The Early Years of Lenin

Table of contents :
The Early Years of Leni n
Nikolai Valentinov (N. V. Volski)
Introduction
Preface
Contents
part 11 : The Birth of V. I. Lenin
Simbirsk—Lenin’s Home Town
A Happy Childhood and Youth
23
27

6o
IV Fairy Tales about the Early Revolutionism of V. Ulyanov
64
The Execution of Alexander Ulyanov
VI Chernyshevski’s What Is to Be Done? and the “Rebirth” of V. Ulyanov
Lenin in Kazan and Samara ( 1888-93 )
*47
*53
!79
IX Chernyshevski and V. Ulyanov’s Transformation into Lenin
Chernyshevski: Source and Inspiration of Lenin’s Materialism and Dialectics
XI Chernyshevski: Source and Inspiration of Lenin’s Hatred of Liberalism
*45
247
XII Chernyshev ski: Source and Inspiration of Lenin’s Principle—“The End Justifies the
Means’
274
277
Notes
p. 84.
293
Index

Citation preview

T H E E A R L Y Y E A R S OF L E N I N

The Early Years o f Leni n Nikolai Valentinov (N. V. Volski) Translated and edited by Rolf H. W. Theen Introduction by Bertram D. Wolfe

Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press

Copycig&c © by Tike University o f M ichigan 19^9* AIL TTTghtn resarved Library of C ongre» C atalog C a d Xo; Published in th e U nited Stares of A in ö io by T h e U niversity of M i r f a t P te » an d Bm ufem eonab in D on Mifls» C anady by Longjoans C m a fe Lim ited V am ifaf n lgpff in th e Unified ha May.. A year before, ha Jfnfiy of 11904, the Lgsnr Sazonov a«Ha«MiBiBrgd the m in iste of internal a§fonts Pfehve. Sazonov did not die ha SdtKmsdBbuarg but at hard labor ha Zerentn, Siberia. One must have read the letters of Samanm to» fids fcaumfiy ha order to laiwfWHiraaffd dearly and futlfiy the special psychology of the- sefifsacrificing Russian youth of PtapuiKst ™rfifjrac»rnr^ “Ramamher my youthful fifae™ «. about pracdH activity for the good of the unfortunate people," SiasQUoiv wrote from prison, "And suddenly a terrible task stood before trike Ay amd peacehwhag person that I was. I could not throw hi off my Amflder^. My conscience; my reKgiion, any gf»ipeia®8B any God required it from me. fTanld I disobey? Yes», any dear any revofeatikmagy and sodahst bdbefe became fused with any refignm, I fed that we socialists are continuing ftfluff " Sobranic sochinenii, vol. I, p. 292. 11. Sochineniia Lenina, vol. XXV, pp. 390-94. 12. In the company of A. Bogdanova, Krupskaya and Ol’minskii, we once heard such a recital by Lenin in the spring of 1904 in the mountains close to Geneva. 13. The essay “Pred borei,” [‘‘Before the Storm”], Proletarii, issue of September 3, 1906. Sochineniia, vol. X, p. 25. 14. Sochineniia Lenina, vol. XXIII, p. 313.

The Early Years of Lenin

292 15. Cf. vols. I-IV, X-Xl, XIII-XV, XVII, XIX, XXII-XXV, XXVII, XXIX-XXX. 16. Sochineniia Lenina , vol. XXV, p. 212. The communists of Europe and America, inspired especially by Stalinism, fully perceived and grasped the lessons about “going in zigzags,“ with “retreats backwards,” about “changing directions,” and about perpetual “maneuvering.” In the line of maneuvering they are without equals. They have broken all records in regard to shameless subterfuges and equivocation.

CHAPTER

X

1. Lenin, “Materializm i empiriokrititsizm,” Sochineniia, 3rd ed. vol. XIII, p. 295. 2. Lenin explained that by “the basic questions of human inquiry” Chernyshevski understood what in contemporary language is called the theory of knowledge or gnosiology. 3. Herzen, Byloe i dumy 4. Sochineniia Lenina, vol. XVIII, p. 247. Lenin, Filosofskie tetradi, 1936, p. 283.

