you Angel

to

it

I

.

is

this

at

day enough that time should have more only my first English letter but now Klopstock wife and then was only the single young girl You have since written the manly Clarissa without my prayer Oh you have done the great joy and thanks all your happy readers as

not courage

no

to

of

(

oh

,

,

in

is

the tenderest letter that from the wife the which she writes German poet Klopstock Having finished your Clarissa the heavenly book would prayed you write the history the manly Clarissa but had

All

of

of

but pale indications the overwhelming with which the novels themselves were received the time their writing least few decades after these are

a

,

at

or ,

of

at

enthusiasm

,

of

in

of

.



.

,

, of

.

their dissemination There were course adverse contemporary criticisms Mrs Montagu declared that Sir Charles Grandison was lack ing two the prime merits narrative brevity and ele

,

17

18

of

by

, by of

of

of it .

critics for the novels

by

hearts than those

of of

,

of

,

,

a

In

to

.”

,

Fielding likewise contended that the epistolary fitting one for the novelist and that the best novelists had not date made use the light what has been said Richardson his contemporaries simpler what has been deeply felt gance

style was not

this man

what

as

read

any one

of ,

to

Richardson

,

student

of

of a

less

is

he

is

.

a

,

of

of

a

of

by

at

tributes have been laid his feet later ages we can but be impressed the intrinsic greatness the man writer novels and wielder human emotions We must remember that today one hardly expected un this .

to

,

.

p

IV ,

,

.

, p .

93

,

,

of

.

,

,

.

Section

2 IV .

IV

.,

,

Chapter ,

cit .

-

.op

pp

216 217

Downs Chapter Ibid .,

18 17

,

1923

.

18

,

22 ,

,

16

Works the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Includ ing Her Correspondence Poems and Essays 268 Letter the Countess of Bute September 1755 London 1803 Augustine Essays The Collected and Addresses Birrell New York

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

91

author 's novels word for word and page by page . He simply has not the time. The epistolary method is , of necessity , slow

moving. Richardson , however ,

had no intention of writing railway the traveler who found him

for the amusement of self in the deplorable state of having half an hour to kill by reading . An eminent musician has recently said that the automobile has spoiled our love for music because speed is in itself a sort of intoxication and takes us away from the several hours of comfortable enjoyment which music might bring us . And in literature the same is true . Richardson wrote for an age that had the leisure to read long novels . We are , on the other hand , no longer willing to bear with Harriet , Sir Charles , Clarissa , and Pamela in their long effusions . Only the old may read them . The tabloid monster must be

. When

more knowledge of the heart in one letter of Richardson than in all of Tom Jones and when Erskine remarked to him , “ Surely , Sir , Richardson is very tedious , ” Dr. Johnson answered , “ Why , Sir , if you he said that there

were to read Richardson

for

glutted

is

the story your patience would

be

as

,

to

19

,

at

of

,

an to

."

us to

of

To

for

;

so

much fretted that you would hang yourself but you must only read him the sentiment and consider the story giving occasion the sentiment pause however those who stop make some attempt appraisement just author we have read the

creations alone Richardson

us

given

.

his character

figures against

of

of

like Cervantes

has

of

.

Sir

in

, . .cit , .p

Forsyth

219

.

op

10

.

:

to

of

is

-

,

in

to

,

as

of

,

as

by



,

two characters that they are words bound the weaknesses inseparable from their age and the country they are their origin inferior the highest ideals the greatest poets distorted by the conventional standards which their creator moved Clarissa and Charles always the shepherd watching the path his Richardson characters are about take and guiding the development plot Stephen his As Sir Leslie has said “

two have become household

the sky

,

.

, by

is

of

of

the family immortals he has created consider able moment Shakespeare could stand the immortality size

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL ought not to conclude an article without moral that purpose may

upon

be

Richard

.

very dangerous

a

as a it

.

so is

It

one

a

son

. . . for

of

a

,

of to

as

to

,

; an

in

such

fascination

.

writers alone

appropriate

under power

of

of

source

the greatest

them

20

by

a

showing

of

of

is

then

exercised

may

be

,

situations as

beings

human

it

action

by

of

in

set

a

,

it

to

a

in

per try means novelist far leads him appropriate with Richard when his art but suasion not implies imaginary world son keen interest desire way forth the most forcible what are the great springs thing for

,

,

,

of

their stories

.

of

diverted

them

.

from

on to

directly

of

that the old doctrine that literature delight part the blood and bone is

well

is

or it

remember

must instruct

as

We must

other people as

to

occasion

is

our attention

because

in

,

us

of

to

or

,

of

or

in

.

in

as

's

,

is ,

It

having Richardson later method that the characters act minor novelists that has had the great est vogue imitation Advantages the method surely has any one for no matter how much we may be interested single character the addition two three more other characters and their interests rarely proves fatal the origi nal one but rather augments with the power variation may say No one that Harriet Clarissa less interest course

Romance which only amused and upon entertained was definitely frowned the author propose the brightest and most per Richardson wished fect examples our imitation and Charles Grandison undoubtedly proposed example for for instance his principles and conduct That Richardson had the courage sustain this proposal indicated the fact that he dared refuse let Charles fight duels we accept the state

,

.

If

Sir

to

to

to

is

by

.

an

as

",

Sir

to



to

is

,

.

by

.

,

creation

,

's

Richardson

ment

,

by

.

the insistence the author Today we are definitely accus of

is

Library

, .p 99 .

Hours

in a

20

a

,

largely due mentioned purpose for his work upon

to

,

to

as

in

a

of

a

as

to

,

of

,

is

especially true that the first great novelists and this Richardson used the story vehicle for instruction slight lack then must we be ready overlook inevi tability practised the epistolary form Richardson for that purpose and conclude that this inevitability already

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

93

tomed to the omniscient point of view assumed by authors ; the epistolary style is merely this omniscient point of view

used subjectively . We are beside the character who is doing the writing , not only observing the results but also helping

guide the pen , to give direction to the flow of his ideas , in the end we feel that we have a part in the play and that conclusion therefore logical and inevitable because we have played that play through along with the characters and have brought about the proper ending and one that indubitably stamped with the high coinage moral in to

of

is

is

its

and

to

In

,

.

is

it

;

of

surely

all

that while

so

, (as

)

unmistakably

remain

to

Rich

his various plots they stamped with the similarity as

.

in

,

of

he

, if

.

.

of

,

as

,

as

so

us

all

of of

so

a

by

in

is

,

it

.

to

to

, In

us . us ,

's

do

-

brain as

's

in

accordance with his tenets is

in

exists

of

children and act Wagner creations But most important the fact that each man great his own way felt the urge give the world his reiterated feeling might be pointed out that Rich summary conclusion great many aspects literary composition ardson that the true significance this combinate greatness may be received only review the many things has given many memorable great novelists have given Few not supreme characters has Richardson He has drawn for already has been stated two the first water The first which

much

Richardson

,

fit

ardson has changed his people

does not signify may be seen from

a

or

a

name situation fundamental character the plots the three novels

of

perusal

change

of

a

basic change

in

but simply

's

a

,

's

it

in

, of

-

a

."



.

us

is

of it

's

's

be

.

struction Wag compared Richardson three novels might well Ring Both works have ner leit motif Richardson Wagner good the triumph Fate the master figures may be argued that Wagner all Of course unity than are Richardson are more firmly knitted into

.

;

is

in



;

in

is

is

;

of

by

. .

a



not the

spun glass

a

is

of

in

;

.

is

a

is is

She

figurine

is

dainty rogue porcelain she study Clarissa the utmost delicacy lovely she feminine nature She virtuous she proud she motivated wholeness self which ex tends beyond the merely physical into the psychic The de Clarissa

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

94

.

a

is

to

is

in

too

of

Sir

a

in

;

it

Sir

struction of Clarissa lies not only in her physical violation , but likewise in the violation of her finely balanced soul , her exquisitely isolated spirit . Yet Clarissa is not entirely with out faults . She shares with her impossible family a definite degree of stubbornness which sometimes leads her to dis tress , but where there is so much perfection , it is affectation to make a point of looking for faults . The second unmatch able character in Richardson is Charles Grandison At the outset best admit that Sir Charles consum mate prig but we are rather thankful for his priggishness unhumanly perfect what might otherwise prove

so

be . a

.

an

care for the opinions

of

Sir

,

not

is

against him that Charles goes his way con

levelled

On the other hand the fact that he need

he is

he

to

suspicion

of .

coward

scious

no

be

.

fore there can a

at

to

; of

,

of

careless sportsmen and duellists Sir Charles has fight the admirable courage stand against the practice ing He has the strength disarm his enemies will there

a

society

is

,

)

is

it

, :

(

,

,

in

so

to

is a

.

representative dividual Charles that type which many novelists and dramatists have attempted create and doing the perfect gentleman which few have succeeded This virtuous gracious kindly and must necessarily personally handsome young man undoubtedly added paragon but he likewise distinctly individual Among

as

so

is

it

;

to

to

to

,

in

in

of is

as

, of

all

in

as

,

,

a

,

of

.

is

of

to

in

or

!

a

to

,

of

,

of

;

others above suspicion but not this much op the extreme courage his convictions that forces him spirit pose duels and the same refuse bob the tails really humanitarian tendency his horses The charac terization be found these two figures does not begin end the powers character drawing which be found Richardson But little behind these two major figures are surely struggle those Lovelace the libertine torn seeking Clarissa herself and the destruction the purity thing really the he loves man not bad but humanly the tenacious Pamela whose virtue not lighted spiritual inspiration girl who that Clarissa and pos get the best out present life that determined delightful Byron paragon sible for her the Miss senti of

is

a

,

is

of of

,

;

is

to

a

as

;

is

confused

by

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

95

heroines ; and the sprightly Charlotte Grandison treatment of her husband is full indication that she was in the very vanguard of militant women . In addi tion to these characters Richardson has given us a whole Hargrave series of prolonged sketches . The beastly persistent ogre the female Mrs Jewkes the Mr the certainly elusive and graceful Clementina character moonlight etched and the wise Miss Howe are some distinguishable and distinct those who remain

mental

cavalier

,

;

;

B —

a

,

;

as

us

"

to

of

"

in

,

.

;

.

,

Sir

whose

al

.

,

of

an

of

,

of

.

individuals Along with the power characterization Richardson dis equally admirable power plays dramatic writing The three novels are filled with long passages drama which they are very likely seem concentrated with rela tion the entire length the novels which they occur amazing ability are themselves examples sustain high pitch length dramatic effort for considerable

,

in

a

of of

to

an

a

at

to

of of

to

though

,

in

,

to

,

,

-

,

is

recol

of

a

,

a

as of

;

as

,

of

,

There

like

tightest

most moving best the scene sure less the truly dramatic Byron lengthy adven but Miss be

.

death

there

dramatic moment flight with Lovelace and

to

the pathetic

but

its

's

Clarissa

Sir

's

Clarissa

expressed accusation

memory is , at

of

fibre the scene

lection

in

be held

of

to

into wild and fully wise

us

of

's

is

it

as

of

.

a

in

,

to

,

,

,

so

.

,

to

time and retain the original impulse over the space many written pages Thus we remember that frantic scene breathlessly portrayed from Pamela which the heroine beyond pond terrified endurance flies the with suicidal overcoming temptation intentions and then and emotion ally exhausted dragging herself the wood house falls there bedraggled heap Clarissa gives that great and fearful punctu scene Clarissa first recovery after her violation ated with passages inarticulate suffering and bursting

's

,

's

its

,

,

of

in

,

,

,

,

in

,

is

no

is

in

, .

to

in

Charles Grandison ture with Sir Hargrave well sustained drama and rises from climax climax slow and careful but mightily sustained progression There drama Richardson however more insinuating tremendous more more powerful effect upon the emotions than that already mentioned Clarissa

THE EPISTOLARY

96

.

recovery

NOVEL

Here are drama and pathos wrought

equal

in

measures . She would have spoken , but could not, looking down my guilt into confusion . A mouse might have been heard passing over the floor : her own light feet and rustling silks could not

have prevented it ; for

she seemed

to

tread

on

forwards , now

air ,

to

be all soul.

towards me, now to , speech wards the door several times before could get the better ; , indignation contemptible of and at last " O thou and abandoned Lovelace , thinkest thou that I see not through this poor villain She passed backwards

and

thine , and of these thy wicked accomplices ? “ Ye vile women , who perhaps have been the ruin , body and soul, of hundreds of innocents (you show me how , in full assem bly) know that I am not married . Ruined , as I am , by your help , ous plot

of

, I am not married to this miscreant ; and I have friends that will demand my honour at your hands ! And to whose authority I will apply ; for none has this man over me. Look to it , then , what further insults you offer me. I am a per son , though thus vilely betrayed , of rank and fortune . I never will be his ; and , to your utter ruin , will find friends to pursue you ; and now I have this full proof of your detestable wicked

I

bless God

ness ,

will

have no mercy upon you ." 21

Certainly , there

this passage no dramatic conflict be tween the characters involved , for Lovelace has attained to a physical triumph . But the conflict lies in the strong expres sion

Clarissa tity . From

the very peak of expression in the entire novel , valiant struggle to preserve her personal iden its

this point of view , what has been recorded and the novel itself , follows immediately upon heels great digression the scene the entire work from the in

of

what , is

's

in

, of

,

is

as

,

as

,

of

.

room

a

across

it

of ,

in

be

might be remarked that here George Meredith Clarissa long before the time one walking but swimming those heroines described not indulged

,

pointmight

. If

of

, perhaps

is

refute the statement

all

;

in

to

need 65 .

is

there

.pp

Vol

VI ,

But

.

Clarissa

,

a

.

losophy

64 -

's

of

a

There seems scarce need for discussion here Richard phi philosophy mastery son these works they are that

Rich

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

97

ardson has no humor. Perhaps , in the exaggeration of senti ment in which he sometimes indulges , there is an unconscious

of

can

humor which has led critics to state that the man is humorless . The reader , however , who accepts the quirks of Miss Charlotte Grandison (a character somewhat more modern to the pres ent generation than she would seem to the several generations immediately before) , her treatment of the male sex , her pungent wit , her insistence on being both seen and heard ,

.

a

,

expres

of

dialogue are likewise

he

to

is

used

the many letters suits are written

in

they

has already been

.

whom

of

by

the varying characters

It

and scene

.

character

definitely the expression

noted how tricacies

a

of

both

to

to

gives body

be

,

of

seen

go

that in

toward the making novel further dialogue that power through which his power

sion

The

point the mood and

re

of .

over all the forms

of

,

it

be

,

,

To

.

in

they who lack The mastery Richardson

is

it

of

in

,

is

of

,

it

;

of

in

in

in is

in

but believe the true humor this creation There humor the scene which Lovelace rehearses his minions gentlefolk any one the actions humor dozen always appropriately enough other scenes and almost the humor circumstance those then who believe may suggested that Richardson lacking this quality

to

,

of

as in of ,

to

he



,

as

(

-

's

,

at

once how varied are the nuances dialogue Richardson how admirably knew how use long majestic many syllabled sentence but only not the and the brief phrase when he writes Who ever spoke her son

,

we should see

of

of

in

to

a

to

,

,

of

as

's

to

. If

of

meaning progress from Lovelace scene we were hearsing the two women his cousin and his aunt the Byron rejects death Clarissa the scene which Harriet Sir Hargrave snatch the speech Charlotte Grandi

)

the

Har

.

"

at



of

?

"

,

jewels that beheld her face and the single word disgusts use the word which Miss Byron and Sir grave fling back and forth each other

,

,

a

of

of

.

in

to

,

of

,

in

,

is

pioneer and innovator beyond all this these novels needs only the pointing the fact that gave he the literature his day the establishment new form the novel letters Further than this that Richardson That Richardson

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL the analytical , sentimental novel of his day , then so popular , to express the new form , shows his canniness , and his understanding of his public . But that the work remained enormously popular after his death is to be later shown . That used

of

its

Richardson had the courage not to have the greatest of his novels end happily speaks eloquently of his devotion to art for art ' s sake and of his realization of the fact that it was not fitting to end a novel happily wherein such an ending would pages that one soul may not destroy the great meaning of individuality destroy the another soul without some fear

ful disaster

, .

ensuing

in

:

,

of

,

,

of

to

of

,

all

in

,

a

To

whom there are combined novelist finally generous amounts almost such happy profusion and such great novels power the creating the requisites necessary dialogue dramatic impulse animation characterization

find

to

,

a

to

of

,

is

of

is

an

by

,

of

to in

to

els

as

of

he

a

,

,

,

all ,

strongly basic con sentiment humor and above original idea which ception author able carry out through three long and undeniably complete nov according means his own his own convictions and society courage find his knowledge the face pathos

none can deny the often applied but less greatness the epis n ame was not only often deserved tolary sense remembered that Samuel Richardson was his day he likewise revealed the society innovator distress But he did not the time itself sometimes only only did not dare write two huge novels this in

It

.

its

to

he

,

to

;

of

,

it

in be

,

, ; a

do

to

an

.

of

whom

'

novelist

of

of

as

to

,

in

of

,

.

Dostoievski

,

,

,

of

of

to

is

in

so

is

,

to

,

by

to

,

in

so

;

to

of

in

the center and focus use he mere man chose the inner spirit his work his deepest knowledge transcend the limitations woman he was likewise able that his own greatness might live the age which he lived difficult the final for future ages that greatness which unfailingly marked analysis give definition but which writing the reiterant im the unflinching faithfulness place beside and spirit gives pulses and which him his own kinship with those few novelists who reveal the same sort greatness Hardy and Conrad Balzac and Zola Tolstoi and which

VI

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL FROM RICHARDSON

TO

1800

there are undoubtedly other factors contributory to the development of the epistolary novel in the eighteenth century until almost the beginning of the nineteenth , it must ALTHOUGH

be

unmistakable emphasis that it is largely due to the tremendous success of Samuel Richardson , a success paralleled only by that of such overwhelming triumphs as was stated with

in the Elizabethan theatre and Joseph Con , contemporary the novel that the novel written in

Shakespeare rad 's in

's

of Richardson ' s three great novels grew in steady until it reached a peak at the middle of the ninth decade of the century . There have been offered various partial calculations of the number of works of fiction produced in the eighteenth cen

the

form

scope

tury . For the period up to 1740 one may consult the list pre om pared by Charlotte Morgan , wherein is attempted as com plete a statistical synopsis as is to be found. From 1740 to

,

the period in which the formulation of the novel most definitely takes place , I have been able to note 595 titles , 1770

reviews and publisher 's notices . An estimate , similarly based on reviews and notices of publications , is gathered from

, for the pe Particularly in the fact

.

1911 Collectors

is

wherein

to

386

99

1925

and Librarians

,

, ,

the Novel Manners New York for Readers and Writers , p .

Volume 148

,

1341 titles are estimated .? acute relationship our subject

Queries )

The Rise Notes and

of

in

(

* 1

,

Notes and Queries

,

1770 to

in

1800 ,

of

riod

teresting

found

its

to

.

be

that

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

100

an

of

to

print by the end The Fortunate Orphan

letters

published

;

.

In

1745 was

in

,

are both novels

)

or , of

(

1744

this year

in

lotte

)

(

, :

of

in

a

is

as

as

,

at

its

.

of

fic

that 361 of these workså published between 1741 and 1800 , are epistolary , a total of almost one-fifth of the entire tional output that period Although the epistolary trend does not show extremely early popular scope noticeable 1744 there once rising interest the use the form The Memoirs Young Unfortunate Nobleman 1743 and Felicia Char

,

a

of

, ,

In

.

of

in

in

's

to

of

of

Memoirs the Countess Marlow 1747 the year sequel that saw the beginning the publication Clarissa Fielding Sarah David Simple was published Familiar Letters between the principal characters David Simple

of

In

of

.

Sir

.

to

,

of

and others and several other epistolary works minor terest belong this year 1753 publication was begun publi Charles Grandison Were the yearly chronicle or

be

at

,

in

By

.

)

, p , at .

for

is

,

on

given

the title page that epistolary novel and so

is

Letters



of

Series

a

in



. . .

by

.

So

of

's

in

-

is

;

of

-

to

of

,

,

.

,

-

69 ,

.

(v

of

in

of

or

,

it

of

of

cations traced between the appearance Pamela and that Sir Charles Grandison would found that one two more works fiction the epistolary form are present Bibliography Epistolary Fiction each year 217 the time we reach the decade 1760 we find least one author Mrs Frances Brooke who like Richardson used the any other letter form the practical exclusion her output year novels and the fiction 1763 least prevalent one quarter the epistolary form the letter novel becoming this time that often the statement so

79 ,

.

of

to

in

a

, ,

of

,

is

an

.

de

.

,

to

its

is

the reader may know that here pages Of significance the fact that during this and the following decade translations French epis appear English began tolarian Mme Beaumont along with the translations other French epistolary works

be lured

themselves

,

be

which

,

of

,

necessity

of

of

,

of

which must

the books the titles been found examined .

have

-

,

of

an

of

calculation

or

,

of

based upon

the fact that not

all

This figure

tive because been discovered

is

so

to

%

of

,

,

is

It

not however until the beginning the decade 1770 the flourishing the novel that we are overwhelming able find indication the popularity the third decade

tenta have

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

101

1800

of the epistolary

novel as that which lies in the presence of works of fiction among a publication of twenty -six novels the year 1770 The year 1771 brings one the two three greatest epistolary novels the eight eenth century after the novels Richardson The Expedi Humphrey Clinker by Tobias Smollett The very tion important fact that author Smollett chose the epis of

of

.

as

an

so

as

tolary

,

,

of

of

of

or

.

us

epistolary

for

eighteen

.

at

at

a

its

,

,

to

it

.

in

of

to

is

of

in

be

at its

of

is

the form this novel instance that the letter form height narrative was rapidly approaching this time height That the novel letters should time sensibility extremely when the novel sentiment and popular seems sufficient indicate that the form and the spirit the Richardsonian novel were taken over into con temporary fiction say however combination Suffice in

,

at

a

to

,

of

,

in

of

be

is

an

,

,

that were this not true there would still remain truth admirable and con the statement that the letter itself whereby deepest venient means the sentiments and sensibili presented ties characters may and that the letter least the eighteenth century was likely be delving into

.

it

of

to

, ,

to

,

,

continuance

, of .

first

a

,

, ,

a

a

the decade something year 1785 still presents

of

the sentimental epistolary

,

of

The

at

-

,

popularity

.

its

in

marks

especially

letters the very end

and toward

cline

1780

89 ,

,

novel

in

the

decade

new

,

The

its

at

,

its

in

is

It

.

in

of

,

it

,

de

,

In

.

the most secret soul the writer Henry 1777 Mackenzie like Smollett succumbed the epistolary craze and put Julia Roubigné into letters This height but be noted represents sentiment likewise plot points forward the luridness the school terror the following year 1778 that another great epistolary novel appeared Evelina by Miss Frances Burney

de

preva

the novel

in

,

)

lost but modified

,

,

if,

-

.

on

go

to

not

of as

is

It

-

sentiment

is

of

.

in

in

(

which

in

of

1786

as

after

is

,

of

of

novels

but

,

letters

of

sentiment and about half them are the epistolary mode suddenly goes out fashion and used decreasingly the years Seven teen hundred eighty five would seem be the turning point the epistolary tide almost with the now rapidly growing popularity the motifs terror fear and horror

lence

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

102

the most fitting mode of presentation of the material the public wanted most to read . Certainly the letter is scarcely the most admirably adapted medium for the telling of a tale that depends for

of letters was no longer

and often irrational

sudden

of

climaxes

considered

presented

events

in its

form

on

the

be

is

it

its

to

in

so

a

of

to

of

,

, its

,

for

by of

a

is

, it

of

.

,

it

Again when the form action said that the epistolary novel passed suddenly out fashion must remembered beginnings popu sway peak that held from the larity many years over forty years and that period long one for any single mode remain prevalent the

, ,

,

;

in

's

of

,

,

.

,

,

in

no

by

writing

is

where the new ever being sought after even the most conservative Yet the epistolary form was means entirely abandoned for we have for instance 1787 John Heriot The Sorrows the Heart 1790

field

a

in

; or ,

,

; of

of

a

in

.

,

,

a

,

,

'

D

of

,

,

;

in

1793

by

,

of

Letters

of to

Albert contribution the Marcus Flaminius View the Military Political and Social Life the Romans Series Letters Ellis Cornelia Knight 1796 the American Arcy by Charlotte Smith edition The Confidential Werther series

.

its

to

)

(

by

of

,

in

of

,

stated

to

of

already been

the example

it

was the tremendous power Richardson that made possible the epis tolary outburst be found the eighteenth century that outburst which took almost thirty years after the publication height the first novel that author Pamela reach

As has

in

of

in

was not his em the vast

pressed itself

in

for

of

in

a

,

;

it

a

of

,

on

.

the reading public We must not forget the other hand the fact that the contemplation and in eighteenth century was century century vestigation that was which there was time thought and for writing and that much this writing ex

,

majority

a

of

,

of

;

of

possible the epistolary form that greatness Richardson alone but the Richardson ployment what was already common desire

of

popularity

it

of

a

,

as

is

,

even

,

,

it

beyond this the fact that Richardson was a long greatness concentrated with his writer the passion the century for letter writing that made the enormous

But

the communication between

individuals by

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

103

means of the letter. Perhaps this was even facilitated by the introduction of the penny post in 1680 , a simple fact in itself . of the users of In passing to an individual consideration personal contributions to that the epistolary form and their divide the writers into the two form , we must necessarily groups into which they seem naturally to fall . They are those who are well known in the literature of the eighteenth cen tury , aside from their use of the epistolary form — the first class : and those who are essentially “ epistolarians” and have produced little or nothing that is not in the form of the letter novel — the second class . To the first group belong such emi nent names as those of Henry Fielding , Tobias Smollett , Clara Reeve , Frances Burney , and so on . Before proceeding to this first group it is necessary , how ever , to make some mention of those epistolary works which were, in themselves , either travesties or continuations in one sense or

another , of Samuel Richardson

's

first novel , Pamela

.

This small series not only indicates the tremendous hold which the first novel Richardson ever wrote took upon Eng land and the English readers , but also contains a burlesque

of Pamela written by that great adversary of Richardson , Henry Fielding . In 1741 , there were published two Anti Pamelas . The first , published by Huggonson , is titled simply ,

Anti-Pamela and is of unknown called , Anti -Pamela , or Feign ' d

. The

authorship

second

Detected

Innocence

is

: In

a

to

,

a

of

of

of is

to

.

scheming marrying her a

a

of

.

of

a

of

the highspots

as

and presents

biting satire heroine Shamela

wench who deliberately traps her master into fits and deadly faints means series by

.

is

of

of

An

The book

,

Pamela

)

.

1741

,

of

Andrews

,

Fielding (

Henry

so

this series means the most notable largely attributed the wit Apology for the Life Mrs Shamela

that work which has been

is

By

its

.

consequence

all

a

,

To

.

of

a

,

to

,

in

,

its

Series of Syrena 's Adventures , and attempts , through the girl supposed be much medium of heroine Syrena present series adventures much like those like Pamela largely satiric the work the novel Pamela The intent book little 1741 likewise belongs Pamela Censured

The

full title

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

104

of the little volume

gives a much better indication of the tent of the work than could any possible commentary . It is

in

:

and

the matchless just light To

true and

.

set

all

;

and refuted

of

exposed

a

PAMELA

called

Arts that young Politician gether with full Account

in

are

An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews in which the many notorious Falsehoods and misrepresentations of a Book

By

.

all

in

be

to

.

.

to

.

of

in

in

is

;

a

of

a

all that passed between her and represented whose Character manner something different from that which he bears PA MELA The whole being exact Copies authentick Papers de livered the Editor Necessary had FAMILIES Conny Keyber Arthur Williams

Parson

it

an in

to

,

,

a

to

,

.

of

of ,

of

.

to

is

of

.

W

No

.

of

Shamela

?

of

also

be

Was Fielding the author

says



to

of

writing he

In

in

,

of

in

. . .

the latter piece

;

so to

dealt -

First

,

set

:-

of

is a

.4

had to

subjects with which combination Against this there great deal more

or

subject

faithfully

he

a

of

.

is

a

to

question conclusive answer can returned such we can merely balance the probabilities On the one hand there the unlikelihood that man sense and genius would return

1742

).

Andrews

's

as

to

to

that

,



"

;

decently entertaining (

* In

abusive than Joseph

up

,

it

to

in

as a “

;

Fielding re the fact that Pamela had not been discredited newed and persistent wrath against Cibber for the attack upon him the Apology broken wit who knew that he was get money haste would take less time be intrepidly in

.

of

the subject the authorship this squib Brian Downs particular has written with conviction both his work Rich ardson and the Introduction his Edition Shamela

a

c

of

of

in

,

,

to

It

may easily be seen from this how deliberately iconoclastic the little satire was designed be and must necessarily be added that the author succeeded admirably carrying amusing slashing out the intent he had mind even burlesquing the very title Pamela Conny Keyber under which the work was The name originally published has been determined be compound Colley Cibber and Conyers Middleton the two names reported both which men Fielding have despised On

draw

the mob after

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

105

superiors ,

etc

, he must

of

B –

. .

the two corresponding of

to

in

was

Fielding

's

of

as

one

"

Keyber of

who has the name canting and detestation



which of

's

Fielding

in

of

(a

Oliver

and

.

of

by

's

of

,

Farce

's

)

first invented

of

that very Author

the names

parallel Tickletext the names Puz Grub Street Opera and Murdertext (

in

Fielding

in

zletext

Shamela

's ,

.

Booby

parsons

;

;

in

Mr

,

,

in



both books

in



;

,



in



of

."

etc

then

as ,

rake the channel and pelt their analogies language such most obviously the use doth and hath and the Quicklyisms the heroine and her mother Shamela which are repeated Mrs Slipslop Joseph Andrews the expansion Richardson Mr into

him

of

;

in

's

to

)

;

own tutors the sacerdotalism against practical piety and honest living which colours all Field ing mature work and accounts for the prominence given Wil liams Shamela the resemblance between the title page first advertised

. . . .5

Shamela and the phraseology with which Fielding Jonathan Wild

Mr

,

— . p L of . .,

,

W

.

for

in

,

is

of

.

of

a

.

form

by

the epistolary

(v

1 —

,

in

,

.

is

,

to

its

to

be

,

so

of on

is

in

)

's

of

a

to

this already

of

of

.

convincing argument the Dampier external evidence letter Cross Henry Fielding The History New Haven 1918 given credit 306 which Fielding the authorship Shamela and We may then rather safely assume the Fielding work that which case that great name only entry epistolary fiction has The delightful Joseph parody again Andrews which sort Pamela not Downs adds

,

,

to

is

of

.

it

's

as

a

a

of in

of

is

frankly undignified boisterous intention unkind burlesque Richardson Pamela and such stands distinctly reprehensible light But necessary say Shamela

(

a

al

,

ix

The

Minority

Press

,

Shamela

,

to

Downs

,

, . .

x W

Brian

.pp

by

,

,

,

Introduction Cambridge England

;

of

.

,

to

of

as

in

,

as

.

its

of

of

,

in

of

)

's

it

is

the book that the only one the several works aside from Fielding own Joseph Andrews that hinges upon the immediate existence Pamela Pamela rather than new experience literature and that reveals itself any quality basic creative own The author has followed the outline the original story with careful one might mọst say with brutal fidelity He has lent the darting gleams satire most the salient points has twisted the char

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

106

,

acters and their motives to suit his own destructive purposes

moral of Pamela . What he doing has succeeded in is to create a short comic poem in , prose conceived in so witty , so vigorous , and so speedy a vein at its

and has made mocks of the basic

.

by

is

in

much

the

journal by

a

is

The whole book characterized pious and uninspired nonsense

.

of its

in

there

pages

of

although

,

the epistolary mode contained

is

.

's

in

of

a

to

of

by

A

.

by

to

as

on

In

an

of

that thewhole attains to a definite distinction of own example 1741 we find the fact that least one writer was poaching the grounds already assumed Kelly was Richardson his own man the name sequel commissioned the bookseller Chandler write already parts the existent Pamelao and the result was High Life This largely written Pamela Conduct

in

, ,

.

go

to

.

is

of

.

In of

or ,

in

of -

:

In

of

.

combination 1742 the story Pamela was again misrepresented The True Anti Pamela Memoirs Mr James Parry Organist Late Ross Herefordshire which are inserted His Amours with the Celebrated Miss Powell Monmouth simply another feeble attempt shire This Richardson in

to

or

,

in

,

or for

that there would be little these books were not

it

to

It

need scarcely said necessity make mention

of

be

.

of

of

as

to

is

in

, of

a

to

one better and create heroine the situation one point somewhat similar Pamela order out that vir tue not be found the chief characteristic such girls and that they are usually chiefly concerned with thematter personal and worldly gain

no

the

in

,

of

it

of

's

of

.

,

in

to

be

,

to

,

of

in

,

important part Pamela itself plays especially them the m ight matter form and that not even then be necessary briefly were not one consider them even them sus pected great counterpart and the work Richardson most formidable rival the literature the eighteenth cen tury Henry Fielding who wrote

in

at

Henry Fielding

, . 20 .

1928

p

York

,

London and New

,

Downs Richardson

,

Sarah Fielding was

.

a

,

. W .

B

sister

to

)

's

Fielding

Field Sarah a

the century

least one work the form letters we come first ing possible contribution having been considered

to (

of

those notable figures

of

to

Passing

de

RICHARDSON

FROM follower

voted

of

TO

107

but , unlike

the art of Richardson

of the followers of that author ,

others

1800 so

many

her major works are

of the master . Miss Fielding did not write her more notable novels , of which The Adventures of David Simple (1744 ) , a story with a sort of anæmic only in the spirit

Sir

expressed

in

,

in

,

.

to

a

is

.

,

of

,

of

,

of

to

of

,

in

,

in

of

.

of

a

,

is

Charles Grandison for hero the best known the epis published tolary mode The continuation story this 1747 under the title Letters between the Chief Characters David Simple was written letters but scarcely lends any agreeable distinction the name the author Like the part second Pamela this later work characterized by notable lack action and does not attain the spiritual naïveté nor the pleasing wholesomeness David Simple "

no

of

,

,

his

,

(

a

of

.

)

is in

it

(

of

by

"

is

is

After Henry Fielding there more distinguished occa sional epistolarian than Tobias Smollett who belongs here right Humphrey epistolary novel The Expedition many things Clinker 1771 There are that remain fixed Humphrey Clinker firmly reading our memories from but the great comic creations that remain longest the of

(

in

, , . of as

the

variety

of

, by

a

not the greatest

presents the same story from

an

of ,

to

-

a

is

the greatest

, if

of

be

angles just

It

,

effort one letters

.

in

epistolary

novels

a

,

is

of

,

in

he

to

,

of

a

;

.

of

)

in

,

)

,



and the rogues which the most remarkable amazing are Tabitha Bramble the Winifred Jenkins whose letters are among the most completely humorous documents English literature and Lieutenant Lismahago himself rogue very sort As matter fact there little story this novel what Smollett seems present have attempted and has succeeded admirably this cross section the society and manners the age humorously treated Humphrey Clinker must necessarily considered comedians

a

a

,

in

.

an to

is

of

a

, as

.

of

'

no

is

of

As

so

as

,

,

does that much later work Robert Brown ing The Ring and the Book result the divergent opinions and outlooks the various narrators lend sus tained vivacity and utter verisimilitude the whole There itinerary through doubt that much the book England and Scotland rather than story itself just was Giraldus Cambrensis earlier work the twelfth century

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

108

Itinerary Through Wales , and the later Set in Silver an automobile tour through England . Smollett is thereby given an opportunity to render his own sharp and sometimes bitter comments on the towns which are thus encountered and the petty lives which he seems to have seen in those towns . The device of the letter undoubtedly aids and abets the steady an

the entire work attains and permits the author ground to cover several times which he might otherwise be able to pass over only once . There is little doubt that the rea be for

the high degree

of

to which

flow

not

,

;

,

,

.

a

,

to

is to

in

brilliance which this novel reaches found the fact that Smollett has adapted his form the letter his guiding spirit the comic with the utmost finesse The result may be heterogeneous one but one can

son

in

of

,

a

it

to

of

of

on

in

,

as

,

,

an

it

of

.

a

a

is

completeness about this novel only which few works attain When we are through with any importance we know everyone the book thor accomplishment oughly the side accurate veri similitude and we receive addition definite picture through the eyes life the author enables himself see to

deny the fact that there

of

so

is

in

in

,

is

to

of

.

of

in

so

a

,

of

as

.

his characters Humphrey The strength the epistolary form used b eyond Clinker lies doubt the fact that there little story told the novel and much portrayal character writing could possibly be more and manners No mode admirably adapted the static sort novel than the Another author

of

.

epistolary

, al

ad

.

the fourth exposition

of ,

.

to

moments melodrama The first and the fifth letters are all excellent examples the epistolary manner and should be turned in

in )

,

(

,

of

to

used admirable seem skill that makes it

a

with

to

;

handled

of

most fitting

is

,

and

The

the material and the spirit did

this novel we find the letter

it

In

.

vantage

from

de

Richardson

not

, ,

came

,

epistolary

Roubigné

)

novel Julia

1777 his solitary form

the epistolary

chose

last

,

to

of

.

Mackenzie and Man

be his

(

form

period who

the

work also was Henry Feeling After two novels The Man 1771 the World 1773 Mackenzie published

for what proved

for that

RICHARDSON

FROM particular reason . As

a

TO

1800

109

matter of fact , the author has striven times in this work , and nowhere may seen than in the Sterne -like scoring “ victim ” (p . Indeed the only

for verisimilitude at all

in

be

,

,

of

so

of

in

of

.

)

,

155

this be more clearly through of the word letters the entire novel that are little assistance bear ing out the insistent feeling actuality which the author consciously strives for are those Savillon which somehow

,

,

,

in

is

;

he

.

It

of

-

,

,

,

of

a

to

so

of

to

at

is is

, if

of

.

to

of

.

,

is

a

,

a

in

.

.

as

good whole The author has written vein sentiment sometimes suggestive Sterne The threads moral intimation which run through his story seem come from Rousseau The narrative smooth and full sentiment not over sentimental nor inevitability wrenched any given point the story distinctly the credit the author that has been able convincing work create violence suspicion and pas

heaven

of of ,

Yet the book

it

to

of

,

of

a

of ,

in

. of

is

.

of

to

out the picture jealousy which stands The novel itself melodrama height tragic really dis need the Othello make tinguished None the less the Desdemona like heroine Julia Marguerite rises after the fashion Faust pure into seem

of

's

a

;

,

of

or

to

.

in

to

a

,

to

to

,

in

so

In

of

at

the less emotional epistolary form and has the m anaged degree same time attain honest motiva tion and character analysis not usually be found stories much violence turning Young Lady Evelina the History

sion

a

,

)

. D ’

,

(

,

Entrance into the World 1778 the first novel written by Arblay we come upon work Frances Burney later Mme

,

to

.

Pamela

,

the case with

,

,

is

up

.

and fortunes As

this

,

of

,

is

It

.

, of a

desires

landmark

to

-

eighteenth century

of

is

an

Evelina like the Richardson seems turn almost inevitably the epistolary form the very natural outpouring the feel young girl concerning her plight experiences hopes ings

that novels

novel

to

of

of

of

of

is

recorded

swift

,

the writer

in

observation

the attitude the which she herself

is

The

of

.

a

member

a

is

The book itself revelation largely toward that social class

.

natural

heroine

of

.

in

is

mostly likewise made letters the heroine other people The expression letters could not possibly be more

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

110

bright

,

a little superficially when she re quality veals that woman ' s of skimming over the surface in telling what she has seen . Yet, this occasional superficiality is an integral part of the style of the author , which is char acterized by ease of flight , by total lack of strain , by a light humor and pleasant appreciation of the foibles of human beings . There is satire in this work , beyond the shadow of a doubt , but there is in it also something that is new and

sometimes

dis

strokes

a

has already been several times shown that there

no ,

of

.

of

The use the letter for the purposes highly intelligent the part the author is

it

this novel

since

of

,

the century

on

of

novel

is

of

,

by

of

.

in

tinctive Evelina reproduced for the first time successful ordinary domestic society novel the manners and conduct doing this laid the corner stone and the domestic

is

a

of

;

.

of

a

In

.

is

of

.

a

of

to

all

of

better medium for the recording the thoughts and reac girl young taking place about her than tions that epistolary the Of distinctive interest the appearance Harcourt By Sentimental Novel Series Letters the Authoress

two years after the publi cation Evelina found Fanny Burney new Burney item this work however very different from her better novels particularly Eve my lina Internal evidence both textual and stylistic opinion lacking Harcourt Too many letters are written by the male sex there no Burney study manners the in

is ,

in

of

.

;

is

,

in

)

(

.

,

,

be

to

is

's,

is

. If

and raises hopes that here

is

a

it

1780

,

ascribed

,

of .

is

This

to

Evelina

.

of

of

its

is

of

a

.

to

a

.

in

,

is

by

,

)

of

.

of

is

it (

,

of

,

is

in

of

)

"

of

Evelina similar that the name History Harrington Richardson The Sir William Of peculiar interest the fact that one the earliest Sophia Lee historical novels The Recess 1785 sort spirit The epistolary novel although not epistolary of ("

the Authoress

of

by

an

is

's

of

-

to

,

of

In

.

of

-

no

;

;

no

true wit ever present comic spirit All this against possibility being stands the the work Miss Burney the face this the external evidence the title page does not seem sufficient proof render positive authorship Miss Burney this book More plausible the exploitation explanation that here notable name

book

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

111

entire novel is composed of a single letter sent from Matilda to Adelaide Marie de Montmorenci . That it does not preserve the illusion of a letter need scarcely be said . Among the many novels which Clara Reeve wrote , there are at least two of some importance which are couched in the form of letters . These are The Two Mentors ( 1783 ) and The Exiles ( 1788 ) . The Two Mentors , which is advertised as “ a modern story , ” is a rather successful epistolary effort . something suggestion chapter There is in it of the of the rather than the individual letter , especially when the first letter invokes a joyous mood ; the second , as deliberately , one of melancholy . There is , furthermore , no definite verisi militude as to just when the letters are supposed to have been

, nor does this lack seem to bother the author par ticularly . Likewise , it must be said that there is no " taking the pen in hand ” to be found , although Saville speaks of writing " journal-wise" (p . 132 ) . The book itself is full of the spirit, the society , the beliefs , and the criticisms of the age to which it belongs and, on those grounds , maintains a lively interest in own modernity There considerable sen timent and the work closes with the moral Virtue only thing upon the certain earth 316 which indicates how strongly the Richardsonian doctrine virtue trium phant was holding the fiction the period Certainly the is

.”

"

,

.

)

(p

. of

in

of





is

,

it

in

its

written

all

in

as .

,

,

of

she has proved herself almost good sense learning book full

a

, ,

In

the epistolary medium apt and anyone who likes

in

,

)

(

a

.

,

is

good narrative here and there are but few exaggerated effects When Clara Reeve wrote Gothic story The Old my English Baron opinion 1775 she outshone Walpole

to

is

,

rather

,

is

)

,

not per

is

Cronstadt

novel but

a

(

of

the Count

epistolary

, de

an

Memoirs

entirely

al

in

it

or

is

, ; . . or ,

as

a

it

in

is

by

also epistolary

The Exiles any means

in

reason

,

Clara Reeve for

it .

above

,

and reasonableness should turn present Furthermore there this par ticular novel distinct artistic quality the fact that there indelibly feminine little that would stamp though the male sex once twice attacked with truly feminine vigor Her later The School for Widows 1791 and

112

THE EPISTOLARY

NOVEL

sonal history told in the first person . There are letters from more than one writer , it is true , but there are also memoirs , patches of narrative , letters within letters and , in the very en first volume ( p . 47) there is presented “ A dialogue between

,

a a

As is

,

of

,

,

-

is

,

of

of -

in

its

."

of

of

old

sixty three and his Nephew Uncle , an Batchelor something Student Seventeen The result then hodge podge general effect although the work itself an

.

-

,

it

one the better novels the ultra sentimental school progresses the book becomes less and less epistolary and

its

of

on

in

.

of

,

of of

,

,

,

-p

.

no

is

an

,

an

of

is

,

of

it

at

point more strictly narrative but there which the disappears rolonged space The use the letter for over novel itself moral didactic and sentimental and after recording unhappy ending proceeds slightly into the speculations generation second the possible lot which closes The use the many letters the course

in

,

as a

a

,



in

;

in to

)

(

'

D

)

of ).

(

(

;

to

.

.



its

in

is

of

plain indication the narrative this book the fact that literary the letter had come into own device even the straight novel and that the epistolary fashion was waning one The romantic and prolific Mrs Charlotte Smith has like wise contributed three novels the epistolary catalogue Arcy Desmond 1792 1796 and The Solitary Wan belongs derer 1801 The last novel that period after the beginning century the nineteenth which the epistolary

,

,

a

is

of

's

his

.

point

to

.

.

suggests the dramatist a

certain

June and the letter first disclosed lifting the curtain speech Here we enter Lionel Des

in

The book opens

somewhat

in

a

at

to

us

.

persed

, of

,

,

in

in

as

)

as

in

as

go

(

in

an

.

on

form was distinctly the decline The first novel Desmond interesting preface has which Mrs Smith doubts her ability McFee excuses his choice later make novel well letters the narrative which was her accus tomed medium her earlier work When one has read the book however any thought her possible failure dis

us .

,

to

,

to

of

to

a

at

's

mond life through this letter friend Erasmus Bethel moment when much has already happened which we are made feel from the very opening sentence might have been Although the first few letters al immediate interest

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

113

II

.

,

,

a

to

, us , at

,

is

to

of

all

ternate as letter and answer , soon the letters are from Desmond and Bethel are addressed from various parts traveling with Waverly Volume France where Desmond introduces somewhat late date the two main female Fanny Waverly and Geraldine Verney who protagonists

of

as on a

,

,

,

,

in

,

to

of

even

sensibility

,

(

reason

)

is

no

is

to

though

of

flounder through and the return there present considerable evidence

details

to

In

.

to

to

of

be

,

an

.

is

is

,

of

.

its

for success Even the very outset put briefly but well the exposition and the flow the admirably smooth throughout the work Alto narrative gether the story has exciting first few pages and gives addi proof tional that the letter may used with complete con quickly moving viction tell events when given the proper character use this novel there mass on

brevity

at

its

to of

in

,

in

,

a

D

is

of

them

'

books

.?

.

of

to

Geraldine Verney which she discusses the period survey the and renders criticisms Arcy brief novel letters and indeed seems

that letter from

depend

in

-

a

,

, of

on

.

a

,

.

ill ,

likewise write much When Desmond lies result duel his doctor William Carmichael carries his corre spondence for him We are thus given the chief correspond lively ents this novel and among them they carry fashion sentimental and somewhat Werther like tale Of particular interest the student this period should be

a

is

in

all

,

in

,

see the

is

to

a

thor plainly depicted the story

of

humanitarianism the au this novel and certainly this adds quality which particularly sympathetic able

to

we are

reason

,

of

.

a

us

in

,

a

,

as

.

,

is

a

in

of

movement which Charlotte Smith was one the pio again neers here made clear and all the result rattling good story The letters themselves are not absurdly long and taken picturing for whole they result closely knit and entertaining story Along with her exercise

.

pleasing

, ,

to

,

.

175

vol

-164

XII

, . II, .pp

?

