The differential predictive value of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale for certain areas of teacher preparation

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? m v x F T i i m T U L m m i Q T i m vaiot. of t m h&£*£ft«»8&LL&YU& bCALiS F08 CBRTAlU ARAAS OF VUGUMi PHpFiiEATXOE

m kLUikHOii*h HAC&i»f$ L/J&

Submitted in p a r tia l fu lf illm e n t of the r^iiirosw m ts fo r the doctor of ^ u e& tio n decree in the school of iycsuc&tlon Xnu iana 0a ivera i June, l&bO

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Accepted by the faculty of the School of location, Indiana University, in partial fulfillment of the require­ ment® for the degree Doctor of education.

Doctoral Committee;

Chairman

11

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Th© writer wishes to take this opportunity to express his gratitude and appreciation to Dr, Melvin S* Lewis, his major advisor, to Dr# Nicholas A# Fattu for his invaluable aid in the statistical treatment of the data and to the other raentoers of his committee for their suggestions, assistance and guidance In the development of this study# Appreciation is also due the following for their cour­ tesies and cooperation In the gathering of the dates

Dr*

Howard T* Batchelder, Miss Martha K. Garter, Mr# Ralph T. Daniels, Mr, Shirley H* Engle, Miss Sally Huntting, Miss Anne M, Lee, Dr, Thurber H. Madison, Mr, Phillip Peak, Dr, Wayne E, Schomer, Miss Ingrid M, Strom, Mr, Prevo L# Whitaker, Miss Emily K, Wilson, and Mr. Sylvan A. Yager# The author further wishes to express his deep grati­ tude to his wife, Eleanor, his son, Sandy, and his daughter, Kathy, for the encouragement, assistance, and understanding, they gave him during the time this dissertation was being written* A#H#L#

ill

TABLE OF COtfOTTS

Chapter I.

XI.

m a o r o c T i o K . ........ * ......................

i

Oeneral Background . . . . . . . . ........... The wechsler~Bellevue Scale* . * » • * . • • • . The Problem* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delimitation of the Problem# . . . . . . . . . . Review of Related Literature * • • « • » « • • • Procedure* . . . . . . . . ....... * ....... 45

1 24 S3 34 39

THE DATA OF THE STUDY# * ...........

59

Information Teat * . * * * . . « . * ♦ ♦ • . * . 50 Comprehension Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Digit Span feat* • > * • .................. 76 Arithmetic Test. • • • . • . • • • • • • « * # • 83 Similarities fast* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Vocabulary Test* • • « # • • • # • « . * • • • • 94 Picture Arrangement T e s t # . . # . * . . . . # # 102 Picture Completion Test* • • • * • • • . • • * • 108 .Block Design Teat* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Object Assembly Test * * • * • • * ........... 120 Digit Symbol Test* # • % • • • • • • . • • • • • 127 Verbal X.q.. . * ............................. 133 Performance X.Q.* • • * , * » » * * * * # * « « * 142 Total (Pull Seal©) X.Q>. . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Average Credit Point Ratios* . . • • • . « • • • 155 Intertest and Criterion Correlations 163 Intercorrelation Differences « . * • ....... • 197 III.

SUMMARY ADD CONCLUSIONS* . . . . . . . . . . . .

203

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

822

APPENDIX .

225

..............

Appendix At Record Form X. feehsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

226

ust

of

tabdds

fable

Fag©

1.

kg© and Sex Distributionof Subjects Studied,



weighted a©ores Bade by Students in Different Teaching Areas on the InformationTeat of the weebsler»» Bellevue Scale ♦ * # . * * * * # * * * * 6 1

3#

Analysis of Variance (F Toot) of the Mean Score Differences Between the of Teacher Preparation in Terms of tion Teat of the wee he1©r - Be 11 evu e

• • * 57

Weighted Seven Areas the Informa­ Scale# * . • , 63

4 . Significant t Scores Between Areas of Teacher Pre­ paration Derived from the Information Teat of the wechsler-Bellevue Seale # • » ♦ * . # * # • * #

66

5 # Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Academic and I?on-Academic Group® in Terms of the Information fast of the wachsler-Bellevue Seal© # # • • • * »

67

6*

Weighted Scores Made By Students in Different Teaching Areas on the Comprehension Test of the Weehaler-Bellevu© Scale • • » * # * « # • • • • «

70

7 # Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher Preparation in Terms of the Compre­ hension Test of the Dechsler-Bellevue .Seale * « • 71 8.

9*

Significant t Score® Between Areas of Teacher Pre­ paration Derived from the Comprehension Test ex'5 the Weehsler-Bellevue Scale • » • • « • » » . * *

72

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the Weighted Dean Score Difference® Between the Academic and Nonacademic Groups in Term© of the Comprehension Test of the Yi/eeheler*Bellevue Scale • * • • • • •

74

10. -Weighted Score® Mad© by Student© in Different Teaching Area© on the Digit Span Teat of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale ♦ * * ........ . # * * . 7 7

v

Table 11*

Analysis of Variante IF Teat) of the Moan So ora Differences Between the of Teacher Preparation in forms of Span fast of the waohsler-Bellevue

12*

Significant t Score# Between Areas of Teacher Pre­ paration .Derived Prom the Digit Span fast of the Bachelor-Bellevue Scale • • • * * • • « * « 79

IS*

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the weighted lean Score Differences Between the Academic m d Bon-Academic Groups In Terms of the Digit Span Test of the faob&Xtr-Bellevue Scale * « * • • «

SI

ieighted Scores lade by Students in Different Teaching Areas on the arithmetic Test of the sechsler-iellevu® Scale * * * « * • « • • * * *

B4

Analysis of Variance (P Test) of the weighted lean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher Preparation in Terms of the Arith­ metic Test of the "#eobsler*Bellevue Scale * * #

85

analysis of Variance (? Test} of the weighted Mean score Difference# Between the Academic and. lon-Aeademio ■Groups in Terms of the Arithmetic Test of the Wechsler-Bellevue Seale * • • * • •

86

Weighted Scores lade by Students in Different ‘ Teaching Areas on the Similarities lest of the ^echeler— Bellevue Scale * * • « * * • * • * • •

89

Analysis of Variance (P Test) of the weighted Mean Score Differences Between the seven Area# of Teacher Preparation in Term® of the Simi­ larities Tost of the Beefceler-Bellevue Scale* *

90

Significant t Scores Between Area® of Teacher Preparation Derived from the Similarities Teat of the aeehaler*Bellevue Scale * * * * * *

91

Analysis of Variance (P Test) of the weighted Mean Score Difference# Between the Academic and Ion-Academic Groups In Terms of the Simi­ larities Test of the wech#l#r«B#llevue Scale* *

96

weighted Scores W e by Students in Different Teaching Areas on the Vocabulary Test of the Wecheler-Bellevue Scale * * * * * * * * * * * *

96

14*

15*

16*

17*

18*

19*

20*

21.

vi

lighted Seven i w m ® the Digit Scale* . * * 78

Table 22*

25#

Analysis of Variance (F T»«t) of the lighted Mean Score Difference® Between the $ m m Areas of Teacher Preparation In f e m e of the Voeabulary Test of the weehsler-Bellevue Scale ♦ * * * * # # # • • ♦ • « # ♦ # * * * * *

97

significant t Seoree Between areee of Teacher Preparation Derived from the Vocabulary feet

of the lechsXer-Bellovue Seale* • * « * * « * •

98

24#

Analysis of Parlance (F foot) of the Weighted lean Score Differences Between the Academia and Ho&~A&ademle Groups ta Terras of the Vo-* o&balary Test of the Wecbeler-Bsllsvue Seal©* « 100

25*

wel^ted Scores Made by Student* in Different teaching Areas on the Picture Arrangement Tost of the Weehsler* Bellevue Scale* * « • « * • • *

20#

104

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the Weighted

Meexi Score Differences .Between the seven Areas of Teacher Preparation In Terms of the Picture Arrsmgement fast of the wecheler-*Bellevue Scale 105 27#

Analysis of Variance (F feet) of the Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Academic*and Hcn*acadessle Groups In Terms of the Picture Arrangement Teat of the weoheler^Bellevue Seal© 100

28#

weighted Scores Made by Students In Different 'reaching Area® on the Picture completion f m t of the Wecheles^Sellevue Scale# * * • # • * * «

109

29#

analysis of Variance (F Teat) of the Weighted Mean Score Difference** Between the seven Area* of Teacher Preparation in Tense of the Picture Completion Teat of the weeheler*Bellevue scale. 110

50*

Significant t Score* Between Area* of Teacher Pre­ paration Derived From the Picture Completion Test of the $eeh*l*r«8»llevue Seale * * * * * * 111

31#

Analysis of variance (p Tost) of the Aclotted Mean Score Difference* Between the Academic and Ion-Academic Group* in Toms of the Picture Completion Teat of the $eeh*ler~3allevue Scale* 112

32*

weighted Score* Made by Student a in Different Teaching Areas on the mock Design Tost of the We ohsler* Bellevue Soule # * • * * • « • # , « « vii

115

Pag©

f»bl« 33.