CHAPTER

XI

1. Article in the journal Rabochii, 1914, no. 1. Cf. Lenin, Sochine­ niia, vol. XVII, p. 342. Kadety—K.D.—refers to the Constitu­ tional Democratic party. By liquidators (of the party) Lenin meant the Social Democrats and Mensheviks. 2. Lenin, “Chto takoe 'druz’ia naroda,’ ” Sochineniia, vol. I, p. 171. Lenin’s italics. 3. The collective volume in which the article by Tulin was included was burned on orders of the ministers. 4. To the author of these lines [i.e. to Valentinov]. 5. A year before his death, Lenin wrote: “For a beginning, present bourgeois culture would be enough for us.” Who knows, maybe he remembered his first meeting with Plekhanov when he wrote these lines? 6. Lenin, Sochineniia, vol. X, p. 291. The article “Vybomaia kampaniia sotsial-demokratov v Peterbuige.” 7. Ibid., p. 314. The article “Vybory v Peterburge i litsemerie 31 men’shevika.”

Notes 293 8. Ibid., p. 370. The article “Vtoraia Duma i vtoraia volna revoliutsii," Proletarii, 1907, No. 11 (Feb.). 9. The landlord Penochkin in the story Burmistr. 10. Cf. the essays of P. N. Miliukov, entitled "Rokovye gody” in the journal Russkie Zapiski, 1938-39. 11. Lenin, "Proekty rezoliutsii k 5 s’ezdu," Sochineniia, vol. X, p. 383. 12. Proletarii, 1906, no. 20 (December). 13. Lenin, Sochineniia, vol. XII, p. 5. 14. Proletarii, 1906, no. 20 (December). 15. Incidentally, Mr. Stalin fabricated a book about Leninism, merci­ lessly copying and paraphrasing whole pages from Lenin’s works. God himself ordered him not to know about the role of Chemyshevski in the formation of ‘'Leninism." 16. Of course, it is necessary to distinguish "ideology" and "science" strictly. 17. Sbornik Golos Zhizni. This good precept of Lenin has now be­ come the rule in the Russia of Stalin and in his conquered East­ ern Europe. Triumphant communism begins with the execution of the intelligentsia; this is the simplest method of destroying the "poison.” 18. "K otsenke russkoi revoliutsii," Proletarii, 1908 (May 23). 19. Lenin, "Dve taktiki sotsial-demokratii v demokraticheskoi revoliu­ tsii," Sochineniia, vol. VIII, p. 41. CHAPTER

XII

1. If Alesha Karamazov, Dostoevski’s hero, "had decided that there is no immortality and no God, he would have immediately joined the atheists and socialists since socialism is not only the worker’s question but for the most part the atheistic question, the question of building the tower of Babel without God." "Destroy in man­ kind the faith in its immortality, and nothing will be immoral any longer, everything will be permissible, even cannibalism." Dostoevski, who returned from Siberia (1854) a very religious man, keenly and with hostility sensed the literary atmosphere of radical society in St. Petersburg, where the atheistic materialism of Chernyshevski predominated. [Dostoevski] could not but know the biography of Chernyshevski and Dobrolyubov, the seminary students who had abandoned God: Chernyshevski was "the ruler of men’s minds” at that time. But in 1864 Chernyshevski was sent to hard labor, and mere tact dictated to Dostoevski not to join