Letter

as

it

in

,

is

of

of

to

",



In

that large group what might be called that authors somewhat less than entirely first rank who have written the epistolary mode applied must be especially noted that this term them turning

minor epistolarians

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

114

although it may mean that they did not stand in the very front rank of authorship during the period , is not meant to indicate that they were without importance in themselves .

As

we

The

Card (an amazingly simple title for a fictional work of the eighteenth century ) by one John Kidgell . As frontispiece to the volume there appears early

as 1755

of a

The grand figure represents a human Creature . The Dart in his right Hand intimates Cruelty : the black spot on the left denotes Artifice and Disguise ; the yellow in his Raiment is a Sign Anger of Jealousy , and the the Flower his feet betokens Vivacity Genius and the Feather his Cap

:

statement



a

.”

the novel kind

,

a

of

,

it

be

.

to

is

;

clergyman Promotion John Kidgell was and thing clergyman no new see the turn satirist may not strictly called The Card although novel

bespeaks

it

in

of

;

of

it the

at

card and under

red

the picture

have

at

,

a

,

is

it

are those which does contain such any considerable extent correspondence which ex

.

a

surprise the reader principally literary

to

;

or is

The work

as

.

nor

events

elevate

in

of

of

is

it,

of

.

so

its

of of

in

to

variety

,

It

.

as

on

so

,

,

in

,

full

a

is

It

. of of a

is

such

,

is its

as

is

of

chiefly satire human foibles trenchant comic spirit satirizes society form the letters Richardson and the the day cunningly taken off such passages that the literary laughed very ball the grand tour and Sentiment sentimentality which freely and that particular form many contemporary writers grip held made the high ridicule The book does not contain subject great

and

its

to

as

so

,

,

the

in

.

,

in

to

,

Frances Brooke

.

.

Julia Mandeville 1769

,

Emily Montague

)

of

a

The History

of

and

in

us ,

is

)

not

epistolarians

(

no

essential

there more constant writer than Mrs Lady She has given The History (

we see

but likewise

the morals attached

the authors here considered

1763

then

presented

as

Of

Here

the letters

.

cidents

depend

to

spirit

the Richardsonian

form

, of

is

life are known

the Richardsonian

in

of

,

,

only

a

is

felicities

of

of

hibits justly many the humors life inculcate some precept which not the less important because object trifle since upon trifles many the comforts and

two

FROM

works which are ,

RICHARDSON

TO

1800

115

despite

their many defects ,

sufficient

to

author of considerable competence . In 1770 she likewise made a translation , in letter form , of the Memoirs of the Marquis de St . Forlaix , to be considered later . There is a certain weakness undoubtedly revealed in the lack her

establish

of

variety

as an

of Mrs. Brooke 's

style , and we find in

epistolary

both of these novels that men and women alike write in the same feminine vein . Especially is this true of Henry Mande ville in Lady Julia Mandeville who , although he is not an effeminate man , betrays an attention

to

details in his letters

which is more characteristic of the feminine than of the mas culine mind . If we are to consider these novels in themselves , aside from their epistolary quality , we are inclined to feel is in them a great deal of ado about very little incident. The plots are somewhat too thinly sustained and the psychological inward struggles are so completely ex ternalized that often all subtlety is lost . Here we miss that element so strong in the great novel of inner conflict and

that there

so pertinent to the epistolary novel , individual analysis , and can only hope that it does exist even if we cannot see it . None less ,

alive , if not vi brant, and entirely sincere , if not quite true . Mrs. Brooke has somewhat more sentimentality in her novels than senti ment , but she succeeds in presenting it with a drooping grace the

that

is

served

with

both of these novels are distinctly

not ineffectual. Both of her heroines are at times “ re , silent , absent” creatures , their " charming eyes ” filled

" a

melancholy languor .”

It is for this reason , chiefly ,

that the heroines ' confidantes , more sprightly more attractive characterizations here than themselves

nature , are the heroines

in

.

of a departure is to be found in Emily Mon tague in the local color to be found in the scenes that take place in Canada , but there is no real innovation to be found Something

in

either of these epistolary novels aside from

this . Both are

written under the influence of the Richardsonian *Mrs . Frances I, p. 49.

1763,

Brooke, The History

of Lady

form

Julia Mandevillo

,

and

London

,

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

116

spirit , and the sentiment which Richardson himself has pro jected finds exaggeration here because Mrs. Brooke lacked the penetrating knowledge of the human soul necessary to explain sentiment convincingly .

has given us, however, two other works in play which letters a large part. In 1760 she published her

Mrs. Brooke

first work , not strictly

a novel but rather a collection of linked by character , Letters from Juliet , Lady Catesby, to her Friend , Lady Henrietta Campley. This is a translation . The other novel of this sort which has come from the ingenious Mrs. Brooke is The History of Charles Mande ville (1790 ) , a sequel to Lady Julia Mandeville, written some twenty -seven years after that novel was published . It is the traditional sequel in that it is distinctly inferior to the work

sentiments

it attempts to follow .

Mrs. Griffith 's The Delicate

much like that ofMrs . Brooke indeed

, almost the

in

Distress

that it

is

(1769 ) , is a work chiefly sentimental ;

closing lines are :

Captain Beaumont

presented

me

his and his father

with

's

pic

tures ; he had before given me Charlotte 's portrait. - Alas ! it was graved on my sad a useless gift , as her dear image is too sadly

such

;

's 's

.

novels

;

the verisimilitude

of

,

.

its

to

of

of

of

.

novel may be guessed at from these lines The letters themselves are Mrs Brooke manner they injecting her suffer from the monotony the author self into all them rather than permitting each individual express the personality letter writer Again the quality letters indicate that omniscient which detracts from entire

in

The

few

heart !

those which are lost

even

.

158

.

P

in

is

.

of

's on

.

.

's

's

to

he

so

to

their destination are shown the reader that must assume the ability read over the writer shoulder rather than over the receiver Perhaps the two most notable things about Mrs Brooke the History Charles Mandeville have but little bearing the epistolary style The first that the little girl the story and never reach

RICHARDSON

FROM is allowed

to

talk baby talk

TO

1800

117

, although it was not until

later

,

the nineteenth century , that children in books were given and act like children and not like miniature adults . The second is that the dialogue in this work is put in quota

in

to talk

tions , which tends

to destroy the illusion of the letter and give something the entire book of the semblance of narrative . Indeed , the whole work is more nearly a series of animated essays on life and customs in India than a novel . Of the books of which we have just spoken and of the epistolary composi tion that need be mentioned only in passing — The Excur sion ; a Novel ( 1777) — it should be said that , though we may disagree with the mode of her writings and even with their ton , we must admire the sincerity , plodding and forthright, and the pluckiness of this woman , in writing so many volumes

.

so competently

An author who belongs in this category because of the importance of a single epistolary composition , a distinguished one , although her Oriental tale , The History of Nourjahad ( 1767 ) , is of considerable importance in the development of that type, is Mrs . Frances Sheridan , important not only be

Brinsley Sheridan , but likewise because of her own significance as a novelist and a playwright . Her epistolary work is the Memoirs of Miss Sid ney Bidulph . Extracted from her own Journal , and Now First Published , in three volumes , and continuation two volumes The Conclusion the Memoirs Miss Sidney Bidulph prepared for the Press the Late Editor the epistolary Former Part 1761 67 The work itself novel sentiment written much the Richardsonian tra dition The story involved one and the manner which the author means letters proceeds through the plot highly mazes her skillful Although there are mo ments melodrama the book and moments which the imagination upon the reader called bear somewhat heavier load than desirable there distinct conviction the presentation here lives which seem be ruled by

of

of

in

in

in

.

,

of

in

an

,

a

'

'

mice

an

to

a

best laid schemes

-

the

"

of

of

,

is

to

is

is

'

dictum

o

,

by is

is

of

in

Robert Burns

an

is

.

)

-

(

of

.

of of

of

by

,

as

,

in

its

cause she was the mother of Richard

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

118

characters are well drawn , especially in the cases of the hero and the Galahadian Miss Sidney herself ; the

men

.” The

letters are exceedingly well composed and are full of a lively verisimilitude ; the plan of the whole story is executed with forethought and care . Undoubtedly , this is one of the best of the lesser novels of the day . Mrs . Sarah Scott has contributed at least two epistolary attempts to the literature of the period . The first is , A De scription of Millenium Hall , and the Country Adjacent : To gether with the Characters of the Inhabitants , and such his torical Anecdotes and Reflections , as may excite in the Reader proper Sentiments of Humanity , and lead to the Love

; the

The Test of Filial Duty . In a Series of Letters between Miss Emilia Leonard , and Miss Arlington Charlotte . A Novel ( 1772 ) . Millenium Hall is not a novel and it is not , strictly speaking , epistolary . It is , rather , a description and a series of histories presented in such form that they seem to be told in the course of a long second

is

am

(1762 )

Sir "

of Virtue

.”

as

,

,



I

,

)

1

.

of

.



"

sir

a

of

of

is

an ( p

is

.

)



.

(p

"

letter addressed to “ Dear and concluded Sir 262 The device obvious one and we may well read for dear the words dear reader The effect scarcely that letter The Test Filial Duty presents one the few novels

.

is

,

al

.

of

,

to

.

of

,

in

in

a

is

,

it

,

in

.

of

a

,

to

,

14

to

,

5

is

of

of

among these many the fictional time which dated Here January the time the book 1769 November 1769 device which must have added considerably the immediacy scarcely the story Certainly however fictional necessity the epistolary story The early letters this work are very serious and sober and one feels are moralizing sermons Like Millenium most the mood Hall they are meant perhaps evoke the proper human Again

,

in

,

,

.

the readers

in

of

to

of

as is

,

is

,

to

.

us

in

in

the hearts

novel

to

a

we have

in

this work which nothing happens and any news we get comes third hand The letters themselves are rather composition stilted but once we become accustomed the style we find that the substance superior far that the many lesser novels letters just the element common sentiments

FROM

RICHARDSON

more distinctly noticeable

sense

TO

1800

119

once we become accustomed

the author indulges. Mrs . Scott is here revealed as an author of little power, but of much homely sense and considerable ability to express her self within the limits of the letter without once exhausting the infinite possibilities of the letter form . · Because of their relationship , it is well to consider the epis tolary works of the Minifies and the Gunnings within close range of each other . Miss Susanna Minifie (later Mrs . Gun ning ) wrote many novels , both by herself and with her sister , and she is of considerable individual importance as the pos the over -moralizing

to

in

which

sible nominal head of this writing tribe. The epistolary works the Miss Minifies are , chiefly , the Histories of Lady Frances A — and Lady Caroline S ( 1763) ; The Picture , a Novel ( 1766 ) ; Barford Abbey : A Novel in a series of Letters ( 1768 ) ; The Cottage , a Novel: in a Series of Letters ( 1769 ) ;

of

be

. as

in

of

,

of

of

is

at

is

of

of

is

.

of

;

or

of

all

of

of .

to

in

of

air of

as

, be

so

to

of

as

of

by

.

,

,

,

to

,

of

all

these

at

( 1780 ) ; and Coombe Wood (1783 ) . the third fourth fifth and sixth may tributed Miss Minifie alone Coombe Wood may be con representative sidered these novels the Miss Minifies Here the author follows the frequent custom the day wanting known the editor the letters instead their author thereby lending the verisimilitude which anxiously sought after was most the literature the midcentury According epistolary the method there no obtaining this conviction reality than by the other way editor having under his thumb the letters the time arranging the series thereby he given his writing knowledge making all that has occurred He not use

The Count de Poland

Of

an

he is

of

,

told

an

the very thinnest in

;

of

on

.

is

Minifies are generally built plot and material the stories are

the Miss

sorts

.

of

"

be -

-

-

-

of of is

"

is

in

.

of

,

of

essentially the omniscient point view but intimate and confidant the characters involved Coombe Wood somewhat too consistently written the sensibility Much all will soon over style the novel over hectic and too consciously sentimental and the style peculiarly stilted and artificial the whole The novels

involved

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

120

manner , and the chronological order is not followed with the strictest accuracy ; indeed , the time element rarely enters as such into these novels which seem to be cast in a perpetual eternity of night and day , though certair . ly some wrenching

of the element of time is always allowable in the epistolary work . As epistolary efforts in the purely mechanical sense , these novels mark no advance , but rather a step backwards from the work of Richardson for , although they present the letters of several groups, there is seldom offered a letter in return to any already written . When we turn to the Memoirs of Mary , a later novel ( 1793 ) , by the now Mrs. Gunning , we find that the author has developed a further knowledge of the epistolary style in which she worked so much to enable her to present occasional , even replies . Thus, Letter V is sent in answer to Letter though Letter IV is permitted to intervene for no obvious reason . There is a distinct improvement in style , likewise ,

III

over the earlier novels and , although events happen with an amazing slowness , the work is done in a smooth manner and the descriptions of people therein are especially clear and

convincing . Working with a story that is so definitely auto biographical as is this , Mrs. Gunning could not have chosen

is of

.

of

a

as

of

its

a more satisfactory medium than the epistolary . The novel itself is distinctly one in “ letters and narrative ,” a form that grew somewhat popular as the century advanced to close sort last flourish the epistolary style The portion

is

,

,

is

to

It

.

-

a

as

, ,

)

,

a

to

to

an

at

of

or

(

's

of

is

a

is

in

in

is

it

the case later

as

journal good length written Sir Walter Scott Redgauntlet 1824 but journal diary style not written the all and seems be exact complement and supplement the let ters that the heroine earlier wrote her grandmother and pseudo journal interesting therefore only note how

the novel that

's

.

a

in

,

.

by

of

a

of

be

to

in

in

at

of

,

in

or

one two innovations this book Joseph Conrad point midway technique introducing characters through certain events they appear the story which Gunning anticipated seems somewhat Mrs here giving block her method antecedent events returning ever

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

121

1800

,

,

.

a

of

,

of , is

of

a

in

of

.

is

in

as

all

to and proceeding with the story and then giving somemore antecedent events . Again , Mrs . Gunning makes use of the very unusual device of giving only extracts from a letter in stead of an entire letter , as in Letter XXXIII ( volume III ) . In short , the author has learned well the epistolary mode . The Gipsy Countess (1799 ) , the work of Miss Gunning , is a work in letters in which the letters themselves do not seem to be such , but are journalistic in tone. Miss Gunning undoubtedly wins for herself in this novel the distinction of being the most long -winded writer in the eighteenth cen tury after Richardson himself . Moreover , as one proceeds through the story there appears to him to be less and less ex cuse for letters as the medium in which to present this novel . Lady Julia tells her history in short snatches , each snatch con stituting a letter written to her brother in India , when could have been well accomplished one large single peculiar packet The narrative itself somewhat Con writing radian mixture the present the present and the present retrospectively considered and the result the highly point impression creation artificial At one in

is

a

is

so

it

in

of

a

to

of

of

in

of

.

.

is M

lish

.

a

literary medium dominant use Eng author French blood who wrote his novels Treyssac Vergy epistolary Pierre Henri de His first

An

as

its

a

,

of

,

.

is

single indication course but the pristine grip fact that the true epistolary form was losing itself

form

This

author write story letters for thought the inevitability the to

attempt

own sake and with

no an

its

inadequate

of ,

a

to

at

.

is

of

)

(

,

of

Letter XLII the intermingling the story the present with the story the past becomes confused that the reader loss make out just what that tak ing place Altogether The Gipsy Countess represents very

deed

;

)

72

-

(

,

us

of

or

;

.

of

, ”

to

,

on

.

A

,

of

,

a

of

, : de "

of

in

in

novel appeared 1770 Henrietta Countess Osenvor Sen timental Novel Series Letters and the caption the goes far title page Love and virtue held the pen tell Vergy chiefly wrote Other epistolary novels what this Lady author are Mistakes the Heart the Memoirs Caroline Pelham and Lady Victoria Nevil 1769 Palin

THE EPISTOLARY

122

NOVEL

ode ; or, the Triumphs of

Virtue Over Love ( 1771) ; and The , ; Lovers or the Memoirs of Lady Mary Sc — and the Hon . Miss Amelia B — (1772 ) . Henrietta is a novel of extreme sen timentality in which nothing happens; the heroine does not even die lest the sensibilities of the reader be too deeply shocked . The whole is a sort of analytical spiritual argument the faintest suggestion of plot occasionally inserted . Again , the letters are such in little more than mere designa

with

is somewhat more sprightly , overweight any but does not bear of animation . Most of these novels are alike in being static and artificial but, despite the tion

. The Mistakes of the Heart

fact that de Vergy was anathema to the reviewers

of his

day,

they are scarcely more mediocre than many of the lesser works here considered . Helen -Maria Williams has contributed Anecdotes of a Convent (1771 ) ; Letters between an English Lady and her

Friend at Paris ( 1770 ) ; and Letters Written in France in the Summer of 1790 . To a Friend in England ; containing vari ous Anecdotes relative to the French Revolution , and the Memoirs of Mons . and Madame De F — ( 1790 , vol. , 1792) . The nearest approach to a novel among these three is the

II

Anecdotes of a Convent , but all three are rather works of an experimental nature , more nearly allied to the epistolary outposts preceding Richardson than to works of a fictional

nature . William Damon

Renwick

is the author of

and Celia . In

a

Genuine

Distresses of

Series of Letters , between

the

late

General Crawford , Sir John Huffey Delaval , Bart. , Sir Fran cis Blake Delaval , K .B . , and two Unfortunate Lovers ( 1772 ) ; and The Solicitudes of Absence ( 1788 ) . Both are novels of sentiment. The latter , however , departs from the purposes of the novel in letters to a considerable extent. It opens as an autobiography and continues as a straight narrative (despite the fact that it is in letters !) . The insertion of so many verses , likewise , tends to make the whole rather gauche as a nar rative . The letters , and there are many of them , seem to be written at random , serving no particular point and achieving

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

123

1800

end. The narrative , at the beginning

no particular

, ex its

a

;

.

in

(

,

.

(

,

in

In

a

of

as

,

in

of

excellently

plot

)

,

of

little encumbrance

themselves are

and the letters

the roles and the styles the language trifle too

fitted Perhaps

to

that there

is

is

,

to

a

of

.

to

it

of

is

,

of

)

(

;

of S. J. .

is

, ) of

)

of

)

( of or ,

;

(

of ,

A

of

to

,

of

.

'

d

, sets

to

of each the letter that is to follow and tries to give it raison être The procedure seems original certain originality tent but the lack result does not warrant such which only serves ruin any apparent verisimilitude minor epistolarian considerable éclat Pratt Pupil Courtney Melmoth the author The Pleasure 1777 The Tutor Truth 1779 and Emma Corbett the Miseries Civil War 1780 all letters All three these novels are considerable interest but the last and perhaps the best particular note because concerns itself with the American Revolution Pratt himself seems have been man considerable wisdom and result things good this we are able find some his novels good simple Emma Corbett the narrative the sense chapter

is a

so

.

,

form

fervor

by

dramatic

,

in

of

in

of

the epistolary

of

This author has made excellent use Letter LVIII he achieves real

and

,

, of

of

be

to

a

as

is

is

by

.

the several personages literary and thus detracts from the liveliness the work but frequent gleams this relieved humor rather more usually humor indeed than found novels definitely sentimental turn are these Pratt

It

.

individual interest The different

we feel any

such

event

, .

significance

an

its

Nor

presence

an

in

the the epistolary

very

of

.

it

just happening

of

from

were

do

of

to

of

is

it

Aside

if

wrench

believing

in

gressively

as

to

of

.

in

of

means his skill the use of the letter makes the reader ability see clearly the advantages the epistolary style and lend verisimilitude the description event pro

Emma Corbett

sides which

Emma

Civil the novel much girl War literature America which the Southern lover almost always the Union army Indeed the favorite after the

's

.

,

,

in

,

is

is

;

.

of

an

have

of

the novel sentiment love barred with obstacles the girl being the usual obstacle and here we The novel itself the formula excellent example

the father

of

theme

of

in

is

in

and her father take pattern

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

124

pseudo -historical , and it presents one ances of General Washington

in

of the earliest appear fiction . Certainly the melo

dramatic tone is fully present in this work ; the sudden meet ings , greetings , and deaths are remarkable , and the piling of one incident upon another is exhausting . Although the sen timent of the story may point to Richardson , the general method employed here by Pratt would seem to be that of

the use of one detail of narrative after another . In is true of almost all of the writings of Pratt in the field of fiction . On the other hand , the epic sweep of Fielding and the minute dissection of Richardson are alike lacking in this particular author . Another quite prolific epistolary novelist is Mrs . Cart wright, who has contributed : The Generous Sister . In a Series of Letters ( 1779 ) ; Letters Moral and Entertaining ( 1781 ) ; The Duped Guardian ; or , the Amant Malade . In a Series of Defoe

,

in

deed , this

.

is

-

of

by

, .

of

ilk

Letters (1786 ) ; The Platonic Marriage. In a Series of Letters ( 1786 ) ; Retaliation ; or , the History of Sir Edward Oswald , and Lady Frances Seymour ( 1787) . Of these , the Letters Entertaining belongs in this category , scarcely Moral and primarily since it is not a work of continuous fiction , but belongs rather to the the pre Richardsonian collection letters The most notable work Mrs Cartwright Re



in

in

(

,

of

.

of

or

.

in

is

, of

of

the field

of

.

.

in

ing interest

IV )

)

,

by

,

of ,

(

; to

,

a

a

to

in

,



,

-

-

to

.

at

.

a

of

novel much sentiment many flaws and endless may judge picking letters One the length these letters random Letter XXVI volume III extends from page page 158 extends sixty two Letter XXXI volume page fifty page presented from four 147 with several continuations device which was anticipated Evelina slight extent and Richardson likewise There are also Retaliation shorter letters some ten twelve pages degree judge thereby may verisimilitude this the One scarcely novel attains Mrs Cartwright more than pass taliation

epistolary

fiction

the flu

despite

Syntax than for his epistolary novels

for

,

more important

which

,

Dr .

his writing

of

is

.

ency with which she has written Of similar degree William Coombe

RICHARDSON

FROM are : Letters

Supposed

TO

1800

125

Written by Yorick and

to have been

of

ity

Eliza (1779 ) ; Letters between Two Lovers and their Friends ( 1781 ) ; and Original Love Letters , between a Lady of Qual of

,

)

(

.

"

"

a

ter -

in

, of

.

no

of

a

,

and Person Inferior Station 1784 the last which embodies something new theme The novels them particular distinction selves have Of infinitely greater importance the pageant the let

at

;

)

(

;

of

)

(

The novels this author are Bage has attempted use the to

.

form

sentiment

.

scarcely novels

epistolary

of

,

in

are

)

(

1788

)

(

;

:

of

in

is

novel the eighteenth century Robert Bage least four whose works Mount Henneth 1782 Barham Downs 1784 The Fair Syrian 1787 and James Wallace

of

is

It

.

,

to

as a

interesting social force and has succeeded well d espite Bage are observe that the fact that these novels

novel

)

;

,

.

he in is to

lie

to

Is

,

. ,

on

.

,

as

,

is

)

of

of

a

something

(

,

As



all

(

Is

As

for “



or ,



of

of

,

in

written letters the epistolary novels wane with the vogue just the social type Bage tried for works write The basic motivation his work seems the two words perhaps bet amuse and instruct and even though ter known his Man He 1792 and Hermsprong Man He Not 1796 his epistolary efforts hold their own with but his best novel Hermsprong Bage defi nitely society and student such his novels take

,

it is a

,

of

to

.

,

by



to

a

, .

to

of by

to

a

of

. fic is

,

in

is

as

.

be In ,

he

. (

is

In as

in

-

of

it

,

)

so

by In



hastening the narrative occasionally means straight narrative prose He does not indulge passage replies any great extent but he makes letters defi

titious and in

a

to

of

is

in

is

,

In

of

propaganda the tone addition this writings there humor almost all these quality that certainly not the dominant force the epis tolary novel especially when too closely allied often with the lack humor too much sentiment his Bage always letters tries for verisimilitude and when has Frenchman writing letters the case The Fair Syrian he inserts much French this particular case the result might exactly not what desired The conventions tion require not too many excursions into foreign languages another respect the author adheres these conventions omitting publish certain letters that would be repe tendency

THE EPISTOLARY

126

nite effort

NOVEL

establish the personality

to

of the individual writer

the letter he or she writes and , in The Fair Syrian espe cially , the characterization he thus obtains is splendid .

in

of

Whatever may be the faults grammatic

Bage , his crisp

,

epi

often

style is sufficiently

degree that other

,

even

alive to hold our interest to a better , epistolarians , do not attain to

in their works . Four other names that require individual mention here are those of William Robinson , John Potter , Mrs . Charlotte

su easily

Lennox , an author of considerable worth who did not do her best work in the epistolary field , and Mrs . Mary Robinson , she who was the celebrated " Perdita ” Robinson . William Robinson wrote two epistolary works : Love Fragments . A Series of Letters (1782 ) and Sydney St . Aubyn .

In a Series of Letters ( 1794 ) . John Potter wrote The Virtuous Villagers . In a Series of Letters (1784) and The Favourites of Felicity . In

a

Series of Letters

( 1785 )

. Charlotte Lennox wrote Eu

(1790 ) . Mary Robinson wrote The Shrine of Bertha . Series of Letters ( 1794 ) ; The Widow ; or, A Picture of

phemia

In

a

Modern Times . A Novel. In a series of Letters ( 1794 ) ; and The False Friend ; a Domestic Story ( 1799) . Among these several works there is little of real epistolary interest. The Favourites of Felicity is a light, sentimental novel in three distinguished by occasional glimpses of humor . It concerns itself , from time to time , with a timid sort of social criticism and bears heavily upon France and things French for material The letters are unbelievably long and extend

.

its

volumes

Any verisimili unanimated description might pitifully thereby possess tude which the novel swamped not entirely annihilated Even Euphemia the author The Adventures Arabella The Female Quix day work which was distinct innovation ote 1752 Mrs epistolary novel better than passing fair

,

by

in

,

.

In

. an

be

its

; or ,

of

no

a

a

,

)

an (

is

of

.

if

is

.

of

over many pages

to

.

of

by

a

,

to

's

,

is

Robinson The False Friend there seen interest ing attempt use letters for the purely domestic novel the matchless Evelina Yet the vogue introduced form

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

127

none of these serves to advance or distinguish the epistolary mode as do many of their predecessors . Aside from these, two works , both dated 1790 , have been assigned to Mrs . Radcliffe , and deserve passing mention . They are : The Fate of Velina De Guidova ; and Radzivil . There are , beyond the writers already presented , a number of authors , mostly minor , all of whom have contributed but

single work (or, at the most , two ) to the epistolary cata logue . There are over forty names to be considered here. It is not to be thought that all of these writers are one book writers ; they are , upon the whole , merely the writers of but one epistolary work to be recorded here . The first of them is , by reason of the date of his work , John Cleland , the author of the Memoirs of Fanny Hill (1749 ) . Mrs . Seymour wrote , in 1753 , The Conduct of a Married Life. In a Series of Letters , and James Seguin published , in 1755 , Letters of Princess Zilia to Prince Aza of Peru . John Langhorne 's The Correspondence of Theodosius and Constantia (1765 ) , is a limpid and graceful work in many respects , but seems to be comparison fashioned even with other works own period The History Alicia Montagu 1767 comes from Mrs Jane Marishall novel very much time which the author makes use the already famous name Montagu and creates work that may be related Mrs Bennett Agnes Courci far sentimentality ardent concerned represented Richard Griffith The Gordian Knot 1769 Mrs Skinn by The Old Maid The History Miss Ravensworth Series Letters 1770 and Thomas Hull The History Sir William Harrington 1771 practically Sir William Harrington sentimental novel of

of

a

in

by

of

.

,

of

-

On the title page the The History

Sir

full

caption

of

this

audacity

:

considerable

author has presented

.

is a

but

in

;

in

; or ,

of

,

of

a

by

,

no merit

as

so

de

a

,

's

.

is

.

;

,

. .

its

in

is

.

to

of

,

its

In

,

of

.

,

in

of

-

old

by

a

the eighteenth

Sir

,

.

of

,

.

,

century

,

even

in

,

by

.

,

William Harrington Written Some Years Since and revised and corrected the late Mr Richardson Author may thereby Charles Grandison Clarissa etc We see that

there were those who were

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

128

above trading on

not

famous names and , since Richardson

was at this time not alive to defend his reputation , the au dacity of the author , Hull , is both patent and reprehensible . He was , however , sufficiently dealt with by the reviewers of

his

day . 10

. de Guys is here represented by A Sentimental Journey Through Greece , in 1772 , patterned after the famous work of Sterne of similar caption ; Mrs . Fogerty by Memoirs of Colonel Digby and Miss Stanley . In a Series of Letters , in 1773 ; Charles Johnstone by The Pilgrim , in 1775 , an epis tolary work in the mode of the time which happens, in this case , to be rather a collection of memoirs , opinions , and ad M

ventures than

ters , in

a

novel ; and

R

. Roberts by The Peruvian Let

came Mrs . Griffith 's The Story of Lady Juliana Harley . A Novel , in Letters ; John Seally ' s Loves of Calisto and Emira ; or , The Fatal Legacy ; and Menella Bute Smedley 's The Maiden Aunt. The year was a rather slim one, perhaps because of the American Revolution , and Miss 1775

. In

1776

Smedley ' s novel is only another piece of sentiment and in trigue . Mrs . Griffith 's work is of considerably greater merit . The History of Miss Temple , by Miss Rogers , came in 1777 , and Memoirs of the Marchioness de Louvoi, by Lady

Mary Walker , belongs to the same

Of particular Jr., by Thomas

year . interest is that curious volume , John Buncle , Cogan

, published

in

1778 .

The

story , what

of it , starts , oddly enough , with the ninth letter. In , deed this book is not a novel in our customary use of the , word but rather are the separate parts novelle , each day there is

having

be

a

story

to

be told and some new

philosophical point

to

. This little book of pocket philosophy was put into the form of letters only that it might be in the vogue, for it is safe to say that any writing, in order to " go over ” at this time, needed only to be put in letters ; hence the raison discussed

d ' être for the may be seen

of John

form

in

Buncle ,

this volume in

Preface and Errata

are

10Monthly Review , Monthly Article 31, pp . 262 , 263.

put

Jr . The

Sterne influence

the manner

last ; the ninth

in

which the

letter is first, and

Catalogue , London , Vol. XLIV

(March 1771 ),

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

129

air of general inconsequence , of much ma terial merely hanging together . The book is , like most par odies and satires , chiefly interesting for the ludicrous lights is given

there

an

of

a

by

.

its

it throws on the too popular and too widely accepted ideas of the day . Thus , the fictional rank of the book seems in ferior , upon the whole , to satirical rank brings year The 1779 sentimental novel Miss Nugent ;

,

do

.

,

to

a

to

,

of

,

of

of be

.

's of

a

In

.

)

to

(

,

of

in

.

or ,

,

and Miss Taylor Twickenham The Indiscreet Marriage Henry and Sophia Sommerville Series Letters appear The letters that Sir Herbert Croft Love and special interest for one reason When Madness 1780 are they actually tell each other the lovers write each other the news and gossip the day things which they know will high degree interest and thus their letters attain Usually when two people write verisimilitude each

,

,

of

,

.

to

In

so

is

It

of

.

,

other their letters contain such material even though they many are lovers this which the other epistolarians forget this group seem this single respect then the

is

,

of

Sir

especially

of

or ,

.

a

,

in

,

to

of

;

a

to

's

in

We again turn

of

.

in

Love and Madness are among the best novel almost Richardsonian length Stability Miss Palmer Female The History Miss Belville published 1780 the form which letters and replies them Miss Palmer employs method alternation letters

of

the letters Adeline and James that the reader may not find time become sensibility before he humorously too tired excess engaged This author likewise adroit the handling her plots and there are here four all perhaps five which to

of



is

,

in

same time although

,

we are hereby given

,

novel at

In

.

out

in

every

and

is

almost

with skill and aplomb this given every last letter yet last detail

in

she weaves

,

,

in

."

is

an

of

so

,

between

of

Thomson

the

in

an

,

is

,

at

some distance to

is

.

a

in

of

letter and

must

greatly lowered tension Another weak form here employed be found as

described

necessarily result ness the epistolary

by

conflict

,

in

,

of

.

,

of

,

of

,

enormous amount detail especially concerning the people who figure the vague and story we really see little them The milieu upon the whole the essential element two souls struggling

THE EPISTOLARY

130

NOVEL

the fact that Miss Belville stands always in the necessity describing of how desperate half a dozen men or so are for love of her. This weakness , which results in an enforced ego tism , is , of course , analogous to the same fault in narrative in the first person , or the autobiographical form . Dr. Dodd is here represented by The Magdalen , 1784 ; and Mrs . Hampden Pye by Theodosius and Arabella . A Novel in

,

done with con siderable and it is almost totally lacking , in both depth and action none the less must have proved entertaining most and amusing to the readers of its day be many things timely cause of tart and pointed discussions in a Series of Letters

1786

,

. The

latter

novel

its

,

's

.

of

's

. as

Series Fancy

pages

,

; or , of

its

of

John Dent The Force Love Letters and Miss Lucy Peacock The Rambles Moral and Interesting Tales were likewise pub

the course a

of In in

is

although

of

asperity

,

of

is



is

."

a

Scotch

and succeeded

woman

in

a

.

porating

- be

can

in

"

a

to

,

.

in

;

a

.

bert Mrs Keir was

.

is

of

in

.

the same year Theodosius and Arabella representative Another author this group Mrs James History Keir with her epistolary novel The Miss Greville published 1787 This story was written combat prejudice very frequently entertained early life that none happy one but first attachment Julia Greville the heroine her confidante correspondent Miss Lucy Her lished

incor

.

of

is

,

to

.

a

of

of

."

-

-



-

,

is

A

in

in

of

her novel some her Scotch wit and canniness made the next the last letter this signs herself novel where Lucy Herbert now married Lucy Her no no Stanley The book well written thoroughgoing example and the epistolary novel sensibility

delightful point

of

a

,

the

Heart

bursts

into

of

's

of

find

John Heriot The Sorrows feeling real man hero who provocation much but rather

to

turn a

to

)

(

1787

on ,

We must

,

of so

is

so

is

,

.

of

.

of

of

in

of or

is a

.

's

to

an

,

not too because Harley unconscious relationship Werther Mac very kenzie book He hero the tone whom lends the being the most sentimental novel the probable distinction all the type The exaggeration here one sentiment Again the plot not caricature thin and little hap tears

FROM RICHARDSON

TO

1800

131

by

of

,

a

.

the In

.

is

.

.

of

all

by

almost

to

,

of

,

's

Series

's

Evelina this book Mrs Bennett not such same year Mrs Gomersall gave the world Eleonora

ney

In

's

of of

in

of

,

or

of

as

by

.

is

, of

.

to

its

of

pens that the book seems to have moved forward , as it is read , only in dates . Unhappily , these over -sentimental and over -sensible people do not suffer from mal du siècle . That comes later . Agnes de Courci ( 1789 ) , by Mrs . Bennett , is distinguished by the fact that it is a domestic tale . This does not , however , being full rob letters the privilege sentiment from time time The whole work indeed weakened too many tears and too much melodrama For those who think Fielding represented domestic fiction the trials sprightly society Amelia the adventures Miss Bur

.

(a

to

by

a

II

of

lthough the letters are written by two people opens with letter from Lord Rake James Rat

be

or tle

volume

.

,

is

of

to

in

a

of

A

.

Letters written Female Inhabitant Leeds year Yorkshire book that which seems have been written by one who knew upper society The History Lady Caroline Rivers by Mrs Elizabeth Todd The fact that

.

of ,

in

.

of

is

it

,

is

at

)

to

to

.,

,

anyone other than Caroline Esq the first written her friend Louisa does not help make for variety The story itself lively style not all unusual but told might Lady and Caroline have come out the pages Frances Burney a

.

(

)

in

is

,

.

its

a

by

,

of

,

in

of

an

Richard Cumberland was author considerable popu larity century eighteenth although the and minor nov represented elist was excellent tissue He the epis tolary category but single work Arundel 1789 This a

in

in

,

,





to

of .

set

is

,

in

of

in

so

"

"

of

a

to

,

"

"

is

notable aside from intrinsic merit for the fact that the editor has added his work happy ending told clos ing letter from very much editor reader the tone the closing chapters usual the Victorian novel espe cially Thackeray those Dickens and What admirable

;



;

, ,

, :

is

, ;

in

with

a

thoroughly stereo obstinate father the faithful villain the usual vivacious con fidante and the usual hero and heroine with these people

this work the fact that typed characters the hard mother the rich swaggering

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

132

and with story material that has succeeded

not full of suspense , the author

is

concocting

in

thoroughly absorbing and

a

- paced work . There is here the same good humor and the same largeness of spirits that we find in Fielding , while the occasional mawkishness of Richardson and that author ' s over -attentiveness to unimportant details are entirely lack ing . The clever arrangement of the letters , that is , the ac curacy of letter and answer and the juxtaposition of varying points of view by means of the letter , here succeed in showing its

even

in

in

is

of

of

.

,

an

,

)

(

exceedingly

sen

.

to

letters written upon the sub attempts tragic dig rise to

in

.

's

It

timental and artificial novel ject man unfaithfulness nity but stylistic excesses of

1791

is

Mrs Morris

.

,

Illicit Love

by

.

,

of in

; or ,

of

.

the epistolary mode at best Miss Parsons published The History Miss Meredith and the Reverend James Thomson published The Denial the Happy Retreat 1790 The History Miss Meredith merely another those novels sentiment letters which tears violence and too much sensibility are unwisely inter mingled

it in

;

,

in

a

of

,

to

-

an

,

in

.

it

in

of

,

is

,

A

Novel

by

.

is

While

The

Thomas Holcroft appeared this three volume epistolary novel full sen

Ives

-

.

1792

St .

Anna

to

proceeds before the letters themselves extraordinarily static

entire work

,

,

Mentoria

on

a

,

,

's

,

,

or ,

in

an

,

.

in

.

,

its

making merely succeed Englishwoman published maudlin Mrs Rowson who England much America published 1791 Mentoria essay like work the Young Lady Friend letters interestingly opens enough which with Verses Addressed Young Lady Her Leaving School and brief History

represented

in

of

in

. E .

its

or

its

of

a

is

as

its Its

in

,

,

in

of

is a

by

is

Marcus Flaminius 1792 William Hutchinson The Doubtful Marriage opinions and adventures The first mere catalogue

and

1793

.

Knight

by

in

. it

, it

its

of

as

timent and melodrama excessive that combination companion novels most written with firmness higher many expression that places somewhat than the minor epistolary works chief distinction lies com position rather than spirit story Cornelia

not

RICHARDSON

novel . The second is dialogue amazing

1800

133

ultra -sentimental novel with

an

in

of

lot

a

TO

an

it .

FROM

,

a

,

)

to

,

is

these letters that

Har

in

letter that Anna

for

.

of

The style

Richardson

of

the tone

in

much

,

,

.

so

,

out

comes

There

is

of .

in

any place

on

,

:

of

.

a

of

of all

.

tim

(

, In

Juliana Ormeston 1793 subtitled The Fraternal Vic Harley provided large canvas Mrs has herself with plots being run teeming with characters and number conjointly The author uses all the machinery the novel the seventies there are letters villains who steal letters and pictures duped old parents dainty maidens married incorrigible rogues and Yet the style excellent and the narrative runs along without any noticeable interruption

of ,

.

, of

a

,

Sentimental Tale

on in

's

in

,

The Conflict

A

to

be

,

of

's

of

court writes comes out Richardson Miss Howe prototypes stance and the almost all the types letters here are found somewhere Richardson three novels series

Letters

of

of

,

is

an

to

.

)

(

,

of

places the name 1793 Mr Heron the list and despite the fact that she belongs chiefly the nineteenth century epistolarian and not largely the name Maria Edge

. J. , J.

in

In to in

the subtitle the

mixture

.

an

.

A

.

,

,

1796

or ,

;

on

letters

is

of

.

to

,

.”

to

pathetic

of

, up





of

,



of

,

.

by

rather

,

a

conclusion well sustained made memorable the fact that upon the death man she loves Clara does not faint to

works

a

.

is

is

of

is

in

it

,

tinguished

its

by

Man 1797 Clara Lennox dis large amount graceful and pleasing de scription much which far more satisfactory than the story which contained The novel itself sentimental frequent one and the letters are mediocre and rather given pens and taking laying down pens The story tion

The Isle

of

of

belongs

story

Letters and Narrative

.

's

Clara

Founded

.

to

indicated

travel

and Mrs Harriet Lennox The Distressed Widow Novel Facts Interspersed with Historical Descrip

letters and narrative

Lee

sort

Bedford is

's

Clementina

notable because there of

a

.

,

Mrs Morgan

. of

A

by

,

1791

Cambar

in

in

worth appears 1795 with The Letters Julia and Caroline brings year The same Tour Milford Haven the Year

and the

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

134

When his death , which took place soon after her quitting the room , was announced to her , she received it without any of those noisy and exclamatory emotions which generally characterize our sex ; her bosom heaved with suppressed sighs , and her whole

;

frame was agitated and convulsed

on her countenance , and

a settled

is displayed

gloom

her whole deportment

too

plainly an

nounces the poignant grief which preys on her spirits. 11

It may be noticed , of course , from what has been said concerning the sentimental novels in letters of this and the preceding groups , that the sentimental novelists of the eight very fruitful . eenth century found two fields of endeavor Either they chose the amours and courtship of young unmar ried couples which usually ended happily ; or the post -marital

. The plight of among the “ distressed widow " is a rare one these works . The unmarried state seems to be preferred since it is easier to write a plot in which two young lovers are kept apart , easier to invent ways and means of keeping them apart , and easier to inculcate action into such a plot . Of course , an immediate separation after marriage is sometimes used to great advan tage , as is a secret marriage afterwards denied as a marriage all this

comes

what

the

.

of

presentation

might original that the

the fact

,

of

the overwhelm

this period

it

by

.

,

in

,

,

the epistolary novel

a

by

of

be

, ,

be

dispelled English novels

perhaps

these sentimental novels These themselves very repetitious and they

stories were b eyond were that overmuch used any doubt Should there this time

ing popularity

is

jealousy entered

of

as

types

of .

at the man Out many chief criticism

of

couple into which

of

a

by

all

affairs of

to

of

of

to

at

is

,

.

205

.

Lennox

,

.

,

.

.

a

,

,

,

Clara

, II, .p

u

addition

in

in

There were

of

, , of of

in

of

.

such

in

glut the desire translations number Only novels letters from the French the more impor tant these need be considered Mention has already been made the translation by Mrs Frances Brooke published 1760 the Letters from Juliet Lady Catesby her Lady Campley Friend Henrietta The book itself extraor dinarily dull and since the giving histories was this for

letters were not sufficient

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

135

1800

which

is

,

employs

of of

,

in

.

that the earlier work On the other good qualities not totally lacking and

to

is

,

quality

it

journal

the

in

prototype

notably inferior hand the work

of

its

time very popular , the author indulged in the practice to a considerable extent. The book itself reverts to Pamela for

do

bit

, to .

it

since there must necessarily thought be who can care for every that Lady Catesby has and she seems record every thought without due regard importance There this work some analysis slight indication emotions and reasons actions and psychological study but that conflict essential drama

,

biased

, of of

to

,

,

,

so a

,

in

is ,

for

.

to

its

to

,

few

a

,

indeed

egotistically

a

,

is

,

to

,

in

.

is

,

in

,

for

in

of

of

in

a

mastery the author reveals the ability excellent single sentences although vignettes characterizations this may be the power the translator Again there reality lack the fact that Lady Catesby her passion writing letters writes even while her visitors are talking Nothing happens this book and the plot that holds gether extremely thin and the narrative uninteresting and

of

of

, de a St .

.

of

.

,

of

lend the entire novel considerable

.

,

immediacy the feeling verisimilitude

,

,

of

,

in

is

of

.

of

in

.

,

is

,

a

in

utterly lacking even novel even within the soul Lady Catesby herself Mrs Brooke likewise translated another work from the French Memoirs the Marquis For laix Translated from the French Mons Framery highly pitched novel sentiment that moves with considerable speed and couched letters the occasional haste which the broken endings the expression mental anguish and

in

of

be

,

of

(

,

. .

Mme

of

Beaumont are Letters from Young Lady The History of

a

and

of

Lucy

de

French

.

the

Emerance

to

from

, of

)

La to

a

,

.

de

Roselle

le

,

into

of

English 1765 The History the work rather prolific French writer Mme Elie de Beaumont not confused with Mme Prince de Beaumont author Nouvelle Clarisse 1767 Two other epistolary works translated into English There was translated

the Marquis

,

in

a

of

to

.

,

Distinction This Frenchwoman the translations whose enjoy England works seemed considerable popularity sensibility and used the epistolary wrote chiefly novels

THE EPISTOLARY

136

considerable constancy . The letters

with

form

NOVEL attain

to

a

certain degree of reality by their constantly varying length , and those which comprise The History of the Marquis de

Roselle are not only dated , but likewise note the place from which they were written , as well. This is a pleasant episto larian , but scarcely a significant one in the panorama of English letter -novelists . Elizabeth Sophia de Valière , by Madam Ricco Mr. Maceuen in 1772 . This book is sort of combination novel and memoirs , in which considerable sentimentality and emotion , but there

Letters

from

boni,

was translated by

again

a

there is is also present

more than an occasional touch of the French finesse. The letters , too , are relieved of over -monotony by their comparative brevity in most cases . Another rather im from the French is that of The Fatal ; Inconstancy of or , Letters of the Marchioness de

portant translation Effects

, the Count de Mirbelle , and others (1772 ) . This is a sort of combination scandal romance and sentimental novel , and it indulges in an unconscionable amount of self -analysis , pitying type , before it finally most of which is of the self series

is

The effect

of

conclusion

memoirs much more than

a

and melancholic

.

sad

series

of

a

that

of

works to

of

its

Syrcé

.

letters

is

,

in in

to

a

of

.

us

)

,

(

of

Perhaps the most important these translations Dan gerous Connections 1784 from the French Liaisons Dan by Choderlos de Laclos This gives gereuses distinct many respects contrast the English novel sentiment in

of

in

,

to

by

de s .

'

is

of

of of

of

,

It

.

letters contains less actual sentiment less true sensibility and more sex more finesse handling the any affairs sex than be found the English novels the 1780 The proverbial French talent for the handling written

, is

as

of

in

, at

,

.

'

d

et

past mas affaires coeur exquisitely well illustrated past playing ters and mistresses this book their jeux esprits de coeur The English novels the period are

no

is

of

,

a

is

;

in

.

as

in

of

awkwardly and painfully sentimental the pursuit such games are the German On the other hand there real characterization this novel there flood endless

FROM RICHARDSON

TO

1800

" 137

to be found in it ; the carrying on of a correspond ence between people in the very same castle deprives the book

repetition

of verisimilitude ,

and practically nothing at all happens with

an almost romantic monotony

.

