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The episode of Carausius and Allectus: The Literary and Numismatic Evidence
 9780904531787, 9781407320618

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Table of Contents
List of Maps
Abbreviations
Preface
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I: LITERARY AND EPIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE
CHAPTER II: THE HOARD EVIDENCE
CHAPTER III: CARAUSIUS' SILVER COINAGE
CHAPTER IV: GOLD COINS AND MEDALLIONS
CHAPTER V: THE COINAGE IN GENERAL
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PLATES

Citation preview

The Episode of Carausius and Allectus: the Literary and Numismatic Evidence

Norman Shiel

British Archaeological Reports 40 1 977

British Archaeological Reports 122, Banbury Road, Ox ford OX2 7BP, England

GENERAL EDITORS A.C.C.Brodribb, M.A. Mrs. Y. M.Hands

A. R.Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D. Phil. D. R. Walker, M.A. A DVISORY EDITORS

C.B.Burgess, B.A., F.S.A. NeilCossons, M.A., F.S.A., F.M.A. ProfessorB. W.Cunliffe, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. SoniaChadwickHawkes, B.A., M.A., F.S.A. Professor G. D.B. Jones, M.A., D.Phil., F.S.A. Frances Lynch, M.A., F.S.A. P. A. Mellars, M.A., Ph.D. P• A. Rahtz, M.A . , F.S.A •

B.A.R. 40, 1977: "The Episode of Carausius and Allectus: the Literary and Numismatic Evidence" © Norman Shiel, 1977 The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780904531787 paperback ISBN 9781407320618 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780904531787 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

CONTENTS

Page Preface I n troduct ion CHAPTER I :

1

L ITERARY AND EP IGRAPH IC EV IDENCE

L ist o f S ources

1

Pan. Max . D ict.

3

I ncer t . Pan. Constan t io Caes. D iet .

5

Aure l ius V ictor

1 5

Eutrop ius

1 8

Pau lus Oros ius

2 0

Bede

2 1

Nenn ius

2 1

G eof frey o f Monmouth

2 2

R ichard o f C irencester

2 2

Rober t o f G loucester

2 5

J ohn o f Fordun

2 5

Hector Boeth ius

2 7

Co mparat ive t ab le o f Med iaeva l Accoun ts

3 0

O ther r eferences

3 1

Ep igraph ic e v idence

3 2

CHAPTER I :

THE HOARD EV IDENCE

Corpus o f h oards c los ing w ith Caraus ius

3 9

Corpus o f h oards c los ing w ith A l lectus

5 1

Corpus o f h oards c on ta in ing o n ly Caraus ius/Al lectus

5 8

Corpus o f L eg it im ist h oards

6 1

Corpus o f h oards c los ing a f ter A l lectus

6 2

Corpus o f h oards f ound o verseas

6 6

Proble mat ica l h oards

6 9

Errata

7 0

S ta t ist ica l t ab les

7 2

S ize a nd c on ten t o f h oards

7 4

Min t d istr ibut ion i n h oards

7 5

Con ta iners a nd f ind s pots

7 7

L eg it im ist h oards

8 2

Dat ing o f h oards

8 3

Overseas h oards

8 5

S trat if icat ion i n h oards

8 6

Page CHAPTER I I :

CARAUS IUS ' S ILVER CO INAGE

I n troductory r e marks Corpus o f s i lver c o ins :

9 4 9 5

ML —

o r



9 6 9 7

RSR

RSR

RSR

i rregu lar

17

l aurea te b ronze

1 18

e t a l.

1 18

T able o f o bverses

1 25

Tab le o f r everses

1 29

We ights

1 35

I ncorrect ly r ecorded c o ins

1 36

Co m mentary

1 37

CHAPTER I V :

GOLD CO INS , AND MEDALL IONS

Caraus ius ' g o ld c o ins

1 45

Group o ne,

1 45

a nd J RSR

Group t wo ,

1 46

ML S truck i n Max im ian 's n a me

1 47

Group t hree , ' Rouen ' c o ins

1 48

Co ins o f Doubt fu l Au then t ic ity

1 50

S ta t ist ics

1 51

Co m mentary

1 51

A l lectus ' g o ld c o ins

1 55

D I ML ML

1 55

a nd

ML

MSL

1 59

1 59

_ L A

1 60

S tat ist ics

1 60

Co m men tary

1 60

The Meda l l ions

1 62

Page CHAPTER V :

THE CO INAGE I N GENERAL

I rregu lar ity

1 66

M in t S yste m

1 70

Marks i ncorpora t ing L

1 71

Co ins w ithout m in t- mark

1 71

Ana lys is o f m in t- marks f ro m s ix ma jor s i tes

1 72

Marks i ncorpora t ing C

1 74

BR I c o ins

1 77

Corpus o f BR I c o ins

1 78

' Rouen ' c o ins

1 80

S u m mary o f ' Rouen ' r everses

1 83

S equence- marks

1 84

Tarr if ing

1 85

Types a nd L egends

1 88

Pax t ypes

1 89

L eg ionary t ypes o f Caraus ius

1 89

L eg ionary t ype o f A l lectus

1 91

' Caraus ius e t Fratres S u i '

1 91

The g a l ley r everses o f A l lectus

1 93

S o me s tat ist ics c oncern ing t hese

1 94

' Expecta te V en i '

1 95

I nf luence o f P ostu mus

1 95

CONCLUS ION

2 02

B IBL IOGRAPHY

2 08

PLATES

2 18

L IST OF MAPS Page Ear ly , midd le a nd l a te Caraus ian h oards

8 8

L eg it im ist h oards a nd h oards c on ta in ing ' Rouen ' c o ins

8 9

Hoards o f more t han o ne h undred c o ins

9 0

Hoards c on ta in ing p redo m inan t ly Caraus ian/Al lectan c o ins

9 1

Overseas h oards

9 2

Hoards t erm inat ing 2 87-296

9 3

Caraus ius ' s i lver c o ins

1 43

S i lver , e ar ly g o ld a nd h oards

1 44

G o ld c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus

1 63

ABBRE V IAT IONS

A . A.

Archaeo log ia Ae l iana

A . Ca mb.

Archaeolog ia Ca mbrens is

A. E.

L 'Annee Ep igraph ique

A. J.

Archaeo log ica l J ourna l

A . N.S.

Amer ican Nu m is ma t ic S oc iety

An t. J .

An t iquar ies J ourna l

Ar ch.

Ar chaeo log ia

A. S .R .

Dr. Anne Rober tson

B .A. R.

Br it ish Archaeo log ica l Repor ts

B .C.S.

Bu llet in o f t he Board o f C elt ic S tud ies

B .G .A.S .

Br isto l &G loucester Archaeo log ica l S oc iety

B . M .

Br it ish Museu m

B . M .Q.

Br it ish Museu m Quar ter ly

B . N.

B ibl iothbque Nat iona le

B . N.J.

Br it ish Nu m is mat ic J ourna l

C . o r C . O.H.

Monna ies s ous L 'E mp ire Ro ma in , b y H . Cohen

C . A.C.

Ca mbr idge Archaeo log ica l Co l lect ions

C . A.S. O. P.

Ca mbr idge An t iquar ian S oc iety Occas iona l P aper

C .C. R.B.

Co inage & Currency i n Ro man Br ita in b y C . H . V . S uther land

CJ .L .

Corpus I nscr ip t ioru m L at inaru m

Co l l. An t.

Col lectanea An t igua b y C . Roach Sm ith

C . R.B.

Co ins o f t he Ro mans Re la t ing t o Br ita in b y J . Y .

C . W.

Cu mber land & West moreland T ransact ions

E .E.

Ephe mer is Ep igraph ica

F .G . H.

D ie Fragmen te d er Gr iech ischen H istor iker

F . M.R. D.

D ie F und m t inzen d er Rö m ischen z e it i n Deu tsch land

G . M.

G en t le man 's Magaz ine

I. L.S.

I nscr ip t iones L a t inae S e lectae

J .B.A.A.

J ourna l o f t he Br it ish Archaeo log ica l Assoc ia t ion

J .R.S.

J ourna l o f Ro man S tud ies

Aker man

Mon. Br it .

Monu menta H istor ica Br itann ica

N .C.

Nu m is mat ic Chron ic le

N .N . M.

Nu m is mat ic Notes & Monographs

Nu m. C irc.

Nu m is mat ic C ircu lar

N .Z.

Nu m is ma t ische Ze itschr if t

Pan. L at .

Paneg •yr ic i L at in i

P .C.A.

Proceed ings o f t he C lass ica l Assoc iat ion

P .S.A.

Proceed ings o f t he S oc iety o f An t iquar ies

P .S.A. N .

Proceed ings o f t he S oc iety o f An t iquar ies o f N ewcast le

P .S.A.S .

Proceed ings o f t he S oc iety o f An t iquar ies o f S co t land

R .A.

Revue Archeo log ique

R .C. H. M .

Roya l Co m m iss ion o n H istor ica l Monu men ts

R .I.B.

The Ro man I nscr ip t ions o f Br ita in

R .I.C.

Ro man Imper ia l Co inage

R .I.N.

R iv ista I ta l iana d i Nu m is mat ica

R . N.

Revue Nu m is mat ique

R . N.S.

Roya l Nu m is mat ic S oc iety

S ussex A . 0.

S ussex Archaeo log ica l Co l lect ions

T .I. N .C.

Transact ions o f t he I n ternat iona l Nu m is mat ic Congress

V .C.H.

V ictor ia Coun ty H istory

W.A. M .

Wiltsh ire Archaeo log ica l Magaz ine

W.A. N. H. M.

Wiltsh ire Archaeo log ica l a nd Natura l H istory Magaz ine

Y .A.J.

Yorksh ire Archaeo log ica l J ourna l

PREFACE

Iw ish t o e xpress my g ra t itude t o Dr . J . C . Ma im f or a l l h is v a luab le a dv ice a nd g u idance i n t he e ar l ier s tages o f my r esearch , a nd t o Mr . R . A . G . Carson who , d esp ite t he many more i mpor tan t d e mands o n h is t ime , h as a lways b een mos t g enerous w ith h e lp o f e very k ind .

Iam a lso i ndebted t o

Dr . J . P . C . Ken t f or h av ing f i rs t p ro mp ted me t o as tudy o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus. T here a re o ther p ar t icu lar d eb ts t o b e a cknow ledged , t o Dr . R ichard Reece , Mr . P h i l ip I saac , Dr. Anne Rober tson , Mr. G eorge Boon , a nd Mr . S i mon Benda 1 1.

Ih ave b een o verwhe l med b y t he c ons isten t g eneros ity s hown

t o me b y ag rea t n u mber o f i nd iv idua ls a nd i ns t itut ions o ver t he p as t f i ve y ears , w ithou t wh ich much o f t h is r esearch w ou ld h ave b een i mposs ib le. F ina l ly my t hanks a re d ue t o Mr . J ohn C larke who f i rst a roused my i n tere s t i n Ro man Nu m is ma t ics many y ears a go ;

t o Dr . A l lan Wilson f or h is

c onstan t h e lp , e ncourage men t a nd e xa mp le ;

a nd t o my w ife Br idge t f or h av ing

s uf fered s o much . T he a u thor w ishes t o e xpress h is r egret t ha t v ar ious f actors h ave c ons p ired t o p reven t a l l t he p ho tographs b e ing o f ah igh q ua l ity , a nd t o a ccep t f u l l r espons ib il ity f or t hose t ha t a re n o t .

1

I N_ L RODUCT ION

T he p er iod o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus l as ted o n ly a d ecade b ut b ecause o f i t s s pec ia l n a ture i th as c ap tured t he i mag ina t ion o f many s tuden ts o f Ro manoBr it ish h istory a s h as n o c o mparab le p er iod .

I t i s l ess w e l l d ocu men ted t han

much o f t he Ro man o ccupa t ion a nd t h is h as h e lped t o p ro mote t he i n terest i n i ta s t he a bsence o f v ery much i ncon trover t ib le e v idence made i te asy f or t hose who p resu med t o c o mpose t he ir own a ccoun ts o f t he p ast .

T he u psurge o f

i n teres t i n t he e igh teen th c en tury s aw t he p roduc t ion o f t wo b ooks a bou t Caraus ius , o ne b y t he Frenchman G enebr ier ; S tuke ley .

t he o ther b y t he Eng l ish man ,

N e ither w ork s hows a v ery g rea t c oncern f or a ccuracy o r d isp lays

much c r it ica l a cu men , p ar t icu lar ly b y modern s tandards.

T he Meda l l ic

H istory o f Caraus ius b y S tuke ley may r a ther b e s een a s a mas terp iece o f i ng enu ity .

S o me a t te mp t a t l i st ing t he v ar iet ies o f c o in t ypes was a t l eas t b e ing

made , a nd a s i n teres t g rew i n t he s ub ject a nd n um is ma t ics i n g enera l , more was wr it ten a bou t i nd iv idua l c o ins o r who le c o l lect ions. o ne s uch l i s t ing a nd Aker man a nother .

M ionnet p rov ided

T he a dven t o f t he N um is mat ic Chron ic le

p rov ided a p ar t icu lar s t i mu lus t o t he r ap id g ro w th i n t he v o lu me o f i mpor tan t p ub l ished mater ia l o n t he s ub ject .

Cohen 's monu men ta l w ork b eca me s tandard

f or t hese c o ins a long w ith t he r est o f t he Ro man Imper ia l S er ies.

T here h as ,

h owever , a lways b een a s izeab le f o l low ing o f w hat may b e c a l led t he S tuke ley t rad it ion .

Tha t i s t o s ay wr iters , who w ere more c oncerned w ith t he u ndoubt-

e d ly a t trac t ive r o man t ic a spects o f t he e p isode.

As t he Br it ish Emp ire r eached

i t s z en ith a nd i t s n ava l s upre macy w as u ncha l lenged , t he t e mp ta t ion t o d raw p ara l le ls w ith t he b o ld s ea-farer who h ad e s tab l ished a n e ar l ier ' Br it ish Emp ire ' , f ounded a nd ma in ta ined b y s ea p ower , w as i rres istab le. Caraus ius ' b ackground , b orn a Menap ian , e ven p ro mp ted a n Amer ican Du tch man , J ohn Wa tts De P eyster , t o wr i te a b ook a bou t h im a s a means o f e u log is ing t he D u tch r ace.

T o t he

Br it ish h e s ays , ' Your o n ly t rue s a ilor-k ing Caraus ius - t he f irs t t o d iv ine t he s ource a nd c ourse o f Eng land 's f uture - was a Menap ian , a Ho l lander '. By t he t wen t ieth c en tury much n ew ma ter ia l h ad b een d iscovered i n e xcavat ions o r i n h oards s ince Cohen 's l i st ing , a nd i n 1 906 a nd 1 907 t here a ppeared i n t he Nu m is mat ic Chron ic le t he f i rs t ma jor t rea t men t o f C araus ius ' a nd A l lectus ' c o inage f ro m a modern s tandpo int o f c r it ica l a na lys is.

T h is work ,

n ever the less c on ta ined many f ac tua l e rrors a nd i s d ef ic ien t o n s evera l p o in ts o f i n terpretat ion .

These w ere t o s o me e x ten t r e med ied when t he a u thor

p roduced a n u pda ted v ers ion o f t he w ork t wen ty f i ve y ears l a ter t o f orm t he r e levan t s ec t ion o f R .I.C.

T hat s t il l r e ma ins t he s tandard w ork o f r eference

a l though many n ew v ar iet ies h ave b een p ub l ished s ince i t s a ppearance , a nd many m istakes h ave b een o bserved i n i t s l i s t ings .

T he mos t s ign if ican t a d-

v ance a s r egards t he i n terpre ta t ion o f t he c o ins h as b een C arson 's t rea t men t o f t he s equence marks o f t he t wo u surpers.

S evera l o ther v a luab le o bserva-

t i ons r e ma in s ca t tered t hrough p ages o f v ar ious j ourna ls a nd monographs.

i i

T h is w ork s eeks t o b r ing t ogether a l l t ha t i s o f v a lue t ha t h as b een wr it ten o r s a id a bout t he s ub jec t , a nd t o make a n i ndependen t c on tr ibu t ion o f i t s own . Ih ave , o n s evera l o ccas ions , d rawn a t ten t ion t o t he e rrors i n t he c orpus g iven i n R. I .0 C .b u t h ave n ot a t te mp ted t o p rov ide a r ep lacemen t s ave i n t he c ase o f t he s i lver a nd g o ld c o ins. T he n ature o f t he e v idence i s s uch t ha t o n ly i n c er ta in c ases c an p rob le ms b e s a id t o h ave b een a ny th ing l ike r eso lved . T he i n ter l ink ing o f c er ta in c o ins h as , f or e xa mp le , e nab led a dvances t o b e made i n d ea l ing w ith m in t l oca t ion a nd c hrono logy . No d oubt i fe very s ing le e x tan t c o in w ere c ompared f or d ie l i nks t han a more c o mp lete p icture w ou ld h ave emerged b u t al im it h ad t o b e d rawn s o mewhere f or t h is w ork , a nd a c omprehens ive s tudy o f t he sma l ler g roups o f c o ins s uch a s t he g o ld , s i lver a nd t he Rouen a n ton in ian i t ogether w ith wha t emerged g enera l ly , s ee med t he most p ro f itab le u se o f t he t ime a va i lab le. I n c o l la t ing i n forma t ion o f v ar ious s or ts f ro m o ther s ources , Ih ave t r ied t o a ch ieve a b a lance b etween a n a bso lute c overage a nd a n i nadequa te c overage. Ih ave t hus p rov ided f u l l d e ta i ls f or p o in ts wh ich d er ive f rom o bscure s ources o r wh ich h ave n ever b een p ub l ished b efore , b u t h ave d eemed i ts u f f ic ien t s imp ly t o g ive r eferences t o ma ter ia l wh ich i s f a ir ly e as i ly a ccess ib le. S ome h oards , t herefore , r ece ive r a ther more s can t t reatmen t t han o thers , b ecause t hey a re f u l ly d ocu men ted e lsewhere i n p ro m inen t

j ourna ls ;

a nd s ome o f t he

l i terary s ources a re r eproduced i n f u l l b ecause p r in ted t ex ts o f t he m a re n ot r ead ily a va ilab le. I n t he i n terests o f b rev ity w ithout l oss o f c lar ity Ih ave t r ied t o make f ootnote r eferences i n as imp le r a ther t han a c omp lex f orm , e spec ia l ly when t he s ame w ork i s c i ted o n s evera l o ccas ions. w orks may b e f ound i n t he b ib l iography .

F u l l d eta ils o f a l l s uch

T he l i terary a nd e p igraph ic s ources

h ave b een e xam ined a t g rea ter l eng th t han p rev ious ly , t o s ee h ow f ar t hey c an c on tr ibu te t o a ny a ccura te u nders tand ing o f t he p er iod , s o me p rob lems h ave b een r esolved a nd a s many f resh o nes d iscovered .

T he r es t o f t he w ork

d ea ls w ith t he n um is ma t ic e v idence i n i t s v ar ious a spects a nd i s ac o mb ined s tudy o f h ow t he c o inage s ys te m w orked a nd wha t i tc an t e l l u s a bou t t he h is tory o f t he p er iod . Had t here b een e asy a nswers t o t he p rob le ms r a ised b y t h is s ub ject , t hey w ou ld h ave b een d iscovered d ur ing t he p as t t wo c en tur ies. I n wr it ing t h is w ork Ih ave r a ised d if f icu l t ies a s w e l l a s r emoved t he m f or s uch i s t he n ature o f as ub ject s uch a s t h is t hat many p o in ts mus t r e ma in i n d oubt b ecause o f s heer l ack o f e v idence. A l l Imay c la im i s t o h ave a t te mpted t o i mprove u pon a nd a dd t o wha t h as b een d one b efore me b y o thers , a nd t o p roduce a f u l ler t rea tmen t o f t he e p isode o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus.

T h is

w i l l , Ih ope , b e s een n o t s o much a s af i na l s o lu t ion b u t a s af ounda t ion o n w h ich t o b ase f ur ther r esearch a s n ew e v idence c o mes t o l i ght .

I ll

CHAPTER I L ITERARY AND EP IGRAPH IC EV IDENCE

L ITERARY a )

Panegyr icus Max im iano D ictus

( 289 ) c hs. X If f .

I ncer t i Panegyr icus Constan t io Caesar i D ictus ( 296 ) c hs. V f f . b )

c )

Aurel ius V ictor De Caesar ibus c hs. X IOC IX f f .

( 360 A .D.)

Eutrop ius Brev. H ist. Ro m. Bk . I X S ect. 2 1f f .

( 370 A . D.)

Oros ius Pau lus H istor iae a dv. P aganos. Bk . V I I c h. 2 5

( 418 A . D.)

Bede

( 731 A .D.)

H istor ia Ecc les iast ica G enus Ang loru m Bk . I . c h. 6

Nenn ius H istor ia Br itonu m c hs. X IX-XX G eof frey o f Mon mou th

( 796 A .D.)

H istor ia Regu m Br itann iae

Bk . V , c hs. 3 -4

( 1 150 A . D.)

Rober t o f G loucester

Chron icle Bk . I I1 72if f.

R ichard o f C irencester

( 1280 A . D.)

De S itu Br itann iae

Bk . I , s ect. I I a nd I V ; Bk . I , s ect. > 0 . (X

( f orged b y Ber tra m C . 1 750 ;

( d . 1 401 A . D.)

e xposed b y Woodward i n G . M . f or 1 866= 7 ) J ohn o f Fordun

Chron ica G en t is S cotoru m

Hector Boeth ius d )

Prosper Tyro

H istory o f t he S cots

c hs. 2 7f f .

Bk . V I

( 1450 A . D.) ( 1530 A . D.)

' Caraus ius s u mp ta p urpura Br itann ias o ccupav it '

H ierony mus c hron. a Abr. 2 305 D ioclet ian y r . 3 - Caraus ius s u mp ta p urpura Br itann ias o ccupav it '. D ioc let ian y r . 1 5 - ' Post d ece m a nnos p er Asc lep iodotu m p raefectu m p raetor io Br itann iae r eceptae '. J ordanes

Ro m. 2 97 ' Quo t e mpore ( sc. D ioclet ian i ) Caraus ius s u mpta p urpura Br itann ias o ccupav it '.

P o le m i i S i lv ii L aterc . I5 9 p . 5 22 ' Caraus ius e t A l lectus i n Br itann ia t yrann i f uerun t '. Ann . Bo l l.

91 16. 1 2.

Pass io Typass i i

' I n Br itann ia Caraus ius r ebe l laverat '

1

Zonaras

Ann . x i i 3 1 ( i n Corpus S cr ip t. H ist. Byz. Bonn 1 844 )

% .µävbou 5

T Lvog v cwTcpCcavtog

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2

He l inandus P ass io S G ereon is e t S oc ioru m. c h Is ects. 1 0 , 1 6. M igne. Pa tro log iae L a t inae v o l. 2 12 p p. 7 65-6 ). 1 0

( i n J . P .

' De inde Max im ianus Augustus , c oaduna to e xerc itu , p erm isto t a rnen

f ide l ium e t i n f ide l iu m c o itu , f est inus A lp iu m j uga t ransgred iens , G a l l iae a pp rop inquaba t , s o loque a dven tu s uo Amando e t A e l iando d uc ibus t u mu ltus memora t i p er terr it is , s ed it ion is i l l ius t e mpesta te m p er t inac iter e xc ita te m , f ac ile s ine s u i e xerc itus d a mno s edeba t . Co mper to v ero q uod Caraus ius q u ida m n ob i l is , i ns id ias c on tra Ro man i f i nes i mper i i mo l iretur . Qu i t a rnen p rocura tor c ons t itu tus e ra t p rov inc iae , q uae e s t i ux ta O ceanum , u b i Franc i, i am s ecundo s ed ibus s u is e xpu ls i , i ux ta G a l loru m e t S axonu m c on f in ia c onsederun t , m is it i l luc p er Rhen i f l um in is a lveu m p ar te m s u i e xerc itus , c u ius m i l ita .re v ir t-u te n efar ius c assaretur i ncep tus 1 6 ..Tandem o p ta t is l ocup leta t i s po l i is , c um e xerc itu r e l iquo , q u ia C araus ius i l le f ug iens , s ese i n Br itann ia m t ranstu l it , p er v ia m q ua v eneran t , l aet i p ro s ce lere r egress i s un t . Eode m v ero t e mpore d e Maur itan ia , q uae e st p ars A fr icae , f i n it im isque r eg ion ibus , m i l ites a b i mperatore p rop ter f requen tes G a l loru m t u mu l tus e voca t i , i n G a l l iam v enerun t . CO MMENTARY a )

P an . Max . D iet .

T h is i s a ddressed t o Max im ian i n p erson a t t he o u tset o f h is n ava l e xped i t ion i n t he s pr ing o f 2 89. 1 I th as g enera l ly b een a ssumed t ha t w henever e xac t ly Caraus ius u surped , 2 86 o r 2 87 , a l l t he t ime f ro m t hen o n d own t o 2 89 was n eeded b y Max im ian f or t he b u i ld ing o f t h is f l ee t t o u se a ga ins t h i m. Caraus ius h ad t aken t he c hanne l f l eet s o Max im ian d id i ndeed h ave t o a sse mb le s o meth ing c o mp lete ly n ew , b u t t hroughou t Ro man h is tory f ro m t he t ime o f t he P un ic Wars o n , f l eets h ad b een b u il t i n t imes o f n ecess ity , i n much l ess t han t hree y ears. I n a ny c ase t he p anegyr ic i t se lf s ays ( ch . x i i ) " Toto f ere a nno.. ." was t he t ime t aken n ot o nly t o b u ild t he s h ips b u t a lso .. " u t n ava l ia t exeretur". " H ie ms i psa t e mper ie m v er is i m ita ta e st" must r e fer t o t he w in ter o f 2 88/89 , i mmed iate ly p reced ing t he p anegyr ic , s o Max im ian mus t h ave c ommenced t hese p repara t ions s o met i me e ar ly i n 2 88. v ery l east r eckon ing a f u l l y ear a f ter Caraus ius ' u surpa t ion .

T h is i s a t t he Max im ian

c lear ly r egarded t ha t u surpa t ion a s as er ious ma t ter s o t he f act t ha t h e d id n ot s e t s a i l a ga inst h im u n t i l t he s pr ing o f 2 89 a l though i th ad o n ly t aken h im ay ear t o g et h is f l eet r eady l eaves a t l east a who le y ear t o b e e xp la ined away . Caraus ius ' c hanne l c o m mand h ad b een b ased o n Bou logne , t he i dea l f l eet b ase f or n ava l o pera t ions i n t he c hanne l a nd Nor th S ea.

Max im ian s et o f f

a ga ins t h im f ro m T reves , many h undreds o f m i les f ro m t he s ea a nd o n t he f ace o f i t , i n n o w ay s u itab le f or l aunch ing a n ava l a t tack o n Br ita in. Ch lorus d id n o t c hoose t o u se i tf or e i ther d iv is ion o fh is f l eet i n 2 96. I tw as Max im ian 's h eadquar ters b u t t ha t h ard ly s ee ms s u f f ic ien t j ust if ica t ion . i f Caraus ius

Even

h ad d evas ta ted t he h arbour i ns ta l la t ions a t Bou logne b efore h e

l e f t , a s Max im ian h ad t o b u i ld n ava l ia f ro m s cra tch a nyway t hen B ou logne w ou ld s t il l h ave b een a much b et ter p lace f ro m wh ich t o o pera te. n o t d o s o s ugges ts t ha t i t was n o t i n h is p ower .

T ha t h e d id

Ch lorus r ecovered Bou logne

i n 2 93 b u t i ti s n o t c er ta in f or h ow l ong b efore t ha t d a te i th ad b een i n

3

C araus ius ' c on tro l.

N um is ma t ic e v idence s ugges ts s trong ly t hat t here was

o n ly a v ery l im ited o ccupa t ion a nd i ti s s carce ly c o mpat ib le w ith Bou logne a nd i t s e nv irons h av ing b een i n Caraus ius ' h ands t hroughou t t he p er iod o f h is u surpat ion . T he t enor o f t he h is tor ica l s ources i s t hat C araus ius s pec if ica l ly c rossed t o Br ita in a nd t ook t he f l eet w ith h i m.

T he s ea t o f t he u surpa t ion

w ou ld n atura lly b e t he s ub ject o f most o f t he a t ten t ion o f s uch s ources b u t i t wou ld s ure ly n o t h ave g one u n men t ioned h ad Caraus ius ma in ta ined a G a l l ic f oo tho ld t hroughou t . The p assage " .... M il ites v es tr i a d Oceanum p ervenere v ictor ia , j am c aesoru m i n i l lo l i tore h os t ium s angu ine m r ec iproc i f l uctus s orbuerun t" c ou ld p oss ib ly r e fer t o c lashes b etween Max im ians ' t roops a nd Caraus ius ' s uppor ters h o ld ing t he G a l l ic c oasta l t err itory f or h im b u t t he o ther s ources s ee m a t p a ins t o p o in t o u t t ha t h e t ook a l l h is v ar ied f orms o f s uppor t away o ver t o Br ita in w ith h i m. I n a ny c ase i ti s n o t i nheren t ly l ike ly t ha t t he n a t ive p opu la t ion wou ld h ave r isen i n h is s uppor t i n s uch a way , e sp ec ia l ly i ft hey w ere n ot g et t ing f ro m h im t he p ro tec t ion f rom p iracy t ha t t hey e xpected .

T he l anguage i s v ague a t t h is p o in t a nd t he h ostes n eed h ave n o

p ar t icu lar c onnec t ion w ith Caraus ius. Max im ian w as n o t w ithou t g enera l o pp os i t ion i n t he Wes t . The Bagaudae h ad o n ly r ecen t ly b een p u t d own a nd G au l g enera l ly h ad b een s o meth ing o f as ea t o f d isaf fect ion f or s ome t ime. I ti s d i f f icu lt t o s ee why Max im ian d id n o tu se Bou logne a s h is f l ee t b ase u nl ess i tw as h e ld a ga ins t h im , y et t here i s n o e v idence t o s how t ha t C araus ius h e ld i ta t t h is t ime , a nd s o me t ha t h e d id n o t . P resu mab ly h e f aced o ppos it ion f ro m h ostes who f ormed , f ro m Caraus ius ' p o in t o f v iew , a mos t u sefu l b u f fer w ithout n ecessar ily b e ing a l l ies. T he f l or id l anguage o f t he p anegyr ic d oes n ot h e lp t he i n terpreta t ion o f s tr ic t v erac ity . The b eg inn ing o f c hapter X I I s ounds l ike a n e xaggera ted e xp ress ion o f Caraus ius ' h e lp less f ear b u t c ou ld i tr ea l ly c on ta in a ny i nd ica t ion o f t he move men ts o f Max im ians i t roops?

" ...cum f retu rn i l lud q uo s o lo

mor te m s uam h ucusque r e mora tus e s t p aene e xerc itus v estros v idea t i ngressos o b l itosque n av ium r efugum mare s ecu tos e ase...." p laces g rea t emphas is o n t he c hanne l a s t he o n ly b arr ier b e tween C araus ius a nd a Max im ian b en t o n t he e xac t ion o f r etr ibu t ion a nd t ha t t h is i s n ow a bout t o b e c rossed b y af l ee t s eeki ng t o b a it Caraus ius i n h is l a ir .

As t he f l eet i s i n f act d epar t ing f rom T reves ,

many m i les away f ro m t he c hanne l , i ts ee ms t o b e ac ons iderab le e xaggera t ion t o t a lk o f a l most h av ing e n tered t ha t s tra i t. Exaggera t ion i s t o b e e xpec ted i n r e ferences t o , " pu lcherr i mae

p anegyr ics a nd t h is i s n o e xcep t ion . T he

c lasses...." a nd " cunct is s imu l amn ibus" c an

h ard ly mean t hat Max im ian w as f i t t ing o u t f l eets o n a l l r ivers o f G au l .

T he

Mosel le , ' F luv ius h ic n oster ... i s where t he a c t ion r ea l ly i s , w ith t he e xaggerat i on s i mp ly f or e f fec t. Imprec is ion i s a nother p rob le m i n u s ing t he p anegyr ics a s h is tor ica l s ources a s i ti s o f ten d i f f icu l t t o k now h ow f ar t o a ccep t aw ord a t f ace v a lue.

Nava l ia i s ar ather p rec ise n ava l t erm w h ich s ugges ts r ather

more t han mere g enera l isa t ion f or t he n au t ica l s ec t ion o f t he n arra t ive.

T here

i s b y n o means a d eta i led a ccoun t o f t he c ons truct ion o f t he s h ips b u t , p erhaps , l iburnas ' may b e t aken a s r a ther more p rec ise t han a mere s ynonym f or n aves. T he t ype o f s h ip u sed o ugh t t o h ave d irect b ear ing o n t he s or t o f e xped it ion b e ing u nder taken .

Tha t t he p anegyr ic r efers t o l i burn ians , t here fore , i s o f

4

i mpor tance. I n more d irec t ly h is tor ica l c on tex ts t h is w ord i s w e l l e nough a t tes ted ,and i n ap rec ise manner . 2 Descr ip t ions o f L iburn ians a re g iven b y Casson 3 a nd S tarr .4 T he ir e ssen t ia l q ua l it ies s ee m t o h ave b een l igh tness a nd s w if tness.

C asson 5 c a l ls t he m ' d es troyerl ike '.

T hese w ere i dea l s h ips

f or p rov inc ia l f l eets c oncerned w ith p ira te c on tro l r a ther t han ma jor n ava l e ngage men ts a nd w ou ld b e s u ited t o ab ase u p r iver s uch a s T reves b ecause o f t he ir l im ited s ize a nd d raugh t . S tarr c o mmen ts ,6 ' t he r iver v esse ls o n T ra jan 's c o lumn w ith t he ir t wo v er t ica l ly d is t inct r ows o f o ars a re p robab ly t o b e c ons idered L iburn ians.' I ti s o f c ourse a moo t p o in t e xact ly wha t s or t o f s h ips made u p C araus ius ' f l eet . I tt oo h ad b een i n tended f or p ira te c on tro l p r i mar ily , a lbe it o n al arge s ca le , a nd n o t f or ma jor s ea b a t t les. Even s o i t h ad b een b ased o n as ea p or t a nd a l mos t c er ta in ly c on ta ined s ome s h ips c ap ab le o f c onf l ict a t s ea . I ti s v ery d if icu l t t o i mag ine , h owever , t ha t Max im ian c ou ld h ave s e t o f f w ith s uch s h ips a s h is f ro m T reves w ith a ny t hough t o f as ea b a t t le i n m ind , e ven a l low ing a more l i bera l i n terpre ta t ion o f l iburnas '. 7

I n a ny c ase Max im ian w as a s o ld ier w ho w ou ld s ure ly h ave

k nown b et ter t han t o t ack le C araus ius o n h is own e le men t a nd s o h e mus t h ave b een h op ing t o e vade r a ther t han e ngage h is o pponen ts s h ips a nd efec t al andi ng . T h is w as wha t p roved t o b e s o s uccessfu l i n 2 96. On t ha t b as is , h owe ver , t he who le s che me s ee ms p ar t icu lar ly i l l c once ived .

T he l ong a nd c ir-

c u itous r ou te f rom T reves t o al and fa l l i n Br ita in w ou ld g ive Caraus ius amp le o ppor tun ity w ith e ven t he mos t r ud i men tary i n te l l igence s erv ice t o b e f u l ly p repared a nd o n h is g uard a tj us t t he r igh t mo men t. T h is p anegyr ic i s p ar t icu lar ly f rus tra t ing , t hen , a s ah is tor ica l s ource. As i th as n o s eque l t he i n tens ions must b e i n terpreted f ro m t h is e f fus ive , e n thus iast ic w ork w ith t he ir e ven tua l f a i lure a s t he o n ly t h ing t o b e i n ferred f or c er ta in . I t r e ma ins p oss ib le t ha t t he w ho le l eve l o f t he p anegyr ic i s e xa ggerated a nd , t here fore , t ransforms a t r ip d own r iver t o p ursue o pera t ions i n t he g enera l a rea i n w h ich Max im ian w as c a mpa ign ing a l i t t le e ar l ier , i n to a n e xped it ion t o r ecover Br ita in .

Even f or a p anegyr ic , h owever , t ha t w ou ld

b e ac ons iderab le e xaggera t ion a nd t he t o ta l f a i lure s o e loquen t ly a t tested b y t he s ubsequen t s i lence i s u n l ike ly t o h ave b een me t w ith i n m inor mopp ing u p o pera t ions . Max im ian .

I ti s p oss ib le t ha t C araus ius i n f l ic ted a ma jor d efea t o n H e o ugh t t o h ave b een s u f f ic ien t ly f orewarned t o h ave b een a b le t o

d o t ha t a s s oon a s h e e n tered o pen s ea. I ti s a lso p oss ib le t ha t t he e xped it ion , l i ke o thers b efore a nd a f ter i t , c a me t o g r ief b ecause o f t he w ea ther . Tha t t h is i s h in ted a t i n as ubsequen t p anegyr ic i s n o p ar t icu lar p roof o f t h is a s i t c ou ld j us t a s e as i ly b e a n o f ic ia l e xcuse f or a d efea t . Wha tever h appened i t i s n ow n o l onger p oss ib le t o b e c er ta in o f a ny th ing s ave t ha t Caraus ius c lear ly c ame t hrough u nsca thed whereas Max im ian s u f fered a r eversa l. I ncer t . P an . C ons tan t io C aes. d ict . Th is p anegyr ic w as d el ivered o n t he f i rs t o f March , 2 97 f o l low ing t he r ec overy o f Br i ta in i s t he p rev ious y ear , b y Constan t ius a nd h is s ubord ina tes. T he t ime c hosen f or d e l ivery s ee ms t o h ave b een t he a nn iversary o f C ons tan t ius ' e leva t ion t o t he r ank o f Caesar i n 2 93. I ti s a n a ccoun t o f e ven ts s uccess fu l ly a cco mp l ished , g iven a f ter t he e ven t a nd t hus d i f feren t f rom t he 2 89 p anegyr ic t o Max im ian .

5

' S ta t im i t aque G a l l ias t uas , C aesar , v en iendo f ec is t i '. Ex tens ive c a mp a igns i n G au l a re n ot men t ioned . C onstan t ius h ad b een i nvo lved i n c ampa igni ng t here b efore h is of ic ia l e leva t ion t o t he p os it ion f or wh ich h e w as c lear ly a lready d es igna te , a nd u pon h is e leva t ion t he r ecovery f o l lowed s w if t ly . A l l t ha t s ee ms t o h ave s tood a ga inst h im w as B ou logne , t he o ne o u tpos t o f Caraus ius ' s treng th b eyond h is own s hores. T here i s n o i nd ica t ion t ha t h e e ver h e ld v ery much more t han t h is sma l l t err itory . o h m man if ret is

a de m it O ceanu m '.

T h is r efers t o t he p lan

whereby C araus ius ' men w ere b lockaded i n B ou logne b oth b y l and a nd s ea ; a nd t aken i n c on junct ion w ith , ' p or tu m i l lu m , q u i p ira tae , n e s u is o pe m f erret , o cc lusus f u isset , ... 1 s uggests t ha t t h is w as a s much t o k eep r e in force men ts o u t a s t o k eep t hose b es ieged w ith in . T he b lockade c ons truc ted t o a ch ieve t h is , a s d escr ibed h ere , c annot h ave b een t he w ork o f ad ay o r t wo b u t mus t , e ven a l low ing , a s e ver , f or r hetor ica l e xaggera t ion , h ave t aken a c ons iderab le t ime. T he p anegyr ic i t se lf s ays , ' t ot d ie r um a c n oct ium...'

D escr ip t ive

d eta ils a re k ep t t o am in i mu m a nd much i s l e f t t o t he i mag inat ion ' omne m i l iu m s inu m p or tus , q ue m s ta t is v ic ibus a es tus a l terna t , d e f ix is i n a d itu t rad ibus i ngest isque s ax is i nv iu m n av ibus r ed id is t i.'

T h is d oes n o t a ppear t o

h ave b een i n tended a s as o l id b arr ier , a f ter t he f ash ion o f ab reakwa ter .

T he

p urpose was t he p reven t ion o f s h ips f ro m p ass ing t hrough , n o t w a ter . B eams must t herefore , h ave b een embedded i n t he s ha l lows a t l ow t i de a nd b ou lders p laced among t he m i n s uch a w ay t ha t t he momen t o f t he w a ter w as n ot g rea t ly i mpeded , n or t he b ou lders t he mse lves r o l led away . T he w a ter c lear ly mus t h ave p assed t hrough t h is c ons truc t ion o r e lse i tw ou ld h ave e ven tua l ly r isen o ver o r r ound i ta s i tf l owed d own s tream. 8

Wha tever t he e xac t d e ta ils t he

p urpose w as c lear e nough a nd i ts ee ms t o h ave w orked . T he p anegyr ic p rov ides b u t l i t t le e v idence c oncern ing t he a c tua l f a l l o f Boulogne ; i t s c oncern i s r a ther f or d rama t ic e f fec t a nd h yperbo le .. c um , s ta t im a tque o bs id ione m n ecess itas e t c lemen t iae v es trae f i des s o lvera t , e ade m c laustra q u i p r i mus i ncubu it a estus.... "Necess itas ' i mp l ies a l ong s iege a nd ' c le men t iae v es trae f i des ' s ugges ts t ha t C ons tan t ius o f fered t he b es ieged r easonab le t erms i n o rder t o b r ing t h ings t o ac onc lus ion. w as C araus ius?

' n e s u is o pe m f erre t ...

9

Where

r efers t o t he h e lp t ha t t hose b e-

s ieged i n B ou logne e xpec ted f rom o ver t he c hanne l , b u t i td oes n o t s ee m t o h ave e ver ma ter ia l ised .

C ons tan t ius mus t h ave s een i ta s ar ea l d anger , h owever ,

o therw ise h is mo le n eed n ot h ave b een s o g rand . H e w ou ld , p resu mab ly , h ave b een a b le t o e f fec t ac ap itu la t ion b y r easonab le t erms much s ooner h ad h is e ne my n o t h e ld o u t i n it ia l ly a t l eas t , i n h ope o f s uccour .. n is i a ed if ic and is n av ibus d ar t e mpus r e i n ecess itudo s uas isse t ...

s hows t ha t C ons tan t ius

h ad n o f l ee t t o s peak o f s o t ha t c lear ly c ou ld n o t b e wha t h e ld C araus ius away . Had i td one s o t hen t he p anegyr ic w ou ld c er ta in ly n o t h ave om i t ted i tf ro m i t s e u logy o f C onstan t ius ' g rea t d eeds , b u t s uch a f l ee t w ou ld h ave i n a ny c ase , o bv ia ted t he n ecess ity f or t he mo le. ' Gesor iacens ibus mur is... w as where t he ma in a c t ion t ook p lace : Cons tan t ius was l ead ing a n a rmy a ga ins t at own . T he s i lence o f t he p anegyr ic o n t he p o in t s hows t ha t n o a t te mp ts t o r e l ieve B ou logne b y l and h ad t o b e b eaten o f f . C araus ius ' s uppor t i n G au l w as a l l w ith in B ou logne a nd h e d oes n ot s ee m t o h ave made a ny a t te mp t t o c ross a nd l and t roops t o r a ise t he b lockade. Rouen , t he s upposed s i te o f o ne o f h is m in ts , d oes n o t f i gure a t a l l i n t hese 6

e ven ts a s t hey a re r ela ted i n t he p anegyr ic.

Caraus ius d oes n o t s ee m t o h ave

b een p repared f or t h is c on t ingency a nd when i tc a me , h is g r ip o n t he a f fa irs o f s ta te i n Br ita in s ee ms t o h ave b een q u ick ly e roded u n t i l A l lectus r ep laced h i m. Caraus ius w as , i fn ot t he o n ly p rob le m t ha t Max im ian h ad f aced i n t he West , t hen c er ta in ly o ne o f t he more i mpor tan t o nes. H e g oes b eyond t he t ru th f or t he s ake o f p ropaganda w ith h is AUGGG c o ins a nd t he ' f ra terna l ' i ssues , s ugges t ing o pen a nd f u l l r ecogn it ion o f h is e qua l ity h ad b een f or thc om ing f rom t he o ther t wo f ra tres , b u t i ts ee ms p robab le t ha t a f ter 2 89 h e w as l e f t a lone a nd u nprovoked s o t ha t o ther p rob le ms c ou ld f i rst b e s o lved . T h is may h ave b een w hy Cons tan t ius ' of ic ia l e leva t ion t o t he s tatus o f a Caesar w as d e layed u n t il h e was r eady t o s tr ike a d irect b low a t C araus ius ' p ower , r a ther t han d estroy h is i l lus ion b efore b e ing i n ap os it ion t o d ea l w ith h i m.

I ti s a lso p oss ib le , t hough a l i t t le r e markab le , t ha t n o s h ips w ere b u il t

b etween 2 89-293 f or t he s a me r eason , f or s uch a p o l icy w ou ld h ave b een a v ery c lear i mp l ic it r ecogn it ion o f Caraus ius ' r igh t t o b e l e f t i n p eace , t he p ax h e s o e n thus iast ica l ly p ro mo ted a s t he w a tchword o f h is r eg i me. T here w as amp le t ime f or s h ips t o h ave b een g ot r eady t o s uppor t C onstan t ius ' a ssau lt o n Bou logne , b ut t here w ere n one.

Caraus ius s ee ms t o h ave b een s uccessfu l ly

h u moured u n t i l t he t ime was r ipe.

T he c o mpara t ive e ase w ith wh ich A l lectus

s ee ms t o h ave b een a b le t o s ucceed C araus ius , t he f ac t t ha t h e s urv ived f or t hree more y ears a nd was a b le t o moun t ar es is tance t o t he i nvas ion when i t c ame , s ugges t s trong ly t ha t Caraus ius ' p o l ic ies o f f ratern isa t ion w ere n ot w i tho u t t he ir o pponen ts. A t t he v ery l east t hey w ere n o t g rea t ly v a lued b y t hose who ma t tered i n t he Br it ish h ierarchy . I t s ee ms a t a me e nd f or Caraus ius t ha t h e s hou ld h ave b een d uped b y Max im ian a nd Constan t ius , t hen d iscred ited a nd d efeated a nd f ina l ly , d esp ite t he r enounce men t o f h is e rstwh i le b ro thers t o wh ich h is l ast i ssue o f c o ins b ears w itness , r ep laced b y A l lectus ; y et t here i s ac ase t o b e made e ven f ro m t h is l im ited e v idence t ha t i tw as s o. T he med iaeva l a ccoun ts p reserve o r p ro mo te a s trand o f t he s tory i n wh ich A l lec tus w as i n s o me way a c t ing , i n it ia l ly , f or t he c en tra l p owers b u t whe ther o r n o t h e w as a p ar ty t o a ny d ecep t ion o f C araus ius a t t he ir i nst iga t ion b efore 2 93 mus t r ema in i n t he r ea l ms o f s pecu la t ion . T he p anegyr ic p rov ides a n a ccoun t o f Caraus ius ' u surpa t ion a nd g ives s o me f ac ts a bou t t he s uppor t o n w h ich h e d epended. T h is i s d one i n ag enera l w ay , h owever , w ith n o t hough t f or d e ta i l o r h is tor ica l v erac ity . Caraus ius , i nev it ab ly , i s v i l if ied , ' n efar io l a troc in io g enera l p icture c o mes t hrough.

"fug ien te p ira ta ...' b u t s ome s or t o f

T he ' c lasse q uae o h m G a l l ias t uebatur ' w as

p resumab ly t he c hanne l f l ee t o f wh ich C araus ius h ad b een g iven t he c ommand i n t he s trugg le a ga ins t t he p ira tes. The e xact n ature o f t h is f l ee t i s u ncer ta in . T he l a tes t r e ference t o t he o ld C lass is Br itann ica d a tes t o much e ar l ier i n t he t h ird c en tury . 1° T here mus t h ave b een s uch a f l ee t t hroughou t t he c entury , h owever r un d own i t may h ave b eco me , f or Br ita in w as n o t c u t o f f f ro m t he c on t inen t a nd t h is mean t t ha t t ranspor t b y s ea was n ecessary .1

I t i s p re-

s u mab ly b ecause o f t he t hrea t i nheren t i n s uch a f l eet , e spec ia l ly when e nl arged a s i ta l mos t c er ta in ly was f or Caraus ius ' c o m mand a ga ins t t he p ira tes , t ha t t h er e d oes n o t a ppear t o h ave b een a c hass is o f a ny g rea t s ize b ased i n t he c hanne l a f ter t he 2 96 r ecovery .

7

I...aed if ica t is p rae terea p lur im is i n n os tru m modum n av ibus '. T h is may b e l i t t le o ther t han i n ference a nd e xaggerat ion , t o t he e nd t ha t C onstan t ius ' s uccess o r r a ther Max im ians ' f a i lure may b e s een i n a more f avourab le l i gh t . Caraus ius t ook a l l t he s h ips i n t ha t c orner o f t he emp ire , s o i mmed ia te s eab orne r epr isa ls w ere i mposs ib le. H e k new t hey wou ld a l most c er ta in ly c o me h owever , s o i ti s r easonab le t o a ssu me h e e n larged h is f l ee t , a nd t ha t t he s h ips h e b u il t w ere i n t he s a me s ty le a s t hose h e a lready h ad.

T here i s n o th ing

t o s uggest h e was c oncerned t o b u i ld s h ips f or u se i n o ther wa ters a round h is d o ma in s uch a s t he I r ish S ea. ' . ..occupa ta l eg ione Ro mana....' T h is mus t r efer t o t roops i n Br ita in . I ti s o bv ious t hat C araus ius must h ave h ad t he ir s uppor t o r h is r eg i me w ou ld h ave b een u n tenab le.

He must h ave h ad t he s uppor t n o t o f o ne l eg ion o n ly ,

h owever , b u t o f a l l t he t roops i n t he p rov inces. T h is u se o f l eg io i s p robab ly b est s een a s ag enera l n ame f or a b ody o f Ro man t roops a ssoc ia ted w ith a g iven a rea .

I t c ou ld r efer t o t he b ody o f t roops a l lo t ted t o h im f or h is i n it ia l c o m-

mand , t o wh ich t he l eg ionary c o ins b ear w itness. men ts c ou ld w el l h ave b een c a l led a l eg io ;

T h is c o l lec t ion o f d etach-

b u t t he t one o f t he p assage s trong ly

s uggests t ha t t hose w on o ver h ere w ere o ver a nd a bove a ny who h ad a lready b een i n h is s erv ice. I ft h is d oes r efer t o t he t roops i n Br ita in i n g enera l , i t imp l ies t ha t Caraus ius met w ith l i t t le o r n o o ppos it ion . T h is r uns c oun ter t o t he med iaeva l a ccoun ts b u t s ee ms more r e l iab le o n t he p o in t . ' . ..in terc lus is a l iquo t p eregr inoru m m i l itu m c une is '. T h is i s e ven l ess p rec ise t han t he l as t a nd a l mos t s uggests t ha t t he who le p assage i s l i t t le more t han f ormu la ic , a pp l ied t o t he c urren t c ircu ms tances , w ith s quadrons o f a uxi l iary t roops a n i nev itab le a d junc t t o t he l eg ionar ies. Wha t i s mean t b y ' i n terc lus is '? I fi tr efers s i mp ly t o t he f act t ha t t here w ere a ux i l iary t roops i n Br ita in when Caraus ius u surped a nd t hat b y d o ing s o h e r endered t he m ' i nt erc lus i ', t hen i ti s s imp ly a s ta te men t o f t he o bv ious a t b es t . I fi tr efers t o a ct iv ity o n t he G a l l ic c oas t t hen i t wou ld b e more s ign if ican t a s a n i nd ica t ion o f t he e x ten t o f C araus ius ' s phere o f i nf luence i n t hese e ar ly d ays. T here i s , h owever , n oth ing f ur ther t o s uggest t ha t i td oes , s o t he f ormer a l terna t ive mus t b e a ssu med. c on trac t is a d d i lectu m merca tor ibus G a l l ican is '.

F rom t he t ime o f

h is f i rs t a ppo intmen t a s c om mander o f t he f l eet Caraus ius must h ave h ad c on tacts w ith G a l l ic merchan ts. They w i l l h ave s een h im a nd h is men a s a p oten t ia l s ource o f g rea t i nco me. When Caraus ius u surped , h owever , i t wou ld h ave b een t oo r isky t o h ave c arr ied o n a ny c o mmerce w ith h im a cross t he c hanne l , s o t h is c an o n ly mean t ha t s o me o f t hese men w ere p repared t o g o o ver a nd c hance t he ir f or tunes w ith h im i n Br ita in .

T hey c anno t h ave b een

v ery many a nd a re p resu mab ly i nc luded i n t he p anegyr ic f or v ar iety a nd t he g enera l e f fec t o f i ncreas ing t he s ize o f t he p rob le m t o b e o verco me. ,. .so l l ic ita t is

b arbaroru m '.

p er s po l ia i psaru m p rov inc iarum , n on med iocr ibus c op i is

T he p anegyr ic p ar t icu lar ly emphas ises a nd e xaggera tes t he

p ar tp layed b y s uch t roops i n t he a rm ies o f t he u surpers.

As f ar a s p oss ib le ,

t hough n ot e n t ire ly ( occupa ta l eg ione Ro mana ) Ro man f orces a re a bso lved f rom d irect i nvo lve men t.

T h is b eco mes p ar t icu lar ly a pparen t i n t he d escr ip-

t i on o f t he f ina l b a t t le f ro m wh ich a l l b u t A l lectus ' mercenar ies a re s p ir ited away .

T he r ecru itmen t o f mercenar ies a s s uch w as n ot a Ro man p rac t ise. 1 2

8

Th is d oes n ot mean t ha t t roops f ro m b eyond t he f ron t ier w ere n ot r ecru ited i nto t he Ro man a rm ies.

C araus ius h i mself i s t he o bv ious e xamp le o f t ha t .

They w ere r ecru ited a nd t ra ined t o b eco me i n tegra ted w ith t he Imper ia l a rmy s yste m a nd d id n o t f orm p r ivate a rm ies o f t he ir own ' on h ire ' t o a n emperor . Caraus ius h ad r isen t hrough s uch a s ystem a nd j ust a s t he s h ips h e w ou ld b u i ld w ou ld b e b ased o n t hose c urren t ly i n u se i n t he Ro man f l ee t , s o s ure ly t he o rgan isa t ion a nd r ecru it men t o f h is a rm ies w ou ld b e b ased o n wha t h e was u sed t o . T he p urpose o f t he p anegyr ic i n s ay ing t h is i s c lear ly t o h e igh ten t he t one o f c onde mna t ion ; t o s how t he d efea ted e ne my i n t he w ors t p oss ib le l i ght . T he c on tras t b etween ' spo l ia i psaru m p rov inc iaru m t a nd ' n on med iocr ibus b arbaroru m ? i s p ar t icu lar ly s trong i n t h is r espect , a l though i f Caraus ius d id b u i ld u p as tore o f w ea l th i n t he f orm o f c on f isca ted p ira te b oo ty ; h ave s een t h is a s an ecessary p re-requ is ite f or u surpa t ion ;

a nd h e must

t here i s s o me

measure o f t ru th i n t h is. T he p anegyr ic t hen g oes o n t o make w ha t i s u sua l ly t aken a s av e iled a ll us ion t o Max im ians ' n ava l e xped it ion i n 2 89. I ti s v ery c oncerned t o a vo id impu t ing a ny c red it t o C araus ius a nd , s t i l l more , a ny b la me t o Max im ian. T he w ea ther i s made t o t ake t he b la me a nd e ven t h is i s b y n o means c lear ly e nough e xpressed f or i tt o b e c er ta in t ha t t here i s ar eference t o t he 2 89 a ff a ir . I t was o bv ious ly a v ery d e l ica te s ub ject . T he p anegyr ic d oes g o s o f ar a s t o s ay , ' h is omn ibus a d man ia n au t ica f l ag it i i i l l ius a uc toru m mag is ter io e rud it io ' wh ich makes t he p o in t t ha t h owever f e l ic itous t he e le men ts may h ave b een i n t he e ven t , Caraus ius was n ot c on ten t s imp ly t o t rus t t o t he m b u t s aw t o i tt ha t h is f o l lowers b eca me a n e f f ic ien t mar it i me f orce. T h is i s a s n ear a s t he p anegyr ic e ver c o mes t o t he more d irect s ta temen ts o f t he h istor ians c onc ern ing Caraus ius ' s k i l ls i n n ava l war fare. T he p anegyr ic , a s w el l a s a vo id ing d irec t men t ion o f t he 2 89 a f fa ir i n p art i cu lar , i s g enera l ly v ague c oncern ing t he l eng th o f t ime C araus ius w as a b le t o s urv ive u nchecked . G reat c are w as t aken t o f l a t ter t he i mper ia l m igh t , ' exerc it ibus a u te m v es tr is l i ce t i nv ic t is v ir tu te ' b u t t hese s o ld iers , h owever b rave , h ad t he e xcuse t ha t t hey w ere n ot s a i lors , ' i n r e mar it i ma n ov is t. H ere , b y i mp l ica t ion , C araus ius ' men h ad a c lear a dvan tage a s t he ma jor ity w ere i n r e mar it i ma p er it i wh ile t he r est , t he n ew r ecru its , h ad t he b enef it o f h is t ra in ing a nd l eadersh ip .

T h is i s made t he p r i me e xcuse a s t o w hy

C araus ius was t aken s o s er ious ly a t a l l.

G a l let ier 1 3

s ee ms w or th q uo t ing

h ere , ' nous s ü mes q ue l e p lus m iserab le d es a c tes d e p ira ter ie a va it p r is l es p ropor t ions d 'une g uerre p er i leuse e t g igan tesque ' a s h is t ransla t ion n icely c ap tures t he d icho to my o f t he p anegyr ic a s i ts eeks t o a ch ieve a b a lance b etween b el it t l ing t he u surpers a nd e x to l l ing t he v ir tue o f d efea t ing t he m. C araus ius , f or a l l t ha t may , i ndeed mus t , i n c on tex t o f ap anegyr ic , b e s a id a ga inst h im , h as s t il l , s o mehow , t o r e ma in s trong e nough t o h ave d ef ied t he m igh t o f Max im ian a nd t o h ave e stab l ished a n i ndependen t r eg i me wh ich l asted t en y ears. T he l og ica l p rogress ion s ee ms p ar t icu lar ly w eak a round t he i ssue o f t he i nc le men t w ea ther. P erhaps t h is h as l ed t o a n u ncr it ica l a ssump t ion t ha t t h is mus t b e ar eference t o Max im ians ' e xped it ion o f 2 89. 1 4

Ac loser e xam ina t ion

o f t he L a t in s ugges ts t ha t t he a f fa irs o f 2 89 a re n o t b e ing r eferred t o a t t h is p o in t .