The Early Years of Lenin 294

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

battle with an opponent who had been put in chains. Therefore, neither in Prestuplenie i nakazanie [Crime and Punishment] nor in Besy [The Possessed] or in BraVia Karamazov [The Brothers Karamazov] did he represent and show the figure of Chernyshevski as clearly as he did this with the malicious caricature of Turgenev (the writer Karmazinov in Besy). Nevertheless, we do not doubt that in the literary creation of Raskol’nikov in the novel Crime and Punishment, which serves as the point of de­ parture for the “crime" as well as for the development of the novel, Dostoevski developed ideas in which he saw the logical outcome of precisely those principles which Chernyshevski had developed in Sovremennik in one of his surveys of life abroad. This most important fact has escaped literary criticism in Russia. Lenin had approximately the same attitude toward Herzen. For him Chernyshevski was “the great socialist of the pre-Marxian period"—at a time when he did not see “a grain of socialism" in Herzen, but only “nice, stifling phrases [and] pleasant dreams." “One cannot now read without aversion” the letters of Herzen to Tsar Alexander II in Kolokol. Only the last year of Herzen's life, when his gaze apparently turned to Marx’s International, earned the praise of Lenin. Cf. his Sochineniia, vol. XV, p. 464. We have already made use of this quotation once, but in in­ complete form, without the exceedingly characteristic reference to the fact that revolutionary activity is “not at all neat." The reference is to France in the 1840’s. Prestuplenie i nakazanie [Crime and Punishment]. Istoriia moego sovremennika, vol. II, p. 388. Raskol’nikov in Dostoevski’s Crime and Punishment. Proletarskaia revoliutsiia, 1924, no. 3, the article by Bosh, “Vstrechi i besedy s Vladimirom Il’ichem." Maxim Gorki, “O Lenine," Russkii sovremennik, 1924, no. 1.

Index Avenarius, Richard, vii, xvi, 21820 Avvakum, 188

Aesthetic Relation of Art to Reality, The, 216 Aksakov, I., 262 Aksakov, Sergei T., 43, 55 AkseFrod, Paul B., xiii-xiv, 87, 197» 239» 244- 47*251

Alakaevka, 58, 145-46, 155, 159, 165, 170, 180, 233 Alekseev, V., 6, 8, 13, 68 Aleksinskaia, T., 30, 33-34 Alexander I, 7 Alexander II, 63, 65, 86, 95, 259, 294

Alexander III, 79, 86, 92, 97, 100, 103, 105, 108, 118, 123, 192, 233, 239* 285 Al’tman, N., 141 Andreiushkin, 92, 95, 100, 103 Anna Ioannovna, Tsarina, 103 Annenkov, Pavel V., 7-8 Anthropological Principle in Phi­ losophy, 216 Anti-Dühring, 170, 217 Ardashev, 40 Armand, 213 Arnol’d, 65

Bakunin, Mikhail A., 83, 103, 221, 233, 261, 270 Balabanoff, Angelica, xv Balmashev, 104-5 Bashkir Republic, vi Basily, Nicolas A. de, xii Belinski, Vissarion, 178, 196, 221, 261 Bentham, Jeremy, 137 Beria, Lavrenti, 192 Biren, 103 Black Hundreds, 256-58 Blank, Aleksandr D., 22, 39-42,

295

45

Bogdanova, A., 291 Bogoliubov, 86 Bolshevik party, x, 38, 252, 257, 260, 263, 270 Bolsheviks, 217-18, 249-50, 255, 260,270 Bourguina, Anna M., x Brezhnev, Leonid, v, viii

The Early Years of Lenin 296

Briand, Aristide, 22 Bukharin, Nikolai, 284 Bulgakov, Mikhail, 26, 75 Bunin, Ivan, 289 Burtsev, V., 86 Bushuev, 65, 69 Cabet, Etienne, 131 Capitalism, 239, 241 Capri, 44-45 Catherine II, 22, 103 Chaadaev, P. I., 261 Chebotarev, I. N., 117-18, 126 Cheka, 192 Chekhov, Anton, 157 Chénier, André, 102 Chernov, V., 75 Chernyshevski, Nikolai G., xvxvi, 5, 60, 66-67, 72, 83, 87, 89, 91, 107, 111-38, 140-41, 143-45. 155-56, 171, 178, 180-81, 188216, 219-24, 226, 228-31, 23337, 241-43, 247-49, 251,25456, 260, 264-71, 276-78, 28082, 290-93 Chernyshevskia, Olga S., 267 Chetvergova, 141-42, 288 Chirikov, E., 77, 283, 285 Claudel, Paul, 150 Communist Fraction of the AllRussian Congress of MetalWorkers, 200 Communist Manifesto, 170, 182 Comte, Auguste, 266 Considérant, Victor, 130 Constituent Assembly, 11 Constitutional Democratic party, 255

