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University Microfilms 300 North Z e e b Road Ann Arbor, M ichigan 48106 A Xerox Education Com pany
Zlatchin, Philip John, 1913^lie e^ ec-ts ° ? group therapy upon some aspects of behavior, social, relationships, and personal attitudes of adolescent p r o b l e m boys. New York, 1950. 106 typewritten leaves, tables, di a g r .,f o r m s . 29 cm. Thesis (Ph.D.) - N e w Y o r k U n i v e r sity, School-of Education, 1950. Bibliography ^ p . 177-186.
Xerox University Microfilms,
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T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
Sponsoring Committee: Professor Brian E. Tomlinson, Professor Robert Hoppock and Professor Louis E. Raths
I Thesis accentec J A N 1 2 1950
THE EFFECTS OF GROUP THERAPY UPON SOME ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOR. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND PERSONAL ATTITUDES OF ADOLESCENT PROBLEM BOYS
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Education of New York University
PLEASE NOTE: Some pages may have indistinct print. Filmed as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER
THE PROBLEM General Statement of the Problem Specific Problems Definition of Terms Delimitations Basic Assumptions Significance of the Problem Concluding Statement
7 7 11
RELATED LITERATURE The Adolescent in a Changing Culture New Goals for Education Personality Development the Goal of Group Work Groups, Leadership and Change Summary Group Therapy Historical Development Evolving Principles and Applications Experimental Research Studies Results Reported Concluding Statement
12 12 16 17 19 28 2929 35 Ul ij.8 53
PROCEDURE Description of Subjects Selection of Measuring Devices Personal Problems (P) Personal Needs (N) Social Relationships with Peers Teacher Ratings of Behavior Measures of Potential School Achievement Administration of Tests Experimental Treatment Procedures Selection of Problem Pupils The Experimental Group Concluding Statement
TREATMENT OF TEST DATA Results of All Eighth Grade Boys Determining the Effectiveness of Measuring Devices Correlation of Initial and Final Test Results Multiple Correlations to Determine Weights Selection of Control Groups Concluding Statement
1 1 3 3
57 59 61 63 70 73 76 79 81; 85
86 86 91 92 99 103 108
RESULTS FROM GROUP COMPARISONS Restatement of Hypothesis Four Experiments to Test Hypothesis Initial and Final Status of Experimental and Control Groups The First Experiment The Second Experiment The Third Experiment The Fourth Experiment Summary of Group Results Concluding Statement
109 109 111
ANALYSIS OF GROUP THERAPY RESULTS Analysis of a Group Therapy Session and Some Outcomes Descriptions of the Participants A Group Therapy Protocol Discussion of Outcomes from Therapy Analysis of Changes in Two Control Subjects Summary Concluding Statement
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION Summary Conclusions Implications for Education
113 llU 118 122 125 129 131
133 136 lij.6 155 162 169 170
171 171 175 175
LIST OF TABLES
Outcomes Reported from Group Psychotherapy
Counselors Ratings of Thirty-Eight Problem Boys Selected by Index of Deviation
Group Means for All Eighth Grade Boys on Initial Tests and Final Tests
Differences and Probabilities in Initial and Final Means for All Eighth Grade Boys
Intercorrelations of Nine Measures, Initial Scores with Final Scores, for 89 Untreated Boys after a Seven Month Interval
Intercorrelations of Initial and Final Measures Showing r s .30 or Above
Average Correlations of Component Tests from Cluster I with Cluster II, Transformed into Fisher's z Function (N =. 89)
Average Correlations of Component Tests from Cluster II with Cluster I (N s 89)
Beta Weights Derived from Multiple Correlation of Five Components of Cluster I with Index of Deviation
Beta Weights Derived from Multiple Correlation of Two Components of Cluster II with Index of Deviation
First Experiment, Initial Status5 Experimental and Control Subjects, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability
Second Experiment, Initial Statusj Experimental and Control Subjects, Matched on Index of Social Acceptability
First Experiments Comparison of Experimental and Control Group I, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability, Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes (N - 20 Pairs)
First Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability for Experimental Group and Control Group I (N & 20 Pairs
Second Experiment: Comparison of Experimental and Control Group II, Matched on Index of Social Acceptability, Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes (N =. 20 Pairs)
Second Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes for Experimental Group and Control Group II (N * 20 Pairs), Matched on Index of Social Acceptability
Third Experiment: Comparison of Means and Mean Changes for Experimental and Control Group III, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability, Showing Initial and Final Status (N at 18 Pairs)
Third Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means of Experimental and Control Group III, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability, Showing Mean Changes for Each Group (N = 18 Pairs)
Fourth Experiment: Comparison of Means and Mean Changes for Experimental and Control Group IV, Matched on Index of Social Acceptability, Snowing Initial and Final Status (N s 18 Pairs)
Fourth Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means of Experimental and Control Group IV, Matched on Index of Social Acceptability, Showing Mean Changes for Each Group (N m . 18 Pairs)
Significant Differences (D) and Gain-Loss Trends (T) Favoring the Experimental Group Over the Control
LIST OF FIGURES
Correlation Profile Analysis
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM
General Statement of the Problem The purpose of this investigation was to examine and to evaluate changes in (1) observed behavior, (2) certain social relationships, and (3) personal feelings and attitudes, of a group of adolescent problem boys who participated in twenty-two nondirective group therapy discus sions conducted in a junior high school. The subjects were early adolescents in the eighth grade, who had come to the attention of their teachers and counselors for frequent infractions of the school's standards of conduct.
had begun to experience isolation or rejection in their social relation ships with the boys and girls in their classroom groups.
Some of the
factors which may have contributed to the difficulties in which the "problem boys" found themselves were:
pressures from the family in
conflict with the standards of their peers’*", friction within the home, lack of adequate social skills, confusion and conflict upon encountering the emerging sexual, social and economic demands of their developmental level, and, involuntary submission to the conditions of compulsory education in a complex school setting.
Some of the boys were failing in their school work, others were
N. Cameron, The Psychology of the Behavior Disorders, pages U6-U7. C.B. Zachry and M. Lighty, Emotion- and Conduct in Adolescence, pages 2-27.
impatient to leave school, still others appeared unhappy and anxious about being unable to cope with the demands of their new school environ ment.
There were still others who carried over into school the crystal
lized antagonisms developed in earlier relationships with their parents, and were •unable to respond to the classroom demands expressed by their teachers.
The increasingly complex and impersonalized nature of a
departmental junior high school introduced one further requirement which some may have found difficult to meet during this period of heightened social and personal change* The school had available group and individual guidance services to help the youth understand the problems and demands which confronted them.
The major emphases of the services were in assisting pupils in
formulating their educational plans, in adjusting to the school's pro gram, and in providing a basis for planning further educational and vocational outlets.
The part-time services of a psychologist was pro
vided for studying those pupils who manifested personal and social maladjustments.
The resources of local clinics and social agencies were
used when further psychological and social assistance was required. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the pos sible contribution of nondirective group therapy in changing the attitudes, social relationships and behavior of this selected group of boys, who were designated "problem boys" by the criteria to be described.
changes observed in the experimental group of boys, who participated in group therapy, were evaluated in relation to the changes noted in comparable groups of control subjects, selected and matched on the basis of measures derived for those purposes.
Specific Problems In keeping with the general purpose of the investigation, the following specific problems were investigated: 1.
What changes, if any, were observed for the experimental
population as indicated by the measures and ratings employed before and after participating in group therapy? 2.
Similarly, what changes were observed in the non-participating,
control group of pupils? 3.
differences existed in the degree
of change observedin
the measures of "social acceptability", "scholastic adaptability" and personal feelings and attitudes between the experimental and control groups, and were these differences significant? U.
characteristicswere apparent for
those subjects manifest
ing great change and for those who showed little or no change? 5.
conclusions maybe drawn from the
findings, and what
implications for education appear warranted?
Definition of Terms For the purposes of this investigation the following definitions of terns were employed: Group therapy procedures were defined as nondirectively conducted group discussions which permitted the subjects complete freedom of expression to explore their feelings and ideas about any topic they wished to introduce.
The basic principles of the nondirective method
were outlined by Rogers^- and re-formulated for group application by o Axline , and included the following:
(1) the therapist developed a
b.R. Rogers, Counseling and psychotherapy, pages 27-1*5. V.SI. Axline, Vlay tfheripy, pages
warm and friendly relationship with the subjects} (2) he accepted the boys exactly as they were} (3) he established a feeling of permissive ness in the relationship so that the boys felt free to express their feelings} (1*) the therapist was alert to recognize and reflect the feelings expressed to enable the subjects to better understand their feelings} (5) the therapist maintained a deep respect for the subjects' ability to solve*their own problems if provided an opportunity to do so} (6) the therapist did not attempt to direct the boys' conversation or behavior} (7) no attempt was made to hasten the process} (8) the only limitations imposed were those necessary to protect the members of the group, and to safeguard the property in the classroom used for this purpose. Problem pupils were the boys in the experimental and control groups identified by teachers, counselors and peers, who, because of their inability to get along with peers and teachers had interfered with the functioning of their groups} or whose personal problems had impeded their learning or adjustment in school. The experimental period was the elapsed time between the adminis tration of initial tests in October of 191*8 and the final testing in May and June of 191*9. seven months.
This interval was estimated as an average of
This differed from the period of treatment which began in
February of 191*9 and terminated in May 19i*9> a period of three months* Observed behavior was rated by the teachers in each homeroom on the Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules'*' for each pupil It
M.E. Haggerty, W.C. Olson, and E.K. Wickman, Manual for the HaggertyOlson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules, New lork: World Book Company, 1$^*
in the class, and included ratings on Schedule A, for overt behavior problems, and Schedule B, for behavior traits idiich might identify problem tendencies.
The ratings were expressed in standard scores for
each scale. Social relationships were defined in terms of social acceptance ratings by boys and by girls from the subjects' classrooms.
Social Acceptance Scale'*' was employed in each class in the eighth grade at the beginning and again at the end of the experiment.
were expressed in standard scores for the separate ratings by boys and by girls. Personal feelings and attitudes were expressed by the subjects about themselves and provided ratings for unmet needs from the Self2 Portrait , and for problems which appeared to concern them from the Problem Check-List.^
The ratings were converted into standard scores.
The Index of Deviation was a numerical rating derived from a sum mation of six measures in which the pupil was regarded, or regarded himself, as a negative deviate from the group norm.
The Index was
derived from a composite of standard scores from six measures, and, was itself a standard score. The Index of Scholastic Adaptability was a numerical rating derived from a summation of five measures whose weights were obtained from a multiple correlation.
The Index was composed of Teacher Eatings of
Behavior Traits, Teacher Ratings of Problem Behavior, pupil ratings of 1.
V.G. Fordyce, W.A. Yauch, and L.E. Raths, A Manual for the Ohio Guidance Tests for Elementary Grades, State Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio, 19U&. L.E. Raths, author: Center for Research, School of Education, New York University (mimeographed). R.L. Mooney, author: Bureau for Educational Research, the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 19b2.
the incidence of Personal Problems, Reading scores and Intelligence Quotient.
This Index reflected the pupils' adaptability to educational
requirements and social relationships in the school setting. The Index of Social Acceptability was a numerical rating derived from a simple average of Social Acceptance Ratings by boys and girls. This was also obtained from a multiple correlation of the measures em ployed, and stood out as a unique cluster in the battery.
reflected the pupil's acceptance by his peers of both sexes, and indi rectly, his relationships with them.
The experimental group was restricted to 20 adolescent problem
boys so that detailed observations and studies could be made of each participant.
This restriction on the size of experimental group was also
necessary because therapy groups should ordinarily not exceed ten members. By limiting the size of the group it was possible to arrange the experi mental subjects in two groups; group A consisted of 11 subjects, and group B consisted of 9 subjects.
All were drawn from the eighth grade
of the same junior high school. 2.
The experimental period was restricted to the period of school
This made it possible to eliminate some of the effects of
long vacations and the summer recess. 3. a) The treatment employed was confined to nondirectively con ducted discussions so as to make it possible to define the method clearly and to permit evaluation of this delimited and defined approach. b)
The skills and more recent training of the investigator made
the choice of the nondirective technique the most readily available for
his use. c)
The treatment employed appeared appropriate for the popula
tion selected, and for the setting in which it was to be applied*
Basic Assumptions The hypothesis which guided this investigation may be stated as follows: That a group of adolescent problem boys who were provided with an opportunity to participate in a series of nondirect ive group therapy discussions will manifest greater changes of a positive nature in observed behavior, social relation ships, and self-regarding attitudes, than a group of matched, untreated control subjects* In order to test this hypothesis it was assumed that: 1.
Changes in observed behavior, social relationships, and self-regarding attitudes may result from group therapy, and
If changes in these factors did occur, they might be measured by the proposed devices.
It was not assumed that the proposed experimental method was the best method or the only method by which such changes could be brought about, but it was selected because it appeared to offer some promise for siich use.
Significance of the Problem The need for controlled evaluative studies in the field of therapy has been recognized for some time.
There have been numerous obstacles
standing in the way of rigorous investigation of the outcomes of therapy. Such factors as tools with which to measure changes in personal makeup, goals of therapy, criteria for evaluating attainment of these goals and many other similar stumbling blocks have interfered with experimented investigations.
The same need apparently exists in individual therapy,
group guidance and in education* More than a decade ago, Shaffer noted the absence of experimental investigations in the field of clinical therapy and suggested that the crucial experiment would be to diagnose a large number of cases and to treat half of them, leaving the carefully matched other half without remedial attention. This ex periment has not been performed. It is unlikely to be conducted in the near future, since clinics feel that their duty is to give service to the extent of their abilities. The same author has also suggested that examination of the failures would be helpful in gaining a better understanding of the causes of maladjust ment. In commenting upon the researches in group guidance through 19Uli, Strang criticized much of the recent research in group programs and urged that the validity of many kinds of group experience such as "human relations" courses and courses in occupational information should be detemined in a much less super ficial way than is being done at present. The lively discussion of these aspects of group work should even tually be reinforced by research that will replace supposition with fruitful hypotheses and proved facts and generalizations. The need for evaluation of outcomes from group guidance was described by Hoppock: In common with all other aspects of guidance and in common with nearly all aspects of education, what group guidance needs most is more and more evaluation of re sults...We need an almost infinite variety of studies to evaluate group guidance offered to different groups, for different purposes, at different age and grade levels.-* Zander reviewed the research needs in group work and drew from a
Tl 2. 3.
L. Shaffer, The Psychology~of Adjustment, pages U96-l;97. R. Strang (and M. Wollner),"^Guidance through Groups," Review of Educational Research, 15>, 19U5, 170. R. Hoppock, ftroup Guidance, pages 221-222.
number of related disciplines for his data.
He reported that
There has been little actual study on the effectiveness of group therapy, but the literature in that area has grown enormously during the war.3In the report of a recent symposium on group psychotherapy, Ackerman introduced his discussion "...with full awareness of the relative dearth of controlled clinical and empirical data in this field*"4- His comment was an unusual and significant one in the psychiatric literature.
practitioner-writers who reported findings from therapy seemed to despair of controlling the quixotic variables of the human personality.
tative of this viewpoint was the statement that The statistical approach is almost valueless, not only because of the multiplicity of variables, but because two of the variables, psychotherapy and results, cannot be standardized and must remain partially a matter of opinion.^ Other writers in the field of group therapy have emphasized the difficul ties in assessing effects and outcomes.
Klapman, who cited the need for
improved methods of evaluation, stated that "There is no reliable method at the present time of accurately appraising the results of group psycho therapy.
The psychiatrist is impressed with the results, but his
evaluations still rest largely on an impressionistic b a s i s . H e defended the deductive reasoning used in judging results because psychiatrists usually knew their patients’ make-up intimately and could progressively evaluate the effect of treatment on the personality. T1
Alvin F. Zander, "Current Research in Group Work," in Toward Professional Standards, page 11*5* 2. Nathan W. Ackerman, "Some Theoretical Aspects of Group Psychotherapy," in Moreno, J.L. Group Psychotherapy; A Symposium, page 117* 3* C.P. Obemdorf, S.Z/ Orgel, and J. Goldman, "Observations and Results of the Therapeutics of Problem Children in a Dependency Situation," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 1936, page 1*. J.W. Klapman. &roup"Tsychotnerapy: Theory and Practice, page 329*
that The areas in which psychiatry and psychotherapy function are an order of reality to which the so-called 'objective' measures are not easily applied. It is questionable whether statistical evaluation of the results of group psychotherapy are in a way adequate instruments, whether they measure the sought-after quanta. In the present state of our knowledge we shall be content with the impressions of workers in the field and their accumulating testimony to the value of group therapy.1 From an historical survey of group therapy, Meiers believed that "It is too early...to even attempt to evaluate with the sharp tool of statistical analysis the problem of how successful group psychotherapy as a whole has been in meeting the needs during the war..."^ The rapid development of group therapy in the armed forces during the reoent war came about because of the dire shortage of trained personnel to conduct individual treatment with the large number of psychiatric casualties.
The Medical Department approved the use of group therapy as
a partial answer to the need, but recognized that the group method "will necessarily be more superficial"^ than individual therapy.
from group therapy indicated that the method possessed unique values. Ackerman^ suggested that group therapy might be more realistic for some types of problems than individual therapy.
For the kinds of problems
adolescents encountered, Hamilton*’ proposed that group methods be used as
3. lu 5.
Klapman, op. cit., pages 330-332. Joseph I.Meiers, "Origins and Development of Group Psychotherapy: An Historical Survey, 1930-19U5>>" in Moreno, J.L., Group Psychotherapy: A Symposium, page 271. Anonymous, "Group Psychotherapy", War Department Technical Bulletin (T.B. MED. 103), 10 October l^lUl, page 1. N.W. Ackerman, "Interview Group Psychotherapy with Psychoneurotic Adults", in S.R. Slavson, The Practice of Group Therapy, page 15U. G. Hamilton, Psychotherapy in fchild Guidance, page 250-551.
an essential part of treatment.
She believed that there was less risk
of uncovering deeper disturbances if group methods were employed in place of intensive individual treatment.
Bender^ emphasized the impor
tance of group therapeutic methods with early adolescents, and considered such social methods as the "correct*1 way for the therapist to reach their problems.
She considered treatment in groups most appropriate because
the origins of many of the adolescents* problems were of a social nature.
Concluding Statement The preceding sections of this chapter described the general pur pose of this investigation, and outlined the specific problems to 'be investigated. stated.
The guiding hypothesis and underlying assumptions were
The significance of the investigation was discussed and it was
noted that there was need for controlled research in group therapy and considerable doubt about the possibility of submitting to measurement the outcomes from group treatment methods.
The final section described
studies to illustrate the pertinence of group methods in the treatment of the problems of early adolescents. The following chapters will discuss the related literature, des cribe the procedures used, the treatment of the test data, and report the group and individual results.
The final chapter will state the
conclusions and implications arising from the investigation.
L. bender, "Group Activitieson a Children’s Ward as Methods of Psychotherapy," American Journal of psychiatry, 93, 1937, page 1173.
CHAPTER II RELATED
...where there are kings, there must be the greatest cowards. For men's souls are enslaved, they refuse to run risks readily and recklessly to increase the power of somebody else. But independent people, taking risks on their own behalf and not on behalf of others, are willing and eager to go into danger, for they themselves enjoy the prize of victory. Hippocrates1
This chapter describessome of the shifting adolescent behavior, and some
of thechanges mhich have begun to appear
in the basic orientations of education and group work.
of group leadership and its effect upon group behavior are discussed, and are related to the development of group therapy methods from the medical and psychiatric literature.
Pertinent experimental studies are cited and
the claimed results reported along with the observed limitations in the methods of evaluation.
The Adolescent in a Changing Culture The adolescent in our society is looked upon as a carrier of the culture.
He is expected to interpret and to transmit the traditions and
the aspirations of our culture.
As he develops from the protected setting
of childhood along toward assuming the mantle of adulthood, he is ex-
Quoted in part from Clyde Kluckhohn and Henry Murray, Personality in Nature, Society and Culture, page xii.
ploring his role of selfhood, constantly testing this imperfectly evolved self against society's expectations.
The nebulous and untried quality of
self, and the hollow feeling of not finding a crystallized niche, or recognition for the self he experiences, creates uncertainty and anxiety for many of our youth.
At the same time
It must be admitted that our procedures in dealing with youth frequently aggravate their difficulties and in tensify their deviations and defeats.1 During childhood, parents tend to expect obedience and submission. dren most frequently accede in order to retain parental love.
cent with his new horizons, may now question the need to submit to standards which appear outmoded in the light of his rapid growth and en larged experience.
The parent who fails to understand the meaning of the
questioning and mistakes it for sheer impudence of disrespect may invoke his authority and attempt to compel of submission.
a continuation of the childhoodpattern
In this sense, parents may be unwittingly
subjects" and denying than the independence and self-direction necessary to the fulfillment of their youthful mission.
The case is stated baldly
by Kelly -when he says Fear is used by parents as motive from the trolling their children. Almost the first understands is a threat. This calls for a reaction in the child. Children therefore ing fear and suspicion toward all adults.
cradle in con thing a child corresponding grow up carry
In most schools the adolescent experiences an atmosphere of com pulsion and repression.
Here he may find that strict conformity is expected
in mastery of stated units of knowledge laid down by adults.
ditional emphasis upon acquisition and acceptance of- the essential knowledges H 2.
Lawrence K. Frank, "Adolescence as a Period of Transition," in Adolescence, U3rd Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education,page 7• Earx u. iveny, Education for ?8hat is Real, page 8 .
compels him to concentrate on things that are deemed good for him, rather than those of- interest to him.
Motivation employed is frequent
ly fear of failure, fear of censure, or, fear of direct punishment in one or another ingenious manner.
The other side of this coin is illus
trated by the varied extrinsic and artificial rewards proffered for meeting standards other than his own.
Hence, the child finds himself
hemmed in by an extension of controls and pressures initiated in his early family life.
The school and its teachings, instead of preparing
him to face social change, extends the period of dependency in the guise of preparing him for the rigors of adulthood.
obedient and conforming youth approaches mid-adolescence steeped in one culture when Suddenly parents and teachers and others begin to re proach the child for lac^ of maturity, denanding that he show some sense, use some judgment, take some re sponsibility, exercise some discretion and stand on his own feetl The poor adolescent may never in his life have had an opportunity to use judgment or take responsibility, but now he is berated for inability to take charge of his own life.1 It is not surprising that even healthy adolescents, who may have learned to cope with the radical changes taking place within their own bodies, react to the change in adult demands with rebellion, anxiety, confusion or withdrawal.
It is remarkable that so many are able to
withstand these tension-producing forces and develop into relatively self-directing and socially effective adults.
Some do not escape into
maturity, for Kelly reports that one out of twenty two of all the people in America 1.
Lawrence &. Frank, lfThe Adolescent and His Family,” in Adolescence, U3rd Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, page 2hb.
will at one time during life occupy a bed in a mental hospital. This does not include the millions who need such care but do not get it.-*For those who manage to weather the effects of fear-ridden parents and the authoritarian impositions of school life, there are other hurdles ahead. Edwards^ traced the effects of technological changes, shifts in population and age-groupings, and radical changes in our economy upon the outlook of the young person emerging from school into work.
from the numerical increase in variety of jobs available and the more routine nature of many of these jobs, he warned that youth face a dis couraging outlook in securing jobs.
Competition with older workers, re
stricted social mobility, and confusion of cultural values which no longer hold the same meanings may confront youth with defeat and frustration in attempting to orient their behavior in terms of fundamental ethical prin ciples. The same writer believed that the process of devaluation he described must be counteracted by the mature generation, together with the young, through its understanding of the operating forces and by active partici pation in social planning.
The school, too, can and must play a signifi
cant part in reshaping the society in which it functions.
the school's role in these terms: But it is not enough for education to be concerned with the reinterpretation and transmission of the culture and the intellectual development of the childj education is also concerned with the development of personality, with TI 2.
Kelly, op. cit., pages $-16. Newton Edwards, "The Adolescent in Tecnnological Society," in Adolescence, d3rd Yearbook, National Society for the Study of lfoucation7~pages lfci$-l97. Ibid., page 195.
the problems of individual adjustment. And if the in dividual is to make a satisfactory adjustment to his culture, the school and other educational agencies in the society must provide him with the concrete ex periences which mill develop in him the values, the motivations, the desires, the sensitivities, and the skills which his society demands of him*1 In reviewing the trends in family change, Folsom viewed the rapid changes not as social disorganization or demoralization, but as changing organization wherein Organizations devoted to particular values break down as those values weaken. But the organization may be come changed so as to develop and support other values, or some substitute organization may do so.2 He saw new values developed by other units within society to compensate sufficiently to maintain a balance.
If there can be a general, average decline of cultural values, there is likely to be a strong development of personal and small-group values. Human beings and family groups have shown themselves able to guide their own lives even amid outward confusion and devaluation.^
New Goals for Education If there is to be concerted social action in providing youth with enriched capacities for adjusting to and modifying the shifting condi tions they will meet, then the schools must be in the forefront. school will have to educate for change.
Pupils must come to be considered
the most precious resources of society, since it will be their task to shoulder the burdens passed on by their elders.
Concepts of what is
significant may have to be taken from the issues at hand; old texts and curricula may have to be put aside so that new ones can be developed
1* 2. 3.
Edwards, op. clt., pages 195-196. Joseph K.rolsom, The Family and Democratic Society, page 191. Ibid., page 192*
by students with their teachers.
There is some evidence^ that schools
are changing to meet the needs of their students in today's society. Emphasis is now being directed toward our American democratic values, the social realities inherent in them, and the human needs of pupils as they learn and grow. The educator is aided in meeting human needs by the new skills and understandings uncovered in related fields concerned with the growth and development of individuals and groups.
Recent research findings in re
lated branches of human science are slowly being received and applied in schools.
Still more is needed.^
Demonstration and research programs over
the past twenty-five years have influenced the formal and informal methods it 5 of education. * Dislodging socially useless content has not proceeded as rapidly.
Tradition still determines too much of what shall be taught.
In regard to this problem, Prescott has recommended that School people must identify and eliminate from the cur riculum of particular children those tasks, materials and experiences nhich make unreasonable demands upon them. Some material must be eliminated because the children lack the motivation, capacity or requisite background to learn itj other material...because it is ineffective and inappropriate training for the presentday world...The relationship that the materials, tasks and experiences bear to the personality needs of chil dren should be tried as a superior criterion for inclusion in the curriculum." Personality Development the Goal of Group Work One of the ways in which the school has attempted to provide TI 2. 3. U. 5. 6.
Alice Miel and Kimball Wiles, Toward Better Teaching, 19k9 Yearbook, Association for Supervision and Curriculum development of the National Education Association, pages 1-12. L.A. Hanna, Group Processes in Supervision, pages 20-63. Daniel A. Prescott, Emotions and theEducativeProcess, page 293* Ibid.,page 273. Samuel R. Slavson, Creative Grout) Education,page Prescott, og. cit., pages So9-2$0.
meaningful character-building experiences for its students has been through the medium of informal and organized group activities.
Early group ac
tivities grew out of subject matter and became separate operations (extra-curricular) or remained closely related to the curriculum (co— curricular).
The school newspapers, handbook and yearbook have been,
and in many cases still are, part of regular English courses.
As a re
sult of their value as motivating factors and reality experiences for students, an increasing number of secondary schools have introduced courses in journalism.
Dramatics anddebating have traditionally been
part of English course offerings. Musical activities, like the choir, the band and the glee club have provided students with recreational opportunity since the latter decades of the last century.
More recent developments^, less closely
related to the classroom, are the student councils, self-governing bodies and club activities.
The early emphasis in most, if not all, of
the extra-curricular offerings of the school had been an extension of classroom activity centering about content.
Motivation probably was
generated from these informal activities which carried over into the classroom learning.
Little attention, however, was at first directed
to the character-building and personality development values, apart from the values thought to result from improved grasp of the subject itself. The distinction between content-mastery and personal development as goals of group activities was cited by Slavson:
Ruth Strang, dlroup Activities in College and Secondary School, page 32.
Less than a decade ago the accepted practice in schools and in group work was quite different...Adults imposed their will throughout the meetings of the class or club. The objectives centered largely around training for con formity and..."for instinctive obedience of authority." At the present time (1937) the interest is shifting from program construction (content) to development of interests, initiative, talents and power in the indi vidual.*He traced the transformation of group work from a static instrument for social conservation, whose major aim was to protect children from their environment of the congested tenement and crowded streets, to a dynamic instrument for personal development, and through the released and strengthened person, to social change.
A very similar viewpoint was
derived by Mead from cross-cultural studies of personality and institu tions : But every administrative or guidance official knows that actually the two aspects are inextricably combined, that there is a continuous and dynamic interrelationship between social forms and personality...There have been many recent studies to show that modern economy not only produces a certain type of character but is in turn de pendent upon that type of character to perpetuate its peculiar institutions.^ Similar changes in emphasis have begun to be recognized from such widely divergent sources as industrial research^*5
Groups, Leadership and Change The early work of Thrasher? demonstrated many of the elements of 1. 2. 3.
Samuel ft. Slavson, Creative Group Education, page U. Ibid., pages U-5. Margaret Mead, "Administrative Contributions to Character Formation," in Klucktiohn and Murray, Personality in Nature, Society and Culture, page f>2U. U. Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization. 5. F.J. Roethligsberger and W.jf. toicEson, Management and ihe Worker. 6 . Anonymous, Frontiers in Human Welfare, pages 7. Fredric M. THrasEirJ TEe Gang.
group process in the formations, activities, and modes of group control of bo7s' gangs.
He viewed the gang's development "as a response to
society", to provide a solution of the boys' own construction which may be crude in the extreme and only partially recognized by the boys; yet a working relationship exists between the mem bers, which makes of it a rudimentary society with a constructive tendency. Cooperation requires division of labor. Common enterprises necessitate subordination and discipline and create opportunities for leadership. Host of the gangs studied showed pre-delinquent and delinquent activities which led directly into adult crime through an unbroken sequence of events.
Yet, he did not believe that gang behavior is a cause of crime
but a confcrabutant, which may facilitate delinquencies.
nized gang activities to be "far more vital in molding the boy than any sort of conventional schooling",
and that genuine educational advan
tages may be seen in some of their activities.