Of peculiar interest is the translation , in 1792 , of The Fc male Werter , from the French of M . Perrin . This work , in

two volumes , follows closely the story of the German Werther , making a woman , instead of a man , the chief figure in the tale. There is here endless sentimentality , a plethora of de scription , and a ceaseless iteration of the fatal effects of un requited love . Indeed it would be difficult to find a more completely sentimental representative of the Werter series

of imitations . turning

that large number of epistolary fictional works century to which there have been assigned the names of no authors , a problem in arrangement is again , , faced . Because however these works indicate clearly the rise In

of the

to

eighteenth

fall of the epistolary novel in the century , it has been thought best to have them divided into the products of sepa

and

rate decades .

a

)

in

)

;

(

in

(

by

;

)

(

a

a

to

a

,

to

;

to

;

)

in

(

in

Town 1743 Felicia Charlotte Letters from Young Lady Country the Friend Town 1744 Young Painter Abroad The Letters from his Friends England 1747 Letters Wrote Peruvian Lady 1748

;

or ,

to

all :

in

in

.

a

A

to

six

The first ten years of the beginnings of the rise of the epistolary novel , 1740-49 , the decade in which Richardson first appeared as a novelist , have little to offer us of an anonymous nature. There are some Sephallisa titles Sylvius Lady Letter from the Country her Lover

cially

Richardson

,

of of

of

a

as

, ) ;

.

)

(

found among the precursors

espe

.

in

an

of

59 , .

; it -

in

the travels letters The next decade 1750 shows something increase yields epistolary the form about twelve titles all

,

in

,

at

of

a

be in

pulse

of to

or

,

-

(

The Letters between Sylvia and Philander 1749 and The Petticoat Pensioners 1749 These volumes are taken whole not part the Richardsonian tradition the novel story epistolary letters all but remnants the im

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

138

ten

As yet there is no great indication , however , of the epistolary flowering to come, and with the possible exception of The Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman (1757) , all of the works of this decade look back beyond Richardson . There is to be noticed here, on the other hand , the same prevalence of the statement “ letters of ” in the titles , that was to be seen is

.

at

on

.

fact

-

in

be at

be

to

.

of

.

be

It

of

a

a

observe

,

to is

reach the decade 1760 that we are tremendous increase the epistolary out put during period almost twenty years after the publication Pamela Here there may estimated least thirty epistolary Representativel2 two titles these books may able

not until we

founded 69 ,

of

fiction

,

the colonies

a

in

slavery

to

to

been sent

a

an in

.

of

to

be

years in the epistolary works of the preceding There pseudo likewise found these works some attempt reality Memoirs Young Unfortunate Nobleman pre young man who has tends tell the actual adventures

Sophronia

;

of

)

(

;

is a

the Ladies which

series

she narrates the day The

a

in

Letters

society

to

)

;

of

or ,

)

;

(

;

)

(

;

of

; or ,

a

letters from woman slender story interspersed

,

(

;

Sophronia

of or

of

.

)

1769

(

of of

In

a

)

Le ;

a

In

(

. .

;

of

grove

of

of

)

(

)

)

) )

(

( (

;

(

1762

;

:

Harriet

;

1761 Letters between Emilia and The History Miss Lucinda Courtney Fugitive 1764 The Faithful 1766 The History Miss History Emilia Belville 1767 The Miss Pittborough 1767 The Distressed Lovers the History Edward Unexpected and Eliza Series Letters 1768 The Wedding Series Letters 1768 The Exemplary Mother 1769 The Fruitless Repentance the History Miss Kitty Fever 1769 and the History Eliza Mus considered

its

of

of

.

.

to

,

of

with the events first twelve letters are all from Sophronia and are long and monotonous nor does this monotony change when the let ters begin alternate between Sophronia and Amoret This is

to a

.

,

of

of

to

to

is

It

representative noted that the books here presented works by unknown authors are limited and defined procure them extent by the ability the author this work epistolary

of

as

on

of

at .

an

of

,

be

12

is

.

be

it

to

is

really no one the dullest works kind and there incorporate anything exciting effort made into na guessed ture The result may easily The Letters be epistles tween Emilia and Harriet another example the large

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

139

and for important occasions , in which there is but the most slender thread of continuity , here obtained by means of the two writers , and an even slighter thread of fictitious intima tion . The History of Miss Lucinda Courtney is a good exam ple of the epistolary “ history of the day and is a pleasant concoction of sensibility , mild villainy , and female distress , the high spots of which are a combination of themisfortunes of Clarissa and Miss Harriet Byron . At the conclusion of this

novel , however , the heroine , like Miss Byron , is “ the happiest woman in England ” in the possession of a perfect lover . The letters in which this novel are written are as much like those of Richardson as the author could possibly make them , to

the extent , indeed , of an occasional ing in

symptom

of copy creep

.

The typical sentimental novel of the age is to be found in The Distressed Lovers , full of woes and tears , and ending in the death of the hero . It closes with the significant words: “ To the feeling reader , few words are forcible ; on the un feeling one , the strongest will have no effect ." 13 One may judge herefrom what sort of reader certain eighteenth -cen tury novelists asked and expected . The Exemplary Mother

novel of sentiment, but proceeds with consider able force and employs the device of melodrama , which was beginning to be introduced during this decade . The History of Eliza Musgrove is much more quiet in emotions than portray day the usual sentimental novel and succeeds ing more sentiment than sentimentality likewise rises very moving There sudden tragic climax death that a

on

a

is

.

is

of

. of

a

it

,

on

; ;

of

its

,

;

so

do

,

as

of

it

the domestic novel and ends note distinctly quiet rather than deep mourning one many hysteria sister novels The Faithful Fugitive The History Miss Belville The

that or

something

is

in

of

.

to

It

in

its

of

its

is likewise

Lovers

131

novel

is

of

,

in

the mediocre epistolary

.

The Distressed

of of

example

, .p

18

much

an

as

all

;

of

;

of

Unexpected Wedding The History Miss Pittborough The History Miss Sommerville and The Fruitless Repentance are routine novels sentiment done letters and one

the

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

140

period

as is another . The History of Miss Pittborough and History The of Miss Sommerville are distinguished by a de gree of animation which sometimes passes for humor . They

are all , however , excessive

in

their sentiment and suffer , on too

the whole , from the

.

material

,

fact that their letters are they contain On the other hand they

long for the

all represent of

it

of

,

of

.

as

as

,

"

, ”

is

of



.



,



"

It

of

of

-

79

'

80 s

A

to

.

of

els

-

'

70 s

of

in

,

.

of

as

the epistolary novel was gaining hold popular the mind anonymous novels the Again we see this department notable forward leap the epistolary novel characteristic the and almost soon we enter those years For sixty eight epistolary nov the decade 1770 there are some unknown authorship among the publications the period mere perusal the titles this group sufficient indicate certain facts will be seen that the histories letters and memoirs are still popular and when not the spectacle

the titles often occur the subtitles We see how popular was the use the subtitle itself and especially the history use the particular subtitle The use the frequent and may be found caption series letters of

, of .”

is

",

of

a

in

be



,



,

of

of

.

in

to

prefixed

of

,

.

an

)

,

,

, ”, of ”

to

of

,

is



.

It



of

as

.

(v

to

is

if

so

to

more one look through the novels with their accompanying full titles Bibliography Again many these works are listed novels the word becoming impossible likewise indicative part their heading extremely not notice the sentimental tone most these

time

of





"

,



-

of

of

of

a

,

"

",

"

of

"

,

,

of

titles the prevalence amongst them distressed un happy suspicious unfortunate self deceived and words similar import certainly clear expression the part tendency early this and the the following decade which had been steadily growing for some years since the

)

;

or ,

;

(

of

) ; or , ;

(

as :

A

of

.

Samuel Richardson consideration the books themselves involves such di vergent and representative works Constantia The Dis Quality tressed Friend 1770 The Maid 1770 The

of of

;

)

(

of

,

or

,

or

;

;

)

(

;

Letters from Clara The Effusions the Heart 1771 The Cautious Lover the History Lord Woburn 1772 Female Frailty the History Miss Wroughton

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

141

(1772 ) ; The Double Disappointment ; or , The History of Charles Marlow ( 1774 ) ; The Correspondents ( 1775 ) ; The History of Eliza Warwick (1777 ) ; The Mutability of Human Life ; or, the Memoirs of Adelaide , Marchioness of Melville ( 1777 ) ; The History of Melinda Harley (1778 ) ; The Un fortunate Union ; or, the Test of Virtue ( 1778 ) ; The Letters from Henrietta to Morvina (1778 ) ; Coxheath Camp . A

Novel ,

in

( 1779 ) ; The Relapse

Series of Letters

a

Ring ;

and The Wedding

(1779 ) ;

or , The History of Miss Sidney

(1779 ) .

We may

-tearful

assume the author of the over

Constantia

is

to

-

which the happy ending allowed the period enforced distress The Cautious is

of

an

novels

in

of

that group

a

a

it

of

to

as

,

,

is

a

-

of

; . or , In

in

its

to be a woman . This is quite one of the most sentimental works of kind and indicates that such sentimentality may exist book that aside from that very well conceived and written contrast stands such book The Maid Quality History Lady Lucy Layton which the most self contained and smooth flowing work and belongs

is

.

in

a

, is

a

,

;

to

as

,

.

a

.

of

its

of

.

a

to

be

by

,

a

of

of

a

,

of

in

of

a

in

is

reader after Lover sentimental novel letters which there some something animation arising from the presence like convincing brevity the letters themselves This like The Quality happy ending the ending Maid novel with being praise little eulogy woman and wife and whole the work does not descend the sentimental depths plumbed that are some these novels We may assume the author man Even more surprising than the Cau is

with

a

,

written

of , a

.

tragedy upon their own heads This book reality much emotion tain degree

to

of

a

,

,

in

,

of

so

in

in

style tious Lover the brisk and animated fashion by Frailty diverting Female adorned most characterization the figure the heroine one those attractive and self admirably fitted bring down willed girls novels

cer

,

a

of

,

is

it

to

to

in

.

by

,

is

,

,

its of

its

of

of

to

in

sincere sort sym pathetic general tone and moving with remarkable unhappy close speed all means be named one the very best this group Quite contrast The Disappointment Double one those epistolary novels that

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

142

of repetition

,

in

.

in

of ,

,

)

,

of in

( or ,

been written worse published and the whole three presented 450 pages could have been done

An it

a

as

,

,

,

as

is

, , of .It

its

.

in

is

— such repetition as should be spared really nothing at all to distinguish this most readers . There is poorness hackneyed book except humdrum theme strength and lacking diction characterization and the poor matic treatment Indeed this book has ever is a miracle

in

to

as a

.

is

-

be

is

in

so

,

be

.

,

,

it of

the narrative which makes the whole rather cheaper than would otherwise have been The letters too may said not especially well written and inevitability violently wrenched them that even the happy ending to

parts

a

,

is

by of

in

of

of

other one the less satisfying these novels The Muta bility Human Life which the title used lever effect ups and downs the most extravagant sort The book pseudo religious spirit pervading further weakened

be

expected

.

was surely

to

,

it

though

seems forced

of

, ,

is

to

of

so

is

it

.

is

it

to

.

of

on

to

,

it,

,

in

,

if

,

of

in

is

is

,

considerably more action more social satire and There Camp than there more characterization Coxheath most these novels and the letters are filled with dialogue forgive this we are able the grounds their animation Although this work anonymous the solid competence the admirable characterization the occasional pseudo intimately humor and the fact that concerned with ally war seem the similar work Samuel Jackson distinguished by the fact that certain Pratt The Relapse

,



a

"

as

.

"

, s

's

good

are

,

of

a

is

of

.

;

in

an

.

to

,

, as ,

of

no

at

,

in

of

;

especially

"

60 ' a

50

in

.

,

or ,

liveliness

,

of

.

in

,

.

's

,

of

in

it,

like Mr Sedley and his wife are reminiscent Fielding characters without the rich humanness the latter characterizations We find heroine amongst them who would have the and written her history presents story but this decade she her novel instead The letters are by means the least good features this They convincing very work are times for instance the first letter the series use exposition Its sets forth the interesting situation Miss Hastings succinctly and fashion without waxing too expository The Wedding Ring the History Miss Sidney narrative considerable characters

the

letters

from

Captain

RICHARDSON

FROM

’ Daniel

and Patrick

'Neale

TO

1800

143

(Sir Harry Beaumont )

. The this novel is a welcome relief from the excessive sentiment of most of the novels of thinking aloud quality decade There the let presented precisely epistolary ters here and this what the novel should consist and incidentally why the letter sembles should resemble natural soliloquy letter Woodley Sidney from Miss Miss the letters this lend





a

In

in

88

.

(p

to

.

a

,

re

is

, ,

of

or

,

to

of

a

is

they

,

.

its

slightly picaresque tone

in

O

is by

M

to

,

,

or

of

;

.

,

is

,

of

is

to

a

of

)

again brought volume are not numbered the question telling the reader mind the device some reference missing that such and such letter and does not appear supposed This lend verisimilitude but how can we find convincing the absence this letter that when all the

,

,

an

is

)

,

,

in



of

the author steps down from

,

;

.

three books along with Female Frailty

as

;

so

of

from

of

Clara the usual novel sentiment the heavily woeful overarticulated the form epistles The Correspondents monotonous book too deli cately composed but somewhat surprises reader by the variety letters short ones and long ones being placed form

The only two notable

A

senti

The

His

features

of

Harley

effect

.

an

agreeable

the usual epistolary

is

couched

Melinda

of

,

something

.

of

mental bit tory

its

side with

in

side

by

of

,

its

.

a

,

is

in

here

of

period

is

The Letters

.

of

of

;

of

;

,

of

of

,

these

representative

,

are group the best this are such works The Letters from Clara The Correspondents The History Melinda Harley and The Unfortunate Union representa tive the most ordinary epistolary publications the day as

Just

an

a

to

;

so

,

of

Fielding and Thackeray his platform after the fashion only less effectively forgotten letters are and the result weakened ending otherwise good work

is

Furthermore

,

novel

.

Victorian

in

so



of

.

to

,

of

?

or

,

in

as

(

sionally

as

unless we are specifically told we are occa Dangerous Connections for instance that the destroyed letter has been mislaid All told this ex cellent novel somewhat anticipatory Maria Edgeworth and continues excellent the very end The conclusion has somewhat too much and they lived happily ever after popular later the mode the conclusory chapters the others appear

THE EPISTOLARY

144

NOVEL

this work are that it has humor and that it closes with straight , non -epistolary narrative in which the threads of the story are tied together for the reader . The Unfortunate Union is the Richardsonian impulse run riot in the hands of one who does not know how to handle it . As a result , such phrases as " the pearly drop stood in her eye ” ( p . 319 ) , ap pear too frequently to ensure any real sort of felicity of expression

At

.

to be found among these books in The Letters from Henrietta to Morvina and The History of Eliza Warwick . The former is a very late example of the pre-Richardsonian series of travel letters , this time being of " anecdotes historical and amusing of the different

least two real curiosities are

courts and countries through which ” Henrietta has jour neyed and the letters occasioned by what she has observed .

60 '

s

.

70 ' its

The History of Eliza Warwick is an even more curious sort of epistolary work . After two or three introductory letters in which Eliza is besought to write her " history ” in a letter to her love, the epistolary intent disappears and we have an autobiographical story , or one of memoir type, appearing in stead This form grew very popular during the and

of

of

title and the height Thus .

its

to

"

history

a

preferred was still undoubtedly rising was



s

when the epistolary form

,

,

a

in

us

a

of

wise almost forgotten

an

.



"

,

of

is

"



of

by

,

,

or

of

of

factory

of

a

sort fusion two things but not the satis get interchange fusion that we from the reality people letters between two more We are reminded however the fact that this history contained let my Lord and occasionally ter the frequent insertion the style and the tense verb may remind this other we have here

89 ,

.

fact

,

-

-

,







in

so

,

of

in



a

,



”,

of

,

of

at

.

peak somewhere

as

,

tains the epistolary

1780

as

has already been noted con around the date 1785 During this period there were published least seventy five anonymous authorship among which epistolary novels may be seen distinct decline the use histories let ters and memoirs favor more individual and char prevalent acteristic titles and these three words once The next decade

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

145

leading titles , are now relegated entirely to subtitles or altogether . Likewise the use of the subtitle still re mains popular and the predominance of the caption , " in a series of letters ,” in the title has indisputably increased , espe dropped

cially up to the date 1785 . Typical of this group are such

novels as: Masquerades ( 1780 ) ; Colonel Ormsby ; or , The Genuine History of an Irish Nobleman in the French Service ( 1782 ) ; The Ring , In a Series of Letters ( 1783) ; The History of Lord Belford and Miss Sylvia Woodley ( 1784) ; The Confessions of a Co

or

of

;

)

(

-D

,

;

In

at

.

's

a

;

)

St .

;

)

;

)

(

;

(

a

of

(

a

of

Ill

quet (1785 ) ; The Disinterested Nabob ( 1785 ) ; The Nabob ( 1785 ) ; The Rencontre ; or , the Transition of a Moment . In a Series of Letters ( 1785 ) ; Juliana ( 1786 ) ; The Letters of Charlotte during her connection with Werter (1786 ) ; Or lando and Seraphina ( 1787 ) ; Death 's a Friend ( 1788 ) ; Eliza Cleland ( 1788 ) ; The Life of Miss Catlane ; or, The Effects Hasty Marriage 1788 The School for Fathers The Abbey Victim Curse 1788 Julian Series Argus The House og Eadlip Letters 1788 1789

-D

;

.

at )

(

of

a

a

in

)

in

a

,

as

,

has created well rather sprightly novel three long but interesting volumes The letters are

.

letters

in

title but

he

(

of

.

In

The Predestined Wife Series Letters 1789 Argus The House og Not only has the author Ead hitting upon lip 1789 succeeded quaint and unusual and

)

(a

character and

,

is

Colonel

an

of

romance

in

the picaresque the Genuine History Service which distinguishes of

something

; or ,

There Ormsby

is

.

;

)

.

(a

to

to

rare quality those woman are more sentimental than proper thing long those from man man The story but well sustained the style varies between the didactic and the philosophic to

convincing and true written from woman

in

of

it

in

its

it

of

a

in

of

in

.

a

to

it

.

of

,

of

,

Irish Nobleman the French from most these despite hysteria novels its and welter sentimental love and lifting pages succeeds tears The sense adventure might otherwise above themore mediocre tone which be limited The Nabob has preface considerable interest which the noses the critical brethren are pulled with

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

146

many sentimental novels , so here are the letters the hero and heroine write as sober in tone as those written by their parents . Yet this is a well written novel and , by comparison with many another of this group , is fast mov ing . In addition to this , it has real wittiness and there is little excess of sentimentality . The letters themselves are definitely in keeping with the nature of the characters writing them , and this is as important to the novel in letters as is the keep ing in character of dialogue to a play . When we come to Eliza lively

will .

As in

so

of

the epistolary

is

It

a

of

away from

.

is

an

.

at

its

Cleland we find a book of greater significance than any of the preceding . The novel opens on a pleasant note of con templative quiet and , at the same time , starts to point moral almost once The introduction remarks by the practice distinctly editor unusual occurrence smacks

its to

and

form

of

a

to

a

at

,

of its

to

,

so

.

,

is

is

;

,

is

In

.

of

the influence themselves the remarks are too obvious have much interest Yet this well written novel and greatest defect perhaps the little mingling the sepa plots permitted through rate each wander own blithe any course with astonishingly little reference the others point until they have reached which they fuse only long Fielding

in

of

,

is

it

,

.

an

of

.

,

so

after they should have done This novel too indulges despite excess sentiment the fact that one the better products Evidently the English had not yet learned

.

,

by

it

of

is

,

,

is of

-

that marvelous self control which they later acquired Full sentiment and moralizing some which must be said extraordinarily good The Predestined Wife the au as

is

be

to

on

as

of a

's

so

,

stamped

on

's

on

by

a

,

of

us

is

This novel

and goes far

to

.

Eliza Cleland

the latter

,

as

of

every bit well written convince that the author both must have been woman perhaps most because both feeling that the author books are subtly permeated always the woman side the dispute whenever one violently arises but not the woman side

thor

; ,

a

is

.

sin

"



of

"

“ in

.

in

.

,

a

man The letters here are too effusive the whole and suffer from too much continuation but they the story and are written with skill and are usually superior book cerity again The Life Miss Catlane

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

147

which it opens by having the heroine write to three different people about the same thing seems both in genious and natural , and to this is added the fact that she has the same thing to tell in a way that is suitable to each and the individual temperament of each . Whoever was the author of this book possessed a rational mind, considerable humor , and a sense of the fitness of things . The first fifty pages of St. Julian 's Abbey prove that the author has experience and

The manner

in

that he knows how to write a novel of sentiment with some sensibility , without becoming too exaggeratedly effusive . The title itself is an excellent Gothic one , but this is not a Gothic novel . ( The only known Gothic novel in letters is The Sub terranean Cavern ; or, Memoirs of Antoinette de Monflo rance , 1798 ) . St. Julian 's Abbey ends abruptly , and we can

.

all

not help feeling that the author has looked at his Othello and his Julia de Roubigné; but the story is interesting withal , patterns The letters them even though the characters are is ,

-

.

of

a

be

to

,

-

in

selves are well done the letter and reply mode and this for the epistolary novel the best possible form sentimentality among There seems notable excess

.”

to

,

gusts

's

in

filled with betrayed

of

.

A

and

is is

of

the same

agony

of

and passion

ilk

of

:

of

an

a

is

,

a

Friend

an

is



its

.

's

in

of Its

's

a

,

,

of ; or ,

these novels and Masquerades What You Will ex tremely sentimental telling the dictum that all the stage and all the men and women merely players world chief distinction lies the fact that subtitle and that Night Shakespeare Twelfth are the same The Rencontre gradual rise from excessive misery unspeakable presents happiness through endless maze sorrows and difficulties while Orlando and Seraphina Turkish Story revels suf fering the entire effect scarcely edifying Death which the heavy sighs

.

is



,

"

by

is

in

;

in

a

In

.

to

.

,

in

,

is

of

a

of

,

innocence and conclusory with convulsion sorrow The School for Fa partly thers which one those hybrid works that epistolary and partly memoirs weakened excess sen timentality and melodrama Incidentally the title school popular epistolary one seems have been the eighteenth century 1763 was published The School for Wives with

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

148

published The School for Husbands , a highly senti mental and involved tract against the keeping of mistresses ; and in 1788 came not only The School for Fathers but like wise The School for Tutors . Finally in 1791 came Clara 1776 was

's The School for Widows . Circumlocution is , in addition , one of the outstanding faults of several of these novels , but in none does it find so deep a well and fountainhead as in Juliana. In reading this work , one is not impressed by any excessive length of the let Reeve

ters themselves , because of the length of the sentences of which they are composed . The book contains a great deal of moralizing; much recitation of " histories ,” and a consider able amount of character analysis , but there is little plot and

characterization . It concludes , however , with the triumph of virtue and thereby assumes a sort of sanctity . Representative of the worst of these works is The Ring . This novel requires considerable indulgence , and when we reach a midway point , at which a conversation heard some time before is set down with unflinching accuracy after it is

no real

, that indulgence is likely to break down . Here is a book in which , although there are elopements , escapes and so on , very little happens. The characters are negligible chiefly be cause types are presented as characters . Although not repeti tious , the narrative is long , and one must feel that what is over

told here could easily have been presented in a much shorter compass . The art of condensation was not at this time, how ever , one particularly sought after .

Among these works , The Disinterested Nabob is interest ing chiefly because it purports to portray actual local color , in this case the color of India , while The Letters of Charlotte is important because it is one of that number of imitative novels which were inspired by Goethe 's epistolary work , Die Leiden des Jungen Werthers ( 1774 ) . This English imi tation represents the very height of sentiment and suffers not that but also from the fact that only the letters of may Charlotte be given the reader , the story being thus ren

only

dered

from

peculiarly one -sided . It is superior , however ,

to

The

RICHARDSON

FROM

TO

1800

149

Confidential Letters of Albert , from his First Attachment to Charlotte to her Death : from the Sorrows of Werter , another

link

in the growing Werter series which came in 1790 and Stellins ; or, the New Werter ( 1793 ) which is a slavish imita tion of Goethe , full of mal du siècle , devoid of anything that might prove of potent interest to the reader , and scarcely worth the paper it was printed on . The History of Lord Belford and Miss Sylvia Woodley is representative of a hang -over of the " history " literature in , letters written by an author of obviously little talent in a mode for which he had no real gift . The Confessions of a Coquet is likewise in this tradition , but there is to be found in this book greater variety because of the occasional appear

of brief letters . By the time that we come to the last ten years of the eight eenth century we find fewer books of this group than for a period of twenty - five years or so before ; the publication of anonymous epistolary works approximates but twenty -seven . Among these we notice a tendency slowly rising of the title to stand alone without any subtitle , or of the caption following the title to be simply “ a novel .” We may present here , as representative works , Hermione ; or the Orphan Sisters ( 1791 ) ; Memoirs of a Scots Heiress ance

(1791 ) ; The Vale of Felicity ; or , The Fair Imposter ( 1792 ) ; Belle Novel (1793 ) ; Original Letters of John

A

or ,

ville Lodge.

Sir

(1791 ) ; Monimia . A Novel Sylvan Happiness (1791 ) ;

A

an

.

,

al

of

in

of

)

.

(

)

;

;

a

in

.

is

,

is

is

,

is

too

of

a

on

,

it

its

(

of

)

a

,

in

(

1796

;

Derwent Priory the Memoirs Orphan Series Letters 1798 and Geraldina Novel founded Recent Event 1798 Among the best Felicity which these The Vale though much saccharine smooth and graceful writing pleasant and not too affected Belleville Lodge thoroughly good epistolary novel likewise which the Falstaff

is

es

,

is

in

is

of

,

of

-

of

A

.

in

.

-

in

to

author seems know his way about the medium he using The letter and answer method employed here pecially the first part the book with considerable suc actuality incorporated good cess deal the tone

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

150

the letters of Derwent Priory

;

or , the

Memoirs of an Orphan , Miss Lumly and Lady

in

,

is

,

.

in

a

to

.

is

in

,

to

to

a

of

.

an

at tal

and the epistles which pass between Laura are alive and sprightly with the common interests of two women commonly shared . The author of this book is either a woman or is a man endowed with considerable power in drawing imaginary women from his own store of experience of the sex . There is a great deal more in the trifles of this book , the frills and fancies of life , than there is in the love story it presents which characterizes the usual sentimen breaking off correspondence romance The technique interesting point turn another one used Geraldina Suspense thus created rather elementary but effective fashion and our interest held the story Again

.

,

,

of

in

.

of

a

; as

in

-

,

for

is ,

it .

is

in

of

a

a

,

of

of

a

,

in

is

in

,

of

this novel we see the convention the epistolary mode whereby even foreigners must write their letters English There this book however distinct departure from the convention the novel sentiment the elopement Geraldina with former lover matter which bespeaks the growing freedom women and which would have been almost impossible novel this sort ten years earlier That Geraldina execrated for the act does not alter the fact that slightly old fashioned she did The novel 1798

,

the school

.

of

of

the school the Gothic tale the writing this novel of

to

the time

of

at

which were

or

to

, of

to

of

both

theory

, ,

than

is

its

,

,

since has been shown the epistolary novel had now admirably done Geraldina dis day yet this one tinctly belongs fading the fast novel sentiment rather

form

passed

of

by

,

is

,

by

,

.

in

a

,

is

,

of of

-d

-

or

a

,

as

ay this where more less day employed we cannot expect crystalliza

,

is

of

a

.

a

it

in

is

in

epistolary

novel chronicle method an

in

it

in

"

.

,

"

a

in

a

of

,

as

els

of

.

growing into great prominence Representative the less satisfactory works are such nov Hermione Monimia and The Fair Imposter Her mione has bit the mysterious the finding the manuscript already employed drawer device Sarah Fielding and Johnstone The story itself much which journal form instead told letters most retarded one plethora and there mere talk Of course such

RICHARDSON

.

of

by

,

,

's

any possible

reference the stops here As Geraldina the epistolary novel after the form to

,

,

)

example

its an

but

these two men

height The Fair Imposter makes

of

here

1680

of

of

we see

either

and also

.

genius

Ferdinand Count the heroine The Orphan work

Smollett

of

Otway

Thomas

of (

)

,

1753

(

Fathom

of

the heroine

of

is

that

151

thought . The copy of Mo unopened , certainly an eloquent popularity The nameMonimia

is

on

1800

even

its

and just commentary

, or

TO

in

tion of character , action nimia which I possess

of

FROM

,

is

of

.

us .

a

to

of .

do

be as

to

,

of

in

its

to

of

in

by of

of

;

is

is

of

.

to





,

it

on

.

in

a

of

.

,

is a

epistolary direct narrative interspersed with considerable number letters the course the story given their proper places We may see from this that by the time this novel was published and the epistolary novel was the wane was none the less leaving trace upon the straight novel the form occasional letters used add verisimilitude the story that was being told Another literary curiosity greater interest than this group that the preceding that quaint little work Original Letters Sir John Falstaff and His Friends now first made public

It

speaking

,

a

is

of

,

of

is

at

of

.

us

in

is to

us

to

at

;

of

,

is

it

to

.

of

up

,

so

of

an

a

, 's

of

as

of

,

of

,

of

.

had use two the stock names the eighteenth century Mowbray and Beaumont and the name the heroine Clara Howard the same that the heroine Charles Brockden Brown epistolary novel bearing that name The plot this novel many plays has little except like that recommend right and wrong There ingenious mixing no great conflict no great issue grip stake Nor are the figures impress sufficient stature with their impor scarcely maintained tance and thus our interest them degree that makes care The letters themselves suffer individuality from the same lack the characters Even this late date there found series mem oirs and among the books this decade there was pub lished The Memoirs Scots Heiress which not strictly passed

,

of

In

.

to

IV

by

of

in

a

a

is

a

,

of of

Gentleman Descendant Dame Quickly this thin presented volume series letters and from most plays and the characters that appear the King Henry Merry figures The Wives Windsor which these are re

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

152

loving hands and a knowing mentality . The letters are all written with a subtle appreciation of their supposed writers and a striving to present each after the fashion in which each might have written . Thus , in the let with

of

Hugh

is

,

of

Evans the same sort broken English that appears the original Shakespeare plays

.

use

in

of

ters

made

Sir

constructed

,

of

.

to

in

on

,

of

of

its

;

at

a

as

in

from

. to

continue

to

form

time

time

a

an

as

to

it

,

,

extinction but into sudden abeyance from was leave behind the letter almost indis pensable literary device and the novel literary letters

worked which

not

it

and

,

,

to its

moving

century

,

to

of

of

a

of

enormous and rapid popular peak the the ninth decade the middle sudden decline chiefly because was over

Richardsonianism to

ity

wave

us

of

to

,

of

a

a

in

is

absorbing and lively letters The result little packet figures group which which many are devoted striking resemblance reappears with their originals This résumé the history the epistolary novel the eighteenth century serves show then its rise the tidal

down through

English

.

as

go

in

as

be ,

as

,

is it

as

of

.



"

of

a

of

,

so

as

to

in

a

,

to

to

literature this very present As literary type the epistolary novel may be compared the Italian Commedia del Arte that both the actors along supposed parts they are write out their own play has the parts and lines ready made for the Just actor has the novel the omniscient point view But simulatory easily give may effect the the epistolary novel developing goes along needs and occasions

.

,

an

as

of

an

, of

,

a

is ,

there on

wall and

so

as

,

unseen

just

of

in

the eighteenth cen rarely given his own

. , It

in

,

is

an

, of

the novels

is

-

,

a

of

certain person

novel

Richardson the letter writers who turn

case

of

is

to as

,

,

tury the history letters the recited one

lights make the epistolary novels in

In

the theatre

.

in

are conventions

the epistolary

up ,

conventions

of

are certain

in

It

it

.

'

be

, it

,

.

to

Thus akin the Commedia dell Arte On the epistolary other hand the novel must looked upon principal artificial form sort combination elements acquired taste and for that reason may be gathered from all that has preceded that there arise

usually

communi

FROM cates it further

.

RICHARDSON

Again

,

TO

1800

153

when the letters in the novel reach

.

,

too

such a length that we are made to feel that the character must sit up “ after hours ” to do them , this , we must accept

.

in

is

,

in

as

,

, of

,

,

in

Thirdly the epistolary novel the characters write out their they work out their own fates comedy own fates just strictly Thus this sort novel more allied the broader

of

.

to

of

us

us

to

by

to

be

to

do

.

of

or in

, us of .

of

,

of

is

or

in

,

,

is

.

for

;

of

of

up

to

in

.

to

to

of

comedy than tragedy Most sense the word the epis tolary novels have been seen deal with the events the marriage lives the heroes and heroines that lead Some them continue after the marriage some few start with marriage But the purposes sentiment and sensi bility the unmarried state best adaptable Further than examples type this the best the much the character development revelation made clear means the type letter the person writes Of course those persons given the story who not write have second

or

stern

,

father

,

the

in

be found

the reprobatish male remain virtually unchanged

,

a

as

.

female

of

if

to

is

.

or

to

,

in

of

or

of

at

,

to

;

of

,

to

on

.

as

,

Peggy

is

)

novel

;

and Patty the Sisters Ashdale 1783 celebrated the heroine Some word must be said the side the verisimilitude captured by those authors who give only the letters and not assuming that they cannot take the per the replies them sonal and omniscient points view one and the same monotony and the variety time but the relief afforded

(

tolary

,

as

,

of

In

of

.

of

be

to

so

be

to

,

The hero and heroine rule and indeed definitely untouched and untainted by often seem all that has happened them that we are led wonder they may not especially true fools nature This the heroines most these novels the characters belong the upper society though the poor and unsung peasant class peas background and ant girl occasionally appears one epis or

the villain

.

of

in

to is

all except the greatest

,

,

els

is

in

of

of

by

,

or

,

to

third hand and they are always presented colored one way another the particular view the writer the letter which these persons appear takes them What character development there the majority these nov

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

154

and smoothness which the presentation of replies gives to an epistolary work , more than makes up for any seeming lack of reality . Again , the introduction of dialogue into letters in

than snatches is extremely artificial , since the idea of thought caught on the wing thereby fairly evanesces . We the do not feel that we are present at the most intimate moments , as we are when the secret thoughts of the writer are being

more

to paper . In other words , despite the fact that may it break the monotony of continuous letters , dialogue brings us too close to the novel not in letters , and the differ ences between the two tend to merge .

communicated

As may have already been gathered , the type of narrative which is employed in the epistolary novel is usually a very simple one , as is the plot . The story is usually told in a straightforward manner and , though it proceeds with com plications , moves to an appointed end with few real com plexities. And , indeed , this sort of story is best when it is told that way , for a basically simple thing made needlessly com plex is apt to become obviously artificial . When we grant that the writing of letters to our friends is , a natural impulse ; when we grant that therein we tell things events , gossip , anecdotes ; give advice ; describe people and places and so on , are we not also granting that the putting together of all these stories might not possibly

we narrate

The artificial , or synthetic , quality of it bringing together of letters from a varied group all lies in the of people who have not really logical connection , but seem to be banded together by fate just to suit the purposes of the novelist for the story he happens to have in hand . Herein lies the chief artificiality of the epistolary novel ; but it is no greater artificiality , basically , than the omniscience of the

make

a

single story ?

author of a novel not playwright behind the portray .

in

letters , or the knowledge

scenes

in

the lives he

is

of the about to

Finally , we may arrive at some idea of the tremendous popularity of the epistolary novel when we recall that some " straight ” novels (as, for instance , Henrietta , Countess Osen

FROM

RICHARDSON

vor ) were divided into

letters instead

TO

155

1800

of into

chapters .

But

the popularity of the epistolary novel cannot be better illus trated than by the fact that every author of importance in the eighteenth century used this mode at one time or another , as has already

been

shown .

VII THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

IN

ENGLAND SINCE 1800 IN THE course the epistolary

the preceding chapter it has been stated

of

that

of

,

a

to

in

be

.

of

,

in

in

England about novel reached writing 1785 after which the fashion for novels the form letters and correspondences having waned the graph sharp and the novel letters may seen enter upon its

height

,

its

of

,

it

investigate

.

the spread

of

if

in

, , of

to

find

to

we are able

as

to

we

,

in

it

in

its

of

.

It

distinct decline has likewise been stated that the epistolary imprint upon the literature novel left the day not only part gave the letter that the novel natural impedimenta but also that made possible the writing from time time the novel that particular form Thus English

,

,

period

will

the epistolary

in .

al

in

,

.

to

is

to

,

.

156

,

,

it

in

to

in

half now by the occa a

to

its

a

century and

literature be resorted time time to

,

a

normal form sional author from

place for almost

of

to

,

taken

as

but has

its

letters ceased

,

,

exists sufficient proof however

statement that

which scarcely

recorded There make with certainty the even after the period which the novel blossom fullest extent did not die style

to

example

of

an

,

the other hand be found several decades

be

in

as

it

to

of

the epistolary impulse the extent that results large and concentrated epistolary literature such has ready been found the eighteenth century There will

a

revivification

on

said

as

a

,

At no

letters

be

a

there

be

may

to

,

seen

.

novels and stories

be ultimately

in

number

of

its

,

to

literature from 1800 the present day that there exists sporadically scattered throughout vastness considerable

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

1800

157

the very opening year of the century belong two epis tolary works of fiction , A Picture of the Age . A Novel and

To

Sketches of Life , Characters , and Manners , in Various Countries , including the Memoirs of a French Lady of Quality . By the Author of Zeluco and Edward (Dr. John Moore ) . Moore had already written letters of a non -fictional nature for the Edinburgh Review before he wrote Mordaunt, which is a curious combination of travel letters , personal his

Mordaunt.

tory , and foreign scandal. In

Volume II (for

144 pages )

is pre

By

its

sented the " history " (here called the " story ' ) of Madame la Marquise de - , as narrated by herself to Miss Clifford . The method used here is that of letter and answer , and indeed through the entire three volumes the letters are chiefly terse , natural , and unsentimental . The book is additionally filled with a large fictional and poetical learning common to in

of

to

.

to

a

is

the contents

of

, . do

to

,

us by

's

likewise

,

the 1770

-

letters

so

of

a

of

in

us .

its

but

,

of

80

in

In

.

,

.

an

epistolary novel the time we reach 1804 we have which the fullness bulk looks back the novels similar form Richardson has given This The Life Sophia Lee sister Lover Series Letters Harriet only carry Not does the title back the sentimental novel day

of

to

:

,

in

by

a



, . ”

a

,

of

on

,

,

in

,

.

,

to

to

in

in

to

,

to

"

it

of

!

. . ."

,

I

of

to

unfold the story The first letter your the sentence The heart my Amelia Alies dear embrace and bid you welcome your native land and this may be said set the precise tone the entire novel Indeed the author herself the preface the work admits that this manuscript now first published which has long lain her desk belongs mood paper period through complete another and has lived change change brought about the spirit literature Although there what she calls the revolutionary system the six volumes takes opens Volume with

The Heiress

of

,

,

a

of

,

to

it

,

of

, of

Clair

;

St .

In

.

them

or

,

.

of

of

in

it

spite

,

is

it

of

sentiment

in

of

is

the novel itself well written feeling reality the letters achieve some and when they diverge into occasional description proves be rather high quality The reader feels course that Miss Lee was conscious almost all the faults her story but published excess

Desmond

THE EPISTOLARY

158

, Miss

(1804 )

This is

skill

in

letters

NOVEL

has given us

Owenson

epistolary

a lesser

.

work

sentimental and adventurous novel of some slight

a

presentation themselves ,

and derivative interest in context . The however , give an unfavorable impression

they are sometimes dated , sometimes sometimes signed , but most often date , address and

of

casualness because

all

addressed , signature are

.

.

,

to

;

. . . ; .

a

,

be

it

in

,

,

is

it

as

size but

Jane Austen lesser creations not only point workmanship well when of

one

's

of

is

."

1

1805

in

point

of

,

the date the book

's

several leaves

,

of

a

not

The watermarks are for the most part

but

is

,

to

draft but fair copy the ornamental kind bear the maker name Sharp and two bear rightly said that Of the work itself may is

The manuscript

original date we must remain the reprint edition we are told

its

.

the preface

Its

.

in

.

Of

Austen

. . .



uncertain

Jane In

author

,

its to

a

.

by

be

to

H

.

by

of

or ”,

in



of

,

in

.

to

left the imagination There was likewise published 1804 The India Voyage Mrs Lefanu This violent novel contains letters that are practically devoid versimilitude because their extreme length their many continuations their failure obviously address them anyone signed any writer selves Not until the year 1871 was published work conjectured Lady Susan have been written the year 1805 title

by of

,

the wane

,

,

on

long

this

of

of

writing

is

,

.

's

compared with the same author great books That she early fancied the epistolary mode which was by the time her

further indicated

the

its

.

in

is

of

this form no mean the crystal clear stream

a

is

to

or

juvenilia fact that much her early work letter form successfully able carry story through That she entire in

so

of

feather

a

,

,

to

.

.

,

1

Oxford 1925

,

in

their early work

as

Fanny Burney

,

and lesser lights well had done feeling they letters while were about for method with which stabilize their talents may have had some influence here Whatever else may be said the experi

,

Fielding

.

on

.

in

is

the cap one for whom lucid narrative ran su premely well and smoothly Perhaps the epistolary mode was experimental the part of the author Perhaps the fact that course

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

1800

159

respects , and the tongue

of the author was not in her cheek as it was when she wrote , Love and Freindship , Lady Susan , and so on . The letters , as they appear here , are not overstrained or

ment

all

is serious in

overwritten ; they are always in character , and they do not show any glaring inconsistencies . Lady Susan herself , though less sharply drawn , reminds one in her resourcefulness and eloquence of Thackeray 's Becky Sharpe. Here , again , the ter rific sentimentality possible in such a story was avoided . Love and Freindship , not published until 1922 , is, like E .

. Barrett 's The Heroine (1813 ) ,

.

of

-

,

height

,

the sentimental novel

its

the dialogue

at

in

found

-

,

,

in

,

ment

in

itself catches the move character and and the well poised suffering the conscious hysteria

here ridiculous

of

its

off

a satire on the sentimental novel . One must read this little work of Jane Austen to ap preciate it fully , since it is brimming with humor of the true Austen tang. As a burlesque of the novel of sentiment , Love and Freindship is far more hoydenish and in the Fielding tradition than is the more vaunted Northanger Abbey with take Gothic moods and scenes The very dialogue S

;

, As of

of

,

in

,

,

.

all

to

which

,

at

all probability Miss Austen began genre and spirit the sentimental novel read The form delightfully and accurately satirized even the use are the period

.

its

,

of

as

, or ,

, is ,

.

in

and not too gentle satire any sort fixed judgment

its

so

it

, , 's

. it

wit

as

as

,

it

,

a

is

satiric and the result almost masterful rightful place with Shamela such satire must take The Female Quixote and The Heroine letters Lesley Castle Jane Austen unfinished novel interesting amusing nearly goes Love far not high pace Freindship retain first set and nor does the letter itself

to

,

In

;

of

of

,

it

as

,

in

is

To

of

us

. of

.

of

,

in

of

.

,

is

a

of It

-

of

-

render unfair however Lesley Castle fragment letter and reply used by the author we have the method the letters with Love and Freindship Laura writes all the exception the first Lesley Castle gives the same events the view and thus the manner from different points cap the climax were Jane best epistolary novels the Richardsonian letter Austen has given her parody

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

160

writer in A Collection of Letters , in which a gently satiric method is employed with considerable effect , and the heavily didactic tone of most letter-writers is thereby admirably burlesqued . Among Jane Austen 's scraps is to be found an other fictional letter , The Female Philosopher , along with two epistolary bits , “ A Letter From a Young Lady , whose feelings being too strong for her Judgment led her into the Commission of Errors which her Heart Disapproved , ” and “ A Tour Through Wales — in a Letter from a Young Lady,” a burlesque of the travel letter . It may be claimed , then , be yond

of

doubt,

that in the earliest work of Jane Austen the epistolary mode predominated . There was published as early as 1805 an English transla tion of that important French novel in letters , Madame de Staël 's Delphine . A year later came Maria Edgeworth ’s con tribution to the epistolary works of the nineteenth century , Leonora . This is a sentimental novel and does not rank , by any means , with her Irish stories . In it Miss Edgeworth has none the less employed restraint with the result that her most emotional moments are more moving than they might other the shadow

a

wise be. The letters themselves

of

possess

a

considerable

animation and betray the author of real ability

turn

degree at every

.

The celebrated “ Monk ” Lewis , Matthew Gregory , has us an epistolary novel that is likewise a Gothic romance , but it is not original with him . Feudal Tyrants ; or , The given

creation

.

to

in

pedestrian



its

"

; or ,

.

,

,

a

is

The work itself

a

,

It

.

by it

,

to

its

Counts of Carlsheim and Sargans . A Romance (1806 ) , is a tale of the Gothic school adapted from the German and pub lished in four volumes . It is filled with the trappings of the epistolary . To the same school and is but condescendingly year belongs The Wild Irish Girl , a National Tale , by Miss Owenson . This is a highly sentimental and energetic work descriptive beauties for and depends upon chief claims distinction has however distinct national color partially noteworthy Helen which renders Domestic Augusta Ann Hirst likewise belongs Occurrences 1807 two volumes and

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

161

1800

of the letters in which it is written are as lengthy as the list of subscribers with which the novel is prefixed . Three epistolary novels , Christina ; Leontina ; and The Spirit of “ The Book ,” are brought to light in 180g . Christina ; Princess of Wolfenbuttel : by the author of Caroline of Licht field ( Thomas Holcroft ) , is a translation , or adaptation ,

most

journal,

epistolary

and then becomes

for the entirety

of

its

from the German . It opens with numerous fragments of a long journal (Memoirs of a German Princess ) , becomes epis tolary about midway through the first volume , returns to the

is

.

a

,

.

is

volume There but little real distinction here be journal tween and letter and indeed the letters sound pe culiarly like mere addressed journal Leontina another

second

,

so

,

in

so

,

translation

of

Augus this time from the German playwright tus von Kotzebue the novelist and who has been popular adaptation upon the American stage even

epistolary

the early twentieth

century

, , of

a

is

of

. by

It .

.

an

of

the Letters

from

Mrs Palmer .



is

.

ilk

of

is

.



the year 1810 belongs

by



of

;

or ,

in

" a

To

Leontina distinction

.

particular

of

as

sentimental novel letters no The Spirit Hapsburg The Book Memoirs Caroline Princess Political and Amatory Romance Edited Thomas Ashe Esq another the same need scarcely be said that amatory excessively this romance sentimental sort late

is

,

,

is

its of

of

-

.

, of

.

in

is

,

a

of

,

by

;

to

Entertaining stone Her Daughter Inculcating Morality Narratives Mrs Hunter Norwich This work which glorified letter writer full sort didacticism and warn publication and ing rather rare the period in of

to

of

of

in

as

a

be

is

It

to

.

a

-

,

deed definite flash back the beginning the eighteenth century such matters these that prove revolution progression than literature more question de

in

be

to

found

.

in

.

, )

The historical novel let lies the chief dis however more sentimental

,

,

and herein

is

,

of

in

is

England rather rare tinction this work which ters

title

First Love An Historical Ro

1812

(

Olivia

or ,

; -

century

Princess

. S .

a

eighteenth W

by

,

mance

of

early

other

Memoirs

is

.

-

,

to

struction and we are able find pre revolutionary types appearing long after they have been considered dead An

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL its

figure

of

storm and surrounded the Gothic school

rock

the tradition

.

writing Entirely different

solitary by

a

lonely in

,

is

on

awaiting doom very much night

of the story , with

close

of

. The

than historical

,

162

produc

epistolary

these

by

of

many

from

,

,

in

is

,

d

is

,

of

'

genre

,

in

.

,

It

.