Council of People’s Commissars,

36-37 Crime and Punishment, 294

Critique of Political Economy, 231 Critique of Practical Reason, 207 Daniel’son, N. F., 165, 175 Decembrist revolt, 7 Decembrists, 5 Deich, L. G., 87, 239 Development of Capitalism in Russia, The, 161-62, 165, 244 Diderot, Denis, 266 Dmitriev, 1. 1., 8 Dobrolyubov, Nikolai A., 5, 10, 64,66-67,91, 129-30, 178, 196206, 209-10, 213-14, 242, 254, 266, 268, 290-91, 293 Dolgorukov, Vasili, 103 Dostoevski, Fedor, 105, 293 Dubrovin, A. I., 258 Elenev, F. P., 196 Elizarov, M. T., 33, 45, 286 Emel’ianov, 26 Engel’gardt, A. N., 196, 234 Engels, Friedrich, 58, 84, 166, 170, 189, 196-97, 217-19, 222, 224, 281-82 Enukidze, 284 Fate of Capitalism in Russia, The,

155 Fathers and Sons, 57, 71-72, 254 Fedoseev, N. E., 73, 144, 154, 170, 174-88 Fedotov, G. P., 106 Feuerbach, Ludwig, 130, 160, 217, 219, 266 Filosofskie postroeniia Marksisma, x Finland, 33 Fischer, Louis, 22

Index 297 Fourier, François, 127, 130 Gapon, Georgi, 5 Generalov, 92, 100, 103 Geneva, xiii, 30, 43, 135, 217, 244.252-53, 257 Goethe, Johann W. von, 135, 174 Gogol, Nikolai, 43, 199 Golitsyn, Prince, 103 Golubeva-Iasneva, 288 Goncharov, Ivan A., 6-7, 9-10, *3- 43*>96- 9 8*a83 Gorbunov, 37 Gordon, Manya, xii Gorki, Maxim, 21-22, 25, 44- 45, 70, 143-44, 177, 188, 198, 206, 218, 266, 281,291, 294 Gorkun, 92 Gosplan, 21 Govorukhin, 88-90, 93, 106, 285 GPU, 192 Granovsky, 221 Great Russia, 24 Grigor’evna, Varvara, 17, 64 Guilbeaux, Henri, 67, 284 Haxthausen, August von, 82 Hegel, Georg W. F., 221, 225 Heine, Heinrich, 93, 102-3, 235 Helsingfors, 25 Helvetius, Claude A., 217, 266 Herwegh, Georg, 93 Herz, 75 Herzen, Alexander I., 43, 55, 66, 83-84, 160, 199, 221, 232, 261, 267-69, 276, 294 Holbach, Paul H. D., 217 “How the ‘Spark’ Almost Went Out,’’ 214 Iazykov, N. M., 7-8

Ibsen, Henrik, 227 Iskra (The Spark), xiii, 246, 249 Iuzhakov, S. N., 175, 181-82 Ivan Antonovich, Tsar, 103 Kadet party (K.D.), 255-57, 259, 262 Radian, Dr., 61-62 Kaliaev, 104-5 Kalinin, Mikhail I., 284 Kamenetsk-Podolsk, ix, xiii Kamenev, Leon B., 242, 284 Rancher, 92 Kant, Immanuel, 207, 220 Kapital, Das, viii, 13, 66-70, 89, 105, 142, 170, 182-83, 185-86, 195*225>23 L 29 i Kaplan, 11 Karamzin, Nikolai M., 7, 14, 135 Karyshev, Professor, 234 Kaufman, 185, 225 Kautsky, Karl, 282 Kavelin, K. D., 247, 267 Kazan, 3, 6, 11,43-44, 47-48, 5354*59* >39- 44* >54- 55*>7° - 7 >* 174, l80, l86, l88, I9O-94, 204-5

