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Oo V.

THE

I

DOdIJMKNTAKY HISTUEY

STATE OF NEW-YORK; ARRANGED UNDER DIRECTION OF THE

Hon.

CHRISTOPHER MORGAN, Secretary of Slate.

BY

E.

B.'^’CALLAGHAN, M.

VOL.

D.

I.

221740 ALBANY: WEED, PARSONS *

Co

.

PUBLIC PRINTERS

18 19

.

\

%* The Map facing the Title page of this Volume is taken from one of North America, engraved by Lucini, an Italian artist, originally on four sheets, three of which belong to the Warden Collection of the State Library. It

will be perceived from

its

Title that

it is

a

Map

of

New

Belgium (now

New

York,) and part of New England, the former of which Provinces was claimed at the time, to extend from Cape Cod to the Capes of Delaware. The absence of

any date renders it difficult, however, to ascertain precisely the year graved and this point can be determined only by other evidence. Boston, which was settled in 1630,

is

found laid down, but there

it

was en-

no mention

is

of Maryland, the Province of Virginia forming the southern Boundary of

New

Belgium.

As Maryland was

first

granted in 1632,

it is

evident the date of this

be some year between that and the settlement of Boston.

was engraved

Map must

Most probably,

it

in 1634.

In point of time, extant, having,

it

may

as far

as

be considered the third oldest yet known, been preceded

Map

of the Province

by only two Dutch

Maps, one of 1616 and one 1618, transcripts of which are in the Secretary of State, and of one of which this Italian copy.

Map

is

office of

the

evidently an improved

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CONTENTS PAGE. I.

PAPERS RELATING TO THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER

DIAN TRIBES, PAPERS RELATING TO THE FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA, AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS AT SALINA, PAPERS RELATING TO DE COURCELLES’ AND DE TRACT’S EXPEDITIONS AGAINST THE MOHAWK INDIANS, .

II.

III.

IN-

-

-

!

1665-6,

1

31

57

85

V.

REPORTS ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK, 1669-1678, PAPERS RELATING TO M. DE LA BARRE’S EXPEDITION TO HUNGRY BAY, 1684, GOVERNOR DONGAN’S REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE

93

VI.

IV.

PROVINCE, VII.

145

1687.

PAPERS RELATING TO DENONVILLE’s EXPEDITION TO THE GENESEE COUNTRY AND NIAGARA, 1687, NAMES OF THE MALE INHABITANTS OF ULSTER CO., -

VIII.

191

279

1689,

PAPERS RELATING TO THE INVASION OF NEW-YORK AND THE BURNING OF SCHENECTADY BY THE FRENCH, 1690, X. CIVIL LIST OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK, 1693, XI. PAPERS RELATING TO FRONTENAC’S EXPEDITION AGAINST THE ONONDAGOES, 1696, IX.

........ .

....

XIII.

NEW-YORK ARMY LIST, 1700, CENSUS OF THE COUNTIES OF ORANGE, DUTCHESS AND

XIV.

CADWALLADER COLDEN ON THE LANDS OF NEW-

XII.

ALBANY,

313

321

357 365

1702, 1714, 1720,

YORK, 1732, XV. PAPERS RELATING TO THE SUSQUEHANNAH RIVER, -

-

-

-

375

391

1683-1757,

XVI. PAPERS RELATING TO OGDENSBURGH, XVII. PAPERS XVIII.

283

1749.

RELATING TO OSWEGO, PAPERS RELATING TO THE ONEIDA COUNTRY AND MOHAWK VALLEY, 1756, 1757, -

421

441

507

a)N TENTS.

VI

IMG 1C.

-

XIX. PAPEKS KELATiAG TO FRENCH SElGxVIOlllES ON LAKE

CHAMPLAIN,

.5.35

XX. BOUNDARY LINE BETWEEN THE WHITES AND THE INDIANS,

587

1765,

XXL PAPERS RELATING

TO THE CITY OF NEW-YORK, 593 XXil. PAPERS RELATING TO LONG ISLAND, 627 XXIII. STATISTICS OF POPULATION, 1647 1774, 687 XXIV. STATISTICS OF REVENUE, IMPORTS, EXPORTS, ETC., -

-

-

-

-

.

1691—1768,

699

XXV. PAPERS RELATING TO TRADE AND MANUFACTURES, 1705—1757,

709

XXVI. REPORT OF GOV. TRYON ON THE STATE OF THE PROVINCE, 1774, INDEX, DIRECTIONS TO BINDER,

737 -

775 787

DOCUMENTARY HLSTORY.

m

.‘I:' I,

!:

-iy

s

' .

1 ;,

V. 1,-

i.

.

Vr-M

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/••

' .

,

>

A'.'lf

.>f

-V

.,,/k1l!».4rf''

f.|\;ipiv

"

7

w*

•rl

»r7»i;*r-

,

,

fisl//T4.'IJli[)0a

/}iai'.'fT!

:i:t’ 1

i«r'

.
i (

iih in

In' (I

tj

rn f rf^t Surnffi'

/>ji

ri

h/unrf in fjtrir

on n h i oh fh ov of ffi n n/ i/v inn n h, h o n ofton

has hoon



to

uinjion innnr

in on

ho tins

tot /ton

not hi ttool

/*//

8 thir

she 1

m. the

hov keu eml

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES. a.

These are the punctures on

way

9

his body.

when they have been to war, and when there is a bar extending from one mark to the other, it signifies that after h^ing been in battle, he did not come back to b.

This

is

the

his village ..and that

they mark

he returned with other parties

whom

he met

or formed. c.

This arrow, which

is

broken, denotes that they were wound-

ed in this expedition, d. Thus they denote that the belts which they gave to raise a war party and to avenge the death of some one, belong to them or to some of the same tribe. e.

He

has gone back to fight without having entered his

vil-

lage. f.

A

man whom he

killed on the field of battle

who had

a

bow

and arrows. g.

These are two men

whom

he took prisoners, one of

had a hatchet, and the other a gun •

g. g.

This

is

a

woman who

is

in his hand.

designated only

by a

species of

waistcloth. h.

This

Such

is

is

way they distinguish her from the men. mode in which they draw their portraits.

the

the

whom

THE iROQrOIS AND

10

A. This not as b.

it is

is

the manner they paint the tribe of the Potatoe and

on the other

plate.

Is a stick set in the

ground

wood are which they went when they

to the extremity of

which two

attached, to denote the direction in

or three pieces of

are hunting

;

and on the nearest

tree

they paint the animal of the tribe to which they belong, with

numbers of guns they have they paint three guns,

have a

bow and no

When

if

;

that

is

to say if they are three

they aie more and there are some

gun, they put

down

a

tlie

men,

who

bow.

they return from hunting and are near the village they

do the same thing and add the number of beasts they have killed



that

is

to say, they paint the Deer,

to the neck; if

some

other animals entire

and the Stag from the head

are male they add antlers ;

if

;

they paint the

they are some days at the chase they mark

number as you see on the other plate. c. Club which they use to break the skull when they

the

war.

are at

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

Stake to

two posts

tie

They place

the prisoners.

hollow of the larger

in the

11

between these two posts catch

his leg

— that

is

the

the leg above the ankle, and they afterwards join one to the other

and

tie

them

at a

man’s height

—some times higher, so that

it

is

impossible to withdraw the foot without untying the cords.

OBSERVATIONS OF IN

WENTWORTH GREENHALGH,

A JOURNEY FROM ALBANY TO Y^ INDIANS, WESTWARD

MAY

20^*',

1677, AND ENDED JULY [Lond. Doc.

The Maquaes have

Y*^

BEGUN

;

14 FOLLOWING.

III.]

four townes, vizt. Cahaniaga, Canagora,

Canajorha, Tionondogue, besides one small village about 110 miles from Albany.

Cahaniaga

is

double stockadoed round

;

has four forts, [ports]]

about four foot wide a piece, conteyns about 24 houses, and situate

upon the edge of an

hill,

is

about a bnwshott from the river

side.

Canagora

is

only singly stockadoed

former, conteyns about 16 houses stone’s

throw from

Canajorha

is

;

has four ports like the

;

itt is

situated

upon a

fflatt,

a

y® water side.

and the

also singly stockadoed,

and quantity of houses as Canagora

;

about two miles distant from the water.

like man"^ of ports

the like situacbn

;

only

THE IROQUOIS AND

12

Tionondogue

double stockadoed around, has four ports, four

is

foot wide a piece, contains ab^ 30 houses

bow

shott

The houses

from y® River.

small village lyes close

;

scituated on a hill a

is

;

without ffence, and conteyns about ten

is

by the

on the north

river side,

do

side, as

all

the former.

The Maquaes

pass in

about 300 fighting men.

for

all

Their Corn grows close by the River

Of

Oneydas and Onondagoes and their

Situacon of the

the

side.

Strength.

The Onyades have but one town, which westward of the Maques.

is situate

Itt

small river which comes out of the

lys about

130 miles

about 20 miles from a

hills to

the southward, and

runs into lake Teshiroque, and about 30 miles distant from the

Maquaes

river,

which lyes

to the

double stockadoed, but

settled,

are forced to send to the

men,

Their

They

Come grows

The Onondagoes have

;

to

buy come

two

;

itt is

is

very large

situate

whereon the come

likewise a small village about

consisting of about 24 houses.

200

round about the towne.

butt one towne, butt

miles, all cleared land,

newly

is

The towne

;

very large, the banke on each side extending

hill thatt is

least

town

are said to have about

consisting of about 140 houses, nott fenced

They have

the

cleared ground, so thatt they

Onondagoes

consists of about 100 houses.

fighting

northward

little

They

is

;

upon a

itself att

planted.

two miles beyond

thatt,

ly to the southward of y^

They plant aboundance the Onyades. The Onondagos are men. They ly about 15 miles from

west, about 36 miles from the Onyades.

of

Come, which they

said to

sell to

be about 350 fighting

Tshiroqui.

Of the Caiougos and

Senecques, their Situacon and Strength^ ^c.

The Caiougos have each other

;

about 100 houses

Onondagos

three townes about a mile distant from

they are not stockadoed.

;

;

They do

in all consist of

they ly about 60 miles to the southward of

they intend the next spring to build

together and stockade them

;

all their

they have abundance of

Come

y*"

houses ;

they

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES. ly within

13

two or three miles of the lake Tichero.

They

pass for

about 300 fighting men.

The Senecques have

four townes, vizt. Canagora, Tiotohatton,

Canagora and Tiotohatton lye within

Canoenada and Keint-he. 30 miles of

y^

Lake ffrontenacque, and

two

y^ other

dance of Come.

None

of their towns are stockadoed.

Canagorah lyes on the top of a great as in the bignesse,

much

like

hill,

and in

that, as well

Onondago, contayning 150 houses,

Here

northwestward of Caiougo 72 miles. desirous to see us ride our horses,



Indyans were very

wee did they made great when all y® maides were to-

w*^**

and dancing, and invited us

feasts

ly about four

They have abun-

or five miles apiece to y® Southward of those.

y*

:

wee and our Indyans might choose such

gether, both

as lyked us

to ly with.

Tiotohattan lyes

much

cleared ground

bending.

It lyes

to

on the brincke or edge of a ;

is

Westward

;

has not

w*^**

signifies

hill

near the river Tiotehatton,

of Canagorah about 30 miles,

containing about 120 houses, being y® largest of

all

the houses

wee saw, y® ordinary being 50 @ 60 foot long with 12 @ 13 fires in one house. They have good store of come, growing about a mile to the

Being

Northward of the towne.

at this place the

from the Southwestward.

17 of June, there came 50 prisoners

They were

of

of have few guns; the other none at

two

all-

nations,

One

some where-

nation

is

about

10 days journey from any Christians and trade onely with one greatt house, nott farr from the sea, and the other trade only, as

This day of them was burnt two

they say, with a black people.

women, and a man and a

child killed with a stone.

we

if y®

heard

a

great noyse as

houses had

all fallen,

Att night butt

was

itt

onely y^ Inhabitants driving away y® ghosts of y® murthered.

The

18^^

the soudiers sing,

going to Canagorah, wee overtook y® prisoners

saw us they stopped each

and cult

off their fingers,

and

his prisoner,

;

when

and made him

slasht their bodies w^^ a knife,

and when they had sung each man confessed how many men his time

hee had killed.

Thatt day

att

in

Canagorah, there were

most cruelly burnt four men, four

women and

cruelty lasted aboutt seven hours.

When

one boy.

The

they were almost dead

THE IROQUOIS AND

14 letting

them loose

to the

mercy of

boys, and taking the hearts

of such as were dead to feast on.

Canoenada lyes about four miles to



Southward of Canagorah;

conteynes about 30 houses, well furnished with Come. Keint-he lyes aboutt four or five miles to y^ Southward of Tietehatton

;

contayns about 24 houses well furnished with come.

The Senecques

are counted to bee in

all

aboutt 1000 fighting

men.

The French

call the

Les Anniez

Maques Onyades Onondagos

Les Onoyauts

.

Les ^-ontagneurs

& La Montagne

Onondago town •

Caiougos Senecques

j

Cangaro

f

Tiotehatton

V

Note. tical

1

—The above paper

Les Petuneurs Les Paisans St. '

a

Jaques Conception

will be found also in Chalmers’ Poli-

Annals, in which, however, Greenhalgh’s name

That paper followed.

differs likewise

in other respects

is

misspelt.

from the MS.

now

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

15

ENUMEKATION OF THE INDIAN TRIBES CONNECTED WITH THE GOVERNINIENT OF CANADA THE WARRIORS AND 1736. ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF EACH NATION. ;

[Paris Doc. VIII.]

The Eskimaux, The Micmacs, The Amaleates or

) rather the Maneus.

These Nations are be-

/

low Quebec, and be-

)

yond

my

knowledge.

At Quebec. The Hurons.

-

At

1

Village 60 a 70

men

bearing arms,

60

the River St. John^ near the English.

The Abenakis.

-

-

1

Village called Pana8amsket

towards the mouth of said

river.

Warriors.

200

The 'Shenakis at the head of said River. Warriors.

Narentch^an.

1 Village called

The Abenakis. 1 The abenakis. At St. Francis. Becancour.

including

who

those

Village.

of

-

-

Warriors.

1 Village.

War.

-

150

-

60

-

180

Michikoui and those

migrate.

The

armorial bearings (Totums) of this

Nation, which

is

divided into two sections,

are the Pigeon (tourtre) and the Bear.

There are besides some tridge, the

tribes

who

carry the Par-

Beaver and the Otter.

At The Algonquins.

Three Rivers. -

fifteen

men.

See Montreal. >

.

.

15

665

THE IROQUOIS AND

16

The Tetes de Boule or Tribes of the Interior. These are wandering Savages who have no knowledge either of the order or form of villages, and those

who

evince the least intellect {esprit); they inhabit the

mountains and the lakes from Three Rivers, terior, to

Lake Superior.

tums) are unknown,

in the in-

Their armorial bearings (To-

they have any.

if

Boston and Orange.

The Loups (Mohegans) who understand kis

and

whom

from Boston

Champlain This nation

No

rule.

the Sabena-

the Sabenakis understand are dispersed

to Virginia,

which

may be

six

equal* to from

is

Lake Erie

to the head of

—300

Lake

leagues.

hundred men, under British

me any information way of remark.

person could give

This only by

their customs.

of

Montreal.

Algonquins.

They

are twenty

Iroquois of the

Two

men

settled

Mountains

;

with the this is all

that

remains of a nation the most war-

like,

most polished and the most attached

They have for armorial Oak {chine vert.)

to the French.

bearings an Evergreen

Lake of

Jit the

A

The Nepissingues.

the

Two Mountains.

part of this Tribe

rated with the Iroquois.

has

its

village

name.

at the

is

incorpo-

The remainder

lake of the

There are here

fifty

men

same

bearing

arms.

The

armorial bearings

for the Achagu'e.^ or

Amekoves; the Birch PEcorce); people.

of this Nation are the Heron

Heron

tribe

for th6

;

Bark

the Beaver for the tribe {lafamille de

Blood for the Miskouaha or the Bloody

17

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

735

Remark,

Sir, if

you please, that besides the bearings

of the principal stocks to which I exclusively confine myself, leisure not permitting

me

details,

each tribe distinguishes

vices.

The

amount

to

Iroquois

who

itself

no more than sixty-three—

who

Iroquois,

by peculiar de-

are masters of this village,

At Sault The

to obtain thorough

I

mean

warriors.

60

St. Louis.

compose exclusively the village are

nearly three

arms.

______

hundred and three bearing

300

These two villages proceeding from the Iroquois of

Lake Ontario, or Frontenac, have the same armorial Three principal tribes carry the Wolf, the devices. Bear and the Tortoise. Note.

—Argent^

They

usually ornament them merely with charcoal.

to the

Wolf

gules

&c.

The Great River of the Outawas.

At Lake Nepissingue there is one small village of thirty men, who bear a Squirrel, Ate hit amb.

30

River and Lake Themiscaming

The

Tabittibis are one

hundred warriors.

-

They have for device an Eagle. At the mouth of the Themiscaming

-

100

there _

20

At the head of the Lake twenty domiciled. These savages are what are called TUes de Boule, who amount to over six hundred in the Northern coun-

20

are twenty warriors.

I shall

their

-

-

600

-

-

try.

_

speak of them hereafter without reference to

numbers.

At Missilimakinak The Outawas

of this village

amount

to one

hundred and

eighty warriors; the two principal branches

1865

2

THE IROQUOIS AND

18

1865

Kiskakous (1) and Sinago (2); Bear (1) and Black Squirrel (2).

the

are

-

180

River Missisague.

The Missisagues on

the river

number

thirty

men, and

twenty men on the Island called Manitouatim of Lake Huron.

And have

St.

Mary

-

-

-

—At the Mouth.

are the Sauteurs, to the

thirty; they are in

for devices, the

two

number of

divisions,

and have

Crane and the Vine,

{la

Barbue.)

30

North of

The Papinakois and

50

for device, a Crane.

Lake Superior At Sault

-

this

Lake

is

Michipicoton.

those of the interior; the

first

are

twenty warriors, and have for device, a 2O

Hare.

River Ounepigon.

The Oskemanettigons

num-

are domiciled there to the _

ber of forty warriors.

They have

for

.

.

4O

device, the bird called the

Fisher.

The Monsonies, who are migratory, estimate themselves two hundred men, and have for device, the

The

Moose.

-----

Abettibis and the Tetes de Boule

Some have informed me for

come there

that the

first

200

also.

have

arms the Partridge with the Eagle.

I

have already stated that they are in all one

hundred warriors.

The Name«ilinis have one hundred and fifty fit to bear arms. They have for device, a Sturgeon. The tribes of the Savannas, one hundred and forty

------

150

warriors strong, have for armorial device, a Hare.

140

2675

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

19

2675 Gamanettigoya.

The Ouace

number

are in

Vine,

vice a

sixty

men, and have

~

{une Barhue).

Tecamamiouen^ or Rainy Lake

for de~

60

— (Lac de la Pluie.)

These savao^es are the same as those who come to Ne-

They

pigon.

are

about

this lake to the

number of one hundred men. Lake of the Woods

The Cristinaux

-

100

— {Lac des Bois.) number They have for

are scattered hereabout, to the

two hundred warriors.

of

-

device the Bustard, {P Outarde.)

-

-

200

Lake Ounepigon^

The

Cristinaux are around this lake to the sixty

men.

.

.

number of _

.

_

60

See Scioux.

Assenipoels.

South of Lake Superior. Kiouanan.

In this quarter there are domiciled forty

Sauteurs,

who have

and the Stag.

The Sauteurs

_

_

_

fifty

warriors,

-----

are at the head of this lake in the

40

and along the lakes.

Though

150

woods

scattered

they are computed at three hundred men,

The Scioux

_

of Point Chagouamigon are one hundred

and

The Scioux

Crane

for device the

_

-

300

of the Prairies are, in the opinion of voyageurs, over

two thousand men.

2000

Their armorial devices are the Buffalo, .the

The

Black Dog, and the Otter.

Assenipoels, or Pouans according to others, can vie

with the Scioux, from sprung. fifty to

whom

they formerly

They number one hundred and the south of Lake Ounepigon, and

have for

1'50

device, a Big Stone or a Rock. ->735

.

THE IROQUOIS AND

20

5735

The Puans have withdrawn, to .the number

since 1728, to the Scioux,

of eighty

bearings,

armorial

they have for

j

Stag, the Polecat

the

_

{Pichoux)j the Tiger,

-

-

-

8o

The head of Lake Superior'.

The

Ayo?5ois are settled at the south of the River de Missouris, at the other side of the Missis-

They

sippi.

are

no more than eighty. They

80

have for device a Fox.

Lake Michigan vnth

its

dependancies

The Folles Avoines, north of this lake, number one

The most

hundred and sixty warriors.

siderable tribes have for device, the

Bear, the Stag, a Kiliou

tailed

con-

160

Large

—that

is

a

species of Eagle (the most beautiful bird of this country,)

—perched on

a cross.

In explanation of a cross forming the armorial bearings of the savages,

it is

stated that formerly a Chief of

the Folles Avoines finding himself dangerously

sick,

consented, after trying the ordinary remedies, to see a

Missionary, who, cross in hand, prayed to recovery, and obtained for this benefit, the

it

from his mercy.

God

for his

In gratitude

Chief desired that to his arms should

be added a Cross on which the Kiliou has ever since

been always perched. Poutesatamis.

In

1728 there was a village of

this

name retired on an island to the number of The Bay.

At

the head of this

Lake

is

rather the country of the Sakis. tion could put fifty

men.

