The digital age

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка естественно-научных факультетов факультета романо-

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The digital age

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

THE DIGITAL AGE Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов

Составители: Е.В. Воронина, Н.М. Шишкина

Воронеж Издательский дом ВГУ 2014

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Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской филологии 10 июня 2014 г., протокол № 6

Рецензент кандидат филологических наук, доцент С.Л. Лукина

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка естественно-научных факультетов факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендуется для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов очно-заочной формы обучения факультета прикладной математики, информатики и механики.

Для направления 010500 – Прикладная математика и информатика 2

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Unit1 Living with computers 1a. Make a list of the ways you and your family use computers at work and in your free time. 1b. Swap opinions with your group mates. 2a. Read the text. Which computer uses didn’t you mention in 1b? The digital age We are now living in what some people call the digital age, meaning that computers have become an essential part of our lives. Young people who have grown up with PCs and mobile phones are often called the digital generation. Computers help students to perform mathematical operations and improve their maths skills. They are used to access the Internet, to do basic research and to communicate with other students around the world. Teachers use projectors and interactive whiteboards to give presentations and teach sciences, history or language courses. PCs are also used for administrative purposes – schools use word processors to write letters, and databases to keep records of students and teachers. A school website allows teachers to publish exercises for students to complete online. Students can also enroll for courses via the website and parents can download official reports. Mobiles let you make voice calls, send texts, email people and download logos, ringtones or games. With a built-in camera you can send pictures and make video calls in face-to-face mode. New smartphones combine a telephone with web access, video, a games console, an MP3 player, a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a GPS navigation system, all in one. In banks, computers store information about the money held by each customer and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial transactions at high speed. They also control the cashpoints, or ATMs (automatic teller machines), which dispense money to customers by the use of a PIN-protected card. People use a Chip and Pin card to pay for goods and services. Instead of using a signature to verify 3

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payments, customers are asked to enter a four-digit personal identification number (PIN), the same number used at cashpoints; this system makes transactions more secure. With online banking, clients can easily pay bills and transfer money from the comfort of their homes. Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example, monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details. 2b. Find the words (1-10) in the text above. Can you guess the meaning from context? 1. perform 2. word processor 3. online 4. download 5. built-in 6. digital 7. store 8. financial 9. monitor 10.data 2c. Match the words in 2b (1-10) with the correct meanings (a-j). a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

keep, save execute, do monetary screen integrated connected to the Internet collection of facts or figures describes information that is recorded or broadcast using computers program used for text manipulation copy files from a server to your PC or mobile

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Language Work: Collocations Verbs and nouns often go together in English to make set phrases, for example access the Internet. These word combinations are called collocations, and they are very common. Learning collocations instead of individual words can help you remember which verb to use with which noun. Here are some examples from the text above: perform operations, do research, make calls, send text, display data, write letters, store information, complete exercises, carry out transactions. 2d. Use collocations from the text above to complete the sentences. 1. Thanks to Wi-Fi, it’s now easy to _____ from cafés, hotels, parks and many other public places. 2. Online banking lets you _____ between your accounts easily and securely. 3. Skype is a technology that enables users to _____ over the Internet for free. 4. In many universities, students are encouraged to _____ using Power Point in order to make their talks more visually attractive. 5. The Web has revolutionized the way people _____ - with sites such as Google and Wikipedia, you can find the information you need in seconds. 6. Cookies allow a website to _____ on a user’s machine and later retrieve it; when you visit the website again, it remembers your preferences. 7. With the latest mobile phones, you can _____ with multimedia attachments – pictures, audio, even video. 3. In pairs, discuss the following questions. 1. How were computers used in your school? 2. How do you think computers will be used in education in the future?

Unit 2 Types of computer systems 1a. What types of computers do you know? Where are they used? Discuss in small groups. 1b. Read the text. Which types of computers do these descriptions refer to? 1. a hand-held computer which can be used as a telephone, a web explorer and a personal organizer 2. a typical computer found in many businesses and popular for home use 5

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3. a large computer used for intensive data processing and often linked to many terminals 4. a small computer that fits into items of clothing 5. a portable computer that can be closed up like a briefcase, but it can be as powerful as a desktop PC 6. a full-function PC, though it only weighs 1.2 kg – you can go to a meeting and write your notes on it, like a paper notepad; its screen mode can be from portrait to landscape From mainframes to wearable computers A mainframe

is the most powerful type of computer. It

can process and store

large amounts of data. It supports multiple

users at the same time

and can support more simultaneous

processes than a PC. The central system is a large server connected to hundreds of terminals over a network. Mainframes are used for large-scale computing purposes in banks, big companies and universities. A desktop PC

has its own processing unit (or CPU), mon-

itor and keyboard. It

is used as a personal computer in the home

or as a workstation

for group work. Typical examples are the

IBM PC and the Apple Macintosh. It’s designed to be placed on your desk. Some models have a vertical case called a tower. A laptop (also

called a notebook PC) is a lightweight

computer that you can

transport easily. It can work as fast as a

desktop

similar processors, memory capacity, and

PC,

with

disk drives, but it is portable and has a smaller screen. Modern notebooks have a TFT (Thin Film Transistor) screen that produces very sharp images. Instead of a mouse, they have a touchpad built into the keyboard – a sensitive pad that you can touch to move the pointer on the screen. They offer a lot of connectivity options: USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports for connecting peripherals, slots for memory cards, etc. They come with battery packs, which let you use the computer when there are no electrical outlets available. 6

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A

tablet

PC

looks like a book, with an LCD screen on

which you can write

using a special digital pen. You can fold

and rotate the screen

180 degrees. Your handwriting can be rec-

ognized and converted into editable text. You can also type at the detached keyboard or use voice recognition. It’s mobile and versatile. A personal digital assistant or PDA is a tiny computer which can be held in one hand. The term

PDA refers to a wide variety of hand-

held devices, palmtops

and pocket PCs.For input, you type at a

small keyboard or use

a stylus – a special pen used with a touch

screen to select items, draw pictures, etc. Some models incorporate handwriting recognition, which enables a PDA to recognize characters written by hand. Some PDAs recognize spoken words by using voice recognition software.They can be used as mobile phones or as personal organizers for storing notes, reminders and addresses. They also let you access the Internet via wireless technology, without cables. A

wearable

computer runs on batteries and is worn on

the user’s body, e.g.

on a belt, backpack or vest; it is designed

for mobile or hands-

free operation. Some devices are equipped

with a wireless mod-

em, a small keyboard and a screen; others

are voice-activated and can access email or voice mail. 2. Look at the computer advertisement and find this information. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What type of computer is advertised? What kind of screen does it have? Which pointing device replaces the mouse? What type of ports does it have for connecting cameras and music players? What sort of power supply does it use?

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Toshiba Satellite - Intel Centrino processor - 1,024 MB RAM, 100 GB hard disk drive - DVD SuperMulti (+/- R double layer) drive - 15.4” widescreen TFT active-matrix LCD display - 85-key keyboard and touchpad - 2 memory slots, 1 PC Cards or PCMCIA slot - Wireless communications: Wi-Fi compliancy and Bluetooth - 4 USB ports for connecting peripherals: digital camera, MP3 player, modem, etc. - 6-cell rechargeable Lithium-ion battery pack 3. Read this interview with Adam Hawkins, an IT manager, and complete it with words from the PDA section of the text above. Interviewer: What are the basic features of a PDA? Well, a typical PDA is a (1) …………………. device that runs Adam: on batteries and combines computing, phone and Net capabilities. Interviewer: And how do you enter information? For input, you use a (2) ………………….. or pen to write and Adam: make selections on a (3) …………….. ………………… They also have buttons for launching programs. Some models have a small keyboard. They may have a (4) ……………….. system that reacts to the user’s voice. Interviewer: Do they need special software? Yes, most of them run on Windows Mobile. Palmtops supported Adam: by Palm Inc. use Palm OS. Pen-based systems include (5) …………………., so you write on the screen and the computer recognizes your handwriting and inserts the appropriate letters. Interviewer: What sort of things can you do with a PDA? You can store personal information, take notes, draw diagrams Adam: and make calculations. Many PDAs can access the Net via (6)……..……technology. 4. In pairs, discuss the following questions. 1. How can laptops be beneficial to business people? 2. How can tablet PCs be used in the classroom? 8

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3. What are the benefits of PDAs? Do they have any limitations?

Language work: Classifying Classifying means putting things into groups or classes. We can classify types of computers, parts of a PC, etc. Some typical expressions for classifying are: š … are classified into X types/categories š … are classified by š … can be divided into X types/categories Digital computers can be divided into six main types: mainframes, desktop PCs, laptops, tablet PCs, PDAs and wearable computers. š …include(s)… š … consist(s) of … The basic configuration of a mainframe consists of a central system which processes immense amounts of data very quickly. š There are X types/classes of … š X is a type of … A tablet PC is a type of notebook computer.

5. Write a short summary of the text above, using different classifying expressions.

Unit 3 Basic Hardware Computer essentials 1a. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. Do you have a computer at home? What kind is it? 2. What are the main components and features of your computer system?

1b. In pairs, label the elements of this computer system.

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2a. Read the text and then explain Fig. 1 in your own words.

What is a computer? A computer is an electronic machine which can accept data in a certain form, process the data, and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information. First, data is fed into the computer's memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data. Finally, we can see the results (the output) on the screen or in printed form (see Fig. 1 below). A computer system consists of two parts: hardware and software. Hardware is any electronic or mechanical part you can see or touch. Software is a set of instructions, called a program, which tells the computer what to do. There are three basic hardware sections: the central processing unit (CPU), main memory and peripherals.

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Perhaps the most influential component is the central processing unit. Its function is to execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the 'brain' of the computer. The main memory (a collection of RAM chips) holds the instructions and data which are being processed by the CPU. Peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include storage devices and input/ output devices. Storage devices (hard drives, DVD drives or flash drives) provide a permanent storage of both data and programs. Disk drives are used to read and write data on disks. Input devices enable data to go into the computer's memory. The most common input devices are the mouse and the keyboard. Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example, the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by means of a printer. On the rear panel, of the computer there are several ports into which we can plug a wide range of peripherals - a modem, a digital camera, a scanner, etc. They allow communication between the computer and the devices. Modern desktop PCs have USB ports and memory card readers on the front panel.

