The effects of different levels of six nutrient elements upon the growth and seed production of Zoysia japonica Steud

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THE EFFECT3 OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF 3IX NUTHISHT ELEMENTS UPCN THE (BOOTH AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Z0Y3IA JAPOHICA STEUD .

by Marvin H. Ferguson

T h e s is su b m itted t o th e F a c u lty o f th e Graduate Sch ool o f th e U n iv e r s it y o f Maryland in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e req u irem en ts f o r th e d eg ree o f D octor o f P h ilo so p h y 1950

UMI Number: DP70340

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI D isserta tio n P u b lish in g

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ACKKOKLEDCMENTS

The au thor w ish e s t o e x p r e ss h is s in c e r e a p p r e c ia tio n to Dr* Hugh G. Gauch f o r h i s v e r y h e lp f u l a d v ic e and guidance throughout th e co u rse o f t h i s work and i n th e p r ep a ra tio n o f th e m a n u scrip t. He i s a l s o g r a t e f u l t o th e U* S , G olf A s s o c ia t io n , Green S e c t io n , w h ich , under th e d ir e c t io n o f Dr. Fred V. Grau, provid ed f a c i l i t i e s and f in a n c i a l su p p o rt f o r th e r e s e a r c h p r o je c t*

The v a r io u s members o f th e

Green S e c t io n s t a f f have been most h e lp f u l i n c a r r y in g ou t many o f th e d e t a i l s o f th e ex p er im en ta l work.

The au th or w is h e s t o thank e s p e c i a l l y

Mr. A. M. Radko f o r h i s a s s is t a n c e i n a p p ly in g n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n s and i n making th e ch em ica l a n a ly s e s . G r a te fu l acknowledgment i s a ls o made t o h r • H. Kraus f o r h i s in s t r u c ­ t i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n th e o p e r a tio n o f th e Beckman flam e spectrop h otom eter* The p e r so n n e l o f t h e p h o tograp h ic la b o r a to r y o f th e Bureau o f P la n t I n d u s tr y , U n ited S t a t e s Department o f A g r ic u ltu r e have been v e r y h e lp f u l in a s s i s t i n g w ith th e p h otograph ic w ork.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.....................................................

Page 1

REVIEW OF LIT5RATURB...................................................... . ...........................

3

MATERIALS AND METHODS....................................................................................

7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..................................................................................

12

C hem ical A n alyses o f C lip p in g s .......................................... G eneral A ppearance Y ie ld s o f C lip p in g s

12

................................................

12

................................................................

17

E ffe c ts

o f N itr o g e n upon Y ie ld s o f C lip p in g s . . . . . . . .

17

E ffe c ts

o f Phosphorus upon Y ie ld s o f C lip p in g s

19

E ffe c ts

o f P ota ssiu m upon Y ie ld s o f C l ip p in g s .

23

E ffe c ts

o f Calcium upon H e ld s o f C l i p p i n g s . . . * # . . . .

23

E ffe c ts

o f Magnesium upon Y ie ld s o f C l i p p i n g s . . . . . . .

28

E ffe c ts

o f Boron upon Y ie ld s o f C l ip p in g s .................

31

W eights o f Crovais..............................................................

31

E ffe c ts

o f N itr o g e n upon W eights o f G r o m s .

31

E ffe c ts

o f Phosphorus upon

35

E ffe c ts

o f P otassiu m upon

E ffe c ts

o f Calcium upon W eights o f G ro m s

41

E ffe c ts

o f Magnesium upon

45

E ffe c ts

o f Boron upon

Y ie ld o f Seed

e ig h t s o f C r o m s .. . . . . . • e ig h t s o f G r o m s ..

'e ig h ts o f C r o w is .. . . . . . . .

e ig h t s o f C r o w is . ......................

H eads.................................

38

45 50

E ffe c ts

o f N itr o g en upon Seed Head P r o d u c tio n .............

50

E ffe c ts

o f Phosohorus upon Seed Head P r o d u c tio n .. . . .

54

V

Page E f f e c t s o f P o ta ss iu m upon Seed Head P r o d u c t i o n . . . . .

54

E f f e c t s o f C alcium upon Seed Head P r o d u c tio n ..............

59

E f f e c t s o f M agnesium upon Seed Head P r o d u c t i o n . . . . .

63

E f f e c t s o f Boron upon Seed Head P r o d u c tio n ...................

69

>ULMuiftolT .HisE

CONuMU•ii1 ■>.5mo• .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

73

BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................

76

APPENDIX......................................................................................................

80

vi

LIST OF TABLES

Page TABLE 1 .

C o n cen tra tio n s o f elem en ts in p ercen ta g e in th e dry m a tter o f g r a s s e s . • ......... ................................................................

TABLE 2 .

R ates o f a p p lic a tio n o f n u t r ie n t elem en ts in s o lu t io n

TABLE 3-

6

................

9

The c o n c e n tr a tio n o f v a rio u s elem en ts in c lip p in g s h a r v e ste d J u l y 25» 1949*

A ll elem en ts were s u p p lie d a t

a c o n s ta n t (m edian) l e v e l in each c a s e , w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f TABLE 4 .

the elem ent

s tu d ie s

.........................

13

The c o n c e n tr a tio n o f v a r io u s elem en ts in c lip p in g s h a r v e ste d August 1 6 , 1 9 4 9 .

A ll elem en ts were s u p p lie d

a t a c o n s ta n t (m edian) l e v e l in each c a se w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f TABLE 5 .

t h e e le m e n t

s t u d i e d . ..........................................

14

The c o n c e n tr a tic n o f v a r io u s elem en ts in c lip p in g s h a r v e ste d Beptember 14* 1949.

A ll elem en ts were s u p p lie d

,at a c o n s ta n t (m edian) l e v e l in each c a s e w ith t h e e x c e p tio n o f th e elem en t s t u d i e d . . .......................................... TABLE 6 .

15

The c o n c e n tr a tio n o f v a r io u s elem en ts in c lip p in g s h a r v e s t e d O c to b e r 2 5 , 1 949.