This na-

under arms one hundred and

Others do not count but one

hundred and twenty. vice, a Crab, a

20

the sojourn, or

They have

150

for de-

Wolf, and a She-Bear.

6225

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

21

6225

Fox River.

Fox

when not

migratory, consists,

bundled men bearing arms,

They have

This nation

Lake.

river ilischarges into this

separated, _

-

.

for device, a

now

of one

still

_

_

100

Fox.

The Kickapous, formerly their allies, may be eighty men. They bear for device the Pheasant The Maskoutin has

_

This nation

is

80

Wolf and

estimated at sixty -

-

-

-

_

_

for armorial device the

the Stag.

men,

_

_

and the Otter,

60

-

River St. Joseph^ south of Lake Michigan.

The

Potteaatamies,

who

themselves the Governor’s

call

compose the village of

eldest sons,

St. Jo-

-------

seph, to the riors,

number of one hundred war-

The principal families have Golden Carp, the Frog,

100

for device the

the Crab, the Tor-

toise.

There are

who

in the village

about ten Miamis -

bear in their arms, a Crane,

Eight

Illinois

whose device

10

Kaskakias are also included

is

feather of an

a

notched

;

(

X)

or

arrow,

two

rows supported one against the other tier (like a St.

-

Andrew’s

ar-

in sal-

cross.)

These are the nations best known to us as well along the great river of the

Outawas

Lakes Superior and Michigan. ing again from Montreal

as north I propose

and south of

now

proceed-

by way of the Lakes

to Mis-

silimakinak.

From Montreal on St. Louis,

on the

first

the

Lake

route, I spoke of Sault

sheet.

6575

I

THE IROQUOIS AND

22

6575 Toniata.

Some

Iroquois, to the

number of

men have

eight or ten

Their

retired to this quarter.

device,

is

without doubt, like that of the village from

which

issue the Deer, the Plover, &c., as

10

hereafter,

Lake Ontario^ or south of Frontenac. There are no more Iroquois settled.

The Mississagues

are dispersed along this lake,

some

at

Kente, others at the River Toronto, and finally at the

head of the Lake, to the num-

ber of one hundred and

Matchedach,

The

and

fifty in all,

at

-

150

principal tribe

is

that of the Crane.

Morth of Lake Ontario.

The

Iroquois are in the interior and in five villages,

about

fifteen leagues

from the Lake, on a

pretty straight line, altho’ one days journey

from

distant

each

other.

though much diminished,

is

This still

nation,

powerful.

South of Lake Frontenac. The Onondagoes number two hundred warriors. device of the village

is

-

of a mountain,

The

a Cabin on the top -

.

The Mohawks, towards New-England, not

-

far

.

200

from

Orange (Albany) are eighty men, and have for

device of the

Steel

The Oneidas,

]

and a

village

flint,

their neighbours,

-

a Battefeu -

-

[a -

SO

number one hundred men

or a hundred warriors,

-

-

-

-

100

This village has for device a Stone in a fork of a tree, or in a tree notched with

some blows of an

axe.

7115

23

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

7115

The Cayugas form

a village of one hundred and twenty

-----

Their device generally

warriors.

large Calumet,

The Senecas form two dred and

men.

a very

Their device

is

a big

350

-

Mountain,

120

which are three hun-

villages in

fifty

is

Besides the arms of each village, each tribe has its

own, and every man has

mark

particular

to

designate him.

his

Thus

the Oneida designates his village by a Stone [in] a fork

^

—next he designates

his tribe

by

the bird or animal, and finally he denotes

himself by his punctures.

which

See the designs

had the honor to send you in 1732

I

by Father Francois, the Recollet.

The same

villages

five

tribe,

which belong

to the

have for their arms in common,

the Plover, to which I belong

the Bear,

the Tortoise, the Eel, the Deer, the Beaver, the Potatoe, the Falcon, the Lark, and the Partridge. I

doubt not but the other nations are as

well distinguished, but our voyageurs, having

little

curiosity in these matters,

been able to give

me any

have not

information.

The Tuscarorens have a village of two hundred and fifty men near the Onondagoes, who brought

-------

them along. phics,

I

know

not their hierogly-

The Iroquois have some cabins Portage, (Niagara, Lake Ontario.)

250

at the

,

7835

M. DE Jon c AIRE, the supposed author of this Report, is here thought to be He was adopted at an early period by the Senecas, among whom he had much influence. 1

alluded to.

THE IROQUOIS AND

24

7835

Lake Erie and Dependancies^ on the South Side, The Chaouanons towards Carolina, are two hundred men.

200

The Flatheads, Cherakis, Chicachas, Totiris, are included under the name of Flatheads by the Iroquois, who estimate them at over six thousand men, in more than thirty villages.

They have

told

me

6,000

they had for device a

Vessel, {un Vaisseau.)

The Ontationou^,

that is those

who

speak the language

of men; so called by the Iroquois because

they understand each other

men.

The Miamis have

I

am

—^may be tribes.

likewise that of the Bear.

They

The Ouyattanons, Peanguichias, same Nation, though

The

two

-

Petikokias,

are

-

the

-----

men.

200

in different villages.

They can place under arms fifty

50

There are

hundred men, bearing arms.

and

-

Hind and the Crane.

for device the

These are the two principal is

fifty

-

ignorant of them.

three hundred

350

devices of these savages are the Ser-

pent, the Deer, and the Small Acorn.

The

Illinois,

Metchigamias

at

two hundred and

The Kaskakias,

Fort Chartres, number

fifty

-

men.

six leagues below,

-

250

have a village of

100

-

-

-

-

50

TheKaokias, or Tamarois, can furnish two hundred men,

200

one hundred warriors.

The

Peorias, at the Rock, are

fifty

-

men.

All those savages comprehended under the Illinois

have,

for device,

the Crane, the

name

of

Bear, the

White Hind, the Fork, the Tortoise. River of the Missouris.

The Missouris. The Okams or Kamse,

the Sotos, and the Panis.

15235

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

25

15235 This only as a note, not knowing any thing of these Nations except the name.

Lake Erie.

The Hurons

at present are

— The Detroit,

two hundred men, bearing 200

arms.

They mark

the Tortoise, the Bear and the

Plover.

The Pouteouatamis have a

village there of one

They bear

and eighty men.*

hundred

for device'

the Golden Carp, the Frog, the Crab, the Tortoise.

(See,

South of Lake Michigan;

River St. Joseph.)

The Outawas

two

there have

.

_

_

.

180

composed one of

villages,

the tribe of Sinagos; the other of Kiska-

may count two hundred warriors. They have the same devices as those of

kous, and

Missilimakinak; that

to say, the

is

200

Bear

and Black Squirrel.

Lake

St. Clair^

At the end of the

Little

village

sixty

of

which leads

Lake

Lake Huron.

which

Mississagues, _

men.

They have

to

St. Clair, there is

_

a small

numbers

_

_

_

60

the same devices as the Missis-

sagues of Manitouatin and of Lake Ontario; that

is

to say, a Crane.

Lake Huron. T

have spoken before of the Mississagues who are to the

North of I

this

Lake.

do not know, on the South side, but the Outawas,

who have men, and

at

Saguinan a village of eighty

for device the

80

Bear and Squirrel.

Less,

-

-

-

15955 80 15875

Note in Orig,

Instead of 180, only 100

men must

be counted.

THE IROQUOIS AND

26

Remark. All the Northern Nations have this in

who

goes to war denotes himself as

wife’s tribe as

who

by that of

much by

new

own, and

that a

man

the device of his

woman

marries a

carries a similar device to his.

If time permitted,

with I

his

common;

my

you would.

have been better

Sir,

satisfied

researches.

would have written

to the Interpreters of the Posts,

would have furnished me with more

certain information

that I could obtain from the Voyageurs

am engaged

whom

at the history of the Scioux,

who than

I questioned.

I

which you have asked

from Monsieur de Linerot. Missilimakinak.

PRESENT STATE OF THE NORTHERN INDIANS IN

THE DEPART^ OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON BART., COMPREHENDED

UNDER THE

SIX NATIONS

AND OTTAWA CONFEDERACIES,

ETC., CON-

TAINING THE NAMES, NUMBERS AND SCITUATION OF EACH NATION,

WITH REMARKS.

NOV. 18, 1763. [Lond. Doc.

SIX

XXXVI.]

NATION CONFEDERACY, COMPREHENDING THAT OF CANADA, OHIO,

&c.

Number Names.

Mohocks,

.

.

.

.

of men.

Scituation.

160

Two villages on the Mo-

1

Remarks.

Of the Six Nations the hock river, with a few Mohawks or Mohocks, Onondages and Seneemigrants at Scohare about 10 miles from cas are considered as the chief and elder Fort Hunter. branches.

Oneidas,

Two

260

i

i

villages,

The Onei-

Cayugas and Tuscaroras are younger the last mentioned Nation having many years ago retired from the South, and were das,

miles from Fort Stanwix, the other twelve miles west of Oneida Lake, with emigrants in several places tow-| ards the Susquehanna river.

I

one 25

1

;

admitted into the confederacy with the then

OTHER INDIAN TRIBES SIX NATION

27

CONFEDERACY—Continued.

Number of men.

Names.

Remarks

Scituation.

Tuscaroras,

....

140

One

Onondagas,

....

150

One large village 6 miles from the lake of their name (which is the

village 6 miles from the first Oneidas, and several others about the Susquehanna.

Five Nations, the Oneidas giving them land and they now enjoy all priviledges with the rest.

place of Congress for the confederates) with a smaller at some distance. 200 •

Cayugas,

One large village near the La^e of their name with from

several

thence Susquehanna. 1050

Senecas,

Have

several

others the

to

villages,

Of the Senecas, two

vilj

beginning about 50 m. from Cayuga, and from thence to Chenussio, the largest about 70 m from Niagara, with others thence to the Ohio.

Oswegachys,

.

Nanticokes, Conoys, Tutecoes, Saponeys, ettc.

.

.

80

lages are

still

in

our

Kanadasero and Kanaderagey, the rest have joined the Western Nations. interest, vizt.

Emigrants from the Six These are at peace with Nations chiefly Ononthe English. dages settled at La Galette on the river St. Lawrence.

A people removed from These people are imme-

\ f '*

*

200

the

southward, and on and about

t

settled

^

the Susquehanna on lands allotted by the Six Nations.

diately under the direction of the Six Na-

and at peace with the English.

tions,

INDIANS OF CANADA IN ALLIANCE WITH THE SIX NATIONS. Caghnawagas,

.

.

.

300

Emigrants from the Mo- All these Nations are in alliance with the Six hocks, settled at Soult Nations, and warmly St. Louis near Montattached to the British real, with emigrants at

Aghquissasne,

be-

la Galette which the seat of a Mis-

low is

sion.

Interest, as are all the other Indians in Canada. Caghnawaga is the seat of a Mission, as is

the village of Lac du

These three Nations now

Canassadagas, 1

Arundacks,

^

A Igonkins,

.

.

150

deux Montagues.

reside together, at the

deux Montagues at the mouth of the Ottawa river near

Lac du

)

Montreal.

Abenaquis,

.

.

.

.

100

Their village been burned

having These Indians are origiat St. nally from New-England: if they were all

Francis below Mont-

j

THE IROQUOIS AND

28 SIX

NATION CONFEDERACY— CONTINUED.

Number of men.

Names.

Remarks.

Scituation.

real

during the war,

they have since lived scattered except a few

would more than represented. They

collected they

amount is

to

have likewise a Missionary

who

is

a Je-

suit.

Skaghquanoghronos,

40

Reside at Trois Rivieres, they are originally Algonkins.

Hurons,

40

Reside at Loretto near (There are several oth. Quebec, a very civi- er Nations to the Northlized people. ward, who avoid any with the connection and as white people they have no fixed residence, their numbers, :

though

considerable,

cannot be ascertained.)

INDIANS OF OHIO. Shawanese,

....

300

Removed

to the

River

Sioto, and other Branches.

Delawares,

These people are greatly influenced by the Senecas, and reside on land allotted them by and about the Susquethe permission of the hanna, Muskingham, ettc. and thence to Six Nations. They are Lake Erie. now at war with the

.

.

.

600

In several

ettc.

.

.

200

Some

.

villages

on

English.

Wiandots,

Total

3960

the neighborhood of Sandosky Fort near Lake Erie. villages

in

There are also in the Six Nation Confederacy, Indians, whose numbers cannot be computed as they have no fixed residence.

many

OTTAWA CONFEDERACY COMPREHENDING THE TWIGHTWEES,

ETTC.

Number Names.

hf

Wyandots or Hurons,

men. 250

Remarks.

Scituation.

Reside opposite Detroit, This Nation ha» a great their village is the seat influence over the rest, of a Jesuit Mission, and has been greatly their language bears instigated by the affinity with that of the neighboring French to Six Nations. commit acts of hostility.

Powtewatamis, in the

.

.

neighbour-

hood of Detroit,

150

Resided about a mile below the Fort,but abandoned their village on the

commencement

hostilities.

of

OTHER INDIAN

29

TRIBES.

OTTAWA CONFEDERACY—COKTINTED. Number Remarks.

Names.

of men.

In the neighbourhood of St Joseph.

200

A

Ottawas,

3W

Resided about Detroit, With these and theabove but with the former, Indians are joined seform a flying camp. veral others, who form a flying camp under Pondiac, an Ottawa

.

residing

.

.

.

the neighbourhood of in

Detroit.

Scituation. little

below the

fort.

Chief.

In the neighbourhood of Michilimakinac.

250

Resided in difierent vil- The Ottawas in the lages,but are now proneighbourhood of Mibably with the former. chilimakinac are well Michilimakinac is the attached to us for the seat of a Mission. most part.

In the neighbourhood of Fort St. Joseph,

150

Resided

Chipeweighs or Mis-

320

Resided above the De- These are the most numerous of all the Ottroit, now probably in tawa Confederacy and arms with the rest.

sissagais

in

;

neighbourhood

the of

at a small distance after the reduction of the Fort probably joined the rest.

have

Detroit.

In the neighbourhood of Michilimakinac

400

Had several diflerent

vil-

lages in that country, and the environs of the

.

.

.

Folsavoins

.

.

.

.

Puans

no no 360 300 320

Sakis

Foxes

villages

be ascertained with exactness.

at present

Lake Huron.

Meynomenys

many

about Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, ettc. whose numbers cannot

All these nations reside These nations are at preon the w'est side of la sent in alliance with Baye at Lake Michi- the Ottawa Confederagan and in the neigh- cy,but appear inclined borhood of the Fort to our interest, nor did they take the fort at there.

La Baye, the officer abandoning it on the news of the rupture as he could make no defence.

MIAMIS OR TWIGHTWEES. Twightwees,

.

Kickapous Mascoutens Piankashaws

.

.

230

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

180 90 100

.

.

200

Wawiaghtonos

Near the Fort on the The Twightwees were Miamis river. originally a very powerful people,who,havThese nations reside in ing been subdued b}-^ tl^e neighbourhood of the Six Nations were the Fort at

Wawiagh-

and about the lache river.

ta,

permitted

Wa-

their ,

to enjoy possessions.

There are many tribes and villages of them, but these are are perfectly

Ottawas,

Chipeweighs,

,

ettc.

.

4000

all

who

known.

Residing thro’ all the This is the most exact extent of country from computation that can the Lakes to the Great be made of these nuOttawa River, and abt. merous people, who Lake Superior, ettc. are scattered through-

THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER INDIAN TRIBES.

30

OTTAWA CONFEDERACY— CONTINUED. Number Names.

of men.

Remarks.

Scituation.

!

1

out the Northern Parts

and

who

having few

places of fixed residence, subsisting entirely by hunting, cannot be ascertained as those of their confederacy, residing near the outposts.

Reside about the Illinois River and hence to the

Illinois

number uncertain.

We

have hitherto had nothing to do with these people,

Mississippi.

who

are

numerous and variously computed. The Six Nations claim their country,but their right of conquest thereto does not appear so clear as to the rest, as represented in the letter herewith.

'

Reside in the

Sioux

number

country The Sioux

westward of

uncertain.

who

j

1

are the

most numerous of the Northern Indians, are

little known to us, they [OTie line cut off here in binding the original.] they are not appear well afiect-

Mississipi,

much addicted

to

wan-

dering and live mostly in camps.

ed to the Western Indians, and promise to send Deputies to me in the spring.

Total,

8020 1

JVovember

1763

.

Wm.

Johnson.

II.

PAPERS relating to

lettltmEnt

at

dbaontiaga,

« AND

THE DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS AT

anno ie54-S.

SALINA.

VOYAGE OF FATHER SIMON LE MOINE TO THE COUNTRY OF THE IROQUOIS ONONDAGOES. IN JULY, AUGUST

AND SEPTEMBER, 1654. [Relation de la N. France es annees, 1653 and 1654.]

On the second

day of the month of July, the festival of the VisiMost Holy Virgin always fiiendly to our undertaFather LeMoine departed from Quebec on a voyage to the

tation of the

kings,

Iroquois Onondagoes.

He

passed Three Rivers, and from thence

man of good courage, and an old much piety. I shall follow the Fa-

by Montreal, wheie a young habitant^ joined him, with ther’s

Journal for greater

On

and holy

this great

On

to us. St.

facilityL

the 17th day of July, St. Alexis’ day, traveller,

and departed

we

home with land unknown

left

for a

the 18th, following always the course of the River

Lawrence, we met nothing but breakers and impetuous

pids, all strewed with rocks

The

ra-

and shoals.

This river grows wider and forms a lake, agreea-

19th.

At

ble to the view, from eight to ten leagues in length.

night,

an army of troublesome musquitoes foreboded the rain which

To be

poured down on us the w^hole of the night. cumstances without any shelter except the

trees,

has produced ever since the creation of the world,

in

such

cir-

wFich Nature is

a pastime

more innocent and agreeable than could be anticipated. 20th. Nothing but islands, in appearance the most beautiful, which

intersect here

and there

on the north bank appears

high mountains towards the 21st.

this

very quiet

to us excellent east,

which we

Continuation of the islands. I

3

;

river.

there

is

The land a range of

called St. Margaret’s.

In the evening w^e break

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

34 our bark canoe for

it

;

The naked rocks serve us Whoever hath God with him reposes

rains all night.

bed, mattrass and

all.

quietly every where.

The

22d.

precipices of water which for a while are no longer

navigable oblige us to carry on our shoulders both our baggage

and the canoe which carried I

At the other

us.

side of the Rapid,

perceived a herd of wild cows which were passing at their ease

Five or six hundred are seen sometimes

in great state.

in these

regions in one drove.

23d and 24th of the month.

Our

being hurt,

pilot

we must

remain a prey to the musquitoes, and have patience, often more in

difficult

regard to the inconveniences which have no inter-

mission neither night nor day, than to behold death before one’s eyes.

The

25th.

we

river is so very rapid that

are obliged to throw

ourstlves in the stream to drag our canoe after us, amid the rocks, as a cavalier, dismounting, leads his horse

At night we

arrive at the entrance of

abound

in a prodigious quantity.

eels

A

26th.

made

A

are stript of their bark

this palace. all

St. Ignatius, in

which

hut ;

soon

is

this is

built.

The neighbouring

thrown on poles

set in the

trees

ground

bringing them together in the form of an arbor

side,

and then our house

was

bridle.

high wind with rain forces us to debark, after having

four leagues.

on either

Lake

by the

is

It failed

built.

Ambition

finds

not to be as agreeable to us as

if

the roof

covered with gold.

27th.

We

coasted along the shores of the lake

;

they are

rocks on one side and the other, of an immense height, frightful,

now

pleasing to the sight.

trees can find root

28th.

;

no entrance into

among

so

many

It is

now

wonderful how large

rocks.

Thunder, lightning and a deluge of rain oblige us to

shelter ourselves under our canoe,

which being inverted, serves

us for a house.

29th and 30th July.

A

rain storih continues,

at the entrance of a great lake, called Ontario.

Lake

which

arrests us

We call

it

the

of the Iroquois, because they have their villages on the

south side there.

The Hurons

are on the other shore, farther on

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS. This lake

the interior.

in

35

twenty leagues wide

is

its

length

and storm force us

to seek

;

about forty.

The

St. Ignatius’ day.

31st.

We

for lost roads.

rain

our bagage,

cross long islands, carrying

The road seems long

provisions and canoe on our shoulders.

to

a poor weary man.

On

the

first

day of the month of August, some Iroquois

fisher-

men having perceived us from a distance, get together to receive

One

us.

of them runs towards us, advancing a half a league to

communicate the a

Huron

earliest

prisoner, and a

news and the state of the country. It is good Christian, whom I formerly in-

during a winter

structed

This poor lad could not believe that

hoped

to see again.

We

disembarked

men. They crowd as to who they are apparently only

shall

among

passed

that I

it

women, formerly

tivity has

reduced to servitude.

God, and

I

savages.

was he whom he never

at a little village of fisher-

But

carry our bagage.

Huron squaws, and

Christian

the

for the

alas!

most pait

whom

rich and at their ease,

caj)-

They requested me

to pray to

to confess there at

my

had the consolation

Hostagehtak, our antient host of the Petun Nation.

ments and devotion drew tears from

my

eyes

;

he

is

leisure

His

senti-

the fiuit of

the labors of Father Charles Gamier, that holy missionary whose

death has been so precious before God. The second day of August. walked about twelve to

We We camp

teen leagues in the woods.

The

At noon we

3d.

find ourselves

where the day

fif-

closes.

on the bank of a river, one

hundred or one hundred and twenty paces wide, beyond which there

was

a

hamlet of fishermen.