2b. Match these words from the text (1-9) with the correct meanings (a-i). 11

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1. software 2. peripheraals

aa. the braain of the computer c b physicaal parts thhat make uup a compu b. uter system m c program c. ms which can be ussed on a paarticular com mputer sysstem d the info d. ormation which w is ppresented to t the compu uter e results producedd by a com e. mputer f input devices f. d atttached to tthe CPU g section g. n that holdds program ms and data while they t are exxecuted orr processed h magnettic device used to sttore inform h. mation i socketss into which an exteernal devicce i. may bee connecteed

3. main mem mory 4. hard drivee (also known ass hard diskk) 5. hardware 6. input 7. ports 8. output 9. central prrocessing unit u (CPU)

mplete th his diagram m of a PC C system. 3a. Com P system PC

(1) __________

(2) __________

Program ms,

M Mechanical and

e.g. grap phics package,

(3) __________

l

i

i

Main memory

(4) __________

TThe “brain” of the t computer

(5) ___________

(6)

Ph hysical units attached to the omputer co

Output deevices

(7 7)

(9) ___________

(1 10) _________

ROM Keyb board (8)

12

DVD drive

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Language work: Defining relative clauses š We can define people or things with a defining (restrictive) relative clause. We use the relative pronoun who to refer to a person; we can also use that. A blogger is a person who/that keeps a web log (blog) or publishes an online diary. š We use the relative pronoun which (or that) to refer to a thing, not a person. This is built into a single chip which/that executes program instructions and coordinates the activities that take place within the computer system. š Relative pronouns can be left out when they are the object of the relative clause. The main circuit board (which/that) you have inside your system is called the motherboard …

3b. Complete the sentences below with suitable relative pronouns. Give alternative options if possible. Put brackets round the relative pronouns you can leave out. 1. That’s the computer _______________ I’d like to buy. 2. Core 2 Duo is a new Intel processor ______________ contains about 291 3. 4. 5. 6.

million transistors. A webmaster is a person __________ designs , develops and maintains a website. A bus is an electronic pathway ____________ carries signals between computer devices. Here’s the DVD ___________ you lent me! Last night I met someone ______________ works for GM as a software engineer.

3c. Speak about a typical computer system. Look at the Language work section and the diagram above to help you.

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4a. Look at the Language work section and then correct one mistake in each of these sentences. Decide which functions are being expressed in each sentence. Language work: Language functions useful to a sales assistant š Greeting and offering help Good morning. Do you need any help? š Giving technical specifications (specs) The MacBook has a processor running at 2.0 gigahertz. The iMac has two gigabytes of RAM. They feature a camera built into the display. š Describing Both computers are very fast and reliable. š Comparing The MacBook is more practical if you travel a lot. PDAs are cheaper than laptops but laptops are more powerful. Language functions useful to a customer š Explaining what you are looking for We’re looking for a personal computer. Have you got any fairly basics ones? š Asking for technical specs What’s the storage capacity of the hard drive? Do they have a DVD drive? š Asking the price How much do they cost? How much is it? 1. The Ulysses SD is a power, expandable computer that offers high-end graphics at a low price. 2. A laptop is likely to be more expensive that the equivalent desktop, but a laptop is less practical if you travel a lot. 3. Where’s the storage capacity of the hard drive? 4. I’m looking a desktop PC that has good graphics for games. 5. Do you need the help? 6. And how many does the PDA cost? 7. This workstation is a Pentium processor with dual-core technology, 1,024 gigabytes of RAM, and 1 terabyte of disk space. 14

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4b. Role play. Work in pairs. One of you wants to buy a computer, the other is the shop assistant. Use the prompts and product descriptions below to roleplay the conversation. Shop assistant:

Customer:

Greet customer and offer help

Explain what are you looking for Ask for some tech specs

Show the customer two possible models

Ask about any further technical specs (DVD drive, monitor, communications, etc.).

Give technical specs (describe the processor, RAM and storage capacity). Compare the two models.

Ask the price Answer and mention any final details that might persuade the customer to buy Decide which computer to buy or leave the computer. the shop.

Toshiba Satellite

Palm TX handheld

Dell desktop PC

laptop

Intel 312 MHz ARMbased processor

AMD Athlon at 2.4 GHz

2.0 GHz Core 2 Duo processor 2 GB RAM expandable to 4 GB 160 GB hard drive Super Multi drive (double layer) 15.4’’ wide XGA display Wireless LAN, Wi-Fi compliancy

128 MB Flash memory (non-volatile) Support for memory cards 320x480 TFT touch screen Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Lithium-ion battery £ 216

£ 1,099 15

1 GB RAM expandable to 4 GB 320 GB hard drive DVD +/- RW drive 17’’ LCD monitor £ 680

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Input/ Output Devices 5a. Read the description of input devices and then label the pictures (1-8) with words from the text. Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the computer. The most common are the keyboard and the mouse. We can also interact with a computer by using one of these: a light pen, a scanner, a trackball, a graphics tablet, a game controller or a microphone.

Language work: Describing functions There are different ways of describing a device’s function: š for + gerund This is a device for controlling the cursor and selecting items on the screen. š used + to + infinitive It’s used to control … š relative pronoun + verb This is a device which controls … š relative pronoun + used + to + infinitive This is a device which/that is used to control … š work by + gerund It works by detecting light from the computer screen. Describing features We can describe features like this: An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of a ball underneath. It usually features two buttons and a wheel. You can connect it to a USB port. A wireless mouse works/operates without cables. 16

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5b. In pairs, look at the Language work section and describe an input device: its functions and features. Try to guess which device your group mates are describing. 6a. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. What type of display do you have: a cathode ray tube or an LCD flat screen? 2. What size is the screen? 3. How can you change the picture using the controls? 4. Can you watch TV on your PC monitor? 6b. Complete these definitions with words from the box. Then read the text below and check your answers. resolution pixel aspect ratio colour depth video adapter plasma screen

1. ________________ 2. ________________ 3. ________________ 4. ________________ 5. ________________ 6. ________________

- the smallest unit on a display screen or bitmapped image (usually a coloured dot). - an expansion card that generates the video signal sent to a computer display. - the width of the screen in proportion to its height. - also called gas discharge display. - the number of pixels contained in a display, horizontally and vertically. - the number of bits used to hold a colour pixel, this determines the maximum number of colours that can be displayed.

How screen display works Displays, often called monitors or screens, are the most-used output device on a computer. They provide instant feedback by showing you text and graphic images as you work or play.

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Most desktop displays use Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) technology, while nearly all portable computing devices, such as laptops incorporate LCDs. Because of their slimmer design and lower energy consumption, LCD monitors (also called flat panel or flat screen displays) are replacing CRTs. Basic features Resolution refers to the number of dots of colour, known as pixels (picture elements), contained in a display, It is expressed by identifying the number of pixels on the horizontal and vertical axes. A typical resolution is 1024x768. Two measurements describe the size of your display: the aspect ratio and the screen size. Historically, computer displays, like most televisions, have had an aspect ratio of 4: 3 - the width of the screen to the height is four to three. For widescreen LCD displays, the aspect ratio is 16:9, very useful for viewing DVD movies, playing games and displaying multiple windows side by side. Highdefinition TV also uses this format. The viewable screen size is measured diagonally, so a 19" screen measures 19" from the top left to the bottom right. Inside the computer there is a video adapter, or graphics card, which processes images and sends signals to the monitor. CRT monitors use a VGA (video graphics adapter) cable, which converts digital signals into analogue signals. LCD monitors use a DVI (digital video interface) connection. Colour depth refers to the number of colours a monitor can display. This depends on the number of bits used to describe the colour of a single pixel. For example, an old VGA monitor with an 8-bit depth can generate 256 colours and a SuperVGA with a 24-bit depth can generate 16.7 million colours. Monitors with a 32-bit depth are used in digital video, animation and video games to get certain effects. Display technologies An LCD is made of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The crystals block the light in different quantities to create the image. Activematrix LCDs use TFT (thin film transistor) technology, in which each pixel has its own switch. The amount of light the LCD monitor produces is called brightness or luminance, measured in cd/m2 (candela per square metre).

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A CRT monitor is similar to a traditional TV set. It contains millions of tiny red, green and blue phosphor dots that glow when struck by an electron beam that travels across the screen and create a visible image. PCs can be connected to video projectors, which project the image onto a large screen. They are used for presentations and home theatre applications. In a plasma screen, images are created by a plasma discharge which contains noble (non-harmful) gases. Plasma TVs allow for larger screens and wide viewing angles, making them ideal for movies. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are thin-film LED displays that don’t require a backlight to function. The material emits light when stimulated by an electrical current, which is known as electroluminescence. They Consume less energy, produce brighter colours and are flexible - i.e. they can be bent and rolled up when they're not being used. 6c. Read the text again and answer these questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What do CRT and LCD stand for? How is the screen size measured? What technology is used by active-matrix LCDs? Which unit of frequency is used to measure the brightness of a display? What substance produces light and colour when hit by electron in a CRT monitor? 6. What are the three advantages of OLED displays?

Unit 4 Basic software 1a. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. How many operating systems can you think of? Make a list. 2. What is the function of an operating system? 1b. Read the text below and complete it with the words from the box. application software

operating system

software

system software

The set of program instructions that tell the computer what to do is known as (1) ………………………………… . It can be classified into two basic categories:

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- the (2) ……………………………………… , which includes all the programs that control the basic functions of a computer (e.g. operating systems, programming software, device drivers and utilities). - the (3) ………………………………………. , which comprises programs that let you do specific tasks. Typical applications include word processing, databases, educational programs, email and video games. - the (4) ………………………………………….. is a set of programs that control the hardware and software resources of a computer system. Typical functions include handling input/output operations, running programs and organizing files on disks. 2a. In pairs, answer these questions. 1. What does user-friendly mean? 2. Do you think most operating systems are user-friendly? Give reasons for your answers. 2b. Read the text and decide which adjectives in the box best describe a GUI. user-friendly slow accessible text-based intuitive complex graphics-based

GUI operating systems The term user interface refers to the standard procedures that the user follows in order to interact with a computer. In the late 1970s and early 80s, the way users accessed computer systems was very complex. They had to memorize and type a lot of commands just to see the contents of a disk, to copy files or to respond to a single prompt. In fact, it was only experts who used computers, so there was no need for a user-friendly interface. In 1984, Apple produced the Macintosh, the first computer with a mouse and graphical user interface (GUI). Macs were designed with one clear aim: to facilitate interaction with the computer. A few years later, Microsoft launched Windows, another operating system based on graphics and intuitive tools. Nowadays, computers are used by all kinds of people, and as a result there is a growing emphasis on accessibility and user-friendly systems. A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment: windows, icons, menus and pointer. The background of the screen is called the desktop, which contains labeled pic20

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tures called icons. These icons represent files or folders. Double-clicking a folder opens a window which contains programs, documents, or more nested folders. When you are in a folder, you can launch a program or document by doubleclicking the icon, or you can drag it to another location. When you run a program, your PC opens a window that lets you work with different tools. All the programs have a high level of consistency, with similar toolbars, menu bars, buttons and dialog boxes. A modern OS also provides access to networks and allows multitasking, which means you can run several programs – and do various tasks – at the same time. The most popular operating systems are: - The Windows family – designed by Microsoft and used on most PCs. The most recent version is Windows 7. - Mac OS – created by Apple and used on Macintosh computers. - Unix – a multi-user system, found on mainframes and workstations in corporate installations. - Linux – open-source software developed under the GNU General Public License. This means anybody can copy its source code, change it and distribute it. It is used in computers, appliances and small devices. - Windows Mobile – used on most PDAs and smartphones (PDAs incorporating mobile phones). - Palm OS – used on Palm handheld devices. - RIM – used on BlackBerry communication devices. Developed by Research In Motion. - Symbian OS – used by some phone makers, including Nokia and Siemens. These computer platforms differ in areas such as device installation, network connectivity or compatibility with application software. 2c. Read the text again and answer these questions. 1. What kind of OS was used in the early 80s: text-based or graphics-based? 2. What is the contribution of Macintosh computers to the development of graphic environments? 3. What does the acronym WIMP stand for? 21

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

How do you run a program on a computer with a graphical interface? What is multitasking? Which multi-user OS is used on large, powerful computers? What is the benefit of using open-source software, for example Linux? Which Microsoft platform is used for pocket PCs, mobiles and portable media centres?