$4*

36#

36*

57*

Analysis of Variance (F Teat) of the Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher Preparation in Terms of the Block Design 'lest of the wachsler*Bellevue Scale# * *

116

Significant t Scores Between Areas of Teacher Preparation Derived Prom the Block Design test of the ftechslar-Bellevue Scale

117

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Academicand Ron-Aeodamio Groups in Terms of the Block De­ sign Test of the Wechaler*Bellevue scale* * • *

119

Weighted Scores Made lay Students In Different Teaching Areas on the Object Assembly Test of the leohslar*Bellevue Seale# • • « • * • • •

121

Analysis of Variance (p fast) of the weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher 'Preparation in Terms of the Object Assembly Tost of the Vteeh&ler-Bellevue Scale* •

122

30#

Sigulfleant t Scores Between Areas of Teacher Pre­ paration Derived From the Object Assembly Teat of the wecheler-Bellevue Scale* * * # # * » * • 123

59*

Analysis of Variance (F Tests) of the weighted Mean Score Differences 'Between the Academic and Bon-Ao&demle groups in Terms of the Object Assembly Tost of the freehsler-Bellevue Scale# #

125

Weighted Scores Made by Students in Different Teaching Areas on the Digit Symbol Test of the w ©cha1®r-Bellevu a Scale • * • • • » * • • • • •

128

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher Preparation in Terms of the Digit Symbol Teat of the weehaler-Ballevu® Scale# # #

129

40*

41*

42# Significant t Scores Between Area® of Teacher Pre­ paration Derived From the Digit Symbol Teat of the Aocha ler - Be llevu e Seal© • • * # # • # « * • 130 43# Analyst* of Variance (F Teat) of the weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Academic and NonAcademic Groups in 'Terms of the Digit Symbol Test on the Aechaler-Bellevue Scale* . * . * . * . # 152

viii

Page

Table 44#

46*

46*

Difference* Between Teaching areas In Terms of 1*0,* *® Derived from the Sums of weighted Scores on the Verbal Tests of the wechslar-* Bellevue Scale* * * » . . • * » • * • * * « ♦ •

136

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Seven Areas of Teacher Preparation In Terms of the Verbal I*Q.»s Obtained from the Aaohsler-Bellevue Seal© * • « » * • * • • • • » • • • • • • • « »

137

Significant t Scores Between A r m s of Teacher Preparation Derived Prom the Verbal 1.^,* fs of the Aochsler•Bellevu© Scale* * # • • * « * «

168

47*

Analysis of Variance (F Test) of the 'Weighted Mean Score Differences Between the Academic and Mon* ac ad ©ml© Groups in feras of the Verbal X.A*1© Scored on the Wechslsr-BellcTO© seal©* * 140

48*

Differences Between teaching Areas In Terms of X#Q.* *© Derived From the Sums of Weighted Scores on the Performance Tests of the ^©ohslerBellevu© Scale* * « * • « • * • • • . • • • • * 145

49#

Analysis of Variance each student

to find hi® best place in the school, to develop his best abilities, to reduce his liabilities, end to succeed In his educational, social, and vocational alms*^ %plavor, S#, Opportunities in Vocational Guidance, p* 49# hrlckson, C* .E», editor, x basic Text for Guidance workers* p* 48*

11 B i n m intelligence I0 positively related to the level of vocational achievement and competence, intelligence tests can he need a® an Indication ox tie probable level of vocational success as well as an indication of the individual*s abil­ ity to do school work#

The high school educational experience

Is In itself a selective process# as it has been found that the average ltd* for high school seniors 1$ approximately 105,® whereas the average X#Q# for the population generally is ap­ proximately 100# In predicting scholastic success beyond the high school, there are a sufficient number of records available to show that the higher the X*Q# the higher th® level of attainment, and that a minimum X»Q* of 100 is needed to do work of aver­ age quality with an average expenditure of time m d effort in a good college*®

There has been little work don© in the col­

lege area with Individual testa of mental ability, although it has been found that mental measurement® of the group type are sufficiently reliable predioatora of scholastic ability to be used in the screening process of prospective college students# Individual mental testing was still in its infancy with the first generally accepted revision of Binetfs work, the

®Oates, A* I*, efc £i*# 52.* 9IMci., p. 251.

553775

** P* kdO#

Stanford, Bevielon, published by I*# M* Terra&n in 1910*

Almost

immediately thereafter, even before the lapse of a year, the United States entered World bar 1 and immediately encountered a critical need for the processing of thousands of men to dis­ cover those mentally unfit for military service at one and. and those best qualified for officer material at the other#

A

group of eminent psychologists, headed by IU U* Ycrkes, tackled the problem, of drawing up a test that could be administered to large group® of people and that would measure innate ability independent m

largely as possible of education, environment,

and other ferns of training* two testes

The results of their efforts were

the krmj Alpha for literates and the Army Beta for

illiteratea or for parsons with a limited knowledge of the hagllsh language* The Army Alpha, a paper and pencil tost, consisted of eight stations, each section made up of questions of graded difficulty.

The time required for this test was 24 minutea*

The results differentiated distinctly between the officer md the enlisted personnel*

The officer group received scores

ranging from 105 up toward the maximum score of £12 while the enlisted personnel soores averaged slightly over 60* The army Beta also was a paper and pencil test but was different as to administration and content from the Army Alpha* ■The directions for this test were given toy pantomime or demon­ stration, the content included

w m

tracing, block counting,

pattern completion, similarities and differences, picture

15 completion, and puzzle solving.

It was quit© evident that the

Beta form of the Army test did not test exactly the same abil­ ities that the Alpha form tests, hut it did help to discover men of good Intelligence who would have been handicapped in tak­ ing the Alpha test because of limited schooling or command of the English language. Group intelligence testing received Its impetus from the definitely successful venture in this area of work done In the United States Army In World War I.

After World war I,

the material used in the verbal Army Alpha and the non-verbal Army Beta forms was revised, adapted, and modified for civil­ ian use.

These revisions and modifications are numerous*

some of them being designed for elementary schools, some for high schools, and others especially for colleges.

These vari­

ous tests do not all attempt to measure the same ability or combination of abilities, but they arrive at about the same type of conclusion, namely, they provide an index of an individ­ ual's mental ability. One of the earliest of these modifications of the Army Alpha for school use was the h&tlonal Intelligence Test.

This

test was constructed by many of those associated with the orig­ inal army testing program#

Terman also published a group test

of mental ability In 1920.

An advance In the administration

of group intelligence tests cam© with the introduction of the spiral omnibus type of organization instead of the separate subtests.

'Tills appeared as early as 1921 in Thurston© 's Cycle

14 Omnibus Test (Psychological Test I?).

This improvement in test

construction appears also in the Otis Self-Administering Tests of Mental Ability.

Other widely accepted verbal group intelli­

gence tests are the Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests; the verbal series of the Fintner Oeneral Ability Tests; and the Thorndike battery of tests known as the C.A.V.D. Battery, con­ sisting of areas termed completion, arithmetic, vocabulary, and directions.

In the college area, many colleges have de­

veloped tests to fit their own specifications for use in ad­ dition to the American Council on Education Psychological Ex­ amination for College Freshmen which Is revised yearly. It is to be noted that all these tests just discussed are of the verbal type and involve the us© of words and the ability to read.

The first demand for civilian us© of a non­

verbal test came from the desire to screen immigrants more effectively.

A number of tests used for this purpose with

some success were incorporated into the Array Beta non-verbal tests and later Into other performance tests.

The first well

standardized performance test Intended for school us© consist­ ed of 15 formboards and was published by Pintner and Patterson in 1917.

Other tests of the same general type soon followed.

Some of the best known of these tests today are the Arthur Point Seale of Performance Tests, which consists of formboards, picture completion, block design, maze, and other assembly tests; the Cornell-Cox© Performance Tests; and the Loiter International Performance tests.