The Female

at

to

a

,

is

to

is

a

is

as

of

satire

to

sort

romance

is ,

the same Quixote although Mrs Lennox seems have written satire that truer and less amateur ishly insistent because here the heroine made mock hardly conducive thinking her herself and that sin satirizes

and sentiment

it

in

to

'

L

,

;

un

. if or ,

.

of

is

to

that which belongs the year 1813 The Heroine Eaton Stannard Barrett The full title this book The Heroine Adventures Cherubina and the motto terestingly not truly Histoire une femme est toujours Roman This book belongs the group that includes The Female Quixote and Love and Freindship that

tions

is

'

.

is

's

.

in

as

of

.

all

on

go

of

to

to

.

is

an

,

of

by

of

.

in

"

"

,

of

heroine while the heroine Mrs Lennox satire entirely serious folly her The Heroine rather doggedly cast into the form letters and even the memoirs are sent they are means letters just Mrs Sarah Scott Mil amusing lenium Hall There touch satire employed Cherry Biddy when continues write even after she realizes that Biddy has been the instigator her troubles cere

to

is

It

is

is

it

as

so

There too much action and too little real stress and though the result supposed satire the result definitely artificial beyond the demands the form This

might be

, is

,

good epistolary novel only

.

of

even

be

to

is

.

is

here

in

by

is

.

an

"

.”

is

,

!

The novel must nothing really epistolary After the first few letters there here save that the chapters are titled letter all more truly autobiography Certainly this novel sufficient prove that the autobiographical story not made more plausible being cast arbitrarily letter form

in

in

is

it

,

for

so

)

(

in

.

of

so

and

,

a

that the narra swiftly but the very fact swiftly epistolary too narrative that the chief weakness The Heroine lies Catherine Hutton has The Welsh Mountaineers 1817 called

runs smoothly that the novelmoves

tive

IN

ENGLAND SINCE

1800

163

and Oakwood Hall , A Novel; including a description of The Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland , and a part of South Wales ( 1819 ) , contributed two epistolary novels to the cate

gory . These two novels reveal a minor writer of distinct qual ity and ability and one who has leaned chiefly toward the

epistolary mode in her fictional work . The letters , although they do not particularly smack of inevitability , are lively and readable, especially in The Welsh Mountaineer , though the

their liveliness , the dia logue, tends to rob them of their reality as letters . In fact, the letters of both novels have rather too much recorded dialogue in them . Although there is something of the fash ionable world in both The Welsh Mountaineer and Oakwood Hall , it is the pictures they present of the countryside , rich with a plausible local color , that are their chief distinction . The local characters are , likewise , particularly convincing and diverting . In 1818 was published A Year and a Day , a novel by Madame Panache . This novel presents a hybrid form of nar rative and letters . It is divided into chapters , many of which are entirely in letter , some partly narrative and partly in let ter , some entirely narrative . As a result , so definitely narra

The Ayrshire Legatees

its

narrative novels the period lesser writers The Pringle Fam

,

.



a

such

the works

straight

of "

many

be

or ,

,

ily

entire novel loses

the

of

is

This noticeable especially true

John Galt

, that

and seems

of

is

and

it

.

product

semblance

to

tone are the letters

in

epistolary

in

tive

to

; of

very thing which contributes most

of

(

a

of

of

. ,

be

to

,

of

in

,

of

the successful presentation

,

in

a

of

)

of

.

to

in

as

as

in

that

do a

,

has handled

.

)

(

,

exactly this situation with consider aplomb able He has divided his novel into chapters but each chapter contains series of letters all which possess continuity numbering throughout the volume which not seem be mere continuing the narrative style but actual letters John Galt shows himself this single device well the writing the novel itself one the better represented placed authors here and one beside Maria Edgeworth whom he resembles many respects especially 1821

local color

The Ayr

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

164

shire Legatees belongs to what may be considered

Country

series of works , the creations

for which

his West he is still

. There is humor here and characterization , and a persistence Scotch of philosophy which makes for simple , un

memorable

adorned reality . The letters themselves are natural and plausible ; they fill their rightful place in the novel and seem entirely a part of it rather than something superimposed upon the story for the sake of some nameless effect . Beyond

that, they are letters in every sense of the word and in every possible aspect and characteristic . John Galt has given us another epistolary work in A Rich Man (1836 ) , a short story in letters. This is an interesting experiment , and the mech anism whereby the author produces all the effect of concen tration usually to be found in the short story by means of are , in most works , the indication

of diffuse examination . The book is a sort of auto in letters of the " late Lord Mayor of London ,” a Scotchman . It is again full of good Scotch sense and biting humor and seems to fall into the form of letters with the utmost and most satisfying ease . Perhaps the most distinguished name to be found among authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries who have letters which

, bears biography ness

close

done some sort of epistolary work is that of Sir Walter Scott . He has written , in Redgauntlet ( 1824 ) , a novel of an abor Jacobite rebellion of c . 1765 under the leadership of “ Redgauntlet , ” an irreconcilable partisan of the House of Stuart . As originally published in three volumes , the work comprised three different kinds of novel form . The first vol ume was in letters ; the second was a diary ; the third was narrative . In more recent editions , of course , all three vol umes are presented as one . None the less , about one third of this speedy and adventurous novel is in the epistolary form . The letters themselves , although somewhat more vigorous tive

of most of the epistles of eighteenth -century , fiction with the exception of those of such writers as Field ing , Frances Burney , and Smollett , are carefully composed by Scott with an eye to the eighteenth -century tone, and than is the case

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

carry off the manners

of that

period

165

1800

with

suc

considerable

The novel , taken as a whole , is not one of Scott 's best ; moreover , it suffers something in continuity because of several changes form None the less valiant not brilliant absorbing not breath taking delightful not entirely convincing interesting find author like Bulwer Lytton ro long after manticist par excellence using the letter form the greatest vogue the letter never particularly well

, ,

if if

is

,

; it

-

We

Unlike Scott Bulwer

find this use Falkland the epistolary form in

.

,

was past

carries

,

.

)

(

1827

romance

to

adapted

,

of

,

so

,

an

to

is

It

.

;

,

if

.

of

its

cess .

,

,

.

,

, .

,

of

At the conclusion

in

of

,

to

"

up

to

century style

a “

,

of

.

,

in

of

:

of

in

to

through the end this novel Like Scott however he makes use three forms letters diary and narrative The difference between the efforts the two authors lies the fact that here the three forms are not separated but are intertwined The first few letters this novel are all from one person Erasmus Falkland his friend Frederick Monkton and history serve build Falkland true eighteenth correspondents

,

,

these

of

.

in

of

of

of

as

of of

of

us

,

,

us

a

of

it

in

of

.



"

in

do

in

-

in

, .

increases to

of

.

few however the The author introduces stop gap narrative from time time which events are told the reader which would take many more pages were they straight narrative letter form than they the form We may conclude from this that condensation time was perhaps more important 1827 than had been 1777 inevitability style again lessening The mixed causes be cause while the letters assure the reality the writer and the recipient the intrusion the author narrator reality corresponding feel less certain makes the the

number

,

,

,

in

is ,

,

for

it

a

,

of

.

.

of

by

more than

it

is

No one the other characters emerges type The whole story has certain unity lent Emily but the love Falkland total effect

the early letters a

as in

of

, .

in

of

in

.

characters The parts this novel written letters are much more hectic and inflammatory than the parts the novel written narrative Yet the character analysis that despite this excellent especially Falkland gives himself

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

166

of a patchwork quilt : not a true novel true epistolary novel , either .

something

in

narrative ;

to to

;

it

their own minds here This work a

. is

As

an

.

and delicacy

is a

”,

,

of



, .

century

an

of

particular interest because his knowledge the letters

Landor prefaces the book with Advertisement that begins He who opens these Letters for History the Times will be disappointed and that of

the eighteenth

it

so

in is

,

epistolary work the book plainly the author shows

of

is

those who conceive beauty something akin presented what exquisiteness written with the utmost to

only

in

be be

for a

it

of

Its

of

not a Different from Falkland in that it is entirely epistolary , but like Falkland in that it is romance (indeed , it is more truly romantic in setting than the previous novel ) is Pericles and Aspasia (1836 ) , by Walter Savage Landor, a novel in beauty very tenderness letters set in classical splendor. renders work but small range and appeal seems

to

in

of

of

,

of

is

of

In

; .

in

to

strikingly similar tone the Richardson prefaces his great epistolary works Pericles and Aspasia the letters any fault themselves lack reality but this not because unearthly them but rather that they partake the tone

.

, ,

is

of

an

,

far

that pervades the whole this sensitive creation less artistically successful effort and one that not particularly successful from epistolary point view A

beauty

of

of

,

so

,

,

of

,

in

it

to

as

,

.

in

's

,

is

either Anne Brontë novel The Tenant Wildfell Hall published Again 1848 this combines the epistolary and undistinguished are the letters the narrative methods and letters that they seem be but part the entire narrative major respect distinct from no and the ultimate effect of

of

, of



of

,

.

of

,

of

in

of

do

.

is

,

)

of

It

,

is

of

54

a

(

.

in

of

is

the whole one narrative the first person the most completely delightful the epistolary Family century works the nineteenth The Dodd Abroad by Charles Lever amazing how little this 1853 story dates spite the obvious factors involved which date book particularly that the description contem porary manners But perhaps the vivacity style the true readings human nature the vitality the people who stand forth fully and admirably from their letters these keep

One

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

1800

167

the book young. Moreover , as one reads on in this book , he cannot help being struck by the extraordinary naturalness of it . Each character writes " in character ,” even to the girl who tries with but half success to assume the worldly air of the Continent . Indeed , from the very first line of the first letter ,2 we are struck by this quality of naturalness that is both un deniable and refreshing, the very quality which makes Rich

's works

and Humphrey Clinker so good . arrangement The of the letters , each to a close friend of , the writer may be paralleled with that of the letters in Hum phrey Clinker . Here , too , even the maid writes . The story is

ardson

set in the best tradition of the epistolary

novel,

again as we

have it in Humphrey Clinker , by having the events discussed from different points of view , in different letters descriptive of the same events . It is just such a case as this , in the final analysis , the history of the adventures of a family abroad re porting to friends , dear friends , at home , in which the epis tolary form is most logical . The Dodd Family has , as a work letters , a quality of epistolary inevitability that is not al ways attained in these novels of later date and , indeed , in some of the less effective works of the epistolary flowering it in

self .

It might well be

added that some of the letters in this book have a distinct eighteenth -century flavor , especially such a one as Letter X , from Caroline Dodd to Miss Cox , at Miss Mincing ' s academy , Black Rock , Ireland , which is a true

Richardsonian epistle . Between the dates of the appearance of the Dodd Family Abroad and 1890 there is an amazing lack of epistolary fic tion . During these dates the English novel flourished , but the novel in letters seems to have fallen into desuetude . Indeed , there seem to be but two works of any importance composed in

the letter

appeared

book

Mr.

form

in

.

form

,

and both

parts , many

of

these

were written and one

years before they were published

in

Letters (1872 ) , and Young Man About Town ( 1853 ) .

These are The Ramsbottom

Brown 's Letters

to

a

• Dear Tom , - Here we are at last - as tired landed on the same shore ! Letter I, p. 18.

and sea-sick a party

as ever

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

168

In their 1872 publication

The Ramsbottom

Letters

, by Theo

dore Hook , represent a reprint; they were originally con tributed to John Bull, somewhere around 1827 - 29 .3 They series of travel letters from one Dorothea Ramsbottom , who is a sort of female Dogberry or nineteenth -century Mrs. are

a

her use of the English language , and fills her quips and observations . As a Cambridge quaint letters with undergraduate , Thackeray wrote several essays which he signed Dorothea Ramsbottom , parodies of Hook 's work , but these were not in the form of letters . 4 William Makepeace Thackeray ' s Mr. Brown ' s Letters to a Young Man About Malaprop

Town

in

, however,

are

of let ; separate entity in a separate letter ; finally , if titles to these letters as, “ On Tailoring, ” “ On A Word About Balls in Season ,” “ Great and supposed

be

to

ters. They do not take the trouble essay is a

each

we

look at such

Friendship , ”



Little Dinners ,” we may readily

to

essays in

the form

be addressed

see how

or signed

definitely

they are

familiar a didactic turn of character and how slightly they are actual letters of any degree of verisimilitude . The dearth of epistolary material during the period previ ously mentioned is not relieved by the appearance of these two epistolary works . Of slight epistolary interest is Mohammed Benani (1887 ) , an anonymous novel distinguished by the fact that there are , lengthy letters each one making single in context chapter the tale and written one the characters Frank Weston The major portion straight the story

,

is

.

of

of

by

a

,

six

,

of

,

its

essays with

Ibid

to

a

's

to

,

of

,

of

-

391

Cambridge

1928

,

Hook and His Novels

,

Theodore

,

,

Brightfield

331

., , .p

166

.

*

* .

pp

become self conscious and developing ironic traits

. .F

now

Myron

, it

.

,

ment

as

in

of

a

of

.

at

,

in

of

of

.

narrative With the beginning the 1890 we find notable return the fictional work letters the period from 1900 1909 being especially full This may be least partly attributed revival interest the eighteenth century under the guid ing influence such lovers Austin Dobson and per haps Edmund Gosse Perhaps also the residuum senti

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

169

1800

from themid -century , and the intensive study of literary his tory combined to show intending writers of a certain kind thoughts which should have the sort a mold for expressing of brittle charm and artistic appropriateness then so deli

cately cultivated- u ..

The decade opens, from an epistolary point of view , with Charles Francis Keary 's A Mariage de Convenance ( 1890 ) , a rather pathetic story of a selfish man and the woman who de

results . But one of the most interesting books to be found here is Love Letters of a Worldly Woman (1891 ) , by Mrs . W . K . Clifford , which pre sents, in three different correspondences , “ A Modern Corre votes her life to him

distressing

with

,” “ Love Letters of a Worldly Woman ,” and “ On the Wane ," the amatory adventures of three women whom the author calls , in the preface to her work , “ women who loved the world . . . the round world itself and the people who belong to it.” The letters themselves tell their stories with a great deal of literary magnetism . The third corre spondence , “ On the Wane , ” which tells of a young man who jilts a girl and then returns to her , only to find she no longer loves him , is particularly fine and is done with a feeling of ironic reality that gives it considerable dramatic power . As spondence

epistolary efforts , the correspondences here recorded are of the very best . Distinctly less good is A Fellowe and His Wife Sharp , al (1892 ) , by Blanche Willis Howard and William

some pathos and a little beauty . As a purely work it is interesting from an experimental view point. The two chief correspondents are the Count Odo von Jaromar and Countess Ilse von Jaromar . The letters of the Count were written by Blanche Willis Howard ; the letters only of the Countess by William Sharp . It said that distinguished especially the results are not Being very subtitle which From Series Sixteen Letters Written Stark Munro his Friend and former Fellow Student Herbert Swanborough Lowell

though

it has

of

Conan

with

,

Doyle a

,

1894

,

, A .

-

1881 1884

Letters

)

Munro

of

to

a

,

the Years

invest The Stark

,

during

(

tries

to

Massachusetts

,

-

J.

, M .B .,

by

is

,

its

.

be

can

epistolary

tone

THE EPISTOLARY

170

NOVEL

of actuality . The story itself , which is a sad one , is effectively told without being the least degree overwrought . The letters as such are somewhat less satisfactory . There are but six teen of them in a space of over three hundred pages ; they are almost all of equal length and are literally packed with dialogue . This , therefore , like so many of the novels which adopted the epistolary method and form by concentrating upon a single correspondent , tends to become almost a nar in the first person . An epistolary curiosity is

ration

Wandering Heath “ Q .” This , , Abys Troy is Letters from Addressed to Rasselas Prince of sinia . There are two of these satirico - literary letters; the first is called “ The First Parish Meeting," the second “ The Sim ple Shepherd .” They are both of but mild interest and hardly of any significance in a consideration of epistolary fiction . To 1896 belongs The Saltonstall Gazette , by Mrs. Ella Ful ler Maitland , a series of essays done in the graceful and polished manner of the eighteenth century, and connected by a slight thread of personal reminiscence . It is of particular interest that that celebrated thriller, ( 1895 ) ,

a

series

of

stories

to

be found

, studies , and

in

sketches by

of

all

Dracula ( 1897 ) , by Bram Stoker , which is so curious a com pound of psychology , melodrama , and pseudo - scientific non sense , should have been written partly in letters and partly journal . In a sort of foreword at the beginning of the in work , the author attempts to add to the actuality of the col lection by means of Richardson ' s device of pretending to be but the arranger of existing material that has somehow fallen into his hands . The correspondents are many and include the unhappy Lucy , Mina Murray , Dr. Seward , and Van Helsing ;

,

,

in

to

,

so

it

.

or

of

's

.

.

,

, is

by

is

,

of

,

of

,

the correspondents with the notable addi journal k eep diary tion Jonathan Harker some sort phonograph The most unusual course Dr Seward diary spoken Van Helsing Unlike the story itself which most convincing when read with tongue cheek although the author did not write the letters and journal are ex traordinarily convincing and seem be entirely what they

and almost

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

1800

171

their fullness ; their attention to ; detail their differences in style with each different corre spondent ; their record , not only of themain thread of terror are made to represent. In

the story but also of the small excursions of human life and thought , they seem to acquire a sort of eighteenth -cen in

,

A

all

to

to

.

do

.

a

,

in

is

The Etchingham Letters ( 1899 ) , we find a erary correspondence which like Fellowe and His Wife collaboration The authors are Sir Frederick Pollock and Ella Fuller Maitland The two not seem have made any Again

,

lit

tury completeness . Whatever the tone and substance of the story , the technique is excellent.

of

in

is a

.

of

a

is

it

is

-

to

.

of

,

of

labor but have written together the letters regardless the pretended writer There defi eighteenth century special nite tone this book Of interest prefaced with the fact that list the chief persons obvious division

;

of

at

of

.

.

of

.

Not all

)

(

in

some fifteen

in

number the true Richard the characters write letters here The two chief correspondents are Miss Elizabeth Etchingham and her brother Sir Richard Etchingham The letters them selves are all times dignified and befitting writers the breeding they rank and these characters sometimes are the letters

sonian manner

is

,

57 )

-

in to

of

, , of

,

,

tendencies

)

(

found

in

be

the Richardsonian

the immediately preceding

.

to

such works

as

,

)

1896

is

in

by

,

(

as

of

.

of

is

in

of

of

of .

(

of

is

of

in

of

letters India the eighteenth century concerning itself with the affair the Black Hole Calcutta 1755 and chiefly the correspondence between two girls The book notable because the resemblance one the girls Clarissa Harlowe and because the author has succeeded reproducing the language and atmosphere the century story accuracy which her laid with remarkable and plausibility Perhaps the influence such Richardson pub lications The Works Samuel Richardson edited by Leslie Stephen London 1883 and Sir Charles Grandison George Saintsbury London condensed two volumes

,

in

story

a

This

is

, .

Hilda Gregg

)

Grier

(

Sydney Carlyn



by



,

in

In

.

as

and scholarly the same year that which these letters were published appeared Like Another Helen

both learned

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

172

In the very last year of the nineteenth century was first pub An Englishwoman 's Love Letters , the author of which is Laurence Housman . This may be considered the modern Love Letters of a Portuguese Nun . The opening sentence of the first letter , “ Beloved , — This is your first letter from me: yet it is not the first letter I have written to you . There are letters to you lying at love 's dead -letter office in this same writing . . . ," sets a tone to the book that is strikingly like that of the Portuguese Letters. The Englishwoman ' s Love longer Letters are the of the two, the less truly pathetic and lished

,

in

.

,

century

lit

early twentieth

-

is

peak

's

of

,

a

they form The style

,

for the letters

a

,

passion

.

A

Elizabeth

ultimately

is

,

an

,

of

.

,

,

.

of

the eighteenth

century

-

in

.

of

glimmer humor Very much the manner

of

those

extremely

hopeless

by

only unforeseen Here however there not abandonment These letters are better done either the two preceding books and although sentimental are relieved by occasional faint

,

than

1900

,

,

is

record

a

death

separation

too

,

ended

by .

They

Him

)

Never Reached

,

ters Which

Heyking

(

.

to

,

or

a

of

of

,

at

;

,

flabby

to

it

is at

tle

, .

is

superficial and even childish times the whole tone borders upon the ridicu interesting lous But note that there are about this large epistolary time rather number novels senti mental intent extending throughout the ensuing four five years Kin the two works just mentioned The Let

.

sentimentality

the letters from the not very convincing and

of

is

of

the heroine

this device itself

used

,

.

as

As

,

by the friend

lover

the nun letters fleeting parallel The used being the publica

whom a

,

, is

.

were addressed however but anonymous the device later work tion

is

to

is

.

to

cavalier

of

.

the

"

earlier answers



It of

's

an

's

,

of

for

the more persistently saccharine . It is the warrior mother alone of the whole story that is memorable . Quaintly enough , the history of the seventeenth - century publication was fur ther paralleled by this at the dawn of the twentieth , 1901 came The Missing Answers the full title which An Englishman Love Letters Being the Missing Answers Englishwoman Love Letters One reminded the

inti

IN

ENGLAND SINCE

1800

173

mate fictional correspondence is The Letters of Her Mother to Elizabeth (1901 ) , by William Rutherford Hayes Trow bridge . They concern themselves with very little indeed , but reveal the soul and wit of a fashionable woman in a thor oughly piquant and lively manner . There is real brilliance to be found here , and the letters may well be claimed as rep

of their kind . Rosa Amorosa ( 1901 ) , by “ George Egerton ” (Mrs . Golding Bright ) , is another sentimental record of the letters of a woman in love . Here again is to be found that exaggeration of emotion pe culiar to so many of these love correspondences and the or nate nothingnesses which make the reality of feeling over into the birthday -cake artificialities of sentimentality . To this sentimental group likewise belongs the anonymous Letters resentative

of the

very best

an Actress ( 1902 ) . Another name that belongs with this sentimental group is one of peculiar renown , Elinor Glyn . Three of her works are epistolary : The Visits of Elizabeth ( 1901) ; Elizabeth Visits America ( 1909) ; and Letters to Caroline ( 1914 ) , called in America Your Affectionate Godmother . All three of these are representative of the distinctly third -rate novels of their , , time effusive sentimental , and unreal . They tell, for the most part , of the adventures of a flighty young girl, the ideal heroine of the day , both abroad and in America , and end with love and kisses . Once the reader is able to accept the heroine as a real creation , he is able to feel that the letters , too , are realities , for they are distinctly “ in character " and

of

several truly amusing passages. To this group like belongs wise Matilda 's Mabel ( 1903 ) , by Neil Lyons , but there is no more distinguished author represented in the sen timental epistolary novel of the earliest years of the twentieth century than is Algernon Charles Swinburne . It is of peculiar contain

significance that one of the greatest of the late Victorian poets should have, in the writing of a novel , made use of the epistolary mode . Although published in 1905 , Love s Cross

'

Currents does not really belong , in point of writing , to this period , but rather to the earlier period of Swinburne 's youth .

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

174

Watts-Dunton , as the poet tells us in the dedica tion of this book , resurrected the work when the author had almost forgotten existence and Swinburne thereby begs indulgence for the novelistic creation his earlier days The subtitle this work Year Letters and the book thus temporal limit The novel itself really excellent given not because the course human events that unfolds particularly but rather because the youthful vigor the feeling character the sentimental sympathy and yet the

,

,

,

for

,

of

it

of

,

is

is

.

, of

's

A

of

.

a

is

of

,

its

Theodore

of

,

or

a

-

's

.

a

in

.

is

a

a

carefully handled

all

,

by

.”

.

,

of

a

to

that practically

no

course

the epistolary year

of

of

the fitness

, .

seen

of

of

, , of

is

It

to

one the acid tests any given material be

and that

mode will

,

is

,

is

;

on

of

lover sounds like so

.

the letters they write The impetuous impetuous lover when he writes and Lady Midhurst are lasting delight and the letters Beyond all this one made feel that the use the letter properest story presented form here the medium for the an

faithfully indicated

in



,

all

,

.

dramatic conflict The letters them selves are vivacious and convincing and times char acter There are five important correspondents and are at

deal

of

of

a

,

of

of

,

its

in

,

is

liveliness with which the story told Love Cross Currents entirety peculiarly unlike the novel poet sounds perhaps and strikingly like the novel novelist more accurately the novel dramatist There much char penetrating quality good acterization the book and

this

's

to

well

.

letters

,

in

as

in

of

,

at

,

-

favor that was given the novel

as

, of

to

a

,

-

,

produce examples decade 1900 1909 fails the epistolary art and the fact that work written earlier was Love Cross Currents should be published this time seems be speak not only the distinction Swinburne 1905 but the

of

,

.

family

The book

but the greater part

is

,

a

the story

of

)

"

editor

personal relation

-a

at

a

,

is

)

a

(

the

"

(

of a

on

the part

closes with

by

of

of

,

,

,

The Life Treason and Death James Blount Brecken Compiled from the Rowlestone Papers and edited how again Beulah Marie Dix 1903 collection realistic vigorous attempt pseudo ctuality letters telling with epis

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

1800

175

tolary . The title and " editing ” are both truly in the eight eenth -century manner . A distinguished name in the world of letters is to be re

corded in the next epistolary novel , not a member of the group of sentimental novels just discussed . The name is that of George Moore , and the novel is The Lake (1905 ) . This novel is , of course , not entirely epistolary ; about one-half of it is told in “ straight” narrative . But the letters, of which far

natural part of the story and , indispensable part from seem the revela tion the soul struggle Oliver Gogarty The characters certainly the two leading characters Father Gogarty and a

very

,

of

.

of

of

a

,

intruding

of

as

there are many , are

not only reveal themselves but are likewise helped eye the reader these let editing use the letters pre to

by

of

of

to

in

(

, ),

Rose Leicester Nora Glynne fully the letters they write express themselves fully the

,

,

a

so

of

.

to

of ,

is

an

.

,

sented

in

Moore makes occasional single letter that not all some cases ap pears but rather extracts from that letter are given The entirely satisfactory one and we feel willing effect

ters

to

of

.

purposeful and complete

.

The Lake

is

letters

in

use made

of

,

of

at

is

of

.

he

as

us

do

the literary shrewdness the author our eclecting for writes The inevitability the letters here made possible by the separation the two people they chiefly exchanged between whom are while the bonds attachment between them are still their strongest Al though one feels instinctively that Moore would not have been successful with the entirely epistolary novel yet the rely upon

epistolary

a

.) ,

ed

,

(

Oke

of

;

and



-

in

” a

,

of

of

.

of

learned references

,

is

a

"

Lover fantastic melodramatic The latter rather absorbingly the two stories preserves the proper

.

but neither illusion

.

written

the Phantom strange woman

of

a

, of

;

Oakhurst story

or ,

and construction and full

of

-

,

,

to



:

,

of

, 's

In

Vernon Lee Hauntings 1906 2nd collection four long tales two the pieces are epistolary These are Dionea from the Letters Doctor Alessandro De Rosis mysterious the Lady Evelyn Savelli Princess Sabina plot pseudo and medieval tale somewhat Hawthorne like

THE EPISTOLARY

176 In

1906

Letters ,

a

,“

. .

T B ”

rather

NOVEL

( Arthur C . Benson ) published The Upton pedestrian correspondence that is full of

philosophical comment and literary criticism , rather than of anything of a fictional tendency . In the same year was pub lished , Listener ' s Lure by E . V . Lucas , a well -written book of solid English characteristics . From an epistolary point of view , it is of interest because it makes use of the telegram on , , headings several occasions. It makes use in addition of brief to some of the letters in order to give the reader knowledge of letter omissions, or of failure on the part of the writer to post the letter . This author has given us three other epis tolary works in “ Life 's Little Difficulties " ( 1907 ) ; The Ver milion Box ( 1916 ) , and Verena in the Midst (1920) . “ Life 's Little Difficulties " is a short piece in Character and Comedy, which is a series of short stories . The Vermilion Box is a novel of the perplexities of the War in England which is presented in a series of letters that attain to an almost per fect degree of verisimilitude , especially those of “ Granny ." Likewise a novel is Verena in the Midst . A Kind of Story . In this Mr. Richard Haven reappears from The Vermilion Box , and there are any number of other well -drawn charac

ters. The book itself is full of a quiet charm . That pleasant author , Mary Annette , Gräfin von Arnim , has written an epistolary novel in Fräulein Schmidt and Mr. Anstruther (1907) . It is full of the sly , quiet wit , the solid sense and the true feeling for people and life that characterizes most of the work of this author , and the letters themselves , although they have somewhat too much dialogue in them , are intelligent and diverting examples of the fictional epistle used to tell a continuous story . A particularly enlightening sort of epistolary fiction is An Ocean Tramp (1908 ) , by William McFee , in that the only indication of epistolary quality lies in the fact that the author tells us in his preface that the book is in letters . Furthermore , the original title of the volume was The Letters of an Ocean Tramp . There is but little indication in the book itself , however , that it is composed of letters ; the effect is that of

ENGLAND SINCE

IN a

journal, rather

than of

a

1800

series of epistles .

177

This shrewd

and

penetrating study of a vagabond is splendidly done, but the author seems to have somewhat mistaken his form in desig nating it epistolary . In this year was likewise published , When All the World Is Young , by Reginald Lucas , in which the course of a young man from Eton to Parliament is traced in letters

from

a

and wise father .

scholarly

subtitle is to be found in Uncle ' s Letters , by William Hewlett , published in 1909 . In the same year was published Set in Silver , by C . N . & A . M . Williamson , one of the most delightful of epistolary works , which is chiefly a romance recorded on a motor trip through the British Isles. The letters are very much in the modern medium , impetuous in style and occa sionally abbreviated in expression . Most of the letters are

An

Advice .

A

Novel

in

Audrie Brendon and are accurately young -girlish But even those that are not written by Audrie are

young

from

tone .

in

-century

eighteenth

and flow with a remarkable speed , and they are encouragingly all “ in character .” If there is any fault to be found with them , it is that there is a “ smartness " in all, just as there is in almost all of the speeches of almost all the char acters created by Wilde . There is to be found , however , in the very first letter an extremely revelatory remark concern funny when you have ing letter writing , and it is , “

tell

not half

,

as

of of

for

up

.

,

as

,

;

,

)

(

of

which

of

in

,

;

)

1908

(

a

as

,

to

is

the author presents the sup Mark Senhouse protagonist Half Open Country 1909 and Rest Harrow

Maurice Hewlett

posed correspondence way House

,

to

is

of

To

.

by

easy

be ?"

to

s

by

'

you

all

ve

at

,

it '

to

write letter when nothing say and must make lack weaving phrases No more accurate criticism matter the epistolary mode found anywhere the last year this decade 1910 belong two epistolary They Are works One Letters Sanchia Upon Things

a

lot

't to it

Isn

full of wit

in

do

.

in

to

,

to

)

(

,

his ideal Sanchia whom he gives advice and spirit with whose absent he communes sentimental long ing The letters themselves hold very little interest for those who not already know the characters portrayed the 1910

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

178

their careers . They are almost essays rather than letters and each is preceded by a long , and often

novels which consider

,

unnecessary

note .

explanatory

Harding

of

The letters

.

-

,

.

,

its

The second epistolary work of this year is Gwenda , by Mabel Barnes -Grundy. The affectation of this book may be leveled at by noting that the name of the heroine is Gwenda , and that she writes most of her letters to her grandmother whom she chooses to call “Granty .” There is some humor , here however , and much dignity as the book rises to melo dramatic conclusion The letters despite the insistent affecta tion already mentioned are letter like and convincing to

a

no

,

of

.

,

in

of

by

,

,

,

.

a

,

in

in

of

one Peter

an

us

his relatives and friends Harley Street The Corner 1911 book by anonymous author The epistles are filled with family affairs with social criticism with philosophy and with sort monotony induced the fact that matter who the recipient the letters are all written the same tone There are given

,

by

an

an

is

the war

in

the aspects

of

.

some

of

of

consideration

to

, if

is

it

.

in

,

in

,

of

a

,

of

a

is

total absence action the volume The letters are dialogue and say that however full safe this entirely con time dialogue has become recognized not vincing property the letter and used with great fre quency and great profusion To 1915 belongs epistolary

Aunt

Sarah

. of

of

as

.

of its

In

.

of in

,

in

a

to

in

to

of

in

,

,

of

a

,

is

,

in

in

.

,

.

,

A

.

and the War Tale Transformations unknown au thorship Written earlier but first published for special rea story sons 1917 Christine letters by Alice Cholmon deley The author presents the letters those her daughter Germany England published her after the death hospital Stuttgart the daughter addition they seem Germany and people before reveal the mental state during and the Great War The revelation German pride

,

)

(

in

is

in

of

,

.

a

of

by

.

,

of

.

is

notable and penetrating without being too condemnatory hope and despair and ulti The letters themselves are full pathos mate and are written with much conviction Another by story life taken the war told Jamesie 1918 Ethel Sidgwick The letters broken English are here espe cially delightful and indeed all the letters are very real

ENGLAND SINCE

IN

and , incidentally , realistically short

1800

many

in

179 cases . Again

, use

made of the occasional telegram with telling effect . The of the book is very elaborate , with many correspond ences handled at once , in addition to the narrative inter ludes that between many the epistles None the less is

,

.

of of a

of

lie

form

of

.

of

is

singularly complete revela the effect the whole that prime tion human lives without the slightest intimation literary greatness

-

of

a

,



.”

an

be

of

's

an

is

,



of

)

(

1922

a

The Confessions Well Meaning amusing exposé what might called interfering the confessions woman The author has delineated his leading character Lady Anne Spenworth

McKenna

Stephen

Woman

of

.

of

in

-

-up to -

,

The letters

although

an

,

date and succeed admirably sympa non delivery cannot spoil the

the modern woman

in

in

.

is

,

,

too

to

a

relations between English peer engaged whom she long are very real thoroughly presenting

to

an

a



(

)

from

published



of

Confession

American Girl Her America under the delightful revelation presents the charming and self willed girl and the

Letters 1926

,

work Undelivered English Husband title

)

-

of

-

,

an

.

is

of

(



a

, of

any sort conventional soul with horror class freedom although accuracy fact that all the and with considerable Lady essay like and one sided the letters are from Anne pres somewhat limits the range the work the accuracy unimpeachable entation epistolary novel This Cosmo Hamilton has published

-

of 's

a

of

.

a

in

of

In

an

.

a

as

.

of

thetic light Even the artifice picture whole 1928 was published intimate record husband love The Love Letters Husband The anonymity

,

of

of

.

die

of

love that refuses

.

a

,

this long correspondence which the smouldering

beautiful unfolding

.

,

a

1929

a

belongs Hugh Walpole and collaboration Priestley Farthing Hall The letters present twentieth

To

.

B

J.

the close

very

to

flame

other

times

of

at

is ,

to

each

at

of

a

of

.

is

the author has here been carefully preserved This the story separation between husband and wife because she feels that he has grown tired her Ultimately they return

180

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL fact

two

epistolary

stories

one

straight

if

dull

very

they

the presented in

is

two friends might

be

of

,

it

,

.

a

:

a

budding romance the other novel the one broken Although the proceedings are all very inconsequential are diverting and must be said that what told correspondence

this

in

matter

century

, -

; of

are

eighteenth

the

in

There

a

fashion

,

done

as

story

.

century

.

in

, ,

,

,

as

to

of a

so

of

"

"

as

narrative many stories sentimental bias told letters beginning epistolary impulse very from the the the present such works Humphrey Clinket Evelina The Dodd Among

on

,

so

In

.

.

P

.

A

for of

,

,

is

a

and

combines

flighty modern

girl with

all highly diverting

not art but

,

This

far

.

hers

idiom

of

.

Lee

is

a

is

be of

is

a

the speech

to

,

the jazz

the speech might actually that

man thinks

reminiscent The language

are somewhat

Lorelei

that notable modern siren very much these letters

what

is

is

.

and inherent vacuity

of

shrewdness

,

tions

they present the rather diffuse trials and tribula girl whose combined accidental very modern

in

form a

book

of

it

in

in

it

.

in

,

,

,

Family Abroad Dracula and stand out aside from the merits peculiarly their own because they are epistolary group works not Toosy the sentimental mode Of such possible the most recent novel letters record since was published 1931 This the creation Her originally bert and the letters were written Punch

also

to

be

,

,

to

it

so

modern dimensions and contortions may may not only delight letters that perhaps instruct

.

but

all

presented

in

likewise

its of

girl

in

a

of

,

is

it

and amusing and goes indicate that though but distantly related the sentimental psycho logical novel the eighteenth century the enlarged portrait

VIII

EPISTOLARY FICTION (PARTICU LARLY THE NOVEL ) IN FRANCE AND The

casting

ITALY

IN

of narrative works of fiction

novels , into epistolary

designated

form

,

,

we have by no

which

was a practice

in

its

means limited to the land which gave the greatest examples of the art any more than it was to the century which pro duced most distinguished proponents and which the

,

,

.

W

a

,

included

in

in

1

",

of

Richardson wherein list novels letter form Europe He has however omitted

. of



there

is

.

,

Consequences

The Downs has included

In

in

on

Samuel Richardson a

.

,

book

chapter

on

,

.

'

Downs

Mr

by

its

of

highest peak development and achieve mode reached ment Novels were written this form French Italian American German Russian and other authors Brian

,

,

consequence

,

,

It

not

of of

of

.

in

,

in

various other literatures America from his census and has treated epistolary fiction Italy rather slightingly may be argued course that

,



"

was

, .p

Richardson

"

it

as

than that that Richardson connotes

218 181

in

conclusions rashly

well feel that he ascribing Richard can

to

England one

,

in



epistolary

not jumping

*

is

knows further to

and

the word

"



land

,

be

,

.

it

,

he

in

or

this form

a

Richardson that Richardson did not introduce into Italy the novel letters although admittedly made fashionable there may But when one considers the epistolary epidemic Eng termed and sees the germinal poste restante marked the use

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

182

the impulse giving strength to the novel in England and outside England imitators investigate the subject one were anxious

letters and

of

to

If

.

in

its

son

the epis by

a

de

.

of

ou

of

,

,

,

to )

in

1761 Paris contains spot one convenient the finger sale

in

(

the best list collected

Mr

Lettres deux pieds des Alps

in

first exposed

Rousseau

au

'

d

Amants habitans

Nouvelle Héloise une petite Ville for

's

La

of

edition

hem

, ; M .

in

.

be

,

in

tolary novel France completely the compass volume necessary would Aside from those works listed Philippe Van Tieg Downs his aforementioned chapter

Cla de

England

,

appearance

Lettres Angloises

ou

in

French

in

three years after

rissa appeared

as

,

In

1751

its

.

tips

Histoire

however

as

early

,

Lescaut As

Manon

,

the author

.

,

Prévost

of

.

to

of

ou

de

in

56

-

In

.

Clarissa Harlove 1755 we may note the appearance French Nouvelle Lettres Angloises Histoire Chevalier Grandisson These translations are both attributed Abbé work which shows that Pamela had mark upon the French literary conscious appeared ness for Antipamela Mémoires published this time London 1743 Anti Pamela Feign Syrena Innocence Detected Series Adven a

noted

or , at

-

's

of

Downs

)

.

was

Pamela itself ap the fancy the

of

(

less

;

.D .-

M

,

a

In

book

Mr

to of

but this

a

1742

opines

The translation is

into French

,

in

Mrs Haywood

. .

by

:

.

in

,

, ’ d

translated peared

In

or

;

,

possibly

tures

de

its

,

is

1742 there already made

are Richardson two later novels From this through the eighteenth century England having upon epistolary France looked the mode and having Many imitations popularity was assured liked

of

,

in

,

.

its

,

, it,

as

.

's

than

on

French

date

.

,

in

a

,

,

de

.

in

aside from those already noted appeared French Mme Beaumont who has been previously mentioned for her epistolary fiction was Frenchwoman prolific her Pamela

'

d

is

de

La

's

-

,

in

of

of

.

.

of

imitations Richardson Francois Thomas Baculard Ar Réligieuse naud was another such author Diderot one the most outstanding instances Richardson imitation and was published 1760 almost twenty years after the

FRANCE AND ITALY

IN

183

of Pamela . Laclos ' Liaisons Dangereuses (trans English lated into as Dangerous Connections ) was another.

appearance

The true

of France

Richardson

was , however , Jean - Jacques

his

. La Nouvelle Héloise (1761) , is , like others of particular may compared works letters This work long with those Richardson because had train imitators Of great interest however Rousseau version the Portuguese Letters volume called Letters An English Italian Nun and Gentleman 1781 series be

of

a

,

of

a

)

(

,

,

of

's

is

,

a

an

in

of

.

,

it,

too

in

.

of

,

in

Rousseau

.

an

of

,

.

La

of

in

of

on

in

,

sentimental and pathetic letters which are extremely well phrasing written graceful and insistent sadness English sentiment was great The influence these Among the many works which were composed imitation

la

,

;

la

de

à

; de

ou

de

de

:

; ou , M.

)

Le

,

sa

de

(

et

;

,

the Nouvelle Héloise van Tieghem has listed Philosophe par Amour Lettres deux Amants Pas sionnés vertueux 1765 Henriette Wolmar Mere jalouse fille pour servir suite Nouvelle

de

;

M

,

et

.

ou

de

,

ou

de

.

,

;

M

et

et la

de

by

)

)

(

de

de

La

;

)

(

, ,

ou

,

ou

de

(

se

;

ne )

un

;

(

;

Héloise 1768 Nouvel Abailard Lettres deux qui jamais Amants sont vus 1778 Réstif Bretonne Sophie Lettres deux Amies recueillies publiées par citoyen Genève 1779 Lettres deux Lyons publiées par Amants habitants Léonard 1783 Dernière Héloise Lettres Junie Salisbury publiées par Dauphin citoyen recueillies Verdun

.

)

(

,

'

d

,

to

) is

in

As

'

in

as

at .

be

a

of

It

.

in

of its

d

' s L '

'

d

-

a

, .

as

in

It

(

;

and Amours Lettres Alexis Justine 1786 thought not be however that the epistolary im pulse France was entirely dependent upon Richard Histoire Urfé 1607 1619 Honoré son As early correspondence epistolary France trée was model for century was such tremendous influence the seventeenth representative that use the eighteenth century 1784

,

,

Goldsmith could copy this work

forty years later

in

.

If

a

of a

,

of

by

,

de )

et

la

of

a

,

,

de

(

is

to

the epistolary art not wondered Then too Charles Louis de 1721 there were Lettres Persanes Montesquieu Sécondat Baron Brède full phrasing and perspicacity piquancy graceful humor particularly lively Oliver that render them observation gem

his Citi

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL at

.

them

of

valuable

home need not the serious with delightful They

informative treatment Europe these might

the

be

,

,

use

these letters keeps

in

vein

are moreover

of as

light

the

widespread

The intermixture

of

.

be thought surprising

its

World , surely

zen of the

an

184

,

of

,

,

in

.

, of

in

of

.

a

,

of

as

manners and customs seen through the eyes English two Asiatics John Davidson the poet made sympathetic translation them late the nineteenth century Directly imitation these are the letters the French patriot Jean Paul Marat Lettres Po a

,

of

,

of

of

, ,

of

.

In

young Polish written about 1770 these letters prince traveling through the countries Europe incognito writes his extended criticisms the manners and customs especially the social conditions the countries through lonaises

as

impulse

.

the same vein

,

but

created

by

entirely

in

Not

a

an

,

of

,

to

of

.

a

to

,

to

which he has traveled and sends them chiefly friend and brother The letters are course excuse for Marat air his opinions the existing social order the same

were the Lettres Persanes were those two epistolary

,

's

.

on

an

of

it

of ,

is

's ,

Le

)

and

was

form

de

letter

de

in

.

,

Mme Riccoboni

are both

two

com

. It

-

(

.

on

,

1735

)

's

Parvenu

death

by de

,

of

Marivaux

after

36

Paysan

-

pleted

must be remembered that original the existence

epistolary influence Richardson Marivaux fiction La Vie Marianne 1731 41

major works

(

French

a

there

being argued high possibility

novel is

tolary

de

.

,

of

)

,

)

of

(

(

's

in

of

a

in

to

background works which formed France the devel opment sentimental fiction the epistolary form Alco Graffigny forado Lettres Portugaises 1669 and Mme great popularity Lettres Peruviennes 1747 both epis When the influence Richardson the French

of

,

,

of

occurrences and undoubtedly beyond the dreams

the latter author

are

by

,

and the works

everyday

,

of

Marivaux

as

,

,

In

to

He succeeded

.

everyday lives

realism

of

into the channels

of

to

.

)

75

.

(p

to

,

this author Pierre Carlet Chamblain Marivaux who bring countrymen endeavored back his nature has already been mentioned like manner Samuel Richardson made strong endeavor turn the tide fiction

com

FRANCE AND ITALY

IN

185

writer , fanciful and light . Yet there are resemblances to be noticed between the at tempted realism of Marivaux and the successful realism of Richardson , resemblances that suggest the possibility of Richardson 's having somewhat followed the lead of the

parison

with those of the English

Frenchman . Marianne is , however , episodic . The Richardson book it most suggests , Clarissa , is , on the other hand , a his tory in which the events of the heroine 's life follow each other in an uninterrupted succession . Here is one of the

the other hand doubtful

,

is

,

Marivaux

on

of

in

, if of

to

led

chief differences between Richardson and Marivaux . There is no doubt that Richardson had before him the example of Marivaux 's novels in the epistolary form . That he was couch his own works that form because the example not entirely

classic

love letters

of

Lettres

and

)

(

1732

love

letters

,

's

tale

in

.

)

fils

)

of

-

P

, -

M

( (

de

beside Landor

Pericles and

be

.

In

the French work the letters are exchanged tween Alcibiades and Aspasia

.

de

as

in

,

de of

Comte

the

Mari

Lettres 1732 both the work Claude Prosper Jolyot Crébillon The latter work may be placed

Athéniennes Crébillon Aspasia

au

,

are such series

of

of

early work

Marquise

de

la

's

vaux

before Marivaux however and following the Lettres Portugaises rather than that

,

Even

trail

in

.

incredible

the two important

as

of

years

of

Marivaux belong the epistolary works Le

works

de

epistolary

the same period

of

To almost

and

)

Beaumont

Al ,

1764

noted

)

Roselle

(

de

and the

,

.

It

are

The former

1759

,

Riccoboni

English

might be

de

form

.

du

Marquis

,

Tencin

Beaumont

Catesby

(

de

.

Lettres

the epistolary

,

Mesdames

in

written

of

of

is

both

de

.

Mme Riccoboni and Mme Elie the author Lettres Julie

into

.

as of

a

of

VI

in

tolary authors whose work was translated

latter the author

)

(

,

)

(

,

' L

Comte

a

de

Tencin Amour

de

Comminge 1735 and Malheurs 1747 two sprightly novels written great deal dignity with moral purpose but not ready considered Chapter this work French epis

Madame

that along

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

186

with Mme. de Charrière , author of Lettres neuchateloises

(1784 ) , and Caliste ; ou Lettres écrites de Lausanne ( 1786 ) , and Mme. de Souza , who wrote Adèle de Senanges (1794 ) , form a sort of epistolary school of sensibility which extends over

period

a

of some sixty years and

comparable

is

to

the

similar school of sensibility already considered in the Eng lish epistolary novel of the eighteenth century . These French books are , upon the whole , although the works of Mme . Riccoboni and Mme. de Beaumont are thoroughly pleasant , rather pedestrian and uninspired creations, sometimes re lieved by a flow of graceful and exquisite writing , but usually overladen with sentiment and sensibility . Voltaire

'Amabed

work

Les Lettres

in

piece that may

minor in every respect . This was published in Dependent upon the work of Marivaux for title Paysan Perverti moral indignation Dan jour après les ville histoire récente mise les its

d

la

de

)

,

by

Réstif Rousseau

of

(

for

,

véritables lettres des personages already mentioned his imitation

' ou ,

;

au

is



de

gers

its

1769 .

and

Le

considered

la

d

be

epistolary

the author of an

is

, traduites par l' Abbé Tamponet , a

Bretonne published

of

.

in

1775

as

,

to

Rousseau

found

in

published Ober be

of

Rousseau

to

of

is

a

.

in

,

Sénancourt later disciple mann 1804 There much

)

(

, .

de

.