2d Translate these terms and expressions from the text into your own language. Use a dictionary or the Internet to help you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

user interface ………………………… procedures …………………………… commands …………………………… tools ………………………………… desktop ……………………………… nested folders ……………………….. launch a program …………………… source code ………………………… Language work: Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable nouns are people or things that we can count. They have a singular and a plural form (e.g. file(s), program(s), system(s), application(s)). Uncountable nouns are things that we can’t count. They have no plural form (e.g. software, music, robotics, multimedia, networking, storage). A lot of software these days is open-source. Not: A lot of softwares these days are open-source. Some words are countable in many languages but uncountable in English, and are used with a singular verb (e.g. advice, damage, equipment, furniture, research, news, progress, homework). The advice he gave me was very useful. Countable nouns must have a determiner (a, the, my, this, etc.) in the singular, although this is not necessary in the plural. I deleted the file yesterday. I lost more than 300 files when my computer crashed. We use a before a consonant sound and an before a vowel. The definite article the means you know which one/ones I mean. 22

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An icon is a small graphic. The icons on the toolbar are used to … We don’t use a/an with uncountable nouns. Not: a robotics We don’t use the in generalizations with uncountable nouns or plural countable nouns. I like music. Not: I like the music. Computer programs are expensive. Not: The computer programs are expensive.

Countable and uncountable nouns take different determiners. Many, few, a few only go with countable nouns. There are many versions of Windows Vista. Much, little, a little, a great deal of only goes with uncountable nouns. I have a little time free this afternoon if you want to meet. 3a. Here are some common nouns in computing. Look at the Language work section and decide whether these nouns are countable or uncountable? 1. capacity 2. data 3. device 4. disk 5. monitor 6. mouse 7. word processor 8. drive 9. speed 10. port 11. modem 12. hardware

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3b. Com mplete th his text wiith a, an, the t or notthing. Linux is (1) …… ………. operating o s system annd it was initially … ho obby by a young stuudent, Lin nus Torcreatedd as (2) ………. valds, at the Uniiversity off Helsinki in Finlannd. Version n 1.0 of ….. Kerthe Linnux Kerneel was relleased in 1994. (3) ………… nel*, at a the hearrt of all Linux L systtems, is ddeveloped and released under GN NU Geneeral Public Licensee, and its source code iss freely avvailable to everyone. Apart from A m the factt that it’s freely disstributed, (4) …………….. Linux’s functionality, addaptabilityy and robuustness haas made it i the maiin alternative for ystems. IB BM, Hew wlett-Packaard and proprieetary Unixx and Miccrosoft opperating sy other giants g of thhe computing worldd have em mbraced Linux and support itts ongoing devvelopmentt. More thhan (5) …………. decade d aftter its initiial releasee, Linux is beingg adopted worldwidde, primariily as (6) ……….. … s server plattform. Its use u as a home and a office desktop operating o system is also on thhe rise. Thhe operatiing system cann also be incorporaated directtly into (7 7) ………… …………. microch hips in a processs called (88) ……… ……. embeedding, an nd it is inncreasinglyy being ussed this way in appliancees and devvices. *The Kernel provides a way w for softw ware and oth her parts of the t OS to com mmunicate with w hardw ware.

Worrd processsing 4a. In pairs, p ansswer thesee question ns. 1. W What is a word processor? 2. What W kindd of tasks do peoplee use word d processoors for? can you nname? 3. How H manny differennt word proocessing programs p 4b. Reaad the artticle and find f word ds that ma atch thesee definitioons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a program m used for preparingg documen nts and lettters a row of words w thatt open up menus m wh hen selecteed t distincctive desiggn of letters and chaaracters, e.g. Arial, Courier the t printeed in the toop marginn text t printeed in the bottom text b maargin

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6. the way text is arranged on the page, including margins, paragraph format, columns, etc. 7. a function that enables you to combine two files into one A word processor enables you to create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on a screen, modify it by entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer. The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make changes without retyping the entire document. If you make a typing mistake, you simply back up the cursor and correct your mistake. If you want to delete a paragraph, you simply remove it, without leaving a trace. It is equally easy to insert a word, sentence or paragraph in the middle of a document. Word processors usually support these features (and a few others). - Cut and paste: Allows you to remove (cut) a section of text and insert (paste) it somewhere else. - Find and replace: Allows you to direct the word processor to search for a particular word or phrase. You can also direct the word processor to replace one group of characters with another everywhere that the first group appears. - Word wrap: The word processor automatically moves to the next line when you have filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if you change the margins. - Print: Allows you to send a document to a printer to get hard copy. - Font specifications: Allows you to change fonts within a document. For example, you can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let you change the font size and the typeface. - Graphics: Allows you to include illustrations within the word processor; others let you insert a picture from a different program. - Headers, footers and page numbering: Allows you to specify customized headers and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page. The word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so that the correct number appears on each page. - Layout: Allows you to specify different margins within a single document and to specify various methods for indenting paragraphs – how much space you leave between the margins and the paragraphs. - Merge: Allows you to merge text from one file into another file. This is particularly useful for generating many files that have the same format but different data. Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using merges. 25

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- Spell checker: A utility that allows you to check the spelling of words. It will highlight any words that it does not recognize. - Thesaurus: Allows you to search for synonyms without leaving the word processor. The line dividing word processors from desktop publishing systems is constantly shifting. In general, though, DTP applications support finer control over layout and more support for full-colour documents. 4c. Complete these statements with a term from the article. 1. A ………………. consists of three elements: typeface, type style and type size; for example Arial bold at 9 points. 2. Notice that when you get to the end of each line, Word starts a new line automatically. It moves the word you are typing to a new line when it enters an invisible margin running down the right-hand side of the screen. This feature is called ………………… ………………….. . 3. ………………… and …………………… lets you find a word and change it into another word throughout the text. 4. A good …………………. …………………… program can be used not only to rectify accidental spelling mistakes and typing errors, but also to speed typing input. 5. Many word processors include a ……………., so you can look for words with similar meanings. 6. The ………………… contains a row of icons that perform particular actions when clicked. 7. ………………….. a paragraph involves moving your writing in from the margins of the page. For example, a left indent is the distance between the left margin and the text. 4d. Look at the Language work section and then correct six mistakes in this dialogue. A: I need a photo for my curriculum vitae. How do I insert one into this Word document? B: Well, now choose insert on the Menu bar. A: As this? B: Yes. From the Insert menu, select Picture. As you can see, this displays a drop-down menu with different options: Clip Art, From Scanner, Chart, etc. Select From File and you’ll get a dialog box. 26

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A: OK. I’ve done that now. What last? B: OK. Now I navigate your hard drive’s contents and find the picture that you want to insert. A: Right. I’d like to include this one. B: OK, good. Now click insert and the photograph will be inserted into your document. A: Here it is. Is that write? B: Yes. First, right-click with the mouse and select Format Picture to adjust the size and other properties. A: Brilliant, thanks!

Language work: Giving and Following Instructions -To give instructions, we use the imperative form of the verb and sequence words such as first, next, then, after that, finally, etc. First, use the mouse to select the text. Then choose the Cut command from the Edit menu. Next, choose Paste from the Edit menu. Finally, check that the text has appeared in the right place. We can also use the present simple with you. Now you find where you want the text to appear and you click to position the insertion point. Following instructions -If you wants to check that you have understood instructions, you can use expressions like: Like this? Is that right? -If you want to signal that you are ready to move on to the next step, you can use expressions like: OK, I’ve done that now. What next? -If you want to ask if the process is complete, you can use expressions like: Is that everything? Anything else?

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4e. Complete these instructions for how to Copy and Paste in Word with verbs from the box. click (x2)

select

position

right-click

drag

1. First, ………………… the text you wish to copy. To select text,…………….. The mouse over the portion of the text that you want to copy. This part should then be highlighted. 2. Then ……………. on the Copy icon on the Standard Toolbar. This copies the selected text to an invisible clipboard. 3. Next, ……………………. the cursor where you want the text to appear. 4. Finally, …………………… the Paste icon. This inserts the content of the clipboard at the insertion point. As well as the icons on the toolbar, you can use the keys Ctrl+C for Copy, and Ctrl+V for Paste. These options also come up if you ……………….. the selected text.

Unit 5 Programming and Programming Languages 1a. In pairs, discuss what you think programming is. 1b. Match the words (1-5) with the definitions (a-e). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

flowchart source code compiler machine code debugging

a. Program instructions written in a particular computer language b. The techniques of detecting and correcting errors (or bugs) which may occur in programs c. A diagram representing the successive logical steps of the program d. A special program which converts the source program into machine code – the only language understood by the processor e. The basic instructions understood by computers; it consists of 1s and 0s (binary code) 2a. Look at the steps software developers usually follow when they write a program. Do you follow the same steps in the same order? Discuss in pairs.

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š First they try to understand the problem and define the purpose of the program. š They design a flowchart, a diagram which shows the successive logical steps of the program. š Next they write the instructions in a high-level language (Pascal, C, etc.) This is called coding. The program is then compiled. š When the program is written, they test it: they run the program to see if it works and use special tools to detect bugs, or errors. Any errors are corrected until it runs smoothly. This is called debugging, or bug fixing. š Finally, software companies write a detailed description of how the program works, called program documentation. They also have a maintenance program. They get reports from users about any errors found in the program. After it has been improved, it is published as an updated version. 2b. Ask your partner 5 question about the program he/she wrote last. 3a. Read the text. How many high-level computer languages are mentioned? Computer languages Unfortunately for us, computers can’t understand spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is machine code, which consists of 1s and 0s (binary code). Machine code is too difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages to communicate instructions to the computer. For example, assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. The program is then translated into machine code by a piece of software called an assembler. Machine code and assembly languages are called low-level languages because they are closer to the hardware. They are quite complex and restricted to particular machines. To make the program easier to write, and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of computer, software developers designed high-level languages, which are closer to the English language. Here are some examples: ƒ FORTRAN was developed by IBM in 1954 and is still used for scientific and engineering applications. ƒ COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) was developed in 1959 and is mainly used for business applications. ƒ BASIC was developed in the 1960s and was widely used in microcomputer programming because it was easy to learn. Visual BASIC is a modern version

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of the old BASIC language, used to build graphical elements such as buttons and windows in Windows programs. ƒ PASCAL was created in 1971. It is used in universities to teach the fundamentals of programming. ƒ C was developed in the 1980s at AT&T. It is used to write system software, graphics and commercial applications. C++ is a version of C which incorporates object-oriented programming: the programmer concentrates on particular things (a piece of text, a graphic or a table, etc.) and gives each object functions which can be altered without changing the entire program. For example, to add a new graphics format, the programmer needs to rework just the graphics object. This makes programs easier to modify. ƒ Java was designed by Sun in 1995 to run on the Web. Java applets provide animation and interactive features on web pages. Programs written in high-level languages must be translated into machine code by a compiler or an interpreter. A compiler translates the source code into object code – that is, it converts the entire program into machine code in one go. On the other hand, an interpreter translates the source code line by line as the program is running. It is important not to confuse programming languages with markup languages, used to create web documents. Markup languages use instructions, known as markup tags, to format and link text files. Some examples include: ƒ HTML, which allows us to describe how information will be displayed on web pages. ƒ XML, which stands for EXtensible Markup Language. While HTML uses pre-defined tags, XML enables us to define our own tags; it is not limited by a fixed set of tags. ƒ VoiceXML, which makes Web content accessible via voice and phone. VoiceXML is used to create voice applications that run on the phone, whereas HTML is used to create visual applications (for example, web pages).