Both of the latter tests

15 are similar in construction to the Arthur Point .Seale# ihil® the meeds of «sorM «&r 1 popularised the group Intelligence test®# the Stanford Hevision of the Binet seal© after 1916 gained m m y supporters#

It quickly became and re­

mains the standard for individual mental testing in the United States*

Both the 1916 revision and the later 1937 revision

are age scales in which the tests are grouped in terms of age levels following the pattern set by Binet in 1908* The popularity and •unquestioned prestige of the 1916 revision discouraged the construction of other testa of mental ability despite the fact that there were two ImperfectIona In this revision*

The first of these Imperfections was that the

test was too easy for.the older children, and the second was that there was no alternate form available*

It required a

period of about 20 years to remedy these two imperfections through experiment and research*

The resulting Improvements

(1) the selection of a more representative sample of the nor­ mal school population and (2) the construction of two alternate forms were incorporated in a newer revision called the TermanMerrill 1937 Hevlsion of the Stanford-Binet Beale* lost of the items of the Binet revisions are dependent upon verbal abilities*

Since the original purpose of the Binet

scale was to differentiate between pupils in terms of ability in school performance, and since the scale has been standard­ ised upon a normal school population, the ferm&n-Merrill 1937 Revision of the Binet Scale is recognised as an excellent

16 measure of school aptitude#

It should b© understood that

this fer©im-l©rrlll Heviclen 1# not a measure of all types of mental ability#

This limitation should be hapt in mind In

order not to proJest judgmenta into areas which the tost doss not .purport to measure*

The emphasis in the teat upon verbal

abilities would be a distinct hand leap to those children who apeak & language other than English in their homes and to those who ere deaf or who have difficulties In speech or read­ ing* All of the revisions of the Bluet tBeale are baaed upon reactions to standardised clinical procedures* have been ear©** fully standardised, and are reliable only when they are ad­ ministered by trained and experienced personnel. Thor© are two other modifications or revisions of the Bluet Beal© that are widely used#

One by Kuhlmamwhich is

an extension downward to the age of three months, and the other an extension by ^©chslar* on extension upward for the measure­ ment of adult intelligence*

The «f*chsl*r Scale is used ex­

tensively m d Includes five performance tests as well as six verbal tests*

This ©©ale is unique in the feature that it

makes available a verbal X#q*, © performance X*Q*t and a total X#Q*f which la a blending of the performance and verbal I*Q#,s to Indicate the total or global capacity of the subject* ■There are, however, several individual non-verbal or performance types of test® of intelligence available at the present time.

Constructed especially for young children are

17 the Merrlll-F&lmer Scale and the Van Alstyne Picture Vocabu­ lary feat*

Requiring no special materials,. Florence loddemagh’s

*Draw * ,

‘The Measurwtenfc of

A d u lt

Intelligence,



-~~-

Comprehension

composed. of such questions as:

are a he m made of leather?"

Rkhy

should people pay taxes?"

& measure of the Individual*s level of common sense and social maturity is determined by generalised, fairly direct answers* In the section called "Digit Span/1 the indivldual is asked to repeat three to nine digit number series after the examiner#

Xf the individual fails to pees

e ith e r

one of two

trials at any level of difficulty, the examiner then proceeds to the next part of the digit span teat in which the individual la asked to repeat backward a series of three to nine digit numbers given by the examiner*

This test measures a specific

type of ability and Is held to be an Indication of ability to do Intellectual work requiring concentrated effort*®^ Arithmetic ass

Is

a t e s t u s in g

simple

v e r b a l p r o b le m s

such

"Bow much in four dollar® and five dollars?* and 11If a

man buys six cents worth of stamps and gives the clerk a dime, how nuoh change should be get back?*

According to lechsltr

“the ability to solve arithmetic problems has long boon recr»o ognized as a sign of mental alertness****' In that part of the test entitled "Similarities," the individual I® asked to tell In what way the various pairs of objects, such a.® "orange, banana," "dog, lion," and "air, water," see© to be or are alike* 21i m o .. p. as. %%Ibld «, p* 82*

The response® to the questions

enable

bh©

th in k in g

examiner

and

to

thereby

fo llo w

to

determine

th in k in g *

It

is

to

to

d is c r im in a te

fee a b l e

th e

d is tin c tly

a

lo g ic th e

individual »s

th e

g e n e ra l le v e l

function

between

of

of

an

o f h i3

a d u lt m e n t a lit y

e s s e n tia l

and

s u p e r fic ia l

likenesses#*^ 'Xhe test on vocabulary requests that a person define or explain such words as "hut,n fry *"

i&uond," nseclude,n and "bel­

An individualfs vocabulary la not only a good Index of

his general fonactl education but Is also an excellent measure of his general intelligence#2^ th e

materials for the section

■jaent®

c o n s is ts

of

to o n s

on

w h ic h

c a rd s

the teste© make

a

is

a a e r ie s a re

then asked

sensible story#

of seven

p la c e d to th e

In

ta rm e d

"Picture

a rra n g e or

s o ts

of

s k e tc h e s

fro n t

of

th e

rearrange

th e m

subject matter

so

in d iv id u a l*

th a t

fo r

car­

th e y

will

each, ifcem

of

the test generally involves some human or practical situation w h ic h

th e

testae

is

expected to

g ra s p

organising the comp on® t parts

in to

believes that this Is nothing

but

to

s o c ia l

a

and u n d e rs ta n d

logical

w h o le *

before v u a c h s le r

general intelligence applied

s itu a tio n s # ^

In the portion o f the seal© called "Picture Completion,n fch© tostee la asked to locate the missing part of some familiar 23 I b i d #, p * 8 6 * * ^ I b t d . «» p *

9 B#

2SXbld«# p# 89#

o b je c t re p re s e n te d

missing to

fro m

'know w tr n t

by a drawing o f that o b j e c t ,

& face or a tall la

m is s in g

fro m

a

fro m

In order to be able

p ig #

a p ic tu r e ,

such as a nose

an

individual

of

m ust

necessity b© familiar with what the picture represents# Tm

to s t

"Block

c a lle d

the subject to

D e s ig n " r e q u i r e s

reproduce patterns, using cubes painted differently on each of their six faces#

the patterns vary U% their complexity#

measures a person1a

te s t

a b ility

to

a n a ly s e

forms

and

re c o n -

It is a form of analysis ami synthesis#

struct wholes#

fhls

26

’ Rio administration of the full ftechaler-Sellevtte Seal© requires from 45 j&inufcos to one hour# minister than

Stanford-BInet

th e

It is simpler to ad­

because

of

the

g r o u p in g

of

the test items and the less complex directions# It

has been found

the iieehslor total rpy S ta n fo r d - B ln # t # It of

scale scores B in e t

or

th e

have

X # l* Is

th e

s e a l®

reliability

is about

Interesting

a m uch h ig h e r

test soore© than to ta l

th a t

do c ith e r

th e

as

sam e

e s p e c ia lly and

2 &lbld,$

v e rb a l

the Stanford-

w ith

has

a

s c a le

S e c h s le r

Incorporated into

s c o re s

fo r

y o u n g e r p e o p le *

isethoda of testing Into p # 94 #

^ Oronbach, ©£. clt*, p# 145.

Intelligence,

th is

many of the advantages and aaacfc of the material

his concepts

th e

scores#

Scale for Children, and

a d a p te d

v a lid ity

of the

th a t

p e r fo rm a n c e

ftechsler has recently published

II,

th e

note that

to

correlation th e

and

of

Thus be

d ir e c t

new

te s t

forma

I

b r in g s

c o m p e titio n

and

with those established by the 1916 and 1967 revisions! of the Binet Scale# The origin of the writer*© consideration of the subject of this Investigation arose' from a statement by Mehuler re­ garding the possible use In prognosis of his new type of individ­ ual intelligence teat# the bocholer-Bellevue Scale: Clerical workers and teachers do mxc h better on verbal tests# whereas manual workers and mechanics do better on performance tests# The correlations are suf­ ficiently high to be of value in vocational guidance If this statement say be accepted as correct# then it m y be possible# through, use of this particular test# to discover different occupational aptitudes by means of the relationship of scores# as# for example# between the ability to use words and to use symbols and between the ability to manipulate ob­ jects and perceive visual patterns*

In respect to teachers#

especially# if iftecheler’s contention Is correct# it would ©tern reasonable to expect that individuals who ar© to assist in the training and preparation, of youth for the responsibilities of life should themselves possess special aptitudes for tho dif­ ferent area® in which they are to teach# The development of these special aptitudes or abilities, if they exist# should be quite distinct and recognisable by the time an Individual who is planning to enter the touching; pro­ fession is about ready to complete his formal train-lag for that profession#

Does it not seem reasonable to assume that

go &echaler# .The.Measurement of Mult Intelligence# p# 146.