,

in

be

to

in

in

it

,

With the advent the nineteenth century the letter novel continued written French from time time just English epistolary had and Mme Staël used the form her sentimental novel Delphine 1802 Etienne Pivert de

,

is ,

be

-

to

as

's

is

,

)

(

a

,

of

.

du

of

this and also much the fast growing tendency toward mal siècle The strongest influence seen here however that German novel Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Die sought Leiden des Jungen Werthers 1774 since nature

in

,

at



in

is

it

" in

.

in

a

to

.

at

is

is

.

a

in

as

the the French work just solace for sorrow original German The letters are always character and intervals not uninteresting The form recurs the work apt France letters appearing find novel and one almost any time

FRANCE AND ITALY

IN

187

novel by Louis Buonaparte , Marie ; ou , les Peines de l' Amour, was first published in 1812 (translated into English in 1815 as Maria ; or, The Hollanders ) . This is a sentimental and involved novel which tells the story of a girl who is thought to be " inaccessible to love." The char vague but are acters are rather vague the typically French very beautiful The manner The philosophy the entire work

An

,

. of I) ,

.

.

all

,

in

all

epistolary

of . 27 ,

,

,

!”

In



(p

of

in

The chief recommendation capturing the Dutch scene with

-

pages

which

the author was thoroughly familiar

,

de

.

occasional

of

Marie

is

its

of

eighty one

some

.

of

,

,

as

,

in

of

is

is

in

up

the sentimentPlin 27 vol The heart unworthy happiness which can love twice true happ the first part the work most the letters sentimental and moralizing tone are exchanged between two characters Adolphus Julius and but the story proceeds the corre spondence falls into other hands and the letters grow creasingly longer until Letter LXI assumes the proportions summed

,

de

(

1842

)

.

in

The contrasts the lives the two girls who write the letters the chief point interest this novel 1869 Daudet Lettres Mon Moulin appeared These sketches are altogether delightful and their capturing background and atmosphere noteworthy One Victor popular Cherbuliez most novels Miss Rovel 1875 letters Octave Feuillet published La Morte written

.

.

)

,

Aliette 1886 Here the story letters tells the (

English

into

in is

)

,

of

(

,

.

is

translated

as

.

's

in

,

1886

in

de

's

In

of

.

is

of

of

presented between

epis

the

.

Honoré Balzac too tried Mémoires deux Jeunes Mariées

narrative

,

in

(

is

, ,

)

(

de

form

de

's

tolary

.

,

in

)

partly

in

-

,

In

Pigault Lebrun wrote Adelaide Meran let ters and Théophile Gautier most famous and most notori Maupin partly ous work Mlle 1835 letters 1815

who has just lost his wife

.

in

by

is

a

a

,

a

of

)

,

,

is

of ,

of

a

is

.

(

of

,

husband interesting character and emotion The analysis by Mario Uchard throughout Mon Oncle Barbassou 1888 young French sort modern Arabian Nights story uncle from his Mohammedan harem who inherits man complicated the fact that the uncle circumstance which

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

188

is not dead . It is composed of letters , almost every one of which is a full , and expansive , chapter in length . There is considerable verbal coloring , some humor, and much adven ture in this novel ; but the extreme length of the letters , the fact that they lose the tone of letters as the story proceeds and take on the tone of straight narrative , does much to rob the whole of the desired epistolary effect . In 1897 an absorb ing work appeared , depicting private life and manners of the late seventeenth century in a thoroughly readable fashion .

This

is

ésquisse

Emmanuel Pierre Rodocanachi de la vie privée à Rome en

's

Tolla la Courtisane ; l'an du Jubilé 1700 .

The method of appending notes makes the book seem almost " severely historical ,” but it is actually epistolary fiction in stead . Le Songe d ' une Femme ( Eng . trans. 1927) , by Remy de Gourmont, a series of letters concerned almost exclusively with passion , and Mitsou (1929 ) , are examples of the pres ent -day use of the form in French . Thus we see that the use in France of the epistolary form has been a fairly constant one and has persisted through the centuries. It flourished , as in England , mainly eenth century , and has since been resorted to

the eight from time to in

time for the purpose of fiction .

to epistolary expression in Italy , we find that appeared in translation in 1744 - 46 , and the heroine

Turning

Pamela

of the novel had her story made Goldoni ' s Pamela Fanciulla ( or Goldoni followed this play with in

1784 -89 .

Italy ,

from

Pamela Pamela

in

that country by

Nubile ) (1750 ) . Maritata ( 1750 ) . 1783 - 86 ; Grandison

novel form , in Thus we find that the epistolary nóvel reached England , save in the case of Pamela , rather later

Clarissa was translated

,

famous

in

, where Richardson ' s novels were com pletely translated by the close of the fifties . In Germany , too , the fifties saw Richardson completely translated . But in Italy the drama was at this time more popular than the novel , and than

so

it

it had

France

was that

heroine

.

Pamela became

Incidentally

,

these

a

plays

rather than a page of Goldoni were translated stage

FRANCE AND ITALY

IN

189

into English and published in London in 1756 . Chiari , in 1759 , also published a Pamela Maritata , and his novel Fran cese in Italia he based on Clarissa .2 One finds here not so much the definitely moralistic tone that was so peculiarly Richardson 's ; but the impulse of the epistle came from him . Of course Rousseau was , in France, a nearer neighbor to Italy , and Goethe 's Werther was also very popular with the

Italians, but

since all go back to Richardson as the foun tainhead we may say of Chiari that he , too , does . . Downs

Mr

Arturo Graf the statement that Richardson , though he did not introduce the epistolary form into Italy , made it popular there . This is unquestionably a good phrase , has

taken

from

the whole a trifle vague , for the translation of Pamela dates 1744 -46 ; Chiari's Francese in Italia dates 1762 . Richardson was there eighteen years before Pietro Chiari ! And in Chiari 's La Viaggiatrice there is a very clear influence of Pamela . It is in epistolary form as are three

but

one that seems upon

of his other novels : La filosofessa italiana ; La Cantatrice per disgrazia ; and La Donna che non si trova ( 1762 ) , which is in imitation of La Nouvelle Héloise . As a matter of fact , Albergati had had it in mind to imitate this Rousseau work in an epistolary novel but did not do it , and published in the Lettere Capricciose piacevoli

e varie in collabora Zacchiroli , Compopioni , and Bertalozzi . Thus , if Richardson not introduce the epistolary form into Italy but merely made fashionable then Chiari must introducing be given the honor But since Richardson was most often his model we may conclude that the intro

stead

it . , ”

to

"

of

at

,

of

it “

,

"

did

tion with

.

., .p

Italia

nel

' cit

233

.

e

L

Inglese

Influsso

.op

,

-

;

,

,

*

.op cit ., , , .p L’ .

·

Anglo Mania Arturo Graf Torino 1911 Graf 282 Downs

XVIII

in

.

of

It

of

.

,

of

it

he

,

,

.

,

if

duction was least under the influence Richardson that author was not himself the immediate impulse Of course Richardson did not introduce epistolary fiction into Eng popular there land but made Earlier too course than Chiari are certain other works has been claimed for Italy that the origins the epistolary novel are Italian Europe knew the epistolary novels secolo

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

190

Montesquieu , Richardson , Rousseau , and Goethe . But 1569 there was already

epistolary

an

novel

Italy

in

,

in

Let

the

of Aloise Pasqualigo , which is the basis for this distinguished claim . In 1684 we have Marana ' s L ' Esploratore tere Amorose

e le diliu relazioni segrete alla Porte Ottomana (Paris ) . This has been thought to be of French origin , but Natali re futes this conclusively . It is, like Montesquieu 's Lettres Per sanes, a survey of politics and society . It was very popular and

turco

in English in the first decade of the eighteenth cen tury . In almost direct imitation of the early work by Marana is Lo Spione Italiano ; ossia corrispondenza segrete e familiare

di

fra

appeared

e

.

is

(

'

,

in

, is

,

to

is

is

as

,

the sentimental

moralistic

novel

in

of

of

.

like that

is it

,

It if

.

in

in

of of

very much

)

d

,

il

e

of

,

in

is ,

It

-

i

il

Marchese Licciocara Conte Pifiela tutti due viaggiatori incogniti per Europa diverse corti 1782 the final analysis however Pietro Chiari who Italy the leading proponent the epistolary form has Certainly this indisputably true already been intimated his place the eighteenth century not equally true interesting his place all Italian literature note that the general machinery his epistolary novels indeed

, as

.

of

I

as

,

of

,

,

,

in

's

in

,

are

,

of

.

in

England The same extravagances the same plethora letters gallant intrigues surprises duels flights and course plentifully employed tears these novels almost England epistolary works they were fiction have al

,

Settecento

a

,

.

of

1929

di :

.

a

on

,

venture fondati

It

of

.

a

in

in

the Storia

Thus Con

di

giovi saperne oltre codesti romanzi capricciose combinazioni accozzate senza logica di

che in

Non credo Il

the picaresque tale with

based French original important really this writer

.

cari sums

*

writer

In

-

in

a

as

career

Luigi Manderine up

di

his

.

of

,

in

di

,

in

in

(

that the novel was not the most important the literature the eighteenth century was not indeed until the appearance Le Ultime Lettere Jacopo Ortis truly 1799 1802 that the novel became popular form that country other words Chiari was persistently writing form that was not entirely popular during the period which he wrote By 1757 he had begun ready indicated Italy

form

FRANCE AND ITALY

il

191

da un

IN

,

ne

'

ne

ha

,

e

e

.5

,

se

e

fin

qui detto arte ; idea dei propisiti dell autore che pure scrive per dilettare istriure non rettitudine moralita non pervana ostentazione nelle massime nei discorsi ne

Italy

keep the novel

to

much

in

the man who did

so

is

Yet this

di

(

it

)

in

to

in

as

!

alive The book which has already been indicated that which popularize the novel began Italy Le Ultime Lettere Jacopo Ortis 1802 did not possess that title when first

.

It

.

to

to

's

in

as

in

to

of

in

as

di

1799 La Vera Storia due Amanti infelici Ugo Foscolo was the author may this celebrated work be said stand the same relation Italian fiction and literary history general Goethe Werther does Ger

appeared

.

of

of

a

on

as

,

of

In

du

and reflects for Italy the general mal siècle then prominent literary fashion the Continent Ober Benjamin mann Sénancour and Adolphe Constant we

man

Jacopo Ortis can The importance Italy not be overestimated was the first work fiction highly sensitive and style make any attempt As in

.

and one

of

. , . ."

'.

a

of ',

invention The tone

'

an

as

of



:

,

Memoriam

the

;

to

sometimes

an

The letters themselves are both

sensitive and sentimental yet there lyrical quality the prose that lifts

it is

form

In

early

an

,

elegiac

the epistolary

.

in

few

is



I

.

in

friend Padua The work has no intent everything for have drawn from truth the whole

de

I

in

,

my

,

at

to

letter Goethe 1802 have herein passions my time under the name to

in

Focolo says picted myself

a

to

be

.

of

It .

have parallel instances

almost

above the common

.

place

1817

inspired

by ,

or

of ,

imitation In

These are

in

novels

Ortis and Werther largely

.

Jacopo

.

epistolary

,

on

of

,

in

Later the nineteenth century along with the influence Walter Scott the Italian novel may be noted several

Giovanni Agrati

to

in

of

, an

398

.

,

Settecento

, p .

Concari

, Il

.

.”

ims and discourses

T

or

of

to

to to

.

or

,

is

it

do

of 5 " I

enquire any further into such romances necessary not think revolving about whimsical combination thrown together with adventure out either logic art What has been said thus far gives idea the pur delight and poses instruct and yet does not the author who writes display them morality except possess either righteousness his max

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

192

it

of

.

Orintia una Naples

di

the Lettere of

by

;

the Marchese

1825

in

of

,

di

noted Lettere Giulia Willet Romagnoli Sacrati Cesena

In

of

a

by

in

its it

its

published the Storia di Clarice Visconti duchessa di Milano . This work was much admired by Manzoni, who wrote in favor and said that was such model diction that hiding paucity succeeded own ideas 1818 may be

.

di

in

at

,

,

in

in

in

if

In

,

.

;

in a

France the

least

other words contemporary manners had Italy domestic fiction and familiar way

in

,

been described

passions

in

of

ed

'

d

It

.

a

in in

expository novel

.

a

.

of

an

di

must be remembered that the analysis bourgeois society had been made England Germany even not the epistolary novel

Savoia

a

to

-

of

a

a

to



a

be

a

W

-

,

a

is

Italiana the Baroness Carolina Decio Cosenza strange mixture This work the pseudo classical and Lysander writing the heroic romantic for we have Cressida and Count Clelia Perhaps such work may best corruption called the sentimental novel epis Cesare Balbo left unfinished historical romance tolary form entitled Lettere Alfonso Este Isabella

in



as

,

,

in

)

(

,

La

,

I

it

.

a

it

.

,

,

in

or

.

di

's

is

is

of

in

-

a

of

a

,

in

.

,

to to

change and with this change disappear almost completely About 1825 died natural death after having been century vogue for nearly three quarters light Italy Of the work which saw the this form may be said that there only one lasting importance and Jacopo Ortis The Ugo Foscolo that Lettere Ultime

it

that the aspect really began the epistolary novel began

in

-

In

.

.

in

in

as

.

di

"

of

novel manners was not known 1818 when the Lettere Giulia Willet appeared Of course there were some Italy who considered romance people old fashioned England did some when Mrs Charlotte Lennox 1752 published The Female Quixote 1819 there appeared Italy book which definitely satirized romance Donna delle romanzi But was not until promessi sposi 1830 the

gave birth

a

goodly

dozen

of

1830

a

own before

to

its

in

.

in

novels

in

epistolary form are more less transitory general that one remembers But when worth and tissue country which had very little fiction novel form which was other

epis

ITALY

FRANCE AND

IN

193

tolary novels , the virulence of this trans -European epidemic can be estimated . The same general statement may be made of German literature , in which there is to be found , among the several existing epistolary novels , but one that is of true worth and importance . This is , of course , Die Leiden des Jungen Wer thers , by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , a novel in letters which first appeared in 1774 . Since it was preceded by the epistolary works of Samuel Richardson and Jean -Jacques Rousseau , it is a safe and natural assumption to suppose that Goethe derived at least the suggestion for the form of his work from the novels in letters of Richardson and Rousseau . Goethe followed the path of Rousseau in the spirit that he established in his work and succeeded in setting up a new

,

of .

a

is

its

mode of thought in German social relations and in litera ture . In that the book encouraged sentimental youths to com mit suicide , it achieved a sort of notoriety as well as fame ; yet high one The philosophy the intrinsic value

of

case

in

the letters which

philosophic

;

he

as

.

well

Wilhelm Scherer Goethe did not understand how impetuous young man inequality against the pride

,

says

,

which

;

,

brilliant talents

protested against established

the work

an

,

society

of

a

.

In

is

as a

to

of

,

to

)

-

of

of an

"

to

use the

this novel

Wer

ramblings and simple presenta

sentimental self pityings their attempted bourgeois tion life are all more closely allied Richardson than that Rousseau important literary work The book itself epistolary one protested against

to

faithfulness

of he

the

they are

their

as

full

of

ther writes

in

especially as

character

their naturalness

;

are written

, (

letters

;

.

,

,

sentimentality and the social ethics the book are derived from Rousseau On the other hand the style which the

he

,

the

matter

estab fact

,

,

the author employed

against

of

protested

a

he

and

as

,

. . .

aesthetic rules lished speech which

;

of

;

. . .

;

protested against prevailing morality the nobility that did not even look upon suicide with compassion protested against conventional pedantry style and against

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

194

with freedom , but even arbitrarily . ” . Whatever else may be said of the book , it must stand undoubtedly as one of the most remarkable and influential of epistolary novels in literature and one as important in effects the epis tolary novels Richardson and the Nouvelle Héloise

of

Berlin

1883

500

.

Literatur

, .p

Geschichte der Deutschen

,

Scherer

,

Wilhelm

,

Rousseau

.

of

as

its

not only

IX

EPISTOLARY FICTION

AMERICA

IN

THE Epistolary impulse was, of course , not confined to Eu rope , and there is ample evidence that it early crossed the Atlantic . As early as 1744 Pamela was in print in Philadel

phia . Benjamin Franklin made an edition of it here , and in the same year there were editions of it in New York and Boston . Richardson 's other novels were first issued in this country in abridged form , again in Philadelphia , in 1786 . Thus Richardson 's work attained popularity in America and seems

to

have

read

been

to

sufficient degree

a

warrant

to

about the same time that they ap peared in Italian translations in Italy , but considerably later than they reached France in French translations. On the other hand, the English editions of these works circulated in America before the dates of their American editions , and it is here

point

much

far -

this

away days

those

being strictly

London

from

in

Beyond

the mode they like

to

"

latest

things

even

.

.

do

read the today



those people who made

sure that

,

feel reasonably

a

we may

existence here

in

in

possible to find these editions

as

them

of

printings of

fa

a

of

,

is

us

but most significant for

the

fact

be

,

to

,

in

Hopkinson writing America in

of

Benjamin Franklin the epistles Bagatelles and the open letters Francis literary impulse something added the for letter of

Undoubtedly

miliar nature

195

, a

is

of

,

York

1917

284

.

New

, I, .p

Literature

,

American

,

-

Cambridge History

of

to

of

.

in

,

of

is

to

acknowledged that what the first American novel Sympathy was epistolary form The Power This ineffectually piece weak and sentimental work rather hybrid nature once attributed Sarah Wentworth Morton

THE EPISTOLARY

but now

NOVEL

all .

196

in

It

of

By

to

of

on

in

it

is :

.

to

of

in

,

,

,

Mode Domestic Education suited Society Government and Manners

a

on

of

similar English this Con It

to

so

or

-

the present State

is

of

is

and didactic tone common thirty previous twenty years works some

taining Sentiments

,

,

is

of

a

to

of

a

In

.

of

.

of

-

all inclusive

to

,

in

,

in

,

A

.

on

,

an

its

be

a

)

by

(

,

in

.

in

be hers at was published Boston 1789 this time the greatest vogue the epistolary England was past but our fiction was sired some novel people would prefer grandsired novel letters which may high although very intrinsic worth not none the epistolary novel year later less 1790 the epistolary strain was carried with the appearance Memoirs the Bloomsgrove Family Respectable Series Letters Philadelphia The continuation citizen this title the interesting page title the book itself because that doubted

of

to

to

;

is

D

,

. D .;

a

in

a

An

.

term

to

. of

's

,

came Jeremy Belknap The Foresters Amer Sequel Tale Being the History John Bull the 1792

a

ican

that

:

In

sense

of

is

is

It

.

.

of

.

is

.

of

:

of

on

America and the Dignity and Impor Variety Interesting tance the Female Character With Anecdotes The author Enos Hitchcock the publish ers are Thomas and Andrews Boston the Dedication point out that scarcely necessary Mrs Washington highly hardly this instructive work novel the current the United States

a

.

in

,

in

-

of

An

In

.

a

-

as

present day interest purely literature prove very feeble one 1793 appeared

,

view

must necessarily

its

of

that point

is

be

a

its

is

It

to

.

of

to

to

of

a

.

In

Clothier Series Letters Friend This curi ously rambling affair that ought read with indicative notes because endless topical allusions and political definitely post Revolutionary cruxes tone looking period accomplishment back the the colonies From

of

of

,

,

or

In

, .

B —

to

in

.

Letters from

by

founded

in

,

Novel

on

;

an

To

.

,

in

a

,

's

American

Incidents Real Life by Caroline Francis Marie Lady This was published Belknap Boston

A

.

of

of

Series

an

a

Revenge

or

The Emigrants the History Ex patriated Family being English Delineation Character and Manners written America 1793 also belongs anonymous work The Hapless Orphan Innocent Victims

Gilbert Imlay

AMERICA

IN

197

and Hall . In 1797 a very popular work , The Coquette ; or, Eliza Wharton , by Hannah Webster Foster , appeared . Mr. Van Doren attests to the great popularity of this work when he states : “ The Coquette saw thirty editions in forty years ." ? In 1795 came the Trials of the Human Heart , by Mrs . Su sannah Rowson , printed in Philadelphia . Again , another epistolary novel was published in 1797 under the title of In fidelity ; or, The Victims of Sentiment. A Novel in a series of Letters , by Samuel Relf . This was published by W . W . Wood ward . That the epistolary novel was popular , is proved by the

that the title

fact

,

contained

it,

in

several

in

in

that the work was " in a series of letters .” It must be noticed , likewise, how definitely imitative of the titles of English epistolary works many of these Amer ican epistolary titles are in their general outlines . The next original work to appear in letter form in America was The Original Letters of Ferdinand and Isabella , by John Davis . This belongs to the year 1798 . In 1800 , at Portsmouth , New Hampshire , there was published anonymously The Castle ; , Perpetual of Serrein or Abode of Pleasures : in a series of

stances

the information

Letters by Seignora

R

. Interwoven with

own memoirs ,

her

etc .

epistolary

of

for

The next two works to be chronicled are by the most im . portant of the early American novelists , Charles Brockden Brown , the favorite of Shelley , and the American Ann Rad cliffe . Just as so many of the greater English authors used the

,

so

)

-

, :

To

.

in

of

in

by

to

be

(

.

of

or ,

;

in

)

of

(

,

it

in

or

mode one two their works Brown his Clara Howard The Enthusiasm Love Philadelphia 1801 and his Jane Talbot 1801 The abundantly sup tenets the sentimental school seem ported the former novel the fact that absolutely noth ing happens quote Miss Loshe the course the story

used

New

,

York

, .p 7 . of

of

."

'4

of

to

Novel

1929

. 6 .

York

1907 and

1930

,

New

,

The Early American Novel

,

Loshe

American

p

.

The

, cit ., ,

op

. ,

D

.

48

Lillie

.

pp

45 -

*

• *

Carl van Doren Wegelin

,

be

,

of



is

of

occupied with the weighing The entire book reasons the chopping motives the analysis emotions These generalities may applied nine out ten the senti

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

198

mental novels published

in

England during the latter half of

the eighteenth century . Although somewhat more happens in Jane Talbot and there is considerable animation in the

letters as they proceed , yet there is the same protracted weighing of emotions and analyses of the heart and , at times , the letters sound like any sort of narrative except epistolary . The work is full of sentimental perplexities . It is significant , however , that the man who was the first professional novelist in America should have thought it worth his while to employ the epistolary form twice in his writings . In 1802 there appeared The History of Maria Kittle . In a

Letter to Miss Ten Eyck , by Ann Eliza Bleecker . This orig inally appeared in Vols . I and II of the New York Magazine ; or , Literary Repository , 1790 - 1791 .5 In 1803 came Emily

Hamilton ,

Novel founded on incidents in real life , by a Young Lady of Worcester County ( Eliza Vicery ) . In 1807 Dangerous Friendship ; or , the Letters of Clara D ' Albe. Translated

a

from

the French by

Lady of Baltimore was

a

pub

lished in Baltimore . In 1808 , Miss Hassall published Secret History; or , the Horrors of St . Domingo , in a Series of Letters by a Lady at Cape Francis to Colonel Burr , late Vice -Presi dent of the U . S. Principally during the command of General Rocheambeau . Two more works of the prolific Mrs . Rowson are in letters and belong here . They are the triply entitled Sarah ; or, The Exemplary Wife ; or , Sincerity , which was published in 1813 ; and Rebecca ; or , The Fille de Chambre ,

of which is dated 1814 . Sarah , by the way , had first appeared as a serial in the Boston Weekly magazine in 1805 . To 1816 belongs Adelaide . A New and Original

the second edition

Novel , by

In 1823 , John Neal pub Randolph . Of these two , Randolph is done in letters. The chief interest of the work lies in the fact that the narrative is relieved , every now and

Lady of Philadelphia

, by the criticisms made

ture , both

own things • Wegelin

English

by

.

Neal of

and American

, op.

contemporary

. He criticizes

, but the most delightful

., .p 11 .

again

a

two works , Seventy -Six and

cit

lished

litera

some of his those made are remarks

IN

AMERICA

199

the subjects of Brown and Coleridge . The novel itself is extremely sentimental . In 1824 John Gardiner Calkins Brainard published Letters found in the Ruins of Fort Brad dock , including an interesting American tale , originally published in the Connecticut Mirror . By 1827 there was a on

second edition of this work . In 1826 Theodore Sedgwick pub Countrymen . By an American . This work lished Hints to , is in letters interspersed with pieces of verse , anecdotes ,

My

elaborated homilies and is in the good old homespun tradition . During what is known as the central period of American literature , a Nova Scotian appeared , who may be drafted for American fiction . He is Thomas C . Haliburton , also known by his pen name of “ Sam Slick ,” a Yankee appellation . In 1839 he published The Letter - Bag of the Great Western ; or, Life in a Steamer , according to a literary device at least as old as Breton ' s Elizabethan Packet of Mad Epistles . The let and

ters tell

individual

stories and present

individual

characters

,

and there is about most of them a distinctly didactic air . Haliburton ' s work , Sam Slick ' s Wise Saws ( 1853 ) , although not in letters , is presented to the reader with an introductory letter .

William Ware , another American author belonging to this period , published three historical novels , each of which is in letters . These are : Letters from Palmyra ( 1837) , later known as Zenobia , or The Fall of Palmyra ; Probus ; or , Rome in the Third Century . In Letters of Lucius M . Piso from Rome , to Fausta , the Daughter of Gracchus , at Palmyra ( 1838 ) , later known as Aurelian ; and Julian ; or, Scenes in Judea ( 1841) . In these books the principal characters tell the stories , but the subtlety of analysis which would rescue the epistolary form from a charge of artificiality , such a subtlety as , for in stance , is present in Richardson 's work , is here lacking . Fur thermore , the expression here used is somewhat too theatrical for the stories told . The stories are interesting , on the other hand , for their portrayal of background , and Ware may be said to point to Lew Wallace in this respect . Just why the

200

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

author should have chosen to quite ascertainable , but if one

use the epistolary

form

is

not

seeking earlier parallels , the , Daughter Letters from Julia the of Augustus , to Ovid , sup posedly taken from a manuscript unearthed at Herculaneum , published in London in 1753 , furnishes one . The use in England of the epistolary form for a novel dealing with the is

ancient world is rather rare, more so than in America , where , too , it is hardly common . Following in the footsteps of the Reverend William Ware Reverend J. H . Ingraham , who has written three his torical novels of Israel and Egypt, all of which are in the form of letters . They are : The Prince of the House of David ; or , Three Years in the Holy City (1855 ) ; The Pillar of Fire ; or , Israel in Bondage (1859) ; and The Throne of David . From is the

the Consecration

of

the

Shepherd

of

Bethlehem

to

the

Re

bellion of Prince Absalom ( 1860 ) . Recently , Ingraham has been coming into his own and there are many readers , some discriminating , who feel that for a picture of Israel in full scope and view The Prince of the House of David far sur passes Ben Hur . Suffice it to say that the letters which com pose the books teem with admirable description and are full of narrative that is of a most moving quality . The pictures that they give us of Egypt and Israel allow them to take a not undistinguished place in the company of historical novels . epis Somewhat in the mode of the Ware and Ingraham tolary novels is Shahmah In Pursuit of Freedom ; or, The Branded Hand ( 1858 ) . Particularly interesting is the sub title , Translated from the Original Showian and Edited by An American Citizen , which is reminiscent of Horace Wal pole 's subtitle to his Castle Of Otranto . The entire tone of the book is allegoric ; the letters are vigorous but lengthy and essay - like and , in the respect that they are written by a travel

ing prince , suggest Marat ’s Lettres Polonaises . The effect of the whole is that of an anti - slavery tract . In a different vein from these historical novels of Ware and Ingraham is a book which was published in London in 1844 , the work of an American author . It was High Life in

AMERICA

IN

201

New York by Mrs. Anne Stephens , who wrote under the nom de guerre of " Jonathan Slick , Esq ." The book contains about

to

)

a

,

,

?

or

in

,

a

.

M

.

C

.

(

all

thirty letters to a friend in Connecticut and is written in the Yankee dialect. It reminds us at times of a diluted and earlier form of Mark Twain 's Yankee wit and stands in line with particular that sort of humor with which the stage Yankee has been equipped the way from The Contrast 1790 Will Rogers prolific sentimental authoress wrote Sedgwick published Single curious novel called Married 1857 largely the epistolary spirit The book presents their two young girls who find the letters the story family mediate ancestors old trunk The letters found are presented along with the story the girls and while the ingenious invention one the execution burdened im

,

is

sentimentality

by

excessive and unwrung

with

.

,

is

an

of

.

an

in

of

of

.

in

is

which

.

,

M

.

A

of .

)

's .

,

of

of

,

single

hopes

of

John to

of

victim

he

which

.D .,

,

,

a

young

a

.

a

,

a

,

)

its

the sanitarium

be

to



is

it

to

the

Eliot

is

.

Eliot Blake

Cupid

correspondence in

drug habit and

Swift published

. of

and

chiefly in

novel made Wykeham

M

Augustus

is

1882

up

In

is a

of

,

an

of

of

(

the Candle Burns epistolary nature witty and novel and very gem love letter that kind

paper

M

While

The Love Letters Short Sixes Stories Read story comprising scraps 1890 .

.

Bunner

in

.

Comparable

C

.

a

It

.

sort H

, ”

Smith

by

surprising

is

,

its

is a

in

.

,

in

In

of

,

of

.

a

,

in

.

of

a

an is

(

,

The William Henry Letters 1870 Mrs Diaz delightful particularly and lively series letters from American schoolboy Most the letters are introduced by brief prose explanation which succeeds placing the following epistle The letters are further augmented by an swers from grandmother and sister but those William Henry himself are the most completely diverting the lot 1873 was published Boston Thomas Bailey Aldrich epistolary work Marjorie Daw and other people Marjorie particularly witty epistolary bit and incorporates Daw letters humor excitement romance and psychological composition shrewdness the most delightful and

the

be

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

202

of his desire for morphine . He finally succeeds with the help of Lily Pattison , and their love affair fills the bulk of the letters. The letters are interrupted every now and then cured

in order to give opportunity for the appearance of Lily 's diary . The story is rather slow moving but not without that sympathy created by the human equation of a man willing amaning to fight for his own good ood. One of the most important of the American novelists , Henry James , has contributed two short pieces in letters , A Bundle of Letters and The Point of View ( 1879 - 1882 ) , both of which are concerned with the experi ences of Americans abroad and neither of which is of prime importance . James adds verisimilitude by following the occa sional method of dating a letter . The Familiar Letters of Peppermint Perkins (1886 ) , is especially interesting , not only in own right but also be

Like the

,

. P .

work

Her

in

.

of

of

.

to

of

up

is

,

it

a

,

its

of

.

later

of

a

of

English

A

as

such

presents the book girl who made period letters modern girl equal parts naïveté and cunning Her reactions life and people form the extremely amusing substance the entire book The individual letters which form the bulk the book were originally published the Boston Saturday Evening

's

Topsy

a

direct forerunner

is a

it

cause

bert

of

its

.

. of

.

of

a

collection

Mrs Moncrieff

.

to

Hubert Thornton

letters from

is

Julien Gordon

,

)

1892

by

Letters

(

His 115

,

.

Gazette

The

the correspondence makes the whole book chapter The story introduced nar

of

a

the poetry

worship

.

of

of

, of

full however

to

fit

.

"

"

's

of an

a

by

a

. .

in

at

,

They are

of

is

in

-

one sidedness rather tiresome picture rative which we are given the protagonist who falls love with Mrs Moncrieff after he has seen her por simple progressive trait exhibition The letters are presented they record the man love As are but frag destroy many ments the editor having seen them

,

a

"

.

to

,

"

"

"

"

by

in

of

A

,

1893 in

In

catch

.

,

which true Kate Douglas Wiggin published Cathedral Courtship letters little romance England The letters are two who meet while touring written She and He each close friends back love must necessarily

AMERICA

IN

home. ” mode is

delightful

particularly

203

epistolary Henry The Documents in Evidence M . Blossom , Jr . This is a triangular business romance arising from the fact that a young man chances to save a girl from falling from a carriage , and is motivated by the theory that by matri “ He who has no patrimony , must get his wealth , mony .” In a single volume by Conover Duff published in A

squib

the

in

( 1893 ) ,

by

by To

of

an

all , .

1895 , are to be found two long epistolary stories , “ The Master - Knot ” and “ Another Story . " The former of these is a sentimental romance done with a sort of sophistication and ending on a note of tragedy in death . The latter is a slight story of high society of the period , presented largely in letters from women of fashion . The story is rather negligible ; the letters are accurate in expression , especially in their combi nation of the affectation and pseudo -daring of the late nine ties . In 1896 was published ' Twixt Cupid and Croesus; or, the Exhibits in an Attachment Suit , by Charles Peale Didier , again a triangular romance in which Cupid conquers the following year belongs The Story Untold Love

The author tells us that he does not call this for neither diary nor letter The .

Paul Leicester Ford

of

of

,

so

for ,

in a

,

,

of

's

of

-

the minute

to -

up

fit

to

is

a

of

the

of

of

.

great deal

of

,

,



"

to

a

of

.

of

in

,

writer who makes use slang his period of

a

In

L

.

in

is

In L

'

by



, a



.

)

,

( at

to

of

on a

of

of

of

, ,

a

.

a

of

.

is

,

to





is

an

,

it

what period various parts are dated and cover five years The love story contained that Don Maitland and Maizie delightful one and this narrative the career Walton helpmate perfect historian and his unfolded series they letters least from their tone signatures and the the sake be letters which are written down seem example they offer the children 1898 came The Sins Widow confessed Amelie Oiseau mild work which widow finds her ideal the last year the decade William Kountz published his Billy Baxter Letters six Billy infectious humor and his pal Jim full letters language that the the character made written know

in

in

in

,

The revival novels letters the first decade the century which was previously noted English

twentieth

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

204

literature , may be seen here paralleled in America . That excellent sentimental novelist , Myrtle Reed , has given us two pieces of epistolary fiction in Love Letters of a Musi cian ( 1898 ) , and Later Love Letters of a Musician ( 1900 ) . Both are fair and fragrant works and are filled with a knowl edge and appreciation of music that place them not only among epistolary novels , but among the better musical nov els as well. They have much sentimentality in them ; but they really

its

have, also , much grace . Less sentimental in tone than is the revival of the period epistolary novels in England are most of these American 190g from 1900 to . The chief virtue of Mrs . Sinclair ' s Experi , ments ( 1900 ) by Mrs. Wilson , is that letters are brief and convincing and are exchanged among several correspond

a

In

.

in

at

to

its

of

a

is

,

in

, .

of

Otherwise this rather mediocre story love and any equal sentimentality trial the excessiveness thing produced England the same time 1901 Ger trude Franklin Atherton published anonymously novel ents

The social satire here brilliant Lady Helen Pole her friend pointed criticisms the Americans

, in

an

.

of

Ameri

are the epistles

love letters



These

In

of

the same



.

by

. H .

edited

A

Girl

,

can

the Adirondacks The Love Letters

in

is

of

England are full among whom she situated year was published Lauriel

to

by.

and the letters written

is

The Aristocrats

entitled

, of

"

in

in

's

.

)

.

(p



,

is

,

of ,

"

"

.

to

of

Laura Livingston her friend later lover then husband Strong Rex The editor says her that she the type may womanhood that makes men noble and make them great VI Laura letters from various spots America keeping with this defini and from abroad are thoroughly an

,

,

's

.

of

's

;

.

to

,

to

,

,

, .

,

in

.

of

. of

epistolary novel tion her While Charlie Was Away by Mrs Poultney Bigelow published 1901 presents the letters Mrs March Lord Darraway her faithful and devoted cousin and his answers her Mrs Maich letters delightful impetuous are indiscreet and her cousin are

,

in

a

is

.

;

tenderly serious the letters both are entirely characteristic and extremely well written For this reason alone the novel pleasant and noteworthy minor work the epistolary

AMERICA

IN

205

belong The Price Inevitable ; or , the Confes sions of Irene . An Autobiography , by Aurelia I . Sidner , and Some Letters of an American Woman concerning Love and

. To

form

1902

Things , by Sarah Biddle . The mere fact that the former was published by the Popular Publishing Company type seems to set scandal romance the deepest dye The author attempts lay bare the soul woman taking that another woman may profit thereby sordid page the world The two from her life and giving

.

a

to by

,

of

it

or

a

of

of



a “

.

to

is

.

It

its

Other

by

,

to

In of

, ,

by

, .

's

a

,

of

's

a

,

of

.

a

is

,

at of



an

"

a

,

narrative series letters from Irene her friend Grace story tells the love Irene which ends her being made honest woman last The latter novel rather ram bling little work sort American counterpart Laurence Englishwoman Housman An Love Letters the same year was published Our Lady the Beeches Bettina rambling and philosophic romance Baroness Van Hutten

in

is

-

a

,

.

Let

the scene

of

-

letters

,

series

of

love

a

story

to in

of

to

Son

Jack London published The Kempton Wace

1903

a

ters

His

,

,

to

is

in

.

, , In

chant

,

to

.

in

of

-

a

,

is

of

the first half which written letters To 1902 likewise belongs The Letters from His Son Self Made Merchant by the present editor Evening Saturday the Post George Horace Lorimer The book which the sequel this Old Gorgon Graham was published let likewise 1904 and being ters the subtitle More Letters from Self Made Mer

which

of

.”

,

,

“ in is

set

The book

character

well brought Howells most delightful his best the field social

'

New

in

in

The fascination out this work

They are always too York for the stranger

, at is

. of

and characterized

few

ated

.

a

.

London

;

from

in

California and the same year Wil liam Dean Howells likewise published Letters Home The people who are well differenti letters are written by

shifts

a

,

. by

)

,

.

A

in

as

is

.

to

(

,

of

of

in

A

,

.

,

comic vein and excel him year satire The 1903 brought too Parish Two Henry Goelet McVickar and Price Collier Percy Collins The book contains the letters from Douglas Dayton his Percy authorship popular friend Dashiel The dual form present Fellowe and His Wife and Farthing Hall

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

206

A

.

is

)

,

's

, .

is

)

,

's

a

at of

:

of

(a

.

in

is

a

is

As

. J.

M

, of

of

,

is

.

,

(

a

.

in

is

by

,

in

six

The literary quality of these letters would seem to be their chief claim to attention . epistolary The year 1904 saw the appearance of at least any year preceding novels more than had appeared Country Interlude Hildegarde Hawthorne rather static story which little happens usual with these novels the author calls the work novelette the plot concerned with love Daphne and Her Lad another collabo by Lagen and Cally Ryland and presents the ration love letters two newspaper people the editor woman page the Evening Star masculine editor that and Daphne who the office the Globe The narrative slow but interesting The Jessica Letters An Editor Ro -

,

-

,

a

is

,

of

-

to

his Self Made

Self Made

-

from

a

,

by to

a

Son

a

,

to

do

Two these are Letters from Being the Replies Letters

.

Father

of

.

tions

, -

a

of

.

by

so

as

,

its

a

of

)

(

,

lengthy half humorous half sentimental 1904 convincing letters which are interspersed novel composed diary The Letters with snatches from Self Made Mer sequel George Horace Lorimer gave rise chant and popular successes frequently number imita mance

Mer

.

it ,

it

,

,

an

of

.

to

second work owes little the Lorimer work Jim writes Bob and gives account himself and his

his brother

ad

of

,

,

by

,

)

(

of

-

,

a

to

a

to

of

.

It

a

of

A

.

career

at

his business

is

as

pseudo sort philosophy apparent times and distant humor per may meates the entire book likewise be conjectured that Letters Business Woman her Daughter and Letters Business Girl her Mother 1923 Zora Putnam Wilk precept sugar pills ins coated and moral instruction were ventures

he pursues

to

.

a

in

's

on

a

,

it

to

to

is

;

it

",

-

in

is

It

.

of

,

“ A

an

to

of

.

)

(

)

-

a

to

is

of

(

to

chant His Son 1904 Charles Eustace Merriman and by Maurice Switzer Letters Self Made Failure 1914 The first excellent satire the Lorimer book ready made wit dedicated Mark Twain whom attempts imitate tone and tempo throughout but chiefly interest only those who know the Lorimer book parody well As has little ability stand alone because literary attempts unlike Fielding Pamela never suc becoming anything more than ceeds mere parody The

IN

AMERICA

207

the author by the Lorimer work . The book is relieved by the fact that the letters of the daughter are filled with a zealous youth , although the girl is too easily successful . In 1904 likewise came a curious epistolary collaboration , the work of four authors : Kate Douglas Wiggin ; Mary Find suggested

to

later ; Jane Findlater ; and Allan McAulay . This book , The Affair at the Inn , contains “ an account of certain events which are supposed to have occurred in the Month of May , 19 – , at a quiet country inn on Dartmoor , in Devonshire ; the events being recorded by the persons most interested in

the unfolding of the little international comedy .” The story is written by four authors , each author being responsible for one character as follows: - Miss Virginia Pomeroy , of Rich mond , Virginia , U . S. A . , by Kate Douglas Wiggin ; Mr. Mac

Gill of Tunbridge Wells , England ,

by

Mary

, , Mrs. Mac Findlater

author of The Rose of Joy ; Miss Cecilia Evesham English companion , by Jane Helen Findlater , author of The Green Graves of Baljourie ; Sir Archibald Maxwell Mackenzie , of Kindaroch , N . B ., by Allan McAulay , author of The Rhymer . The part written by Kate Douglas Wiggin is as whimsical and delightful as anything she has done . Vir

Gill's

ginia feels that because she is on Dartmoor she must follow the ways of Hardy , Blackmore , Baring Gould , and Phillpotts , since they " play the pipes of misty moorlands .” It is interest ing to note that Hardy and Phillpotts are disapproved of.

To 1905 belongs Lady Bobs, Her Brother and I. A Ro mance of the Azores , by Jean Chamblin . Here the letters are written by Kate , a young , obscure actress to her friend Nora . She meets Lady Bobs and her brother George in the Azores , follows . The letters are viva cious, amusing, and natural. The struggles of a young writer in pursuit of fame are admirably recorded in The Letters of Theodora , (1905 ) , by Adelaide L . Rouse . The relation of the upward rise is accomplished in sprightly fash ion and the letters are lively and convincing . In the same and

the inevitable courtship

year came Irene Osgood

Yolande

to

Sister Mary ,

's a

To

a

book

Nun Confess ’d . Letters from not only eighteenth century

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL the high

abandon

sentimentality

its

but

of

title

,

in

in

its

208

.

as

well

to

of

of on

,

'

women

women

and

in s

is

's

strictures

American

of of

,

,

in

,

.

in

is

men

men and

's

strictures

of

an

on

society

period Charles Dana Gibson anonymous author This full of

a

book

by

)

, ,

(

1906

,

by

lar ,

by

,

.

's

of

of

,

is

A

,

to

belong title surely long enough the eighteenth century that Her Brother Letters Wherein Miss Chris tine Carson Cincinnati shown how the affairs Girls particu general and and Women are regarded Men Lawyer her Brother Burt Carson New York City

they treat

.

,

.

by in

,

;

.

us

of

to

in

,

in

in

to

a

it

getting his sister married brother finally succeeds Letters Women Love Mrs John Van Vorst was likewise published 1906 and the book contains the letters written four women love They are not love letters .

.

)

to

of

,

,

in

,

a

is

of ,

of

is

.

)

(

) to .

.

(

V

,

's

to

of

an

.

of



"

5

, , .p

(



,

? ”

at

in



or .

to

for

to

to



.

"

The author tells that love letters are they are addressed the person whom people But letters love are they not addressed more large less the world Foreword The author further finds that indifference ambition egoism and jeal ousy are the influences the effects which she wishes study The four cases are typical each one being represen tative discordant impulses epistolary work The author John Henry wrote Ikey Letters His Father 1907 This course George Hobart Hugh McHugh The book series love

interesting only

a

American

Frances

woman

who

, .

the Decoration

of

of

the experiences foreign mission

an

The Lady

of

,

The first tells

by an

of

.

's

as

on

.

for

,

is

by

Ikey Hohenstein letters written his father David Ho traveling sales henstein while Ikey his first tour man his father The father answers are included The year 1907 provides two epistolary works Oriental trend

Little works

,

's of , in

is

a

,

a

of

is

,

.

,

of

A

.

to

.

in

of

in

,

-

a

in

the Orient This book curious sequel combination sentiment and humor this The Lady and Sada San continuing the letters the first work appeared 1912 The second Oriental epistolary work year Wallace Irwin more famous than the first this Japanese Schoolboy pseudo philosophical Letters

AMERICA

IN

209

which straight humor stands shoulder to shoulder with some remarkably strained and unamusing writing .

Grace Donworth s Letters of Jennie Allen (1908 ) , story in letters that attempts to reproduce dialect with

'

is

a

but

mediocre results . Helen Reimensnyder Martin chose a sort of eighteenth century title for her epistolary romance , When Half -Gods Go . Being the Story of a Brief Wedded Life as Told in Inti

of

a

In

.

-

,

in

all

-

's

of

all

mate and Confidential Letters written by a Bride to a Former College Mate (1911 ) . The title is based on Emerson ' s line, “ When half-gods go , the gods arrive .” The love story , here coming after sorrow , is exquisitely introduced . probability the most In 1912 was published what is in widely known these American novels letters Jean many respects this has Webster Daddy Long Legs sac

,

a

is

)

-

(

.

,

"

.

by

in

in in

to

.

of

a

on

-

to

,

.

of

-



It

-

in

.

as

in

,

.

of

a

it

a

,

preceding generation charine quality especially beloved displays but likewise continuous and scrutinizing sense humor The letters themselves are too self conscious but are none the less plausible Dear Enemy 1916 novel letters by the same author and uses much the same ma terial the earlier work carries the Pollyanna tradi Daddy Long Legs even farther than did tion established that book The year 1912 likewise marked the publication Mary Ridpath Mann This be The Unofficial Secretary longs type the travel letter novel The letters are written young woman from her way and during her stay South America and are both natural tone and pleasing is

)

(

by

be

fanciful and imaginative cute The letters are all

At

.”



.

to

in

to

in

which the author attempts being and merely succeeds soliloquies one fails overhear

,

in

.

in

,

of

,

a

is

,

.

a

.

or

.

a

a

of

of

of

their presentation local scenes The Confessions Débutante 1913 another epis tolary work with sort Charles Dana Gibson young woman for heroine The letters are natural but not particularly amusing unusual The Quest the Dream Edna Kingsley Wallace was likewise published this year This rather dull and uninspired sentimental novel letters

least

five epistolary

nov

seem

for

the letters

exist

of

presenting homely

to

.

R

an

Old Farmer William

by

is

.

which

Letters

American volume to

in

first

particularly all

a

Lighton

, ,

Son

The

1914

to

els

belong

His

of

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

210

the express

.

to .