Andrea Finch Write a paragraph describing the C language

In this XML example we have created two new tags: and

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3b. Read the text again and answer these questions. 1. Do computers understand human languages? Why? / Why not? 2. What is the function of an assembler? 3. Why did software developers design high-level languages? 4. Which language is used to teach programming techniques? 5. What is the difference between a compiler and an interpreter? 6. Why are HTML and VoiceXML called markup languages? 3c. Complete these sentences with a computer language from the text. 1. _______ allows us to create our own tags to describe our data better. We aren’t constrained by a pre-defined set of tags the way we are with XTML. 2. IBM developed _______ in the 1950s. It was the first high-level language in data processing. 3. _______ applets are small programs that run automatically on web pages and let you watch animated characters, play games, etc. 4. _______ is the HTML of the voice web. Instead of using a web browser and a keyboard, you interact with a voice browser by listening to prerecorded audio output and sending audio input through a telephone. This language is widely used in the business community. For example, the statement ADD VAT to NET-PRICE could be used in a _______ program. 4a. Look at the Language work section and make sentences using these prompts. 1. not easy / write instructions in COBOL 2. expensive / set up a data-processing area 3. advisable / test the programs under different conditions 4. unusual / write a program that works correctly the first time it’s tested 5. important / use a good debugger to fix errors 6. easy / learn Visual BASIC

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Language work: The infinitive The infinitive with to is used in th following ways: To express purpose We use symbolic languages to communicate instructions to the computer. (= in order to communicate …) Not: … for to communicate After adjectives BASIC was widely used in the past because it was easy to learn. Machine code is too difficult to write. (= not easy enough to write) After certain verbs (e.g. afford, demand, plan, agree, expect, promise, appear, hope, refuse, arrange, learn, try, decide, manage) A lot of companies are now trying to develop voice applications for web access. After the object of certain verbs (e.g. advise, encourage, allow, expect, tell, ask, invite, want, enable, order, warn) HTML allows us to describe how information will be displayed on the web pages. The bare infinitive (without to) is used in the following ways: After modal verbs (e.g. can, could, may, might, will, would, must, should) Unfortunately, computers can’t understand spoken English. High-level languages must be translated into machine code. After the object with the verbs make and let Programs make computers perform specific tasks.

4b. Choose the correct words (a-c) to complete these sentences. 1 We use high- level languages because machine code is too difficult ___, understand and debug. a read

b reading

c to read

2 I went on the course _____ how to be a better programmer. a learn

b to learn

c for to learn

3 I’m not interested in _____ that computer language. a learn

b learning

c to learn 32

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4 He refuses _____ the project with me. a do

b doing

c to do

5 The engineers warned the employees not _____ the cables. a touch

b touching

c to touch

6 They may not _____ to the conference. a come

b coming

c to come

7 Spyware can make your PC _____ more slowly. a perform b performing

c to perform

8 This program is too slow _____ the simulation. a do

b to do

c for doing

5a. Match the terms (1-5) with the definitions (a-e) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Java applet plug-in platform-independent object-oriented programming

a. an auxiliary program that enables web browsers to support new content, for example animation b. software that can run on any operating system c. an island in Indonesia, coffee (in American slang), and a programming language for Internet applications d. a computer programming technique that allows the creation of objects that interact with each other and can be used as the foundation of others; used to create graphical user interfaces e. a small Java application, usually designed to run automatically within a web page 5b. Read the text below and check your answers to 6a. Java is a programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, specially designed to run on the Web. Java programs (called applets) let you watch animated 33

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characters and moving text, play music, and interact with information on the screen (for example, control animations and select options). Characteristics of the Java Language Java is an object-oriented language, similar to C++, but more dynamic and simplified to eliminate possible programming errors. A Java program is both compiled and interpreted. First, the source code (a file with .java extension) is compiled and converted into a format called bytecode (a file with a .class extension), which can then be executed by a Java interpreter. Compiled Java code can run on most computers because there are Java interpreters, known as Java Virtual Machines, for most operating systems. Java is multi-threaded, meaning a Java program can have multiple threads (parts) – that is, many different things processing independently and continuously. This enables the program to make the best use of available CPU power. Why is Java popular? Most programmers like Java because it allows them to write applets which make web pages more interactive and attractive. They can create graphical objects (for example, bar charts and diagrams) and new controls (for example, check boxes and push buttons with special properties). A web page that uses Java can have sounds that play in real time, music that plays in the background, cartoon-style animations, real-time video and interactive games. The Java Micro Edition platform (Java ME) is used in mobile devices. It provides flexible tools to create applications that run on mobile phones, PDAs, TV set-top boxes and printers. Nowadays, most phones are configured to use Java games. Alternatives to Java One alternative to Java is Microsoft’s C#, pronounced ‘C sharp’, a .NET language based on C++ with elements from Visual Basic and Java. There are no substantial differences between C# and Java. When software developers do measurements on pieces of code, sometimes Java is faster, sometimes C# is. Another competitor is Adobe Flash technology, which supports graphics, a scripting language called ActionScript, and the streaming of audio and video. Flash is used to create animation and advertisements, to integrate video into web pages, and to develop rich internet applications such as portals. Flash files, traditionally called flash movies, have a .swf file extension. They may be an object on a web page or be played in the stand-alone Flash Player. 34

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5c. Match the words (1-6) with the words (a-f) to make technical terms from the text. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Java Operating programming web source graphical

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Applet page code system object language

5d. Complete the sentences with words from the box. interpreted animated configured used pronounced object-oriented compiled 1. Java lets you watch _____ characters on web pages. 2. Java is an _____ language, similar to C++ but more dynamic. 3. First, the source code of a Java program is _____ into an intermediate format called bytecode. This is then _____ by any system possessing a Java interpreter. 4. The Java ME platform is widely _____ in mobile devices. 5. Nowadays, most mobile phones are _____ to use Java games. 6. Microsoft’s C# is a simplified version of C and C++ for the Web. It’s _____ ‘C sharp’. 5f. Complete this extract from a lecture handout about Java with the correct form of the verbs in the box. call

be

begin

can

decide rename have

support develop base

The idea for Java started in 1990; when a team of software engineers at Sun Microsystems (1) ……………..to create a language for a handheld device that could control and interact with various kinds of electronic appliances, ranging from Nintendo Game Boys to VCRs and TV set-top boxes. They (2) ……. an object-oriented programming language that one of the engineers, James Gosling, (3)………….Oak, after the tree outside his window. The device even (4)………….an animated character named Duke, who would go on to become Java’s mascot.

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With the advent of the Web in 1993, the company made a web browser (5)………..on the Oak language. Later on, this language was adapted to the Internet and (6)…………..Java. The 1.0 version of Java was officially introduced by Sun in May 1995. At that time, web pages (7)……………..only display text, pictures and hyperlinks. With the arrival of Java, web designers (8)………………able to include animation and interactive programs on web pages. The first major application created with Java was the HotJava browser. The Java language (9)……………….to attract serious attention from the internet community and was soon (10)…………….by Netscape Navigator and MS Internet Explorer. Today, Java is a hot technology that runs on multiple platforms, including smart cards, embedded devices, mobile phones and computers. 6a. Make notes about the different stages in your computer history. Add more stages if you want to. Possible stages: š š š š š š š

First computer game First programming language learnt First software used First computer course/ qualification First job involving computers First steps on the Internet First chat online

6b. Ask a partner about his/her computer history. Is it similar to yours?

Unit 6 Faces of the Internet Internet basics 1a. In pairs, discuss how you would define the Internet. 1b. Make а list of all the things уоu саn use the Internet for. 2. Read the text and decide if these sentences are True or False. If they are false, correct them. 36

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1. The Internet and the World Wide Web are synonyms. 2. Computers need to use the same protocol (TCP/IP) to communicate with each other. 3. Web TV can provide access to the Net. 4. ADSL and cable are two types of dial-up connections. 5. External, internal and PC card are types of connections. 6. Information can be sent through telephone lines, satellites and power lines. 7. The computer IP number is a way to identify it on the Internet. What the Internet is Тhe Internet is an International computer Network made up of thousands of networks linked together. All these computers communicate with one another, they share data, resources, transfer information, etc. To do it they need to use the same language or protocol: ТСР / IP (Тransmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) and еvery computer is given an address or IP number. This number is а way to identify the computer on the Internet. To use the Internet you basically need a computer, the right connection software and a modem to connect your computer to a telephone line and then access your ISP (Internet Service Provider). Тhе modem (modulator-demodulator) converts the digital signals stored in the computer into analogue signals that can be transmitted over telephone lines. Тhere аге two basic types: external with a cable that is plugged into the computer via a USB port, and internal, an expansion card inside the computer. A PC card modem is a different, more versatile option for laptops and mobile phones. At first most computers used a dial-up telephone connection that worked through the standard telephone line. Now a broadband connection, a high data transmission rate Internet connection, has become more popular: either ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), which allows you to use the same telephone line for voice and fast access to the Internet, or cable, offered by most TV cable providers. 37

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The basic equipment has changed drastically m the last few years. You no longer need a computer to use the Internet. Web TV provides email and access to the Web via a normal TV set plus a high-speed modem. More recently, 3Generation mobile phones and PDAs, personal digital assistants, also allow you to go online with wireless connections, without cables. Telephone lines are not essential either. Satellites orbiting the earth enable your computer to send and receive Internet files. Finally, the power-line Internet, still under development, provides access via a power plug. Internet FAQs 3a. Read part 1 of the Internet FAQs and choose the correct answers. 1 The Internet was а invented in the mid-90s. b popular in the 1960s. с probably created in the USA 2 Which term describes any fast, high-bandwidth connection? a broadband

b dial-up connection

с Wi-Fi connection

3 The power-line Internet provides broadband access through а telephone lines.

b satellites.