31 a person who la about ready to graduate from a higher Institu­ tion of learning and who plans to make the teaching of English, for example# his career should have a higher degree of develop­ ment of verbal ability than one who plane to train in the field of art or musict

Xt would also appear reasonable that the var­

ious areas of teacher preparation might not require that all individual® posses® the same specialized abilities# and that each area might be more'dependent than other areas upon one particular ability or combination of abilities#

It appealed

to the writer that if college senior® in the area of teacher preparation were given a new type of test such a® the iechslerBellevue Scale# with its different verbal and non-verbal tests# t the result® would provide an interesting and worthy subject for investigation* If the previously quoted statement by v^eehsler were applied to the area of teacher preparation* it might appear at first that all teacher® as a group could be expected to do much better in the verbal part of the Weohaler-Bellevue Scale than in the non-verbal part#

further thought# however* bring®

the realisation that there are many areas in the present curric­ ulum that are distinctly non-verbal and require a high degree of skill and knowledge in the manipulation of objects and the perception of visual patterns*

In these latter areas, at

least* there la possible an assumption that the ability to use words and symbols would be of secondary Importance,

If that

assumption should prove correct, then it would, appear reasonable

32 that Individuals preparing for teaching in those subject areas In which verbal or abstract thinking is of primary importance would perform better on the verbal part of the v»echsler*Bellevu© Scale than would individuals preparing to teach in certain non­ verbal fields* such m economics*

art* music, technical subjects, and horn©

Should these assumptions be borne out by experi­

mental evidence, counselor® dealing with a group of prospect* ive teachers would have in the ^echsler*Bellevue Scale &n in­ strument of considerable value for use in guidance* Study of research literature dealing with the weohsler* Bellevue Seale confirmed the lack of experimental data on this particular problem and gave further stimulus to the desirability of conducting such a study*

In considering the problem, the

question arose as to haw scores made on the verbal and non­ verbal parts of the wechsler-Bellevue Scale might be related to past performance of prospective teachers in curricular areas which might be classified as verbal or non-verbal*

if would-

be teachers In verbal areas had high scores on the verbal part of the ieehsler-Bellevue Seale and low scores on the non-verbal part, It might be concluded that the Weehsler*Bellevue Scale doe® actually differentiate between those two types of abil­ ities,

Ho such hard and fast relationships might be expected,

to be sure, but It would be worthwhile to discover what re­ lationships actually do exist. Aside from this question of fceohsler-Bellevue scores In relation to teaching areas selected by a group of individuals

33 studied, however# It was considered that there la also the question of the relationship of such scores to the academic achievement In college of the Individuals In the group being studied#

Such scholastic achievement would be of especial

importance in a problem of this nature with respect to the area© of subject matter that can be classified as verbal or non-verbal#

T m Problem Consideration of this entire subject of the $eehalerBellevue Seal© m m most intriguing and eventuated in an in­ vestigation into the differential predictive value of the Wschsler-Bellevue Scale for certain areas of teacher prepara­ tion#

Obviously# the primary purpose of such a study is to

discover what relationship® exist between score© on the dif­ ferent parts of the isefcsler-Bellevae Seale and apparent fit­ ness for certain areas of teaching as evidenced by the ©elect­ ion of certain areas of subject matter for teacher prepara­ tion and by the quality of scholastic achievement earned la verbal and non-verbal areas*

lore specifically* what relation­

ship# if any# exist© between the scaled score of the informa­ tion test and the field of teacher preparation for* social studies, the score on the Arithmetic test and the field of science, the score on the Vocabulary test and the area of the language arte?

Also, Is there any relationship existing

c>4 between the scores on the Object Assembly and Arithmetic test« end the field of industrial arts# the ©cores on the Block De­ sign and the Object Assembly teste and the field of art# the scores on the Digit Symbol teat and the field of music?

Simi­

larly# are there any toot scores that possess significant re* letIonships for the field of home economics? If research Indicates that it Is possible to differenti­ ate with this instrument between the various areas of teacher preparation represented In this study, the guidance of pro­ spective teachers will be considerably facilitated and its accuracy correspondingly Improved*

Delimitation of the Problem In narrowing down the problem# seven fields of teacher preparation were finally selected for this study*

language

arts# science, social studies, home economics# industrial arts, art, and music*

the first three subject areas, language art®,

science, and social studies, are classifled heroin as academic subjects or areas in which one1© learning activities ere moInly concerned with the use of words and symbols*

The remaining

four areas, home economic®, industrial arte, art, and music, are classified as non-academic because the preparation In these areas Is more heavily weighted with a performance type of ac­ tivity, such as the manipulation of objects and the perception of visual patterns*

The usefulness of a study of this nature rests upon the reliability of the ©ample used#

If the abilities, as meas­

ured by the feehsler-Bellevue Scale, of individuals who are pre­ paring to teach In seven areas of subject-matter preparation are to b® Investigated, then it is of prime Importance that the sample group in each that area*

area be representative of individuals In

Bo systematic bias wag used In selecting the sub­

jects for the study but a majority of those Included were sen­ iors at Indiana University#

It Is believed that these student©

are fairly representative of individuals who are preparing to teach in different subject-matter areas at the secondary school level*

Inasmuch m

Indiana University does not offer teacher

preparation in the area of industrial arts, it was necessary to select subjects In that field at some other institution of comparable rank, and therefor® the®® subjects were selected from the senior class at Indiana State Teachers College at Terre Haute# This study Is based upon 190 cases, 85 of which are academic and 105 non-academic # selected range from 25 to SO*

The numbers of each group The reasons for this are? first,

that the sampling distribution of T-scores becomes more nearly oo normal as the number In a group approaches SO,***1 although group® of a© few a® 25, however, would not materially reduce the efficiency of the sampling process; and second, the number of ^walker, H# H#, Elementary Statistical liethods, p* 284*

senior class members in the different areas of teacher pre­ paration who were available for selection were In each case approximately 50#

Due to withdrawals and. Illness after the

study was under way, in four areas a group of 25 students each was all that was available for study# Included;

The final group studied

language arts, 50; science# 50; social studies, 25;

home economics, 25; Industrial arts# 30; art# 25; and music# 25# In further consideration of the characteristics of th© group included In this study, It seemed desirable to have a record of the ages and sex of the subject a*

The ages of 105

m n m d the 87 women used to make up the sample in this study Is presented by areas of teacher preparation in Table 1*

37

§

M g

W iD m O

HH

HH

O

QD H C 9# S ,.-*1

CM o

©o

M r4 «ri

Q H tO

38 &n examination of fable X reveals that the subjects * ages, with 12 exceptions# range from 20 to 29.

the m m

atu-

dents tested are approximately two years older feh m the m o m m students who were tested In this study*

Many of the men are

veterans of World War II# and this may account for the senior­ ity of the m m tested#

Two-thirds of both men and woman sub­

jects werb under 25 years of age at the time that the test was administered*

One hundred and thirty-three of the eases fall

within the ago group scored by the Wechsler-Bellevue seal© In the 20-24 year-old age classification; 45 of the cases fall within the age group scored by the wechsler-Bellevue Beale In the 25-29 year-old age classification; 11 of the eases fall within the age group scored by the weehaXer-Bellevue Scale in the 30-54 year-old age classification; and only one of the oases falls within the ago group scored by the wechsler-Bellevue Seal® In the 40-44 year-old age classification. Since Wechsler#^ in the standardisation of norms for his seal©, made no differentiation between the sexes, it was concluded that there was no need to do so In this investigation# Form X of the Weehsler-Bellevue Seal© was used a® the testing instrument*

It was administered by the writer to each

person participating as a subject in the study*

The directions

for the administration and the criteria for the scoring of the scale are found in Fart III (Manual of Instructions) of The

u>

•* /\jfr

P* 100*

$%©chsl©r, nThe Measurement ,nof Adult Intelligence. n-mipi.j„ n..................... i»„»h'mnvmnmm*

59 Measurement of ldu.lt Intelligence (third edition) by David tifeeheler* the criterion for Judging the quality of the scholastic achievement of each Individual Included in this study is the average of the credit-polnt ratios of grades earned In the first semester of the school year 1948-1949 and the first semester of the school year 1949*1950* in the following manners

This credit point ratio was figured One hour of study In any subject earn®

three credit points for the .grade of A, two credit points for the grade of B, one credit point for the grad® of C, nothing for the grade of B, and it loses one credit point for each grade of F*

The total number of credit points earned by a

student for each .of the two semesters was then divided by the number of semester hours taken during that time to obtain the average credit point ratio used m

the measure of each sub­

ject fs scholastic achievement#

Review of Related Literature leaching, according to JStorr,®^ is a very complex activity and is apparently conditioned by an equally complex matrix of abilities*

Rostker^ found that intelligence Is the highest

Education,” In The Third Mental Me&sures&nts Tearbook, p* 400* ‘ ‘ * — — ---®®Roatker, b* &#, “The Measurement of Teacher Ability: Study lumber Two,1* Journal of Experimental aducetion 14*52-74. September, 19-45* ~™“ !