A l l e le m e n ts w ere s u p p lie d

a t a c o n sta n t (m ed ian) l e v e l i n e a c h c a s e , w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f TABLE 7*

th e elem en t

s t u d i e d . . . . » ........................

16

E f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

Y ie ld s are e x p ressed

in grams o f d ry m a tte r ..................................

18

vii

TABLE 8 .

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s . e x p r e sse d in grams o f dry m a t t e r ,

TABHi 9*

Y ie ld s a re

.....................

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p otassiu m i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

Y ie ld s a re

e x p r e sse d in grams o f dry mat t e r . . . ................... TABLE 1 0 .

24

E f f e c t s o f v a rio u s l e v e l s o f ca lciu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

Y ie ld s a re e x p r e sse d

i n grains o f d r y m a t t e r .............................. TABLE 1 1 .

26

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

Y ie ld s are

e x p r e s se d in grams o f d r y m a tte r . TABLE 1 2 .

.........................

Y ie ld s a r e e x p r e sse d

32

i n grams o f dry m a tte r .................. E f f e c t s o f v a rio u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n in th e n u tr io u t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns. i n grams o f d ry m a tt e r TABLE 14*

V 'eights a re e x p r e sse d

..................................

34

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns.

e ig h t s are

e x p r e sse d in grams o f d ry m a tte r ...................... TABLE 1 5 .

29

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

TABLE 1 3 .

21

37

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p otassiu m in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t i o n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns, i n grams o f dry m a tte r .......

h e ig h ts are e x p r e sse d ................................................

40 «

v iii

Page TABLE 1 6 .

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f ca lciu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow n s.

Teights are

e x p r e s se d in grams o f dry m a tt e r ............... ..................... .. TABLE 17#

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium upon w e ig h ts o f cp o m s,

TABLE 1 8 .

e i g h t s a re e x p r e sse d i n grams o f d ry m a tte r .

i n grams o f d ry m a tte r

" eig h ts a re e x p r e s se d

...................................................

48

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n i n th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f se e d heads

TABLE 2 0 .

46

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns,

TABLE 1 9 .

43

p r o d u c e d .......

51

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads p r o d u c e d . . . . . . ............................................................................ ....

TABLE 2 1 .

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p o ta ssiu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f se e d heads

TABLE 2 2 .

p r o d u c e d .......

62

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium i n th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads

TABLE 24 •

58

E f f e c t s o f v a rio u s l e v e l s o f calciu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads p rodu ced ...

TaBLS 2 3 .

55

p r o d u c e d .......

66

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f se e d heads

p r o d u c e d .......

70

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES Pag© APPENDIX TABLE ! •

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g

APPENDIX TABLE 2 .

y i e l d s ...........

SI

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

APPENDIX TABLE 3#

...............

82

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n ce on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p o ta ssiu m in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g

APPENDIX TABLE 4 .

y i e l d s ......................

83

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on. e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f c a lc iim in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n uDon c lip p in g y i e l d s

APPENDIX TABLE 5«

............................................................. 84

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on th e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s

APPENDIX TABLE 6 .

................

85

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on th e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s ..................

APPENDIX TABLE 7 .

86

-A nalysis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns

APPENDIX TABLE 8 .

..............................

87

a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f c r o w s

....................88

X

Pag© APPENDIX TABLE 9*

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p otassiu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f c r o w n s * ...

.............

89

APPENDIX TABLE 1 0 . A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f ca lciu m in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon w eig h ts o f crow ns

.......................

90

APPENDIX TABLE 1 1 . A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium i n th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crow ns.........................................

91

APPENDIX TABLE 1 2 . A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon w eig h ts o f crow ns..................

92

APPENDIX TABLE 13* A n a ly s is o f v a ria n ce on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads produced..................

APPENDIX TABLE

93

14* A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads produced

APPENDIX TABLE

94

15* A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p otassiu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e num ber o f se e d h ead s p ro d u c e d

APPENDIX TABLE

95

1 6 . A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f ca lciu m in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads

p r o d u c e d . .........

96

xi

Page APPENDIX Table I7 •

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed heads p r o d u ced .. . . . . . .

97

APPENDIX TABLE I S . A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on th e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f boron in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f se e d head produced...............................

98

x ii

LI3T OF FIGURES

Page FIGURE 1 .

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f n itr o g e n (on a dry w eig h t b a s is ) and y i e l d s o f c l i p p i n g s . .................

FIGURE 2 .

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f phosphorus (on a dry w eigh t b a s i s ) and y i e l d s o f c l i p p i n g s ...................

FIGURE 3«

a dry w eig h t b a s i s ) and y i e l d s o f c l i p p i n g s ....................

a d ry w eig h t b a s i s ) and y ie Id s o f c l i p p i n g s

33

a d ry w eig h t b a s i s ) and w eig h ts o f c r o w n s . . . . ...............

36

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f phosphorus (on a dry w eig h t b a s is ) and w e ig h ts o f c r o w n s . . . . . . . . . . .

FIGURE 9 -

30

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f n itr o g e n (on

FIGURE 8 .

27

The r e la t io n s h ip between th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f boron (on

FIGURE 7*

a dry w eight b a s i s ) and y i e l d s o f c l i p p i n g s . ..................

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een the c o n c e n tr a tio n o f magnesium (on

FIGURE 6 .

25

The r e la t io n s h ip between th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f calciu m (on

FIGURE 5*

22

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f p otassiu m (on a d ry w eigh t b a s i s ) and y i e l d s o f c l i p p i n g s . . . . . . . . .

FIGURE 4*

20

39

The r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f potassium (on

a d ry w eig h t b a s is ) and w e ig h ts o f crow n s...................

42

FIGURE 1 0 . Tho r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f ca lciu m (on

a d ry w eig h t b a s i s ) and w e ig h ts 01 crow ns

....................

44

FIGURE 1 1 . Tho r e la t io n s h ip b etw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f magnesium. (on

a d ry w eig h t b a s is ) and w eig h ts o f c r o w n s .. . . . . . . . . •

FIGURE 1 2 . Ther e l a t i o n s h i p (on

47

between the c o n c e n tr a tio n o f boron

a d ry w eigh t b a s is ) and w e ig h ts o f c r o w n s . . . . . .............