He has shown that the
great majority of the 1313 gangs studied had engaged in delinquent or demoralizing activities, still this did not "imply that the gang is in any sense inherently bad.
It simply lacks wholesome direction."3
describing the nature of leadership in the gang, he illustrated the positive effects of constructive leadership and said The character of the gang is to some extent determined by the habits, attitudes and interests which its mem bers have previously acquired - the nature of the tra dition which they bring with them lfcen they enter the group. This is particularly true with reference to the leader. A gang will often become whatever the leader makes it...h
I T Tbr 206-220. 6. W.U. Snyder, **An Investigation of the Nature of Nondirective Psycho therapy, " Journal of General Psychology, 33, 19h3, 193-223. 7. H. Peres, "An Investigation of Nondirective Group Therapy," Journal of Consulting Psychology. 11, 19h7, 13U-172. 8 . 0. Sternbach, "The Dynamics of Psychotherapy in the Group," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 11, 19h7, 139-172.
dual psychoanalytic therapy.
Here then were clinical findings and im
pressions substantially verified by objective research methods, despite differences in orientation and severity of the problems treated. Muench'*' demonstrated that significant changes effected by indi vidual nondirective therapy could be evaluated by projective and objec tive measures employed before and after therapy.
He reported changes
in client’s basic personality structure from his Rorschach findings, substantial agreement of therapists' subjective evaluations with test findings in nine of the twelve cases studied, and general agreement be tween Rorschach and word-association tests in eleven of twelve cases* Kauffman and Raimy^ employed two distinct methods for evaluating from internal data progress made in therapy.
Their raw data consisted
of seventeen nondirective interviews which were recorded.
and Mowrer's Discomfort Relief Quotient and Raimy’s method for analyzing client's self-references during the interview, it was found that both methods traced very similar patterns of change from maladjustment to ad justment, notwithstanding the divergent theoretical origins of each method. The authors concluded that analysis of client's subjective reports war rants continued use in evaluation of adjustment, along with objective methods as testing and observations of behavior. Seeman*' later applied Snyder's objective method of analyzing client and counselor responses to recorded individual interviews, completed four years later, and revealed marked consistency in the process of nondirective TI 2.
G. Wench, An Evaluation of Nondirective Psychotherapy, pages 157-159• P.E. Kauffman and V.fc. kaxmy, "two Methods of Assessing Therapeutic Progress," The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, lUi, 191*9, 377-5H5T " ----J. Seeman, "A Study of the Process of Nondirective Therapy," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 13, 19l;9, 157-168.
therapy, and a significant trend toward increased reliance upon non directive categories of counselor-response.
Of three different approaches
in group therapy employed in Army Air Force installations, Hobbs1 found eclectic and nondirective methods therapeutically more productive than an authoritative approach.
Luchins, on the other hand, reported that a
"nondirected" group method failed to help Army mental patients, and, after several such sessions, it was necessary "to use some method of control in order to attain and maintain some semblance of o r d e r . H e further reported that Gradually our usual program (lectures and discussion of content) was introduced...and appeared to stimulate more interest than had the laissez-faire approach. He concluded that a primary reason for the failure of the method was the laclp of group cohesion in these trials, whereas in later attempts, where an interacting group structure had been created, it was somewhat more successful. These findings suggested the need for leader flexibility, systema tically presented and analyzed in a later study by Blocksma.^
that variability, adaptability, and flexibility of the leaders behavior was essential in producing meaningful relationships within the group. The early researches^ of Axline in classroom applications of non directive play and discussion group therapy were presented in the first TI 2. 3. U. 5.
tt. tiobbs and G.fe. Pascal, "A Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Group Psychotherapy," American Psychologist, 1, 19U6, page 297. A.S. Luchins, "Methods of Studying a Group Therapy Program," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 11, 19li7, page 179. Loc. clfc. E>. Blocksma, "deader Flexibility in Group Guidance Situations," Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9» 19U9, $31-535. V.M. Axlihe, "Nondirective Therapy for Poor Readers," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 11, 19^7, 61-69.
volume^ to describe nondirective group methods, and were later tested by p Bills in objective measurement of changes in reading ability resulting from combined approaches.
He found unusual growth in test results of
reading ability after as few as nine individual and group sessions, despite the absence of tutoring in reading.
Descriptions of his retarded readers’
later adjustment revealed growth in personal and social factors as well, although no systematic evaluation was undertaken in this study. In a military psychiatric hospital, Simon, Holzberg, and their colleagues^ sought to determine what group therapy meant to their patients by a questionnaire given to lUl patients.
From among a variety of treat
ment experiences the patients selected group therapy, by a small margin, as the most valuable treatment in their hospital stay.
The results ex
pressed indications of increased social participation, insight and emo tional involvement in improving their mental health.
The authors concluded
that patients profited in a variety of reflected ways and that group therapy was of definite value in hospital treatment. The group Rorschach was used by G. Klopfer^ to assess the effects of group therapy in another military setting.
He described marked changes
for the better in a third of his nine soldier-patients after a brief period of treatment.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used by
Rashkis and Shaskan'’ before and again after an average of five weeks of
T. 2. 3. U. 5.
, Play Therapy, New iork: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19U7. Bills, op. cit. B. Simon, J. holzberg, S. Aaron, and C. Save, "Group Therapy from the Viewpoint of the Patient," Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 105, 19U7, 156-170. G. Klopfer, "The Efficacy of Group Therapy as Indicated by Group Rorschach Records," Rorschach Research Exchange, 9, 19^5, 207-209. H.A. Rashkis and D.A. Shaskan, "Effects of Group Psychotherapy upon Personality Inventory Scores, " American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ------16, 19U6 , 3U5-3U9. "
While no control group data was available, there were
significant reductions revealed in the number and degree of pathological deviations following the group therapy experience.
They concluded that
the psychometric evaluation showed a high correlation with impressions of changes observed in patients after group treatment. A more rigorously controlled experiment was conducted by Fleming and Snyder^- to determine whether measurable changes in social and personal adjustment occurred following participation in nondirective group play therapy.
They selected seven boys and girls of nine to eleven years of
age by personality and sociometric scales from a group of forty-eight children, and used thirty untreated cases for control comparisons.
twenty-three half hour, biweekly group sessions, all were retested.
showed remarkable change in each of the three scales while the boys' re sults were significantly improved in only one out of four cases.
concluded that changes could be brought about, that the changes were measurable, that the girls responded better to a female therapist than did the boys of this age group, and that sociometric and self-rating measures may probe different aspects of adjustment.
Fiedler1c employed nondirective group therapy discussions prior to a tension-producing comprehensive examination and measured the students' reactions by a ten item examination anxiety scale.
In comparing twenty-
five experimental subjects with a like number of controls, he found no significant differences on the total scale for the large group.
analyzed itemwise and by sub-groups there were significant differences
L. Fleming and W. u. Snyder, op. cit., pages 107-116. F. Fiedler, "An ExperimentalTpproach to Preventive Psychotherapy," The Journal of Abnoimal and Social Psychology, 14i, 19^9, 386-393.
apparent for three groups on three different items, all in favor of the experimental group.
His conclusion was that four to six group therapy
sessions could influence attitudes and lessen the effect of anxiety in examinations, thus serving as a preventive psychotherapeutic procedure.
Results Reported In the section immediately preceding, it was apparent that most of the growth in the application of group therapy took place within the past ten years.
Many of the writers believed it was either too early for a
statistical evaluation of results obtained, or, that a statistical evalua tion would fail to demonstrate in any real measure the effectiveness of the method.
With very few exceptions, each paper reported some values
from the use of group therapy as an additional treatment method, or as an exclusive method.
There were several, however, who described the suc
cessful and unsuccessful results obtained in sufficient detail to make possible a tentative tabulation.
It was believed that such a summary would
be useful at this time in assessing what has been attempted by way of evaluation, and thus make possible a clearer view of procedures to be en listed in suggesting improvement. A point of comparison is provided by Rogers1^ survey of the results of thirteen follow-up studies of outcomes in planned treatment of delin quent and "problem” children.
Planned treatment included all of the re
sources employed by an agency or clinic, ranging from intensive individual therapy, through provision of group work facilities, along to foster home and institutional placement.
His tabulation of the data revealed
a rather astonishing similarity of results. In all, nearly one thousand children were studied and their social adjustment TI
C.R. Rogers, The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child, pages 371-375.
rated after varying periods of one to five years fol lowing the clinic contact. In general it may be said that with delinquent and problem children of varying ages the treatment fidled in about twenty-five per cent of the cases, the criiTclren showing at the con clusion of the clinic contact the same or more serious problems. Of the other seventy-five per cent some what over half were making a good community adjustment. The others were in no immediate need of help, but still exhibited some problems and were handicapped to a degree in their adjustment...the showing is a very encouraging one.-*He evaluated these findings by suggesting that where the clinic treatment was more intensive, and where more of the necessary community adjuncts to treatment were available, "the results are very distinctly better."^
attempt was made to assess which factor contributed more to the results. Since group therapy was generally employed as an adjunct to indi vidual apd other forms of therapy, it should be anticipated that later results should be at least as favorable as those previously reported.
the studies examined for consideration in this summary, those dealing ex clusively with psychotic patients were eliminated, for this group possessed problems considered qualitatively different from those of delinquents or problem children and were not germane to this investigation.
lowing data excluded mental defectives, and, in several studies originating in the Jewish Board of Guardians, most '•psychopaths'’ were not included in therapy groups after 191*2 at which time criteria for selection had been ■» established.
1. 2. 3.
Rogers, op. cit., page 3t2, (italics the present investigator's). Loc. cit. G. Goller, "Criteria for Referrail to Group Therapy in a Child Guidance Clinic," Smith College Studies in Social Work, 13, 191*2, page 11*8.
50 TABLE I OUTCOMES REPORTED FROM GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY
Partial or Marked Improvement Per Cent
Psychoneurotic adults and adolescents
Analytic Interview group therapy - adolescent
Study not completed
Boys failed to respond to female therapist
8. Pearson (19^7)
Excluded mentally defective and psychopaths
Children in activity groups
10. Miller and Baruch (19U8)
Allergy patients, adults and children
11. Becker (19U8)
Children selected for problems with siblings
Physically handicapped children
Problem children in school, grades 3-6
7F per cent
6. Slavson (19il7) 7.
Fleming and Snyder (19U7)
12. Cruikshank and Cowen (19U8) 13.
Children in J.B.G. Activity group therapy Activity; all had failed in individual therapy Soldiers; symptom remission and return to duty were criteria
C 1. 2.
The studies cited are identified in the Bibliography with appropriate code numbers noted. GT - Group Therapy exclusively: C - Individual and group methods combined.
Of the subjects represented in Table I, about forty per cent were children and adolescents.
For none of the adult patients was group therapy
the sole means of treatment.
Seventy-five per cent of all cases reported
were judged partially or markedly improved.
Of those treated by combined
methods, about seventy-seven per cent were considered substantially im proved, while seventy-three per cent of those treated exclusively by group methods were included in this category.
These data might be considered
superficially similar to those summarized by Rogers, but there were so many variations in methods, age spread, criteria and standards of selection, that any interpretations made would be open to question. Some of the incidental data may be of more direct value in suggesting standards for more effective evaluation.
These are summarized below under
Size of Groups Two investigators reported groups of fewer than five subjects. majority fell between six and ten subjects.
Play therapy groups were
usually smaller than activity groups and discussion groups, while the di dactic groups were usually larger than fifteen.
Occasional groups were
over twenty-five for lecture and discussion purposes.
Number and Frequency of Sessions Very few studies mentioned fewer than ten sessions, and these ap peared to be employed for purposes of verbatim process analysis, rather than for treatment alone.
Most of the studies containing this information re
ported between twenty and thirty sessions.
Unusual in this regard were the
studies of Slavson and his associates (2,3,U,6, and 9 in Table I), wherein eighty and ninety sessions seemed to be the rule.
Several of their clients
remained in therapy groups for as long as three and four years. Clinics and agencies favored weekly sessions while hospitals and institutions held sessions more frequently; some isolated instances of five and six sessions each week were reported.
The recent trend seemed to favor
longer duration of treatment with one or two sessions a week.
Therapeutic Procedures In the clinic studies, activity and play therapy groups were con ducted from psychoanalytic, nondirective and eclectic orientations.
older children and adolescents, interview or discussion group therapy ap peared to predominate.
.Among adults in military settings, an eclectic,
didactic method, which combined lectures and free discussion was reported most frequently.
More recent studies emphasized freedom to allow inter
action and catharsis except for those on the adult level, where the peda gogic emphasis was still predominant.
More frequently this was combined
with analytic interpretations made by the therapist.
therapeutic procedures seemed to be declining in frequency in more recent studies.
Selection and Grouping The influence of Schilder and Slavson appeared frequently in attempts to rationalize the selection and grouping of patients.
examinations usually preceded placement in a group in the later reports. The nondirective therapists appeared to attend to grouping on the basis of behavior in the group rather than by prior diagnostic examination.
geneity by diagnostic categories seemed less frequent than attention to interstimulating qualities of patients as a criterion for grouping.
diagnostic evaluation had additional values for later assessment of change
in behavior and personality structure.
The '•psychopath" is reported to
be frequently barred from group therapy, and a threat to group morale when included*
Criteria for Evaluating Improvement Improvement appeared to be judged most frequently from remission of symptoms, the therapist's impressions and unverified patient reports.
a few instances the amount of participation was used as an indication of movement.
At the other end of the continuum were the thoroughgoing staff
evaluations based upon therapist's notes, caseworker's observations, psychiatric and psychological examinations, and extended field visits with parents and teachers.
A few studies reported pre- and post-therapy psycho
metric and sociometric evaluations. changes achieved.
Only one used control cases to compare
The absence of consistent and meaningful criteria was
readily apparent in this brief comparative summary, and may be considered an important obstacle to an adequate, systematic appraisal of group thera peutic procedures.
The data reported supported Strang's^" conclusions
concerning the need for matched groups, control cases, detailed recording and comparison of therapy process and changes in attitude and behavior*
Concluding Statement In this chapter selected studies were presented to show the influence of the culture on the adjustment of the adolescent; a changing emphasis in education and group work toward personality development of'the individual; the research in social psychology and sociology which provided new concepts of group influence and leadership, in producing changes in behavior; and,
k. Strang, Counseling Technics in Colleges and Secondary Schools, pages 2liO-2hI.
the parallel development of the field of group psychotherapy from medicine, psychiatry, and clinical psychology, emphasizing the re-education and re adjustment of the individual in his society through the use of group proce dures. The latter tiro sections traced the slowly improving tools and procedures of social psychology and group psychotherapy, the recognition of new concepts, emerging in both fields, concerned with the release of the individual through permissive leadership in a democratic group setting, and the increasing skill in experimental evaluation of the induced changes in attitudes and behavior.
In this chapter will be presented the procedures used in selec ting the subjects for the investigations, the measuring devices employed and the reasons for their selection, the group therapy procedures, and selection of experimental subjects.
Description of Subjects The subjects of this investigation were boys selected from all the eighth grade classes of a junior high school located less than a mile northeast of the center of the city of Yonkers, New York.
school was situated in an industrial area known as "The Hollow", a val ley surrounded by several large hills, through which flowed the Saw Mill River.
Immediately northeast of the school was a cemetery and two blocks
northwest stretched a large, sprawling industrial plant known as the "carpet mill."
The homes immediately surrounding the school were brick
apartment houses of the "railroad flat" variety, small one and two family ramshackle frame buildings and numerous wooden tenements. There were no recreational facilities in the immediate vicinity of the school except for "play streets" blocked off from traffic by the Police Department.
Within a three block radius in each direction, there
were eleven bars and "social" clubs. "The Hollow" lies within the one mile radius from Getty Square, the district which housed about two-thirds of the city's juvenile
delinquents during 191*6.^
The school district extends to the northern
limits of the city and includes several residential areas of a lower mid dle class level and a recently constructed low-income housing project. A majority of the families living in the vicinity of the school were im migrants who came originally from Southern and Eastern Europe, and the children of these groups comprised about half of the school's population. Father's occupations, as listed on cumulative record cards were concen trated in the unskilled and semi-skilled categories. were shopkeepers, public servants and office-workers.
A small percentage Many of the mothers
were employed full or part-time. The boys in the eighth grades numbered one hundred and twenty-five slightly less than half of the total number of boys and girls.
in age from twelve years ten months to seventeen years in September 191*8 when the first phase of the investigation was begun.
The mean age of
all the boys in the eighth grade was fourteen years. Their mental ability was determined from the High school form of p the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability for grades seven through twelve. The mean intelligence quotient for all the boys was 98.3 with a standard deviation of seventeen and ranged from fifty seven to one hundred forty seven. Reading ability of the boys, derived from the Stanford Intermediate Reading Test^, ranged from reading grades of 3.7 to 11.2; mean reading grade fell at 7»5» with a standard deviation of 1.66. The vast majority of students from this junior high school have gone
n 2. 3.
J.E. Huddleston, Report on Juvenile Delinquency in Yonkers in I9I16. Yonkers: Social Planning Council, August 191*77 page 60. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York.
on to commercial or vocational high schools in this city.
Less than ten
per cent of previous graduates went on to c o l l e g e . M a n y of the boys worked after school, and about eight to ten per cent left school at sixteen to seek full time employment.
Some of the parents preferred that their sons
complete the high school courses; others offered no objection to their leaving.
Less than ten per cent of the boys belonged to Boy Scout troops,
to the Y.M.C.A., the Catholic Youth Organization or other similar organi sations.
A slightly larger proportion (fifteen per cent) belonged to orga
nized informal clubs or teams, while the remaining seventy five per cent participated only occasionally in organized group activities.
Selection of Measuring Devices The measuring devices used in this investigation had to meet several requirements to be considered adequate for the purposes and design of the research. First, they were to be used to identify problem pupils who were experiencing difficulty in relationships with their peers, who had personal anxieties and tensions which impeded their learning, which caused them to interfere with the functioning of their respective groups. Second^ the devices were to be used to reflect changes which occurred in social relationships with peers, personal feelings and attitudes toward themselves, and behavior traits and problems observed by their teachers. Third, the devices were to be used with groups of early adolescent boys and should be appropriate in content and makeup to their interests, and, suitable for group administration within the time available in a school setting.
Follow-up data from school counselor.
Fourth, the measuring devices should have .acceptable levels of reliability for repeated trials, since they were to be used in a pre-test, re-test experiment. Fifth, the devices should be of acceptable validity in that they not only measure what they claim to measure, but should be valid for identifying problem pupils and reflecting change, if change occurs. Sixth, the devices should lend themselves to quantification to per mit comparisons in standing from beginning to end of the experiment, and to make possible estimation of the significance of such differences as occurred. Seventh, the devices should not rely upon close personal relation ships with the administrator, or provide undue cathartic value, either of which might introduce a contaminating element in testing the effect of experimental variable. Eighth, the measures should provide opportunity to view the sub ject's functioning in several different spheres yet be related signifi cantly to the outcomes anticipated from the treatment employed in this investigation. Ninth, the measures selected should be sufficiently simple in language, content and concepts to permit meaningful response by students of limited verbal ability, and in some cases, of marginal cultural and intellectual backgrounds. It became apparent that clinical instruments such as the Rorschach Psychodiagnostic or other projective devices, idth or without clinical interviews, would be prohibitive in administration and scoring time for a hundred or more students.
Furthermore, such procedures would have fostered
intimate relationships which might have had therapeutic effects, thereby
leading to an unknown and potential contaminating element* The more usual paper and pencil tests of personality were frequently complex, open to conscious manipulation^, and were found of questionable validity unless administered individually.
It was decided therefore to
use rating and self-rating devices which were sufficiently simple and mo tivating, which did not require personal administration, could be adminis tered within reasonable time limits to groups, and could be designed for the group with whom they were to be used, for the specialized, limited purposes of this investigation. The selected devices were tried out in three seventh grade classes during 191*8.
At that time the tests and teacher’s rating scales were re
viewed with the school counselors and with a few of the teachers who were then known to be scheduled to teach eighth grade classes the following term.
The students' reactions were generally favorable, and while a few
wrote negative comments about one or another test, the groups, neverthe less, sefemed to enjoy the experience and believed it worthwhile.
counselors and teachers consulted had some familiarity with the teacher scales and had found useful results in previous work with individual pupils or small groups.
It had not been used previously with classes or whole
grades, as was contemplated in this project.
Personal Problems (P) For an estimate of the pupils' view of his own problems, fears, anxieties and troubles, the Mooney Junior High School Problem Check List^
A. Ellis, "The Validity of "Personality Questionnaires," Psychological Bulletin, 1*3, 19l*6, page 1*20. " 2. Ellis, opT cit., pages 1*20-1*22. 3. A. Ellis anHTT.S. Conrad, "The Validity of Personality Inventories in Military Practice," Psychological Bulletin, 1*3, 19l*8, page 1*21. 1*. Ross L. Mooney, authorj Published by Bureau of Educational Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 19l*2.
It contained two hundred and ten problems chosen from stu
dent statements, arranged in seven groups of thirty problems each.
areas covered were: 1* 2. 3. 1|. 5. 6. 7.
(HP)' Health and Physical Development (S) School (skills, abilities, attitudes) (HF) Home and Family (conditions, inter-relations) (X) Miscellaneous (finances, vocations, future education) (BG) Boy and Girl Relations (opportunities, desires, attitudes) (PG) Relations to People in General (feelings, isolations, aggressions) 1 (SC) Self-Centered Concerns (moods, tendencies, morale)
The material was neatly arranged, type was clear and bold, vocabu lary simple, sentences short and instructions were "as you come to a problera which troubles you, draw a line under it."
The list was not timed,
yet all students were able to complete their underlining and to answer several questions within a half hour.
Students were encouraged to answer
the questions about problems which troubled them most, whether they en joyed using the list, and whether they would like to spend time in school doing something about problems, or to talk to someone about them. The lists yielded a total score and sub-scores for each of the categories enumerated, by a simple count of the problems marked.
the Problem Check List was extremely simple in format and administration, the students seemed to respond readily after they knew their responses would not affect their standing in school and that the data were to be used by them for later discussion with the investigator.
Since it relied
upon consciously enumerated responses and employed no subtle projections, this instrument suffered to the same degree as did other paper and pencil personality scales, in that information could be suppressed and the scores
From the test booklet, page 6. Ibid., page 3«
affected by the degree of threat, resistance or confidence experienced by the subjects.
Personal Needs (N) To obtain the pupils' expressions of felt needs, the Self-PortraitN was used to round out the self-regarding attitudes of the subjects.
elementary form"*" of this forced-choice scale contained one hundred and forty-four statements in groups of four, from which the subjects were asked "to pick out the sentence that is MOST like you...then find the sentence that is LEAST like you."^ The subject completed the scale by encircling thirty-six items which he regarded compatible, and thirty-six other items regarded as incompatible vd.th his concept of himself.
subject thus selected seventy-two items representing a separate need.
areas of need into which the items were classified were as follows: 1. 2. 3. U. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Need Need Need Need Need Need Need Need
for for for for for for for for
Belonging Achievement Economic Security Freedom from Fear Love and Affection Freedom from Guilt Sharing Understanding and Knowledge
Subjects' responses were tallied under fulfilled needs, unfulfilled needs, and omitted items for each group of statements.
Presence of a need
was scored when seven or more unfulfilled needs were marked by the sub ject for a single category of need, with four or fewer fulfilled needs occurring in the same category.
The unfulfilled needs were placed in the
numerator, the fulfilled needs in the denominator.
For convenience they
L.E. Raths, author; Published by Center for Research, School of Education, New York University (mimeographed). Ibid., from Directions to Student on face-sheet.
were read as fractions.
The following sample combinations were scored
as presence of a need:
7/2, 7/h, 7/0, 8/3, 9A , 9/3, 10/2, 11/3, etc.
If a subject expressed a great many fulfilled and unfulfilled needs within the same category of need, totalling eleven or more responses, and divided fairly evenly between met and unmet needs, this was called an ambivalent expression of need and was credited as the presence of a need. The following combinations were scored as ambivalent expressions of need (presence of need):
6/6, 6/7, 7/6, 8/7, 7/8, 9/8, 8/5, 6/8, 5/6, 6/5.
Seemingly fulfilled needs occurred when at least seven fulfilled needs were'present in a single category of need, accompanied by four or fewer unfulfilled needs.
Thus 2/7, 3/9, U/ll, 3/8, 0/7, 0/8, U/7, U/9,
were considered fulfilled needs and scored accordingly. Responses were tallied on a convenient summary sheet, which showed Presence of Needs, Seemingly Fulfilled Needs, Ambivalent Expression of Need, and items omitted, for each of the eight categories of need.
Need score was the sum of Presence of Needs and Ambivalent Expressions of Need.
On the average, subjects expressed the presence of two to three
needs of the eight possible. The material contained in the statements was culled from student material, appeared relevant to these subjects.
The language was clear and
concise, the sentences were brief, and single statements were usually from twenty to thirty words long.
While the mimeographed copies were sometimes
faulty, very few students had to request information about unclear words. The format was appropriate and helpful to rapid understanding and response. The time for administration ranged from thirty five to fifty minutes for most subjects] occasional subjects required over an hour to complete the thirty six blocks of statements.
Each subject was urged to recheck his
paper for omissions and each paper was checked a second time by the inves tigator.
Where more than one or two omitted items appeared, the paper was
returned, with the items noted and a request to complete all items choosing those statements that were "more like you.”
On occasional items subjects
complained that none of these was "really like me."
usually accepted his feeling of conflict and gave the modified directions, as noted above.
Social Relationships With Peers As the young adolescent boy moves from puberty into adolescence, he begins to shift from the influence of family patterns to those of his gang or play group.^
From the onset of sexual maturation, the boy's interests
begin to include new questions about the rapidly maturing girls he notices in his classroom group.
The boy's first attempts in relating to his femi
nine peers may be awkward and lacking in poise.
Need for the support of
his own sex group is especially heightened at such times.
At the same time
this change is occurring, the adolescent gains little understanding or support for his new ventures from adults at home, in school or on the play ground.
His relations with both groups of peers take on new importance for
maintaining status, for developing his masculine role, and for developing a knowledge that he belongs to some group wherein he can feel accepted* Recent research by Tryon
pointed to the strong influence of the peer cul
ture in determining standards, and of the group as the locus for many of the adolescent's explorations. Failure in peer relationships, rejection by the very persons from
6. Zachry and M. Lighty, Emotion and Conduct in Adolescence, pages 162-16U. C.M. Tryon, "The Adolescent Peer Culture*1, in"Tdolescence, itfrd Yearbook, National Society for the Study of FducationT"pages“22f>-23U.
whom he may want acceptance, or isolation from the group, may be signifi cant correlates of problem behavior, or causes thereof, in the early ado lescent.
It was considered essential to examine the social relationships
of the students as a means of identifying and measuring this significant segment of their daily lives.
The Ohio Social Acceptance Scale A scale that provided opportunity for the students to evaluate their own social relationships was believed to be a valuable supplement to ob servations which were made by a student about himself or by an adult looking in upon the students.
Moreno's1 experiment with teachers' judgments of
the roles played by children in their groups, demonstrated that as children advanced in school grade, the accuracy of the teachers' estimate diminished rapidly.
From agreement of about sixty five per cent with children's
choices in the early grades, their judgments declined to twenty five per cent agreement in the seventh grade.
Furthermore, the students' choices
revealed patternings that could not readily be seen or appreciated by an adult observer. To provide such a measure of the subjects' acceptance or rejection by other members of their own groups, the Ohio Social Acceptance Scale was employed after preliminary trials during the Spring term, 19U8.
scale provided for ratings about every member of a class by every other member. Each student received a roster containing the names of all boys and TI 2.
j.L. Moreno, Who Shall Survive? pages Form G-3, for the Intermediate Grades, issued by Ohio Scholarship Tests and Division of Elementary Supervision, State Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio, 19U6.
girls in the class.
For eacn name on the roster, except his own, he
assigned a number which represented the closeness of distance implied in the following classifications, from close acceptance to rejection: 1. 2. 3. 1;. 5. 6.
"My very, very best friends." "My other friends." "Not friends, but Okay." "Don’t know them." "Don't care for them." "Dislike them."!
All students were rated both by boys and by girls, but the results were treated separately to furnish an indication of how each boy was rated by the boys (Sb) and by the girls (Sg) in his group.
Both scores were in
cluded since it was found that there was increased selection of girls by o the boys and the reverse, after the seventh grade. This finding from sociometric studies has been observed by the previously cited authors in clinical and group study of early adolescence and was considered essen tial in their present investigation with this age group. In scoring the ratings, each student's notes were tallied for each of the classifications, multiplied by weights of 1$, 10, 3, 1, 0 and -2 and summed to provide a raw score.
The corrected score was obtained by
dividing the new score by the total number of votes received, and the quotient was then multiplied by twelve.
This procedure provided an average
score of one hundred in the original standardization.
tile norms were available, these were not employed with the present popula tion, since local standard scores were constructed for each test based upon distributions obtained from all eighth grade boys.
This method yielded
1. IBid., bireciions to Students. 2. j'.L. Moreno, "Changes in Sex Groupings of School Children," in Newcomb and Hartley, Readings in Social Psychology, pages 383-387. 3. Zachry, og. cit., pages 116-125. k> Tryon, og. cxi., pages 231-231;.
a score for Social Acceptance by Boys (Sb) and a separate score for Social Acceptance by Girls (Sg).
The Ohio Recognition Scale The "Who's Who in My Group?"^ was used to obtain qualitative infor mation to support the social acceptance ratings.
Information far this
scale was provided by the students about other children in the group, by nominating peers to fit the descriptions read to them.
There were eighteen
paragraphs in Form G-U-A; nine described desirable social characteristics; and nine others, undesirable social characteristics.
The attributes des
cribed were: 1. 3. 3. 7. 9. 11. 13. 13. 17.
Loses temper Very selfish Too bashful Copy Cats Not good for committee Snob Poor in gang or club Brags Bully
2. 1*. 6. 8. 10. 12. Hi. 16. 18.