с electrical power lines

4 Which device converts computer data into а form that can be transmitted over phone lines? а ADSL

b a mobile phone

с а modem

5 The standard protocol that allows computers to communicate over the Internet is called а an IP address.

b TCP/IP.

с HTTP.

6 The geographical region covered by one or several access points is called а а wireless ассess point.

b hotspot

c wireless network device.

Internet FAQs: Part 1 How old is the Internet (the Net)?When was it created? It's hard to say exactly. The research that led to what we now know as the Inter38

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net was begun in the 1960s. Who created the Internet? Again, it's hard to say exactly who created it. The initial research was carried out by the Advanced Research Projects Agency in America, funded by the US government. Did the Internet become popular quickly? It took many years for the Internet to become popular around the world. It's only really since the mid-90s that the Internet has been a part of our daily lives. How do you get online? To get connected, you need a computer, the right connection software and a modem connected to the phone line. You also need an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), which acts as a gateway between your PC and the rest of the Net. How fast are today's internet connections? Today, ISPs offer a broadband, high-speed connection. The most common types are cable-offered by local cable TV companies – and ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), which works through phone lines. They are both faster than the traditional dial-up telephone connection. Broadband access is also offered by some electricity networks. This competing technology, known as power-line Internet, provides low-cost access via the power plug, but is still in development. How long has broadband existed? Since the late 1990s. How much does broadband access cost? It depends on which company you choose. Nowadays, some companies even offer free broadband. Why do you need a modem? A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts digital signals into analogue signals so that data can be transmitted across the phone or cable network. What does TCP/IP mean? The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol). This is like the internet operating 39

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system. Every computer connected to the Net is identified by a unique IP address. Are there other ways of accessing the Internet? Other methods of internet access include Wi-fi, satellite, mobile phones and TV sets equipped with a modem. Wi-fi-enabled laptops or PDAs allow you to connect to the Net if you are near a wireless access point, in locations called hotstops (for example, a Wi-fi cafe, park or campus). Satellite services are used in places where terrestrial access is not available (for example, on ships at sea). High-end mobile phones provide access through the phone network. 3b. In pairs, discuss which of the Internet systems (1-6) you would use to do the tasks (a-f). Then read Part 2 of the FAQs and check your answers. 1 Email 2 The Web 3 Newsgroups 4 Chat and IM 5 FTP 6 Telnet a transfer files from the Internet to your hard drive b send a message to another person via the Internet c have a live conversation (usually typed) online d connect to a remote computer by entering instructions, and run a program on it e take part in public discussion areas devoted to specific topics f download and view documents published on the Internet Internet FAQs: Part 2 Email Email lets you exchange messages with people all over the world. Optional attached files can include text, pictures and even audio and animation. A mailing list uses email to communicate messages to all its subscribers – that is, everyone that belongs to the list. 40

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Which email program is the best? Outlook Express is a popular program, but many users use web-based email accounts such as Hotmail. The Web The Web consists of billions of documents living on web servers that use the HTTP protocol. You navigate through the Web using a program called a web browser, which lets you search, view and print web pages. How often are web pages updated? It depends entirely on the page. Some are updated thousands of times a day. Chat and Instant Messaging (IM) Chat and Instant Messaging technologies allow you to have real-time conversations online, by typing messages at the keyboard. FTP FTP, or file transfer protocol, is used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network. Nowadays, this feature is built into Web browsers. You can download programs, games and music files from a remote computer to your hard drive. Telnet Telnet is a protocol and a program used to log onto remote computer systems. It enables you to enter commands that will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the remote server. Newsgroups Newsgroups are the public discussion areas which make up a system called Usenet. The contents are contributed by people who post articles or respond to articles, creating chains of related postings called message threads. You need a newsreader to subscribe to newsgroups and to read and post messages. The newsreader may be a stand-alone program or part of a web browser. How many newsgroups are there? There are approximately 30.000 active newsgroups. Where can you find newsgroups?

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Your newsreader may allow you to download the newsgroup addresses that your ISP has included on its news server. An alternative to using a newsreader is to visit web forums instead, which perform the same function but without the additional software. 3c. Find words and phrases in Part 2 with the following meanings. 1 a system used to distribute email to many different subscribers at once (in Email paragraph) 2 a program used for displaying web pages (in The Web paragraph) 3 to connect to a computer by typing your username and password (in Telnet paragraph) 4 a series of interrelated messages on a given topic (in Newsgroups paragraph) 5 a program for reading Usenet newsgroups (in Newsgroups paragraph) Language work: questions 4. Look at the HELP box and make questions. Then practise asking and answering the questions. Example: When / first / use the Internet

When did you first use the Internet?

1)

What type of internet connection / have at home?

2)

How fast / your internet connection?

3)

How much / pay for broadband access?

4)

How often / access the Internet?

5)

Which email program / use?

6)

Who / send email to?

7)

Do / use your mobile phone to access the Internet?

8)

Do / use the Internet in public spaces using Wi-Fi?

9)

Do / play games online?

10)

How many newsgroups/subscribe to?

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HELP box Questions • In questions, we normally place the auxiliary verb before the subject. Are there other ways of accessing the Internet? • If there is no other auxiliary, we use do/does (present simple) or did (past simple). Did the Internet become popular quickly? • There are many question words in English which we use to find out more information than just yes or no. People Who created the Internet? Things What does TCP/IP mean? Which email program is the best? Place Where can you find newsgroups? Time When was it created? How often are web pages updated? How long has broadband existed? Reason Why do you need a modem? Quantity How much does broadband access cost? How many newsgroups are there? Manner How do you get online? Others How fast are today's internet connections? How old is the Internet?

Language work: collocations 8a. Look at the HELP box below and then match the words on the left (1-6) with the words on the right (a-f) to make collocations. There may be more than one possible answer. In pairs, make sentences using these collocations.

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1 online

a) friends

2 take

b) photos

3 email

c) action

4 upload

d) website

5 portable

e) encyclopedia

6 official

f ) player

HELP box Collocations A collocation is a pair of group of words that are often used together. For example, we say make phone calls, not do phone calls. Here are some common types of collocation: š verb + noun surf the web download music š verb + particle hack into a computer log onto a bank account š adverb + adjective highly sensitive information freely available on the web š adjective + noun mathematical formulas up-to-date information The word online often collocates with other words and can function as adjective or adverb. Adjective: They post opinions on online journals. Adverb: A podcast is an audio recording posted online.

8b. Find the collocations in these sentences and say what type they are. 1 Once you are online, you can browse the Web, visit chat rooms or send and receive emails. 2 Instant messaging can be a great way to communicate with friends. 3 This software may not be fully compatible with older operating systems. 4 Most webcams plug into a USB port. 5 This highly addictive game will keep you playing for hours. 6 Companies are starting to use virtual reality on their websites.

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Unit 7 Security on the Internet 1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1.What is a hacker? 2.How easy do you think it is to infiltrate the Internet and steal sensitive information? 3.How can you protect your computer from viruses and spyware? 2a. Read the text quickly and see how many of your ideas from 1 Question 3 are mentioned. Security and privacy on the Internet There are many benefits from an open system like the Internet, but one of the risks is that we are often exposed to hackers, who break into computer systems just for fun, to steal information, or to spread viruses. So how do we go about making our online transactions secure? Security on the Web Security is crucial when you send confidential information online. Consider, for example, the process of buying a book on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order form which passes from computer to computer on its way to the online bookstore. If one of the intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied. To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your web browser. Mozilla Firefox displays a lock when the website is secure and allows you to disable or delete cookies – small files placed on your hard drive by web servers so that they can recognize your PC when you return to their site. If you use online banking services, make sure they use digital certificates – files that are like digital identification cards and that identify users and web servers. Also be sure to use a browser that is compliant with SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), a protocol which provides secure transactions. Email privacy Similarly, as your email travels across the Net, it is copied temporarily onto many computers in between. This means that it can be read by people who illegally enter computer systems. The only way to protect a massage is to put it in a sort of virtual envelope – that is, to encode it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send email privately is Pretty Good Privacy, a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman. 45

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Network security Private networks can be attacked by intruders who attempt to obtain information such as Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports. To protect crucial data, companies hire security consultants who analyse the risks and provide solutions. The most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, firewalls, and encryption and decryption system. Encryption changes data into a secret code so that only someone with a key can read it. Decryption convers encrypted data back into its original form. Malware protection Malware (malicious software) are programs designed to infiltrate or damage your computer, for example viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware. A virus can enter a PC via a disc drive – if you insert an infected disc – or via the Internet. A worm is a self-copying program that spreads through email attachments; it replicates itself and sends a copy to everyone in an address book. A Trojan horse is disguised as a useful program; it may affect data security. Spyware collects information from your PC without your consent. Most spyware and adware (software that allows pop-ups - that is, advertisements that suddenly appear on your screen) is included with 'free' downloads. If you want to protect your PC, don't open email attachments from strangers and take care when downloading files from the Web. Remember to update your antivirus software as often as possible, since new viruses are being created all the time. Note: Originally, all computer enthusiasts and skilled programmers were known as hackers, but during the 1990s, the term hacker became synonymous with cracker - a person who uses technology for criminal aims. Nowadays, people often use the word hacker to mean both things. In the computer industry, hackers are known as white hats and crackers are called black hats or darkside hackers.

2b. Read the text more carefully and answer these questions. 1. Why is security so important on the internet? 2. What security features are offered by Mozilla Firefox? 3. What security protocol is used by banks to make online transactions secure? 4. How can we protect our email and keep it private? 5. What methods are used by companies to make internal networks secure? 6. In what ways can a virus enter a computer system? 7. How does a worm spread itself? 2c. Solve the clues and complete the puzzle.

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1. Users have to enter a……………to gain access to a network. 2. A ……………. protect a company intranet from outside attacks. 3. A……………..is a person who uses their computer skills to enter computers and networks illegally. 4. ……………... can infect your files and corrupt your hard drive. 5. You can download …………… from the Net; this type of software is available free of charge but protected by copyright. 6. Encoding data so that unauthorized users can't read it is known as……… . 7. This company uses ………………. Techniques to decode (or decipher) secret data. 8. Most ……………….. is designed to obtain personal information without the user's permission. 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3a. What Internet crimes do you know? Discuss in pairs or small groups. 3b. Read the text. Which Internet crimes did you forget to mention in 3a? Internet crime The Internet provides a wide variety of opportunities for communication and development, but unfortunately it also has its dark side. Crackers, or black-hat hackers, are computer criminals who use technology to perform a variety of crimes: virus propagation, fraud, intellectual property theft, etc.