49

x iii

Pag© FIGURE 13*

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een con cen t r a t i on o f n itr o g e n (on a d ry w eigh t b a s i s ) and numbers o f seed heads p ro d u ced ..

FIGURE 14•

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n itr o g e n upon seed head. p r o d u c tio n i n Z o y sia ja p o n ic a .

FIGURE 15*

52

..................

53

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f phosphorus (on a d ry w eig h t b a s i s ) and numbers o f se e d heads p rod u ced

FIGURE 16*

E f f e c t s o f v a rio u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus upon seed head p ro d u ctio n in

FIGURE 1 7 .

56

.............

Z o y sia ja p o n ic a ...............................

57

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f p otassiu m (on a dry w eig h t b a s i s ) and numbers o f seed heads produced. . ................

FIGURE 1 8 .

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p otassiu m upon seed head p ro d u ctio n in

FIGURE 1 9 .

60

Z o y sia ja p o n ic a ......................

61

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een the c o n c e n tr a tio n o f ca lciu m (on a dry w eig h t b a s i s ) and numbers o f se e d heads p rod u ced

FIGURE 2 0 .

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f calciu m upon seed head p ro d u ctio n in

FIGURE 2 1 .

64

...........

Z o y sia ja p o n ic a .

............

65

The r e la t io n s h ip betw een th e c o n c e n tr a tio n o f magnesium (on a d ry w eig h t b a s i s ) and numbers o f se e d heads p ro d u c e d .

FIGURE 2 2 .

.......................

67

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium upon seed head p ro d u ctio n in

Z o y sia ja p o n lc a ...............................

68

xiv

Fag© FIGURE 23•

The r e la t io n s h ip between c o n cen tra tio n o f boron (on a dry w eight b a s is ) and numbers o f seed heads produced.................

71

FIGURE 24* E f f e c ts o f v a rio u s l e v e l s o f boron uponseed head production in Z oysia .japonica.................* ...... .........................

72

I

u f . x x i u t r i j t ® u ^ m ^ T o in oM TEs a w m i m b . ^ sd p h o o t o t k n o f ^ t > i a j/u t& io * . u tsljd . ijF

lu

V,lz

I n tro d u c tio n Z o y s ia ja p o n lc a u te u d . i s a g r a s s in tr o d u c e d from th e o r i e n t w hich form® a v e r y dens® t u r f d e s i r a b l e f o r many u s e s .

I t seem s to be p a r t i c u ­

l a r l y w e l l a d a p te d t o us© on p a r k s , c e m e te r ie s , a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , la w n s , and g o l f c o u rs e f a ir w a y s ,

llo s e r io u s d i s e a s e o r i n s e c t p e s t s a r e known

t o a t t a c k i t when i t i s grow n u n d e r f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s .

Inasm uch a s k .

jap o n ic© grow s a c t i v e l y th ro u g h o u t th e summer m onths and form s a n e x c e p ­ t i o n a l iy d en se t u r f , i t i s a b le t o com pete s u c c e s s f u l l y w ith © ra b g ra s s and m ost o f th e o t h e r common t u r f w eeds. U n ite d

In t h a t p a r t o f th e e a s te r n

ta t© a w hich h a s been c a l l e d t h e ’’c r a b g r a s s b e l t " (a t r i a n g u l a r

a r s a w h ich h a s a s i t s p o i n t s

t . L o u is , P h i l a d e l p h i a , and Kiohmond, t h e r e

i s a g r e a t n eed f o r su c h a t u r f g r a s s (!? .)• ’T h ere i s c ia l s c a le .

no d o m e stic p r o d u c tio n o f se e d I t 1 s b e lie v e d t h a t th e

o f h . ja p o n ic a on a commer­

a v a i l a b i l i t y o f seed s u p p li e s w ould

make p o s s i b l e

th e use o f 1 . ja p o n ie s i n many

more l a r g e t u r f a r e a s . T h ere

a r e two c h i e f

r e a s o n s why t h e l o y s i a g r a s s e s

have n o t been grown co m m ercial­

l y i n th e U n ite d t r e a t e d seed® .

-ta t© s .

On® i s t h a t g e r m in a tio n n o rm a lly i s low i n un­

T h is d i f f i c u l t y may be e lim in a te d by th e sim p le o p e r a t i o n

o f rem oving t h e glome w hich c o v e rs th e o a r y o p s ia ( I B ) .

The o t h e r r e a s o n

i s t h a t se e d y i e l d s o f common £ , japonic® , a r e r a t h e r low and u n p r e d i c t a b l e . P r e lim in a r y tr e a tm e n t s o f s m a ll p l o t s o f 4> ja p o n ic a i n t h e f i e l d have i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f th e gras® may be one o f th e more im p o rta n t f a c t o r s g o v e rn in g se e d y i e l d .

The a p p l i c a t i o n s o f m ixed

f e r t i l i z e r s som etim es nave a f f e c t e d seed y i e l d s a d v e r s e l y .

T h is i s

2

© s p e c ia lly t r u e i n th e c a s e o f h eav y a p p l i c a t i o n s o f n itr o g e n * I t m s tin© p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y t o d e te rm in e th e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f s i x n u t r i e n t e le m e n ts upon th e g ro w th , seed p r o d u c tio n , and t u r f - f o r m i n g a b i l i t y , o f th e H O

z o

T1

nuun.be ra

a a

P

o o w o

of aaed neada

o

produced

a p c+ 3 ct HO P

c+

H

ro

o a m

o

»

P

tv

53

p r o d u c tio n i n ^ o y a ia j a p c n l c a .