' D iuturna s ce ler is i mpun itas ' i s n o t p rec ise b ut w ou ld l ose much o f

i t s p o in t i fi t s a pp l ica t ion w ere t o b e r estr icted t o t he y ears d own t o a nd i nc lud ing 2 89.

i adeo u t j am c o m mun ia p oenae t imore d epos ito a rch ip ira ta m 9

s a te l les o cc ideret ', s trong ly s uggests a s equence o f e ven ts t i ed u p w ith t he r ep lace men t o f C araus ius b y A l lectus.

I t may s ee m o u t o f p lace t o q u ibb le

o ver s uch a n arrow d a t ing s equence i n d ea l ing w ith s uch u nre l iab le mater ia l a s t h is b ut 2 93 s ee ms c lear ly a b e t ter c on tex t h ere t han 2 89. Wha t i s p erh aps t he k ey w ord i s ' v es tra m '. I n ap anegyr ic d irected s pec if ica l ly t o C ons tan t ius t h is mus t r efer t o h is v ictory r a ther t han t o a ny th ing o f Max im ian 's. T h is d oes n ot a ppear o u t o f t he b lue ,as C onstan t ius ' e xp lo its a t Bou logne h ave b een d escr ibed . I ft h is g rea t d eed , a ch ieved s o s oon a f ter h is e leva t ion t o t he r ank o f Caesar , i s r egarded a s t he ' v ic tor ia m v es tra m ' , t hen t he r es t f a l ls i n to p lace more e as i ly .

T he 2 89 a f fa ir w as l i t t le e nough t o d o w ith

Constan t ius a nd c ou ld i n n o w ay b r ing h im c red it . g e ther f ro m a v ictory p anegyr ic t o h i m,

I tw as b est l e f t o u t a l to-

I t , r a ther , s ee ms t o h ave b een f e l t

n ecessary t o a ccoun t f or t he d e lay b e tween C ons tan t ius ' v ic tory i n 2 93, a nd t ha t i n 2 96. ' cons i l io i n term issu m e sse b e l lum ' c ou ld o n t he f ace o f i tr e fer t o e i ther 2 89 o r 2 93 b u t i n t h is p ar t icu lar p anegyr ic t he n eed t o e xp la in why Cons tan t ius d id n o t f o l low u p h is v ictory a t Bou logne b y s weep ing C araus ius away a l toge ther i s o bv ious ly much g rea ter.

T he v e loc itas whereby t he p ane-

g yr ic s weeps t hrough f ro m t he a ct o f u surpa t ion t o C araus ius ' d ea th i n o ne c hap ter , m igh t s ee m t o m i l ita te a ga inst t h is , b ut t h is may b e e xp la ined b y t he wr iter 's d es ire t o make t he u surpa t ion s ee m a s s hor t a s p oss ib le. I tw as n ot h is t ask t o dwe l l u pon t he d urab il ity o f ah ost i le r eg i me b u t o n t he way i t w as b rough t t o ah a l t . Chap ter t h ir teen h astens o n t o e xpound t he c ons i l iu m whereby t he w ar a ga inst Caraus ius w as t e mporar i ly d ropped. c ope w ith i n G au l , p ro tec t ing h is f l anks.

Constan t ius h ad p rob le ms t o

Max im ian i s i n troduced i n to t he

n arra t ive a t t h is p o in t i n s uch a w ay a s t o r ender i te ven l ess l i ke ly t ha t t he ' v ictor ian v es tra m ' c ou ld i n a ny w ay b e h is. Even ts a re g iven s can t t rea tmen t u n t il t he ma in b us iness o f t he p anegyr ic i s r eached w ith t he b eg inn ing o f t he e xped it ion o f 2 96 a ga inst A l lectus.

I n 2 93 A l lectus may h ave u surped o n

t he t he me o f c on t inued d e f iance , t rus t ing t o t he n atura l d efence p rov ided b y t he s ea.

By 2 96 h e i s s a id , ' . ..non mun itus e sse t o ceano , s ed i nc lusus '.

T he most i mpor tan t t he me o f t he c l i max o f t he p anegyr ic i s t he p ar t p layed b y C ons tan t ius h i mse lf p resen t a t t he r ecovery .1 5 However l i t t le p ar t h e s ee ms t o h ave p layed i n r ea l ity , i tw as t h is t ha t h ad t o b e e u log ised i n l av ish manner t o f u lf il l t he p urpose o f t he p anegyr ic. Asc lep iodotus , t he p rae tor ian p refec t who s ee ms t o h ave b een c h ief ly r espons ib le f or t he v ictory , i s n owhere men t ioned d irec t ly b y n a me i n t he p anegyr ic.

T he c l i ma t ic c on-

d i t ions a re n ow u sed i n s uch a way a s t o h e igh ten t he b ravery o f t he l auded Caesar a nd mark o u t t he i nsp ir ing e f fec t o f h is p resence , a l though , i t mus t b e r e me mbered , s hor t ly b efore t h is , t hey w ere o f fered a s as or t o f e xcuse f or t he d elay i n p ursu ing t he a rchp ira te a cross t he s ea i n 2 93.

T h is i s n o t

s o much i ncons istency a s s heer p anegyr ic. T ha t Cons tan t ius w as n ot i n f ac t p resen t a t a l l w ith t he ma in f l eet i s n o t r ea l ly made c lear . T he men t ion o f ' d ivers is c lass ibus ' may b e mean t t o i mp ly t ha t t he e qua l ity o f t he t wo f orces a nd l eave i tt o b e a ssu med t ha t a s C ons tan t ius was w ith o ne i n p erson , ' a G esor iacens i l i tore

i nvectus ', s o was h e i n s p ir it w ith t he o ther , ' que m

S equana amn is i nvexera t ,' many m i les away .

T h is n arra t ive g ives C onstan t ius '

d iv is ion a s t he o ne wh ich s et s a i l f i rs t ; n o t i n s o many w ords , b u t t h is mus t b e what i s mean t b y , ' i rrevocab i le m i n iec ist i men t is a rdore m ,' a nd , e spec ia l ly , ' i pse j am s o lu it '. 1 0

The a ctua l v ic tory o ver A l lectus w as e f fec ted b y t he d iv is ion u nder t he c o m mand o f Asc lep iodotus wh ich h ad s a i led f rom wha t i s n ow L e H avre , a nd h ad made a l and fa l l s omewhere o n t he c en tra l s ou th c oas t o f Br ita in . F rom t h is p o in t o n i n t he n arra t ive t he p rob le ms o f i n terpre ta t ion i ncrease. E icho lz , a nd t hose a u thors w hose v iews h e s u mmar ises ,1 6 s how t ha t t he p anegyr ic a cc oun t a dm its t o s evera l p oss ib le r econs truct ions o f t he d own fa l l o f A l lectus. I t i s d i f f icu l t t o make a ny p rogress w ithout s o me s pecu la t ion b u t t he t ex t d oes p rov ide g u ide l ines a t l east .

' ex i psoru m r e la t ione ' i s a n i mpor tan t , i fs imp le

p o in t . T he a ccoun t must , a t t h is s tage , b e g iv ing w ha t i s b as ica l ly t he t ruth e ven i fi td oes s o v ague ly a nd w ith b ias t oward C ons tan t ius. T ha t t here w ere many e ye w itnesses t o t he p r i me e ven ts w ou ld h ave made a h o l low s ham o f a ny p anygyr ic w h ich s trayed t oo f ar f rom t he t ru th i n s eek ing t o g lor ify i t s s ub ject . Wha t s imp le s tate men ts o f f ac t t here a re , o ugh t , t herefore , t o b e a ccep ted. T here w as a b lanket o f f og a nd t hanks l arge ly t o i t Asc lep iodotus was a b le t o e f fec t a n u nopposed l and ing s o mewhere n ear t he I s le o f W igh t. Most o f h is f l eet mus t h ave c ons isted o f t ranspor t s h ips t o f erry o ver h is f igh t ing men , r a ther t han warsh ips r eady t o e ngage A l lectus a t s ea. A sc lep iod otus wou ld , t herefore , h ave f e lt t ha t t he w orst w as o ver o nce t hese men w ere l anded a nd t he b arr ier o f t he s ea w as b reached a nd c rossed . H is h istr ion ic g esture may h ave b een s imp ly t o i n f la me h is men f or t he f i na l a ssau lt a ga ins t af oe who h ad d ef ied t he m s o f ar o n ly b ecause o f t he ir l ack o f s uch s h ips. I t a ppears a s ar epud ia t ion o f A l lectus ' p ro tec t ing e le men t a s s oon a s i th as b een ' mas tered '; ' un ivers is n av ibus s u is i n iec it i gnes ' mus t b e t rue , h owever u nn ecessary o r waste fu l i t may a ppear n ow .

T here i s a lso t he r e mo te p oss ib i l ity

t ha t i t was a n a cc iden t , c ap ita l ised o n b y t he a u thor . Wha t w ou ld Asc lep iodotus h ave d one h ad t here b een n o f og? A l lectus ' ma in h ope must h ave b een t o a n t ic ipa te, i n tercep t a nd a t tack a ny a t temp ted i nvas ion b efore , o r a s s oon a s i tl anded.

I ti s i nconce ivab le t ha t h is f l ee t h ad b eco me

d eb i l ita ted i n t he s hor t t ime s ince Caraus ius h e ld p ower a nd h owever much h e may h ave b een C araus ius ' i n fer ior i n n ava l ma t ters , h e mus t h ave h ad a b le s ubord ina tes. T he c ircu ms tances f ac ing A sc lep iodo tus w ere , t here fore , d i ff eren t t o t hose t ha t h ad f aced p rev ious i nvas ions o r e xped it ions i n 5 5 , 5 4 B .C. a nd 4 3 A .D . How f ar Asc lep iodo tus c ou ld h ave c oun ted o n af og i s n o t c er ta in . C lear ly h is i n forma t ion s erv ice w ou ld p rov ide a s much i n forma t ion a s p oss ib le f or t he t imes c oncern ing c l i ma t ic p robab i l it ies. N ever the less , t he j ourney t o Br ita in f rom L e Havre i s l ong e nough t o e xpose a ny f l ee t a t te mp t ing i t , e spec ia l ly a t t he p ace o f Ro man t ranspor ts , t o c ons iderab le r isk .

T h is may w e l l

h ave b een o ne o f t he f ac tors wh ich c aused C ons tan t ius t o moun t at wo-pronged i nvas ion i n o rder t o make r easonab ly c er ta in t ha t o ne f orce a t l east wou ld s urv ive t he e le men ts a nd t he n ava l o ppos it ion a nd e f fec t al and ing . G rea t ly a ss is ted b y t he f og , t he d iv is ion o f Asc lep iodotus l anded a nd b urn t t he ir b oa ts . T he e xac t p a t tern o f A l lectus ' b ehav iour i s t he n ex t p rob le m. ' cur a b e o l i tore q uod t eneba t a bscess it?

Cur c lassem p or tu mque d eseru it ,

n is i q uod t e , C aesar i nv icte , c u ius i mm inen t is v ela c onspexera t ; t imu it i am i a mque v en turu m '. H ow f ar c an t h is b e t aken a s a n a ccoun t o f A l lec tus ' move men ts?

T he p anegyr ic i s d ea l ing w ith t he v i l if ied e ne my a nd t he c ons-

t ra in t o f p oss ib le c on trad ic t ion f ro m e ye w itnesses i s r e moved.

T ha t ab a t t le

e ven tua l ly t ook p lace w ou ld o bv ious ly b e c o m mon k now ledge b u t e ven i f Cons tan t ius h ad t roub led t o f ind o u t a f ter h is v ic tory w ha t e xact ly A l lec tus

1 1

h ad d one , i ti s most u n l ikely t ha t t h is w ou ld e ver h ave b ecome v ery w idely k nown a nd h ence t he p anegyr ic a t t h is p o in t i s b est s een a s a n e xaggera t ion b ased o n p oss ib i l ity , d es igned t o b e l it t le. T he v eloc itas o f t he p anegyr ic o bscures i t s u sefu lness a s as ource f or t he t ime f ac tor i nvo lved i n t hese move men ts. C ons tan t ius i s s a id t o h ave s e t o f f f i rs t w ith h is p ar t o f t he e xped it ion , f ro m Bou logne.

H e d oes n o t a ctua l ly

r each Br ita in u n t i l most o f t he a ct ion i s o ver a nd L ondon i s wa i t ing f or h im . Asclep iodotus , meanwh i le , h as made a much l onger v oyage , d ise mbarked h is a rmy a nd d efea ted A l lectus i n b a t t le.

T he a ccoun t d oes n ot make c hrono log ica l

s ense a s i ts tands. N o d oub t t hese i ncons istenc ies a re t he p roducts o f t he e ver-presen t d es ire t o b es tow t he g rea test p ra ise o n C onstan t ius ' p ar t i n t he a f fa ir s hor t o f a ctua l ly t a mper ing w ith ma jor f ac ts. Even t he i mp l ied e rror o f j udge men t c aused b y t he f og w i l l n o t d o. I ft he f og w as s u f f ic ien t ly d ense t o c ause C ons tan t ius ' s h ips t o g o a s tray t hen , b y t he s ame t oken , A l lec tus c ou ld n o t p oss ib ly h ave s een t he a pproach ing s a i ls t hrough i ta nd f l ed a t t he s igh t .

Th is d oes n o t n ecessar ily mean t ha t A l lectus w as n o t a t ' un p o in t d e

l a c ö te a ng la ise p roche d e l a c ö te g au lo ise ; ' t he t ex t a t t h is p o in t a s ap roo f t ha t h e w as.

1 7

o n ly t ha t i ti s u nw ise t o u se t he Wherever h e w as , t ha t w h ich

mus t s ure ly h ave p rovoked A l lectus t o a ct ion w as t he n ews t ha t , d esp ite t he f l eet s ta t ioned T apud V ectam i nsu la m ', Asc lep iodo tus h ad l anded a n a rmy . T h is w as a d anger wh ich h ad a ctua l ly mater ia l ised a nd wh ich , t here fore , r eq u ired i m med ia te a ct ion . T ha t A l lectus , i n t ak ing s uch a ct ion , ' c lasse m p or tumque d eseru it ' p resumab ly means t ha t h is n eed was f or a n a rmy n ot a n avy , i ft he f ac t i s s queezed f ro m i t s s he l l o f s neer ing . E icho lz 1 8 r a ther o vers i mp l if ies ma t ters i n d is m iss ing t he v iews t ha t A l lectus w as a t e i ther P orches ter o r L ondon w ith , ' Ne ither v iew c an b e r igh t , a nd a sser t ing h is own v iew t ha t h e must h ave b een s o mewhere o n t he K en t c oas t , p robab ly a t R ichborough . H e a ccep ts t he p anegyr ic t oo l i tera l ly a nd o ver looks i t s i ncons istenc ies.

Oman 's v iew t ha t A l lectus w as a t P orches ter

w ith a l l h is f l eet w ou ld i mpu te r e markab ly b ad j udgemen t t o h i m.

I ti s v ery

d i f f icu l t t o i mag ine t ha t , e ven i fP orchester w as t he ma in f l ee t b ase , A l lectus d id n o t h ave s o me p ar t o f h is f l eet s ta t ioned a long t he o ther p ar ts o f t he c hanne l c oas t , e spec ia l ly where t he c ross ing w as n arrowes t.

Even s o t here

i s n o men t ion made o f a ny o ppos it ion wh ich C onstan t ius ' d iv is ion h ad t o f ace a s t here c lear ly w ou ld h ave b een h ad t hey d one s o o n t he ir w ay t o L ondon . T he o bv ious p lan w as , s ure ly , t o h ave h ad t he c hanne l p o l iced f rom P orchester a t t he o ne e nd a nd R ichborough a t t he o ther , w ith A l lectus h i msel f n ear L ondon w i th a n a rmy . r eady t o make f or a ny p o in t where d anger t hrea tened s hou ld t he n ava l c ordon f a i l. E icho lz i s v ir tua l ly f orced t o a dm it t h is b u t i s r e luc tan t t o s ee L ondon a s ac en tre o f o pera t ions a nd a ssumes , s t il l t ak ing t he p anegyr ic t oo l i tera l ly , t ha t A l lectus h ad n o b ody o f t roops r ead i ly a va i la b le t ha t w ere a dequa te t o t ry t o c ope w ith s uch a n emergency . T he p anegyr ic i s c onfus ing a s i ts tra ins t o emphas ise b o th A l lectus ' b l ind p an ic a nd t he f ac t t ha t a t t he e nd t he o n ly s uppor ters who s tood b y h im w ere t he f ou l b arbar ian mercenar ies , n o t Ro man t roops , ' i n modu m amen t is a t ton itus p roperav it a d mor tem u t n ec e xp l icar it a c ie m n ec omnes c op ias q uas t raheba t i nstruxer it . I ndeed t hose who w ere w ith A l lectus a re , ' v e ter ibus i l l is c on iura t ion is a uc tor ib us ' wh ich a l l b u t s ugges ts t he i mposs ib le p icture t ha t h e h ad ma in ta ined h is r u le f or t hree y ears t hrough t he a gency o f an arrow c l ique o f mercenary b ody g uards. 1 2

T he d escr ip t ion o f t he b a t t le i s n o t c oncerned t o p resen t a ny d eta i led p ic ture o f t he t ac t ics u sed b u t t o p ra ise t he Ro mans. ' n emo f ere Romanus o cc ident i mper io v incen te Ro mano ' i s a n e x tre me s ta te men t y e t i tw ou ld n o t h ave b een w or th s ay ing w ere i tn ot s ubs tan t ia l ly t rue. Asc lep iodo tus c ou ld n o t h ave w on s uch a n e asy v ic tory h ad h e b een s er ious ly o pposed b y a ny s izea b le b ody o f l eg ionary t roops f i gh t ing f or A l lectus. I t i s p oss ib le t ha t t he l eg ionary t roops w ou ld n o t f i gh t a nd s imp ly w en t o ver t o t he s ide o f t he i nv aders , b u t t h is i s j ust t he s or t o f t h ing t ha t t he p anegyr ic w ou ld h ave made c ap ita l f rom s o i t mus t b e a ssu med t ha t a s i td oes n o t , t hen t h is d id n o t h appen. T h is l eaves t he p oss ib i l ity t ha t A l lectus ' f orce w as n o t v ery l arge a nd i nc luded f ew o f t he l eg ionary t roops.

T here i s n o e v idence t o s ugges t

t ha t t here w as a ny d isa f fec t ion among A l lectus ' l eg ionary t roops i n Br ita in a l though i ti s p oss ib le t ha t h e may n ot h ave t rusted t he m t o s uch a c onf l ict i n t he e nd. T he t roops w ere p resu mab ly a ux i l iar ies i nc lud ing men r ecru ited f rom b eyond t he f ron t iers o f t he emp ire a s d escr ibed a bove.

There i s n o

r eason t o s uppose i tw as a l arge f orce ;

i ndeed t he a l leged e ase o f A sc lep io-

d otus ' v ictory s uggests t ha t i t was n ot ;

a nd t he p resence o f A l lec tus s ugges ts

t ha t i tc ou ld w e l l h ave b een a s pec ia l mob i le t ask f orce t o meet a ny emergency i n h as te , p erhaps b ased o n u rban c ohor ts f ro m L ondon . F ro m t he e ase w ith wh ich C ons tan t ius l anded a t L ondon i ti s c lear t ha t a ny m il itary f orce wh ich may h ave n orma l ly b een o n d u ty i n t he c i ty w as n o l onger p resen t o r e lse w en t o ver t o h i m.

T h is s ugges ts t ha t A l lectus t ook t he r isk o f t ak ing s uch a f orce

w ith h im t o e ngage t he i nvaders a s s oon a s h e k new t ha t t hey h ad l anded. E ven i fh e s uspected t ha t h is e ne my m igh t t ry t o f orce a s econd l and ing , h e mos t p robab ly w ou ld a ssume t ha t t hey w ou ld make f or t he K en t c oas t.

T he s econd

l eg ion d o n o t f igure a t a l l , wh ich may w e l l , s i mp ly mean t ha t t hey p layed n o p ar t i n t he a c t ion : c ou ld i tb e a n a rgu men t i n s uppor t o f t he v iew t ha t i tw as n ot moved t o R ichborough u n t i l a f ter t he r ecovery? A l lectus ' d ea th i s , p erhaps , t he o ne r edee m ing f ea ture t ha t h e i s a l lowed b y t he p anegyr ic. i ng .

I fn o t e xac t ly a g lor ious d ea th , h e d id , a t l eas t , d ie f i gh t-

T he p anegyr ic may w ish t o make A l lectus ' d ea th o r g lory b id s ugges t ive

o f t he f ac t t ha t h e n eeded a v ictory d espera te ly t o c onso l ida te t he s uppor t i n many waver ing r anks t hroughou t t he p rov ince. Had A l lectus h ad t he m il itary r esources o f a l l Br ita in s o l id ly b eh ind h im t here w ou ld h ave b een n o p o in t i n t hrow ing h is l i fe away i n t h is f ash ion . T ha t h e d id s o s uggests t ha t h e d id n o t h ave s uch b ack ing f or t hen h e w ou ld s ure ly h ave b een a b le t o p ro long h is r es istance a nd w ear h is e ne my d own .

I nstead , a s i n 1 066 , a l l Br ita in f e l l

t o a n i nvad ing f orce o f n o g rea t s ize a f ter o ne b a t t le. T he p anegyr ic d e l igh ts i n t he d ea ths o f t he Franks , ' praec ipue i n ternec io F rancorum.' T hey s erve t o emphas ise t he b aseness o f A l lectus ' s uppor t. T here i s f ur ther c on fus ion o ver d e ta i l h owever ,

q uoque m il ites v es tr i q u i p er e rrorem n ebu los i , u t

p au lo a n te d ix i, mans a b iunc t i a d o pp idu m L ondon iense p erveneran t .'

Webb 1 9

g ives a t rans la t ion o f t h is wh ich i s m is lead ing b ecause i ti s c arefree. G a l let ier 2° i s more p rec ise , b u t , a s E icho lz p o in ts o u t ,2 1 h e a ssu mes t he r eference i s t o ap ar t o f Asc lep iodo tus ' f orces. T h is may s eem a r easonab le i n ference f ro m t he t ex t a s t he f og w as p rev ious ly men t ioned i n c onnec t ion w ith t ha t b ody o f s h ips. I t i s , h owever , r e markab le t o i mag ine a ny p ar t o f t ha t f orce s tray ing s o f ar t ha t i ta rr ived a t L ondon a l though i th ad s e t o f f f ro m L e H avre , t he r es t o f t he f orce a rr ived s o mewhere n ear t he I s le o f W igh t ,

1 3

a nd b ear ing i n m ind t he o ther f orce w h ich s upposed ly s e t o f f e ar l ier f ro m Bou lo gne. E icho lz p o in ts a bou t C ons tan t ius ' p resence s ee m s ound b u t h e f a i ls t o r eso lve t he q ues t ion o f t he f og . I ft here w as n o f og . t hen n one o f t he E astern d etach men t c ou ld h ave g o t l os t i n i t . I ft here w as , t hen A l lectus c ou ld n o t h ave s een t he a pproach ing s a i ls. ' p er e rrorem ' i s s urpr is ing ly l i ke c r it ic ism f or t he p anegyr ic. I ti s p erhaps a n e n thus iast ic s l ip. I n a ny c ase t he a ct ion s eems t o h ave h ad n o g rea t m il itary s ign if icance.

I t i s l i t t le more t han a

mopp ing u p o pera t ion wh ich h as b een g lor if ied b y t he p anegyr ic. I ft he r e mn an ts o f A l lectus ' d efea ted t roops made t he ir w ay t o L ondon , t he b a t t le mus t h ave t aken p lace n earer L ondon t han i s s o met i mes t hough t t o h ave b een t he c ase.

Had i tb een d own i n Ha mpsh ire t hen t hese r e fugees w ou ld h ave p robab ly

d ispersed r a ther t han made f or L ondon. C ons tan t ius ' a ch ieve men t i s n ot s een s imp ly a s av ictory o ver e ne my t roops. T he c on tras t i s p o in ted o u t b e tween A l lectus ' s uppor ters a nd t he ma jor ity o f t he p eop le i n Br ita in , ' prov inc ia l ibus v es tr is i n c aede h os t ium d eder in t s a lu te m '. T h is p ro motes t he i mage o f C onstan t ius a s l i bera tor a nd l eads i n to t he d escr ip t ion o f h is r ecep t ion b y t he a l leged ly g ra tefu l p eop le o f L ondon , t he e ven t d ep ic ted o n ag o ld meda l l ion f rom t he Arras h oard. G a l let ier 2 2 s ees i n , ' Ro manae p oten t iae g lor ia m r est ituendo n ava le m... a r eference t o , ' l a d es truc t ion d e l 'Armada d e Max im ien '. T h is w ou ld a pp ly p er fec t ly w e l l t o t he 2 96 r ecovery i t sel f a s t h is h ad a s o ne o f i t s r esu l ts t he o ver throw o f t he n ava l s upre macy o f t he b reakaway p rov inces. I n c hap ter e igh teen t here i s ar eference b ack t o a n i nc iden t f ro m t he r e ign o f P robus i nvo lv ing t he a c t iv it ies o f s ome t ransp lan ted F ranks. T he p o in t made i s t hat C onstan t ius h as b rough t s ecur ity t o t he emp ire o n aw ider f ron t , ' I taque h ac v ictor ia v estra n on Br itann ia s o lu m s erv itu te e st l i bera ta , s ed omn ibus n a t ion ibus s ecur itas r es t itu ta q uae mar it imo u su t an tum i n b e l lo a d ire p er icu l i p o teran t q uantum i n p ace c ommod i c onsequun tur '. T he a ccoun t o f C onstan t ius ' r ecep t ion a t L ondon i s s tereo typed.

I t c on f irms

t ha t h e w as n o t p resen t when t he f i rst t roops a rr ived a t L ondon . T here i s s o meth ing o f ap ara l le l b etween ' t ande m v era i mper i i l uce r ecrea t i ' a nd t he T r edd itor l uc is a eternae ' o f t he Arras meda l l ion. c onde mned ;

A l lectus ' r eg i me i s r ound ly

' pos t v io la tas c on iuges , p os t l i berorum t urpe s erv it ium '.

H ow-

e ver much o f a n e xaggera t ion t h is i s t here h ave b een h in ts t ha t a t t he e nd A l lectus c ou ld n ot c oun t o nu n iversa l s uppor t w ith in h is t err itory . T he ma jor ity o f p eop le i n Br ita in i fl ess o ver t ly e n thus ias t ic a bou t Cons tan t ius ' r ecovery t han t he p anegyr ic s ta tes , s ee m t o h ave b een r es igned t o i ta s i nev i tab le. T here i s at ouch o f i rony i n t h is i f , a s s ee ms l ikely , A l lectus c a me t o p ower o n t he s treng th o f ar eact ion a ga inst C araus ius ' p o l ic ies o f f ra tern isa t ion w ith t he c en tra l a u thor it ies. T he p erora t io d ea ls most ly i n g enera l t erms b u t o ne c om men t may s erve t o s how o ne o f t he b ene f its wh ich i t was f e l t t ha t t he p ossess ion o f Br ita in c ou ld b es tow o n t he Western Emp ire ;

' d evo t iss i ma v ob is c iv itas A eduorum

e x h ac Br itann icae f acu lta te v ic tor iae p lur i mos , q u ibus i l lae p rov inc iae r ed undaban t , a ccep it a r t if ices....

T h is i s e v idence t ha t t here w as much b u i ld-

i ng a c t iv ity g o ing o n i n Br ita in a t t h is t ime. F ina l ly i t may b e p oss ib le t o s ee i n , ' nunc s ib i r edd itu m v e tus i l lue Ro manae f ra tern ita t is n omen e x is t i ma t ' , af i na l , o b l ique r eference t o Caraus ius a bor t ive p ropaganda , a l though i ti s more p robab ly c o inc idence.

T h is p anegyr ic i s , t hen , f or a l l i t s p rob le ms o f 1 4

i n terpreta t ion , b ecause o f i t s l eng th , a nd b ecause i t was s o c on temporary , o ne o f t he mos t i mpor tan t o f t he s ources f or t he u surpa t ion . b )

Aure l ius V ic tor .

D e Caes.

XXX IX

T he b eg inn ing o f t he c hap ter d ea ls w ith t he d i f f icu lt ies o f D ioc let ian 's f i rs t y ears , t he a ppo in tmen t o f Max im ian a s h is c o l league , a nd t he d if f icu l t ies wh ich h e i n t urn f aced i n G au l ..Hercu l ius i n G a l l iam p rofec tus f us is h ost ib us a u t a ccep t is q u ieta omn ia b rev i p a travera t.' T h is i s t he c on tex t o f t he f irs t men t ion o f C araus ius , ' Quo b e l lo C araus ius.... a' Menap iae c iv is '.

w ho i s r eferred t o a s

T h is h as b een t he c ause o f c ons iderab le a nd o f ten r a ther

f anc ifu l s pecu la t ion .2 3 A ccord ing t o S tuke ley ,2 4 C araus ius was b orn a t S t . D av ids i n Wa les , a lso f ormer ly k nown a s Menap ia. E qua l ly f anc ifu l i s t he v iew o f F ranzero 25 t ha t , ' t here w ere t wo p laces o f t ha t n a me , o ne n ear Wexf ord i n I re land a nd t he o ther i s a n i s land o f t he Nor th S ea.' C araus ius w as s een b y Rh S rs 2 6 a s t he a rchetype o f Cu 'r6 i , o ne o f t he C e lt ic h ero-f igures , a nd c onsequen t ly h e s uppor ted t he v iew t ha t h e w as o fI r ish e x tract ion .

A l l

t h is u ncer ta in ty s ee ms t o h ave b een c aused b y P to le my 's amb igu ity i n l ocat ing Menap i i i n s evera l d i f feren t p laces.

T he t ru th o f t he mat ter mus t b e

a s Haver f ie ld s ays , 2 7 ' The G au l ish Menap i i w ere w e l l k nown , t he I r ish Menap i i o bscure a nd t he b r ief r eference ( sc. i n Aure l ius V ictor ) c an o n ly d eno te t he f ormer '.

Caraus ius ' b ir thp lace w as among t he Menap i i who i n-

h ab ited p ar t o f wha t i s n ow Ho l land , af act p erce ived t hree c en tur ies a go b y J ohn M i l ton ,

2 8

i fn o t b y h is i m med iate s uccessors. 2 9

T he h istor ians a re l ess h os t i le t o Caraus ius a nd A l lectus t han t he p anegyr ic. T hey wrote t he ir w ork more o r l ess u nder t he a eg is o f i mper ia l b less ing b u t i ft hey i n n o w ay g lor ify t he u surpers n e ither d o t hey f ee l c onstra ined t o om it a ny th ing t o b e s a id i n t he ir f avour .

t f act is p ro mpt ior ibus e n itu it t;

C araus ius

r ose t o p ro m inence b ecause h e w as a n a b le man. T h is r ise t o p ro m inence was , a f ter a l l , made i n t he s erv ice o f t he emperors s o t here i s n o s ha me i n t he ir h av ing r ecogn ised h is t a len t a nd d eve loped i t . I t mus t b e i n ferred t hat Caraus ius ' c areer was b as ica l ly t ha t o f an or ma l s uccessfu l m i l itary c o mmander . Wha tever n ava l e xper ience h e may h ave h ad i n h is y oung d ays , h e w ou ld h ave h ad t o p rove h i msel f f i rs t a nd f ore mos t a s as o ld ier i n o rder t o r ise t o ap os it i on o f p ro m inence u nder t he Emperors. T h is i s t he s or t o f c areer wh ich i s a t tr ibuted t o h im , i n o u t l ine , b y s o me o f t he med iaeva l a ccoun ts a nd wh i le t hey a ppear t o b e b as ing t he ir a sser t ions o n n o p ar t icu lar e v idence , t here i s a n e le men t o f p robab il ity i n t he m.

T he w ords , ' e oque e um s imu l q u ia

g ubernand i...gnarus h abebatur .... s uggest a c hange f ro m a s pec if ica l ly m i l it ary c om mand t o an ava l o ne. ' Quo o f f ic io a do lescen t iam mercede e xecuera t ' i s u sua l ly t aken a s a n a s ide t o e xp la in why , i n p ar t icu lar , Caraus ius was s u ite d f or t h is c o m mand a ga ins t t he p ira tes , a nd i s s een t o r e fer t o ay ou th s pen t a s aS che ld t r iver p i lo t .

T he Menap i i w ere a s ea far ing p eop le s o i t may b e

t rue t ha t C araus ius h ad s pen t s o me o f h is y ounger d ays e ngaged i n s uch a n o ccupa t ion , b u t i ts ee ms t o p lace t oo l i tera l a n i n terpre ta t ion o n ' gubernand i '. Caraus ius ' p ersona l a b i l ity a t t he h e lm o f ab oa t w as n o t n ear ly s o r e levan t t o h is c ho ice a s c o m mander o f t h is s pec ia l f orce , a s h is p roven m i l itary c o mpetence.

T ha t h e h ad a n au t ica l b ackground was s o much t he b et ter .

' parandae c lass i t s ugges ts t hat t here was n o o rgan ised c hanne l f l eet a t t h is t ime.

T h is w ou ld s quare w ith t he v iew t ha t t he f l eet was r a ther r un d own b y 1 5

t h is t ime b u t s hou ld n ot b e t aken t oo f ar .

T here mus t h ave b een s ome s or t

o f ac hanne l f l eet i n w ha tever c ond it ion.

Were t h is n ot s o t hen i tw ou ld h ave

t aken l onger t han t he k nown c hronology a l lows t o h ave b u i lt o ne a nd u sed i t t o a ny g rea t e x ten t b efore t he u surpa t ion.

Caraus ius p resumab ly a sse mb led ,

r ef it ted a nd e n larged t he f l eet a s h e f ound i t . ' Propu lsand is G erman is ' marks o u t t he o ppos it ion i n ad i f feren t w ay t o t ha t o f Eutrop ius , who u ses t he s tock ' Franc i e t S axones '. Aure l ius V ictor 's u se o f G erman i may l end s o me s uppor t t o t he v iew t ha t C araus ius t ook f or h i mse lf t he t i t le G erman icus , n o t s i mp ly b ecause s ome o f t he e ar l ier t h ird c en tury emperors h ad t aken i t , b u t f or t h is s pec if ic r eason . T he r everse l egends V IC T GER M o r GER M MAX , f ound o n a n ton in ian i c ou ld b e e xp la ined away s imp ly a s l ack o f o r ig ina l ity o n t he p ar t o f s o me o f Caraus ius m in t o ff i c ia ls i n t he e ar ly d ays o f h is r e ign . T ha t h e t akes t h is t i t le o n o ne o f h is b ronze meda l l ions , 30 h owever , i s much more s ign if ican t. T h is s hows t ha t f or wha tever r eason , Caraus ius c lear ly a dm it ted t o t he t i t le G er man icus. I t n eed n ot h ave b een b ecause h e c ons idered h is p ira t ica l o pponen ts G erman i a s V ic tor c a l ls t he m , t hough , o f c ourse , h e d oes n ot t ake t he t i t le S axon icus , b u t b ecause h e c hose t o a ssu me t he t i t le o f t hose b efore h im , p erhaps b ecause h e h ad b een h eav ily i nvo lved i n f i gh t ing w ith t he Roman a rmy a ga ins t G erman i p roper , e ar l ier i n h is c areer . ' Hoc e la t ior...' i mp l ies t ha t C araus ius was v irtua l ly f orced t o u surp b y t he t urn o f e ven ts a s t he o n ly a l terna t ive was d ea th. J ohn M i l ton 3 1 c ap tures t h is b eau t ifu l ly w ith h is c o m men t t ha t Caraus ius , ' was g rown a t l eng th t oo g rea t ad e l iquen t t o b e l ess t han a n Emperor ; d ays made Emperors o f tener t han mer it .'

f or f ear a nd

g u il tness i n t hose

Bas ica l ly t he v iew i s t he s a me ;

t ha t Caraus ius h ad n o a l terna t ive i n t he e nd .

Wha tever e xac t ly C araus ius

was d o ing wh i le h e w as c a mpa ign ing a ga ins t t he p ira tes , h e c anno t h ave f a iled t o r ea l ise t ha t ap rovoca t ive c ourse o f a ct ion w ou ld , i n t he c ircu ms tances , c er ta in ly r esu l t i n t he mos t d ire c onsequences f or h i mse lf .

I t mus t a ppear ,

t herefore , t ha t Caraus ius may v ery w e l l h ave s ough t t o h ave s treng thened h is p os i t ion p repara tory t o au surpa t ion wh ich wou ld c o me when t he w ho le b us iness • r eached i t s c l i max . T h is wou ld mean t ha t h e made h is d ec is ion t o u surp much e ar l ier t han i s g enera l ly a ssumed a nd t ha t t he o n ly t h ing f orced u pon h im b y Max im ian 's r eact ion t o h is b ehav iour w as t he t im ing o f t he u surpa t ion i t se lf . Caraus ius may w e l l h ave b een a b it ter man b y t he t ime h e w as g iven t he c hanne l c o m mand ; h e w as c lear ly s t i l l amb it ious. T here i s n o r eason why t he d es ire t o b e ap ar tner i n t he p r inc ipate wh ich w as e xpressed l a ter b y h is c o ins , h ad n o t a lready f ormed i n t he f i rs t y ears o f D ioclet ian 's r e ign . By c o mpar ison t o t he s tatus o f Max im ian , h is own c hanne l c o mmand mus t h ave s ee med a sma l l e nough t h ing , b u t o ne f rom wh ich t o b u ild . H e c anno t h ave e xpec ted t o a vo id p un ishmen t f or m is manag ing s uch a c o mmand s o h e mus t h ave s een a p os it ive o utco me t o i ta l l. b e t ha t wh ich a ctua l ly h appened .

T he o n ly r ea l ist ic o ne w ou ld s ee m t o

T here r e ma ins t he p oss ib il ity t ha t Caraus ius ' a l leged m ismanage men t w as ap iece o f o f f ic ia l f abr ica t ion wh ich t he h istor ians h ave t aken o ver . He may h ave made a g enu inely i nco mpeten tj ob o f h is c o mmand , b u t t h is i s mos t u nl ike ly c ons ider ing wha t i s s a id o f h is a b i l ity a nd t h is w ou ld n o t b e s u f f ic ien t r eason t o p rovoke h im i n to u surpa t ion.

I n a ny c ase h e w ou ld h ave b een much

l ess l ike ly t o h ave h ad t he s uppor t h e o bv ious ly d id h ave when h e u surped , i f

1 6

he had done so hecause he ,ms a persecuted failure. On the other hand it may be that he was r:ither too successful and Kas making demands on Maxi.mian who, seeing him as a rival ,vith growing support felt obliged to move against him but did so under the pretext that he had been abusing his position. This latter possibility is clearly more likely than the former but Maximian was not so free from troubles or ,vell supplied wah able and successful commanders that he would seek to elimin2.te one wit:.hout consicerable provocation. Carausius must have made it apparent by his behaviour that he was a potential danger, rather than have been simply 'too successful'. After a description of events in other parts of the Empire Victor say s, 'solique Carausio remissum insulae imperium, postquam iussis ac munimento incolarum contra gentes bellicosas opportunior habitus.' This may simply reflect Victor's sketchy approach but probably marks the deliberate omission of any reference to the expedition of 289. The tone of this is rather apologetic as if to convince the reader that Carausius was really being used as a tool of the state; that he was little different from a governor with special powers and not really a flagrant usurper at all. This may conceal some sort of an agreement which was reached with Carausius, leaving him intact in his O\Vn sphere of influence so long as he protected it, but even this is far more than Carausius is ever likely to have got from Maximian. As Carausius sought by means of his numismatic propaganda to assert that he had earned a recognition which in fact he had not, so Maximian here is presented as trying to make his failure to recover Britain seem something more like a deliberate policy. This may have been the case with Severus and Albinus in the second century but it does not seem to have been paralleled by Carausius and Maximian in the third. 'gentes bellicosas' is rather too general for it to be clear which peoples are meant here. It is probable that Victor is transposing the pattern of events of the mid fourth century back into the period of Carausius. Then, as he knew full well, 'warlike peoples' did cause serious problems in Britain until Count Theodosius restored order. Despite the assumptions of some, however, there is no great body of evidence to suggest such troubles on any great scale c�1-�:ring the period of Carausius' usurpation. 32 Aurelius Victor is far from detailed. He makes no mention of the events of 293 save to say that Allectus usurped, 'nomine dolo' after Carausius usurpation had lasted for a 'sexennium'. This must mean that Allectus' coup was bloodless though it is difficult to know whether Victor has any positive evidence on the matter or whether he is simply inferring from probability and general knowledge. His use of, 'summae rei praeesset' strongly suggests that Allectus was kn.own to have been Carausius' Rationalis Summae Rei. This was an important position which would have placed him in the centre of events, sensitive to current feelings towards Carausius and in control of the purse-strings. This would have been a strong position from which to attempt a takeover as Allectus did in 293. It is frustrating to know so little of the dolum whereby he is said to have effected his takeover. It could refer to almost anything from financial chicanery to deceiving Carausius in some way over the Boulogne affair in order to destroy his support. Allectus receives an even more summary treatment than his predecessor fromVictor. His reign is simply 'brevi' and culminates with his 'deletion'

17

wh ich i s g iven a v ery ma t ter o f f ac t t rea tmen t .

Un l ike t he p anegyr ic , V ictor

d oes men t ion Asc lep iodotus b y n a me a s t he a u thor o f t he v ic tory o ver A l lectus. Eu trop ius Brev. H ist . Ro m. I X . 2 1-22 T he b r ief a ccoun t p rov ided b y w hat r e ma ins o f E u trop ius a dds l i t t le t o t he i n forma t ion p rov ided b y Aure l ius V ictor . There i s ad iscernab le s im i lar ity i n h is r espec t ive t rea tmen ts o f t he o r ig ins o f b oth D ioc let ian a nd Caraus ius. O f t he f ormer h e wr ites , ' v iru m o bscur iss i me n a tu m ' ; o f t he l a t ter , ' v il iss i me n a tus '.

These s ee m t o mean v ery much t he s ame t h ing w ith v i l iss i me

n o t t o a ny g rea t d egree more p e jora t ive a w ord t han o bscur iss i me. 3 3

' s trenuae

m i l it iae...consecutus '. Caraus ius ' b ackground w as n o o bstac le t o h is mak ing as uccess o f a mi l itary c areer .

T he h istor ians a re i n u n ison o n t h is p o in t

t hough i ti s h ere p erhaps t ha t t he p ara l le l w ith D ioc let ian i s t he more a pparen t. Eutrop ius i s t he more e xp l ic it w ith h is c o mmen t , ' cum b el la f rustra t en tata e ssen t c on tra v iru m r e i m i l itar is p er it iss i mum '.

C araus ius must h ave h ad

many y ears o f s erv ice i n t he i mper ia l a rm ies wh ich s quares w i th t he s tatus h e h o lds a s w e l l a s t he p hys ica l a ppearance p resen ted b y h is c o in p or tra its. T here i s n o men t ion h ere o f a ny p ar t icu lar n au t ica l e xper ience. ' cu m a pud Bonon iam ' c on f irms t ha t Bou logne was t he ma in b ase o f t he s pec ia l c o m mand . T h is i s t he o bv ious p lace f ro m wh ich t o p o l ice t he w ide a rea , ' p er t ractu m B e lg icae e t Armor icae.

T he t erms o f r eference o f

Caraus ius ' c o m mand a re s u m mar ised b y , ' ad mare p acandu m q uod F ranc i e t S axones i n festaban t '.

S eston 3 4 h as o bserved t he c ompar ison b etween t he

r e lat ive t asks a ss igned t o Max im ian ( ' ad r est ituendam r em p ub l ica m ', P an X ( i i ) 3 ) a nd C araus ius C ad mare p acandu m ,

Eu tr I X 2 1) , a nd h as p o in ted o u t

t he n eed t o t ake C araus ius ' c la i ms f or a more t ang ib le s hare i n t he emp ire more s er ious ly t han t he h os t i le s ources s ugges t s uper f ic ia l ly . T he ' Franc i e t S axones ' a re p resu mab ly t he s ame a s t he G erman i i n V ictor 's a ccoun t . The d eta i ls o f t he c o m mand a re n o t g iven a s E utrop ius i s c oncerned o n ly w ith Caraus ius ' m isdeeds. I tw as c lear ly p redo m inan t ly n ava l , b ased o n Bou logne a nd w ith t he t ask ' a d mare p acandum ‚,b u t t he u se o f ‚t ractus ' c onf i rms t hat t he c o m mand a l lowed f or o pera t ions o n l and a lso.

The l eg ionary

i ssues s truck a f ter h is u surpa t ion s how t ha t C araus ius h ad u nder h im al arge n umber o f men who w ou ld b e o f l i t t le u se t o h im a t s ea .

T h is g eg io ', a s i t

i s l oose ly c a l led b y t he p anegyr ic , must h ave b een u sed t o t ack le p rob le ms a s t hey a rose , a nywhere a long t h is s tretch o f c oas t . T h is i s s o mewhat r em in iscen t o f P o mpey 's s pec ia l c om mand a ga inst p irates. E utrop ius p rov ides a more s pec if ic a ccoun t t han A ure l ius V ic tor o f Caraus ius ' m isdeeds.

T he l a t ter s imp ly s ays , ' n eque p raedae omn ia i n

a erar ium r eferre t ,' wh ich s uggests t hat Caraus ius ' manda te w as t o r e l ieve t he p ira tes o f t he ir w ea lth a nd h and i to ver t o t he t reasury . Mos t o f t hat w ea l th was ' praeda ' t aken f rom Ro man c i t izens who w ou ld d er ive n o more s a t is fac t ion f ro m s ee ing i ti n t he h ands o f t he s ta te t han i n t he h ands o f t he p ira tes.

Eu trop ius i s s ens it ive t o t h is w ith h is , ' nec p raeda i n tegra a u t

p rov inc ia l ibus r edd ita , a u t i mpera tor ibus m issa.

T h is i mp l ies t ha t Max im ian

was f orced t o a ct b ecause n o t o n ly w as h e p ersona l ly g et t ing n o r eturn f ro m C araus ius ' a c t iv ity i tw as , f ro m t he p o in t o f v iew o f t he p rov inc ia ls , n o i mp rove men t i n t he s i tua t ion .

Tha t C araus ius s pec if ica l ly s tage- managed t he

p irat ica l i ncurs ions a s d escr ibed b y Eu trop ius s ee ms a n u n l ikely embe l l ish-

1 8

ment. The important fact is that Carausius was very obviously strengthening his own position and was, thereby, a threat to Maximian. 'a Maximiano ius­ sus occidi' is the consequence of this action which Carausius must have fore­ seen. Eutropius avoids the use of metu which is found in Victor, (Herculi metu, a quo se caedi iussum compererat) and removes any overtones of haste or panic on Carausius' part. After a short account of Diocletian's problems and his establishment of a tetrarchy Carausius makes a rather uneasy reappearance in chapter twenty two; 'Cum Carausio ta.men....' The chapter begins with a list of problems at the head of which is Carausius, 'Carausius in Brita.nnis rebellaret'. The inference from this reappearance must be that it was Carausius alone who was able to maintain his threatening position; who was strong enough to neces­ sitate some sort of exceptional 'pax'. It may also be the case that the associa­ tion of this with an account of Diocletians' dynastic plans is a hint that Carausius' himself was seen to ·be a claimant. It is tempting to link this with the events of 289. 'cum bella frustra tentata. essent' must mean that an at­ tempt was actually made to oust Carausius. 'frustra' is ambiguous enough to cover a set-back either at the hands of Carausius or through inclement weather. Coupled with the description of Carausius' martial prowess, how­ ever, it seems more likely that a military set-back is referred to. If this is, then, an allusion to the unsuccessful expedition of 289 it is significant that no mention of any specifically naval superiority on Carausius' part is men­ tioned. The impression is that the 'bella' were strictly normal military engagements, on land rather than at sea. Where could such engagements have ta.ken place? The channel was recognised as the barrier between Carausius and his just deserts. The objective of any force bent on Carausius' removal, therefore, was to effect a landing in Britain. It remains a possibility that Maximian's fleet did so in 289 but were defeated and lost their ships to the victor. Max­ imian himself is most unlikely to have been involved for Carausius was not in the bargaining position, in 289, that he would have been had he captured Maximian. Maximian clearly set off on the expedition but there is no way of knowing how far he was in the forefront of it or how far he was bring up the rear in anticipation of a success which never happened. It strains the creduli­ ty to ta.ke the, 'cunctis simul amnibus' of the panegyric literally but were that the case to any degree then Maximian's departure from Treves would place him in the rear. If the whole expeditio!l set off from Treves and made the long journey to the sea then Carausius could well have forced an engagement somewhere near the mouth of the Rhine. So much of this is speculation, however, that it is unwise to do more than mention several of the possibilities suggested by the scanty evidence. Eutropius may have something to contribute about the supposed 'pax'. At best this must have been a very implicit thing to which Maximian was loathe to admit. Eutropius suggests it was tangible but this could easily be his version of finding some means of accounting for the peaceful lacuna between the expedition of 289 and the capture of Boulogne in 293. By about 289 Carausius' coins begin to conform to the standards of those of Maximian and Diocletian but the reverse legends terminating with a triple G and the fraternal issues were not introduced for some time after 289. This 19

may r ef lect g row ing i nsecur ity o n C araus ius ' p ar t ;

ag row ing n eed t o r e-

a sser t h is c la i ms o r r ather r easser t t he ir s upposed r ecogn it ion . o f Constan t ius may we l l h ave h ad s o meth ing t o d o w ith t h is.

T he r ise

He s ee ms t o

h ave b een marked o u t f or e lect ion t o t he r ank o f Caesar a t l east a s e ar ly a s t hese c o ins o f Caraus ius , i n a bou t 2 91, b ut d id n ot a ssu me t he t i t le u n t il 2 93 when h e was r eady t o t urn h is a t ten t ion d irect ly t o C araus ius h i mse lf .

T h is

d e lay may we l l h ave b een a d e l ibera te move t o d e lude Caraus ius a s l ong a s p oss ib le u n t il h e c ou ld b e d ea l t w ith a nd i fs uch a ct ion c oun ts a s t he mak ing o f ap eace t hen Max im ian made a p eace. As w ith Aure l ius V ictor , s o i n E u trop ius , A l lectus r ece ives v ery s can t t reat men t .

T here a re s o me d i fferences i n t he a ccoun ts e ven s o.

H ere h e

i s s pec if ica l ly s a id t o h ave k i l led C araus ius whose r e ign i s c a l led a ' sep tenn iu m '.

He i s s i mp ly r eferred t o a s ' soc ius e ius ' r a ther t han t he h o lder o f

a ny p ar t icu lar p os it ion .

On ly t he b ares t o ut l ine o f t he e ven ts d own t o a nd

i nc lud ing t he r ecovery a re f ound i n Eu trop ius. Pau lus Oros ius.

H ist . a dv. P aganos

V I I. 2 5

Th is l a ter s ource d er ives i n l arge measure f ro m Eu trop ius.

T here a re

d if ferences b u t t hese r ef lect t he r e la t ive t imes o f c o mpos it ion a nd t he s ty le o f t he l anguage.

Oros ius u se o f i qu ida m i i nstead o f ' i l le ' ,f or e xa mp le , s ug-

g ests t hat h e d oes n ot e xpect h is r eadersh ip t o h ave t he n a me a t t he f orefron t o f t he ir m inds , a s t hey may h ave b een more r easonab ly e xpected t o i n Eutrop ius ' d ay .

C araus ius p layed n o p ro m inen t p ar t i n t he l i tera ture o f t he

c entur ies s ubsequen t t o Aure l ius V ictor a nd Eu trop ius.

I t was o n ly i n t he

Br ita in where h e h ad u surped t hat h is n a me l i ved o n i n more t han o ne l ine r eferences. Caraus ius ' b ackground i n Oros ius i s v irtua l ly a p araphrase o f Eu trop ius. ‚ g enere

q u ide m ' i s l ess s pec if ic t han Aure l ius V ictor , p robab ly b ecause

' Oros ius s ough t t o a vo id t he men t ion o f a no ther m inor n a me.

I t may b e t hat

Oros ius h ad n ever r ead Aurel ius V ictor, b u t s i mp ly d id n o t k now o f t he Menap ian o r ig ins o f Caraus ius b ecause Eu trop ius d oes n o t men t ion t he m. The p resen ta t ion i s b et ter i n Oros ius t han i n Eu trop ius b u t h is ' cons i l io e t manu p ro mp tus ', o r h is a l l itera t ive , ' pos itus p lus i n p ern ic ie m q ua m i n p rovectu m r e ipub l icae ' a dd n oth ing n ew t o o ur k now ledge.

I t i s p robab ly a lso

s ty l ist ic improve men t wh ich p roduces , ' ad o bservanda O cean i l i tora...pos itus ' r a ther t han a ny d eeper k now ledge o f t he e xact n ature o f Caraus ius ' c o m mand . Caraus ius ' a ct iv it ies i n t he p os it ion a re n ea t ly d escr ibed w ith t he o xymoron , ' ar t if ic i i n eg legen t ia. Much i fn o t a l l t he r e ma inder s hows a v irtua l ly c o mp lete d er ivat ion f ro m Eu trop ius.

T here i s n o a l lus ion , h owever , t o a ny s or t o f p eace h av ing b een

made b y Max im ian w ith C araus ius.

T h is may s i mp ly b e om iss ion f or t he

s ake o f b rev ity o r i t may p oss ib ly b e Oros ius e xerc is ing s o me j udge men t. The d ura t ion o f Caraus ius r e ign i s , ' p er s ep te m a nnos ' d ur ing wh ich t ime Br ita in ' f or t iss i me v ind ica ta a c r e ten ta '. Th is s h if ts t he emphas is o f Eutrop ius

T h is was d one f or h i msel f , ' s ib i '.

away f ro m t he p eace made b y

Max im ian t o Caraus ius ' a b il ity t o l ook a f ter h i mse l f a nd h is k ingdo m.

T h is

i n terpretat ion s quares v ery w e l l w ith t he p ax t he me , s o t ota l ly d om inan t i n Carsaus ius ' n um is mat ic p ropaganda.

Th is i s Oros ius ' v ers ion o f Eu trop ius ' 2 0

' cum b e l la f rustra t en ta ta e ssen t ', a nd a s i ti s more g enera l ly e xpressed i t p resen ts n o n ew p rob le ms o f i n terpre tat ion , i fc on tr ibut ing n o n ew e v idence. A l lectus i s a ga in s u mmar ily d ea l t w ith.

Oros ius a dds n o th ing t o h is

s ource. Even h is u se o f ' f raude ' t o d escr ibe A l lectus t ake o ver smacks o f a l terna t ive e xpress ion t han p os it ive n ew e v idence. The o n ly s l igh t p o in t o f d i f ference wh ich may b e r e levan t t o t he c hrono logy o f t he p er iod i s t ha t b etw een t he ' p os t d ece m a nnos ' o f E u trop ius a nd t he ' d ec i mo a nno ' o f Oros ius , a s t he t ime when t he r ecovery t ook p lace. c )

B ede.

H is t. E cc. G en t 's Ang l. I . 6

Bede c on tr ibu tes n o n ew e v idence. He g ives a n o p in ion o n t he c hrono logy o f t he p er iod b u t i s c on fused a nd , f or e xa mp le , p laces t he a ccess ion o f D ioc let ian i n 2 86. A l l t he r e ma inder o f h is a ccoun t o f t he u surpa t ions a ppears t o c ome a l most v erba t im f ro m Oros ius.

I n s o me p laces t here a re om iss ions

o r c ondensa t ions b u t n o th ing n ew . N enn ius.

H is t . Br it X IX , XX

N enn ius ' a ccoun t marks a c o mp lete b reak w ith t he p rev ious t rad it ion d own f rom t he p anegyr ics t o B ede.

H is i s t he f irst a ccoun t w h ich t ransposes t he

e p isode i nto a c omp lete ly d i f feren t c on tex t , a nd i tt herefore r equ ires s o me a na lys is. I ti s at e mp tat ion t o d is m iss a l l t ha t w as w r it ten a f ter B ede a s u nh istor ica l f i ct ion o f n o v a lue whatever a s e v idence f or t he u surpa t ions. I n many c ases t h is i s i n l arge measure t rue b u t e ven s o , s o me t h ings emerge i nd irect ly a bou t Caraus ius a nd h is t imes f ro m t he w ay t hey w ere h and led a f ter h av ing p assed i n to t rad it ion . N enn ius ' a ccoun t i s o r ien ta ted t owards t he n or th c , Br ita in , ' I n ter C lud i i e t C arun i o st ia.' C araus ius i s s a id t o h ave b een i nv A ved i n wha t c an o n ly h ave b een t he r estorat ion o f o ne o f t he f ron t ier l i nes.

The c hrono logy i s

c lear ly c on fused . T he t h ird c en tury h as b een t e lescoped t o l i nk a nd i n term ing le t he p er iods o f t he S even ia nd Caraus ius. C lear ly i ti s S everan r ec ons truc t ion t o wh ich N enn ius makes r e ference. much t oo s er ious ly a s as ource.

S tuke ley 35 t ook N enn ius

H e p rov ides i l lus trat ions o f w hat h e t ook t o

b e N enn ius ', ' domum r otunda m p o l it is l ap id ibus ', b u t i s e ven more f anc icu l t han h is s ources. 3 6 T he l oca t ion , ' sub r ipa m f l um in is C arun ' f i ts t h is b u ildi ng b ut t he who le c o l lapses i n t he m ire o f f a lse e tymo logy a s i s o f ten t he c ase. Many p lace n a mes h ave b een f a lse ly a ccoun ted f or i n t h is f ash ion , n o t l east t hose c onnected w ith C araus ius. S tukeley , among o thers , p erpetua tes N enn ius ' e rroneous ,

' Carun , q uod a s uo n om ine n o men a ccep it .'