An

Iroquois

time had treated kindly at Montreal, put

and through respect carried to suffer

me

to

wet

my

me

feet.

me

whom

I at

one

across in his canoe,

on his shoulders, being unwilling

Every one received me with joy, me from their poverty. I was

and these poor people enriched

conducted to another village a league distant, where there was a

young man of consideration who made a feast for me because 1 bore his father’s name, Ondessonk. The Chiefs came to harangue us,

the one after the other.

I

baptized

little

skeletons

who

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDADA,

36

awaited, perhaps, only this drop of the precious blood of Jesus Christ.

They ask me why

4th.

and

w'e are dressed in black ?

I take

occasion to speak to them of our mysteries with great attention.

They bring me a little moribund whom I call Dominick. The time is passed when they used to hide the little innocents from They took me for a great Medicine-man, having no other us. remedy



The nephew in

We

for the sick but a pinch of sugar.

in the middle of which

of the

his cabin, is

first

we found

pursued our route

our dinner waiting for us.

Chief of the country,

who

is

to lodge

every delicacy that the season could afford, especially bread, and ears (of corn) w^hich we had roasted

We had

5th.

make

to

Onondaga

cipal

village.

A

corn

We

stars.

four leagues before arriving at the prin-

There

nothing but comers and goers

is

One

on the road w^ho come to salute me. another as uncle

new

at the fire.

day by the beautiful light of the

slept again that

me

deputed by his uncle to escort us, bringing us

— never did

I

treats

me

as brother

;

have such a number of relations.

quarter of a league from the village I began a harangue, which

me much

gained

credit.

I

named

all

the Chiefs, the families and

persons of note in a drawling voice and with the tone of a chief.

them

I told

that Peace

walked along with me

;

that I drove

War

among the distant nations, and that Joy accompanied me. Two Chiefs made their speech to me on my arrival, but with a afar off

gladness and cheerfulness of countenance which I never had seen

among

savages.

Men, women and

children, all were respectful

and friendly.

At night

The

presents.

me with

I called the principal first to

The second

might have

still

together to

their faces,

a kindly eye, and that I

on their foreheads. they

wipe

men may

make them two

so that they

may

to clear out the little gall

in their hearts.

regard

never see a trace of sorrow

which

After several other dis-

courses they retired to consult together, and finally they respond-

ed to

my

6th.

cine to

presents by two other presents richer than mine. I

was

called to divers quarters to administer

weakly and

hectic little things.

I baptized

my

medi-

some of them.

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS. I

confessed some of our old

every where,

where is

and

faith reigns.

adored in

spirit

He

that

He

and

Huron

37

and found God

Christians,

work himself

pleased to

in

where he

builds himself a temple there,

truth.

Be He

hearts

blessed for ever.

At night our host draws me aside and

tells

me

very affection-

ately that he always loved us, that finally his heart was satisfied,

demanded nothing but peace to exhort them to manage this matter well for peace, and that with that view he had made that the Cayuga had brought three belts for splendid presents that purpose, and that the Oneida was glad to be rid of such a seeing

the tribes of his nation

all

that the Seneca

:

had recently come

:

bad

through

affair

peace

that the

:

and thus

I

his

means, and that he desired nothing but

Mohawk

would, no doubt, follow the others,

might take courage, since

I

bore with

me

the happi-

ness of the whole land.

A

7th.

good Christian named Terese, a Huron captive, wish-

ing to pour out her soul to invited

God

!

me to visit What sweet

me away from

noise and in silence,

her in a field cabin where she lived. consolation to witness so

much

My

faith in sa-

vage hearts, in captivity, and without other assistance than that

God raises up Apostles every where. This good woman had with her a young captive of the neutral nala JVaiion JVeutre)^ whom she loved as her own daugh-

of heaven. Christian tion {de

She had so well instructed her

ter.

and

faith,

this

in

holy solitude, that I was

asked,

why

did

you, and she Christian

think

it

in

the mysteries of the

sentiments of piety, in the prayers they

is

you not baptise

much

surprised.

Eh

!

made sister,

in T

her, since she has the faith like

Christian in her' morals, and she wishes to die a

Alas, brother, this happy capti ve replied, I did not

?

was allowed me

to baptise, except in

danger of death.

Baptise her now, yourself, since you consider her worthy, and give her

dago

;

my

we

name.

This was the

are indebted for

it

first

adult baptism at

to the piety of a

Huron,

Onon-

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

38

GENERAL COUNCIL OF PEACE WITH THE FOUR

IROQUOIS

NATIONS, AND THE SUBSEQUENT RETURN OF FATHER SIMON LE MOINE FROM HIS VOYAGE.

[From the Same.]

On

the 10th day of August, the deputies of the three neigh-

bouring Nations having arrived, after the usual summons of the Chiefs that

all

should assemble in Ondessonk’s cabin, I opened

the proceedings (says the Father, continuing his public prayer, which I said on the

all in

Huron tongue.

T

my

Journal) by

knees and in a loud voice,

invoked the Great Master of heaven

and of earth to inspire us with what should be

demons of

who

for his glory

and

our good

;

vision

prayed the tutelar angels of the whole country to touch

I

;

I cursed all the

the hearts of those

who

heard me,

hell

are spirits of di-

when my words should

strike

their ear. I greatly astonished

nations,

by

tribes,

any note, and

all

as wonderful as

it

them when they heard me naming

all

by

by families and each particular individual of

by

my

aid of

was new.

I

manuscript, which was a matter told

them

I Avas the bearer of

nineteen words to them.

was Onnonthio, M. de Lauzon, Governor of France, Avho spoke by my mouth, and then the Hurbns and

The

New

first

That

:

it

the Algonquins as well as the French, for

had Onnonthio one hundred

for their

little

Great Chief.

A

all

these three nations

large belt of

Avampum,

tubes or pipes of red glass, the diamonds of the

country, and a caribou’s hide being passed*: these three presents

made but one word. My second word A\'as, soners, taken

by our

to cut the

allies

bonds of the eight Seneca

and brought

pri-

to Montreal, as already

stated.

The

third Avas, to break the

tured about the same time.

bonds of the Mohegans

also, cap-

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS.

The

fourth

thank those of Onontago for having brought

to

;

^9

our prisoner back.

The

fifth

present was, to thank the Senecas for having saved

him from the

The The

scaffold.

Iroquois, for having also contributed.

the Oneidas for having broken the bonds

seventh, for

which kept him

The

Cayuga

sixth for the

a prisoner.

8th, 9th, 10th and 11th presents to be given to the four

Iroquois Nations

—a

hatchet each

— for

the

new war they were

waging against the Cat Nation.

The had

twelfth present

lost

some of

was

head of the Seneca who

to heal the

his people^

The thirteenth, to strengthen his palissades to wit, that he may be in a state of defence against the enemy. The fourteenth, to ornament his face for it is the custom of ;

:

warriors here never to go to battle unless with the face painted,

some black, some ving herein as

red, others with various other colors, each ha-

which they cling even

particular liveries to

if

unto death.

The

made

three

belt, little glass

beads

fifteenth to concentrate all their thoughts.

presents for this occasion

;

one

wampum

I

and an elk hide.

The tions

;

The

sixteenth that

is,



I

opened Annonchiasse’s door

seventeenth.

I

any ambushes

come

I asked

eighteenth.

for the

to all* the

Na-

us.

exhorted them to become acquainted with

the truths of our faith, and

The

among

they would be welcome

made

three presents for this object.

them not

to prepare

henceforward

Algonquin and Huron Nations, who would

to visit us in our

French settlement.

I

made

three presents

for this purpose.

Finally, all

the

by

wiped away the

tears of

for the death of their great Chief

Annen-

the nineteenth present I

young warriors

craos, a short time prisoner with the Cat Nation.

At each present they heaved a powerful ejaculation from the I was full two in testimony of their joy.

bottom of the chest hours making

my

whole speech, talking

ing about like an actor on a stage, as

like a Chief,

is their

custom.

and walk-

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

40

After that they grouped together apart in nations and tribes,

them a Mohawk who by good luck was there

calling to

consulted together for the space of two hours longer.

me among them and

they called

The Chief who

is

my

token of their gratification

which

side,

me

I did

name

in the

me

in

;

Then

words. I

was

pose two large belts of

He

1.

He

thanked Onnontio for

his

pur

Iroquois for ha-

Mohegan Na-

other belts for that.

He thanked

3.

Mohawk

their lives to five of their allies of the

Two

for this

wampum.

thanked us in the name of the

ving given tion.

singing

God on my

After these songs he spoke to

very willingly.

of his Nation.

all set to

told to pray

good disposition towards them, and brought forward

2.

Finally

an honorable place

the tongue of the country, repeats faithfully

as orator the substance of all in

seated

They

us in the

name

of the Seneca Iroquois for ha-

ving drawn five of their tribe out of the

Two more

fire.

belts.

Ejaculations from the whole assembly follow each present.

Another Captain of the Oneida Nation he

rises

Onnontio, said

:

— speaking of M. de Lauzon our Governor—Onnontio thou

the pillar of the Earth

;

thy

spirit is a spirit

words soften the hearts of the most rebellious other compliments expressed in a tone animated

encouraged them to

fight bravely against their

After

spirits.

by love and

Onnontio

pect, he produced four large belts to thank

art

of peace and thy

for

res-

having

new enemies

of the

Cat Nation, and for having exhorted them never again to war against the French.

thou

Thy

voice, said he, Onnontio

is

wonderful,

my breast at one time two effects entirely dissimilar; animatest me to wmr, and softenestmy heart by the thoughts

produce

to

of peace

whom

;

in

thou

art great

both in peace and war, mild to those

thou lovest, and terrible to thine enemies.

We

wish thee

and w^e will love the French for thy sake. In concluding these thanks, the Onontaga Chief took up the

to love us,

word.

Listen Ondessonk, said he to

speak to thee through

my

mouth.

My

me

;

five entire

nations

breast contains the senti-

ments of the Iroquois Nations, and my tongue responds faithfully Thou wilt tell Onnontio four things, the sum of to my breast. all

our councils.

41

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS.

We

1.

spoken,

Our

2.

is

who

the master of our lives,

council tree

would

that that

Him

acknowledge

are willing to

who

is

of

whom

is

unknown

this clay planted at Onnontaga

thou hast to us.

—meaning

be, henceforth, the place of their meetings and of

their negotiations for peace.

We

2.

conjure you to select on the banks of our great lake an

advantageous

the country,

heart of

There

we

shall

go

Fix yourself

French settlement.

site for a

you ought

since

for instruction,

in the

to possess our hearts.

and from that point you will

Be unto us we shall be unto you submissive as children. Onnontio encourages us. engaged in new wars

be able to spread yourself abroad in every direction. careful as fathers and 4.

We

We

are

;

shall entertain

no other thought towards him than those of

peace.

reserved their richest presents for these last four words

They

;

but I can assure you their countenances told more than their tongues, and expressed joy mingled with so

my

heart

was

this

was

that all our

lighted this

What appeared

full.

fire

Huron

much mildness

me most

endearing

in the

of August.

A

joicings everywhere.

cabin catching

fire,

it

without being acquainted with

hope that we

have been for the Indians.

The 11th day

all

women, They told

and spoke so often of the great value

us,

of the Faith, that they prize

and they love us

that

in

Christians and the captive

which melts the hearts of the Iroquois.

them so much good of

A

to

To

shall be for

it

;

them what we

return to the Father’s Journal:

There

is

nothing but feasts and re-

misfortune occurred, however, at night.

no one knew how, an impetuous wind

drove the flames to the others, and in less than two hours more than twenty were reduced to ashes, and the remainder of the lage

was

however

in

danger of being burnt.

in the joy of the preceding day,

Galm towards

The

my I

12th.

me

as if this misfortune

Our

departure gave

wished

God

for.

preserved

and

their dispositions as

Christian captives wishing to confess before

me employment,

or rather repose which I

I baptized a little girl of four years

late

vil-

hearts

had never happened.

who was

dying.

New

Testa-

recovered from the hands of these barbarians, the

ment of the

all

Father Jean de Brebouf,

whom

they put to a

FiKST SETTLEMENT OF ONONDAGA,

42

cruel death five years ago, and a small

by the

w^as used

book of devotion which

whom

Father Charles Gamier

late

they also

killed four years ago.

The

Came

13th.

made them two

name

of Achiendasse (which

of the General Superior of countries) the

laying the

My

And

presents to console them.

planted in the

first

Observing the custom of

the leave taking.

on similar occasions, having convoked the Council, I

friends

first

is

the appellation

our Society’s Missions in these

all

This

post on which to begin a cabin.

is like

stone in France of a house one intends to build.

first

second present was to throw

dowm

the

first

This evidence of affection

cover the cabin.

three of their Chiefs thanked

me

bark that

to

is

them, and

satisfied

publicly in speeches which one

men

could not be persuaded issued from the lips of ges.

with this view I

called sava-

##**#*#***

me every where to give me my parting men and women of consideration being invited in

Nevertheless they seek feast, all the

my name

custom of the country,

into our cabin, according to the

in order to

do honor to

my

We part

departure.

in

good company.

After the public cry of the Chief, every one vies to carry our

lit-

baggage.

tle

About half a league from there we found a group of old men, all

Chiefs of the Council,

for

my

who waited

We

16th.

;

we

taste the

not drink, saying that there

and

having tasted

;

it

water of a spring that they durst

is

I found

a it

Demon

in

it

which renders

was a fountain of Salt water



in

17th.

;

;

salmon trout and other

We

Seneca

river,

Cayuga (Onioen) and

leagues of a

fish.

enter their river, and at a quarter of a league meet

at the left the

say, to

it

we made Salt from it as natural as that from the sea we carried a sample to Quebec. This lake abounds in

in fact

of w^hich fish

me Adieu hoping

arrive at the entrance of a small lake in a large

half dried basin

foetid

to bid

return for which they ardently testified their wishes.

fine

which increases to

this

;

it

leads, they

Seneca in two sunsets.

road from there,

we

At three

leave the River Oneida

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS. (Oneiout) which appears

village of fishermen.

Finally a good

us very deep.

to

down we meet

league lower

43

a rapid which gives the

name

to a

found there some of our Christians and

I

**********

some Huron Christian women

We

19th.

whom

I

had not yet seen.

proceed on our journey on the same river which

of a fine width and deep throughout, except

we must break

is

some shoals where

get into the water and draw the canoe lest the rocks

it.

We

20.

Lake

arrive at the Great Lake, Ontario, called the

of the Iroquois.

This lake

21.

consequence of the violence of

in a fury in

is

the winds after a storm of rain.

22. kill

Coasting quietly the shores of this Great Lake,

with a shot from a gun, a large stag

:

my

my

sailors

companion and

content ourselves looking at them broiling their stakes,

it

I

being

Saturday, a day of abstinence for us.

We

23.

arrive at the place

There

resort of all Nations.

I

fessed themselves and furnished

ments of

fixed on for our house

found

me

new

Christians

who

;

a

con-

with devotion in their senti-

Being windbound, one of our canoes foundered

24 and 25. abated, and

sailors

having embarked before the tempest had

we thought we

should have perished

ourselves on an island where In the evening a

27.

is

piety.

on the 26, our

main

which

Beautiful prairies, good fishing

and a French settlement.

we

— finally we

cast

dried ourselves at our leisure.

little lull

afforded us time to regain the

land.

The chase

28 and 29. possible

humor

30 and

;

last of

stops our sailors wdio are in the best

for flesh is the paradise of the

August.

nience poor travellers,

The

rain

man

of flesh.

and wind seriously inconve-

who having worked

all

day are badly pro-

vided for at night.

day of Sept.

I

My

inclination to hunt. wdll.

What

a pity

never saw so

!

many

deer, but

companion killed three as

if

we had no against his

for -we left all the venison there, reserving

the hides and some of the most delicate morsels.

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

44 2‘^

of the month. Travelling through vast prairies,

clivers quarters

immense herds of wild

bulls and

cows

;

we saw

in

their horns

resemble in some respect the antlers of the stag.

Our game does not leave us it seems that veni4^’h game follow us every where. Droves of twenty cows plunge into the water as if to meet us. Some are killed, for sake 3‘^

and

;

son and

of amusement, by blows of an axe. 5.

In one day

we

travel over the road

which took us two long

days ascending the rapids and breakers. 6.

Our

Sault St. Louis frightens

my

folks.

They land me

four leagues above the settlement of Montreal, and sufficient strength to arrive before

which 7.

I

my

was deprived during

I proceed

and descend

We

desire to go.

arrived at

month of September of

to

God gave me

noon, and to celebrate mass, of

whole voyage. Three Rivers where

my

sailors

Quebec on the eleventh day of the

this year,

1654.

JOURNAL OF WHAT OCCURRED BETWEEN THE FRENCH

AND SAVAGES. [Relation, &c.

The word Onnota^ which

1657 and 1658.]

signifies, in

the Iroquois tongue, a

Mountain, has given the name to the village called Onnonta4, or as others call

the people

it,

who

Onnontague, because inhabit

it

it

is

on a mountain

;

and

consequently style themselves Onnon-

tae-ronnons, or Onnontagu4-ronnons.

These people have

for a

long time and earnestly demanded that some priests of our 1655.

Society be sent to their country.

Finally, Father Joseph

Chaumont and Father Claude Dablon were granted to They embarked on the 19^^ Sept., and ihem, in the year 3655. 5^^ November of the same year 1655. the driived at Onnontagu6



AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS.

45

These two good fathers finding themselves listened 1656.

with approval and kindness, Father Dablon

to

Onnonta

left

gu4 on the second day of March of the following year 1656, to look for help at

Quebec, where he arrived

in the begin

ning of April, and departed thence on the 17th May, in company with three Fathers and two brothers of the Society, and a good number of Frenchmen,

who

all

where they arrived on the

1

proceeded towards 1*^

this

new

country,

day of July of the same year, 1656.

In the year 1657, the harvest appearing plentiful in

1657.

the villages of the upper Iroquois, the listening to the

all

common people

words of the gospel with simplicity and the

Chiefs with a well disguised dissimulation. Father Paul Rague-

neau. Father Franqois

Du

Peron, some Frenchmen and several

Hurons, departed from Montreal the 26*^ July, to aid their brethren and compatriots.

On

the 3^ day of the

month of August of the same year 1657,

the perfidy of the Iroquois began to develop itself by the massacre

which they made of the poor Hurons

their country, after thousands

whom

they brought into

of protestations of kindness and

thousands of oaths, in their style, that they should treat them as

And had

brothers.

not a number of Iroquois remained

the French, near Quebec, to endeavor to bring with

of the Hurons,

who

distrusting these traitors,

among

them the

rest

would not embark

who ascended and all those who

with the others, the Fathers and the Frenchmen with them would have then been destroyed

;

remained on the banks of Lake Ganantaa, near to Onnontague,

would shortly

after

have shared the same

the French would wreak vengeance on

fate.

their

But the

countrymen,

fear that staid their

design,of which our fathers had had secret intelligence immediately

on their arrival

in the country.

Even

a captain

who was

acquainted

with the secret of the Chiefs, having taken some liking to the preachings of the Gospel, and finding himself very sick, demand-

ed Baptism

;

having received

it

with

sufficient instruction,

******

covered the evil designs of his countrymen to those

who

he

dis-

attended

him, and went a short time afterwards to Heaven.

The 9

*^^

of the

month of September.

Our

fathers at

Onnonta-

46

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

gue sent two canoes to Quebec with intelligence of the massacre of the poor

****** Huron

barbarians, as

The

Christians, treacherously put to death

we remarked

7th of the

by these

above, 3 August of the year 1657.

Two Mohawks

month of November.

departed

from Quebec, and took a third at Three Rivers A number of letters from divers quarters were given to them for Father Le Moine, part of which were to be sent to our Fathers and our French of Onnontague thro’ the medium of the Mohawks,

******

who

often go to that country.

It is true that the

Mohawks

Ondessonk, because they feared

But

the French.

nontague, the

faithfully delivered the letters to evil for their

for the letters addressed to our

Mohawk who was the

in the river, or

French

at

On-

bearer thereof, threw them

gave them, probably, to the chiefs of the country.

But these good fellows, who wished ers of the gospel

the

people detained by

themselves of the preach-

to rid

and of those who assisted them, threw them into

fire.

The Onnontague still

worse

:

for

by

sent

^’onsieur

Maisonneuve did

de

he told the chiefs of the nation, that the French

were leagued principally with the Algonquins them, and that they had killed his comrade. quin killed him on his

November.

way

to

war

as

to ri.ake It

war on

was an Algon-

we have remarked

Nothing more was necessary

on the

to excite these furious

men, who had already concluded on the death of some and the captivity of others. cert with the

They were

Mohawks, who

desirous, however, to act in con-

could, no

more than the

others, re-

concile themselves to the detention of their people, believing

It

very unjust.

Our poor French were, meanwhile, much astonished at renews either from Quebec, Three Rivers, or -barbarians had entirely tut off all communiThese Montreal.

ceiving no certain

cation, so

that Mons*". de

Dailleboust’s orders were not deliv-

ered to

Mons^ Du

letter to

any of the French whomsoever.

Puis,

who commanded

the soldiers, nor

a

47

AND DISCOVERY OF THE-SALT SPRINGS.

OF THE RETURN OF OUR FATHERS AND OF OUR FRENCH-

MEN FROM THE COUNTRY

OF THE ONNONTAGUES.

[From the same.]

Though cheats,

much

it

I

intelligence, so

ticians as to

to

be true that the Iroquois are subtle, adroit and great

nevertheless cannot persuade myself that they possess so

them

much tact, and

that they are such great poli-

have had recourse to the ruses and intrigues imputed

to destroy the

French, the Hurons, the Algonquins, and

their allies.