"

to

in

-

be

.

of

in

of

a

in

its

.”



its

-

in

is

smooth

A

both

several histories The narrative told appeal progression and human

.



and contain

,

of

letters

by

Letters

is

wisdom and wit The second Woman Homesteader Elinore Praitt Stewart story The letters unfold the Elinore Rupert her fight establish life anew after the death her husband They are genuine eighteenth century like that they purport

purpose

,

by

to

.

in

a

.

is

a

a

of

for

to

as

is

,

to

of

,

of

in

is

My graceful and delicate romance published this year Lady the Chinese Courtyard Elizabeth Cooper author Living Up Billy both letters The amazing difference between these two works sufficient indicate that this distinctly pliable and author was able use the letter expressive medium story There the telling sus of

,

O

of

a

,

, .

by

,

in

is

.

,

of

P

in is

a

,

by .

to

,

of

,

,

Courtyard

in

in

loveliness

of

My Lady the letters the Chinese attempting and the author fill them with Chinese atmosphere does not make herself ridiculous The fourth epistolary novel this year Via and Jane Stocking book written very much the manner Frances Little Here are letters from China and the East the chief descriptive The last The Wooing interest which Gregory Recluse Marwood represents the Western novel tained

)

a

to

is

a

A

,

in

a

in

a

is

.

,

by

,

is

of

in

,

a

a

of

.

at

.

in

.

of of

(

of

is

a

as is

by

is

in

unusual chiefly for the fact that the same name used by the writer the letters Gregory Marwood used the author the book The letters themselves tell sentimental story what seems be hopeless love story and tells that manner that rather incongruously bookish very The year 1915 offers least three epistolary novels McEnery sprightly story letters The Cocoon Ruth publication Stuart this year The book tells letters Virginia taking young woman who rest cure letters and

of

,

of

'

d

,

.

an

is

in

here is

is

There

;

is

of .

diary occasional insertion but most the book letters The raison être the logical but the situation letters artificial and the style sanitarium

AMERICA

IN

211

varies between the affected and the humorous . Reminiscent epistolary method of Ingraham is The Hope of Glory .

of the

Being Part of a Correspondence written in the Roman Em pire between the Years 52 and 66 A . D ., by William Schuyler. The author is referred to in Mary Fisher 's introduction to

" his in

the work (p . XV ) as a Socratic gadfly . The book , itself a sort of sequel to the same author ' s historical novel Under Pontius Pilate , gives a representative picture of the Roman Empire at the time when paganism was overthrown by Christianity . The letters , written chiefly by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus in

A

.

,

is

a

,

.

is

of

.

in

a

In

of

a

as

by

's

is

,

,

in

of of

.

,

or

in

.

to

It

to

,

of by a

of

,

a

as in

,

to



at

,

friend Caius Claudius Proculus are both informative very convincing work character all times Billy Cooper published letters Living Up Elizabeth 1915 tells the struggle woman make herself over baby touchingly suitable mother the she adores and realistically done more less New York English that captures the vernacular with considerable accuracy The revealing the character letters are short and succeed Billy mother with degree the showgirl Nan who patent reality that might be envied even greater authors who have used the epistolary mode creative medium epistolary works writ 1916 comes the first series completely slang ten the idiom This headed by You to

and

,

of

an

A

's

's

.

.

byof

(

;

is

,

)

,

of

by

-

to

of

,

)

(

's

to

a

.

to

)

of by

,

;

)

in

to

(

,

(

;

of

,

lot of

Ring Lardner and Know Me Al that year the work abject series the best the and this followed Dere Mable 1918 Same Old Bill 1919 and That Me All Over Mable 1919 all the work Edward Streeter sequel Dere Mable was written Florence Elizabeth Summers 1918 and called Dere Bill Mable Love Letters Her Rookie Very much like The Letters from Self Made Merchant Ray His Son are Uncle Bill Letters His Niece Brown 1917 another those collections letters giving so

be

to

A

,

in

an

he

,

)

(

of

us

.

in

to

pop younger that seem sound advice from elder ular American epistolary literature epistolary novel James Lane Allen has given The Fidelity Comedy Emblems 1918 which subtitles

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

212

in Letters ( it is to be remembered that Thomas Hardy sub titles The Hand of Ethelberta " a comedy in chapters ” ) . In

at

all

,

to



, . .

of

In

,

's

'

,

80 s

20

one the early where the young unable share her lover with his work au merely thor becomes friend Djinn the year 1922 belongs Letters Grace Zaring Stone very casual novel letters which Amer girl way ican tells her adventures the and Aus tralia The letters are pleasant and chatty the action slow accurately and picturesquely captured the atmosphere Lady very intelli Letters the Country 1925 an

as

's,

an by

,

,

by

a

,

)

is

.

;

is

,

in

to

epistolary

of

gent and animated

(

in

a

to

is

.

;

of

a

,

on in

in

a

to

To

.”

“ a

,

,

to

woman

of

the rather resignatory

go s

' .

in

is

of

is

A

,

.

of

he

.”

,

in

as

, .

in

set

this book a list of characters , dramatis personae , is forth the beginning true Richardsonian fashion Allen himself Beverly Sands rising young figures the correspondence diary appears American novelist His from time time alongside the large number letters which and the Yesterday other people write 1921 came The Pipes Novel by Frederick Arnold Kummer and Mary Christian This another collaboration letters Interestingly enough the end not the happy one the and 1goo but

a

is

,

)

(

in

of

-

a

is

by

,

.

,

its

of its

a

to

it a

in

is

.

is

in

.

.

R

by

of

,

in

.

A

,

,

work fiction the late Stuart Sherman and the letters contained therein sound en tirely like letters The year 1927 brought Love Letters Ro Vynne Correspondence mance Harold This misunderstanding and reunion told story letters with carefully explanatory narrative interludes The work chiefly interesting for though format rather than content there vein humor which relieves what might otherwise prove be much too sentimental tale Footprints 1929 by Kay Cleaver Strahan murder mystery story which of

by

a

in

is

;

by

,

.

a

no

by

by

, of

of

.

is ,

a

,

is

,

of

.

of

is

packet the murder solved means letters which comprise most the book The letters are preceded two straight narrative which present the situation the chapters letters ultimately solve and there likewise conclusion straight narrative The epistolary mystery story course means novelty Dracula letters Desperate Reme dies Thomas Hardy and The Moonstone Wilkie Col

AMERICA

IN

lins are both written

journal

in

213

In Footprints the

.

form

two different people

ters are all from they present a fascinating

to

a

let

, and

third person

absorbing and baffling fashion . In 1929 was likewise published Promise Not to Tell, full of very natural letters from Lucinda to Christopher and

the

of

conclusion

story

A

story reaches

endless

tiresome

.

the overlong

a certain

but the

by

down

its

time

well

is

riotous parties becomes extremely

of

round

abroad

,

type of American

an

. The loose morality of

Lucinda

to

in

set

Christopher

from

story

is

,

)

in

(

's a

of

, A

.”

)

(

be

"

,

found telegrams )

.

1928

(

Girl

Show

1931 jazz age

to

is

of

,

the novel

as

book

the

thing

no

such

more recent épis

in

all

even

by

, .

of

by

of

the letter form a

is

exemplified

study

Lee Harriman

the frenzy

this same sort

no

in

that evolution

chiefly

on

in

the letters take

which

presents

book

sympathetic

An

The Dublin Letters

further indication

he

of

is

In

,

,

of

,

natural humorous and prison life free sentimentality tolary effort

The

moderately

of



jail

. . . ."

fail

as

such

or



.

,

.

is

of ,

no

word

in

the work

,

life written letters The Crooked Vein 1930 put prison Brewster Kane Gerald Lorraine for misusing the mails and while he there writes his amusing commentary youth there the bright lexicon prison

a

is

in

it

;

,

is

of

,

.

-

-

,

mances Three Fingered Jack the full title which Three Fingered Jack The Famous Black Robber

or ,

ro Obi

fifteen cent

-

's

and

so

,

those countries

Ornum

,

as

it

up

has here

.

it it

as so

in

fiction

one

of

even

Co .

is

sorts

of

all

and there

,

in

through

of

in

.

to

in

its

,

in

,

outstanding book greatest American novel yet fairly con has been written letters the strain inception tinuous one American fiction from 1789 periodically the present century Just has cropped England and spread France has here Just

While

the

them

ends there

.

between

minor

of

in

course

,

of

,

although

the

Thus while the strain ,

,

erend William Ware was here too comparison

As

.

so

, ,

in

of

,

in

England all the West Indian Islands written letters work Richardson was letters the work the Rev

a

as

it

,

in

American literature and while never emerged into great prominence form into which fiction

has been

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

214

was cast , it is present and worth parative point of view .

, the

chronicling

from

the

com

majority nowhere save in England . It was always distinctly a minor thing in France , in Italy , and on the Continent in general. But no great literature , with the possible exception of the Spanish , seems to have escaped completely from the impulse . tend encies manifestations uses are everywhere analogous and thus established for fiction the universality the letter literary and personal accessory immense worth and palpable convenience epistolary

form

achieved

a

of

.

a

as

of

,

its

,

its

,

Its

Indeed

CONCLUSION IT

HAS been the attempt

of

the preceding

chapters

trace ,

to

in a more or less chronological fashion , a history of the epis tolary impulse as an aid to story telling from the earliest literary period to the immediate present . In attempting to

stretch of time there has been the ever being for eclectic . The selections in the earlier chapters were made because it was felt that they were integrally representative of the literatures of which they are part . The guiding aim has , however , at all times been the

span so considerable

a

present necessity

the continuity of the epistolary impulse . interesting to note that the growth of the literary epistle and the introduction of the letter as a part of the mechanism of fiction have been such that they could be ob served side by side and cheek by jowl. The two strains have each been continuous and , at certain times , coincident . The gradual emergence in the sixteenth century of the presentation

It has

of

been

formal , model type has been noted and discussed , importance not only and that century but also throughout the span literary production later that field hoped carefully recorded has been analyzed and has been seen that from the formal letter writers the letter

,

It

.

vitalization

and

later for

period

its of

through

,

-

of

through

a

passed

of

itself

,

in

,

is

,

, of it

,

in

a

its

letter as

,

it

in

almost indispensable

literary

,

,

Richardson

an

,

of

.

,

ing influence

of

,

to

be ,

.

another fictionalization The use the letter purposes early stages fictional has been seen gathered casual hesitant almost uncertain effect Later certainty and with more frequent use became after the liyen

215

a

definite monument unflinching and un

,

firm

great

,

the man

,

work stands

,

the power

of

of

's

Samuel Richardson

as

.

device

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

216

fading . If there seems to be too much of Richardson here , it can only be said that this man 's work is the greatest , in exclusively epistolary form , in English literature . The many successors and imitators serve but to emphasize this fact for us. The great impulse which the use that Richardson made

of the epistolary novel in achieving popularity has been in detail . We have traced the gradual upward trend of the novel in letters from 1742 to brilliant peak 1785

,

in

its

recorded

,

of

it

of

,

in

the pub

has the epistolary

,

endured

of

interest

;

critical

some degree the work

peo

these

, It

.

so

,

,

attention seems somewhat inexcusable neglected then that they have not here been goes their contribution the novel letter form

In as is

of

to

ple the lack

to

,

one who has read

have

as

.

than

of

to

of

no of

the affection

,

a

more sincere

The neglect which the minor novelists group must perhaps be laid the lack

hoped

, no of

,

of

of

in

;

place

its

.

lic

ing has had

a

,

,

in

of

,

its

,

of

.

to

it

suddenly and from which some ways unjustly was allowed decline No type novel however school literature has been more concentrated growth more by adoption conscious users more determined and set habit than the epistolary no type fiction has drawn into folds more names famous the history literature Finally perhaps importantly type self and most writ

, if

'

of

.

.

in

to

its

of

a

it

;

at

of

a

as

far the forty years during which the epistolary novel flourished these novelists played considerable role Nor did the novel popularity forty years this sort die the end standing rather has practically had continuous not

,

's

in

of

it

.

its

of

a

to

in

.

,

so

many life since 1785 The very fact that dividual authors have turned since that time and that epistolary revival there was sort the 1890 are ample proofs enduring influence and positive worth always robust

BIBLIOGRAPHY PART

I

Works of Reference The American Novel . By Carl Van Doren . New York , 1929 Inglese in Italia nel Secolo XVIII . L ' Anglomania e L ' Influsso Arturo Graf. Torino , 1911 The Annual Register ; or , a View of History, Politics and ature , Dodsley , London , N . D .

Di

The Collected

Essays and Addresses of Augustine

Liter

Birrell . Three

York , 1923 British Novelists and Their Styles, Being a Critical Sketch of the History of Prose Fiction . By David Masson . Boston , 1889 The Cambridge History of American Literature ( in Four Vol Volumes

umes )

.

. Vol. I.

Ed

New

. by Trent , Erskine ,

York ,

New 1917 The Cambridge History of English

Sherman

Literature

Waller . New York , 1907 The Dictionary of National Biography Oxford

,

and

.

. Ed . by

Van

Doren .

Ed . by Ward and Stephen

and Lee .

1917

Early American Fiction , 1774 -1830 . A Compilation of the Titles of Works of Fiction , by Writers Born or Residing in North America , North of the Mexican Border , and Printed Pre vious to 1831 . By Oscar Wegelin . New York , 1929 The Early American York , Eighteenth

New

Novel . By Lillie Demming

Loshe ,

Ph

. D.

1907

Novel in Theory and Practise . By Charles Herbert Huffman . Dayton , Virginia , N . D . English Biography in the Eighteenth Century . By Mark Long The

Century

aker . Philadelphia

,

1931

Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century . Lectures , 1903 . By Leslie Stephen . London , 1904 The English Novel. By George Saintsbury . London , 1913

English

217

Ford

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

218

List of English Tales and Prose Romances Printed Before 1740 . By Arundell Esdaile . London , 1912 English Thought in the Eighteenth Century . By Leslie Stephen . A

New York , 1927 French Novelists . Manners and

Ideas

the Renaissance to

from

the Revolution . By Frederick C . Green . New York , 1929 Franklin ' s Bagatelles . Ed . by Joseph George Rosengarten . Phila

,

delphia

N

.

D

.

The Gentleman 's Magazine . Newbery , London , 1731 - 1800 . The Georgian Era : Memoirs of the Most Eminent Persons who have Flourished in Great Britain . From the Accession of George the First to the Demise of George the Fourth . Four Volumes . Vol. . London , 1834

III

Geschichte

,

Berlin

Histoire de

Literatur . Von

Der Deutchsen

Wilhelm

Seherer.

1883 la

Littérature francaise . Par Gustave Lanson . Paris ,

1896 A

History

A

Revised Edition History of English

of American

York ,

Literature

.

By William

Literature

,

1780

The History of the English Novel . Vols .

,

- 30 Literature

,

York

.

A

I

to

IV

.

Ph . D .

By Ernest

the Earliest

from

Nitze

and

E

A

.

.

Times Preston Dargan

to

.

the

New

1927

New

,

York

1928

.

Sir

History of the French Novel. By George Saintsbury . London , 1917 History of Modern English Literature . By Edmund Gosse By

A

,

Cairns

1928

Present . By Wm . A

.

- 1880 . By Oliver Elton . New

1920

Baker . London History of French

B

York , 1930

. New

. E

,

.

Chandler

.

Frank Wadleigh

New

,

York 1907 Manly Anniversary

By

. ,

.

By

Roguery

.

of

1927

The Literature

By

.

.

of ,

of

.

a

in

Library Hours Leslie Stephen London 1892 George The Life and Works Francis Hopkinson Hastings Chicago 1926 The Light Reading Our Ancestors Lord Ernle New York

By

English

"

The

.

,

Studies

Epistolary

Fiction

Hughes Chicago

,

York

1928

,

.

By

.

."

Pamela

.

Helen Sard 1923 Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic Charles Sears Baldwin New before

BIBLIOGRAPHY

219

The Monthly Review . Griffiths , London , 1749 -1800 La Nouvelle Héloise de Jean -Jacques Rousseau . Par Philippe

Paris , 1929 Novels and Novelists from Elizabeth to Victoria . By J. Cordy Jeaffreson . Vol . I. London , 1895 The Novels and Novelists of the Eighteenth Century in Illustra Van

.

Tieghem

of the Age . By William

tion of the Manners and Morals Forsythe . London , 1871

Tale in England in the Eighteenth Century . By

The Oriental

Martha Pike Conant . New York , 1908 L 'Ottocento . Di Guido Mazzoni . In Storia Letteraria D ' Italia . Scritta da una società di Professori . Milan , 1913 Polly Honeycombe : A Dramatick Novel in One Act. By George Colman . Becket & Davis , London , 1760 The Popular Novel in England , 1770 -1800 . By

,

London

J.

M

. S. Tompkins.

1932

Prejudice and Promise

.

Kingsford

XVth Century

in

Press ,

Clarendon

England

.

By

C

.

L

.

1925

By Brian W . Downs. London , New York , 1928 Samuel Richardson . By Sheila Kaye -Smith . London , N . D . Samuel Richardson - A Biographical and Critical Study . By

.

Richardson

Clara Linklater The Rise New

. London , 1900 of Manners . By Charlotte

Thomson

of the Novel

York ,

Le Roman

1911

.

en France

Morillot . Paris ,

N

.

Depuis

1610

jusqu



E

.

.

Morgan

nos jours. Par Paul

D.

. Par Joachim Merlant. Paris , N . D . romanzi del cinquecento e del siecento . Di Alfonso Albertazzi . Bologna , 1891

Le Roman

personnel e

Romanzieri e romanzi del gamo, 1903

Il

Settecento

.

Di G . B .

Marchesi. Ber

. Di Tullio Concari. In Storia Letteraria di Professori . Milan , N . D . Settecento . Di Guilio Natali . In Storia Letteraria Scritta da una Società di Professori . Milan , 1929

Settecento

D

' Italia .

D

' Italia .

1928

the

Gothic Romance

By

.

Biography

.

,

York

of

Study

, . D .

New

.

Birkhead

Terror

N

.

of

Tale

Turbulent Career

Cambridge A

Hicks

Edward The

His

.

,

Thomas Malory

.

Sir

Il

A

Scritta da una Società

By

Romanzieri

Edith

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

220 220

CHAPTER

I

Texts

. Letters

from the Country and the Towns . Trans . by Wright . London , N . D . Alcuin . By Andrew F . West. New York , 1916 Bible , The. Oxford University Press Egyptian Literature . (World ' s Great Classics ) Intro . by Epi phanius Wilson . Colonial Press , 1901 Epistles of Pliny , The . William Melmoth -Clifford H . Moore . The Bibliophile Society , Boston , 1925 Epistolae de rebus familiaribus et varie di Francisci Petrachae . Ed . by Giuseppe Fracasseti. Florence , 1859 . Epistolae Ho- Elianae : Familiar Letters , Domestic and Foreign . By James Howell . Bell , London , 1737

Alciphron

F. A .

Iliad of Homer . Trans . by Theodore A . Budsley . London Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero , The . Oxford , 1783 Letters

of Sidonius

, The .

O. M

By

,

. Dalton . Clarendon

1874

Press

,

1915

Paston Letters , The . Ed . by James Gairdner . London , 1872 Roundabout Papers . By Wm . Thackeray . London , 1879 The Works of John Lyly . Ed . by R . W . Bond . Oxford , 1902 II

CHAPTER

Texts

Daphnis and Chloe , The Shepheards Holidae .

Jacobs . London 1890 Important Occasions . By Samuel

)

(

1741

New

By

.

Occasions

Samuel Richard

Downs New York 1928 Pope Esq Nine Volumes Complete

.

,

IX

, .

,

VII VIII ,

Vols

.

Alexander Joseph Wharton

.

Brian

W

on

Important

III

. , D .D , . .

.

by

The Works

by

Intro

of .

.

son

Familiar Letters

Ed

Richard

1928

CHAPTER

1797

First edition

,

Downs

.

.

Brian

W

on

by

Intro

,

York

.

.

son

Familiar Letters

Angell Daye .

By

,

Ed . by Joseph

London

BIBLIOGRAPHY

221

The Works in Verse and Prose of Nicholas Breton

.

Ed . by the

Rev . Alexander B . Grosart . Two Volumes , Vol. II, Chertsey Worthies Library . (Printed for Private Circulation .) Lon

don

,

1879

CHAPTER

Account of the ley . Trans . 1685

from

Amours

Between

,

the Gauls

,

. De Vernay to Count Tech . Revised by T . Brown , London , A

A B.

Philander

Nobleman

Tooke,

G

.

M

and

. For

, S. Ballard ,

D

Intrigues . By Eliza Haywood . J. Roberts Constant Lovers , The. London , 1731 by Continuation of Letters Written By Daniel Defoe . London , 1718

Country

Gentleman By

's

Companion

Mrs . Mary

a

.

W

1749 Bath

Court Intrigues .

de Ralubin .

Sylvia , or , Love Letters

and His Sister Straham

. R . Welling

Lady of Quality

The . By Roger

1727

tween son

the French

1702

Amorous History of born ,

of

Services

of Lindamira , The ;

Adventures ton ,

Secret

IV

. Mears ,

,

Be

J . Ton

F.

Clay,

1725

Spy

Turkish

for the Town

de la

Brown .

Os

.

Paris .

at

London

,

1702

Rivière Manley . London ,

1711

Double Captive , The . By a Young Gentleman . London , 1718 Familiar Epistles of Col . Henry Martin . London , 1685 Familiar Letters of Love and Gallantry . By T . Brown . London , 1719

Fatal Amour Between a Beautiful Lady and a Young Nobleman , The . For J. Moore , 1719 Five Love Letters from a Nun to a Cavalier . By Marianna D ’ Alcoforado . For H . Brown , 1678 Five Love Letters Written by a Cavalier . For R . Bentley and M . Magnes , 1683 Friendship in Death . By Mrs . Elizabeth Rowe. H . Lintot , 1728 Gentleman Apothecary , The . By J . DeVilliers . For H . Brown , 1670

Historical Account of the Amours of the Emperor By the Count of - - - - . E . Mallet , 1702

of Morocco

.

THE EPISTOLARY

222

NOVEL

The . By Daniel Defoe . London , 1719 Lady at Paris to a Lady at Avignon . Mears and

King of

the Pirates

,

Letters from a Browne , 1716 Letters from a Lady of Quality to Eliza Haywood . London , 1721 Letters from the Marchioness De Trans .

Chevalier . Trans. by

Mrs. -.

M to the Count De original French , by Mr. Humphreys .

Wil

Entertaining. By Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe.

Lon

the

from

a

R

ford , 1735 Letters from a Persian in England to His Friends in Ispahan . By George Lyttleton . London , 1735 Letters from the Palace of Fame. By Mrs . Eliza Haywood . H .

Lintot ,

1727

Moral

Letters

don

,

and

1729

Letters of Abelard and Eloise . London , 1722 Letters of a Lady of Quality to a Chevalier . By wood

. London ,

Mrs.

Eliza

Hay

1724

Letters Written by Mrs . Manley . London , 1696 Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy . For G . Strahan ;

W . Mears , 1687 Life of the Countess De Gondez . By Mrs . P . Aubin . J . and J. Knapton , J . Darby , A . Bettesworth , F . Fayraw , J. Osborn and T . Longman , J . Pemberton , C . Rivington , F . Clay, J.

Batley , and A . Ward , 1729 the Patch -Work Screen

Lining of

,

, The.

By Mrs . Jane Barker

.

London 1726 London Spy , The . By Edward Ward . J . How , 1703 -09 Love -Letters Between a Certain Nobleman and The Famous

Mr.

Wilson

Love Letters Aphra Love -Letters

.

London

,

1723

Nobleman and Behn . For J . Hindmarsh , 1683 Between

Between

a

a

Nobleman

Tonson , J . Nicholson , B .

His

Sister

and His Sister .

. By Mrs .

D.

G . Strahan ,

Brown ,

J.

Tooke and 1707 Love Letters Between Polydorus and Messalina . London , 1689 Love -Letters from Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn . For J . Churchill 1714

Love Letters Love

in

on

Excess

Chetwood ,

Lover 's Lover 's

Secretary Secretary

,

All Occasions . By Mrs . Haywood . London , 1730 ; or , The Fatal Enquiry . By Mrs. Haywood . 1721

, The . London , 1692 , The . ( v. The Adventures of Lindamira .)

Re

BIBLIOGRAPHY

de

, W By . .

.

ed

.)

of

His Mail

of

By

,

.

,

Mendoza London 1719 For Hindmarsh 1686

J.

of . ,

F

, . ’d ·

. (v .

,

's

's

,

.

B

Sighs

Gonsalvo Love Poesie

For

Bettesworth

A

,

J.

.

in

,

Clay

Corrected

R

;

Fealer Lover

3rd

by Mr. T . Brown . Wellington Wellington Wellington 1734 trust for The The Post Man Robb

and

vised

223

.

E

.

de

1682

,

Smith

Ozell

,

Mr

.

and

W

.

G

for

;

Rich

.

.

(v

.

.

by ca

,

. ,

Stephens

By

. A .

Davys

Caramania

.

of

.

,

.

, , J.

1693

1724

Mrs

Eliza

Hay

,

1781

Newcastle

London

,

the Duchess

.

Brome

,

.

For

of

.

Sociable Letters

By

.

.

CCXI

The London 1731

Mrs

the Court

wood London 1728 Seven Portuguese Letters

1730

.

The

.

Coquet

History

Trans

Millar

H

Secret

of ,

'd

Reform

By

.

-

’d

of

Post Man Robb His Mail Pylades and Corinna London

.

.) de

.

C

Sécondat

Persian

a

.

By

,

. S .

, .

,

,

-

'd

Saints

1713

London

,

Gr

Perfidious The London 1702 Perplex Powell Duchess The P

.

of

By

a

. .

Mazarine London

the Lady

Dublin 1727 Persian Letters Letters from

Cesar Kischard

1676

S

of

.

,

W

the Dutchess

.

Cademan

of

.

of

the Dutchess Mazarine

-

,

1705

Version

New

of

the

of

don

Memoirs Réal Memoirs

.

Memoires the Court France Madam Daunois For Whitlock 1697 Quality Lon Memoirs Adventures French Lady

.

.

By

For

.

English Gentleman

Translated

For Sherwood

,

6th

.

Rousseau

1817 CHAPTER

V

,

,

and Jones

Manley

1698

J. .J

the French

from

Mrs

ed

of

.

,

The London

.

Italian Nun and

Neely

1718

, , A .

, ,

1725

an

Letters

of

Roberts Turkish Spy

an

-

to

.

,

Spanish Politician The London Stage Coach Journey Exeter

Nineteen

London

, . N . D .

. V .

Robert Bisset Vol

Samuel Richardson

. .

by

. of

The Works

Ed .

Texts The Spectator

J.

1718

volumes

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

224

Pamela . Four volumes . Clarissa

. Eight

volumes .

Sir Charles Grandison . Seven volumes . With Introductions by William Lyon Phelps CHAPTER

.

York , 1902 .

New

VI

Texts

Adolphus de Biron . A Novel founded on Plymouth , Nettleton , N . D .

the French

Revolution

.

Adventures Underground . A letter from a Gentleman swallowed up in the late Earthquake . Falstaff , 1750 Aerostatic Spy, The ; or, Excursions with A Balloon . By An Aerial Traveller . Symonds, 1785 Affecting Story of Lionel and Arabella , The . A Republication of the Historical account of the Discovery of the Island of Madeira . Payne & Bouquet , 1750 ; Griffiths, 1756 Agnes de Courci, A Domestic Tale . By Mrs. Bennett . Hookham , 1789

Albina ;

A Novel in a Series of Letters . Lane , 1786 Alethia ; or, Letters from Selima , Empress of the Turks , to her Daughter Isabella , of Grand Cairo . Noble , 1771 All's Right at Last, or , the History of Miss West . Noble , 1773 Alwyn ; or , the Gentleman Comedian . By Thomas Holcroft . Fielding and Walker, 1780 Anchoret , The . A Moral Tale . In A Series of Letters . Newbery ,

1773

Convent . By the author of Memoirs of Mrs . Wil liams (Helen -Maria Williams) . Becket & Dehondt, 1771 Anecdotes of the Russian Empire . In a series of letters , written a

Anecdotes of

a

, 1784 , Anna : A Sentimental Novel in a Series of Letters . Hookham , 1782 Anna St. Ives . A Novel . By Thomas Holcroft . Shepperson & Reynolds, 1792 Anti-Pamela . Huggonson , 1741 Anti-Pamela , or Feign ' d Innocence Detected : In a series of St. Petersburg . Cadell

By

.

of

1741

Henry

Memoirs

a

.

at

,

Dodd 1741 Eadlip the House Dog

.

;

Argus

Life

. (Mrs . Haywood .) London , Mrs Shamela Andrews in

Fielding

the

-

Apology

for

Syrena 's Adventures

An

from

,

,

.

few years ago

Family

Corre

BIBLIOGRAPHY

225

spondence . By the Author of Constance and

.

the Pharos

Hookham , 1789 Artless Lovers , The : A Novel , in a Series of Letters . From Miss Lucy Wheatly in town , to Miss Annabel Grierson in the

Country . Wilkie , 1768 Arundel . By the author of The Observer . (Richard Cumberland ) Dilly , 1789

,

Assignation

Noble ,

The ;

novel ,

of Letters .

Series

a

in

1774

Abbey :

Barford

sentimental

A

Cadell,

novel

A

in

of Letters . By Miss Minifie

a Series

.

1768

Downs . A novel . By Robert Bage . Wilkie , 1784 Belleville Lodge , a Novel . Dublin ; Wogan , Byrne, Moore

Barham

and Rice ,

,

Jones

1793

Belmont Grove ; or , the Discovery . By a Lady . Lane , 1785 Blossoms of Virtue , The. London , 1770 Budget of Love , The ; or , Letters Between Florizel and Perdita . To which are prefixed Some Interesting Accounts of the Fair Heroine . Bew , 1781 Camilla

;

or, the Correspondence of

Friend . Cass , 1785 Ensign Tommy

a Deceased

Camp Guide , The; in a Series of Letters Toothpick to Lady Sarah Toothpick ,

from

Miss Nelly

and from

Miss Gadabout . Fielding & Walker , 1778 , By Card The . John Kidgell . Newbery , 1755 Cardiphonia ; or, the Utterances of the Heart , in the course of Real Correspondence . By the author of Omicron 's Letters . Buckland , 1781 Brisk

to

on

,

a

to

By

a

the

Baronet

and

a

Young

Lady

of

,

a

&

1779

Elizabeth

Norman

.

.

Mrs

.

Novel

By

Bew

.

By

. of

,

description

,

.

.

.

,

.

A

1797

on

.

A

.

historical

1789

Novel founded

Man Mrs Harriet Lee Adlard Clarentine Novel Robinsons 1796 Isle

,

Letters Noble

Widow

of

.

an

;

Clara Lennox The Distressed Interspersed with facts

of

Series

or ,

a

The

.

Lovers

,

Clandestine

In

,

,

Woe The Symonds 1789

A

. .

Novel

A

of

Child

, of

the History

.

;

Charles Quality

.

in or ,

Six

Cautious Lover , The ; or , the History of Lord Woburn Young Gentleman of Oxford . Cadell , 1772 Centaur Not Fabulous , The ; In Letters friend Vogue Dodsley Life Millar 1755

The

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

226

Clementina Bedford . Symonds , 1796 Clio

; or,

Letters and Narrative . By J. J. Cambar .

History of the Life and Amours of the late S — N —M . Written by herself in a letter to

Secret

a

In

Mrs .

celebrated

Hillarius . Cooper , 1752 Colonel Ormsby ; or , the Genuine History of an Irish Nobleman in the French Service . Macgowan , 1782 Confessions of a Coquet , The . In a Series of Letters . Lane, 1785 Confidential Letters of Albert, The ; from his First Attachment to

Charlotte

to

her

Death

Robinsons, 1790 Conflict, The ; a Sentimental

;

from

the

Sorrows

of

Werter

tale , in a Series of Letters . By Heron , Newcastle . Deighton , 1793 Constantia ; or, the Distressed Friend . Johnston , 1770

Continuation

of the Life of Marianna , The .

To which

is

.

Mr.

added ,

the History of Ernistina ; with Letters , and other Miscel laneous pieces . Becket & Dehondt, 1768 Coombe Wood . By the author of Barford Abbey , and The Cot

tage . (Miss Minifie . ) Baldwin , 1783 Correspondence of Theodosius and Constantia , The ; from their First Acquaintance to the Departure of Theodosius . Now original MSS . By the Editor of the first published from

that Passed Between Theodosius and Constantia , After She Had taken the Veil . By John Langhorne . Becket

Letters

& Dehondt Correspondence

,

1765

of Two Lovers , The ; Inhabitants of Lyons. Published from the French originals . Hookham , 1789 Correspondents , The . An original novel ; in a Series of Letters . Dublin ; Exshaw , 1775 Cottage , The; a novel ; in

a Series

of Letters . By Miss Minifie

.

Durham & Co ., 1769 Count de Poland , The ; by Miss M . Minifie , one of the authors of Lady Frances A - and Lady Caroline S —. Dodsley , 1780 Country Curate , The; or, Letters from Clericus to Benevolus .

Longman Coxheath

.

A

Co., 1788 Novel. In a &

,

Series of Letters . By à

Lady . Fielding

1784

By

.

of

Hookham

,

Laclos

.

los

de

for

& Walker 1779 Dangerous Connections ; or , Letters collected in a Society and Published the Instruction other Societies Choder

BIBLIOGRAPHY D

227

novel by Charlotte Smith . Philadelphia ; Carey , 1796 The ; or , the History of Miss Emilia Royston , and Miss Harriet Ayres . In a Series of Letters . By the authoress of the Exemplary Mother . (Maria Susanna Cooper ) Dodsley , 1775

'Arcy .

A

Daughter

Death

's

,

Friend .

A

Novel,

A

Author of The

by the

Bastard

. Bew ,

1788 In a Series of Letters . (Previous Edition under the Title : Fatal Effects of Inconstancy ) Hooper, 1777 Delicate Distress , The . By “ Frances ” (Mrs. Griffith ) . Becket, 1769

Delicate Crimes .

Délices du Sentiment , Les; or, the Passionate Lovers , of Letters , which have recently Passed between

in

a Series

two cele

.

son

,

the Rev James Thom .

the Happy Retreat

By

.

,

a

,

Sewell

.

; , ,

,

;

Denial The

or

.

in

,

for

brated characters , well -known in polite Life their Virtues Talents and Accomplishments with Translation from Cypher Macgowan the Originals Written 1787 1790 a

of

Symonds

the

Country

Adjacent

,

the Rock

in

on

an

Let Ad

The Castle

,

the Author

.

of

,

ditions

by

.

;

of

or ,

Orphan Derwent Priory Memoirs Series published Periodically ters First now republished with

Millenium Hall together with the characters

in

as

anecdotes

Humanity and Lead the Maid By Virtue Mrs Sarah Scott Carnan New By

or ,

.

&

of

.

,

,

.

a

Grey

Widow

in

Robin

and

1776

Series

Lady Hookham .

By

; ,

.

of

of

Facts

a

,

Founded

Wilkie

Letters

the Modern

on

Letters

.

or

;

Disinterested Love

Series

a

In

.

A

Lesley

.

Emily

:

,

Desmond Novel Charlotte Smith Robinsons 1792 Disguise The Dramatic Novel Dodsley 1771 Disinterested Love the History Sir Charles Royston

, of

.

;

.

of

the Love bery 1762

, , A Jr .,

;

the inhabitants and such may excite and reflections the

Reader Proper Sentiments to

of

, A ,

of

historical

and

:

1798

Description

1788

,

its a

the History

,

and Eliza

.

1768

;

Miss Harriet Nelson

in

Colles

,

Edward

In

.

the History

of

Watson

&

.

,

or

Virtue

Dublin

;

;

,

The

Letters

;

Distressed

of

a

Series

Genuine

manners and customs Robinsons

of

1787

Distressed Lovers

novel interspersed with

or ,

of

,

;

Disinterested Nabob The Descriptions India

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

228

Len

which is included the Unhappy Story of Miss Caroline

nox . In a Series of Letters . Noble , 1781 Divorce , The . In a Series of Letters to and from Persons of High Rank . Baldwin , 1771 Doncaster Races ; or , the History of Miss Maitland ; a Tale of Truth , in a Series of Letters , published from the originals, with interesting Additions. By Alexander Bicknell , Author of the History of Lady Anne Neville ; Isabella , or the Re

. of

,

.

;

1790

History

the

of

Etc

Stalker

or ,

;

wards of Good Nature , Double Disappointment The

Mar

Charles

of

a

Lady

.

By

of

Letters

on

founded

facts

.

A

,

Tale

on

Tendency

;

Moral

a

of

,

.

of

.

,

.

;

or ,

,

London 1774 Ela the Delusions the Heart By Mrs Burke Robinsons 1787 Elegant Tales Histories and Epistles

.

1786

Series

a

.

In

,

;

.

.

,

.

Cass

a

in

novel

a

;

,

,

of

.

a

In

. .A

;

Julia

and

,

.

.

Mrs Cartwright

Letters Edwin

or

By

, .

in

, By

,

a

.

In

Series Letters Hookham 1774 Double Surprise The Series Letters Hookham 1783 Doubtful Marriage The Narration Drawn from Characters Real Life Wm Hutchinson Dublin Wogan 1793 Duped Guardian The the Amant Malade Series low

,

,

or ,

,

Walter

of

a

.

.

.

:

A

Gomersall

and Sensibility

Female Inhabitant

)

.

,

Mrs

(

of

Trials

;

, of

,

,

,

,

Yorkshire by

Series

1789

Original Let

,

By (C

.

ourtney

London

,

.

of

,

.

. J.

the Miseries Civil War Pratt Bath Pratt Church

;

; , or ,

1773

S

)

Tale

A

.

Hookham Emma Corbet moth

&

;

or

.

,

.

a

ters collected Welsh Curate Robinsons 1795 Eliza Cleland Lane 1788 Emma the Unfortunate Attachment Sentimental

Mel

Baldwin

,

;

written by

Letters

in

Leeds

Elisa Powell

Series

or

of

,

Eleonora

in a

of

.

,

,

Matrimony Conjugal Felicity Jealousy Love Friendship Constancy Magnanimity Chearfulness and other Impor By the author tant Subjects Woman Historical Kearsley Sketches the Fair Sex 1791

1780

1786

1790

1783

a

,

Cadell

in

,

Cownal

,

Walwyn

Charlotte Lennox

,

Mr

. of .

.

,

.

;

;

Mrs

.

of

By

.

Euphemia

The

Letters

.

Nature

Series

Jones

By Harriet Lee Robinsons 1786 The History Charles Manley

. B .

Errors

The

Byor . ,

of

Innocence

Perfidy Punished

,

Errors

of

; or ,

Emily Herbert

BIBLIOGRAPHY or , the History

229

Lady's Entrance Into the World . By Frances Burney . Lowndes, 1778 Excursion , The ; a Novel. By Mrs . Brooke . Cadell , 1777 Exemplary Mother , The ; or Letters between Miss Villars and Her Family . Published by a Lady from the originals in her Evelina

;

of

Young

a

(Maria Susanna Cooper )

Possession

.

Becket , 1769

Exiles , The ; or, Memoirs of the Count de Cronstadt

.

By Clara

Reeve . Hookham , 1788 Expedition of Humphrey Clinker , The . By Tobias Smollett Johnston , 1771 Fair Imposter , The.

Fair

1792 Syrian

,

The ;

A

a

Novel. Novel .

By a

Lady . Hookham of

By the author

&

. ,

Carpenter

Downs

Barham

(Robert Bage ) . Walter , 1787 Faithful Fugitive , The ; or, Adventures of Miss Teresa

M

of Letters to a Friend . Vernon , 1766 False Friend , The; a Domestic Story . By Mary Robinson . man & Rees , 1799

.

In

a

Series

Long

False Friends, The . By the author of The Ring . Barker , 1785 Family Pictures . A Novel , containing curious and interesting memoirs of several persons of fashion in W - re. By a Lady .

Nicoll,

Fanny,

a

1786

Fanny ;

1764

Novel

in

a Series

of Letters . By

,

the Amours of a West Country Young Lady . In Series of Letters . Manby , 1775 or

Fashionable Friend , The ; a Novel. Becket Fatal Compliance , The; or, The History

,

Lady. Richardson

a

a

Dehondt, 1773 of Miss Constantia

&

Pembroke . Jones , 1771 Fatal Effects of Deception . Jones , 1773 Fatal Effects of Inconstancy , The ; or , Letters of the Marchioness de Syrcé , the Count de Mirbelle , and others . Trans . from the French . Bew , 1774 Fatal Friendship , a Novel . By

Fate

of

Velina

De Guidova ,

a

Lady . Lowndes

,

1770

The . By Mrs . Ann Radcliffe

Lane, 1790 Fault Was All Her Own , The . Riley, 1771

In

a Series

Favorites of Felicity , The . In a Series ter . M . B . Becket & Co . , 1785

of

of Letters . By Letters

.

a

By John

(? ) . Lady

.

Pot

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

230

Feelings of the Heart , The ; or , the History

Herself

by

Written

Noble ,

of

addressed to

and

Country

a

Lady

a

Girl .

Quality

of

1772

.

Robinson

,

&

II,

,

a

of

.

In

.

,

Perrin

.

,

By

.

of

the Countess Mar by the Chevalier de of

'd of

.

or ,

;

.

Needham

,

by

'd

.

Mouhy

John Dent author

,

a

In

,

of

By .

,

of

,

.

M

.

.

.

.

the French

from

Robinsons 1792 Force Love The Series Letters Too Civil Half Cass 1786 Fortunate Orphan The Memoirs low Penn Herself and revis

of

the History

Letters By the late Female Werter The Trans

,

.

(

.

Miss Wroughton Noble 1772 Miss Belville Series Miss Palmer Newbery 1780 of

,

,

;

1744

of

or

;

Vol

the History

or

)

,

1750

Female Frailty Female Stability

. 1 ,

,

to a

in

the

Lady in Felicia to Charlotte ; or, Letters from a Young Country Payne Bouquet Friend Town Vol

1745

.

's

.

his a

of

in

.

1773

Lefever

.

M

. A .

,

.

.

.

By

.

of

Genuine Memoirs

a

of

a

by

Letters

,

.B .,

,

,

K

,

Figure

,

.

Family

and

For

1761

Miss Harriet Melvin

,

,

tune Wilkie

Young Lady

of

. to

Genuine Letters

Series

John Huffey De

Francis Blake Delaval and two Unfor By William Renwick Dodsley 1772

of

.,

Bart

Sir a

In

and Celia

the late General Crawford

tunate Lovers

Proctor

1770

, .

Damon

,

Brown

Sir

between

of

Genuine Distresses

Late Amour Published

.

. of a

Doctors Commons

,

-

of

between

a

of

Mrs Cartwright

an

Passed

,

Letters

Bew

the Love Letters and Cards which have Illustrious Personage and Noble Lady

during the Course

.

Series

Letters

1779

Genuine Copies

laval

a

In

The

.

,

,

Bew

of

Series

a

Novel

in

The

1787

Generous Sister

Mrs

1786

;

,

Attachment

Burton Wood

(

the author

Baldwin

,

.

)

of

.

,

Johnson

a

The

Gamesters Generous

By

,

;

Miss Kitty

.

the History

or ,

Fruitless Repentance Newbery 1769

of

,

Bell

,

.

or ,

,

;

a

,

Frederica Risberg German Story Lane 1793 Original Letters Friends The Person deceased Now published Correspondent first from the MSS Hands

and

Miss Leonora

BIBLIOGRAPHY Stanway . In

Geraldina ,

of Letters . By

Series

a

. Fuller , 1772 Novel , founded

Glocester a

231

on

Event. Robinsons,

Recent

a

Lady of

Young

a

1798

Gipsy Countess , The . By Miss Gunning . Longman & Rees , 1799 Gordian Knot, The . By " Henry " (Richard Griffith ) . Becket , 1769 Guide to Domestic Happiness , The . In a Series of Letters . Buck land , 1776

Happy Release , The ; Sophia Harley . In Harcourt ;

or , the History a Series

of

of Charles Wharton

Letters . Noble , 1787

and

Novel . In a Series of Letters . By the Authoress of Evelina . Dublin ; Bryne , 1780 Hartley -House , Calcutta . Dodsley , 1789 Henrietta , Countess Osenvor ; a Sentimental Novel , in a Series of Letters . By Mr. Treysac de Vergy , Counsellor in the Parliament of Paris , and Editor of the “ Lovers . ” Roson , a

Sentimental

1770

Hermione ; or , the Orphan Sisters . Dublin ; Exshaw , 1791 History of a Young Married Lady of Distinction : in a Series of Letters between Madame du Montier and the Marchioness * * * , her daughter . Noble , 1773 History of Alicia Montague , The . By Mrs . Jane Marishall . Rob inson

&

Roberts

,

1767

History of Charles Mandeville , The. A Sequel to Lady Julia . By Mrs . Brooke . Lane, 1790 History of Charles Wentworth , Esq .; in a Series of Letters , The . By the author of A National History of Guiana . (Mr. Ban croft ) . Becket , 1770 History of Eliza Musgrove , The. Johnston , 1769 History of Eliza Warwick , The . Bew , 1777 History of Emily Montague, The . By Mrs . Frances

,

.

By Mrs Griffith .

.

Letters

.

By

.

,

Series

of

a

of , of

In

1753 Barton

Lady

.

,

London

History

.

,

of

a

,

of

in

Sir

Brooke . Dodsley , 1769 History of the Honourable Mrs . Rosemont and Henry Cardigan Series Letters The Hookham 1781 Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy The History Eliza Haywood

,

.

of

Series

1780

Hastings

The

a

Captain

.

and

,

Lady Bettesworth Letters Noble

In

David 1772

History

THE EPISTOLARY

232

NOVEL

History of Lady Caroline Rivers, The . By Mrs. Elizabeth Todd . (Printed for the authoress . ) London , 1788 Histories of Lady Frances A - - and Lady Caroline S . By the Miss Minifies . Dodsley , 1763 History of Lady Julia Mandeville , The . By Frances Brooke . Dodsley ,

1763

History of Lady Louisa Stroud ; and the Honourable Miss Caroline Stretton , The . Noble , 1764 History of Lord Ainworth and the Hon . Charles Hartford , Esq ., in a Series of Letters , The . Roson , 1773 History of Lord Belford and Miss Sylvia Woodley, The . In a

. Noble , 1784 of Lord Stanton , The . By a Gentleman of the Middle Temple , author of The Trial . Vernon , 1774 History of the Marquis de Roselle , The . In a Series of Letters . By Madame de Beaumont . Becket, 1765 Series of Letters

History

History of Melinda Harley, Yorkshire , The . Robinsons, 1778 History of the Miss Baltimores , The ; in a Series of Letters . Hook ham , 1783 History of Miss Caroline Manners , The . In a Series of Genuine Letters to a Friend . T . Evans, 1772 History of Miss Clarinda Cathcart and Miss Fanny Renton , The . By Jane Marishall . Noble , 1765 of Miss Delia Stanhope , The. In a Series of Letters to Miss Dorinda Boothby . Lowndes , 1766 History of Miss Dorinda Catsby and Miss Emilia Faulkner , The .