As l ong

a go a s 1 748, b efore t he Meda l l ic H istory h ad b een p ub l ished , McPherson3 7 h ad c as t d oubts o n a l l t h is a nd h ad c a l led Nenn ius ' a ccoun t ' f abu lous '. On t he e tymo logy o f Carron h e s ays i n af ootno te. ' To s uppose t ha t C arron c o mes f rom Caraus ius i s av ery p uer i le c once it , t hough p robab ly t he o n ly f ounda t ion o f t he c ur ious a necdotes r e lated b y N enn ius. The n ame o f t ha t r iver i s a G a l l ic [ s ic ] o ne ; wh ich s ign if ies w ind ing r iver . Accord ing w e f i nd s evera l C arrons i n N or thern Br ita in a nd o ne o f t he m i n t he Western d is tr ict o f Rosss h ire where C araus ius c on fessed ly n ever was '.

A l l t h is r e ma ins v a l id.

There i s l i t t le o r n o e v idence o f a ny Caraus ian p resence i n S cot land s ave i n t he t rad it ion wh ich c o mes o u t b r ief ly i n N enn ius , a nd t hen r eappears l a ter

2 1

i n t he med iaeva l c hron icles.

I ts a ppearance a t t h is t ime s hows t hat r eference

was n o l onger b e ing made d irec t ly t o t he e ar l ier h is tor ians.

On ly t he most

p ro m inen t e ven ts h ad c o me d own s o t ha t t he b u lk o f t he t h ird c entury p assed i n to o bl iv ion . The Med iaeva l Accoun ts Webb 3 8

p rov ides a c onven ien t s ynops is o f much o f t he r e levan t ma ter ia l ,

b u t h e i s u ncr it ica l a nd t ends t o a ccept t he c on ten t o f t hese v ar ious c hron ic les a s e qua l ly v a luab le.

Th is r ead iness t o t ake t he c hron ic les o n t rust may b e

i l lustra ted b y h is c o m men t 39

' Th is g raph ic s tory i s t aken f ro m t he c hron icles

o n ly , b ut i tc on ta ins n o imposs ib i l it ies , a nd i s i n n o way c on trad icted b y t he e ar l ier wr iters o r b y t he c o ins '.

I n o ther d iscuss ions o f t he u surpa t ion t he

c hron ic les a re u sua l ly c onsp icuous b y t he ir a bsence o r e lse t hey a re d is m issed a s wor th less f a iry t a les.

Bo th t hese a pproaches a re e x tre me ;

b o th c anno t

b e c orrect . The a ccoun ts i n q uest ion a re t hose o f G eo f frey o f Mon mou th , Rober t o f G louces ter , R ichards o f C irencester , J ohn o f F ordun a nd Hec tor Boeth ius. 40 R ichard o f C irencester may b e c ons idered f i rs t i n o rder t o e l im ina te h im f ro m t he r eckon ing .

T he De S itu , f orgery4 1

t hough i ti s , was c rea ted w ith s u f f ic ien t

s k i ll t o d ece ive many s cho lars f or many y ears , i n p ar t icu lar S tuke ley . Thorough ly d ece ived b y t he work o f B er tra m , t he ' gen t le man i n C openhagen ', h e r efers e n thus iast ica l ly t o t he ' mos t e xce l len t manuscr ip t o f R ichard o f C irencester ' a nd u ses i ta s e v idence o n s evera l o ccas ions. 42

B er tra m 's

imag inat ion d oes p rov ide S tuke ley w ith s o meth ing n ew t o s e ize u pon . s ect ions

T he

..de inde d iu p aru it u t i n p raetor ia s edes , h aec i nsu la C araus io ,

e isque q uos i n s oc ietate m a dsc iverat t yrann is ' a nd ' Caraus ius s u mp ta p urpura Br itann ias o ccupav it , p ost X a nnos p er Asc lep iodo tu m Br itann ia r ecep ta ' p rov ide n o f ood f or t hough t .

They c o me s tra igh t f ro m e ar l ier w orks p lag iar-

i sed b y Ber tra m , b u t n ot a ltered b y h i m. muntor io a d Rhobogd iu m

' Pars h u ius i nsu lae , aS acro p ro-

u sque e x tensa , o r ien ta l is c ensetur .

H ab itan tes

s upra p ro mun tor iu m S acru m Menap i i p r i mar ia m h abeban t e iusdem n om ina u rbe m a d f luv iu m Modona m.

Hu ic a d Menap ia m , i n D i met ia s i ta m , XXX

mil iar ia n u meran tur , u t P l in ius , r efer t . i ncer tu m , Pa tr ia m h abebat Caraus ius '.

Haru m u na m , q ua m n am v eru m T h is e nab led S tuke ley t o p ronounce

Caraus ius Br it ish a nd d eclare h im an at ive o f S t . Dav ids i n Wa les. 4 3 Randa l l o bserves

4 4

As

Menev ia , t he o rd inary Med iaeva l n a me f or S t . Dav ids '

h as b een t urned f or e f fect i n to Menap ia , a nd t he e f fect w as a ch ieved o n S tuke ley .

T h is s pur ious p iece o f w ork h as b een men t ioned r a ther t o s how

t he e f fec t i td id h ave a nd , h ad i t dwe l t more u pon t he Caraus ius e p isode , c ou ld h ave h ad , b ecause o f t he s k il l w ith wh ich i t was e xecu ted .

I t may t hus b e

d is m issed f ro m f ur ther c ons iderat ion. O f t he Eng l ish Chron ic lers who men t ion t he Caraus ius e p isode G eof frey o f Mon mou th i s t he f irst a nd most i mpor tan t .

T he v erse c hron ic le o f Rober t

o f G louces ter f o l lows Mon mou th c lose ly a nd a dds n o th ing t o t he t rad it ion . Mon mou th 's c la i ms t o h ave h ad a ccess t o a' vetust iss i mus l i ber ' i n t he Br it ish t ongue h ave u sua l ly b een d is m issed a s af abr icat ion o f h is t o a dd s o me a ir o f a uthent ic ity t o ap aten t ly f i ct it ious n arra t ive. ma t ter i s made b y Gr isco m ; 45

The c ase f or c au t ion i n t h is

i ti s i mposs ib le t o b e a s c onclus ive o r d ogma-

t i c a s many c r it ics h ave t r ied t o b e.

The a ccoun t f ound i n t he H istor ia o f t h is

2 2

particular episode needs to be treated with caution, then, but still needs to be treated before being dismissed unread on the strength of its 'author's' reputation. The relevant section begins with an account of the succession after the death of Severus. There is confusion from the outset in that Severus' sons and heirs Geta and Caracalla (here called Bassianus) are said to have been born of different mothers. The Britons are said to have rejected Geta because he was born of a Roman mother whereas Bassianus' mother was British. Backed by the Britons on this account Bassianus slew his brother and 'regno potitur'. What is meant by regnum in this phrase? Is Monmouth trying to inflate Britain's importance in the succession of Caracalla and nothing more; or is he going further and suggesting that G€ta was slain in order to obtain, not the Roman Empire proper, but the sort of Empire in Britain that Carausius was to hold later? It is clear from the rest of the account that Bassianus was based firmly on Britain yet the incongruity of the Roman senate's acceptance of this does not seem to have occurred to Monmouth or his source. It is to this senate that Carausius makes his overtures. Monmouth's source, assuming for the moment that he did not simply make all this up to suit one or two very basic facts, had no place for the third century. Such events as may have taken place during the period from the death of Cara­ calla to the usurpation of Carausius were not deemed of sufficient interest to merit a mention. These two major occurrences of the century, are drawn to­ gether by simply telescoping over sixty years. This process will be seen to occur in other late accounts and so it is possible to infer that whatever body of tradition they drew on recalled no events of significance for Britain from the period between the visit of the Severi and the coming of Carausius. This is, of course, a period which is ill documented at any level, forcing those who would look beyond the archaeological evidence to grasp at the vaguest allusions.46 It is obvious that the Severus episode and the Carausius episode must have had their impact on folk legend and so, in the apparent absence of any outstanding events in between, the two episodes have been run together in the transmission. Monmouth's treatment of the Carausius character is interesting in itself. The account is by no means favourably disposed towards him; he is not the national hero-figure he was later to become for Stukeley and subsequent sen­ timental numismatists. Monmouth perpetuates the image which is conveyed by the hostile Roman sources, although, in point of detail, his account varies greatly from theirs. Carausius is called a 'iuvenis'. He is said to have been low born, as in the early sources - 'ex infima gente creatus' - cf Eutropius' 'vilissime natus' and Orosius' 'genere quidem infimus'. No mention, however, is made of his place of origin. Neither Monmouth nor his 'vetustissimus liber' chose to draw on Aurelius Victor. There is a reference to Carausius' military talents, to which even the directly hostile contemporary sources afford grudging praise, in - 'probitatem suam in multis debellationibus examinasset'. So far there has been no very great surprise by comparison with the first group of literary source material. Monmouth's handling of the usurpation itself produces a more dramatic version of what is known from earlier sources. This more dramatic version has, 'profectus est Romam petivitque licentiam a senatu .... maximum

23

t u mu ltu m p er p opu lu m f ac ieba t ...agros p opu lando , c iv ita tes e t o pp ida d iruendo i nco l is omn ia s ua e r ip ieba t .' C araus ius emerges f ro m t h is a ccoun t a s t he a n t i-Ro man f orce i n t he i s land p ro m is ing ' i n ter fect is a tque e x tern i mat i s Ro man is t o ta m i nsu la m a b arbara g en te l i beraret .' I s t h is a ny th ing more t han Monmou th 's v igorous h and l ing o f av ague a nd d iaphanous t rad it ion? I t d oes n ot s quare w ith t he f acts a s t hey a re k nown f ro m o ther e v idence. C araus ius n ever p osed a s a ny th ing o ther t han a Ro man .

H e r e l ied h eav i ly

o n l eg ionary s uppor t a s may b e s een f ro m h is c o in i ssues h onour ing t he l eg ionary d e tatch men ts wh ich s erved h im , a nd o nce e s tab l ished i n Br ita in h is p o l icy , a s f ur ther r ef lected b y h is c o in i ssues , s ee ms q u ite c lear ly t o h ave b een t he p ursu it o f a ccep tance b y Rome r a ther t han t he r epud iat ion o f t h ings Ro man . ' D im icav it c on festu m c um B ass iano e t i n ter fec it e um....' C araus ius , i s s a id t o h ave h ad t o f i gh t h is w ay i n t o p ower a nd e l im ina te h is p redecessor . T here i s s o me d egree o f i ncons istency i n t he r e la t ive p os it ions o f Bass ianus a s emperor b u t i n Br ita in , a nd t he s enate , i n Rome , b u t t he b ody t o wh ich Caraus ius makes h is a ppea l f or a c omm iss ion .

No l og ica l a nswer s ee ms t o

o f fer i t se lf t o t h is amb igu ity i n t he h and l ing o f t he Roman h ierarchy , t he ma in p o in t t o c ons ider i s t he o ppos it ion wh ich C araus ius i s s a id t o h ave e ncoun tered a nd o vercome.

Th is i s o ne a spect o f t he u surpa t ion wh ich t he e ar ly s ources

make n o men t ion o f a l though i tw ou ld s ure ly h ave b een w ith in t he ir t erms o f r e ference a s i mper ia l p anegyr ics , o r a t l east h ost ile h istor ies , t o i nc lude a ny b u tchery o f p rov inc ia l t roops f or wh ich Caraus ius w as r espons ib le. T h is w ou ld h ave b een p ar t icu lar ly t he c ase h ad o ne o f t he g overnors b een s la in b y t he u surper .

N o men t ion i s made , y e t a l l o ur ma jor l a te s ources d o make men t ion

o f a ct iv it ies o f t h is s or t .

Whatever t he e ar ly wr iters may h ave f ro m i gnor-

a nce o r t hrough c ho ice , om it ted o f C araus ius h av ing t o f igh t h is w ay i n to p ower , t h is a spect o f t he u surpa t ion s ee ms t o b e o ne o f t he s tronger t rad it i ona l s trands wh ich p ers ists t hrough t o t he med iaeva l a ccoun ts. T he e le men t o f N or thern a l l iances i s a nother wh ich owes n o th ing t o t he e ar ly a ccoun ts a s t hey s urv ive t oday , b u t t he C araus ius e p isode h ad o bv ious ly l e f t s o me mark o n S co t t ish l egend. Th is i s r ef lected h ere i n Monmou th , b y t he i n troduct ion o f F u lgen t ius a nd ' f rater ma tr is s uae ' o f B ass ianus , h is c orrupt ion a t t he h ands o f C araus ius a nd s ubsequen t r eward o f a' l ocum mans ion is i n A lban ia '.

F ur ther d iscuss ion o f t h is N or ther ly e le men t i n t he

t rad it ion i s b et ter l e f tu n t il t he t wo S cot t ish Chron icles a re d ea lt w ith . Monmou th 's h and l ing o f t he l a t ter p ar t o f t he e p isode b ears i ncreas ing ly l i t t le r ese mb lance t o t he s tory f ro m e ar ly a ccoun ts.

He s ee ms t o h ave d one

n o more t han t ake a f ew b as ic n a mes a nd w eave r ound t he m a n i n teres t ing a nd e n ter ta in ing b ut o therw ise u nsubs tan t ia ted s tory . A l lectus b ecomes a d epu ty o f t he Ro man s ena te s en t t o r es tore Br ita in t o Roman r u le , t hus u surp ing t he r o le g iven i n t he e ar ly a ccoun ts t o Asc lep iodo tus w ho i s f i t ted i n to t h is v ers ion i n t he n ove l r o le o f ' Dux C ornua l l iae '.

Wha t i s t o b e i n ferred f rom

t h is a bout Mon mouth 's u se o r r a ther m isuse o f b as ic e ar ly a ccoun ts? I n s o me i nstances t here i s ar easonab le a pprox i mat ion t o t hese i n h is w ork b u t f or t he mos t p ar t t he p icture p resen ted i s o f a n a ccoun t e i ther d e l ibera te ly f ormu la ted t o s u it h is p urpose f rom a f ramework o f e ar ly s ources o r e lse a d ependence o n s o me t rad it ion o r t rad it ions wh ich i ncorpora te e lemen ts o f t he e ar ly s ources a s w e l l a s ag rea t d ea l o f o ther ma ter ia l. I t r equ ires a 2 4

g rea t d ea l o f g eneros ity t o a ccep t t h is a ccoun t a s at ranscr ip t o f a' v etust iss i mus l i ber ', wr it ten much n earer t he t ime o f t he e ven ts , u n less o ne a lso a ccep ts t ha t t hat w as , i n f act , a s f anc ifu l a s G eo f frey o f Monmou th i s h i ms e lf u sua l ly a ccused o f b e ing . T he a ccoun t o f A l lectus ' d efea t a t t he h ands o f Asclep iodo tus , i n t he n ame n ot o f Rome b u t o f t he Br itons , t he i n troduct ion o f t he o therw ise u nknown L ev ius G a l lus a nd i ndeed t he who le o f t he f i na le t o t he e p isode b ears o n ly t he f a intes t r ese mb lance t o t he a ccoun t p rov ided b y t he p anegyr ic o f 2 96. G ene ra l ly t he n arra t ive i s v iv id b u t s tereotyped , t he f a l l o f L ondon a s d escr ibed h ere c ou ld b e t he f a l l o f a l most a ny c i ty i n a nc ien t h istory . Wha tever t rad it i ons , i fa ny , may h ave b een d rawn o n f or t he n ew e lemen ts i n t he s tory t he o n ly p rev ious a ccoun t w h ich s ee ms t o h ave a ny marked s im ilar ity i s t ha t o f N enn ius. T he v erse c hron icle o f Rober t o f G louces ter d epends d irec t ly o n Monmou th 's a ccoun t . T he f acts s ta ted a re t he s a me a nd t here i s n o e v idence o f a ny o ther s ource h av ing b een u sed . T he Eng l ish t rad it ion c en tres f i rm ly o n Monmou th t hen , w ith G loucester r epea t ing h im a nd C irencester s pur ious. J ohn o f F ordun , t he e ar l ier o f t he t wo S co t t ish c hron ic lers p resen ts a n a ccoun t w h ich d iverges f rom t he e ar ly a ccoun ts , f ar l ess marked ly t han t ha t o f Monmou th . I td oes i ncorpora te s o me d is tor t ions , a nd s o me mater ia l f or w h ich t here i s n o e ar ly e v idence a nd a ga ins t w h ich t here i s s o me , b u t t he o vera l l i mpress ion i s o f a much s ounder t rad it ion g o ing r igh t b ack t o e ar ly s ources , wh ich h as b een g iven a d is t inct l oca l f l avour b y t he i n troduct ion o f t he P icts a nd t he S cots.

C araus ius ' c haracter a s p resen ted b y F ordun s hows g rea ter c o mp lex i-

t y t han w e f i nd i n Monmou th where h e i s n o th ing p ar t icu lar ly s pec ia l a t a l l. F ordun w as c onversan t w ith Monmouth ' sw ork a nd i ndeed i s a t p a ins t o r ep ud ia te a l arge measure o f i ta s h av ing b een wr it ten ' f abu lose '. I ti s c onsi s ten t w ith t h is t hat h e d oes n o t u se Monmou th a s ab as is f or h is own wr it ing ; b ut t h is d oes n ot p reven t h im f rom wr it ing , a t t imes , i n a manner e very b it a s f abu lo s e h i mse l f. 4 7 F ordun i s i n l i ne w ith t he e ar ly a ccoun ts i n it ia l ly . C araus ius i s s a id t o h ave b een l ow b orn b u t t a len ted , t here i s ap ira te p rob lem a nd h e g ets t he c o mm iss ion t o d ea l w ith i t , h e k eeps t he b oo ty , i s s en tenced t o d ea th a nd c onsequen t ly u surps. I t i s a f ter t h is t hat t he e le men ts o f l oca l t rad it ion e n ter i n to F ordun w ith - ' urg ing v ehe men t ly t o p eace a nd f r iendsh ip a l l t he t r ibes o f t he i s land , t he S cots a lso a nd t he P icts , w ho m h e h ad f ormer ly v is ited w ith t he mos t c rue l d epreda t ions , h e most e arnest ly , b y p rom is ing many g i f ts u rged u pon t he m t o j o in w ith h im a nd r ise u p t oge ther a nd d r ive t he Ro mans o u t o f t he i s land.

N or c ou ld h e h ave b rough t t he m o ver b y a ny means t o

c onc lude p eace o n t h is w ise , i ft he ir p ossess ions , g a ined b y t he s word i n t he t ime o f N ero , w ere n o t l e f t t o t he m u nder t he s a me f orm o f p eace , a nd h e h ad , moreover , g ran ted t ha t t hey s hou ld r e ma in i n tact f or a l l t ime.' f ar i s t h is l oca l i ns igh t i n to w hat r ea l ly h appened?

How

T he q uest ion o f wha t

e xact ly i s mean t b y t h is a ct iv ity u nder N ero i s t an ta l is ing e nough b u t more s pec if ica l ly , h ow f ar c an t h is w ho le s ect ion o n t he mak ing o f ap eace b e t aken s er ious ly t o c o mp le men t what i s , a f ter a l l , C araus ius ' ma jor p ropag and ist t heme? I ti s i mposs ib le , o f c ourse , t o g ive a d ef in ite a nswer , t he w ho le i nc iden t , f or e xa mp le , c ou ld r epresen t s ome e le men t o f l oca l t rad it i on d ea l ing w ith t he a f terma th o f t he g rea t r is ing o f 3 69 wh ich h as b een 2 5

mixed u p w ith t he C araus ius s tory . I ti s a nother sma l l p o in t t o b ear i n m ind when t ry ing t o g a in a n o vera l l p icture o f t he c red ib i l ity a nd u sefu lness o f t hese l a te a ccoun ts. T he n ex t s ect ion s ounds f anc ifu l a nd i s f ur ther t han e ver r emoved f rom t he e ar ly a ccoun ts. F u lgen t ius a nd h is g randson G o thar ius a re i n troduced , a nd l ands e x tend ing s ou th a s f ar a s t he Hu mber a re s a id t o h ave b een c eded t o C araus ius i n p erpetu ity .

T hese a re l ands wh ich G o thar ius , ' by t he h e lp o f

t he S cots...had h e ld w ith d i f f icu l ty , s afe f ro m t he Romans u p t o t ha t t ime.' I ti s c er ta in t hat t he Romans o ccup ied wha t i s n ow Y orksh ire a nd D urham b u t wha t o f Nor thu mber land? Even w hen t he ' Ro man ' t err itory i n Br ita in o f f ic ia l ly i nc luded much o f wha t i s n ow S co t land , t he V o tand in i o f Nor thumber land s ee m t o h ave h e ld a c er ta in p r iv ileged s tatus , p resu mab ly r ather b ecause o f t he ir c oopera t ion t han t he ir s treng th . P erhaps t here i s ac o lour fu l a l lus ion t o t he ir t err itory i n t h is p assage o f F ordun . Sass ianus ' a dven t a nd h is a t te mp ts t o r es tore t he s i tua t ion b y d iv id ing t he n or thern t r ibes a ga inst e ach o ther may w e l l d er ive f rom a c on fused a ccoun t o f t he a ct iv it ies o f Caraca l la d ur ing t he y ears 2 08-211. Even t he c on te mporary s ources 4 8

i nd icate t ha t t he Ro mans , c ampa ign ing i n t he n or th a t t ha t t ime ,

met w ith a g ood d ea l l ess t han c o mp lete s uccess , a nd o bv ious ly R oman r ev ersa ls w ou ld b ecome e n larged i n t he t rans m iss ion t hrough l egends b y t he n at i ve p opu la t ion . C araca l la i s s a id t o h ave b ough t s o me s or t o f ad ishonourab le s et t le men t w ith t he n or thern t r ibes a f ter h is f a ther 's d ea th i n 2 11. T hese e ar ly s ources a re h ost ile t o C araca l la , h owever , a nd i t mus t b e t ha t o ne o f t he v ery r easons why t here was s o l i t t le t o c om men t o n i n Br ita in f or most o f t he t h ird c en tury , was s ure ly t he p eacefu l s et t le men t wh ich h e w as a b le t o a ch ieve. These e ven ts a re n ot c lear ly a nd d irect ly m irrored i n F ordun 's a ccoun t n or w ou ld o ne r ea l ly e xpect t he m t o b e s o .

T he s trands a re t here h owever a nd

t he l a te a ccoun t must d er ive s o me o f i t s s ubstance f ro m t he b as ic f ac ts h owever mu tated i n t he ir t rans m iss ion . C araus ius ' a ssass ina t ion b y t he t reacherous A l lectus , h is p ar tner , f o l lows t he ma in o u t l ine f ac ts c lose ly . V ery l i t t le i s s a id b y w ay o f as ummary o f h is r e ign s ave t hat i tw as o f s even y ears 'dura t ion ( as i n E u trop ius a nd Oros ius ) a nd t hat i t was b as ica l ly g ood.

T he l oca l e le men t i s emphas ised b y t he p rom-

i nence g iven t o Caraus ius ' e f for ts t o b r ing t he P ict 's a nd S co ts t ogether , b u t n o men t ion i s made o f Max im ian 's a bor t ive a t te mp t t o r ecover t he i s land i n 2 89 u n less t h is t oo i s r espons ib le f or s o me e le men ts i n t h is B ass ianus s tory . I t i s more l ike ly , h owever , t ha t t h is w as j ust t oo f ar r e moved f rom e ven ts i n t he n or th t o warran t p ar t icu lar a t ten t ion f ro m F ordun , e spec ial ly i fi tw as r a ther t he r esu l t o f s tor my w eather t han Caraus ius p ersona l a b i l ity . A l lectus i s p or trayed a s av i l la in ' . ..the g rea ter p ar t o f t he Br it ish n a t ion r enewed t he t rea ty o f a l l iance w ith t he S cots , a nd d id t he ir b est e i ther t o p u t A l lectus t o d ea th o r t o b an ish h im f ro m Br ita in .'

H e i s f ur ther s a id t o h ave ,

' a f f l icted t he Br itons w ith man ifo ld d isasters ' a nd h ere w e f i nd t ha t h is c onf edera tes i n t hese n e far ious a ct iv it ies a re t he P icts. I n e ar l ier a ccoun ts h e i s v i l if ied f or emp loy ing t he a ss istance o f p ira tes a nd b ase mercenar ies. T h is w ou ld s ee m t o b e al oca l v ar ian t o n t he s ame t he me.

T he c hrono logy i s

a ga in s ound ; A l lectus i s s a id t o h ave r u led f or t hree y ears . T ha t i s ab as ic f ac t f rom a l l t he e ar ly a ccoun ts w ith wh ich t here i s af ur ther c lose l i nk i n t hat

2 6

A l lectus i s h ere e l im ina ted b y Asc lep iodo tus , a nd Asc lep iodotus a s p raetor ian p refec t , n ot Duke o f Cornwa l l. F ordun 's d es ire t o c r it ic ise t he P icts i s a ga in c lear a t t he e nd o f t he e p is ode when h e s ays , r eferr ing t o t he e ven ts o f 2 96 t ha t ' when w ar was made u pon t he Br i t ish p eop le b y t he Ro mans , t he S cots a ss ist ing t he Br itons b rough t t he m l oya l a id ;

a ga inst t he Br itons t he P icts i nvar iab ly g ave h e lp t o t he Ro mans.'

Th is i s ar a ther m islead ing g enera l isat ion.

H e g oes o n t o s ay t hat Ch lorus

e as i ly c o mpe l led t he s outhern Br itons t o make p eace , ' not b y w ar b ut b y t he t hrea t o f war '.

A f ter t h is , h owever , h e a t tacked t he Br itons o f A lban ia , a nd

t he S cots , w ith h e lp f ro m t he P ic ts.

Ch lorus was c erta in ly a ct ive i n t he n or th

o f Br ita in s hor t ly b efore h is d ea th i n 3 06. 49 T h is d oes n ot r e late d irect ly t o t he Caraus ius a nd A l lec tus e p isode b u t i ti s w or th c ons ider ing t he p oss ib le i mp l ica t ions o f t h is s ect ion f or C araus ius ' a l l iances a nd s phere o f o pera t ions. F ordun g oes o n t o s ay t ha t t he P icts a nd S cots w ere a t e ach o thers t hroa ts c on t inuous ly d own t o t he t ime o f Magnus Max i mus a nd i n s o d o ing om its t o men t ion what must h ave b een a p er iod o f c oopera t ion i n t he l a te 3 60s l ead ing u p t o t he g rea t r is ing a ga ins t t he o ccupy ing f orces.

T he a ccoun t h as i t s p os-

s ib i l it ies b u t a lso i t s d ef ic ienc ies a nd p it fa l ls. H ector Boe th ius , t he o ther S co t t ish c hron ic ler t o t ack le t h is s ub ject , wrote s o me o ne h undred a nd f i f ty y ears a f ter F ordun .

On t he f ace o f i t s , h is a ccoun t

i s much more f anc ifu l y et , a s Webb o bserves ,

i tc on ta ins s o me m inu t iae o f

d e ta il wor thy o f c ons idera t ion . h ere .

5 0

The e le men t o f l oca l l egend i s much s tronger

K ing F indock o f A lban ia i s s la in a nd Caran t ius , ' t he k ings owne b rother ',

i s i mp l ica ted.

Webb a ssu mes F indock i s t o b e e qua ted w ith t he F u lgen t ius o f

F ordun 's a ccoun t .

Be t ha t a s i t may , h ere w e h ave Caraus ius , o r ' Caran t ius '

n o t ' v il iss i me f l a tus ' b u t ' t he k ings owne b ro ther ,

f l ed i n to e x i le f or f ear o f

c onde mna t ion , n one o f wh ich b ears a ny r ese mb lance t o e ar ly a ccoun ts.

T h is

e x i le i s b r ief ly s u m mar ised i n t he n ex t s ec t ion , ' Hav ing t arr ied f or a c ons ide rab le t ime i n Br ita in , h e a t l eng th wen t away t o I ta ly w ith t he Ro man s o ld iers. By h is s erv ices u nder Aure l ian , Probus , Carus a nd D ioc le t ian h e g a ined g rea t r eknown a s a warr ior ....'

Th is wou ld i n f act b e p er fect ly c o mpat ib le w ith

wha t v ery l i t t le c an b e i n ferred a bou t Caraus ius ' c areer i n o ne way o r a no ther . T he p os it ion h e h as r isen t o b y 2 86 , t he f act t ha t h e r ose f ro m o bscur ity t hrough o u ts tand ing a b il ity a nd t he i nd ica t ion o f h is a pprox i ma te a ge f ro m c o in p or tra its c onsp ire t o s ugges t f or Caraus ius j us t s uch a c areer a s Boeth ius g ives t o h is C aran t ius. Where h as Boeth ius g o t t h is b ackground ma ter ia l f ro m w h ich n o o ther a ccoun t makes a ny men t ion o f ? Has h e s i mp ly i n ferred t he p robab il it ies f ro m t he s can t e v idence ,o f e ar ly a ccoun ts a nd made a v ery p laus ib le j ob o f p roduc ing a h ypot het ica l c areer o r h as h e h ad s o me r ea l i ns igh t i n to t he t ru th o f t he ma t ter s uch t ha t w e c an u se wha t h e s ays t o s upp le men t o ur meagre e v idence?

There

s ee ms t o b e as trong t rad it iona l e le men t i n t h is wh ich Boeth ius may w e l l h ave u sed t o h is own e nds.

T here a re a n u mber o f a ccoun ts i n Norse a nd o ther

s agas o f c areers s im i lar t o t h is , i fu sua l ly o f as o mewha t l a ter d a te , i nvo lv ing s pel ls i n t he s erv ice o f a n emperor f o l lowed b y ar eturn t o t he n a t ive l and a nd a p os it ion o f p ro m inence. B oeth ius n a mes o ne Qu in tus Bass ianus a s t he Ro man g overnor o f Br ita in a t t he t ime o f t hese e ven ts.

N o men t ion i s made o f a ny p rov inc ia l d iv is ion

2 7

a nd h ere a ga in t here s ee ms t o b e ac on fused r e ference t o C araca l la r a ther t han a ny e v idence o f t he g overnor o f Br itann ia I n fer ior . Apar t f rom t h is t he more s o l id f actua l s ide o f t he s tory n ow c o mes t o t he f ore.

C araus ius ' l ow

b ir th i s e xp la ined away b y t he Ro man t ic d ev ice t ha t h e h ad d e l ibera te ly c oncea led h is t rue o r ig ins i n o rder t o p reserve h is a nonym ity . T he a ccoun t o f t he a ctua l u surpa t ion i s s im ilar t o t ha t i n t he e ar ly v ers ions s ave t he r ather i l log ica l manouevre whereby h e s a i led , ' t o Wes t more land ...no t f ar f rom t he l ands o f t he S cots a nd P icts f rom who m h e h oped t o g a in a ss istance a ga ins t t he Ro mans.' No s ource , e ar ly o r o therw ise , a ctua l ly s ays i n s o many w ords t ha t Caraus ius s a i led f or t he s outh c oast o r t he Tha mes u pon u surp ing , h ence B oe th ius i s n o t i n c on trad ict ion w ith a ny th ing o ther t han p robab i l ity h ere.

N ever the less t he

e le men t o f l oca l i n teres t w h ich g overns s o much o f t he a ccoun t , s ee ms p rom ine n t a ga in h ere , a nd a s t here s ee ms n o s ound r eason t o s uppose C araus ius s hou ld h ave l anded a nywhere e xcep t t he s ou th e as t , u n less o ne i s p repared t o t ake t he who le o f t h is b us iness o f h is e ar ly i nvo lve men t w ith t he n or thern t r ibes a s f ac t , t hen Boeth ius ' c i tat ion o f al and fa l l i n ' Wes tmore land ' mus t b e r ej ected. From t h is p o in t o nwards Caraus ius i s b u ilt u p a s an a t iona l h ero-f igure , t he f oca l p o in t o f a n t i-Ro man f ee l ing t hroughou t t he who le i s land , a n i nev itab le d eve lcp men t w ith in a l egend embe l l ished b y l oca l c o lour ing . C araus ius i s t hus s hown s o l ic it ing t he P icts a nd S co ts w ith a v iew t o f orm ing a u n ited f ron t a ga ins t t he Ro mans. I ti s i n t h is a ccoun t t ha t t he i n teres t ing a s ide o ccurs w h ich f ur ther s hows of t he a u thor 's e rud it ion i n ma t ters o f Imper ia l H istory .

I n

p rov id ing f ur ther d eta i l o f Caraus ius ' t ime i n e x ile h e s ays , ' . ..he t hen e n l is ted f or t he P ers ian w ar wh ich t he emperor Carus h ad waged , t ha t b efore l ong r eady i n s peech a nd a c t ion a s h e was....' a nd s eems c er ta in ly t o h ave made u se o f a n e ar ly a ccoun t .

H is d escr ip t ion o f Caraus ius q ua l it ies h ere c ou ld h ave

c o me a l most v erba t im f ro m Oros ius o r B ede ' cons i l io a c manu p ro mp tus , a l though , o f c ourse , s uch a p hrase was n o t u ncom mon i n h is tor ica l a u thors g enera l ly . T he l eng thy s ect ion d ea l ing w ith C araus ius ' e f for ts t o c lear h is n a me mus t h inge o n l oca l l egend , Boeth ius ' imag inat ion o r s ome m ix ture o f t he t wo.

I n

a ny c ase i tl eads e f fect ive ly t o t he s a me s tage t ha t was r eached i n F ordun a nd Monmouth , t ha t b y o ne means o r a nother p eace w as made b etween t he P ic ts a nd t he S co ts. n ear York .

The c l i max c o mes w ith t he v ictory o ver Qu in tus B ass ianus

An o therw ise u nat tes ted H irc ius i s men t ioned a s p rocura tor , b u t

g enera l ly t he a ccoun t o f t hese e ven ts i s v ery s tero typed. t aken o f t h is b at t le?

C an a ny n o t ice b e

No e ar ly s ource men t ions i tb u t t hey w ere n ot t oo c on-

c erned w ith r ecord ing e very d eta i l o f t he u surpat ion n or , i n many c ases p res umab ly , w ere t hey i n ap os it ion t o d o s o. N ever the less , h ad C araus ius d efeated a nd s la in a l egatus a t t he h ead o f h is t roops i n Br itann ia I n fer ior t he c on te mporary s ources wou ld , s ure ly , h ave made s ome men t ion o f i ti fo n ly t o c onde mn t he a ct . o n t h is p o in t.

Webb

5 1

a dduces t he e v idence o f C araus ius l eg ionary c o ins

C araus ius h onours L eg io I Augus ta a nd L eg io 2 0 ( V a ler ia

V ictr ix o n h is c o ins , b u t n o t L eg io V I, t he o ther l eg ion s tat ioned i n B r ita in . As t he s ix th w as a t Y ork i th as b een a ssumed t ha t t h is l eg ion o pposed Caraus ius , a s i n t h is a ccoun t , h ence i t s om iss ion f rom t he c o in .

Webb

5 2

t akes t he v iew t ha t t he l eg ionary a n ton in ian i h onour who le l eg ions , s ome u nder C araus ius c on tro l , o thers n ear e nough t o b e w or th w oo ing . I ti s my

2 8

view that the coins honour only parts of legions; the vexillations drawn from the legions mentioned, which went to make up the initial force put under Carausius' command for his operations against the pirates. Why the sixth legion is not mentioned is thus explained away because it did not send him a vexillation in the first place. Carausius is said to have earned the enmity of the Britons for ceding ter­ ritory in the north to the Picts and Scots as a reward for their help. Fordun's account also mentions this territory although there it is ceded to Carausius by the Britons. This has always been disputed territory until comparatively recent times and any opportunity to give anachronistic support to the claims of either side was not to be missed. This element may very well be one of the themes in the traditions which culminate in these accounts of the Scottish Chroniclers. Finally Boethius' handling of Allectus' role is a combination of various themes. Here he is a Roman legatus as with Monmouth but not Fordun; he defects from Rome to seize the crown under pressure from his troops, as in Fordun but not Monmouth; he falls to Asclepiodotus the praetorian prefect after a three year rule, as in Fordun but not in Monmouth. The details, then, are minute in places. Webb's comments 53 are rather tentative. Although he admits of the obvious confusion over the name of Caracalla, he somehow manages to absolve this account from error and says of the supposed governor, 'there must of course have been such an officer' and is prepared to accept that this was he. Boethius' account does no more than vary the governor's name, following a traceable confused tradition. The governor of Britannia Superior must surely have been a much more important figure. Carausius must have had in him either a strong ally or else a powerful opponent, yet no mention is made of him anywhere. There is no evidence from coin hoards or anything else that there was great or even slight unrest in the north at this time. There is no evidence from the early accounts that Carausius met with any opposition from within Britain. The tabular arrangements of main thematic points which follows, enable an easy comparison to be made of the contents of the chronicles. It is at once apparent that the Scottish Chroniclers are better than Monmouth. Fordun in­ corporates the simpler localising element, Boethius the more complex, with all three sharing the confusion over Bassianus. Monmouth is rather a dis­ appointment. Despite being an earlier account than the Scottish ones it is much less concerned with consistency of source or accuracy and even under close scrutiny or given the most liberal interpretation it contributes very little of solid value to our lmowledge of Carausius and Allectus. If the 'vetustissimus liber' really existed then one is left wondering whether to blame Monmouth for his misuse of it or feel that it is in fact no great loss as a historical source if his version of it is any guide. Fordun and Boethius both build on the skeletal framework provided by the early sources. The increased availability of texts at the dawn of the renais­ sance would have given them an advantage over their predecessors. In both cases the local element predominates as one might expect. How far can any trust be placed on these otherwise unsubstantiated elements in the story of the period many of which go against all probability? Webb 54 cites the 29

Caraus ius m i lestone

5 5

a s p roo f o f h is a ct iv ity i n t he n or th w est a nd s uppor t-

i ng e v idence f or t he S cot t ish Chron ic lers b u t t he c onnect ion s ee ms f ar t oo t enuous.

A l l t ha t t he m i lestone d oes i s p rove t ha t t he n or th w est w as i n

Caraus ius c on tro l , n o t t ha t h e e ver w en t t here.

T he o ne t h ing wh ich d oes

emerge c lear ly f rom t hese l a te a ccoun ts i s t ha t t he C araus ius e p isode a s a who le s ee m t o h ave p assed i n to t he l egends o f t he n or thern p eop le i n aw ay p erhaps s im i lar t o t ha t i n wh ich Magnus Max i mus b eca me t he Maxen Wled ig o f Welsh t rad it ion . Wh ile t here may w e l l b e s o me th ing i n t he s trong t rad it ion o f Caraus ius a s ap eace maker a nd u n ify ing f orce w ith in t he i s land a nd e ven i n h is e ar ly c areer a s g iven b y Boe th ius t he c hron ic les d o n o t p rov ide an ew r ange o f e v idence t o s upp le men t t he meagre e ar ly a ccoun ts. We a re l ef t w ith impress ions r ather t han f ac ts. C araus ius o bv ious ly made t he b igges t impact i n Br ita in b etween t he d epar ture o f t he S even ia nd t he e nd o f t he t h ird c en tury , a nd d id s o i n aw ay t ha t , f or e xamp le , C lod ius A lb inus d id n o t .

Co mpara t ive t ab le o f ma in p o in ts i n t he a ccoun ts 1

Anc ien t S ources

Monmou th

F ordun

B oeth ius

a ) b )

mean b ir th b ravery a nd e xper ience

x x

x x

x x

c )

g a in a nd m isuse o f f l eet

x

x

x

d ) d )

c onde mnat ion a nd u surpa t ion r u les f or s even y ears

x x

x

f )

A l lectus , p ar tner , k i l ls t reacherous ly

x

g ) h )

A l lectus r u les f or t hree y ears Asclep iodo tus p . p 7 3 s en t

x

x x

x x

i )

d efea ts a nd k i l ls A l lectus

x

x

x

j )

r e mnan ts mopped u p a t L ondon

2 .

x

N o t i n Anc ien t S ources a ) b )

Caraus ius s o l ic its s ena te a t Rome Caraus ius ' e x ile a nd d eta i led c areer

x x

c )

Caraus ius ' Ro man a l l iance o f Br itons

d ) e )

Caraus ius l ands i n N Wes t Caraus ius c edes l and t o P icts a nd S co ts

f )

Br itons c ede l and t o C araus ius

x x

x x x

x x

g )

Bass ianus d efea ted a nd k i l led

x

h )

A l lectus s en t b y s ena te

x

i )

Asclep iodo tus Duke o f Cornwa l l

x

3 0

?

x

x x

Other references As will be seen from the texts at the beginning of this chapter the majority of these other references simply state in a few words that the usurpation took place. The majority of these are theological works with statements of this sort providing a historical framework. They are nearly all taken directly from one of the earlier historians and add no new evidence. They show that the Carausius episode was still thought worthy of brief mention and which sources were available for use.,but no more. Jeromes', 'post decem annos per Asclepiodotum praefectum praetorio Britanniae receptae', for example, is not a confirmation but a repetition of the earlier evidence. The accounts in Greek are somewhat longer. Z onaras was wide of the mark and was content to record in his list of problems facing the Tetrarc�y, that Crassus held Britain for three years before the prefect Asclepiodotus destroyed him. Crassus is a fairly obvious corruption of Carausius for an author of the Eastern Empire to whom the episode can have meant nothing. John of Antioch takes much more trouble over his narrative and consequently produces none of the errors of Zonaras, but he is still entirely derivative. He simply renders the Eutropius/Orosius account into Greek, adding nothing. The manuscript reading LEAe l. vov makes no sense and the emendation to BEAY l.XOV looks most convincing, especially as Eutropius has, 'per tractum Belgicae'. The only one of this group which appears to make any significant independent contribution to the understanding of the period is Helinandus. Despite having written so long after the event and being primarily concerned with the docu­ mentation of the struggle of Christianity, he provides a fuller than usual account of the purely historical background. The Carausius episode coincided with the martyrdom of Gereon and various others at the hands of Maximian. Whatever source Helinandus used it clearly contained the rudiments of the Carausius story, unless he is simply grafting it on to his main theme from elsewhere. If this latter is the case then he is singular in avoiding the practise of simply transcribing an earlier account. 'Carausius quidam nobilis' is in contradiction to the early accounts where he is of consistently humble origin. Even if it is simply a generalisation borne of ignorance it is a striking contrast to the, 'Carausius quidem, genere quidem infimus' of Orosius and shows, perhaps, as an interesting sideline to the de­ velopment of the story through to the chronicles, the sort of inference that would be made about Carausius by someone not provided with fuller information about his background. The basic factual details of this account are that Carausius was known to h'ave been organising raids on Roman territory; that this was a maritime command in an .area where the Franks were active, that Maximian sent an expedition to deal with th'e situation and that Carausius crossed over to Britain. Attention in this narrative is focussed, for the first time, on the early part of the usurpation, and, for what it is worth, there is more about the split between Carausius and· Maximian than in the other sources. Helinandus', 'insidias contra Romani fines imperii moliretur' is not dissimilar to the accounts provided by earli�r writers, but they say very little of the next stage; ' a Maximiano issus occidi' from Eutropius/Orosius, and, 'a quo se caedi iussum compererat' from Aurelius Victor. They make no mention of any expedition,

31

'perRheni fluvius alveum' at this stage. The chronology is by no means cer­ tain but it seems clear that Helinandus cannot be referring to the expedition of 289, although his account may be somewhat coloured by that event; this expedition is directly linked to Carausius' initial act of usurpation whereas the panegyric of 289 makes it quite clear that he was by that time, a usurper of some standing. The route, 'perRheni fluminis alveum' is presumably that taken by at least part of the 289 expedition which the panegyric shows to have set off from Treves. No mention is made by Helinandus of the fleet base that Carausius is supposed to have had at Boulogne. He does mention the 'optatis ... spoliis' with which Maximians' forces loaded themselves before returning along the same route, but these can hardly have been from Carausius who had crossed to Britain. Helinandus mentions an army but no particular body of ships. That this route was followed is no particular proof that there were ships and indeed, unless the whole thing is a fabrication, there clearly can not have been any significant naval force involved otherwise Maximian would not have had to build one for his 289 expedition. This earlier expedition, without ships seems to have been directed against neither Carausius nor, obviously, Roman pro­ vincials, but against trouble makers operating from just beyond the fringes of the empire. Helinandus is too concerned with the fate of the martyrs to give much prominence to anything else but it does appear that this could well in fact have been a show of strength against the pirates made necessary by Carausius' failure to perform his duties satisfactorily. Carausius had taken all the ships but a military operation such as this could well have seemed a means of being seen by the dissatisfied provincials to be doing something about the pirate menace, as well as providing an opportunity to gain possession of whatever booty these pirates still had after Carausius' activities. It seems unlikely that Maximian intended to make any restitution to the plundered pro­ vincials and the dissatisfaction does not seem to have abated very quickly for he had to transfer troops to Gaul from Mauretania, 'propter frequentes Gallorum tumultus'. Carausius must have been well pleased to have such a state of affairs obtain in Gaul as a distraction for Maximian. Carausius is not directly involved in the martyrdoms which are Helinandus' main concern. He is merely the reason why Maximian made the journey in the first place. This ought to mean that Helinandus had no reason to distort the facts but it also means that he would probably have been content to see any reasonable pretext for this journey, without analysing it too closely. This explains the inconsistencies of an expedition, supposedly against a Carausius who has crossed over to Britain, without any fleet. Epigraphic Evidence The only epigraphic evidence from the period of Carausius and Allectus, which mentions either by name, is the milestone which was found in 1894 in the bed of the river Petterill, just below Gallows Hill near Carlisle. This is described by Wright 56 as a 'Milestone of grey sandstone, mainly cylindrical but with one face dressed flat, 74 n high x 18" wide... The central text has been chiselled away and was presumably primary. Then the broader end was used for an inscription of Carausius. Later this was buried and an inscription of Constantine I, as Caesar, was cut at the narrower end....' It is recorded with more or less comment in a ;ariety of other places. 57

32

The reading of the Carausian inscription is clear and in no doubt: IMP C M AVR MAVS CARAVSIO P F INVICTO AVG This provided the first positive evidence for Carausius' full name which had, from Stukeley's time been thought to have been Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius. Stukeley, followed by Eckhel 58 gave IMP M AVR V CARAVSIVS P AV as the obverse legend on a coin, but this was not followed by Cohen, does not exist today, and seems certainly to have been a mistake. There are several coins known with IMP C M A VR M CARAVSIVS as the beginning of the obverse legend; and there is also now the second medallion, 59 although none of these provides as full a version as the milestone. Mowat 60 suggests that Carausius took the names Marcus Aurelius from Maximian, 'under whose orders he served in the army of Inferior Germany'. He expands MAVS to Mausaeus or Mausaius and cites the small 3ilver coin struck by the Gallic Celts, reading MAVSAIIOS as corroboration. 6 1 Holder 62 provides a wealth of references for these coins and accepts Mausaeus as a 'Beiname des Kaisers Carausius'. He also cites all the Carausian obverse legends in which M occurs as examples of the use of this name, applying epigraphic principles, to show that the single M would not stand for Marcus but Mausaeus. He also raises the possibility that Carausius' name was derived from some place name 'von Mausaeus abgeleitet vielleicht O. Mausiacum' but adduces no evidence in support of this. Mowat (R.N. 1895) says that the only place in Celtic nomenclature which starts with Maus, 'a ete derive le nom de lieu Mausiacus, aujourd'hui Mozat signfiant domaine de Mausius ou Mausaios.' The rest of the milestone presents more problems. Wright describes the central erasure as the primary text but this is not the obvious place for such a text unless it is assumes that the central area is where the continuation of the primary inscription would have been. Wrights' reading of what little he claims to be able to see militates against this. Mowat (A.A. 18 96) reading 'upside down', as Wright says, saw in this central area the remains of some part of the Carausian inscription, which gave the names of places on the route south from Carlisle. These 'proper itinerary indications' were 'purposely separated from the beginning with the intention of attracting the notice of passers by'. His restoration is: [LUGUVALLI] 0 [BROCONAV] AS [MILLE PASSVVM] 'The restored word Luguvallio may safely be considered as certain, whilst the complimentary part of [Broconav] as is merely conjectural for the sake of showing how the brackets are to be filled with the name of one of the stations on the road to York, provided it has the feminine plural termination - as'. This is of limited value. Broconavas is unknown and it was more common for late third century milestones to dwell on imperial titles rather than 'itinerary indications'. I t was also abnormal for a milestone in a civitas area 63 to re­ cord any more such information than the distance in miles from the civitas 33

c ap ita l.

T h is s tone , t herefore , wh ich p resu mab ly s tood o r ig ina l ly o n t he t op

o f G a l lows H i l l , wou ld h ave marked t he f i rs t m i le o u t f ro m C ar l is le o n t he r oad t o Y ork . 64 T he f ina l i nscr ip t ion i s u nc lear a t av i ta l p o in t . FL VAL CONS TANT ONOB CAES T h is i s a l l t ha t i s c er ta in . Wr igh t g ives FL VAL/CONS/TANT [1]/NO NOB/ CAES w ith t he N o f l i ne f our a s c lear ly v is ib le , a nd a t tr ibu tes t he i nscr ip t ion t o Constan t ine t he F irst a s Caesar .

T he CW 1 895 a ccoun t i s more c au t ious

b ut s ugges ts Cons tan t ine a s more l i ke ly t han C ons tan t ius a nd a dduces t wo o ther m i les tones f ro m t h is r oad i n s uppor t o f t h is.

6 5

B ir ley , h owever , a scr ibes

t h is l as t i nscr ip t ion t o C onstan t ius a nd s ays o f h im s et t ing i tu p wh i le Caesar ' no d oub t t here wou ld b e n o s er ious o b ject ion , i n t he f i rs t f l ush a f ter t he v ictory o f A l lectus , t o t he n a me o f t he C aesar b e ing c u t o n t he G a l lows H i l l s tone '. Th is i s ac onv inc ing r ead ing .

I ti s i nheren t ly more l ike ly t ha t Caraus ius '

i nscr ip t ion wou ld h ave b een b ur ied v ery s oon a f ter t he r ecovery i n 2 96 , a nd t he n a me o f t he v ictor ious Caesar e rected i n i t s p lace. As we l l a s p ossess ing ' t he s en t i men ta l i n teres t o f u n iqueness ' t h is s o le l ap idary r e l ic o f Caraus ius s erves t o c on f ir m a Caraus ian p resence o n t he n or thern f ron t ier ;

a n a rea wh ich h as y ie lded r e la t ive ly l i t t le n um is mat ic

e v idence o f t he p er iod .

T here r e ma ins t he e n igmat ic i nscr ip t ion f ro m P en-

machno f ro m wha t h as b een c a l led a u n ique e xamp le o f a Chr ist ian c a irn b ur ia 1. 6 6

I t r eads : CARAVS IVS H IC I ACIT I N HOC CONGER IES LAP IDV M

a nd h as b een t aken b y s o me t o mark t he a c tua l b ur ia l p lace o f t he C araus ius 6 7 Ar thur Evans d ea ls w ith t h is a t s o me l eng th 6 8 ' more Ro mano ' r a ther t han ' more Br itann ico '.

c i t ing Hubner o n t he l a t in ity a s A l l t h is i nscr ip t ion c an b e s a id

t o s how i s t ha t t h is n a me s urv ived f or a c ons iderab le n u mber o f y ears a nd i n t h is r espect i t may b e l ikened t o t he c o ins o f t he ' second Caraus ius ' w ith wh ich Evans i s p r i mar i ly c oncerned i n t h is a r t ic le.

3 4

NOTES

1 .

The a rgumen ts c oncern ing t he d a t ing o f t h is p anegyr ic a re l uc id ly e xp ressed b y G a l let ier i n h is e d it ion o f t he p anegyr ics.

( Bude v o l. I )a nd

Ia ccep t 2 89 a s t he most c onv inc ing . 2 .

c f . P lu tarch P o mp 6 4.1 f or L iburn ians a s d is t inct fr om s cou t ing v essels .

3 .

Casson , L ., S h ips a nd S ea mansh ip i n t he Anc ien t Wor ld p p . 1 41-2. Th is work i s p ar t icu lar ly u sefu l f or n au t ica l r e ferences i n g enera l.

4 .

S tarr , C . G ., T he Ro man Imper ia l N avy 3 1 B .C.-A. D . 3 24 , p . 5 4.

5 .

o p.c it ., p . 1 41.

6 .

o p.c it ., p . 5 4.

7 .

S tarr ( l oc.2 11 ) . o bserves t hat t he t erm l iburna ' b eca me i ncreas ing ly u sed f or a l l warsh ips t owards t he p er iod o f t he l a ter emp ire , a l though Casson ( .c it ., p . 1 52 n . 6 ) i mp l ies t ha t l i burna w as more t han u sua l ly p rec ise w ith ' b ire m is ', t he l ayman 's a l terna t ive i n g enera l a ccoun ts.

8 .

c f . Deche let te , J ., Manue l d 'Archeo log ie , 1 934 , G a l lo-Ro ma ine p ar A . Gren ier , p p . 5 28-9 , f or a d escr ip t ion o f t he a rea a t t h is t ime.

9 .

c f . t he r are OPES l egends o n ' Rouen ' c o ins wh ich s ee m t o e xpress t h is h ope f or a id.

S h ie l , N ., The Opes L egend o n t he Co ins o f

Caraus ius , R .N . 6e sr . XV , 1 973, p p. 1 66-8. 1 0.

C .I. L . X I : I 6 86.

1 1.

S tarr , C . G ., o p.c it ., p . 1 53 :

' The t ranspor t o f men a nd ma ter ia ls

f ro m t he c on t inen t t o Br ita in a lways r e ma ined t he c h ief f unc t ion o f t he Br it ish s quadron.'

Th is w ork a lso g ives a u sefu l l i st o f r eferences

f or f ur ther work o n t he s ub jec t . 1 2.

Bu t c f . Mat t ing ly , H ., An t iqu ity v o l. V I I I, 1 934 , p p . 2 89-292 who a ccep ts t h is e v idence w ithou t much q uest ion s ay ing , ' he [ Sc. Caraus ius ] o r a t l eas t h is s uccessor A l lec tus , r e l ied ma in ly o n t he s erv ices o f S axon p irates ;

t he Br itons may h ave h ad n o v ery l arge s hare i n h is

r u le. 1 3. 1 4.

Bude e d it ion v o l. I , p . 9 1. e .g . G a l let ier o p.c it ., p . 9 2 n . 1 :

' Exp l icat ion p lus o u mo m s c er ta ine

d e l ' echec d e l a f lot te c ons tru ite e n 2 88-89 '. 1 5.

c f . E icho lz, D . E ., Const a ,n t ius Ch lorus ' I nvas ion o f Br ita in , J .R.S . V o l. XL II I ,

1 953, p p . 4 1-46 a s t he b est a ccoun t o f e ven ts a nd a s a

3 5

c onven ien t s ynops is o f e ar l ier a t te mpts a t r econs truct ion ( i .e. S agot , F ., La Bretagne Ro ma ine , Par is , 1 911, p p. 18f f.:

J u l l ian , C .,

I isto ire d e l a G au l v o l. V I I, p p. 8 0-84 ). 1 6.

l oc.c it.

1 7.

G al let ier , o p.c it., p . 9 4 n . 3 *.

1 8.

o p.c it ., p . 4 3.

1 9.

Webb , P . H ., The Re ign a nd Co inage o f Caraus ius , N .C . 4 th s er. v ol. V I I, 1 907, p . 1 6.

Th is work i s h erea fter r eferred t o a s Webb

1 907. 2 0.

2 2.. c it ., p . 9 5 a nd n . 3 .

2 1.

o p.c it ., p . 4 4, n . 1 1.

2 2.

2 2 .c it ., p . 9 5. n . 3 .

2 3.

e .g . Mowat A .A. 2 s er. v o l. XV II, p p. 2 81-6, who c ites t hree p laces w ith ' equa l c la im ' t o b e t he p lace o f Caraus ius ' o r ig in :

2 4.

a ) t he d is tr ict

o f Belg iu m n ear t he S che ld t e stuary :

c f . Caes. B .G . i4 ;

S trabo I V

i i 4 , 5 ;

P l iny N . H ist. I V , 1 8, 3 1;

P to le my i , V II I, 1 0.

b ) The I s le

o f Man :

c f. P l iny N . H ist . I V 1 8, 3 0.

I re land :

c f . P to le my 1 1;

1 1;

c ) The a rea r ound Wick low i n

7 , 8 1 \ . C X , V67 ,

6X t ,

S tukeley , W., The Medal l ic H istory o f Caraus ius , 2v o ls., L ondon , 1 757, 1 759, p . 6 2 a nd c f . f or f ur ther c o m men t Wil l ia ms , P ., A B iograph ica l D ict ionary o f Em inen t Welsh men , L landovery , C 1 846.

c f . De Peyster , The S tory o f Caraus ius , Poughkeeps ie , 1 858,

p . XX IV f or t he c o m men t t hat t he n a me c o mes f ro m ' Meen a f t ,

t wo

T euton ic words , s ign ify ing a c o m mun ity o f p eop les.' 2 5.

Franzero , F ., Ro man Br ita in , London :

2 6.

Rhys , J ., Ce lt ic Br ita in , 1 904 , p . 2 86 a nd A . Ca mb. V s er. v o l. I V , p p. 6 6f f.

c f . p p. 3 7f f .

Th is was t he v iew h e e xpressed t o t he meet ing o f t he Ca mbr.

Arch. Assoc. i n L ondonderry i n 1 891. 2 7. 2 8.

Haver f ie ld , F ., The Ro man isat ion o f Br ita in , Ox ford , 1 923, p . 7 8n . Milton , J ., Br ita in Under Tro jan , Ro man a nd S axon Ru le i n Kennet 's Eng land , 1 719, v o l. Ia s r epr in ted b y The Wor ld L ibrary o f S tandard Books , L ondon , p p. 6 Of f.

2 9.

e .g . Wa lker , 0 ., The Greek a nd Ro man H istory I l lustrated b y Co ins a nd Meda ls , L ondon , 1 692, p . 3 16 , ' Caraus ius , a n I r ish man ...', o r Begero , L ., Thesaur i E lectora l is Brandenburg ic i , Co l. March., 1 697, p . 7 83, ' Caraus ius , Menap ia , u rbe Hybern iae , o r iundus

3 0.

'

c f. Carson , R . A . G ., The Bronze Meda l l ions o f Caraus ius, B . M.Q., v ol. X ,O (VI I, n os. 1 -2, p .104.

3 1. 3 2.

l oc.c it . Milton , J ., l oc.c it . a ssu mes w ithou t q uest ion t hat t he n orthern f ron t ier was t hreatened.