Very happy Good in games Very brave Tries very hard Good with handiwork Good sport Good thinker Good leader Like to visit his home
As each paragraph was read, the students wrote the names of their classmates in the blank spaces provided for each description.
tallied on class sheets, recording boys' and girls' nominations separately, and then eacn individual's frequencies were noted on a data summary card. No composite score was obtained and these data were not directly used in the selection of the problem pupils. Both of these devices were enthusiastically received by almost all pupils.
They obviously enjoyed working the ratings and the nominations;
there was no difficulty in grasping the instructions or in making their
W.G. Fordyce, W.A. Yauch, and L. Raths, A Manual for The Ohio Guidance Tests for Elementary Grades, pages 22-557
There were some few wno demurred at first, but most students
completed the blanks willingly and correctly.
Question was raised in one
class about the anonymity of the responses and whether their teachers would see the results.
These questions were answered directly, and related to
the purpose of the investigation.
There was no identification of indivi
dual scores by persons other than the investigator*
Teacher Ratings of Behavior The third facet of the subjects' personal-social adjustment was the behavior noted by their teachers in daily contact and interaction with them.
Since this investigation dealt with pupils in their school
setting, the teachers loomed large as key persons in the lives of their pupils. Evaluation of pupil behavior has always been a significant part of the teacher's job, whether for purposes of "discipline", or for report card grading.
Conduct, deportment, and later, citizenship, have always
been frequent and important subjects for discussions with parents, in conferences, and during lunch-hour relaxation.
Most frequently, teachers
stressed conformity to adult standards as their conscious, or not entirely conscious yardstick for evaluation.
The aggressive child who "upset the
class", who did not respect authority, did not apply himself or violated the adult's code of morality was the one usually singled out for "remedial attention", or for referral to the counselor.
The shy, sensitive, fear
ful and conforming pupils rarely received notice.
Such signs, considered
by guidance workers most important in handicapping mentally healthful growth, were overlooked by teachers since they did not frustrate adult purposes.^ 1.
b.K. tfickman, Teachers and Bihavior Problems, pages 6-12.
A more recent study by Thompson-*- based on rankings of problems by well over two thousand teachers, parents and children, closely resembled the early findings of Wickman.
The later findings reflected close agree
ment of parents' rankings with those of teachers, and very similar rankings by pupils and their parents.
Teachers in service, particularly women,
were closer to psychologists' rankings than parents or apprentice teachers. These were the daily, realistic standards which confronted the subjects of this investigation in school, at home, and even among themselves.
on these grounds, with full awareness of the limitations inherent in the teacher's standards of judgment of pupil behavior, that a familiar mea sure of behavior and behavior problems was included to round out the evaluation of adjustment. The Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules^ were chosen to provide two measures of behavior problems and behavior traits which reflect behavior problem tendencies.
The rating schedules were designed
for classroom use, were relatively simple to rate and score, had been used previously by the teachers in this school, provided empirically de termined weights, and tapped significant aspects of intellectual, physical, emotional and social aspects of school behavior.
Schedule A, The Behavior Problem Record (Ta) The Behavior Problem Record provided a list of fifteen undesirable forms of behavior ranging from cheating and disinterest in school down XI
C.E. Thompson, "The Attitudes of Various Groups Toward Behavior Problems of Children," The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 35, 191*0, 120-125. M.S. Haggerty, W.C. Olson and E.k. Wickman, Manual for the HaggertyOlson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules, New Yorkl World fiook Company,- 1930, page H .
through sex offenses, stealing and truancy.
The teacher rated each item
by the standard of frequency of occurrence during her experience with the pupil.
Each problem and level of occurrence have assigned weights based
on seriousness and frequency.
The score for this schedule is the sum of
weighting for the problems noted. behavior.
Higher scores reflected undesirable
While no separate reliability data were noted for .Schedule A,
the authors-*- reported correlations of .60 with ratings from Schedule B. It was further reported that "Mean ratings on Schedule A tend to fluetuate more widely.
Schedule B, The Behavior Rating Scale (Tb) On the behavior trait rating (Tb) the teacher checked one out of five items for thirty five separate graphically arranged behavior traits. Items were available for intellectual, physical, social and emotional traits, weighted by the degree to which they were found to contribute to a tendency toward problem behavior. available.
Sub-scores and a total score were
The higher scores, relative to the mean of the group studied,
represented undesirable behavior. ■i
The authors reported-' reliability coefficients of .92 (by splithalf method) and .88 (from repeated ratings).
Evaluations were done by
clinical study and by comparing ratings with subsequent histories.
composite score on Schedules A and B correlated .76 with the frequency with which a group of children were referred by teachers and monitors to the office of an elementary school p r i n c i p a l . S o m e of the limitations men-
IZ Ibid., page 2 . 2. IbicL., page 1;. 3. Ibid., page 2. U.
tioned were the bias of the rater, aggressive behavior was overemphasized to the neglect of the qureter child who may present serious problems, and that significance of scores was a relative matter and not absolute. The rating scales were introduced to all eighth grade homeroom teachers in a brief orientation session, after which each teacher was in dividually instructed during a free period.
At this time teacher and in
vestigator together practiced rating one pupil from another homeroom. Each homeroom teacher then rated the boys in her room during the last week in November, after about ten weeks of experience with her group.
Measures of Potential School Achievement The close relationship between school achievement and school ad justment has been noted frequently in the education literature^- and in clinical studies of school behavior problems.
It appeared reasonable to
include at least two indicators of potential scholastic achievement, men tal and reading ability so that this influence could be considered in relation to the central variables, personal-social attitudes and behavior. A further reason for their inclusion was the frequently reported finding that pupils of average and above average mental ability and scholastic achievement responded more favorably to psychological and psychiatric treatment than less able pupils.^
2. 3. ii.
While occasional researches^ pointed
U.S. Conrad, F.N. Freeman, and N.E. Jones, "Differential Mental Growth," in Adolescence, l;3rd Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, pages L. Shaffer, op. cit.7 page $08. C.R. Rogers, op. clt., pages 28U-321. Lillian A. Glassman, "Is Dull Normal Intelligence a Contraindication for Psychotherapy?" Smith College Studies in Social Work, --------------13, 19U3, 275-298. ;
to success in therapy with dull-normal children, the emphasis upon ade quate mental ability has continued to be a central issue in application of psychotherapy.
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability (IQ) The High School examination for grades 7-12^ contained ninety items arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
Spatial, verbal and numerical
items were scattered through the test so that a fair proportion of each variety was encountered at different levels of difficulty.
coefficients ranged in the upper .80*s and low .90*sj retest on parallel forms with groups of a hundred or more subjects yielded a reliability coefficient of .89.
Norms were based on about five thousand cases for
this level of the test.
Validity was sampled by checking against judged
scholastic achievement (r ranged frcm .1*6 to .60), and by intercorrelation with other widely-used intelligence tests (r from .77 to .88). evaluators
considered this scale of satisfactory reliability and validity
for school use.
The test was new to these subjects and appeared appro
priate for eighth grade use in terms of the language, variety of tasks and level of difficulty.
Since the majority of subjects were below six
teen years of age, the I.Q. rating was employed as an indicator of rela tive standing in mental ability.
Since parallel forms were available, and
retest correlations had demonstrated an adequate level of relationship between repeated tests on parallel forms, Form A was used in the initial
V.A.C. Henmon and M.j. Nelson, authors; published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1931* O.K. Buros, The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook, pages 220-223.
testing and Form C in the final testing, seven months later.
Stanford Intermediate Test of Reading Ability (R) The Intermediate Test-1- of the Stanford Achievement battery was chosen to provide a combined measure of word meaning and paragraph com prehension in material offering a wide range of difficulty above and below eighth grade level.
There were fifty words, for each of which the correct
synonym was to be chosen from among four others, and eighteen paragraphs in which the student was asked to complete the meaning by writing in a reasonably suitable word for forty five omitted words.
efficient for this level was .92, and validity was sought by careful selection of items rating of suitability of items by at least four judges, try out in parallel forms, and finally, by item analysis.
The tests have
gone through several revisions, and current norms were based upon three hundred thousand pupils.
Form D was administered in October, and for
the final testing, Form F was given in mid-May, about seven months later. The order of testing was arranged so tnat social relationships could have become fairly well crystallized, and teachers could have had an oppor tunity to learn about their pupils prior to undertaking their ratings. Hence, reading tests, problem and needs scales and the test of mental ability were administered in that order during early October; the social acceptance and recognition scales during the last week of October; the teacher rating schedules were completed during the last week of November. Retesting took place after mid-May and into the first week of June 19ll9j and followed the same relative sequence.
The average interval between
initial’ and post-testing was approximately seven months.
T.L. Kelley, G.M. Ruch and L.M. Terman, authors; published by World Book Company, lonkers-on-Hudson, New lork, 19U0.
Administration of Tests After consultation with the school guidance counselor and the school principal during June of 19U8, it was arranged to discuss the pro ject
with each ofthe eighth grade teachers who would be cooperating in
Aftereach of the teachers had been apprised
outline of the study, each was asked to raise any questions about the methods that would be employed. the teachers.
These were then discussed briefly with
At the same time the investigator asked the teachers to
submit a list of all the boys in her class, who were problems to the group, who were considered to be problems to themselves, and who were having difficulty in the fundamental learnings expected of this grade* The investigator requested the permission of each teacher to visit during the home room period to observe the class while going through its regular routine during the first period in the morning and during the last period in the afternoon.
The classes were also observed in at least
one of the academic subject lessons*
Several of the classes were ob
served while in the industrial arts shop, and all were observed at least once each week while they were having lunch in the school cafeteria. After several weeks of visiting and observing, the investigator arranged to visit each of the classes to discuss briefly with the stu dents the general outline of the project as a study in finding out from young people how they went about meeting and solving some of their prob lems.
To launch the discussion the following statement was read: People know more about many things than they do about themselves. With all of our advanced knowledge we still have not learned to live in friendly fashion with our neighbors. It is about time we stopped to have a look at the reasons for the friction and unrest which we see all around us. What makes some of us afraid of things? Why do some of us smile easily and others rarely? Why
does one fellow always scowl and growl at people he meets? !hy do some of us always find fault with others and never with ourselves? "Why do we like our friends and dislike those we don't yet know so well? These are only a few of the problems. You could, I am certain, list many more that you have observed. I think you would agree with me when I say that we need more facts and first hand information about people and how they get along* During the school year I shall be working here with students of the VIII grade to study with you, some of the interests, ambitions, worries and problems of young people. The object of this study is to find out more about the kinds of problems and troubles students meet and something about how they go about solving them. To accomplish this we shall be using tests and ques tionnaires of various kinds, some unlike any you've seen before, interviews with some of you, and group dis cussions with others. After getting your frank answers in the tests and opinion-polls we shall ask some of you to help us in discussing some of the problems located, to see how we can further help other students solve their problems. While this method is slow and takes a lot of work, it is the only real way to know and understand the problems people meet. Your principal and your teachers, too, are giving their time and cooperation in helping us to get your views and ideas. They know it is important to work from the FACTS, and not from guesses. They know too that you are the only ones who can help us get the facts so that we shall some day make as much headway in solving human problems as we have in industrial and engineering problems. Klihile there was some variation in the degree of interest shown, the students' responses to the problem presented and to the notion of parti cipating in the testing was actively favorable.
All of the groups were
able to see some relation between the purpose of this investigation and broader social issues of delinquency, wars, poverty, and racial and re ligious discrimination.
(It should be noted that the regular guidance
period was frequently used for discussion of human relations material, and it was therefore not difficult for the pupils to draw upon previous discussions.) During the initial testing no more than two periods were available at any one time.
It was arranged to administer the tests during the
periods that were available, so as to interfere as little as possible ■with the operations of the regular school schedule, and to provide a spaced schedule of testing so that no more than ninety minutes of testing was imposed on the pupil during any one day.
The testing was conducted
over a four week period and was completed in November of 19l*8.
batch of tests was collected, they were scored and the results were tabu lated on master charts built from rosters of the boys classes.
in each of the
From these large charts it was possible to see
scores of an entire class and the scores for each boy In case of absences, pupils were asked to come
at a glance the
in that class. to one of several
make-up testing sessions with others who had missed one or more tests. The nature of the devices used and the prior orientation regarding their ultimate purpose, encouraged pupils to raise personal questions. case were any of the instruments administered individually.
caution was observed in order to prevent the establishment of any specialized relationships with individual pupils, which might have in troduced a contaminating factor not available to evaluation. The same principle of friendly, yet distant relations was observed while visiting in the classes or observing in the cafeteria.
It was be
lieved that in an investigation of this kina, it was necessary to attempt to control even such spontaneous relations which might develop through informal and casual contacts. The investigator's observations were written down after he visited a class, and, only rarely did he write any notes while in the presence of the students.
His presence was rarely questioned, and he seemed to be
accepted as an observer in the classes visited.»
nNEW YORK UNIVcKSII > HSCHOOL OF EDUCATION D • LIBRARY •
Experimental Treatment Procedures In this investigation the experimental variable applied with the experimental group was a series of twenty-two group therapy discussions, conducted by the investigator.
The emphasis in the discussions was
directed toward the feeling aspects of the participants' comments rather than the ideational content alone.
The usual school discussion centers
attention upon the ideas advanced, and the leader tries to correct, sum marize, clarify or sharpen the participants' contributions.
if at all, does the discussion-leader recognize the underlying feeling and attempt to deal with it rather than with the ideas expressed.
experimental procedures employed, the investigator dealt acceptingly with the feelings expressed, as well as the intellectual content.
was detailed and illustrated,***
The Setting The experimental group met with the investigator for twenty-two sessions, two periods each week during the regular school day in a free class room in the school building. was forty five minutes.
The length of the discussion period
The time of day was kept constant and was deter
mined after consultation with the teachers, the counselor, and the admin istrator in relation to the planned curriculum for each of the classes and school.
Method The experimental subjects were informed by the investigator that they"were selected to help in evaluating some of the problems young people
Chapter VI, pages
encountered and how these problems were solved.
They were previously
informed that the investigator was not a member of the staff, but a visitor interested in developing and improving methods by which to help young people. A natural point of departure was provided tnrough the tests taken, and from previous contacts with the investigator during the initial testing period.
The first session was devoted to securing their reactions to
taking the tests.
He then briefly outlined how the group would meet, on
what days, the general object of the sessions, and related these meetings to his previous talks with their classes..
He stated that he would answer
questions during this first meeting, but thereafter it was to be their time to talk about problems that were of interest to them. The investigator acted as the discussion leader until some degree of unity and procedural order was attained. three sessions.
This required only two or
No effort was made to control the placement of problem
boys in the group, even though it would have been desirable to do so.'*' This was not done because of the difficulty in arranging to have subjects come when they would not miss a major subject, or one like shop or gym. The groups were formed on the basis of program and class membership. The role of the investigator was one of stimulating and encouraging free expression, without applying pressure to the group or its members. Every effort was made to maintain a permissive, accepting atmosphere by retaining only the structural limitations required by the school or im posed by the group itself.
Some limitations were thought necessary early
in the series, and very little additional structuring was required.
g.R. Slavson (Editor), The Practice of Group Therapy, pages 29-31.
the group behavior made it necessary to consider other ways of working together, these were derived from the group.
At no time was it necessary
for the investigator to introduce new topics for discussion or to lecture to the group.
If there were a lull at the opening of a session, the
leader* s comments were directed to the atmosphere reflected by the be havior or demeanor of the group.
Electrical recordings were used in
several discussion sessions to provide material to illustrate the method employed. The responses of the investigator considered the content, but in the main he guided nis remarks to the underlying feelings of the subjects* comments and questions.
Reflection of feelings, clarification of atti
tudes and, to a more limited extent, the analysis of values comprised the majority of the investigator's responses.
While the leader's methods were
1 2 predominantly nondirective , some use was made of clarifying questions to point out differences in values, and occasional summaries of content and especially of feelings were anployed to help focus clearly upon basic differences within the group, or upon fundamental issues.
and summaries were introduced by the leader, these were directed to the group and not toward individuals, to encourage the attitude of "together ness** in the search for clarification of a problem.
Once under way, the
investigator's role became that of stimulator, absorber, clarifier, mod erator, but only rarely that of lecturer or director. The length of the experimental period was predominantly determined by periods of school attendance, and by the necessity for allowing a full month for retesting after group sessions terminated. T7 2.
It was believed that
ft.R. Rogers, Counseling and Psychotherapy, pages 28-30. • Nathaniel Cantor, The ^Dynamics of Learning, pages 131-183.
a period of at least twenty therapy sessions, over a two to three month period, were necessary before changes could be ascertained.
session took place on February 1$, the last on May 5, a total of twentytwo sessions.
During this entire period the control groups followed
their regular school and class programs without any special procedures being applied.
Occasional classroom observations were made to secure a
record of daily activities and pupil responses.
Close liaison was main
tained with the school nurse and guidance counselor to determine the application of special treatment procedures with either experimental or control subjects.
No person in the school had knowledge of who comprised
Selection of Problem Pupils The subjects of this investigation were forty problem pupils se lected from among all the boys of the eighth grade.
Boys were selected
so as to delimit the problem, and because the majority of this school1s problems appeared to center among the boys.
The number of girls appearing
for delinquency was generally only a small fraction of the total.
this community, eighty per cent'*' of the juvenile delinquents in 19U6 were boys, the majority of them between fourteen and sixteen years of age. To permit quantified evaluation of changes which might occur, a composite index was derived by combining standard scores^ for each of the six measures previously described. (N) (P) (Sh) (Sg) (Tr) (Tb) IT 2.
Needs - Self Portrait Problems - Mooney Problem Check List Social Acceptance Ratings by Boys Social Acceptance Ratings by Girls Teacher Ratings - Behavior Problem Record Teacher Ratings - Behavior Rating Scale
J.ft. Huddleston, op. cit., page U. J.G. Peatman, Descriptive and Sampling Statistics, page 185.
Scores from tests of mental ability and reading ability were not included in this pooled composite, to avoid undue weighting of this index on the academic side, and because the central problem was to examine changes in personal, social and behavioral aspects of the pupils' adjustment. A simple pooling of results seemed a more reasonable way of pro viding a basis for efficient selection, than using any one of the separate tests, which measured only a single aspect of the individual.
score also provided an expedient method for matching, and, if there were some intercorrelation among the pooled measures this would improve the reliability of the resulting combined measure.
If the intercorrelations
were low, the pooling would tend to equalize the composite scores for all individuals and result in decreased differentiating ability.^ O
study* of self-ratings, peer-ratings and expert's-ratings of personality adjustment reported low positive correlations among the three sources of ratings for similar phases of personality adjustment.
It was found, how
ever, that there seemed to be more consistency in ratings from one source of judgment on two different rating devices.
In the present investigation,
two separate ratings were available from the students, their peers and their teachers.
It was anticipated that although the correlations among
sources of ratings might be low but positive, the correlations between each pair of ratings from each of three sources of judgment would be sub stantial and thus increase the reliability of the index without destroying its ability to differentiate between problem and non-problem pupils,
C.C. Peters and W.E. Van Voorhis, Statistical Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases, page 328. M.G. Powell, "Comparisons of Self-Ratings, Peer-Ratings, and Expert's Ratings of Personality Adjustment," Educational and Psychological Measvirement, 8, l?i;8, 223-231;.
The composite score was derived by adding the standard scores from each of the six measures, arranging these sums into a frequency distribu tion, and from its mean and standard deviation, a new series of standard scores was obtained for the combined scores.
This was called the Index
of Deviation and might be expressed algebraically as: s|HSn + Sp + Ssb + Ssg + Sta 4 Stb)j Each boy was assigned a rank according to this index and forty-two subjects were selected from among one hundred and seventeen who had com pleted all tests, and had been in school and in his present classroom group since the second week of school, on the basis of the following cri teria; Index of Deviation two deviant scores Index of Deviation on separate scales
score of 50 or higher"*-, and at least on separate scales above $8,“or, an score about $8 regardless of scores of the composite*
The criteria served to select boys whose standing was no lower than arerage on the composite score ($0) and who appeared in the upper twenty per cent^ of their group on at least two of the separate scales.
metnod of selection compensated in part for the averaging effect of com bining of scores.
This yielded thirty six boys, six short of the forty
two boys required to make up an experimental and control group of twenty each and two spares needed in case of losses.
Two other boys with Index
of Deviation scores above 58 (upper twenty per cent of the composite ranking) were located, and the remaining four were selected if they had
Index of Deviation score o f 50 was the mean scorej scores above the mean-deviated in an undesirable direction. H.E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and Education, (19U9), page 115, table of areas under the normal curve showed approximately twenty per cent of cases above .8 standard deviations above the mean. This was selected as a cutting score to provide a selection of cases in the upper fifth of the distribution.
received at least two separate deviant scores, and had been rated by the two guidance counselors as having "more problems than average, but not able to manage with help received from teachers.”
The counselor ratings
were employed as a check on the Index of Deviation ratings, to determine whether the boys selected were in reality the ones who were considered problems by the staff most concerned with this deviant group. "While the group testing was going on, the investigator searched the cumulative record files of all eighth grade boys to note the names of students wno had evidence of earlier maladjustments in or out of school. Boys with intelligence quotients below eighty five who had failed two sub jects the preceding term, or were repeating the present term, were dis cussed with the counselors to determine if they were currently showing problem behavior.
Records of boys with excess absences were noted; poor
reading ability and apparently adequate mentality were investigated; records showing statements of "nervousness", "mannerisms" or "crying without reason" were also noted along with those showing aggressive be havior, "bullying" or "can't play with other children."
Any folder con
taining record of referral for psychological study was noted for further study.
Each homeroom teacher was asked in October to check, on the class
roster, the names of boys who were manifesting personal problems, were having difficulty with peers, and those who were experiencing difficulty in subject matter learning. The total list of potential problem cases accumulated from teachers' recommendations and from search of the cumulative records to talled seventy four boys.
It was believed that this number could effect
ively be rated by the two counselors.
A seven point rating scale was
drawn up, and each counselor was requested to rate independently each
of the seventy four on the following scale: 1. 2. 3.
Very well adjusted in all ways (learning, personally, socially). Gets along adequately in most ways - few problems observed. Some problems noted, but seems able to handle those he encounters. U. Has problems that are apparent, but gets help and manages to get along. 5. Has more problems than average, but not able to manage with help received from teachers. 6 . Has more problems than average, but seems to be getting worse despite help from teachers and counselors. 7. Has many more problems than averagej no amount of help seems to be of much use.
Where the counselors disagreed by more than two rating points, the sub ject was discussed until a mutually acceptable compromise rating was achieved.
In instances where the ratings were within one point of each
other, the higher of the two ratings was assigned for purposes of selec tion.
While this technique suffered some of the weaknesses of subjectivity
and bias, it provided some assurance that any pupil who was known to have come to either of the counselor's attention was considered for inclusion among the problem boys. On this rating, thirty four of the seventy four selected boys were rated five, six or seven, twenty one rated at the midpoint (U), ten rated one, two or three, and nine boys were not sufficiently known to be rated. This group of thirty four boys who were rated five or above, included thirty of the boys selected by the Index of Deviation scores of 50, and two or more deviant scores, or Index of Deviation score of 58 or above. The following Table shows how the thirty eight boys selected by the Index of Deviation were rated by the counselors:
Ta b l e
Counselors Ratings of Thirty Eight Problem Boys Selected by Index of Deviation
The counselor's ratings identified seventy nine per cent of the boys cho sen by the Index of Deviation as "not adjusted" and in thirteen per cent of the cases there was disagreement, with eight per cent "unknown."
level of agreement suggested one further bit of evidence for the use of the Index of Deviation for selection purposes, and, as a criterion in determining the contributions or weights of each of the tests in the bat tery.
This is to be described in the following chapter.
The Experimental Group A group of forty two boys was now available as a "problem popula tion" from the eighth grade; thirty eight identified by the Index of Deviation, and four others added by a combination of counselor ratings and two deviant scores on separate scales. The boys were listed in rank order first by score on the Index of Deviation, and then by the number of separate deviant scores or ratings obtained in Needs, Problems, Social Acceptance Ratings by Boys and by Girls, and the two Teacher Ratings on Behavior Problems and Behavior Traits.
The first twenty one numbers located in the table of random num
bers were assigned to the experimental group by the procedure described by Lindquist. 1 TI
The remaining cases constituted the control group.
E.K Lindquist, statistical Analysis in Educational Research, page 27,
Concluding Statement This chapter described the setting in -which the investigation was conducted and some of the attributes of the population from which the problem boys were selected.
The school was located in an industrial area,
of relatively low socio-economic make-up, from which came a sizeable proportion of the delinquents identified in this city. Criteria for selection of the measuring devices were described, and the scales identified for measuring Needs and Problems, Social Ac ceptance by Boys and Girls, and Teachers* Ratings of Behavior Problems and Behavior Traits.
The method for combining these measures of personal
attitudes toward self, social relationships and observations of behavior into a composite Index of Deviation was outlined.
Ratings by counselors
were used to check the adequacy of the Index of Deviation, and substantial agreement was found in the identification of problem boys by the two methods* The procedure for selecting subjects for the experimental group was outlined, as were the experimental treatment procedures employed. The following chapter will describe the methods employed in treating the data and the refinement of the test battery by multiple correlation and correlational profile analysis.
Methods by which the
experimental and control group results were treated will be described.
CHAPTER IV TREATMENT QF TEST DATA
In this chapter the test data for the total group of eighth grade boys will be presented to show their initial and final status.
ships between the initial and final measures will be examined, and the intercorrelations among the measures will be presented.
These data will ,
be treated by multiple correlation to determine preoictive weights for each oi the measures, and, two new measures will be derived by correlation profile analysis Tor purposes of matching experimental and control groups on meas ures of known efficiency in predicting outcomes.
The method of selecting
control subjects and the status of experimental and control.groups at the beginning of the experiment will also be described in this chapter.
Results for All Eighth Grade
The preceding chapter described the measuring devices and the method for combining scores to obtain an Index of Deviation.
It was pointed out
that this measure was based upon standard scores derived from means and standard deviations for distributions of the test results so as to make it possible to combine scores each time, and , to know the relative standing of each subject in his group at the beginning and again at the end of the experiment. The group data for all boys taking the tests each time are shown in Table III.
Eight cases were lost during the intervening period by deaths,
illness, and by leaving school.
One experimental and one control subject
were lost through deaths by drowning, while the illnesses included one acci dent.
It should be noted that the data included the subjects who participated
in -group therapy.
These data describe the population from which problem
pupils were selected.
Here t.re shown the average scores and variability
for the eight measures used.
TABLE III Group Means for All Eighth Grade Boys on Initial Tests (October 1948) and Final tests (May 1948) Initial (N a 117) M Needs
Final (N ■ 109)
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
8 9 .4o
boc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Rating A (Problems)
Teacher Rating B (Traits)
The average number of unfulfilled needs at the beginning and end seemed to be about the same, with little change in variability.
of relationship, between beginning and end scores, however, was low as will be shown in the next section (r s .10).
The similarity of means did not
reflect what might have appeared to be a stable relationship between initial and final scores obtained by individual students. The mean number of problems checked by the students increased slight ly in a negative direction, with a greater dispersion of scores shown.
means are somewhat similar to the average number of problems (M r 20.4) checked by two hundred and three eighth grade boys and girls in a stand ardization group reported by Mooney.Another studv by Pfleiger^ showed 13.8 problems as the average for 128 eighth grade graduates in Detroit. Mooney's data also noted
that his ninth grade group averaged 23.4 problems
checked by this next higher grade.
The present population showed the same
tpend as the, moved along toward the end of the eighth grade.
ence between the means was found to be significant ana probably
result from s-uupling errors more than three times a hundred chances. The Social Acceptance ratings of all the boys, by the same sex, moved in a more acceptubel direction over the intervening period.
average change was five points and would probably not occur by chance more than three times in a hundred (p a .03).
The average ratings attained by
this group were considerably below the average for a group of children tested in the mia-west3, wherein the median score fell at 103 ?°r ratings by the same sex.
Considered by mid-western percentile ratings, the present
population was located at the 28 percentile at the outset and progressed to the 33 percentile on the final test.
Discrepancies of this magnitude sug
gested the desirability of using local standard scores developed from cur rent data. The change in mean score for ratings received from the girls was about the same as the preceding ratings by boys, and was also found sig nificant at the same level of probability (p s .03). 1.
Ratings b. girls
R. L. Mooney, "Item Analysis Data for the Junior High School Problem Check List," Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1941, page 8. E. F. Pfleiger, "Pupil Adjustment Problems and a Study of Relationships between the Scores on the California Test of Personality and the Mooney Problem Check List," Journal of Educational Research. 41, 1947 j page 269. Unpublished Percentile Rankings distributed by the Center for Research of the School of Education, hew Tork University.
showed a-closer resemblance to the mid-western norms in that the initial mean was at the 41 percentile, and the final mean at the 49 percentile. Peer ratings for all the boys in the eighth grade, from the same and oppo site sexes, showed significant change in the direction of increased social acceptability. TABLE IV Differences and Probabilities in Initial and Final Feans for All Eighth Grade Boys ■* Fean Diff .
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Rating A
Teacher Rating B
(*) (") indicates undesirable direction or loss; ■ ---------------(**) («d)1 or
(♦) indicates desirable directionorgain
“ 2X12 ^M1 ^ 2
Teachers' ratings of problem behavior (Ta) and behavior traits (Tb) changed in an undesir ble direction from beginning to end ratings.
mean changes were probably not determined by chance, since such changes would be axpected by chance in only one and two instances in a hundred,
Garrett, op. cit., page 209, Standard Error, of the Difference Between Correlated Means.
The mean ratings initially obtained resembled closely the
normative data presented b. the authors'*’ of the scales for over a thousand boys on both schedules.
This similarity was also noted in the sub-divisions
of Schedule B for intellectual, physical, social and emotional characteris tics . The mean decrease of 5»9 points in intelligence quotient, signifi cant beyond the level of one chance in a hundred, appeared unusual.
too, the variability decreased from a standard deviation of 17 to 14 on retest.
Correlation between initial and final intelligence quotients
substantial (r b «75)> when the time interval was taken into consideration. It appeared that some condition operated on this test for all students which depressed their scores, caused them to cluster more closely about the middle of the distribution, while retaining their relative position in the two distributions• The tendency for average reading ability scores to change slightly, though not significantly, in a desirable direction offered no direct as sistance in explaining the downward change for
verage intelligence quotient.