History

In

a Series

of Letters . Bladon

,

1772

History of Miss Emilia Belville , The . Noble , 1767 History of Miss Greville , The. By Mrs. James Keir. Cadell , 1787 History of Miss Indiana Danby , The . Dodsley , 1765 History of Miss Lucinda Courtney , The . In a Series of Original Letters , written by Herself to her Friend Miss Constantia Bellmour. Noble , 1764 History of Miss Maria Barlow , The ; in a Series of Letters . Field ing & Walker , 1777 History of Miss Meredith , The ; Dedicated by Permission , to the Most Noble Marchioness of Salisbury . By Mrs . Parsons . Hookham , 1790 History of Miss Pittborough

Lady . Millar ,

1767

, The.

In

a

Series

of Letters . By

a

BIBLIOGRAPHY

233

History of Miss Sommerville , The. Written by &

,

Carnan

1769

History of Miss Temple , The . By 1777

of Mr. Cecil

History

Richardson

History of

Mr.

Johnson

,

and Miss Grey , The . In

Urquhart ,

&

1771

Miss

Stanly and

1773

Lady . Newbery

(Miss Rogers ) . Wallis ,

Lady

a

a

,

Temple

Rural Novel , The .

a

,

The . By the author Danby . Lowndes , 1773 History of Sir William Harrington , The . Written

History of Pamela Howard

of

Indiana

some Years

and corrected by the late Mr. Richardson ; now first published . By Thomas Hull . Bell , 1771 History of a Young Lady of Distinction , The. Translated from and revised

of .

1779

M

In

.

. A of .,

a

;

,

of

a

.

Rational Things

Kear

,

1775

Julian Rob

.

.

of

Johnson

the Count

.

Mackenzie

,

,

.)

a

.

( By

of

,

by

Letters

By

1778

.

Series

)

Johnson

of ,

. a

In

1777

.

Cadell

,

Tale

:

a

Roubigné

.

By

Jr .

,

.

,

brated writer Noble 1771 Buncle Thos Cogan

Julia

a

,

.

.

of ;

,

or

Lady after the Manner the Bridal Day Written the late Mr Richardson but not revised that cele

de

John

by

1759 Jessy

1788

which contained several remarkable Distinguished Families two Ladies Lady Series Letters Owen is

In a

.

and Fortunes

.

.

.

In

Louisa incidents relating and

of

Jemima

Novel By Robert Bage Lane to

a

,

,

insons 1784 James Wallace

a

; , or , ;

Letters

St

Story

Pathetic the History

de

The

.

,

1790

Irish Guardian Italian

By

,

of

of

a

sley

,

.

,

,

1791

Henry and Sophia Sommerville Miss Nugent and Miss Taylor

Edwin and Julia The being Philosophical Enquiry and into the Nature Physic Series Letters Doctor Story

1789

Rival

.

, .

Letters Dodsley

the

etc

,

. of

Twickenham

Interesting

a

.

; etc . By or ,

,

a

a

In

Series

published

Lane

Letters author

Series

Morris

Symonds

Brothers Novel Indiscreet Marriage The

. (Originally

of

The Mrs

By

,

Vow

Novel

a

a

Rash

; .

: of

Ill

Effects Love

Illicit

de Beaumont

) Noble , 1766

1754

of

the French of Madam in

In

Since

.

,

of Letters .

a Series

Henry

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

234

Juliana ,

a

Lane ,

Novel

.

By the author

of Francis the Philanthropist .

1786

Juliana Ormeston : or, the Fraternal Victim . By Mrs. Harley , author of The Countess of Henebon , Castle Mowbray , St. Bernard 's Priory , etc . Dublin ; Wogan , Byrne , Stone , Jones and Rice, 1793 the Cottager

Juliet ; or,

:

in

a

Series of Letters

. By

a

Lady . Lane ,

1791

Labyrinths of Life , The . By the author of Excessive Sensibility , Fatal Follies . Robinsons, 1791 Lady Almira Grantham , in a Series of Letters , interspersed with Several Interesting Stories , written

by Hazard ,

Printed at Bath

Laura ; or, Letters

of Camille .

Persons

from

,

Hookham

1788

in

the year MDCCLXXIX .

1792 in

Laura and Augustus ; an Authentic By a Young Lady . Cass , 1784

Switzerland . By the author

Story , in

a

Series of Letters

.

Letters between Clara and Antonia : In which are Interspersed the Interesting Memoirs of Lord des Lunettes , a Character in

Real Life .

Letters between Letters Between which

are

Bew

,

1779

Emilia and Harriet . Dodsley , 1762 an English Lady and her friend at Paris . In contained the Memoirs of Mrs . Williams. By a

Lady. Becket , 1770 Letters between Henry and Frances . Johnston , 1757 Letters between an Illustrious Personage and a Lady of Honour at B - - , Walter , 1785 Letters Between two Lovers and their Friends . By the author of by Yorick and Letters Supposed to Have Been Written Eliza . By William Combe . Bew , 1781 Letters from Clara ; or , the Effusions of the Heart . Wilkie , 1771 Letters from Elizabeth Sophia de Valière to her Friend Louisa Hortensia de Carteleu . By Madam Riccoboni . Trans . from

. Maceuen . Dublin ; Potts , Williams, Walker and Jenkins, 1772 Letters from Emerance to Lucy . Translated from the French of Mme. la Princesse de Beaumont . Nourse , 1766 Letters from an English Traveller , Martin Sherlock , Esq . Cadell , the

French

by

M

1780

Letters

from

Henrietta

to

Morvina . Founded

on Facts. Bew

,

1778

BIBLIOGRAPHY Letters

235

Julia , the Daughter of Augustus ,

from

to

Ovid

.

A

MS.

Discovered at Herculaneum . L . Davis , 1753 Letters from Lady Julia Catesby , to her Friend Lady Henrietta Campley . By Frances Brooke . Dodsley , 1760

Lady , who Resided Some Years in Russia , to her Friend in England . With Historical Notes . Dodsley , 1775 Letters from Lothario to Penelope . Becket , 1770 Letters from an Old Man to a Young Prince . London , 1750 Letters from An Old Man to a Young Prince , with the Answers . Letters

from

a

Translated from

Letters Letters

Perdita

from

to

. Fielding ,

Them

.

the Swedish

of Her Present Majesty Griffiths , 1756 a

To which are prefixed those Son , with the Translations .

Her

to

Certain

Stockdale

&

Israelite , and his Answers

Co ., 1781

to

Moral and Entertaining . By Mrs . Cartwright. Macgowan ,

1781

Letters

with Werter , The .

During her Connection

of Charlotte

Cadell,

1786

of An English Lady , written to one of Her Female Friends. Robinson & Roberts , 1769 Letters of a Hindoo Rajah ; written Previous to , and during the Period of His Residence in England . To which is prefixed a Preliminary Dissertation on the History , Religion , and Manners of the Hindoos. By Eliza Hamilton . Robinsons , Letters

1796

Julia and Caroline , The . By Maria Edgeworth . (Writ

Wilde

,

.

James Seguin

,

which

are

.

,

,

of

.

of

to

of

By

an

the

) London , 1795 Letters of Late Ignatius Sancho African prefixed Memoirs His Life Dodsley 1782 Letters Princess Zilia Prince Aza Peru From 1787

the French

.

of

ten

to

Letters

1755

of

, ,

,

by

, ,

;

:

., ,

Co

&

.

, By

,

,

,

,

.

,

Solitary

a

of

Wanderer The Containing narratives Various Description Charlotte Smith Dublin Burnet Wogan Folingsby Brown Porter Colbert Rice Jonės Kelly and Pary 1801 Stockdale Jackson Mercier

Letters

Becket

,

.

to

,

Becket 1795 Letters Eleonora

. .

,

.)

.

to

(

to

Letters Supposed have been written Yorick and Eliza William Combe Bew 1779 Letters Alcander Written between the Years 1777 and 1783 1771

THE EPISTOLARY

236

Letters A

to

a

Letters

to

1755

Young Prince

a

. Linde ,

lish

Letters Written

Upon the News of the Town ,

in the Country

friend

. Raymond ,

NOVEL

his Governor

from

.

1755

.

Lausanne

from

Trans .

.

Trans

Eng

into

the French . Dilly ,

from

1799

France in the Summer of 1790 , to a Friend containing Various Anecdotes relative to the Revolution , and the Memoirs of Mons . and Madame

Letters Written in England French

in

;

F - . By Helen -Maria Williams . Cadell , 1790 - 2 Liberal American , The . A Novel. By a Lady . Lane , 1785 Hasty Marriage Life of Miss Catlane , The ; or, the Effects Series Letters Printed for the author London

.)

, .

a

(

.

of

a

In

Ill

of

De

of

Lady Lucy

Series

a

Perhaps

Men

Herbert Wallace

,

.

.

By

.

of

.

A

.

,

.

or

tioned were they less known less lamented Kearsley Croft 1780 Love Fragments Series Letters Mr Robinson

Letters

be

.

In

&

.

A

.

of

the History

By

, ;

for Ladies

Fenton Robinson Roberts 1768 Story too True Love and Madness between Parties Whose Names would

Sir

Summer Reading

or

1788

Light

1782

.

.

(

Sc —

of

,

.)

, .

;

or ,

.

,

,

Lady

a

to

Letters by

a

of

of

History

the late Layton

.

of

Lucy

Lady Menella Bute Smedley

.

,

a

.

by

;

,

or ,

.

,

,

,

Penitents

the

1770

Maiden Aunt The Written Bew

Series

the Other

,

.

.

of

Vernor

.

Asylum

Lady With Anecdotes Dr Dodd Lane 1784 Quality Maid The

of

the

the Hon Printed

John Seally Gent Becket 1776 the First Penitent Received

History

Charitable

and

Vergy

the Booksellers London 1772 the Fatal Legacy Published

The

In

,

,

;

The

that

or

,

into

. by

By

the Originals

from

by

,

Calisto and Emira

Magdalen

Lady Mary Treysac de

M

Sold

of

for the Editor Loves

,

and

B

-

or ,

;

,

Lovers The the Memoirs Miss Amelia

1776

1792

,

a

of

a

,

of

In

,

.

.

E

By

.

in

.

a

or ,

,

to

of

to

of ;

Marcus Flaminius View the Military Political and Social Life the Romans Series Letters from Patrician his Friend the Year 762 from the Founda tion Rome the Year 769 Cornelia Knight Dilly

BIBLIOGRAPHY ,

Margaretta ston

&

Countess of Rainsford Payne , 1769

Masqued Weddings, The. Masquerades wick

.

;

Bew

In

or , What You

,

.

A

a Series

Will .

237

Sentimental Novel . of Letters

.

Hookham

By the author

John ,

1781

of Eliza War

1780

Matilda ; or, the Efforts of Virtue. In Lady. Lane , 1785

a

Series

of Letters . By

a

Melwin Dale . In a Series of Letters . By a Lady . Lane , 1786 Memoirs of a Scots Heiress . Addressed to the Rt. Hon . Lady Catherine . . . By the Author of Constance . Hookham , 1791 Memoirs of An Unfortunate Queen . Interspersed with Letters Written by Herself to Several of her Illustrious Relations . Bew , 1776 Memoirs of An Unfortunate Young Nobleman . Freeman , 1743 Memoirs of Colonel Digby and Miss Stanley . A Narrative Founded on Facts . In a Series of Letters . By Mrs . Fogerty . Swagg , 1773

Memoirs of Fanny Hill . By John Cleland . London , 1749 Memoirs of Francis Dillon , Esq . In a Series of Letters written by himself . Hookham , 1772 Memoirs of Lady Harriet Butler. Now First Published from Authentic Papers in the Lady's own Hand . Freeman , 1761 Memoirs of Lady Woodford . Written by Herself and addressed

to a Friend . Noble , 1771 Memoirs of Magdalen ; or , the History of Louisa Mildmay . Now First Published from a Series of Original Letters . By Hugh Kelly . Griffin , 1767 Memoirs of Mary . A Novel . By Mrs . Gunning . Bell , 1793 Memoirs of Miss Sidney Bidulph . Extracted from Her Own Journal , and Now First Published . By Mrs . Frances Sheri dan . Dodsley , 1761 - 1767 Memoirs of Mr. Charles Guildford . In a Series of Letters wrote by himself to a friend . The whole founded on real facts.

Withy,

1761

Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain . Interspersed with Literary Reflections , and accounts of Antiquities and

Curious Things . In Several Letters . Noon , 1755 Memoirs of the Marchioness de Louvoi . By a Lady. ( Lady Mary Walker , author of Letters from the Duchess de Crui and others .) Robson , 1777

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

238

Memoirs of the Marquis de St . Forlaix . Trans. from the French by Mrs . Brooke . Dodsley , 1770 Memoirs of the Marquis de Villebon . In a Series of Letters , founded

Facts

on

.

,

Cadell

jun .

Davies ,

&

1796

a

to

Lady

Quality

,

.

Letters

Six

In

the Signal Dodsley 1780

.

1791

Midnight

of

Wogan

,

;

lin

Mentoria ; or, The Young Lady 's Friend . By Mrs . Rowson . Dub

Lowndes

Lady Caroline Series Letters

.

of

of .

,

Vergy Shatwell

1772

1769

-

.

of

de

.

by

Published

a

In

,

.

.

.

a

of

.

of

,

,

in

a

In

. A

, .

,

.

,

;

a

,

a

,

Lowndes

.

;

,

.

of

or ,

The the History Miss Davers Series Letters Noble 1770 Modern Fine Gentleman The Lowndes 1774 Modern Wife The Novel Lowndes 1768 Monimia Novel Lane 1791 Modern Manners Series Familiar Epistles Faulder 1781 Mount Henneth Novel Series Letters By Robert Bage ,

Modern Couple

a

or ,

Treysac

In

;

Pelham

1771

,

Clarissa

.

,

or

;

the New

Heart The the Memoirs and Lady Victoria Nevil

the

M

Mistakes

,

of

Miss Melmoth

By

,

1782

,

Series

,

Exshaw

.

,

a

1785

,

1770

Madame

de

Beaumont

.

.

By

.

a

In

a

.

By

.

By

Advertisement

for

a

;

An

Hus

By

of

Miss Sophia Howard

Noble

.

Austin

.

Mrs

Letters

.

a

In

Series

,

the History

.

;

The

of

1771

or ,

,

,

.

,

.

Pearch

Nunnery

The

,

band Snagg 1774 Noble Family The

or ,

-P

,

,

.

a

True History

Letters

Lady Lane

Letters Murdoch

Series

Nourse 1768 News aper Wedding

Letters

of

a

The

of

a

,

,

New Clarissa

Series

in

novel

Love

1785

;

a

:

Nature

.

,

The

In

.

,

Lady Lane Nabob

of

,

or

,

;

,

,

Cross

,

White

of

,

,

;

,

,

.

,

Jenkin

, ,

of

.

or ,

;

a

By

Walker

Beatty 1777 Myrtle The the Effects

,

,

,

Burnet

,

Coller

,

,

.

of

,

of

.

Lady Mary Walker Robson Munster Village 1778 Mutability Human Life The Memoirs Adelaide Lady Dublin Marchioness Melville Price Slater Whitestone Watson Chamberlaine Hoey Williams Potts

a

Miss Ravensworth

In

History

.

the

of

The

;

Maid

,

Old

or ,

1767

BIBLIOGRAPHY

239

York . Bell, 1770 Omen , The ; or, Memoirs

of

Lowndes

Sir

etc

.

Henry Melville and Miss

,

of

Julia

1785

,

Eastbrook

Original Letters

Sir

of Letters . By Mrs. Skinn , late Miss Masterman

Series

;

of

,

.

of

.

in

a

of

,

a

.,

,

John Falstaff and his Friends now first made public by Gentleman Descendant Dame Quickly from Genuine MSS which have been the Posses Family Near Four Hundred Years sion the Quickly

,

a

,

of

,

.

&

.

de

A

.

,

.

a

.

By

By

.

of

.

,

of

an ,

in

of ,

re

, .

.

Most

London

and

.

.

,

of

,

Fairwater

Somer

in

By.

. of ,

1766

Life

of

. &

or ,

of

of

The

Johnson Co Pilgrim The Picture mostly from London

.

additional

1775

the

By

R

.)

. , F.

(S

.

a

;

a

In

,

The

with

Horner 1749 Memoirs Mr David Wilkins

Letters Johnson 1782 Novel Miss Minifies

setshire

1790

and about

Philomath

;

of

Gentlemen

these

Philosophical Quixote Series

French

exempli

Wilkins

Roberts Cadell Being the Memoirs

or ,

-

Westminster

; .

The

, ,

Petticoat Pensioners

markable

the

from

The

1783

Fortune

.

trans

original volume

Picture

or ,

;

of

Letters

,

Peruvian

.

in

fied

Dodsley

Ashdale

Guardian The Vicissitudes the History Meretia Lawson

,

Perfidious

.

; or ,

of

,

a

.

In

.

a

.

,

's

Macgowan 1780 Patty and Peggy the Sisters

,

,

Roberts 1741 High Life By Hugh Kelly Chandler 1741 Young Lady The By Series Letters

in

Pamela Censured Pamela Conduct Parsonage House

of

. . or

;

,

a

. :

of

,

,

Robinsons 1796 Original Love Letters between Lady Quality and Person Inferior Station Wm Combe Bew 1784 Orlando and Seraphina Turkish Story Lane 1787 Palinode The the Triumphs Virtue over Love Senti Treysac Vergy Woodfall mental Novel Evans 1771

,

to

a

,

.

Mrs

.

By

Letters

.

Series

of

, a

In

.

.

1775

Cart

novel

a

Prejudice

in

1772

the Force

A

,

Lord Ossory and Miss

.

The

or

; .

,

Lady Jones

of

the History

of

;

,

a

By

Predestined Wife

The

or ,

,

,

.

Precipitate Choice

.

,

of

,

Charles Johnstone Cadell Platonic Marriage The wright Hookham 1786 Rivers

in

a

,

-

at

by

a

,

;

Series Letters written Philosopher Chinese his Friend Chang Tong containing Remarks upon the Laws Cus toms and Manners the English and Other Nations By

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

240

of Letters . By the author

of Edward , 1789 Kerby Cleland .

Series

Powis Castle and Eliza Private Letters from an American

England

in

Almon 1769 Pleasure , The . By Courtney Melmoth

Pupil of

his Friends

to

,

.

America

Robinsons, Quaker , The ; in

Sopnia ,

and

.

J.

(S.

in

Pratt ) .

1777

of Letters . Lane , 1786 a Romance . Trans . from the Russ of the celebrated M . Wocklow . By Mrs . Ann Radcliffe (? ) . Lane, 1790 Rambles of Fancy , The : or, Moral and Interesting Tales . By a

Radzivil ,

Miss Lucy

Series

. Containing :

Peacock

( 1) (2)

The Laplander The Ambitious Mother

(3 )

Letters

from

(4)

Letters

from

Lindamira to Olivia Miranda to Elvira

( 5 ) Letters

from

Felicia to Celia

(6 )

The American

( 7) (8 )

The Fatal Resolution The Creole .

Rattle , The .

Indian Buckland

,

1786

Series of Letters . Noble , 1787 . Recess , The . By Sophia Lee . Cadell , 1785 Reclaimed Libertine , The ; or , the History of the Honourable Charles Belmont, Esq ., and Miss Melvill. In a Series of In

a

9

Letters . Noble , 1769 Relapse , The : a Novel . Lowndes , 1779 Relapse , The , or , Myrtle Bank . Stalker , 1791 Rencontre

,

Letters

. ;

The ; or, Transition of By a Lady. Lane , 1785

a

Moment ,

in

a

Series

of

.

,

Letters founded

by on

.

,

friend Johnson 1781 Young Lady Stockdale

a

to

,

of

.

a

Letters

By

a

Series

Letters

.

of

Series

of

a

.

By

, .

.

a

;

a

.

,

The

In

.

and France

Ring

In

,

of or

.

A

Sir

or, the History of Edward Oswald and Lady Seymour Frances Novel Mrs Cartwright Noble 1787 Reuben the Suicide Swift 1787 England Reveries the Heart during tour through Part Retaliation

Series

of

a

.

the Rights

for the authoress and Sold of

Women

Robinsons

,

Nature

.

Sentiments

of

;

the

Printed

1784

Robert and Adela by

Novel

.

a

;

The Lady

or ,

,

.

Facts Symonds

a

,

Brothers

By

Rival

In

1783

best Maintained 1795

BIBLIOGRAPHY Rudiments of

; in

Taste

Daughter . Dilly ,

241

Series of Letters

a

from

Mother

a

her

to

1789

.

,

a

of

of

;

a

,

for

Saint Julian ' s Abbey ; in a Series of Letters . Lane , 1788 School, The ; being a Series of Letters between a Young Lady and her Mother . Flexney , 1772 School for Fathers , or, The Victims of a Curse . A Novel . Robin sons , 1788 School for Husbands. Written by a Lady . Dublin ; Price , 1776 Correspondence School Tutors The consisting Series Young Gentleman and his Tutor Flexney chiefly between 1788

.

Hookham

,

By Clara Reeve

Novel

.

;

,

The

a

School for Widows

,

Byron

.

Lord

1763

Noble

,

.

In a

of

.

,

;

or ,

1773

By

.

M

.

De Guys

.

of

,

.

,

Greece

Miss Hammond

1784

A

Through

Lady Lane

.

.

the History

a

;

,

of

Letters By

Journey

Sentimental

or ,

The

Deceiver

Series

a

Series

the History

,

,

.

-

Sentimental In

Letters Dodsley

of

for

1791

School Wives The Self Deceived The Sempronia Lane 1790

to

,

a

in

,

.

, A .

of

.

in

A

to

. .

a

,

Cadell 1772 Lady Hookham Sentimental Memoirs By 1785 Lady Sephallisa Sylvius Letter from the Country her Lover Town Bickerton 1743 Series Genuine Letters between Henry and Frances Rich

1788

By

,

Elliot

Alicia Jane

(

,

of

,

.

of

)

Marishau Shrine

Clarinda Cathcart Sir Harry Gaylove

of

A

, .

of

&

,

Urquhart 1770 ardson By the author Series Letters Montague and the Comedy

M

. E .

.

of

a

in

the West Payne

Renwick

,

Johnson

&

.

-,

a

of

D

,

1802

By

Lady

Talker The Series Letters from Lady Ann England abroad

in

Philadelphia

,

1769

.

,

of

,

in

Fruits

to

of

Werter

; ; or , a

Passion

,

Small

Millar

Indiscreet Passion

of

Slave

, A .

an

of

.

,

;

,

Bertha The Series Letters Miss Robinson Lane 1794 Happiness Sketch Rural Life and the Misery that Attended

or ,

Sorrows

the Heart

.,

Co 1761 Murray 1787

,

.

.

Johnston

John Heriot

&

.

the Ladies

The

By

to

Letters

.

Wm

.

genuine Tale

.

A

The

1788

,

of ;

,

Forster Sophronia

.

Absence

,

of

1769

Solicitudes

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

242

Memoirs , in a Series of Original Letters , containing the History of Donna Isabella della Villarea , niece to Don John , Twentieth and Last Duke of Arandina . Elliot , 1787

Spanish

Stellins ; or, the New Werter . Lane , 1793 Story of Lady Juliana Harley , The . A Novel ,

in

letters . By

Cadell , 1776 Subterranean Cavern , The ; or Memoirs of Antoinette Mon florance . By the author of Delia and Rosina . Lane , 1798 Suspicious Lovers , The . By the author of Woodbury. Wilkie ,

Mrs . Griffiths.

.

1777

Sutton Abbey

;

a

Richardson

Novel . In a Urquhart ,

&

Series

of

Letters founded

on

Facts

.

1779

St. Aubyn . In a Series of Letters . ByMr. Robinson , author of Love Fragments , etc . Herbert , 1794 Sylph , The . A Novel . By Georgiana Cavendish , Duchess of Devon shire. Lowndes , 1779 Test of Filial Duty , The . In a Series of Letters between Miss Emilia Leonard and Miss Charlotte Arlington . By Sarah Scott . Carnan , 1772 Sydney

Theodosius and Arabella . A Novel in a Series of Letters , by the late Mrs . Hampden Pye . Lane, 1786

; or , a Series of Dialogues and Letters upon Important the Most and Interesting Subjects . Rivington ,

Theron and Aspasio 1755

Tour

to

Milford

Haven

Stockdale , 1795

,

in the

Year

1791 , A .

By Mrs . Morgan .

Triomphe de la Raison , Le; or Lettres de deux jeunes Dames de Qualité , dedié par permission à Madame la Duchess de Devonshire . Par Mlle . Cacouault de la Mimardière . Dilly , 1785

True Anti-Pamela , The ; or, Memoirs of Mr. James Parry , Late Organist of Ross in Herefordshire. In which are inserted his Amours with the Celebrated Miss Powell of Monmouth shire. Printed for the Author . London , 1742 True Narrative of an Unfortunate Elopement , in a Series of Letters . A . Holdsworth , 1770 Tutor of Truth , The . By the author of the Pupil of Pleasure . Courtney Melmoth . ( S . J. Pratt ) . Richardson & Urquhart , 1779

Twin

Sisters

Lady

.

,

The ; or, the Effects

Hookham

,

1788

of Education

.

A

Novel by

a

BIBLIOGRAPHY

243

Two Mentors . The ; a Modern Story. By the author of The Old English Baron (Clara Reeve ) . Dilly , 1783 Undutiful Daughter , The ; or , the History of Miss Goodwin .

Noble ,

1770

Wedding, The ;

Unexpected

Unfortunate Lovers , and Clelia . In a

The ;

in

or ,

. Becket , 1768 the Genuine Distress of Damon a Series

of Letters

Series of Letters . Dodsley , 1771 Sensibility ; or, the Life of Mrs . L - - . Written Unfortunate

Letters ,

. In a Series of Sentimental Yorick in the Elysian Fields . Richardson

Herself

Mr.

1784

Unfortunate Union , The ; on

or , the Test of

Facts and Calculated

Minds. By Unhappy Wife , The . A Younger

1770

Vale of Felicity

,

of Letters ,

1791

Vicissitudes Jones ,

to

Virtue.

Series

addressed

to

Urquhart ,

&

Story founded

A

&

of Virtue in Urquhart , 1778

a

Lady

promote the Causes

Lady. Richardson

a

by

of Letters . By

.

Newbery

,

The ; or , Sylvan Happiness . Portrayed in a Series Moral and Entertaining . By a Lady . Hamilton ,

of Fortune, The ;

or

,

the History of Miss

Sedley

.

1773

of Passion , or Memoirs of the Comte de Saint Julien . Lane, 1795 Village Memoirs . By Joseph Cradock . London , 1775 Virtue in Distress ; or, the History of Miss Sally Pruen and Miss

Victim

Laura

Fuller ,

Spencer . By

a

Farmer

's

Daughter

in

Glocestershire

1772

Virtuous Villagers ; Cass , 1784

in

a Series

Visiting Day , The . Lowndes

,

of Letters .

By John

Potter,

Letters . Noble , 1779 Widow , The ; or, A Picture of Modern Series

of

.B .

1768

Wedding Ring , The ; or , the History of Miss Sidney .

of

M

.

In a Series

Times . A Novel . In a Letters . By Mrs . Mary Robinson . Hookham , 1794

Woman of Honour, The . Lowndes , 1768 Woman of Letters , The; or, the History of Miss Fanny Bolton . Noble , 1783 Young Widow , The; or , the History of Cornelia

Sedley

Hayley . Robinsons, 1789 Young Widow , The ; or, the History of Mrs . Ledwich

. By Wil

liam

. Written

by

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

244

Herself,

in

of Letters

Series

a

,

James Lewis

to

Esq

. Noble ,

1785

VII

CHAPTER

Texts

Ayrshire Legatees , The. By John Galt . Edinburgh

and London ,

1821

Aunt

Sarah

the War .

and

. London ,

Tale of Transformations

A

1915

Christina , Princess of Wolfenbuttel . By the author of Caroline of Lichtfield ( Thomas Holcroft ) . London , Second Ed ., 1809 Christine. By Alice Cholmondeley . London , 1912 Confessions of a Well -Meaning Woman , The . By Stephen Mc Kenna

Delphine :

. A

,

London

Novel .

1922 Staël -Holstein

Madame de

By

the French . London , 1805 Dodd Family Abroad , The . By Charles 1853 - 4

By Bram

Stoker

.

Elizabeth Visits America . English woman 's Love Letters

,

1897

,

An .

By Mrs .

Sir

The .

Ella

Fuller Maitland ,

.

.

,

A

,

London

,

.,

.

1910

2nd

Tale Printed

.

a

,

or ,

Domestic Occurrences

.

By

York

Vernon Lee

ed

.

By

.

New

Gregory

Mary Annette Gräfin

for

Anstruther

Sargans

and

1906

1807

William

and

Matthew

,

Mr

-

.

.

B

J. .

1806

Hauntings Fantastic Stories

.

Carlsheim

German

By

the

, .

,

of

or ,

,

;

. .

Counts

from

London 1907 Gwenda By Mabel Barnes Grundy

London

London

1892

Schmidt and Arnim

Willis Howard

Blanche

the

,

.

the

Romance taken Lewis London

By

A

Sharp Boston Feudal Tyrants

, .

Fellowe and his Wife

Fräulein

.

By

.

-L

.

1929

to

,

Frederick Pollock London 1899 By Edward Bulwer ytton London 1827 Hugh Walpole and Priestley Hall

Falkland Farthing

;

1909

. Lon

,

,

Letters

Rt. Hon .

Helen

. London ,

By Laurence Housman

,

1900

Etchingham

von

Lever . London

James

By Elinor Clayton Glyn

.

don

,

London

Trans . from

the authors

,

.

Dracula

.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

245

Heroine , The ; or, Adventures of Cherubina . By Eaton Stannard Barrett , Esq . London , 1813 Indian Voyage , The . By Mrs . H . Lefanu . London Jamsie . By Ethel Sidgwick . (Amer . Ed .) Boston ,

Lady

Susan

. By

Jane Austen . (Written

ca

.

1805

,

1804

1918

. ) Oxford ,

1871 ,

1925

Lake , The . By George Moore . (In letters and narrative .) Lon don , 1905 Leonora . By Maria Edgeworth . Dublin , 1805 Leontina . A Novel . By Augustus Von Kotzebue . Trans. from the

German . London , 1809 Lesley Castle . An Unfinished Novel in Letters . By Jane Austen . orig . MSS . in 1922 New York . First pub . from

Letters between Amelia in London and her Mother try. By William Combe . London , 1824 Letters

An

from

the

Coun

McFee . London ,

Tramp . By William

Ocean

in

1908

from Mrs . Palmerstone to Her Daughter . By Mrs . Hunter . London , 1810 Letters of an Actress . London , 1902 Letters of Her Mother to Elizabeth , The . By William Ruther ford Hayes Trowbridge . London , 1901 Letters (from Senhouse ) to Sanchia Upon Things as they are . By Maurice Henry Hewlett . London , N . D . Letters Which Never Reached Him , The . By Elizabeth A . Hey king . London , 1900 Life of a Lover , The . In a Series of Letters . By Sophia Lee . London , 1804 , Life Treason , and Death of James Blount of Breckenhow . Com piled from the Rowlestone Papers by Beulah Marie Dix .

Letters

New

York , 1903

Like Another Helen . By

,

“ Sydney

Carlyn Grier "

London 1899 Listener 's Lure : an Oblique Narration

,

Love

London 1906 and Freindship

.

By

.

By Edward Verral Lucas .

Jane Austen . New

orig . MSS . – 1922 Love Letters of a Husband. London ,

(Hilda Gregg ) .

York

,

First Pub .

from

Love Letters of a Worldly Woman . London , 1891

1928

By

Mrs .

W

.

K

. Clifford .

246

Swinburne London Mariage Convenance

.

Algernon

Charles

1905

By

Charles Francis Keary

,

London

.

By

, , A .

.

de

go 1890

Letters

's

:

's

Year

a

Cross Currents

-

Love

By

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

.

.

.

's

an

,

,

. S . to

1901

.

Sir

By

.

of

.

Walter

a

In

.

of

.

,

to ,

.,

or ,

He

By

of

of

Century

Has Great Merit Being the Autobiography Esq Plack Late Lord Mayor London Letters his Grandson The Honourable George

Rich Man Archibald Series

the Eighteenth

London

1824

,

, . A : ;

A

Tale Edinburgh Scott

-6

,

Theodore Hook

Edward

1872

Redgauntlet

1835

,

.

By

.

A

.

.

,

,

The

M

. of

,

.

By

.

.

of

Letters

.

and Edward

Zeluco

Oakwood Hall Catherine Hutton London 1819 Pericles and Aspasia Walter Savage Landor London Picture the Age The Novel London 1800 Ramsbottom

W

By

,

Various Lady

,

By

a

of of

,

, ,

.

a

John Moore author

,

1800

Dr .

London

, .

Quality

By

;

.

of

.

.

's

Mr

to

.

,

Mohammed Benani London 1887 Young Man About Town Brown Letters Thackeray New York 1853 Mordaunt Sketches Life Characters and Manners including the Memoirs Countries French

in

,

don

,

.

or ,

W

:

a

of

.

's

Matilda Mabel Neil Lyons London 1903 Memoirs Princess First Love An Historical Romance By Olivia London 1812 Missing Answers English woman Love Letters The Lon

.

)

.

. )

,

(



.

.

,

,

.

.

.

.

By

.

London

Williamson London 1909 Doyle Sir Arthur Conan London

A

and

The

Fuller Maitland

,

Mrs Ella M

By

.

Munro Letters

Stark

.

.

N

By

Silver

in

Set

The

, .

1896

C

,

,

London 1901 Saltonstall Gazette

' , s

(

to

.

.



,

.

in

Originally published John Galt Tait Edin Edinburgh 1925 burgh Magazine June August 1836 Rosa Amorosa By George Egerton Mrs Goldring Bright Spend

(L

.

S

Owenson

ady

1804 1848

Hewlett

London

,

By ,

.

,

Anne Brontë London

.

. .

By

.

,

.

Desmond

Herbert New York 1931 Novel Letters William in

.

A

.

P

.

A

By

)

N

London

Wildfell Hall

Advice

. D .

's

Uncle

By of

.

Tenant Topsy

of

the Heiress

Sidney Morgan

.

or ,

Clair

;

St .

1894

BIBLIOGRAPHY

247

Undelivered Letters , from an American Girl to Her English By Husband . Cosmo Hamilton . London , 1926 Upton Letters , The . By Arthur Christopher Benson . London , 1905

Verena

in

New

Midst .

the

York ,

Wandering

Kind of Story. By Edward Verrall Lucas .

A

1920

Heath

.

(Contains " Letters

Troy ” .)

from

By Sir

Arthur Thomas Quiller -Couch . London , 1895 When All the World is Young . By Reginald Lucas . London

,

1908

Visits of Elizabeth , The . By Elinor Clayton Glyn . London , 1901 Welsh Mountaineer . By Catharine Hutton , author of The Miser Married . London , 1817 Wild Irish Girl , The ; a National Tale . By Miss Owenson , au thor of The Novice of St . Dominick , Patriotic Sketches . London , 1806 Year and a Day , A . By Mme . Panache . London , 1818 Your Affectionate Godmother . (Letters to Caroline. ) York ,

. New

Glyn

Elinor

By

1914

CHAPTER

VIII

Texts 1.

FRENCH

Adelaide de Meran . Par Pigault -Lebrun . Paris , 1815 Adele de Senanges ; ou , Lettres de Lord Sydenham . Par Mme . de Souza

Amours

Caliste ;

;

ou ,

ou

Paris ,

,

(Adelaide -Marie Emilie

Lettres

d

' Alexis

Lettres écrites

de

Filleul) .

et Justine . Paris

Paris ,

,

1794

1786

Lausanne . Par Mme . de Charrière

.

1786

Comte de Comminge , Le . Par

Mme.

de Tencin

andrine Guerin ) . Paris , 1735 Delphine . Par Madame de Staël . Paris , ou ,

Alex

1802

Lettres de Junie Salisbury , recueillies , citoyen de Verdun . Paris , 1784 Dauphin M . ; , Henriette de Wolmar ou La Mère jalouse de sa fille pour servir de suite a la Nouvelle Héloise . Paris , 1768

La Dernière

Héloise ;

(Claudine

et publiées par

Histoire du Marquis de Cressy . Par Mme. Riccoboni Jeanne Laboras de Mezieres ) . Paris , 1758 L ' Histoire d 'Atrée . Par Honoré d 'Urfé . Paris , 1607-" 19 9

(Marie

.

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

248 ou ,

Julie ;

La Nouvelle

Héloise

Paris , 1761

.

.

Jean - Jacques Rousseau

Par

Letters of an Italian Nun and an English Gentleman . Par Jacques Rousseau . Paris , 1781 Lettres à Mlle. Voland . Par Denis Diderot. Paris , N .D . Lettres à Une Innconnue . Par Prosper Merimée . Trans .

Jean

N

.

Y

.,

1897

Lettres Angloises ; ou , Histoire de Clarissa Harlove . Par Samuel Richardson (traduites par Abbé Prévost ?) . Paris , 1751 Lettres Athéniennes . Par Claude Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon

(Crébillon fils ) . Paris , 1732 Lettres de deux Amants habitants de Lyons . Publiées par

Léonard . Paris , 1783 Lettres de Fanny Butler . Par Lettres de Julie Catesby . Par

M

.

Mme. Riccoboni. Paris , N . D . Mme. Riccoboni . Paris , 1759

Marquise de M - au Comte de P - . Par Claude Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (Crébillon fils ) . Paris, 1732 Lettres de mon Moulin . Par Alphonse Daudet . Paris , 1869 Lettres du Marquis de Roselle . Par Mme. Elie de Beaumont. Lettres

de

la

Paris , 1769 Lettres neuchateloises . Par Mme . de Saint -Hyacinthe Charrière (Isabella Agnes Elizabeth Van Tuyll ) . Paris , 1784

Les Lettres d Amabard , traduites par Abbe Tamponet. Par Francois -Marie Arouet de Voltaire . Paris , 1769

'

l'

Persanes. Par Charles Louis de Sécondat , Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu . Paris, 1721 Lettres Peruviennes . Par Madame de Graffigny . Paris, 1747

,

Paris

,

Lettres Portugaises

for

Jean

Boston

Paul Marat . (Pub .

Bibli

1904

1668

de

. Par

. .)

Lettres Polonaises ophile Society

the

Lettres

,

Paris

,

.

Balzac

.

de

jeunes Mariées Par Honoré

,

,

.

.

de

. .

l'

deux

.

1812

Mémoirs

de

;

ou

de

L

.

'

de

.

Liaisons Dangereuses Par Choderlos Laclos Paris 1782 Malheurs Amour Par Mme Tencin Paris 1747 Marie les Peines Amour By Louis Buonaparte Gratz

1842

Willy

1875

,

,

.

By ,

.

.

.

.

)

(

Colette Paris 1929 Mon Oncle Barbassou Mario Uchard London La Morte Par Octave Feuillet Paris 1886

Colette

1888

"

Par



Filles

.

,

au

.

Par Victor Cherbuliez Paris Esprit vient Comment

l'

, .

ou

;

Miss Rovel Mitsou

BIBLIOGRAPHY

249

Le Nouvel Abailard ; ou , Lettres de deux Amants qui ne se sont jamais vus . Par Réstif de la Bretonne . Paris , 1778 Nouvelles Lettres Angloises ; ou , Histoire de Chevalier Grandis son . Par Samuel Richardson . (Abbe Prévost ?) Paris , 1755 -56 Obermann . Par Étienne Pivert de Sénancour . Paris , 1804 Paysan

. Par

Pierre

Carlet de Chamblain

de

Mari

Le

Parvenu

vaux . Paris , 1735 -36 Paysan Perverti ; ou , les Dangers de la Ville -histoire recente mise au jour d après veritables lettres des personnages Par Réstif Bretonne Paris 1775 Philosophe par Amour Lettres deux Amants passionés

La

Le

vertueux Paris 1765 Réligieuse Par Denis Diderot

,

.

de

;

ou ,

,

Paris

,

1796

en

, de . , l' an . . . de

a

;

de

.

de

la

.

la

de

.

de

les

;

Vie

de ou

.

1700 Par Emmanuel Pierre Rodocanachi Paris 1897 Marianne Aventures Comtesse Par Pierre Carlet Chamblain Marivaux Paris 1731

de

La

Jubilé

la ,

,

;

et

de

publiées par Lettres deux Amies recueillies Citoyen un Genève Paris 1779 ésquisse Tolla Courtisane Vie privée Rome ou

Sophie

.

.

.

et

.

les

'

la

de

Le

.D .

N

N

,

Di

.

.D . .

de P.,

N

.

N

,

.

.

ed

Cesare

.D .

'

d

Savoia

. .N . . P .,

Orintia Romagnoli

1818

Della Baronessa

Carolina Decio Coscenza fra

due

. P .,

.

,

'

il

e

familiare

Piefiela tutti Europa diverse Corti Conte

N

segreta

d

i

,

Marchese

e

,

Corrispondenza

e

1825

ossia

Licciocara Viaggiatori incogniti per

il

1569

N

. P .,

di

. N . di ; P .,

Spione Italiano

1782

.D .

,

.

.

.

di

Napoli

Marchesa

Della

Cesena

una Italiana

di

Lettere

Lo

Guilia Willet

di

Sacrati

N

di .

Lettere

, .

. .

Di

Giovanni Paolo Marana Paris 1684 italiana Di Pietro Chiari Venezia Italia Di Pietro Chiari Venezia

Lettere Amorose Di Aloise Pasqualigo Alphonso Lettere Este Isabella Balbo

Venezia

Pietro Chiari

.

in

filosofessa

Francese

Pietro Chiari

Di

.

man

La

Di

Venezia 1762 diliu relazioni segrete alla Porte Otto

trove le

e

si

Donna che non Esploratore turco

ITALIAN

. .

Cantatrice per disgrazia

'

L

La La

.

2

1741

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

250

Storia

di

Clarice

Agrati .

Visconti

Le Ultime Lettere

La

1799

Viaggiatrice

;

Di

di Jacopo Ortis.

ossia

,

Pietro Chiari . Venezia

Ugo

. Di Giovanni

Foscolo . Bologna ,

di Madamigella

Le Avventure

3

Die

di Milano

Duchessa

N . P . , 1817

E

.

B

.

Di

1760

. GERMAN

Leiden des Jungen Werthers Goethe . Weimar , 1774

.

CHAPTER

Johann

Von

Wolfgang

von

IX

Texts

Adelaide. A New and original Novel. By (Margaret Botsford ) . Phila ., 1816

a

Lady of Philadelphia

Affair at the Inn , The . By Kate Douglas Wiggin

Jane Findlater , Allan 1904

Aristocrats

,

McAulay .

Boston

The . By Gertrude Franklin

, Mary and

Atherton

Findlater

New

. New

.

York , York

,

1901

Art of Courting,

The - displayed in Eight different Scenes ; the principal of which are taken from Actual Life , and pub lished for the Amusement of The American Youth . By , 1795 Newburyport Ebenezer Bradford . Billy Baxter 's Letters . By William J. Kountz , Jr . Harmarville , Pa., 1899 Bundle of Letters ,

A . By Henry James . The Parisian , 1897 , Castle of Serrein The ; or, Abode of Perpetual Pleasures : in a Series of Letters by Seignora R . Interwoven with her own Memoirs , Etc . Portsmouth , 1800 Cathedral Courtship , A . By Kate Douglas Wiggin . New York , 1893

Clara Howard ; or , the Enthusiasm of Love , in By Charles Brockden Brown . Phila ., 1801

a Series

Cocoon , The . By Ruth McEnery Stuart . New York , Collection of the Familiar Letters and Miscellaneous Benjamin Franklin . Boston , 1833 Confessions

of

a

Débutante . New

York

,

1930

of Letters

.

1915

Papers of

BIBLIOGRAPHY Coquette ,

The ; or,

251

of Eliza Wharton . A novel By founded on Fact . Hannah Webster Foster . Boston , 1797 Country Interlude, A . By Hildegarde Hawthorne. New York , the History

1904

Crooked Vein , The . By Brewster Kane . Boston , Cupid , M . D . A Story. By Augustus M . Swift. New

1930

York

,

1882

Daddy-Long-Legs. By Jean Webster . New York , 1912 Dangerous Friendship ; or, the Letters of Clara D 'Albe. Trans lated from the French by a Lady of Baltimore . Baltimore , 1807

Daphne

and

Her Lad

York

,

1904

York

,

1918

. By

M

. J. Lagen

Ryland .

and Cally

New

Dear Enemy . By Jean Webster . New York , 1912 Dere Bill. Mable 's Love Letters to Her Rookie . By Florence Elizabeth Summers . New York , 1918 Dere Mable . Love Letters of a Rookie . By Edward Streeter . New Documents

Louis,

in

Evidence , The. By Henry

M

.

Blossom

, Jr .

.

St

1894

Dublin Letters , The . By John Harriman , Jr . New York , 1930 Emblems of Fidelity , The . A Comedy in Letters . By James Lane

. New York , 1919 , The ; or , the History of an Expatriated Family , being the delineation of English Character and Manners written in America . By Gilbert Imlay . London , 1793

Allen Emigrants

Emily Hamilton , a novel founded on incidents a Young Lady of Worcester County (Eliza cester , 1803

Familiar Letters of Peppermint Perkins . Footprints

.

Boston

real life. By Vicery ) . Wor

in

,

1886

York , 1929 a sequel to the History Series of Letters to a friend .

By Kay Cleaver Strahan . New The. An American Tale : being

Foresters , of John Bull , the Clothier . In a By Jeremy Belknap . Boston , 1792 Hapless Orphan , The; or , the Innocent

Victims of Revenge . Novel , founded on Incidents in real life. In a Series of Letters from Caroline Francis to Marie B . . . . By an Amer . ican Lady . Boston , 1793 A

Her Brother 's Letters . Wherein Miss Christine Carson , of Cin cinnati , is shown how the Affairs of Girls and Women are regarded by Men in General and , in particular, by her

THE EPISTOLARY

252

Brother ,

NOVEL

Carson , Lawyer, of New York City . Anony mous. New York , 1906 High Life in New York . By Jonathan Slick , Esq ., of Weathers field , Conn . A series of Letters to Mr. Zephariah Slick , Justice

Lent

of the

, and

Deacon of the Church over to Weathersfield , in the State of Connecticut . By Anne Stephens . London , 1844 , II Vols . Hints to My Countrymen . By an American . By Theodore Sedg Peace

wick . New York , 1826 His Letters . By Julien Gordon . New York , 1892 · History of Maria Kittle , The . In a Letter to Miss Ten Eyke . By Ann Eliza Bleecker . New York , 1793 Hope of Glory , The . Being a Part of A Correspondence writ Empire between the Years 52 and 66 ten in the Roman Schuyler . Boston , 1915 A . D . By William Ikey 's Letters to His Father . By George V . Hobart (Hugh Hugh , author of " John Henry ' ) . New York , 1907

Infidelity ;

or , the Victims of Sentiment . A Novel Letters . By Samuel Relf . Phila . , 1797

Jane Talbot.