They urged

many

for

years with incredible persistence

5

with

evidences of especial affection and even with threats of rupture

and war, ed

;

if their

friendship were despised and their

they insisted,

say,

I

and

solicited that a

French should accompany them instruct, the others to protect

demand

reject-

goodly number of

into their country, the one to

them against

their enemies, as a

token of peace and alliance with them.

The Mohawks

desired

to

thwart this scheme

;

they fought the

one against the other even unto polluting the earth with blood

Some believed that all that was mere feint, the better mask their game but it would seem to sue not a very pleasant game when the stakes are life and blood. I strongly doubt that

and murder. to

;

Iroquoy policy should extend so

who

repose but

little

far as that,

and that Barbarians

confidence in each other, should so long

CQ,nceal their intrigues.

I believe rather that the Oimontagud Irodemanded some Frenchmen in sincerity, but with views very different. The Chiefs finding themselves engaged in heavy wars against a number of nations whom they had provoked, asked for Hurons as reinforcements to their warriors they wished for the

quois

;

French

to obtain firearms

might be broken. times very

ill

when

from them, and to repair those which

Further, as the

Mohawks

treated

them some-

passing through their villages to trade with

the Dutch, they were anxious to rise out of this dependence in

FIRST SETTLEMENT OF ONONDAGA,

48

openiiTg a trade with the

arms being

fickle,

French.

This

is

not

the laie of

all,

they demanded that our Frenchmtn should eieci

a vast fort in their country to serve as a retreat for them, or at for ,their

wives and children in case their enemies pressed too

Here are the views of the Iroquois

close on them.

The common people see

strangers

some

ler.st

did not penetrate so far ahead

come from such

little profit,

them

;

hope of deriving

a distance, the

created a desire to see

politicians.

curiosity to

;

but the Chrisiian

Hurons and captives among the people, and those who approved their lives

and conversations which they sometimes held regarding

much as the coming who had brought them forth unto

our belief, breathed nothing in the world so of Preachers of the Gospel

Jesus Christ.

But

so soon as the Captains and Chiefs

enemies, having crushed

all

the Nations

became masters of their

who had

attacked them

;

so soon as they believed that nothing could resist their arms, the

recollection of

the

wrongs they pretended

to

have formerly

experienced from the Hurons; the glory of triumphing over Euro-

peans as well as Americans, caused them to take the resolution to

revenge themselves on the one and destroy the other

;

so that at

the very moment they saw the dreaded Cat Nation subjugated by their arms and by the power of the Senecas, their allies, they

would have massacred

all

that they pretended to

the French at Onnontagu4,

make

were

it

not

use of them as a decoy to attract

some Hurons and to massacre them as they had already done. And if the influence of some of their tribe, then resident at Quebec, had not staid them, the path to Onnontague had become the tomb to

Frenchmen

as well as to

Hurons, as will be seen hereafter.

From

that time forth our people, having discovered their conspiracy,

and perceived that their death was concluded on, bethought them on their retreat, which shall be described

in the following letter.

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS.

49

FATHER PAUL RAGUENEAU TO THE REV. FATHER JACQUES RENAULT, PROVINCIAL OF THE

OF JESUS

IN

Pax

My

SOCIETTi'

THE PROVINCE OF FRANCE. Christi.

R. Father,

The

present

is

to inform Y. R. of our return from the Iroquois

mission, loaded with

some

in our hands more than

adults, the

most part of

established Faith

the

first

We

spoils rescued

whom

foundations of which

died after Baptism.

we had

laid in the all

that they are henceforth without excuse,

them

The Devil enraged joy so amply the

We bear

We have

re-

and piety in the hearts of a poor captive church,

have proclaimed the gospel unto

justified against

from Hell.

hundred children and a number of

five

at the great at seeing

fruits

Huron Country.

the Iroquois Nations so

and God will be

fully

day of judgment.

us reap so fine a harvest and en-

of our enterprise,

made

use of the incon-

stancy of the Iroquois to drive us from the centre of his estates; for

these Barbarians, without other motive than to follow their

volatile

humor, renewed the war against the French, the

first

blows of which were discharged on our worthy Christian Hurons,

who went up with summer, and who

us to Onnontague at the close of the last

'were cruelly massacred in

our arms and in

They then made prisoners of their poor wives and even burned some of them with their children of three and four years, at a slow fire. This bloody execution was followed by the murder of three Frenchmen at Montreal by the Oneidas, w^ho scalped them and

our bosom by the most signal treason imaginable.

carried these as if in triumph into their villages in token of de-

clared war.

This act of

hostility

having obliged M. Dailleboust,

then commanding in this country, to cause a dozen of Iroquois, in

part Onnontagues and mostly

Mohawks,

to be arrested and

put in irons at Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec, where they

happened

to

be

at the time,

4

both Iroquois Nations became

irri*

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

50

tated at this detention

unjust

;

of their people, pretending that

it

was

and to cruelly avenge themselves convoked a secret

Council where they formed the scheme of an implacable war Yet, they judged

against the French. for

some time

until

it

fitting to dissimulate

through the return of Father Simon Le

Moine, then with the Mohawks, they should have obtained the

who were

delivery of their folks

In that Council they

in irons.

even looked on our persons as precious hostages, either for the

exchange of some of

their tribe w'ho

were

in prison, or obtain-

ment of whatever pleased them when within view of our French settlements they should

make

us feel the effects of their cruelty;

doubting not that these horrible spectacles and the lamentations of

and

forty

and

fifty

innocent Frenchmen would touch with compassion

distress the

We

Governor and inhabitants of what place so ever.

were only privately acquainted with these disastrous de-

we openly saw their spirits prepared month of February divers bands took the field for that purpose, 200 Mohawks on the one side, 40 Oneidas on the other ; some Onnontague warriors had already gone forward whilst the main body of the army was assembling. signs of the Iroquois, but for

war; and

We

in the

could not expect, speaking humanly, to extricate from

by which we were surrounded on all sides, some Frenchmen who had entrusted to us their lives and for

these dangers, fifty

whom we What

should feel ourselves responsible before

distressed us the

which a part of our Frenchmen would be captivity to v/hich the quois, in

cast, as the unfortunate

most of them were destined by the

which the salvation of

their souls

dreaded than the loss of their bodies.

number most

God and men.

most was, not so much the flames into

especially apprehended,

This

who

is

Iro-

was more to be what the greater

already seeing them-

selves prisoners, coveted rather the stroke of the hatchet or even

the flames, than this captivity. to avoid this last misfortune,

way

in the

They were determined

even to risk

all

and to

fly

in order

each, his

woods, to perish there of hunger and wretchedness or

to attempt to reach

some of the French settlements.

In these circumstances so precipitous, our Fathers and I and a

gentleman named Monsieur du Puys,

who commanded

all

our

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS, Frenchmen and a garrison of of themselves resolved

soldiers, nine of

abandon

tO'

51

"whom had already

concluded that

us,

would

it

be better to withdraw in a body, either to encourage one another

more

to die or to sell life

For that reason

dearly.

necessary to depart without breathing a syllable about least suspicion that the Iroquois

would hurry down on us the

became

it it

for the

;

would have^had of our

disaster

we would

avoid.

retreat,

But how

hope to be able to depart without being discovered, being heart of the country, and always beset by a

barians

who

in this

conjuncture

left

in the

number of these Bar-

not our house so as to watch our countenances It

?

true they never imagined that

is

we

should have had the courage to undertake this exploit, knowing well that

we had

neither canoes, nor sailors, and that

we were

unacquainted with the paths topped by precipices where a dozt n Iroquois could easily defeat us: Besides, the season was insupportable on account of the cold of the frozen water through

which, under

all

circumstances, the canoes were to be dragged,

throwing ourselves into the river and remaining there entire hours, sometimes up to the neck, and

we

never had und( rtaken

such expeditions without having savages for guides.

Notwithstanding these obstacles which appeared jnsurmoiintable to

them

as well as to us,

moments of our

God, who holds

in

His hands

happily inspired us with

so

lives,

all

all

the

was

that

necessary to be done, that having departed on the 20*^ day of

March from our house of

Ste.

Marie, near Onnontague,

at eleven

o’clock at night. His divine providence guiding us, as if

continued miracle, in the midst of rived at

Quebec on the

23‘^

of the

all

imaginable dangers,

month of

by a

we

ar-

April, having passed

Montreal and Three Rivers before any canoe could be launched, the river not having been open for navigation until the very day that

we made

our appearance.

From Your Rev.

the

same

will be glad to learn the particulars of our depart-

ure from Ste. Marie of the Iroquois.

The

same.

to the

*

*

*

resolution being taken to quit that country

through us, the

cty^oU

of

*

where God took

the

d’flficulties

ap-

FIRST SETTLEMENT AT ONONDAGA,

52

peared insurmountable in their execution for which every thing failed us.

To

we had

supply the want of canoes,

two

built, in secret,

Batteaux of a novel and excellent structure to pass the rapids these batteaux drew but very

water and carried considera-

men

each, amounting to fifteen to

ble freight, fourteen or fifteen

We

sixteen hundredweight. four Iroquois canoes, fifty-three

But the

who

;

little

had moreover four Algonquin and

which were

to

compose our

little fleet

of

Frenchmen. difficultySvas to

embark unperceived by the Iroquois

The

constantly beset us.

batteaux, canoes and

all

the equi-

page could not be conveyed without great noise, and yet without secrecy there was nothing to be expected save a general massacre of

moment

of us the

all

would be discovered

it

that

we enter-

tained the least thought of withdrawing.

On

we

that account

hood to a solemn

invited all the Savages in our neighbour-

which we employed

feast at

all

our industry,

and spared neither the noise of drums nor instruments of music, to deceive

them by harmless device.

ceremony played all

with so

his part

were desirous

He who

much

to contribute to the publick joy:

vied in uttering the most piercing cries,

now

Every one

of war, anon of re-

The Savages, through complaisance, sung and danced

joicing. after the

French fashion and the French

encourage them the more in buted among those greatest noise to

outside

presided at this

address and success, that

who

drown

acted best their parts and that caused

who were engaged

in

To

in the Indian style.

this fine play, presents

were

distri-

who made

the

by about forty of our people

removing

all

The

our equipage.

embarcation being completed, the feast was concluded at a fixed time

the guests retired, and sleep having soon

;

we withdrew from

them,

with very

little

noise, without bidding adieu to the Savages,

were acting cunning

parts

and were

hour of our massacre wdth

good

overwhelmed

our house by a back door and embarked

fair

thinking to

amuse us

who

to the

appearances and evidences of

will.

Our

little

Lake on which

w^e silently sailed in the darkness of

the night, froze according as w^e advanced and caused us to fear

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS. being slopt by the ice after having evaded the

God, however, delivered and

all

falls,

us,

and

after

fires

63

of the Iroquois.

having advanced

all

night

the following day through frightful precipices and water-

we

arrived finally in the evening at the great

was the most dangerous,

for

Lake Ontario, This

twenty leagues from the place of our departure.

first

day

had the Iroquois observed our de-

parture they would have intercepted us, and had they been ten or

twelve

it

would have been easy

for

them

to

have thrown us into

disorder, the river being very narrow, and terminating after tra-

velling ten leagues in a frightful precipice to

where we were obliged

land and carry our baggage and canoes during four hours,

through unknown roads covered with a thick forest w^hich could

have served the enemy for a Fort, whence at each step he could have struck and fired on us without being perceived.

God’s

protection visibly accompanied us during the remainder of the road, in which after

the

we

snow

we walked through

perils

which made us shudder

escaped them, having at night no other bed except after

having passed entire days

water and amid

in the

the ice.

Ten days we floated,

after our departure still

frozen at

the ice, axe in hand, to

its

We were

make an opening,

terwards a rapid where our dered.

we found Lake

mouth.

little

fleet

Ontario on which obliged to break

to enter

had

two days

af-

nigh foun-

w’ell

For having entered a Great Sault without knowing

we found

it,

ourselves in the midst of breakers which, meeting a

quantity of big rocks, threw up mountains of water and cast us

on as many precipices as

we gave

strokes of paddles.

teaux which drew scarcely half a foot, were soon ter

and

all

filled

Our

bat-

with wa-

our people in such confusion, that their cries mingled

with the roar of the torrent presented to us the spectacle of a dreadful wreck.

It

became imperative, however,

to

extricate

ourselves, the violence of the current dragging us despite ourselves into the large rapids

never been.

and through passes

in

which we had

Terror redoubled at the sight of one of our canoes

being engulfed in a breaker which barred the entire rapid and

which, notwithstanding, was the course that keep.

all

the others must

Three Frenchmen were drowned there, a fourth

fortu-

54

FIRST aicrTLEMENT AT ONO^j»aGA,

nately escaped, having held on to the canoe and being sav

when

the foot of the Sault

strength being exhausted.

we

April

landed at Montreal, in the beginning of the night.

*

*

«

You

withdrew from

*

*

how

noticed above

taa, near

^

at the point of letting go his hold, his * * * *

their habitation built

much

noise and with so

on the banks of Lake Ganan-

That happened

Onnontague.

*

our Fathers and our Frenchmen

night, and without

at

address, that the Iroquois,

who

cabined

at the doors of our house, never perceived the removal of the ca-

noes and batteaux and bagage which were launched, nor the embarcation of fifty-three persons.

Sleep in which they were deep-

ly enveloped, after considerable singing and dancing, deprived

them of all consciousness

but at length night having given place

;

awaking, these Barbarians

left

and roving round our well locked house, were

as-

to day, darkness to light, sleep to their cabins,

They saw They thought

tonished at the profound silence of the Frenchmen.

no one going out at first that

to

work

they were

;

they heard no voice.

prayer, or in council, but the day

all at

advancing and these prayers not getting to an end, they knocked at the door.

The

behind, answered by barking. in the

Frenchmen designedly

dogs, which our

The

left

cock’s crow which they heard

morning and the noise of the dogs, made them think that

the masters of these animals were not far off

patience which they had

lost.

But

;

they recovered the

at length the

sun began to

decline and no person answering neither to the voice of

men nor

to the cries of animals, they scaled the house to see the condition

Astonishment

of our people in this terrible silence. place to fright and trouble. enter every

not a

where

;

ascend the garret

Frenchman makes

gard one another

— ten or

do with Devils.

They open the door

his

;

descend to the cellar

appearance dead or

seizes

They saw no

them

;

;

now gave the chiefs

alive.

They

;

re-

they imagine they have to

batteau, and even if they

saw

it

they could not imagine that our Frenchmen would be so rash as

to

precipitate

themselves into rapids and breakers,

among

rocks and horrible dangers in which themselves though very expert in passing through Saults and Cascades, often lose their

AND DISCOVERY OF THE SALT SPRINGS. lives.

They persuade themselves

waves, or

fled

through the

air

;

either that they

They

themselves invisible

pounce

;

walked on the

or as seemed most probable, that

they concealed themselves in the woods.

nothing appears.

55

They seek

for

them

;

are quasi convinced that they rendered

and as they suddenly departed, so will they

as suddenly on their village.

!'s'

:M

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Monsieur, Monsieur Le Chevalier et Seigneur de Tracy Lt. Generali tres Chrestien dans toute L’Amerique. A Quebec.

Roy

Du

80

FRENCH EXPEDITIONS

I

M.

TALON TO M. COLBEET,

13 Nov. 1666.

[Paris Doc. I.]

Monsieur de Tracy and Monsieur de Courcelles are returned from their Expedition, the Iroquois having concluded to relreat

and abandon

The

their settlements.

M.

said

de Tracy could do

nothing else than burn their forts and lay waste every

thing.

These two gentlemen will inform you of whatever occurred throughout their march which occupied fifty-three days. I learn

from public opinion

ed nothing has been

left

had been executed and

is

that in

undone, and that the King’s orders

his expectations

those savages stood their ground. desirable that a part

What

what has been perform-

It

entirely realized

would,

in truth,

had

have been

had been defeated and some others taken

prisoners.

The advanced age

of

M.

de Tracy must greatly enhance the

merit of the service he has rendered the King, by assuming in a

broken down frame such as idea can be formed.

I

am

his,

a fatigue of which no correct

assured that throughout the whole

march of three hundred leagues, including the

return, he suffered

himself to be carried only during two days, and then he was forced to do so

by the

gout.

M. de

Courcelles, though stronger

than he, could not help being carried in like manner, having been attacked by a contraction of the nerves.

endured

M.

all

the fatigue that

human nature

is

Both

in truth

capable

have

of.

de Tracy incurred some expences on his march for the con-

veyance of the cannon and other extraordinary services rendered the Troops, which I wished to reimburse, but his modesty would

not suffer

it.

81

AGAINST THE MOHAWKS.

M. TRACY TO GOV. NICOLLS. [London Doc.

I.]

Sir

In answer to yo^ letter of 31. August, [N. S.] I shall

tell

you that Mons'* de Courcelle Governo’* Generali of this Countrey, signifying to

mee

that hee

had a desire to make some inroad upon

the Maquas, to put a stopp to their barbarous Insolencies

my so

consent to further the design, that

many

and souldiers as hee thought

officers

Ma*^®s Companyes, or those of y® Countrey.

advanced within Annies.

fifteene or

But fortunately

;

I

gave

hee might take with him fit,

either of his

Whereupon hee

twenty leagues of the villages of y^

for

them

his guides conducting

him a

wrong way, hee did not meete with them, till he came neare the village which you name in yo^ Letter, neither had he known there was any of them there, untill he had surprized all the Indyans that were in two small Hutts at some distance from that place.

This truth

is sufficiently

convincing, to justify Mons^* de

Courcelle, that hee had no intention to infringe the Peace, that

^as then between us, for that hee thought himself in the Maques land. The Moderacon which hee used in the said hutts (although the persons under his command were driven to the uttermost ex-

want of Provisions) hath sufficiently manifested the consideracons wee have always had for our allyes (for until then wee had no intelligence, that New Holland was under any other

tremity, for

Dominion than ces)

that of the States of the United Belgick Provin-

and understanding that hee was upon the Lands belonging to

the Dutch, hee tooke great care to hinder his companyes from falling into the village,

by which means alone the Maquaes that

were there saved themselves. Hee also had so much care and authority as to hinder the souldiers

from Killing the Poultry, and taking away Provisions that

were in the said

hutts, to satisfy their hunger.

to vindicate the truth

6

upon

this subject.

Thus

farr, I

ought

FRENCH EXPEDITIONS

82

The

fFrench nation

is

too

much

inclined to

acknowledge cour-

much

not to confess that the Dutch have had very

tesies,

for the fFrench,

who have been

that they have redeemed divers,

succour

They ought

;

charity

Prisoners with the Maquaes, and

who had been

burnt w^^out their

also to be assured of our gratitude towards

them, and to any others

who

shall exercise such Christian

Deedes,

also persuaded that they had a sincere intention

for the

as they have done.

am

I

conclusion of a firme peace between us and the Maques.

They

ought in like manner to believe, that wee have alwayes expressly forbid y® Algonquins to

make warr upon

or kill them/

Since the Dutch Gent, did send you y® Lres which I writt unto

them, you have knowne the candour of

my

thoughts, and the

confidence which I had in their fFriendship, by that of the 14^^

July 1666 as also by the Request I

Bechefer (who

is

three considerable persons, to to

made

to the

Reverend Father

accompanyed with transport himself upon the place,

a person of great meritt)

conclude a peace, thereby to ease them of the trouble of

coming

Quebec.

to

Its true the displeasure I received

by the death of some Gent-

men, who went a fowling upon confidence, of that article w^^ is in the same letter those GenPmen sent mee, the second time, dated the 26‘h

March 1666, the which

had publisht

I

in our Garir-

son [we have acquainted the Maquaes, that they are to forbear all acts

of Hostility, during the time that the Messenger shall be

absent which they have promised griefe,

to observe] did give

and a great deale of discontent,

It

Gent’men had not put themselves upon assurance

:

mee

a just

being evident that those

that hazard, without the

w^^ would have served amongst Europeans

as well as

the most authentick Passeport that could be had, the which also

wee had

caus’d the Algonquins to observe.

Such an unexpected misfortune obliged mee

to

chang the de-

signe I had of adventuring the person of the reverend Father Bechefer,

and the

rest that

accompanied him,

&

I resolv’d to

only the Sieur Cousture (who had been a Prisoner

Maques) with a

The

letter to the

among

send the

Dutch Gent, of the 22 ^ July 1666.

said Cousture having no other

employ than what was

in his

AGAINST THE MOHAWKS. Instruction

83

which hath or might have been seene, since

gave

I

him leave to shew it. I had never the thought of accusing those Dutch Gent’men ther directly or indirectly, nor any other person, of holding

ei-

in-

Maques in so foule an action as was commitby them ; But writt onely to oblige them, and those other Gent’men who serve under yo>^ command at Albany, (for we were

telligence with the

ted

then in peace,) to councell the Maques, as Neighbours, to deliver

up

into our power, the actors of that murder, w*^^

tion that with reason I might promise myselfe

My

was a

satisfac-

on that occasion.

L’re of the 22 ^ July to those Gent’men at Albany, might

Cousture was

have informed you what the

;

had not beene

ffor it

prudent after the death of those Gent’men, to hazard a person of

And

quality.

I

am

very sorry that you tooke the paines to leave

usual residence, to

the place of

make

a voyage to Albany, to

have discourse with an ordinary Messenger

who had

nothing of

Trust committed to him.

The

intention

you

signify to

have of Embracing Allwayes the

Interest of Europe, against the barbarous Indyans of America,

is

very commendable and befitting a person of your Quality and a

good Christian

:

That Passion which you likewise expresse,

the interest of his Ma^y of Great Brittaine, there in,

is

&

to

for

be esteemed, and

no man of reason, who doth not approve

y**

judgm*

there-

that hath not the like for his Prince.