Kerenski, Alexander, 25, 32, 114 Kerenski, F. M., 32, 114 Khalturin, 86 Khardin, 148 Kharkov, 190 Khomyakov, Aleksei S., 82, 269 Khrushchev, Nikita, v, viii Kiev, vii, ix, 115, 156 Kievskaia Gazeta, x Kievskaia Mysl, x Kireevskii, Ivan, 82 Kliuchevskii, 23 Kniazev, 100-102 Kokushkinaia, Mme, 39

The Early Years of Lenin 298

Kokushkino, 38-61,65, 70, 80, 115-18, 124, 134, 139-4°» *5°» 153» ! 55>l86>188-93» *99»2056, 209, 217, 222, 232, 236, 242, 248, 255, 264, 278, 290 Kolokol (The Bell), 268 Korobko, 153 Korolenko, V. G., 279 Kovnator, R., 38, 41 Kraevskii, A. A., 181 Krakow, 31 Krasikov, xiii Kravchinski, 86 Krivenko, S. N., 174-75, 180-

81,183-85,233 Krupskaya, Nadezhda, xiii, xv, 5, 25-27, 29,51,53, 115, 124-25, 133, 140, 142, 145, 244, 285, 287-88, 291 Krushevan, P. A., 258 Krzhizhanovskii, ix, xiii, 21 Kudashev, 286 Kuskova, 289 Kustodiev, 12 Lalaiants, 154-55. >57- '59 Lamartine, Alphonse de, 77 Lammet, 266 Lashevich, 284 Laval, Pierre, 22 Lavrov, 40 Lavrov, P. L., 93, 143, 181 Lebedevaia, 153 “Left-Wing” Communism, an Infantile Disorder, 215 Lenin Institute, 68 Lermontov, Mikhail, 199 Lemer, N. O., 284 Leroux, Pierre, 130 Lessing, Gotthold E., 232 Letters of Lenin to His Relatives, The, 18

Liberalism, 227-64 Lipetsk, 12-13 Lobachevski, Nikolai, 190 Lopatin, G., 291 Lukashevich, 89-90, 92, 99-100, 106, 123 Mach, Ernst, xvi, 218, 220 Mach and Marxism, x Machists, 218-20 Malaparte, M., 17-18, 201, 285 Mal’chenko, 21 Maria Alekseevna, Tsarevna, 103 Martov, Julius, xiii, 21, 150, 17374- ' 97 .246 Marx, Karl, viii, 13, 58, 66, 68, 75, 93, 133, 166, 170, 181-84, 187, 189, 195-96, 205, 213, 218, 222, 224-25, 231, 264, 281-82 Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute, 38, 66

Marxism, 142, 153, 160, 171, 17375, 178, 180, 182-84, 186-89, 194-95» 205, 207, 216, 218, 234, 236, 238, 244, 246, 281 Marxist Social Democracy, vi Materialism and Empiriocriticism, x Mensheviks, 150, 168, 218, 246, 249- 5°» 253-54 Menshevism, xiii MGB, 192 Mikhailovsky, N. K., 175-79, 181,

195,206 Miliukov, Paul N., 255, 293 Mill, John S., 143, 206, 288 Minaev, D. D., 7-8, 39 Mirovich, Vasili, 103 Mirtov, see P. L. Lavrov Montesquieu, Charles de, 217 More, Thomas, 130-31

Index 299 Moscow, x, 6, 31, 33, 38, 190, 202, 269 Munich, 31 MVD, 192 My eshche pridem, o sovremennoi literaturet x Nechaev, 270 Nekliudov, 99 Nekrasov, Nikolai A., 53, 64, 6667, 78, 82, 181, 194, 209, 268, 290 Nest of Gentlefolk, A, 51, 53-54, 57»71- 72 “New Economic Forms of Winnowing Among the Peasants,” 159 “New Economic Movements in the Life of the Peasants,” 160 New Economic Policy (NEP), xi, 200 Nicholas I, 7, 63, 103, 261 Nicholas II, 239 Nikifonov, 94 Nikolaev, 231 Nikolaevsky, B. I., 285 Nizhni Novgorod, 3 NKGB, 192 NKVD, 192 Notes of the Fatherland, 181 Novikov, 103 Novitsky, General, viii Novorusskii, 100, 123, 285 Oblomov, 196-98 Oblomovshchina, 198-201 October Revolution, 13, 39, 123 OGPU, 192 Okhrana, vii, 20, 95 Ol’minskii, Mikhail S., 43, 55-56, 291