40 single conditioning factor In teaching ability,

There have

been relatively few attempts to ascertain relationships be­ tween various types of Intelligence test© and teaching aptitudes* rg

On© of the authors of the Teaching Aptitude Test, Hunt,

re­

ported correlations between .57 to *60 from his test and the Social Intelligence Test and the Mental Alertness Test*

In an

attempt to determine the relationships between teaching apti­ tude and ©core© on the American Council on Education Psycholog­ ical .Examination for College Freshmen, Frifce^ found, a corre­ lation of #75 between these scores and the Aptitude Test for Elementary and High School Teachers# Pougl&sa^ believed that a lack of validating data be­ tween success In school work in teachers colleges and the re­ sults of the Coxo-Orleans Prognosis Test of Teaching Ability and the Educational Aptitude Test of Hunt and others limits their usefulness in the area of teacher preparation#

An attempt

by Seagoe®® to predict for college students probable success in teaching used intelligence tests, including the American Council on Education Psychological Examination for Colley® 3%unt, o£* cit** p# 405. ^Frltfc, R* A*, “Predicting College Harks and Teaching Success for Students in a Teacher f8 College,* Journal of Analled Psychology 17:450-46, August, 1953# “ * ^Douglass, ££• cit*, p* 599. ^Seagoc, M# ?*, “The Prognostic Tests end Teaching Success," Journal of Educational 'hesearch 50:585-590. Ear.' ------------ ----- -------------1945#

41 Freshmen, but met with little success#

fhes© mmger conflict*

lag claims and report® would seem to Indicate that there has t m m little investigation or study in the area of possible existing, relationship© between the area of teacher preparation and intelligence as measured by some of the available intelli­ gence tests* The test which at the present time comes closest to an adequate diagnosis of mental abilities* Cronbach Is the Weehsler-Bellevae Beale.

believed,

In the present study the

question of the clinical us© of this seal© with abnormal peo­ ple is quite independent of Its possible usefulness In voca­ tional counseling, and consequently It is not a part of the study*

'Bier© 1© a paucity of literature on the us© of the

Wwchsler*Bellevue Seal© for vocational counseling* partially because of the comparatively short time that has ©lapsed since its publication and partially because of the absence of in­ vestigations in that direction*

Neither Hah in,

Watson,®**

nor Sapor*® we® able to locate any ©tudles in the occupational significance of the weohsler-Bellevue Scale, nor was any on© ^Cronbaoh, op. eii*, p. 140. $*%abin, A* I., ff;£h© Os© of the &©©haler-Bellevue Scales with iormal and Abnormal Person©,'1 Psychological Ballet in 42i410-422, July, 1945. ~ ~ ~ ™ ^Watson, K* X., 9The Ba© of the Wecbsler-Bellevue Scale, a Supplement, Psychological Bulletin 45:51-68, January, 1946. 40Supei>, 0£. olt., p. 144.

of thou able to find information that would be of assistance in interpreting any of the various test scores In the light of vocational counseling of any kind* In regard to the .occupational significance of the part scores, verbal and performance 1*Q**s, Babin‘S

mentioned only

one study of the relationships between total and part scores and scholastic achievement in college, that by Anderson and others#*®5 In this study the verbal score of the hecbslerBellevue Scale was found to bo a better predictor of college aptitude than either the performance score or the total score, but even the verbal score m s no better a predictor of success in college work than the individual Stanford*Bluet test or m j of the group intelligence tests commonly available* although there has been little published research work in this area, there are some who believe that the ^echalerBellevue Scale hat© possibilities in the determination of voca­ tional aptitudes*

Diamond*® set up linguistic, clerical, and

spatial groups with

the mobs!©?-Bellevue Scale tests

andwas

able, as the result

of his investigation, to indicate

some

*%abin, o£* cit*, p* 4 1 D* *^Anderson, b * A * , efc &1#, wWilson College S t u d i o s in Psychologyi I*A Comparison ofHShe tteohsler-hsllevue scale, the Revised Stanford-Bluet, and the American Council on Education Psychological Examination for College freshmen at the College Level,” journal of Psychology 14:317-526, October, 194£. h ia i’On Vocational Apt! October, 1947*

b e c h s l e r - f e l i e v u e S c a le J o u r n a l o f Psychology



and

£4s£7

certain

43 positive corrsletioas between bis divisions of the wechalerBellevue Seale and other aptitude teste designed to measure linguistic, clerical, and spatial abilities*

a 44 It was Diamond *«

belief that the ^eehsXei^Bellevue Seal® was a multi-purpose test, the full potentialities of which in vocational guidance have barely been tapped at present.

while the use of the Seal©

for vocational guidance purpose® was recommended by Goodenough,^* little additional infonsetion was available from her latest publication regarding Its use for possible vocational prognosis. Stark*^ believed the leehsler-*Bellevue Scale has value for per­ sonnel workers and others engaged In placement*

Westbrook*^

stated that one outstanding value of the Weehsler*Bellevue Scale was that it mad© possible the separate measurement and scoring by verbal and performance scales of two distinct groups of abilities# Th%v®

seems to be little disagreement regarding the use­

fu ln e s s , reliability, or validity of the weohsler-Bellevue Scale, however*

Leaders in the field of mental testing and eminent

psychologists, such as Cronbash, Ooodenough, Harsell, Stark, labson, Westbrook©, and Wrightstone, regard It a® the best test available of its typo# M i b l d *, p. 280* ^Gooden ©ugh, P#, Mental Testing, p* 447. Intelligence-*-Individualw in The Third Cental Measuremeats Tearbook, p* 301* 47Ibid.. p. 302,

44 Xa writing about the scale, Cronfcach^ stated that the Weehal*r*3©1levu© Scale gave a generally dependable I*Q*, which was useful in work with normal as well m

abnormal adults*

In

her recent book, Mental Teetlng, Goodenough4^ wrote that the Weehsler^Bellewe Scale was probably the best Individual test adapted for us© in the measurement of general adult intelli­ gence*

Mursel®® stated that the wechsler-Bellevue Seal© was

particularly designed for adults and was regarded as the most generally satisfactory instrument for the measurement of adult Intelligence*

After collectively reviewing the literature,

Sfcarlr^ believed that the seal© has accomplished for adult intelligence testing what the Bin at feat has don© in the field of child testing* In his review for the fhlrd Mental Measurements Yearbook, ff&taonj^ In commenting on the ^echeler-Bellftvue Scale, stated that*

"this scale is particularly suited for appraising selec­

ted verbal and. performance abilities of adults*"

In his opinion

it yielded a more complete and valid picture of the intellectual function than does any other single measure of Intelligence* Westbrook©^ considered the Scale to be valid and reliable for ^SCronbaeh, oj>* cit*, p, 158* *®0ood©noughf oj>* cit*, p# 319* &%urs©ll, J. I*, Psychological Testing, p* 121* Slstark,

ojj.

olt*, p* 301*

&2Wftbson* 0 £# cit*, p. 298* Kg

Westbrook©, 0£* cit*, p* 302*

genaral use.