Initial intelligence scores correlated substantially with final scores in reading achievement (r 5 .69) and might have suggested, at first glance, that they would vary in the same direction upon retest.
That this was not
the case further inplied that some circumstance peculiar to the measure of mental ability operated to depress that rating and not the closely related measure of reading ability.
In any event, it was of interest to find only
a slight upward shift in a measure of achievement which generally reported an anticipated increase with time spent in school.
M. S. Haggerty, ',¥• G. Olson, and E. K. Wickman, Manual of Directions, pages 8 - 1 0 .
In sunmari-zing these data from the initial and final testing for all boys in the eighth grade, there were found:
significant positive changes in
both measures of social acceptance; significant undesirable changes in the number of problems checked in teachers' ratings of problem behavior and behavior traits, and, a decrease in mental ability scores.
The changes in
unfulfilled needs and in reading ability were of an order that could have been attributed to chance factors.
Initial standing in me. sures of problems,
teachers' ratings and mental ability resembled that found in other similar groups of eighth grade students.
Reading level for the group was somewhat
below expectancy judged from national norms for this grade, but was not un like grade averages discovered in similar socio-economic and cultural areas. Significant mean changes in six of the eight measures underscored the need for.local
standard scores related to the characteristics of each distri
bution at the outset and upon retesting. Determining the effectiveness of the I&asuring Devices * The reasons for the selection of the separate tests and scales were previously discussed in Chapter III.
The logic for combining the six measures
into an Index of Deviation was also outlined.
At the beginning of the experi
ment it was necessary to select a "problem pupil" population from which to draw an experimental group, yet no direct evidence was then available con cerning the efficacy of the measuring devices in predicting outcomes from group therapy for this group, in this particular setting.
were therefore employed to evaluate the accuracy of the Index of Deviation in selecting problem pupils.
Reasonable agreement was found between chdice
of problem pupils by counselor ratings and by the criteria established for the composite score, supplemented by deviant scores on two or more of the 'individual scales.
It Was still-necessary to determine a) how reliably the measures performed in reflecting pupil status at the close of the experiment, b) the separate contribution of each of the scales to the composite Index of Deviation, and c) from the correlation results, by inference and other means, the relative adequacy of the newly derived devices in reflecting change and in predicting outcomes from group therapy.
On the strength
of these new data, it would be possible to select control subjects from among the untreated cases on the basis of somewhat refined measures of known degree of error.
These steps will be described in the remainder
of this chapter.
Correlation of Initial and Final Test Results If the composite Index of Deviation, or its components, were to be used to judge what happened to each of the groups as a result of treat ment or as a result of the passage of time and the usual life experiences, information was needed about the relationship between initial and final measures.
Correlation of initial scores with final scores for 89 boys
who did not participate in group therapy were calculated from standard scores on each of the measures.
Product-moment correlation coefficients
are shown in Table V for all untreated boys who were in school by the second week of the term, and for whom complete test-retest data were available.
There was a seven month interval between initial and final
testing. It was anticipated that correlations based upon a relatively homogeneous group, drawn from within a single grade, after an interval of more than a half year, would be somewhat lower than those reported
from heterogeneous samples within a brief time span.l
From the correla
tions of each of the tests with itself, this was found to be the case. Retest correlations for Intelligence Quotient (r ; .75) and for Reading Ability (r - .81) were reported about ten points higher on the average, usually for much briefer intervals between initial and later testing, and for less selected populations.
The Teacher Rating Schedules' retest cor
relations were somewhat lower than correlation coefficients upon repeated ratings reported by the authors.^
Problems expressed by the subjects at
first and upon retest showed a moderate degree of relationship, as did the Social Acceptance Ratines by peera, with coefficients ranging from .49 to .57.
Pepinshy3 questioned the use of reliability evaluations by
retesting on sociometric ratings, and suggested that a low correlation might reflect genuine changes in instrument.
behavior rather than instability of the
The present findings compared favorably with reliability
data presented in her study for delayed evaluation of group responses of a similar age group.
The only measure in which negligible 3elf-correlation
wa3 found wa3 the Needs test.
Many of its inter-correlation3 with other
tests in the battery were negative, but the inverse relationships with Problems was significant beyond the one per cent level of confidence.^ The rest of the self-correlations were also significant, the probabilities of their being equal to zero was less than one in a hundred chances.
1. J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, page 412. 2. Manual for Haggerty-0l3on-¥ickman Behavior RatingSchedules, page 2. 3. Pauline N. Pepinsky, "The Meaning of 'Validity' and'Reliability' as Applied to Sociometric Tests, "Educational and Psychological Measurement. 9» 1949» 39-49. 4. Garrett, op. cit., Table 49, page 299.
Intercorrelations of Nine Measures, Initial Scores with Final Scores, for 89 Untreated Boys after a Seven Month Interval
Problems Soc. Acc. (B)
-.05 ' .02
- .0 8
- .1 0
Soc. Acc. (6) Teacher R. (A) Teacher R. (B) 1. Q. ^eading
Tb 1 ro
• H CD
The correlation of the Index of Deviation with its final standings proved to be substantial (r s .70), and almost as stable as the measures of mental and reading ability.
The Coefficient of Determination (r » .4-9)
for the composite Index of Deviation indicated that the initial and final scores were measuring common variances to the extent of about 49 per cent.*
Under the circumstances reported, the Index of Deviation wa3
considered a measure of adequate reliability for purposes of group pre diction. To what extent were the separate measures correlated with the final composite, the Index of Deviation?
Ibid., pages 337-339.
The right hand column in Table V
demonstrated that all~but one measure (Needs, r s -.08) were related to the composite, ranging from r - .33 to r s .55.
Intelligence Quotient and both Social Acceptance measures were below r z .40, the correlations for Reading Ability and the Teacher Ratings showed a higher degree of relationship with the Index of Deviation. There was evidence, then, that seven of the eight measures shared some thing in common with the Index of Deviation to some degree, while one appeared unique in this respect. Other of the measures showed moderate interrelationships, quite apart from self-correlations or correlation with the composite.
were listed in Table VI in their rank order of correlation, disregarding the sign of the correlation.
It appeared from this listing that Reading
Ability, I. Q. (mental ability), and the two Teacher Rating Schedules had much in common, while the Social Acceptance ratings by peers were re lated to one another but not with the preceding group of measures. The Needs test was evidently measuring some quality that was negatively related to six of the other measures, and, to the composite of these measures. chosen.
This was not anticipated when the original scales were
Nor , was it expected that Needs and Problems would be inversely
related to one another.
These measures were selected to ta? the personal
feelings and attitudes expressed by the subjects about themselves.
the matters turned out, the initial Needs scale seemed to predict an opposite quality from that measured by the Problem scale.
And to a
lesser degree, it was measuring something different from the total battery It became apparent after the final testing that the Needs test could not
Index of Deviation
H' -.10 -.20 -.30 -N
Correlation Profile Analysis
Graphic illustration of the relative independence of Cluster II (shaded area) from Cluster I (area -within the broken lines). Cluster I contains the Teacher Ratings of Behavior, Reading ability, Intelligence Quotient, and the suojects' self-ratings on Problems. Cluster II is composed of the boys’ and girls' ratings on social acceptance. Correlations of Needs (inverted) with other measures are shown by the dotted lines.
make its contribution to this battery beeause the heavy weighting of seven interrelated measures operated to obscure the quality it was meas uring. TABLE VI Intercorrelations of Initial and Final Measures Showing r a .30 or Above Initial
Teacher R, (A)
Teacher R. (B)
Soc. Acc. (3oys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher R. (3)
Teacher R. (A)
Teacher R. (B)
The 21 remaining separate test intercorrelations were below r 3 .30. Needs yielded low negative, or about zero correlations with all measures. Peer ratings demonstrated considerable indeoendence from the other measures of the battery.
These relationships were more clearly revealed by plotting
(Figure I) graphically a "correlation profile analysis", as suggested by Tryon, to expose clusters or '‘operational unities".
This method exposed
two major clusters which acted "as if they were common determiners in different behaviors."^The components of each cluster were seen to vary together, but not with each other, yet each cluster maintained an adequate relation to the outside criterion.
In this instance, the outside criterion employed was
J. G. Peatman, _££. cit.. page 493* quoting from R. C. Tryon, Cluster Analysis. Ann Arbor, Michigan* Edwards Brothers, 1939. •
the Index of Deviation.
This composite had previously demonstrated its
usefulness in selecting the original group of problem pupils, and mani fested a fairly adequate degree of reliability upon retest. The independence of the two clusters was further tested by calcu lating the average intercorrelations of Cluster I with the component tests of Cluster II, and the reverse.
This was accomplished by transforming
the product moment correlations into Fisher's z function^- and then aver aging the equivalents of the correlation coefficients. correlations are shown in Table VII - (A) and (B).
The average inter-
None of the average
correlations of Cluster I with the components of Cluster II (Social Accept ance by Boy3 and Girls) exceeded r ■ f .095.
uhen reversed, in correlating
Cluster II with the components of Cluster I (Problems, Teacher Rating A and B, I. Q. and Reading), the same was again true.
In each instance the
average intercorrelations of the clusters with the component correlations yielded no apparent relationships.
This was taken as further evidence of
the independence of the two clusters.
At the same time, it was noted
that the components of both clusters correlated positively with the original Index of Deviation: none was lower than r 3 .33. • It appeared therefore that the Index of Deviation was composed of these two independent clusters and the unique test of Needs, which acted almost completely independently from the composite and from each of the two clusters.
It still remained
to ascertain the relative contributions (weights) of the components of each of the clusters so that the most efficient possible measures could be derived "for matching purposes, and for determining change after treatment.
R. A. Fisher. Statistical Methods for Research 'Workers. (1943), pages 197-201.
— Multiple Correlations to Determine Weights In selecting measures for identifying the problem boys, effort was made to obtain several measures that would tap different aspects of the subjects' personal, social and school relationships.
The six measures
originally chosen, now supplemented by measures of mental reading ability, tended to group themselves into two independent clusters.
Needs, had revealed its uniqueness and did not appear related to either of the clusters which emerged, or to the original composite. therefore not included in the next step,
A multiple correlation of each
cluster with the Index of Deviation which served as the criterion. TABLE VII - A
Average Correlations of Component Tests from Cluster I with Cluster II, Transformed into Fisher's z Function (N a 89) (Correlation (Fisher' 3 z Functions) Coefficients) P
Avg. with -.04
Teacher R. (A)
Teacher R. (B)
TABLE VII - B Average Correlations of Component Tests from Cluster II with Cluster I (N s 89) (Correlation (Fisher's z) Coefficients) Components (II)
Avg. r with I
Soc, Acceptance (B)
Soc. Acceptance (G)
The technique employed was the Doolittle method, as outlined by Guilford^, for the five variables of Cluster I.
It was intended to de
termine the relative weights of each of the five component parts contri buting to this cluster, and the relative contribution of the cluster of five variables to the Index of Deviation. The same was done for Cluster II by the method for two variables, for the same purpose.
TABLE VIII Beta Weights Derived from Multiple Correlation of Five Components of Cluster I with Index of Deviation Per cent Beta Contributed Weights to Cluster I Intelligence Quotient
t mo H•
Teacher Rating (A)
Teacher Rating (B)
.4297 .655 .063
R2 = R = *R =
The multiple correlation coefficient and beta weights for each of the component variables of Cluster I are shown in Table VIII.
ficient R = .655, while not high, was nevertheless significant, since the probability of the true coefficient's falling below .4-66 (minus three times its standard error of .063) was le83 than one chance in a hundred.
Guilford, op. cit.. pages 393-399.
The coefficient of multiple determination*(R2) was .4297» indicating that the five components when optimally combined (I.Q., P, R, Ta, and Tb) ac counted for approximately forty three per cent of the original Index of Deviation. The contributions of the components demonstrated that Teachers' Rating of Behavior Traits (Schedule B) contributed most heavily to Clus ter I, about 46 per cent.
About 20 per cent was added by the Teachers*
Rating of Problem Behavior (Schedule A).
Together, the Teachers* Ratings
accounted for about two-thirds of the weight carried by all the tests in Cluster I.
The Reading and mental ability measures together contributed
nineteen per cent, while Problems accounted for the remaining sixteen per cent.
Since 84 per cent of Cluster I is determined by the Teachers*
view of behavior in school and measures of "academic aptitude", this cluster was designated, for convenience, the Index of Scolastic Adaptability. The appearance in this cluster of the students' own expression of his problems (P), led to a review of the sub-scores of the Mooney Problem Check List.
It was found that almost a fourth (23 per cent) of
all problems checked by all the boys were in the section on "School Ad justment".
The next highest category in rank order was the "Miscellaneous"
section with 19 per cent.
This section contained problems centering about
vocational and educational planning, future aspirations, finances and religious concerns.
The heaviest saturation of problems underscored in
this area were around vocational and educational plans.
from this crude analysis, that about forty percent of the problems checked concerned the area ^f school and future planning for school and work, 1.
Guilford, o£. cit., page 386
rather than purely personal or emotional aspects of the boys' lives. This examination of the nature of the problems checked suggested greater comgruence than was at first apparent as the constellation emerged.
Beta Weights Derived from Multiple Correlation of Two Components of Cluster II with Index of Deviation
Social Acceptance (Boys) Social Acceptance (Girls) R2 = R
Rer cent Contributed to Cluster II
.0990 .1890 .435 .087
The second cluster yielded a multiple correlation (R) of ,435» somewhat less dlosely related to the makeup of the Index of Deviation than was Cluster I.
This was also a significant correlation, since its
standard error of estimate of .087 indicated that the probability was one in a hundred that the true correlation would fall below .174. coefficient of multiple determination (R^)
was .1890 which signified that
the peer ratings of Social Acceptance contributed when optimally weighted, about nineteen per cent to the original Index of Deviation.
was nevertheless clearcut, independent of contamination, and composed about equally of the ratings by boys, and those by the girls of the boys. It was called the Index of Social Acceptability and represented the peers' view of the subjects.
Its complete independence from "academic" qualities
and its unrelatedness to
teachers' ratings was noteworthy, since it
provided a useful tool for estimating this important side of the adoles cent's makeup.
Here his ability to be accepted by peers of either, or
both sexes, was made available for evaluation. The procedure described made it possible to develop two new combined measures, each independent and relatively clear-cut in its meaning, of known predictive efficiency, both moderately well related to the original composite battery of six tests.
It was considered advisable to eliminate
one of the measures which proved to be unique in this battery, with this group.
It was now possible to maximize the efficiency of the original battery
by applying the derived beta weights, and in this way, minimize a further source of errors of measurement. It was possible to calculate for each of the originally selected experimental subjects, two new measures, an Index of Scholastic Adaptability and an Index of Social Acceptability. This was done by working out a facil itating table for each of the components, using the weights shown in Tables VIII and IX.
The same was done for each of the 89 untreated subjects on the
basis of their initial test scores and ratings. Selection of Control Groups Since the new composite weighted measures appeared independent of one another, it was anticipated that very few subjects could be found who could be simultaneously matched on both variables.
The weighted measures for
each experimental subject were tallied in parallel columns, and for each such combination, the measures of the 89 untreated pupils were searched until the closest possible approximation of both measures was obtained.
This was first
done for the Index of Scholastic Adaptability, and Table X summarizes the
standing in each measure of each experimental subject along with that of his control mate.
The group means of 53*45 and 53*55 on the matching var
iable , Index of Scholastic Ability, indicated a slight and insignificant dif ference.
It could therefore be assumed with confidence that the two groups
were drawn from the same universe.
A comparison of means for the Index of
Social Acceptability revealed a difference of 3*8 standard score points be tween averages.
Here the difference between the groups was larger than on
the matching variable.
Could it be assumed that an obtained difference of
this magnitude represented a true difference between the groups on this var iable?
This assumption was tested^- by postulating that this difference be
tween the means was in fact zero.
The t value of 1.44 converted into proba
bilities of occurrence, revealed that this difference could occur in seventeen chances out of a hundred.
The obtained difference was therefore not considered
greater than zero and might have occurred by chance.
Thus, the groups may be
described as having been drawn from the same universe in this second variable as well.
The pairings were, however, much less adequate on the second measure.
On the major variable, Index of Scholastic Adaptability, it was possible to pair most control cases within one point of difference.
The group measures
portrayed fairly close matching on both Indexes, but the individual pairings on the subsidiary index were less satisfactory.
With few exceptions, it was
noted that one index increased as the other decreased.
It was therefoie pos
sible to obtain relatively good dual matchings in about half of the pairs. The second matching was done in the same way using the Index of Social Acceptability as the matching variable this time.
Here again the same problem
was encountered in trying to match as closely as possible on both weighted
Lindquist, op. clt.. pages 58-59* Significance of a Difference in the Means of Related Measures/
First Experiment, Initial Status, Experimental and Control Subjects Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability Index of Experimental Scholastic Subjects Adaptability 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A x B x C x D x E x F x G x H x I X Jx K x L x M x S x 0 x
67 65 63 59 58 56 56 56 56 55 54 52 52 51 48 47 46 44 43 41
66 48 48 46 35 56 58 57 47 50 55 57 56 62 66 63 62 72 61 57
1 1 1 1
Q R S T
Index of Social Control Acceptability Subjects
x x x x
Index of Index of Scholastic Social Adaptability Acceptability
1 A c 1 B c 1 C c I D e* 1 E c 1 F c 1 G c lHc* lie lJc* lKc* 1 L c* 1 M c* lHc* 1 0 c* 1 P c 1 Q e* lRc ISc* 1 T c
68 65 63 58 58 57 56 57 56 55 54 52 52 51 48 47 46 44 43 41
33 34 60 61 50 51 38 57 49 47 57 60 56 55 68 53 50 56 56 55
* (Control subjects who took part in both experiments)
The initial matching on the primary variable was achieved for all
but two pairs (pair 2 Bx - 2 Be and 2 Ex - 2 Ec) to the extent of a single
point of difference.
Table XI lists the pairs and notes the means and dif
TABLE XI Second Experiment, Initial Status, Experimental and Control Subjects Matched on Index of Social Acceptability Experimental Subjects
Index of Social Acceptability
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Index of Scholastic Adaptability
47 46 35
44 67 48 47 46 51 43 56 52 56 41 52 56 54 55 65 63 56 59 58
62 62 61 58 57 57 57 56 56 55 50 48
Control Subjects 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C D E F G H I J K L M H 0 P Q R S T
c c* c c c* c* c c c* c* c* c* c c* c* c c c* c c
Index of Social Acceptability
Index of Scholastic Acceptability
72 68 65 64 60 61 61 58 57 57 56 56 56 55 50 48 48 47 46 35
62 48 44 40 52 58 42 45 54 57 43 52 57 51 46 46 46 55 44 55
* (Control subjects who took part in both experiments)
On the Index of Social Acceptability the group means were 56.10 and 56.00 and the difference was not significant ( t was .568, p was .58).
means of the secondary variable, Index of Scholastic Adaptability, differed by 3*60 points. and p was .11 ).
The difference was not found to be significant ( _t was 1.71 The groups may therefore be described as having been drawn
from the same universe in regard to both variables, but were again poorly paired on the second measure. The pairings were examined to discover how many of the experimental sub jects were paired with the same control mates for both matchings. such cases were disclosed.
In the first matching, 1 Ex and 1 He were paired in
eighth place, and on the second matching they became the tenth pair, 2 Jx and 2 Jc.
The same was true of 1 Mx and 1 Me in twelfth place, and they moved up
to eleventh place when matched as 2 Lx and 2 Lc on the Index of Social Accept ability. There were ten control subjects^ in all who took part in both control groups and ten others were drawn upon for each control group making a total of thirty control subjects.
The mean age of the experimental group was thirteen
years, ten months, while the mean age of the control group matched on Scholast ic Adaptability was about five months older.
The average age of the second con
trol group, matched on Social Acceptability, was exactly the same as that of the experimental group.
The experimental group and the second control group were
about two months younger on the average than the total group from which they were drawn (N was 109), and the first control group was about three months old er than the mean of the total population.
No attempt was made to equate age in
matching the pairs. nnnnlutHnp Statement In this chapter the results of all tests were analyzed for all the
These subjects are identified in Tables X and XI by an asterisk (*) following their code letters.
boys in the eighth grade to provide background for later comparison of experimental and control subjects with the total group's characteristics. It was shown that small, but significant changes had occurred from initial to final testing in six of the eight separate measuresj peer ratings showed a gain, while all others lost. The next section described the results from intercorrelating Initial and final standings in order to determine relationships with the composite, Index of Deviation. Reliabilities were somewhat lower over the interval of seven months than was usually reported for some of the measures.
lationships were analyzed by inspection, by correlation profile analysis and by multiple correlation, and two distinct clusters emerged.
One was heavily
weighted with academic and school phases of the pupils’ life and this was designated the Index of Scholastic Adaptability. The other was independent and was based directly upon peer ratings.
This was called the Index of
Social Acceptability. Both weighted measures were then used to select and match two suitable control groups.
CHAPTER V RESULTS FROM GROUP COMPARISONS
This chapter will describe the changes observed in the experimental group and in each of the control groups following the experimental group’s participation in approximately three months of group therapy sessions. Initial and final means will be presented for each of the groups, and com parisons will also be made between experimental and control groups at the outset and at the end of the experiment.
Group mean changes observed in
the experimental group from outset to end will be presented, and the same will be done for the controls who did not participate in group psycho therapy.
Restatement of Hypothesis In planning the design for this investigation it was arranged to treat one group of randomly selected problem boys, and to compare the ob served changes with those occurring in a parallel group of untreated paired subjects.
The hypothesis was stated positively as follows:
That a group of male problem pupils provided with planned group therapy discussions, conducted by & trained leader, will mant fast, greater changes in a positive direction in behavior, social relationships, and personal attitudes toward themselves than a non-participating, control group of pupils. In order to demonstrate that the changes for the treated group were greater than those found for the untreated group, it was postulated that, since the pairs were matched at the outset, there should be no difference between the groups at the close of the experiment.
Stated in the form of
the null hypothesis1, it was possible to test the observed differences by means of Lindquist’s formula^ for the significance of a difference in the means of related measures.
If the observed difference between the treated
subjects' mean and that of its control was found to be significantly greater than the assumed difference of zero, it could then be said that some factors other than those of a chance nature had-operated in the case of the treated group to cause this difference. The only factor introduced with the experimental subjects which was known not to have been available to the controls, was the course of twentytwo group therapy discussions.
It was otherwise assumed that the daily
school procedure and outside routines had gone along in the same ways for both groups.
This was not subject to control, nor to adequate verification
in this instance.
Subjects known to be under treatment by psychiatrists
and social caseworkers were not included in the experiment.
instances, where special adjustments had been arranged by the counselors, these facts were made available to and recorded by the investigator for each of the pupils concerned. Under these circumstances, all error could not be eliminated from the experiment.
The particular aspects of personal attitudes and social
relationships under investigation further militated against a completely rigorous criterion.
Hence, the 5 per cent level of probability was
adopted as the critical limit for accepting observed changes as ’Significant. Any observed difference in means or mean changes which could be attributed to chance in fewer than 5 occurrences in a hundred, were to be acceptable as ’’true’’ difference for the purposes of this investigation.
lities were obtained beyond the level of one in a hundred chances,
E.F Lindquist, Statistical Analysis in Educational Research, page 15. Ibid.. pages 58-59•
these were to be Interpreted as "very significant", and would permit re jection of the null hypothesis with an even greater degree of confidence.
Four Experiments to Test Hypothesis In the preceding chapter, the selection of control mates was des cribed on the basis of each of two relatively unique and independent com posite weighted scores,- the Index of Scholastic Adaptability and the Index of Social Acceptability. It was pointed out that simultaneous matching on both variables was possible in only two control cases.
For this reason, two
separate control groups (I and II) were selected on the basis of a single variable each time, while attempting to equate the second variable as closely as was possible with the secondary score of the experimental subject.
this goal was fairly well attained was apparent from the coincidence of the means of the second variable in each trial.
The comparison of the experi
mental group with each of its two control groups constituted, in reality, two separate experiments. A further circumstance made it desirable to delete data for two experimental subjects who proved most unlike the other experimental sub jects.
Both entered into the therapy groups late, and frequently absented
themselves from the group meetings. group.
Neither became an integral part of the
Nhen present, each attempted to disrupt by ridicule, teasing, or by
Failing this, they either withdrew to a corner with a
comic book, or, walked out to wander in the halls, or to "catch a smoke" in some secluded part of the basement of the building.
One (lHx and 2Jx)
entered after missing seven therapy meetings, the other (lSx and 2Gx) missed the first six meetings.
The first attended only eleven sessions;
the second, fourteen of the twenty-two meetings.
Because of their unusual
behavior, apparent inability to become part of their therapy groups, and
because each missed over a fourth of the total number of sessions at the outset, it could be said of them that they did not become integrated in the therapy group in the same sense as the remaining 18 experimental subjects. For these reasons, a second check of the data, was undertaken with these subjects and their control mates, deleted for this purpose.
were not, however, discouraged from attending, or dropped from therapy.
fact, every effort was made, within the limitations set for the study and the,group treatment methods employed, to assist them in becoming part of their respective groups.
In the usual non-research group therapy program,
individual methods of treatment would have been initiated.
In the present
investigation this was not feasible, therefore the suggested method of analyzing the results for the other eighteen subjects was employed.
effects of their annoying and disturbing behavior were nevertheless experienced by their groups and this, of course, cannot readily be estimated from the quantitative results.
This will, however, be discussed in a later section
concerned with individual results and therapy protocols. The four experiments, arranged to test the hypothesis discussed above were: I.
All experimental subjects (N = 20) paired with subjects from Control Group I on Index of Scholastic Adaptability:
All experimental subjects (N = 20) paired with subjects from Control Group II on Index of Social Acceptability;
Eighteen participating subjects paired with mates from Control Group I on Index of Scholastic Adaptability; and, Eighteen participating subjects paired with mates from Control Group II on Index of Social Acceptability.
113 Tnl frial and Final Status of Experimental and Control Groups The results were analyzed for each of the four experiments by com paring the initial status of experimental group with that of its control group.
Mean difference and t ratios were computed for each of the com
posite measures and each of the separate component scales.
described how closely the two groups were matched at the beginning, prior to initiating therapy with the experimental subjects.
Final means for
both groups, and mean difference between experimental and control groups portrayed the comparative status of both groups at the close of the treat ment period.
The t ratio disclosed the significance of the difference
between the groups at this time.
If the groups were closely matched at
the outset and differed significantly at the end, then an important change had occurred which favored one or the other group. The direction of the change and the direction in which each group moved was an important part of the analysis, since on some variables both groups worsened, on others both improved, and in several instances the groups moved in different directions. It was also necessary to ascertain which group was responsible for the changed status of the experimental and control groups at the end of the experiment.
Vas the change brought about by a gain in one coupled with a
loss in the other?
Or did both groups gain, one more than its matched
group, or did both lose to a lesser and greater degree?
The optimum result
to be expected, if group therapy were effective in producing changes in the factors under study, would be to find a significant positive change for the treated group and little or no gain for its untreated counter-part. This comparative movement would permit the null hypothesis to be rejected if the probabilities for its occurrence were within the limits established. Perhaps one might expect to find that the controls worsened since:
114 . a) they had problems and difficulties which were not being attended in any special manner; and, b) they might be expected to follow the trend pointed out in the preceding chapter, a loss on some measures and a small gain on peer ratings which improved for the entire male population of the grade. The data in the following tables provided some of the answers to the questions raised.
The First Experiment The data in Tables XII and XIII describe the experimental and control group I, matched on Scholastic Adaptability. These groups encompassed all twenty subjects who were selected for therapy groups, and their paired controls.
While very closely matched on the primary variable, the other
group means were relatively well equated.
Only the Index of Deviation
demonstrated a reliable difference of 4*55 standard score points.
difference was also apparent on Social Acceptance by Girls, but the pro bability was just beyond the five per cent level.
The groups were considered
satisfactorily matched on all but Index of Deviation, with some doubt about their status on girls' ratings for Social Acceptance. In comparing the final standing of the two groups no significant change was immediately apparent.
There was a difference of more than ten
points between the groups shown in Teachers' Ratings of Behavior Traits, whereas initially there had been virtually none. significant.
This difference was not
Both groups worsened; the controls about four times as much
as the experimental.
The loss of 14 points in this measure was a signifi
cant one for the control. Another suggestive change occurred in the Girls' Social Acceptance ratings, which brought the groups within 1.45 points of one another, after an initial difference of 15.90 points.
Most of this change was caused by
TABLE XII First Experiment: Comparison of Experimental and Control Group I, Matched on Index of Schol astic Adaptability, Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes (N = 20 Pairs) Tiritlnl Means Exp.
Index of Schol.Adapt.
Index of Soc. Accept.
Index of Deviation
Teacher Ratings (B)
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Ratings (A)
Significant at .05 level
,TABLE XIII First Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes, Matched in In dex of Scholastic Adaptability for Experimen tal Group and Control Group I (N - 20 Pairs) Control Group I
Experimental Mean Diff.
Teacher Ratings (A)
Teacher Ratings (B)
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Index of 53.1*5 Schol.Adapt •
Index of Soc.Accept.
Index of Deviation
(■*) Significant at .05 level
117 (Table XIII) the gain shown by the experimental group (-11.4-5) intensified by a loss for the controls ( -5.90). significant.
Neither of these changes alone was
Since the trend agreed with the optimal expectation outlined,
viz., experimental gain and control loss, it was therefore possible to test the combined probabilities^, and these proved significant at the two per cent level. Both groups declined in Intelligence Quotient, but the difference between groups at final testing was not significant.
group lost 3.3 points, while the control lost about twice that amount.
proved to be significant loss for the controls at about the two per cent level. Suggestive trends were noted in Index of Social Acceptance and in the matching variable, Index of Scholastic Adaptability, but neither proved significant.
In analyzing the shift in the Index of Deviation, it was found
that the groups moved toward each other with the control group worsening ( -.80) and the experimental improving ( -3.75).
Neither change was signi
ficant by itself, but when combined proved to be a significant difference, one that would not be likely to occur more than three times in a hundred chances.