3 6

33.

For similar usage cf. Macr. S 7.3 and Amm. 29.1.S.

34.

Seston, W., Diocletien et la Tetrarchie, vol. I, p. 74.

35.

op.cit., pp. 129ff., with four woodcuts devoted to 'Arthur's Oon.'

36.

cf. Steer, K. A., Arthur's Oon: A Lost Shrine of Roman Britain, A.J. CXV, pp. 106ff.

37.

McPherson, J., Critical Dissertations on the Origin, Antiquities, Language, Government, Manners and Religion of the Ancient Caledonians, their posterity, the Picts and the British and Irish Scots, London, 1748, p. 33 and .

38.

cf. Webb 1907, pp. 1ff. for translations and discussion.

39.

R.I.C. vol. V2 p. 427, n. 1. Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae, V, 111 & IV. cf. the edition of Griscom, A. and Jones, R. E., London, 1929. Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, 11.1721ff. cf. the edition of Wright, W. A., London 1887, which is vol. I in the series Rerum Britan­ nicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores. Richard of Cirencester, De Situ Britanniae, I, III & XIV; II, XXX. cf. Giles, J. A., The Chronicle of Richard of Devises; also Richard of Cirencester's Description of Britain, London, 1841, and Dyer, G., A Commentary on Richard of Cirencester, Exeter, 1814. John of Fordun, Chronica Gentis Scotorum, chs. 27ff. of the edition of Skene, W. F., Edinburgh, 1871 & 1872, which forms volumes I and IV in the series The Histor­ ians of Scotland. Hector Boethius, History of the Scots, Bk. VI cf. the edition of Chambers, R. W. and Batho, E. C., Publications of the Scottish Texts Society, third series, volume 10, 1938, and Watson, G., The Mar Lodge Translation, same series, volume 17, 1942.

40.

41.

cf. Randall, H. J., Splendide Mendax, Antiquity VII, 1933, pp. 49-60 for a discussion of the composition of this work and its subsequent influence.

42.

op.cit., pp. 62, 125, 134, 135, 169, 176 and cf. also his An Account of Richard of Cirencester, Monk of Westminster, and his Works; with his Ancient Map of Roman Brittain; and the Itinerary thereof, read to the Antiquarian Society, 18.3.1756, and published the following year.

43.

op.cit., p. 62.

44.

2E.cit., p. 49.

45.

_2£.cit., eh. VII.

46.

e.g. taking Nemes .Qyg, 11 69ff as a references to a British campaign under Carus.

47.

cf. Keeler, L., Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Late Latin Chroniclers 1300-1500, University of California Publications in English vol. 17 No. 1, esp. pp. 76-80.

37

4 8.

Herod ian I I , 1 4 , 1 5 ;

4 9.

Pan . L at . V I ( V I I ) 7 . 1 -2.

5 0.

l oc.c it .

5 1.

R .I.C. v o l. V , 2p . 4 27, n . 1 .

5 2.

i b id., p p . 4 40-1.

5 3.

Webb 1 907, p p. 2 9-30.

5 4.

i b id., p p. 3 0 a nd 3 9.

5 5.

R .I.B. 1 022 a nd vi.

5 6.

R .I.B. p . 7 18 n os. 2 290-2292.

5 7.

e .g . RE I X 1 255a ;

D io LXXV I 1 3-15.

F erguson C . W .2 X I I I ( 1895 ), p . 4 37 w ith p late ;

B ir ley , E . B . , C .W. n s LV II p p. 8 8-93;

P .S .A. 2 XV ( 1894 ) p . 2 63;

P .S .A. N. 2 V I ( 1894 ), p . 2 63 w ith f igs.;

P .S .A. N. 2 V I I ( 1896 )

Haver f ield Acad. 1 2.1.1895 p . 4 1;

v o l. X I I I ( 1895 ) p p. 1 29-133 & v o l. X IV ( 1896 ) p . 1 46 ; ( 1895 ) p . 2 81;

I .L .S. 8 928;

P .

1 74 ;

Mowat Bu l. S oc. An t . Fr. 3 s er. A .A. 2 s er . XV I I

Ca t. No. 9 4 ( 46 w ith p late ).

Th is i s n ow

i n Tu l l ie House Museu m , Car l is le. 5 8.

Meda l l ic H istory v o l. Ip . 1 12;

Doct. Nu m m. V II I p . 4 7.

5 9.

B .M.9 .v o l. =

6 0.

A .A. 2 s er. XVI I p p. 2 81-6.

6 1.

c f. B ib l. Na t. No. 9 359 p ub l ished i n Haucher , L 'ar t g au lo is, i p . 6 8.

6 2.

Ho lder , A ., A lt-Cel t ischer S prachscha lz , L e ipz ig 1 896, v o l. I , c o l.

T I T, 1 -2 p . 2 .

4 87. 6 3. 6 4.

The C iv itas Carvet t ioru m was p resu mably b ased o n Car l is le. c f. C . W . X II , p . 3 65.

The Ro man Ce meter ies o f Luguva l l iu m f or t h is

a rea. 6 5.

C IL V I I 176 , 177 = R IB 2 285 , 2 288.

6 6.

Anderson , J ., Notes o n t he s urv iva l o f p agan c usto ms i n Chr ist ian b ur ia ls , P .S .A.S . X I p p. 3 67f f .

6 7.

e .g . A .A. 2 s XX I I I p . 9 5 n .

6 8.

A . Ca mb. V s er . v o l. V p p. 1 38-163, e sp. p p . 1 43f f .

3 8

CHAPTER I

THE HOARD EV IDENCE GROUP ONE: 1 .

H oards t er m ina t ing w ith C araus ius

AMERSHA M , Bucks. S tuke ley .

L et ters a nd D iar ies I p . 9 .

3 0 S ep te mber 1 753 ' A g rea t n u mber o f t ha t Emperors ' ( sc. Caraus ius ) c o ins was f ound n ear t ha t p lace ( sc. Amersha m ) a bou t t wo y ears a go... . mos t o f t he m a re i n t he h ands o f t he L ord o f t he Manor .

The work-

men , a s t hey were d igg ing , l a id o pen a c ur ious b ur ia l p lace , i n f or m o f am inced p ye , b u i lt w ith f l in ts , s evera l b od ies f ound t here in ....The p eop le h ere h ave a n ot ion t ha t Caraus ius was s la in n ear t h is p lace i n a f i e ld c a l led Cavensf ie ld , a bou t 4m i les f ro m N ewpor t '. Th is may p oss ib ly n ot h ave b een a h oard b u t t here i s n o way o f e s tab l ish ing t h is. 2 .

BOK ING ( or BOCK ING ) S tuke ley .

Essex .

TL 7 623

L et ters a nd D iar ies I p . 1 67 = D iary , v o l. XV 2 .

2 7 J une 1 754.

' She g ave me t o u se t hree c o ins o f Caraus ius , o ne a

mos t e legan t o ne S AECVL I FE L IC ITAS .

T hese a nd a v ast q uan t ity w ere

f ound t ogether b y ac oun try man n ear B ok ing , Essex '. 3 .

BRED ICOT , Worcs. S 09050 ( 4 m i les e as t o f Worcester ). A l l ies.

H istory o f Worces ter .

1 852 p . 9 5 ;

V .C.H. Worcs. Ip . 2 18 ;

C .C.R.B. p . 1 63. An u rn o f r ed e ar thenware c on ta in ing 1 40 ' t h ird b rass ' w as f ound i n 1 839 d ur ing t he c onstruct ion o f t he G loucester-B ir m ingha m r a ilway .

Among

6 2 e xa m ined were : 7x G a l l ienus ; 2 4 xT etr icus I ;

1x S a lon ina ;

1x P ostu mus ;

1 1 xC laud ius I ; 1 x Probus ;

9xV ictor inus ; 4xC araus ius ;

S o me o f t he c o ins a re s a id t o b e i n t he Worcester Museu m b u t e nqu ir ies h ave s hown t ha t , i ft h is i s s o , t hey a re n ow i nseparab ly d is tr ibu ted among t he g enera l c o l lect ion o f Ro man c o ins t here. 4 .

CA 1 V IERTON I , S o merset S T 6 857 V .C.H. S o merset p . 2 92 ;

C .C.R.B. p . 1 62.

I n 1 817 t hree Ro man c o in h oards w ere d iscovered i n a sma l l h ouse. One o f t hese c on ta ined 1 14 ' Ae 3 ' a nd t erm inated w ith a s ing le Caraus ius.

3 9

5 .

CANTERBURY , Ken t Unpub l ished .

TR 1 457

v id i c /o S . S . Frere.

Th is i s as ca t tered h oard f a l len f ro m r oo f t imbers i n CXX IX .E XX . C 6 , wh ich c ons ists o f 17 c o ins r ang ing f ro m Ba lb inus t o C araus ius . O f t hese 1 09 a re c o ins o f Caraus ius. T he l a test d iscernab le mark o n t hese c o ins i s

F 10

. T here a re many c rude p ieces a nd q u ite a

ML n u mber o f l eg ionary c o ins.

A l l t h is s ugges ts a r easonab ly e ar ly d e-

p os it ion d a te wh ich may b e t aken a s t he 2 89 s ugges ted b y Carson 's i n terpreta t ion o f t he F I0 mark .

1

Many o f t he c o ins h ave a r a ther

ML b urned a ppearance wh ich may i nd ica te t ha t t he b u ild ing i n wh ich t hey were f ound was d estroyed o r d a maged b y f ire i n Caraus ius ' t ime . 2 6 .

CANTERBURY , Ken t

TR 1 457

V .C.H. Ken t I I p . 6 8 ;

Archaeo log ia x l i i i p . 1 55 , Nos. 5 4 , 5 5.

4 1 c o ins were f ound o ppos ite t he e ast e nd o f S a in t Mary , Bred man Church , i n al arge g lobu lar u rn , 2 5" x 1 7" w ith sma l l h and les ;

' so me

o f Caraus ius b ut most ly i l leg ib le '. 7 .

CANTERBURY , Ken t

TR 1 457

J .R.S . XLV I I , 1 957 p . 2 25. Dur ing e xcavat ion c arr ied o u t i n t he c ar p ark o f t he Mar lowe T hea tre a Ro man b u ild ing w as f ound.

T h is h ad b een e x tens ive ly d a maged b y

f ire a t t he e nd o f t he t h ird c en tury a nd n ever r ebu i l t .

' I n ar es tr icted

a rea o f t he f a l len d ebr is _ c .150 c o ins , ma in ly o f Caraus ius , b ad ly b urned , must h ave f ormed p ar t o f ah oard '. 8 .

CANTERBURY , Ken t Unpub l ished .

' FR 1 457

v id i c /o S . S . F rere.

Th is c ons is ts o f _ 6c o ins o n ly : 1x C laud ius I ; 9 .

1x C araus ius ( R IC 8 80 );

4 xb arbarous r ad ia tes.

CASTELL-Y-BERE, Mer ion . S H 6 708 B .C.S. XLX p . 3 46 ;

XX I I I p . 3 06 *

A t l eas t _ 4c o inswere f ound i n a mor tar iu m i n 1 951. G a l l ienus t o C araus ius.

T hey r anged f ro m

* Boon g ives a d epos it ion d a te o f 2 92. 1 0.

CON WAY , Caern . Unpub l ished .

S H 7 77

Presen t whereabou ts u ncer ta in .

Ah oard o f_ c . 5 0 a n ton in ian i was d iscovered j us t o u ts ide C onway , s hor t ly a f ter t he l ast war . I t c on ta ined mos t ly c o ins o f t he G a l l ic Emp ire a nd t erm ina ted w ith e igh t o r n ine c o ins o f Caraus ius.

4 0

1.

DEAL , Ken t

TR 3 752

V .C.H. K en t I I p . 1 52 ;

C .C.R.B. p . 1 63 ;

G .M . 1 834 Ip . 9 6.

'Abou t 1 834 a n u rn c on ta in ing 2 5 b rass c o ins , i nc lud ing o ne Caraus ius , was f ound i n af i e ld n ear u pper Dea l. h oard o f 1 832

*

T h is may b e i den t ica l w ith t he

b u t more p robab ly n ot .

S . Pr itchard i n h is H is tory

o f Dea l ( 1864 ) p . 2 65 , s ays t ha t i n 1 830 t wo u rns c on ta in ing Ro man c o ins w ere f ound i n t he s and * I ta ppears , f ro m s ubsequen t e nqu ir ies , t ha t t h is was a much l arger , d if feren t h oard . 1 2.

D INORBEN , D enbs.

S H 9 477 ( 2 m iles s ou th e ast o f Aberge le )

Excava t ions a t D inorben 1 965-69. Card if f 1 971 p p. 3 3f f . Nu mbers 1 79 , 1 83, 1 85 , 1 93 , 2 00 , 2 02, ' were f ound c lose t oge ther a nd a t t he s a me l eve l n ear h u t f l oor 1 8. 1 93 ) ;

1x V ictor inus ( R IC 6 1 );

1x T etr icus I ( R IC 2 57 );

They a re :

1x G a l l ienus ( R IC

1x c ast c opy o f V ictor inus ( c f . R IC 18 ) ;

1 x Caraus ius ( R IC 1 01

Caraus ius ( R IC 8 80 ) =6 . 1 3.

FR )

Ix c opy o f

ML

ELLAND HALL WOOD , Y orks.

S E 1 020 ( El land )

Thoresby S oc iety M isce l lanea V I ;* *

Y .A.J. 2 0 (V I I p . 2 14 ;

I. A. ,H udders f ie ld i n Ro man T i mes , 1 925 , p p . 1 03, 15 ; H istory o f Ha l ifax 1 775 , p . 5 5 ;

* **

R ich mond ,

Wa tson ,

T urner , J . H ., H istory o f Br ighouse ,

Ras tr ick a nd H ipperho l me , B ing ley , 1 893 p . 2 5. * * ' To t hese ( sc. t he C leckhea ton h oard , v .i.) may b e a dded a no ther h oard , f ro m E l land Ha l l Wood , wh ich e nds w ith many c o ins o f Caraus ius. * ** O ct . 1 769. Caraus ius. 1 4.

Hoard o f t h ird b rass c o ins r ang ing f ro m G a l l ienus t o

' Most o f t he c o ins i ts ee ms , b e longed t o Caraus ius.'

EMNETH , Nor fo lk/Ca mbr idge

TF 4 807

V .C.H. Nor fo lk p . 3 17. ' Hoard o f c o ins i nc lud ing C araus ius f ound n ear a s upposed Ro man r oad ( S tuke ley 's I t . Cur . p . 1 4 ). 1 5.

EPPERSTONE, Not ts. T horo ton ,

P oss ib ly f ound i n C a mbr idgesh ire.'

S K 6 548

H is tory o f N o t t ingha msh ire , e d. Thoresby 1 797 I I , p . 4 0 ;

Bray ley a nd Br it ton X I I ( 1 ) 1 813 p . 2 73 ; p . 2 6 ;

C .C.R .B. p . 1 62 ;

V .C.H. N ot t ingha msh ire I

A .J. x l i i i , 1 866 p . 4 0 ;

Merry , Re marks o n

t he C o inage o f Eng land , 1 789 , p p. 6 , 1 01. Ah oard o f a l most 1 000 c o ins was d iscovered i n 1 776 r ang ing f ro m G a l l ienus t o Caraus ius a nd i nclud ing S a lon ina , P ostu mus , C laud ius I , V ictor inus , T etr ic i , Qu in t i l lus a nd ' Ae l ianus '.

' Th is l ast n a med i s

s a id t o h ave b een a r e markab ly f ine s pec i men .' ( R V ICTOR IA AVG ) I t i s p resu mab ly a c o in o f L ae l ianus.

4 1

1 6.

ER W HEN, Carms.

SN 6 540

( Pu msa in t ;

N .C. 6 s er . v o l . XXV I p p. 1 57f f .; LV I 1 966,

P .

2m i les f ro m D o lauco th i )

B .C.S . XX [ I Ip . 3 06 ;

J . R.S .

1 96.

T h is h oard o f 6 82 a n ton in ian i was f ound i n 1 965.

A f ter a s ing le s pec i men

o f Tra jan D ec ius , t he r ange i s f ro m G a l l ienus t o Caraus ius . mark i s

s ic

The l a tes t

a nd , p resu mab ly , o n t he s treng th o f t h is , Boon s ugges ts a

d epos it ion d ate o f 2 91.

He c o m men ts , ' Caraus ius ' murder m igh t h ave

p rec ip itated u ncer ta in ty e nough e spec ia l ly n ear t he o n ly g o ld m ine , t o mer it h oard b ury ing .' a nd h e s ugges ts t hat t he m ine was n o t i n g overnmen t h ands b ecause o f t he meagre t o ta l a nd s ubstandard c haracter o f t he c o ins i n t h is h oard . 4o vers tr ikes ) ; 1 7.

T he Caraus ius c o ins a re ;

1x S IC;

7x

( i nc.

1x c opy .

EVERTON , N o t ts.

SK 6 891

N .C. 3 s er . v o l . V I, 1 886 p . 2 45 ; V .C.H. No t ts. I p . 2 6 ;

6s er. v o l . V , 1 945 p .

C .C.R.B. ( as A l lectan ) p . 1 63.

Ah oard o f 6 00 c o ins was f ound i n 1 885 i n af i e ld b etween Ever ton a nd Baw try ' a l l o f c opper e xcep t af ew t ha t a ppear t o h ave b een washed w ith s i lver '.

They r ange f ro m Va ler ian t o D ioclet ian .

t o D ioc let ian i s , i n f act , a PAX AUGGG i n v ery ' f resh ' c ond it ion.

S IP

One p iece a scr ibed

s truck b y C araus ius a nd

J . D . A . T ho mpson * g ives a d epos it ion o f

c . 2 90 f ro m t he e v idence o f t h is c o in b u t t h is s ee ms r a ther t oo e ar ly . c . 2 92 wou ld b e b et ter . 1 8.

EWEL ME, Oxon .

S U 6 491

P o in ter c f . Br itann ia Ro mana , L ondon 1 724 p p. 1 2f f .; p . 3 27 ;

Arch . l xx i p . 2 42 ;

V .C.H. Oxon .

( N .B. Kraay , C . M ., Oxon iens ia XV I I-

XV II I , 1 952-3 p p . 2 39f f . p rov ides d eta i ls o f wha t s ee ms t o b e ad if feren t h oard (. I n 1 772 a ' po t ' ( V .0 . H.) o r ' urn ' ( Po in ter ) was f ound c on ta in ing a l arge h oard o f t h ird c en tury c o ins , r ang ing most ly f ro m G a l l ienus t o C araus ius. Po in ter , t hen c hap la in t o Mer ton Co l lege , r ece ived 3 37 o f t he m s oon a f ter t he d iscovery a nd p resen t k now ledge d er ives c h ief ly f rom h is p ub l ic a t ion o f s o me o f t hese.

H is l i st b eg ins w ith a s ing le s econd b rass o f

Do m it ian a nd e nds w ith a n Urbs Ro ma p iece wh ich i s p robab ly a n i n truder . The l i st d oes n ot g ive m in t marks b u t t he c o in o f Caraus ius i n t he Ash mo lean Museu m f ro m t h is h oard h as 1 9.

GREAT OR ME'S HEAD , Caern .

S H 7 584

N .C. 3 s er . v o l. V I I I 1 888 , p . 1 63 ; p . 1 62 ;

A . Ca mb. 1 888 p . 3 70 ;

C .C.R.B.

B .C.S . XX III p . 3 06.

The c o ins w ere f ound a t wha t was b e l ieved t o h ave b een a n a nc ien t f irep lace.

There were 1 7 i n a l l t ogether w ith o ne s herd.

( GER M MAXV ) ;

2x V ictor inus ( SALVS AVG );

4 2

1x G a l l ienus

1x T etr icus I( PAX AVG ) ;

1 3 x Caraus ius.

The l a tes t C araus ian marks a re S -L C a nd

wh ich s ugges t ad epos it ion d a te o f c . 2 91. 2 0.

HOVER INGHA M , No t ts.

BE

ML , NX I

SK 6 946

N .C. 6 s er . v o l. I X 1 949 , p . 2 59 ;

J .R.S . x l i 1 951, p . 1 30.

Th is h oard , f ound i n 1 949 , r anges f ro m G a l l ienus t o C araus ius > 3 1 xG a l l ienus ;

5x S a lon ina ;

1 00 x T etr ic i ;

2 x Postu mus ;

4 1 xC laud ius I ;

D ioc let ian/ Max im ian ;

5 9 xV ictor inus ;

1 x Qu in t il lus ;

4 0 xC araus ius.

I x Probus ;

t o ta l >2 89.

9x

' The c o ins o f

Caraus ius , w ith t he e xcep t ion o f s o me h a lf d ozen , wh ich ow ing t o c orros ion , c an n ot b e a t tr ibuted w ith c erta in ty a re a l l f ro m t he L ondon

BI E

m in t '. The l atest mark g iven i s MLXX I ' s ugges t ing a t erm ina l d a te o f c . 2 91. 2 1.

LAUGHARNE CASTLE, C arms. SN 3 011 G . M. 1 839 , p . 1 8 ;

Cur t is , An t iqu it ies o f L augharne 1 880 , p . 1 36 ;

P .S .A. 1 s er . v ol . Ip . 8 ; LV I ( 1901) p . 2 1;

B .S.C. Ip p . 3 45f f .;

XX I I I p . 3 06 ;

A .Ca mb.

C .C.R.B. p . 1 62.

' An u rn c on ta in ing s evera l o f h is [ Caraus ius ' ] c o ins w ere f ound '. Th is was a bou t 1 830 a nd t he f ind s po t was ' i n ag arden a d jo in ing L augharne Cast le '. 2 2.

L INCH MERE, S ussex

SV 8 630

N .C. 5 s er . v o l. V 1 925 , p p . 1 73f f .;

S ussex A .C. LXV I I, p p . 9 3-102 ;

V .C.H. S ussex p . 6 0 ; An t . J . 1 925 , p . 2 82 ; J .R.S . XV 1 925 , p . 2 44 ; XX I I 1 932 , p . 9 4 ; C .C.R.B., p p. 5 8, 6 4 , 1 62 ; Morn ing P ost 1 7 a nd 1 8 Apr i l , 1 925. 8 10 c o ins w ere f ound i n a Ro man u rn 8 " x4 1" , j us t w ith in t he S ussex b order , i n Dece mber 1 924.

O f t hese s o me 5 34 w ere o f Caraus ius , most ly

i n a n e xce l len t s ta te o f p reserva t ion .

The l atest mark i s as ing le

o f c . 2 90 w ith t he ma jor ity o f t he Caraus ian c o ins h av ing F 0 CXX I ML Th is h oard i s d ist inc t ive f or i t s l ack o f t he c o inage o f o ther u surpers , a s we l l a s f or t he q ua l ity a nd c ond it ion o f t he C araus ian p ieces. 2 3.

LLANGEIN WEN ( Rhydd G aer ), Ang lesey . A . Ca mb. 1 856, p . 3 26 ; XX I I I p . 3 07 ;

S H 4 365

1 857 p . 2 18 ;* 1 861 p . 3 7 ;

B .C.S . I , p . 3 46 ;

Cy m mrodor ion S oc. Trans. 1 920-21, p . 7 1 n . 4 .

Th is h oard c ons ists o f 2 3 a n ton in ian i , a nd o ne f o l l is o f Constan t ine wh ich i s p robab ly a s tray ( c f . D in S i lwy h oard f or a s im i lar p rob le m ). T he r ange o f t he a n ton in ian i i s : 6x T etr icus I ;

1 x Ph i l ip ;

1x C laud ius I ;

ix G a l l ienus ;

7 x Caraus ius :

6x T etr icus I ;

( n .b. t h is i n f act t ota ls

2 2 s o t here i s a minor d iscrepancy i n t he a ccoun ts o f t he h oard ). B E l a tes t c o in i s a MLXXE

o f c . 2 91. —

4 3

The

The c o ins o f Caraus ius a re v ar ied ,

i nc lud ing a LEG IXX PR I I V E IG ML

a nd a n VBER ITAS AVG

RSR

wh ich may i nd ica te a p o l icy o f d e l ibera te s e lect iv ity o n t he p ar t o f t he h oarder . * A s hor t t ime b efore f ind ing t he c o ins , t he n eck o f av ase was p icked u p...of a b r igh t r ed c o loured p o t tery .. mus t h ave s tood a bout a f oo t h igh .' 2 4.

Th is may p oss ib ly r e la te t o t he h oard 's c on ta iner .

LLAN IDAN , Ang lesey

S H 5 639 ( 4 m i les n or th e as t o f C aernarvon )

A .Ca mb. 1 852 , p . 2 09 ;

B .C.S . XXI I , p . 3 06.

Th is h oard was f ound i n ap o t a t T an B en y Ce fn , a bou t 1 844.

Fro m

t he l im ited d eta i ls a va ilab le , t he r ange s ee ms t o h ave b een e x tens ive. S a id t o h ave b een i nc luded i n t h is h oard i s , ' a meda l o f t he Empress L uc il la i n g ood p reservat ion , o ne o f An ton inus P ius a nd o ne o f Caraus ius ' The Caraus ius c o in i s PAX AVG o f w h ich i ti s s a id ' The d ie h as s l ipped i n s tr ik ing t he c o in a nd p ar t o f t he i mpress ion o f a no ther c o in i s l ef t o n o ne s ide o f i t .' 2 5.

LLANLECHID ( Ger lan ), Caern . A . Ca mb. 1 870 , p . 3 56 ;

S H 6 268

B .C.S . XX I I I , p . 3 07.

Th is i s a n i l l-docu men ted h oard o f o ver 2 00 a n ton in ian i r ang ing f rom Postu mus t o Caraus ius. 2 6.

D IN S IL WY ( L lanv ihange l-Tyn-S ilwy/Bwrydd Ar thur ), Ang lesey B .C.S . I , p . 3 46 ; p . 6 7 n ;

XX I I I, p . 3 06 ;

S H 5 892

Cym mrodor ion S oc. Trans. 1 920-21,

C .C.R.B., p . 1 62 ( Na t. Mus. Wa les ).

Th is h oard o f 6 1 a n ton in ian i was f ound a bou t 1 900. The C onstan t in ian p iece i s a l most c er ta in ly a s tray . T he r ange i s f ro m V ictor inus t o F 10 Caraus ius w ith 4 4 c o ins o f t he l at ter . ML i s t he l a tes t mark p resen t wh ich wou ld b e c o mpat ib le w ith a d epos it ion d a te a s e ar ly a s 2 89 a l though Boon s ugges ts 2 91.

One o f t he Caraus ian a n ton in ian i , R .I.C. 8 80 , h as a n

o bverse wh ich i s v ery s im ilar t o t ha t o f t he 2 7.

MARGARETT ING , E ssex

Corbr idge.

TL 6 601

Co lches ter Museu m Repor t 1 934 , p . 9 ; C .C. R.B., p . 1 62 ;

.coin f ro m

L BR I

J .R .S . XX I 1 931, p . 2 36 ;

V .C.H. Essex I I , p . 1 57 ;* *

* * ' 3 mi les s ou th w est o f Che l msford , n ear Wh ites ' p lace , i n 1 930 a h oard o f 3 2 a n ton in ian i f ound h a l fway b etween t he t h ird a nd f our th m iles tones f ro m Che l ms ford a nd a bou t 5 0 ys ou th o f t he ma in r oad '. The r ange i s f ro m G a l l ienus t o Caraus ius c o mpr is ing , a s f ar a s may b e d educed f ro m t he i ncons isten t a ccoun ts : 3x V ictor inus ;

3x T etr icus ;

3x G a l l ienus ;

2xC laud ius I ;

1x P ostu mus ;

2 0 x Caraus ius .

The

J .R.S . a ccoun t f ur ther s ta tes t hat o f t he Caraus ius c o ins , 2a re f ro m t he L ondon min t a nd 4 f ro m t he ' Co lches ter ' m in t .

4 4

Even a f ter a l low ing

f or i l leg ib le c o ins , t he i n ference mus t b e t ha t t he ma jor ity o f t he Caraus ian c o ins w ere

, a nd t ha t t he h oard was p robab ly d epos ited

e ar l ier r a ther t han l ater i n t he r e ign .3 2 8.

MEND IPS S o merset N .C. I ser . v o l. V I I 1 847 , p . 4 8 *; V .C. H. S o merset p . 3 38; 4 *

Dorset

Coun ty C hron ic le a nd S o mersetsh ire G azet te 1 9.3.1846. *' Large n u mber o f sma l l b rass l a tely f ound ...noth ing more v a luab le among t he m t han a Caraus ius '. * * O f t h is , t he o n ly h oard k nown f ro m t h is a rea , i ti s s a id , ' i t was p roba b ly d epos ited l ike many s im i lar h oards a bou t t he t ime o f Caraus ius. I t may b e p oss ib le t o i n fer f rom t he N .C . a ccoun t t ha t t here was i n f act o n ly o ne c o in o f Caraus ius i n t he h oard.

Al arge n u mber o f Caraus ius

wou ld p robab ly h ave p rovoked more c o m men t .

Th is i s most l ike ly t o

h ave b een a h oard d epos ited v ery s hor t ly a f ter t he b eg inn ing o f Caraus ius ' r e ign. 2 9.

NARBERTH ( New ton ), P e mbs. SN 1 114 A . Camb. 1 857 , p . 3 13 ;

1 864 , p . 3 63 ;

P e mbrokesh ire , 1 925 p . 2 8 ; p . 4 5 ;

B .C.S ., I p . 3 52 ;

No. 8 31;

1 924 , p . 2 23;

R .C. H. M.

L aws , L it t le Eng land 1 888,

XX I I I, p . 3 06.

T he ma jor p rob le m c oncern ing t h is h oard i s t he d iscrepancy b e tween t he t o ta ls p rov ided b y d if feren t s ources.

The A .C. a ccoun t men t ions a

l arge n u mber o f t h ird b rass c o ins , ar ing , a nd a b ronze l igu la w ith what was a pparen t ly i t s c ase , a nd g oes o n t o s ay t ha t t he c o ins w ere i n ' wre tched ' c ond it ion. P ostu mus ;

Emperors i ncluded a re G a l l ienus ;

V ictor inus ;

T e tr ic i ;

C laud ius ;

Caraus ius w ith t he t ota l a bout 3 00.

F lor ian ;

(S a lon ina );

Qu in t il lus ;

Probus ;

Boon 's a ccoun t i n B .C.S .

h owever , g ives t he t o ta l a s 1 8,000 a nd g ives t he c on ta iner a s as k in . 3 0.

PETERBOROUGH , Nor than ts. B .N.J. I 1 904 , p . 3 49 ;

TL 1 999

C .C.R.B., p . 1 62.

T h is w as f ound i n av ase o f d u l l g rey e ar thenware , 6 " h igh , 8 1" i n d ia meter , s o me 4 ' d own i n to Ro man l eve ls ( 8 ' b e low t he modern s ur face ) o n as i te wh ich a ppears t o b e ap i le v i l lage n ear a f or mer ma jor wa ter c ourse.

T he

c on ta iner i s d escr ibed a s ' b ow l-shaped b u t g athered b e low t he r i m wh ich i s t urned o ver .

I n t he g a ther ing i ti s e nc irc led b y t hree f a in t ly i nden ted

l i nes , a nd a t i t s b roadest c ircu m ference , b y af our th '. n o te a re a )

Ma jor p o in ts t o

.. w ithou t e xcep t ion t he c o ins s how s igns o f l ong c ircu lat ion

i n t he e xcess ive wear a nd t ear t hey h ave u ndergone b efore b e ing c ons igned t o t he e ar th...'

b ) The d ep th o f t he ir b ur ia l... C ) t he s ize o f t he b ow l

wh ich e i ther c ou ld o r d id c on ta in a c o mpara t ive ly l arge h oard

d ) ..one o f

t he m in i ms h ad b een p ierced a nd t he h o le h ad worn t hrough t he e dge o f t he c o in b efore t he d epos it .' T hese f i f teen c o ins f orm a n o dd a ssor t men t . 2x F aust ina I ;

4 z M Aure l ius ;

1 x Hadr ian ;

1x S everus A lexander ; 4 5

1xA P ius ;

1x C laud ius I ;

I x Caraus ius ;

4xi l leg ib le ( - 1x S es ter t ius ;

1x a n ton in ianus ;

2x m in i ms ) =1 5. The c omb inat ion o f w orn s es ter t i i, a n ton in ian i a nd m in i ms i n s uch a sma l l q uan t ity s uggests t hat t h is w as more a c o l lec t ion o f s ouven irs o f s o me s or t t han a n a ccu mu la t ion o f p ersona l w ea lth .

I n t h is r espect

i t may b e l ikened t o t he Wh itchurch , S o merset h oard. 3 1.

PUCKNOLL ( Pucknow le ) D orset

SY 5 388

Trans. Dorse t F ie ld C lub XXXV 1 914 , p . 1; 1 914 , p p . 9 2f f .;

N .C. 4 s er . v o l. X IV

C .C. R.B. 1 62.

The e xact t o ta l o f t h is h oard , f ound i n 1 859 , i s n ot k nown .

1 07 c o ins

h ave b een r ecorded r ang ing t hus f ro m G a l l ienus t o as ing le c o in o f Caraus ius :

3x G a l l ienus ;

V ictor inus ;

4x T etr ic i ;

2x S a lon ina ; 2xC laud ius I ;

5 5 x Pos tu mus ;

4 0 x

1 x Caraus ius.

I t was f ound

i n ' an e ar then j ar t urned u p w ith t he p lough. " I n ot iced t ha t a s ar u le t he o bverses w ere c arefu l ly s truck a nd b ore g ood p or tra its whereas t he r everses w ere i l l s truck o r c are less ly c en tred. e ver , a ny o vers truck p ieces.'

T here w ere n ot , h ow-

T he C araus ius p iece i s s a id t o b e s im i lar

t o Webb 1 035 a nd B lack inoor N o. 1 04 a nd i s t hus a =

p iece wh ich s ug-

g ests a d epos it ion d a te a t t he b eg inn ing o f Caraus ius ' r e ign .

C .C.R.B.

a sser ts t ha t t he h oard i s p reserved i n p ar t i nt he Dorches ter Museu m . 3 2.

PENARD GO WER , G la ms. B .C.S. XX E II , p p . 2 94f f .;

S S 5 290 J .R.S . LV I I 1 967, p . 1 74 ( Na t . Mus. Wa les ).

Th is h oard o f 2 583 a n ton in ian i was f ound i n ab ronze b ow l i n 1 966. c o ins r ange f ro m Va ler ian t o Caraus ius , w ith 8 1 o f t he l a t ter . l as t i nc lude a l arge n u mber o f c op ies a ccord ing t o Boon. mark i s

MLXX [

b u t t here i s o ne ' Rouen ' c o in p resen t .

T he

T hese

T he l a tas t

I n t h is r €s pect

i ti s s im ilar t o t he h oard f ro m t he L it t le Or me 's H ead ( q. v .) a nd t here i s , i n f act , a more t ang ib le l ink i n t ha t e ach h oard c on ta ins a n e xa mp le o f R. I .0 .6 80 f ro m t he s a me p a ir o f d ies ( c f L . Orme N o. 3 89 ). h oard c on ta ins t hree 3 3.

RSR

R ICHBOROUGH , Ken t

T h is

c o ins. f i t 3 358

R ichborough I V , p p . 7 0 , 2 80 ;

N .C. 5 s er. v o l. XX 1 940 , p . 7 0.

Hoard 7 .

' I n a sma l l p ocket o n t he i nner s ide o f t he d itch a bou t o ne t h ird o f t he way d own . A mass o f e leven c o ins c orroded t ogether .' O f t hese e igh t were d e f in ite ly Caraus ian a nd o ne was o f T etr icus a lthough t he t ypes w ere i ndeterm ina te , a ccord ing t o R ichborough I V. There s ee ms t o b e ad iscrepancy c oncern ing t he l oca t ion o f t he f ind s pot .

R ichborough I V p . 7 0 g ives i ta s a' po in t 6 ' d eep i n i nner s lope o f

i nner d itch a t t he s ou th wes t a ng le.'

Wha t i s u nquest ionab ly t he s a me

h oard i s g iven o n p . 2 80 o f t he s a me r epor t a s c om ing f ro m t he ' ou ter s tone f or t d itch , s ou th-west c orner .'

4 6

This hoard together with that of Allectus from the ditch fill provide important evidence for the dating of building activity at Richborough. 34.

RIPLEY, Derbyshire SK 3950 V.C.H. Derby I, p. 261; C.C.R.B., p. 162; Soc. Ant. minute� 12.11.1730=I p. 251; Gough's add.to Camden II, p. 306. 'An urn full of coins of Gallienus, Victorinus, Carausius etc. found in 1730.'

35.

ST ALBANS, Herts. TL 1507 Wheeler, R. E. M. and T. V., Verulamium; A Belgic and Two Roman Cities, Oxford 1936, p. 110. Ins V Building V: In a fire blackened deposit of debris a hoard of 36 antoniniani was found. The range is from Gallienus to Carausius. Of the

Carausian coins, 4 were London mint, 2 Colchester, 7 _I and 1 s\ I11. 1 x Gallienus @!_g 166); 1 x Salonina (RIC 5); 3 x Victorinus @!_g 61, 71, 78 ); 2 x Claudius II @.!9 266 x 2); 7 x Tetricus I @.!9 69171, 70171, 8 0, 8 8 , 12114 and one overstruck); 5 x Tetricus II @!_g 234, 258 , 270 x 2, and one illegible); 14 x Carausius @!9 33, 101 x 2, 121, 272 var, 300, 48 2, 78 3, 880 x 5, 920) with 3 barbarous radiates. 36.

ST ALBANS, Herts. TL 1507 Archaeologia Vol. LXXXIV, pp. 236-7; C.C.R.B., p. 163. '169 coins were found in the period IV make up of the stage floor, of which 144 were in close enough association to be deemed a hoard, of which the latest certain identifiable pieces were two of Carausius - R.I.C. 300 S\P , one barbarous'. C

This R.I.C. 300 is one of the latest coins of Carausius' reign so the hoard may be dated accordingly. 37.

SEGONTIUM, Caern. SH 4862 A. Carob. LXXXII 1922, pp. 291, 316-20; Wheeler, R. E. M., Segontium and the Roman Occupation of Wales , p. 218 ; Y Cymmrodor XXXIII, p. 115; B.C.S. XXIII, p. 305; N.C. 5 ser. vol. XI 1931, p. 23; C.C.R.B., pp. 66, 115, 117, 162; J.R.S. XI 1921, p. 225, XII 1922, p. 243. Hoard two, from the sacellum cellar, terminated with one coin of Carausius in extremely fine condition. It was found in a box and ranges thus: 2 x Gallienus; 2 x Postumus; 5 x Victorinus; 1 x Marius; 4 x Claudius II; 1 x Quintillus; 15 x Tetricus I; 7 x Tetricus II; 1 x Carausius; 4 local imitations and 14 radiate minims. Total 56. Boon (B.C.S.) gives 46 antoniniani and 10 minims, and a deposition date of 286. The Carausius coin is an R.I.C. 56 LEG I MIN which would admit of a deposition date very early in Carausius' reign. 287 would be more likely than 286. 47

3 8.

S HOTOVER ( Lark R ise ) Ox fordsh ire N .C. I s er . v o l. V 1 845 , p . 4 3 ; Arch . l xx i , p . 2 55 ;

S P 5 055 ( 4 m iles e ast o f Ox ford )

V .C.H. Ox fordsh ire I , p . 3 27.

A .J. I I 1 846 ,

P .

1 25.

Th is was f ound i n May 1 842 , i n a n u rn o r j ar . i n ag ood s tate o f p reserva t ion .

Many o f t he c o ins w ere

I t was ' f ound o n t he e sta te o f Mr . C . V .

Drury i n T hornh il l L ane , b etween t he Ox ford- Whea t ley r oad a nd S ho to ver L odge.

T he p o t c on ta ined a bou t 5 60 c o ins a nd p erhaps s o me b eads '.

The r ange i s f ro m ' An ton inus ' t o C araus ius a nd i ncludes Aure l ian , C laud ius , C laud ius G o th icus ( presu mab ly a l l t hese w ere i n f act C laud ius I ) , F lor ian , G a l l ienus , T ac itus , T etr icus , V ic tor inus , P ostu mus , Probus , S a lon ina , ' Max im il l ian ' [ s ic ] a nd G ra t ian . a n i n truder . 3 9.

T h is l as t must b e

Ad eta iled a na lys is o f t he h oard i s n o l onger p oss ib le.

S ILCHESTER I , Han ts.

S U 6 262

N .C. 6 s er . v o l . ) (X 1 960 , p . 2 45 ; i nsu la XV I I I

T h is h oard was f ound i n 1 897 a nd c ons ists o f 2 2 a n ton in ian i -

4f ro m t he p er iod G a ll ienus t o T etr icus a nd 1 8 o f C araus ius.

The h oard

was i n ' new ' c ond it ion a nd f ound t o h ave a s i lver w ash when c leaned. T he l a tes t c o in i s a n

S IP ML

f ro m t he l as t y ear o f C araus ius ' r e ign .

Mos t o f t he

Caraus ian c o ins a re f ro m a t l eas t t he m idd le y ears o f t he r e ign , w ith c o ins p resen t .

T he h oarder t hus a ppears b y a nd l arge t o h ave s ough t

o n ly t he b es t a nd most r ecen t c o ins. 4 0.

S ILCHESTER I I , H an ts.

S U 6 262

N .C. 6 s er . v o l . XX 1 960 , p . 2 45 ; p . 2 0 ;

T he l egends e xh ib it n o g rea t v ar ie ty .

Arch . X IV I, p . 3 40 ;

C .C.R.B. p . 6 3 n . 1 1 a nd c f . p . 1 62 ;

Arch . 3 XXX ,

Woodward , W i lkes a nd

L ockar t , A G enera l H is tory o f Ha mpsh ire v o l . I I, p . 2 80 n ; o r ig ina l ms a ccoun t i n J oyce , J . G ., J ourna l o f Excava t ions a t S i lches ter ,2 4 N ov. 1 865. ' I n t he r oo m w es t o f t he T r icl in iu m o f al arge o f f ic ia l r es idence...a h oard o f b ronzes was f ound , o n t he f l oor 2 '6" d ista r i t f ro m t he wa l l .

They a ppear

t o.h ave b een t hrus t i n to a h o le i n t he w a l l o f t he h ouse , i n al ea ther b ag p erhaps.

The p ecu l iar it ies o f t hese f o l les [ s ic ] w ere t ha t t he g rea ter p ar t

o f t he m were t he c o ins o f f or mer emperors r es truck b y C araus ius '. G a l l ienus , P ostu mus a nd Max im ian a re men t ioned a s h av ing b een o vers truck a nd t here i s , ' a s o mewhat r are c o in s truck a t T reves [ s ic ] i n c o mme morat ion o f t he p eace b e tween t he t hree emperors...and s o me t ypes o f c o ins o f h is r e ign n ot o f ten f ound.'

Th is i s s een a s e v idence f or t he

v iew t hat , ' t h is emperor a t o ne t ime made h is h eadquar ters a t S i lches ter .' O f t he t ota l o f 4 2 a n ton in ian i , 3 1 w ere o f Caraus ius. S o me a ccoun ts a ss oc ia te a c o in o f He lena w ith t hese b u t t h is s ee ms u n l ike ly . 4 1.

S OUTH NOR WOOD , Ken t

TQ 3 365

Unpub l ished v id i c /o P . J . Casey . Th is h oard c ons is ts o f 5 5 a n ton in ian i o f wh ich 4 8 a re Caraus ian .

4 8

T he r es t

a re 1 x G a l l ienus ;

2xV ictor inus ;

1x T etr icus I ;

3 xb arbarous.

A l l t he Caraus ius c o ins a re — s ave f our wh ich h ave

. There a re ML The h oard a ppears t o

f our o vers tr ikes , o ne c er ta in d iel inked p a ir . h ave b een d epos ited e ar ly i n t he r e ign . 4 2.

STRATA FLOR IDA , Cards. B .C.S . Ip . 3 46 ;

SN 7 465

XX I I I , p . 3 06;

C .C. R.B. p . 1 62.

Th is h oard c ons ists o f a t l eas t 1 6 c o ins f ound i n 1 853 i n ab ronze b ow l. O f t hese , 1 5 w ere a n ton in ian i : T etr icus I ;

Ix T etr icus I ;

1x G a l l ienus ;

4 xV ictor inus ;

2xC laud ius I .

7x

T he o ther c o in i s a

d enar ius o f Caraus ius i n ' v ery g ood c ond it ion '.

Boon g ives a t en ta t ive

d epos it ion d ate o f 2 90 , p resu mab ly b ased o n t h is d enar ius.

T he a ssoc ia-

t i on o f s o r are a c o in a s t h is w ith s o f ew o ther c o ins , wh ich i n t he mse lves a re i n n o way e xcep t iona l , i s most u nusua l. 4 3.

THURSTONLAND , Yorks . G .M . 1 838 I , p . 6 5 ;

S E 1 610

C .C.R.B., p . 1 62 ;

R ich mond , I . A ., Huddersf ie ld

i n Ro man T i mes , 1 925 p p . 1 03, 16 ( Huddersf ield Museu m ). Th is b ad ly d ocu men ted h oard i s s a id t o i nc lude c o ins o f ' Claud ius I ; T ac itus ;

V ictor inus ;

T e tr icus ;

empress Ma m maea Augusta '. 7 x Va ler ian ; T etr icus I ;

Ix G a l l ienus ;

Car inus , Caraus ius a nd t he

6x V ictor inus ;

2x T etr icus ?I ;

1 1 x Caraus ius ;

G a l l ienus ;

Rober tson g ives 1 x Ar o f Ma mmaea ; 1 3 xC laud ius I ;

5x T etr icus I ;

3x T ac itus ;

8x

2 x Probus ;

5x i l leg ib le , g iv ing a t o ta l o f 6 5 n ow a va ilab le o u t o f

a n o r ig ina l 6 00-800. 4 4.

UPSALL CASTLE, Yorks.

S E 4 587 ( 31 m iles n or th-eas t o f T h irsk )

N .C. 2 s er . v o l. I I, p . 2 16 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 62.

' 30 o r 4 0 c o ins o f t he u surpers Caraus ius , V ictor inus a nd T etr icus ' were f ound i n ' t he Wood F ie ld '.

Th is i s a l l t ha t i s r ecorded a bou t t h is

h oard. 4 5.

WAL MERSLEY , L ancs.

S O 8 013

Watk in , W. T ., Ro man L ancash ire , p . 2 41; a nd Chesh ire XV I I I 1 865-6 , p . 2 79 ; 1 892 , p . 2 24 n ;

T rans. H ist . S oc. L ancs.

B . Mus. G u ide , p . 6 4 ;

A . J . x l ix

C .C. R .B., p . 1 62 ( Rochda le Mus? ).

I n 1 864 a sma l l e ar thenware p o t was f ound , t hree mi les d ue n or th o f Bury. The v esse l was c overed b y as tone a nd c on ta ined 5 00-700 c o ins t er m inat ing w ith Caraus ius a nd Max im ian . V ictor inus ;

T etr icus ;

C laud ius I ;

There w ere a lso c o ins o f P ostu mus ; Qu in t il lus ;

T ac itus ;

P robus.

A c ons iderab le amoun t o f j ewe l lery was f ound i n a ssoc iat ion w ith t he c o ins , n a me ly : s i lver b race le t ,

ap a ir o f s l igh t ly o rna men ted s i lver b race le ts ; i n b read th ;

ab race let o f s i lver w ire ;

o f b race lets ;

t hree p la in s i lver f inger r ings ;

ar ed s tone ' ;

b roken r ings ;

o ne f inger r ing ' set w ith

af ragmen t o f ab ronze b race let ; 4 9

a mass ive

t wo f ragmen ts a sma l l

b ronze h inge ;

t he b ow l o f ab ronze s poon a nd a n amu let o f amber . T h is

i s p resu mab ly a n a sse mb lage o f a l l t he meta l l ic v a luab les o f t he h oarder , c oncea led t ogether. 4 6.

WELL , L incs.

TF 4 473

A .J. XCI 1 934 , p . 1 85 ; A. A.S .R. XXX , p . 3 43 ; C .C.R.B., p . 1 62 ;

S tuke leys ' L et ters a nd D iar ies I* p • 2 58; Beau t ies o f Eng land a nd Wa les * * v ol . X , p . 7 16 ;

Ms. min . S oc. An t . I1 717-1732 , p p . 1 49 , 1 52 ;

G ough 's Ca mden 1 789 I , p . 2 76;

1 806 I , p . 3 82.

T h is h oard was f ound i n 1 725 a nd i nc luded c o ins o f G a l l ienus ; C laud ius I ;

V ictor inus ;

The T etr ic i a nd Caraus ius.

*' I n e ar then p ot 1 ' d eep were 6 00-700 c o ins t erm ina t ing w ith o ne o f Caraus ius , a nd a nother o f ay oung p r ince , h ap ly h is s on '. * *

' two f a ir u rns c on ta in ing 6 00 Ro man c o ins were f ound '.

T he h oard h ad b een d ispersed e ven b y S tuke ley 's t ime.

N .B. Rober tson

c a l ls t h is a n A l lectan h oard wh ich p oss ib ly c on ta ined s o me g o ld . 4 7.

WELNEY , Ca mbs.

TL 5 294

S tuke ley 's L et ters a nd D iar ies I , p . 2 2 ; V .C.H. Nor fo lk ,* * p . 3 32 ; Wa tson , W., H istory o f Wisbech , p . 5 53 ; A .J. x lv i 1 889 , p . 3 65 ; C ough 's Ca mden 1 789 I , p . 1 41; S ker tch ley , G eo logy o f F en land 1 877 , p . 4 71. * ' and a t Welney whence Ih ad mos t o f my Caraus ius ' ..The u rns wh ich c on ta ined t he c o ins a t Welney l ay w ith in r each o f t he p low-share '. * * ' Hoard o f c o ins f ound i n 1 718 i nclud ing Caraus ius. .. The c o ins o r e ngrav ings o f t he m a re s a id t o h ave g one t o Tr in ity Co l lege L ibrary b u t Ih ave e nqu ired t here i n v a in , a nd t he s tate men t i s , Is uppose , a n e rror '. T he p lura l , ' urns ', i mp l ies t ha t al o t o f c o ins were f ound a nd ' most o f my Caraus ius , t ha t al arge p ropor t ion o f t he m were c o ins o f t hat u surper . 4 8.

WENT WOOD M ILL , Mons. ST 4 194 N .C. 3 s er . v o l . X 1 890 , p p . 2 6Of f .; B .C.S ., I .p. 3 52 ;

I V , p . 2 66 ;

L ee , J ., I sca S i luru m , p . 8 3 ;

XX [H , p . 3 06 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 62;

J .B.A.A. XX I I I 1 867, p . 3 94 ( Nat . Mus. Wa les ). L ee r ecords 1 200-1300 c o ins f ound i n ap ot f ro m a q uarry i n 1 860. ' Many o f t he c o ins w ere o f u nusua l t h inness ow ing t o t he ir h av ing b een s truck u p w ith a c arefu lness n ot c o m mon ly f ound i n t he c o inage o f t ha t d a te. T he h oard , a s p resen t ly p reserved a t Card if f , c ons is ts o f 1 ,051 c o ins t o wh ich Boon g ives a d epos it ion d a te o f 2 93 a l though t he l a tes t mark i s F IO a nd t he ma jor ity o f t he t we lve Caraus ian c o ins a re — . The r ange i s ML f rom Ga l l ienus t o Caraus ius.

5 0

4 9.

WROXETER, S a lop .

S J 5 608

Bushe-Fox , J . P ., Excavat ions o n t he s i te o f t he Ro man T own a t Wroxeter 1 912-14 , 1 913 , p . 7 2. T he a ccoun t s tates t ha t t here w ere 1 7 c o ins i n t he h oard b u t t he l i st g iven o n ly t ota l 1 6.

They were f ound i n s i te V w ith a l arge mass o f c orroded

i ron , c h ief ly n a i ls. G a l l ienus ;

T he r ange i s :

1x S a lon ina ;

1 x Ph i l ip ;

1x T ra jan Dec ius ;

3x

6x P os tu mus a nd f our s i lver d enar i i o f

Caraus ius o f wh ich t hree w ere b ad ly b urned. 5 54 v ar ( 50 ) 5 60 a nd o ) 6 B 4 PAX ( AVG )

-

The d enar i i a re R IC 5 35 ,

t r . s c.

c f . t he S u l ly Moor h oard f or a s im i lar p red ilect ion f or s i lver p ers ist ing d own t o t h is t ime. GROUP TWO : 1 .

H oards t erm ina t ing w ith A l lectus

BLACK MOOR , Han ts.

SU 7 833

N .C. 2 s er . v o l . XV I i *1 877 , p p. 9 Of f.; S ussex A .C.

* **

XXX I , p . 2 04 ;

J .B.A.A. n .s. V I I I 1 902 , p . 2 13; I 1 912 , p . 2 37 n ;

V .C.H. Han ts * * p p . 3 40-2 ;

) (X) C IV p . 2 54 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63;

N u m. C irc. 1 936, c o l . 9 3;

XV 1 925 , p . 1 15 ;

J .R.S .

XV I 1 926 , p . 3 8.

* The h oard c on ta ined e xa mp les o f b ad workmansh ip , o vers tr ikes , b rocka ges a nd s uch l ike.

T he Caraus ian a nd e ar l ier c o ins a re worn b u t t he

A l lectus o nes a re q u ite f resh. * * ' I n 1 873 a n e normous h oard o f c o ins , s towed i n t wo j ars was d ug u p a bou t aq uar ter o f am i le n or th wes t o f Woo l mer P ond , a nd h a l f way b etween i ta nd B lackmoor House. e xceeded 3 0 ,000 c o ins ;

Th is h oard , when p er fec t , mus t h ave

2 9 ,802 most ly ' t h ird b rass ', b u t af ew ' b i l lon

d enar i i ', w ere a c tua l ly o b ta ined , a nd 2 9 ,786 w ere c a ta logued... No r ecord a pparen t ly e x ists o f whether t he c o ins i n t he t wo j ars d if fered a t a l l.

Very o f ten t he c o ins i n l arge h oards s ee m t o h ave b een s or ted

i n o ne way o r a no ther .' T he r ange i s f ro m G ord ian I I t o A l lectus a nd t he t o ta l i nc ludes 5 45 o f Caraus ius a nd 9 0 o f A l lectus. * ** ' Th is h oard mus t h ave b een c oncea led i n t he i nvas ion o f Br ita in b y Asclep iodo tus...its owner p robab ly p er ish ing i n t he c onf l ic t wh ich t er m ina ted t he r u le o f A l lectus.' The g rea t ma jor ity o f t h is h oard was s o ld b y Chr ist ies ' , 9 th

Dec. 1 975.

F or d e ta ils s ee c a ta logue f or t he s a le w ith i n troduct ion b y S h ie l , N . 2 .

BORDEN , Ken t

TQ 8 863

V .C.H. K en tI l, p . 1 05 ;

C .C.R .B., p . 1 63;

J .B.A.A. I V 1 849 , p . 6 8.

I n ap ond o r r ubb ish h o le n ear a s uspected v i l la were ' 35 c o ins ( ? p ar t o f ah oard ) -3 x G a l l ienus ;

2 8 xT etr ic i ;

1 x Nu mer ian ;

2 x Caraus ius ;

1x A l lectus. These c o ins a re s uch a s may w e l l h ave f ormed a n e ar ly A l lec tan h oard b u t t he d eta ils a re t an ta l is ing ly s parse. 5 1

3 .

CA MERTON I , S o merset

S T 6 857

V .C.H. S o merset , p . 2 92; 1 885 , p . 3 14.

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ;

P .S .A . 2s er X I

I n a sma l l h ouse , d iscovered i n 1 817, 2 00 f tf ro m t he l i ne o f t he F osse Way was a h oard o f 6 0 t h ird b rass g o ing d own t o Caraus ius a nd A l lec tus. I n t he s a me h ouse t wo o ther h oards w ere f ound ;

o ne t erm ina t ing w ith

G a l l ienus , t he o ther w ith a s ing le C araus ius ( v .s.). N .B. 4 .

Rober tson h as 6 7 c o ins f or t h is h oard .

CANTERBURY , Ken t Unpub l ished , v id i

TR 1 457

c /o S . S . Frere.

Hoard 2 CXX IX EXXD 6 ( F ) 1 969. Th is c ons is ts o f 8c o ins : ( R.I.C. 1 18

S4 '4

MLXX I

,2 78

S I P )a nd t wo r ad ia tes.

SC

,6 84 , 8 80 ) ;

4 x Caraus ius

1x A l lectus ( R .I.C. 4 2

Assoc ia ted w ith t hese i s a n i n trus ive Theodos ian

Ml

b ronze.

1x T etr icus ( R.I.C. 5 6 ) ;

The a bsence o f A l lectan q u inar i i may p oss ib ly i nd ica te a d epos i-

t ion d ate s o mewha t b efore t he l ast y ear o f A l lectus ' r e ign .

The p resence

o f a' Rouen ' c o in i s w or thy o f n ote ( v .i.) 5 .

COLCHESTER , Essex

TM 0 025

N .C. 5 s er. v o l. X 1 930 , p p. 1 73f f .; p . 2 77 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ;

Hu l l , M. R . ,Ro man Co lches ter ,

N .C. 6 s er . v o l. I V 1 944 , p p . i f f .

Th is was f ound i n 1 927 a f ew m iles f ro m Co lchester , i n ap o t wh ich i s n ow l os t , a nd c ons isted o f w e l l s i lvered a n ton in ian i i n p r ist ine c ond it ion . Those o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus a re c a l led , ' very n ea t ly e xecu ted p ieces w ith b us ts i n h igh r e l ief , w ith w e l l f ormed l et ter ing , we l l c en tred o n c aref u l ly r ounded b lanks.

Th is i s e spec ia l ly n ot iceab le o f t he c o ins o f

A l lectus...those o f Caraus ius a re l arge w idespread p ieces w ith o n ly o ne o r t wo o f t he sma l l a nd b arbarous e ar ly i ssues '. 3xG a l l ienus ;

1x S a lon ina ;

i n Max im ian 's n a me ;

1x T ac itus ;

T hey c ons is t o f :

1 02 x Caraus ius ;

2 x Caraus ius

1 67 x A l lectus - 2 98.