According to Srightoton*^ it Is "timely and

important«"

Ho also considered the scale to be the best and

most carefully constructed of the present scales for the mea­ surement of adult intelligence* It 1® recognised by the writer that there has boon little success attending the few previous efforts to use in­ telligence tests In connection with the prediction of teacher preparation*

It would seem that a modeat and conservative

approach to- this problem within a limited area with the best available measurement of adult intelligence would either tend to confirm or disaffirm some of the previous studies*

Procedure Collection of the data*

.In the latter part of September,

1949, the directors of student teaching at Indiana University and Indiana State Teachers College at Terra Haute were contact­ ed by the writer to enlist their cooperation in the gathering of the data necessary for this study*

Arrangements were then

mad® through their office© with the supervising teachers of the student-teacher classes in the previously mentioned seven selected areas of teacher preparation*

At Indiana University

these student-teacher classes were Education 426, student Teach­ ing In the High School, for all the teaching area® at that in­ stitution*

For their specialised area at Indiana State Teachers

b4wrlghtstone, 0£. cit*, p* 300*

College, the student teachers in industrial arts were la Edu­ cation 453, Supervised Teaching# The writer asked to be given the opportunity to appear before the student teachera in each area, present the problem, explain it and m k for the contribution of an hour of time from each student teacher at his leisure for the administration of the Scale so that the desired data could b© m d © available*

In

return, each student teacher was assured of the opportunity at a later date to avail himself of the results of the adminis­ tration of the bechsler-Bellevue Scale if he so deaired*

The

response was moat gratifying, as tb© student teachers express­ ed their willingness to cooperate*

Appointments were made for

those on the Indiana University campus to come to the writer*s office and, for those in the industrial arts group, to come to the interviewing rooms in the Administration Building of Indiana State Teachera College at Terre Haute * When an individual arrived for his appointment, the pur­ pose of the administration of the Weeh»ler~B©ll©vu© Scale was again explained, and any questions thereon were answered in order to establish rapport between the subject and the examiner* For® I of the Weeheler-Bellevue Scale was then administered to each, person, using the testing procedure prescribed in $©ch®ler1s Manual of Instruction® for Administration of the weehsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test,^ and following wechsler'a

SSseohaler, 0 £., cit.,

pp.

171-215.

47 current recommendation for the Inclusion of the Vocabulary fast m

o m of the verbal teste with the consequent proration

of the test scores*

[email protected] for scoring the test results

as set forth in the same manual of instructions were scrupu­ lously ana carefully followed* For converting the raw scores of the Weohaler*Bellevue Scale tests into weighted scores# the conversion table pub­ lished by the Psychological Corporation as h&cora Form Is® was used*

Phis procedure gave a weighted score for each on®

of the 11 tests included in the toecbsler-Bellevue Scale* sum of the proratedverbal teat

The

scores* the sum of the perfor­

ate* test scores* and the combination of these two sums were cheeked against tables*3* appropriate to the chronological groups within which the various subjects fell to obtain the verbal l«Q*,s> performance l*Ci* fs, and total X.Q#*s. After the I*Q* *■» had been obtained at the end of the first semester of 1949-1950# through the courtesy of the regis­ trars of the two institutions concerned# the records for each one of the 190 subjects were made available so that the writer could obtain his grade credit point® for the first semester of the previous school year* 1948-1949* and for the first sem­ ester of 1949-19&0*

Prom these grade credit point® the aver­

age grade credit point ratio® were figured* $ % e e Appendix iu 87&*ohaler* o£* cit** pp. 251-254*

Semester credit«*point ratios were obtained directly from the student's records in the two institutions*

The ratio for

each semester was computed by dividing the number of credit points by the actual rmnber of credit hours of work carried in that particular semester*

In computing credit points, letter

grades were assigned the following numerical valuess

A * 3 b

:

s

0 9 I

Q S 0 P *

-1

Tabulation procedures* December, 1949*

The testing was completed by

After the different weighted scores and l*Q*r®

had been determined from the proper tables, these data and the average credit point ratios were punched on 80*column cards#

Processing these data was done with an

sorter and number*tabulator*

counter*

By means of the tabulator, the

summation of the scores, the summation of the squared scores, and the summation of the cross products were obtained for each combination of variables included In the study# Methods used * The general steps involved In testing a statistical hypothesis, when the facts for a single sample are given, are as follows? 1*

Make a statement of the hypothesis in exact terms

to help in locating the sampling distribution precisely

49 2#

Do&ucs from the hypothesis what the sampling dis­

tribution would fee under that hypothesis 3#

Determine in what percentage of samples the obtain­

ed measures will deviate from the true measure as much a® the

p m m n t oh serv&fci on, 4*

Accept or reject the hypothesis, depending upon the

“level of confidence” determined in advance# It is suggested that, in an experimental study such as the present one, the hypothesis to he tested 1 ® the “null hypo** thesis**®®

this hypothesis merely assume* that, whenever things

are measured, for the sake of an argument, nothing but the laws of chance are operating*

If it is possible to obtain a measure

from an experiment greater than that which would be obtained by chance, it can fee assumed that there is present something In addition to chance*

If this excess or discrepancy between the

obtained measure and what Is to fee expected from chance is suf­ ficiently large to occur fey sampling less than once in 100 times, the null hypothesis la customarily rejected* Tb& research, worker therefore know® that he c m place a specified degree of confidence in the significance of his ob­ tained measure, since the measure would not have occurred by chance in similar samples more then once In 100 times*

This

criterion of significance or confidence at the 1 per cent level of chance was applied to the data of this study*

In educational research,

®®LindquIst, E* F#, Statistical Analysis in Educational He search, p* 15 j Ou Ilford, l*T*V'"^5dkm0n.fe®Ir Statistics 'in fsypholo&y; and Education* p* 156*

50 however, It is not always found that obtained measures are sufficiently large to enable one to say that they would occur by chance not ©ore than one time in 100 similar samples#

Less

confidence, therefore, may be placed in many of these derived measures*

The varying degrees of confidence that are placed in

these smaller obtained measures has been worked out by Fisher and others and are set up In tables a® values which must be ex­ ceeded for the obtained measure to be worthy of confidence* In these tables different levels of significance &r© given to in­ dicate the degree of confidence that can be placed In the ob­ tained measure.

For example, a hypothesis would be rejected

at the five per cent level of significance if it could be dem­ onstrated that the obtained measure could have been obtained by chance In similar samples of the same size not more than five times In 100. When the number of cases of the sample being tested is small, as in the present study, it is advisable to follow the techniques developed, by Fisher for the testing of th© reli­ ability of the obtained measures from small samples*

In the

application of Fisher’s reasoning to any particular sampling of means, It become® of immediate Importance to ascertain the limits of the measurement within which 95 per cent of the sample means would fall means would fall*

or within which 99 per cent of the sample fheee limits have been determined as 1*96

and 2*58 times the standard error of the true mean which would be obtained by chance*§9 ^ G u Ilfo r d ,

o£.

It would follow, then, that any

c it*,

p*

150*

51 sample deviating as much a© 1*96 times the standard error of the true mean would beeom© a "signlf leant1* deviation*

A nsig­

nificant" deviation from the true m a n thus becomes one which occurs leas than once in 20 times, and a "highly slgni^lcs&tft deviation Is one that occurs less than one© In 100 times* Fisher uses the letter t to indicate the significance of the ratio of the sample mean to Its standard error*

In a revis­

ion of the limits of algnlfic&nc®, Snedecor maintained that, In order to preserve the m m ® odds for sign if loanee, the val­ ues of t should be increased as the number of oases in the sample becomes smaller*

The significant values for t at the

5 per cent level and at the 1 per cent level for different de­ grees of freedom are given in Table

of Ghllford *s Funda­

mental fffcatlatloa in Psychology and Education*

'The number of

degrees of freedom used in working with t la another important concept In dealing with small sample statistics*

The number

of degrees of freedom In working with the standard error of the mean is H-l or one less than the number of measurements used In the sample*

Using the proper number of degrees of free­

dom for the number of cases Involved, the t test was applied to determine the significance of differences of the means with­ in the academic .group and within the non-academic group* Often In educational research, two or more sets of meas­ urements are obtained, each under its own particular set of conditions#

The question then arises as to the possibility

SOlbld.. pp, 522-524.

52 that differences between these two sets of measurement© could be significant.