Thus, the control group which began in the favored position, and
was significantly different at the outset, lost ground while the experimental group gained, marking a significant trend on the pooled, unweighted measure the Index of Deviation. To sum up the results of the first experiment:
appeared for the treated group while the untreated group worsened in all three composite measures. Only the Index of Deviation, however, showed a significant change. Among the component measures, the treated group fared somewhat better than the untreated in showing minor losses.
Lindquist, op. cit.. pages 46-47
In each such instance
118 the controls lost significantly in Intelligence Quotient and in Teachers' Ratings of Behavior Traits.
Only in Social Acceptance ratings by the girls
did the experimental group gain significantly in final status over the control group. The hypothesis, that there would be no difference between the two groups after treatment, was rejected with confidence by the results observed from the Index of Deviation and the Social Acceptance rafrtupa by girls. In these measures the treated group was significantly more improved than the Tintreated controls.
The Second Experiment Here the total experimental group was paired with the second control group on the basis of the Index of Social Acceptability (Table XIV). The initial matching of the two groups appeared adequate for all but the Index of Deviation, which yielded a difference of 5.80 points, significant beyond the five per cent level.
The difference in Teacher Ratings A and B were
large at the outset, but did not reach the required probability level.
experimental group and its controls were regarded matched in the major variable and the secondary variable (Index of Scholastic Adaptability) but differed significantly in the unweighted composite measure, the Index of Deviation. None of the separate component measures indicated real differences between groups at the outset, except for suggestive differences on the ratings of behavior by the teachers. At the conclusion of the experiment, none of the variables demon strated significant differences.
There were, however, four separate large
movements in the component measures, of which teachers' ratings and ex pressed problems favored the experimental group while the gain in Reading was the only one in favor of the control group.
The composite measures
manifested slight gains for the experimental group and similar losses for
TABLE XIV Second Experiment: Comparison of Experimental and Control Group II, Matched on Index of So cial Acceptability, Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes (N = 20 Fairs) Jnf -hin.1 Means
Final Means Mean Diff.
Teacher Ratings (B)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Ratings (A)
Exp. Index of Soc. Acc. Index of Schol.Adapt. Index of Deviation Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Reading Intell. Quotient Needs
Significant at .05 level
Second Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means and Mean Changes for Experimental Group and Control Group II (N - 20 Pairs)) Matched on Index of Social Acceptability Experimental Initial
Control Group ] Mean Diff.
Index of Deviation
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Rating (A)
Teacher Rating (B)
Index of Soc. Acc. Index of Schol.Adapt.
Reading Intell. Quotient Needs
Significant at .05 level
121 the control, but none was significant, even when the trends were checked by combining probabilities. In analyzing the changes which occurred within the experimental and control groups from beginning to end (Table XV), several significant losses were noted for the controls.
These were accompanied by similar but smaller
losses in the experimental groups (Problems, Ta and Tb) so that betweengroup differences were obscured.
The experimental group showed a gain in
peer ratings by girls, but this proved to be just below the critical level for significance.
The same was true for a gain in Reading ( -0.56 months)
manifested by the control group. All the changes seen in the composite measures for the separate groups occurred in the expected directions, but only two of the six approached sug gestive levels of significance.
The control group lost 2.45 standard score
points on the Index of Scholastic Adaptability (p was .10), and the experi mental group gained 3.75 standard score points (p was .14). In summary, the trends revealed in this experiment were similar in direction to those revealed in -Hie first experiment.
None of the results,
however, was sufficiently marked to permit rejection of the hypothesis that the groups would not differ after treatment.
This control group (II),
while apparehtly less seriously deviant than either control I or the experi mental group, suffered significant declines in ratings by teachers in prob lem behavior and in behavior trait ratings, and, in problems acknowledged by the subjects.
This was similar to the changes observed in the first
control group, although the decfease in Intelligence Quotient here was not as severe, nor as decisive in probability of occurrence.
Despite the absence
of significant findings, the overall changes bore a striking resemblance to those elicited in the first comparison.
122 The Third Experiment This experiment analyzed the data for eighteen experimental subjects who had attended more than half the therapy sessions, and had entered-the groups at the time they were organized.
Two experimental subjects and their
control mates, earlier described, were omitted from this and the next analysis. The subj ects were paired on the basis of the Index of Scholastic Adaptability, as in the first experiment, and according to the means noted in the left hand portion of Table XVI, were matched on all variables save the Index of Deviation. Here the mean difference between the groups at the outset was 4.28 standard score points, significant at the five per cent level.
The mean differences in unfulfilled needs and social acceptance
ratings by girls approached, but did not meet, the required level of sig nificance. At the conclusion of the treatment period the experimental subjects differed significantly from the controls on the matching variable, the Index of Scholastic Adaptability. on the Index of Deviation, and, very signifi cantly in Teachers* Ratings of Behavior Traits.
Further supporting evidence
was elicited from an examination of the changes within the experimental and control groups in relation to their original status (Table XVII).
experimental group showed consistent movement toward improvement in Needs, Social Acceptance Ratings by both sexes, and each of the three composite measures.
The controls worsened in all save one of the above measures.
expressing unmet needs, there was a very significant improvement demonstrated by the controls, and, this was paralleled by the treated group's significant improvement. There was once again, as in the first experiment, a significant loss in the controls* Intelligence Quotient, paralleled by a smaller loss for
Third Experiment: Comparison of Means and Mean Changes for Experimental and Control Group III, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability Shoving Initial and Final States (N ~ 18 Pairs) Initial Means Exp.
Final Means Mean Diff.
Index of Schol.Adapt.
Index of Soc.Accept.
Index of Deviation
Teacher Eating (A)
Teacher Eating (B)
Significant at .01 level
Significant at ,05 level
-TABLE XVII Third Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means of Experimental and Control Group III, Matched on Index of Scholastic Adaptability Showing Mean Changes for Each Group (N = 18 Pairs) Experimental Means Mean Initial Final Diff.
Control III Means !Mean Initial Final Diff.
Index of Schol.Adapt.
Index of Soc. Accept.
Index of Deviation
Teacher Rating (A)
Teacher Rating (B)
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
(-**) Significant at .01 level (*)
Significant at .05 level
W w 72
125 the experimental group which was not significant. Three of the variables, the Index of Social Acceptability and its two component ratings by boys and ty girls, manifested the anticipated gains for treated, and losses for the untreated group.
None was found to differen
tiate significantly between the groups at the close of the experiment when examined alone.
'When the probabilities for gain and loss trends were com
bined for each of these, the Index and the girls1 ratings proved to be very significant.
The trend in the boys1 ratings approached, but did metcteabh
the critical level. The third experiment demonstrated more clearly and definitively the earlier findings suggested in the larger experiment when all subjects were included regardless of participation or late entry into treatment.
present experiment provided data in several measured aspects of behavior which would permit a confident rejection of the zero-difference hypothesis. In order of their relative degree of significance, these measures were: 1. 2. 3.
Teachers Ratings of Behavior Traits The Index of Scholastic Adaptability The Index of Deviation
When the combined trends, of gain and loss, for the groups were con sidered, it was possible to add: 4. 5.
The Index of Social Acceptability Social Acceptance Ratings by Girls
The subjects who participated in group therapy were significantly improvedover their control mates in each of the three composite measures, and in two separate ratings by grils, and by their teachers.
The Fourth Experiment In the fourth and final comparison, the same eighteen experimental subjects were paired with their control mates on the Index of Social Acceptance. The omitted subjects were the same two who were deleted from the experimental
TABLE XVIII Fourth Experiment: Comparison of Means and Mean Changes for Experimental and Control Group IT, Matched on Index of Social Accept ability, Shoving Initial and Final States (N = IS Pairs)
Initial Means Exp.
Index of Soc. Accept.
Index of Schol.Adapt.
Index of Deviation
Soc. Acc. (Boys)
Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Teacher Bating (A)
Teacher Bating (B)
Beading Intell. Quotient Needs
Significant at .05 level
Fourth Experiment: Comparison of Initial and Final Means of Experimental and Control Group IV» Matched on Index of Social Acceptability) Shoving Mean Changes for Each Group (N = 18 Pairs)
Control IV Means Mean Initial Final Diff.
Index of Soc.Accept.
Index of Schol.Adapt.
Index of Deviation
Teacher Rating (A)
Teacher Rating (B)
Soc. Acc. (Boys) Soc. Acc. (Girls)
Reading Intell. Quotient Needs
Significant at .01 level
Significant at .05 level
D* rV *
128 group in the preceding experiment. The groups were closely matched at the outset except for significant difference between experimental and control means on the Index of Deviation. Table XVIII lists initial means and difference in left hand columns.
teachers* ratings and the Index of Scholastic Adaptability revealed large differences between the groups which were below the required level of sig nificance.
The two groups were considered comparable in all measures save
the Index of Deviation. After treatment the groups differed significantly in the Index of Social Acceptability and in the Social Acceptance Ratings by the boys.
girls* ratings failed to differentiate the groups, although the experimental group showed a large, significant gain when compared with its own prior status (Table XIX).
The controls worsened appreciably and significantly in
expression of Problems and in mental ability scores (I.Q.), but gained about seven months in reading ability.
A significant gain in Needs was shown by
the experimental group, and here the controls also improved slightly, though not significantly. The gain and loss trends, for experimental and controls respectively, were present in girls’ ratings on Social Acceptance, the Index of Deviation and the Index of Scholastic Adaptability. Only the latter two proved sig nificant when their probabilities for expected trends were combined. The significant findings which arose from this final experiment were the positive changes shown in ratings by boys on Social Acceptance and the improved ratings on the Index of Social Acceptability, and the trends shown in the Index of Deviation and Index of Scholastic Adaptability, in which the groups just about reversed their initial standings to a significant degree. In order of their relative degree of significance in rejecting the zero-difference hypothesis in this experiment, they ranked as follows:
129 1. 2. 3. 4.
The Index of Social Acceptability Social Acceptance Ratings by Boys The Index of Deviation The Index of Scholastic Adaptability
Summary of Group Results The four experiments vere designed to test the null hypothesis that there would be no changes significantly greater than zero in the means of the treated and untreated groups upon retest.
If significant changes
appeared to favor the experimental group, the logic of the experiment would point to the effects of the group therapy discussions upon the observed be havior of the experimentally treated subjects.
Since the groups were
matched upon measures shown to be adequate for purposes of measuring out comes from treatment, and since no other essential differences were known t
to exist between the groups at the initiation of treatment, it seemed reasonable to assume that consistently observed changes could be attributed to the treatment employed. This assumption was supported by evidence from the following ob servations: 1.
There were no instances in which either control group improved to a significant degree while the experimental group declined;
When both groups improved, the experimental group outstripped the controls in eveiy instance but one (Reading in each of the four experiments);
When both groups regressed, all of the significant losses occurred in the control group and none in the experimental group; and
In three of the four experiments, two, five and four of the single and composite measures showed significant positive changes in which the ex perimental group consistently exceeded the control groups at the conclusion. These changes are summarized in the following table (Table XX).
TABLE XX Significant Differences (D) and Gain-Loss Trends (T) Favoring the Experimental Group Over the Control Experiment Number of Pairs Paired on
Social ScholasSocial Accepta- tic Adapta- Accepta bility bility bility
Measures Index of Scholastic Adaptability
Index of Social Acceptance
Index of Deviation
Teacher Ratings (Behavior)
Social Acceptance (Boys) Social Acceptance (Girls)
D* probabilities favored Experimental over Control, Significant at p - .01 D
Probabilities favored Experimental over Control, Significant at p - .05
T* Experimental Gain vs. Control Loss, Combined probability at p - .01 T
Experimental Gain vs. Control Loss, Combined probability at p - .05
The second experiment alone failed to show significant differences, although the direction of the trends was the same.
Several of the differ
ences approached but did not reach significant levels. The matching on "scholastic adaptability" in the third experiment, produced five significant differences and trends, while the fourth experi ment resembled the findings -reiy closely.
In this last, the boys' ratings
on social acceptance emerged for the first time*
Concluding Statement The trends in each of the four experiments appeared to demonstrate consistent improvement for the experimentally treated subjects.
consistent gains seemed to occur in the measure of overall deviation, and to a lesser degree in the weighted composite measures of "scholastic adaptability" and"social acceptability."
Deletion of the late entrants
and their control mates from the data of the latter experiments permitted significant differences to emerge in teachers' ratings of behavior and social acceptance by boys, as well as in each of the composite measures and ratings by girls. The control groups' results implied less acceptable behavior in classroom relationships with girls and with teachers.
of the untreated subjects with other boys appeared to remain relatively constant, and suggested that peers of their own sex did not employ the same standards for judging acceptable behavior as did the girls.
ratings by girls and teachers were not found to be related Then the data were treated in an earlier analysis of eighty-nine boys who did not take part in the experiment.
Among the problem pupils, however, the ratings
of teachers and girls generally rated the treated group more acceptable and the controls less acceptable in their social relationships in the classroom.
This suggested the possibility that girls tended to evaluate
the behavior of problem boys in somewhat the same terms as the teachers. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in expressing problems and needs.
There was some tendency
for both groups to acknowledge more problems at the end of the experiment,
but the controls seemed to express more problems than the treated group. Both groups appeared to manifest fewer unmet needs at the end of the experiment than they did at the outset.
These data suggest that group
therapy, as herein defined, was apparently not influencing the unmet needs of either group to any differentiable degree.
Of the two groups, the
treated group showed a slight advantage over the untreated group in that the former checked a smaller number of problems. The control groups' significant losses in intelligence quotient *
and gain in reading, contrasted with the experimental groups' unchanged status, seemed to Imply that the untreated problem boys may have been responding more effectively to the academic requirements than the boys who were experiencing group therspy.
'While the differences were not
found to be significant, the tendencies appeared frequently enough to warrant mention as a lead for further research and evaluation.
CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OF GROUP THERAPY RESULTS
The preceding chapter described the results obtained by comparingthe experimental group's changes with those observed in each of the con trol groups at the end of the experiment.
Each group was also compared
with its own status at the beginning of the experiment to facilitate iden tification of the changes which occurred. In the present chapter, the subjects of one of the therapy groups (B) will be described, and their participation in a full day's trip to a museum will be reviewed to illustrate the methods employed and to highlight the subjects' roles in this session.
Analysis of a Group Therapy Session and Some Outcomes The material in tiie preceding section described the observed changes in quantitative terms.
The meaning of the changes observed in this experi
ment was more fully appreciated when viewed in the light of the boys' experiences and feelings, and when the interaction of one human being with others was fully perceived.
The only method that would have served
to convey faithfully to another the happenings in these sessions, would have been through the medium of a sound film so that the subtleties of gesture, expression, tone and inflection could have been captured and ex perienced.
Ackerman expressed this need because he believed "that a
purely verbal description inevitably loses some of the most significant
nuances of the psychological phenomena in group treatment."^
In order to
convey some part of interaction and its meaning to the subjects, the proto col of one of the trips to the Museum of Natural History was chosen for reproduction-here.
All of the participants' names were changed, and
identifying data deleted.
The original notes were modified so that they
might be read as sentences, and some conjunctions were added to facilitate ready grasp of the meaning. There was one unusual feature inherent in this session, and that was the presence of a second therapist, Mrs. B.
She was a trained school
psychologist and had worked in similar school settings for more than ten years.
Her aid was solicited to shorten the time of the long return trip.
Each of the boys had been described to her, and another period of orienta tion was devoted to listening to an electrical recording of the sixth therapy meeting.
The boys knew in advance that she was to accompany the group to
provide additional transportation.
They had been exceedingly pleased Yhen
they learned that their original suggestion to drive was to be fulfilled by her presence.
This resulted in their immediate acceptance of her on the
morning of the trip. The trip had been planned during the seventh and eighth therapy ses sions, following a tour through the shops of the vocational high school. The first proposal had been made by Morton that the group visit the West chester Airport, and after considerable discussion Bernard had tentatively suggested "Let's go to New York, huh?" and Niles had cut in derisively, "Yeah— to see a burlesque."
Most of the boys snickered and began to tease
Niles udien Morton offered the decisive suggestion, "Hey, we can go to the
N.W. Ackerman, "Interview Group Psychotherapy with Psychoneurotic Adults," in S.R. Slavson (Editor), The Practice of Group Therapy, page 137.
The timing and tenor of the proposal brought the group to a focus
at once, and plans began to roll rapidly from all but Walton and Kraus, Who sat by passively.
During the following session the boys appointed two rep
resentatives (Morton and Holt) to discuss the details with the counselor or the principal.
The plan was approved without question and the counselor
outlined to the group’s representatives the necessary details to which they would have to attend.
While the delegation was out of the room making ar
rangements, Henry expressed considerable doubt about obtaining approval.
doubt led to an anxious tension among the remaining members in the group and considerable verbal aggression was expressed toward teachers, then to the ad ministrator and then to one teacher in particular.
The comments were loud
and vituperative with all the boys talking simultaneously.
Just at this
point the delegation burst back into the room with a triumphant "It's in the bag, let’s start packin'.’' This elicited a loud roar of pleasure, and the previous mood was rapidly changed to one of anticipation. It was interesting to note that the next three sessions (9, 10 and U ) containeJ no reference to the trip.
There was much less tension observed
during these sessions, and large parts of the discussion centered upon sports, television and school problems.
There was some squabbling and several aggres
sive exchanges between Henry and Mitchell in two of these sessions.
newcomer, Mitchell, had set about attacking the dominant Henry from the moment he entered the group.
Their continuing struggle for control sapped
the group's resources and slowly dissipated its morale.
In the twelfth
session, Gyrus re-awakened interest in the trip by asking whether he could get back in time fbr his newspaper deliveries.
Most of this session was
concerned with plans, much jesting about getting lost in New York, and recollections of previous visits to the city.
Descriptions of the Participants The subjects who took part in the thirteenth session are described briefly to provide some background for later anaLysis of the protocol. The information contained in the brief sketches was obtained from obser vation in therapy meetings and classrooms, from the test data and from interviews with the nurse, teacners, and counselors.
The subjects them
selves were not interviewed to avoid the possibility of contaminating effects. The subjects in therapy group B were chosen for analysis because this group demonstrated dramatically many principles from the fields of group dynamics and group therapy.
A further reason for choosing this group
in preference to group A, was that it contained more of the unchanged sub jects.
It was believed that more fruitful understanding of the dynamics of
group therapy could be derived from evaluating those who failed to change^-, rather than only those subjects whose growth conformed to the anticipated patterns.
The literature reviewed contained numerous illustrations of
successful outcomes and a paucity offailures.
L.F. Shaffer, The Psychology of Adjustment, page U97. R.B. Smith, Growth in Personality Adjustment Through Mental Hygiene: An Experimental 5£udy, pages U7-Ub«
Morton, aged 13 years 10 months at Initial testing, took part in fifteen group therapy sessions. He was about average in height, slender, wiry, intense, had blonde hair and a fair skin, moved briskly and grace fully. An excellent athlete, -who enjoyed basketball, football and base ball, yet he did not belong to any organised teams. He displayed a strong interest in the girls in his class, and they in turn, openly admired his good looks, grace, his athletic prowess and his openly expressed dis dain for authority. He disliked most of his teachers and did not hesitate to express his defiance of them before the class. He refused to serve "detentions'1, and was "clever and ruthless" in finding ways to get him self out of further punishment. His defiance of adults did not interfere with "using his cunning to wheedle favors from them." He was considered "tough" and a "dirty fighter" by boys and most them feared him because "he never forgets a grudge and will go out of his way to get you, even when you're not expecting it." He was suspicious of the investigator and openly stated he would not come to the group sessions unless he "felt like coming." His academic work was poor to fair, and he did well only in shopwork and gym, "the only two subjects which keep me in school." His mental ratings were low and recent intelligence quotients ranged from 69 to 8U* His reading ability was on fifth grade level, and he was never seen to read voluntarily while in school. Only occasionally did he manifest interest in comics, and then he borrowed these from other boys who purchased them. He expressed great admiration for an uncle who operated a gas station, and on several occasions expressed great fear of his father's punishments. Was worried about earning his livelihood when he finished school, but knew that he wanted to work as a mechanic. His major problems concerned his fear and defiance of adults, his extreme ego-centered qualities, and the aggressive disregard for moral or ethical codes in relation to peers or adults. Incidental were his disinterest in school, lack of ability in academic phases of school life and self-concern about his future adequacy.
Holt, aged 13 years 3 months, took part in 20 group meetings. He was the smallest boy in the group and in his class, thin, wiry, agile, freckled, pleasant and well formed facial features. Usually scowled and appeared sullen and disgruntled most of the time. His voice was thin and high-pitched but he was not to be ridiculed for long because he fought back instantly either physically, if he dared, or by invective and ex pletive if his attacker were too large. He was bright and quick in repartee and always seemed ready to come to his own defense, particuhrly if twitted about his voice or his size. In his relationships with adults he was negativistic and somewhat rebellious and only on rare occasions did he seem able to relax and smile easily. While not overly suspicious of adults he seemed not ready or unable to depend upon or to trust them. Hence he was distant and tried to avert contact with teachers as much as possible. He was considered "hot-tempered and aggressive, negative and resisting" by several of his teachers. The boys called him the "sore head", the "fighting shrimp" or by the dimunitive of his first name. Very little contact or interest in girls was noted, but one outspoken classmate called him "Cutie", much to his dismay and pained chagrin. Since others had heard the remark, he retorted with a rapid string of epithets that left the girl speechless and the boys roaring. His school work was fair, and while he disliked it, he seemed interested to get his work done and to obtain good grades for what he did. He demonstrated about average ability in his mental teats and about fifth grade reading ability. This was an extremely defensive, aggressive, short-tempered young ster who felt compelled to rebel, resist and defy because of his feelings about his size, and currently about his voice. There were some discor dant episodes in his home life, and some apparent rejection by parents of him, along with economic privation. He had one close friend, had distant relationships with other boys, and seemed totally unable to relate to adults.
Cyrus, aged 12 years 10 months, was the most faithful in attending the group therapy discussions. He was tall aid loosely knit, somewhat gangling in appearance, soft, pudgy and down-covered face which carried a meaningless half-smile most of the time. He was extremely shy and backward in relating to the girls in his classroom, and they in turn viewed him as "a silly kid," harmless and decidedly non-masculine in makeup. He was an outsider and a "fringer" to all the boys in his class except Holt, with idiom he shared many interests. They worked together on a newspaper delivery route, had built a "pigeon-coop" and had co operated in buying and stealing pigeons from the time they went "in business together." Cyrus had no apparent athletic abilities, was too awkward to do well in athletics; was the "butt" for the jokes and sneers of the more virile groiqp members; was extremely submissive, uncertain and tentative in his approaches to other boys and was fearful of being picked on and beaten by the other boys. Teachers had few comments to make about him, and one believed him to be "a complete non-entity who daydreams and spends most of his time idling and running away from the big fellows who usually pick him as a target." He rated just about average in mental ability, read at about sixth grade level, and fre quently alluded to his fear of failing in school and what his parents would do to him. He was anxious, and somewhat withdrawn in behavior, spent much time looking out of windows and reading comics, never took the initiative in class or in the group meetings. He seemed ill at ease during the first session and looked to his "buddy" for support, as if to say, "If it's OK with him, it's OK for me." He related very slowly to the investigator and for weeks talked only to Holt, and when he did, in whispers and side-remarks. This was a fearful, withdrawn, anxious and somewhat effeminate boy, who was almost completely isolated from peers of either sex and unable to relate to the adults in the school millieu. He was an extreme "fringer" who possessed few positive attributes or rewarding outlets.
Bernard, aged 13 years 7 months, looked and acted much younger most of the time he was observed. He attended nineteen sessions and seemed to enjoy being part of the group from the first time it met. His moods vacillated from deep, frowning, dark unhappiness to smiling, jocular, giddy ribaldry. He was distant at times, usually quiet-spoken, but possessed a penetrating, dry "needling" sense of humor that was aimed as frequently at adults as it was at his peers. He was observed by his teachers to be vacant, inattentive, disturbing to the others, con stantly teasing, restless, worried and unhappy. He had just lost his father and several teachers reported that prior to this loss he "had been a very different child." He frequently upset his teachers and re duced the class to laughter by his "barbs" and so effective were they that he had to be asked to leave his class. He was relatively well accepted by both sexes, but was at first very awkward and bashful in his dealings with the girls. In dealing directly with adults, his usual techniques were verbal parrying, digression, "wheedling", evasion and, not infrequently, wide-eyed lying of the "Who me?" variety. His school abilities were graded fair to poor with notations of "losing interest" from two teachers. His mental ability ratings were about average on tests but he appeared considerably brighter when able to apply himself. His reading level was about sixth grade and it appeared from his reasoning ability in discussions that it could have been much higher. Seemed too alone and seeking relationships with others but was unable to act constructively when part of a group. His needs for attention were apparently very great, as was his drive to belittle others as a way of attaining feelings of adequacy. He was extremely sensitive to rejection or fancied rejection and expressed himself as "being alone in facing the world" in one discussion. Bernard seemed unable to relate to others, adults or children, with out attempting to tear them down. He felt alone and permitted no one to come close enough to be of help. He felt very keenly and deeply the loss of his father, and worried about the family's economic security since his mother alone supported the family. His school work had fallen in efficiency and his increasingly severe mood swings were beginning to trouble him.
Henry, was lU years 10 months old on entering the group. He attended eighteen sessions and seemed to take a dominant part in the group from the outset. He was tall, well-muscled, fair-skinned, agile, "haughtylooking", seldom smiled but sneered, and always talked loudly and authoritatively. His need to dominate and to control was outstanding, and he never hesitated to use force and aggression to secure complete submission from those around him. The boys feared and hated him and he was rarely included in any spontaneous or voluntary school activity. The girls disliked him for his temper, and because he was a "soreloser" and "fresh". Teachers found him unable to work, lacking in interest, utterly defiant, uncouth, a fantastic liar, rebellious, aggressive and responsible for the majority of disturbances created in his classes. One teacher understood his needs and tried in every way to meet them, but even she felt it was impossible to satisfy than in the school setting. She described a most unwholesome home setting in which the boy had found no place for himself, no love and less under standing. The counselor had arranged special employment for him, tried to adjust his program but none of these and other measures seemed to help the boy "settle down". He talked loudly of his accomplishments and of the many expensive gifts parents and relations had given him until the boys began to be bored and exasperated by his claims. Courageous ones would challenge him and this led to arguments and fist-fights, others preferred to walk off to leave him in his own reveries. He was called a "bully", "sore-head", "wise-guy and know-it-all", a "bluffer" and many other dramatically descriptive terms. He seemed burdened with fears and unable to cope with them; always worried about his adequacy and ready to fight, argue or lie to defend it; had an enormous need for affection and seemed to have no way of using what was offered to him by adults; he was actively ridiculed or rejected by his peers of both sexes and was constantly embroiled in feuds with boys in his grade and the one above. He was probably one of the most seriously disturbed, and the most disturbing boy in the entire group.
Mitchell entered the therapy group after missing seven sessions at the outset. He attended for a total of fourteen sessions. He was 13 years and 7 months at the outset and scored an Index of Deviation of 66 with deviant scores in Social Acceptance by Boys and Teacher Ratings for Problem Behavior. He was always dressed neatly in the mornings, but by the end of the day his clothes were disheveled, his hair mussed and was frequently quite dirty. He was tall, lean, gangling, an adolescent who had a ready smile but could turn to the opposite extreme in a flash. He seemed to be pretty well liked and accepted by boys and girls in this group at the beginning of the term, but they seemed to fear his violent temper outbursts and his too ready tendency to strike out at the slightest difference of opinion. He was observed bumping into the boys on passing through the halls and was quite open and direct in ex pressing his interest in girls. He was overheard passing "wisecracks" at older girls in the street and when rebuffed by them would lapse into a long stream of abusive language. Showed extreme vacillation in ex pression of emotionj also, completely unable to concentrate in several classes in which he was observed. Teachers complained of his rest lessness, aggressiveness, violent temper, a desire to fight anyone by whom he might be challenged. As he continued to attend the group sessions, he became more and more the center of tussles and fights within the group. He was particu larly interested in challenging the authority of the leader who had become accepted by the group prior to his entry. He seemed unable to relate to adults and found it possible to deal only with them in a half-jocular, half-threatening fashion. Seemed very unhappy about his school work and frequently expressed fears about what would happen to him on coming home after some breach had occurred in school. Was worried about getting through his subjects and somewhat aware of his own aberrant behavior even though completely unable to control it. This was an aggressive, labile, uncontrolled adolescent given to violent outbursts and blind rages. Could not tolerate any small degree of criticism, and while apparently "happy" on the surface seethed with overpowering feelings beneath. He and Henry were two of the most dis turbed subjects in the group.
Curtis is a short, well-built, slender Negro boy who was just 13 when he began with his therapy group. He seemed quiet most of the time at the outset but there was a jolly quality about his responses to the other youngsters. He remained somewhat distant from the investigator during most of the first few weeks. After that he began to greet him occasionally upon passing through the halls. He took part in discussions only on occasions. He seemed to be very insecure at first, but as the sessions went along, began to respond to the freedom by loosening up, participating in discussions more frequently and freely; would chase around the room after another lad in playful assault* Very little real aggression was permitted to come to the sur?ace. He was dressed in illfitting clothes that had been passed down to him, and these were frequently soiled and rarely pressed. At the outset, he expressed occasional fears and on the Needs test underscored 7 items in this area as well as 9 that demonstrated a need to be free from guilts. There were several boys who related positively to him and on one occasion when he was not able to accompany the group on a trip, one of the boys, Morton, insisted that the driver of one of the cars return to get him, since it was believed he had been left behind. During the discussions he occasionally raised questions that concerned living conditions at home and showed anxiety for his own health. As the discussions went along toward the middle of the therqpy period, he began to talk about his relations with other pupils, and about the relations he had with teachers. Some of the com ments expressed fear of failing, dissatisfaction with his own production in school and frequent allusions to the doubts about the usefulness of school for him. Several of his teachers commented about him in positive terms, speaking of him as a "forlorn and needy child", while others expressed intense dislike of him for his "aggressive behavior and unkempt appearance." He seemed unable to master a good portion of the work despite the fact that his reading level was around the sixth grade and his mental ability about average. This was a youngster who apparently had adequate potentialities for achieving but felt completely unable in the school setting. Toward the end of therapy along about the latter part of April, he began to express himself much more frequently in all spheres and showed himself competent to reason through problems with the group, despite unruly behavior within the group. He showed consistent losses in Social Ac ceptance and in Teacher Ratings with a marked decline in his Index of Deviation. It is quite likely that he was just experiencing ihe se curity of beginning to feel accepted in the group and by the group at the time therapy sessions were terminated.