T he b reakdown o f m in t marks i s : L ondon

' Co lchester '

5 1

2 4

Caraus ius

1

Caraus ius ( M ) A l lectus

S IC

o r

S IP

2 1

1

14

5 3

Webb s uggests a d epos it ion d a te r igh t a t t he e nd o f A l lec tus ' r e ign ;

i n

s p ite o f r a ther t han b ecause o f af ew q u inar i i , wh ich h e d oes n o t a ccep t a s A l lectus ' l ast i ssue. N .B.

The t o ta l i s i ncreased b y t hree c o ins t o 3 01 b y a dd it iona l i n forma-

t i on g iven i n t he N .C. 1 944 a ccoun t.

5 2

6 .

CRONDALL , Han ts.

S U 7 948

N .C. 4 s er . v o l. I V* 1 904 , p . 1 36 ;

5s er . v o l. X IV 1 934 ,

* *

p . 3 10 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63. * T he e xac t d eta ils o f t h is h oard wh ich was f ound i n t he Bar ley Pond , Cronda l l i n 1 873 a re u ncer ta in .

I t was a l leged t ha t a bout 2 00 c o ins

w ere f ound r ang ing f ro m C laud ius I t o A l lectus a nd i nc lud ing P robus a nd T ac itus.

The h oard c on ta ined s o me t we lve c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd

f our o r f ive o f A l lectus. * *

Here t here i s men t ion o f s o me 3 00 c o ins o f P ostu mus a nd o ther

G a l l ic emperors ' and p erhaps 2 5 o r more o f Caraus ius a nd 7 o r 8o f A l lectus.

S evera l o f t he l eg it i mate emperors w ere r epresen ted.

r e me mber c o ins o f G a l l ienus , C laud ius Aure l ian a nd Probus.'

I

G o th icus...a v ery f ew o f

T he c ond i t ion o f t he c o ins i s s a id t o h ave b een

f a ir ly g ood a nd mos t o f t hem a ppear t o h ave b een ' o f t he u sua l t ypes ' s ave f or t he e xcep t iona l Caraus ian GEN IO BR ITANN I =R IC 2 41. 7 .

COYGAN CAVE ( Kyngad le/L lansadwrn in ), Car ms. G .M . 1 839 I , p . 1 8;

1 8421 1 , p p. 4 72-4 ;

A . Ca mb. 1 901, p . 2 1;

P .S .A. I , p . 8 ;

SN 6 931

A .J. XX IX , p . 1 02 ; B .C.S . I V 1 928, p . 2 52 ;

XXI I I,

p . 3 06 ; R .C. H. M . Carmar then 1 917 , p . 1 88 N o. 5 59 G .M . ' i n a n a tura l c avern a t Kyn-Cade l ...a s acr if ic ia l c enser o r t hur ibu lu m o f b ronze...con ta in ing many c o ins o f Caraus ius...Th is i s o n Coygan H i l l '. A .J. ' . ..to mb h ewn i n t he r ock r ese mb l ing t ha t a t L lan tw it . 2 '6" x 2 '.

4 '6" x

Ah u man s ke leton c rouched u pon o ne o f i t s s ides l ay i n t he

c ist w ith a b ronze s tra iner .

The p robab i l i ty t ha t t he L lan tw it d epos it

may b e a scr ibed t o t he l a te Ro man p er iod a ppears t hus c onf ir med.' a lso i n c on tex t w ere ' . .. many b ones o f b irds , sma l l a n i ma l a nd s na il s hel ls.' a nd o f t he c o ins ' . ..nu merous c o ins o f Caraus ius , A l lec tus , Carus a nd T etr icus . A. 0 .' a t Cyngad le , ap ass t hrough t he c l if fs w estward o f L augharne... „ many c o ins o f Caraus ius.

Th is r e l ic ( Sc. t he c on ta iner ) i s ab eau-

t i fu l s pec i men o f Br it ish w ork mansh ip.' F our b ronze o b jec ts w ere f ound w ith t he c o ins , s pher ica l p er fora ted s tra iner ; o rnamen ta l s tand f or a p a tera.

a ) t he p a tera

b ) ah em i-

c ) p ar t o f t he r im o f as tra iner ;

d ) a n

The A .C. a ccoun t c a l ls t he b ur ia l n eo-

l i th ic a nd ' cer ta in ly n o t n orma l Ro man ,' d iscovered b y s o meone who was l ook ing f or a g ood p lace t o c oncea l h is w ea lth a nd u sed f or s uch a p urpose,

The G .M . a ccoun t g oes s o f ar a s t o s uppose f ro m t he

p resence o f Caraus ian c o ins t ha t t h is was t he b ur ia l p lace o f o ne o f Caraus ius ' a dm ira ls ' a nd i tq uotes V erg i l A en . V I 2 32f f t o a dd p oetry i fn ot p os it ive s uppor t t o t he v iew . 8 .

CYN W IL GA IO , Car ms.

SN 6 540 ( Pu msa in t )

Arch . I* p p. 1 5-16 ; N .C. 6 s er. v o l. 2 0 (V I 1 966 , p p. 1 57f f .; B .C.S . XX I II , p . 3 07 ; MS. m in . S oc. An t. I X 1 762-1765 , p . 1 87 ; G ough 's Ca mden 1 789 , p . 5 08.

5 3

*' . ..3000 meda ls w ere d ug u p a t Cunv i l o r Kynw i l G a io...las t y ear ( 1672 ).

T hey were o f G a l l ienus , S a lon ina a nd s evera l o f t he t h ir ty

t yran ts a nd t he l arges t w ere t hose o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus .

I t i s

s upposed t ha t t hey w ere l ef t b y t roops c a l led away b y A l lectus t o f ace Ch lorus ' i nvas ion .

G era ld o f Ca mbr idge i s q uoted o n t he a rea , ' an-

t i qu ita te s usp ic ienda , c oc t il ibus mur is p ar t im a d h ue e x tan t ibus e greg ie c lausa , s upra n ob i le m T or iu m f l uv iu m .' I n t h is s a me a rea t he Erw Hen h oard was f ound , a s w e l l a s v ar ious i t e ms o f Ro man j ewe l lery a nd a n a ureus o f A l lectus. Do lauco th i 9 .

FLEET , L incs.

TF 3 823

C .A.S.O.P. 1 883 , p . 7 4 ; I a nd 1 3 ;

The g o ld m ines o f

a re a lso n earby .

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63;

S tuke ley I t in . Cur . I ,

Proc. Arch . I ns t . L incs. 1 848 , p . l v i i i ;

( 1878 ), p . 7 8 ;

x l ix 1 892 , p . 2 24 n ;

A .J. XXXV

XCI 1 934 , p . 1 66.

' I n t he p ar ish o f F leet n ear Ravensc lough , a bou t 1 698 , u pon a p iece o f g round where b u i ld ings h ad b een , Mr . L en ton d ug u p al arge u rn w ith l et ters r ound i t , f u l l o f Ro man c o ins , a bout t he q uan t ity o f t hree p ecks. T hey were o f b rass p i led e dgeways , mos t ly o f t he t ime o f G a l l ienus a nd t he t h ir ty t yran ts s o c a l led , T e tr icus , C laud ius G o th icus , V ictor inus , Caraus ius , A l lectus e tc '. The r ecorder h as b een u nusua l ly o bservan t i n n ot ic ing t ha t t he c o ins w ere s tacked e dgeways u p .

F or a l arge q uan t ity o f c o ins t o r e ma in f or

s o l ong i n t h is p os it ion t hey mus t h ave b een d e l ibera te ly a rranged t hus a l l a t o nce. c f . t he ' Conques t ' h oard f ro m S o merse t . 1 0.

HOLT , Nor fo lk

TG 0 738

J .R.S . XX X EV 1 944 , p . 7 9. Near Ho l t , Nor fo lk , ah oard o f 1 ,105 c o ins was f ound i n aj ar o f c oarse b lack ware. The r ange was f ro m A .D . 2 49 t o A l lectus a nd i nc luded 4 2 s i lver c o ins a s w el l a s 1 063 b ronze. 2o f A l lectus.

There w ere 9 o f Caraus ius a nd

I n t he s a me f i e ld l a te t h ird c en tury , a nd f our th c entury

p o t s herds a nd t i les w ere f ound.

T he p auc ity o f Caraus ian c o ins i s ,

p erhaps , s urpr is ing i n a n A l lec tan h oard b y 1x T r . Dec ius ; Va ler ian ;

1 07 x G a l len ius ;

1 x Mar ius ,

3 99 x T etr icus I ; 5 x Probus ;

1 0 xS a lon ina ;

2 01 x V ictor inus ;

2 22 x T etr icus I ;

1x D ioc let ian ;

1 5 xP ostu mus ;

1 20 x C laud ius I ; 1 x Aure l ian ;

9xC araus ius ;

1x 2x L ae l ian ;

6 x Qu in t i l lus ; 2x T ac itus ;

2xA l lectus ;

1 012 c o ins

i n t he Cas t le Museum , N orw ich , 3 1 w ith Mrs. Ph i l l ips , The Rec tory , Ba le.

5 4

1 1.

L ILLY HORN ( B is ley V il la/ Wa terco mbe/Oakr idge ), G los.

S O 9 006

N .C. I s er:vo l. V 1 845 , p . 1 49 ;

P .

Wa terco mbe );

1 846 , p roc. p . 3 ;

2s er . v o l. X [ 1 871, p . 1 75 ;

C .C. R.B., p . 1 63 ;

3 4 ( as

A .J . I , p . 4 2 ;

J .B.A.A., I 1 846 , p . 4 4 ;

B .G . A.S . X [ 1 884 , p . 1 4 ;

1 849 ,

I 1 847 , p . 1 75 ;

B .A.A. G los. 1 846 , p . 9 .

On a v il la s i te i n t he s ou th w es t a ng le o f r oo m 1 8 u nder 6 " d own a n e ar thenware p ot was f ound c on ta in ing 1 ,223 c o ins r ang ing f ro m Va ler ian t o A l lec tus i nc lud ing 3 53 x V ic tor inus ;

6 29 x T etr ic i ;

7 x Caraus ius ;

1x A l lectus. Th is a ppears t o b e a n e ar ly A l lectan h oard s uch a s N o. 1 0.

Pre-

s u mably t he h oarder e i ther a cqu ired a l arge a ccu mu lat ion o f p reC araus ian c o ins b u t h ad l i t t le t o a dd t o t he m , o r e lse , h e d e l iberate ly k ept t he most c on te mporary c o ins mov ing wh i le o n ly h oard ing e ar l ier p ieces.

Abou t h a lf t he h oard i s p reserved i n t he S troud Museu m where

i tc an b e s een t o b e i n ag ood s ta te o f p reserva t ion . 1 2.

OLNEY , ( S teep le C laydon ), B ucks. V .C. H.

Bucks*

I , p . 1 0 ;

S P 7 027

J .B.A.A. I l, p . 2 55 ;

C .C.R.B.,

P .

1 63.

T h is i s ab ad ly d ocu men ted h oard o f ' s i lver c o ins f ound i n af i eld '. *I . .. b etween t he L avendon a nd Warr ing ton r oads i n af i e ld c a l led Ash f ur longs n or th o f O lney .

O f t hese , t hree a re s t i l l a t O lney , i nc lud ing

o ne o f A l lec tus '. 1 3.

OUNDLE, Nor than ts.

TL 0 488

N .C. 1 s er . v o l . V 1 845 , p p . 1 93-5. Th is h oard was f ound d ur ing w ork o n ar a ilway l ine.

I n a ssoc ia t ion w ith

i t were h u man b ones , o ther b ones , p ot tery , b rass p ins a nd p ar t o f a c lasp b uck le. b rass ;

Af ew e ar ly c o ins a re men t ioned , ' Two C laud ius , s econd

o ne T ra jan , l arge b rass ;

t wo F aust ina S en ior l arge b rass ' a s

i s at h ird b rass o f Cons tans wh ich i s p robab ly a n i n truder o r p erhaps a d escr ip t ive e rror .

' One o f t he C laud ius was f ound i n ad ark b lue v esse l ,

t he o n ly o ne p reserved e n t ire.' t han o ne c on ta iner .

T here mus t , t herefore , h ave b een more

The h oard was f ound i n 1 844 a nd c ons isted o f o ver

1 203 a n ton in ian i i n a dd it ion t o t he e ar ly c o ins : Ga l l ienus ;

5x S a lon ina ;

4 31 x T etr icus I ; 9 x Aure l ian ; 1 x Carus ;

?x P ostu mus ;

1 98 x T etr icus I ;

2x S ever ina ;

1 x Car inus ;

3 4 xC laud ius I ;

3 5 xT ac itus ;

2 x Nu mer ian ;

7 x Caraus ius ( Pax , Aequ itas , S a lus ),

2 x Va ler ian ;

3 53 x V ictor inus ;

2 9 x 5 x Mar ius ;

6 x Qu in t il lus ;

2x F lor ian ;

6x D ioc let ian ;

7 3 x Probus ; 2 x Max im ian ;

?xA l lectus.

T here i s s o me c on fus ion o ver t hese f igures a s n o n u mber i s g iven f or Pos tu mus o r A l lectus a nd t he t o ta l o f 1 203 r epresen ts t he s um o f t he o thers. Un less P ostu mus a nd A l lectus t o ta ls h ave b een a cc iden ta l ly merged w ith V ictor inus a nd Caraus ius r espec t ive ly , t h is wou ld mean t hat t here w ere , i n f ac t , more t han 1 203 a n ton in ian i. T he s ize a nd r ange o f t h is h oard , t ogether w ith t he p resence o f af ew e ar ly c o ins s uggests t ha t i t was t he a ccu mu la t ion o f s evera l g enera t ions o f t he h oarder 's f am i ly . 5 5

1 4.

PARK END ( Forest o f Dean , G los. B .G .A.S. V I, p p. 10f f .; p . 1 58.

S O 5 710 ( Co leford )

J .B.A.A. XX I I I 1 867 , p . 3 93 ;

XXV 1 869 ,

Th is h oard was d iscovered i n 1 852 , ' near t he P ark End i ron w orks o n t he Co leford r oad , a nd when f ound t he c o ins w ere e nc losed i n aj ar o f c o m mon g rey Ro man p o t tery .'

T he r ange i s f ro m J u l ia Do mna t o

A l lectus , ' f ro m wh ich w e may s a fe ly c onc lude t ha t t he r u ins i n t he f orres t o f Dean were w orked b y t he Ro mans u n t i l t he c lose o f t he t h ird c en tury '. The B .G .A.S . a ccoun t i s b ased o n ac o l la t ion o f t he c o ins b y B agna l lOak ley a nd L ee.

O f t he Caraus ius a nd A l lectus c o ins p . 1 1 n . s ays

' These t wo c o ins w ere p urchased w ith s o me v ery c o mmon o nes , f ro m a d if feren t s ource , a nd t hough t hey a re p robab ly p ar t o f t he s a me f i nd , I h ave n o p os it ive p roo f o f i t .' h a lf were u n iden t if iab le. Gord ian ;

9 x Ph i l ip ;

2 3 xS a lon ina ;

The t o ta l was o ver 1 000 o f wh ich a bou t

T hose l i s ted a re :

2 x Dec ius ;

1 75 x Postu mus ;

1xJ u l ia Do mna ;

2 x Va ler ian ; 6 8 xV ictor inus ;

1x

1 31 x G a l l ienus ; 2 x Mar ius ;

3 3 x

T 1 0 etr x ic Pu rs obu I ;s ;1 11x xT C e a tr ic nus ;I ;I x 1 2C 5 ar x au C l s i aus d iu ( s PAX I ; A1 VGG 8 x Qu [ s ic n ] t il lus ;S IP 1xA l lectus ( PAX AVG

S IP

) ;

)

ML 1 5.

S APPERTON TUNNEL ( Lark 's Bush ) , G los. N .C. I s er . v o l. V 1 845 , p . 1 95 ;

S O 9 403

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ;

A .J. I 1 845 ,

p . 4 5. On ' Sep t 1 4th 1 844...labourers...the mouth o f t he S apper ton Tunne l ... .found a h u man s ke leton i mbedded i n t he e ar th a bou t f i f teen i nches , a nd b y i t s s ide s even ty Ro man c o ins.'

Abou t h a lf were e xa m ined a nd t hey

i nc luded , ' Ga l l ienus , V ictor inus , T etr icus S en ior , S a lon ina , Qu in t i l lus , Caraus ius a nd A l lectus.' S o me 3 000 c o ins w ere f ound n earby i n t he h am let o f F ra mp ton i n 1 759 r ang ing f ro m P ius t o Ga l l ienus. The S apper ton Tunne l h oard i s p ar t ly i n S troud Museu m a nd p ar t ly i n p r iva te h ands. 1 6.

( c f No. 1 3 f ro m Ound le.)

SKE WEN ( Coed y F franc ), G la m. A . Ca mb. LXXV I I, p p. 4 15-7 ; v o l. X 1 930 , p . 1 34.

S S 7 297

B .C.S . XX [ II , p . 3 07 ;

N .C. 5 s er .

( Na t . Mus. Wa les ) ( C.C.R.B., p . 1 63 a s N ea th ).

Th is was f ound i n 1 919 i n a n o ld q uarry , ' i n ah o l low c overed b y t wo f l a t s tones ', a nd c ons is ts o f 1 50-200 a nton in ian i f ro m G a l l ienus t o A l lectus. There a re a t Card if f 6 x Ga l l ienus ; 8xC laud ius I ; 5x P os tu mus ; 1 0 xV ictor inus ; 2x T etr icus I ; 7xT e tr icus I ; 1x T ac itus ; 3x ' rad ia tes ';

1 8 x Caraus ius ;

1xA l lectus - 6 1.

The A .C . a ccoun t r ecords t he f ac t t ha t t he c o ins w ere ' mos t ly d a maged ' a nd t h is i s b orne o u t b y wha t r e ma ins o f t he m a t Card if f where s o me a re c h ipped a nd c orroded t o l i t t le more t han h a l f s ize.

5 6

T he A l lectus c o in

wh ich t er m ina tes t he h oard i s a n

SP

a nd Boon s ugges ts 2 93-4 a s t he

t ime o f c oncea l men t. 1 7.

T IC KENHA M , S o merse t

S T 4 571

V .C.H. S o merset , p . 3 67 ;

C .C. R .B., p . 1 63.

Th is i s ap oor ly d ocu men ted h oard f ound i n 1 829 r ang ing f ro m G a l l ienus t o t he T etrarchy .

I t i s l i s ted a s a n A l lectan h oard b y S u ther land .

I ts

f indspo t i s v ery n ear t ha t o f t he Cadbury h oard. 1 8.

WATCHF IELD , B erks.

S U 2 490

N .C. 4 s er. v o l . V I 1 907 p roc. p . 5 ; V .C. H . Berks.; C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ; R .I.C. V . 2p p . 4 49-50 ; Even ing S tandard a nd S t . J a mes ' G azet te , 1 5.9.1905. 2 3 c o ins were f ound i n a sma l l e ar thenware v esse l i n as tonel ined we l l. They r anged t hus : C laud ius I ;

1x G a l l ienus ;

1 x Max im ian ;

3x V ictor inus ;

6 x Caraus ius ;

5x T etr ic i ;

1x

6x A l lectus. Those o f

Caraus ius a nd A l lectus a re s a id t o h ave ' been s truck a t L ondon a nd Co lches ter '. 1 9.

WED MORE ( Cock lade/Cock lake ) , S o merset An t . J .

V II I* p . 9 7 ( Wed more );

S T 4 347

J .R.S . XVI * *

1 927 , p . 2 05 ( Cock lade );

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ( t ak ing i ta s t wo s epara te h oards ). * Th is i s a l leged ly

o ne h oard o f 4 4 c o ins a nd a nother o f 1 0 wh ich b eca me

i nd is t ingu ishab ly m ixed .

I t s ee ms p robab le t ha t t h is i s t wo s epara te

b its o f t he s a me h oard f ound a t d if feren t t imes b u t c f . t he J .R.S . a ccoun t . There w ere 1 4 x Caraus ius a nd 1 x A l lectus , o f wh ich s ix were i l leg ib le , i nc lud ing t he A l lectus. * * Th is a ccoun t men t ions 4 3 c o ins b eg inn ing w ith o ne e ach o f P ius a nd Caracal la t hen r ang ing f ro m G a l l ienus t o A l lectus a nd i nc lud ing 1 4 o f Caraus ius.

T hey w ere f ound i n a n u rn o f l a te d a te b y t he s ide o f a

s tone p i tched c our tyard a nd r oadway n ear Cock lade o n t he s ou th s ide o f t he Wed more-Rodney S toke r oad .

C lose t o i ta nother h oard o f 1 0 c o ins

was f ound , o f t he s a me p er iod , a s we l l a s ap enannu lar b rooch , a f i bu la , aq uern a nd a p o t. I t c anno t b e p roved t ha t t h is was a l l o ne h oard b u t t h is i s p robab ly t he c ase.

Recen t a er ia l p ho tography h as s hown t hat t he s et t le men t h ere

was much l arger t han w as a t f irst t hough t . i n p r iva te h ands i n t he a rea.

5 7

S o me o f t he c o ins a re s t i l l

GROUP THREE : 1 .

Hoards c on ta in ing Caraus ius a nd/or A l lectus o n ly

B ITTERNE, Han ts.

S U 4 513

V .C.H. Han ts. I , p . 3 44 ; n .s. X I I 1 906 , p . 15 ; L ockhar t .

G en .

Ha mpsh ire Repos itory I , p . 13 ; J .B.A.A.

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 ;

Woodward , Wi lkes a nd

H ist . o f Han ts., L ondon 1 861 I , p . 1 50 a nd n .

I n t he c on tex t o f e x tens ive r e ma ins , ' A sma l l p o t f i l led w ith c o ins o f A l lectus was f ound h ere a bou t 1 799 , b ut e xact ly w here Id o n ot k now .' Th is i s f ur ther s a id t o h ave h appened , ' when t he n ew r oad t o Bo t ley was made '. 2 .

CAER WENT , Mon .

ST 4 790

Arch . LX I I, p . 4 32 ;

B .C.S . XXII , p . 3 07 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63.

I n 1 910 , i n t he s outh west a ng le o f r oom 1 3 a sma l l p o t was f ound c on ta ini ng s ix c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd f our o f A l lectus. A l l w ere i n min t c ond it i on . S IP S IP

3 .

The Caraus ius c o ins a re 1 x L ondon ,

4x ' Co lches ter ', 1 x

a nd t he A l lectus a re 1 x L ondon a nd 3 x ' Co lchester '. o r

S IP

T he l a tes t i s

M La nd Boon s ugges ts a d epos it ion d ate o f c . 2 93-4.

D INAS D INLLE, Caern .

S H 2 736

Hu tton Re marks o n Nor th Wa les , p . 1 17 ; p . 3 07.

B .C.S .I ., p . 3 48 ;

XX II I ,

Th is b ad ly d ocu men ted h oard was f ound c . 1 800 a nd c ons isted c h ief ly o f a n ton in ian i o f A l lec tus. 4 .

DRO IT W ICH , Worcs.

S O 8 693

Co in Hoards V o l. I , p p . 5 2-53. Ah oard o f 1 4 a n ton in ian i f ound i n 1 973 a t t he Bays Meadow s i te , Dro itw ich , c o mpr is ing f our o f Caraus ius a nd t en o f A l lectus. A l lectus a re i n av ery g ood s ta te o f p reserva t ion .

T he c o ins o f

T he a bsence o f

q u inar i i s ugges ts t ha t t he h oard was c oncea led s o mewha t b e fore t he e nd o f Alec tus ' r e ign . 4 a.

GW INDY/NEATH

s ee PORT TENNANT

5 .

HA M MERSMITH L ondon TQ 2 278 L ondon Museu m Cata logues I I. C .C.RB. p . 1 63 ;

( No. 9 )

L ondon i n Ro man T i mes , p . 1 90 ;

A. J. b oo cv i 1 929 , p . 8 6.

' Seven a n ton in ian i o f Caraus ius f ound t oge ther i n t he T ha mes a t Ha mmers m ith.

The m in ts , where d ec ipherab le a re

a nd -L . T hese marks s uggest t ha t t h is i s a n e ar ly Caraus ian ML d epos i t o r l oss.

5 8

6 .

LE IGH CHURCH , Essex Unpub l ished.

TQ 8 386

I n forma t ion f ro m I . G . P . Murray , Esq., t hen o f

S p ink a nd S on . Th is i s ah oard ' f ound e ar ly i n t he s ix t ies a t L e igh Church i n Essex , c o mpr is ing ...on ly a bou t 3 0 o r s o p ieces , ma in ly o f A l lec tus , a l l i n f a ir ly g ood c ond it ion .' Dav id M il ler , t hen w ith Mer id ien Co ins , c la i med t hat a Caraus ian R IC 1 74 i n v ery f ine c ond it ion was a lso f ro m t h is h oard.

The h oard h as n ow

b een d ispersed . 7 .

L ITTLE OR ME'S HEAD , C aern .

S I T 8 182

A . Ca mb. v o l . LX I I I 1 908, p . 1 16 ; B .N.J. I I 1 907, p p . 1 9-20 ; c o l . 9 729 ;

An t iquary ' d il l 1 907 , p p . 4 6 , 8 3;

I V 1 908, p . 3 40 ;

N u m. C irc. XV 1 907

N .C. 4 s er . v o l . 71 907 p roc., p . 7 ;

6s er . v o l. XV I

1 956 , p p. 2 05f f.; B .C.S . I , p . 3 48 ; XX I I I , p . 3 06 ; C .C.R.B., p . 1 62. ( Na t . Mus. Wa les , B .M . Ash mo lean , p r iva te h ands ) Th is h oard d oes i n f act i nc lude a v ery f ew c o ins o ther t han t hose o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus b u t a s t he o verwhe lm ing ma jor ity o f s o l arge a h oard d oes c ons ist o f t he ir c o ins , i th as b een i nc luded i n t h is g roup. T he h oard was f ound i n 1 907.

T he meta l s tr ips a nd t he ' pa tch o f b lack

e ar thy ma t ter q u ite d ist inct f ro m t he n e ighbour ing s o i l ', s ugges t t ha t i t was o r ig ina l ly c on ta ined i n a meta l b ound wooden b ox .

Wil lough ly-

G ardners ' e f for ts t o t race a l l t he c o ins f ro m t he h oard s ugges t a n o r ig ina l t o ta l o f o ver 7 00.

Ra ther l ess t han 6 00 h ave b een d ocu men ted .

a re many i rregu lar a nd o vers truck p ieces ;

There

ac o in ( No. 3 89 i n N .C. ' 5 6 )

wh ich i s f ro m t he s ame d ies a s o ne o f t he c o ins f ro m t he h oard a t P ennard G ower ( q .v.);

t he r e markab le a n ton in ianus ( No. 9 7a ) f ro m t he

s a me o bverse d ie a s t he o n ly e x tan t RSR a ureus ( R.I.C. 5 34 ); a c o in f ro m t he s ame d ies a s o ne f ro m a p oss ib le sma l l h oard f ro m S urrey ; a nd t wo ' Rouen ' c o ins. T hese ' Rouen ' c o ins c o mp l ica te t he d a t ing o f t he h oard. m in t mark i s

F IO ML

T he l a test

wh ich w ou ld g ive a d epos it ion d a te o f a bou t

2 89 b u t

t he ' Rouen ' c o ins b r ing t h is f orward t o t he e nd o f t he r e ign , p resu m ing t ha t s uch c o ins w ere o n ly i ssued t hen .

( v .i. o n ' Rouen ' c o ins .)

Boon ( B.C.S . XX I I I ) c on trad ic ts h i mse lf s o mewha t i n g iv ing a d epos it ion d a te o f 2 93 s ay ing ' no m in t marks a f ter 2 89 b u t t wo Rouen c o ins '. I n c on tras t t o u s ing ' Rouen ' c o ins t o d a te t he h oard t hus , h e r efers o n p . 2 95 , t o ' a Rouen m in t wh ich b egan i t s a ct iv ity ...before 2 90 '. 8 .

OLD FORD BO W

L ondon

T Q 3 683

N .C. 2 s er . v o l . V I 1 866 , p . 3 04 ; Trans. L ondon a nd M idd lesex Arch . S oc. I I 1 870, p . 2 07 ; V .C.H. M idd lesex I , p . 7 3 ; R .C.H. M . L ondon 1 928 , p . 1 89 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63.

I n F ebruary 1 866, a q uar ter m ile f ro m t he f erry t owards L ondon i n a

5 9

f ork i n t he r oad ( one r oad g o ing n or th-west a cross Ca mbr idge Hea th , t he o ther , s ou th-wes t a cross Bethna l G reen ) ' a sma l l v ase o f d ark p o t tery f i l led w ith t h ird b rass c o ins o f A l lec tus ' was f ound 3 " d own . They were most ly v ery c orroded .

T he N .C. a ccoun t s ays t ha t o f t he

t h ird o f t he h oard e xa m ined , a l l w ere q u inar i i o f A l lec tus w i th e ither V IRTVS o r LAET IT IA t ypes. T h is i s , t hus , al a te A l lectan h oard i nc lud ing c o ins o f b oth m in ts. 9 .

PORT TENNANT , G la m.

S S 9 597 ( approx )

Morgan , An t iquar ian S urvey o f Eas t G ower , p . 7 1; t ions t o t he H istory o f Swansea , p . 5 6 ; XX [ I I, p . 3 07 ;

D i l lwyn , C on tr ibu-

B .C.S. I , p . 3 70 ;

I V , p . 2 52 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63 , S i mpson , G ., Br itons a nd t he

Ro man Ar my , p . 1 69. On t he b each a t P or t T ennan t , e ast o f Swansea , 7a n ton in ian i o f Caraus ius w ere p icked u p a f ter a s tor m i n 1 836.— I n t he s a me y ear a t h ird b rass o f A l lectus was f ound ' near t he s a me s po t '. r ecords 7 x Caraus ius a nd 2 x A l lectus .

S i mpson

Th is must b e t he s a me a s t he

Gw indy/Nea th h oard r ecorded i n N .C. 5 s er . v o l. X 1 930 , p . 1 64 a s ' . ..7 c o ins o f Caraus ius...found o n t he b each b etween Gw indy a nd

1 0.

R ICHBOROUGH , Ken t

TR 3 358

R ichborough I V , p . 2 80 ;

N .C. 5 s er . v o l. 2a , p . 7 0 ;

( Hoard No. 6 )

Th is c ons ists o f 6c o ins o f A l lectus , f ound t ogether i n t he f i l l ing o f t he m idd le e ar th f or t d i tch , a bou t t hree f eet d own . S IP

f ro m t he f irs t y ear o f A l lectus ' r e ign .

A l l h ave t he mark

T h is h oard t aken i n c on junct ion

w ith t he Caraus ian h oard f ro m t he s ide o f o ne o f t he s tone f or t d i tches p rov ides v a luab le d a t ing e v idence f or t he c hange o ver t o s tone a t R ichborough ( v .i.) 1 1.

ST ALBANS , Her ts.

TL 1 507

Whee ler , R . E . M., a nd T . V ., V eru la m iu m , a Be lg ic a nd Two Ro man C it ies , Ox ford 1 936 , p . 10. I ns V

Bu i ld ing V i

I n t he s ou th wes t w ing a h oard o f 1 9 a n ton in ian i was f ound , a l l o f Caraus ius. O f t hese , o ne was o vers truck a nd a l l b u t o ne a ppear ' s l igh t ly b arbarous '. F 0 1x — , 2x . T hese l as t a re t he 1M1 ' 111 ML l a tes t c o ins wh ich c an c lear ly b e n o e ar l ier t han t hose t hey c opy , n a me ly

There a re 1 5 x

1x

c . 2 89.

6 0

GROUP FOUR : 1 .

' Leg i t im ist ' h oards

CADBURY ( Clap ton i n G ordano ) S o merset N .C. 3 s er . v o l. XV I, p p . 2 38f f .; C .C.R.B., p . 1 63;

ST 4 773

5s er . v o l. V I I 1 927 , p p.209-18;

V .C.H. S o merse t , p . 3 60.

Th is i s ah oard o f 3 5 a n ton in ian i f ound i n 1 891 : V ic tor inus ;

2x C laud ius I ;

7 x Aure l ian ;

8 x Probus ;

1 x Nu mer ian ;

5x D ioc let ian ;

Caraus ius ( PAX AVGGG ) :

1 x Ga l l ienus ;

2x T ac it-u s ;

1x F lor ian ;

3 x Max im ian ;

1 x Cons tan t ius a s Caesar ;

1x

1x

1x ' p la ted '.

S uther land r ecords t h is a s a n A l lectan h oard a nd h e i nc ludes a s A l lectan t he C lap tonin-Gordano h oard ( N .C. 1 927 ) a lthough t he a ccoun t men t ions n o c o ins o f A l lec tus. f ind . 2 .

The h oard was f ound v ery n ear t o t he T ickenha m

( q.v.)

CHEDDAR , S o merse t

S T 4 553

J .B.A.A. I 1 847 , p . 2 70 ; p . 4 8 ; 1 62.

V .C. H. S o merset I , p . 3 59 ;

N .C. 1 847 ,

Dobson , Archaeo logy o f S o merset 1 931, p . 1 56 ;

C .C.R .B., p .

I n ah oard o f a bou t 1 00 b ronze c o ins r ang ing f ro m Ga l l ienus t o D ioc let ian a nd Max im ian t here w ere n o c o ins o f t he u surpers a s s uch a l though o f t he 2 9 c o ins o f D ioc let ian a nd Max im ian , 7 were s truck b y Caraus ius. Those r epresen ted w ere : 7 x Aure l ian ;

1x G a l l ienus ;

1x S ever ina ;

1x S a lon ina ;

2 0 xT ac itus ;

1 7 xD ioc let ian ( i nc. 3 x Caraus ius );

2x P ostu mus ;

3 0 x Probus ;

2 x Car inus ;

1 2 x Max im ian ( i nc. 4 x

Caraus ius ) > 9 9. 3 .

EAST HARNHA M , Wilts.

S U 1 429

N .C. 6 s er. v o l. I X 1 949 , p p. 2 51f f .;

C .C. R.B., p . 1 64 ;

( Sa l isbury

Mus.) Th is h oard was f ound i n 1 871 a nd o u t o f a n o r ig ina l t o ta l o f 3 938 s o me 3 709 c o ins h ave b een r ecorded.

They a re g enera l ly v ery we l l p reserved ,

many r eta in ing t he ir s i lver w ash , a nd t here a re a l mos t n o u surpers 'c o ins. There a re n o c o ins o f Caraus ius b y n a me b u t 1 9 i n t he n a me o f D ioc le t ian a nd 2 7 i n t he n a me o f Max im ian . 3x V a ler ian ; Va ler ian I ;

1 519 x G a l l ienus ; 1 11 x Qu in t i l lus ;

1 20 x S a lon ina ;

4x T etr icus I ;

2x S a lon in u s ;

9 1 x Aure l ian ;

2x

1 2 x

S ever ina ; 1 03 x Tac itus ; 5x F lor ian ; 2 27 x Probus ; 8 x Carus ; 8x Car inus ; 1 x Magn ia Urb ica ; 9x N u mer ian ; 8 1 xD ioc let ian ( i nc. 1 9 x Caraus ius );

8 0 x Max im ian ( i nc. 2 7 x Caraus ius ) ;

5 x Cons tan t ius );

4xG a ler ius. 4 .

EVENLEY , Nor than ts.

S P 5 834

N .C. 1 s er . v o l . XV 1 855 , p . 3 8 ; Ip . 5 5 ;

2s er . v o l. X I, p . 1 75 ;

A .J. 2 d ix 1 892 , p . 2 24 n .j.:

C .C.R.B. p . 1 64.

6 1

G .M . 1 854 ,

V .C.H. Nor than ts p . 2 17;

F ound i n 1 826 i n ' a c o m mon e ar thenware p ot ' w ere 3 153 c o ins ( 2448 s econd b rass worn ' ).

g enera l ly we l l p reserved ' a nd 7 05 t h ird b rass , ' much

The o vera l l r ange o f t he t h ird b rass i s 2 60-306 A .D . i nc lud-

i ng o n ly t wo c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd v ery f ew o f t he Ga l l ic Emperors. T he N .C. 1 855 a ccoun t t akes t h is t o b e as o ld ier 's p ay h oard b u t t h is d oes n ot e xp la in t he p resence o f s o many o lder s econd b rass c o ins. 5 .

GLOUCESTER ( Cross ), G los. Da i ly T e legraph 2 0.2.1960 ; 1 961, p . 1 86 ;

S O 8 318

Western Ma il 3 1.3.1960 ;

J .R.S . v o l . L I

u npub l ished n otes Carson , R . A . G .

Th is h oard o f 1 5 ,544 c o ins was f ound i n 1 959.

I ti nc luded v ery f ew c o ins

o f t he u surpers a nd i s d is t inct ive i n c on ta in ing i n s uch l arge n u mbers t he c o inage o f t he c en tra l emperors , s truck a f ter t he r e for m o f Aure l ian , wh ich i s n orma l ly s o r are i n Br it ish h oards.

The h oard c loses w ith

t wen ty c o ins o f Caraus ius , i nc lud ing o ne ' Rouen ' p iece , n ine o f h is i n t he n a me o f D ioc let ian , s even i n t ha t o f Max im ian , a nd t wo o f A l lectus w ith t he mark

GROUP F IVE : 1 .

SP C



Hoards t er m ina t ing a f ter A l lectus

BR ISTOL ( Ni l

Avon

ST 5 872 ( -Br is to l )

V .C. H. S o merset , p . 3 58;

N .C. 3 s er . v o l . V 1 885 , p .

1/ 8;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 64. A h oard o f 3 47 c o ins was d iscovered n ear Br isto l a bou t 1 875.

They r ange

f ro m G a l l ienus t o Constan t ine I , t he ma jor ity b e ing o f Cons tan t ine I . There i s o ne Caraus ius R ) MONETA AVG S IC Evans g ives a d epos it ion d a te o f 3 22 a nd c o m men ts o n t he ' re markab le... s carc ity o f t he c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus '.

T here i s r eason t o

b el ieve t ha t t h is a nd t wo o ther l oca l h oards , Eas ton ( q. v. ) a nd Mon tpe l ier , w ere o r ig ina l ly a l l o ne l arge f our th c en tury h oard wh ich w as s ubsequen t ly s p l it u p. 2 .

CANTERBURY , Ken t

TR 1 457

Unpub l ished n otes o fR . Reece. Hoard 8 CXXX EX X i D ll H Th is r anges f ro m C laud ius I t o G ra t ian a nd i nc ludes o ne C araus ius ( R IC 8 80 ). 3 .

CLECKHEATON , Yorks.

S E 1 925

R ichmond , I . A ., Huddersf ie ld i n Ro man T i mes , Y .A.J. XXV I I, " p . 2 14 ;

p . 1 15.

Hoard V I I I ;

Hearnes e d . o f L e land 's I t inerary 1 714 , v o l.

I X , p . 1 44. *c o ins o f ' Constan t ine , Constan t ius , D ioc le t ian a nd Caraus ius ' A .D . 2 843 06. * * ' A h oard o f t h ird b rass d a t ing 2 87-305 '. 6 2

4 .

DORCI TESTER, Oxon.

S U 5 794

Unpubl ished n o tes o f R . Reece. T h is h oard c ons is ts o f . 1 4 c o ins r ang ing f ro m o ne o f A l lectus d own t o c o ins o f t he h ouse o f T heodos ius.

The f irst , i s a' qu inar ius E R IC 1 30 )

i n min t s tate a nd i s t he l argest c o in i n t he h oard.

I t i s p oss ib le t ha t

t h is i s ag roup o f c o ins p ut t ogether i n p ost-Ro man t imes. 5 .

DUSTON-NORTON ( Nobot t le ), Nor than ts. N .C. 5 s er . v ol. X 1 930 , p . 2 75 ; v o l. XV II, 1 927, p . 2 02 ;

SP 6 763

5s er. v o l. X I 1 931, p . 3 21;

J .R.S .

.A .J. XC 1 933, p p. 2 82f f .

F ound i n t he r u ins o f a Ro mano-Br it ish b u ild ing , t h is h oard , ' had o bv ious ly b een c arefu l ly h idden w ith in t he b u i ld ing when i t was a lready r u ined.'

T here was n o t race o f ac on ta iner b ut t he h oard was ' con-

c ea led u nder a wedge s haped s tone p laced a s lan t t he f ound o f ac rosswa l l '.

The N .C. 1 930 a ccoun t a lso s ays , ' The

8 18 c o ins r anged f ro m

L uc ius Verus t o t he h ouse o f Theodos ius , were most ly f our th c en tury b u t i ncluded o ne A l lectus ( PAX AVG

S ML

6 .

EASTON ( Br isto l )

)•

S T 5 872

P .S .A. 2 V II I 1 879-81, p . 2 87; B .G .A.S. 1 885, p . 4 6 ;

N .C. 3 s er. v ol . V 1 885 ;

1 939 , p . 1 94 ;

p . 1 18;

C . H. V .S., p . 1 64.

Th is i s a Constan t in ian h oard o f 7 32 c o ins r ang ing f ro m Ga l l ienus a nd i nc lud ing o ne Caraus ius. 7 .

6 0 o f t he c o ins a re i n Br is to l Museu m.

HA MBLEDON VALLE Y , Bucks. Arch . LXX I , p p. 1 89-90 ; I n a Ro mano-Br it ish h o mestead s i te a Constan t in ian h oard o f 2 94 c o ins was f ound.

8 .

These i nc luded o ne e ach o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus.

HOVE EDGE, Yorks.

S E 0 825 ( 1 1 - miles n or th e ast o f Ha l ifax )

I . A . R ich mond , Huddersf ield i n Ro man T i mes , p . 15.

Hoard No. I X ;

Th is i s s i mp ly g iven a s , ' Caraus ius , A l lectus , D ioclet ian 2 84-305 '. 9 .

I CKL INGHA M , S uf fo lk N .C. 5 s er . v o l. I X 1 929 , p . 3 16; 5s er . v o l. XV II I 1 938, p p. 5 7, 5 9 ; XC 1 933, p . 3 02 ;

5s er . v o l. XV I, p p. 2 57, 2 61; 6s er . v o l. X 1 950, p . 2 58;

A .J.

C . H. V .S., p p. 5 9 n , 9 7, 1 67.

Th is h oard c ons ists o f 1 064 c o ins r ang ing f ro m o ne o f Ga l l ienus d own t o 3 53 o f Arcad ius/Honor ius , a nd i ncludes o ne Caraus ius a nd f our A l lectus.

6 3

1 0.

I LCHESTER , S o merset J .R.S . 2 ( . 1 1 950 ,

P .

1 10.

T h is c ons ists o f 1 0 c o ins 1x T etr icus I ; 2 x Caraus ius ; 1x Cons tan t ine I ; 1 x Constan t ius I a s Caesar ; 1 x Cons tan t inopo l is ; 1xh ouse o f Cons tan t ine ; 1 1.

4xu ncer ta in .

L ING WELL GATE, Yorks.

S E 3 225

P .S .A. v o l. Ia ppend ix , p . 3 4. Th is was f ound i n 1 812 i n a n e ar thenware u rn o n t he e s tate o f t he Marqu is o f Her t ford o n t he Wakef ie ld Outwood.

' I t w as s ta ted t ha t c o ins h ad b een

f ound t wo y ears e ar l ier o n t he s a me s po t .'

T hese may h ave b een p ar t

o f t he s a me h oard . T he r ange was f ro m V ictor inus t o Va lens a nd i nc luded c o ins o f Caraus ius ( SALVS AVG ) a nd A l lectus ( R IC 5 5 ). 1 2.

L ITTLE OR 1 V IE I S H 8 182 B .N .J. I I 1 907, p . 1 7 ; p . 1 17 ;

1 909 , p . 3 81;

) OC I 1 932, p . 9 4 ;

V I 1 910 , p . 5 ;

I X 1 913 , p . 8 1; A . Ca mb. 1 908, B .C.S . I1 923, p . 3 48 ; J .R .S .

1 915 , p . 8 7 ;

C .H. V .S ., p . 1 64 ;

925 , p . 3 95 ; N .C. 5 s er . v o l. V 1

6s er . v o l. XV I, p . 1 19. Th is h oard r anged f ro m Qu in t il lus t o L ic in ius a nd was p redo m inan t ly Constan t in ian .

The t ota l was c . 6 ,500 a nd o f t he 5 032 r ecorded , o ne

was o f Caraus ius a nd t wo o f A l lec tus. 1 3.

NORTON F ITZ WARREN , S o merset

( Nr Taun ton )

L et ter f ro m B . M. c f . B . M. r eg is ter f or 1 938. Th is sma l l h oard o f 7c o ins was f ound c . 1 880.

1 4.

I t i s d escr ibed a s c on-

t a in ing a l l b arbarous p ieces - 1 x V ictor inus ;

1x T e tr icus I ;

T etr icus I ;

1x t wo v ic tor ies t ype .

1 x Caraus ius ;

2x F e l. T e mp ;

1x

OFFCHURCH , Warcs. No te t o A .S .R. f ro m Graha m Webs ter . Ah oard o f 4 2 c o ins r ang ing f ro m Va ler ian t o Theodos ius a nd i nc lud ing o ne Caraus ius.

1 5.

PE MBROKE CASTLE, P e mbs.

SM 9 901

L aws H istory o f P e mbrokesh ire , p . 4 6 ;

B .C.S . XX I I I , p . 3 09.

A l l t ha t i s r ecorded i s af ind o f 6c o ins r ang ing f ro m Caraus ius t o Cons tans. 1 6.

PENRHYN , Caern . A . Ca mb.

SH 8 8281

LX I I I 1 908, p p . 1 55f f .;

LX IV 1 909 , p . 3 81f f .

Th is h oard was f ound C . 1 880 o n ly a bout h a lf a m ile f ro m t he L it t le Or me 's Head .

I t c ons ists v ery l arge ly o f Cons tan t in ian c o ins i n p r is t ine

c ond it ion , b u t i nc ludes o ne o f Caraus ius a nd t wo o f A l lectus. 6 4

1 7.

PEVENSEY , S ussex G .M . 1 840 I ,

P .

5 20 ;

N .C. 1 841,

t i ons a t P evensey 1 858 , p . 2 5 ; S ussexI I I 1 935 , p . 7 ;

P .

6 5 ; Roach-S m ith , C .,

J .R.S . XX I I 1 932 , p . 6 6 ;

C .C.R.B., p . 1 66 ;

Excava-

V .C. H.

J .R.S. XX I I , 1 932 , p . 6 6.

T h is i s ah oard o f 9 8 c o ins r ang ing f ro m o ne o f Caraus ius d own t o o ne o f G ra t ian . 1 8.

R ICHBOROUGH , Ken t

TR 3 358

R ichborough I V , p . 2 80.

H oard 5 .

Th is i s a Constan t in ian h oard o f 7 9 c o ins ( t here i s o ne T heodos ian i n truder ) f ro m p it 8 i n t he a rea n or th o f t he f or t .

The h oard r anges

f ro m G a l l ienus d own t o a FEL TE MP REPARAT IO o f c . 3 45 a nd i nc ludes o ne Caraus ius. 1 9.

R ICHBOROUGH , Ken t

TR 3 358

R ichborough I V , p . 2 79.

H oard 3 .

Th is i s ap redo m inan t ly T heodos ian h oard f ro m p it 2 20 a nd c ons ists o f 8 5 c o ins r ang ing f ro m o ne o f Caraus ius t o o ne o f Theodos ius. 2 0.

RUSHALL DO WN , Wi l ts. N .C. 2 s er . v o l . I 1 862,

S U 1 255 P .

3 65 ;

Wi l tsh ire G aze t te J u ly 1 7 , 1 899 ;

W.A. M . x l i i , p . 2 27. I n a ssoc ia t ion w ith f i bu lae , r ings a nd a n Edward ian s pur a p redo m inan t ly Cons tan t in ian h oard was f ound a t Rusha l l Down , s ix m i les f ro m D ev izes o n t he S a l isbury s ide.

I tb egan w ith G a l l ienus a nd i ncluded t wo c o ins o f

A l lec tus , ' one o f wh ich was i n a 2 1.

v ery f a ir s ta te o f p reserva t ion .'

SULLY MOOR, G la m. ST 1 568 N .C. 3 s er . v o l . XX 1 900 , p p . 2 7-65 ;

A . Ca mb. LV 1 900 , p . 6 5 ;

B .C.S . XX I I I , P . 3 05 ; An t iquary XXXV 1 899 , P . 3 65 ; Nu m. C irc. 1 900 c o l. 3 758 ; B .M . G u ide 1 922 , p . 6 5 ; I saac , P . J ., A S tudy o f Ro man G o ld Co ins F ound i n Br ita in , a nd T he ir Imp l ica t ions , M.A. Thes is , Durha m 1 971, p p. 6 7-68. A h oard o f g o ld a nd s i lver c o ins was f ound i n a meta l v esse l 4 1 .-" l ong , i n 1 899.

I n a l l t here were 3 01 c o ins o f wh ich s even were g o ld ( N .B. t here

i s s o me s l igh t c onfus ion i n t he a ccoun ts a s f i f teen s i lver c o ins a re s a id t o h ave a lso b e longed t o t h is h oard b u t t hese s ee m , i n f act , t o h ave b een i nc luded i n t he t o ta l f igure o f 3 01 ).

T he s i lver c o ins r ange f ro m

Marcus Aure l ius t o P os tu mus w ith o ne o f Caraus ius a lso. The g o ld c o ins a re a l l l a ter s t i l l.

( R IC 5 54 )

Th is i s av ery marked e xa mp le o f

ah oarder 's a vers ion t o b ase me ta l a nd i ts quares w ith t he u sua l p a t tern i n m ixed g old a nd s i lver h oards t ha t t he g o ld i s l ater t han t he s i lver .

6 5

2 2.

WE YBR IDGE, S urrey B . M. n o tes ( Weybr idge Museu m ) Th is h oard was f ound a t S t . G eorge 's H il l , Weybr idge a nd c ons is ts o f 9c o ins g o ing d own t o Magnen t ius a nd i nc lud ing a n A l lectus.

2 3.

WEY MOUTH , Dorse t N .C. 5 s er. v o l. I X 1 929 , p roc., p p . 5 , 1 0 ; &p roc.,p . 3 1;

6s er . v o l X 1 950 ,

c o ls. 4 04 , 4 86 ;

J .R.S . XV I I I 1 928, p .2 06 ;

XC 1 933, p . 2 99 ;

P .

2 56 ;

5s er . v o l X I 1 931, p . 1 4 Nu m. C irc. XXXV I 1 928, XX [ I 1 932 , p . 9 5 ;

A .J .

C .C.R.B., p p. 5 9 n , 1 20 , 1 21, 1 23 n , 1 67.

T h is

h oard c ons ists o f 4 382 c o ins , n ow d ispersed t hroughou t v ar ious museu ms , r ang ing f ro m 1 Pos tu mus t o 1 838 T heodos ian a nd i nclud ing 2 4.

1A l lectus.

WISBECH, Ca mbs. Th is may p oss ib ly b e t wo h oards r un t ogether .

T here a re 1 7 c o ins

r ang ing f ro m C laud ius I t o T heodos ius a nd i nc lud ing o ne o f Caraus ius. 2 5.

WROXETER, S a lop. V .C. H. S hropsh ire ,

S J 5 608 *

p . 2 32 ;

Wr igh t , T ., Ur icon iu m , p . 6 9 ;

J .B.A.A.

XV I, p . 1 62. * ..in c ha mber 2 n ear t he l a tr ines o n t he s i l l o f ad oorway n ear t he n or thern e nd was f ound a b roken e ar thenware v esse l a nd s ca t tered a bou t i t3 8 c o ins '. They were 1 x Caraca l la ; ( second b rass ) ; V ictor inus ;

3x T etr icus ;

o f Cons tan t ine ; N .B.

GROUP S IX : 1 .

1x S everus A lexander ;

2 x Ga l l ienus ;

1x S a lon ina ;

2x C laud ius I ;

1 x Va len t in ian ;

1 x Max im ianus

1x P os tumus ;

1 x Caraus ius ;

1 x Gra t ian ;

8x 1 2 x House

1x m in im ;

2X i l leg ib le.

t he J .B.A.A. a ccoun t g ives t he t ota l a s ' abou t s ix ty '.

Hoards f ound o verseas

AM IENS , France

S o m me

N 49 '54"

N .C. 3 s er . v o l. X 1 890 , p p . 2 67f f .; r o m. e t l es i nv. g erm '.

2 '18" E B lanchet , L es t resors d e mon .

Par is 1 900 No. 2 8 ;

J ourna l d es S avan ts ,

J an- Mar . 1 969 , p p. 2 6f f. A t ota l o f 2 5 c o ins was f ound t ogether i n 1 887 , s a id t o l ook a s i ft hey h ave n o t h ad much c on tac t w ith t he s o i l a nd w ere t hus p erhaps i n ac ont a iner wh ich h as p er ished . x Her . E trusc il la ; 6 x Caraus ius ;

2x G ord ian I I ;

1 x Her . E truscus ;

1 0 xA l lectus.

1 x Ph i l ip I ;

1 x Paca t ian ;

2x P os tu mus ; • 1 x Probus ;

A l l t he c o ins o f Caraus ius h ave m in t

marks wh ich i s ap o in t a ga ins t t he v iew t ha t t he u n marked c o ins w ere s truck i n G au l.

There a re n o q u inar i i a nd t he h oard a ppears t o h ave

b een d epos ited a f ter t he l oss o f t he c on t inen ta l p ossess ions b u t b efore t he e nd o f A l lectus ' r e ign .

6 6

2 .

ARRAS , France

N 5 0 '18"

2 '46" E

N .C. 5 s er . v o l. X 1 930 , p p. 2 21-274 ; J an . 1 924 ;

A .N .S . NN M 2 8 ;

Arethuse

S chu l man , J aarboek v oor Mun t-en P enn ingkunde 1 923, p . 8 0.

Ah oard o f s o me 3 00 + a ure i a nd a t l eas t 1 3 meda l l ions i n g o ld was f ound i n 1 922.

Al arge p ropor t ion was d ispersed s oon a f ter t he d iscovery a nd

a re n o l onger t raceab le.

T he r e ma ins o f t wo c on ta iners w ere f ound ,

o ne o f s i lver , t he o ther o f c lay .

I t may b e t ha t t he s i lver o ne was c on-

c ea led i ns ide t he c lay o ne , o r e lse t ha t e ach was a c on ta iner i n i t s own r igh t . The a ure i f a l l i n to t wo g roups , a n e ar l ier o ne r ang ing f ro m Hadr ian t o Caraca l la a nd a sma l ler o ne ( c f . Ra t to S a le , Apr i l 1 923 Nos. 3 75f f .) r ang ing f ro m D ioc let ian t o C onstan t ine I .

T he h oard a ppears t o d ate

f ro m s hor t ly a f ter t he i n troduct ion o f t he s o l idus b y Constan t ine , a nd t he l a ter c o ins i n t he Ra t to s a le w h ich w ere r epu ted t o h ave c o me f ro m t he h oard p robab ly d id n o t .

Aure i s truck b y Caraus ius i n t he n a me o f

t he c en tra l emperors were i nc luded . T . E . N ewe l l.

Two o f t hese w ere b ough t b y

As we l l a s t he c o ins a nd meda l l ions t here w ere v ar ious

i t e ms o fj ewe l lery. 3 .

CA1 V I EAC ET S T .DEN IS , France ( Can t . Braune , a rr . L ibourne ,G ironne ) 11 1 1 4 4 '48 0 6 W J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

Rev. Nu m. 6 I I, p . 1 03 No. 1 0 ;

Bu l l.

e t me m. d e l a s oc. a rch. d e Bordeaux XL I I I 1 926, p p. 2 9-30. 'A l lectus d ans u n t resor e n fou i s ous D ioc let ien '. 4 .

CHERVREY , France ( arr . T rayes Aube ) N 4 8 '08" J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

4 '30" .E

Me m. d e l a s oc. d 'agr . d es S c. a r ts e t

b el les l e ttres d u d epar t d e l 'Aube X I 1 842-3, p p . 9 5-6 ;

B lanche t ,

l oc.c it., No. 1 2. ' Caraus ius e t A l lectus d ans u n t r esor e n fou i s ous D ioc let ien.' 5 .

CLE MONT , France ( can t. Argen t-sur-Sau ldre , a rr . Bourges Cher ). N 4 3 ' 3 4"

2 '18" E

J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .; d u Cher 1 939 , p . 5 5 ;

Me m . d e l a s oc. h is t.;

l i t t . e t s c ien t.

Rev . N u m. 5 XV I, p . 1 89.

' 1 x Caraus ius , 1x A l lectus d ans u n t resor d on t l a p ub l ica t ion e s t s u jet te ä c au t ion .' 6 .

COUVRON , France ( can t . Crecy-sur-Serne , a rr . L aon , A isne ) N 4 9 '28"

3 '32" E

J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

Rev. Nu m. 4 XXXV 1 932 , p p. 1 03-4 ;

J . P . Ca l lu , L a Po l it ique Moneta ire d es Empereurs Ro ma ins d e 2 38 a3 11, P ar is 1 961, p . 3 51. ' 2 e x d e C araus ius e t 2d 'Al lectus d ans u n t resor ...en fou i s ous D ioc le t ien.'

6 7

Ca l lu - 4 32 x Va ler ian/Ga l l ienus ; V ictor inus ; Aure l ian ;

2 3 xT etr ic i ;

3xP ostu mus ;

4 54 x C laud ius I ;

2 3 xT ac itus/Flor ian ;

1 x Mar ius/Lae l ian/

3 7 x Qu in t il lus ;

1 39 x Probus ;

5 5 xC arus ;

6 7 x 1 14 x

T etrarchy ( inc lud ing Caraus ius a nd A l lectus ) =1 358 7 .

FRESNOY-LES-ROYE, France ( depar t . S o m me a rr . Mon td id ier , c an t . Roye ) c f Bast ien , P . a nd V asse l l , F ., L es t resors mone ta ires d e Fresnoy-LesRoye ( So m me ), Memo ires d e l a S oc. d es An t iq. d e P icard ie , LX X EV Am iens 1 971, 1 90 p , 5f igs. 3 2 p l. Th is a ccoun t men t ioned t wo h oards f rom Fresnoy o f wh ich t he s econd was o n ly p ar t ly a ccoun ted f or .