On the Eve, 54,71-72, 196-98, 254

“On the So-Called Question About Markets,” 165 Orenburg Marxists, 175-76, 179 Oshanina, M. N., 181 Osipanov, 92, 100, 103-4 Our Differences, 142, 159 Owen, Robert, 130 Paris, 52 Penza, 3 Peshkov, Aleksei M., see Maxim Gorki Peter and Paul fortress, 86, 98, 103, 106, 126, 128, 130 Petersburg Institute of Technology, vi Peter the Great, 103, 201 Philosophical Notebooks, 35 Piatkov, Gregory, xi Pipes, Richard, xv Pisarev, D. I., 66-67, 144 Planck, M., 218 Plekhanov, Georgi V., xiii-xiv, xvi, 13, 22, 58, 77, 87-89, 107-8, 142, 155, 159-60, 180, 189, 19597, 214, 217-18, 222, 226, 232, 239' 244-48, 250-51,281 Poliakov, A. S., 285 Politbureau, 119 Populism, 268 Populists, 87, 103, 107-8, 162, 178, 180, 182, 233-36, 240, 258, 26364 Populist Socialist Revolutionary movement, vi Postnikov, V. E., 155, 159-68 Potresov, A. N., xiii, xv, 170, 179, 186, 197, 246, 289

The Early Years of Lenin 3°°

Preobrazhenskii, A. A., 146, 153, 284 Prokopovich, 289 Proudhon, Pierre, 130 Provisional Government, 32 Purishkevich, V. M., 258 Pushkin, Alexander S., 27, 29, 55, 67. 73- >99- *6i Reddaway, Peter, xv Romanov, Michael, 23 Rudin, 55, 71,73, 77- 79>'97 Ruge, 93 Russia and Russian Culture, xi Russkoe Slovo, x Rykov, Alexis I., 284 Rytikov, 145 St. Petersburg, 50, 66-67, 70, 86, 89, 93-95, 102, 105, 116-18, 126, 146-48, 152, 156, 158, 165, 170, 175-76, 179, 187, 190, 192, 194, 217, 233, 244, 246, 252-53, 285, 288, 293 Saint Simon, Claude de, 130 Saltykov-Shchedrin, Mikhail E., 75, 149, 178, 181 Samara, 11, 148, 151, 153-58, 160, 166, 168, 170-74, 176, 180, 186-88 Samevskii, 175 Sazonov, Egor, 104-5 Schapiro, Leonard, xv, xvii Schlüsselburg fortress, 86, 103-4, Second Congress of the Social Democratic party, ix Serebriakov, 284 Sergei Alexandrovich, Prince, 104 Serno-Solov’evich, A. A., 269

Shevyrev, 89-92, 94-95- 97- 99“

IOO, 104 Shkundik, 36 Shub, David, xv Shukht, 153 Shver, A., 6, 8, 13, 68 Siberia, vii, 6, 32, 58, 86-87, ,0 4~ 5, 115, 140,231,246, 291,293 Sil’vin, M., 148 Simbirsk, 3-18, 31-32, 36, 39, 4244- 53- 58.69-70,73- 77*9 1- 95h i , 113-17, 189, 232, 254-55, 285 Skaldin, see F. P. Elenev Skliarenko, 154-55, !59 Smoke, 50, 71, 73- 74, 149 Social Democratic party, 11,218, 237, 240, 250-51, 256 “Socialism and Religion,” 217 Sombart, Werner, 21, 207 Sosnovskii, 106 South Russian Economy, The, 155 South Russian Peasant Economy, The, 160-66 Sportsman's Sketches, A, 55, 57, 254