Walton, aged 13 years Ij. months, attended seventeen sessions. He was a very tall boy, spare in frame and almost "skinny", with a long, unsmiling, pale face, topped with brown carefully-combed hair. He seemed to be unusually careful of his clothes and of his grooming. He was somewhat stooped in posture, extremely slow-moving in activity and lethargic in his speech. Voice was high-pitched and thin and he spoke very infrequently. He appeared extremely withdrawn, shy and bashful with girls or adults, and distant from the boys who seemed to scurry around him like ants around a tree-trunk. He was sensitive and pa thetically eager to relate to the others and did not seem to have any skills or knowledge of how to go about it. He rarely expressed emotion of any kind, was bland and almost flat in tone of voice and in the quality of his affect. He sometimes appeared dazed and lost in his own thoughts. When aroused by activity around him it seemed to require effort to focus on external matters. His teachers were aware of his differences from other boys of his group, and knew of the "very trying and difficult home problems" which underlay much, of his withdrawn be havior. He was able to do only fair work despite average mental abil ity ratings and an eighth grade reading level. The counselor reported that the parents were separating because of the father's cruelty, neglect and habitual alcoholism. The staff were sympathetic but felt powerless to help because of Walton's restraint and diffidence. In the group the more aggressive boys occasionally used him as a "butt", but his lack of response and pitifully inadequate attempts at defense caused them to desist. The smaller boys looked at him strangely and he was most frequently left to himself. During the first ten sessions he spoke only a few times, never to the investigator. He usually sat toward the rear and seemed to listen, occasionally making some head movements to imply agreement, but more frequently looking straight ahead of him or at the floor. This was a boy whose problem of withdrawal was acute and painful to those about him, for whom little could be done by methods usually available to the school. The active, destructive home forces were impoverishing his ability to face the problems he was experiencing. His inability to relate to peers or adults further handicapped him in his need to communicate and to share.
Kraus, aged lit years and 3 months, took part in 18 group meetings, and missed only those meetings -which took the group on trips. He was stiff, formal, and meticulously polite during the early contacts, and was one of the few who approached the investigator after the preliminary class discussions to say how much he had enjoyed the discussion. The other boys seemed content to note their reactions anonymously. His teacher believed him to be "a nice boy from a nice family, one of the few gentlemen in my homeroom." One of the counselors described him as "something of a stuffed shirt, a bluff who talks a better game than he playsj lazy and has no sense of responsibility." This last comment agreed closely with the impressions noted from nominations in the initial Who's Who in My Group? which showed high frequencies under "brags", hbullyh, anc[ "^not good in club or committee." These were countered by positive nominations such as "very clever with his hands", and isolated tallies for "happy", "tries hard", "good thinker" and "good sport." He seemed friendly with Bernard, but there was considerable distance between them in the classroom and in the gym. It appeared as though Bernard accepted him only as a last resort, and when other boys were not about* The girls in the group were more mature and were outspoken in their dis like of him because of his bragging and bullying of younger pupils in other classes. He appeared pleased at having been chosen to attend the discussion groups, and set about telling the others in the group how it should be run, suggested a list of topics and proposed a form of parlia mentary organization. Their reactionto his long speech was passive tol eration at first, but when this was repeated later in the first meeting, he was cut off and hooted down by Morton and Henry. Encouraged by this attack, Holt commenced his campaign of verbal undemining. The little fellow later described this process in Kraus' absence as designed to "cut him down to my size,, the big bluff." For the next few sessions, Kraus was slightly more cautious in standing up to propound any new reforms* He found it hard to stay in his seat as he spoke. By contrast, the other boys sat or lounged in their seats during the first session as they grasped the informality of the setting. Kraus was not able to discard the formal classroom training from which he had apparently gained adult approval, and a semblance of superficial security. It was several weeks before he felt sufficiently secure in the new setting to speak in informal tones, to relax in his seat and to use the language to which most of the boys seemed more accustomed. As this change occurred, he showed some signs of uncertainty. These were recognized by a few of the boys and brought forth some reassurance from them. Gradually, he found new ac ceptance from Bernard and Cyrus, and began to form a closer bond with Bernard through activities in their own neighborhood, as well as within the group. This was a boy of about low average mental ability, who achieved poorly in several school subjects despite high ratings for citizenship. He was essentially a repressed, insecure, anxious and dependent adoles cent, who had found in his rigid conformity a protective device in his dealings with adults, which left him at the mercy of his peers. He was almost obsessive in some of his mannerisms, and subdued his fears by attempting to be "nice, polite, and gentlemanly" when observed, conserv ing his aggressions for those less able to threaten him.
A Group Therapy Protocol
The following describes Group B's trip History in New York on March 25, 19l;9. for this group.
to the Museum of Natural
This was the thirteenth session
Eight of the group attended, two were absent.
described in the preceding section were the ones who took part in this trip.
The investigator met several boys floating through the halls outside the principal's office at 8:1;0, about six minutes before they were supposed to meet in the appointed room to arrange for departure. Morton, Cyrus and Holt were waiting for the bell to sound and said their teacher would not permit them into the room (because they were leaving on a trip??). The investigator suggested they wait outside Room 113 until classes changed. Mrs. B., who was to assist the investigator was waiting inside the office. She was introduced to the School Guidance Counselor and the investigator asked if there were any special instructions for the trip, and was informed that pupils were to be returned to a central point, such as the school or to Getty Square, so that they could all take their respective trolleys back home after the trip. The investigator commented that he had met several of the boys out in the hallway, and they appeared quite excited about the trip. The Guidance Counselor responded that "they probably didn't sleep all night in anticipation of the big event." All release slips were collected from those present (8) and the investiga tor inquired after the two missing pupils, Kraus and Curtis, and was told by Mitchell that they couldn't come along. The Guidance Counselor then raised some question about Henry's not wearing a tie - (*£ou are supposed to dress for a trip just as you wouldfor a day in school. You know that the way you look and actreflects on the schooll") - Henry responded that he did not have one with him, and the Counselor accepted the fact that this would have to be accepted for today. She then turned to Mitchell and asked why he did not knot his tie. Mitchell said he liked it that way (not flip pantly, but m t h some appeal). Then the Counselor turned to Morton who had buttoned his outdoor lumber jacket up to his chin and asked about his tie. Morton answered by unbuttoning his jacket and said, "Look, I'm wearing one of those shirts without a collar (basque)." Morton seemed pleased with his reply and the Counselor said, "Well you people should know better." She seemed content to let it rest at that point. The next question was about returning to Yonkers. The Counselor checked with each boy about the trolley most convenient for him, and togetherthey decided that Getty Square was the most convenient place at which to be left upon return. During this seven minute instruction period the boys sat quietly and
listened, sitting back in poorly concealed impatience at being held up to discuss irrelevant details. At the close of the Counselor's comments, the investigator introduced Mrs. B to the group and they accepted her quietly, but seemed pleased that she was coming along to provide extra automobile transportation. The investigator turned his attention to how the group was going to be divided between the two cars, and led with the suggestion that perhaps those boys who wished to return early would wish to ride with Mrs. B., since she would be taking that group back in time to complete their newspaper deliveries and collections. Holt and Cyrus accepted the proposal readily, and Walton also suggested that he wanted to return early. This made three, and a fourth also had to be found since each car should carry only four of the eight boys. Morton suggested that Bernard join this group and make ^he fourth. (Note that Morton who is riding in the other car, made the proposal to keep his favorites together. He had suggested earlier in the week that friends and girls from some of the classes be invited to come along, particularly M.W. from therapy group A). After slight demurral, Bernard consented just so long as that would not commit him to return early, since he wanted to stay away as late as possible. When tnis question was clarified, he joined the other group willingly. The car grouping was listed on the board and this pro vided an opportunity for ^rs. B. to review the names and identify the boys whose recordings she had heard two days before. After arranging the itin erary and meeting place, the investigator stopped at the office to check out release slips, and left Mrs. B. with the boys so that they would have a few moments together before going off to the cars. (She later reported that the boys accepted her quite readily and spoke easily and freely with her as they waited on the front steps.) The boys were all neatly dressed, despite lack of ties and were carefully groomed. Cyrus wore an old, battered ski hat on the back of his head but was otherwise neatly clad. As the large group approached the cars, the investigator's group made a sudden dash and lunge for the front seat of the car, with Mitchell, Henry and Niles all landing in the front and favored seat. Morton had meanwhile gotten comfortable in the rear seat. Niles had saved his place in front, leaving Mitchell and Henry out on the curb arguing about who should occupy the seat. Miies saucily commented "You guys can fight it out between you, but I've got the seat." Reluctantly and with seme grumbling Mitchell and Henry got into the rear seat. All this while, the investigator stood alongside holding the door without en gaging the boys in conversation or trying to intercede. (This looked like a continuation of the struggle for power and dominance begun some days before between Henry and Mitchell, so the investigator decided that it would be best left to then to argue it through, or to await the intercedence of the other boys.) Niles seemed pleased with his victory (almost as if he didn't expect to vanquish the two leading contenders). As the car started he commented with genuine pleasure that he had ridden in the front seat all the way to Virginia recently to visit his brother-in-law. Mitchell complained of the draft coming in from Niles' open window and urged him to raise the window, which he did reluctantly and only part of the way. Later Mitchell truculently complained of the draft coming in from under the door. At this, both Henry and Morton commented about his griping. The investigator reflected their common feeling about his griping and then went on to explain that there was an opening under the door near
Mitchell -which permitted a draft through. Morton suggested that Mitchell spread his coat over his legs. (This was accepted readily, and with some relief by Mitchell who was becoming aware of the tone of his continued carping, and that perhaps it was being overdone.) The rest of the trip was quiet and relaxed except for occasional comments about the other drivers on the road and about beating Mrs. B's car. Niles made one commeht about nlady drivers" as Mrs. B's car passed ours pulling away from the toll gate. Other comments were concerned with the cost of some of the heavy and expensive cars, the landscape, boats, summer fishing (Niles) and about the comic book that Mitchell had brought along to read as we rode. The boys seemed to enjoy the fact that we were driving in stead of using trolleys and trains, and relaxed completely as we rode along to the Museum, until we had parked opposite the entrance of the Museum. As we alighted, the two groups exchanged a few bantering comments, and were on their way across the street to the Museum in small bands, eager to get busy seeing the things they previously discussed in two of the meet ings. As the groups approached the entrance, one lad (Morton) suddenly remarked, "Where's Curtis? Hey, we left Curtis behindl" Cyrus snickered at this, but Holt seemed more concerned, and said he had seen him with his books (meaning he was not planning to come along), and then Morton, in great earnestness and with sincere concern, said "Come on, Mr. Z., let's go back and get him, c'mon it won't take long." The investigator reflected this strong feeling of his (you feel pretty badly about his being left and you'd even go all the way back to get him.) Morton heard the comment and still continued walking toward the car, holding the investigator's arm, waiting for the latter to follow along with him. (He seemed to take it for granted that this should be done and immediately.) Just then Mitchell spoke up somewhat languidly and without feeling, "He told me he wasn't coming... his mother wouldn't let him." Morton challenged this and asked "Are you sure?" thereupon Mitchell began to get angry and said "What's the matter, don't you believe me?" Here one of the other boys, (Bernard), spoke up and verified Mitchell's assertion. Only then was Morton satisfied and all started for the door, only to find that the doors would not be opened until ten... another half hour. Holt and Cyrus were all for going right over to the park, but as the group walked up the path, they and the others became interested in some nesting pigeons) saw some eggs and discovered some young sitting in the nest, and this kept them completely occupied for about fif teen minutes. Henry and Mitchell were more interested in the dough-mixing machine and the pastry, visible through the basement window of the Mu seum's cafeteria kitchen. Cyrus and Holt showed a great deal of interest in the pigeons and wanted to try and catch a bird to take home to add to their collection of four which they now share. (Three meetings back they were sketching a new and en larged pigeon coop they were planning to build together. These lads share a great many common interests and activities, including their newspaper deliveries) an exceptionally close bond.) After the entire group had watched the pigeons on the facade for about fifteen minutes, Morton and Niles decided they would like to go over to the park, and were quietly
joined by Walton, Cyrus and Holt, while Bernard went along less enthu siastically. Henry was eager to walk down and visit his 'old block1 where he had lived prior to coming to xonkers a short time ago. He was joined by “d-tchell and they went off downtown along Central Park West. As the group moved to cross the street toward the park, Bernard walked alongside Mrs. B. and the investigator, commenting about the other fellows going over the park wall. As the adults made no comment about the boys going off into the park, Bernard also excused himself and quietly moved toward the wall and dropped over to follow the others. (Silence at this point left the meaning clear - their behavior was not going to be criticized by the adults.) For the next twenty minutes, the adults sat on a bench with backs toward the park so that the boys would not think they were to be observed at what ever activities they initiated. During this time, Bernard came back over the wall and asked where he could buy some peanuts. The investigator asked whether he was going to feed the squirrels, and Bernard replied that he wanted to use the nuts as bait for pigeons so that they could throw a coat over the birds and take seme home with them. The investigator mentioned that peanut-vendors usually stood at 8lst and 77th Streets, and Bernard moved off toward 8lst Street. He returned in a short while without success in locating a vendor, and then decided that he would go over to the Museum, which was now open. A short while later, the investigator went over the wall, while Mrs. B. joined Bernard in going into the Museum, to let the boys know that the Museum was open if they wanted to come on inside. As the investigator came over, he observed Niles and Morton chasing into the bushes, and leisurely walked in their direction. As he called their names they came out from behind some trees, saying "Nuts, he saw us, I suppose we'll have to go inside now." The investigator restated their desire to remain out in the park, and they said they would prefer to stay out for some while and that they would let the others (Holt, Cyrus, Walton) know that we had gone inside and that they might join us when they wished. It was now about ten-twenty five, and as the investigator went back over the wall toward the Museum, he was joined by Mitchell returning without Henry from their walk. Mitchell commented that he was sorry to be ten minutes late in returning, but was delayed by Henry who insisted on visiting his old school. (Actually he was more uhan twenty minutes late, and seemed to want to have it known that he was delayed by nenry.) He said Henry had wanted to see some of his old buddies in school and Mitchell felt he didn't want to waste all that time. He was told that some of the boys were now inside with Mrs. B., and a few were still after pigeons over in the park. He said he was cold and would join those inside. (Later Mrs. B. commented that he seemed very chilled and took some time to thaw out. He was wearing only a light cardigan sweater, having left his coat in the car.) He joined Bernard and Mrs. B. who were viewing the main floor animal exhibits, stayed with them for a little while and then decided he would go up to the upper floors by himself. About ten minutes later, the investigator met Henry coming up the walk to the Museum. He was bubbling over with his visit to his old school, where he had spoken with his principal and some of the students. (A great deal of his conversation in meetings and in the car coming down had alluded to his
escapades in this west-side neighborhood, and he was eager to be able to point out to the others where he had lived and gone to school when in New York. For the most part there was little interest in his stories, and when escapades were mentioned, he was jeered and twitted by Holt and Niles on several previous occasions. His stories don't seem to impress them and they don't ring true, and, in the protected setting of the group meeting they "kid" him unmercifully about some of his fantastic productions.) As he walked along he asked where the others were and was told that several of the boys were inside with Mrs. B., and that some were still in the park. He decided to join the group inside, and the investigator and Henry walked in side to join Bernard and Mrs. B. Henry seemed to relate readily to Mrs. B. and told her of some of his accomplishments during the hour he had spent at the school. He seemed extremely pleased to have a fresh audience. (Later at lunch Mrs. B. related Henry's anxiety and preoccupation with the sharp drop shown in some of the dioramas and when he repeated his concern several times, she sensitively interpreted the underlying concern. He replied by relating a story of having fallen from a tree, the top of the tree, and slid down the trunk of the tree with arms around it, all the way down. He had to have eighteen stitches taken. He then followed by saying that he is afraid of heights, and after she reflected this feeling, there was no fur ther reference to the sharp drops he later observed. He spoke of having been badly cut up as a resalt of this fall. This is one of the many fears Henry has expressed in somewhat indirect fashion during the group meetings. Also recall his fantastic stories about what heppened to his uncle in the war, related during the last trip to the high school. The investigator went outside at 10:U5 to let the others know that we were to assemble at cars prior to lunch at 11:30. Found Cyrus and Holt wandering about the entrance to the part at 77th Street, still looking for pigeons. They had finally ducked ISalton, they said, since he had been teasing them by scaring the birds away every time they came close. (Is he trying to best them, or is he protesting in this way against their 'brutality' in trying to capture a harmless bird?) After letting them know of the arranged meeting plan, they followed along to the entrance of the Museum with the in vestigator, but then continued to chase pigeons, without much luck. (They had complained that the pigeons seemed to know what they were after, since they flew off whenever either of them came within four feet, but didn't seen to fly when other people approached within a foot or so of the birds.) Holt walked over toward a pigeon who was feeding to demonstrate to the in vestigator, and as he came within a few feet the pigeon flew off. He turned and expressed his disgust with himself, "See what I meanl I can't get anywhere near them." The investigator reflected his feeling of defeat and told them again about the meeting plan for 11:30 and then went off into the upper floor of the Museum, where he met Memard, Mitchell and aenry walking along with wrs. B. They seemed pleased to see the investi gator and spoke of some of the things they had been seeing, and to a moderate degree, enjoying. They then turned their attention to what the other fellows were doing outside. This question of Henry's was restated and interpreted something like, "You're wondering if the others are haring more fun outside the Museum." This was accepted by Mitchell, but was mildly protested by Henry, who is still seeking the good graces of the investigator, and complete protest against the investigator's proposal is not yet possible for him.
At about 11:20 Bernard reminded the investigator that we were supposed to meet in a few minutes, so the group and both adults walked toward the exit to wait at the cars for the rest of the group to assemble. After a few moments delay, all the boys picked up their lunches and divided as follows for lunch...Henry, Bernard, Walton, Niles and Morton joined the adults in the main dining room, while Cyrus, Holt and Mitchell decided they would prefer to have their lunch in the park, and headed toward Columbus Avenue to get some peanuts for the pigeons and a soda for dessert. It wasn't until about 2:00 P.M. that any of the latter group were seen, and that was just prior to their time for leaving since Holt and Cyrus had decided to leave early so that they could be in Yonkers in time for the newspaper route collections. They were joined by Mitchell who seemed to have had enough by that time, since he couldn't go boating after proposing the idea to the investigator about 2:0£. (It was explained that our plans, as made by the group, did not include park activities of this nature and that we should have to abide by what had been established by and for the group's activities for this visit. He accepted this sur prisingly readily and didn't protest the ruling which balked his plans.) At lunch: the investigator and Mrs. B. proceeded to pick up food for themselves, assuming the boys were following along with their lunch bags. On turning about, the investigator saw them standing on the threshold, beckoning to the investigator. They looked worried and perplexed about what to do next. As the investigator approached, they explained that a woman had told them they would have to have their lunch in the school cafeteria (much less attractive, although somewhat less expensive). They were ready to go, when the investigator asked where they would prefer to eat, and most answered, right here in the main cafeteria, and another (Bernard) added, "But they won't let us." The investigator reflected the frustration they felt and suggested that he could ask the guard, would they want that? Yes, they did. The guard approved so long as they sat with the adults, and the boys moved tentatively inside over the threshold for the first time. They were exceptionally cautious, and behaved very differently from their accustomed manner, but finally sat down at a; large double table and began to open their bags for lunch. By the time the adults returned with trays, they were under way and chattering among themselves. They asked about prices of coffee and pastry, refused Mrs. B's offer of a por tion of her chocolate cake, and all accepted Morton's offer of cheese chips which he generously passed about to all. The investigator refused some the first time around, Mrs. B. accepted (Was Morton slighted? Didn't seem so.) All seemed to be having a good time just sitting, eating and chatting about plans for the afternoon. Much discussion about attending the planetarium show, but the cost seemed to dampen the spirits of even those who had some money. Only Henry finally went; others who had planned to do so later withdrew. During the last of the meal, Bernard had so relaxed that he had somehow alluded directly to his father's death (for the first time since the groups had been meeting). It was brought about by Henry's asking about what Bernard's father is doing right now, and Bernard responded that he didn't know,_which caused Henry and Walton (l) to burst forth in loud, explosive guffaws "Ha ha, that's a hot one, he says he doesn't know what his father is doing and then he says his father is dead...how do ya like
that?" It was just at about this point that the investigator's attention was attracted by the loud laughter, and after hearing Henry's comment saw Bernard was somewhat uncomfortable about the attention he was now attract ing to this very significant and tender area. The investigator attempted to support Bernard without causing Henry and Walton to feel guiltful about their remarks, so he said "You feel it's difficult for you to know what your dad is doing since he's dead, Bernard, and you boys feel it's peculiar for Bernard to say it that way." To this Bernard responded plaintively, "If he's dead there's no way for me to know what he's doing." This was the first direct statement of this kind heard from the boy, although the in vestigator was informed by the homeroom teacher that Bernard was deeply disturbed and distressed about the death of his father, and was showing his disturbance by marked antagonism, lack of interest in school, poor work despite good ability, and a tendency to remain apart from other pupils. Henry replied by further laughter, and now was joined by Niles who also poked fun at Bernard for the peculiar way in which he expressed his answer to Henry's question. Since Bernard was now the object of the entire group's attention, growing more uncomfortable and seemed about ready to withdraw, the investigator decided to cut across the discussion at the next opening and looked at his watch and asked about plans for the after-lunch period. The break was not altogether smooth, nor facile, but seemed indicated for Bernard's protection and support at that moment. The wisdom of the move was underscored by the activities of the late afternoon, during which Bernard was much more outspoken and permitted his curiosity about the "mummies" to develop until he guided the group down two floors to where the mummies were located. He took the initiative in asking a guard where they were located, urged the group to cone along. (He might have gone alone had they not sensed some of his interest and curiosity and followed along willingly.) At one point he ran all the way down to the second floor and back up to where he had asked the group to wait until he found out. Usually he is slow and decidedly deliberate in his movements, rarely caring whether the group is along with him or not, but here was a marked change in his usual demeanor. As we approached the cases in ■which the two South American "mummies" lay, he spoke a little less and seemed to detach himself from the group for a moment, then he remained there with full attention directed at the mummies for a few moments, until he was interrupted by the arrival of an entire class of boys and girls who asked many questions and commented vivid ly upon the state of the bodies they saw in the cases. Bernard spoke several times to the investigator and was particularly interested in methods of mummification, when told these were naturally preserved by the dry soil of Chile, he then wanted to know more about whether it was the wrappings or a chemical that made for preservation. On leaving the hall, he remarked that he had heard that it was possible to preserve a body by placing it in a glass case and removing all the air. He was now more animated, and smiled occasionally as he walked along. Some time earlier he had mentioned wanting to go across to the Museum of the New York Historical Society, and now he waved pleasantly to the group, saying that he was going to look at the historical documents about wars, and would see us later. (The episode at lunch seemed to be extremely helpful in permitting Bernard to release his feelings about his father for the first time in the group, and in fur ther allowing him to satisfy ills fearful curiosity in a supported setting. As he moved along through the various stages to this final release, he
changed his behavior and for the first time felt he wanted the group with him to help him through what may have appeared to him like a critical stage. The presence of an accepting pair of adults may have contributed to his rapid working through of this deep and anxiety-producing feeling. This should mark a turning point for Bernard in his relationships with his peers and with adults. Watch to see if he continues to feel as "alone and lost" as his earlier comments in group sessions indicated. Watch also his readi ness to accept relationships with other children and with adults. Will his tantalizing jeering at teachers continue? Shortly after Bernard left to visit the Historical Society, the investigator and iurs. B. strolled through the lower floors with three of the boys and then had to report to the cars to arrange for the first shift's departure. Holt and Gyrus had planned to leave at about 2:00 P.M. Morton and Niles wandered along behind the investigator and decided that they would go over to visit the Historical Society, and the investigator left to join Mrs. B. at cars to be certain that the early leavers were all accounted for. While waiting for the boys to appear, Mitchell came along and after the boating request described earlier, he decided that he would prefer to leave with the first group in Mrs. B's car. A few moments later Holt and Cyrus came along and again expressed some of their disgust at not having caught a pigeon for all their labors, then got into the car and drove off for home. They appeared otherwise content and relaxed, even though disappointed. The investigation then went into the historical Society building to join the boys who were still looking over some of the exhibits. As he entered he met the entire group and asked what was especially good to see in this Museum? Bernard spoke of the carriages, while Niles and Morton minimized them, and Walton unexpectedly chimed in "The carriage exhibit is swell, and they've got some beautiful boat models downstairs." The investigator re flected this difference in reaction and then asked if any of the boys would care to show him some of the things they thought were outstanding or inter esting. Morton and Niles said they were going to look around upstairs now, they had seen it all; Bernard wanted to see the "Gold Rush"exhibit, and Walton then quietly volunteered. This was the second surprise; first, his speaking out, and then offering to enter into a relationship directly with the investigator without the supporting presence of the other boys. He pre viously had never spoken out before the group, or to the investigator in any of the group meetings. He then led the investigator downstairs to the exhibit rooms and quietly took him through the carriage exhibits and quite determinedly, but without a word, brought the investigator to look at some model ships and boats in several cases. His love of these models was recognized, and he began to speak of his own interest in boat models and building, and continued bit by bit to discuss his hobbies and boat trips. As he expressed his feelings about boats and the places he had visited, the investigator recalled Mrs. B's interpretation of his love for faraway places to see if it might be followed along further. There were several opportunities to reflect his feelings about his hobby, about his desire to travel, and about his pride in knowing so much about boats. As this went on he warmed up and spoke more freely, and when we were joined by Bernard, Morton and Nxies, he continued to hold forth on bits of information about the sea, about ship-construction, and all this time interacted readily with
the other boys. This was new, strange, and evidently necessary for Walton. This represented an unexpected positive shiftI By this time the boys were growing weary of walking about and took advantage of a model ship's deck to sit down and just relax for a while. For the next twenty minutes there was a general discussion of the different things each had done during the day, how eager they were to get rolling home, and dispute about some of the historical scenes portrayed on the walls through the windows (ports) of the model ship on which we were resting. Here again Bernard and Walton held up nicely in their discussion with Morton and Niles. The latter was tired and relatively quiet, Morton was more active. They all joined in critici zing Henry for going to the Planetarium and thus delaying the group, since they were all ready to leave at this point, about 2:50. At this juncture the investigator permitted the exchange to move along freely and joined in to reflect feeling only on occasion, much less frequently than during the group meetings. At about 3:00 P.M. we returned to 77th Street and the car to await Henry, and several of the boys decided to walk to Columbus Avenue for sodas, leaving Walton and the investigator alone in the car for the next five minutes until Henry arrived. Henry was bubbling and expansive, talking rapidly and at length about the show. Then he stopped and asked about the others, and he decided he would walk down to meet them and buy some candy. The group returned looking satisfied, munching on nuts and chocolates, offered some to Walton and the investigator. Then we drove off toward the parkway and home. Thqy seemed pleased to be on the road again, particularly Morton wno now had the front seat after having won the toss from ^enry. Cn the way into Yonkers nenry remarked that he didn't have fare for the trolley. None of the boys offered to loan him any money, nor did the investigator who waited to see what suggestions would bo offered. Finally Morton sug gested that he didn't live so far out, maybe the investigator could drive him home and drop the others off on the way since he would be passing each of their homes en route. This was quickly taken up by Bernard and Niles, with Henry coming in later to say "That would be swelli" As we passed through the center of the town, Walton asked to be let off in front of a church, and left with warm goodbyes from the group. Morton commented after wards that 'Walton probably had to go to confession, maybe that's why he had originally wanted to get back early. Niles said that he would still have plenty of time since it was not yet iuOO P.M. From this point onward, Morton assumed command and directed the itinerary with considerable assur ance, and, at times, dominance. Bernard was next out, alone, then Morton and Niles at Morton's uncle's new gas station, and finally Henry at the end of the line. (Note: Morton's comment about an old crippled beggar who was holding up traffic at Getty Square, "He'd be better off dead...he shouldn't be allowed out." When his feeling of disturbance was reflected he went on to add "That kind of sight upsets me." The implications of his comments was that since such sights are unpleasant to me, such people ought to be removed or locked away where they couldn't affect me this way. There was no compassion at all, simply self-protection} Relate this to his concern about Curtis' having been left behind earlier in the day... Hard to see how these two feelings go together. He is otherwise very much in control of himself and tries to control those around him; here are some dents in his otherwise apparently self-sufficient makeup.) (Note: Henry's
joy at being able to ride all the way home and monopolize the investigator for the last lap, and to tell him all about his uncle’s saloon and the houses the latter owns. His need for recognition is almost overwhelming.
Discussion of Outcomes from Therapy Brief summary comments from progress notes are presented in this section to integrate these observations, where possible to do so, with the data secured from the measuring devices.
Data about the two sub
jects, whose ratings disagreed, Trill be analyzed to evaluate the dis crepancy.
-Morton During the first few sessions he remained distant and plotted little escapades with Niles, and occasionally absented himself to complete a lamp he was building in the shop. He was surly and negative in his com ments to the investigator. As he gained security within the group he began to participate more freely and was less suspicious of the adult leader. His suggestions were more readily entertained by the group and they seemed to welcome his leadership. The struggle between Henry and Mitchell provided an opening for him and he became a positive influence in the group, and a mediator in the battles between the leading dispu tants. In later sessions he was an active, positive force in planning and in negotiating arrangements for the group through the principal's office. He became personally involved through discussion of his vocational plans, and also aired his feelings toward his parents. The trips gave him another opportunity to lead and as he accepted and fulfilled the role his suspicions and distrust of the adult leader diminished. He was rated as having gained slowly on the first, and markedly on the second and overall rating. His measured gains reflected marked changes in behavior ratings by his teacher, improved greatly in acceptance by the girls, showed a reduction in need to be free from fears and a small im provement in the number of problems expressed about his health, school and worry about himself.