54

A f r e e t s o f ) h o s p h o ra s Upon -eed Head P r o d u c tio n The e f f e c t a o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p h o sp h o ru s i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon p r o d u c tio n o f se e d d e a d s o f l o y s i a a r e shown i n t a b l e 20*

The a n a l y s i s o f v a r ia n c e f o r th e s e d a ta i s g iv e n i n

A ppendix t a b l e 14*

The f i f t h l e v e l o f p h o sp h o ru s (5*0 m*e*Hg JO4

p e r l i t e r ) p ro d u c ed th e g r e a t e s t num ber o f seed beads* v a lu e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r { at th e

1

T h is

p e r c e n t l e v e l ) th a n

t h a t f o r th e f i r s t and t h i r d l e v e l s o f p h o sp h o ru s {0*05 m*©* and 1*0 owe* Kr>

.1 0 4

per l i t e r ,

r e s p e c t iv e ly ^ *

However, t h e r e were

no'; o t h e r a i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s * F ig u re 15 i s a . ra p h s h o e in g th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f pho *phc;raa i n th e c l i p p i n g s and th e num ber o f se e d h e a d s p roduced*

F ig u re 16 i s a p i c t u r e o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

b lo c k i n th e p h o sp h o ru s s e r i e s a t th e tim e o f flo w e rin g * The d a ta p r e s e n te d would i n d i c a t e t h a t th e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w h ich c h a r a c t e r i z e e ” s u f f i c i e n c y ” o f p h o sp h o ru s i n c l i p p i n g s f o r maximum seed pr d u c t io n , i s a p p r o x im a te ly 25*0 s u e • PC* p e r 100 gram s o f d ry m a tte r*

I t i s re c o g n iz e d t h a t t h i s c o n c e n tr a ­

t i o n d e n o tin g ’’s u f f i c i e n c y ” may v a r y u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r th a n th o s e p r e v a i l i n g d a r in g t h i s e x p e rim e n t* E f f e c t 3 o f 'P o tassiu m on Heed Head P r o d u c tio n The cA 'a c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p o ta s s iu m i n t h e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon th e num bers o f se e d b e a d s p ro d u ced i s shown i n t a b l e 23. •

The a n a l y s i s o f v a r ia n c e f o r th e s e d a ta i s p r e s e n te d

i n A p pendix t a b l e lo *

T o ts o f d o y s ia s u p p l i e r w ith t h e lo w est

l e v e l o f p o ta s s iu m ( 0 * 1 cue* l / p ) p ro d u ced th e g r e a t e s t num bers o f s e e d h eads*

The f a c t t h a t t h i s v a lu e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r

fABLS 2 0 .

iS f f e o ts o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p n o sp b o ru s i n t b e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon tb© num ber o f s e e d b e a d s p ro d u c e d .

:

L e v els o f Treatm ent • (W I3J.UU&.© ** * * # • / J , 5 .ft c) . O%3«0 */L , 0 •2a«* »/ I 1 .0 n u e ./L . 2 •Qf&.e */Lj 5. om *e./Ls 7 • o s u e ./ L* lO .om .e./I* 1

36

54

32

40

87

67

43

2

33

49

32

83

39

70

48

3

43

53

55

89

61

90

78

4

47

92

61

82

91

86

107

4 0 .2 5

52

43

7 3 .5

82

7 8 .2 5

Mean

L .8.L * a t tb e 5$ l e v e l 9 2 1 .1 1 L . S . l . a t tb e 1 # l e v e l 8 SB .92

68

NUMBERS

OF SEED

HEADS

66

CONCENTRATION OF P H O S P H O R U S m.e. P 0 4 / 1 0 0 g.

r'-s * i c n

:9d.

57

punC pL

FIGURE 16«

E f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f phosphorus upon seed head p ro d u c tio n in Zoyaia japonica»

TABiJi 2 1 •

isffeet® o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f potassium i a til© n u tr ie n t s o lu tio n apoa tn© number o f seed beads produoed.

•* L ev els of‘ Treatment * &t t b s ©)& l e v e l

52

19*06

L*-.?*X)* a t m© 1 ^ l e v e l s> 2d• 1

HE AD S

150,-

50

NUMBERS

OF SEED

100

20 30 CONCENTRATION OF MAGNESIUM m.e. Mg / 100 g

0

-Ju. ; - i .

10

40

The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n c e n tr a tio n of i.iaynesiuu (on a dry w eight b a s i s ) arid nurabers of seed heads produced.

GB

FIGURE 22*

E f f e c t s of v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f magnesium upon seed head p ro d u ctio n in Z oysia jap on ica*

69 F ig u re 22 i s a p h o to g ra p h sh o v in g a t y p i c a l b lo c k from th e m agnesium a e r i e s a t th e tim e o f f l o o r i n g * E f f e c t s o f '--cron on

®ed h ead P r o d u c tio n

ffco e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s c f boron, i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon th e p r o d u c tio n o f seed to a d s o f d o y s ia a r e shown i n t a b l e £4#

The a n a l y s i s o f v a r ia n c e f o r th e s e d a ta

i s shown i n a p p e n d ix t a b l e 18*

T here i s a n in c r e a s e d p ro d u c ­

t i o n c f s e e d h e a d s w hich c o r re s p o n d s t o th e i n c r e a s e s i n b o ro n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n th e n u t r i e n t s o lu tio n *

The s e v e n th l e v e l a t

w hich b o ro n win s u p p lie d { 5 .0 p .p .a w }p ro d u ced a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r num ber o f seed h e a d s ( a t th e 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l ) th a n d id th e f i f t h l e v e l {1*0 p*p#m. )•

I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t bo ro n

i s q u i t e im p o rta n t i n se e d head p r o d u c tio n i n hoy s i a •

b e c a u se

o f th e f a c t t h a t th e h ig h e s t l e v e l o r b o ro n p ro d u ced a s i z a b l e , t h o • :h n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y

s i g n i f i c a n t , i n c r e a s e o v e r th e n e x t

lo w e r l e v e l o f b o rcn i t m ust be assum ed t h a t t h e p o i n t o f " 's u f f i c i e n c y '’ f o r seed head p r o d u c tio n h a s n o t been reach ed * The h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i n o f b o ro n fo u n d i n th e c l i p p i n g s h a r ­ v e s te d O c to b e r 25, 1949 was 160 p.p.ra* F ig u re 23 i s a g ra p h show ing th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een boron c o n c e n t r a t i o n in c l i p p i n g s and th e num ber o f seed h ea d s produced* f i g u r e 24 i a a p h o to graph showing a t y p i c a l b lo c k from th e b o ro n s e r i e s a t f lo w e r in g tim e*

The s e e d h ead s i n t h i s p h o to g ra p h a p ­

p e a r t o be t e l l e r a t th e h i g h e r b o ro n l e v e l s *

H ow ever, th e y \*ere

n o t found t o a t t a i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r a v e ra g e h e ig h t th a n t h o s e see d h e a d s p ro d u c e d a t lo w e r b o ro n l e v e ls *

70

T&BLiS 2 4 .