Wha t may b e p roved f ro m a ssoc iated

p ot tery t o b e t he r es t o f t h is s econd h oard was d iscovered i n March 1 973 , a nd i s d escr ibed i n Bu l l. d e l a S oc. F r. d e Nu m ., J an 1 974 , p p. 4 48f f . T he h oard c ons ists o f a n ton in ian i a nd f o l les f ro m G a l l ienus d own t o 3 08 a nd i nc luded a n a n ton in ianus s truck a t L ondon b y Caraus ius i n t he n a me o f Max im ian . 8 .

The t o ta l n u mber o f c o ins i s 4 99.

LANC IE, France ( can t. Bel lev il le , a rr . V il lefranche , Rhöne ) N4 6 '10"

4 '3" E

J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .; No te s ur Pa te l ier

B lanche t , l oc.c it . N o. 1 95 ;

E . L epau le ,

moneta ire d e L yons a Pepoque d e l a r e for me d e

D ioc let ien , a propos d 'une t rouva il le f a ite ä Lanc ie e n 1 880 , L yons 1 883 ; J . P . Ca l lu , o p.c it., p . 3 51. ' 1 e x d e Caraus ius e t 1e x d 'Al lectus d ans u n t resor ...en fou i s ous D ioc let ien '. Ca l lu - 2 x Va ler ian/Ga l l ienus ; Aure l ian ;

9xC laud ius I ;

1 00 x T ac itus/Flor ian ;

4 38 x Probus ;

I x Qu int il lus ;

2 41 x

1 13 x C arus ;

9 00 x

T etrarchy ( i nc lud ing Caraus ius a nd A l lectus ) -1 904. 9 .

NOYELLES GODAULT , France ( can t . l i en in-Letard , a rr . B ethune , Pas-de-Ca la is ) J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .; p p . 2 28-254 a nd p l. I . ' 10 e x d e

Rev. d es

k t ud e s

Anc iennes LX LX 1 967,

Bu l l. d e l a S oc. f r . d e Nu m., J an . 1 962, p . 12.

Caraus ius d on t 1a u n om d e D ioc let ien e t 5a u n om d e Max im ien ,

e t 7e x d 'Al lectus , d ans u n t resor d 'an ton in ian i e n fou i s ous D ioc let ien '. 1 0.

ROUEN , France ( Se ine- Mar it i me ) Rev. Arch . I I 1 847 , p . 5 32 ; o p.c it ., N o. 3 46 ;

N4 9 '27"

1 '06" E

J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

B lanchet ,

Cochet , Reper to ire a rch. d u d epar te men t d e l a S e ine

I n fer ieure d ans Bu l l. d e l a s oc. l i bre d 'e mu la t ion d u c o mmerce e t d e P industr ie d e l a S e ine , I n f . 1 904 p p . 2 38-256. Th is was f ound d ur ing r oad works i n ' un v ase d e t erre n o ire g ross iere ' a nd o r ig ina l ly - ' env iron q ua tre c en ts monna ies d e p e t it b ronze , t ro is p ieces d 'argen t s eu le men t y& ta len t m Mees.'

6 8

S o me c o ins w ere l os t

d ur ing a t te mp ts

a t ' conserva t ion ' b u t s o meth ing o ver 2 00 w ere t aken

t o Rouen museu m - ' sau f u ne d ouza ine d e p e t its b ronzes h . Pef f ig ie d e Ga l l ien , P ostu me , V ictor in , T etr icus , c e deb t t ou t e n t ier a ppar tena it al 'e mpereur a ng la is Caraus ius '. The R .A. a ccoun t l i sts t he r everse t ypes o f t he 2 10 c o ins o f Caraus ius , i nc lud ing t he t hree d enar i i.

T hese l at ter a ppear t o b e R IC 6 25 a nd 6 26.

There i s o ne c o in o f Cons tan t ine a ssoc ia ted w ith t he h oard b u t t h is must b e a n i n trus ive s tray , o therw ise t here i s t he o verwhe lm ing p reponderance o f s o-ca l led ' Rouen ' a n ton in ian i o f Caraus ius.

J r -B. G iard h as r eserva-

t ions a bou t t he c ircu mstances s urround ing t he d iscovery o f t h is h oard. 1 1.

ST-POL-SUR-TERNO ISE, France J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

( arr . Arras , P as-de-Ca la is )

B ib l. Na t . Ms. n ouv. a cq. f r. 1 187 f2 8 ;

' 1 e x d e Caraus ius , e t 1d 'A l lectus d ans u n t r esor d 'an ton in ian i e t d e f o l ks e n fou i s ous Constan t in '? 1 2.

ST-V INCENT-DE- MARCUZE, France ( can t . L e T orret , a rr . Grenob le , I s ire )

N 4 5 '22"

5 '57" E

J ourna l d es S avan ts , l oc.c it .;

B lanche t , l oc.c it ., N o. 1 95 ;

Bu l l. d e

l a s oc. d 'anph., d 'ethn. e t d 'an thr . V I 1 899 , p p. 7 8-80. ' 1e x d 'Al lectus d ans u n t resor , d 'an ton in ian i e t d e f o l les e n fou i s ous D ioc let ien .'

GROUP S EVEN : 1 .

Prob le ma t ica l h oards

BRERETON , Chesh ire

S J 7 764

Wa tk in , W. T ., Ro man Chesh ire , p . 3 10 ; H is t . S oc. L ancs. Chesh ire I , p . 2 12 ; o f Chesh ire :

Ro man Chesh ire ,

*

A . Ca mb. I , p . 1 81;

C .C.R .B., p . 1 62 ;

Trans.

A H istory

p . 1 05.

T h is h oard o f =1 000 c o ins was f ound c . 1 820.

Wa tk in makes n o men t ion

o f Caraus ius o r A l lectus b ut g ives t he l a tes t c o in a s D ioc le t ian . S u ther land i nc ludes t h is a s a Caraus ian h oard . *T h is h oard , ' can p robab ly b e a ttr ibu ted t o t he p er iod o f t he Br it ish Emp ire u nder Caraus ius '. 2 .

BRETTENHA M , Nor fo lk

TL 9 383

V .C. H. Nor fo lk , p . 3 14. ' many c o ins...so me p erhaps b elong ing t o ah oard ', were f ound. Caraus ius a nd A l lectus a re i nc luded among t he m . 3 .

F ISHGUARD , P e mbs.

SM 9 637

A . Ca mb. 1 851, p . 3 36. I n r eferr ing t o c o ins p resen ted t o t he s oc ie ty i s made o f ' co ins o f Caraus ius a n c : Probus f ound n ear F ishguard '.

T h is may p oss ib ly b e a

h oard b u t N .B. A .S .R. d oes n o t i nclude i ta s s uch . 6 9

4 .

MARCH , Ca mbs.

TL 4 197

S tuke ley 's L e t ters a nd D iar ies , v o l . I , p . 5 2 ( 23.4.1763 ). p . 2 8 ;

C .C.R.B.,

Arch . 1 895 , p . 4 92.

'..Ro man u rn d ug u p many y ears a go a t March i n t he I s le o f E ly w ith many Ro man d erar i i, f a ir a nd a s l ow a s Gra t ian f ro m Augus tus.

O tho

was b ough t b y ...Caraus ius Dr . S nel l o f D idd ing ton g o t , f ro m h i m Kennedey g o t i t , n ow i n Mr . Car t . Webbs ' c ab inet .

T he u rn i s sma l l b u t e legan t .'

Th is s ee ms a n u n l ike ly r ange a nd may h ave b een a c o l lect ion o f c o ins g iven a f a lse p rovenance i n o rder t o i ncrease t he ir c o m merc ia l v a lue. 5 .

ST. ALBANS , Her ts.

TL 1 507

I n t he l i st o f s i te f inds t here i s ag roup ( a l l r ecorded a s V er ' 59 B 19 ) o f 1 0 a n ton in ian i w h ich may p oss ib ly b e p ar t o f a sma l l d ispersed Caraus ian h oard . 6 .

S HEFFORD , B eds.

TL 1 439

N .C. 1 836-7, p p . 7 9f f .;

V .C.H. B ed fordsh ire I ( 1908 ), p . 1 8.

I n ag roup o f ' severa l c o ins ' o ne o f Cons tans a nd t wo o f A l lectus a re men t ioned.

T hese l as t a re b oth ' qu inar i i.'

a t a l l b u t A. S .E 7 .

T h is may n o t b e ah oard

t akes i tt o h e a Constan t in ian h oard.

SURREY Nu m. C irc. 1 975 , p . 2 36. A

g roup o f 9a n ton in ian i , e igh t Caraus ius ( R IC 9 8 , R IC 3 07, R IC 7 50 ,

R IC 8 80 x 2 ;

a s R IC 9 8, R IC - o ) 6 c R ) S ALVSPVBL ICA

i l l x1 .)

a nd o ne A l lectus ( R IC 11) w ere f ound s o mewhere i n S urrey , s uf f ic ien t ly c lose t ogether t o s uppose t hey were o r ig ina l ly a h oard.

T he R IC 7 50

i s f ro m t he s a me d ies a s a n a n ton in ianus f ro m t he L it t le Or me 's Head h oard ( No. 6 0 ). 8 .

WILL INGHA M , Ca mbs. C .A.C., V .p . 2 25 ;

TL 4 070

C .C.R.B., p . 1 63;

J .B.A.A., n .s. V 1 899 , p . 2 93.

T he r ange i s f ro m G a l l ienus t o D ioc let ian a nd S u ther land a ccep ts i ta s a Caraus ian h oard b ut t he C .A.C. a ccoun t s ays , '..la tes t c o ins t ha t o ccurr ed i n t he f ind a re t wo o f D ioc let ian f or Ic anno t t ake i n to a ccoun t av ague r u mour t ha t o ne o f Caraus ius was among t he m.' ERRATA With t he u sua l p rob le ms o f i naccura te o r i nadequa te d ocu men ta t ion i ti s imposs ib le t o b e c er ta in i n e very c ase t ha t ag roup o f c o ins was o nce a h oard.

Group s even l i sts s o me s uch p rob le ma t ica l h oards.

T hese may ,

p erhaps , b e more f u l ly u nderstood i n t he l igh t o f s ubsequen t r esearch i f n ew i nfor ma t ion c o mes t o l i gh t .

I n a dd it ion t here a re c er ta in g roups o f

c o ins wh ich s ee m t o h ave b een m istaken ly r egarded a s h oards i n t he p as t b u t wh ich d eserve men t ion i n o rder t o e l im ina te t he m.

7 0

LA TTON ,Wi lts

( Nr . Cr ick lade )

N .C. 2 s er . v o l . I V 1 864 , p . 2 22 ; I X , p p. 2 32-7 ;

X II , p . 1 27 ;

V .C.H. Wiltsh ire I , p . 6 1;

X IV , p p. 1 88-9 ;

W.A. M .

P .S .A. 2 0 I I 1 865 , p . 6 7.

Th is s ee ms t o b e a n a ccu mu la t ion o f c o ins o ver a v ery l ong p er iod i n t he b ed o f t he r iver Churn .

Mr . P . J . I saac , c urren t ly e ngaged o n r esearch

i n to t he c o in h oards o f t he s ou th west , i s a lso o f t h is o p in ion . P IHL WOOD ( F ilwood/ Wh itchurch ) , G los. A .J. XXV I I , p . 6 9 ;

C .C.R.B., p p . 15 , 1 63 ;

N icho l ls , J . F . a nd

T ay lor , J ., Br isto l P ast a nd P resen t , I1 881, p . 2 5. The a ccoun ts o f t h is a re r a ther c on fused .

The A .J. a ccoun t a ssoc ia tes

s o me t wo h undred l arge b rass c o ins w ith s o me e ight h undred m in i ms , b u t i s m istaken i n d o ing s o a ccord ing t o S uther land.

P . J . I saac c o m men ts

t ha t t hese min i ms a re t yp ica l t h ird c en tury l oca l c op ies , s o me o f wh ich a re a t Ox ford , s o me a t Br is to l , a nd t ha t N icho ls a nd T ay lor a re q u ite wrong i n s ay ing t ha t t hese mus t b e c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus s i mp ly b ecause t hey a n teda te C ons tan t ine. DAR L I NGTO N ,Durha m A .A. 4 s er . XXXV I I I , p p . 1 20-1;

L ongs ta f fe , H istory o f Dar l ing ton

1 854 , p . 1 87. Th is g roup o f c o ins h as a l ong r ange , Tra jan t o Caraus ius , wh ich n eed n o t p reven t i t s b e ing a h oard b u t a s i tc o mes f ro m t he b ed o f t he T ees t hen i ts ee ms r ather more l ikely t o h ave b een a n a ccu mu la t ion a s w ith t he c o ins f ro m t he R iver Churn . T hese may s erve a s e xa mp les o f wha t h as b een r e jected .

D epos its s uch

a s t ha t f ro m t he w e l l o f Coven t ina a t Carrawburgh c lear ly d o n ot c o me i n to t he c a tegory o f h oards b u t s i mp le r eferences t o f inds o f c o ins may d o.

Un less t here i s s o me r eason t o s uppose t ha t t h is was s o t hen mos t

r eferences s i mp ly t o c o ins f ound h ave a lso b een e xc luded.

An e xa mp le o f

t h is i s t he '.. Many c o ins c h ief ly o f A l lectus a nd Caraus ius f ound ' f ro m W.A. N .H. M . XXXV I I I , p . 2 25 f or Cho lder ton . Retr ieved h oards r are ly l eave a ny t races b y d ef in it ion .

I n s o me c ases

t hey d o , h owever , s uch a s t he g rey j ar o f l arge s ize f ound a t Win t H i l l , Banwe l l , S o merset , w ith o ne c o in s tuck i ns ide i t , ( P . J . I saac r epor ti ng a v erba l a ccoun t f ro m I . T abra t t ), o r t he b ase o f a n u rn w ith t wo c o ins o f C onstans a dher ing t o i t , f ro m n ear Sw indon .

T he f lagons f ro m

t he w e l l a t Marg idunu m , t herefore , may b e t he r e ma ins o f ar etr ieved h oard f ro m t he Caraus ian p er iod .

Oswa ld , i n ap aper r ead o n 2 8.1.1927 ,

t a lks o f t h is s ay ing , ' a t ad ep th o f t en f eet If ound a n i n terest ing a ssoc iat i on o f f laggons , t wo o f t he m s t il l p er fect , w ith a much c orroded c o in o f T etr icus a dher ing t o t he i ns ide o f o ne o f t he m. a lso a ssoc ia ted w ith t hese f l aggons '.

A c o in o f Caraus ius was

He d ates t he f i l l ing o f t he we l l t o

t he t roub lous t ime when t he u surper A l lectus was d efea ted '.

Even s o t he

e le men t o f d oubt i s much t oo g rea t t o i nc lude s uch ma ter ia l i n a ny s ynops is o f h oards.

7 1

S ize A= B=

% o f C + A (>10 c o ins ) I= < 1 0% C + A

1 -25 2 6-100

c o ins c o ins

C= 1 01-300

c o ins

I I =5 1-90% C + A

D= 3 01-1000 c o ins

I V = > 9 0% C + A

E= > 1 000

I = 1-50% C + A

c o ins

HOARDS TER M INAT ING BY 2 96 Group One

S ize

No. o f C/A

S ize g roup

% Group

Br ed ico t

1 40

4xC

C

I

Ca mer ton I

1 14

1x C

C

I

Canterbury

1 17

1 09 x C

C

Can terbury

4 1

' so me C '

B

-

' ma in ly C '

C

I V ?

1x C

A

-

Can terbury Can terbury

C . 1 50 _ 6

Caste l l-Y-Bere Conway Dea l

4 c . 5 0 _ 2 5

D inorben Epperstone Er w Hen

6

1x C

A

8o r 9xC

B

1x C

A

I

2x C

A

-

c . 1 000 _ 6 89

9x C

D

6 00

1x C

D

1 7

1 3 xC

A

Ever ton G t . Or me

I V

I

E I I I I

Hover ingha m

2 89

4 0 xC

C

I

L inch mere

8 10

5 34 x C

D

I I

2 2

7x C

A

I

L lange inwen L lan lech id

> 2 00

C

D in S i lwy

6 1

4 4 xC

V

I I

Margaret t ing

3 2

2 0 xC

B

I I

P eterborough Puckno l l Penard G ower

>

1 5

1x C

A

I

1 07

1x C

C

I

2 583

8 1 xC

E

R ichborough

1 1

8x C

A

I I

S t . A lbans

3 6

1 4 xC

B

I

S t . A lbans

1 49

2x C

C

I

S egon t iu m

5 6

1x C

B

I

S hotover S i lchester

c . 5 60 _ 2 2

1 8 xC

D A

I I

S i lchester

4 2

3 1 xC

B

I I

S . Norwood

5 5

4 8 xC

B

I V

S . F lor ida

1 6

Upsa l l Cas t le Wa l mers ley We l l Wen twood M i l l Wroxeter

1x C ( Ar )

A

3 0-40

B

5 00-700

D

>. 600 1 200-1300 1 6

I

I

D 1 2 xC

E

4xC ( a l l Ar )

A

7 2

I 1

G roup Two

S ize

B lackmoor

c . 3 0000

B orden

3 5

C a mer ton

6 0 8

C an terbury

3 01

C o lches ter Cr onda l l Cynw i l G a io

c . 2 00

No. o f C/A 5 45 x C ; 9 0 xA 2 xC, lx A 4 xC; 1 xA 1 2 xC ;4 o r 5xA

c . 3 000 1 105

9 xC; 2 xA

L i l ly Horn

1 223

7x C ; 1xA

O und le P ark End

A

1 05 x C ; 1 67 x A

H o l t N ea th

S ize g roup

1 50-200 1 203 > 1 000

S apper ton

c . 7 0

S kewen

—1 50-200

2 7 xC; 1 xA 7 xC; 1 o r 2 xA 1xC ; 1xA 1 8 xC; 1 xA ( ou t o f 6 1 )

Wa tch f ield

2 3

6x C; 6 xA

A

Wed more

5 4

1 4 xC; ix A

C aerwen t

1 0

6x C; 4 xA

A

Dro itw ich

1 4

1 0 xC; 4 xA

A

Group Three

H a m mers m ith L e igh Church L . Or me

7x C c . 3 0

A

' mos t ly C + A '

6 00-700

n ear ly a l l C

P or t Tennan t

7

7x C

A

R ichborough

6

6x A

A

1 9 xC

A

S t . A lbans

1 9

7 3

% g roup

S IZE AND CONTENT OF HOARDS Fro m t h is l is t ing o f h oards t he f irs t t hree g roups s how t wo f actors. F irst ly , h oards c ons is t ing e n t ire ly o r i n l arge measure o f c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus t end t o b e sma l l. S econd ly , t he l arge h oards t ha t w ere d epos it ed d ur ing t he p er iod o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus c on ta in , f or t he mos t p ar t , al ow p ercen tage o f t he ir c o ins.

Group t hree h oards , b y t he ir n a ture a l l g et

aI V r a t ing b u t o f t he o ther h oards o n ly t he Co lches ter h oard , t wo f rom C an terb ury a nd t ha t f ro m S ou th N orwood r each t h is l eve l. O f t he h oards d epos ited d ur ing A l lec tus ' r e ign , ah igh p ropor t ion c on ta in o n ly a v ery f ew o f h is c o ins , a nd many c on ta in o n ly a f ew more o f h is p redecess or .

Apar t f ro m t he s pec ia l h oards o f g roup t hree , t herefore , w h ich a re

n ear ly a l l v ery sma l l , h oards c on ta in ing a s izab le p ropor t ion o f Caraus ius ' o r A l lectus ' c o ins a re f ew . T h is c rea tes t he impress ion t hat n o g rea t amoun t o f t he c o inage o f t he u surpers f ound i t s w ay i n to h oards a t a l l. Th is a pparen t p auc ity o f Caraus ius ' o r A l lectus ' c o ins i n t hese h oards migh t h ave b een t aken t o i nd ica te a g enera l p auc ity o f s uch c o ins w ere i tn o t f or s i te f inds. I ft he c on ten ts o f t hese h oards p rov ide a s tr ict ly a ccura te c ross s ect iona l p icture o f c on te mporary c ircu la t ing c urrency t hen w e w ou ld h ave t o c onc lude t ha t l ess t han t en p er c en t o f i tc ons isted o f c o ins i ssued b y t he c ont e mporary a u thor ity . S i te f inds , h owever , mod ify ing t h is impress ion , s ugges t t hat r ather more t han t h is was a va i lab le f or h oard ing a nd s uppor t t he v iew t ha t p eop le , a s ag enera l r u le ,s pen t r a ther t han h oarded t he ir c o ins o f C araus ius o r A l lectus. Th is s tate men t may b e t oo s weep ing i n i t s g enera l i ty b u t i t mus t a pp ly t o t he l arger h oards c los ing u nder A l lectus w ith s o f ew o f h is c o ins a nd s o f ew o f Caraus ius.

I ti s c orrec t t o e xp la in away a p auc ity o f Caraus ius i n s o me h oards

s i mp ly b y s ay ing t hey w ere d epos ited e ar ly i n h is r e ign b efore much o f h is c o inage was i n c ircu la t ion. Th is c annot e xp la in away t he ir a bsence i n h oards c los ing more t han s even y ears l ater . T he G roup t hree h oards n eed n ot u nderm ine a ny o f t h is a s t hey a re p redo m inan t ly sma l l a nd f ro m c on tex ts wh ich s ugg es t t hey were s hor t r a ther t han l ong t erm c oncea l men ts ;

d e l ibera te ly s egrega-

t ed g roups f or c o mpara t ive ly q u ick d isposa l. Dr. Rober tson 4 s ays t ha t l ess t han t en p ercen t o f t he Ro man c o in h oards f ro m Br ita in c on ta in o ver o ne t housand c o ins. T he p er iod o f C araus ius a nd A l lectus i s o ne o f h igh r a ther t han l ow i n tens ity h oard ing a t wh ich t imes i ti s t o b e e xpected t ha t t he n u mber o f u nrecovered l arge h oards w ou ld p roduce a r a ther h igher p ercen tage t han t h is f igure o f t en p er c en t .

Th is i s t he c ase ,

w ith s o me f i f teen p er c en t o f Caraus ian a nd A l lectan h oards c on ta in ing o ver a t housand c o ins. A l mos t f i f ty p er c en t o f t hese h oards c on ta in o ver o ne h undred c o ins. There i s n o v ery marked d ivergence f ro m t he g enera l p a t tern i n t he d istr ibu t ion o f t hese l arger h oards.

I fa ny th ing , i tc overs t he a rea b eyond t he

s outh e ast where t here i s t he g rea ter c oncen tra t ion o f h oards wh ich c on ta in p red om inan t ly Caraus ian a nd A l lec tan c o ins. By a nd l arge , c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus were s egrega ted i n to sma l l g roups v ir tua l ly e xclud ing t he c o inage o f o ther r u lers o r e lse t hey f ormed a v ery m inor p or t ion o f o ther h oards , t he more s o u nder A l lectus.

7 4

T he

s u m mary t ab le b e low l ays t h is o u t a nd s hows t ha t e ven i nc lud ing G roup t hree h oards , l es t t he ir s epara t ion b e t hough t t o c rea te a n a r t if ic ia l p icture , n inet een o f t he f or ty -seven h oards f or wh ich a dequa te s t a t is t ics a re a va i lab le c ont a in l ess t han t en p er c en t Caraus ius a nd A l lectus. Th is p ic ture o f l ow p ercen tages o f Caraus ius ' a nd A l lectus ' c o ins i n h oards , e spec ia l ly l arger o nes ,he lps e xp la in t he a bsence o f s uch c o ins f ro m s o me h oards wh ich h as b een t hough t w or thy o f r e mark . T . Ash ly , Archaeo log ia p . 4 03 c o m men ts o n t he a bsence o f s uch c o ins f ro m t he v ery l arge h oard f rom Caerwen t r ang ing f ro m G a l l ienus t o H onor ius a nd t he ir a bsence f rom t he h oard o f n ear ly o ne t housand c o ins f ound a t Budock , Cornwa l l , a nd d a ted t o 3 06, i s c a l led ( V .C.H. Cornwa l l , p . 3 3 ) " no tewor thy a nd p uzz l ing". Caraus ius ' a nd A l lectus ' c o ins c er ta in ly s urv ive i n to f our th c entury h oards b u t t hese c ommen tators i mp ly a p resu mp t ion t ha t a ny l arge h oard wh ich i nc ludes 2 86-296 i n i t s r ange o ugh t t o h ave a r epresen ta t ion o f c o ins f ro m t ha t p er iod wh ich i s n ot t he c ase , e spec ia l ly i f , a s s ee ms l ike ly , t he ir c o ins w ere d e mone t ised a f ter t he r ecovery ,

G roup One Group Two Group T hree A l l

1 2 7

5 3

7 1

3=2 7 1=1 2

0

0

0

8=

8

8

1 9

8

1 2 =4 7

M INT D ISTRIBUT ION ' Rouen ' T he r a ther e n igma t ic Rouen h oard i t sel f i s g iven s epara te t rea tmen t e lsewhere. T h is l eaves f i ve h oards , n one o f t he m c on t inen ta l , wh ich i nc lude ' Rouen ' c o ins . O f t hese , f our a re v ery l arge ; o n ly Can terbury t wo i s sma l l c o mpr is ing e igh t c o ins. Whether t h is i s ac hance l oss o r as hor t t erm c onc ea l men t o f af ew c o ins d oes n ot a l ter t he f act t hat o ne ' Rouen ' c o in f ound i t s way i n to a n e ar ly A l lec tan g roup f ro m t he s ou th e as t o f Eng land . With t he l arge h oards t he c hances o f f ind ing o dd it ies i ncreases t hrough s heer p robab i l ity i n c onnect ion w ith t he l arger n umbers i nvo lved. T h is i s n o t r ea l ly t he c ase w ith t he l arges t o f a l l , f ro m G louces ter , h owever , b ecause o f t he e xcep t iona l n a ture o f t he h oard i n e xc lud ing , ( a l mos t c o mp lete ly ), t he c o inage o fu surpers.

I t may b e s a id t ha t t h is h oard was a sse mbled l arge ly o n

t he c ont inen t where p ost r eform c o ins w ere more a bundan t ,

b rough t o ver j ust

b efore Caraus ius ' d ea th a nd a dded t o h ard ly a t a l l ( t he t wo A l lectus ' g o t i n s o mehow ). T h is wou ld mean t ha t ' Rouen ' c o ins c ircu la ted o n t he c on t inen t , wh ich i s n ot b orne o u t a t a l l b y f inds. f ro m t he n earby Am iens h oard.

T here w ere n o s uch c o ins , f or e xa mp le ,

I n t he c ase o f P enard G ower , L it t le Orme a nd B lack rnoor i ti s n o t s urpr is ing i n i t sel f t hat o ne o r t wo s tray p ieces h ave f ound t he ir way i n to s uch l arge h oards. The t wo We lsh h oards h ave much i n c o m mon i nc lud ing p rob le ms o f d a t ing c aused b y t hese v ery ' Rouen ' c o ins. 7 5

R .S .R. The p rob le m o f where c o ins w ith R .S .R . i n t he e xergue were s truck i s d ea l t w ith i n d e ta i l e lsewhere. s o v ery s l igh t .

I ti s d isappo in t ing t ha t t hc h oard e v idence i s

R .S .R. c o ins o ccur v ery r are ly i n h oards a nd e ven t hen t he

ma jor ity o f i nstances a re o f s i lver r a ther t han b ronze c o ins.

T he R .S . R.

a n ton in ian i a s a who le s ee m a sma l l a nd d ub ious g roup , u sua l ly i l l s truck a nd c er ta in ly o f i n frequen t o ccurrence.

Even R ichborough , w ith i t s w ea l th o f

Caraus ian ma ter ia l , a nd , o f c ourse , i t s c la im i n t he e yes o f many t o b e t he a ctua l s ource o f t hese R .S .R. c o ins , was a b le t o p roduce b u t t wo a n ton in ian i b ear ing t hese l et ters. The e n igma t ic Rouen h oard i s p ub l ished a s h av ing t hree R .S .R . d enar i i i n i t wh ich s ee ms t o a dd f ur ther t o t he a ir o f mys tery s urround ing i t .

O therw ise

a l l t he R .S .R. c o ins a nd a l l t he s i lver c o ins f ound i n h oards c ome f ro m Wa les o r i t s b order a rea.

T he S tra ta F lor ida d enar ius c ou ld b e e i ther Lo r R .S .R.;

o f t he d enar i i f ro m Wroxeter t hree a re R .S .R . a nd o ne _.

These t wo g roups

a re b rough t c loser t oge ther b y h oard e v idence i n t ha t o ne o f t he a n ton in ian i f ro m t he L it t le Or me 's Head h oard

5

s hares a n o bverse d ie w ith t he u n ique R .S.R .

a ureus wh ile i t s own r everse e xh ib its n o m in t mark .

Th is may b e s een a s

f ur ther l ink ing o fR .S .R. c o ins t o Wa les b u t t he e v idence i s f ar f ro m s trong i n s uppor t o f a min t t here.

The e v idence o f t he s i lver a s f ound i nd iv idua l ly

mi l ita tes a ga inst t h is v iew . OTHER MARKS L ondon Can terbury 1 A

Can terbury 2 Can terbury 3 S . Norwood S i lchester Margaret t ing

B

Co lches ter*

5 6 1 1 0 4 1 0 5 1

L inch mere

4 55

2

2

4 9

0

4 4

4 4 5 3 5

E . Harnha m

4 6 3

0

S t . A lbans

4

3

Dro itw ich

1

2

P . G ower

7

2

G louces ter

7

Caerwen t

1

S kewen Hover ingha m

1 2 5

1 0

1 5

6

5

3 4

0 1 4 6 3 3 0

S t . A lbans

Nea th C

3

2

7

2

Co lches ter

6

0

1 5 7 1 6 0 8 0 2 5 0

D in S i lwy

7

0

L lange inwen

2

1

3

Er w l ign

0

1

7

G t . Or me

8

2

3

7 6

3 1

L . Orme

1 04

Wen twood Mil l

2 2

2

Mi les f ro m Dover , a pprox .

4 27

1

A=

5 0 :

* For t he p urpose o f t h is l i s t Ii nc lude

s ip

9

B =5 0-150 : a nd

s

C=

1 50 :

u nder Co lches ter .

F or t he mo men t t hese f igures may b e l ef t l arge ly t o s peak f or t he mse lves. T he o bserva t ions wh ich n eed t o b e made h ere a re f ew a nd f a ir ly o bv ious. T here i s n o marked f a l l o f f o f

c o ins i nh oards a s t he d is tance f rom t he s ou th e as t

i ncreases a nd t he a rgumen t f or a Bou logne m in t f or t hese c o ins o n t hese g rounds v apor ises. Even t he Can terbury h oards a re s e lf c ancel l ing i n t h is r espect . T he n ature o f t he h oards s eems t o b e more l i nked t o d a t ing , w ithi -co ins c om ing i n e ar ly h oards r a ther t han h oards t i ed t o ap ar t icu lar g eograph ica l f ac tor . The ma jor ity o f h oards f o l low s o meth ing o f ap at tern . T hey a re e i ther p redom inan t ly . 1with s o me L ondon a nd a sma l ler n u mber o f Co lches ter ; o r t hey h ave r ough ly e qua l n u mbers o f L ondon a nd Co lchester w ith a sma l ler n u mber o f-L . T he s ign if ican t e xcep t ions t o t h is a re Can terbury 1 , L inchmere a nd Hover ingha m a l l o f wh ich s how a marked p reponderance o f L ondon marks wh ich may b e e xp la ined i ft hey a re i n l arge measure u nd ispersed f resh c ons ignmen ts f rom t hat min t .

.

T he p icture i s ac hrono log ica l o ne ‚that o f e ar ly

h oards p redom inan t ly i lw ith L ondon c om ing i n n ex t b efore ,bu t s hor t ly f o l lowed b y ,Colches ter a f ter wh ich t hese t wo a re r ough ly e qua l w ith t he t a il ing o f f s harp ly . t en t w ith

T h is d istr ibu t ion a rgues a ga ins t a Bou logne m in t f or I b u t i s c ons isb e ing a n u nmarked e ar ly i ssue f ro m L ondon a nd w ith C olches ter

b e ing t he ' C ' m in t. CONTA INERS AND F IND S POTS Mos t a ccoun ts , e spec ia l ly t he e ar l ier o nes , p rov ide o n ly a b r ief g enera l d escr ip t ion o f a ny c on ta iner i n wh ich a h oard may h ave b een f ound , o r o f t he s pot a t wh ich i t was f ound. The n umber o f h oards wh ich a re w e l l d ocumen ted i n t hese r espec ts i s s o f ew t ha t i tw ou ld b e av ery d ispropor t iona te p icture p rov ided b y as tudy c on f ined o n ly t o t hese. F or t he p urpose o f mak ing s o me more w ide ly a pp l icab le , i fl ess p rofound , o bserva t ions i tw il l b e e nough t o k now t ha t o ur h oard was f ound i n ' ap o t ' a s o pposed t o n oth ing , a nd t ha t i t was f ound i n ab u i ld ing a s o pposed t o ap lace w ith n o k nown s tructura l c on tex t . T he g rea t ma jor ity o f c onta iners a re p o t tery v esse ls o f s o me s or t .

F ro m

t he d escr ip t ions we h ave t hey s ee m t o b e c o mmon c oarseware p ieces o f o ne s or t o r a no ther .

Af ew h oards w ere d epos ited i n meta l v esse ls.

O f t hese a l l

s ave t he Arras h oard h ave b een f ound i n Wa les wh ich may b e s ign if ican t c o mmen t o n ar eg iona l p reference. The n umber i s r a ther t oo sma l l t o b e empha t ic. T he t wo h oards wh ich i nc lude s ome g o ld p ieces a re b oth f ro m meta l c on ta iners , t ha t f ro m Arras h av ing b een p ro tec ted a nd c oncea led b y ac lay c oa t ing . As w e l l a s p ot tery a nd meta l v esse ls a v ar iety o f o ther c on ta iners was u sed f rom t he s imp le g ap c rea ted b e tween t wo i rregu lar s tones , l a id o ne o n t op o f t he o ther , t o t he meta l b ound b ox i n w h ich t he L it t le Ormes ' Head Hoard was o r ig ina l ly d epos ited. Th is g roup o f c on ta iners , i nc lud ing , a s i td oes , t he v ar ious p er ishab le s ubstances i n wh ich c o ins w ere c oncea led , i s more f u l l o f 7 7

d oub ts s uch a s t o whe ther t he o rgan ic d isco lourat ion o f t he s o i l r ound a g iven d epos it i s a n i nd ica t ion t ha t t he c o ins w ere o nce i n aw ooden b ox . As i s g enera l ly t he c ase w ith h oards o f a l l p er iods , most o f t hese h oards were f ound d ivorced f ro m a ny k nown a rchaeo log ica l c on tex t . S ome were f ound i n t own b u i ld ings i n v ar ious p ar ts o f wh ich t hey h ad b een c oncea led , s uch a s t he h oard f ro m t he r oof t imbers o f ab u i ld ing a t Can terbury .

T hese h oards

s ee m t o b e e i ther f a ir ly sma l l i n wh ich c ase t hey may r epresen t a n e x trac t ion f rom c on te mporary c urrency i n g enera l , f or s hor t t erm c oncea lmen t i n a f avour ite d o mes t ic h id ing p lace , o r e lse t hey a re p redo m inan t ly C araus ian , a s w ith t he Can terbury r oof-t i mbers h oard , a nd w ou ld t hen b e ac ons ignmen t o f t he n ew money p u t s o mewhere s ecret b u t t o h and , wh ich was n ever r ecovered . T he g roup o f h oards f ro m ' o ther c on tex ts ' s imp ly i l lustra tes s o me o f t he s or t o f p laces Ro man h oards w ere h idden i nb y owners c oncerned t o g e t t he ir wea l th o u t o f t he ir h ouses t o ap lace o f c oncea l men t wh ich t hey c ou ld r ead ily i den t ify a ga in , b u t wh ich was who l ly u nexcep t iona l t o a nyone e lse. S o me , s uch a s t he We l l a t Wa tch f ie ld , s ee m more o bv ious t han o thers.

I t must s ure ly b e

t he c ase t ha t , o r ig ina l ly a l l h oards wou ld b e c oncea led w ith s ome c on tex tua l p o in t o therw ise t he owner c ou ld n o t b e s ure o f f i nd ing h is money a ga in a s w ith P epys s ome c entur ies l a ter ( o f t hese.

T i me a nd t he e le men ts h ave e rased t he ma jor ity

T he l i s t ing wh ich r e la tes f i nd s po t t ypes t o c on ta iners s hows t ha t t he ma jor it y o f h oards f ro m ' bu i ld ing ' c on tex ts w ere n o t c oncea led i n c on ta iners.

T h is

may mean n o th ing more t han t ha t t he j r c on ta iners w ere a lways o f ap er ishab le n ature a nd s uch h oards w ere i n f ac t t he p urses f u l l o f c urren t s pend ing money n ot t aken f rom t he ir n igh t ly p lace o f c oncea lmen t f or s o me r eason , w ith t he p urse h av ing s ubsequen t ly p er ished .

A much g rea ter ma jor ity o f t he h oards

f ro m n o r ecogn isab le c on tex t were f ound i n c on ta iners o f s ome d urab le s ubst ance.

Th is i s t o b e e xpected f or t hese a re t he l ong t erm h oards wh ich w ou ld

n eed t o r e ma in s ecure f ro m t he e le men ts f or c ons iderab le p er iods o f t ime b etween v is its f ro m t he ir owners o r e ventua l r ecovery . CONTA INERS A .

POTTERY :

r POTS URNS o

G roup One Hoards

F ind S po t

Bred ico t

Urn o f r ed e ar thenware

Can terbury

l arge g lobu lar u rn , 2 5" x 1 7" w ith sma l l h and les

Dea l

u rn

Ew e l me

p o t o r u rn

L augharne

u rn

L inchmere

u rn 8 " x

L lan idan

p o t

P eterborough

v ase , d u l l g rey e ar thenware 6 " x

b ow l-shaped 7 8

' p i le v i l lage '

Group One Hoards ( con t inued )

F ind S po t

P uckno l l

e ar then j ar

R ip ley

u rn

S hotover

u rn o r j ar

Wa l mers ley

sma l l e ar thenware p o t c overed b y as tone

We l l

e ar then p ot/ two f a ir u rns

We lney

u rns

Wen twood M i l l

p o t

G roup Two Hoards B lackmoor

2j ars

C o lches ter

p ot

F lee t

l arge u rn w ith l e t ters r ound i t

Ho l t

j ar o f c oarse b lackware

L il lyhorn

e ar thenware p o t

Ound le

s evera l v esse ls

P ark End

j ar o f c o mmon g rey p o t tery

Wa tch f ie ld

sma l l e ar thenware v esse l

r oo m i n v i l la

s tonel ined we l l

Wedmore

u rn o f l a te d a te

b y s ide o f c our tyard

Group T hree Hoards B it te me

' ex tens ive

sma l l p o t

r e ma ins ' Caerwen t

S .W . a ng le o f

sma l l p o t

r oo m 1 3 Bow

sma l l v ase o f d ark p o t tery

f ork i n r oad

G roup F our H oards Even ley

c o m mon e ar thenware p ot

G roup F ive Hoards L ingwe l l G ate

e ar thenware u rn

Wroexeter

e ar thenware v esse l

c hamber 2 o n s i l l o f d oorway

7 9

Group S ix Hoards Rouen

F ind S po t u ne v ase d e t erre n o ire g ross iere

b es ide ' T in mur d 'ence in te '

B .

METAL VESSELS

Group One Hoards P enard G ower

b ronze b ow l

S tra ta F lor ida

b ronze b ow l

1 _

Group Two Hoards Coygan

b ronze s tra iner

b ur ia l c ha mber

Group T hree Hoards Group F our Hoards Group F ive Hoards S u l ly Moor

meta l v esse l 4 1" l ong

Group S ix Hoards Arras C .

s i lver c on ta iner w ith a c lay c oa t

OTHER CONTA INERS

Group One Hoards Caste l l-Y-Bere

Mor tar iu m

Narber th

S k in?

S egon t iu m

Box? ( Wooden )

d isused b u i ld ing

S ilches ter I l

L ea ther b ag?

h o le i n r oo m wa l l

Group Two Hoards Nea th

Two s tones ( between )

S kewen

S tones ( over h o l low )

G roup Three Hoards L . Or me

Meta l b ound b ox ( wooden )

Group F our Hoards Group F ive Hoards Duston/Nor ton

S tone ( under o ne p laced a s lan t t he f ound o f a wa l l )

Group S ix Hoards

8 0

r u ined b u i ld ing

F IND S POTS /i nd ica tes t he h oard was i n ac on ta iner :

X i nd ica tes n o c on ta iner

Con tex t o f ab u i ld ing

No p ar t icu lar c on tex t

Group One Hoards

Br ed ic o t Can terbury

Came r ton

X

Can terbury

X

Conway

Can terbury

X

Dea l

D ino r ben

X

? Peterborough

Cas te l lY-Be r e

E l land Ha l l Erw Hén

X X

S t A lbans

X

Ev er ton

S i lchester

X

Ewe l me

Wroxete r

X

Hove r ingha m L au g ha r ne L in ch me r e L lan idan Ma r ga r et ing

X

Narber th P u ck no l l P ena r d G ower R ip ley S ho tover S kewen S tra ta F lor ida Wa l mers ley We l l Welney Wen twood M il l Group Two H oards Came r ton I

X

B lackmoo r

Can terbury

X

Co lches ter

L il ly Horn

F leet Ho lt Neath Ound le Park End S apper ton T unne l

Group Three Hoards B it terne

L . Or me

Ca erwen t Dr o itw ich

X

S t A lbans

X

8 1

X

N o p ar t icu lar c on tex t

Group F our Hoards Cadbury

E . Harnha m

X

Even ley Cr oss Group F ive Hoards L ingwe l l G a te

Can terbury

P enrhyn Ri c hbo r ough Ri c hbo r ough

n ot r ea l ly n o c on tex t

S u l ly Moor O ther Con tex ts G I

G 2

G 3

G 5

Enmeth G t Orme

n ear r oad

R ichborough

f or t d i tch

S egon t iu m

d isused b u i ld ing

Borden Cr onda l l

n ear v i l la p ond

' anc ien t f i rep lace '

Wa tch f ie ld

w e l l

Wed more

n ear c our tyard

Bow

f ork i n r oad

R ichborough

d i tch

Duston/Nor ton

r u ins o f b u i ld ing

LEG IT IM IST HOARDS Dr. Rober tson , i n d ea l ing w ith t he Hover ingha m h oard 6 r e fers t o ' l eg it imist h oards , ' I f t he l arge n u mber o f h oards b ur ied i n Br ita in a bou t A .D. 2 93 i s t aken a s e v idence o f s er ious d isturbances a t t ha t t ime , t he c on tras t i n t he c o mpos it ion o f t hese h oards , ' leg it im ist ' a nd ' pro Caraus ian ' , may s ugges t o ne p oss ib le r eason f or t he d isturbance '.

S he i s h ere c i t ing t he East H arnha m

h oard a s ' l eg it im ist ' a nd g oes o n t o s ay , ' May n o t t h is i nd ica te t ha t t he h oard b e longed t o s o me Ro man s o ld ier who h ad a lways r e ma ined t rue t o t he l eg it ima te imper ia l c ause a nd n ever t aken a rms u nder a ny o f t he u surpers o f t h is t roub lous t ime o f t he Ro man Emp ire...it i s af a ir i n ference t ha t t he p erson who amassed t hese c o ins was , i fn o t as o ld ier , s omeone f irm ly a t tached t o t he imper ia l c ause.' Th is s ee ms t o b e t oo s en t i men ta l ap icture a nd , a s Dr . Rober tson a rgued i n h er Apr i l 1 974 a ddress t o t he Roya l Nu m is ma t ic S oc iety , i ti s much more r ea l ist ic t o s ee e cono m ic r easons b eh ind t he d ec is ions o f v ar ious h oarders.

I n

s ay ing p eop le h oarded ' n ice ' c o ins j ust b ecause t hey were n ice , s he i s , p erhaps , g o ing f ro m o ne e x tre me t o t he o ther a nd a vo id ing c o m men t o n why w e h ave a g roup o f h oards , t hree o f t he m s ubs tan t ia l , wh ich c o me f rom a sma l l a rea a nd e xh ib it t he s ame t yp ica l f ea tures.

I f ' n ice ' c o ins were h oarded b ecause

t hey were n ice t hen why a re t here n o t many more n ice c o ins o f t he s or t f ound 8 2

i n t he Cross Hoard f ro m G louces ter? T he s carc ity o f t h is p ost Aure l ian ic r eform c o inage i s , i fn ot a dequa te ly e xp la ined , a t l eas t we l l k nown , a nd s o t he i nc idence o f f i ve h oards f ro m o ne a rea i n wh ich i tc o mp lete ly p redom ina tes i s w or thy o f s pec ia l men t ion . I ft he p o l it ica l e le men t i s l e f t a s ide , a s i tp robab ly o ugh t t o b e , w e a re s pared t he n ecess ity o f e xp la in ing wha t w ou ld a ppear a s ac en tre o f a n t iCaraus ian f ee l ing i n t he w es t c oun try . On e cono m ic g rounds , i t may b e t ha t t hese h oarders f e l t an eed t o k eep t he ir w ea l th i n ac o inage w h ich was c er ta in t o b e a cceptab le i nthe f uture , i n t he way t ha t t hat o f u surpers was n ot ; e sp ec ia l ly i ft hey s aw a ny g rea t l i ke l ihood o f t he ir g o ing o ver t o t he c on t inen t where t he c o ins o f Caraus ius w ou ld c er ta in ly n ot b e a ccep tab le. T h is s ugg es ts r a ther a l ack o f f a ith i n t he n ew r eg i me t han a h os t i l ity t owards i t . I t s ee ms t ha t a nu n favourab le r a te o f e xchange was t he p r i mary r eason why t he r e form c o inage n ever c augh t o n i n Br ita in o r e lsewhere .7 T here i s n o r ea l e v idence t o s how t ha t Br ita in d id n ot c o me b ack i n to t he i mper ia l f o ld w ith t he r es igna t ion o f T etr icus a nd h owever s low n ew c urrency s upp l ies may h ave b een i n r each ing t he p rov ince i ti s t o b e e xpected t ha t , u nder n orma l c ircums tances , b y 2 86 t here w ou ld b e p len ty o f i ti n c ircu la t ion .

I n ac on tex t

o f g enera l r es is tance t o t h is n ew c o inage e xcep t ions a re n o t t o b e w ondered a t i n t he mse lves , b u t w hy d o w e g e t f i ve o ccurr ing s o c lose ly i n t ime a nd p lace. Cadbury a nd Cheddar a re p erhaps j us t h oards made b y i nd iv idua ls who t ook i ti n to t he ir h eads t o k eep t he ir money s eparated , r ecovered t he u surpers ' c o ins t o s pend b u t n ever c a me b ack f or t h is.

Even ley h as a ma jor ity o f

' second b rass ' wh ich , a ccord ing t o t he a ccoun t o f i t s d iscovery , w ere i n a b e t ter s tate t han t he a n t ,on in ian i , d escr ibed a s much worn . I t may b e t ha t t h is h oard h as b een c o l lected f or t he meta l ; t hat a man w ith a b ody o f e ar ly d emonet ised ' second b rass ' c o ins h as d ec ided t o a dd t o t he m o n ly worn o u t a n ton in ian i w ith a v iew t o s e l l ing t he l o t f or t he v a lue o f t he meta l.

I n s uch

ac ase i t may b e c o inc idence r a ther t han i n ten t wh ich r esu l ted i n ad ear th o f G a l l ic Emp ire c o ins. Eas t Harnham i s al arge h oard o f v ery w e l l p reserved c o ins a nd t he Cross I ti su n l ike ly t ha t t hese c o ins r epresen t c ons ign-

h oard i s much l arger s t il l.

men ts awa it ing d is tr ibu t ion a l though t h is i s p oss ib le.

The o bv ious move b y a

u surper w ou ld s ure ly b e t o d istr ibu te h is own c o ins a nd e ncourage t he p o lar isat i on t owards h i mse l f o f t he b es t e le men t o f t he c urren t c o inage s o t ha t h e c ou ld r e-use i ti n o ne w ay o r a nother . I t may , t herefore , b e p oss ib le t o s ee t hese h oards a s o f f ic ia l a ccu mu lat ions o f g ood c urren t c o ins i n tended f or t he u se o f Caraus ius o r A l lectus m in ts , b u t i ti s i mposs ib le t o b e v ery d ef in ite o n t h is q ues t ion . DAT ING Carson 's c hrono logy f or t he r e ign a nd i t s c o in i ssues , p rov ides a f ramework whereby many o f t he h oards may b e d a ted a t l east t o ac er ta in s tage o f t he r e ign o nce d eta ils o f t he marks o n t he l a test c o in a re k nown .

Ra ther t han

p in t oo much f a ith o n t he e xac tness o f ay ear b y y ear d at ing f or t he h oards I h ave d iv ided t he m i n to e ar ly m idd le a nd l a te Caraus ian , a nd e ar ly o r l a te A l lectan.

F or A l lec tus t h is amoun ts t o n o more t han p resu m ing t he h oards

wh ich c on ta in q u inar i i a re l a te b ecause t hese were t he l as t c o ins o f t he r e ign , 8 3

8 4 4 ) c d

C l ) C D

r d 5 . 4 0

C l )

0

0

C D

I. 0

C )

C D C l )

+ + On ly f our c o ins , n o t e nough t o b ase much o n .

Wroxeter

S trata F lor ida

S t . A lbans

Wen twood H il l

. ( 5 1

Ha m mers m ith

S . Norwood

Caernarvon

L inch mere

( Penard G ower? ? )+

Hover ingha m

CARAVS IVS ' HOARDS

h O

Caste l l-Y-Bere + +

a nd t ha t h oards wh ich d o n ot a re p robab ly e ar l ier . I n s o s hor t ar e ign a ny a t te mp t t o b e more s pec if ic w ou ld b eu nw ise a nd e ven t h is amoun t o f s egregat i on may w e l l b e o f l i t t le v a lue. T he p o in ts wh ich emerge mos t c lear ly f ro m t h is s imp le a na lys is a re t ha t t here was a marked d ec l ine i n h oard ing i n Wa les d ur ing Caraus ius ' r e ign w ith as h if t o f emphas is t o t he s ou th o f Eng land i n g enera l , wh ich i s ma in ta ined t hroughout A l lec tus ' r e ign , p olar is ing , p erhaps , s o mewha t , t o t he s ou th e as t i ft he c lass if ica t ion o fh oards w ith q u inar i i a s v ery l a te i s a mean ing fu l o ne. How t h is f i ts i n to t he o vera l l p a t tern o f a ct iv ity may b e s een e lsewhere i n c o mpar ison w ith t he g enera l f i nds , a nd o ther e v idence. I t mus t b e emphas ised t ha t a dequate i n forma t ion i s a va i lab le f or o n ly a bout h a l f o f t he h oards c oncerned . OVERSEAS HOARDS Mos t o f t he h oards f ro m France wh ich i nc lude c o ins o f Caraus ius o r A l lectus i nc lude v ery f ew a nd t erm inate s hor t ly a f ter t he r ecovery o f Br ita in u nder Ch lorus.

The d is tr ibu t ion o f t hose h oards i s r a ther w idespread a nd t he o vera l l

p ic ture i s o ne o f t he i nev i tab le c hance i nc lus ion i n t hese h oards , o f o ne o r t wo c o ins b rought b ack f rom Br ita in b y t roops o r o ther t rave l lers s hor t ly a f ter t he r ecovery . T he e xcep t ions t o t h is p at tern a re Am iens a nd Rouen . Am iens i s a sma l l h oard wh ich a ppears t o h ave b een d epos ited b efore t he e nd o f A l lectus ' r e ign ;

o r a t l east c o ins s topped b e ing a dded t o i ta t s uch a t ime.

B efore

Caraus ius t he r ange i s e x tens ive f or s o f ew c o ins , a nd e xcep t iona l i n h av ing ac o in o f P aca t ian.

I n t he Nu m isma t ic Chron ic le a ccoun t o f t h is h oard J ohn

Evans s ugges ts t ha t n o t a l l t he t wen ty f i ve c o ins may h ave b een h oarded t ogether a s s uch , b u t , a s h e p o in ts o ut , t he a no ma ly c ons is ts i n t he a bnorma l ly l arge n umber o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus c o ins , n one o f t he m b e ing o f t he t ype s upposed ly min ted a t n earby Rouen. T he f act t ha t a l l t he c o ins a re , i n s ome s l igh t way a t l east , d i f feren t f rom e ach o ther t oge ther w ith t he p resence o f a r ar ity l ike t he c o ins o f P aca t ian m igh t p erhaps a rgue t ha t t h is was a c o l lector ' s h oard.

Th is i s n o t v ery c onv inc ing a s t he c o l lector c ou ld s ure ly h ave g o t h o ld

o f a more i n teres t ing r ange o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus h ad h e b een s eek ing t o a cqu ire c o ins f or i n teres ts s ake. S pecu la t ion c ou ld g o o n much f ur ther ; a r efugee 's h oard , at ra itor 's h oard ; t o n o p rof itab le e nd . S u f f ice i tt o n o te t he e xcep t iona l n ature o f aG a l l ic h oard w ith s o many Caraus ius a nd A l lectus. Th is i s s ure ly f ar f ro m s uf f ic ien t e v idence t o s uggest a n A l lectan o ccupa t ion o f p ar t o f G au l. The Rouen h oard w as p ub l ished i n it ia l ly ( mos t b r ief ly ) i n Revue Archeo log ique I I 1 847.

I th as n ever b een f u l ly p ub l ished a s t he c o ins s ee m t o h ave f ound

t he ir way i n to t he h ands o f Ro l l in a nd F euarden t a nd h ave b een d ispersed . M. G iard , o f t he B .N . i s s usp ic ious o f t he v ague c ircumstances s urround ing t he s upposed d iscovery i mp ly ing i t may w el l h ave b een a f abr ica t ion b y s o me p erson o r p ersons s eek ing t o e nhance t he ir c o l lect ion ' s v a lue. I fo ne p resumes t h is , t hen t he a rgu men t i n f avour o f l oca t ing t he m in t o f i ssue i s g rea t ly w eakened. There i s s t il l t he l e t ter R o n s ome o f t he c o ins t o b e a ccoun ted f or , b u t t he d isc overy o f t h is h oard a t Rouen w as t he d ec id ing f ac tor f or most s cho lars. Wherever a nd w henever t hese c o ins w ere made t hey a re q u ite c lear ly n o t t he f abr ica t ion o f a modern a ge. T here a re s uf f ic ien t w e ll a t tested s pec i mens

8 5

f rom h oards a nd s i te f i nds t o p u t t ha t b eyond d oubt . A l l t hese f i nds a re f ro m Br ita in. No ' Rouen ' c o ins h ave b een f ound i n France s ave, s upposed ly , a t Rouen i t se l f . T h is i nd ica tes a l im ited i ssue b o th i n t ime a nd a rea o f c ircu lat i on. As w i l l b e s een i n as epara te c hap ter t he w ay t hese c o ins c o me f ro m c o mpara t ive ly f ew d ies , a nd t he way t he ir g o ld c oun terpar ts f orm s uch a sma l l v ery c lose ly l inked g roup , c on f irms t h is p ic ture.

I ti s e n t ire ly c ons is ten t

w ith a s hor t , emergency i ssue o f mon ths r ather t han y ears , f rom a nd f or a v ery sma l l a rea , s ouven irs o f wh ich , e spec ia l ly i n t he c ase o f g o ld , f ound t he ir way b ack t o Br ita in , wh ile w hatever w as l e f t w as me l ted d own e i ther b y t he v ictor ious e ne my , i fi tf e l l t o t he m , o r b y t he ma in Caraus ian m in ts whose s t andards i td id n ot ma tch , i fi tw as b rough t b ack t o Br ita in . Where d oes Rouen f i t i n to t h is p icture? T he c oncea lmen t o f ag roup o f t hese c o ins i n a p an ic c aused b y t he s or t o f p ressure t ha t C araus ius ' c on t inen ta l f ootho ld mus t h ave f e l tj ust b e fore i t was l os t , i s c onv inc ing . T he c onte mporary a ccoun ts p lace t he c en tre o f a ct iv i ty r ound Bou logne y et i f Rouen p roduced t hese c o ins u nder a n emergency s i tua t ion i tw ou ld b e h ere w e w ou ld e xpect t he b low t o f a l l. P erhaps t he c o ins a re a s iege i ssue f ro m B ou logne b efore i tf e l l t o Ch lorus , b u t wha t o fR a nd OPR? T h is h oard p rov ides most o f t he e x tan t s pec i mens a nd most o f t he d if f icu l t ies i n d ea l ing w ith t hese e n igma t ic c o ins. Arras h as n o t b een s ing led o u t a s e xcep t iona l y et i td eserves a men t ion . As w ith b ase me ta l c o ins s o w ith g o ld , t he p rospect o f o ne o r t wo Caraus ian p ieces f i nd ing t he ir way b ack a nd i n to a g iven l arge b ody o f c o inage i s r easona b le , t he more s o i n t he c ase o f p ieces s truck b y h im i n t he n ame o f o ne o f h is c o l leagues.

Even A l lectus ' g o ld f ound i t s w ay o ver t o t he c on t inen t b y s o me

means a s may b e s een f rom t he s pec i men f rom M inden .8

P erhaps t he mos t

s ign if ican t t h ing i s t ha t s o v ery f ew c o ins o f C araus ius h ave b een f ound i n F rance. B ou logne c an n ever h ave b een t he _ m in t , n or c an Caraus ius e ver h ave h ad much i n f luence f or v ery l ong a cross t he c hanne l. S TRAT IF ICAT ION I N HOARDS Boon , i n h is B .C.S . s ynops is o f We lsh h oards , a rgues t ha t s tra t if icat ion i n h oards i s i nheren t ly l ike ly . O f t he P enard G ower h oard , ' a s t he mass o f c o ins was d is man t led i t was n oted t ha t t here w as a t endency f or t he r eform c o ins o f Aure l ian a nd h is s uccessors t o b e more t h ick ly c oncen tra ted i n t he u pper p or t ion r a ther t han more d eep ly , b u t t h is f eature d id n ot a pp ly t o t he c o ins o f Caraus ius a nd c an t herefore h ave n o d irect c hrono log ica l s ign if icance. I fn o t p ure ly c o inc iden ta l s uch a c oncen tra t ion m igh t mean t he h oarder n orma ll y k ep t h is r eform p ieces s epara te a nd w as f orced t o a dd t he m t o h is o ther c ash when c oncea l men t b ecame i mpera t ive '. T h is i s c er ta in ly o ne p oss ib le e xp lan t ion .