Holt This lad remained defensive and resistant throughout the twenty sessions he attended. He did not relate easily to the adult leader, except during one of the trips. His close contact with Cyrus kept him apart from the rest of the group. For a while both were isolated, until Holt's expertness in pigeon-raising began to be recognized by the others. Gradually, two others, Bernard and Kraus, joined the small clique and
it was recognized by the rest. Mitchell and Henry were excluded, and were slowly pressured by this newly evolving and well-knit sub-group into slight modifications of their aggression. There were marked changes in Holt’s short-tempered quality, and a lessening of rebellious and resist ive behavior in the classroom. There were fewer fights observed and a greater readiness to think of the group’s needs. He was still abusive and vitriolic in his comments, dominated Cyrus but with less success than earlier. He led the scapegoating attack upon Henry during the last few sessions and greatly enjoyed the experience. His first rating was ”no change”, with some improvement noted for the later period, aid the total series. On the measured changes there were large gains in mental ability and in decrease of needs. In the latter he showed a decrease in his unmet need for achievement and need to be free from fears and guilt} new needs emerged in the areas of economic security and need for love and affection. There were slight improvements in read ing ability, acceptance by girls and in teacher's ratings on problem be havior. These gains were accompanied by an increase in problems expressed. These appeared in the home and family area and in increased concerns about his personal adequacy. It appeared that he was beginning to face problems that were more central to his integration despite only minor changes in overt behavior.
Bernard His problems appeared to be situational rather than deeply ingrained personality disorders. Nevertheless, the sudden loss of his father and the anxieties about economic security superimposed on a somewhat immature makeup were beginning to distort his peer and adult relationships. He responded quickly to the security experienced in the group meetings} drained off many of his anxieties, and, at about the mid-point began to grapple with his feelings about the death of his father. There were marked improvements apparent in diminished verbal aggression, increased ability to relate to the boys and increased interest in the girls. He was somewhat awkward in this last area and his uncertainty caused him to resort to twitting and teasing, with some gauche ventures into physical contact. Several girls became more interested in him and he alluded to their comments in several of the later meetings. It proved a boomerang because he became the target for Henry and Mitchell who were more expert and assured in this area. He was rated as markedly improved in three separate progress notes, and for the overall rating. His measured ratings reflected great gains in teacher ratings on problem behavior and behavior traits, and in needs. There was a small gain in reading ability, accompanied by small losses in the girls' acceptance of him and in his expressed problems. He had secured a part-time job through a neighbor and seemed very pleased and proud of his achievement in this new and significant phase of his develop ment. There was still some anxiety expressed about finances and some con flict about further schooling and work. His gains within the group were evidently apparent in the classroom, and were noted by the counselors. His efficiency had increased and his final grades reflected some of this
improvement. He had gained some status with the more aggressive boys in the therapy group because of his job, and, "while they "razzed" him about being shy with girls, they included him in some of their plans for a party. His growth was marked and clearly discernible.
Cyrus His attendance was almost perfect in the group, but his immaturity and his resulting close attachment for Holt protected him from the necessity of having to face the other boys. He rarely took an active part in plan ning, but began to show some signs of resistance to the teasing so fre quently directed at him. He remained dependent and a marginal participant, and when Holt missed an occasional meeting, seemed completely lost. His usual escape was that of losing himself in a comic book, or gazing out of the window. His daydreaming seemed to diminish, and on several occasions, he was seen talking with small groups of girls. He expressed himself more frequently in the later sessions, but only two of the boys seemed ready to accept him (Kraus and Curtis). Holt usually talked for him, and frequently reinterpreted to the group some comment of his to which they did not react. He expressed strong feelings on very few occasions and seemed content to protect himself by evasion and withdrawal. There was some improvement in classroom behavior, and a slightly better ability to rdate to his peers there. On his first progress note he was rated a slight loss because of his retreat from the others in the group, and their unwillingness to accept him. His dependence upon Holt appeared to have increased. On the trips he became somewhat less fearful and more assertive, and a little of this quality carried over into the therapy discussions. The second rating was a slight gain, and the overall rating reflected the slight improvements noted. His large gain on the scales was shown in greater acceptance by the girls, and a slight gain was noted in teacher ratings of problem be havior. His needs increased and the teacher noted a sligh&ly greater incidence of personal problems for him, even though she believed these were less disturbing to the group.
■Henry This lad was rated as slightly improved during the first seven ses sions on the basis of the group's election of him to lead them, his slight and somewhat superficial interest in their needs and because of his ready relationship with the adult leader. There were several comments from teachers about his slightly improved classroom behavior, but these were reversed in a short time. As his feud with Mitchell developed to full proportions, he began to lose status with the boys, until they attacked him as a group during the last two sessions. He began to sulk and re sorted to even greater distortions of truth until he finally became the target for Holt's teasing and Bernard's jeering barbs. He seemed unable to defend himself, except by aggression. As he attacked the smaller boys, Morton and ^itchell rallied the group against him to create a condition
of complete rejection and isolation for him. He was more frequently ab sent from the group, and when he came, he usually arrived late and took a passively resisting part in the proceedings. Incidents increased in his classrooms, and teachers reported violent fights and much defiance* By the end of the series of discussions, he had been twice rated as having lost ground, and his overall rating was a slight loss in relation to his initial status. The objective results diow a gain for needs, and slight gain in number of problems expressed; there a marked loss in his acceptance by the boys and no change in his rating by girls. His ratings by his teacher remained as deviant as it had been originally. In Henry’s case it was believed that Mitchell's entry into the group proved to be the deciding factor. In a non-research treatment group, this problem would have been approached by removing one of the two boys, or, by initiating individual therapy with one or both, to accompany the group therapy. In this in stance, both beys lost, and retarded the group's development as their struggle for dominance grew in intensity.
Dalton This boy related very slowly to the group during the first few sessions. There was considerable detachment and passivity, until he be came involved in drawing on the black board in the fifth session. This was the first sign of overt, spontaneously initiated activity. He never spoke to the adult leader, except to respond to a direct greeting. The protocol illustrated some of the occurrences on the trip which were the forerunners of considerably improved behavior in the fourteenth and fifteenth sessions. He began to discuss his boat models more frequently with the boys, and they in turn, used him as their authority on matters pertaining to fishing and boating. He was frequently employed by Holt to refvroe some statement of Henry's, and Walton became freer and more interested in initiating plans for additional trips. This caused him to become part of an office-visiting delegation on two occasions, and he returned from both sallies mildly and quietly pleased with himself. In the last few sessions he was more frequently involved in the tussling which took place at the beginning of the meetings, and it was noted that he had begun to tease aid "manhandle" some of the smaller boys when they crossed him. These episodes were still very tentative and were accom panied by frequent glances at the adult leader to see what his reaction would be. By the last session, the recorded notes observed that Walton "had broken through his shell" and was now exploring active social re lationships in a somewhat awkward and blundering way. He was more in clined to smile, to take part in conversations, and to address himself to the adult leader aid to his teachers* His first rating was "slight change", and the next two recorded marked gains. He was rated as having gained impressively for the over all series. His only large gain on the rating scales occurred in teacher ratings of behavior. His Improvements occurred in the areas of personal and social adjustment as seen by the teacher in her classroom contacts
with him. He incurred a small loss in intelligence test rating, showed no change in reading, problems and needs, and a small loss in social ac ceptance by boys. The girls' ratings of him remained about the same. It was significant that his overt behavior appeared improved to another adult evaluator, while the boys complained of his being more of a nuisance to them. He had not yet overcome a good portion of his diffi culties, but is no longer isolated and disregarded as he was formerly. He was now actively exploring, with new courage, some of the resources uncovered in the group therapy sessions. As he explored, awkwardly and crudely, his peers complained of his use of them for his ends. It may be expected that his sensitivity and increasing understanding will operate to help him fashion improved skills through his experience.
.Mitchell This was one of the two most aggressive boys in the group, and from the time he entered (about three weeks late) he used the group as a forum for his aggression. He was tense and restless, moved about the room with unlimited energy, and sought physical contact with any person wno came within reach. Teachers who knew his home circumstances, the friction and rejection he had experienced, were inclined to be sympa thetic. Those who knew him casually were surprised by the violence which exploded from behind a smiling facade. They reacted to defend their status and classroom standards. He was unable to relate to any of the boys in the group, except insofar as he could use them to satisfy some infantile need. When they refused to be used in this way, they had to defend themselves from the attack they knew would be forthcoming. Most boys tried to avoid him, but Henry felt the threat to his newly assumed leadership and fought back. Henry's needs for recognition were also completely consuming, and the two clashed frequently and violently until the group set up barriers to isolate both aggressors. There were four progress notes during the seven weeks he attended, and each rated him as regressing. The overall rating was "marked loss." On the objective measures he obtained seven marked losses, and one large gain in needs. The teacher rating on behavior traits depicted worsening in personal and social adjustment, and smaller losses in intellectual and physical traits. Social acceptance ratings by boys and girls were about the lowest on both scales, and the social recognition scale sup ported this with a marked increase in the number of negative nominations. There was a marked drop in his mental ability rating, and his reading tests were not completed. In each of the progress notes the investiga tor had questioned his participation in the group, since he did not appear to be a suitable subject for a permissive group setting. The effect of his behavior upon Henry was immediately apparent, and while some of the group members profited temporarily from the struggle between the two boys, the net effect upon the entire group was retarding and destructive. Curtis
This lad seemed unable to release his true feelings in the group
at the outset. He was playful when unobserved, but tried hard to remain usu*uffled and controlled. Many of his comments concerned his health and anxiety about economic and financial problems. His first progress note was rated "no change". It was observed that he never accompanied the group on any of the trips, and when trips were being discussed he was quiet and somewhat less active in the proceedings. His role in the dis cussions was usually that of follower, and rarely did he initiate any new trend for the others to pursue. About midway through the series he initiated a discussion of the relationships among the members of the group and commented about the continuous friction between Henry and Mitchell. This presented the group with a clearly articulated problem to pursue or to evade, and they chose to pursue it through Morton’s quickly-uttered urging that they "do something about it". It was at this time that the group began to express its weariness with Henry's lying and Mitchell's continuous fighting, and for the first time, took concerted action. The relationship between aiorton and Curtis grew more close, and Curtis became absorbed in the pigeon-fancier group with Holt, Cyrus, Morton and Bernard. By the close of the sessions he was much more readily accepted by the clique, and to some extent, by those outside the clique. He continued to remain concerned with worries about finances and, as the final maricing period approached, he expressed great anxiety about failing his school subjects and having to attend summer school. The progress notes rated him as having gained slightly during the second phase, and this was again the rating at the close of the series. All three composite measures rated him as having lost, with the greatest decline appearing in the Index of Deviation. He was the only subject in the experimental group who recorded no gains on any of the eleven measures. There seemed to be a worsening in his classroom relationships with both sexes, and the teacher noted a marked increase in problem behavior. An analysis of his social recognition nominations by his classroom group revealed two negative votes, whereas he had none at the outset; there was a loss of all but one of his positive votes, which had included eleven references to his being good at games, his leadership, and being a good sport. The evidence was consistently negative from outside sources. His own test blanks showed an increase in needs and in prob lems expressed in relation to school and people in general. On the needs scale he showed fewer concerns with fears, about the same number of items expressing concern about guilts, and the emergence of a need to share in activities at heme and in school. One explanation that was suggested by the data from the scales and the progress notes, was that his slightly increased security and new assurance in the permissive setting may have given rise to more boisterous and spontaneous behavior in other spheres. This was also apparent in the case of Walton, whose problems were more readily understood by his teacher. Curtis, on the other hand, was a Negro and could be reached less readily by a whie teacher. His rejec tion by his peers was probably similar to that experienced by Walton and for about the same reasons. His newly-found interest in experiencing social relationships, his concern about being part of a group and sharing in mutual responsibility, may well have been too strong for the rigidly restrictive controls he had formerly employed for his protection from insult. In the therapy group, he had found no rebuke or imposed control; he was accepted by the adult, and by the others, who were experiencing
the same atmosphere, /(hen these relaxed reactions were transferred to more usual social settings, his behavior was condemned and he may have found himself rebuffed and rejected. The fact that both experiences occurred within the same institution may have made it difficult for him to distinguish between the two settings. The confusion and conflict thus aroused would usually have been considered in individual conferences were this the usual treatment situation. In the present investigation there was no available means for dealing with the problem without con taminating the treatment method.
1Kraus This stiff, repressed and conforming adolescent showed little change in his constricted behavior during the first phase of the discussions, and was rated accordingly. He still sought to affix himself to the adult leader and to impress the other boys with his parliamentary skill. He found the freedom threatening, and, for a while, it appeared as though he would withdraw from the group, he found more ready acceptance from the group as he modified his formalized patterns of behavior and speech. It was later learned from a chance remark made by Bernard, that Kraus' mother did not permit him to take any trips with the boys. The reason could not be ascertained, but as the others learned of this, a few began to sympa thize with Kraus. This new identification removed some of the feeling of isolation and helped to dissolve some of the barriers that had existed. In the last three weeks his behavior began to change considerably, and he was frequently found wrestling with Bernard or with one of the others at the beginning of the discussions. At one time, he was accosted by Mit chell, and while he was bested and had to withdraw, he nevertheless gained in stature with the others as a result of the tussle. He was still con sidered somewhat dependent in the later ratings, but there was 6ome move ment in his relationships with a segment of the group. During the last phase, he receivedhis only notation of improvement in this area. He seemed to be freer in discussing personal matters and related several stories about the cruelty of his older brother, and about what he had hoped to do after leaving school. He showed some new anxieties about school, to which he could not admit previously, and these were registered in the final problems test in which he expressed 6$ problems, compared with 11 in the initial testing. The overall estimate of improvement was one of slight change for the better, and this was based largely upon the behavior manifested in the re lationships described above. His measured ratings reflected his improve ment in the area of most significance to him, his relationships with boys. There was also a slight shift in the girls' reactions to him, but notlarge enough to registeras an independent gain, but was revealed in a small gain in his Index of Social Acceptance. There were five slight losses in the areas relatedTo school adjustment and scholastic adaptability, but the two large losses were those appearing in needs and problems. These losses in dicated agreement with the estimates made of his increasing release and freedom from repression, and subsequent neglect of academic aspects of ad justment. The losses in personal-emotional areas (N,P) reflected the struggle he was encountering in releasing himself from his older restric-
tlve moorings. A much longer period of therapy seemed indicated to help him consolidate these beginning gains, ^is responses paralleled those observed in the cases of Walton and Curtis, except that his previous super ficial skills and caution in social relationships may have caused his acceptance ratings by the boys to improve while theirs worsened. The data from this subject’s progress notes and measurements illustrated the hy pothesis formulated to explain the control group's improvement in reading ability, and the experimental group's consistent improvement in skills of interpersonal relationships.
Analysis of Changes in Two Control Subjects The experimental group was shown to have improved by a reliably greater amount in each of the three composite measures, and in social ac ceptance ratings by the girls.
In each of two separate exp aliments the
experimental group exceeded the untreated group to a reliable degree in social acceptance ratings by boys and in teachers' ratings of traits of behavior.
The subsequent analysis of gains made in each of the measured
variables again pointed to the reliable superiority of the experimental group's gains in all areas except in reading ability.
The control groups
had consistently exceeded the experimental group in this academic skill. While the groups behaved in this fashion, several of the control subjects manifested gains equal in number and in size to those shown by improved treated subjects.
The data for control subject iDc (Klaxton),
whose gains equalled those made by the most improved experimental subject, were analyzed to provide some understanding of the reasons for this un usual improvement.
The same procedure was followed for the control subject
at the other extreme (ILc, Kwyett) who made no gains. "no change" or "losses" in all comparisons.
This subject scored
The analyses were based upon
the initial and final test data, interviews with teachers and counselors, and observations made by the investigator.
For each control subject, com
parative data for his experimental mate was described.
The analyses of these extreme cases was introduced to illustrate the probably meaning of the observed changes for these subjects.
were not to be considered representative of what had occurred among the other control subjects.
Klaxton Klaxton (IJDc of the control group) was thirteen years old when initially tested. He was just under average height, but considered himself to be short and not growing fast enough. He was a heavy-set, and solidly built Negro boy who was considered to be boisterous, loud and troublesome. "He was too interested in the girls to pay attention to anything else." The same teacher complained that she had to discipline him frequently for infractions of scnool and classroom regulations, and that he was completely over his head in this fast-moving academic group. He was enrolled in Latin, but it was said that he didn't understand the first thing about the subject and refused to try, regardless of what incentives were employed. The coun selors felt that he would encounter difficulty with the program he had selected. In several conversations with him, the counselor believed she had made no progress in pointing out the rigid requirements of this cur riculum. He was obstinate about considering a more varied exploratory program. He stated that his mother wanted him to get this work so he could go on to the academic hir:h school, and then to college. During the winter marking period, most of his grades were low and he agreed to try a less exacting program in another homeroom with one of the three male shop-teachers. There was considerable protest before the change was made, but he seemed content with the change after a few weeks. ■alien observed in his new homeroom he was still somewhat restless, loud and outspokenj still inclined to annoy and tease any of the girls who sat near him, but less inclined to defy the male teacher, who seemed more understanding and tolerant of his infractions than his previous teacher had been. He was of average mental ability and was reading at about the level of pupils midway through the sixth grade when tested initially. He expressed a need to be free from fears by underlining ten of eighteen items in this area, and a need to understand the world around him. He underlined seven teen problems which he believed to be those which gave him the greatest concern, and ranked at about the average for the group of eighth grade boys. The problems checked with greatest frequency in the problem check list were those concerned with his health and physical well-being, voca tional choices and future educational plans, family troubles and selfcentered concerns dealing with punishment and self-negation. The record was not unusual except in those items about family and self concerns, wherein he seemed more concerned and outspoken than the other boys in the group. In the social acceptance ratings, he was ranked high by some boys
and rejected by a number of others, yielding a score -which was just out side the range of deviant ratings. The girls, on the other hand, gave him consistently rejecting ratings, which yielded a markedly deviant score for his relationships with the opposite sex. This finding was supported by the nominations he received in Who1s Who in My Group? with 13 negative placements from the boys and girls and rune positive placements. Almost all of the latter came from the boys. The teacher rated him an extreme deviate in problem behavior, which included: his unpopularity with the children, lying, temper outbursts, and particularly his defiance and overactive, restless behavior. His ratings of his behavior. His ratings of his behavior traits were less extreme, but still within the deviant range. His combined ratings gave him an Index of Deviation of 63, and his others were 58 for Scholastic Adaptability, ancTbl for Social Acceptability, ranking him fourth and sixth In each of the control groups.
Re-test Data On re-testing he showed no change in intelligence rating, but gained about two grades in reading ability, placing him slightly above the average for his total group. His needs decreased, and he snowed a lessening of fear responses and of those concerned with understanding his environment. In their place emerged a somewhat ambivalent concern about economic se curity. His expression of problems quadrupled, a marked loss in this scale. There were marked increases in problems about boy-girl rela tionships, self-concerns, and anxiety about vocations and finances, with extreme increases in regard to school worries and those concerning his emotional reactions to people. His score was among the five highest on this scale. His new teacher rated him as relatively free of overt, aggressive behavior problems, but noted a tendency, to be late to classes, and that some remnant of the original defiance still existed. This was a much greater improvement than appeared in the ratings on behavior traits, which still showed some deviation in personal and emotional adjustment. Both his ratings had dropped to within average range. There was a marked gain in his social acceptance ratings by boys, supported by fifteen positive nominations from then, and fewer negative nominations. Five boys declared him to be "happy and lots of fun." The girls1 ratings in his new group were exactly the same as those he had attained previously, and there was an increase in the number of negative nominations by the girls in the social recognition scale. He was apparently still rejected to about the same degree by the girls in the present group as he was in his previous group. In this regard, the problems he underscored in the check-list showed a strong concern with such items as "girls don't seem to like me", "wanting to know more about girls", "don't like the girls", "thinking too.much about the opposite sex", and several others concerned with marriage, dancing and dating.
Here was a marked deviate who had gained greatly through the change in class placement, had shown some signs of increased efficiency in his growth in reading; and some increased ability to get along with his new
teacher and the boys in his new group. Apparently some of the pressures he had experienced in trying to meet his mother's standards had been re moved, but there still remained an extremely strong concern with his adequacy in relation to the opposite sex. The presence of a male home room teacher may have been of great help in this instance and probably served to minimize the gravity of his annoying forays, making it pos sible for him to be less threatened and defensive about his sex interests. His grades in school were no better than they were at the mid-year mark ing period, since he failed two major subjects at the final marking period. His was the outstanding case of major gains among the control subjects, and it was probable that the change in class placanent played an important part in accounting for the genuine growth he experienced in several areas. One major problem remained with which he must still grapple, that of working out constructive relationships with the opposite sex. It was interesting to find gains for this control subject in three aspects of adjustment, and no change in the area in which the experimental subjects profited most.
Comparison with Experimental Mate Klaxton's experimental mate (lDx) in the first experiment, was of average mental ability, was about the same age, from the same class, was also loud, boisterous and aggressive in his classroom behavior, and inclined to be defiant to adult authority, showed somewhat different changes for the better. He remained in the same class, passed all subjects, improved his ratings on problems expressed by himself, and showed marked and slight gains in teacher ratings for problems and on behavior traits. His original standing with the boys was somewhat better than Klaxton's, and this re mained about the same upon re-test, but there was a slight gain in his acceptance by the girls. His reading ability did not change in relation to the average of his group at the end of the term, but there was a rise in intelligence rating. There were several spontaneous comments about the changes in IDx' behavior from the counselors and from two teachers who had previously evaluated him as a serious problem to himself and to the group. This brief comparison of the control subject who made the outstanding "spontaneous" improvement with his experimental mate, suggested that different therapeutic approaches appeared to result in different kinds of gains.
There was insufficient data from the current investigation to
support or refute such an hypothecs, and it was noted as an area worthy of further study.
Kwyett Kwyett (ILc of the control group) was fourteen years old at the outset.
He was a slightly built lad, tall for his age, walked with a shuffling gait, and was almost bird-like in the quality of his movements. He re garded himself to be "too-tall for my age, have poor posture and (I'm) underweight." He also mentioned in his check-list of problems that he "can't talk plain." The counselors described him to be "an unusual child, hard to understand, peculiar in appearance and in personality make-up." He was said to have many nervous mannerisms, a queer and somewhat effem inate quality, a squeaky voice which the other children have noticed and about which they taunted him. He was in a homeroom group which contained several of the problem, children of the eighth grade and he was frequently used as their target and "whipping boy" when blame had to be placed, or when they required an outlet for their pent-up antagonisms. He had dif ficulty with several school subjects during the Fall semester and failed two major subjects at the mid-year marking period. Teachers complained that his concentration was poor, he couldn't follow instructions, and had great difficulty in maintaining himself with the group. He was undecided and tentative about most questions which arose, and spent a good portion of the time in class day-dreaming and doodling in his notebook. He was an isolate in this group, and most of the time seemed to be relatively content to be left alone. His experimental mate, Walton, was in this nomeroom but there was rarely any interactionj each seemed content to remain quietly concerned with his own affairs and fantasies. His usual defense when picked upon was to try to withdraw, and if this was not possible, he uttered a shrill yell to attract the attention of the teacher in the hope of intervention and protection. This was observed several times in the cafeteria, and after each such incident he seemed to remain excited for some time. His movements became more rapid and erratic than usual, and he continued to look about him as though fearing another onslaught. At such times, his mien was almost hunted and pa thetic. He appeared to be a frightened, anxious, rejected and troubled young adolescent who was unable to focus upon the demands of the class room. He possessed about dull normal mental ability and his reading ability was at the upper level of the fifth grade upon initial testing. This was at least a year and a half behind the average for the rest of his group. The only area in which he expressed a need was that of freedom from fears, although there was an overemphasis shown in checking items denoting a need for understanding his environment and its meaning for him. He ex pressed a great many problems about himself in the check-list, and mentioned as most troublesome the following: "trying to stop a bad habit, having bad dreams, daydreaming and never having any fun with father or mother." He seemed particularly concerned with approaching maturity and what his future plans were to be, with a large number of self-concerns, and a pattern of unwholesome family relationsnips which seemed to indicate re jection by his parents. He was about equally rejected by boys and girls, and the data from the 'Who's Who In My Group? supported these rejections with twice as many negative ratings""from trie boys compared with those re ceived from the girls. The boys gave him four of the five positive nomina tions he obtained and single votes recognized that he tried hard, was Happy, and a good sport. His ratings by his teacher denoted few problems
and he ranked somewhat better than average in problem behavior and in be havior traits. He evidently caused little difficulty of an overt nature in the classroom and probably went largely unnoticed when in the group. His measured ratings were deviant in regard to the quantity of personal problems checked about himself, and in relationships with both sexes within his classroom group. His Index of Deviation was 56, abcut the middle of the first control group of problem boys, and his Index of Social Acceptability placed him fifth among the second control group. His behavior was occasionally discussed by the subjects in therapy group B, and it appeared that he was the center for disturbances in several classrooms, and was punished for starting the fracas but was rarely respon sible for what had occurred. The reactions of the more submissive boys were usually sympathetic; those of the aggressive boys, somewhat more defensive. All seemed in agreement, however, in feeling that this was a strange and unfortunate boy. His behavior apparently changed during the winter months because there were increasing references to escapades which he had begun to sponsor. The boys laughed for some time about a locker-room incident in which Kwyett had hidden the clothes of one of the recognized "tough-guys." He was observed aping the teacher in one class to cause the pupils to laugh. In the cafeteria he was observed flipping dabs of ice-cream at the girls, much to the amusement of the boys at his table. There was a new desire for attention apparent, aid his method of clowning and mimicry was proving successful in attracting the attention of the other children to himself. He seemed to be reaching out to the group to break through the isolation and rejection he had experienced at their hands. It was significant to find that Cyrus and Walton were the experimental subjects who most fre quently introduced references to Kwyett's new exploits. These submissive and inhibited boys were sharing in these new ventures of his, in vicarious fashion, in the therapy group discussions.
Re-test Data From the final tests taken during May of 19U9> it was observed that there were no changes in his mental and reading scores, or in his social acceptance by the boys. There was a slight loss in standing judged from the lowered ratings for social acceptance by the girls in his group. His nominations in the social recognition scales showed increased negative entries for being short-tempered and a "copy-cat", but fewer for snob bishness and bragging. His positive entries declined from five to three. The loss was one vote each for trying hard and for being a good sport. When these small changes were considered within the mosaic of the behavior pattern outlined, they suggested that Kwyett was gaining some ground with some boys, but losing status with the girls, perhaps because some of his attention-securing devices were at their expense. His behavior was judged by his teacher to have increased in overt signs of problem tendencies, with such items checked as: a marked disinterest in school work, sane cheating, defiaice to discipline, and marked overactivity. This was a standard score loss of nine points, just short of a marked loss. The behavior trait ratings showed the largest loss in personal-emotional items, followed by a smaller loss in social relationships, yielding a loss of the same order as in the first scale. His changed tactics in seeking
to break out of isolation had netted an ambivalent reaction from the boys, and consistently negative reactions from the girls and from his teacher. TNhat was the effect of his effort upon himself? Vlas he more at ease with, and accepting of the new self he was attempting to fashion? The data from the needs and problem scales helped in understanding the cost of his drive to gain acceptance. His previous ambivalent score in needing to be free from fears had improved sligrtly, and in its place, there had emerged a strong expression of guilt. In this category of need he had selected ten of the eighteen available items to describe himself. His needs for sharing and for love and affection had decreased slightly, and there was now ex pressed an ambivalent need for achievement, -which signified a desire to be recognized and sppreciated by others. A more direct and conscious expression of these trends was clearly apparent from the problems he checked upon re-test. He underscored over forty additional items to give him the outstandingly high problem score for the total group. There were significant increases in his concerns with his emotional relationships with people in general, and in relation to problems within school. Self-concerns and anxieties about the future had indicated a rise, and the previously marked tendency for friction with parents, and their rejection of him, was slightly increased. There were no areas in tfiich his concern with prob lems showed a decrease.
Summary Kwyett was the subject from the first control group who manifested the most consistently regressed behavior in the measured rating scales. The data revealed an introverted, fearful and strangely pathetic adolescent who attempted to develop new ways of breaking out of his isolation into the favor of the group. The observations and re-test data described the relative success on the one hand, and the cost to himself and to most of those around him of these unaided, bewildering and emotionally painful strivings. The data suggested that his strivings toward the group, or what Slavson has termed "social hunger", might have been more effec tively crystallized in the controlled but permissive relationships of a therapy group. There were sane indications available from the record of outcomes of Walton, his experimental counterpart, to point out comparisons in improvements and losses.
Comparison with Experimental Mate The treated mate was a few months younger, slightly brighter, in the same homeroom, and perhaps somewhat more introverted and impassive at the outset than Kwyett. Both home settings reflected intense discord and rejection, and Walton was more seriously deviated by the teacher's ratings. Their acceptance by the boys favored Walton by a slight margin (four points in standard score) and 1hey were equally rejected by the girls.
L.E. Raths, An Application to Education of the Needs Theory, page 8. S.R. Slavson, Introduction lo Group Therapy, page 15.
Kwyett expressed fewer needs and more problems than Vfalton. Of the two boys, Kwyett was judged to have far better active resources for recovery 'than the treated subject, since the latter proved extremely withdrawn for weeks in the protected therapy setting, while Kwyett showed early signs of dissatisfaction with his enforced isolation, without special help of any kind. Yet viialton’s improvement came about at the expense, as it were, of the boys in his class and did not unduly disrupt his inner ade quacy to deal with the rebuffs experienced. His improvements were expressed in more socially desirable behavior which was recognized by the teacher’s ratings of behavior traits in social and personal aspects of adjustment* Kwyett's improved standing with the boys was very slight, and registered as "no change" in the scales used, while his relationships with adults and with peers of the opposite sex suffered. Most significant was the cost to his own personal-emotional adequacy. This comparison illustrated the possible significance of the statisti cally reliable losses experienced by the control groups in somewhat more meaningful, human terms*
Summary Some inferences suggested from the study of group therapy protocols, and from observations of the subjects were as follows: 1. 2.