L f f e o t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f b o ro n i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon [email protected] num ber o f se e d h e a d s p ro d u c e d .

* L e v e ls o f T re a tm e n t (B o ro n ) r ------- --7 ~ '— — 7 — — ■— — B loek sJ ---------— — ------------:----------------- j---------jG .lp .p .m . *G.3p.p.ra. s0 .4 p .p .ia . G .5p .p .su jl.Q p.p.m * * g.O p.p.m . ‘ 5 . op.p.m .

1

56

81

109

114

58

182

123

2

55

91

@2

89

87

108

96

3

4?

79

83

108

118

108

141

4

73

115

125

109

140

117

17©

Mean

5 7 .7 5

9 1 .5

9 9 .7 5

105

100.7®

113.7©

154

L .L .D . a t th© 5$ l e v e l ~ 2 6 .6 6 L .3 .D . a t t h e 1$ l e v e l * 3 6 ,5 2

71

HEADS

150

50

NUMBERS

OF

SEED

100

0

40

80

CONCENTRATI ON OF BORON

120

160

( p.p.m.)

The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een c o n c e n tr a tio n o f boron (on a

( d r / w eight b a s is ) and numbers o f seed heads produced.

FIGURE 2 4 .

S f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f bo ro n upon se e d dead p r o d u c tio n i n Z o y s ia ja p o n ic a .

SUMMAil AID dONCLUSIOISS The Z-52 s t r a i n o f Z o y sia J a p o n ic a was grown i n th e g re e n h o u se a t B e l t s v i i l e , M a ry la n d , and w as w a te r e d w ith n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s c o n ta in in g s e v e n l e v e l s o f s i x n u t r i e n t e le m e n ts .

The e le m e n ts w hich w ere v a r i e d

w ere n i t r o g e n , p h o s p h o ru s , p o ta s s iu m , c a lc iu m , m agnesium , end b o ro n . The s tu d y was a r r a n g e d i n s i x s im p le ran d o m iz ed b lo c k e x p e r im e n ts ; each e x p e rim e n t c o n ta in e d f o u r r e p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e v e n t r e a t m e n t s .

The

e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f e a c h elem ent w ere s t u d i e d in d e p e n d e n tly . The r e s u l t s a r c r e p o r t e d f o r t o t a l c l i p p i n g y i e l d s , f o r w e ig h ts o f c ro w n s, and f o r num bers o f s e e d h e a d s p ro d u c e d a t s i x l e v e l s o f n i t r o g e n and a t se v e n l e v e l s o f p h o s p h o ru s , p o ta s s iu m , c a lc iu m , m agnesium , an d b o ro n . The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s may be drawn from t h i s e x p e r im e n t: 1.

V a r i a t i o n s i n n i t r o g e n l e v e l s a r e much more im p o r ta n t th a n

v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l s o f an y o t h e r e le m e n t, w ith in t h e r a n g e s s t u d i e d i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t, w ith r e s p e c t t o th e p r o d u c tio n o f c lip p ii^ r y i e l d s . Y ie ld s i n c r e a s e d a s n i t r o g e n s u p p ly i n c r e a s e d . 2.

The m in im al am ounts o f p o ta s s iu m , m agnesiura, an d b o ro n w h ich

w ere u s e d i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t ( o . l and o .o 5 m .e ./L and o . l p .p .m ., r e ­ s p e c t i v e l y ) w ere a d e q u a te t o p ro d u ce th e m axim al q u a n t i t y o f c l i p p i n g s . 3*

C alciu m and p h o sp h o ru s a p p e a r e d t o l i m i t t h e p r o d u c tio n o f c l i p ­

p in g s o n ly a t r e l a t i v e l y low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( o . l m . e . C a / l , and o .o 5 m .e . H2 BQ4 / C . ) • 4.

The l e v e l o f n i t r o g e n i s im p o r ta n t i n d e te rm in g th e d e n s it y o f

Z o y sia t u r f a s i n d i c a t e d by w e ig h ts o f c ro w n s.

The h e a v i e s t crow ns p ro ­

d u ce d i n t h e n i t r o g e n s e r i e s c o rre s p o n d e d t o th e c l i p p i n g s w hich c o n ta in e d

1 ,5 7 p e r c e n t o f t o t ? j l n i t r o g e n (o n a d ry -w e ig h t o a s i s ) , 5.

e i g h t s o f crow ns i n c r e a s e d a s th e c a lc iu m c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n th e

c iip p in g 3 in c re a s e d , 6, tra tio n 7*

T h e re v.as a - r a d u a i i n c r e a s e i n w e ig h ts o f crow ns a s t h e

co n cen ­

o f m agnesium i n th e c l i p p i n g s i n c r e a s e d , The m in im a l am ounts o f p h o s p h o ru s , p o ta s s iu m , and b o ro n w hich

w ere u s e d ( o .o 5 and o . l m . e . / i . , and o , l p .p .m . r e s p e c t i v e l y ) u n d e r th e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s e x p e rim e n t a p p e a r t o be a d e q u a te f o r th e p r o d u c tio n o f t u r f o f m axim al d e n s i t y , 8, of

h i t r o g e n i s h ig h l y im p o r ta n t i n i t s

seed heads.

e f f e c t upon t h e p r o d u c tio n

The l e v e l o f n i t r o g e n ’'s u f f i c i e n c y 15 f o r s e e d h e a d

p ro d u c­

t i o n a p p e a r s t o oe a p p r o x im a te ly 1 ,5 6 p e r c e n t o f n i t r o g e n (o n a d r y w e ig h t b a s is ).