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Internet-based crimes include scam, email fraud to obtain money or valuables, and phishing, bank fraud, to get banking information such as passwords of Internet bank accounts or credit card details. Both crimes use emails or websites that look like those of real organizations. Due to its anonymity, the Internet also provides the right environment for cyberstalking, online harassment or abuse, mainly in chat rooms or newsgroups. Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted software, information, music and video files, is widespread. But by far the most common type of crime involves malware – software created to damage or alter the computer data or its operations. The main types of malware include viruses, worms, Trojan horses and spyware. 3c. Identify the Internet crimes sentences (1-6) refer to. Then match them with the advice below (a-f). 1. Crackers try to find a way to copy the latest game or computer program. 2. A study has revealed that half a million people will automatically open an email they believe to be from their bank and happily send off all their security derails. 3. This software’s danger is hidden behind an attractive appearance. That's why it is often wrapped in attractive packages promising photos of celebrities like Anna Kournikova or Jennifer Lopez. 4. There is a particular danger in Internet commerce and emails. Many people believe they have been offered a special gift only to find out later they have been deceived. 5. 'Nimda' spreads by sending infected emails and is also able to infect websites, so when a user visits a compromised website, the browser can infect the computer. 6. Every day, millions of children spend time in Internet chat rooms talking to strangers. Bur what many of them don't realize is that some of the surfers chatting with them may be sexual predators. a. People shouldn't buy cracked software or download music illegally from the Internet. b. Be suspicious of wonderful offers. Don't buy it you aren't sure. c. It's dangerous to give personal information to people you contact in chat rooms. d. Don’t open attachments from people you don't know even if the subject looks attractive. e. Scan your email and be careful about which websites you visit. 48

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f. Check with your bank before sending information. 4a. What can be done to prevent computer infections? Discuss in pairs and make a list of preventative tips. Language work: Making Guidelines and Rules Study these guidelines for preventing and treating viruses. Don’t open email attachments from unknown people; take note of the file extension. Don’t believe everything you read on the Net. Have a suspicious attitude toward its contents. We can make them stronger by adding always and never. Always make backup copies of your files. Never accept files from high-risk sources. We can make them into rules or recommendations by using must/mustn’t, should/shouldn’t. You must run and update antivirus programs, e.g. virus scanner. You should install a firewall, a program designed to prevent spyware from gaining access to the internal network. You should use a digital certificate, an electronic way of providing your identity, when you are doing business on the Internet. 4b. Fill in the gaps in these security tips with words from the box. digital certificate

malware virus scanner spyware firewall

antivirus

š Malicious software, (1)…………., can be avoided by following soma basic rules. š Internet users who like cybershopping should get a (2)…………………., an electronic identity card. š To prevent crackers from breaking into your internal network and obtaining your data, install a (3)………….. . It will protect you from (4)…………………. . š If you have been hit by a (5)………….... , don’t panic! Download a clean-up utility and always remember to use an (6)………………….. program, for example, a virus (7)……………………. .

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Unit 8 Careers in Computing 1. Work in groups. List some of the jobs you know in computing. Compare your lists with other students in the class. 2. Which of the jobs listed would you like to make your career? Explain why to others in your group. 3a. Read the descriptions of jobs in computing. Which jobs didn’t you mention in your lists? Jobs in computing Most ICT-related jobs have developed to meet the need to analyze, design, develop, manage or support computer software, hardware or networks. All the people involved in the different stages of development of a computer project, i.e. analysts, programmers, support specialists, etc. are controlled by a project manager. ANALYZE A database analyst is in charge of the research and development of databases; network analysts study the network requirements and recommend the most suitable type of network; systems analysts decide what ICT system will cater for the requirements of a specific institution. DESIGN AND DEVELOP Web designers, also called webmasters, create and maintain web pages and web applications for websites. Software engineers, either application programmers or systems programmers, plan, design, and test computer programs. Hardware engineers design and develop ICT devices. Security specialists specialize in the design of software and hardware to protect information from malware: viruses, spyware, etc. MANAGE 50

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Network or computer systems administrators install and maintain networks. Database administrators manage the accuracy and efficiency of databases. SUPPORT Computer operators control computer data processing. Help desk technicians are in charge of troubleshooting, the solution of technical problems. Computer training instructors or trainers teach people how to use hardware and software. Technical writers write the instructions for ICT systems. 3b. Classify these jobs under the heading that best describes their function. software engineer

help desk technician

database administrator

trainer hardware engineer

network analyst network administrator

systems analyst

ANALYZE

/\ a_____ b____

DESIGN/DEVELOP

MANAGE

SUPPORT

/\

/\

/\

c____ d_____

e______ f_____

g____ h____

3c. Draw lines between the columns to make true sentences about jobs in 3a. A technical

analyst

controls all the operations and people in a project.

A project

engineer

writes documentation of a program or device.

A web

specialist

plans and keeps websites updated.

A security

operator

designs applications against viruses.

A hardware

writer

designs and develops ICT devices.

A computer

manager

controls computer data processing.

A network

designer

studies the network requirements.

3d. Which jobs are being offered in these advertisements?

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The successful candidate will be responsible for maintaining logical and physical database models as well as managing the database. Job Requirements š Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science, a related field or equivalent experience š Analytical skills and a proficiency in developing structured logic We are seeking a person to operate peripheral computer equipment, and perform report distribution duties and backup procedures on our servers. Major Responsibilities š Operating printers and unloading reports from the printer and distributing them through the internal mail system š Performing backups on various operating systems š Analysing and troubleshooting problems in Data Centre reported by Help Desks or IT support associates 4. Complete these definitions with jobs from the box. software engineer help desk technician network administrator

computer security specialist blog administrator DTP operator hardware engineer webmaster

1

A________________ designs and develops IT devices.

2

A________________ writes computer programs. 52

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3 A________________ edits and deletes posts made by contributors to a blog. 4 A________________ uses page layout software to prepare electronic files for publication. 5

A________________ manages the hardware and software that comprise a

network. 6

A________________ designs and maintains websites.

7 A________________ works with companies to build secure computer systems. 8 A________________ helps end-users with their computer problems in person, by email or over the phone. A letter of application 5a. Read the letter of application and answer these questions. 1

Which job is Sarah Brown applying for?

2

Where did she see the advertisement?

3

How long has she been working as a software engineer?

4

What type of programs has she written?

5

When did she spend three months in Spain?

Dear Mr Scott, I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Programmer, which was advertised on 28th March in The Times. I graduated in May 2002 and did a work placement with British Gas as part of my degree. Before taking my present job I worked for a year with NCR. I stayed in this job (1)_________March 2004. (2)__________ the last three years I have been working as a software engineer for Intelligent Software. I have designed four programs in COBOL for commercial use, and (3)_________ January I have been writing programs in С for use in 53

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large retail chains. These have been very successful and we have won several new contracts in the UK and Europe on the strength of my team’s success. Two years (4)__________I spent three months in Spain testing our programs and also made several visits to Italy, so I have a basic knowledge of Spanish and Italian. I now feel ready for more responsibility and more challenging work, and would welcome the opportunity to learn about a new industry. I enclose my curriculum vitae. I will be available for an interview at any time. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Sarah Brown

5b. Look at the HELP box and then complete the letter with for, since, ago or until. HELP box for, since, ago, until • We use since to refer to a point in time. I've been unemployed since May 2007. • We use for to refer to a period of time. I've lived in Liverpool for five years. • We use ago with the past simple to say when something happened. We put ago after the time period. I got married five years ago. • We use until to mean up to a certain time. I stayed at high school until I was 18.

Language work: the Present perfect/ Present perfect continuous 6a. Look at the HELP box and then choose the correct words in brackets to complete the sentences below. HELP box Present perfect simple We form the present perfect simple with have/has + past participle. 54

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I've used Microsoft Access for many years. I haven't used Microsoft Access for years. We use this tense to talk about: • States that started in the past and continue to the present. Since 2006, I've been a computer operator for PromoPrint. • Past actions that continue to the present, where we put an emphasis on guantity (how many). I have designed four programs in COBOL. • Personal experiences, especially with ever and never. Have you ever worked with databases? I've never worked with databases. Present perfect continuous We form the present perfect continuous with have/has been + present participle. Since January I've been writing programs in C. We use this tense to talk about: • Actions which started in the past and are still happening. For the last three years I've been working as a software engineer for Intelligent Software. • Past actions that continue to the present, where we put an emphasis on duration (how long). She's been working all morning. Contrast with the past simple We use the past simple to talk about events that happened at a specific time in the past that are now finished. I graduated in May 2003. Not: I have graduated in ... I stayed in this job until March 2004. Two years ago, I spent three months in Spain.

1

He ('s never liked /'s never been liking) Maths.

2

They ('ve worked /'ve been working) on the project all day.

3

John ('s used /'s been using) the computer for hours - he looks really tired.

4

How many emails (have you written / have you been writing) today?

5

She ('s written /'s been writing) this essay since 9 o'clock.

6

They ('ve interviewed /'ve been interviewing) five candidates today. 55

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6b. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple or past simple. 1

She (be)________________________ a software engineer since 2004.

2

After graduation I (work) __________________for a year with NCR.

3

(you ever work)____________________as an IT consultant?

4

I (lose)_______________________my PDA.

5

I (send)___________________my CV last Monday. Have you received it

yet? 6c. Make questions using these prompts. In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1

ever / live or work in another country?

2

ever / have a bad job interview?

3

ever / do a job you hated?

4

how long/study English?

5

how long / use computers?

6

how many emails/receive today?

7

how many jobs/ apply for this year?

7. With the development of ICT, there has been a change in the way lots of jobs are done. Read about computers and jobs: new ways, new profiles and complete the text below with suitable words. I’ve become a teleworker, a person who can work at home, thanks to teleworking or telecommuting, so I can work away from my official workplace. Highspeed communications have made it possible.

I’m training to work as an online teacher. I want to be a specialist in e-learning, distance education via the Internet.

I like this new aspect of my job: I practice telemedicine – it’s like having a longdistance surgery. Real-time data transmissions and virtual operations enable me to cure people who are far away. 56

I started my career as a typesetter. Now I work as a desktop publisher. I create documents with DTP software.

ICT has made my job much better and easier. Now I like to call myself a computer animator with my computer. I create cartoons I couldn’t think of before.

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The use of ICT has caused the development of new ways of working. People no longer need to be stuck in an office. Laptops, the Internet and wireless technologies allow (1)_____________ . What’s more, there are more and more people who have decided to become (2)____________ and so have no need to travel to work at all. The Internet has also enabled doctors to practise (3)___________ and educators to work as (4)___________

____________. ICT technologies have introduced

changes in the artistic world, too. Cartoons are now made by (5)__________ and (6)________

_________produce materials ready for publication.

Applying for a job 8a. Look at the job advertisement for a webmaster at eJupiter. Vacancies at eJupiter.co.uk Webmaster We are seeking a Webmaster for eJupiter.co.uk, a company dedicated to ecommerce. The successful candidate will manage our website. You will be responsible for making sure the web server runs properly, monitoring the traffic through the site, and designing and updating our web pages. Experience of using HTML and Java is essential. Experience of Adobe PDF and Photoshop is an advantage. The successful candidate will also have knowledge of web editors - MS FrontPage or equivalent. Send your CV and a covering letter to James Taylor, eJupiter Computers, 37 Oak Street, London SW10 6XY

Maria Quintana is interested in applying. Use her curriculum vitae on page 75 to write a letter of application. Follow these steps: Paragraph one: reason for writing I am writing to apply for the position of... 57

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Paragraph two: education and training I graduated in (date)... I completed a course in... Paragraph three: work experience For the past X years I have been... Since X I have been... Paragraph four: personal skills I spent X months in (country)... , so I have knowledge of (foreign languages). I can... Paragraph five: reasons why you are applying for this job I now feel ready to... and would welcome the opportunity to... Paragraph six: closing / availability for interview I enclose... I look forward to... I will be available for an interview... 8b. Write your own CV in English, using Maria's CV as a guide. 8c. Think of your ideal job and write a letter of application for it. If you prefer, look on the Internet for real jobs and practise applying for those.