I returne you thankes in particular you are pleas’d to use on my behalfe,

you give mee of a vility

is

for those obliging termes

as also for the assurances

desire to hold a mutuall Correspondence of ci-

and respect with mee to y® end before proposed

knowne

particularly

to

you

I

might feare you would

:

If I

alter

was

your

opinion of mee, for that Reputacon doth very often give us ad-

vantages which wee do not deserve. I

had the hono^ to serve the King

considerable (that

commands

of his

Army,

in

Germany,

at the time

in the

most

when my son

was hee and not mee) was knowne unto you, in those which commanded His Mamies Cavalry of

served in fflanders, where he Strangers

:

Hee had

a very particular respect for the person, and

for the great meritt of his

Royal Highnesse, The Duke of York,

FRENCH EXPEDITIONS

84

who seemed wards him

:

to

bee well pleased with his respectful carriage to-

You have no

reasons to expect lesse services from

mee, that you might have received from sions It

my

son,

upon

Nation that have beene in the Islands of America,

how

done them courtesyes with passion, and with as much

may

all

occa-

where those of the King will permit mee to render them. cannot bee but you must have heard from divers of your

bee

;

I

I have

civility as

have cause enough to complaine that the same hath

not beene practised towards

me

;

ffor

that a vessell

which went

out of Boston, tooke in the Gulfe of St. Laurence, towards the latter

end of June, or the beginning of July 1665, (near upon

months before the declaracon of the warre) a barque of betweene 25 and 30 tunnes, w^h belonged to mee, being laden with five

a good quantity of strong Waters, and other refreshments which

come from France But as I know no other Ma^y who bestowes many :

the service of his

I shall easily forgett that losse,

you may also believe that Sr

I

am

Your

’till

interest than that of

benefitts

upon mee,

the conclusion of Peace

w*^ a great deale of esteeme, thrice affectionate

and humble ServL

Tracy. Quebec Apr. 30, 1667.

)

S

IV.

REPORTS ON THE

^rntiinre

of

'

Mm

about leee;

^ork.

m$.

GOV. NICOLLS’

ANSWERS TO THE SEVERALL QUERIES

RELATING TO THE PLANTERS IN THE TERRITORIES OF HIS THE DUKE OF YORKE IN AMERICA. [Lond. Doc.

H

S

II.]

The Governour and Councell with

1st.

R.

the

High

SherifFe

and

the Justices of the Peace in the Court of the Generali assizes

haue the Supreame Power of making, altering, and abolishing

any Laws

by

in this

Justices

The Country

Government.

Sessions are held

upon the Bench, Particular Town Courts by a ConThe City Court of N. Yorke by a

and Eight Overseers,

stable

Mayor and Aldermen. All causes tried by Juries. The Land is naturally apt to produce Come & Cattle so that the severall proportions or dividents of Land are alwaies allowed with respect to the numbers of the Planters, what they are able to

manage, and

The Lots of Meadow

ships.

w^ time to accomplish their un-

in

dertaking, the feed of Cattell

is

or

free in

commonage

Come Ground

to all

Towne-

are peculiar to each

Planter. 3rd.

The Tenure of lands

is

derived from his R. H.®

who

gives and grants lands to Planters as their freehold forever, they

paying the customary rates and duties with others towards the defraying of publique charges.

The highes Rent

or

ment

penny pr acre

Lands purchas-

to his R. H.® will bee one

for

acknowledg-

ed by his R. H.®, the least two shillings sixe pence for each hundred acres, whereof the Planters themselves are purchasers from the Indyans. 4.

The Governour

gives liberty to

buy lands from the Indyans where but the seating of

Towns

together

Planters to find out and

it

pleaseth best the Planters,

is

necessary in these parts of

America, especially upon the Maine Land.

REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK.

88

Liberty of Conscience

5.

is

graunted and assured with the

the same Provisoe exprest in the Queerie. 6.

Liberty of dishing and fowling

7.

All Causes are tried by Juries, no

Lawes of England,

is

free to all

by the Patent.

Lawes contrary

to the

Souldyers onely are tryable by a Court

Marshall, and none others except in cases of suddain invasion,

mutiny or rebellion, as 8th.

Lieutenants in any of his

his

may

Countries of England

or ought to exercise.

to this point there is

no taxe, toledge. Impost or Cus-

tome payable upon the Planters upon Country

at present

hath

little

Come

or Cattle

charges was agreed unto in a generall Assembly, and

naged by the Governour

:

the

other product, the Rate for publicke

his

is

now ma-

Councell and the Justices in the

Court of Assizes to that onely behoofe. 9th.

The

obtaining

all the-s

priviledges

is

long since recomend-

ed to his R. H.® as the next necessary encouragement to these his Territories,

whereof a good answer

Every man who

IQth.

is

expected.

desires to trade for tfurrs at his re-

quest hath liberty so to doe.

ANSWERS OF

[Lond. Doc.

Answers

in every

III.]

to the Inquires of Plantacons for

1. The Governo*' wth whose advice to

NEW

ANDROS TO ENQUIRIES ABOUT YORK; 1678.

GOY.

is

to

New

Yorke.

have a Councill not exceeding tenn,

act for the safety

&

good of the country,

towne, village or parish a Petty Court,

&

&

Courts of

Long Island, & Townes of New Yorke, Albany & Esopus, & some smale or poore Sessions in the Severall precints being three, on

Islands

&

out places

of the Governor

New York

&

;

and the Generall court of assizes composed

Councill

&

all

the Justices

&

magistrates

once a yeare, the Petty courts Judge of

five

att

pounds.

REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW- YORK.

&

then

may 2.

may

appeale to Sessions, they to twenty pounds

appeale to assizes to y® King,

The

al

&

then

by Law.

sd courts as

court of Admiralty hath been by speciall comission or

by the Court of Mayo*' 3.

89

,

The

&

Aldermen

cheife Legislative

att

New

power there

Yorke.

in the Governo*^ with

is

advice of the Councell the executive power Judgem^s given by y® courts 4.

is in

the sheriffs

&

and other

civil officers.

The law booke in force was made by the Governo*’ & Asatt Hempsted in 1665 & since confirmed by his Royall

sembly

Highnesse. 5.

The

Militia

about 2000 of w®^ about 340 horse

is

in three

troopes the foote formed into companyes, most under 100

each

&

all indifferently

armed with fire-arm es of

all sizes,

men

ordered

Law, and are good fire men, one standcompany of Souldiers \vfith gunners & other officers for the fforts of New Yorke & Albany alwayes victualled in October & November for a yeare. 6. Forteresses are James fforte seated upon a point of New Yorke towne between Hudson’s River & y® Sound, its a square exercised according to

ing

with stone walls, foure bastions almost regular, and in

gunnes mounted

&

smale long stockadoed forte with foure bastions

it

Albany

stores for service accordingly. in

it,

46 is

a

12 gunns,

and lately a wooden redout & out worke at w^h Pemaquid 7 gunns, s’d Garrisons victualled for a yeare, w^^

sufficient ag^ Indians,

sufft stores.

7.

There are no privateers about

8.

Our Neighbours westward

o*'

are

Coasts.

Mary

land

populous and

strong but doe not live in townes, their produce tobacco, North-

west the Maques &®. Indians y® most warr like in ern Parts of America, their trade beavers the ffrench of Canada trade as

&

&

the North-

all

fiirrs.

wee with our Indians

Connecticut in a good condicon visionn of wheate, beefe

&

Northward ;

Eastward

populous, their produce pro-

porke, some pease,

o’*

South bounds

o’"

neighbours as

the Sea. 9.

Wee

keepe good Correspondence with

all

to Civill, legal! or judicial! proceedings, but differ with

Connec-

REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK.

90 ticutt for

bounds

o’’

&

they nor Massachu-

mutuall assistance

setts will not admitt.

Our boundaries are South, the Sea, West Delaware; North to y® Lakes or ffrench East Connecticut river, but most usurped & yett possed by s’d Connecticut some Islands Eastward 10.

;

&

a tract

Yorke

New

beyond Kennebeck River called Pemaquid, &c. in 40^^

is

35 ^; Albany ab^

Collony

43*^; the

is

in severall

long narrow stripes of w®^ a greate parte of the settlem^ made by adventurers before any Regulacon by w®^ Incroachm^s without pattents

w®^ townes have

by reason of continuall

lately taken but

warrs noe Survey made & [qu. of the] wildernesse, noe certaine com-

putacon can be made of the planted and implanted, these yeares about 20,000 acres taken up

and pattented

last

2

for particuler

persons besides Delaware, most of the land taken up except upon

Long

Island

is

improued

&

unlesse the bounds of the Duke’s

pattent be asserted noe great quantity es att hand undisposed.

Our

11.

principall places of

’ton except

some

Albany

lately stone

&

Trade are

New

brick,

Yorke and South-

buildings most wood,

for the Indyans, our

good country houses

&

strong of their

severall kindes. 12.

Wee

haue about 24 townes, villiages or parishes in Six

Precincts, Divisions, Rydeings, or Courts of Sessions. 13.

Wee

haue severall Rivers, Harbours

River the chiefest

&

is ab^.

tenn or more within

six,

&

Roades, Hudson’s att

coming

very good soundings

either in Hudson’s River or in the

the

&

4 fathom water

&

Sound, the usuall roade before

town and moulde.

14.

Our produce

is

land provisions of

all

sorts as of

exported yearly about 60000 bushells, pease, beefe, pork,

Refuse

Deale

&

fish.

tarr lately

timber, plankes, pipestaues, lumber, horses,

begunn

to

English manufacture for Christians

ffish

15.

&

Wee

some

&

pitch

be made, Comodityes imported are

&®. for Indians about 50000^^ yearly, able

wheate

&

Tobacco, beavers, peltry or furrs from the Indians,

& oake

sorts of

in

in butt

anchorage

&

all

blancketts, DufFells

Pemaquid afords merchant-

masts.

haue noe Experience or

Quantityes.

skill

of Salt Peter to be had

REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW- YORK.

91

OurMerch^s are not many but with inhabitants & planters

16.

about 2000, able to beare armes, old inhabitants of the place or of England, Except in

&

some few of

&

neere

nations, but

all

New Yorke few

of Dutch Extraction

much wanted

Serv^®,

&

but

very few slaves.

Noe

17.

persons whateuer are to come from any place but

according to act off Pari* w^^ the magistrates and

officers

of

the severall townes or places are to take care of, accordingly the

plantacon

is

these late yeares increased, butt noe Genrall acc* hath

been taken soe

is

not

knowne how much nor what

visions

and sould

18.

att

Some

persons.

few Slaues are sometimes brought from Barbadoes, most

for Pro-

30^^ or 35^^ Country pay.

a*»*

&

Ministers have been soe scarce

many

Religions

that

noe acc* cann be giuen of Children’s births or christenings. 19.

Scarcity of Ministers and

Justices,

20.

Noe

admitting marriages by

acc* cann be giuen of burialls, formes of burialls not

being generally obserued 21.

Law

noe acc* cann be giuen of the number marryed.

A merch* worth

&

few ministers

1000^^ or 500 ^^

jg

very lately.

till

accompted a good sub-

merchant and a planter worthe halfe that

stantial!

accompted [rich ?] with

all

moveables

in

may be valued

the Estates

att

about

jei50,000. 23.

There may

lately

haue traded to y® Collony

from tenn to

fifteen shipps or vessells of

each, English

new England and our owne built of w®^^ 5

in

a yeare

about togeather 100 tunns small shipps

& a Ketch now belonging to New Yorke foure of them built there. 23.

Obstruccons to Improuem* of planters, trade, Navigacon

and mutuall assistance are y® distinction of Collonies for our

owne produce,

as if different nations

and people, though next

neighbours upon the same tract of land,

we

obserueing acts of trade

24.

&

&

Aduantages, Incouragem*

Navigacon would be more

if

&

His Ma*i®® subjects,

navigacon &c.

& Improuem*

of Planters trade

next neighbours of

o’"

own Nation

the King’s subjects on the same tract of land might without distinction,

supply each other with our owne produce, punctually

obserueing

all acts

of parliam* for Exportacon

persons the better for mutuall assistance.

& would dispose

all

REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK.

92

Rates or dutyes upon Goods exported are 2 ^ for each hhd of

25.

Tobacco

&

3 ^ on a beaver skin

Provisions and

all else

& other

peltry proportionably,

paye nothing, Goods imported payes 2 per

cent except Liquors particulerly rated something more,

&

trade goeing up the river payes 3 per cent, there are

some few

quitt-rents, as also Excise or license

drinke rison

& a way

house or publique Scale

and publique charge,

by a greate 26.

which

Several Presbiterians

&

it

:

for retaileing slronge

all

applyed to y® Gar-

hath not hitherto sufficed

deale.

Severall sects,

27.

to

There are Religions of

numerous

monys

&

all sorts,

one church of England,

&

Independents, Quakers

some Jews but

&

presbiterians

Anabaptists of

Independ*® most

Substantial!.

The Duke

maintaines a chapline w^^

the certaine

is all

allowance or Church of England, but peoples free Ministry, and

all

pend^s desierous to have and maintaine them

if to

be had.

20 Churches or Meeting places of w®^ aboue

their allowance like to

be from 40 ^^.

Noe Beggars

garden. ters could

gifts to



& provide for presbiterians & Inde-

places oblidged to build Churches

a minister, in w^^ most very wanting, but

are ab^

Indian

but

all

There

halfe vacant

701 b a yeare and a house and

poore cared

ffor.

If

be had to goe theither might doe well

&

good Minisgaine

much

upon those people. Endorsed “ Answers of inquiries of Rec^^

New -York from S^ Edm. Andros on the 16^^ of Ap. 1678.”

Note.

— Chalmers gives

in his

Annals what purport to be copies

of these Reports, but they will be found to be rather abstracts

when compared with in full,

it is

the

official

believed for the

first

MSS. which time.

are

now

published

PAPERS RELATING TO

M.

la

HUNGRY

SSnrrrs

(^ipeMtinn

BAY, JEFFERSON CO.

1034

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EXTRACT OF THE INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN BY THE KING TO M. BE LA BARRE. [Paris Doc. Vol. II.] Versailles, 10th

He

is

May,

1682.

equally informed that the Savages nearest adjoining to

the French Settlements are the Algonquins and the Iroquois, that the latter had repeatedly troubled the peace and tranquillity of the Colonies of

severe

and

New

France until His Majesty having waged a

war against them, they were

to live in peace

finally constrained to

submit

and quietness without making any incursions

on the lands inhabited by the French. warlike tribes cannot be kept

Majesty has even been informed by the

Onnontagues and Senecas

But

as these restless

down except by

—Iroquois

last

tribes

terror,

and

and as His

despatches, that the

— have killed a Recollet

and committed many other violences and that

it

that they will push their audacity even further

;

is to

be feared

It is

very im-

portant that the said Sieur de la Barre put himself in a condition to proceed as early as possible,

with 5 or 600 of the militia most

favorably situated for this expedition along the shores of

Frontenac

at

the

mouth of Lake Conty,

to

these Iroquois Settlements in a condition to restrain their duty

Lake

exhibit himself to

them within

and even to attack them should they do any thing

against the French, wherein he must observe that he

to

break

with them without a very pressing necessity and an entire

certi-

is jiot

tude to promptly and advantageously finish a war that he will

have undertaken against them.

He must

not only apply himself to prevent the violences of the

Iroquois against the French. the Savages at peace

among

He must

also endeavour to

keep

themselves, and prevent the Iroquois

DE LA BARRe’s EXPEDITION

96 by

means making war on the

all

and other

Illinois

bours to them, being very certain that

if

tribes, neigh-

these Nations

principal trade of Canada, are destroyed,

furs, the

whose

should see

themselves secure against the violence of the Iroquois by the protection they

much

the

would receive from the French, they might be so to wear their merchandizes and will there-

more excited

by increase

trade.

At the meeting held the tenth October 1682, composed of

M.

the Governor,

the Bishop of Quebec,

Seminary of

St.

M.

M.

the Intendant,

M.

Dollier Superior of the

Sulpice at Montreal, the Rev.

Fathers Beschefer Superior, D’Ablon and Fremin, Jesuits,

M.

the Major of the City, Mess^s^

(Je

Va-

renne Governor of Three Rivers, de Brussy, Dalibout, Duguet, Lemoine, Ladurantais, Bizard, Chailly,

Vieuxpont, Duluth, de Sorel, Derepentigny,

Berthier and Boucher.

proposed by

It is

M.

the Governor, that from the records

which M. the Count de Frontenac was pleased hands of what had passed

at

to deposit in his

Montreal on the 12 Sept,

tween him and the Deputy of the Onontagu6 Iroquois,

last, it is

be-

easy

to infer that these people are inclined to follow the object of their

enterprize, us, the

which

is

to destroy all the

Nations in alliance with

one after the other, whilst they keep us in uncertainty and

with folded arms; so that, after having deprived us of the entire fur trade

which they wish alone

isolated,

to carry

on with the English and

Manate and Orange, they may attack us and ruin the Colony in obliging it to contract itself and

Dutch established

at

abandon all the separate settlements, and thus tion

arrest the cultiva-

of the soil which cannot bear grain nor be cultivated as

meadow As he

except in quarters where is

it is

of good quality.

not informed in the short time since his arrival from

France, of the state of these tribes and of the Colony, he requests

them,to acquaint him with

all

they

know

of these things in order

TO HUNGRY BAY that he

may inform

97

Majesty thereof, and represent to him the

his

necessities of this Colony, for the purpose as well of averting this

war

as for terminating

be necessary to wage

and finishing

it

it

Whereupon

;

advantageously should

it

the Meeting after being in-

formed by the Rev^ Jesuit fathers of what had passed during five years among the Iroquois Nations, whence they had recently arand by M. Dollier of what occurred

rived,

Montreal, remained unanimously and

all

for

some years

at

of one accord, that the

English have omitted nothing for four years to induce the Iro-

by the great number of presents which they made them or by the cheapness with which they gave them provisions and especially guns, powder and lead, to declare war against us, quois, either

and which the Iroquois have been two or three times ready undertake

But having

;

fore thqy had

these

would

to

reflected that, should they attack us be-

ruined in fact the allied nations, their neighbours,

rally and, uniting together,

would

fall

on them and

destroy their villages whilst occupied against us, they judged

wiser to defer and amuse

it

us whilst they were attacking those

Nations, and having commenced, with that view, to attack the Illinois last year,

they had so great an advantage over them that

besides three or four hundred killed, they took nine hundred of

them

prisoners, so that

marching

this

year with a corps of twelve

hundred men, well armed and good warriors, there was no doubt but they would exterminate them altogether and attack, on their return, the

Miamis and the Kiskakous and by

their defeat render

themselves masters of Missilimackina and the lakes Herie and

Huron, the Bay des Puans and thereby deprive us of

drawn from

that country

by destroying,

at the

all

the trade

same time,

all

the

among those nations; and theremake a last effort to prevent them

Christian Missions established fore

it

became necessary

to

ruining those Nations as they had formerly the Algonquins, the

Andastez, the Loups (Mohegans), the Abenaquis and others, the

remains of

whom we

Lake Champlain and

have

at the settlements of Sillery, Laurette,

others scattered

among

That

us.

was

to

accom-

plish that object,

the state of the Colony

and the means

be most usefully adopted against the enemy

that as to the

to

to

be considered, ;

Colony we could bring together a thousand good 7

DE LA BARRE’s EXPEDITION

98

men, bearing arms and accustomed to manage canoes like the when drawn from their settlements, it must be con-

Iroquois, but

sidered that the cultivation of the soil w^ould be arrested during the

whole period of

fore

making them march,

in places distant

their absence, to

and that

necessary, be-

it is

have supplies of provisions necessary

from the settlements, so as to support them in

the enemy’s country a time sufficiently long to effectually destroy

no more by them as had been done seven-

that Nation, and to act

teen years ago,

making them

partially afraid without

weakening

That we have advantages now which we had not then

them.

French accustomed

Woods, acquainted with

to the

;

all

the

roads through them, and the road to Fort Frontenac open to

fall

the

hours on the Senecas, the strongest of the five Iroquois

in forty

Nations, since they alone can furnish fifteen hundred warriors, well armed

that there

;

must be provisions

them and embark

three or four vessels to load

Lake Ontario, whilst

five

at

Fort Frontenac,

five

hundred men on

hundred others would go

post themselves on the Seneca shore

;

in

Canoes and

but this expedition cannot

succeed unless by His Majesty’s aid with a small body of two or three hundred soldiers to serve as a garrison for Forts Frontenac

and La Galette, to escort provisions and keep the head of the guarded and furnished whilst the interior would be

country deprived

of

its

good

soldiers

a hundred or a hundred

;

hired

men,

to

help

those

who

will remain at

in order that

famine

may

home two

which and that of Sieur de Lasalle,

it is

menced

That

:

than seventeen years ago, finishing

it

it

is

impossible to undertake

if it

were to be undertaken without

the conservation of the Colony

from France had begun

who

and funds neces-

a

the Iroquois not being apt to return.

Iroquois,

;

or three barks, without

war which is not to be comimperfect, because knowing each other better

utility

to be left

to cultivate the ground,

not get into the land

sary to collect supplies and build

any thing of

and

be distributed among the settlements to

fifty

to create

believed that

Onontio, our Master, and

if

is

That the

contempt

not be expected, failure of all aid

for us

among

we were abandoned by

the said

the great

they saw us assisted by him, they

would, probably, change their minds and

let

our allies be in

TO HUNGRY BAY.