C o n c e n tr a tio n s beyond a p p r o x im a te ly 1 ,7 5 p e r c e n t o f n i t r o g e n i n

th e c l i p p i n g s a p p e a r t o be d e t r i m e n t a l to s e e d h ead p r o d u c tio n . 9,

The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p h o sp h o ru s i n th e c l i p p i n g s a p p e a r s t o have

a m arked i n f l u e n c e upon t h e p r o d u c tio n o f s e e d h e a d s .

The l e v e l o f

" s u f f i c i e n c y ” i n t h i s e x p e rim e n t was a p p r o x im a te ly 2.4 m i l l ! e q u i v a l e n t s o f PO^ i n 100 gram s o f d ry m a t t e r , ( . 2 5 p e r c e n t T ) . 10.

The a d d i t i o n o f l a r g e r in c r e m e n ts o f p o ta s s iu m th a n t h e rain im a l

l e v e l ( o . l s u e . o f K /L .) i n t h e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n f a i l e d to e f f e c t an i n ­ c re a s e in th e y ie ld o f se e d h ead s.

On th e c o n t r a r y , lo w e r s e e d y i e l d s

w ere a s s o c i a t e d w ith c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p o ta s s iu m a ove ap p r o x im a te ly

32*0

m i l l i e q u i v a l e r i t s o f K p e r 100 gram s o f d ry m a t t e r , ( 1 . 2 5 p e r c e n t K ). 11.

The lo w e s t l e v e l s o f c a lc iu m and m agnesium i n t f d s experim esht

w ere a p p a r e n t l y s u f f i c i e n t t o p ro d u ce m axim al y i e l d s o f s e e d h e a d s .

12. h e a d s.

Boron ap p ears t o be v e r y im p ortan t i n th e p r o d u c tio n o f s e e d The h ig h e s t c o n c e n tr a tio n o f boron found i n t h i s experim ent

(160 p.p»fEu o f boron in dry m a tte r ) was a s s o c ia t e d w ith th e h ig h e s t p ro d u c tio n o f s e e d h ea d s.

$

ii r^

nonymoue* X930 * Aesrohing in th e cri* m t f o r nm* tart g r a s s e s * U« A. G o lf Asaoc# Green B e c tia n »u l#* 10& i?8-lB 3#

1*

* ' ffe c t of F ertiliser applications* del# rgr#*

heeson* Lmnmth 6** 1941s The o in e r & l c o m p o sitio n o f arop t w ith particular reference t o the sa ils In which they 'ssxe grows** xt*£ #

3.

4

1* &.* ratify* and a# ^ viak * 1946s M eat Tissue

Atkinson* Si tasting 2Qt 223-:

2#

* Jerger* A* j#* and A# Truag* 1939* Boron d eterm in ation in © o ils and planks* u sin g th e qulfmii&erlti. rea c tio n * In d. and ' ng# v h sn » *

tu r n Jl #

c -d # * i l l 3 4 d * “3 4 5 *

5* BJUeer* v-# i': #* uaa , ' ■ * I - • . token, 19CMjQ0#

8

*

Cain* 0 # d#* &r*a 3* loytan* 1 9 1 8 1 S o e m e f f e c t s o f season* f r u i t crop fend n itr o g en f e r t i l i s a t i o n on Um ^clutosh apple leave®* croc* jJMTm See# tort# del#* 51513-22•

9 * Cimpm&zi) II* u#* 1945* mineral nutrition of plants* ^nn# lev# . iOClMll-3* * ill 5?P9**73A#

10# C h ild ers* I . I.-*, 1340s an ideal tropical la*ndS‘s*** *gr# in th e Agaerieas* 6 s 145-148# 11# Chubb* V:* o** aau H. d# Atkinson* 1940s riant tissue testing# 11 * a stu dy o f the .sethod o f f o l i a r d ia g n o sis* o«l# ?gr** 28 ?49*“4>1*

12#

cooper* H# A#* 3# H# B iic h e sll, end A. 0# Kyser* 1 9 4 2 ; Chemical A nalyses o f pasture riL&n&s* 2# 3* . \ $ r * 1 xot# "la# apt#* 4 5 * 3 6 -3 ? #

1 3

#

. » * end A# h# rage* 1937s ’I'm r e la t io n o f emrgy pr ;>pertiea of s a il nutrient® to t he ehwtieaX composi­ tion of crop fclimta, froc* jihmr* Toe# Toil lei#* 12;364 - 3 6 9 *

tm

14# BonleX* liar lev ' f | 1 9 3 4 s vhe ca la lu a * phosphorus* ana n itr o g en c o n ten t o f g r a sse s and i« guises* and this r e la t io n o f th e se elem en ts in the plant* 0# Ajwr# roc# agran#* 26*496-503#

Q

77 15*

E a to n , F . 4 # , 1944: D e f ic ie n c y , t o x i c i t y , and a c c u m u la tio n o f b o ro n i n p l a n t s , J . A gr. lie s * , 6 9 s237-277•

16.

F o r b e s , I * , 1949: Chromosome num bers an d h y b r id s i n Z o y s ia , M a s t e r 's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M aryland.

17.

, and Z.• H. F e rg u s o n , 1947: C o s e r v u tio n s on th e Z o y s ia g r a s s e s , Greenkeepers* R e p o r te r , m a r c h - A p r il, 1947*

IB .

_________ ,and_____ ___ ___ 1946: - f l e e t s o f s t r a i n d i f f e r e n c e s , s e e d tr e a t/.le n t and p l a n t i n g d e p th on s e e d g e m i n a t i o n o f Z o y sia s p p . , J . Amer. S o c. A g ro n ., 4 0 :7 2 5 -7 3 2 .

19.

Grau, F . V ., and it. H. Ferguson, 1949: bad news f o r c r a b g r a s s , G h a t 's Dew i n d ro p s an d S o i l s , 1 ; 1 6 -1 7 •

20.

G o o d a li, D. V.. , and F . G. G re g o ry , 1947: C hem ical C o m p o sitio n o f P l a n t s a s an In d e x o f T h e ir n u t r i t i o n a l S t a t u s , T echn. C om m unication ?/17, i m p e r ia l b u re a u o f U o r t. an d P la n t a t io n C ro p s , l a s t m a ilin g , R e n t, r n g la n d . 167 p p .