Unit 9 Information and communications technologies (ICT) 1a. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. What is an ICT system? 2. How many types of ICT system can you think of? Make a list. 3. How can a PC be connected to another computer? 1b. Read some information about ICT systems: components and functions. ICT systems are much more than computers. An ICT system involves the use of computers or other types of hardware to meet a specific need. A LAN, local area network, can be an example of an ICT system, but interactive television and the database of a library are types of system too. ICT systems have these components: š software, instructions and data 58

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š hardware, computers and other devices š personnel, people who use, design, control or benefit from the system. The components perform these basic functions: š input, the data is collected and entered š processing, data is changed or manipulated š output, the results are shown š communication and feedback, the results are sent out and new data is collected and entered in the system š memory or storage of data 1c. Fill in the diagram of components and functions of ICT systems. COMPONENTS

(1) ............. , e.g.

(2) ............. , e.g.

(3) ............. , e.g.

spreadsheets, databases,

computers, printers, digital cameras, etc.

operators, users, managers, etc.

DTP, etc.

(4) ..............

(5) .....................

(6) ………

(7) …………….

(4) .....................

Data is introduced.

Data is organized and manipulated.

Data is stored.

Data is displayed.

Data is communicated. The process starts again.

FUNCTIONS

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1d. Read some information about types of systems. ICT systems are classified according to their aim. š 'In our hospital we have set up an information system to manage data and information about our patients.' š 'My house is an example of a control system. Its main aim is to control the different devices, e.g. switches that turn lights on and off as a security measure, sensors that detect smoke and set off the alarms, etc.' š 'The Internet is a good example of a communication system; other examples are a mobile phone network or digital television. This type of system is designed for sending data between different devices.' 1e. How would you define the following systems? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

the registration system of a university a robot at a car assembly line an unmanned spaceship a radio network the CIA World Factbook a video conferencing system

2. Label the pictures (1-7) with the ICT systems and services in the box. Fax

GPS

Call centre

Digital radio

Wearable Computer

Digital TV

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Teletext

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3. Complete these sentences with words and phrases from exercise 2 and then read the text below to check your answers. 1. Digital Audio Broadcasting, or DAB, is the technology behind ________. DAB is untended to replace FM in the near future. 2. ________ are designed to be worn on the body or integrated info the user's clothing. 3. Most existing TV sets can be upgraded to ________ by connecting a digital decoder. 4. My grandfather is 75 and he still watches ________ on TV to find out share prices, weather forecasts and sports results. 5. I work in a ________ . I receive incoming calls with information inquiries. I also make outgoing calls for telemarketing. 6. Please complete this form and send it by ________ or normal mail. 7. I have a _______ navigation system in my car but I don't use it very often. My town is small and I know it well. Channels of communication What are communications? Telecommunications refers to the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. Information is transmitted by devices such as the telephone, radio, television, satellite, or computer networks. Examples could be two people speaking on their mobile phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client, or even someone reading the teletext pages on TV. But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information across the Internet, via modem, phone lines or wireless networks. Because of telecommunications, people can now work at home and communicate with their office by computer and telephone. This is called teleworking. It has been predicted that about one third of all work could eventually be preformed outside the workplace. In call centres, assistance or support is given to customers 61

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using the telephone, email or online charts. They are also used for telemarketing, the process of selling goods and services over the phone. Digital TV and radio In recent years, TV and radio broadcasting has been revolutionized by developments in satellite and digital transmission. Digital TV is a way of transmitting pictures by means of digital signals, in contrast to the analogue signals used by traditional TV. Digital TV offers interactive services and pay multimedia - that is, it can transmit movies and shows to TV sets or PCs on a pay-per-view basis. It is also widescreen, meaning programmes are broadcast in a native 16:9 format instead of the old 4:3 format. Digital TV provides a better quality of picture and sound and allows broadcasters to deliver more channels. Digital Terrestrial TV is received via a set-top box, a device that decodes the signal received through the aerial. New technologies are being devised to allow you to watch TV on your mobile. For example, DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) and DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcast-Handheld) can send multimedia (radio, TV and data) to mobile devices. Audio programs (music, news, sports, etc.) are also transmitted in a digital radio format called DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting). Mobile communications Thanks to wireless connectivity, mobile phones and BlackBerrys now let you check your email, browse the web and connect with home or company intranets, all without wires. The use of GPS in cars and PDAs is widespread, so you can easily navigate in a foreign city or find the nearest petrol station. In the next few years, GPS chips will be incorporated into most mobile phones. Another trend is wearable computers. Can you imagine wearing a PC on your belt and getting email on your sunglasses? Some devices are equipped with a wireless modem, a keypad and a small screen; others are activated by voice. The 62

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users of wearable technology are sometimes even called cyborgs! The term was invented by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960 to describe cybernetic organisms - beings that are part robot, part human. 4. Read the text again and find the following. 1) the device that allows PCs to communicate over telephone lines 2) the practice of working at home and communicating with the office by phone and computer 3) the term that refers to the transmission of audio signals (radio) or audiovisual signals(television) 4) five advantages of digital TV over traditional analogue TV 5) two systems that let you receive multimedia on your mobile phone 6) the term that means without wires 7) devices that deliver email and phone services to users on the move 8) the meaning of the term cyborg Language work: the passive 5a. Look at the HELP box. How do you make the passive in your language? How different is it to English? HELP box The passive We form the passive with the verb be + the past participle of the main verb. When we mention the agent, we use by. The passive is often used in technical writing to give an objective tone. Present simple passive Information is transmitted by devices such as the telephone, radio, TV or… Present continuous passive New technologies are being devised to allow you to watch TV on your mobile. Past simple passive The term cyborg was invented by M Clynes and N Kline in 1960. 63

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Past continuous passive My TV was being repaired, so I couldn't watch the match. Present perfect passive It has been predicted that about one third of all work could eventually be performed outside the workplace. Past perfect passive The system had been infected by a virus. Future simple passive In the next few years, GPS chips will also be incorporated into most mobile phones. Modal verbs in the passive It has been predicted that about one third of all work could eventually be performed outside the workplace.

5b. Complete these sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets. 1. Microprocessors (make) _________ of silicon. 2. Call centers (use) ________ to deal with telephone enquiries. 3. In recent years, most mobile phones (equip) _______ with Bluetooth. 4. GPS (develop) _______ in the 1970s as a military navigation system. 5. Sorry about the mess - the computers (replace) ______ at the moment. 6. In the near future, the Internet (access) ________ more frequently from PDAs and mobile phones than from desktop computers. 7. Networks (can connect) ________ via satellite. 8. I had to use my laptop this morning while my PC (fix) _________.

Unit 10 Networks: LANs and WANs 1. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1. What is a computer network? 2. What are the benefits of using networks?

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Networking FAQs 2a. Look at the FAQs (i-vi) without reading the whole text. In pairs, try to answer as many of the questions as you can. 2b. Read the whole text and answer these questions. 1. What does PAN stand for? 2. What is a network protocol? 3. How do you log on to an Internet Service Provider? 4. WiMAX is a type of wireless network. What is it used for? 5. What equipment do you need to set up a wireless LAN? 6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of wireless networks? Networking FAQs i How many types of network are there? Networks are classified according to different criteria: š Geographical area: PANs (Personal Area Networks) typically include a laptop, a mobile phone and a PDA; LANs cover a building; MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks) cover a campus or a city; WANs (Wide Area Networks) cover a country or a continent. š Architecture: In a client-server network, a computer acts as a server and stores and distributes information to the other nodes, or clients. In a peer-to-peer network, all the computers have the same capabilities - that is, share files and peripherals without requiring a separate server computer. š Topology (refers to the shape of a network), or layout. There are three basic physical topologies. In a bus network, all the computers are connected to a main cable, or bus. In a star network, all data flows through a central hub, a common connection point for the devices in the network. In a ring network, all devices are connected to one another in a continuous loop, or ring. There are also mixed topologies like the tree, a group of stars connected to a central bus. š Network protocol: This is the language, or set of rules, that computers use to communicate with each other. Networks use different protocols. For instance, the Internet uses TCP/IP. ii How do I install a wired modem router? 65

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A modem router is a device that connects your computer or home LAN to the Internet. š Plug one end of the phone cord directly into a phone jack, and the other end into the ADSL port on the router. š Plug one end of the Ethernet cable into your computer's network port and the other end into an Ethernet port on the router. š Turn on your computer. To set up, or configure, the router, you'll need to input some parameters, for example your ISP's name and phone number. NOTE: A router has various Ethernet ports, so you can connect various PCs to the router via Ethernet cables. If you already have a hub or switch connecting a LAN, you only need one cable to connect the hub to the router. iii How do I log on to the Internet Service Provider? You need to type in your username and password. Once you are online, you can get email, look for information on the Web, look up IT words in dictionaries, try out new software, and sign up for RSS feeds, newsletters, etc. It is important that you remember to log off after using the Internet. An open line increases the risk of viruses, and hackers might break into your computer to steal confidential data. iv What is wireless networking? Wired networks are linked by Ethernet cables, phone lines and high-speed fibre optic cables. Wireless networks, however, use electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, to transmit data. These are the main types of wireless networks: š

Satellites - for long distances

š

WiMAX - for connecting Wi-Fi hotspots

š

Wi-Fi - for medium-range distances

š

Bluetooth - for short distances

š GSM - for mobile phones v What do I need to set up a home wireless LAN? You'll need computers equipped with a wireless adapter or wireless card, a wireless access point (a wireless router) and a broadband internet connection. vi Which is better, a wired or wireless LAN? Wired LANs are more difficult to install, but they are cheaper, faster and more reliable. Wireless networks let you move, or roam, from one access point to another, but they are less secure and subject to interference. 66

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In a basic network, two computers are connected by cable to allow file sharing.

In many homes, Ethernet cables are used to connect computers. Phone or cable TV lines then connect the home LAN to the ISP. Much of the Internet uses high-speed fibre optic cable to send data over long distances.

WANs cover a large geographic area, like a country or even multiple countries. They are built by large telecommunication companies. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is the standard technology for building wireless LANS (WLAN) and public hotspots. Bluetooth networks allow handhelds, mobile phones and other devices to communicate over short distances. Cellular networks are used in mobile phone communications.