99

peace and consent not to hunt on their grounds, or bring their peltries to the French, which they trade

English at Orange

;

at present

and thus by a small aid from

his

could prevent war and subject these fierce and hot

Majesty we

That notwithstanding,

and in

militia

furnish guns

this year of

it

was important

abundant harvest to

which they could

all

which

spirits,

would be the greatest advantage that could be procured Country.

all

with the

for the

arm the oblige them to to

advantageously use when occa-

sion required.

Done

the house of the Rev*^ Jesuit Fathers at Quebec, the

in

day and year above

stated.

Compared with the

original remaining in

my

hands.

Le Fe Bure de Labarre.

FATHER LAMBERVILLE TO

M.

DE LA BARRE.

[Paris Doc. II.]

February

*

*

*

*

summer to

say, next

We’ll see what the

Mohawk

England. I

The Governor

This

—The

whom I

to

This

is

10, 1684.

come, they

the coat of arms of

flag is still in the public chest of the it

Mohawks.

will see day.

DE LA BARRE TO

GOV.

DONGAN

Montreal 15th June 1684.

unexpected attack which the Iroquois, Senecas and

Cayugas have made on one of tleman of

is

Mohawk and speak there to the Iroquois. He has sent a shabby ship’s flag to

be planted there.

know’ not when

Sir

New York

he’ll say.

to

M.

the

of

my

my

forts

whither

household to withdraw Sieur de

I

had sent a gen-

la Salle

therefrom,

sent at their request to France, and the wholesale plunder

of seven French canoes laden wuth merchandize for the Trade,

and the detention during ten days of 14 Frenchmen conducting them up, and that in a time w’hen I was

w^iio in

were

a quiet

DE LA BARRELS EXPEDITION

100

me

and peaceable negotiation with them, oblige as people from

murder and treason

them

to attack

whose promises we have nothing

to expect but

but I did not wish to do so without ad-

;

you of it, and telling you at the same time, that the Mohawks and Oneidas, neighbours of Albany, having done me no wrong, I intend to remain at peace with them and not attack vising

them.

The

which

letters

I

have

we

honour

to

desire that

ther.

I shall contribute

which you will be

me

on the pre-

I think that

satisfied.

make

the request I

Powder

those at Albany selling any Arms,

who

as does

with, that our two

with the greatest joy, and with a punc-

sent occasion you can well grant

quois

me

should live in Union and Fraternity toge-

Kings

tuality with

me

from France inform

rec«>'*

* •.

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XII.

Irrai|

LIST OF

3CM, 1700.

THE OFFICERS OF THE MILITIA OF THE PROVINCE OF

NEW YORKE,

1700.

[Lond. Doc. XIII.]

A

Table of the Number of the severall Regiments in ye

Province of

New

York.

County of Suffolk Queen’s County King’s County

.... .... ....

614 601

280

Richmond County 2 Compos City & County of New York County of West Chester Ulster and Dutchess County City & County of Albany

152

684 155

325 371 Totall

3182 men

.

Province of JYew York List of y® present officers of y® Militia in his Ma^ys Province

of New York in America commissionated of Bellomont, Capt Generali said

Of

Province &c.

& Gov^ in

by

his Excel.

Chief

in

&

Rich^ Earle

over his Ma^y®

viz^

y® Regiment of Militia of y® County of Suffolk on y® Island

Nassaw Isaac Arnold

Colonel

Henry Pierson Matthew Howel

Lieu^ Col

> Field Officers

Maj»‘

^

)

ARMY

358

LIST OF

THE

The several Compos in ye said Regimt The Foot Comp^ in the town of Brookhaven Sam. Smith Rich‘s

Floyd

.

.

.

Captain

.

.

.

Lieut

.

.

.

Ensigne

.Joseph Tucker Of the Foot

Comp a

Tho^ Wicks

.

Jo"

in



.

^

> Como" Officers

y ® town of Huntington Capt .

^

Woods

Lieut C

Of y® Foot Comp"

in y®

3 town of Southampton

Abra. Howell

.

Capt

Joseph Fordham

.

Lieut

^ >

Of another Comp"

in y® said

*

Town

.

Capt.

Jo" Lupton

.

Lieut.

Joseph Moore

.

Ensigne. y

Of another Comp"

in y® said

Tho. Stephens

.

Joseph Pierson Jerem. Scot

>

C. 0.

Town

Capt.

1

Lieut.

>

C. 0.

Ensigne. y Town of Southold

in y ®

Sam. Glover

Brown Of another Foot Comp"

Of another Thos Mapas Capt

Capt.

)

Lieut.

>

C. 0.

Ensigne. ) in y® said Town

—— Griffin

Jonathan Harlon Cap^

Lieut

Emens Ensign Foot Comp^ in y® said Town Joshua Harlow Lieu^

Jo*^

Booth Ensigne.

Of another Foot Comp^ ;

^

.

Of y® Foot Comp" Tho Young

Capt

C. 0.

Ensigne y

Isaac Halsey

Rich.

C. 0.

Lieut

Epenetus Plat

Lieut

in y® ;

town of East Hampton Ensigne

;

Of another Foot Coinp^ in y® said Town John Wheeler Captj Enoch Fitchen Lieut, Corn. Conchling Ensigne This Regiment consists of six hundred and fourteen men

PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK.

Of the Regim^

359

of Militia in Queens County on y® said Island

John Jackson

Of the Foot comp^ Hope Carpenter .

Benj*^ Thurston

.

Rich Com®*^ Officers

Ensigne ^

.

.

town of Jamaica Capt.

.

.

Of another Foot Comp‘d

Town

in y^ said

Sam. Carpenter

.

.

.

Joseph Smith

.

.

.

Leiut.

Dan. Smith

.

.

.

Ensigne. j

in ye

Of the Foot Comp^ Content Titus

Sam. Kecham

Sam. Morrell

Capt.

town of

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Of another Foot Comp^ Rob

C. O.

New Town

Capt.

)

Lieut.

>

C. O.

Ensigne )

Town

in y® said

Coe C. O.

Jo“ Berian

Jonathan Coe

Of

the Foot

Comp^

^own of Hampstead

in y®

Jerem. Smith Rich'i

Capt.

Hubbs

Leiut.

Isaac Smith

Ensigne,

Cf another Foot Comp Joseph Smith

in ye said

Town

Capt. Leiut

Thos Gildersleive

Of

Ensigne.

another Foot Comp' in ye said 1^

Tho. Tredwell Jon. Pine Jo*^

Leiut,

Ensigne,

Forster

Of the Foot Comp^ Robert Hinchman Harrington Daniel Wright

Town

Capt,

in y'e

Town

of Flushing

Capt, Leiut,

Ensigne

ARMY

360

Of

....

the Foot

Robt Coles

Comp^

Josia Fatten

Nath

Coles Jun'*

:

Of

the

:

Smith

Daniel Lawrence Jo*^

rfnne

/

.

The Regiment

Of

the

in y®

town of Oysterbay Capt,

.

.

Leiut

.

.

.

Ensigne

of .Horse in y® said .

.

Capt.

.

.

.

Leiut

.

.

.

Cornet

.

.

.

Quartermaster

consists of six hundred

Regiment of Militia

in

town of Amersfort,

in the

Capt, Leiut,

.

Corn Van Voorhuyen

Comp

Ensigne.

Town

in y®

John Lake Chr:

Bemoyn

Ensigne,

.

Of the Foot Comp Hansen

of Gravesend. Capt, Leiut,

.

Albert Coerten

Joris

Feild Officers

Maj’'

.

Peter Mansford

the Foot

one men.

Leiut Col

.

Jo" Terhermon

Of

&

King’s County on y® said Island, Colonel

Beekman Van Brunt Of the Foot Comp

Gerrardus :

Regim^

.

Stephen Cortlandt

Corn

THE

.

Troope

John Lawrence Jonath

LIST OF

town of Brookland,

in the

Capt,

Daniel Repalie

.

Leiut,

Teunis Repalie

.

Ensigne.

Of

the Foot

Comp"

in y®

John Van Dyke

Van Brunt Matys Smake Of the Foot Comp" Arie Van de Bilt Symon Hansen Isaac Hegeman Of the Foot Comp"

town of .

Joost

in y®

New

Uytregt.

Capt. .

Leiut.

.

Ensigne.

town of Midwout Capt,

.

Leiut,

.

Ensigne.

in y®

town of Boswick

Peter Pra

Capt,

Michill Parmyter

Leiut,

Jochem Vouchnewen

Ensigne.

PROVINCE OF NEW- YORK.

361

*

Of

Troop of Horse

the

Dan. Polhemius

.

Regiment

in y® said

.

Capt.

.

Roeloft Verkirk

.

.

.

Leiut,

Jerominus Remse

.

.

.

Cornet

Gysbert Bayard

.

.

.

Quarter Master

&

This Regiment consists of two hundred

Of the

Of

Militia in the

Comp^

the Foot

Tho. Stilwell

Tho. Morgane

?

Nice Teunisse

.

.

.

.

.

two Compos

Of the Regim^ of De Peyster

in the said fifty

.

Leiut^

County

.

.

.

.

Andrew

.

Teller

Jo” Hardinbrooke

.

County of

Capt,

.

.

.

.

.

Capt,

.

.

Leiut,

.

.

Leonard Lewis

.

Jacob Vander Speigle Isaac Governeur

.

Comp”

other Foot

Officers

^ >

C. O.

Ensigne, j in y® said City.

.

Capt,

i

.

.

Leiut,

>

.

Of one other Troop Comp” De Keimer

Ensigne, y in y® said City.

.

.

.

Capt

Steph Richards

.

.

.

Leiut

Nicho. Blank,

.

.

.

Ensigne

Isaac

Com®”

.

.

.

^

Ensigne, ) in y® said City

.

Of one

j

Leiut >

.

W”i Churcher Brasier

)

Maj^

Of another Foot Comp”

:

New York

in y® said City

David Provost

Absa

hundred

Leiut Col. > Field Officers

.

.

&

Colonel

.

Of a Foot Comp®Robt. Walters

consists of one

two men.

.

Henry De Bruyn

County

Capt

.

Militia in y® City

:

Mervet Jo*^

in y® said

.

& Abra

^

Leiuts»

...

}

Jaque Poilton said

County

Capt,

)

.

The

in the said

.

Of another Comp® Andrew Carmon John Stilwell

eighty men.

County of Richmond.

C. O.

ARMY

362

LIST OF

Of one other Foot Comp^ De Peyster .

Capt,

.

.

.

Leiut

.

.

.

Ensigne

Roger Baker

Lodge

:

Of one

other Foot

John Theobalds Peter de Melt

Comp^

.

Capt Leiut

.

.

Ensigne

.

.

.

in y® said Citty

.

.

.

Isaac Brasier

Of

in y® said Citty

.

Cornelius

Corn

THE

another Foot Comp^- in y® said Citty

Evert Byvanck

Jo^ Tiebout

Of one

....

Tho Fornuier Hend Breevort Of the Troop John De Peyster Capt,

Leiut,

.

^ .

.

:

in y^ said City

Capt,

.

.

.

Ensigne.

Comp^ .

.

Leiut,

.

.

other Foot

Martin Clock

Jo" Hoghland

Capt,

.

.

.

John Vander Speigel

Ensigne,

.

of Horse in y® said Regim^

Jo^ Outman

This Regiment consists of six hundred

Of

Cornet

Evert Van deWater Quarter master

Leiut,

&

eighty five men.

the Regiment of Militia in y® County of

West

Aug* Graham

Chester.

1

Colonel .

.

Lieut. Col. > Field Officers

.

.

Maj*"

j

Of a Foot Comp" in the town of East Chester. John Drake Capt, ^ Joseph Drake Leiut, > C. O. Henry Tower Ensigne j Of a Foot Comp" in y® town of New Rochell, .

.

.

-

Oliver Besley

Capt,

Isaac Merier

Leiut,

Ensigne

Pierre Vasleau

Of a Foot Comp" James Mott Robert Lauting

Tho

:

Ives

.... .... in y®

town of Mamarioneck Captain Leiut,

Ensigne

This Regiment consists of one hundred

fifty five

men.

PROVINCE OF NEW-YORK.

Of the Regiment of Jacob Rutsen

363

.

Colonel

.

.

.

Lieut Col. > Field Officers

.

.

.

Maj*"

Matthias Mattyson

^

j

in y® said Countys.

.

.

Captain

i

Evert Bogardus

.

.

.

Leiut.

>

Tennis Tappen

.

.

.

Ensigne,

7

Abso

:

other Foot

Comp^

Hasbrooke

in y® s^

.

.

.

Lewis Bavea

.

.

.

other Foot

Comp^

Com^^

Countys.

Leiut,

Ensigne.

in y® said Countys.

George Middagh

.

.

.

Capt,

Gysbert Krooni

.

.

.

Leiut,

Alex. Rosebrans

.

.

.

Ensigne.

.... .... ....

Of another Foot Comp^ Aria Rose

John Rose Aria Gerrutse

.

Jacob Decker

Mattyse Sleight Garret

Wyncoop Of

.

....

Of another Foot Comp^

.

Leiut.

Ensigne

Captain Leiut

Ensigne

Countys

in y® said .

.

Captain

in y® said Countys.

.

Coenrod Elmendorp

Captain

.

.

.

Leiut

.

.

.

Ensigne

another Foot

Comp^

in y® said

Countys

BaltusVan Cleet

.

.

.

Captain

Hendrick Kipp

.

.

.

Leiut

.

.

.

Ensigne

John Ter Bus

Of

.

,

in y® said Countys,

Of another Foot Comp^ Jocham Schoonmaker John Van Camp .

Officers

Captain

.

.

Moses Quantain

Of an

Dutchess.

.

Of a Foot Comp^

Of an

&

Militia in y® Counties of Ulster .

the Troop of Horse in y® said Regiment

Egbert Schoonmaker Captain

Abra: Gasbert

Corn: Decker

Mattyse Jansen Quartermaster

Leiut.

This Regiment consists of Three hundred

five

Cornet

&

twenty men.

ARMY

364

Of

LIST, ETC. in y® City

Regiment of Militia

the

Peter Schuyler

.

.

&

County of Albany.

Colonel

.

^

Leiut. Col > Field Officers

Dyrck Wcssells

Of

.

a Foot

.

Johannes Sleeker

^

.

Company .

in the city of

Albany

Captain

.

)

Johannes Roseboome

.

.

Leiut

>

Abra: Cuyler

.

.

Ensigne

)

.

Of another Foote Comp^

Rykman

Albert

Wessel ten Broek Johannes Thomasse

.

.

Captain

.

.

.

Leiut.

Ensigne.

.

.

Of another Foot Comp^ Martin Cornelisse Andris

Douw

Andris

Koyman

in the said

.

.

.

.

.

Leiut.

.

Ensigne.

Of another Foot Comp®Gerrit Teunisse

Jonas

in the said

County

Captain

.

.

.

County

Captain

.

.

.

Officers

in y® said city

.

.

Com“

Douw

LeiuP

Jochem Lamerse

Hoesem

Volckart V.

Ensignes

Abra: Hanse

Of

a

Foot Compa

in y®

Johannes Sanderse Glen

town of Schenectady

.

Adam Woman [Vrooman?] Harman V. Slyke Of the Troope

.

Captain

.

Leiut.

.

Ensigne.

.

.

of Horse in y® said Regiment

Kilian van Renslaer

.

.

.

Captain

Johannes Schuyler

.

.

.

Leiut.

.

.

Cornet

.

.

Quartermaster

Bennone V. Corlaer

Anthony Bries This Regiment (Indorsed)

.

Three hundred seaventy one men.

consists of

No

13.

New

Yorke.

List of the Officers of the

Militia in the Province of

“ to in y®

1700

E

New Yorke

Referred

of Bellomonts Ir^ of y® 28

Reed 18 Feb

Read

1700f

Nov^

XIII,

CENSUS OF THB

^

Ccuntifs of derange,

1702 1714 1720 ,

,

.

llhanq.

CENSUS OF ORANGE COUNTY

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ESTABLISHMENT OF A MISSION IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF FORT FRONTENAC. APRIL, 1750. [Paris Doc. X.]

A

large

number of Iroquois Savages having declared

willingness to

embrace Christianity,

it

their

has been proposed

to

a Mission in the neighbourhood of Fort Frontenac.

establish

Abbe Picquet, a zealous Missionary in whom the nations have evinced much confidence has taken charge of it, and of testing, as much as possible what reliance is to be placed on the dispositions of the Indians.

Nevertheless, as

*

Mr

de

la Gallisonniere

had remarked

month of October, one thousand seven hundred and that too

much dependence ought

de la Jonqui^re

was written

forty eight,

not to be placed on them, Mr.

on the fourth of

to,

in the

May

one thou-

sand seven hundred and forty nine, that he should neglect nothing for the

formation

succeeded

it

of this

would not be

stand that the only

establishment, because

means they had

Nations

;

but

it

was necessary

induce the Savages to undertake 31st gber Sieur de

1749

.

Mr. de

la

is

solely with a to

it

all

the destruction of

view to bridle these

be prudent and circumspect to

it.

Jonquito sends a plan drawn by

Lery of the ground selected by the Abbe Picquet

mission and a letter from that

at

to relieve themselves of the

pretensions of the English to their lands

Choueguen which they founded

if

give the Indians to under-

difficult to

Abbe containing

for his

a Relation of his

voyage and the situation of the place.

1

The following Extract from

Paris Doc. X., furnishes the date of the

Picquet’s departure to establish his colony on the Oswegatchie River

Abbe

30 Sept.

departs from Quebec for Fort Frontenac; he is to look neighbourhood of that Fort, for a location best adapted for a village for the Iroquois of the Five Nations who propose to embrace Christianity.” 1748.

in the

The Abbe Picquet

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

424

He

says he

left

the fourth of

May of

year with twenty-five

last

Frenchmen and four Iroquois Indians; he arrived the thirtieth at The land there is the River de la Presentation^ called Soegatzy. There Oak Canada. is timber in abundance, and in finest the trees of a prodigious size

and height, but

will be necessary, for

it

them without permission.

the defence of the settlement, to fell

Picquet reserved sufficient on the land he had cleared to build a bark.

He

then set about building a store house to secure his effects

he, next,

had erected a small

;

and he will have a

fort of pickets

small house constructed which will serve as a bastion. Sieur Picquet had a special interview with the Indians

were

satisfied

with

all

he had done

;

they

;

and assured him they were

willing to follow his advice and to immediately establish their

To

village. affairs

The

accomplish

this,

they are gone to regulate their

and have promised to return with situation of this post is very

their provisions.

advantageous

;

borders of the River de la Presentation^ at the head of rapids, on the west side of a beautiful basin

capable of easily holding forty or

In

all

parts of

it

there has been found at least

is

no wind scarcely can prevent

its

all

formed by that

the

river,

barks.

fifty

a half of water and often four fathoms. that

on the

is

it

two fathoms and

This basin

being

is

so located

The bank

entere.l.

very low in a level country the point of which runs far out.

The passage

across

is

hardly a quarter of a league, and

all

the

A fort

on

this

canoes going up or down, cannot pass elsewhere. point would be impregnable

and nothing commands,

it.

;

it

would be impossible

The

east side

is

more elevated, and

runs by a gradual inclination into an Amphitheatre.

town could hereafter be This post

is,

to approach,

A

beautiful

built there.

moreover, so

much

the

mere advantageous

as the

English and Iroquois can easily descend to Montreal by the River de la Presentation which has

Mohawks and

Corlar.

its

source in a lake bordering on the

If they take possession of this River they

will block the passage to Fort Frontenac and

Choueguen.

Whereas by means of a Fort

be easy to have a force there

in

more

easily assist

at the Point,

case of need to

it

would

despatch to

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

425

t

Choueguen and want

to intercept the English and

and the voyage

to penetrate into the Colony,

made

inac could be

Moreover, Montreal

who may

to Missilimak-

in safety.

only thirty-five leagues from

this establishment is

twenty-fi^e from Fort Frontenac and thirty-three from

;

Choueguen disorders

Indians

F

a distance sufficient to remove the Indians from the

which the proximity of Forts and Towns ordinarily

engenders among them.

It is

convenient for the reception of the

Lake Ontario, and more distant, Indians. Abb4 Picquet’s views are to accustom these Indians to raise Cows, Hogs and Poultry ; there are beautiful prairies, acorns and wild oats.

On

the other hand

can be so regulated that the batteaux

it

carrying goods to the posts,

convey those batteaux five

and

fifty livres

batteaux of the

first

@

stop at

@

;

La men

there.

The

Presentation.

could be found to

twenty livres instead of forty-

fifteen to

which are given

for the

whole voyage.

La Presentation would convey them

would take

abundant

may

would become smaller

cost of freight

Other

farther on, and

return plank, boards and other timber,

in

This timber would not come to more than twelve

fifteen livres, whilst

they are purchased at sixty-eight livres at

Montreal and sometimes more.

Eventually this post will be able

to supply Fort Frontenac with provisions

King considerable expense. The Abbe Picquet adds in

which will save the

examined

in his

voyage the nature of the rapids of the Fort Frontenac

river,

his letter, that he

very important to secure to us the possession of Lake Ontario on

The most dangerous

which the English have an eye. rapids, in

number fourteen,

Buisson (the Thicket).

are the Trou (the Hole)

Abbe Picquet

rendering this River navigable

;

and

points out a

to

of those

and the

mode

of

meet the expense he

proposes a tax of ten livres on each canoe sent up and an ecu (fifty cents)

on each of the crew, which according to him will

produce three thousand 1

Ogdensburg

90 from Oswego.

is

livres, a

sum

105 miles from Montreal

The

distances laid

down

dering the time and the circumstances.