Stalin, Joseph, v, viii, xi, 5, 17, 114, 132, 168, 174, 191, 242, 266, 284, 287, 289, 293 Starkov, 21 Stasovaia, 149 Struve, P., 161, 166, 182-83, 18687, 243, 246-47

Switzerland, 52 Sytin, Ivan D., xi Tikhomirov, Lev A., 181, 259 Tikhvinsky, Professor, vii, ix, xiii-xiv

Index 3° 1

Tkachev, P. N., 84-86, 222, 233, 270 Tolstoi, Leo, 23, 26, 43, 55, 86, 190, 204, 261, 280 Tolstoia, Countess, 26 Torgovo-Promyshlenaia Gaze ta, xi Torrents of Spring, The, 57 Trepov, Governor, 64 Trotsky, Leon, 249, 287 Tugan-Baranovskii, 166 Tulin, K. (pseud, of Lenin), 243 Tulinov, 101 Turgenev, Ivan S., 7, 12, 43, 4951- 53- 56. 7°“ 74- 77- 78.149, 196-99, 202-4, 254. 29' - 294 Turgenev, N. L, 7 Tursky, K. M., 86 Ufa, vi-vii, 5-6, 114, 142 Ulam, Adam B., 101 Ulyanov, Alexander, 3, 15, 27, 66, 69-70, 72, 80-108, 119, 121-25, 132, 146, 281, 283 Ulyanov, Dmitrii L, 5, 59, 115, 151, 158, 286 Ulyanov, Ilya N., 4, 14, 16, 23, 33,

61,63-64,99 Ulyanova, Maria A. (Blank), 3, 22, 27-28, 40-41,44, 63, 95, 97-98, 102, 111, 113-16, 145, 147-48, 150, 158 Ulyanova, Maria L, 5, 28, 112, 145, 149. 286 Ulyanova, Olga, 5, 19, 121, 146.47, 170, 286 Ulyanova-Elizarova, Anna L, xv, 3, 6, 15-17, 20, 32, 41,48-49, 58, 62,65,77,95,98, 115, 117, 11923, 125, 146, 150, 152-53, 191, 193,216, 283-86, 288

Ulyanovs, 6, 8, 10, 13-14, 17, 2526,28,42,47,54,58, 62,73, M1* 113, 116-17, 139, 147, 151, 193, 286-87 Uspenski, Gleb, 196 Utopia, 130 Valentinov, Nikolai (Volski), vvi, viii, x-xvii Vaneev, 21 Veretennikov, A. L, 32 Veretennikov, Nikolai, 30, 39-40, 42,45» 49*56» ll6 »122. 15°» 191-92, 204-5, 284, 290 Veretennikova, Anna A., 40, 45,

58 Veretennikovs, 47, 54 Vie economique des Soviets, La, xi Vinogradov, Professor, 250 Virgin Soil, 55, 71, 73, 75, 77,

197

Vodovozov, V. V., 93, 102, 121, 146, 148, 151-53, 156, 171-72, 174, 186-87 Volin, B., 176 Vol’kenshtein, 148 Volski, Nikolai V., see Nikolai Valentinov Volski, Valentina N., vi, viii, x, xvii Vorontsov, V. P., 175 Vorontsov, V. V., 155, 165, 180,

196 Vorovskii, 194, 216, 278 Vstrechi s Leninyrn, xiii What Is to Be Done?, xv, 60, 66, 89,107, n i - 3 8 , 140.143,189, 196. 199, 204- 5 , 267,276

The Early Years of Lenin

302 What Is to Be Done? (Lenin), viii, 142, 249, 260 What the Friends of the People Are, 165, 174, 176, 179-80 What the “Friends of the People Are and How They Fight against the Social-Democrats,

155.233 “When Will the Real Day Come?“, 201

Witte, Sergei Y., 246 Yurevsky, E., see Nikolai Valentinov Zakrzhevskii, 141 Zalezhskii, 40 Zaporozhets, 21 Zasulich, Vera I., xiii, 64, 85, 87, 158, 183, 197, 239, 246, 288 Zhukovskii, Iu., 195