I t may , h owever , h ave b een

t ha t t he t wo s epara te s ec t ions o f t he h oard w ere n ot amassed s ide b y s ide ; r eform c o inage i s n o t c o m mon Br ita in . T he d eeper , e ar l ier p or t ion h as c o ins wh ich w ou ld b e n orma l f or a Caraus ian h oard f ro m Br ita in. C ou ld i t n o t b e t ha t t he u pper p or t ion w as b rough t f rom a cross t he c hanne l where Caraus ius ' c o ins c ircu la ted a l i t t le b ut r eform c o inage w as n orma l , a nd t hen , p erhaps w ith t he a dd it ion o f af ew more Caraus ius i n t he p rocess , i tw as a dded t o t he e ar l ier h a l f? T he d ie l i nk a nd t he p resence o f Rouen c o ins i n b o th a rgue a c o m mon s ource f or a t l eas t p ar ts o f t he L it t le Orme 's H ead h oard a nd t h is P enard h oard a nd t ha t s ource may w e l l b e f ound i n t he 8 6

move men t o f o f f icers , a nd money f ro m a cross t he c hanne l d ur ing t he c ourse o f Caraus ius ' r e ign. W ith n o o ther h oard o f t he p er iod i s i tp oss ib le t o d o e ven t h is much.

On

t he B lackmoor h oard V .C.H. Han ts , s ays ' No r ecord a pparen t ly e x ists o f whether t he c o ins i n t he t wo j ars d if fer a t a l l.

Very o f ten t he c o ins i n t he

l arge h oards s ee m t o h ave b een s or ted i n o ne way o r a no ther '.

NOTES

1 .

Carson , M in ts , D ies a nd Currency , p p. 5 7-65.

2 .

c f . K ings Weston V il la a nd Banwel l , S o merset , f or s im i lar h oards f ro m r oof t imbers.

3 .

NB Rober tson , A .S ., h as 3 7 a s t he o r ig ina l t ota l o f t h is h oard.

4 .

Ro man Co inage , p . 2 67.

5 .

c f . N .C. 6 th s er . v o l. XV I,1956 ;

6 .

N .C. 6 th s er . v o l . I X , 1 949 , p p . 2 59f f .

7 .

c f . Ma t t ing ly , H ., The C lash o f Co inages i n S tud ies i n Ro man Econo m ic

L . Or me , N o. 9 7a .

a nd S oc ia l H istory i n Honour o f A . C . J ohnson , Pr inceton , 1 951, p p. 2 75-289 ; Carson , R . A . G ., The Reform o f Aure l ian R .N. 1 965 p p . 2 27-235 , ( and h is f or thco m ing p aper o n t he Cross Hoard ); L a faur ie , J ., L a d a te d e l a r eforme mone ta ire d 'Aure l ian , Bu l. d e l a S oc. Fr . d e Nu m. F eb. 1 974 , p p. 5 17-525. 8 .

Korzus , D ie F undmunzen d er r dm ischen z e iten Deu tsch land , Ab t . V I , Band 6 .

D etmo ld , p . 8 0 , The c o in i s a n R IC 1

1 ML

8 7

.

Map 1 :

Ear ly Caraus ian A M id Caraus ian B La te Caraus ian C

8 8

Map 2 :

L eg it im ist Hoards L Hoards i nc l. "Rouen" R

8 9

Map 3 :

Caraus ian > 1 00 C A l lectan > 1 00 A

9 0

Map 4 :

0 D .

Predo m inan t ly C a nd A











c3

Map 5 :

Overseas h oards





• • •









• •

9 2

HOARDS

Map 6

TERM INAT ING

287-296

CHAPTER I I

CARAUS IUS ' S ILVER CO INAGE

T he ma jor ity o f Caraus ius ' s i lver c o inage , e xc lud ing s uch p ieces a s a re p a ten t ly i rregu lar i n s o me w ay , f a l ls i n to t wo g roups.

T he l arger o f t hese

c ons is ts o f t he c o ins wh ich h ave t he l e tters RSR i n t he e xergue ; o f t hose w ith n o e xergua l l e t ters.

t he sma l ler ,

I n a dd it ion t here a re v ery f ew s i lver c o ins

wh ich h ave o n t he m e xergua l l etters s uch a s a re c o mmon ly f ound o n t he a n ton in ian i.

These h ave b een c ons idered s epara te ly , n o t b ecause t hey a re

f ro m a s epara te min t o r m in ts f ro m t he ma jor ity o f t he c o ins s o much a s t o s how j us t wha t a n e x tre me m inor ity t hey a re a nd h ow much more l ike ly t hey a re t o b e e xcep t ions r a ther t han t he s o le c ons t ituen ts o f t he p roduce o f t he ma in m in ts.

ML

_ L

o r

I n h is Nu m is ma t ic Chron ic le 1 c orpus Webb l i sts e igh t c o ins a s d enar i i w ith L ondon marks o f o ne s or t o r a nother .

I n as er ies o f f ootnotes h e c asts

d oubt o n s o me o f t he m a nd b y t he t ime o f h is R . I .0 C .2 l i st ing , t he n u mber h as d ropped t o t hree.

Even t h is i s i ncorrec t , h owever , a s h e h as t rans m i tted

s o me o f t he e rrors f ro m h is e ar l ier work d esp ite h is h av ing d rawn a t ten t ion t o t he m h i mse lf i n f ootnotes. Webb p o in ted o u t ,

3

R .I.C. 7 i s t he p roduc t o f am isread ing a s

' The m in t mark i s p robab ly a n e rroneous r ead ing o f t he

Hun ter s pec i men , wh ich i s f a in t b u t i n f ac t r eads R .S .R.'

Th is c o in i s i l -

l ustra ted i n a woodcut i n Mon . Br it .4 w ith t he m in t mark e rroneous ly s hown a s af a in t

ML

.Webb

f a i led t o p erce ive a n a no ma ly i n h is own l i s ts , f or

R .I.C. 7 a nd R .I.C. 5 35 , w ith o bverse H , may b o th b e t raced b ack t o C ohen 8 wh ich i s t he Hun ter c o in a nd wh ich c er ta in ly r eads . RSR Webb g ives a v ers ion o f R .I.C. 7 w ith n o e xergua l l e t ters.

I th as p roved

imposs ib le t o t race s uch a c o in n or , i ndeed , a ny e ar l ier r e ference t o i t .

T he

most l ikely e xp lana t ion s ee ms t o b e t hat Webb h as m istaken ly r ead C ohen 6 a s ad enar ius.

Th is c o in f i ts t he d escr ip t ion b u t i s a n a n ton in ianus.

I t i s s ure ly

s ign if ican t t hat Webb d oes n ot r ecord i ta s s uch a nywhere i n R .I . C. R .I.C. 8 h as a lso b een m isread .

T he c ause o f t he e rror i s t he d oub le-

s tr ik ing o f t he r everse wh ich c rea tes t he i mpress ion t hat t here a re i n f act l et ters s im ilar t o M Li n t he e xergue.

Webb h as , t here fore , a ga in i ncluded

t he s a me c o in t w ice b y e rror , d esp ite h av ing e xpressed d oubts a bou t i t e ar l ier .

5

The c o in b ears n o e xergua l l e t ters a nd i s c orrect ly d escr ibed a s

s uch a s R .I.C. 7 09.

9 4

R .I.C. 9 p resen ts a more c omp lex p rob le m.

The t wo v ers ions o f i t , W12

a nd W 1 3, a re h ard ly d if feren t a t a l l a nd a re a l most c er ta in ly t wo v ar ian ts o f a d escr ip t ion o f t he s a me c o in ;

n e ither o f wh ich i s c orrect .

W 1 2 d er ives

f ro m C ohen 4 01 o f wh ich i s s a id , ' Cede 1 16 : lad le d onnee p ar l e Monu men ta H is tor ica Br it ann ica , c o mme f a isan t p ar t ie d e l a B ib l iot li eque N a t iona le ( cab inet d es meda il les ) n e s 'y t rouve p as ' .6 a nd Evans c o l lect ions.

W 1 3 s i mp ly c i tes t he Mon tagu

T he c o in wh ich Mon . Br it . a scr ibed t o t he B ib l iothbque

Na t iona le was , t herefore , m iss ing b y Cohen 's t ime ; s ince.

i th as n o t r eappeared

T here i s as pec i men o f t h is t ype a t Ox ford , f ro m t he Evans c ol lect ion ,

wh ich i s p resu mab ly W 1 3.

I th as n o t b een c en tra l ly s truck a nd i ti s w orn i n

p laces s o t ha t t he r ead ings a re n o t v ery c lear b u t t here a re d e f in ite t races o f a n M b e fore t he much c learer L i n t he e xergue.

_ L•mark.

Th is r ids u s o f t he o dd

The r everse l egend i s i nd ist inc t a t t he b eg inn ing a nd e nd b u t mus t

b e a s g iven b elow .

Th is p iece i s a l l t ha t a ppears t o e x is t o fR .I.C. 9 a nd i t

s ee ms q u ite p oss ib le t ha t t h is c o in i s t he o ne wh ich was o r ig ina l ly i n P ar is a s W 1 2 b u t wh ich f ound i t s way o ver t o Eng land b efore Cohen 's d ay. I t r e ma ins t o a dd o ne c o in a nd o ne o dd ity t o t h is v ery sma l l g roup . i s a t

There

Ox ford a d enar ius wh ich h as b een s truck f ro m t he s a me d ies a s t he

a ureus R .I.C. 1 .

Th is c o in , s a id t o h ave b een f ound a t L ondon , s ee ms a bove

s usp ic ion . A lso a t Ox ford i s ac o in b ear ing t he t ypes a nd l egends o f t he l eg iona ry a n ton in ianus R .I.C. 7 5 , i nclud ing t he r ad iate c rown ; s o me s i lver c o loured a l loy , n o t s i lver i t se l f .

b ut i ti s made o f

I t i s c lear ly n o t as i lvered

a n ton in ianus a s t he a l loy i s v ery l ight , a nd i t may b e ac o mpara t ive ly r ecen t c opy o f s o me s or t .

Deta i ls o f t h is c o in h ave b een i nc luded f or t he s ake o f

c o mp leteness w ithout a ccep t ing i ta s ad enar ius a t a l l. THE CO INS

ML 1 .

0 )

CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te a nd c u irassed .

R )

CONSERVAT AVG

J up iter s tand ing l ef t h o ld ing t hunderbo lt a nd s cep tre ; e ag le a t f oot .

R .I.C. Notes :

ML

3 .83 g

1 9 x1 7 mm

Ash mo lean

Fro m s a me d ies a s R .I.C. 1 ( i n AV ).

G iven b y A . D . Pass more

a nd s a id t o h ave b een f ound i n L ondon . 2 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF I N AVG

b us t r igh t l aurea te a nd d raped .

R )

[ V II I ] TVS I N 1AVG M L

Emperor s tand ing r igh t h o ld ing g lobe a nd s pear .

R .I.C. 9 ( corrected ) Notes :

3 .85 g

1 8 mm

Ash mo lean

A s o mewha t c oarse p iece , t he l et ter M o f t he m in t- mark i s o n ly f a in t ly v is ib le o f C ooke W.

T he Meda l l ic H istory o f Imper ia l Ro me

L ondon 1 781 v o l . I , p p . 4 53f f . a nd f ig . L IX ; I p l. V I No. 6 .

L ord P e mbroke ;

S tuke ley , Med . H ist .

Aker man , Desr . Ca t . 1p . 1 59 ,

No. 4 6, Co ins Re l. t o R . Br it . p . 1 27 , No. 5 9.

9 5

Cohen 4 01.

Addenda a .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

R )

LEG V I I CL

R

C.

b ust r igh t , r ad ia te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

Notes :

M Lb u l l s tand ing r igh t .

2 .74 g

2 0 mm

Not a s i lver c o in .

ASH MOLEAN

No r ad ia te s i lver c o ins a re k nown t o e x ist i n t he

way l aurea te b ronzes d o. There a re s evera l i ns tances o f w e l l s i lvered a nt on in ian i b e ing c a l led s i lver c o ins , n o tab ly N .C. 2 s er . VOL X IV 1 874 , p . 8 7 n o. 1 wh ich i s W 2 09 where h e c a l ls i t ' base s i lver o r washed b ronze ' , c f a lso S tuke ley , Med . H ist . I P l. I .8. i _ c

o r

' I t i s d oubt fu l i fa ny s i lver was i ssued f rom t h is m in t .' Th is i s Webb 's c om men t 7 wh ich h e t r ies t o s uppor t b y a rgu ing t ha t t he mark i n t he e xergue o f t he Hun ter s pec i men i s n ot a C b u t ac rescen t , a nd t ha t t h is i s p robab ly t he c ase w ith o ther s pec i mens.

The mark i n t he e xergue o f t he Hunter c o in i s

c er ta in ly d i f feren t f ro m t he C f ound i n t he l egend o f t he s a me c o in b u t i ti s s t i l l s haped l ike a l et ter C . T he o bv ious i n terpreta t ion p laced u pon s uch a mark i n s uch a p lace must h ave b een t ha t i t was a l e t ter C . The o n ly a lt erna t ive w ou ld , p erhaps , b e i ft he c o in were p roduced b efore a ny o ther c o ins b ear ing t he l et ter C i n t he e xergue.

I fn ot t hen i t mus t h ave b een t aken a s

a' C m in t ' c o in d esp ite t he v ar ia t ion i n f orm. i s u nm is takeab ly a C ;

T he l e t ter o n t he Ox ford c o in

t h is t ime i n t he r igh t f i e ld.

R .I.C. 1 87 , a s i s c lear f ro m i t s i l lustra t ion a s n umber t we lve o n p late s ix teen o f t ha t work , h as b een s truck i n s uch a way t ha t o n ly t he t op o f t he e xergua l l et ter i s a ctua l ly p resen t o n t he f l an.

T he c o in i s i n t he Br it ish

Museu m a nd t here c an b e n o d oubt t hat t he l e t ter mus t b e r ead a s aC , a s i t was a s l ong a go a s Mon . Br it .8

T he o bverse a ppears n orma l f or a s i lver

c o in b u t t he r everse i s t oo l arge f or t he f lan . o bserved o n t he r are l aurea te b ronzes ,

9

c ases , b een s truck f rom a n ton in ianus d ies. c ase o fR .I.C. 1 87;

T h is i s ap heno menon t o b e

t he r everses o f wh ich h ave , i n s o me T h is may h ave h appened i n t he

a nton inian i a re r ecorded w ith t h is r everse.

The c o in

may b e t he p roduct o f t he c o mb ina t ion o f a n a n ton in ianus r everse w ith a d enar ius o bverse. T h is i s o f r e levance t o t he q uest ion o f m in t l oca t ion a nd f or d a t ing . C lear ly s uch a c o mb inat ion c ou ld n o t h ave o ccurred u n t il a n toni n ian i b ear ing t he e xergua l Ch ad b egun t o a ppear ; w h ich w ou ld make i tl ess l ike ly t ha t R .I.C. 1 86 was p roduced b efore s uch a d a te. T he c o in a t Ox ford , wh ich i s n o t r ecorded i nR .I.0 h as a r everse wh ich d oes n o t l i nk w ith a ny a n ton in ianus , a l though t he o ccurrence o f t he I C mark i s k nown f or a n ton in ian i. f rom a n a n ton in ianus d ie.

The G lasgow c o in s hows n o s igns o f h av ing c ome Th is l eaves t hree c o ins w h ich d o n ot r elate t o

e ach o ther v ery c lose ly a nd wh ich l ook a f ar f rom c onv inc ing s urv iva l f ro m a ny s ign if ican t i ssue o f d enar i i.

9 6

THE CO INS

1 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD IA M IL ITV M c -

R .I.C. 1 86 Notes :

4 .064 g

HUN IER IAN c f Woodward , Wilks a nd

A G enera l H istory o f Ha mpsh ire 3 v o ls. L ondon 1 861 v o l. 2 p l.

f ac ing p . 2 00 N o. 7 . 0 )

1 8 mm

The o bverse i s s im ilar t o R .S.R. 1 02.

Lockhar t ,

2 .

j o ined h ands.

Th is must b e t he Hun ter c o in.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r ight , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

1

LEG 111 ( FLAV IA )

Cen taur l ef t h o ld ing c lub t ransv ersely w ith b oth h ands.

R .I.C. 1 87 Notes :

p l. XV I 1 2

3 .95 g

c f . Mon . Br it . V . 2 1.

1 9 mm

B . M.

Bru m me l c f. R .I.C. 2 72-3 f or t h is r everse

o n a n a n ton in ianus b ut N .B. t h is i s n ot f ro m t he d ies u sed f or t he c o ins o f t h is s or t s hown i n Co l l. An t . p l. XV I I. No. 2 2 a nd p . 1 59.

Co ins r e l. t o Br it .

t h ird b rass o f G al l ienus '.

1 .

0 )

c f

Akerman , Descr. Cat. 1 p . 1 57. P p.

1 23-4 ' cop ied f ro m t he a bundan t

Cohen 1 43.

b ust r ight , l aureate d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVC

c u irassed. R )

PR OV1 D AVC

C

Prov iden t ia s tand ing l ef t w ith b aton a nd c ornucop iae , g lobe a t f eet .

R .I.C. Notes :

-

4 .17 g

1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

F ound a t Ab ingdon c f . N .C . 6 th s er. v o l. I V 1 944 , p . 1 3 N o. 1 04

a nd p l. I I No. 1 .

c f Drabb le S a le, G lend inn ing.

4 .7.1939 L ot No. 2 66.

RSR The ma jor ity o f t he s i lver c o ins o f Caraus ius h ave t he l etters R .S. R. i n t he e xergue.

Many e f for ts h ave b een made t o s uggest e xpans ions wh ich i n-

c orporate a p lace n a me , u sua l ly Rutup iae f or R ichborough , a s t he l ocat ion o f t he m in t t own o f t hese c o ins.

The more o bv ious way t o i nterpret t hese e xergua l

l et ters was p o in ted o u t b y Arthur Evans l i

' on t he a na logy o f CO M [ it is ] o n l a te

Ro man s o l id i t hese l et ters a re t o b e e xp la ined a s R [a t iona l is ], S [u m mae ] R [e i l r ather t han a l oca l min t mark .'

S evera l o f t hese d enar i i h ave b een f ound a t

R ichborough b ut b y n o means s uf f ic ien t t o p rove t hat t ha t must h ave b een t he ir mint t own .

A s u f f ic ien t b ody o f e p igraph ic e v idence e x ists , h owever , t o s how

9 7

t ha t t he t i t le Rat iona l is S u m mae Re i w as r egu lar ly a bbrev ia ted t o t h is f or m o r s o meth ing v ery s im ilar . C .I. L . 6 1 132

...RAT S R

C .I. L . 6 1 145 ...RAT .S .R C .I. L . 6 1 701

...RAT/S R

There c an b e n o q ues t ion a s t o t he c orrectness o f t he e xpans ion h ere a s A .E. 1 947 , 1 86....V .P. RAT

a nd A . E .1 966 , 4 32 ...V .P/R.... b o th

r ecord J u l iue An ton inus whose t i t le i s g iven i n f u l l o n C. I .L . 3 . 3 25. T o s uppor t t he f act t hat s uch a n of icer e x isted u nder Caraus ius t here i s t he t es t i mony o f Aure l ius V ictor who d escr ibes A l lectus h i mse l f a s , ' . ... s u m mae r e i p raeesset '.

1 2

I t i s p oss ib le t ha t V ictor i s u s ing t h is e ither

a nachron ist ica l ly o r w ith a more g enera l c onnota t ion t han t he s pec if ic t i t le Ra t iona l is S u m mae Re i, b u t t he c o mb ina t ion o f t h is a nd t he o ther f actors makes t h is t he mos t c onv inc ing i n terpreta t ion o f R .S .R. o n t he s i lver c o ins o f Caraus ius. One wou ld e xpect t o f ind s uch a n of icer b ased a t t he a dm in is trat ive c en tre o f t he a rea c oncerned , i n t h is c ase L ondon , a nd s o t he d enar i i a vowed ly s truck b y h is a u thor ity must h ave b een p roduced t here a lso.

A more d eta iled

a rgu men t f o l lows t he c orpus o f a l l t he r e ma inder o f t he d enar i i.

T he u nmarked

s i lver c o ins s ee m more r a ther t han l ess c lose ly c onnected t o t he R .S .R . p ieces a nd f o l low s tra igh t o n f ro m t he m w ithou t as epara te i n troduc t ion . THE CO INS RSR 1 .

0 )

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS AVG

c u irassed. R )

ADVENTVS AV

R .I.C.

-

Emperor r id ing l ef t , o ne c ap t ive

RSR

b efore.

4 .40 g

2 1 mm

Notes :

Probab ly f ro m CAERLEON

2 .

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

0 )

ASH MOLEAN

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVENTVS AVG

R .I.C. 5 35 Notes :

Emperor r id ing l ef t , n o c ap t ive

RSR

2 .61 g

v is ib le. 1 9 x1 8 mm

V ery worn .

9 8

COPENHAGEN

3 .

0 )

IMP CARAV [

]

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVEN [

] G

1

R .I.C. 5 37 No tes :

Emperor r id ing l ef t , n o c ap t ive.

S RS 2 .37 g

2 0 mm

B .M .

Ac ons iderab le p or t ion o f t he c o in h as b roken o f f , t he s ty le i s n ot a b-

n orma l d esp ite t he e rroneous v ers ion o f t he e xergua l l et ters. 4 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd a nd c u irassed .

R )

ADVENTVS AVG

R .I.C. 5 35 No tes :

Emperor r id ing l ef t , o ne c ap t ive

RSR

b efore.

3 .73 g

1 9 x1 8 mm

PR IVATE COLL .

c f . Trau S a le V ienna. 1 935 l o t 3 484 ( 2300 Fr . S ) ;

L 2O CV I I No. 3 ( March 1 969 ) p . 9 8, p l . I No. 2 2 £ 145 ; No . 15

£ 350 ;

S . G ibbons s a le 5J u ly 1 973 l ot C 1 59.

l i s t F eb. 1 974 No. 1 49 5 .

0 )

N u m. C irc. v o l.

V ecch i L ist 7 1 972 S . G ibbons s tock

£ 300.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped ;

r es t

o f f f lan . R )

[ A ]DVENTVS AVG

R .I.C. 5 35 N o tes :

Emperor r id ing l ef t , c ap t ive b efore?

I

[ RS 1R 2 2 x1 8 mm

WROXE TER

F ound WROXETER 1 913 c f . Wroxeter Repor t 2 . 1 913 ( J . P . Bush-Fox )

No . 3 40 p . 7 2 a nd f ig . 2 0 ;

o ne o f f our d enar i i o f Caraus ius i n ah oard o f 1 6

c o ins ( c f . my h oards , g roup o ne N o . 4 8 ). 6 .

0 )

IMP CARA [VS IV 'S PF AV [G ]

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ ADVENTVS ]AV [G ]

R .I.C. ' 5 35 ' No tes :

>

Emperor r id ing l ef t , c ap t ive b e fore. 3 .07 g

1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

Ho led a nd c h ipped , t he e xergue i s v ery worn a nd b at tered .

OBV E — I - 1 4 7 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t l ef t , l aurea te i n r obes , h o ld ing s cep tre.

R )

ADVENTVS AVG

R .I.C. Notes :

5 35

OBVE

4 .298 g

RSR 5 8

t o g et R IC 7 ( v .5 .)

Emperor r id ing l ef t , c ap t ive b efore.

RSR

E RSR 2 5.

1 9 mm

HUNTER IAN

Th is i s t he c o in wh ich Webb m isreads

I t i s i l lustra ted w ith ML i n t he e xergue i n Mon . Br it . p l. V

No. 5 c f . S tuke ley I P l. XV I I I No. 1 ( no e xergua l marks ) - Dr . K ennedy (> Hun ter? ).

Akerman , D escr . Ca t . p . 1 55 No. 2 ;

9 9

CRB p . 1 19 No. 2 .

8 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

Emperor r id ing l ef t , n o c ap t ive.

ADVENTVS AVG RSR

R .I.C. 5 36 Notes :

OBV

3 .5 g —

3 2

1 9 mm

B .M .

c f . W. 5 87

" Brooke.

F ound a t LA MBOURNE,

Berks." 8 a . 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVEN [TVS AVG ]

Emperor r id ing l ef t .

RSR

Cap t ive

b efore. 3 .3 g

R .I.C. Notes :

1 8 mm

GLOUCESTER

" found i n af i e ld b eh ind Witco mb Farm Cot tage , GREAT WITCO MB ' S O 9 05 1 62, p urchased 1 965.

The f ind s po t i s b etween a k nown

3 rd c en tury v il la a nd t he l ine o f a Ro man r oad. 9 .

0 )

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed . R )

ADVENTVS AVG

Emperor r id ing r igh t , s pear h e ld

RSR

h or izon ta l ly o ver h ead , c ap t ive b e low h orse. R .I.C. 5 41

4 .79 g

2 1 mm

B .M .

c f . S tuke ley v o l. I , p l. I , No. I , L ord P e mbroke. Cat . I ,

P .

1 0. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c f . Akerman , Descr .

1 55 , No. 4 , c it ing S tuke ley CRB p . 1 20 No. 4 .

COH 1.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

CONCORD IA AVG

R .I.C. 5 45

j o ined h ands.

2 .52 g

2 0 x1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

Notes :

REV

1 1. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , r es t u ncer ta in .

CONCORD IA AVG

j o ined h ands.

R )

ERSR

I RSR

R .I.C. 5 46 Notes :

1 1

RSR

2 .98 g 1 8 mm

c f . N .C. 1 905 , p l. I No. 1 ; o bverse t o a n ton in ian i.

ASH MOLEAN

N .C. 1 944 , p . 1 7 , No. 1 62. S im ilar

REV -RSR 1 0

1 00

1 2. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD IA M [ I ]

R .I. C . 5 48 Notes :

I

3 .88 g

S een i n t he B . M.

j o ined h ands.

R SR

2 0 x1 8 mm

4 .6.1930 a nd d escr ibed a s ' f ro m NOR W ICH '.

Rev, i s v ery o f f c en tre. d escr ibed. 1 3. 0 )

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

G lens. 5 .7.74.

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

L ot N o.

4 19 mis-

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

I CONCORD IA MI RSR

R .I.C.

-

j o ined h ands.

3 .69 g 1 9 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

Notes :

c f . l o t 5 .

Wa l ters S a le , S o theby 1 932

1 4. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

£ 12.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD IA M IL IT

R .I.C. 5 48 1 5. 0 )

I RSR

j o ined h ands.

5 .22 g 1 9 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

ASH MOLEAN b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD IA M U TT

R .I.C. 5 49 No tes : 1 6. 0 )

3 .4 g

I

j o ined h ands.

RSR

1 8 mm

B .M .

COH 3 6. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd

I R )

CONCORD IA M IL ITV M RSR

R .I.C. 5 48 Notes :

1 9 mm

Found HA M MERS M ITH. No . 3 23.

1 7. 0 )

4 .61 g

c u irassed. j o ined h ands. PR IVATE COLL .

Ex W. C . We l ls a nd A . H . Baldw in.

G lend inn ings Nov. 2 1 1 969

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

> £ 500.

OBV

E RSR 7 1.

b us t r igh t , l aureate, d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD IA 1 V I IL ITV M

R .I.C. Notes :

5 48

c f . L o t 1 25

c f l o t

I RSR

2 1 x1 9 mm

j o ined h ands. WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

S o theby 2 0th Nov. 1 968.

1 01

1 8. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCOR [D IA M U M VM

R .I.C. ' 548 ' Notes :

RSR

2 .55 g 1 8 mm

j o ined h ands. HUNTER IAN

Obv. i s s im ilar t o RSR 7 2

1 9. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

R )

b ist r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

CONCORD IA MIL ITV M

R .I.C. 2 0. 0 )

5 48

3 .42 g

R Sj o ined h ands.

2 0 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

ASH MOLEAN b ust l ef t , l aurea te i n r obes , h o ld ing s cep tre.

R )

CONCORD IA M IL ITV M

R .I.C. c f .

N .C.

2 1. 0 )

5 48

RSR

3 .89 g 2 0 x1 8 mm

1 861

j o ined h ands. ASH MOLEAN

p . 1 61, f ound n ear AB INGDON.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

COH 4 2.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

CONCORD IA M IL ITV M

R .I.C. 2 2. 0 )

5 49

RSR

4 .17 g

1 9 mm

j o ined h ands. BRUSSELS b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed. R )

CONCORD IA M ILTV M

R .I.C. Notes : 2 3. 0 )

-

OBV

-LRSR

2 1 x1 8 mm

j o ined h ands. WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

RSR 6 6 b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed. R )

CONCORD IA MT ILTV M

R .I.C. Notes : 2 4. 0 )

OBV

5 47

c orr . 4 .4 g

RSR 6 9

RSR 1 9 mm

j o ined h ands. B .M . 9 448

OBV & REV E RSR 2 4

COH 4 1

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed. R )

CONC ORD IA MT ILTV M

R .I.C.

5 47 c orr.

RSR

2 1 mm

j o ined h ands. WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

1 02

Notes :

OBV

RSR 6 9

OBV & REV E RSR 2 3

Har t ing s a le , G lend in ings 1 4/11/1949 g iven a s R .I.C. 5 48. 2 5. 0 )

c f . l ot 2 71, Mayr-

› £ 46.

where i ti s wrong ly

' Fro m L ord Amhers t 's Cab inet £ 35".

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t l ef t , l aurea te i n r obes , h o ld ing s cep tre.

R )

CONCO [RD ]

R .I.C. Notes :

5 44

M IL I [T ]

4 .456 g

OBV z RSR 5 8

e ns igns.

1 8 mm

RSR 7 .

E -

Concord ia s tand ing l ef t w ith t wo

RSR

HUNTER IAN

c f . S tuke ley I P l. XV I No. 2 .

( > Hun ter ? ) c f . Aker man Descr. Cat I , p . 1 56, No. 9 ; No. 9 . 2 6. 0 )

L ord Ox ford C .R.B.

P .

COH 3 3.

IMP CARAVS IVS AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R ) R

CONCOR M E . C. 5 43

j o ined h ands.

RSR 3 .57 g

2 0 mm

ASH MOLEAN

F or mer ly A . W. Hands c o l lect ion . 2 7. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONCORD [

R .I.C.

5 51

I

Emperor s tand ing r igh t , c lasp ing

RSR

h and o f Concord ia s tand ing l ef t .

3 .34 g 1 8 mm

BERL IN

No tes :

T he b us t i s s im i lar t o t ha t u sed o n s o me a ure i.

2 8. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONS [ER ] A

R .I.C. N otes :

Nep tune s ea ted l ef t w ith a nchor a nd

RSR

5 53 c orr .

t r iden t .

3 .341 g

1 9 mm

c f . Mon . Br it . p l . Vn o. 1 2 wrong ly d escr ibed. p l . XXX No. 7 Dr . Kennedy .

2 9. 0 )

HUNTER IAN c f . S tuke ley I ,

COH 4 5.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

CONSER AVG

R .I.C. Notes :

5 52 v ar .

Nep tune s ea ted l ef t h o ld ing a nchor

RSR

a nd t r iden t .

4 .63 g 2 0 mm

c f . N .C. 1 861 p .36 ; Found a t ST ALBANS

N .C.

1 944

OBV

1 03

ASH MOLEAN P .

1 7 N o. 1 63 a nd p l. I I.

RSR 9 3.

No. 1 0.

1 21

3 0. 0 ) R )

b ust r igh t , l aureate a nd d raped .

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG EXPECTATE V IN T

"MR

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r ight h o ld ing e ns ign , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t h o ld ing s cep tre.

R .I.C. 5 54 ( + p l. XV. 6 )

4 .63 g 2 0 mm

B .M .

n E , wh ich h appens o n s evera l o ther The o bverse F h as b een c u t a s a mper fect ly f or med s o t ha t t hey l ook d enar i i , a nd t wo o f t he r everse Es a re i 6, RSR 8 0 j _ 1 3, j _ 1 9 , 3 5 l ike I s. c f . RSR 7 3, RSR 7 4 , RSR 7 5 , RSR 7 Notes :

3 1. 0 )

b ust r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed. R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith v er-

RSR

t i ca l s cep tre ( or imper fect e ns ign ) c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith v er t ica l s cep tre.

R .I.C. 3 2. 0 )

5 54

2 .57 g

2 0 x1 8 mm

BERL IN b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed . R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia '

RSR

s tand ing r igh t w ith

e ns ign , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith v er t ica l s cep tre.

R .I.C. 5 54 Notes :

Fro m a n e lectro type i n t he B .M ., t h is i s o ne o f t he WROXETER

h oard c o ins q .v. 3 3. 0 )

WROXETER

1 9 mm

REV S RSR 3 8. b us t r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

c u irassed. R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith e n-

RSR

s ign , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. 5 54 No tes : 3 4. 0 )

4 .646 g

2 0 mm

OBV & REV E RSR 3 5 IMP CARAVS [

OBV

HUNTER IAN — 2 4 b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

I

c u irassed. R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith e n-

RSR

s ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. ' 554 '

2 .96 g

1 9 mm

B .M .

1 04

3 5. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

b us t r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped. ' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r ight w ith e n-

RSR

s ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C.

5 55

4 .67 g

1 9 mm

No tes :

OBV 1 E1 - 2 4

3 6. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

B .M .

OBV & REV a -R SR 3 3.

o bverse s im i lar t oI - 2 3.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith e n-

RSR

s ign , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. 5 55 No tes :

2 .76 g

OBV E RSR 3 7

1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

e x T . Tho mas Esq. c f . Akerman .

Descr . Cat . I

p p. 1 54 & 1 56. 3 7. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b ust r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith e n-

RSR

s ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R. I .0 . 5 55

5 .08 g

1 7 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

Notes : Found a t BATH. OBV RSR 3 6. REV E - RSR 3 9. Ex Ro th c o l l. c f . l o t 4 , Wa lters S a le , S o theby 1 932 ›£ 16 : L o t 1 53, L ocket t , Eng l ish I , G lend inn ing 1 955 ›S chu l mann › M. N ico las , France › ? 3 8. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith

RSR

e ns ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. Notes : A .C.

5 55

2 0 mm

B .M .

Fro m t he S ULLY MOOR h oard q .v. LV ( 1900 ) p . 6 5 ;

BCS XX II I , p . 3 05 ;

c f . N .C. 1 900 p p. 2 7-65 ; P . F . I saac , A S tudy o f Ro man

Go ld Co ins f ound i n Br ita in , a nd t he ir imp l ica t ions , u npub. M.A. Thes is Durha m 1 971. 3 9. 0 )

REV a RSR 3 2.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPECTATE VEN I

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith

RSR

e ns ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. 5 55

4 .24 g

1 8 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

1 05

Notes :

Fro m a c as t i n B .M . w ith " A. G .L .

p ub l ished )" wr it ten o n i t . 4 0. 0 )

GA M L EN S T ALBANS ( not t o b e

REV E RSR 3 7.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPECTAT I

' Br itann ia s tand ing r igh t w ith

RSR

e ns ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. Notes : 4 1. 0 )

5 57

2 1 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

c f . l o t 2 07 , Oman s a le , Chr is t ies

2 /7/ 1968 ' Ma l l inson '

IMP CARAVS IVS [ PF ]

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped , r est u nc lear .*

R )

EXPECT [ATE VE 1N IE [S ]

' Br itann ia ' s tand ing r igh t w ith

[ RS ]R

e ns ign c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C.

5 58

? c orr?

3 .09 g 1 8 mm

HUNTER IAN

N otes :* w ith g lobe b e fore ' cos o f d ie l i nk

OBV & REV

4 2. 0 )

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped h o ld ing

IMP CARAVS IVS PF

RSR 4 2.

g lobe b efore. R )

EXPECT [ATE VE ]N IES

' Br itann ia s tand ing r igh t , a t tr ibu te

RSR

u nc lear , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. Notes : I ,

P l.

4 3. 0 )

5 58

c orr . ?

3 .59 g 1 7 mm

OBV & REV E RSR 4 1

ASH MOLEAN

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V No. 1 4.

XX No. 6 Bod ley L ibrary .

c f . S tuke ley

COH 5 7.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

FEDES 1 V IL ITV M

R .I.C. 5 59 Notes :

F ides s tand ing l ef t w ith t wo e ns igns .

RSR

2 .62 g

2 0 x1 6 mm

c f . N .C. 1 905 p l . 2 , No. 3 ;

ASH MOLEAN

N .C. 1 944 , p . 1 8, No. 1 64.

Ex Warne

a nd Evans c o l lect ions. 4 4. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

FE MICITA

R. I .0 . Notes :

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR 1 9 mm

BARBER I NST ITUTE

e x G . C . Ha ines c o l lec t ion .

1 06

4 5. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FEL ICITA AV

R .I.C. Notes : 4 6. 0 )

5 60

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR

3 .94 g

1 9 mm

B . N. 9 449

COH 6 5. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped , r est u nc lear .

R )

FEL ICITA AV

R .I.C. No tes : 4 7. 0 ) R )

ASH MOLEAN

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG FEL IC ITA AVG 5 60

b us t r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped.

I-

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR

2 0 mm

R ICHBOROUGH

f ro m e lectrotype i n B .M . f ound R ICHBOROUGH

4 8 a RSR 5 2 4 8. 0 )

2 .79 g 1 9 mm

g a l ley r a ther s ty l ised .

R .I.C. Notes :

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR

OBV & REV



RSR

REV ERSR 5 1.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped , r es t u nc lear .

R )

FEL ICITA AVG

R .I.C. No tes : 4 9. 0 )

5 60

g a l ley r igh t .

— I-

RSR

4 .35 g

2 1 mm

f ound R ICHBOROUGH

R ICHBOROUGH

OBV & REV E RSR 4 7 ERSR 5 2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

REV E RSR 5 1.

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

R. I .0 . 5 60 No tes :

g a l ley r igh t .

FEL ICITA AVG RSR 4 .55 g

s tr ik ing c rack .

2 1 x1 8 mm

e x J ohn Evans c o l lect ion.

Eng l ish p t IG lend inn ing 1 955. Hess Leu s a le 1 969. 5 0. 0 )

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN c f L ot 1 54 L ocket t ,

S een a t Ba ldw ins 1 971,

OBV

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FEL ICITA AVG

R .I.C. No tes :

5 60

RSR 6 5

e x c o l lec t ion M. N ico las ( France ).

g a l ley r igh t .

—I —

RSR

4 .140 g

1 9 x1 8 mm

v ery s im i lar t o N o. 4 9.

1 07

HUNTER IAN

5 1. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FEL ICITA AVG

R .I.C. 5 60 Notes :

3 .61 g

REV E RSR 4 8

5 2. 0 )

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR 1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

RSR 4 7 = RSR 5 2 b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

c u irassed. R )

[ FEL IC IT M AVG

R .I.C. 5 60 Notes :

h o led :

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR

2 .76 g

1 9 mm

OBV ERSR 4 8

ASH MOLEAN

RSR 4 7

c f . L ot 3 485 Trau s a le V ienna 1 935.

REV E RSR 4 8 = -RSR 4 7 ERSR 5 1.

Not i l lustra ted R ) S ch if f . G e l S ch lech-

t erh = a l most c er ta in ly t h is c o in , e sp. a s Evans b ough t t he n ex t l o t (- I-- 9 0 ). ' RSR

5 3. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes w ith s cep tre.

R )

FEL IC ITA AVG

R .I.C. 5 60 Notes :

L. RSR

4 .19 g

1 9 mm

f ound R ICHBOROUGH

5 4. 0 )

g a l ley l ef t .



R ICHBOROUGH

OBV & REV

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

RSR 5 4

b us t l e f t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith s cep tre.

R )

FEL IC ITA AVG

R .I.C. Notes :

3 .82 g

2 2 x1 9 mm

OBV & REV ERSR 5 3.

2 1/1 1/69 5 5. 0 )

5 60

£ 62

Ba ldw in .

g a l ley l e f t .

RSR

PR IVATE COLLECT ION

Ex W. C . We l ls c o l l . c f . l ot 3 24 G lend inn ings

c f S tuke ley I , p l. I I , No. 1 FEL IC ITAS

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FE L IC ITAS

R .I.C. 5 60 Notes :

Que len 1 937.

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR 3 .69 g

2 1 x1 8 mm

BERL IN 4 41/ 1891

Th is h as a c o in i n b ronze s truck f ro m t he s a me d ies.

c f . Nu m. C irc. 1 973 p p . 3 30-32. 5 6. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FEL IC ITAS

I -RSR

g a l ley r igh t .

1 08

R .I.C. 5 60

4 .41 g

1 9 mm

Notes : OBV & REV ERSR 5 7. 3 6. COH 6 6. 5 7. 0 )

B. M.

o bverse i s very s im ilar t o RSR 3 7 a nd RSR

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

bust r ight , l aurea te , d raped a nd cu irassed.

R )

FEL IC ITAS

R .I.C. 5 60 No tes :

I -

galley r ight .

RSR ,

4 .171 g

1 9 x1 8 mm

HUNTER IAN

OBV & REV --R SR 5 6.

5 8. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

bust l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith s ceptre.

R )

R .I.C. No tes :

5 60

5 .69 g

g al ley l ef t .

1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

e x Evans c f . N .C . 1 905 , p l. I, no. 2 "Found i n The Tha mes a t

LONDON" 5 9. 0 )

-11 S 1 1

FEL IC ITAS AVG

OBV

E

RSR 7- RSR 2 5.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

bust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FEL ICITAS AVG

R .I.C. 5 60 c ar . N otes : 6 0. 0 )

g al ley l ef t .

I-

R SR

2 0 mm

W HEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

c f . l o t 2 06 , Oman S a le , Chr ist ies 2 / 7 /6 8 > £ 155. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV G

S p ink .

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd ?c u irassed?

R )

F I DES

R .I.C. 5 64 No tes :

I V IL IT

I-

F ides s tand ing l ef t w ith t wo e ns igns.

RSR

3 .19 g

1 9 m m

B .M .

p or tra it i s s im ilar t o t hat used o n s o me a ure i.

Ro m. Nu m. 1 683, p . 4 28 -M IL I T V M. e x Rev. F . B l ick c o l l.

c f . Occo. Imp .

c f Akerman . CRB p . 1 71, N o. 1 9

c f Bandur i Nu m. Imp. Ro m. Par is 1 718, p . 1 16 -

M IL ITV M. 6 1. 0 )

IMP C CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

FORTUNA AVG

R .I.C. 5 67 Notes :

-1 1 S 1 1

4 .673 g

For tuna s ea ted l ef t o n whee l w ith r udder a nd c ornucop iae.

1 9 m m

HUNTER IAN

c f . Mon . Br it . P l. V, No. 1 7, c f. S tuke ley I , P l. V II , N o. 5 5.

P . Car teret Webb ( >H unter ? )

COH 8 7.

1 09

Bandur i 2 2.. c it .,

P .

1 16.

6 2. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped , r es t u nc lear .

R )

LEG I I I FL

R .I.C. 5 68 No tes :

l ion wa lk ing l e f t , t hunderbo l t i n

RSR

mou th.

4 .05 g

1 8 m m

B . M.

c f S tukeley , Vo l. I, P l. I No. 1 0 , L ord P e mbroke c o l l.

6 3. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A VG

COH 1 40.

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

OR IENS AVG

R .I.C. Notes :

5 70

S o l s tand ing l ef t ,r igh t h and r a ised ,

— i -

RSR

g lobe i n l ef t .

4 .34 g

1 8.5 m m

OBV & REV E RSR 6 4

A SH MOLEAN

c f S tuke ley I , P l. =

L ibrary .

Webb " Very b ase metal".

6 4. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

D I N o. 4 , Bod ley

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

OR IENS AVG

S o l s tand ing l ef t , r igh t h and r a ised , g lobe i n l ef t .

— 1-

RSR R .I.C. 5 70 No tes :

OBV & REV

6 5. 0 )

R )

E

1 8 m m

RSR 6 3

B .M .

COH 1 83 c orr .

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

RENOVA RO MAN

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

R .I.C. 5 71 Notes :

3 .40 g

4 .17 g

OBV = -BSR 4 9.

— 1—

R M 1 9 mm

W HEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

c f L ot I I Ca mp ion Sa le 1 937.

Bank L eu 2 9/3/74.

Zur ich , l o t 3 82. 6 6. 0 )

R )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

bust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd cu irassed .

RENOVAT RO MA

wolf r igh t w ith t w ins.

R .I.C. 5 71 No tes :

RSR

1-

4 .02 g

c rack t hrough e dge.

f ro m S ilchester.

1 9 mm OBV

E

B .N. 9 452

RSR 2 2

OB V v ery s im i lar t o t he a ureus

c f S tuke ley I , P l. XV I I, No. 1 , Duke o f Devonsh ire.

COH 2 91. 6 7. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

bust r igh t , l aureate d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RENOVAT RO MAN

wolf r ight w i th t w ins.

—I -

RSR

1 10

R .I.C. 5 71 Notes :

4 .62 g

PR IVATE COLLECT ION

f ound a t DURSLEY , G los. * c f l o t 1 07 , Can yon-Br itton.

1 913 ݣ 13.5.0 ;

l o t 1 55 , L ocket t s a le , G lend in ing 1 955;

n ing 2 1/1 1/6 9› £ 580. 6 8. 0 )

2 0 mm

OBV E RSR 7 7.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF

S otheby

l ot 3 25 , G lend i-

*= W 6 27 " Found i n S o mersetsh ire".

AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate, d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RENOVAT ROMANO

R .I.C. 5 71 No tes : 6 9. 0 )

4 .38 g

w ol f r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR 2 1 x1 9 mm

f ound BA MPTON , Oxon .

ASH MOLEAN

OBV E RSR 9 9

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

RSR 8 4

b us t r igh t , l aureate, d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

R .I.C. 5 71 Notes :

4 .146 g

OBV ERSR 2 3 E2 4

Ca t . I , p . 1 58 N o. 3 4 ; 7 0. 0 )

-1R SR

RENOVAT RO MANO

wol f r igh t w ith tw ins.

1 9 mm

HUNTER IAN

r everse i s v ery l ike RSR , 7 0.

c f Aker man Descr .

CRB , p . 1 25 , No. 3 6.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

RENOVAT RO MANO

R .I.C. 5 71 7 0a.0 )

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

2 .00 g

1 8 mm

IMP CAR AVS IVS PF AVG ]

BERL IN 5 59/1896 b us t r igh t , l aureate, d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ RENOVAT RO MANO ]

R .I.C. 5 71 No tes :

2 .36 g

R Swo l f a nd t w ins.

1 9 mm

WAR W ICK

i n av ery p oor s ta te o f p reserva t ion.

G &B .W . Dav is Co l l. n ow Warw ick Museu m. 7 1. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P F AVG

F ound 1 928 a t ALCHESIER. OBV & REV ERSR 7 0.

b ust r igh t , l aureate, d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

R .I.C. 5 71 ( & p l. XV I N o. 1 0 ) Notes : 7 2. 0 )

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RENOVAT RO MANO I— RSR

OBV ERSR 1 6

1 8 mm

B .M .

COH 2 93.

IMP CARAVS IVS P E AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

RENO [VAT RO MAN ]0

RSR

1 11

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

R .I.C. 5 71 v ar. Notes :

4 .34 g

2 0 mm

f ound L INCOLNSH IRE. c f S eaby

a t £ 350.

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

C & M Bu l le t in Nov . 1 971.

u se o f E i n p lace o f F i n t he o bverse l egend ; 7 3. 0 )

A 1 186

c f RSR 3 0, RSR 7 4 , RSR 7 5 , RSR 7 6 , RSR 8 2 , j_ 1 9 , j _ 3 5 f or t h is a nd j _ 1 3.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

c u irassed . R )

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RO MANO RENA — 1 — RSR

R .I.C. 5 72 c orr.

2 .76 g

1 9 mm

Notes :

o bv. i s v ery s im ilar t o I 30.

7 4. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AG

B .M .

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RO MANO RENOV

R .I.C. 5 72 v ar. No tes :

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR 3 .36 g

OBV & RE V ERSR 7 5

2 0 mm

B .N . 9 454

OBV E _ L 1 9

c f . RSR 3 0 , RSR 7 2 , RSR 7 5 ,

RSR 7 6 , RSR 8 2, j_ 1 9 f or Obverse E & j _ 1 3 &j _ 3 5. p . 1 16. 7 5. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AG

COH 3 00 Bandur i

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RO MANO RENOV

R .I.C. 5 72 v ar. Notes : 7 6. 0 ) R )

7 7. 0 )

3 .30 g

1 9 mm

OBV & RE V E RSR 7 4

B .M .

OBV

c f . p rev ious n o te f or o bverse E .

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped .

RO MANO RENOV

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

R .I.C. 5 72 v ar. No tes :

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

RSR

4 .17 g

2 0 mm

v ery s im ilar s ty le t oI -4 a nd

I -3

B .M . c f . p rev ious n ote f or t h is o bverse E .

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RO MANO RENOV

R .I.C. 5 72 Notes : 7 8. 0 )

OBV

4 .57 g

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR 2 0 mm

B .M .

RSR , 6 7

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

RO MANO RENOV

R. I .0 . 5 72

-1 -

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

3 .39 g

2 0 mm 1 12

ASH MOLEAN

7 9. 0 )

b us t l ef t , h e l meted w ith s h ie ld a nd

V IRTVS CARAVS I

s pear . R )

RO MANO RENOV

R .I.C. 5 77 Notes :

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

2 .755 g

1 9 x1 8 mm

HUNTER IAN

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V , N o. 3 2, c f . S tuke ley I , P l. XX No. 9 , P .

Car teret Webb ( > Hun ter? ) 8 0. 0 )

COH 3 01.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

RO MANO RENOVA

R .I.C. 5 72 No tes : No. 2 .

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

3 .26 g

1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

f ound R ICHBOROUGH. e x Ro l fe c o l l. c f . Co l l. An t. V . p l . XV I I, Th is r everse i s v ery s im ilar t o t he RSR a ureus.

8 0a.0 )

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

c u irassed. R )

RO MANO RE NOVA

R .I.C. 7 53 No tes :

3 .6 g

2 0 mm

=W 6 36 & p l. I No. 3 .

8 1. 0 )

wo lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR

LYONS

F euarden t , Par is 2 8.12.1891

5 00 f r .

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped ,

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

r est u nc lear . R )

RO MANO [ REN 0 ]VA

R .I.C. 5 74 No tes :

c f . W 6 32

8 2. 0 )

3 .68 g " An t . R ich ;

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

ANA 1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

Nu m. C irc. 4 478" f ound R ICHBOROUGH.

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AG

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped , r est u nc lear .

R )

RO MANO RENO

R .I.C. 5 75 c orr . No tes :

w o lf r igh t w ith t w ins.

RSR 3 .8 g

1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

f or o bverse E c f . RSR 3 0 , RSR 7 2, RSR 7 4 , RSR 7 5 , RSR

1 35 , 1 13. 8 3. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped , a nd c u irassed.

R )

RO ME AET [

Ro ma s eated l ef t i n h exasty le

RSR

R .I.C. 5 79 c orr . t o 5 78.

t e mp le. 3 .77 g

1 13

2 2 x1 9 mm

B .M .

Notes :

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V No. 3 4 wh ich m isread ing l ed t o W 6 38 R .I.C. 5 79. c f . O cco. p . 4 28. Aker man 4 1. S tuke ley , v o l . I , p l . I , No . 1 0. L ord P e mbroke. No. 4 1.

c f . Akerman Descr . Ca t. I , p . 1 58, N o . 3 9 :

COH 3 04.

8 4. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P [

R )

TE MPOR [V M FEL ]

R .I.C. 5 80 v ar . Notes :

C .R .B. p . 1 26 ,

]

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped , r est u nc lear . F e l ic itas s tand ing l ef t w ith b a ton

RSR

a nd c ornucop iae.

2 .77 g 1 8 mm

c f . N .C. 1 944 , p . 1 8, N o. 1 68.

8 5. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS

ASH MOLEAN OBVE RSR 9 9

E

RSR 6 8.

b ust l e f t , l aurea te i n r obes , w ith

PF A

s cep tre. R )

VBERVTA AV

R .I.C. 5 83 N otes :

w o man m i lk ing c ow r igh t .

RSR

4 .26 g

1 9 x18 m m

OBV & REV ERSR 8 6

COH 3 64.

OBV

RSR 8 9 E£6

REV

E

RSR 8 7.

c f . VCH L ondon I , p . 1 27 , N um . J ourn. I , p . 2 03.

p . 1 34 No. 9 p robab ly t h is c o in . 8 6. 0 )

E

B .M .

Co l l. An t . V ,

F ound LONDON + G .M . 1 837 p . 2 67.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

b us t l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith s cep tre.

R )

VBERVTA AV

R .I.C. 5 83 Notes : 8 7. 0 )

w o man mi lk ing c ow r ight .

RSR

2 .75 g

1 9 x1 7 mm

OBV & REV E RSR 8 5

HAGUE 1 0231

OBV ERSR 8 9

IMP CARAVS IVS PF

E

6

REV

E

RSR 8 7.

b us t l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith g lobe.

R )

VBERVTA AV

R .I.C. Notes : No. 1 2.

w o man m i lk ing c ow r igh t .

RSR

3 .78 g

1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V n o. 4 0R ; OBV ERSR 8 8

N .C. 1 944 , p . 1 8, N o. 1 69 p l. I I,

REV ERSR 8 5 ERSR 8 6.

h e g ives we igh t a s 6g s ay ing " Den ier e t De m i".

8 8. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF

? COH 3 65 + f ig . ? N .B. a l leged ly ROUEN h oard q .v.

b us t l ef t , l aurea te i n r obes , w ith g lobe.

R )

VBER ITAS AVG

Uber itas s tand ing r igh t w ith s tandard

RSR

c lasp ing h and o f s o ld ier s tand ing l e f t w ith s pear .*

R .I.C. 5 90

1 9 n im

ROUEN

1 14

No tes :

c f . Mon . Br it . p l . V , No. 3 7.

f or * r ev, t ype , c f . EX . VEN T t ype. 8 9. 0 )

OBV

E

R

S R

COH 3 67.

IMP CARAVS [ IVS PF A ]

8 7

REV ERSR 8 9.

Fro m ROUEN h oard q .v .

b ust l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith s cep tre.

R )

VBER ITAS AVG

Uber itas s tand ing r igh t w ith

RSR

s tandard , c lasp ing h and o f s o ld ier s tand ing l ef t w ith s pear*.

R .I.C. 5 89 No tes :

3 .465 g

1 8 m m

c f . Mon . Br it . p l . V , No. 3 6 wrong ly PFAVG .

RSR 8 6. REV ERSR 8 8. ( > Hun ter ? ) COH 3 68. 9 0. 0 )

HUNTER IAN OBV

c f. S tukeley I , p l. XXX No . 1 .

IMP CARAVS IVS AVC

RSR 8 5 E -1 6 M. Duane

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VBERTA AVG

R .I.C. 5 85

wo man mi lk ing c ow r igh t .

— I—

RSR

3 .7 g

1 8.5 m m

ASH MOLEAN

Probab ly ROUEN h oard Notes : 1 935.

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V , No. 3 9. COH 3 71.

9 1. 0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS F AVG

c f. Lot 3 486 .Trau s a le.

V ienna

b us t r ight , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

V IRTVS AVG

RSR

R .I.C. 5 91 v ar . Notes : 9 2. 0 )

l ion wa lk ing l ef t , t hunderbo l t i n

— 1—

mouth .

4 .17 g

2 0 mm

B .N . 9 445

COH 3 90. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

V IRTVS AVG

R .I.C. 5 91 9 3. 0 )

I --

l ion wa lk ing l ef t , t hunderbo l t i n

RS R

3 .31 g

mouth . 2 0 m m

IMP [ CARAVS ]IVS PF AVG

ASH MOLEAN b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

V IR [TVS AVG ]

R .I.C. ' 591 ' Notes :

-I--

l ion wa lk ing l ef t ,

[ R IS ER ]

2 .80 g

v ery worn w ith t wo h o les.

mouth. 1 8 m m

ASH MOLEAN

OBV E RS 1 1 . 2 9.

1 15

t hunderbo l t i n

9 4.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

VOTV M PUBL IC

R .I.C. 5 95/7 Notes :

M VL/T IS/ 20 (/ I MP i n a ltar .

RSR

3 .13 g

2 0 x1 8 mm

OBV & REV ERSR 9 5 E -R SR 9 6

B .M .

OBV E t he l aurea te b ronze c o in a t

t he Hun ter ian . 9 5.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

VOTV M PUBL IC R ISR --

R .I.C. 5 95/7 Notes :

4 .247 g

M VL/T IS/ )0 (/ I MP i n a ltar . 2 0 x1 8 mm

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V No. 4 3.

OBV & REV

OBV E l aurea te b ronze i n t he Hun ter ian. No. 4 9 ; 9 6.

0 )

CRB p . 1 27 , No. 5 2.

HUNTER IAN RSR 9 4 E RSR 9 6.

c f . Akerman d escr . Cat . I , p . 1 59 ,

COH 4 09.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u ir assed .

R )

VOTV M PUBL IC

R .I.C. 5 95/7 Notes :

R SM VL/T IS/XX/ I MP i n a ltar .

4 .06 g

2 1 m m

OBV & REV ERSR 9 4 ERSR 9 5

ASH MOLEAN

OBV

E

l aurea te b ronze i n t he

Hun ter ian . 9 7.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

VOTV M PUBL ICV M

R .I.C. 5 97 Notes : 9 8.

0 )

COH 4 10

2 .95 g

R SM VL/T IS/ 20 (/ I MP 1 9 x1 8 m m

i n a ltar .

ASH MOLEAN

M. Wigan .

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VOTO PUBL ICO -I— RSR

R. I .0 .5 95 Notes : 9 9.

0 )

3 .65 g

M VL/T IS/ XX/ I MP 1 8 mm

i n a ltar .

ASH MOLEAN

c f . S tuke ley I , P l. XX I II, No. 2 Duke o f Devonsh ire. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VOTO PVBL ICO

R. I .0 . 5 95 Notes :

M VL/T IS/ 20 (/ I MP

RSR

3 .72 g

1 8.5 m m

ASH MOLEAN

OBVE --RSR 6 8 ERSR 8 4 a nd i s v ery l ike RSR 1 9. 1 16

i n a l tar .