;

sufficient for the

workmen.

60 from Kingston, Can., and about

in the

Text are very accurate, consi-

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

426 Messrs de

la

Jonquiere and Bigot remark that they find this

establishment necessary as well as the erection of a saw-mill, as will diminish the

expense in the purchase of timber

the Rapids they will verify

them

;

it

but as regards

in order to ascertain if in fact

the river can be rendered navigable and they will send an estimate

of the works.

They have caused Abbe Picquet

five

to the

his Indians

and

cannon of two pound calibre to be sent

for his little fort so as to give confidence to

to persuade

them

that they will be in security

there.

M. de

la

Jonquiere in particular says, he will see

prietors of batteaux

would contribute

be incurred for the Rapids

to

him

j

the pro-

but he asks that convicts from the

work {gens

galleys or people out of

if

to the expense necessary to

inutiles')

He

to cultivate the ground.

is

in

be sent every year

want of men, and the

few he has exact high wages.

Mr. Bigot

1st 8ber, 1749.

amounting ten sous.^

for

to three thousand four

improvements [defrichemens)

hundred and eighty

five livres

Provisions were also furnished him for himself and

workmen, and

this settlement is

only commenced.

Jonquiere cannot dispense with sending an

officer there

Sieur de la Morandiere, Engineer,

soldiers.

memoir of the

also sends a special

expense incurred by Abb4 Picquet

this winter to

draw

is

to

M.

de

la

and. some

be sent there

out a plan of quarters for these soldiers

and

If there be not a garrison at that post, a

a store for provisions.

considerable foreign trade will be carried on there. 7th qber 1749.

Since

all

M. de

these letters

written another in which he states that

him that a band of Savages believed

M.

to be

la

Jonquiere has

de Longueuil informed

Mohawks had

attacked

Sieur Picquet’s Mission on the twenty-sixth of October last



that

Sieur de Vassau, commandant of Fort Frontenac, had sent a de-

tachment thither which could not prevent the burning of two vessels

loaded with hay and the palisades of the

fort.

Abbe PicquePs

house alone was saved.

The were

loss

it

by

this fire is considerable.

not for four Abenakis 1

who

It

would have been greater

furnished on this occasion a

Equal to $653.23.

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH. proof of their

fidelity.

hand carried away.

427

The man named Perdreaux had His arm had to be cut off. One of

half the the Abe-

nakis received the discharge of a gun the ball of which remained in his blanket.

M. de Longueuil la

M. de

has provided every thing necessary.

Jonqui^re gave him orders to have a detachment of ten soldiers

sent there, and he will take measures, next spring, to secure that post.

M.

de la Jonquiere adds that the Savages were instigated

to this attack

plimentary

by the English.

visit at

Iroquois

who were on

a com-

it and assured M. Amson [Johnson?]

Montreal were surprized at

de Longueuil that

who

The

it

could only be Colonel

could have induced them.

He

omitted nothing to persuade

those same Iroquois to undertake this expedition and to prevent

them going to compliment the Governor, having Belts which they refused.

COL.

JOHNSON TO GOV. CLINTON,

18

them

offered

AUG. 1750.

[Lond. Doc. XXIX.]

The next thing of consequence he (an Indian Sachem)

told

me

was, that he had heard from several Indians that the Governor had given orders to the Priest

Cadaraqui to use settle there, for

all

means possible

who

now

settled

which end they have a large magazine of

of clothing fitted for Indians as also Arms,

&c which

is

below

to induce the five Nations to all

kinds

Ammunition Provision

they distribute very liberally.

THE SAME TO THE BOAED OF TRADE,

28 AUG. 1756.

[Lond. Doc. XXXIII.]

The Onnondagas and Oneidas

are in the neighbourhood of

Swe-

gatchie a French settlement on the River St. Lawrence, whither

numbers of those two Nations have of and gone to

live.

Tho’ our

late years

Indians

do not

been debauched

now

resort

to

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

428

those places as frequently and familiarly as they formerly did, yet

some among them do occasionally

visit there,

when

the French

and the Indians in their interest poison the minds of ours with

good intentions towards

stories not only to the disadvantage of our

them, but endeavour to frighten them with pompous accounts of the superior prowess and martial abilities of the French.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE REV. ABBE PICQUET. XIV.]

[Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses,

Francois Picquet, doctor of the Sorbonne, King’s Missionary and Prefect Apostolic to Canada was born the

December, 1708

6*^^

.

.

.

year of his age, he successfully

at

As early commenced

Bourg

on

in Bresse

as the seventeenth

the functions of a

missionary in his country and at twenty years the Bishop of Sinope, Suffragan of the Diocese of Lyon, gave him, by a flattering exception, permission to preach in

Franche-Comte which depended on of his

new

state rendered

all

the parishes of Bresse and

The enthusiasm

his diocese.

him desirous

to

go to Rome, but the

Archibishop of Lyons advised him to study theology at Paris.

He

followed this advice and entered the Congregation of Saint

Sulpice.

him

direction of the

and

led

him beyond the

America where he remained tion debilitated for

new converts was soon proposed

to

but the activity of his zeal induced him to seek a wider

;

field,

The

by

seas in 1733, to the Missions of thirty years,

labor, acquired a force

him a robust health

to the

M. Picquet was among the

and where

and vigor which secured

end of his

first

life.

to foresee the

war which sprung

up about 1742 betw^een the English and the French. pared himself for

it

a long time beforehand.

ing to his Mission (at the Lake of the

French scattered afford

more

North

his constitu-

Two

He

He

Mountains)

all

in the vicinity, to strengthen themselves

the

liberty to

necessary detachments

;

savages.

pre-

began by drawl-

These furnished

all

the

and the

they were continually on the frontiers to

spy the enemy’s movements.

M.

Picquet learned, by one of these

detachments that the English were making warlike preparations at Sarasto [Saratoga ?]

and were pushing

their settlements

up

to

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

429

t

Lake

St.

Sacrement.

He

*

informed the General of the circum-

stance and proposed to him to send a body of troops there at if we could do no more. The exM. Picquet accompanied M. Marin who detachment. They burnt the fort, the Lydius

least to intimidate the

pedition

enemy,

was formed.

commanded

this

establishments, 2

several

saw

mills, the planks,

boards and other

building timber, the stock of supplies, provisions, the herds of cattle

along nearly

fifteen' leagues of settlement

and made one

hundred and forty-five prisoners without having

Frenchman

or without having

lost a

single

any even wounded. ^ This expedition

alone prevented the English undertaking any thing at that side

during the war.

Peace having been re-established

1748, our Missionary occu-

in

pied himself with the means of remedying, for the future, the in-

The road he saw taken

conveniences which he had witnessed.

by the Savages and other parties of the enemy sent by the English against us, caused him to select a post which could, hereafter, intercept the passage of the English.

M. de la

Galissonie^re to

make

He

proposed to

a settlement of the Mission of

La

Presentation^ near Lake Ontario, an establishment which succeded

beyond

and has been the most useful of

his hopes,

all

those of

Canada.

Mr. Rouille, Minister of the Marine wrote on the 4th ‘‘A large

number of iroquois having declared

of embracing Christianity,

it

that they

May

were desirous

has been proposed to establish a Mis-

sion towards Fort Frontenac in order to attract the greatest

possible thither.

whom

is

Abbe

these Nations seem to have confidence,

I

have given

it

the

name

of

Lake George, not only

but to ascertain his undoubted dominion here.” of Trade, Sept. 3d, 1755.

2

number

Picquet, a zealous Missionary and in

who

has been en-

“lam building a Fort at this Lake which the French call Lake St. Sacrement,

1

but

It

1749;

Now

in

honour to his Majesty

Sir William Johnson to the Board

Lond. Doc. xxxii., 178.

Fort Edward, Washington County.

3 “I received an account on the 19th insf., by express from Albany, that a party of French and their Indians had cut off a settlement in this Province called Saraghtoge, about fifty miles from Albany, and that about twenty houses with a

Fort (which the publick would not repair) were burned to ashes, thirty persons Gov. Clinton to the Board, 30

killed and scalped and about sixty taken prisoners.

Nov. 1745.

Lond. Doc. xxvii., 187, 235.

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

430

He was

trusted with this negotiation. select a

verify as precisely as

was

the

October

last,

M. de

last year, to

what can be depended upon

possible

relative to the dispositions of these 5*^^

have gone

to

establishment of the Mission, and

for the

suitable site

same

nations.

In a letter of

though an

la Gallisonni^re stated that

entire confidence cannot be placed in those they have manifested, it is

notwithstanding of so

much importance to succeed

in dividing

them, that nothing must be neglected that can contribute to It is for this

the design of the proposed settlement. success,

would not be

it

it.

reason that His Majesty desires you shall prosecute

difficult

If

then to

it

could attain a certain

make

the savages under-

stand that the only means of extricating themselves from the pretensions of the English to them and their lands,

Choueguen,'

so as to deprive

to destroy

is

them thereby of a Post which they

established chiefly with a view to control their tribes. truction

is

and the attachment of the savages and to use every is

means

requires

it

their Trade, that

it is

to engage the Iroquois to undertake

means

actually the only

feel that

This des-

of such great importance, both as regards our possessions

that can be employed, but

much prudence and

proper

it.

This

you must

circumspection.”

Mr. Picquet eminently possessed the

qualities requisite to effect

the removal of the English from our neighbourhood.

Therefore

the General, the Intendant, and the Bishop deferred absolutely to him, in the selection of the settlement for this

who had

despite the efforts of those

new Mission, and

opposite interests, he was

entrusted with the undertaking.

The Fort I

of

La

River, which the Indians

Mont-Real

;

is situated at 302 deg. 40 min. 50 min. Latitude on the Presentation

Presentation

ongitude, and at 44 deg.

fifteen leagues

name Soegasti; thirty leagues above from Lake Ontario or Lake Frontenac,

which with Lake Champlain gives

rise to the

15 leagues west of the source of the River into the sea at

New

River

St.

Laurence;

Hudson which

falls

Fort Frontenac had been built near

York.

there in 1671, to arrest the incursions of the English and the

Iroquois

;

the bay served as a port for the Mercantile and Military

Marine which had been formed there on that 1

Oswego.

sort of sea

where the

EARLY settlement AT OGDENSBURGH.

431

tempests are as frequent and as dangerous as on the ocean. the Post of

La Presentation appeared

the harbour

is

But

more important, because

still

very good, the river freezes there rarely, the barks

can leave with northern, eastern and southern winds, the lands are

most advantageously.

excellent, and that quarter can be fortified

Besides, that Mission

was adapted by

situation to reconcile

its

to us the Iroquois sayages of the Five Nations

Virginia and Lake Ontario.

afterwards

M.

who inhabit between of Beauharnois and

de la Jonqui^re, Governor General of

w^ere very desirous that

when English

The Marquis

we

should occupy

jealousy irritated by a

it,

New

France,

especially at a time

war of many

years, sought to

alienate from us the Tribes of Canada-

This establishment was as

if

the key of the Colony, because the

English, French and Upper Canada savages could not pass else-

where than under the cannon of Fort Presentation when coming

down from

the South

;

the Iroquois to the South and the Micis-

sagu6s to the North were within

its

Thus

reach.

it

eventually

succeeded in collecting them together from over a distance of one

The

hundred leagues.

and traders, notwith-

officers, interpreters

standing, then regarded that establishment as chimerical.

and opposition had ness of the

effected its failure

had

Abbe Picquet supported by

This establishment served to protect,

it

not been for the firm-

that of the Administration.

aid,

and comfort the Posts

The Barks and Canoes

already erected on Lake Ontario.

Envy

for the

Transportation of the King’s effects could be constructed there a third less expense than elsewhere because timber quantity and more accessible, especially

had a saw mill erected there timber. for the

In

fine

for preparing

when M. Picquet had and manufacturing the

French Colonists and a point of reunion

M. Picquet some savages.

at

greater

he could establish a very important settlement

and savages, where they would to thj I’u’Ting

in

is

and fishing left

.find

in the

for

Europeans

themselves very convenient

upper part of Canada.

with a detachment of soldiers, mechanics and

He

placed himself at

possible against the insults of the

first in

as great security as

enemy, which availed him ever

October 1749, he had built a F ort of palisades, He had a house, a barn, a stable, a redoubt and an oven since.

On the

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

432

His improvements were estimated

lands cleared for the savages.

thousand

ihi'ty to forty

ai

He

judgment as economy.

much workmen and they

but he introduced as

livres^

animated the

laboured from three o’clock in the morning until nine at night.

As

for himself his disinterestedness

From

He

was extreme.

that time neither allowance nor presents

received at

he supported himself by

;

King he had but one ration of half pound of pork, which made the two pounds of bread and one savages say, when they brought him a Buck and some Partridges, his industry

We

and

credit.

the

doubt not. Father, but that there have been disagreeable

expostulations in your stomach, because you have had nothing but

pork to

eat.

Here’s something to put your

affairs in

The

order.”

hunters furnished him wherewithal to support the Frenchmen, and to treat the Generals occasionally.

The savages brought him

trout

weighing as many as eighty pounds.

When

the Court had granted

him a pension he employed

At

for the benefit for his establishment.

it

only

he had six heads

first,

of families in 1749, eighty-seven the year following, and three

hundred and ninety-six in 1751.

All these were of the most

antient and most influential families, so that this Mission was,

from that time us,

amounting

sufficiently

powerful to attach the Five Nations to

to twenty-five

thousand inhabitants, and he reck-

oned as many as three thousand

in his

By attaching

Colony.

the

Iroquois Cantons to France and establishing them fully in our interest,

we were

certain of having nothing to fear from the other

savage tribes and thus a limit could be put to the ambition of the English.

Mr. Picquet took considerable advantage of the peace

to increase that settlement,

and he carried

it

in

than four

less

years to the most desirable perfection, despite of the contradictions that

he had to combat against

;

the obstacles he had to surmount

the jibes and

unbecoming jokes which he was obliged

his happiness

and glory suffered nothing therefrom.

with astonishment several villages

start

to bear

up almost

;

but

People saw at

once

;

a

convenient, habitable and pleasantly situated fort; vast clearances

covered almost at the same time with the five

hundred families,

still

all

infidels,

finest

who

maize.

More than

congregated there,

soon rendered this settlement the most beautiful, the most charm-

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

433

t

ing and the most abundant of the Colony.

La

La

Presentation,

Depending on

it

were

Galette, Suegatzi, L’isle au Galop, and L’isle

Picquet in the River

St.

Lawrence. There were

in the Fort, seven

small stone guns and eleven four to six pounders.

at

The most distinguished of the Iroquois families were distributed La Presentation in three villages that which adjoined the :

French fort contained, in 1754, forty-nine bark cabins

which were from sixty

to eighty feet

The place pleased them on account of

to four families.

dance of hunting and

some of

long and accommodated three the abun-

This Mission could no doubt be

fishing.

increased, but cleared land sufficient to allow all the families to

plant and to aid them to subsist would be necessary and each

The

Tribe should have a separate location

Bishop of Quebec wishing to witness and assure himself personally of the wonders related to him of the (Bstablishment at tation

went

thither in 1749,

mens

La Presen-

Officers, royal

from other Missions and several other

interpreters. Priests

gymen, and spent

accompanied by some

cler-

ten days

examining and causing the Catechu-

He

himself baptized one hundred and

to be examined.

thirty-two, and did not cease during his sojourn, blessing

Heaven

among these Infidels. Scarcely were they baptized when M. Picket determined

for the progress of Religion

He

give them a form of Government.

Twelve Ancients Nations

Marquis

;

;

to

established a Council of

chose the most influential

among

the Five

brought them to Mont-Real where at the hands of the

Du Quesne

they took the Oath of Allegiance to the King

to the great astonishment of the

whole Colony where no person

dared to hope for such an event.

In the month of June 1751, M. Picquet made a voyage around Lake Ontario with a King’s Canoe and one of Bark in which he

had

five trusty Savages,

families to the

memoir, among

new

with the design of attracting some Indian

settlement of

La

Presentation.

his papers on the subject,

There

from which

it is

is

a

pro-

posed to give an extract.

He

visited

Fort Frontenac or Cataracoui^ situate twelve leagues

west of La Presentation.

He

found no Indians there though

was formerly the rendezvous of the Five Nations. 28

it

The bread and

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

434

milkj there, were bad a

they had not even brandy there to staunch

;

Arrived at a point of Lake Ontario called Kaoi, he

wound.

found a runaway there from Virginia

At the Bay which M.

of Quinte he visited the site of the antient Mission

Abbe D’Urfe, priests of the Saint Sulpice The quarter is beautiful but the

Dollieres de Kleus and

Seminary had established there. land

is

He

not good.

visited Fort Toronto, seventy leagues

from

West end of Lake Ontario. He found good Bread and good Wine there, and every thing requisite for Fort Frontenac, at the

were

the trade, whilst they

He first

ren

in

want of these

at all the other posts.

found Mississagues there who flocked around him

;

they spoke

young people, the women and childKing would be as good to them as to the

of the happiness their

would

feel if the

whom

Iroquois for

They complained

he procured Missionaries.

had 'constructed only a

that instead of building a church, they

M. Picquet

canteen for them.

did not allow

them

to finish

and

answered them that they had been treated according to their fancy; that they

had never evinced the

conduct was trary

much opposed

had manifested

to

least zeal for religion; that their it

;

that the Iroquois on the con-

their love for Christianity, but as he

had no

order to attract them to his Mission, he avoided a more lengthy explanation.

He

passed thence to Niagara.

that fort, not having

any savages

He examined the situation of It is to whom he could speak.

well located for defence not being

The view extends of the landing of

notwithstanding it.

commanded from any

great distance

;

rain

was washing the

soil

the vast expence which the

away by degrees, King incurred to

of opinion that the space between

wharf might be

a glacis there.

point.

they have the advantage

the canoes and barks which land and are in

M. Picquet was

the land and the

make

all

But the

safety there.

sustain

to a

filled in so as to

support

it

and

This place was important as a Trading post

and as securing possession of the Carrying place, Niagara and

Lake Ontario.

From Niagara, Mr. Picquet went six leagues

from that Post.

Fall of Niagara

He

to the

visited

Carrying place which

is

on the same day the famous

by which the four Great Canada lakes discharge

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

435

t

themselves into Lake Ontario. its

This Cascade

is

as prodigious

by

height and the quantity of water which falls there, as by the

variety of

falls

its

which are

number of

to the

six principal ones

divided by a small island, leaving three to the North and three

They produce

to the South.

and wonderful from the south feet.

in a



of themselves a singular

He measured the height of one

effect.

and he found

side,

The establishment at

this

it

about one hundred and forty

Carrying place, the most important

The

commercial point of view was the worst stocked.

who came

symmetry

of those falls

Indians,

there in great numbers, were in the best disposition to

what they wanted, they went to Choueguen Choeguen [Oswego] at the mouth of the river of the same

trade, but not finding

or

M.

name.

Picquet counted there as

was notwithstanding

mandant and Trader lodged, but property was not safe there.

M. Picquet

many as

fifty

There

canoes.

Niagara a Trading House where the Com-

at

it

was

too small, and the King’s

negotiated wuth the Senecas w^ho promised to re-

pair to his Mission

and gave him twelve children as hostages,

saying to him that their parents had nothing dearer to them and followed him immediately, as well as the Chief of the Little

Rapid with

He

family

all his

Savages to return

to

set out

with

M. Chabert de

Fort Niagara.

all

those

Joncaire

would not abandon him.

At each place where they encountered camps, cabins and entrepots, they were saluted wdth musquetry by

who

the Indians

the Missionary.

the

lead with the

Savages

Mess” Joncaire and Rigouille following with the He embarked with thirty-nine Savages in his large

of the hills recruits.

never ceased testifying their consideration for

M. Picquet took

;

canoe and was received on arriving at the fort with the greatest

ceremony, even with the discharge of cannon which pleased the Indians.

On

the

morrow he assembled

for the first time, in the chapel of the

M.

Fort for religious services.

Picquet returned along the south coast of Lake Ontario.

Alongside of Choeguen, a young Seneca met her Uncle

coming from 1

greatly-

the Senecas,

his village

These are French

feet.

Burr’s Atlas, Introd. p. 31.

with his wdfe and children.

The

falls

who was

This young

on the American side are 164

feet high.

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

436

spoke so well to her Uncle, though she had but

girl

ledge of Religion that he promised to repair to

La

little

know-

Presentation

early the following spring, and that he hoped to gain over also

seven other cabins of Senecas of which he was chief. five leagues

from Niagara he

where he met a number of Rattlesnakes.

jumped

into the midst

of them

Twenty-

the River Gascouchagou*

visited

The young

Indians

and killed forty-two without

having been bitten by any.

He

The

next visited the Falls of this River.

first

which

appear in sight in ascending resemble much the great Cascade

at

Saint Cloud, except that they have not been ornamented and do

not seem so high, but they possess natural beauties which render

them very

curious.

The

less considerable, yet are

second, a quarter of a mile higher, are

The

remarkable.

third, also a quarter

of a league higher, has beauties truly admirable by

and

falls

which form

also, as at

They may be one hundred and some

and variety.

the intervals between the

falls,

its

curtains

Niagara, a charming proportion feet high. ^

there are a hundred

which present likewise a curious spectacle

:

of each chute were joined together, and they

and

if

little

cascades

the altitudes

made but one

Niagara, the height would, perhaps, be four hundred feet there

is

as at ;

but

four times less water than at the Niagara Fall w’hich will

cause the latter to pass, for ever, as a in the

In

Wonder perhaps unique

World.