If it can be proved that these differences

are significant, then the different sets of measurementa can he examined to determine the nature of the differences for which significance has been shown#

The new methods of Fisher,

known as the ^analysis of variance** are most suitably designed to meet this particular type of problem*

The term nvarlancen

indicates the amount of spread of the measurements around their m m n and Is measured by the square of the standard deviation* Fisher*s test known as the WPW Teat is designed precisely to determine whether sets of data are sufficiently different one from the other for the hypothesis to be rejected on the basis that the differences arose by chance*

The advantage of using

the square© of the standard deviations according to Guilford,6^is that variances can be added to each other or subtracted from each other. Snedecor compiled tables for V, Indicating the levels of significance at the 1 per cent and b per cent levels with vary­ ing degrees of freedom#

This table la reproduced by Lindquist

In his book on statistical analysis In education As in the t test, the degrees of freedom to be used with the f Test deal with population variances, not sample variances* In dealing with sets of data In each one of which are any num­ ber in) of measurements, the number of degrees of freedom for 6 1 Guilford,

op* cit*, p. 146*

^Lindquist, cj>. cit*, pp. 62-65*

between variance 1 ® at-1 and that number of decree® of freedom for within variance Is

x (b -1}#

Analyses of variance were com­

puted for the seven area© of teacher preparation as a whole and between the academic and non-academic groups to determine if the obtained measures were significant or could have hap­ pened by chance# 'In addition to the treatment of the data by analyses of variance by the use of the t and P teats, It was consider­ ed advisable to determine the extent or degree to which com­ binations of two variables In the data of this study tend to vary together#

The product-moment coefficient of correlation

Is the most widely accepted statistic for Investigating this relationship*

tee of the tests of significance applied to the

correlation coefficient Is that based upon the hypothesis that there is no correlation In the parent population from which the samples are drawn#

This hypothesis is rejected at the 5

per cent level if it can be demonstrated that the amount of correlation observed could not have been obtained by chance In similar samples of the same else more than five times In 100#

The criterion of significance at the 1 per cent level

is applied similarly#

In the present study, after the cor­

relations In each area of teacher preparation had been deter­ mined between the test score® and other pertinent data used In.the present study, the possible significance of any of these correlations was determined by the us© of a table of significance indicating the value of the correlation coeffi­ cient required for significance (from 0 } at the 1 per cent

and the 5 per cent levels for samples of various sizes.

The

table for the detarminmtion for the different significant values of the correlation coefficient is found In Lindquist’s Statistical Analysis in Educational Research,^' Baa test for significance between two derived corre­ lation coefficients requires inverse hyperbolic tangent trans­ formation Into corresponding values of z T ot each value of r* Lindquist also furnishes a table for this transformation*®^ It is noeees&ry to

male® this transformation in order to nor­

malize the skewed distribution observable In camples where v in the parent population is greater than 0 * Compilation*

The formulas employed in the application

of the methoda hereinbefore described In analyses of the data of the present study are all well known and can be found In any standard tent on statistical analysis In educational re­ search,

The writer1® practice in the computation connected

with these analyses was to carry out the quotients to four decimal places fox* accuracy#

The four decimal places wore

then rounded off to two* Throughout the study the following statistical nota­ tions have been employed? Statistic

Symbol

Kean

1

Standard deviation

s

63Ib

i d . , p. 212.

Statistic

Symbol

Standard error of the aean

fij

Correlation ooefficXont

r

Suaber of oases

N r

Summation Significance ratio

t

function relate to r used aa a transformation for r In test* lag reliability

«

Variance ratio treatment of data*

P There are two general comparisons

made In the treatment of data First# a study Is made

Inthis study# of thedistributions of the

scores, the means, and the standard deviations of the various groups in each of the various measures# instances were of three kindss

Differences in all

(a) Differences within each

one of the seven areas of teacher preparation# termed language arts, science, social studies, home economice, Industrial arts, art and music#

(b) Differences between the seven areas of

teacher preparation termed language arts, science, social studies, home economics, industrial arts, art

and

music,

(c}

Differences between the whole academic group and the whole non-academic group. These differences are treated specifically as follows: 1#

Difference© between areas of teacher preparation in

terms of scores made on the following tests of the 'veohsler-

Bellevue Seales Information fast Comprehen©Ion To&t

Digit Span Test

Arithmetic Teat Similarities Test Vocabulary Test

Picture Arrangement Tost Picture Completion Teat Block Design Teat

Object Assembly Test Digit Symbol Test 2#

Differences between areas of teacher preparation

in terme of I*Q.f® derived from the ^'echeler-Bellevue Scale, a® followsi X .Q . f s f r o m

th e

P ro ra te d

V e r b a l T e s ts

J*h**e from the Performance Tests I.Q* *8 from full scale scores* Zm

Differences between areas of teacher preparation

In terms of average credit point ratios# Second, a study Is made of the relationships and their

significance Among the various tests within the ^echslerBellevue scale battery.

Those studio® are sad© to show inter-

correlations among the ^©chaXcr-Bellevue tests for the follow­ ing areas of teacher preparation* Language arts

57 m i m m Social Hom® economies Industrial arts Art Music The academic group a© a whole The non~&ea3emle group m

a whole

the total group* 4*

Differences between the In fcerccorrelations of the

academic and the nonacademic group are stud led * 5*

RelatIon ahIpasbetween teat score® made on the We ch alar*

Bellevue Scale by student® In fehla study and their scholastic achievement as Indicated by their average credit point ratine. Chapter 1 hag dealt with the origin of the problem# its definition* and the explanation of why the problem was select­ ed for investigation*

A brief review of type® of intelligence

testa and their development wus given* followed by a deacrip*tion of Form I of the w®chsler~ 13©1l e w e Scale*

The related

literature was briefly summarized cud tha procedures of the In­ vestigation were $et forth*

In

Chapter

II,

the tabulations of

obtained statistleu, ineluding the means and the standard deviation© made by the 190 subjects In the different area.® of teacher preparation, are presented In fables 2 to 58* The tabulations of obtained relationships (correlations) between the various test scores, and between each test score

58 and the average grade point ratio* are shown in tables 59* to 69* inclusive#

CEAPTjSK II TBB DATA OP THE STUDY The purpose of this section of the study is to set forth the data secured from the administration of Form I of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale to the 190 students in the seven areas of teacher preparation and to discuss the significance of the Scale a© a whole and of its various tests in relation to the original purpose of the investigation#

This process involves

the us© of the statistical procedures briefly explained in Chapter I* The reader should be reminded that the data are not given as raw scores#

&s was pointed out in the section on procedures,

the raw scores In all oases have been converted Into weighted scores In accordance with the manual of instructions for using the bechsler-Bellevue Scale*

It 1© in terms of weighted scores*

therefore* that the results of the various tests of the scale are discussed* In presenting the weighted scores and the obtained sta­ tistic© for each separate test of the •«©chslor-Be 11 evue Scale* the scores for each one of the seven areas of teacher prepara­ tion are considered first ana then the differences between the seven areas of teacher preparation are tested for significance* Finally* those areas of teacher preparation previously desig­ nated as academic are compared as a whole group with the group of areas which have been previously Indicated as non-academic.

60 These procedures* It will be remembered, ere In terms of the problem of the Investigation* namely* to see whether weighted scores on the tests of the Waehaler-Bellevue scale differenti­ ate between the individuals who select various areas of teacher preparation.

Information Test ’fable 2 presents the distribution of the weighted scores mad© by the students in each one of the seven area® of teacher preparation on the Information test of the WeehslerBellevue Scale*

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105 The differences between the means of the scores earned in the different areas of teacher preparation appearing In Table 25 varies from .04 to 1.48.

Jin analysis of variancs is

made of these differences and the results are presented in Table 26.

TABLE 26. ANALYSIS OF VAHIASCE (F mi) OF T&s WEIGHTED MEAN SCORE DIFFERENCES 83!mEN TKS SEVEN AREAS OP TEACHER PRBFAKAflON IS TBRKS OF THE PICTURE ARRANGEMENT I'iSX OF THE 'r'3j3»Vi£l£>ihfi.rl«*BhliL;'Wj ii* 8 L>Ai.. Source

Between areas

Degrees of freedom

Sums of squares

6

18

Within areas

183

1250

Total

189

1260

Lean square 5

F



4:4

6#85

Hot® 3 The P test for 6 and 180 degrees of freedom at the 5 per cant level is 2*15, ana at the 1 per cent level is 2,91# A ©ingle asterisk indicates einglfic&nce at the 5 per cent level, a double asterisk at the 1 per cent level# (See hindqulst, op, cit#, F table, pp* 62*65#)

The obtained value for P in Table 26 indicates that no confidence can be placed in the significance of these dif­ ferences between the mean© of the weighted scores attained by th© students on th© Picture Arrangement test of th© WechslerBellevu© deal© in the seven areas of teacher preparation#

The

fact that th© result of the analysis of variance shows it is not significant makes it unnecessary to apply the t test*