1 00.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

R .I.C. 5 95 Notes : 1 01.

MVL/T IS/

VOTO PVBL ICO RSR 4 .29 g

2 0 x1 8 mm

W I MP i n a ltar .

B .M .

COH 4 08.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VOTO [

R .I.C. 1 02.

0 )

]

NIII/T IS/ IXX/ MP [ s ic ] i n a l tar .

RSR

5 95 v ar .

2 .99g

1 9 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

A. N .S.

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ V ]OTO PVBL I [CO ]

R .I.C. 5 96 No tes : 1 03.

_ L _

MVL/T IS/

RSR

3 .751 g

1 8 mm

i n wrea th .

HUNTER IAN

o n ly t he t ops o f e xergua l l e t ters v is ib le.

0 )

W I MP

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

Obverse i s s im i lar t ol 1 .

b us t r igh t l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VOTO PVBL ICO

R .I.C. 5 96 Notes :

MVL/T IS/XX/ I MP i n wrea th .

RSR 1 9 mm

B .M .

COH 4 07.

i rregu lar

RSR , 1 .

5 .1 g

_L

0 )

IMP C I IRA I ISI E IS PF D I M

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

IMP I I I I I S IPC

R .I.C. No tes :

-

3 .4 g

Emperor r id ing l e f t .

RSR 2 0 mm

B .M .

t he p or tra it i s r easonab le a nd t he e xergua l l et ters a re c lear d esp ite

t he b lunder ing o f t he ma in l egends. S loane.

c f Akerman .

p . 1 25 "L IB S PPC". 2 .

0 )

c f. S tukeley I p . 1 88 , N o. 5 3.

S ir Hans

Descr . C a t. I p . 1 57, No. 2 7 a s L IB I I I I S PPC : CRB COH 1 38

" Leg?

IMP CARAVS IV AVC

I I S IPC". b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

wo l f r igh t w ith t w ins , l ong s p ind ly

VOR IV IVA R+R

l egs. R .I.C. 5 94 c orr . Notes :

3 .014 g

1 9 x1 8 mm

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V No. 3 1. 1 17

HUNTER IAN

l aureate b ronze

RSR 1 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FE L IC ITAS

g a l ley r igh t .

RSR

a s R .I.C. 5 60

3 .68 g

1 8.5 m m

ASH MOLEAN

N o tes : c f . Nu m . Chron . 1 905 p l. I , N o. 6 OBV & REV c f . Nu m C irc. 1 973 , p p. 3 30-332. 2 .

0 )

[

] S IVS PF AVG

RSR 5 5 i n s i lver .

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

[ RE ]NOVAT RO [ MANO ]

c f . R .I.C. 5 71 Notes :

RSR

3 .056 g

w o l f r igh t w ith t w ins.

2 0 x1 9 mm

HUNTER IAN

OBV ERSR 9 4 ERSR 9 5 E RSR 9 6 i n s i lver .

c f Nu m . C irc. 1 973

P P. 3 30-332 s o mewhat b uck led.

o r o ther marks I t i s d i f f icu lt t o d raw a h ard a nd f ast l ine o n o ne s ide o f wh ich a re c o ins o f p er fec t a nd u n i mpeachab le r egu lar ity w ith i rregu lar c op ies o n t he o ther . There a re n o s i lver c o ins wh ich a re s o v ery i rregu lar , a nd , i n c onsequence , Ih ave l i s ted t ogether a l l t he c o ins wh ich r e ma in . 1 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

R .I.C. 7 07 2 .

0 )

Emperor r id ing l ef t , n o c ap t ive.

ADVENTVS AVG 3 .66 g

2 2 x2 1 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

B .M . b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

ADVENTVS AVG

R .I.C. 1 068

Emperor r id ing r igh t , o ne c ap t ive.

—L

2 .69 g

1 8 mm

ASH MOLEAN

Notes : c f . Mon . Br it . P l. V , No. 6 : N .C. 1 944 , p . 2 4 , N o. 2 137 & P l. I V , No. 1 1: e x L ord L ondesborough a nd Bru me l l c o l lect ions. Akerman Descr . Ca t . I , p . 1 55 , No. 1 ; 3 .

0 )

C .R.B. p . 1 19 , No. 1 COH 4 .

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVE[

R .I.C. 1 067 c orr . Notes :

Emperor r id ing l ef t , o ne c ap t ive.

I

OBV & REV E

3 .46 g

1 9 mm

B .M .

r everse l et ters a re . c rude. 1 18

4 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVENTV

R .I.C. 1 067 c orr . N o tes :

5 .

3 .73 g

OBV & REV El 3

1 955.

Emperor r id ing l ef t , o ne c ap t ive.

XX>

2 0 x1 8 mm

Ex A . E vans c o l l. c f . l o t 1 56.

A . H . Ba ldw in . r everse l e t ters a re c rude. 0 )

[

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

] AVS IVS P A

L ocket t Eng . I

COH 3 M Wigan .

b ust r igh t l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

ADVE[

Emperor r id ing l ef t , n o c ap t ive v is ib le.

R .I.C. 7 07 v ar No tes :

2 .83 g 1 8 mm

v ery w orn a nd c racked .

ASH MOLEAN

e x Devonsh ire , Hux tab le a nd L ew is c o l ls.

c f . l o t 2 67, Drabb le S a le , G lend inn ings 4 /7/ 1939. 6 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

b ust l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w i th s cep tre.

R )

CLAR IT CARAVS I

R .I.C. 5 42 No tes :

b ust o f S o l r igh t , r ad ia te a nd d raped.

3 .88 g 1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

N .C. 1 944 p . 1 7 +p l. I I 9 "Marqu is o f Exe ter 1 899 R + F =

OBV ERSR 8 5 ERSR 8 6 ERSR 8 9.

N .B.

V"

R .I.C. V2 p . 5 09. n . 1 " S ir J ohn

Evans a t tr ibu ted t he c o in t o t h is m in t" d esp ite t he l ack o f e xergua l l e t ters. T he d ie l inks p rove h im c orrec t . 7 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P [ AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped .

R )

CONCORD IA CO M M IL I

j o ined h ands.

( l egend c arr ies o n

i n to e xergue.) R .I.C. No tes :

3 .47 g

1 8 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

wr it ten o n t he B .M . c as t i s "W i l l ia ms" S ept . 1 968.

The l e t ter ing

i s s t if f ly e xecu ted. 8 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG

b us t r igh t , l aureate a nd d raped .

R )

CONSER AV

Nep tune s ea ted l e f t o n r ock h o ld ing a nchor a nd t r iden t.

R .I.C. 7 09 c orr . No tes : 9 .

3 .01 g 2 0 mm

B .M .

d oub le s truck .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

EXPE [

Br itann ia s tand ing r igh t w ith wrea th

I

c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l ef t : 1 19

a l tar b e tween .

R. I .0 .N otes : 1 0.

OBV " -1 3 3

0 )

3 .24 g

1 7 x1 6 mm

PR IVATE COLLECT ION

a nd s a me r everse t ype.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

b us t r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ } EC TAT

/ E VEN IES I -

Br itann ia s tand ing r igh t w ith e ns ign , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor s tand ing l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. 7 15 c orr . No tes :

3 .10 g 1 8 mm

BRUSSE LS

o n ly t races o f t he l as t f ew l et ters o f t he r everse a re v is ib le.

I n t he

m idd le o f t he r everse l egend a f law i n t he f l an , c aused p erhaps b y am iss tr ik ing , c o mp l ica tes t he r ead ing . 1 1.

0 )

c f . S ande man s a le 1 911.

IMP CARAVS IVS P I AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

EXPECTAT I VEN

Br itann ia r igh t w ith e ns ign , Emperor l e f t w ith s cep tre.

R .I.C. Notes : 1 2.

1 9 mm

B .M .

a l l r everse Es a re w eak ly f or med.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

I XP ICTAT I VEN IES -1-I XX

R .I.C. 7 15 c orr . N o tes :

COH 1 14.

3 .68 g

Br itann ia r igh t w ith e ns ign , Emperor l e f t w ith s cep tre.

2 0 mm

B . M.

" Cede meda i l le s e mb le e tre u ne s ur face d u r evers

EXPETATE VEN I s ur CONCORD IA 1 V I IL." 1 3.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

FEL ICITA

R .I.C. Notes : 1

1 9 ,

1 4.

-

g a l ley l ef t .

3 .03 g

1 7 mm

B .M .

f or o bverse E c f . RSR 3 0 , RSR 7 2 , RSR 7 4 , RSRS 7 5 , RSR 7 6 , RSR 8 4 ,

13 5.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

FL 1 V I AV

YVX

R .I.C. 1 069/70 c orr . N o tes :

g a l ley r igh t .

—1 —

2 .95 g

t he l e t ter ing i s n ot we l l f ormed.

1 9 mm REV 1 1 5.

B .M . Webb i s c on fused b y

t hese t wo c o ins a nd g ives t he m a s R .I.C. 1 069 R & F a nd R .I.C. 1 070 ' Warne ' r espect ive ly . 1 20

1 5.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF 1

b us t r ight , l aurea te , d raped .

R )

FL IV I AV

g a l ley r ight .

YVX R .I.C. 1 069/70 c orr . 3 .44 g No tes : 1 6.

0 )

REV

q .v.

1 8 mm

B .M .

COH 1 05.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

A !V TI A V

R .I.C. 7 13 No tes :

0 )

g a l ley r igh t .

3 .72 g

1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

t he o bverse i s g ood a nd t he s h ip o f r easonab le s ty le , o bverse i s

s im i lar t o RSR 2 1 1 7.

_ L

c f. N .C. 1 905 p l. I , No. 5 ;

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

N .C. 1 944 , p . 2 0 , N o. 1 93.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ F I ] DE M I AV I -

F ides a nd Emperor c lasp ing h ands , o ne s tandard.

R .I.0 . 5 62

3 .67 g

1 8.5 m m

N otes : e x Hux tab le a nd Warne c o l ls. p . 1 42 , 1 944 , p . 1 8, N o . 1 66. 1 8.

0 )

ASH MOLEAN

c f . N .C. 1 905 , p l. I , No. 4 ;

IMP CARAVS IVS P I AV

1 904 ,

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

F IDE M M IL ITV M NN I -

Aequ itas s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 11 c orr . ( + p l. XV I, No. 7 )

2 .96 g 1 9 mm

B .M .

No tes : t he f ina l t wo l et ters o f t he r everse l egend a re f ar f ro m c er ta in ly NN a s o n ly t he ir v ery b otto ms r e ma in . c f . S tuke ley v o l. I , p l. I , No. 4 . c i t ing Bandur i a nd G enebr ier . I , p . 1 56 , No. 1 7. 1 9.

0 )

c f . M ionnet I p . 1 66.

CRB p l. 2 3, No. 1 8.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AG

COH 7 8.

Akerman Descr . Cat . Bandur i o p .c it ., p . 1 16.

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

sma l l b ust o f f or tuna r igh t i n

[ F ]ORTUNA AVG '-

wrea th h o ld ing b ranch w ith f lower b eh ind. R .I.C. 5 65 c or N o tes :

3 .14 g

OBV ERSR 7 5 E RSR 7 4

1 8 mm

B .N . 9 450

REV E R . I .C. V2 P l . XV II I No. 5 . i n b ronze.

c f . N um . C irc. 1 973, p p . 3 30-332.

Th is i s t he p iece wh ich p ro mp ted t he

OR IUNA q ues t ion i n S tuke ley 's d ay , c f . W. S tuke ley , Meda l l ic H istory o f Caraus ius , 2v o ls., L ondon 1 757 a nd 1 759 , a nd t he a nony mous work b e l ieved t o b e b y S tuke ley , AD isser ta t ion u pon Or iuna , L ondon 1 751.

Th is h as b een

c o mmen ted o n b y a l l t he s ubsequen t a u thors k een t o p o in t o ut S tuke ley 's e rror . c f . Akerman Descr . Ca t . I , p . 1 57 , No. 3 0 , CRB p . 1 25 , N o. 3 2. 1 21

COH 8 6.

" Buste l aure a d ro ite ( Max im ian Hercu le? )"

c f . Boon , G . C ., Or iuna Aga in ,

Nu m. C irc. 1 974 , p . 4 28. 2 0.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

MONE TA AVG

Moneta s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 17 Notes : 2 1.

1 7 x1 5 mm

WHEREABOUTS UNKNO WN

c f . l o t 5 65 G lend inn ings 2 8.10.1971

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

> S p ink .

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

MONE TA AVG

Moneta s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd

x L

c ornucop iae. R .I.C. 1 073 Notes :

c o l lect ion. 0 )

2 0 mm

ASH MOLEAN

Webb g ives h is 1 073, wh ich must b e t h is c o in , ap rovenance o f

R ICHBOROUGH.

2 2.

3 .86 g

I tp robab ly c a me i n to Evans ' p ossess ion f ro m t he Ro lfe

Co l l . An t ., V

XV I I , No. 3 :

P l.

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

An t . R ich ., p l. V I, No . 4 .

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped , r es t u nc lear .

R )

[MO ] NE[T 1A AVG

Mone ta s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 17 No tes :

1 9 x1 8 mm

SP INK 4 / 1974 a t £ 280

o bverse i s s im i lar t o RSR 6 5 a nd RSR 4 9.

T h is c o in i s v ery w orn

w ith t he r everse h eav i ly g ouged. 2 3.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

R )

MO [NE ]TA AVG

I -

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped. Moneta s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. Notes : 2 4.

0 )

-

3 .54 g

1 9 x17 m m

B .N . 9 451

COH 1 71. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

MONETA AVG

Mone ta s tand ing l ef t w ith s ca les a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 17 c or. Notes :

4 .23 g

2 0 x1 8 mm

OBV E -R SR 3 3 ERSR 3 5.

1 22

B .M .

2 5.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r ight , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ PAP ( AVG I -

Pax s tand ing l ef t w ith o l ive b ranch a nd v er t ica l s cep tre.

R .I.C. 7 19 Notes : 2 6.

3 .395 g

1 8 mm

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V , No. 2 8.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

R )

PAX AVG

HUNTER IAN COH 1 90 c or? b ust r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped. P ax s tand ing l ef t w ith o l ive b ranch a nd v er t ica l s cep tre.

R .I.C. 7 19 2 7.

0 )

3 .59 g

2 1 x1 9 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B .M . b us t l ef t , l aurea te , i n r obes , w ith s cep tre.

PAX AVG 1 -

R )

P ax s tand ing l ef t w ith o l ive b ranch a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 20 No tes :

3 .033 g

2 0 mm

HUNTER IAN

c f. Mon . Br it . P l. V , No. 2 7 , o bverse i s t he s a me a s a n a n ton in ianus.

c f . S tuke ley I , p l. V I I , N o. 3 .

Dr . Mead ( f ro m who m Hun ter b ough t i t? ).

COH 2 21. 2 8.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

PAX AVG -

P ax s tand ing l ef t w ith o l ive b ranch a nd v er t ica l s cep tre.

R .I.C. No tes : 2 9.

0 )

-

5 .74 g

2 1 mm

B . M.

t he p or tra it a nd t he l e t ter ing a re o dd a nd t he f lan i s v ery l arge. IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

PR INCIP I I VVENT

y oung s o ld ier s tand ing l e f t h o ld ing o l ive b ranch a nd s cep tre.

R .I.C. 7 21 ( + p l . XV I, No . 9 ) No tes :

3 .69 g

1 9 mm

c f . Akerman D escr . Ca t . I , p . 1 58, No. 3 2 :

B .M .

C .R.B. p . 1 25 , No. 3 4.

"Th is t ype a pp l ies t o s o me Caesar o r h e ir a pparen t a nd c an h ave n o r eference t o Caraus ius." 3 0.

0 )

COH 2 49 .

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

[ TE MPOR ]V M FEL ICT

F e l ic itas s tand ing l ef t w ith g lobe a nd c ornucop iae.

R .I.C. 7 24 c or. No tes :

3 .187 g

1 8 mm

HUNTER IAN

o bverse i s v ery s im ilar t o RSR 7 3. c f . Mon . Br it. p l . V , No . 3 5. 1 23

3 1.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aurea te , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

SHLVS AVG

I

S a lus s tand ing l ef t w ith a s hor t a nd a l ong e ns ign.

R .I.C. 7 22 c or. Notes : 3 2.

3 .95 g

Mon tague Vogel c o l l.

1 9 mm

H ess Frank fur t 1 930 , 9 52.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AV

R )

[ SALV )S AVG

R .I.C. 7 23 c or. Notes :

B .M .

b ust r igh t , l aurea te a nd d raped.

I[

S a lus s ea ted l ef t f eed ing s erpen t

I

1 9 mm

r is ing f ro m a ltar. B . M .

" sa id t o h ave c o me f ro m Nor th Wa les."

OBV

RSR 8 .

e xp lana t ion o f t he e xergua l mark may o n ly b e g uessed a t .

The c orrect

Qu ite a par t f ro m

a ny mean ing less s igns , t he e xergue c ou ld h ave c on ta ined l et ters t o make u p t he CXXI mark a s o n t he a n ton in ian i o fR .I.C. 4 01 t ype.

I t i s a lso p oss ib le

t hat t he l et ters were BR I a s t he p or tra it o f t h is c o in i s s im ilar t o o ne o f t he BRI a n ton in ian i, t he l et ter f orms a re s im ilar , t he t ype u sed i s S ALVS a nd t he s pac ing o f t he l et ters o n t he a n ton in ianus i s BR 3 3.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

T .

b us t r igh t , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

VLTO PAX AVG

_ L

Pax o r Br itann ia s tand ing r ight w ith wreath o r p atera , c lasp ing h and o f Emperor o ver a l tar.

R. I .0 . 7 29 amp l if ied. Notes :

2 .71 g

1 8 mm

p ierced ( no t i n S tuke ley p late ).

s a me a s o n

1 9

OBV a1 9 .

B .M . The r everse t ype i s t he

c f. S tukeley I , P l. V I , No. 4 , g iv ing V ICTOR IA AVG.

Hans S loane, c f . Mon. Br it. P l. V , No. 4 5. Descr. Cat. I , p . 1 58, No. 4 4.

Aker man C . R.B. 4 7.

C . R.B., p . 2 6, No. 4 7.

S ir

Aker man

COH 4 06

" VLTORA AVG". 3 4.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b us t r ight , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

V ICTOR IA AVG

Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith g lobe a nd s pear c rowned b y V ictory s tand ing l ef t .

R .I.C. 7 27 3 5.

0 )

3 .02 g

1 8 mm

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B .M . b ust r ight , l aureate , d raped a nd c u irassed.

R )

V ICTORIA AVG

Emperor s tand ing l ef t w ith g lobe a nd s pear c rowned b y V ictory s tand ing l e f t.

1 24

R .I.C. 7 27 N otes : 3 6.

4 .54 g

1 9 mm

ASH MOLEAN

c f . Mon . Br it . p l. V , No. 4 7, COH 3 75.

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t , l aureate , d raped , r est u nc lear.

R )

[ V IRTV S I AVGG I—

J up iter s tand ing r igh t h o ld ing s cep tre, p resen t ing t hunderbo lt t o Hercu les s tand ing l ef t w ith c lub a nd l i on s k in .

R .I.C. 1 074 N otes :

3 .63 g

1 8 mm

B .M .

T h is r everse o bv ious ly a l ludes t o D ioc let ian a nd Max im ian e nd ing a s

i td oes i n t wo G s a nd d ep ict ing t he ir p ersona l d e it ies b ut n o p ara l lel e x ists i n b ronze t o e nab le t he who le l egend t o b e k nown.

The s pac ing s ugges ts a s hor t

word o f t hree o r f our l etters a nd i t may j us t b e PAX.

Each o f t hese d e it ies

o ccurs s eparate ly o n s evera l r everses o f Caraus ius.

Ear ly i ssues o f D ioc let ian

a nd Max im ian f ro m L ugdunu m ( i .e. D io R .I.C. V2 p . 2 29, Nos. 9 3f f . a nd Max R .I.C. V2 ,p . 2 7 , N os. 4 32f f .) wh ich a re v ery s im ilar o r t he s a me a s r egards t ype , s uggest t he l egend s hould b e V IRTVS AVGG . Descr. Ca t . I , p . 1 55 , No. 5 ;

c f . Aker man

CRB, p . 1 20 N o. 5 " Th is t ype a ppears t o h ave

b een im itated f ro m s o me o f t he n u merous c o ins o f D ioc let ian a nd h is c o l league Max im ian , who , a s i s we l l k nown , a ssu med t he n a mes o f J up iter a nd Hercu les." Bandur i 2 E .c i t ., p . 16 " Nu m mus e xesus s ed l egendus e x t ypo

COH 4 11.

v idetur I ov i e t Hercu l i Cons. Augg ....".

TYPES AND D IES :

OBVERSES

Fac ing l ef t IMP CARAVS IVS PF

RSR 8 7 & RSR 8 8

2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF A

RSR 8 5 & RSR 8 6 & RSR 8 9 & -L6

=4

RSR 7 & RSR 2 5 & RSR 5 8

=3

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG I

RSR 2 0

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG I I

RSR 5 3 & RSR 5 4

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

I

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG I V V IRTVS CARAVS I

L

2 7

=1

RSR 7 9

T ota l 7

=1 T ota l

1 4

Fac ing r igh t CARAVS IVS PF AVG IMP CARAVS IVS AVG

—LML I

1 *

=1

RSR /

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS AVG I

RSR 2 6

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS AVG I I

RSR 9 0

=1

*N .B. T h is i s a lso a k nown g o ld d ie. 1 25

IMP CARAVS IVS F AVG

RSR 9 1

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS P A

15

=1

RSR 4 4

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV I

RSR 8 1

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV I I

1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG I

RSR 8 a

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG I

RSR 1

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AVG I I

1

IMP CARAVS IVS P AV

I

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG

8

=2

=1

RSR 3 0

=1

RSR 7 2

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG I I

RSR 7 4 & RSR 7 5 &1 1 9

=3

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG I V

RSR 7 6

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG

RSR 8 2

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG

I

3&1 4

I

V

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG V I

I -

1 3

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PE AVG V I I

1

3 5

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF

RSR 4 1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFA

I -

1 0

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFA I

L

1 7

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFA I I

1-2 8

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

I

=1

I

RSR 8 & 1 3 2

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

I

RSR 1 3

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

I I

RSR 1 5

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

I V

RSR 2 1

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

V

RSR 2 8

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

V I

RSR 3 3 & RSR 3 5 & I -24

=3

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

V I I

RSR 3 6 & RSR 3 7

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

V II I

RSR 3 8

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

I X

RSR 4 0

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X

RSR 4 6

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X I

RSR 5 9

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X I I

RSR 7 3

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X I I I

RSR 8 0a

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X IV

RSR 1 03

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

XV

1

2

1 26

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

XV I

17

1

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV XV I I

1 -16

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV XV I I I IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

X IX

IMP CARAVS IVS PFAV

) 0 (

1 I

1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

I

3 2

1

C I

1 _ c

1

2

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

I I 1 -3 C I V RSR 2

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

V RSR 4

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

V I

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

V I I

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

=1

RSR 5

=1

RSR 6 & 14

=2

V I I I

RSR 9

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

I X

RSR 1 0

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X

RSR 1 2

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X I

RSR 1 4

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X II

RSR 1 6 & RSR 7 1

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X I II

RSR 1 7

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X IV

RSR 1 8

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XV

RSR 1 9

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XV I

RSR 2 2 g z RSR 6 6

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XV I

RSR 2 3 & RSR 2 4 & RSR 6 9

=3

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XV I I

RSR 2 7

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XV I I

RSR 2 9 & RSR 9 3

=2

IVS PF AVG IMP CARAVS

XV I II

RSR 3 1

1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X IX

RSR 3 2

1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XX

RSR 4 3

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XX I

RSR 4 5

=1

IVS PF AVG IMP CARAVS

XX I I

RSR 4 7 & RSR 4 8 & RSR 5 2

=3

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XX II I RSR . 4 9 & RSR 6 5

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XX IV RSR 5 0

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

2 0 (V RSR 5 1

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XXV I

RSR 5 5

1 27

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XXV I I

RSR 5 6 & RSR 5 7

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XXV I I I RSR 6 0

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XX [X RSR 6 2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

=1 =

XXX RSR 6 3 & RSR 6 4

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

=2

XX X I X I

=

=2

RSR 6 7 & RSR 7 7

=2

RSR 6 8 & RSR 8 4 & RSR 9 9

=3

RSR 7 0 & RSR 7 0a

=2

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XXX I I I

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

XXX IV RSR 7 8

=1

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

X ) BR I > l oca l m in t-

T he s im i lar ity i n s ty le men t ioned a tD ve t o t hese

L ondon p ieces s uppor ts t h is s equence b u t H i l l r a ises a n o b ject ion t o t he r e l iab i l ity o f s uch a s equence :

' See ing t ha t s o me a t l east o f t he c o ins

wh ich t he ir t ypes a nd l egends s how t o b e long t o t he v ery b eg inn ing o f t he r e ign ( such a s EXPECTATE VEN I a nd ADVENTVS AUG ) a re m in t- marked , i ti s d i f f icu l t t o a ccep t t he v iew t ha t t he c o ins w ithou t a ny m in t- mark n ece ssar i ly p recede t he m in t- marked o nes.' T here i s t hus n o n eed t o f ee l s uch d oubts a bou t t he l og ic o f t he a bove s equence o n t he g rounds o f i ncons isten t b ehav iour i n Caraus ius ' m in t marks a s a who le. S o f ar t he d iscuss ion h as b een c on f ined t o t he e v idence o f two c o ins, o f wh ich o n ly o ne i s p rovenanced . T h is was t he s ta te o f t h ings u n t i l c o mparat i ve ly r ecen t ly when s evera l n ew d iscover ies o f BR I c o ins h ave b een made , e nab l ing a b roader o ut look o n t he q uest ion . s pec i mens i s g iven .

A f u l l l i st o f t he c urrent ly k nown

THE CO INS 1 )

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

b ust r igh t ,

r ad ia te , d raped

a nd c u irassed . R )

PAX AVG

R IC 1 087 n otes 2 )

t ransverse s cep tre .

BR I 2 4 mm

c f

n ote 4 0

? gm

o bv E 3E

f ound WROXETER

5E 6

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B ust r ight , r ad ia te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

S ALVS AVG

S a lus s tand ing l e f t w ith

BR I

v er t ica l s cep tre , f eedi ng s erpen t r is ing f ro m a l tar .

R IC 1 093 n o tes

c f

2 2 .5 m m

4 .1 gm

n ote 4 0 . 1 78

n o p rovenance

3 )

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B ust r ight ,

r ad ia te ,

d raped a nd c u irassed . R )

PAX AVG

V er t ica l s cep tre .

1—

BR I

R IC

2 2 x2 0 mm

N o tes

3 .9 gm

f ound CORBR IDGE

T h is c o in i s u npub l ished a nd i s n ow i n t he Br it ish Museu m a f ter

i t s d iscovery am idst t he g enera l mass o fu npub l ished C orbr idge mater ia l . OBV E 1 E 5 4 )

0 )

6

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

Bust r igh t , r ad ia te , d raped a nd c u irassed .

R )

[ SA LVS AVG ]

R IC

?

N otes p . 5

S a lus s tand ing l ef t , a l tar

BR I

b efore .

2 2 x 2 0 mm c f

3 .3 gm

f ound R ICHBOROUGH

S eaby ' sC o in a nd Meda l B u l let in N o .

6 43 .

1 972 , v o l 3 ,

1 01 .

0 )

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B ust r ight ,

r ad ia te ,

d raped a nd c u irassed . R )

[ SALV ] S

R IC

AVG

1 093

N otes

a s n o .

BR T

2 3 x2 1 mm

4 .27 gm

2 .

f ound R ICHBOROUGH

U npub l ished : d iscovered b y t he a uthor d ur ing a r ecen t e xa m ina-

t i on o f t he C araus ian ma ter ia l f ro m R ichborough . O bv E 6 )

0 )

1E

3

6

IMP CARAVS IVS PF AVG

B ust r igh t ,

r ad ia te ,

d raped a nd c u irassed . R )

b B R I

[ SALV J S AVG

R IC N o tes

1 093

2 1 mm

A s l ast . ? gm

N o p rovenance .

Th is i s f ro m a c ast i n t he A sh mo lean Museu m made i n 1 947 .

The c o in i s n o l onger t raceab le b ut was t hen i n t he p ossess ion o f Mr . F . B a ldw in . O bv E 1 E - 3= 5 7 )

C f .

N . C Is er . v o l .

I , p p 1 12f f f or a r epor t o f c o ins f ound a t S trood

wh ich i nc lude wha t mus t b e a n i nadequate ly d escr ibed BR I c o in. l onger t raceab le.

Th is i s n o

On ly o ne o bverse l egend i s u sed t hroughou t a nd t h is i s f ro m t he f i rst h a l f o f t he r e ign o n t he b as is o f Carson 's c hrono logy , wh ich s u its t he a t tr ib u t ion t o r easonab ly e ar ly L ondon i ssues. I n f act f our o f t he c o ins s hare t he s a me o bverse d ie s o t he s ix c o ins p roduce o n ly t hree d if feren t o bverse d ies b u t s ix d if feren t r everses.

Sma l l t hough t hese n u mbers a re , t hey n ow 1 79

seem sufficient to indicate that this was no freak issue, and there is nothing in the style of any of these coins to suggest that they were ' irregular' pieces. The similarity mentioned above between these coins and early London pieces seems particularly marked in the case of the legionary antonin iani, although as yet, no positive die-link between such a coin and one of those has been established. The limited variety of types, the obverse die linking of pieces so widely distributed, the stylistic similarities noticed and the sheer paucity of surviving specimens combine to suggest a short-lived official issue which vy•as quickly superceded by coins with the common mint­ marks. The distribution of these few surviving specimens argues against the siting of a short-term local mint at Wroxeter. Such an issue is much more likely to have achieved such widespread distribution from the main centre of supply, presumably London. A local mint, by its very nature, would have only been established to meet local needs hence a much more circum­ scribed distribution would be expected. There is the possibility that the mark refers not simply to BRITANNIA but to a subdivision of the province. There is no visible indication on any of the coins that the BR is to be taken separately from the I but that is not important. BR I could not readily mean BRITANNIA INFERIOR as this would necessitate the existence of a mint in Northern Britain for which there is no other evidence. To see it as a reference to BRITANNIA PRIMA would suit the idea that the coins similarity to early London pieces suggests they were struck there as London was in Plima, but this presumes that the new provincial divisions had come into being by some time early in Carausius' reign and this is far from certain. Yet another suggestion which has rec­ ently been raised49 is that the imprecise nature of this mint mark may indi­ cate that the coins are the product of a mint accompanying the imperial en­ tourage. Why would Carausius move around so with an entourage in which there was a mint unless he was on campaign or had no permanent capital? If this was so then his concern would be the issue of sufficient coin to meet the needs of the troops engaged in the campaign and hence we would expect a much bigger survival rate and, incidentally, a less erratic distribution pattern. The new evidence is not conclusive. It does however, strengthen the case that the BRI coins were a short-lived issue, early in the reign, from the central mint at London, about the time of the legionary coins, which was superceded by issues bearing the more common marks. This one group of Carausian coins which is so clearly distinct from the rest in every respect as to belie any attempt to include it under the aegis of a common mint is the so-called 'Rauen' group. The distinctive style of these coins has been seen to be similar to that of the Tetrici. It is clearly very different from any of Carausius' other coins both as regards fabric and, particularly, portraiture. It is almost suggestive of a die engraver who had never seen Carausius or his other coinage although he knew the name and titles well enough. The artistic standard is not low but everything points to this being an issue of an exceptional kind. Webb 50 is rather sweeping in his comment on these coins, 'Also we find that those coins of the British 180

Emperor which were struck at Rouen can by no means be mistaken for those of the other mints. . . The lettering is poor and the legends are often blun­ dered. The exergual mark R is sometimes to be found. If further proof of the correctness of the attribution to Rouen be required it will be found in the fact that a considerable hoard discovered at that city consisted entirely of these coins, and that they are found in other parts of France but are scarce in British hoards, though they were admitted to currency on this side of the channel.' Mattingly 51 perpetuates some of these falsehoods but suggests a different location for the mint, 'Such coins occur more freely in finds there, they are more like coins of the Gallic Empire and they have their own stock of coin-types, varying considerably :from the British. There are a few marks - of mints (?) R, OP, OPR. Webb thought that R stood for Rotomagus (Rouen). . . but Carausius' chief stror.Lghold on the continent was Gesoriacum (Boulogne) and it seems impossible to deny that city at least a share in the coinage' . Carson 5 2 avoids most of the errors and opts, tentatively, for Rouen, ' One group of coins. . . all of whtch are in a consistent style and derive from a single find made in Rouen, is attri­ buted to that city.... ' All the lmown coins do not derive from the one Rouen hoard as several have been found on British sites or in British hoards. 53 It is far more misleading to claim a widespread distribution in Northern France as there are no examples at all from this region apart from the Rouen hoard itself, and the doubts which surround the discovery of that hoard tend to weaken the case for a Rouen mint. The distribution pattern is no real help in locating the mint but its negative evidence helps to confirm that this was an issue of no great size or duration. The standard of execution, criticised by Webb, and the general lack of conformity with the rest of the coinage together with the limited num­ ber of dies lmown and sheer paucity of specimens make this a certainty. Pax, the dominant theme of the rest of Carausius' numismatic propaganda, is singularly out of place in an emergency situation and is in d eed not found on any Rouen coins. As for the dies used, the limitations are most clearly reflected in the gold series which is almost as closely die linked as poss­ ible. This must have been one issue with the predominant message of CON­ CORDL\ MILITVM. The antoniniani present a similar picture on a larger scale. An examination of all the specimens in leading British and overseas collections has shown that this series 1 s in no way as complex as suggested by the documentation in RIC. Many of the varieties and irregularities listed there seem either mistakes or simply do not exist. The sample of antoniniani was not complete to the same degree as for the silver denarti but was sufficiently substantial to permit significant obser­ vations to be made. There was quite a variety of dies but a much larger incidence of die links than in any other group of Carausian coins of comp­ arable size. Seventy-six obverses in a sufficiently well preserved state to enable exact comparison were shown to have come from thirty-six obverse dies, but of these dies, one was common to seventeen of the coins; a very high rate of linkage. In some cases the coins shared obverses and reverses in such a way as to suggest that they were the only pair of dies of that type used in this short issue which was over before either wore out. The list of reverses is based only on coins actually examined. There 1 81

are many dies for the TVTE LA reverse, clearly the most important ele­ ment in this coinage, but there are also many links spread through all the types. The variant legends show clearly examples of the predominance, in some cases, of the vulgar form of a word over the classical form. This had virtually ceased in the rest of Carausius' coinage and is yet a further pointer to the emergency conditions under which these coins must have been produced. The exergual letters are limited to two types only; R on coins with the SALVS reverse, (which also occurs without any exergual letter) and OPR only on the galV�y reverses. ':'he great majority of these coins have no exergual letters which lessens their importance in locating the mint. As a further test of die repetition a comparison was made between three random coins of the Rouen type from a private collection, and the original sample. One of the three coins was a completely new reverse type and did not share its obverse with any other coins, but the other two shared both obverses and reverses with other coins. The issue seems to have been small but not so small that several thousands of antoniniani as well as some aurei could not have been produced. It seems surprising therefore to think, 'it presumably represents a short-lived issue from Rotomagus, another of the channel fleet bases, probably after the loss of Gesoriacum in 293. ' 54 Such an issue would seem to necessitate a prolonged defence of Rouen about which the ancient sources say nothing at all. They do, however dwell on the seige and capture of Boulogne which was certainly wrest from Carausius' grasp in just the sort of circumstances to precipitate such a coinage. To see Rouen as a sufficiently strong centre of Carausian support to maintain the sort of resistance that would enable these coins to have been produced seems to be overestimating Carausius' continental power in the face of literary and numismatic evidence. It cannot be proved that these coins were minted at Boulogne but there the facts do fit. It was certainly in Carausius' hands, beseiged and therefore deprived of any coin supply from Britain, and finally captured. There is a strong case for Boulogne. There is one Rouen coin in the Penard Hoard which on this dating is very much out on a limb. It has been suggested that the Rouen coins be dated to the middle of one reign because of this, with the Rouen hoard it­ self connected to the activities of Maximian in 289. Indeed such is the scar­ city and importance of gold at this time that these coins have been seen as a special issue for an accessional donative and dated accordingly. The gold of group one together with the denarii suggest to me that this is not so, and these two alternative attributions for Rouen pieces seem less convincing than one which sees them as the emergency issue of a Boulogne mint at the end of Carausius' reign.

182

'ROUEN' COINS: REVERSES CONCOR MILIT x 1 CVITAS Ml.JRED x 1 55 ECVITAS MVNDI x 3 (all same obv and reverse dies: same obv as others) FIDES MILITVM x 3 (all same obv and reverse dies) FORTUNA RE x 2 same revs FORTVNA RED (baton) x 3 same revs FORTVNA RED (?) x 1 FORTVNA REDV x 2 same revs LAETITIA

ok

x 3 same obvs and revs

LAETITIA AVG x 2 same revs LETITIA x 2 same revs PRONTIA A VG x 1 PROVIDE A VG x 2 same revs PROVIDENTIA x 1 PROVIDENTIA AVG

x1

PRVIDEN A VG x 2 same obvs and revs SALVS AVG (2 figs) x 1 SALVS AVG (serp + altar) x 3 (same revs

=

2 + 1 different)

SALVS A VG (serp round altar) x 3 (same revs) SALVS A VG (serp round staff) x 2 different dies SAL VS A VG ½ x 2 same revs

SALVS IVI AV x 1 SECURITAS PER x 1 SECURITAS PERP x 3 same obvs and revs SECURITI PER x 1 TEMPORUMFEL x 1 TUTELA x 5 (= 20 + R; 2 obv; 1 diff) x 2 same revs 101 TUTELA AVG x 7 different TUTELA AVG

T UTELA P x 4 (= 3 same rev + 1 diff) VIRTVS A VG (2 figs) x 1 VIRTVI AVG (Mars) x 5 (= 20 + R; 1 same rev; 1 diff) 183

SEQUENCE MARKS The question of the sequence marks of Carausius and Allectus has been given the detailed attention of Robert Carson 56 with whose conclusions it is difficult to disagree. His systematic approach has led to a marked improve­ ment on the efforts of earlier writers and the major turning points now seem 8 indisputable, such as � as Carausius' last mark and Allectus' first. The L turning point provided by the inclusicn of a C for Caesar in the obverse legend was cleverly dated on the evidence of the two aurei which appear to mention the event, to the time of Carausius' quinquennium. That this is a turning point seems clear enough despite the exceptions which are found (although these are not nearly as numerous as suggested by RIC) but as it no longer seems possible to date the aurei to the quinquennium it is impossible to give too precise a date on that basis. Carson wisely avoids specifically attribu­ tiJ;1g every substantive mark to a single year. He thus places _J_, _!J_ and ML ML �� in the period 286-289 as they only occur in conjunction with the earlier legend omitting the C. They are placed in this order in adherence to the principle that the simplest form is the earliest. It must be observed that by comparison to the other two the mark _!J_ is rare and cannot represent an ML issue of similar size or duration. The

� mark occurs with both forms of obverse legend and therefore M coincides with the transition. The addition of XXI in the exergue must reflect some desire on Carausius' part to express a conformity to the continental standard, which in turn was presumably an aspect of his general policy of fraternisation with the central emperor. Perhaps it was in such a context that he saw fit to use the title Caesar in his obverse legends, for he had been calling himself Augustus from the outset, and continued to do so. It occurs in no fuller version than the single letter C and as Carausius was soon to be using the much more suggestive triple G termination, it may be that this C was little more than a conformity to the style current on the coins of Diocletian and Maximian. The next marks fall easily into place. �� is Allectus' first mark and, therefore, Carausius' last. This leaves �� to fill the gap. Under Allectus there is only�� as a substantive mark to follow the first one.��� occurs very much less frequently which may mean it was a short issue cur­ tailed by the introduction of the new denomination marked with a Q at the end of the reign, or it may simply be a variant. The C coins exhibit only the one 8 substantive mark under Allectus, � , before the new denomination is intro­ duced.

�I�

occurs, but rarely. A similar if less clear picture obtains for

these coins as for the L coins under Carausius. The change of obverse SIC . SIC legend occurs durmg the span of the form of the mark. Some of the C SI and P coins have the earlier form of legend but only a small minority.

C

184

i s t he o n ly c o mmon e ar ly mark w ith

MC

a nd

SMC

o ccurr ing v ery much l ess

f requen t ly .

p resu mab ly p ara l le ls B I E b u t i s o n ly f ound w ith t he CXX I MLXX E P e ar l ier f orm o f t he l egend. i s t he l a ter Caraus ian mark o f t h is g roup a nd

t he o ne wh ich , a s h as b een s een , c arr ies o n u nder A l lectus. T he s che ma wh ich emerges f ro m t h is i s v ery l i t t le d if feren t f ro m t ha t o f Carson . The d a te o f c o m mence men t o f t he u se o f marks h as b een d e layed a l i t t le i n o rder t o f i t i n to t he s equence t he v ery g rea t n u mber o fu n marked c o ins.

T he C c o ins t hen a ppear a s al a te s tar ter o nce t he c o inage h ad g ot

b eyond t he i n it ia l t eeth ing t roub les. T he s l igh t ly r ev ised t ab le s hows wha t i s p robab ly a s l ight ly t oo r ig id s che me b ut a p laus ib le o ne wh ich a dm its o f a n a nnua l c hange a nd d oes n o g rea t v io lence t o t he b as ic f ra mework e stabl ished b y Carson .

D ATE 2 87/ 28 9 ML

2 8 9 / 2 9 0

Fj 0 ML

2 9 0 / 2 9 1

BI E MLXX1

2 91/ 29 2

S IP MLXX1

2 9 2/ 2 9 3

S IP ML

2 9 3/ 2 9 4

SI A M L QL

2 9 4 / 2 9 5 2 9 5 / 2 9 6

QC

T ARR IF ING T h is h as a lready b een d ea l t w ith a s r egards t he g o ld c o ins.

I n t he c ase

o f t he a n ton in ian i t he q ues t ion i s p ar t icu lar ly d i f f icu l t a s w e a re d ea l ing w ith ac o inage wh ich p rogressed f ro m a n i n it ia l i den t if ica t ion w ith t ha t o f t he G a l l ic Emp ire t owards o ne w ith t he p os t Aure l ian ic r eform c o inage t hen c irc u lat ing i n t he r est o f t he Ro man emp ire ;

a nd s truck i n ap er iod d ur ing wh ich

t here was a f ur ther ma jor r eform o f t he c o inage. T he s i lver c o ins o f Caraus ius a re d i f f icu l t t o f i t i n to a ny c oheren t p icture. They d id n o t p ers is t t hroughout t he r e ign a nd w ere n o t i ssued b y A l lectus.

T hey a re p ara l le led b y

n o c o ins o f Max im ian o r D ioc let ian a s t hey p reda te t he ir a rgen te i b y s o me y ears. S evera l s o lu t ions h ave b een o f fered t o t h is p rob le m , l arge ly b ased o n g uess w ork .

O f t he XX I f ound o n s o me a n ton in ian i , ' The n u mera ls a re marks o f

v a lue i nd ica t ing a r a t io o f

2 1t o

t he s i lver d enar ius '5 7 i s o ne o p in ion .

1 8 5

T h is

a ssu mes t ha t t he ) 0 (I mark o f v a lue i nd ica tes t he n u mber o f a n ton in ian i wh ich made u p at heoret ica l l arger d eno m ina t ion .

C urren t t h ink ing w ou ld r egard i t

a s a n i nd ica t ion o f t he v a lue o f t he a n ton in ianus e xpressed i n t erms o f t heoret i ca l sma l ler d eno m inat ions. Carson 5 8 d iscusses t he monetary d ec l ine f ro m t he t ime o f t he i n troduc t ion o f t he a n ton in ianus b y Caraca l la. T h is h e d oes o n t he b as is o f t he g o ld s i lver r a t io wh ich y ie lds a t t he worst u nder C laud ius I t he f igures 1 :576.

He c i tes c o ins o f V ic tor inus 5 9 w ith V i n t he r everse f i e ld

a s ap oss ib le i nd ica t ion t ha t b y t h is t ime t he a n ton in ianus w as v a lued a t f i ve d enar i i. Th is i s b y n o means c er ta in. T he XXI c o ins a re a lso s een t o h ave b een v a lued a t f i ve d enar i i w ith t he n u mera ls s ign ify ing a r a t io o f t wen ty s ester t i i t o t he o ne a n ton in ianus.

Carson a dduces S u ther land 's a rgumen t6 0

c oncern ing t he v a lue o f t he f o l l is a f ter D ioc let ian 's r eform t o s uppor t t h is v iew . The f ina l f igure b ased o n t he i ncreased w e igh t a nd f i neness o f t he r ef ormed c o ins c o mes o u t a t 2 36 a n ton in ian i t o t he a ureus. T he p os t-Aurel ian ic r eform c o inage i s s carce i n Br it ish s i te f i nds a nd , w ith a f ew e xcep t ions , i n h oards. Pre-reform c o ins , p ar t icu lar ly t hose o f t he G al l ic Emp ire , p ers is t a nd a re c op ied d ur ing t he p er iod d own t o Caraus ius.

' Br ita in , i ts ee ms , w as u nw il l ing t o a ccep t t he c o inage o f

Aure l ian 's r eform a nd Caraus ius y ielded t o i t s w ishes , b u t u nder t he p eace o f 2 90 s acr if iced f inanc ia l i ndependence a nd c ame i n to t he g enera l i mper ia l s yste m.'

6 1

Ma t t ing ly e xpands t h is i n h is e ssay o n t he s ub jec t

6 2

a nd a rgues

t hat t he r eformed c o ins w ere g eneral ly a t ap re m iu m o ver t he ir p redecessors , a nd p ar t icu lar ly s o i n t he c ase o f c o ins o f t he G a l l ic emperors wh ich w ere n ot s tr ict ly l eg it i ma te i n t he f irs t p lace. H e s ees t h is a s f ann ing t he f l ames o f e cono m ic a nd g enera l d iscon ten t i n t he Wes t wh ich r evea led i t sel f i n t he Bagaud ic move men ts , a nd s ees i n t he a bsence o f t he 2 0 CI f ro m t he o n ly p os t r e form c o ins i ssued b y aw es tern m in t at ac it a cknow ledge men t o f t he ir l oca l u npopu lar ity . Presu mab ly Br ita in 's c o mpara t ive i so la t ion was why t hese c o ins r e ma ined u npopu lar a nd a re f ound i n f ew h oards , a l though t he Cross Hoard s hows t ha t t he b u lk c ons ignmen ts d id c ome h ere. I t may b e t ha t t h is i s a no ther i nd ica t ion o f t he c o mpara t ive d ear th o f t roops i n t he p rov ince. Ma t t ing ly 's v iew c lear ly s epara tes t he p re-re form c o ins f rom t he ir s uccessors a nd g ives t he m d if feren t v a lues.

G eorge Boon 6 3

s ugges ts t ha t t he t wo t ypes

o f c o in w ere a ccep ted a t t he s a me v a lue , a s Constan t in ian c op ies f rom t he Wh ite Wo man 's Hole f ind w ere p roduced f rom q uar tered a n ton in ian i w ith t he p ost- a nd p re-reform c o ins b e ing t rea ted e qua l ly f or t h is p urpose. T h is i s b ased o n a n a n ton in ianus o f T ac itus wh ich may b e a n e xcep t ion .

T he c lear ly

d ispara te s urv iva l r a te o f t hese t wo t ypes o f c o ins , h owever , must i nd icate t hey w ere o r ig ina l ly o f d if feren t v a lues. I th as b een s uggested t ha t Caraus ius may h ave r eca l led a l l t he r eformed c o inage t o h is own a dvan tage ,8 4 b u t t h is s ee ms a n u n l ike ly e xp lanat ion o f i t s c urren t a bsence a s h e w ou ld h ave b een mos t u n l ike ly t o h ave imposed u n favourab le t erms o f r ede mp t ion a t t he o u tse t o f h is r e ign . H is e ar ly c o inage s hows c lear a f f in ity w ith t he p re-re form c o inage. I n a ny c ase t here i s a marked a bsence o f p ost-refor m c o inage i n p re-Caraus ian d epos its wh ich c ou ld n ot h ave b een a f fected b y a ny r eca l l o f h is. T he e ar ly c o ins o f Caraus ius a re a m icrocos m o f t he Ro mano-Br it ish c o ina ge a s a who le o f t he p reced ing t hree d ecades , r ang ing f ro m p ieces a s g ood a s t he b est o f t he G a l l ic Emp ire d own t o c rude b arbarous c op ies , t hough n ever t o m in i ms. 1 86

The improvement in the general standard of Carausius' coinage seems to have led quite naturally toward conformity with contemporary continental standards, especially as this was suited to Carausius' policies towards the central emperors.

F�� is the latest mark which is copied to any extensive

� mark, M came a stringent repression of all forms of irregular production. There is no great or obvious difference in the nature of the coins which incorporate XXI into the mark. The transition in terms of the quality of the coins seems to have been gradual rather than sudden and it may be that Carausius was seeking to achieve by gradual but steady development what could not be im­ posed by an out and out reform. The interflow of Carausius' coinage and that from the continent must have been very limited so this move ought probably to be seen as at least as much politically as economically motivated. It remains impossible to guess on what basis Carausius' and Allectus' coinage was recalled after the recovery in 296 as they were usurpers and there had been a major coinage reform during their usurpation. degree and it may be that with the event conformity of the

The absence of the value mark from Carausius' final issue and from Allectus' issues is matched by no change in the quality of the coins themselves and seems also to have been, primarily, a political move. Under Allectus what was clearly a new denomination was introduced which has generally been called the quinarius because of the letter Q found in the exergue. This name may be convenient but does not convey anything very significant about the relative value of this smaller radiate piece. Webb draws attention to the salient points 65 that, 'They are radiate, not laureate, their size is greater and their appearance different from the continental quinarii of the third century, ' and he suggests that, 'they passed at half the value attached to the antoniniani.' In a footnote he observes, 'Some authorities believe that these coins marked Q were issued in an attempt to bring the British coinage into line with the new continental system introduced under the reform of Diocletian ••••'. Mattingly 66 notes that these coins are 'well below normal module though more than halves' and comments, 'If they were just halves of the ordinary coins we should expect a laureate instead of a radiate head, and per­ haps a greater variety of types. Further, Q, if, as seems probable, it equals Quinarius, is not half an 'antoninianus' worth two denarii (XX - 1). The coins really look as if they are the last issue of the reign when the great trial of strength by sea was at hand. In that case Allectus was right in adopt­ ing the policy that Diocletian himself employed of reducing the nominal value of his standard coin." In a footnote to this he further observes, 'Diocletian reduced by half. If Allectus did the same his own antoninianus would be one not two denarii.' Presumably the suggestion is that current antoniniani were halved in value so that the new coins would be half of these and hence merit the name quinarius. Carson, presumably by accident, confuses the issues a little with his description, 67 'These are the smaller coins with a laureate instead of a radiate portrait on the obverse.' His average weight for these coins at 2.68 g shows that by weight at least they were more than half antoniniani '.•.it is not immediately obvious what their relation to the radiate pieces will have been' says Carson, 6 8 again forgetting that these 'quinarii' themselves

187

a re r ad iate c o ins.

They a re c lear ly sma l ler a nd a re i n a ny c ase c lear ly

d ist ingu ished b y t he l e t ter Q a nd t he ir c ons is ten t ly d ist inct ive n ava l t ypes. T here a re a f ew i nstances where t he m in t s eems t o h ave e rred a nd p roduced T qu inar ius ' t ypes s truck o n a n ton in ianus f l ans t he t ime o f t rans it ion.

6 9

wh ich may h ave h appened a t

T hese c o ins w ere c lear ly p roduced i n l arge n u mbers

y e t i ti s d if f icu l t t o imag ine s uch a l im ited r ange o f t ypes p ers is t ing f or v ery l ong a s t he s o le c o inage. T ha t i tw as n ot s truck e ar ly i n t he r e ign s ee ms c lear e nough f ro m i t s a bsence f ro m mos t o f A l lectus ' h oards. C araus ius ' c on form ity was p o l it ica l ly r a ther t han e cono m ica l ly mo t iva ted b u t A l lec tus c an s ure ly h ave h ad n o c o mpe l l ing p o l it ica l r eason t o p ara l le l t he D ioc le t ian ic r efor m i n h is own c o inage.

No u surper p lans i n a n t ic ipa t ion o f h is own

e l im ina t ion s o t he n ew c o ins w ere o bv ious ly i n tended f or u se a f ter a s uccessfu l r epu ls ion o f t he i nev itab le i nvas ion a t te mp t .

I t must r e ma in a p oss ib i l ity ,

t herefore , t hat t hese c o ins w ere s pec if ica l ly r e la ted t o t he d angerous s i tua t ion a nd w ere i n as ense a q uas i war t ime i ssue o f a r t if ic ia l v a lue w h ich w ou ld b e made g ood i n t he e ven t o f s uccess.

T h is i s r a ther i mpract ica l , p erhaps , a s

i t wou ld h ave b een d i f f icu lt , t hough n ot i mposs ib le , t o efect w ith s o many a n ton in ian i i n c ircu la t ion.

A lso A l lectus ' r ea l w ea lth w ou ld n ot h ave i ncreased

h ad h e b een s uccessfu l , o n ly h is s ecur ity .

Whatever t he ir v a lue i n r ela t ion t o

t he a n ton in ian i t hese n ew c o ins must h ave b een i n tended a s as tandard c o in i n t he ir own r igh t o therw ise t hey wou ld s ure ly h ave h ad t he l aurea te c rown i nd ica t ive o f af ract ion . TYPES AND LEGENDS The c o inage o f A l lectus d oes n o t e xh ib it a v ery g rea t v ar iety o f t ypes a nd l egends b u t t ha t o f Caraus ius , e ven a l low ing f or m is takes a nd m isread ings wh ich h ave swo l len t he n u mbers r ecorded , d oes d isp lay a w ide r ange.

Caraus ius

s hows a p ar t icu lar c oncern f or t he message c arr ied b y h is c o ins wh ich , i n t urn , p rov ides a n i ns ight i n to t he man a nd h is r e ign . T he s ub ject h as r ece ived c ons iderab le a tten t ion o f o ne s or t o r a nother i n t he p as t .

S take ley " d id more

t han s i mp ly l i st t he d i f feren t v ar iet ies b u t h is d eter m ina t ion t o l i nk t he c o ina ge o f t he a nc ien ts t o t he Chr is t ian f a ith , a nd h is efor ts a t s how ing o n wh ich e xac t d ay o f t he y ear e ach p ar t icu lar t ype was i ssued , l eave l i t t le t o h is c red it i n t he ma t ter .

I n t he a na lys is o f t he v ar ious t ypes h is j udge men t was

b y n o means a lways s ound a s i s d e monstra ted b y t he OR IVNA c o in wh ich a roused s o much i n teres t b u t wh ich i s c lear ly a m isread FORTVNA .7 1 Mos t s ubsequen t wr iters o n Ro man c o ins h ave s een f i t t o s ay s o meth ing a bou t s o me o f Caraus ius ' t ypes , a nd n ew v ar iet ies h ave b een p ub l ished w ith g rea t f req uency o ver t he y ears.

Webb 7 2 p rov ides a q u ick a nd c onven ien t s u mmary o f

t he ma in p o in ts a nd g oes o n t o l i st a l l t he v ar iet ies k nown t o h i m.

H is f igures

o f o ver a t housand v ar iet ies f or Caraus ius t o o n ly o ne h undred a nd t h ir ty t wo f or A l lectus d o r ef lect t he d iscrepancy b u t r ather e xaggera te i ta s t he f igures f or Caraus ius , i n p ar t icu lar ,a re a rb itrary a nd o f ten s wo l len b y s heer i nacc uracy . I ti s n o t w ith in t he s cope o f t h is w ork t o r e medy t h is s ave i n t he c ase o f t he g o ld a nd s i lver c o ins. Apar t f ro m t hose o n ly s ign if ican t g roup ings o r p ar t icu lar c ases h ave b een d ea l t w ith.

Th is a pp l ies i n g enera l t o t he p ara l le ls

wh ich may b e d rawn b etween t he c o inages o f Caraus ius a nd A l lectus a nd t hose o f t he ir p redecessors.

Many r everses a re c om mon t o ag rea t n u mber o f

emperors a nd u surpers a l ike , b u t ag enera l p a t tern emerges f rom Caraus ius '

1 88

coins which shows the influence of the Gallic Empire coins in general and those of Postumus in particular. Pax types are very much the most commonly occurring reverses on the coinage of the British Usurpers although this is less marked in the case of Allectus. The deification of Pax may be linked with the general revival of state religion under Augustus. 73 Coles 74 suggests that the underlying concept of the Pax Augusta, the Imperial version of the Pax Romana, was one of success in war rather than avoidance of war. 'There was always a close association bet,veen Pax Augusu and victory by force of arms. ' Carausius must have hoped that the impact of his pax propaganda would be, not that he wished to avoid war, but that he was strong enough to guarantee peace. The type itself is not remarkable, having been used by many of Carausius' pre­ decessors. What is remarkable is the extent to which it dominates his coin­ age. It was very clearly the primary theme of his propaganda to proclaim his strength was sufficient to guarantee the security of his subjects. The one significant exception to this dominance of the Pax reverse comes with the 'Rouen 1 coins. There the reverse types promote a rather different sort of propaganda, consonant with an issue of the sort this has been shown to be. Pax would have been singularly out of place on these coins and it was not used. Instead Salus, Fortuna, Securitas and Tutela come into their own. Here the theme is that of bolstering morale in the face of the enemy. It is on these coins also that the Opes reverse occurs75 and Carausius is confident (or desperate) enough to use the epithet Invictus. Carausius' early coinage is noteable for the series of coins honouring several different legions, a practise which had occurred on the coinage of a few previous emperors. These coins were struck without mint mark, with the ML and C marks and, in the case of one denarius, with the RSR mark. 76 There are far fewer legionary coins with the C mark than with ML or no mark which presumably indicates that the issue stopped shortly after that mark was introduced. These coins seems to overlap the change from un­ marked to marked. Webb states categorically, 'Unmar1