The English

to

throw disorder into

Some

deal of brandy.

this

new

savages did, in fact get

Picquet could not bring along.

He

levy sent a good

drunk

therefore desired

whom M. much

that

Choeguen were destroyed and the English prevented rebuilding it

;

and in order that we should be absolutely masters of the south

side of Lake Ontario, he proposed erecting a Fort near there at the

bay of the Cayugas^ which would make a very good harbour and furnish very fine anchorage.

He examined

No place

is

better adapted for a Fort.

attentively the Fort of Choeguen, a post the most

pernicious to France that the English could erect. 1

The Genesee River.

1755 (No. 992.

W.

In Belin’s

C. State Lib.)

Map

it is

It

was com-

of Partie Occidentale dela Nouvdle France

described as a

River unknown to Geogra-

phers, filled with Rapids and Waterfalls.”

2

The highest

fall

on the river

is

105 feet.

3 Sodus bay.

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

manded almost from in time of war.

like a ship

It

and could be very easily approached

all sides

was

437

two story very low building

a

and surmounted on the top by a gallery

decked

;

the whole

;

was

surrounded by a stone wall, flanked only with two bastions at the

Two

side towards the nearest hill.

batteries each of three twelve

pounders, would have been more than sufficient to reduce that establishment to ashes.

It

was prejudicial

to us

by the

afforded the English of communicating with all

Canada

still

more than by the trade

facility

it

the tribes of

by Choeguen was

carried on there as well

the French of the Colony as by the savages

:

for

supplied with merchandize adapted only to the French, at least as

niuch as with what suited to the savages, a circumstance that indicated an

the

illicit

Choeguen

Had

trade.

But

would be almost ruined. especially

the

the Minister’s orders been executed,

trade at least with the savages of it

was necessary

Portage, rather than

between the two

first

Toronto.

of these posts and the last

four hundred canoes could

come loaded with

Upper Canada

to supply Niagara,

The

difference

that three or

is,

furs to the Portage,

and that no canoes could go to Toronto except those which cannot pass before Niagara and to Fort Frontenac, such as the Otaois of the head of the

Lake {Fond du Lac) and the Mississagues

;

so that

Toronto could not but diminish the trade of these two antient posts,

which would have been

had the stores been furnished with goods to

was a wish

savages

sufficient to stop all the

There

their liking.

to imitate the English in the trifles they sold the sava-

The Indians compared

ges such a silver bracelets etc.

&

weighed

them, as the storekeeper at Niagara stated, and the Choeguen bracelets

which were found

elegant, did not cost

posts wanted to sell dited, stores.

and

as heavy, of a purer silver

them two beavers, whilst those them

for ten beavers.

and more

at the King’s

Thus we were

discre-

ware remained

a pure loss in the King’s

French brandy was preferred

to the English, but that did

this silver

not prevent the Indians going to Choeguen.

Trade the King’s posts ought goods as Choeguen and

to

at the

To

destroy the

have been supplied with the same

same

price.

The French ought

also have been forbidden to send the domiciliated Indians thither

but that would have been very

difficult.

;

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

438

to Frontenac. Never was a recepmore imposing. The Nipissings and Algonquins who were going to war with M. de Bellestre, drew up in a line of their own accord above Fort Frontenac where three standards were

Mr. Picquet next returned

tion

They fired several volleys of musketry and cheered They were answered in the same style from' all the M. de Verchere and M, de la Valtrie caused craft of bark.

hoisted.

incessantly. little

the guns of the Fort to be discharged at the

same time, and the

Indians transported with joy at the honors paid them also kept up a continual

one

with shouts and acclamations which made every

fire

The commandants and

rejoice.

No

at the landing.

officers

sooner had he debarked than

quins and Nipissings of the

Lake came

that they had been told that the English

that

received our Missionary all

the Algon-

embrace him, saying

to

had arrested him, and had

news been confirmed they would soon have themselves

relieved him.

Finally

when he

La

returned to

Presentation,

he was received with that affection, that tenderness which children

would experience

War was

in recovering a father

no sooner declared

in

whom

they had

lost.

1754 than the new children of

God, of the King and of M. Picquet, thought only of giving Lake of the

proofs of their fidelity and valor, as those of the

Mountains had done indebted to w^ell

in

the

M. Picquet

war preceding.

fresh

Two

The generals were

for the destruction of all the Forts as

on the river Corlac (Corlear) as on that of Choeguen.

His

Indians distinguished themselves especially at Fort George on

Lake Ontario where

the wmrriors of La Presentation alone wdth their

bark canoes destroyed the English

fleet

commanded by Capt.

Beccan who was made prisoner with a number of others and that in sight of the

was

at the

French army, commanded by M. de

Isle

The war

Galop.

returned continually,

filled

parties

Villiers

who

which departed and

the Mission with so

many

prisoners

that their

numbers frequently surpassed that of the warriors,

rendering

it

In

M. Picquet was the

fine

principal author have procured the promotion

of several officers in the

empty the villages and send them a number of other expeditions of wffiich

necessary to

to Headquarters.

vanguard

wffien the

He

frequently found himself

King’s troops were ordered to attack the

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

He

enemy.

439

distinguished himself particularly in the expeditions

of Sarasto (Saratoga), Lake Champlain, Pointe a la Chevelure

(Crown Point), the Cascades, Carillon (Ticonderoga) Choeguen (Oswego), River Corlac (Mohawk), Isle au Galop etc. The posts he established for the King protected the Colony pending the enwar. M. du Quesne said that the Abb4 Picquet was worth more than ten regiments. In the month of May 1756 M. de Vaudreuil got M. Picquet to tire

depute the Chiefs of his Missions to the Five Nations of Senecas, Tuscaroras and Oneidas to attach them more and more to the French. The English had surprised and killed their nephews in the three villages of the Loups (Mohegansl) Cayugas,' Onontagues,

M. de Vaudreuil

requested him to form parties which could suc-

ceed each other in disquieting and harassing the English.

1758 he destroyed the English

forts

In

on the banks of Corlac,

but at length the battle of the 13 Sept. 1759, in which the Marquis of Montcalm was killed, brought ruin on Quebec and that of Ca-

When

nada followed.

he saw

all

thus lost,

M.

Picquet

ter-

minated his long and laborious career by his retreat on the 8^^

May

1760, with

the advice and

Bishop and Intendant,

of the

General, the

in order not to fall into the

hands of the

He had determined

English.

consent

never to swear allegiance to another

power.

He

passed to Michilimachina between Lake Huron and Lake

Michigan

proceeded thus by way of Upper Canada to the

;

Illinois

country &Louisiana, and sojourned twenty two months at

On

Orleans. Paris.

A

his return to France,

New

he passed several years

hernia which afflicted him a long time, having

in

become

aggravated, finally caused his death at Verjon on the 15^^ July

1781.

In his

life

time he was complimented with the

title

of

Apostle of the Iroquois.”

Note.



ort la Presentation, with the River,

under the names

of Wegatchi^ Sivegatchi, Oswegatchi, will be found laid the following

Maps and

Charts, viz*

down

in

EARLY SETTLEMENT AT OGDENSBURGH.

440

A Map of

of that part of America which

War

was the

principal seat

in 1756, published in the Gentleman’s Magazine for

1757, Vol. xxvii. An Exact Chart of the River St. Lawrence from Fort Frontenac to the Island of Anticosti

1775

;

with the River

St.

of

Map

New

Sauthiers

Jeffereys,

Lawrence from Quebec

Ontario copied from D’AnvilPs Sauthiers

by Tho^

Map of

1755

London to

Lake

;

of the Inhabited parts of Canada and Frontiers

York, &c. London 1777

Map

of the Province of

New York,

Lond. 1779 and

in

Carte Generale des (14) Etats Unis de PAmerique Septentrionale renfermant quelques Provinces Angloises adjacentes, being

No. 30 in Atlas of Maps on America

in State Lib.

Reference to this settlement will be also found in Gent. Mag. xxiv, 593. Patterson.

It

is

sometimes,

though

corruptly,

called

Fort

XVII.

PAPERS RELATING TO

THE FIRST SETTLEMENT AND CAPTURE OF

/nrt

dDsraego.

1727-175e

' 'I

Jv-

,

-Mm

t ',f

FIRST SETTLEMENT OF THE ENGLISH IN WESTERN

NEW-YORK. [Lond. Doc. XXII.]

Gov. Burnet to the Board of Trade.

New That

I

might improve

York, Oct.

employed the

to the best advantage I have

five

16, 1721.

good humor

their (the Indians’) present

hundred pounds

granted this year by the Assembly chiefly to the erecting and

encouraging a settlement a Tirandaquet a Creek on the Lake Ontario about sixty miles on this side Niagara^ whither there are

now

actually gone a

company of

ten persons with the approbation

of our Indians and with the assurance of a sufficient number of

themselves to live with them and be a guard to them against any

and because the

surprize,

Schuyler’s son

^

first

late

President of the Council Peter

offered his service to

go

at the

head of

made him

expedition I readily accepted him and have

this

several

presents to Equip him and given him a handsome allowance for his

own salary and a Commission of Captain over the rest that may be there wdth him and Agent to treat with the Indians

are or

from

me

for purchasing

Land and

did that I might shew that

This

Company have undertaken

and that never above two

yet there

is

there or any where else on their is

all

1.

many more

own account

the far Indians to

from which the French

besides they

to remain on this Settlement

and tho’ these

to

money

go and

settle

as please.

indisputedly in the Indians possession and

very convenient for

first it

I the rather

at present out of the public

nothing that hinders as

This place

which

dislike to the family.

shall be absent at once,

have the sole encouragement

because

other things

had no personal

I

at

Niagara will not easily hinder them

must be soon known and

may

easily slip

Irondequoit bay, Monroe Co.

lies

come on account of Trade

by them

is

against the Treaty and

in canoes 2.

and get to

this

Major Abraham Schuyler.

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

444

place before the French, can catch

them

in the pursuit if they

should attempt to hinder them. This,

my

Lords

maintained with

is

all

the beginning of a great Trade that

the Indians

of all our goods except

may be

upon the Lakes and the cheapness

Powder above the French

will

by degrees

draw all that Trade to us which can not better appear than by the French having found it worth while to buy our Goods at Albany Wherefore to break that Practice to sell again to the Indians.

more

effectually I have placed a sufficient

the Carrying Place to

with the remainder of the

As

to

Guard of

Soldiers on

Canada and built a small Blockhouse there five

^

hundred pounds before mentioned.

Niagara I did write to the Governor of Canada to com-

plain of all the unwarrantable steps he has taken and

among

others

of his erecting a Blockhouse at Niagara before the Treaty of Limits

had

who

settled

belong to

it

I received his answer at

Albany

in

which he

flatly

denies most

of the Facts I complain of.

But as first

to

Niagara he pretends possession for above

fifty

years

taken by M** de la Sale.

EXTRACTS FROM FRENCH LETTERS. [Paris Doc. VII.]

Letter^ dated

22

May

1725.

that he received advice the

M. the Marquis December

Dutch had projected an establishment

of Vaudreuil writes

that the English

at the

and the

mouth of the River

Chouaguen on the borders of Lake Ontario and very near the post

we have at Niagara. The news of this

establishment on soil always considered as

belonging to France appeared to him the more important as he felt is

the difficulty of preserving the post of Niagara

no

fort,

where there

should the English once fortify Chouaguen; and that in

losing Niagara the

Colony

is lost

and

at the

same time

all

the trade

who go the more willingly goods there much cheaper and

with the upper Country Indians,

to the

English since they obtain

get as

1.

Now

Fort Edward, originally Fort Lydius, Washington Co,

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

much brandy

as they like,

445

which we cannot absolutely dispense

furnishing the upper country Indians, though with prudence,

if it

be desirable to prevent them carrying their furs and surrendering themselves to the English.

M. de Longueuil wrote

.

in the

month of February

that the Iro-

quois of the Sault had appointed four of their chiefs and one of

Lake of the Two Mountains to go to Orange to represent to the Dutch that they would not suffer their settling at Chouaguen and that they would declare war against them if they established the

themselves there.

He

repaired on the ice to Montreal on the 12

March where he

received the confirmation of the news of the English, and learned that they

and the Dutch had started with a great many canoes

for

Lake Ontario to make a settlement at the mouth of the River Choueguen in concert with the Iroquois that he was afraid he could not prevent it if they be supported by those Indians, to a war with whom, he knows, the King does not intend to expose ;

himself.

The

Indians of the Sault returned from Orange dissatisfied with

their reception.

He

immediately despatched M. de Longueuil to

the Iroquois and thence to Choueguen.

He commanded him

to

induce the savages not to suffer this Establishment, and in rase

he could not prevail on them to oppose to remain neuter is

it

and to suggest to them

their interest to maintain us at

openly, to persuade them at the

same time,

that

it

Niagara or to consent to our

building a more solid and secure house than the one that

there.

is

M. de Longueuil, should summon them to withdraw

In regard to the English he ordered

he

find

them

settled at

from their lands

Choueguen,

to

until the boundaries

were regulated,

failing

which

he should adopt proper measures to constrain them.

M. de Longueuil

Letter dated 10 June 1725.

(M. Begon)

from Fort Frontenac the ninth of

was no Trading Post

as yet at

writes to him

May

Choueguen.

Letter dated^ 31 October^ 1725.

&

Begon

He

found

Mess''^ de Longueuil

send particulars of said Sieur de LongueuiPs voyage.

JOO English

that there

at the portage of the River, four leagues from

Ontario, with more than 60 canoes; that they

made him

Lake

exhibit his

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

446

passport and shewed him an order from the Governor of

New

to allow any Frenchman to go by without a passport. M. de Longueuil took occasion to reproach the Iroquois Chiefs who were present that they were no longer masters of their lands.

York not

This succeeded

;

they blew out against the English

;

told

them

they would bear with them no longer, having permitted them to

come

They even promised him they should remain

to trade.

neuter in case of war against the English.

He

next repaired to Onontague, an Iroquois Village and there

found the Deputies of the other four Iroquois Villages

He made them

waiting for him there. tion of

who were

consent to the construc-

2 barks and the erection of a stone house

at Niagara, of

which he took the plan

which they send with an estimate

amounting to 29,295

(=

livres

$5,592.)

The two barks were built in 1726. The House (Niagara) was commenced the same year and Nota.

fin-

ished in 1726.

Nota.

Sieur Chaussegross, engineer, writes that he erected this

House on the same spot where an antient Fort had been order of

New

of

France

in

25 July^ 1726.

by

1686.

(M. de Longueuil writes that) he has given

orders to Chevalier de Longueuil his son (at

built

M. d’Enonville former Governor and Lieutenant General

who commanded

there

Niagara) not to return until the English and Dutch retire from

Choueguen where they have been 300 men, and should he meet

all

summer

their canoes

to the

number of

on the lake, to plunder

them.

18

Se/pt 1726.

M.

the Marquis of Beauharnois sends an extract

of a letter from Chevalier de Longueuil dated Niagara, the 5th of 7t>e

1726, in which he states that there are no more English at

Choueguen, along the Lake nor of them in the

Lake

he’ll

in

the River and if he meet

plunder them.

any

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

447

/

BURNET TO THE BOARD OF TRADE.

GOV.

[Lond. Doc. XXIII.]

New York May 9th I

have

Spring sent up

this

workmen

1727.

to build a stone house of

strength at a place called Oswego, at the

mouth of the Onnon-

dage River where our principal Trade with the far Nations carried on.

build

it,

is

have obtained the consent of the Six Nations to

I

and having Intelligence that a party of

men were going up towards Niagara have orders to interupt

this

Frpch

of ninety

I suspected that they

might

work, and therefore I have sent up a

detachment of sixty Souldiers with a Captain and two Lieutenants,

from any disturbance that any French or

to protect the building

Indians traders

may offer to it. now at the same

There are besides about two hundred

who

place,

are all

armed

as Militia, and

ready to join in defence of the Building and their Trade, in case they are attacked

doing

it,

:

The French can have no

the last Treaty

makes me think

it

the house

is

finished

it

will be sufficiently strong against

an attack with small arms, which

and

I intend to

there,

which

to us,

it

keep an

will

necessary for us to be on our

may make.

guard against any attempts they

When

just pretence for

but their lately building a Fort at Niagara, contrary to

is all

that can be brought thither,

and twenty men always in Garrison

Officer

be of the greatest use to keep our Indians true

being near the centre of

most conveniently to receive

all

all

the Six Nations,

the far Indians wffio

&

lying

come to trade

with us.

My

Lord Bellomont formerly intended

William’s order near this place, and plate

and furniture

it

to build a

went

for a chappie there,

England, but the Design was never been resumed since

’till

so far that even

were sent over from

by upon

laid

now’.

Fort by King

his Death,

and has

^

Smith, Hist. N. Y. Ed. 1828, i. 253, represents the erection of the above Fort having been begun in 1722; an error which has been copied by McAuley, Dunlap and others who have followed him without inquiry. Gov. Burnet’s despatch and the preceding Docs., correct the mistake and furnish the precise date. 1

as

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

448

The Assembly provided which

service, of

three hundred pounds last fall for this

I then acquainted

been

own

credit, to furnish necessaries

men,

& make is

&

this

Town

their Battoes over

I

have

upon my

and provisions, and hire workit

all

is

Water

called Schenectady to this place,

about two hundred miles, except

must draw

that value

Battoes to carry up the men, for

carriage from our outmost

which

Your Lordships, but

more than double

obliged to lay out

Land, which

five miles, is

easily

where they

enough done,

makes the communication much more convenient than by

Land. I

hope the Assembly will supply

this Deficiency

when they

meet, but I was so convinced of the benefit of the undertaking that I

was resolved not

of money.

My

I

am

to let

it fail

for

want of a present supply

with great Respect,

Lords, Your Lordships most dutifull and

most obliged humble servant

W.

Burnet.

BURNET TO THE BOARD OF TRADE.

GOY.

[Lond. Doc. XXIII.]

New York 29th

The Province

Extract.

is

much

June

1727.

obliged to your Lordships for

representing the French building a Fort at Niagara, and in order to obtain Redress

the

mouth of

the same Fort which I have been building at

the Onnondage’s River called

Oswego

this Spring,

goes on successfully hitherto, and without any interruption from the French or their Indians, and with the full consent and approbation of our

own

Indians.

The Detachment of

Souldiers which I sent to up arrived safely

there the beginning of this month, so that

any attempt will now be made its

to hinder

it,

it

is

and

not likely that I

depend upon

being of the best use of any thing that has ever been under-

taken on that side either to preserve our Interest, or to

Indians.

promote and

fix

own

Indians in our

a constant Trade with the remote

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

GOVERNOR OF CANADA TO THE [Par. Doc. VII.

Sir



that the

Lond. Doc. XXIII.]

;

am

very well persuaded that you have been informed

my

King

master has done

my

you have likewise been so of

you

my surprise

at the

name me

the honor to in

New

all

France, and

arrival to this country.

when

between our Sovereigns ought to

of the like between you and me. to

me

General

his Lieutenant

I find myself, Sir, in a juncture sists

GOV. OF NEW-YORK.

July 20th, 1727. I

Governour and that

449

the close union that sub-

me

flatter

But

with the hopes

I cannot avoid observing

permission which you have given to the

English Merchants to carry on a trade at the River of Oswego,

and that you have ordered a Redoubt with Galleries {Machicoulies) and to

full of

Loop

holes and other works belonging to fortification,

be built at the Mouth of that River, in which you have placed

a Garrison of Regular Troops. I

have been.

Sir,

the more astonished at

it,

you should

since

have considered your Undertaking as a thing capable of disturbing the

Union of the two Crowns

;

You cannot be

ignorant of the

possession during a very considerable time, which the

Master has of

all

Ontario and the adjacent Lands built Forts

King

my

the Lands of Canada, of which those of the lake

make a

and made other Settlements

part,

and

in

in different

which he has places as are

those of Denonville at the Entrance of the River of Niagara, that

of Frontenac, another called

La Famine,

that

which

is

called the

Fort des Sables, another at the Bay of the Cayougas at Oswego, &c. without any opposition, they having been one and possessed by the French,

who

all

of them

alone have had a right, and have

had the possession of carrying on the Trade there. I look. Sir,

pretending to

upon the Settlements that you are beginning and

make

at the

River of Oswego, the

Entrance of the Lake Ontario into the

fortifications that

you have made

there,

and

the Garrison that you have posted there, as a manifest infraction

of the Treaty of Utrecht,

29

it

being expressly settled by that Treaty,

PAPERS RELATING TO OSWEGO.

450

that the subjects of each

upon one another, to

’till

Crown

shall not molest nor

the Limits have been fixed

encroach

by Commissaries,

be named for that purpose. This

it is.

M. De

which determines me

Sir,

at present to

Town

Chassaigne Governour of the

la

send away

of trois Rivieres,

with an Officer, to deliver this letter to you, and to inform you of

my

Intentions.

send away at the same time a Major to summon the Officer who commands at Oswego, to retire with his Garrison and other persons who are there, to demolish the fortifications and other I

works, and to evacuate entirely that post and to

retire

home.

The Court of France which I have the honour to inform this moment, will have Room to look upon this undertaking act of hostility on your part,

attention to the justice of 1 desire

you

to

honour

of as

it

an

and I dont doubt but you will give

my Demand.

me with

a positive answer which I expect

am persuaded may trouble the harmony

without delay by the return of these Gentlemen, I that on your side that prevails

you

will

do nothing that

among our two Crowns, and

that

you

will not act

against their true Interests. I should

occasion to

which

I

be extremely pleased.

show you

Sir, if

you would give me some

particularly the sentiments of Respect with

have the honour to be.

Sir,

Your most humble and most