By Charles Brockden

or ,

Brown . Phila .,

a

Series

of

1801

The ; An Editor 's Romance . New York , 1904 Scenes in Judea . By William Ware . New York , 1841

Jessica Letters

Julian ;

,

in

Mc

Kempton -Wace Letters , The . By Jack London . New York , 1903 Lady and Sada San , The . A Sequel to The Lady of the Decora tion . By Frances Little . New York , 1912

Lady Bobs, Her Brother and I. A Romance of the Azores . By Jean Chamblin . New York , 1905 Lady of the Decoration , The . By Frances Little . New York , 1907 Later Love Letters of a Musician . By Myrtle Reed . New York , 1900

Lauriel . The Love Letters of an American Girl . Edited by A . H . Boston , 1901 Letter - Bag of the Great Western , The . By Thomas Chandler Haliburton . “ Sam Slick . ” New York , 1840 Letters found in the Ruins of Fort Braddock , including an In teresting American Tale , originally published in the Con necticut Mirror . By John Gardiner Calkins Brainard

York , 1832 Letters from a Self-Made Merchant

Lorimer. Boston ,

1902

to

.

New

his Son . By George Horace

BIBLIOGRAPHY Replies

to

the

Being

his

By Charles

Son

.

Made Merchant

Self

a

.

his Self -Made Father

to

to

a Son from

-

Letters from Letters

253

of

,

.

(

Lighton

.

.

By

William

Wallace

R

.

to

,

.)



.

.

to

,

.

.

.

Rouse

.

Adelaide

.

.

,

1908

The

Friend Miss Musgrove

L

to

Boston

Theodora

Her

By Grace

New

York

,

.

By

.

-

.

Wilkins

Togo

By

,

,

of

Letters

1914

Jennie Allen

of

Son

1903

and

Maurice Switzer Boston 1914 Homesteader Elinore Praitt Stewart

Woman

York

Donworth Letters

His

By

.

an

of

New Letters

Farmer

1914

York Putnam

By Hashimura

1907

Made Failure

Self

a

Letters

of of a

Letters

Old

York

New

York

,

New

)

Irwin Letters

By Zora

.

, a

Japanese Schoolboy

New

her Daughter

her Mother

1923

of

Letters

Howells

to

a

Girl

Business

,

a

of

.

Letters Home William Dean Letters Business Woman Boston

(

.

of

By



of

; . . or ,

,

Eustace Merriman Boston 1904 Palmyra By William Ware Letters from Later edited under Palmyra title Zenobia the Fall New York 1832

,

.

.

.

,

Mrs John Van Vorst New York

.

By

P

By

.

in

in

to

Love

.

,

1925

Women

.

York

Letters

Djinn By Grace Zaring Stone New York 1922 Lady the Country Stuart Sherman New

.

to

to

Letters

a

Letters

a

1905

.

R

,

.

,

.

.

,

.

. .

1857

By Conover Duff New a

to

.,

Mo

,

.

Kansas City

,

of

a

In

.

.

By Enos Hitchcock

Mrs Wilson

.

Letters

Series

special

By

.

.

's

1790

Experiments

By

of

,

D

.D .

.

Boston

Sinclair

1900

By

.

in

.

. M .

C

?

the Bloomsgrove Family Respectable Citizen Philadelphia

Mrs

York

New

The

1895

of

,

Sedgwick

Story

"

a

-

York

1915

Harold

Myrtle Reed New York 1898 By Thomas Bailey Aldrich

,

,

a

of

or

Single Married Master Knot Another

Memoirs

York

people

and other

1873

By

,

Boston

1927

Musician



.

York

.

Love Letters Marjorie Daw

Elizabeth Cooper New Correspondence

Romance

A

Letters Vynne New

,

Love

Billy

to

Living Up

By

1906

Chinese Courtyard

New

,

By

.

,

.

. J. H .

.

in

;

.

A

York

1921

. ,

.

.

Decem

,

By

New

Henry James Century Magazine

.

An

Autobiography Morton

.

Wentworth

Sarah

(? )

.

,

By

.

I.

of

Irene

1902

Lucius

, “

.

"

,

Gracchus Aurelian

as

,

1855

from

In

.

.

, ,

Ware

the

in

Years

of

;

,

or ,

of

,

to

Fausta

William

Three

New York Letters the Daughter later known

1838 York

1929

,

New

Edna Kingsley Wallace New

York

By John Neal Phila 1823 Chambre By Mrs Susannah

Rowson

,

.

The

By

Tell

the Dream

.

of

Quest

to

Not

Promise

By

, .

York

Rome

, .

M

at .

Palmyra

New

in

Rome

Piso from

David

. J. H .

.

; or ,

Probus

The Ingraham the Third Century

By

of

,

Boston 1789 Prince the House Holy City Rev

York

.

;

the Confessions

Aurelia Sidner New Sympathy The

, of

or ,

1882

Price Inevitable Power

Price Collier

and

,

,

The

.

,

, of

View

ber

By

1903

or ,

,

. of

of

and Mary Christian

Point

-

,

.

By

.

.

)

(

Boston

York

New

Ingra Bondage Fire The Israel Rev New York 1895 Yesterday The Novel By Frederic Arnold Kummer

ham

Pipes

a

.

,

.

of

of

A

Pillar

By Baroness Von Hutten

Henry Goelet McVickar

Two

Collins

Percy

1798

the Beeches

1902

Parish

.

York

New

,

Davis

of

Original Letters Our Lady

More Letters from Self Made Merchant George Horace Lorimer New York 1904 Ferdinand and Elizabeth The John

By

.

his

By

Son

to

,

York 1914 Old Gorgon Graham

Cooper

Elizabeth

.

of

.

the

My Lady

By

THE EPISTOLARY NOVEL

254

,

.)

; .

.,

.

.

de

.

London

1792

By

,



first edition

.,

,

.

.

By

a

Miss Hassall

.

General Rocheambeau

Principally during By

.

States

, of

to

in

.

,

St

of

at

a

by

of

the United

.

command Phila 1808

of

-

Vice President

the

.

;

,

,

or

.

;

,

late

or ,

or ,

;

?

Mable Edward Streeter New York 1919 Exemplary Sincerity Sarah the Wife Mrs Susannah Rowson Boston 1813 Domingo Secret History the Horrors Series Lady Cape Letters written Francis Colonel Burr

,

Same Old Bill

,

Chambre title Boston 1814 Eh

.,

of

de

Fille

2nd

the Fille

Ed

(“

;

Rebecca

.

Novel

.

Randolph

or A ,

1913

BIBLIOGRAPHY

in Pursuit of Freedom or , The Branded Hand . Trans . the Original Showian and Edited by an American

Shamah from

Citizen

.

York ,

New

Short Sixes . Stories H

1858

While the Candle Burns.

be Read

to

Bunner . New York , 1890 Widow , The . Confessed by Amélie

. C.

Sins of

255

;

a

L

'Oiseau . New

By

,

York

1898

concerning Love and Some Letters of an American Woman other Things. By Sarah Biddle . Phila. , 1902 Story of an Untold Love, The . By Paul Leicester Ford . New York

,

1897

That's Me All Over , Mable . By Edward Streeter . New York , 1919 Three - Fingered Jack . (Obi ; or , Three - Fingered Jack . The Fa mous Black Robber of the West Indian Islands .) New York , N .D . Throne of David

,

The . From

of Bethlehem

J. To

a

H

.

the Rebellion

to

Ingraham

. New

York

Boston

,

Nun Confess 'd ; Letters Osgood

Irene

.

of the

the Consecration

,

of Prince Absalom

Shepherd

.

By Rev

.

1860

Yolande

from

to

Sister Mary . By

1905

Trials of the Human Heart, The . A Novel , in four Volumes . By Mrs . Susannah Rowson . Phila ., 1795 ' Twixt Cupid and Croesus ; or, the Exhibits of an Attachment Suit . By Charles Peale Didier . New York , 1896 Uncle Bill 's Letters to His Niece . By Ray Brown . New York , 1917

Unofficial

Secretary

,

The . By Mary

Ridpath

Mann

.

Chicago ,

1912

By Lucile G . Houghton . New York , 1911 Stocking Via P . and O . Jane . New York , 1914 gods Being Story When HalfGo. Brief Wedded Life Venture

in

Identity ,

A

.

by

a

of

the

By

a

By

.

Marwood

1870

New

York

,

Boston

,

Diaz

.

.

Gregory

,

.

.

M

.

H

Mrs

.

The

By.

, .

Recluse

By

.

1914

a

Henry Letters

Wooing

of

1901

William

By

,

.

a

.

to

in

as

Told Intimate and Confidential Letters written Bride Former College Mate Helen Reimensnyder Martin New York 1911 While Charlie Was Away Mrs Poultney Bigelow London

INDEX ;

,

;

Is ,

87

di

de

, ; 60

,

of

,

,

,

47

of

a

,

, , ,

,

,

de

,

,

La

,

le

,

de

,

,

-

;

48 60

150

, , . 48 , , ,

, ,

,

an

of

,

,

,

,

.

207

The History

M

Evidence

,

Braddock

199

The Docu

203

,

Gardiner Calkins Fort the Ruins of

John found

in

ments Brainard

. , , Jr .,

,

of

.,

D

,

,

257

Eliza

Kittle 198 Henry

, in ,

,

;

Blossom

Richard

Ann

Letters

60

,

,

.. .

,

,

;

19

,

,

58

Abbey

Atlantis

So

,

,

of

of

A

;

,

New

Bleecker

Maria

Freind

160 Letters Collection 159 The Female Philosopher 160

Francis

47 ;

.

,

;

,

,

,

and

Blackmore

;

, , ,

17857 ,

,

Love

Northanger

The

176

Sarah Some Letters American Woman 205 Bigelow Mrs Poultney While Char Was Away 204 Biddle

33

de

;

; 159

,

162

.,

,

,

Upton Letters Biddle

,

.,

.

.

. ,

Castle 159

Christopher

Arthur

Benson

14

,

.

,

,

,

,

,

ley

shib

98

,

.

,

.

-

,

. .S, ;

a

, to

.

,

131

,

,

Gräfin

lie

,

'

,

,

15

,

D

182

Fraulein Schmidt and Mr Anstruther 176 Roger Ascham The Gertrude Franklin Atherton Aristocrats 204 Atterbury Dr Aubin Mrs Penelope The Life the Countess Gondez Aunt Sarah and the War Austen Jane Lady Susan 158 Les von Arnim

Young

,

,

to de

.,

.

D

de M

182

Argus 145 Aristænetus Arnaud Baculard

Emerance

Beaumont Mme Prince Nouvelle Clarisse 135 Behn Mrs Aphra Love Let ters Gentleman Belknap Jeremy The Foresters 196 Belleville Lodge 149 Bennett Mrs Agnes Courci 127

'd

,

, or , ,

; , ; or ,

Memoires

Letters

Lucy 135 History Lady 135

103 182

Antipamela

185

,

-

et

'

d

136

,

-

-

Detected

from

;

,

ou

Amours Lettres Alexis Jus tine 183 Anti Pamela 103 182 Feign Anti Pamela Innocence

Bacon

.,

A

,

,

, -

, -

E

de

The

,

the Gauls

,

of

-

,

58

57 ,

of

,

,

Fidelity 211 212 Amorous History

,

d '

,

Barker Mrs Jane The Lining the Patch Work Screen Barnes Grundy Mabel Gwenda 178 Barrett The Heroine 159 162 Beaumont Mme Elie 100 182 185 186 Marquis Roselle 135

,

Daw and other People 201 Allen James Lane The Emblems

192

de ,

56

53 ,

,

,

Este

Balzac Honoré Mémoires deux Jeunes Mariées 187 Barclay Alexander Baring Gould Rev Sabine 207

19

, , 9

, 17 ,

14

, ,

,

di ,

of

,

,

Adelaide 198 Adventures Lindamira 52 Agrati Giovanni Storia Clarice Visconti 192 Alciphron Alcuin Bailey Marjorie Aldrich Thomas

,

,

82

;

,

As

125

;

,

,

Spectator

82 , de

;

,

Sir Roger

61

;

, ,

,

,

Barham Syrian

,

3353

52

de

Vernay Joseph Addison Coverley Papers

,

Bage

125

Robert , Mount Henneth , 125; Downs, The Fair 125 126 James Wallace 125 Man He 125 Herm sprong Baker Ernest Balbo Cesare Lettere Alfonso

Abelard and Heloise , 47 Account of the Secret Services of M .

INDEX

41, 199

Bretonne , Réstif de la , Le Nouvel Abailard , 188 ; Le Paysan Perverli , 186

Brontë , Anne, The Tenant of Wild . fell Hall , 166 Brooke, Mrs . Frances , 100; Letters from Juliet , 116, 134-85 ; Lady Julia Mandeville , 114, 115; Emily Montague , 114, 116; Charles Mande . ville , 116; Memoirs of the Marquis de St. Forlaix , 115, 135; The Ex cursion , 117

Brown , Charles Brockden , 151; 199: Clara Howard , 197; Jane Talbot , 197, 198 Brown , Ray , Uncle Bill' s Letters to His Niece , 211 Brown , Thomas, The Lover ' s Secre tary , 25

, Robert , The Ring and the Book , 107 Buckingham , Duke of , 19, 33 Bulwer - Lytton , Edward , Falkland ,

Browning

165- 166

Bunner , H . C., Short Sixes , 201 Buonaparte , Louis , Marie , 187 Burney, Frances (Mme . D ' Arblay ) , 101, 103, 158, 164; Evelina , 101, 109- 110, 127, 180; Harcourt , 110 Clementina

Bedford

,

, Giraldus , 107; Itinerary Through Wales , 108 Cartwright , Mrs., The Generous Sis ter , 124 ; Letters Moral and Enter . taining , 124; The Platonic Mar. riage , 124 ; Retaliation , 124

Cleland , John , Memoirs of Fanny Hill , 127 Clifford , Mrs . W . K . , Love Letters of a Worldly Woman , 169, 171 Cogan , Thomas , John Buncle , Jr . , 128- 129

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor , 199 " Colette ,” Mitsou , 188 Collins , Wilkie , The Moonstone , 212 Colonel Ormsby , 145 Comical Description of a Nunnery , Concari , Tullio , 19ın Condé , Prince of , 49 Confessions of a Coquette, 145 Confessions of a Débutante , 209 Confidential Letters of Albert , 102, 149 Congreve

, William , 33 Conrad , Joseph , 98, 99 Constant , Benjamin , Adolphe , 191 Constantia , 140, 141 Coombe , William , Dr . Syntax , 124 ; Letters by Yorick and Eliza , 125; Letters between Two Lovers, 125 ; Original Love Letters , 125 Cooper, Elizabeth , Living Up to

Billy , 211 My Lady the Chinese Courtyard 210 Cooper Maria Susannah Exemplary Mother The 138 139 Harley Street 178 Corner Correspondents The 141 143 Cosenza Baroness Carolina Decio Lettere una Italiana 192 Country Gentleman Companion for the Town Camp 141 142 Coxheath Prosper Crébillon Claude

;

,

,

,

,

,

),

,

,

,

52

's

,

di

,

,

,

,

,

of

,

(

,

,

,

,

Lettres neuchateloises Cherbuliez Victor Miss Rovel 187

;

,

186

.,

,

91

,

64 ,

,

,

,

, , ,

,

,

, 6

,

Catherine Medici Catullus Cautious Lover 140 141 Caxton William Cervantes Miguel Chamblin Jean Lady Bobs 207 Chandler 106 Charrière Mme Caliste 186 de

Cicero , 1, 3 -5, 7, 8 , 9, 13, 14, 15, 20 , 25, 26

,

197

49

,

de '

of

Cassiodorus , 8 Castle Serrein

che non

Cholmondeley , Alice , Christine , 178 Christina , 161 Cibber , Colley , 104

,

Cambrensis

, 189; La Donna si trova , 189

disgrazia

fils

, J. J.,

Viaggiatrice , 189 ; La filosofessa italiana , 189; La Cantatrice per

de

Cambar 133

, Philip Dormer Stan hope, Earl of , 13 Chiari , Pietro , 190 ; Pamela Maritata , 189; Storia di Luigi Manderine , in Italia , 189; La 190; Francese Chesterfield

of

, Nicholas, 25; Poste with a Packet of Mad Letters , 23, 27-33 ,

Breton

210

258

INDEX Jolyot , Lettres Athéniennes , 185; Lettres de la Marquise de M - , 185 Croft , Sir Herbert , Love and Mad ness , 129

Cumberland , Richard

,

,

Arundel

181

132

Let Mon

Lettres

of .

,

,

a

,

,

),

,

,

,

, ,

,

.

,

(M

,

, ,

La go ,

,

of

,

An

,

,

,

,

,

,

;

106

.

,

,

,

;

,

,

,

,

,

,

91 ;

89

,

of

Ad

150 The Simple 100 between 107

,

,

of

,

of

,

Jane Helen The Green Baljourie 207 Mary Joy The Rose

Fogerty

Digby

A

21 ;

Panoplie

21

, of

Epistles

,

,

,

,

Fisher Mary 211 Fleming Abraham

,

,

,

98

,

David

207

of

,

,

,

,

of

a

,

, ,

La ,

,

,

,

,

105

107 Familiar Letters principal characters 100

Findlater Graves Findlater

,

,

106

Apology for the Andrews

Shamela 159

;

-

Trea Blount

,

- of

James

.,

,

of

-

,

,

,

,

,

,

The Life

Donworth Grace Letters Jennie Allen 209 Dostoievski Feodor Double Disappointment The 141 -

105

Sarah

ventures

Austin 168 Dodd Dr The Magdalen 180 Donna delle romanzi 192

141 142

Mrs

, ,

Fielding

174 175

,

,

Breckenhow

,

,

,

,

57

Jones

Life

103 104

Marie

and Death

187

103

131 132 143 158 159 164 Joseph Andrews 105 Tom

124 206

,

203

,

Beulah

son

Morte

137

of

,

Twixt Cupid

,

Peale

,

Charles Croesus

and

,

The

Inconstancy Fatal Effects 136 Felicia Charlotte 100 187 Female Frailty 140 141 143 Female Werter The Perrin

,

182

Disinterested Nabob The 145 148 Distressed Lovers The 138 139

of

Fair Imposter The 149 150 Faithful Fugitive The 138 139 Peppermint Per Familiar Letters kins The 202 Fastolfe Sir John Fatal Amour between Beautiful Lady Young and Nobleman

,

,

La

Religieuse

'

Didier

Dobson

160;

Feuillet Octave Fielding Henry

183

Dix

, Maria , 162; Leonora , The Letters of Julia and Caroline , 133 " Egerton , George" ( Bright , Mrs. Golding ) , Rosa Amorosa , 178 Eliza Cleland , 145, 146 Emerson , Ralph Waldo , 209 Erasmus, Desiderius , 10 Eustathius , 15 Evelyn , John , 13 Edgeworth

,

130

William

A

Denis

,

,

the

11

, 8 ,

,

.

,

Diderot

Master - Knot ,

The

to

Love

,

of

Force

Dernière Héloise 183 Derwent Priory 149 150 Diaz Mrs The Henry Letters 201 Dickens Charles 181 Dictamen

of

;

The

Con by

a .

;

,

55

, of ,

44

John

Conover,

11

;

,

60 ,

59 , ,

147

. , , , M , ., , La ,

,

nt

145

61 124 Letters Written Spy The King

Turkish Pirates

Duff ,

Munro Let

Stark

,

.

25

,

22

,

2

, ' s

a

Friend

Defoe Daniel tinuation

182,

,

,

23 ;

58

,

, , 57 21 , 21 ,

,

,

Chloe Death

104,

'd

,

,

.

,

,

,

of

the Court France John 184 Davis John The Original Letters Ferdinand and Isabella 197 Davys Mrs Mary The Reform Coquet Day Angel The English Sec Daphnis and retorie

Davidson

,

ters , 169

,

,

, of

41

41 , 42 ;

,

,

els

The Ladies Trav Memoirs

Spain

into

104

Doyle , A . Conan

; ,

,

the

198

,

Moulin 187 Daunois Madam

20,

189; Richardson , 104, 181- 182; Shamela ,

Mrs Memoirs and Miss Stanley

.,

Alphonse

Daudet

or ,

, ;

D , '

Albe

de

105

of

Clara

W .,

203

Dampier , Dangerous Friendship ters

259

Downs , Brian

Colonel 128

INDEX

,

of

Mary

,

The

Memoirs

.,

,

Mrs

Countess

120 121

Guys Sentimental Through Greece 128

Journey

,

,

Gunning

Gipsy

A

;

,

121 -

di

,

,

Le

,

di ,

,

, ,

an

, Miss ,

Gunning

,

of

,

,

Paul Leicester The Story Untold Love 203 Fortunate Orphan The 100 Ugo Foscolo Ultime Lettere Jacopo Ortis 190 191 192 La Vera Storia due Amanti Infelici Ford

de

260

.

of ("

C

's

17 18

,

,

,

,

,

,

;

98

;

.

, , ,

,

,

,

,

.,

,

,

,

or

;

,

St .

of

,

A

,

of

;

,

,

, ,

, , 's

53

;

of

;

,

58 of

, 52 ;

, ,

44

43 ,

57 ,

,

,

,

,

, of in H . de 57 , P ., 58

,

,

Heart

the

-

,

., ,

,

102 130 131 Hermione 149 150

,

, ,

-

;

177 178

,

Sanchia 177

Rest Harrow

,

Open Country

;

Letters

, to

177

89

,

Heron Mr The Conflict 133 Herschel Sir John Halfway House Hewlett Maurice

177 Uncle

Advice

,

William

's

Hewlett

,

.

.,

149

,

,

, ,

,

,

,

,

82

,

of of of

,

,

,

A

,

Heyking Elizabeth The Letters Which Never Reached Him 172 Hill Aaron Hirst Augusta Ann Helen 160 History Eliza Musgrove 138 139 History Eliza Warwick 141 144 History Lord Belford The 145 ,

, of . ,

,

,

;

.

,

,

,

),

Like Another Helen 171 Mrs Elizabeth The Deli cate Distress 116 The Story Lady Juliana Harley 128 Griffith Richard The Gordian Knot ,

mania

Henriette Wolmar 183 Topsy Herbert 180 202 Her Brother Letters 208 Heriot John The Sorrows

,

of

'd

Gregg

, (

Carlyn

"

9

,

,

the

Hildegarde Country Hawthorne Interlude 206 Haywood Eliza 61 182 Spy Upon the Conjuror Letters from the Palace Fame Love Excess Secret His tory the Present Court Cara

,

, , ,

;

,

,

.,

, 187 , ,

,

,

,

.

-,

,

,

, .,

,

,

-

,

,

, ,

,

;

,

,

,

de

Secret History Domingo 198

177

Hilda

127

Hassall Miss Horrors

,

,

109

Fanciulla

188 Pamela Nubile 188 Pamela Maritata 188 Goldsmith Oliver Citizen the World 183 184 Gomersall Mrs Eleonora 131 Gordon Julien His Letters 202 Gosse Sir Edmund 168 Gould Rev Sabine Baring 207 de Gourmont Remy Le Songe une Femme 188 Graf Arturo 189 Graffigny Mme Lettres Peruvi ennes 184 Grammatica Sydney Grier

Rem

Mrs Juliana Ormeston 193 Harriman Lee The Dublin Letters

;

,

, ,

190 137

,

173

Faust

;

,

189 191 193 Carlo Pamela

,

; .

to

, , ,

, 12 ;

,

, ;

186

Griffith

Harley

,

,

,

23

-

,

of

;

,

173 Letters Caroline The Visits Elizabeth 173 Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Egmont 191 Werther 148

Desperate

212

,

,

53

52

,

,

,

ica

,

,

of

'd ,

Gildon Charles The Post boy Robb his Mail 41 Glyn Elinor Elizabeth Visits Amer

Goldoni

the

Slick

213

The

,

,

,

John Gentleman Apothecary Geraldina 149 150

Sam

,

33

,

187

Gay

199 Joseph

Ethelberta 212

edies

,

,

.

de

,

,

;

A

,

-

,

John

pin

199

Sam

Hamilton Cosmo Undelivered Let ters 179 Hapless Orphan The 196 Hardy Thomas 207 The Hand

,

,

, ,

John Legatees The Ayrshire Rich Man 164 163 164 Gautier Théophile Mlle Mau

Galt

Saws

Hall Bishop ,

,

;

En

24 25

, ,

139

of

Galsworthy

138

68

Idlenesse

21 21 , , ,

, 20 20

, ,

of ,

The

; -

Western

,

” ),

;

,

Great Wise

emie

Thomas The Letter Bag

,

.

,

Bagatelles

195

195

Fruitless Repentance Fulwood William



Haliburton Slick

Benjamin

Franklin

The

,

, ,

,

Webster

Co

191 Foster Hannah quette 197

INDEX

,

,

,

A

,

,

's

,

go

.,

in

.

, ,

,

114 Fla

,

,

132 Augustus

,

,

,

102

von Kotzebue

161

L

's

.,

Billy Baxter Kountz William Letters 203 and Arnold Frederick Kummer Mary Christian The Pipes Yes of

,

212 143

;

186 137

,

Choderlos

,

Laclos

-

terday

,

Liaisons Dangereuses 183 Lagen and Cally Ryland Daphne and Her Lad 206 Lamb Charles Landor Walter Savage Pericles and

,

,

64

,

,

166

,

,

,

Ring

You

Know

Me

Al ,

,

Lardner

and

127

,

Constantia

,

,

185 John Theodosius

Langhorne

211 204 157 Clara

Lennox

,

Lauriel

Lee Harriet

133

;

-

,

,

The India Voyage

,

.,

.

H

,

of a

,

,

,

Vernon

110 111 The Recess Lover 157 Hauntings 175

158

,

Lennox Mrs Charlotte

.

;

The

Lee

Lefanu Mrs ,

, ,

;

;

The 200

Lee Sophia The Life

,

,

,

of

of

196

Emigrants of .,

.,

H

J.

of

,

minius

,

,

;

,

-

,

,

,

The 191

211 Rev David the House The Pillar Fire 200 Throne David 200

Prince

Mrs

134

Gilbert

Memoriam Ingraham

Conduct

Knight Ellis Cornelia Marcus

,

,

,

of

,

,

163

In

,

Imlay

Klopstock

,

Doubtful

-

,

, ,

132 133

Pamela

Life 106 Kidgell John The Card

Aspasia

The

Hutten Baroness Bettina Our Lady the Beeches 205 Hutton Catherine The Welsh 162 163 Mountaineers Oakwood

Hall

Hugh

High

,

161

William

von

Kelly

,

Sir

of

-

.

, .,

,

,

,

,

Palmerstone

Mariage Charles Francis de Convenance 169 Keir Mrs James Miss Greville 130

;

vii ,

47

, ,

,

Thomas The History William Harrington 110 127 128 Hunter Mrs Letters from Mrs Hutchinson Marriage

Vein

. J. ,

103

Hughes , Helen Sard , Hughes John

Hull

Keary

de

Letters

,

,

Huggonson

,

Dean

The Crooked

M

Howells , William Home , 205 Huffman , C. H ., 82

Ho .

17

Brewster

,

James , 18- 19; Epistolae , 18- 19

41

Elianae

40

,

Howell

,

Jules

, ,

169, 171, 206

18 148

213

,

6

Kane

,

,

Hook , Theodore , The Ramsbottom Letters , 167 - 168 Hopkinson , Francis , 195 Horace , 14 Housman , Laurence , An English woman 's Love Letters , 172, 205 Howard , Blanche Willis and William Sharp , A Fellowe and His Wife ,

,

Jusserand

, ,

Hobart , George V ., John Henry , 208 ; Ikey ' s Letters to His Father , 208 Holcroft , Thomas , Anna St. Ives , 132 ; Christina , 161 Homer , 1; The Iliad , 2, 6 , 14; The

,

Ben

Juliana , 145,

,

the

,

of

,

Enos , Memoirs Family , 196 Bloomsgrove

Odyssey

,

Jonson

Hitchcock ,

, , ,

Summerville , The ,

James, Henry , A Bundle of Letters , 202; The Point of View , 202 The Jessica Letters , 206 Johnson , Samuel , 89, 91 Johnstone , Charles , 150; The Pil . grim , 128

,

of Miss

139, 140

Schoolboy , 208

,

138

History

Irwin , Wallace , Letters of a Japanese

,

History of Miss Emilia Bellville , The, 138, 139 History of Miss Lucinda Courtney , The, 138, 139 History of Miss Melinda Harley , The , 141, 143, 143- 144 History of Miss Pittborough , The ,

261

The Female

INDEX

;

;

,

, 's 's

;

;

31 ;

18

,

17 ,

14

, ;

's

, of

,

,

of ;

,

de ;

,

43

,

;

.

,

.,

,

by

-

, to

,

la

,

.

.

53

.

52 ,

,

,

;

I

,

'

,

Cham

de

de

, Le

;

,

L

,

,

,

. La

, ;

76

,

,

,

,

Gregory

The Wooing

210

, ,

Recluse

When

209

of

,

,

,

;

,

,

,

, ,

,

,

Masquerades 145 147 McAulay Allan The Rhymer 207 McFee William 112 An Ocean Tramp 176 Stephen McKenna The Confessions Well Meaning Woman 179 -

VIII

Mon

Marianne Paysan Par

184 Helen Reimensnyder

,

.

to a

King Henry

Cava

Vie

184 185

-

Nobleman

de 12

,

Sir

,

,

,

de

,

75 a

a

Nun

50

,

, ,

to

50

48 a 49

,

47 ,

46 ,

-

,

-

Martin

Carlet

Pierre

186

Marwood

between

and his Sister Love Letters from lier Love Letters from Anne Boleyn 45 ,

Marivaux

Half Gods Go

197

-49

Love Letters

,

D 48 .,

- -

,

,

Loshe Lillie Love Letters

Alicia

,

a

of

-

,

,

Old

Jane

127

venu

Esplora

75

of

,

;

,

,

211

,

,

,

Son 205 206 207 Gorgon Graham 205

Paolo

190

Marishall Mrs

of a

His

Horace The Let Self Made Merchant

promessi

Paul Lettres Polonaises

Jean 200

blain

-

ters

Sins

Kempton Wace

The

205 George

of , a

Lorimer

Marat

tagu

,

,

,

Letters

The

Amelia

Widow 203 Jack London

Giovanni

tore turco 184

;

,

'

, ,

Oiseau

208

192

192

, ,

.,

R

to

,

,

,

Sada San

209

Alessandro

,

Marano

Letters

, ,

Old Farmer His Son 210 Little Frances The Lady the Decoration 208 The Lady and

William

of

sposi

,

an

Lighton

.

,

,

,

of

, ,

; , 61 A 42 ;

,

44

Secretary

Manzoni

147

-

146

-

,

145

,

,

,

,

of

Written Mrs Man Court Intrigues Mary Ridpath The Unofficial

Letters

ley

Mann

,

,

Feudal

42 ;

180 62 ;

,

-

,

166 167

42 ; , ,

,

,

26

,

,

,

55

,

,

,

25

a

, by

23

-

,

Abroad

Lewis Matthew Gregory Tyrants 160 Life Miss Catlane The

L

15

is

,

de

178

,

Actress

Charlotte The 145 148 Letters writ Turkish Spy Letter Writers Lettres de deux Amants 183 Family Lever Charles The Dodd Letters

de

of

,

,

to

an

of of

Letters

147

Quality The 140 141 Maid Maintenon Mme Maitland Mrs Ella Fuller The Sal tonstall Gazette 170 with Sir Etching Frederick Pollock The ham Letters 171 Malory Thomas Manley Mrs Mary Rivière Journey Stage Coach Exeter The Bath Intrigues

,

51

;

,

,

,

to

109

the Daughter Ovid 200 the Marchioness

from

,

Morvina

Julia

,

Letters M -

140 143

,

,

Letters from Augustus

Mackenzie Henry 101 The Man Feeling 108 Man the World Roubigné 101 108 108 Julia

, ,

137

,

,

Abroad

Letters from Clara The Letters from Henrietta The 141 144

to

,

a

to

at

44

,

a

Letters

43 ,

a

at

Lady

Lyly Euphues John Entertainments Lyons Neil Matilda Mabel 173 ,

,

,

Lucian

Lady from Paris Avignon Young from Painter

Letters

, , ,

,

e

and Philan

,

Sylvia

Letters between der 127

varie

,

-

,

Harriet

,

between Emilia and 138 139 Lettere Capricciose piacevoli 189 Letter 138

in

,

46

,

,

161 Sir Roger

,

'

L

Estrange

Lucas,

,

Leontina

of & Husband , 179 Edward Verrall , Character and Comedy , Life Little Dif ficulties 176 Listener Lure 176 Verena the Midst 176 The Vermilion Box 176 Reginald All the When Lucas Young 177 World Letters

Love

,

,

126

176

Euphemia

192

,

,

,

159

;

Quixote

162

262

INDEX Sir

,

:

-

, .

:

0

53

74

,

,

La

,

52

,

de

,

, , 8

5 7

,

,

37 ;

, 33 ,

,

61 ,

51

-

47 ,

45

,

; ,

-

,

of

,

,

213

Theodosius and 61

Corinna

51 ,

130

,

and

, ,

Tell

Hampden

,

Pylades

-

,

,

.

,

Mrs

to

Not

Promise Pye

218

, .

of

,

of

,

of

The 195 196 The Pupil Pleasure 123 The Tutor Truth 123 Emma Corbett 123 124 Predestined Wife 145 146 Prévost Abbé Manon Lescaut 182

,

Jack

,

-

or ,

,

,

A

,

;

Sympathy

Arabella Three Fingered

,

a

,

10 18

,

,

10

,

,

of

35

33 -

126

,

John The Virtuous Villag Felicity The Favorites

; , S . J. ,

;

The

,

,

,

,

Miss and Miss Taylor Indiscreet Marriage 129

Nugent

Letters

,

,

53

,

Queries

54

Duchess

correspond

,

Potter

, ,

,

,

-

,

198 199

198

of 99 ,

-

,

and

34

-

33

15

ence

Power Pratt

-

, , ,

,

,

, ,

,

Newcastle

Epistles

Pope Alexander

ers 126

Seventy Six

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

-

9

, F .,

-

Pliny the Younger

, ,

60

99

141

142

Nabob The 145 145 146 Natali Giulio 190 Randolph Neal John

Meran

172 184

,

,

of .,

Illicit Love 192 Human Life The

189

187

Portuguese

133

,

Picture the Age 157 Pigault Lebrun Adelaide

,

,

,

46 ,

A

to

,

,

,

,

,

,

Haven

.,

, ,

,

,

.

, ,

Moore George The Lake 175 Moore Dr John Mordaunt 157 More Sir Thomas Utopia Morgan Charlotte vii Morgan Mrs Milford Tour Morris Mrs Mutability

,

, 14

,

,

, A

.,

,

, , S .

Phelps William Lyon Phillpotts Eden 207 Philosophe par Amour Philosophical Letters

,

33 ,

,

Persian

;

190

184

-

,

,

,

Baron

183

45

,

90

13 ,

.,

,

de

Letters

;

The

Duchess

'd

,

,

,

, ,

89 90

Montagu Mrs Montesquieu

Obi

St .

;

,

,

,

de ;

,

Perplex

Petrarch

,

,

Missing Answers The 172 Mohammed Benani 168 Monimia 149 150 151 Montagu Lady Mary Wortley

Rambles

18

A

, ;

,

s -

, ; ;

;

, ,

120

190 Paston Letters The Lucy Peacock The Fancy 130 Peggy and Patty 153 Pepys

i

of

;

,

,

Minifies The Miss Lady Frances and Lady Caroline 119 The Picture 119 Barford Abbey 119 The Cottage 119 The Count Poland 119 Coombe Wood 119

Notes

,

.

-

104

,

edition

, ,

,

Cicero

26

,

,

ther 206 Conyers Middleton

129

Censured 103 Day Panache Mme Year and 163 182 Parsons Miss Miss Meredith Pasqualigo Aloise Lettere Amorose

,

,

Self Made

Stability

Female

130 Pamela

,

Letters

Eustace

Fa

,

76

, ,

Son

a

from

,

Palmer Miss

96

,

to

his

Meredith George Merriman Charles

'd

,

,

17

, ,

,

Mazarine

Dutchess

,

the

,

of

,

,

,

14

a

44 of

,

France

a

,

,

Orphan The 151 Heroides Miss Clair 157 158 The Wild Irish Girl 160 Ozell John Thomas

Ovid Owenson

45

Adventures Quality

of

207 208

,

the

,

138

Falstaff

151 Orlando and Seraphina 145 147 Osgood Irene To Nun Confess

Otway

100

Court

John

149

,

,

Unfortunate

the

263

Original Letters of

-

, of

,

149 151 Young

,

an

, of A of , of of a a of

161

Scots Heiress

Lady

French

Memoirs 58 Memoirs

Two

Princess

Nobleman

Memoirs

and Price 205

Goelet

Parish

43 ,

Collier Memoirs Memoirs Memoirs

56

Henry

of

McVickar ,

INDEX

Rouse Adelaide Theodora 207

127

Rousseau

,

L

,

, ,

an

,

of

,

62 ,

54

;

53

,

,

;

,

, ,

198

of

,

. ,

54

58 ,

,

in

,

,

;

; -

.

,

,

,

;

,

,

'

, 8 s

, di

, ,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

, of

,

,

,

of

,

A

;

,

-

; ,

,

,

,

,

of

of 2 3

,

,

,

,

Famous

24

,

,

,

's

The

Guide

Secretaries Studie Sedgwick Catherine Maria Single 201

Married

Princess

Zilia

My

to

Hints

,

,

de

127

,

,

Sylvius

,

187

,

Hamlet

,

;

99 of

Freedom

a

of

.,

91 ,

Pursuit

,

Shakespeare

89

Shahmah

, .,

,

Mme Seymour Mrs The Conduct Married Life 127

200 31 ;

to

Sephallisa Sevigné

43

,

,

Sénancourt Etienne Pivert Ober mann 186 191

in

, ,

James

,

,

,

,

Pierre

Seguin

,

The

126

Rodocanachi Emmanuel Tolla Courtisane 188 la

Secretary

and

Calisto

the Most

,

,

126

Love Fragments

Aubyn

,

,

;

St .

,

William

126 Sydney

History

Beauties

,

Shrine

,

;

of

The

Bertha 126 The Widow False Friend 126

Robinson

Secret

de

,

Letters

;

,

, ,

Mary

Loves

Emira Second Samuel

or

;

; .,

, ,

, ,

95

,

,

The Peruvian

128

Robinson

164 165

John

Sedgwick Theodore Countrymen 199

171 145 148

, R .,

,

,

,

,

90

76ff 188

,

171

, of , 88 ,

100

86

206

82

195

Works Ring The Roberts

St . St .

,

, 88 , , 40

82 ;

.,

83 , , , , 86 18 , , 39 , , , , 87 37 , ,

81 , ,

, ,

,

75 ;

, 74

106 109

102 103 105

135 138 182 188 189 Sir Charles Grandison

120

Seally

,

, ,

,

, 95 ,

,

189

182 182 Pamela

,

,

73

,

84

, ,

, ,

166

, , , ,

62 , , , 21 , ., , 22 , 77 , , 24 , 80 ; , , 32 , , ; 81

89 , , ., 95

100

Familiar Let 35ff Lettres Nouvelles Lettres

188

24

193 194 Clarissa

Description

,

190 216

;

189 215

Sarah

.

213

Mrs

Millenium Hall 118 162 The Test Filial Duty 118 119 Scott Sir Walter 191 Redgauntlet -

188

211 Scott

,

185 212

183

Glory

128

184 199

129 152

Schuyler

52

127 144 182

198

Fathers The 145 147 Husbands The 148 Tutors The 148 Wives The 147 William The Hope 211 Under Pontius Pilate

?,

124 139 181

Wilhelm

for School for School for School for School

,

116 138 171

Scherer

,

114 137 170

108

Marchese Orintia Romag noli Lettere Giulia Willet 192 Abbey 145 147 Julian Paul Saintsbury George 171

,

110 133 167

100

Susannah Mentoria the Human Heart

of

109

64ff

and

Sacrati

,

62ff 107

, 88 ;

106

, , , , ,

103

, , ,

102

ters Angloises Angloises

Moral

Letters

198 Rebecca

197 Sarah

65 ,

, , ,

, , , , 99 , 33 ,

,

,

, , , , 61 , 18

58 , , , , - , 59 , 17

, , , , ., 25 ,

,

de

Julie

101

69ff 185

Rowson Mrs 132 Trials

;

;

,

of

186 de ;

from 185

100

182

, , ,

.

of a

;

-

,

,

,

,

,

46 ,

40

Samuel

51

Letters Valière

Letters

;

, , , , , , , 47 , , ,

,

184 185 186 Catesby 185

132

Entertaining

,

, ,

,

.,

,

Sophia

Richardson

,

Death

;

,

for

,

-

Mme

Elizabeth

,

;

of a

,

62

19

,

; ,

;

, ,

,

,

,

;

122 128

Riccoboni

Letters

The

Jean Jacques 109 186 189 190 193 La Nouvelle Héloise 182 183 189 194 Letters Italian Nun 188 Friendship Rowe Mrs Elizabeth

,

,

,

,

,

Radzivil 127 Raleigh Sir Walter Reed Myrtle Love Letters Mu sician 204 Later Love Letters Musician 204 10g The Two Men Reeve Clara tors 111 The Exiles 111 112 The English Old Baron 111 The School Widows 111 148 Relapse The 141 142 Relf Samuel Infidelity 197 Rencontre The 145 Renwick William Damon and Celia 122 The Solicitudes Absence

128

of

The ;

62 ,

.

,

Fate

,

Mrs Ann 197 Velina De Guidova

of ,

Radcliffe

Temple

.,

, ,

("

Rogers Miss Miss Rogers Will 201

,

,

170

,

Q "

Arthur

),

Sir

Quiller -Couch , Wandering Heath

,

264

INDEX ,

,

,

.D .,

M

,

.,

M

61

;

's

,

of

-

, ,

de de

;

Le

185

7 8

;

, ,

,

.

De

.

,

,

.

98 of

Rutherford Her Mother

,

,

, ,

,

,

Mon

,

201

Oncle Barbas

-

,

;

19 ,

-

, .,

M

,

,

,

Mario

,

138

141

139 143

,

,

,

The

,

Union

,

The

,

Unfortunate

,

Astrée

'

The

d

Histoire

L

Felicity

,

,

'

Honoré

'

144

Urfé 188

,

John

Letters

to

,

Mrs

149

197

.

,

in ,

Carl

,

Doren Vorst

,

Vale Van Van

,

122

,

198

Voltaire

François Marie Les Lettres Amabed

,

-

'

d

,

Letters

Marchioness

,

93

212

de

.,

,

,

Wagner Richard Walker Lady Mary Louvoi 128

186

,

Love

R

,

Vynne Harold

Arouet

de ,

,

,

,

;

,

the Heart 121 122 Palinode The Lovers 122 Emily Hamilton Vicery Eliza

,

; of

,

;

,

,

,

,

,

Women Love 208 Vergy Treyssac Henrietta Coun tess Osenvor 121 155 Mistakes

,

, ;

The Cocoon

183

Contrast

The

sou 187 188 Wedding Unexpected

,

,

Over Mable Ruth McEnery

,

;

211 211

Mable 211 Thats Me All ,

, ,

Bill ,

.

,

,

to

,

a

of

a

to ,

, 0,

,

,

Uchard

of

in

,

, ,

P

,

,

,

,

Footprints

182

173 201 206

Mark Royall

Tyler

d

,

("

92 ,

33

91 -

,

64 ,

,

,

,

”,

., ,

- . " ) , .

,

, ,

212

Kay Cleaver Strahan 212 213 Streeter Edward Dere ,

.,

,

,

131

Elizabeth

de

57

56 ,

,

,

,

, 14

,

,

of "

,

,

,

, ,

, , ,

,

,

,

W ,

, 's ,

.

, ;

108

,

'

L

Rivers

Twain

Woman Homesteader 210 Stocking Jane Via and 210 Stoker Bram Dracula 170 180 212 Zaring Letters Stone Grace

,

Philippe

Tolstoi Leo Ilytch Trowbridge William Hayes The Letters

Senanges

Politician The Edmund Spione Italiano Lo 190 Spirit The Book The 161 Staël Mme Delphine 160 186 Steele Sir Richard Stellins 149 Stephen Leslie 171 Stephens Mrs Anne Jonathan Esq High Life Slick New York 200 201 Sterne Laurence 109 128 Stewart Elinore Praitt Letters

,

185

Thackeray 191 143 Mr Brown Letters 167 168 Thomson the Rev James The nial 182 Lady Caroline Todd Mrs Elizabeth

,

Adèle

.,

,

de

Mme

186 Spanish Spenser

Comte

Malheurs

185

Tieghem

,

;

, ,

,

,

188

Old

Mme

Amour

, ,

,

, ,

, ,

,

;

,

,

,

,

D

;

,

,

,

Sophronia

Same

Self

,

.

,

,

' .

Desmond

Fathom 151 Sophie 183

Djinn

Love

a

,

,

-

60

8

,

,

.,

, ,

Charlotte

Arcy 102 112 The Solitary Wanderer 112 Smollett Tobias 101 103 164 Humphrey Clinker 101 107 Count Ferdinand 180 167 -

de

Sir

,

,

,

Mrs Smith 112 113

de

Tencin Comminge

van

128

Souza

The Guar

Swinburne Algernon Charles Cross Currents 173 174 Switzer Maurice Letters Made Failure 206 Symmachus

Philip Sidonius Apollinaris Skinn Mrs The Old Maid 127 Smedley Menella Bute The Maiden

Aunt

,

Jonathan

dian

,

ble 205 Sidney

de

Swift

-

178

,

, ,

,

I. ,

,

Jamesie 179 The Price Inevita

Sidner Aurelia

Cupid

Dere

201 202

,

212

,

Show Girl 219 Sidgwick Ethel

Lady

a

, ,

Letters

the Country

in

to

Stuart

,

Sherman

Stuart 210

Augustus

Swift

,

117

117; 118

,

, Mrs. Frances , Nourjahad , Miss Sydney Biddulph ,

Sheridan

147

Elizabeth

39

197

The

Cavern

61

,

Bysshe

, ,

Percy

Subterranean

Summers Florence Bill 211

-

,

Shelley

Wives ,

,

Othello , 109, 147; Merry 151; King Henry IV , 151

265

INDEX

in

.

Set

Zola

William

Edward

Emile

Night Thoughts

,

Young

's

204 34

ments

Wycherley

33 ,

124

.

,

,

George

89 ;

,

., ,

Washington

Watts - Dunton , Theodore , 174 Webster , Daddy - Long -Legs, Jean , 209; Dear Enemy, 209 Wedding Ring , The, 141, 142 -148 Whicher , George F., 48 Wiggin , Kate Douglas, The Affair at

Williamson , C . N . and A . M . , Silver 108 177 Experi Wilson Mrs Mrs Sinclair

,

199

,

Ware , the Rev . Wm ., 200 , 218 ; Ze. nobia , 199; Aurelian , 199; Julian ,

a Convent, 122; Letters between Lady and her friend, an English 122; Letters Written in France , 122

98

Spy

206

Williams, Helen -Maria , Anecdotes of

, , ,

Farthing Hall , 179- 180, 205 Ward , Edward , The London Compleat , 55, 56

Court .

Wilde , Oscar , 177 Wilkins , Zora Putnam , Letters of a Business Woman to her Daughter ,

,

Hur , 200 Walpole , Horace , Castle of Otranto , 62 , 200; The Mysterious Mother , 62 Walpole . Hugh and L. B. Priestley .

the Inn , 207 ; A Cathedral ship , 202 - 209

,

Kingsley, The Quest

Dream , 209 Wallace , Lew , 199; Ben of the

89

Wallace , Edna

,

266