106 In npite of th* fact that there are no signIfleant differ once® between the m m m

of the scores made on the Picture

Arrangement test of the wech alar-Bellevue scale by the «tu~ dents In this study# the possibility exists that the academic group as a whole might vary significantly from th© no»-&cadesdc &roap m

a whole*

fh® difference between the mean of the aca­

demic group and that of the non-academic group is tested for significance and the results are illustrated In fable 27 *

fABLE 27* AKALYSXS OF VARIANCE (f TEST) Of THE WEIGHTED REAS SCOBS DIFFERENCES MrWEBf THE BOADEhXC AID &0*»ACAD£KXC GROUPS II TERMS OF Ttt PICTURE ARRARGEMEMf TEST OF THE lECBSLER-BffiLEWB SCALE

3UMB Of squares

.Mean square

1

58

38

within groups

168

1230

Total

189

188 8

Source

Between groups

Degrees ©f freedom

f

5*81*

6.54

Iotas The F test for X and 18S degrees of freedcm at the 5 per cent level is 5*89, and at the X per cent level is 8*76# A single asterisk indicates significance at th© 5 per cent level, & double asterisk at the 1 per cent level* {fee Lindquist, ©£* eit#, p table, pp* 68-68*5

It would see®, from the value for P dotermInod by the analysis of variance in fable 27, that confidence In favor of the non-academic group can bo placed at th© 5 per cant level In the differ®©® between the means of fche weighted scores on

107 the Picture Arrangement test of th© wechsler-Bellevue Scale of the academic and non-academic groups as wholes*

Such a

difference could occur by chanc© not more than once In 20 time® in similar samples* Summary*

No evidence is found to Indicate any ability

on th© part of the Picture Arrangement test of th© l&echslerBellevue Scale to differentiate between th© attainment on this test of students In th© s©[email protected] areas of teacher preparation. There is, however, some form of differential ability indicated for the Scale in relation to the difference between the mean score made by students in the academic group and by those in the non-ac&demic group*

The following findings may be pre­

sented from the available limited statistical evidences 1*

Th# averag© score mad© by the students in this in­

vestigation on the Picture Arrangement test in each one of th© seven area® of teacher preparation does not differ significantly from that which could happen by chance. 2*

The average scores of individual® in the areas of

teacher preparation in the non-academic group indicate signifi­ cance at th© 5 per cent level of chance when compared, with the average scores of those In the areas of th© academic group. Conclusions. 1*

In conclusion it seams that!

Ho important difference exists between the scores

made on the Picture Arrangement test of th© Wechsler-Bellovue Scale by th© student® in the seven areas of teacher preparation. 2*

Students in the non-ad&demlc group as a whole make

108 better scores on the Picture Arrangement test of the Scale than do the students in the academic group as a whole*

Picture Completion Pest The distribution of the weighted scores made hj the students in each one of the seven areas of teacher preparation on the Picture Completion test of th© Wecheler-Bellevue Scale appears in Table 28.

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116 The variance of the rang© of the moans of the weighted scores presented In Table 32 extends from .SO to 5.00.

The F

test for the significance of these differences appears in Table 53,

TABLE 35. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (F TEST} OF THE ISIGHTED MEAN SCGEE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEVEN ARKA5 OF TEACHER PRE­ PARATION IN SEHK8 OF THE BLOCK. DESIGN TEST OF THE IECHSLER-

BELLEWI SCALE.

Source

Sums of squares

Mean square

F

6

169

28,17

8.48**

Within areas

183

60S

3,32

Total

189

777

Between area©

‘ .Degrees of freedom

Botes The F test for 6 and 180 degrees of freedom at the 6per cent level Is 2.15, and at the 1 per cent level is 2.91. A single asterisk Indicates significance at the 5 per cent level, a double asterisk at the 1 per cent level. (Se© Lindquist, 0£# cit., F table, pp. 62-65.)

The obtained value for F Indicates that the differences between the means of the scores earned by the students In the seven areas of teacher preparation on the block Design test of the Wecfcsler-Bellevue Scale is highly significant. The result of the application of the t teat to the data of Table 52 is set forth in Table 34.

117 TABLE 34* SIGNIFICANT t SCORES BETWEEN ABBJtS OF TEACHER PREFAHATIGN DERIVED FROM ']m \ BLOCK DESIGN TE£>T OF THE WECE3LERBELLEVUE SCALE

Teaching areas compared

t

Favored area

Science and social studies

2.62*

Science

Home economics and social studies

2.50*

Home economics

Industrial arts and language arts

2.40*

Industrial arts

Industrial arts and social studies

3.61**

Industrial arts

Art and language arts

4.43**

Art

Art and science

4.05**

Art

Art and social studies

6 .12 **

Art

Art and home economics

3.49**

Art

Art and industrial arts

2*47*

Art

Art and music

3.50**

Art

Music and social studies

3.26**

Music

Note: The t test for 60 degrees of freedom at the b per cent level Is 2*00, and at the 1 per cent level is 2*67* A single asterisk indicates significance at the 5 per cent level, a double asterisk at the 1 per cent level* (Se© Guilford,op* clt** Table 0 , p. 324*}

An examination of Table 34 for the Block Design test reveals that art is the favored area of teacher preparation* Significant values are found for the differences between the ©can of the score made by the students in the art group and

118 the mean of the scores earned by the individuals in each of the six other areas of teacher preparation.

Significant differ­

ence® at the 5 per cent level of confidence are found to exist in favor of the science area when that area is compared with the area of social studies*

Similarly, the home economics area

of teacher preparation is favored significantly over the area of social studies#

When the mean of the scores made by the

individuals In the industrial art® area is contrasted with the scores earned in the area of language arts and social studies, the differences are found to be singifleant, the former at the 5 per cent level and the later at the 1 per cent level.

Both of

these difference© are favorable to the area of industrial arts. Highly significant differences are also found in favor of the music area between the mean score of students in that area and the mean score of students in the social studfes area of teacher preparation# In order to determine whether chance could account for the differences found to exist between the mean of the academic group as a whole and the mean of the non-academic group as a whole on the Block Design test of the ftechaler-Bellevue Seale, the analysis of variance was computed. computation Is shown in Table 35.

The result of this

119 TARLE 35* ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (F TEST) OF THE WEIGHTED MEAN SCORE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ACADEMIC AID NON-ACADEMIC GROUPS IN TERMS OF THE BLOCH DESIGN TEST OF TEE WECHSLESRBELLEVUE SCALE Degrees of freedom

Source

Bums of squares

1

70

Within groups

188

707

Total

189

777

Between groups

Mean square 70

G

18*62#*

3.78

Notet The F test for 1 and 188 degrees of freedom at the 5 per cent level is 3 •89, and at the 1 per cent level is 6*76* A single asterisk indicates significance at the S per cent level, a double asterisk at the 1 per cent level* (See Lindquist, op* cit», F table, pp* 62-65*)

The result of the analysis of variance Indicates that the differences between the means of the two groups is highly significant and in favor of the non-academic group as a whole. Summary*

The evidence indicates that there Is some

ability on the part of the Block Design test of the wechslerBellevue Scale to differentiate between the

seven

areas of

teacher preparation as well as between the academic group as a whole and the non-academic group as a whole*

The following

are the findings: 1*

The average score made on the Block Design test of

the Wechsler-Bellevue Seal© by students in each of the seven areas of teacher preparation is significantly different from that which could be accounted for by chance*

120

2*

The average score earned by students in the art

area of teacher preparation differs significantly from the average score made by students in each of the other six areas of teacher preparation# 3#

The average scores attained by the students in the

three academic areas of teacher preparation, when compared with th© average scores earned by those in the four areas of the non-academic group, shows a significant differ©nee in favor of th© non-academic group as a whole# Conclusions# 1#

In conclusion It seems that:

Students In th© art area of teacher preparation

make better score© on the Block Design test of th© ‘.vechslerBellevue Scale than do students la the other six areas of teacher preparation. 2#

Students In the non-academic group as a whole are

able to earn a higher score on the Block Design test than are students in th© academic group as & whole#

Object Assembly Test The distribution of the weighted scores made on the Object Assembly test of th© bechsler-Bellevue Scale by stu­ dents in each on© of th© seven areas of teacher preparation appears in Table 36.

OBJECT

121 rH CD CM H CM H CM

O CM

*•

H CM

10 to H O H H tO H

O to

H tO *0 «?(♦

tO•*3*»

10 to H

£«- CM

CM H

'H fcp wt

o o

n

TABLE 36. ASSEMBLY

to to

t •ap O £h

4^ u