Late entry of aggressive subjects into therapy group resulted in barriers set up against the latecomers; Preliminary observation or clinical evaluation appeared warranted to assess suitability for inclusion in group therapy, and to estimate the subject’s chances for profiting from a group of known composition; It would seem desirable to arrange combined individual and group therapy to a) nelp rigid, constricted pupils gain assurance and support as their old modes of behavior are being stripped away by the group therapy process, b) absorb the increased tensions produced by the early sessions so that they are prevented from flowing over into the classroom, c) absorb those subjects who may have to be dropped from a group, and to provide aid for those who withdraw because pressure becomes too great for them to endure; Therapy groups of ten subjects of this age group were prac tical and workable but become unwieldy beyond that number; and, For subjects of thirteen to sixteen from the lower socio cultural strata, it would be desirable to provide some media for expressive and manipulative activities rather than discussions alone*
Concluding Statement The subjects of therapy group B were chosen for analysis and a group therapy session was described, and the outcomes for each of the participants were discussed briefly.
The control subjects who improved
most and regressed most were described, and their changes were compared with those of their experimental mates.
A summary of the findings
from study of the observations was then presented.
CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION
Summary This investigation was directed toward an examination and evalua tion of the changes produced by nondirective group therapy discussions in the observed behavior, social relationships and personal attitudes of selected adolescent problem boys. The hypothesis liiich guided the investigation was:
that a group
of adolescent problem boys who were provided with an opportunity to parti cipate in a series of nondirective group therapy discussions, would manifest greater changes of a positive nature in behavior, social relationships and self-regarding attitudes, than a group of matched, untreated control sub jects. It was assumed that changes of this kind could be induced by group therapy, and, if such changes occurred they could be measured by the de vices proposed.
It wa3 not assumed that the proposed experimental method
was necessarily the best method or the only method for this purpose, but it was recognized as one that offered promise. The experimental subjects were twenty adolescent boys ranging in age from 15>1| to 181 months, in the eighth grade of a Yonkers, New York, junior high school.
They were selected on the basis of problem tendencies
revealed in a battery of eight rating scales and tests which tapped the areas of "social acceptability" and "scholastic adaptability."
of Deviation was employed to select the most deviant boys in the grade,
and twenty subjects for group therapy were randomly chosen from among those selected by this measure. The measures employed were: The The The The
Self-Portrait (Needs) Mooney Problem Check List (Problems) Ohio Social Acceptance Scale Ratings by Boys, and by Girls Haggerty-0lson-Wickraan Behavior Rating Schedules (Behavior Problems and Behavior Trait Ratings) The Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability The Stanford Achievement Test of Reading
All measures were administered to all the boys of the grade in October 19U8, and again in May and June of 19U9• Results of initial and final tests of the untreated subjects were intercorrelated and treated by correlational profile analysis and multiple correlation to obtain two independent weighted composite measures.
These were designated an Index of Scholastic Adapta
bility and an Index of Social Acceptability.
On the basis of each measure,
control cases were matched with the experimental population to form two control groups. The experimental subjects were formed into two therapy groups; one was composed of nine, and the other of eleven boys.
They met for three
months, twice each week in forty-five minute group discussions, conducted nondirectively, for a total of twenty-two sessions. trips during the school day. boys.
Each group took several
These had been proposed and planned by the
All sessions were conducted by the investigator, and on two trips,
another therapist assisted him. groups was sixteen sessions.
The average attendance for each cf the
Two subjects entered their respective therapy
groups six and seven sessions late, and because of their late entry and extremely aggressive behavior, the data were examined first by including them, and again when their results had been deleted.
The data were treated
as though there were two sets of experiments, first with twenty subjects
on the two matching variables, and the second time with eighteen subjects on the same two variables. The null hypothesis was postulated for testing the outcomes for each of the experiments.
It was assumed that there would be no difference
between the group which had participated in group therapy and the matched groups which had not experienced group therapy.
In each experiment the
treated and untreated groups were compared at the beginning and again at the end, and each group was also compared with itself before and after the experiment.
The five per cent level of probability was adopted as
the level at which differences were to be accepted as significant.
the observed difference demonstrated a likelihood of occurring at least ninety-five times in a hundred chances it was accepted as a reliable difference between the groups, or, between its own initial and final measures. In the first set of experiments with all twenty subjects matched first on the Index of Scholastic Adaptability, and a second time on the Index of Social Acceptability, it was found that no significant differences were apparent between the experimental and its control group.
however, several suggestive trends on the first matching which signified gains for the experimental and losses for the control group.
probabilities of these gain and loss trends were combined, they were found to be significant.
Thus, Then matched for "scholastic adaptability",
the experimental group was found to have improved significantly in social acceptance ratings by girls and in the composite Index of Deviation. While the treated group improved on these measures, the control group had declined significantly from its initial position in intelligence quotient (-7.U0) and in behavior trait ratings by teachers (-1U.00)•
When matched on "social acceptability" with its second control group, similar trends were apparent, but did not emerge as significant. The control group again showed significant losses in teacher ratings of problem behavior and behavior traits, as well as in problems indicated by the student to be causing him concern. In the second set of experiments, from which the two late entrants had been omitted, the eighteen experimental subjects manifested signifi cant improvement in three measures.
These were teachers’ ratings of
behavior traits, the Index of Deviation, and the measure on which the matching was accomplished, the Index of Scholastic Adaptability. 7/hen the gain and loss trends were considered, the Index of Social Acceptability aid social acceptance ratings by girls denoted significant improvanent in favor of the experimental group.
The control subjects
again showed a significant loss in intelligence ratings. In the final conparison, when matched on "social acceptance", the experimental group again improved significantly, this time on four measures: The Index of Social Acceptability, social acceptance ratings by boys, the Index of Deviation, aid the Index of Scholastic Adaptability. The latter two showed trends viiich were combined to become significant. The control group, when compared with its initial status, had again shown significant regression in intelligence quotient, and in prob lems expressed by the boys.
There was also a significant gain of about
seven months in reading ability revealed by the control group. not differentiate significantly, however, between the groups.
In the two sets of experiments, with the exception of the control group's gain in reading ability, the improvements consistently and sig nificantly favored the subjects who participated in the group therapy discussions.
The trends in the first set of experiments became more
decisive when the scores of the two late entrants were omitted from the data.
Conclusions From the investigation described in the preceding chapters, and subject to the limitations noted therein, the investigator considers it reasonable to conclude that: Twenty-two nondirective group therapy discussions, conducted in a junior high school, produced significant improvement in the behavior of fifty-five per cent of the adolescent problem boys who participated in the experiment.
The greatest improvement occurred in social rela
tionships with girls in their classroom groups.
Improvement in social
relationships with other boys was evident, but less marked.
was also reflected in teachers' observations of the boys' classroom behavior. Despite the improvement noted above, there was no conspicuous reduction in the problems and needs which these boys acknowledged to be matters of concern to them.
Implications for Education The development of satisfying and socially constructive interper sonal relationships is essential in furthering the democratic ideals of our society.
The school, along with other agencies of the community has
the responsibility and the opportunity to assist each of its pupils to achieve respect for himself and for others.
Pupils -who are unable to
achieve sound relationships with their peers and adults in the school setting are handicapped in their educational and social roles.
focus of education is positive and emphasizes the wholesome growth and development of the pupil.
Still, ameliorative provisions are needed
when problems occur and personal and social frictions arise.
ings of the present investigation suggest that nondirective group therapy can be applied, with some success, when boys experience difficulties in their social relationships during early adolescence. This investigation, of course, does not prove that every homeroom teacher can immediately apply the techniques of group therapy with the assurance of results identical to those found in this investigation. But the results presented above do clearly indicate that nondirective group therapy is an educational technique which holds promise of signifi cant contributions to the solution of one of the great problems of modern education, namely, how to help more effectively those students commonly designated as "problem boys". The logical next step appears to be repetition of this experiment, and the conduct of similar experiments by other investigators in other schools, to determine the probability of success under varied conditions. If such experiments produce positive results, comparable to those found in this experiment, we may then be justified in adding the techniques of group therapy to the essential preparation of teachers, and in employing group therapy techniques in addition to such other procedures as may have demonstrated their effectiveness in helping problem boys.
It would be \
difficult to overestimate the social gains that may result.
177 Books American Council on Education, Helping Teachers Understand Children. Washington, D.C.: 1945, pages 468. Ale-ander, F., French, T.M. and others, Psychoanalyt ic Therapy: Principles and Application. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1946, pages 353. Allport, G.W., Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New xork: Henry Holt and Company, 1937, pages 588. Aptekar, H.H., Basic Concepts in Social Case ‘ .York. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina tress, 1941, pages 201. Axline, V.M., Play Therapy. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1947, pages 379. Breuer, J. and Freud, S., Studies in Hysteria. Washington, D.C.: Nervous and Mental Disease Publications, 1936, pages 241. ^ r
Bullis, II.S., O’Malley, E., and Jastak, J., Human Relations in the Classroom. ’Wilmington, Delaware: The Delaware State Society for Mental Hygiene, Incorporated, 1944, pages 155. Buros, O.K. (Editor), The Nineteen Forty Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park, New Jersey: The Mental Measurements Iearoook," 1941, pages 674. Cameron, N., The Psychology of the behavior Disorders. Miff1in Company, 1947, pages 622.
Cantor, N., The Dynamics of Learning. Buffalo, ;.ew York: Foster and Stewart Publishing Company, 1946, pages 282. de Huszar, G.D., Practical Applications of Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945, pages140. Fenichel, 0., The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. VY.vv. Norton and Company, 1945, pages 705.
Fisher, R.A., Statistical Methods for Besearch Workers. New York: Hafner PuDlishing Company, 1948, tenth Hdition,pages 354. Folsom, J.K., The Family and Democratic Society. New lork: Wiley and Sons, 1945,pages 755. uarrett, H,E., Statistics in Psychology and education. Longmans, Sreen and Company, 1947, pages 487.
Guilford, J.P., Psychometric Methods. New York: Me Graw-Hill book Company, 1956, pages 566. Hamilton, G., Psychotherapy in Child Guidance. New York: Columbia University Press, 1947T”pages 340. Hanna, L.A. (Chairman), Group Processes in Supervision. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1948, pages 130.
178 Havighurst, R.J., and Taba, n., Adolescent Character and Personality. John "fviley and Sons, 1949, pages '615. Henry, Nelson b. (Editor), Adolescence. Forty-third Yearbook, Part I, The National Society for the Study of Education, Chicago: The Department of Education, University of Chicago, 1944, pages 358. Hoppock, R., Group Guidance. New York: 1949, pages 3&3.
Me Graw-Hill Book Company,
Kelly, E.C., Education for that is Real. New Yorks 1947, pages 114.
Harper and Brothers,
Klapman, J.W., Group Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice, lev; York: Grume and Stratton, 1946, pages 344. Kluckhohn, C. and Murray, H.A. (Editors), Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Incorporated, T948, pages 561. Kvaraceus, W.C., Juvenile Delinquency and the School. Yohkers-onHudson, New i'ork: V/orld Book Company, 1945, pages 337. Lewin, K., Resolving Social Conflicts. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1948, pages 2b0. Lindquist, E.F., Statistical Analysis in Educational Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940, pages 266. Lippitt, R., Tr ining in Community Relations. New York: Brothers',' 1949, pages 286.
Maslow, A. and Mittelman, B., Principles of Abnormal Psychology. New Yorl: Harper and nrothersj USaTT" pages 638. Mayo, E., The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of business Administration, 1945, pages 150. Mel, A. and biles, K. (Co-chairmen), Toward better Teaching. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1949, pages 282. Moreno, J.L., Who Shall Survive? Washington, D.C.: Disease Publishing Company, 1934, pages 477.
Nervous and Mental
___________, Group Psychotherapy: A Symposium. Beacon , New York: Beacon House, Incorporated, 154T3, pages 305. Murphy, L.B. and Ladd, H., Emotional Factors in Learning. New- York: Columbia University Press, 1944, pages 410. Murphy, G.W., Personality: A niosocial Approach to Origins and Structure. New York: Harper and crothers, 194/, pages-5J915T
179 Murray, H.A. and. others, Explorations in Personality. Hew York: Oxford University Press, 1938, pages 761. 1 Nencomb, T.M. and Hartley, E.L. (Chairmen), Headings in Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and"'Comppny, 1947, page's 1TT2. Peatman, J»G., Descriptive and Sampling Statistics. Hew York: Harper and Brothers, 1547, pages 577. * Peters, C.C. and Van Voorhis, Ys'.R., Statistical Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases. State College, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State College"^ 1935, pages 363. Plant, J.S., Personality nd the Cultural Pattern. wealth Fund, 1937, pages 432.
New York: The Common
Prescott, D.A. (Chairman), Emotions and the Educative Process. Yvashington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1535, pages 323. Roethligsberger, F.J. and Dickson, W.J., Management and the Worker. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940, pages 614. Rogers, C.R., The Clinical Treatment of the Pro-lem Child, Houghton~liifflin Company, 1939, pages 393. ___________, Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston: Company, 1942, pages 450. Shaffer, L.F., The Psychology of Adjustment. Company, 1936, pages S o .
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Slavson, S.R., Creative Group Education. New York: 1937, pages 247. , Introduction to Group Therapy. wealth Fund, T943, pages 352.
* Slavson, S.R. (Editor), The Practice of Group Therapy. New York: International Universities Press, 1947, pages 271. (Number 6) Smith, E.R., Tyler, R.YY. and others, Appraising and Recording Student Progress. New York: Harper and brothers, 1942, pages 550. Strang, R., Group Activities in College and Secondary School. New York: Harper and brothers, 197ET pages 36T. _________ , Coimseling Technics in Colleges and Secondary Schools. New York: Harper and "brothers, 1949, pages 302. Thrasher, P.M., The Gang. Chicago: pages 605.
University of Chicago Press, 1927,
Wickman, E.K., Children's uehavior and Teachers1 Attitudes. The Commonwealth !Fund, 1928, pages 247. Wilson, G.,
Group Work and Case Work: Their Relationship and Practice.
New York: Family Welfare Association of America, 1941, pages 107.
* Table I, page 50.
Witmer, H.L. (Editor), Psychiatric Interviev;- with Children.New York; Commonwealth Fundi 1946, pages 443. Zachry, C. and Lighty, M., Emotion end Conduct in Adolescence. New York: Appleton-Cenbury-Crof'fcs! Incorporated, 1940, pages 563. Periodicals and Pamphlets Ackerman, N.W., "Dynamic Patterns in Grouv Psychotherapy," 7, 1944, 341-348.
Anderson, H.H., "Directive and Nondirective Psychotherapy: The Role of the Therapist," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 16, 1946, 608-614. Axline, V.M., "Nondirective Therapy for Poor Readers," Consulting Psychology, 11, 1947, 61-69.
Baruch, D.S ., "Therapetitic Procedures as Part of the Educative Process," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4, 1940, 165-172. ___________, "Mental Hygiene Counseling as Part of Teacher Education," Journal of Psychology, 15, 1941, 69-108. , "Incorporation of Therapeutic Procedures as Part of the Educative Process," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 12, 1942, 659-665. , "Procedures in Training Teachers to Prevent and Reduce Cental Hygiene Problems," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 67, 1945, 143-178. and Miller, E., "Group and Individual Psychotherapy as an ■ Adjunct in the Treatment of Allergy," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 10, 1946, 281-284. * Becker, M., "The Effects of Group Therapy on Sioling Rivalry," Journal of Social Casework, 29, 1948, 217-221. (Number ll) Bender, L., "Group Activities on a Children's Hard as Methods of Psychotherapy," American Journal of Psychiatry, 93, 1937, 1151-1170. _________ and Whitman, A.G., " The Use of Puppet Shows as a Psycho therapeutic Method for iiehavior Problems in Children," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 1936, 341-354. Bills, R.E., "An Investigation of the Effects of Individual and Group Therapy on the Reading Ability of Retarded Readers," Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, September, 1948, at noston, Massachusetts. (Mimeographed)
* Table I, page 50.
181 Blocksma, D., "Leader Flexibility in Group Guidance Situations," Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9, 1949, 531-535. burrow, T., "The Group Method of Analysis," 14, 1927, 268-280.
Canady, H.G., "The Contributions of Cultural Anthropology to the Study of Human behavior," School and Society, 68, 1948, 267-270. Cattell, R.B., "Concepts and Methods in the Measurement of C-roup Syntality," Psychological Review, 55, 1948, 48-63. Chappell, M.W., Stefano, J.J., Rogerson, J.S., and Pike, F.H., "Value of Group Psychol.gical Procedures in Treatment of Peptic Ulcer," American Journal of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, 3, 1937, * Cohen, R.A., "Military Group Psychotherapy," 94-102. (Humber 5)
Mental Hygiene, 31, 1947,
* Cruikshank, A.M. and Cowen, E.L., "Group Therapy with Physically Handi capped Children," Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 1948, Part I, 193-215; Part II 281-2., Growth in Personality Adjustment Through Mental Hygienes An ExperimentaT~Study! Albany* hew York's State Department of Education, 1936, pages 71. Snyder,
,..T J ., "Survey of Recent Studies in the Measurement of Personality, Attitudes and Interests of Adolescents," ‘Journal of General Psy chology, 25, 1941, 403-420.
___________, "An Investigation of the Nature of Nondirective Psychotherapy,11 Journal of General Psychology, 33, 1945, 193-;123. ___________, "A Comparison of One Unsuccessful with Four Successful Nondirectively Counseled Cases," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 11, 1947, 38-42. Sternbach, 0., "The Dynamics of Psychotherapy in the Group," Journal'nof Child Psychiatry, 1, 1947, 91-112. Strang, R., and Wollner, M., "Guidance Through Groups," Educational Research, 15, 1945, 164-173.
_________ , "Criteria of Progress in Counseling and Psychotherapy," Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1947, 180-183. Super, D.E., "Group Techniques in the Guidance Program," and Psychological Measurement, 9, 1949, 496-510.
Thomas, G.Vf., "Group Psychotherapy: A Review of the Recent Literature," Psychosomatic Medicine, 5, 1943, 166-180.
* Table I, page 50.
Thompson, C.E., "The Attitudes of Various Groups Toward Behavior Problems of Children," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psy chology, 35, 1940, 120-125. Travers, R.M.N.,’ "A Critical Review of Techniques for Evaluating Guidance," Educational and Psychological Measurement, 9, 1949, 211-225. ".Vickman, E.K., Teachers and Behavior Problems. New York: wealth Fund, 1938, pages 40.
Y.illerman, B., Group Decision and Request as a Means of Changing Food Habits. Washington, D.C.: NationaTTtesearch "Council, 1943, pages 9. (Mimeographed) Williams, R.M., The Reduction" of Intergroup Tensions: A Survey of Research of iitTmio, Rac'iaT~anc? Religious Group Relations. New York: Social Science Research Council, Bulletin 57, 1947. Vdlliamson, E.G., and Bordin, E.S., "Evaluating Counseling by Means of a Control Group Experiment," School and Society, 52, 1940, 434440. Anonymous,"Group Psychotherapy," War Department Technical Bulletin, (T.B. Medical 103) 10 October 1944, pages T~. ________ , Toward Professional Standards. New York: American Association of Group Workers, 134 East 56 Street, New York City, 1947, pages 183. ________ , Frontiers in Human Welfare. New York: Society of New York, 1948, pages 83. ^
Tests and Manuals
Fordyce, V/'.G., Yauch, W.A., end Raths, L.E., A Manual for the Ohio Guidance Tests for Elementary Grades. 'Solumous, Ohio: 'State Department of Education, 1946, pages 29. Haggerty, Li.E., Olson, W.C., and YJickman, B.K., Manual for the Behavior Rating Schedules. New York: World Book Company, 1930, pages 1L. Henmon,
V.A.C., and Nelson, U.J., The Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability, High School Examination for Grades 7-12. Bostons Houghton Mifflin Company, l9Sl.
Kelley, T.L., Ruch, G.M., and Terman, L.H., Advanced Reading Test of the Stanford Achievement Battery. Yonlcers-on-Hudson, New York':' World Book Company, 1940. Mooney, R.L., Item Analysis Data for'the Junior High School Problem Check List. Columbus, Ohio: Bureau of Educational' Research, the Ohio State University, 1941, pages 8. Raths, L.E., Self-Portrait-N. New York: Center for Research, School of Education, New York'"University, 1948, (Mimeographed).
thief w ctvihfa
. } ( isb fiM u n i t s v rn th j jtr ty s /M « > c ? ;
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL FORM ,, By Ross L. M
W. Outland and Donald DilKrobser- atf'theni Schools, Lakewood: Ohiot Elyria Pablic:,Sch6ols, E3yriai Ohio; and John H. Hetrick rat Shaker Heights City Schools, d^veland, Ohio. ' " ' ="' r11: ‘'
t‘;>; > ny.-vt: ■
.d-i .'.y jo.-.,,
Please fill out these blanks : Age..
__Boy or girl__
Date of B irth—
Grade in school_________
Name of your school!______
o Eh « w h
1rwm^n+. end things like that. 4 t know some people wfso lilce me I’-irt.-ry, very much, and I know some f or.-onle whom I like very, very, i nuch. It makes me feel good just a to think about it.
be • lot ol^feyLnjo™ mean people in the world. How do you change people so they will be good? Hew can I become c. good citizen? I’d like help on auestions like this.
31. Which is MOST like you? LEAST like you?
a) I'm beginning tc 1c arn why we have crime, end slums and things like that.
b) I'm glad people don't try to moke my decisions for me. I'm glad that I h;ve the chance to help in making my own decisions.
c) My parents are almost never too busy to talk with me. They seem to be interested in me and I'm glad they arc like this.
'------- Has ~— consuming t . ;---- Interests
ys usual iosity and interest
are easily aroused
interest in almost everything
Total, Division /_
Does he lack nerve, or is he 1
Gets “ cold feet" (3)
Over-active, Hyperkinetic, Meddling (4)
11. What is his physical output of energy? Extremely sluggish
„ i; Slow in action
Moves with required speed
12. Is he easily fatigued? Shows quick exhaustion (4)
Does not have ordinary endurance (3)
Rarely a is fatigi'
Unusually vigorous and robust
13. How does he impress you with regard to masculine or Ainine traits ? (N o t e . “ sissy” (S)
I f su b je c t is m ale, ra te o n first line *, if fem ale, u se f-o n d line.) 1 Slightly H as average vdr.J| Entirely masculine, A “ buck” effeminate boy qualities (3) (4)
1 A “ tomboy”
Somewhat boyish (4)
Has average girl qualities
Q uit! fem inl
A “ coquette,” “ Clinging vine”
14. Does he lack nerve, or is he courageous? White-livered, Fearful
Gets ‘cold feet” (3)
W ill take reasonable chances
Total, Division IIDivision J_
d iv is io n
15. Is he quiet or talkative? Speaks very rarely (3)
Score Upholds his end of talk
Talks more than his share (4)
16. Is his behavior (honesty, m|ls, etc.) generally acceptable to ordinary social standards ? Unacceptable, Extreme violations (5)
Occasional violations (4)
Bends backward, Very rigid standards
17. What are his social habits? Lives almost entirely to himself (4)
Follows few social activities (3)
Pursues usual social activities and customs
Actively seeks social pleasures
Prefers social activities to all else (5)
18.* Is he shy or bold in social'i donships ? Painfully self-conscious (4)
Timid, Frequently embarrassed (2 ),
Self-conscious on occasions
Confident in himself
Bold, Insensitive to social feelings
Unnoticed, Colorless (3)
20. How does he accept ajuthoril
Critical of authority
Respectful, Complies by habit (1)
Entirely resigned, Accepts all authority
Slow to accept new customs and methods (3)
Conforms willingly as ecessity arises
Sometimes unmannerly, Saucy (4)
Easily persuaded, Flaccid, Unstable (4)
Generally yields (4)
27. Is he generally depresse Dejected, Melancholic, In the dum ps
28. Is he sympathetic ?
ilds his own, ields when necessary (1)
24. What tendency has he to entire others? Rarely criticizes
Unsympathetid Disobliging, [ Cold (4)
Inimical, Aggravating, Cruel
29. H e w does he react to i Tolerant, Rarely blows up (2)
30. Does he worry or is he
, 19Ul, pages 6jM>d.
observed during the trip.
Here was some further evidence of the validity
of the test. A further step along the road of contributing to the validity of the test was undertaken by Dr. Anna Carol Fults.
She used The Social
Acceptance Test to identify children in some Arkansas classrooms who were definite isolates or rejects.
She then carried on an in-service training
program with the teacher of these children focussed upon procedures which might further the social acceptability of the children thus identified. This in-service training extended over a period of approximately four months.
Anecdotal records were kept of the teaching procedures end the
particular procedures used with these particular children.
Out of twelve
children thus identified and taught as described in Dr. Fults* disserta tion1, eleven of them made gains in social acceptability within their groups.
In other words, Dr. Fults utilized the data as if thqr were indeed
valid; the then carried out procedures consistent with the requirements of these data-assumed-to-be-valid, and the consequences seemed to be consis tent with the test results secured.
The social behavior of the groups of
children were observed and were in agreement with the results of the test. Experienced elementary teachers who teach inter-racial groups have learned that race does not determine social acceptability within classroom groups.
They have learned that personal qualities very often do trans
cend color and race lines.
The Social Acceptance Test was tried out under
circumstances of mixed racial groups in the city of Hamilton, Ohio, with the cooperation of the principal of an elementary school. 1.
It was known
Anna Carol Fulis, "Improving Learning Through An Emphasis on Human Relations in An In-Service Teacher Education Program," unpublished Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 19U6. Louis Raths and E.F. Schweickert, "Social Adjustment Within Inter racial School Groups," Educational Research Bulletin, XXV, A p ril 10, 19U6, pages 85-96.
by individual teachers that certain Negro boys and girls were very well accepted by the entire grade-group that certain other Negro boys and girls were rejected.
It was also well known that certain Caucasian boys and
girls were high in acceptability and some were low.
Wien the Social Ac
ceptance Test was administered to these groups the test results confirmed the judgments of these teachers abut inter-racial social acceptability. This constituted further evidence contributing to the validity of the test. Professor Lloyd Allen Cook reported a relationship between socialclass position and number of friendships.1
He used a sociometric proce
dure in his investigation and found that individuals in the upper class had the highest frequency of acceptance; individuals of the middle classes had the next higher frequency and individuals in the lowest social class had the lowest frequency of social acceptance.
Preliminary study of the
results in several Ohio comnunities with The Social Acceptance Scale sug gested a similar agreement between test results and social class position. At this writing, Miss Ida Ruth McLendon is carrying out a very comprehen sive study of social acceptance in the public schools of Hamilton, Ohio and her findings suggest that social class position is of very great imO
portance in social acceptance.
It is not possible to say that social
class "causes" this difference.
The correlation is positive, however,
and relatively high.
This finding is in agreement with the observations
of sociologists and anthropologists who have described the drive for up ward mobility in our culture. 1.
This agreement is another 'straw in the wind1
Lloyd Alien Cook, "An fexperTmental Sociographic Study of a Stratified 10th Grade Class," American Sociological Review, X, April, 19U5> pages 250-261. Ida Ruth McLendon, "An Investigation of Factors Associated with the Social Acceptance of Children in the Intermediate Grades of Hamilton, Ohio," Doctoral dissertation in progress, The Ohio State University, 19U7.
in contributions relating to the validity of The Social Acceptance Test. Whereas we know that social class position and social acceptance are related, we know also fran our experiences within our culture that the possession of outstanding abilities assures some people of higher mobility and higher social acceptance.
This too is confirmed by analysis of the
results of The Social Acceptance Test.
Some children in the lower social-
class position have been found to have very high social acceptability, and further investigation has & o w n that they do possess qualities of per sonality or have shown abilities highly prized by our culture.
correlation between social class position and social acceptability, and the exceptional cases too, tend to strengthen the basis of the validity of The Social Acceptance Test. Analyses of the test results showed high consistency with the judg ments of teachers in several respects.
Teachers generally have experienced
the fact that children in the later grades of the elementary school tend to show marked sexual bias in their social acceptance.
Boys tend to choose
boys and to reject girls; girls tend to choose girls and reject boys. Within this trend there are exceptions.
The test results confirmed in
many cases both the trend and the exceptional cases.
Again, in the war
years, seme of our cities became new homes for transient families from other sections of the country.
Sometimes the children of these mobile
families lived in a segregated housing project, or lived at such a dis tance from school that special buses were utilized to transport them from and to school.
These children did not have opportunities to mingle and
play with children of the community near the school.
The test results
revealed a lower acceptance and a higher degree of un-known-ness among these newly arrived families.
A summary of the experiences with the test and its construction may be stated as follows:
The test has relatively high face validity.
It has reasonably high operational validity in the sense that the opera tions carried on by the children in taking the test are in close agreement with the Implications of the title of the testj children, experienced teachers, principals, and research workers with experience in the field cooperated in the construction of the test; studies of so-called criterion groups showed consistency with the results of the test; comparison of individual test results with the opinion of competent aid informed teachers showed very substantial agreement; widespread use of the test in a number of Ohio communities proved successful in the identification the more ex treme cases of acceptance, rejection, and isolation; the test has been used in situations where dramatically sudden changes in behavior have occurred and these changes have been reflected in the test results; the test results have been used as if they were valid, and teaching procedures employed to increase acceptability, and retests have shown changes in scores consistent with changes in teaching procedures; analyses of the test results have shown trends that accord with the reports of sociologists and anthropologists in their studies of our culture; even the exceptions noted by these social scientists.
Added to all of these findings is a growing
acceptance on the part of teachers for the information yielded by this test.
It is coming to have a place of value in their professional work. Does this report prove or finally establish the validity of the
It does not.
These data are but beginning evidences which point to
the worth of the instrument as a basis for still further use a id inquiry. Widespread use in time and place, more use with different samplings of teachers and students, more intensive investigations by counselors, the initiation of a series of case studies, all these will result in the N E W
Y O R K
S C H O O L
UNIVERSITY | E.
accumulation of further evidence bearing upon the validity of the instru ment.
As this social process is carried on The Social Acceptance Test
will be undergoing a test of validity.
At this time enough evidence has
accunulated to warrant the inference that the test is indeed valuable and certainly worthy of further trial.
No evidence has developed which throws
serious doubt on the validity of the test findings.