21*

Ha/abidge, G. ( e d i t o r ; , 1 9 4 1: h u n g e r S ig n s in Crops-—A sym posium , P u b lis h e d by th e Amer. Doc. o f A gron. a n a th e R a ti o n a l F e r t . A s s o c ., 'W ashington, b . C. 327 PP*

22.

H i l l , H ., end H. B. C annon, 1943: n u t r i t i o n a l s t u d i e s by m eans o f t i s s u e t e s t s w ith p o t a to e s grown on muck s o i l , S e x . A g r., 2 8 :1 8 3 -1 9 9 .

23.

H oaglarid, D. P .., 1944: l e c t u r e s on th e i n o r g a n ic N u t r i t i o n o f P la n te ( P r a t h e r l e c t u r e s a t h a r v a r d u n i v e r s i t y ) , C h ro n ic a B o v an ica C o ., M altham , M ass. 226 p p .

24*

H o f f e r , G. H ., 1 9 2 ?: Corn s t a l k t e s t i n g by c h e m ic a ls in d ic a te © fo o d n e e d s o f p l a n t , U .3 .J .A . Y earb o o k , 1 9 2 7 :2 1 2 -2 1 5 .

25.

„ 1926: s im p le t e s t f o r d e t e c t i n g th e n u t r i e n t n e e d s o f c o rn p l a n t s , J . Miner. S o c . A g ro n ., I S :2 9 —31 •

28.

xtem vortny, A':. 9 -L*# J HHQ Ci • • i-Ti l l i g a n , 1948; i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een th e n u t r i e n t c o n te n t o f s o i l , l e a v e s , an d t r u n k c irc u m fe r e n c e o f p e a c h t r e e s , : r o c . Airier. S o c . H o r t. S c i . , 5 1 :2 0 9 -2 1 5 .

2?.

R ra u s , M. J . , and H. it. R r a y b i l l , 1918: V e g e ta tio n and r e p r o d u c tio n w ith s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o th e to m a to , O reg . A gr. R x p t. S t a . b u l. ; 149.

28.

G e u k e i, R . A ., J . P . Gamp, an d J . ri. Colem an, 1934: I f f e e t o f f r e q u e n t c u t t i n g and n i t r a t e f e r t i l i z a t i o n on th e g ro w th b e h a v io r and r e l a t i v e c o m p o s itio n o f p a s tu r e g r a s s e s , F l a . A gr. 1 'x p t• S t a . B u i . , 2 6 9 :3 0 -3 1 .

78 29.

L in d n e r, A. 1 . , 194

23

1 0 16 .X . 6?

mean s q u a re

v a lu e

.?

'•1x • / *

11

, >6-:.13

111. 28 *

TA:>L.. 2 .

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p h o sp h o ru s in. th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon c l i p p i n g y i e l d s ,

V a ria n c e due t o

d eg rees o f freed o m

H ocks T re a tm e n ts

6

r'T T O T

T o ta l

2?

F v a lu e

Sums o f sq u a re s

.■jean s o u a re

H 3 .9 7

84*65

H *44'

540#68

vO • 11

4 .7 3 '

342•79

1 9 .0 4

15 13

? • 4^+

c>o

A F fE k d li T /ui^t 3*

a n a l y s i s ox v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f p o tassiu m . i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon c l i p p i n g y i e l d s .

.d eg rees o f freedom.

EuiiXS o f so.ua r e s

le a n s q u a re

F v a lu e

B lo c k s

3

1 1b . o 8

39 • 62

2 .2 9 0

T re a tm e n ts

6

9 0 .7 9

1 3 .1 3

1 .1 4

18

3 li.il

1 7 .3 0

27

3 2 1 .0 7

V arian.ce due t o

E rro r

T o ta l

T ^ u lt. 4*

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f i e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f c a lc iu m i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon c l i p p i n g y i e l d

V ariance due t o B lo c k s T re a tm e n ta I tr r o r

T o ta l

: :

D e g re es o f freed o m 3

: :

Sums o f sq u a re s 279*13

: :

uean s q u a re 93*04

6

300*18

6 0 .0 3

18

709*82

39*42

27

1* 3 4 8 .9 3

: :

F v a lu e

2 .3 6

1*7

85

APPENDIX TABLE 5 .

A n a ly s is o f v a r i a n c e on th e e f f e c t s o f V a rio u s l e v e l s o f magnesium in th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t io n upon c lip p in g y i e l d s .

V arian ce due t o

:. :

D egrees o f freedom

• •

: :

Sums o f sq u ares

Mean sq u a res

• •

♦ • •

F v a lu e

• *

B lo ck s

3

1 4 9 .1 4

4 9 .7 1

1 .3 9

T reatm ents

6

4 6 6 .5 8

7 7 .7 6

2 • 18

18

6 4 1 .2 4

3 5 .6 2

27

1,256.96

E rror

T o ta l



APjtEKDIX TABLE 6 .

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f b o ro n i n t h e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon c l i p p i n g y ie ld s *

D eg rees o f freed o m

V a ria n c e due t o

Sums o f sq u a re s

: ;

Mean s q u a re

: :

F v a lu e

p



B lo ck s

3

1 1 9 .5 3

3 9 .8 4

1 .6 8

T re a tm e n ts

6

4 5 3 .5 7

7 5 .5 9

1 .1 2

IB

1 ,2 1 1 .8 4

6 7 .3 2

27

1,784.93

E rro r

T o ta l

87

APPEM.DXX TABLE ? .

A n a ly s is o f v a r i a n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n i t r o g e n i n t h e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon w e ig h ts o f crowns*

V arian ce due t o

: :

4 '4

*



D egress o f freedom

t

: ;

•*

Sums o f sq u ares

ifcean sq u a res .

'!

F v a lu e

B lo ck s

3

6 .4

2 .1 3

6 .1 4

T reatm ents

5

2 7 8 .9

5 5 .7B

4 .2 6 *

15

1 9 6 .3

1 3 .0 8

23

18 1 . o

E rror

Total

88

A Pii^D IX TABLE 8#

A n a ly s is o f v a r i a n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p h o sp h o ru s i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon w e ig h to o f c ro w n s.