2c. In pairs, do this network quiz. See which pair can finish first. 1. This network typically consists of two or more local area networks, covering a large geographical area. a LAN

b WAN

с Intranet 67

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2. This type of network does not have a dedicated server; all the computers are independent. a peer-to-peer

b client-server

с Metropolitan Area Network

3. On this topology, all devices are connected to the same circuit, forming a continuous loop. a star

b ring

с bus

4. The language used by computers to communicate with each other on the Internet is called a Ethernet.

b ADSL.

с TCP/IP.

5. Which cables are used to transfer information for the Internet over long distances at high speeds? a telephone lines

b Ethernet cables

с fibre optic cables

6. Which device allows several computers on a local network to share an internet connection? a an ADSL port

b a router

с an Ethernet port

7. Which device serves as a common connection point for devices in a wireless network? a wireless access point b wired router

с wireless adapter

8. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over a long distances. b medium-range distances. с short distances (ten metres or less). 3a. Read some information about WANs (Wide Area Networks). WANs have no geographical limit and may connect computers or LANs on opposite

sides of the world. They are usually linked through telephone lines, fi-

bre-optic cables or satellites. The main transmission paths within a WAN are high-speed lines called backbones. Wireless WANs use mobile telephone networks. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. 68

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3b. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences. LAN

nodes

hub

WLAN

peer-ro-peer

server

1. All the PCs on a

are connected to one

backbones

, which is a powerful

PC with a large hard disk that can be shared by everyone. 2. The style of

networking permits each user to share resources such as

printers. 3. The star is a topology for a computer network in which one computer occupies the central part and the remaining

are linked solely to it.

4. At present Wi-Fi systems transmit data at much more than 100 times the rate of a dialup modem, making it an ideal technology for linking computers to one another and to the Net in a 5. All of the fibre-optic

. of the United States, Canada and Lat-

in America cross Panama. 6. A

joins multiple computers (or other network devices) to-

gether to form a single network segment, where all computers can communicate directly with each other. 3c. Read these descriptions of different physical topologies of communication networks and match them with the terms read in the text above. 1. All the devices are connected to a central station. 2. In this type of network there is a cable to which all the computers and peripherals are connected. 3. Two or more star networks connected together; the central computers are connected to a main bus. 4. All devices (computers, printers, etc.) are connected to one another forming a continuous loop.

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Unit 11 Computers tomorrow New technologies 1a. In pairs, discuss these questions. 1 What do you think a trend is? 2 What trends in ICT do you think will affect our lives in the future? Make a list. 1b. Match the texts (1-5) with the pictures (a-e). Which trends from your list in 1a are mentioned?

1) By all accounts, nanotechnology - the science of making devices from single atoms and molecules - is going to have a huge impact on both business and our daily lives. Nano devices are measured in nanometres (one billionth of a metre) and are expected to be used in the following areas. • Nanocomputers: Chip makers will make tiny microprocessors with nanotransistors, ranging from 60 to 5 nanometres in size. • Nanomedicine: By 2020, scientists believe that nano-sized robots, or nanobots, will be injected into the body's bloodstream to treat diseases at the cellular level. • Nanomaterials: New materials will be made from carbon atoms in the form of nanotubes which are more flexible, resistant and durable than steel or alumi70

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nium. They will be incorporated into all kinds of products, for example stainresistant coatings for clothes and scratch-resistant paints for car. 2) Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of making intelligent machines and programs. The term originated in the 1940s, when Alan Turing said: 'A machine has artificial intelligence when there is no discernible difference between the conversation generated by the machine and that of an intelligent person.' A typical AI application is robotics. One example is ASIMO, Honda's intelligent humanoid robot. Soon, engineers will have built different types of android, with the form and capabilities of humans. Another AI application is expert systems programs containing everything that an expert' knows about a subject In a few years, doctors will be using expert systems to diagnose illnesses. 3) Imagine you are about to take a holiday in Europe. You walk out to the garage and talk to your car. Recognizing your voice, the car's doors unlock. On the way to the airport, you stop at an ATM. A camera mounted on the bank machine looks you in the eye, recognizes the pattern of your iris and allows you to withdraw cash from your account. When you enter the airport, a hidden camera compares the digitized image of your face to that of suspected criminals. At the immigration checkpoint, you swipe a card and place your hand on a small metal surface. The geometry of your hand matches the code on the card, and the gate opens. You're on your way. Does it sound futuristic? Well, the future is here. Biometrics uses computer technology to identify people based on physical characteristics such as fingerprints, facial features, voice, iris and retina patterns. 4) Ubiquitous computing, also known as pervasive computing, is a new approach in which computer functions are integrated into everyday life, often in an invisible way. Ubiquitous devices can be anything from smartphones to tiny sensors in homes, offices and cars, connected to networks, which allow information to be accessed anytime and anywhere - in other words, ubiquitously. In the future people will interact naturally with hundreds of these smart devices (objects containing a microchip and memory) every day, each invisibly embedded in our environment and communicating with each other without cables. 5) In the ideal smart home, appliances and electronic devices work in sync to keep the house secure. For example, when a regular alarm system senses that someone is breaking into the house, it usually alerts the alarm company and then 71

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the police. A smart home system would go further, turning on the lights in the home and then sending a text message to the owner's phone. Motorola Homesight even sends images captured by wireless cameras to phones and PCs. Smart homes can remember your living patterns, so if you like to listen to some classical music when you come home from work, your house can do that for you automatically. They will also know when the house is empty and make sure all appliances are turned off. All home devices will be interconnected over a home area network where phones, cable services, home cinemas, touch screens, smart mirrors and even the refrigerator will cooperate to make our lives more comfortable. 1c. Read the texts again and answer these questions. 1 Which unit of measurement is used in nanotechnology? 2 What are the advantages of nanotubes over regular materials? 3 What will doctors use expert systems for? 4 What features are analysed by biometrics? 5Which trend refers to computers embedded in everyday devices, communicating with each other over wireless networks? 6What will the alarm system do if someone breaks into a smart home? 7How will devices be interconnected inside the smart home? 1d. Find words in the texts with the following meanings. 1 a microscopic robot, built with nanotechnology (text 1) ……… 2 a robot that resembles a human (text 2) ......... 3 biological identification of a person (text 3) …….. 4 integrated; inserted into (text 4)……… 5 electrical devices, or machines, used in the home (text 5)……. 1e. Write a suitable caption for each picture shown in 1b.

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Language work: future forms 2a. Look at the HELP box and then choose the correct words in brackets to complete the sentences. HELP box Future forms We use the future simple (will/won't + verb) in the following ways: • To make predictions when you don't have present evidence that something will happen Nanobots will be injected into the body's bloodstream to treat diseases. • To talk about hopes and promises, especially with the words expect think, hope and probably They hope that people will interact naturally with hundreds of smart devices at a time. • To describe an instant decision, often when we make an offer Sure, I'll help you with your homework. • To talk about facts that will inevitably happen She’ll be 21 in May. We use be going to + verb in the following ways. • To describe future intentions She's going to write a book about ubiquitous computing. • To make predictions when you have present evidence that something is going to happen By all accounts, nanotechnology is going to have a huge impact on business and our daily lives. We use the future continuous (will be + -ing form of the verb) to talk about actions in progress at a specific time in the future. In a few years, doctors will be using expert systems to diagnose illnesses. We use the future perfect (will have + past participle) to talk about actions finished at a specific time In the future. Soon, engineers will have built different types of android. 1) In the future, I hope we ('ll have /'re going to have) robots in the home to help us with the housework. 2) Hey, Nick, be careful, you ('re going to spill /'ll spill) that coffee on the computer! 73

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3) It's John's birthday next week. We ('ll give / 're going to give) him a mobile phone. 4) - My laptop has crashed! - Don't worry. I ('ll lend /'m going to lend) you mine. 5) The Internet (will probably change / is probably going to change) the publishing industry in the way that TV changed the movie industry. 6) Futurists predict that smart technology (will be / is going to be) incorporated into fabrics, so you'll be able to email from your coat! 2b. Complete these sentences with the correct future form of the verb in brackets. Use the future continuous or future perfect. 1) Thanks to ICT, by the year 2030 we (find)................. cures for the major diseases of our time. 2) In twenty years' time, some people (live).................................in space, perhaps inside a computerized colony. 3) By this time next week, I (work)...............................for IBM. 4) By this time next month, I (buy) …………….. that BlackBerry that I've been wanting to buy for months. 5) Scientists predict that in twenty years' time nearly everyone (live) …………….. in smart houses. 2c. In pairs, discuss these predictions. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answers. Look at the Useful language box to help you. Useful language I think that…. What do you think about number ….. ? I'm not sure that ... will ... I completely agree/disagree with ... 1) Some day, we'll be talking to computers naturally, like friends. 2) Microchips implanted in our arms will serve as ID cards and contain our medical records. 3) Robots will learn to build themselves, without human help. 4) Smart homes will be voice-activated. 5) Computers will be ubiquitous and almost invisible, embedded into our homes and integrated into our lives. 74

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Appendix: a model CV Curriculum vitae Personal information Name: Maria Quintana Address: Avda Seneca, 5, Madrid 28040 Telephone: 00 34 91 5435201 Email: [email protected] Date of birth: 28/07/85 Education and Training 2009 Online diploma in web-based technology for business, www.elearnbusiness.com 2008 Course in web design at the Cybernetics College, London: HTML, Java and Macromedia Dreamweaver 2007 Course in computer hardware and networking at the Cybernetics College, London 2002-2007 Degree in Computer Science and Engineering, University of Madrid Work experience January 2009 - Part-time Webmaster at www.keo.es; responsible for updating present the site and using Adobe Flash to create animations May 2008 IT consultant at Media Market, specializing in e-commerce and December 2009 IT strategies IT skills Knowledge of multiple computer platforms (Windows, Mac and Linux); strong database skills (including the popular open source MySQL database); complete understanding of graphics formats and Cascading Style Sheets Personal skills Social and organizational skills Good communication skills Languages Spanish mother tongue; English (Cambridge CAE); Arabic (fluent) Hobbies and Interests Web surfing, listening to music and travelling References Miguel Santana, Manager, keo.es Sam Jakes, Lecturer, Cybernetics College 75

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Библиографический список 1. Esteras S.R. Infotech: English for computer users / S.R. Esteras. – 4th edition. – Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 168 p. 2. Esteras S.R. Professional English in Use / S.R. Esteras, E.M. Fabre. – Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 118 p.

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Contents Unit 1. Living with computers ................................................................................ 3 Unit 2. Types of computer systems ......................................................................... 5 Unit 3. Basic Hardware ........................................................................................... 9 Unit 4. Basic Software .......................................................................................... 19 Unit 5. Programming and Programming Languages ............................................ 28 Unit 6. Faces of the Internet .................................................................................. 36 Unit 7. Security on the Internet ............................................................................. 45 Unit 8. Careers in Computing ............................................................................... 50 Unit 9. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) ........................... 58 Unit 10. Networks: LANs and WANs .................................................................. 64 Unit 11. Computers tomorrow .............................................................................. 70 Appendix: a model CV.......................................................................................... 75 Библиографический список ............................................................................... 76

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