V a ria n c e due t o



•♦ D e g re es o f : freed o m : ••

Sums o f sq u a re s

4 ; ;

|i’ v a lu e 1 .5 8

1 8 5 .5

3 0 .9 1

1 .4 8

18

3 7 3 .7

2 0 .7 6

27

598.5

3

3 9 .3

T reatise n t

6

T o ta l

Mean s q u a re 1 3 .1

B lo c k s

E rro r

• • ♦ •

aPBKIIDIX TMsLK 9.

Analysis of variance on effects of various levels of

p otassiu m in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crovris.

V ariance due t o

*



: :

D egrees o f : freedom : I

••

*

Suras o f sq u a res

mean square

F v a lu e

B lock s

3

8 6 ,8 6

2 8 .9 5

1 .2 2

T reatm ents

6

2 3 7 .8 6

3 9 .6 4

1 .6 8

13

■425.14

2 3 .6 1

27

7 4 9 .8 6

F rror

T o ta l

90

APPENDIX TABLE 1 0 .

A n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s , o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f c a lciu m i n t h e n u t r ie n t s o l u t i o n upon w ie h g ts o f crowns*

Variance due t o

: s ; :

Degrees o f freedom

: ; ; :

Sums o f squares

: : :

Mean square

*

: : : :

F valu e

B lock s

3

292*98

9 7 .6 6

3 .1 6 *

Treatments

6

1 ,2 3 7 .4 5

2 06.24

6 .6?**

18

556.27

27

2 ,0 8 6 .7 0

Error

Total

3 0 .9

91

APEEhDlX TABU: 11*

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium, i n th e n u t r ie n t s s o lu t io n upon w e ig h ts o f crowns

V arian ce due t o

D egrees o f : freedom :

Sums o f sq u a res

i-ean Square

: :

F v a lu e

B lo ck s

3

1 2 0 .1 4

40*04

2 .7 3

T reatm ents

6

1 8 7 .2 5

3 1 .2 1

2 .1 3

IB

2 6 3 .6 1

14.64'

2?

571.00

Err o r

Total

9Z

APPENDIX TABLE 1 2 . A n a ly s is o f v a r i a n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f b o ro n i n t h e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon w e ig h ts o f c ro w n s.



V a ria n c e due t o

j

D eg rees o f : Freedom :

Sums o f s q u a re s

; :

liean s q u a re

F v a lu e

• •

*

B lo ck s

3

9 1 .3 3

3 0 .3 1

1 .9

T re a tm e n ts

6

139*93

2 3 .3 2

1 .4 5

18

2 8 9 .2 2

1 6 .0 6

27

520.68

E rro r

Total

93

A lri'hO L i TABU'- 13m

--sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f n i t r o g e n i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon th e number o f s e e d h ea d s p ro d u c e d .

V a ria n c e ' due t o

: i

D eg rees o f : freed o m :





Suris o f S q u ares

3

2 9 5 .8 3

T re a tm e n ts

5

3 ,4 1 3 .7 5

13

• 7 8 5 .4 2

T o ta l

23

.

:

^ v a lu e



. :io c k 3

I-rro r

le a n s q u a re

5WV 5

2 3 8 .6 1 6 8 2 .7 5 . 5 2 .3 6

5.70* 1 3

.o >

A1PEM DIX TABU 14*

Analysis of variance on effects of various levels of

phosphorus i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t i o n upon th e number o f s e e d heads produced.

V arian ce due t o

: : :



D egrees o f : freedom s

Sums o f sq u a res

• *

:

ilean sq u a res

F v a lu e



B lo ck s

3

3 ,m

1 ,1 2 9 .3

5.58*-*

T reatm ents

6

6 ,2 4 9

1 ,0 4 1 .3

5 .1 5 * *

18

3 ,6 3 9

2 0 2 .1

2?

13,276

E rro r

Total

APPENDIX ‘TABLE 15*

Analysis of variance on effects of various levels of

p o ta ssiu m i n th e n u t r ie n t s o lu t i o n upon t h e number o f se e d heads produced.

V ariance due t o

*

D egrees o f freedom

: :

Smas o f sq u a res

* •

« 2 ; •

Mean sq u a res

3

1 ,3 1 1

437

Treatm ent

6

1 0 ,4 5 5

1 ,7 4 2 * 5

18

4 ,0 2 8

223*7

27

15,794

Total

F v a lu e

* •

B lo ck s

E rror

:

1 .9 5 7 .7

96

APtfSMDIX. TABU; 16*

A n a ly sis o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f ca lciu m i n th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f s e e d heads produced*

V arian ce due t o

D egrees o f : freedom :

Sums o f sq u ares

: :

Mean sq u a re s

: :

F v a lu e

B lo ck s

3

1 ,9 9 6

666

3 .5 2 *

Treatm ents

6

4 ,9 5 9

8 2 6 .5

4 .3 7 *

18

3 ,4 0 1

189*0

27

10,358

1rror

Total

97

;a k.DDXi f A3LF- 1 7 .

a n a ly s is o f v a r ia n c e on e f f e c t s o f v a r io u s l e v e l s o f magnesium in th e n u tr ie n t s o lu t io n upon th e number o f seed -leads produced#

V a ria n c e due t o

♦ : :

D eg rees o f freed o m

: ;

8 mas o f S q u a re s

: :

F v a lu e

d ean s q u a re #

U lo ck s

3

6 ,7 8 5

2 ,2 6 1 .6 ?

1 3 .7 1 *

T r e a tm e n ts

6

3 ,7 3 8

623*60

3 .7 8 *

18

2 , 76 s

I 6 4 .89

27

1 3 ,1 9 1

rro r

T o ta l

\PJ'}J!DXa 17. BU IB . A n aly sis o f v a ria n c e on th e e f f e c t s o f v a rio u s l e v e ls o f b o ro n i n th e n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n upon t h e num ber o f s e e d h e a l p ro d u c e d .

v a r ia n c e due t o

p*ees ox freed o m

hums o f s q u a re s

f.- . \

B lo ck s T re a tm e n ts

K. . UOO

e rro r

T o ta l

b ean saus re s

322

27

2 2 > 5

v a lu e b *'/ I ' G.42"*'